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An examination of the use of the injunction in labour management disputes 1971

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE USE OF THE INJUNCTION I N LABOUR MANAGEMENT DISPUTES by EDWARD WILLIAM ROWNEY B. Comm., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS- SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS-ADMINISTRATION i n t he F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - J u l y , 19 71 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date J u l y , 1971 LL ABSTRACT The purpose of t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e i f the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n was a n e c e s s a r y r e c o u r s e f o r C a n a d i a n l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s a f u n c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s r a t h e r t h a n l e g i s l a t i o n ; t h a t t h e r e t e n d s t o be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t ; and t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and the r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . These p o s t u l a t e s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h r o u g h a r e v i e w o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada ( O n t a r i o and. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . I t was f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t i f t h e i n j u n c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y , t h e n t h e p r e s e n t p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d change, as i t i s not as e f f i c a c i o u s as o r i g i n a l l y p o s t u l a t e d . The a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d a r e based on d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y named c o u n t r i e s and Canada. The p r o p o s e d changes a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f Canada. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 Purpo s e o f t h e S t u d y 1 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y ' 2 Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y 3 C h a p t e r O r g a n i z a t i o n 4 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used 5 I I . THE LABOUR INJUNCTION: THE BRITISH AND AUSTRALIAN' EXPERIENCE 7 The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e . ... 7 P e r i o d o f I l l e g a l i t y 8 The E x c l u s i o n o f t h e Common Law:1871-1920 9 G r a d u a l J u d i c i a l A b s t e n t i o n : 1920-1959 . ." 13 Renewed J u d i c i a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : 1960-1966... . 14 C o n c l u s i o n s 17 The A u s t r a l i a n E x p e r i e n c e . 23 The Enfor c e m e n t of S t a t u t o r y , C r i m i n a l and C i v i l Law R e s t r a i n t s 25 The I n j u n c t i o n and i t s Use • 25 M e c h a n i c s o f C o m p u l s c r y A r b i t r a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t s 27 C o n c l u s i o n s 28 CHAPTER PAGE I I I . THE LABOUR INJUNCTION I N THE UNITED STATES 31 F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power 31 P r e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t 32 P a s s a g e of t h e N o r r i s - L a Guardia. Act.., 36 Labour I n j u n c t i o n Subsequent t o t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t 38 Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n t h e S t a t e C o u r t s 43 R e l e v a n c e of t h e A m e r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e t o Canada 45 IV. THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE: ONTARIO AND BRITISH COLUMBIA... 48 — H i s t o r i c a l Development o f C a n a d i a n Labour Law.. 48 The Y e a r s f r o m C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o 1918 50 The Y e a r s f r o m 1918 t o 1940 51 W o r l d War I I and P o s t War Developments 53 O n t a r i o ' s E x p e r i e n c e 55 P e r i o d f r o m 1958 t o 1961 56 P e r i o d f r o m 1962 t o 1966 61 The Rand R e p o r t 67 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s E x p e r i e n c e 70 P e r i o d f r o m 1946 t o 1955 73 P e r i o d f r o m 1956 t o 1966 76 A t t i t u d e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' 77 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 92 PAGE FOOTNOTES. - 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 105 L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Number o f I n j u n c t i o n s G r a n t e d 1958-1961 ( O n t a r i o ) 56 I I . Number o f S p e c i f i c A c t s Which Were E n j o i n e d i n I n j u n c t i o n s I s s u e d 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 6 ( O n t a r i o ) .. . 59 I I I . Number of I n j u n c t i o n s G r a n t e d 1962-1966 ( O n t a r i o ) 62 I V . Number o f I n j u n c t i o n s G r a n t e d 1946-1955 (B.C.) 71 V. C i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h an I n j u n c t i o n was Sought ( B . C . ) . . . . 72 V I . P r i n c i p a l Reasons A l l e g e d f o r S e e k i n g I n j u n c t i v e R e l i e f (B.C.) ". 75 V I I . I n j u n c t i o n s G r a n t e d , M o d i f i e d , o r D e n i e d From 1956-1965 (B.C.) 76 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION P u r p o s e o f S t u d y .Some d e g r e e o f c o n f l i c t i s p r e s e n t ' i n most union-management r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Of t h e many weapons employed i n i n d u s t r i a l w a r f a r e none has a r o u s e d more c o n t r o v e r s y t h a n t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . ' ' ' Some c o u n t r i e s have f o u n d a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , but Canada i s s t i l l b e s e t by t h e p r o b l e m o f l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s . L a b o u r , management and government a r e e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n and i n t e r e s t o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . One need o n l y v i e w t h e h i s t o r y o f s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s d u r i n g t h e l a t e f i f t i e s 2 t o r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t . The f r e e r use o f c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s t h a n i n t h e p a s t has o c c u p i e d a t t e n t i o n and t r i e d t h e p a t i e n c e o f l a b o u r 3 and a t t i m e s o f management. T h e . O n t a r i o F e d e r a t i o n of Labour blames t h e c u r r e n t " c r i s i s " i n 4 i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t l y on o u t - o f - d a t e l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . They s t a t e t h a t t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of i n j u n c t i o n s amounts t o e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y law a p p l i e d t o t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o n d i t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r l y g a l l i n g t o l a b o u r i s t h e f a c t t h a t n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d ex p a r t e , t h a t i s on o n e - s i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e u n i o n s were g i v e n no o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a l l e n g e . Thus much c r i t i c i s m has been a g a i n s t t h i s ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . However, management spokesmen i n s i s t t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s a r e p r o p e r t o o l s o f p r e v e n t i v e j u s t i c e . Numerous s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n have been e x p r e s s e d . They range f r o m t o t a l a c c e p t a n c e t o a b s o l u t e a b o l i s h m e n t . The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s ; a n e c e s s a r y r e c o u r s e f o r C a n a d i a n labour,, management d i s p u t e s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s a f u n c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s r a t h e r t h a n l e g i s l a t i o n : t h a t t h e r e t e n d s t o be an i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t ; and t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . These p o s t u l a t e s w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by e x a m i n i n g t h e i n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f t h r e e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , namely G r e a t B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The w r i t e r p r o p o s e s t o c o n t r a s t t h e e x i s t i n g l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n s o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d c o u n t r i e s i n an a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e ' t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o c e d u r e s and o t h e r f a c t o r s p r e s e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . I n Canada the l a b o u r h i s t o r y o f O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h ^ C o l u m b i a w i l l be s t u d i e d . I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e r e v i e w s w i l l s u p p o r t t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d h y p o t h e s e s ; t h e main c o n t e n t i o n b e i n g t h a t Canada s t i l l r e q u i r e s t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy be a v a i l a b l e i n l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s . I t i s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t though t h e i n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d , t h e i n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s change. The changes w i l l be based on. d a t a d e r i v e d -from t h e a n a l y s i s and r e v i e w o f t h e l a b o u r l e g i s l a - t i o n o f Canada, B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e f f i c a c y of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e s s e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r . The c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o p o s t u l a t e a more e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m f o r t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s i n Canada, and p r i m a r i l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y The w r i t e r w i l l s t u d y t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h r e e common law c o u n t r i e s have had w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . The l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be examined t o d e t e r m i n e i f the i n c i d e n c e o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e s and i n t u r n , i f t h e r e i s r e l e v a n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s t o a p r o p o s e d s t r e a m l i n i n g o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n Canada, and i n p a r t i c u l a r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Labour i n Canada tends t o make t h e b r o a d s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have s o l v e d t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . From l a b o u r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h e i n j u n c t i o n c r e a t e s i s t h a t i t i s b e i n g used as an economic weapon by management t o b r e a k s t r i k e s i n e a r l y s t a g e s . T h i s s t a t e m e n t ; w i l l be examined i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s a f t e r t h e l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n s and t h e - e v o l u t i o n of t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s has been s t u d i e d . The w r i t e r w i l l d e t e r m i n e i f , i n f a c t , t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s b e i n g used by management as an added economic weapon i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r at t h e s t r i k e s t a g e s , o r i f t h e remedy i s . b e i n g used t o p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . T h e r e have been c u r r e n t c a s e s where th e i n j u n c t i o n has been used i n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The w r i t e r w i l l examine th e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e d i s p u t e v i a t h e c o u r t s , and i f t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was i n j e o p a r d y , and what o t h e r r e m e d i e s were a v a i l a b l e . The s t u d y i s based on r e s e a r c h t h r o u g h j o u r n a l s , b o o k s , s t u d i e s , speeches and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n s o f Canada and t h e c o u n t r i e s s t a t e d , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y The use of l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s i s t o o w i d e a t o p i c t o be t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n e v e r y a s p e c t . The w r i t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s law i n t h r e e c o u n t r i e s ; t h e U n i t e d " K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t h e p a r t o f t h e law o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t r e l a t e s t o t h e use of the i n j u n c t i o n , and i n t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f t h e l e g a l framework o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e r e a r e n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s and Canada, even though t h e r e i s much in.common i n t h e s t r u c t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . ~ * The w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r s i t r e l e v a n t t o i n c l u d e an a c c o u n t o f t h e l a b o u r laws o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t o p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e use of t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n Canada. I n Canada, the p r o v i n c e s most a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n l a b o u r management problems a r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and O n t a r i o . Thus, i n e x a m i n i n g t h e use of i n j u n c t i o n s i n Canada, t h e r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s on t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s t h e w r i t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e by p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s . The r e s u l t s w i l l a l s o be u t i l i z e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e i n j u n c t i v e . p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Canada. C h a p t e r O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a p t e r I I d e a l s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e i n s t r i k e law and t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r e s e n t employee-employer r e l a t i o n s and a s s e s s b r i e f l y t h e p a s t and c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, and i t s r e l e v a n c e t o Canada. An o u t l i n e o f . t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e l i m i n a r y f o r any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ' . r a d i c a l change w h i c h has o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1954 and i t i s by t h i s b a c k g r o u n d a l o n e t h a t B r i t i s h l a b o u r law i s c a p a b l e of e x p l a n a t i o n . ^ The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r i s a r e v i e w o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n A u s t r a l i a . I f one o v e r l o o k s v e r y minor d i f f e r e n c e s one can say t h a t E n g l i s h and A u s t r a l i a n t r a d e u n i o n law were t h e same b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y a r t i t r a t i o n . ^ Thus, e x a m i n a t i o n of A u s t r a l i a n l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e 1890's, when d i f f e r e n c e s and d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e E n g l i s h p a t t e r n began t o o c c u r . Developments w i l l be p r e s e n t e d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d f o r u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n A u s t r a l i a . C h a p t e r I I I i s a s t u d y o f t h e use of l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Development has been t r a c e d f r o m t h e p r e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t t o t h e p r e s e n t . The i n j u n c t i o n w i l l be v i e w e d under f e d e r a l law and a c c o r d i n g t o s t a t e law. The w r i t e r w i l l i n c l u d e remarks r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a s t u d y o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n Canada. The two major a r e a s examined w i l l be t h e p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d p r i o r t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o t e d t o a summary o f t h e s t u d y and to t h e development o f c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e use of t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n Canada. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms I n j u n c t i o n . The i n j u n c t i o n i s a f o r m of j u d i c i a l r e l i e f whereby t h e C o u r t o r d e r s a p a r t y t o p r o c e e d i n g s t o r e f r a i n f r o m d o i n g s p e c i f i e d a c t s ( a r e s t r i c t i v e i n j u n c t i o n ) o r t o do c e r t a i n a c t s ( a mandatory 8 i n j u n c t i o n ) . I t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y l e g a l remedy o f damages, as • i i t u s u a l l y o r d e r s , not t h e u s u a l money payment, but t h e p o s i t i v e r e d r e s s o f p r e s c r i b e d b e h a v i o r . I t i s g r a n t e d a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c o u r t and may t a k e one o f s e v e r a l f o r m s , a f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f a d i s p u t e ( a permanent i n j u n c t i o n ) , a t e m p o r a r y measure t o p r e v e n t t h e o c c u r e n c e o f f u r t h e r a l l e g e d i n j u r y u n t i l t h e c a s e i s t r i e d ; o r i t may i n extreme c a s e s , be g i v e n s p e e d i l y and w i t h o u t n o t i c e t o t h e o p p o s i n g p a r t y f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e (ex p a r t e ) . Thus i t i s a c o u r t o r d e r g e n e r a l l y f o r b i d d i n g t h e d o i n g o f an i l l e g a l o r w r o n g f u l a c t . "The c o u r t s a r e empowered t o g r a n t an i n j u n c t i o n i n a l l c a s e s i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r s t o be j u s t o r c o n v e n i e n t t o do s o , t o 9 p r o t e c t o r e x e r t an e x i s t i n g l e g a l r i g h t . " I t can be g r a n t e d t e m p o r a r i l y b e f o r e t h e r i g h t has been a s c e r t a i n e d by t h e c o u r t ( i n t e r i m o r i n t e r - l o c u t o r y o r t e m p o r a r y i n j u n c t i o n ) , o r p e r m a n e n t l y a f t e r t h e r i g h t has been a s c e r t a i n e d (permanent o r p e r p e t u a l o r f i n a l i n j u n c t i o n ) . The i n j u n c t i o n o r d e r s t h e p e r s o n a g a i n s t whom i t i s d i r e c t e d t o r e f r a i n f r o m d o i n g a . p a r t i c u l a r a c t , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of w h i c h amounts t o b r e a c h o f t r u s t o f p r o p e r t y o r b r e a c h of some o t h e r e q u i t a b l e o b l i g a t i o n . To o b t a i n an i n j u n c t i o n o f p l a i n t i f f must show t h a t t h e r e has been v i o l a t i o n o r a t h r e a t e n e d v i o l a t i o n of t h e law and t h a t r e d r e s s i s not p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e n o r m a l l e g a l p r o c e s s . The i n j u n c t i o n i s e x t e n d e d as an e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e c o u r s e t o p r o t e c t r e a l p r o p e r t y f r o m i r r e p a r a b l e damage p r i o r t o t r i a l . CHAPTER I I THE LABOUR INJUNCTION: THE BRITISH AND AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE I . THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE The l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t a i n i s not and has not been a c o n t r o - v e r s i a l i s s u e s u c h as i t has been i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and more r e c e n t l y i n Canada. The w r i t e r p r o p o s e s t o show how t h e B r i t i s h have a p p a r e n t l y s o l v e d t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and a l s o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e C a n a d i a n s y s t e m o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . When B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e compared w i t h o t h e r d e m o c r a c i e s t h e y s t a n d out be c a u s e t h e y a r e so l i t t l e r e g u l a t e d by law.^" I n 1954 P r o f e s s o r 0. Kahn-Freund s a i d t h a t s e c t i o n 4 o f t h e Tra d e D i s p u t e s A c t o f 1906 i s t h e B r i t i s h s o l u t i o n o f t h e pro b l e m of t h e l a b o u r 2 i n j u n c t i o n . However, t o d a y i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e i n such a c a t e g o r i c a l f a s h i o n . The n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s may t u r n out t o be t h e l a s t decade o f t h e " a b s t e n t i o n " o f t h e law f o r w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s had been l o n g , and u n j u s t l l y , p r a i s e d . I n o r d e r t o g a i n any u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n t h e development o f B r i t i s h l a b o u r law must be examined. I n Canada, l a b o u r s t a t e s t h a t the i n j u n c t i o n i s not used i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e r e f o r e t h e c o u r t s do not i n t e r f e r e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o r use o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f l a b o u r , management and t h e ju d g e s d u r i n g economic and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l p h a s e s , and t h a t such a t t i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e d i t s use i n G r e a t B r i t a i n - t h e law re s p o n d e d d i r e c t l y J t o s h i f t s i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . To i l l u s t r a t e how a t t i t u d e s r a n g i n g f r o m t o t a l a b s t e n t i o n t o a renewed common law i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1850 t o 1966 w i l l be s t u d i e d . P r o f e s s o r K. W. Wedderburn p r o v i d e s a v e r y good r e v i e w o f t h e development o f t h e l a b o u r law i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. The p e r i o d i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r phases o f B r i t i s h l a b o u r l a w , each o f w h i c h has i t s d i s t i n c t a t t i t u d e s p e r t a i n i n g towards t h e use o f t h e common law and i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . These f o u r p e r i o d s a r e : ( i ) I l l e g a l i t y : t o 1871 ( i i ) The E x c l u s i o n o f t h e Common Law: 1871 t o 1920 ( i i i ) G r a d u a l J u d i c i a l " A b s t e n t i o n " : 1920 t o 1959 ( i v ) Renewed Common Law I n t e r v e n t i o n : 1960 t o 1966. The s y s t e m i n G r e a t B r i t a i n c an be d e s c r i b e d as a. v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e lav? d i d n o t seek t o c o n t r o l o r mold t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . T h e r e was, and i s , no ( l e g a l d u t y t o b a r g a i n ; no g e n e r a l l e g a l r i g h t t o t r a d e u n i o n r e c o g n i t i o n ; few l e g a l r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a r t i e s o r ag e n t s f o r b a r g a i n i n g . The c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e - ment i s not a c c o r d i n g t o m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n a l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e c o n t r a c t between c o l l e c t i v e p a r t i e s . Thus, t h e law a b s t a i n s i n t h e sense t h a t i t aims not t o c o n t r o l t h e economic s t r e n g t h and p r e s s u r e s b r o u g h t t o b e a r i n t h e f r e e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n . I n a n a l y s i n g t h e s y s t e m i t must be remembered t h a t i t grew out o f t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the e a r l y B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and o f the s t r u g g l e o f i t s l a b o u r movement a g a i n s t i l l e g a l i t y . ( i ) P e r i o d o f I l l e g a l i t y P r i o r t o 1871 c o n v i c t i o n s f o r c o n s p i r a c y were common and p i c k e t i n g was a c r i m e , i f i t exposed n o n - u n i o n i s t s t o " b l a c k l o o k " . I n t h e eyes o f t h e law t r a d e u n i o n s were bound t o be i l l e g a l c o n s p i r a c i e s . Even i n 1825 t h e A c t p e r m i t t e d o n l y c o l l e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n on h o u r s and wages a t one p l a c e o f work; and i t e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r e p e n a l i t i e s f o r c r i m e s under t h e h e a d i n g s : v i o l e n c e ; t h r e a t s ; i n t i m i d a t i o n ; m o l e s t a t i o n and o b s t r u c t i o n . A g a i n s t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b a c k g r o u n d t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d I n one c a s e i n 1868, t h e judge i s s u e d an i n j u n c t i o n t o s t o p i n t i m i d a t i o n and. he o b s e r v e d t h a t i t was t h e c o u r t ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y . The i n j u n c t i o n was, i n t h i s p e r i o d , an e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e o f t h e C h a n c e r y c o u r t s ; and t h e number o f t i m e s i t was used d i d not appear t o be l a r g e as t h e e m p l o y e r s a p p e a r e d t o p r e f e r t h e c l e a n c u t o f t h e p r o s e c u t i o n ( i i ) The E x c l u s i o n o f t h e Common Law: 1871-19 20 I n 1867 t h e t r a d e u n i o n s were e n t i r e l y an i n d u s t r i a l movement; t h e L a bour P a r t y was s t i l l o v e r t h r e e decades away. Thus i t s demands were n o t p o l i t i c a l , but i n i n d u s t r i a l and p r a g m a t i c t e r m s . The l a b o u r movement demanded, and g r a d u a l l y wen, t h e r e m o v a l o f law w h i c h r e n d e r e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s i l l e g a l . The j u d g e s r e s p o n d e d by d e v e l o p i n g new. f orms o f common law l i a b i l i t y . The u n i o n s p r e s s e d t h e l e g i s l a t u r e f o r new s t a t u t e s t o e x c l u d e them and were s u c c e s s f u l i n 1875 and 1906. The s t a t u t e s had t h e l o o k of " p r i v i l e g e s " f o r t r a d e u n i o n s . The T r a d e U n i o n A c t , 1871, d e c l a r e d t h a t t r a d e u n i o n agreements and p u r p o s e s s h o u l d . n o t be any l o n g e r u n l a w f u l o r c r i m i n a l on t h e grounds o f r e s t r a i n t o f t r a d e . To t h e former- p r o b l e m o f c o n s p i r a c y t h e A c t o f 1875 a p p l i e d an i n v e n t i o n w h i c h was t o become the - g o l d e n f o r m u l a o f B r i t i s h l a b o u r law. No c o m b i n a t i o n was t o be i n d i c t a b l e as a c o n s p i r a c y i f i t was a c o m b i n a t i o n t o do o r p r o c u r e any a c t : " i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n o r f u r t h e r a n c e o f a t r a d e d i s p u t e i f s u c h a c t committed by one person,. 3 w o u l d not be p u n i s h a b l e as a c r i m e " ( s e c . 3 ) . T h i s b a n i s h e d c r i m i n a l c o n s p i r a c y f r o m the a r e a o f t r a d e d i s p u t e s . S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e 1875 A c t (The C o n s p i r a c y and P r o t e c t i o n o f P r o p e r t y A c t ) was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e r o c k upon w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l a c t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d e d . F o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n y e a r s few l e g a l a c t i o n s were b r o u g h t a g a i n s t u n i o n s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e was no r e p o r t e d use of t h e i n j u n c t i o n . However, by the end o f t h e 1880's t h e s o c i a l and l e g a l p i c t u r e changed. 4 The Y e a r s 1885-1901: A H o s t i l e J u d i c i a r y D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e new u n i o n s w h i c h appeared on t h e scene posed as to u g h and a g g r e s s i v e d e f e n d e r s o f t h e i r members. T h i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e " s o f t t a c t i c s " o f t h e o l d e r c r a f t u n i o n s . E m p l o y e r s r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s a t t i t u d e w i t h r e s i s t i v e and c o u n t e r - a t t a c k s by i m p o r t a t i o n o f non- u n i o n l a b o u r . L e g a l l y , i n t h e decade p r e c e d i n g 1900, t h e ju d g e s a l s o r e s p o n d e d and fo u n d a g a i n s t t r a d e u n i o n i s t s a v a r i e t y o f new grounds. One development w h i c h o c c u r r e d was t h a t t h e c i v i l l i a b i l i t y f o r c o n s p i r - acy was renewed and c o m b i n a t i o n s a g a i n r a n t h e r i s k o f b e i n g judged m a l i c i o u s o r i l l e g i t i m a t e . T h i s w a s a c i v i l l i a b i l i t y w h i c h was not p r o t e c t e d by t h e 1875 A c t . By 1901 t h e e n t i r e u n i o n e d i f i c e seemed t h r e a t e n e d by t h e new f o r m o f s i m p l e c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y , f o r t h e ju d g e s a p p e a r e d r e a d y t o condemn t h e most common p l a c e u n i o n o b j e c t i v e s . D u r i n g t h i s new l e g a l a t t a c k upon t h e u n i o n s , t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n became an a v a i l a b l e remedy and, i n f a c t , t h e J u d i c a t u r e A c t o f 1873 e x p r e s s l y d e c l a r e d t h a t an i n t e r l o c u t o r y o r d e r c o u l d be made whenever i t seemed " j u s t o r c o n v e n i e n t " . So i t was under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d i n t h e 1890's and a l l o w e d t h e j u d g e s t o s t r i k e down any b o y c o t t o r s t r i k e w h i c h t h e y termed m a l i c i o u s . O t h e r c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n were a l s o d e v e l o p e d a l o n g s i d e c o n s p i r a c y . P i c k e t i n g was h e l d t o be a common law " n u i s a n c e " . The a t t a c k on p i c k e t - i n g was d e v e l o p e d i n a s e r i e s o f c a s e s i n w h i c h . t h e a t t e n d a n c e of the p i c k e t s was h e l d " t o compel m a s t e r s t o c o n d u c t b u s i n e s s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h men's demands". T h i s was t h e b a s i s of t h e i n j u n c t i o n . T h i s p e r i o d i s judged as one where t h e c o u r t was c o n c e r n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e p r o p r i e t o r y and b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s of t h e employer. Such d i c t a showed l i t t l e , i f any, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o f t h e damage t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a u n i o n and i t s members by t h e p r o h i b i t i o n f o r a p e r i o d o f a s t r i k e o r embargo w h i c h may have been c a l l e d at t a c t i c a l l y t h e p r e c i s e o p p o r t u n e moment. P r o f e s s o r Wedderburn s t a t e s t h a t " o n e a l m o s t e x p e c t e d t h e j u d g e s t o c l i n c h t h e argument by p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e y w i l l s a v e t h e u n i o n ' s p r o p e r t y t o o by a v o i d i n g payment o f s t r i k e pay".