UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparison of two devotional sects of Southwestern India: the Virasaivas of Karnatak and the Varakaries… Mullatti, Leela Laxman 1972

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A COMPARISON OF TWO DEVOTIONAL SECTS.OF SOUTHWESTERN.INDIA: THE VIRASAIVAS OF KARNATAK AND THE VARAKARIES OF MAHARASTRA by LEELA LAXMAN MULLATTI M.A., K a r n l t a k U n i v e r s i t y , Dharwar, I n d i a , 1959 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1972 In present ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. 1 fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes is fo r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of Anthropology and Sociology The Un ive rs i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date M)T<1 ' ?-S ft V ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s has a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l o r e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f i d e o l o g y , s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and s o c i a l change i n modem I n d i a . To e l u c i d a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , I have chosen — » t o compare two d e v o t i o n a l s e c t s o f S o u t h w e s t e r n I n d i a : t h e V i r a s a i v a s o f • K a r n l t a k and t h e V I r a k a r i e s o f M a h a r l s t r a . _ i _ _ The V i r a s a i v a s and t h e V a r a k a r i e s r e p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s . The i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e s e two s e c t s , Basava and Tukaram, a r e u n i q u e l y s u i t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t . T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e i d e o l o g i e s t hrows l i g h t on t h e r i g i d and the f l e x i b l e t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s t o s o c i a l c h a n g e s , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c ommunities and c a s t e s t r u c t u r e s . V a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e o l o g y , s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and s o c i a l change have been d i s c u s s e d . l i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . 1 C h a p t e r I . I d e o l o g i e s and S o c i a l O r g a n i s a t i o n . . . . . . 5 I I . B a s a v a and Tukaram ( T h e i r i d e o l o g i e s as seen i n t h e i r poem-s a y i n g s ) 2 2 I I I . The l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s e c t i d e o l o g y f o r s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n 59 IV . . A v a i l a b l e D a t a and F u r t h e r D e s i r a b l e R e s e a r c h 76 C o n c l u s i o n 97 B i b l i o g r a p h y . 1 0 1 A p p e n d i x I S e l e c t e d a d d i t i o n a l poem-sayings o f B a s a v a and Tukaram . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 4 I I T e c h n i c a l Concepts C e n t r a l t o B h a k t i Dharma . , 120 i i i L IST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1. A map o f I n d i a ( s t u d y a r e a ) 2 2. Basava . 23 3. Tukaram 25 i 4. S i v a - l i n g a 36 5. - V i t h o b a 37 6. V i r a s a i v a g uru and a V a r a k a r i p r e a c h e r 42 7. A map o f I n d i a . P l a c e s o f f i v e main V i r a s a i v a mathas . 78 8. V i r a s a i v a gurus o f ' f i v e main mathas . 79 9. Routes o f P a l k h i s . ( V a r a k a r i p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n ) . 82 10. V i r a s a i v a A i t a n ( i n i t i a t i o n ) . . 84 i v ABBREVIATIONS A.M.: Armando Menezes A.S.T.: A. S u n d e r a r a j Theodore Bhan. V. & S.: B h a n d a r k a r , V a i s n a v i s m , S a i v i s m and O t h e r M i n o r C u l t s E n c l . o f R. & E.: E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s I . E . : I n d u p r a k a s h E d i t i o n K.C.: K. C h a n d r a s h e k h a r i a h M.M.: Mate Mahadevi N. & F.: N e l s o n and F r a z e r N.M.: N. M a c n i c o l O.A.: O l i c e Abhanga S.M.A. S.M. A n g a d i V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I n s u b m i t t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I f i n d i t a p r i v i l e g e t o t h a n k my a d v i s o r , Dr. Br e n d a E.F. Beck, w i t h o u t whose i n s p i r i n g and k i n d g u i d a n c e I w o u l d n o t have c o m p l e t e d t h i s work. The e x p e r i e n c e d s u g g e s t i o n s and g u i d a n c e o f t h e o t h e r members o f my Committee have a l s o been v e r y v a l u a b l e t o me. L a s t , b u t n o t o f l e a s t i m p o r t a n c e , i s t h e o v e r a l l s u p p o r t o f my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n Vancouver. INTRODUCTION The l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a i s w e l l known. T h i s d i v e r s i t y has r e c e n t l y been d e s c r i b e d by Andre B e t e i l l e ^ w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n N o r t h and i n Sou t h I n d i a . A c c o r d i n g to'^him, t h e N o r t h ( B e n g a l f o r i n s t a n c e ) and t h e f a r South (Madras f o r i n s t a n c e ) p r o v i d e two p o l e s o f a cont i n u u m ; t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e more r i g i d s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e So u t h . I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e s between N o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n I n d i a , I have chosen t o 2 make a s t u d y o f 'an a r e a ' c a l l e d t h e S o u t h w e s t , where t h e s e two geo-g r a p h i c and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s meet. A l l t h e la n g u a g e s o f I n d i a come under two main l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s . Most o f t h e N o r t h e r n languages can be c l a s s i f i e d as I n d o - E u r o p e a n , w h i l e most o f t h e S o u t h e r n languages a r e members of a s e p a r a t e f a m i l y known as D r a v i d i a n . M a r a t h i , t h e language o f M a h a r a s t r a , b e l o n g s t o t h e I n d i e g r o u p ; w h i l e Kannada, t h e language o f t h e K a r n a t a k , b e l o n g s t o t h e D r a v i d i a n group. The a r e a s o f M a h a r a s t r a and K a r n a t a k do d i s p l a y c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t -i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , and t h e i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h have h e l p e d t o shape them w i l l be th e t o p i c o f t h i s e n q u i r y . I n a d d i t i o n t o l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l and Andre" Be'teille, Castes: Old and new; essays in social structure and  str a t i f i c a t i o n. (Bombay: Asia publishing house, 1969), p. 74 2 Please refer to the accompanying map. 2 IL* R' A P J A KM U. \ K A SjH M I ^  t , r-\ ..PUNJAB J , f WX> \.h ~ ' • f J A S T -H • A N • N i l - .-. l i > * f B H U T A N 'J/ r$/ N I V * * HAVUJ _ A H A NS8 » tHOHL R\A S H T R A .Monilo D E S H t M l l j u ••V — Of •^JB/ J 1 •. , X MA!DRAS/Y r Sc»I< 1:15.000,000 'C« 200 300 400 SOC K ' i c - w w A MAP OF INDIA ( w i t h i t s l i n g u i s t i c s t a t e s ) The s t u d y a r e a o f S o u t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f I n d i a i s o u t l i n e d i n r e d . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t Mysore s t a t e and t h e So u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t M a h a r a s p r a s t a t e . 3 i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e n e i g h b o u r i n g a r e a s d i s p l a y a v a r i e t y o f g e o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s . To be p r e c i s e , most o f M a h a r a s t r a has a r e l a t i v e l y h o t and d r y c l i m a t e and l i m i t e d r a i n f a l l . Here t h e r e a r e huge a r e a s o f b a r r e n l a n d . Most o f K a r n a t a k by c o n t r a s t , i s c o o l and m o i s t . Here t h e r e a r e hugh f o r e s t s and r i c h paddy l a n d s . The 1 2 t h c e n t u r y B h a k t i movement o f I n d i a was a r e l i g i o u s movement p r e s c r i b i n g d e v o t i o n as t h e o n l y k i n d o f w o r s h i p w h i c h e n a b l e d a p e r s o n t o a t t a i n s a l v a t i o n . F o r t h e f i r s t j t i m e , t h e B h a k t i movement made v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s t e x t s o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n S a n s k r i t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p o p u l a c e i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r l a n g u a g e s . The l e a d e r s o f t h i s new movement a s s e r t e d t h e r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y o f a l l t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . T h i s B h a k t i movement f i r s t s t a r t e d i n the So u t h around t h e 1 0 t h c e n t u r y . Soon two r i v a l s e c t s d e v e l o p e d : one c a l l e d V a i s n a v i s m , made V i s n u t h e c e n t r a l god, w h i l e t h e s e c o n d , c a l l e d S a i v i s m , made S i v a t h e f o c a l d e i t y o f w o r s h i p . From t h e 12th c e n t u r y onwards, B h a k t i became a mass movement. Each l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p , though r o u g h l y c l a s s i f i e d as b e l o n g i n g t o one o f t h e s e l a r g e r s e c t s , had i t s own l e a d e r and d e v e l o p e d i t s own B h a k t i i d e o -l o g y . Thus t h e B h a k t i movement gave a g r e a t i m p e t u s t o t h e development o f l o c a l i s e d r e l i g i o u s s e c t s among r e g i o n a l l y , and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s -t i n c t g r o u p s . The V a r a k a r i p a n t h o f M a h a r a s t r a was a V a i s n a v i t e s e c t , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y by a f o u n d e r named Znaneswara. T h i s s e c t g r a d u a l l y b u i l t u n t i l a huge f o l l o w i n g was formed about f i v e c e n t u r i e s l a t e r by a l e a d e r c a l l e d Tukaram. The name o f t h e s e c t was d e r i v e d from i t s t r a d i t i o n o f "group p i l g r i m a g e " , c a l l e d ' V a r i . L i t e r a l l y , V a r a k a r i p a n t h meant "a s e c t o f p i l g r i m s " . S e c t members c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h e 4 s t r o n g e s t and most s p i r i t u a l l y - o r i e n t e d V a i s n a v i t e group o f t h e t i m e . The V i r a s a i v a movement i n K a r n a t a k by c o n t r a s t , was founded by a l e a d e r named Basava and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a S a i v i t e i d e o l o g y . I t s members c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s as t h e most b r a v e o r e x c e l l e n t o f t h e s a i v i t e s e c t s on a c c o u n t o f t h e r a d i c a l s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m s w h i c h t h e y a d -v o c a t e d . V i r a s a i v i s m l i t e r a l l y meant "most b r a v e o r e x c e l l e n t s a i v i s m " . Thus even by d e f i n i t i o n , t h e V a r a k a r i movement i n M a h a r a s t r a and t h e V i r a s a i v a movement i n K a r n a t a k r e p r e s e n t e d d i s t i n c t i v e r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o -g i e s . Each e x p r e s s e d i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h r o u g h i t s p a r t i c u l a r name and i t s own r e c o g n i s e d s e c t l e a d e r s . A • c o n t r a s t i v e s t u d y o f t h e s e two B h a k t i s e c t s , as d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s , i s made i n an a t t e m p t t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s , i n t u r n , w i l l h e l p us t o u n d e r s t a n d v a r i a t i o n s i n s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s . T h i s does n o t mean, however, t h a t a u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t l e a d e r , s e c t i d e o l o g y and s e c t s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n can be p o s i t e d . I n s t e a d , i t w i l l be argu e d t h a t s e c t i d e o l o g y and s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n a r e i n t i m a t e l y i n t e r w o v e n . Each w i l l t e n d t o r e i n f o r c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o t h e r . The r e s u l t i s t h e c r e a t l o n a o f an i n t e r e s t i n g c u l t u r a l b o r d e r , w h i c h has t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f c u t t i n g t h i s a r e a o f S o u t h w e s t e r n I n d i a i n two. 5 CHAPTER I I d e o l o g i e s and S o c i a l O r g a n i s a t i o n I d e o l o g i e s a r e n o t c o n s t i t u t e d m e r e l y by a s e t o f a b s t r a c t i d e a s , b u t by a p a t t e r n e d s e t o f v a l u e s and e t h i c a l p r e c e p t s r e l a t i n g t o a c t i o n . They a r e c r e a t e d by l e a d e r s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r an improved s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o r t o r a t i o n a l i s e t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . Whether p o l i t i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s , t h e y p r o v i d e a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e b u i l d i n g o r f o r m a i n t a i n i n g what c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s : f o r example, t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e o -l o g y o f democracy s t r e s s e s u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e as t h e means o f a t t a i n i n g t h e i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l d i s c u s s two i d e o l o g i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t day: t h e V i r a s a i v a and t h e V a r a k a r i v e r s i o n s o f B h a k t i i d e o l o g y i n South-West I n d i a . Background New i d e o l o g i e s a r i s e i n a s o c i e t y when t h e e x i s t i n g ones a r e f e l t t o be o u t d a t e d , h a r m f u l o r undermined by f o r e i g n i d e a s . The 'Hip' i d e o l o g y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a i s s a i d t o have r i s e n t o c o u n t e r t h e h a r m f u l e f f e c t s o f advanced i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . I t h o l d s t h a t i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i s b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y a t t h e c o s t o f a p u r e e n v i r o n m e n t . I t contends t h a t o ur p r e s e n t l e a d e r s a r e p p e t t y b u r e a u c r a t s , t h a t our s o c i e t y i s -over-automated, and t h a t c o r r u p t i o n , i s o l a t i o n and p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c v a l u e s a r e rampant. The B h a k t i i d e o l o g y o f I n d i a a r o s e t o c o u n t e r the gro w i n g s u p e r i o r i t y o f Brahmins and t h e gro w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f m e c h a n i s t i c r i t u a l s i n H i n d u w o r s h i p : i t r e j e c t s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Vedas, and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s i n - c l e a n s i n g r i t u a l s f o r l i b e r a t i o n 6 (Moksa) as u n n e c e s s a r y . I n s t e a d , i t s t r e s s e s ' B h a k t i 1 , meaning ' i n t e n s e l o v e of God', as t h e o n l y form o f w o r s h i p t h a t w i l l l e a d t o l i b e r a t i o n . I t makes ' B h a k t i ' t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e masses. I t a l s o i n t r o d u c e s a l a r g e scheme f o r e r a d i c a t i n g t h e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s e v i l s o f i n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e masses by Brahmin p r i e s t s . B h a k t i i d e o l o g y d i d n o t b u i l d a c e n t r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , as was a l s o n o t t h e c a s e w i t h H i n d u i s m . B u t t h e s p i r i t b e h i n d t h e B h a k t i movement* became t h e c e n t r a l f o r c e , f i n d i n g i t s i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s f r o m r e g i o n t o r e g i o n , e x p r e s s i n g B h a k t i i d e o l o g y i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r l a n guages of t h e masses u n t i l i t became a r e l i g i o n o f t h e masses and f o r t h e masses. The i d e a s of r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y , k i n d n e s s and l o v e of God o f B h a k t i a r e v e r y o f t e n compared w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e West. The d i f -f e r e n t B h a k t i s e c t s were n o t always n e c e s s a r i l y r i v a l s . They were m a i n l y v a r i a n t c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f a s i n g l e theme, t r y i n g t o f u l f i l l t h e need o f each r e g i o n . Some s e c t s were formed by amalgamating r i v a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , S i k h i s m i n P u n j a b was an amalgama-t i o n o f r i v a l H i n d u i s m and I s l a m . W h i l e V i r a s a i v i s m and V a r a k a r i p a n t h — t h e two B h a k t i i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e Southwest o f I n d i a — b e l o n g e d t o two d i s t i n c t i v e l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s : Kannada, D r a v i d i a n and M a r a t h i , I n d i e groups o f l a n g u a g e s . Thus V i r a s a i v i s m , c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e p u r e s t form o f S a i v i s m and V a r a k a r i g p a n t h , c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e p u r e s t f o r m o f V a i s n a v i s m , seem t o s a t i s f y and g l o f i f y t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , though b e i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d g r o u p s . To sum up, the d i f f e r e n t B h a k t i s e c t s a r e a u n i q u e f e a t u r e of t h e i d e o l o g y a r i s i n g from and e x p r e s s i n g t h e c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a . They a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r i v a l , and do n o t l e a d t o d i v i s i v e f o r c e s i n B h a k t i i d e o l o g y . 7 C o n t r a s t s : Moderate v e r s u s R a d i c a l I d e o l o g i e s The V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i i d e o l o g i e s seem t o f i t i n t o a b a s i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ' r a d i c a l ' and 'moderate', u s i n g t h e s e terms n o t as u n i v e r s a l c a t e g o r i e s , b u t r e l a t i v e t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e i n q u e s t i o n . My usage o f t h e terms ' r a d i c a l ' and 'moderate' i s n o t i n any way r e l a t e d t o t h e i r f r e q u e n t usage f o r p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s of t h e extreme ' l e f t ' and t h e extreme ' r i g h t ' , o t h e r w i s e c a l l e d c o m m u n i s t i c and c a p i t a l i s t i c i d e o l o g i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, my usage o f t h e terms r a d i c a l and mod-e r a t e r e f e r s m a i n l y t o 'the degree o f changes' each i d e o l o g y a s p i r e s t o a t t a i n . I f an i d e o l o g y a s p i r e s t o c o m p l e t e change o r t o t a l t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n from t h e e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g y , I c a l l t h a t i d e o l o g y a ' c u l t u r a l l y r a d i c a l one'. On t h e o t h e r hand, an i d e o l o g y t h a t a s p i r e s t o o n l y p a r t i a l changes, I c a l l 'a moderate one'. I n s p i r i t , a r a d i c a l i d e o l -ogy argues t h a t a new s o c i e t y must be founded by e n t i r e l y ' c u t t i n g i t -s e l f o f f from t h e e x i s t i n g one. I t t r i e s t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e scheme o f b e l i e f s and an a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l s y s t e m so as t o p r e p a r e i t s f o l l o w i n g f o r an e n t i r e l y new way o f l i f e . The f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n o f a r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y i s t o be f o u n d i n a changed l i f e s t y l e . F o r example, i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n ' H i p 1 i d e o l o g y o f t o d a y , t h e e x t e r n a l r a d i c a l i s m o f ' H i p p i e s ' i s v e r y r o b v i o u s ; w h i l e t h e ' s t r a i g h t ' s t r i v e s t o have s h o r t h a i r c u t and n e a t , smart d r e s s , t h e H i p p i e s s t r i v e t o have l o n g l o o s e h a i r and p a t c h e d shabby c l o t h e s . But one does n o t f i n d an o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r b a s i c v a l u e s o r aims o f l i f e . A l o n g w i t h ' s t r a i g h t s ' , ' H i p p i e s ' a l s o b e l i e v e i n i n d i v i d u a l f r e e -dom, and t h u s seem t o s t i c k t o b a s i c , t r a d i t i o n a l N o r t h A m e r i c a n theme o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m . Thus r a d i c a l changes i n l i f e s t y l e can s e r v e t o mask deeper i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t i e s . I t i s i n t h i s s p e c i f i c meaning o f ' c u l t u r a l r a d i c a l i s m ' t h a t V i r a s a i v i s m f a l l s i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f r a d i c a l B h a k t i i d e o l o g y . _ i B a s a v a , a l e a d e r o f V i r a s a i v a i d e o l o g y , c r i t i c i s e d and r e j e c t e d a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t b e l o n g e d t o H i n d u i s m : i t s s c r i p t u r e s , i t s m y t h o l o g y , i t s s a g e s , i t s r i t u a l s , and t h e B r a h m a n i c a l o r d e r o f s o c i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. He f u r t h e r p r o c l a i m e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new r e l i g i o n o f b r a v e S a i v a s , ( V i r a s a i v a s ) . H i s r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y f ound ex-p r e s s i o n i n d e v i a n t e x t e r n a l e x p r e s s i o n . F o r example, B a s a v a p r e s c r i b e d t h e w e a r i n g o f L i n g a ( a s y m b o l i c image o f God S i v a ) i n s t e a d o f an ' i n i -i t i a t i o n t h r e a d ' o f H i n d u i s m , and he p r o v i d e d a new ' S i v a m a n t r a ' , ( r e l i g i o u s words o f S i v a ) t o r e p l a c e H i n d u s c r i p t u r e s . But i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t Basava d i d n o t t o t a l l y c u t o f f f r o m b a s i c H i n d u r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o g y , as was done by Buddha and M a h a v i r a . T h i s can _ t t be seen i n Basava's a c c e p t a n c e o f S i v a as t h e o n l y a l m i g h t y ( S i v a i s g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d as one o f t h e H i n d u T r i n i t y ) . B a s a v a , f u r t h e r m o r e , f o l l o w e d t h e g e n e r a l p a t h o f B h a k t i . w h i c h was d u r i n g h i s t i m e a l s o f o l l o w e d by most o f t h e o t h e r H i n d u r e l i g i o u s s e c t l e a d e r s . B a s a v a a c c e p t e d t h e H i n d u i d e a o f s o u l and t h e H i n d u f i n a l aim o f l i f e as Moksa ( l i b e r a t i o n f rom t h e c y c l e s o f b i r t h and r e b i r t h ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , enough, however, he r e j e c t s t h e H i n d u b e l i e f s about ' p o l l u t i o n ' w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a s s o c i a t e d b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g ' p u r i t y ' . T h i s s t r e s s on p u r i t y has become a v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s s e c t . C u r i o u s l y , t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e emphasis on ' p u r i t y ' seems t o l i n k i n a dynamic way Basava's s e c t w i t h H i n d u i s m more t h a n t o s e p a r a t e i t . Thus, one c o u l d a s s e r t t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f a r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y i s n e v e r u n i v e r s a l , b u t i s always s p e c i f i c t o a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e . R a d i c a l i s m makes a show o f a s i g n i f i c a n t i d e o l o g i c a l d e p a r t u r e from ex-i s t i n g t h o u g h t , b u t t h i s appearance o f ' c u t t i n g o f f i s n o t always r e a l . On t h e o t h e r hand, a .'moderate i d e o l o g y ' n e v e r t h i n k s o f c u t t i n g o f f from t h e o r i g i n a l i d e o l o g y . I t e x p r e s s e s a d e f i n i t e need f o r change i n the e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g y t h r o u g h s e l e c t i v e , m i l d , s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m o f some a s p e c t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g y , w h i l e a c c e p t i n g what r e m a i n s . Thus t h e changes d e s i r e d by t h e moderate i d e o l o g y seem t o be ' s l i g h t d e p a r t u r e s ' from t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g y . 9 The V a r a k a r i p a n t h , o r g a n i s e d by Tukaram, seems t o f i t i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f moderate i d e o l o g y i n c o n t r a s t t o r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y i n terms o f b o t h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f Tukaram and o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n M a h a r a s t r a . Tukaram was humble by n a t u r e and he b e l o n g e d t o a S u d r a c a s t e t h a t has t h e l o w e s t r a n k i n g i n t h e H i n d u c a s t e system. M a h a r a s t r a , where Tukaram's s e c t g o t a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g , had a v e r y h i g h t r a d i t i o n of B r a h m a n i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a t t a i n m e n t s . N e i t h e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Tukaram, n o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f M a h a r a s t r a p r o v i d e d an impetus f o r a r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y . Tukaram f o l l o w e d t h e 'Znaneswari' ( t h e M a r a t h i t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e ; G i t a ) a l m o s t as a b i b l e f o r h i s ' k i r t a n a s ' o r r e l i g i o u s s t o r y t e l l i n g . He a d v o c a t e d a s y n t h e s i s o f a l l gods ( i n c l u d i n g S i v a ) i n t o t h e i d e a l s o f V i t h o b a o f Pandharpur ( n e a r P o o n a ) . He s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t a l l h i s f o l l o w e r s s h o u l d make 'a group p i l g r i m a g e ' , c a l l e d ' V a r i , t o V i f h o b a t w i c e a y e a r , i n s t e a d o f t o . i n d i v i d u a l h o l y p l a c e s a l l over I n d i a . He s a i d t h a t u t t e r i n g t h e name o f V i f h o b a w i t h a l l l o v e and d e d i c a t i o n and t h e n i n e -f o l d r e l a t e d f o r m o f w o r s h i p would be enough f o r a d e v o t e e t o r e a c h s a l v a t i o n . The r e g i o n o f K a r n a t a k , where V i r a s a i v a had t h e most of i t s f o l l o w i n g seemed t o be r i p e f o r t h e r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y due t o t h e combined e f f e c t s o f t h e dynamic p e r s o n a l i t y o f Basava and t o t h e s o c i o - p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e a r e a g e n e r a l l y . Most of t h e K a r n a t a k i s r e l a t i v e l y f e r t i l e and t h e bu s i n e s s m e n and t h e f a r m e r s t h e r e a r e q u i t e r i c h . On t h e J.N. F r a z e r and J . F . Edwards, The L i f e and T e a c h i n g of Tukaram. (Madras: The C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e s o c i e t y f o r I n d i a , 1 9 2 2 ) , p. 12. 10 other hand, Brahmins who enjoyed a superior social status merely because they were Brahmins could be challenged. Their intellectual and cultural 2 attainments seemed to be very meagre. This situation helped an i n t e l l e c -tual Brahmin, Basava, to c r i t i c i s e them mercilessly. It is because of this merciless criticism of Brahmins by Basava that Bhandarkar accused Basava of being "a renegade. Brahmin hater". Basava's sayings, through which he expressed his radical ideology, grew out of his highly c r i t i c a l study of a l l Hindu Sanskrit scriptures. He seems to have witnessed the priestly Brlhmin's excessive claims of superiority and the resulting exploitation. One could easily predict that Basava's revolutionary c a l l to reject a l l Hindu scriptures and Brahmanical superiority was welcome to the rich businessmen and farmers of Karnatak. Certain radical effects of Basavafs ideology however, were to follow. Devotees not only had to 'cut themselves o f f from a l l Hindu scriptures, mythologies and gods, but also from a l l Hindu ties on the basis of blood, marriage, caste, occupation and region. This i s truly a radical step for the Virasaiva i n i t i a t e , especially in Indian society where one's family and caste group are a l l important. These caste 'in-groups' provide a great sense of economic security and a solid bond of brotherhood. Many sociologists claim that this feeling of security and brotherhood as found in such groups is a major factor for the continued Kannada (Dravidian) being the f i r s t language of these Brahmins, their attainments in Sanskrit could be limited. Frazer and Edwards refer to Karnatak and Telangana Brahmins being called as a 'mere caste of cooks' by Maharastrian Brahmins, in their book L & T of Tukaram, p. 12. 11 e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s s y s t e m i n I n d i a n e a r l y f o r 3000 y e a r s . The r a d i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s e v e r i n g p a r e n t a l and s o c i a l t i e s f o r t h e e a r l i e r f o l -l o w e r s , a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e c a t e g o r i s a t i o n of Basava's i d e o l o g y as 4 r a d i c a l and p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t s l i m i t e d f o l l o w i n g . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e moderate n a t u r e of Tukaram's i d e o l o g y c a n be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by o b s e r v i n g t h e l i m i t e d changes demanded i n t h e l i f e s t y l e o f h i s f o l l o w e r s . T o become a member o f t h e V a r a k a r i p a n t h , Tukaram i n s i s t e d on o n l y a few p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a V a r a k a r i had n e i t h e r t o g i v e up h i s H i n d u t r a d i t i o n s n o r s c r i p t u r e s , n o r h i s f a m i l y o r c a s t e memberships. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , a V a r a k a r i e n t e r e d o n l y i n t o a v o l u n t a r y p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n t o j o i n t w i c e - a - y e a r p>i p i l g r i m a g e s t o V i t h o b a o f P a n d h a r p u r . D u r i n g t h e s e p i l g r i m a g e s , V a r a k a r i e s would be o b l i g e d t o l i v e a s i m p l e l i f e w h i c h g e n e r a l l y i n -c l u d e d e a t i n g o n l y s i m p l e v e g e t a r i a n f o o d , d i s c i p l i n i n g s u c h p e r s o n a l p a s s i o n s as l o v e , a n g e r , e t c . , and j o i n i n g i n g r o u p - w a l k i n g , g r o u p -s i n g i n g , and g r o u p - l i v i n g f o r days t o g e t h e r . Thus w i t h o u t any p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l l o s s e s , a V a r a k a r i c o u l d d e r i v e t h e b e n e f i t s of b e i n g p e r i o d -i c a l l y i n ,the company o f s a i n t s , and e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t e n s e d e v o t i o n t o God. B o t h B a s a v a and Tukaram i n s i s t t h a t a d e v o t e e has t o be humble, calm and s e r e n e b o t h i n h i s r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l l i f e . ^ F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of c o n t r a s t i s p r o v i d e d by t h e r a d i c a l ( f o r t h a t t i m e ) s o c i a l r e f o r m s of Basava. He n o t o n l y denounced u n a c c e p t a b l e s o c i o ^ H u t t o n , J.E. C a s t e i n S t r i d i a , v i t s n a t u r e , ^ f u n c t i o n - and o r i g i n s . ( 4 t h ed.; Bombay, I n d i a n B r a n c h , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963) p. 2. 4 , There a r e o n l y t h r e e m i l l i o n V i r a s a i v a s i n c o n t r a s t t o f i f t e e n m i l l i o n V a r a k a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1911 census o f Government o f I n d i a . ^ P l e a s e r e f e r t o 'poem-sayings' o f b o t h Basava and Tukaram i n C h a p t e r I I , s e c t i o n 6. 12 r e l i g i o u s customs i n s t r o n g t e r m s , b u t ^ i n t r o d u c e d p o s i t i v e customs t o c o u n t e r a c t them. He denounced H i n d u c a s t e h i e r a r c h y and i t s r e l a t e d customs c o n c e r n i n g p o l l u t i o n . He f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t a l l V i r a s a i v a s a r e e q u a l and t h a t no p o l l u t i o n s t o u c h them be c a u s e t h e y wore t h e L i n g a (a symbol w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d t o b u r n a l l i m p u r i t i e s ) . To r e i n f o r c e t h i s i d e a i n p r a c t i c e , he i n t r o d u c e d a sy s t e m o f common d i n i n g i n r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r a l l V i r a s a i v a s . He preached e q u a l i t y of t h e s e x e s — • by g r a n t i n g V i r a s s i v a women t h e r i g h t t o w o r s h i p t h e i r p e r s o n a l L i n g a and t h e r i g h t t o r e m a r r y w h i l e b e i n g a widow. The moderateness o f Tukaram's i d e o l o g y i s seen i n h i s c o n t r a r y h a n d l i n g o f s o c i a l problems o f t h e t i m e . He made g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m s o f g r e edy p r i e s t s , b u t d i d n o t r e j e c t t h e B r a h m a n i c a l r i t u a l p r o c e e d i n g s . He c r i t i c i s e d m e c h a n i c a l s t u d y o f t h e Vedas and t h e h a n d l i n g o f r i t u a l s , b u t p r e s c r i b e d t h e n i n e - f o l d form o f w o r s h i p w i t h l o v e , and b o t h t h e t e l l i n g arid l i s t e n i n g o f God's s t o r i e s w i t h d e v o t i o n . B e h i n d a l l t h i s seems t o be Tukaram's f i r m f a i t h t h a t God assumes i n c a r n a t i o n s t o im p r o v e t h e e n t i r e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n and t h a t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s o n l y t o c a r r y t h e message o f God t h r o u g h h i s K i r t a n a s . t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . Tukaram s p r e a d h i s B h a k t i i d e o l o g y t h r o u g h t h e s e p o p u l a r K i r t a n a s and h i s own s i m p l e poems ( c a l l e d Abhangas) i n M a r a t h i . