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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychological allegory in the Scarlet letter Neuman, Victor 1972

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PSYCHOLOGICAL ALLEGORY IN THE SCARLET LETTER by VICTOR NEUMAN B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We a c c e p t . t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March , 19 72 In presenting th i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulf i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f reely avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publ ica t ion of th i s thesis for f inane ia l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada THESIS ABSTRACT I n Hawthorne c r i t i c i s m t h e r e i s a tendency t o c a t e g o r i z e The S c a r l e t L e t t e r as a l l e g o r y and then f a i l t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t c a r e f u l l y from t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f t h i s l i t e r a r y mode. Hawthorne i s n o t , i n t h i s work, an a l l e g o r i s t of. t he same i l k as Bunyan o r Spenser because h i s a l l e g o r y i s n o t a d i d a c t i c s t r a t e g y imposed f rom,.without..but. an. e m b l e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t e v o l v e s from and i s governed by i n t e r n a l n e c e s s i t i e s o f . t h e t a l e . A f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e . o f t h e s e n e c e s s i t i e s l e a d s us t o an o v e r l y t h e o l o g i z e d v i e w of•HawthorneVs p u r p o s e s and achievement i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r . Hawthorne's own m o r a l i z i n g e d i t o r i a l s t e n d to complement.the b r a z e n l y . e m b l e m a t i c . f u n c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h and c r e a t e . t h e . a p p e a r a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y . P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h a r e p u n i t i v e , a v e n g i n g f i g u r e s and resemble t h e s t o c k a l l e g o r i c a l images of g u i l t and p e n i t e n c e t h a t a f f l i c t H e s t e r , and Dimmesdale i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e i r c r i m e . T h e i r , d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s i n t h a t they a r e n o t everyman's g u i l t , as a Bunyan o f Spenser might d e p i c t them, b u t t h e y s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c a r n a t e t h e s e l f - t o r m e n t H e s t e r and Dimmesdale a r e p r e y o t o . T h e i r r o l e s f u l f i l l p r i m a r i l y a p s y c h o - a l l e g o r i c a l scheme r a t h e r than.any p a t e n t l y C h r i s t i a n p a r a b l e o f s i n and e x p i a t i o n . i i The c l u e s t o t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y Hawthorne g i v e s h i s a l l e g o r y are c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a u t h o r ' s f r e q u e n t a l l u s i o n s t o t h e " m u t a b i l i t y " of the s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d and.the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p e r t u r b e d p e r c e i v e r may " e x t e n d h i s e g o t i s m o v e r t h e w h ole expanse o f n a t u r e " , c r e a t i n g e v e n t s and omens w h i c h r e f l e c t h i s i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t Dimmesdale h i m s e l f i n f l i c t s C h i l l i n g w o r t h on h i s p e r s o n j u s t as he, m i r a c u l o u s l y o r o t h e r w i s e , c a r v e s an "A" upon h i s bosom. I t i s Dimmesdale who c o n s e n t s t o b e i n g a t t e n d e d , by. t h e l e e c h by r e a s o n o f h i s " f a s c i n a t i o n " f o r t h i s man o f s c i e n c e w i t h h i s p r o b i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y , . Dimmesdale's c u l p a b i l i t y i n c r e a t i n g the p r e s e n c e o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h i s f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e d by Hawthorne's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r ' s o n l y " r e a l e x i s t e n c e on t h i s e a r t h , w a s - t h e a n g u i s h i n h i s i n m o s t s o u l . " C h i l l i n g w o r t h . ' s appearance and the i n c r e a s i n g l y demonic n a t u r e of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s thus an i n e v i t a b l e b y p r o d u c t o f Dimmesdale's i n c r e a s i n g i n t r o v e r s i o n , i n t o the t u r m o i l of h i s mind. S i m i l a r l y P e a r l ' s e m b l e m a t i c b e i n g u s u r p s the h u m a n i t y o f h e r c h a r a c t e r as a r e s u l t o f h e r d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o H e s t e r ' s p s y c h e : H e s t e r d r e s s e s P e a r l i n . l a v i s h f i n e r y w i t h "morbid p u r p o s e " j u s t as she embellishes-.'the appearance o f t h e l e t t e r on h e r d r e s s . These a r e . t h e s u p e r f i c i a l c l u e s t o the e x t e n t t o w h i c h H e s t e r c r e a t e s t h e p u n i s h i n g . r o l e P e a r l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . f u l f i l l s . . H e s t e r ' s s e n s e o f g u i l t , l i k e Dimmesdale's i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s e v e r e to r e - c r e a t e t h e r e a l i t i e s o f , t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d and c r e a t e t h e embodied phantoms.of h e r i n w a r d s t r i f e . i i i Hawthorne's p s y c h o l o g i c a l a l l e g o r y c r e a t e s a s t a t e o f s u r -r e a l i t y i n the w o r l d o f The S c a r l e t L e t t e r ; a dream s t a t e where "the A c t u a l and t h e I m a g i n a r y " do,.meet and t h e m e e t i n g ground i s the i n t e r i o r o f t h e human h e a r t . Our i n s i g h t i n t o the minds o f H e s t e r and Dimmesdale d e r i v e s from o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r a n g u i s h e d d i s t o r t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e i r p r o j e c t e d a l l e g o r y . TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r P a 8 e I . THE DISTINCTIVENESS. OF HAWTHORNE'S ALLEGORY. . . . . 1 I I . EMBLEMS AND THE INTERNAL PERSPECTIVE . . 17 I I I . CHILLINGWORTH'S ROLE 28 IV. PEARL'S ROLE 45 CHAPTER I THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF HAWTHORNE'S ALLEGORY The Salem townspeople of Hawthorne's The S c a r l e t L e t t e r are not the only ones b e f u d d l e d i n t h e i r w i l d l y v a r y i n g accounts of a s i n g l e e v e n t . T h e i r predicament , t h e i r not knowing what i s r e v e a l e d upon the m i n i s t e r ' s breast , or what to make, o f i t , i s analogous to the c r i t i c ' s f r u s t r a t i o n i n t r y i n g to.make abso lute sense of The  S c a r l e t L e t t e r . Hawthorne's , t a l e abounds w i t h i n t e r p r e t e d symbols , commentary, s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s , e d i t o r i a l s and other enticements to a b o l d c r i t i c a l s t a n c e . The f r u s t r a t i o n comes w i t h one 's r e a l i -z a t i o n t h a t Hawthorne i s q u i t e o f t e n a f f i r m a t i v e i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s at . the same time.. L i k e Dimmesdale.on the s c a f f o l d , Hawthorne stands r e v e a l e d m o r e ' i n demeanor.than i n r e a l i t y . Examples o f t h i s r a t h e r pronounced ambiguity occur i n i s s u e s tha t are at the. very, h e a r t o f the t a l e ' s dramat ic concern . In h i s . s t u d y o f conscience Hawthorne's approach seems p r e - e m i n e n t l y t h e o l o g i c a l w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of. P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h as p a r t s of a. D i v i n e P l a n aimed, at. the moral r e g e n e r a t i o n , o f the. s t o r y ' s adul terous p a i r . But elsewhere-.Hawthorne .undermines such p ious .assurance w i t h , gloomy i n t i m a t i o n s , of., the . f u t i l i t y o f the e n t i r e o r d e a l and the u n c e r t a i n t y of i t s e f f i c a c y , i n a c h i e v i n g s a l v a t i o n o r peace or even r e g e n e r a t i o n . I s . H e s t e r ' s d o c i l e , s a i n t l y , l i f e a f t e r the death 2 o f Dimmesdale t h e r e s u l t o f m o r a l .renewal o r t h e . r e m o v a l o f a l l i n c e n t i v e t o s i n ? Why does i t appear t h a t Dimmesdale's. s u r g e o f m o r a l s t r e n g t h has i t s b e g i n n i n g i n t h e f o r e s t s c ene when he r e s o l v e s t o escape h i s g u i l t w i t h H e s t e r ? Hawthorne's s t u d y i n g u i l t n e v e r q u i t e f u s e s m o r a l and a m o r a l p r o c e s s e s o f mind i n d e f i n i n g what c a r r i e s the t a l e t o i t s t r a g i c c o n c l u s i o n . By t u r n s t h e s o u r c e appears t o be t h e c o n s c i e n c e -s t r i c k e n , mind r e e l i n g from the h o r r o r o f i t s s i n , and. then the mind-s t r i c k e n mind, t o r t u r e d by a m o r b i d i t y , o f s p i r i t t h a t b e a r s o n l y a shadowy r e l a t i o n s h i p . f t o the e x t e r i o r , event o f s i n . There has been a,tendency i n c r i t i c i s m to. u n d e r p l a y t h i s i r r e s o l u t i o n i n Hawthorne. L i s t e n i n g m a i n l y t o t h e c l e a r e s t v o i c e o f t h e w r i t e r , . c r i t i c s t e n d t o see, Hawthorne's t h e o l o g y as b e i n g more p e r v a s i v e , more complete and more a t . t h e b a s i s o f a l l the t a l e ' s phenomena th a n i t , r e a l l y i s . One h e a r s t h e t e r m " P u r i t a n n o v e l i s t " f r o m s u c h an. a s t u t e o b s e r v e r as F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n , and t h e same c r i t i c c o n c l u d e s . t h a t Hawthorne was w o r k i n g i n "a w o r l d o f s o l i d m o r a l 2 v a l u e s . " ' A l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s Dar.rel A b e l i s l e d t o a b l i t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P e a r l as a r e g e n e r a t i v e symbol d e n o t i n g " t h e power 3 o r m o r a l thought i n man.which i s n e v e r o b s c u r e d and.guides h i m a r i g h t . " F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n , American R e n a i s s a n c e ; A r t arid E x p r e s s i o n i n t h e  Age o f Emerson arid Whitman (London; .Oxford U n i v e r s i t y : P r e s s , .1941), p. 312. 2 I b i d . , p. 312. 3 D a r r e l A b e l , "Hawthorne's P e a r l ; Symbol and C h a r a c t e r , " . E n g l i s h  L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , X V I I I , (March, 1951), 54. 3 L i k e w i s e Raymond S h o r t c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e s t o r y ' s . e m p h a s i s i s on m o r a l 4 i s s u e s somewhat a t t h e expense o f the n a t u r a l i s m o f c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s and Roy R. Male v i e w s C h i l l i n g w o r t h as an i n g e n i o u s a l l e g o r i c a l t o o l — t h e p h y s i c i a n who i s a h e a l e r i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f . ^ I n S i n s o f t h e F a t h e r s F r e d e r i c k Crews c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t the tendency t o o v e r - e m p h a s i z e Hawthorne's m o r a l p o s t u r e . C o m p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e a r t i s t i s g i v e n t h e appearance o f a " r e l i g i o u s t u t o r to p o s t e r i t y , " Crews un c o v e r s a w e l t e r o f F r e u d i a n themes t h a t g i v e t h e t a l e ' s e v e n t s a f a r more c o n s i s t e n t r e a d i n g than, t h a t a c h i e v e d by any t h e o l o g i c a l unders t a n ding.. The c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d a r e O e d i p a l , s a y s Crews., and t h e g u i l t , t h a t u n d e r l i e s .them, i s a d e e p l y n e u r o t i c form, unredeemed by'any r e a l r e l e v a n c e to an a c t o f s i n . W h i l e Crews' w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d study, c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n , much o f t h e o r t h o d o x c r i t i c i s m s u r r o u n d i n g . H a w t h o r n e , i t . l e a v e s . o n e l a r g e . s t o n e u n t u r n e d . U l t i m a t e l y a r e b u t t a l can.be made t h a t . Hawthorne i s s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l y a w r i t e r . o f a l l e g o r y , a.devotee o f Bunyan and Spenser. C r i t i c s c o n s i d e r The S c a r l e t ; L e t t e r t o be o f t h e same l i t e r a r y mode and t h e r e f o r e p r i n c i p a l l y t h e v e h i c l e o f i t s a u t h o r ' s d i d a c t i c i n t e n t i o n . P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h seem t o be u l t i m a t e l y a u t h o r i a l a b s t r a c t i o n s . They Raymond W. S h o r t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " F o u r G r e a t / N o v e l s (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t ' a n d C o . , . I n c . , 1946), pp. x x i - x x v i i . ^Roy R. Male,' Hawthorne's T r a g i c V i s i o n (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n I n c . ; 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 96. •>••:•< F r e d e r i c k C. Crews, S i n s o f t h e F a t h e r s : Hawthorne's P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Themes (New; York:. O x f o r d . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 6.Y' ' 4 may p o s s e s s more s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o r a m b i g u i t y t h a n any o f Spenser's c r e a t i o n s , b u t they s t a n d as emblems r a t h e r t h a n c h a r a c t e r s and thus c o n s i g n the t a l e t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y . To overwork a metaphor, Hawthorne's a l l e g o r y , l i k e Dimmesdale's " r e v e l a t i o n " upon, t h e s c a f f o l d , ..has more the appearance t h a n t h e r e a l i t y o f s t a n d i n g . r e v e a l e d . . What, i t borrows from, i t s l i t e r a r y a n c e s t o r s i s a s e t of. mannerisms... I n s u b s t a n c e i t i s a s p e c i a l case i n t he use. o f a l l e g o r y and has f e a t u r e s w h i c h p u t Hawthorne as much i n t h e camp of..Kafka. as Bunyan. The allegory., that,.permeates The S c a r l e t  L e t t e r i s n o t a. s-upe.rimposed.. s y s tern. o f , . i d e n t i t i e s b u t a s e t o f pheno-mena t h a t grow from i n t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e ! p o i n t s i n . t h e t a l e , namely the t o r m e n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s o f Hester,. and„Dimmesdale. .. The r e s u l t i s a q u a s i - m a g i c a l , , a l l e g o r i c a l , w o r l d.'that i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l o o k i n g b a c k t o the m a r v e l r f i l l e d w o r l d . o f S p e n s e r and ahead t o t h e psycho-pnenomenology o f K a f k a . . . . . . . A l l e g o r y ' s p o t e n t i a l , , f o r c r e a t i n g a, k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u r -r e a l i t y i s . b e s t u n d e r s t o o d by e x a m i n i n g i t s m o s t , f u n d a m e n t a l d e f i n i t i o n and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from i t s l i t e r a r y n e i g h b o u r , s y m b o l i s m . C. S. ..Lewis .gives the commonly m a d e • d i s t i n c t i o n / b e t w e e n a l l e g o r y and s y m b o l i s m when he, d e s c r i b e s a l l e g o r y as t h e i n v e n t i o n o f v i s i b i l i a t o e x p r e s s c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t o f t h e mind and s y m b o l i s m as the attempt t o see p r e r - e x i s . t i n g forms and q u a l i t i e s as e x p r e s s i o n s o f u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t , o r t h e s e a r c h . f o r . t h e " a r c h e t y p e i n t h e copy.""'' I n Hawthorne, we d i s c o v e r a h y b r i d f o r m o f a l l e g o r y C. S. Lewis., The A l l e g o r y Of Love: A Study, i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n , (New York:: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958); p. 45. 5 w h i c h uses v i s i b i l i a c r e a t e d by u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s e s o f m i n d — v i s i b i l i a s u c h as P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h who i n c a r n a t e t h e f e a r s o f H e s t e r and Dimmesdale. They d i f f e r from symbols i n t h a t t h e y a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y mutated forms o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d whereas symbols s u c h as t h e l e t t e r a t t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i s p a r t l y i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l nature.. When H e s t e r e n c o u n t e r s t h e l e t t e r i t a l r e a d y denotes a meaning t h a t the community has p l a c e d on i t . Her e x p a n s i o n on t h i s meaning i s . p a r t l y a l o g i c a l extension,..of t h i s p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g s i g n i -f i c a n c e and p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f . h e r own p e r c e p t u a l b i a s . Thus the s i g n e x i s t s i n an i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t s meaning f i r s t and t h e n becomes, more p o t e n t l y .emblematic as an e f f e c t , o f . p r i v a t e m e n t a l processes.. The symbol, i s . n o t dependent f o r . i t s e x i s t e n c e o r a l l o f i t s meaning s o l e l y , on, the p a r t i c u l a r , mind w h i c h p e r c e i v e s i t . The rose, b l o s s o m , p r e s e n t e d as s y m b o l i c o f Nature's, sympathy towar d way-, w a rd s o u l s , i s n o t l o s t t o t h i s . s i g n i f i c a n c e depending, on w h e t h e r o r n o t someone i s t h e r e t o put t h i s ' . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on i t . P a r t o f i t s meaning i s i n h e r e n t i n i t s b e a u t y =, i t s f r a g r a n c e and i t s l o c a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e j a i l h o u s e where i t s appearance i s i n marked p h y s i c a l c o n t r a s t w i t h i t s g r i m s u r r o u n d i n g s . The same i s t r u e o f l i g h t , and dark images w h i c h do.not become, s y m b o l i c , of. good and e v i l , t r u t h and f a l s i t y i n t h e i n s t a n t :they are g i v e n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b u t have q u a l i t i e s w h i c h mould the t h o u g h t s t h e y evoke as much as they themselves a r e moulded "by. these, thoughts.. The mind w h i c h p e r ^ c e i v e s s o m e t h i n g as. s y m b o l i c i s . n o t . " e x t e n d i n g h i s . e g o t i s m o v e r t h e 8 whole expanse o f n a t u r e , " b u t m e r e l y e x p r e s s i n g s e n s i t i v i t y t o c e r t a i n N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, Cent e n a r y E d i t i o n o f t h e Works o f N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, ed.. W i l l i a m Charvat. and. Roy Harvey P e a r c e (Ohio ;''State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 965), I , p. 155. H e r e a f t e r , a l l page r e f e r e n c e s t o The S c a r l e t  L e t t e r s h a l l r e f e r t o t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s . 6 q u a l i t i e s i n the t h i n g p e r c e i v e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, a l l e g o r y , w h e t h e r i t grows i t s meanings from p r e - e x i s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e s o r c o n j u r e s v i s i b i l i a f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , has. t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of, always a p p e a r i n g c o n s p i c u o u s l y as an i n v e n t i o n . . I n Hawthorne, the. p r o c e s s i s i n t e r n a l to h i s c h a r a c t e r s and u n c o n s c i o u s . The a l l e g o r y i s " i n v e n t i o n " i n t h e sense t h a t the v i s i b i l i a ' s . d e b t t o t h e p e r c e i v i n g i n t e l l e c t f o r . i t s d e f i n i t i o n i s more app a r e n t and p r e - e m i n e n t t h a n i . t : . i s . i n . s y m b o l i s m . . The a l l e g o r i c a l l y p e r c e i v i n g mind i s a c k n o w l e d g i n g .. i t s f o r m a t i v e r o l e by t h e e l a b o r a t e -ness o f the. e mblems.it c r e a t e s , and. the e x c l u s i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e emblems, o p e r a t e , as a f u n c t i o n o f : t h e mind from, w h i c h they emanate. T h i s ; acknowledgment, may. appear f r a n k l y . , as . i n .The Fa&ry Queen when th e d e s c r i p t i o n o f . t h e . c a s t l e .(body), i n h a b i t e d by Alma ( s o u l ) o p e r a t e s w i t h s u c h c o n s p i c u o u s i n g e n u i t y ; . o r .the acknowledgment may be o n l y . i m p l i c i t , as. in...the, case .of . P e a r l whose u l t r a - s i g n i f i c a n t m a n n e r i s m s ; h i n t at.