^ W i t h t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w of t h e s o c i a l and l e g a l s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e i n j u n c t i o n was u s e d , t h e s i t u a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e 1906 T r a d e D i s p u t e s A c t must be e x p l o r e d s i n c e i t i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n 1901 l a b o u r u n i o n s s u f f e r e d a d e f e a t . T a f f V a l e employees went on an u n l a w f u l s t r i k e and engaged i n p i c k e t i n g i n an u n l a w f u l manner and s e r i o u s l y damaged r a i l r o a d p r o p e r t y . An i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d a g a i n s t t h e s t r i k e r s and a c t i o n f o r damages was i n s t i t u t e d a g a i n s t t h e u n i o n . ' - The T a f f V a l e c a s e d e c i d e d t h a t a Trade U n i o n c o u l d be sued i n t o r t by i t s r e g i s t e r e d name, and even i f u n r e g i s t e r e d c o u l d s i m i l a r i l y be sued i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c t i o n , so as t o r e a c h i t s f u n d s . ^ T h i s d e c i s i o n shocked t h e u n i o n s and i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t o see i n 1906 on t h e e l e c t i o n p o s t e r s - - a j u d g e h a n d i n g t o an employer a s c o u r g e w i t h w h i c h t o b e a t t h e w o r k e r s . The T a f f V a l e c a s e became p a r t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s v i e w - - t h a t w i l l be t h e way t h e y w i l l t r e a t u n i o n s . They r e f e r t o t h e Law L o r d s . A l e s s k i n d l y P r o f e s s o r J e n k s d e c l a r e d i n 1912, a f t e r t h e 1906 l e g i s l a t i o n : "The House of L o r d s had f i r s t i n v e n t e d a new c i v i l o f f e n c e ( c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y ) and had t h e n c r e a t e d a new k i n d o f d e f e n d a n t a g a i n s t whom i t c o u l d be a l l e g e d . " ^ The f i e r c e r e a c t i o n c o n d u c t e d by t r a d e u n i o n s l e d t o t h e e n a c t - ment of t h e 1906 l e g i s l a t i o n . A R o y a l Commission was a p p o i n t e d i n 1903 and i t s r e p o r t l e d t o t h e enactment o f t h e Trade D i s p u t e A c t . The A c t r e p e a l e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y , l e g a l i z e d p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g , and r e l i e v e d u n i o n s f r o m l i a b i l i t y i n t o r t s f o r a c t i o n s , w h e t h e r of a p r i m a r y o r a s e c o n d a r y n a t u r e done i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a d e d i s p u t e s . Thus a t one s t r o k e , as P r o f e s s o r C a r r o t h e r s p h r a s e d i t , " t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t - i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n E n g l a n d was s e t f r e e of t h e law". I n r e l a t i o n t o i n j u n c t i o n s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r A c t i s t h e b a s i c s t a t u t e t h a t has been s u c c e s s f u l i n e x c l u d i n g t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n c o m p l e t e l y f r o m B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l a f f a i r s . I t i s s e c t i o n 4 of t h e A c t w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y removes t h e i n j u n c t i o n f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . The s e c t i o n r e a d s t h a t ; "An a c t i o n a g a i n s t a t r a d e u n i o n . . . o r a g a i n s t any members o r o f f i c i a l s t h e r e o f on b e h a l f o f them- s e l v e s and a l l o t h e r members of t h e t r a d e u n i o n , i n r e s p e c t o f any t o r t i o u s a c t a l l e g e d t o have been committed by o r on b e h a l f o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , s h a l l n ot be e n t e r t a i n e d by any C o u r t " . ^ T h i s p r o h i b i t i o n on t o r t l i a b i l i t y was, and - i s , a b s o l u t e . I t was not r e s t r i c t e d t o t r a d e d i s p u t e s . T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e a c t b r o u g h t a s h a r p h a l t t o t h e w r i t s i s s u e d a g a i n s t t r a d e u n i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . So, by t h e s t a r t o f t h e war i n 1914 t h e s y s t e m i n B r i t a i n became based on t h e f i r m e x c l u s i o n o f common law l i a b i l i t y w h i c h r e l a t e d t o economic p r e s s u r e f r o m a l l t r a d e d i s p u t e s . ( i i i ) G r a d u a l J u d i c i a l . A b s t e n t i o n : 1920-1959 T h i s p e r i o d i s one i n w h i c h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e law f r o m economic s a n c t i o n and f r o m t r a d e d i s p u t e s was even b e i n g a c c e p t e d by t h e j u d i c i a r y . A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h i s p e r i o d w i l l n ot be u n d e r t a k e n b u t i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f j u d g e s were u n w i l l i n g t o i n t e r v e n e w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . What l e d t o t h i s change i n j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e ? ~ 9 The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d . F i r s t t h e new a t t i t u d e was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e new ju d g e s who had seen t h e impact o f t h e i r s e n i o r s ' h o s t i l i t y on t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement. Some had t a k e n t o h e a r t t h e o b v i o u s c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m w h i c h had moved p e o p l e t o speak about i t . As L o r d S c r u t t o n s t a t e d i n 1921: "The h a b i t s you a r e t r a i n e d i n , t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom you mix l e a d t o your h a v i n g a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f i d e a s o f s u c h a n a t u r e t h a t when you have t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r i d e a s you do not g i v e as sound and a c c u r a t e judgments as you would w i s h . . . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t sometimes t o be s u r e t h a t you have put y o u r s e l f i n t o a t h o r o u g h l y i m p a r t i a l p o s i t i o n between two d i s p u t a n t s , one of y o u r own c l a s s and one n o t o f y o u r c l a s s . S e c o n d l y , b e f o r e 1925 l e a d i n g c a s e s went no h i g h e r t h a n t h e C o u r t .of A p p e a l , a c o u r t where t h e more l i b e r a l j u dges were numerous t h a n i n t h e House of L o r d s w h i c h i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e s was p e o p l e d w i t h Lav? L o r d s whose a t t i t u d e s more r e a d i l y r e f l e c t e d p r e war b i a s . T h i r d l y , t h e ju d g e s w e r e . , d e a l i n g w i t h a s i t u a t i o n ' i n w h i c h t h e t r a d e u n i o n s were f i g h t i n g w i t h t h e i r b a c k s t o t h e w a l l . Between 1921 and 1938 unemployment o n l y f e l l b elow t e n p e r c e n t i n one y e a r . The j u d g e s were v e r y c a r e f u l t o u p h o l d t h e r i g o u r o f S e c t i o n 4 of t h e T r a d e D i s p u t e s A c t o f 1906 and a l s o c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e a r e a o f c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y . J u d i c i a l A t t i t u d e : 1940-1960: T h i s l a t e r decade was a l s o one i n w h i c h l a b o u r law c a s e s were few and t h e a t t i t u d e of " a b s t e n t i o n " had gone deep i n t o t h e j u d g e s ' minds. The E n g l i s h b a t t l e s o v e r l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s were f o u g h t , not o v e r p r o c e d u r a l o r r e m e d i a l i s s u e s , but o v e r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the f u n d a m e n t a l c a u s e s o f a c t i o n . ( i v ) Renewed J u d i c i a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : 1960-1966 The s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of B r i t a i n changed a f t e r t h e war and i n t h e mid f i f t i e s t r a d e u n i o n membership became s t r o n g e r . F u l l employment l e v e l s were an a c c e p t e d c r i t e r i a o f i n d u s t r i a l peace. A g r o w i n g a n x i e t y o v e r t h e p r o b l e m of i n f l a t i o n , an i n c r e a s i n g m i d d l e c l a s s c r i t i c i s m o f and t h e e m p l o y e r s r e s i s t a n c e t o u n i o n s were t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h a g a i n r e v i v e d t h e common law i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n summary, t h e c o n d i t i o n s a g a i n seemed t o have a f l a v o u r o f t h e p e r i o d of i l l e g a l i t y , w h i c h t h e t r a d e u n i o n s were s t r u g g l i n g w i t h i n t h e e a r l y 1870's. T h i s new s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d t h e n began t o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o new j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e s . A r e c e n t c a s e of 1964, Rookes v. B a r n a r d , where a t h r e a t e n e d s t r i k e by the u n i o n i f an employee, Rookes, were n o t removed f r o m t h e p a y r o l l b e c a u s e he r e f u s e d t o r e m a i n a u n i o n member, e x e m p l i f i e s t h e new a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d by j u d g e s . R.ookes was s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s m i s s e d and he sued t h e u n i o n o f f i c i a l . The judge r u l e d t h a t t h e t h r e a t by the u n i o n t o s t r i k e was i n f a c t i n t i m i d a t i o n . He a l l o w e d t h e a c t i o n on "the -grounds t h a t t h e t h r e a t amounted t o c i v i l i n t i m i d a t i o n u n p r o t e c t e d by t h e 1906 A c t . The t h r e a t t o commit b r e a c h o f employment c o n t r a c t was t h e r e f o r e e q u i v a l e n t of a c o e r c i v e t h r e a t o f v i o l e n c e . T h i s a p p a r e n t a l t e r e d a t t i t u d e o f t h e j u d g e , i n f a c t , was an a t t a c k o f t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e . I t a g a i n a p p e a r e d t o t h o s e who f e l t u n i o n s had been r e v i v e d and t h a t i n t i m i d a t i o n would be made t h e b a s i s o f a t t a c k s upon u n i o n o f f i c i a l s and members, and a g a i n i n c l u d e t h e use of t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy t o t h w a r t t h e economic t o o l o f t h e u n i o n — t h e s t r i k e . W i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e and o t h e r s , t h e i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n began t o appear on t h e B r i t i s h s cene and S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e 1906 A c t w h i c h gave u n i o n s t o r t immunity was c h a l l e n g e d . A g a i n one must remember t h a t t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d had much i n f l u e n c e on t h e j u d g e ' s d e c i s i o n i n t h e Rookes V. B a r n a r d c a s e , w h i c h opened t h e door t o t h i s new j u d i c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . As a consequence o f t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e T r a d e D i s p u t e s A c t of 1965 was p a s s e d . I t i s e n t i t l e d "An A c t t o p r e v e n t a c t i o n s f o u n d e d on t o r t , o r o f r e p a r a t i o n , b e i n g b r o u g h t i n r e s p e c t o f c e r t a i n a c t s done i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f f u r t h e r a n c e o f t r a d e d i s p u t e s . " ^ The p e r t i n e n t s e c t i o n o f t h e A c t r e a d s as f o l l o w s : "An a c t done a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e A c t by a p e r s o n i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n or f u r t h e r a n c e o f a t r a d e d i s p u t e ( w i t h i n t h e meaning o f t h e T r a d e D i s p u t e s A c t o f 1906) s h a l l not be a c t i o n a b l e i n t o r t on t h e ground o n l y t h a t i t c o n s i s t s i n h i s t h r e a t e n i n g : a) t h a t a c o n t r a c t o f employment (whether one t o w h i c h he i s p a r t y o r n o t ) w i l l be b r o k e n , o r b) t h a t h e . w i l l i n d u c e a n o t h e r t o b r e a k a c o n t r a c t of- employment t o w h i c h t h a t o t h e r i s a p a r t y . " 1 2 The A c t i s l i m i t e d t o employment c o n t r a c t s . However by u s i n g t h e b l a n k e t i n g t e r m " t r a d e d i s p u t e s " , t h e new A c t m a y - w e l l have f a l l e n i n t o t h e same t y p e of s i t u a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n 1932 i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The t e r m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t e n d e d t o embrace o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n p i c k e t i n g , mass p i c k e t i n g , and s t r i k e s i n b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t . To f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f y the changed v i e w o f t h e j u d i c i a r y , s u b sequent c a s e s d i d r e v e a l t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e t r a d e d i s p u t e s a r e a . U n i o n s were b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l t h e new a t t i t u d e w i t h a g r o w t h o f new ca u s e s o f a c t i o n s u c h a s : a) i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h c o n t r a c t s w i t h o u t b r e a c h b) i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h f u t u r e c o n t r a c t s by u n l a w f u l means c) m a l i c i o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h b u s i n e s s o r e m p l o y e r s d) c o n s p i r a c i e s t o use u n l a w f u l means e) p i c k e t i n g - - w h e r e c o n d u c t o f p i c k e t i n g was e n j o i n e d f ) inducement o f u n i o n s f o r b r e a k i n g c o m m e r c i a l c o n t r a c t s . T h i s new v i e w h i n g e s upon t h e w o r d i n g o f S e c t i o n 4, where t h e u n i o n i s g r a n t e d immunity t o t o r t i o u s a c t s a l l e g e d t o have been committed by o r on b e h a l f o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , The c o u r t s have e x t e n d e d t h e c a u s e s o f a c t i o n and added t h e t r a d e u n i o n s t o t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e d e f e n d e n t s . T h e r e i s s t i l l , however, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f S e c t i o n 4 and th u s a b s t e n t i o n . I t i s e x p r e s s e d i n Camden E x h i b i t i o n and D i s p l a y L t d . v. L y n o t t , 1965. However, t h e r e i s a l s o a m i d d l e v i e w w h i c h p r o p o s e s t o i s s u e d e c l a r a t i o n s i n p l a c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s . T h i s v i e w p r o p o s e s t h a t when a d e c l a r a t i o n i s g r a n t e d and once t h e law i s so. d e c l a r e d , u n i o n s o r 13 t h e i r o f f i c i a l s w ould not seek t o do a n y t h i n g c o n t r a r y t o i t . I t i s f e l t t h a t p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s w o u l d be so s t r o n g t h a t u n i o n s w o u l d o b s e r v e a d e c l a r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r s t a t u s . T h i s d e c l a r a t o r y judgment would not c a r r y ' a contempt p e n a l t y ' a n d t h u s no i m p r i s o n m e n t . O n l y p u b l i c p r e s s u r e t o obey t h e s t a t e m e n t , and t h e u n i o n ' s d e s i r e n o t t o d e s t r o y i t s image i n t h e p u b l i c ' s eye i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . Thus t h i s m i d d l e v i e w a t t e m p t s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e w r i t and contempt f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s but i t s t i l l r e q u i r e s t h e use o f a j u d g e ' s o p i n i o n t o make a d e c l a r a t o r y judgment. The d i s a g r e e m e n t o f r e c e n t c a s e s a g a i n s t t h e i n j u n c t i o n h i n g e s on t h e f a c t t h a t i t r e c o g n i s e s t h e e m p l o y e r ' s c o n t r a c t u a l and p r o p e r t y 14 r i g h t s b u t t h a t i t i s b l i n d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o l l e c t i v e l a b o u r . R e c e n t ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s have a l s o been i s s u e d " t o p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s quo", but a g a i n , f r o m l a b o u r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h i s can ban u n i o n a c t i o n f o r a s h o r t and p r o b a b l y v i t a l p e r i o d u n t i l a c t i o n i s h e a r d f u r t h e r . W i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o t h e d e t a i l s o f two r e c e n t c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e ex p a r t e was u s e d , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t a i n r e v e a l s t h a t a H i g h C o u r t j u d g e - w i l l now g r a n t an i n j u n c t i o n --even a' mandatory o n e - - a g a i n s t u n i o n d e f e n d a n t s and even a g a i n s t t h e u n i o n i t s e l f . ' ' " " ' These r e c e n t c a s e s show how f a r t h e law has moved s i n c e 1954, when the p o p u l a r b e l i e f was t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n had been removed f r o m B r i t i s h d i s p u t e s . C o n c l u s i o n s I n c o n c l u d i n g t h e c h a p t e r on G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t w h i c h can be l e a r n e d i s t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y and use of t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b - u t a b l e t o t h e a t t i t u d e s o f l a b o u r , management and the j u d g e s . The l a w , e s p e c i a l l y judge-made l a w , o f t e n a d a p t s i t s e l f t o meet t h e changes i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e t i m e ; however i t f r e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p s i n a manner h o s t i l e t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s t r a c e d t h e use o f t h e c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n has been d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e economic p i c t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e phase o f t h e u n i o n movement and t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e j u d g e s toward i n t e r v e n t i o n . How can t h e s t u d y o f t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m be of any v a l u e t o t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r scene? The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t : 1. t h e f r e q u e n c y and use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t a t e o f t h e l a b o u r movement and t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e judges and t h e p u b l i c a t t h e t i m e 2. t h e a p p a r e n t a b s t e n t i o n o f t h e law f r o m l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s and t h u s t h e i n f r e q u e n t use o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t a b l e t o t h e s h i f t s i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e a p p a r e n t s o l u t i o n t o t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s , i n f a c t , t h e a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d by b o t h management and l a b o u r d u r i n g ^the 187,1 t o 1920 p e r i o d , and i s f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e j u d i c i a l a b s t e n t i o n f r o m 1920 t o 1959. 3. i n Canada t h e a t t i t u d e o f l a b o u r , management and government l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t a more r e g u l a t e d s y s t e m of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i s a p r o p e r s o l u t i o n f o r our c o u n t r y and t h u s more i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e a r e n a of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . The B r i t i s h s y s t e m l i t e r a l l y has no e n f o r c a b l e c o l l e c t i v e agreement, as Canada d o e s , and t h u s i n the w r i t e r ' s v i e w , i s a more u n s t a b l e s y s t e m o f labour-management r e l a t i o n s . The C a n a d i a n s y s t e m d e f i n e s when a s t r i k e can be t a k e n , however t h e B r i t i s h p r o c e s s l e a v e s t h i s t o o l open f o r t h e u n i o n t o v i r t u a l l y use a t w i l l . Thus t h e s t r i k e i n B r i t a i n becomes a more p o w e r f u l weapon t h a n i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n Canada. 4. i n 1960 i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , a g a i n because o f t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s - - m a i n l y t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h i n f l a t i o n and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of f u l l employ- ment, t h e new u n i o n s t r e n g t h , t h e i n c r e a s i n g m i d d l e c l a s s c r i t i c i s m o f u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s ' r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e u n i o n s , t hecommon law began t o i n t e r v e n e i n t o labour.:-management d i s p u t e s . The n e b u l o u s a r e a o f when a s t r i k e i s l e g a l o r i l l e g a l became an i s s u e . The common law began t o i n t e r v e n e i n t o d i s p u t e s and i n j u n c t i o n s began t o r e a p p e a r . K e e p i n g i n mind t h e g r o w i n g u n r e s t w i t h t h e wage d r i f t , t h e common law j u d g e s began t o i n t e r v e n e i n d i s p u t e s and d e t e r m i n e t h e economic s t r e n g t h s o f t h e p a r t i e s t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The d e c i s i o n i n t h e Rookes v. B a r n a r d c a s e h e l d t h a t a c o e r c i v e t h r e a t o f b r e a c h of employment c o n t r a c t was e q u i v a l e n t t o a c o e r c i v e t h r e a t o f v i o l e n c e . Thus a f r o n t a l a t t a c k on t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e . 5. p r i o r t o t h e 1960's t h e c o u r t s h e l d t h e r i n g by p r e v e n t i n g v i o l e n c e and o t h e r i n t o l e r a b l e c o n d u c t , and t h u s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t i r r e p a r a b l e harm t o p r o p e r t y . However i n t h e 1960's, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e c o u r t s began i n t e r v e n i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h e s t r i k e and t h u s were i m p i n g i n g upon t h e economic s a n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s aimed t o use. The i n j u n c t i o n has t h e r e f o r e been used t o b r e a k a s t r i k e . T h i s i s p u r p o r t e d not t o be t h e c a s e i n Canada t o d a y ; t h e s t r i k e t a k e s p l a c e a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e a f t e r n e g o t i a t i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s have been f o l l o w e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s s t a t u t e s . The use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n Canada, as w i l l be shown l a t e r , i s n o t b e i n g used t o g i v e one p a r t y an a d v a n t a g e i n b a r g a i n i n g ; i t i s b e i n g used b a s i c a l l y t o c o n t r o l u n t o l e r a b l e c o n d u c t d u r i n g s t r i k e s and t h e r e b y p r o t e c t t h e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . The s t u d y o f t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m has r e v e a l e d t h e l a c k o f l e g a l i n t e r v e n t i o n as compared t o C a n a d i a n l a b o u r law. The systems o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a r e s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t , o r p o s s i b l y i n d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f d e v e lopment. The b a s i c a t t i t u d e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n i s t h a t c o l l e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s must be a f r e e p r o c e s s and t h a t t h e law a b s t a i n s f r o m c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . T h i s i s a . b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two s y s t e m s . The l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n has not been u t i l i z e d i n B r i t a i n t o t h e same e x t e n t as i n Canada, p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e of t h e a t t i t u d e of a b s t e n t i o n . Some o f t h e s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s w h i c h must be k e p t i n mind when c o m p a r i n g t h e two c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e s and t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s a r e ; ^ 1. Most p l a n t s a r e o r g a n i z e d on a m u l t i - u n i o n b a s i s a l o n g o c c u p a t i o n a l l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n i n an i n d u s t r i a l u n i o n b a s i s . No g o v e r n m e n t a l agency a s s i s t s t h e employees' s e l e c t i o n of e x c l u s i v e b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t s nor c o n f e r s any b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s on s u c h a g e n t . No government m a c h i n e r y c a r v e s out a p p r o p r i a t e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . 2. B a r g a i n i n g t a k e s p l a c e a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and between employees' b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t s and e m p l o y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s remote f r o m t h e p l a n t and shop. B a r g a i n i n g i n any one i n d u s t r y , f o r example, may f o l l o w a l l o r some o f t h e s e f o r m s ; a) between employer f e d e r a t i o n s and u n i o n f e d e r a t i o n s b) r e g i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g between employer a s s o c i a t i o n s and u n i o n s t o a p p l y t h e m u l t i - i n d u s t r y b a r g a i n i n g on a l o c a l b a s i s c) between employer and t r a d e u n i o n a t p l a n t s i t e d) between " S t e w a r d s ' C o u n c i l " and management. The S t e wards C o u n c i l i s composed o f s t e w a r d s f r o m d i f f e r e n t u n i o n s i n a m u l t i - u n i o n p l a n t . The r o l e o f t h e s t e w a r d i n c o n t i n u o u s n e g o t i a t i o n s d i f f e r s s h a r p l y f r o m "watchdog" f u n c t i o n he p e r f o r m s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n t h e B r i t i s h shop t h e s t e w a r d i s much more i n d e p e n d e n t o f u n i o n c o n t r o l . Commentators c l a i m t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a l a c k of o f f i c i a l u n i o n c o n t r o l , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e l a r g e r number o f u n o f f i c i a l o r w i l d c a t s t r i k e s i n ' t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. I n B r i t a i n t h e number o f days l o s t t h r o u g h s t r i k e s i s low-, but t h e number o f s h o r t s t r i k e s c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h , e) c o n s u l t a t i o n t h r o u g h J o i n t C o n s u l t a t i o n C o u n c i l s t o w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of employees (no o f f i c i a l u n i o n r o l e ) a r e e l e c t e d t o d i s c u s s w i t h management m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e n o t the s u b j e c t o f n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h t r a d e u n i o n . The government may impose terms and c o n d i t i o n s on e m p l o y e r s by v a r i o u s means. S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e Terms and C o n d i t i o n s o f Employment A c t p e r m i t s t h e M i n i s t e r o f Labour t o submit t o _ t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o u r t f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n a d i s p u t e w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l employer who can not o b t a i n an agreement w i t h a u n i o n i n an i n d u s t r y w h i c h has e s t a b l i s h e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s p e r s u a n t t o n e g o t i a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y o r t r a d e . The M i n i s t e r under t h e Wage C o u n c i l s A c t may a l s o impose terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment on i n d u s t r i e s where t h e r e i s no e f f e c t i v e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g m a c h i n e r y . S i m i l a r i l y , under S e c t i o n 2 o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o u r t s A c t t h e M i n i s t e r may s u b m i t an economic, d i s p u t e t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o u r t f o r a r b i t r a - t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e government has n o t e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n p r o t e c t i n g employees' r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e o r p r e v e n t i n g e m p l o y e r s f r o m d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s . B r i e f l y , t h e r e a r e no u n i o n o r employer u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s as i n Canada :and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s a b s t e n t i o n o f t h e law f r o m B r i t i s h l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a c k o f c o n t r a c t u a l r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s f l o w i n g f r o m l a b o u r agreements. I t i s r a r e f o r s u c h agreements t o have a f i x e d d u r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , c o n t r a c t u a l s e t t l e m e n t s do not i n s u r e I n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i t y . The u n o f f i c i a l s t r i k e s a r i s e more as c h a l l e n g e s t o management t h a n as economic o r n e g o t i a t e d s t r i k e s . T h i s b r i e f , g e n e r a l i z e d o u t l i n e of b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s t h e main r e a s o n s why an e x h a u s t i v e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the U n i t e d Kingdom p r a c t i c e must not be c o n s i d e r e d as c o m p l e t e l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e C a n a d i a n system. I n summation, a r e c e n t v i e w i n G r e a t B r i t a i n i s t h a t t h e common law i s u n d u l y t e c h n i c a l and as V i s c o u n t R a d c l i f f e s a i d i n S t r a t f o r d v. L i n d l e y : ... " t h e law s h o u l d t r e a t a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s s o r t a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s u b s t a n c e , w i t h o u t t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y a c c i d e n t a l i s s u e w h e t h e r b r e a c h e s o f c o n t r a c t a r e l o o k e d f o r and i n v o l v e d ; and by i t s s u b s t a n c e i t s h o u l d be e i t h e r l i c e n s e d , c o n t r o l l e d o r f o r b i d d e n . " 1 9 He f e e l s t h i s w o u l d be g e t t i n g down t o r e a l i t y i f t h e law were r e a l l y r e - d e f i n e d so as t o c o n t r o l , l i c e n s e and f o r b i d t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e x i s t a n c e . The o p p o s i t e v i e w t o t h i s i s t h a t t h i s w ould be a d e t r i m e n t t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement as t h e forms o f economic s a n c t i o n w o u l d be d e c i d e d i n advance o f a d i s p u t e . The i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i e s c o u l d not b a r g a i n i n w h a t e v e r way was s u i t a b l e a t t h e t i m e . As f a r as t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , i t s r e a p p e a r a n c e c o u l d s i g n a l t h a t a new s y s t e m o f l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s , i n f a c t , i s due t o t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I I . THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE S i n c e the A u s t r a l i a n t r a d e u n i o n law has i t s f o u n d a t i o n s f r o m t h e E n g l i s h , a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of- l e g a l d evelopments up t o t h e t i m e c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i s b a s i c a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y . As we have a l r e a d y w i t n e s s e d , t h e E n g l i s h t r a d e u n i o n law i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of some of t h e most o b s c u r e and d i f f i c u l t d o c t r i n e s of law; t h e law of u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e . l a w of c o n s p i r a c y and the law o f r e s t r a i n t o f t r a d e . The same remark i s a p p l i c a b l e t o A u s t r a l i a n t r a d e u n i o n l a w , as i t i s b u i l t on E n g l i s h f o u n d a t i o n s , e x c e p t i t i s even more complex. The c o m p l e x i t y i s p a r t l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e d i v i s i o n of the 20 i n d u s t r i a l power between t h e s t a t e s and t h e Commonwealth. One must be c o n s c i o u s of t h e f a c t when c o m p a r i n g the development o f t h e law i n E n g l a n d and A u s t r a l i a t h a t t h e b a s i c a t t i t u d e s and c o n d i t i o n s i n each c o u n t r y were d i f f e r e n t . The c o n d i t i o n s p e c u l i a r t o A u s t r a l i a were f a v o u r a b l e t o t h i s new p r o v i n c e f o r law and o r d e r . The b a s i c a t t i t u d e s of t h e . t r a d e u n i o n movement t o l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t i n each c o u n t r y . E s s e n t i a l l y , c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n grew out of t h e b i t t e r n e s s of t h e u n i o n s t r i k e s of t h e 1890's. The u n i o n s i n t h e m a r i t i m e , p a s t o r a l and m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s s u f f e r e d s e v e r e d e f e a t s , b e c a u s e o f e i t h e r r e l a t i v e l y weak b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o r because of e i t h e r r e l a t i v e l y weak b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o r b e c a u s e of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n of t h e " c o l o n i a l g o u t s . " I n o r d e r t o remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n , u n i o n s t u r n e d t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and u n l i k e t h e i r E n g L i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s who sought t o l i b e r a l i s e e x i s t i n g l a w , - t h e i r e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d t o o b t a i n i n g e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h e m p l o y e r s i m m e d i a t e l y , r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g f o r some p a r i t y i n b a r g a i n i n g power. The s t r i k e i s s u e i n v o l v e d was t h e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t r a d e u n i o n i s m i t s e l f . I t was a l s o deemed n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d an i m p a r t i a l body t o judge i n d u s t r i a l m a t t e r s as i t was f e a r e d t h a t g o v e r n m e n t a l b i a s w o u l d a l w a y s f a v o u r e m p l o y e r s . The r e s u l t was c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n , and t h u s t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e use of i n d u s t r i a l power as a means o f f i n d i n g e q u i l i b r i u m . W i t h t h i s a t t i t u d e , i t was a n a t u r a l consequence t o o u t l a w combined a c t i v i t y i n t h e n a t u r e o f s t r i k e s by u n i o n s . The a n t i - s t r i k e laws impinge on b o t h c r i m i n a l and c i v i l law. Thus t r a d e u n i o n s were b r o u g h t more c l o s e l y w i t h i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n and c o n t r o l of t h e c o u r t s . I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the A u s t r a l i a n b a c k g r o u n d and make any c o m p a r i s o n w i t h Canada's i t must be remembered t h a t t h e s t a t e s of A u s t r a l i a , u n l i k e t h e p r o v i n c e s of Canada, have t h e f u l l powers of s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n s e x c e p t i n so f a r as t h e y have g i v e n s u c h powers t o t h e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e . The. Commonwealth i s a l l o w e d to' s t e p i n . when t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e e x t e n d s beyond t h e l i m i t s o f any one s t a t e . The s t a t e s a r e f r e e t o implement t h e i r c o m p u l s o r y a b r i t r a t i o n schemes by u s i n g d i r e c t l e g i s l a t i o n o r by d e l e g a t i n g power t o t r i b u n a l s . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , i t i s t h i s c o m p l e x i t y of t h e c o - e x i s t a n c e of t h e s t a t e s y s t e m and t h e Commonwealth one, o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n s e t l i m i t s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e two s e t s of a r b i t r a t i o n m a c h i n e r y w h i c h g i v e A u s t r a l i a a v e r y u n i q u e s y s t e m o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . The c i v i l law r e s t r i c t i o n s on t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t y t h a t a r e used i n Canada as bases f o r r e s t r a i n t e x i s t i n A u s t r a l i a . However, the t o r t of c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y i s g i v e n a g r e a t e r scope by t h e use of t h e " i l l e g a l , means" argument i n c o m b i n a t i o n - w i t h a n t i - s t r i k e l e g i s l a t i o n and the t o r t o f i n t i m i d a t i o n ; inducement t o p r o c u r e b r e a c h of c o n t r a c t i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e w i t h a w i d e r ambit t h a n e l s e w h e r e because of t h e n o - s t r i k e l e g i s l a t i o n . The E n f o r c e m e n t o f S t a t u t o r y , C r i m i n a l and C i v i l Law R e s t r a i n t s I n g e n e r a l t h e f o r b i d d e n a c t i v i t y under t h e a n t i - s t r i k e l e g i s l a t i o n , even though the meaning o f s t r i k e v a r i e s f r o m s t a t e t o s t a t e , has two e l e m e n t s : i ) a combined r e f u s a l t o work i i ) a combined purpose of c o e r c i n g an employer. W i t h t h e s e two e l e m e n t s o f p r o h i b i t i o n why does A u s t r a l i a s t i l l have s t r i k e s ? I t a p p a r e n t l y a r i s e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o a c c e p t employment i s a p r o t e c t e d a c t i v i t y and t h e r e f o r e not a s t r i k e . P o i n t two b a s i c a l l y o u t l a w s s e c o n d a r y and sympathy s t r i k e s . W i t h t h i s f a i r l y w i d e armoury o f s a n c t i o n s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l why do e m p l o y e r s not use them t o r e s t r a i n u n i o n p r e s s u r e r a t h e r t h a n r e l y on t h e h a p h a z a r d t e n e t s o f t h e c i v i l and c r i m i n a l law? One r e a s o n advanced by Sykes f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t d i s l i k e of u s i n g p e n a l t i e s under n o - s t r i k e law i s t h a t even though t r a d e u n i o n s were t h e ones t o i n s i s t on a c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n s y s t e m f r o m w h i c h t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s r e s u l t e d , 22 t h e y have a l w a y s r e g a r d e d t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e as s a c r e d . He goes on t o s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l room f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n t h e sys t e m as i t e x i s t s i n A u s t r a l i a . T h i s does not mean n o - s t r i k e laws a r e i n e f f e c t i v e ; i t m e r e l y p o i n t s out t h a t t h e y a r e n o t e n f o r c e d f r e q u e n t l y . The I n j u n c t i o n and i t s Use T h i s remedy i s a v a i l a b l e i n A u s t r a l i a as a means of e n f o r c i n g b o t h c r i m i n a l and c i v i l law. The r u l e s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u a n c e o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n E n g l a n d and Canada. An i n j u n c t i o n can be i s s u e d on n o t i c e o r ex p a r t e and t h e y may be d i r e c t e d at t r a d e u n i o n s ( a s f o r many p u r p o s e s under S t a t e Laws, Trade U n i o n A c t s have g i v e n c o r p o r a t e s t a n d i n g t o u n i o n s ) , or t o c e r t a i n p e o p l e , t h e i r a g e n t s and s e r v a n t s . The o r d e r , as i n Canada, must be c e r t a i n and w i t h o u t d e f e c t . The remedy f o r d i s o b e y i n g a c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n i s a g a i n s t the p r o p e r t y of t h e d e f e n d e n t o r contempt. There seems t o be some c o n f u s i o n between c i v i l contempt and c r i m i n a l c o n t e m p t , but v e r y o f t e n a mere b r e a c h o f a n > i n j u n c t i o n , and t h u s o n l y a c i v i l c o n tempt, may w e l l become c r i m i n a l b e cause t h e d i s o b e d i e n c e o f f e n d s t h e d i g n i t y of t h e c o u r t . An i n j u n c t i o n i s i n d e e d a v e r y u s e f u l weapon w i t h w h i c h t o r e s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r endeavours t o combine or t h r e a t e n t o combine. Thus, an i n j u n c t i o n based on t h e v i o l a t i o n o f c r i m i n a l o r c i v i l law w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s p i r a c y , o r because of t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f a t o r t , o r i n t h e c a s e of 23 i n t i m i d a t i o n , i t s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . I n A u s t r a l i a c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y i s augmented by t h e a n t i - s t r i k e laws and t h u s make t h i s t o r t v e r y eas.y^tp e s t a b l i s h . A g a i n , even w i t h t h i s ease of o b t a i n i n g an i n j u n c t i o n , i t i s not used f r e q u e n t l y t o e n j o i n t r a d e u n i o n p r e s s u r e t a c t i c s . The o u t p u t of c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e e q u i t y i n j u n c t i o n have been modest i n d e e d . Sykes e x p l a i n s , t h i s s e n t i m e n t i n t h i s way; "The e x p l a n a t i o n seems t o be t h a t i t has become a t e n d e n c y w i t h employees to t h i n k e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms o f t h e p e n a l p r o v i s i o n s of t h e a r b i t r a t i o n s t a t u t e and -. awards made t h e r e under. P e r h a p s . t h e r e i s a l s o the r e f l e c t i o n t h a t t h i s t y p e o f a c t i o n i n v o l v e s l e s s p e r - manent i l l - f e e l i n g t h a n m u l c t i n g t h e u n i o n i n damages i n t h e o r d i n a r y c o u r t . A f t e r a l l , management has t o l i v e w i t h t h e u n i o n . -24 There i s a l s o a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n why the i n j u n c t i v e use i s so modest, be c a u s e t h e r e i s , and has been> an a p p a r e n t l a c k of v i o l e n c e o v e r t h e p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , even i n t h e most s t r e n u o u s l y c o n t e s t e d i s s u e s . - W i t h t h i s a p p a r e n t non-employment of s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t y , one may f e e l t h a t A u s t r a l i a i s f r e e of i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . T h i s i s not so. F o r example, i n 1963 A u s t r a l i a , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of e l e v e n and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n , l o s t 1,755,000 man h ours due t o s t r i k e s ; i n Canada w i t h 26 a p o p u l a t i o n o f e i g h t e e n m i l l i o n , o n l y 917,000 h o u r s were l o s t . So i t i n d e e d seems t h a t t h e p a c i v i t y of i n s t a n c e s of e n f orcement under a n t i - s t r i k e l e g i s l a t i o n and by t h e way of t h e i n j u n c t i o n , can b e s t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p r e - o c c u p a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n system. I s c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n t h e n the s o l u t i o n t o t h e i n j u n c t i v e p r o b l e m we appear t o have i n Canada? From i t s a p p a r e n t l a c k of use i n A u s t r a l i a n a f f a i r s , i t does s u g g e s t t h a t c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n i s an answer. However, c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n i s n o t a f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s as i t i s i n Canada and t h u s w o u l d a p p e a r , i n t h e w r i t e r ' s v i e w s , u n a c c e p t a b l e . Not b e i n g o v e r l y c r i t i c a l o f f o r c e d b a r g a i n i n g , t h i s i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement w i s h e d t o p r o g r e s s i n A u s t r a l i a , and thus a p p e a r s t o a c c e p t t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . M e c h a n i c s o f Compulsory A r b i t r a t i o n and I t s E f f e c t s The t h e o r y o f c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n i s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The p a r t i e s n e g o t i a t e ; i f t h i s f a i l s t h e r e must be c o n c i l i a t i o n ; i f t h i s f a i l s t o c u l m i n a t e i n an agreement, t h e n t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y w i l l make an award t h a t the p a r t i e s must a c c e p t . As t h e w r i t e r has a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , t h e S t a t e s and t h e Commonwealth have a r b i t r a t i o n m a c h i n e r y l i v i n g s i d e - b y s i d e . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s , two of t h e s t a t e s have Wage B o a r d s w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l l y l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e t o p r e v a i l i n an i n d u s t r y . The r e m a i n i n g s t a t e s have a r b i t r a l t r i b u n a l s w h i c h make 27 awards i n a manner r e s e m b l i n g t he t e c h n i q u e of the Commonwealth body. The award has been d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g so co m p r e h e n s i v e and e l a b o r a t e i n scope t h a t i n t h e main t h e r e r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e o c c a s i o n o r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e common law t o a p p l y i n employment t o w h i c h t h e y r e l a t e . The award i s made under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e t r i b u n a l and th u s does not depend on agreement between t h e p a r t i e s . Thus i t i s more s i m i l a r t o l e g i s l a t i o n t h a n t o a c o n t r a c t . Under t h e S t a t e s y s t e m t h e t r i b u n a l s have t h e power t o make a common r u l e f o r a l l t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y . G o i n g one s t e p f u r t h e r , t h e S t a t e awards w i l l o f t e n c o n t a i n a n t i - s t r i k e c l a u s e s . The s t a t u t o r y i n j u n c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e as a s a n c t i o n f o r b r e a c h o f such an award. What t h e n i s the e f f e c t of such a system? I t has been s u b m i t t e d t h a t b o t h s i d e s r e l y on t h e sys t e m t o r e g u l a t e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r . The b a s i c r e a s o n , f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d m e r e l y t o p r e v e n t o p p r e s s i o n of w o r k e r s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , have become e s s e n t i a l t o o l s o f economic p l a n n i n g i n A u s t r a l i a . There i s i n d e e d one p r o b l e m w h i c h e x i s t s i n a r b i t r a t i o n and t h a t i s t h e b a l a n c i n g of t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c o n c i l i a t i o n and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The v i e w has been e x p r e s s e d t h a t i n A u s t r a l i a t h e economy i s not as c o m p e t i t i v e as i n some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ' . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s g r e a t e r danger of agreement between employer and u n i o n b e i n g c o n t r a r y t o 28 p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . C o n c l u s i o n s The w r i t e r has r e f e r r e d t o l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a as s t a t e and t h e n as f e d e r a l , r e g u l a t e d . However, t h e S t a t e awards do t e n d t o f o l l o w Commonwealth awards and t h u s g i v e a p i c t u r e o f one c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a l s y s t e m . There i s a l s o a b e l i e f t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d u n i o n i s m , one u n i o n f o r one i n d u s t r y , i s a p r o p e r way t o s e t t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t s . The A u s t r a l i a n C o u n c i l of Trade U n i o n s i s t h e body w h i c h i s s t r i v i n g f o r t h i s c o n c e p t and s i n c e t w e n t y - s i x per c e n t o f a l l t r a d e u n i o n s c o m p r i s e f i f t y t o s i x t y - f i v e p er c e n t of a l l u n i o n members i t i s i n d e e d a v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l body i n g e t t i n g l a b o u r t o t h i n k a l o n g n a t i o n a l l i n e s . The e x a m i n a t i o n of the l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s y s t e m and s t r u c t u r e o f A u s t r a l i a r e v e a l s , as i t d i d i n t h e s t u d y of t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m , t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o r i n c i d e n c e o f t h e use o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e p a r t i e s t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I n A u s t r a l i a t h e s y s t e m o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s e x t e n d s t o t h e o p p o s i t e extreme f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e l a t t e r i s h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d as compared t o t h e f o r m e r one of m u t u a l c o n s e n t . W i t h t h e A u s t r a l i a n system t h e r e i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t of t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e awards and t h e e f f e c t o f b r e a c h of such awards on i n d u s t r y as a w h o l e . There i s a r e s u l t a n t l a c k o f t h i n k i n g i n terms of c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l law. As p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , even t h e r e s o r t t o t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o s t o p i l l e g a l s t r i k e . Management woul d r a t h e r s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e o u t s i d e t h e c o u r t s . B o t h p a r t i e s t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r e f e r t o have t h e a r b i t r a t i o n s y s t e m s e t a s i d e f r o m b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a l as w e l l as l e g a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . The s t u d y of B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n l a b o u r law e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n does a g a i n r e i n f o r c e t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e and t h e use of t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l i n g i n th e c o u n t r y ; i n A u s t r a l i a t h e r e i s not the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c i v i l and c r i m i n a l law a s . t h e r e i s i n Canada. However, t h e r e i s s t i l l a s t a t u t o r y i n j u n c t i o n a v a i l a b l e i f needed, and t r a d e u n i o n s c l a i m , as i n Canada, t h a t 29 i t i s used o v e r - f r e q u e n t l y by p e t t y e m p l o y e r s t r y i n g t o b r e a k u n i o n i s m . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , j u s t t h e appearance o f c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n , t h e t h i n k i n g a l o n g n a t i o n a l l i n e s and the v e r y u n i q u e c l i m a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n makes any d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n w i t h Canada a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . I t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f s a y i n g c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n has l i m i t e d t h e use of the. i n j u n c t i o n , i t m e r e l y a p p e a r s t h a t t h e awards a r e s a c r e d and not d i s o b e y e d . CHAPTER I I I THE LABOUR INJUNCTION I N THE UNITED STATES I n s t u d y i n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e was under a d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - economic c l i m a t e . Many commentators, e s p e c i a l l y l a b o u r l e a d e r s , s t a t e e m p h a t i c l y t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has s o l v e d t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n and t h a t we s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e i r s o l u t i o n . The w r i t e r does not f e e l t h a t such a s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t c a n be made. F o r example, t h e y s a y t h e . m a t t e r was f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d by t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t o f 1932.''' The c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e the 1932 A c t must be b r o u g h t t o l i g h t and o t h e r p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e any p r a c t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n can be made w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h t h e s e b r i e f comments, t h e w r i t e r w i l l e x p l o r e t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n and t h e n draw some c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e C a n a d i a n s i t u a t i o n . F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power The v e r y f i r s t p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e between t h e C a n a d i a n and U.S. s y s t e m o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s i s t h a t i n t h e U.S. f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n d o m i n a t e s . Labour r e l a t i o n s a r e r e g u l a t e d on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d o c t r i n e of supremacy of f e d e r a l power p r o h i b i t s not o n l y s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h d i r e c t l y c o n f l i c t w i t h f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n , but a l s o any c o n t r o l s w i t h i n a r e a s o c c u p i e d by t h e e x e r c i s e o f f e d e r a l power - 2 and i n t e n d e d by Congress t o be f r e e f r o m s t a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e . The s t a t e s do have j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e n j o i n and l e g i s l a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n d u c t c o n s t i t u t i n g o r t h r e a t e n i n g p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e o r o t h e r b r e a c h e s o f peace. T h i s has g i v e n s t a t e s power t o r e g u l a t e p i c k e t l i n e c o n d u c t , even i f t h e u n d e r l y i n g l a b o u r d i s p u t e i s i n t h e f e d e r a l s p h e r e . The dominance o f f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e power o v e r i n t e r - s t a t e commerce and t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l dominance o v e r A m e r i c a n economic l i f e i s i n d e e d a c o n t r a s t t o o u r system. T h i s d o c t r i n e o f f e d e r a l p r e - e m p t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e N. L. R. A. i s n ot a c o m p l e t e l a b o u r code and t h a t n o n t r e a t m e n t o f a s u b j e c t m a t t e r l e a v e s t h e s t a t e power u n a f f e c t e d . C a n a d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t h e o r y d i f f e r s q u i t e s h a r p l y as b o t h t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments e n a c t l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y one l e g i s l a t i v e power f i l l s gaps o f t h e o t h e r . Thus i f any c o m p a r i s o n i s made between t h e two c o u n t r i e s one must l o o k a t t h e U.S. f e d e r a l law and compare i t to' o ur p r o v i n c i a l l a w s . P r e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e t h e o r y b e h i n d t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t t h e s t a t e o f l a b o u r law a t t h a t t i m e . Commencing about 1886 and c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h t h e 1920's t h e i n j u n c t i o n had an i m p o r t a n t and f r e q u e n t l y d e c i s i v e e f f e c t on t h e outcome of d i s p u t e s 3 between e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s . The f r e q u e n c y and t h e scope o f t h e s e i n j u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h t h e y were i s s u e d and e n f o r c e d , p r o v o k e d an o u t p o u r i n g o f c r i t i c i s m by men and women 4 f r o m a l l w a l k s o f l i f e . The e r a a g a i n d e p i c t s t h e e f f o r t s o f l a b o u r u n i o n s t o become r e c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e c a u s e . The A m e r i c a n law toward c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n by l a b o u r was dominated by t h e E n g l i s h d o c t r i n e s o f c o n s p i r a c y and r e s t r a i n t o f t r a d e . W i t h t h i s t y p e o f b a c k g r o u n d • i n mind t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy was used t o t h w a r t c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r movement. The common l a w , w h i l e l e a v i n g e m p l o y e r s u n r e s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r use o f economic f o r c e , p l a c e d s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s on u n i o n s . ~* K e e p i n g t h i s i n m i n d , u n t i l 1932 l i t t l e had been done t o p r o t e c t t h e w o r k i n g man o r t o p e r m i t him t o j o i n i n c o n c e r t w i t h f e l l o w w o r k e r s . W e l l documented s t u d i e s showed t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n as b e i n g used t o p r o h i b i t p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and showed t h a t t h e y were b e i n g i s s u e d by c o u r t s on t h e b a s i s 6 * o f v e r y f l i m s y e v i d e n c e . Thus p r i o r t o 1932 a l l p i c k e t i n g was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d u n l a w f u l . The number o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d between 1880 and 1930 were 1,845 and t h e peak decade was t h e 1920's when 921 were i s s u e d . ^ T h e r e were many c r i t i c i s m s l e v i e d a g a i n s t t h e abuse o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c - t i o n at t h a t t i m e . I t was t h e c u s t o m a r y c o u r t p r o c e d u r e w h i c h was c r i t i c i z e d . P r o f e s s o r Edwin E. W i t t e l i s t e d t h e c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e c u s t o m a r y c o u r t p r o c e d u r e as f o l l o w s : D e f e n d a n t s d i d n o t have a f a i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r s i d e o f t h e c a s e . Ex p a r t e o r d e r s were i s s u e d . I n j u n c t i o n s were o f t e n i s s u e d w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f . N o t o r i o u s l y e x a g g e r a t e d o r i n a c c u r a t e a f f i d a v i t s were the. b a s i s of many ex p a r t e o r d e r s . They were t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a s t i n such vague and g e n e r a l terms t h a t t h e y not o n l y c o n s t i t u t e d an u n w a r r a n t e d e x t e n s i o n o f j u d i c i a l powers, but a l s o c o u l d not be u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e t o whom t h e y were d i r e c t e d . They were v i r t u a l l y judge-made s t a t u t e s g o v e r n i n g t h e c o n d u c t o f e n t i r e i n d u s t r i a l c o m m u n i t i e s . There were no adequate p r o v i s i o n s f o r prompt a p p e a l s . I n j u n c t i o n s d e n i e d a f a i r t r i a l t o p e r s o n s a c c u s e d o f a c r i m e . Here W i t t e r e f e r s , t o . c o n t e m p t c a s e s , w i t h o u t a j u r y , b e f o r e t h e same judge who i s s u e d t h e i n j u n c t i o n . P o s t i n g o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n bonds by p a r t i e s s e e k i n g i n j u n c t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n p r a c t i c e l i t t l e o r no p r o t e c t i o n t o u n i o n s . Bonds were e i t h e r a t r i d i c u l o u s l y low amounts, o r were not r e q u i r e d at a l l . I t . w a s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y d e f e n d a n t s i n l a b o u r c a s e s f o r l o s s e s t h e y s u s t a i n e d , p r i n c i p a l l y ' b e c a u s e t h e e f f e c t o f an i n j u n c t i o n upon a s t r i k e , f o r example, c o u l d not be measured i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s . F u r t h e r . , t h e i n e l i g i b i l i t y o f d e f e n d a n t s t o 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. r e c o v e r on a bond u n t i l a f t e r t h e d e n i a l of a permanent i n j u n c t i o n - a s t a g e s e l d o m r e a c h e d i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s - v i r t u a l l y p r e c l u d e d any r e c o v e r y . ^ A l l o f t h e f o r e g o i n g c r i t i c i s m s , W i t t e c o n c l u d e d , r e s t e d " n o t upon th e c l a i m t h a t a p r o c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d i n l a b o u r c a s e s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t i n o t h e r i n j u n c - t i o n s u i t s , but r a t h e r upon th e argument t h a t a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e ought t o be a p p l i e d b e c a u s e t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y f r o m t h a t o f o r d i n a r y l e g a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s . R u l e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n o t h e r s u i t s , work b a d l y and u n j u s t l y i n l a b o u r c a s e s . I t i s not t h a t l a b o u r i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , , but t h a t i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s p r e s e n t s p e c i a l p roblems r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t . ^ B e n j a m i n A a r o n a l s o summarizes t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f the i n j u n c t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . The p r i n c i p l e c o u n t s were as f o l l o w s ; 1. t h e c o u r t s had r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t b r e a c h e s o f the peace c o u l d be r e d r e s s e d t h r o u g h c r i m i n a l and c i v i l a c t i o n s f o r damages; 2. t h e y had expanded a s i m p l e j u d i c i a l d e v i c e i n t o an e n v e l o p i n g code of p r o h i b i t e d c o n d u c t , a b s o r b i n g en mass e x e c u t i v e and p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s ; 3. i s s u a n c e o f r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r s and p r e l i m i n a r y i n j u n c t i o n s c o u l d n o t p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s q u o - - i r r e p a r a b l e damage t o a u n i o n c o u l d r e s u l t f r o m an i n j u n c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t an employer f r o m s i m i l a r l o s s ; 4. c o u r t s c o u l d not f i n d f a c t s q u i c k l y and f a i r l y by r e l y i n g upon t h e c o m p l a i n t and t h e a f f i d a v i t s of- i n t e r e s t e d o r p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t n e s s e s ; 5. t h e l e g a l d o c t r i n e s i n l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s were i l l u s o r y and ambiguous, and t e n d e d t o r e f l e c t t h e economic and s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s of t h e j u d g e s t h e m s e l v e s 1 0 To f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g a t t h a t t i m e Roscoe Pound o b s e r v e d t h a t A m e r i c a n l e g a l t h i n k i n g had been dominated f r o m t h e o n s e t by "an u n c o m p r o m i s i n g i n s i s t e n c e upon i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t and i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y as a f o c a l p o i n t o f j u r i s p r u d e n c e . T h i s s t u b b o r n a d h e r a n c e by t h e j u d i c a r y w i t h t h e l i b e r t y t o c o n t r a c t l e d t o t h e n u l l i f i c a t i o n o f f e d e r a l and stat.e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o o u t l a w t h e infamous " y e l l o w - d o g " c o n t r a c t . The U n i t e d S t a t e s supreme c o u r t d e c l a r e d such s t a t u t e s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l under t h e f i f t h and f o u r - 13 t e e n t h amendments. Thus i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t o see t h a t a j u d i c i a r y imbued w i t h t h i s p h i l o s o p h y s h o u l d r e g a r d even p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g as a f o r m of l a w l e s s i n t i m i d a t i o n , and t h e i n j u n c t i o n t h e p r o p e r e q u i t a b l e remedy f o r t h r e a t e n e d 14 i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e f r e e enjoyment of " p r o p e r t y " b r o a d l y d e f i n e d . And i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e U.S. c o u r t s chose t o go f u r t h e r t h a n t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s and t o assume b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t a l s o a r e p r o p e r t y , t o be p r o t e c t e d by t h e i n j u n c t i o n . The c o u r t s d i d not r e a l l y c a r e w h e t h e r o r not such i n t e r e s t s were p r o p e r t y a t a l l but were o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e c l a r i n g them t o be t h i n g s o f v a l u e w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d s h o u l d be s a f e - g u a r d e d i n t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a l way--by t h e i n j u n c t i o n . 