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , D r . C h a n d r a s h e k h a r i a h ' s c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t t h e l a c k o f an u n t o u c h a b l e and low c a s t e f o l l o w i n g f o r V i r a s a i v a s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . He m a i n t a i n s i n h i s ' S o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of V i r a s a i v i s m ' ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F r a n k f u r t , 1955, p. 82) t h a t many low — t c a s t e s do n o t j o i n V i r a s a i v i s m m a i n l y b e c a u s e i t p r o h i b i t s meat e a t i n g . — i T h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e C h a n d r a s h e k h a r i a h does n o t v i e w V i r a s a i v i s m as a p a r t o f t h e B h a k t i movement, w h e r e i n a l m o s t a l l t h e B h a k t i s e c t s , 13 including that of Kabir, (a Muslim saint), prohibit not only meat eating but also prohibit eating of strong spices and foods such as onions and garlic. The main Indian conception behind these prohibitions is that meat eating and strong foods give r i s e to a vol a t i l e , passionate and violent temperament, unsuitable to a devotee. Many lower caste.-; groups probably did not join the Virasaiva movement, because they could not appreciate the intellectual appeal of Basava sufficiently to justify cutting off strong in-group family and caste relations. The Hindu lower castes — menial workers and outcastes — sweepers and shoemakers for example, were not given access to education or allowed to change occupation for many centuries. Their association with Hindu religion was mainly through certain rituals and gods they worshipped more often in their own groups. Since their in-group feelings were very strong, their lower status did not much bother them. Their lack of access to educational and intellectual ventures prohibited the development of a c r i t i c a l attitude towards the Hindu religion and i t s social organisation.^ In contrast, the Varakari movement has had a huge following of lower caste peasants as well as of p o l i t i c a l leaders of the time such as Shivaji. Currently the group is popular among 20th century intellectuals such as Pratharna Samajists of Bombay. These latter do not join the pilgrimages, but hold Tukaram and his poetry in great veneration.^ W^.M. Theodore de Bary-, editor, Sources of Indian Tradition, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), pp. 700-701. ^Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. James Hastings, Vol. XII (1922), pp. 466-69. 14 Results of Basic Ideological Differences Now that I have explained the radical nature of Basava's Vira-saivism and the moderate nature of Tukaram's Varakari panth, I may examine the practical effects of these basic differences on their respective social organisations at the present day. In discussing social organisation, I propose to use a basic classification into 'rigid' and 'flexible'. A 'rigid social organisation' is one which i s not very responsive to changing needs and conditions. This limited responsiveness to change can be further attributed to certain factors that work to "resist change". For instance, i f a social organisation i s centralised, leading to a centralisation both of authority and of decisions, then the needs to change of different local centres may not be well known, may be neglected, or may be suppressed depending on the nature of that centralised authority. I see the centralisation of any organisation as working in general as a 'resistant to change'. Furthermore, hierarchical relations between groups and individuals, such as exist between castes and within a bureaucratic organisation would work as an added factor of 'resistance to change' in that 'particular social organisation or society. Similarly, a stress on hierarchy within a family makes that family unit resistant to change. In any hierarchical structure, the lower ranking members are not empowered to i n i t i a t e debate or to decide important issues and thus to bring about general change. It is also always in the interest of high ranking mem-bers of a hierarchical organisation to maintain st a b i l i t y by 'resisting change'. Thus centralisation, hierarchy and lack of mobility in a social organisation a l l contribute to lowering the rate of internal change. 15 T h i s i s what I r e f e r t o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g as the " r i g i d i t y " o f a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , a ' f l e x i b l e ' s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h maximises an o r g a n i s a t i o n ' s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s and needs. Such r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o change i n a s o c i a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n i s made p o s s i b l e when t h e r e i s a d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , an emphasis on t h e e q u a l i t y o f members and when t h e i r r e l a t i v e m o b i l i t y i n economic and g e o g r a p h i c a l terms i s h i g h . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s , where p e o p l e a r e encouraged t o make d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y w i l l be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e many immediate f a c t o r s around them. Thus d e c e n t r a l i -s a t i o n , e q u a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s and maximum m o b i l i t y , a l l s e r v e t o " i n -c r e a s e t h e r a t e o f change". I n my terms t h e s e f a c t o r s open t h e d o o r s o f a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n t o f l e x i b i l i t y . I f i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t s u c h s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s a r e c e r t a i n t o be f l e x i b l e , t h e y w i l l a t l e a s t have f e w e r f a c t o r s s e r v i n g t o b u i l d up r e s i s t a n c e t o such change. At t h e o u t s e t , Basava's r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y seemed t o e n v i s i o n a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w i t h no c a s t e s , no f a m i l y and r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y and many s o c i a l r e f o r m s . B u t c o n t r a r y t o Basava's i n t e n t i o n s , h i s i d e o l o g y ledc" t o a p a r a d o x i c a l l y r i g i d o r g a n i s a t i o n amongst h i s f o l l o w e r s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e moderate s o c i a l i d e o l o g y o f Tukaram, however, w h i c h d i d n o t c h a l l e n g e most customs o f h i s t i m e , i r o n i c a l l y l e a d t o a v e r y f l e x i b l e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n amongst h i s f o l l o w e r s . The f i r s t r i g i d i f y i n g e f f e c t o f V i r a s a i v i s m seems t o have r e s u l t e d from t h e r a d i c a l s p i r i t o f " c u t t i n g o f f " from t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n o f t h e t i m e . T h i s was c a r r i e d out by V i r a s a i v a f o l l o w e r s i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s t h e i r r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y and d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r . But t h e 'I 16 'cut o f f l e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o s e g r e g a t i o n — p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y community and t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a d e f e n s i v e m i n o r i t y . Such a m i n o r i t y group f o r m a t i o n i s bound t o have c u m u l a t i v e e f -f e c t s on t h e o t h e r . a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l l i f e , s u c h as k i n s h i p , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n a c a s t e and k i n o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y l i k e I n d i a . For- i n s t a n c e , a l i m i t e d k i n s h i p c i r c l e can l e a d t o i n b r e d m a r i t a l p r a c t i c e s and heavy demands o f m u t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s and r i g h t s . The p e c u l i a r b u t w i d e s p r e a d p r a c t i c e among V i r a s a i v a s o f m a r r y i n g w i t h i n t i g h t l y c l o s e d c i r c l e s s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e p r a c t i c e o f i n b r e e d i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , a m i n o r i t y community cannot draw economic and e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y f r o m a w i d e r community b a s i s . So t o compensate, t h e r i g i d i t y o f p a t r i a r c h a l and a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e community i s i n c r e a s e d . S i m i l a r l y i n t h e o c c u p a -t i o n a l f i e l d , more economic s e c u r i t y i s p o s s i b l e i f one s t i c k s t o h e r e -on d i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n e n t e r i n g new r i s k y v e n t u r e s . Tukaram's f o l l o w e r s n e i t h e r had t o 'cut o f f n o r s e g r e g a t e them-s e l v e s f r o m t h e i r w i d e r k i n s h i p and c a s t e s t r u c t u r e f o r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r e a s o n s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e i r s y s t e m of 'group p i l g r i m a g e 1 ( i n M a r a t h i c a l l e d " V a r i " ) gave them an added o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g e o g r a -p h i c a l m o b i l i t y and f o r m e e t i n g p e o p l e from o t h e r s u b - c a s t e s and o t h e r p l a c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , w a l k i n g , s i n g i n g r e l i g i o u s s o n g s , e a t i n g and °D.A. C h e k k i , "Mate s e l e c t i o n , age a t m a r r i a g e and p r o p i n q u i t y among t h e  L i n g a y a t s o f I n d i a . " ( J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y , No. 3 0 ) , pp. 707-11. Q A.K. I y e r , The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , V o l . I V , (1931) " L i n g a y a t s t o o k h a r d l y any j o b i n army o r p o l i c e " , p. 120. 17 l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , b r o u g h t about a d i s t i n c t i v e e m o t i o n a l u n i t y and b r o t h e r h o o d amongst a l l Varakaries."*"^ Though Tukaram d i d n o t h i n g d i r e c t l y t o e r a d i c a t e s o c i a l e v i l s and e x i s t i n g r i g i d i t i e s o f t h e H i n d u s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , h i s p o p u l a r group p i l g r i m a g e system seems t o have e f f e c t i v e l y i n t r o d u c e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u s o c i a l order."'""'" P a r a d o x i c a l l y enough, much o f Basava's s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n seems t o r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f r a n k and s t a t u s ( w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o H i n d u n o t i o n s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n ) . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t , on t h e one hand, Basava r e j e c t s a l l c a s t e d i s t i n c t i o n s and p o l l u t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r V i r a s a i v a s i n s i s t i n g t h a t e q u a l i t y o f a l l V i r a s a i v a s j i s m a i n l y due t o t h e i r b e i n g i n a permanent s t a t e o f ' p u r i t y ' ' as L i n g a w e a r e r s . T h i s — i » i n s i s t e n c e on t h e p u r i t y of V i r a s a i v a s f u r t h e r i m p l i e s t h a t n o n - V i r a s a i v a s a r e i m p u r e , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y low i n s t a t u s . These H i n d u i d e a s o f p o l l u t i o n and p u r i t y r e l a t i n g t o s t a t u s and r a n k seem t o l i n k V i r a s a i v a s w i t h n o n - V i r a s a i v a s — m o s t l y H indus — i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way. I t meant t h e development of a k i n d o f r i v a l r y between V i r a s a i v a s and H i n d u s , each c l a i m i n g s u p e r i o r s t a t u s . Mr. C h e k k i ' s r e c e n t s t u d y on t h i s t o p i c t e s t i f i e s t o s u c h a c l a i m made by V i r a s a i v a s i n r e l a t i o n t o Brahmins o f K a r n a t a k . T h i s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e p u r i t y o f V i r a s a i v a s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as _ — » _-an e f f o r t by Basava t o improve t h e s t a t u s o f V i r a s a i v a s by t h e s e means. G.A. D e l e u r y , The C u l t o f V i t h o b a , (Poona: Poona U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 77-78. 1 1 I b i d . Pp. 4-5. 18 T h i s p r o c e s s o f g i v i n g _^ up c e r t a i n customs a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r c a s t e s s u c h as meat e a t i n g s a n d t r y i n g t o f o l l o w c e r t a i n customs of t h e h i g h e r c a s t e s i s d e s c r i b e d by M.N. S r i n i v a s as ' S a n s k r i t i s a t i o n ' . S r i v i n a s e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s has been, i n r e g u l a r use i n I n d i a , f o r b r i n g i n g 12 about t h e c a s t e s t a t u s improvement. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , however, o t h e r H i n d u s have n e v e r a c c o r d e d _ i _ V i r a s a i v a s h i g h r a n k . To o t h e r s t h e y appeared t o o b s e r v e v e r y few p o l -l u t i o n r u l e s , s u c h as b i r t h and d e a t h r e s t r i c t i o n s , w h i c h were s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d even by S u d r a s , t h e f o u r t h r a n k i n g o f t h e c a s t e g r o u p s . F u r t h e r -- i ' -more V i r a s s a i v a s w o r s h i p p e d S i v a , one o f t h e H i n d u T r i n i t y , and seem t o _ » wear L i n g a a l m o s t as a t a l i s m a n . O c c u p a t i o n a l l y , V i r a s a i v a s were m a i n l y businessmen o r f a r m e r s , t r a d i t i o n a l m a j o r i t y o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i c h r a n k e d t h i r d a f t e r t h o s e o f p r i e s t and w a r r i o r / r u l e r . Hence t h e y were t r e a t e d by most o f t h e Hindus as a t h i r d r a n k i n g c a s t e g r o u p , p a r t l y b ecause o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l f o l l o w i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, V i r a s a i v a s f o l l o w e d a p u r e v e g e t a r i a n d i e t — an i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a o f i n c r e a s e d p u r i t y — w h i c h b o l s t e r e d t h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and c l a i m s t o h i g h r a n k . A low r a n k i n g by V i r a s a i v a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n K a r n a t a k where t h e y a r e i n t h e 14 m a j o r i t y . Thus t h e r e seems t o be an e v e r p r e s e n t c a s t e s t a t u s c o n -c i o u s n e s s i n r a d i c a l V i r a s a i v a s , l e a d i n g t o c a s t e r i v a l r i e s , p r e j u d i c e M.N. S r i n i v a s , C a s t e i n Modern I n d i a and o t h e r e s s a y s . (Bombay: A s i a p u b l i s h i n g House, 1962, pp. 42-70. I remember t h a t i n my c h i l d h o o d , H i n d u s , e s p e c i a l l y Brahmins used t o r e f e r t o me as 'a V a i s y a o r g r o c e r ' s L e e l a ' , though I. b e l o n g e d t o a Jangama o r p r i e s t l y c a s t e o f V i r a s a i v a s . 14 C h e k k i , " M o d e r n i s a t i o n and k i n n e t w o r k i n a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y : I n d i a . " (World Congress o f S o c i o l o g y , I.S.A., 1970), p. 10. 19 and s e g r e g a t i o n ; V i r a s a i v a s , who a r e i n f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e academic and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s , have v e r y l i t t l e hope o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s t a t u s v i s - a - v i s t h e m a j o r i t y H i n d u community. T h i s has l e a d t o f u r t h e r d e f e n s i v e and s e p a r a t i s t t e n d e n c i e s p r o d u c i n g f u r t h e r p e c u l i a r r i g i d i -t i e s i n t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e V i r a s a i v a s e c t . H i s t o r i a n s have e x p l a i n e d t h e r i g i d i t i e s o f H i n d u s o c i a l o r g a n i s a -t i o n d u r i n g t h e M u s l i m and t h e B r i t i s h regimes."'""' The proud Hindus — though p o l i t i c a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e — f e l t t h e m s e l v e s as most p u r e , and th u s s u p e r i o r t o b o t h M u s l i m s and B r i t i s h e r s . H i ndus n e v e r a c c e p t e d any i n t e r -f e r e n c e by t h e s e i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , and k e p t t h e m s e l v e s a p a r t ; and by thu s d e f e n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s from t h e s e p o w e r f u l g r o u p s , d e v e l o p e d customs l e a d i n g t o f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i v e r u l e s and r i g i d i t i e s i n t h e i r g r o u p s . Extreme o r a l m o s t p e r v e r t e d adherence t o p o l l u t i o n and p u r i t y r u l e s , t h e custom o f c h i l d m a r r i a g e , t h e custom of S a t i , e t c . , a r e some o b v i o u s examples of t h i s p r o c e s s . V i r a s a i v i s m i s s a i d t o have d e v e l o p e d a s i m i l a r c a s t e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n , i t s community, based a l m o s t on t h e same c r i t e r i a as t h o s e i n t h e H i n d u community. E t h n o g r a p h e r s have p o i n t e d out some c l e a r example of - ' 16 such r i g i d i t i e s w i t h i n V i r a s a i v a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . The Gu r u s , _ i s p i r i t u a l t e a c h e r s o f V i r a s a i v i s m , seem t o e n j o y e x t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e s o f th e r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t and t h e h i g h e s t s o c i a l s t a t u s . The Gurus a r e b a c h e l o r s , an a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a o f p u r i t y . M a r r i e d Jangamas, by co n -t r a s t , c a r r y p r i e s t l y d u t i e s and g e t second p l a c e . A l o n g t h e l i n e s o f K.M. P a n i k k a r , The f o u n d a t i o n s o f Hew I n d i a , (Bombay, A s i a , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 42. 'Ayer, The Mysore C. & T., ( V o l . I V , 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 81-124. 20 H i n d u B r a h m i n s , Jangamas p r o h i b i t widow r e m a r r i a g e , and s t r i c t l y o b s e r v e c a s t e endogamy and exogamy r u l e s . I n K a r n a t a k (where t h e y a r e i n t h e — t . -v m a j o r i t y ) , Jangamas may t a k e a d a u g h t e r from a n o t h e r V i r a s a i v a c a s t e , b u t a r e n o t supposed t o g i v e t h e i r d a u g h t e r i n m a r r i a g e t o a non-Jangama. The examples of s u b - c a s t e s w i t h i n V i r a s a i v a s , s u c h as ' b l a c k ' and ' w h i t e ' weavers i s a f u r t h e r example o f i n t e r n a l s u b - d i v i s i o n . ^ A l l t h e s e a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t a s t r e s s on c o d i f i c a t i o n and r a n k r a t h e r t h a n on e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s as t h e i d e o l o g y s t i p u l a t e s . F o r t h e moderate V a r a k a r i e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c e n -t r a l i s a t i o n , h i e r a r c h y , o r a u t h o r i t y i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n t h e i r r e g u l a r group p i l g r i m a g e each group of v i l l a g e V a r a k a r i e s c a r r i e s a p a l a n q u i n , p l a c i n g i n i t a s y m b o l i c image o f God. A l l t h e s e d e v o t e e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s a i n t s by n o n - p i l g r i m s , who w o r s h i p t h e God and v e n e r a t e t h e V a r a k a r i e s , g i v i n g them o f f e r i n g s of money and f r u i t s . Many hun-d r e d s o f s u c h groups o f V a r a k a r i e s meet a t P a n d h a r p u r on p a r t i c u l a r a u s p i c i o u s d a y s . Even a t P a n d h a r p u r , no one group o f V a r a k a r i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d as s u p e r i o r t o a n o t h e r . A l l V a r a k a r i e s j o i n i n g t h e p i l g r i -mage s i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s songs ( c a l l e d B hajarias) and a t a l e n t e d s t o r y t e l l e r amongst them t e l l s s t o r i e s o f God ( c a l l e d K i r t a r i a s ) , a t t h e s e huge g a t h e r i n g s . Tukaram was such a p o p u l a r K i r t a n k a r a o r s i n g e r l o n g 18 b e f o r e he was a c c e p t e d as a s e c t l e a d e r . T h i s u n i q u e s y s t e m o f p i l g r i m a g e has h e l p e d t o r e d u c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n , *^K. I s h w a r a n , T r a d i t i o n and Change i n an I n d i a n V i l l a g e , (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 966), p. 20. 18 P l e a s e r e f e r t o C h a p t e r I I , s e c t i o n IV. 21 c l a s s and c a s t e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t o have encouraged group a c t i v i t i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s cf s o c i a l l i f e . T h i s , i n t u r n , has l e d t o f l e x i b i l i t y and t o changes over t i m e i n t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h i s group. I t i s m a i n l y on t h e b a s i s o f my s t u d y o f t h e s e c t i d e o l o g y o f Basava and of Tukaram, and on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t I w o u l d l i k e t o sum up as f o l l o w s : i t i s t h e r a d i c a l n a t u r e o f Basava's i d e o l o g y and i t s p e c u l i a r i n t e r a c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f c l a s s , c a s t e con-s c i o u s n e s s w i t h H i ndus w h i c h p a r a d o x i c a l l y g i v e s r i s e t o r i g i d i t i e s i n t h e V i r a s a i v a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , i t i s t h e moderate i d e o l o g y o f Tukaram w i t h i t s u n i q u e s y s t e m o f p i l g r i m a g e w h i c h seems t o b r i n g d i r e c t f l e x i b i l i t i e s i n t h e V a r a k a r i p a n t h and i n d i r e c t l y i n - - 19 M a h a r a s f r a as a whole. Some examples o f t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n M a h a r a s t r a can be seen i n t h e w i d e s p r e a d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f 2 0 t h c e n t u r y r e f o r m movements as women's e d u c a t i o n , g r e a t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , more e q u a l i t y o f men and women, e r a d i c a t i o n o f u n t o u c h a b l e movements by t h e f i r s t u n t o u c h a b l e l e a d e r , Dr. Ambedakar. There has a l s o been a g r e a t e r s u c c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i v e movement i n M a h a r a s t r a t h a n 20 i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f I n d i a . T h i s development o f c a t e g o r i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g i e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a -t i o n o f two B h a k t i s e c t s i s n o t meant t o d e s c r i b e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t o d a y , b u t i s meant t o open up a p o s s i b l e l i n e o f e n q u i r y f o r f i e l d w o r k . 20 "The w o r k i n g s o f c o o p e r a t i v e movement i n I n d i a , " a r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d by t h e Government o f I n d i a , 1964. 22 CHAPTER I I Basava and Tukaram ( T h e i r I d e o l o g i e s as Seen i n T h e i r "Poem-Sayings") I n C h a p t e r I , a t h e o r e t i c a l framework was d e v e l o p e d t o show a g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t o s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n as w e l l as t o p o i n t o u t t h e s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s o f two t y p e s o f i d e o l o g i e s , w h i c h have r e s u l t e d i n two t y p e s of s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n i n Southwest I n d i a . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I p r o p o s e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e two t y p e s o f i d e o l o -g i e s w i t h s p e c i f i c examples. W h i l e comparing t h e s e i d e o l o g i e s , I w i l l a l s o examine t h e i r t o t a l framework o f i d e a s and a t t h e same t i m e e x p l i -c a t e and s u b s t a n t i a t e w i t h "poem-sayings" a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r l e a d e r s t h e b a s i c c a t e g o r i s a t i o n t h a t I have used above. Only t h o s e poem-sayings o f t h e s e c t leaders''' t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d a y i n p r i n t e d form have been s e l e c t e d . These poem-sayings a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e s i m p l e v e r n a c u l a r and a r e l a r g e l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . T h e r e f o r e , my e x p l a n a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s w i l l be r a t h e r b r i e f . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o the c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e poem-sayings o f Basava and o f Tukaram, a s h o r t s k e t c h o f t h e i r l i f e and b a c k g r o u n d s may be i l -- - 2 l u m i n a t i n g . The Basava P u r a n a g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g l i f e s t o r y o f Basava. He was a son o f a S a i v a Brahmin and was b o r n around t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y . •Worshipping ' S i v a ' as one of t h e major H i n d u d e i t i e s was a t r a d i t i o n There a r e many o t h e r p e r s o n s who have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r s e c t i d e o l o g i e s i n l e s s e r p r o p o r t i o n . 2 - -Basava P u r a n a , a l i f e s t o r y o f B a s a v a , a Kannada book, i s p u b l i s h e d a t Poona, i n 1905. 23 BASAVA The t h r e e h o r i z o n t a l ash marks on h i s f o r e h e a d a r e S , a i v i t e s e c t a r i a n marks. Of the t h r e e n e c k e s s e s he w e a r s , t h e top one i s o f S i v a - l i n e a b o x - t i e d w i t h t h i c k S i v a t h r e a d s ; the m i d d l e one i s o f r u d r a k s a , S i v a beads and t h e bottom one i s t h e p e a r l n e c k l a c e . T h i s p e a r l n e c k l a c e and h i s crown seem t o be o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s s v m b o l s . (He was a prime m i n i s t e r . ) Basava w i t h h i s f i n e f e a t u r e s and r o y a l d r e s s l o o k s v e r y much l i k e an i n t e l l e c t u a l Brahmin l e a d e r . 24 i n h i s f a m i l y . But Basava wanted t o be a d e v o t e e o f no o t h e r God t _ e x c e p t S i v a . T h i s s t r o n g and extreme s t a n d of Basava i s s a i d t o have been e x p r e s s e d by him a t h i s ' i n i t i a t i o n ' or ' t h r e a d ceremony' as a Brahmin boy o f 12. He i s s a i d t o have r e f u s e d t o undergo t h i s ceremony because he had t o say a p r a y e r t o t h e Sun God. F o r t h i s r e a s o n he i s s a i d t o have l e f t h i s house a l o n g w i t h h i s s i s t e r t o p u r s u e t h e i r own i n d e p e n d e n t r e l i g i o u s l i f e . L a t e r h i s h i g h i n t e l k c t and c a p a b i l i t y i s s a i d t o have g a i n e d him a p o s i t i o n as a p r i m e m i n i s t e r o f t h e k i n g , B i j j a l a ( D i s t r i c t : B i j a p u r . K a r n a t a k ) . F u r t h e r , we a r e t o l d t h a t Basava used h i s h i g h l y c r i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s B h a k t i i d e o l o g y and h i g h p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t o s p r e a d h i s V i r s a i v a s e c t (meaning a s e c t of p u r e o r b r a v e t S a i v a s ) . Tukaram was, by c o n t r a s t , a son o f a Sudra ( 4 t h o r t h e l o w e s t r a n k i n g c a s t e o f t h e H i n d u c a s t e s y s t e m ) . He was b o r n around t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y . H i s f a m i l y had a t r a d i t i o n of b e i n g a d e v o t e e o f V i t h o b a o f Pandharpur f o r seven g e n e r a t i o n s . So Tukaram was a w o r s h i p p e r o f V i t h o b a by f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n ; even l o n g b e f o r e he became a l e a d e r , a p r e a c h e r and a composer o f 'abhangas' (one t y p e o f M a r a t h i r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y ) of t h e V a r a k a r i p a n t h . H i s l e a d e r s h i p and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of t h e p a n t h a r e s a i d t o have s t a r t e d r a t h e r l a t e i n h i s l i f e , and were due t o a s e r i e s o f p e r s o n a l m i s e r i e s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e d e a t h of h i s w i f e i n a f a m i n e . The i n t e l l e c t u a l f o u n d e r and t h e f a t h e r o f t h e V a r a k a r i s e c t i s s a i d t o be Znaneswar, a 1 2 t h c e n t u r y c e l i b a t e B rahmin, and a t r a n s l a t o r o f t h e G i t a i n t o M a r a t h i , c a l l e d ' Z n a n e s w a r i ' . But t h e V a r a k a r i s e c t i s s a i d t o have s p r e a d o n l y under Tukaram's l e a d e r s h i p . Tukaram used 25 Soft <5JT51?TT5cT I cTIRZJeUT jriSlT HIST II ^ I c H ^ r - f ^ «n^T S f^lT 11 TUKAKA5! The s c e n t e d wood p a s t e on h i s f o r e h e a d i n a v e r t i c a l f a s h i o n i s a V a i s n a v i t e s e c t a r i a n mark. Tukaram wears a T u l a s i bead n e c k l a c e o f V a i s n a v i t e s and h o l d s t h e t a i and the tambora, b o t h m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s used i n h i s b h a j a n a s and K l r t a n a s . I n t h i s p i c t u r e h i s s e r e n e s i m p l e f a c e and f a r m e r l i k e a t t i r e r e v e a l s him as a t y p i c a l B h a k t i s a i n t o f t h e p e o p l e . The p o e t r y below t h e p i c t u r e o f Tukaram was w r i t t e n by a B r l h m i n d i s c i p l e . I t t a l k s o f Tukaram as an i n c a r n a t i o n o f V i s n u . 26 'Znaneswari' t o t e l l s t o r i e s about h i s God. W h i l e t e l l i n g t h e s e s t o r i e s , he used t o i n t e r m i x o r d i s p e r s e h i s own abhangas. I t was on Tukaram's own i n i t i a t i v e t h a t he p o p u l a r i s e d t h e s y s t e m o f 'group p i l -g rimage' ( V a r i ) , and h i s own K i r t a n a s t h a t a r e s a i d t o have a t t r a c t e d t h e crowds t o t h e V a r a k a r i s e c t . Thus Tukarlm's poem-songs and h i s V a r a k a r i s e c t i d e o l o g y x^ere b u i l t i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g . H i s poem-sayings a r e s a i d t o have been i n s p i r e d by h i s own p e r s o n a l l o v e o f God and by d i r e c t i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m t h e i n t e r e s t e d masses who would f l o c k t o Pa n d h a r p u r j u s t t o l i s t e n t o Tukarlm's K i r t a n a s . Even an a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n o f t h e 'poem-sayings' o f B a s a v a and of Tukaram show them t o be t h e t o r c h - b e a r e r s o f t h e B h a k t i movement of I n d i a . They a r e c a l l e d t h e g r e a t drum-beaters o f B h a k t i . One s e l e c t i o n f rom t h e main w r i t i n g s o f each w i l l s e r v e as an. example o f what t h e s e men s a i d about t h e p a t h o f B h a k t i . BASAVA i " B h a k t i has made S i v a speak and s h i v e r ; B h a k t i has made S i v a e a t and wear; , B h a k t i has made S i v a s i n g and dance; W i t h o u t B h a k t i t h e r e i s no r e n u n c i a t i o n and no knowledge. B h a k t i i s t h e r e f o r e l i b e r a t i o n ' s mother." (6 2 , 69, S.M.A.) TUKARAM " T h i s Thy n a t u r e i s beyong t h e g r a s p o f mind o r o f words-; And t h e r e f o r e I have made ' B h a k t i ' 'a measure'. I measure t h e e n d l e s s by t h e measure o f B h a k t i ; He i s n o t t o be t r u l y measured by any o t h e r means. Thou a r t n o t t o be found by 'Yoga', s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s ; p r a c t i c e s o f a u s t e r i t i e s and any b o d i l y e x e r t i o n s , n o r by knowledge. Oh.' K e s h a v a , a c c e p t t h e s e r v i c e w h i c h we r e n d e r t o Thee i n t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f our h e a r t s . " ( 7 , 810, I.E.) F o r a d d i t i o n a l f l a v o u r and s u p p o r t , p l e a s e r e f e r t o t h e 'poem-sayings' i n A p p e n d i x 1. 27 A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h B a s a v a and T u k a r a m B h a k t i ' i s n o t mere ' f a i t h ' i n some s c r i p t u r e s o r i n t h e m a g i c a l powers o f some words l i k e 'mantras' o r i n a c t i o n s l i k e Yoga o r s a c r i f i c e s , b u t i t i s r a t h e r 'an i n t e n s e and p u r e l o v e o f a d e v o t e e towards God, w i t h t o t a l s u r r e n d e r o f h i s s e l f -hood'. Thus i n B h a k t i , a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d e v o t e e and t h e God has been e s t a b l i s h e d by each one o f t h e d e v o t e e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , i t i s a d e v o t e e ' s own ' e x p e r i e n c e ' o r ' f e e l i n g ' o f t r u e d e v o t i o n w h i c h a l o n e l e a d s him t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f h i s f i n a l a i m i n l i f e , c a l l e d l i b e r a t i o n from t h e c y c l e o f b i r t h and r e b i r t h , o r h i s u n i o n w i t h o r grade o f God. The G i t a g i v e s ' B h a k t i ' as one o f t h e ways o f s a l v a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h 'Jnana' and 'karma' i n the 3rd c e n t u r y B.C. But s i n c e t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e B h a k t i movement, i . e . , a f t e r t h e 10th c e n t u r y , ' B h a k t i ' has been g i v e n t h e p redominant p l a c e as t h e o n l y way t o s a l v a t i o n by a l l B h a k t i l e a d e r s , and more e s p e c i a l l y by B a s a v a and Tukaram. I . Open Membership The g r e a t e s t a t t r a c t i o n o f ' B h a k t i ' f o r t h e masses t o b e g i n w i t h was t h a t t h e doors o f l i b e r a t i o n were opened t o e v e r y o n e : i n d i v i d u a l s o f a l l c a s t e s and c l a s s e s and o f b o t h t h e s e x e s . N e i t h e r one's p r e v i o u s l i f e a c t i o n s , n o r one's p r e s e n t c a s t e and s e x n o r a l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n and r i c h e s , n o r i g n o r a n c e o f s c r i p t u r e s and m e d i t a t i o n s were a b a r r i e r f o r one becoming a f o l l o w e r o f t h e B h a k t i movement. Thus e n t r y i n t o s u c h a movement even f o r t h e low c a s t e , downtrodden masses, and f o r women was as good as an e n t r y i n t o heaven. T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y c o u l d be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d o n l y by t h o s e I n d i a n masses who were p r e v i o u s l y d e n i e d even t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r s h i p H i n d u gods and who were g i v e n no hope 28 TUKARAM "The f u l l n e s s o f s a l v a t i o n has come f o r a l l I t ' s market i s f r e e Come one, come a l l ! P a r t a k e o f i t w i t h r e j o i c i n g Here t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n o f S c a s t e , h i g h o r low , Man o r woman, Brahmin o r S u d r a ! " (27, XX, N & F) o f l i b e r a t i o n ^ o r l i v e s t o come. BASAVA "Whether one i s b o r n as a son o f a s l a v e o r a p r o s t i t u t e , Once he i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e t s e c t o f S i v a , i t i s p r o p e r t o t r e a t him e q u a l t o £iva. We must s a l u t e him, w o r s h i p him and a c c e p t h i s f o o d and ' f e e t -w a t e r ' . Those who make him s a d , would have committed f i v e g r e a t s i n s and t h u s w i l l be s e n t t o h e l l by L o r d K u d a l a Sangama". (6 1 , 214, M.M.V Here Tukaram's ' s a y i n g ' makes i t a l l c l e a r , t h a t e v e r y o n e i s welcome i n h i s s e c t . Basava's a d d i t i o n a l a s s u r a n c e t h a t each of h i s i n i t i a t e s w i l l be w e l l t r e a t e d , seems t o be h i g h l y r e a s s u r i n g t o h i s f o l l o w e r s , b u t even a t t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a g e , one can e a s i l y p e r c e i v e Basava's c l e a r i n t e n t i o n s o f b u i l d i n g a s o l i d s e c t , w h e r e i n wrong-d o e r s w i l l g et maximum punishment from h i s God. C o n d i t i o n s f o r Membership Even though b o t h Basava and Tukaram opened t h e d o o r s o f B h a k t i t o a l l t o b e g i n w i t h , t h e y d i d p l a c e s u b t l e l i m i t a t i o n s on e n t r y t o improve t h e n a t u r e o f B h a k t i and i t s d e v o t e e s . BASAVA " I n t h y l i f e ' s w a l k , even as p e a s a n t i n t h e f i e l d , o r what-e v e r c a l l i n g t h y l i v i n g y i e l d L e t t h y e x e r t i o n e v e r , t h e s p i r i t o f work's f u l l i m p r e s s b e a r . V a i n would I b e h o l d , t h e d e v o t e e ' s f e e t , whose g r e a t a l m s - g i v i n g comes n o t of a t a i n t e d l i k e a donkey does!'