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Infant vocalizations : a developmental analysis of selected prosodic features Hanford, Barbara M. 1972

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INFANT VOCALIZATIONS: A DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PROSODIC FEATURES BY Barbara M. Handford B.A., University of British Columbia, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of Paediatrics Division of Audiology and Speech Sciences  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  freely available  for  I agree  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department  of  representatives.  It  i s understood t h a t copying o r  this thesis for financial  written  gain s h a l l  Di;vi;si:on o f A u d r o l o g y and Speech- S c i e n c e s Department o f  • Paed i;atri;cs  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  August 9... 19.72.  Columbia  or  publication  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  that  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  by h i s  for  ABSTRACT  Non-crying utterances of s i x 5- to 16-week-old infants recorded i n t h e i r home environments are analyzed spectrographically for fundamental frequency (F ) and duration. Q  Biographical and perceptual data  are used q u a l i t a t i v e l y to suggest reasons for i n t r a - and inter-subject variability. Three major s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were performed: of acoustic features on age, (2) relationship of F  Q  (1) regressions  and duration, and  (3) contrasts of the child's fundamental frequency i n different contexts . Not a l l regressions of acoustic features on chronological age were significant.  However, two trends were evident:  (1) exponential i n -  crease of duration on age and (2) l i n e a r increase of within-utterance range on age.  With chronological age as a basis f o r analysis, i n t e r -  subject v a r i a b i l i t y was noted even for these trends.  Since neither  development nor environment are completely uniform within or among children, developmental and s o c i a l data might provide a firmer basis for analysis i n future. The r e s u l t that children of the same chronol o g i c a l age vocalized differently simply by number of utterances further supports the need for quantitative developmental and s o c i a l data as analytical c r i t e r i a . Analysis of fundamental frequency by duration generally showed that frequency range was dependent on amount of fluctuation and duration of utterance.  A more complex analysis of the F -contour than Q  ii  iii  can be provided spectrographically might y i e l d more d e f i n i t i v e informat i o n about t h i s relationship. The child's vocal interaction with his environment was analyzed both q u a l i t a t i v e l y and quantitatively.  A frequency count of the number  of utterances i n different contexts revealed that most children vocalized more when alone than i n the presence of an object or person. 2  Hotelling's T  tests of fundamental frequency i n different contexts  showed further that children did not a l t e r the F -contour or withinQ  utterance range of t h e i r vocalizations as a response to different ob2  jects or situations.  However, the fact that twenty percent of the T  tests were s i g n i f i c a n t —  p a r t i c u l a r l y for the most advanced subject  —  demonstrates that these children are at least capable of a l t e r i n g t h e i r fundamental frequency according to different situations during the early weeks of l i f e .  Further research i s indicated i n this as w e l l as i n  the other areas. A l l trends noted i n this study w i l l have to be reviewed i n the context of the larger project from which the present sample of s i x subjects was drawn.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES  xii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Chapter  1  •  xiv  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  Introduction  1  1.2  L i t e r a t u r e Review.....  6  1.21  General  6  1.22  Language 1.211  Child  Development......  Development  Studies...  Theoretical Linguistic 16  Studies...... 1.222  Empirical  Linguistic 25  Studies 1.223  Studies of  o f the I n f l u e n c e  Extralinguistic  Chapter 2  Summary  Fac-  Development  51  and Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m . .  59  t o r s on V o c a l 1.3  16  61  METHOD 2.1  Experimental  Design..  «...  2.2  Subjects............................. .  61 63  2.21  Sex a n d Age  63  2.22  Medical  63  2.23  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development  History  iv  65  V  Page 2.2k  Familial  Environment and B i o -  graphical 2.3  67  Information  Procedure  74  2.31  Data C o l l e c t i o n  74  2.311  Instrumentation  74  2.312  General  2.313  Specific  Taping  Situation  Taping  74  Situa75  tion 2.32  Spectrographic  Analysis.........  2.321  Instrumentation  2.322  Selection cation  2.323  and  75  Classifi75  of Utterances  Production of Spectro82  grams 2.33  75  Measurement o f F u n d a m e n t a l  Fre-  quency and D u r a t i o n f o r the First  Subject  2.331  I n t r a - o b s e r v e r and I n t e r observer  2.3^  83  (CAB)  Reliability....  Measurement o f F u n d a m e n t a l  86  Fre-  quency and D u r a t i o n f o r Other Subjects  .,  87  vi  Page Chapter  3  89  RESULTS 3.0  Definition tation  3.1  Interpre89  of R e s u l t s . . . . . .  89  Comparison of U t t e r a n c e s One  Fundamental 3.21  3.3  L e v e l and  Duration 3.11  3.2  o f Age  and Two  gi  Middle-points. 93  Frequency  Within-utterance  Regression  with  Range..........  of Within-utterance  Range  on  Duration. 3,k  Utterances 3.^1  \QQ according  Hotelling's T Contrasts  108  to Context 2  Tests  of  Context  f o r Fundamental  Fre118  quency 3*5 Chapter  k  104  131  Summary o f R e s u l t s . . . .  DISCUSSION  133  **.l  L i m i t a t i o n s of Experiment  133  J+.11  Subject  133  *K12  Classification  4-. 13  Measurement..............  k.lk  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis  4-.2  Sample.....  Correspondence of the P r e s e n t with 4-.21  Previous  Findings  Duration...  133  of Data •  134 134  Analysis 135 135  vii  k.22  Fundamental  4.23  Context  Frequency  Contrasts  (Hotelling's k.3  Page 138  T  of  Utterances  Tests)  2  140  R e l a t i o n o f P e r c e p t u a l and B i o g r a p h i c a l Data  to Q u a n t i t a t i v e F i n d i n g s  <+.31  Outstanding  if.32  D i s c u s s i o n of S p e c i f i c  Implications  143  Subject  143  f o r T h e o r y and  Findings... Future  Research  149  k.kl  Production  149  k.k2  P r o d u c t i o n and  Perceptions  Context  Contrasts... ^.5  143  151  Summary  .........  152  REFERENCES  155  APPENDIX A  Intra-observer R e l i a b i l i t y  APPENDIX B  L i n e a r Regressions Duration  APPENDIX C  Log  e  of D u r a t i o n  Student's  of  Test  for  t - T e s t s of D u r a t i o n  One  163  Within-utter-  Variance..  Within-utterance ances w i t h  and  Bartlett's  Homogeneity of  points  Q  on Age...................  a n c e Range:  APPENDIX D  of L o g  162  170 and  Range f o r U t t e r -  and  Two  Middle172  viii  Page APPENDIX E  Fundamental Standard point,  Frequency:  Means a n d  Deviations f o r Beginning-  M i d d l e - p o i n t , E n d - p o i n t , and 176  D e r i v e d Means APPENDIX F  L i n e a r Regressions Frequency  APPENDIX G  o f Fundamental  on A g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Linear Regressions  of W i t h i n - u t t e r -  a n c e Range on A g e . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX H  Linear Regressions  181  206  of Within-utter-  a n c e Range on D u r a t i o n f o r U t t e r a n c e s w i t h One and Two points  Middle213  L I S T OF TABLES Table 1.1  Page Relation of Certain to  Vocal  Developmental  Development d u r i n g  Milestones  the F i r s t  Year  of L i f e 1.2  3  Summary  of Lynip's  Spectrographic  Results  Analysis  i n a Developmental  of a Child's  Utter35  a n c e s up t o 52 weeks 1.3  Summary Vocal  l.k  Observations  on I n f a n t 39  Development  Summary Vocal  1.5  of Mural's  o f Nakazima's O b s e r v a t i o n s  on  Infant 41  Development  Summary  of Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s f o r  Selected  Acoustic  Parameters  of Neonatal 44  Crying 1.6  1.7  A t t r i b u t e s of Infant  C r i e s a s f o u n d b y Wasz-  Hflckert  e t a l . (1968)  Average  Fundamental  Babbling mental  47  Frequency o f C h i l d r e n ' s  and Speech v e r s u s  Average  Frequency o f C h i l d r e n ' s  2.1  Medical  History of Infants  2.2  Results  of Bayley  ment:  2  Tests  Funda-  Crying........  of Infant  64 Develop66  MDl/PDI  2.3  Education,  2.1+  Parents:  57  Occupation,  and Income o f F a m i l i e s  68  Biographical  Information...........  70  ix  X  Page 2.5  Mean S c o r e s of  Social  f o r Parents  Functioning  on H e i m l e r  Scale 72  (Rev. I I )  2.6  P h y s i c a l Environment  73  2.7  Taping  Sessions:  CAB  76  2.3  Taping  Sessions:  AMG  77  2.9  Taping  Sessions:  AMR  78  2.10  Taping  Sessions:  JLR  79  2.11  Taping  Sessions:  DAE  80  2.12  Taping  Sessions:  MJK  81  2.13  Iritra-observer Variance  2.1^  Reliability:  f o r Fundamental  Analysis of  Frequency  Inter-observer R e l i a b i l i t y : Variance  f o r Fundamental  (CAB)...  Analysis of  Frequency  (CAB)...  88 90  3.1  Duration:  Means and S t a n d a r d  Deviations...  3.2  Student's  t-Tests of Duration  i n Utterances  with 3.3  One v e r s u s  Student's in  Two M i d d l e - p o i n t s . .  t-Tests of Within-utterance  Utterances  with  One v e r s u s  Two  94 Range  Middle107  points 3.4-  Hotelling's for  3.5  for  T  2  Fundamental  Hotelling's  88  T  2  Fundamental  Tests  of Context  Frequency: Tests  CAB............  of Context  Frequency:  Contrasts 120  Contrasts  AMG.....  122  xi  Page 3.6  Hotelling's for  3.7  3.8  3.9  4-.1  2  T  2  Fundamental  Hotelling's for  T  Fundamental  Hotelling's for  2  Fundamental  Hotelling's for  T  T  2  Fundamental  Tests  Frequency: Tests  Tests  Fundamental  Frequency  (1968)  124 Contrasts  DAE............  126  Contrasts  MJK. . . . • •  Findings  123  Contrasts  JLR.  of Context  Frequency:  S h e p p a r d and Lane  AMR....  of Context  Frequency: tests  Contrasts  of Context  Frequency:  Comparison of Present and  of Context  127  f o r Duration  with 137  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Page  3.1  Regression  3.2  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  CAB....  97  3.3  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  AMG....  99  3.J+  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  AMR....  1Q0  3.5  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  J L R . . •.  10.1  3.6  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  DAE....  102  3.7  Means f o r F u n d a m e n t a l  Frequency:  MJK....  1Q3  3.8  Regression  of Log of Duration e  of Within-utterance  on A g e . . . .  Range  on Age 3.9  105  Regression  of Within-utterance  Duration:  Utterances  with  Range on  One M i d d l e -  point 3.10  109  Regression  of Within-utterance  Duration:  Utterances  with  Range on  Two M i d d l e 110  points. 3*11  Utterances  a c c o r d i n g to Context  Percentage  over  Total  Number  f o r CAB:  of Utter-  ances. 3.12  112  Utterances  a c c o r d i n g to Context  Percentage  over  Total  Number  f o r AMG:  of Utter-  ances...... 3.13  92  113  Utterances  a c c o r d i n g to Context  Percentage  over  Total  ances  Number  f o r AMR:  of Utter114  xii  xiii  Figure 3.1k  Page Utterances a c c o r d i n g to Context Percentage  over T o t a l  f o r JLR:  Number o f U t t e r -  ances 3.15  .  Utterances a c c o r d i n g to Context Percentage  over T o t a l  f o r DAE:  Number o f U t t e r -  ances.*.........*  3«l6  116  Utterances a c c o r d i n g to Context Percentage ances  over T o t a l  115  f o r MJK:  Number o f U t t e r 117  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For  t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of  I should l i k e Dr.  to express ray g r a t i t u d e  John Delack,  the  instigator  p r o j e c t and p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r , of  of  thesis,  following:  this  intriguing  for his painstaking  revisions  many d r a f t s ; Dr.  for  to the  this  Brenda F r a s e r , D r . Jane H a s t i n g s ,  and Pat  Swift,  g u i d i n g me through the c o n f u s i n g maze of s t a t i s t i c s and  computer Dr.  analysis; John G i l b e r t ,  not only f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the  Committee, but e s p e c i a l l y most i n s p i r i n g All  the  for his  program, which has been a  experience;  infants  and t h e i r parents  for l i v e l y  recordings;  Judy Davis f o r her many hours of o r g a n i z a t i o n and recording; B e r n i c e Wong, f o r her a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of of  Infant  f o r h i s magical e l e c t r o n i c  repairs;  Joyce Edwards and D r . A n d r e - P i e r r e B e n g u e r e l ,  t h e i r wisdom and Mrs.  Scales  Development;  Gord McConnell, Dr.  the Bayley  Yorath,  Margaret,  for  encouragement; f o r t y p i n g the manuscript;  C o l l e e n , Heather and V i r g i n i a ,  my comrades-  in-arms ; Wordsworth, f o r h i s poem which b e g i n s , up . . . •; and  xiv  'My heart  leaps  XV  Louis,  my  f a m i l y and  friends,  for their  patience  and  understanding.  The the  research  Department  Public  Health  Investigator:  reported  of N a t i o n a l  h e r e i n was  supported  Health  Welfare under  and  R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t No. Dr.  J o h n B.  609-7-324  in part  Federal  (Principal  Delack).  Exeunt  by  omnes.  CHAPTER  1  Introduction 1.1.  Introduction An  social the in  i n f a n t i s born foundation  age  lishes are  system. this  The  he  i s able  facility  communication  and  rate with  complex  phenomenon o f  past  hundred y e a r s .  (19**3)»  reviewing  l a c k i n g from  the  scientific  i n b o t h data  Before based the  points  By  and  the  on  last  reports.  theory  about  three  of view of  of  d e c a d e s , many  f o u n d most  sampling,  the  reports  single children.  literature,  accomp-  observations  language a c q u i s i t i o n i n the  s t u d i e s were a n e c d o t a l , Chen  system.  w h i c h he  i n t r i g u e d many, w h e t h e r t h e i r  i s confusion  as i t s  to f u n c t i o n c r e a t i v e l y w i t h -  woven i n t o o l d w i v e s ' t a l e s o r  There  the  has  e c o s y s t e m w h i c h has  a h i g h l y complex  of f o u r years  this  i n t o an  Irwin  and  studies  recording  and  analysis.  Recent possible  t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  new  ments s u c h a s puter  methods o f r e c o r d i n g the  tape r e c o r d e r ,  and  analyzing  sound  et a l . , 1968;  t h e o r e t i c a l bases  influenced  by  S h e p p a r d and  o f many r e c e n t  l e a r n i n g theory  on  1  the  data.  spectrograph,  have b e e n f o u n d u s e f u l f o r s t u d i e s  (Wasz-Hdckert The  t h e o r e t i c a l a d v a n c e s have made  of v o c a l Lane,  studies one  Instruand  com-  development  1968).  have b e e n  hand and  the  strongly generative  2  grammar f r a m e w o r k on t h e o t h e r .  From l e a r n i n g  the r e c o g n i t i o n  linguistic  a major r o l e  that  the c h i l d ' s  i n h i s language  grammar f r a m e w o r k has come uistic  rules  governing  Studies based arily  of  age).  the c h i l d ' s  year  ignore the r a p i d  one y e a r  physical,  from  of the c h i l d  the i n f a n t  social  According  to Berry  such f a c t s  as t h e ' v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t  o f b r a i n weight  studies has  noted  year  85).  year  at this  of l i f e  time  two y e a r s  of the developing behaviour  exploring (p.  i n the f i r s t  Specific  of l i f e  f o r the f i r s t descriptions  emphasize  proliferation  and t h e t r i p -  of the i n f a n t ,  time  the  c a n be .  (p. 1 3 ) .  t h a t by s i x weeks o f a g e , t h e i n f a n t the world  birth  intellectual  (1969),  imputed  the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of c e l l s *  areas  t o i n t e r a c t more a n d  of the f i r s t  ling  ignored,  from  and  importance  in  one y e a r  information regarding  neurological from  prim-  the time o f  approximately  psychological,  more w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t .  