UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the Eden myth in Canadian literature Balsevich, Mary M. 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A8 B34.pdf [ 7.52MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101900.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101900-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101900-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101900-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101900-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101900-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101900-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101900-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101900.ris

Full Text

A'STUDY OF THE EDEN MYTH IN CANADIAN LITERATURE by Mary M. Balsevich .B.A.,. The .University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r ee t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Depar tment o f ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to determine the presence and manipulation of the Eden myth i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n of form and content existed from the beginning of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n the t r a v e l journal and t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e . Myth and Eden are e s s e n t i a l l y man's reac t i o n against, and h i s r e l a t i o n to t h i s geographical surroundings as contained i n his manipulations of the t r a v e l journal. The thesis i s divided into s i x chapters. The f i r s t w i l l deal with the early t r a v e l journals. The second w i l l delineate Hugh MacLennan's comprehension and d e f i n i t i o n s of Eden and myth. The t h i r d w i l l present G a b r i e l l e Roy's extenuations of t h i s theme. The fourth w i l l examine Gwendolyn MacEwen's manipulation of general mythology and her a l l u s i o n s to Eden and myth. The f i f t h w i l l consider Margaret Atwood's poetry as a basic restatement of the early t r a v e l journals. The s i x t h s h a l l be a general conclusion and commentary of D. G. Jones' B u t t e r f l y on Rock which hints at some of the themes i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . Jones b r i e f l y alludes to Edenic concepts and some of the pervasiveness and implications of myth, mostly i n terms of a l i e n a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n . He thereby notes many of the subsidiary d e t a i l s and skims and miscomprehends t h e i r i m p l i -cations . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER ONE - HAKLUYT AND CARTIER - MEMENTOES TO SPACETELESCOPE EARTH - THE ROLE OF THE JOURNAL IN CANADIAN LITERATURE 4 TWO - PROJECTILE SPHEROID TOWARDS THE PRECIPICE OF EDEN AND MYTH - THE WORKS OF HUGH MacLENNAN 14 P e r i s s o d a c t y l i c Periscope - Barometer Rising . 16 Two Columns Without The Parthenon -Two Solitudes 20 Pan American H o r t i c u l t u r e - The Precipi c e 22 In the Continent with the Legacy of Cape Breton I s l e - Each Man's Son 31 Wi l l y Lowman as Adam - The Watch That Ends the Night 40 I n d i v i s i b l e Mosaic Shield - Return of the Sphinx 44 THREE - PLANISPHERE PLANETARIUM AND THE QUANTITATIVE PLANER TREE - MYSTAGOGIC UTOPIAS IN THE WORKS OF GABRIELLE ROY. . . 52 Iron Foundry Galvonometry as Frutescent Frustrum -The T i n Flute 55 The S o c i a l Contractor - Where Nests The Water Hen. 68 Galvanic gandy dancer - Adam grambling -The Cashier . 76 Jargonelle of Dunrea and The Ministry of Colonization - Street of Riches 87 Camouflage Percreating Armour - The Hidden Mountain 91 i v Page FOUR - SHADOW MUTAGENS FABRICATING AN IOTIC TIMEPIECE -MYTH IN THE WORKS OF GWENDOLYN MacEWEN 103 Fundamental Constants - The Power of Continuum and Evebriated Eden -The Drunken Clock 103 Atomic Energy of the Biosphere and the Mental Landscape - The Rising F i r e 109 Cosmic Eggs Benedict - A Breakfast for Barbarians 117 Kantian Kaleidoscope Myth - J u l i a n The Magician 120 The E l e c t r o n i c Spectrum - C i r c u i t s and Synergy -The Shadow-Maker 129 FIVE - CEREBRAL GEOGRAPHY AS CONVOLUTIONS IN DIARY -THE WORKS OF MARGARET ATWOOD 136 Darwinian Daguerreotype - The C i r c l e Game . . . 136 Mitigat i n g Mutants - The Animals In That Country 14A The Diary of the Mad Canadian Housewife -The Journals of Susanna Moo die 151 SIX - Additions to the master Plan - B u t t e r f l y on Rock . . 159 One - The Sleeping Giant and the Beanstalk . . 160 Two - Eve i n Dejection Because the Ways of the Journal Wasn't Woven 160 Three - The Dictatorship of the Mind -The Utopian V i s i o n as Myth. . 161 Four to Six - Joblessbeing Myth 162 Seven - An Ancient/Modern Slang Stuttering Myth 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY 166 INTRODUCTION The Eden myth i s a view of the land and i t s people i n terms of Puritanism. But the Eden myth i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , unlike American l i t e r a t u r e , cannot be so e a s i l y defined. The Eden myth i n Canadian l i t e r -ature i s also very much e i t h e r a matter of geography or tenously l i n k e d with general mythology. Again, unlike American l i t e r a t u r e , the Eden myth i s not an i n t e g r a l part of the inception of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . Canadian l i t e r a t u r e began with t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e and the j o u r n a l . These early writings were sample narratives of man's reaction to and r e l a t i o n with h i s geographical surroundings. From the travelogue t r a d i t i o n Canadian writers moved to a search for i deologies. In the t h i r t i e s , while s t i l l searching for ideologies, they were influenced by the Wasteland writers who had seen t h e i r own ideologies a n n i h i l a t e d and thereupon began a quest for n a t i o n a l myths. This quest for n a t i o n a l myths also became the quest f o r such Canadian authors as Hugh MacLennan. I t was only i n the t h i r t i e s and the decades thereafter that Canadian authors considered mythologizing s e r i o u s l y . With Margaret Atwood's The Journals of Susanna Moodie there i s a c y c l i c a l return to the travelogue. Unable to come< to geographical or mythical terms with the land, the Canadian w r i t e r creates a cerebral Canadian travelogue. Margaret Atwood seems to say that the phenomenon of Canada exi s t s most f u l l y only i n each i n d i v i d u a l ' s mind. The Quest begins, occurs, and ends within the " l i m i t a t i o n s " of the mind. 2 John Maurice Hodgson i n h i s thesis " I n i t i a t i o n and Quest i n Some Early Canadian Journals," summarizes the scope of the early t r a v e l journal and i t s l a t e r implications. The implications become the various manipulations of the Quest as a n a t i o n a l myth and as Eden myth i n the works of Hugh MacLennan, G a b r i e l l e Roy, Gwendolyn MacEwen and Margaret Atwood. Hugh MacLennan attempts to define Canadianism as an a r t i s t . He thus presents many of the facets of myth and Eden. In Each Man's Son he presents a p a r t i a l explanation of Canadian puritanism and the Eden myth. In The Preci p i c e he gives h i s f u l l e s t explanation, while comparing i t to American puritanism and the American Eden myth. In The Watch That Ends  The Night he moves away from the Eden myth as delineated by puritanism and presents one that exists on i t s own while concurrently being presented through the myth of Odysseus and delineated by "doctrines" of humanism or quasi-mysticism. He returns, simply, to the " f a c t " of geography i n Return of the Sphinx. Eden i s s t i l l s l i g h t l y v i s i b l e but now without any th e o l o g i c a l or mythical trappings. I t i s only a heightened way of occa-s i o n a l l y perceiving the land, the manner of the early explorers. G a b r i e l l e Roy presents other facets of the Eden myth. She presents one facet of this myth implied i n the early journals that MacLennan does not develop, the r o l e of the a r t i s t as the questor i n i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s land. She does t h i s i n The Hidden Mountain. The study of Roy s h a l l proceed chronologically, beginning with The Cashier and Where Nests The  Water Hen as Utopian novels and the presentation of the Canadian Eden myth within some of the boundary l i n e s of modern Utopian f i c t i o n . In The Tin Flute Roy presents a clear d e l i n e a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of 3 the puritan i d e a l and the Eden myth. In The Hidden Mountain she moves, as does MacLennan, i n The Watch That Ends the Night to a non-dogmatic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this myth. Like MacLennan she presents t h i s myth i n a wholly Canadian context. I t becomes a matter of geography r e s u l t i n g i n a cosmic consciousness. Unlike MacLennan, however, she delineates the quest and the myth further by presenting i t i n terms of the a r t i s t i c experience i t s e l f . Gwendolyn MacEwen portrays Eden myth by means of general mythology. Unlike MacLennan who progresses i n h i s figurement of t h i s myth from p u r i -tanism to humanism and who p a r a l l e l s the Odyssey myth ( c l a s s i c a l myth) with the quest for Eden ( C h r i s t i a n or q u a s i - C h r i s t i a n myth), MacEwen never d i f f e r e n t i a t e s . The quest for Eden i s never d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e i t h e r from general geography or the widest scope of general mythology. For MacEwen, Eden and the quest i s generally for some state of innocence. Equal a t t e n t i o n w i l l be given to her poetry and to J u l i a n the Magician. The poetry of Margaret Atwood, e s s e n t i a l l y dealing with the discovery and comprehension of Canada, i s a restatement of the travelogue. The Eden myth again simply becomes a matter of geography, but this time i t i s contained within the mind. D. G. Jones' B u t t e r f l y On Rock over attempts to summarize Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . He does perceive a few themes but the most important of which he merely alludes to and then does not even begin to develop. CHAPTER ONE HAKLUYT AND CARTIER - MEMENTOES TO SPACETELESCOPE EARTH - THE ROLE OF THE JOURNAL IN CANADIAN LITERATURE The Canadian Landscape o f f e r s the clue to the s p i r i t of i t s a r t . The land has always been a majestic puzzle of a strange Eden. Michael Hornyansky speaks of the Canadian w r i t e r as a "combined discoverer and geographer."''" He indicates that the reader should concomittantly "explore the t e r r i t o r i e s of h i s experience (savannah, slum, jungle, chasm, desert, or unexpected mountain)" and then map h i s discoveries into a clea r , co-herent, and accurate shape. Jack Warwick i n The Long Journey - L i t e r a r y 2 Themes of French Canada refe r s to Carl Jung's idea of an external and an i n t e r n a l geography i n explaining the f e e l i n g of unbridled l i b e r t y that Canada aroused i n her f i r s t s e t t l e r s . This f e e l i n g remains to the present day. Thus Canada, as an Eden, i s very much an aspect of geography and the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious i n i t s myth-making capacities than i t i s a perspective founded on h i s t o r i c Puritanism. The e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s did not imbue the Puritan dictums of t h e i r American neighbours i n r e j e c t i n g beauty and pleasure, i n condemning man's ph y s i c a l and sexual nature and i n emphasizing the compulsion to work. The migration of the United Empire L o y a l i s t s and successive immigrations from Western Europe and e s p e c i a l l y the B r i t i s h Isles planted this weed on Canadian s o i l . 5 Perhaps the greatest exemplum of Canadian puritanism is to be found in the Prairies where i t is an aspect of the harshness of the land: Canadian puritanism is obviously not the same as the original Puritanism of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but neither is i t simply the rig i d and narrow-minded morality the worst form of it s historical development . . .The prob-lem of man's relationship with the s o i l , the problem of woman, and the problem of authority. The land lik e the Puritan God, is the arbitrary master, controlling the seasons and the outcome of the crops, and demanding obedience and co-operation of man. The rigorous nature of farm l i f e and the need for children encourages the Puritan attitude that the proper role of woman is that of a hard working wife and mother rather than that of an intellectual or sexual companion.^ But Doris Cameron concludes that an increasingly urbanized society w i l l see the breakdown of this astringent Puritanism as entrenched in the P ra i r i e s : It is obvious that whatever view replaces Puritan on the prairie, the Puritan influence w i l l never be completely lost. If nothing remains but the characteristically Puritan manner of viewing existence, the heritage w i l l s t i l l have been an extremely valuable one. . . . Canadian prairie fiction has established a tradition that is based on accuracy of obser-vation. The specific doctrines of Puritanism may disappear, and the artists may discover new and dramatic myths, but i t is to be hoped that the tough-minded and r e a l i s t i c Puritan approach to l i f e w i l l continue to exert i t s influence on the l i f e and literature of the future., To her f i r s t settlers, Canada was a schizophrenic sphinx. She was both magnificent and terrifying; qualities she retains to the present day. The quest to understand the land which the earliest settlers undertook i s one s t i l l maintained by Canadian w r i t e r s . The e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s , these "explorers" and "geographers" recorded t h e i r experiences i n journals. The form of the "journals" has varied since the 18th century from i t s poetic-prosaic wavering into the novel or the quasi-epic poem. The emphasis i s on a f i r s t person narrator. The variance of the journal mode can be seen i n the "novels" of S i n c l a i r Ross and Malcolm Lowry or i n the poetry of Edwin J. P r a t t and Margaret Atwood. The contemporary Canadian w r i t e r consciously uses the journal to explore and map the land within h i s own mind and that of h i s reader. The i n i t i a t i o n and quest of the early journal writers c o h e s i f i e d i n the t h i r t i e s . The c o l l e c t i v e unconsciousness of the quest, became, i n the t h i r t i e s terminology, the Quest of Myth, e s p e c i a l l y myth i n terms of the adventures of Odysseus. With Hugh MacLennan's f a i l u r e to postulate a n a t i o n a l myth, l i t e r a t u r e heavy with mythological a l l u s i o n s f e l l into disrepute. The Canadian a r t i s t returned to the core of myth, the mere fac t of i n i t i a t i o n and quest i n terms of cerebral experience and perception. John Maurice Hodgson i n h i s t h e s i s , " I n i t i a t i o n and Quest i n Some Early Canadian Journals"^ delineates what was and has been the foun-dation of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . I t has been the base of our l i t e r a t u r e both i n e s s e n t i a l form and content. E s s e n t i a l l y , Hodgson sees these early journal writers not only as men undertaking a s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l task but also as authors r e f l e c t i n g the s p i r i t of t h e i r undertakings i n t h e i r journals... To him: the t r a v e l journal i s an attempt to describe the human condition. The environment and travelogue 7 terminology are not usually associated with l i t e r -ature, and yet the genre manages, unexpectedly, to point up those universal themes so e s s e n t i a l to a l l creative w r i t i n g . ( i i i ) He notes that the "heroes" of these journals are e s s e n t i a l l y "re-i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " of the hero Odysseus. Categorizing the journals into the "realm" of l i t e r a t u r e , Hodgson states: These journals, therefore, are i n some instances, the r e f l e c t i o n of an a r t i s t upon a physical quest, or at l e a s t the educated and sophisticated man of leisure,commenting upon the conquest of personal, p h y s i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l p r i v a t i o n for gain and glory. (p. 3) He then makes an important comment on l i t e r a r y s t y l e r e f l e c t i n g the s p i r i t of adventure of the explorer. His comment on metaphysical poetry r e -f l e c t i n g and being a reaction to the t r a v e l journals of 17th century England i s a p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e where the meta-physi c a l q u a l i t y of much of i t s poetry i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the same f e e l i n g of adventure from the land that the f i r s t Canadian explorers f e l t and recorded i n t h e i r journals. Hodgson notes: In the 17th century, some of the most famous metaphysical poems owe t h e i r success to capturing the new s p i r i t of t r a v e l and expansion of man's physic a l realm and the New World loses nothing when r e f l e c t e d i n the e t h e r i a l concept of the metaphysical conceit. An example i s Donne's e f f e c t i v e and moving images of an expanding and contracting world and universe i n "Sunne R i s i n g . " (PP. 5-6) 8 Some c r i t i c s have ventured to state that some of Donne's longer poems and sermons are r e a l l y novels- Thus the possible m a l e a b i l i t y of Canadian l i t e r a r y forms i s again prefigured. Not only i s the explorer s p i r i t r e f l e c t e d i n metaphysical poetry but Hodgson also r e a l i z e s that i t i s a predominant aspect of Romanticism. Thereupon the seemingly polar aspects of metaphysical and romantic w r i t i n g are united. This i s an aspect of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e that many c r i t i c s s t i l l f i n d d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e . Yet the two seemingly i r r e c o n c i l a b l e fee l i n g s f o r and from the land, the phys i c a l and e t h e r i a l delight, the simple outburst and the c l i n i c a l s o p histicated delineation, that the e a r l i e s t j o u r n a l writers experienced, e n t a i l s the Romantic and the metaphysical s t r a i n i n Canadian w r i t i n g . Hodgson suggests t h i s when he i n t e r r e l a t e s the Romantics with Shakespeare: The Romantics drew upon these journals almost exl u s i v e l y for t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the noble savage l i f e , j u s t as Shakespeare did two hundred years before when he peopled Prospero's i s l a n d with 'those goodly creatures.' (p. 7) Continuing the idea of form, and e s p e c i a l l y of form containing within i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , content, i s the fac t that the early Canadian journals f e l l i nto two categories: the journal of exploration and the c a p t i v i t y or i n i t i a t i o n j o u r n a l . The journal of exploration contained within i t the geographical f a c t of what was to be an Edenic perspective toward the land. The i n i t i a t i o n j ournal had within i t s e l f the formulae for the mythologizing of t h i s reaction to the land. The land, there-fore, could be seen i n terms of either Eden or Eden myth. Hugh MacLennan 9 t r i e d to combine both these aspects i n h i s work. Hodgson's comment on the dichotomy of the t r a v e l journals suggests what MacLennan t r i e d to achieve: A l l t r a v e l journals, whether of I n i t i a t i o n or Exploration, are dichotomic by t h e i r i n t r i n s i c nature -at once purposeful, d i r e c t , and immediate; yet moving into realms of the archetype: the quest, s e l f - p r e s e r -vation, a l i e n a t i o n , and search for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Each Explorer's j o u r n a l , then, s t a r t s with ei t h e r a s c i e n t i f i c , geographic, or commercial purpose as each C a p t i v i t y journal commences with the s i n g l e theme of preservation; but both, depending upon the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l , develop to some degree toward univer-s a l i t y , toward themes e s s e n t i a l to the human condition. (p.92) MacLennan's reference to Puritanism i s not i n character with the jo u r n a l and therefore the Eden myth i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . MacLennan did see the remnants of Puritanism among d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s own Sc o t t i s h people. What i s an important t h e o l o g i c a l or dogmatic aspect of the American Eden myth has completely d i f f e r e n t proportions i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . Puritanism i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e was the f l e a i n the pocket of some tweed coat that was to be seen on summer evenings along with the dragon f l i e s . The whole aspect of Canadian writers searching for t h e i r unique language and genre i s a very important aspect of the journal l i t e r a t u r e . On language, Hodgson remarks: The f e e l i n g which they (the journal writers) experience demands the utmost of t h e i r creative powers to describe, whether i t i s natural pheno-mena or unexpected human communion. (P. 92) 10 Hodgson makes two paradoxical statements on form; again he unknowingly emphasizes the d u a l i s t i c tendency i n Canadian l e t t e r s . Of the j o u r n a l as novel, he says: The more readable journals, those which transcend t h e i r immediate and contemporary purpose, l i k e Tanner's and Hearne's, unconsciously approach the genre of the novel and thus can be judged both i n t h e i r actual and archetypal categories. (p.92) The following quote from Samuel Hearne's jou r n a l substantiates this premise: Di t t o Weather. Paddl'd about 30 Miles to the S° and SBW through gray goose Lake and River, then came to 9 Tents of Indians amongst whome ware the wives and f a m i l i e s of those who accompany me from the Fort. . . . From where we set out i n the Morning we had the Currant i n our favour and i n gray goose River i t Ran at the Rate of 2 miles P r hour - at l e a s t . This Part i s C a l l ' d Ne-me-0 kp-a-hagon. As soon as our Tents war Pitchd and a l l things put to r i g h t s , I sent for a l l the Prinsaple Indians and presented each of them with a b i t of Tobaco and acquainted them with the desine of my coming Inland. Part of which seem'd to approve thereof,.and others seem'd to doubt of our Success, saying that the Pedlors by this time has to much influance, and that I ware to l a t e i n comeing. The Pedlors genorosity i s much tal k ' d of, and as for Knives, Steels, Worms, F l i n t s , awls, Needles & Paint, these Indians would Persuade me that they Never Trade but are given gratice to those who ask for them. Guns, K e t t l e s , Powder, Shott, Cloth, Gartering & c they also t e l me are much cheaper then at the Company's Standard. -1 cannot pretend to say anything to the Contarary at Present, but shal hereafter Endeavour to make myself better acquainted with the trooth of this very Extraordinary account. I must needs say that i t gave me no l i t t l e uneasiness to see so many f i n e fellows of Indians and t h e i r Families not only Cloath'd with the Canadians goods f i n e l y ornimented, but ware also furnish'd with 11 every other Necessary a r t i c a l , and seem'd not to be i n want of any thing. Not the l e a s t appearance of the Companys Trading goods among them, Except a few guns and Hatchetts, the l a t t e r of which the Canadians brings but Few and s e l l them Dear . . . . Commenting on Henry Kelsey, he notes the poetic q u a l i t i e s of the journals: The ninety l i n e s which comprise Kelsey's j o u r n a l -poem are i r r e g u l a r and immature dabblings i n the poetic d i s c i p l i n e , but since they are probably the f i r s t l i n e s of poetry written i n English i n Canada, that alone commands some at t e n t i o n . Apart from s t y l i s t i c or aesthetic consideration Kelsey's l i n e s follow the t r a d i t i o n a l quest pattern - purpose, doubt, involvement and achievement. There i s an appealing directness about Kelsey which shows not only i n the drive that every explorer e x h i b i t s , but i n the informal and s o l e l y informative material i n h i s verse. (p. 63) This very combination of the poetic-prosaic has always been an aspect of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . The dual aspect of these journals and t h e i r writers as being both explorers ( i n i t i a t o r s and being i n i t i a t e d ) and being captives i s the reaction to the land that p e r s i s t s to this day. The land i s vast -i t l i b e r a t e s ; i t s awesomeness also i n h i b i t s and destroys. Yet there i s some " i n t e g r a t i o n " with the land. Hodgson's summary acknowledges t h i s : But perhaps the Canadian explorer and captive are i d e n t i f i a b l e , or at l e a s t inseparable, by the s p i r i t of t h e i r experience. At l e a s t t h i s may be true of the t r u l y successful Canadian j o u r n a l w r i t e r s , those who integrated with the land and the people. There must be a unique s p i r i t i n the writings of these men, perhaps not o v e r t l y a Canadian s p r i i t , but an awareness of time and place which i n some way i s i d e n t i f i a b l e as Canadian. (p. 94) In h i s journal, Thompson states: The country, s o i l and climate i n which we l i v e , have always had a powerful e f f e c t upon the state of society, and the movements and comforts of every i n d i v i d u a l , he must conform himself to the circumstances under which he i s placed, and as such we l i v e d and conducted ourselves i n t h i s extreme cold climate. (p. 95) These j o u r n a l i s t s began and achieved what Canadian a r t i s t s have been attempting and achieving since then: a combination of immediacy and u n i v e r s a l t i y , of experience and a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n of events, aware-ness of s e l f , i n t e g r a t i o n and s p i r i t of conscious purpose. (p. 95) CHAPTER ONE - FOOTNOTES Michael Hornyansky, "Countries of the Mind," Tamarack Review 26:58-68 (Winter 1963), p. 58. 2 Jack Warwick, The Long Journey - Literary Themes of French  Canada (Toronto, 1968). 3 Doris Cameron, "Puritanism in Canadian Prairie Fiction, M. Thesis^ (University of British Columbia, 1966), i i i . 4Ibid., pp. 133-135. ^John Hodgson, "Initiation and Quest in Some Early Canadian Journals," M. A. Thesis (University of British Columbia, 1966). ^J. B. Tyrrell, ed., Journals of Samuel Hearne and Philip  Turnor (Toronto, 1934), pp. 104-105. CHAPTER TWO PROJECTILE SPHEROID TOWARDS THE PRECIPICE OF EDEN AND MYTH - THE WORKS OF HUGH MacLENNAN Hugh MacLennan, more than any other Canadian w r i t e r consciously seeks, as Hugo McPherson states: . . . to confront the tangle of his countrymen's experience, and to chart i s l i m i t s , i t s major cross-currents of opinion and b e l i e f , i t s i n t e l l e c -t u a l and emotional resources, and i t s r e l a t i o n to i t s near r e l a t i v e s , B r i t a i n and the United States. He was to attempt, i n short - as the a r t i s t alone can - to reveal dramatically, the nature of h i s country's character. He manipulates the t r a v e l journal to ascertain a geographical and mythical perspective within the co-related sphere of s o c i a l awareness. Because the landscape i s so pervasive, there i s , i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , even greater truth to Robert G i l l e y ' s statement that "myth 2 and l i t e r a t u r e are of the same family of human expression." Myth i s 3 " l i t e r a t u r e which suffuses the natural with preternatural e f f i c a c y . " In myth "man expresses h i s awe at the wonder of the universe, i t s great 4 natural cycles, i t s oppositions of joy and s u f f e r i n g , l i f e and death." In Canadian l i t e r a t u r e the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of myth, the s p e c i a l cosmic awareness of the land, has always been present and was e a r l i e s t recorded i n the t r a v e l journals. Hugh MacLennan u t i l i z e s "ancient myth 15 i n h i s novels for both s t r u c t u r a l and thematic purposes, combining c l a s s i -c a l and modern philosophy with c l a s s i c a l , C e l t i c and C h r i s t i a n myth i n an e f f e c t i v e synthesis.""' Myths are "ingeniously symbolized concepts of the universe or b e a u t i f u l v e i l s concealing profound moral p r i n c i p l e s . " ^ Germinal to the t r a v e l j o u r n a l , a f t e r the sense of exploration and the mythic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the i n i t i a t i o n and quest, i s the development of a s o c i a l organization, a na t i o n a l consciousness. Robert G i l l e y acknow-ledges that: . . . the paramout function of a l l myth . . . and, hence l i t e r a t u r e , has been to engage the i n d i v i d u a l , both emotionally and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , i n the l o c a l organization. In MacLennan's case, we may expand the l o c a l organiztion to include the nationa l organization.^ C r i t i c s such as Joseph Campbell and Northrop Frye concur that i n i t i a t i o n and quest seems to form the core of mythology and expresses the t o t a l i t y of man's experience. The structure of the t r a v e l journal i s equivalent to "the structure of the quest myth [in which] man con t i n u a l l y g perceives the motions of the external world and within himself." The two aspects of the t r a v e l journal are the two steps of the quest myth: The f i r s t step of the questing hero i s into a state of withdrawal or detachment (separation); he retreats from the normal world, weighed down by an increasing sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . In h i s detached state, the hero c l a r i f i e s h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , eradicates them, and i s transfigured i n the process ( i n i t i a t i o n ) . I d eally, through t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n , he finds peace from h i s previous troubles and i s able to accomplish the second step, to return r e v i t a l -ized to the normal world to teach the lesson he has learned of the renewal of a balanced personality 16 and p o s i t i v e l y directed l i f e . In other words, the hero breaks away from h i s ordinary l i f e , s u f f e r s various t r i a l s - thereby gaining increased knowledge of himself - and returns to put t h i s self-knowledge to use i n r e s t o r i n g and maintain-ing balance and order i n society. y Myth i s "the f a c t " of the t r a v e l journal and the journal contains within i t s f a c u a l i t y , myth: . . . the world of the Odyssey, the whole world of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , i s woven into MacLennan's world so t i g h t l y that the two worlds, c l a s s i c a l and modern, sometimes become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The d i v i d i n g l i n e between myth and s o c i a l realism i s extremely hard to draw.^Q This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n Canadian w r i t i n g because of the pervasive i n -fluence of the t r a v e l j o u r n a l . Robert G i l l e y concludes h i s introductory chapter on myth i n MacLennan by s t a t i n g , "Hugh MacLennan i s a mythmaker, a w r i t e r composing for himself and h i s readers a pattern that defines a basic c o n f l i c t both i n h i s society and i n the i n d i v i d u a l s who comprise th i s society.""''"'" This i s merely a re-statement of the capacities of the t r a v e l journal as apprehended and u t i l i z e d by an a r t i s t perhaps overly aware of h i s country, who overattempts d e f i n i t i o n s when the land and the age no longer necessitate these. P e r i s s o d a c t y l i c Periscope -Barometer Rising The form of Barometer Rising i s perhaps an aspect that has been long overlooked by the c r i t i c s ; i t i s the journal or diary of an omniscient 17 n a r r a t o r , a " r e p o r t e r , " a modern day e x p l o r e r and o b s e r v e r who p r e s e n t s t h e immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s as w e l l as a panoramic o v e r v i e w . Thus by u s i n g t h e j o u r n a l form MacLennan i s a b l e t o f i n d t h e means, as were t h e e a r l y j o u r n a l w r i t e r s , o f c o n t r o l l i n g and f u s i n g what Hugo McPherson c a l l s " t h e microcosm-macrocosm p a r a l l e l between t h e i n d i v i d u a l drama and 12 t h e n a t i o n a l drama." The h o u r l y , e r r a t i c , e p i s o d i c q u a l i t y o f Barometer  R i s i n g e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f t h e t r a v e l j o u r n a l : The n o v e l b e g i n s on Sunday a t f o u r o ' c l o c k ; t h e r e a r e two o t h e r e n t r i e s f o r Sunday a t f i v e o ' c l o c k and e i g h t o ' c l o c k . " C h a p t e r Two" b e g i n s on Monday on an u n s p e c i f i e d t i m e . A subsequent c h a p t e r b e g i n s on Tuesday a t no s p e c i f i e d t i m e . Whereupon a f t e r one p a r a g r a p h , t h e t i m e " e l e v e n - t h i r t y o ' c l o c k " i s i n s e r t e d and t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u e s . T h i s v e r y o b l i q u e n e s s , h a p h a z a r d -n e s s , and a b r u p t n e s s c o m p l e t e l y e n t a i l s t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e j o u r n a l . MacLennan's m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e l i g h t and d a r k images i s h i s s i m p l e " d o g m a t i c " p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Eden myth i n Barometer R i s i n g . I n Two S o l i t u d e s , and t h e s u b s e q u e n t n o v e l s , he t r i e s t o d i s c o v e r t h e more c o m p l i c a t e d d o g m a t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n Eden myth, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n i s m . G i l l e y n o t e s : I n B arometer R i s i n g , t h e s u n , t h e power o f l i g h t , i s g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e w e s t . Opposed t o t h i s , t h e n i g h t o r power o f d a r k n e s s , i s l i n k e d t o t h e e a s t . The e a s t r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a s t , s t a b l e b u t d e c a d e n t , w h i l e t h e west r e p r e s e n t s t h e f u t u r e , o f f e r i n g change and p r o g r e s s . The e n t r e n c h e d s o c i e t y o f H a l i f a x , f o r e v e r t u r n i n g i t s eyes toward E n g l a n d i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e o l d Wain house. Penny Wain r e c o g n i z e s t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e house was e v e r changed and s e e s t h e house as 'an i n c u b u s ' (18) an o p p r e s s i v e e v i l s p i r i t o f d a r k n e s s . L i k e t h e house, H a l i f a x h e r s e l f , 'her b a c k t o t h e c o n t i n e n t and h e r face, t o the O l d C o u n t r y . . . w o u l d l i e h e r e i n a l l 18 w e a t h e r s unchangeably t h e same, and h e r b e l l s w o u l d r i n g i n t h e d a r k n e s s ' ( 3 2 ) . . . . I n f a c t , the c i t y has been c o n s t a n t l y under s e i g e from t h e v e r y n a t u r e i f chooses t o i g n o r e . ^ H a l i f a x i s an i n f e c t e d Garden, a b l i g h t e d Eden. But t h e r e i s some r e g e n e r a t i o n p o s s i b l e . T h e r e must be d e s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e a r e - c r e a t i o n o c c u r s : Only one p a r t of t h e o l d Wain p r o p e r t y has any p o s i t i v e v a l u e , t h e o n l y p a r t t h a t Penny has any r e a l a f f e c t i o n f o r , t h e g arden w i t h i t s summer house and l i m e t r e e s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e t r o p i c s , l a n d o f t h e s u n . . . . B u t b e f o r e t h e sun r e t u r n s t h e c i t y must e x p e r i e n c e u t t e r d a r k n e s s , w h i c h i t does on t h e n i g h t f o l l o w i n g t h e e x p l o s i o n , 'the d a r k e s t n i g h t anyone i n H a l i f a x c o u l d remember' ( 1 7 7 ) ' 1 4 The c a t a c l y s m i s f o l l o w e d by a movement toward i n t e g r a t i o n , N e i l and Penny at t e m p t t o f i n d t h e i r c h i l d and t h e f u t u r e . T h e i r w e s t -ward d i r e c t i o n i s t h a t o f P a r a d i s e , Myth and Eden. A l l a g a i n h o l d f o r t h as a p o s s i b l e a f f i r m a t i o n . MacLennan p r e p a r e s t h e r e a d e r f o r t h e Garden t h a t N e i l and Penny w i l l have t o l o c a t e a f t e r t h e i r own b l i g h t e d one has been a n n i -h i l a t e d . MacLennan u n i t e s t h e g arden image w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n c o n s c i o u s -ness when he p r e s e n t s t h i s l o n g s c e n e d e s c r i b i n g N e i l " s k i r t i n g " The Wander's Grounds i n t h e P u b l i c Gardens: As he c o n t i n u e d h i s w a l k i n g o f the pavements he f e l t a t l a s t t h a t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o him, and t h a t H a l i f a x f o r a l l i t s s h a b b i n e s s was a good p l a c e t o c a l l h i s home. The l i f e he had l e d i n Europe and E n g l a n d t h e s e p a s t two y e a r s had been worse t h a n an e m p t i n e s s . I t was as though he had been a b l e t o f e e l t h e o l d c o n t i n e n t t e a r i n g 19 out i t s own entrails as the ancient civilizations had done before i t . There was no help there. For almost the f i r s t time in his l i f e , he fully realized what being a Canadian meant. It was a heritage he had no intention of l o s i n g . ^ A few pages later, Penny meets B i l l y Andrews and she is reminded of her "former garden": She remembered i t had been in her own garden that she had last seen B i l l y Andrews. . . . As she remembered i t now and saw again the details of the scene, i t occurred to her i t might have happened as easily besides the Yellow River in a remote dynasty when mandarins moved in dark kimonos, praising the flower beds and the vines and talking of wisdom. (80-81) It is immediately after this that she f i r s t gets a glimpse of Neil. Adam and Eve are on a return journey to Eden, to recapture the order and i n -tegration of the past from the disruption of the present. MacLennan presents the garden of the past, the destroyed garden of the present, and, as Neil and Penny s i t in the train on their way to Prince's Lodge, he presents the garden of the future. The garden becomes concomitant with a subdued geography, an awakening social consciousness and Neil's own mind. The emphasis is on Neil's mental conception of the land and i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s : It was so much more than a man could ever put into words. It was more than the idea that he was young enough to see a great country move into i t s destiny. It was what he f e l t inside himself, as a Canadian who had lived both in the United States and England. Canada at present was called a nation only because of a few laws that had been passed and a railway line sent from one coast to 20 t h e o t h e r . I n r e t u r n i n g home he knew t h a t he was d o i n g more t h a n coming b a c k t o f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . F o r b e t t e r o r worse he was e n t e r i n g t h e f u t u r e , he was i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e s t i l l - h i d d e n f o r c e s w h i c h were doomed t o shape humanity as c e r t a i n l y as t h e t i n y s t a t e s o f Europe had shaped t h e p a s t . (218) The l a n d a c t i v a t e s t h e mind, Eden and myth a g a i n i n t e r r e l a t e . N e i l i s a new Adam ;going f o r t h i n t o h i s domain. MacLennan uses t h e image o f t h e a r c h , t h e r e b y a l l u d i n g t o f l o o d , t h e h o l o c a u s t t h a t t e r m i n a t e d t h e g r o w i n g b l i g h t o f t h e f i r s t Eden, as a p r o m i s e o f a New Eden. The s t o r y c o n c l u d e s w i t h Penny and N e i l on t h e pathway, i n t h e d a r k woods; t h e y a r e s i m i l a r t o M i l t o n ' s Adam and Eve; t h e y a r e g u i d e d by t h e " m o o n l i g h t t h a t b r o k e and s h i v e r e d i n t h e B a s i n " (219) by t h e i r own a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e t h a t has come from t h e d e s t r u c t i o n . The " s l i g h t t r e m o r o f a r i s i n g w i n d " (219) s u g g e s t s hope f o r t h c o m i n g . Two Columns W i t h o u t The P a r t h e n o n -Two S o l i t u d e s I n Two S o l i t u d e s MacLennan a g a i n uses t h e form o f t h e j o u r n a l . Here he p r e s e n t s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e Eden myth i n terms o f an u r b a n v e r s u s a r u r a l l o c a l e . M o n t r e a l S c o t t i s h e n t e r p r e n e u r s , s u c h as McQueen and t h e C a t h o l i c r u r a l s e i g n e u r i a l s y s t e m p e r s o n i f i e d by A t h a n a s e T a l l a r d , p r e s e n t the d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n e t h i c . M y t h i c p a r a l l e l s a r e l a c k i n g i n t h i s b l u r r e d l o o k a t t h e E n g l i s h - F r e n c h dichotomy o f Canada. MacLennan c o n c l u d e s as he u s u a l l y does w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e t o w a r d geography, w h i c h i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e u n c r e a t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a r a c e . J a n e t and P a u l , t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e w a r r i n g r a c e s , become t h e new Adam and Eve. 21 The c o u n t r y i s p u r i f i e d and p r e p a r e d f o r them. MacLennan p r e s e n t s a v i s u a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e n a t i o n t h e n c o n c l u d e s : But q u i e t l y , w i t h o u t bands o r p a r a d e s , w h i l e a d v e r t i s e r s .warmed up t h e s l o g a n s o f 1914, t h e c o u n t r y moved i n t o h i s t o r y as i n t o m a t t e r - o f - f a c t . E n g i n e e r s went out a l o n g t h e r i v e r s and r a i l r o a d t r a c k s : s h i p y a r d s f o r t h e M a r i t i m e s , b i g g e s t aluminum p l a n t i n t h e w o r l d f o r t h e Saguenay, f a c t o r i e s f o r a l l t h e power t h e y c o u l d b r e e d out o f t h e r i v e r s , f rom O n t a r i o t a n k s , t r u c k s , B r e n guns, s h e l l s and b u l l e t s , f rom t h e West f o o d f o r t h e E m p i r e , f r o m Edmonton a i r c r a f t f l y i n g s u r v e y o r s t o t h e A l a s k a boundary, on t h e c o a s t n a v a l bases and more f a c t o r i e s , from a l l the p r o v i n c e s men and a i r f i e l d s f o r t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . , r MacLennan p o s i t s t h e hope f o r the u n i o n o f t h e two f o u n d i n g r a c e s and c o n c o m i t a n t l y u n i o n o f d i c h o t o m i e s : Then, even as t h e two r a c e - l e g e n d s woke a g a i n remembering a n c i e n t e n m i t i e s , t h e r e woke w i t h them a l s o t h e f e l t knowledge t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y had f o u g h t and s u r v i v e d one g r e a t war they had n e v e r made and t h a t now t h e y had "entered a n o t h e r , t h a t f o r n e a r l y a h u n d r e d y e a r s t h e n a t i o n had been s p r e a d o u t on t h e t o p h a l f o f t h e c o n t i n e n t o v e r t h e powerhouse o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and s t i l l was t h e r e ; t h a t even i f t h e l e g e n d s were l i k e o i l and a l c o h o l i n t h e same b o t t l e , t h e b o t t l e had n o t been b r o k e n y e t . And a l m o s t g r u d g i n g l y , out o f t h e i n s t i n c t t o do what was n e c e s s a r y , t h e c o u n t r y t o o k t h e f i r s t i r r e v o c a b l e s t e p s t o w a r d becoming h e r s e l f , knowing a g a i n s t h e r w i l l t h a t she was n o t u n i q u e b u t l i k e a l l the o t h e r s , a l o n e w i t h h i s t o r y , w i t h s c i e n c e , w i t h t h e f u t u r e . (370) The mind has f o r m u l a t e d a myth w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f a n a t i o n a l awareness. The E d e n i c a s p e c t o f t h i s myth i s a l a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r the changes o f t h e f u t u r e . I n Two S o l i t u d e s MacLennan uses i n t e r -r e l a t e d p a r a l l e l i s m s . The dichotomy o f t h e r u r a l v s . t h e u r b a n , t h e 22 F r e n c h v s . t h e E n g l i s h a r e a s p e c t s o f myth as chaos and o r d e r , as s t r u c -t u r e and c o n t e n t . Pan A m e r i c a n H o r t i c u l t u r e -The P r e c i p i c e The P r e c i p i c e , w h i c h George Woodcock d i s m i s s e s b ecause " e v e r y -t h i n g e l s e . . . i s e v e n t u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l theme, t h e y a r e t h e l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l o f MacLennan's n o v e l s , i n human u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o r m a l c o h e s i o n alike""''' 1 i s t h e n o v e l i n w h i c h MacLennan p r e s e n t s h i s f u l l e s t c omprehension o f t h e Eden myth. D o r i s Cameron has t h i s t o say i n comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n i P u r i t a n i s m : The U n i t e d S t a t e s was founded by much more f e r v e n t P u r i t a n s and i n a much more d r a m a t i c f a s h i o n t h a n was Canada. Because o f t h i s i t p r o d u c e d n o t o n l y a more e x p l i c i t l y P u r i t a n -i n f l u e n c e d l i t e r a t u r e b u t a g r e a t e r e v e n t u a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s and P u r i