*her i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h H e s t e r ' s p s y c h e . P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h must t e n d t o have a l l e g o r i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g . f o r . u s because t h e y are p e r s o n s . a n d , n o t t h i n g s . Whereas the. s car l e . t , l e t t e r .may undergo deepening s i g n i f i c a n c e and f u n c t i o n as. a .symbol w i t h . e x p a n d e d d i m e n s i o n s i n meaning,, C h i l l i n g w o r t h and P e a r l cannot undergo, the same pro c e s s , w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g as s y s t e m a t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f . . n a t u r a l .fact.,and., p r o b a b i l i t y . . They l a c k t h e p r o t e c t i o n ' i n s c r u t a b i l i t y a f f o r d s Hawthorne.'s i n a n i m a t e symbols and must e x i s t , and.: change e x c l u s i v e l y , i n . t h e f l i g h t , o f t h e p a r t o f t h e i r meaning, w h i c h i s imposed from o u t s i d e . • 7 T h i s l e a d s t o . t h e q u e s t i o n o f what v a l u e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a l l e g o r y has f o r Hawthorne t h a t , cannot b e . g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n the s y m b o l i c mode. The answer t o t h i s l i e s i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t s y m b o l i s m i m p l i e s an awareness o f i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s i n t h e o b j e c t b e i n g p e r c e i v e d w h i l e , s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , i n s p i r e d a l l e g o r y t y r a n n i z e s o v e r i t s v i s i b i l i a , d r a i n i n g them o f . t h e i r s u b s t a n t i a l i t y u n t i l t hey become p r o d u c t s . o t . t h e mind al o n e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e mind and m a t e r i a l f a c t w o r k i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n . . The a l l e g o r i c a l . u n i v e r s e , i s f a r more e g o c e n t r i c than t h e s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . . The mind which, spawns i t . t h r o u g h u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s e s i s a mind w h i c h has. l o s t i t s a b i l i t y t o a p p r e c i a t e o r r e s p e c t the i n d e p e n d e n t r e a l i t i e s . o f . w h a t e v e r i t ..perceives. I n t h i s s e nse the, a l l e g o r y o f The S c a r l e t .Better, i s a . p s y c h o t i c , v e r s i o n o f sym-b o l i s m , a s u r r e a l i s t i c d i s t o r t i o n , of. e x p e r i e n c e d e n o t i n g minds w h i c h have gone beyond = r e c e p t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y :„to ..reach, .a, s t a g e o f t o t a l l y s u b j e c t i v e i m p o s i t i o n , o f meanings.. T h i s d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a t e o f Dimmesdale's mind and :Hester's as t h e i r s e n s e o f g u i l t and f a t a l i t y grows, t o . tyrannize... t h e i r s e n s e s . The argument might, be. r a i s e d , a t . t h i s p o i n t t h a t C h i l l i n g w o r t h and . P e a r l are. p e r c e i v e d as u n e a r t h l y , e m b l e m a t i c . c r e a t i o n s by Salem townspeople who' do n o t 'share i n t h e i n t e r i o r t u m u l t , o f H e s t e r and Dimmesdale. In. g o v e r n o r B e l l i n g h a m ' s mansion. Mr. W i l s o n i s s t a r t l e d by P e a r l ' s : appearance: "What l i t t l e b i r d . , of. s c a r l e t plumage m a y - t h i s be? M e t h i n k s I have s e e n . j u s t s u c h f i g u r e s , when t h e sun has been s h i n i n g t h r o u g h a r i c h l y p a i n t e d window,, and t r a c i n g o u t .the g o l d e n and c r i m s o n , images a c r o s s the floor';',. But t h a t was; i n t h e o l d l a n d . P r i t h e e , 8 young one, who a r t t h o u , and what has a i l e d t h y mother t o b e d i z e n thee i n t h i s s t r a n g e f a s h i o n ? A r t t h o u a C h r i s t i a n c h i l d , — h a ? Dost t h o u know thy c a t e c h i s m ? Or a r t t h o u one o f t h o s e naughty e l f s o r f a i r i e s , whom we t h o u g h t to have l e f t b e h i n d u s , w i t h o t h e r r e l i c s o f P a p i s t r y , i n merry o l d E n g l a n d ? " (pp. 109-110) Mr. W i l s o n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , o f P e a r l i s p o t e n t i a l l y a two-pronged c o n t r a -d i c t i o n . o f h e r s t a t u s as t h e v i s i b i l i a . o f H e s t e r ' s p r i v a t e a l l e g o r y . F i r s t l y W i l s o n i s q u i c k t o i n c o r p o r a t e her. appearance i n t o a b r o a d e r ' a l l e g o r i c a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e a n d , b y r e g a r d i n g her. as a gaudy r e l i c o f P a p i s t r y , r e n d e r her.meaning more p a t e n t l y , m y t h o l o g i c a l t h a n p s y c h o l o g i c a l . W h i l e we m i g h t r e c o g n i z e t h a t Mr. W i l s o n i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g P e a r l i n . t e r m s t h a t r e f l e c t , h i s p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s as m i n i s t e r t o t h e f l e d g l i n g theocracy., he n e v e r t h e l e s s i s p u t t i n g h e r i n t h e l i g h t o f a p u b l i c emblem,, i n s i n u a t i n g a meaning i n h e r . t h a t i s p u b l i c domain. W i l s o n i s n o t . d r a w i n g u p o n - p e r s o n a l d a t a t o g i v e h e r d e l i n -e a t i o n brut upon r e l i g i o u s ' a n d h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . S i n c e t h i s i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f most t r a d i t i o n a l a l l e g o r y , i t i s a t e m p t i n g c o n v e n i e n c e t o r e g a r d Mr. W i l s o n as a c a p s u l e v e r s i o n o f Hawthorne, an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c o r i e n t a t i o n , o f t h e a u t h o r ' s own a l l e g o r i c a l d e v i c e s . The argument t h a t Hawthorne i n s i n u a t e s . a f a r b.roader meaning i n P e a r l t h a n W i l s o n can comprehend.is not,enough t o d e t a c h h e r f r o m t h e c l a s s o f symbology the m i n i s t e r f a s t e n s upon h e r . T h i s t e n d e n c y t o w a r d r i g i d a s s o c i a t i o n s , t o w a r d s c h e m a t i z e d Bunyanesque meanings i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e - p l a y by Hawthorne. . C h i l l i n g w o r t h i s w e l l a c c o u t r e d i n c l o t h e s and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t w o u l d become any w e l l - d r e s s e d d e v i l ' s e m i s s a r y . P e a r l ' s n a t u r e and appearance h e a v i l y 9 u n d e r l i n e ^ h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h " t h a t w i l d h e a t h e n N a t u r e . " A k i n d o f peak i s r e a c h e d , i n t h i s t r i b u t e t o the powers o f b a r e a l l e g o r y , when Hawthorne d i s c u s s e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s i n t e n t i o n s o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h : When an u n i n s t r u c t e d m u l t i t u d e a t t e m p t s to see w i t h i t s e y e s , i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y a pt t o be de'ceived. When, however, i t forms, i t s judgment, as i t u s u a l l y does, on the i n t u i t i o n s , o f i t s g r e a t , and warm h e a r t , the c o n c l u s i o n s ' t h u s a t t a i n e d a r e o f t e n so p r o f o u n d and. so u n e r r i n g , as to p o s s e s s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t r u t h s s u p e r n a t u r a l l y r e v e a l e d . (p. 127) What t h e m u l t i t u d e o b s e r v e s i s t h a t "something v e r y u g l y and e v i l " has c r e p t i n t o t h e appearance o f Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h . From t h i s and from, t h e rumor t h a t the " f i r e , i n h i s l a b o r a t o r y , h a d been b r o u g h t from t h e lower, r e g i o n s " ( p . 12 7 ) , ,they a r e . l e d t o . t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s : To sum up t h e m a t t e r , i t grew t o be a w i d e l y d i f f u s e d o p i n i o n , t h a t the Reverend A r t h u r . . . Dimmesdale,. l i k e , many o t h e r p ersonages o f e s p e c i a l s a n c t i t y , i n a l l ages of. t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d , was'haunted e i t h e r by S a t a n h i m s e l f , o r Satan's e m i s s a r y , i n t h e g u i s e o f o l d Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h . T h i s • d i a b o l i c a l agent had t h e . D i v i n e p e r m i s s i o n , f o r a s e a s o n , t o b u r r o w , i n t o t h e clergyman's: i n t i m a c y , and p l o t a g a i n s t h i s s o u l . ( p . 128) I t i s a s i m p l i f i e d v i e w o f the m i n i s t e r ' s p l i g h t b ut'one w h i c h m i g h t s t a n d as m e r e l y a m o r e . g r a p h i c v e r s i o n of.what Hawthorne i s i n t e n d i n g by h i s ' a l l e g o r y . Hawthorne's own p r e f a c e t o t h e s e t r u t h s "so p r o f o u n d and so u n e r r i n g , as t o p o s s e s s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t r u t h s s u p e r n a t u r a l l y r e v e a l e d " tends t o q a f f i r m t h e p l a c e o f . c l a s s i c a l a l l e g o r y i n h i s t a l e and s h u t o f f de b a t e a t once. But s h u t t i n g o f f debate i s a l s o an end t o e x p l o r a t i o n and the t a l e ' s a l l e g o r y h a s g p e r m u t a t i o n s i n . 10 p s y c h o l o g y t h a t are l o s t i f t h e o l o g i c a l p i c t u r e - w r i t i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d i t s b a s i c aim. The impasse can be b r o k e n n e a t l y by o b s e r v i n g , as does J e a n Normand's s t u d y o f Hawthorne, t h a t Hawthorne i s r e a l l y two a l l e g o r i s t s - — " t h e a l l e g o r i s t o f . p r i v a t e r e a l i t i e s and t h e a l l e g o r i s t 9 o f s u r f a c e s " . S t i l l i t has b e e n : o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e o l o g i c a l and non-e l i t i c a l c o ncerns f a i l ,to c o i n c i d e i n a l l , p o i n t s , o f • the. a l l e g o r y . I f i t i s t o be conceded t h a t Haw.thorne i s " . a l t e r n a t e l y (not s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) b o t h k i n d s o f a l l e g o r i s t then t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d .by Reverend W i l s o n e t a l . are. n o t r e a l l y answered b u t s h i f t e d . i n t o m a t t e r s o f ascendency. I s Hawthorne humanizing, t h e o l o g y ' o r t h e o l o g i z i n g , h u m a n i t y ? I t i s l e s s confounding, a . p r o p o s i t i o n t h a n ; it.,might..appear... A g a i n Jean Normand's comments, .demonstrate, his." t a l e n t f o r r e d u c i n g c o m p l e x i t i e s i n Hawthorne t o t h e i r b a r e s t e l e m e n t s . N o t i n g Hawthorne!s e x c u r s i o n s i n t o r i g i d , s t e r i l e t o k e n i s m , Normand, concludes,.,.that t h i s , c l i n g i n g . ' t o s u r f a c e s i s , c a r r i e d on to a v o i d p e n e t r a t i o n , i n t o , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b s t a n c e o f h i s ' . m a t e r i a l . . Somewhat h a r s h l y , but. n o t i n a c c u r a t e l y Normand terms t h i s tendency a ."cowardice; o f the, imagination.""!"^... More, c h a r i t a b l y R i c h a r d H. ...Jogle. . f i n d s s y s t e m a t i c a l l e g o r y i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r t h e y Jean Normand, ..Nat h a n i e l .Hawthorne,: An Approach to•:an A n a l y s i s of.:Art j s t i e C r e a t i o n , , t r a n s . Derek Coltman • ( C l e v e l a n d and London: Case ;Western" Reserve U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , ,19 70)., p. 2 4 2 / ' 10 • I b i d . , p. 244. 11 n e c e s s a r y complement t o Hawthorne's a m b i g u i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( t h e " c l a s s i c b a l a n c e " o f t h e l i g h t and t h e dark)"'""'" and C h a r l e s F e i d e l s o n J r . c o n s i d e r s Hawthorne's a l l e g o r i z i n g as i n t e n d e d t o keep t h e l i d on the s y m b o l i c chaos he p e n e t r a t e s t o w a r d a l m o s t " i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f . But c h a r i t a b l y o r o t h e r w i s e i t s t i l l appears t h a t the r e s o r t i n g t o p u b l i c a l l e g o r y i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a s t e p on t h e way t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e , s o m e t h i n g beyond. " S h u t t i n g o f f d e b a t e " w e l l d e s c r i b e s a number o f p o i n t s i n t h e t a l e b e s i d e s t h e p u b l i c ' s " s u p e r n a t u r a l " i n t u i t i o n r e g a r d i n g C h i l l i n g w o r t h 1 s i d e n t i t y . I t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t Dimmesdale, d y i n g , a l s o damns C h i l l i n g w o r t h t o a l l e g o r i c a l p e t r i f i c a t i o n i n t h a n k i n g God f o r s e n d i n g such a s c o u r g e — t h e n b i d s a h u r r i e d a d i e u t o H e s t e r and h e r d i s t u r b i n g b a r r a g e o f q u e s t i o n s . Not d i s s i m i l a r l y Hawthorne t a k e s h i s l e a v e o f t h e t a l e w i t h a p i e c e o f m o r a l p o s i t i v i s m ("Be t r u e ! Be t r u e ! Be t r u e ' " ) t h a t i s , a t l e a s t on the m o r a l l e v e l , d i s s a t i s f y i n g i f n o t d o w n r i g h t i r r e l e v a n t . F i n a l l y i t i s Hawthorne h i m s e l f who p u t s t h e a l l e g o r i z e d m o r a l i t y o f Mr. W i l s o n and company i n t o i t s p l a c e . Hawthorne's d e s i r e t o a b s t r a c t an o r d e r from h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a b y r i n t h l e a d s h i m t o a n a t u r a l empathy w i t h P u r i t a n mythology and a l l forms o f a l l e g o r y . But Hawthorne i s a l s o a n a t u r a l s k e p t i c and o b s e s s i v e l y ^ R . H. F o g l e , Hawthorne's F i c t i o n : The L i g h t and t h e Dark, (Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 4. 12 C h a r l e s F e i d e l s o n , J r . , Symbolism and A merican L i t e r a t u r e , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 953), p. 9. 12 aware o f t h e t h i n l i n e between c o h e r e n c e . o f v i s i o n and. s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . The spokesmen f o r - t r a d i t i o n a l , a l l e g o r y a r e . g i v e n , a h e a r i n g i n t h e s t o r y b u t Hawthorne, even i n the m i d s t o f a p p e a r i n g t o . c r e d i t them w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l i n s i g h t , cannot, r e f r a i n f r o m t a i n t i n g t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h n a i v e t e . a n d d i s s o c i a t i n g t h e i r i n s i g h t s from any p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e h e a r t o f anyt h i n g . . Mr. W i l s o n , i s i n p o s s e s s i o n o f a " g r e a t and warm h e a r t " o f t h e k i n d t h a t i s supposed to g i v e t h e m u l t i t u d e t h e i r s u p e r n a t u r a l i n s i g h t s i n t o C h i l l i n g w o r t h . a n d Dimmesdale. But h i s demeanor i s a l s o .marked .by: a c e r t a i n , comic. myjooia. Q u e s t i o n i n g P e a r l he i s a t ' a s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e , and .his solemn, p l a i n q u e r i e s a r e a b u m b l i n g c o n t r a s t w i t h the f a n c i f u l , s u g g e s t i v e , r e p l i e s o f t h e child.-, (pp. 111-112).. The scene, and: the., image; we get o f . the k i n d l y m i n i s t e r a r e a p t l y p r e f a c e d by the f i r s t p a r a g r a p h . o f t h e same c h a p t e r when W i l s o n . e n t e r s the stage...engaged, i n . c o n v i n c i n g . B e l l i n g h a m t h a t p e a c h e s , p e a r s and .grapes m i g h t yet..be grown i n t h e c l i m a t e of. New E n g l a n d . L a t e r , when Dimmesdale.takes h i s m i d n i g h t : v i g i l upon.the s c a f f o l d , W i l s o n makes a n o t h e r appearance, as he t r u n d l e s home.from the deathbed o f Governor W i n t h r o p , , w r a p t t i g h t l y , i n h i s c l o a k , . s y m b o l i c a l l y and l i t e r a l l y o b l i v i o u s t o . the p r e s e n c e o f Dimmesdale .on the s c a f f o l d .and t h e me a i l i n g i m p l i e d t h e r e i n . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e Hawthorne's d i s c r e d i t i n g o f s y s t e m a t i c a l l e g o r y i s i n d i r e c t - - M r . W i l s o n ' s ' c l a s s , o f , commentary i s . robbed.,of i t s a p p l i -c a b i l i t y . m o r e .by i t s , a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i m t h a n . i t s . i n t r i n s i c f a u l t s . B u t • e l s e w h e r e Hawthorne's a t t a c k . o n , t h i s mode o f p e r c e p t i o n i s ' m o r e f r o n t a l ; and.: o c c u r s even when th e , a u t h o r seems most b e n t on p a y i n g h i s r e s p e c t s . .The passage l a u d i n g t h e . p u b l i c ' s i n s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s e S x C h i l l i n g w o r t h 13 o f f e r s a f i n e example o f t h i s a m b i v a l e n c e i n Hawthorne. Hawthorne c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s as.'.'so p r o f o u n d and so u n e r r i n g " , thus g i v i n g them apparent a u t h o r i t y . And s i n c e t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s are w r a pt i n a p a t e n t l y a l l e g o r i c a l p i c t u r e o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h as t h e d e v i l ' s e m i s s a r y and Dimmesdale a s . J o b , Hawthorne appears to c l i n c h the r o l e o f f o r m a l a l l e g o r y as a means to s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t . T h i s c o u l d be as damaging t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t a l e as r e g a r d i n g Mr. W i l s o n as an u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d H a w t h o r n e — e x c e p t t h a t Hawthorne u n d e r c u t s s u c h commentary i n b o t h c a s e s . A f t e r : r e l a t i n g the i n s i g h t s o f t h e aware t o w n s p e o p l e , .Hawthorne, adds a s a r d o n i c p o s t s c r i p t : T h i s d i a b o l i c a l , agent had,the D i v i n e p e r m i s s i o n , for. a s e a s o n , t o burrow i n t o the c l ergyman's i n t i m a c y , . a n d . p l o t a g a i n s t h i s s o u l . No s e n s i b l e man, i t :was c o n f e s s e d , c o u l d doubt on w h i c h s i d e the.'•victory would" t u r n . The p e o p l e l o o k e d , w i t h an unshaken hope, t o see t h e m i n i s t e r come f o r t h out o f the c o n f l i c t , t r a n s f i g u r e d w i t h the g l o r y w h i c h he w o u l d . u n q u e s t i o n a b l y w i n . Mean-w h i l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was s a d . t o t h i n k o f t h e .perchance m o r t a l agony t h r o u g h w h i c h he must s t r u g g l e towards h i s t r i u m p h . A l a s , t o j u d g e f r o m the gloom. a n d j t e r r o r i n t h e depths: o f t h e p o o r m i n i s t e r ' s e y e s , t h e b a t t l e was a s o r e one, and ,the v i c t o r y a n y t h i n g b u t s e c u r e ! (p. 128) The f a c i l e o p t i m i s m t h e y e v i n c e reminds us t h a t t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e -i s h e a v i l y p r e m i s e d on Dimmesdale!s p u r i t y , a m i s t a k e t h a t g i v e s t h e i r , b l i t h e a s s u r a n c e ' a d o l t i s h :q-uality i n t h e m i d s t o f i t s " p r o f u n d i t y " . I n t r u t h the outcome o f t h e c o n f l i c t p r o v e s them c o r r e c t s c h e m a t i c a l l y . Dimmesdale i s ennobled,. C h i l l i n g w o r t h r e p e l l e d and y e t the m i n i s t e r ' s gloomy v i c t o r y h a r d l y p r e s e n t s h i m as. " t r a n s f i g u r e d w i t h g l o r y . " C o n t r a s t i n g t h e t o w n s p e o p l e ' s u n q u e s t i o n i n g , d o u b t - f r e e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e s t r u g g l e 14 w i t h Dimmesdale's own v i e w f r o m . t h e p r e c i p i c e f o r c e s t h e i s s u e . We must e i t h e r r e g a r d . Dimmesdale '.s t e r r o r as a d i s p l a y o f comely h u m i l i t y o r the t o w n s p e o p l e ' s a l l e g o r i c a l f a i t h . a s u n w a r r a n t e d . Whatever e l s e H a w t h o r n e - i n t e n d s by h i s t a l e . i t . i s c e r t a i n . t h a t h e . b e g i n s i t w i t h an a m b i g u i t y o f . s i n and ends w i t h an. a m b i g u i t y o f s a l v a t i o n and t h a t , w i t h i n s u c h a. w o r l d , , u n c e r t a i n t y , must .needs be a k i n d o f b i t t e r r e a l i s m w h i l e c e r t a i n t y p o s s e s s e s an/.equal measure o f f a i t h and shallowness.. Hawthorne s e t o u t to. p r a i s e the. p u b l i c h e a r t , i t s c o n c e r n and. awareness, .but somewhere a l o n g t h e . l i n e t h e i r sympathy i s r e d u c e d to a . k i n d .of tongue c l i c k i n g a n d . t h e i r p a t e n t a l l e g o r i c a l i n s i g h t s become th e p e r i m e t e r s , of. u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e gateways. Mr..