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An examination of the use of the injunction in labour management disputes Rowney, Edward William 1971

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AN EXAMINATION  OF THE USE OF THE I N J U N C T I O N  I N LABOUR MANAGEMENT DISPUTES  by  EDWARD W I L L I A M ROWNEY B. Comm., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  A THESIS- SUBMITTED  C o l u m b i a , 1963  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF B U S I N E S S - A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  in Commerce  the Faculty of  and B u s i n e s s  We a c c e p t  this  to therequired  Administration  t h e s i s as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H -July,  19 71  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  an  advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  further  this  thesis  in partial  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  agree that  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r of B r i t i s h  available  permission f o r extensive  Columbia, I agree  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . copying of t h i s  I  thesis f o r  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y his representatives. this  thesis  I t i s understood  forfinancial  gain  shall  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  J u l y , 1971  Columbia  Administration  written  LL  ABSTRACT  T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e was a n e c e s s a r y hypothesized rather  than  recourse  f o r Canadian  i f the labour  injunction  l a b o u r management d i s p u t e s .  I t was  that the use of i n j u n c t i o n s i s a f u n c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s legislation;  t h a t t h e r e tends  t o be a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e  incidence of i n j u n c t i o n s during periods of i n d u s t r i a l  conflict;  the  i n j u n c t i o n must b e a v a i l a b l e  to private property  and  the r i g h t  through  further then  to private contract.  a review  the U n i t e d  of the injunctive  S t a t e s and Canada  hypothesized,  the present  originally  to protect the right  postulated.  These p o s t u l a t e s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d processes  of Great  ( O n t a r i o and. B r i t i s h  that i f the injunctive  process  and t h a t  Britain,  Australia,  Columbia).  legislation  was  I t was necessary,  r e q u i r e d c h a n g e , as i t i s n o t a s e f f i c a c i o u s The a l t e r n a t i v e s  presented  a r e based on d a t a  obtained  f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y named c o u n t r i e s and  Canada.  The p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n relation  to B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , b u t a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f Canada.  as  T A B L E OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose of the Study  1  Research Methodology  II.  '  2  Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y  3  Chapter Organization  4  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used  5  THE LABOUR I N J U N C T I O N : THE B R I T I S H AND  AUSTRALIAN'  EXPERIENCE  7  The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e . ... Period  7  of I l l e g a l i t y  The E x c l u s i o n  8  o f t h e Common L a w : 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 2 0  Gradual J u d i c i a l  A b s t e n t i o n : 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 5 9 . ."  Renewed  Intervention:  Judicial  9 13  1960-1966...  .  Conclusions  17  The A u s t r a l i a n E x p e r i e n c e The E n f o r c e m e n t  of S t a t u t o r y ,  . Criminal  and  Law R e s t r a i n t s The I n j u n c t i o n Mechanics  and i t s U s e  of Compulscry A r b i t r a t i o n  Effects Conclusions  14  23  Civil 25  •  25  and i t s 27 28  CHAPTER III.  PAGE  THE  LABOUR I N J U N C T I O N I N THE Federal Pre  31  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power  Norris-La  Passage Labour  UNITED STATES  31  Guardia Act  of the N o r r i s - L a  32 Guardia. Act..,  I n j u n c t i o n Subsequent  to the  36  Norris-La  Guardia Act Labour  Injunction  38 i n the State  Relevance of the American IV.  THE  Courts  E x p e r i e n c e t o Canada  CANADIAN E X P E R I E N C E : ONTARIO AND  — Historical  43  Development of Canadian  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA... Labour  Law..  48 48  The  Y e a r s f r o m C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o 1918  50  The  Years from  51  W o r l d War  1918  I I and  t o 1940  P o s t War  Developments  53  Ontario's Experience  55  Period  f r o m 1958  t o 1961  56  Period  f r o m 1962  t o 1966  61  The  Rand R e p o r t  British  Columbia's  67 Experience  70  Period  f r o m 1946  t o 1955  73  Period  f r o m 1956  t o 1966  76  Attitudes with in B r i t i s h V.  45  SUMMARY AND  Respect Columbia  CONCLUSIONS  to the Labour  Injunction '  77 92  PAGE FOOTNOTES. BIBLIOGRAPHY  -  96 ...  105  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE I. II.  PAGE Number o f I n j u n c t i o n s Number o f S p e c i f i c Issued  Granted  Acts  1958-1961  (Ontario)  W h i c h Were E n j o i n e d  56  i n Injunctions  1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 6 ( O n t a r i o ) .. .  59  III.  Number o f I n j u n c t i o n s  Granted  1962-1966  (Ontario)  62  IV.  Number o f I n j u n c t i o n s  Granted  1946-1955  (B.C.)  71  V. VI.  Circumstances  i n which  a n I n j u n c t i o n was S o u g h t ( B . C . ) . . . .  P r i n c i p a l Reasons A l l e g e d  f o r Seeking Injunctive  (B.C.) VII.  Injunctions Granted, Modified, (B.C.)  Relief  ". or Denied  72  75 From  1956-1965 76  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Purpose of Study  .Some d e g r e e o f c o n f l i c t relationships. has  aroused  Of t h e many w e a p o n s  more c o n t r o v e r s y  have found a c c e p t a b l e still  beset  and  the labour  by the problem o f l a b o u r concern  need o n l y v i e w t h e h i s t o r y  than  than  understand  i n the past at times  of  management.  difficulties,  and i n t e r e s t  interest.  has o c c u p i e d  injunction.'''  injunctions.  of s t r i k e s  their  union-management  employed i n i n d u s t r i a l w a r f a r e  solutions for their  government a r e e x p r e s s i n g  to r e a d i l y  i s p r e s e n t ' i n most  L a b o u r , management and  over  The f r e e r  a t t e n t i o n and t r i e d  Some c o u n t r i e s  but Canada i s  the s i t u a t i o n .  and l o c k o u t s d u r i n g 2  none  One  the late  fifties  use o f c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s the patience  of  labour  3  The.Ontario Federation  of Labour blames the c u r r e n t " c r i s i s "  in  4 industrial  relations  directly  on o u t - o f - d a t e  labour  legislation.  s t a t e t h a t t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e o f i n j u n c t i o n s amounts t o century  law a p p l i e d t o t w e n t i e t h century  galling  to labour  issued  i s the fact  ex p a r t e , t h a t  ex p a r t e  injunction.  injunctions  evidence  that the unions  T h u s much c r i t i c i s m  t o o l s of preventive  acceptance t o absolute The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  is a ;  necessary  recourse  were  has been a g a i n s t  justice.  t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n have been e x p r e s s e d . total  Particularly  H o w e v e r , management s p o k e s m e n i n s i s t  are proper  eighteenth  t h a t n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f i n j u n c t i o n s were  i s on o n e - s i d e d  no o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a l l e n g e .  conditions.  They  given this  that  Numerous  solutions  They range  from  abolishment.  study  i s to determine  i f the labour  injunction  f o r C a n a d i a n labour,, management d i s p u t e s .  It is  hypothesized than  that  the use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s a f u n c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s  legislation:  injunctions  that  during  there  a period  t e n d s t o be an i n c r e a s e  of intense  industrial  i n j u n c t i o n must b e a v a i l a b l e t o p r o t e c t the  right  to private contract.  B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d the  existing  attempt in  labour  legislations  States.  industrial  relations.  British^Columbia w i l l these reviews w i l l contention available  being  i n labour  It  be s t u d i e d .  p r o c e d u r e s and o t h e r  Canada s t i l l  management  requires  conclusions effective disputes  will  that  i n an present and  the r e s u l t s of t h e main  disputes. that  though t h e i n j u n c t i o n should change.  The changes w i l l  d e r i v e d -from t h e a n a l y s i s a n d r e v i e w  a l t e r n a t i v e processes w i l l  Great  t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy be  t i o n o f C a n a d a , B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d of  factors  h i s t o r y of Ontario  I t i s postulated  the i n j u n c t i v e process requires  b a s e d on. d a t a  countries  the p r e v i o u s l y stated hypotheses;  i s f u r t h e r hypothesized  retained,  c o u n t r i e s , namely  by  The w r i t e r p r o p o s e s t o c o n t r a s t  I n Canada t h e l a b o u r  support  that  other  and  be s u b s t a n t i a t e d  of the previously cited  to isolate'the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  and t h a t t h e  to private property  These p o s t u l a t e s w i l l  examining the i n j u n c t i v e processes of three  i n the incidence of  conflict;  the right  rather  be p r e s e n t e d  States.  i n the f i n a l  be c o r r e l a t e d i n an a t t e m p t  system f o r the issuance  of the labour  legisla-  The  a more  of the i n j u n c t i o n i n labour  i n Canada, and p r i m a r i l y B r i t i s h  be  The e f f i c a c y  chapter.  to postulate  be  management  Columbia.  Research Methodology  The  writer will  have had w i t h collective  study  the labour  bargaining  the experiences  injunction.  structures w i l l  three  The l a b o u r  common l a w c o u n t r i e s  legislations  be examined t o d e t e r m i n e  and i fthe  incidence  of  bargaining findings and  the  i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s a f u n c t i o n  structures to  and  a proposed  the  of  labour  United  injunction.  States  i s that  evolution The  of  body of  the  writer will  particular  the  private  the  i t i s b e i n g used  private  Columbia.  i n t o the  countries  dispute  research  of  labour  and  injunction  v i a the  has  been  thestudied.  i s b e i n g used  the  examine the  courts,  by  and  in  and  i f the  right  labour  l e g i s l a t i o n s of the  labour  has of  to  available.  j o u r n a l s , books, s t u d i e s ,  to the  protect  necessity  what o t h e r r e m e d i e s were  i n p a r t i c u l a r to  injunctions The  i n three countries; In  be  l e g i s l a t i o n s and  three countries  by  speeches Canada  injunction.  Study  i n every aspect.  States.  statement; w i l l  labour  writer will  through  pertaining  stated,  Limitations  of  The  i n j e o p a r d y , and  the  United  This  economic weapon  injunction  and  law  an  difficulty  c a s e s where the  other publications  relations  difficulties  of v i e w the as  United  There have been c u r r e n t  and  investigated  a f t e r the  their  the  used to  s t u d y i s b a s e d on  use  thesis  stages.  that  remedy i s . b e i n g  The  The  statement  i f the  p r o p e r t y was  S c o p e and  the  s t r i k e s t a g e s , or  in,British  intervention  of  i n Canada,  added economic weapon i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ,  property.  been used  application  injunction  have s o l v e d  determine i f , i n f a c t , the  an  at  labour  broad  i n j u n c t i v e remedy i n t h e  management a s  i s relevant  From l a b o u r ' s p o i n t  management t o b r e a k s t r i k e s i n e a r l y i n the  the c o l l e c t i v e  Columbia.  the  injunction creates  examined  the  i n C a n a d a t e n d s t o make t h e  K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a and the  i f there  streamlining  in particular British Labour  with  in turn,  of  part  of  the  i s too  wide a t o p i c  writer will the law  present  t o be  thoroughly  the i n d u s t r i a l  U n i t e d " K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a and of  industrial relations  that  the  relates legal  to t h e use of the i n j u n c t i o n ,  framework o f c o l l e c t i v e  among t h e t h r e e in  bargaining, there  labour inquiry  therefore, considers laws o f these into  provinces  the  review w i l l  writer will  focus  conclude  hypotheses.  The  background  injunction  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r an  i n Canada.  I n Canada, the  i n v o l v e d i n l a b o u r management p r o b l e m s a r e B r i t i s h Thus, i n examining t h e use o f i n j u n c t i o n s i n Canada,  on these  two p r o v i n c e s .  Following this  by p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n  The r e s u l t s w i l l  alternate proposals  society.~*  i t r e l e v a n t t o i n c l u d e an a c c o u n t o f t h e  the use of the labour  C o l u m b i a and O n t a r i o .  of the  i s much in.common  and o p e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l  countries to provide  most a c t i v e l y  context  are notable differences  c o u n t r i e s and Canada, even though t h e r e  the s t r u c t u r e , composition  writer,  and i n t h e g e n e r a l  a l s o be u t i l i z e d  f o r the i n j u n c t i v e . process  analysis the  to the  i n the formulation of in British  C o l u m b i a and  Canada.  Chapter  Organization  Chapter I I deals w i t h labour  injunction.  and  assess  and  i t s relevance  is  the past  and c u r r e n t  t o Canada.  British  labour  chapter  i s a review  of e x p l a n a t i o n . ^  of the i n d u s t r i a l  activities  l a w and t h e  i n the United  An o u t l i n e o f . t h e h i s t o r i c a l  s i n c e 1954 a n d i t i s b y t h i s  law i s capable  in strike  employee-employer  situation  p r e l i m i n a r y f o r any understanding  w h i c h has o c c u r r e d  over  experience  The o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r e s e n t  briefly  a necessary  the B r i t i s h  relations  Kingdom,  developments  o f t h e ' . r a d i c a l change background alone The l a t t e r  that  part of the  i n Australia.  I f one  l o o k s v e r y m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s one c a n s a y t h a t E n g l i s h and A u s t r a l i a n  trade union  l a w w e r e t h e same b e f o r e  artitration.^  Thus, examination  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of compulsory  of A u s t r a l i a n labour  legislation will  be  confined  to the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g  the  1 8 9 0 ' s , when d i f f e r e n c e s and  d e v i a t i o n s from the E n g l i s h p a t t e r n began to o c c u r . presented  o n l y to the  s t a n d i n g of the Chapter United  extent  injunctive  necessary  remedy i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s  D e v e l o p m e n t has  Guardia  Act  law  a c c o r d i n g t o s t a t e law.  and  to the present.  the relevance This The  two  of  Columbia.  A brief  The  The  of  the p r e s e n t  final  be v i e w e d u n d e r  federal  The  i n c l u d e remarks  regarding  writer will  to the Canadian  of the be  labour  the provinces  account  will  be  experience.  injunction  i n Canada.  of O n t a r i o  presented  and  prior  to  British the  situation.  chapter w i l l  be  devoted  t o a summary o f t h e  t h e development of c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e use in  i n j u n c t i o n s i n the  injunction w i l l  examined w i l l historical  labour  in Australia.  been t r a c e d from the pre N o r r i s - L a  i s f o l l o w e d by a s t u d y  examination  of  the American experience  major areas  be  to provide background f o r under-  I I I i s a s t u d y of the use  States.  Developments w i l l  of the  s t u d y and  labour  to  injunction  Canada.  D e f i n i t i o n of  Terms  Injunction. the  Court  acts  orders  The  injunction  i s a form of  a party to proceedings  (a r e s t r i c t i v e  judicial  to r e f r a i n  i n j u n c t i o n ) o r t o do  certain  relief  from doing  acts  whereby specified  (a mandatory  8 injunction). it  It differs  u s u a l l y o r d e r s , not  of p r e s c r i b e d behavior. may  t a k e one  permanent further  of  from the • i  ordinary legal  remedy o f damages,  t h e u s u a l money p a y m e n t , b u t I t i s granted  s e v e r a l forms,  a final  the p o s i t i v e  at the d i s c r e t i o n of the settlement  of a d i s p u t e  i n j u n c t i o n ) , a t e m p o r a r y measure t o p r e v e n t  alleged injury until  the case  is tried;  or  redress court  (a  the occurence  i t may  as  i n extreme  of  and  cases,  be  given  s p e e d i l y and  s h o r t p e r i o d of time  without  in  or wrongful  a l l cases  opposing  party for  a  (ex p a r t e ) .  Thus i t i s a c o u r t o r d e r illegal  n o t i c e to the  act.  i n which  "The  g e n e r a l l y f o r b i d d i n g the doing c o u r t s are  i t a p p e a r s t o be  empowered t o g r a n t  just  or convenient  an  t o do  of  an  injunction so,  to  9 protect before  or exert the  right  an  existing  has  legal  right."  b e e n a s c e r t a i n e d by  l o c u t o r y or temporary i n j u n c t i o n ) , been a s c e r t a i n e d injunction orders  I t can  the  court  granted  ( i n t e r i m or  or permanently a f t e r  (permanent or p e r p e t u a l or f i n a l the  be  the  temporarily inter-  right  injunction).  has The  p e r s o n a g a i n s t whom i t i s d i r e c t e d t o r e f r a i n  doing  a . p a r t i c u l a r a c t , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of w h i c h amounts t o b r e a c h  trust  of p r o p e r t y To  violation possible an  or breach  o b t a i n an  to  trial.  violation  the normal l e g a l  extraordinary recourse  prior  some o t h e r  equitable  i n j u n c t i o n of p l a i n t i f f  or a threatened through  of  of the  process.  to protect r e a l  from of  obligation.  must show t h a t t h e r e h a s law The  and  that redress  injunction  property  been  i s not  i s extended  as  f r o m i r r e p a r a b l e damage  CHAPTER I I  THE LABOUR I N J U N C T I O N : THE B R I T I S H AND A U S T R A L I A N E X P E R I E N C E  I.  The versial in  labour  i s s u e such  Canada.  solved  relevant  injunction  i s n o t and has n o t been a c o n t r o -  difficulties  relations  and a l s o d e t e r m i n e  i ftheir  have  apparently  experience i s  relations.  When  a r e compared w i t h o t h e r d e m o c r a c i e s t h e y  b e c a u s e t h e y a r e so l i t t l e In  S t a t e s , a n d more r e c e n t l y  p r o p o s e s t o show how t h e B r i t i s h  t o t h e Canadian system of i n d u s t r i a l  industrial  Disputes  i nBritain  as i t has been i n t h e U n i t e d  The w r i t e r  their  THE B R I T I S H E X P E R I E N C E  British stand out  r e g u l a t e d b y law.^"  1 9 5 4 P r o f e s s o r 0. K a h n - F r e u n d A c t o f 1906 i s t h e B r i t i s h  said  that s e c t i o n 4 of the Trade  s o l u t i o n o f t h e problem of t h e labour  2 injunction. categorical  However, today fashion.  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e i n such  The n i n e t e e n  fifties  may t u r n o u t t o b e t h e l a s t  decade o f t h e " a b s t e n t i o n " of t h e law f o r which t h e B r i t i s h industrial  relations  In order the  labour  examined. Great  had been l o n g , and u n j u s t l l y ,  t o gain any understanding  Britain  I t i s hypothesized  injunction  i s a result  judges  labour  states that the i n j u n c t i o n  a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e c o u r t s do n o t i n t e r f e r e  disputes.  experience  with  l a w must b e i s n o t used i n i n labour  that the incidence o r use of the labour  of the attitudes  d u r i n g economic and s o c i a l  a t t i t u d e s determined  system of  praised.  of the B r i t i s h  i n j u n c t i o n t h e development of B r i t i s h I n Canada, l a b o u r  a  o f l a b o u r , management a n d t h e  environmental  i t s use i n Great  Britain  p h a s e s , and t h a t - t h e law responded  such directly  J to  shifts  i n the s o c i a l  from t o t a l abstention  good r e v i e w  Kingdom.  be s t u d i e d .  P r o f e s s o r K. W. W e d d e r b u r n  o f t h e development  The p e r i o d  of the labour  i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r phases  each o f which has i t s d i s t i n c t the  To i l l u s t r a t e how a t t i t u d e s  ranging  t o a r e n e w e d common l a w i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e p e r i o d  f r o m 1 8 5 0 t o 1966 w i l l a very  environment.  law i n the United  of B r i t i s h labour law,  a t t i t u d e s p e r t a i n i n g towards  common l a w a n d i n j u n c t i o n s i n l a b o u r  provides  disputes.  the use o f  These f o u r  periods  are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The system  I l l e g a l i t y : t o 1871 T h e E x c l u s i o n o f t h e Common Law: 1 8 7 1 t o 1 9 2 0 Gradual J u d i c i a l "Abstention":  Renewed Common Law I n t e r v e n t i o n : 1 9 6 0 t o 1 9 6 6 .  system  i n which  of  collective  no  general  concerning  i n Great B r i t a i n  bargaining.  legal  right  to trade  parties.  Thus, the law a b s t a i n s  in  the free process of c o l l e c t i v e  it  must be remembered t h a t  strength  enforceable  agreecontract  i n t h e sense t h a t i t  and p r e s s u r e s  negotiation.  rules  The c o l l e c t i v e  t o majority opinion a legally  early B r i t i s h industrial  the structure  union r e c o g n i t i o n ; few l e g a l  n o t t o c o n t r o l t h e economic  movement a g a i n s t  a s a. v o l u n t a r y  T h e r e w a s , and i s , no ( l e g a l d u t y t o b a r g a i n ;  t h e p a r t i e s o r agents f o r b a r g a i n i n g .  between c o l l e c t i v e  (i)  c a n be d e s c r i b e d  t h e lav? d i d n o t s e e k t o c o n t r o l o r m o l d  ment i s n o t a c c o r d i n g  aims  1920 t o 1959  brought  In analysing  to bear  the system  i t grew o u t o f t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r  of the  r e v o l u t i o n and o f t h e s t r u g g l e o f i t s l a b o u r  illegality.  Period of I l l e g a l i t y  Prior  t o 1871 c o n v i c t i o n s f o r c o n s p i r a c y  w e r e common a n d p i c k e t i n g  was  a crime,  the  law  i f i t exposed n o n - u n i o n i s t s  trade unions  the Act  permitted  only c o l l e c t i v e  p l a c e o f w o r k ; and headings:  one  and. he The  this  particular  c a s e i n 1868,  the  observed  i t was  that  in this  C h a n c e r y c o u r t s ; and large  as t h e  (ii)  The  employers appeared  1867  the  L a b o u r P a r t y was political,  but  d e m a n d e d , and  still  liability.  to exclude the  The  i t was  were e n t i r e l y  and  pragmatic  the  removal of  unions  t h e m and  Trade Union A c t ,  an  the  that  be  any  longer  of r e s t r a i n t  of trade.  To  the  former- p r o b l e m of  British if  labour  i t was  law.  No  a combination  combination t o do  property.  the appear to  the  be  prosecution  T h u s i t s demands w e r e The  or procure  any  its of  new  1906.  trade union  t o become t h e t o be  and  not  movement  new. f o r m s for  the  The  unions.  unlawful or  was  labour  legislature  f o r trade  declared  i n v e n t i o n w h i c h was  issued  i n d u s t r i a l movement;  developing  should.not  a p p l i e d an  of  law w h i c h rendered  purposes  1875  to protect  c l e a n cut of  w e r e s u c c e s s f u l i n 1875  1871,  the  intimidation  used d i d not  terms.  pressed  l o o k of " p r i v i l e g e s "  one  1871-19 20  j u d g e s r e s p o n d e d by  The  1825  under  i n j u n c t i o n was to stop  jurisdiction  t h r e e d e c a d e s away.  g r a d u a l l y wen,  common l a w  The  over  injunction  times  wages a t  of  and o b s t r u c t i o n .  exclusive preserve  Common Law:  in industrial  illegal.  s t a t u t e s had  the  labour  eyes  Even i n  f o r crimes  molestation  to p r e f e r the  trade unions  activities  statutes  p e r i o d , an  t h e number o f  E x c l u s i o n of  In  j u d g e i s s u e d an the c o u r t ' s  h o u r s and  penalities  background the  In the  conspiracies.  n e g o t i a t i o n on  i t e s t a b l i s h e d severe  i n j u n c t i o n was,  and  illegal  violence; threats; intimidation;  Against In  w e r e b o u n d t o be  to " b l a c k look".  criminal conspiracy -  golden  indictable  agreements on  the  grounds  the Act  formula as a  of  of  conspiracy  act: " i n contemplation  or  furtherance of a trade dispute  i f s u c h a c t c o m m i t t e d b y o n e person,. 3  w o u l d n o t be p u n i s h a b l e This banished Section was  founded.  The  c o n s p i r a c y from  t o be t h e r o c k  For approximately unions.  injunction. picture  criminal  During  union  a c t i o n s were  brought  use of the and l e g a l  changed.  this  the "soft  this  a c t i o n c o u l d be  p e r i o d t h e r e was no r e p o r t e d  p e r i o d t h e new u n i o n s  posed as t o u g h and a g g r e s s i v e tactics"  defenders  labour.  4  w h i c h appeared on t h e scene o f t h e i r members.  of the older c r a f t  attitude with resistive  unions.  against  contrasted  responded  by i m p o r t a t i o n o f non-  1900, t h e judges  also  t r a d e u n i o n i s t s a v a r i e t y o f new g r o u n d s .  development which occurred  was t h a t t h e c i v i l  a c y was r e n e w e d a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s malicious or illegitimate.  This  Employers  and c o u n t e r - a t t a c k s  L e g a l l y , i n t h e decade p r e c e d i n g  responded and found One  few l e g a l  Years 1885-1901: A H o s t i l e J u d i c i a r y  with  disputes.  and P r o t e c t i o n o f P r o p e r t y A c t )  upon w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l  t e n years  this  the area of trade  However, b y t h e end o f t h e 1880's t h e s o c i a l  During  to  (sec. 3 ) .  3 o f t h e 1875 A c t (The C o n s p i r a c y  considered  against  as a c r i m e "  again  liability  ran the risk  Thiswas a civil  of being  for conspirjudged  l i a b i l i t y w h i c h was n o t  p r o t e c t e d b y t h e 1875 A c t . By of  simple  1901 t h e e n t i r e u n i o n civil  unions,  seemed t h r e a t e n e d  b y t h e new f o r m  c o n s p i r a c y , f o r t h e j u d g e s a p p e a r e d r e a d y t o condemn t h e  m o s t common p l a c e u n i o n the  edifice  objectives.  During  this  new l e g a l a t t a c k  upon  t h e u s e o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n became a n a v a i l a b l e r e m e d y a n d ,  fact,  t h e J u d i c a t u r e A c t o f 1873 e x p r e s s l y d e c l a r e d  order  c o u l d be made w h e n e v e r  i t seemed " j u s t  in  t h a t an i n t e r l o c u t o r y  or convenient".  So i t was  under these c o n d i t i o n s and  allowed  termed  the  that  the  i n j u n c t i o n s were i s s u e d  judges to s t r i k e  down any  boycott  or  P i c k e t i n g was i n g was  held  developed  p i c k e t s was  This protect  the  s t r i k e which  T h i s was  they  property  the too  brief  Act  must be  Taff Vale  review  since  of  m a n n e r and issued  against  Union could unregistered  be  the  sued  could  the  the  at t a c t i c a l l y  an  the  1901  leading  legal to the  the  labour  unlawful  the  by  similarily  employer.  and  Taff Vale  sued  of  interests  a strike  or  opportune  expected  the  save the  judges  union's  s e t t i n g i n which 1906  Trade  s o l u t i o n to the  and  engaged  a  Disputes labour  defeat.  in picketing  property.  