t h e o r y have b e e n  behaviour.  development  development which enables  language.  i n determining l i n g u i s t i c  i s to ignore fundamental  neurological,  of  h a s b e e n somewhat  which t o search f o r rule-governed  To to  (i.e.,  of l i f e  p o s s i b l y because of d i f f i c u l t y in  plays  From t h e g e n e r a t i v e  acquisition  v e r b a l development  'word' u t t e r a n c e s  The f i r s t  environment  the search f o r d i s c o v e r y of l i n g -  on t h e g e n e r a t i v e grammar  of the c h i l d ' s  recognizable  development.  t h e o r y h a s come  In  White  (1971)  i s ' a l e r t and  i n protracted fashion'  of v o c a l behaviour  i n the f i r s t  the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g complexity of  3  vocalizations, Murai, yet  i960,  few  1963;  know how  vocalizing  the b i r t h  c r y to b a b b l i n g  Nakazima, 1 9 6 2 ,  to r e l a t e  to  years.  from  this  year of  'language', which  But  to c i t e  1966).  Linguists  do  not  quasi-unintelligible  evolves gradually  V e t t e r and  1957»  (Irwin,  Howell  i n t h e jnext  (1971) s  S i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no d i r e c t p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m a s t a g e i n w h i c h a l l sounds a r e random t o t h e s t a g e a t w h i c h a l l sounds and s o u n d s e q u ences match t h o s e of the model, i t s h o u l d not be assumed t h a t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o u r does not o c c u r d u r i n g t h e months p r i o r t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f u n m i s t a k a b l e w o r d s , ( p . 3 6 ) The relevance uistic  The  t o White  field  of c h i l d  (1971)»  development  has ling-  i n general i s ,  s u f f e r i n g from a l a c k  of d a t a .  t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , what i s n e c e s s a r y i s a c o m p i l a t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l branches  of the  Furthermore, i g n o r a n c e about opment at  of vocal behaviour  f o r more t h a n t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f n o r m a t i v e  data.  according At  study of the e a r l y phases  an  implies early  disorder  on  an i n a b i l i t y  stage.  t h e whole c h i l d  l a n g u a g e d i s o r d e r may disorder,  from h e a r i n g  some o t h e r b e h a v i o u r a l o r d e r may  be  i s basic  the normal  course of  to language,  the impact  o f some more  general  to mental  retardation  disorder.  Moreover,  a language  to normal  social  of  A  impairment  other problems.  devel-  development  c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  symptomatic  eventually create  communication  field.  to r e c o g n i z e abnormal  With respect  of  to dis-  Since verbal  interaction,  poorly  4  developed  communicative  and,  conversely,  can  be, a c c o r d i n g  respect of  proper  socialization  the e f f e c t s of i n h i b i t e d s o c i a l to studies  to the s o c i a l ,  on d e p r i v a t i o n ,  educational,  present,  clinical  interaction  far-reaching  and v o c a t i o n a l  t e s t s f o r the diagnosis  speech problems a r e based  derived  from  recording, sectional formation, and  inhibit  eight  studies  success  and a n a l y s i s .  t h e i r flaws  i n sampling,  F o r example, T e m p l i n ' s  study o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , and v o c a b u l a r y a p p l i e s years  o f age o n l y ,  o f language  on n o r m a t i v e d a t a w h i c h i s  which evince  method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ,  (1957)  sound d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t o c h i l d r e n between  i s based  cross-  sentence three  on a n u n c h e c k e d m a n u a l  and uses c h r o n o l o g i c a l  age as t h e  s c a l e b y w h i c h t o m e a s u r e r e s u l t s a n d draw c o n c l u s i o n s . study which purports chronological judgments. identical pp.  to give  I t c a n n o t b e assumed p h y s i c a l and mental  132-133,  well  Very  that  rates  i n rates  little  tests of l i n g u i s t i c  of  life.  Awareness  a l l c h i l d r e n develop a t  a scale  of verbal  should  be  considered.  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  development f o r the f i r s t  of t h i s  1967,  o f growth and development  has been a c c o m p l i s h e d  of  b y w h i c h t o make  ( c f . Lenneberg,  1 3 8 ) . When c o n s t r u c t i n g  as s o c i a l background  No  i n s i g h t i n t o development c a n use  age a s t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n  development, d i f f e r e n c e s as  with  the i n d i v i d u a l . At  and  skills  deficiency  three  years  l e d B z o c h and League  5  (1971) t o d e v e l o p a s c a l e language development Their  test,  f o r t h e r e c e p t i v e and  of c h i l d r e n  i s , however, b a s e d  three d i s t i n c t i n g mode, a n  a  'receptive'  or signal  or c e n t r a l  s y m b o l i c m e d i a t i o n mode  criticized  this  ogical  to t h r e e  on t h e c o n c e p t t h a t  l a n g u a g e modes;  'expressive*  from b i r t h  expressive  trimodal d i v i s i o n  years.  there  or s i g n a l  e n c o d i n g mode and ( p . 15)•  Berry  of language  are decod-  an  inner  (1969) h a s  from a  neurol-  standpoint: The a c t and v e h i c l e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s c a l l e d c o d i n g , and s i n c e t h e a c t i s s i m u l t a n e o u s , c o n t i n u o u s , and i n s e p a r a b l e , t h e d i v i s i o n i n t o d e c o d i n g and e n c o d i n g seems n e u r o l o g i c a l l y unsound. Feedback c o n t r o l i s o p e r a t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m so t h e c o d e must u n d e r g o c o n s t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n f r o m i n p u t u n t i l t h e f i n a l r e s p o n s e , ( p . 97)  The  very assumptions  then.  If their  entation  of t h e i r  t h e o r e t i c a l model i s an  of the language  process, their  p r e t e d w i t h some r e s e r v e . vocal  development  solely  as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , large  inter-subject  be  i n terms may  the f a c t s  be  t o be  language a c q u i s i t i o n .  underplayed.  that  Furthermore,  variability  I n sura, much r e m a i n s child  language model a r e  The  I t c a n o n l y be are there;  controversial,  insufficient  r e s u l t s must be t h e y have  unreliable,  inter-  defined  of c h r o n o l o g i c a l  of  repres-  age,  considering  which, the  growth.  discovered  about  t h e norms o f  enormity of the task approached  w i t h the  i t i s a matter of f i n d i n g  cannot  attitude them.  6  1.2.  L i t e r a t u r e review  1.21.  General  child  development  Since the c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c development i s but aspect  one  of h i s t o t a l development, an overview of g e n e r a l d e v e l -  opmental r e s e a r c h w i l l  provide background f o r the a p p r e c i a t i o n  of s p e c i f i c a l l y l a n g u a g e - o r i e n t e d  studies.  An a b s o l u t e dichotomy has been debated i n terms of i n f l u e n c e of nature  versus  Most s c i e n t i s t s now  h e s i t a t e to make a s t r i c t  h e r e d i t a r y and psychology,  nurture  environmental  influences.  P i a g e t ' s theory and  foundations,  has  i n the developmental  process.  s e p a r a t i o n of  In developmental  research, with i t s b i o l o g i c a l  encouraged the a d o p t i o n  of an  p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the n a t u r e - n u r t u r e Sinclair  the  intermediate  controversy.  (1971) d e s c r i b e s P i a g e t ' s p o i n t of view i n t h i s  regard:  His p r o p o s a l of a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s nearer to the r a t i o n a l i s t than to the e m p i r i c i s t hypothesis, since i t involves innate f u n c t i o n i n g ; but i t does not presuppose i n n a t e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h b i o g e n e t i c programming. Every s t r u c t u r e comes from a s i m p l e r s t r u c t u r e . . . . P i a g e t ' s p o i n t of departure f o r h i s study of i n t e l l i g e n t f u n c t i o n i n g i s what he c a l l s c o o r d i n a t i o n of ac t i o n s . (p.121) S i n c l a i r continues  to e x p l a i n that these  of a c t i o n s are d e f i n e d by both f u n c t i o n a l and ties. ability  The  two  co-ordinations structural  b a s i c f u n c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s are the  to i n c o r p o r a t e new  l i s h e d behaviour  pattern  experience (i.e.,  child's  i n t o an a l r e a d y  ' a s s i m i l a t i o n ' ) and  proper-  estab-  then,  7  to behave s u b s e q u e n t l y lished  pattern (i.e.,  i n accordance  with  'accommodation*).  a r e components  of the c h i l d ' s  surroundings.  The two b a s i c  o f movements  and h i e r a r c h i c a l  They r e f l e c t  the o r g a n i z a t i o n necessary  function  in his  ment, that  has t r i e d each  adaptation to  properties are ordering  f o r the c h i l d  a s t h e b a s i s f o r study/,  to d e l i n e a t e 'stages* of c o g n i t i v e  s t a g e b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  o r absence o f p a r t i c u l a r  at a given stage'  of  this  review  'sensorimotor'  i s primarily  year.  stage which l a s t s  At b i r t h ,  certain  * an e n t i r e l y  with  this  ectually  stage  the i n f a n t  until  reflexes  resentation  the  t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d  a r e p r e s e n t and w i t h e x e r c i s e  practical  until  the c h i l d  intelligence  based  h i s environment.  s e p a r a t i o n , the c h i l d  o f the ' e x t e r n a l ' world  funcon t h e  Near t h e end  l e a r n s to separate h i m s e l f  and b e h a v i o u r a l l y from  tion with this  the p e r i o d  to describe b r i e f l y  m a n i p u l a t i o n of o b j e c t s ' ( P i a g e t , 1 9 6 7 . p. 1 1 ) . of  logical  f o r the c o g n i t i v e  concerned  t h e y become p r o g r e s s i v e l y more r e f i n e d tions with  criteria,  1 9 7 0 , p. 1 3 9 ) .  (Shore,  i n f a n c y , i t may be o f i n t e r e s t  develop-  'structural  operations which are p o s t u l a t e d to account  Since  to  environment.  i s , by the p r e s e n c e  behaviour  his  s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f movements.  With these general concepts Piaget  estab-  These p r o p e r t i e s  biological structural  the newly  intell-  In conjunc-  becomes c a p a b l e  of rep-  i n h i s ' i n t e r n a l ' con-  8  ceptualization has  developed  of  i t .  that  he  of  the  schematization In s p i t e  of  the  the  theoretical  the  nature-nurture  tinues study  t o be of  capacities visual  can  acquire  fact  that  'symbolic'  l a n g u a g e , a more  'external' world  (Piaget,  Piaget's  advanced  196?,  work has  controversy,  effects  of  are,  f o r example,  perception.  studies, an  has  initial  White  of  first  con-  of  a  innate  the  c a p a c i t i e s or  those  (1971)  discovery on  of  the  perception,  i n the  alteration  of  especially  discrepant  the  ...  schema'  longer  events or (p.  828).  of  high  been  The  part  r a t e of change'  first  of  o r i e n t a t i o n s t h a n do  those  a larger  (p. 828). with  either  t h a t b e a r no  The  the  moderately discrepant  events  with  'schemes' a r e  schemes Kagan d e s c r i b e s  novel  visual  'equipped  experience'.  that are  'stimuli  l6)  h y p o t h e s e s on  i n b r a i n , the  patterns  principle':  schema e l i c i t  the  processing  representations  innate  states:  t h a t a n e o n a t e has  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  •discrepancy  to  observed  on  much e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h  h i s developmental  'invariant stimulus  context  the  basing  bias  experiential  92).  environmental v a r i a b l e s .  more i n v o l v e d w i t h  (1970),  p.  influenced  The c u r r e n t v i e w ... i s t h a t t h e newborn i n f a n t i s c a p a b l e o f f a r more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v i s u a l f u n c t i o n than p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d , (p. Kagan  thought  v i e w o f many d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s  either a discovery  the  Studies  I t i s o n l y when t h i s  from  minimally  relation  9  Few  studies  modalities.  Of  have b e e n c a r r i e d out a u d i t i o n , White  general  picture  is  to f u n c t i o n  able  little  has  One on  i s that,  one  ically  and  in this  area  four-month-old  between v o i c e d  manner as drew t h e  adults,  and  that  determined.  However, t h e  month o f age  and  their  linguistic  distinctions.  are  had  i s that  found  hypothesis  versus unvoiced  considering  Very  )f  evidence categor-  i n the  continuum.  same They  could  be  biologically  i n f a n t s were a l r e a d y  at  least  had  considerable  i . e . , t h e y may  i t has  of  one  exposure  to  have l e a r n e d  b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d by  the  labial  stops  the Preston  acoustic  criticism  can  t o many s t u d i e s  on  auditory  visual.  the  of  continuum.  discrimination  w o u l d h a v e t o be  This  facility  l a n g u a g e a t an  One  the  Eimas e t a l . , t h e  which a p p l i e s and  t h e y had  stops  acoustic  f o r d i f f e r e n t languages.  A more g e n e r a l  l6).  discriminate  labial  i n d i f f e r e n t locations along  l e a r n more t h a n one  newborn  i n d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , phoneme b o u n d a r i e s  of  especially  an  (p.  that  such p e r c e p t i o n  Furthermore,  the  different  unvoiced  the  Eimas e t a l . (1971  infants could  therefore  Extending voiced  of  'the  however.  They f e l t  environment,  a l . (1967) t h a t ,  of v i s i o n ,  confirmed,  i . e . , along  conclusion  case  sensory-  that  i n rudimentary fashion  been s p e c i f i c a l l y  study  other  (1971) r e p o r t s  i n the  i n f a n t speech p e r c e p t i o n .  that  et  as  f o r the  innately  seems u n l i k e l y ,  with which c h i l d r e n early  be  can  age.  made o f  the  above  infant perception, major d i f f i c u l t i e s  study,  both with  the  10  perceptual response t o an  s t u d i e s i s the  t o an  i n f a n t may  vocalization, change  result  stimulus.  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  to  the  response  subsequently  of the  infant's  A p r e s e n t a t i o n of a  stimulus  i n a b e h a v i o u r a l change  (change i n c a r d i a c r a t e ,  •habituate'  determination  (fixation,  s m i l i n g , i n c r e a s e d movement) o r a  Upon r e p e a t e d  icant  impinging  reliable  stimulus,  the  infant  stimulus,  i n which cases  i n c r e a s e response  sequence o c c u r s ,  non-nutritive sucking  the  decrement a c r o s s  physiological  trials. r a t e or  the c h i l d there  A new  may  is a  signif-  stimulus  strength.  i s presumed  rate).  If  may  this  to have p e r c e i v e d  the  stimulus.  It there  has,  however, n e v e r b e e n a d e q u a t e l y  i s a one-to-one r e l a t i o n between s t i m u l u s  Behavioural manifestations observer i.e., and  endogenous vs 1970,  Reliability response. slightly  of response  response.  response  upon behaviour,  stimulation (cf. Ling, Ling,  and  1970).  Ling,  i s , then,  more r e l i a b l e  apparently  poor f o r t h i s  manifestations  than b e h a v i o u r a l  o b j e c t i v e measurement c a n as  and  that  exogenous  Physiological  disagreement  and  are dependent  s e p a r a t i o n o f random b e h a v i o u r  Doehring,  rate,  demonstrated  be  to t h e b e s t  made. index  of response ones,  may  be  s i n c e more  Nevertheless, of response  index  there i s  for cardiac  i . e . , w h e t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n , d e c e l e r a t i o n , o r mere  variability  ( c f . Kaplan,  1970).  According  t o Kaye  (1967)  of  11  studies  w h i c h employ  fail  to account  food  deprivation,  pathology, ing,  the n o n - n u t r i t i v e  f o r such v a r i a b l e s as s u c k i n g variations i n arousal  sudden onset  to mention these sources of non-nutritive  In are  that  measures.  sucking  deprivation,  stimulus,  Eimas e t a l .  