1 " * E q u a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e was t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e c o u r t s t o r e g a r d a w i d e v a r i e t y of economic p r e s s u r e s r e s o r t e d t o by u n i o n s as r e s t r a i n t s o f t r a d e p r o h i b i t e d by the Sherman A c t . 1 6 T h i s t h e n was t h e c l i m a t e p r e c e d i n g t h e passage o f t h e 1932 A c t as t h e l a i s s e z - f a r e d o c t r i n e s o f t h e 1920's began t o be c h a l l e n g e d . The mood of t h e c o u n t r y was c h a n g i n g and c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c o u r t s began t o mount. Not o n l y were t h e y a c c u s e d o f a p p l y i n g one law t o e m p l o y e r s and a n o t h e r t o u n i o n s ; t h e c o u r t s were condemned f o r d e f e a t i n g , by t h e i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s e n f o r c i n g " y e l l o w - d o g " c o n t r a c t s , t h e a t t e m p t s of w o r k i n g men t o e n j o i n i n e f f e c t i v e forms of s e l f h e l p , w h i l e l e a v i n g u n s o l v e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s o f t h e i r d i s c o n t e n t . A l s o w i t h t h e o n s e t of t h e d e p r e s - s i o n t h e r e d e v e l o p e d t h e b o o t s t r a p t h e o r y t h a t i f w o r k e r s were p e r m i t t e d t o o r g a n i z e and b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e y c o u l d improve t h e i r own d e p l o r a b l e wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s by c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n . 1 ^ Yet t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n r e m a i n e d an e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e t o p r e v e n t such s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n c e r t e d a c t i v i t y . Thus w i t h t h i s c l i m a t e i n mind, we c a n not compare t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n p r i o r t o t h e enactment o f t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Canada a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . A l l t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g have l o n g been b a s i c r i g h t s i n O n t a r i o , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and, i n f a c t , i n C a n a d i a n l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s t h e w r i t e r ' s v i e w t h a t we a r e not i n a p e r i o d o f government by i n j u n c t i o n as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o 1932. The i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n Canada t o d a y i s b a s i c a l l y - u s e d t o r e s t o r e o r d e r 18 and peace a l o n g p i c k e t l i n e s . The r e l i e f t h i s p r o c e d u r e p e r m i t s i s a v a i l a b l e and u t i l i z e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p i c k e t i n g i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e i n Canada. More o v e r i t i s n o t c o r r e c t , as t h e O n t a r i o L a b o u r F e d e r a t i o n B r i e f (1966) a s s e r t s , t h a t t h e use o f c o u r t g r a n t e d i n j u n c t i o n has been removed f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The t y p e o f r e l i e f g r a n t e d i n our c o u r t s w o u l d be g r a n t e d i n " c a s e s c i t e d " 19 i n e v e r y m a j o r i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P a s s a g e of t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t The e x t e n t o f t h e change i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i z e a b l e m a j o r i t y by w h i c h t h e N o r r i s - L a 20 G u a r d i a A c t was a d o p t e d by b o t h Houses o f Congress i n March 1932. The A c t was one of l a b o u r ' s g r e a t e s t and most e n d u r i n g l e g i s l a t i v e v i c t o r i e s . E. W i t t e d e s c r i b e s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e A c t ; " T h e . . . a c t does not a t t e m p t t o d e s t r o y i n j u n c t i o n s . What i t : aims t o do I s t o p r e v e n t employers, f r o m g a i n i n g t h r o u g h i n j u n c t i o n s an u n f a i r a d v a n t a g e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . I t s e e k s t o keep t h e c o u r t s f r o m i n t e r f e r i n g when o r d i n a r y l a w - e n f o r c i n g methods a r e a d e q u a t e , and t o compel them t o g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s of t h e o r d e r s t h e y a r e a s ked t o i s s u e . I t aims t o g i v e t h e d e f e n d a n t s a f a i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r s i d e o f the c a s e and r e q u i r e s t h e c o u r t s t o w e i g h c a r e f u l l y t h e t e s t i m o n y . I t makes th e r i g h t o f a p p e a l r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e and a c c o r d s t r i a l t o j u r y t o p e r s o n s a c c u s e d of v i o l a t ions;." A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f t h e f i f t e e n s e c t i o n s of t h e A c t d i s c l o s e s i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l t h e d e s i g n t o p r o h i b i t t h e - i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n most l a b o u r d i s p u t e s and t o p r e v e n t t h e p r o c e d u r a l abuses i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where i t m i g h t be u s e d . P e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e A c t ' s f i r m endorsement o f a p o l i c y f a v o u r a b l e t o c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e c o u r t s . V e r y b r i e f l y a r e v i e w o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n s w i l l e x e m p l i f y 22 what t h e A c t ' s p u r p o s e s were. S e c t i o n 2 - The s t a t e m e n t of p u b l i c p o l i c y " t h a t t h e Government s h a l l o ccupy a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n , l e n d i n g i t s " e x t r a o r d i n a r y power n e i t h e r t o t h o s e who w o u l d have l a b o u r u n o r g a n i z e d nor t o t h o s e who w o u l d o r g a n i z e i t . " Thus t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o r m u l a t i n g a n a t i o n a l l a b o u r p o l i c y was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e C o n g r e s s , n o t t h e c o u r t s . "The c e n t r a l p r o p o s i t i o n was t h a t law s e r v e d no use- f u l p u r p o s e i n l a b o r d i s p u t e s , save p o s s i b l y t o p r o t e c t t a n g i b l e p r o p e r t y and p r e s e r v e p u b l i c o r d e r . I t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g was t h e b e l i e f t h a t g o v e r n - ment s h o u l d not r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s o r s u b s t i t u t e i t s wage o r p r i c e d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t s i n a f r e e m a r k e t . " 2 3 S e c t i o n 3 - D e c l a r e d t h e h a t e d y e l l o w - d o g c o n t r a c t t o be c o n t r a r y t o p u b l i c p o l i c y and u n e n f o r c e a b l e i n f e d e r a l c o u r t s . S e c t i o n 4 - L i s t e d n i n e s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g s t r i k e s , w h i c h f e d e r a l c o u r t s were f o r b i d d e n t o e n j o i n . These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d p a y i n g s t r i k e b e n e f i t s , p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g , - p e a c e f u l a s s embly — i n g e n e r a l t h e n o r m a l s t r i k e a c t i v i t i e s , as l o n g as n e i t h e r f r a u d n o r v i o l e n c e was p r e s e n t . S e c t i o n 7 - Enumerated an e l a b o r a t e s e r i e s of f i n d i n g s t h a t had t o be made, and p r o c e d u r a l s a f e g u a r d s t h a t had t o be o b s e r v e d b e f o r e any i n j u n c t i o n c o u l d be i s s u e d . I n summary, t h e A c t made i t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e p e a c e f u l l y c o n d u c t e d l a b o u r a c t i o n w h e t h e r i n t h e f o r m o f s t r i k e s , p i c k e t i n g o r b o y c o t t s . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e A c t d i d not c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n f r o m t h e f e d e r a l c o u r t s , however t h e r e d u c e d number i s s u e d a f t e r t h e A c t d i d s u f f i c e t o n u l l i f y i t s use as a weapon t o t h w a r t t h e economic p r e s s u r e s o f u n i o n s . L abour I n j u n c t i o n Subsequent t o t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t P r o f e s s o r W i t t e i n 1951 examined t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t s s i n c e t h e A c t and came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n A c t had e f f e c t i v e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i t s p u r p o s e s and t h a t i f t h e r e was s t i l l a p r o b l e m of "government by i n j u n c t i o n " , as t h e u n i o n s were a g a i n c o m p l a i n i n g , i t l a y i n t h e i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d under t h e T a f t - H a r t l e y A c t s i n c e 1947 and t h e i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government i n r a i l r o a d and c o a l s t r i k e s i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s . By t h e end o f 1931, as s e t f o r t h i n W i t t e ' s , "The Government i n L a b o r D i s p u t e s " , at l e a s t 508 i n j u n c t i o n s had been i s s u e d by F e d e r a l c o u r t s ; t h e m a j o r i t y i n t h e 1920's. From 1933 t o 1951 o n l y s i x t y - s i x , . . . ' 24 f e d e r a l i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d . The A c t o b v i o u s l y s o l v e d the p r o b l e m w h i c h was p r e v a l e n t i n t h e F e d e r a l c o u r t s but t h e l e g i s l a t i o n was n o t q u i t e as e f f e c t i v e i n t h e S t a t e c o u r t s . Ex p a r t e o r d e r s a r e now f a r l e s s : common ( 1 9 5 1 ) i n most S t a t e c o u r t s but s t i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e i n t h e Los A n g e l e s and S o u t h e a s t e r n S t a t e s . B e n j a m i n A a r o n s t u d i e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f S t a t e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s i n 25 d e t a i l . A t t h e o u t s e t he p o i n t s out t h e f a c t t h a t some t h i r t y - t h r e e o f t h e f i f t y s t a t e s have no s t a t u t e s w h i c h c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y r e g u l a t e t h e use o f the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . As i n 1951, t h i s group i n c l u d e s a l l o f t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s , e x c e p t L o u i s i a n a and a l s o , q u i t e s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e 26 l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s o f C a l i f o r n i a , M i c h i g a n and O h i o . B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g t h e S t a t e c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s , t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o show where t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e under t h e F e d e r a l law and why i t s use has been p r e s e r v e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , under t h e R a i l w a y L a b o r A c t , t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o r R e l a t i o n s A c t and t h e L a b o r Managemen R e l a t i o n s A c t . I n j u n c t i v e R e l i e f Under t h e R a i l w a y L a b o r A c t . (R.L.A.) Under t h e R.L.A. t h e r e became a d i f f i c u l t y o f accommodating t h e a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n r u l e s o f t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t . W i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o g r e a t l e n g t h s , t h e b a s i c p o i n t w h i c h needs t o be b r o u g h t f o r t h i s t h a t t h e R.L.A. compels t h e c a r r i e r s and t h e employees t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y . I n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f i s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e , a l t h o u g h n a r r o w e r t h a n b e f o r e t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a , b u t t h e remedy i s a v a i l a b l e t o c u r t a i l u n n e c e s s a r y s t r i k e s i n o r d e r t o 27 p r o t e c t t h e " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " i n such v i t a l i n d u s t r i e s . I n j u n c t i v e R e l i e f Under t h e N a t i o n a l L a bor R e l a t i o n s A c t . (NLRA) W i t h t h e p a s s a g e of t h e 1932 A c t t h e employees had t h e r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e and t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y , but e m p l o y e r s were s t i l l f r e e t o r e s i s t and w i t h i m p u n i t y p u n i s h employees who j o i n e d u n i o n s . So i n 1935 t h e G o v e r n - ment i n t e r v e n e d w i t h t h e Wagner A c t . a n d c o m p e l l e d t h e employer t o b a r g a i n ; t h u s l a b o u r ' s hand was enhanced. By 1947 t h e u n i o n s began t o abuse t h e power w h i c h t h e y had o b t a i n e d . I n 1947 t h e T a f t H a r t l e y amendments were a d o p t e d t o t h e NLRA i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e t h e e x i s t i n g b a l a n c e o f power. G i v e n t h i s mood t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy was r e v i v e d t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . I t i s i n d e e d i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t by 1947 t h e r e was a s h a r p change i n p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . The s t r i k e wave o f 1947, t h e a c u t e i n f l a t i o n and t h e enhanced power and p r e s t i g e o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , l e d t o t h e 1947 amendments. The emphasis was now on r e g u l a t i o n , not enhancement o f u n i o n i s m . Employees were now a s s u r e d o f t h e i r r i g h t t o r e f r a i n f r o m u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s and be r e p r e s e n t e d by a b a r g a i n i n g agent o f t h e i r c h o i c e , a u n i o n c o u l d now be d e - c e r t i f i e d ; s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t s h a r m i n g i n n o c e n t p a r t i e s were now p r o h i b i t e d and t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n r e t u r n e d t o t h e F e d e r a l c o u r t s t o r e s t r a i n s u c h a c t i v i t i e s . N a t i o n a l emergency s t r i k e s r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t and a g a i n were b e i n g s u p p o r t e d , i f n e c e s s a r y , by t h e F e d e r a l i n j u n c t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e NLRA g i v e s t o a . s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency, t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d , e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . The T a f t H a r t l e y amendments gave t o t h e B o a r d b o t h t h e power and t h e d u t y t o o b t a i n u n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f f r o m F e d e r a l c o u r t s . S e c t i o n 10 ( j ) a u t h o r i z e s t h e B o a r d i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n t o seek " a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p o r a r y r e l i e f o r r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r " a f t e r t h e f i l i n g o f a c o m p l a i n t , and empowers -the d i s t r i c t c o u r t t o g r a n t such r e l i e f " a s i t deems j u s t and p r o p e r . " T h i s s e c t i o n r e f e r s t o r e c o g n i t i o n p r a c t i c e s and a s ^ s u c h c l a s s i f i e d as u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e . S e c t i o n (1) d i r e c t s t h e B o a r d t o g i v e s p e c i f i e d u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g p r o h i b i t e d s t r i k e s , b o y c o t t s , p i c k e t i n g and h o t c a r g o agreements f u l l p r i o r i t y o v e r - a l l o t h e r c a s e s and t o seek i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f - w h e n the Board b e l i e v e s such c h a r g e s a r e t r u e . S e c t i o n 10 ( j ) and (1) were d e s i g n e d t o g i v e speedy r e l i e f t o e m p l o y e r s caught i n s i t u a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d . U n i o n s a g a i n began t o c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy g i v e n t h e NLRB was a r e g r e s s i v e s t e p and t h u s an u n d e r m i n i n g o f t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t . But h e r e a g a i n , t h e w r i t e r f e e l s t h e s l o g a n s and t h e s o l u t i o n s of t h e 1930's do not r e p r e s e n t t h e problems w h i c h t h e T a f t H a r t l e y amendments- sought t o r e l i e v e . There was one s a f e g u a r d and t h a t was t h a t t h e remedy c o u l d not be used by p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . They had t o go t h r o u g h t h e B o a r d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e i n j u n c t i o n . Thus i t was, and i s , up t o t h e B o a r d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e remedy s h o u l d be used. T h i s has been c r i t i c i s e d by some commentators as t h e y f e e l t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t o f r e l i e f i n t h e c o u r t s c o u l d be v e t o e d by a government o f f i c i a l . I t i s i n d e e d q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t i m p r o p e r p i c k e t i n g c o u l d c o n t i n u e f o r a p e r i o d of t h r e e t o f o u r weeks b e f o r e t h e B o a r d d e c i d e s i f t h e r e l i e f s h o u l d be g r a n t e d . The B o a r d was c r i t i c i s e d by t h e P u c i n s k i Subcommittee f o r f a i l i n g t o d e v e l o p new t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o v i d e e x p e d i t i o u s t r e a t m e n t of c a s e s . They a l s o recommended t h a t t h e B o a r d make g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 10 ( j ) when t h e u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e i s c o n t i n u i n g and w i l l c o n t i n u e u n l e s s r e s t r a i n e d and w i l l c a u se i r r e p a r a b l e p r o p e r t y o r p e r s o n a l i n j u r y o r i n j u r y 28 t o t h e r i g h t s g u a r a n t e e d by S e c t i o n 7. - More r e c e n t l y S e n a t o r B a l l c r i t i c i s e d t h i s s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s of t h e NLRB. " I do not t h i n k i t has e v e r been a sound l i b e r a l p o l i c y t o p l a c e an a p p o i n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l between a c i t i z e n and h i s r i g h t t o go i n t o c o u r t and p r o t e c t h i s r i g h t s . " ^ 9 A l s o f e a r s t h a t t h e B o a r d might use t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y power under 10 ( j ) i n an e x c e s s i v e o r o n e - s i d e d manner have p r o v e d t o be e x a g g e r a t e d . B o t h management and u n i o n s have- c r i t i c i s e d ' the B o a r d f o r not p e t i t i o n i n g f o r i n j u n c t i o n s more o f t e n . A c c o r d i n g t o f i g u r e s " from' J u l y -1948'thro ugh- June 30, 1965 i t has made o n l y 107 a p p l i c a t i o n s o f w h i c h f i f t y - e i g h t were 30 g r a n t e d , t h i r t e e n d e n i e d and t h e r e m a i n d e r u n s e t t l e d o r w i t h d r a w n . W h i l e under S e c t i o n 10 (1) t h e number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s have grown f r o m a low o f 18 i n 1951-1952 t o a h i g h o f 282 i n 1961-1962. I t was h e r e t h a t t h e Board was c r i t i c i s e d f o r not e x p e d i t i n g t h e g r e a t e r number of c a s e s f a l l i n g i n 31 t h i s p r i o r i t y c l a s s . I n j u n c t i v e B e l i e f Under S e c t i o n 301 of t h e Labor Management R e l a t i o n s A c t . (LMRA) The l a s t phase o f t h e r e v i v e d o r renewed c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n a p p e a r s under t h e accommodation o f t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t and S e c t i o n 301 c f t h e LMRA. S e c t i o n 301 (a) a l l o w s an a c t i o n f o r damages f o r v i o l a t i o n o f c o n t r a c t between employer and a u n i o n . S e c t i o n 301 (b) p r o v i d e s t h a t u n i o n s may be sued as e n t i t i e s and i n b e h a l f 32 o f t h e employees t h e y r e p r e s e n t . The p r o b l e m a p p e a r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n 33 i n t h e S i n c l a i r R e f i n i n g Co. v. A t k i n s o n c a s e " . The Co u r t r u l e d t h a t a u n i o n ' s s t r i k e i n v i o l a t i o n o f a n o - s t r i k e c l a u s e o v e r an a r b i t r a b l e g r i e v a n c e c o u l d not be e n j o i n e d , h o l d i n g t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a a p p l i c a b l e t o a 301 s u i t . The r i g h t t o b r i n g a c t i o n under S e c t i o n 301 was u p h e l d . T h i s i n d e e d becomes an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n because t h e employees a r e a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e t o s t r i k e o v e r i s s u e s w h i c h t h e y p r e v i o u s l y a g r e e d t o submit t o a r b i t r a t i o n . The employer i s l e f t w i t h no adequate r e l i e f a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S i n c l a i r d e c i s i o n . A a r o n r e f e r s t o o t h e r r e c e n t c a s e s 34 where such r e l i e f has been g r a n t e d by S t a t e c o u r t s . The S t a t e c o u r t s may, w h i l e f o l l o w i n g t h e i r own p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h u s i g n o r i n g t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a , a p p l y t h e f e d e r a l s u b s t a n t i v e law o f S e c t i o n 301 t o g i v e b o t h i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f and damages f o r b r e a c h . I n b r i n g i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n o f b r e a c h o f c o l l e c t i v e agreement and t h e i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t we see t h a t t h i s r e l i e f i s a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a under S e c t i o n 22'of t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t . E v e r y c o l l e c t i v e agreement has w r i t t e n i n t o i t a p r o c e d u r e f o r f i n a l l y and c o n c l u s i v e l y r e s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s . I n o t h e r words b r e a c h o f c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s u n l a w f u l under S e c t i o n 22 and th u s can be e n j o i n a b l e by t h e c o u r t . I n c o n c l u d i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f under F e d e r a l law s i n c e t h e N b r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t t h e f i r s t p o i n t w h i c h r e a d i l y becomes e v i d e n t i s t h a t t h e remedy has n o t been removed e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e F e d e r a l c o u r t s . I t i s i n d e e d , as A a r o n s t a t e s , t h e most r e m a r k a b l y d u r a b l e j u d i c i a l remedy w h i c h w i l l p r o b a b l y be used so l o n g as p r i v a t e p a r t i e s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o r e s o r t t o economic w a r f a r e as a means o f s e t t l i n g a l a b o u r d i s p u t e . L a bour I n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e S t a t e C o u r t s As we have a l r e a d y w i t n e s s e d t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t p r a c t i c a l l y immunized u n i o n c o n c e r t e d a c t i v i t i e s by c u r b i n g t h e power o f the F e d e r a l c o u r t t o i s s u e i n j u n c t i o n s . The S t a t e c o u r t s have r e t a i n e d t h e i r i n j u n c t i v e powers and a r e e x e r c i s i n g them t o d a y . Some s t a t e s have e n a c t e d " l i t t l e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a ' s " and thus f o l l o w t h e p r o c e d u r a l s a f e g u a r d s as s e t down i n t h e F e d e r a l A c t . Those s t a t e s w i t h n o , a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n l a w s , . s u c h as C a l i f o r n i a and T e x a s , appear t o p r o c e e d on t h e b a s i s o f a f f i d a v i t e v i d e n c e s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A a r o n ' s s t u d y , r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , s u r v e y e d s i x s t a t e s w h i c h have a n t i - i n j u n c t i v e laws and he f o u n d t h a t t h e y s t i l l i s s u e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s 35 i n i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h p i c k e t i n g • i s accompanied by t h r e a t s and v i o l e n c e . . C a l i f o r n i a , w h i c h has no a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n l a w , b a s i c a l l y d e a l s w i t h p i c k e t i n g on t h e b a s i s o f common law development. Mass p i c k e t i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t l y e n j o i n e d and t h e number of p i c k e t s may be l i m i t e d . P i c k e t i n g w h i c h o b s t r u c t s , annoys and i n t i m i d a t e s o t h e r s by i n s u l t s and menacing a t t i t u d e s i s e n j o i n a b l e , as i s t h e use o f f a l s e and m i s l e a d i n g s t a t e m e n t s ; b u t p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g i s r e s t r a i n e d o n l y when i t i s i r r e v o c a b l y b l e n d e d w i t h 36 a c t s o f v i o l e n c e and i n t i m i d a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n may a r i s e a t t h i s p o i n t , why a r e t h e s t a t e s p e r m i t t e d t o i s s u e i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p i c k e t i n g w h i c h t h e w r i t e r has d e s c r i b e d ? S t a t e l e g i s l a t i v e power o v e r p i c k e t l i n e c o n d u c t may e n c r o a c h upon o r e x i s t c o - e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e f e d e r a l power, b u t t h e s t a t e c o u r t system s t i l l a l l o w s an emplo y e r t o o b t a i n i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f f r e e o f t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a , b e c a u s e t h e A c t r e s t r i c t e d t h e f e d e r a l power; o v e r p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e F e d e r a l c o u r t and not t h e - f e d e r a l power o v e r i n t e r s t a t e commerce. Thus an employer who has a cause f o r r e l i e f o v e r p i c k e t l i n e c o n d u c t i s p r e v e n t e d f r o m o b t a i n i n g s u c h r e l i e f a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , but t h e S t a t e c o u r t s a r e a v a i l a b l e . Each s t a t e has d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e - ments w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d b e f o r e o b t a i n i n g r e l i e f and o t h e r s w i l l s t i l l i s s u e t h e ex p a r t e o r d e r . The use of t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n b o t h t h e a n t i and non a n t i s t a t e s w h i c h A a r o n s t u d i e d showed a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n t h e use 37 o f t h e remedy. He o f f e r s some s u g g e s t i o n s why t h i s i s so. F i r s t l y , t h e a d o p t i o n o f s t a t e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s :boards w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r much of t h e con d u c t p r e v i o u s l y r e g u l a t e d by t h e S t a t e c o u r t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e more i m p o r t a n t development was t h e d o c t r i n e o f f e d e r a l p r e e m p t i o n . The e x c l u s i o n o f t h e s t a t e c o n t r o l o f conduct, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e under t h e NLRA, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e expanded j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e NLRB have a f f e c t e d t h e scope o f s t a t e i n j u n c t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f development i s i n t h e i n t e r s t a t e commerce a r e a . S t a t e s a r e a l l o w e d e n t r y i n t o t h i s f i e l d i n t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s o f c a s e s ; 1. t h o s e w h i c h do not meet NLRB j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f impact on i n t e r s t a t e commerce 2. t h o s e i n v o l v i n g v i o l e n c e o r b r e a c h e s o f the peace ( p i c k e t l i n e c o n d u c t w o u l d f a l l i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ) 3. t h o s e i n v o l v i n g s t r i k e s i n b r e a c h o f c o l l e c t i v e agreements ( t h i s was d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S e c t i o n 301 of t h e LMRA). A t h i r d r e a s o n he o f f e r s f o r t h e d e c l i n e i s t h a t l a b o u r and manage- ment have grown more mature and s o p h i s t i c a t e d . The w r i t e r m e r e l y wanted t o i n c l u d e t h e s e v i e w s t o h e l p show t h a t i t i s not m e r e l y t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a w h i c h c a u s e d t h e d e c l i n e ; i t was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e and p o s s i b l y more f a c t o r s . A a r o n c r i t i c i s e s t h e p r o c e d u r a l a b u s e s w h i c h e x i s t i n t h e S t a t e c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s on t h e i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s . T h i s may be so b u t t h e o n l y g l a r i n g abuse t h a t he comments upon i s " t h a t t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , i s a form of j u d i c i a l power p e c u l i a r l y s u b j e c t t o abuse." He does not want t h e weapon t o be used as i t was i n t h e 1930's as a means o f d e c i d i n g w h i c h s i d e w i n s an economic b a t t l e . He does f e e l i t has a d e c i d e d l y i m p o r t a n t use i n . c a s e s w h i c h have a marked p a t t e r n o f c o n t i n u i n g v i o l e n c e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t , t h e A c t s e r v e d i t s p u r p o s e a t t h e t i m e i t was e n a c t e d b u t i n t h e p r e s e n t i t r e m a i n s a s e r i o u s impediment t o t h e even-handed e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t n a t i o n a l l a b o u r p o l i c y . R e l e v a n c e o f t h e A m e r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e t o Canada I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , many o f t h e p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c o u n t r i e s have been m e n t i o n e d . There a r e th u s many a r e a s o f l a b o u r law w h i c h may a p p l y i n . t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t would no t a p p l y i n Canada due t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e laws were e n a c t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n owes i t s p r e s e n t v i e w s t o t h e p a s t abuses o f i t s u s e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a h i s t o r i c a l b i a s i s p r e s e n t i n t o d a y ' s A m e r i c a n t h i n k i n g . However, t h e mere f a c t t h a t t h e remedy has been r e t a i n e d under F e d e r a l law and S t a t e l a w , as shown i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , p o i n t s out t h e f a c t t h a t i t can not be c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e a r e n a o f l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s . I t a p p e a r s t o t h i s w r i t e r t h a t i n • C a n a d a we must make c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy does not f a v o u r one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r but t h a t i t r e m a i n as a remedy w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e i f needed t o m a i n t a i n and p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t and to. p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . Some of t h e g u i d e l i n e s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t have heen c o n s i d e r e d as r e l e v a n t t o Canada a r e as f o l l o w s ; 1. t h e a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h e c o u r t r e t a i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a b i l i t y t o g i v e i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f 2. t h a t a speedy t r i a l be a v a i l a b l e t o make s u r e t h a t b o t h s i d e s have a chance t o v o i c e t h e i r v i e w s . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s t h a t a r i g h t , t o a speedy a p p e a l be a v a i l a b l e as w e l l . However t h i s does not mean a b o l i s h i n g t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n where i r r e p a r a b l e damage t o p r o p e r t y may o c c u r . T h i s r i g h t must be p r e s e r v e d . 3. The i d e a o f a B o a r d t o r e p l a c e t h e c o u r t s i s a c o r o l l a r y t o p o i n t 1; i f a B o a r d were a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r O n t a r i o t h i s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t , t o a c o u r t r e l i e f w o u l d be c o n f i s c a t e d by a government o f f i c i a l . ' The main i n f e r e n c e t o be drawn between t h e two c o u n t r i e s i s t h a t t h e S t a t e c o u r t s do g r a n t i n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e same k i n d s o f c a s e s as we do i n Canada t o d a y . Thus b o t h c o u n t r i e s have t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy and u t i l i z e i t t o combat t h e same t y p e s of u n l a w f u l l n e s s . CHAPTER IV THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE: ONTARIO AND BRITISH COLUMBIA I . HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CANADIAN LABOUR LAW P r i o r t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e w r i t e r w i l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s w i l l a s s i s t t he r e a d e r i n b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between C a n a d i a n , A u s t r a l i a n , B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n l a b o u r development. I n Canada, l a r g e l y because of t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e law o f p i c k e t i n g , t h e law of the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i s n e b u l o u s . 1 The i n j u n c t i o n owes i t s o r i g i n i n the E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m and i t i s an e x c e p t i o n a l l e g a l remedy t o w h i c h t h e common law p r o v i n c e s o f Canada a r e h e i r . P r i o r t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n C a n a d i a n l a b o u r laws were r o o t e d i n t h e E n g l i s h c o n s p i r a c y laws o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h u s as i n E n g l a n d , t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy was a v a i l a b l e but used i n f r e q u e n t l y . I n Canada, as i n E n g l a n d , t h o s e who f e l t t h e m s e l v e s a g g r i e v e d as t h e r e s u l t o f l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , had r e s o r t t o t h e c r i m i n a l law f o r t h e i r remedy. Canada's e a r l y l a b o u r law (1867-1930's) can be spoken of m e r e l y as t h e law of s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g . I t wasn't u n t i l t he 1930's t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c e s e n a c t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g laws and t h u s t h e r e emerged a d i s t i n c t body o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s d o c t r i n e . P r i o r t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , C a n a d i a n l a b o u r law was p a t t e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y a f t e r E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t i o n . C o n f e d e r a t i o n b r o u g h t about c e r t a i n changes i n l e g i s l a t i v e power and e v e n t u a l l y i n l e g i s l a t i o n . The D i v i s i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e power between t h e D o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c e s i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . The P a r l i a m e n t has g e n e r a l power t o make laws f o r t h e p e a c e , o r d e r and good government of Canada i n r e l a t i o n t o a l l m a t t e r s not coming w i t h i n t h e c l a s s e s o f s u b j e c t s by t h i s A c t a s s i g n e d 2 e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e P r o v i n c e s . S p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t i n c l u d e t r a d e and commerce, n a v i g a t i o n , c r i m i n a l law and l o c a l works and u n d e r t a k i n g s e x p r e s s l y e x c e p t e d f r o m t h o s e a s s i g n e d •to t h e p r o v i n c e s . S e c t i o n 92 of t h e A c t s e t s out t h e l e g i s l a t i v e powers o f t h e p r o v i n c e s . They i n c l u d e p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and l o c a l works and u n d e r t a k i n g s . F o r i n s t a n c e , p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s b r i n g s w i t h i n t h e laws o f t h e p r o v i n c e s q u e s t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n and c o n t r a c t s between e m p l o y e r s and employees. A g a i n s t t h i s , where t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n a r e s u c h as t o b r i n g i t w i t h i n t h e ambit of t h e c r i m i n a l law, t h e m a t t e r comes under t h e Dominion's l a w s . W h i l e p r o v i n c e s t h r o u g h t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and c o n c i l i a t i o n , t h e D o m i n i o n has j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s e m a t t e r s i f t h e y a r e w i t h i n a f i e l d s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e D o m i n i o n , such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and works d e c l a r e d by t h e Government o f Canada f o r t h e g e n e r a l a d v a n t a g e of Canada o r two o r more p r o v i n c e s . Thus we f i n d t h e p r o v i n c e s e n a c t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g c i v i l r i g h t s r e l a t i n g t o f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n t r a d e u n i o n s w h i l e t h e D o m i n i o n g o v e r n s any c r i m i n a l a s p e c t s . Thus t h e r e i s b o t h D o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . Canada's l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n c a n be t r a c e d a l o n g t h i s d i v i s i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e power as p r o v i d e d under t h e B.N.A. A c t of 1867. The Y e a r s From C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o 1918 F o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n Canada's f i r s t c r i s i s i n l a b o u r law o c c u r e d i n 1872 and i n c i t e d P a r l i a m e n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e l e g a l s t a t u s o f u n i o n s . Under p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement, P a r l i a m e n t s e i z e d upon t h e E n g l i s h r e f o r m l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1871 t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e p u r p o s e s o f a t r a d e u n i o n a r e n o t u n l a w f u l m e r e l y because t h e y a r e i n - r e s t r a i n t of t r a d e , and 3 t o l e g i t i m i z e p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g by t a k i n g i t out of t h e c r i m i n a l law. ( T r a d e U n i o n s A c t of 1872). I n j u n c t i o n s a g a i n where not a major i s s u e , as o r g a n i z a t i o n and g r o w t h were i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of development. By 1900 C a n a d i a n c r i m i n a l law r e c o g n i z e d t h e l e g a l i t y o f c o m b i n a t i o n s of workmen, t h e use of t h e s t r i k e and p i c k e t i n g p e a c e f u l i n f o r m . About t h i s t i m e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s t r i e d , u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o promote a v o l u n t a r y p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by p a s s i n g t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n A c t o f 1900, w h i c h was f o u n d e d on t h e U n i t e d Kingdom C o n c i l i a t i o n A c t of 1896. T h e r e was, however, one major d i f f e r e n c e and t h a t was t h a t the C a n a d i a n s t a t u t e was imposed as a d e v i c e of government p o l i c y , whereas t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t e grew out o f v o l u n t a r y p r a c t i c e s t h a t were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t a n c e w i t h o u t 4 l e g i s l a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e marked a d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e c o u r s e s of t h e two c o u n t r i e s , one t o w a r d a t i g h t l y o p e r a t e d s t a t u t o r y scheme, t h e o t h e r away f r o m l e g a l i s m i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . The A c t a l l o w e d t h e M i n i s t e r o f L abour t o i n v a d e any s i t u a t i o n of a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t . I t imposed a modicum of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e f r o m of c o n c i l i a t i o n , m a r k i n g ' t h e b e g i n n i n g s of the t w o - s t e p p r o c e d u r e of c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r and c o n c i l i a t i o n b o a r d , and t h e I n d u s t r i a l I n q u i r y Commission t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n law. Canada's main c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e law of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s was c o m p u l s o r y c o n c i l i a t i o n and s u s p e n s i o n o f the r i g h t t o s t r i k e . T h i s was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t o f 1907 (Lemieux A c t ) . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was t h e r e s u l t of s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s of c r i s i s r e s u l t i n g f r o m s t r i k e s . The A c t , however, had a b a s i c weakness. The A c t e s t a b l i s h e d a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , but gave u n i o n s no p r o t e c t i o n f r o m c o u n t e r - a c t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s , c a l c u l a t e d t o d i s c o u r a g e employees f r o m o r g a n i z i n g . The employer had t o m e r e l y submit t o c o n c i l i a t i o n and even when a c o l l e c t i v e agreement was n e g o t i a t e d i t had no s t a t u s i n law u n l e s s t h e p a r t i e s a g r e e d t o be bound by t h e b o a r d ' s recommendations. C o n s t i t u - t i o n a l p r oblems were e n c o u n t e r e d and as a r e s u l t t h e A c t was amended and r e s t r i c t e d t o d i s p u t e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e r e a l m of Dominion j u r i s d i c t i o n , a p p l i c a b l e i n t h o s e p r o v i n c e s t h a t e n a c t e d a s t a t u t e d e c l a r i n g t h e D o m inion A c t a p p l i c a b l e . I n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d a l l p r o v i n c e s but P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d e n a c t e d laws b r i n g i n g t h e A c t i n t o f o r c e . The e n a b l i n g p r o v i n c i a l A c t s were r e p e a l e d by B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1937, A l b e r t a i n 1944 and S a s k a t c h e w a n i n 1945. Thus t h e A c t d i d not become a l a s t i n g g u i d e t o i n d u s t r i a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The Y e a r s From 1918 t o 1940 D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e . e n a c t m e n t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t t o 1936 some o f the p r o v i n c e s p a s s e d l e g i s l a t i o n o f l i m i t e d scope r e s p e c t i n g c o n c i l i a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f d i s p u t e s . There a r e two p r o v i n c i a l A c t s of t h i s p e r i o d s t i l l ' i n e x i s t a n c e . One i s t h e Quebec P u b l i c S e r v i c e Employees D i s p u t e s Act. and t h e o t h e r an A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e of 1928 d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s not c o v e r e d by t h e 1907 A c t . 5 A d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n a r o s e f o l l o w i n g t h e economic d e p r e s s i o n of t h e e a r l y 1930's. The l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n f o r c e d the governments t o t a k e a new l o o k at t h e l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . The i n j u n c t i o n was not c o n s i d e r e d t h e major d i f f i c u l t y t h a t i t was i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t Canada was t o o young a t t h i s t i m e t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e same s t r i f e . U n i o n l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n came l a t e r i n Canada t h a n i n e i t h e r t h e U n i t e d Kingdom o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and so t h e l a b o u r movement of t h e 30's d i d not f i n d t h e 6 i n j u n c t i o n remedy a major p r o b l e m a r e a . L abour was v o i c i n g d i s a p p r o v a l b u t t o no g r e a t e x t e n t . I n 1937 and 1938 l a b o u r began r e q u e s t i n g an amendment t o t h e r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e " t o p r e v e n t t h e i s s u a n c e o f w r i t s o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , " and a l s o r e q u e s t e d l e g i s l a t i o n " r e s t r i c t i n g t h e use of t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . " P r o f e s s o r B. L a s k i n d i d a t t h i s t i m e c r i t i c i s e t h e use of t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , but i t . was not because i t was b e i n g used t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . F o r example, o f t h e r e p o r t e d c a s e s i n O n t a r i o f r o m 1925 t o 1936 t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h the. i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d . ' L a s k i n ' s c r i t i c i s m s were more of a w a r n i n g t o C a n a d i a n law so t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n would not be used as i t had been i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o 1932. There were o t h e r a r e a s t h a t needed a l t e r a t i o n . One development i n l e g i s l a t i o n was t h e e x t e n s i o n o f b a s i c p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by p r o t e c t i n g freedom o f a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m e m p l o y e r h a r r a s s m e n t and by i m p o s i n g on t h e employer a s t a t u t o r y d u t y t o b a r g a i n . The s t a t u t e o r one s i m i l a r t o i t was a d o p t e d by a l l p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s but O n t a r i o and P r i n c e Edward. I s l a n d . I n 1938 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a amended t h i s new law t o r e q u i r e t h e employer t o r e c o g n i z e a u n i o n as such and s p e l l e d out t h e t w o - s t a g e c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e o f o f f i c e r and b o a r d . I n 1943 O n t a r i o e n a c t e d new l a b o u r p o l i c y . They o u t l i n e d t h e p r o c e d u r e r e g a r d i n g s e l e c t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by u n i o n and so d e v e l o p e d t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y i n Canada f o r g e n e r a l . c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g law. P r i o r t o W o r l d War I I a l l p r o v i n c e s had made advances tow a r d s e c u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by p r o t e c t i n g freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g a p r o c e d u r e f o r s e t t l i n g q u e s t i o n s of u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . W o r l d War I I and P o s t War Developments W i t h t h e advent o f W o r l d War I I t h e F e d e r a l Government assumed j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r most l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n under t h e War Measures A c t . T h i s A c t m e r e l y e x t e n d e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n 8 A c t t o i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h , i n p e a c e t i m e , were under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n f r o m war t o peace, p u b l i c p o l i c y and e x i s t i n g l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n r e c e i v e d c l o s e s c r u t i n y . I n 1952 t h e F e d e r a l Government p a s s e d t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s and D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , w h i c h i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e t o d a y . The A c t r e t a i n e d t h e c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n f e a t u r e s but r e j e c t e d t h e c o m p u l s o r y s u p e r v i s e d s t r i k e v o t e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n a c t e d a new I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t i n 1948. The A c t met c o n s i d e r a b l e u n i o n o p p o s i t i o n and as a r e s u l t a new A c t , t h e L abour R e l a t i o n s A c t became law i n 1954, and i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . C a r r o t h e r s summarizes e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way; " A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e v a r i a t i o n i n d e t a i l , p r e s e n t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l . l e g i s l a t i o n may be summarized as e m b r a c i n g , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s f i v e p r i n c i p l e s : 1. employee f r e e d o m of a s s o c i a t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n of u n i o n i s m 2. t h e r i g h t t o ? c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h m a c h i n e r y o f c o n c i l i a t i o n , s t a t u t o r y c o m p u l s i o n t o engage i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c o n c i l i a t i o n and postponement o f the r i g h t t o s t r i k e and t o l o c k out 3. p r o h i b i t i o n of u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s by e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s , t o p r o t e c t u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and t h e p r o c e s s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g 4. t h e a t t r i b u t i o n of s t a t u s to- t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t o f e n f o r c e a b i l i t y , and t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s d u r i n g i t s term w i t h o u t s t o p p a g e o f w o r k - i n b r i e f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s a n c t i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement 5. t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a c h i n e r y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as i t had o r i g i n a t e d i n 1900 and as i t had been e f f e c t e d i n w a r t i m e by t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n Commission. The s t a t u t e s r e q u i r e permanent m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e i r admin- i s t r a t i o n , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of t h e Wartime Labour q R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . 1 " F o l l o w i n g W o r l d War I I Canada began t o e x p e r i e n c e i t s f i r s t r e a l d i f f i c u l t } ' ' w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy. I t became a f o c a l p o i n t o f d i s s e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1950's, and s i n c e t h e n has c o n t i n u e d t o grow i n m a gnitude. I n J u n e , 1966 u n i o n l e a d e r s f r o m a c r o s s Canada met t o d e c i d e t h e i r s t r a t e g y i n t h e i r f i g h t a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s . I t was d e c i d e d t o s t e p up t h e b a t t l e a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s by mapping a c o u n t r y - w i d e campaign f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n of i n j u n c t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . S i n c e t h a t t i m e t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy q u e s t i o n has r e c e i v e d even more a t t e n t i o n , t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y one of t h e most d e b a t e d i s s u e s i n l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s t o d a y . Canada p r o v i d e s f o r a much g r e a t e r d e g r e e of s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e o r d i n a r y c a s e t h a n does t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t o p e r a t e s a s y s t e m r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e U n i t e d Kingdom's. I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a s t e a d y t r e n d t o w a r d making u n i o n s s u a b l e e n t i t i e s , making c o l l e c t i v e agreements b i n d i n g i n c i v i l a c t i o n and r e g u l a t i n g i n t e r n a l u n i o n a f f a i r s . I I . ONTARIO'S EXPERIENCE O n t a r i o , because o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r i f e i n i t s labour-management r e l a t i o n s . From 1958 t o 1966 O n t a r i o has had 1,368 s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s . ^ T h i s i s 54.2 per c e n t o f t h e t o t a l 2,523 t h a t e x i s t e d i n Canada. I n O n t a r i o i n t h i s same p e r i o d t h e r e were 314 i n j u n c t i o n s , o r one f o r e v e r y f o u r t h s t r i k e . The m a n u f a c t u r i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t f o r 79.4 per c e n t o f t h e s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s i n t h i s e i g h t y e a r p e r i o d ( O n t a r i o ) . The t i m e _ _ l o s t , work s t o p p a g e s , l o s t c o n t r a c t s and so f o r t h r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e economic damage. The y e a r 1966 has been a p a r t i c u l a r l y t r y i n g one f o r . O n t a r i o . F a i l u r e t o e n f o r c e laws c o n c e r n i n g p i c k e t i n g have been a major f a c t o r i n t h e r e c e n t a t t a c k s i n O n t a r i o on t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n s t r i k e s . The l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o w i l l c o v e r the p e r i o d f r o m 1958 t o 1966. The 1958 d a t e has been chosen as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t because i n 1960 t h e O n t a r i o J u d i c a t u r e A c t was amended t o put c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on the use of i n t e r i m and ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s . Thus any changes t h a t may have o c c u r r e d because of t h e amendments i n t h e A c t w i l l be r e v e a l e d by t h e s t u d y o f t h e two y e a r s p r e c e d i n g the A c t . There i s a l s o one major j u d i c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n O n t a r i o a u n i o n can n o t be made a d e f e n d a n t i n i t ' s own name.. There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r b r i n g i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c t i o n i n such a way t h a t i f t h e r e i s a judgment f o r damages e x e c u t i o n can be l e v i e d a g a i n s t t h e a s s e t s o f t h e u n i o n . ^ However, such a p r o c e d u r e i s awkward. P o s t - w a r e x p a n s i o n o c c u r r e d u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e mid 1950's. From 1958 t o 1961 Canada e x p e r i e n c e d i t s h i g h e s t p o s t - w a r unemployment, and t h e r e was a s l a c k e n i n g i n t h e upswing o f p r o d u c t i o n . Thus t h e economy d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d slow g r o w t h . The number o f i n j u n c t i o n s a p p l i e d f o r and g r a n t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d i s shown i n T a b l e I . TABLE I NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED 1958-196.1* Year A p p l i c a t i o n s F o r A p p l i c a t i o n s F o r Ex p a r t e I n j u n c t i o n s I n j u n c t i o n s on N o t i c e G r a n t e d Made G r a n t e d 1958 21 3 . 1 1959 22 4 3 1960 19 7 3 1961 14 16 15 T o t a l 76 30 22 P a l m e r , The La b o u r I n j u n c t i o n , p. 87. From t h e s t a t i s t i c s i n T a b l e I i t w o u l d appear t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e amendment of t h e A c t t h e r e were f e w e r ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s g r a n t e d , and t h a t t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of i n j u n c t i o n s a p p l i e d f o r and g r a n t e d on n o t i c e . P r i o r t o amendment S e c t i o n 17 of t h e A c t r e a d as f o l l o w s ; S e c t i o n 17 (1) I n t h i s s e c t i o n " l a b o u r d i s p u t e s " means any d i s p u t e o r d i f f e r e n c e between an employer and one or more employees as t o m a t t e r s o r t h i n g s a f f e c t i n g o r r e l a t i n g t o work done by t h e employee o r employees o r as t o t h e p r i v i l e g e s , r i g h t s , d u t i e s o r c o n d i t i o n s o f employment o f t h e employer o r employees. , (2) An ex p a r t e i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n any p e r s o n f r o m d o i n g any a c t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any l a b o u r d i s p u t e s h a l l not be f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n f o u r d a y s . ^ ^ S e c t i o n 17 of t h e J u d i c a t u r e A c t was amended i n 1960 t o r e a d as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n 17 (1) I n t h i s s e c t i o n " l a b o u r d i s p u t e " means a d i s p u t e o r d i f f e r e n c e between an employer and one o r more employees as t o m a t t e r s o r t h i n g s a f f e c t i n g o r r e l a t i n g t o work done o r t o be done by t h e employee o r employees o r as t o t h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment o r t h e r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s o r d u t i e s of t h e employer o r t h e employee or employees. (2) An i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n a p e r s o n f r o m any a c t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l a b o u r d i s p u t e s h a l l be g r a n t e d o n l y upon a t l e a s t two days n o t i c e t o t h e p e r s o n or p e r s o n s t o be a f f e c t e d t h e r e b y and s h a l l n o t ' b e f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n f o u r d a y s . (3) An i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n under s u b s e c t i o n 2 may be g r a n t e d ex p a r t e where t h e C o u r t i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a b r e a c h of t h e p e a c e , i n j u r y t o t h e p e r s o n o r damage t o p r o p e r t y has o c c u r r e d o r an i n t e r r u p t i o n of an e s s e n t i a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e has o c c u r r e d o r i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r . (4) Where th e employee o r employees t o be a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n under t h i s s e c t i o n a r e members of a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n o t i c e under s u b s e c t i o n 2 s h a l l be deemed t o have been g i v e n t o s u c h employee o r employees i f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e t h e r e o f i s e f f e c t e d upon an o f f i c e r o r agent o f such l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n . (5) Where t h e employee o r employees t o be a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n under t h i s s e c t i o n a r e not members o f a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n o t i c e under s u b s e c t i o n 1 s h a l l be deemed t o have been g i v e n t o t h e employee o r . e m p l o y e e s t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n i f t h e n o t i c e i s p o s t e d up i n a c o n s p i c u o u s p l a c e on the b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s o f t h e employer where i t can be r e a d by such employee o r employees. (6) Where some of t h e employees t o be a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n under t h i s s e c t i o n a r e members o f a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n and o t h e r s a r e n o t , t h e n o t i c e under s u b s e c t i o n 2 s h a l l be deemed t o have ^ been g i v e n t o a l l s u c h employees i f s u b s e c t i o n 4 and 5 a r e c o m p l i e d w i t h . These changes o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g a R e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t Committee on Labour R e l a t i o n s of t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t i o n . The Committee recommended t h a t t h e r e be no ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n g r a n t e d e x c e p t i n c a s e s o f emergency and t h a t t h e r u l e s of t h e Supreme C o u r t be amended t o r e q u i r e n o t i c e t o b o t h p a r t i e s or t h a t p r i o r t o g r a n t i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n be made t o t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d and p e r m i s s i o n of t h e B oard be o b t a i n e d : These recommenda- t i o n s , were made i n 1958 because i t was f e l t t h a t t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n gave t h e d e f e n d a n t ho o p p o r t u n i t y t o be h e a r d and t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of a s t r i k e gave an employer i n c r e a s e d b a r g a i n i n g power. I t can be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e changes t h a t o c c u r r e d d i d n o t ' f o l l o w t h e r e commendations. I n f a c t , i t has been argued t h a t i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s t h e amendment d i d not d i s c o u r a g e t h e g r a n t i n g of ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s . 14 T h i s i s t r u e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . V e r y n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e l a b o u r c a s e s r e p o r t e d between 1948 and 1966 were c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n had been g r a n t e d . Of t h e t e n r e p o r t e d c a s e s i n v o l v i n g i n j u n c t i o n s r e s t r a i n i n g p i c k e t i n g s i n c e 1960 ( y e a r o f amendment) i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n at l e a s t f o u r c a s e s ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s were g r a n t e d . When d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f t h e q u e s t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f p i c k e t i n g becomes t h e major i s s u e . The r i g h t t o p i c k e t i s t h e way t h a t u n i o n s p u b l i c i z e t h e l a b o u r d i s p u t e . However, t h e r i g h t t o p i c k e t does not c o n f e r on t h e p i c k e t s a r i g h t t o engage i n a c t s of o b s t r u c t i o n , a s s a u l t , b a t t o r y and i n t i m i d a t i o n . C h i e f J u s t i c e G a l e made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t ; " T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a m i s c o n c e p t i o n among c e r t a i n l e a d e r s and. members of t r a d e u n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e p r i v i l e g e s o f e m p l o y e r s and employees. They seem t o t h i n k t h a t once a s t r i k e i s c a l l e d , t h e employer must c l o s e h i s d o o r s t o a w a i t t h e outcome. A t p r e s e n t , t h a t i s not t h e c a s e . Employees have t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e , b u t , by t h e same t o k e n , e mployers have t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and t o p r o t e c t t h e i r p r o p e r t y . T h i s i s u s u a l l y t h e b a s i s upon w h i c h a c o u r t o r d e r i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r i c t s p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f a u n i o n . " 1 5 An example of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n j u n c t i o n s and p i c k e t i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I I . I t can be o b s e r v e d f r o m t h i s t a b l e t h a t the h i g h e s t number o f t h e a c t s e n j o i n e d i n i n j u n c t i o n s where d i s c o u r a g i n g or i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h c u s t o m e r s , d e t e r r i n g p e o p l e f r o m e n t e r i n g and l e a v i n g , t h r e a t e n i n g , i n t i m i d a t i o n , p r e v e n t i n g f r e e a c c e s s , w a t c h i n g and b e s e t t i n g , i n d u c i n g b r e a c h of c o n t r a c t , a i d i n g and a b e t t i n g i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n of an e n j o i n e d TABLE I I NUMBER OF SPECIFIC ACTS WHICH "WERE ENJOINED I N INJUNCTIONS ISSUED 1958-1966* ACTS ENJOINED ON NOTICE ON EX PARTE P e r s u a d i n g employees n o t t o work 8 37 P r e v e n t i n g employees f r o m w o r k i n g 26 89 D i s c o u r a g i n g o r i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h p a t r o n s 35 121 D e t e r r i n g p e o p l e f r o m e n t e r i n g o r l e a v i n g 52 154 T h r e a t e n i n g 45 150 M o l e s t i n g . 