^-h o a r d . (28, 902, I.E.) The Jangama whose h o m i l i e s he h e a r s t h e n w i l l h i s abode e n t e r TUKARAM "A man who i s overwhelmed i n h i s ' s a n s a r a ' c a n n o t keep h i s mind anywhere. B h a k t i b e l o n g s t o s u c h a c a t e g o r y where you have t o g i v e up e v e r y -t h i n g . Those who t r y t o f o l l o w a V a r a k a r i ' s l i f e and t h e l u s t f u l b u s i n e s s l i f e ; t h e y mix t h i n g s 29 deeming i t k a i l a s ; and t h e L i n g a adore as t h e h o l i e s t on e a r t h . To s u c h I bow and b e l i e f b e s t o w , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." ( 5 5 , 83, A.S.T.) A c c o r d i n g t o B a s a v a , each devotee must re m a i n i n w o r d l y l i f e and have an o c c u p a t i o n . Even a Guru and 'Sarana', s a i n t s have t o t a k e up an o c c u p a t i o n . Thus, he r e j e c t s t h e H i n d u n o t i o n o f a s c e t i s m t o a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n n o r does he welcome l a z y p r i e s t l y - c l a s s p e o p l e as d e v o t e e s . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e d e v o t e e s ' d u t y i s t o work w i t h  d e v o t i o n and t o c o n t r i b u t e w h a t e v e r h i s l i t t l e m ight be f o r t h e b u i l - d i n g o f t h e s e c t o r f o r t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e s e c t f o l l o w e r s . To B a s a v a , 'work i s w o r s h i p ' ; he b e l i e v e s i n t h e d i g n i t y o f l a b o u r . I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t he defends b e i n g a p r i m e m i n i s t e r and a d e v o t e e a t t h e same t i m e ( r e f e r t o A p p e n d i x I , S e c t i o n L., B a s a v a 72, 188,S . M.A.). Thus Basava i n s i s t s t h a t one must keep on w o r k i n g , consuming and d o n a t i n g t o t h e s e c t r a t h e r t h a n h o a r d i n g and p u t t i n g a s i d e f o r w i f e and c h i l d r e n . Here Basava seems t o be a l m o s t a g a i n s t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o -p e r t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, one c o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h i s c o n d i t i o n as c o n t r i -b u t i n g t o Basava's i n t e n t i o n t o b u i l d a s o l i d w o r d l y s e c t o f h i s f o l -l o w e r s . But f o r a r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r o f t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , t h i s sounds l i k e an e x t r e m e l y r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n ! On t h e c o n t r a r y , a c c o r d i n g t o Tukaram, t o be a d e v o t e e , one has t o g i v e up a l l w o r d l y a t t a c h m e n t s and o c c u p a t i o n s . Though Tukaram t a l k s a g a i n s t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a u s t e r i t i e s and f o r e s t d w e l l i n g s , h i s i n c e s s a n t c r y t o g i v e up c h i l d r e n , w i f e , money, b u s i n e s s , t o be a t r u e d evotee does n o t seem t o be t a k i n g away a d e v o t e e f r o m 30 t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t . A t t i m e s he s a y s t h a t one may p e r f o r m w o r d l y d u t i e s but i n a b a l a n c e d and d e t a c h e d way ( R e f e r A p p e n d i x I , section I ...Tukaram 12, 97, Brian. V & S) . One c o u l d i n t e r p r e t Tukaram's i n -s i s t e n c e on i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w o r d l y d u t i e s as due t o h i s main emphasis o f s e c t b u i l d i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s . Thus r i g h t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , we see two d i f f e r e n t a p p roaches e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e s e B h a k t i l e a d e r s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r s e c t s . I I . I n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e T h e n - E x i s t i n g H i n d u i s m I n a d v o c a t i n g B h a k t i as t h e o n l y means t o s a l v a t i o n , b o t h l e a d e r s had t o e x p l a i n t o t h e i r f o l l o w e r s why t h e y c r i t i c i s e d o r r e j e c t e d o t h e r H i n d u s c r i p t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s . Throughout t h e B h a k t i movement, one sees c o n s t a n t c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e Vedas and o t h e r H i n d u methods o f l i b e r a t i o n by a l l B h a k t i s e c t l e a d e r s . The t h r e e a s p e c t s o f H i n d u i s m t h a t a r e c r i t i c i s e d v e h e m e n t l y a r e m a i n l y : 1. t h e s t u d y of t h e Vedas 2. s u p e r i o r i t y o f Brahmins 3. S i n - c l e a n s i n g H i n d u r i t u a l s BASAVA "Do I say S a s t r a i s g r e a t ? I t o n l y e x a l t s Karma! Do I say Veda i s g r e a t ? I t t e l l s o f a n i m a l s a c r i f i c e ! Do I say S m i r t i i s g r e a t ? I t seeks t h e p r e s e n t s i g n ! As He i s i n none o f t h e s e , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama can be nowhere e x c e p t i n t r i p l e d e d i c a t i o n . " ( 7 9 , 292,S.M.A.) 1 TUKARAM " T a l k i n g of I l l u s i o n and R e a l t y t h e r e l i g i o u s c u n n i n g ones have made everybody t o s u f f e r , a l o n g w i t h t h e m s e l v e s . Those who a r e a t t a c h e d t o p a s s i o n s , t e a c h wrong knowledge. . . . T h i s i s l i k e d e c e i v i n g a c h i l d , by f i r s t o f f e r i n g j a g g e r y , w h i l e g i v i n g m e d i c i n e . Thus ' t h e y ' say f o r s a l v a t i o n s t u d y Vedas! These a r e a l l b a r r e n words. Those who p r o t e c t t h e i r ' p i n d a ' ' Narayana w i l l n o t meet them." 31 Basava n o t o n l y c r i t i c i s e s t h e Vedas, S m r i t i e s and a l l H i n d u i S a s t r a s , b u t he t o t a l l y r e j e c t s them as u s e l e s s and u n a c c e p t a b l e . H i s c r i t i c i s m o f a l l t h e s e s c r i p t u r e s and even t h e l i f e o f r i s h i s and gods as f e a r f u l ( i n h i s poem 13, 55,. A.M.) shows h i s r a d i c a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s H i n d u i s m as a whole. Compared t o B a s a v a , Tukaram's c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Vedas i s q u i t e m i l d i n t h e sense t h a t Tukaram does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e s t u d y o f t h e Vedas as n e c e s s a r y f o r s a l v a t i o n . F o r Tukaram, t h e Vedas a r e s t u d i e d by Brahmins i n a m e c h a n i c a l way w i t h o u t any f e e l i n g w h i c h makes t h e whole s t u d y b a r r e n . Thus, i n one o f the poems Tukaram s a y s : "We a l o n e can know Vedas". T h i s q u o t a t i o n i n f e r s t h a t we d e v o t e e s , who s t u d y o r r e a d a n y t h i n g w i t h * f e e l i n g and l o v e o f God, a l o n e can u n d e r s t a n d t h e Vedas. Thus, h i s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Vedas i s m a i n l y due t o t h e B r a h m a n i c a l m e c h a n i c a l and d e c e i t f u l a p p r o a c h o f i t and i s n o t so much a g a i n s t t h e Vedas t h e m s e l v e s . W h i l e c r i t i c i s i n g t h e Vedas for t h e above r e a s o n s , Tukaram a c c e p t s t h e G i t a ( i t s M a r a t h i t r a n s l a t i o n ) one o f t h e H i n d u s c r i p t u r e s a l m o s t as a B i b l e . H i s main d e s i r e i s t o s e r v e God by becoming a p r e a c h e r , i . e . , by t e l l i n g K i r t a n a s , G o d - K r i s h n a ' s s t o r i e s . H i s p l e a s u r e as a p r e a c h e r was t o t e l l K r i s h n a ' s a d v e n t u r o u s s t o r i e s , i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h h i s own b e a u t i f u l poem-songs, t h e o u t p o u r i n g s o f h i s l o v e f o r God. I t i s t h e s e K i r t a n a s t h a t a t t r a c t e d the masses t o him and t o h i s s e c t i n l a r g e numbers. T h i s c o u l d be because t h e masses f e l t t h a t h e r e t h e y were g e t t i n g r e a l s p i r i t u a l f o o d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . Thus Tukaram, though he c r i t i c i s e s t h e Vedas f o r some s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s , a c c e p t s t h e G i t a and many t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f H i n d u i s m w h i c h makes him as a t y p i c a l ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' H i n d u r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r i n 32 c o n t r a s t t o ' r a d i c a l ' Basava who r e j e c t s a l l H i n d u s c r i p t u r e s and sys t e m s . A l l B h a k t i l e a d e r s have been c r i t i c a l o f t h e Brahmin's b e h a v i o u r and c l a i m t o s u p e r i o r s t a t u s because o f t h e i r c l a i m s o f knowing t h e Vedas. Basava's c r i t i c i s m o f Brahmins and o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r s t a t u s -c l a i m s i s one o f t h e most vehement. BASAVA TUKARAM " I n d u l g i n g i n l o v e , e a t i n g one's "A man who g e t s angry_ because he f o o d . I s t h a t e v e r done by a i s touched by a C h a n d a l a i s n o t deputy? ' a t r u e Brahmin. I f a C h a n d a l a O n e s e l f one ought t o do, a l l i s n o t k i n d , h i s i n t e r n a l i s L i n g a ' s r i t e s and c e r e m o n i e s ; p o l l u t e d . What c a s t e a p e r s o n I t ' s n e v e r done by d e p u t y — i s b o r n depends on t h e ' p u r i t y 0 K u d a l a Sangama, o f h i s mind'." How can t h e y know Thee, L o r d , ( 2 4 , 55,I.E.) d o i n g i t f o r mere f o r m a l i t y ? " ( 1 6 , 69,,A.M.) A c c o r d i n g t o B a s a v a , a Brahmin in© h i s r o l e o f a p r i e s t i s l i k e a deputy who w o r s h i p s God and a d m i n i s t e r s a l l r i t u a l s f o r you as a mere ' f o r m a l i t y ' . I n B h a k t i r e l i g i o n , y o u y o u r s e l f have t o w o r s h i p God w i t h l o v e . Thus he c r i t i c i s e s Brahmins f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r and t h e i r c l a i m f o r s u p e r i o r s t a t u s ^Appendix I , I I , Basava, 74, 198,S.M.A.); he does n o t g r a n t them 'any p l a c e ' i n h i s s e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o B a s a v a , Brahmins c l a i m t h a t t h e y r e a d t h e Vedas, so t h a t t h e y know God i s humbug. Basava's c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Brahmin's r o l e and s t a t u s i s so vehement t h a t R.G. B h a n d a r k a r a l m o s t a c c u s e s B a s a v a o f b e i n g a renegade Brahmin-h a t e r and a scheming p o l i t i c i a n . Tukaram, on t h e o t h e r hand, t a l k s i n g e n e r a l as t o how a Brahmin s h o u l d be a man o f b a l a n c e d and c a l m mind and s a y s t h a t i t i s one's ' i n t e r n a l p u r i t y ' w h i c h i s more l o v e d by God t h a n h i s c a s t e e i t h e r as a Brahmin o r as an u n t o u c h a b l e . Thus Tukaram's o c c a s i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s 33 of some Brahmins as b e i n g greedy and o f some who w o r s h i p God w i t h o u t f e e l i n g f o r Him seem t o be i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f t h e t i m e o f t h e B h a k t i movement and n o t s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a r a d i c a l t y p e l i k e B asava. The t h i r d i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f H i n d u i s m t h a t r e c e i v e d maximum c r i t i c i s m from B h a k t i l e a d e r s i s 'Brahmanical r i t u a l i s m ' i n g e n e r a l and t h e p l a c e o f r i t u a l s f o r l i b e r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . BASAVA " C r y , c r y 0 G o a t , because you a r e s l a i n f o r words about words! C r y , c r y , _ b e f o r e them, t h a t r e a d t h e Vedas! C r y , c r y , b e f o r e them, t h a t h e a r t h e s h a s t r a s ! L o r d K u d a l a Sangama, w i l l t a k e a f i t t o l l f o r what you r e w e p t ! " (42, 130,A.M.) TUKARAM "We l i v e d i n t h e V a i k u n t h a and have come f o r t h i s v e r y r e a s o n , v i z . f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e t r u l y what t h e R i s h i s t a u g h t . The w o r l d i s overgrown w i t h weeds; we w i l l sweep c l e a n t h e p a t h s t r o d d e n by t h e r i g h t e o u s and a c c e p t what has remained. The o l d t r u t h s have d i s a p p e a r e d . Mere v e r b a l knowledge has b r o u g h t about d e s t r u c t i o n . The mind i s . eager f o r w o r d l y enjoyment and t h e way t o God has been w h o l l y o b l i t e r a t e d . We w i l l b e a t t h e drum o f B h a k t i w h i c h c a r r i e d f e r v o r t o t h i s s i n f u l age; Tuka s a y s , p r o c l a i m v i c t o r y w i t h j o y ! " ( 1 4 , 520,,I.E.) Basava c r i t i c i s e s and r e j e c t s t h e e n t i r e B r a h m a n i c a l r i t u a l i s m f o r h i s s e c t and p r o v i d e s a l t e r n a t i v e minimum s i m p l e r i t u a l s . These ar e i n i t i a t i o n s , m a r r i a g e s , and f u n e r a l s , t o be p e r f o r m e d by t h e Guru of t h e s e c t i n a v e r y s i m p l e manner, i . e . , w i t h o u t any f i r e o r any s a c r e d mantras e x c e p t 'Om Namas S i v a y a ' . Of a l l t h e B r a h m a n i c a l r i t u a l s , B asava c r i t i c i s e d t h e most, t h e p r a c t i c e o f a n i m a l s a c r i f i c e .. : H i n d u i s m . He a s k s e l s e w h e r e : "Can t h e r e be a r e l i g i o n w i t h o u t c o m p a s s i o n ? " Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o Basava's e x t r e m e l y c r i t i c a l e y e , H i n d u i s m i s f u l l o f c r u e l , b a r r e n , and u s e l e s s r i t u a l i s m s . 34 As f o r Tukaram, t h e i n c r e a s e i n r i t u a l i s m s i g n i f i e s a f a l l e n s t a t e o f r e l i g i o n , a r e l i g i o n f u l l o f weeds. And Tukaram t h i n k s t h a t i t i s h i s r o l e t o c l e a n out t h e s e weeds. Thus he c r i t i c i s e s ' s i n c l e a n i n g r i t u a l s ' g i v e n by Brahmins as mere e x t e r n a l f o r m a l i t i e s w h i c h do n o t c l e a n one's i n t e r n a l mind. O t h e r w i s e , a c c o r d i n g t o Tukaram, many o t h e r H i n d u r i t u a l s , s u c h as image w o r s h i p , m e d i t a t i o n , K i r t a n a s , p i l g r i m a g e t o V i t h o b a ( r e f e r r e d t o i n h i s n i n e - f o l d forms o f w o r s h i p ) e t c . , c a r r i e d out w i t h 'deep f e e l i n g ' (Bhava) by t h e d e v o t e e a r e c o n -s i d e r e d as t h e n e c e s s a r y e s s e n t i a l s f o r B h a k t i . Thus Tukaram r e s e r v e s a h i g h p l a c e f o r w o r s h i p and p r a y e r i n h i s s e c t w h i c h shows h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o H i n d u i s m , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r a d i c a l and s e p a r a t i s t a p p r o a c h o f Basava. I n o t h e r words, Tukaram's i d e o l o g y i s o f a 'moderate t y p e ' i n c o mparison t o t h e r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y of B a s a va. I I I . The N a t u r e o f God and h i s R e l a t i o n w i t h Devotees H a v i n g c r i t i c i s e d V e d i c gods and r i t u a l s , B asava and Tukaram e x p l a i n t o t h e i r f o l l o w e r s i n s i m p l e language t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r gods and o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Him i n c l u d i n g t h e f i n a l aim o f t h e i r l i f e . The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e s e l e a d e r s on such d i f f i c u l t p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s seem t o be so easy t o u n d e r s t a n d and so a p p e a l i n g t h a t t h e i r f o l l o w e r s c o u l d e a s i l y d e v e l o p g r e a t f a i t h i n them. BASAVA TIT. AT A" "Compassionate one, e f f a c e r o f my "Even t a l k i n g o f d i f f e r e n t gods b i r t h s ; i s i n a u s p i c i o u s . Compassionate one, d e s t r o y e r o f my V i s n u i s t h e o n l y God o f t h i s e a r t h b i r t h s ' , when my l i f e ' s bondage ' r e l i g i o n ' . You d e v o t e e s o f ceased t o b e , B h a g a v a t a , l i s t e n , w h a t e v e r you do, L o r d , I b e l i e v e d you a r e i n d e e d l e t i t be h e l p f u l and t r u t h f u l . !>iva — my ground and g o a l . L e t us n o t have j e a l o u s y of any-Because you b u r n t my e i g h t f o l d body. W o r s h i p i n g a l l gods i n One p r i d e , i s t h e r e a l e s s e n c e . Tuka s a y s , I found y o u r g r a c i o u s f e e t w i t h t h e h u r t and enjoyment t o d i f f e r e n t 35 c o n f i d e n c e , p a r t s o f t h e body i s t a k e n by L o r d o f c r e a t i o n , I b e l i e v e i n y o u ; l i f e ( s o u l ) o n l y . " have mercy upon me, K u d a l a Sangama ( 2 1 , 46,I.E.) L o r d ! " ( 3 6 , 119,A.M.) _ i _ _ To B a s a v a , S i v a i s t h e o n l y God, w h i l e t o Tukaram,Visnu fe t h e 2 o n l y God. Thus b o t h a r e m o n o t h e i s t i c . But t h e g r e a t c o n t r a s t comes when t h e y speak o f what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s e summations of d i v i n e c h a r a c -t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o B a s a v a , 5>iva i s t h e o n l y God who i s a s e l f - r a p t r e a l i t y . Thus Basava r e j e c t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l l o t h e r H i n d u gods. I n c o n t r a s t , t o Tukaram, V i s n u r e p r e s e n t s a s y n t h e s i s o f a l l gods i n One. Tukaram i n h i s i n v o c a t i o n s , c a l l s God by many names such as H a r i H a r a , G o v i n d a , V i t h t h a l a , e t c . I n one s a y i n g he s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t t h e d i f -f e r e n c e between ' H a r i ' and 'Hara', i . e . , V i s n u and S i v a i s as n e g l i g i b l e as between d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s 'a' and ' i ' . A t t i m e s , he r e f e r s even t o t h e 33 C r o r e s o f gods l i v i n g i n one. T h i s r e f e r e n c e does n o t r e f e r t o Tukarlm's b l i n d b e l i e f i n t h e G i t a . He e x p l a i n s t h a t a l l t h e s e d i f -f e r e n t names r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t i n c a r n a t i o n s o f God, u n d e r t a k e n t o improve r e l i g i o n f o r man. One n o t i c e s t h a t w h a t e v e r the d i v i n e c h a r a c t e r , b o t h Basava and Tukaram b e l i e v e and p r o c l a i m t h a t God s t a n d s o n l y as a b e n e v o l e n t and p r o t e c t i v e s p i r i t . Thus t h e y b o t h r e j e c t t h e w o r s h i p o f a l l e v i l and g h o s t l y s p i r i t s as bogus and u s e l e s s ( r e f e r A p p e n d i x ) . A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h Basava and Tukaram, t h i s b e n e v o l e n t God i s a r e a l mother who i s s u r e t o y i e l d t o o u r B h a k t i — our i n t e n s e l o v e . P l e a s e r e f e r t o i n t r o d u c t i o n : Basava and Tukaram f o l l o w two r i v a l s e c t s o f B h a k t i o f t h e So u t h . SIVA-LINGA The S i v a - L i n g a as s e e n i n t e m p l e s . T h e r e i s n o ( i m a g e w o r s h i p o f S i v a . T h i s l i n g a i s c o n s i d e r e d ( a s a s y m b o l i c f o r m o f S i v a . I t i s g e n e r a l l y not d e c o r a t e d t o d e p i c t S i v a ' s f o n d n e s s f o r s i m p l i c i t y , e x c e p t f o r t h e s e c t a r i a n n a r k o f V i b h u t i . 37 %C€T qj€i alar i R f s ? sffarfr I I a^ ?r cgor fjta I *^ff mar « T J?H II VITHOBA One o f t h e images o f V i s n u w h i c h i s w o r s h i p p e d m o s t l y i n the S o u t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f I n d i a . T h i s image i s well d r e s s e d and well d e c o r a t e d . I t i s t h e c e n t r a l God o f the Varakari s e c t o f !'aha r as t r a . 38 Though Basava and Tukaram are monotheistic and believe in the benevolent power of God, they differ totally regarding the relation of God to man after liberation. According to Basava, a devotee merges in God, while according to Tukaram a devotee does not merge in God, but receives the grace of God and thus is redeemed from a l l miseries and enters into a permanent state of b l i s s . BASAVA TUKARAM "As long as worship i s , I sing 'Advaita' became 'dvaita' because of Linga. Narayana became fond of Bhakti. As long as action i s , I sing of A formless one took the form of prasada. four handed one, the original As long as there is tongue, I purpose is the same and not d i f f e -sing of prasada. rent. Leaving the voidness, he has Since these three ceased to be, stood on the brink. Without any myself I sing, mark you doubt, we should take his name 0 Lord Kudala Sangama Lord!" happily. (70, 88,S.M.A.) Tuka says: with a l l happiness, I am singing his name without ever seeing Him." (37, 49, I.E.) Philosophically, Basava is said to belong to 'advaita' philosophy. But his explanation of 'advaita' seems to be unique. Along with other Bhakti movement leaders, he agrees that when a man i s initiated as a devotee, his relation is s t i l l of 'dvaita' type, i.e., he i s away or different from God. According to Basava that is because a devotee, to begin with, is ignorant ('avidya') of God's real nature. But later, 3 through stages of discipline called the 'six-fold mystic path' a 3 Six-fold mystic ways — refer to Chap. XI from S.C. Nandimath Handbook of VIrsaivism, 1942, Dhawar, India. These ways are considered as stages in the devotee's walk of l i f e towards union. These stages are: 1. Becoming a bhakta by his faith. 2. Becpming:a''Maheswara':. by' steadfastness in that faith. 3. A 'prasadi' by vigilance in that steadfastness. 4. A 'pranalingi' by self-experience in that vigilance. 5. A 'sarana' by awareness in self-experience: the mystery abiding in a state of will-lessness. 6. When that awareness has been merged into Truth, i.e., 'Aikya stala', meaning a stage of union. 39 devotee merges i n t o God. T h i s u n i q u e p h i l o s o p h y o f Basava i s c a l l e d ' d v a i t a d v a i t a ' . Basava's d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t of ' d v a i t a ' p h i l o s o p h y i s due t o h i s o\m o u t l o o k . B a s a v a does n o t a c c e p t t h i s w o r l d as an i l l u s i o n , b u t t o him, t h i s i s t h e r e a l w o r l d w h i c h h e l p s a d e v o t e e t o merge w i t h God and t h u s l e a d s t o l i b e r a t i o n . But f o r Tukaram, a devotee i s e q u a l i n s t a t u s t o God y e t i s d i f -f e r e n t f r o m God and s t a y s so even a f t e r b e i n g l i b e r a t e d . B e i n g l i b e r a t e d , a d e v o t e e r e c e i v e s t h e g r a c e o f God. Tukaram e x p l a i n s h i s p o s i t i o n by a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n : " I f God and a d e v o t e e a r e one and t h e same, whom can you l o v e ? " He f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s i n t h e above s a y i n g t h a t i t i s God h i m -s e l f g e t t i n g v e r y f o n d o f B h a k t i who e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s ' d v a i t a ' r e l a t i o n -s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o Tukaram, a f t e r l i b e r a t i o n , we r e a c h a permanent s t a t e o f b l i s s , because we f o r g e t t h e l i t t l e n e s s o f 'me' and 'mine'. Though Tukaram i s n o t a l e a r n e d man, h i s t h i n k i n g and e x p l a n a t i o n seem t o be q u i t e o r g a n i s e d and c l e a r , even on such a d i f f i c u l t p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e . IV. S t r u c t u r a l O r g a n i s a t i o n of T h e i r S e c t s I n t h i s s e c t i o n we s h a l l see more c l e a r l y t h e g r e a t c o n t r a s t s o f t h e two l e a d e r s i n o r g a n i s i n g t h e i r s e c t s and i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p . BASAVA " 'Om namas S i v a y a ! ' s h o r t o f t h i s s p e l l , t h e Veda s t a y s ! 'Om namas S i v a y a ! ' S h o r t o f t h i s s p e l l t h e S a s t r a s t a y s ! 'Om namas S i v a y a ! ' s h o r t o f t h i s s p e l l t h e T a r k a s t a y s ! A l l charms and t a l i s m a n s a r e h e l d , aghast and amazed! I g n o r a n t o f Siva's e s s e n c e , t h e w o r l d i s t r o u b l e d w i t h t h o u g h t . TUKARAM " H i s name and s t o r i e s a r e t h e e a s i e s t means t h a t w i l l b u r n a l l s i n s of many p r e v i o u s l i v e s ! One does n o t have t o go t o f o r e s t s , N arayana H i m s e l f comes home h a p p i l y . wherever you a r e , c o n c e n t r a t e on Him and i n v o k e Him w i t h l o v e ! 'Ramakrishna, H a r e s V i t h t h a l a , K a s h a v a i s t h e m a n t r a t h a t must.be s a i d a l l a l l t h e t i m e . AO Since Lord Kudala Sangama up- If there are many other 'means' _ raised, a sweeper, they can make than these, I can swear by Vithoba no more distinctions between TukS says: this i s the easiest of caste and caste!" a l l ; He i s the wise master who (5, 32.,A.M.) accepts i t . " (37, 2458,,I.E.) Basava having rejected a l l the ancient texts and rituals seems to have been strangely bent on building a new sect of brave saivites called 'Virsaivas'. In place of the Vedas, shastras and magical mantras, _ i Basava says that Siva himself has given the most powerful simple mantra, i.e., 'Om Namas &ivaya'. This simple mantra, according to Basava, has a great magical power to k i l l or bum a l l evils, especially the e v i l of caste distinctions. Thus according to Basava, a l l ^ ivasbhaktas are equal. While Tukaram does not reject overtly a l l Hindu scriptures, but says that for a devotee to show his love to God, no 'mantra' or sacred formula i s necessary, except 'His name* . Tukaram says to take the name of "Hari" continually and meditate on Him, with a l l love and total sur-render of one's self. Thus repeatedly Tukaram says that in Bhakti, God has shown us the easiest way to reach Him. Both Basava and Tukaram simplify the need for sacred texts and formulas to their logical extremes, but they diff e r in the organisations of the lives of the devotees in their socio-religious l i f e . BASAVA' TUKARAM "In making a pot, the clay comes "Do you know how Viththala's f i r s t ; in making an ornament, the love is? gold comes f i r s t ; He is God, but also becomes a Guru, In knowing Siva's path, the He f u l f i l l s a l l our desires, to Guru's path comes f i r s t : take us to Him. He stands around In knowing Kudala Sangama, the us protecting from any strokes of fellowship of 3aranas comes f i r s t ! " d i f f i c u l t y . 41 "Without the Guru's.word, Linga Knowing Him is very d i f f i c u l t , i t cannot be; but He shows the 'way' (to go to Without the Guru's word, External Him) by holding our hands. If i t cannot be; you don't believe me, consult Without the Guru's word, observ- 'puranas'. ance i t cannot be; (33, 873, I.E.) Will our Lord, Kudala Sangama approve the doubly fouled who crown a headless trunk?" (68, 82, S.M.A.) "Linga i s not a stone symbol. The Guru draws out the conscience force, inherent in the disciple, and cap-tures i t in the Linga and installs i t on his person. The disciple, in a sense worships his own self. When he worships i t realizing h^ .s own self, he rises to the height of Siva — Istalinga." (68, 82, S.M.A.) Though Basava speaks of the only, simple powerful mantra, he thinks that 'a siva-bhakta' has to go through six highly disciplined mystic stages of l i f e (pi. refer to footnote no. 3, P.B.). Thus, i t i s absolutely essential to begin with that the sect has a Guru of high spiritual and intellectual capacity who initiates every Sivabhakta and teaches not only the simple magical mantra, but the ways and stages of devotion, to be concentrated on the worship of L i n g a . A l o n g with a Guru, Basava establishes another class of ideal devotees called Jangama. Jangama is a moving, unattached preacher, who preaches the t Siva-path and keeps the spiritual l i f e of the sect alive. Basava held Guru and Jangama equal in status with Linga, i.e., God Himself. 5 i ' t Linga i s a small soft-stone image of 'Siva Linga' wh^ch is given by a Guru, by putting his spiritual power in i t . Every Siva-bhakta is supposed to wear i t on him and worship i t daily. Further also, refer to p. 82, S.M.A. 42 SRWAN MAHARAJA NIRANJAXA JAGATGCRU B A B U R A O H A R I D E V A D I K A R O F P A N D H A R P U R A B L I N D JAYADEVA MURL'GH A RAJ KNUR A MAHASWAMI ' I I A R I D A S ' ( P R E A C H E R ) A N D ' W & B K A R ! ' WHO K N O W S CHITALDRLG, MYSORE STATE. - - , T V K A R A M ' S T H O U S A N D S O F abfiai'lgS EY H E A R T a) A Virasaiva Guru In front of his seat are his wooden slinpers which are considered to be most pure. The sectarian narks of Vibhuti are on his forehead and Rudraksa necklace around his neck. He looks like a person with authority. b) A Blind Varakari Preacher He is in a farmer's dress. He wears a necklace of Tulasi beads around his neck and a Vaisnavite sectarian mark on his forehead. He possesses neither author-ity, nor special status as a preacher. He is one of the millions of Varakaries. 43 A f t e r h a v i n g o r g a n i s e d t h e r o l e s of Guru and Jangama f o r i n i t i a t i o n and p r e a c h i n g i n h i s s e c t , B a s a v a a l s o g i v e s h i s own method o f p e r f o r m i n g t h r e e c o mpulsory r i t u a l s f o r e v e r y E f i v a - b h a k t a . The r i t u a l s a r e ' i n i t i a t i o n ' , ' m a r r i a g e ' , and ' f u n e r a l ' . I n t h e s e r i t u a l s , B a s a v a r e j e c t s b o t h t h e need o f Brahmin p r i e s t s and t h e need o f 'God f i r e ' as a p u r i f y e r . I n s t e a d , i t i s t h e Guru and t h e e i g h t a i d s o f a S i v a b h a k t a ^ whdch.need t o be p r e s e n t w h i l e t h e Guru p e r f o r m s t h e r i t u a l s . Such a s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s l i v e s o f i _ S i v a - b h a k t a by B a s a v a p o i n t s c l e a r l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t x?as n o t o n l y a s p i r i t u a l urge t h a t f o r c e d Basava t o form a new s e c t . Basava seems t o have r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e e n t i r e . H i n d u s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t i m e . He p r o v i d e d a n e a t and s i m p l e a l t e r n a t i v e scheme o f d a y - t o - d a y l i f e f o r h i s s e c t f o l l o w e r s . T h i s shows h i s h i g h c a l i b r e as a l e a d e r and h i s g r e a t c a p a c i t y t o b u i l d a s o l i d s e c t . Basava e s t a b l i s h e d an 'assembly o f e n l i g h t e n e d s a i n t s ' , t o encou-rage f r e e d e b a t e s , r e q u e s t i n g P r a b h u d e v a , h i s G u r u , t o l e a d t h e d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s u n i q u e s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n had deep r o o t s i n t h e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c t r a t h e r t h a n i n p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Tukaram's s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n on t h e o t h e r hand i s c e n t e r e d more Guru, Jangama, L i n g a , P r a s a d a (God's o f f e r i n g ) , padodaka (God's f e e t w a t e r ) , V i b h u t i ( a s q u a r e cake o f w h i t e a s h e s ) , r u d r a k s a (§iva b e a d s ) , and mantra a r e t h e e i g h t a i d s o f a ^ i v a - b h a k t a . ^ T h i s a s sembly c a l l e d 'Anubhava Mantapa' i s s a i d t o have a t t r a c t e d s a i n t s f r o m K a s h m i r ; many e n l i g h t e n e d women s a i n t s and u n t o u c h a b l e s a i n t s were t h e main p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s a s s e m b l y . 44 e n t i r e l y on t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f t h e d e v o t e e . Tuka s a y s : " I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e name o f H a r i , what we need i n o u r s p i r i t u a l p a t h o f a B h a k t a , i s t o l i s t e n t o t h e s t o r i e s o f K r i s n a ( t h r o u g h K i r t a n a s ) and 8" t o o b s e r v e ' n i n e - f o l d f o r m o f w o r s h i p ' as p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e G i t a . Thus t h e r e does n o t seem t o be a s p e c i a l need f o r a Guru t o i n i t i a t e and t o t r a n s m i t h i s s p i r i t u a l power, e t c . , i n Tukaram's s e c t . Tukaram says t h a t God H i m s e l f becomes a Guru and w h i c h a f f i r m s t h e above c o n c l u s i o n . A l t h o u g h Tukaram does n o t see t h e need o f a Guru and any o t h e r f o r m a l r i t u a l s f o r h i s s e c t , he f i n d s t h e need f o r a 'company o f s a i n t s ' a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r e v e r y V a i s n a v i t e t o l e a r n t o be a t r u e d e v o t e e . He s a y s : "Whenever t h e r e i s a company o f s a i n t s , gods come r u n n i n g , b e i n g f o n d o f B h a k t i " . I n o r d e r t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r such 'a company o f s a i n t s ' r e g u l a r l y a t one p l a c e , he r e o r g a n i s e s and r e i n f o r c e s t w i c e a n n u a l l y a p i l g r i m a g e t o V i t h o b a a t Pandhar p u r on t h e 1 1 t h day of A s h a d h i and K a r t i k i ( J u l y -A u g u s t , October-November). A c t u a l l y , t o d a y ' s name o f h i s s e c t , c a l l e d ' V a r a k a r i p a n t h ' ( a s e c t o f p i l g r i m s ) , comes from t h i s t r a d i t i o n o f r e g u l a r group p i l g r i m a g e . ^ TUKARAM "There i s a c i t y on t h e banks o f Bhima, c a l l e d P a n d h a r p u r . There l i v e s a watchman who has f o u r hands and 16 thousand w i v e s . We w i l l go Remembering o f Him, u t t e r a n c e o f H i s name and g l o r y , s a l u t a t i o n , r e s o r t i n g t o H i s f e e t , c o n s t a n t w o r s h i p o f Him w i t h d e v o t i o n , s u r r e n d e r o f t h e whole s e l f t o Him, h e a r i n g h i s p r a i s e , s e r v i t u d e and comp a n i o n s h i p a r e t h e n i n e forms of w o r s h i p . D e l e u r y , pp. I X - X , 16. 