i n their  condition-  (1971) f a i l e d  too vaguely d e f i n e d  to be v a l i d  Although the behavioural  y e t been demonstrated  study.  t h e above i n d i c e s o f r e s p o n s e  may be i n some way c o n n e c t e d w i t h not  often  o f e r r o r , a l t h o u g h they used the  sum, i t a p p e a r s t h a t  still  index  state, physiological  o f an e x t r a n e o u s  e t c . I t i s to be noted  index  sucking  that  and r e l i a b l e  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes  the stimulus  input,  i t has  they a r e r e l a t e d i n a d i r e c t  c a u s e a n d e f f e c t manner.  Many s t u d i e s  have b e e n c a r r i e d o u t on t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t  of  environment  of  s t i m u l a t i o n and d e p r i v a t i o n .  some a d v a n t a g e lated  upon d e v e l o p m e n t , b a t h f r o m  over g e n e t i c  ogical  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  postnatal being  nutrition,  socioeconomic  that  (Fowler,  1970, p . 1^1).  and e x p e r i e n c e as b o t h p h y s i o l -  and p h y s i c a l  forms  pre-,  variables  p e r i - , and  trauma,  of stimulation  i tis difficult  and c u l t u r a l  have  they c a n be manipu-  the former being  exercise  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  A l t h o u g h he a d m i t s of  ones i n t h a t  environment  o f view  Environmental v a r i a b l e s  a n d c o n t r o l l e d t o some e x t e n t  Fowler describes  the point  the l a t t e r  ( p . 1^2).  t o know t h e e f f e c t s on d e v e l o p m e n t , he  12  establishes and  the  focus and  that  'general  ' c h i l d - r e a r i n g methods , learning  home' a r e  r e l a t e d b o t h to  learning  processes  (p.  1^2).  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  the  child  relevance  f o r the  F r e e b e r g and in  on  studies  specific  on  Irwin's  study  parental  faster  the  of  race, No  Two and  the  and  differences  rate  unstimulating  development.  of  an  lack and  such  (1968). analysis  status  of  were f o u n d f o r sex  and  race;  seemed t o have some e f f e c t a f t e r  of a c q u i s i t i o n of  (1968)  with word-association valid  does a p p e a r  the  devel-  variables  there  relatively  environmental  the  Entwisle  are  conclusions  on  (p. k l ) .  studies  same  Entwisle  occupational  have  child.  examples  by  and  seems t o  they admit  f r o m n o n - l a b o u r e r homes a c q u i r i n g  these  the  e f f e c t of  76).  (1957)  status  abilities  non-verbal  r e a c h much t h e the  language  socio-cultural variables  (p.  Irwin  occupational  rate  studies,  on  of  to h i s p a r e n t s  functioning;  skills  sex,  speech.  subcultural not  Thus,  o f phoneme a c q u i s i t i o n i n c l u d e s  f i f t e e n months on children  studies  t h o s e by  e f f e c t s of  opment o f  (1967)  degree  intellectual  development  c o r r e l a t i o n of  cognitive are  or  Payne  intellectual  studies  the  cognitive  t h e i r summary o f  variables of  a t m o s p h e r e and  i n the  verbal  ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n modes•,  1  i n the  t o be  a  types,  those  phoneme t y p e s a t  attempted  total  trend  environment  sound  to  levels.  hinders  correlate Whether  framework of  suggesting  a  that  intellectual  such a  13  Specific according  to  studies  on  Decarie, I967)  1965;  that  environmental of  the  to  stage-linked differences as  utionalized  studies  w h i c h has  (p.  age  Infant  of  i n the  (1956)  ' m o t h e r e d ' and  enriched  removed, t h e  for  fifteen  scales  such  (1969)  Development  between advantaged He  c i t e s the  a Piagetian to  as  and  example  scale  of  s i g n i f i c a n t trend  disadvantaged  infants  as  143).  c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d  found  found  of major import  pointed  controlled studies  Rheingold  incon-  (1957)  Irwin  e a r l y age. scale,  Richmond,  yielding  linear-type of  (e.g.,  and  of  the  e f f e c t of  development have a l s o been c a r r i e d o u t .  e n r i c h m e n t was  u l a t i o n was  that  b e t w e e n a d v a n t a g e d and  experimentally  changes  studies  Caldwell  earlier,  differences  (1967)  Hunt  operations,  ment p r o g r a m s o f  Early  these  field  Scales  c h i l d r e n a t an  Experimentally  was  the  e l e v e n months  on  states  l a t e r Bayley  U z g i r i s and  ulation  of  v a r i a b l e s were o n l y  elucidate  disadvantaged  early  stated  (1970)  Fowler or  fail  the  was  the  'cultural deprivation*  Hunt, 1964; or  have,  phases,  a c q u i s i t i o n o f phoneme t y p e s a f t e r t h e  Irwin's  of  As  the  majority  U z g l r i s and  results.  months.  may  p h a s e and The  deprivation  u n d e r g o n e two  have b e e n r e t r o s p e c t i v e  sistent  rate  263-264).  (pp.  e f f e c t of  (1970),  Caldwell  •maternal d e p r i v a t i o n ' phase  the  are into the  to produce  group of  one two  stim-  The  enrich-  s u c h example. groups,  one  Institof  o t h e r o f w h i c h was temporary  c h i l d r e n , but  and once  unenriched group achieved  which not.  concurrent the the  stimsame  14  level  of performance;  purpose  the enrichment  of the s t u d y , not  ence b e t w e e n  •enriched*  amount o f v o c a l i z a t i o n A similar  and  experiment  on  an a d u l t  the c h i l d ' s  second group,  *expanded* verbal  comments) t o t h e c h i l d  that  given  the f i r s t  particularly  two  on  'enriched* three groups  u n d e r t a k e n by (i.e.,  after  of c h i l d r e n  Cazden  imitated  his verbal  to the t h i r d  t h e g r o u p who  with adult  (i.e.,  The  two  and  In  grammar)  added no  diverse  special indicated  performance,  'modelling' treatment.  Whether o r n o t m o d e l l i n g o r e x p a n s i o n i s a more e f f e c t i v e of  stimulation  i s as y e t unknown a c c o r d i n g  However, i t d o e s term  effect  terms has  not been  relatively one  linguistic  determined. have b e e n  stimulation  development.  tasks.  item c l u s t e r s  Mental  Scale,  total  A datum was  I.Q.  considered  a  short-  signifies  and  scores  (1967)  the C a l i f o r n i a  in  growth later and  on  described  Six r e l a t i v e l y  to the B a y l e y S c a l e  form  (1970).  intellectual  Cameron e t a l .  were c h o s e n f r o m  a precursor  at least  between e a r l y  type of c o r r e l a t i o n s .  endent  has  and  Correlations on  to M c N e i l l  What t h i s  development  drawn, b a s e d  independent  of the l a t t e r  mentioned.  that  on l i n g u i s t i c  of f u t u r e  performance  appear  one  i n the  results  gained i n l i n g u i s t i c received  greater  (1965).  response;  group.  a  differ-  ones.  p r e s e n t e d 'models'  groups  f o r the  significant  r e s p o n s e t o a p i c t u r e book;  the a d u l t  t r e a t m e n t was  One  was,  ' u n e n r i c h e d ' b a b i e s was  i n the  o n e - h a l f y e a r s o f age was group,  long-term.  effect  indep-  First  Year  previously  to the c h i l d ' s  first  passing  15  of  an  item.  Significant  o n l y between e a r l y  c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d  vocalizations  and  for  females  l a t e r v e r b a l I.Q.  (pp.  331-332). In  the  appeared ment.  t o have an  Language  important to  be  mental  effect  role.  in this  studies,  i t will  of i n f a n t  drowsiness.  to  him,  At  child's  Certain  this  the  environment  cognitive  particularly  develop-  seems t o p l a y t h a t much  an  remains  area of r e s e a r c h .  c u r s o r y overview be u s e f u l  The  particularly  responses.  the  b e h a v i o u r up  t o s i x weeks:  or  on  However, i t seems c l e a r  summary o f t h i s  outline  s t u d i e s mentioned,  stimulation  clarified  In  Birth  environmental  s i x months,  state  startle,  stage,  he  (l97l)  o f the  as  follows:  infant  i s sleep  semi-functional reflexes  the  develop-  to p r e s e n t White's  t o age  typical  of g e n e r a l  the  i s not  grasp, easily  and  are  available  the  rooting  c o n d i t i o n e d (pp.  83-8!*). weeks t o 3*5  Six as  months:  the dawning of awareness and  ple, to  the  focus  child on  gains  3o5 1  visually-directed  be ' e u p h o r i c ' , s m i l i n g more c a p a b l e  The  At  this  becomes be  able  stage  he  can  major achievement  of  this period  reaching' .  Babies  of t h i s  laughing readily.  of u s i n g t h e i r  much more w i t h t h e  o f h i s hands and  exam-  con-  85).  (p.  and  For  1  people.  months t o 6 m o n t h s :  characterized  voluntary action •  some m a s t e r y  o b j e c t s and  d i t i o n e d more r e a d i l y  is  T h i s p e r i o d ' m i g h t be  hands and  environment  (p.  eyes,  86).  age  seem t o  Since they they  are  interact  16  1.22.  Language development As  is  was n o t e d  the l e a s t  ment. into  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the f i r s t  researched  Those a n a l y s e s  period with  respect  year  to v o c a l  of l i f e develop-  w h i c h have b e e n made may be c l a s s i f i e d  two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s :  Two g e n e r a l (1)  studies  l i n g u i s t i c and e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c .  l i n g u i s t i c issues are:  the r o l e  of nature  versus  nurture  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  language (2)  the relevance for  Specific  language  of the v o c a l behaviour  issues include:  the question of order  (2)  the question of meaningful  (3)  the r o l e  of prosodies  language  development.  Extralinguistic  the  year  development  (1)  child's  of the f i r s t  i n the production expression  (such as i n t o n a t i o n ) i n  s t u d i e s examine t h e r o l e  v e r b a l development.  o f sounds  o f environment  i n the  Some o f t h e s e were m e n t i o n e d i n  previous section.  1.221.  Theoretical l i n g u i s t i c studies  Nature versus Theories  nurture  of the ontogenesis  enced by g e n e r a l nurture  i n the l i n g u i s t i c  context  o f l a n g u a g e have b e e n  t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d development.  controversy  the major proponent  has been debated o f the n a t i v i s t  individually  influ-  The n a t u r e by Chomsky,  p o i n t o f view, and S k i n n e r ,  17  the major proponent  of  the  Chomsky p r o p o s e s an  empiricist point  abstract  device  sition  of  It i s his opinion  output  (i.e.,  the  (LAD)  —  model --  to a c c o u n t that  the  nature  hypothesis  i n n a t e mechanisms o f  can  the  respect  according  considered  constructed  (1967*  LAD  more, c e r t a i n f a c t s w i t h t o Chomsky, be  be  pp.  acquiof  must  1  an  the  f o r the  knowledge or l i n g u i s t i c ' c o m p e t e n c e )  determined before for  view.  input-output  language a c q u i s i t i o n language.  of  to  be  account  2-3).  Further-  to language a c q u i s i t i o n i n the  the  must,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the  model: (1)  A l t h o u g h the imperfect  language  ( i n that  ungrammatical p r o d u c e an albeit (2)  'A  great  utterances,  h i s own  diversity  a wide d i v e r s i t y Hymes, 1970 (3)  The  To  of  of  input  e a r l y age.  language (196"7i  o u t p u t ) as  'a s y s t e m  of  this  etc.),  c r e a t i v e aspect  and  starts, hesitations,  the  child  learns  to  utterances,  anomalies.  competences'.  p.  i s very  lead  (But  to  cf.  r a p i d and  occurs  Chomsky d e f i n e s  competence  recursive rules that provide of  l a n g u a g e use  i s a consequence of  at  4)  a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e s ' (1967»  system  is limited  c o n d i t i o n s does not  in resulting  facts,  highly  false  idiosyncratic  f o r these  the  child  number o f g r a m m a t i c a l  account  for  the  )  acquisition  a very  of  i t contains  unlimited  with  input  the  and  that  (the  the  basis  manipulate  7).  He  then deduces  design  of  the  p.  LAD,  and,  that  18  further, (1)  that  t h e components o f t h i s  Both a phonetic classes  and a s e m a n t i c  of p o s s i b l e phonetic  (2)  A schema  (3)  A method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g  that defines  possible  (k)  grammars;  LAD theory  the c l a s s  to c r i t i c i s m .  definition because  with  the data.  According  actuality  is  such  (1967> p»  t o Hymes  account  I t c a n n o t b e assumed  a great d i v e r s i t y  a n a b s t r a c t model  to t e s t .  contains  be d e d u c e d  s i n c e competence  t h a t competence  i s at least  However, t h e d e v i c e  so many s u b - m o d e l s and t h e o r i e s t h a t  a very  tentative schematization  i t can only  of the c l a s s of  processes.  Such a h i g h l y e v o l v e d product  speaker-hearer  I f a n i n n a t e LAD i s p o s t -  by the c o n s t r a i n t s o f the d e v i c e .  possible  i n scope  t h a t there a r e not  o f competences,  limited  considered  (1971). Chomsky's  f o r the r e a l  i t can indeed  be  8)  c o m p e t e n c e and t h e LAD a r e  ulated,  itself  t h e one  a l l i t s e r r o r s o f p e r f o r m a n c e and i t s s o c i o -  variables.  in  to choose  i s t o o a b s t r a c t and narrow  i t does not i n f a c t  cultural  i n the context o f  and  o f competence  situation with  representations;  o f p o s s i b l e grammars;  input data  Chomsky's e x p l a n a t i o n o f b o t h subject  to define the  and s e m a n t i c  A method o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e grammars most c o m p a t i b l e  might be:  schematization  o f a s i m p l e r and more i n c l u s i v e  application  o f the operant  ment o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r  a s t h e LAD may be a theory.  c o n d i t i o n i n g model  could  Skinner's  to the develop-  n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  such  a  theory.  19  However, s i n c e i t i s a n u n t e s t e d terminology its  from  validity  ized  questioned.  on t h e g r o u n d s  (1965»  of output'  environmental  variables  p.  do p l a y a  i n the general developmental  considered  As  That  section.  criticf o r the  observed  e x p e r i e n c e and  major r o l e  o n l y one p a r t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  environment,  account  n o r t h e 'range o f  54).  behaviour,  Chomsky has  that i t cannot  o f language a c q u i s i t i o n ,  uniformity  ated  s t u d i e s t o human l i n g u i s t i c  c a n be s e r i o u s l y  the theory  rapidity  animal  e x t r a p o l a t i o n of d a t a and  has been  indic-  Their role  may be  o f h e r e d i t y and  however.  with general  theories of c h i l d  m e d i a t e and a l l - i n c l u s i v e  theory with  development, an  inter-  r e s p e c t to the nature-  n u r t u r e c o n t r o v e r s y c a n be p o s t u l a t e d f o r t h e c o n t r o v e r s y in  the l i n g u i s t i c  theory,  Sinclair  context.  In her e x p l i c a t i o n  of Piaget's  (1971) s t a t e s t h a t :  ... l i n g u i s t i c u n i v e r s a l s e x i s t p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e u n i v e r s a l thought s t r u c t u r e s -and t h e s e a r e u n i v e r s a l , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n b o r n but because they a r e the necessary outcome o f a u t o r e g u l a t o r y f a c t o r s and e q u i l i b r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s .... ( p . 123) Linguistic total  development  development.  cognitive  research  i n the g r e a t e r context of  Language a c q u i s i t i o n  development.  controversy  i s viewed  The r e s o l u t i o n  i n the l i n g u i s t i c  o u t s i d e the s t r i c t l y  context  i s dependent  upon  of the nature-nurture can thus  linguistic  area.  proceed  from  20  Relevance the  linguistic Any  an  of vocal behaviour  theory,  observable  gorization steps of  development  tic  (from b i r t h  stage  This  normally  process  into  a series  t o t h e end o f t h e f i r s t  narrowly  with  'linguistic  which n e c e s s a r i l y  of acceptable but a r b i t r a r y  sharp  (1968), M c N e i l l  of the f i r s t  ances which b e g i n  phonemic  i n the second  a 'purposeless  arises  (p. 2 4 ) .  year  i n children  For Jakobson,  uage b a b b l i n g p e r i o d p r o v e s predominantly  division  articulatory  For  further  these r e q u i r e -  development. (1967) make a and b a b b l i n g  According  from  utter-  to Jakobson  represent  egocentric soliloquy*,  a n d grows b y d e g r e e s  ication*  cooing,  year.  