t a n -i s m . A m e r i c a n T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m , t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s r e a c t i o n , f u r n i s h e d t h e w r i t e r s w i t h new and e x c i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r u n i q u e l y A m e r i c a n myths and t h e c l a s h between t h e two t r a d i t i o n s k e p t t h e i s s u e s a l i v e and l e d t o a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f b o t h p o s i t i o n s . No such r e a c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n Canada. C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y was much more w i l l i n g t o r e t a i n i t s t i e s w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n i n b o t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l -t u r a l r e a l m s . I n t h e l i t e r a r y f i e l d w r i t e r s were c o n t e n t t o work w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d E n g l i s h t r a -d i t i o n s ., _ I n The P r e c i p i c e MacLennan compares t h e A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n Eden myths and u n i t e s t h e C a n a d i a n Eve w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n Adam. The i n i t i a l s t r u g g l e between Lucy Cameron and Stephen L a s s i t e r r e v o l v e s around t h e 23 " f a c t " that both are imbued with the Puritan revulsion of the f l e s h , "for the Puritan, sexual s i n i s very serious because i t represents a disas-trous immersion i n the world of flesh and a rejection of the world of the s p i r i t . Quoting L e s l i e Fielder, Cameron emphasizes another aspect of Puritanism that looms over Lucy and Stephen, the puritan revulsion from Mariolatry and the patriarchal view whereby a Father God presides over a church of fathers where women were merely the occasions for temp-tation and s i n . As i n Barometer Rising, the town or c i t y and a p a r t i c u l a r family and t h e i r dwelling emphasize the state of the contaminated Eden. Halifax and the Wains of Barometer Rising are replaced by Grenville (Green-v i l l e - the o r i g i n a l garden?) and the Camerons. That Lucy i s a new Eve i s suggested early i n the story; she has the power to re-invigorate: I t was an outward expression of the personality of Lucy Cameron. Seven years ago, when her father died, there had been no gardens and no color, the splendid B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l s t y l e of the house browned off by the b l i s t e r e d tan paint, i t s l i n e s unsoftened, i t s fences wood instead of the hedges that had taken their place. In those days i t had seemed exactly the kind of house old John Knox Cameron would choose to l i v e i n , and to leave to the three daughters who were his only children. He would have been h o r r i f i e d , Bruce reflected, could he have guessed what Lucy would do with i t on the strength of four years' salary from the only paying job she had ever held, Thereupon MacLennan immediately provides the Puritan "geheology": And yet she had done nothing New to the house at a l l . She had merely stripped off an imposed ugliness and restored i t to i t s proper position i n time, for i t was one of the oldest properties i n Grenville, b u i l t by a Massachusetts judge who had been driven out of New England at the time of the American Revolution, owned by his descendants ever since. (10) 24 He then defines P u r i t a n i s m as a Canadian q u a l i t y : Here was lodged the hard core of Canadian matter-of - f a c t n e s s on which men of imagination had been breaking themselves f o r years. G r e n v i l l e was sound, i t was d u l l , i t was l o y a l , i t was competent -and oh, God, i t was so Canadian. (13) Over Lucy looms the a r c h e t y p a l P u r i t a n f a t h e r , John Knox Cameron. His name suggests h i s inbred P u r i t a n i s m , yet he i s a teacher. MacLennan suggests that i t i s knowledge and love t h a t w i l l " f r e e " the Cameron f a m i l y : Knowledge could make them a l l f r e e . There was a l s o l o v e . A f i r e of hungry love smoldered h o t l y i n the whole Cameron fa m i l y and always had. (52) Even Jane, who seems to f i n d " r e l e a s e " only i n her music, suggests a "sublimated" s e x u a l i t y : "One would expect her to be at her best w i t h a Bach fugue, but i t was only i n these slow movements of Beethoven, where r e l i g i o n mingled w i t h a deeply sublimated s e x u a l i t y , t h a t Jane r e a l l y found h e r s e l f i n Music" (107). I t i s Bruce, her neighbour, who i s the minor Canadian Adam, who poses some of the s o l u t i o n s to the predicament of G r e n v i l l e : ' I I f a u t c u l t i v e r votre j a r d i n - people have been p r a i s i n g V o l t a i r e f o r two c e n t u r i e s f o r w r i t i n g t h a t , though n e i t h e r he nor they dreamed of t a k i n g h i s advice. But you've a c t u a l l y done i t . You're the only person I know who has. With the world f a l l i n g to pieces a l l around you.' ( 4 2 ) MacLennan then l i n k s the dogmatic aspect of the Canadian Eden myth w i t h p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n ferences when he has Lucy say: " I t was n a t u r a l f o r Bruce to l i n k her garden w i t h a p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l 25 i d e a " ( 4 2 ) . B r u c e ' s r e a c t i o n t o Lucy r e p r e s e n t s h i s P u r i t a n b a c k g r o u n d : G e n e r a t i o n s o f C a l v i n i s m had made them a l l a f r a i d o f t h e m s e l v e s . The g r e a t e m o t i o n s , l o v e and f e a r and h a t e and d e s i r e , c o u l d b r e a k l i k e t h u n d e r c l a p s i n h i s mind as i n h e r s , and bec a u s e o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g t h e y w o u l d b o t h t r y t o c o n c e a l them w i t h m a t t e r - o f -f a c t words o r a q u i c k change o f s u b j e c t . (43) H i s r e a c t i o n t o l u x u r y i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s i n h e r e n t P u r i t a n i s m : . . . t h e n t h e p u r i t a n s i d e o f h i s n a t u r e was assuaged by t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e s e i m p e r i o u s s t o n e s v a l u a b l e enough t o s u p p o r t a f a m i l y i n c o m f o r t f o r y e a r s , w o u l d p r o b a b l y be bought by a newly r i c h merchant who f e a r e d i n f l a t i o n , t o be h i d d e n i n a bank v a u l t o r hung about t h e si n e w y n e c k o f a f a d e d w i f e . (163) But he r e a l i z e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h a t t h e mold o f P u r i t a n i s m can be e f f a c e d . He quotes a poem r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e R o m a n t i c s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e i d e a l o f t h e Garden s t i l l p e r s i s t s : He quoted a poem he had w r i t t e n . I t was co n -v e n t i o n a l , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a g e n e r a l mood l i k e t h a t o f Wordsworth's from W e s t m i n s t e r B r i d g e . The m i d d l e p a r t c o n t a i n e d a passage about s i n l i k e a l o n g - e a r e d a n i m a l s l i p p i n g s o f t l y around c o r n e r s under a r c lamps w h i l e unseen f i n g e r s s c r a t c h e d f u r t i v e l y on d a r k window panes and a steamer's h o r n t h r o b b e d l i k e doom up t h e narrow t r e n c h o f d e B o u i l l o n S t r e e t . Then t h e sun had r i s e n , t h e r i v e r was p e a c e f u l and e v e r y t h i n g became c l e a n a g a i n . (45) MacLennan, i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , s u g g e s t s t h e Romantic t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s one o f t h e two p o l a r , y e t s i m i l a r ( t h e o t h e r b e i n g t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l ) , 26 a s p e c t s , w h i c h a r i s e from t h e awesomeness o f t h e l a n d w h i c h p e r v a d e C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e . A contemporary example i s L e o n a r d Cohen whose works can be "branded" b o t h as Romantic and m e t a p h y s i c a l . Stephen L a s s i t e r , t h e " E f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t " (22) t h e major Adam, becomes a l m o s t a c l i c h e b e c a u s e o f t h e manner i n w h i c h MacLennan d e l i n e a t e s h i s " A m e r i c a n e s s . " MacLennan s u g g e s t s t h a t B r u c e i s t h e A m e r i c a n Adam when, i n t h e l i b r a r y , Stephen l o o k i n g f o r Lucy s a y s : 'I'm l o s t among t h e Makers o f Canada. I don't want to be rude about y o u r c o u n t r y , b u t from t h e c o v e r s on t h e s e books i t l o o k s t o me as i f t h e makers a l l wore l o n g underwear i n the summer. Haven't you got a n y t h i n g new?' (60-61) Stephen t h e n h o l d s up The G r e a t Gatsby " t o t h e l i g h t " ( 6 1 ) . MacLennan thus j u x t a p o s e s t h e A m e r i c a n Eden myth w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n . B r u c e i s , i n a s e n s e , G a t s b y t r a n s p o s e d t o Canada, he i s a p o t e n t i a l maker o f Canada. The myths have been i n t e r c h a n g e d . Over Stephen a l s o h o v e r s a P u r i t a n f a t h e r , A b e l L a s s i t e r who s u p r a - e x e m p l i f i e s t h e P u r i t a n e t h i c o f h a r d , g r i m work. Stephen's c h i l d -hood memories a r e pervaded by t h i s e t h i c : S tephen had n e v e r f o r g o t t e n a book h i s f a t h e r had g i v e n him once f o r h i s b i r t h d a y . I t was c a l l e d G r e a t Men o f A m e r i c a , and a p a r t from Thomas E d i s o n , t h e r e was n o t a man i n t h e book who was n o t an i n d u s -t r i a l i s t , a f i n a n c i e r , o r a r a i l r o a d k i n g . T h e i r l i v e s had seemed t o Stephen d e p r e s s i n g l y s i m i l a r . Each had h i s own v a r i a t i o n o f t h e same f o r m u l a f o r s u c c e s s . Each had h i s own v a r i a t i o n o f t h e same l o o k i n t h e e y e s . ' O u t s i d e o f Morgan,' A b e l L a s s i t e r t o l d h i s s o n , ' t h e r e was h a r d l y one o f them who had i t s o f t t h e way you do.' 27. Stephen's s i s t e r Marcia a l s o c a r r i e s the same "mark": That's the t r o u b l e w i t h Steve and I know i t ' s the t r o u b l e w i t h me - t r y i n g to run away from o u r s e l v e s , not by f i n d i n g something b e t t e r but j u s t t r y i n g to escape. Three hundred years of unspent pleasures i n the bank and every one of us t h i n k i n g we had the combination of the v a u l t . (263) Marcia " f r e e s " h e r s e l f by adopting C a t h o l i c i s m . Stephen a l s o has s a l v a t i o n w i t h i n him, h i s memories of a c h i l d -hood Ar c a d i a which a hunting p i c t u r e i n G r e n v i l l e ' s i n n r e c a l l s : There was a cheap hunting p r i n t on the w a l l opposite the end of the bed; an E n g l i s h hunt, the B e l v o i r or the B i c e s t e r , he had f o r g o t t e n which. With i t s r o l l i n g f i e l d s of intense green, w i t h the sleek-coated horses and hounds, the p i c -ture reminded him of h i s boyhood. He had not belonged to a hunting f a m i l y ; f a r from i t . I t was the landscape i n the p i c t u r e which touched him; the g e n t l e , c u l t i v a t e d , w e l l - l o v e d f i e l d s , the memory of happy days before he had learned how to worry. (62) Once Stephen awakes passion and love i n Lucy, MacLennan empha-s i z e s her new s t a t e by her r e a c t i o n to her garden: That n i g h t Lucy s l e p t only a few hours. She woke i n the morning to a c o o l f r e s h day, made br e a k f a s t and went out to the garden. I t was no comfort to her, f o r the whole enclosure ached w i t h the r e c o l l e c t i o n of her own happiness. She saw the deck c h a i r i n which Stephen had sat and t a l k e d . I t s canvas seat was limp and shabby and r u f f l e d i n the l i g h t breeze. (132) Lucy's new f e e l i n g s and her r e - e v a l u a t i o n of P u r i t a n i s m are eased by her Uncle McCunn, a "former m i n i s t e r " : 28 'But our H i g h l a n d p e o p l e - I l e a r n e d t h i s i n t h e m i n i s t r y - t h e y r e a l l y want t o do the w i l l o f God. But the i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y g o t on t h e s u b j e c t a l l came from John C a l v i n , and a l l he t o l d them was what not to do. Now me, I always thought John C a l v i n was t h e main r e a s o n why th e y u n f r o c k e d me.' (142) McCunn's " f l a g r a n t " sermon w h i c h " c o s t " h i m h i s m i n i s t r y p i n -p o i n t s a l l t h e P u r i t a n f a l l a c i e s : ' I t o l d them t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o was so i n n o -c e n t t h e o n l y s i n t h e y c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d was t h e s i n o f f o r n i c a t i o n . I s a i d t h e y p u t so much s t r e s s on i t , t h e w o r s t k i n d o f c r o o k c o u l d c h e a t them and e x p l o i t them, and t h e y ' d n e v e r be q u i t e s u r e he was a c r o o k so l o n g as what they c a l l e d h i s m o r a l s l o o k e d okay. Why r i g h t h e r e i n t h i s town, I s a i d , t h e r e ' s one o f t h e b i g g e s t s k i n f l i n t s and w i d o w - c h e a t e r s t h a t e v e r l i v e d . But so l o n g as he, keeps o u t o f t h e l a w c o u r t s he's g o i n g t o get by, f o r he don't d r i n k , he don't p l a y c a r d s and he'd be s c a r e d t o l o o k a t a woman sid e w a y s so l o n g as anyone from h i s home town was w i t h i n f i f t y m i l e s t o t e l l someone e l s e he d i d i t . . . . From now on, I s a i d , when I p r e a c h about s i n -and I'm g o i n g t o do i t a p l e n t y - I want i t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d I'm t h i n k i n g about what the young ones do i n t h e hammocks b e h i n d t h e i v y . L i t t l e c h i l d r e n , I s a i d , l o o k i n g a t a young c o u p l e i n t h e se c o n d pew, l o v e one a n o t h e r . ' (143) A g a i n , MacLennan emphasizes t h a t he i s s p e a k i n g f o r a l l o f Canada. MacLennan s u g g e s t s L u c y ' s awareness and u n i n h i b i t e d n e s s o f h e r newly a r o u s e d s e x u a l i t y , when, i n h e r memories she acknowledges t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f myth and Eden, and t h a t she i s m e r e l y t h e i r r e - e n a c t m e n t . And t h e n the th o u g h t came t o h e r : what i f she n e v e r saw h i m f o r y e a r s , and t h e n some day when she was w h i t e - h a i r e d and used up, th e y were t o meet somewhere q u i t e s u d d e n l y and l o o k a t each o t h e r , and n o t h i n g w o u l d have t h e s l i g h t e s t r e a l i t y 29 b u t t h e f a c t t h a t thousands o f days and n i g h t s had p a s s e d w i t h n o t h i n g t o show f o r them b u t the s l o w s t a i n o f unused t i m e . (149) W i t h Stephen's acknowledgement o f l o v e , t h e g a r d e n undergoes an a l t e r a t i o n ; the l i l i e s must s h a r e t h e garden w i t h t h e o t h e r f l o w e r s . S e n s u a l l y i s r e - i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e C a l v i n i s t i c g a r d e n : The garden l o o k e d a r u i n t o d a y , f o r y e s t e r d a y she had c u t down a l l the l o n g s t a l k s o f t h e p e r e n n i a l s and t h e d e b r i s l a y t h i c k on t h e b e d s , and s p i l l e d o v e r onto the edges o f the l a w n . Hours o f work w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e t h e g a r d e n f o r the w i n t e r . The manure had t o be l a i d on, t h e d e b r i s had t o be c a r t e d t o t h e com-p o s t heap, s e v e r a l dozen t r a n s p l a n t i n g s had t o be made among t h e d a i s i e s and e s p e c i a l l y among t h e l i l i e s w h i c h had massed so t i g h t l y t hey t h r e a t e n e d t o t a k e o v e r t h e whole s e c t i o n s o f t h e beds. (152) I n comparing t h e A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n e t h i c , MacLennan f i n d s t h e A m e r i c a n t h e e a s i e r : T h e i r s p i r i t was new t o L u c y . She n e v e r f e l t she knew any o f them d e e p l y ; she n e v e r f e l t t h a t i t m a t t e r e d much t h a t she s h o u l d . They were m o s t l y l i k e S t ephen h i m s e l f , l i v i n g i n the p r e s e n t , f o r -g e t f u l o f t h e p a s t , t a k i n g t h e i r chances w i t h t h e f u t u r e . (215) The W a s t e l a n d o f t h e p o s t W o r l d War I y e a r s and t h a t o f t h e oncoming W o r l d War I I y e a r s a l s o becomes MacLennan's c o n c e r n and he t h u s a l i g n s h i m s e l f w i t h the European myth c o n s c i o u s w r i t e r s . When Stephen and Lucy a r e a t B o l d e r Dam, Lucy has t h e f o l l o w i n g " v i s i o n " : . . . a garden o f f r u i t and f l o w e r s b e l o n g i n g t o Stephen and h e r s e l f i n a l a n d w h i c h once had been 30-a d e s e r t b u t now was t h e r i c h e s t g r o w i n g c o u n t r y on e a r t h , w a t e r e d by a g r e a t and d i s t a n t dam w h i c h Stephen h i m s e l f , even i n t h e s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e way, had h e l p e d to b u i l d . (241) She t h u s t r i e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e Garden o f t h e p a s t w i t h t h a t o f the f u t u r e w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d by t e c h n o l o g y . The P r e c i p i c e c o n c l u d e s w i t h Lucy a s k i n g Stephen t o r e t u r n t o G r e n v i l l e , t o t h e now r e d e f i n e d Eden. Lucy acknowledges t h e l o s s o f h e r P u r i t a n complex as Stephen o n l y b e g i n s t o acknowledge h i s d i s e n t a n g l e m e n t : The w a l l s o f t h e room i n t h i s s t r a n g e h o t e l i n a f o r e i g n c i t y seemed t o s l i d e s o u n d l e s s l y a p a r t t o l e a v e h e r l o o k i n g o u tward i n t o i n f i n i t e d i s t a n c e . The w a l l s w h i c h had encompassed h e r a l l h e r l i f e , t h e w a l l s o f a p u r i t a n t r a d i t i o n , were t h e r e no l o n g e r . . . . I n Stephen's s e l f - c o n d e m n a t i o n she c o u l d h e a r th e a u t h e n t i c r i n g o f h e r s i s t e r ' s v o i c e , and she knew t h a t b o t h o f them, Jane d e l i b e r a t e l y , S tephen by a s o r t o f i n h e r i t a n c e i n h i s own s u b c o n s c i o u s , had s p e n t t h e i r l i v e s t r y i n g t o -keep t h e door s h u t between t h e i r own i n n e r s o l i t u d e and t h e m y s t e r y o f l i f e i t s e l f . (318) L u cy t h e n acknowledges t h e r e a l i s t i c p o s s i b l e Eden, t h e " t h ousand G r a n v i l l e s " (319) p i t t e d a g a i n s t t h e Utopian m i s c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f modern man: . . . d r i v i n g them away t o c i t i e s w h i c h had l o s t a l l t o u c h w i t h t h e towns, d r i v i n g some i n t o a t r a n s p l a n t e d A s i a t i c l u x u r y t h e y c o u l d n e v e r u n d e r s t a n d , l a u n c h i n g o t h e r s i n t o a r o o t l e s s t e c h n o l o g y i n w h i c h they c o u l d n e v e r do enough t o appease t h e unknown monster on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e d o o r , l e a v i n g them u n f o r g i v e n and l o n g i n g h e l p l e s s l y f o r t h e p u r i t y and s a f e t y o f a c h i l d -hood to w h i c h none o f them c o u l d e v e r r e t u r n . (319) 31 Stephen t r i e s , u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y , t o r e t u r n to t h e l a n d as a l a b o r e r b u t h i s Eden must be r e g a i n e d f i r s t w i t h i n h i m s e l f w i t h h i s d e n i a l o f h i s P u r i t a n g u i l t f e e l i n g s and t h e n o n l y w i l l he be a b l e t o r e t u r n to a t e c h n o -l o g i c a l Eden. I n The P r e c i p i c e , MacLennan t a c k l e s and j u x t a p o s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n P u r i t a n i s m . He t r i e s , as he always does, t o o v e r s i m p l i f y m a t t e r s . M a r c i a ' s c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o l i c i s m , h e r r e n u n -c i a t i o n o f P u r i t a n i s m , and h e r l o v e f o r B r u c e seems t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t C a n a dian P u r i t a n i s m i s somehow b e t t e r . I n r e a l i t y , what MacLennan o r i g i n -a l l y a t t e m p t e d was a c l o s e r s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n i s m as j u x t a p o s e d w i t h a m i n o r s t u d y o f t h e A m e r i c a n v e r s i o n . MacLennan's too n e a t k n o t s a l m o s t d i s c r e d i t h i s c o m p a r i s o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f b o t h b r a n d s o f P u r i t a n i s m as b e i n g a l m o s t o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c . MacLennan has p r e s e n t e d a r a t h e r d e t a i l e d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l and m y t h i c a l b a s i s o f t h e C a n a d i a n , and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e A m e r i c a n , Eden myths. I n t h e C o n t i n e n t w i t h t h e Legacy o f Cape B r e t o n I s l e -Each Man's Son I n Each Man's Son MacLennan a g a i n p r e s e n t s t h e C a n a d i a n Eden myth; he r e t u r n s t o t h e j o u r n a l f o r m w i t h an o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r . As i n j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h e t r i a l s o f h e r o i n u n d e r g o i n g i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t o c c u r s i n terms o f t h e c l a s s i c a l myth o f Odysseus. A g a i n , as i n Barometer  R i s i n g and Two S o l i t u d e s , t h e Eden myth i s a l s o examined i n terms o f P u r i t a n dogmatism and i n g e n e r a l g e o g r a p h i c terms. 32 In h i s "Author's Note" MacLennan o v e r t l y d e l i n e a t e s the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n between geography, P u r i t a n i s m and the Odysseus myth: To Cape Breton the Highlanders brought more than the q u i x o t i c g a l l a n t r y and softness of manner belonging to a Homeric people. They a l s o brought w i t h them an ancient curse; i n t e n s i f i e d by John C a l v i n and branded upon t h e i r souls by John Knox and h i s successors - the b e l i e f that man has i n h e r i t e d from Adam a nature so s i n f u l there i s no hope f o r him and t h a t , furthermore, he l i v e s and dies under the wrath of an a r b i t r a r y God who w i l l f o r g i v e only a handful of His e l e c t on the Day of Judgment. . . . But i f the curse of God r e s t e d on the Highlanders' s o u l s , the beauty of God cherished the i s l a n d where they l i v e d . . . . But they were s t i l l a f i g h t i n g race w i t h poetry i n t h e i r hearts and a curse upon t h e i r s o u l s . 0 1 MacLennan uses the myth of Odysseus and Sisyphus to present the Eden myth and the d e l i n e a t i o n s of P u r i t a n i s m i n Each Man's Son. M o l l i e weaving her rug i s Penelope; Alan MacNeil i s Telemachus; A r c h i e MacNeil i s the very p h y s i c a l and spent aspect of Odysseus, w h i l e D a n i e l A i n s l i e i s h i s s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e . MacLennan suggests t h i s when he d e p i c t s D a n i e l A i n s l i e reading the Odyssey. Dani e l c o n s c i o u s l y recreates the Odyssey. Myth i s again a r t i f i c e and content. A l l are searching f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . By h i s a l l u s i o n to the myth of Sisyphus, MacLennan emphasizes the burden that P u r i t a n i s m i s to the i s l a n d e r s . D a n i e l , who i s f r e e of the dark entrapment of the men of the mines, i s as much a Sisyphus as are they: Now that the f u t u r e was the present, and what had i t brought? Only an end to seeing ahead. Not even p o s t e r i t y . J u s t the moment of hard work. The memory of work e n d l e s s l y hard. The memory of s t r i v i n g , s t r a i n i n g , heaving the huge rock up the 33 h i l l w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t i f he r e l a x e d f o r a moment i t w o u l d become t h e r o c k of S i s y p h u s and r o a r d down t o t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m a g a i n . Was de-f i a n c e a l l t h a t remained? (40) F o r t h e " i s l a n d e r s " even the m i n i s t e r cannot o f f e r any c o h e s i o n o r a f f i r -m a t i o n , he cannot r e s o l v e t h e P u r i t a n dilemma: The P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r s t o o d under a lamppost w i t h one hand s c r a t c h i n g t h e s m a l l o f h i s b a c k and t h e o t h e r hooked by a thumb t o h i s w a i s t c o a t p o c k e t . He was b r o o d i n g on t h e sermon he was g o i n g t o p r e a c h tomorrow m o r n i n g . He wondered i f he s h o u l d s t o p t h e d o c t o r and ask h i m , as one s c h o l a r t o a n o t h e r , i f he t h o u g h t i t was g o i n g t o o f a r t o warn t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n a g a i n s t t a k i n g t h e p r o m i s e s o f t h e New Testament t o o l i t e r a l l y . F o r i f God was l o v e , what was t o be done about Jehovah? (41) I t i s t h e m y t h i c a l o l d w i s e man, i n t h e f i g u r e o f Dr. M a c K e n z i e , p r e -f i g u r e d by McCunn i n The P r e c i p i c e who disavows t h e h o l d o f P u r i t a n i s m . He a f f i r m s t h e power o f l o v e i n r e c o v e r i n g t h e l o s s e s o f t h e F a l l . He d e p i c t s D a n i e l and M a r g a r e t as Adam and Eve: 'Each o f us has a f l a w , and when two p e o p l e l o v e each o t h e r , each seems t o e x p e c t t h e o t h e r t o c u r e h i s f l a w . ' M a c K enzie p a u s e d , and added i n a q u i e t e r v o i c e , 'As l o n g as you've been m a r r i e d t o M a r g a r e t you've r e s e n t e d h e r b e c a u s e she h a s n ' t been a b l e t o wash away y o u r sense o f s i n . ' (63) Then M a c K e n z i e e l a b o r a t e s t h e P u r i t a n h o l d o v e r D a n i e l : 'Dan, you h a v e n ' t f o r g o t t e n a s i n g l e word you've e v e r h e a r d from t h e p u l p i t o r f r o m y o u r own P r e s b y -t e r i a n f a t h e r . You may t h i n k you've r e j e c t e d r e -l i g i o n w i t h y o u r mind, b u t y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y has no more r e j e c t e d i t t h a n dyed c l o t h r e j e c t s i t s o r i -g i n a l c o l o r . ' M a cKenzie's v o i c e became sonorous 34 w i t h i r o n y as he t r i e d t o remember C a l v i n : 'Man h a v i n g t h r o u g h Adam's f a l l l o s t communion w i t h God, a b i d e t h evermore under H i s w r a t h and c u r s e e x c e p t such as He h a t h , out o f H i s i n f i n i t e l o v i n g -k i n d n e s s and t e n d e r mercy, e l e c t e d t o e t e r n a l l i f e t h r o u g h J e s u s C h r i s t - I'm a C h r i s t i a n , Dan, b u t C a l v i n wasn't one and n e i t h e r was y o u r f a t h e r . ' (64) A i n s l i e t h e n acknowledges h i s P u r i t a n o r i e n t e d f e a r o f h i s s e x u a l n a t u r e : But why? Was t h e r e no end t o t h e c i r c l e o f O r i g i n a l S i n ? C o u l d a man n e v e r grow up and be f r e e ? I t was deeper t h a n t h e o r y and more p e r s o n a l . (64) P u r i t a n i s m has made t h e H i g h l a n d e r s ashamed even o f l i v i n g . When A i n s l i e a s k s MacKenzie what he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f he s a y s : 'A S c o t c h P r e s b y t e r i a n . ' MacKenzie was s t i l l l a u g h i n g b u t he checked h i m s e l f . 'Our p e o p l e were p o e t s once, b e f o r e t h e damned L o w l a n d e r s got t o us w i t h t h e i r r e l i g i o n . The o l d C e l t s knew as w e l l as C h r i s t d i d t h a t o n l y the s i n n e r can become t h e s a i n t b e c a u s e o n l y the s i n n e r can u n d e r s t a n d t h e need and t h e a l l n e s s o f l o v e . Then t h e L o w l a n d e r s w i t h t h e i r C a l v i n i s m made us ashamed o f l i v i n g . The way i t ' s made you ashamed. 1 (66) MacKenzie c o n c l u d e s , "Man . . . y o u ' r e dead t o t h e w o r l d " (68). A i n s l i e has w i t h i n h i m s e l f ( i n h i s s l e e p , t h e o n l y t i m e he a l l o w s h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i m s e l f t o d i e ) t h e memories o f h i s c h i l d h o o d and the Garden o f i n n o c e n c e and r e g e n e r a t i o n : He was home i n t h e Margaree V a l l e y where he had been b o r n , i t was t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y and he was a boy o f f i f t e e n w a l k i n g down t h e s l o p e o f t h e 35 h i l l from his father's house through John McGregor's f i e l d to the r i v e r bottom. The meadow at the foot of the h i l l s was s t a t e l y with lone elms, the fans of t h e i r upper branches d i s t i n c t i n the f i r s t l i g h t , t h e i r trunks dim. (69) MacLennan alludes to A i n s l i e ' s p a r t i a l denial of the Puritan et h i c i n constantly r e f e r r i n g to h i s devotion to Greek l i t e r a t u r e . Mac-Lennan' s references to A i n s l i e ' s reading material re-inforces the mythic structure but i t also underscores the Greek i d e a l i z a t i o n of beauty which Puritanism denies. MacLennan f o r c e f u l l y presents t h i s i n the episode i n Church: During the whole f i f t y - s e v e n minutes of Sandy MacAl i s t a i r ' s extremely p e s s i m i s t i c sermon Margaret sat watching her husband while he read h i s copy of the Greek Testament which rested throughout the week i n t h e i r hymnal rack. Now and then he put down the Greek text and picked up the King James Version to f i n d the meaning of an unfamiliar word. (-81) Archie MacNeil, who i s not ashamed of h i s body and thus of h i s sexuality, i s the ph y s i c a l Odysseus. By becoming the champion boxer, Archie i n a sense wins the phys i c a l b a t t l e against Puritanism. Once Daniel A i n s l i e acknowledges h i s love for Alan he can f u l l y disavow P u r i -tanism which he has only i n t e l l e c t u a l l y denied. Daniel's p i c n i c with M o l l i e and Alan i n Louisburg, the s i t e of great b a t t l e s of the past, and h i s successful operation on that same day suggest that he i s about to win h i s own b a t t l e against h i s past. The overgrown s e t t i n g suggests the regenerative a l l powerful forces of the land, the Garden that w i l l again a f f i r m i t s e l f : 36 Grass grew o v e r what had been s t r e e t s and f o u n -d a t i o n s , i t a l m o s t o b s c u r e d t h e r u s t e d cannon and c a r r o n a d e s w h i c h had been f i s h e d up from t h e h a r -b o u r b o t t o m by the c o a l company and d e p o s i t e d on t h e ground o u t s i d e t h e museum. N o t h i n g b u t g r a s s , as D o u c e t t e had s a i d , b u t i t had conquered e v e r y -t h i n g . (131) T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f the power o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r r e s u l t s i n D a n i e l ' s d e n i a l o f the P u r i t a n n i g h t m a r e and the b e g i n n i n g s o f h i s dream o f a f f i r -m a t i o n . MacLennan uses t h e dream m o t i f t o u n d e r s c o r e t h e c r i t i c a l c l i c h e d summary o f t h e Eden myth i n C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e as t h e "Canadian and A m e r i c a n Dream." A i n s l i e ' s a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e i s h i s r e l e a s e f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f P u r i t a n i s m : There was no e n d i n g t o s u c h dreams. He r a i s e d h i s head as a l a s t shudder p a s s e d t h r o u g h h i s body. The a d m i t t a n c e o f the one f a c t had b r o u g h t him f a c e t o f a c e w i t h the o t h e r he had known a l l t h e t i m e w o u l d be w a i t i n g t h e r e t o t r a p him. (183-184) A i n s l i e ' s a f f i r m a t i o n i s n o t y e t c o m p l e t e . M a cKenzie s u g g e s t s an u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e t h a t D a n i e l has from A l a n , "You a r e n ' t l o o k i n g f o r a son Dan. Y o u ' r e l o o k i n g f o r a God" ( 1 8 9 ) . ' A f t e r A l a n ' s appendectomy and when M o l l i e d e c i d e s t o d e p a r t w i t h Camire, A i n s l i e f i n a l l y and c o m p l e t e l y renounces P u r i t a n i s m and a f f i r m s the p e r s o n a l "God" o f h i s own humanism: Underneath a l l h i s t r o u b l e s , he t o l d h i m s e l f , l a y t h i s a n c i e n t c u r s e . He t h o u g h t d e s p e r a t e l y o f M a r g a r e t and d e s p e r a t e l y o f h i m s e l f , and he knew t h a t i t was h i s f e a r o f the c u r s e w h i c h had h o b b l e d h i s s p i r i t . The f e a r o f the c u r s e had l e d d i r e c t l y t o a f e a r o f l o v e i t s e l f . They were c r i m i n a l s , the men who had i n v e n t e d t h e c u r s e and i n f l i c t e d i t upon h i m , b u t they were a l l dead. There was no one t o s t r i k e down i n payment f o r g e n e r a t i o n s o f cramped and r u i n e d l i v e s . The c r i m i n a l s s l e p t w e l l , and t h e i r names were s a n c t i f i e d . . . . He had r e a c h e d h i s c o r e . And t h e r e he had s t o p p e d . He got t o h i s f e e t and l o o k e d down a t t h e b r o o k . I n t h a t moment he made t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t he was ready t o go on w i t h l i f e . (219) A i n s l i e i s l i k e C o l e r i d g e ' s m a r i n e r , who by h i s a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e and o f h i s oneness w i t h n a t u r e , a f f i r m s h i s God. The s h i p w r e c k , and A r c h i e ' s r e t u r n , p a r a l l e l t h e Odysseus myth. M o l l i e and Camire's d e a t h a re a s p e c t s o f the n e c e s s a r y d e s t r u c t i o n ; t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n p a r a l l e l s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l breakdown t h a t A i n s l i e must undergo b e f o r e he can f u l l y a f f i r m h i s a b i l i t y t o l o v e . Thus, t h e m i n e r ' s t r y i n g t o b r e a k i n t o M o l l i e ' s house a f t e r t h e murder i s MacLennan's metaphor f o r the i s l a n d e r s b r e a k i n g and d e s t r o y i n g t h e h o l d o f the p a s t on t h e m s e l v e s and a f f i r m i n g t h e i r p o s i t i v e " b e l i e f s , " "Then he h e a r d t h e r a i n o f blows on t h e o u t s i d e door and h e a r d men c a l l i n g i n G a e l i c v o i c e s t o open up f o r the l o v e o f God" ( 2 3 4 ) . The a d u l t e r o u s l o v e o f M o l l i e and Camire and t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n by A r c h i e who by t h i s t i m e a l s o p e r s o n i f i e d p h y s i c a l c o r r u p t i o n i r o n i c a l l y y i e l d s a p h y s i c a l awareness f o r t h e i s l a n d e r s . T h e i r p u r i t a n shame o f t h e i r e motions i s b o t h a n n i h i l a t e d and p u r i f i e d . The S i s y p h u s a l l u s i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e m i n e r s and A i n s l i e now d e l i n e a t e A r c h i e . A i n s l i e , now n e a r l y f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d , can d e f e a t A r c h i e ; " t h e y saw t h e d o c t o r drop h i s bag and put b o t h hands on t h e b o x e r ' s s h o u l d e r s and c a t c h h im as he l u r c h e d and f e l l f o r w a r d " ( 2 3 6 ) . W i t h h i s t e a r s , A i n s l i e avows h i s humanity and f u l l y acknow-l e d g e s h i s l o v e f o r A l a n . A i n s l i e ' s comprehension t h a t l o v e i s s e l f l e s s n e s s , 38 e q u a l i t y and s h a r i n g , i s h i s d e n i a l o f P u r i t a n i s m and h i s a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e p a r a d i s e w i t h i n . The e n d i n g o f Each Man's Son p a r a l l e l s t h e e n d i n g o f Barometer R i s i n g i n w h i c h t h e c o u p l e a l s o l o o k t o t h e f u t u r e and a c h i l d who i s t h e hope o f t h a t f u t u r e . R o b e r t G i l l e y n o t e s f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a r a l l e l s between Barometer  R i s i n g and Each Man's Son i n t h e l i g h t / d a r k imagery w h i c h i s a m e t a p h o r i c a s p e c t o f P u r i t a n i s m i n a l l o f MacLennan's n o v e l s : L i k e Barometer R i s i n g , Each Man's Son b e g i n s a t s u n s e t . Once a g a i n , an o p p o s i t i o n i s s e t up between l i g h t and d a r k n e s s , between t h e g l o r i o u s s e t t i n g sun o f June t i n t i n g t h e c l o u d s and 'below t h e c l o u d s the e a r t h . . . d a r k e n i n g f a s t ' ( 2 6 ) . As t h e b r i g h t c l o u d s move e a s t w a r d , and t h e d a r k -ness grows, M a r g a r e t A i n s l i e s t a n d s w a t c h i n g and f e e l s an i n c r e a s i n g s ense o f l o n e l i n e s s , t h e same l o n e l i n e s s h e r husband f e e l s i n t h e d a r k . A l s o , because i n t h e A i n s l i e garden b o t h l i g h t and a i r coming from t h e west a r e f r e s h , n e i t h e r h a v i n g c r o s s e d a s i n g l e c o l l i e r y , an o p p o s i t i o n a p p e a r s between t h e n a t u r a l and t h e u n n a t u r a l . The c o n f l i c t o f l i g h t and d a r k n e s s i s a l s o i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and made i n t e r n a l . . . . To D a n i e l , i t r e p r e s e n t s many t h i n g s . H a v i n g spoken w i t h M a c K e nzie about t h e a n c i e n t c u r s e and i t s accompany-i n g g u i l t , he f i n d s 'himself s t a r i n g i n t o t h e t o t a l darkness.. H i s s i n ? ' ( 6 7 ) . He s t a r e s i n t o the d a r k -n e s s and l o n g s ' f o r t h e s i g h t o f something d i s t i n c t ' (68). 2 2 I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e a ( n a t u r e ) image i n Each Man's Son, G i l l e y n o t e s t h e s e n s e o f f a t e t h a t p r e v a i l s , he r e l a t e s t h i s t o t h e c l a s s i c s e n s e : The m e l a n c h o l y C e l t s o f Cape B r e t o n g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t d e s t i n y works a g a i n s t them; t h e y f e e l 'the l u c k must have been a g a i n s t them, a s u p e r -s t i t i t i o n w h i c h more o r l e s s s a t i s f i e d them a l l ' ( 1 4 0 ) , i n c l u d i n g A i n s l i e . T r u l y , w h i l e t h e y s u f f e r 39 under the ancient curse, fate does work against them. . . . But what he ( A i n s l i e ) feels i s fate working i n h i s i n t e r e s t i s only the s t i r r i n g of hi s own misbegotten desire. . . . The Cape Breton giants, Giant MacAskill and Archie MacNeil, must f a l l as surely as the legendary C e l t i c giants, Finn McCool and Finn G a l l , and t h e i r c l a s s i c a l counterparts, the Titans (including the Cyclops), have f a l l e n . As Zeus and His Olympians toppled the Titans, Odysseus the Cyclops, and Saint P a t r i c k the Finns, so w i l l the power of love topple the giants of Cape B r e t o n . ^ But t h i s i s an inversion of the feelings of incompleteness i n man r e s u l t i n g from the F a l l and the a f f i r m a t i o n of love that topples the accretions of dogma. This denial of the accretions of dogma gives a strange twist to MacLennan's presentation of the Eden myth. Again we return to the form of the early t r a v e l journals and t h e i r elements of romance. G i l l e y states: There are, i n Each Man's Son, obvious elements of romance: the theme i s c h i e f l y argon or c o n f l i c t ; the characters are cast i n t y p i c a l roles of hero, waiting wife, wise old man and s i n i s t e r parent. Also t y p i c a l of romance i s the heavy r e l i a n c e on the quest myth: there are two quests i n the novel. But here l i e s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n Barometer  Rising, i n which the quest myth i s also c e n t r a l to the unfolding of the story. In the l a t t e r novel, the use of myth i s merely a comic one. In Each Man's Son, however, while A i n s l i e makes a comic quest, one that f u l f i l l s i t s aims and suggests the appearance of a new society, a quest within a greater quest which extends by implication beyond the novel, Archie's quest i s t r a g i c , a quest that not only f a i l s to f u l f i l l i t s aims but ends i n the destruction of the hero and h i s wife. Beyond t h i s pattern, the two separate quests are l i n k e d together within a greater mythic cycle, the death of the o l d gods and the r i s e of the new. 40 F i n a l l y , as i n B a r o m e t e r R i s i n g , Each Man's Son ends w i t h t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e f u t u r e . W i l l y Lowman as Adam -The Watch That Ends The N i g h t I n The Watch That Ends The N i g h t MacLennan uses t h e a r t i f i c e o f t h e j o u r n a l t o p r e s e n t t h e Eden myth w i t h t h e t h i r t i e s as a b a c k d r o p f o r h i s c o n s c i o u s m y t h o l o g i z i n g . He has h i s h e r o , a n t i - h e r o i s perhaps more c o r r e c t , George S t e w a r t , a g a i n the S c o t t i s h P u r i t a n b a c k g r o u n d i s s u g g e s t e d , r e a c t i n g i n an age where a l l dogmas and i d e o l o g i e s a r e a n n i -25 h i l a t e d , where a l l a r e o u t c a s t s " n o t t r y i n g t o l i v e on dead myths" ( 2 5 3 ) . George i s t h e modern Adam who i s t h e r e a l i t y t o t h e superhuman, s u p e r m y t h i c a l a l m o s t l u c i c r o u s Jerome M a r t e l l . C a t h e r i n e w i t h h e r r h e u m a t i c h e a r t i s t h e modern Eve i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y t h a t can n e v e r be r e a l l y made whole a g a i n . C a t h e r i n e has a garden t o t e n d , i n t h e c o u n t r y , where c she f i n d s some p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l ease (pp. 28-29). C a t h e r i n e and George's c o u r t s h i p i s a r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f n a t u r e : I t was on t h e weekend o f our T h a n k s g i v i n g i n 1941 t h a t I d r o v e C a t h e r i n e down t o a f r i e n d s c o t t a g e b e s i d e a l a k e s o u t h o f t h e c i t y and t h e r e we s p e n t t h r e e days i n t h e c a t h e d r a l s i l e n c e o f a l a n d w h i c h i n t h a t s e a s o n i s s u r e l y t h e l o v e l i e s t on e a r t h . (299) W i t h t h e i r m a r r i a g e t h e y seek t o become one w i t h n a t u r e : I n our c o u n t r y p l a c e we p l a n t e d a garden and t h e r e was a s p r i n g o f w a t e r b e s i d e i t where war-b l e r s f a n ned t h e m s e l v e s on h o t days. T o g e t h e r 41 we grew intimate with the seasons, and we planted our l i v e s i n one another without trying to annul the past. (301) But Catherine realizes that human love i s n ' t enough: 'It's so awful for a woman to learn that human love isn't s u f f i c i e n t . We need God, and He doesn't care. Perhaps because, we don't l e t Him care. But where i s He? Where has He gone?' (266) Like Stephen Lassiter and Daniel A i n s l i e , George Stewart retains, i n memories, the "Eden of his childhood. He and Catherine experience both gardens. MacLennan i s , i n a sense, parodying himself when he creates Jerome the super Adam who comes between George and Catherine. He t r i e s to posit a mythic Adam and then he t r i e s to cut down and integrate him with an ordinary, everyday one. Immediately after descriving George and Catherine's youthful or f i r s t Eden, MacLennan developes the other facets of the Eden myth and describes "the Canadian scene" with i t s English/French dichotomy: Montreal i s a world-city now with most of the symptoms of one, but i n those days i t was as a v i s i t i n g Frenchman described i t , an English garrison encysted i n an overgrown French v i l l a g e . (58) The rural/urban aspect of George's innocence/experience p a r a l l e l s modern man's bi f u r c a t i o n . No longer able to find solace i n r e l i g i o n or nature, he hes i t a t i n g l y places his b e l i e f i n material progress and tech-nology. 