-Wilson's, o b s e r v a t i o n s on P e a r l r a i s e a s e c o n d s e t o f q u e s t i o n s about the. s t a t u s , o f . p s y c h o l o g i c a l a l l e g o r y ' i n t h e t a l e . S i m p l y t h e f a c t t h a t he see's t h e same P e a r l . H e s t e r sees and Dimmesdale sees m i g h t . b e r e g a r d e d as g i v i n g t h e . l i e . t o h e r i l l u s o r y b e i n g . S i m i l a r l y t h e p u b l i c ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n , o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s f i e n d i s h n a t u r e c a l l s i n t o , q u e s t i o n h i s s t a t u s as a . p r i v a t e l y , c r e a t e d a p p a r i t i o n . The q u e s t i o n i s . : how can t h e s e , r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l p o i n t s , o f v i e w p e r c e i v e what i s the. s u b j e c t i v e p r o d u c t o f ,other minds?.. The a n s w e r - i s t h a t the. v i s u a l , e x p e r i e n c e . i s s h a r e d , s i m p l y ..because . P e a r l and. C h i l l i n g w o r t h dp have a " r e a l " e x i s t e n c e : . C h i l l i n g w o r t h may. be a phantom h a t c h e d i n the madness:: of. a p r i e s . t ' s mind "but he i s a. p h y s i c a l l y - r e a l i z e d phantom,/every b i t as f i e n d i s h and o t h e r - w o r l d l y as Dimmesdale i m a g i n e s h i m t o be.. I f a mind i n t u r m o i l , i s . t h e window on t h e u n i v e r s e t h e n t h i s , u n i v e r s e has a.new,.frame o f reference.. I f i t s w o r k i n g s are " m i r a c u l o u s " t h e n t h e y a r e m i r a c l e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a p h e n o m e r i o l o g i c a l 15 w o r l d , i n w h i c h case t h e y a re n o t i l l u s i o n s b u t r e a l e v e n t s o f a d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y . Those who p e r c e i v e t h e l e e c h ' s s t r a n g e and d e v i l i s h manner do n o t b e l i e t h e p r i v a t e a l l e g o r y out o f w h i c h he grows b u t m e r e l y show themselves attune'd t o the r e a l i t i e s o f t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l w o r l d o f w h i c h t h e y p a r t a k e . Those who see o n l y a k i n d l y o l d d o c t o r i n t h e l e e c h , , a naughty g i r l i n P e a r l and n o t h i n g upon Dimmesdale's b r e a s t when he r e v e a l s t h e l e t t e r a r e t h e ones " d e l u d e d " . W h i l e s e r v i n g t o demonstrate t h e u t t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y appear, i n . the c o n t e x t o f t h e t a l e , as o b t u s e , s o u l l e s s p o i n t s o f . v i e w . They, a r e t h e ^ m u l t i t u d e t h a t ."attempts t o see w i t h i t s e y e s " s o l e l y and c o n s e q u e n t l y i s . " e x c e e d i n g l y , apt t o be d e c e i v e d . " I r o n i c a l l y t h e y a l s o r e p r e s e n t p u r e s t o b j e c t i v i t y . b y the e x t r e m i t y o f t h e i r u n i n v o l v e m e n t . By u n d e r m i n i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s Hawthorne i s , i n e f f e c t , u n d e r m i n i n g , the p l a c e o f e s t a b l i s h e d , r e a l i t y i n h i s t a l e . S i f t i n g through.,.the. v a r i o u s , comments t h a t , . f o l l o w . the " r e v e -l a t i o n " o f t h e l e t t e r on Dimmesdale.,. Hawthorne says ."the r e a d e r may choose among' t h e s e t h e o r i e s " ..(p.. 259) b ut o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o the o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e who saw t h e l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n e d o n l y i t s o r i g i n . T h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are. d i f f e r e n t b u t a l l . a c c e p t t h e r e a l e x i s t e n c e o f .the emblem and. a l l , t h e r e f o r e , a r e c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e t a l e ' s own s p e c i a l r e a l i t y . Hawthorne e x e r c i s e s more c a u t i o n and e d i t o r i a l , p r e r o g a t i v e i n h a n d l i n g t h e s p e c t a t o r s ' w h o i n s i s t n o t h i n g was r e v e a l e d upon t h e s c a f f o l d . They r e g a r d t h e m i n i s t e r ' s c h a r a c t e r as u n b l e m i s h e d and h i s ' a c t i o n s as p a r t o f a p a r a b l e o f compassion f o r s i n n e r s . Hawthorne comments: 16 W i t h o u t d i s p u t i n g a t r u t h so momentous, we must be a l l o w e d to c o n s i d e r t h i s v e r s i o n o f Mr. Dimmes-d a l e '.s s t o r y as o n l y an i n s t a n c e o f t h a t ^ s t u b b o r n 5; f i d e l i t y w i t h w h i c h a man's f r i e n d s — a n d e s p e c i a l l y a c l e r g y m a n ' s — w i l l sometimes u p h o l d h i s c h a r a c t e r ; when p r o o f s , c l e a r as t h e mid-day s u n s h i n e on t h e s c a r l e t l e t t e r , e s t a b l i s h h i m a f a l s e and s i n -s t a i n e d c r e a t u r e o f t h e d u s t . ( p . 259) As m a t t e r and a n t i - m a t t e r t o l e r a t e no p r o x i m i t y , r e a l i t y and c o u n t e r -r e a l i t y s t i r a c o n t r a d i c t i o n that. Hawthorne i s o b l i g e d t o d e a l w i t h . He has so t h o r o u g h l y , b u i l t the. i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y , t h e t a l e m a n i f e s t s t h a t he i s . now i n a . p o s i t i o n , t o v i e w as. p r e j u d i c e d t h e o n l y v o i c e o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y h a s ! 17 CHAPTER I I EMBLEMS. AND THE INTERNAL PERSPECTIVE To u n d e r s t a n d Hawthorne's use o f what I have termed p s y c h o l o g i c a l ..allegory.,. we must re-examine t h e f u n c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as C h i l l i n g w o r t h and P e a r l . .They. h a v e . t h e immediate appearance o f s t o c k ' a l l e g o r i c a l , c r e a t i o n s . . o n ; t h e same. plaTxg as S p enser's Archimago o r Duessa .or. Seven Deadly S i n s . . They, a r e c r e d i t e d , w i t h b e i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , c r e a t i o n s i n a r e a l i s t i c . v e i n , , m o r e : p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y rounded out. t h a n Spenser's' personages.,.but. t o most. . c r i t i c s t h e y a r e n o t o f a d i f f e r e n t : c l a s s . , F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n , though . a l e r t t o o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f Hawthorne's a l l e g o r y , concedes t h a t . P e a r l i s " the p u r e s t , type. of. S p e n s e r i a n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . , , w h i c h s t a r t s w i t h 13 a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s . a n d h u n t s f o r t h e i r p r o p e r embodiment." Perhaps, the b e s t approach to a r e - a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s e s t y l i z e d v e r s i o n s o f humanity i s a s l i g h t l y roundabout one. Hawthorne's e m b l e m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s a r e more e a s i l y ..analyzed .when th e y appear i n forms l e s s i n t r i c a t e ' t h a n c h a r a c t e r s ; forms such.as o b j e c t s , c o l o u r s a n d o t h e r t a n g i b l e s . n o t , s u b j e c t to the f l u x of. p e r s o n a l i t y . The i n t e n s e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f The- S c a r l e t L e t t e r ' s , w o r l d i s . a l l - p e r v a s i v e , and t h e laws t h a t g o v e r n t h e b e i n g s , o f P e a r l and . C h i l l i n g w o r t h a p p l y as f o r c e f u l l y t o i n a n i m a t e m a t t e r . A m e r i c a n R e n a i s s a n c e , p. 278. 18 H y a t t Waggoner p a r t i a l l y u ncovers the n a t u r e o f Hawthorne's s y m b o l i c method when he o b s e r v e s t h a t ' c o l o u r s do h o t h a v e , i n i t i a l l y , a f u l l - b l o w n s y m b o l i c , v a l u e b u t grow t o be more t h a n t h e m s e l v e s i n 14 s t a g e s . These s t a g e s he terms " p u r e " , "mixed", and " d r a i n e d " ; a "pure" image-j b e i n g a l i t e r a l , s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n , a "mixed" image one w h i c h i s b o t h s e n s o r y and m e a n i n g f u l , and a " d r a i n e d " image one w h i c h i s g i v e n o v e r t o t a l l y . t o i t s s y m b o l i c i m p o r t : Thus, on t h e f i r s t page t h e g r a y n e s s .of the h a t s and the " w e a t h e r - s t a i n s " o f t h e j a i l a r e p u r e images, sense i m p r e s s i o n s t o be t a k e n q u i t e l i t e r a l l y . O n ly a f t e r we have become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p a r t p l a y e d : by c o l o u r i n the t a l e a r e we a p t t o be aware o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e s e c o l o u r s , though, t o be s u r e t h e y may have had t h e i r e f f e c t on us b e f o r e we became c o n s c i o u s o f t h a t e f f e c t . 1 5 Waggoner a t t r i b u t e s s u c h g r a d u a t e d s y m b o l i c growth t o Hawthorne's w i s h to b r e a k t h e r e a d e r i n . g e n t l y , c u s h i o n i n g . t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s y m b o l i c v a l u e s so t h e y : w i l l be f e l t as a p p r o p r i a t e ,in t h e i r u l t i m a t e , " d r a i n e d " f o r m . . A l t h o u g h .there i s i n d e e d a g r o w i n g " a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " t o s u c h images, the r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e s e changes have a more o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t a l e . . What Waggoner ' i s o b s e r v i n g i s Hawthorne's w o r k i n g from the i n s i d e o u t , e v o l v i n g v a l u e s f o r c o l o u r s and o b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n H y a t t H. Waggoner, Hawthorne: A C r i t i c a l Study (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 122. I b i d . , p. 123. 19 a f f i x i n g them. His c h a r a c t e r s , Dimmesdale and H e s t e r , grow conscious of v a r i o u s l e v e l s of meaning, g r a d u a l l y , as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g burden of g u i l t and s e c r e c y . T h i s . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the • " d r a i n i n g ' . ' o f images and the . .point of view o f c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Hawthorne i n the c h a r a c t e r of Dimmesdale. I t i s the unspeakable misery of a l i f e so f a l s e as h i s , that i t s t e a l s the p i t h and substance out of. whatever r e a l i t i e s t h e r e , a r o u n d u s , and which were meant by Heaven to be the s p i r i t ' s joy and nutriment. . . To the untrue man, the whole u n i v e r s e i s f a l s e , — - i t . : i s i m p a l p a b l e , i t s h r i n k s to. n o t h i n g w i t h i n h i s . g r a s p . And he h i m s e l f , i n so f a r as he. shows, .h imse l f , i n a f a l s e l i g h t , becomes a shadow, o r , . i n d e e d , ceases to e x i s t . The o n l y t r u t h : , t h a t cont inued to g i v e Mr . Dimmesdale a . r e a l , e x i s t e n c e on t h i s e a r t h , was the anguish: of h i s . inmost s o u l . , . . . . . (pp. 145-146) The passage, , i n e f f e c t , i s s e t t i n g , the stage f o r the changes which m a t e r i a l images undergo i n the course o f the t a l e . . The " f a l s e n e s s " that i n f e c t s , a l l . s u b s t a n t i a l r e a l i t y may be . p a r t l y , an . a u t h o r i a l index to Dimmesdale's moral s t a t e , . b u t • i t . d o e s not s top at t h i s . I t i s a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the. m u t a b i l i t y of a l l t a n g i b l e . q u a l i t i e s and, as s u c h , p e r t a i n s to the l a r g e r question. . . of s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n and the r e l a t i v i t y of. experience. . . The. u n i v e r s e t h a t " s h r i n k s to n o t h i n g " i s not f a l s e i n the sense that i t , i s an a n t i t h e s i s to the " t r u e " u n i v e r s e ; r a t h e r i t . i s . d e s c r i b e d i n terms ,of. i t s . . g r o w i n g n e u t r a l i t y i n . t h e e q u a t i o n . o f e x p e r i e n c e . D e p r i v e d , o f . i t s p h y s i c a l , independent, e x i s t e n c e through Dimmesdale's t u r n i n g of h i s senses i n w a r d l y , i t . s t a n d s ready to accept a s e c o n d . r e a l i t y , portentous and " d r a i n e d " of independent l i f e . . Waggoner's view of these changes as 20 t e s t i m o n y to Hawthorne's c a r f t s m a n s h i p has the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f making t h e w r i t e r appear more i n g e n i o u s t h a n i n v o l v e d . M oreover such a v i e w tends to s h o r t - c i r c u i t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b i a s b e h i n d t h e growth of emblems an d . t h e r e b y l i n k s Hawthorne t o o c l o s e l y t o a Bunyanesque s t y l e o f w r i t i n g where symbols o p e r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y i n o b e d i e n c e t o t h e p r e - c o n c e i v e d scheme o f t h e a u t h o r . H e s t e r and Dimmesdale s h a r e t h e i r s i n , g u i l t and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l view, o f t h e u n i v e r s e as w e l l . . The u n i v e r s e t h e y p e r c e i v e r e f l e c t s , t h e i r p e r t u r b a t i o n and t h e . r e s u l t i s t h e h y p e r -s i g n i f i c a n t w o r l d o f t h e t a l e , w i t h b u r n i n g s c a r l e t l e t t e r s e m b r o i d e r e d i n g o l d t h r e a d , o r emblazoned, on t h e s k y by m e t e o r s . I t i s a u n i v e r s e e x p l i c a b l e o n l y i n terms o f . t h e . p s y c h o l o g y , w h i c h comprehends i t . As F r e d e r i c k C r e w s ' o b s e r v e s , t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e i n . The S c a r l e t L e t t e r and some o f Hawthorne's :best s t o r i e s i s the " a m b i g u i t y between l i t e r a l , o u t w a r d f a c t and 'an e x t e n s i o n o f e g o t i s m o v e r t h e whole expanse o f n a t u r e . ' " " ^ The f i r s t c h a p t e r s p r i n g s q u i c k l y i n t o e m b l e m a t i c s p e c u l a -t i o n w i t h Hawthorne's r e f e r e n c e t o the f r a g i l e b e a u t y o f t h e r o s e ' bush w h i c h bloomed o u t s i d e t h e p r i s o n ' " i n t o k e n t h a t the deep h e a r t .of n a t u r e c o u l d p i t y . . . . " ( p . 48) But t h i s i s a t o y i n g w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e , more a f o r e s h a d o w i n g o f t h e t a l e ' s e m b l e m a t i c b i a s t h a n a f o r e r u n n e r o f the k i n d . o f s y m b o l i s m t h a t w i l l p r e d o m i n a t e i n t h e s t o r y . A f t e r we a r e made.aware o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m e a n i n g f u l ; Crews, S i n s , of: t h e Fathers,... p . 263. I n t e r i o r q u o t e i s Hawthorne's r e f e r e n c e t o Dimmesdale. 21 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h r o u g h oup e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e "sweet m o r a l b l o s s o m , " th e t a l e i n c r e a s i n g l y d e v e l o p s i t s meanings from, i n t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s and approaches an e x t r e m i t y o f k i n d s d u r i n g the f o r e s t m e e t i n g o f . t h e g u i l t - r i d d e n p a i r . When H e s t e r f l i n g s t h e l e t t e r away a n d * f e e l s H e r s e l f f r e e from t h e s t i g m a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , t h e e v e n t and e n s u i n g emotions a r e v i a b l e b e c a u s e she has had s e v e n y e a r s o f s u f f e r i n g i n w h i c h t o n u r t u r e a t o t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between h e r s i n and t h e s i g n w h i c h denotes i t to .the w o r l d . When H e s t e r o p e n l y r e - a f f i r m s her: l o v e f o r t h e m i n i s t e r the, e v e n t b r i n g s on a " f l o o d . o f , s u n s h i n e " s u g g e s t i n g , , i n part., an a c u t e c o r r e l a t i o n o f i n w a r d s t a t e w i t h t h e appearance as. w e l l .as the meaning, o f ou t w a r d r e a l i t y : . Such •was.:• t h e sympathy o f N a t u r e — t h a t w i l d , h e a t h e n Nature.. :of t h e - f o r e s t , n e v e r s u b j u g a t e d by human l a w , n o r ill-u m e d by. h i g h e r t r u t h — w i t h t he b l i s s 'of. t h e s e two s p i r i t s ! L o v e , w h e t h e r newly b o r n , o r a r o u s e d from a de a t h s l i k e s l u m b e r , must always c r e a t e a s u n s h i n e , f i l l i n g t h e h e a r t so f u l l o f r a d i a n c e , t h a t i t o v e r f l o w s upon t h e o u t w a r d . w o r l d . Had t h e f o r e s t s t i l l k e p t i t s gloom, i t w o u l d have been b r i g h t i n . H e s t e r ' s eyes , and b r i g h t i n A r t h u r •'Dimmesdale.'s! (p. 203) Hawthorne's sense o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s u l t i m a t e l y t e n t a t i v e , even ambiguous. A l m o s t i n the same b r e a t h .we a r e i n v i t e d t o draw two-v e r y d i f f e r e n t . c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m what occurs.. .On one,hand Hawthorne i n v i t e s .us t o a p p r a i s e the eve n t a s . b e t o k e n i n g N a t u r e ' s a p p r o v a l o f s u c h l o v e w h i c h , i n t u r n , l e a d s us t o a W a g g o n e r - l i k e v i e w t h a t e x t e r n a l s a r e p r o t a g o n i s t s i n . c a u s i n g t he p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s y m b o l i c meaning; t h a t N a t u r e ' s . s y m p a t h y i s h e a t h e n i s h and b e t o k e n e d by a " f l o o d 22 o f s u n s h i n e , " t h a t God's i n t e r e s t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the phenomenal p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e l e t t e r and i t s r e f u s a l to d e p a r t when i t i s c a s t o f f , and t h a t a l l t o k e n i s m i s u l t i m a t e l y p a r t o f Hawthorne's i n v i s i b l e commentary on h i s s t o r y . On t h e o t h e r hand, the passage i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n . t h a t . " l o v e " i s . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e " f l o o d of s u n s h i n e , " t h a t i n t e r i o r f e e l i n g s . ; l o v e o r g u i l t , " o v e r f l o w upon t h e o u t w a r d w o r l d " w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p o t e n c y . to c r e a t e omens as w e l l as i n f e r them. By t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , N a t u r e ' s h e a t h e n i s h q u a l i t y may be seen l e s s as a m o r a l a n t i t h e s i s t o P u r i t a n i s m t h a n a k i n d o f m o r a l . . n e u t r a l i t y ; : t h e same n e u t r a l i t y , t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e " f a l s e " ' u n i v e r s e d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n t o Dimmesdale and symptomizes t h e g r o s s m u t a b i l i t y of. t h e "outward w o r l d " t h a t has no i d e n t i t y s e p a r a b l e f r o m i t s p e r c e i v e d / i d e n t i t y . The c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of. g u i l t . a n d g o t h i c f a n t a s y i i s Hawthorne's p l a y upon t h i s , n a t u r a l m u t a b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e t h e mind's v e r s i o n o f t h e m o o n l i t room where " t h e A c t u a l and t h e I m a g i n a r y may meet" ("The Custom House," p. 3 6 ) . W h i l e t h i s , v i e w o f t h e p r e t e r -n a t u r a l e v e n t s in'; the t a l e does n o t d e s t r o y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a m o r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t a t l e a s t poses' an . a l t e r n a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . At t h i s , s t a g e o f t h e argument i t can be s a i d t h a t Hawthorne i s d e a l i n g i n a t l e a s t two modes o.f c o n c e p t i o n . Waggoner's s t u d y , o f the growth o f s y m b o l i c meaning tends t o n e g l e c t t h i s s e c o n d , i n t e r i o r , mode . of conception.. Moreover'he commits a second, s i n - o f o m i s s i o n . H i s s t u d y o f t h e growth o f images, i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d when he c o n s i d e r s , o n l y i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s , o r . q u a l i t i e s . The m u t a b i l i t y o f p e r c e i v e d forms Sua p r o p e r t y 23 n o t o n l y o f sub-human m a t t e r b u t p e r t a i n s t o a l l m a t t e r i n c l u d i n g t h e k i n d w h i c h e a t s w i t h a k n i f e and f o r k and demands, by r e a s o n o f t h i s , a p r i v a t e i d e n t i t y s e p a r a b l e from i t s p e r c e i v e d i d e n t i t y . When C h i l l i n g -w o r t h c o m p l a i n s of.becoming h e l p l e s s l y submerged i n h i s f i e n d i s h r o l e ("A m o r t a l man w i t h once a human h e a r t , has become a f i e n d f o r h i s e s p e c i a l t o r m e n t " ) , he i s n o t s h i r k i n g h i s m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y so much as r e c o g n i z i n g h i m s e l f as s u b j e c t to, t h e same p r o c e s s by w h i c h . l e s s s e l f - a s s e r t i v e o b j e c t s come.to e x i s t more s y m b o l i c a l l y t h a n a c t u a l l y . . I n h i s e s s a y "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : A R e a d i n g " , Rudolphe Von A b e l e makes an a c u t e . o b s e r v a t i o n on h i s c h a r a c t e r . Von A b e l e f i r s t c o m p l a i n s t h a t C h i l l i n g w o r t h . l o s e s , e f f e c t i v e n e s s b ecause h i s i d e n t i t y s t r a d d l e s two modes of, l i t e r a r y p o r t r a i t u r e , t h e n a t u r a l -i s t i c and t h e a l l e g o r i c a l . Then he r e l e n t s somewhat i n h i s judgment: We can save h i m be r e g a r d i n g h i m as a p r o j e c t i o n o f m e n t a l s t a t e s j i n . w h i c h case he " f i t s " h i s r o l e a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y . 