'word').  t o be  symbols.  and t h e ' t r u e ' l i n g u i s t i c  (1968), t h e u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e f i r s t than  linguis-  d e p e n d s on t h e man-  (1970), a n d L e n n e b e r g  year  and a  behaviour'  i n language  d i s t i n c t i o n between the c r y i n g ,  utterances  prelinguistic  w h i c h does n o t f u l f i l  ments i s more o r l e s s m e a n i n g l e s s Jakobson  of discrete  the appearance o f the f i r s t  defines  that vocal behaviour  a  year)  many r e s e a r c h e r s , a p r e l i n g u i s t i c - l i n g u i s t i c implies  or cate-  have d e s c r i b e d t h e e x i s t e n c e  of language development:  communicative behaviour ipulation  involves a division  Many l i n g u i s t s  (which b e g i n s  division  of l i f e f o r  of the c h i l d  o f the continuous  two b a s i c s t a g e s  stage  year  t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h i s t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n  process,  or stages*  i n the f i r s t  n o t h i n g more  which  'there  a d e s i r e f o r commun-  the 'question of the prelang-  t o b e ... one o f e x t e r n a l p h o n e t i c s , i n nature  ...' (p. 2 7 ) .  McNeill  21  extends it the  this  plays  viewpoint  a part  scenes*  clarify for of  h i s statement  that  'babbling, i f  i n t h e emergence o f s p e e c h , does so f a r b e h i n d  (1971,  This kind  with  p. 1 3 0 ) .  of unsubstantiated  any p o i n t  of view.  Lenneberg  a prelinguistic-linguistic 'language r e a d i n e s s * :  general  statement  suggests  an  d i s c o n t i n u i t y with  before  neurophysiological maturation  emphasizes the  first  two y e a r s ,  behaviour or  less  the r a p i d i t y  inessential  The  and g i v e s  f o r development  of the f i r s t  linguistic  the maturation  of  year  feedback loop  vocal  o f b r a i n , he more two y e a r s  o f view i s , c o n v e r s e l y , of l i f e  as  that  vocal  d o e s have r e l e v a n c e f o r  and p h o n a t o r y  (p. 188).  statement  egocentric  ly,  in  of language.  t h e raw m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y  Fry's  he  development.  as a r t i c u l a t o r y  mentioned  Although  of the changing  o f these  Two p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s o f b a b b l i n g (1966)  such as  neuroanatomical  p. 3 7 6 ) .  an account  the v o c a l behaviour  other major p o i n t  behaviour  the theory  of neurophysiological maturation  which accompanies  discounts  (1967,  to  explanation  a complex b e h a v i o u r  l a n g u a g e c a n emerge, t h e r e must be s u f f i c i e n t and  fails  first  and as p a r t  o f an a u d i t o r y  Jakobson, d e s p i t e h i s p r e v i o u s l y  a l s o makes  represents this  s t a t e m e n t may be d i f f i c u l t  b u t t h e s e c o n d may  'practice*  f o r the b u i l d u p  that babbling  soliloquy',  a r e d e f i n e d by F r y  a  'purposeless  suggestion  (1968,  p. 2 2 ) .  to demonstrate e m p i r i c a l -  h a v e some b e a r i n g  on t h e f a c t  that  22  hard-of-hearing speech, unless  infants, they  although  r e c e i v e what  auditory  training.  auditory  s t i m u l a t i o n from  these of  They have f a i l e d  relevances  their  although probably  later  babble,  do n o t d e v e l o p  i s known c l i n i c a l l y a s to receive  sufficient  own a n d o t h e r s ' v o i c e s .  of babbling  the sound p a t t e r n o f a language.  that and  proposed  they  relate Of t h i s ,  t h e sounds o f b a b b l i n g  t o the development Berry  notes  'have no d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s  do n o t make up t h e r e p e r t o i r e f r o m w h i c h t h e c h i l d  develops  t h e phonemes o f s p e e c h ' ,  'babbling,  nonetheless,  may be v a l u a b l e as a t u n i n g up a n d i n t e g r a t i n g p r o c e s s ...  organs  ... t o b e employed  Another  significiant  communicative process expression For  for  the expression  claims.  i s touched  feature  the basic the  Lewis  (1936),  emotional  states.  discussed  chosen  have made  study,  similar  observed  that  seemed t o have b e e n u s e d f o r d i f f e r e n t  Wasz-HOckert  evidence  and r e l a t e d t o  o f meaning i s i n t o n a t i o n ,  i n his single-child  i n more d e t a i l  perceptual  guise.  One o f t h e f e a t u r e s  (p. 188). Other l i n g u i s t s  pitched cries  and  (1966):  affective,  and comprehension  different  be  on b y F r y  and d i s c o m f o r t .  f o r the  ( p . l6k).  issue i n conjunction with  meaning i s p r o b a b l y  of comfort  a prosodic  i n speech*  and comprehension o f meaning under whatever  the i n f a n t  feelings  Both  et a l .  (1968),  whose work  later,  appear  t o have a c o u s t i c  to support  Lewis*  observation.  will  Berry  reports  t h a t b e t w e e n t h e f o u r t h and s i x t h month, t h e c h i l d  roughly  i m i t a t e the ' i n t o n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f the  speaker's  may  23  interjection able  or  expression  f e e l i n g than to c r e a t e  ( p . 164).  Again  round  to  units  of  imitate  rhythmic (1966)  similarly  chunks*  on  the  'meaningful o r a l  end  of  points yet  basis the  the  first  'meaning w i t h a l l the  out  can of  be  has  that  begins  the  and  (p. l 6 4 ) •  Weir be  un-  into  'sentence-like  (p. 153 )•  Lieberman  f a r as  ' i n n a t e l y ' determined  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to (p. Ul),  y e a r , he  heard'  segmented  pleasure-  response'  a c h i l d ' s s p e e c h may  intonation  i s an  emit a  intonational  same phenomenon, g o e s so  infant cry  reason of sentence  but  the  describing  that  the  a  a c c o m p a n i m e n t s w h i c h he  intelligible  in  o f d e l i g h t ' , more t o  to  propose  signal  'breath-group' of  (1967)  by  the  an  i n n a t e l y determined, synchronized standard p a t t e r n o f a c t i v i t y w h e r e i n t h e r e s p i r a t o r y and l a r y n g e a l m u s c l e s a c t t o p r o d u c e p h o n a t i o n on the f l o w of e x p i r a t o r y a i r . This  e x t e n d e d h y p o t h e s i s has  (1968), it a  according  i s only  i n c i d e n t a l *to note normally  infants apparently  for  s u b g l o t t a l pressure  ful  utterances.  lies basis  the  speech, to  Kim  since  that  not  infant cry  s p e e c h t h a n i t i s to  period  i n r e l a t i o n to  be  that  of  laryngeal  to p r o v i d e  contour  (p.  Kim  i n the sense, 832).  or  expiration*,  and  control meaning-  ' w h a t e v e r mechanism  assumed  ...*  of a c r y  expressive  i s , in this  singing  by  is respiration;  length  have i n s u f f i c i e n t  s u b g l o t t a l pressure the  the  spans the  concludes  i n f a n t c r y may  f o r the  criticized  t o whom, what i s ' i n n a t e '  single utterance  since  been s t r o n g l y  an  under-  innate  adult's no  more  innate  24  Whether o r not present that If  the  s t a t e of knowledge not  i n t o n a t i o n has  one  c r y has  defines  linguistic  and  are  a basic  •stages'  a b a s i s , one  could during  as  is for  the  can  are  added, g i v e n  'the  first  a progressive  postulate  that  the  predominantly  refinement  phonological,  might  environmental rename  and'the  sound-meaning c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  stage'.  the  find  first  utility  year  of  i n the  life.  the  suprasegmental  stage*  indeed  year.  intonation  proper  One  the  hypothesis  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the  sound-meaning c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  segmental  development  relevant  neurological maturity.  of development  (prosodic) inantly  and  one  basis  s t r u c t u r e to which semantic,  syntactic features  stimulation  as  innate  language development as  of communicative a b i l i t y , patterns  an  study  of  predomOn  such  vocal  25  1.222.  Empirical linguistic  Recent  studies  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances  design  have somewhat c h a n g e d t h e  tions  of v o c a l  Early  infants'  M^st of  by the  hence i n c o m p l e t e  Parents,  not  fashion with phonetic  It  little  sample  kind  (or  language  and  19^0  frequency were  Irwin  their  (or  studies.  were u s u a l l y t h e  recourse  in  observers.  idiosyncratic  to a s t a n d a r d i z e d  and  Chen  sampling,  of  anecdotal,  uncontrolled single-child  o r not  found  production  (19^3)  system  reviewed  r e c o r d i n g and  analysis  lacking.  was  the  o b j e c t i v e of I r w i n  conducting  they  c h o s e 95  c h i l d r e n were a b l e reported and  in a  and  Chen t o r e c t i f y  a comprehensive  development from b i r t h  influence  ' t y p e ' ) and  studies before  transcription.  s i t u a t i o n by vocal  of c h i l d  transcribed selected utterances  s t u d i e s and  techniques  subject  necessarily linguists,  They m a n u a l l y  these  the  have s p e n d much t i m e r e c o r d i n g t h e  utterances  •token').  Irwin  empirical investiga-  studies  acquisition  of  scope of  equipment  development.  Those c o n c e r n e d w i t h  and  in electronic  to  thirty  study  on  months.  i n f a n t s from m i d d l e - c l a s s  t o be  observed  later  occupational  study  f o r the  full  that race,  s t a t u s of  the  this  infant For  their  homes. thirty  sex,  parents  Not a l l months.  sibling before  the  26  infants  were f i f t e e n months o f  (1957*  418-419).  pp.  problem  of  the  In  the  age,  did  not  same r e p o r t ,  quantification  of  infant  affect  he  the  data  comments on  s p e e c h sound  the  data:  The p r o b l e m o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n f a n t s p e e c h s o u n d d a t a f u n d a m e n t a l l y i s the p r o b l e m o f f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e u n i t s and i n d i c e s w h i c h w i l l l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o m a t h e m a t i c a l and statistical treatment. The phoneme, w h i c h i s t h e e l e m e n t a l s p e e c h sound u n i t , i s t h e o b v i o u s one f o r s h o w i n g the i n f a n t ' s p h o n e t i c development, (p. 4 0 5 ) • The  crux  unately,  of  is  matter l i e s  I r w i n chose  explicity reading,  the  defines.  the  i n which i n d i c e s  term  When one  i n the  considers  description  of  w h i c h have a p p a r e n t l y  not  yet  a  The  Fairbanks'  specific  the  language.  International  Phonetic  use.  'phoneme', w h i c h he that,  a phoneme i s l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c ,  questionable  to  the  early  Unfort-  nowhere  once a  standard  use  this  of  infant  b e e n marked w i t h  utterances,  the  features  (19^0) m o d i f i c a t i o n  A l p h a b e t was  the  basis  term  for  of  of  phonemic  analysis.  Irwin  (19^5)  felt  observer difference found (1)  (2)  (3)  t h e y had  a pre-test  of  controlled  for  reliability.  interIt  was  that: for frequently  occurring  was  o v e r 90%  for  phonemes o c c u r r i n g  was  also  between  vowel-like  least  phonemes, t h e  correlation  transcriptions; of  low  frequency,  the  correlations  low;  for consonant-like for  (k)  by  that  sounds,  sounds;  a g r e e m e n t was  the  c o r r e l a t i o n was  lower  than  and  found f o r  those  s p e e c h sounds  observed  27  in  the  first  year  of l i f e  (i.e.,  most v a l u e s  less  than  70%).  The  last  finding  transcription difficulty those  system  utterances  do  not  there  i s no  tions  can  certain work.  show;  be  even i f t h e which  sounds,  they  utterances,  the  dialect  to  sample  unit  utterances  was  a  (1957*  p.  Despite summarize  the  the  phoneticians  are  i n agreement,  their  transcrip-  they  sample  over  of  the  were summarized The  nants', a f t e r 'consonant',  are  fifty  a  Irwin  percent  of d e s i g n ,  reli-  t o use  since  of  a  the  reliability.  i t i s of  The  non-crying  interest  Chen's f i n d i n g s , s i n c e t h e i r s  first  at q u a n t i f i c a t i o n  two  and  one-half  a d u l t model of  speech.  'phoneme', must be the  sounds  emitted,  be  i n f a n t s are producing  of  and  to  was  the  non-crying  years.  The  phoneme  results fre-  'vowels' or 'Vowel'  considered  of  that  frame-  ^06).  phonemes were c a t e g o r i z e d as  as  hear  the  chose  t i m e sample  i n t e r m s o f phoneme t y p e  the  t r a i n e d to  of u t t e r a n c e s ,  representations assumed  of  t h i r t y - b r e a t h sample  l a r g e - s c a l e attempt  utterances  adult  reliability  r a t h e r than  flaws  I r w i n and  the  the  t e s t s were more s i g n i f i c a n t .  behaviour  of  since  that  validity  Since  probably  i n t e r p r e t e d a l l sounds i n t h i s  resulted in just  quency.  the  determined.  behaviour-unit latter  upon i n f a n t  f o r e i g n to  means b y  the  Even t r a i n e d t r a n s c r i b e r s have  s e r i o u s e r r o r i s one  With respect  ability  first  are  A most  i n d i c a t e s the weakness of  used.  i n agreeing  observer. data  especially  since  only  and approximate  i t cannot  utterances  'conso-  or  28  sounds of  equivalent  reporting  and  their  frequent the  results,  phoneme t y p e , i t was i n the f i r s t  the vowels (Irwin,  of E n g l i s h ,  19^6,  order. front  observed that  exceeded  and  o f t h e mouth;  by  80%  employ  vowels  Irwin  according  the f r o n t  ulation time,  of the f i r s t  to p l a c e  t h e end  o f t h e mouth  Production  months,  almost conson-  of vowels.  (1947,  pp.  semi-vowels,  and  2  ).  back i n the major-  Production was  i n the  In the f i r s t i n the back  y e a r , 50%  were  two of the  produced  398-399).  of consonants a c c o r d i n g  t o manner o f  of f r i c a t i v e s  and  and  fricatives  glides  artic-  plosives  of the consonant  s i x months, n a s a l s  to  produced  of a r t i c u l a t i o n  a l t h o u g h t h e y composed most and  of  vowels.  y e a r , the  (19^8, p . 3  o f fche f i r s t  showed a f l u c t u a t i o n  Between f i v e  produced  i n a front  o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s were p r o d u c e d  mouth, w h e r e a s by  t h e end  t w o - t h i r d s of the  appeared  ones  o r d e r of the p r o d u c t i o n  months, 9 8 %  were f a r more  t h e numbers o f  of the vowels'were  t h e end  o f t h e v o w e l s were b a c k consonants  about  the vowels  In the neonate,  reverse  ten  purpose  p. 2 8 ) .  Irwin noted that  in  I shall  the c o n c l u s i o n of the study, the i n f a n t s  ants  of  however,  For the  y e a r t h a n c o n s o n a n t s , b u t by  second y e a r , consonants  all  ity  speech sounds.  Chen's t e r m i n o l o g y . By  At  to a d u l t  sounds.  appeared.  increased  across  By  i n number.  29  At  t h e end o f t h e s t u d y ,  similar  to adult  articulations  F o r phoneme t y p e , c o u l d be made; tion,  Irwin noted  there appeared  creased easing  The  (1947a,  ratio  frequency  rate,  than f o r type  v a r i a t i o n was  reached  of l e a s t to t h i s  of pp.  produc175-176).  i n type, but i n frequency.  that,  at a faster  t o v o w e l was more  (1946,  Frequency  order of production.  According  analysis  (1947a,  w i t h age  p. 1 7 7 ) .  incr-  linear for  Irwin noted  f o r frequency  besides  than f o r type  i n c r e a s e d w i t h age u n t i l  a constant  (1947b).  H y p o t h e s e s have b e e n f o r m u l a t e d  •principle  a mean  p. 1 8 8 ) .  of consonant  p. 1 7 7 ) .  p . 402 ) .  that  and a f t e r  t h e r e was more v a r i a b i l i t y  (1946,  fairly  up t o 18 months, t h e phoneme f r e q u e n c y i n -  at a constant rate  were  t o be a n o r m a l c u r v e  not only i n t e r e s t e d  He r e p o r t e d t h a t  articulations  (1947b,  with decreasing v a r i a b i l i t y I r w i n was  that  the i n f a n t s *  to e x p l a i n  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t effort'  as proposed  this  apparent  t h e o r i e s was t h e  by S c h u l t z e  theory,  t h e s p e e c h sounds a r e p r o d u c e d by c h i l d r e n i n an o r d e r w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h the sounds a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h the l e a s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f o r t , g r a d u a l l y proceeds to the speech sounds produced w i t h g r e a t e r e f f o r t , and ends w i t h t h e sounds w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e greatest effort f o r their production. By p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f o r t i s meant t h e amount o f n e r v e and m u s c l e e n e r g y n e e d e d to b r i n g about the p o s i t i o n o f the speech  (1G80).  