45 d a n c i n g t o H i s c i t y . We w i l l g et t h e h a p p i n e s s o f p l a y and r e s t . Those who went ahead o f us got l i b e r a t e d and t h e y t a l k o f H i s g r e a t s t r e n g t h . He k i l l e d t h e c o b r a and p r o t e c t e d t he p e o p l e — s a i n t s have s e t up shops. Whatever each one w a n t s , i s t h e r e ! B o t h f o o d and l i b e r a t i o n a r e f r e e t h e r e ! . . . We got p l e n t y o f p i l g r i m s - Those who have seen P a n d h a r l , i s l i k e b e i n g i n a heaven. I had t h a t d e s i r e f o r a l o n g t i m e , Today i t became p o s s i b l e e a s i l y Tuka s a y s : i t i s y o u r b l e s s i n g s t h a t I have been a b l e t o meet. " (46, 194, I.E.) Fo r t h o s e j o i n i n g t h i s p i l g r i m a g e , Tuka i n s i s t s on one t h i n g , t h a t a V a r a k a r i s h o u l d spend a l l t h e " t i m e t h i n k i n g o f God a l o n e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e p i l g r i m a g e s seem t o go t h r o u g h a u n i q u e s o c i o -r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f b r o t h e r h o o d and j o i n t l o v e f o r God. No d i s t i n c -t i o n s o f c a s t e s and r i c h e s and knowledge a r e o b s e r v e d . Some o f t h e d i s -c i p l i n e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r : e v eryone has t o be a s i m p l e v e g e t a r i a n , t o wear s i m p l e d r e s s and t o have s i m p l e l i v i n g h a b i t s . T h i s p i l g r i m a g e g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s w a l k i n g and s i n g i n g t o g e t h e r w h i l e c a r r y i n g one's own l o c a l messages o f Gods and p e o p l e . On t h e way t o p i l g r i m a g e (around 80 t o 100 m i l e s ) , thousands o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w o r s h i p t h e gods and v e n e r a t e t h e V a r a k a r i e s as V i t h o b a ' s messengers. When V a r a k a r i e s r e a c h P a n d h a r i , t h e i r w o r s h i p i s o f f e r e d on b e h a l f o f t h e group. Thus t h i s group o f V a r a k a r i e s b a t h e t o g e t h e r i n a r i v e r , w o r s h i p t o g e t h e r , f a s t t o g e t h e r , s i n g t o g e t h e r and l i s t e n t o g e t h e r ( g e n e r a l l y a t n i g h t ) t o t h e s t o r i e s o f God K r i s n a . Thus V a r a k a r i e s , though t h e y have no c e n t r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , a t t a i n 46 through these regular pilgrimages a strong bond of brotherhood and spir i t u a l satisfactions, of the highest kind. For Varakaries, this pilgrimage i s a training centre to be a true devotee. Thus Tukaram's rejuvenation of this tradition of 'group pilgrimage' (that continues to this date) seems to be a unique and dynamic type of sect organisa^ tion amongst a l l the Bhakti sects. After this outline of Basava's and Tukaram's sect organisations, i t i s necessary to have a glimpse of their feelings concerning their roles as leaders of their sects. BASAVA TUKARAM "You have come to do the work,? that I have come to do; I have come to do the work, that you have come to do; Allama Prabhudeva has come to do the work that you and I have come to do...and so, in a few days, Kalyana was a lamp, I was the o i l , second-in-command the wick, Prabhudeva was the light of i t . However the lamp is broken, the o i l i s dry, the light extinct!" (48, 160, A.M.) Basava, as a devotee, even while invoking God, clearly points out t _ his great urge to lead and to build a sect of Sivabhaktas. He believed that he and his band of saints had to make incessant efforts to build a sound society of Sivabhaktas. While, doing so, he neither s p a r e d -any criticism of Hindu texts and priests, nor spared his efforts and the use of his occupation as a prime minister to build a brave society of Siva-bhaktas. So the encyclopedia of religion and ethics (ed. Hastings) describes Basava being shockingly radical even to Saivites. Tukaram was a leader of a different category: he loved to do "I am requesting everyone by keeping my head on their feet. Oh, listeners and speakers, a l l of you, accept only what i s good! I have broken the treasury, but i t ' s my Master's property. I am your servant, the carrier of that treasury! Tuka says: 'the goods'' found worthy after testing are accepted by a l l the countries." (45, 696, I.E.) 47 kirtanas, Tukaram had the greatest f a c i l i t y for making poems. Tukaram being Sudra, was denied this opportunity in the beginning by Brahmins. But later, being convinced of his genius as a poet-saint, everyone i n -cluding Brahmins of his time, flocked to Pandhari to listen to his kirtanas.^ While doing Kirtanas, Tukaram used to take a humble role of 'a carrier' of God's treasury. Because of his humility, he i s described in the encyclopedia as a mere 'sage', in comparison with Basava, a religious 'leader'. No doubt to be humble is part and parcel of Tukaram's personality. But his inner urge to lead his sect followers does not seem to be less strong. (Refer appendix I, IVj-54, 987, I.E.) Some intellectuals, finding Tukaram's role as a leader inadequate, have directed these criticisms at him; they say that Tukaram neither thinks of building a better social structure, nor of removing existing social evils and ritualism; instead he became an idol worshipper at Pandhari and does not talk of any occupation of the saints, etc. However, i t seems to me that Tukaram's shortcomings are due either to his personal background or to his insistence on indifference to wordly l i f e . To a very great extent, i t also could be due to his basic philo-sophy that as a leader i t is his duty to complain to God about existing evils and then God w i l l incarnate Himself to build a better ethical and and religious society for his sect. Thus, he always considers himself as a servant of God. As a matter of fact, Tukaram represents the most humble leader of Deccan peasants directly and o f intellectuals. Ency. of R. & E. Vol. 12 (1922), pp. 466-69. 48 i n d i r e c t l y . ^ V. The Definition and Place of Saints Saints have a unique place of respect and authority in the entire Bhakti movement. Thus we see Basava talking of Saranas for saints and Tukaram of 'Santas' for saints as the true devotees on earth who give us training to be a devotee without any fees and without force. "Such are saints like the gems of Bhakti" according to both leaders. MSAVA TUKARAM "Look at their hearts, they are "...The valuable diamond i s only poor! that which does not burn in f i r e . Look at their hearts, they are Tuka says: he alone i s a 'saint' rich! who can put up with a l l the strokes Look at their wealth, they are of the world." poor! (22, 50, I.E.) But they are rightly endowed with great heart! Kudala Sanga's Saranas, a l l heroes, above a l l sentiment! Whom could I compare them to? (73, 193, S.M.A.) According to Basava, Saranas are the living ideals of the devotees. They may be poor materially, but they have the most rich and the most kind hearts. For them service of men is service of God. They have total control over their passions. They are so holy, according to Basava, that the very ground they walk on is holy, and whatever they speak is 'a Siva doctrine'. They are the living authorities on Virsaivism. Thus according to Basava even i f they rebuke and strike, i t i s always for our good. While talking of saints and their unique place in his sect, ^rathana Samaja, an intellectual social reformist group of Maharas-tra have included Tukarlm's 350 songs in their prayer while others read him at home and in temples in their home towns regularly. 49 B a s a v a u t t e r s a w a r n i n g t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . He s a y s one s h o u l d n o t ' f o l l o w ' a p e r s o n who m e r e l y c a l l s h i m s e l f a 'Sarana'. One must s e l e c t them w i t h 'open e y e s ' ( r e f e r A p p e n d i x l y Election-.-4, 12, 54, A.M.). And once you do t h a t , you a r e i n t h e hands o f s a f e p e r s o n s . Thus B a s a v a r u l e s out f o r h i s s e c t f o l l o w e r s a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h b l i n d and t o t a l f a i t h . Basava's s t a n d c e r t a i n l y seems t o be q u i t e r a d i c a l i n t h e f i e l d o f r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l and more so i n t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t o f I n d i a . Tukaram a l s o g i v e s a c e n t r a l p l a c e t o s a i n t s i n h i s s e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o Tukaram, t h e y a r e t h e k i n d e s t , t h e p u r e s t , and t h e t o u g h e s t ones. H i s e n t i r e V a r a k a r i s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n i s around t h e s a i n t s . But i n c o n t r a s t t o B a s a v a , Tuka s a y s , ''don't q u e s t i o n about t h e good and t h e bad q u a l i t i e s of s a i n t s ; t h a t i s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n " . Thus i n a way Tuka p r e s c r i b e s b l i n d and t o t a l f a i t h i n s a i n t s ; x^hich seems t o go w i t h h i s r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n of b e i n g a moderate one. H a v i n g d e s c r i b e d t h e q u a l i t i e s and r o l e o f s a i n t s , Tuka and B a s a v a have shown t h r o u g h hundreds o f t h e i r i n v o c a t i o n s , how t h e y have gone t h r o u g h a l o n g p a t h o f s t r u g g l e b e f o r e t h e y a t t a i n e d t h e s t a t u s o f i d e a l d e v o t e e o r s a i n t . BASAVA TUKARAM "Him, t h e g o l d e n - s a n d l e d one, Him o f t h e t r e s s e s r e a c h i n g do\m t o h e e l , Him smeared a l l o v e r w i t h s a c r e d a s h , Him who h o l d s i n h i s hand t h e s k u l l , Him who became half-woman, Him who watched a t Bana's d o o r ; Him who p l a y e d bawd t o Nambi, f o r C o l a p o u r e d a shower of g o l d ; Him, t h e c a p t o r o f my h e a r t , who l i v e s i n the' h e a r t o f a l l t h e ' d e v o t e e s ' ; Him who s w e l l s i n w o r s h i p done; Him who i s c a l l e d K u d a l a Sanga; F i n d Him and B r i n g Him, M o t h er mine!" ( 3 8 , 125, A . M J "How b e a u t i f u l i s t h e image o f God, S t a n d i n g on a b r i c k , H i s hands on h i s h i p s . I s h a l l a lways l o v e t h i s image, a g a r l a n d o f T u l s i - b e a d s round i t s n e c k , and a s i l k ' d o t i ' r o und i t s l o i n s . On i t s s e a r s t h e f i s h - s h a p e d pendant s h i n e s on i t s b r e a s t s t h e j e w e l K a u s t u b h a ! Tuka s a y s : A l l my j o y i s i n t h i s image, I am g a z i n g w i t h l o v e a t i t s b e a u t i f u l f a c e . " ( 6 , 2, I.E.) 50 BASAVA "Do not defile the undefiled, chasing me with this dog, the world. My mind is a l l one thought of Thee; nothing I know save Thee; I wed Thee in my maidenhood, and was conjoined with Thee. Pray heed me, 0 Great Linga: Thy wife am I, and Thou my Lord. Even as the master guards his house, Thou art the guardian of my heart. Should my heart that has known Thy love stray somewhere, It i s Thy honour that is lost, 0 Kudala Sangama Lord!" (39;, 126, A.M.) "With praise on praise, mine own from sheer love set me up Upon a gallows of gold! This praise of me enfolds me round and round! Lord, Your regard, alas! has smitten me like whetted sword! Oh! Oh I am hurt, I cannot bear i t any more! 0 Kudala Sangama Lord, i f You do love me, come between and bar this praise, 0 merciful!" (32, 108, A.M.) When both Basava and Tukaram, TUKARAM "Let people outcaste me and c a l l me a prostitute, but this gardener does not believe (them). I have given up the interests in this world and have become in d i f -ferent. I have neither fear, nor desire for this l i f e . People say that Tuka has become the beloved of Hari, I don't pay any attention to i t . " (48, 8, I.E.) "What shall I do with fame and wordly honour and greatness? Do show me Thy feet. Do not bring about this, that Thy servant should go for nothing. If I become great and bear the burden of ostentatious knowledge, I shall go away from Thy feet farther and farther. What pos-s i b i l i t y i s there of people knowing the internal condition? A man is judged by his external appearances. Even adversity w i l l be sweet to me, i f i t leads me to Thy feet." (8, 1133, I.E.) while invoking their gods, praise with pride their beauty, ornaments, etc., one cannot regard them as examples of 'idol worshippers'; one has to see them as examples of devotees being in a state of offering their intense, love to their 12 Gods, when they forget a l l ideological philosophies for a while 12 -For example, Basava is against temple worship, but his invocations are offered to Kudala Sangama who is decorated in image form, and he talks of a l l S i v a roles as given in Hindu mythologies; while Tukaram, unattached to a l l possessions, gazes at the gold ornaments that beautify his God. 51 and concentrate on their images of gods with a l l their possible capacity to love. One of the personal relations usually spoken of between a devotee and a God i s that of a child and the mother, and at times also that between a wife and the husband. Bhakti i s a unique religion, wherein, on the one hand, a devotee gives up a l l wordly at-tachments and passions, instead builds up a personal relation with God and feels the same human emotions of love, enchantment, anger, pangs of separation, the bliss of union in a conjugal relation with God (on a sublime level). While invoking God as a mother, both Basava and Tukaram, insist that i t i s His obligation to protect and love them. A second important idea about the relationship between the God and a devotee i s the idea that God i s like a husband or a Lord and a devotee like a wife. Their union i s the total b l i s s . And their separation i s unbearable -to a devotee —wife. In this relation also one sees that a devotee i s pleading to his God to accept him by putting additional responsibility of obeying her husband —Lord. Both Basava and Tukaram have a great facility for making beautiful poems that show their deepest, sublimest emotions in the simplest possible language, with analogies of day-to-day l i f e . Thus both are great poet devotees of the highest calibre. The main difference one notices i s that Basava looks at God as a guide who would discipline his emotions and make him a balanced and serene devotee, while Tukaram's invocations sound like that of a helpless child. The latter talks loudly and repeatedly of the countless sins he has committed, his total i n a b i l i t y to control his passions, his inability to break a l l his attachments. Thus in short, he sounds like a miserable soul, who i s invoking God in 52 hundreds o f ways, t o excuse him f o r a l l t h e s i n s , t o h e l p him c o n t r o l h i s weak human p a s s i o n s o f l o v e and a n g e r , e t c . , and t o show H i s g r a c e t o redeem him f r o m t h i s permanent m i s e r y . At one t i m e , Tukaram p l e a d s God t o g i v e hiim ' d a r s h a n a ' , and a t o t h e r t i m e s , Tukaram s c o l d s Him as 13 a t h i e f who has t a k e n away e v e r y t h i n g f r o m him and s t i l l i s t e s t i n g h im and making j o k e o f h i m , e t c . I n I.E. e d i t i o n , out o f a t o t a l o f 4607, about 1000 s a y i n g s a r e a l l o f h i s r e p e a t e d c r i e s o f h e l p l e s n e s s , o f b e i n g a s i n n e r and o f b e i n g caught i n t h e s e c r u e l w o r d l y d u t i e s . Tukaram i s v e r y p o p u l a r and sounds v e r y human due t o t h e s e i n v o c a t i o n s . When V a r a k a r i e s s i n g t h e s e abhangas o f Tukaram, t h e y f e e l t h a t t h o s e a r e t h e o u t p o u r i n g s o f t h e i r own h e a r t s . Thus Tuka i s c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e g r e a t e s t d e v o t e e o r s a i n t i n the B h a k t i movement. I n t h e l a s t two i n v o c a t i o n s o f t h e above s e c t i o n , we see t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f Basava and Tukaram by t h e f o l l o w e r s as t h e i r l e a d e r s and a v i v i d b u t s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o i t . A t f i r s t , b o t h f e e l p r o u d o f s u c h p r a i s e , b u t s u d d e n l y t h e y make t h e m s e l v e s aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s n o t p r i d e , b u t h u m i l i t y w h i c h i s t h e r e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d e v o t e e and t h e y r e q u e s t God t o bestow t h a t on them. T h i s s i m i l a r i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s shows them b o t h how t h e y r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e o f t r u e d e v o t e e s , a t t h e same t i m e when th e y were a c c e p t i n g t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e i r s e c t s . V I . The S p e c i f i c Routes t o Becoming a Devotee The e n t i r e B h a k t i movement s t r e s s e s t h e need t o improve t h e m o r a l s y s t e m t h a t w i l l p u r i f y t h e mind o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e > K r i s n a ' s m y t h o l o g i c a l r o l e o f a t h i e f i s r e p e a t e d by Tukaram. 53 e x i s t i n g p r e d o m i n a n c e o f p e r f o r m i n g s o m e r i t u a l s a s s i n c l e a n s e r s ; b o t h B a s a v a a n d T u k a r a m g i v e t h e n e c e s s a r y m o r a l w a y s o f b e h a v i o u r ; t h e i r d e v o t e e f o l l o w e r s h a v e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g s a y i n g s : _ i B A S A V A T U K A R A M " T h o u s h a l l n o t s t e a l n o r k i l l ; n o r s p e a k a l i e ; B e a n g r y w i t h n o o n e , n o r s c o r n a n o t h e r m a n ; N o r g l o r y i n t h y s e l f , n o r o t h e r s h o l d t o b l a m e . . . . T h i s i s y o u r i n w a r d p u r i t y ; t h i s i s y o u r o u t w a r d p u r i t y ; T h i s i s t h e w a y t o w i n o u r L o r d , K u d a l a S a n g a m a . " ( 2 1 , 8 3 , A . M . ) " L e t n o t , 0 L o r d , m y b o d y , m i n d , a n d w e a l t h S l a c k e n i n s e r v i c e o f t h y s a r a n a s ! M a k e T h o u m y b o d y t h r i l l ' t o s e r v i c e ; m a k e m y m i n d b e c h a r m e d b y i t ; A n d f o r i t , m a k e m y w e a l t h t o w a s t e . M a k e m e t o s i n g a n d d a n c e , t o g a z e a n d l o v e . " ( 3 4 , 1 1 5 , A . M . ) " D o e s n o t a c r o w , o n s e e i n g a c r u m b , c a l l t o i t s f l o c k ? D o e s n o t a h e n , o n f i n d i n g a d r o p , c a l l , c l a c k i n g t o h e r b r o o d ? I f , b e i n g a B h a k t a , a m a n l a c k s l o y a l t y t o h i s o w n f a i t h , H e i s w o r s e t h a n h e n o r c r o w , 0 K u d a l a S a n g a m a L o r d ! " " T h o s e w h o d e s i r e o t h e r ' s w e a l t h a n d w i f e a r e ' p o l l u t e d ' a n d t h o s e a w a y f r o m b o t h a r e ' p u r e ' . " ( 4 4 , 9 8 9 , I . E . ) " G o d d o y o u w a n t m e t o f i l l m y s t o m a c h b y c a l l i n g m y s e l f a d e v o t e e ? " ( 4 4 , 9 7 7 , I . E . ) " A p e r s o n w h o i s k i n d t o a l l , e v e n s a i n t s w i l l s a l u t e h i m w i t h a l l d e v o t i o n I f y o u g e t p r o u d o f l e a r n t k n o w -l e d g e , y o u w i l l g o t o h e l l . T h e r e m a y b e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n d i a m o n d , g o l d a n d s t o n e , b u t s a i n t s d o n ' t d i s t i n g u i s h p e o p l e l i k e t h a t . A m a n w h o t h i n k s o f t h e r i v e r G a n g e s a s a s t r e a m i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a s e a , i s t h e s i n n e r . . . . " ( 4 0 , 1 4 5 6 , I . E . ) " I f w e a r e e m b r a c e d b y t h e m ( s a i n t s ) , t h a t w i l l l e a d u s t o s a l v a t i o n . T h a t i s w h y s a i n t s a r e w e l l k n o w n . B y t h e i r m e e t i n g , a l l t h e a u s p i c i o u s t i m e s a n d p i l g r i m a g e s , c o m e t o o u r f e e t . T u k a s a y s : " G o d , l e t m e h a v e a c h a n c e t o s e r v e t h e m . " ( 1 3 , 5 1 , I . E . ) ( 3 3 , 1 1 1 , A . M . ) A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h B a s a v a . a n d T u k a r a m , a d e v o t e e m u s t s t a r t f i r s t b y c l e a n i n g o n e ' s o w n b o d y a n d m i n d . F o r c l e a n i n g o n e ' s i n n e r s e l f , r i t u a l s a r e u s e l e s s . S o T u k a s a y s : " I f o n e ' s b o d y i s n o t c l e a n , w h a t c a n s o a p d o . . . ? " i . e . , t h u s , n o t r i t u a l s b u t p r o p e r p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r i n t e r n a l c l e a n s i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h , 54 s o m e a d d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s a r e : e a t i n g s i m p l e v e g e t a r i a n f o o d ( b e l i e v e d t o g i v e a s e r e n e t e m p e r a m e n t ) , n o t l u s t i n g f o r a n o t h e r ' s p r o p e r t y , w i f e o r l i f e . T h e s e a r e s o m e o f t h e w a y s t h a t a r e b e l i e v e d t o b r i n g i n t e r n a l p u r i t y . F u r t h e r , b o t h l e a d e r s i n s i s t t h a t t h e s i g n s o f i n t e r n a l p u r i t y m u s t b e s e e n i n t h e e x t e r n a l p u r i t y o f a d e v o t e e a l s o ; s u c h a s a d e v o t e e m u s t b e h u m b l e , k i n d , h e l p f u l , h o s p i t a b l e , g r a c e f u l a n d c o n t e n t . T h u s f o r a d e v o t e e , t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c h i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l p u r i t y h a s t o b e t h e b a c k b o n e o f h i s l i f e a n d t h e b a s i s o f h i s s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n . ' S A I N T S A S T E M P L E S ' H o w c a n a d e v o t e e a t t a i n t h e s e i n t e r n a l p u r i t i e s ? B o t h B a s a v a a n d T u k a r a m i n s i s t t h a t t h e s e c a n n o t b e a t t a i n e d a s s o o n a s o n e i s i n i t i a t e d , n o r b y v i s i t i n g t e m p l e s , n o r b y p i l g r i m a g e s . T h e r e a l t e m p l e s o f B h a k t i s e c t s a r e ' s a i n t s * t h e m s e l v e s . S o b o t h i n s i s t t h a t d e v o t e e s m u s t s p e n d a s m u c h t i m e a s p o s s i b l e ' i n t h e c o m p a n y ' a n d ' i n t h e 1 4 s e r v i c e ' o f t h e s a i n t s . S e r v i c e o f t h e s a i n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o T u k a a n d B a s a v a , i s l i k e s e r v i c e t o G o d a n d s o c i e t y . T h o u g h B a s a v a s a y s t h a t " I n m a k i n g p o t c l a y c o m e s f i r s t , s o i n i n i t i a t i n g a d e v o t e e , a G u r u c o m e s f i r s t " ; b u t B a s a v a i n s i s t s t h a t a d e v o t e e c a n b e c o m e a t r u e d e v o t e e o n l y i n t h e c o m p a n y a n d s e r v i c e o f s a i n t s . B a s a v a s a y s i n p o e m ( 3 4 , 1 1 5 , A . M . ) a n d a t o t h e r p l a c e s : " M a k e m y b o d y a s s l e e p e r s o f S a r a r a ' s f e e t " . I n s o m e o t h e r s a y i n g s , B a s a v a c l e a r l y s a y s t o g i v e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R . & E . ( e d . H a s t i n g s ) , V o l . I I , p p . 5 3 9 - 5 5 1 c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e B h a k t i m o v e m e n t g i v e s t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e t o t h e G u r u s . T h i s s e e m s q u e s t i o n a b l e t o i m e b e c a u s e i t i s t h e s a i n t s a n d n o t t h e G u r u s w h o s e e m t o g u i d e t h e B h a k t i s e c t s . B o t h B a s a v a a n d T u k a r a m a r e c a l l e d s a i n t s . 55 one's wealth to a Parana and not to a Guru or Jangama, so-called of-f i c i a l s of the sect. Thus in both these sects, i t is saints who are the real "temples". VII. Eradication of Social Evils Historians have interpreted the rise of Bhakti movement as the result of a decadent moral state of s o c i e t y . ^ Many claims are made by different Bhakti sect scholars as to their leaders being mainly social reformers. - Nandimath insists that the outstanding feature of "revived Virasaivism (of Basava)" i s i t s zeal for social reform.^ Last but not least in importance is to look at the viewpoints of Basava and Tukaram regarding the problems of eradicating social evils and to improve the liv i n g conditions of their followers."*"^ BASAVA "What merit claim as devotee, i f fear of jeopardy in sanctity, Their l i f e i s taboo-ridden, and look e'en in meat and raiment For that which is forbidden? How regard them Thine, when they in matrimonial matching to group and clan exclusive incline? Like a woman in period-pollution finds no cleansing, pure tho' water be in abblution: So avail their devotion, Lord Kudala Sangama!" (56, 87, A.S.T.) TUKARAM "These are not my words: I am a hired servant of Vithoba. Earnest and sincere teachers are badly needed, for there are imposters who eat and drink and who do even worse; their desires are set on shawls, money and pots; matted hair and ashes are a scandal when the mind has no patience and forbearance. Such people sink themselves and destroy the ship of salvation, but a true preacher rescues others by the sweet perfume of his words." (Encl. of R.& E. Vol. XII, pp. 466-69) V.D. Mahajan, Muslim Rule in India, (Delhi: S. Chand & Co., 1962), pp. 70-74. ^S.C. Nandimath, A Handbook of Virasaivism, (Dharwar: L.E. Association, 1942), p. 15. "^Most of them being non-Brahmins. 56 BASAVA TUKARAM "They make me bear the brunt, "Saints ate, and there are some 0 Lord, of being born in a superior leftovers. Let us finish a l l of caste. i t . I am a l l away from pollution -Behold Kakayya, w i l l not offer me,, purity. I am fond of eating his cast-off food; together. No one should have any Lo! Dasayya w i l l not pour for me doubt about i t . Tuka has been his buttermilk, corrupted by this feast. The reverend Chennayya w i l l not But this puzzle has been solved look at me! for me by Narayana." 0 Kudala Sangama Lord, Exalted (19, 39, I.E.) glory, alack, alack for me!" (62, 75, S.M.A.) On this issue of removing the social evils we see striking d i f -ferences between the approaches taken by two leaders. Along with building his sect, Basava tries to c r i t i c i z e and eradicate the social evils of his time by choosing alternative ways of behaviour. Basava, though himself a Brahmin, questioned and attacked the Brahmin's claim for superiority by birth and by occupation. So he calls himself the low born, and the untouchable saints as kakayya, etc. as the most superior ones even to himself. Thus in one reference he says "I begged of Kakayya... they have f i l l e d my bowl of bhakti." Thus he says that they are his guide and superiors. He shows his pain at a time when the saints would not treat him with equality, but as a superior one. Secondly, having attacked the superiority of Brahmins, he establishes equality amongst a l l sivabhaktas by putting a logical question. If you make distinction between sivabhaktas, that means you make a distinction between one Linga from another — (both are going to merge in one Linga-God). So such a distinction between Sivabhaktas i s stupid and unacceptable. Thirdly, his formation of Anubhava mantapa, an assembly of saints of a l l castes and sects, for the purpose of free religious discussions 57 p o i n t s out a l m o s t t o a r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n g e n e r a l and I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . F o u r t h l y , B a s a v a a t t a c k e d a g a i n s t f i v e p o l l u t i o n s , (panch s u t a k a s ) . He a r g u e d t h a t f o r 3 iva-bhaktas, t h e L i n g a keeps them a l w a y s i n a s t a t e o f p u r i t y , so no p o l l u t i o n s s t a y w i t h them. Thus Basava a t t a c k e d a g a i n s t c a s t e p o l l u t i o n s , d e a t h p o l l u t i o n s , women's m e n s t r u a l p o l l u t i o n , e t c . B a s a v a n o t o n l y a t t a c k s a l l t h e s e e v i l s , b u t a l s o i n t r o d u c e s p o s i t i v e measures t o f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e s e e v i l s . The p r a c -t i c e o f e a t i n g t o g e t h e r i n a math (was l i k e a c c e p t i n g a 'prasada', God's f o o d ) , was i n t r o d u c e d by Basava m a i n l y t o a b o l i s h t h e i d e a o f c a s t e i p o l l u t i o n s amongst S i v a b h a k t a s . W h i l e an i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e of widow r e m a r r i a g e was t o remove widow's s t i g m a as an i n a u s p i c i o u s p e r s o n and h e r b e i n g i n a s t a t e o f p o l l u t i o n , woman was a l l o w e d t o w o r s h i p h e r L i n g a n o t o n l y on n o r m a l o c c a s i o n s , w h i c h was d e n i e d by H i n d u p r a c t i c e s , but even when she w o u l d be i n h e r m o n t h l y p e r i o d s w h i c h shows h i s p o s i t i v e s t e p s t o e r a d i c a t e a l l t h e s e p o l l u t i o n s f o r V i r a s a i v a s . A l l t h e s e r a d i c a l r e f o r m s o f t h e 12th c e n t u r y l e a d e r B a s a v a can be compared t o some e x t e n t o n l y w i t h t h e s l u m c l e a n i n g d r i v e o f G a n d h i j i o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y . These r a d i c a l r e f o r m s (many t o have been f o l l o w e d t o t h i s d a t e ) seem t o have s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f o l l o w e r s o f h i s s e c t . I n c o n t r a s t , Tukaram c r i t i c i s e d o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y t h e Brahmins s u p e r i o r s t a t u s , t h e i r c l a i m o f knowing Vedas, e v i l s p i r i t x ^ o r s h i p p e r s , f a l s e s a i n t s (Gosavieg) , c a s t e p o l l u t i o n s , e t c . But he h i m s e l f l e d a v e r y i n d i f f e r e n t ( v i r a k t a ) l i f e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f h i s f o l l o w e r s . H i s o n l y c o n t a c t w i t h and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on h i s 58 f o l l o w e r s was t h r o u g h K i r t a n a s and b haj arias ( s t o r y - t e l l i n g and d a n c i n g i n a group, w i t h r e l i g i o u s s o n g s ) . Thus Tukaram p r e s c r i b e s a s i m p l e s e c t , b u t c a l l s i t the most p o w e r f u l one. He g a t h e r e d a v e r y l a r g e f o l l o w i n g f o r h i s s e c t and t a u g h t s p i r i t u a l b h a k t i as t h e o n l y a i m o f h i s s e c t . That i s why he i s c a l l e d "a s a g e " and h i s s e c t , as t h e b h a k t i s e c t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a l i b r e 18 amongst t h e e n t i r e b h a k t i movement. Tukaram does n o t seem t o have i n t r o d u c e d any d r a s t i c s o c i a l changes e x c e p t p o p u l a r i s i n g p i l g r i m a g e s t o V i t h o b a , K i r t a n a s , v e g e t a -r i a n i s m and extreme a t t a c h m e n t t o God, w h i c h c o n t i n u e even t o t h i s A 1 9 day. Thus one c o u l d summarise t h e r o l e s o f Basava and Tukaram on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r 'poem-sayings': Basava as a s o c i a l l y - r a d i c a l b h a k t i <~ l e a d e r , Tukaram as a s p i r i t u a l b h a k t i l e a d e r o f a moderate t y p e . They l e f t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r f o l l o w e r s f o r c e n t u r i e s t o come w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e dynamism o f t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e Southwest r e g i o n o f I n d i a . 18 E n d . o f R. & E. ( e d . H a s t i n g s , V o l . X I I ) , pp. 466-69. 19 I b i d . , 15 m i l l i o n v i s i t P a n d h a r p u r e v e r y y e a r . 59 CHAPTER I I I The L o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S e c t I d e o l o g y f o r S e c t O r g a n i s a t i o n I n C h a p t e r I , I examined t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e o l o g i e s t o s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , m e n t i o n i n g t h a t i d e o l o g i e s a r i s e t o p r o v i d e f o r a l t e r n a t i v e systems o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I f e e l t h a t i d e o l o g i e s a r e as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s as t h e o r y i s t o p r a c t i c e . V a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p have been examined i n comparing two B h a k t i i d e o l o g i e s o f V i r a s a i v a s and V a r a k a r i e s . I found a t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o c o n t a i n and t o compare t h e s e two s e c t s — i _ i d e o l o g i e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s . V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i i d e o l o g i e s a r e seen t o f i t i n t o a c a t e g o r i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g i e s : ' r a d i c a l ' and 'moderate'. I c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r a d i c a l n a t u r e o f V i r a s a i v a i d e o l o g y w h i c h i s p r o v i d e d t o b u i l d ' f l e x i b l e ' s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , p a r a d o x i c a l -l y g i v e s r i s e t o ' r i g i d ' s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r V i r a s a i v a s . On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e 'moderate n a t u r e ' o f V a r a k a r i i d e o l o g y , w h i c h i s p r o v i d e d m a i n l y t o b u i l d a s t r o n g s p i r i t u a l l y - o r i e n t e d r e l i g i o u s s e c t , and w h i c h does n o t emphasise on a t t a c k i n g t h e ' r i g i d ' H i n d u s o c i a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n , opens the d o o r s o f ' f l e x i b i l i t y ' f o r V a r a k a r i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , and f o r M a h a r a s t r i a n s i n g e n e r a l . These c o n t r a s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l frame-works and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l p r a c t i c a l consequences can now s e r v e as b a c k -ground i n h e l p i n g us t o p r e d i c t much t h a t i s s t i l l unknown about _ i _ — p r e s e n t d a y V i r a s a i v a s and V a r a k a r i e s . I n C h a p t e r I I , I s e l e c t e d a number o f 'poem-sayings' o f B a s a v l _ r and o f Tukaram f o r c o m p a r i s o n , assuming them t o be p r e s e n t d a y V i r a s a i v a 60 and Varakari ideologies. The publications I chose emphasise not only the recognition of these two men as sect leaders, bit il l u s t r a t e how their poem-sayings have been used to form the basis of ideologies. These works also il l u s t r a t e the extent of feelings of honour and respect which sect members feel for the leaders for their ideologies.''" As a matter of fact, while selecting these sayings for comparison of ideologies and social organisation, I found that an unproportionally large number of the "sayings" of both Basava and of Tukaram were 'personal invocations"to their respective gods. In a way, this was necessary for Basava and for Tukaram to build up 'such a unique personal Bhakti religion' for the masses on the basis of a pre-eminently Bhakti ideology. Recruitment I propose to start analysing and describing those aspects of Virasaiva and Varakari social organisations that are discussed by the leaders in the order of priority the leaders themselves indicated. The f i r s t and foremost consideration by both the leaders was given to the problem of 'recruitment'. Both Basava and Tukaram proclaim an open " i n i t i a l entry" for a l l men and women of a l l castes and classes. Thus Tukaram says: "Come one, come a l l ! " But Basava starts to out-line sect organisation immediately after making this proclamation. A f i r s t condition Basava thinks essential is that only "devout" persons should be accepted in his sect. Because he believes that i f the basic "material" does not have i t s own intrinsic worth, then i t s " f i n a l "'"Tukaram's I.E. edition begins i t s introduction "we are proud to puMish these Abnangas that are held as sacred as Vedas in Marathi". P. 1. 