42 Norah B l a c k w e l l , a g a i n t h e l a s t name i s a h i n t o f h e r P u r i t a n g u i l t , who f o l l o w s Jerome " t h e p r i m i t i v e " ( 1 4 5 ) , t h e man u n t o u c h e d by t h i s dogma, i n h i s p u r s u i t o f g l o r y , i s a remnant o f t h e P u r i t a n e t h i c . Adam B l o r e , the Adam o f Canada's O l d Testament P u r i t a n i s m comments on the new Adams: These p u r i t a n s w i t h t h e i r h o t p a n t s and t h e i r l i t t l e a f f a i r s i n t h e name o f a r t - my God, i f I ' d known enough i n t i m e , I ' d have g o t some d o c t o r t o f e e d me t h e n e c e s s a r y hormones and t u r n me i n t o a homosexual. The p a n s i e s a r e t h e boys today. The commies make me l a u g h w i t h t h e i r b i g t a l k about t h e i r g r e a t , b i g b e a u t i f u l r e v o l u t i o n -bah! - the r e a l r e v o l u t i o n has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h them. I t ' s s e x u a l . (123) To h i m Norah B l a c k w e l l i s "a symbol o f o u r s i c k c i v i l i z a t i o n " ( 2 5 8 ) . From a " p r i m i t i v e " Adam, Jerome M a r t e l l becomes a " s y n t h e t i c " Adam h a l f composed o f O l d Testament P u r i t a n i s m , and t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e modern age b u i l t upon t h e f a i l u r e s o f t h e t h i r t i e s . H i s c r e e d and f a i t h i s bound up w i t h the " e x a g g e r a t i o n s " o f t h e t h i r t i e s : T h i s was a t i m e i n w h i c h you were always m e e t i n g p e o p l e who caught p o l i t i c s j u s t as a p e r s o n c a t c h e s r e l i g i o n . I t was p r o b a b l y t h e l a s t t i m e i n t h i s c e n t u r y when p o l i t i c s i n o u r c o u n t r y w i l l be evan-g e l i c a l , and i f a man was once i n t e n s e l y r e l i g i o u s he was bound t o be w i d e open t o a mood l i k e t h a t o f t h e T h i r t i e s . (206) Jerome c o n s c i o u s l y s e e ks modern martyrdom. L i k e h i s s t e p - f a t h e r who had to d e s t r o y h i m s e l f ( t h r o u g h a l c o h o l ) t o f e e l c l o s e t o h i s god, Jerome p a r t i a l l y f o l l o w i n g i n h i s f o o t s t e p s must r e - e n a c t Foxe's Book o f M a r t y r s . Jerome's r e a c t i o n t o the l a n d , h i s Eden i s t o i t s v i o l e n c e 43 and s t a r k n e s s . MacLennan compares Jerome and George's r e a c t i o n s t o t h e l a n d -s c a p e : Jerome l o v e d the s t a r k g r a n d e u r o f the L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d w h i c h evoked a r e s p o n s e i n him i t has n e v e r c a l l e d o u t o f me, f o r I p r e f e r a g e n t l e r l a n d where f l o w e r s and f r u i t s grow. (252) Jerome's c h i l d h o o d b e l o n g s t o "days t h a t a r e gone i n Canada" ( 1 6 1 ) . Y e t h i s mother i s d e s t r o y e d by " t h e E n g i n e e r " (165) who i s an a s p e c t o f t h e modern w o r l d . H i s q u e s t thus i s an a s p e c t o f the d u a l i s t i c n a t u r e i n h e r i t e d from h i s c h i l d h o o d , he d e s i r e s a martyrdom no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e w h i l e h o p i n g t o b e t t e r a new t e c h n o l o g y . As an a s p e c t o f t h e j o u r n a l The Watch That Ends The N i g h t i s a b l e n d o f romance and myth. MacLennan p e r s o n i f i e s t h e p o l a r i t i e s o f t h e Quest i n Jerome and George. B o t h h e r o e s undergo e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l b a t t l e s . The n o v e l ends w i t h t h e b e s t components o f each f u s e d i n a p o r t r a i t o f Everyman as t h e Q u e s t o r . The f u t u r e i n t h e hands o f A l l a n Royce and S a l l y who a r e n o t burdened by t h e " n e u r o s e s " ( s i n s ) o f t h e i r p a r e n t s g e n e r a t i o n seems h o p e f u l f o r Canada and a dawning w o r l d . They a r e the new Adam and Eve, beyond t h e O l d and New Testaments, beyond P u r i t a n i s m , beyond dogma and above t h e awesomeness o f t e c h n o l o g y . I n The Watch That Ends The N i g h t MacLennan has a g a i n used the j o u r n a l as a r t i f i c e t o p r e s e n t a p e r s p e c t i v e o f the l a n d and t o r e p r e s e n t p e r s o n a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l comprehension o f t h e l a n d i n terms o f i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t . I n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t a r e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e romance (and r o m a n t i c ) t r a d i t i o n o f C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as b e i n g t h e b a s i s f o r m y t h i c a l a l l u s i o n s , n o t a b l y t h e c l a s s i c myth o f Odysseus. But u n l i k e h i s p r e v i o u s 44 n o v e l s , i n t h i s s t u d y o f P u r i t a n i s m MacLennan moves t o an a f f i r m a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n humanism. I n d i v i s i b l e M o s a i c S h i e l d -R e t u r n o f t h e S p h i n x R e t u r n o f t h e S p h i n x b r i n g s Each Man's Son t o c o m p l e t i o n . A l a n A i n s l i e , now M i n i s t e r o f C u l t u r e , t r i e s t o comprehend and d e f i n e Canada. MacLennan p r e s e n t s h i s f u l l e s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n Eden myth. I n Barometer R i s i n g he a l l u d e d t o the Eden myth. I n Two  S o l i t u d e s he p r e s e n t e d t h e C a t h o l i c / P u r i t a n a n t a g o n i s m . I n The P r e c i p i c e he a t t e m p t e d t o d e f i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n C a n a d i a n and Am e r i c a n P u r i t a n i s m and t h e n t r i e d , somewhat too n e a t l y , t o s u g g e s t t h a t though h a r s h e r , C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n i s m was b e t t e r . I n The Watch That Ends  The N i g h t , a f f i r m i n g t h e n i h i l i s m o f t h e t h i r t i e s , he d e n i e d h i s h e a v i l y C l a s s i c a l m y t h i c o r i e n t a t i o n and a f f i r m e d t h e s i m p l e m y t h i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . I n The Watch That Ends The N i g h t MacLennan d e n i e d P u r i t a n i s m and p o s t u l a t e d humanism. I n R e t u r n o f the S p h i n x MacLennan p r e s e n t s h i s most a n a l y t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h / E n g l i s h , C a t h o l i c / P u r i t a n c o n f l i c t . A l a n A i n s l i e ' s f a m i l y by i t s own dichotomy r e v e a l the dichotomy o f t h e c o u n t r y . MacLennan b e g i n s and ends w i t h t h e l a n d , t h e " s p h i n x " t h e " i d e a " t h a t has been t r a n s l a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , d o g m a t i c a l l y , a e s t h e t i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . The book b e g i n s , , " t h e l a n d d e f i e d e v e r y o n e ' s i d e a o f what a l a n d ought t o be; j u s t t h e l a n d by b e i n g where i t was, what i t was and 45 26 how i t was" ( 3 ) . The s t r a n g e n e s s o f the l a n d r e f l e c t s t h e s t r a n g e n e s s and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o f i t s p e o p l e , i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e members o f t h e A i n s l i e f a m i l y who do n o t r e a l l y know one a n o t h e r . MacLennan c o n c l u d e s w i t h A l a n i n h i s g arden i n t h e c o u n t r y : Each o f them had l i v e d t o g e t h e r b e l i e v i n g t h e y had p e r f e c t l - known one a n o t h e r and a l l t h e t i m e b o t h had been s e c r e t s even to t h e m s e l v e s . Now thank we a l l our God! . . . Images o f the l a n d : t h e l o n g wash o f t h e de-c i s i v e ocean a g a i n s t t h e g r a n i t e ; s u n l i g h t spang-l i n g t h e m i s t o v e r t h e e s t u a r y the o l d n a v i g a t o r had m i s t a k e n f o r t h e N o r t h w e s t Passage l e a d i n g t o t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e dream; t h e p r a i r i e w i n d a l m o s t as v i s i b l e above t h e wheat as r u f f l i n g t h r o u g h i t ; t he a n t l e r s o f a b u l l e l k c a s c a d i n g down t h e s i d e o f a Rocky M o u n t a i n ; arrows o f w i l d geese s h o o t i n g o f f i n t o t h e t w i l i g h t o v e r t h e d e l t a o f t h e A t h a b a s k a . . . He went to t h e window and saw l a k e and f o r e s t m a r r i e d i n p e r f e c t s i l e n c e . The v a s t l a n d . Too v a s t even f o r f o o l s t o r u i n a l l o f i t . He went o u t s i d e and w a l k e d i n t h e c o l d a i r t o t h e w a t e r and h e a r d h i m s e l f say i n a n o r m a l v o i c e , 'The s p h i n x has r e t u r n e d t o t h e w o r l d b e f o r e , a f t e r a l l . ' (302-303) As i n MacLenna's o t h e r n o v e l s , t h e o n l y " s o l u t i o n " t o t h e C a n a d i a n Eden myth i s an awareness o f t h e l a n d and a c o n c o m i t a n t - awareness o f one's power t o l o v e t h e l a n d and o t h e r s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l y . MacLennan t r i e s t o o f f e r d ogmatic and non-dogmatic s o l u t i o n s t o P u r i t a n i s m , i n R e t u r n  o f t h e S p h i n x w h i c h many c r i t i c s r e g a r d as h i s w o r s t n o v e l , he i r o n i c a l l y , o f f e r s h i s most mature v i s i o n o f the i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , t h e s p h i n x . A l a n ' s w i f e C o n s t a n c e i s an a s p e c t o f t h e p a s t , t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c o u n t r y . She i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t t o a comprehension o f the l a n d . 46 D a n i e l A i n s l i e i s "modern" m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s adop t e d g r a n d -f a t h e r . The t r a i n i n g o f t h e J e s u i t s has marked h i m by h e i g h t e n i n g h i s f e a r o f t h e f l e s h w h i l e e n v i g o r a t i n g h i s s o c i a l z e a l . Awakening a f t e r h a v i n g made l o v e t o M a r i e l l e he remembers t h e s e f e a r s . But MacLennan s u g g e s t s t h e J e s u i t i c a l s e n s e o f m i s s i o n and m i l i t a n c y imbued i n D a n i e l and r e s u l t i n g i n h i s p o l i t i c a l z e a l when he w r i t e s : O n ly t o s e r v e God and l i b e r a t e h i s p e o p l e - even as a l i t t l e boy t h i s p u r e d e d u c a t i o n was i n h i s f a c e . To l i b e r a t e h i s p e o p l e a t no m a t t e r what c o s t , t o c u t t h e c o r d s o f t h e s t r a i t - j a c k e t o f t h i s n a t i o n t h e p e o p l e l o v e d so d e s p e r a t e l y . (182) D a n i e l ' s z e a l f o r h i s c o u n t r y i s , i r o n i c a l l y , a d e n i a l o f h i s f a t h e r who a l s o s e r v e s t h e c o u n t r y : D a n i e l wrenched h i s w r i s t f r o m h i s f a t h e r ' s g r i p and made an i m p a t i e n t sweep. ' I wasn't t a l k i n g about t h a t ! I was t a l k i n g about t h a t ! I was t a l k i n g about t h e whole F r e n c h C a n a d i a n r a c e . You grew up a p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s b e s i d e y o u and t a l k i n g y o u r l a n g u a g e , w i t h t h e whole huge, i n s e n s i t i v e , c r a s s , clumsy, c o n c e i t e d , i n t e r f e r i n g , hypo-c r i t i c a l A n g l o - S a x o n System b e h i n d y o u . But we're orphans and a t l a s t we've found t h e courage t o admit i t . (236) L i k e Jerome M a r t e l l he c r a v e s f o r h e r o i c t a s t e s , b u t h i s c r a v i n g s a r e n o t as u n s u b s t a n t i a l , y e t t h e y a r e j u s t as m i s g u i d e d . L a t e n d r e s s e , t h e name i r o n i c a l , i s MacLennan's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h a c t i v i s t s . He, l i k e D a n i e l A i n s l i e has r e c h a n n e l e d h i s r e l i g i o u s z e a l . M a r i e l l e a s k s D a n i e l i f L a t e n d r e s s e i s perhaps " a s p o i l e d p r i e s t " ( 1 4 5 ) . L a t e n d r e s s e p o s t u l a t e s t h e c o r e o f t h e F r e n c h / E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t as an economic one. L a t e n d r e s s e p i n p o i n t s t h e f o c a l p o i n t when he s a y s : D i g n i t y i s what we want. The r i g h t t o be o u r s e l v e s i s what we want. Even t h e r i g h t to be a l l o w e d t o make o u r own m i s t a k e s i s what we want. (130) MacLennan a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e o t h e r F r e n c h / E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t s e s p e c i a l l y t h e a s p e c t o f c o n s c r i p t i o n d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . A l a n A i n s l i e whom MacLennan p r e s e n t s as t h e i n t e r p r e t e r o f c o u n t r y c o - r e l a t e s the p e o p l e and geography: What c o n f u s e d h i s s o u l was s o m e t h i n g f a r more o b s c u r e t h a n t h i s o b v i o u s s p l i t w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y ; t h i s much a t l e a s t he u n d e r s t o o d . A change i n t h e human c l i m a t e seemed t o be o c c u r i n g e v e r y w h e r e . Only a few y e a r s ago he b e l i e v e d he u n d e r s t o o d t h i s c o u n t r y as w e l l as any man, b u t t h r e e n i g h t s ago, c l a w i n g a t s l e e p t h a t danced away whenever he g r i p p e d i t , he found h i m s e l f overcome by a s e n s a t i o n f a m i l i a r and ominous. (72) A l a n ' s r e l i g i o n i s h i s l o v e o f t h e p e o p l e and h i s c o u n t r y i n h i s p o s i t i o n as a " p o l i t i c i a n . " G a b r i e l F l e u r y , A i n s l i e ' s c l o s e s t f r i e n d who w i l l e v e n t u a l l y g a i n A l a n ' s d a u g h t e r C h a n t a l , a g a i n t h e p a s t and f u t u r e i n t e r m e s h , d e l i n e a t e s A l a n ' s " r e l i g i o n " i n terms o f h i s " p o l i t i c s " : To G a b r i e l , he seemed t o l o v e t h i s huge, m o s t l y unknown c o u n t r y as some p e o p l e l o v e t h e i d e a o f growth i n a c h i l d , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t G a b r i e l b e l i e v e d he was much c l o s e r t o what t h e p o l i t i c i a n s c a l l e d " t h e p e o p l e " t h a n any o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s c o u l d e v e r be. He wondered i f A l a n u n d e r s t o o d t h e r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between h i s l o v e o f t h e c o u n t r y and t h e i r s - t h a t t h e y l o v e d i t m a i n l y f o r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t gave them t o p r a c -t i c e t h e i r t r a d e . (29-30) 48 F i n a l l y , MacLennan has A l a n e x p r e s s h i s " b e l i e f " f o r h i s c o u n t r y and h i s age: I r e p e a t t h a t we t r y t o see t h e p r e s e n t w i t h t h e eyes o f t h e p a s t . I t i s human n a t u r e t o do i t . I n t h i s House we make a r i t u a l o f d o i n g i t . We use outworn p o l i t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s to d e a l w i t h s o m e t h i n g so new i t - i t so t e r r i -f i e s us t h a t we r e f u s e t o admit even t o o u r -s e l v e s t h a t i t e x i s t s . I b e l i e v e t h a t the r e a l cause o f t h e w o r l d c r i s i s - f o r t h a t i s what i t i s - no more r e s -p e c t s f r o n t i e r s t h a n an i n f l u e n z a e p i d e m i c r e s -p e c t s them. I b e l i e v e t h a t c r i s i s came when humanity l o s t i t s f a i t h i n man's a b i l i t y t o improve h i s own n a t u r e . I f the symptoms o f t h i s d i s e a s e a t times seem s t a r t l i n g i n my own p r o v i n c e , i t i s o n l y b e c a u s e t h e c r i s i s has come t h e r e so s u d d e n l y . When p e o p l e no l o n g e r can b e l i e v e i n . p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y , when s o c i e t y a t l a r g e has abandoned p h i l o s o p h y , many men grow d e s p e r a t e w i t h o u t knowing why. They c r a c k up-and they don't know they have. (267) L i n d a Jane Rogers w r i t i n g about t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and the q u e s t m o t i f i n Ca n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e e s p e c i a l l y p r a i r i e f i c t i o n p r o v i d e s an i n -s i g h t i n t o much o f t h e impetus i n MacLennan's w r i t i n g : Time and p l a c e a r e t h e media t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e e t e r n a l i s m a n i f e s t e d f o r t h e comprehension o f f a l l i b l e man. I t i s the r e s p o n s e t o e n v i r o n -ment w h i c h has d e t e r m i n e d and shaped t h e human a t t i t u d e t o w a r d u l t i m a t e m y s t e r i e s . The p a t t e r n s o f n a t u r e a r e t r a n s l a t e d by t h e a r t i s t and p h i l o -s o p h e r i n t o t he r i t u a l b e h a v i o u r o f man. The c h a l l e n g e o f a d v e r s i t y and t h e j o y o f t h e mor n i n g o r the new seaso n a r e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e r e s t l e s s d e s i r e t o overcome t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f human and g e o g r a p h i c a l l a n d s c a p e . The q u e s t m o t i f , w h i c h i s an a s p e c t o f the r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n o f a l l c u l t u r e s , i s c e n t r a l t o p r a i r i e f i c t i o n . The o p t i m i s m o f the j o u r n e y t o -ward the l i g h t i s f e l t even i n moments o f d a r k n e s s , d u r i n g d r o u g h t o r a d u s t s t o r m . There i s a p r e -v a i l i n g s e n s e , i n t h e Canadian p r a i r i e n o v e l , 49 t h a t man, t h r o u g h r e g e n e r a t e b e h a v i o r w i l l o v e r -come. As he wanders t h r o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e o f t h e p r a i r i e , t h e i n -d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o know God and t o know h i m s e l f . ^ T h i s book b e g i n s and ends w i t h an image o f t h e l a n d as geo-g r a p h i c a l f a c t and the l a n d as t h e Garden and A l a n r e t u r n i n g t o i t . I t a l s o ends w i t h h i s a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e and God. He i s t h e Adam on t h e f i r s t and l a s t day o f c r e a t i o n . A l a n l o o k s o v e r t h e l a n d , he a c c e p t s h i s i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i t y e t h i s i s o l a t i o n and s m a l l n e s s compared t o i t . He r e a l i z e s h i s own m o r t a l i t y . c o m p a r e d t o i t s i m m o r t a l i t y . The Canadian Eden myth as Hugh MacLennan u n d e r s t a n d s i t , and he t r i e s v e r y h a r d t o c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d i t , i s p a r t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s -ness o f t h e r a c e i n t h e i r myth-making c a p a c i t i e s , i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o comprehend the l a n d , i n t h e i r d e e p e s t most i n n e r freedom from C a n a d i a n P u r i t a n i s m . The j o u r n a l t r a d i t i o n becomes each man's c e r e b r a l d i a r y t h r o u g h u n c h a r t e d t e r r i t o r y . \ CHAPTER TWO - FOOTNOTES 1958), i x . Hugo McPherson, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Barometer R i s i n g ( T o r o n t o , R o b e r t G i - l l e y , "Myth and Meaning I n Three N o v e l s o f Hugh MacLennan," M. A. t h e s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967), p. 6. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , P- 1. 6 I b i d . , P- 7. 7 I b i d . , P- 10. 8 I b i d . , P- 13. 9 I b i d . , pp. 13-14. 10 . -l b i d . , P- 18. "''"StcPherson, x i i i . 1 2 G i l l e y , P- 33. I b i d . , P. 34. 14 I b i d . Hugh MacLennan, Barometer R i s i n g ( T o r o n t o , 1958), p. 79. A l l s u b s equent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 16 Hugh MacLennan,.Two S o l i t u d e s ( T o r o n t o , 1945), p. 370. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 17 George Woodcock, A C h o i c e o f C r i t i c s ( T o r o n t o , 1966), p. 86. 51 18 D o r i s Cameron, " P u r i t a n i s m i n C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e F i c t i o n , " M. A. t h e s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966), p. 2. 19 y. . J I b i d . 20 Hugh MacLennan, The P r e c i p i c e (New Y o r k , 1948), p. 10. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . •^*"Hugh MacLennan, Each Man's Son ( B o s t o n , 1951), v i i i . A l l s u b s equent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b elow t h e q u o t a t i o n . 22 G i l l e y , p. 69. 23 I b i d . , p. 65. 24 I b i d . , p. 67. 25 Hugh MacLennan, The Watch That Ends The N i g h t (New Y o r k , 1960), p. 253. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 26 Hugh MacLennan, R e t u r n o f t h e S p h i n x (New Y o r k , 1967), p. 3. A l l s u b s equent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 27 L i n d a Jane R o g e r s , "Environment and t h e Quest M o t i f I n S e l e c t e d o f Canadian P r a i r i e F i c t i o n , " M. A. t h e s i s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970), i . CHAPTER THREE PLANISPHERE PLANETARIUM AND THE QUANTITATIVE PLANER TREE - MYSTAGOGIC UTOPIAS IN THE WORKS OF GABRIELLE ROY A l o n g w i t h Gwendolyn MacEwen, G a b r i e l l e Roy t r i e s t o comprehend and d e f i n e t h e C a n adian Eden myth i n terms o f U t o p i a n and A r c a d i a n t h o u g h t , a l t h o u g h MacEwen i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by a l c h e m i c a l t h e o r i e s and alchemy as metaphor. B o t h use as t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n t h e j o u r n a l . G a b r i e l l e Roy, i n h e r e a r l y w o r k s , l o o k s a t Eden myth i n terms o f t h e r u r a l v e r s u s t h e u r b a n o r t h e a r c h e t y p a l forms i n t h e U t o p i a n l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e c i t y and t h e machine: When one p u t s t h e s e two a r c h e t y p a l f o r m s , t h e c i t y and t h e machine, s i d e by s i d e , one i s f i n a l l y p r e s s e d t o an a l l - b u t - i n e s c a p a b l e c o n c l u s i o n : Utopia was once i n d e e d a h i s t o r i c f a c t and became p o s s i b l e , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h r o u g h the r e g i -m e n t a t i o n o f l a b o u r i n a t o t a l i t a r i a n mechanism, whose r e g i o n s were s o f t e n e d by t h e many c a p t i v a t i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e c i t y i t s e l f , w h i c h r a i s e d t h e s i g h t s on a l l p o s s i b l e human achi e v e m e n t . Through t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f h i s t o r y , i t was the image o f the c i t y t h a t l i n g e r e d i n t h e human i m a g i n a t i o n as t h e c l o s e s t a p p roach t o p a r a d i s e t h a t one m i g h t hope f o r on e a r t h - though p a r a d i s e , the o r i g i n a l P e r s i a n word reminds u s , was n o t a c i t y b u t a w a l l e d g a r d e n , a N e o l i t h i c r a t h e r t h a n a B r o n z e Age image... The b e g i n n i n g s o f s o c i e t y a r e a s p e c t s o f myth: . . . two s o c i a l c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h can be e x p r e s s e d o n l y i n terms o f myth. One i s t h e s o c i a l c o n t a c t , 53 w h i c h p r e s e n t s an a c c o u n t o f the o r i g i n s o f s o c i e t y . The o t h e r i s t h e U t o p i a , w h i c h p r e s e n t s an i m a g i n a t i v e v i s i o n o f t h e t e l o s o r end a t w h i c h s o c i a l l i f e aims . . . The Utopia i s a s p e c u l a t i v e myth; i t i s d e s i g n e d to c o n t a i n o r p r o v i d e a v i s i o n f o r one's s o c i a l i d e a s , n o t t o be a t h e o r y c o n n e c t i n g s o c i a l f a c t s t o g e t h e r . ^ I n Where N e s t s The Water Hen, Roy d e v e l o p s t h a t a s p e c t o f U t o p i a w h i c h " i s a p r o j e c t i o n o f the a b i l i t y t o see s o c i e t y , n o t as an a g g r e g a t e o f 3 b u i l d i n g s and b o d i e s b u t as a s t r u c t u r e o f a r t s and s c i e n c e . " I n t h i s n o v e l she d e v e l o p s t h e t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h i s t h e o r y " c o n n e c t s a 4 Utopian myth w i t h a myth o f c o n t r a c t . " On t h e whole, however, G a b r i e l l e Roy's v i s i o n o f t h e C a n adian Eden myth i s now i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A r c a d i a t h a n i n d i a l e c t i c U t o p i a n terms. T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r the s l i g h t U t o p i a n a l l u s i o n s i n MacLennan and t h i s i s t h e m a i n s p r i n g f o r Gwendolyn MacEwen's p e r c e p t i o n and d e v e l o p -ment o f Eden myth. The A r c a d i a n a s p e c t o f U t o p i a n t h o u g h t s t r e s s e s t h e a l l p e r -v a s i v e n e s s o f geography w h i c h i t s e l f i s t h e cause and r e a s o n o f C a n adian a r t s and l e t t e r s : The A r c a d i a has two i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t h e U t o p i a h a r d l y i f e v e r h a s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t p u t s an emphasis on t h e i n t e -g r a t i o n o f man w i t h h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The U t o p i a i s a c i t y , and i t e x p r e s s e s r a t h e r t h e human ascendancy o v e r n a t u r e , t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f the e n vironment by a b s t r a c t and c o n c e p t u a l m e n t a l p a t t e r n s . I n t h e p a s t o r a l , man i s a t peace w i t h n a t u r e , w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t he i s a l s o a t peace w i t h h i s own n a t u r e , t h e r e a s o n a b l e and t h e n a t u r a l b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d . A p a s t o r a l s o c i e t y m i g h t become s t u p i d o r i g n o r a n t , b u t i t c o u l d h a r d l y go mad. I n the second p l a c e , t h e p a s t o r a l , by s i m p l i f y i n g human d e s i r e s , throws more s t r e s s on t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s u c h 54 d e s i r e s as r e m a i n , e s p e c i a l l y , o f c o u r s e , s e x u a l d e s i r e . Thus i t can accommodate as t h e t y p i c a l Utopia c a n n o t , s o m e t h i n g o f t h e o u t l a w e d and f u r t i v e s o c i a l i d e a known as t h e Land o f Cockayne, th e f a i r y l a n d where a l l d e s i r e s can be i n s t a n t l y g r a t i f i e d . ^ I n The C a s h i e r , Roy d e p i c t s t h e A r c a d i a n a s p e c t o f U t o p i a n t hought b u t she a l s o d e s c r i b e s , w i t h i n h e r work, t h e r o u t e o f modern U t o p i a n w r i t i n g : The g r e a t c l a s s i c a l Utopias d e r i v e d t h e i r form from c i t y s t a t e s , and though i m a g i n a r y , were th o u g h t o f as b e i n g l i k e t h e c i t y s t a t e s , e x a c t l y l o c a t a b l e i n s p a c e . Modern Utopias d e r i v e t h e i r f o rm from a u n i f o r m p a t t e r n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n s p r e a d o v e r t h e whole g l o b e , and so a r e t h o u g h t o f as w o r l d -s t a t e s , t a k i n g up a l l a v a i l a b l e s p a c e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t i f t h e r e i s t o be any r e v i v a l o f Utopian i m a g i n -a t i o n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , i t cannot r e t u r n t o t h e o l d -s t y l e s p a t i a l Utopias. New Utopias would have t o d e r i v e t h e i r form from t h e s h i f t i n g and d i s s o l v i n g movement o f s o c i e t y t h a t i s g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c i n g t h e f i x e d l o c a t i o n s o f l i f e . They w o u l d n o t be r a t i o n a l c i t i e s e v o l v e d by a p h i l o s o p h e r ' s d i a l e c t i c : they w o u l d n o t be r o o t e d i n t h e body as w e l l as i n t h e mind, i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s as t h e c o n s c i o u s , i n f o r e s t s and d e s e r t s as w e l l as i n highways and b u i l d i n g s , i n bed as w e l l as i n the symposium. . . . U t o p i a , i n f a c t and e t h n o l o g y , i s n o t a p l a c e ; and when t h e s o c i e t y i t s e e k s t o t r a n s c e n d i s e v erywhere, i t can o n l y f i t i n t o what i s l e f t , t h e i n v i s i b l e n o n - s p a t i a l p o i n t i n t h e c e n t r e o f s p a c e . The q u e s t i o n "where i s Utopia?" i s the same as t h e q u e s t i o n "where i s nowhere?" and the o n l y answer to t h a t q u e s t i o n i s " h e r e . " , b A l e x a n d r e C h e n e v e r t ' s l a n d s c a p e becomes th e p h y s i c a l and c e r e b r a l Utopia o f modern man. Roy a l s o manages, i n The C a s h i e r t o s u g g e s t t h e t h r e e p r o g r e s s i o n s o f U t o p i a n t h o u g h t : U t o p i a s s i n c e More have been d i v i d e d i n t o "three ages o f u n e q u a l d u r a t i o n . The p e r i o d i z a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e somewhat a r b i t r a r y - i t i s c e r t a i n l y meant to be i l l u s t r a t i v e r a t h e r than d e f i n i t i v e -and i n a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y s u b s i d i a r y t r e n d s 55 would have t o be e n l a r g e d upon. The f i r s t group might be c a l l e d Utopias o f c a l m f e l i c i t y , r u n n i n g r o u g h l y from More t o t h e age o f the F r e n c h R e v o l u -t i o n ; t h e second c o m p r i s e s t h e dynamic s o c i a l i s t and o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n i s t Utopias, w h i c h span t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; and the l a s t a r e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l Utopias o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . I n R i d d e n M o u n t a i n , Roy d e s c r i b e s the Eden myth i n terms o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a r t i s t . The j o u r n a l form a s s e r t s i t s e l f and form and c o n t e n t become one, t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e book. I r o n Foundry Ga l v a n o m e t r y as F r u t e s c e n t F r u s t r u m - The T i n F l u t e The h e r o i n e o f G a b r i e l l e Roy's n o v e l The T i n F l u t e , F l o r e n t i n e L aCasse e p i t o m i z e s the d u a l a s p e c t o f U t o p i a n t h o u g h t , t h e c i t y v e r s u s t h e c o u n t r y , t h e f r e e v e r s u s t h e c o n t a i n e d . She c o n t a i n s w i t h i n h e r s e l f t h e d e l i c a c y and f r a g i l i t y o f t h e p a s t ( F l o r e n c e , and i t s g l a s s w a r e ) and t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n and e n c l o s e d n e s s o f t h e p r e s e n t . She i s b o t h v e r d a n t and d e s o l a t e . One o f J e a n Levesque's f i r s t comments emphasizes h i s r e c o g -n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t . 'You h a t e me, don't y o u ? ' he murmured. 'You h a t e i t h e r e , you h a t e e v e r y t h i n g , ' he c o n t i n u e d r e l e n t l e s s l y , as i f he c o u l d see c l e a r t h r o u g h t o t h e v e r y c o r e o f h e r , a w a s t e l a n d where n o t h i n g grew b u t b i t t e r n e s s and d i s s e n t . _ o Thus t h e b a s i s f o r t h e Eden myth i s a g a i n q u e s t , n o t q u e s t a r t i c u l a t e d i n terms o f C l a s s i c myth as i n MacLennan b u t t h e p r i m a r y q u e s t of an 56 i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h a newly c h a n g i n g and emerging s o c i e t y , t h e q u e s t o f an i n d i v i d u a l comparing t h e U t o p i a s o f p a s t and p r e s e n t . A l o n g t h e r o a d , t h e Garden and l o v e r e m a i n b u t t e c h n o l o g y and change d e s e c r a t e i t : The t r a i n went by. An a c r i d s m e l l o f smoke f i l l e d t h e s t r e e t s , and a c l o u d o f s o o t h o v e r e d between the sky and t h e r o o f s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . As the s o o t f e l l toward t h e ground, t h e c h u r c h s t e e p l e emerged, w i t h o u t a b a s e , l i k e a s p e c t r a l a r r o w i n t h e c l o u d s . The c l o c k appeared n e x t , i t s i l l u m i n a t e d f a c e b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h p u f f s o f steam. L i t t l e by l i t t l e t h e whole c h u r c h s t o o d o u t , a t a l l e d i f i c e i n t h e J e s u i t s t y l e . I n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e garden a S a c r e d H e a r t opened arms w i d e t o r e c e i v e t h e l a s t p a r t i c l e s o f s o o t . . . . Beyond i t s e r r i e d r a n k s o f low houses s t r e t c h e d o u t on e i t h e r s i d e toward t h e s l u m s , a t t h e upper end toward Workman S t r e e t and S t . A n t o i n e S t r e e t , and a t the l o w e r toward the L a c h i n e C a n a l , where t h e p e o p l e o f S a i n t - H e n r i t o i l a t making m a t t r e s s e s , s p i n n i n g t h r e a d , t e n d i n g b o b b i n s and d r i v i n g looms, however the e a r t h may shake and w h i s t l e s b l o w , and s h i p s , p r o p e l l e r s and r a i l s s i n g o f t h e open r o a d . (29) T h i s U t o p i a i s i n the m i d s t o f change. The p r e v a l e n t w i n d metaphor c o n -t i n u a l l y r e - i n f o r c e s t h i s a s p e c t o f change. The q u e s t , b e c a u s e i t c o n c e r n s t h e modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l U t o p i a , a l s o e n t a i l s money. T h e r e f o r e t h e symbol o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e q u e s t , t h e m o u n t a i n , i s b o t h s a c r e d and p r o f a n e . F o r Emmanuel, t h e S a v i o u r , the b e t t e r p a r t o f F l o r e n t i n e , t h e m o u n t a i n r e p r e s e n t s p u r i t y , i t i s a l o o f from t h e s o r d i d n e s s o f t h e w o r l d . F o r Jean and F l o r e n t i n e i t i s a l s o a s t a t u s symbol: 'Have you e v e r been upon t h e m o u n t a i n ? ' he a s k e d . 57 Her smile was a b i t i r o n i c a l , a b i t constrained. What an odd person he was! She could not make him out. Then her thoughts flew back to the restaurant, where she had had a moment of r e a l happiness, and she too stopped to dream, leaning over the parapet. She too looked up at the mountain; her eyes shining through the snow, b l i n k i n g at the f a l l i n g flakes, she too looked up at the mountain, but what she saw was the mirror i n the restaurant and her own face, her own s o f t l i p s , her own f l u f f y h a i r , a l l r e f l e c t e d as i f i n a dark sheet of water. ( 6 7 ) In the Canadian Eden myth, the landscape and the seasons must in t e r a c t with the characters. This Arcadian aspect of t h i s Utopian novel occurs i n Roy's references to spring. In the Wasteland of Montreal, spring i s h a l f - b l i g h t e d ; i t can only p a r t i a l l y regenerate. Rose-Anna who represents, e s s e n t i a l l y , the Utopia of the past, who i s Florentine-Past, i s the best commentator on the spring: The spring was i n a measure her enemy. What had i t meant for her? During a l l her married l i f e two events were always associated with the spring: she was almost always pregnant, and i n that con-d i t i o n she was obliged to look for a new place to l i v e . Every spring they moved. ( 7 5 ) Jean also f e e l s s i m i l a r l y about spring. His thoughts echo section one of E l i o t ' s The Wasteland: Spring was a season of p a l t r y i l l u s i o n s . Soon there would be leaves screening the street l i g h t s ; the people i n the slums would bring t h e i r chairs out on the sidewalk i n front of t h e i r houses; babies would be rocked to sleep on the pavement breathing fresh a i r for the f i r s t time i n t h e i r l i v e s ; c hildren would make chalk marks on the street and play hopscotch; and whole families would assemble i n the yards to t a l k or play cards i n the feeble glimmer of 58 l i g h t f rom t h e windows . . . He l o o k e d a t t h e d a r k mass o f b u i l d i n g s , each o f w h i c h c r a d l e d i t s own s h a r e o f p o v e r t y and romance, and i t seemed t o h i m t h a t t h e h o r r i b l e s p r i n g t i m e o f t h e p o o r had c o m p l e t e d h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h F l o r e n t i n e . (172-173) Jean's q u e s t i s t o pass t h r o u g h t h i s W a s t e l a n d o f p o v e r t y . F l o r e n t i n e , p r e g n a n t , a l s o l o o k s a t s p r i n g as a W a s t e l a n d : I n f r o n t o f t h e tower a t t h e S a i n t - H e n r i s t a t i o n a few f l o w e r s s t u c k t h e i r heads up out o f t h e f a m i s h e d e a r t h . And h i g h up, beyond t h e b e l f r i e s t h a t surmounted t h e l a y e r s o f s o o t , t h e v e r d a n t f l a n k o f the m o u n t a i n s p r e a d o u t , i t s s w a y i n g b r a n c h e s w e a v i n g a l a c y p a t t e r n o f p a l e g r e e n l e a v e s . S p r i n g was a l l about h e r , F l o r e n t i n e r e a l i z e d , perhaps even a l i t t l e p a s t i t s p r i m e h e r e i n S a i n t - H e n r i , w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n o f d u s t and s u l t r y w e ather t o come. (200) F l o r e n t i n e ' s q u e s t i s t o pass t h r o u g h s p r i n g w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o avow any g u i l t and a l s o t o escape t h e p o v e r t y t h a t J e a n a l s o d e t e s t s . But even Rose-Anna, r e p r e s e n t i n g the U t o p i a ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e A r c a d i a ) o f t h e p a s t , seems always t o have a m a t e r i a l i s t i c s t r a i n . H e r "dream" (an a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t ) r e f l e c t s t h i s : S i m p l e , c h i l d i s h i d e a s came t o h e r . She p i c t u r e d some r i c h u n c l e she had n e v e r known, who w o u l d d i e and l e a v e h e r a g r e a t f o r t u n e ; she f a n c i e d h e r s e l f f i n d i n g a p o c k e t b o o k crammed w i t h b i l l s w h i c h she w o u l d n a t u r a l l y r e t u r n t o i t s owner, t h e r e b y e a r n i n g a l a r g e r e w a r d . T h i s o b s e s s i o n became so v i v i d t h a t she began t o s c a n t h e pave-ment w i t h a f e v e r i s h eye. Then she became ashamed o f h e r f a n t a s t i c n o t i o n s i and went to the o p p o s i t e extreme, becoming e x t r e m e l y p r a c t i c a l . (78) 59 The metaphor o f the g o l d e n age becomes, i n Roy's book, m e r e l y t h e image o f t h e s u n s h i n e . Rose-Anna's most f u l f i l l i n g r e t u r n t o t h e p a s t suggest! t h i s : Rose-Anna shook h e r head. The c o r n e r s o f her mouth r o s e i n a m e l a n c h o l y s m i l e . What she had j u s t i m a g i n e d was t h e home she had l i v e d i n as a b r i d e ; t h e c h i l d was F l o r e n t i n e ; t h e s u n l i g h t was o f h e r t w e n t i e t h y e a r . (82) The modern age even t r i e s t o s u p p r e s s t h i s g l o r y o f the e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e sun. Rose-Anna r e a l i z e s t h i s when she c o n s i d e r s D a n i e l ' s r e q u e s t f o r a f l u t e : 'Which i s more i m p o r t a n t ? A f l u t e l i k e a r a y o f s u n s h i n e f o r a s i c k c h i l d , a happy f l u t e t o make sounds o f j o y , o r f o o d on t h e t a b l e ? T e l l me w h i c h i s more i m p o r t a n t , F l o r e n t i n e ? ' (99) D a n i e l ' s d e a t h does n o t o n l y r e s u l t from p o v e r t y and a p a t h y b u t i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l age e n c a r c e r a t i n g i t s i n h a b i t a n t s so t h a t they c a n n o t emerge, as d i d t h e B i b l i c a l D a n i e l from h i s o r d e a l o f f i r e . D a n i e l b e i n g c o m f o r t e d by Jenny r e p r e s e n t s t h e change t h a t modern Quebec w i l l undergo. I t w i l l become more e c o n o m i c a l l y s e c u r e w h i l e l o o s much o f i t s h e r i t a g e . D a n i e l ' s i l l n e s s becomes pronounced a f t e r the f a m i l y ' s r e t u r n from t h e c o u n t r y . Roy seems t o i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s no s a l v a t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y o r i n t h e p a s t ; each must b e a r up as w e l l as t h e y can i n t h e m i d s t o f modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n . F l o r e n t i n e ' s F a l l i s a l s o a r e s u l t o f t h i s t r i p . Y e t a l l members o f the L aCasse f a m i l y seem t o r e a l i z e t h a t 60 the machine looms o v e r t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r d e s t i n y . A z a r i u s who p l a n s t h e " r e t r e a t " t o the c o u n t r y and t h e p a s t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s aware o f " t h e t i m e . " He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he e x i s t s i n a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d . He can compare t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t : 'My w i f e i s a f i r s t - c l a s s d ressmaker. When we were f i r s t m a r r i e d she used t o make a d r e s s f o r two d o l l a r s , and she had a l l t h e work she c o u l d do. Now no one w i l l g i v e h e r even t h a t much. You can buy a d r e s s ready-made f o r a d o l l a r and a h a l f . . . . ' ' R i g h t you a r e , ' s a i d t h e mason. ' I t ' s the same a l l o v e r . We're l o s i n g o u r s k i l l . We're f o r g e t t i n g o u r t r a d e s . E v e r y t h i n g ' s done by machine.. And y e t -. ' (122) A z a r i u s cannot d i s m i s s the p r e s e n t , y e t he hopes t o combine t h e p a s t w i t h the p r e s e n t . He malforms t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ' s emphasis on growth and e x p a n s i o n ; he hopes to r e t u r n t o h i s e x i s t e n c e as an i d y l l i c c a r p e n t e r : H i s w h ole l i f e p a s s e d b e f o r e him, some o f t h e e v e n t s , c l e a r and p r e c i s e , o t h e r s b l u r r e d , h a z y . He saw h i m s e l f f i r s t as a c a r p e n t e r , b u i l d i n g c o t t a g e s i n t h e s u b u r b s . I n t h o s e days Rose-Anna used t o p r e p a r e a l u n c h f o r h i m t o t a k e t o work w i t h him. And a t noon, s i t t i n g on a h i g h j o i s t , h i s l e g s s w i n g i n g i n t h e a i r , he w o u l d open h i s l u n c h box and always f i n d s o m e t h i n g good t o eat,.some p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e . . . . Those meals up i n t h e a i r on a b r i g h t summer day, w i t h t h e sun warm on h i s neck, were an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s l i f e . (126-127) But he b e l o n g s t o the modern age; t i m e and t h e machine r u l e : A c l o c k s t r u c k t h e h o u r . L i k e an a u t o m a t i o n , w i t h s t i f f , clumsy move-ments, A z a r i u s rubbed away a t a l i t t l e b l a c k a p r o n , so worn and t h r e a d b a r e . . t h a t the m a t e r i a l f e l l t o p i e c e s i n h i s hands. (129) 61 Jean, who seems pleased with the rapid changes i n society, also acknowledges the ridiculousness of the oncoming age: This week I worked eighteen hours two days running. A man can't t e l l i f he's s t i l l a l i v e or i f he's been turned into a machine . . . 