30  organs n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n a speech sound. ( C i t e d i n Bar-Adon L e o p o l d , E d s . , 1971. p . 2 8 ) . Jakobson r e f u t e s (1)  by  this  the o v e r r i d i n g  of p r o d u c t i o n (2)  hypothesis  by  the f a c t  point  of view  o f sounds;  that  on two  that  there  a child  that  there  i s no  can, t h e o r e t i c a l l y ,  i s an o r d e r  sound  I r w i n and  McCarthy  (1952)  opment.  A major p a r t  the  'law  of developmental d i r e c t i o n ' ,  ity  d e v e l o p s from gross  an o r g a n i s m i c  other  Chen's  which states  t o f i n e m o t o r movement  d i r e c t i o n because  the f r o n t root  root, blade,  t i p o f $he  control  a similar  this  levels  (More  that  to  recently,  physiological McCarthy  i n vocal  relation being of p h y s i c a l  from activVowels  front involve  f i n e r movements o f t h e  and b r e a t h i n g p a t t e r n s  to the changes  underlying certain  tongue.  o f sound p r o d u c t i o n . )  ment o f f e e d i n g  devel-  o f the tongue, whereas the back  consonants involve  the o r d e r  of  v o w e l s and b a c k c o n s o n a n t s  v o w e l s and f r o n t  has p o s i t e d  data.  (p. 2 7 5 ) .  t o b a c k and c o n s o n a n t s i n a b a c k  C1970]  hypoth-  i s deduced  appear i n a f r o n t  and  20-21).  interpretation  of her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  g r o s s movements o f %he  order  while  (1968, pp.  of a c q u i s i t i o n ,  eses have been p r o p o s e d t o e x p l a i n offers  grounds:  and  b a b b l i n g p r o d u c e any p o s s i b l e Assuming  of and  and  theory also  as w e l l  development,  that  he becomes c a p a b l e o f more and more complex  to account f o r  relates developas  postural  the assumption  as t h e i n f a n t  physiological  Drachman  attains  development, vocal  production.  31  I n s e r t Table 1 . 1  ( c f . Table 1 . 1 ) .  Lenneberg,  about  here  a l t h o u g h p o i n t i n g out that a  d i r e c t , c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between motor and ment i s u n l i k e l y , notes that  speech  develop-  'a p i c t u r e of c o n s i s t e n c y e v o l v e s '  between these two aspects of development i n normal c h i l d r e n (1967,  p. 1 3 2 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , Bever  (196l)  Irwin and Chen data and has attempted i c a l m a t u r a t i o n and b a b b l i n g . appears  has reviewed  to c o r r e l a t e  3 e t w e e n f i v e and  neurolog-  At f o u r months, there sometimes  to be a sudden s i l e n c e i n the c h i l d .  t h i s w i t h the c o r t i c a l  Sever  i n h i b i t i o n s of p r i m i t i v e  correlated  reflexes.  e l e v e n months, the c h i l d b a b b l e s .  end of t h i s time, b a b b l i n g more or l e s s s u b s i d e s ; i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e s u l t  of c o r t i c a l  at t h i s p e r i o d (Bever, 1 9 6 l ,  the  cited  At the this i s  i n t e g r a t i o n taking place  i n McNeill, 1970,  pp.  Irwin and Chen's study, i m p r e s s i v e by i t s scope, s t i m u l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n as to the e x i s t e n c e , nature, and causes  of i n f a n t  sound p r o d u c t i o n .  132-133).  has possible  A study which r e l i e s  solely  on p e r c e p t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n technique, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the criteria  are d e r i v e d from a n a l y s i s of a d u l t speech, must  however, be accepted r e s e r v e d l y .  TABLE 1.1 RELATION OF CERTAIN DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES TO VOCAL DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE  Vocalizations  Respiration  Birth  Many [hD  Rapid,  -1 mo.  sounds  abdominal  1-2  More varied  More  vocalization  regular  Age  Feeding patterns  Postural control  (mos) Supine only  2-3  Cooing  3-4  Decrease i n  Strong sucking  vocalization  drive  7  Babbling  Spoon and cup  10  First  Solid foods  Head erect  Sitting alone  syllable 12  First word  Chewing  Standing alone  (Based on McCarthy, 1952, pp. 273-277)  33  Instrumental  studies  Improvements magnetic  tape  r e c o r d e r , the  camera, v i d e o t a p e , of  i n technology  and  s t u d i e s of i n f a n t  netic  tape  with  advent  techniques infant's  of  I t was  linguist  Chen.  He  random sound i s c h a n g e d  c r y i n g becomes d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ' , environment (p. 2 2 9 ) .  of  the  infant  environmental  g r o w t h were c o r r e l a t e d of Lynip's show how  a  s t u d y was  technical  one  to  adequate study  i n f a n t s without  tion,  ...  (an  over  t h e mag-  audio-frequency  graphic  to c r i t i c i z e  attempted  and  record  the  perceptual  to d e f i n e  'how  a p e r i o d of time',  'when and  how  the  an 'when  social  influences i t s utterances*  on  events one  infant  c a n be  given  d e p e n d e n c e on  analysis  (p. 2 1 3 ) .  any  (p. 2 2 9 ) .  be made'  child  can  o n l y s e r v e as  and  aspects The  the pre-speech phonetic  without  preliminary instrumental are  —  to  utterances  s y s t e m and  Hence, h i s r e s u l t s  p e r c e p t u a l data  of  purpose  investigation  of those data, gathered  now  A c o u s t i c and  were n o t e d ,  ' s e r v e as a p i l o t  can  tions.  scope  Weekly r e c o r d i n g s were made i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t ,  significant  of  the  movie  the  t o employ  sound s p e c t r o g r a p h  his intention  I r w i n and  the  have c h a n g e d  a n a l y z e r which produces a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l of a s i g n a l ) .  of  production.  the f i r s t  r e c o r d e r and  the  sound s p e c t r o g r a p h ,  computers  sound  ( 1 9 5 1 ) was  Lynip  —  how  distoron  this  observa-  i n c l u d e d i n Table  1.2.  34  Insert  Three (1)  T a b l e 1.2  g e n e r a l trends appeared C r y i n g d i d not appear according  (2)  t o needs  B e f o r e t h e end vowel able  t o an a d u l t  t o be  acoustically  differentiated  ( b u t c f . Wasz-Hfl'ckert e t a l . ,  sound  sound.  o f t h e IPA  year,  t h a t was On  Irwin's  use  the  o f a more o b j e c t i v e  use  here  i n his data:  o f the f i r s t  or consonant  about  t h e r e was  no  single  acoustically  these grounds,  transcription approach  1968).  compar-  he c r i t i c i z e s  system  and  justifies  to the a n a l y s i s  of  infant utterances. (3)  On  the spectrograms,  gradual acoustic  c h a n g e s were  marked: At f i r s t , t h e r e s o n a n c e s were b l u r r e d t o g e t h e r , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n s d o u b l e d and then redoubled ( i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of c o n t r o l ) and t h e b e g i n n i n g s and e n d i n g s o f s o u n d s were indistinct. L a t e r p i c t u r e s show an i n c r e a s i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between r e s o n a n c e s , a g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f t o n e , i n c l u d i n g a g r e a t e r t o n a l r a n g e , and more p r e c i s e s h a p i n g o f s o u n d s . (pp. 2 ^ 5 - 2 4 7 )  Lynip's  s t u d y has  grounds.  Winitz  possible  invalid  measurement may p.  173).  least  (i960,  produce  escaped  1969)  features  ( I t has  a 1*0 Hz  not  outlines  o f sound  poor  criticism  the u n r e l i a b l e  inter-reader  i s made e a c h  theoretical  spectrography.  s i n c e b e e n shown by  error  on  Error  reliability  Lindblom  time formants  and  [1962]  of  (i960, that  a r e measured  at on  35  TABLE 1.2 SUMMARY OF LYNIP'S RESULTS IN A DEVELOPMENTAL SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF INFANT UTTERANCES UP TO 52 WEEKS Acoustic data  Irregular, uncontrolled  Perceptual data  Irregular, uncontrolled crying  crying General features noted  Crying with an awareness of  were pitch fundamentals,  others' actions in the room  attacks and terminations, time values, rhythms, cadences, resonances, and intensities Fundamental frequency = 360 Hz Recognizable non-crying Formant 1 = 720 Hz utterance Foment 2 = 920 Hz Audible laugh Formant 3 = 2400 Hz Fundamental frequency = 420 Hz Formant 1 = 880 Hz Formant 2 = 1260 Hz Formant 3 = 3000 Hz Imitations of adult speech only approximations  Sounds strung together Attempts to imitate mother's utterances Uses a particular sound to represent a particular object Uses a particular sound to represent an object; the sound similar to adult sound for the object  (Based on Lynip, 1951, pp. 234-245)  36  male v o i c e spectrograms.) More important, there i s a p p a r e n t l y a l a c k of isomorphism between the a c o u s t i c and p e r c e p t u a l f e a t u r e s of sound.  For example,  perceptually  different  vowels have been found to have c o n s i d e r a b l e formant frequency o v e r l a p , whereas p e r c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r vowels have been found to have c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n of formant r e g i o n s and Barney, 1952).  ( c f . Peterson  Research from the Haskins L a b o r a t o r i e s has  i n d i c a t e d that vowels and consonants i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r i n c o n t e x t , so that two i d e n t i c a l bands of energy may  be heard as  two d i f f e r e n t consonants when juxtaposed w i t h the two  different  ( c f . Liberman et a l . 1952, 1957. 1959).  vowels  In s p i t e of i n s t r u m e n t a l drawbacks,  o t h e r s have used the  s p e c t r o g r a p h i n the a n a l y s i s of i n f a n t v o c a l i z a t i o n s .  (I960)  Murai  c a r r i e d out a study a l o n g the l i n e s of L y n i p ' s p i l o t  study, but on a more i n t e n s i v e b a s i s .  Tape r e c o r d i n g s were  made twice monthly i n the c h i l d r e n ' s homes, d u r i n g t h e i r most active periods.  Other developmental data were i n c l u d e d .  band spectrograms and amplitude s e c t i o n s were produced. first  n o n - c r y i n g u t t e r a n c e was  weeks of age.  This c o r r e l a t e d w e l l w i t h L y n i p ' s o b s e r v a t i o n . second d u r a t i o n  Onset of b a b b l i n g appeared to be at about s i x months.  General c o n c l u s i o n s drawn were as f o l l o w s : (1)  The  noted to occur a t about s i x  Murai noted that t h i s u t t e r a n c e had a 0.** (p. 29).  Wide-  P a t t e r n of development complex b e h a v i o u r .  appeared to be from simple to  37  (2)  Consonant-like to  (3)  front  sounds a p p e a r e d  (k)  The  produced  i n a back  order.  Vowels a p p e a r e d least  t o be  effort,  interval  to o c c u r  i . e . , from  according lax  to  to a p r i n c i p l e  of  tense.  between u t t e r a n c e s  became p r o g r e s s i v e l y  shorter. (5)  I m i t a t i o n of  sounds a p p e a r e d  t e n months, Some o f M u r a l ' s Chen and wide-band of  results  b e a r out  the  f i n d i n g s of  However, h i s a n a l y s i s o f  spectrography  i s questionable,  harmonic  resolution,  r e s o l u t i o n , the  but  less  In a second  equivalent  of  (1963)  general  (1)  In  the  first  no  r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v o w e l s and  At  first over  a n c e s was  observations,  interval  time,  this  l i t t l e more narrow-band  of  sounds was  rhythmical  other  spectro-  there  appeared  to  be  consonants.  fairly  rhythmical,  r e l a t i o n between  utter-  lost.  T h e r e were c h a n g e s  (4)  The  sounds  by  example:  p e r i o d of u t t e r a n c e s ,  (3)  pitch  for  added  and  but  speech  distinct.  r e p o r t , Murai  the  and  since resolution  graphs  (2)  Irwin  infant  a s i g n a l with a high fundamental produces  than  and  30-31)  (pp.  Lynip.  to o c c u r between e i g h t  and  noise  appeared.  i n the  a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s of  patterns  became j u m b l e d  as  the  sounds.  consonantal  38  (5)  I n t h e f o u r t h month, t h e r e was to  approximate a d u l t s ' u t t e r a n c e s ' .  arily  imply  ances.  that  i n the i 9 6 0  ment  about  i s imitative, report  Unit  had a l m o s t  utterances utterances  area,  repetitions  (100-300  A f t e r the b a b b l i n g  stage,  observations  to s i t u a t i o n  of  found  occurs  He does n o t m e n t i o n  of utterances  appeared.  t h e same u t t e r i n g t i m e a s msec). the i n f a n t s '  sounds h a d  successive  sounds.  which r e l a t e  stages  reduced  (1963*  of vocal  Table  1.3  about  i n the c h i l d ' s  production  of a p p r o a c h f r e e s the l i n g u i s t  representations  develop-  here  a c o u s t i c parameters u s e f u l f o r t r a c i n g  development  kind  imitation  and a p p a r e n t p u r p o s e a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e  Insert  Murai  i n determining  25-26)  Qualitative ment  utter-  a r e g u l a r i z e d r e l a t i o n between vowels and  c o n s o n a n t s , and s h o r t e n e d  pp.  adult  of i n t o n a t i o n . stage,  frequency  necess-  b u t he r e i n f o r c e s h i s s t a t e -  that phonetic  In the b a b b l i n g  adult (7)  the d i f f i c u l t y  t h e n i n t h o r t e n t h month.  imitation (6)  T h i s d i d not  t h e i n f a n t s were i m i t a t i n g  Murai d e s c r i b e s  which behaviour  at  *a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e i n f a n t s  the p a t t e r n  of utterances.  from a r t i c u l a t o r y  to d e l i n e a t e developmental  patterns  This  phonetic  and p r o -  TABLE 1,3 SUMMARY OF MURAI'S OBSERVATIONS ON INFANT VOCAL DEVELOPMENT  Age  Vocalizations  Birth  Birth-cry  F i r s t month  Crying  Situation of utterance  Purpose  Physiological Discomfort state  A 'signal' to mother to relieve needs  End of f i r s t  Non-crying utterance  Comfort state  No apparent purpose  Babbling; repetitive  Comfort state and play  Phonetic play  utterances  situations  Symbolic meaning  In relation to an object  month 7-9 months  12 months  Symbolic expression  (Based on Murai, 1963, pp. 19-23)  40  vides  a more o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e .  what d e s c r i p t i v e , required  i f this  however;  His  results  are  still  more q u a n t i f i c a t i o n w o u l d  d a t a were t o be  v a l u a b l e as an  somebe  index  of  development. Nakazima  (1962) a l s o  the development in  ided  A  of v o c a l i z a t i o n i n Table  His  summary o f t h e s e and  situation  results stages  results  Table  1.4-  and  Nakazima a p p e a r  However, t h e i r work i s r e l a t i v e l y In the  several  w i t h the  s t u d i e s have b e e n c o n d u c t e d  techniques  s t u d y were feature of  of data  attempt  by B u l l o w a ,  collection  and  Bever  (1) t o i d e n t i f y  (196**). the  of  (3) t o o b s e r v e  the c h i l d ,  and  (k)  last  few  to  general years,  object of  refin-  analysis.  collection The  segmental  p a t t e r n s , (2) t o d e t e r m i n e  m o t h e r and  and  to s t a n d a r d i z e d a t a  Jones  the above,  i n terms  here  compared w i t h more r e c e n t s t u d i e s .  An  analyzed  of utterances i s prov-  about  of L y n i p , Murai,  correlate well.  ing  are  of  1.1*.  Insert  The  a spectrographic study  of v o c a l b e h a v i o u r .  terms o f s t a g e s .  kinds  conducted  the  i s described  objectives and  their  suprasegmental  sequence  of  the v o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n to r e l a t e  of  acquisition of  the  v o c a l development  to  TABLE 1.4 SUMMARY OF NAKAZIMA'S OBSERVATIONS ON INFANT VOCAL DEVELOPMENT  Stage  Age  Vocalizations  Situation of utterance  (mos) 1  Birth  Crying  Crying ceases when needs satisfied  Non-crying utterances (Rhythm  Comfortable situations  of utterances = 0.6 - 0.8 seconds)  More vocalization i n presence of mother speech  Duration of utterances longer  Variable response among children to parents  -1 mo. 2 3  1-2 2-5  High pitch variation Back vowels f i r s t , then other vowels and some consonants 4 5  6-8 9-12  Repetitive babbling  Alone or i n the presence of auditory stimuli,  Front consonants  such as adult speech or animal sounds  Use of intonation for expression  More vocalization "in presence of adults  Some imitation 6  12  Phonemic sounds with symbolic  Play, expression of needs, or to communicate  content  (Based on Nakazima, 1962, pp. 29-38)  42  environmental For  and g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l  s u b j e c t s , they  normal  chose f o u r normal f i r s t b o r n  English-speaking parents.  