61 product", Siva-bhakta, cannot be a "real devotee" who w i l l be able to at-tain liberation. Basava explains his thought with an analogy: "Wash the mud d o l l ten times, i t turns into mud", i.e., (to i t s basic nature). Thus by this condition he seems to imply that some basic c r i t e r i a of "selection" must operate in the formation of a Virasaiva community. This may be expected to lead to a smaller number of members in the Virasaiva community than in the Varakari community, where no c r i t e r i a of selections or conditions for selection are suggested. The second step in completing the recruitment in the Virasaiva sect according to Basava i s the 'in i t i a t i o n ' ceremony, which has to be conducted by 'k s p i r i t u a l L'person" like a Guru. Then there comes a description of the special "office" of the Guru, who is the only person (because Basava does not want to establish any o f f i c i a l organisation) who decides both on the c r i t e r i a and personnel to be selected. This, in turn leads to the idea of authority residing in the hands of a Guru or Gurus as a group. There enters the f i r s t element of r i g i d i t y in the Virasaiva social organisation where an individual or individuals get the authority to make decisions about sect recruitment instead of making the decision to join open to the free w i l l of the sect members in general. By contrast, Tukaram neither thinks that any ' i n i t i a t i o n ' i s necessary, nor that any i n i t i a l s p i r i t u a l person as a Guru i s required for recruitment to the VarakardSsect. According to him, i t is God Him-self who becomes a Guru, who attracts man, guides him and makes him love the divine. So Tukaram makes recruitment of his sect a simple and an  informal matter. One could add that joining the pilgrimage i t s e l f i s 62 an informal practice of 'initiation' into the Varakari sect. By this, one could conclude that this basic informality of the Varakari sect in recruitment i s an indicator of their flexible social organisation, in comparison to the entry of a person in Hindu structure mainly by birth (by a large number of purificatory ceremonies). A further element of 'rigidity' enters into a Virasaiva sect recruitment for members of later generations. For example, i t is possible that the recruitment was i n i t i a l l y made voluntary. But the radical nature of the ideology demanded that the members 'cut o f f from the 'traditional Hindu' religion and structure and join the Virasaiva sect which then came to engulf their entire way of l i f e . That meant that future generations of Virasaivas were no longer necessarily recruited by choice, but rather more commonly by birth. This point has been substantiated by Dr. Nandimath's book on Virasai-vism. Nandimath emphasises that for Virasaivas, the real and the only 'initiation' ceremony (or Diksa), called 'Linga-Dharane', is performed 2 immediately after the birth of the child. He further adds that the second 'ini t i a t i o n ' done at the 8th year of age, as for adults or for new converts i s in imitation of Brahmanical and other traditional priestly practices. Thus from Nandimath's discussion of ' i n i t i a t i o n ' two additional indications of r i g i d i t y seem to Have crept into Virasaiva recruitment: one is recruitment by birth rather than by  choice and the second, the increasing number of rituals required (despite the fact that Basava was trying hard to minimise the number of r i t u a l s ) . In contrast, in Varakari panth, recruitment has always been a Nandimath, A Handbook of Virasaivism, p. 67. 63 matter of choice. A Varakari devotee is always referred to as an individual, without reference either to his family or to his caste. Thus recruitment continues to be voluntary, and i t affects only single individuals who are not "cut off" for any reason (either ideological or social) from the larger Hindu community, where membership is deter-mined by birth. Actually, by joining a Varakari sect, a person physically and spiri t u a l l y moves away, at least temporarily, from 'rigid groups', i«e«> by birth family membership Hindu groups, to a voluntary individual membership Varakari group. Thus this Varakari recruitment practice leads directly to f l e x i b i l i t y in the Varakari religious community, which may lead indirectly to effects of f l e x i b i l i t y on his regular rig i d Hindu groups. Sect Organisation Next to 'sect recruitment', Basava laid down definite guidelines for sect religious organisation. The key to his ideas on sect organ-isation i s his extreme emphasis on the place of "work 1for sect members. To Basava, "Work i s worship". Basava further insists that every Vira-saiva, including their Guru and Jangama priest-leaders must take up an occupation for a li v i n g . They must do this work with devotion. In fact, Basava considers "work" as the sole means of at-taining the highest level of "devotion" which f i n a l l y leads to libera-tion or heaven. The saying "Kayakawe Kailasa" meaning work i s heaven, is an example of this. Basava's great emphasis on work is associated with each member's capacity to "consume and to donate the rest to S a r a n a s ' ; ( s a i n t s ) " who w i l l u t i l i s e ' i t ' for the service of the other more needy Virasaivas 64 and for strengthening the sect in general. Thus Basava says: "you fool, consume and donate, don't hoard, nor leave for your wife, because she w i l l marry somebody as soon as you die". The third associated condition of sect organisation established by Basava is " f i d e l i t y to the sect". I c a l l these conditions associated mainly because "work", "donation" and "sect f i d e l i t y " are in a sense interdependent. Basava, who dreamed of a radical, independent sect, "cut off" from Hindu society at large, had to think of i t s solid "material" foundations. For the same reason he advocated a formal or-ganisation of donation collection and simultaneously suggested punish-ment for those who failed to donate. One must remember here that Basava is against a l l such formal organisation and i t s consequent authority. So i t may be for this reason that he says: "Donate to Saranas" — and not to Gurus and Jangamas who are religious personnel. Thus, Basava seems to want particularly to avoid placing any economic authority in the hands of Gurus and Jangamas, who were in charge of definite religious duties. But from a practical point of view* one is tempted to ask: who and where are the Saranas (saints)? It is possible that during Basava's time, there was a large band of selfless, devout saints such as Kakayya, Ambayya, etc., about whom he talks with high respect in his poems. But i t is not probable that such selfless saints would continue indefinitely to arise, in whom the public would develop confidence and to whom they would willingly donate. One of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , which one could visualise, i s that this function of collecting money as donations would be taken on by 65 married Jangamas, men who conduct the regular l i f e cycle rituals for Virasaivas. So i t is probable to assume that given such guidelines, the Jangamas would eventually obtain both r i t u a l and economic authority in Virasaiva sect organisation leading to another element of 'rig i d i t y ' in the sect organisation. The importance of this authoritarian ruling can be understood i f we remember that a 'separated' or 'segregated' Virasaiva member would certainly need at least 'recognition for himself by his sect fellow members', so he would try hard to 'buy' the t i t l e of being faithful to his sect at any cost. An altogether different picture of sect organisation can be seen in Tukaram's Varakari sect. Tukaram insists that Varakaries should join the regular pilgrimage and he insists that they should live in the society but be 'indifferent' to their families and to economic a c t i v i -ties. According to Tukaram, these conditions are essential for a Varakari who should be able to "devote" himself to Vifhoba by total surrender of himself and thus, attain this "grace" of f i n a l liberation. One might speculate that such a sect ideology would lead to "economic lethargy" on the part of the sect members directly and hence in 3 Maharastrlan society generally. But probing the question more deeply one comes to realise that the opposite effect is more probable. One can hardly imagine such a huge crowd of Varakaries becoming religious mendicants (in addition to already existing Brahmins, Gosavies and disabled Hindu mendicants). As a matter of fact, Tukaram insistently c r i t i c i s e s "Gosavies" Encl. of R. & E. 1922 puts a figure of 15 million Deccan peasants vi s i t i n g Pandharpur regularly. 66 (religious mendicants) as "bogus" devotees. So the only alternative l e f t for the Varakaries, i f they are interested in joining the regular group pilgrimage, called "Vari", i s to work very hard on their lands and in their crafts during the rest of the year. This is also because most of their Varakaries come from Deccan^ and regular Vari (pilgrimage) means one or two months away, (depending on the distance of one's place from Pandharpur). Most of the Varakaries have to earn their living for the "off Vari" time and for the "Var?'time, when they have to carry their own "survival k i t " (like food, clothing, etc.). Thus, one could conclude that this ideology instead of leading to economic lethargy, on the contrary may lead to economic dynamism for Varakaries directly and for Maharastra indirectly. Thus Varakaries have neither religious nor economic authoritarian formal structure, but have an informal, dynamic voluntary organisation which i t s e l f i s an indication of f l e x i b i l i t y in their social organisation. Caste Membership Next.to religious community membership, for an Indian comes caste membership. But Basava was against the entire caste system, for i t s hierarchy and i t s emphasis on pullution. Instead he spoke of abolishing any connection of Virasaivas with the Indian caste system at large. One could ask here as to whether Basava in his l i f e time and his followers later succeeded in attaining this 'impossible' feat, of not being mem-bers of Indian society. Before-answering this specific question, I would like to refer to Dr. J.H. Hutton's general remarks regarding the Deccan is a mountain-surrounded, barren part of Maharastra. 6 7 nature and existence of caste system on the Indian sub-continent, in his introduction to Caste in India, 1961. According to Hutton, caste is a unique, indigeneous, quasi-organic type of Indian institution, which has emerged to integrate varied r a c i a l , l i n g u i s t i c , religious groups into Indian society. He further adds as an example that the Muslims, who have come and settled in India and who do not accept and recognise the existence of caste in their religious community; generally live accord-ing to caste rules and regulations in their day-to-day l i f e . According to this hypothesis, we could assume that Virasaivas would also maintain their ties to caste. But let us see i f we can find any clue in Basava's "sayings" them-selves for a possibility of the rise of caste in Virasaivas. On the one hand, Basava says that our God does not recognise "caste distinctions"; on the other hand, he claims "Siva-Bhaktas are well born" because they are "ever pure" or "more pure" as wearers of Linga^; .than are other Hindus. For a radical Basava this could mean that non-Virasaivas were not so pure — and hence, were lower'in status. Anyway, whether this statement of Basava's was meant merely to "cut o f f " his sect from the rest of the Hindu caste-dominated community, or was actually an attempt by Basava to improve the status of Virasaivas (the majority of whom were 3rd-ranking businessmen and farmers) is hard to say. At this point Dr. D.A. Chekki's"* conclusions, based on actual f i e l d work, are very helpful. He concludes from research carried out in Dharwar Dr. D.A. Chekki, "Modernisation and kin network in a developing society: India". (A paper presented at I.S.A. September, 1970, Varna: Bulgaria), p. 10. 68 (a major c i t y i n K a r n a t a k where V i r a s a i v a s a r e i n m a j o r i t y ) , d u r i n g 1962-63 t h a t t h e Brahmins occupy t h e topmost p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c a s t e h i e -r a r c h y . The L i n g a y a t s c l a i m e q u a l i t y w i t h B r a m i n s . The L i n g a y a t s and Brahmins have d i f f e r e n t s e c t s o f r i t u a l norms. The r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e two c a s t e s a r e governed among o t h e r t h i n g s , by t h e norms o f  p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n and maximum co m m e n s a l i t y o c c u r s w i t h i n each c a s t e but h o t a c r o s s t h e s e g r o u p i n g s . The L i n g a y a t s and Brahmins have nuances i n t h e i r d r e s s and d i e t , customs and manners, f a s t s and f e s t i v a l s , l a n -guage and " v a l u e s " , w h i c h s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them e a s i l y f o r t h o s e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c u l t u r e . These f i e l d w o r k c o n c l u s i o n s o f Dr. C h e k k i answer t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t we put i n t h e p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h . As C h e k k i m e n t i o n s t h a t c a s t e r e l a t i o n s between Brahmins and L i n g a y a t s a r e g o v e r n e d , i n o t h e r t h i n g s , by t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p o l l u t i o n and p u r i t y . So B a s a v a was a t t e m p t i n g t o improve t h e s t a t u s o f V i r a s a i v a s i n r e l a t i o n t o Brahmins and t h a t attempt i t s e l f makes V i r a s a i v a s members o f t h e H i n d u c a s t e s y s t e m . I t i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t w i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s , C h e k k i s a y s : Brahmins occupy topmost p o s i t i o n ; w h i l e L i n g a y a t s c l a i m e q u a l i t y w i t h Brahmins. The word ' c l a i m ' p o i n t s t o a o n e - s i d e d e f f e c t by V i r a s a i v a s , and n o t n e c e s s a r y a c c e p t a n c e o f s u c h a s u p e r i o r s t a t u s ' c l a i m ' by t h e r e s t . And, as we know, t h e s y s t e m o f s t a t u s and role"; n eed.to'be m u t u a l l y r e c o g n i s e d t o be p r a c t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e . C a s t e s o r Varnas a r e b r o a d h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p s , c o v e r i n g a b r o a d c a t e g o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n s l i k e p r i e s t , w a r r i o r , t r a d e r s , e t c . T h i s c a s t e h i e r a r c h y i s supposed t o be based on t h e l e v e l o f p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n a t t a c h e d t o each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , 69 p r i e s t l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as t h e most p u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n o f washermen, e t c . , as t h e l e a s t p u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c a s t e h i e r a r c h y s y s t e m , V i r a s a i v a s who a r e m a i n l y t r a d e r s and farmers w o u l d r a n k t h i r d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u c a s t e system. But Basava contended t h a t V i r a s a i v a s , as L i n g a w e a r e r s , a r e t h e p u r e s t o f t h e p e o p l e t o whom o c c u p a t i o n a l o r any o t h e r p o l l u t i o n s do n o t a t t a c k . So th e y s h o u l d have t h e h i g h e s t s t a t u s ( o r e q u a l t o Brahmin's s t a t u s ) i n t h e c a s t e h i e r a r c h y . But t h e s y s t e m o f s t a t u s and r o l e s b a s e d m a i n l y on o c c u p a t i o n s does n o t f u n c t i o n by o n e - s i d e d demands o r c l a i m s o n l y , b u t needs t o be a c c e p t e d n o t o n l y by B r a h m i n s , b u t by t h e m a j o r i t y o f H i n d u s . So, as Dr. C h e k k i ' s f i e l d r e p o r t and t h e a n a l y s i s — — 6 o f the Bombay c a s t e and t r i b e s o f Brahmin L i n g a y a t r e l a t i o n s p o i n t o u t , L i n g a y a t s have n e v e r a c c e p t e d t h e t h i r d r a n k i n g o f s o c i a l s t a t u s , w h i c h may be t h e a u t o m a t i c r a n k i n g o r e q u a l r a n k i n g w i t h B r a h m i n s . Now t o make and m a i n t a i n s u c h a c l a i m , L i n g a y a t : s e c t l e a d e r s , Gurus may have t o impose a d d i t i o n a l r u l e s o f p u r i t y t o be o b s e r v e d by t h e i r s e c t members. Thus t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l p u r i t y r u l e s f o r L i n g a y a t s and t h e i r a s -s o c i a t e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n t r o l s w o u l d r e s u l t i n more r i g i d i t i e s i n t h e L i n g a y a t s e c t . I n c o n t r a s t , Tukaram spoke a g a i n s t c a s t e p o l l u t i o n r u l e s b u t s a i d l i t t l e about t h e a b o l i t i o n o f the c a s t e s y s t e m i t s e l f . And t o some ex-t e n t Tukaram s u c c e e d e d i n b r i n g i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e t h e n u l l i f i c a t i o n o f c a s t e p o l l u t i o n s and c a s t e d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r h i s group p i l g r i m a g e s y s t e m E n t h o v e n , Bombay C a s t e s and T r i b e s , ( G o v t , o f Bombay p u b l i c a t i o n , 1920-22) p. 347. 70 i n w h i c h a l l c a s t e H i n d u men and women j o i n e d as e q u a l s . F u r t h e r , a g a i n by h i s own e f f o r t , Tukaram a t t a i n e d t h e r i g h t t o do K i r t a n a s f o r h i m s e l f ( t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r Brahmin men o n l y ) and p a s s e d on t h e same f o r a V a r a k a r i o f any c a s t e and s e x . Now V a r a k a r i e s who a r e a l s o t h e members of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t h i r d -r a n k i n g c a s t e by b i r t h , b e i n g t r a d e r s and f a r m e r s , do n o t o b s e r v e any o f t h e s e c a s t e h i e r a r c h i e s , d i s t i n c t i o n s and p o l l u t i o n s d u r i n g t h e i r p i l g r i m a g e s , so t h e gro w i n g p o p u l a r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p i l g r i m a g e s and o f t h e V a r a k a r i movement c o u l d d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u c a s t e r i g i d i t i e s as f a r as h i e r a r c h i e s , d i s t i n c t i o n s and p o l l u t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d . Thus t h e V a r a k a r i movement c o u l d b r i n g e q u a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s n o t o n l y i n i t s own s e c t , b u t c o u l d b r e a k down r i g i d i t i e s o f t h e I n d i a n c a s t e s y s t e m , g e n e r a l l y i n t r o d u c i n g a more ' f l e x i b l e ' and m o b i l e s o c i a l s ystem. The r e a l p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e H i n d u c a s t e s y s t e m i s i t s n e c e s s a r y development i n t o a l a r g e number o f s u b - c a s t e s f o r each o f t h e s e b r o a d e r V arna g r o u p s . S u b - c a s t e s a r e l o c a l i s e d , endogamous, h i e r a r c h i c a l groups w h e r e i n one f i n d s d a i l y f r i e n d s , an o c c u p a t i o n , m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s , and a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Membership i n t h e s e groups i s g e n e r a l l y a s s i g n e d by b i r t h . Now l e t us see how V i r a s a i v a s , who were o r i g i n a l l y so much a g a i n s t t h e c a s t e s y s t e m c o u l d d e v e l o p s u b - c a s t e s amongst t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s i s a v e r y i n t r i g u i n g i s s u e m a i n l y because Basava r e p e a t e d l y i n s i s t e d t h a t D e l e u r y , The C u l t o f V i t h o b a , pp. 4-5. L 1 ' 8 " a l l Siva-Bhaktas are equal". Ideologically, neitherjdifferences in occupations, nor differences,in income, nor in lineage, could give rise to sub-castes amongst Virasaivas, because Basava rejected a l l these ideas vehemently. To break down such distinctions amongst Virasaivas, Basava introduced a practice of "common dining" in mathas, religious establishments, which are continued to this day. If one equates this practice with the open pilgrimage system among Varakaries, then one cannot expect the existence of sub-castes amongst Virasaiva devotees. Dr. Chekki's fieldwork description, however, points out the existence of sub-castes among Virasaivas; "the Lingayats are farmers and traders in the main, though each sub-caste among the Lingayats is further associated with an occupation of i t s own. For instance, there are sub-castes of washermen, weavers, o i l pressers and so on. Further, A.K. Iyer, in his description of Mysore castes and tribes, points out that in the beginning "Basava succeeded in forming a homo-geneous community composed of a l l grades and castes; but after his death, the community has been gradually drifting into a caste with i t s endogamous and hypergamous groups because of the obsession of social distinctions.""^ So the rise of a large number of sub-castes t o t a l l i n g 71 according to the 1901 census) within the Lingayat community i s a definite sign of r i g i d i t i e s developing in their social organisations, 8 Because of this ideological contradiction, many research scholars like Dr. Nandimath, 1940; Dr. Chandrasrdchariah, 1955; and Dr. Hunchal, 1959, totally deny the existence of castes amongst Virasaivas in their Ph.D. theses. 9 Chekki, "Modernisation and k i n network in a developing society: India," p. 10. ' . , 1 Q I y e r , l^sor^ICastes and Tribes, (Vol. IV), p. 87. 72 giving rise to occupational and social immobilities within a group. In contrast, the Varakaries who belong to a large number o f Hindu sub-castes by birth and who have to be loyal to their sub-caste occupations, endogamy and other socio-political decisions do come out of the control and influence of these narrow groups during their p i l -grimage time. These pilgrimages are described as unique occasions with-out distinctionsicf caste, sex and money, where there develop strong emotional bonds of b r o t h e r h o o d . S o one could expect that i t is easier for Varakaries to break away from 'narrow' sub-caste loyalties, and relate to modern co-operatives' and to 'linguistic states' because of their already being the members of both sub-castes and Varakari group at the same time. Family Groups Indian families are ' a l l inclusive' to an individual at the per-sonal level, as are sub-castes at the community level. Basava seems to have been quite keen on breaking away from the traditional patriar-chal Hindu family, where a woman or a wife had no independent "right to worship!', thus no possibility of spi r i t u a l experience and fi n a l l y liberation. Basava, through his sect practice of Linga worship, honours women with a right to worship their "own Linga", thus they could gain some spi r i t u a l experience and attainments, and fin a l l y liberation. In addition to this right to worship Linga, Basava removed certain pollution taboos of women like taboos of menstrual periods, childbirth, a) Nelson and Fraser, The Life and Teaching of Tukaram, 1922. b) DeLeury, S.J. The Cult of Vithoba, 1960, Poona University. i 73 and widowhood pollutions. But i f one views Virasaiva women's l i f e at home and outside in the f i e l d of marital, economic or parental rights and obligations, we do not get a very bright picture even from Basava. For instance in 13 one of his sayings (19, 76, A.M.) , Basava says that a wife who does not serve her mate and lord (husband) proper food, at the proper time or who is not a fait h f u l one is a degraded one! This does not show of any different stand of Basava towards women from the view of the traditional patriarchal Hindu family structure. Basava does not refer to any "other" occupation for a woman-except that of a 'housewife'. But Basava definitely believes that a wife w i l l be always supported by this or another husband. (18, 72, A.M.v saying of Basava). Thus even according to Basava, Virasaiva women do not enjoy either marital or economic equality or independence, which have more practical bearing on the status of women than mere religious rights. On the contrary, either as a defensive community or status-conscious community, more 'purity' taboos would be imposed on Virasaiva women than on Virasaiva men. Some examples of these taboos on women are the restriction on widow remarriage for the Jangama women, the custom of covering women's head with a saree pallu, as a sign of their respect, etc. Thus Virasaiva family l i f e seems authoritarian, male-dominated, having inbreeding practices and even t e r r i t o r i a l l y close-knit groups — a l l indications of ri g i d i t y in their family organisation. 12 A l l these radical reforms forwomen are greatly upheld by a l l research scholars, pointing out to Basava's main zeal as "social reformer". Nandimath, Dr. Hanchal, Chandrashekhariah. 5 Please refer to Appendix I. 74 For instance, I know of a subcaste of Jangamas where a l l the families are related to each other either by blood or by marriage and Chekki writes in the same 1962-63 fieldwork analysis thus: "Kalyan is mainly a cluster of twelve patrilineage, several households of the same lineage for a neighbourhood. In this suburb, practically everybody is related to everybody else. Kinship is a basis of a t e r r i t o r i a l group. K While in the case of Varakaries, Tukaram's religious rights for women included joining the pilgrimage — which meant regular freedom from household responsibilities — economic independence at the p i l -grimage and equalitarian relations with a l l Varakaries. Generally any elderly woman (a woman who has passed 45) could join the pilgrimage. For younger housewives, there was household freedom and responsibility during the weeks when mother-in-laws and husbands join these pilgrimages. Thus this group pilgrimage system could possibly bring less authorita-rian, and more equalitarian marital and economic relations in Varakari families in particular and in Maharastra in general. • * Thus we could analyse four interrelated groups of the Virasaiva and Varakari sects with reference to the existence of ri g i d or flexible elements in them, religious community, caste, sub-caste and family. In Virasaivism, we see a consistent tendency towards ri g i d i t y in a l l their groups of social organisation, while we see a consistent tendency to f l e x i b i l i t y in a l l of the social groups of the Varakaries. The rig i d i t y of Virasaiva social organisation seems to have developed partly due to the "radical" nature of Basava's ideology:. Chekki,"Modernisation and kin network in a developing society: India." 1970, p. 11. 75 which on the one hand expected Virasaivas to "cut off" totally from Hindu religion and society, and on the other hand, to compete with that Hindu society for improved status and rights. As a "cut off" group, Virasaivas form "a minority" in relation to the Hindu majority. And Virasaivas, being by occupation traders and farmers, might have to play a subordinate role to traditionally, pol-i t i c a l l y and intellectually ruling-dominated Hindu majority. Both these social conditions may lead to "defensive positions" for proud Virasaivas, who would impose r i g i d i t i e s on themselves to preserve unity amongst themselves and to maintain the distinctiveness of their sect l i f e . In contrast, for the Varakari sect social organisation, the elements of f l e x i b i l i t y were introduced by the "moderate nature of Tukaram';s ideology. Tukaram certainly fe l t a great need for impro-vement in the socio-religious l i f e of Hindu society, but he did this not by rejecting either Hindu religion totally, or i t s caste-ridden social organisation. He picked up the "Bhakti" from Hindu forms of worship, and a l l the mythology that went with i t , c r i t i c i s e d external cleansing rituals, and caste hierarchies as unessential and emphasised the need of internal purity and moral disciplines as basic to his "Bhakti" ideology. He was able to attain most of his "improved" changes through his unique system of regular pilgrimage for his f o l -lowers. Thus Varakari social organisation remaining as a part of Hindu religion and social organisation, could bring about religious equality, s p i r i t u a l purity arid moral simplicity, leading directly to f l e x i b i l i t y in i t s social organisation and indirectly to f l e x i b i l i t y in the Hindu social organisation of Maharastra. 7 6 CHAPTER IV A v a i l a b l e D a t a and F u r t h e r D e s i r a b l e R e s e a r c h I n t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e c h a p t e r s , I have t r i e d t o d e v e l o p a t h e o -r e t i c a l framework t h a t a n a l y s e s t h e r e l a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t o s o c i a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i B h a k t i i d e o l o -g i e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s . My n e x t a t t e m p t w i l l be " t o u s e " t h i s framework t o g e n e r a t e f u r -t h e r q u e s t i o n s t o be answered by f i e l d w o r k r e s e a r c h on t h e s e two gr o u p s . There I w i l l l o o k a t " e x i s t i n g d a t a " on V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and p o i n t out what f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs t o be done " t o t e s t " my t h e o r y and t h e p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made from i t . My major s o u r c e s o f d a t a a r e : 1. E n t h o v e n , Bombay C a s t e s and T r i b e s , 1920-22. 2. A.K. I y e r , Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , 1933. 3. D.A. C h e k k i , F i e l d w o r k r e s e a r c h a t Dharwar w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o changes i n a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y , 1962-63. 4. I s h w a r a n , T r a d i t i o n and Change i n an I n d i a n V i l l a g e , 1968. 5. N e l s o n and F r a s e r , The L i f e and T e a c h i n g o f Tukaram. 1922. 6. G.A. D e l e u r y . The C u l t o f V i t h o b a , 1960. Some o f t h e s e d a t a may n o t be r e l e v a n t t o t o d a y ' s V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s , w h i l e some may n o t be r e l e v a n t f o r my t h e o r e t i c a l framework. But my s e l e c t i v e use o f s o u r c e s and r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e to^my t h e o r e t i c a l framework w i l l h e l p t o c l a r i f y some o f the problems f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Territorial O r g a n i s a t i o n I t was p o i n t e d out b e f o r e t h a t V i r a s a i v a s and V a r a k a r i e s a r e r e g i o n a l ' n e i g h b o u r h o o d groups i n t h e Southwest o f I n d i a . But t h e 77 d a t a on t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o r s p a t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y have t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s b a s e d p o s s i b l y on t h e d i f f e r e n t " t e r r i t o r i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s a c r e d . " W h i l e w r i t i n g on t h e V i r a s a i v a s o c i o - t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , A.K. I y e r i n h i s book "The Mysore C a s t e s and Tribes"-*- p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e e n t i r e V i r a s a i v a community i s d i r e c t l y o r g a n i s e d and c o n t r o l l e d by t h e 5 main V i r a s a i v a r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c a l l e d " S i n h a s a n a s " ( t h r o n e s ) . Of t h e f i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , Jangamawadi and Himawat K e d a r a r e i n U n i t e d p r o v i n c e s , w h i l e t h e r e s t o f t h e t h r e e a r e a l l c o n c e n t r a t e d i n S o u t h Mysore. These e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c a l l e d Mathas, a r e s a i d t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e f i v e V i r a s a i v a Gurus ( o r t e a c h e r s ) . Each o f t h e s e f i v e mathas have t h e i r own sub-mafhas i n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s . F u r -t h e r , each o f t h e s e sub-mathas have t h e i r own G r i h a s t a - m a t h a s , headed by m a r r i e d Jangamas, w h e r e v e r t h e r e i s a community o f L i n g a y a t s l i v i n g . I f one l o c a t e s t h e s e f i v e main mathas on a map, one i s i n t r i g u e d as t o why a l l o f t h e s e mathas a r e o u t s i d e K a r n a t a k o r n o r t h M y s o r e , where t h e m a j o r i t y o f L i n g a y a t community r e s i d e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e 1911 census p o i n t s out t h a t i n t h e f o u r d i s t r i c t s o f K a r n a t a k a l o n e t h e r e r e s i d e 3.5 m i l l i o n o f L i n g a y a t s , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o n l y 70,000 r e s i d i n g i n t h e r e s t o f s o u t h Mysore. On the o t h e r hand, two out o f t h e t h r e e main V i r a k t a mathas^are i n t h e Dharwar d i s t r i c t . A c c o r d i n g t o A.K. I y e r , V i r a k t a swamis a r e n e i t h e r supposed t o p r e s i d e o v e r c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s , n o r c a n t h e y r e c e i v e more alms t h a n t h e y r e q u i r e f o r a day. They s h o u l d d e v o t e t h e i r A.K. A y e r , The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , ( V o l . I V , B a n g a l o r e : Mysore Government P r e s s , 1933, p. 114)) 73 ' SJH M I R " V I j>.4&*\ HAVI 1:1 '• r-' Vj Hewn* g ' M A D R A S^H v " .* ' i \r /—• ip&tjm on***}™ 153 Scilt 1:15.000.000 0 100 2 0 0 JO0 4C0 SOC « * " » " ' " A M A P O F I : : D I A The a r e a o u t l i n e d i n r e d i s t h e s t u d y a r e a of Maharastra and K a r n a t a k and tjhe f i v e round c i r c l e s i n r e d d e p i c t the p l a c e s where f i v e main V i r a s a i v a r e l i g i o u s mathas a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . 79 THE PRESENT JAGATGCRU sKl JAGATGCRl" SMIVAXAXDA RAJEXPRA SRI .lAGATGl'RU SIYALIXGA SKI SIDDHAI.tXGA SIVACHARVA SIVACIIARYA MAHASWAMI RAMBHAPl'Rl SIVACHARYA MAHASW AMI MAHASWAMI OF THE UJJAIXl HATHA. \ IKASIMHASAXA BALEHOXXU'R HATHA, JAXCAMVADI HATHA, BEXAKES KADl'R DISTRICT, MYSORE. V i r a s a i v a gurus o f the f i v e main mathas. ( P i c t u r e s t a k e n from The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , 1933) 80 time to dissiminating s p i r i t u a l knowledge and meditation. This data of Shri Iyer i s in total contradiction with my personal knowledge about the conditions and activities of both Hubli and Dharwar Virakta mathas. Hubli Murasavira matha, which is described by Iyer as a 'Virakta' matha seems to have hugh monetary establishments that can be seen in their newly built set of huge matha and other buildings. It maintains two elephants that i t uses on ceremonial occasions and i t runs a couple of high schools and colleges directly under i t s finances and authority. Dharwar UMuragi Mafha" is highly known for i t s free lodging and boarding f a c i l i t i e s for Lingayat students and also for i t s large number of religious a c t i v i t i e s . Thus the existing data leaves us to explore the following questions on the physical organisation of the sect: 1. Why are the main five mathas outside the area where the majority of their community resides? 2. What is the exact nature of their physical organisation; are the active Virakta mathas of Dharwar, Hubli and so on taken into account? 3. Were the five main centers built to spread Virasaiva faith or to serve or control the l i f e of the Virasaiva community? Until these questions are explored, I don't see how in any mean-ingful way I could relate the "available" Virasaiva physical organisa-tion to my theoretical framework. Ayer, The Mysore Castes and Tribes, p. 115. 81 I n c o n t r a s t , we get a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f V a r a k a r i p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . D e l e u r y i n h i s book, The C u l t o f V i f h o b a , p o i n t s out t h a t f o r V a r a k a r i p a n t h , t h e r e a r e n e i t h e r p l a c e s o f r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s nor. any p e r s o n n e l w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l V a r a k a r i e s , b u t t h e y do have a " c e n t r a l p l a c e " t o meet r e g u l a r l y f o r t w i c e a y e a r . T h i s p l a c e i s a t P a n d h a r p u r ( n e a r P o o n a ) , a r o u n d t h e temple o f V i t h o b a . There a r e about 28 groups o f V a r a k a r i e s ; e a c h o f them comes f r o m a d e f i n i t e p l a c e and has i t s own ' p a l a n q u i n ' ; t h e y meet a t P a n d h a r p u r , w a l k i n g and s i n g i n g a l l t h e way. They meet r e g u -l a r l y t w i c e a y e a r on t h e 11th day o f A s h a d h i ( J u l y - A u g u s t ) and on t h e 11 t h day o f K a r t i k i (Oct.-Nov.) r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l o f t h e s e 28 g r o u p s , when r e a c h i n g P a n d h a r p u r , form one group o f V a r a k a r i e s and o f f e r t h e i r w o r s h i p t o God, V i t h o b a , as one group. Thus a l l t h e V a r a k a r i e s have 'a c e n t r a l p l a c e ' t o meet and 'a c e n t r a l God' t o w o r s h i p . T h i s p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e V a r a k a r i s e c t a r o u n d a c e n t r a l p l a c e and a God may e n r i c h t h e i r community l i f e . And i t s v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e and i t s r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y may l e a d t o " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . T h i s d a t a does n o t r e f e r t o t h e number o f V a r a k a r i e s who come from each o f t h e c e n t r e s . One may assume t h a t f r o m c e n t r e s c l o s e r t o P a n d h a r p u r , t h e r e c o u l d be g r e a t e r numbers o f V a r a k a r i e s j o i n i n g t h e i r g r oup, w h i l e s m a l l e r number o f V a r a k a r i e s may come fr o m d i s t a n t p l a c e s . T h i s may g i v e us an i d e a as t o how e v e n l y w i d e s p r e a d i s the V a r a k a r i community. I f a l a r g e number j o i n s t h e p i l g r i m a g e f r o m t h e p l a c e s n e a r e r P a n d h a r p u r , th e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w o u l d n o t be an even d i s t r i b u t i o n , b u t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e n a r r o w e r , c l o s e r c i r c l e , w h i c h may r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s on t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e . Piatt- I. 1 + — Serial number of the Palkhi A map depicting a ce n t r a l i z e d physical organisation of No. Name Startiiifr point. 1. «ri Bhutesvar NaKpur (Xa^pur dt.) 2. Rukmini Kondanpfu- (I'niaravatti dt.) *> *>. Sarikara Maharaj Mahuli (I'niaravatti dt.) 4. Sfsanarayana Uniaravatti (Uinaravatti dt.) 5. Svarupananda Dhano'^fion (Iiuldhana dt.) G. Nrsimhasarasvall Mahokar (Buldhana dt.) 7. Muktabai Kdalahad (Kast Khandosh dt 8. Muktahai Mohun (Kast Khandosh dt.) 9. Muktabal J a l l i u m (Kast Khandosh dt.) 10. Kknalh I'aithan (AuranRabad dt.) 11. Janardanaswanii Daulalahad (Auranjrabad dt. 12. N i \ rttinath Trinibak (Naslk dt.) 13. Balbhima Maharaj Sado (Solapur dt.) 14. Limbaraj Maharaj Dahithan (Ahmedna^ar dt.) 15. Jnano.svar Ajandi (l'ooiia dt.) 16. Tukaram Dohu (Poena dt.) 17. Laksminarayana Saswad (Poona dt.) 18. Sopandov Sitsuad (Poona dt.) 19. Tukaram Maharaj Tropute (Satara dt.) 20. Sekujlbova Sirasvadi ( S a l a r i i dt.) 21. Jayaraniswami Vadtfaon (Satara dt.) 22. Ghadjjobova Kalo (Satara dt.) 23. Goraksnath siralo (Satara dt.) 21. Maechindranath Maochindranath (Satara dt.) 25. Ptirnananda Maharaj Bhojjnul (BoUjaon dt.) ^ 26. Damaji Maharaj Manjjalvedhe (Solapur dt.) 27. Jnanoba Maharaj Tuljapur (Usmanabad dt.) 28. Ramdas Sajjad^ad (Satara dt.) around Pandharpur — c i r c l e d i n red. 83 The t y p i c a l d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f V i r a s a i v a s have a non-v o l u n t a r y p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , mathas and t o heads o f t h e s e mathas, w h i l e f o r V a r a k a r i e s p h y s i c a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y and r e v o l v e s around a c e n t r a l p l a c e o f p i l g r i m a g e and a c e n t r a l p l a c e o f w o r s h i p . Thus n o n - v o l u n t a r y and a u t h o r i t y - d i r e c t e d p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f V i r a s a i v a s may l e a d t o r i g i d i t i e s i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , v o l u n t a r y , n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n , b u t s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i s e d V a r a k a r i p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n may f o r m a ^ b a s i s o f " f l e x i b l e " s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . T h i s may a l s o i n d i c a t e a n o t h e r d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b o t h groups and t h a t i s t h e i r d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f " s a c r e d " . Amongst V i r a s a i v a s , t h e s e r e l i g i o u s h e a d s , o r Gurus and Jangamas a r e w o r s h i p p e d a l o n g w i t h " L i n g a " t h e i r God, w h i l s t amongst V a r a k a r i e s , i t i s o n l y God who i s w o r s h i p p e d by a l l t h e V a r a k a r i e s . So i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t V i r a s a i v a s p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n r e v o l v e s a r o u n d r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s where t h e i r main Gurus r e s i d e , w h i l e V a r a k a r i p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n r e v o l v e s around t h e i r p i l g r i m a g e centre;. Of c o u r s e , one needs t o e n q u i r e as t o whether t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by b o t h t h e s e c t s i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . S o c i a l O r g a n i s a t i o n ( s e c t r e c r u i t m e n t ) The m a j o r amount o f " d a t a " on t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s o f b o t h o f t h e s e s e c t s i s a v a i l a b l e on t h e i r " s e c t r e c r u i t m e n t " o r i n i t i a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , on t h e i r s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n t h r o u g h r i t u a l ^ a n d on o t h e r a u t h o -r i t a r i a n c o n t r o l s w i t h p e r s o n s o r p l a c e s , a n d on c a s t e h i e r a r c h i e s and r e l a t i o n s o f t h e members o f b o t h t h e s e c t s . V e r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on V i r a s a i v a r e c r u i t m e n t , i n i t i a t i o n , Y i s a v a i l a b l e i n Dr. Nandimath's book, A Handbook o f V i r a s a i v i s m i a n d i n 84 A p i c t u r e o f A i t a n , t h e second V i r a s a i v a i n i t i a t i o n ceremony. An o l d p e r s o n s i t t i n g i n t h e c e n t r e on the c h a i r i s a Guru o r a Janeam, an i n i t i a t o r . The boy s i t t i n g i n t h e c e n t r e i s undergoing; i n i t i a t i o n . The man s i t t i n g b e s i d e the boy must be h i s f a t h e r o r f a t h e r s u r r o g a t e . And the r e s t u s u a l l y are r e l a t i v e s . 85 A.K. I y e r ' s book,The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s . B o t h t h e s e books p o i n t out t h a t V i r a s a i v a s have more t h a n one i n i t i a t i o n r i t e . But a c c o r d i n g 3 t o Dr. Nandimath , " L i n g a Dharane", i . e . , t h e 1 s t i n i t i a t i o n o f p u t t i n g a L i n g a t o a newborn c h i l d o f V i r a s a i v a p a r e n t s , i s t h e o n l y r e a l V i r a s a i v a i n i t i a t i o n r i t e . a n d t h e r e s t a r e i n i m i t a t i o n o f B r a h m a n i c a l r i t e s . To n o t e down d i f f e r e n t V i r a s a i v a i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s as g i v e n by 4 I y e r i s q u i t e u s e f u l . The f i r s t i n i t i a t i o n , i . e . , ' L i n g a Dharane' b e g i n s w i t h a b a t h o f a new-born and t h e mother. I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e Jangama and m a i n l y h i s f e e t , a r e w o r s h i p p e d by t h e "Yajamana", t h e f a m i l y headman. I n t h i s r i t e , t h e w a t e r t h a t i s used t o wash t h e Guru's o r Jangama's f e e t i s l a t e r used as a " T h i r t h a " . T h i s means i t i s s i p p e d b o t h by t h e mother and t h e new-born as p u r i f y i n g w a t e r and t h e r e s t o f t h i s w a t e r i s s p r i n k l e d a l l o v e r t h e house t o p u r i t y i t . L a t e r , t h e Guru p u r i f i e s , L i n g a , V i b h u t i . . . e t c . , A s t a v a r n a s , e i g h t a i d s o f V i r a -s a i v a f a i t h , and g i v e s them t o t h e c h i l d . The Guru w h i s p e r s "5iva-m a n t r a " i n t h e c h i l d ' s e a r , A f t e r t h i s , t h e c h i l d i s b e l i e v e d t o have e n t e r e d i n t o t h e V i r a s a i v a r e l i g i o u s o r d e r o r community. The ceremony ends a f t e r t h e Jangama i s f e d and o f f e r e d p r e s e n t s by t h e Yajamana. The Guru o r Jangama p o o j a ( w o r s h i p ) i s p r e s e n t i n e v e r y V i r a s a i v a r i t u a l . The main f e a t u r e s o f t h e second i n i t i a t i o n ceremony c a l l e d ' A i t a n ' a r e as f o l l o w s : t h i s ceremony i s p e r f o r m e d on c e l i b a t e Jangama boys o n l y , any t i m e between 8 t o 16 y e a r s o f age. O n l y a f t e r t h i s ceremony do Jangama boys become e l i g i b l e t o b e , a c c e p t e d as heads o f " f i v e main r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s " . A t t h e end o f t h e ceremony, t h e Guru g i v e s 3 _ Dr. Nandimath, A Handbook o f V i r a s a i v i s m , p. 77. 4 I y e r , Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , V o l . I V , pp. 101-105. 86 t h e i n i t i a t e d boy "a z o l i " ( a s q u a r e p i e c e o f c l o t h t h a t i s t u r n e d i n t o "a b e g g i n g bag") and he i s asked t o go b e g g i n g . The t h i r d i n i t i a t i o n ceremony, c a l l e d D i k s a , i s a c l e a n s i n g r i t u a l and i s p e r f o r m e d on a l l V i r a s a i v a men and women who have " A s t a v a r n a " r i g h t s ( b a r b e r s , f a r m e r s , and such low c a s t e V i r a s a i v a s a r e s a i d n o t t o have any a s t a v a r n a r i g h t s ) t o "upgrade" t h e m s e l v e s . The same r i t e i s used f o r new a d u l t c o n v e r t s - t o V i r a s a i v i s m . I know of one more t y p e o f i n i t i a t i o n r e c e n t l y g o i n g on i n w h i c h some non-Jangamas p r o c l a i m t h e m s e l v e s as Gurus (Jangamas) a f t e r D i k s a . They vow t o remain c e l i b a t e , go t o l i v e i n a r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s m e n t and t o b u i l d a f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s from V i r a s a i v a s f o r whom th e y p r e s i d e o v e r a l l t h e r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s . A l l t h e s e V i r a s a i v a " i n i t i a t i o n s " n u l l i f y B asava's t e n e t r e g a r d i n g " s i m p l i f y i n g " and " m i n i m i s i n g " t h e r i t u a l s f o r V i r a s a i v a s . E s p e c i a l l y , the p u r i f i c a t o r y a s p e c t o f a l l t h e s e r i t u a l s and " D i k s a " as an ' u p g r a d i n g ' r i t u a l a r e f u r t h e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o Basava's main c o n t e n t i o n w h i c h i n -s i s t e d t h a t a l l V i r a s a i v a s as w e a r e r s o f L i n g a a r e e v e r p u r e and e q u a l . T h i s i n c r e a s i n g number o f r i t u a l s d e m o n s t r a t e s among o t h e r t h i n g s t h e i n c r e a s i n g s p h e r e o f c o n t r o l " o f p r i e s t l y c l a s s e s o v e r l a y V i r a l a i v a s , and i n d i c a t e s r i g i d i t y i n V i r a s a i v a s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s l a r g e number o f " i n i t i a t i o n s " amongst V i r a s a i -v a s , D e l e u r y s a y s : " V a r a k a r i e s have no " i n i t i a t i o n " ceremony as s u c h , even t o be i t s members".~* He f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e s : " n e v e r t h e l e s s f o r t h o s e w i s h i n g t o e n t e r t h e V a r a k a r i " p a n t h , t h e r e does e x i s t a v e r y s i m p l e D e l e u r y , The C u l t o f V i t h o b a , pp. 4-5 87 ceremony, a k i n t o t h e t a k i n g o f a m o n a s t i c vow. I n t h i s , t h e c a n d i d a t e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f w i t h a V a r a k a r i f r i e n d (who w i l l v ouch f o r him) b e f o r e one o f t h e V a r a k a r i groups i n f o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d Gurus a n d . e x p r e s s e s h i s d e s i r e t o j o i n t h e p a n t h . He must b r i n g a r o s a r y o f " T u l a s i " beads w h i c h tie Guru t e l l s h i m t o put on t h e book o f " Z n a n e s w a r i " ( M a r a t h i v e r s i o n o f t h e G i t a ) . The c a n d i d a t e t h e n p l e d g e s h i m s e l f t o go r e g u l a r l y t o P a n d h a r p u r on " V a r i e s " , a t f i x e d t i m e p i l g r i m a g e s and t o be a ' v e g e t a r i a n ' and t o n e v e r be w i t h o u t ' T u l a s i ' beads. I t i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o e n q u i r e why s u c h a p o p u l a r s e c t and i t s p i l g r i m a g e c e n t r e p l a c e s so few demands on i t s f o l l o w e r s . T h i s s t a n d s as a c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r p i l g r i m a g e c e n t r e s o f I n d i a where one has 't o pay' even t o have God's d a r s h a n a ( j u s t . s e e i n g h i s f a c e ) , and t h e r e a r e g r a d a t i o n s ' o f f e e s t h a t a r e c h a r g e d f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f ceremo-n i e s w h i c h t h e p r i e s t s w o u l d c o n d u c t . The H i n d u Vishweswar temple a t Banares and T i r u p a t i temple i n t h e s o u t h a r e q u i t e w e l l known f o r s u c h p r a c t i c e s . S e c t O r g a n i s a t i o n and A u t h o r i t y W h i l e w r i t i n g on t h e f u n c t i o n s and a u t h o r i t i e s o f V i r a s a i v a r e l i -g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , I y e r says t h a t t h e Gurus who a r e t h e heads o f ma-t h a s , have n o t o n l y r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , b u t a l s o d i r e c t economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t 'of t h e t h r e e s u b - d i v i s i o n s of t h e s e G u r u s , P a t t a c h i k a r i e s and C h a r u m u r t h i e s move about t o manage t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e mathas and t o c o l l e c t t h e dues and  p r e s e n t s f r o m l a y V i r a s a i v a s . They have a s s i s t a n t s c a l l e d " M a r i e s ' , young boys (who s t a y and can c o n t i n u e t o s t a y even a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) who h e l p them i n matha 88 Temple w o r s h i p and do a l l l i t t l e j o b s f o r them. These Gurus p r e s i d e o v e r a l l r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n s and s e t t l e a l l d i s p u t e s and e x e r c i s e g e n e r a l c o n t r o l o v e r a l l m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s o f t h e community a t l a r g e . T h i s d a t a s t r e n g t h e n s our h y p o t h e s i s t h a t V i r a s a i v a s e c t o r g a n -i s a t i o n i s h i g h l y h i e r a r c h i c a l and a u t h o r i t a r i a n and t h u s i t l e a d s t o r i g i d i t i e s i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . F r e s h d a t a on t o d a y ' s Guru's f u n c t i o n s and economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e i r laymen w o u l d e x p l a i n t h e n a t u r e o f V i r a s a i v a s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n and a u t h o r i t y ; I y e r ' s d a t a i s r a t h e r o l d and c o n f u s i n g . I n one p l a c e he s a y s : t h e Gurus l i v e i n g r e a t pomp and do L i n g a - d h a r a n e , A i t a n , p r e - f u n e r a l ceremony and i n o t h e r p l a c e s he s a y s t h a t G r i h a s t a , i . e . , m a r r i e d Jangamas p r e s i d e o v e r a l l b i r t h , m a r r i a g e and f u n e r a l c e r e m o n i e s . That means e i t h e r t h e r e i s no c l e a r c u t d i s t i n c t i o n s o f f u n c t i o n s between G u r u s , c e l i b a t e Jangamas and m a r r i e d Jangamas, though t h e r e seems some d i s t i n c t i o n s i n t h e i r au-t h o r i t i e s . Gurus seem t o e n j o y n o t o n l y more r i t u a l , b u t more economic a u t h o r i t y t h a n do Jangamas. I n any c a s e , f r e s h e n q u i r y i n t h i s f i e l d w o u l d e x p l a i n n o t o n l y t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s , b u t t h e i r c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o r d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , and t h e i r a c t u a l o r p o s s i b l e c o n t r o l o f them o v e r t h e masses. A n o t h e r f i e l d o f e n q u i r y r e g a r d i n g Gurus and Jangamas as p o i n t e d out by I y e r i s " t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n " . N e i t h e r o f them, s a y s I y e r , a r e en-gaged i n any " o c c u p a t i o n " f o r a " l i v i n g " as was c l e a r l y s a i d t o be e s -s e n t i a l by B a s a v a . So Basava's g r e a t emphasis on o r g a n i s i n g t h e s e c t around t h e t h e o r y o f "work i s w o r s h i p " does n o t seem t o have m a t e r i a l i s e d I y e r , The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , p. 89. 89 amongst l e a d i n g V i r a s a i v a s o f t o d a y . I y e r f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s t h a t Gurus l i v e i n g r e a t pomp and p e r f o r m t w i c e o r t h r i c e w o r s h i p o f t h e i r L i n g a ; w h i l e Jangama l i v e s on " b e g g i n g " and by a c t i n g as a p r i e s t . ' ' R e c e n t l y , I know t h a t many c a p a b l e c i t y Jangamas have g i v e n up b o t h " r e l i g i o u s b e g g i n g " and p r i e s t l y works and have s u c c e s s f u l l y e n t e r e d i n t o b u s i n e s s as g r o c e r s , "Middlemen", c l o t h and j e w e l l e r y merchants and i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e a c h i n g j o b s . By d o i n g t h i s , t h e y seem t o have i n c u r r e d t h e j e a l o u s i e s o f B a n a j i g a s , t r a d i t i o n a l L i n g a y a t t r a d e r s who c o n s i d e r Jangamas as t h e i r r i v a l s i n t h e i r f i e l d o f endeavour. T h i s s i t u a t i o n p o i n t s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l a c k o f o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y and c o m p e t i t b n amongst L i n g a y a t s . T h i s needs t o be s t u d i e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r i g i d s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , D e l e u r y d e s c r i b e s t h e e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e and f l e x i b l e s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n and a u t h o r i t y amongst V a r a k a r i e s . He s a y s , V a r a k a r i p a n t h has no c e n t r a l i s e d o r g a n i s a t i o n , no h i e r a r c h y , no g e n e r a l c o u n c i l , 8 no c r e d o , and no s a c r a m e n t s . He f u r t h e r s a y s t h a t , now as b e f o r e , t h e V a r a k a r i e s come m o s t l y from t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , b e i n g f a r m e r s , o f M a r a t h a -K u n a b i c a s t e , Brahmin l a n d l o r d s , p e t t y o f f i c e r s , c r a f t s m e n and t r a d e r s . They b e l i e v e i n Znaneswar and Tukaram as t h e i r s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s whose j o i n t name — "Znanaba-Tukaram — t h e y keep on u t t e r i n g a l l a l o n g t h e i r p i l g r i m a g e r o a d , a l o n g w i t h t h e name o f t h e i r God ( w i t h H i s s p o u s e ) , " V i t h t h a l a - R a k h u m a i " . The V a r a k a r i s e c t t h u s seems more a " s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i s e d " ^ I y e r , The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s , p. 120. 8 — D e l e u r y , The C u l t o f V i t h o b a , p. 4. 90 community o f groups o f s p i r i t u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s . Because t h e V a r a k a r i e s ' i n t e r e s t i n p i l g r i m a g e s i s d e s c r i b e d as u n f a i l i n g , V a r a k a -r i e s a r e s a i d t o be n o t on p i l g r i m a g e o n l y when t h e y a r e d y i n g o r dead. Now i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o e n q u i r e as t o how t h e s e V a r a k a r i e s who l i v e c o n t i n u o u s l y a c c o r d i n g t o a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a m i l y and c a s t e groups o f H i n d u s o c i e t y and f o l l o w most o f t h e H i n d u r i t u a l s r i g i d l y , c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d and m a i n t a i n e d s u c h an i n f o r m a l and e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n as V a r a k a r i e s . C a s t e C o m p e t i t i o n The most c e n t r a l p o i n t s o r o r g a n i s a t i o n s o f I n d i a n communities 9 a r e t h e i r c a s t e o r g a n i s a t i o n s . And t h i s i s t r u e f o r t h e " n o - c a s t e r e l i g i o u s community" o f V i r a s a i v a s * ; w e l l as f o r t h e " s p i r i t u a l l y -o r i e n t e d " V a r a k a r i e s . The p e c u l i a r c a s t e - r e l a t i o n s o f L i n g a y a t s w i t h Brahmins a r e d e s -c r i b e d by Enthoven i n h i s "Bombay C a s t e s and T r i b e s " as one o f r i v a l r y and c o m p e t i t i o n . He s a y s "among t h e e d u c a t e d members o f t h e L i n g a y a t com-m u n i t y , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g s p i r i t o f r i v a l r y w i t h t h e Brahmins whose i n t e l -l e c t and c a p a c i t y have s e c u r e d them p r e p o n d e r a n t government a p p o i n t m e n t s and powers i n m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s . . . t h e r i v a l r y between t h e s e groups may be s a i d t o dominate t h e whole s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f Bombay-Karnatak. Recent census and f i e l d r e p o r t s d e s c r i b e L i n g a y a t s as a " i j e r e * c a s t e " o f H i ndus w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o i t s s e c t i d e n t i t y and o r i g i n a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e H i n d u c a s t e s y s t e m . F o r i n s t a n c e , Dr. C h e k k i a n a l y s i n g the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f Dharwar remarks as f o l l o w s : "Of t h e s e v e r a l H u t t o n , The C a s t e i n I n d i a , p. 1. 0 E n t h o v e n , The Bombay C a s t e s and T r i b e s , p. 343. 91 c a s t e s i n t h e c i t y , t h e two p r o m i n e n t c a s t e s , namely Brahmins and L i n g a y a t s h o l d t h e key p o s i t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . B r a h m i n s occupy t h e topmost p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c a s t e h i e r a r c h y . The L i n g a y a t s c l a i m e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e B r a h m i n s . S i m i l a r l y , Dr. Ishwaran w h i l e a n a l y s i n g t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a v i l l a g e , S h i v a p u r i n the Dharwar d i s t r i c t , p o i n t s o u t : "though i n t h e c l a s s i c c a s t e model t h e Brahmin i s supposed t o be t h e h i g h e s t c a s t e , i n our o b s e r v a t i o n , t h i s i s n o t t r u e o f S h i v a p u r . Here i t i s t h e L i n g a y a t s who a r e t h e h i g h e s t g r o u p s . . . . T h i s may be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Brahmins have s u f f e r e d economic d e g r a d a t i o n and a l s o t a k e n up n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l 12 o c c u p a t i o n o f c u l t i v a t i o n . " A l l t h i s d a t a o f d i f f e r e n t t i m e s and from d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s p o i n t s out one f a c t o r v e r y c l e a r l y w h i c h i s t h a t Brahmins and L i n g a y a t s have v e r y keen c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s and c l a i m s i n t h e H i n d u c a s t e h i e r a r c h y . But t h i s does n o t e x p l a i n e i t h e r t h e s o u r c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n o r the n a t u r e o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . I s t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n governed by t h e r u l e s o f p o l l u t i o n and p u r i t y ? Dr. C h e k k i , on t h e one hand, s a y s " t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e two c a s t e s a r e governed by,among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e norms o f p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n , " and m a i n t a i n s on t h e o t h e r hand t h a t " t h e L i n g a y a t s and 13 Brahmins have d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f r i t u a l norms." So one c o u l d see how t h e r e c o u l d be a c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f r u l e s , i f d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f r i t u a l norms a r e b e i n g f o l l o w e d by t h e two g r o u p s . D r . I s h w a r a n ' s a n a l y s i s "^D.A. C h e k k i , " M o d e r n i s a t i o n and k i n n e t w o r k i n a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y : I n d i a " , p. 10. 12 K. I s h w a r a n , T r a d i t i o n and Economy i n v i l l a g e I n d i a ( a c a s e s t u d y ) , R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1966, p. 17. 13 C h e k k i , " M o d e r n i s a t i o n and k i n n e t w o r k i n a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y : I n d i a " , ' p. 10. 92 i s e q u a l l y c o n f u s i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , he s a y s : " A l t h o u g h i n t h e c l a s s i c c a s t e model t h e Brahmin i s supposed t o be t h e h i g h e s t c a s t e . . . h i s l o w e r p o s i t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d t o one f a c t o r — economic d e g r a d a t i o n J**" Because Dr. Ishwaran's a n a l y s i s does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e " c l a s s i c V a r n a model" was b a s e d n o t on economic s t a n d a r d s b u t on t h e s t a n d a r d s o f r i t u a l p u r i t y , i t seems r e l e v a n t t h e r e f o r e t o s t u d y t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f B r a h m i n - L i n g a y a t c a s t e r e l a t i o n s and t h e b a s i s o f i t s r i v a l r y t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s e f f e c t s on Lingayat s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , i n s t e a d o f c a s t e d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o m p e t i t i o n s , b o t h N e l s o n and F r a z e r and D e l e u r y speak h i g h l y o f V a r a k a r i p a n t h p i l g r i m a g e s p l a y i n g a g r e a t d e m o c r a t i s i n g r o l e i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s . They f u r t h e r a s s e r t t h a t a l l c a s t e H i ndus p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e p i l g r i m a g e s and a l l c a s t e H i ndus a r e a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e c e r e m o n i a l w o r s h i p o f V i t h o b a d u r i n g t h e a u s p i c i o u s t i m e s and a t o t h e r t i m e s as w e l l . So V a r a k a r i e s n e i t h e r have c a s t e h i e r a r c h i e s n o r have c o m p e t i t i o n s i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . A c c e p t i n g t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f V a r a k a r i s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n t o be t r u e , one c o u l d f u r t h e r e n q u i r e as t o how f a r t h i s d e m o c r a t i s i n g e f f e c t o f p i l g r i m a g e s remains when V a r a k a r i e s r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes, w h i l e a r r a n g i n g t h e i r f a m i l y m a r r i a g e s o r a l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , e t c . T h i s w o u l d h e l p us t o measure o r w e i g h the. e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f V a r a k a r i i d e o l o g y n o t o n l y amongst them-s e l v e s , b ut on t h e r i g i d H i n d u c a s t e s t r u c t u r e o f M a h a r a s t r a . I s h w a r a n , T r a d i t i o n and Economy i n v i l l a g e I n d i a , p. 17. 93 S ub-Castes S u b - c a s t e s a r e endogamous, l o c a l i s e d , and h i e r a r c h i c a l groups w i t h t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n s . These a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e and p o w e r f u l 'we-groups' o f p e o p l e t o whom membership comes g e n e r a l l y by b i r t h . The r e a l i m m o b i l i t i e s and f r a g m e n t a t i o n s o f t h e s e groups i n -d i c a t e d i r e c t l y t h e r i g i d i t i e s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . Even s k e t c h y d a t a on t h i s i s s u e i l l u m i n a t e s many a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . Thus Enthoven s a y s r e g a r d i n g Virasaiva s u b - c a s t e s t h a t " i t ' s a c o n -gery o f sub-castes 1'' h o l d i n g a common r e l i g i o n " . ^ F u r t h e r , t h e 1911 census r e p o r t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f as many as s e v e n t y - o n e s u b - c a s t e s w i t h -i n a s m a l l community o f L i n g a y a t s . A t t h a t t i m e , i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t 9.2%of L i n g a y a t s d i d n o t r e t u r n s u b - c a s t e d e s i g n a t i o n s . So i n t h e 1921 c e n s u s , s u b - c a s t e s were n o t enumerated. T h i s census b r o a d l y c l a s s -i f i e d L i n g a y a t s u b - c a s t e s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r . 1. S u b - c a s t e s w i t h " A s t a v a r n a r i t e s " s u c h as Jangamas, B a n a j i g a s and P a n c h a m a s a l i e s . 2. N o n - p a n c h a m a s a l i s w i t h " A s t a v a r n a r i t e s " — o i l p r e s s e r s , washermen, e t c . 3. Non-panchamasalis w i t h no " A s t a v a r n a r i t e s — b a r b e r s , . 1 6 t a n n e r s , e t c . K. Ish w a r a n enumerates t h e e x i s t e n c e o f 21 s u b - c a s t e s o r L i n g a y a t s i n 187 h o u s e h o l d s o f S h i v a p u r , i n c o n t r a s t t o o n l y 4 amongst 129 M a r a t h a h o u s e h o l d s o f S h i v a p u r . The L i n g a y a t s u b - c a s t e s a r e g i v e n i n ' 7 . d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r . E n t hoven. The Bombay C a s t e s and T r i b e s , p. 371. I b i d . , p. 346. 9 4 LINGAYAT SUBCASTES MARATHA SUBCASTES 1. H i r e m a t h (amongst 129 2. Chikamath B u r u k i 3. G a n a c h a r i Jande Rawut 4. M a t h a p a t i K u l a v a d i 5. Hugar N a d a k a t t u 6. P u j a r 7. B a n a j i g a : a) A d i - B a n a j i g a b) S h e e l a v a n t a B a n j i g a 8. P a n c h a m a s a l i 9. P a n c h a m a s a l i T o t a g a 10. Sadar 11. J a d a r a) B i l e - J a d a r b) K a r e - J a d a r 12. G a n i g a a) B i l e - G a n i g a b) K a r e - G a n i g a 13. Hadapad Such a l a r g e number o f s u b - c a s t e s w i t h endogamy and h e r e d i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n s u n d e r l i n e s t h e fragmented and i m m o b i l e o r r i g i d s o c i a l organ-i s a t i o n o f L i n g a y a t s i n S h i v a p u r compared t o t h o s e o f M a r a t h a s i n S h i -v a p u r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , t h e f o l l o w i n g example g i v e n by Ethnoven r e g a r d i n g L i n g a y a t washermen i n K a r n a t a k p o i n t s t o t h e i r l a c k of m o b i l i t y b o t h i n s o c i a l and economic m a t t e r s . Enthoven s a y s : "Hindu washermen i n K a r n a t a k wash c l o t h e s o f a l l c a s t e H i n d u s , o f muslims and o 95 c h r i s t i a n s . , b u t L i n g a y a t washermen wash c l o t h e s o n l y o f L i n g a y a t s . Thus a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f L i n g a y a t s u b - c a s t e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r endogamy, o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n r u l e s , e t c . w o u l d throw d i r e c t l i g h t on t h e " r i g i d i t i e s " o f L i n g a y a t s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e V a r a k a r i s u b - c a s t e o r -g a n i s a t i o n . That-doe s n o t 'mean t h a t none e x i s t s . To s t u d y t h e "degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y " o f t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , one has t o s t u d y t h e i r s e c t s u b - c a s t e c o m p o s i t i o n , h i e r a r c h i e s , o c c u p a t i o n a l and l o c a l m o b i l i t i e s b o t h d u r i n g and a f t e r p i l g r i m a g e s . S u b - c a s t e s a r e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e e n t i r e I n d i a n s o c i e t y and V a r a k a r i e s cannot be an e x c e p t i o n t o t h a t . F a m i l y - L i f e F a m i l y o r g a n i s a t i o n o f b o t h groups has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e ' a t t e n t i o n f rom r e s e a r c h s c h o l a r s . Of t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a , Dr. C h e k k i ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t V i r a s a i v a k i n s h i p o r g a n i s a t i o n has a t e r r i t o r i a l b a s i s i n d i c a t e s i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l i m m o b i l i t y and i t s f a m i l y r i g i d i t i e s . Detailed s t u d i e s on V i r a s a i v a k i n s h i p o r g a n i s a t i o n , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t e r r i t o r i a l o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t i e s , and c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , r o l e s f o r g i r l s and b o y s , may e x p l a i n g e n e r a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y and h i e r a r c h i e s @ o n t h e b a s i s o f s e x i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , we do n o t have any d a t a on the f a m i l y l i f e o f V a r a k a r i e s who a r e mere i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e c t . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o know how t h e i r s e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f f e c t s t h e r e l i g i o u s , economic and s o c i a l l i f e . o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Whether t h e i r s e c t i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y o r g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y has a f f e c t e d t h e i r f a m i l y k i n s h i p and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w o u l d h i g h l i g h t t h e r o l e o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n i n t r o d u c i n g 96 " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n M a h a r a s t r a . The " e x i s t i n g d a t a " on b o t h V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i groups — f o r p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , s e c t t r e c r u i t m e n t , s e c t a u t h o r i t y , c a s t e r e l a t i o n s , s u b - c a s t e s , e t c . — s u b s t a n t i a t e s our framework and a l l o w s us t o p r e d i c t t h a t V i r a s a i v a s have a ' r i g i d ' s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n c o n t r a s t t o V a r a k a r i e s who have ' f l e x i b l e ' s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , i t h e l p s us t o g e n e r a t e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a s where t h e r e a r e " b i g g a p s " y e t t o be f i l l e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s on f a m i l y o r g a n i s a t i o n and s u b - c a s t e o r g a n i s a t i o n s ? t h a t form t h e r e a l b a s i s o f s e c t o r g a n i s a t i o n s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y and dynamism, h o p e f u l l y would u n c o v e r o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i s o c i a l o r g a n -i s a t i o n t h a n the two d i m e n s i o n a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . 97 CONCLUSION A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e V a r a k a r i and t h e V i r a s a i v a movements, two B a k t i s e c t s o f S o u t h w e s t e r n I n d i a , has been u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s pages. I n each c h a p t e r an a t t e m p t has been made t o under-s t a n d some a s p e c t s o f t h e s e g r o u p s ' i d e o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . A s t u d y o f t h e i r i d e o l o g i e s as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e poem-^sayings o f t h e i r l e a d e r s , B a s a v a and Tukaram, has shown t h a t t h e s e two groups a r e i n d e e d q u i t e d i s t i n c t . V i r a s a i v a i d e o l o g y i s c u l t u r a l l y r a d i c a l i n c o n t r a s t t o V a r a k a r i i d e o l o g y , w h i c h i s c u l t u r a l l y moderate i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a -d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m . L e t us summarise t h e s e i d e o l o g i e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . co o M O M • J 9 T r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m p o l y t h e i s m knowledge o f Vedas e s s e n t i a l f o r s a l v a t i o n BASAVA B h a k t i S e c t s TUKARAM monotheism ( r e j e c t i o n o f o t h e r gods) monotheism (as s y n t h e s i s o f p o l y t h e i s m ) no H i n d u t e x t s ; o n l y S i v a n o t knowledge mantra f o r s a l v a t i o n b u t d e v o t i o n t o a l l H i n d u t e x t s f o r s a l v a t i o n H i n d u p u r i f i c a t o r y r i t u a l s no H i n d u r i t u a l s ; c r i t i c i s e s s i n o n l y V i r a s a i v a l i f e c y c l e c l e a n s i n g r i t u a l s r i t u a l s and a c c e p t s a l l t h e r e s t o f H i n d u r i t u a l s o o CO membership l i m i t e d t o p u r e c a s t e s open membership b u t o n l y s e c t members a r e pur e a u t h o r i t y t o Brahmins o c c u p a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s as t h e p u r e s t c a s t e e q u a l i t y o f only s e c t members members h e r e d i t a r y h i e r a r c h i c a l c e n t r a l i s e d o r g a n i s a t i o n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c around r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e p e r s o n n e l open membership; a l l d e v o t e e s a r e pur e o n l y r e l i g i o u s e q u a l -i t y and a c c e p t s c a s t e s i n e q u a l i t y v o l u n t a r y d e c e n t r a l i s e d o r g a n i s a t i o n around p i l g r i m a g e p l a c e 98 The f i r s t column shows t h e s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m t h a t were c r i t i c i s e d by t h e B h a k t i l e a d e r s — B a s a v a and T u k a r l m . The second column shows t h e p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e between B a s a v a and t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m and t h e t h i r d i d e n t i f i e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f Tukaram's s e c t on t h e same i s s u e s . The- c o m p a r i s o n makes i t c l e a r t h e t o t a l r e j e c t i o n by B a s a v a o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u p r a c t i c e s . At each p o i n t h i s i d e o l o g y r a d i c a l l y opposes and c o n t r a d i c t s t h a t o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m . T h e r e f o r e , i t has been d e s c r i b e d h e r e as a ' r a d i c a l ' i d e o l o g y . Tukaram's i d e o l o g y on t h e o t h e r hand, q u i t e c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t s a b l e n d i n g o f t h e two and o c c u p i e s t h u s an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n we have r e f e r r e d t o i t as 'moderate'. The i d e o l o g y o f Basava's s e c t recommends a f l e x i b l e e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n by c o n t r a s t t o t h e r i g i d h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m . The s e c t was i n t h e o r y committed t o a t l e a s t r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y between-men and women and t o e q u a l i t y among d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . . But t h e p o s i t i o n o f r a d i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o H i n d u i s m t a k e n up by t h i s s e c t n e c e s s i t a t e d , I have a r g u e d , a d o p t i n g a h i g h l y c e n t r a l -i s e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d h e r e d i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p and t h u s , t o t h e development o f . a r i g i d r a t h e r t h a n f l e x i b l e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . Over t i m e , t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s become c o n s o l i d a t e d i n the s e l f - i s o l a t i o n o f the s e c t , i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m w h i c h ' s u r r o u n d e d ' i t . I t d e v e l o p e d a c e n t r a l i s e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r g a n i s a t i o n , w i t h an economic and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s detachment f r o m th e p o l i t i c a l and economic l e a d e r s h i p . Thus i t s i d e o l o g i c a l r a d i c a l i s m has l e d t o t h e development o f a r i g i d s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h e open e g a l i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e t h a t was i t s o r i g i n a l i d e a l . 99 I n c o n t r a s t , Tukaram does no t r e j e c t t h e r e a d i n g o f s c r i p t u r e s o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f r i t u a l s as a means t o ' s a l v a t i o n 1 . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l s o i t a c c e p t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f c a s t e s , and t h u s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e B r l h m i n c a s t e as t e a c h e r s arid s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s . I n p r i n c i p l e , . t h e r e f o r e , t h e i d e o l o g y commits t h e s e c t t o t h e r i g i d , h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m . But b e c a u s e h i s i d e o l o g y was moderate, i t d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h e development o f a c e n t r a l i s e d a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e . M o r e o v e r , t h e u n i q u e p r a c t i c e o f group p i l g r i m a g e c o u p l e d w i t h v o l u n t a r y membership and a d e c e n t r a l i s e d o r g a n i s a t i o n has k e p t t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c t l o o s e and f l e x i b l e . I t had no need t o d e v e l o p a r i g i d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e a d e r s h i p t o f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e r i g i d H i n d u c a s t e s t r u c t u r e . The t r a d i t i o n a l c a s t e s t r u c t u r e o f H i n d u i s m i s i n v a r i o u s ways i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e development o f a l a b o u r market o r g a n i s a t i o n r e q u i r e d by modern i n d u s t r i a l development. The c a s t e and f a m i l y o r g a n -i s a t i o n s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t t h e k i n d o f m o b i l i t y and freedom t o m o v e among d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s t h a t i t r e q u i r e s . I n i t s i d e o l -ogy B asava's s e c t r e p r e s e n t s a f o r m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w h i c h does n o t s u f f e r f r o m t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s . But t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l f l e x i b i b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l development i n I n d i a i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i s a t i o n d e v e l o p e d around i t s r a d i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o H i n d u i s m . Thus Basava's s e c t has p r o v e d l e s s open t o changes i n I n d i a n s o c i a t y t h a n t h e more moderate one o f Tukaram. The a r e a o f r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i s d i r e c t e d towards i n v o l v e s a f u l l e r e x a m i n a t i o n and development of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f what I have a n a l y s e d and d e s c r i b e d h e r e f o r t h e s o c i a l and economic 100 o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e two s e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic changes t h a t a r e b e i n g b r o u g h t about i n I n d i a t o d a y . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r e s e n t d a y r i g i d i t i e s and f l e x i b i l i t i e s o f V i r a s a i v a and V a r a k a r i s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , we have found i t n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o r e i n d e t a i l t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e and o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , o f f a m i l y and s u b - c a s t e g r o u p s , u n i t s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o day-t o - d a y a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e s e two r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h has thrown a c e r t a i n l i g h t on t h e m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e two s e c t s w h i c h d i f f e r so s t r i k i n g l y , b o t h i n s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and i n b a s i c i d e o l o g y . 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY A n g a d i , S.M. ( t r a n s l a t o r ) , T h i p p e r u d r a s w a m i , H. The V i r a i s a i v a  S a i n t s . Mysore: S r i S h i v a r a t r e s h a w a r G r a n t h s M a l e , 1968. De-Bary, Theodore, (ed.) S o u r c e s o f I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n . New Y o r k : C o lumbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, pp. 346-58, 690-705. B e * t e i l l e , A n d re. C a s t e s : O l d and New, e s s a y s i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Bombay: A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1969. i B h a n d a r k a r , R.G. V a i s n a v i s m , S a i v i s m and o t h e r m i n o r c u l t s . S t r a s s -b u r g , 1913. C h a n d r a s h e k h a r i a h , K. " S o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f V i r a s a i v i s m " . i ( U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s ) , F r a n k f u r t , 1955. C h e k k i , D.A. "Mate s e l e c t i o n , age a t m a r r i a g e and p r o p i n q u i t y among t h e L i n g a y a t s o f I n d i a , " J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , XXX ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 707-711. "Naming c h i l d r e n among L i n g a y a t f a m i l i e s " . J o u r n a l o f t h e K a r n a t a k U n i v e r s i t y , Dharwar IV (1968, pp. 139-142). "Some a s p e c t s o f m a r r i a g e among t h e L i n g a y a t s " , Man i n I n d i a X X X X V I I I , ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 124-132. " M o d e r n i s a t i o n and k i n n e t w o r k i n a d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y : I n d i a " , a paper r e a d a t w o r l d c o n g r e s s o f I.S.A., V a r n a : B u l g a r i a . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . D e l e u r y , G.A. The C u l t o f V i t h o b a . Poona: Poona U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. E n t h o v e n , R.E. The T r i b e s and C a s t e s o f Bombay. Bombay: Government C e n t r a l P r e s s , 1920-22. E p s t e i n , T.S. Economic development and s o c i a l change i n S o u t h I n d i a : Mysore. M a n c h e s t e r : M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. 102 F a r q u h a r , J.N. Modern R e l i g i o u s Movements i n I n d i a . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1915. F r a z e r , J.N., and Edwards, J . F . The L i f e and T e a c h i n g o f "Tukaram. Madras: C h r i s t i a n L i t e r a t u r e S o c i e t y , 1922. Fuche, Stephen. R e b e l l i o u s P r o p h e t s . New Y o r k : A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965. H a s t i n g s , James (ed.) E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s . V o l . I I , I X , X I I ( 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 539-551, 67-69, 466-469. H u n c h a l , S.M. The V i r a s a i v a S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h y . R a i c h u r : Amarvani P r i n t i n g P r e s s , 1957. J o s h i , P.N. S a r t h a Tukaram Gatha (Mara'thi) V o l . 1. Bombay: Bharafe Book Depot P u b l i c a t i o n , 1966. I s h w a r a n , K. T r a d i t i o n and Change i n an I n d i a n V i l l a g e . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1968. I y e r , A.K. The Mysore C a s t e s and T r i b e s . Mysore: Mysore U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931. V o l . I V , pp. 81-124. L a d , P.M. Tukaram's Abhanga Gatha ( i n M a r a t h i ) . Bombay: Government C e n t r a l P r e s s , 1955. M a h a d e v i , Mate. B a s a v a Tatwa Darshana (Kannada) Dharwar; I n d i a : R a v i n d r a P r e s s , 1967. Mahajan, V.D. M u s l i m R u l e i n I n d i a . D e l h i : S. Chand & Co., 1962. Menezes, A. & A n g a d i , S.M. ( T r a n s l a t o r s ) , Vacanas o f Basavanna, ( a s e l e c t i o n ) S i r i g e r i , I n d i a : Annana B a l a g a , 1965. McCormack, W. "The forms o f communication i n V i r a s a i v a r e l i g i o n " T r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a . S t r u c t u r e and Change, ed. S i n g e r , M. P h i l a d e l p h i a : The A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e S o c i e t y , 1959, pp. 119-129. 103 Nandimath, S.C. A Handbook of Virasaivism. Mangalore, India: Basel Mission Press, 1942, Nilakantha Sastri, L.A. "A note on Virasaivism - i t s history and doctrine". A l l India oriental conference. (ed. Ramanujacharya), 1 1955. S h i l l s , E., & Johnson, H.M. "Ideology: the concept and function of ideology". Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, Vol. II, pp. 66-85. Srinivas, M.N. Caste in Modern India and other essays. Bombay; Asia Publishing House, 1962. Theodore, A.S. "Thus spake Basava" (selected English renderings of Basava's Vacanas), Bangalore: Basava samiti, 1965. 104 APPENDIX I S e l e c t e d 'Poem S a y i n g s ' o f S e c t i o n I BASAVA " I f r i s i n g a t dawn and r u b b i n g my e y e s , I w o r r y far my b e l l y , f o r my goods, f o r w i f e and c h i l d r e n , t h e n my mind be w i t n e s s t o my mind! Then,, Basavanna r e a d s t h e t e x t w h i c h s a y s : He who s i t s , s l e e p s and w a l k s , and i n t e r d i n e s w i t h them s h a l l go f o r e n d l e s s t i m e t o t e r r i f i c h e l l ; But s i t t i n g below t h e t h r o n e o f w o r l d i n g l i k e B i j j a l a , s e r v e s him. So say t h e p i o n e e r s . To them I answer, " f o r I can i f g o i n g i n t o t h e l o w e s t P a r i a h ' s h ouse, I do the l o w e s t s e r v i c e w e l l . " My one c o n c e r n i s b u t Thy Maj e s t y ; . But i f I w o r r y f o r my b e l l y ' s s a k e , l e t my head pay f o r i t . 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d ! " (72, 188, S.M.A.) "Whenever You s t r i k e , t h e s t r o k e ' s i n t h e hand; Whenever You c u r s e , t h e c u r s e ' s i n t h e hand; L e t be what e v e r p a s t l i f e was: to d a y ' s enjoyment i s i n the hand! 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , t h e f r u i t o f y o u r w o r s h i p i s i n the hand! (29 , 100, A.M.) "You p u t an i r o n r i n g around a pumpkin, i t must r o t : w o u l d i t grow f r e s h ? Y o u t a k e a c r e a t u r e , mean o f mind, and g i v e him s i v a i n i t i a t i o n - w e l l does he t u r n h o l y ? — same as e v e r was. 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , i t would be l i k e s e t t i n g a wreatch a p a r t , t o be a d e d i c a t e d s o u l . " ( 8 1 , 306, S.M.A.) Basava and Tukaram TUKARAM "He has no for m n o r any name, n o r p l a c e o f abode. But w h e r e v e r y o u go t h e r e He i s , V i t h t h l a , o u r mother and s i s t e r . He has n e i t h e r f o r m n o r t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n , He f i l l s a l l t h i n g s t h a t move o r n o t . He i s n e i t h e r N i r g u n a , n o r Saguna, who can know Him? Tuka s a y s : He w i l l n e v e r t u r n towards t h o s e who have no f a i t h i n t h e i r h e a r t . " ( 3 , 2935, I.E.) "L e t us t o u c h r e s p e c t f u l l y t h e d u s t o f t h e i r f e e t and e a t l e f t o u t s . That w i l l b u r n o u r p r e v i o u s Karmas and w i l l f c h e l p us c o l l e c t u n l i m i t e d c a p i t a l ; Even V i t h t h l a i s p e n n i -l e s s . A l l w i l l be b e n e f i t e d by m e d i t a t i n g and by l i s t e n i n g t h e s t o r i e s o f Go v i n d a . We w i l l g e t r i d o f c y c l e s of b i r t h and r e b i r t h . T h i s w i l l be the most easy and a v a i l a b l e s e c t t o a l l . Some have gone ahead s e a r c h i n g t h i s way, l e t us f o l l o w them. Tuka s a y s : L e t us c r a c k o u r e a r t h l y l i f e and go t o our mother's home." (18, 38, I.E.) "A man who has s a c r i f i c e d e v e r y t h i n g i s a l w a y s p u r e . He is l i k e a f i r e t o whom p o l l u t i o n cannot t o u c h . Tuka s a y s : A man who propounds t r u t h and i s d e t a c h e d f r o m w o r l d l y t h i n g s i s l i k e a l o t u s f r o m t h e w a t e r . " (29 , 1025, I.E.) 105 BASAVA "Worship an idol made of dung, with a champaka flower: For a l l the show the stink remains. You wash and wash a dol l of clay, day after day i t turns to mud: i t s nature remains. You give i n i t i a t i o n to a man of worldly mind: how can devotion '1 > grow in an e v i l man, 0 Lord Kudala Sangama?" (82, 306, S.M.A.) Section II "Of what avail the vast reading? What boots too much learning? What an intensive study of four Vedas? Unless the deed obeys the word Kudal Sanga loves riot. I c a l l not the apostles of Veda and Sastras great, nor those who are shrouded in errors of i l l u s i o n . " (74, 198, S.M.A.) "Vyasa is a fisherwoman's son, Markandeya, of an outcaste born, Mandodari, the daughter of a frog. 0, look not for caste: in caste, what were in the past? Indeed, Agastya was a fowler, Durvasa, a maker of shoes, Kashyapa, a black-smith; The sage Kaundanya by name, was, as the three worlds know, a barber....Mark Ye a l l , the words of our Kudala Sangama run. What masters one is lowly born? Only a Sivabhakta is well-born!" (43, 131, A.M.) "Devotion severed from Experience escapes our reach; Linga unrealised in experience, escapes the joy of consustantial union; Praslda with-out Experience confers no peace; ay nothing can be known without experience. So could you say what TUKARAM "Do not give up food; do not betake yourself to a forest dwel-ling; in a l l sufferings and enjoyments think of Narayana. A child s i t t i n g on the shoulders of i t s mother feels no trouble. Put an end to a l l thoughts different from this. Do not get entangled in worldly enjoy-ments nor abandon them; dedicate everything you do to God, and have done with i t ; Tuka says: Do not ask me again and again; nothing else i s to be taught but this." (12, 97, BHAN. V. & S.) "I don't agree with many opinions. People may have different opinions, discussing with them, I don't want to waste my time. That is the root cause of being a laughing stock of oneself. Tuka says: those who want to have 'Ghata and Pata' debate, Please don't come in my way." (16, 28, I.E.) "They participate In a l l debates by cramming or learning some words. They can't distinguish between the experiences. These learned ones while t e l l i n g stories do not enjoy them. But they do i t just to earn some money. Tuka says: they just give witness for corruption. They really don't know the meaning." (55, 293, I.E.) "Thy greatness none can comprehend; a l l dumb the Vedas are. For spent the powers of mortal mind; they cannot climb so far. How can I compass Him whose light illumes both sun and stars?" (63, 67. N.M.) BASAVA need has one o f ' s i v a s a r a n a ' i f one has lodgement i n o n e s e l f ? 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , c o u l d i t be s a i d t h a t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e i s no more t h a n word c l a s h i n g w i t h w o r d , 0 P r a b h u ? " ( 7 8 , 270, S.M.A.) "They t o i l i n v a i n , who t o i l n o t w i t h a i m , f o r t h e end r e w a r d t h n ought. Tho' t h e y g i v e away, t h e i r s u b s t a n c e i n a l m s , t h e end a v a i l t h n o u ght. V a i n i s y o u r l a b o u r and y o u r g i v i n g g a i n l e s s , w i t h o u t t h e i n d w e l l i n g o f my L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." ( 5 0 , 44, A.S.T.) i — They say t h a t S i v a i s f o n d o f n a d a , b u t He i s n o t . They say t h a t S i v a i s f o n d o f t h e Veda, b u t He i s n o t . Ravana, who was t h e a u t h o r o f na d a , l o s t h a l f h i s l i f e . Gone was t h e head o f Brahma, who r e a d t h e Veda.... Our L o r d K u d a l Sangama, l o v e s n e i t h e r S ada n o r Veda: I t ' s B h a k t i He l o v e s ! " ( 1 5 , 68, A.M.) " B e h o l d , my b r o t h e r s , how f e a r f u l i s t h e p a t h t h e a n c i e n t s t r o d ! B e h o l d , my b r o t h e r s , how f e a r f u l i s when He made made s p o r t w i t h B a l l a l ' s w i f e ! B e h o l d , my b r o t h e r s , how f e a r f u l i s when He made demand o f S i r i y a l a ' s son I B e h o l d , my b r o t h e r s , how f e a r f u l i s the p a t h t h e K u d a l Sanga's Sarana's t r o d - t h e y who make The i m p o s s i b l e p o s s i b l e , whose ways a r e s t r a n g e and w o n d e r f u l ! " ( 1 3 , 55, A.M.) " B r o t h e r s , y ou s t r u t upon an e l e p h a n t o r p r e a n y o u r s e l f upon a h o r s e , o r f l a u n t i n s a f f r o n . a n d i n musk: And y e t a l a s . As y o u go a r o u n d , y o u a r e i g n o r a n t o f t h e T r u t h . You have f o r g o t t e n t o sow and grow t h e f r u i t o f v i r t u e ! 107 BASAVA TUKARAM Mounted upon t h e c r a z y e l e p h a n t o f y o u r g i g a n t i c p r i d e , y o u a r e r i d i n g s t r a i g h t i n t o t h e s n a r e o f Doom! Not knowing o ur l o r d , K u d a l a Sangama, y ou o n l y q u a l i f y f o r h e l l ! " ( 4 5 , 139, A.M.) " S e e i n g a snake o f s t o n e , they s a y : 'Pour m i l k , Do!' S e e i n g a r e a l s n a k e , t h e y s a y : ' K i l l i t ! ' I f ailJangama who can e a t a r r i v e s , t h e y s a y : 'Away!' And s e r v e t h e i r d a i n t i e s t o a L i n g a t h a t cannot e a t ! I f y o u make l i t t l e o f our K u d a l Sanga's S a r a n a s , You s h a l l be a lump o f e a r t h , d a s h i n g a g a i n s t a s t o n e . " (1 7 , 71, A.M.) "One h a t e s t o o s e e t h e f a c e and h e a r th e words o f t h o s e who say th e y keep roods o f l a n d , a w a s t i n g d a i r y f a r e , an e v e r b u r n i n g lamp. Say, who has g i v e n a d e s t i n y , t o c r e a t u r e s b o r n of egg, o f sweat, o f womb and seed. He who r e p e a t s : ' T h i s i s come t h r o u g h me, t h i s i s gone t h r o u g h me' — as i f b r e a k i n g a cake t o s e r v e h i s l o r d -L o r d K u d a l a Sangama must s u r e c a s t d u s t i n t o h i s mouth as He stamps h i s f o o t t II ( 2 0 , 78, A.M.) S e c t i o n I I I "How s h a l l I , S i r , compare Him t o "Here i s no j a k h a i o r J o t i h i , t h e w a x f i l l e d gods t h a t m e l t and no M a y a r a n i o r M e s a b a i . s h r i n k a t t h e s i g h t -of f i r e ? P o w e r f u l i s my k i n g o f P a n d h a r i , How s h a l l I , S i r , c o m p a r e Him t o t h e God o f a l l gods. t h e gods y o u s e l l i n an emergency? R a n d i , C a n d i , S a k t i , who dev o u r How s h a l l I , S i r , compare Him t o t h e f l e s h and d r i n k a l c o h o l . gods y o u b u r y i n the ground when B a h i r a o , K h a n d i r a o , who a r e gods f e a r a s s a u l t s ? o n l y f o r t h e sak e o f b r e a d and L o r d K u d a l a Sangama, who i s one meat. w i t h t h e S e l f - r a p t R e a l i t y ? A l o n e The monstrous Ganoba, greedy f o r i s God!" Ladus and s w e e t s . (75 , 201, S.M.A.) Munjya and M h a i s a s u r a , who c o u l d 108 BASAVA TUKARAM " A l l t h o s e who make t h e i r home i n t h e s o l i t a r y h i l l s , on t h e hamlet r o a d s , i n t h e t a n k s and w e l l s , i n t h e f l o w e r i n g s h r u b s and t r e e s , a t t h e h e a r t o f v i l l a g e s , w h e r e v e r f o u r roads meet, i n a n c i e n t b a n y a n - t r e e s : p o s s e s s i n g m i l c h b u f f a l o e s b a b i e s o r p r e g n a n t w i v e s , o r mothers b r o u g h t t o "The s e r p e n t of a t h o u s a n d tongues b e d , maidens and l a d s o r l i v i n g o f f cannot t e l l a l l Thy p r a i s e ; esteem t h e s e g l u t t o n s ? V e t a l a and P h e t a l a , L e t t h e i r d a r k f a c e be b u r n e d . Tuka s a y s : R e s t y o u r mind on the Husband o f Rukamani." ( 5 , 627, O.A.) t h e i r p r e y , o r b e g g i n g f o r t h e i r f o o d t h o s e who a r e c a l l e d M a r a y y a , B i r r a y y a , S y l p h , G o b l i n o r g h o u l , K a l a y y a , M a l a y y a , D u l a y y a , K e t a y y a ; A l l t h e s e one hundred p o t s , i t i s j u s t enough t o s h a t t e r a t one s t r o k e , s a y i n g , ' I bow t o Thee, 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d ! ' 1 " ( 4 1 , 129, A.M.) " I was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e g r e a t e s t t h a t t h e r e i s , i n t h e grand A b s o l u t e , s u b l i m e l y g r e a t . How can I t e l l t h e way t h e word t h a t I am w i t h i n the L o f t y l i g h t o f L o r d K u d a l a Sangama was t u r n e d t o s i l e n t n e s s ! Look a t t h e b e i n g t h a t remains when a l l t h e murky d a r k n e s s i s d i s p e l l e d ! W h i l e l i g h t on l i g h t has been e n t h r o n e d , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama a l o n e knows th e u n i o n t h a t ensues when l i g h t h e a r t s o f t h e s a i n t s , i s wedded unto L i g h t ! " V i t h t h a l a i s t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f ( 7 1 , 91, S.M.A.) o u f ' l i f e , V i t h t h a l a became t o g i v e us H i s G r a c e . "Of no a v a i l t h y r e a d i n g o f God i s o n e v i t h t h a l a assumed a f o r m f o r our l o v e , o r two i n b e i n g , u n l e s s t h y h e a r t t o V i t h t h a l a p u t s t h e w o r l d i n m o t i o n . Then how, p o o r I ? Thy c h i l d r e n we, M o t h er o f l o v i n g ways! w i t h i n t h e shadow o f Thy g r a c e , Ah, h i d e me, Tuka s a y s . " ( 6 4 , 68, N.M.) " V i t h t h a l a i s our l i f e , and t h e p l a c e where t h e s c r i p t u r e s d w e l l I n V i t h t h a l a a l l s p i r i t u a l powers a r e , on V i t h t h a l a o u r m e d i t a t i o n r e s t s . V i t h t h a l a i s my f a m i l y God, V i t h t h a l a i s my f o r t u n e , my c a s t e and my mind. V i t h t h a l a i s my m e r i t and my g o a l , I l o v e t h e s p l e n d o u r o f V i f h f h a l a . V i t h t h a l a p e r v a d e s a l l b e i n g s , He f i l l s t h e seven s u b t e r r a n e a n x ^ o r l d s . V i t h t h a l a i s s p r e a d o v e r t h e t h r e e w o r l d s , V i t h t h a l a d w e l l s i n t h e Saranas moves as t o wax t o f i r e i n m e l t i n g p r o v e s . Nought w i l t t h o u r e c e i v e , u n l e s s t h o u b e l i e v e t h e L i n g a and Jangama a r e one and n e v e r t w a i n , empty a r e t h y w o r d s , i f t h e y weave e'en a g a r l a n d o f p r a i s e , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama!" (54, 80, A.S.T.) "What y o u c a l l w o r l d o f gods, what you c a l l m o r t a l w o r l d , A r e t h e y some o t h e r p l a c e ? Why, i n t h i s v e r y w o r l d , a r e i n f i n i t e w o r l d s b e s i d e s ! Tuka s a y s : V i t h t h a l a i s o u r f a t h e r , mother, and u n c l e , V i t h t h a l a i s our b r o t h e r and s i s t e r , we have no a f f e c t i o n f o r o u r f a m i l y a p a r t f r o m Him, now t h e r e i s no one e l s e . " ( 4 , 2541, O.A.) "Wherever I l o o k , t h e r e I see God. G i v e me s u c h f a i t h as t h i s . One whose God i s o f a s t o n e w i l l r e a p f r u i t s l i k e h i s f a i t h ; P r e s e r v e y o u r f a i t h ; y o u w i l l p r o v e t h e sweetness o f i t , though h i n d r a n c e s a r i s e t o p a r t you f r o m i t ; God i s s e c u r e d by f a i t h ! " ( 3 1 , 2598, F.M.) 109 BASAVA Where g o d l i k e w o r k s a r e done, t h e r e i s t h e s i v a - w o r l d ; The p l a c e where a b h a k t a i s t h a t i s t h e w o r l d o f gods; The b h a k t a ' s c o u r t y a r d i s V a r a n a s i ; T h i s i s a f a c t , 0 L o r d K u d a l a Sangama!" ( 1 1 , 35, A.M.) " L o r d , when t h e supreme l i g h t o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t ' s s e a t e d i n Thy h e a r t was j o i n e d i n me, By t h e c o n t a c t o f t h e hand and head, B e h o l d ! you k i n d l e d a g r e a t l i g h t , L o r d by b r i n g i n g t h e g r e a t l i g h t , w h i c h was u n i t e d w i t h my hand; B e h o l d ! y o u p l a c e d i t i n my w i l l ; L o r d , b r i n g i n g t h e l i g h t u n i t e d w i t h my w i l l , You p l a c e d i t i n my mind; L o r d , b r i n g i n g t h e g r e a t l i g h t u n i t e d w i t h my mind, you p l a c e d i t i n my eyes!,. L o r d , b r i n g i n g t h e g r e a t l i g h t u n i t e d w i t h my e y e s , you p l a c e d i t i n my palms! L o r d , when t h e i n t e -g r a l l i g h t t h a t glows and s h i n e s d a z z l i n g w i t h i n my palm, made mani-f e s t t h e v i s i o n o f I s t a l i n g a , you made a s s u r a n c e i n my e a r s ! L o r d , d w e l l i n g i n t h e s p e l l made i n my e a r , you h i d t h e magnitude. L o r d , t h i s way d i d y o u make me see y o u r b e i n g i n m y s e l f , 0 K u d a l a Sangama, My V e n e r a b l e L o r d ! " ( 7 6 , 204, S.M.A.) S e c t i o n IV "There i s one e a r t h t o h o l d , God's te m p l e and t h e P a r i a h ' s c o l o n y ; One w a t e r f o r t h e c l o s e t and t h e b a t h ; one s e c t f o r t h o s e who know themselves; One meed f o r t h o s e who a r e r e l e a s e d by TUKARAM "F o r God i n c a r n a t i o n , and f o r a d e v o t e e t h e l i f e on t h i s e a r t h a r e meant f o r one p u r p o s e o n l y . A l l t h e enjoyments o f a d e v o t e e a r e from t h e 'image' o f God. God i s e n j o y i n g h a p p i n e s s w i t h them. Devotees have g i v e n a form and an image t o God. Tuka s a y s : A d e v o t e e i s God and a God i s d e v o t e e . There i s no d i s t i n c t i o n . " ( 4 1 , 1038, I.E.) " I saw my d e a t h w i t h my own e y e s . I n c o m p a r a b l y g l o r i o u s was t h e o c c a -s i o n . The whole u n i v e r s e was f i l l e d w i t h j o y . I became e v e r y t h i n g and e n j o y e d e v e r y t h i n g . I had h i t h e r t o c l u n g t o one p l a c e , b e i n g p e n t up i n egoism ( i n t h i s body).By my d e l i v r a n c e from i t , I am e n j o y i n g a h a r v e s t o f b l i s s . Death and b i r t h a r e now no more. I am f r e e from t h e l i t t l e n e s s o f ''Me' and 'Mine'. Tuka s a y s : God has g i v e n me a p l a c e t o l i v e and I am p r o c l a i m i n g Him t o t h e w h o l e w o r l d . " ( 2 , 2669, I.E.) " I f N a r a y a n a i s n o t p o w e r f u l , do you t h i n k 'Puranas' w i l l s i n g l o u d l y o f H i s v a l o u r ? W i t h o u t H i s fame I am n o t drumming f o r H i s 'Name'....Though He i s so g r e a t He has no p r i d e . God has n e i t h e r j:ealousy n o r n arrowmindedness, so Tuka s a y s : Be i n H i s s e r v i c e . " ( 4 3 , 1035, I.E.) "One s h o u l d n o t d e b a t e on t h e d i f f e r -ences between ' H a r i ' and 'Hara'. They a r e v e r y c l o s e as i f i n each o t h e r ' s h e a r t . O nly t h e l a s t l e t t e r o f t h e words d i f f e r . B o t h a r e l i k e r i g h t l e f t s i d e s o f t h e one and same body." (2 6 , 124, I.E.) "A man who u t t e r s t h e name o f 'Rama' a t e v e r y m o u t h f u l , he a l o n e has t a k e n f u l l f o o d , though he may be f a s t i n g . Such a body i s b l e s s e d , and g r e a t and i t i s a permanent home of a l l 110 BASAVA TUKARAM means o f t h e s i x - f o l d m y s t i c way; One h e i g h t f o r t h o s e who know Thee, L o r d K u d a l a Sangama. ^ 1 4 6 ^ A M j " I s t h e r e h a r s h n e s s i n L i n g a ? I s t h e r e a c a s t e i n Jangama? My b r o t h e r , y o u who gaze i n t o t h e m i r r o r , l o o k a t t h e Jangama, f o r i n him L i n g a d w e l l s . K u d a l a Sangama's words s a y , The immovable and t h e movable a r e 0 n e • " ( 6 9 , 85, S.M.A.) When t a n k s and streams and w e l l s t h e m s e l v e s b a r e , you see p e b b l e s and weeds and o y s t e r s h e l l s ; But when ocean-bed l i e s b a r e , i t i s gems y o u s e e . When K u d a l a Sangama's Saranas l a y b a r e t h e i r h e a r t s and s p e a k , i t i s Linga® you see . J g ^ 3 2 1 > S > M # A > ) " I s h a l l t i l l t h e l a n d t o s e r v e t h e Guru. I s h a l l p u r s u e t h e t r a d e t o s e r v e t h e L i n g a . I s h a l l s e r v e o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o s e r v e Jangama. I know t h a t w h a t e v e r I work, i t i s You who reward t h e work. 0 L o r d K u d a l a Sangama, I s h a l l a l w a y s s t r i v e t h r o u g h my work, t o repay t h e w e a l t h t h a t you have bestowed on me!" ( 6 0 , 77, K.C.) "The l o t u s l e n d s t h e w a t e r g r a c e , and b e l l o w s t o t h e s e a ; A woman's v i r t u e i s h e r g r a c e , t h e s k y ' s t h e moon; The ashmark on t h e brow, l e n d s g r a c e t o a P a r a n a o f our L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." ( 4 > 3 Q ^ A K ) "Upon the s o i l o f P i e t y s p r o u t e d t h e s e e d , and L i n g a , t h e l e a f was b o r n ; t h e n Thought came from t h e f l o w e r , and deed f o r t e n d e r f r u i t , and knowledge f o r t h e r i p e d one; And when t h e f r u i t o f knowledge b r o k e l o o s e from t h e s t a l k and f a l l , Look, K u d a l a Sangama, wanting i t , . H i m s e l f , g a t h e r e d i t up." ( 4 0 , 127, A.M.) p i l g r i m a g e s and vows. Those who u t t e r Rama w h i l e d o i n g t h e i r work, contentment i s a l w a y s f o r him, I f one s a y s Rama w h i l e w a l k i n g t h e r o a d , i t ' s l i k e p e r f o r -ming s a c r i f i c e a t e v e r y s t e p . I f he s a y s Rama w h i l e e n j o y i n g o r s a c r i f i c i n g , t h e Karma does n o t t o u c h him. Tuka s a y s : I f one u t t e r s Rama a l w a y s , he g e t s l i b e r a t e d . " ( 3 0 , 1096, I.E.) "Hold H i s name, f o r whom f o u r Vedas were made. There i s no need o f any o t h e r means, why a r e you u n n e c e s s a r i l y p u t t i n g t o t r o u b l e ? Even e i g h t e e n P u r a n a s do n o t have s t o r i e s , e x c e p t H i s name. T h i s Mother who i s s t a n d i n g on t h e b r i c k has a d v i s e d G i t a . Tuka s a y s : A man who u t t e r s t h e name of H a r i has h o l d o v e r a l l means." (36, 2456, I.E.) "My s e x u a l d e s i r e c o u l d n o t be c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f i e d , so I am c o m m i t t i n g a d u l t e r y . I want (Him) w i t h me a l l t h e t i m e . Even a moment w i t h o u t (Him) makes me uneasy. My t a l k , my c ompanionship i s a l l w i t h my I n f i n i t e . " ( 1 5 , 8, I.E.) " A l l V a i s n a v a s a r e p l a y i n g w i t h ' T a i and T i p a r i a t P a n d h r i Such a h a p p i n e s s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e even i n t h e t h r e e w o r l d s There a r e d e b a t e s o f j o y and c o n v e r s a -t i o n s o f h a p p i n e s s . They a r e d a n c i n g and s i n g i n g l o u d l y t h e name o f V i t h o b a . A l l gods and p i l g r i m a g e s a r e t h e r e . E v e r y b o d y i s l o o k i n g w i t h wonder t h e whole A m a r a v a t i i s empty. P e o p l e t a l k g r e a t o f heaven, b u t i t i s n o t l i k e P a n d h a r i . Tuka s a y s : You a l l men and women, don t be l a z y . .