An  a c t i o n f o r damages case decided  that a  was Trade  even i f  in a representative  d e c i s i o n shocked  Such  the  precise  i t s r e g i s t e r e d name, and be  to  unions suffered  strike  strikers  u n i o n . ' - The  This  and  s e r i o u s l y damaged r a i l r o a d  against  concerned  th  pay".^  social  situation  In  the with  damage t o  they w i l l  i t is apparently  in tort  i t s funds.^  that  strike  the  picket-  i n accord  prohibition for a period  payment o f  e m p l o y e e s w e n t on  instituted  to reach  the  i n Great B r i t a i n .  i n j u n c t i o n was  c o u r t was  i n t e r e s t s of  p o i n t i n g out  used, the  explored  unlawful  where the  Wedderburn s t a t e s that"one almost  avoiding  i n j u n c t i o n was  a t t a c k on  the i n j u n c t i o n .  understanding, of  have been c a l l e d  the  injunction  i f any,  argument by  With this  one  business  i t s members b y  by  The  conspiracy.  i n w h i c h . t h e a t t e n d a n c e of  b a s i s of  i s j u d g e d as  Professor  to c l i n c h  the  p r o p r i e t o r y and  e m b a r g o w h i c h may  cases  alongside  compel masters to conduct b u s i n e s s  showed l i t t l e ,  moment.  a common l a w " n u i s a n c e " .  i n a s e r i e s of  period  a u n i o n and  i n an  t o be  held "to  men's d e m a n d s " .  of  1890's  malicious. Other courses of a c t i o n were a l s o developed  dicta  i n the  t h e u n i o n s and  a c t i o n , so i t was  not  as  surprising  t o s e e i n 1906 o n t h e e l e c t i o n p o s t e r s - - a  employer a scourge w i t h which to beat the workers. became p a r t o f t h e w o r k i n g treat  unions.  They r e f e r  class view--that t o t h e Law  will  judge h a n d i n g t o an The T a f f V a l e  be t h e way t h e y  case will  Lords.  A l e s s k i n d l y P r o f e s s o r Jenks declared  i n 1912, a f t e r  t h e 1906  legislation: "The H o u s e o f L o r d s h a d f i r s t i n v e n t e d a new c i v i l o f f e n c e ( c i v i l c o n s p i r a c y ) and had then c r e a t e d a new k i n d o f d e f e n d a n t a g a i n s t whom i t c o u l d be a l l e g e d . " ^ The  fierce  r e a c t i o n conducted by t r a d e unions  ment o f t h e 1906 l e g i s l a t i o n . and  i t s report  repealed and  at ive  l e d t o t h e enactment o f t h e Trade D i s p u t e  unions  from l i a b i l i t y  or a secondary nature  i n torts  bargaining In  to injunctions this  from B r i t i s h effectively  reads  The A c t  peaceful picketing,  f o r a c t i o n s , whether of a  phrased  to trade disputes. i t , " t h e process  Thus  of c o l l e c t -  particular Act i s the basic  t h a t has been s u c c e s s f u l i n e x c l u d i n g t h e l a b o u r  Act which  Act.  i n 1903  i n E n g l a n d was s e t f r e e o f t h e l a w " .  relation  completely  section  legalized  done i n r e l a t i o n  one s t r o k e , as P r o f e s s o r C a r r o t h e r s  statute  C o m m i s s i o n was a p p o i n t e d  the doctrine of c i v i l conspiracy,  relieved  primary  A Royal  l e d to the enact-  industrial  affairs.  injunction  I t i s s e c t i o n 4 of the  removes t h e i n j u n c t i o n f r o m  labour  disputes.  The  that; "An a c t i o n a g a i n s t a t r a d e u n i o n . . . o r a g a i n s t a n y members o r o f f i c i a l s t h e r e o f o n b e h a l f o f t h e m s e l v e s a n d a l l o t h e r members o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , i n r e s p e c t o f any t o r t i o u s a c t a l l e g e d t o have been c o m m i t t e d by o r on b e h a l f o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , s h a l l not be e n t e r t a i n e d by any C o u r t " . ^  This not  prohibition  restricted  on t o r t  l i a b i l i t y was, and - i s , a b s o l u t e .  to trade disputes.  This  s e c t i o n of the a c t brought  I t was a  sharp h a l t the s t a r t firm  to the writs  issued  against trade unions  o f t h e w a r i n 1914 t h e s y s t e m  e x c l u s i o n o f common l a w l i a b i l i t y  themselves.  i n B r i t a i n became b a s e d which  related  So, by on t h e  t o economic  pressure  t h e e x c l u s i o n of the law from  economic  from a l l trade d i s p u t e s .  (iii)  Gradual  J u d i c i a l . A b s t e n t i o n : 1920-1959  This period s a n c t i o n and f r o m A detailed pointed  i s one i n w h i c h  t r a d e d i s p u t e s was e v e n b e i n g a c c e p t e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y .  analysis  out that  of this  ~ following First  What l e d t o t h i s  f a c t o r s undoubtedly  b u t i t must b e  to intervene with  change i n j u d i c i a l  contributed.  attitude?  9  t h e new a t t i t u d e was e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e new j u d g e s who h a d  seen t h e impact  of t h e i r  seniors'  hostility  Some h a d t a k e n t o h e a r t t h e o b v i o u s people  n o t be u n d e r t a k e n  t h e m a j o r i t y o f judges were u n w i l l i n g  the labour i n j u n c t i o n . The  period w i l l  t o speak about  it.  class  o n t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement.  antagonism  As L o r d S c r u t t o n s t a t e d  which  h a d moved  i n 1921:  "The h a b i t s y o u a r e t r a i n e d i n , t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom y o u m i x l e a d t o y o u r h a v i n g a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f i d e a s o f s u c h a n a t u r e t h a t when y o u h a v e t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r i d e a s y o u do n o t g i v e a s s o u n d and a c c u r a t e judgments as you would w i s h . . . I t i s very d i f f i c u l t s o m e t i m e s t o be s u r e t h a t y o u h a v e p u t yourself into a thoroughly impartial position b e t w e e n two d i s p u t a n t s , o n e o f y o u r own c l a s s a n d one n o t o f y o u r c l a s s . S e c o n d l y , b e f o r e 1925 l e a d i n g  c a s e s w e n t no h i g h e r t h a n t h e C o u r t  .of A p p e a l , a c o u r t w h e r e t h e more l i b e r a l t h e House o f L o r d s w h i c h  i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e s w a s p e o p l e d w i t h Lav?  L o r d s w h o s e a t t i t u d e s more r e a d i l y Thirdly,  judges were numerous t h a n i n  reflected  p r e war b i a s .  the judges were.,dealing w i t h a s i t u a t i o n ' i n which t h e  t r a d e u n i o n s were f i g h t i n g w i t h t h e i r backs  to the wall.  Between 1921  and  1938  unemployment o n l y f e l l  below ten per cent  i n one  year.  judges were v e r y c a r e f u l  to uphold  D i s p u t e s A c t o f 1906  a l s o c i r c u m s c r i b e the area of c i v i l  and  Judicial Attitude: which  gone d e e p i n t o  questions concerned  mid  social  fifties  and  which  which new  criteria  resistance  English battles  over  causes  of  labour  an  over  1960-1966  changed a f t e r  of i n d u s t r i a l  t h e war Full  peace.  i n c r e a s i n g middle  intervention.  a g a i n seemed t o h a v e a f l a v o u r  t h e n b e g a n t o be  i n the  A growing a n x i e t y  class  criticism  I n summary,  of the period  translated  and  employment  t o unions were the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  t h e common l a w  background  in  action.  of  the t r a d e unions were s t r u g g l i n g w i t h i n the e a r l y  social  a l s o one  over p r o c e d u r a l or r e m e d i a l i s s u e s , but  of i n f l a t i o n ,  again revived  conditions  The  c o n d i t i o n s of B r i t a i n  the employers  conspiracy.  d e c a d e was  t r a d e u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p became s t r o n g e r .  the problem  Trade  t h e a t t i t u d e o f " a b s t e n t i o n " had  Intervention:  l e v e l s w e r e an a c c e p t e d over  This later  w i t h the fundamental  Renewed J u d i c i a l  The  and  the judges' minds.  i n j u n c t i o n s were f o u g h t , not  (iv)  the r i g o u r of S e c t i o n 4 of the  1940-1960:  l a b o u r law c a s e s were few  The  factors the  illegality,  1870's.  i n t o new  of  This  judicial  attitudes. A r e c e n t c a s e of 1964, s t r i k e by  the u n i o n  p a y r o l l b e c a u s e he attitude sued to  that  i f an e m p l o y e e , R o o k e s , w e r e n o t refused to remain  e x p r e s s e d by  judges.  the union o f f i c i a l .  s t r i k e was  in fact  the threat  Rookes v. B a r n a r d , where a t h r e a t e n e d  The  a u n i o n member, e x e m p l i f i e s  R.ookes was judge  intimidation.  amounted t o c i v i l  removed f r o m  ruled He  the the  s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s m i s s e d and that  the threat  by  the  new he  union  a l l o w e d t h e a c t i o n o n "the -grounds  i n t i m i d a t i o n u n p r o t e c t e d by  the  1906 A c t .  The  threat  equivalent  t o commit b r e a c h o f employment of a c o e r c i v e  threat  c o n t r a c t was  of v i o l e n c e .  This  therefore  apparent a l t e r e d  a t t i t u d e o f t h e j u d g e , i n f a c t , was  an a t t a c k o f t h e r i g h t  It  u n i o n s had been r e v i v e d  again  appeared  t o t h o s e who  felt  i n t i m i d a t i o n w o u l d b e made t h e b a s i s and  members, and a g a i n  thwart  challenged. period Barnard  of the u n i o n — t h e  the i n j u n c t i o n again  s c e n e and S e c t i o n  that  officials  strike.  With  this  particular  began t o appear on t h e B r i t i s h  A g a i n one must remember t h a t  the s o c i a l  immunity  climate during  was this  h a d much i n f l u e n c e o n t h e j u d g e ' s d e c i s i o n i n t h e R o o k e s V. c a s e , w h i c h opened t h e door t o t h i s  passed.  I t i s entitled  or of r e p a r a t i o n , being contemplation of  and  upon u n i o n  4 o f t h e 1906 A c t w h i c h g a v e u n i o n s t o r t  As a consequence o f t h i s was  strike.  i n c l u d e t h e use of t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy t o  t h e economic t o o l  c a s e and o t h e r s ,  of attacks  to  new  of furtherance  intervention.  d e c i s i o n , the Trade Disputes  "An A c t t o p r e v e n t  brought  judicial  i n respect  of trade  A c t o f 1965  a c t i o n s f o u n d e d on  tort,  o f c e r t a i n a c t s done i n  disputes."^  The p e r t i n e n t  section  t h e A c t r e a d s as f o l l o w s : "An a c t done a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e A c t by a person i n contemplation or furtherance of a trade d i s p u t e ( w i t h i n the meaning of the Trade Disputes A c t o f 1 9 0 6 ) s h a l l n o t be a c t i o n a b l e i n t o r t on t h e ground o n l y t h a t i t c o n s i s t s i n h i s t h r e a t e n i n g : a) t h a t a c o n t r a c t o f e m p l o y m e n t ( w h e t h e r o n e t o w h i c h he i s p a r t y o r n o t ) w i l l be b r o k e n , o r b) t h a t h e . w i l l i n d u c e a n o t h e r t o b r e a k a c o n t r a c t of- e m p l o y m e n t t o w h i c h t h a t other i s a party."12  The A c t i s l i m i t e d blanketing the  t o employment  term " t r a d e  disputes",  contracts.  States  the  t h e new A c t m a y - w e l l h a v e f a l l e n  same t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r r e d  The t e r m i n t h e U n i t e d  However by u s i n g  tended  i n 1932 i n t h e U n i t e d  t o e m b r a c e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  into  States.  r e c o g n i t i o n p i c k e t i n g , mass p i c k e t i n g , a n d s t r i k e s To  further exemplify  cases d i d r e v e a l were beginning action  the changed v i e w of t h e j u d i c i a r y ,  the intervention into  to feel  the trade  t h e new a t t i t u d e w i t h  interference with  contracts  b)  interference with  future  c) m a l i c i o u s  without  contracts  Unions  a g r o w t h o f new c a u s e s o f  interference with t o use u n l a w f u l  by unlawful  e)  p i c k e t i n g - - w h e r e c o n d u c t o f p i c k e t i n g was  f)  inducement o f unions f o r b r e a k i n g  means enjoined  commercial  new v i e w h i n g e s u p o n t h e w o r d i n g o f S e c t i o n  granted  immunity t o t o r t i o u s a c t s  behalf  of the trade  union,  and added t h e t r a d e  There i s s t i l l , abstention.  means  business o r employers  conspiracies  action  area.  breach  d)  on  disputes  subsequent  such a s :  a)  This  i n breach of contract.  alleged  The c o u r t s  contracts. 4, w h e r e t h e u n i o n i s  t o have been committed by o r have extended  unions t o the l i s t  the causes of  of possible  however, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l view of S e c t i o n  I t i s expressed  defendents. 4 and t h u s  i n Camden E x h i b i t i o n a n d D i s p l a y  L t d . v.  L y n o t t , 1965. However, t h e r e declarations a declaration  i s a l s o a middle view which proposes t o issue  i n place  of injunctions.  i s granted  This  view proposes that  a n d o n c e t h e l a w i s so. d e c l a r e d ,  when  unions or 13  their felt  officials that  w o u l d n o t s e e k t o do a n y t h i n g  public pressures  a d e c l a r a t i o n i n order  w o u l d be so s t r o n g  to preserve their  contrary  that unions would  status.  judgment would n o t c a r r y ' a contempt p e n a l t y ' a n d Only p u b l i c pressure to destroy  to i t .  This t h u s no  I ti s observe  declaratory imprisonment.  t o obey t h e s t a t e m e n t , and t h e u n i o n ' s d e s i r e n o t  i t s image i n t h e p u b l i c ' s  eye i s a l l t h a t  i s required.  Thus  this  middle  view attempts  disputes but i t s t i l l declaratory The the f a c t  to eliminate the w r i t  and c o n t e m p t f r o m  labour  r e q u i r e s t h e u s e o f a j u d g e ' s o p i n i o n t o make a  judgment. disagreement of recent  that  i t recognises  cases  against  the i n j u n c t i o n hinges  t h e e m p l o y e r ' s c o n t r a c t u a l and  on  property 14  rights  but that  i t i s blind  R e c e n t ex p a r t e the  to the i n t e r e s t s  a c t i o n f o r a short  further.  Without  going  and p r o b a b l y into  o f two r e c e n t  can ban  a c t i o n i s heard  cases  i n which the  reveals that a High  Court  - - e v e n a' m a n d a t o r y o n e - - a g a i n s t  the union  itself.''""'  how f a r t h e l a w h a s moved s i n c e 1 9 5 4 , when the  period u n t i l  in Britain  an i n j u n c t i o n  d e f e n d a n t s and e v e n a g a i n s t  point of view, t h i s  vital  the d e t a i l s  e x p a r t e was u s e d , t h e s i t u a t i o n j u d g e - w i l l now g r a n t  labour.  i n j u n c t i o n s have a l s o been i s s u e d " t o p r e s e r v e  s t a t u s quo", but a g a i n , from l a b o u r ' s  union  of c o l l e c t i v e  These r e c e n t  the popular  i n j u n c t i o n had been removed f r o m B r i t i s h  union  cases  b e l i e f was  show  that  disputes.  Conclusions  In labour that  concluding  injunction,  the frequency  the chapter  on Great  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t and use o f t h e l a b o u r  Britain's  judge-made l a w , o f t e n a d a p t s  the  environment of the time;  social  a manner h o s t i l e traced to and  to the trade union  the use of the court  injunction  the attitude  itself  however  i s directly  and t h e j u d g e s .  attribThe l a w ,  t o meet t h e c h a n g e s i n  i t f r e q u e n t l y develops  movement.  During  attributed  t h e phase o f t h e union  of the judges toward i n t e r v e n t i o n .  in  the periods  i n j u n c t i o n has been d i r e c t l y  t h e economic p i c t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y ,  with the  p o i n t w h i c h c a n be l e a r n e d i s  u t a b l e t o t h e a t t i t u d e s o f l a b o u r , management especially  experience  movement  How  can  the  Canadian labour 1.  public 2.  scene?  the frequency  s t a t e of  the  The use  following  of  the  use  the  i n the  of the  labour  social  i s , in fact,  l a b o u r d u r i n g ^the  187,1  i n Canada the a t t i t u d e of  the  related  to  the  the  law f r o m l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  and  thus  expressed  p e r i o d , and  a b s t e n t i o n f r o m 1920  f o r our  country  labour relations.  The  and  to  thus  t o o l open f o r the  labour r e l a t i o n s  system l i t e r a l l y thus  has  no  is a  the  by  of  enforcable  i n the w r i t e r ' s view,  to v i r t u a l l y  use  The  is  Canadian  at w i l l .  i n B r i t a i n b e c o m e s a more p o w e r f u l w e a p o n t h a n  us  proper  arena  t a k e n , however t h e B r i t i s h  union  labour  government l e a d s  more i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o  c a n be  to  and  i s further exemplified  labour-management r e l a t i o n s .  s y s t e m d e f i n e s when a s t r i k e  to the  b o t h management  l a b o u r , management and  British  system of  by  solution  the  1959.  a g r e e m e n t , as C a n a d a d o e s , and  a more u n s t a b l e  is directly relatable  apparent  b e l i e v e t h a t a more r e g u l a t e d s y s t e m o f  strike  the  and  injunction again  t o 1920  3.  leaves this  to  judges  the a t t i t u d e  judicial  collective  of  value  considered relevant:  is directly  attitudes  environment; the  the  solution  o f any  p o i n t s m u s t be  injunction  a b s t e n t i o n of the  infrequent  to  the  s y s t e m be  time  the apparent  injunction  and  the B r i t i s h  l a b o u r movement and  at the  shifts  study of  process Thus  the  i t s counterpart  in  Canada. 4.  i n 1960  mainly  the  i n Great  struggle with  m e n t , t h e new unions  and  intervene strike  Britain,  union  is legal  inflation  s t r e n g t h , the  employers' into  again because of and  i n c r e a s i n g middle  r e s i s t a n c e to the unions,  illegal  became a n  economic c o n d i t i o n s - -  the maintenance of f u l l  labour.:-management d i s p u t e s . or  the  issue.  The The  class  employ-  criticism  t h e c o m m o n law began  of to  n e b u l o u s a r e a o f when a common l a w  began  to  intervene mind the to  into  that  equivalent  to  5.  prior  to the  and  other  intolerable  l e g a l i t y of  1960's t h e  the  i s not  takes  being  used  of  of  at a  Barnard was  attack  preventing  availability  The  on  the  party  not  t o be  the  economic  an  this  basic  process.  labour  1960's, the  sanctions used  case  today;  i n Canada  time a f t e r n e g o t i a t i o n  and  to the be  various  shown  advantage i n b a r g a i n i n g ;  s y s t e m has  strikingly  The  labour  later, i t is  strikes  and  property.  British  are  the  t h e r e f o r e been  i n j u n c t i o n i n C a n a d a , as w i l l  private  violence  However i n t h e  upon the  i n j u n c t i o n has  specified  n e g o t i a t i o n s m u s t be  The  of  to c o n t r o l u n t o l e r a b l e conduct d u r i n g  of development.  systems.  r i n g by  thus were impinging  compared t o C a n a d i a n l a b o u r  from c o n t r o l l i n g two  the  thus the  i s purported  the  collective bargaining  collective  the  Rookes v.  Thus a f r o n t a l  began  c o u r t s began i n t e r v e n i n g to determine  t o g i v e one  the  study  i n t e r v e n t i o n as  stages  and  place  use  protect The  the  This  used b a s i c a l l y  thereby  of  employment c o n t r a c t  p r o c e d u r e s have been f o l l o w e d , a c c o r d i n g  The  being  in  judges  economic s t r e n g t h s  i r r e p a r a b l e harm t o p r o p e r t y .  p a r t i e s aimed t o use.  conciliation  common l a w  d e c i s i o n i n the  courts held  c o n d u c t , and  strike  break a s t r i k e .  statutes.  The  Keeping  strike.  previously discussed,  strike  determine the  bargaining.  i n j u n c t i o n to prevent  the  and  the  to a c o e r c i v e t h r e a t of v i o l e n c e .  right  to  t h e wage d r i f t ,  a c o e r c i v e t h r e a t of b r e a c h of  the  which the  i n j u n c t i o n s began to reappear.  with  in disputes  to c o l l e c t i v e  case held  as  and  growing unrest  intervene  parties  disputes  revealed law.  different,  the  The  l a c k of  systems  a f r e e process This  i s a.basic  i n j u n c t i o n has  not  of  or p o s s i b l y i n  a t t i t u d e i n Great B r i t a i n and  that  the  legal  different  i s that law  abstains  d i f f e r e n c e between  been u t i l i z e d  in  the  Britain  to the  same e x t e n t  as  i n Canada, p r i m a r i l y because of  the  a t t i t u d e of  abstention. Some o f m u s t be  kept  structures 1.  the  specific  differences  i n m i n d when c o m p a r i n g t h e  and  the  Most p l a n t s  use  are  lines rather  of  injunctions  organized  t h a n i n an  on  employees'  a g e n t s nor  any  basis  union basis.  r i g h t s on  appropriate  a g e n t s and  employers' a s s o c i a t i o n s  and  shop.  Bargaining  i n any  all  or  a)  between employer f e d e r a t i o n s  b)  regional bargaining to  apply  the  a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and  between "Stewards'  trade  plant.  number o f In B r i t a i n  In  union  between  employees'  remote from the  plant  follow  federations  unofficial  on  union at p l a n t  r o l e of  sharply  and  a local  basis  site  management.  the  the  unions  The  Stewards  steward  in  in a  continuous  f r o m " w a t c h d o g " f u n c t i o n he  British  union c o n t r o l .  official  the  units.  stewards from d i f f e r e n t unions  The  differs  independent of t o a l a c k of  and  C o u n c i l " and  i s composed o f  i n North America.  No  i n d u s t r y , f o r e x a m p l e , may  multi-industry bargaining  d)  negotiations  bargaining  between employer a s s o c i a t i o n s  b e t w e e n e m p l o y e r and  multi-union  governmental  forms;  c)  Council  No  occupational  bargaining  bargaining  these  along  such agent.  takes place  some o f  which  bargaining  exclusive  Bargaining  one  countries  collective  s e l e c t i o n of  bargaining  two  are;^  industrial  agency a s s i s t s the confers  two  a multi-union  government machinery c a r v e s out 2.  between the  shop t h e  steward  i s much more  Commentators c l a i m t h i s  contributes  union c o n t r o l , c o n t r i b u t i n g to the or w i l d c a t  s t r i k e s in'the United  number o f d a y s l o s t  performs  larger  Kingdom.  t h r o u g h s t r i k e s i s low-,  but  t h e number o f e)  short  strikes  comparatively  high,  c o n s u l t a t i o n through J o i n t Consultation Councils r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  employees  (no  official  union  to which r o l e ) are  t o d i s c u s s w i t h management m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e n o t negotiation with trade The  g o v e r n m e n t may  i m p o s e t e r m s and  S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e Terms and  permits  the M i n i s t e r of  an and  Conditions  a union  an  individual  i n an  the  Councils Act  i n d u s t r y or  may  also  Similarily,  trade.  i s no  of  o f Employment  the  economic, d i s p u t e  Industrial  e m p l o y e r who  Act Court  can  not  for obtain  established  terms  involving a substantial  c o n d i t i o n s of collective  Industrial  to the  various  M i n i s t e r u n d e r t h e Wage  effective  under S e c t i o n 2 of  s u b m i t an  The  i m p o s e t e r m s and  i n d u s t r i e s where t h e r e  e m p l o y e r s by  i n d u s t r y w h i c h has  c o n d i t i o n s persuant to n e g o t i a t i o n s  p o r t i o n of  may  c o n d i t i o n s on  Labour t o submit t o _ t h e  a dispute with  agreement w i t h  subject  union.  means.  determination  the  elected  bargaining  Courts  Industrial  employment  Act  on  machinery.  the M i n i s t e r  Court f o r  arbitra-  t ion. On  the  other  protecting  hand, the  g o v e r n m e n t has  employees' r i g h t  from d i s c r i m i n a t i n g against no  union  United  or  relations  This  i n the  strikes  do  not  insure  a r i s e more as  enacted  or p r e v e n t i n g  activities.  law  employers  Briefly,  p r a c t i c e s as the  legislation  there  i n Canada and  from B r i t i s h  agreements.  duration. Industrial  challenges  As  labour and  I t i s rare for  a result,  stability.  are the  :  l a c k of c o n t r a c t u a l r i g h t s  f l o w i n g from labour  agreements to have a f i x e d settlements  union  a b s t e n t i o n of  is reflected  obligations  to organize  employer u n f a i r labour  States.  not  such  contractual  The  unofficial  t o management t h a n as  economic  or  negotiated  strikes.  This b r i e f , main reasons  generalized outline  why a n e x h a u s t i v e  must n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  comparison w i t h  as c o m p l e t e l y  summation, a r e c e n t view i n Great technical  of b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s the practice  r e l e v a n t to t h e Canadian system.  Britain  and as V i s c o u n t R a d c l i f f e  the U n i t e d Kingdom  said  In  i s t h a t t h e common l a w i s u n d u l y i n S t r a t f o r d v. L i n d l e y :  ... " t h e l a w s h o u l d t r e a t a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s s o r t according t o i t s substance, without the comparatively a c c i d e n t a l i s s u e whether breaches of c o n t r a c t a r e looked f o r a n d i n v o l v e d ; a n d b y i t s s u b s t a n c e i t s h o u l d be either licensed, controlled or forbidden."19 He f e e l s  t h i s w o u l d b e g e t t i n g down t o r e a l i t y  re-defined  so as t o c o n t r o l ,  according to their  existance.  w o u l d be a d e t r i m e n t  labour  not bargain injunction  system of l e g a l to the s o c i a l  trade union  The o p p o s i t e v i e w t o t h i s  really  activities  i s that  this  t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement a s t h e f o r m s o f e c o n o m i c  s a n c t i o n w o u l d be d e c i d e d could  l i c e n s e and f o r b i d  i f t h e law were  i n advance o f a d i s p u t e .  The i n d u s t r i a l  i n w h a t e v e r way was s u i t a b l e a t t h e t i m e . i s concerned,  i t s reappearance could  r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d .  c l i m a t e i n Great  Britain.  signal  parties  A s f a r as t h e t h a t a new  This, i n fact,  i s due  II.  Since English, time  THE  AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE  the A u s t r a l i a n  a detailed  trade union  historical  have a l r e a d y w i t n e s s e d ,  of  some o f  restraint union  law,  complex.  of as The  introduced  and  difficult  a s s o c i a t i o n s , the.law  trade.  The  from  d e v e l o p m e n t s up  is basically  to  As  is a  combination  d o c t r i n e s of  law;  the  o f c o n s p i r a c y and  the  the  law  the  on E n g l i s h f o u n d a t i o n s , e x c e p t is partly  the  unnecessary.  law  law  result  of  of  same r e m a r k i s a p p l i c a b l e t o A u s t r a l i a n  i t is built complexity  i t s foundations  the E n g l i s h trade union  t h e most o b s c u r e  unincorporated  has  a n a l y s i s of- l e g a l  c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n was  we  law  trade  i t i s e v e n more  of the d i v i s i o n  of  the  20 industrial  of the  power b e t w e e n t h e  s t a t e s and  One  must be  of  law  i n England  conditions  conscious and  Australia  different of  of t h e . t r a d e  i n each c o u n t r y .  the b i t t e r n e s s of  the maritime,  of  province  movement t o  strikes  mining  conditions peculiar f o r l a w and legal  industries  The  r e g u l a t i o n was  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n  of the  to  order.  1890's.  The  grew  unions  s u f f e r e d severe  out  in  defeats,  r e l a t i v e l y weak b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o r b e c a u s e  gouts."  to p o l i t i c a l  sought to l i b e r a l i s e obtaining for  union  The  and  of  r e l a t i v e l y weak b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o r b e c a u s e of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n  the " c o l o n i a l  turned  new  Essentially,  p a s t o r a l and  because of e i t h e r either  the  union  development  that the b a s i c a t t i t u d e s  i n each c o u n t r y were d i f f e r e n t .  