1 7 Though the c o m p l a i n t o f o v e r - i n g e n u i t y and consequent d e h u m a n i z a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s i s s t o c k c r i t i c a l f a r e , ..Von A b e l e ' s r e f e r e n c e , . t o C h i l l i n g w o r t h as a d e r i v a t i v e o f Dimmesdale's m e n t a l s t a t e r e l a t e s the l e e c h to what has a l r e a d y b e e n . o b s e r v e d r e g a r d i n g a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . C u r i o u s l y , Von A b e l e o m i t s a l o g i c a l c o r o l l a r y t o h i s . s u g g e s t i o n t h a t , m i g h t have r e s u l t e d i n a k i n d e r a p p r a i s a l o f t h e l e e c h ' s r o l e , i n t h e s t o r y . I f C h i l l i n g w o r t h i s , i n f a c t , a k i n d o f p s y c h i c m i r r o r t o Dimmesdale,. th e n a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s j u s t i f i -c a t i o n as a c h a r a c t e r r e s i d e s i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h Dimmesdale a c h i e v e s "Rudolphe.Von A b e l e ^ "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : A . Reading", A c c e n t , X I (Autumn, 1951), 219. 24 f u l l d r a m a t i c l i f e . Von A b e l e seems t o say t h a t C h i l l i n g w o r t h does s e r v e a m i r r o r f u n c t i o n and then c o m p l a i n t h a t the m i r r o r i s too f l a t . Stiephen A. B l a c k pursues.-the . - c o r r e l a t i o n between psyche and s y m b o l i s m at. more l e n g t h . t h a n does. Von A b e l e and c r e d i t a b l y sees, t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t a l e as c r u c i a l .to. t he u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h a r a c t e r s as w e l l as a l l m e t a p h y s i c a l meanings i n the s t o r y : ...a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m i n . t h e a c t i o n of, t h i s n o v e l i s t h a t phenomenal, r e a l i t y . . i s . u s u a l l y , o b s c u r e d f o r t h e • c h a r a c t e r s b y t h e i r u n f l a g g i n g e f f o r t s t o account f o r e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e as s y m b o l i c o f a . g r e a t e r r e a l i t y b e l i e v e d t o e x i s t . o u t s i d e t h e h u m a n l y . p e r c e i v a b l e w o r l d . Any. u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ' H e s t e r ' and Dimmesdale, says B l a c k , must t a k e i n t o account., " t h e i r p r o c l i v i t y — o n e w h i c h t h e y s h a r e w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y — r t o ^ c o n s t r u c t . s y m b o l i c , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l 19 e v e n t s , t h i n g s and p e o p l e . " When t h i s tendency goes amok as i n the; case o f H e s t e r and Dimmesdale t h e r e s u l t i s " h a l l u c i n a t i o n , 20 t o t a l e strangement from r e a l i t y . " ,'\ The weakness o f B l a c k ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , i s t h a t he b o r d e r s on.an u n n e c e s s a r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n d i s c o v e r i n g the i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e b e h i n d s y m b o l i z a t i o n , a d m i t t i n g 18 Stephen. A. B l a c k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : The S y m b o l i c N a r r a t i v e o f The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , " i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 196 8 ) , p. i x . 19 Stephen A.. B l a c k , "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : . Death by Symbols," Paunch, XXIV ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , 5 2 / I b i d . 25 t h e " t o t a l e strangement from r e a l i t y " e x p e r i e n c e d by H e s t e r and Dimmesdale, and t h e n p o s t u l a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f an a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y ("phenomenal r e a l i t y , " " r e a l e v e n t s , t h i n g s and p e o p l e " ) by w h i c h degrees of. estrangement can be c o n v e n i e n t l y measured. B l a c k s k i r t s any r e a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n b y . e n l i s t i n g Hawthorne on h i s s i d e when he i n s i s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a b a s i c n a t u r a l i s m i n t h e p o r t r a i t u r e o f P e a r l and C h i l l i n g w o r t h t h a t the a u t h o r . m a i n t a i n s d e s p i t e t h e e m b l e m a t i c d i s t o r t i o n s imposed by H e s t e r and Dimmesdale. B l a c k ' s argument f o r . n a t u r a l i s m i n c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s i s a v i e w he shares, w i t h a number o f o t h e r Hawthorne, c r i t i c s and h i s d e f e n s e , . l i k e t h e i r s , l e a d s . t o . an. a c r o b a t i c attempt t o s h i f t H a w t h o r n e ' s , p o i n t of.emphasis i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h i t i s a r g u e d t h a t a l t h o u g h he may appear as a demonic a b s t r a c t i o n o f e v i l , he i s a l s o t h e . c u c k o l d e d husband s e e k i n g r e v e n g e , the o b s e s s e d man and t h e c u r i o u s s c i e n t i s t . These e x p l a n a t i o n s ' h a v e somewhat the same appearance as Iago's s e l f -j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r . t h e carnage, he i n s t i g a t e s , namely his. s u s p i c i o n t h a t he has been c u c k o l d e d by O t h e l l o . I n b o t h cases one i s l e f t w i t h the f e e l i n g t h a t t a n g i b l e , . human-j m o t i v a t i o n s a r e more c o n v e n i e n t t h a n s a t i s f y i n g . B l a c k ' s c o n t e n t i o n becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s t u c k i n - d e a l i n g w i t h the e p i s o d e i n t h e t a l e when C h i l l i n g w o r t h s e c r e t l y o b s e r v e s t h e m i n i s t e r i n h i s s l e e p and i s s t r u c k by what he o b s e r v e s upon h i s b r e a s t : A f t e r a b r i e f pause, the p h y s i c i a n t u r n e d away. But w i t h what a w i l d l o o k o f wonder, j o y , and h o r r o r ! W i t h what a g h a s t l y r a p t u r e , as i t were, t o o m i g h t y to be e x p r e s s e d o n l y by the eye and f e a t u r e s , and t h e r e f o r e b u r s t i n g f o r t h . t h r o u g h t h e whole u g l i n e s s 26 o f h i s f i g u r e , and making i t s e l f even r i o t o u s l y m a n i f e s t by the e x t r a v a g a n t g e s t u r e s w i t h w h i c h he threw up h i s arms towards the c e i l i n g , and stamped h i s f o o t upon t h e f l o o r ! Had a man s e e n o l d Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h , a t t h a t moment.of h i s e c s t a s y , he w o u l d have had no need t o ask how S a t a n comports h i m s e l f , when a p r e c i o u s human s o u l i s l o s t t o heaven, and w o n . i n t o h i s kingdom. But what d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s e c s t a s y f r o i a v S a t a n ' s was the t r a i t o f wonder i n i t ! ( p . 138) B l a c k s e i z e s upon the. element o f ."wonder" i n C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s demeanour as e v i d e n c e o f t h e old.man's b a s i c a l l y , s c i e n t i f i c b i a s w h i c h i s t o u c h e d w i t h a r a t h e r , p e r s i s t e n t c u r i o s i t y and l o v e o f d i s c o v e r y . I n t h e case o f P e a r l , the attempt t o n a t u r a l i z e h e r c h a r a c t e r seems even more . t h e f o r c i n g , of. an i s s u e t h a n i n , the, case o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h . R.. H. F o g l e defends..:Pearl.'.s, n a t u r e as e s s e n t i a l l y 21 c h i l d l i k e w h i l e conceding;.she asks " f i e n d i s h l y a p t " q u e s t i o n s . M a r j o r i e J . E l d e r goes one b e t t e r . A f t e r n o t i n g t h a t P e a r l has a c h i l d ' s c a p r i c i o u s n e s s . and, t h a t , h e r q u e s t i o n s m i ght be seen as "naughty' 1' as. w e l l , as,; a p t , she e x t e n d s h e r sympathy to " t h e p a t h e t i c 22 l o n e l i n e s s o f a c h i l d c u t o f f f r o m ; o t h e r c h i l d r e n . " P e a r l i s . c h a r a c t e r w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t a f u r t h e r . p o i n t i n t h i s work; Mean-w h i l e , by way o f some r e f u t a t i o n o f t h i s " n a t u r a l i z i n g " approach among c r i t i c s , i t . m i g h t be. s a i d . t h a t P e a r l seems, t o b e a r a minimum o f human q u a l i t i e s and. a s u r f e i t o f demonic p r o p e r t i e s . Her b e h a v i o r 21 ,R. H. Fogley.,. The L i g h t , arid t h e / D a r k , (Oklahoma: , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma-Press., 1952),. p. 144. On t h e same page F o g l e adds., i n r e f e r e n c e t o P e a r l : "No s i n g l e . a c t i o n o f . h e r s i s ever, i n c r e d i b l e : o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the, c o n c e i v a b l e .actions., o f ,:any. c h i l d u n d e r t h e same . c o n d i t i o n s ."' 22 M a r j o r i e J . E l d e r , N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne: T r a r i s c e n d e n t a l S y m b o l i s t , (Ohio U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , . 1 969), p. 138. WF 27 when H e s t e r • c a s t s o f f t h e s c a r l e t l e t t e r i s a r e b e l l i o u s t a n t r u m , b u t i t i s so h i g h l y c h a r g e d w i t h , a s i g n i f i c a n c e she ,can n o t " n a t u r a l l y " be aware o f . t h a t h e r " c h i l d i s h n e s s ' . ' i m p a r t s , a g r o t e s q u e f e e l i n g t o the scene r a t h e r t h a n any. sense o f . p r o b a b i l i t y , . Hawthorne's own acknowledgement t h a t , i n the f i n a l s c a f f o l d s c e n e , "a s p e l l i s b r o k e n " so t h a t P e a r l might "grow up amid, human. j o y and s o r r o w " ( p . 256) makes i t p l a i n e n ough.that s o m e t h i n g i n a non-human s p h e r e was i n t e n d e d . b y h e r c h a r a c t e r . 28 CHAPTER I I I CHILLINGWORTH'S ROLE C h i l l i n g w o r t h i s b o t h a. v i c t i m i z e r and a v i c t i m b u t i n a sense l e s s o b v i o u s t h a n Hawthorne s u g g e s t s when he m o r a l i z e s : I n a w o r d , o l d R o g e r . C h i l l i n g w o r t h was a s t r i k i n g e v i d e n c e o f man's f a c u l t y of, t r a n s f o r m i n g h i m s e l f i n t o a d e v i l , i f he w i l l o n l y , f o r a r e a s o n a b l e s p a c e o f t i m e , u n d e r t a k e a d e v i l ' s o f f i c e . (p. 170) When t h e l e e c h . a c c u s e s t h e . p r i e s t o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s d e - h u m a n i z a t i o n , he .may be s h i r k i n g . h i s . m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as man, b u t : as. an a l l e g o r i s m o r type . (by. t h i s t i m e i n t h e s t o r y he i s more t h i s than, a man), he i s . a t t r i b u t i n g the causes o f h i s t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n c o r r e c t l y . L i k e R o d e r i c k E l l i s . t o n ' s bosom s e r p e n t o r the w i t c h e s t h a t appear, to. Macbeth, C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s appearance and m e t t l e have no autonomous e x i s t e n c e . When Dimmesdale committed s i n he v i o l a t e d h i s c o n s c i e n c e and began.the p r o c e s s , by w h i c h h i s mind .would d i s r u p t t h e outward w o r l d t o c r e a t e t h e embodied phantoms o f h i s i n w a r d s t r i f e . As many have o b s e r v e d , C h i l l i n g w o r t h , i s , a , p u n i t i v e , a v e n g i n g f i g u r e a l l e g o r i c a l l y . r e s e m b l i n g t h e . , g u i l t - r i d d e n r e c r i m i n a t i o n s o f an a c t i v e . c o n s c i e n c e . However he i s : n o t everyman's g u i l t , as he would, be i n the. hands, o f Bunyan, b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e g u i l t o f Dimmesdale.. I t i s o u t o f t h e p r i e s t ' s m i n d . t h a t he has h i s s o u r c e r a t h e r , t h a n d i r e c t l y from Hawthorne or.God ( v i e w i n g c o n s c i e n c e , f o r 29 t h e moment, i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e o l o g i c a l t e r m s ) . A r t h u r Dimmesdale's d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h i s a p h y s i c a l mani-f e s t a t i o n o f h i s t o r t u r e d , d e c l i n i n g s p i r i t — - a r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e p s y c h o s o m a t i c e f f e c t . Less u s u a l , p l a u s i b i l i t i e s .must ,account f o r the appearance o f t h e "A" on h i s b r e a s t i n t h e f i n a l s c a f f o l d s eene, . a l tho ugh only, an e x t e r n a l l y i n f l i c t e d wound c o u l d e x p l a i n i t s p r e s e n c e i n n a t u r a l i s t i c terms. Y e t , a f t e r many s u c h e m b l e m a t i c wonders.have p r e c e d e d i t , the more phenomenal, l i k e l i h o o d does no t seem i m p r o b a b l e . Dimmesdale's own c o n v i c t i o n t h a t " t h e D e v i l knew i t w e l l and f r e t t e d i t c o n t i n u a l l y ' w i t h h i s b u r n i n g f i n g e r " ( p . 255) c o n f i r m s i t s a c u t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b e i n g i f not. i t s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e . I t i s n o t a l o n g . s t e p from p s y c h o s o m a t i c i s m t o ..pseudo-miraculism and t h e n t o a more u l t i m a t e e v i d e n c e of. t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s o n l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l one. There i s e v i d e n c e . t h a t Dimmesdale i n f l i c t s C h i l l i n g w o r t h . o n h i s p e r s o n j u s t as he r u i n s h i s b o d i l y h e a l t h and, m i r a c u l o u s l y o r . o t h e r w i s e , c a r v e s an "A" on h i s bosom. . There axe many p r e c e d e n t s i n Hawthorne's t a l e s i n v o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r s w i t h s i m i l a r , r a d i c a l m o r b i d i t y o f s p i r i t . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o d i g r e s s f o r a moment and examine t h e case o f "Young Goodman Brown". The t a l e ..is. a p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a p h i c a ccount o f the. i n t r o s p e c t i v e , tendency:gone amok, . p u r s u i n g n i g h t m a r i s h a d v e n t u r e s w h e r e i n t h e h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e s p i r i t c o n f r o n t s i t s own d i r e s t . f e a r s . The m o t i v a t i o n s f o r Brown's j o u r n e y i n t o the f o r e s t a r e as vague as t h e n a t u r e o f o b s e s s i o n , b u t t h e r e i s ' a " d a r k n e c e s s i t y " t o 30 t h e j o u r n e y : "Too f a r ! too f a r ! " e x c l a i m e d t h e goodman, u n c o n s c i o u s l y resuming h i s w a l k . 2 3 The e v e n t s o f Brown's o r d e a l f o l l o w a p r e c i s e l y c u m u l a t i v e p a t t e r n b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e e n d u r a b l e . t r i a l s , o f l e a r n i n g t h a t r e p u t a b l e f i g u r e s . o f . a u t h o r i t y , and :Brown's own.ancestors s e e m i n g l y had. covenants, w i t h .the . D e v i l . .Brown, i s d i s t u r b e d b u t manages t o . r a t i o n a l i z e t h e e v i d e n c e . o f f a r - r e a c h i n g c o r r u p t i o n . I t does n o t touch, him d i r e c t l y : H o w b e i t , I have n o t h i n g to, do w i t h t h e g o v e r n o r and c o u n c i l ; they, have t h e i r own ways, and a r e no r u l e f o r a simple.husbandman l i k e me. ^ Brown's f e a r s b e g i n t o be more e a r n e s t l y i n c a r n a t e d ;when Goody C l o y s e a f f i r m s her. p a c t w i t h the, man o f t h e f o r e s t . T h i s touches him moire deeply; and:denotes a s h a r p . p r o g r e s s i o n . " d e e p i n t o t h e 25 h e a t h e n w i l d e r n e s s . " . . The f i n a l . . p r o g r e s s i o n . i s , o f c o u r s e , B r o w n ' s . r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t , the s t a t u s o f . h i s own w i f e i s u n c e r t a i n . ^ N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, "Young Goodman Brown," Mosses From an  O l d Manse' (London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h and Company, 1883) , p. 92.-24 I b i d . , p. 93. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 97. 31 L i t e r a l l y , F a i t h , b e i n g Brown's w i f e , i s h i s most i n t i m a t e human r e l a t i o n and hence h i s c h i e f support i n l i f e . F i g u r a t i v e l y v i e w e d , f a i t h i s • the u l t i m a t e bulwark a g a i n s t the doubts which a s s a i l Brown's p i e t y . Her appearance i n the w i l d e r n e s s communion represents the darkes t f e a r t h a t can confront an e r s t w h i l e p ious man; not the pervas iveness of d e p r a v i t y i n mankind but the s u s p i c i o n concomit tant 26 w i t h t h i s — n a m e l y . t h a t " s i n i s but a name" and v i r t u e a n o t h e r . U n l i k e M r . E v a n g e l i s t of P i l g r i m ' s Progress , , who represents a c t i v e , p r a c t i s i n g f a i t h as opposed. to complacent p i e t y , Goodman Brown's f a i t h seems to be. b e l i e f i t s e l f s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t evidence which suggests a God-forsaken r e a l i t y . . Observ ing the f o r e s t company, Brown i s shocked by the p r o x i m i t y o f - t h e good and the w i c k e d : E i t h e r , the sudden gleams of l i g h t f l a s h i n g over the obscure f i e l d b e d a z z l e d Goodman B r o w n , ' o r he r e c o g n i z e d a score o f the church members of Salem v i l l a g e famous f o r t h e i r , e s p e c i a l s a n c t i t y . Good o l d Deacon Gookin had . a r r i v e d ' , and. w a i t e d at the s k i r t s o f t h a t venerable s a i n t , h i s revered p a s t o r . B u t , i r r e v e r e n t l y c o n s o r t i n g w i t h these g r a v e , r e p u t a b l e and p i o u s people., these e l d e r s of the c h u r c h , these chaste ".dames and dewy, v i r g i n s , there were men o f d i s s o l u t e l i v e s and women of s p o t t e d fame, wretches given, over to a l l mean and f i l t h y v i c e , and suspected even, o f h o r r i d c r i m e s . I t was s t range to see tha t the good shrank not from the w i c k e d , nor were the s i n n e r s abashed b y . t h e s a i n t s . S c a t t e r e d a l s o among t h e i r p a l e f a c e d enemies were the I n d i a n . p r i e s t s or.powwows, who had o f t e n scared t h e i r n a t i v e f o r e s t w i t h more hideous i n c a n t a t i o n s than any known t o E n g l i s h , v i t c h c r a f t . ^ "Young Goodman B r o w n , " p . 99. I b i d . , p . 101. 