'Yeah,.it's a fu' ny l i f e ! E ither you don't make a red cent and you have a l l the time i n the world, or else you get double the money and you don't have a moment to spend a penny of i t . ' (146) Roy suggests that Jean's quest has been perverted when she describes the lodging that he leaves as he moves up i n the business world: With i t s gutters leaking water l i k e the scuppers of a ship, i t s peeling paint and the drone of propellers a l l about, the house had the a i r of an old f r e i g h t e r i n drydock. (205) The a l l u s i o n s to ship suggest Odysseus. The ship has become "materialized" into a mere cargo c a r r i e r . Jean's new quest e n t a i l s the v e h i c l e of the monstrous machine. To escape the modern age, the LaCasse family attempt to return to the supposed Arcadic b l i s s of the Laplante family, whose name suggests growth and vegetation. But Rose-Anna's mother i s also s t e r i l e i n her own,way; her i n a b i l i t y to love makes the attempt to regain the past f u t i l e . As i n MacLennan, the quest i s only completed when the characters integrate with the land and with t h e i r society by some affi r m a t i o n of love. Yet the dream of Rose-Anna's childhood and the past i s never-theless an aspect of her present: 62 The joys of her childhood unrolled before her i n an endless f i l m . . . . Everything was bright and i n sharp focus . . . Rose-Anna could hear the cr a c k l i n g of the great f i r e i n the sugar house; she could see the pale yellow sap i n the arch bubbling up, she could taste the syrup, she could smell i t ; the whole fo r e s t came to l i f e i n her mind. ( 1 3 7 - 1 3 8 ) Her departure from the country to the c i t y was a break that neither time nor s i t u a t i o n could repair; and her mother's words f o r t e l l t h i s : When Rose-Anna was married, she had declared; 'You may think y o u ' l l have no cares now that you're going to play the lady i n the b i g c i t y , but mark well what I say: trouble finds us out. Y o u ' l l have plenty. ' ( 1 5 8 ) The LaCasse ch i l d r e n cannot be regenerated by the v i s i t to the country, i t i s not a part of t h e i r consciousness: To the c h i l d r e n , the country was only a crazy-q u i l t , with patches of grayish snow interspersed with plots of bare earth and an occasional t a l l brown tree standing alone, but Rose-Anna and Azarius often gave each other meaningful glances, smiling as t h e i r thoughts took the same course. ( 1 5 3 ) The quest, the dream, ends as a nightmare; Utopia exists i n the present and the future. For attempting to escape, the LaCasse family i s punished: Their t r i p to the country had been pure madness. Whenever they sought happiness i t had always proved the surest way of bringing bad luck. Everything was blurred i n her mind: the accident a few miles from Saint-Denis; t h e i r return l a t e at night to her mother's house; t h e i r a r r i v a l back i n town on Monday evening. From Azarius' c r e s t f a l l e n manner i t had not taken long for her to guess the 63 t r u t h . He had t a k e n t h e t r u c k w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n , and now t h a t h i s b l u f f was c a l l e d , he dreaded b e i n g f i r e d , w h i c h was e x a c t l y what happened t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g . ( 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) As a r e s u l t o f t h e t r i p , F l o r e n t i n e has t o change h e r q u e s t : How c o u l d she have b r o u g h t h e r s e l f to w a l k where he had walked? S u d d e n l y she d e s p i s e d h e r s e l f more f o r h e r maneuvers t o s n a r e h i m t h a n f o r h e r l o s t dream. ( 2 0 7 ) She becomes a v e r s i o n o f F i t z g e r a l d ' s J a y Gatsby: The j a z z pounded i n h e r e a r s and the c i g a r e t t e smoke made h e r not u n p l e a s a n t l y g i d d y . She r e v i e w e d a l l t h e t r i n k e t s she had been y e a r n i n g t o buy, and v i s u a l i z i n g h e r s e l f adorned w i t h them, she d e c i d e d i n f a v o r o f one a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . By a c q u i r i n g a l l t h e o u tward a p p u r t e n a n c e s o f h a p p i n e s s she w o u l d make h a p p i n e s s come t o h e r - n o t a vague s o r t o f h a p p i n e s s , b u t s o m e t h i n g c l e a r - c u t , c o l d , m e t a l l i c , l i k e a s i l v e r c o i n . She becomes a Judas t o h e r q u e s t . F o r Emmanuel, the s a v i o u r i n t h e modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l age, who can o n l y r e l a t e t o the f a l s e i d e o l o g i e s o f U t o p i a , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f a g g r e s s i o n and a g g r a n d i z e m e n t , F l o r e n t i n e r e p r e s e n t s modern r e a l i t y : She was now l i k e a s t r e e t u r c h i n , w i t h c rude t u r n s o f speech and v u l g a r manners. She was b e t t e r t h a n r e f i n e d , she was l i f e i t s e l f , w i t h h e r knowledge o f p o v e r t y and h e r r e v o l t a g a i n s t p o v e r t y , w i t h h e r l o n g f l o w i n g h a i r and h e r d e t e r m i n e d l i t t l e n ose, w i t h h e r odd s a y i n g s , h e r s h a r p comments, and h e r t r u t h f u l n e s s . ( 2 4 8 ) 6 4 Emmanuel's f a m i l y , L e t o u r n e a u , t h e s t a r l i n g s , r e p r e s e n t a y e t as w h o l l y u n i n t e g r a t e d p r e s e n t and f u t u r e w i t h enough o f t h e freedom and goodness o f b o t h . M. L e t o u r n e a u r e p r e s e n t s t h e " b e s t " o f the p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t . He i s a d e a l e r i n r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t s and: O u t s i d e o f b u s i n e s s h o u r s he a s s o c i a t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h p e o p l e o f T r a d i t i o n a l i s t v i e w s , and o c c u p i e d a p o s t o f h o n o r i n s e v e r a l r e l - g i o u s o and p a t r i o t i c s o c i e t i e s . H i s r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e p a s t made hi m r e j e c t a t once a n y t h i n g t h a t seemed t a i n t e d w i t h modern i d e a s o r f o r e i g n e l e m e n t s . And y e t he t o l e r a t e d p a r t i e s a t h i s house and r e c e i v e d young p e o p l e o f whose l a n g u a g e , manners and l e v i t y he d i s a p p r o v e d . There was an element o f c u r i o u s i t y i n t h i s , as w e l l as a c e r t a i n w o r l d l i n e s s . ( 1 0 4 ) Emmanuel must r e c o n c i l e t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e and he f e e l s he can o n l y do t h i s t h r o u g h F l o r e n t i n e : T h i s d e s i r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o u l o f t h e g r e a t mass o f men was l o n g f a m i l i a r t o him, b u t he had n e v e r f e l t i t so i n t e n s e l y as now. I n p r o -j e c t i n g h i m s e l f toward t h e common p e o p l e he seemed to be c o n t i n u i n g h i s s e a r c h f o r F l o r e n t i n e , a s e a r c h t h a t w o u l d l e a d h i m t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r f a r b e t t e r and remove a l l the o b s t a c l e s between them. Somewhere, somehow he must f i n d a v o i c e t h a t spoke t o h i m i n F l o r e n t i n e ' s l a n g u a g e , i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f the p e o p l e . ( 4 9 ) I n t h e modern U t o p i a , p r o g r e s s and m a t e r i a l i s m seem t o c h a n n e l t h e m s e l v e s i n t o power s t r u g g l e s and war w i t h a f l i c k e r i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e need f o r human f u l f i l l m e n t and human l o v e . Emmanuel's q u e s t i s t h e o b v e r s e o f t h a t o f S i s y p h u s , b u t he i s j u s t as d u b i o u s : Overborne by t h e w e i g h t o f h i s t h o u g h t s , Emmanuel r e a c h e d t h e o b s e r v a t o r y on top o f the m o u n t a i n . 65 He l e a n e d o v e r t h e p a r a p e t and saw t h e m y r i a d l i g h t s o f t h e c i t y s p r e a d out below him. He seemed t o be a l o n e i n the u n i v e r s e , on t h e edge o f the a b y s s , h o l d i n g i n h i s hands t h e most ten u o u s , t h e most f r a g i l e t h r e a d o f t h e e t e r n a l human enigma. Which ought t o be s a c r i f i c e d , w e a l t h o r s p i r i t ? Which c o n t a i n e d t h e t r u e power o f r e -demption? And who was he t o be g r a p p l i n g w i t h such a problem? . . . T h i s whole q u e s t i o n o f j u s t i c e and the w o r l d ' s s a l v a t i o n was beyond him; i t was i m p o n d e r a b l e , i t was immense. How c o u l d he e x p e c t t o c l a r i f y i t ? . . . And s u d d e n l y the g i r l ' s image came t o h i m a g a i n , b l o t t i n g e v e r y t h i n g e l s e o u t , and r e p l a c -i n g t h e d o u b t s , t h e i n d e c i s i o n s , t h e v i o l e n t c o n f l i c t s o f the w hole e v e n i n g w i t h a tumultuous d e s i r e f o r l o v e . (264-265) The uneasy modern q u e s t f o r l o v e p e r v a d e s Emmanuel and F l o r e n t i n e ' s " c o u r t -s h i p . " F l o r e n t i n e s t i l l i n l o v e w i t h J e a n and p r e g n a n t by h i m r e t u r n s w i t h Emmanuel, a m i s g u i d e d modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l s a v i o u r t o a b l i g h t e d Garden. The meal w h i c h F l o r e n t i n e s h a r e s w i t h Emmanuel a f t e r he has r e t u r n e d from t r a i n i n g o c c u r s i n t h e m i d s t o f d i s s o l u t i o n ( t h e decay p e r v a d i n g t h e scene) and enigma and i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( t h e a l l u s i o n s t o C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e ) : Under a p r e t e n s e o f an a r b o r t h e r e s t o o d a w e a t h e r - b e a t e n garden t a b l e b e a r i n g a f a d e d b r e w e r y t r a d e mark. As he g l i m p s e d t h i s r u s t i c t o u c h , F l o r e n t i n e had murmured: ' I s n ' t i t j o l l y ? ' And h o p i n g t o p l e a s e h e r , Emmanuel had s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y have d i n n e r t h e r e . B u t she had r e f u s e d t o t a k e a n y t h i n g b u t a h o t dog and a s o f t d r i n k . I n s i d e t h e r e s t a u r a n t C h i n e s e l a n t e r n s hung from t h e c e i l i n g ; t h e b r e e z e f r o m the r i v e r k e p t them i n c o n s t a n t m o t i o n . The t a b l e s were p a i n t e d b r i g h t r e d ; t h e smudged w a l l s were c o v e r e d w i t h crude d e s i g n s o f H i n d u t e m p l e s , Japanese pagodas, t r i r e m e s on a q u i e t c r a y o n s e a . 66 There was a j u k e box i n a c o r n e r , and F l o r e n t i n e k e p t a s k i n g Emmanuel t o p l a y t h e same h o t j a z z tune o v e r and o v e r a g a i n . (266) T h e i r t r i p t o Verdun o n l y c o n f i r m s what can n e v e r be r e g a i n e d . Roy uses t h e f i s h i n g metaphor a g a i n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h e r a l l u s i o n s to E l i o t and the q u e s t t o emphasize what cannot be r e g a i n e d i n F l o r e n t i n e . A z a r i u s t h e F i s h e r K i n g i s beyond r e g e n e r a t i o n and h i s o f f s p r i n g i s l i k e -w i s e : She had j u s t remembered t h a t when she was a l i t t l e g i r l A z a r i u s used t o b r i n g h e r h e r e o f a Sunday when he went f i s h i n g . Sometimes she l o n g e d t o make Emmanuel u n d e r s t a n d what h e r c h i l d h o o d had been l i k e , t o make h i m l o v e h e r f o r what she had been i n the o l d days. (272) There i s no p o s s i b l e r e t u r n t o t h e p a s t ; t h u s t h e modern U t o p i a n Adam and Eve a r e o b v e r s e S i s y p h u s ' ; they r e s t on a b o u l d e r and must l o o k t o t h e f u t u r e : They had chosen t h i s s p o t b e c a u s e a l a r g e b o u l d e r , f l a t on top and l a p p e d a t t h e b a s e by a s m a l l eddy, o f f e r e d a c o m f o r t a b l e r e s t i n g p l a c e . . . . N i g h t was m e r c i f u l ; i t b l u r r e d t h e i r f a c e s and v e i l e d t h e i r f e a t u r e s , f u s i n g t i m e p a s t and p r e s e n t , b r i n g f o r g e t f u l n e s s . (276) As i n MacLennan's n o v e l s , a c h i l d r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o m i s e o f the f u t u r e . Rose-Anna produces a son: There were t o o many memories from w h i c h t o choose, and perhaps even t h e h a p p i e s t o f them a l l was t a r -n i s h e d by some s e c r e t u n h a p p i n e s s . B u t t h e c h i l d r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f u t u r e , he was t h e i r r e f o u n d y o u t h , he was the g r e a t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e i r f o r t i t u d e . (302) 67 But i n the l i g h t she discovers her husband's "new job." There i s no ce r t a i n future. Florentine also looks to the future: She was embarking on the future, without any rapture, to be sure, but without regrets. The calm that enveloped her a f t e r the turmoil of the l a s t few months was welcome to her bruised s p i r i t . (313) The thought of the future opens her to some human affirmation, her " f a l l " w i l l be superceded: It came as a surprise to her to recognize that there was almost no rancor l e f t i n her heart. And gradually she began to think of her c h i l d without resentment. I t seemed to her that i t was no longer Jean's c h i l d , but hers and Emmanuel's. She was not prepared to love i t yet, t h i s c h i l d that would make her s u f f e r , and perhaps she would never love i t . Even now she dreaded i t s coming, but l i t t l e by l i t t l e she would learn to d i s s o c i a t e the c h i l d from her own f a l l , from her own blunder. Emmanuel would take care of them. . . . Besides, she had not been ruined, she had not blundered. A l l that was over. There was no past, nothing but the future to be considered. (313-314) Departing, Emmanuel i s Adam; he sees everything that he hoped to b e l i e v e i n become i n s u f f i c i e n t : His f i n a l p i c t ure of the quarter was of a tree deep i n a courtyard, i t s f o l i a g e drooping with fatigue before i t had come into f u l l l e a f , i t s twisted branches pushing bravely up through a network of e l e c t r i c wires and cl o t h e s l i n e s to-ward the sky. (315) 68 The t r e e o f l i f e r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f b u t i t i s h e a v i l y e n c l o s e d i n t h e p r i s o n o f e l e c t r i c w i r e s , modern t e c h n o l o g y . The T i n F l u t e c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e emphasis on an i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l U t o p i a t h a t s t i l l has t h e f a i n t e s t g l i m m e r i n g of t h e p a s t . Eden becomes t h e p l a s t i c j u n g l e and myth i s o n l y t h e remnant of a m i g r a i n e headache. The S o c i a l C o n t r a c t o r - Where N e s t s  The Water Hen In Where N e s t s The Water Hen G a b r i e l l e Roy p r e s e n t s an a s p e c t of Eden myth and U t o p i a n f i c t i o n r a r e l y d e a l t w i t h by Canadian a u t h o r s . I n t h i s n o v e l she p r e s e n t s U t o p i a n and E d e n i c f i c t i o n i n terms o f a t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n . Roy r e p r e s e n t s t h e q u e s t o r i n t h e personnage o f L u z i n a T o u s i g -9 n a n t . She i s t h e one "who t r a v e l l e d t h e most." Her t a s k i s t o s e c u r e an e d u c a t i o n f o r h e r f a m i l y "deep w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a " (9). L u z i n a seeks t o e r a d i c a t e and o v e r t h r o w y e t r e t a i n t h e s e c l u s i o n i n w h i c h h e r f a m i l y l i v e s . L u z i n a b e l i e v e s i n p r o g r e s s and change b u t she b e l i e v e s t h a t h e r f a m i l y can r e t a i n t h e i r a g r a r i a n ways: The b u f f a l o e s were t h e emblem o f M a n i t o b a : b e a s t w i t h g r e a t heads p l a n t e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e i r humps, w i t h o u t any l e n g t h o f n e c k o r a l l n e c k -l e n g t h , a c c o r d i n g t o the p o i n t o f v i e w , and whose f e e t s t i l l seemed f u r i o u s l y t o pound t h e p r a i r i e s o i l . They had a l m o s t been e x t e r m i n a t e d and now they s y m b o l i z e d t h e p r o v i n c e ' s d a r i n g and b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s . I t had been by W i n n i p e g ' s 69 schools, however, that Luzina had above a l l been overwhelmed. . . . The government which ruled from behind the two buffaloes was among the most advanced i n educational matters. It had decreed compulsory schooling before there were enough schools for a l l the children or roads for them to reach what schools there were. (40) Thus, her dream i s a dream for Canada: No other province i n the world could have such powerful animals for an emblem. Canada i t s e l f had only a beaver. In t h i s dream of Luzina's the buffaloes charged down from everywhere at once against the ignorance of backward lands; (40) Luzina gets her school. As i t s name suggests, i t does not change the environment; i t betters i t and becomes a part of i t : She was won over. La P e t i t e Poule d'Eau was j u s t r i g h t ! How could they, once again, have so long remained b l i n d to the evidence! The L i t t l e Water Hen! Thus would j u s t i c e and truth be re-established. Then too, what name could be be t t e r suited to a school situated i n the very midst of water hen country.. (51) In t h i s novel, again the form suggests a j o u r n a l , Roy postu-lates a progress that i s b e n e f i c i a l , that doesn't tame or destroy the land, that increases i t s p o t e n t i a l i t y without lessening i t s beauty. This i s because of the manner of Luzina's quest and her v i s i o n : In any case, Luzina's v i s i o n was much deeper and broader than usual. She saw progress reach them. Thirteen years ago she had come to this place over a track you could scarcely make out i n the wilder-ness. L i t t l e by l i t t l e the grass had been fla t t e n e d by the passage of v e h i c l e s , and at the end of a few 70 y e a r s y o u had been a b l e t o see a s o r t o f r o a d emerge, f a i r l y w e l l marked. Then t h e y had begun to r e c e i v e t h e m a i l once a week. Come, now! The y e a r when P o r t a g e des p o s t o f f i c e had been opened, t h a t same y e a r the merchant B e s s e t t e had bought h i m s e l f a c a r ! Two y e a r s l a t e r , N i c k S l u z i c k i n h i s t u r n was c a l l i n g a l o n g i n summer i n an a n c i e n t F o r d . And now a s c h o o l m i s t r e s s was on h e r way t o t h e i s l a n d i n t h e L i t t l e Water Hen. Oh, t h e r e was no d o u b t i n g i t a t a l l : c i v i l i z a t i o n , p r o g r e s s were b l o w i n g i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n l i k e t h e t h a w i n g s p r i n g b r e e z e . (62-63) E d u c a t i o n g i v e s the T o u s i g n a n t s a s e n s e o f Canada's h i s t o r y and o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r own f a m i l y : L u z i n a had been g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e F r e n c h c o l o n i s t s had been c a r e f u l l y p i c k e d ; t h a t no l o a f e r o r t h i e f had been a b l e t o s l i p i n amongst them. A l l good p e o p l e . They had e s t a b -l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s i n what was f o r m e r l y c a l l e d Lower Canada and w h i c h was l a t e r t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec. The T o u s i g n a n t s and th e B a s t i e n s were o f t h e i r number. Moreover, venturesome and courageous as L u z i n a f o r t h e moment saw them, some o f t h o s e Lower Canada T o u s i g -n a n t s and B a s t i e n s had e m i g r a t e d t o the West, even as f a r as M a n i t o b a . A l r e a d y t h e y were f a r , v e r y f a r , from t h e p l a c e s o f t h e i r o r i g i n . But w a i t ! s a i d L u z i n a out l o u d . A M a n i t o b a B a s t i e n woman and a M a n i t o b a T o u s i g n a n t man had t u r n e d up who had i n t h e i r b l o o d t h e same t a s t e s as t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , c o u r e u r s de b o i s and c o u r e u r s de p l a i n e . Nowadays you no l o n g e r went West, b u t t h e r e remained t h e N o r t h . No r a i l w a y s , no r o a d s , a l m o s t no d w e l l i n g s ; they had been drawn t o the N o r t h . (74-75) Each t e a c h e r adds t o t h e f a m i l y and t o t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . M a d e m o i s e l l e Cote i n c r e a s e s t h e i r awareness o f Europe and t h e F r e n c h n e s s o f Canada. M i s s O'Rorke s t r e n g t h e n s t h e i r s e n s e o f E m p i r e . B u t t o p a r a p h r a s e Pope, a l i t t l e l e a r n i n g can be dangerous. B a s t a r d i z e d knowledge i n v a d e s i n t h e form o f Armand D u b r e u i l who c o n s i d e r s 71 " t h e w h ole b u s i n e s s a huge j o k e " ( 1 0 0 ) . Armand b r i n g s w o r r y and unease t o t h e f a m i l y and d e s t r u c t i o n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e : Never had the y s h o t f o r t he s a k e o f mere p r a c t i c e . Now the s c h o o l t e a c h e r was a good s h o t , and he s h o u l d have been s a t i s f i e d l o n g s i n c e a t t h e p r o o f he had g i v e n o f t h a t f a c t . He c o n t i n u e d t o k i l l i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y : w a t e r hens whose c o a r s e f l e s h was s c a r c e l y e d i b l e , an u n f o r t u n a t e b i t t e r n , w h i c h had found a s y l u m a few days e a r l i e r i n one o f t h e coves o f L i t t l e Water Hen, a l o n g - s h a n k e d , m e l a n c h o l y , l o n e l y b i r d t h a t had s h a t t e r e d t h e a i r w i t h i t s booming; and fe m a l e d u c k s , a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y . (103) A f t e r h i s many s m a l l t r e a c h e r i e s Armand D u b r e u i l l e a v e s , and h i s d e p a r t u r e makes T o u s i g n a n t wonder about L u z i n a ' s q u e s t and dream: As he moved away, he t u r n e d and f i x e d h i s eyes on t h e s m a l l b u i l d i n g H i p p o l y t e had e r e c t e d f o r t h e f u t u r e and f o r knowledge. What w o u l d be t h e outcome o f a l l t h i s ? A g r e a t d e a l o f s o r r o w , perhaps., f o r Mama T o u s i g n a n t . What, i n d e e d , w o u l d come o f i t ? D i s c o n t e n t f i r s t o f a l l , w h i c h l i e s a t the r o o t o f a l l progress.. And a f t e r w a r d ? (112) D u b r e u i l r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s t y p e o f knowledge i s c o r r u p t i n g t h e Eden and o f f e r s t h i s a d v i c e : 'Would you l i k e my a d v i c e , Mama T o u s i g n a n t ? ' he i n q u i r e d , s t i l l l a u g h i n g b u t a t r i f l e more s e r i o u s t h a n u s u a l . ' C l o s e y o u r s c h o o l . Y o u ' l l n e v e r get a n y t h i n g h e r e e x c e p t o l d b a t t l e - a x e s l i k e y o u r M i s s O'Rorke o r f e l l o w s l i k e me who come because t h e y want t o hu n t . And e v e n t u a l l y you won't even see t h e l i k e s o f us. I n t h e end, summer c l a s s e s a t t r a c t o n l y m i s f i t s , and from what I h e a r t h a t s p e c i e s i s d y i n g o ut i n o u r p r o f e s s i o n . ' (112) 72 The o n l y s o l u t i o n i s to send t h e c h i l d r e n away. The c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y t o n a t u r e , and the f a m i l y t o t h e w a t e r hens who g i v e t h e s c h o o l i t s name, p a r a l l e l s t h e m i g r a t i o n o f t h e T o u s i g n a n t c h i l d r e n : From day t o day t h e b i r d s were f l y i n g h i g h e r . They were p r a c t i c i n g f o r t h e i r l o n g f l i g h t . One o f t h e s e m o r n i n g s , when y o u g o t up, you w o u l d be a s t o u n d e d a t the unwonted s i l e n c e w h i c h r e i g n e d o v e r t h e d e s e r t e d s edges. A t dawn, when no one y e t s u s p e c t e d a n y t h i n g , t h e b i r d s w o u l d have gone, and a t t h e h o u r when t h e i r g o i n g was d i s c o v e r e d , they w o u l d a l r e a d y be f a r away; they w o u l d have c o v e r e d a good s t r e t c h o f the r o a d t o F l o r i d a , where, i t seemed, t h e sun shone b r i g h t the y e a r round and where t h e r e were always f l o w e r s . Even t h e l i f e o f a young b i r d had i t s m y s t e r i e s . They seemed to want t h i n g s t h a t t h e y had n e v e r known. About the t i m e o f y e a r when t h e b i r d s e m i g r a t e d from t h e N o r t h , t h e f i r s t o f t h e T o u s i g n a n t c h i l -d r e n d e p a r t e d . (120) L u z i n a ' s " p r o j e c t " i s p a r t i a l l y abandoned; h e r c h i l d r e n a r e s c a t t e r e d i n o t h e r s c h o o l s b u t t h e b e a u t y o f t h e A r c a d i a n e x i s t e n c e remains w i t h them. I t i s the p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t h a t remains w i t h L u z i n a ' s c h i l d r e n , "And L u z i n a ' s e d u c a t e d c h i l d r e n m o m e n t a r i l y f e l t t h e i r h e a r t s c o n t r a c t , as though t h e i r c h i l d h o o d back t h e r e , on t h e i s l a n d i n t h e L i t t l e Water Hen, had r e p r o a c h e d them f o r t h e i r h i g h e s t a t e " ( 1 4 8 ) . I n C h a p t e r t h r e e , Roy emphasizes t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e o f t h e A r c a d i c and U t o p i a n a s p e c t s o f t h e Eden myth. She d e s c r i b e s M a n i t o b a as an i n -c o m p r e h e n s i b l e c o u n t r y i n i t s p h y s i c a l i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . I n i t s i n c o m p r e -h e n s i b i l i t y i t e p i t o m i z e s a l l o f Canada y e t w i t h i n t h i s e m p t i n e s s i s c o n t a i n e d , s u g g e s t s Roy, a l l the c u l t u r e and knowledge o f Europe: 73 M a n i t o b a ' s l a k e s a r e grouped i n such f a s h i o n as to form an a l m o s t complete b a r r i e r f o r t h e c o u n t r y t h e y e n c l o s e : v e r y l a r g e b o d i e s o f w a t e r l i k e Lake W i n n i p e g and L ake M a n i t o b a ; o t h e r s w h i c h would seem l a r g e i n d e e d when n o t compared to t h e s e two, such as Lake W i n n i p e g o s i s and L a ke Dauphin; and a l m o s t a l l a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r on t h e map's e m p t i n e s s by b l u e n etworks r e p r e s e n t -i n g unknown r i v e r s . B u t o f names o f towns, v i l l a g e s i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s a l o n g t h e i r banks - a l m o s t n o t h i n g . Here i s one o f t h e w o r l d ' s l e a s t p e o p l e d r e g i o n s , a s a d , l o s t l a n d , where n o n e t h e l e s s you e n c o u n t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l m o s t e v e r y r a c e on e a r t h -as many n a t i o n a l i t i e s among t h e s e l a k e s as t h e r e a r e e x i l e s . (151) Roy now r e p r e s e n t s knowledge i n t h e form o f F a t h e r J o s e p h M a r i e . U n l i k e t h e t e a c h e r s and c o m m o d i t i z e d e x p o r t e r s o f knowledge t h a t L u z i n a had had t o b e a r w i t h , he e p i t o m i z e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f " f a c t u a l , " " t e x t u a l " know-l e d g e and an i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e l a n d and an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e f o r t h i s l a n d and i t s p e o p l e . F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e ( h i s name s u g g e s t s t h e oneness o f t h e h o l y f a m i l y ) c o m p l e t e s L u z i n a ' s q u e s t ; h i s q u e s t . e n t a i l s a l l : Upon e v e r y t h i n g , upon the d i r t r o a d he was f o l l o w i n g , upon the l a k e , upon t h e r e l e n t l e s s s k y , upon t h e w i l d r o s e s t h a t s p r e a d a t h i s f e e t , t h e C a p u c h i n f i x e d the l i v e l y , f r i e n d l y , j o v i a l g l a n c e o f h i s p a l e b l u e e y e s . F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e had n o t y e t o b s e r v e d t h a t he above a l l f e l t the s u r g e and j o y o f l o v e o f man and God when, l i k e t h e S a v i o u r H i m s e l f , he t o o k t o t h e r o a d . (154) H i s U t o p i a i s h i s " a c h i e v e m e n t " a t R o r k e t o n . He e s t a b l i s h e s a f u r t r a d i n g co-op, he a r r a n g e s m a r r i a g e s , he a c t s as m i d - w i f e and g e n e r a l d o c t o r . He c r e a t e s one f a m i l y o f man, and a g a i n m e n t i o n i n g h i s name, he h i m s e l f r e p r e s e n t s t h i s f a m i l y . 74 F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e tempers Rousseau's axiom t h a t men a r e i n h e r e n t l y good. He can see t h e i r d u a l a s p e c t , y e t t h r o u g h l o v e , he acknowledges t h a t they can overcome t h e i r f r a i l t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e w o r l d does n o t change: Even i n t h e c o n f e s s i o n a l i t was n o t t h e bad s i d e o f human n a t u r e w h i c h s t r u c k h i m . There he v e r y o f t e n u n d e r s t o o d the good w i l l o f s o u l s . Some-time s the r e v e l a t i o n o f t h i s r e c t i t u d e s t r u c k h i m t o the h e a r t . Then he w o u l d l o o k beyond h i s p e n i t e n t , h i s eyes f i l l e d w i t h m e l a n c h o l y , and what he c o n t e m p l a t e d was t h e i n e x h a u s t i b l e sum o f goodness on e a r t h , t h e t r a g i c , p e r f e c t good w i l l o f so many human b e i n g s , w h i c h a l l t h e same d i d n o t s u c c e e d i n c h a n g i n g t h e w o r l d . (221) He acknowledges t h a t , " t h e w o r l d ' s p a i n remained i n v i o l a t e f o r him, always i n e x p l i c a b l e ; b u t t h e same h e l d t r u e f o r j o y and l o v e " ( 2 2 3 ) . L u z i n a f i n a l l y u j d e r s t a n d s t h a t the t e a c h e r and t h e knowledge t h a t she has been s e e k i n g f o r h e r s e l f and h e r f a m i l y a r e f o u n d i n t h e p r i e s t who p e r s o n i f i e s Knowledge and God: God must be o f t h e v e r y same k i n d as t h e C a p u c h i n , knowing a l m o s t a l l l a n g u a g e s , a g r e a t L a t i n s c h o l a r , a m i ght t r a v e l l e r who had seen e v e r y t h i n g , now aged and d o u b t l e s s t i r e d , y e t , p r e c i s e l y b ecause he was beyond p e t t y t h i n g s , l i t t l e s k i l l e d a t d e a l i n g w i t h them. (228-229) L u z i n a ' s q u e s t f o r knowledge w h i c h i s m e t a p h o r i z e d i n t h e w a t e r hen w h i c h a l s o gave i t s name t o h e r s c h o o l i s s u b l i m a t e d and f u l l y ex-p l i c a t e d by F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e who uses t h e same metaphor: S o u l s , s a i d t he C a p u c h i n , were a l i t t l e l i k e t h e b i r d s . Some were heavy and c o u l d b a r e l y f l y . 75 You have a l l seen p r a i r i e c h i c k e n s ? he a s k e d , and, a t t h e s l i g h t nods o f a s s e n t r e g i s t e r e d e s p e c i a l l y by the women and c h i l d r e n , t h e C a p u c h i n p o i n t out t h a t t h e s e b i r d s d i d n o t go v e r y h i g h , t h a t they j u s t s u c c e e d e d i n l e a v i n g t h e ground. N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e y made t h e i r s m a l l e f f o r t , and thus was i t w i t h many s o u l s ; t h e y t r i e d t o s o a r on h i g h , t h e y t r i e d t o know Heaven, b u t they were h e l d b a c k by t h e i r e a r t h l y c o n c e r n s and t h e i r p a s s i o n s , and they soon tumbled b a c k to e a r t h . You must be more d a r i n g and p e r s e v e r e n t i f you w i s h e d to a t t a i n a c e r t a i n h e i g h t . He t h e n t u r n e d t o the w a t e r hens. Here were b i r d s a l r e a d y much l i g h t e r . Had you s e e n them s o a r up, p e r f e c t l y s k i l l e d i n t h e a i r ? Y e s , L u z i n a ' s c h i l d r e n had o f t e n s e e n t h i s s i g h t , t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y o f the w a t e r hens o v e r the p o o r p r a i r i e c h i c k e n s , and they showed i t by t h e i r s h i n i n g eyes and t h e i r c o m p l ete agreement. And t h e w i l d d u c k s ! c o n t i n u e d t h e p r i e s t . They too had l i g h t w i n g s . So l i k e w i s e the b i t t e r n s , t h e h e r o n s , t h e l o o n s , t h e v a r i o u s waders, a l l o f w h i c h , l a r g e and clumsy when th e y were on l a n d , seemed n o t a b i t heavy when th e y were i n f u l l f l i g h t . . . . S o u l s c r e a t e d by God f o r t h e p u r i t y and t h e l i g h t o f Heaven i n l i k e manner a c h i e v e d t h e i r r e a l element o n l y when, by a g r e a t e f f o r t , they had wrenched t h e m s e l v e s f r e e from t h e s l i m e , t h e mud, t h e "gumbo" o f human p a s s i o n s . (235) A f t e r h i s sermon, F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e o r g a n i z e s a dance - h i s knowledge u t i l i z e s b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l . Roy c o n c l u d e s the book w i t h an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e . U t o p i a and A r c a d i a have e x i s t e d and s t i l l e x i s t ; t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s e x i s t e n c e i s a l l i m p o r t a n t . F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e r e p r e s e n t s Adam and Eve i n C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i c a l terms. He i s a God f i g u r e and even an O l d Testament Adam f i g u r e whose O l d Testament Eve i s L u z i n a . F o r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e n o v e l , L u z i n a i s Eve who i s c r e a t i n g a p l a u s i b l e semi-modern U t o p i a . Roy c o n c l u d e s t h e book i n a f f i r m a t i o n , a l l i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e : 76 Above h i s o l d head shone b i l l i o n s o f b r i g h t s t a r s ; i n t h e g r a s s f i r e f l i e s e m i t t e d t h e i r b r i e f s p a r k s o f l i g h t . Upon t h e t i p s o f t h e h i g h - s t a n d i n g g r a s s e s , when they b e n t i n t h e l a n t e r n glow, g r e a t f l o w e r s t o o k shape, o n l y t o m e l t away a moment l a t e r . To h i m a l s o t h e o l d c i v i l i z a t i o n seemed f a r -away, l o v a b l e , g r a c i o u s . The f u r t h e r he had gone i n t o the N o r t h , t h e more he had been f r e e t o l o v e . ( 2 5 0 - 2 5 1 ) L i k e MacLennan, and as i n h e r e a r l i e r work The T i n F l u t e , G a b r i e l l e Roy d e f i n e s Eden myth i n terms o f t h e q u e s t w i t h i n t he m y t h i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e j o u r n a l as man a f f i r m s h i m s e l f w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . Roy a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e U t o p i a n a s p e c t s o f t h i s myth, b u t l i k e MacLennan, man must, i n the end, a f f i r m h i s a b i l i t y t o hope and p e r h a p s even t o l o v e . G a l v a n i c gandy da n c e r - Adam g r a m b l i n g - The C a s h i e r The C a s h i e r i s a g a i n t h e s t o r y o f a q u e s t ; t h e fo r m i s a g a i n t h a t o f a j o u r n a l o f an o m n i s c i e n t r e p o r t e r . A l e x a n d r e ' s q u e s t i s n o t m e r e l y as W. C. Lougheed seems to f e e l , " t h e q u e s t o f the r a t i o n a l e o f s u f f e r i n g , t he u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a i n and e v i l " ^ r a t h e r i t i s t h e q u e s t o f a Modern Gandhi s l o w l y d e s t r o y e d by t h e s u r r o u n d i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l U t o p i a , who has a few g l i m p s e s o f t h e p a s t , t h e "g r e e n w o r l d " b e f o r e s u b s i d i n g under t h e i n f e c t i o n o f h i s t i m e s . E a r l y i n the s t o r y , Roy p r e s e n t s the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f h e r U t o p i a n n o v e l : 77 Gandhi had j u s t s t a r t e d a new hunger s t r i k e . Alexandre Chenevert had a l i k i n g for him ever since the day when, glancing at a photograph, of him, he had discovered what he considered a c e r t a i n resemblance to himself; l i k e the Indian Mahatma, he was t h i n , almost s k e l e t a l , and, Alexandre thought i n h i s heart of hearts, perhaps good.into the bargain. The stevedores were on s t r i k e too; food intended for starving peoples was r o t t i n g on the wharves. . . . What was more, a i r t r a v e l was far from a safe business. Again yesterday a plane had crashed somewhere i n Newfoundland. THIRTY-EIGHT DEAD. The poor old world hadn't stopped spinning for a t r i f l e l i k e that. Alexandre envisioned the globe as you see i t at the movies, at the be-ginning of a newsreel. . . . a faceless man t a l k i n g into a microphone. He announced: the world has become one and i n d i v i s i b l e . ' I n d i v i s -i b l e , i n d i v i s i b l e . . .' Alexandre began re-peating. He chanted the word, broke i t into parts, counted i t s s y l l a b l e s . Five s y l l a b l e s . (17) Alexandre i s not the modern Adam that MacLennan's George Stewart i s ; he i s more l i k e Daniel A i n s l i e , a modern Sisyphus with some of the d i v i n i t y and meekness of Gandhi. Alexandre approaches his age with a fear greater than George Stewart's: What business had he to l i v e i n such an age? Like many imaginative men, Alexandre f e l t that he was not made for the century i n which he l i v e d , t h i s epoch of appalling tedium a l l too l i t t l e r e l i e v e d by gadgets, by n i c k e l , aluminum, p l a s t i c , c e l l u l o i d , Bakelite, nylon, zylon . . . . Alexandre sensed h i s utter i n f e r i o r i t y as a man, with a l l h i s l i t t l e stomach troubles, h i s endless colds, h i s confused problems. . . . What more did Alexandre ask of l i f e than his r e f r i g e r a t o r -the l a s t payment f i n a l l y met - what more than a sure meal t i c k e t and a new s u i t every two years? Then, j u s t as he asked himself the question, he r e a l i z e d that he was far from being alone i n the world. Almost everyone on earth, had Alex-andre been able to question them that night, would have r e p l i e d : Peace, i t ' s peace we long f o r . (20-21) 78 The p r e s e n t cages and s t i f l e s h i m as i t does t h e L aCasse f a m i l y a n d , i r o n i c a l l y , even though he works i n a bank he has none o f t h e m a t e r i a l -i s t i c m o t i v a t i o n t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y s a v e them. A l e x a n d r e ' s q u e s t i s p e r s o n i f i e d by the book The Keys o f t h e Kingdom ( 5 0 ) . H i s q u e s t i s f o r peace and a s i m p l e r l i f e , a r e u n i o n w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e n e s s o f t h e l a n d : He i m a g i n e d a deep f o r e s t . He moved a l o n g , c l e a r i n g h i m s e l f a p a t h , i n p e r f e c t s i l e n c e . He found an abandoned c a b i n . He l e t h i m s e l f f a l l upon a bed o f s a c k i n g . Here were no news p a p e r s , no r a d i o , no a l a r m c l o c k . A l e x a n d r e was becoming l e s s t e n s e ; h i s hands began t o u n c l e n c h ; h i s mouth l o s t some o f i t s g r i m n e s s . The t r e e s o f t h e f o r e s t s t i r r e d i n t h e w i n d . As A l e x a n d r e i m a g i n e d them, t h e s e t r e e s were f u l l o f k i n d l y welcome, t e n d e r , g r e e n and h i s u n c o n s c i o u s n o s t a l g i a i m p a r t e d t o them a g e n t l e n o t i o n w h i c h charmed him. I t was l i k e a s o f t p a t t e r o f r a i n d r o p s a l l around A l e x a n d r e . A f e e l i n g o f r e s t f u l n e s s overwhelmed h i s s o u l as i t f o u n d ease i n t h e absence of a l l b u t vege-t a b l e l i f e . B u t he had no u m b r e l l a . He had l o s t h i s u m b r e l l a . What w o u l d he do w i t h o u t an u m b r e l l a ? (24) Y e t the c i t y and t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f t h e machine has i n c a p a c i t a t e d h i m so t h a t he i s p h y s i c a l l y cowed by t h e s e m i - w i l d e r n e s s . A l e x a n d r e p r a y s f o r peace b u t he must g i v e o b e d i e n c e t o the " p r a y e r " o f h i s bank: L e t us g i v e our work t h e f u l l power o f o u r arms. L e t us bend our w i l l s t o f o l l o w t h e p a t h r e l i g i o n p o i n t s out t o us. L e t us spend our s t r e n g t h i n t h e s p i r i t o f S a c r i f i c e and T h r i f t , P r o s p e r i t y and H a p p i n e s s w i l l reward our e f f o r t s . (32) 79 The omniscient narrator comments: Such was the outstanding glory of the Savings Bank of the City and Island of Montreal, c e r t a i n l y one of the few banks i n the world to extol and, i f you w i l l , place on the same honourable footing, Re l i g i o n and Prosperity. ( 3 2 ) Yet Alexandre has h i s s a l v a t i o n within himself; he i s aware that he and mankind need love: Not to have loved enough when i t was time for love - that was Alexandre's great sorrow. Indeed h i s fi f t y - t w o years of l i f e had taught him only t h i s - which was no great consolation -that you never had enough love for the l i v i n g . ( 3 4 ) Eugenie, the modern Eve, the p h y s i c a l l y domineering technological woman, affirms joy and peace only on a region of i l l n e s s , the h o s p i t a l : By now she only half-wished to be back on her feet. Here she had been coddled and surrounded; she had rediscovered something of the climate of childhood: no r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , no one to upbraid her, i n t e l l i g e n t concern, the f e e l i n g of being i n good hands. . . . Outside t h i s room l i f e seemed grey to her, too d i f f i c u l t , too r e a l . ( 8 4 ) Alexandre's quest, however, contains both aspects of Arcadia and Utopia. Early i n h i s l i f e he wanted I d y l l i c b l i s s , but not that of the crude wilderness: His f i r s t job had been as a copy c l e r k i n the Snowdon Branch. . . . A l i t t l e l a t e r he had been made c o l l e c t i o n c l e r k i n an East End branch; once again he had moved. But the East End of the c i t y reeked of gasoline, and he began to wish he were back i n Snowdon: back there at l e a s t there had been 80 open spaces, trees, country a i r . There must have been a touch of madness i n him, because he became fond of the East End too, but he had been near enough to the r i v e r to be able to watch the trans-a t l a n t i c l i n e r s g l i d e by and dream of journeying to the Indies, to Martinique, or perhaps the Shetlands, a f t e r he had read somewhere that they were the saddest i s l e s i n a l l the world. ( 3 6 - 3 7 ) Section one of the novel ends with Alexandre about to attempt to f u l f i l l h i s quest: A l l t his had served, maybe, as preparation for Alexandre's perfect joy when his eyes l i t upon the following l i n e s : Small trapper's cabin. Inexpensive. At Lac des I s l e s . Address your i n q u i r i e s to Etienne Le Gardeur, at h i s farm four miles from Saint-Donat. We can c e r t a i n l y get to-gether. Everything about t h i s suited Alexandre. His eye had f i r s t been caught by the word trapper. And then he l i k e d the sound of the family's name: Le Gardeur, a name which i n s p i r e d confidence and friendship, while at the same time conveying a notion of protective guardian-ship. And then there was everything implied by that 'We can c e r t a i n l y get together,' a formula you would hardly expect i n the modern world, a sentence which i n i t s e l f seemed almost w i l d l y f a n c i f u l , delusive; yet there i t was, a l l s p e l l e d out. (110) I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s Alexandre's f i r s t separation from Eugenie since t h e i r marriage yet he takes the luggage he bought at the time of h i s marriage on the journey. He thus t r i e s to marry himself to the wilder-ness. He becomes the p r i m i t i v e Adam, by returning and remaining for a while, alone i n the wilderness. In Book two, Roy delineates Alexandre's re-entry into Eden. 81 T h i s Eden i s n o t the f a n t a s t i c A r c a d i a o f f o r e i g n c l i m e s b u t t h e s i m p l e v e r d a n t f o r e s t l a n d . A l e x a n d r e ' s d e p a r t u r e from t h i s " r e t r e a t " i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s f i n a l d e s t r u c t i o n by h i s s o c i e t y . She d e s c r i b e s w i t h Pathos and humour how i n e p t l y A l e x a n d r e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f i n h i s " s u r r o u n -d i n g s " : Here he was - he who had th o u g h t the home o f s o l i t u d e t o be i n some faraway P a c i f i c I s l e -headed i n t o a f o r e s t o f h i s own c o u n t r y , l e s s t h a n a day's j o u r n e y d i s t a n t , w i t h t h e f e e l i n g o f an a d v e n t u r e beyond r e c a l l . The brambles t o r e t h r e a d s o u t o f h i s brown s u i t , w h i c h he r e p r o a c h e d h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g s u b j e c t e d t o t h e o r d e a l s o f such an e x p e d i t i o n . F o r i n d e e d M o n s i e u r C h e n e v e r t had s e t o f f i n h i s b e s t c l o t h e s ; as he s t r u g g l e d t h r o u g h b r i a r y swamps and c l o u d s o f m o s q u i t o e s , he s t i l l l o o k e d as though he were on h i s way t o h i s bank. And y e t , a f t e r s u c h an escapade, how e v e r c o u l d he go b a c k t h e r e , even f i n d h i s way back? H i s v e r y r e a s o n s f o r s u f f e r i n g had been, as i t were, s t r i p p e d from h i m a l o n g the way, had becoming t r i f l i n g , meaning-l e s s . (116) The q u e s t has an end b u t A l e x a n d r e must make h i s own r o a d t o i t : They came t o a c a b i n b u i l t o f rough p l a n k i n g . On one s i d e . a s u c c e s s i o n o f p e a c e f u l l y c o n t o u r e d l i t t l e h i l l s , on t h e o t h e r a v a s t a r e a c o v e r e d w i t h s p r u c e . The v a l l e y thus d e f i n e d opened upon a s m a l l l a k e , and no o t h e r d w e l l i n g l o o k e d upon i t , no t r a v e l l e d r o a d l e d t o i t . (116) U n l i k e t h e LaCasse f a m i l y who e x p e c t t r a n s f i x i o n , A l e x a n d r e o n l y wants peace, y e t as a modern man he i s a C h a p l i n e s q u e Adam: The peace o f the v a l l e y smote h i m l i k e a r e p r o a c h . Vain was y o u r r e s t l e s s n e s s , w i t h o u t p u r p o s e y o u r 82 a n g u i s h , w i t h o u t m e r i t y o u r s u f f e r i n g , a l l o f i t u s e l e s s and s i l e n c e t o t h i s s p e n t man. And b e s i d e s , have you r e a l l y s u f f e r e d ? n a t u r e a s k e d him; u n a b l e i n t h i s p l a c e t o a s s e r t t h a t he had, A l e x a n d r e bowed h i s head; he f e l t t h a t i n a l l t h e w o r l d t h e r e was no man more naked. 