attitudes  Commonwealth.  t h e f a c t when c o m p a r i n g t h e  A u s t r a l i a were f a v o u r a b l e to t h i s basic  the  equal  some p a r i t y  In order  action,  and  existing  t o remedy t h i s  unlike their  law, -their  f o o t i n g w i t h employers i n b a r g a i n i n g power.  situation,  EngLish  counterparts  who  e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d to  immediately, The  unions  strike  r a t h e r than w a i t i n g  i s s u e i n v o l v e d was  the  the  e x i s t e n c e of t r a d e unionism i t s e l f .  find  an  impartial  governmental compulsory  body t o judge  b i a s would  arbitration,  by u n i o n s .  The  industrial  a l s o deemed n e c e s s a r y t o  m a t t e r s as  always favour employers. and  p o w e r as a means o f f i n d i n g n a t u r a l consequence  I t was  thus the r e j e c t i o n equilibrium.  t o o u t l a w combined  anti-strike  laws  The  of the In  With t h i s  activity  states  unlike  except  dispute  are free  the s t a t e  coupled w i t h  The  t o implement  t h e two  the l i m i t s  their  of  civil  and  civil  make  law. and  any  the states  o f a n y one  of  powers of  state.  abritration  for restraint  inducement  a w i d e r ambit  The  schemes  by  tribunals.  c o m p l e x i t y of the c o - e x i s t a n c e operating within  set  limits,  Australia  relations. on  trade union a c t i v i t y  exist  in Australia. scope by  i n combination-with a n t i - s t r i k e  intimidation;  available with  strikes  the p r o t e c t i o n  s e t s of a r b i t r a t i o n machinery which g i v e  conspiracy i s given a greater  means" a r g u m e n t  that  power t o  t h e Commonwealth one,  law r e s t r i c t i o n s  Canada as b a s e s  compulsory  o r by d e l e g a t i n g  system of i n d u s t r i a l  civil  remembered  before, i t i s this  s y s t e m and  in  of  a  The. C o m m o n w e a l t h i s a l l o w e d t o ' s t e p i n . when t h e  legislation  a v e r y unique  i t was  i n so f a r a s t h e y h a v e g i v e n s u c h p o w e r s t o t h e  e x t e n d s beyond  As m e n t i o n e d of  industrial  i n the nature of  the p r o v i n c e s of Canada, have the f u l l  legislature.  using direct  was  i m p i n g e on b o t h c r i m i n a l a n d  C a n a d a ' s i t must be  sovereign nations  industrial  that  courts.  comparison with  federal  result  attitude,  o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the A u s t r a l i a n background  Australia,  feared  of t h e use of  T h u s t r a d e u n i o n s w e r e b r o u g h t more c l o s e l y w i t h i n control  i t was  t h e use  that  used  However, the of the  legislation  to procure breach of c o n t r a c t than elsewhere because  are  of the  and  tort  "illegal, the  i s also no-strike  tort  legislation.  The  Enforcement  In even  of Statutory,  Criminal  and C i v i l  general the forbidden a c t i v i t y  though  under  the meaning o f s t r i k e v a r i e s  Law R e s t r a i n t s  the a n t i - s t r i k e  from state  legislation,  t o s t a t e , h a s two  elements: i)  a combined  refusal  t o work  ii)  a combined  purpose  of c o e r c i n g  W i t h t h e s e two e l e m e n t s strikes? accept Point  employer.  o f p r o h i b i t i o n why d o e s A u s t r a l i a  I t apparently arises  from the f a c t  employment i s a p r o t e c t e d  that  this  employers  fairly  armoury  tenets of the c i v i l  by Sykes  no-strike  the right  of sanctions at t h e i r  f o r this  law i s that  on a c o m p u l s o r y  even  and c r i m i n a l  apparent d i s l i k e though  arbitration  have  to refuse to strike.  strikes.  n o t u s e them t o r e s t r a i n u n i o n p r e s s u r e r a t h e r  on t h e haphazard advanced  wide  still  a c t i v i t y and t h e r e f o r e n o t a  two b a s i c a l l y o u t l a w s s e c o n d a r y and sympathy With  do  an  law?  disposal than  why  rely  One r e a s o n  of using p e n a l t i e s  under  t r a d e u n i o n s were t h e ones t o i n s i s t  system from which these p r o v i s i o n s  resulted,  22 t h e y have always r e g a r d e d t h e r i g h t to  state that  as  i texists  ineffective; The  there i s s t i l l in Australia.  to strike  as s a c r e d .  He g o e s o n  room f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g T h i s d o e s n o t mean n o - s t r i k e  i t merely points out that  i n the system  laws a r e  they are not enforced frequently.  I n j u n c t i o n and i t s Use  T h i s remedy i s a v a i l a b l e both c r i m i n a l injunction  and c i v i l  law.  are very similar  i n A u s t r a l i a a s a means o f e n f o r c i n g  The r u l e s  governing the issuance of the  t o t h o s e i n E n g l a n d and Canada.  An  injunction  can  be  unions given  i s s u e d on n o t i c e o r ex  p a r t e and  t h e y may  be  d i r e c t e d at  trade  ( a s f o r many p u r p o s e s u n d e r S t a t e L a w s , T r a d e U n i o n A c t s corporate  standing The  t o unions) , or to c e r t a i n  and  servants.  o r d e r , as  The  remedy f o r d i s o b e y i n g  i n C a n a d a , m u s t be  a court  injunction  the defendent or contempt.  T h e r e seems t o be  civil  contempt, but  c o n t e m p t and  an>injunction,  and  criminal thus  only a c i v i l  because the d i s o b e d i e n c e An  injunction  organizations  offends  i s indeed  in their  their  agents  certain  and  without  i s against  the  property  some c o n f u s i o n  very  w e l l become  d i g n i t y of the  the v i o l a t i o n  to  c o n s p i r a c y , or because of the  of c r i m i n a l  of  court.  endeavours t o combine or t h r e a t e n  i n j u n c t i o n b a s e d on  of  criminal  a v e r y u s e f u l weapon w i t h w h i c h t o  an  defect.  between  o f t e n a mere b r e a c h  c o n t e m p t , may  the  people,  have  to combine.  or c i v i l  commission of a t o r t ,  restrict  law w i t h  or  i n the  Thus,  respect  case  of  23 intimidation, In and  thus  i t should  Australia make t h i s  civil tort  e a s e o f o b t a i n i n g an union  pressure  be  readily  conspiracy  i s a u g m e n t e d by  v e r y eas.y^tp  injunction,  tactics.  The  i n j u n c t i o n have been modest this  available.  establish.  i t i s not  output  Again,  even w i t h  involving  the  Sykes e x p l a i n s , t h i s  laws  this  used f r e q u e n t l y to e n j o i n  of cases  indeed.  the a n t i - s t r i k e  trade  equity  sentiment  in  way; "The e x p l a n a t i o n seems t o be t h a t i t h a s become a tendency w i t h employees to t h i n k e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms o f t h e p e n a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a r b i t r a t i o n s t a t u t e and -. a w a r d s made t h e r e u n d e r . P e r h a p s . t h e r e i s a l s o the r e f l e c t i o n that t h i s type of a c t i o n i n v o l v e s l e s s perm a n e n t i l l - f e e l i n g t h a n m u l c t i n g t h e u n i o n i n damages i n the o r d i n a r y c o u r t . A f t e r a l l , management h a s t o l i v e w i t h t h e u n i o n . -24  There  i s a l s o another  because there  i s , and  p o s s i b l e reason has  been> an  why  the  apparent  injunctive  use  i s so  l a c k of v i o l e n c e over  modest, the  past  twenty-five this one  even i n the  most s t r e n u o u s l y  a p p a r e n t non-employment of may  so.  years,  feel  For  one-half  that A u s t r a l i a  e x a m p l e , i n 1963 million,  lost  sanctions  i s f r e e of  against  industrial  Australia, with  1,755,000 man  contested trade  union  disputes.  a population  h o u r s due  issues.-  of  activity, This  is  eleven  to s t r i k e s ;  With  not  and  i n Canada  with  26 a population  of  eighteen  indeed  seems t h a t  strike  legislation  by  pre-occupation  the  the  o n l y 917,000 hours were l o s t .  p a c i v i t y of  and  by of  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n Is  million,  instances  t h e way  of  t h e n the  a p p e a r t o have i n Canada?  Australian  affairs,  i t does suggest  writer's views, bargaining, progress  as  that  i t i s i n Canada and  unacceptable.  this  i s t h e way  in Australia,  Mechanics of  The  and  Not  being  i n which the  of  and  i f this  to  agreement, then the  that  the  States  i n an  fails  p a r t i e s must a c c e p t .  and  the  Coupled w i t h legislative  As  there  l a c k of use  i s not  a free  thus would appear, i n overly c r i t i c a l trade  union  bodies  two  of  the  in  is  an  collective  of  the  forced  movement w i s h e d  this  type  to  of i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Its Effects  i s quite s t r a i g h t forward.  must be  The  conciliation;  i f this  fails  public authority w i l l  make an  award  t h e w r i t e r has  already mentioned,  Commonwealth have a r b i t r a t i o n m a c h i n e r y l i v i n g  this,  explained  the  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n  parties negotiate; culminate  be  s o l u t i o n to the i n j u n c t i v e  thus appears to accept  Compulsory A r b i t r a t i o n  theory  best  relations with  From i t s a p p a r e n t  However, c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n process  i n j u n c t i o n , can  anti-  system.  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n  bargaining  enforcement under  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n labour  p r o b l e m we  answer.  the  of  So i t  side-byside.  s t a t e s h a v e Wage B o a r d s w h i c h a r e  which determine working c o n d i t i o n s that are  the  essentially to  prevail  in  an i n d u s t r y .  The r e m a i n i n g  s t a t e s have a r b i t r a l  t r i b u n a l s w h i c h make 27  a w a r d s i n a manner r e s e m b l i n g  the technique  The a w a r d h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d in  scope t h a t  opportunity The award not  i n t h e main there  as b e i n g  o f t h e Commonwealth body. so c o m p r e h e n s i v e and e l a b o r a t e  remains r e l a t i v e l y  f o r t h e common l a w t o a p p l y  little  occasion or  i n employment t o w h i c h t h e y  i s made u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e t r i b u n a l a n d t h u s  depend on agreement between t h e p a r t i e s .  legislation  than to a contract.  relate.  does  T h u s i t i s more s i m i l a r t o  Under t h e S t a t e  system t h e t r i b u n a l s  h a v e t h e p o w e r t o make a common r u l e f o r a l l t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e particular  industry.  G o i n g one s t e p strike  clauses.  further, the State  awards w i l l  often contain  anti-  The s t a t u t o r y i n j u n c t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e a s a s a n c t i o n f o r  b r e a c h o f such an award. What t h e n  i s t h e e f f e c t of such a system?  that both sides r e l y one  another.  on t h e system t o r e g u l a t e  The b a s i c r e a s o n , f o r t h i s  designed merely t o prevent oppression  their  i s that  of  interest. not  of conciliation  a s i n some o t h e r  originally  organization,  inAustralia.  There i s  i s the balancing  and t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c  The v i e w h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d  as c o m p e t i t i v e  greater  institutions  one p r o b l e m w h i c h e x i s t s i n a r b i t r a t i o n and t h a t  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  submitted  relationships with  o f w o r k e r s and t h e i r  h a v e become e s s e n t i a l t o o l s o f e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g indeed  I t has been  that  i n A u s t r a l i a t h e economy i s  countries'.  Consequently, there i s  d a n g e r o f agreement b e t w e e n e m p l o y e r and u n i o n b e i n g  contrary to  28 public  interest.  C o n c l u s iThe o n s w r i t e r has r e f e r r e d t o labour  r e l a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a as s t a t e  and  t h e n as f e d e r a l , r e g u l a t e d .  H o w e v e r , t h e S t a t e a w a r d s do t e n d t o f o l l o w  Commonwealth awards and t h u s g i v e system. one  There  industry,  i s also a belief i s a p r o p e r way  C o u n c i l of Trade and  Unions  a picture  that  o f one c o m p u l s o r y  centralized  u n i o n i s m , one u n i o n f o r  to s e t t l e disagreements.  i s t h e body which  is striving  The  p e r c e n t o f a l l u n i o n members  body i n g e t t i n g  for this  i t i s indeed a very  labour to think along national  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s Australia  related  of the p a r t i e s  from Great B r i t a i n ' s .  In other words,  compared t o t h e f o r m e r one o f m u t u a l there  i s concern with  effect  to collective  the system of labour r e l a t i o n s  system, that the  i n terms  i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , even strike.  courts.  arbitration  is directly  bargaining.  the l a t t e r  consent.  In extreme  i s highly regulated  With the A u s t r a l i a n  as  system  t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e awards and t h e  lack of t h i n k i n g  illegal  influential  extends to the opposite  o f b r e a c h of such awards on i n d u s t r y  resultant  to  s y s t e m and s t r u c t u r e o f  r e v e a l s , as i t d i d i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e B r i t i s h  to the attitudes  Australia  the  concept  lines.  frequency o r i n c i d e n c e of the use of the labour i n j u n c t i o n  stop  Australian  s i n c e t w e n t y - s i x per cent of a l l t r a d e unions comprise f i f t y  sixty-five  out  arbitral  Both p a r t i e s  of c i v i l  the resort  Management  as a whole.  would  to c o l l e c t i v e  or criminal  There  is a  law.  As  pointed  t o t h e use o f the i n j u n c t i o n t o rather  solve the dispute  bargaining  system s e t aside from both governmental  prefer  outside  t o have t h e  as w e l l  as  legal  intervention. The s t u d y o f B r i t i s h  and A u s t r a l i a n  the  i n j u n c t i o n does a g a i n r e i n f o r c e  use  of the i n j u n c t i o n  the  country; i n Australia  i s a direct  l a b o u r law e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  the theory that  function  t h e i n c i d e n c e and t h e  of the a t t i t u d e s  prevailing i n  t h e r e i s not the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c i v i l  and  criminal  law a s . t h e r e i s i n Canada.  injunction  available  i f needed,  and  However, t h e r e  is still  trade unions claim,  a  statutory  as i n C a n a d a ,  that 29  it  i s used o v e r - f r e q u e n t l y by p e t t y Needless  the t h i n k i n g  to say, just  along national  employers  trying  the appearance o f compulsory lines  o r g a n i z a t i o n makes a n y d i r e c t  and  comparison with  disobeyed.  i t merely appears that  arbitration,  the v e r y unique c l i m a t e of Canada a l m o s t  i s not a m a t t e r o f s a y i n g c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n has the. i n j u n c t i o n ,  to break unionism.  limited  the awards a r e s a c r e d  industrial  impossible. t h e use and  not  of  It  CHAPTER I I I  THE  LABOUR I N J U N C T I O N I N THE  In studying it  should  be  the  understood  economic c l i m a t e . emphaticly  that  t h a t we  finally  conditions before  will  States  should  the  has  statement  1932  as  Act  can  the  be  with  was  the  their  For  The  any  With  practical  these  with  relevance  Act  the  to the  brief  with  the  w r i t e r does  of and  not  say  1932.''' other  the  .  The points  comparison can  be  comments, t h e w r i t e r  i n j u n c t i o n and  Canadian  socio-  state  example, they  brought to l i g h t  before  injunction  leaders,  difficulties  solution.  made.  labour  under a d i f f e r e n t  N o r r i s - L a Guardia  must be  considered  to the  solved  follow their  the American experience  some c o n c l u s i o n s  experience  experience  the American e x p e r i e n c e .  explore  Federal  their  r e s o l v e d by  o f d i f f e r e n c e must be made w i t h  States  Many c o m m e n t a t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y l a b o u r  such a s i m p l e  m a t t e r was  that  that the United  i n j u n c t i o n and feel  United  UNITED STATES  then  draw  situation.  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power  The system of  very  first  labour  dominates.  point of departure  relations  i s that  Labour r e l a t i o n s  constitutional  d o c t r i n e of  are  i n the  regulated  conflict  c o n t r o l s w i t h i n areas occupied  and i n t e n d e d The  by  C o n g r e s s t o be  s t a t e s do  conduct c o n s t i t u t i n g or  of  peace.  This  has  given  on  federal  U.S.  legislation  a national level.  The  by  only  w i t h f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n , but the  e x e r c i s e o f f e d e r a l power  f r e e from s t a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e .  have j u r i s d i c t i o n  to  U.S.  C a n a d i a n and  supremacy o f f e d e r a l power p r o h i b i t s not  state regulations which d i r e c t l y a l s o any  between the  t o e n j o i n and  2  legislate with  threatening p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e or other s t a t e s power t o r e g u l a t e p i c k e t  line  respect  breaches  conduct,  even i f t h e u n d e r l y i n g  labour  dispute  dominance o f f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e consequential to  power o v e r  inter-state  American economic  life  quite  a contrast  s h a r p l y as both  Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  Essentially  Thus i f any c o m p a r i s o n  t h a t t h e N. L. R. A.  code and t h a t n o n t r e a t m e n t o f a s u b j e c t  t h e s t a t e power u n a f f e c t e d .  legislation.  one l e g i s l a t i v e  matter  theory  governments enact  power f i l l s  differs labour  gaps o f t h e o t h e r .  i s made b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s one m u s t l o o k a t  t h e U.S. f e d e r a l l a w a n d c o m p a r e i t to' o u r p r o v i n c i a l  laws.  N o r r i s - L a Guardia A c t  In Guardia  order  t o understand  Act i t i s necessary  the legislative  important  theory behind  to look at the state of labour  C o m m e n c i n g a b o u t 1886 a n d c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h an  commerce a n d t h e  i s indeed  d o c t r i n e of f e d e r a l pre-emption recognizes  not a complete labour  leaves  Pre  The  our system. This  is  dominance over  i s i n t h e f e d e r a l sphere.  and f r e q u e n t l y d e c i s i v e e f f e c t  the Norris-La law a t that  time.  t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s t h e i n j u n c t i o n had on t h e outcome of d i s p u t e s  3 between e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s . injunctions, and  enforced,  The f r e q u e n c y  as w e l l as t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s provoked  an 4  outpouring  and t h e scope o f these  under w h i c h they were  issued  o f c r i t i c i s m b y men a n d women  from a l l walks of l i f e . The recognized  e r a again depicts the e f f o r t s as a l e g i t i m a t e cause.  of labour  unions  The A m e r i c a n l a w t o w a r d  t o become collective  a c t i o n b y l a b o u r was d o m i n a t e d b y t h e E n g l i s h d o c t r i n e s o f c o n s p i r a c y and  restraint  of trade.  With t h i s  injunctive  r e m e d y was u s e d  movement.  T h e common l a w , w h i l e  type  t o thwart  o f background • i n mind t h e  collective  action of the labour  l e a v i n g employers u n r e s t r a i n e d  i n their  use in  of economic f o r c e , placed mind, u n t i l  1932 l i t t l e  permit him to j o i n showed  the labour  activities  s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s o n u n i o n s . ~*  h a d b e e n done t o p r o t e c t  i n concert  with  f e l l o w workers.  i n j u n c t i o n as b e i n g  a n d showed  that  f l i m s y evidence.  considered  unlawful.  1 9 3 0 w e r e 1,845  they were being  issued  by c o u r t s  The number o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d  or t o studies  picketing  on t h e b a s i s  generally  b e t w e e n 1880 and  t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s when 921 w e r e  levied against  tion  the customary court  I t was  documented  T h u s p r i o r t o 1 9 3 2 a l l p i c k e t i n g was  a n d t h e p e a k d e c a d e was  time.  Well  this  *  T h e r e w e r e many c r i t i c i s m s at that  t h e w o r k i n g man  used t o p r o h i b i t p e a c e f u l  6 of v e r y  Keeping  issued.^  t h e abuse o f the l a b o u r procedure which  injunc-  was  criticized. Professor  E d w i n E. W i t t e  listed  the complaints against  the  c u s t o m a r y c o u r t p r o c e d u r e as f o l l o w s : 1. Defendants d i d n o t have a f a i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t side of the case. Ex p a r t e o r d e r s w e r e i s s u e d . sufficient affidavits  their  2.  I n j u n c t i o n s were o f t e n i s s u e d w i t h o u t Notoriously exaggerated or inaccurate the. b a s i s o f many ex p a r t e o r d e r s .  3.  They w e r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a s t i n such vague and g e n e r a l t e r m s t h a t t h e y n o t o n l y c o n s t i t u t e d an u n w a r r a n t e d e x t e n s i o n o f j u d i c i a l p o w e r s , b u t a l s o c o u l d n o t be u n d e r s t o o d b y t h o s e t o whom t h e y w e r e d i r e c t e d . They were v i r t u a l l y judge-made s t a t u t e s g o v e r n i n g t h e conduct of e n t i r e i n d u s t r i a l communities.  4.  T h e r e w e r e no a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s  5.  I n j u n c t i o n s denied a f a i r t r i a l to persons accused of a crime. Here W i t t e r e f e r s , to.contempt cases, without a j u r y , b e f o r e t h e same j u d g e who i s s u e d t h e i n j u n c t i o n .  f o r prompt  proof. were  appeals.  P o s t i n g o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n bonds by p a r t i e s s e e k i n g i n j u n c t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n p r a c t i c e l i t t l e o r no p r o t e c t i o n to unions. Bonds were e i t h e r a t r i d i c u l o u s l y low amounts, or were not r e q u i r e d at a l l . It.was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to i d e n t i f y defendants i n labour cases f o r losses they s u s t a i n e d , p r i n c i p a l l y ' b e c a u s e t h e e f f e c t o f an i n j u n c t i o n u p o n a s t r i k e , f o r e x a m p l e , c o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s . Further., the i n e l i g i b i l i t y of defendants t o  r e c o v e r on a b o n d u n t i l a f t e r t h e d e n i a l o f a p e r m a n e n t i n j u n c t i o n - a stage seldom reached i n i n d u s t r i a l disputes v i r t u a l l y p r e c l u d e d any recovery.^ All  of  the  foregoing  c r i t i c i s m s , Witte  concluded,  rested  " n o t upon the c l a i m t h a t a p r o c e d u r e i s f o l l o w e d i n labour cases d i f f e r e n t from that i n other i n j u n c t i o n s u i t s , but r a t h e r upon the argument t h a t a d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e o u g h t t o be a p p l i e d b e c a u s e t h e s i t u a t i o n presented i n i n d u s t r i a l disputes d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from that of o r d i n a r y l e g a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s . R u l e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n o t h e r s u i t s , w o r k b a d l y and u n j u s t l y i n l a b o u r c a s e s . It is not t h a t l a b o u r i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d against,, but t h a t i n d u s t r i a l disputes present s p e c i a l problems r e q u i r i n g special treatment.^ Benjamin Aaron also at  that  time.  The  summarizes the  criticisms  p r i n c i p l e c o u n t s w e r e as  of  the  injunction  follows;  1.  t h e c o u r t s had r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t b r e a c h e s o f p e a c e c o u l d be r e d r e s s e d t h r o u g h c r i m i n a l and civil a c t i o n s f o r damages;  2.  t h e y had e x p a n d e d a s i m p l e j u d i c i a l d e v i c e i n t o an e n v e l o p i n g code of p r o h i b i t e d c o n d u c t , a b s o r b i n g en mass e x e c u t i v e and p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s ;  3.  i s s u a n c e o f r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r s and p r e l i m i n a r y i n j u n c t i o n s c o u l d n o t p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s q u o - - i r r e p a r a b l e damage t o a u n i o n c o u l d r e s u l t f r o m an i n j u n c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t an e m p l o y e r f r o m s i m i l a r l o s s ;  4.  c o u r t s c o u l d n o t f i n d f a c t s q u i c k l y and f a i r l y by r e l y i n g u p o n t h e c o m p l a i n t and t h e a f f i d a v i t s of- i n t e r e s t e d o r professional witnesses;  5.  t h e l e g a l d o c t r i n e s i n l a b o u r i n j u n c t i o n s w e r e i l l u s o r y and a m b i g u o u s , and t e n d e d t o r e f l e c t t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s of the judges t h e m s e l v e s 1 0  To  further exemplify  Pound o b s e r v e d o n s e t by "an individual  nullification  p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g at  t h a t A m e r i c a n l e g a l t h i n k i n g had  that  time  been dominated from  u n c o m p r o m i s i n g i n s i s t e n c e upon i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t  property  a d h e r a n c e by  the  the  the  as  a f o c a l point  judicary with  o f f e d e r a l and  the  of  jurisprudence.This  liberty  to contract  s t a t . e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h was  led to  Roscoe the  and stubborn  the  designed  to  outlaw the infamous "yellow-dog" court  declared  contract.  The U n i t e d  States  such s t a t u t e s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l under the f i f t h  supreme  and f o u r -  13 teenth  amendments. T h u s i t was  philosophy  should  intimidation,  regard  even p e a c e f u l  must be n o t e d  t h e U.S.  c o u r t s a n d t o assume b u s i n e s s by  the i n j u n c t i o n .  The c o u r t s  i n t e r e s t s were p r o p e r t y t o be t h i n g s o f v a l u e  courts  lawless  broadly  defined.  And  c h o s e t o go f u r t h e r t h a n t h e E n g l i s h  interest  also are property,  d i d not r e a l l y  a t a l l but were o n l y  which they  t o be  protected  care whether or not such c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e c l a r i n g them  b e l i e v e d should  be s a f e - g u a r d e d  i n the  o n l y p r a c t i c a l way--by  t h e i n j u n c t i o n . " * E q u a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e was t h e  tendency of the courts  to regard  resorted Act.  1  of trade  t h e n was  the l a i s s e z - f a r e  the climate preceding  p r o h i b i t e d by t h e Sherman  was  c h a n g i n g and c r i t i c i s m  Not o n l y were t h e y  another  to unions;  t h e c o u r t s w e r e condemned  to enjoin i n effective  underlying  causes of t h e i r  sion  developed  to organize  o f t h e c o u r t s began t o  discontent.  help, while Also with  theory  collectively,  f o r d e f e a t i n g , by t h e  issuance  c o n t r a c t s , the attempts of working  forms of s e l f  the bootstrap  and b a r g a i n  The  a c c u s e d o f a p p l y i n g one l a w t o e m p l o y e r s a n d  i n j u n c t i o n s enforcing "yellow-dog"  there  t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e 1932 A c t  d o c t r i n e s o f t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s b e g a n t o be c h a l l e n g e d .  mount.  