32 Later in the story Hawthorne makes the suggestion that the virtuous demeanor of these "venerable saints" is a mask, but in the meantime, with the context of the scene unmodified, itsvimport is strangely blasphemous. The interspersing of saints and sinners suggests more the lack of .grounds for distinction.between the two than a mixture of plain appearances and facades. .The pessimism seems almost atheistic, and this vein is reaffirmed.when the fiend bids Brown and his wife face one another,, and then exults: "Depending upon, one an^oher.'s. hearts, ye had s t i l l hoped that virtue, were not a l l a dream. Now ye are.. undeceived.. E v i l i s .the nature of mankind. E v i l must be your'only happiness. Welcome again, my.children, to the communion of your.race".28 The-evil that causes Brown's final despair is negatively defined; not. the power of wickedness, so much as an absence of any absolute virtue that-might give testimony: to an ethical universe and the workings of. a Providence. Goodman Brown's confusion might require a.plea of the kind made by the man:viewing his mirror image in "Monsieur du Miroir": A few words, perhaps, might-satisfy :the feverish yearning of.my soul for some.master thought that should.guide me'-; thro ugh; this labyrinth of l i f e , teaching wherefore I was born, and how to do my' task on earth, and what is death. 2 9 2 8 "Young Goodman Brown", p. 104. 29 Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Monsieur du Miroir," Mosses Prom an Old Manse (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company; 1883), p.. 195, 33 But Brown can d i s c o v e r no i n t i m a t i o n o f any "master t h o u g h t " t h a t w i l l a l l o w h i m t o r e t u r n ' t o the easy f a i t h w h i c h c o m f o r t e d h i m b e f o r e he began, m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , the e x p l o r a t i o n o f h i s d a r k e s t d o u b t s . L i k e o t h e r s e n s i t i v e s p i r i t s i n Hawthorne's f i c t i o n — R o d e r i c k E l l i s t - o n , Reuben Bourne, R o b i n M o l i n e u x , Reverend Hooper, and Dimmesdale--Goodman ,Brown ;through h i s own c o m p u l s i o n t o w a r d p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s e l f - c a s . t i g a t i o n ^ . i s .plunged, i n t o an i r r e v e r s i b l y t r a g i c p r o c e s s . J u s t as Goodman Brown i s . l e d t o f a c e e x a c t l y t h o s e f e a r s t o w h i c h he i s most s u s c e p t i b l e , Dimmesdale, .on h i s own<< j o u r n e y i n t o t h e f o r e s t , o f h i s h e a r t , f i n d s , " a , f i e n d f o r h i s e s p e c i a l t o r m e n t . " He f i n d s C h i l l i n g w o r t h , . whose, n a t u r e and.purpose a r e n o t o n l y a d v e r s e . t o Dimmesdale's b u t the a n t i t h e s i s o f a l l t h a t the p r i e s t wishes, t o ! b e l i e v e and. hope for... Brown's o r d e a l , i s n o t a random c o l l e c t i o n o f . t e m p t a t i o n s . a n d . t r i a l s b u t a h i g h l y , s t r u c t u r e d p s y c h o -l o g i c a l .sequence,; and. s i m i l a r l y t h e , D i m m e s d a l e - C h i l l i n g w o r t h framework i s n o t an i n g e n i o u s , s u p e r i m p o s e d symmetry b u t . a . p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e v o l v e d a p p o s i t i o n . T h e ' m i n i s t e r , whose,great f e a r i s t h e r e v e l a t i o n , o f h i s s e c r e t , . i s a t t e n d e d by h i s m o r t a l enemy, t h e c u c k o l d e d husband, . whose s i n g l e p u r p o s e , i s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t s e c r e t . The'man o f a mind t h a t " i m p e l l e d i t s e l f p o w e r f u l l y a l o n g . t h e t r a c k o f a c r e e d , and wore i t s p assage c o n t i n u a l l y , deeper w i t h . the l a p s e o f time'! ( p . 123) i s c a r e d , f o r by.one p o s s e s s i n g .an " i n t e l l e c t u a l ' c u l t i v a t i o n , o f no moderate depth o r scope;, t o g e t h e r w i t h a range: and. freedom o f i d e a s , t h a t he iDimmesdale] w o u l d have v a i n l y l o o k e d f o r among t h e members 34 o f h i s own p r o f e s s i o n " (p. 1 2 3 ) . T h i s l a s t a n t i t h e s i s s t r o n g l y resembles the o r d e a l o f Goodman Brown, p a r t i c u l a r l y when Dimmesdale i s d e s c r i b e d as a man f o r whom " i t w o u l d always be e s s e n t i a l t o . h i s peace t o f e e l t h e p r e s s u r e o f ..a f a i t h about him, s u p p o r t i n g w h i l e i t c o n f i n e d h i m w i t h i n i t s i r o n framework" ( p . 1 2 3 ) . J u s t as Brown i s c o m p e l l e d t o make t h e j o u r n e y i n t o t h e f o r e s t o f h i s own a n x i e t i e s , Dimmesdale i s ' m a k i n g t h e same j o u r n e y i n c o n j u r i n g Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h . N o t a b l y i t i s Dimmesdale . h i m s e l f who•consents t o b e i n g a t t e n d e d by the l e e c h a f t e r o r i g i n a l l y p r o t e s t i n g " I need no m e d i c i n e " ( p . 1 2 2 ) . Among o t h e r t h i n g s h i s r e a s o n s i n c l u d e a c e r t a i n " f a s c i n a t i o n " (p. 123) f o r t h i s man o f s c i e n c e w i t h h i s p r o b i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y . C h i l l i n g -w o r t h appears t o r e c o g n i z e , a c e r t a i n n o n - c i r c u m s t a n t i a l q u a l i t y i n h i s p r o x i m i t y w i t h Dimmesdale when he g i v e s a r a t h e r ambiguous a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s d i s g u i s e : "He has been c o n s c i o u s o f me. He has f e l t an i n f l u e n c e d w e l l i n g always .upon him l i k e a c u r s e . He knew, by some s p i r i t u a l s e n s e , — f o r t h e C r e a t o r n e v e r madeaanot'her b e i n g . s o s e n s i t i v e as t h i s , — he knew t h a t no f r i e n d l y hand was p u l l i n g a t h i s h e a r t s t r i n g s , and t h a t an eye w a s - l o o k i n g c u r i o u s l y , i n t o h im, w h i c h sought o n l y e v i l , and f o u n d i t . But he knew n o t t h a t the eye and hand were mine! W i t h t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n common t o h i s b r o t h e r h o o d , he f a n c i e d h i m s e l f g i v e n o v e r t o a f i e n d , . . .Yea, i n d e e d ! — a n d he d i d n o t e r r ! — t h e r e was-a f i e n d a t h i s elbow! A m o r t a l man, w i t h once a human h e a r t , has become a f i e n d f o r h i s e s p e c i a l t o r m e n t ! " (pp. 171-172) L a t e r , when H e s t e r " r e v e a l s " t h e d o c t o r ' s t r u e i d e n t i t y , Dimmesdale's comment d i s p e l s f i n a l l y t h e n o t i o n t h a t i n t r i g u e o r c i r c u m s t a n c e has 35 any bearing on his intimacy with the leech: "I mi'ghthave known i t ! " murmured he. "I did know i t ! Was not the secret t o l d me i n the natural r e c o i l of my heart, at the f i r s t sight of him, and as often as I have, seen him since?" (p. 194) When Hawthorne describes the.minister's state of mind as having for i t s only r e a l i t y "the.anguish,in hi s inmost soul " , he i s doing more than making emphatic the.priest's ordeal; he i s st a t i n g an amoral psychological, f a c t . ..Dimmesdale has begun to lose his power to d i s t i n g u i s h a. sane froms'ia neurotic perception of the world. The " r e a l " world becomes the inner world translated into e x t e r i o r objects and a drama, of obsession begins. The portentous fiends which once haunted Dimmesdale's nightmarish dreams., incessantly, reminding him of his. g u i l t and hypocrisy, become the s i n g l e f a c t of .his. existence, f i n a l l y erupting into.. a world which has become: i l l u s o r y i n i t s . vagueness... and. finding, an. embodiment i n Chillingworth,.: "a f i e n d f o r his. e s p e c i a l torment;" As at the waving.of a magician's wand, uprose a g r i s l y phantom—uprose a thousandgiphantoms—in many shapes, of. death or. mo re. awful shame, a l l f l o c k i n g round about the clergyman, and pointing . with t h e i r fingers at has breast! (p. 140) The v i t a l question that grows out of t h i s process i s . whether or not. Dimmesdale can withstand Chillingworth's domination, . or, i n other words, whether the p r i e s t w i l l succumb to his increasing a l i e n t a t i o n from the r e a l , l i t e r a l , w o r l d . When Dimmesdale.is r e f e r r e d to as. a "conscience-stricken p r i e s t , " the observation has strong 36 n o n - r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s r e l a t e d i n t i m a t e l y t o the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was "never made a b e i n g so s e n s i t i v e as t h i s . " The c o r r e l a t i o n between s i n and g u i l t appears t o wane : i n i t s r e l a t i o n to the t a l e w h i l e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s m o r b i d i t y and s u f f e r i n g , looms i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e s c a r l e t "A" i s n o t a t a l i s m a n o f m o r a l t r a n s g r e s s i o n o n l y ; i t a l s o has. a s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i s l e s s f a c i l e . Hawthorne speaks o f i t a f t e r H e s t e r f l i n g s i t from h e r : B u t t h e r e l a y t h e e m b r o i d e r e d l e t t e r , g l i t t e r i n g l i k e a l o s t j e w e l , , w h i c h some, i l l - f a t e d w a n d e r e r m i g h t p i c k up, and t h e n c e f o r t h be h a u n t e d by s t r a n g e phantoms o f e v i l , s i n k i n g s o f t h e h e a r t , and u n a c c o u n t a b l e m i s f o r t u n e . (p. 202) S i g n i f i c a n t l y Hawthorne does n o t : i m p l y t h a t the l e t t e r w o u l d e f f e c t o n l y s i n n e r s i n t h i s way, b u t anyone who happened upon i t . Here i s t h e t a l i s m a n , a p a r t from H e s t e r ; t h e symptoms a r e a p a r t from t h e i r m o r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e and y e t .the e f f e c t s do n o t change. The s i n k i n g s o f the h e a r t r e c u r , even when t h e s o u r c e i s " u n a c c o u n t a b l e " i n terms o f c r i m e and punishment, s u g g e s t i n g causes w h i c h must be s o u g h t w i t h i n t h e . p r e d i l e c t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n th e e x t e r i o r event of; s i n . I n h i s a n a l y s i s , o f . a passage i n t h e c h a p t e r "A Flood, o f S u n s h i n e " , . F r e d e r i c k Crews s h r e w d l y o b s e r v e s t h a t Hawthorne m o m e n t a r i l y s u b s t i t u t e s g u i l t f o r s i n i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e s o u r c e o f t h e t a l e ' s s o r r o w : , And be the s t e r n and aad t r u t h s p oken, t h a t the b r e a c h w h i c h g u i l t has once made i n t o t h e human. s o n l i s n e v e r , i n t h i s m o r t a l s t a t e , r e p a i r e d . I t may be watched and guarded; so t h a t t h e enemy s h a l l n o t f o r c e h i s way a g a i n i n t o t h e c i t a d e l , 37 and m i g h t even, i n h i s subsequent a s s a u l t s , s e l e c t some o t h e r avenue, i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h a t where he had f o r m e r l y s u c c e e d e d . But th&re i s s t i l l t h e r u i n e d w a l l , and, n e a r i t , t h e s t e a l t h y t r e a d o f t h e f o e t h a t w o u l d w i n o v e r a g a i n h i s u n f o r -g o t t e n t r i u m p h - (pp. 200-201) One must deduce, s a y s Crews, t h a t t h e a c t u a l s t a t e o f C h r i s t i a n g u i l t i s n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f . g u i l t , w h i c h i n t h e m s e l v e s p o s s e s s the.power t o i n d u c e s u f f e r i n g and. r e - c r e a t e t h e r e a l i t i e s 30 o f t h e o u t w a r d w o r l d . As C h i l l i n g w o r t h p r o b e s more d e e p l y , Dimmesdale's s t r u g g l e becomes -more e x p l i c i t l y , a s t r u g g l e ' t o w i t h s t a n d an a s s a u l t upon h i s sanity.;: The/ c a p t u r e o f : the. p r i e s t ' s , s o u l , t h e destruction o f h i s : m o r a l , f i b r e , i s a f i g u r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h i l l i n g -w o r t h ' s attempt t o g a i n : ascendency, and.make t h e i l l u s o r y w o r l d he r e p r e s e n t e d Dimmesdale!s o n l y r e a l i t y . . The d e t e r r e n t t o s u c h a breakdown .has, l i k e the. cause,, b o t h a . f i g u r a t i v e and a w o r k i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F i g u r a t i v e l y , i.t i s penance; i n p r a c t i s e i t i s an i m m e r s i o n i n t h e p h y s i c a l , s e n s o r y w o r l d w h e t h e r t h r o u g h f l a g e l l a t i o n o r a n y , o t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t r a c t i o n , eVen d e a t h , t h a t w i l l have t h e e f f e c t o f d i s p e l l i n g h a l l u c i n a t o r y phantasms: He k e p t v i g i l s . , l i k e w i s e , n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t , some-t i m e s i n u t t e r d a r k n e s s ; sometimes, w i t h a g l i m m e r i n g lamp; and. sometimes, v i e w i n g h i s own.face i n a l o o k i n g - g l a s s , . by the. most p o w e r f u l l i g h t w h i c h he c o u l d throw upon i t . He thus t y p i f i e d Crews, S i n s of. t h e F a t h e r s , p. 137. Crews a n a l y z e s : "Does Hawthorne mean t o d e s c r i b e t h e s o u l ' s p r e c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f o v e r t s i n ? A p p a r e n t l y n o t , s i n c e t h e ' s t e a l t h y f o e ' i s i d e n t i f i e d as g u i l t r a t h e r t h a n as the f o r b i d d e n urge t o s i n . . . . I t i s p l a i n l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o see ' g u i l t ' as t h e o r i g i n a l a s s a i l a n t o f t h e c i t a d e l , f o r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t a r i s e o n l y i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t condemned a c t s o r t h o u g h t s . " 38 t h e c o n s t a n t i n t r o s p e c t i o n w h e r e w i t h he t o r t u r e d , b u t c o u l d n o t p u r i f y , h i m s e l f . I n t h e s e l e n g t h e n e d v i g i l s , - h i s b r a i n o f t e n r e e l e d , and v i s i o n s seemed t o f l i t b e f o r e him;...Now i t was a h e r d o f d i a b o l i c s h a p e s , t h a t g r i n n e d and mocked at t h e p a l e m i n i s t e r , and beckoned.him away w i t h them; now a group o f s h i n i n g a n g e l s , .who f l e w upward h e a v i l y , as s o r r o w l a d e n , but. grew, more e t h e r e a l as . they r o s e . . . . None o f t h e s e v i s i o n s e v e r q u i t e d e l u d e d him. A t any moment, by an e f f o r t o f h i s w i l l , he c o u l d d i s c e r n s u b s t a n c e s t h r o u g h , t h e i r m i s t y l a c k o f s u b s t a n c e , and c o n v i n c e h i m s e l f t h a t they were not s o l i d i n t h e i r n a t u r e , l i k e yonder, t a b l e o f c a r v e d oak,, or. t h a t b i g , square,, l e a t h e r - b o u n d and b r a z e n -c l a s p e d volume, o f d i v i n i t y , (pp. 144-145) But t h e s e v i s i o n s , of " d i a b o l i c s h a p e s " are. m e r e l y dreams w i t h i n a dream.- The phantom w h i c h . i s C h i l l i n g w o r t h . i s an encroachment i n t o s u b s t a n t i a l r e a l i t y : o f , a more s i n i s t e r , a l l - p e r v a d i n g dream w h i c h cannot, be so . e a s i l y . d i s p e l l e d . H e s t e r makes th e s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . t h a t Dimmesdale's s u f f e r i n g seems an "unwholesome" form: o f s t r i f e w i t h d u b i o u s • r e g e n e r a -t i v e v a l u e : She doubted n o t , t h a t the. c o n t i n u a l p r e s e n c e o f Roger.. Chillingw,o,r.th, — . t h e s e c r e t p o i s o n o f h i s m a l i g n i t y , , i n f e c t i n g a l l the a i r about him,—-and h i s a u t h o r i z e d i n t e r f e r e n c e ; , as a. p h y s i c i a n , w i t h the m i n i s t e r ' s , s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l i n f i r m i t i e s , — t h a t t h e s e h a d o p p o r t u n i t i e s h a d " b e e n . t u r n e d i n t o a c r u e l p u r p o s e . By means of. them, .the s u f f e r e r ' s c o n s c i e n c e had'been k e p t i n an i r r i t a t e d s t a t e , t h e t e n d e n c y o f .which was, n o t t o cure:by,wholesome p a i n , b u t to. d i s o r g a n i z e , and. c o r r u p t h i s s p i r i t u a l . b e i n g . I t s r e s u l t , on e a r t h , c o u l d h a r d l y . f a i l t o be i n s a n i t y , and h e r e a f t e r t h a t e t e r n a l a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e Good and T r u e , of. w h i c h madness i s perhaps t h e e a r t h l y t y p e . (p. 193) 39 The "Good" connotes h a p p i n e s s o r a s t a t e of harmonious e x i s t e n c e . "At peace w i t h o n e s e l f " i s a c l i c h e w h i c h has p e c u l i a r r e l e v a n c e to the m i n i s t e r . The " T r u e " has t h e f a m i l i a r m o r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f u n h y p o c r i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e , b u t Hawthorne uses " t r u e " and " f a l s e " a number o f t i m e s i n t h e t a l e , and they have an a l t e r n a t e meaning. "True", as has been shown,, i s sometimes e q u a t e d w i t h " r e a l " , meaning th e w o r l d o f l i t e r a l f a c t ,where;';people and t h i n g s , p o s s e s s an u n p o r t e n t o u s r e a l i t y t h a t , i s n o t e v e r - r e f l e c t i n g t h e t e r r o r s o f t h e p e r c e i v i n g mind. H e s t e r ' s f e a r t h a t C h i l l i n g w o r t h w i l l t r i u m p h and a l i e n a t e Dimmesdale's from t h e "Good and. T r u e " ' i s t h e r e f o r e p a r t l y an a m o r a l c o n c e r n f o r the m i n i s t e r ' s s a n i t y and,a...wish f o r r e s p i t e and r e t u r n e d n o r m a l c y more t h a n m o r a l c o r r e c t n e s s . She c o n s c i o u s l y r e c o g n i z e s C h i l l i n g w o r t h as a s o u r c e o f t h e u n t r u e , i n v a m o r a l s e n s e , and she i n t u i t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e / g r o w i n g h a l l u c i n a t o r y w o r l d he i n c a r n a t e s . C h i l l i n g -w o r t h l i s e v i l b u t the e v i l he r e p r e s e n t s i s more p e c u l i a r l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e a t t h a n a m o r a l one. T h i s " e v i l " i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e "good" God i n t e n d e d when he gave man t h e " p i t h a n d s u b s t a n c e " o f ' w h a t e v e r r e a l i t i e s t h e r e a r e around u s , and w h i c h were meant by Heaven t o be t h e s p i r i t ' s joy, and n u t r i m e n t " ,(p. 1 4 5 ) . C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s growth i n f i e n d i s h s t a t u r e i s unchecked u n t i l the f o r e s t m e e t i n g between H e s t e r and Dimmesdale. T h i s e p i s o d e marks the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e end f o r C h i l l i n g w o r t h b e c a u s e i t r e v e r s e s the p r o c e s s o f Dimmesdale's a l i e n a t i o n from the "Good and T r u e . " H e s t e r o f f e r s the p r o s p e c t o f a l i f e unburdened o f t h e p a s t , f u l l o f e v e r y d a y d o m e s t i c r e a l i t i e s w h i c h d e t e r the d e l u s o r y w o r l d by p r o v i d i n g a sense o f the i m m e d i a t e , t h e t a n g i b l e and t h e s e n s o r y . The s o l a c e o f such a 40 l i f e i s r e f e r r e d to by Hawthorne i n h i s notebook e n t r y o f August 15, 1842. I t was a p l e a s a n t s e n s a t i o n when the coach rumbled up o u r avenue, and w h e e l e d r o u n d a t t h e door; f o r t h e n I f e l t I was r e g a r d e d as?-!a man w i t h a w i f e and a h o u s e h o l d — a man h a v i n g a t a n g i b l e e x i s t e n c e and l o c a l i t y i n t h e w o r l d — w h e n f r i e n d s came t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f our h o s p i t a l i t y . J ± H e s t e r ' s e x h o r t a t i o n to Dimmesdale t o escape Salem i s an e x h o r t a t i o n t o exchange r e a l i t i e s , . t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a l i t e r a l r e a l i t y . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s m e e t i n g w i t h . H e s t e r , Dimmesdale f i n d s h i m s e l f a b l e t o p r a c t i s e d i r e c t l y what H e s t e r h a d s u g g e s t e d i n d i r e c t l y a n d . f i g u r a t i v e l y , i n h e r escape p r o p o s a l : he b e g i n s a r e - i m m e r s i o n i n , t h e s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d . He b e g i n s t o d i s c o v e r anew p e o p l e beyond t h e c l a u s t r o p h o b i c c o n f i n e s o f t h e s e l f -C h i l l i n g w o r . t h - H e s t e r - P e a r l g r o u p i n g . And, most i m p o r t a n t l y , he b e g i n s . t o r e - o r i e n t h i m s e l f . That, i s , he r e c o g n i z e s more c l e a r l y the e x t e n t t o w h i c h h i s : o w n mind i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a h i t h e r t o a d v e r s e u n i v e r s e : As he.drew n e a r the town, he t o o k an i m p r e s s i o n o f change f r o m t h e s e r i e s of: f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s t h a t . p r e s e n t e d themselves...The-same was t r u e as r e g a r d e d the a c q u a i n t a n c e s , whom he met, and a l l .the w e l l - k n o w n shapes .'of human l i f e , about t h e l i t t l e town. They l o o k e d n e i t h e r o l d e r . n o r y o u n g e r , now; t h e b e a r d s o f t h e aged were ho w h i t e r , n o r c o u l d t h e c r e e p i n g babe o f y e s t e r d a y w a l k on h i s f e e t t o - d a y ; i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e i n N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne,: The A m e r i c a n N o t e b o o k s , ed. R a n d a l l S t e w a r t (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 156. 