i n g s and f i l m s homes o v e r  of one-half  to  developmental  first  and m e d i c a l  r e s u l t s been  analysis  infants  To be a b l e  to v o c a l development,  t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  have n o t b e e n  five  noted  times  psycholi n the  t h e end o f t h e s t u d y .  extensively analyzed  n o r have  reported.  developed  Karelitz  record-  psychiatrist  the recording s e s s i o n s .  factors  A n o t h e r more s p e c i f i c  technique  i n a hospital  et a l . (i960)  the infant  The a p p a r e n t  c r y encouraged  of data  setting.  indicated  c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  amount o f - c r y i n g . of  A child  month a n d t h e n m o n t h l y u n t i l  However, t h e d a t a  by  Weekly m o r n i n g t a p e  a thirty-month period. i n f o r m a t i o n about  ogical  infants of  h o u r d u r a t i o n were made i n t h e  pertinent relate  (p. 1 0 2 ) .  factors  c o l l e c t i o n and  P r e l i m i n a r y work  t h a t normal and abnormal  on t h e b a s i s o f p i t c h a n d d i a g n o s t i c use o f the a n a l y s i s  others  to continue  this  investi-  and a n a l y z e d  the c r y  gation. Ringel of The  s i x female  (196^)  recorded  a n d f o u r male n e o n a t e s w i t h  normal  histories.  r e c o r d i n g s were made i n a q u i e t room w i t h a m i c r o p h o n e  placed  twelve  elicited 0.5  and K l u p p e l  with a painful  second  Level  i n c h e s from  t h e head  stimulus.  a n d 60 dB on t h e B r f i e l  of the i n f a n t . Those c r i e s  which  a n d K j a e r Sound  M e t e r were c h o s e n f o r a n a l y s i s .  A c r y was  Narrow-band  exceeded  Pressure analysis  43  was p e r f o r m e d , doubling cry  using a constant  the speed  an amplitude  formant  areas  frequency,  of the r e c o r d i n g .  s e c t i o n was made.  were n o t e d .  Significant  inter-subject  fundamental  1.5  Table  areas and  by F a i r b a n k s also  (1952,  Barney  Ringel  (19**2),  correlated  are reported i n Table  about  of  those  The two most  a n d t h a t obThe  formant  o b t a i n e d by P e t e r s o n  interesting  results of  fundamental  I f there i s such  to determine  fregreat  an abnormal c r y , u n l e s s  t h e ends o f t h e n o r m a l  have n o t i n c l u d e d any p h y s i o l o g i c a l  on t h e s e  particular  the l a r y n x , e t c . ) ;  the v a r i a b i l i t y . pertinent  noted  among n o r m a l s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s , i t  were f a r removed f r o m  data  frequency  w h i c h was 373 Hz.  among s u b j e c t s .  would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  the authors  f o r intensity  A g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n was  and K l u p p e l ' s s t u d y a r e t h e v a r i a b l e  variability  1.5*  here  generally with  p. 1 2 6 ) .  quency and i n t e n s i t y  it  o b t a i n e d f o r fundamental  v a r i a t i o n was f o u n d  frequency.  of the  Peak f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e  b e t w e e n t h e o b t a i n e d mean f u n d a m e n t a l tained  on p l a y b a c k a n d  At the midpoint  The r e s u l t s  d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y  Insert  and  gain level  infants  thus  (size,  weight,  range.  or anatomical cine studies  t h e r e may be a p h y s i c a l  N e i t h e r have t h e y  t o the r e c o r d i n g s i t u a t i o n  basis f o r  i n c l u d e d any o t h e r and o c c u r r e n c e s  may have had some b e a r i n g on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s .  However,  data  which  (With r e s p e c t  44  TABLE 1.5 SUMMARY OF DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR SELECTED ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS OF NEONATAL CRYING Parameters  Fundamental frequency (Hz) Duration (seconds) Sound pressure level CdB)  Mean  SD  Range  413.33  30.05  1.47  .62  0.62-4.02  82.13  3.40  65.0-93.5  290-508  (Ringel and Kluppel, 1964, p.4)  45  to  i n t e n s i t y measurement, t h e y d i d  relative  s t a n d a r d was  t h e r e was has  not  a  large  a physiological  pressure, that  of  used.)  etc.  Of  not  precisely  interest  and  i s the  v a r i a b i l i t y for duration;  basis  --  due  Quantification  to  of  duration  f r e q u e n c y may  be  due  to  which  fact  this  lung capacity,  f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y , however.  intensity  also  define  possibly  subglottal  i s more d i r e c t  The  that  than  variability in  effects  of  instrumental  error. The  most  c o n d u c t e d by made o f  extensive studies Wasz-H8ckert  et a l .  'situational' cries  hunger c r i e s  (prefeed),  and  signals  pleasure  following  of  of  the  (1968).  normal  pain c r i e s  (comfort  attributes  cry  have been  R e c o r d i n g s were  infants:  the  (after painful  state,  held).  Analysis  to  l e n g t h o f m a i n s i g n a l , minimum, mean, maximum p i t c h  Hz  criterion for  flat,  shift  melody  rising, falling-rising,  during  IO70 o f  the  cry),  sampled but the  analyzed,  spectrograms.)  from  Table  the 1.6.  of  the  Jakobson,  d e f i n i t i v e features  (0.4  signal  falling,  second  tenseness*,  attributes  difficult  F a n t , and of  or  change c r i t e r i o n  Starred  they are  (10  presence  fry*, nasality*,  9-l4.  since  according  (rising-falling,  w i t h a 10%  vocal  pp.  (the  made  These p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s  t h o s e d i s c u s s e d by  summary o f in  not  (1968,  pitch  types  continuity  minimum), g l o t t a l p l o s i v e s , subharmonic b r e a k *  of  c r i e s was  stimulus),  the  absence o f ) , v o i c i n g * ,  the  infant  birthcry,  of  range),  of  infant  were  Halle  each c r y  to  is  were  see  on  chosen  (1952). presented  A  46  Insert  The  establishment  Table  1.6  about  o f c r y t y p e s by a c o u s t i c  s u p p l e m e n t e d b y human a u d i t o r y found  that  ified  the c r y types,  29).  p. can  those  This  report,  1  the supposition their  cries that  needs  the  aforementioned  and  bi-phonation  to be the b e s t abnormal  low b i r t h  (sound w i t h  criteria  infants  Michelsson  acoustic  on t h e b a s i s  two h a r m o n i c  (1971),  infants at  Maximum p i t c h  sources)  appeared  f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between normal and  i n a study  of the vocal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and a s p h y x i a t e d  second pause  shift),  uishing healthy  described  of differences i n  characteristics.  neonates found latency  ( i n a doubly  minimum p i t c h , maximum p i t c h o f s h i f t , (large quick  infants  (p. 7 1 ) .  weight  stimulus,  (1968,  through  et a l . (1971)  s i d e s maximum p i t c h a n d b i - p h o n a t i o n , pain  ident-  of their v o c a l i z a t i o n s .  Vuorenkoski  and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r  I t was  infants best  the • t y p i c a l  communicate  features  tasks.  r a t i n g scheme t o d i s t i n g u i s h a b n o r m a l a n d n o r m a l  birth  of  particularly  of acoustic  a t t r i b u t e s was  identification  i n handling  evidence permits  In a r e c e n t a  experienced  to a c e r t a i n extent  variation  here  were a l s o  from unhealthy  useful  criteria  infants.  of c r y a f t e r  phonated  melody  that, be-  cry),  type and  duration, 'gliding'  f o r disting-  TABLE 1.6 ATTRIBUTES OF INFANT CRIES AS FOUND BY WASZ-HOCKERT ET AL. (1968)  Birthcry  Attribute  Hunger cry  Pain cry  Mean length  1 second  Voicing  60% = voiceless  Melody type  Flat or f a l l i n g  Falling  Tense or lax  Tense  Tense  Maximum pitch  High  High  Lower than pain cry  Pitch of shift  In about 1/3 of cries  Rare  Subharmonic break  50% of cries  Rare  Vocal fry  Rare  Glottal plosives  Rare  Pleasure cry  Long but variable Voiced Ris ing-fa i l i n g  Flat,rising-failing Lax Rises and f a l l s  Over 50% of cries Present  Rare  Nasality  Present  General pitch  Variable  Appearance Changes over time  Birth  First few days  F i r s t few days  Increase i n maximum  Increase i n glottal  pitch and duration  plosives  Three months  More subharmonic breaks Fewer glottal plosives (Based on Wasz-Hockert et a l . , 1968, pp. 21-22)  48  These k i n d s than  of analyses  has p r e v i o u s l y b e e n o b t a i n e d  characteristics  of neonates.  t h e y may need more  While  i n the study  In order  most a c o u s t i c a n a l y s e s  attempted,  'without  spectrographs  spectrograph,  resolving  description',  (p. 9 7 ) .  To r e d u c e  t h e c h i l d r e n were k e p t  o f two i n f a n t s  the noise l e v e l  i n plexiglass  v o l u m i n o u s amount o f d a t a 95 s e c o n d s  collected,  cribs.  Pertinent  the fundamental frequency, o f each u t t e r a n c e .  fundamental  frequency,  t h e s i g n a l was f i l t e r e d  the b e g i n n i n g  a n d t h e end o f u t t e r a n c e  msec,  since,  this  The t e m p o r a l  v a l u e appeared  were  In a n a l y s i s , the  To o b t a i n t h e b e s t  D u r a t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d  of amplitude).  samples  to  the d u r a t i o n , and the  frequency.  value  From t h e  25 msec b y t h e A / D - c o n v e r t e r  extract  amplitude  every  obser-  recording block)  f o u r t h day o f r e c o r d i n g .  were s a m p l e d  up t o  on t h e t a p e s ,  t h r e e 95 s e c o n d  o f each four-hour  signals  by  a new method o f  o f t h e s i t u a t i o n were made b y t h e p a r e n t s .  every  (1968)  V o i c e - a c t i v a t e d m i c r o p h o n e s were u s e d t o  o f age.  chosen from  have  c o n v e r t e r and d i g i t a l  recordings of the v o c a l i z a t i o n s  (the f i r s t  infants.  Sheppard and Lane  to develop  computer  f i v e months  valid,  the q u e s t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y  u s i n g an a n a l o g - t o - d i g i t a l  vations  t o be c l i n i c a l l y  o f v o c a l development  analysis  make t a p e  of vocal  e x t e n s i v e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n on n o r m a l  b e e n made on t h e s o u n d  of  p r o v i d e a more p r e c i s e m e a s u r e  with  estimate of  into  two  amplitude  (i.e.,  ranges  to d e f i n e  a threshold  t h r e s h o l d c h o s e n was 100  t o b e a minimum f o r d u r a t i o n .  49  In  statistical  analysis,  amental  f r e q u e n c y and  mined.  The  ributions  amplitude  statistics  over  computer.  statistics  of c e n t r a l  were t h e n r e p o r t e d :  tendency  (1)  were as  (2)  The  a right  of v a r i a t i o n  coefficient  (3)  over  stabilized  ( 1 9 ^ 2 ) , who,  In  using points  first  an  initial  validity  The  calculated,  time  The  coef-  (cf. Table  k.l),  amplitude  d i d i t change  signif-  then i n c r e a s e d  This trend with respect o b t a i n e d by study  Fairbanks  of hunger  i n fundamental  wails,  frequency  increase. of Sheppard  to e x t r a c t  a r e sampled  of the  t o be  greater for  that  t h e y have m i n i m i z e d  the computer that  with  decrease  a general c r i t i c i s m that  between-  variability.  decreased,  i n his single-child  n o t e d an  said  over  ( c f . T a b l e k.l).  frequency c o r r e l a t e d  f o l l o w e d by  and  time.  and  also  the  within-utter-  of the d a t a .  For n e i t h e r ,  means o f f r e q u e n c y  c a n be  skewing  decreased  The  to  mean had  o f v a r i a t i o n was  than f o r frequency. icantly  and  dist-  follows:  t h e r e was  ficient  by  variability,  tendency  For d u r a t i o n , the geometric since  and  deter-  frequency  sample were c a l c u l a t e d  u t t e r a n c e measures of c e n t r a l results  o f e a c h u t t e r a n c e was  were t h e n p o o l e d , and  the e n t i r e  Two  ance measures  t h e number, d u r a t i o n , and mean f u n d -  results.  and  L a n e ' s work, i t  the c a l c u l a t i o n  information.  i n computer a n a l y s i s  The  error  number o f  i n c r e a s e s the  However, t h e r e a r e f a c t o r s  i n the  by  50  pre-computer data c o l l e c t i o n which c o u l d have decreased the validity  of t h e i r r e s u l t s as normative d a t a .  number of s u b j e c t s i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . were not i n a completely  F i r s t , the  Secondly, the c h i l d r e n  n a t u r a l environment, and hence,  r e a c t i o n s cannot be assumed to be e x a c t l y e q u i v a l e n t  their  to those  of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environments.  The method of  utterance  representative  s e l e c t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t but only  of the c h i l d ' s of time.  initial  v o c a l behaviour i n any four-hour  In t h e i r data,  c r y i n g and non-crying  no d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d be made between  u t t e r a n c e s , which have been d e s c r i b e d  as p e r c e p t u a l l y and a c o u s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t  1963;  Lenneberg, 1967» p. 276).  ( c f . Murai,  i960,  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an a v e r a g i n g  of l o n g e r and h i g h e r - p i t c h e d c r i e s and s h o r t e r non-crying  block  lower-pitched  u t t e r a n c e s , and may have a f f e c t e d the trends  found.  In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n they p o s t u l a t e d that the p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y based h i g h - p i t c h e d c r y of the f i r s t p i t c h e d sounds begin, is  initiated  study  few weeks stops,  lower-  and then a second form of 'operant* c r y  (p. 106).  To t e s t  this hypothesis,  a separate  of c r i e s and n o n - c r i e s would have to be made. Up to t h i s p o i n t , a l l s t u d i e s have e i t h e r only been  inci-  d e n t a l l y concerned w i t h the v o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of the i n f a n t w i t h h i s environment, or have not i n c l u d e d i t at a l l .  In the  review of g e n e r a l developmental s t u d i e s , i t was emphasized  51  that  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h h i s environment  were a t a r g e t  area  f o r the study  individual  d o e s n o t grow  controlled  studies  on  vocal  1.223.  on As topic  variables  during  the f i r s t  of research,  (1959) age; the  studied  i s frequently  social  (a  three  was  not given  ipated! and  of vocal  development  examined.  paradigm,  9-minute p e r i o d s  was  on t h e l a s t  the reinforcement  Rheingold  given  On  On t h e f o l l o w i n g  a f t e r each v o c a l i z a t i o n  two d a y s . increased  of reinforcement  (median  f o r s i x days.  c o u n t was made.  " t s k ' s " . and a l i g h t  the withdrawal  i s the e f f e c t of stimu-  of v o c a l i z a t i o n o f i n f a n t s  two d a y s , a b a s e l i n e reinforcement  development, a  the e f f e c t o f the presence o f  reinforcement  t h e amount  two d a y s , smile,  factors  o f v o c a l i z a t i o n , one example o f t h i s  3 months) i n t h r e e first  In studies  year of l i f e ,  on t h e amount  In a s i m p l e  section.  examining the i n f l u e n c e of  on d e v e l o p m e n t  and/or d e p r i v a t i o n .  kind  i n the f o l l o w i n g  of general  of major i n t e r e s t f o r those  adult  variables  development.  lation  an  an  experimentally  of e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c  the case f o r s t u d i e s  environmental  Several  are described  of the i n f l u e n c e  vocal  was  i n vacuo.  since  of the e f f e c t o f environmental  development  Studies  of development,  touch).  Reinforcement  The r e s u l t s were a s a n t i c t h e amount then reduced  of v o c a l i z a t i o n i t again.  52  To six  examine t h i s  groups  period.  