24 58 I n t i m i d a t i n g 48 153 A s s a u l t 22 84 P u b l i s h i n g f a l s e o r d e f a m a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s 3 84 C a u s i n g a n u i s a n c e . 3 19 P r e v e n t i n g f r e e a c c e s s 38 - 110 O b s t r u c t i n g 16 65 W a t c h i n g and b e s e t t i n g 72 172 T r e s s p a s s i n g 12 26 I n t e r f e r i n g w i t h c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s 13 25 I n d u c i n g b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t 56 126 C o n s p i r a c y t o commit an u n l a w f u l a c t 5 7 D e c l a r i n g a s t r i k e 0 1 ACTS ENJOINED S u p p o r t i n g a s t r i k e P i c k e t i n g A i d i n g and a b e t t i n g i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n on an e n j o i n e d a c t ON NOTICE 1 74 68 ON EX PARTE 2 203 178 P a l m e r , p. 95. N o t e : t h e number of i n j u n c t i o n s g r a n t e d on n o t i c e f o r t h i s same p e r i o d i s 92 and on ex p a r t e 222. a c t and p i c k e t i n g . Most o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , though not a c t u a l l y l a b e l l e d , as p i c k e t i n g o c c u r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p i c k e t i n g . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m t h a t i s p r e s e n t i n O n t a r i o i s s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i n g . The t e r m may be d e f i n e d as a r e f u s a l t o p a t r o n i z e a b u s i n e s s o r a r e f u s a l t o work o r b o t h . A s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i s a c t i o n t a k e n by a u n i o n a g a i n s t an employer o r h i s employees who a r e n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a l a b o u r d i s p u t e . T h i s may be done by t h r e a t e n i n g o r p i c k e t i n g of t h e . i n n o c e n t t h i r d p a r t y , o r by r e f u s i n g t o h a n d l e goods o r work a l o n g s i d e h i s employees. Such p r a c t i c e s o f t e n l e a d t o t h e g r a n t i n g o f i n j u n c t i o n s , f o r i example, b e c a u s e of mass p i c k e t i n g o r i n t i m i d a t i o n . T h i s p r o b l e m does no t e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i n g has been o u t l a w e d . P e r i o d From 1962 t o 1966 The p e r i o d f r o m 1962 onward can be d e s c r i b e d as one o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n . T h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n unemployment l e v e l s . From 1961 t o 1965 t h e unemployment r a t e f e l l f r o m 5.5 per cent; t o 2.5 p e r c e n t . 1 6 Over t h e p a s t few y e a r s p r o d u c t i v i t y as a whole has advanced l e s s r a p i d l y t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i l e a v e r a g e hour e a r n i n g s have r i s e n more q u i c k l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y l a b o u r c o s t s per u n i t of o u t p u t have r i s e n f a s t e r i n Canada t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The- g e n e r a l upswing i n demand, economy and employment has r e s u l t e d i n t i g h t l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s and i n c o n c e r n o v e r p r i c e i n f l a t i o n . I n summary, from 1958 t o 1966 t h e p r o v i n c i a l and C a n a d i a n economy has p a s s e d t h r o u g h a .mild r e c e s s i o n f o l l o w e d by r a p i d g r o w t h : • The p e r i o d m a n i f e s t e d o v e r a l l p r i c e s t a b i l i t y , but i n f l a t i o n a r y t e n d e n c i e s a p p e a r e d toward t h e end. The emergence o f a t i g h t l a b o u r market', -and t h e o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n ts "mentioned were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t t h a n p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e y e a r s o f t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d . ^ T a b l e I I I i l l u s t r a t e d t h e number o f i n j u n c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1962 t o 1966. TABLE I I I NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED 1962-1966* Y e a r A p p l i c a t i o n s F o r A p p l i c a t i o n s F o r Ex p a r t e I n j u n c t i o n s I n j u n c t i o n s on N o t i c e G r a n t e d Made G r a n t e d 1962 42 12 11 1963 14 16 10 1964 53 19 14 1965 26 23 22 1966 11 19 13 T o t a l 146 89 70 P a l m e r , The I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , p. 87. By c o m p a r i n g T a b l e I w i t h T a b l e I I I i t can be o b s e r v e d t h a t , even though T a b l e I I I c o v e r s f i v e y e a r s as opposed t o f o u r , t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f b o t h t y p e s o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u b s t a n t i a l . The number of ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s has a l m o s t d o u b l e d , w h i l e t h e number of i n j u n c t i o n s on n o t i c e a p p l i e d f o r and g r a n t e d has t r i p l e d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e was a l s o a p a r a l l e l i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s . There was an i n c r e a s e i n each s u c c e e d i n g y e a r f r o m 1958 t o 1965 f r o m 132 t o 18 269. The i n c r e a s e was moderate between 1960 and 1964 but s p u r t e d i n 1965 t o more t h a n 100 p e r c e n t above t h e 1958 l e v e l . The p a t t e r n o f s t r i k e s o v e r t h i s p e r i o d r e f l e c t s c h a n g i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s and c e r t a i n l y t he s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n 1965 c a n be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r a p i d economic advances o f t h a t and t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r . I n t h i s p e r i o d , as i n t h e p r e c e d i n g one, p i c k e t i n g a p p e a r s t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n . The C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a n a l y s e d f o u r t e e n i n j u n c t i v e c a s e s whose r e c o r d s were l o d g e d 19 a t Osgood H a l l , T o r o n t o . I n e l e v e n c a s e s t h e p i c k e t i n g was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d f o r a p r o p e r p u r p o s e , a l e g a l s t r i k e , but was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d i n an a l l e g e d l y i m p r o p e r manner--mass p i c k e t i n g , d e n i a l o f a c c e s s , p e r s o n a l i n j u r y and p r o p e r t y damage. I n t h e t h r e e o t h e r c a s e s t h e p i c k e t i n g was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d f o r an i m p r o p e r p u r p o s e - - s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i n g and r e c o g n i - t i o n p i c k e t i n g . - . I n t h e second group the c o u r t s a r e not c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e manner i n w h i c h p i c k e t i n g i s c a r r i e d on, as i t i s t h e p i c k e t i n g i t s e l f w h i c h i s u n l a w f u l and i s t o t a l l y p r o h i b i t e d . Of t h e f i r s t group of e l e v e n , s i x o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y ex p a r t e ones. Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r a i n i n g p i c k e t i n g has become a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f law e n f o r c e m e n t . T a b l e I I g i v e s s u p p o r t t o t h i s o p i n i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e a c t s e n j o i n e d w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n a r e u s u a l l y ones t h a t o c c u r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p i c k e t i n g . I n O n t a r i o 1966 p r o v e d t o be a p a r t i c u l a r l y t r y i n g y e a r , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . One of t h e developments was t h e T i l c o P l a s t i c s S t r i k e w h i c h began December 15, 1965. On December 2 0 t h a c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d l i m i t i n g t h e number of p i c k e t s . On F e b r u a r y 2 0 t h , 1966 t h i r t y - f i v e u n i o n l o c a l s d e c i d e d t o h o l d a mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n a t 20 t h e T i l c o P l a s t i c s p l a n t . The Chairman of a s p e c i a l l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n c ommittee s a i d t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n c o u l d c o n t i n u e . a week and t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s would c a r r y s i g n s p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e use of ex p a r t e c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s t o b r e a k l e g a l s t r i k e s . The d e m o n s t r a t i o n was not s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t T i l c o . . The i n j u n c t i o n was d e f i e d and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . P l a n t o f f i c i a l s were booed. On F e b r u a r y 2 5 t h , t w e n t y - e i g h t p i c k e t s , i n c l u d i n g k e y u n i o n l e a d e r s were s e r v e d w i t h n o t i c e o f contempt o f c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t them. I t was s t a t e d on b e h a l f of t h e p i c k e t s t h a t " t h e y had no i n t e n t i o n t o h o l d t h e c o u r t i n contempt but what t h e y d i d h o l d i n contempt was t h e law g o v e r n i n g i n j u n c t i o n s , w h i c h t h e y f e e l i s a bad law." On t h e 26th o f F e b r u a r y t h e O.F.L. announced t h a t i t wou l d pay t h e l e g a l c o s t s o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n i s t c h a r g e d w i t h contempt o f c o u r t . The F e d e r a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t i t was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n f a c e of t h e i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g p i c k e t i n g was a r e a s o n a b l e p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e u n f a i r use o f c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s i n labour-management d i s p u t e s . On June 8 t h , 1966 t w e n t y - s i x o f t h e p i c k e t s were f o u n d g u i l t y ; t w e n t y - f i v e were j a i l e d , f i v e f o r two months each and t h e o t h e r s f o r f i f t e e n days each. A t t h a t t i m e C h i e f J u s t i c e G a l e s t a t e d t h a t ; " t h e l a w l e s s n e s s d i s p l a y e d ought not t o be condoned o r a l l o w e d t o be r e p e a t e d . I f t r a d e u n i o n s f e e l t h a t p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n i s u n f a i r o r u n r e a l i s t i c and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d have u n b r i d l e d power t o use mass p i c k e t i n g , t h e n t h e y s h o u l d s eek p r o p e r c h a n n e l s f o r b r i n g i n g about a change..... Any program, no m a t t e r how w o r t h y t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l , w h i c h p r e s c r i b e s w i l f u l d e f i a n c e o f t h e law can o n l y be r e g a r d e d as an e x e r c i s e i n i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " ^ 1 A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s t r i k e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n o c c u r r e d on 22 J a n u a r y 2 6 t h , 1966; t h e Oshawa Newspaper S t r i k e . On J a n u a r y 28 and 29 a mass p i c k e t l i n e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e s t r i k e o c c u r r e d . P r i n t e r s and Pressmen d i d n o t go t h r o u g h the p i c k e t l i n e . A w r i t was f i l e d t o p r o h i b i t p i c k e t i n g . The Oshawa Labour C o u n c i l s t a t e d t h a t i t was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e on a b a t t l e a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s i f t h e c o u r t s i s s u e d t h e asked- f o r i n j u n c t i o n . On F e b r u a r y 1, 1966 a few h o u r s a f t e r i n j u n c - t i o n s were s e r v e d on members o f t h e s t r i k i n g u n i t , 150 p i c k e t s ' s t a g e d a h a l f hour d e m o n s t r a t i o n a t t h e newspaper b u i l d i n g . The i n j u n c t i o n l i m i t e d t h e number o f p i c k e t s t o a t o t a l o f s e v e n . On t h e 3rd o f F e b r u a r y d e m o n s t r a t o r s p r e v e n t e d a S h e r i f f f r o m r e a d i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n o v e r a l o u d s p e a k e r . No one seemed t o want to t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r e n f o r c i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n . P i c k e t i n g c o n t i n u e d and on t h e 7 t h t h e O n t a r i o S e c t i o n o f t h e Bar A s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d on t h e O n t a r i o Government t o t a k e a l l measures n e c e s s a r y t o e n f o r c e t h e r u l e of law i n Oshawa. They s t a t e : " i t i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n o f o r d e r i n a c i v i l i z e d s t a t e t h a t t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of c i t i z e n s s h a l l not be s u b v e r t e d by mob v i o l e n c e o r i n t i m i d a t i o n o f s u c h v i o l e n c e . " O n t a r i o N.D.P L e a d e r D. MacDonald had an o p p o s i n g v i e w and f e l t t h a t f o r y e a r s t h e law had been worded so t h a t management c o u l d use t h e c o u r t s t o s e c u r e i n j u n c t i o n s t o b r e a k l e g a l s t r i k e s and t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be changed. A s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d on F e b r u a r y 11, 1966. E l e v e n days had e l a p s e d between t h e i s s u i n g of t h e i n j u n c t i o n and the s e t t l e m e n t . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e masses of p i c k e t s f l o u t e d t h e c o u r t s o r d e r and no e f f e c t was made t o e n f o r c e t h e law. I t was because o f t h i s l a c k of enforcement t h a t the mass p i c k e t i n g o c c u r r e d i n t h e T i l c o S t r i k e . The s u c c e s s i n t h e Oshawa i n c i d e n t prompted l a b o u r t o t r y t h e same remedy a g a i n . On F e b r u a r y 11 t h e war a g a i n s t t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o o k on a n a t i o n w i d e f l a v o u r . D i r e c t o r s of f o r t y u n i o n s met i n Oshawa t o o u t l i n e : a Canada w i d e campaign aimed at e l i m i n a t i n g t h e use of i n j u n c t i o n s i n labour-management and at a s s i s t i n g u n i o n s i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s when t h e y a r o s e i n t h e s t r i k e s i t u a t i o n . The P r e s i d e n t of t h e O.F.L. t o l d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t t h e t a c t i c s used i n Oshawa i n t h e Newspaper s t r i k e c o u l d not be a p p l i e d i n e v e r y s i t u a t i o n i n e v e r y s t r i k e but where t h e y c o u l d be, b i g l a b o u r s u p p o r t i n g s m a l l l a b o u r , t h e y s h o u l d be. A l s o , t h a t t h e Oshawa t a c t i c s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o v e r to t h e T i l c o s i t u a t i o n . T h i s d i d o c c u r , but as p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , the same l a w l e s s n e s s was not a l l o w e d •,to c o n t i n u e . On June 28, 1966, f o l l o w i n g t h e s e n t e n c i n g of t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e T i l c o a f f a i r , u n i o n l e a d e r s a g a i n met r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s t r a t e g y i n t h e i r f i g h t a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s . U n i o n o f f i c i a l s f e l t t h e s e n t e n c e s imposed were s e v e r e t o t h e p o i n t o f v i n d i c t i v e n e s s and t h a t l a b o u r , f o l l o w i n g such t r e a t m e n t , s h o u l d t a k e on t h e i n j u n c t i v e i s s u e as i t had n e v e r t a k e n i t on b e f o r e . U n i o n l e a d e r s met w i t h P r e m i e r R o b a r t s who p r o m i s e d a p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n of p i c k e t i n g and i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . A t t h e same t i m e u n i o n l e a d e r s l a i d p l a n s f o r p r o v i n c e j ^ w i d e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s . O.F.L. P r e s i d e n t A r c h e r summed up t h e temper o f u n i o n l e a d e r s i n t h e s e w o r d s ; " T h e r e was ' a ' t r e m e r t d b u s • f e e l i n g we s h o u l d hot succumb t o i n j u n c t i o n s . We hope we can d e m o n s t r a t e l e g a l l y and p e a c e f u l l y . I f we c a n ' t f i n d ways o f c o n f o r m i n g 23 t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s of t h e c o u r t we w i l l have t o d i s o b e y t h e c o u r t o r d e r . " A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l W i s h a r t had t h e s e words t o say r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who d e f y t h e law. "Any p e r s o n who w o u l d d e f y t h e l a w , any p e r s o n who says i t i s t o be d i s r e g a r d e d , f l o u t e d , d i s o b e y e d and s e t 'at n a u g h t , anyone who by word o r deed seeks t o b r i n g about d i s r e s p e c t , f o r t h e judgment of t h e c o u r t s of t h i s l a n d , i s s e e k i n g , w h e t h e r he r e a l i z e s i t o r n o t , t o d e s t r o y t h e s o c i e t y under w h i c h he l i v e s . " 2 4 Thus, f o r O n t a r i o and f o r Canada, t h e . y e a r 1966 had been t h e y e a r of t h e f u l l - s c a l e war on t h e use of c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s t o m a i n t a i n law and o r d e r on the p i c k e t l i n e s . The war has been, f o u g h t on two f r o n t s . F i r s t , a m a s s i v e propaganda a s s a u l t aimed at c o n v i n c i n g the r a n k and f i l e o f l a b o u r and t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n an i n e q u ' i t o u s d e v i c e used by a r r o g a n t e m p l o y e r s w i t h t h e t o a d y i n g h e l p o f t h e c o u r t s ; 25 s e c o n d , open d e f i a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s w h i c h have been i s s u e d . I n t h e l i g h t of t h e s e e v e n t s P r e m i e r R o b a r t s announced i n J u l y 1966 t h a t a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n w o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e laws a f f e c t i n g l a b o u r , i n c l u d i n g t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . The c o m m i s s i o n was headed by Mr. J u s t i c e Rand and h i s r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d i n August 1968. ', r The Rand R e p o r t • - . C o n s i d e r i n g O n t a r i o ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n and t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r management u n r e s t , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o see J u s t i c e I v a n C. Rand p r o p o s e c e r t a i n f a r r e a c h i n g changes i n t h e law and i n a t t i t u d e s as r e g a r d s s t r i k e s , p i c k e t i n g and i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t g e n e r a l l y . B a s i c t o h i s recommendations i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I n d u s t r i a l T r i b u n a l whose t a s k w o u l d be to accomodate t h e immediate p a r t i e s t o a d i s p u t e , i n t h e l i g h t of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Rand comes t o g r i p s w i t h t h e p r oblems t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e Trade u n i o n s A c t o f 1959 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , namely th e m aking o f u n i o n s l e g a l e n t i t i e s and the d e f i n i t i o n of p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Rand d e p i c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s as i l l e g a l ; mass p i c k e t i n g ; s e c o n d - a r y p i c k e t i n g ; a l l y p i c k e t i n g ; r e c o g n i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and s y m p a t h e t i c p i c k e t i n g ; and m y s t e r y p i c k e t i n g . ^ 6 The recommendations p e r t a i n i n g t o p i c k e t i n g would be c o n t r o l l e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by t h e b r o a d powers g i v e n t h e T r i b u n a l . These a c t i v i t i e s , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n ,the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c t i o n , have been d e a l t w i t h i n 1959 a l t h o u g h n o t as s p e c i f i c a l l y . Rand's recommendations are'more e x p a n s i v e t h a n t h e scope o f t h i s paper and t h u s o n l y h i s recommendations and comments p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . Rand c r i t i c i s e d t h e p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d f o r o b t a i n i n g i n j u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . He c r i t i c i s e d two p o i n t s ; f i r s t l y t h e use o f a f f i d a v i t s on an a p p l i c a t i o n , and s e c o n d l y t h e a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e of r e s o r t t o p o l i c e a c t i o n i n some c a s e s . He v i r t u a l l y recommends t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g words: " U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d upon, i n j u n c t i o n s w i l l be p e r m i t t e d o n l y on e v i d e n c e g i v e n v i v a v o c e and on n o t i c e , e x c e p t i n c a s e s of emergency. I n a l l c a s e s adequate p o l i c e a s s i s t a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n must be shewn t o have been u n a v a i l a b l e . " ^ 7 Rand recommends t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s be g i v e n on n o t i c e and t h a t a l l t h e e v i d e n c e be p r e s e n t e d o r a l l y . He s t r e s s e s t h a t i n a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n j u n c t i o n i t must be shown t h a t r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n p o l i c e a s s i s t a n c e have been u n s u c c e s s f u l f o r p r o t e c t i o n and a c t i o n t o p r e v e n t o r remove t h e danger o f damage t o p r o p e r t y , i n j u r y t o p e r s o n s , o b s t r u c t i o n o f / o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h l a w f u l e n t r y o r e x i t f r o m t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h e e m p l o y e r , o r b r e a c h of peace. Rand i s on t h e one hand r e g u l a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of p i c k e t e r s more s t r i n g e n t l y , and t h e n he s t a t e s t h a t t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d be v i r t u a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y because t h e p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h were o f t e n e n j o i n e d w o u l d now be d e f i n i t e l y i l l e g a l and t h u s s h o u l d not be c a r r i e d o u t . I n the w r i t e r ' s v i e w J u s t i c e Rand does no t f e e l t h e r e w o u l d be i r r e p a r a b l e harm i f m y s t e r y p i c k e t e r s were not e n j o i n e d i n s t a n t l y . He f e e l s t h i s s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be h a n d l e d by t h e u n i o n and management p r i o r t o any a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an i n j u n c t i o n . B o t h p a r t i e s w o u l d t h u s be p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of s o l v i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o u t c o u r t i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n e f f e c t , Rand i s a t t e m p t i n g t o keep t h e c o u r t out o f t h e d i s p u t e u n l e s s i r r e p a r a b l e damage may o c c u r . Rand goes a s t e p f u r t h e r i n t r y i n g t o c o n f i n e t h e l a b o u r d i s p u t e s t o t h e . p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s and keep th e i s s u a n c e of c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s t o a minimum by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o p l a c e t h e i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s w h o l l y w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e T r i b u n a l . He f o r e s e e s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g i v i n g t h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l i n j u n c t i v e powers and t h u s t h e i r t a k i n g on o f c o u r t f u n c t i o n s . However, he f e e l s t h a t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r many i n j u n c - t i o n s t h e T r i b u n a l c o u l d i s s u e o r d e r s , when a p p l i e d f o r , t o s p e c i f y the numbers and c o n d i t i o n s o f p i c k e t i n g . Thus, t h r o u g h o u t Rand's recommendations r u n a tone of g r e a t e r r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s c e n e . H i s s u g g e s t i o n f o r e l i m i n a t i n g much of t h e u n r e s t i s t o t r a n s f e r f a r r e a c h i n g powers t o t h e A d m i n s i t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l . The need o r t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p u b l i c i s i n t e r p r e t e d as one o f r e q u e s t i n g a more r e g u l a t e d l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s atmosphere f o r O n t a r i o . I n l i g h t o f t h e w r i t e r ' s s t u d y , Rand w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y r e s t r i c t c o u r t i n t e r v e n t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n s where b o t h p a r t i e s knew t h a t c o u r t a c t i o n was b e i n g s o u g h t . He does not recommend e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s but does a p p e a r t o f a v o u r t h e i s s u a n c e o f l a b o u r i n j u n c - t i o n s t h r o u g h the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l . I I I . B RITISH COLUMBIA'S EXPERIENCE I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as i n O n t a r i o , l a b o u r d i s p u t e s have been b i t t e r and t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n has been c r i t i c i s e d by l a b o u r i n t h e same manner as i n O n t a r i o . I t i s not t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e w r i t e r t o p u r s u e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s h i s t o r y i n g r e a t d e p t h . The major p o i n t w h i c h must be s t r e s s e d when l o o k i n g a t t h e l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s .that i t has gone f u r t h e r t h a n most p r o v i n c e s i n p r o v i d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o make t h e c o n c e p t o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g o p e r a t i v e . The T r a d e - u n i o n s A c t , o r B i l l 4 3 , has d e a l t - w i t h many of t h e p o i n t s s u c h as, mass p i c k e t i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p i c k e t i n g , m y s t e r y p i c k e t s and s e c o n d a r y 28 b o y c o t t s T O n t a r i o ' s p r o b l e m s a r e due t o t h e above mentioned f a c t o r s and many of t h e i n j u n c t i o n s a r e i s s u e d t o s t o p such b e h a v i o u r s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p r e s e n t l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i s based on two f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s : 1) t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y 2) t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . An e l a b o r a t i o n on b o t h p o i n t s w i l l p l a c e t h e framework of t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . F i r s t l y , t h e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a g a i n s t u n l a w f u l c o n f i s c a t i o n must be v i e w e d under s t r i k e c o n d i t i o n s . B i l l 43 has r e s t r i c t e d p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n o r d e r t o g u a r a n t e e t h i s r i g h t and h o l d t h e d i s p u t e t o t h e employer and t h e u n i o n i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e d . The r i g h t t o o w n e r s h i p a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t an r i g h t of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t r e s p a s s and- a r i g h t o f u n i n h i b i t e d a c c e s s o r e g r e s s . S e c o n d l y , t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t has been r e c o g n i z e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l e g i s l a t i o n . A u n i l a t e r a l r e f u s a l t o c o n t r a c t and t h e r e s o r t t o s t r i k e a c t i o n cannot be a l l o w e d t o i m p a i r t h e c o n t r a c t u a l TABLE I V NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED .1946-1955 Year EX PARTE - ON NOTICE G r a n t e d D e n i e d G r a n t e d D e n i e d 1946 2 1947 1 1948 1 1949 10 1950 5 1951 1 1952 11 I ' 2 1 1953 27 1 1 1 1954 4 2 1955 3 1 T o t a l 63 4 5 3 TABLE V CIRCUMSTANCES .IN WHICH AN INJUNCTION WAS SOUGHT ACTIVITY Number D i r e c t p i c k e t i n g d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f n e g o t i a t i n g a c o l l e c t i v e agreement: a) by a c e r t i f i e d u n i o n 42 b) by an u n c e r t i f i e d u n i o n 17 Se c o n d a r y p i c k e t i n g 4 G r i e v a n c e p i c k e t i n g 3 U n c l a s s i f i e d 8 75 k C a r r o t h e r s , I n j u n c t i o n i n B. C., P. 194. c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e o t h e r p a r t y . The u n i o n may a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e o t h e r s not t o do b u s i n e s s w i t h a s t r u c k e m p l o y e r , but t h e y may not d e p r i v e t h e e m p l o y e r of h i s r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t w i t h o t h e r s , e i t h e r f o r employ- ment o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f goods and s e r v i c e s . I n l o o k i n g back a t t h e t y p e s o f b e h a v i o r i n O n t a r i o , p r i m a r i l y a c t i v i t i e s of p i c k e t e r s were e n j o i n e d . Many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s were not d e f i n e d as p r e c i s e l y as i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h u s a r e s o r t t o t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e C h a p t e r w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main p a r t s ; t h e f i r s t c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1946 t o 1955 and t h e second f r o m 1956 t o 1966. One must keep i n mind t h a t t h e T r a d e - u n i o n s A c t was e n a c t e d i n 1959 t o d e f i n e p i c k e t i n g i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s more c l e a r l y and t o c o n f i n e t h e d i s p u t e s t o t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l e x p r e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f l a b o u r , management and t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . P e r i o d From 1946 t o 1955 From 1946 t o 1955 t w enty-two u n i o n s a p p l i e d f o r a t o t a l o f s e v e n t y - f i v e i n j u n c t i o n s . The lumber i n d u s t r y f i l e d the'most a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n j u n c t i o n ; a t o t a l o f 27 d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1952 and 1953. The o t h e r two i n d u s t r i e s most a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d were t h e s h i p p i n g and w h a r f i n g and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . The g e n e r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h i n j u n c t i o n s 29 .were a p p l i e d f o r a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e V. T a b l e V i n d i c a t e s t h a t 1 m o s t o f the i n j u n c t i o n s were a p p l i e d f o r i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e u n i o n ( e i t h e r c e r t i f i e d o r u n c e r t i f i e d ) was i n t h e p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i n g a - c o l l e c t i v e agreement o r i n d u c i n g t h e employer t o acknowledge t h e u n i o n f o r p u r p o s e s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I t can be o b s e r v e d t h a t s i x t y - s e v e n of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s were i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p i c k e t i n g . Thus, as i n O n t a r i o , t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between i n j u n c t i o n s and p i c k e t i n g . The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s a l l e g e d f o r s e e k i n g i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f a r e shown i n T a b l e V I . The h i g h e s t number o f r e a s o n s f o r s e e k i n g i n j u n c t i o n s a r e i n t i m i d a t i o n , mass p i c k e t i n g , p i c k e t i n g , t r e s p a s s i n g , d e f a m a t i o n and a s s a u l t and b a t t e r y . Many o f t h e s e a r e t h e same o r s i m i l a r t o t h e ones t h a t were e n j o i n e d w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s i n O n t a r i o . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d O n t a r i o i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n s were l i m i t e d t o f o u r d a y s , whereas t h e r e was no e q u i v a l e n t p r o v i s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Of t h e t h i r t y c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s were h e a r d b e f o r e o r at t r i a l , t h e c o u r t c o n c l u d e d i n f i v e t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n was n o t w a r r a n t e d ; i n t w e n t y - f o u r t h a t i t was, and i n one c a s e d i d not d e c i d e t h e i s s u e . I n t h i r t y - s i x o f t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e c a s e s t h e p r o c e e d i n g s went no f u r t h e r t h a n o b t a i n i n g an ex p a r t e i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n . O n l y i n t h r e e c a s e s d i d t h e m e r i t s o f t h e a c t i o n go t o t r i a l . C a r r o t h e r s s t a t e s t h a t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n f o r u p s e t t i n g t h e " s t a t u s quo" of t h e p a r t i e s i s not m e r i t e d . T h i s c r i t i c i s m must be based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e u n i o n was a c t i n g l a w f u l l y ; o t h e r w i s e i t i s m e r e l y a c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n o b l i g e s t h e u n i o n t o a c t w i t h i n t h e law. He c o n t i n u e s , " t h a t t h e t o t a l a b o l i t i o n o f t h e remedy o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s does not f i n d s e r i o u s a d v o c a r y ; i t s 30 use i n p r o p e r c a s e s cannot s o l e m l y t o q u e s t i o n e d . " D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d u n i o n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was h i g h e r t h a n i n any o t h e r major i n d u s t r i a l p r o v i n c e ; c o m p u l s o r y c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was more p r e v a l e n t . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e s o r t o f l a b o u r and management to t h e economic s a n c t i o n s o f s t r i k e , p i c k e t , b o y c o t t and l o c k o u t can be e x p e c t e d t o be more f r e q u e n t . I t i s i n t h e use of such TABLE VI PRINCIPAL REASONS ALLEGED FOR SEEKING * INJUNCTIVE RELIEF ' F r e q u e n c y A s s a u l t and B a t t e r y 14 S h o o t i n g 1 D e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y 9 Power s u p p l y c u t o f f 1 B l o c k i n g e n t r a n c e t o p r e m i s e s 8 B a r r i e r s and b a r r i c a d e s 3 R i o t i n g 1 I n t i m i d a t i o n 33 Mass p i c k e t i n g 16 A c c o s t i n g employees 5 I n t e r f e r i n g w i t h employees 3 A c c o s t i n g c u s t o m e r s 4 O b s t r u c t i n g highway 2 D e f a m a t i o n , l e b e l , s l a n d e r , o r f a l s e s t a t e m e n t 13 P l a c i n g employer on d e f a u l t e r s ' l i s t 1 B o y c o t t i n g 2 T r e s p a s s i n g 10 S i t - i n s t r i k e - - t r e s p a s s 4 I l l e g a l s t r i k e 3 P i c k e t i n g where t h e r e i s no d i s p u t e 5 P i c k e t i n g - - w h e r e i t was t h e main c o m p l a i n t 19 C a r r o t h e r s , I n j u n c t i o n s i n B. C., p. 196. economic weapons t h a t a c t s o f i l l e g a l i t y c a n be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y . Where t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s s o u g h t , not t o p r o t e c t a l e g a l r i g h t ' , but t o g a i n an economic a d v a n t a g e , t h e r e i s abuse o f t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s . The i n j u n c t i o n i s t o p r o t e c t l e g a l r i g h t s ; t he r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . P e r i o d From 1956 t o 1966 The i n c i d e n c e o f t h e use of t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1956 t o 1965 as compared t o t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r p e r i o d has r i s e n f o u r - f o l d . T a b l e V I I i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f i g u r e s f o r t h i s p e r i o d . TABLE V I I INJUNCTIONS GRANTED, MODIFIED OR DENIED FROM 1956-1965- ( i n c l u d e s V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , C r a n b r o o k , Kamloops) ALL INJUNCTIONS PICKETING ONLY Ex p a r t e Not i c e T o t a l Ex p a r t e Not i c e T o t a l A p p l i c a t i o n s 244 56 280 202 35 237 G r a n t e d 173 23 196 153 20 173 M o d i f i e d 49 12 61 48 8 56 D e n i e d 17 1 18 16 1 17 ^'Submission o f B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , p. 13 • ; breakdown o f th e s t a t i s t i e s ( s e e T a b l e V I I ) shows t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s a r e a g a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i c k e t i n g . F u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r ' s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t o ut o f t h e t o t a l 280 a p p l i c a t i o n s -216 were i n t h e Vanco u v e r r e g i s t r y . The d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s a r e s t i l l b e i n g used p r i m a r i l y t o i n j o i n t h e a c t s o f p i c k e t e r s w h e t h e r d u r i n g l e g a l o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s do n o t r e v e a l i f t h e 237 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d l e g a l s t r i k e s i t u a t i o n s . The i n j u n c t i o n s have been c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s m a l l number o f i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n and s h i p p i n g . Some i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s f i e l d f e e l t h a t one c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e i n c r e a s e d use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s t h e T r a d e - u n i o n A c t o f 1959. T h i s i s a d e b a t a b l e p o i n t , as t h e A c t e x p r e s s l y p e r m i t s p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g a t t h e emp l o y e r ' s p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s when a l e g a l s t r i k e i s i n p r o g r e s s . Thus t h e A c t m e r e l y s e t s out t h e l i m i t s r e g a r d i n g p i c k e t i n g i n a more p r e c i s e manner, and when t h e s e a r e not c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy can be so u g h t . A t t i t u d e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1) L a b o u r ' s A t t i t u d e The B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour i n p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c i s e s t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i s based on t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t manage- ment uses t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e weapon t o b r e a k a s t r i k e i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s . However, no i n d i c a t i o n i s made by the F e d e r a t i o n t o d e f i n e p e r m i s s i b l e c o n d u c t on t h e p i c k e t l i n e . Hence a r e t u r n t o t h e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t p r i v a t e , p r o p e r t y : t h e r e i s no c o n c e p t more b a s i c t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s as t h i s i n h e r e n t r i g h t . I t may be t h a t t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour i s e x p r e s s i n g i t s d i s l i k e o f t h e T r a d e - u n i o n s A c t o f 1959, w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n e s p i c k e t i n g b e h a v i o r . The A c t has been d e s c r i b e d a s , "An A c t P e r t a i n i n g t o F r e e Speech and t h e Communication o f I n f o r m a t i o n . " I n r e v i e w i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c s q u o t e d , l a b o u r s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e has been p u r p o s e f u l r e s o r t t o t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n as a weapon a g a i n s t them and t h a t i t has been e n c o u r a g e d by t h e ease w i t h w h i c h t h e y have been g r a n t e d . The i n j u n c t i o n no l o n g e r a p p e a r s t o be an e x t r a - o r d i n a r y remedy as i n t e n d e d , but r a t h e r n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e . They f u r t h e r s t a t e t h a t management d e l i b e r a t e l y uses t h e weapon as a t o o l i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s t o w e i g h t h e b a l a n c e i n t h e i r f a v o u r . " ' 1 The main a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d t o w a r d t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d s t a t i s t i c s , by l a b o u r , i s t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n d e c i d e d l y f a v o u r s management. They sa y t h a t e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d a t p i c k e t i n g and t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h o u t p i c k e t i n g t h e r e can be no e f f e c t i v e s t r i k e . T h i s i s an e x t r e m e l y b r o a d s t a t e m e n t and has c o n n o t a t i o n s o f c r i t i c i s i n g t h e l i m i t s of p i c k e t i n g as e s t a b l i s h e d by B i l l 43. They f u r t h e r e x p r e s s t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e c o u r t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l a w f u l p i c k e t i n g has been so r e s t r i c t i v e ( t o t h e o b t a i n i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n ) t h a t 32 i t i s c l o s e t o " s a y i n g p i c k e t i n g i s w r o n g f u l i f i t i s e f f e c t i v e . " They f u r t h e r go on t o s t a t e t h a t s t r i k e s t h e m s e l v e s , i f e f f e c t i v e , a r e v i e w e d as wrong, and t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s t o r e i n f o r c e the r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a n t i - p i c k e t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : a g a i n a d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m o f B i l l 43. To f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f y t h e a t t i t u d e o f l a b o u r toward t h e i n j u n c t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i s a p p r o p r i a t e . Labour f e e l s t h a t when c o u r t s g r a n t an ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n a t t h e c r u c i a l p o i n t i n a s t r i k e , as a r e s u l t o f t h e h i g h l y e x a g g e r a t e d a l l u s i o n s t o " " i n t e n d e d " v i o l e n c e , t h e s t r i k e may be e a s i l y l o s t ' o r g r e a t l y weakened, even i f i t i s p e r f e c t l y l e g a l . The employer may t h e n , as t h e y o f t e n do, n o t i f y customers' and"employees t h a t t h e s t r i k e has been d e c l a r e d i l l e g a l by t h e c o u r t s and t h u s e l i m i n a t e t h e p r i m a r y b o y c o t t e n t i r e l y l e g a l under B i l l 43. By t h e t i m e t h e h e a r i n g s o c c u r , r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s too l a t e . The f a c t t h a t few of t h e i n j u n c t i o n s a r e e v e r t a k e n t o t r i a l by e m p l o y e r s i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i n j u n c t i o n . I t d i s p o s e s o f t h e e n t i r e c a s e , t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , a t t h e c r i t i c a l t i m e — d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few days of a s t r i k e o r w a l k o u t . Thus i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e employer does not have t o go t o t r i a l t o get what he wants--he o b t a i n s what he wants ex p a r t e , w i t h o u t a t r i a l o r even h a v i n g p r o v e n 33 h i s c a s e . L a b o u r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t ; " I n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d t o p r e v e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o b r e a k s t r i k e s , i n v i t e d i s r e s p e c t f o r j u d g e s and f o r t h e law...To p e r m i t s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e can o n l y i n c r e a s e t e n s i o n and add f u e l t o t h e f i r e o f i n d u s t r i a l s t r i f e . " 3 4 The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s a r e a summary o f t h e r e a s o n s , f r o m l a b o u r ' s v a n t a g e p o i n t , t h a t r e f l e c t t h e need f o r r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n ; 1. a f t e r an employer has o b t a i n e d t h e i n j u n c t i o n he s e l d o m t a k e s h i s c a s e f u r t h e r . He u s u a l l y does n o t even f i l e a S t a t e m e n t o f C l a i m , much l e s s go t o t r i a l . 2. o f t e n when e m p l o y e r s a p p l y t o renew ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s and n o t i c e i s g i v e n , man p e o p l e i m m e d i a t e l y assume t h a t t h e u n i o n must be wrong. 3. t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n of t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e c o u r t s ; so l o n g as t h e C o u r t s c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r v e n e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s ex p a r t e . They w i l l be open t o t h e c h a r g e t h a t t h e y a r e b i a s e d a g a i n s t l a b o u r , owing t o t h e p o l i t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e j u d g e s . Most j u d g e s a r e a p p o i n t e d by L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e governments w h i l e i n B. C. a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p e o p l e v o t e N.D.P. 4. ju d g e s o f t e n do not make a p r o p e r i n q u i r y , when a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n i s made, as ;to why n o t i c e has not been g i v e n t o t h e U n i o n . Most t r a d e u n i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i f t h e y a r e g i v e n n o t i c e t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n i s b e i n g s o u g h t , and i f i t appears t o them t h a t t h e y a r e b r e a k i n g t h e l a w , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o s t o p . However i f t h e employer goes ahead w i t h an ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n w i t h o u t t h e u n i o n b e i n g n o t i f i e d , t h e r e i s a v e r y human t e n d e n c y f o r t h e man on t h e p i c k e t l i n e t o r e s e n t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e C o u r t s , and t h e r e i s more l i k e l y t o be d e f i a n c e o f t h e C o u r t s . 5. t h e C o u r t s a r e not u s u a l l y aware o f t h e dynamics o f l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . P i c k e t i n g i s u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d t o s u p p o r t a s t r i k e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f t h e C o u r t c u r t a i l s p i c k e t i n g , t h e s t r i k e w i l l be l o s t . 6. t h e Court's have - H e l d tlTat one u n l a w f u l a c t by p i c k e t s j u s t i f i e s t h e C o u r t i n i s s u i n g a b l a n k e t i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g . a l l p i c k e t i n g . The C o u r t s have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t when men a r e on t h e p i c k e t l i n e and t h e i r j o b s and t h e l i v e l i h o o d o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r e a t s t a k e , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o use e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h as " s c a b " and " s t r i k e - b r e a k e r " . These e x p r e s s i o n s o f f e n d t h e e a r o f t h e judges who have had l i t t l e e x p o s u r e t o i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s a t t h e j o b l e v e l . 7. p i c k e t i n g i s a f o r m o f t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e r i g h t o f fre e d o m o f speech and f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n . Judges s h o u l d be a g r e a t d e a l more c a u t i o u s t h a n t h e y a r e about i s s u i n g o r d e r s t h a t c u r t a i l o r even deny t h e s e 35 f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t s . T hus, t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour f e e l s t h e g r a n t i n g o f i n j u n c t i o n i s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . They w o u l d l i k e t o see i n j u n c t i o n , g r a n t e d on n o t i c e . T h i s a t l e a s t , i n t h e i r v i e w , w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e p r e s e n t p r a c t i s e o f o b t a i n i n g i n j u n c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f b i a s e d , s u g g e s t i v e and u s u a l l y m i s l e a d i n g a f f i v i d a v i t s w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . P r i o r t o t h e development o f management's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n t h e w r i t e r w i l l examine t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d by t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n of L a b o u r . Throughout t h e r e v i e w of t h e i n j u n c t i v e p r o c e s s t h e F e d e r a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l o f t h e law o f p i c k e t i n g , t h e j u d i c i a l a t t i t u d e s and t h e r e s o r t t o use o f t h e remedy t o b r e a k a s t r i k e a t a c r i t i c a l s t a g e . A t no p o i n t , does t h e F e d e r a t i o n d i s c u s s t h a t l a w f u l p i c k e t i n g i s q u i t e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and i f p i c k e t i n g were c o n d u c t e d i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner, t h e f r e q u e n c y of use o f t h e remedy would i n d e e d d e c l i n e . I t i s i n d e e d a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t when t h e F e d e r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t j udges a r e b i a s e d and n o t k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o ' p i c k e t l i n e s . I t i s t h e e m o t i o n s of t h e p i c k e t e r s w h i c h o f t e n c a u s e s management t o r e s o r t t o t h e use of t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . I n a l a b o u r d i s p u t e an i n j u n c t i o n , ex p a r t e o r o t h e r w i s e , w i l l not be i s s u e d t o r e s t r a i n l a w f u l p i c k e t i n g . An e m p l o y e r must have r e c o u r s e t o a speedy remedy i f such a c t s as mass p i c k e t i n g and o t h e r forms o f i n t i m i d a t i o n p r e v a i l . He s h o u l d o n l y use t h e ex p a r t e i n t h e s e c a s e s . The j u d g e s a r e c o g n i s a n t o f t h e c r i t i c a l n a t u r e o f ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . The w r i t e r i s s u p p o r t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s v i e w t h a t t h e ex p a r t e be used i n o n l y emergent s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s n o t t h e i n t e n t f o r . t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o be used t o g a i n an economic a d v a n t a g e . As C a r r o t h e r s s t a t e s "The i n j u n c t i o n was not f a s h i o n e d as a sword of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g but 36 as a s h i e l d o f l e g a l r i g h t s . " I n summary, B i l l 43 i s not a u n i l a t e r a l p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n , i t grew out of t h e need t o d e f i n e p i c k e t i n g and c o n f i n e i t t o t h e l e g a l s t r i k s i t u a t i o n , a n d , a l s o l i m i t t h e use o f t h e ex p a r t e t o o n l y f o u r d a y s . No d e f i n i t i o n o f t i m e l i m i t e x i s t e d p r i o r t o 1959. The w r i t e r must a g a i n r e f e r t o t h e c o n c e p t of t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t as e s s e n t i a l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e v i e w s of L a b o u r . The i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s t h e o n l y r e c o u r s e management has t o p r o t e c t h i s p r o p e r t y a g a i n s t u n l a w f u l b e h a v i o u r . The F e d e r a t i o n must r e c o g n i z e t h a t i f u n i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e as q u o t e d , t h e r e s h o u l d be no q u e s t i o n as t o what l a w f u l , b e h a v i o u r i s on t h e p i c k e t l i n e . 2) Management's A t t i t u d e Mr. D. A. S. L a n s k a i l , t h e A s s i s t a n t Manager and C o u n s e l f o r F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , i s one i n d i v i d u a l who has e l a b o r a t e d on 37 management's v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n . To b e g i n w i t h , he f e e l s t h e i s s u e has been c o n f u s e d i n t h e p u b l i c mind and t h i s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t , t o t h e v i g o r o u s propaganda campaign c o n d u c t e d by l a b o u r l e a d e r s and t o t h e l a m e n t a b l e s i l e n c e of management, b a r a s s o c i a t i o n s and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s . T h i s v i e w p o i n t was i n d e e d c o n f i r m e d by G. W i l k i n s o n , V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f M a r w e l l C o n s t r u c t i o n , when he s t a t e d t h a t management speaks i n f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s w h i l e l a b o u r speaks i n one i s s u e w i t h one v o i c e , Mr. L a n s k a i l b e l i e v e s t h e campaign a g a i n s t i n j u n c t i o n s i s p u r e c a m o u f l a g e i n t e n d e d t o d i s g u i s e an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g about f u n d a m e n t a l changes i n t h e p r e s e n t b a l a n c e of t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy wou l d e f f e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y the c o l l e c t i v e agreement. What a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l s of our r e s u l t a n t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s y s t e m and t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s of the framework o f l a b o u r law? To summarize, t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s y s t e m a r e ; 1. c o m p u l s o r y r e c o g n i t i o n by e mployers of t h e i r employees r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e and upon w i n n i n g s u p p o r t of a m a j o r i t y , t h e u n i o n i s e n t i t l e d t o a p p l y f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n as a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t ; 2. upon c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h e u n i o n can compel t h e employer t o b a r g a i n and e s t a b l i s h t h e agreement; 3. t h e s t a t u t o r y agreement has a minimum t e r m of one y e a r ; 4. t h e employees b e n e f i t f r o m t h e agreement w i t h improved wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; 5. t h e o n l y c o m p e n s a t i o n t h e employer has i s t h e p r o s p e c t of h a v i n g h i s l a b o u r c o s t c o n s t a n t f o r t h e t e r m o f t h e agreement, and a l s o t h e p r o m i s e o f a p r e d i c t a b l e p e r i o d o f u n i n t e r r u p t e d o p e r a t i o n ; 6. t h e n e x t s t e p i s t h e r i g h t o f t h e u n i o n t o s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e employer i'f not s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d wages and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e new a g r e e - ment, and t o communicate t h e f a c t o f t h e s t r i k e by e s t a b l i s h i n g p e a c e f u l p i c k e t l i n e s around t h e e m p l o y e r ' s p r e m i s e s ; 7. t h e employer has t h e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t h i s b u s i n e s s and p r o p e r t y t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y by u s i n g s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l o r any o t h e r p e r s o n who i s w i l l i n g . W i t h t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s and i f a l l c o n c e r n e d were r e a s o n a b l e , r a t i o n a l and l a w - a b i d i n g , t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s would c a r r y on w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t and agreements w o u l d be h o n o u r e d , as a r e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of o t h e r c o n t r a c t s . U n h a p p i l y t h e i d y l l i c s i t u a t i o n does not p r e v a i l . Many emp l o y e r s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e t h r e a t and r e a l i t y o f b r e a c h e s i n t h e f o r m o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s , slowdowns and o v e r t i m e bans. The remedy f o r b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t cannot be compared t o t h e c a s e o f c o m m e r c i a l - c o n t r a c t s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , t o s u c c e s s f u l l y sue a u n i o n f o r damages. The employer must have o t h e r r e m e d i e s open t o him, and h i s o n l y c o u r s e i s t o t r y and p r e v e n t t h e damage f r o m o c c u r r i n g , o r t o m i n i m i z e i t as much as p o s s i b l e . W i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n t h e employer has p r o t e c t i o n by p r e v e n t i n g e x c e s s i v e damage r e s u l t i n g f r o m i l l e g a l a c t i o n . What woul d happen i f t h e i n j u n c t i o n were removed? F o u r a r e a s i n v i t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n : u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , m y s t e r y p i c k e t s , f o r m o f p i c k e t i n g i n a l e g a l s t r i k e and p i c k e t s d u r i n g an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . F i r s t , t h e u n i o n has t h e r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e w o r k e r s i f t h e y can meet t h e s i m p l e d e m o c r a t i c t e s t o f g e t t i n g m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t w i t h o u t t h e use o f c o e r c i o n o r i m p r o p e r i n f l u e n c e . The u n i o n s now want t h e r i g h t t o compel u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n even when t h e m a j o r i t y do not s u p p o r t them. The u n i o n s w o u l d t h e n r e s o r t t o what i s termed " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p i c k e t i n g " . T h e r e - f o r e t h e employer w o u l d be p i c k e t e d b e c a u s e h i s employees have e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e not t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r u n i o n . What a c t i o n w o u l d the employer be a b l e t o e x e r t t o r e s t o r e peace? One, he c o u l d f o r c e h i s employees t o j o i n t h e u n i o n , o r he c o u l d remove t h e i l l e g a l p i c k e t s by u s i n g t h e i n j u n c t i o n . The n e x t a r e a w h i c h needs c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t of " m y s t e r y p i c k e t s " . These h i d d e n o r s e c r e t p i c k e t s c o u l d be s p o n s o r e d by a u n i o n s e e k i n g t o e x t r a c t some c o n c e s s i o n f r o m an employer. I n e f f e e t , t h e u n i o n c o u l d h i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l p i c k e t s . One m y s t e r y p i c k e t e x p l o i t i n g t h e a l m o s t h y s t e r i c a l d e v o t i o n t o t h e s a n c t i t y o f the. p i c k e t l i n e c o u l d t i e up an e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n , d e p r i v i n g hundreds o f t h e i r employment. The o n l y remedy management has i s t o remove t h e p i c k e t by i n j u n c t i o n . The t h i r d s i t u a t i o n w h i c h would o r c o u l d o c c u r i f t h e i n j u n c t i o n were removed wou l d be t h e f o r m o f p i c k e t i n g d u r i n g a l e g a l s t r i k e . At . p r e s e n t t h e employer has the r i g h t t o c a r r y on h i s o p e r a t i o n s by u s i n g h i s s u p e r v i s o r s . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e u n i o n may employ t h e use o f mass p i c k e t i n g o r some o t h e r f o r m of p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n i n t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t s u p e r v i s o r s o r owners f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e i r own p l a n t . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s t y p e of i m p r o p e r and i l l e g a l p r o c e d u r e t h e e m p l o y e r ca n o n l y c a p i t u l a t e o r seek i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f t o p r e v e n t i n t i m i d a t i o n and r e s t o r e p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g . The l a s t p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r i s t h a t o f i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . One o f t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n s an employer d e r i v e s f r o m a l a b o u r agreement i s t h e p r o s p e c t of t h e s t a b i l i t y i n t e n d e d by t h e agreement. W i l d c a t s t r i k e s d u r i n g t h e t e r m o f t h e agreement d e s t r o y t h i s s t a b i l i t y . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s sometimes a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a g g r i e v e d employer and i t t e n d s t o r e d u c e t h e p r o b l e m o f i l l e g a l s t r i k e s . What l a b o u r l e a d e r s seek now i s t h e r e m o v a l o f a l l e f f e c t i v e r e s t r a i n t a g a i n s t w i l d - c a t s t r i k e s and a l i c e n s e t o p i c k e t w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . T h i s w o u l d c o n v e r t t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement i n t o a u n i l a t e r a l i n s t r u m e n t t h a t t h e u n i o n c o u l d b r e a k a n y t i m e . Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , t h e a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n campaign becomes, i n e f f e c t , an a t t a c k on t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement as an i n s t i t u t i o n , and as such w o u l d be a t h r e a t t o t h e b a s i c s y s t e m o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n Canada. L e t us examine t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m , where a c o l l e c t i v e agreement has no r e a l s t a t u s and t h e u n i o n can go on s t r i k e a t a n y t i m e . A l l t h i s has r e a l l y done i s b r o u g h t about w i d e s p r e a d f e a t h e r - b e d d i n g . I t has become so n o t o r i o u s t h a t P r i m e M i n i s t e r W i l s o n , e l e c t e d and s u p p o r t e d by l a b o u r , has had t o c r a c k down on w a s t e f u l u n i o n p r a c t i s e s . He i s quoted i n t h e c o u r s e of c r i t i c i s i n g f e a t h e r - b e d d i n g , i n t h e B r i t i s h newspaper i n d u s t r y , as recommending a f o r m o f s t r i k e i n s u r a n c e f o r management so t h a t t h e y c o u l d " r e s i s t what'he can o n l y d e s c r i b e as 38 b l a c k m a i l . " He f u r t h e r s t a t e s : " t h e r e i s t o o much f e a r and t i m i d i t y on t h e . p a r t o f some managements-a f e a r o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h p r o d u c t ion.