41 what r e s p e c t they d i f f e r e d from t h e i n d i v i d u a l s on whom he had so r e c e n t l y bestowed a p a r t i n g g l a n c e ; and y e t the m i n i s t e r ' s d e e p e s t s e n s e seemed t o i n f o r m h i m o f t h e i r m u t a b i l i t y . A s i m i l a r i m p r e s s i o n s t r u c k h i m most r e m a r k a b l y , as. he p a s s e d under the w a l l s o f h i s own c h u r c h . The e d i f i c e ibas so v e r y s t r a n g e , a n d y e t so f a m i l i a r , an a s p e c t , t h a t Mr. Dimmesdale's mind v i b . r a t e d between two i d e a s ; e i t h e r he had s e e n i t o n l y i n a dream h i t h e r t o , o r t h a t he was m e r e l y dreaming about i t riow. (pp. 216-217) Dimmesdale's awareness o f the. " m u t a b i l i t y " o f t h o s e he now p e r c e i v e s i s a t a c i t ..awareness o f t h e f a l s i t y , i n . h i m s e l f w h i c h C h i l l i n g w o r t h embodies and foreshadows t h e l e e c h ' s f a i l u r e t o r e g a i n h i s ascendency o v e r Dimmesdale's " s o u l " . To t h i s p o i n t i n the . t a l e . t h e t h e o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t can be put on t h e e v e n t s c o i n c i d e f a i r l y a m i c a b l y ; b u t f r o m the t i m e C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s power i s b r o k e n , the causes o f t h i s a l t e r a t i o n and t h e e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w l e n d t h e m s e l v e s more e x c l u s i v e l y t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l ~ : i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There i s no b r e a k i n c o n t i n u i t y between t h e t i m e o f Dimmesdale's i m p i o u s i m p u l s e s , upon h i s r e t u r n t o the town, and.the t i m e o f : h i s p r e p a r a t i o n .of t h e e l e c t i o n - d a y sermon. A sudden change i n mood o u t s i d e o f t h e r e a d e r ' s knowledge cannot be h y p o t h e s i z e d b e c a u s e Hawthorne does n o t work i n s u c h a random f a s h i o n . I t must be. assumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r ' s m o r a l s a l v a t i o n i s e f f e c t e d by h i s r e - a f f i r m a t i o n o f an immoral a c t and a c o n t i n u a t i o n .of t h e untoward i m p u l s e s w h i c h ' p r o c e e d f r o m t h i s r e - a f f i r m a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s sequence o f e v e n t s and emotions has n e v e r r e c e i v e d a s a t i s f y i n g t h e o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i e w o f f e r s more c o h e s i o n . Dimmesdale's urge t o do "some s t r a n g e , w i l d , w i c k e d t h i n g " i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h members o f h i s p a r i s h i s , i n f a c t , an e x t e n s i o n o f 42 the new e x i s t e n c e H e s t e r p r o p o s e s as a means t o r e s i s t i n g the dangers t o h i s m e n t a l b a l a n c e . Dimmesdale's s p i r i t o f i m p i e t y s t i l l denotes a r a d i c a l i m p u l s e to make c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d . I t a l s o denotes an i n c l i n a t i o n t o r e j e c t t h e p a s t t h a t i s even more h a r s h t h a n H e s t e r ' s p l a n o f a c t i o n . Above a l l , Dimmesdale's f e e l i n g s a r e an approach t o w a r d a r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s i n w a r d s t r i f e . Says Crews, H e s t e r ' s p r o p o s e d escape renews h i s l l b i d i n a l e n ergy and he r e t u r n s t o town renewed b u t on t h e v e r g e o f l o s i n g h i s powers t o 32 r e p r e s s . And s i m u l t a n e o u s l y he i s on t h e v e r g e o f a n n i h i l a t i n g C h i l l i n g -w o r t h , whose power waxes and wanes i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e m i n i s t e r ' s e x t e m a l i z a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Dimmesdale's urge t o w h i s p e r to t h e widowed l a d y " a b r i e f , p i t h y , and, as i t t h e n appeared t o h i m , unanswerable argument a g a i n s t t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e human s o u l " (p. 219) i s a n e a r l y open e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s doubts he t a c i t l y embraces i n t h e form o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h . S. A. B l a c k makes t h e n o t e w o r t h y o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e tone o f Dimmesdale's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h i l l i n g w o r t h i s a l r e a d y d r a s t i c a l l y changed i n t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g a f t e r the f o r e s t s c e n e . The demise o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s power i s foreshadowed i n t h e e n c o u n t e r when Dimmesdale d e f t l y p a r r i e s t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s q u e r i e s and c o u n t e r s t h e probe w i t h a b r a z e n charade o f h i s own. Wry]jp he t h a n k s h i s " k i n d p h y s i c i a n " f o r h i s " f r i e n d l y " m i n i s t r a -t i o n s and d e i g n s t o o f f e r good p r a y e r s as.' recompense f o r t h e l e e c h ' s s e r v i c e s . As B l a c k o b s e r v e s : S i n s o f t h e F a t h e r s , p. 146. 43 Dimmesdale's mind i s now f i l l e d w i t h t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n the m e t a p h y s i c s o r g u i l t . . . T h e bogey o f the o l d man has been r e p u d i a t e d . 33 W i t h the r e v e l a t i o n o f the l e t t e r on Dimmesdale's b r e a s t , the s t o r y ' s e t h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l s a r e b e l a t e d l y consummated, though t h e l a t t e r c o n c l u s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y f i g u r a t i v e l y by t h e m i n i s t e r ' s a c t . R e p r e s s i o n i s s o l v e d — n o t t e c h n i c a l l y s i n c e Dimmesdale's " c o n f e s s i o n " has a powofrful m e t a p h o r i c r e l e v a n c e t o the r e a l needs of h i s s p i r i t . Crews n o t e s t h a t Hawthorne has P e a r l l e a v e Salem i n t h e end and t a k e s t h i s as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s commitment has been t o t h e n a t u r e o f o b s e s s i o n r a t h e r than the m o r a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f C a l v i n i s t P u r i t a n i s m . A p p l y i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e to Dimmesdale, Crews From t h e d i s t a n c e we l o o k b a c k t o Dimmesdale's e g o c e n t r i c c o n f e s s i o n , n o t as a m o r a l example w h i c h Hawthorne w o u l d l i k e us t o f o l l o w , b u t as t h e l a s t l i n k i n a c h a i n o f c o m p u l s i o n t h a t has now been r e l a x e d . ^ I n e v i t a b l y t h e t a l e ' s f i n a l secne b e a r s s t r o n g r e s e m blance t o the w a k i n g from a dream. Here, as I n much o f h i s w r i t i n g , Hawthorne demonstrates h i s i n t e r e s t i n p o s t u l a t i n g a p l a c e "where t h e A c t u a l and t h e I m a g i n a r y may meet;" a m e e t i n g ground f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d by Hawthorne as a dream-world. O b s e r v i n g t h a t the dream a p p a r a t u s i s a f a v o r i t e d e v i c e o f t h e a l l e g o r i s t , Edwin H o n i g a n a l y z e s t h i s a f f i n i t y o b s e r v e s : S tephen A. B l a c k , "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : Death by Symbols," Paunch, XXIV ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , 69-70. 44 and f i n d s t h a t dreams have the v a l u e o f making " o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s much more d i s t i n c t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h i l e dreaming t h a n t h e y 35 appear when he i s awake.!' C l e a r l y , the v e r y p r o c e s s by w h i c h C h i l l i n g w o r t h becomes more g r a p h i c a l l y e n t r e n c h e d i n h i s r o l e , more h y p e r - s i g n i f i c a n t , more t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l l y a l l e g o r i c a l , i s t h e same p r o c e s s by w h i c h the dream grows and Dimmesdale's mind i n c r e a s i n g l y e x t e n d s i t s e g o t i s m " o v e r the whole expanse o f n a t u r e . " W a l k i n g i n t h e shadow o f a dream, as i t were, and perhaps a c t u a l l y under the i n f l u e n c e of a s p e c i e s of somnambulism, Mr. Dimmesdale r e a c h e d t h e s p o t , where, net so l o n g s i n c e , H e s t e r P r y n n e had l i v e d t h r o u g h h e r f i r s t h o u r s o f p u b l i c ignomy. (p. 147) The h o l i d a y s cene i n t h e market p l a c e has an i n t e n s e n a t u r a l i s m t h a t i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to t h e o p p r e s s i v e i m p a l p a b i l i t y o f a l l t h a t has p r e c e e d e d i t . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s w a s h b u c k l i n g s a i l o r s , the I n d i a n s i n t h e i r savage f i n e r y and o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c e l e -b r a t i o n i s h i g h l y d e t a i l e d , v i s u a l and " p u r e " i n i t s i m a g e r y . I t i s a s e n s o r y immediate w o r l d s u c h as t h a t p e r c e i v e d by the w a k i n g dreamer o f "The Haunted M i n d " , who f i n d s h i s t h o u g h t s o f d e a t h and woe t o o d i s t u r b i n g t o endure and f i x e s h i s s i g h t s on o b j e c t s i n h i s room as a means o f r e s c u e f r o m h i s t r o u b l e d s l u m b e r i n g s . Edwin H o n i g , Dark C o n c e i t : The Making o f A l l e g o r y ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 69. 45 CHAPTER I V PEARL'S ROLE To t h o s e c r i t i c s who c o n s i d e r Hawthorne's a l l e g o r i c a l b i a s to be u s u r p i n g t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f h i s s t o r y , P e a r l i s an even more p r o b l e m a t i c a l c r e a t i o n t h a n C h i l l i n g w o r t h . Hawthorne p a t t e r n e d h e r on h i s d a u g h t e r Una and s a i d o f t h e p r o t o t y p e : To r e t u r n t o Una, t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t a l m o s t f r i g h t e n s me about t h e c h i l d — I know n o t w h e t h e r e l f i s h o r a n g e l i c , b u t , a t a l l e v e n t s , s u p e r n a t u r a l . . . . I n s h o r t , I now and t h e n c a t c h an a s p e c t o f h e r , i n w h i c h I cannot b e l i e v e h e r t o be my own human c h i l d , b u t a s p i r i t s t r a n g e l y m i n g l e d w i t h good and e v i l , h a u n t i n g t h e house where I d w e l l . 3 6 O f c o u r s e , P e a r l ' s s i m i l a r i t y t o a r e a l c h i l d does n o t make h e r any the l e s s f a n t a s t i c a l . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e a l m o s t m y s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t t h a t Una r e c e i v e s , a l l t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t Hawthorne's i m a g i n a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f r e a l i t y seems t o o c c u r as r e a d i l y i n h i s way o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d as h i s way o f r e p r o d u c i n g i t f i c t i o n a l l y . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Una n e c e s s i t a t e s a s i m u l t a n e o u s awareness o f t h e da u g h t e r ' s n a t u r e and t h e p e r c e p t u a l e c c e n t r i c i t i e s o f h e r f a t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f P e a r l i s i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f H e s t e r ' s v i e w i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . L i k e Hawthorne, Hawthorne, A m e r i c a n N o t e b o oks , ed. R. S t e w a r t (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933), p. 211. 46 i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Una, H e s t e r a l s o d e m o nstrates a p e r s i s t e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o q u a s i - m y s t i c a l c o n t e m p l a t i o n . W a t c h i n g C h i l l i n g w o r t h she wonders: Would he n o t s u d d e n l y s i n k i n t o t h e e a r t h , l e a v i n g a b a r r e n and b l a s t e d s p o t , where, i n due c o u r s e o f t i m e , w o u l d be s e e n d e a d l y n i g h s h a d e , dogwood, henbane, and w h a t e v e r e l s e o f v e g e t a b l e w i c k e d n e s s th e c l i m a t e c o u l d p r o d u c e , a l l f l o u r i s h i n g w i t h h i d e o u s l u x u r i e n c e ? Or w o u l d he s p r e a d b a t ' s wings and f l e e away, l o o k i n g so much t h e u g l i e r , t h e h i g h e r he r o s e towards heaven? ( p . 175) C l e a r l y , H e s t e r ' s way o f s e e i n g i s a q u a l i t y she s h a r e s w i t h Dimmesdale as w e l l as w i t h Hawthorne, j u s t as s u r e l y as she s h a r e s t h e m i n i s t e r ' s g u i l t and s e c r e t . By e x t e n s i o n i t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t the growth o f P e a r l ' s e m b l e m a t i c b e i n g i s bound p a r t l y by t h e same r u l e s t h a t g o v e r n C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s i n c r e a s i n g l y a l l e g o r i c a l s t a t u r e . L i k e C h i l l i n g w o r t h , P e a r l i s n o t an a f f i x e d emblem dropped as a s i g n p o s t f r o m heaven. Her n a t u r e d e r i v e s from p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n the mind o f H e s t e r P r y n n e . H e s t e r ' s f i r s t appearance on t h e s c a f f o l d , h e r e x p o s u r e t o p u b l i c shame, has a t r a u m a t i c i m p a ct on h e r : C o u l d i t be t r u e ? She c l u t c h e d t h e c h i l d so f i e r c e l y t o h e r b r e a s t , t h a t i t s e n t f o r t h a c r y ; she t u r n e d h e r eyes downward a t t h e s c a r l e t l e t t e r , and even t o u c h e d i t w i t h h e r f i n g e r , t o a s s u r e h e r s e l f t h a t t h e i n f a n t and t h e shame were r e a l . Y e s ! — t h e s e were h e r r e a l i t i e s , — a l l e l s e h a d v a n i s h e d ! (p. 59) 47 S h o r t l y a f t e r , she undergoes a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h among t h e o n l o o k e r s : W h i l e t h i s p a s s e d , H e s t e r P r y n n e h a d been s t a n d i n g on h e r p e d e s t a l , s t i l l w i t h a f i x e d gaze towards the s t r a n g e r ; so f i x e d a g a z e , t h a t , a t moments o f i n t e n s e a b s o r p t i o n , - a l l o t h e r o b j e c t s i n t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d seemed t o v a n i s h , l e a v i n g o n l y h i m and h e r . ( p . 63) The d i s t i n c t i o n between what i s a c t u a l and what i s r e a l o n l y i n t h e mind a l r e a d y b e g i n s t o b l u r . A l t h o u g h , i n t h e s e f i r s t moments o f t h e s t o r y , the v i s i b l e w o r l d ' s v a n i s h i n g i s s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f t r a u m a t i c emphasis, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h the i n t e r i o r w o r l d b e g i n s t o p r e d o m i n a t e and t r a n s f i g u r e o u t e r r e a l i t y . As I n Dimmesdale's r e - m a k i n g o f r e a l i t y , H e s t e r ' s s e l f - i n q u i r y f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n o f g u i l t and s e l f torment. H e s t e r ' s mood on t h e s c a f f o l d i s o f t e n m i s t a k e n by r e a d e r s t o be one o f d e f i a n c e , e p i t o m i z e d by the gaudy s t i t c h i n g w i t h w h i c h she e m b r o i d e r e d t h e "A" on h e r d r e s s . But H e s t e r ' s demeanor i s more d i g n i f i e d t h a n r e b e l l i o u s . She i s aware o f h e r shame and l i t t l e e l s e a t t h i s p o i n t — c e r t a i n l y n o t a b l e t o l u x u r i a t e i n s p e c u l a t i o n s about any h y p o c r i s y i n t h e f e r v o r o f h e r p e r s e c u t o r s . H e s t e r c o n c u r s w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e i r judgment o f h e r g u i l t and t h e i n t e n s i t y w i t h w h i c h she f e e l s h e r own d e p r a v i t y ( " a l l e l s e had v a n i s h e d " ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t , l i k e Dimmesdale's, h e r v i o l a t e d c o n s c i e n c e r e i n f o r c e s r a t h e r t h a n m i n i m i z e s h e r t o r m e n t . One member o f t h e crowd, whose sympathy f o r H e s t e r l e n d s w e i g h t t o h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , r e p l i e s t o the a f f r o n t o t h e r s f e e l a t t h e s i g h t o f t h e l a v i s h l y e m b r o i d e r e d "A": 48 "0, p e a c e , n e i g h b o u r s , p e a c e ! " w h i s p e r e d t h e i r y o u n g e s t companion. "Do n o t l e t h e r h e a r y o u ! Not a s t i t c h i n t h a t e m b r o i d e r e d l e t t e r , b u t she has f e l t i t i n h e r h e a r t . " (p. 154) T h i s a p p r a i s a l o f H e s t e r ' s m o t i v e s l i n k s h e r t o t h e same m o r b i d i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h l e d Dimmesdale t o d w e l l upon t h e f a c t o f h i s c r i m e and c r e a t e h i s own d i r e s t t o r m e n t s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t H e s t e r chooses t o r e m a i n i n Salem r a t h e r t h a n b e g i n anew e l s e w h e r e . She s t a y s p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f h e r e m o t i o n a l t i e s t o Dimmesdale, b u t p a r t l y h e r r e s i d e n c e i s a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f s e l f a f f l i c t i o n , f o r Hawthorne p o i n t e d l y g l o s s e s t h i s d e c i s i o n : . . . — i t may seem m a r v e l l o u s , t h a t t h i s woman s h o u l d s t i l l c a l l t h a t p l a c e h e r home, where, and where o n l y , she must needs be t h e t y p e o f shame. But t h e r e i s a f a t a l i t y , a f e e l i n g so i r r e s i s t i b l e and i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i t has the f o r c e o f doom, w h i c h a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y compels human b e i n g s t o l i n g e r a r o u n d and h a u n t , g h o s t - l i k e , the s p o t where some g r e a t and marked e v e n t has g i v e n t h e c o l o u r t o t h e i r l i f e t i m e ; and s t i l l t h e more i r r e s i s t i b l y , t h e d a r k e r the t i n g e t h a t saddens i t . Her s i n , h e r i g n o m i n y , were t h e r o o t s w h i c h she h a d s t r u c k i n t o the s o i l . (pp. 79-80) T h i s manner, t h i s m o r b i d i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h H e s t e r s h a r e s w i t h t h e m i n i s t e r needs t o be p r o m i n e n t i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r c h a r a c t e r . I t i s one of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l ways i n w h i c h she i s l i n k e d w i t h Dimmesdale p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , and too o f t e n t h i s common ground i s o v e r l o o k e d by c r i t i c s . D a r r e l A b e l s e e s H e s t e r as the 37 t y p i f i c a t i o n o f r o m a n t i c i n d i v i d u a l i s m . M a r i u s Bewley a l s o g i v e s D a r r e l A b e l , "Hawthorne's H e s t e r " , C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , X I I I (March 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 303-309. 49 38 prominence to her feminist appearance as does Charles Feidelson, Jr. who admires the proud defiance she expresses in her needlework and judges her humble appearance on the scaffold as an affectation to disguise 39 her rebellious s p i r i t . Such cursory interpretations of Hester give to her role the quality of a splendid isolation and hopelessly detatch Pearl from her psychic relevance so that she becomes what Chillingworth seems to be i f judged separately; an authorial signpost. Hester's "freedom of speculation" and her belief that "the world's law was no law to her" must not be confused with the operation of personal guilt. There i s no doubt of the torment Hester experiences her f i r s t time on the scaffold, and there is no evidence that this sense of guilt is ever successfully abandoned— only that Hester grows increasingly skeptical of the community's right or power to i n f l i c t , from without, any punishment comparable to the action of the individual's own remorse. The paradox of public discipline is capsulized early i n the story when a stern woman in the crowd about the scaffold complains of the lightness of Hester's sentence and warns that i t w i l l lead to a spread of debauchery among others: "Mercy on us, goodwlfe," exclaimed a man in the crowd, "is there no virtue i n woman, save what springs from a wholesome fear of the gallows?" (p. 52) Marius Bewly, "Hawthorne's Novels," The Eccentric Design, (New York, 1959), pp. 147-186. 