of  The  social  but  no  experimenter present;  with  an  expressionless  stimulation, (5)  face; and  (6)  noncontingent  social  auditory  fifth  vocalization.  g r o u p was  Once a g a i n ,  an  there  the  with  conditions, i . e . , contigent  about  of  these  the  reinforcement  Todd and  (1968)  Palmer  instrumental  studied  An  auditory  reinforcement  ented  on  sixteen infants with  noted  that  adult  was  t h e r e was present  that  and  c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d have p r o v i d e d  ically.  indicate  was  visual  the  recording  a greater the  increase  time of  reinforcement  There  The  more  stimulation.  problem s p e c i f under  of a v o i c e ) 85  inclu-  information  was  days.  social implem-  It  was  i n v o c a l i z a t i o n i f an  reinforcement.  may  in  noncontingent  latter  of  of  increase  nonsocial  a mean age  face.  increase  c o n d i t i o n i n g of b a b b l i n g  (tape  during  and  vocaliz-  noted.  experimenter absent.  d i f f e r e n c e s between s o c i a l  upon  to e f f e c t i v e  were m i s s i n g  sion  expressionless  a significant  through s o c i a l  stimulation with  an  additory  upon v o c a l i z a t i o n ;  vocalization  nonsocial  noncontigent  expressionless  trend  following  experimenter  stimulation contigent with  the  n o n s o c i a l but  stimulation contigent  experimenter present,  Only f o r the  but  (2) (3)  face;  experimenter present,  nonsocial  ation,  (k)  to  tested  8-day  o v e r an  according  (1)  stimulation;  (1963)  tfeisberg  ( a l s o 3 months o f age)  infants  g r o u p s were c a t e g o r i z e d  conditions: present  t r e n d more c l o s e l y ,  be  important  This in  the  may  53  augmentation the  first  infants This  of  few  are  the  amount o f v o c a l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  months o f  apparently  experimental that  more i n t h e  presence  not  true  •visual-prehensory  some o f  the  o f an  out  by  Turnure  slightly  distorted voice,  (i.e.,  smiles,  the  of  was  there  The  general  d e c r e a s e motor a c t i v i t y , ence t h a t  a child  the  three  the  was  age-groups tape-  mother's  r e s p o n s e was  mouthing  body  non-cries,  of a l l versions  stranger's  and  to  voice,  the  voice  mother's  to a s t i m u l u s  3-month the voice.  tends  to  i n some ways t h u s c o n t r a d i c t i n g  v o c a l i z e s more i n t h e  6-month-old  response  mother's v o i c e .  the  stimuli,  The  attention  However, i n the to  this  objective  motor q u i e t i n g .  i n response  that  of  presentation  6-month g r o u p , more c r y i n g indicates  the  from  index  to  study  that  mother's g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d  g r o u p showed more m o u t h i n g  This  vocalize  however,  to a u d i t o r y  frowns, c r i e s ,  With the  stimuli,  with  Children  voice.  limb-mouth c o n t a c t ) . the  )•  2  Nakazima's  to  monther's normal v o i c e ,  stranger's  (p. 5  9 m o n t h s ) were p r e s e n t e d w i t h  stimuli:  activity  the  with  noted,  but  level  (1971).  recorded  a female  He  similar stimuli,  (3 months, 6 months, and  and  creatures'  (1971),  subjects.  o f c o r r e l a t i n g body a c t i v i t y carried  to W h i t e  c h i l d r e n appeared  adult.  f o r a l l of h i s  A study with  when, a c c o r d i n g  study c o r r e l a t e d g e n e r a l l y  observation  was  life,  in  group,  there  The  presence was  of  crying  reason f o r the  evid-  stimulation. noted  in  elicitation  54  of a c r y r a t h e r  than a non-cry  i s unclear.  It i s also  inter-  e s t i n g that d i s t o r t i o n of the s t i m u l u s d i d not a f f e c t the response. Jones and Moss ( 1 9 7 1 ) conducted a study to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the s t a t u s  'further  of environmental and organismic  as they r e l a t e to v o c a l behaviour i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c i n the f i r s t  three months of l i f e  factors  setting'  1039).  (p.  Continuous, 3-hour r e c o r d i n g s of motheri n f a n t b e h a v i o r were made i n the homes of 14- female and 14- male i n f a n t s on 2 days when the i n f a n t s were about 2 weeks o l d and on 2 days when the i n f a n t s were about 3 months o l d . ( 1 9 7 1 , p. 1 0 3 9 ) S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s of the i n t e r a c t i o n s awake, p a s s i v e awake, drowsy, a c t i v e maternal presence, maternal indicated  sleep,  speech, and se  that a l l c h i l d r e n v o c a l i z e d  awake s t a t e , I t appeared  positively  state  (active  and p a s s i v e  sleep),  were made.  Results  most when i n the  active  the c h i l d r e n v o c a l i z i n g more when 3 months of age. that  the r e l a t i o n between the mother's presence  speech and the i n a n t s ' v o c a l i z a t i o n s was dependent:  of age,  (1)  age- and  state-  'at 2 weeks, the amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n  r e l a t e d to the amount of the mother's speech  f o l l o w e d the i n f a n t ' s v o c a l i z a t i o n s '  (p. 1 0 3 9 ) ;  months, the amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n was  (p. 1 0 3 9 ) ;  i n the a c t i v e awake s t a t e  and  (3)  was that  'at 3  p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to  the amount of mother's speech that f o l l o w e d the vocalizations'  (2)  or  infant's  the c h i l d r e n v o c a l i z e d  less  than i n the p a s s i v e awake s t a t e when  55  (p. lOkk).  the mother was  present  t h a t , at l e a s t  i n the case of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , the most  t a l k a t i v e mothers had No  I t was  incidentally  the l e a s t v o c a l c h i l d r e n (p. 1048).  sex d i f f e r e n c e s were noted.  The  authors presented  hypotheses to account f o r t h e i r r e s u l t s . that there  i s a necessary c a u s e - e f f e c t  maternal behaviour and there  I t was  i n f a n t v o c a l i z a t i o n , but  f u r t h e r hypothesized  between the ages w i t h r e s p e c t h a v i o u r may  They do  various  not  deduce  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  i s an a s s o c i a t i v e e f f e c t which may  (p. 1048).  noted  be  rather  that  bidirectional  that the d i f f e r e n c e  to the e f f e c t of maternal  be-  be a r e s i d u a l of the mere i n c r e a s e i n v o c a l i z a t i o n  a t 3 months, i . e . , the i n f a n t s ' speech becomes l e s s of a stimulus  to the mothers and  i n t e r a c t i o n between them.  t h e r e f o r e reduces the amount of From t h i s study, i t can be  that e a r l y v o c a l behaviour i s not However  $  the authors p o i n t out  more f r e q u e n t  had  less effect  human b e i n g 1971»  seen  necessarily socially  oriented.  t h a t , s i n c e v o c a l i z a t i o n s are  i n the a c t i v e awake s t a t e , they are at  available for social  novel  s i t u a t i o n s (p. 1 0 5 0 ) .  least  Why the mothers  than a n t i c i p a t e d c o u l d have been because a  induces other  than v o c a l responses  ( c f . Turnure,  above), and/or because the mother, b e i n g a f a m i l i a r  • o b j e c t ' does not have the e f f e c t of n o v e l t y response The they do  (p.  to evoke a  1050).  above s t u d i e s are i n f a c t s t i l l  exploratory,  although  show a trend of i n f a n t r e a c t i o n by a b e h a v i o u r a l  i . e . , an i n c r e a s e or decrease i n v o c a l i z a t i o n , to  response  eftviroamental  56  stimulation. infant  As  was  perception,  attempts  discussed  there  i n the  s e c t i o n on  a r e many f a c e t s o f  to r e l a t e  stimulus  effect  the  to  response  studies  research  still  of  which  t o be v a l i d a t e d ,  however. The acoustic  of  environment  f e a t u r e of v o c a l i z a t i o n  Lieberman  (19^7  )•  I t appeared  m a l e , one  (one  quency  t o r e s e m b l e more c l o s e l y  This  the  first  vocalic may  1.7  Table  i n the  year  and  production  occur  on  a  i n c l u d e s an  explicit  reference  Kaplan  (2) on  specifically  their  and  13  fre-  f a t h e r or  mother,  ( c f . Table  1.7).  here  environment at  a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n may a suprasegraental  level,  research.  His  the  is end  of  influence i.e. imitation  Lieberman  o u t l i n e of h i s methodology for this  10  fundamental  their  social  level.  by  c h i l d r e n of  v o c a l development  suprasegmental  neither  insignificant,  child's  a  utterances  about  (1)  implies generally that:  influential  two  that of  non-crying  on  been mentioned  female) adjusted  were p r o d u c i n g  Insert  has  that  months  when t h e y  •  social  unfortunately nor  sample  a more of 2  is  however.  (1970)  tion  of  that  4-month-old  reported  incidentally  i n t o n a t i o n a l contours  by  k-  and  i n f a n t s demonstrated  in a  study  8-raonth-old  variability  in  of  percep-  infants, heart  57  TABLE 1.7 AVERAGE FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY OF CHILDREN'S BABBLING AND SPEECH VERSUS AVERAGE FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY OF CHILDREN'S CRYING  Utterance Subj ect  Condition  Speech  Crying  Alone in crib  430 Hz  550 Hz  Playing with father  340 Hz  500 Hz  Playing with mother  390 Hz  420 Hz  13-month-old g i r l Playing with father  290 Hz  450 Hz  Playing with mother  390 Hz  450 Hz  10-month.rold boy  (Based on Lieberman, 1967, p. 46)  58  r a t e when a s w i t c h from a male v o i c e stimulus s t i m u l u s was made.  T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d  to the d i f f e r e n c e between the two v o i c e s found that 8-month-old  to a female v o i c e  a positive reaction (p. 1 0 ) . I t was a l s o  infants could apparently  f a l l i n g and r i s i n g c o n t o u r s ,  discriminate  i n c l u d i n g the s t r e s s marker.  These p u r e l y p e r c e p t u a l r e s u l t s f u r t h e r support  the hypothesis  that suprasegmentals a r e p e r c e i v e d a t an e a r l y age.  59  1,3.  Summary and statement of the problem From a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d development, i n  p a r t i c u l a r , v o c a l development, i t appears that most aspects of  the s u b j e c t are as y e t t h e o r e t i c a l l y u n c l a r i f i e d .  Valid  t h e o r i e s depend on r e l i a b l e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , of which there have been few i n t h i s a r e a . the  The primary need i s then  c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of e m p i r i c a l With s p e c i f i c  regard to l i n g u i s t i c  data. development, i t ap-  pears that a study of v o c a l b e h a v i o u r i n the f i r s t  year of  l i f e has r e l e v a n c e f o r the study of language development as a whole. to  In h i s f i r s t  communicate  uistic  year of l i f e , the c h i l d has not y e t l e a r n e d  w i t h the a r b i t r a r y segmental code of h i s l i n g -  environment.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he can a p p a r e n t l y  communicate  c e r t a i n d e s i r e s , and needs, through v a r i a t i o n s of the b a s i c a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s of h i s v o c a l s i g n a l -- d u r a t i o n , fundamental frequency, and i n t e n s i t y .  With the advanced techniques of data  a n a l y s i s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to study more p r e c i s e l y the a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s of sound p r o d u c t i o n . made of a l l  Some a c o u s t i c s t u d i e s have been  i n f a n t v o c a l i z a t i o n s , some of the c r i e s  only.  Since c r i e s and n o n - c r i e s may have d i f f e r e n t developmental trends  ( c f . Lenneberg, 1967;  i s warranted.  -Murai, 1963), a separate a n a l y s i s  A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of the development o f the  non-crying u t t e r a n c e s only may h e l p to c l a r i f y  the q u e s t i o n of  speech sound development, s i n c e a speech sound i s i t s e l f  usually  60  a  non-cry.  From t h e a c o u s t i c  study  utterances,  t h e n , m a y be d e r i v e d  information  about v o c a l  eventually  provide  information language, built  Synchronic  information  development;  t h e complex  segmental-suprasegmental  code which i s  by the simpler  of this  data,  and e a r l i e r  two s e t t i n g s c a n b e  o r t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t . f o r tape  recording  and v a r i o u s  However, i t i s c l e a r f r o m a r e v i e w  increase  offers  control  of the l i t e r a t u r e  i s inextricably intertwined  h i s home e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l and thereby  envisaged:  The l a b o r a t o r y  i n t e r a c t i o n s i n h i s home e n v i r o n m e n t .  eity  may  diachronic emergence o f  the c h i l d ' s development  infant  offer  with  C o l l e c t i o n o f data  normal c o n d i t i o n s  to the  the p r o b a b i l i t y o f normal  spontan-  of vocalization.  From objectives in  and d i a c h r o n i c  i n s i g h t i n t o the gradual  conditions  purposes.  in  synchronic  o f communication.  positive  that  non-cry  may g i v e n  laboratory  his  development.  norms o f v o c a l  In c o l l e c t i o n the  both  upon t h e f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e d  method  of the i n f a n t ' s  the points  of the present  the f i r s t  study:  f o u r months o f l i f e  home e n v i r o n m e n t s ; ances w i t h  o f view mentioned  a view  to analyse to follow  and t o r e l a t e  ment  to h i s vocal behaviour manner.  to record  vocal  development  of several c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r  a c o u s t i c a l l y non-crying  the development  tures  tative  above, d e v e l o p e d t h e  the c h i l d ' s  of acoustic  interaction with his  i n both a q u a l i t a t i v e  utterfeaenviron-  and q u a n t i -  CHAPTER 2 Method  2.1.  Experimental The  present  investigation production infants detail  during  the  their  15-minute magnetic  to  and  proceeding  years  f o r one  reactions  served  tape  i n f a n t speech  the  of  life.  of  the  Bayley  The  of of  larger  sound  described  l a r g e r sample  as  first  six  i n more 18  normal,  local  popul-  subjects.  these  environment are recordings,  of  the  infants in  inter-  c o l l e c t e d by  means  beginning  a biweekly basis  for five  phase of a  —  a t 5 weeks  in this  subject  and  up  study, to  22  subject.  the  recording  etc.  session,  biographical  each v i s i t ;  to v a c c i n a t i o n s ,  c h i l d ' s behaviour  appraisal  initial  females,  the  i n f a n t i s c o l l e c t e d at  status,  isters  two  three  from  on  l 6 weeks o f age  the  three  first  familial  I n a d d i t i o n to  the  of  spontaneous v o c a l i z a t i o n s of  weeks o f age  on  evolution  characteristics,  o f age  the  full-term infants, representative  action with  up  the  represents  i n S e c t i o n 2.2)  The  of  study  ( t h r e e m a l e s and  firstborn, ation  on  Design  To  current  parental  provide  a  health  observations  more  months, b e g i n n i n g  of at  Infant the  age  61  Development of  three  of  objective  c h i l d ' s development, a p s y c h o l o g i s t Scales  data  (1969)  months.  adminevery Informa-  62  tion by  on t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t  means o f t h e H e i r a l e r  administered  by E every  administered  around  information  provides  intersubject present values used  tests,  to suggest  tion  being Such  that, i n the  one o r two s e t s o f  and s o c i a l  reasons  data a r e  f o r differences  to c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. study,  Consequently,  t h e main  criterion  analysis.  study,  a l l s p e e c h samples a r e b e i n g  t o p e r c e p t u a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l a n a l y s i s ,  p r i m a r i l y b y means o f t h e s o u n d study,  test  of the c h i l d .  Due t o t h e f a c t  age i s , f o r t h e p r e s e n t  In t h e l a r g e r jected  of the b i r t h  developmental  according  statistical  (1967),  a d d i t i o n a l measures f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g  only d e s c r i p t i v e l y  among c h i l d r e n  for  f o u r months, t h e f i r s t  the time  and e v a l u a t e d  Functioning  t h e r e a r e s e l d o m more t h a n  f o r , these  chronological  obtained  Scale of Social  comparability.  