^5 1 E ) "We h o l d K r i s h n a as a diamond around o u r n e c k , and t h u s e n l i g h t e n a l l t h e f o l l o w e r s . L e t us d i s t r i b u t e K r i s h n a ' s f o o d amongst us and l e t u s , V a i s n a v i t e s have no d o u b t s . L e t us bow t o a l l t h e gods and show t h e b e s t o f a l l . ( 4 9 , 179, I.E.) I l l BASAVA TUKARAM "0 B a s a v a , come t e l l me" q u e r i e d I my-s e l f . A r e t h e r e t r u e d e v o t e e s on e a r t h ? "No, none, none i s t h e r e " m y s e l f r e p l i e d . " I , t h e o n l y one, i n t h a t c a t e g o r y who s t i l l r e m a i n s . " "And a l l o t h e r s have made t h e Jangama o r L i n g a grade o r one w i t h L o r d Sangamesh h a i l e d . " ( 5 9 , 107, A.S.T.) "To keep t h e H o l y o r d e r p u r e , t h i s e v e r i s my p u r p o s e s u r e . The V e d i c s t a t u e s I p r o c l a i m ; t o i m i t a t e t h e s a i n t s my aim. F o r no f i r m r e s o l v e w i t h i n , t o q u i t t h e w o r l d i s w o r l d l y s i n . V i l e he who does s o , Tuka s a y s : E v i l t h e w o r s h i p t h a t he p a y s . " ( 6 5 , 85, N.M.) S e c t i o n V " S t r o n g i s t h e e l e p h a n t : b u t c o u l d y o u say l e s s s t r o n g t h e goad? Nay, nay, n o t s o ! S t r o n g i s t h e m o u n t a i n : b u t c o u l d you say t h e t h u n d e r b o l t l e s s s t r o n g ? Nay, nay, n o t s o ! S t r o n g i s t h e d a r k n e s s : b u t c o u l d you s a y l e s s s t r o n g the L i g h t ? Nay, nay, n o t s o ! O b l i v i o n ' s s t r o n g ; b u t c o u l d say y o u r l o v e l e s s s t r o n g ? Nay, nay, n o t s o , 0 K u d a l a Sangama!" ( 2 , 2, A.M.) " S h o u l d I say t h a t t h e s e a i s g r e a t ? The e a r t h h o l d s i t . S h o u l d I say t h a t t h e e a r t h i s g r e a t ? The j e w e l i n t h e Shake-god's hood h o l d s t h a t ! S h o u l d I say t h a t t h e Snake-god's g r e a t ? He i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e s i g n e t r i n g on t h e s m a l l f i n g e r o f P a r v a t i ! I s t h e n P a r v a t i g r e a t ? She i s P aramesvara's b e t t e r h a l f ! I s t h i s P a r a m e s v a r a g r e a t , then? He's c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p o i n t o f p o i n t s o f our K u d a l a Sanga's Saranas' m i n d s ! " (4 6 , 145, A.M.) " L i k e p o u r i n g o f b l o o d , y o u r o b l a t i o n s h a l l b e , i f t h y mind w r a t h -f u l be -Same as a f l o w e r a s i n n e r s h a l l o f f e r , o r i i k e p r o b e d wound be. None f i n d I on l e v e l i n l o v e , w i t h Madara Chennayya; None a p e e r f o r b o u n d l e s s l o v e t o Dohara K a k k a y y a , Save M a d i v a l Machayya whose l o v e w i t h "They ( s a i n t s ) wear out t h e i r b o d i e s i n s e r v i n g o t h e r s ; F o r e b e a r i n g l o v e i s i n t h e hap-p i n e s s o f o t h e r s . " ( 5 9 , 2375, F.M.) "My f r i e n d s a r e a l l good p e o p l e , i n n o c e n t and l o v i n g f o l l o w e r s o f H a r i . They dance, c l a p and w i t h l o v e s a l u t e God by p u t t i n g them-s e l v e s on t h e ground. They a r e n e i t h e r ashamed o f anyone, n o r c a r e f o r anyone. Tuka s a y s : When I see them, my t h r o a t chokes and eyes f i l l w i t h t e a r s w i t h s h e e r j o y ! " (53,787, I.E.) "God, You s t a n d f o r ' r e l i g i o n ' ! B l e s s i n g and s i n s a r e i n Y o u r hand. The Generous One, redeem me o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t p a s t deeds. When You a c c e p t me, I don't have a n y t h i n g t o c a r r y . Tuka s a y s : N a r a y a n a , you a r e t h e l i f e o f a l l l i v e s ' . " ( 2 0 , 43, I.E.) "How s i n f u l my body was, 0 God. But by m e d i t a t i o n , by s e l f - i n -c e p t i o n and r e p e n t a n t p r a y e r , my s i n i s c l e a n s e d and now my mind i s f u l l o f l o v e . " ( 5 8 , 2064, F.M.) " I w i l l be p u r e by t h e s i g h t o f t h i s k i n d image by u t t e r i n g H i s name. My knowledge i s i n c o m p l e t e and I have no b l e s s i n g i n s t o r e . I w i l l embrace Y o u r f e e t and see You by my e y e s . 112 BASAVA them i n measure meet and e ' e v e r ready f o r i m m o l a t i o n f o r p r o o f , i f need be , o f h i s s o l e d e d i c a t i o n t o L o r d K u d a l a Sangama!" ( 5 3 , 65, A.S.T.) "Yours a r e my w e a l and woe; my l o s s and g a i n a r e Y o u r s ; Y o u r s t o o my honour and shame, 0 L o r d K u d a l a Sangama. How can t h e c r e e p e r f e e l t h e w e i g h t o f i t s own f r u i t ? " ( 6 3 , 73, S.M.A.) "The C a k o r a w a i t s i n t e n t , t h e moon-l i g h t ' s s i l v e r dawn; The l o t u s ' h e a r t i s b e n t , upon t h e s p l e n d i d morn; The b e e ' s , on t h e f l o w e r ' s s c e n t , Even t h u s , f o r Thee, even t h u s my h e a r t i s t r e m u l o u s , 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d ! " ( 3 1 , 106, A.M.) "Make me, 0 F a t h e r , a c r i p l e d man, who w i l l n o t wander h e r e and t h e r e . Make me, 0 F a t h e r , a s i g h t l e s s man whose g l a n c e w i l l n o t r o v e a s t r a y . Make me, 0 F a t h e r , h a r d t o h e a r , l e s s I s h o u l d h e a r o f aught b u t Thee. 0 L o r d K u d a l a Sangama, keep me f r o m a l l e n t i c e m e n t s f r e e , b u t what w i l l draw t o Thy S arana's f e e t ! " ( 3 , 7, A.M.) "My f a t h e r Thou, my mother t o o ; Thou a l s o a l l my k i n and k i t h . . . save Thou, no k i n d r e d i s t o me: 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , do w i t h me as Thou p l e a s e . " ( 3 5 , 118, A.M.) "One s t i l l can s t a n d where b u r n t t h e h e a r t h " But c o u l d one s t a n d where b u r n t t h e e a r t h ? When the bank, t h i r s t y , d r i n k s t h e s t r e a m s , and t h e f e n c e t u r n s t o g r a z e , t h e w i f e a t home t o t h i e v i s h ways, and TUKARAM 1 w i l l embrace Y o u r f e e t and see You by my e y e s . I w i l l s i n g t h e songs w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e vrlse ones, and c a r r y on, my r e s t o f my l i f e w i t h Y o u r t h o u g h t . T u k I s a y s : I w i l l keep y o u r name Na r a y a n a , i n my h e a r t a l l t h e t i m e . " ( 5 6 , 1649, I.E.) "As t h e f i s h i s r e s t l e s s f o r l i f e , t h a t ' s how i s my l i f e . A c h i l d i s s u f f e r i n g from t h e s e p a r a -t i o n from h i s mother, You,:<sknow t h a t s u f f e r i n g , God. I n how many ways, s h o u l d I t e l l You? I am b e i n g b u r n t f r o m w i t h i n - i w i t h t h i s w o r r y I don't know, why You have f o r g o t t e n me? T u k I s a y s : You know a l l t h i s . P l e a s e be b l i s s f u l a t l e a s t now." ( 4 2 , 1031, I.E.) " I l o n g t o see Thy f a c e , But a h , i n me h a t h h o l i n e s s no p l a c e . By Thy s t r e n g t h s u c c o r me, so o n l y , o n l y I Thy f e e t may s e e . Though Sadhu's r o b e s I've worn, w i t h i n I am a l l unshaven and u n s h o r n . L o s t , l o s t , 0 God, am I , u n l e s s Thou h e l p me, Tuka, me who c r y ! " ( 6 2 , 88, N.M.) "The e n d l e s s i s beyond, and between Him and me t h e r e a r e t h e l o f t y m ountains o f d e s i r e and a nger. I am n o t a b l e t o a s c e n t them, n o r do I f i n d any p a s s . I n s u r m o u n t a b l e i s t h e a s c e n t o f my enemies. What p o s -s i b i l i t y i s t h e r e o f my a t t a i n i n g N a r a y a n a , my f r i e n d ? Panduranga i s l o s t t o me; s a y s Tuka: I t i s now p l a i n t h a t t h i s v a l u a b l e l i f e o f mine has gone f o r n o t h i n g . " ( 9 , 4421, I.E.) 113 BASAVA TUKARAM mother's milk to poisonous cream -and a l l seems part of crazy dream - i to whom should I complain, 0 Lord?" (28, 99, A.M.) "I've bathed in turmeric, and decked myself in gold; But I am like a woman lost to the love of her Lord! I've smeared the sacred ash and put on Rudrakshi, yet I am without Your love, 0 Siva,my Lord! There is none in my clan, who sur-vives having fallen. Pray save me, 0 Kudala Sangama Lord, as You love me." (67, 80, S.M.A.) "My legs t i r e not with dancing, my eyes t i r e not with gazing My tongue tires not with singing: What else, what else? My heart tires not with worshipping Thee with f u l l hands What else, what else? Hark unto me, Kudala Sangama Lord, What I'd love most do, is burst Thy belly and enter i t . " (37, 121, A.M.) "Look you, the Sarana's sleep is t e l l i n g of beads; It's &ivaratri, when he wakes and s i t s ; Wherever he treades is holy ground; and Siva-doctrine whatever he speakes; The body of Kudala Sanga's Sarana is very heaven!" (77, 243, S.M.A.) "They be my patrons, who strike me. They that revile me, I regard my own. They be my parents, who-rebuke me. They, my masters a l l who despite-f ully use me; And they my brethren, a l l who mock and deride me. And they that fla t t e r with fulsome praise, be they that impale me on a golden stake-Lord Kudala Sangama." (58, 99, A.S.T.) 114 S e c t i o n V I BASAVA " R a t h e r t h a n be t h e g o l d e n p o t , a crow w i l l s o i l , make me 0 L o r d , t h e l e a t h e r shoes my m a s t e r w e a r s . Make me,fO L o r d , t h e l e a t h e r n shoes f o r Thy Sarana's f e e t . Some r e s t on w o r k s ; on knowledge some; we r e s t on S i v a P i e t y . 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , I s p r e a d my ma n t l e t o b e s e e c h , 0, b l e s s me w i t h t h i s s i n g l e g i f t : t o r e s t on l e a t h e r n s h o e s . " ( 3 0 , 105, A.M.) " I f , s e e i n g S*ivabhakta j u s t i n f r o n t , y o u bow t o Him w i t h open eyes i- t h e s i n s o f seven b i r t h s w i l l be i n f l i g h t . I f , p r o s t r a t e b e f o r e Him, y o u t o u c h H i s f e e t , i t i s as i f y o u r body was o f f e r e d a l l t o Him, as i f t r a n s m u l a t e d by t h e a l m e c h i c s t o n e . The f e l l o w s h i p o f Saranas o f K u d a l a Sangama, t h e Maker o f t h i s w o r l d , w i l l n e v e r l e t you wear t h e g a r l a n d s o f r e b i r t h a g a i n . " ( 1 2 , 54, A.M.) " L i k e t h e a f f e c t i o n o f a w i f e , who does n o t g i v e h i s f o o d , t o h e r l o r d coming, hungry home and y e t laments he i s l o o s i n g w e i g h t h i s coming home i s nought t o h e r , she does n o t s e r v e h i m what t h e r e i s . I t i s l i k e an a c t o r ' s g r i e f l e s s g r i e f , 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d . " ( 1 9 , 76, A.M.) " C l i n g t o t h e r o b e o f s a i n t s . L e t me keep t h e company o f s a i n t s i n any g u i s e ; L e t me l i e a t t h e i r door l i k e a dog. I t ' s a b l e s s e d s e a s o n when you have met the s a i n t s and embraced t h e i r f e e t , t h e k n o t o f doubt u n r a v e l l e d ; t h e r e i s calm w i t h i n t h e h e a r t . ( 6 0 , 930, F. & M.) TUKARAM " I head n o t a s c e t i c s and p r e a c h e r s of H a r i , t h e i r v i e w s a r e many and d i v e r s e ; I may s a l u t e them out o f c o u r t e s y , s a y s T u k a , b u t what I d e l i g h t i n i s p u r i t y o f h e a r t . " ( 6 1 , 2632, F. & M.) " B l e s s e d a r e t h e p i o u s , f o r t h e i r h e a r t i s p u r e ; t h e s a i n t s w o r s h i p t h e v i s i b l e God, th e y t e s t i f y t h a t t h e y have f a i t h t h e r e i n . They know n o t h i n g o f r u l e s and p r o h i b i t i o n s ; t h e i r h e a r t s a r e f i l l e d w i t h d e v o t e d l o v e . " ( 5 7 , 894, F. & M.) " I f one's l i f e i s n o t c l e a n , what can soap do? I f one's mind i s n o t c l e a n , what can a d v i c e do? I f a t r e e c a n ' t b e a r f r u i t s and f l o w e r s , what can s p r i n g do? I f a b a r r e n woman c a n ' t g et c h i l d r e n , what can a husband do? I f a man i s impo-t e n t , what can a w i f e do? When l i f e has l e f t t h e body, what can knowledge do? Tuka s a y s : U n l e s s you s o w , n o t h i n g can grow." ( 5 2 , 765, I.E.) " F o r t u n a t e , i n d e e d , a r e t h o s e p e r s o n s i n whose heart d w e l l s for-r g i v e n e s s and t o whom, when t h e r e i s o c c a s i o n , c ourage and s t r e n g t h do n o t f a i l ; who do n o t c r i t i c i s e o t h e r p e o p l e by c a l l i n g them good o r bad and who t h i n k n o t h i n g o f w o r d l y g r e a t n e s s o r s u p e r i o r i t y ; who i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y a r e a l i k e p u r e l i k e Ganga and whose h e a r t i s t e n d e r ; Tuka s a y s : I w i l l wave my body round them and p l a c e my head on t h e i r f e e t . " ( 1 1 , 97, BHAND. V. & S.) 115 BASAVA " I f y o u s h o u l d speak, y o u r words s h o u l d be p e a r l s t h a t a r e s t r u n g upon a t h r e a d . I f y o u s h o u l d s peak, y o u r words s h o u l d be l i k e l u s t e r by t h e ruby shed. I f y ou s h o u l d speak, y o u r words s h o u l d be a c r y s t a l ' s f l a s h t h a t c l e a v e s t h e b l u e . I f y o u s h o u l d speak, g r e a t God must s a y , ay ay, t h a t ' s v e r y t r u e . But i f y o u r deed b e t r a y s y o u r word, can K u d a l a Sangama c a r e f o r y o u ? " ( 1 , 1 , A.M.) " I f I say I t r u s t Thee, l o v e Thee, I have s o l d m y s e l f t o Thee, You put my body t o t e s t , You p u t my mind t o t e s t , You put my money t o t e s t , I f I f e a r n o t a l l t h e s e , you y i e l d t o B h a k t i , 0 K u d a l a Sangama." (66, 77, S.M.A.) "These I f e a r n o t — The c r e e p i n g s n a k e , t h e l e a p i n g f l a m e , t h e s w i s h i n g sword, Save one — Covet a n o t h e r ' s w i f e o r my n e i g h b o u r ' s w e a l t h , h i g h p r i z e d t h e s e l u r e s t h o ' by t h e w o r l d be. C o n s i d e r Ravana's l o t . Tho' d a u n t l e s s o f f e a r was he. Thee, f e a r I e v e r — My L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." (49, 40, A.S.T.) "Does i t make you u g l y i f y o u s a y , 'come r i g h t i n , how do you do? Does y o u r f l o o r cave i n when y o u say 'Do s i t down p l e a s e , ' Or dose y o u r head o r b e l l y , b u r s t i f y o u o n l y speak t o one? I f you have n o t h i n g t o g i v e , n o t even a g r a c e , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama, be s u r e , w i l l p u l l y o u down and chop y o u r n o s e ! " ( 2 2 , 86, A.M.) TUKARAM "The t r u e image o f God i s H i s f a i t h f u l p e o p l e : I n h o l y p l a c e s we f i n d w a t e r and an image o f s t o n e , b u t i n t h e s o c i e t y o f good men, we have t h e a c t u a l p r e s e n c e of God. Through l o v e t o men He dances and s i n g s i n t h e p e r s o n of t h e s a i n t s . " ( 32, 926, 287, F. & M.) "Those who even t h i n k o f good and bad q u a l i t i e s o f s a i n t s , c r u s h a l l t h e good a c t i o n s . I t i s l i k e c r u s h i n g f l o w e r s t o t a k e i t s f r a g r a n c e . . . . Tuka s a y s : A man who t h i n k s t h a t Ganga p o l l u t e s f i r e , i s a low b o r n and w i l l s u f f e r f o r i t . " \ ( 5 0 , 245, I.E.) "What has t h o u done by g o i n g t o h o l y r i v e r ? Thou h a s t o n l y o u t -w a r d l y washed t h y s k i n , i n what way has t h e i n t e r i o r been p u r i f i e d ? By t h i s t h o u h a s t o n l y added a f e a t h e r t o t h y cap. Even i f t h e b i t t e r f r u i t i s coated, w i t h s u g a r , t h e s e t t l e d q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r i o r i s no way l e s s e n e d . I f p e a c e , f o r g i v e -n e ss and sympathy do n o t come i n , why s h o u l d y o u t a k e any t r o u b l e ? " ( 1 , 95, BRAND. V. & S.) "Those who a r e c a r e f u l o f t h e i r 'good', t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e b l e s s e d . I n whose f a m i l y c h i l d r e n a r e s e r e n e , God f e e l s about them. _ Those who l i s t e n G i t a Bhagawat and m e d i t a t e on Vithoba::afl. t h e t i m e ; Tuka s a y s : He'must g e t t o s e r v e them, o t h e r w i s e h i s f a t e i s n o t g o i n g t o be redeemed." (17, 34, I.E.) "No one has such a s t r e n g t h as t o b r e a k a l l a t t a c h m e n t s by o n e s e l f . One may g i v e up w i f e , c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y , b u t c a n ' t c o n t r o l h i s tongue and mind. 116 BASAVA TUKARAM "What s o r t o f r e l i g i o n can i t b e , w i t h o u t compassion? Compassion need must be towards a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s ; Compassion i s t h e r o o t o f a l l r e l i -g i o u s f a i t h : L o r d K u d a l a Sangama does n o t c a r e f o r what i s n o t l i k e t h i s . " ( 2 4 , 89, A.M.) "What does l u s t mean f o r one who l o v e s L i n g a ? What a n g e r , f o r one p o s s e s s e d by Sarana? What g r e e d , f o r one who s e e k s B h a k t i as a p r i z e ? What i n f a t u a t i o n , f o r one p o s s e s s e d by P r a s a d a ? How can t h a t h e a r t be p u r e w h i c h h a r -b o u r s p r i d e and j e a l o u s y ? Our L o r d K u d a l a Sangama a b i d e s i n t h o s e t h a t r e s t c o n t e n t . " ( 8 , 43, A.M.) " Q u e s t i o n you may one b i t t e n by a s n a k e ; q u e s t i o n you may, one ghost p o s s e s s e d : You cannot q u e s t i o n one p o s s e s s e d by t h e ghost o f w e a l t h . . . . B u t i f t h e E s c o r c i s t c a l l e d p o v e r t y draw n e a r , he speakes a t once, 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d ! " ( 1 0 , 50, A.M.) "Why s h o u l d you t r y t o mend t h e f a i l i n g s o f t h e w o r l d ? Assuage y o u r b o d i e s f i r s t , each one o f y o u ! assuage y o u r minds, each one! L o r d K u d a l a Sangama does n o t approve t h o s e who bemoan t h e n e i g h b o u r ' s g r i e f ! " ( 9 , 46, A.M.) "True d e v o t e e t o h i s b r o t h e r bows; w i t h s o f t words l e t y o u r p r a y e r b e ; f o r penance, upon k i n d words draw; th e y a r e e v e r supreme i n G r a c e ' s s c a l e . Hence none p l e a s e s , where t h e s e v i r t u e s f a i l , L o r d K u d a l a Sangama!" ( 5 2 , 53, A.S.T.) ...Such a man may say t h a t he i s u n a t t a c h e d , b u t T u k I s a y s : He i s t i e d w i t h u n h a p p i n e s s . " (38. 2462, I.E.) BASAVA "If like a jujube leaf you are one thing within, and another thing with-out, does He approve? He shall make you come to births that never should have been: Does He approve? He'll make you taste the horrors of h e l l : Does he approve? If like the iguana's tongue you are two things in one, Does Lord Kudala Sangama approve?" (6, 36, A.M.) "People who neither know nor think of God — does not the dung, Sir, breed a thousand worms? The village creatures live together, Lord: Do not the creatures of the forest too? Look you my brothers'. A village or a region which has none, of our Kudala Sanga's Saranas, is even as liv i n g in a wood, a range inhabited by savage men!" (14,57, A.M.) "For the indulgence of the flesh they swallow meat and spirituous drinks, For the indulgence of the eye commit adultry — what profits i t to wear Linga and other trappings too? If those who go astray from the Linga path, incur reproach from the Jangama's l i p s , they w i l l not escape going the market way of sale and purchase, Lord Kudala Sangama!" (7, 38, A.M.) "Say I'm a hero: what need then to play with a stick? Say I'm a servant: what need then to cling to l i f e ? Say I'm a bhakta: what need then to cling to body, mind and wealth? Should I but question both Your commands and threats; i t is my servanthood that takes a blow. 0 Kudala Sangama Lord! (80, 293, S.M.A.) BASAVA "Hear a l l y e ! Who o f v a l o u r b o a s t , honour and p i e t y , B r a v e r y e v e r t h e enemy's esteem e a r n ; honour e v e r t h e l a d y ' s l o v e e v o k e s ; and p i e t y , t h e Jangama's p r a i s e s h a l l meet. When t h e s e i n t h y l i f e m a n i f e s t i s s u e , s h a l l acknowledgement due, from L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." ( 5 1 , 48, A.S.T.) " I am a p o o r w r e t c h undevout, 0 L o r d ; I have begged f o r alms a t Kakayya's house; I have begged f o r them a t Chennayya's house; I have begged f o r alms a t Dasayya's t o o . 0 K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , because t h e s a i n t s t o g e t h e r a l l have g i v e n me alm s , my b o w l i s f u l l ! " ( 6 5 , 75, S.M.A.) "He i s a de v o t e e who g r e e t s w i t h f o l d e d hands, each d e v o t e e he meets" y o u r g e n t e e l speech i s w o r t h a l l c o u n t i n g ofI b e a d s ; Your g e n t e e l s p e ech i s w o r t h a l l penances; t r u e modesty i s w o r t h S a d a s i v a ' s g r a c e . L o r d K u d a l a Sangama s p u r n s t h o s e who a r e n o t l i k e t h i s . " ( 2 3 , 87, A.M.) " M e l t my mind and purge i t s s a i n t s , t e s t i t and i n f i r e r e f i n e . Hammer, so t h e hammer p a i n s , t o p u r e g o l d t h i s h e a r t o f mine. Beat from me, g r e a t c r a f t s m a n , b e a t a n k l e t s f o r Thy d e v o t e e s f e e t , save me, L o r d K u d a l a Sangama." ( 2 5 , 91, A.M.) S e c t i o n V I I "Teach me, K u d a l a Sangama L o r d , t h a t 1 s h o u l d n e v e r beg o f o t h e r s w i t h f a i n t h e a r t ; t h a t I s h o u l d n e v e r p r a i s e o t h e r s t o o f o o l i s h l y ; That I s h o u l d n o t c o v e t i n my h e a r t a n o t h e r ' s w i f e t o l u s t ; t h a t I s h o u l d n e v e r mix w i t h s u c h as t u r n t h e i r 119 BASAVA i backs upon the Siva path; That I should never seek, the friendship of such men as'boastt, another caste!" (26, 92, A.M.) "As though you would live forever and not die, you hoard your wealth. But should l i f e end and death come, there would be none to enjoy your wealth. So do not hoard wealth, burrowing the earth, when the earth swallows, does i t spit out again? content to look at i t with eyes, storing i t underground, do not you uncon-suming go. You think you leave i t to your wife; may be your wife has other plans: The moment that your body drops, surely she weds another man. Do not give i t for other's use and prove a big s i l l y sheep. It should be spent and spent at once, for Kudala Sanga's Saranas." (18, 72, A.M.) "They say they break their vows, in eating and in wearing cloth; They look for caste, whenever they arrange a match. How can you c a l l them devotees? How can you c a l l them adepts too? Hearken to me, Kudala Sangala Lord, i t ' s like a low-born wife bathing in water that* i s pure.V (44, 136, A.M.) "You persons without Vedas, l i s t e n , the things that I am referring to in front of saints are the crux of the matter. Four classes were formed out of One body. It is really good and bad activities that divide the world. This i s the sect we got right at the f i r s t step, that does not distinguish between higher, middle and lower. Mango, berry and Changana trees are different in quality, but the f i r e they produce i s one and the same." (34, 1472, I.E.) 120 APPENDIX I I T e c h n i c a l Concepts C e n t r a l t o B h a k t i Dharma 'Dharma' r e f e r s n o t o n l y t o a s y s t e m o f s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s and r i t u a l s , b u t a l s o t o a s y s t e m o f s o c i a l l a w s t h a t o r g a n i s e s and u p h o l d s t h e s o c i e t y . T h i s g e n e r a l s y s t e m o f laws o f t h e s o c i e t y i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o each i n d i v i d u a l ' s 'systems o f d u t i e s ' a t home and o u t s i d e i n h i s d i f f e r e n t r o l e s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f l i f e . F o r i n s t a n c e , 'Matru Dharma' meaning 'mothers' d u t i e s ' and 'Varna Dharma' meaning ' c a s t e d u t i e s ' and so on. Manu, one o f t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o u s t h i n k e r s , p r e s c r i b e s f i v e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f Dharma. They a r e : Veda, S r u t i , S m r i t i , codes o f c o n d u c t g i v e n by t h e v i r t u o u s s a i n t s o f t h e time, and above a l l t h a t w h i c h i s a c c e p t a b l e t o one's own c o n s c i e n c e . Dharma i s s a c r e d because i t i s h o l y and r e s p e c t a b l e . But i t i s c h a n g e a b l e from t i m e t o t i m e , p l a c e t o p l a c e and s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n . I n ' B h a k t i Dharma', one o f t h e added f a c t o r s i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e f i n i t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and B h a k t a , d e v o t e e . Here God i s r e f e r r e d t o as a f a t h e r , and mother, o r a l o r d , husband, e t c . T h i s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a l l d e v o t e e s e x p l a i n s t h e f a c t t h a t a l l B h a k t a s , as God's c h i l d r e n , a r e e q u a l and God i s e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l . I n B h a k t i , t h e r e i s an extreme emphasis on 'a b u r n i n g d e s i r e ' o f a devotee t o l o v e h i s God. T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e predominance o f emotio n s o v e r knowledge and r i t u a l s i n B h a k t i r e l i g i o n . The e x p e r i e n c e o f emotions o r f e e l i n g s ('Bhava'), though p a r t l y m y s t i c , can be e x p e r i e n c e d 121 by each and everyone by proper d i s c i p l i n i n g of body and mind . The s a i n t s (Santa i n M a r a t h i , and Sarana i n Kannada) are the i n d i v i d u a l s who have been a b l e to c o n t r o l t h e i r p a s s i o n s of l u s t and anger , who are thus able t o p u r i f y t h e i r minds and are ab le to be k i n d and generous t o o t h e r s . They l i v e i n the midst of people and thus p r o -v i d e the l i v i n g i d e a l s of B h a k t i r e l i g i o n . So they are c a l l e d temples of B h a k t i where not o n l y devotees s h o u l d go, but where "Gods come r u n n i n g " says Tukaram. "The ground they walk on i s h o l y and whatever i _ they t a l k about i s S i v a d o c t r i n e " , says Basava. Thus ' s a i n t ' i s not a i t i t l e ' g iven by a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r one 's m i r a c u l o u s a c t i v i t i e s , but i s a t i t l e g iven by the people and respected by the people f o r the k indness and g e n e r o s i t y and r e l i g i o u s i t y they have shown t o p e o p l e . Thus, many s a i n t s toge ther can s t a r t a s e c t , or one can by h i m s e l f , depending on h i s l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s . ' P a n t h ' meaning ' s e c t ' i s a necessary c o r o l l a r y of ' B h a k t i r e l i g i o n ' . But Panth does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r t o r i v a l or d i v i s i v e groups i n an o r g a n i s a t i o n — i t merely r e f e r s t o a f o l l o w i n g of one l i n e of b e l i e f s and t h i n k i n g . Though B h a k t i r e l i g i o n i n i t s f i r s t phase d i d have two r i v a l s e c t s : V a i s n a v i s m , worshippers of Visnu-i a i * d Saivism, worsh ippers of S i v a . But a l l l a t e r B h a k t i s e c t s were a k i n d of r e g i o n a l - l i n g u i s t i c ' r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s ' , a lmalgamating the b e l i e f s and needs of an a r e a . Thus the two s e c t s , V i r a s a i v i s m and V a r a k a r i p a n t h , tha t I. compare i n t h i s t h e s i s are two s e c t s , s a t i s f y i n g the needs of two d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s -t i c groups , l i v i n g s i d e by s i d e . ' A d v a i t a ' and ' D v a i t a ' are two p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts i n Hindu r e l i g i o n t h a t e x p l a i n the nature of types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 122. man t o God. A d v a i t i s m b e l i e v e s t h a t man i s a p a r t and p a r c e l o f God,and i s away f r o m Him as l o n g as he i s l i v i n g on t h i s e a r t h . And e v e n t u a l l y ( a f t e r h i s d e a t h ) , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t merges i n t o u n i v e r s a l s p i r i t ( l i b e r a t i o n o r Moksa). By c o n t r a s t , D v a i t i s m b e l i e v e s t h a t man i s a l w a y s s e p a r a t e from God b o t h i n t h i s w o r l d and t h e r e a f t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o them, l i b e r a t i o n i s a s t a g e o f "permanent b l i s s , a n d g r a c e " of God's on an i n d i v i d u a l . 'Punya' and 'Papa' c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d as 'good' and 'bad' a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These c o n c e p t s r e f e r t o t h e g e n e r a l m o r a l code of c o n d u c t , p r e v a l e n t i n e v e r y s o c i e t y . That i s , n o t t o k i l l o t h e r s , n o r t o s t e a l from o t h e r s , e t c . a r e good and t h e o p p o s i t e s a r e bad a c t i v i t i e s . But t h e a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o n i s i t s r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l s . These r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t s a r e e x p l a i n e d by two o t h e r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s " p u r i t y " and " p o l l u t i o n " . The p e r s o n who does a good a c t i v i t y r emains i n a ' s t a t e of p u r i t y ' and when he does bad a c t i v i t i e s , he remains i n a ' s t a t e o f p o l l u t i o n ' u n t i l he undergoes p u r i f i c a t o r y r i t u a l s , p u n ishments o r penances. F u r t h e r , t h e terms ' p u r i t y ' and p o l l u t i o n ' do n o t r e f e r m a i n l y t o 'one's p h y s i c a l s t a t e as b e i n g d i r t y o r c l e a n , b u t r e f e r more t o one's m e n t a l o r s p i r i t u a l w e l l b e i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , Tukaram s a y s : "A B r a h m i n , when a n g r y , becomes p o l l u t e d , w h i l e when an o u t c a s t e t h i n k s i l l o f o t h e r s he becomes e q u a l l y p o l l u t e d " . Thus t h e s e c o n c e p t s o f 'punya and papa', and ' p u r i t y and p o l -l u t i o n ' r e f e r t o t h e e t h i c a l and s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l 123 i n a s o c i e t y . And t h e punishments a r e b e l i e v e d t o be g i v e n , n o t by t h e e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y as p o l i c e , b u t by t h e h i g h e s t s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y o f t h e w o r l d , God. 

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