39 Charles Feidelson Jr., "The Scarlet Letter", Hawthorne Centenary  Essays, ed. Roy Harvey Pearce (Ohio State University Press, 1964), p. 53. 50 Hawthorne seems t o s u g g e s t t h e r e b y t h a t the u l t i m a t e a r b i t e r o f j u s t i c e i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e f a c t o f h i s " c r i m e " . F o r , i f s u c h s e n s i t i v i t y e x i s t s ( I p r e f e r n o t t o c a l l i t " c o n s c i e n c e " s i n c e t h i s i m p l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y a r e a c t i o n t o a t a n g i b l e i m m o r a l a c t ) t h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r s more s e v e r e l y by t h i s t h a n f r o m any p u b l i c c h a s t i s e m e n t , as w i t n e s s the m i n i s t e r . I f no sense o f g u i l t i n h a b i t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h e t h r e a t o f p u b l i c punishment i s o n l y an e x t e r n a l d e t e r r e n t , i t s e x e c u t i o n o n l y a f o r m o f vengeance s u c h as t h a t w i s h e d by t h e woman who c o m p l a i n s of t h e m a g i s t r a t e s ' l e n i e n c y . The presumptuousness o f s u c h a r o l e f o r t h e community i s compounded by the i n e v i t a b l e n e a r - s i g h t e d n e s s o f s u c h a c o n g l o m e r a t e mind i n m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o u l . T h i s r e s u l t s i n huge i r o n i e s s u c h as t h e p u b l i c ' s d e g r a d a t i o n o f H e s t e r and v e n e r a t i o n o f Dimmesdale. I t i s t h i s communal m o r a l i t y w h i c h H e s t e r r e b e l s a g a i n s t when she t e l l s C h i l l i n g w o r t h " i t l i e s n o t w i t h i n the p l e a s u r e o f the m a g i s t r a t e s t o t a k e o f f t h i s badges ... Were I w o r t h y t o be q u i t o f i t , i t w o u l d f a l l away o f i t s own n a t u r e , o r be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t s h o u l d speak a d i f f e r e n t p u r p o r t . " (p. 67) Thus H e s t e r c o n t i n u e s t o n u r t u r e h e r own s u f f e r i n g i n w e a r i n g the l e t t e r , i n r e m a i n i n g i n Salem, and i n c l i n g i n g to P e a r l . Romantic i n d i v i d u a l i s m w o u l d i m p l y a r e l e a s e f r o m a l l s t a n d a r d s o f good and e v i l t h a t a r e n o t p r i v a t e l y i n t u i t e d . H e s t e r approaches t h i s e x t r e m i t y i n t h e f o r e s t s c e n e when she r e g a r d s h e r s i n as h a v i n g a " c o n s e c r a t i o n o f i t s own," b u t she i s i g n o r i n g t h e r e a l i t i e s o f h e r own i n w a r d m o r a l c l i m a t e i n t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n . She i g n o r e s t h e f a c t o f the seven y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h she n u r t u r e d t h e g u i l t o f t h i s " c o n s e c r a t e d " 51 a c t i n t h e form o f P e a r l , and she i g n o r e s the i n n a t e h o p e l e s s n e s s o f f i n d i n g i n a n o t h e r l a n d w h i l e r e m a i n i n g undetached from h e r g u i l t ( P e a r l ) . I n f a c t , H e s t e r ' s i m p u l s i v e d e c l a r a t i o n seems l e s s the b a t t l e c r y o f a f e m i n i s t t h a n a s e n t i m e n t p a r a l l e l t o Dimmesdale's own t o y i n g w i t h t h e s p i r i t u a l v o i d i n a more c o v e r t f o r m , when he c u l t i v a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h . I n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f Goodman Brown's own e x c u r s i o n i n t o f a i t h l e s s n e s s , H e s t e r a l s o i s drawn to wonder i f d e p r a v i t y I s n o t t h e g e n e r a l case o f mankind and an i n d i c a t i o n o f an i n d i f f e r e n t P r o v i -dence. I t i s s a i d h e r s c a r l e t l e t t e r glows w i t h sympathy a t t h e approach o f " e a r t h l y s a i n t s " , s u g g e s t i n g Goodman Brown's d i s c o v e r y o f t h e v i l l a g e e l d e r s ' communion w i t h the d e v i l . One must be c a u t i o u s n o t t o o v e r e s t i m a t e Hawthorne's i n t e r e s t i n t h i s phenomenon as a r e v e l a t i o n o f h y p o c r i s y i n the community. H e s t e r does d i s p l a y a comely h u m i l i t y i n c o n s i d e r i n g h e r s e l f t h e w o r s t s i n n e r o f a l l and Hawthorne does i n t i m a t e t h a t h e r f a t e i s a v o i d e d by o t h e r s more by s e c r e c y t h a n v i r t u e ; b u t , r e c a l l i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e and o u tward s i g n s , we may i d e n t i f y t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e l e t t e r so n e a r h e r h e a r t w i t h a p a r t o f H e s t e r ' s i n t e r i o r r e s p o n s e t o t h o s e she e n c o u n t e r s . I n t h i s l i g h t H e s t e r appears to be tempted t o t h e same e x t r e m i t y as Goodman Brown i s i n h i s v i s i o n o f w i d e s p r e a d d e p r a v i t y . F o r H e s t e r as f o r Brown i t r e s u l t s i n a " l o s s o f f a i t h t h a t i s one of the s a d d e s t r e s u l t s o f s i n " (p. 8 7 ) . H e s t e r ' s r e s p o n s e i s t o s t r u g g l e t o b e l i e v e " t h a t no f e l l o w - m o r t a l was g u i l t y l i k e h e r s e l f . " The p a t t e r n o f h e r c o n f l i c t i s e n t i r e l y a k i n to Dimmesdale's. 52 Faced w i t h the c h o i c e between amoral s p e c u l a t i o n as t o the g r a c e l e s s , G o d l e s s s t a t e o f man o r c o m p l e t e , u n q u e s t i o n i n g f a i t h i n a m o r a l u n i v e r s e , H e s t e r s t r i v e s t o f o l l o w t h e example o f Dimmesdale who manages to r e a f f i r m h i s p i e t y . T h i s .triumph, i s t h e C h r i s t - l i k e a s s e r t i o n t h a t he i s " t h e one s i n n e r o f t h e w o r l d , " and w i t h t h i s d u bious t r u t h ( b u t r e l i g i o u s . p o s i t i v i s m ) , he c r u s h e d h i s own doubts as they are'embodied i n C h i l l i n g w o r t h . . . H e s t e r ' s s u c c e s s i s l e f t more i n doubt, b u t the c o n f l i c t , e x i s t s , c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s Dimmesdale's, a n d . g i v e s grounds f o r n o t i c i n g - s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s i n t h e g r o w t h - o f h e r p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l w o r l d . H e s t e r i n d u l g e s , i n a f o r m ; o f s e l f - c a s t i g a t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , t h e . p a t t e r n o f Dimmesdale's c r e a t i o n o f a " f i e n d f o r h i s e s p e c i a l t o r m e n t . " The o b s e s s i v e , . f a t a l i s m w h i c h prompted h e r d e c i s i o n t o r e m a i n i n Salem.and., h e r o s t e n t a t i o u s . . d e c o r a t i o n o f P e a r l b e g i n s t o e v o l v e from.s.uch d i r e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f .the m a t e r i a l w o r l d ( P e a r l ' s a t t i r e ) t o w a r d t h e l e s s c o n s c i o u s d i s t o r t i o n s t h a t a r e a preamble :to' d e l u s i o n : She. knew t h a t . her. deed ha d been e v i l ; she, c o u l d have no f a i t h , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t s r e s u l t w o u l d be f o r . g o o d . Day a f t e r day, she l o o k e d f e a r f u l l y -i n t o t h e c h i l d ' s e x p a n d i n g n a t u r e ; , e v e r d r e a d i n g t o , d e t e c t some d a r k and w i l d p e c u l i a r i t y , t h a t s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d ' w i t h the g u i l t i n e s s to w h i c h she owed h e r b e i n g . (pp. 89-90) P r e d i c t a b l y P e a r l ' s i d e n t i t y c a t e r s i t s e l f to. H e s t e r ' s grimmest a p p r e h e n s i o n s , and the t e n s i o n s . w h i c h e v o l v e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e x a c t n e s s of symmetry such as t h a t p r e s e n t i n t h e C h i l l i n g w o r t h - D i m m e s d a l e j u x t a p o s i t i o n . 5 3 H e s t e r d r e s s e s s o m b e r l y ; P e a r l ' s a p p a r e l i s gaudy i n the extreme. H e s t e r ' s demeanor i s h e a v i l y c o n t r o l l e d and j o y l e s s ; P e a r l i s spontaneous a n d . w i l d l y , i m p u l s i v e . H e s t e r s t r u g g l e s to b e l i e v e t h a t , "no f e l l o w - m o r t a l was g u i l t y l i k e h e r s e l f , " t o put the w o r l d i n a m o r a l c o n t e x t ; P e a r l i s s h o c k i n g l y a m o r a l i n h e r " h e a t h e n " a f f i n i t y w i t h n a t u r e . H e s t e r e n t e r t a i n s hopes t h a t P e a r l w i l l p r o v e t o be a n o r m a l o f f s p r i n g " t o connect, h e r p a r e n t f o r e v e r w i t h , the r a c e a n d d e s c e n t o f mortals." (p. 8 9 ) ; P e a r l ' s n a t u r e i s f o u n d to l a c k " r e f e r e n c e and a d a p t a t i o n , t o the w o r l d i n t o w h i c h she was b o r n " (p. 9 1 ) . He s t e r , w i s h e s r e s p i t e . f r o m the torment o f h e r s t i g m a ; P e a r l i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the p r e s e n c e o f t h e l e t t e r and d e l i g h t s i n t o y i n g w i t h i t . H e s t e r s e e k s : a f i n a l e scape from t h e l a n d and,, by i m p l i c a t i o n , , t he mo r b i d l y , m o r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f her. i n t e r i o r c o u n t r y ; P e a r l ' s n a t u r a l ; c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r mother i m p l i e s ' t h e i n e s c a p a b l e q u a l i t y o f h e r p r e t e r n a t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n . I n a l l . t h i n g s r e l a t i n g t o H e s t e r ' s hopes P e a r l i s an a d v e r s a r y s p i r i t r a t h e r t h a n an i n d e p e n d e n t o n e - — o f f s e t t i n g so e x a c t l y t h e a n x i o u s w i s h e s o f h e r mother t h a t . s h e can be no l e s s t h a n a p r o d u c t o f t h a t same mind.. A s . w i t h Dimmesdale.,' H e s t e r ' s s e n s e o f t r a g i c a d v e r s i t y p r o -j e c t s i t s e l f i n t o a v a n i s h i n g , i n c r e a s i n g l y . m a l l e a b l e w o r l d , c r e a t i n g P e a r l as w e l l as o t h e r r e m o n s t r a t i v e • p h e n o m e n a n o t u n f a m i l i a r to t h e m i n i s t e r . H e s t e r ' s f e e l i n g t h a t she has "evoked: a s p i r i t " i s t h e same c o m b i n a t i o n o f metaphor a n d : t r u t h t h a t C h i l l i n g w o r t h a s s e r t s i n b l a m i n g : , Dimmesdale f o r h i s demonic a l t e r a t i o n . The l i t e r a l t r u t h o f the metaphor i s v e r i f i e d i n b o t h cases i n a moment o f r e c o g -54 n i t i o n . W i t h Dimmesdale, who i s more immersed, i n h i s i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y , t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i s s l o w e r and t a k e s t h e form o f t h e e p i p h a n y he e x p e r i e n c e s when H e s t e r " r e v e a l s " C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s i d e n t i t y and Dimmes-d a l e r e c o g n i z e s h i s own c u l p a b i l i t y i n h i s p r o x i m i t y w i t h t h e l e e c h ("I d i d know i t ! Was n o t the s e c r e t t o l d me i n t h e n a t u r a l r e c o i l o f my h e a r t , a t t h e f i r s t s i g h t o f h i m , and as o f t e n as I have s e e n h i m s i n c e ? " ) . H e s t e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f h e r p a r t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f P e a r l ' s n a t u r e and b e i n g , i s more d i r e c t and r e v e a l s h e r a b i l i t y t o cut t h r o u g h the f a b r i c o f h e r d r e a m - a l l e g o r y . on o c c a s i o n . W a t c h i n g P e a r l , H e s t e r c o n s i d e r s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r e : H e s t e r . c o u l d o n l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e c h i l d ' s c h a r a c t e r — and even t h e n , most v a g u e l y and i m p e r f e c t l y — b y r e c a l l i n g what she h e r s e l f h a d b e e n , d u r i n g t h a t momentous p e r i o d w h i l e P e a r l w a s . i m b i b i n g h e r s o u l f rom t h e s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , and h e r b o d i l y frame • f r o m i t s m a t e r i a l o f e a r t h . The mother's i m p a s s i o n e d s t a t e had been, t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h were t r a n s m i t t e d : t o . the unborn i n f a n t t h e r a y s o f i t s m o r a l l i f e ; and, however w h i t e and c l e a r o r i g i n a l l y , t h e y had t a k e n t h e deep s t a i n s o f c r i m s o n .and g o l d , t h e f i e r y l u s t r e , t h e b l a c k shadow, and t h e untempered l i g h t , o f t h e • i n t e r v e n i n g s u b s t a n c e . Above a l l . , t h e w a r f a r e o f H e s t e r ' s s p i r i t , a t t h a t epoch, was. p e r p e t u a t e d i n P e a r l . She c o u l d r e c o g n i z e h e r w i l d , d e s p e r a t e , d e f i a n t mood, t h e f l i g h t i n e s s . o f h e r temper, and even some o f t h e v e r y c l o u d - s h a p e s o f gloom and despondency t h a t had b r o o d e d i n heir h e a r t . (p. 91) T h i s awareness on H e s t e r ' s p a r t m i g h t be r e g a r d e d i n e i t h e r a m o r a l o r a m o r a l l i g h t . N o t i c i n g P e a r l ' s r e s e m b l a n c e t o h e r own untoward p a s s i o n s , H e s t e r c o u l d be t e s t i f y i n g . t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c l o s e l y o r d e r e d w o r l d o f d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n : t h a t she, i n h a b i t s — a s y s t e m w h i c h p u n i s h e d H e s t e r ' s v i o l a t i o n o f i t s m o r a l o r d e r and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y 55 s u p p l i e s t h e means to r e g e n e r a t i o n by p r e s e n t i n g t h e mother w i t h an i n c a r n a t i o n o f h e r e r r o r i n P e a r l . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f P e a r l . c o u l d be a s t u d y i n p a r a n o i c c r e a t i o n t h a t has more b e a r i n g on H e s t e r ' s c h a r a c t e r t h a n on any D i v i n e o r a u t h o r i a l scheme. Hawthorne's l o v e o f p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t t h r o u g h . innueri'do poses problems f o r any attempt a t a c o n c l u s i o n , and f r e q u e n t l y . e v i d e n c e must be g l e a n e d by i n f e r e n c e . At one p o i n t i n t h e t a l e H e s t e r a t t e m p t s to c a t e c h i z e P e a r l w i t h i l l e f f e c t : "Thy H e a v e n l y F a t h e r s e n t t h e e ! " answered H e s t e r P r y n n e . But she . s a i d i t w i t h a h e s i t a t i o n t h a t d i d n o t escape, t h e a c u t e n e s s o f t h e c h i l d . Whether moved o n l y by h e r o r d i n a r y f r e a k i s h n e s s , o r b e c a u s e an e v i l s p i r i t prompted h e r , s h e . p u t up h e r s m a l l f o r e f i n g e r , and t o u c h e d the s c a r l e t l e t t e r . "He d i d n o t s"end me!" c r i e d s h e , p o s i t i v e l y . . " I have no H e a v e n l y F a t h e r ! " "Hush P e a r l , h u s h ! Thou must n o t t a l k s o ! " answered,the mother, s u p p r e s s i n g a g r o a n . "He s e n t us a l l i n t o t h i s .world.. He s e n t even me, t h y mother. Then, much more, the e ! Or, i f n o t , t h o u s t r a n g e and e l f i s h c h i l d , whence d i d s t t h o u come?" " T e l l me! T e l l me!" r e p e a t e d P e a r l , no l o n g e r s e r i o u s l y , b u t l a u g h i n g , and c a p e r i n g about t h e f l o o r . " I t i s t h o u t h a t must t e l l me!" But H e s t e r c o u l d n o t . r e s o l v e t h e q u e r y , b e i n g h e r s e l f i n a d i s m a l l a b y r i n t h o f doubt. (pp. 9 8-99) A g a i n P e a r l i s i n p e r f e c t r e s o n a n c e . w i t h h e r mother's s p i r i t , and h e r m i s c h i e v o u s . r e p l i e s h i n t a t a s u b - e t h i c a l u n i v e r s e and t h e c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t y H e s t e r has i n . t r y i n g t o i m p o s e a m o r a l r a t i o n a l e on e v e r y t h i n g and making i t s t i c k . As i n t h e c a s e o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h , P e a r l ' s t h e o l o g i z e d i d e n t i t y works c o m p a t i b l y w i t h h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o n l y up to a p o i n t . D e f e n d i n g H e s t e r ' s r i g h t to the c h i l d , Dimmesdale a s s e r t s t h a t P e a r l 56 i s Heaven-sent t o keep h e r mother i n t h e p a t h o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s and perhaps e f f e c t h e r m o r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . A r a t h e r s t a g e y example o c c u r s when H e s t e r i s p e r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n c u s t o d y o f t h e c h i l d and i s t h e n c o n f r o n t e d by M i s t r e s s H i b b e n s : "Had t h e y t a k e n h e r f r o m me,- I would w i l l i n g l y have gone w i t h thee i n t o t h e f o r e s t , and s i g n e d my name i n t h e . B l a c k Man's book t o o , a n d . t h a t w i t h my own b l o o d ! " (p. 117) Y e t P e a r l ' s r e g e n e r a t i v e . . f u n c t i o n seems r a t h e r . t o o e a s i l y o v e r t h r o w n t o p r o v i d e an e x c l u s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o f . h e r r o l e . Were s u c h t h e c a s e , seven, y e a r s of. h e r p r e s e n c e s h o u l d have s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d H e s t e r ' s a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d the e x a c t t e m p t a t i o n t o r w h i c h she had f i r s t succumbed. But t h e f o r e s t , m e e t i n g . w i t h Dimmesdale n u l l i f i e s i n a moment, w h a t e v e r m o r a l . i n f l u e n c e P e a r l may have h a d on h e r mother, and Hester, r e - c r e a t e s t h e moodvand a l m o s t t h e p h y s i c a l • appear-ance o f h e r o r i g i n a l , t r a n s g r e s s i o n . H e s t e r a g a i n wears t h e l e t t e r at the i n s i s t e n c e o f P e a r l b u t t h e r e i s . n o e v i d e n c e .that she s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g i v e s o v e r a l l hope o f escape from h e r m o r a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . She resumes h e r " v i r t u e " o n l y when m a t e r i a l e v e n t s deny h e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y or. i n c e n t i v e to.be. f r e e , as when Dimmesdale r e s o l v e s t o meet h i s f a t e i n Salem. C l e a r l y P e a r l i s more c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p l a i n -a b l e i n ot h e r , t h a n t h e o l o g i c a l l y s y m b o l i c t e r m s . We have s e e n t h a t Dimmesdale.'s e x c l a m a t i o n , "•. . . — b e h o l d me h e r e , the one s i n n e r o f the w o r l d , " i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . a t r i u m p h o f ' f a i t h and a l o g i c a l f a l l a c y . I t i s Dimmesdale's : attemp-jt. t o s h u t o u t ' t h e f a i n t - h e a r t e d f a i t h w h i c h d i s t u r b s h i m and p l u n g e • i n t o r a d i c a l p i e t y . The m i n i s t e r i s on t h e same t r a c k i n p r a i s i n g God's 57 wisdom f o r s e n d i n g C h i l l i n g w o r t h t o be h i s s c o u r g e and m i n i s t e r . This, a l s o i s an attempt t o ac c o u n t f o r " u n a c c o u n t a b l e woe", t o r e l i e v e the s u f f e r i n g he.undergoes by b e l i e v i n g i n a P r o v i d e n c e w h i c h c r e a t e s no u nhappiness w i t h o u t p u r p o s e and no s u f f e r i n g w i t h o u t r e g e n e r a t i o n . I n h i s f i n a l moments Dimmesdale i s e a r n e s t l y q u e s t i o n e d by H e s t e r , who seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d and bor r o w some • of h i s . a s s u r a n c e , b u t the m i n i s t e r seems a g i t a t e d b y t h i s .renewal o f t h e k i n d o f q u e s t i o n i n g w h i c h formed p a r t of: h i s torment i n . the f i r s t p l a c e : "...Thou l o o k e s t f a r . i n t o e t e r n i t y , w i t h t h o s e . b r i g h t d y i n g e y e s ! . . T e l l me what • t h o u s e e s t ? " "Hush, H e s t e r , hush.!" s a i d h e , w i t h t r e m u l o u s solemnity.. "The law w e - b r o k e ! — t h e s i n h e r e so a w f u l l y r e v e a l e d ! — l e t t