men  pressures  1 6  mood o f t h e c o u n t r y  of  a wide v a r i e t y of economic  t o by u n i o n s as r e s t r a i n t s  This as  this  e q u i t a b l e remedy f o r t h r e a t e n e d 14  t h e f r e e enjoyment of " p r o p e r t y " that  imbued w i t h  p i c k e t i n g as a form of  and t h e i n j u n c t i o n t h e p r o p e r  interference with it  not s u r p r i s i n g t o see t h a t a j u d i c i a r y  they  that  l e a v i n g unsolved  the onset of the depres-  i f workers were  could  the  improve t h e i r  d e p l o r a b l e w a g e s and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s b y c o n c e r t e d  action. ^ 1  permitted own Yet the  labour  i n j u n c t i o n remained an e f f e c t i v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n c e r t e d Thus w i t h experience Norris-La All  with  this  Guardia  the principles  rights  legislation.  injunction prior  self-  of free c o l l e c t i v e  t o t h e enactment o f t h e  i n Canada a t t h e p r e s e n t  time.  b a r g a i n i n g have l o n g been b a s i c  Columbia and, i n f a c t ,  i n Canadian  labour  I t i s t h e w r i t e r ' s v i e w t h a t we a r e n o t i n a p e r i o d o f  government by i n j u n c t i o n as i n t h e U n i t e d injunctive  such  i n m i n d , we c a n n o t c o m p a r e t h e A m e r i c a n  Act with the situation  i n Ontario, B r i t i s h  t o prevent  activity.  climate  the labour  device  remedy i n Canada t o d a y  States  prior  t o 1932.  i s basically-used to restore  The order  18 and  peace a l o n g p i c k e t l i n e s .  available in  every  and u t i l i z e d province  The r e l i e f  i n connection  i n Canada.  Labour F e d e r a t i o n B r i e f  in  type  every  of r e l i e f  major  procedure permits i s  with p i c k e t i n g i n labour  More over  granted  industrial  disputes  i t i s n o t c o r r e c t , as t h e O n t a r i o  (1966) a s s e r t s , t h a t t h e use o f c o u r t  i n j u n c t i o n has been removed f r o m The  this  labour disputes  i n the United  i n o u r c o u r t s w o u l d be g r a n t e d 19 state of the United  granted States.  i n "cases  cited"  States.  Passage of the N o r r i s - L a Guardia A c t  The  extent  o f t h e change i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e  i n j u n c t i o n was r e f l e c t e d Guardia  A c t was a d o p t e d b y b o t h  A c t was o n e o f l a b o u r ' s E. W i t t e  describes  toward the labour  i n t h e s i z e a b l e m a j o r i t y by w h i c h t h e N o r r i s - L a 20  greatest  Houses o f Congress a n d most e n d u r i n g  i n March  1932.  legislative  The  victories.  the purpose of the A c t ;  "The...act does not attempt t o d e s t r o y i n j u n c t i o n s . What i t a i m s t o do I s t o p r e v e n t e m p l o y e r s , f r o m g a i n i n g t h r o u g h i n j u n c t i o n s an u n f a i r a d v a n t a g e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s . I t s e e k s t o k e e p t h e c o u r t s f r o m i n t e r f e r i n g when o r d i n a r y l a w - e n f o r c i n g methods a r e a d e q u a t e , and t o compel them t o :  g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s of the o r d e r s they are asked to i s s u e . I t aims t o g i v e the d e f e n d a n t s a f a i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r s i d e o f t h e c a s e and r e q u i r e s the c o u r t s to weigh c a r e f u l l y the testimony. It makes t h e r i g h t o f a p p e a l r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e and a c c o r d s t r i a l t o j u r y t o p e r s o n s a c c u s e d of v i o l a t ions;." A  careful reading  specific  detail  most l a b o u r  the  of  design  disputes  and  the  endorsement of  bargaining  and  the  sections  to prevent  the  used.  procedural  the Act  r e q u i r e m e n t of a review of  of  discloses  injunctions  abuses i n  P e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t  a p o l i c y favourable  Very b r i e f l y  of  to p r o h i b i t the-issuance  s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e i t m i g h t be firm  fifteen  in  those  i s the  Act's  to c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n  non-intervention  t h e most  by  important  the  in  and  courts.  sections w i l l  exemplify  22 what t h e Section  Act's 2  a  purposes were.  - The  statement of  neutral  t h o s e who organize labour  public policy "that  the  position, lending  its" extra ordinary  would have l a b o u r  u n o r g a n i z e d nor  it."  Thus the  p o l i c y was  responsibility  reserved  f o r the  Government s h a l l power n e i t h e r  t o t h o s e who  for formulating  Congress, not  the  occupy  to  would a  national  courts.  "The c e n t r a l p r o p o s i t i o n was t h a t l a w s e r v e d no u s e f u l purpose i n l a b o r d i s p u t e s , save p o s s i b l y to p r o t e c t t a n g i b l e p r o p e r t y and p r e s e r v e p u b l i c o r d e r . Its p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g was t h e b e l i e f t h a t g o v e r n ment s h o u l d n o t r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s o r s u b s t i t u t e i t s wage or p r i c e determination f o r p r i v a t e contracts i n a f r e e market."23 Section  3 - Declared public  Section  4  the  p o l i c y and  - L i s t e d nine  federal paying general  courts  hated yellow-dog contract unenforceable  separate a c t i v i t i e s  were f o r b i d d e n  to  s t r i k e benefits, peaceful the  v i o l e n c e was  in federal  normal s t r i k e present.  t o be  contrary  courts.  including strikes,  enjoin.  as  which  These a c t i v i t i e s  picketing,- peaceful  activities,  to  long  as  included  assembly — i n  neither  fraud  nor  Section  7 - Enumerated an and  procedural  safeguards  i n j u n c t i o n could I n summary, t h e injunction form of Act  against  strikes,  d i d not  the  completely  i t s use  be  s e r i e s of  that  as  Professor  Act  the  Act  effectively  peacefully  and  conducted  the  i n 1951  came t o t h e  l a y i n the  and  the  and  coal strikes the  end  Labor Disputes", courts; , federal  .  at  courts  State  courts  as  l e a s t 508 i n the  obviously but  the  Ex  parte  but  Southeastern  still  United  few  forth  the  federal  of  to  unions.  Act  the F e d e r a l  Courts  a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n Act  i f t h e r e was  still  Act  Government  complaining,  since in  had  a  u n i o n s were a g a i n  States  the  did suffice  Taft-Hartley  in Witte's,  i n j u n c t i o n s had  1920's.  F r o m 1933  1947  railroad  "The  Government  been i s s u e d to  1951  by  only  in  Federal sixty-six  24  issued. solved  the  p r o b l e m w h i c h was  l e g i s l a t i o n was orders represent  States.  that  the  years.  set  . '  Act  courts.  the  Guardia  the  in  remembered t h a t  p r a c t i c e of  that  under the  an  i n j u n c t i o n from the  Norris-La  conclusion  by  1931,  i n j u n c t i o n s were  made,  any  a c t i o n whether  economic pressures  i n j u n c t i o n " , as  last  .  State  and  of  the m a j o r i t y  The Federal  i n the  t o be  to obtain  a f t e r the Act  i t s p u r p o s e s and  injunctions issued  By  labour  examined the  injunctions issued  labour  I t m u s t be  a weapon t o t h w a r t the  accomplished  had  observed before  impossible  r e d u c e d number i s s u e d  p r o b l e m of "government by it  t o be  made i t a l m o s t  eliminate  Witte  findings that  issued.  Labour I n j u n c t i o n Subsequent to the  since  had  p i c k e t i n g or boycotts.  c o u r t s , however the nullify  elaborate  are  not  now  the  q u i t e as  prevalent effective in  f a r l e s s : common ( 1 9 5 1 ) i n  usual  procedure i n the  Los  in  the  the most Angeles  Benjamin Aaron studied  the  question  of State  labour  injunctions in  25 detail. the of  At  fifty the  the  outset  he  s t a t e s h a v e no  labour  points  injunction.  industrial Before  to  s t a t e s of  As  law  and  why  i n 1951, and  State  i t s use  has the  the  b a s i c p o i n t w h i c h n e e d s t o be carriers  and  is  a v a i l a b l e , although  with  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Act  and  Federal  under  the  the  L a b o r Managemen  the  Without going  brought f o r t h  employees to b a r g a i n  to bargain impunity  ment i n t e r v e n e d thus labour's  the  t h e R.L.A. c o m p e l s  the  Injunctive  the  National  collectively,  but  employers were s t i l l  p o w e r w h i c h t h e y had  i n order  Labor R e l a t i o n s Act.  the  e m p l o y e e s who  e m p l o y e e s had  joined unions.  t h e Wagner A c t . a n d  h a n d was  Guardia, to  i n such v i t a l i n d u s t r i e s .  Act  with  relief  Norris-La  unnecessary s t r i k e s 27  1932  punish  the  lengths,  collectively.  remedy i s a v a i l a b l e t o c u r t a i l  passage of the  into great  i s that  narrower than before  the " p u b l i c interest."  (R.L.A.) Under  of accommodating the a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n  I n j u n c t i v e R e l i e f Under the  and  Ohio.  Railway Labor Act.  Norris-La Guardia Act.  With the  s u r p r i s i n g l y , the 26  Act.  r u l e s of  protect  use  the  a v a i l a b l e under the  N a t i o n a l Labor R e l a t i o n s  became a d i f f i c u l t y  the  the  i n j u n c t i o n s , the w r i t e r wishes  been preserved.  R.L.A. t h e r e  but  some t h i r t y - t h r e e o f  group i n c l u d e s a l l of  also, quite  court  I n j u n c t i v e R e l i e f Under the  still  this  i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s s t i l l  Railway Labor Act, Relations  f a c t that  C a l i f o r n i a , M i c h i g a n and  examining the  show w h e r e t h e  the  statutes which comprehensively regulate  southern s t a t e s , except L o u i s i a n a  large  out  enhanced.  obtained.  By In  compelled  1947  1947  the the  the  So the  right  organize  free to r e s i s t i n 1935  the  employer to  u n i o n s began to  Taft  to  (NLRA)  and  Governbargain;  abuse  the  H a r t l e y amendments w e r e  adopted to the Given t h i s It  mood t h e  i s indeed  popular acute led  i n f l a t i o n and 1947  refrain  unionism.  choice,  harming innocent returned  now  p a r t i e s w e r e now courts  received  i f necessary,  by  be  practices.  p o w e r and Section  the  10  The  a sharp change  on  p r o h i b i t e d and  to r e s t r a i n  of  their  a bargaining secondary  the  and  empowers -the d i s t r i c t  and  proper." as  specified  the  NLRA g i v e s  the Board  court  labour i n j u n c t i o n National  a g a i n were  being  over u n f a i r  from Federal  in i t s discretion after  to grant  practice.  u n f a i r labour  the  to  filing  such r e l i e f  "as  of a  to seek i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f - w h e n ( j ) and  complaint,  i t deems  just  as^such  priority  to give  to  strikes, over - a l l  the Board b e l i e v e s such  (1) w e r e d e s i g n e d  in situations described.  "appropriate  (1) d i r e c t s t h e B o a r d  cargo agreements f u l l  the  courts.  seek  practices involving prohibited  c a s e s and  10  hot  Section  p i c k e t i n g and  employers caught  boycotts  s e c t i o n r e f e r s t o r e c o g n i t i o n p r a c t i c e s and  u n f a i r labour  Section  agent  to a . s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency,  relief  boycotts,  true.  to  the F e d e r a l i n j u n c t i o n .  or r e s t r a i n i n g order"  and  classified  right  such a c t i v i t i e s .  s p e c i a l treatment  labour,  r e g u l a t i o n , not  assured by  in  the  T a f t H a r t l e y amendments g a v e t o t h e B o a r d b o t h  (j) authorizes  This  1947,  p r e s t i g e of organized now  power.  extent.  s t r i k e wave o f  de-certified;  duty to o b t a i n unjunctive  temporary r e l i e f  of  limited  N a t i o n a l Labor R e l a t i o n s Board, e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n  labour  are  The  represented  be  to a  t h e r e was  e m p h a s i s was  and  could  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  give  The  activities  to the F e d e r a l  supported,  labour.  E m p l o y e e s w e r e now  a union  emergency s t r i k e s  1947  e n h a n c e d power and  amendments.  from union  their  the  e x i s t i n g balance  revived  t o n o t e t h a t by  a t t i t u d e s toward organized  to the  the  t o e q u a l i z e the  i n j u n c t i v e r e m e d y was  interesting  enhancement of  of  NLRA i n o r d e r  other  charges  speedy r e l i e f  to  Unions NLRB was Act.  a g a i n began t o c o m p l a i n  a regressive  But  here  1 9 3 0 ' s do n o t sought could  feels  r e p r e s e n t the problems  used  T h e r e was by  the  injunctive  t h u s an u n d e r m i n i n g  again, the w r i t e r  to r e l i e v e . n o t be  s t e p and  that  one  i n order to o b t a i n the i n j u n c t i o n .  T h e y had  Thus i t was,  to  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e m e d y s h o u l d be  by  some c o m m e n t a t o r s a s  they f e e l  t h a t was t o go and  used.  c o u r t s c o u l d be v e t o e d b y a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l . that  improper  picketing  before the Board The to  B o a r d was  d e v e l o p new  criticised  remedy  through  the  Board  i s , up  when t h e u n f a i r  the Board  labour practice  and w i l l  cause  to the  s h o u l d be  Board  criticised  of r e l i e f  i n the  quite  likely  of t h r e e t o f o u r weeks  granted.  the P u c i n s k i Subcommittee f o r  techniques to provide e x p e d i t i o u s treatment  a l s o recommended t h a t  restrained  by  the  I t i s indeed  could continue f o r a period  decides i f the r e l i e f  that  right  the  amendments-  T h i s has been  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  Guardia  the s o l u t i o n s of  the T a f t H a r t l e y  s a f e g u a r d and  private parties.  of the N o r r i s - L a  t h e s l o g a n s and  which  remedy g i v e n t h e  make g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n i s c o n t i n u i n g and w i l l  failing  of c a s e s .  They  o f S e c t i o n 10 ( j )  continue unless  i r r e p a r a b l e property or personal i n j u r y or  injury  28 to  the r i g h t s  guaranteed  b y S e c t i o n 7. -  More r e c e n t l y Senator B a l l  criticised  this  screening process  of  t h e NLRB. " I do n o t t h i n k i t h a s e v e r b e e n a s o u n d l i b e r a l p o l i c y t o p l a c e an a p p o i n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l b e t w e e n a c i t i z e n and h i s r i g h t t o go i n t o c o u r t and protect his rights."^9 Also fears 10  that  might  use  this  d i s c r e t i o n a r y power  ( j ) i n an e x c e s s i v e o r o n e - s i d e d manner h a v e p r o v e d  B o t h management and for  the Board  u n i o n s have- c r i t i c i s e d ' t h e B o a r d  i n j u n c t i o n s more o f t e n .  under  t o be  exaggerated.  f o r not  petitioning  A c c o r d i n g t o f i g u r e s " from' J u l y -1948'thro ugh-  J u n e 3 0 , 1965 i t h a s made o n l y  107 a p p l i c a t i o n s o f w h i c h f i f t y - e i g h t  were  30 granted,  t h i r t e e n denied  and t h e r e m a i n d e r u n s e t t l e d o r w i t h d r a w n .  While  u n d e r S e c t i o n 10 ( 1 ) t h e number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e g r o w n f r o m a l o w o f 18 i n 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 2 t o a h i g h o f 282 i n 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 6 2 . I t was h e r e t h a t t h e B o a r d was c r i t i c i s e d f o r n o t e x p e d i t i n g t h e g r e a t e r number o f c a s e s f a l l i n g i n 31 this  priority  class.  Injunctive Belief Relations Act. with  (LMRA)  the labour  Guardia  U n d e r S e c t i o n 301 o f t h e L a b o r Management  The l a s t  phase o f t h e r e v i v e d o r renewed  controversy  i n j u n c t i o n appears under t h e accommodation o f t h e N o r r i s - L a  A c t a n d S e c t i o n 3 0 1 c f t h e LMRA.  a c t i o n f o r damages f o r v i o l a t i o n  S e c t i o n 301 ( a ) a l l o w s an  o f c o n t r a c t between e m p l o y e r and a  union.  S e c t i o n 301 ( b ) p r o v i d e s of  t h a t u n i o n s may b e s u e d a s e n t i t i e s a n d i n b e h a l f 32 t h e employees they r e p r e s e n t . The p r o b l e m a p p e a r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n 33  in the Sinclair a union's  strike  grievance  could  to  a 301 s u i t . This  are  allowed  R e f i n i n g Co. v . A t k i n s o n i nviolation  indeed  to arbitration.  according  to the S i n c l a i r  may, w h i l e ignoring  the Norris-La Guardia  t o b r i n g a c t i o n under S e c t i o n  to strike  t o submit  where such r e l i e f  holding  becomes a n i n t e r e s t i n g  to continue  over  decision.  following their  by S t a t e  apply  upheld.  because t h e employees previously  Aaron r e f e r s t o other 34 courts.  The S t a t e  requirements,  agreed  relief  recent  cases  courts  and t h u s  the federal substantive  injunctive relief question  question  i s l e f t w i t h no a d e q u a t e  own p r o c e d u r a l  the Norris-La Guardia,  In bringing this  that  applicable  3 0 1 was  issues which they  The e m p l o y e r  has been granted  S e c t i o n 301 t o g i v e b o t h  The Court r u l e d  of a n o - s t r i k e c l a u s e over an a r b i t r a b l e  n o t be e n j o i n e d , The r i g h t  case".  law of  a n d damages f o r b r e a c h .  of breach of c o l l e c t i v e  agreement and t h e  injunctive available Act.  relief  i n t o the Canadian context  i n British  Columbia under S e c t i o n  Every c o l l e c t i v e  finally  this  relief i s  22'of t h e Labour  Relations  agreement has w r i t t e n  i n t o i t a procedure f o r  and c o n c l u s i v e l y r e s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s .  collective  agreement i s u n l a w f u l  enjoinable  by t h e c o u r t .  In concluding since  we s e e t h a t  the Nbrris-La  evident  i s that  I n other  under S e c t i o n  words b r e a c h o f  22 a n d t h u s c a n be  the treatment of i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f Guardia Act the f i r s t  point  under F e d e r a l  w h i c h r e a d i l y becomes  t h e remedy has n o t been removed e n t i r e l y  from the Federal  courts.  I t i s i n d e e d , a s A a r o n s t a t e s , t h e most r e m a r k a b l y  judicial  remedy w h i c h w i l l  permitted  to resort  p r o b a b l y be used  law  so l o n g  durable  as p r i v a t e p a r t i e s a r e  t o e c o n o m i c w a r f a r e a s a means o f s e t t l i n g  a  labour  dispute.  Labour I n j u n c t i o n s  As  i n the State  we h a v e a l r e a d y  immunized u n i o n c o n c e r t e d court  to issue  injunctive "little set  Courts  witnessed  the Norris-La  activities  injunctions.  by c u r b i n g  The S t a t e  courts  t h e power o f t h e F e d e r a l  have r e t a i n e d  powers and a r e e x e r c i s i n g them t o d a y .  Norris-La  Guardia's"  down i n t h e F e d e r a l  .such as C a l i f o r n i a  Act.  Some s t a t e s h a v e  follow the procedural  Those s t a t e s w i t h  their  used  Aaron's study,referred  i n Ontario  no,anti-injunction  to e a r l i e r ,  laws and he f o u n d  that  and B r i t i s h surveyed  they s t i l l  enacted  s a f e g u a r d s as  and T e x a s , a p p e a r t o p r o c e e d on t h e b a s i s  evidence s i m i l a r to that  anti-injunctive  and thus  Guardia Act p r a c t i c a l l y  laws,  of a f f i d a v i t  Columbia.  s i xstates which issue  labour  have  injunctions 35  in  instances  i n w h i c h p i c k e t i n g • i s accompanied by t h r e a t s  and v i o l e n c e . .  C a l i f o r n i a , w h i c h h a s no a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n l a w , b a s i c a l l y d e a l s  with  picketing  on  the basis  enjoined  and t h e number o f p i c k e t s  obstructs, is  o f common l a w d e v e l o p m e n t .  annoys and i n t i m i d a t e s  enjoinable,  peaceful  Mass p i c k e t i n g  may b e l i m i t e d .  Picketing  i s restrained  which  o t h e r s by i n s u l t s and menacing  as i s t h e u s e o f f a l s e and m i s l e a d i n g  picketing  i s consistently  only  attitudes  statements; but  when i t i s i r r e v o c a b l y  blended  with  36 acts  of violence The  to has  issue  and i n t i m i d a t i o n .  q u e s t i o n may a r i s e a t t h i s injunctive relief  described?  State  i n r e l a t i o n to the p i c k e t i n g which  legislative  power o v e r p i c k e t  e n c r o a c h upon o r e x i s t c o - e x t e n s i v e l y court the  system s t i l l  Norris-La  procedures  allows  p o i n t , why a r e t h e s t a t e s  with  line  the federal  an employer t o o b t a i n  the writer  conduct  court  may  power, b u t t h e s t a t e  injunctive relief  Guardia, because t h e A c t r e s t r i c t e d the f e d e r a l  i n the Federal  permitted  free of  power; o v e r  and n o t t h e - f e d e r a l power o v e r  interstate  commerce. T h u s a n e m p l o y e r who h a s a c a u s e f o r r e l i e f is  prevented  State  courts  from o b t a i n i n g  such r e l i e f  are available.  Each s t a t e  m e n t s w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d issue non  of the of  t h e ex p a r t e o r d e r .  anti states  t h e remedy.  adoption of state t h e conduct  at the federal  The u s e o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n showed a g e n e r a l  some s u g g e s t i o n s why t h i s  regulated  by t h e S t a t e  more i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e d o c t r i n e exclusion  of the state  labour practice of  relief  l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s :boards w i t h  previously  level,  but the  t h e scope o f s t a t e  requirestill  i n b o t h t h e a n t i and decline 37  i n t h e use  i s so.  Firstly,  jurisdiction  courts.  of f e d e r a l  u n d e r t h e NLRA, t o g e t h e r w i t h  conduct  and o t h e r s w i l l  over  preemption.  t h e expanded injunctions.  much  Secondly, the  c o n t r o l o f conduct, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s  t h e NLRB h a v e a f f e c t e d  line  has d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r a l  before obtaining  which Aaron studied  He o f f e r s  over picket  The  an u n f a i r jurisdiction The  important  area of development entry 1.  into  this  those which interstate  2.  those  field  i n three general  types  those  standards  i n this  strikes  reason  of the peace  i n breach  of c o l l e c t i v e  he o f f e r s  i n c l u d e these views caused  exist  it  s u b j e c t t o abuse."  i s a form  wanted  the N o r r i s - L a  o f t h e s e and  of j u d i c i a l  which This  power  He d o e s n o t w a n t t h e w e a p o n t o b e u s e d a s s i d e w i n s an economic  i t has a d e c i d e d l y i m p o r t a n t  Guardia A c t , the Act served  With  use in.cases which  have  respect to the Norris-La  i t s purpose at the time  i t was e n a c t e d  but  i t remains a s e r i o u s impediment t o t h e even-handed  enforcement of the present  Relevance  was  a b u s e t h a t he comments u p o n i s " t h a t t h e  a marked p a t t e r n o f c o n t i n u i n g v i o l e n c e .  the present  (this  merely  the procedural abuses  was i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s a s a means o f d e c i d i n g w h i c h He d o e s f e e l  conduct  on t h e i s s u a n c e o f i n j u n c t i o n s .  i n j u n c t i o n , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e ,  battle.  in  The w r i t e r  i t was a c o m b i n a t i o n  Aaron c r i t i c i s e s  may b e s o b u t t h e o n l y g l a r i n g  peculiarly  agreements  t o h e l p show t h a t i t i s n o t m e r e l y  i n the State court proceedings  labour  line  f o r t h e d e c l i n e i s t h a t l a b o u r a n d manage-  the decline;  p o s s i b l y more f a c t o r s .  (picket  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S e c t i o n 301 o f t h e LMRA).  ment h a v e g r o w n more m a t u r e a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d .  Guardia which  on  category)  d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  to  o f impact  commerce  involving  A third  States are allowed  of cases;  d o n o t meet NLRB j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  i n v o l v i n g v i o l e n c e or breaches  would f a l l 3.  i s i n t h e i n t e r s t a t e commerce a r e a .  national  of the American Experience  labour  policy.  t o Canada  I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , many o f t h e p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d .  There a r e thus  many a r e a s o f not  apply  labour  i n C a n a d a due  were enacted  i n the  views to the  past  is  present  United  in.the United  particular  States.  abuses of  The  i t s use.  environment  labour  In other  been r e t a i n e d under F e d e r a l  discussion, points  eliminated It the  to the  apply  i n today's American t h i n k i n g .  remedy has the  l a w w h i c h may  from the  out  the  arena of  labour  i n j u n c t i v e remedy does not  laws present  words, a h i s t o r i c a l  bias  State  i t can  not  law, be  as  the  shown i n  completely  disputes.  i n • C a n a d a we  that i t  r e m a i n as  a remedy w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e i f needed t o m a i n t a i n  and  protect  the  to p r i v a t e contract  Some o f  the  guide  have heen c o n s i d e r e d 1.  the  that  chance to v o i c e  3.  The if  the  r e t a i n the  as  experience  that  follows;  traditional  ex  parte  occur. a Board  individual  ability  to  give  do  right  to replace  this  that a right, to  However t h i s  must be the  in British  courts  does not  a  a  mean to  preserved. i s a c o r o l l a r y to p o i n t  Columbia or O n t a r i o  right, to a court  grant  t h a t b o t h s i d e s have  i n j u n c t i o n w h e r e i r r e p a r a b l e damage  This  main i n f e r e n c e courts  Coupled w i t h  a v a i l a b l e as w e l l .  government o f f i c i a l .  State  States  a v a i l a b l e t o make s u r e  a Board were adopted  The the  may  idea of  that a  the  be  t h e i r views.  s p e e d y a p p e a l be  property  property.  t o Canada a r e  court  the  relief  a speedy t r i a l  abolishing  the  to. p r i v a t e  from the United  relevant  affirmation that  injunctive 2.  as  lines  s i d e or  m u s t make c e r t a i n t h a t but  and  one  i n which the  other  right  favour  would  i n j u n c t i o n owes i t s  and  management  appears to t h i s w r i t e r that  that  H o w e v e r , t h e mere f a c t t h a t  law  f a c t that  States  relief  w o u l d be  1;  t h i s would  confiscated  mean by  ' t o be  drawn between the  i n j u n c t i o n s i n the  two  countries  same k i n d s  of  i s that  c a s e s as  we  do i n C a n a d a t o d a y . utilize  Thus b o t h c o u n t r i e s h a v e t h e i n j u n c t i v e remedy and  i t t o c o m b a t t h e same t y p e s o f  unlawfullness.  CHAPTER I V  THE CANADIAN E X P E R I E N C E : AND B R I T I S H  I.  and  COLUMBIA  H I S T O R I C A L DEVELOPMENT  Prior British  ONTARIO  OF CANADIAN LABOUR  LAW  t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n Columbia, the w r i t e r w i l l  Canadian labour understanding  legislation.  the present  briefly  This w i l l  situation,  Canadian, A u s t r a l i a n , B r i t i s h  outline  assist  as w e l l  the h i s t o r y of  the reader  i n better  as t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  and A m e r i c a n l a b o u r d e v e l o p m e n t .  l a r g e l y because of the u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e law of p i c k e t i n g , the  labour  injunction  the E n g l i s h l e g a l  i n Ontario  i s nebulous.  1  I n Canada,  the law of  T h e i n j u n c t i o n owes i t s o r i g i n i n  s y s t e m and i t i s a n e x c e p t i o n a l l e g a l  remedy t o w h i c h  t h e common l a w p r o v i n c e s o f C a n a d a a r e h e i r . Prior English the as  to Confederation  Canadian labour  c o n s p i r a c y l a w s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h u s  injunctive i n England,  r e m e d y was a v a i l a b l e b u t u s e d t h o s e who f e l t  themselves  labour  strikes and  provinces  a distinct  in  collective  body o f labour  Prior after  enacted  I t wasn't  law f o r t h e i r  legislative  remedy.  