'How q u i e t i t i s ! ' he remarked i n a s o r t o f w a i l . (116-117) The c o u n t r y g i v e s him some s t r e n g t h b u t modern man has been c o n d i t i o n e d t o a New Garden o f s i l v e r m a c h i n e r y and g o l d . Modern man has been mutated beyond any semblance o f t h e o r i g i n a l Garden. I f he emulates G a n d h i , Roy seems t o s a y , as does A l e x a n d r e , he w i l l f i n d i r o n i c f u l f i l l m e n t : No sound. Not a v o i c e . Only a g r e a t s i l e n t r e p r o a c h . He s t o o d on t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e c a b i n , a t i n y s i l e n t r e p r o a c h . He s t o o d on t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e c a b i n , a t i n y man, h i s h a t p e r c h e d on t h e s i d e o f h i s head. I n h i s hand he s t i l l h e l d one o f h i s g l o v e s . And i n a l l h i s l i f e n o t h i n g had e v e r made him f e e l so a l o n e as t h i s l a n d s c a p e so d e e p l y a t peace and f o r e i g n , i n i t s way, t o h i s c a r e s as a human b e i n g . (119) F o r A l e x a n d r e , t h i s c o u n t r y and i t s s o l i t u d e and a l i e n a t i o n i s no d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t of t h e c i t y : Even a b s o r b e d w i t h i n h e r , A l e x a n d r e c o u l d n o t s u c c e e d i n s e e i n g what she was. A good? An e v i l ? He s l e p t even l e s s t h a n i n t h e c i t y . (120) F o r modern man, t h e p r o s p e c t o f comprehending o r f e e l i n g God i s f r i g h t e n i n g : S o l i t u d e seemed t o be absence; absence o f e v e r y t h i n g - o f men, o f t h e p a s t , o f the f u t u r e , o f u n h a p p i n e s s and o f h a p p i n e s s - an u t t e r 83 s t r i p p i n g . Yet, at the centre of t h i s absence, there was something l i k e a glance which over-looked no thought, no action of Alexandre Chene-ver t ' s . Was i t God who i n th i s deep night, f ar i n the dark bush, had again sought out Alexandre. What could be the reason for such unswerving attention? What could God want with Alexandre who was on holiday? On whom the doctor had urged r e s t . Here God reigned i n His most am-biguous aspect. Those dark s t i r r i n g s , those clouds, t h i s exhausted creature i n t h i s unfamiliar place - a l l tonight seemed to dread Him. Close as he was to h i s happiness, Alexandre was very near to forswearing i t , to se t t i n g out at once on foot toward Le Gardeurs' and asking them for hos-p i t a l i t y and succour. Yet what man can protect another against God. (121) He f e e l s uncomfortable with h i s dream of the land and s l i g h t l y more com-fo r t a b l e with h i s actual everyday dream: Alexandre Chenevert dreamed. He was at the Savings Bank of the City and Island of Montreal. His gooseneck lamp was l i t , the great ledger was spread before h i s eyes, and he was doing sums. (122) He seeks and finds f u l f i l l m e n t f i n a l l y i n o b l i t e r a t i o n . Modern man's only deliverance seems to be that of temporary states of complete f o r g e t f u l l n e s s and a n n i h i l a t i o n of t o t a l consciousness of a past, present and a future: No longer was Alexandre answerable f or o r i g i n a l s i n , nor ye t - f o r those weapons of our day so dangerous that men journey to test them on desert islands. (123) Alexandre's p a r t i a l peace i s p a r a l l e l e d by the t r a n q u i l i t y of 'Lac Vert': 84 T h i s commonplace name was n o t d i s p l e a s i n g t o A l e x a n d r e . I t was easy b u t n o t a t a l l vague. The Lake was i n f a c t g r e e n . W h o l l y g r e e n . The deep g r e e n o f the s u r r o u n d i n g f o r e s t . (136) Because o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n a n i m a l s , by h i s o p e n i n g up o f h i m s e l f and h i s b r i e f s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Edmondine,. t h e o n l y Eve he can f i n d i n h i s s e c l u s i o n , A l e x a n d r e b r i e f l y and f r a i l l y a c h i e v e s h i s q u e s t : I t was as though he (God) had f o r g i v e n A l e x a n d r e a l l t he sins committed s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r i e s . B e t t e r s t i l l : A l e x a n d r e knew deep w i t h i n him t h a t t h i s e v e n i n g he, o f h i s own a c c o r d , on be-h a l f o f happy Edmondine, on b e h a l f o f one s i n g l e happy b e i n g , c o u l d a t l a s t f o r g i v e God f o r the s u f f e r i n g so f r e e l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r the f o u r c o r -n e r s o f the w o r l d . (143) But the h a p p i n e s s a f f o r d e d by t h e Garden i s b r i e f , A l e x a n d r e , as modern man "doubted whether he hungered f o r h a p p i n e s s " ( 1 4 8 ) . He i s i n f e c t e d by t h e m e a n i n g l e s s swarm and tempo o f modern s o c i e t y : Y e t soon he wandered amid t h e t r e s s no l o n g e r n o t i c i n g them, grown weary o f them: e v e r l a s t i n g l y smooth t r u n k s and s p e e c h l e s s boughs. Was t h i s o p p r e s s i v e monotony, t h e n , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark of peace? . . . I n p l a c e o f dusky b a n k s , he p e r c e i v e d t h e swarm o f l i g h t s by w h i c h c i t i e s r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s i n the f u l n e s s o f t h e n i g h t . Homesickness f o r t h e crowded l i v e s t h e r e , f o r t h e i n t e r m e s h e d l i v e s , s t a r t l e d h im more c o m p e l l i n g t h a n any l o n g i n g he had e v e r f e l t i n a l l h i s days. L i k e a l o n g i n g f o r e t e r n i t y . (149) H i s t h o u g h t s and memories o f h i s h o l i d a y he p u t s i n l e t t e r s t o h i s f r i e n d s b u t the l e t t e r t o h i s w i f e Eugenie he w i l l n e v e r d e l i v e r . 85 He v o l u n t a r i l y and w i l l i n g l y l e a v e s L a c V e r t two days e a r l y . R e t u r n i n g home t h e i r o n y o c c u r s t o him t h a t : A man's l i f e seemed t o c o n s i s t i n l e a v i n g t h e c o u n t r y i n o r d e r t o make enough money i n t h e c i t y t o be a b l e t o r e t u r n t o t h e c o u n t r y t o r e c o v e r the h e a l t h he had l o s t i n t h e c i t y . (151) E u g e n i e , h i s u r b a n Eve, o f f e r s A l e x a n d r e no warm welcome, i n s t e a d , she a c c e n t u a t e s h i s i n s u f f i c i e n c y and h i s meagerness: ' I t d o e s n ' t appear t h a t y o u r h o l i d a y has done you much good. Poor o l d chap! And the c r a z y n o t i o n o f g o i n g a l l by y o u r s e l f i n t o the woods!' (158) A l e x a n d r e r e t u r n s to t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l U t o p i a where p r o g r e s s , i s , i r o n i c a l l y , i n c r e a s i n g l y d e s t r o y i n g him. A l e x a n d r e succumbs t o a p r o s t r a t e o p e r a t i o n (Roy's i n s i n u a t i o n i s t h a t he i s p r o s t r a t e d by l i f e ) t h a t r e v e a l s t h a t he i s i n f i l t r a t e d w i t h c a n c e r . I n h i s s u f f e r i n g A l e x a n d r e r e t a i n s t h e n o b i l i t y s u g g e s t e d by h i s name: He r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t o f a s k i n g h i m s e l f w h e t h e r God, a f t e r a l l , knew human s u f f e r i n g . . . Of c o u r s e God new men's s u f f e r i n g i n p a r t . But d i d he know what i t was t o s u f f e r w i t h o u t n o b l e n e s s ? To s u f f e r s t u p i d l y , meanly. He s u f f e r e d i n a g o d l i k e way, w h i c h was a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g . (168) I t i s d u r i n g t h e C h r i s t m a s s e a s o n t h a t A l e x a n d r e l e a r n s o f h i s impending d e a t h . R e a l i z i n g t h i s he s t i l l a s c e r t a i n s t h a t an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , t h e Eden he had a l l t oo b r i e f a g l i m p s e o f was b e t t e r t h a n any dogmatic Heaven: 8 6 A l e x a n d r e f o u n d Heaven s a d . . . a f t e r e a r t h . What! No more f l o w e r s , no more b i r d s w i t h c r i e s as g e n t l e as t h e r a i n , no t r e e s ! He began t o r u m i n a t e : how many k i n d s o f t r e e s m i ght t h e r e be? L a r c h e s , p i n e s , b i r c h e s - perhaps t h e p r e t t i e s t o f t h e t r e e s - t h e n oaks and maples t h a t changed c o l o u r i n autumn; and one mustn't f o r g e t t h e w i l l o w s , a l d e r s , p o p l a r s . . . a l l t h o s e o t h e r t r e e s w h i c h so l o v e d m o i s t p l a c e s . Then he t h o u g h t o f l a k e s , o f ponds, o f t i n y s t r e a m l e t s o f c o o l w a t e r i n -v i s i b l e i n t h e t h i c k g r a s s . How v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e was man amid t h e b i r d s , t h e fawns, the f o r e s t s , t h e r i v e r s ! And why had God c r e a t e d t h e e a r t h so l o v e l y , o n l y t o remove man from i t s l o v e l i n e s s ! ( 1 9 8 ) As he n e a r s d e a t h he v o i c e s h i s w i s h t o r e t u r n w i t h E u g e n i e and r e - e s t a b l i s h h i s c o l o n y , h i s A r c a d y : ' I f . . . I r e c o v e r . ... w o u l d y o u . . . come l i v e w i t h me a t L a c V e r t ? ' . . . She w o u l d g a t h e r t h e f r u i t . . . he w o u l d t a k e c a r e of t h e g arden . . . they would buy a g o a t . . . a few hens . . . ( 2 0 8 ) B u t A l e x a n d r e ' s v i s i o n , h i s q u e s t i s r e a l i z e d o n l y t h r o u g h h e r o i n : ' H e r o i n a c t s on t h e o p t i c n e r v e . . I t augments v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . I t g i v e s t h e i l l u s i o n o f a m p l i f i e d c o l o u r s , more i n t e n s e t h a n i n r e a l i t y . ' 'But e v e r y t h i n g i s so g r e e n , ' s a i d A l e x a n d r e . I t was h a r d f o r h i m t o b e l i e v e t h a t one i n j e c -t i o n c o u l d have succeeded i n making grow b e f o r e h i s eyes a n a t u r e so f r e s h , l u x u r i a n t , and w o n d r o u s l y b e a u t i f u l . H i s d e d u c t i o n t h e r e f o r e was t h a t i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a t L a c V e r t , he must a t l a s t have s e t f o o t upon h i s P a c i f i c i s l a n d . ( 2 0 9 ) I t i s o n l y i n the h o s p i t a l t h a t A l e x a n d r e f i n d s , i r o n i c a l l y , a t r u e f r i e n d , Oswald P i c h e t t e . P i c h e t t e i s a l s o a q u e s t o r whose d e s i r e f o r e x p e r i e n c e 87 has l e d h im to c r o s s and r e c r o s s Canada. Oswald knows A l e x a n d r e ' s Eden as wou ld an i t i n e r a n t t r a v e l l e r . MacLennan ' s s t udy o f the Eden myth c u l m i n a t e s i n each o f h i s b o o k s , a f t e r a n e g a t i o n o f dogma, to an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l o v e . Roy i n The C a s h i e r can a f f i r m t e n d e r n e s s : D u r i n g the l a s t moments so g r e a t a g e n t l e n e s s had touched h i s f a c e t h a t t ho se who saw i t might have p e r s u a d e d t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h t h i s d y i n g man, t h a t t he o n l y a s s u r a n c e on e a r t h comes f rom t h a t t e n d e r n e s s f o r human b e i n g s wh i ch goes f u r t h e s t beyond the bounds o f r e a s o n . (216) Roy see s Eden i n terms o f a Modern U t o p i a j u x t a p o s e d w i t h an A r c a d i a , myth i s m e r e l y a b a s i c a s p e c t o f the q u e s t o f j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e . The  C a s h i e r i n form and c o n t e n t i s the j o u r n a l o f A l e x a n d r e C h e n e v e r t , a t e c h n o l o g i c a l Gandh i caught and d e s t r o y e d by p r o g r e s s . J a r g o n e l l e o f Dunrea and The M i n i s t r y o f C o l o n i z a t i o n - S t r e e t o f R i c h e s In S t r e e t o f R i c h e s , G a b r i e l l e Roy r e c o r d s t he growth o f t he a r t i s t wh i ch she d e s c r i b e s most f u l l y i n The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n . A g a i n t h e j o u r n a l f o rm r e p r e s e n t s t he m y t h i c a s p e c t s o f the Eden myth m e r e l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t . As i n Where Nes t s The Water  Hen the q u e s t o r i s a woman, t h e mother , and h e r c h i l d the awakening a r t i s t . A r e a l i z a t i o n , and knowledge o f the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f the l a n d , i t s geography concu r s w i t h C h r i s t i n e ' s awareness o f h e r g rowing c a p a b i l i t i e s : 88 I found Canada immense, and i t seemed to me we had o n l y c r o s s e d about a t h i r d o f i t . Mama l i k e w i s e seemed p r o u d t h a t Canada s h o u l d be so l a r g e a c o u n t r y . She c o n f i d e d t o me t h a t when you came down to i t , and had c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r -m i t t e d , she c o u l d have s p e n t h e r l i f e l o o k i n g a t p e o p l e and c i t i e s ; t h a t she w o u l d have ended up a t r u e nomad, and t h a t w o u l d have been h e r r e a l m i s f o r t u n e . And I became aware how much t r a v e l made my mother seem you n g e r ; h e r eyes f i l l e d w i t h s p a r k s t h a t glowed a t the s i g h t o f a l m o s t e v e r y -t h i n g we s a w . ^ C h r i s t i n e ' s f a t h e r , an agent f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f C o l o n i z a t i o n , becomes and O l d Testament God c r e a t i n g an Eden out o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t : Agnes t o l d us t h a t Papa had d e s c r i b e d h i s Dunrea s e t t l e m e n t as a s o r t o f p a r a d i s e , . a n d t h a t was p r e c i s e l y t h e word he u s e d - a p a r a d i s e . He had t o t r a v e r s e t e n m i l e s o f s c r u b , o f swamp, o f . b a d l a n d s , c o n s t a n t l y swept by t h e w i n d t o r e a c h Dunrea. And s u d d e n l y t h e r e came i n t o v i e w w e l l - s h a p e d t r e e s - a s p e n s , p o p l a r s , w i l l o w s - grouped i n such a way t h a t they seemed to c o n s t i t u t e an o a s i s i n t h e b a r e n e s s o f t h e p l a i n . . . . C o u l d i t i n d e e d have been Papa -so c l o s e - m o u t h e d and s a d - who had f u r n i s h e d Agnes w i t h a l l t h e s e d e t a i l s ? And why h e r ? No one b u t h e r ? 'Is i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Papa so d e e p l y l o v e d t h i s L o s t R i v e r ? ' s a i d Agnes. ' J u s t t h i n k : he h i m s e l f had c r e a t e d i t , i n a s ens e.' (74) The R u t h e n i a n s become, i n a s e n s e , an E d e n i c p e o p l e , s e a l e d o f f f r o m m i s f o r t u n e o r c a l a m i t y , s p a r e d as even t h e J e w i s h r a c e was n o t s p a r e d : And Papa h i m s e l f began t o wonder why God seemed t o l o v e t h e L i t t l e R u t h e n i a n s b e t t e r than t h e o t h e r s . He was c a r e f u l n o t t o c o n f u s e t h e i r s i m p l e , n a i v e minds; he d i d n o t too s e v e r e l y t r y t h e i r good w i l l . And f r o m t h e n on Papa f e l t a k i n d o f a n x i e t y . He blamed h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g c e r t a i n l y been too p r o u d o f Dunrea. (78) 89 But t h e i n n o c e n c e and i n c a l c a t e d p u r i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e does n o t r e m a i n ; f i r e d e s t r o y s t h e s e t t l e m e n t . C h r i s t i n e ' s f a t h e r must descend i n t o t h e w e l l , a symbol o f knowledge t o r e a l i z e t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s dream s e t t l e m e n t : T h i s was what gave h i m t h e d e e p e s t a n g u i s h when he t h o u g h t b a c k a f t e r w a r d : t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e d epth o f t h e w e l l , had become so d i s m a l , so smothered, so e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s i l e n t . . . A t t h e b o t t o m o f the w e l l he b a r e l y c o u l d s u c c e e d i n remembering l i f e , h a v i n g been a l i v e . And how c o u l d he have t h e l e a s t t a s t e f o r any r e t u r n from so deep an i n d i f f e r e n c e . Papa, b e l i e v i n g h i m -s e l f dead, was a t r i f l e a s t o n i s h e d t h a t d e a t h s h o u l d be so gloomy, g l a c i a l , empty . . . and so r e p o s i n g . . . t h a t i n death t h e r e s h o u l d no l o n g e r be any a f f e c t i o n p o s s i b l e . W i t h i n h i m t h e r e was a d e s e r t , j u s t as above h i s head - i n Dunrea -t h e r e was a l s o a d e s e r t . (84-85) The Eden becomes a W a s t e l a n d and i t s Adam becomes b l i g h t e d ; knowledge h i s " d e s c e n t " ( f a l l ) i n t o t h e w e l l l e a v e s h i m morose. He i s morose n o t f r o m any dogma, P u r i t a n o r o t h e r w i s e , b u t o n l y f r o m t h e knowledge o f man's f r a i l t y and f a l l i b i l i t y : S t i l l , h e r e remained t h i s most c u r i o u s t h i n g : Papa, become, as i t were, a s t r a n g e r t o j o y , so f a r removed from i t t h a t he was a l m o s t u n a b l e t o r e c o g -n i z e i t i n a human countenance, was n e v e r t h e l e s s , s e n s i t i v e t o s u f f e r i n g . (86) Roy d e s c r i b e s the q u e s t and the knowledge o f the l a n d m e r e l y as a s e a r c h f o r p h y s i c a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e e p i s o d e o f Aunt T h e r e s i n a ; who j o u r n e y s from M a n i t o b a a c r o s s W estern Canada t o f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r s a l v a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a . The awareness o f t h e l a n d h e i g h t e n s C h r i s t i n e ' s d e s i r e t o w r i t e : 90 Y e s , s u c h was t h e l a n d t h a t l a y s t r e t c h e d i n f r o n t o f me - v a s t , w h o l l y mine, y e t w h o l l y t o be d i s c o v e r e d . . . away - i n t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f t h e f u t u r e ; and t h a t from y o n d e r , committed a t so g r e a t a d i s t a n c e , I was showing m y s e l f the r o a d , . I was c a l l i n g m y s e l f and s a y i n g t o m y s e l f , 'Yes, come t h i s i s t h e way I must t r a v e l . . . .' 1 And so I had t h e i d e a o f w r i t i n g . What and why I knew n o t a t a l l . I w o u l d w r i t e . I t was l i k e a sudden l o v e w h i c h , i n a moment, bends a h e a r t ; i t was r e a l l y a f a c t as s i m p l e , as n a t i v e as l o v e . H a v i n g as y e t n o t h i n g t o say . . . I wanted to have s o m e t h i n g t o say. (130-131) Geography a g a i n b e g i n s to " i n s p i r e " a probe i n t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . Myth and geography a r e a g a i n l i n k e d , and C h r i s t i n e i s t h e f i l t e r . C h r i s t i n e ' s mother th e n d e t a i l s o f what th e l i f e o f an a r t i s t c o n s i s t s : ' W r i t i n g , ' she t o l d me s a d l y , ' i s h a r d . I t must be t h e most e x a c t i n g b u s i n e s s i n t h e w o r l d . . . i f i t i s t o be t r u e , you u n d e r s t a n d ! I s i t n o t l i k e c u t t i n g y o u r s e l f i n two, as i t were -one h a l f t r y i n g to l o v e , t h e o t h e r w a t c h i n g , w e i g h i n g . . . The g i f t i s a l i t t l e l i k e a s t r o k e o f i l l l u c k w h i c h w i t h d r a w s o t h e r s , w h i c h c u t s us o f f , f rom a l m o s t everyone . . .' (132) As a t e a c h e r , C h r i s t i n e " b e g i n s w i t h geography." I t i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f . h e r knowledge and h e r most b a s i c comprehension o f Canada. The i d e a i s t h e same as t h e s i m p l e s t U t o p i a n d e f i n i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i n Where N e s t s The Water Hen. C h r i s t i n e t h i n k s : I began w i t h geography; h e r e was t h e s u b j e c t I m y s e l f l i k e d b e s t d u r i n g my y e a r s as a s t u d e n t . I t seems to me t h a t geography i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t r e q u i r e s no e f f o r t , t h a t you c a n ' t go wrong i n t e a c h i n g i t , s i n c e i t so c a p t u r e s y o u r i n t e r e s t -perhaps b e c a u s e o f t h e l o v e l y b i g maps, each c o u n t r y i n d i c a t e d by a d i f f e r e n t c o l o r . And t h e n i t ' s n o t l i k e h i s t o r y . I n geography you don't 91 have t o j u d g e p e o p l e s ; no wars a r e i n v o l v e d , no s i d e s need be t a k e n . (154) C h r i s t i n e i s " d e f i n i n g " geography as an a s p e c t o f myth and h e r s e l f as a r e c r e a t o r o f myth. The s i m p l e l a n d s c a p e w i t h i t s c h a n g i n g c l i m e r e v e a l s the j o y t h a t a s u p e r i m p o s e d Eden no l o n g e r can. The l a n d s c a p e c r e a t e s C h r i s t i n e t h e a r t i s t , t h e r e c o r d e r o f myth, and i t y i e l d s h e r moments o f m y s t i c a l u n i o n w i t h t h e l a n d : And I d i d n o t f u l l y r e a l i z e i t y e t - o f t e n our j o y s a r e s l o w i n coming home t o us - b u t I was l i v i n g t h r o u g h one o f the r a r e s t h a p p i n e s s e s o f my l i f e . Was n o t a l l t h e w o r l d a c h i l d ? Were we n o t a t the day's morning? . . . (158) Camouflage P e r c r e a t i n g Armour  The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n I n The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n , G a b r i e l l e Roy e v a l u a t e s t h e Eden myth i n terms o f t h e a r t i s t and a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h n o t a d h e r i n g s t r i c t l y t o the j o u r n a l f o r m t h e n o v e l s u g g e s t s the j o u r n a l . Myth i s a g a i n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the mere a s p e c t s o f P i e r r e ' s i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t . P i e r r e as t h e a r t i s t has t h e power to c r e a t e and t r a n s f o r m h i s Eden and h i s Eve. P i e r r e u n d e r t a k e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y " C a n a d i a n " q u e s t and h i s d i s -c o v e r y o f Eden i s p a r t o f h i s " n o r t h b o u n d " j o u r n e y : He h a d c o n s t a n t l y been moving towar d the A r c t i c C i r c l e . By now s u c h t r e e s as had v e n t u r e d thus f a r n o r t h from more te m p e r a t e c l i m a t e s seemed to 92 have s u f f e r e d an o r d e a l n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o human w r e t c h e d n e s s . S t r i p p e d o f t h e i r i n n e r v i t a l i t y , t h e i r urge t o grow, t h e i r t r u n k s l o o k e d s i c k l y and s t u n t e d . And now, i n P i e r r e ' s memory, t h e l o v e l y garden Gedeon had c h e r i s h e d i n i t s t i n y c l e a r i n g t o o k on i t s t r u e v a l u e . ^ P i e r r e , t h e a r t i s t , as Adam has a human Eve, N i n a come i n t o t h i s l i f e : She seemed t o h i m a t i n y Eve, c a s t i n some new mold, d w e l l i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e s e uncouth men -y e t an Eve a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d o f a b i t t e r knowledge o f l i f e . (23) By o f f e r i n g t o do N i n a ' s p o r t r a i t he r e - c r e a t e s h e r . Nev e r -t h e l e s s b o t h P i e r r e and N i n a a r e dwarfed by t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . The p h y s i c a l f a c t o f t h e l a n d makes myth and Eden more ponderous t h a n t h o s e who t r y t o c o n t a i n ( P i e r r e as a r t i s t ) o r be a p a r t o f i t ( P i e r r e and N i n a as Adam and E v e ) . Roy s u g g e s t s t h e par a d o x o f t h e Canadian Eden and l a n d s c a p e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : W i t h b r o a d s t r o k e s he f i l l e d i n t h e o u t l i n e s o f th e f r a g i l e c o u n t e n a n c e , a l r e a d y t h r e a d b a r e b e f o r e i t s t i m e . D e s p i t e h i m s e l f he f e l t t h a t she s h o u l d be p o r t r a y e d naked and s h i v e r i n g w i t h c o l d i n t h i s r e v e r s e o f any e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . (27) N i n a w i l l l a t e r marry S i g u r d s e n , P i e r r e ' s human a l t e r ego. As an a r t i s t P i e r r e can a l t e r e x p e r i e n c e and t h e l a n d s c a p e . The C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e i s a r e a l i t y and perhaps e x i s t s most f u l l y i n th e minds o f h e r a r t i s t s : 93 Then, e a g e r l y , P i e r r e added a few l i n e s and a l l was changed. L i t t l e as he had added, i t b r o u g h t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e back t o l i f e . F or t h i s was what had happened: n e a r the d o o r , where S t e v e and he, r e t u r n i n g from t h e i r r o u n d s , always p l a c e d them, P i e r r e had j u s t added i n t h e i r snowshoes -s t u c k u p r i g h t i n the snow. (35) S i g u r d s e n , " s t o p p e d t o watch h i s companion, a l r e a d y h a r d a t work. L e a n i n g f o r w a r d he c o u l d see t h e b i r t h o f a b i t o f l i v i n g s k y , see l i f e r e t u r n w i t h i n t h i s f o r e s t ; a t P i e r r e ' s e v e r y s t r o k e , see t h e w o r l d r e b o r n " ( 4 9 ) . P i e r r e ' s " b r o a d e n i n g q u e s t " (51) i s h i s p e r s o n a l growth as an a r t i s t : P i e r r e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e was room w i t h i n h im, above and beyond the l o v e o f c o l o r s , f o r t h e i n t o x i c a t i o n o f sounds, f o r the s p e c t a c l e o f the n i g h t , o f the s t a r s , f o r how many o t h e r d e l i g h t s ! T h i s sudden j o y i n l i v i n g , moreover, e n l a r g e d h i s awareness o f y e t o t h e r s o u r c e s o f j o y t h a t came each by each t o make e v e r s h a r p e r h i s p e r -c e p t i o n . (51) P i e r r e t r i e s t o u n d e r s t a n d what the word a r t i s t means: An a r t i s t - what on e a r t h d i d t h e word r e a l l y mean? He woul d have b l u s h e d t o use i t t o d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f . (57) The Garden becomes h i s own " i n t e r n a l s u s t e n a n c e , " i t i s co n -c o m i t a n t w i t h h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e Ca n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e : One e v e n i n g , b e s i d e a rough c a b i n , he saw, s t r e t c h i n g a l o n g t h e s l o p e o f t h e r i v e r b a n k , a s m a l l v e g e t a b l e g arden. But nowhere i n the v i c i n i t y o r i n s i d e the b u i l d i n g c o u l d he d i s -c o v e r t h e i n h a b i t a n t o f t h e p l a c e . The v e g e t a b l e s , 9 4 o f w h i c h he tho u g h t he m i g h t beg a few f o r h i s meal, tempted him. So he took t h e l i b e r t y o f g a t h e r i n g some, knowing t h a t t h e law o f h o s p i t a l i t y common t o t h e s e p a r t s r e c k o n e d t h i s no c r i m e . I n repayment he spaded a s m a l l a r e a a l o n g t h e dwar f e d and bushy f o r e s t ; he s p e n t h a l f a day weeding t h e a l m o s t smothered v e g e t a b l e p a t c h . And, f e a r i n g t h a t t h i s was n o t enough r e t u r n f o r a few l e t t u c e s and one cabbage, he made a q u i c k s k e t c h o f t h e p l a c e and i t s c l o u d s . He p i n n e d i t on t o the door. But where c o u l d be i t s p r o p r i e t o r ? (65) There i s always t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e Canadian Eden b e l o n g s t o no one, t h a t even t h e a r t i s t who c o n t a i n s and u n f o l d s myth and Eden moves i n i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t i e s . I n Book two o f The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n Roy d e s c r i b e s P i e r r e ' s i n -c r e a s i n g awareness and r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s own i n t e r n a l c e r e b r a l geography and l a d s c a p e . P i e r r e ' s q u e s t t a k e s on heavy m y t h i c a l a l l u s i o n s when he becomes a s a l v a t i o n f i g u r e : Y e s , pondered Orok, t h i s v e r y one must be t h e man o f whom i t was s a i d t h a t he had t r a v e r s e d a l m o s t a l l o f Canada's g r e a t N o r t h w i t h no o t h e r p u r p o s e t h a n t o p a i n t on h i s s h e e t s o f c a r d b o a r d t h e untamed w o r l d o f God. (75) P i e r r e , as an a r t i s t , becomes an i n t e r p r e t e r o f God: God must speak w i t h t h i s man more c l e a r l y t h a n Orok. Of t h i s t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o be e n v i o u s . God spoke t o whomever he w i s h e d . Then, t o o , i t was n o t always d e s i r a b l e t o be he t o whom God spok e . Not n e c e s s a r i l y e x p r e s s i n g H i m s e l f i n s i m p l e t e r m s , God was n o n e t h e l e s s annoyed when He was n o t u n d e r s t o o d ! (88) But h e s t i l l remembers t h a t he i s a l s o a mere man, a g a i n t h e 95 r e a l i t y o r a c t u a l i t y o f the q u e s t i n the j o u r n a l s p r e s e n t s b o t h t h e d i v i n e and m y t h i c a s p e c t s and t h e a c t u a l : Then, r e a l i z i n g t h e a b s u r d i t y o f h i s q u e s t ; t h i s i n f i n i t e l y weary man f e l t w i t h i n h im a p o i g n a n t d e s i r e t o be no more t h a n a man l i k e o t h e r men, c o n c e r n e d o n l y t o s e r v e and c h e r i s h a few f r i e n d s , perhaps a w i f e and c h i l d r e n . T h i s v i s i o n g l i m p s e d by h i s e x h a u s t e d s o u l had t h e same a t t r a c t i o n as a p a s s i n g s h i p w o u l d have f o r t h e eye o f t h e s h i p w r e c k e d s a i l o r . . . . He th o u g h t o f N i n a , n e v e r a l t o g e t h e r f o r g o t t e n . L i k e a warm summer w i n d , p l a i n t i v e , t h e d e s i r e t o be among men,.and s i m p l y a man, t o y e d w i t h him. (80) Ungava, t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f P i e r r e ' s q u e s t , r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r u t h and b e a u t y w h i c h e n t a i l s and i s t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f h i s q u e s t : Beyond a l l o r d i n a r y t h i n g s I am b e a u t i f u l ; t h a t i s t r u e , i t was s a y i n g . As moun t a i n s go, I am perhaps t h e f i n e s t achievement o f c r e a t i o n . P erhaps t h e r e i s no o t h e r l i k e me. However, s i n c e u n t i l now no man has se e n me, d i d I i n t r u t h e x i s t ? As l o n g as you have n o t been h e l d c a p t i v e i n a n o t h e r ' s e y e s , do you l i v e ? A r e we a l i v e i f no One has e v e r l o v e d us? (83) As i n MacLennan and i n Roy's o t h e r w o r k s , Eden cannot be r e -c a p t u r e d , t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e l a n d cannot be u n d e r s t o o d b u t t h e r e must be some a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e l a n d and p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g i t : You l o o k e d a t t h i s n a r r o w o p e n i n g - a c r e v i c e no t h i c k e r t h a n a t h r e a d - on a d i s t a n c e i n v i s i b l e , l u m i n o u s ; and you h e l d y o u r b r e a t h , you were c a p t u r e d by q u i e t e x p e c t a t i o n ; you c o u l d say t o y o u r s e l f , y e s , t h i s w o r l d i s l o v e l y and c o m p a s s i o n -a t e ; t h i s w o r l d i s l u s t r o u s . (109) 96 A t t h e end o f Book two, t h e o u t e r l a n d s c a p e has become t h e i n n e r . Eden and myth become p a r t o f the a c t i v i t y o f the mind: T h i s Canadian w a s t e l a n d , t h i s b o u n d l e s s S i b e r i a o f our c o u n t r y - how c o u l d i t i n d e e d compare w i t h t h a t o t h e r s o l i t u d e toward w h i c h he was w i n g i n g , t h e u t t e r l y m y s t e r i o u s s o l i t u d e o f s t r e e t s f i l l e d w i t h p e o p l e , w i t h f o o t s t e p s , and w i t h l i g h t ! (116) The w a s t e l a n d has been c r o s s e d and s u p e r c e d e d , the q u e s t and q u e s t o r a f f i r m t h e m s e l v e s . Book t h r e e i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f MacLennan and e s p e c i a l l y Each  Man's Son when A i n s l i e must complete h i s q u e s t by l e a v i n g h i s c o u n t r y . H i s s u r r o g a t e , A r c h i e M a c N e i l does t h i s p a r t i a l l y by h i s exodus to t h e U. S.; A i n s l i e must c o m p l e t e t h e j o u r n e y by t r a v e l l i n g t o Europe. A i n s l i e ' s j o u r n e y i s a r e f u t a t i o n of the dogmatism o f t h e p a s t as much as i t i s t h e c y c l i c a l c o m p l e t i o n o f an i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t e r r i t o r i a l c h a r t i n g . P i e r r e must u n d e r t a k e a j o u r n e y t o Europe. H i s p h y s i c a l c i r c u m v e n t i o n o f t h e g l o b e p a r a l l e l s h i s i n t e r n a l g l o b a l c o m p l e t i o n : I t was as he had sometimes s u s p e c t e d . The w o r l d o f a r t - f o r want o f a b e t t e r word - was v a s t , i t encompassed a l m o s t t h e w h ole o f man: h i s boredom,,his t h o u g h t , h i s dreams, h i s s u f f e r -i n g , t h e sad j o y s , t h e summits, t h e d e p t h s . . . (122) W i t h t h e n e a r c o m p l e t i o n o f h i s q u e s t , P i e r r e can a f f i r m t h e Garden and t h e Eve o f h i s own mind, h i s c r e a t i o n : He saw an Eve, naked, f r a g i l e w i t h t i n y b r e a s t s , a s m a l l , round head; was s t a n d i n g p e n s i v e i n t h e 97 midst of somber, luxuriant, and almost t r a g i c greenery, j u s t as she had :been at the beginning of the ages. He remained there, long enthralled. Was the female body then so pure, so f i n e l y wrought? . . . Oh, mother of men, f a i l woman, how you must indeed have trembled i f ever you even dimly glimpsed what was to come of you: the s a i n t s , the poets, the tyrants, the martyr's. . . . He looked at her. She looked at him. They exchanged, i t seemed to him, through the imponderable, the secret, abyss of a r t , thoughts of meeting, of consolation. (129-130) Roy's metaphor of the r i v e r which p a r a l l e l s Pierre's quest, i s the same metaphor that Joyce uses i n Finnegan's Wake: Certainly a l l r i v e r s partake of the same nature; i t i s a f o l l y of men to b e l i e v e them partisans i n h i s t o r y , each with i t s pr i v a t e and ambitious soul. Do not a l l the r i v e r s of the world belong to a l l , e x i s t to mingle a l l , and a l l to reunite? (133) As h i s a r t i s t r y grows Sigurdsen h i s very human a l t e r ego i s replaced by Stanislas h i s creative a l t e r ego: Stanislas was amazed. At l a s t P i e r r e , i n h i s painting, had almost attained the l i g h t n i n g speed of h i s p e n c i l drawings. His brush stroke was growing l i g h t e r . These woods - so finespun -had the lack of r e a l i t y , the pathos of a dream. How could so harsh a l i f e , he asked himself, have produced so exquisite a being? In this lone man he loved a part of h i s own s e l f that was becoming more and more c l e a r l y defined -the soul's obsession with places p r i m i t i v e and undefiled. (167) Art f i n a l l y begins to supercede l i f e : At f i r s t P i e r r e had been appalled by t h i s idea. What! Art would require s a c r i f i c e of l i f e - warm, true, s u f f e r i n g , and suppliant 98 l i f e ! But now he a g r e e d t h a t i t was t r u e , t h a t a t l e a s t a p a r t o f l i f e d i e d when i t was c a s t i n b e a u t y - and from t h i s h i s s o u l s u f f e r e d a k i n d o f g r i e v o u s wound. (173) P i e r r e , d y i n g , acknowledges the c o m p l e t i o n o f h i s q u e s t i n h i s own p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . H i s a r t i s t r y e n a b l e s h i m t o c o - s h a r e i n t h e d i v i n i t y o f c r e a t i o n : . The m o u n t a i n o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n had a l m o s t n o t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e m o u n t a i n o f Ungava. Or a t l e a s t what he had been a b l e t o c a p t u r e o f t h e l a t t e r he had, a t h i s own i n n e r f i r e s , s o f t e n e d , m e l t e d , c l e a n s e d , to c a s t i t anew, i n h i s own f a s h i o n , making i t a new raw m a t e r i a l , h e n c e f o r t h e n t i r e l y human, i n f i n i t e l y p o i g n a n t . And c e r t a i n l y i t was no l o n g e r any q u e s t i o n o f who had t h e b e t t e r s u c c e e d e d w i t h h i s m o u n t a i n , God o r P i e r r e , b u t m e r e l y t h a t h e , P i e r r e , had l i k e w i s e c r e a t e d . (184-185) I n The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n G a b r i e l l e Roy p r e s e n t s t h e Eden myth i n terms o f t h e q u e s t o f t h e a r t i s t . The fo r m a g a i n resembles t h e e a r l y t r a v e l j o u r n a l . J a c k Warwick has t h i s t o say about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f geography t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e e s p e c i a l l y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e : The N o r t h i s a s e t o f symbols and modes o f th o u g h t w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f i n f i n i t e r e n e w a l . They awaken i n t h e w r i t e r ' s mind a s p i r a t i o n s o f "beyondness" and t h e b e s t g u i d e t o t h e i r a r t i s t i c use i s t h a t t h e y must go beyond geography. Y e t they must s t i l l h ave an immediacy, a s i n c e r i t y , w h i c h a r e i n v a r i a b l y d enoted by " r e a l " n o r t h e r n imagery.,^. He c o n t i n u e s : Some o f t h e b e s t works i n F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e a r e e i t h e r i n c l u d e d i n o r c o n t i n g e n t upon t h i s t o p i c , b e c a u s e t h e y do i n f a c t combine immediate p e r c e p t i o n w i t h t r a n s c e n d i n g v i s i o n . (47) 99 Warwick n o t e s t h a t t h e j o u r n e y m o t i f i n much F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e i s a q u e s t , "a j o u r n e y w h i c h c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a n a t i o n a l s a g a " ( 7 1 ) . Y e t he does not combine t h e a s p e c t o f Eden. Commenting on The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n he c i r c u m n a v i g a t e s t h e i s s u e : The a r t i s t , l i k e t h e happy s a v a g e , i s i n harmony w i t h N a t u r e , and t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t v e s t i g e s o f t h e o l d e r f i g u r e s . P i e r r e i s happy l i k e a savage. H i s l i f e i s p e r f e c t s i m p l i c i t y , h i s wants a r e few, he can alw a y s keep a l i v e i n t h e bush and t h e r e i s no c o n f l i c t i n t h e l i t t l e R e p u b l i c o f men l i k e S t e v e . P i e r r e ' s n a t u r a l g e n i u s i s s u p p o r t e d by v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s " c h e r e v i e p r i m i t i v e " (139) t o h i s c l o s e -ness t o t h e " c a r a c t e r e sauvage des r i v i e r e s du N o r d " (178) and t o t h e e q u a t i o n o f g e n i u s w i t h the t e r m "sauvage" ( 1 3 6 ) . (93) He t h e n s u g g e s t s t h e dogmatic a s p e c t o f Eden w i t h o u t o v e r t l y s t a t i n g i t : O r i g i n a l s i n and p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n , o f t e n a g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d o f m o r a l t u r p i t u d e o r com-p l a c e n c y form a pr o m i n e n t a x i s i n t h e b e s t o f th e n o v e l s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Summarizing The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n he i m p l i e s myth b u t a g a i n he do e s n ' t p e r c e i v e f u l l y : A l l o f t h i s p l a i n l y enough r e p e a t s t h e i d e a o f t h e a r t i s t as a s a c r i f i c i a l h e r o h a v i n g t h e t e r i b l e p r i v i l e g e o f d i r e c t communication w i t h N a t u r e . T h i s n a t u r e i s b o t h i n n e r and e x t e r n a l , u n i t e d somewhere deep i n t h e s o u l and n e v e r f u l l y s e p a r a t e d . Y e t e x t e r n a l n a t u r e , " l e monde sauvage de D i e u " (94) , i s b o t h n e c e s s a r y t o the a r t i s t and h o s t i l e t o him. I t i s i n t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h and a g a i n s t n a t u r e t h a t he r e a l i z e s h i m s e l f . He has t o be d e t a c h e d enough from N a t u r e t o o p e r a t e on i t . T h i s i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l a r t . F o r t h e 100 Canadian a r t i s t i t i s most i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e w i l d s c e n e r y o f t h e N o r t h . (98-99) When he does s l i g h t l y concede the a s p e c t o f myth and U t o p i a h e o n l y r e f e r s to them as a s p e c t s o f i r o n y : I r o n i c l i t e r a t u r e , making f u n o f t h e i d e a l s o f F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y and s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p , r e f u t e s t h e a t t e m p t t o draw t h e pays d'en h a u t i n t o n a t i o n a l i s t c o n f o r m i t y . (129) Commenting on form and a d d u c i n g t o what I have c a l l e d t h e two d i s t i n c t y e t s i m i l a r p o l a r i t i e s o f Romantic and m e t a p h y s i c a l w r i t i n g a r i s i n g from t h e l a n d s c a p e , Warwick o v e r s i m p l i f i e s t h e i s s u e : C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t has p r o v e d a v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e i m a g i n a t i v e s e t t i n g f o r l i t e r a t u r e o f s o c i a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l r e v o l t . I n v o l v e m e n t w i t h n a t u r e has a l s o been one o f t h e permanent f e a t u r e s o f t h e n o r t h e r n j o u r n e y , and adds i n t e n s i t y t o t h e r e v o l t as c r e a t e d by Andre L a n g e v i n and Yves T h e r i a u l t as w e l l as G a b r i e l l e Roy. (99) Warwick n o t e s t h a t i t i s P a s c a l who per v a d e s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e and much o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e m w h i c h t h e l a n d s c a p e causes t h e w r i t e r s t o f e e l and c r e a t e a "main c h a r a c t e r (who) i s a l o n e w i t h t h e cosmos" ( 1 6 1 ) . F i n a l l y , Warwick s t a t e s , " t h e pays d'en h a u t a t t h e i r b e s t a r e a s t a t e o f mind i n t o w h i c h t h e b o l d e s t s p i r i t s can r u n t o seek t h e i r s e l f - c o m p l e t i o n " ( 1 6 3 ) . G a b r i e l l e Roy's F r e n c h C a n a d i a n o r i g i n a c t i v a t e s much o f h e r s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e . Y e t Warwick's commentary on F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e 101 and i t s m a i n s p r i n g s i s n o t t h a t d i f f e r e n t f r o m what a c t i v a t e s C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l . The l a n d a c t i v a t e s t h e u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s mind. What Warwick does i s t o p r e s e n t , o f t e n most i n c o n c l u s i v e l y , a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s h a d i n g o f t h i s f a c t as i t o c c u r s i n F r e n c h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . I n h e r works Roy p r e s e n t s two a s p e c t s o f t h e Eden myth t h a t n e i t h e r MacLennan, MacEwen, n o r Atwood d e l i n e a t e , t h e modern U t o p i a n b a c k v i s i o n t o form e r A r c a d i a s and Eden myth as a r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t ' s mind. CHAPTER THREE - FOOTNOTES "'"Lewis Mumford, " U t o p i a , The C i t y and t h e M a c h i n e , " U t o p i a s  and U t o p i a n Thought ( B o s t o n , 1966), p. 18. 2 N o r t h r o p F r y e , " V a r i e t i e s o f L i t e r a r y U t o p i a s , " U t o p i a s and  U t o p i a n Thought ( B o s t o n , 1966), p. 25. 3 l b i d . , p. 38. 4 I b i d . ~ * I b i d . , p. 41. I b i d . , p. 48. ^Fra n k E. M a n u e l , "Toward a P s y c h o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f U t o p i a s , " U t o p i a s and U t o p i a n Thought ( B o s t o n , 1966), p. 71. 8 G a b r i e l l e Roy, The T i n F l u t e (New Y o r k , 1947), p. 20. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 9 G a b r i e l l e Roy, Where N e s t s The Water Hen ( T o r o n t o , 1965), p. 8. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 10W. C. Lougheed, The C a s h i e r ( T o r o n t o , 1963, c o p y r i g h t 1 955), x. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . "'""'"Gabrielle Roy, S t r e e t o f R i c h e s ( T o r o n t o , 1967, c o p y r i g h t 1956), p. 57. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 12 G a b r i e l l e Roy, T h e H i d d e n M o u n t a i n ( T o r o n t o , 1962), p. 22. A l l s u b s equent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i -c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 13 J a c k Warwick, The Long J o u r n e y - L i t e r a r y Themes o f F r e n c h  Canada ( T o r o n t o , 1968), p. 46. CHAPTER FOUR SHADOW MUTAGENS FABRICATING AN IOTIC TIMEPIECE -MYTH IN THE WORKS OF GWENDOLYN MacEWEN Fundamental C o n s t a n t s - The Power o f t h e  Continuum and E v e b r i a t e d Eden -The Drunken C l o c k Gwendolyn MacEwen's p r e f a c e t o The Drunken C l o c k emphasizes h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e t h a t l a n g u a g e as c o n t e n t and a r t i f i c e w i l l p l a y i n h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f myth: Such a d o c t o r B a b e l i s ; i t co n t e n d s , w r a g l e s , and rag e s about t h e form o f t h e word . . . and s t r i k e s upon i t s p r e p a r e d i n s t r u m e n t w i t h o u t l i m i t and measure as i t p l e a s e s . Her p e r f e c t i o n o f langu a g e as a r t i f i c e makes h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n and " d e f i n i t i o n " 104 o f myth, f o r m l e s s and t i m e l e s s . She t h u s , d e v e l o p s , u n l i k e any o f t h e o t h e r w r i t e r s s t u d i e d e a r l i e r , t h e l i n g u i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e j o u r n a l form. Myth as communication b e g i n s t o come i n t o a d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n . Gwendolyn MacEwen i s thus d e v e l o p i n g some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f J o y c e ' s " e x t e n s i o n " o f myth: At the ti m e when J o y c e was s t u d y i n g t h e t r i v i u m w i t h t h e J e s u i t s t h e r e had o c c u r r e d i n t h e European w o r l d a r e b i r t h o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s o f communication.• I n d i r e c t l y , t h i s had come about t h r o u g h t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a s t c u l t u r e s as c a r r i e d on by n i n e -t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r c h e o l o g y and a n t h r o -p o l o g y . F o r t h e s e new s t u d i e s had d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r o l e o f l a n g u -age and w r i t i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t i e s and t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c u l t u r e . And t h e t o t a l o r g e s t a l t a p p roach n a t u r a l i n t h e s t u d y o f p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s had f a v o r e d the s t u d y o f lan g u a g e as p a r t o f t h e e n t i r e c u l t u r a l network.