h e s e a l o n e be i n t h y t h o u g h t s ! I . f e a r ! I fear!. I t may be, t h a t , when, we f o r g o t o u r God,—when we v i o l a t e d our r e v e r e n c e f o r each o t h e r ' s s o u l , — i t was t h e n c e f o r t h v a i n t o hope t h a t we c o u l d m e e t . h e r e a f t e r , . i n a n . , e v e r l a s t i n g and pur e r e u n i o n . God knows;, and. He i s m e r c i f u l ! , He h a t h p r o v e d , h i s mercy,, most o f . a l l , i n my • a f f l i c t i o n s , By g i v i n g me t h i s b u r n i n g t o r t u r e . , t o b e a r upon my b r e a s t ! B y . s e n d i n g y o n d e r dark and t e r r i b l e o l d man, t o k e e p , t h e t o r t u r e . a l w a y s a t , r e d - h e a t ! By-b r i n g i n g me h i t h e r , t o d i e t h i s . d e a t h o f t r i u m p h a n t i g n o m i n y b e f o r e . t h e p e o p l e ! Had e i t h e r - o f t h e s e a g o n i e s been w a n t i n g , I had been l o s t f o r e v e r ! P r a i s e d be h i s name! H i s w i l l be done! F a r e w e l l ! " (pp. 256-257) Dimmesdale's answers a r e vague and a b r u p t l y h a s t y , a l m o s t as i f , h a v i n g a c h i e v e d a . v i c t o r y o f e m o t i o n o v e r i n t e l l e c t , he i s a n x i o u s ' to get on w i t h the b u s i n e s s o f d y i n g .before h i s h a r d won. f a i t h c o u l d be a g a i n t e s t e d . A l s o h o t l y i n p u r s u i t o f an e x p l a n a t i o n , Hawthorne adds h i s . own. sermon, t o Dimmesdale's: 58 ..."Be t r u e ! Be t r u e ! Be t r u e ! Show f r e e l y t o the w o r l d , i f n o t y o u r w o r s t , yet.some t r a i t whereby t h e w o r s t may be i n f e r r e d ! " (p. 260) I t i s an e a r n e s t attempt to come.to the p o i n t , b u t i t l e a v e s too much o f t h e s t o r y u n a c c o u n t e d f o r t o be t a k e n to h e a r t any more s e r i o u s l y t h a n Dimmesdale's l a s t d i t c h s e r m o n i z i n g . . I t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e m i n i s t e r ' s case i s b r a z e n l y o b v i o u s b u t i t n e g l e c t s H e s t e r . H e s t e r wears h e r t o k e n o p e n l y , showing p u b l i c l y h e r w o r s t b u t s h e . s u f f e r s torments, s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o Dimmesdale's., though to. a f a r l e s s e r degree. S u p p o s e d l y , t h e l e s s o n t h a t a p p l i e s . t o Dimmesdale s h o u l d be no l e s s r e l e v a n t . t o . H e s t e r . S i n c e t h i s i s n o t . t h e c a s e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e i r common denominator i s . n o t t h e i r open o r s e c r e t g u i l t b u t t h e i r tendency to e x p e r i e n c e g u i l t so d e e p l y , t h e i r s e l f - c h a s t i s i n g m o r b i d i t y . o f . s p i r i t . • T h i s comes m o r e , c l e a r l y t o l i g h t when Hawthorne r e l e n t s , somewhat f r o m . h i s m o r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e t o examine c h a r a c t e r i n ..purely p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms: .... She had i n h e r n a t u r e . a r i c h , v o l u p t u o u s , . o r i e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , — a t a s t e f o r the g o r g e o u s l y b e a u t i f u l , w h i c h , save i n t h e e x q u i s i t e p r o d u c t i o n s o f h e r n e e d l e , f o u n d n o t h i n g e l s e , i n a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h e r l i f e , t o e x e r c i s e i t s e l f . u p o n . Women d e r i v e a p l e a s u r e , i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o the o t h e r s e x , f r o m t h e d e l i c a t e t o i l o f the. n e e d l e . . To H e s t e r P rynne i t m i g h t . h a v e been a . m o d e o f e x p r e s s i n g , and t h e r e f o r e . soothing,, the p a s s i o n of. h e r l i f e . L i k e a l l o t h e r j o y s she r e j e c t e d i t . a s s i n . . T h i s m o r b i d / m e d d l i n g o f c o n s c i e n c e w i t h . a n i m m a t e r i a l m a t t e r b e t o k e n e d , i t i s t o be f e a r e d , , no genuine. and ..steadfast p e n i t e n c e , b u t s o m e t h i n g d o u b t f u l , something, t h a t might be d e e p l y wrong , b ene ath.': (pp . 83- 84 ) T h i s comment,on H e s t e r ' s . n a t u r e , h a s r e v e r b e r a t i o n s w h i c h r e a c h f a r to i n c l u d e i n t h e i r r e l e v a n c e Reverend.Hooper, Reuben Bourne, Goodman 59 Brown, Dimmesdale and many o t h e r s . A l l have the same p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to wage c o n t i n u a l war on t h e i r own peace of mind and, i n a l l , the s u f f e r i n g i s r e l a t e d to s i n by an i l l o g i c a l b u t e m o t i o n a l l y necessary p r o c e s s . J u s t as Dimmesdale i n s i s t s on v i e w i n g h i s . t o r t u r e as e x p i a t i o n and Hawthorne attempts to l e g i t i m a t i z e the u n r e l i e v e d gloom of h i s t a l e by f o o t n o t i n g i t w i t h a re fe rence ...to a d u l t e r y , Hes ter attempts to wrap h e r o v e r - s e n s i t i v i t i e s i n a m o r a l c l o a k . The f a l l a c y of h e r equat ing s u f f e r i n g w i t h .penance a p p l i e s •'equally to Dimmesdale and, u l t i m a t e l y , to Hawthorne who, r e f u s i n g to acknowledge the moral vacuum h i s gloom i n h a b i t s , defrsses h i s psychology as r e l i g i o u s p a r a b l e to the e v e r l a s t i n g c o n f u s i o n o f too many c r i t i c s . Dimmesdale almost w i l f u l l y re fuses to recognize C h i l l i n g w o r t h . t h r o u g h h i s d i s g u i s e j u s t as he re fuses to recognize h i s t o r t u r e as s e l f - i n f l i c t e d . S i m i l a r l y Hawthorne, owns up only i n d i r e c t l y to the amoral b a s i s of. h i s v i s i o n o f exper ience by making h i s a r t i s t i c v i s i o n more'., cohesive than h i s m o r a l v i s i o n . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f P e a r l ' s . manner of p l a y i n g o f f e r s a s t r i k i n g metaphor both of the n a t u r e , o f h e r - p a r e n t s and the o r g a n i c des ign .by which, the t a l e ' s , t ragedy grows: . . . P e a r l , i n the dearth, of,human p laymates , was thrown more upon the v i s i o n a r y , .throng which she c r e a t e d . The s i n g u l a r i t y , l a y i n , t h e h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s . w i t h , which t h e , c h i l d regarded a l l these o f f s p r i n g , o f .her. own.heart and, mind. She never c rea ted a f r i e n d , but seemed always, to be sowing broadcas t the dragon 's t e e t h , whence sprung a h a r v e s t of. armed enemies,, a g a i n s t whom she rushed to do b a t t l e . I t was i n e x p r e s s i b l y sad—then what depth o f sorrow to a mother, w h o - f e l t i n .her own h e a r t the c a u s e ! — t o . observe , i n one so young, 60 t h i s c o n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a d v e r s e w o r l d , and so f i e r c e a t r a i n i n g o f t h e e n e r g i e s t h a t were t o make good her. c a u s e , i n the c o n t e s t t h a t must ensue. (pp. 95-96) I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t H e s t e r ' s p a i n f u l f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c o n t e s t i n s t o r e f o r P e a r l . d e r i v e s from h a v i n g undergone the same p r o c e s s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of h e r own a d v e r s e w o r l d , f u l l o f human and sub-human emblems, o f remorse. At, t h e same time t h i s l i k e n e s s o f P e a r l and H e s t e r does n o t d e t r a c t f r o m P e a r l ' s e m b l e m a t i c s t a t u s o r e l e v a t e h e r t o H e s t e r ' s l e v e l o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Were s u c h th e case t h e . t a l e ' s a l l e g o r y , would, v a n i s h , and. w i t h i t o u r sense o f t h e i n t e n s i t y o f H e s t e r ' s i n t e r i o r , s t r i f e . P e a r l ' s e a p i r i c i o u s n e s s p r e s e r v e s h e r t o t a l l y e x t r o v e r t e d , u n i n t r o s p e c t i v e s t a t e o f b e i n g and, l a c k i n g t h i s i n t e r i o r l i f e , t h e r e can be no c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t i n n e r , a n d ; o u t e r e x p e r i e n c e . P e a r l ' s c o n f l i c t i s t o t a l l y e x t e r n a l , and p h y s i c a l as i t i s d e s c r i b e d i n ,.the p assage a n d . r e p r e -s e n t s a c a r i c a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n . a. copy of. t h e t u r m o i l t h a t e f f e c t s her. p a r e n t s . .. . H e s t e r and. Dimmesdale c o n s i d e r . a n escape, from t h e i r a d y e r s i t i e s . b u t :the hope. of. a c h i e v i n g an u l t i m a t e f r e e d o m t h r o u g h a s i m p l e change.of g e o g r a p h y , i s doomed t o f a i l u r e . A g a i n i t i s t h e p s y c h o - a l l e g o r i c a l , n a t u r e . o f t h e " r o l e " . c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s the f u t i l i t y of; s u c h a v e n t u r e . , I n t h e e v e n t o f s u c h ; a voyage P e a r l , w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y accompany h e r mother and guardian,.; and C h i l l i n g w o r t h , d i s p l a y i n g an i n t u i t i o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n e v i t a b l e , however improbable,^ i n r e a l i s t i c t e r m s , w o u l d a l s o book p a s s a g e . These mentors a r e so 61 i n t e g r a l l y a p a r t o f the minds w h i c h spawned them t h a t they cannot be l e f t b e h i n d any more t h a n H e s t e r and Dimmesdale can a l t e r t h e i r mode o f p e r c e p t i o n w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . C h i l l i n g w o r t h , P e a r l and Salem are m e r e l y the outward shadows o r dream images o f a d i s t u r b a n c e . l o d g e d d e e p l y i n t h e minds o f H e s t e r and Dimmesdale and no change i n l o c a t i o n can a l t e r t h e t a l e ' s c e n t r a l , m o t i v a t i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t r e a l i t y i s in..the eye of. t h e b e h o l d e r . I f t h e eye p e r c e i v e s t r a g i c a l l y and m o r b i d l y . i t w i l l sow anew i t s "dragon's t e e t h " w h e r e v e r i t may be. I t i s most o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a weakness o f Hawthorne's t a l e t h a t i t b e c o m e s . u n f a i t h f u l t o i t s c r e a t i o n s , i n i t s f i n a l • m o m e n t s , soon a f t e r t h e death, o f .Dimmesdale. The changes t h a t o c c u r i n P e a r l , C h i l l i n g w o r t h and H e s t e r can be e x p l a i n e d i n n a t u r a l i s t i c t e r m s , w i t h a c e r t a i n f i l l i n g i n . o f gaps by c o n j e c t u r e , b u t t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r l e a v e s s o m e . c r i t i c s w i t h the f e e l i n g Hawthorne i s w r a p p i n g up t h e p l o t i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a h u r r i e d c o n c l u s i o n . A g a i n . t h i s c o m p l a i n t i s a f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i n t e r n a l n e c e s s i t i e s t h a t g o v e r n . a l l e v e n t s i n The. S c a r l e t L e t t e r . The changes t h a t o c c u r a r e i n d e e d p r o f o u n d , b u t the t a l e ' s a l l e g o r i c a l w o r l d , a f t e r a l l , , i s n o t Hawthorne's so much as H e s t e r ' s and Dimmesdale's. . . I t . i s t h e i r ; m i n d s w h i c h g i v e i t i t s t i n g e a n d . t h e i r c o n f l i c t s w h i c h i n s p i r e t h e c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s o f C h i l l i n g w o r t h and P e a r l . . W i t h t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r Dimmesdale m e t a p h o r i c a l l y e x t e r n a l i z e s h i s t u r m o i l and s e a l s h i s v i c t o r y ' o v e r t h e i l l u s o r y w o r l d by e m b r a c i n g the u l t i m a t e p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , d e a t h . H e s t e r ' s c o n f l i c t c e a s e s . w i t h t h e m i n i s t e r ' s d e a t h and t h e r e m o v a l o f a l l i n c e n t i v e t o s i n . The i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s w h i c h were t h e hub o f a C o p e r n i c a n u n i v e r s e a re gone and c o n s e q u e n t l y the o u t w a r d shadows d i s s o l v e as w e l l . C h i l l i n g w o r t h becomes a m i n d l e s s h u s k , P e a r l a t e a r f u l " n a t u r a l " g i r l , and the r a b b l e o b s e r v i n g Dimmesdale " r e v e l a t i o n " d i s i n t e g r a t e s i n t o g a b b l i n g s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o what " r e a l l y " happened. 63 SOURCES CONSULTED A b e l , D a r r e l . "Hawthorne's P e a r l : Symbol and C h a r a c t e r , " E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , X V I I I ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 50-66. . . "Hawthorne's H e s t e r , " C o l l e g e - E n g l i s h , , X I I I (March, 19.52), 303-309. "The D e v i l . , i n B o s t o n , " P h i l o l o g i c a l . Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I I ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 3 ) , 366-381. "Hawthorne's Dimmesdale: F u g i t i v e f r o m Wrath," . N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y F i c t i o n , , X I (September, 1 9 5 6 ) , 81-105. Bewley, H a r l u s . "Hawthorne's Novels,".The. E c c e n t r i c D e s i g n , New Y o r k : C h a t t o and Windus,. 1959, 147-186. B l a c k , Stephen. A.. "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : Death by Symbols," Paunch, XXIV ( O c t o b e r , 1965). ; I n t r o d u c t i o n : The S y m b o l i c N a r r a t i v e o f The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , " i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and .Row,.1968. C a r p e n t e r , . F r e d e r i c I . " S c a r l e t A M i n u s , " . C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , V ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 173-80. Crews, F r e d e r i c k C. The S i n s o f t h e F a t h e r s ; Hawthorne's P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Themes. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1966. < Donohue, Agnus M c N e i l l , .ed. A Casebook o r i . t h e .Hawthorne Q u e s t i o n . New Y o r k : Thomas Y. Cromwell.Company, 1963. E l d e r , M a r j o r i e J . N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne: T r a n s c e n d e n t a l S y m b o l i s t . Ohio U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. • -, F e i d e l s o n , C h a r l e s J r . :Symbolism and .American L i t e r a t u r e . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1953/ ' • . ' . "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , " Hawthorne,.Centenary E s s a y s , ed. Roy Harvey P e a r c e . Ohio S t a t e ' U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. F o g l e , R i c h a r d H. Hawthorne's F i c t i o n : The L i g h t arid:the Dark. Norman Oklahoma: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1952. 64 G r o s s , Seymor L., ed. A S c a r l e t L e t t e r Handbook. San F r a n c i s c o : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1960. Hawthorne, J u l i a n . "The M a k i n g o f The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , " Bookman, LXXIV (December, 1931), 401-411. Hawthorne,. N a t h a n i e l . The American. Notebooks., by N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne. ed. R a n d a l l S t e w a r t . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y : P r e s s , 1932. . Y . The C e n t e n a r y E d i t i o n o f t h e Works :of N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, ed. W i l l i a n C h a r v a t and Roy Harvey P e a r c e . Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Y. -Y Y ' The E n g l i s h Notebooks by N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, ed. R a n d a l l S t e w a r t . New Y o r k : Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , 1941. ___________ Mosses from an Old. Manse. . London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h and Company, 1883. __________L__: The. Works o f N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne. 15 v o l s . B o s t o n and New Y o r k : Houghton,. M i f f l i n and Company,: R i v e r s i d e E d i t i o n ( v a r i o u s d a t e s ) . H o e l t j e , H u b e r t H. I n w a r d Sky:. The M i n d and. A r t o f N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne. Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , : 1962. James, - Henry. Hawthorne ( E n g l i s h . Men.of L e t t e r s S e r i e s ) . London: M a c m i l l a n & Co;, L t d . , 1879. L e v i n , H a r r y . The Power o f B l a c k n e s s : ; Hawthorne, Poe, M e l v i l l e . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1960. M a l e , Roy R. J r . : Hawthorne's T r a g i c V i s i o n . A u s t i n : . U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas. P r e s s , 1957. M a t t h i e s s e n , F..0. A m e r i c a n R e n a i s s a n c e ; A r t arid E x p r e s s i o n i n t h e • Age o f Emerson and Whitman. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . . P r e s s , 1941. M e l v i l l e , Herman. "Hawthorne and H i s Mosses'-,".The"•Literary W o r l d , V I I . (August 17, 1 8 5 0 ) , 125-47. Normand, J e a n . N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne: . An Approach .to an A n a l y s i s o f ..' A r t i s t i c . C r e a t i o n , t r a n s . . Derek.. Co ltman... C l e v e l a n d : and London: Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 70. Poe, Edgar A l l e n . " N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne," The Works o f E d g a r : A l l e r i Poe, ed.. R. W. G r i s w o l d : 4 v o l s . New Y o r k : R e d f i e l d , 1858; I I I , 188-202. Rhfav, P h i l l i p . . "The Dark Lady o f , S a l e m , " P a r t i s a n Review, V I I I (September-O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 1 ) , 362-381. 65 S h o r t , Raymond. " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Four G r e a t N o v e l s . New Y o r k : Henry H o l t and Company, I n c . , 1946, x x i - x x v i i i . S t e i n , W i l l i a m Bysshe. Hawthorne's F a u s t : A Study Of t h e D e v i l  A r c h e t y p e . G a i n s v i l l e F l o r i d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1953. S t e w a r t , R a n d a l l . N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, A B i o g r a p h y . New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y ; P r e s s , 1953. Van Doren,.Mark. N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne. New Y o r k : W i l l i a m S l o a n e A s s o c i a t e s I n c . , 1949. Von A b e l e , Rudolph. The-Death o f t h e A r t i s t : A Study o f Hawthorne's D i s i n t e g r a t i o n . . The Hague: . M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1955. - "The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : A R e a d i n g , " Accent,. X I (Autumn, 1 9 5 1 ) , 211-227. Waggoner, H y a t t H. Hawthorne: A C r i t i c a l S t u d y . rev., ed. Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The B e l k n a p P r e s s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. W i n t e r s , Y v o r . I n Defense o f Reason. Denver, C o l o r a d o : Alan,,Swallow, 1947. 66 MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES Bloom,,Edward A. "The A l l e g o r i c a l P r i n c i p l e , " E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , X V I I I (September, 1951), 163-190. F l e t c h e r , Angus. A l l e g o r y : The Theory o f a S y m b o l i c Mode. I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. F r y e , N o r t h r o p . Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m . New Y o r k : Atheneum, 1966. H o n i g , Edward. . Dark C o n c e i t : The M a k i n g o f A l l e g o r y . E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,.1959 . Hough, Graham... "The A l l e g o r i c a l C i r c l e , " The C r i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I I I (Autumn, 1961), 199-209. J u n g , C.G. "On the R e l a t i o n o f A n a l y t i c a l P s y c h o l o g y t o P o e t i c A r t , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A n a l y t i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , .trans:. Cary F. Baynes and II. G. Baynes. London: ' R o u t l e d g e and K e g a n . P a u l , L t d . , 1928, 225-249. " A r c h e t y p e s o f . t h e C o l l e c t i v e U n c o n s c i o u s , " B o l l i n g e r S e r i e s , XX, ed. S i r H e r b e r t Read and .Michael'Fordham, t r a n s . R. F. C. H u l l . Z u r i c h : Pantheon.Books, 1954. L e w i s , C. S. The A l l e g o r y o f Love: A Study i n M e d i e v a l T r a d i t i o n . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. 

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