Canada's  as t h e law o f  t h e 1930's t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n  b a r g a i n i n g laws and thus  there  emerged  relations doctrine.  to Confederation,  English legislation.  until  I n Canada,  as t h e r e s u l t o f  l a w ( 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 3 0 ' s ) c a n be s p o k e n o f m e r e l y  and p i c k e t i n g .  i nthe  as i n E n g l a n d ,  infrequently.  aggrieved  l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , had r e s o r t t o t h e c r i m i n a l early  laws were r o o t e d  Canadian  labour  Confederation  l a w was p a t t e r n e d  brought about c e r t a i n  power and e v e n t u a l l y i n l e g i s l a t i o n .  exclusively changes  The D i v i s i o n o f  legislative British for  p o w e r b e t w e e n t h e D o m i n i o n and  North America Act.  the peace, order  matters  not  and  The  Parliament  provinces has  good government o f  coming w i t h i n the c l a s s e s of  i s outlined  general  p o w e r t o make l a w s  Canada i n r e l a t i o n  s u b j e c t s by  i n the  this  Act  to a l l assigned  2 exclusively  to the Provinces.  Federal Parliament and  Specific  i n c l u d e t r a d e and  l o c a l w o r k s and  undertakings  subject matters  •to t h e p r o v i n c e s .  S e c t i o n 92  of the p r o v i n c e s .  T h e y i n c l u d e p r o p e r t y and  institutions  and  jurisdiction  over  provinces  association the matter  such  Against  through  jurisdiction  s p e c i f i c a l l y assigned  Canada o r  two  relating  find  their over over  instance,  b r i n g s w i t h i n the  provincial laws of  the  c o n t r a c t s between the law,  laws. jurisdiction  collective  over  property  b a r g a i n i n g and  these matters  and  conciliation,  i f they are w i t h i n a  t o t h e D o m i n i o n , such  the provinces  as  Canada f o r t h e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  general advantage  enacting  legislation  governing  to freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n i n trade unions criminal aspects.  legislation  legislation  municipal  t h i s , where the a c t i v i t i e s of  t h e Government of  D o m i n i o n g o v e r n s any provincial  powers  of  o r more p r o v i n c e s .  T h u s we  provided  rights  For  law  assigned  legislative  rights,  the  to b r i n g i t w i t h i n the ambit of the c r i m i n a l  have j u r i s d i c t i o n  w o r k s d e c l a r e d by  rights  as  provinces  t h e D o m i n i o n has field  civil  from those  the  civil  undertakings.  comes u n d e r t h e D o m i n i o n ' s  rights  s e t s out  o f f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n and  employees.  are  While civil  p r o p e r t y and  questions  e m p l o y e r s and  the Act  l o c a l w o r k s and  to  commerce, n a v i g a t i o n , c r i m i n a l  e x p r e s s l y excepted  of  assigned  c a n be  Thus t h e r e  dealing w i t h labour  traced along  u n d e r t h e B.N.A. A c t  of  this  relations.  division  1867.  i s both  of  while  civil the  Dominion  Canada's  legislative  and  labour  power  as  The  Years  From C o n f e d e r a t i o n  to  Following Confederation in  1872  and  incited  from the  English  legislation  union  reform  are not  Canada's f i r s t  Parliament  Under p r e s s u r e  1918  unlawful merely  i n labour  law  legal  s t a t u s of  unions.  to consider the  trade union of  crisis  1871  movement, P a r l i a m e n t to d e c l a r e t h a t the  because they  are  occured  s e i z e d upon  the  purposes of a  in-restraint  of  trade  trade,  and 3  to  legitimize  (Trade as  p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g by  Unions Act  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n and By  1900  Canadian c r i m i n a l  time  process  of the  was, was  f o u n d e d on  h o w e v e r , one  tried,  criminal  stages the  of  law.  a major i s s u e ,  development.  legality  picketing peaceful  of  combinations  i n form.  About  u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o promote a v o l u n t a r y The  b a r g a i n i n g by the  early  recognized  and  bargaining.  to f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i v e w h i c h was  law  strike  various provinces  of c o l l e c t i v e  of the  I n j u n c t i o n s a g a i n where not  growth were i n the  of workmen, t h e use this  1872).  t a k i n g i t out  Federal Parliament  p a s s i n g the  t h a t was  attempted  C o n c i l i a t i o n Act  U n i t e d Kingdom C o n c i l i a t i o n Act  m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e and  also  t h a t the  of  of  1896.  1900, There  Canadian s t a t u t e  i m p o s e d as a d e v i c e o f g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , w h e r e a s t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t e  grew out  of v o l u n t a r y p r a c t i c e s t h a t were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t a n c e 4  legislative courses  of  assistance. the  two  scheme, the o t h e r The actual  Act  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e marked a d i v e r g e n c e  c o u n t r i e s , one away f r o m  allowed  or p o t e n t i a l  toward  a tightly  legalism in industrial  conflict.  I t imposed a modicum of of  conciliation  and  and  conciliation  Commission t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c main c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  law  of  board,  of the  industrial  the  present  i n the  statutory  relations.  the M i n i s t e r of Labour to invade  from of c o n c i l i a t i o n , m a r k i n g ' t h e b e g i n n i n g s officer  operated  without  any  situation  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the  two-step  procedure  the I n d u s t r i a l Canadian  r e l a t i o n s was  of  law.  of  Inquiry Canada's  compulsory  conciliation the  and  s u s p e n s i o n of  I n d u s t r i a l Disputes This  resulting  l e g i s l a t i o n was  organizing.  of  The  the  The  a bargaining  counter-actions  Act,  tional  applicable  i n those provinces  applicable.  Island  enacted  In  falling  the  years  laws b r i n g i n g  A c t s were r e p e a l e d  by  British  D u r i n g the I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  a b a s i c weakness.  the  r e a l m of  that  followed  the  Act  1936  some o f  scope r e s p e c t i n g  are  p r o v i n c i a l A c t s of  status  Act  was  into force.  d i d not  The  but  the  and  become a l a s t i n g  Dominion  Prince  Edward  provincial  i n 1944  and  guide  the  provinces  c o n c i l i a t i o n and this  the  to  period  I n d u s t r i a l Disputes  passed  legislation  s t i l l ' in existance.  One  o t h e r an  Provincial  1928  not  covered  dealing  with  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of disputes.  the  Act.  unless  jurisdiction,  E m p l o y e e s D i s p u t e s Act. and  of  even  amended  enabling  Alberta  from  Constitu-  declaring  a l l provinces  Act  from  i n law  Quebec P u b l i c S e r v i c e Statute  The  protection  Dominion  statute  C o l u m b i a i n 1937, Act  no  a r e s u l t the  from the.enactment of  limited two  crisis  1940  period to  as  enacted a  bargaining.  to  s i t u a t i o n s of  i t had  in  Act).  to d i s c o u r a g e employees  that  industrial  Y e a r s F r o m 1918  (Lemieux  expressed  board's recommendations.  within  Thus t h e  The  the and  S a s k a t c h e w a n i n 1945. collective  was  g a v e u n i o n s no  negotiated  problems were encountered to d i s p u t e s  This  t o m e r e l y s u b m i t t o c o n c i l i a t i o n and  b o u n d by  restricted  Act  h o w e v e r , had  employers, c a l c u l a t e d  p a r t i e s a g r e e d t o be  1907  several  r e l a t i o n s h i p , but  e m p l o y e r had  strike.  of  r e s u l t of  when a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t was the  r i g h t to  I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  from s t r i k e s .  established  the  disputes  is  There the  Alberta by  the  1907  5  A d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n arose f o l l o w i n g  the  economic d e p r e s s i o n  of  the  early  1930's.  The l a b o u r  governments t o take was n o t c o n s i d e r e d during  this  time  the depression  a new l o o k a t t h e l a b o u r t h e major d i f f i c u l t y  same p e r i o d .  young a t t h i s  that  legislation.  The  injunction  i n either  States  i s t h a t C a n a d a was t o o  t h e same s t r i f e .  i n Canada than  forced the  i t was i n t h e U n i t e d  One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s  t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n came l a t e r the United  conditions during  Union  labour  t h e U n i t e d Kingdom o r  S t a t e s a n d s o t h e l a b o u r movement o f t h e 3 0 ' s d i d n o t f i n d t h e 6  i n j u n c t i o n remedy a major p r o b l e m a r e a . but  t o no g r e a t  extent.  L a b o u r was v o i c i n g d i s a p p r o v a l  I n 1937 a n d 1938 l a b o u r b e g a n r e q u e s t i n g a n  amendment t o t h e r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e " t o p r e v e n t injunctions  i n a l l matters  pertaining to the internal  organization,"  and a l s o r e q u e s t e d  the  injunction  in industrial  time  criticise  not  because  reported  cases  disputes."  from  a f f a i r s of labour t h e use of  P r o f e s s o r B. L a s k i n d i d a t t h i s i n labour  used t o any g r e a t  i n Ontario  of w r i t s of  legislation "restricting  the use of the i n j u n c t i o n  i t was b e i n g  the issuance  d i s p u t e s , b u t i t . was  extent.  F o r example, of t h e  1925 t o 1936 t h e r e w e r e o n l y t h r e e  i n w h i c h t h e . i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d . '  Laskin's  criticisms  instances  w e r e more o f a  w a r n i n g t o C a n a d i a n l a w so t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d n o t be u s e d a s i t had  been i n t h e U n i t e d There were o t h e r  States areas  l e g i s l a t i o n was t h e e x t e n s i o n collective harrassment  prior  t h a t needed a l t e r a t i o n .  One d e v e l o p m e n t i n  of b a s i c p r o t e c t i o n t o the process  b a r g a i n i n g by p r o t e c t i n g freedom o f a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m and by i m p o s i n g  The  s t a t u t e o r one s i m i l a r  but  Ontario  on t h e e m p l o y e r a s t a t u t o r y d u t y  a n d P r i n c e Edward. I s l a n d .  the two-stage c o n c i l i a t i o n  of employer  to bargain.  t o i t was a d o p t e d b y a l l p r o v i n c i a l  new l a w t o r e q u i r e t h e e m p l o y e r out  t o 1932.  legislatures  I n 1938 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a amended  to recognize  a union  procedure of o f f i c e r  as s u c h a n d s p e l l e d and  board.  this  In  1943  Ontario  procedure regarding the f i r s t law.  selection  new and  administrative policy  Prior  collective  t o W o r l d War  W o r l d War  I I and  With the jurisdiction  labour  questions  union  and  the  so  developed  i n Canada f o r g e n e r a l . c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  of union  had  made a d v a n c e s t o w a r d  securing  providing a  representation.  Developments  a d v e n t o f W o r l d War most l a b o u r  merely extended the  They o u t l i n e d  p r o t e c t i n g f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n and  P o s t War  over  policy.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by  I I a l l provinces  b a r g a i n i n g by  procedure f o r s e t t l i n g  Act  enacted  I I the F e d e r a l Government  legislation  application  of  u n d e r t h e War  the I n d u s t r i a l  assumed  Measures Act.  This  Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n 8  Act  to  i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h , i n peacetime, were under p r o v i n c i a l During  and  existing  the  p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n  labour  legislation  F e d e r a l Government passed Act, which  is still  arbitration  A r b i t r a t i o n Act as a r e s u l t is  still  in  the  Industrial  r e j e c t e d the  Columbia enacted i n 1948.  a new  A c t , the  The  to peace, p u b l i c  received close scrutiny.  i n e x i s t e n c e today.  f e a t u r e s but  British  the  f r o m war  a new  A c t met  R e l a t i o n s and The  Act  In  1952  r e t a i n e d the  Industrial  policy the  Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n  compulsory supervised  compulsory  strike  Conciliation  considerable union  Labour R e l a t i o n s Act  jurisdiction.  vote.  and  opposition  became l a w  i n 1954,  and and  in existence.  C a r r o t h e r s summarizes e x i s t i n g f o l l o w i n g way;  Federal  and  Provincial  legislation  "Although there i s extensive v a r i a t i o n i n d e t a i l , p r e s e n t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l . l e g i s l a t i o n may be s u m m a r i z e d as e m b r a c i n g , w i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s f i v e principles: 1.  e m p l o y e e f r e e d o m o f a s s o c i a t i o n and  r e c o g n i t i o n of  unionism  2. the r i g h t t o ? c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d through m a c h i n e r y o f c o n c i l i a t i o n , s t a t u t o r y c o m p u l s i o n t o engage in collective bargaining, state intervention in conciliation and p o s t p o n e m e n t o f t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e and t o l o c k o u t 3. p r o h i b i t i o n o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s b y e m p l o y e r s and unions, to p r o t e c t union o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g 4. t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f s t a t u s to- t h e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t o f e n f o r c e a b i l i t y , and t h e s e t t l e m e n t of d i s p u t e s d u r i n g i t s term without stoppage of w o r k - i n b r i e f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the s a n c t i t y of the c o l l e c t i v e agreement 5. the establishment of e x t r a o r d i n a r y machinery of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as i t had o r i g i n a t e d i n 1900 and a s i t had b e e n e f f e c t e d i n w a r t i m e b y t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n Commission. The s t a t u t e s r e q u i r e permanent machinery f o r t h e i r admini s t r a t i o n , i n the t r a d i t i o n of the Wartime Labour q Relations Board. " 1  F o l l o w i n g W o r l d War difficult}'' w i t h the dissention during i n magnitude. their up  injunctive  the  late  the b a t t l e a g a i n s t  injunctive before.  of  remedy q u e s t i o n  has  one  has  injunctions.  point  of  continued  to  C a n a d a met  I t was  disputes.  t h e most d e b a t e d  Since  issues i n  decide  to  step  campaign f o r t h a t time  r e c e i v e d e v e n more a t t e n t i o n , t h a n  of  grow to  decided  mapping a country-wide  real  the  ever  labour  today.  different  been a steady  collective  s i n c e then  injunctions in industrial  the o r d i n a r y case than  has  against  its first  I t became a f o c a l  leaders from across  i n j u n c t i o n s by  Canada p r o v i d e s  radically  union  fight  It is certainly  relations  remedy.  1 9 5 0 ' s , and  I n J u n e , 1966  strategy in their  the a b o l i t i o n  I I Canada began t o e x p e r i e n c e  f o r a much g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f does the U n i t e d  from the U n i t e d  trend  S t a t e s and  Kingdom's.  toward making unions  agreements b i n d i n g  in civil  state intervention in  i t operates  In recent  suable  a c t i o n and  a  years  entities,  system there  making  regulating internal  union  affairs.  II.  ONTARIO'S E X P E R I E N C E  O n t a r i o , because of experiencing 1958  to  1966  per  cent  of  i t s p o p u l a t i o n and  considerable O n t a r i o has  the  total  strife  had  1,368  manufacturing  per  cent  The  time__lost, work stoppages, l o s t  these has  or  lockouts.^  lockouts  represent  been a p a r t i c u l a r l y  in this  is  54.2  In Ontario  in  this  f o r every  considerable  trying  one  fourth  so f o r t h r e s u l t i n g  Failure  p i c k e t i n g have been a major f a c t o r i n the r e c e n t  O n t a r i o on  the  1966.  The  labour  The  1958  the O n t a r i o use  of  the  British  years  a way  that  against  the  b e e n c h o s e n as  ex  parte  the  the  cover  i s a l s o one  major  In Ontario  the  starting  amended t o p u t  injunctions.  the  from  year  attacks  1966 laws in  strikes. p e r i o d f r o m 1958  p o i n t because i n  certain restrictions  T h u s any  amendments i n t h e A c t w i l l  preceding  Columbia.  name..  has  in  in Ontario w i l l  J u d i c a t u r e A c t was  There  own  date  because of  two  injunction  injunction  i n t e r i m and  occurred of  of the  The  to enforce  concerning  use  79.4  period (Ontario).  e c o n o m i c damage.  for.Ontario.  strike.  account f o r  e i g h t year  c o n t r a c t s and  From  This  construction i n d u s t r i e s together  s t r i k e s and  difficulties  strikes  i n j u n c t i o n s , o r one  The  of the  concentration, is  i n i t s labour-management r e l a t i o n s .  2,523 t h a t e x i s t e d i n C a n a d a .  same p e r i o d t h e r e w e r e 314 and  industrial  on  c h a n g e s t h a t may be  revealed  by  to 1960 the  have  the  study  Act. judicial a union  d i f f e r e n c e between O n t a r i o  can  not  be  made a d e f e n d a n t  and i n it's  There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r b r i n g i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c t i o n i n such i f there  is a  a s s e t s of  the  j u d g m e n t f o r damages e x e c u t i o n union.^  can  be  levied  However, such a p r o c e d u r e i s awkward.  Post-war expansion occurred  until  From 1958 t o 1961 Canada e x p e r i e n c e d and  there  during  was a s l a c k e n i n g  this  applied  period  i t s highest  post-war  unemployment,  i n the upswing o f production.  experienced  f o r and g r a n t e d  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e mid 1950's.  i n this  slow growth. period  T h u s t h e economy  The number o f i n j u n c t i o n s  i s shown i n T a b l e I .  TABLE I NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED 1958-196.1* Year  Applications For Ex p a r t e I n j u n c t i o n s  Applications For I n j u n c t i o n s on N o t i c e  Granted  Made  Granted  1958  21  3  .1  1959  22  4  3  1960  19  7  3  1961  14  16  15  Total  76  30  22  P a l m e r , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n ,  From t h e s t a t i s t i c s  p. 8 7 .  i n Table I i t would appear that  following the  amendment o f t h e A c t t h e r e  were f e w e r ex p a r t e  that  i n t h e number o f i n j u n c t i o n s a p p l i e d  there  was a n i n c r e a s e  i n j u n c t i o n s g r a n t e d , and f o r and  granted on n o t i c e . Prior  t o amendment S e c t i o n  17 o f t h e A c t r e a d a s f o l l o w s ;  S e c t i o n 17 ( 1 ) I n t h i s s e c t i o n " l a b o u r d i s p u t e s " means a n y d i s p u t e o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n e m p l o y e r a n d o n e o r more e m p l o y e e s a s t o m a t t e r s o r t h i n g s a f f e c t i n g o r r e l a t i n g t o work done by t h e employee o r e m p l o y e e s or a s t o t h e p r i v i l e g e s , r i g h t s , d u t i e s o r c o n d i t i o n s o f employment o f t h e employer o r employees. , (2)  A n ex p a r t e  i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n any person  from  d o i n g any a c t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any longer period than four days.^^ Section  17  of the  labour  dispute shall  J u d i c a t u r e A c t was  not  amended i n 1960  be  for a  to read  as  follows: S e c t i o n 17 (1) I n t h i s s e c t i o n " l a b o u r d i s p u t e " means a d i s p u t e o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n e m p l o y e r and one o r m o r e e m p l o y e e s a s t o m a t t e r s o r t h i n g s a f f e c t i n g o r r e l a t i n g t o w o r k d o n e o r t o be d o n e b y t h e e m p l o y e e o r e m p l o y e e s o r as t o t h e t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s o f e m p l o y m e n t o r t h e r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s or d u t i e s of the employer or the employee or employees. (2) An i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n a p e r s o n f r o m a n y a c t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l a b o u r d i s p u t e s h a l l be g r a n t e d o n l y u p o n a t l e a s t two d a y s n o t i c e t o t h e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s t o be a f f e c t e d t h e r e b y and s h a l l not'be f o r a longer p e r i o d than four days. (3) An i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n 2 may be g r a n t e d ex p a r t e w h e r e t h e C o u r t i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a b r e a c h o f t h e p e a c e , i n j u r y t o t h e p e r s o n o r damage t o p r o p e r t y h a s o c c u r r e d o r an i n t e r r u p t i o n o f a n e s s e n t i a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e has o c c u r r e d o r i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r . (4) W h e r e t h e e m p l o y e e o r e m p l o y e e s t o be a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a r e members o f a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n o t i c e u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n 2 s h a l l be deemed t o h a v e b e e n g i v e n t o s u c h e m p l o y e e o r e m p l o y e e s i f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e t h e r e o f i s e f f e c t e d u p o n an o f f i c e r or agent of such labour o r g a n i z a t i o n . (5) W h e r e t h e e m p l o y e e o r e m p l o y e e s t o be a f f e c t e d b y an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a r e n o t members o f a l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n o t i c e u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n 1 s h a l l be deemed t o h a v e b e e n g i v e n t o t h e e m p l o y e e o r . e m p l o y e e s t o be a f f e c t e d b y t h e i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n i f t h e n o t i c e i s p o s t e d up i n a c o n s p i c u o u s p l a c e o n t h e b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s o f t h e e m p l o y e r w h e r e i t c a n be r e a d b y s u c h e m p l o y e e o r e m p l o y e e s . (6) Where some o f t h e e m p l o y e e s t o i n j u n c t i o n u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a r e members o f a o t h e r s are not, the n o t i c e under s u b s e c t i o n 2 been g i v e n t o a l l such employees i f s u b s e c t i o n These changes o c c u r r e d on  Labour R e l a t i o n s of  that and both  t h e r e be that the  no  ex  r u l e s of  f o l l o w i n g a Report of  the Ontario  parte  Legislation.  i n j u n c t i o n granted  t h e Supreme C o u r t  p a r t i e s or t h a t p r i o r  be a f f e c t e d b y an i n t e r i m l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n and s h a l l be deemed t o h a v e ^ 4 and 5 a r e c o m p l i e d w i t h .  be  the S e l e c t  The  except  C o m m i t t e e recommended i n cases  of  permission  t i o n s , w e r e made i n  1958  o f t h e B o a r d be  b e c a u s e i t was  emergency  amended t o r e q u i r e n o t i c e  t o g r a n t i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n be made t o  R e l a t i o n s B o a r d and  Committee  felt  obtained:  that the  ex  These parte  to  theLabour recommendainjunction  gave the the It  d e f e n d a n t ho  e a r l y stages can  be  of  observed  recommendations. the  opportunity  a strike that  the  In f a c t ,  amendment d i d n o t  t o be  g a v e an  heard  and  employer  that  increased  changes t h a t o c c u r r e d i t has  discourage  been argued the  the  of  bargaining  did not'follow  that  granting  injunction in power. the  in certain industries  ex  parte  injunctions.  14 This  i s true  labour parte  i n j u n c t i o n had  i n at  publicize the  and  and  been granted.  Of  parte  injunctive relief  major  the  c a s e s ex  issue.  labour  dispute.  pickets a right  intimidation.  The  were cases  the  ten reported (year  question to picket  However, the  t o engage i n a c t s  Chief  1960  of  of  amendment) i t a p p e a r s  i s t h e way  When  of  that  picketing unions  t o p i c k e t does not  of o b s t r u c t i o n , a s s a u l t ,  J u s t i c e G a l e made t h e  ex  cases i n v o l v i n g  the n a t u r e  right  the  i n which the  i n j u n c t i o n s were granted.  the  right  Very n e a r l y h a l f of  1966  restraining picketing since  the  becomes t h e  industry.  b e t w e e n 1948  least four  discussing  on  construction  cases reported  injunctions that  i n the  following  confer  battory  statement;  " T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a m i s c o n c e p t i o n among c e r t a i n l e a d e r s and. members o f t r a d e u n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e p r i v i l e g e s o f e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s . T h e y seem t o t h i n k t h a t o n c e a s t r i k e i s c a l l e d , t h e e m p l o y e r must c l o s e h i s d o o r s t o a w a i t the outcome. At p r e s e n t , t h a t i s not the case. Employees have t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e , b u t , by t h e same t o k e n , e m p l o y e r s h a v e t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and t o p r o t e c t t h e i r p r o p e r t y . T h i s i s u s u a l l y t h e b a s i s upon w h i c h a c o u r t o r d e r i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r i c t s p i c k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s of a union."15 An is  example of  illustrated It  acts  can  enjoined  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n j u n c t i o n s and  i n Table I I . be  observed  from t h i s  table that  b r e a c h of  the  i n i n j u n c t i o n s where d i s c o u r a g i n g  c u s t o m e r s , d e t e r r i n g p e o p l e f r o m e n t e r i n g and intimidation,  picketing  preventing  free access,  c o n t r a c t , a i d i n g and  or  i n the  number o f  interfering  leaving,  w a t c h i n g and  abetting  highest  the  with  threatening,  besetting,  commission of  inducing an  enjoined  TABLE I I  NUMBER OF S P E C I F I C ACTS WHICH "WERE ENJOINED I N INJUNCTIONS I S S U E D 1958-1966*  ACTS ENJOINED  ON NOTICE  Persuading  employees n o t t o work  Preventing  employees from w o r k i n g  ON E X PARTE  8  37  26  89  35  121  leaving  52  154  Threatening  45  150  24  58  Intimidating  48  153  Assault  22  84  3  84  Discouraging  or interfering  with  patrons Deterring  people from e n t e r i n g o r  Molesting  .  Publishing  false  o r defamatory  statements Causing a nuisance Preventing  .  3  free access  19 38  -  110  Obstructing  16  65  W a t c h i n g and b e s e t t i n g  72  172  Tresspassing  12  26  13  25  56  126  5  7  0  1  Interfering  with  contractual  relations Inducing  breach of contract  Conspiracy Declaring  t o commit an u n l a w f u l a strike  act  ACTS ENJOINED Supporting a  strike  ON NOTICE  ON EX PARTE  1  2  Picket ing  74  A i d i n g and a b e t t i n g i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n on an e n j o i n e d a c t  68  P a l m e r , p. 9 5 . notice  f o r this  Note:  same p e r i o d  203  178  t h e number o f i n j u n c t i o n s i s 92 a n d o n e x p a r t e  222.  granted  on  act as  and  picketing.  