„ Thus h e r f i r s t poem i n The Drunken C l o c k , " A l l The F i n e Young H o r s e s j " s u g g e s t s t h i s . L i f e i s p a s t and f u t u r e i n t e r m i n g l e d , myth i s an a s p e c t o f t h i s and Eden i s p a r t o f t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s e x i s t e n c e . T h i s c o n t i n u o u s e x i s t e n c e i s t h e r e d dance: Where t h e sun i s t e n y e a r s o l d , Where y o u r w o r l d i s a f o e t u s i n f i r e -(LL.12-15) 105 The dance interfuses p h y s i c a l and "non p h y s i c a l " existence: 0 my dancers (red and quick to the nearest apples that your hearts are), (11. 6-8) "Evidence of Monday" concurrently deals with the myth of creation and Eden myth. The "boy" of the poem represents both innocence and experi-ence. The t h i r d stanza implies h i s innocence, he i n t u i t i v e l y knows the p r i s t i n e Monday world, which s t i l l has the rest of the week before i t : The b r i e f boy entering with apples on a clean-lined monday only knows the flower nude; knows i t without vase, knows i t narrow, locked i n the b r i e f green world. (LL. 13-17) His loss of innocence and the inception of creation as myth and Eden myth ends the poem: a great t i e d evidence of h i s questionable monday for himself for him to carry back to the most old garden, . . . eden under the tugging years, . . . eden at the end of days. (LL. 22-27) "Wristwatch and N i l e Time" i s the f o c a l point for MacEwen's "general" handling of creation and mythology i n terms of timelessness and spacelessness within the formlessness of a r t i f i c e . Her second stanza summarizes what i s the "credo" of a l l her work: But rape time ' t i l the structure shudders; the frescoed skeleton turns i t s hinges 106 l i k e so many bone doors . . . o p e n i n g t o t h e N i l e who c a r r i e s p i t c h e r s on i t s s n a k e - g r e e n s h o u l d e r s and t h e woman l a z y by t h e l a z y N i l e ; l e t t h e gre e n n i l e b l o o d jump t h e w r i s t and l i q u i d c h a r i o t s r i v e r p a s t d o o r ; e n t e r where p r i e s t s s t i l l l u s t r a t e f o r t h e i r gods and t h e a n g u l a r c h i l d r e n o f t h e pyramids a r e l i c k e d l i k e h o n e y s t o n e by t h e snake, and th e y do n o t d w i n d l e , b e i n g e l i x e r e d by sun b e i n g r u n n e r s o f s u n . ( L L . 16-30) L i n e n i n e t e e n "on i t s s n a k e g r e e n s h o u l d e r s " i s h e r acknowledgement o f the c o n t i n u o u s n e s s o f t h e Eden myth i n t h i s g e n e r a l myth. She s u g g e s t s time and myth as a r t i f i c e i n t h e l a s t two l i n e s o f h e r poem: W i t h t h e woman who c a r r i e s t he N i l e c o m p l e t e i n Her p i t c h e r . ( L L . 31-32) I n " E x p l o d e s , F o r I n s t a n c e " and "Eden, Eden" she r e a f f i r m s t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f myth and Eden i n t h e contemporary e l e c t r o n i c w o r l d . The t h i r d s t a n z a o f " E x p l o d e s , F o r I n s t a n c e " i s an example o f t h e t i m e -l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s o f myth and Eden: f o r we a r e l o u d and o ur l u n g - l o u d songs c a l l up dead gardens ( i n v e r t e d s e e d ) . ( L L . 14-16) I n "Eden, Eden" MacEwen p r e s e n t s contemporary man j u x t a p o s e d by t h e p r i m i t i v e e.lements: t h e stormed man i s heavy w i t h r a i n and numbers b e n e a t h t h e e l e p h a n t g a r g l e and h i s jaw l o c k s human i n t h e r a i n , and under t h e u n l o c k e d jaw o f t h e c u t s k y and under t h e b u l l e t s o f t h e e l e p h a n t ' s t r u n k . ( L L . 14-18) 107 Eden i s f o r him, as f o r t h e r e s t o f contemporary man, p a r t o f t h e un-c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e r a c e , i t s myth-making c a p a c i t y : B e h i n d s e n s e he i s t h i n k i n g o f a warped t r e e w i t h heavy f r u i t f a l l i n g ; peaked r o c k f i g h t i n g t h e ragged f e r n i n t he o t h e r s torm's c e n t r e ; a m o n o l i t h i c t h u n d e r t r e e and a man and woman naked and g r e e n w i t h r a i n above i t s c a r v e d r o o t , g e n e s i s . ( L L . 20-26) I n "Bow B r o k e n " and "Rome and the J e s t e r s " p r e s e n t s g e n e r a l m ythology w h i l e r e a f f i r m i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i v i n e b e i n g . The metaphor o f t h e bow and t h e shape o f t h e poem ( a bow) a g a i n a f f i r m t h a t MacEwen i s d e a l i n g w i t h a r t i f i c e and t h a t myth i s p a r t o f t h i s a r t i f i c e . Eden i s , b ecause o f h e r q u e s t o f t h i s d i v i n i t y b e i n g , b o t h f i n i t e , and a f a l l i s s u g g e s t e d , and i t i s a l s o i n f i n i t e as t h e poem's c o n c l u s i o n s t a t e s . The n a r r a t o r p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e f i n i t e Eden "washed w i t h b l o o d " ( L , 24) b u t t h i s f i n i t e Eden c o n t a i n s t h e i n f i n i t e Eden t h a t has been an a s p e c t o f a l l o f MacEwen's o t h e r poems. L i n e t w e n t y - f i v e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n f i n i t e i s p a r t o f t h e f i n i t e , " r e d d e r t h a n newest a p p l e s . " T h i s l i n e i s an e x t e n s i o n o f a c o n t i n u o u s t h o u g h t and s t a t e o f b e i n g . That t h i s d i v i n e b e i n g i s an a s p e c t o f g e n e r a l myth i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i n e "saw t h e God w i t h b e l l y f u l a r r o w s . " J u s t as t h e a p p l e i s b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y consumed so t h e God i s b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y sought - h i s " b e l l y " r e i n f o r c e s t h e " p h y s i c a l " ( t h e p h y s i c a l i s used v e r y p a r a d o x i c a l l y i n MacEwen) and t h e " s p i r i t u a l " q u e s t . F i n a l l y , t h e l a s t s e n t e n c e o f the poem i m p l i e s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s an a s p e c t o f a r t i f i c e , and t h a t by f i n d i n g a "God," she has found and c r e a t e d h e r s e l f , " w i t n e s s t h e bow, count y o u r s e l f . " 108 W i t h "Rome and The J e s t e r s " MacEwen p r e s e n t s t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f myth w i t h i n i t s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s , pagan t o C h r i s t i a n . The n a r r a t o r d i s -m i s s e s t h o s e who w o u l d r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s "myth" from t h e modern " c o n t e m p o r a r y " f o o l t o the " s o p h i s t i c a t e d " c h i l d - f o o l who j e s t s , " i n h i s mudworm s a n d c o u r t " ( L . 9) f o r , says MacEwen: and t h e r e ' s more r e a s o n i n t h e mudboy's s a n d j e s t than's found i n o u r h o u r s o f heavy c a l - c u - l u s f e l l o w p u s h e r s , l a y e r s o f t h e b r i c k m i n u t e hammerers on t h e s k i n o f t h e o l d s t o n e h e a r t . ( L L . 73-78) The t w i n c h i l d r e n and t h e t w i n a p p l e s r e p r e s e n t myth ( g e n e r a l and Eden) and s c i e n c e (Newton) b u t t h e y a r e r e a l l y one i n t h e l i n e s : l e t t h e l o g i c o f h e r p o l i s h e d whimsy grow. The l a s t s t a n z a r e p r e s e n t s MacEwen's and h e r r e a d e r s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t a t e of s t a t e l e s s n e s s : we have l a i d a l l m o rning i n hopeless m i n u t e - b r i c k s I must t e l l y o u t h e t i m e , ( i t ' s my foreman's d u t y , and t h e j e s t e r s w i l l n o t u n d e r s t a n d , o f c o u r s e -God d u l y b l e s s t h o s e 2 f o u n d e r s o f the rome-ing h o u r and God h e l p t h e s u c k e r e d s h e - w o l f ) . ( L L . 35-42) By h e r l a s t l i n e , " i t ' s noon" MacEwen emphasizes t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f t h e s t a t e o f Eden w h e t h e r d e l i n e a t e d by "Pagan" o r " C h r i s t i a n " myth. 109 In The Drunken Clock MacEwen reaffirms the timelessness of man's subconscious myth-making powers and consequently the timelessness of Eden as part of this myth. Unlike Hugh MacLennan who writes of myth as inter-polated by classical tradition and Eden as delineated obversely by means of the puritan ethic, within essentially the form of the travel journal. MacEwen goes back to the journal of the quest and i n i t i a t i o n of the un-conscious. In Julian The Magician she uses the most allusions to Christian myth but her emphasis w i l l s t i l l be on the unconscious and the journal of the unconscious. Her epilogue to the "novel" makes use of an overt journal extra-structure and overobviates a r t i f i c e . Atomic Energy of the Biosphere and The  Mental Landscape - Tjaje Rising .Eire. In her second book of poetry Gwendolyn MacEwen again examines modern man aware of the Edenic and mythic aspects of his consciousness but in this book she w i l l attempt her most overt and sustained study of the Canadian landscape and the Canadian consciousness. In this volume her manipulation of a r t i f i c e (form) w i l l most closely resemble the travel journals, but MacEwen's journal w i l l be a cerebral one and w i l l anticipate those of Margaret Atwood. In "The Breakfast" MacEwen anticipates her third book of poetry, A Breakfast for Barbarians. In The Rising Fire MacEwen begins with the physical: the corporal human being inhabiting the physical landscape. From the physical, man moves to the concomitant spiritual and mythical. "The Breakfast" represents the physical/spiritual a r t i f i c e that MacEwen ,110 m a n i p u l a t e c h a u v i n i s t i c a l l y from h e r p h y s i c a l / s p i r i t u a l s u r v e y o f t h e Ca n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e . The f i r s t two s t a n z a s o f "The B r e a k f a s t " emphasize th e f i n i t e n e s s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f man. S t a n z a two c l i m a x e s t h i s : a b r e a k f a s t h y s t e r i a ; perhaps you have f e l t i t , the w e i g h t o f t h e f o o d y o u e a t , t h e end o f t h e meal coming b e f o r e you l i f t t h e spoon: o r e a t o n l y a p p l e s to i m p r o v i s e an eden, o r f o r g e t the end t a k e s p l a c e i n each s t e p o f y o u r f u n c t i o n . MacEwen c o n c l u d e s t h e poem by e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t t h e i n f i n i t e i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the f i n i t e , t h e macrocosm w i t h i n t h e microcosm. T h i s i s a " r e v e r s a l " o f h e r f i r s t two s t a n z a s : by e a t i n g t h e w o r l d y ou may e n c l o s e i t seek s i m p l i c i t i e s ; t h e f i n g e r p r i n t s o f t h e sun o n l y and t h e f i n g e r n a i l o f t h e moon d u p l i c a t i n g y ou i n y o u r body th e cosmos f i t s y o u r measures; has no e n d i n g . ( L L . 15-18) "Tiamut" i s a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i o n myth and p r e c u r s e s MacEwen's i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n l a n d s c a p e e s p e c i a l l y t h e Canadian "con-t i n e n t " as a r t i f i c e o f myth and as an awareness o f h e r h e i g h t e n i n g chau-v i n i s m . I n t h e m i d s t o f the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the tre m o r o f t h e c a t a c l y s m o f p h y s i c a l " t e r r e s t r i a l " c r e a t i o n , MacEwen a l l u d e s t o s h i v e r i n g s " i n t h e b l a c k B a b y l o n i a n p r e - e d e n " ( L . 9 ) . As i n The Drunken C l o c k , c r e a t i o n and Eden i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , suspended i n t i m e : We, caught on a s p l i t o r g a n o f chaos, on t h e r i g h t h a l f o f a b i s e c t e d goddess wonder why moon p u l l s s e a on a s i l v e r s t r i n g , why e a r t h w i l l n o t l e a v e t h e g o l d bondage o f t h e sun, I l l why a l l p a r t s m a r r y , a l l t h i n g s c o u p l e i n c o n f u s i o n w h i l e atoms a r e wrenched a p a r t i n t h i s a d o l e s c e n t t i m e . ( L L . 19-25) I n " E x p l o r a t i o n and D i s c o v e r y " MacEwen i s o p e n l y c h a u v i n i s t i c b o t h as a p e r s o n and as an a u t h o r . Her f i r s t s t a n z a s t a t e s t h e r o l e o f t h e C a n a d i a n a r t i s t i n d e f i n i n g and p r e s e n t i n g t h e l a n d and i t s myth: We must s i n g much t o m a s t e r wind's l o u d l o v e o f l a n d i n i n s i s t e n c e o f d i m e n s i o n , and be b a r d s e v e r on g r e e n e a r t h under c l e a r - c u t sun c u t t i n g y e l l o w d o l l s o f us i n t h e m o r n i n g . ( L L . 1-7) I n h e r t h i r d s t a n z a , MacEwen i n one o f h e r v e r y r a r e i n s t a n c e s , g i v e s t h e v e r y c l i c h e d d u a l E n g l i s h / F r e n c h a s p e c t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n h e r i t a g e w i t h o v e r t o n e s o f I n d i a n f o l k - t a l e and myth: A w h i t e bonbomme smokes t h e y e a r s i n h i s p i p e h i s woman k n i t s s o c k s f o r h e r f e e t i n h e r d a u g h t e r ' s womb day l i k e a b l o n d b e a r l e a n s down t h e i r s h o u l d e r s . ( L L . 18-20) She c o n c l u d e s by j u x t a p o s i n g t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e w i t h t h e p r i m o r d i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n p l a c e s a v e r y emphatic emphasis on t h e v e r y l a s t word o f t h e poem, " e a r t h . " E a r t h becomes t h e s o i l , t h e c o u n t r y and a l s o t h e p l a n e t as p a r t o f t h e g a l a x y . Myth and Eden become p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e : A l l gay seeds a r e s p l i t f o r p r i m o r d i a l l i g h t t o e n t e r . Welcome t o t h e e a r t h . ( L L . 27-29) 112 The d u l l e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e Canadian p e o p l e i s p o s i t e d as a c o n t r a s t t o a p h y s i c a l c a t a c l y s m i c c r e a t i o n i n "The M o u n t a i n : A Study i n R e l a t i v e R e a l i t i e s . " Where t h e l a n d and t h e mind s h o u l d c o n -c o m i t a n t l y r e i n f o r c e each o t h e r ' s c a p a c i t i e s , MacEwen acknowledges how f a r b e h i n d i n g r a n d e u r t h e p e o p l e ' s ( t h e n a t i o n ) awareness o f t h e i r myth-making c a p a c i t i e s a r e , how they a r e many " d e g r e e s " below t h e " p i t c h " o f t h e l a n d : a mountain i s an i n v i o l a t e t r i a n g l e i n an o f f h a n d way, v a g u e l y d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e i n a manual s e n s e , b u t our s u n s e t f a c e s a r e sweet l a n d s c a p e s w i t h r o s y r e t i n a e and r e c e p t i v e n o s t r i l s and i t i s too soon t o t h i n k o f h a l f w a y v i s i o n and t h e q u e s t i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f an i n v e r t e d p e o p l e e t c e t e r a . ( L L . 13-19) P u n n i n g on manual ( a book and a h a n d ) , MacEwen i s a l s o r e f e r r i n g t o f o r m and a r t i f i c e and t h e t r a v e l j o u r n a l b o t h as a c e r e b r a l and an a c t u a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n . She c o n c l u d e s by d e r i d i n g what has been a c c o m p l i s h e d i n Canadian l e t t e r s : 0 man mouthing s t a c c a t o c a u s a l i t i e s , 0 women w i t h q ueer c r y p t i c r e a s o n s f o r a l l t h i n g s - I g r a n t i t i s d i f f i c u l t i n t h e s e e q u i v o c a l C a n adian s u n s e t to i m a g i n e t h a t t h r o u g h y o u r s e n s e s y ou do i n d e e d i n v e n t t h e m o u n t a i n . Anyhow, a b s u r d , b u t i t does s e r v e l i t e r a t u r e . Anyone f o r t e a b e f o r e t h e n i g h t f a l l s ? ( L L . 27-34) MacEwen's poem i s a s a r d o n i c v e r s i o n o f G a b r i e l l e Roy's The Hi d d e n M o u n t a i n . I n " U n i v e r s e And" MacEwen a g a i n uses t h e metaphor o f t h e coming i n t o e x i s t e n c e o f a mou n t a i n and e s t a b l i s h e s an a n t i - p a r a l l e l between 113 t h i s "myth o f c r e a t i o n " and t h e myth-making c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e mind and how t h e mind does n o t r i s e t o t h e c o n c o m i t a n t " f o r c e s " o f t h e l a n d . MacEwen i r o n i c a l l y b e g i n s h e r t h i r d s t a n z a , "on e a r t h t h e machines o f o u r myth" ( L . 8) w h i c h i m p l i e s t h e u n i t y o f t h e e a r t h and t h e mind b u t t h i s l i n e a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the e a r t h i s m i n i s c u l e compared t o t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f t h e cosmos, and t h a t t h e machines o f human myth a r e even more m i n i s c u l e . The n e x t two l i n e s emphasize t h i s : g r i n d down, g r i n d s l o w l y now, r u s h i n g t h e w h e e l s o f human s e n s e . ( L L . 9-10) I n h e r n e x t two l i n e s MacEwen s u g g e s t s t h e i n i t i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t b o t h c r e a t i o n myths have t h e same q u a l i t i e s by the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f w h i t e : we d r i n k w h i t e m i l k w h i l e h i g h g a l a c t i c f i e l d s open. (L L . 11-12) Whi t e among i t s many c o n n o t a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t o t a l i t y and n u l i t y as w e l l as y o u t h and o l d age. I n t h e t h r e e c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s o f t h e poem, w h i t e r e f e r s t o t h e f u t u r e and t h e f u t u r e as c h i l d r e n and t h e i r " s t i l l f o r m u l a t i n g " c a p a c i t y f o r myth: and t h e t e r r i b l e l a u g h t e r o f our c h i l d r e n i s h e a r d i n t h a t p o c k e t ; t h a t h i g h w h i t e p l a c e above o u r t h u n d e r . ( L L . 14-16) The f u t u r e t h a t was i m p l i e d i n " U n i v e r s e And" i s d e p i c t e d i n " U n i v e r s e And: The E l e c t r i c Garden." The c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f Eden remains b u t i t i s too h e a v i l y e n c r u s t e d w i t h t h e e l e c t r o n i c age: 114 The p r o t o n s and t h e n e u t r o n s move, g a r d e n e r , s i r e t h e i r s u n s , s p i r a l s o f s e n s e , and s e r v a n t t h e i r p l a n e t s . ( L L . 1-3) The n a r r a t o r r e t a i n s w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f myth and Eden, y e t t h e modern age weighs h e a v i l y . MacEwen c o n c l u d e s : I w a l k w a r i l y t h r o u g h my e l e c t r i c g a rden. ( L L . 21-22) MacEwen a g a i n c o n t e m p o r i z e s and j u x t a p o s e s t h e e a r t h and t h e s p h e r e s w i t h i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l age i n " N i k o l a y e v and P o p o v i c h : The Cosmic B r o t h e r s . " The myth o f c r e a t i o n e n t a i l s t h e u n i v e r s e as much as t h e p l a n e t e a r t h , t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s : make no d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e cosmic egg and t h e eye's d i a m e t e r . ( L L . 12-14) A g a i n , t h i s i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s b o t h t h e macrocosmic and m i c r o -c o s m i c j o u r n a l , t h e " b r o t h e r s " r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s : and f i n d s a t t h e end o f t h e u n i v e r s e n o t w a l l s , b u t m i r r o r s r e f l e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n mark o f h i s own f a c e back i n t o s t u d y i t i r o n i c a l l y , l i k e b r o t h e r s , amazed a t t h e i r own s i m i l a r i t y . ( L L . 30-36) F o r MacEwen, t h e mind i s t h e c o n t a i n e r and t h e c o n t a i n m e n t o f the t i m e -l e s s n e s s o f Eden and a l l myth* 115 "The M a g i c i a n : Three Themes: foreshadows and, e s s e n t i a l l y c a p s u l i z e s , J u l i a n t h e M a g i c i a n . MacEwen p r e s e n t s t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f "magic" o r myth c o r p o r e a l i z i n g a l l as a s p e c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r a r a c e ' s mind: th e b r i l l i a n c e o f t h e i r own d a r k n e s s , t h e i r s h r o u d e d b l o o d hooked out on g l e a m i n g m a s t e r f i s h e r m a n ' s w i r e s f o r t h e dance o f t h e u l t i m a t e a r t e r i e s and t h e b r a i n ' s c a l y p s o and t h e s h i f t i n g o f t h e i r minds' h a r d shadows. (L L . 9-14) I n t h e second s t a n z a t h e m a g i c i a n , t h e myth, assumes i t s own mind and c r e a t e s t h e " r e q u i r e d " c o n v e n t i o n a l Eden: p r o d u c i n g p e a r l y r a b b i t s f o r t h e l e t t u c e - p a t c h e s o f any house. ( L L . 15-16) But i t i s t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t , a g a i n , i s o f utmost i m p o r t a n c e : when my r e a l l o v e i s t h e mind moving as s a i l b o a t t h r o u g h the d a y s , the w h i t e n e s s and t h e freedom o f i t . ( L L . 18-20) I n s t a n z a t h r e e t h e emphasis i s a g a i n on t h e powers o f t h e mind: h o l d s t h e h a r d mind s c r e a m i n g ; t h e c r u s t and t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s a c t h o l d s i n b r i g h t h y p n o s i s t h e w h i t e o f t h e i r b r a i n s . ( L L . 27-30) C o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e e l e c t r o l y s i s o f t h e age, MacEwen p r e s e n t s a " f r e e s p i r i t " who o n l y r e - e m p h a s i z e s t h e w e a r i n e s s and burdensomeness 116 o f o ur age. She does t h i s i n "The Gypsy." MacEwen s u g g e s t s t h e deep-r o o t e d n e s s o f t h i s e x h a u s t i o n by u s i n g b r a c k e t s t o emphasize t h e "wide-s p r e a d n e s s " and t o t a l i t y o f t h i s f e e l i n g : (Dear God, dear God, we a r e t i r e d o f f o l k t a l e s and b e d t i m e s t o r i e s ) ( L L . 1-9) The gypsy i s , t h e r e f o r e , o n l y a n o t h e r b u r d e n i n t h e e l e c t r i c g a rden: e v e n i n g i n some dreamy s l e e p o r g i d d y kingdom, o r a l t e r n a t i v e r e a l i t y , t he gypsy dances a t t h e s h o u l d e r o f t h e c r a n e and t h e workmen work and r i p t h e c i t y t o the u r g e n t sound o f tamb o u r i n e s . . ( L L . 18-23) A l t h o u g h MacEwen r e f e r s t o Eden myth i n terms o f t h e c r e a t i o n myth and myth i n g e n e r a l as t h e a c t o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s she seldom a l l u d e s t o t he a r t i f i c e o f t h e human c r e a t i o n myth o r Adam and Eve. I n " F i s h and Totem" she does: you a r e tot e m my morn i n g myth. (L L . 1-3) I n h e r l a s t s t a n z a she emphasizes t h a t she i s w r i t i n g about an a c t u a l c r e a t i o n and t h e myth o f c r e a t i o n and how t h e two i n t e r r e l a t e : y o u a r e b o t h f i s h and totem; the b e a r and t h e e a g l e b u r n t o g e t h e r . (L L . 22-25) T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r "The C a t a l o g u e s o f Memory." 117 In "The Two Themes of the Dance"-"One: God i s a Dancer" and Two: Adam i s the Dancer i n Reverse" MacEwen implies the synthesis of God -Adam, s p i r i t / f l e s h of the timeless myth-mythicized creation and Eden that she emphasizes and epitomizes i n "The Absolute Dance:" but t h i s : that more by w i l l than circumstance we drink a cider more than sustenance and move towards the t o t a l power of the dance to seek a s i n g l e symmetry, an hour of t o t a l i t y for within the dance l i e s i t s extremity. ( L L . 3 6 - 4 0 ) Cosmic Eggs Benedict - A Breakfast for Barbarians In A Breakfast for Barbarians Gwendolyn MacEwen looks at myth and the mind i n terms of personal creation. The mind becomes the t r a v e l journal recording an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a l journey towards a p h y s i c a l af f i r m a t i o n : [0 my barbarians we w i l l consume our mysteries] 4 Thus "The Garden of Square Roots: An Autobiography" i s move-ment towards i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n while MacEwen contrapuntally puns< on the words " i n s i d e out" and uses and misuses mathematical terminology. While there i s a deprogression from the e s o t e r i c , the concrete and the natural i s paradoxically, and humorously expressed i n these terms: and a l l my gardens grew backwards and a l l the roots were f i n a l l y square and Ah! the flowers grew there l i k e algebra. ( L L . 2 4 - 2 6 ) 118 "The M e t a l l i c Anatomy" i s a r a t h e r weak r e s t a t e m e n t o f " U n i v e r s e And: The E l e c t r i c Garden." T h i s poem a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e when MacEwen dogmatizes h e r mythology t o any e x t e n t and i t i s t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e when she m e n t i o n s t h e F a l l . P r e v i o u s l y she d e a l t w i t h myth and Eden as a s t a t e o f c o n t i n u o u s n e s s and t i m e l e s s n e s s w i t h a l l u s i o n s t o t h e d i s r u p t i o n and change o f t h i s s t a t e by t h e F a l l . Now she i n t r o d u c e s t h e F a l l b u t she does so u n s u r e l y : Now I t e l l y o u F a l l on y o u r knees B e f o r e t h e q u i v e r i n g g i r d e r s o f y o u r c i t y , F a l l on y o u r b e a u t i f u l p r e c i s e knees Beneath me i n t h e b l a c k s t r e e t s ; T h i s i s n o t p o e t r y , b u t c l e a n g r e e d -( L L . 11-15) I s she r e d e f i n i n g myth and Eden i n terms o f t h e F a l l . Has she d i s c o v e r e d a need f o r t h i s i n c l u s i o n o f t h e F a l l i n h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f myth and Eden. Her l a s t two l i n e s a r e s h e e r b a t h o s : T h e r e i s a s c u l p t u r e w h i c h must be made. 0 c i t i z e n pose f o r t h i s image o f t h e c i t y . ( L L . 16-17) "The L e f t Hand and H i r o s h i m a " and "Green w i t h S l e e p " a r e two o t h e r poems when MacEwen t r i e s t o i n t r o d u c e o r f e e l s t h e c o m p u l s i o n t o denote a F a l l i n h e r d e p i c t i o n o f g e n e r a l myth. Her whole book seems t o be a r e - e v a l u a t i o n and abandonment o f c o n c e p t s . She seems t o acknowledge t h i s i n " T h e s i s " and "The P e a n u t - B u t t e r S andwich" e s p e c i a l l y t h e s e words f r o m " T h e s i s " : 1 have noticed • that you believe in giants recently, and your vision is expanding, still, there are shadows 119 on your flesh. beside the light the immediate darkness. ( L L . 14-21) Y e t t h e r e i s a movement towards t h e d o c t r i n i z a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i o n myth i n " T e s l a : An E x c e r p t From a V e r s e P l a y " : From out t h e g o l d e n c o i l s o f H i s tongue they r u n , t h o s e h e a v i n g f r e q u e n c i e s o f sound and l i g h t ; and I i n t e n d t o apprehend.them, t o s e i z e t h o s e o c t a v e s as my t o y s , t o seduce t h e d a r k n e s s from a l l t h e t h e a t r e s o f n i g h t . ( L L . 30-35) " B l a c k Alchemy" a l s o seems t o echo t h i s movement t h a t w i l l c o n t i n u e i n J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n . W i t h " F i n a l l y L e f t I n The L a n d s c a p e " MacEwen's s t u d y o f myth r e t u r n s t o i t s m a i n s p r i n g s i n t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e b u t n o t t o a s p e c i f i c -a l l y C a n a d i a n geography as she a t t e m p t e d i n some o f h e r poems i n The R i s i n g  F i r e e s p e c i a l l y " E x p l o r a t i o n and D i s c o v e r y . " The m e n t a l l a n d s c a p e t a k e s on a l l t h e qu l i t i e s o f the p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e and myth i s p a r t o f t h e voyage o f i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t : F i n a l l y l e f t i n t h e l a n d s c a p e i s t h e d a n c e r ; a l l maps have r e s i g n e d , t h e l a n d s c a p e has d e s i g n e d him. My l i n e s can o n l y p l a g i a r i z e h i s dance. (L L . 1-4) MacEwen c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e emphasis on t h e j o u r n e y ( q u e s t ) and a r t i f i c e . The myth becomes a s e c t i o n , a page from a p h y s i c a l and c e r e b r a l t r a v e l j o u r n a l : 120 L i f e , y o u r t r i l l i o n s p e o p l e me, I am a c o n t i n e n t , a v i o l a t e d geography, Y e t s t i l l I j o u r n e y t o t h i s naked c o u n t r y t o seek a form w h i c h dances i n t h e san d . T h i s i s my chosen l a n d s c a p e . Hear my d a r k s p e e c h , d e i t y . ( L L . 13-18) K a n t i a n K a l e i d o s c o p i c Myth -J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n and The Shadow Maker can be seen as t h e c u l m i n a t i o n and t h e s y n t h e s i s o f MacEwen's work. I n b o t h works MacEwen c o a l e a s e s h e r a t t i t u d e s toward myth and dogmatism. MacEwen's q u o t a t i o n from The P i s t i s S o p h i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n J u l i a n she w i l l i n t e r u n i f y f o r m and c o n t e n t and p r e s e n t t h e v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and d o g m a t i z a t i o n s o f myth. The " C h a r a c t e r " o r " p r o t a g o n i s t - a n t a g o n i s t " o f t h i s j o u r n a l -n o v e l i s J u l i a n o r myth w h i c h he " r e f r a c t s " from and t o h i m s e l f , from and t o the r e a d e r : Were t h e y s h o u t i n g i t ? No, t h e y were c l a p p i n g , yes - and w a v i n g t h e i r arms l i k e w i n d m i l l s f o r h i m t o come back. Somehow t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e s h o u t s had merged i n h i s mind, t a k e n on r e g u l a r s y l l a b l e s . . . . Because he i s an a s p e c t o f myth, J u l i a n has power: Ma g i c i s y o u r b r e a d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , J u l i a n . Keep t o t h e e s s e n t i a l s , I t e l l y o u . Y o u r a r t i s sharpended as f i n e as t h i s b l a d e . . . . (p. 5) 121 Y e t MacEwen emphasizes t h e r e a l i t y and u n r e a l i t y o f J u l i a n when Anya s a y s : 'And t h e w o r l d ' s o n l y b l o n d m a g i c i a n ! ' she went on, i n s p i r e d by h e r b r e a d . 'No wonder they l o v e you, eh?' 'True. I don't b l a c k e n m y s e l f . . . p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y l e g i t i m a t e p a r t o f my a c t , a f t e r a l l . . . .' ( p . 5) J u l i a n r e p r e s e n t s a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f myth and t h e developments and o f f s h o o t s o f myth from t h e m e d i e v a l ages t o t h e p r e s e n t s c i e n t i f i c age. John Read i n , The A l e c h e m i s t i n L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e and A r t comments. mythology and r e l i g i o n , a s t r o l o g y and magic, m y s t i c i s m and s c i e n c e , l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , and many a n o t h e r i n g r e d i a n t - i n c l u d i n g even m u s i c -have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r i s e and d e v e l o p -ment o f alchemy and hence o f c h e m i s t r y , t h e most r o m a n t i c and p i c t u r e s q u e o f a l l t h e m a n i f o l d f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e . , 6 I n J u l i a n MacEwen's cosmic l a n d s c a p e i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a s i m i l a r l a n d s c a p e as d e p i c t e d i n t h e 18th c e n t u r y and e v o l v i n g i n t o t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a w h i c h t r i e d t o c o h e s i f y t h e s c i e n t i f i c movement w i t h r e s i d u a l s o f t h e Romantic e r a w i t h t h e main emphasis on t h e ego i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s l a n d s c a p e : When th e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p l u n g e d i n t o t h e c o s m i c l a n d s c a p e i t was c o n s c i o u s l y and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y s e e k i n g t o r e u n i t e i t s e l f w i t h p r i m a l e n e r g i e s from w h i c h i t f e l t remote. The dim p a s t , t h e age-o l d f a c e o f t h e e a r t h , t h e p r i m i t i v e , t h e c h i l d l i k e , t h e p a s t o r a l were a l i k e l a n d s c a p e s i n w h i c h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d sought t o merge t h e m s e l v e s . But t h i s m e r g i n g was a l s o , f o r c i v i l i z e d men, an a c t o f s y m b o l i c s u i c i d e , a w i l l f u l e x t i n c t i o n o f p e r -s o n a l i t y . . . . S i m i l a r a m b i v a l e n c e a t t e n d s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d b u t f o r o p p o s i t e r e a s o n s . I t was t h e r e a w a k e n i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ego a f t e r t h e s e l f -f o r g e t f u l p l u n g e i n t o l a n d s c a p e t h a t p r o d u c e d b o t h t h e s o c i a l o p t i m i s m and t h e p e r s o n a l m e l a n c h o l y w h i c h Tennyson r e f l e c t s . 122 J u l i a n as dogmatic and non-dogmatic e t e r n a l t i m e l e s s myth e n t a i l s a l l t h e s e a s p e c t s : The human element wasn't t h e r e as he w i s h e d i t . The human element. Myth. F o l k l o r e . B i b l e . K a b b a l a h . The O n o s t i c s . The m y s t i c a l C h r i s t . . . . .(p. 7) J u l i a n i s c o n s t a n t l y d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f p a r a d o x e s . He i s the o n l y " b l o n d m a g i c i a n i n b l a c k " ( p . 9 ) . He p l e a s e s and f r i g h t e n s p e o p l e , h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i s an " a c t , " b u t what does MacEwen mean by a c t . J u l i a n ' s b a p t i s m i s p a r a l l e l e d by the d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s . Whereas the m y s t i c a l dove "801" ( p . 14) w h i c h descends on J u l i a n and i s r e a l l y many doves t h e r e i s o n l y one dove t h a t descends on C h r i s t . By e m p h a s i z i n g paradoxes MacEwen a f f i r m s t h a t J u l i a n i s t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l myth: th e b i r d , t he m y s t i c a l dove . . . 801. . . . t h e dove d e s c e n d i n g . . . A l p h a and Omega combined -t h e sum o f t h e i r numbers . . . 801, t h e i n e f f a b l e name, t h e dove . . . ( p. 14) MacEwen a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t J u l i a n i s t h e c o m p o s i t e o f a l l myth when she p r e s e n t s h i s f o l l o w e r s i n terms o f a d e s c e n d i n g c h a i n o f b e i n g i n t he E l i z a b e t h a n s e n s e : L i k e t h r e e watches on t h r e e c h a i n s , P e t e r , Johann and Aubrey were a l l a t t a c h e d t o J u l i a n ' s b e l t . I f t h e watches rubbed edges, i r r i t a t i n g each o t h e r t e a s i n g up t h e b l i s t e r s , n o t h i n g was t o be done. ( p . 17) He i s , "a paragon o f manhood, womanhood, s a i n t h o o d and godhood" (p. 1 7 ) . The o n l y a n c e s t r y J u l i a n i s g i v e n i s h i s own a l l u s i o n , w h i l e i n a f e v e r e d s l e e p , "So Mary s l e p t w i t h a s o l d i e r , P a n t h e r a ? And my mother was seduced by a g y p s y " ( p . 1 8 ) . But he adds: 123 'A-ha! A l p h a and Omega! That m y s t e r y i s I , and I am t h a t m y s t e r y . I am A l p h a and Omega, t h e d u a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e , t he a t t a i n m e n t o f c o m p l e t e n e s s . . . . (pp. 18-19) J u l i a n ' s f i r s t p u b l i c m i r a c l e i s p a r a l l e l t o t h a t o f C h r i s t . whether J u l i a n had a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d a n y t h i n g i s l e f t i n doubt. Each o f J u l i a n ' s m i r a c l e s i s f o l l o w e d ( p a r a l l e l e d ) by a d e s c r i p t i o n , i n i t a l i c s , o f a s i m i l a r m i r a c l e by C h r i s t . As t h e " n o v e l " p r o g r e s s e s , t h e m i r a c l e s o f C h r i s t i n c r e a s i n g l y t a k e on t h e c o l o r i n g s o f J u l i a n ' s a c t i o n s , t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r f u s i o n a c c e n t u a t e s as t h e book p r o g r e s s e s . The l a s t two s e n t e n c e s d e s c r i b i n g C h r i s t ' s f i r s t m i r a c l e have "magic" f o r t h e i r main word: The p e o p l e b e l i e v e d h i s i n c r e d i b l e c r a f t , grew new r e s p e c t f o r h i s k i n d o f solemn magic and h i s d i s c i p l e s b e l i e v e d on h i m t h e r e . The p r e p o s i t i o n on i s t h e second most i m p o r t a n t word i n t h i s p h r a s e . J u l i a n i s a r e f r a c t i o n o f an ori myth and he i s a r e f r a c t i o n o f and on t h e r e a d e r . The t e c h n i q u e t h a t MacEwen uses t o p r e s e n t myth i s t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the n a r r a t o r , o r t h e c h a r a c t e r by i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t e r - r e l a t e s and i s a c t e d upon as much as i t a c t i v a t e s o t h e r s . That MacEwen i s c o n s c i o u s l y w o r k i n g w i t h and i n a r t i f i c e i s a l l u d e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y as when J u l i a n s a y s : ' P o e t i c . . . you s h o u l d perhaps p u r s u e l i t e r a t u r e and l e a v e magic t o i t s r i g h t f u l r a b b i t s , P e t e r . . . .' (p.27) T h a t J u l i a n i s c r e a t i n g a work o f a r t , an a r t i f i c e as w e l l as f o r m u l a t i n g h i m s e l f as myth becomes o b v i o u s i n t h e words: 124 'Inside the womb . . . of the a r t , my dear Peter . . . i s a fo e t u s , another a r t . The v i r g i n c r a f t . . . expands, feeds the other . . . .' (p. 29) MacEwen emphasizes t h a t a r t i f i c e i s h e r o v e r a l l c o n c e r n when J u l i a n goes t o s t a n d by t h e r i v e r and u n l i k e C h r i s t ' s p a r a l l e l m i r a c l e , J u l i a n does n o t h i n g . Thereupon MacEwen d e s c r i b e s the m i r a c l e a t B e t h s a d a b u t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i t s e l f i s c h a r g e d , f o r : Bethsadastarik in the noon. Soon those waters would begin to stir, charged as with sacred semen from the phallus of the Almighty, and the race would begin. (p. 33) J u l i a n ' s c o n c l u d i n g remark on a " m i r a c l e " and even an e v e n t t h a t d i d n ' t o c c u r emphasizes t h e a s p e c t o f a r t i f i c e : He spoke c a l m l y now, and w i t h d i s c i p l i n e . S e a r c h i n g f o r the c o r r e c t w ords, he quo t e d s l o w l y : 'Let t h e a r t i s t b u t c o n s i d e r . . . how he may awaken t h e dead and d i s a p p e a r e d l i f e w h i c h . . . . l i e s h i d d e n and c a p t i v a t e d i n t h e c u r s e . . . .; and i f he does - ' (p. 35) When I v a n ' s m i r a c l e o f s i g h t ends i n d e a t h , a d e a t h w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n J u l i a n ' s own d e a t h and r e s u r r e c t i o n , t h e emphasis i s on a r t i f i c e o r d e r i n g t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f chaos w h i c h i s myth and w h i c h c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s e l f c r e a t i o n and t h e f a l l : 125 J u l i a n was always b e a u t i f u l . J u l i a n was t h e Unknown . . . t h e wonder o f t h e Unknown, t h e l o v e o f t h e wonder, the p e r s i s t e n c e o f the l o v e . An a n t i q u e c l o c k w i t h s i l v e r hands; a h a n d f u l o f D e v i l ' s P a i n t b r u s h ; a p p l e s ; f o g . (p. 69) J u l i a n has t h e v i s i o n o f the a r t i s t and t h e d e i t y , " I n s a n i t y i s m e r e l y a word f o r e x a c t v i s i o n . . . ." (p. 85) J u l i a n ' s t r i a l i s a p a r a p h r a s a l o f t h a t o f C h r i s t , y e t J u l i a n acknowledges t h a t he i s b e f o r e and a f t e r C h r i s t , t h a t he i s t h e sum o f a l l d o g m a t i z a t i o n o f m y t h o l o g y : C e l s u s t h o u g h t C h r i s t t e s t i f i e d a g a i n s t h i m s e l f when he s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a g i c i a n s and s o r c e r e r s m i m i c k i n g h i s own m i r a c l e s . A l l t h r e e passages a r e r i g h t , and a l l t h r e e passages a r e wrong, P h i l i p . As soon as we a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y t h a t C h r i s t ' s h e a l i n g s were e a r l y and s u p e r l a t i v e examples o f t h e f i n e s t and p u r e s t magic - t h e n t h e s i t u a t i o n i s c l a r i f i e d . . . (pp. 93-94) The t r i a l w h i c h , i n many ways, a p a r a p h r a s a l o f K a f k a , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a g a i n s t s c i e n c e . J u l i a n as a r e f r a c t i o n o f t h e p a s t i s n o t a c c e p t e d . Thus t h e argument w i t h P h i l i p about the d i s t i n c t i o n between J u l i a n as a l c h e m i c i a n who i s " t h e mother" o f s c i e n c e , and who i s t h u s c a p a b l e o f c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r g o i n g change. C h r i s t ' s d e a t h i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f v e r b a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and thus as a l i t e r a r y a r t i f i c e : ' U n d e r s t a n d , ' someone w r o t e much l a t e r , ' t h e r e f o r e i n me, t h e s l a y i n g 126 o f a word, t h e p i e r c i n g o f a word, t h e b l o o d o f a word, t h e wounding o f a word, the h a n g i n g o f a word, t h e d e a t h o f a word i And t h e r e f o r e s t r e t c h e d - a ' t ' o f f l e s h a g a i n s t a ' t ' o f wood, a g a i n s t a ' t ' as i n t r u t h and t r i u m p h - t h e poor w h i t e m a g i c i a n f r o m N a z a r e t h . (pp. 100-101) J u l i a n ' s d e a t h p a r a l l e l s t h i s and, as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s d e a t h has been made i n t o a r t i f i c e , J u l i a n ' s d e a t h has been d e p i c t e d i n r e a l i s t i c t e rms: The t h i n g d i d n ' t even l o o k d r a m a t i c . I t l o o k e d j u s t l i k e a m a g i c i a n t i e d t o a s i l l y c r o s s and propped a g a i n s t a t r e e . (p. 103) The " E p i l o g u e " i n J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n o v e r t l y emphasizes t h e j o u r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the e n t i r e book and t h a t t h i s s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n s t h e same q u a l i t i e s o f i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t o f t h e e a r l y t r a v e l j o u r n a l s and w h i c h d e f i n e d myth: Here l i e , i n k on p a p e r , t h e b l o o d , b r a i n and s o u l o f J u l i a n t h e M a g i c i a n . W h i l e we r e a d t h i s , he b a r g a i n s f o r h i s s o u l by p r o d u c i n g r e d r a b b i t s f o r L u c i f e r and s e v e r a l c l a y s p a r r o w s f o r an a u d i e n c e o f a n g e l s . ( p . 109) J u l i a n ' s " E p i l o g u e J o u r n a l " i t s e l f i s an a s p e c t o f c r e a t i o n and the c r e a t i o n myth. I t has s e v e n e n t r i e s f o r t h e s e v e n days o f c r e a t i o n . Each day emphasizes g o l d and amber, each day i s a g r o w i n g and a movement towards p e r f e c t i o n . The " c l o s i n g " o f Day One i s t y p i c a l : 127 Day One I count as c l o s i n g . C l o s i n g on t h e b r i g h t n i g h t o f th e young s t a r o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c e o f a l l t h i n g s . (p. 116) J u l i a n i s u n d e r g o i n g "a human alchemy" (p. 1 1 9 ) . He w i l l encompass w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h e p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e . He merges b u t does n o t d e s t r o y and i s n o t d e s t r o y e d : 0 I am no i c o n o c l a s t ; . c a l l - m e a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t . Say I r e - d e s i g n . C a l l me a d e s t r u c t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t ; an i n v e r t e d a r c h i t e c t , b u t say I b u i l d , say 1 b u i l d . K a r d i n s a y s I b u i l d b u t he d o e s n ' t know what I'm b u i l d i n g . K a r d i n s a y s I do d r i p h o l i n e s s l i k e b u t t e r , b u t he do e s n ' t know about t h e b r e a d o r the oven. (p. 122) J u l i a n emphasizes h i s i n t e r s y n t h e s i s i n Day Three o f h i s j o u r n a l : We e a t o u r p a r t s t o f o r m w h o l e s . And t h e w holes a r e p a r t s o f a Whole and t h e Whole has a l l p a r t s and no p a r t s . IAO IAO IAO. I s t h e H i g h S e l f g o i n g f o r t h i n m a n i f e s t a t i o n . IAO i s th e d i s c i p l i n e d l o w e r mind. IAO i s C h r i s t and I am i a o . (p. 124) The e n t r y f o r Day F i v e i s a " t a k e o f f " on t h e j o u r n a l f o r m as a r t i f i c e and a comment on myth i n i t s n a r r a t i o n o f "a modern myth" (p. 135) o f t h e c h a r a c t e r E r n e s t and h i s q u e s t f o r gods who a r e "out o f p r i n t " ( p . 