-which may, and p r o b a b l y w i l l , have t o be f a c e d . I f t h e s e words by P r i m e M i n i s t e r W i l s o n r e f l e c t t h e l a b o u r management r e l a t i o n s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t Canada w o u l d p r e f e r t o see t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w h i c h l e a d s t o a f i x e d c o n t r a c t t e r m and w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h a t t e r m . Management's a t t i t u d e , as p r e s e n t e d by Mr. L a n s k a i l , i s one o f p r e s e r v i n g our p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and t h a t t h e a t t a c k by l a b o u r on t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s an a t t a c k on t h e T r a d e - U n i o n s A c t . 3) L e g a l A t t i t u d e s I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e w r i t e r w i l l p r e s e n t v i e w s o f two l a w y e r s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e i r v i e w s a r e i n d e e d c o n f l i c t i n g and t h e i r arguments w a r r a n t a t t e n t i o n . The l a w y e r s a r e B. W. F. M c L o u g h l i n and Tom B e r g e r . These v i e w s a r e e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g a c o n f e r e n c e c o n d u c t e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r . The c o n t e x t o f M c L o u g h l i n ' s v i e w s a r e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . He says t h a t i n j u n c t i o n s cannot be o b t a i n e d t o p r e v e n t t h e l a w f u l e x e r c i s e o f r i g h t s . He q u o t e s John O s i e r , a l e a d i n g l a b o u r l a w y e r i n O n t a r i o and f r i e n d o f l a b o u r , as s a y i n g : "The i n j u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a f o r m o f p r e v e n t a t i v e j u s t i v e t h a t , i n t h e l o n g 40 r u n , no c i v i l i z e d s t a t e c o u l d a f f o r d t o do w i t h o u t . " Mr. M c L o u g h l i n s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h t h e i n j u n c t i o n can be t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e remedy a v a i l a b l e . He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t w i t h t h e body of law and g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o g u i d e them, t h e c o u r t s a r e b e s t e q u i p e d t o a c t ' i n an a c c u r a t e and r a p i d manner t o make t h e remedy e f f e c t i v e . He f e e l s t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s B o a r d would be an The n e x t b a s i c p o i n t made i s t h a t t h e r e a l q u e s t i o n i s not who uses t h e i n j u n c t i o n most, but who commits most o f t h e w r o n g f u l a c t s l e a d i n g t o t h e use o f t h e remedy. He p o i n t s out t h a t t h e remedy i s t h e r e t o d e a l w i t h i r r e s p o n s i b l e p e o p l e on b o t h s i d e s and t h i s r i g h t must be p r e s e r v e d . Examples o f employees and u n i o n s u s i n g the i n j u n c t i o n a r e : 1. an employee a g a i n s t h i s own u n i o n , t o p r e v e n t them f r o m r e m o v i n g him f r o m t h e u n i o n r o l l , p e rhaps w i t h o u t a f a i r h e a r i n g and t h u s h i s l o s s o f j o b ; 2. t h e u n i o n a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e r , t o p r e v e n t u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i s e s , when t h e employer i n b r e a c h o f t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t a t t e m p t s t o i n f l u e n c e h i s employees a g a i n s t u n i o n a c t i v i t y ; 3. employees a g a i n s t employer t o p r e v e n t him d i s m i s s i n g n o n - u n i o n employee 4. l o c a l u n i o n a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n t o p r e v e n t a t a k e - o v e r ; 5. one u n i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r t o p r e v e n t b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t between t h e 41 f i r s t u n i o n and t h e employer. M c L o u g h l i n answers t h e q u e s t i o n — W h y i s t h e r e so much c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e i n j u n c t i o n ? He sa y s t h e answer l i e s i n t h r e e t h i n g s : 1. t h e enforcement o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n by s e n d i n g men t o j a i l has'been f e l t t o be u n j u s t and has g i v e n r i s e t o arguments i n f a v o u r o f c i v i l d i s o b e d - i e n c e ; 2. t h e r e have been abuses i n t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n ; 3. t h e campaign by u n i o n s s e e k i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n . The l a s t two p o i n t s have been d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and th u s c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i l l be on p o i n t one. The p o i n t made i s t h a t b o t h l a b o u r and management have i g n o r e d t h e i n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e name of j u s t i c e t h r o u g h c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . These i n d i v i d u a l s have b r o u g h t o u r laws and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e law i n t o contempt and have t h e r e b y weakened t h e f a b r i c of o u r s o c i e t y . The way t o change t h e law, i f i t i s t r u l y a bad one, i s t h r o u g h d u l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and not by b r i n g i n g i t i n t o contempt t h r o u g h d i s o b e d i e n c e . ' To c i t e t h e use of i n j u n c t i o n s and contempt of c o u r t t h e w r i t e r e x p l o r e d r e c e n t c a s e s o f contempt i n w h i c h t h e i n j u n c t i o n s were a p p l i e d a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e r s . An example i s t h e U p h o l s t e r e r s I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' 43 U n i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a v. H a n k i n and S t r u c k F u r n i t u r e L i m i t e d . The company was c h a r g e d w i t h u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i s e . They i n d u c e d o r c o m p e l l e d employees f r o m becoming a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r a d e u n i o n . They d i s o b e y e d t h e o r d e r _ b y a t t e m p t i n g t o i n d u c e employees not t o become members. A f i n e was imposed f o r contempt. To " f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e M c L o u g h l i n ' s f i r s t p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e and t h e contempt of t h e l a w , t h e L e n k u r t E l e c t r i c c a s e can 44 be c o n s i d e r e d . Court, o r d e r s were o b t a i n e d by t h e employer t o r e s t r a i n u n l a w f u l p i c k e t i n g . B o t h c o u r t o r d e r s were i g n o r e d . The t r i a l c o u r t f o u n d t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s g u i l t y of contempt o f c o u r t and s e n t e n c e d 26 o f them t o i m p r i s o n m e n t . The a p p e a l s a g a i n s t the s e n t e n c e s were d i s m i s s e d . The r e a s o n s s t a t e d were t h a t t h e c o n d u c t of the a p p e l l a n t s c l e a r l y showed t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were i n p a r t d e s i g n e d as a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e use o f t h e . i n j u n c t i o n i s s u c h d i s p u t e s and a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e a u t h o r i t y of the c o u r t s t o g r a n t arid e n f o r c e r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r s . The c o u r t s were a t t a c k e d i n a manner b o r d e r i n g on r i o t o u s c o n d u c t . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e L e n k u r t E l e c t r i c c a s e , l a b o u r a d m i t s t h a t i t has t a k e n s o m e t h i n g as s e v e r e and d r a s t i c as the j a i l i n g o f d e c e n t and h a r d - w o r k i n g p e o p l e i n t h e manner o f common c r i m i n a l s t o e f f e c t i v e l y b r i n g t h e p r o b l e m t o t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e p u b l i c . C i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e i s not t h e way t o change t h e law. I n c o n c l u d i n g , t h e p o i n t i s made t h a t i f b o t h management and l a b o u r would a d h e r e t o t h e law and t h e i r b a r g a i n s , t h e need f o r t h e i n j u n c t i o n would v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . N a t u r a l l y , b e i n g an N.D.P. member o f the P r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t , Mr. B e r g e r s u p p o r t s l a b o u r ' s v i e w s . One of Mr. B e r g e r ' s f i r s t p o i n t s i s t h a t t h e B. C. Trade U n i o n s A c t of 1959 d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d t h e r i g h t o f p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g ( a s w e l l as the r i g h t t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n by o t h e r means, such as t h r o u g h t h e news media and by pamphlet) and t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e use of i n j u n c t i o n s s i n c e t h a t t i m e i s e n t i r e l y a t t r i b u t - a b l e t o t h e c u r t a i l m e n t o f p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g by t h e A c t . B e r g e r makes an i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i s s u a n c e o f l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s He asks t h e q u e s t i o n : " S h o u l d t h e c o u r t s have the power t o i s s u e i n j u n c - t i d n s ? " He f e e T s t h e - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r s o r t i n g out l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e c o u r t s t o a r e c o n s t i t u t e d f u l l - t i m e Labour R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . O n l y t h i s B o a r d would have t h e r i g h t t o i s s u e c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r s a g a i n s t e i t h e r p a r t y . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e B o a r d i n any c a s e where a c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r was a p p l i e d f o r , w o u l d be t o l o o k a t t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e . I t wou l d be t h e B o a r d ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make c e r t a i n no o r d e r was g i v e n u n l e s s n o t i c e was a l s o g i v e n t o e i t h e r s i d e . There would..have t o be open h e a r i n g s , w i t n e s s e s w o u l d have t o be c a l l e d and t h e r e w o u l d have t o be an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . The B o a r d w o u l d have t o be s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e employer had been b a r g a i n i n g i n good f a i t h b e f o r e an o r d e r w o u l d be g r a n t e d . Mr. B e r g e r makes no m e n t i o n of t h e u n i o n h a v i n g t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . A n o t h e r s t i p u l a t i o n i s t h a t no o r d e r be g r a n t e d where t h e r e s u l t would be t o p a r a l y z e t h e u n i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n on b e h a l f of i t s members. There w o u l d have t o some means o f i n s u r i n g t h a t o r d e r s made by t h e new B o a r d were e n f o r c e d . P r o v i s i o n a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n t h e L abour R e l a t i o n s A c t f o r r e g i s t e r i n g o r d e r s made by t h e B oard i n t h e Supreme C o u r t . I f any p r o c e e d i n g s f o r contempt were c a l l e d f o r , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e t h a t anyone who i s c h a r g e d w i t h contempt have t h e r i g h t t o t r i a l by j u r y . Mr. B e r g e r ' s p r o p o s a l t o e l i m i n a t e the c o u r t s f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s p r o b a b l y has some m e r i t . The i d e a t o s e t up a B o a r d w h i c h d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h l a b o u r d i s p u t e s c o u l d i n d e e d become an e f f i c i e n t t o o l f o r h a n d l i n g f u t u r e d i s p u t e s . H i s p r o p o s a l i s t o t r a n s f e r t h e i n j u n c t i v e powers t o t h e B oard and t h u s e l i m i n a t e the ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . He s t i l l , h owever, l e a v e s t h e contempt i s s u e u n r e s o l v e d . He now wants t o use the Supreme Court, t o r e v i e w contempt o r d e r s by j u r y t r i a l . Mr. B e r g e r ' s p r o p o s a l does not seem t o improve any s i t u a t i o n w h i c h p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . He i s m e r e l y t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e use of i n j u n c t i v e powers f r o m t h e c o u r t s , who he f e e l s do not u n d e r s t a n d l a b o u r d i s p u t e s and t h u s i s s u e i n j u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t a n a l y z i n g t h e f a c t s t o o c a r e f u l l y . As f a r as t h e w r i t e r can a s c e r t a i n , h i s p r o p o s a l i s an a t t a c k on t h e competence o f t h e p r e s e n t c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s . The law as i t now s t a n d s , i s i n t e r p r e t e d as i n s u f f i c i e n t , and thus must be changed. A g a i n t h e a t t a c k i s p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t B i l l 4 3 , where B e r g e r f e e l s the. employee.! s r i g h t t o f r e e s p e e ch has been u n d u l y r e s t r i c t e d . From t h e f o r e g o i n g r e v i e w i t can be seen t h a t the l a b o u r management s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n O n t a r i o . The use o f t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n l a w f u l b e h a v i o r d u r i n g s t r i k e s i t u a t i o n s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e t i s e . o f the remedy cann o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m B i l l 43. T h i s B i l l • d e f i n e d p i c k e t i n g b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s a l l o w a b l e and a t t e m p t e d t o c o n f i n e l a b o u r d i s p u t e s t o the p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . The i n c i d e n c e o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n may have i n c r e a s e d s i n c e the ' i n c e p t i o n of t h e A c t due t o a c t i v i t i e s not e n j o i n e d p r i o r t o 1959. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the B. C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour q u o t e s t h a t 157» o f the i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1956 t o 1966 were t o e n j o i n m y s t e r y 46 p i c k e t s . The q u e s t i o n t o c o n s i d e r i s i f t h i s i s u n l a w f u l b e h a v i o r , why a r e m y s t e r y p i c k e t s used? T h i s i s d i r e c t d e f i a n c e o f t h e law. Can t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement be p l a c e d above t h e law? CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s and t h a t i t s use i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f i n t e n s e l a b o u r management s t r i f e s . I n s t u d y i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n o f t h r e e c o u n t r i e s i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s i n l a b o u r m a t t e r s W e r e o r g a n i c g rowths f r o m l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t y , h i s t o r - i c a l e v e n t s and s p e c i a l f a c t o r s . I t was shown t h a t i n G r e a t B r i t a i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and a b s t e n t i o n f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s has changed due t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t . The a t t i t u d e o f g r e a t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n o r d e r t o combat i n f l a t i o n and t h e g r o w i n g r e s e n t m e n t to w a r d u n i o n power. The A u s t r a l i a n r e v i e w showed a l a c k o f c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n and t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r was t h e a t t i t u d e o f b o t h l a b o u r and management towards t h e Awards. These Awards a r e s a c r e d and t h u s r e l i a n c e by b o t h p a r t i e s on them i s t h e g o v e r n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e d i s p u t e s . As J u s t i c e Rand s a y s , t h e A u s t r a l i a n w o r k e r s e e k s s e c u r i t y , r e c e i v e s i t and has become w e l l a d j u s t e d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e organs w h i c h d e t e r m i n e i t . The U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e use of t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n grew out o f t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e judges toward u n i o n gorwth i n t h e p r e N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a e r a . I t was v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l by t h a t A c t , however as t h e s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d i t i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n at t h e s t a t e l e v e l was i n c r e a s i n g . I t i s b e i n g used t o c o n t r o l much o f the u n l a w f u l a c t i v i t i e s o f p i c k e t e r s as i t i s i n Canada t o d a y . The w r i t e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n was s t i l l a n e c e s s a r y remedy open t o b o t h p a r t i e s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . From t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and A u s t r a l i a n s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m s , i t w o u l d appear t h a t o u r s y s t e m o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s some where i n between t h e two. I n Canada t h e b a r g a i n s a r e s t r u c k by the two p a r t i e s w i t h no c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n , w h i l e i n E n g l a n d t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s not even a c o n t r a c t i n t h e eyes o f t h e j u d g e s . I t a p p e a r s , a t t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s y s t e m r e q u i r e s some m o d i f i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c , t h e t h i r d p a r t y , f r o m s t r i k e s i n e s s e n t i a l i n d u s t r i e s o r s e r v i c e s . The l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been b u i l t . a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . These were t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s w i t h w h i c h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has d e v e l o p e d i t s l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o O n t a r i o t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s of t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t were a g a i n t h e v i t a l i s s u e s i n q u e s t i o n . Rand's recommendations were f a r r e a c h i n g when he recommended t h e T r i b u n a l i n q u i r e i n t o any l a b o u r d i s p u t e , t e r m i n a t e any s t r i k e and. l i m i t p i c k e t i n g . He a l s o enpowered t h i s T r i b u n a l t o make b i n d i n g awards i n ' e s s e n t i a l i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s , and i n o t h e r a r e a s t o a c t , on r e q u e s t , as a b o a r d of b i n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n . Rand's recommendations appear t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r e s s u r e s on b o t h management and l a b o u r t o w a r d agreements w i t h minimum o f e x t e r n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , as s t a t e d i n t h e W r i t e r ' s comments p e r t a i n i n g t o . h i s recommendation on t h e v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n of t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n . When r e v i e w i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e x p e r i e n c e - w i t h t h e ' l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n i t was shown t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c r i t i c i s m w i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n was t h e ex p a r t e . The c r i t i c i s m s were a l s o l e v e l l e d a t t h e T r a d e - u n i o n s Act:, w h i c h d e f i n e d p i c k e t i n g and t h e p l a c e o f such a c t i v i t y . Rand d e a l t w i t h t h e ex p a r t e by f o r c i n g b o t h p a r t i e s t o make an e f f o r t t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s b e f o r e a s k i n g the c o u r t s t o i n t e r v e n e . Rand s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e T r i b u n a l be enpowered t o i s s u e i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s ; however he a l s o commented t h a t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n may be i n v o l v e d on b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t o c l o t h e such an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l w i t h i n j u n c t i v e powers and t h e f a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h a t a u t h o r i t y c o u l d be e x e r c i s e d . Rand does have d i f f i c u l t y i n s e p a r a t i n g t h e r i g h t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t , and h i s T r i b u n a l w o u l d u p s u r p t h e s e r i g h t s and deny b o t h management and l a b o u r t h e use of t h e c o u r t t o p r e s e r v e t h e s e b a s i c r i g h t s . The c o n c e p t of c r e a t i n g a body t o d e a l w i t h a l l m a t t e r s , p e r t a i n i n g t o l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s i s a p l a u s i b l e recommendation. However i t a p p ears t h a t t h e r i g h t t o t h e use o f t h e c o u r t s must be p r e s e r v e d . The w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t some' t y p e o f Labour C o u r t be s e t up as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t j u d i c i a l s y s t e m t o examine m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o management l a b o u r d i s a g r e e m e n t s . T h i s p r o p o s a l i s n o t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e p r e s e n t i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e c o u r t s i n l a b o u r m a t t e r s , i n s t e a d i t i s an a t t e m p t t o f r e e t h e c o u r t s f r o m t h e s e m a t t e r s . I f s u c h Labour C o u r t s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e y w o u l d be s t a f f e d w i t h j u d g e s s p e c i a l i z e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . I n c o n c l u s i o n i t i s recommended t h a t t h e c o u r t r e t a i n t h e power t o g r a n t i n j u n c t i v e remedy and t h e r e b y p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t t o c o u r t r e l i e f . E x p a n s i o n o f o u r p r e s e n t j u d i c i a l s ystem t o encompass a l a b o u r d i v i s i o n would p r o v i d e -a more e f f i c a c i o u s s y stem. I n d i s p u t e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s must be a b l e t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f an immediate t r i a l . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s r i g h t i s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a speedy a p p e a l . These y recommendations a r e g e a r e d a t i m p r o v i n g l a b o u r management r e l a t i o n s . A b o l i s h m e n t o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n where i r r e p a r a b l e damage t o p r o p e r t y may o c c u r cannot be a d v o c a t e d . The i n c i d e n c e o f t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n may be r e d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e s t r e a m l i n i n g o f t h e j u d i c i a l p r o c e d u r e s but t h e remedy cannot be removed u n l e s s l a b o u r and management and t h e p u b l i c a r e p r e p a r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a new sys t e m not based on t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t ; t h e s e r i g h t s b e i n g f u n d a m e n t a l t o a l l a s p e c t s o f our s o c i e t y . FOOTNOTES C h a p t e r I V A a r o n , Labour I n j u n c t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( V o l . I I of R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , ed. A.W.R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f L a b o u r , 1965- 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 719. 2 J . T. Montague and S. M. J a m i e s o n ( e d s . ) , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Labour Management C o n f e r e n c e - 1 9 6 3 ( V a n c o u v e r : I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , September 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 77. . " 3 I b i d . , p. 5. 4 . " U n i o n s , " Time Newsmagazine, LXXXIX ( J a n u a r y 20, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 12. ^A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s ( e d . ) , R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department of L a b o u r , 1965-66), p. 4. 6 K . W. Wedderbrun, S t r i k e Law and t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n : The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e : 1850-1966 ( V o l . I I of R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , ed. A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 665. J . H. P o r t u s , The Development o f A u s t r a l i a n Trade U n i o n Law C a r l t o n : M e l b o u r n e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 6. 8 A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , The Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' ( T o r o n t o : C. C. H. C a n a d i a n L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1. I b i d , , p. 4. C h a p t e r I I K. W. Wedderburn, The Worker and t h e Law ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books I n c . , 1965) , p. 9. 2 K. W..Wedderburn, S t r i k e Law.and- t h e L a b o u r . I n j u n c t i o n : The. B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e : 1850-1966 ( V o l ; . I I of- R e p o r t of a S t u d y on the- Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , ed. A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 605. 3 I b i d . , p. 611. ^ I b i d . , p. 612. 5 I b i d . , p. 614. 6 K . W. Wedderburn, The Worker and t h e Law, p. 227; A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Law i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o ; B u t t e r w o r t h , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 30. ^K. W. Wedderburn, S t r i k e Law, p. 616. 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . , p. 624. ^ L . J . S c r u t t o n , "The Work of t h e Commercial C o u r t s , " Cambridge Law J o u r n a l , I (No. 1, 1921-23), p. 8. ^W. P. Monson, "The Case o f Rookes v. B a r n a r d (House o f L o r d s 1964)," Labour Law J o u r n a l , X I X ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , 53. 1 2 I b i d . 13 Wedderburn, S t r i k e Law, p. 662. 14 I b i d . , p. 663. ^ I b i d . , pp. 664-667. ( P r o g r e s s i v e D e l i v e r i e s L t d . v. B i r m i n g h a m , 1966. , O l y m p i c A i r w a y s S. A. v. I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t Workers F e d e r a t i o n , 1966.) 16 S u b m i s s i o n o f t h e O n t a r i o D i v i s i o n o f t h e - C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e 'Ivan.C. Rand, C o m m i s s i o n e r , R o y a l Commission I n q u i r y i n t o Labour D i s p u t e s , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 48-49. ^ O t t o Kahn-Freund ( e d . ) , Labour R e l a t i o n s and t h e Law ( T o r o n t o ; L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1 9 6 5 . ) , p. 14. ^ I b i d . , p. 21. 19 Wedderburn, S t r i k e Law, p. 672. on J . H. P o r t u s , The Development of A u s t r a l i a n Trade U n i o n Law ( C a r l t o n : M e l b o u r n e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 3. 21 ••" • H. J . G l a s b e e k , R e s t r a i n t s on T r a d e U n i o n A c t i v i t y i n A u s t r a l i a ( V o l . I I of R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , ed. A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; O n t a r i o : Department of L a b o u r , 1965-66). p. 697. 22 E. S y k e s , S t r i k e Law i n A u s t r a l i a ( Sydney: Law Book Co., 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 91-92 23 G l a s b e e k , o_p_. c i t . , p. 701. 24- - - E. S y k e s , op. c i t . , p. 166-67. 25' G l a s b e e k , op_. c i t . , p. 701. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 712. 27 J . H. P o r t u s , The Development of A u s t r a l i a n T r a d e U n i o n Law, p. 125. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 141. 29 G l a s b e e k , op_. c i t . , p. /07. C h a p t e r I I I '''Submission o f t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour t o t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e Use of I n j u n c t i o n s i n Labour D i s p u t e s , (December 14, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2. . 9 R o b e r t E. Mathews ( e d . ) , Labour R e l a t i o n s and t h e Law ( V o l . I I . 2 v o l s . ; B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 19 5 3 ) , p. 835. 3 B. A a r o n , The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d (Los A n g e l e s ; I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , r e p r i n t no. 118, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 29 2. 4 F. F r a n k f u r t e r and N. Greene, The Labor I n j u n c t i o n ( T o r o n t o : The M a c r a i l l a n Co. o f Canada, 1930). ^Mathews, L a b o r R e l a t i o n s and t h e Law, p. 625. ^ F r a n k f u r t e r and G r e e n e , l o c . c i t . ^Edwin E. W i t t e , The Government i n L a b o r D i s p u t e s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 84. 8 I b i d . , pp. 106-108. 9 I b i d . , p. 108. ^^B. A a r o n , The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 294. U I b i d . , p. 295. 12 These c o n t r a c t s were p l e d g e s by workmen, as a c o n d i t i o n o f employment, t h a t t h e y w o u l d not j o i n a l a b o u r u n i o n . The g r e a t v a l u e w h i c h i t had f o r t h e employer was t h a t t h e c o u r t s t r e a t e d i t as a p r o p e r t y r i g h t and e f f o r t s by u n i o n s t o o r g a n i z e workmen who had e n t e r e d s u c h c o n t r a c t s were r e g a r d e d as t o r t i o u s a t t e m p t s t o d e s t r o y t h e e m p l o y e r 1 p r o p e r t y and were e n j o i n e d . 13 C. 0. G r e g o r y , L a b o r and t h e Law, ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k ; W. W. N o r t o n and Company I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. "174-180. 14 A a r o n , The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 296. 1 5 G r e g o r y , oj>. c i t . . , pp. 97-98. 16 A a r o n , l o c . c i t . ^ A a r o n , op. c i t . , p. 297. 18 T h i s i d e a w i l l be expanded i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s when d i s c u s s i n g t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e remedy. 19 S u b m i s s i o n o f t h e O n t a r i o D i v i s i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e I v a n C. Rand, C o m m i s s i o n e r , R o y a l Commission I n q u i r y i n t o L a b o u r D i s p u t e s , ( J a n u a r y , 1967) , p. 28. 20 A a r o n , The Labour I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 297 (The v o t e was 75 t o 5 i n t h e Seriate and 362 t o 14 i n t h e House). 21 A a r o n , ap_. c i t . . , pp. 298-299. 22 N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t , 47 S t a t . 70 ( 1 9 3 2 ) , as amended, .29 U. S..C. S e c t i o n 101 ( 1 9 5 8 ) . 23 Cox, Law and t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o r P o l i c y ( L o s A n g e l e s ; I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r i s t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 5. 24 C. A. Reynard ( e d . ) , R e a d i n g s on Labor Law, ( T o r o n t o ; L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 331-33. 25 . -•„• ;. •-. 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