Most of  p i c k e t i n g occur  these  t e r m may  be  defined  to work or both. an  A  i s present  as a r e f u s a l  third  T h i s may  be  p a r t y , o r by  employees.  actually  done by  in Ontario  labelled,  i s secondary boycotting.  to patronize a business  secondary boycott  e m p l o y e r o r h i s e m p l o y e e s who  dispute.  though not  in association with picketing.  Another problem that The  activities,  i s a c t i o n taken  are not  directly  by  or a  a union  g r a n t i n g of  labour  the.innocent  r e f u s i n g t o h a n d l e goods o r work a l o n g s i d e  Such p r a c t i c e s o f t e n l e a d to the  against  involved in a  t h r e a t e n i n g or p i c k e t i n g of  refusal  his  injunctions, for i  e x a m p l e , b e c a u s e o f mass p i c k e t i n g o r not  exist in British  P e r i o d F r o m 1962  The  cent.  1 6  rapidly  to  1965  than  and  and  labour  with higher  years  be  described  States, while  does  outlawed.  States.  resulted in tight  price inflation.  tendencies  market', -and of  of r a p i d  the  u n i t of output The- g e n e r a l  industrial  the  have  have  less  risen  risen i n demand,  conditions  I n summary, f r o m 1958  toward  per  advanced  upswing  labour market  period manifested  other  c e n t ; t o 2.5  a w h o l e has  passed through  appeared  per  levels.  average hour e a r n i n g s  c o s t s per  i n the U n i t e d  r a p i d g r o w t h : • The  levels  as one  f r o m 5.5  p r o d u c t i v i t y as  C a n a d i a n economy h a s  inflationary  tight  few  employment has  f o l l o w e d by  onward can  Consequently labour  over  been  a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n unemployment  i n the U n i t e d  i n concern  provincial  but  past  i n Canada t h a n  economy and  problem  s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i n g has  the unemployment r a t e f e l l  Over the  This  1966  T h e r e was  more q u i c k l y . faster  to  p e r i o d f r o m 1962  expansion. F r o m 1961  C o l u m b i a as  intimidation.  t o 1966  the  a .mild r e c e s s i o n  overall end.  The  price  stability,  emergence o f  a  d e v e l o p m e n t s "mentioned were a s s o c i a t e d  conflict  than  prevailed during  the  middle  years of the period injunctions  that  studied.^  occurred  Table I I I i l l u s t r a t e d  i n the period  t h e number o f  f r o m 1962 t o 1 9 6 6 .  TABLE I I I  NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED Year Ex  Applications For parte Injunctions  1962-1966* Applications For I n j u n c t i o n s on N o t i c e  Granted  Granted  1962  42  12  11  1963  14  16  10  1964  53  19  14  1965  26  23  22  1966  11  19  13  146  89  70  Total  P a l m e r , The I n j u n c t i o n  By  i n Ontario,  comparing Table I w i t h  though Table I I I covers f i v e the  Made  T a b l e I I I i t c a n be o b s e r v e d  parte  on  notice  i s substantial.  i n j u n c t i o n s has almost doubled, w h i l e applied  f o r and g r a n t e d  was a l s o a p a r a l l e l was a n i n c r e a s e  increase  that,  even  y e a r s as opposed t o f o u r , t h e i n c r e a s e i n  number o f b o t h t y p e s o f i n j u n c t i o n s  ex  p. 8 7 .  has t r i p l e d .  T h e number o f  t h e number o f i n j u n c t i o n s During  this  period  there  i n t h e number o f s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s .  i n each s u c c e e d i n g year from  There  1958 t o 1965 f r o m 132 t o  18 269. 1965  The i n c r e a s e was m o d e r a t e b e t w e e n 1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 4 b u t s p u r t e d i n t o more t h a n 100 p e r c e n t  strikes  over t h i s  certainly  period  the sharp  a b o v e t h e 1958 l e v e l .  reflects  increase  The p a t t e r n o f  changing economic c o n d i t i o n s and  i n 1 9 6 5 c a n be l a r g e l y  attributed  to the  rapid  economic advances o f t h a t and t h e p r e c e d i n g In this  closely  p e r i o d , as i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  associated with the i n j u n c t i o n .  Association  analysed  fourteen  year.  o n e , p i c k e t i n g a p p e a r s t o be  The C a n a d i a n  injunctive  cases  Manufacturers'  whose r e c o r d s were  lodged  19 at Osgood H a l l ,  Toronto.  conducted f o r a proper  I n eleven  cases  purpose, a l e g a l  t h e p i c k e t i n g was  strike,  b u t was b e i n g  being conducted  i n an a l l e g e d l y i m p r o p e r manner--mass p i c k e t i n g , d e n i a l o f a c c e s s , i n j u r y and p r o p e r t y being  damage.  In the three other  cases  t h e p i c k e t i n g was  c o n d u c t e d f o r an i m p r o p e r p u r p o s e - - s e c o n d a r y b o y c o t t i n g and r e c o g n i -  t i o n p i c k e t i n g . - . I n the second group the c o u r t s a r e not concerned t h e manner which  i n which p i c k e t i n g i s c a r r i e d  i s unlawful  and i s t o t a l l y  law  the injunction r e s t r a i n i n g enforcement.  Table  ex p a r t e o n e s .  support  mentioned, the acts enjoined w i t h occur  Of t h e f i r s t  to this  Thus i t a p p e a r s  opinion.  part of  As p r e v i o u s l y  t h e i n j u n c t i o n a r e u s u a l l y ones  1966 p r o v e d  t o be a p a r t i c u l a r l y  relation  to the labour  Plastics  S t r i k e w h i c h began December 15, 1965.  i n j u n c t i o n was  issued  thirty-five  the T i l c o  union  Plastics  committee s a i d demonstrators court  eleven,  that  i n conjunction with picketing. In Ontario  1966  group of  p i c k e t i n g h a s become a n e c e s s a r y  I I gives  with  o n , as i t i s t h e p i c k e t i n g i t s e l f  prohibited.  s i x o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y that  personal  injunction.  limiting locals 20  plant.  decided  to hold  would c a r r y signs p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t  a court  On F e b r u a r y  a mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n  could continue.a  strikes.  the T i l c o  On D e c e m b e r 2 0 t h  The C h a i r m a n o f a s p e c i a l  the demonstration  year, i n  One o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s was  t h e number o f p i c k e t s .  i n j u n c t i o n s to break l e g a l  specifically  trying  labour  20th, at  injunction  week a n d t h a t t h e t h e u s e o f ex p a r t e  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n  was n o t  d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t T i l c o . . The i n j u n c t i o n was d e f i e d and t h e  demonstration twenty-eight  took place.  Plant  officials  p i c k e t s , i n c l u d i n g key union  contempt o f c o u r t  of  t h e p i c k e t s t h a t " t h e y h a d no i n t e n t i o n t o h o l d what t h e y d i d h o l d  which they f e e l announced t h a t with  contempt o f c o u r t .  protest  The F e d e r a t i o n i n face  were found g u i l t y ; others  stated  I t was s t a t e d on the court  behalf  injunctions,  of the trade  stated that  unionist  t h e u n f a i r use o f court  were j a i l e d ,  f o r f i f t e e n days each.  At that  five  charged  i t was c o n v i n c e d  that  picketing  injunctions i n  On J u n e 8 t h , 1966 t w e n t y - s i x  twenty-five  notice  i n contempt  of the i n j u n c t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g  against  labour-management d i s p u t e s .  with  25th,  On t h e 2 6 t h o f F e b r u a r y t h e O.F.L.  i t would pay t h e l e g a l c o s t s  t h e mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  the  them.  i n c o n t e m p t was t h e l a w g o v e r n i n g  i s a bad l a w . "  was a r e a s o n a b l e  On F e b r u a r y  l e a d e r s were served  of  but  proceedings against  were booed.  of the p i c k e t s  f o r two m o n t h s e a c h a n d  time Chief  J u s t i c e Gale  that; " t h e l a w l e s s n e s s d i s p l a y e d ought n o t t o be condoned o r a l l o w e d t o be r e p e a t e d . I f trade unions f e e l that present l e g i s l a t i o n i s u n f a i r o r u n r e a l i s t i c and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d h a v e u n b r i d l e d p o w e r t o u s e mass p i c k e t i n g , t h e n t h e y s h o u l d seek p r o p e r c h a n n e l s f o r b r i n g i n g about a change..... Any p r o g r a m , n o m a t t e r how w o r t h y t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l , w h i c h p r e s c r i b e s w i l f u l d e f i a n c e o f t h e l a w c a n o n l y be r e g a r d e d as an e x e r c i s e i n i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " ^ 1 Another  important  strike  concerning  the i n j u n c t i o n occurred  on  22 January 26th,  1 9 6 6 ; t h e Oshawa N e w s p a p e r S t r i k e .  a mass p i c k e t  line  i n support  P r e s s m e n d i d n o t go t h r o u g h prohibit  picketing.  prepared  t o take  the  the picket  occurred.  line.  on a b a t t l e a g a i n s t  P r i n t e r s and  A w r i t was f i l e d  T h e Oshawa L a b o u r C o u n c i l  asked- f o r i n j u n c t i o n .  t i o n s were served  of the s t r i k e  On J a n u a r y 28 a n d 29  stated that  i t was  injunctions i f the courts  On F e b r u a r y  to  issued  1, 1966 a f e w h o u r s a f t e r  o n members o f t h e s t r i k i n g  injunc-  u n i t , 150 p i c k e t s ' s t a g e d  a  half  hour d e m o n s t r a t i o n  t h e number o f p i c k e t s demonstrators loud the of  to a t o t a l  prevented  speaker.  No  injunction.  one  a Sheriff  i s an  rights  essential  and  from  seemed t o w a n t  the Bar A s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d  "it  of seven.  c o n d i t i o n of order of c i t i z e n s  an o p p o s i n g v i e w a n d  felt  t h a t management c o u l d u s e strikes  and A  was that  made t o e n f o r c e t h e  shall  On  law.  February Directors  at a s s i s t i n g  11 t h e w a r of f o r t y  situation.  the t a c t i c s  applied labour  i n every  unions The used  for enforcing  be  They  state  state:  that  s u b v e r t e d b y mob Leader  t h e l a w had  D.  the  violence  MacDonald  been worded  injunctions  to break  so legal  changed.  of the  I t was  11,  i n j u n c t i o n and  1966.  the s e t t l e m e n t .  t h e c o u r t s o r d e r and  because of t h i s  i n the T i l c o  l a c k of  Strike.  The  Eleven  no  effect  enforcement  success  i n the  l a b o u r t o t r y t h e same r e m e d y a g a i n .  campaign aimed at e l i m i n a t i n g  that  not  O n t a r i o N.D.P  issuing  t h e mass p i c k e t i n g o c c u r r e d  strike  i n Oshawa.  in a civilized  that f o r years  s h o u l d be  Oshawa i n c i d e n t p r o m p t e d  and  law  t h a t t i m e masses of p i c k e t s f l o u t e d  flavour.  initiative  a  on t h e 7 t h t h e O n t a r i o S e c t i o n  the courts to secure  e l a p s e d between the  February  i n j u n c t i o n over  s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d on F e b r u a r y  d a y s had During  that this  limited  on t h e O n t a r i o G o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a l l  i n t i m i d a t i o n of such v i o l e n c e . "  had  injunction  the 3rd of  to take the  t o e n f o r c e the r u l e of  privileges  On  The  reading the  P i c k e t i n g c o n t i n u e d and  measures n e c e s s a r y  or  at the newspaper b u i l d i n g .  against the u n i o n s met the use  of  i n j u n c t i o n t o o k on a n a t i o n w i d e  i n Oshawa t o o u t l i n e : a C a n a d a w i d e injunctions  i n labour-management  i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n j u n c t i o n s when t h e y a r o s e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e O.F.L. t o l d  the representatives  i n Oshawa i n t h e N e w s p a p e r s t r i k e  situation  i n every  c o u l d not  be  s t r i k e but where they c o u l d be,  s u p p o r t i n g s m a l l l a b o u r , t h e y s h o u l d be.  i n the  big  A l s o , t h a t t h e Oshawa  tactics but  as  should  carried  On  f o l l o w i n g the  J u n e 28, affair,  fight  following  1966, union  against  promised  injunctions. to the  i t on  should  provincej^wide  the  demonstrations  summed up  the  regarding  take  on  the  of the  against  ' a ' t r e m e r t d b u s • f e e l i n g we  should  can  and  hot  involved in  their  felt  strategy in  the  sentences  that  injunctive  labour,  i s s u e as  w i t h Premier  union  leaders  injunctions. leaders  O.F.L.  can't  for  President  injunctions.  I f we  who  injunctions  plans  i n these words;  succumb t o  peacefully.  laid  i t had  Robarts  q u e s t i o n o f p i c k e t i n g and  same t i m e  occur,  a l l o w e d •,to c o n t i n u e .  of those  Union o f f i c i a l s  temper of u n i o n  demonstrate l e g a l l y  not  sentencing  U n i o n l e a d e r s met  a p u b l i c examination At  was  This did  p o i n t o f v i n d i c t i v e n e s s and  before.  labour disputes.  situation.  same l a w l e s s n e s s  l e a d e r s a g a i n met  such treatment,  never taken  Archer  to the T i l c o  the  imposed were s e v e r e  in  over  p r e v i o u s l y noted,  the T i l c o their  be  "There We  hope  f i n d ways of  was we  conforming 23  to  the  d i r e c t i o n s of  Attorney defy  General  the  the  Wishart  c o u r t we had  w i l l have t o d i s o b e y  these words t o  say  the  regarding  court  order."  individuals  who  law. " A n y p e r s o n who w o u l d d e f y t h e l a w , a n y p e r s o n who says i t i s t o be d i s r e g a r d e d , f l o u t e d , d i s o b e y e d and s e t 'at n a u g h t , a n y o n e who b y w o r d o r d e e d s e e k s t o b r i n g a b o u t d i s r e s p e c t , f o r the judgment of the c o u r t s of t h i s l a n d , i s s e e k i n g , w h e t h e r he r e a l i z e s i t o r n o t , t o d e s t r o y t h e s o c i e t y u n d e r w h i c h he lives." 2 4  Thus, f o r O n t a r i o of  t h e f u l l - s c a l e war  order  on  on  and  f o r Canada, t h e . y e a r  the  use  the p i c k e t l i n e s .  The  of c o u r t war  has  device  the  used by  p u b l i c at arrogant  s e c o n d , open d e f i a n c e  of  l a r g e that the  been, f o u g h t  been t h e  on  two  i n an  toadying  i n j u n c t i o n s w h i c h have been  help  year  law  fronts.  t h e r a n k and  injunction  employers w i t h the  had  i n j u n c t i o n s to maintain  a m a s s i v e propaganda a s s a u l t aimed at c o n v i n c i n g l a b o u r and  1966  file  and  First, of  inequ'itous of  issued.  the 25  courts;  In that  the  a royal  the  use  of  Mr.  Justice  light  of  these events Premier R o b a r t s announced  commission would  injunctions Rand and  investigate  laws a f f e c t i n g l a b o u r ,  i n labour disputes.  his  report  was  in July  The  published  c o m m i s s i o n was i n August  1966  including  headed  1968.  by  ', r  The  Rand R e p o r t  •  -  Considering Ontario's the  general  I v a n C.  l a b o u r management u n r e s t ,  as  to h i s  regards s t r i k e s , recommendations  w h o s e t a s k w o u l d be  to  the  interest.  light  of  precipitated making of  public the  the  i t i s not  picketing;  and  i s the  labour  injunction  surprising  following  ally  R a n d comes t o of  and  w o u l d be  g i v e n the  Tribunal.  Columbia s e c t i o n ,  1959 the  controlled  to  6  definition  as  The  illegal;  have been d e a l t  with  law  labour  thus only h i s  injunction w i l l  procedure followed injunction. an  He  for  obtaining  criticised  a p p l i c a t i o n , and  presented.  two  as  will  i n 1959  s e c o n d l y the  and  in generally.  with  Tribunal  to  a dispute,  in  the  problems  that  Columbia, namely  of  picketing  and  be  the  broad  discussed  a l t h o u g h not  Rand c r i t i c i s e d  firstly  apparent  the  especially the  failure  use of  of  the  activities.  mass p i c k e t i n g ;  second-  sympathetic to  powers i n ,the as  British  specifically.  scope of  comments p e r t a i n i n g  injunctions,  points;  Justice  Industrial  organization  e x t e n t by  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and be  see  conflict  Rand's recommendations are'more e x p a n s i v e t h a n the p a p e r and  to  and  recommendations p e r t a i n i n g  a great  These a c t i v i t i e s ,  grips  in British  recognition,  mystery p i c k e t i n g . ^  picketing  industrial  immediate p a r t i e s  activities  picketing;  and  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an  accomodate the  legal entities  the  picketing;  picketing  Trade unions Act  unions  Rand d e p i c t s ary  experiences with  Rand p r o p o s e c e r t a i n f a r r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e  attitudes Basic  .  this  to  the  present the  ex  parte  affidavits  resort  to  police  on  action parte  i n some c a s e s .  He  virtually  recommends t h e  injunction with  the  following  words:  elimination  of  the  ex  " U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d u p o n , i n j u n c t i o n s w i l l be p e r m i t t e d o n l y on e v i d e n c e g i v e n v i v a v o c e and on n o t i c e , except i n c a s e s of emergency. In a l l cases adequate p o l i c e a s s i s t a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n must be shewn t o h a v e b e e n unavailable."^7 Rand recommends t h a t notice in  and  that  a l l applications  to obtain  obstruction the  remove t h e  of/or  activities  the  ex  parte  picketing illegal  picketers  enjoined  u n i o n and  instantly.  without court out  of  the  to t h e . p a r t i e s  of  the  Rand  i s on  the  dispute  In  unless  step further  feels this  He  hand  t h e n he  be  application for  irreparable  damage may  i s s u a n c e of  i n labour disputes  that the  view  Justice  picketers handled  injunction. the  difficulty  i s a t t e m p t i n g t o keep  i n t r y i n g to confine  i t w o u l d be  premises  definitely  an  solving  the  occur. the  court  desirable  action  persons,  states  s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be  e f f e c t , Rand  and  regulating  harm i f m y s t e r y  i n a p o s i t i o n of  keep the  suggesting that  injunctions  Tribunal.  He  one  I n the w r i t e r ' s  irreparable  that  reasonable e f f o r t s  e x i t from the  e n j o i n e d w o u l d now  on  stresses  unnecessary because  c a r r i e d out.  placed  t h e m s e l v e s and  a m i n i m u m by  i s s u a n c e of  t h u s be  intervention.  Rand goes a  to  or  management p r i o r t o a n y  Both p a r t i e s would  court  entry  virtually  t h e r e w o u l d be  given  for protection  lawful  peace.  be  He  shown t h a t  more s t r i n g e n t l y , and  thus s h o u l d not feel  orally.  be  damage t o p r o p e r t y , i n j u r y t o  with  i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d be  Rand d o e s n o t  the  danger of  a c t i v i t i e s which were o f t e n  and  were not  presented  have been u n s u c c e s s f u l  interference  of  i n labour disputes  i n j u n c t i o n i t must be  employer, or b r e a c h of  the  by  for  e v i d e n c e be  police assistance  to prevent or  of  a l l the  injunctions  labour  injunctions  to place  wholly within  foresees a constitutional question  disputes  the  the jurisdiction  in giving  this  Administrative functions. tions  Tribunal  However,  the T r i b u n a l  numbers  i n j u n c t i v e powers and t h u s t h e i r  he f e e l s t h a t  could  and c o n d i t i o n s  of  issue  orders,  Tribunal.  requesting  In  light  intervention  a more r e g u l a t e d  sought.  through  the  f a r r e a c h i n g powers  to the  Adminsitrative  i s interpreted  labour r e l a t i o n s atmosphere f o r  s t u d y , Rand w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y  but does appear t o f a v o u r Tribunal.  restrict  knew t h a t  He d o e s n o t recommend e l i m i n a t i o n  the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  greater  His suggestion f o r eliminating  t o s i t u a t i o n s where both p a r t i e s  labour disputes tions  i s to transfer  of the w r i t e r ' s  court  injunc-  f o r , to specify  recommendations run a tone of  The need o r t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p u b l i c  of  being  t h e n e e d f o r many  when a p p l i e d  of the labour r e l a t i o n s scene.  much o f t h e u n r e s t  on o f  picketing.  T h u s , t h r o u g h o u t Rand's regulation  to eliminate  taking  court  as  one  Ontario. court  action  was  of the i n j u n c t i o n from  the issuance of labour  injunc-  III.  In and as  the  British labour  I t i s not  labour  w h i c h must be  C o l u m b i a , as  i n j u n c t i o n has  i n Ontario.  Columbia's  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA'S E X P E R I E N C E  relations  labour disputes  been c r i t i c i s e d intention  history  by  in great  gone f u r t h e r t h a n  depth.  labour  43,  has  i n the  The  legislation  bitter  same m a n n e r  major  most p r o v i n c e s  t o make t h e c o n c e p t o f c o l l e c t i v e  Trade-unions A c t , or B i l l  labour  have been  of the w r i t e r to pursue  s t r e s s e d when l o o k i n g a t t h e  C o l u m b i a i s .that i t has legislation  the  in Ontario,  British point  in British  in providing  bargaining operative.  d e a l t - w i t h many o f t h e  p o i n t s such  mass p i c k e t i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p i c k e t i n g , m y s t e r y p i c k e t s a n d  The as,  secondary  28 boycottsT and  Ontario's  many o f t h e British  fundamental  An  p r o b l e m s a r e due  i n j u n c t i o n s are  issued to stop  Columbia's present  labour  the  right  to p r i v a t e  2)  the  right  to p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t . points w i l l  remedy i n p r o p e r  perspective.  property  unlawful  against Bill  guarantee t h i s immediately  such  legislation  1)  conditions.  above mentioned f a c t o r s behaviours. i s b a s e d on  two  concepts:  e l a b o r a t i o n on b o t h  right  to the  restricted  right  and  hold  The  Secondly,  in  British  Columbia's  the r e s o r t to s t r i k e  the  the  framework of right  the  to the  strike  i n order  e m p l o y e r and  the  to ownership also c a r r i e s w i t h  t r e s p a s s and- a r i g h t  right  injunctive  to p r o t e c t p r i v a t e  picketing activities  the d i s p u t e  right  of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t  egress.  the  c o n f i s c a t i o n m u s t be v i e w e d u n d e r  has  or  place  Firstly,  43  involved.  property  of u n i n h i b i t e d  t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t has  legislation.  A unilateral  a c t i o n c a n n o t be  allowed  to  refusal impair  been  to union  i t an access  recognized  to contract  and  the c o n t r a c t u a l  TABLE I V  NUMBER OF INJUNCTIONS GRANTED .1946-1955  Year  E X PARTE Granted  1946  Denied  ON NOTICE Granted  Denied  2  1947  1  1948  1  1949  10  1950  5  1951  1  1952  11  I'  2  1  1953  27  1  1  1  1954  4  1955  3  1  63  4  Total  2  5  3  TABLE V  CIRCUMSTANCES .IN WHICH A N I N J U N C T I O N WAS  ACTIVITY  Number  Direct p i c k e t i n g during the course o f n e g o t i a t i n g a c o l l e c t i v e agreement: a) by a c e r t i f i e d union b)  SOUGHT  by an u n c e r t i f i e d u n i o n  42 17  Secondary p i c k e t i n g  4  Grievance  3  picketing  Unclassified  8 75  k Carrothers,  Injunction  i n B. C., P. 1 9 4 .  capability not  t o do  of  the  other  business  with  employer of h i s r i g h t ment o r types  the  British  may  the  services.  to  One  1966.  the  the  Chapter w i l l  period  must keep i n mind  that  disputes  will  express  regarding  the  to the the use  of  the  F r o m 1946  to  F r o m 1946  t o 1955  seventy-five  deprive  either for  employthe  as p r e c i s e l y as  and  the  three  in  to  part of the  l a b o u r , management and  the  1956  enacted  more c l e a r l y and latter  main p a r t s ;  second from  t h e T r a d e - u n i o n s A c t was  The  the  of p i c k e t e r s were  divided into  disputes  others  the i n j u n c t i o n .  t o 1955  p a r t i e s concerned.  a t t i t u d e s of  not  l o o k i n g back at  defined of  may  others,  In  be  f r o m 1946  to d e f i n e p i c k e t i n g i n labour  the  they  primarily activities  a c t i v i t i e s were not  remainder of covering  attempt to persuade  to p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t w i t h  C o l u m b i a , t h u s a r e s o r t t o t h e use  the f i r s t  Period  union  s t r u c k employer, but  in Ontario,  Many o f  The  1959  a  The  p u r c h a s e o f g o o d s and  of behavior  enjoined.  party.  in  confine chapter  legal  profession  labour i n j u n c t i o n .  1955  twenty-two unions a p p l i e d f o r a t o t a l  i n j u n c t i o n s . The  for  injunction; a total  of  27  two  i n d u s t r i e s most a c t i v e l y  the  construction industry.  of  lumber  industry filed  the'most a p p l i c a t i o n s  during  the  and  years  i n v o l v e d were the The  general  1952  1953.  s h i p p i n g and  circumstances  The  other  wharfing  and  i n which i n j u n c t i o n s  29 .were a p p l i e d f o r a r e Table V circumstances the  process  o u t l i n e d i n Table  indicates that most 1  i n which the  union  of  V. the  (either  i n j u n c t i o n s were a p p l i e d f o r i n certified  o r u n c e r t i f i e d ) was  of n e g o t i a t i n g a - c o l l e c t i v e agreement or  to  acknowledge the union  be  observed  that  f o r purposes of  s i x t y - s e v e n of  the  inducing  the  collective bargaining.  in  employer It  a p p l i c a t i o n s were i n c o n j u n c t i o n  can with  picketing.  Thus, as  injunctions  and p i c k e t i n g .  The  principal  shown i n T a b l e are  in Ontario,  VI.  and  Ontario  The  highest  number o f  battery.  Many o f  these  between  injunctive relief  are  reasons f o r seeking i n j u n c t i o n s  the  thirty  the c o u r t  twenty-four  thirty-six  of  o b t a i n i n g an merits  that the  ex  of the  the  in five and  the  i s merely a complaint the  law.  He  of  injunction  to the  this  ones  period was  i n j u n c t i o n was  case d i d not  the  before not  decide  proceedings  at  warranted;  the  w e n t no  or  issue.  further  Only i n three cases  did  In than  the  trial.  p a r t i e s i s not  assumption that  within  i n one  states that c r i t i c i s m of  During  p a r t i e s were heard  interim injunction. to  similar  to f o u r days, whereas there  t h a t an  s e v e n t y - f i v e cases  a c t i o n go  same o r  and  Columbia.  i n which the  i t was,  parte  t h e " s t a t u s quo" b a s e d on  cases  concluded  Carrothers  the  the  injunctions in Ontario.  equivalent provision i n B r i t i s h  trial,  are  i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n s were l i m i t e d  Of  it  correlation  reasons a l l e g e d f o r seeking  t h a t were e n j o i n e d w i t h  in  i s a high  i n t i m i d a t i o n , mass p i c k e t i n g , p i c k e t i n g , t r e s p a s s i n g , d e f a m a t i o n  assault  no  there  of the merited.  t h e u n i o n was  that  the  This  c r i t i c i s m must  acting lawfully;  i n j u n c t i o n o b l i g e s the  c o n t i n u e s , " t h a t the  i n labour  injunction for upsetting  total  d i s p u t e s does not  find  otherwise  union  a b o l i t i o n of  be  the  to  act  remedy  serious advocary; i t s 30  use  i n proper During  than  i n any  cases this  other  b a r g a i n i n g was labour and  and  lockout  cannot  major  industrial  more p r e v a l e n t .  be  to  questioned."  period unionization in B r i t i s h  management t o can  solemly  the  expected  province;  Under these  C o l u m b i a was  compulsory  collective  c o n d i t i o n s the  economic s a n c t i o n s t o be more f r e q u e n t .  