138) and e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e n o n - e x i s t a n t god, Pan. The day ends w i t h P e t e r , J u l i a n ' s h e l p e r i n t e r f u s i n g w i t h him. T h i s i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e d o g m a t i z a t i o n and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f GENERAL MYTH: 128 The s e r v i t u d e i s n o t d i f f i c u l t , as you m ight b e l i e v e . I am t h e a p p r e n t i c e t o the g r e a t e s t M a g i c i a n . I w o r s h i p h i m and l e t h i m occupy me as he w i l l s and c a r r y out h i s b r i l l i a n t c a r e e r w i t h my f l e s h as h i s robes . . . . I must s l e e p a g a i n , f o r he i s w a k i n g . . . . (p. 141) W i t h t h e end o f Day S i x , J u l i a n p r e p a r e s to undergo h i s se c o n d d e a t h . The e n t r y f o r Day Seven c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e emphasis on J u l i a n as a t i m e l e s s and t r a n s p a r e n t myth: Here ends t h e d i a r y o f J u l i a n t h e M a g i c i a n . Much was d e s t r o y e d , and much, perhaps l o s t v a l i d i t y and meaning i n an a b o r t i v e t e x t . W i t h o u t t i m e and l o c a t i o n , we cannot p l a c e h i s f i g u r e anywhere i n h i s t o r y . P erhaps i t i s j u s t as w e l l , f o r we a r e t h e r a b b i t s and t h e f i n g e r s he speaks o f . We do n o t know. (p. 151) J u s t as J u l i a n h i m s e l f i s i n c o n c l u s i v e so i s t h e book and t h e a r t i f i c e t h a t e n c l o s e s him, so a r e t h e r e a d e r s who have been a c t e d upon. I n J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n MacEwen p r e s e n t s t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s o f myth t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s p a r e n t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f J u l i a n . I n d o i n g so she p r e s e n t s a l l the s t a g e s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n and t h e dog-m a t i z a t i o n o f myth and she p r e s e n t s myth as an a r t i f i c e . As i n h e r o t h e r b o o k s , myth i s an a s p e c t o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h e n a b l e s i t t o be m i c r o c o s m i c and.macrocosmic s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . What MacEwen had e n u n c i a t e d i n The Drunken C l o c k and The R i s i n g F i r e she p r e s e n t s w i t h o u t any o f the n a t i o n a l i s t i c o v e r t o n e s i n h e r " n o v e l . " I n J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n MacEwen 129 made an a l l i n c l u s i v e s t u d y o f myth and by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e myth as a r t i f i c e and as c e r e b r a l t r a v e l j o u r n a l she emphasized i t s c a n a d i a n e s s a t i t s s h e e r e s t and i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y a t i t s d e n s e s t . The E l e c t r o n i c Spectrum - C i r c u i t s and Synergy -The Shadow-Maker I n The Shadow-Maker MacEwen a g a i n p r e s e n t s myth as an a s p e c t o f t h e mind. S c i e n c e , t h e modern alchemy, i s d r e s s e d i n i t s o l d r o b e s . The E l e c t r o n i c Garden a g a i n becomes t h e m e d i e v a l Enchanted Green. MacEwen seems t o have muted h e r comprehensions and d e p i c t i o n s o f myth i n t o a " H o l y T e r r o r . " T h i s i s t r u e f o r "The Eye," "The Taming o f t h e Dragon," and "From The T a r o t : The Ace of Cups." I n "The Eye" h e r mind moves t o t h e God she has p r e v i o u s l y o n l y "more t h a n i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l y named," she now c a l l s h im " L o r d " : You a r e p u l l i n g me i n l i k e a d y i n g s t a r t o know me o u t s i d e o f t i m e and s p a c e , so r a p i d I go and d i s a p p e a r i n t o y o u r f a c e i n t o t h e s m a l l b e l o v e d i s l a n d o f y o u r Eye.g She now acknowledges a f a c e - an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s b e i n g . MacEwen seems t o i m p l y , i n "The Taming o f t h e Dragon" t h a t she has a t t a i n e d some s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h e r q u e s t and d e f i n i t i o n o f myth and d e i t y : -130 But now t h e b e a s t i s t a m i n g , and b e n e a t h H i s n o b l e c l a w I l i e , c r y i n g t o d e a t h The end o f h i s k i l l i n g , and between h i s t e e t h A r e b i t s o f f l o w e r s , f o r he's sworn o f f f l e s h ; He seems so g l a d and f o o l i s h , and around h i s neck There i s a w r e a t h . ( L L . 9-14) The mood w i t h some emphasis on p a r a d o x , i s t h e same f o r "From The T a r o t : The Ace o f Cups" , MacEwen's consummation consumes: Of c o u r s e i t drank you as you d r a n k i t down; I t was t h e b r o k e n c h a l i c e o f y o u r y e a r s , I t s siape on a r c h a e o l o g y . You drowned, And i n s i d e i t was l i q u o r , i t was v e n e g a r y and p a i n . You c r i e d , I drank once and I won't d r i n k a g a i n ! ( L L . 8-12) S e c t i o n One ends w i t h "The Name o f t h e P l a c e . " The w o r l d i s a " c r e a t i o n " o f t h e l o v e r s as t h e y " c r e a t e " myth, as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r minds. The r e f e r e n c e t o tongue i n l i n e 26 i s an a l l u s i o n t o a r t i f i c e ; a g a i n a r t i f i c e i n t e r u n i f i e s w i t h c o n t e n t . Myth i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e l o v e r s who c r e a t e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e w o r l d and a t o t a l myth w h i c h i s the f i n a l a r t i f i c e : I know t h e name o f t h e p l a c e so w e l l That i t ' s j u s t now s l i p p e d my tongue, But i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r so l o n g as you T e l l me I have n o t been t h e r e a l o n e . A l l t h i n g s a r e p l o t t i n g t o make us w h o l e , A l l t h i n g s c o n s p i r e t o make us one. (LL. 25-30) S e c t i o n Two, "The U n s p e a k a b l e " seems p a r a d o x i c a l l y b o t h t o b e l i e i t s d e n o t a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n i s perhaps t h e l e a s t e s o t e r i c o f a l l o f MacEwen's works. T h i s s e c t i o n i s v e r y e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t h e d a r w i n i a n s e n s e . T h i s s e c t i o n i s most r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e works o f M a r g a r e t Atwbod. 131 The f i r s t poem "The Compass" ends w i t h t h e o l d w o r l d - t r a v e l l e d e x p l o r e r j o t t i n g , " t h e f i r s t few l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t " ( L . 6 3 ) . The e x p l o r e r ' s q u e s t and i n i t i a t i o n i s meager be c a u s e h i s compass and h i s "grammar" (L . 5) a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f h i s mind a r e o v e r i n c l o s e d . The a r t i f i c e t h a t i s w i t h i n and w i t h o u t h i s myth, i s o n l y t h e few l e t t e r s . MacEwen compares t h i s j o u r n a l t o h e r book o f poems ( L . 54) w h i c h i s "a p o i n t l e s s g i f t " ( L . 54) - i t cannot be e n c l o s e d , as t h e myth i s unbounded and unbounding, so i s the a r t i f i c e . MacEwen emphasizes t h e unencompassment o f h e r mind, h e r myth i n " T h i s N o r t h e r n Mouth." A g a i n speech becomes an a r t i f i c e o f the q u e s t and myth as s t a n z a two s u g g e s t s : I sometimes j o u r n e y outward and a round; y e t i n t h e e a s t t h e y ask me o f t h e d a r k , m y s t e r i o u s w e s t . (LL . 6-9) Y e t t h e r e i s a l s o a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n , o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a g r o w i n g l a n d . "The Naming Day" i s t h e j o u r n a l o f t h e mind w a n d e r i n g v i a F i v e League B o o t s o v e r t h e w o r l d . The w o r l d i s t h e "word" (L.15) t h a t w i l l sound f o r e v e r " t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h " ( L . 1 6 ) . The s u g g e s t i o n o f F i v e League Boots i s c a r r i e d o v e r i n "The H e e l " i n w h i c h t h e mind, t h e memory as myth i s m e t a p h o r i z e d as a h e e l . T h i s b r i l l i a n t metaphor s u g g e s t s man's f a l l e n n a t u r e ( A c h i l l e s h e e l ) and thus Eden myth and a l s o , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , an e n d l e s s growth and e v o l u t i o n . The h e e l as myth, and c o n t a i n m e n t o f myth o r a r t i f i c e i s a g a i n t i m e l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s : I b l e s s t h o s e whoturned t h e d o u b l e f a c e o f memory around, who t u r n e d on t h e i r naked g r e e n h e e l s and h a d g r e a t dreams and i n t h e queer hour when th e y a r e s t r u c k a t the eyes and i n t h e l a s t s u n r i s e c l a i m s and c r i p p l e s them, I s t a n d and remark t h a t on t h e edge o f t h i s s t r a n d I a l s o f e e l t h e h o l y w a t e r s l a p p i n g j u s t b e h i n d my h e e l . ( L L . 16-23) The i n t e r l i n k i n g o f h e e l and eyes r e i n f o r c e s t h e i n f i n i t e a s p e c t s o f t h e "myth t y p e " and a r t i f i c e t y p e . " "The P o r t a g e " and " N i g h t on G u l l L a k e " a r e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l , more c r u d e , more c h a u v i n i s t i c r e s t a t e m e n t s o f " T h e H e e l . " I n b o t h t h e a r t i f i c e o f t h e t r a v e l j o u r n a l i s more b l a n t a n t w i t h o u t any a l l - i n c l u s i v e metaphors such as the h e e l o r t h e e y e , i n s t e a d MacEwen uses t h e pronoun we i n "The P o r t a g e " and t h e c l i c h e d and t r i t e metaphor o f t h e i s l a n d on " N i g h t on G u l l L a k e . " "The T h i n Garden" i s t h e t h i n n e s t and one o f t h e w o r s t most obese poems t h a t MacEwen has ever, w r i t t e n . I t s a y s n o t h i n g t h a t she h a s n ' t s a i d b e t t e r i n A B r e a k f a s t f o r B a r b a r i a n s o r i n The R i s i n g F i r e and i t does so i n two b e l a b o u r e d pages. I n S e c t i o n T h r e e , "The S l e e p e r " MacEwen d e p i c t s t h e dreaming, g r o w i n g l a n d as an a s p e c t o f t h e dreaming, h a l f - a c k n o w l e d g e d myth o f t h e mind. S t a n z a t h r e e o f "Dark P i n e s under Water" summarizes t h i s : But t h e dar k p i n e s o f y o u r mind d i p deeper And y ou a r e s i n k i n g , s i n k i n g , s l e e p e r I n an e l e m e n t a r y w o r l d ; There i s s o m e t h i n g down t h e r e and you want i t t o l d . ( L L . 10-13) 133 T h i s i s t r u e f o r "Dreamer Dream On" and "Song f o r a S t r a n g e r . " I n t h e t r i l o g y "Dream One: The M a n - F i s h , " "Dream Two: The B e a s t s " and "Dream Three: The C h i l d " MacEwen i s p a r a p h r a s i n g J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n w h i l e a v o i d i n g d ogmatic e n t a i l m e n t s . I n the t r i l o g y she moves f r o m myth as p h y s i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l e v o l u t i o n t o myth as t i m e l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s i n the c o n t i n u o u s a r t i f i c e o f t h e c h i l d , and a c o n t i n u o u s myth i n t h e powers o f t h e c h i l d ' s mind: I've always been here, turning and turning and I ' l l always be here, turning and turning From the beginning and to the end turning, from alpha to omega turning and turning, and I l o o k e d and I saw i t was me. Even MacEwen's use and non-use o f i t a l i c s s u g g e s t s an a s p e c t o f a r t i f i c e , and a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between s t a t e s o f c r e a t i o n and b e i n g . The t r i l o g y e v o l v e s t o " S k y - R i d e r s " whereby e v o l u t i o n becomes a cosmic c r e a t i o n w i t h a man, a woman and a c h i l d . Eden becomes t h e Cosmos w h i c h i s b o t h v a s t and m i n u t e , w h i c h i s beyond and w i t h i n t h e man and t h e woman and t h e c h i l d c r e a t e d by them and c r e a t i n g w i t h i n them, "What we r i d e r i d e s us f i n a l l y " ( L . 1 2 0 ) . S e c t i o n F o u r o f The Shadow Maker has t h e same name. MacEwen has now d e f i n e d and c i r c u m s c r i b e d a l l a s p e c t s o f myth, she now a l l u d e s t o l o v e ; l o v e i n c o s m ic t e r m s , l o v e o f a f i f t h e a r t h . Her poems "The L o v e -C l o c k " "The Kingdom" and " F i r e Gardens" e x e m p l i f y t h i s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f " F i r e Gardens" b e s t summarizes t h e s e poems: But a c o l l i s i o n o f l o v e s t o l e t i m e and b r e a t h i n a g arden whose f l o w e r s were f l a m e s w h i c h b u r n e d beyond d e a t h . ( L L . 17-19) 134 The t h r e e c o n c l u d i n g poems o f the book "The Shadow-Maker," "The R e t u r n " and "The Wings" go beyond t h e mere t e r r i t o r i a l a s p e c t o f myth, beyond t h e dogmatic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f a l l and l o v e , beyond a q u e s t i n t o C r e a t i o n even as m y t h l e s s n e s s as t h e l a s t two l i n e s o f "The Wings" a f f i r m : Nameless y o u r name B r i n g s f o r t h t h e f l o o d s . ( L L . 37-38) Gwendolyn MacEwen, t h e n , e s s e n t i a l l y r e t u r n s t o where she began. She began h e r e a r l y books w i t h a s t u d y o f c r e a t i o n as myth, she t h e n d e a l t w i t h Eden as p a r t o f t h i s c r e a t i o n and myth and myth g e n e r a l l y as an a s p e c t o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As she e v o l v e d a more complex comprehension o f myth she n e v e r t h e l e s s h e i g h t e n e d h e r own and h e r r e a d e r ' s awareness o f i t s t i m e l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s i n h e r e a r l y books she began a l s o t o work w i t h a r t i f i c e . The a s p e c t o f myth i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c e r e b r a l t r a v e l j o u r n a l w h i c h i s myth i t s e l f , t h us myth becomes i t s own s t r u c t u r e ( a r t i f i c e ) and c o n t e n t . I n J u l i a n  The M a g i c i a n MacEwen t r a n s p a r e n t l y p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e c o l o r a t i o n s o f myth. I n The Shadow-Maker myth as a r t i f i c e and c o n t e n t i s n o t c r e a t i o n b u t a " s u b s t a n c e , " , a "shadow" making t h e t i m e l e s s and t h e s p a c e l e s s , TIMELESS SPACELESS. CHAPTER FOUR - FOOTNOTES Gwendolyn MacEwen, The Drunken C l o c k ( T o r o n t o , 1961). A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 2 M a r s h a l l McLuhan, "James J o y c e : T r i v i a l and Q u a d r i v i a l , " The I n t e r i o r Landscape ed. Eugene McNamara (New Y o r k , 1969), pp. 23-24. 3 Gwendolyn MacEwen, The R i s i n g F i r e ( T o r o n t o , 1963), p. 3, LL. 6-10. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d below t h e q u o t a t i o n . 4 Gwendolyn MacEwen, A B r e a k f a s t f o r B a r b a r i a n s ( T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1, L L . 19-20. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . ^Gwendolyn MacEwen, J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n ( T o r o n t o , 1963), p. 3. A l l s u b s equent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a b elow t h e q u o t a t i o n . John Read,.The A l c h e m i s t i n L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e and A r t (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. v. ^ M a r s h a l l McLuhan, "Tennyson and P i c t u r e s q u e P o e t r y , " The  I n t e r i o r Landscape ed. Eugene McNamara (New Y o r k , 1969), pp. 150-151. g Gwendolyn MacEwen, The Shadow-Maker ( T o r o n t o , 1969), p. 4, LL. 7-11. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n f r o m t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . CHAPTER FIVE CEREBRAL GEOGRAPHY AS CONVOLUTIONS IN DIARY -THE WORKS OF MARGARET ATWOOD D a r w i n i a n D a g u e r r e o t y p e - The C i r c l e Game The C i r c l e Game b e g i n s , as do a l l o f M a r g a r e t Atwood's books o f p o e t r y , w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n f r o n t i n g , and " a t t e m p t i n g " t o become p a r t o f the l a n d s c a p e t h a t he i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a s p e c t o f . The c i r c u l a r "movement" o f Atwood's f i r s t book i s the fo r m a t o f a l l h e r b o o k s . T h e r e i s a movement from t h e p r e s e n t t o t h e p a s t o r v i c e v e r s a , y e t a l l i s encompassed and e n t a i l e d w i t h i n t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s as i t c r e a t e s a g e n e r a l m y t h o l o g y . " T h i s I s A Ph o t o g r a p h o f Me" i s an example o f the c o n s c i o u s n e s s c r e a t i n g myth. As i n MacEwen, g e n e r a l myth i s a t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f t i m e and s p a c e , and i s v e r y much an a s p e c t o f p e r c e p t i o n . The mind c r e a t e s and o r d e r s myth: b u t i f you l o o k l o n g enough, e v e n t u a l l y you w i l l be a b l e t o see me.^ As i n h e r o t h e r books o f p o e t r y , t h i s poem b e g i n s t h e r e v e r s i n g , y e t e s s e n t i a l l y , and p a r a d o x i c a l l y , u n i f i e d and i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u l a r movement o f the book. The c i r c l e w i t h o u t b e g i n n i n g o r end w i t h o u t , q u e s t i o n o r 137 answer. F o r Atwood, myth i s so e n c l o s e d t h a t she n e v e r even t r i e s t o p a r t i t i o n i t as a s s u r e d l y as does Hugh MacLennan, o r as h a p h a z a r d l y and v a g u e l y as does Gwendolyn MacEwen. The s e a r c h f o r myth, t o c r e a t e o r c o n t i n u e a myth i s t h e theme o f t h e i r o n i c poem "A Messenger." The i r o n y o f t h e q u e s t i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s : The man came from nowhere and i s g o i n g nowhere. The myth w h i c h t h e messenger hopes t o a f f i r m w i t h i n h i m s e l f i s e i t h e r " g r e e n o r b l a c k and w h i t e " ( L L . 3 6 - 3 7 ) . I t i s p o s i t i v e as i t i s n e g a t i v e ; i t i s an a c t u a l i t y as i t i s an i m p l a u s i b i l i t y . As i n MacEwen, t h e q u e s t , t h e consummation, i s consuming: [ i t ] i s f e e d i n g on h i m l i k e a tapeworm has r a i s e d h i m from t h e ground and b r o u g h t h i m t o t h i s window. (39-41) Y e t i t l e a d s t o an a f f i r m a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n ( t h e window) and t o an enun-c i a t i o n . As i n MacEwen's w o r k s , Atwood p r e s e n t s myth as a r t i f i c e as w e l l as c o n t e n t : o b l i t e r a t e d mouth i n a s i l e n t l a n g u a g e . ( L L . 51-52) T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r " E v e n i n g T r a i n s t a t i o n B e f o r e D e p a r t u r e " : I move and l i v e on t h e edges (what edges) 1 3 8 I l i v e on a l l edges there are. ( L L . 5 3 - 5 7 ) Myth i s a t o t a l i t y ; i t has form and i t i s formless.- I t contains the a r t i s t ' s mind and i t i s contained within h i s mind. "A Descent Through The Carpet" i s an aspect of the physical evolution of the land and i t s creatures, and the concomitant cerebral evolution of myth. The concluding l i n e s again suggest MacEwen: my f i s t e d hand my skin holds remnants of ancestors f o s s i l bones and fangs acknowledgement: I was born dredged up from time and harboured the night these wars began. ( L L . 5 9 - 6 9 ) "The C i r c l e Game," which gives the volume i t s t i t l e , represents the ph y s i c a l and cerebral evolutionary aspect of myth, as w e l l as an Edenic aspect which i s rather rare i n Atwood who steers clear of any dogmatizing of myth. The f i r s t two stanzas suggest Adam and Eve and the F a l l : The c h i l d r e n on the lawn joined hand to hand go round and round each arm going into the next arm, around 139 f u l l c i r c l e u n t i l i t comes ba c k i n t o each o f t h e s i n g l e b o d i e s a g a i n . ( L L . 1-9) And i n s e c t i o n f o u r , s t a n z a f o u r , Adam and Eve a r e p r e s e n t e d as g e o g r a p h i c a l and c e r e b r a l e n t i t i e s : So now you t r a c e me l i k e a c o u n t r y ' s boundary o r a s t r a n g e new w r i n k l e i n y o u r own w e l l known s k i n and I am f i x e d , s t u c k down on t h e o u t s p r e a d map o f t h i s room, o f y o u r mind's c o n t i n e n t . ( L L . 146-152) The same a s p e c t o f a consummation t h a t i s consuming, t h a t MacEwen meta-p h o r i z e s , e s p e c i a l l y as an a s p e c t o f l o v e , i s a l s o t r u e f o r Atwood: e r a s e a l l maps, c r a c k t h e p r o t e c t i n g e g g s h e l l o f y o u r t u r n i n g s i n g i n g c h i l d r e n : I want t h e c i r c l e b r o k e n . ( L L . 290-295) The poem c o n t a i n s a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f myth. The c i r c l e becomes, as i t does f o r MacEwen who a l s o makes use o f t h e same image, c o n t e n t as w e l l as a r t i f i c e . The myth as c o n t e n t and a r t i f i c e becomes an i n t e r u n i f i e d t o t a l i t y . The c h i l d r e n a r e a metaphor f o r t i m e l e s s n e s s t h a t b o t h MacEwen and Atwood a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f c o n s t a n t l y , e m p h a s i z i n g l a n g u a g e , t h e s i l e n t l a n g u a g e , t h e c i r c l e t h a t t h e y hope t o b r e a k b u t w h i c h i s , i n a s e n s e b r o k e n by b e i n g u t t e r e d u n u t t e r a b l y i n t h e s i l e n t c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e mind. 140 I n " M i g r a t i o n : C.P.R." Atwood o v e r t l y r e f e r s t o t h e t r a v e l j o u r n a l . The i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t o f myth becomes a westward movement ( p h y s i c a l l y and c e r e b r a l l y ) . The f i s h e r m a n becomes t h e metaphor o f the q u e s t . Atwood i n d i c a t e s t h a t myth i s a r t i f i c e i n h e r l a s t l i n e s by u s i n g b r a c k e t s . That w h i c h i s consuming i s a g a i n consumed: t h a t w h i c h w o u l d be u t t e r e d i s l e f t i n s i l e n t c o n t a i n m e n t y e t "and l a n g u a g e i s t h e l a w " ( 1 . 19) where: ( t h e f i s h e r m e n a r e c a s t i n g t h e i r n e t s h e r e as w e l l ) and b l u n t e d mountains r o l l i n g ( t h e f i r s t w h a l e s maybe?) i n t h e i n e s c a p a b l e m i s t s . (LL.125-132) W i t h " J o u r n e y To The I n t e r i o r " Atwood b a c k t r a c k s f r o m t h e j o u r -ney i n t o t h e mind w h i c h , f o r h e r , i s e x t r e m e l y dangerous and p a i n f u l : t h a t t r a v e l i s n o t t h e easy g o i n g from p o i n t t o p o i n t , a d o t t e d l i n e on a map, l o c a t i o n p l o t t e d on a s q u a r e s u r f a c e b u t t h a t I move s u r r o u n d e d by a t a n g l e o f b r a n c h e s , a n e t o f a i r and a l t e r n a t e l i g h t and d a r k , a t a l l t i m e s ; t h a t t h e r e a r e no d e s t i n a t i o n s a p a r t from t h i s . ( L L . 12-20) Atwood acknowledges t h a t t h e mind i s myth and a r t i f i c e when she a g a i n r e f e r s to t h e c i r c l e and does so when e n c l o s i n g i t i n b r a c k e t s : (have I been w a l k i n g i n c i r c l e s a g a i n ? ) ( L L . 30-31) 141 Atwood c o n c l u d e s : Whatever I do I must keep my head. I know i t i s e a s i e r f o r me t o l o s e my way f o r e v e r h e r e , t h a n i n o t h e r l a n d s c a p e s . ( L L . 42-45) Where Atwood f e a r s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f o b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l geography as e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l myth i n " J o u r n e y To The I n t e r i o r , " i n "Some O b j e c t s o f Wood and S t o n e " she p r e s e n t s t h e known i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e movement towards t h e f u s i o n o f t h i s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n . I n "Some O b j e c t s o f Wood and S t o n e " myth does n o t r e a l i z e i t s t o t a l i t y , b u t r a t h e r o n l y i t s t o t e m i c a s p e c t . The emphasis i s on a p h y s i c a l more t h a n c e r e b r a l e v o l u t i o n , whereas i n "The C i r c l e Game" Atwood had i n c l u d e d a l l a s p e c t s o f myth and i n t e r f u s e d a l l a s p e c t s o f t h i s p h y s i c a l and c e r e b r a l e v o l u t i o n . I n t h i s poem she acknowledges the i n c o n c l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n : I n t h e d a r k n e s s l a t e r and even when t h e a n i m a l has gone, t h e y keep t h e image o f t h a t i n n e r shape hands h o l d i n g warm hands h o l d i n g the h a l f - f o r m e d a i r . ( L L . 87-94) The a s p e c t o f a r t i f i c e i s a g a i n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e poem: t h e hands become t h e means o f p r e s e n t i n g and e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n ( L L . 24-25) and a l s o e n c l o s i n g i t and b e i n g p a r t o f t h e " t o t a l " f orm. " P r e - A m p h i b i a n " i s a n o t h e r poem i n w h i c h Atwood p r e s e n t s myth i n terms o f a g e o g r a p h i c a l and c e r e b r a l e v o l u t i o n and a g a i n , as i n MacEwen, 142 t h e l o v e r s a r e p a r t o f t h i s e v o l u t i o n . Eden i s thus a p a r t o f t h e t i m e -l e s s n e s s o f t h i s e v o l u t i o n : The e a r t h s h i f t s , b r i n g i n g t h e moment b e f o r e f o c u s , when t h e s e t i d e s r e c e d e ; and we see each o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e h a r d e n i n g s c a l e s of w a k i n g . ( L L . 30-35) Atwood's l a s t two poems i n The C i r c l e Game, "The E x p l o r e r s " and "The S e t t l e r s " a r e b o t h p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a p r o g r e s s i o n o f the i d e a of e v o l u t i o n and a l s o a r e v e r s a l o r r e t r e a t i n t o t h e p a s t . I n "The Ex-p l o r e r s " t h e l a n d has been made w h o l e , y e t t h e e x p l o r a t i o n has o n l y begun. The l o v e r s ' s k e l e t o n s f i n a l l y become onegnawed bone. The l o v e r s a r e out o f Eden, y e t i t , l i k e t h e e x p l o r a t i o n , i s t i m e l e s s : (we c a n ' t see them y e t ; we know th e y must be coming, b e c a u s e t h e y always come s e v e r a l m i n u t e s too l a t e ) ( t h e y won't be a b l e t o t e l l how l o n g we were c a s t away, o r why, o r , from t h e s e gnawed bones, w h i c h was the s u r v i v o r ) a t t h e two s k e l e t o n s . (LL23-33) Atwood uses b r a c k e t s t o emphasize t h e myth as a r t i f i c e ; t h e myth i s c o n -t a i n e d as i s t h e "formed" l a n d w i t h i t s s k e l e t a l l o v e r s who e v o l v e as t h e myth i t s e l f i s e v o l v i n g . " S e t t l e r s " ends The C i r c l e Game and t h e emphasis i s a g a i n on an end t h a t i s a b e g i n n i n g ; i n s t a n z a two t h e s e t t l e r s a r r i v e on a 143 n o n - e x i s t e n t l a n d : ( o f c o u r s e t h e r e was r e a l l y no s h o r e : t h e w a t e r t u r n e d t o l a n d by h a v i n g o b j e c t s i n i t : caught and k e p t from s u r g e , made l e s s t h a n immense by n e t w o r k s o f roads and g r i d s o f f e n c e s ) . ( L L . 6-13) The b r a c k e t s a g a i n emphasize a r t i f i c e . The l a n d i t s e l f as a p h y s i c a l e v o l u t i o n i s a l s o an a r t i f i c e : i t r e c e i v e s form from what i t c a t c h e s . Atwood ends the poem w i t h t h e emphasis on t h e hands. I n t h i s book t h e hands a r e t h e metaphor o f t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e myth-making u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e mind, o r the myth o f c r e a t i o n i t s e l f . As i n "Some O b j e c t s o f Wood and S t o n e " t h e hands have some form and t h e y a t t e m p t t o c o n t a i n t h e f o r m l e s s . The l a s t s t a n z a s u g g e s t s the E d e n i c age t h a t has pa s s e d and, y e t , t h a t i t i s c o n c o m i t a n t l y o c c u r r i n g : c h i l d r e n r u n , w i t h g r e e n s m i l e s , ( n o t knowing where) a c r o s s t h e f i e l d s o f o u r open hands. ( L L . 37-40) F o r M a r g a r e t Atwood, l i k e Gwendolyn MacEwen, myth i s an a s p e c t o f t h e mind o f a r a c e as i t a t t e m p t s t o undergo a p h y s i c a l and c e r e b r a l e v o l u t i o n . When Atwood i n c l u d e s l o v e r s i n t h i s e v o l u t i o n she s u g g e s t s t h e E d e n i c a s p e c t o f t h i s myth. U n l i k e MacLennan who c a t e g o r i z e s and dogmatizes myth i n g e n e r a l and e s p e c i a l l y Eden myth, and MacEwen who v a g u e l y c a t e g o r i z e s myth and even more v a g u e l y dogmatizes Eden myth, Atwood i n d i r e c t l y r e f e r s t o b o t h . 144 M i t i g a t i n g M u t a n t s -The A n i m a l s I n That C o u n t r y I n h e r second book Atwood a g a i n l o o k s a t h e r c o u n t r y and i t s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y , and she f e e l s t h e f r u s t r a t i o n - thus h e r t i t l e . The s ense o f f u t i l i t y and s t r u g g l e t h a t MacLennan b l a n d l y o v e r l o o k s i n h i s o v e r o p t i m i s m and w h i c h MacEwen t r a n s c e n d s by a f f i r m i n g t h e u n i t y o f t h e paradox o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and t h e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , Atwood r e a l i z e s and s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t . Her " T i t l e " poem i s n o t the f i r s t i n h e r book; r a t h e r h e r f i r s t poem " P r o v i s i o n s " a f f i r m s h e r deep f e l t f r u s t r a t i o n . The n e c e s s i t y f o r a j o u r n e y and a q u e s t i s e v i d e n t and n e c e s s a r y b u t i t i s a f u t i l i t y . The i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t a r e b o t h enormous and m i n i s c u l e . The l a s t s t a n z a o f t h e poem i n d i c a t e s t h a t Atwood r e a l i z e s t h e r e i s a myth and t h a t h e r 2 c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e " e l a s t i c b a n d " on t h e " f i l i n g - c a r d s " ( L . 1 3 ) , b u t though they a r e p r i n t e d w i t h i m p o r t a n t f a c t s they a r e s m a l l . Atwood's f r u s t r a t i o n i s n o t so much h e r own as a w r i t e r as i t i s f o r h e r l a n d and i t s p e o p l e . Thus h e r f i r s t poem i s t h e acknowledgement o f h e r own power, y e t i t s l i m i t a t i o n s by h e r p e o p l e . T h e r e a f t e r , t h e r e s t o f h e r poems i n t h e book a r e an i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e p r i m i t i v e n e s s , t i m e l e s s n e s s , and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f h e r l a n d , o r t h e myth o f c r e a t i o n as suspended by a l a n d l a c k i n g p r o g r e s s i o n and development. The f i r s t two l i n e s o f t h e poem s u g g e s t t h e p r i m i t i v e n e s s and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e l a n d and t h e p e o p l e . Y e t i t a l s o emphasizes t h e i r b a c k w a r d n e s s , t h e i r s l o w e v o l u t i o n w h i c h MacEwen see s as c o n s t a n t l y p r o g r e s s i v e and e n c l o s e d l y t i m e l e s s . F o r Atwood, p a r a d o x i s n o t u n i t e d ; i t i s i n d e f i n i t e and h e r pronouns emphasize t h i s : 145 I n t h a t c o u n t r y t h e a n i m a l s have t h e f a c e s o f p e o p l e : She ends t h e poem as a n o n e n t i t y t h a t s u g g e s t s t i m e l e s s n e s s b u t i s n ' t , t h a t s u g g e s t s a metamorphosis t h a t i s n ' t : They have t h e f a c e s o f no-one. ( L L . 28-29) "The S u r v e y o r s " emphasizes t h i s l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y , t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y and y e t the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f change: r e d v e s t i g e s o f an e r a s e d p e o p l e , a b r o k e n l i n e . ( L L . 25-27) I n " A t t i t u d e s towards t h e m a i n l a n d " Atwood b r i n g s t h e E d e n i c myth i n t o h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h e r l a n d and h e r p e o p l e . U n l i k e MacLennan o r MacEwen who d e s c r i b e b o t h t h e A r c a d i a n and E l e c t r o n i c Edens, Atwood o n l y a l l u d e s t o some I c e p a l a c e . The snow i s p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i o n as much as i t i s c r e a t i v e , p o s i t i v e ( i n n o c e n t ) as i t i s n e g a t i v e (aged, d e c r e p i t ) b u t i t i s n o t s u f f u s e d l y b o t h . The f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s o f t h e poem s u g g e s t t h i s : M a k i n g i t s o l i d f o r me w o u l d i n c l u d e making i t s o l i d f o r you I c a n ' t make i t s o l i d . The poem ends w i t h t h e f r u s t r a t i o n e a s e d , b u t t h e emphasis i s s t i l l i n -c o n c l u s i v e : 146 th e a r i d b l i z z a r d i n t h e w a t e r , t h e w h i t e s u f f o c a t i o n , t h e snow. (LL. 40-41) "Notes f r o m v a r i o u s p a s t s " a g a i n emphasizes t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n ; t h e j o u r n e y , t h e qu e s t as myth t h a t i s " r e v e a l e d " o n l y as n e a r l y un-d e c i p h e r e d words: The words l i e washed a s h o r e on t h e m a r g i n s , mangled by t h e j o u r n e y upwards t o t h e b l u e g r e y s u r f a c e , t h e t r a n s i t i o n . (LL. 30-33) A g a i n Atwood i s e m p h a s i z i n g a r t i f i c e when she emphasizes h e r r o l e as " i n t e r p r e t e r . " The p a s t t h a t Canada ne v e r a l l o w s h e r s e l f t o come o u t o f , t o d e v e l o p from, w h i c h i s the c o n c e r n o f "The F e s t i v a l , " i s t h e same as t h a t e x p r e s s e d i n "The S u r v e y o r s " b u t v e r y much l e s s a d e q u a t e l y and e f f i -c i e n t l y . The l a s t s t a n z a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y w i l l n o t a c h i e v e a u n i t y n o r c o n t i n u e i t s growth: Nobody has t o l d them t h e y a r e i n t h e wrong c e n t u r y , t h e wrong c o u n t r y . ( L L . 16-19) T h i s same f r u s t r a t i o n and i n c o m p l e t i o n i s t h e s u b j e c t o f "The t o t e m s , " " E l e g y f o r t h e g i a n t t o r t o i s e s , " and "The gods a v o i d r e v e a l i n g t h e m s e l v e s . " The eye metaphor t h a t MacEwen uses t o r e i n f o r c e t h e a s p e c t of t h e p e r c e p t i o n and t h e f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f myth as c r e a t i o n i s i n v e r t e d i n Atwood, and h e r poems abound w i t h a l l u s i o n s t o b l i n d eyes 147 and i n v i s i b i l i t y . The mind i s aware o f i t s myth-making p o s s i b i l i t i e s , b u t t h e s e a r e n e v e r f u l l y r e a l i z e d . Atwood i n v e r t s a n o t h e r image f r e q u e n t l y used by MacEwen: t h e w h e e l . Where MacEwen can a f f i r m some wholeness and c o n c u r r e n t t i m e l e s s n e s s and s p a c e l e s s n e s s , Atwood c a n n o t . She emphasizes t h i s i n t h e l a s t s t a n z a o f "The gods a v o i d r e v e a l i n g t h e m s e l v e s " : B e s i d e me a t t h e w h e e l was someone who m i g h t have been b r i g h t g r e e n , b r i g h t b l u e , who would n o t l e t h i m s e l f be seen. ( L L . 25-28) And e s p e c i a l l y by h e r pun on " b e s i d e . " "The T r a p p e r s " i s t h e o n l y Atwood poem where she s u g g e s t s some dogmatic a s p e c t o f h e r g e n e r a l m y t h o l o g i z i n g and h e r r a t h e r vague r e f e r -ence t o Eden. T h i s i s h e r c l o s e s t a f f i n i t y t o MacLennan i n " d e f i n i n g " t h e p u r i t a n f e a r o f s e n s u a l i t y and t h e i r d e n i a l o f j o y . Atwood r e a l i z e s ( f i n a l l y ) t h a t the p u r i t a n e t h i c remains and i s p a s s e d down i n t h e r a c e as a " c h a i n " ( L . 13) o f " s t e e l c i r c l e s " ( L . 1 4 ) . I t i s a " r e c u r r i n g f e a r " ( L . 3 0 ) : o f warm f u r , t h e p u r i t a n s h u n n i n g o f a l l summer . (LL. 31-32) I t becomes t h e c o r e and e s s e n c e o f e x i s t e n c e : t h e q u i e t t h e y f e e l b e c a u s e t h e y a r e ( L L . 36-38) become more a f f i r m a t i v e and Atwood seems no l o n g e r t o " c o n s i d e r " MacLennan 148 o r t o " i n v e r t " MacEwen b u t to a f f i r m MacEwen's p r i n c i p l e s . I n " P r o g -r e s s i v e i n s a n i t i e s o f a p i o n e e r " t h e mind as p i o n e e r s t a n d s : on a s h e e t o f g r e e n paper p r o c l a i m i n g h i m s e l f t h e c e n t r e . ( L L . 2-3) As i n MacEwen's p o e t r y , myth i s an a s p e c t of a r t i f i c e . The mind c o n t a i n s and i t a l s o f o r m a l i z e s o r e n c l o s e s . Atwood ends the poem no t w i t h b l i n d eyes b u t "eyes made r a g g e d " ( V I I , L. 80) by t h e s t r u g g l e , t h e q u e s t and j o u r n e y "between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t " ( L . 8 2 ) . Y e t t h e r e i s a v i s i o n and i t i s g r e e n ( L . 8 3 ) . There has been some p r o g r e s s i o n and some movement f o r t h a t w h i c h has been "unnamed" ( L . 84) now becomes t h e "whole i n v a d e d " ( L . 8 5 ) . I n Atwood's a t t e m p t to comprehend t h e n o r t h she i s v e r y much l i k e G a b r i e l l e Roy and t h e . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s who use t h e n o r t h as a metaphor f o r freedom and a l s o t h a t moment o f supreme mental' awareness, p u r e myth. F r a n k e n s t e i n becomes t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e C a n adian mind. I t i s b o t h an a t t e m p t a t p e r f e c t i o n and comprehension y e t by i t s " a t t e m p t " i t i s a p e r v e r s i o n . Atwood a g a i n p a r a p h r a s e s MacEwen's i d e a o f a hunger t h a t consumes i t s e l f . F r a n k e n s t e i n becomes c o n t e n t and a r t i f i c e , myth e n c l o s i n g and e n c l o s e d : The c r e a t u r e , h i s a r c t i c h a c k l e s b r i s t l i n g , s p r e a d s o v e r t h e d a r k c e i l i n g , h i s paws on t h e h o r i z o n s , r o l l i n g the w o r l d l i k e a s n o w b a l l . (X, L L . 113-117) The myth o f m i c r o c o s m i c and macrocosmic c r e a t i o n w h i c h p e r v a d e s MacEwen's w r i t i n g and w h i c h Atwood s u g g e s t s b u t d e l i n e a t e s more as D a r w i n i a n e v o l u t i o n 149 becomes " c o n t e m p o r a r y " i n t h i s poem. The E l e c t r o n i c g arden o f MacEwen's work becomes t h e t o t a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e , p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . I n Atwood, however, t h e r e i s always an element o f f e a r as i n "J o u r n e y t o t h e I n t e r i o r . " Whereas MacEwen c o u l d s u r p a s s t h e elements and encompass the t o t a l i t y o f t h e cosmos w i t h i n h e r mind, Atwood f e a r s such a t o t a l i t y o f r e l e a s e and once t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i o n she acknowledges she i s no l o n g e r i n c o n t r o l : and s a i d i t was C r e a t i o n . I c o u l d f e e l t h e k n i f e . Now you w o u l d l i k e t o h e a l t h a t chasm i n y o u r s i d e , b u t I r e c e d e . I p r o w l . I w i l l n o t come when you c a l l . (X, LL. 125-130) " A r c t i c Syndrome: dream f o x " i s a n o t h e r example o f Atwood's use o f t h e n o r t h e r n metaphor. I n h e r o p e n i n g l i n e s she a g a i n s t r e s s e s c o n c o m i t a n t a r t i f i c e and l a n d s c a p e : Out a c r o s s p a p e r , w h i t e b e d r o c k s h e e t , s h i f t i n g i c e f l o e . Atwood c o n s t a n t l y uses the a n i m a l metaphor t o e x p r e s s h e r i d e a o f e v o l u t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e and l a n d , y e t t h e i r s t i l l - r e t a i n e d p r i m i t i v e n e s s . Thus t h e myth-making c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e r a c e r e m a i n s a p o s s i b i l i t y . U n l i k e MacEwen who s t r e s s e s t h e c r e a t i o n myth, Atwood p o s i t s myth as p o s s i b l e c r e a t i o n and e v o l u t i o n : I n t h e neck o f t h e s l e e p i n g h u n t e r my t e e t h meet. ( L L . 28-30) 150 I n h e r l o v e poems Atwood s u g g e s t s t h e m a i n s p r i n g s o f myth and a l l u d e s t o an E d e n i c s t a t e . "More and more" r e i t e r a t e s t h e " c o n d i t i o n " o f Atwood's o t h e r poems on t h i s s u b j e c t : More and more f r e q u e n t l y t h e edges o f me d i s s o l v e and I become a w i s h t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g y o u , i f p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e s k i n l i k e a c o o l p l a n t ' s t r i c k s w i t h oxygen and l i v e by a h a r m l e s s g r e e n b u r n i n g . ( L L . 1-6) The awareness o f t h e p r i m i t i v e , o f i n i t i a l myth, i s what remains and t r a n s c e n d s . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r a poem such as "Axiom" where myth i s an a s p e c t o f c r e a t i o n . Atwood summarizes h e r q u e s t i n "The r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f C a p t a i n Cook." The l a n d i s a g a i n an a s p e c t o f a r t i f i c e . Atwood's t r a v e l j o u r n a l i s b o t h " l i t e r a r y " and g e o g r a p h i c a l , and c o n c o m i t a n t l y c e r e b r a l . Her c o n s t a n t f e a r o f p l u n g i n g too d e e p l y i n the mind r e s u l t s i n h e r w a n d e r i n g i n a l a n d h a l f f a c t u a l , h a l f i m a g i n a r y . She wants t o e v o l v e as she wants t o r e c r e a t e . She wants t o deny t h e p a s t and y e t she has no f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e : i n t o a new l a n d c l e a n e d o f g e o g r a p h i e s , i t s . beach g l e a m i n g w i t h a r r o w s . ( L L . 26-27) I t i s t h e f u t u r e o f " A s t r a l t r a v e l l e r " who w i s h e s t o r e t u r n t o t h e p r e s e n t a f t e r h a v i n g i n c o n c l u s i v e l y p r e s e n t e d the f u t u r e : G e t t i n g away was easy. Coming b a c k i s an e x c i t i n g t h e o r y . ( L L . 1-2) 151 Atwood f i n d s h e r s e l f l o s t between w o r l d s and ti m e zones. She t r i e s t o d e f i n e t h e o l d Canada and does n o t s u c c e e d , and o n l y emphasizes i t s p r i m i -t i v e n e s s w h i l e t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d and comprehend t h e p r e s e n t as i t becomes t h e f u t u r e . She approaches h e r t a s k w i t h t o o much c a u t i o n and f e a r . I n The C i r c l e Game t h e p r e s e n t d e v o l v e d i n t o t h e p a s t y e t somehow Atwood t r i e d t o s u g g e s t t i m e l e s s n e s s and t h e f u t u r e . I n The A n i m a l s I n  That C o u n t r y t h e p r e s e n t s u p p o s e d l y e v o l v e s i n t h e f u t u r e y e t i s p e r v a d e d by t h e p a s t . Atwood i s an e x p l o r e r who n a v i g a t e s t h e l a n d b u t h e r own f e e l i n g and t h e r e d e r s ' , i s t h a t she n e v e r l e f t h e r i n v i s i b l e b a s e . The D i a r y o f The Mad Ca n a d i a n H o u s e w i f e -The J o u r n a l s o f Susanna Moodie W i t h The J o u r n a l s o f Susanna Moodie, Atwood r e t u r n s t o t h e p o s i t i o n she f i n d s most c o m f o r t a b l e , r e l a t i n g t h e p a s t t o t h e p r e s e n t . She t a k e s t h e p e r s o n n a o f M r s . Moodie and seeps s a f e l y b a c k t o t h e p a s t w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a f o o t h o l d i n t h e p r e s e n t . Atwood no l o n g e r w i s h e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f u t u r e ; she w i s h e s t o r e t a i n , r e d e f i n e and c r y s t a l l i z e h e r h o l d on t h e p a s t . Her t h r e e d i v i s i o n s i n t h e j o u r n a l a r e an a t t e m p t e d p r o g r e s s i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t : J o u r n a l I - 1832-40, J o u r n a l I I - 1840-71, J o u r n a l I I I - 1871-1969. Y e t i n The J o u r n a l s o f Susanna Moodie Atwood merges t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e ego i n t h e c o s m i c l a n d s c a p e w i t h t h e myth o f t h e c i t y . A c t u a l c i t i e s as w e l l as Susanna Moodie c r e a t e and c o n t a i n myth. Atwood d e v e l o p s m u l t i p l e o r c u b i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h she p r e v i o u s l y r e -i t e r a t e d i n h e r camera metaphor. MacEwen, i n J u l i a n t h e M a g i c i a n , a c h i e v e s m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f t h e c i t y and when she does r e f e r s t o t h e c i t y i n some o f h e r f u t u r i s t i c poems t h e c i t y i s consumed i n t h e myth and does n o t r e l e a s e i t . 152 A r t i f i c e p e r v a d e s t h e book. The f o r m of t h e t r a v e l o g u e , t h e i n i t i a t i o n and t h e q u e s t , a r e t h e forms i n t o w h i c h myth moves and i s c o n t a i n e d . " D i s e m b a r k i n g At Quebec" ends: I am a word i n a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . ^ Her subsequent poems i n J o u r n a l One a l l emphasize t h i s . I n " F u r t h e r A r r i v a l s " : My b r a i n g ropes n e r v o u s t e n t a c l e s i n t h e n i g h t , sends out f e a r s h a i r y as b e a r s , demands lamps; o r w a i t i n g . ( L L . 