of  higher  strike,  r e s o r t of p i c k e t , boycott  I t i s i n the  use  of  such  TABLE V I  PRINCIPAL  REASONS ALLEGED FOR  SEEKING  * INJUNCTIVE Assault  RELIEF '  Frequency  and B a t t e r y  14  Shooting  1  D e s t r u c t i o n of property  9  Power  1  supply  Blocking  cut o f f  entrance  to premises  8  B a r r i e r s and b a r r i c a d e s  3  Rioting  1  Intimidation  33  Mass p i c k e t i n g  16  Accosting  employees  Interfering with Accosting  5  employees  3  customers  4  Obstructing  highway  Defamation,  l e b e l , slander, or f a l s e statement  Placing  2  e m p l o y e r on d e f a u l t e r s '  list  13 1  Boycotting  2  Trespassing  10  Sit-in  strike--trespass  Illegal  4  strike  P i c k e t i n g where  3 there  Picketing--where  Carrothers,  i s no d i s p u t e  i t was  5  the main complaint  Injunctions  i n B.  C.,  p.  19  196.  economic weapons t h a t frequently.  and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e  has  to occur  more  a legal  i s abuse of t h e l e g a l  l e g a l r i g h t s ; the r i g h t to private  contract.  F r o m 1956 t o 1966  The period  c a n be e x p e c t e d  an economic advantage, t h e r e  The i n j u n c t i o n i s t o p r o t e c t  property  Period  of i l l e g a l i t y  Where t h e i n j u n c t i o n i s s o u g h t , n o t t o p r o t e c t  right', but t o gain process.  acts  incidence  o f t h e use of the labour  injunction during the  f r o m 1956 t o 1 9 6 5 a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r  risen four-fold.  Table V I I i l l u s t r a t e s  period  the figures f o rthis  period.  TABLE V I I  INJUNCTIONS GRANTED, M O D I F I E D OR DENIED FROM (includes  1956-1965-  Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , ALL Ex  New W e s t m i n s t e r , C r a n b r o o k , K a m l o o p s )  INJUNCTIONS  parte  P I C K E T I N G ONLY  Not i c e  Total  Ex  parte  Not i c e  Total  Applications  244  56  280  202  35  237  Granted  173  23  196  153  20  173  Modified  49  12  61  48  8  56  Denied  17  1  18  16  1  17  ^ ' S u b m i s s i o n o f B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f ; breakdown o f the  s t a t is t i e s  p e r c e n t a g e o f ex p a r t e Further study  statistics indicate that  Vancouver r e g i s t r y .  L a b o u r , p. 13 •  (seeTable VII)  shows t h a t  injunctions are again associated  provided  by the B r i t i s h  out of the t o t a l The d a t a r e v e a l s  a  with  high picketing.  Columbia Federation  280 a p p l i c a t i o n s -216 w e r e that  injunctions  of Labour's i n the  are s t i l l  being  used p r i m a r i l y illegal the  to injoin  strikes.  the acts of p i c k e t e r s whether during  Unfortunately available s t a t i s t i c s  237 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d l e g a l  have been c o n c e n t r a t e d  strike  legal or  do n o t r e v e a l i f  situations.  The i n j u n c t i o n s  i n a s m a l l number o f i n d u s t r i e s ,  particularly  c o n s t r u c t i o n and s h i p p i n g . Some i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a c t i v e l y field  feel  injunction  out  i s t h e T r a d e - u n i o n A c t o f 1959.  when a l e g a l  the limits  these  This  i s a debatable  p o i n t , as  p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g at t h e employer's place o f  strike  i s i n progress.  Thus t h e A c t m e r e l y  sets  r e g a r d i n g p i c k e t i n g i n a m o r e p r e c i s e m a n n e r , a n d when  are not complied  A t t i t u d e s w i t h Respect  1)  relations  t h a t one c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f t h e  the A c t e x p r e s s l y permits business  involved i n the labour  with  the injunctive  r e m e d y c a n be s o u g h t .  t o t h e Labour I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  Labour's A t t i t u d e The  parte  B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r  injunction.  return  injunction  i n the e a r l y stages.  Federation  criticises  T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i s based on t h e i r  ment u s e s t h e e x p a r t e strike  i n particular  belief  H o w e v e r , no i n d i c a t i o n  to protect private, property:  more b a s i c t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e  that  manage-  as a n e f f e c t i v e weapon t o b r e a k a i s made b y t h e  t o d e f i n e p e r m i s s i b l e conduct on t h e p i c k e t l i n e .  to the right  t h e ex  bargaining process  as t h i s  i s no c o n c e p t inherent  may b e t h a t t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n  of  t h e Trade-unions A c t o f 1959, which e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n e s p i c k e t i n g The A c t h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d  i s expressing  right.  It  behavior.  of Labour  there  Hence a  a s , "An A c t P e r t a i n i n g  S p e e c h and t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n . "  its dislike  t o Free  In reviewing been p u r p o s e f u l t h e m and  that  resort i t has  been g r a n t e d . r e m e d y as  the  The  statistics t o the  use  of  the  been e n c o u r a g e d by  i n j u n c t i o n no  intended,  quoted, labour  but  rather  i n j u n c t i o n as the  longer  ease w i t h  a p p e a r s t o be  normal procedure.  t h a t management d e l i b e r a t e l y u s e s t h e w e a p o n as relations  to weigh the  The by  that and This  i s that  the  e i g h t y - f i v e per they  balance  in their  injunction decidedly  cent of  the  indicate that without extremely broad  s t a t e m e n t and  the  limits  of p i c k e t i n g as  established  the  a t t i t u d e that  so  restrictive  the  court's  (to the  by  has  and  extra-ordinary state  industrial  cited  d i r e c t e d at  can  43.  statistics,  management.  be  no  They  picketing  of  criticising  They f u r t h e r  express  l a w f u l p i c k e t i n g has  communicating of  say  effective strike.  connotations  Bill  have  1  favours  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  obtaining  an  has  against  which they  previously  p i c k e t i n g there  there  a weapon  a tool in  i n j u n c t i o n s are  i s an  that  They f u r t h e r  favour."'  main a t t i t u d e expressed toward the  labour,  states  information)  been that  32 it  is close  further  go  to " s a y i n g on  as w r o n g , and  to  criticism To the  state that  that  restrictiveness  picketing i s wrongful  of  of B i l l  e f f e c t of  the  a n t i - p i c k e t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : again  parte  of  the  may  be  The  e m p l o y e r may  that  i n j u n c t i o n i s to r e i n f o r c e  the  i n j u n c t i o n at  e a s i l y lost' or  viewed the  a direct  the  labour  toward  the  injunction  L a b o u r f e e l s t h a t when  crucial  point  in a strike,  a l l u s i o n s t o""intended" v i o l e n c e ,  courts as  the  g r e a t l y weakened, even i f i t i s p e r f e c t l y  t h e n , as  s t r i k e has  a t t i t u d e of  is appropriate.  h i g h l y exaggerated  the  the  They  43.  further exemplify  ex  s t r i k e s themselves, i f e f f e c t i v e , are  the  f o l l o w i n g statement  g r a n t an  i f i t is effective."  they often  been d e c l a r e d  do,  illegal  a result  strike legal.  n o t i f y customers' and"employees by  the  courts  and  thus  eliminate  the primary boycott e n t i r e l y occur, r e c t i f i c a t i o n the  injunctions  entire  few  i s too  taken to t r i a l  effectiveness  case, to a l l intents  the f i r s t that  of the s i t u a t i o n  are ever  r e f l e c t i o n of the  l e g a l under B i l l  the employer does not  By  late.  employers  of the i n j u n c t i o n .  and  days of a s t r i k e  by  43.  purposes,  fact  hearings  t h a t few  of  as  I t disposes of  a  the  time—during concluded  t o g e t w h a t he  a trial  the  is interpreted  T h u s i t c a n be  to t r i a l  o b t a i n s w h a t he w a n t s ex p a r t e , w i t h o u t  The  at the c r i t i c a l  or walkout.  h a v e t o go  the time  wants--he  o r even h a v i n g  proven  33 his  case.  reflected  Labour's by  attitude  the f o l l o w i n g  toward  the use  of the  injunction  is  statement;  " I n j u n c t i o n s i s s u e d t o p r e v e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o b r e a k s t r i k e s , i n v i t e d i s r e s p e c t f o r j u d g e s and f o r t h e law...To permit such a s i t u a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e can o n l y i n c r e a s e t e n s i o n and add f u e l t o t h e f i r e o f i n d u s t r i a l strife." 3  The vantage  4  following  point,  p o i n t s a r e a summary o f t h e r e a s o n s , f r o m  that reflect  t h e need f o r r e s t r i c t i o n  labour's  i n t h e use  of  the  injunction; 1.  after  further. go 2. is 3.  to  an  employer has  He  u s u a l l y does not  i n j u n c t i o n he  even f i l e  a Statement  seldom takes h i s o f C l a i m , much  case  less  trial.  o f t e n when e m p l o y e r s g i v e n , man  people  a p p l y t o r e n e w ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n s  immediately  t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n of  Courts  t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e c o u r t s ; so  political  background  that they of the  judges.  Most  judges C.  notice  wrong.  l o n g as  the  They w i l l  are b i a s e d a g a i n s t l a b o u r , owing to  C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t s w h i l e i n B.  t h e p e o p l e v o t e N.D.P.  and  assume t h a t t h e u n i o n m u s t be  c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r v e n e i n l a b o u r d i s p u t e s ex p a r t e .  open t o the charge  and  obtained the  are appointed  by  be  the Liberal  approximately o n e - t h i r d of  4.  judges  ex p a r t e Union.  o f t e n do n o t make a p r o p e r  injunction  i s made, as ;to why n o t i c e h a s n o t b e e n g i v e n t o t h e  Most t r a d e unions  a r e r e s p o n s i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i f they a r e  g i v e n n o t i c e t h a t an i n j u n c t i o n them t h a t t h e y if  i n q u i r y , when a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an  are breaking  i s being  sought,  the law, they a r e l i k e l y  t h e e m p l o y e r g o e s a h e a d w i t h a n ex p a r t e  being n o t i f i e d , line  to resent  there  and i f i t a p p e a r s t o to stop.  However  injunction without  the union  i s a v e r y human t e n d e n c y f o r t h e man o n t h e p i c k e t  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e C o u r t s , and t h e r e  i s more  likely  t o be d e f i a n c e o f t h e C o u r t s . 5.  the Courts  a r e n o t u s u a l l y aware o f t h e dynamics o f l a b o u r d i s p u t e s .  Picketing  i s u s u a l l y conducted  the Court  curtails  picketing,  t o support  a strike.  the strike w i l l  be  Consequently, i f  lost.  t h e Court's h a v e - H e l d tlTat o n e u n l a w f u l a c t b y p i c k e t s j u s t i f i e s t h e  6.  Court  i n issuing a blanket  Courts  have f a i l e d  and  their  are  likely  injunction prohibiting.all  to recognize  These e x p r e s s i o n s  such  of their  industrial  7.  picketing  and  freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n .  The line  families are at stake,  as "scab"  they  and " s t r i k e - b r e a k e r " .  o f f e n d t h e e a r o f t h e judges  to  than  t h a t w h e n men a r e o n t h e p i c k e t  j o b s and t h e l i v e l i h o o d t o use expressions  picketing.  who h a v e h a d l i t t l e  exposure  disputes at the job l e v e l . i s a form o f the e x e r c i s e of the r i g h t  they a r e about  Judges s h o u l d be a g r e a t  issuing orders  that c u r t a i l  of freedom of speech d e a l more c a u t i o u s  o r even deny  these  35 fundamental  rights.  T h u s , t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r f e e l s injunction  i s at the d i s c r e t i o n of the courts.  i n j u n c t i o n , g r a n t e d on n o t i c e .  This at least,  the granting of  They would l i k e  t o see  i n t h e i r view, would  prevent  the present suggestive  p r a c t i s e o f o b t a i n i n g i n j u n c t i o n s on and  usually misleading  the b a s i s of  a f f i v i d a v i t s without  biased,  b e n e f i t of  cross-examination. Prior  t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f management's a t t i t u d e  i n j u n c t i o n the w r i t e r w i l l F e d e r a t i o n of Labour. the F e d e r a t i o n and At  no  a  defined  frequency  strong  not  of  of  the  the review  and  expressed of  the  of the  remedy would  s t a t e m e n t when t h e F e d e r a t i o n  knowledgeable i n matters  t h e B.  injunctive  t h e remedy t o b r e a k a s t r i k e  labour  C. process  judicial attitudes  at a c r i t i c a l  stage.  lawful picketing is quite  i f p i c k e t i n g were conducted  of use  by  law of p i c k e t i n g , the  p o i n t , does the F e d e r a t i o n d i s c u s s t h a t  clearly the  Throughout  is critical  the r e s o r t t o use  examine the views  toward the  i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner,  indeed  decline.  implies that  It is  indeed  judges are b i a s e d  pertaining to'picket lines.  It is  the  e m o t i o n s o f t h e p i c k e t e r s w h i c h o f t e n c a u s e s management t o r e s o r t t o use  of  the  ex  parte  injunction.  p a r t e or otherwise, w i l l  not  e m p l o y e r must h a v e r e c o u r s e picketing the  ex  nature  and  parte of  used  and  as  issued to r e s t r a i n  t o be  The  judges are  i n j u n c t i o n s i n these  a shield In  grew out  of  legal  not  fashioned  rights."  summary, B i l l  43  He  cognisant  situations.  w i t h the Federation's  u s e d t o g a i n an  i n j u n c t i o n was  injunction,  I t i s not  the ex  lawful picketing.  intimidation prevail.  i n o n l y emergent s i t u a t i o n s .  injunction "The  cases.  sympathetic  d i s p u t e an  t o a s p e e d y r e m e d y i f s u c h a c t s as  forms of  i n these  ex p a r t e  supportive be  other  be  In a labour  and  should of  The  the  economic advantage.  mass only  use  critical  writer is  view that the the  An  ex  parte  i n t e n t for. the As  Carrothers  as a s w o r d o f c o l l e c t i v e  states  bargaining  but  36  i s not  a unilateral  o f t h e n e e d t o d e f i n e p i c k e t i n g and  p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n , i t  confine  i t to the  legal  strik  situation,  and,also  d e f i n i t i o n of refer  to the  private  property if  time l i m i t  2)  the  against  use  of  the  right  ex  to  parte  1959.  to only four days. The  w r i t e r must  to p r i v a t e property  and  e s s e n t i a l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the views of  remedy i s t h e  unions are  what  as  the  existed prior  concept of  contract  injunctive  limit  unlawful  responsible  lawful, behaviour  only  recourse  management h a s  behaviour. as  i s on  The  Federation  quoted, there the  picket  should  be  the  No  again  right  to  Labour.  to protect  The  his  must r e c o g n i z e  that  no  to  question  as  Counsel  for  line.  Management's A t t i t u d e  Mr. Forest  D.  A.  S.  Industrial  L a n s k a i l , t h e A s s i s t a n t M a n a g e r and  R e l a t i o n s , i s one  i n d i v i d u a l who  has  elaborated  on  37 management's v i e w s r e g a r d i n g the  i s s u e has  i n p a r t , to and  the v i g o r o u s  to the  interested Vice  been confused  lamentable groups.  President  v o i c e , Mr.  pure camouflage changes He  i n the  concludes  destroy  the  s y s t e m and  summarize, the  p u b l i c m i n d and  s i l e n c e of management, b a r was  voices while  L a n s k a i l b e l i e v e s the intended present  b e g i n w i t h , he this  is  confirmed  balance  of  the  labour  attempt  collective  by  feels  attributable, labour  a s s o c i a t i o n s and G.  leaders other  Wilkinson,  s t a t e d t h a t management s p e a k s i n one  campaign a g a i n s t  t o d i s g u i s e an  e l i m i n a t i o n of the  the  indeed  C o n s t r u c t i o n , w h e n he  different  collective  the  i n the  To  p r o p a g a n d a c a m p a i g n c o n d u c t e d by  of M a r w e l l  that  What a r e  injunction.  This viewpoint  speaks i n f o u r t e e n one  the  issue  injunctions is  to b r i n g about bargaining  i n j u n c t i v e remedy w o u l d  fundamental  relationship. effectively  agreement.  e s s e n t i a l s of  our  e s s e n t i a l elements of e s s e n t i a l s of  the  resultant collective the  framework of  Canadian system  are;  with  bargaining  labour  law?  To  1.  c o m p u l s o r y r e c o g n i t i o n by  organize  and  to apply  for certification  2.  upon w i n n i n g  upon c e r t i f i c a t i o n  establish  the  employers of  support  of  union  employees r i g h t  a m a j o r i t y , the  as a c o l l e c t i v e  the  their  can  union  bargaining  compel the  is  to  entitled  agent;  employer to b a r g a i n  and  agreement;  3.  the  s t a t u t o r y agreement has  a minimum t e r m o f one  4.  the  employees b e n e f i t from the  agreement w i t h  year;  i m p r o v e d wages  and  working conditions; 5.  the  labour of  o n l y compensation the cost  f o r the  a predictable period  6.  the  i'f n o t  next  picket 7.  around  right  the  the  e m p l o y e r has  the  i s the  a g r e e m e n t , and  of  union  right  using  the  of h a v i n g  a l s o the  his  promise  operation; to s t r i k e  p r o p o s e d wages and fact  prospect  against  c o n d i t i o n s of  s t r i k e by  the  employer  t h e new  agree-  establishing peaceful  premises;  to protect h i s business  supervisory personnel  and  or any  property other  to  the  person  who  willing.  With these  e s s e n t i a l s and  i f a l l concerned were r e a s o n a b l e ,  law-abiding,  the  incident  agreements would  other  and  contracts.  employers are of w i l d c a t  collective  Unhappily  subject  strikes,  of  contract  it  is difficult,  The  of  employer's  the  o f h i s a b i l i t y by  the  of u n i n t e r r u p t e d  i s the with  term of  t o communicate the  lines  the  best  step  satisfied  m e n t , and  is  constant  e m p l o y e r has  to the  bargaining process be  the  h o n o u r e d , as idyllic  t h r e a t and  s l o w d o w n s and  c a n n o t be  compared  i f not  w o u l d c a r r y on the v a s t  majority  situation  does not  prevail.  of breaches  i n the  reality bans.  case of  The  remedy f o r  e m p l o y e r must have o t h e r  r e m e d i e s open t o him,  and  a union  of Many form  breach  commercial-contracts  i m p o s s i b l e , t o s u c c e s s f u l l y sue  and  without  are  overtime  to the  rational  because  f o r damages.  his only course  is  to  t r y and p r e v e n t  as  possible.  excessive  t h e damage f r o m o c c u r r i n g ,  or to minimize  W i t h t h e i n j u n c t i o n t h e employer has p r o t e c t i o n  damage r e s u l t i n g f r o m i l l e g a l  consideration:  picketing the  union organization,  i n a legal strike  and p i c k e t s  or  improper  influence.  organization would fore  then r e s o r t  t o what  during  to exert  employees t o j o i n using  do n o t s u p p o r t  the use of  to restore  peace?  First,  coercion  them.  union  The u n i o n s  picketing".  b e c a u s e h i s employees have  t h e u n i o n , o r he c o u l d  next  Thereexpressed  What a c t i o n w o u l d t h e One, he c o u l d  force h i s  remove t h e i l l e g a l  a r e a w h i c h needs c o n s i d e r a t i o n  These hidden o r s e c r e t extract  pickets  could  professional  pickets.  devotion  entire operation,  pickets  by  third  could  hundreds o f t h e i r employment.  t i e up an  The o n l y  remedy  by i n j u n c t i o n .  s i t u a t i o n which would or could  occur  i f the injunction  a legal strike.  t h e employer has t h e r i g h t t o c a r r y on h i s o p e r a t i o n s  supervisors.  could  e x p l o i t i n g the almost  w e r e r e m o v e d w o u l d be t h e f o r m o f p i c k e t i n g d u r i n g present  pickets".  by a u n i o n s e e k i n g t o  t o t h e s a n c t i t y o f the. p i c k e t l i n e  depriving  of "mystery  I n e f f e e t , the union  One m y s t e r y p i c k e t  management h a s i s t o r e m o v e t h e p i c k e t The  i s that  be s p o n s o r e d  some c o n c e s s i o n f r o m an e m p l o y e r .  hysterical  his  strike.  the injunction. The  hire  areas  i f t h e y c a n meet t h e s i m p l e  support without  not to support a p a r t i c u l a r union.  e m p l o y e r be a b l e  an i l l e g a l  i s termed " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t h e e m p l o y e r w o u l d be p i c k e t e d  a desire  Four  T h e u n i o n s now w a n t t h e r i g h t t o c o m p e l  e v e n when t h e m a j o r i t y  preventing  mystery p i c k e t s , form of  union has the r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e workers  democratic test of getting majority  by  action.  What w o u l d h a p p e n i f t h e i n j u n c t i o n w e r e r e m o v e d ? invite  i t a s much  I n these circumstances  by  At . using  t h e u n i o n may e m p l o y t h e u s e o f  mass p i c k e t i n g o r  some o t h e r  form of  p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n intended  prevent  s u p e r v i s o r s or owners from e n t e r i n g t h e i r  to t h i s  type  capitulate  of  or  i m p r o p e r and  illegal  own  procedure the  seek i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f  to prevent  plant.  In  employer can  to  response only  i n t i m i d a t i o n and  restore  peaceful picketing. The  last  point  to consider  i s that of  c o m p e n s a t i o n s an  employer d e r i v e s from a  of  intended  the  stability  term of  the  by  the  agreement d e s t r o y  illegal  labour  agreement.  this  i n j u n c t i v e remedy i s sometimes a p p r o p r i a t e  and  i t tends to reduce the  leaders cat  s e e k now  strikes  convert union  the  and  i s the  a l i c e n s e to picket without  collective  agreement  campaign becomes, i n e f f e c t ,  an  a g r e e m e n t as a n  and  institution,  system of c o l l e c t i v e  real  us  bargaining  in this  What  restraint  a t t a c k on as  light, the  This  instrument  r e a l l y done i s b r o u g h t about w i d e s p r e a d f e a t h e r - b e d d i n g .  quoted  i n the  had  course  of  n e w s p a p e r i n d u s t r y , as management so  that  union  He  go  on  strike  they  down on w a s t e f u l  criticising  that  the  the  collective basic  could " r e s i s t  further states:  e l e c t e d and  union  A l l this It  i n the  has  supported  practises.  strike  what'he can  agreement  at anytime.  feather-bedding,  recommending a form of  38 blackmail."  can  that Prime M i n i s t e r Wilson, to crack  would  i n Canada.  has  l a b o u r , has  wild-  a t h r e a t to the  no  by  employer  the a n t i - i n j u n c t i o n  has  become so n o t o r i o u s  the  the  labour  examine the E n g l i s h system, where a c o l l e c t i v e  s t a t u s and  prospect  against  i n t e g r i t y of  s u c h w o u l d be  the  circumstances  strikes.  restriction.  of  during  aggrieved  into a unilateral  Viewed  strikes  f o r an  removal of a l l e f f e c t i v e  could break anytime.  Let  illegal  One  i s the  Under these  the  problem of  agreement  Wildcat  stability.  strikes.  He  is  British  insurance  only describe  for as  " t h e r e i s t o o much f e a r a n d t i m i d i t y o n t h e . p a r t o f some m a n a g e m e n t s - a f e a r o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h p r o d u c t i o n . - w h i c h may, and p r o b a b l y w i l l , h a v e t o be f a c e d . If  these words by Prime M i n i s t e r W i l s o n  management r e l a t i o n s prefer  i n Great  t o see t h e present  to a f i x e d  on  3)  present  there  system of f r e e c o l l e c t i v e  as presented  the labour  i s no d o u b t t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d  c o n t r a c t term and which p r o v i d e s  Management's a t t i t u d e , our  Britain  reflect  bargaining which  forstability  during  that  term.  by Mr. L a n s k a i l , i s one o f p r e s e r v i n g  system o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and t h a t t h e a t t a c k by  the use o f the i n j u n c t i o n  leads  labour  i s an a t t a c k on t h e Trade-Unions A c t .  Legal A t t i t u d e s  In this  section the w r i t e r w i l l  British  Columbia.  warrant  attention.  present  T h e i r views a r e indeed The l a w y e r s  These v i e w s a r e expressed  a r e B. W.  during  v i e w s o f two l a w y e r s  from  c o n f l i c t i n g and t h e i r  arguments  F. M c L o u g h l i n  Berger.  a conference  a n d Tom  conducted by t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of Labour. The  context  remedy i n l a b o u r to prevent leading  of McLoughlin's views a r e i n support  disputes.  He s a y s  that  i n j u n c t i o n s c a n n o t be  the l a w f u l exercise of r i g h t s .  labour  lawyer  injunction represents  i n Ontario  of the injunctive obtained  He q u o t e s J o h n O s i e r , a  and f r i e n d  o f l a b o u r , as s a y i n g :  a form of p r e v e n t a t i v e  justive  "The  t h a t , i n the long 40  r u n , no c i v i l i z e d states  state could  afford  t h a t t h e r e a r e an i n f i n i t e  t o do w i t h o u t . "  v a r i e t y of circumstances  the  i n j u n c t i o n c a n be t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e  out  t h a t w i t h t h e body o f law and g e n e r a l  courts are best  equiped  remedy e f f e c t i v e .  to act'in  He f e e l s  Mr.  remedy a v a i l a b l e . principles  an a c c u r a t e  McLoughlin under  which  He a l s o p o i n t s  t o guide  them, t h e  a n d r a p i d m a n n e r t o make t h e  t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d w o u l d be an  The  next  b a s i c p o i n t made i s t h a t t h e r e a l  question  i s n o t who  u s e s t h e i n j u n c t i o n m o s t , b u t who c o m m i t s most o f t h e w r o n g f u l leading to  t o t h e u s e o f t h e remedy.  deal with  preserved. 1.  i r r e s p o n s i b l e people  He p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e m e d y i s t h e r e on both  s i d e s and t h i s r i g h t  Examples o f employees and unions  a n e m p l o y e e a g a i n s t h i s own u n i o n ,  from the union  roll,  acts  perhaps without  using  t o prevent  a fair  must b e  the i n j u n c t i o n a r e : them f r o m r e m o v i n g h i m  hearing  and thus  h i s loss of  job; 2.  the union  against  when t h e e m p l o y e r  the employer, t o prevent  i n breach  o f t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t attempts  i n f l u e n c e h i s employees a g a i n s t union 3.  employees a g a i n s t  4.  local  5.  one u n i o n  union  against  him d i s m i s s i n g non-union  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l union  another  to  activity;  employer t o prevent  against  u n f a i r labour p r a c t i s e s ,  t o prevent  breach  to prevent  a  employee  take-over;  o f c o n t r a c t between t h e  41 first  union  and t h e e m p l o y e r .  McLoughlin over 1. to  answers t h e q u e s t i o n — W h y  the injunction?  He s a y s  i s there  t h e answer l i e s  i n three  t h e enforcement o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n by sending be u n j u s t  and has g i v e n  rise  t o arguments  so much  things:  men t o j a i l  i n favour  controversy  has'been  of c i v i l  felt  disobed-  ience; 2.  t h e r e have been abuses i n t h e use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n ;  3.  t h e campaign by unions  The  last  seeking  to strengthen  two p o i n t s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d  presentation  and thus  is  labour  that both  name o f j u s t i c e  concentration w i l l  i n previous  civil  disobedience.  position.  sections of the  be on p o i n t one.  a n d management h a v e i g n o r e d  through  their bargaining  T h e p o i n t made  the injunctions i n the  These i n d i v i d u a l s have  brought  our  l a w s and  weakened truly it  the  a bad  into  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  fabric one,  of our  ' To explored against  cite  the  recent the  use  cases  duly  law  The  into  way  c o n t e m p t and  t o change the  of  i n j u n c t i o n s and  of contempt An  order_by  attempting  was  imposed f o r contempt.  i f i t is  not  by  bringing  to  the w r i t e r  i n j u n c t i o n s were a p p l i e d  induce  practise. the  law,  They i n d u c e d  trade  employees not  contempt of the  43  Struck Furniture Limited.  union.  The  or  They  compelled  disobeyed  t o become members.  To " f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e M c L o u g h l i n ' s f i r s t the  thereby  example i s the U p h o l s t e r e r s I n t e r n a t i o n a l  charged w i t h u n f a i r labour  the  contempt of c o u r t  i n which the  ' A m e r i c a v . H a n k i n and  and  law,  e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  employees from becoming a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  disobedience  have  disobedience.  employers.  Union of North c o m p a n y was  society.  i s through  contempt through  the  point concerning  the Lenkurt  Electric  A  fine  civil  case  can  44 be  considered.  unlawful found  Court, o r d e r s were o b t a i n e d  picketing.  Both court  the demonstrators  them t o i m p r i s o n m e n t . The  the  demonstrations  arid e n f o r c e  a manner b o r d e r i n g In reference  has  taken  the  against  bring  the  people  conduct of  restraining  and  trial  court  sentenced  26  sentences  were  as a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t  a challenge orders.  to the  The  of  dismissed.  the a p p e l l a n t s c l e a r l y  i n part designed  Lenkurt  severe  and  Electric drastic  i n t h e manner o f  problem to the  the  The  restrain  showed the  use  a u t h o r i t y of  the  c o u r t s were  attacked  r i o t o u s conduct.  to the  s o m e t h i n g as  hard-working  on  employer to  of contempt of c o u r t  appeals  were  the  o r d e r s were i g n o r e d .  t h e . i n j u n c t i o n i s s u c h d i s p u t e s and  courts to grant in  The  r e a s o n s s t a t e d were t h a t  that of  guilty  by  as  case, the  labour jailing  common c r i m i n a l s t o  a t t e n t i o n of the  public.  Civil  admits that i t of decent  and  effectively disobedience  i s n o t t h e way t o c h a n g e t h e l a w . if  both  the  need f o r t h e i n j u n c t i o n w o u l d v i r t u a l l y  Berger that  supports  of p e a c e f u l  an N.D.P. member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l  labour's views.  One o f M r . B e r g e r ' s  other  p i c k e t i n g ( a s w e l l as t h e r i g h t  means, s u c h as t h r o u g h  interesting observation  tidns?"  He f e e T s  disputes time  should  the right  information  is entirely  attribut-  Berger  makes  of labour i n j u n c t i o n s  t h e c o u r t s h a v e t h e power t o i s s u e i n j u n c -  the - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r s o r t i n g out labour  management  be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e c o u r t s t o a r e c o n s t i t u t e d f u l l -  Labour R e l a t i o n s Board.  O n l y t h i s B o a r d would have t h e r i g h t t o  i s s u e cease and d e s i s t o r d e r s Board  points i s  t h e news m e d i a and b y p a m p h l e t ) a n d t h e  p e r t a i n i n g to the issuance  the question: "Should  bargains,  p a r l i a m e n t , Mr.  curtailed  t o t h e c u r t a i l m e n t o f p e a c e f u l p i c k e t i n g by t h e A c t .  He a s k s  be  first  to disseminate  i n c r e a s e o f the use of i n j u n c t i o n s s i n c e t h a t time  an  i s made t h a t  disappear.  t h e B. C. T r a d e U n i o n s A c t o f 1959 d r a s t i c a l l y  able  point  management and l a b o u r w o u l d a d h e r e t o t h e l a w a n d t h e i r  N a t u r a l l y , being  by  In concluding,the  against  either  party.  The f u n c t i o n o f t h e  i n a n y c a s e w h e r e a c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r was a p p l i e d f o r , w o u l d  to look at the t o t a l  t o make c e r t a i n  picture.  no o r d e r was g i v e n  I t w o u l d be t h e B o a r d ' s unless  responsibility  n o t i c e was a l s o g i v e n  to either  side.  T h e r e would..have t o be o p e n h e a r i n g s , w i t n e s s e s  called  and t h e r e w o u l d h a v e t o be an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  The  B o a r d w o u l d h a v e t o be s a t i s f i e d  i n good f a i t h  before  mention of the union is  t h a t no o r d e r  union's  ability  t h a t t h e employer had been  a n o r d e r w o u l d be g r a n t e d . having  be g r a n t e d  w o u l d h a v e t o be  to bargain  Mr. Berger  i n good f a i t h .  bargaining  makes no  Another  stipulation  where t h e r e s u l t w o u l d be t o p a r a l y z e t h e  t o f u n c t i o n on b e h a l f  o f i t s members.  T h e r e w o u l d h a v e t o some means o f i n s u r i n g t h a t o r d e r s  made b y t h e  new  Board were e n f o r c e d .  Act  for registering  any  proceedings  provide by  disputes  Mr.  made b y  has  proposal  powers t o the Board  and  however, leaves  contempt  S u p r e m e Court, t o r e v i e w  from the issue  Berger's exists.  c o u r t s , who  the  present  law  as  i t now  changed.  From the  use  of the  during  the  proposal  does not  feels  attack  do  not  by  parte He  jury  from B i l l  attempted  i n c i d e n c e of  the  labour  efficient  of  a t t a c k on  injunctive He  still, the  Bill  powers  d i s p u t e s and  thus  As  and 43,  thus  must  where  labour  The be  restricted. labour  management  in Ontario.  tise.of  of  Berger  associated with unlawful  This B i l l • d e f i n e d  as  injunctions.  seen t h a t the  Columbia the  far  the competence  of  to t h a t  which  injunctive  been u n d u l y  i n j u n c t i o n may  tool  situation  carefully.  insufficient,  to confine  deals  w a n t s t o use  labour  is quite similar  43.  now  t o the use  be  trial  trial.  too  t o f r e e s p e e c h has i t can  to  also  a Board which  i m p r o v e any  i s primarily against  If  should  injunction.  the use  i s an  respect  In B r i t i s h  courts from  become an  understand  remedy i s c l e a r l y  situations.  The  ex  a n a l y z i n g the f a c t s  Columbia  injunctive  legislation  i s to t r a n s f e r the  seem t o  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  i s a l l o w a b l e and  concerned.  indeed  issue unresolved.  foregoing review  separated  f o r , the  e l i m i n a t e the  procedures with  in British  strike  c a n n o t be which  he  stands,  Again  i n t h e Supreme C o u r t .  i s merely t r a n s f e r r i n g  the. employee.! s r i g h t  situation  His  ascertain, his proposal  court  i n the Labour R e l a t i o n s  i d e a t o s e t up  contempt o r d e r s  injunctions without  the w r i t e r can  feels  thus  proposal He  The  disputes could  handling future disputes.  presently  Board  to e l i m i n a t e the  some m e r i t .  labour  the  exists  i s charged w i t h contempt have the r i g h t  Berger's  probably  Mr.  the  f o r contempt were c a l l e d  specifically with for  orders  t h a t a n y o n e who  jury.  Provision already  the  The behavior  remedy  p i c k e t i n g behavior  disputes  to the p a r t i e s  have i n c r e a s e d  s i n c e the '  inception  o f t h e A c t due  Specifically, injunctions  t h e B.  to a c t i v i t i e s  C. F e d e r a t i o n  issued during  not e n j o i n e d  of Labour  the p e r i o d  1956  prior  quotes that  t o 1966  to  1959.  157» o f  the  were t o e n j o i n m y s t e r y  46 pickets.  The  question  are m y s t e r y p i c k e t s used? trade  to consider This  u n i o n movement be p l a c e d  is i f this  is direct above the  i s unlawful  defiance law?  behavior,  of the law.  Can  why  the  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND  I t was  hypothesized  a t t i t u d e s and t h a t  In studying the experience  t h r e e c o u n t r i e s i t was  matters Were organic ical  events  the use o f t h e i n j u n c t i o n  i s a function of  i t suse i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s of i n t e n s e  management s t r i f e s . of  that  CONCLUSIONS  evident  that the p a r t i c u l a r  growths from l o c a l  and s p e c i a l f a c t o r s .  of the labour  labour injunction  elements  i n labour  conditions of the s o c i e t y , h i s t o r -  I t was  shown t h a t  i n Great  Britain  the  a t t i t u d e o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and a b s t e n t i o n f r o m l a b o u r d i s p u t e s has changed due t o t h e p r e s s u r e s  of t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t .  of g r e a t e r  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n order  resentment  toward union  both  and t h e d e t e r m i n i n g  has  f a c t o r was  over  of both  States  pre N o r r i s - L a Guardia  level the  experience  era.  of the labour  It  i s being  used  as  i t i s i n Canada  and  f a c t o r i n the disputes.  As  t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e organs which determine i t . revealed  t h a t t h e use of t h e l a b o u r  I t was v i r t u a l l y  by t h a t A c t , however as t h e s t u d y  frequency  labour  and t h u s r e l i a n c e  i n j u n c t i o n grew out o f t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e judges toward u n i o n the  the labour  t h e A u s t r a l i a n w o r k e r s e e k s s e c u r i t y , r e c e i v e s i t and  become w e l l a d j u s t e d The U n i t e d  the a t t i t u d e  These Awards a r e s a c r e d  p a r t i e s on them i s t h e g o v e r n i n g  J u s t i c e Rand s a y s ,  and t h e g r o w i n g  showed a l a c k o f c o n t r o v e r s y  management t o w a r d s t h e A w a r d s . by  inflation  attitude  power.  The A u s t r a l i a n r e v i e w injunction  t o combat  The  gorwth i n  eliminated at the f e d e r a l  progressed  i t illustrated  i n j u n c t i o n at the s t a t e l e v e l  that  was i n c r e a s i n g .  t o c o n t r o l much o f t h e u n l a w f u l a c t i v i t i e s  of p i c k e t e r s  today.  The w r i t e r h y p o t h e s i z e d  t h a t t h e i n j u n c t i o n was  still  a  necessary  remedy open t o b o t h  p a r t i e s i n labour  t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m and that our two.  system of  Australian structural  collective  I n Canada the b a r g a i n s  bargaining are  compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n , while not in  even a c o n t r a c t time,  that the  i n the  the  in  i n d u s t r i e s or s e r v i c e s .  labour  the concepts contract.  of  developed  the  labour  basic  to p r o t e c t the  legislation  the  right  public,  in British  i t s labour  injunction.  concepts  of the  c o n t r a c t were a g a i n  During right  and  third  C o l u m b i a has  agreement i s  i t s particular  to p r i v a t e States  a t t i t u d e s toward  the d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g to O n t a r i o  issues i n question.  the  right  Rand's  recommendations  recommended t h e T r i b u n a l i n q u i r e i n t o  labour dispute, terminate  any  enpowered t h i s and  external his  i n other  arbitration.  pressures  on  areas  b o t h m a n a g e m e n t and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n on  was  the  He  also  ex p a r t e .  the v i r t u a l  shown t h a t The  request,  as a b o a r d  labour  of  increase  the  t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t s w i t h minimum  of  s t a t e d i n t h e W r i t e r ' s comments p e r t a i n i n g t o .  When r e v i e w i n g B r i t i s h i t was  t o a c t , on  Rand's recommendations appear to  i n t e r v e n t i o n , as  injunction  picketing.  any  T r i b u n a l t o make b i n d i n g a w a r d s i n ' e s s e n t i a l i n d u s t r i e s  s e r v i c e s , and  binding  and. l i m i t  the  to p r i v a t e  w e r e f a r r e a c h i n g when he  strike  strikes  been b u i l t . a r o u n d  the r i g h t  and  point  some  p a r t y , from  w i t h which the United  to p r i v a t e property  the v i t a l  no  system r e q u i r e s  t o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and  legislation  the  I t appears, at t h i s  the  of  appear  parties with  collective  judges.  These were the b a s i c concepts  has  two  Canadian c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  i n order  The  systems, i t would  the  i n England the  eyes of  From the background  i s some w h e r e i n b e t w e e n  s t r u c k by  modification essential  disputes.  e x c l u s i o n of the  ex p a r t e  Columbia's experience-with the p r i n c i p a l  c r i t i c i s m with  c r i t i c i s m s were a l s o l e v e l l e d  injunction.  the'labour the  at the  injunction  Trade-unions  Act:, w h i c h d e f i n e d with  the  their that  ex  by  t h e T r i b u n a l be  enpowered  provincial  Tribunal with  the  c o u l d be  right  individual  use  of  the  jurisdiction  exercised.  court  has  right  to the  use  of the  t o management l a b o u r  attempt  to f r e e the  established  the  courts  to  factual  may  courts  disputes; be  involved  administrative  and  that  in separating  private contract,  The  concept  the  and  d e n y b o t h management and  labour  of  management  However i t a p p e a r s t h a t  the  preserved.  some' t y p e  judicial  suggested  s i t u a t i o n s i n which  basic rights.  must be  settle  Rand  question  dealt  o f L a b o u r C o u r t be  s e t up  as  system to examine m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g This  proposal  i n labour  from these  matters,  matters.  staffed with  i s not  to c r i t i c i z e  instead  i t is  the  an  I f such Labour Courts  judges s p e c i a l i z e d i n d e a l i n g  were with  disputes.  to grant  labour  the  t h e y w o u l d be  In conclusion  court  these  disagreements.  involvement of  intervene.  Rand  a l l matters, p e r t a i n i n g to labour  courts  present  present  labour  the  r i g h t s and  to preserve  of the  to  effort  Rand d o e s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y  w r i t e r suggests that  extension  such a c t i v i t y .  t o c l o t h e s u c h an  i s a p l a u s i b l e recommendation.  The an  courts  to p r i v a t e property  c r e a t i n g a body to d e a l w i t h disputes  of  a constitutional  h i s T r i b u n a l would upsurp these the  place  to issue i n j u n c t i o n s i n labour  i n j u n c t i v e p o w e r s and  authority the  asking  a l s o commented t h a t  b o t h the  the  f o r c i n g b o t h p a r t i e s t o make an  differences before  h o w e v e r he on  parte  p i c k e t i n g and  i t i s recommended t h a t t h e  i n j u n c t i v e r e m e d y and  relief.  thereby  Expansion of our  present  court  p r o t e c t the judicial  retain  Coupled w i t h  this  right  able i s the  to a v a i l  s y s t e m t o encompass  themselves of  availability  of  power  individual's right  d i v i s i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e -a more e f f i c a c i o u s s y s t e m .  p a r t i c i p a n t s must be  the  an  In  to a  disputes  immediate  a speedy appeal.  trial.  These  y  recommendations a r e geared Abolishment  o f t h e ex p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n where i r r e p a r a b l e  p r o p e r t y may o c c u r c a n n o t of  a t i m p r o v i n g l a b o u r management r e l a t i o n s .  be a d v o c a t e d .  The i n c i d e n c e o f t h e i s s u a n c e  t h e e x p a r t e i n j u n c t i o n may be r e d u c e d  judicial  procedures  b u t t h e remedy cannot  management a n d t h e p u b l i c on t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e rights  being fundamental  damage t o  through the streamlining  of the  be removed u n l e s s l a b o u r and  a r e p r e p a r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a new s y s t e m n o t b a s e d  p r o p e r t y and t h e r i g h t t o p r i v a t e t o a l l aspects of our society.  contract;  these  FOOTNOTES  Chapter  I  V  Aaron, Labour I n j u n c t i o n s i n the U n i t e d States. ( V o l . I I of R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A.W.R. Carrothers. 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f L a b o u r , 19651 9 6 6 ) , p. 719. 2 J . T. M o n t a g u e and S. M. J a m i e s o n ( e d s . ) , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a b o u r Management C o n f e r e n c e - 1 9 6 3 ( V a n c o u v e r : I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 77. ." 3 4  Ibid.,  p.  5.  . " U n i o n s , " Time Newsmagazine, LXXXIX ( J a n u a r y  20,  1 9 6 7 ) , p.  12.  ^A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s ( e d . ) , R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n Ontario (Toronto: O n t a r i o Department of Labour, 1965-66), p. 4. K . W. W e d d e r b r u n , S t r i k e Law a n d t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n : The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e : 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 6 6 ( V o l . I I o f R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 6 6 5 . 6  J. Carlton:  H. P o r t u s , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a n T r a d e U n i o n M e l b o u r n e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 6.  Law  8 A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h ( T o r o n t o : C. C. H. C a n a d i a n L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1. Ibid,,  p.  Columbia '  4.  Chapter I I  K. W. W e d d e r b u r n , B o o k s I n c . , 1965) , p. 9.  The  W o r k e r and  t h e Law  (Baltimore:  Penguin  2 K. W . . W e d d e r b u r n , S t r i k e Law.and- t h e L a b o u r . I n j u n c t i o n : The. B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e : 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 6 6 ( V o l . I I of- R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e - L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 6 0 5 . ;  Ibid.,  p. 6 1 1 .  ^Ibid.,  p. 6 1 2 .  Ibid.,  p. 6 1 4 .  3  5  K . W. W e d d e r b u r n , The W o r k e r and t h e Law, p. 2 2 7 ; A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Law i n C a n a d a , ( T o r o n t o ; B u t t e r w o r t h , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 3 0 . 6  ^K. W. 8  Wedderburn,  S t r i k e Law,  p. 6 1 6 .  Ibid.  9 Ibid.,  Law  p.  624.  ^ L . J. Scrutton, " T h e Work o f t h e C o m m e r c i a l C o u r t s , " J o u r n a l , I (No. 1, 1 9 2 1 - 2 3 ) , p. 8.  ^W. P. M o n s o n , "The C a s e o f R o o k e s v . B a r n a r d 1 9 6 4 ) , " L a b o u r Law J o u r n a l , X I X ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , 5 3 . 1 2  Cambridge  (House o f L o r d s  Ibid.  13 Wedderburn, S t r i k e 14  Ibid.,  Law,  p. 6 6 2 .  p. 6 6 3 .  ^ I b i d . , pp. 6 6 4 - 6 6 7 . ( P r o g r e s s i v e D e l i v e r i e s L t d . v. Birmingham, 1 9 6 6 . , O l y m p i c A i r w a y s S. A. v . I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t W o r k e r s F e d e r a t i o n , 1966.) 16 Submission of the Ontario D i v i s i o n of the-Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e 'Ivan.C. Rand, C o m m i s s i o n e r , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n I n q u i r y i n t o L a b o u r D i s p u t e s , ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 4 8 - 4 9 .  Little,  ^ O t t o Kahn-Freund ( e d . ) , Labour R e l a t i o n s B r o w n and C o . , 1 9 6 5 . ) , p. 14. ^ I b i d . , p. 2 1 .  and t h e Law  (Toronto;  19  Wedderburn,  on  Strike  Law,  p.  672.  J . H. P o r t u s , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a n M e l b o u r n e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 3.  (Carlton:  Trade Union  Law  21  (Vol. W. R.  ••" • H. J . G l a s b e e k , R e s t r a i n t s on T r a d e U n i o n A c t i v i t y i n A u s t r a l i a I I o f R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. C a r r o t h e r s . 2 v o l s . ; O n t a r i o : D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) . p. 697. 22  p.  E.  91-92 23 24-  Sykes,  Strike  Law  in Australia  G l a s b e e k , o_p_. c i t . , p. E.  S y k e s , op.  - c i t . , p.  ( S y d n e y : Law  Book Co.,  1960),  701. 166-67.  25' G l a s b e e k , op_. c i t . , p. 27I b i d . , p. 712. J . H. P o r t u s , The  701.  2 6  p.  125.  2 8  Ibid.,  p.  Development of A u s t r a l i a n  Trade Union  Law,  141.  29 G l a s b e e k , op_. c i t . , p.  /07.  Chapter I I I  '''Submission o f t h e B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e U s e o f I n j u n c t i o n s i n Labour D i s p u t e s , ( D e c e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2. . 9 2 vols.;  R o b e r t E. M a t h e w s ( e d . ) , L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s and t h e Law B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n a n d Company, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 8 3 5 .  ( V o l .I I .  3 B. A a r o n , The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d ( L o s A n g e l e s ; I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , r e p r i n t no. 1 1 8 , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 29 2.  4  F. F r a n k f u r t e r  a n d N. G r e e n e ,  The M a c r a i l l a n Co. o f C a n a d a ,  (Toronto:  1930).  ^Mathews, Labor R e l a t i o n s ^Frankfurter  The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n  and Greene,  a n d t h e Law, p. 6 2 5 . loc.  c i t .  ^ E d w i n E. W i t t e , T h e G o v e r n m e n t i n L a b o r D i s p u t e s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Company I n c . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 8 4 . 8  Ibid.,  pp. 106-108.  9  Ibid.,  p. 1 0 8 .  ^^B. U  Aaron,  The L a b o r  I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 2 9 4 .  I b i d . , p. 2 9 5 .  12 These c o n t r a c t s were p l e d g e s by workmen, as a c o n d i t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t , t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t j o i n a l a b o u r u n i o n . The g r e a t v a l u e w h i c h i t h a d f o r t h e e m p l o y e r was t h a t t h e c o u r t s t r e a t e d i t a s a p r o p e r t y r i g h t a n d e f f o r t s b y u n i o n s t o o r g a n i z e w o r k m e n who h a d e n t e r e d such c o n t r a c t s were r e g a r d e d as t o r t i o u s a t t e m p t s t o d e s t r o y t h e e m p l o y e r p r o p e r t y and w e r e e n j o i n e d . 13 W. W.  C. 0. G r e g o r y , L a b o r a n d t h e Law, ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; New N o r t o n a n d Company I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . "174-180.  York;  14 A a r o n , The L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 2 9 6 . 1 5  G r e g o r y , oj>. c i t . . , p p . 9 7 - 9 8 .  16 Aaron, ^Aaron,  loc.  c i t .  o p . c i t . , p. 2 9 7 .  18 T h i s i d e a w i l l be e x p a n d e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s when d i s c u s s i n g t h e O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e remedy.  1  19 Submission of the O n t a r i o D i v i s i o n of the Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e I v a n C. R a n d , C o m m i s s i o n e r , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n I n q u i r y i n t o L a b o u r D i s p u t e s , ( J a n u a r y , 1967) , p. 28. 20 Aaron, The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p. 75 t o 5 i n t h e S e r i a t e and 362 t o 14 i n t h e H o u s e ) . 21  A a r o n , ap_. c i t . . ,  pp.  297  (The v o t e  was  298-299.  22 N o r r i s - L a G u a r d i a A c t , 47 S t a t . 101 ( 1 9 5 8 ) .  Section  70  ( 1 9 3 2 ) , as a m e n d e d , .29 U.  S..C.  23 C o x , Law a n d t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o r P o l i c y ( L o s A n g e l e s ; Institute o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r i s t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 5. 24 C. A. Co.,  Brown and  Reynard ( e d . ) , Readings 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 3 3 1 - 3 3 .  on L a b o r Law,  (Toronto;  Little  25 . -•„• ;. •-. " , ' . • • "B; Aaron-, Labor I n j u n c t i o n i n the S t a t e Courts (Los Angeles; I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , R e p r i n t No. 144, 1965). 2 6  Ibid.,  p.  53.  27 A a r o n , The 28  Labor I n j u n c t i o n Reappraised.  A a r o n , L a b o r I n j u n c t i o n R e a p p r a i s e d , p.  327.  29 S u b m i s s i o n o f M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , p. 30  46.  .  . B. A a r o n , Labor I n j u n c t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( V o l . I I of R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. Carrothers. 2 v o l s . ; Toronto; O n t a r i o Department of Labour, 1965-66), p. 7 3 0 . 3 1  Ibid.  32 33  A a r o n , L a b o r In j u n c t ion-.Reappraised , pj 331. A t k i n s o n v . . S i n c l a i r R e f i n i n g ' Co., 370 U. S. 238  (1962).  34 The c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s a n d d e t a i l s o f t h e S i n c l a i r c a s e and S e c t i o n 301 a r e d i s c u s s e d b y B. A a r o n i n an a r t i c l e S t i k e s i n B r e a c h o f C o l l e c t i v e A g r e e m e n t s : Some U n a n s w e r e d Q u e s t i o n s ( L o s A n g e l e s ; I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Reprint no. 126, 1 9 6 3 ) . 35 Aaron, Injunction 3 6  I b i d . , p.  979.  3 7  I b i d . , p.  1161.  Chapter  i n State  Courts,  p. 9 78.  IV  ^"A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h T o r o n t o : C. C. H. C a n a d i a n L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. x x i i i .  Columbia  2 A. (Toronto:  C. C r y s l e r , L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s a n d P r e c e d e n t s i n C a n a d a The C a r s w e l l Company, L i m i t e d , 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 2,v  3 J . T. M o n t a g u e and S. M. 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L a b o u r Management C o n f e r e n c e - 1 9 6 3 , e d s . - J . T. M o n t a g u e a n d S. M. J a m i e s o n . Vancouver': I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 176.  E. E. P a l m e r , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o : J u r i d i c a l D a t a 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 6 . ( V o l . I o f R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. ' C a r r o t h e r s , . 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 247. ^ H . K r e v e r , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o P r o c e d u r e s a n d P r a c t i c e ( V o l . I o f R e p o r t o f a S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , p. 9. 12  1 3  Ibid.,  Ibid.,  p. pp.  12. 11-12.  14 Ibid.,  p.  13.  ^ S u b m i s s i o n of the O n t a r i o D i v i s i o n of the Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n to t h e H o n o u r a b l e I v a n C. R a n d , C o m m i s s i o n e r , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n I n q u i r y i n t o L a b o u r D i s p u t e s , ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 1 8 - 1 9 . 1  1  ^ ^ C a r r o t h e r s , R e p o r t on I n j u n c t i o n , p. 1 7  Ibid.,  p.  161.  1 8  Ibid.,  p.  228.  157.  19 Submission of Manufacturers  A s s o c i a t i o n , p.  24.  20 M. T. M o l l i s o n , L a b o u r News i n O n t a r i o ( V o l . I I o f R e p o r t o f S t u d y on t h e L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , e d . A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , 2 v o l s . ; T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , pp 3 2 6 0 3 4 2 . 2 1  Ibid.,  pp.  332-33.  2 2  Ibid.,  pp.  2 3  Ibid.,  p.  339.  Ibid.,  p.  321.  Ibid.,  p.  332.  313-26.  24  2 5  a  2^  I.  V.  Rand  (ed.), Report  of the R o y a l Commission I n q u i r y  L a b o u r D i s p u t e s .• ( O t t a w a ; F r a n k F o g g , Queen's P r i n t e r , 2 7  I b i d . , p.  1 9 6 8 ) , pp.  into 76 -79.  37.  O Q  Trade-unions Act  (1959,  c. 9 0 ,  s.'l).  29 A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , The L a b o u r I n j u n c t i o n ( T o r o n t o : C. C. H. C a n a d i a n L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 191.\ 3  ° I b i d . , pp.  in British :  Columbia  209-10.  31 S u b m i s s i o n o f B.  C.  Federation  of Labour,  p.  3.  32 -Ibid. 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