14-17) The mind imposes a l a n d s c a p e and a r e a l i t y and thus o r d e r s t h e myth. I n " F i r s t N e i g h b o u r s " t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s as g e n e r a l myth i s a g a i n what i s most i m p o r t a n t : I n t h i s a r e a where my damaged knowing o f t h e l a n g u a g e means p r e d i c t i o n i s f o r e v e r i m p o s s i b l e . (LL.37-39) "Paths and T h i n g s c a p e " emphasizes t h a t t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f myth o c c u r s w i t h o u t any a s s i s t a n c e from Susanna Moodie ( M a r g a r e t Atwood). The myth o f c r e a t i o n o c c u r s around h e r as does t h e F a l l and she i s o n l y i n i t s m i d s t : The p e t a l s o f t h e f i r e -weed f a l l where t h e y f a l l I am watched l i k e an i n v a d e r who knows h o s t i l i t y b u t n o t where. (LL.22-26) Susanna Moodie i s p a r t o f t h e myth, and she c o n t a i n s i t b u t e v e r y t h i n g moves around h e r and i s an e n t i t y s e p a r a t e from h e r . J o u r n a l One i s p e r v a d e d by t h e metaphor o f f i r e . I n "The Two F i r e s " e x t e r n a l 153 and i n t e r n a l f i r e s a r e b u r n i n g ; b o t h d e s t r o y , ,and a f t e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n t h e r e i s s u p p o s e d l y a r e g r o w t h . T h i s i s the theme o f t h e l a s t poem o f J o u r n a l One, " D e p a r t u r e From The Bush." But t h e f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t i s always an a s p e c t o f Atwood a g a i n c o l o u r s h e r summary of t h i s s e c t i o n : There was s o m e t h i n g t h e y a l m o s t t a u g h t me I came away n o t h a v i n g l e a r n e d . ( L L . 36-37) J o u r n a l Two c o n s i s t s o f t h e c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e l a n d and a s l i g h t movement away from t h e o v e r e m p h a s i s on a r t i f i c e . T h i s j o u r n a l i s a s t u d y of d u a l i s m s o f t h e l a n d . Whereas i n h e r e a r l i e r books and i n the works o f MacLennan and MacEwen d u a l i s m s a r e u s u a l l y t h o s e o f t h e macrocosmic and t h e m i c r o c o s m i c , Atwood here l o o k s a t t h e d u a l i s m s and p a r a d o x e s ^ o f o r d i n a r y e x i s t e n c e . "The I m m i g r a n t s " i s an example o f a j o u r n e y , an e x p l o r a t i o n i n w h i c h i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t l e a d nowhere and o n l y t u r n i n on t h e m s e l v e s . The i m m i g r a n t s i n h e r i t and a r e d i s i n h e r i t e d from t h e l a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The myth o f c r e a t i o n remains f o r e v e r a f i x e d y e t r e v o l v i n g p o i n t i n t h e i r m inds. A s i d e from t h e j o u r n a l as c e r e b r a l t r a v e l o g u e , a r t i f i c e i s t h e u n o r d e r i n g , u n c o n t r o l l i n g mind: t h e i r heads s t u c k o u t o f the windows a t s t a t i o n s , d r i n k i n g m i l k o r s i n g i n g , t h e i r f e a t u r e s h i d d e n w i t h b e a r d s o r s h a w l s day and n i g h t r i d i n g a c r o s s an ocean o f unknown l a n d t o an unknown l a n d . ( L L . 37-41) The s a c r i f i c i a l theme w h i c h p e r v a d e s C a n a d i a n t h o u g h t and l e t t e r s i n w h i c h s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n i s an a s p e c t o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e l a n d i s t h e theme o f "Death Of A Young Son" and "Dream 1: The Bush Garden." 154 The son's d e a t h g i v e s h i m and t h e c o u n t r y some i d e n t i t y : I p l a n t e d h i m i n t h i s c o u n t r y l i k e a f l a g . ( L L . 28-29) I n the " g a r d e n " poem Atwood a g a i n o n l y a l l u d e s t o the E d e n i c a s p e c t i n h e r m y t h o l o g i z i n g o f the l a n d . B u t t h e garden has been " s o l d " ( L . 2) and t h e b i r t h r i g h t l o s t . ' The r e s u l t i s l a b o u r and s u f f e r i n g . T h i s poem i s one o f the most b i b l i c a l and t h e most r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e O l d Testament i n Atwood' r e p e r t o i r e . I n t h i s poem she most f u l l y r e p e a t s and r e p h r a s e s Hugh MacLennan, u n l i k e "The T r a p p e r s " w h i c h o n l y has a s l i g h t a l l u s i o n t o t h e p u r i t a n e t h i c . Y e t h e r e n d i n g s u g g e s t s a f r u s t r a t i o n n o t i n h e r e n t i n MacLennan's works o r h i s comprehension o f t h e Ca n a d i a n Eden: I n t h e dream I s a i d I s h o u l d have known a n y t h i n g p l a n t e d h e r e w o u l d come up b l o o d . ( L L . 17-20) Atwood ends J o u r n a l Two w i t h "The Double V o i c e " w h i c h emphasizes " r e a l i t y " and "metaphor" o f tot e m i s m and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t d u a l i s t i c r e a c t i o n to t h e l a n d . The l a n d i s a g l o r i f i c a t i o n and a c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y and i t i s a l s o a f e a r f u l and a d e s t r o y i n g e n t i t y . She a g a i n uses t h e eye t o s u g g e s t t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e mind w h i c h c o n t a i n s g e n e r a l myth: One saw t h r o u g h my b l e a r e d and g r a d u a l l y b l e a c h i n g e y e s , r e d l e a v e s , t h e r i t u a l s o f seasons and r i v e r s . ( L L . 19-22) The myth e v o l v e s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n s t a s i s , t he "dead dog" ( L . 23) l i e s 155 " h a l f - b u r i e d among t h e sweet p e a s " ( L . 2 5 ) . J o u r n a l Three i s e s s e n t i a l l y Atwood's at t e m p t t o a l l o c a t e t h e p a s t i n t h e p r e s e n t and to emphasize t h a t though t h e mind and l a n d a r e l i n k e d , t h e l a n d f r u s t r a t e s t h e m y t h i c c a p a c i t i e s o f the mind. The e a r l y s t r u g g l e s to tame and conquer t h e l a n d have d e t e r m i n e d t h i s r e a c t i o n . T r a v e l j o u r n a l l i t e r a t u r e was w r i t t e n , e s s e n t i a l l y t o r e c o r d t h e p h y s i c a l b a t t l e w i t h t h e l a n d . The i n i t i a t i o n and t h e q u e s t were p r o s c r i b e d and d e f i n e d i n p h y s i c a l terms so t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s and myth were k e p t i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e p e r v a d e d and s t i l l p e r vades and Atwood n o t e s , " t h e r e i s no use f o r a r t " ( L . 1 8 ) . I n "Wish: Meta-m o r p h o s i s To H e r a l d i c Emblem" Atwood j u x t a p o s e s the m i n d / l a n d as a s p e c t s o f t h e myth o f c r e a t i o n : when I am d i p p e d i n t h e e a r t h I w i l l be much s m a l l e r . ( L L . 5-6) Y e t c r e a t i o n i s an a n t i - c r e a t i o n , myth i s a l s o a n t i - m y t h . As t h e r e i s an a f f i r m a t i o n t h e r e i s a n e g a t i o n : F i e r y g r e e n , my f i n g e r s c u r v i n g and s c a l e d , my o p a l no eyes g l o w i n g . ( L L . 22-26) " V i s i t To T o r o n t o " r e i t e r a t e s Atwood's theme o f f r u s t r a t i o n . The p a t h s f o r t h e q u e s t a r e a l w a y s new b u t when th e y have been s t o p p e d u p , " t h e l u n a t i c a s y l u m i s y e l l o w " ( L . 3) and t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e e x t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e and t h e i n t e r n a l i s b r o k e n : 156 The l a n d s c a p e was s a y i n g s o m e t h i n g b u t I c o u l d n ' t h e a r . One o f t h e r o c k s s i g h e d and r o l l e d o v e r . ( L L . 17-19) But i n The J o u r n a l o f Susanna Moodie Atwood moves beyond t h i s p r e m i s e towards an o v e r a f f i r m a t i o n w h i c h i s s i m p l i s t i c and n a i v e . " S o l i p s i s m W h i l e D y i n g , " "Thoughts From Underground" and " R e s u r r e c t i o n " a r e a s p e c t s o f t h i s movement toward o v e r - a f f i r m a t i o n . I n " S o l i p s i s m W h i l e D y i n g " Atwood acknowledges t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n and the l a n d ; as t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s d i e s , so too d i e s t h e l a n d , the myth o f c r e a t i o n becomes t h e myth o f d e s t r u c t i o n . A c o n t r a p u n t a l movement i s the emphasis f o r "Thoughts From U n d e r g r o u n d . " The d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the c o r p s e i s p a r a l l e l e d by t h e de-c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e grammar: I began to f o r g e t m y s e l f i n the m i d d l e o f s e n t e n c e s . E v e n t s were s p l i t a p a r t . ( L L . 20-23) " R e s u r r e c t i o n " t o o , emphasizes the t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e l a n d . The c o n s c i o u s n e s s becomes, a t once f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d and f u l l y o b l i t e r a t e d . Atwood f i n a l l y acknowledges a d i v i n e a s p e c t o f myth. T h i s i s what MacEwen c o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e s , f o r h e r a l l a s p e c t s o f myth c o n t a i n d i v i n i t y . I t has t a k e n Atwood much f r u s t r a t i o n o v e r the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f t h e l a n d , and t h i s p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y has a f f e c t e d t h e m y t h i c comprehension o f t h e l a n d u n t i l b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e echo t h e chaos, t h e i n i t i a l myth towards c r e a t i o n t h a t Atwood f e e l s i s _ the l a n d . The n o n - p r o g r e s s i o n and n o n - D a r w i n i a n a s p e c t o f t h e l a n d f i n a l l y becomes a 157 p o s i t i v e a s p e c t : god i s t h e w h i r l w i n d a t t h e l a s t judgement w i l l a l l be t r e e s . ( L L . 23-25) The chaos f i n a l l y becomes t h e e t e r n a l . U n l i k e MacLennan, MacEwen.or Roy who d e l v e i n t o a l l a s p e c t s o f myth and come f i n a l l y t o some d i v i n e i n f e r e n c e , Atwood seems to r e m a i n always a t the m a i n s p r i n g s o f myth and f i t f u l l y t r i e s t o comprehend a l l i t s a s p e c t s . She v a g u e l y r e f e r s t o i t s E d e n i c a s p e c t s t h e n e v o l v e s from t h e c r e a t i v e / d e s t r u c t i v e d u a l i s m s o f t h e l a n d and i s myth, land / m y t h , t o t h e d i v i n e , i n h e r e n t , p o t e n t i a l i t y o f t h e l a n d and myth. Atwood i s v e r y much co n c e r n e d w i t h Canada i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l and p r i m i t i v e c o n t e x t . The C i r c l e Game c o n t a i n s h e r b e s t p o e t r y and b e s t summarizes h e r b e l i e f . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e ; i n C a n a d i a n l i f e t h e y i n t e r f u s e m a r k e d l y . T h e r e f o r e t h e c i r c l e ; t h e r e f o r e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e t h e a r t i f i c e o f t h e game. U n l i k e MacLennan and Roy who d e f i n e Canada i n terms o f r e g i o n a l i s m and a contemporary c o n t e x t , o r MacEwen who l o o k s a t t h e E l e c t r o n i c U t o p i a , Atwood f i n d s t h e f o r e s t s t i l l g l e a m i n g t h r o u g h t h e a u t o m a t i c p a r k i n g l o t . She i s most c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e days of t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s f o r she f e e l s t h a t Canada and Canadians have not p r o g r e s s e d much i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f . Atwood t a k e s t h e j o u r n a l f o r m , and i t s components o f i n i t i a t i o n and q u e s t become t h e a r t i f i c e o f t h e myth o f chaos w h i c h i s always a t t h e s t a g e o f moving i n t o c r e a t i o n . CHAPTER FIVE - FOOTNOTES M a r g a r e t Atwood, The C i r c l e Game ( T o r o n t o , 1966), p. 11. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s w i l l b e t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . 2 M a r g a r e t Atwood, The A n i m a l s i n That C o u n t r y ( T o r o n t o , 1968), p, 1. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . • 3 M a r g a r e t Atwood, The J o u r n a l s o f Susanna Moodie ( T o r o n t o , 1970), p. 11. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s t e x t and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d b e l o w t h e q u o t a t i o n . CHAPTER S I X A d d i t i o n s t o t h e m a s t e r P l a n -B u t t e r f l y on Rock On t h e wh o l e , B u t t e r f l y on Rock i s o n l y a p e b b l e i n t h e c h a i n o f t h e R o c k i e s . Jones t r i e s t o k n o t t o g e t h e r what has always been and w i l l b e, a v e r y f i n e n e t w o r k . H i s o v e r v i e w o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s adequate as a s u r v e y b u t r a t h e r e r r o n e o u s when he t r i e s t o p r o j e c t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n s . The f u t u r e w i l l n o t l i e i n a n a t i o n a l i s t i c a f f i r m a t i o n i n Canada's a r t s and l e t t e r s . The l a c k o f i d e n t i t y t h a t C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s have a l w a y s f e l t and w h i c h was perhaps c l i m a x e d by MacLennan's o v e r a t t e m p t s , i s p a r t o f i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h i s g r o w i n g and t o w h i c h Jones i s o b l i v i o u s . Jones i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r i s o v e r l y f a c i l e . The s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e P a c i f i c d i d n o t denote a c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e comprehension o f t h e l a n d o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a c u l t u r e . Jones i d i o t i c a l l y blasphemes when he s a y s , "we have a r r i v e d a t a p o i n t where we r e c o g n i z e , n o t o n l y t h a t t h e l a n d i s o u r s , b u t t h a t we a r e t h e land's.""'" The West was n o t t h e t o u c h s t o n e f o r t h e e a r l y o r p r e s e n t day e x p l o r e r s as was t h e n o r t h , w h i c h was and s t i l l i s r e l a t i v e l y unknown. When Jones d i s c u s s e s t h e Ca n a d i a n w r i t e r ' s s e a r c h f o r i d e n t i t y he o v e r s t r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h i s n o t so much a s e a r c h f o r i d e n t i t y as i t i s an a f f i r m a t i o n o f change and growth. Jones does n o t p l a c e t h e c o r r e c t emphasis on t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f man and h i s l a n d s c a p e w i t h l a n g u a g e 160 and t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f such an i n t e r r e l a t i o n . The "whole i n a r t i c u l a t e c r e a t i o n (does) c r y o u t f o r e x p r e s s i o n " ( p . 11) b u t n o t as he seems t o f e e l , a d i s t i n c t l y b l a t a n t , Canadian c u l t u r e . The l e p i d o p t e r a w i l l grow from t h e s h i e l d o f t h e g l o b a l v i l l a g e . I n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s i t may have had a Canadian c o l o u r i n g . " C a n a d i a n " l i t e r a t u r e and a r t has n e v e r been m e r e l y i m i t a t i v e n o r has i t been " u n i q u e " o r " d i s t i n c t i v e . " I n i t s m u t a b i l i t y , i t has al w a y s been, i n a s e n s e , i n t e r n a t i o n a l . C h a p t e r One  The S l e e p i n g G i a n t and t h e Bean S t a l k I n t h i s c h a p t e r Jones l o o k s a t t h e se n s e o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e and t r i e s t o e v a l u a t e t h e " c u l t u r a l s c h i z o p h r e n i a " (p. 14) between a s p i r a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t . The O l d Testament does i n d e e d pervade much o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e b u t much i s m e r e l y the i s o l a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e f i r s t e x p l o r e r s f e l t and r e c o r d e d , o f a l a n d t h a t even t o d a y . o f f e r s t h e p l e n u l t i m a t e o f r e s o u r c e s y e t p h y s i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e s . I t i s n o t so much t h a t Eve i s l o c k e d i n t h e garden and Adam o u t , as t h e garden i s d a r k and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e as Jones s e m i - a d m i t s . I t s d a r k n e s s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f man's mind w h i c h s e e k s as c r e a t o r t o b r i n g f o r t h l i g h t , t o c r e a t e a myth and t o s u b s t a n t i a t e Eden, i n t h e most g e n e r a l and b o u n d a r l e s s manner p o s s i b l e . C h a p t e r Two  Eve i n D e j e c t i o n Because The Ways o f t h e  J o u r n a l Wasn't Woven The " w o r l d o f appearances and t h e w o r l d o f spontaneous f e e l i n g " 161 (p. 33) i s n o t r e f l e c t e d i n what Jones c a l l s a c o n f l i c t between " n a t u r e and c u l t u r e " ( p . 33) b u t r a t h e r i n h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , t h e c o n f l i c t between "man and t h e l a n d . " Jones acknowledges t h e r o l e o f the d i a r y and t h e j o u r n a l as b e i n g t h e i n i t i a l f orm and c o n t e n t o f Ca n a d i a n l e t t e r s . He does n o t c a r r y t h i s i d e a t h r o u g h as t h e continuum i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e o r d e r i n g and c o n t a i n m e n t o f t h e myth-making c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . Jones o v e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e se n s e o f p a t r i a . The l a n d i s i n d e e d a symbol " o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , t h e i r r a t i o n a l i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s " (p. 3 4 ) . The l a n d becomes an a s p e c t o f myth. The a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h e l a n d becomes an a s p e c t o f t h e myth o f c r e a t i o n , t o o r d e r t h e chaos. Eden i s an a s p e c t o f t h i s myth, Eve i s as Jones n o t e s , " t h e l a n d , a mother n a t u r e h e r s e l f " ( p . 55) t h a t has come from t h e chaos o f t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t i s Adam. Jones s u g g e s t s b u t does n o t i n t e r r e l a t e t h i s " f a c t . " He o n l y b r i e f l y a l l u d e s t o any a s p e c t o f myth. To om i t myth i s t o p r e s e n t the p i c t u r e and t h e n n o t s e e i t . The l a n d i s an a s p e c t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . The u n c o n s c i o u s l i k e t h e l a n d i s n o t s t a t i c , t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i s alw a y s c r e a t i n g o r a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e myth. T h i s a t t e m p t i s v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g as Gwendolyn MacEwen and e s p e c i a l l y M a r g a r e t Atwood c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s . C h a p t e r Three  The D i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e Mind -The U t o p i a n V i s i o n as Myth I n t h i s c h a p t e r J o n e s l o o k s a t t h e C a n a d i a n U t o p i a n v i s i o n and man's a t t e m p t t o " t r a n s f o r m " and " r e f a s h i o n " t h e image o f h i s i d e a l ( p . 5 7 ) . He the n l i n k s C a n a d i a n u t o p i a n i s m w i t h " C h r i s t i a n i d e a l i s m " ( p . 60) s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e works o f P r a t t and MacLennan, o r i n t h e s i m p l e 162 " f a i t h i n t h e f u t u r e , a m i x t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the s e n t i m e n t a l p i e t y o f the n i n e t e e n t h " ( p . 6 1 ) . Jones the n d i s c u s s e s t h e A p o l l o n i a n and t h e D i o n y s i a n elements o f n a t u r e . ( p . 7 0 ) . He a l l u d e s t o Eden w h i c h m a n i f e s t s t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f t h e O l d Adam by t h e New (p. 7 1 ) . Jones does n o t m e n t i o n G a b r i e l l e Roy's Where N e s t s The  Water Hen where U t o p i a n t h e o r y becomes a p r a c t i c a l t r a c t . E d u c a t i o n ( p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l ) as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e t h e o r y o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t does n o t subdue t h e l a n d , r a t h e r i t i n t e g r a t e s i t . The e r u d i t e p r i e s t , F a t h e r J o s e p h - M a r i e r e p r e s e n t s t h e u n i o n o f t h e A p o l l o n i a n and D i o n y s i a n elements o f n a t u r e . The Eden myth i n t h e form o f t h e t r a v e l j o u r n a l o f Mrs. T o u s i g n a n t becomes U t o p i a n myth. The myth o f c r e a t i o n and t h e langu a g e o f t h i s myth p e r v a d e s Cohen's B e a u t i f u l L o s e r s . Cohen's book i s a p e r f e c t i o n o f the i d e a s o f Roy's book. Cohen t a k e s t h e t r a v e l o g u e and makes i t an a s p e c t o f myth and myth as c r e a t i o n . He u n i f i e s l a n g u a g e as an a s p e c t o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Form and c o n t e n t become one. Cha p t e r F o u r  JOBLESSBEING MYTH Ch a p t e r s f o u r t o s i x a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y and e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t . The i n d i v i d u a l c o n f r o n t i n g t h e l a n d i s a Job whose p r o b l e m i s t o a f f i r m an ambiguous and s e e m i n g l y h o s t i l e c r e a t i o n ( p . 1 1 0 ) . He must somehow p r o g r e s s w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g o r d e f y i n g t h e l a n d , he must move w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f f r u s t r a t i o n and a f f i r m a w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n t h e m i d s t o f a s e l f - c r e a t i o n t h a t i s a l s o a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . I n C h a p t e r s i x Jones r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r s t o MacLennan's The Watch That Ends t h e N i g h t and Roy's The C a s h i e r b u t he 163 c o m p l e t e l y o m i t s t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o Eden and myth f o r t h e s e e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e w i t h t h e p r o b l e o f J o b . Job's p r o b l e m i s i n t e r n a l as much as i t i s e x t e r n a l . H i s mind can, t o an e x t e n t , cope w i t h t h e p r o b l e m and can r e c r e a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n b o t h MacLennan and Roy t h e myth-making mind has become a t r o p i e d by modern s o c i e t y . B o t h a u t h o r s p r e s e n t n o t o n l y t h e most g e n e r a l a s p e c t o f myth b u t b o t h a l l u d e t o Odysseus myth b u t w i t h an i n v e r s i o n . I n b o t h books t h e P e n e l o p e ' s a r e n o t w a i t i n g , t h e r e i s o n l y h a l f an a f f i r m a t i o n t o t h e i r q u e s t . A l e x a n d r e d i e s and George l o s e s C a t h e r i n e . Thus myth r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e r n a l p e r s o n a l chaos w h i c h i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l chaos o f t h e l a n d . The l a n d i s an Eden i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e a s p e c t s o f gr o w t h , b u t , c o n c o m i t a n t l y , i t i s perhaps f o r e v e r d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e chaos o f t h e mind. C h a p t e r Seven  An A n c i e n t / M o d e r n S l a n g S t u t t e r i n g Myth Only i n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r does Jones s u g g e s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r l i n k a g e o f Eden and myth as a r t i f i c e and t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e : What many o f t h e p o e t s o f t h e p a s t decade have u n d e r t a k e n i s p r e c i s e l y t h e r o l e o f t h e n t h Adam. They have s e t o u t t o t a k e an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e w o r l d b u t s c a r c e l y u t t e r e d , t h e w o r l d o f the e x c l u d e d o r i g n o r e d . . . And i t i s t h e w i l d e r -n e s s o f l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h t h e o f f i c i a l v o i c e s o f the c u l t u r e f a i l t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e meaning o r t h e a c t u a l s e n s a t i o n o f l i v i n g and t e n d t o become g i b b e r i s h . ( p . 166) Jones f i n a l l y concedes t h e i n t e r u n i o n o f myth and word when commenting on MacEwen: 164 I t i s t h e myth o f t h e word t h a t u l t i m a t e l y o c c u p i e s M i s s MacEwen's a t t e n t i o n , w h i c h i s e q u a l l y t h e myth o f i d e n t i t y , o f t h e dan c e r whose body becomes t h e ' f i r s t l e t t e r / o f an unknown, f l a w l e s s a l p h a b e t , t h e word i n c a r n a t e t h a t c o n t a i n s us a l l . ' Only i n myth, t h e s y m b o l i c o r r i t u a l g e s t u r e , can we g r a s p t h a t f l a w l e s s a l p h a b e t , t h e t o t a l o r d e r i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g has a l i f e o f i t s own and y e t one l i f e . ( p . 182) H i s c o n c l u d i n g pages a r e o v e r s i m p l i s t i c . These a r e n o t " t h e f i r s t days o f C r e a t i o n [ i n w h i c h ] l i f e i s now a m a t t e r o f naming and d i s c o v e r i n g , o f f i n d i n g words f o r t h e o b s c u r e f e a t u r e s o f o u r own i d e n -t i t y " ( p . 1 8 3 ) . These always were and s h a l l a lways r e m a i n t h e f e a t u r e s o f C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g . The b a s i s o f myth w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f l a n g u a g e s h a l l r e m a i n a t t h i s u n n a t i o n a l i s t i c and v e r y u n i v e r s a l l e v e l . The s h r i n k -age i n spac e and t i m e o f t h e p a s t and t h e coming decades w i l l e r a d i c a t e n o t o n l y t h e t e n d e n c i e s b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . I t w i l l n o t be a Ca n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t w i l l t e l l us about our o b s c u r e l a n d s c a p e . I n t h e n e x t few y e a r s our l a n d s c a p e w i l l be p u r e l y c e r e b r a l and o u r i n f o r m a t i o n d a t a w i l l be programmed from a l l p a r t s o f the u n i v e r s e . J o n e s ' book i s r e p l e t e w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s b u t he l e a v e s many p o i n t s t o be c l a r i f i e d . He o v e r a l l u d e s , however, t o g a r r i s o n c u l t u r e , he h i n t s a t myth and Eden b u t he t r i e s f o r o v e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n where c l e a r -c u t answers n e v e r have n o r e v e r w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g . The " w i l d e r n e s s o f l a n g u a g e s " ( p . 166) w i l l n o t o n l y be p r e s e n t e d i n a l i t e r a t u r e b u t i n t h e many " m u t a t i o n s " o f t h a t " l i t e r a t u r e . " CHAPTER SI X - FOOTNOTES D. G. J o n e s , B u t t e r f l y on Rock ( T o r o n t o , 1970), p. 3. A l l subsequent q u o t e s w i l l be t a k e n from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by page r e f e r e n c e . BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i m a r y S o u r c e s Atwood, M a r g a r e t . The C i r c l e Game. T o r o n t o : House o f A n a n s i , 1969. C o p y r i g h t 1966. The A n i m a l s I n That C o u n t r y . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. . The J o u r n a l s of Susanna Moodie. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. MacEwen, Gwendolyn. The Drunken C l o c k . T o r o n t o : G l e p h P r e s s , 1961. . The R i s i n g F i r e . T o r o n t o : C o n t a c t P r e s s , 1963. . J u l i a n The M a g i c i a n . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n Co o f Canada, 1963. . A B r e a k f a s t f o r B a r b a r i a n s . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1966. MacLennan, Hugh. Barometer R i s i n g . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1958. C o p y r i g h t 1941. . Two S o l i t u d e s . T o r o n t o : B r y a n t P r e s s , 1945. . The P r e c i p i c e . New Y o r k : P o p u l a r L i b r a r y , 1948. . Each Man's Son. B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co. C o p y r i g h t 1951. _. The Watch That Ends The N i g h t . New Y o r k : S i g n e t Books, 1959, C o p y r i g h t 1958. . R e t u r n o f t h e S p h i n x . New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r & Sons, 1967. Roy, G a b r i e l l e . The T i n F l u t e . New Y o r k : R e y n a l and H i t c h c o c k . C o p y r i g h t 1947. . The C a s h i e r . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1963. C o p y r i g h t 1955. 167 _. S t r e e t o f R i c h e s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1967. " C o p y r i g h t 1957. _. The H i d d e n M o u n t a i n . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1962. _. Where N e s t s The Water Hen. T r a n s . H a r r y L. B i n s s e . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1965. 168 I I . Secondary S o u r c e s A. Theses Cameron, D o r i s M a r g a r e t . " P u r i t a n i s m i n Canadian P r a i r i e F i c t i o n . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. C l a r k , M a r g a r e t L. "American I n f l u e n c e s on t h e Ca n a d i a n N o v e l . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1940. C o g s w e l l , F r e d e r i c k Wm. "The Ca n a d i a n N o v e l From C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o W.W.I." M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1950. Djwa, S a n d r a . "Metaphor, W o r l d View and the C o n t i n u i t y o f Ca n a d i a n P o e t r y : A Study o f t h e M a j o r E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n P o e t s w i t h a Computor Concordance t o Met a p h o r . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968. G i l l e y , R o b e r t . "Myth and Meaning I n Three N o v e l s o f Hugh MacLennan." M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. H a r d e r , H e l g a I r e n e . " E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n P o e t r y 1935-1955 - A Thematic S t u d y . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965. Hayne, D a v i d H. "The H i s t o r i c a l N o v e l and F r e n c h Canada." M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, 1945. Hodgson, John M a u r i c e Devereux. " I n i t i a t i o n and Quest i n Some E a r l y C a n a d ian J o u r n a l s . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. J a c k s o n , E l v a E. "Canadian R e g i o n a l N o v e l s . " M. A. t h e s i s , A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1938. M o r l e y , Mrs. P a t r i c i a A. " P u r i t a n i s m i n t h e N o v e l s o f Hugh MacLennan." M. A. t h e s i s , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. R o b i n s o n , P a t r i c i a M a r i a n ( M r s . T. N. Roman). "The E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n Urban and I n d u s t r i a l N o v e l and P e r i o d i c a l F i c t i o n 1920-1955." M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Wes t e r n O n t a r i o , 1960. Ro g e r s , L i n d a J a n e . "Environment and the Quest M o t i f I n S e l e c t e d Works o f C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e F i c t i o n . " M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970. S p e t t i g u e , D o u g l a s . "The E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n N o v e l : Some A t t i t u d e s and Themes i n R e l a t i o n to Form." Ph. D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1966. Watt, F r a n k W. " R a d i c a l i s m i n E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e S i n c e C o n f e d -e r a t i o n . " Ph. D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1957. 169 Atwood, M a r g a r e t . "MacEwen's Muse," C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , 45:24-32 (Summer 1970). B a r n a r d , L e s l i e G. " D i s t i n c t i v e l y C a n a d i a n , " Canadian A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 10:33-36 (September 1932). B e s e t t e , G e r a r d . " F r e n c h C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y as Seen by C o n t i n e n t a l N o v e l i s t s , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 69:165-176 (Summer 1962). B i r n e y , E a r l e . "On The P r e s s i n g o f Maple L e a v e s , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , 6:53-56 (Autumn 1960). B i s s e l l , C. T. "A Common A n c e s t r y : L i t e r a t u r e i n A u s t r a l i a and Canada," U n i v e r s i t y T o r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y , 25:131-142 ( J a n u a r y 1956). Brown, E. K. "The Immediate P r e s e n t i n C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " Sewanee  Review, 41:430-442 ( O c t o b e r 1931). Buguet, G. " F r e n c h W r i t e r s o f t h e C a n a d i a n West," C a n a d i a n Bookman, 13:53-54 (March 1931). Burpee, L a u r e n c e J . " U n e x p l o r e d F i e l d s o f C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n , " C a n a d i a n  A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 6:55-56 (December 1928). Bush, D o u g l a s . "A P l e a f o r O r i g i n a l S i n , " C a n a d i a n Forum, 2:589-590 ( A p r i l 1922). . " I s There A C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ? " , Commonwealth, 11:12-14 (November 1929). C a m p b e l l , J o s e p h . The Hero W i t h A Thousand F a c e s . New Y o r k : Pantheon, 1949. C a s s i r e r , E r n s t . The P h i l o s o p h y o f S y m b o l i c Forms V o l . 2 M y t h i c a l Thought. T r a n s . R a l p h Manheim. New Haven's Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , c o p y r i g h t 1955, s i x t h p r i n t i n g 1968. D a v i e s , R o b e r t s o n . "MacLennan's R i s i n g Sun," S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 74:29-33 (March 1959). Dawe, A l a n . P r o f i l e o f a_ N a t i o n - C a n a d i a n Themes and S t y l e s . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n & Co., 1969. Deacon, W. A. "The C r i t i c Speaks: The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 15:13-16 (September 1937). _. "Canada's L i t e r a r y R e v o l u t i o n , " C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 23:21-25 (December 1947). 170 E g g l e s t o n , W i l f r i d . The F r o n t i e r and C a n a d i a n L e t t e r s . T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1957. E l i a d e , M i r c e a . Myth and R e a l i t y . London: George A l l e n and U r w i n , 1956. F a w c e t t , W. M. " W h i t h e r C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ? " , Commonwealth, 14:627-628 ( O c t o b e r 28, 1931). F r a z e r , S i r James George. The G o l d e n Bough: A Study i n M a g i c and R e l i g i o n . New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1933. F r e u n d , P h i l i p . Myths o f C r e a t i o n . New Y o r k : Washington Square P r e s s , 1965. F r y e , N o r t h r o p . F a b l e s o f I d e n t i t y - S t u d i e s i n P o e t i c M y t h o l o g y . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1963. . The R e t u r n o f Eden. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1965. . The Modern C e n t u r y - The Whidden L e c t u r e s . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. F u l l e r , M a r i e l l e . " O b s t a c l e t o C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 56:29 (March 15, 1941). G o e t s c h , P a u l . "Too l o n g To The C o u r t l y Muses - Hugh MacLennan as a Contemporary W r i t e r , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , 10:19-31 (Autumn 1961). Gose, E. B. "They S h a l l Have A r c a n a , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e 21:37-43 (Summer 1964). G r a v e s , R o b e r t . The W h i t e Goddess: A H i s t o r i c a l Grammar o f P o e t i c Myth. London: Faber & F a b e r , 1952. . Adam's R i t e - And O t h e r Anomalous Elements i n t h e Hebrew C r e a t i o n Myth. London: Faber & F a b e r , 1955. Grove, F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p . "The P l i g h t o f C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n . A R e p l y , " U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y , 7:451-467 (May 1938). H i c k s , G r a n v i l l e . " N o v e l i s t s i n t h e F i f t i e s , " S a t u r d a y Review, 42:18-20 ( O c t o b e r 24, 1959). H o r n y a n s k i , M i c h a e l . " C o u n t r i e s o f t h e M i n d , " Tamarack Review, 26:58-68 ( W i n t e r 1963). J a c k e l , Susan. "The House on t h e P r a i r i e s , " C a n a dian L i t e r a t u r e , 42: 46-55 (Autumn 1969). 171 J o n e s , D. G. B u t t e r f l y on Rock. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1970. K l i n c k , C a r l F., ed. L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Canada. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1965. . C a n a d i a n A n t h o l o g y . T o r o n t o : W. J . Gage, 1966. Lang, Andrew. Modern M y t h o l o g y . New Y o r k : Longmans, Green and & Co., 1897. Leach, R i c h a r d H., ed. Contemporary Canada. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1968. L e w i s , R.W.B. The A m e r i c a n Adam - Innocence Tragedy and T r a d i t i o n i n t h e  N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . Copy-r i g h t 1955. Lower, A.R.M. " C o l o n i a l i s m and C u l t u r e , " Canadian Forum, 14:264-265 ( A p r i l 1934). Ludwig, J a c k . " C l o t h e s i n S e a r c h o f an Emperor," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 5:63-66 (Summer 1960). L u n d i e , H. " C o l o n i a l L i t e r a t u r e ; A F a l s e A n a l o g y , " Canadian Forum, 14:181-182 ( F e b r u a r y 1934). . The F u t u r e o f t h e N o v e l as an A r t Form. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1959. MacLennan, Hugh. "My F i r s t Book," Canadian A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 28:3-4 (Autumn 1952). . Scotchman's R e t u r n and Other E s s a y s . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n & Co., 1960. McNamara, Eugene, ed. T h e I n t e r i o r Landscape - The L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m  o f M a r s h a l l McLuhan 1943-1962. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1969. Magee, W. H. "Trends i n t h e Recent E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n N o v e l , " C u l t u r e , 10:29-42 (March 1949). . " L o c a l C o l o u r i n C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y , 28:176-189 ( J a n u a r y 1959). Manuel, F r a n k E., ed. U t o p i a s and U t o p i a n Thought. B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1966. M a r i l l a , E. L. M i l t o n and Modern Man - S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . Alabama: U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama P r e s s , 1968. 172 McPherson, Hugo. "The N o v e l s o f Hugh MacLennan," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 60:186-198 (1953-1954). M e r c e r , J . E. Alchemy - I t s S c i e n c e and Romance. London: S o c i e t y f o r P r o m o t i n g C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, 1921. M e r i v a l e , P a t r i c i a . Pan The G o a t - G o d — H i s Myth i n Modern Times. Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. M i d d l e t o n , J o h n , ed. Readings i n M y t h o l o g y and Symbolism. New Y o r k : The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , 1967. M u r r a y , H. A., ed. Myth and Mythmaking. New Y o r k : George B r a z i l l e r , 1960. N e g l e y , G l e n n , ed. The Quest f o r U t o p i a - An A n t h o l o g y o f I m a g i n a r y  S o c i e t i e s . New Y o r k : Henry Schuman,.1952. Pacey, Desmond. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n Canada. T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1967. C o p y r i g h t 1952. . E s s a y s i n Canadian C r i t i c i s m 1938-1968. T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1969. P a r k , J u l i a n , ed. The C u l t u r e o f Contemporary Canada. T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1957. P h e l p s , A r t h u r L. " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e and Canadian S o c i e t y , " N o r t h e r n  Review, 3:23-26, 31-35 ( A p r i l - M a y 1 9 5 0 ) . P i e r c e , L o m e . An O u t l i n e o f C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ( F r e n c h and E n g l i s h ) . T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1927. Read, J o h n . The A l c h e m i s t i n L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e and A r t . New Y o r k : Thomas N e l s o n and Sons L t d . , 1947. Ross, M a l c o l m , ed. The A r t s i n Canada - A S t o c k T a k i n g a t M i d - C e n t u r y . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n & Co., 1958. R u b i n g e r , C a t h e r i n e . "Two r e l a t e d s o l i t u d e s : Canadian n o v e l s i n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h , " J o u r n a l o f C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , 3:49-57 ( J u l y 1967). S e l z , P e t e r . German E x p r e s s i o n i s t P a i n t i n g . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957. S m e t h u r s t , S. E. "Towards a N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 59:455-463 ( W i n t e r 1952-1953). S t a n f o r d , W. B. The U l y s s e s Theme - A Study i n t h e A d a p t a b i l i t y o f a_ T r a d i t i o n a l H e ro. O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1954. 173 S t e v e n s o n , L i o n e l . A p p r a i s a l s o f C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e . T o r o n t o : The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1926. . "Canadian F i c t i o n Then and Now," C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s and Bookmen, 39:11-13, 23-24 (Autumn 1963). S t r i n g e r , A r t h u r . "Canadian and O u t s i d e I n f l u e n c e s , " C a n a d i a n A u t h o r s  and Bookmen, 11:12-13 (December 1933). Thomas, C l a r a . C a n a d i a n N o v e l i s t s - 1920-1945. T o r o n t o : Longmans, Green & Co., 1946. Tomkinson, G r a c e . " C o l o n i a l i s m and A r t , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 11:147-154 ( J u l y 1931). . "The Watched Pot o f C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 14: 459:470 ( J a n u a r y 1935). T r i n u k , J o h n . The F i r e - T r i e d S t o n e . London: V i n c e n t S t u a r t and J o h n M. W a t k i n s L t d . , 1967. T r o t t e r , R. G. "Has Canada a N a t i o n a l C u l t u r e ? " , Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 44:215-227 (Summer 1937). T y r r e l l , J . B. J o u r n a l s o f Samuel Hearne and P h i l i p T u r n o r . O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d as C h a m p l a i n S o c i e t y P u b l i c a t i o n X X I . T o r o n t o : The C h a m p l a i n S o c i e t y , 1934. Vadeboncoeur, P i e r r e . "Break w i t h T r a d i t i o n ? P o l i t i c a l and C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n i n Quebec," Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 65:92-103 ( S p r i n g ) . Vandry, F. " F r e n c h C u l t u r e and Canadian C i v i l i z a t i o n , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 31:73-81 (Summer 1951). W a i n w r i g h t , Andy, ed. Notes F o r A N a t i v e Land. T o r o n t o : Oberon P r e s s , 1969. Warwick, J a c k . The Long J o u r n e y - L i t e r a r y Themes o f F r e n c h Canada. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1968. Watt, F r a n k W. "The Growth o f P r o l e t a r i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n Canada 1872-1920," D a l h o u s i e Review, 40:157-173 (Summer 1960). . "The Theme o f Canada's C e n t u r y 1896-1920," D a l h o u s i e Review, 38:154-166 (Summer 1958). W a t t e r s , R e g i n a l d E y r e . "[Canada's] Unknown L i t e r a t u r e , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 70:31-33, 35-36 (September 17, 1955). . " O r i g i n a l R e l a t i o n s , A G e n o g r a p h i c Approach t o t h e L i t e r a t u r e s o f Canada and A u s t r a l i a , " C a n a dian L i t e r a t u r e , 7:6-17 ( W i n t e r 1961). 174 Weaver, R o b e r t L e i g h . " L i t e r a t u r e : Some P r o m i s e , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 74:34 (August 29, 1959). West, P a u l . "Canadian A t t i t u d e s : P a s t o r a l w i t h O s t r i c h e s and M o c k i n g B i r d s , " C a n a dian L i t e r a t u r e , 16:19-27 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 3 ) . . The Modern N o v e l . London: H u t c h i n s o n & Co., 1963. W h a l l e y , George. "The G r e a t C a n a d i a n N o v e l , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 55: 318:326 (Autumn 1948). W i l s o n , Edmund. 0^  Canada - An American's Notes on C a n a d i a n C u l t u r e . New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x . C o p y r i g h t 1964. Woodcock, George. "Hugh MacLennan," N o r t h e r n Review, 3:2-10 ( A p r i l -May 1950). . " P a s s p o r t t o U t o p i a , CBC T a l k S e r i e s P r o d u c e d by R o b e r t H a r l o w ( V a n c o u v e r ) , 1953. . A C h o i c e o f C r i t i c s - S e l e c t i o n s from C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. . Hugh MacLennan. S t u d i e s i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . T o r o n t o : The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101900/manifest

Comment

Related Items