study,  i s being  spectrograph.  sub-  the l a t t e r In t h i s  the a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s of fundamental frequency a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d b y means o f s p e c t r o g r a p h i c  initial and  dura-  analysis.  These f e a t u r e s a r e s u b m i t t e d  to s t a t i s t i c a l  puter  w i t h i n each t a p i n g s e s s i o n f o r  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  each c h i l d , ren  between s e s s i o n s f o r each c h i l d ,  (where s t a t i s t i c a l l y  feasible).  examine t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t his  a n a l y s i s b y com-  environment  and a c r o s s  Furthermore,  of the c h i l d ' s  upon h i s v o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t ,  child-  i n order to  interaction  with  the utterances  63  are  classified  according  to  s i t u a t i o n and  amental f r e q u e n c y w i t h a view  analyzed  to comparing  the  for  fund-  differing  contexts. 2.2.  Subjects  2.21.  Sex  and  age  T h r e e m a l e and 16  weeks;  2.22.  one  female  Medical The  mothers of and  p r e g n a n c y and  no  disorders.  history the  the  on  from  studied  5-22  infants  the  basis  physical  mothers of  from  weeks.  AMG  to  E_ by  of  uncomplicated  or  and  local  psychological  DAE  had  were n e v e r t h e l e s s  had  the  pre-  only  the  infants  indicated  for perinatal  that  a l l were  details).  rating  available,  5  family.  (cf. Table 2.1  Insert  was  was  were s t u d i e d  were r e f e r r e d  of g r o s s  h i s t o r i e s of  sound  Apgar  (CAB)  infants  thus f a r i n the  medically no  the  Although  Perinatal  AMG,  infant  infants  paediatricians  pregnancies,  children  female  history  obstetricians  vious  two  since  Table 2.1  she  was  about  born  here  spontaneously at  home;  For  TABLE 2.1 MEDICAL HISTORY OF INFANTS  Child  AMG  CAB.  AMR  JLR  DAE  MJK  Sex  Female  Female  Male  Female  Male  Male  Eirthdate (Day/month/year)  6/7/71  27/9/71  5/12/71  14/10/71  3/12/71  13/11/71  Birthweight (gms)  3800  3100  3600  3510  3790  4220  Apgar score"  10  9  7/9  8/10  8  Labour (hrs: min.)  11:45  4:50  8:06  19:55  5:31  Blood type  B, Rh-  A, Rh+  0, Rh+  0, Rh+  A, Rh+  . B, Rh+  Maternal weight gain (lbs)  18  20  8  30  28  40  Intended feeding method upon discharge from hospital  Formula  Formula  Breast  Breast  Breast  Breast  —  2  5  * Recorded at one minute after b i r t h ; i f second Apgar score i s given, the superscript indicates time of determination i n minutes after birth.  65  however, upon a r r i v a l normal, foetal  h e a l t h y baby. distress  healthy  at hospital, In s p i t e  n o t e d f o r DAE,  postpartum  she was  of prolonged labour the Apgar  f o r the d u r a t i o n  continued 2.23.  t o be  Administration  indicated  have  study, the  indicated children  development of the r e v i s e d B a y l e y S c a l e s 1969)  (Bayley,  psychomotor  and m e n t a l development.  provided  of  Infant  a measure o f the Results  infants*  are tabulated i n  2.2.  Insert  From t h i s  table,  3 months, AMR, psychomotor development.  Table 2.2  differences  CAB,  and DAE  development,  about h e r e .  c a n be  CAB  The  on b o t h i n d i c e s was  t h e 5-month l e v e l  n o t e d among c h i l d r e n .  exhibited also  A t 6 months, AMG-  i n mental development.  at  with  healthy.  Development  iority  reports  of the present  n o r m a l and  Psychological  Table  rating  as a  status.  Subsequent m e d i c a l and p a r e n t a l that,  classified  evincing  and  only  CAB  infant  JLR, who  f o r PDI  a slight  who  at 3.5  delay  some d e l a y  showed  At  i n mental  slowness  demonstrated supermonths p e r f o r m e d  and a t t h e l*-month l e v e l  for  MDI.  66  TABLE 2.2 RESULTS OF BAYLEY TESTS OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT:  S  MDI/PDI  Age l e v e l i n months a t t e s t administration 3.5 6 5.5  3  >  CAB  •  69/112  72/80  AMG  AMR  (4.5/7)  88/94  82/100  (2.5/3")  (5 /6) —  85/104  _  114/131 (4/5) 94/80  b  85/99 (5/5.5) 82/96  (3"/2)  a  b  (5.5/6)  +  JLR  b  +  (2.5 /2)  MJK  b  (2~/2)  91/80  DAE  a  (5.5"/6~) 92/90  94/114  (3/3)  (5 /6)  b  +  Standard scores with Mean =100 and SD =16: MDI = Mental Development Index, and PDI = Psychomotor Development Index. Parenthetic notation i n d i c a t e s age-level equivalents ( i n months) based on raw scores. Difference between MDI and PDI i s s i g n i f i c a n t (p_< .05); i . e . , median s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at t h i s l e v e l i s 16.7 points ( c f . Bayley, 1969, pp. 18-19).  67  The  I n f a n t Behaviour  Record, a more s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  of the i n f a n t ' s development, was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a t three months to a l l Ss  but CAB (due to an o v e r s i g h t ) .  appeared normally  r e s p o n s i v e and a t t e n t i v e , whereby JLR and  MJK were somewhat more so than the o t h e r s .  A l l infants  At s i x months,  CAB a l s o appeared normally a l e r t and r e s p o n s i v e . 2.24.  F a m i l i a l environment and b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n The  f a m i l i e s chosen were c o n s i d e r e d to be l o c a l l y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e by SES  group, education, i n t e r e s t s ,  social  outlook, e t c . Language, Education,  SES s t a t u s  Parents a r e n a t i v e speakers  of E n g l i s h .  A l l are Canadian  but DAE's f a t h e r , who i s from Manchester. In 1970, the average income o f these f a m i l i e s was $10,000 (range from $6,000 - $13,000). occupation l i s t e d No parent and  training.  In the case of the mothers,  i s that p r i o r to the b i r t h of the c h i l d .  has had l e s s than eleven years of s c h o o l i n g In s e v e r a l c a s e s , there has been p o s t - h i g h  s c h o o l education;  only JLR's f a t h e r has a u n i v e r s i t y degree  ( c f . Table 2 . 3 ) .  I n s e r t Table 2.3 about  here  68  TABLE 2.3 EDUCATION, OCCUPATION AND INCOME OF FAMILIES  Education (in years) Parent  Public school/ Vocational  Occupation  University  Approximate family income  CAB Father Mother  13/4/0 11/2/0  Tool and diemaker Practical nurse  AMG Father  14/0 1  Insurance inspector  Mother  13/1/0  Departmental manager in store  Father Mother  13/1/0 12/0/0  Warehouseman Secretary  $13,000.  JLR Father Mother  12/0/7 12/0/1  Ph.D. candidate Secretary  $8,000.  DAE Father Mother  12/0/1 10/0/1  Firefighter Secretary  $10,000.  MJK Father  11/0/0  Bandsaw operator  Mother  12/0/2  Secretary  $10,000.  $13,000.  AMR  $6,000.  69  Other  biographical The  In  m e d i a n age o f t h e p a r e n t s  the f a m i l i e s  the f i r s t ilies,  year  of marriage,  the b i r t h  The r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s indication  o f the f a m i l i e s .  a s i n AMR's t h e r e a l s o  hobbies,  times  Noteworthy r e a d i n g  Positive  are i n c l -  interests homes, a s  toward  creative  here .  was p r o v i d e d b y t h e H e i m l e r  F u n c t i o n i n g (Rev. I I ) a n d i n d i c a t e d  toward Index  work/activity, Index  In these  i s a disposition  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l l parents  attitudes  and h o b b i e s  years  of the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y  t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t  Social  three  fam-  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l / c r e a t i v e  T a b l e 2.4 a b o u t  A standardized appraisal  of  three  ( c f . Table 2.4.)  Insert  within  23-33).  was b o r n i n  occurred at least  e v i d e n t i n J L R * s a n d JIJK's homes.  well  (range  whereas i n t h e o t h e r  of the c h i l d  uded as a p o s s i b l e disposition  i s 25 y e a r s  o f CAB, AMG a n d DAE, t h e c h i l d  a f t e r marriage.  are  information  Score  their  Score  main areas  ion,  escape  = degree  —  routes;  ( c f . T a b l e 2 . 5 . , where:  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n five  family, personal;  of f r u s t r a t i o n / d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  non-activity,  somatic,  Synthesis Score  a t the  had g e n e r a l l y normal  situations  finance, friendhsip,  = degree  five  life  that,  Scale  areas  —  Negative  in life in  persecution, depress-  = g e n e r a l o u t l o o k on l i f e ) .  70  TABLE 2.4 PARENTS: BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION  Parent CAB Earner Mother  Age  33 26  Reading Interests  Hobbies  Historical biography; boating  Photography, camping, boat  and garden magazines, Playboy  building  Biography, women's magazines,  Sewing, knitting, entertaining  Playboy AMG Father  24  Historical fiction, adventure  Spectator sports, parlor games  stories Mother  24  Historical fiction, Book-of-  Knitting, sewing, cooking,  the Month club, magazines  golf  AMR Father Mother  29 28  Time, Playboy, fiction Reader's Digest, Time  Golf, skiing, drafting design Eowling, swimming, o i l paintings tennis  JLR Father  25  Painting, golf, floor hockey  Mother  25  Science fiction, general fiction, biography, Book-of the-Month club Non-fiction and fiction, child development  Spectator sports, golf, movie photography Sewing,•cooking, crocheting  DAE  Father  27  Historical fiction, Playboy  Mother  28  Modern novels, women's magazines and Playboy  MJK Father  23  Playboy and general interest  Involves self in husband's interests - no singular interests  Bric-a-brac collection, tennis  magazines, yoga and psychology Mother  24  books Classics and general fiction, monthly magazines  Arts and crafts, attends opera and theatre, plays clarinet and guitar  71  i n s e r t Table 2.5. about here  Parent-child interaction  E noted that a l l parents except those of CAB appear to p r o v i d e much s t i m u l a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the form of a f f e c t i o n , conversation, of AMG, AMR, providing  and c o l o r f u l t o y s .  and MJK, the mother i s more i n s t r u m e n t a l i n  t h i s s t i m u l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h the f a t h e r s a r e a l s o  interested.  Less s t i m u l a t i o n was g i v e n  at the time of t h i s study; 'spoiling*  In the f a m i l i e s  CAB by her parents  they expressed a n x i e t y  about  the c h i l d w i t h too much a t t e n t i o n .  C e r t a i n aspects of the p h y s i c a l home environment There i s some v a r i a b i l i t y  i n the decor of the homes.  Those of JLR and MJK are abundant i n v i s u a l l y and t a c t f u l l y s t i m u l a t i n g o b j e c t s , w h i l e that of CAB was somewhat l a c k i n g i n t h i s respect  ( c f . Table 2 . 6 ) .  Descriptions  i n the t a b l e r e f e r  to room(s) i n which the i n f a n t s spent the major p a r t hours, as w e l l as g e n e r a l  ambience.  I n s e r t Table 2.6. about here  of waking  72  TABLE 2.5 MEAN SCORES FOR PARENTS ON HEIMLER SCALE OF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING  Infant  CAB  AMG  AMR  JLR  DAE  MJK  Adniinistration Date (in weeks after birth)  (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)  Father Neg.  Syn.  Pos.  10 8  69  81 74  8  90  8  72  11  82 64  4  89  +  16 33  89 88  6 14 31  + +  —  +  +  + + +  Mother  Pos.  +  +  (REV. II)  Neg.  Syn.  11  76 84  67 78 80  5 9 10  68 66 62  97 97 77  4 9 4  82 86 84  11 20  96 100  8 6  50 72  92 92  16 16  80 88  2 20  90 90  27 30  84 78  89 77  13 16  76 72  6 21  97  86 92  94 68  23  90  11 17  11  86 94  22 22  70 81  5 5  80 80  96 72  9 32  70 66 i  Note. — Negative values in second column indicate that Heimler Scales were administered before the birth of the child.  73  TABLE 2.6 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  Subject  Ambient noise  Other  CAB  Other apartments, stereo  Small; mute colors  AMG  Other apartments, radio,  Basement s u i t e , l i v i n g  television  room cool and dimly l i t although kitchen warm and bright; AMG usually in kitchen  AMR  Generally quiet; radio,  Brightly colored  stereo, t e l e v i s i o n . JLR  DAE  T r a f f i c noise, radio, tape  Extensive visual and  recorder, television  t a c t i l e stimulation  Construction noise, radio,  Two cats  t e l e v i s i o n , stereo. MJK  Generally quiet; radio,  Three cats, one dog,  stereo, t e l e v i s i o n  extensive visual stimulation  74  2.3•  Proc edure  2.31.  Data  2.311.  collection  Instrumentation  Tape r e c o r d i n g s were made on a Nagra IV-D p o r t a b l e r e c o r d e r u s i n g an AKG D202E microphone and A pex kjk  Low-Noise  m  tape.  The tape r e c o r d e r was c a l i b r a t e d  quency response  tape  to g i v e a f l a t  fre-  (+2 dB) over the range 5 0 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 Hz. The  d i r e c t i o n a l microphone was normally  p l a c e d about  thirty-six  inches from the i n f a n t ' s mouth. 2.312.  General  taping  situation  At each biweekly s e s s i o n , E c o l l e c t e d about minutes of taperecorded  utterances.  d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t  fifteen  These f i f t e e n minutes  f i f t e e n c o n s e c t i v e minutes, f o r  the tape r e c o r d e r was o f t e n d e a c t i v a t e d to exclude,  f o r example,  c r i e s , h i c c u p s , s l e e p p e r i o d s , and e x c e s s i v e l y n o i s y  situation.  In order to o b t a i n as much data as p o s s i b l e , the mothers were c o n s u l t e d as to the i n f a n t s ' most a c t i v e p e r i o d s ; was  made to schedule  every  attempt was made to preserve  Parents  In a d d i t i o n ,  the n a t u r a l home environment.  were encouraged to behave i n t h e i r accustomed manner  towards the c h i l d . but  s e s s i o n s a t such times.  the attempt  I f p o s s i b l e , both parents  were  as a r u l e , only the mother was a t home d u r i n g  present; the c h i l d ' s  75  active periods.  E  t  w i t h the tape  r e c o r d e r and microphone,  remained out of the v i s u a l range of the c h i l d f o r the most of the t a p i n g s e s s i o n s .  The only a l t e r a t i o n of the e n v i r o n -  ment was to reduce the ambient noise to ensure c l a r i t y of r e c o r d i n g by t u r n i n g o f f r a d i o s , t e l e v i s i o n s ,  etc.; recording  was accomplished  i n the l e a s t n o i s y room of the house.  2.313.  taping s i t u a t i o n  Specific  A r e c o r d of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to each t a p i n g t i o n was kept by E.  T h i s data  i s presented  i n Tables  situa2.7-2.12.  I n s e r t Tables 2 . 7 - 2 . 1 2 about here  2.32.  Spectrographic  2.321.  analysis  Instrumentation  The  tapes c o l l e c t e d were reproduced  on an Ampex kkOB  r e c o r d e r , c a l i b r a t e d w i t h i n +2 dB of the Nagra IV-D tape er (over a 50-10,000 Hz range).  tape record-  A Kay-Sonagraph, Model 7029A,  w i t h a 80-8,000 Hz range was used f o r s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s . 2.322.  S e l e c t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of u t t e r a n c e s  A l l a u d i b l e and harmonic p o r t i o n s of non-crying ances were s l e e t e d f o r a n a l y s i s except  those  utter-  i n which there  was o v e r l a p of a d u l t - c h i l d v o i c e s or other i n t e r f e r e n c e . u t t e r a n c e was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the c o n t e x t occurred.  Each  i n which i t  The contexts were determined from d i r e c t i v e comments  76  TABLE 2.7 TAPING SESSIONS: CAB  Age  Adults present  Location of child  Other  (wks) 5  Mother, two Es  Bedroom; crib  Awakening; pre-feed  7  Parents , two Es  Living room: sofa  With mother but watching pattern of sofa  8  Mother, female E  Living room: sofa  Mother talking to child  10  Mother, female E  Living room: sofa  Mother talking to child  12  Parents , two Es  Living room: on  Father talking to child,  father's lap, on floor  child playing alone  Living room: sofa in cuddle-seat  Mother playing with child  14  Mother, female E  silently.  Doll and rat-  tle present 16  Parents , female E  Living room: on father's lap, with mother, with do 1  Laughter and squeals  18  Mother, female E  Living room: on blanket on floor  Appeared intriqued with  Parents , two Es  Living room: in a "jolly-jumper", on  Vaccination that day, hic-  20  blanket (Oj), squeals cups  blanket 22  Mother, female E  Living room  Feeding. bib (Oi)  Intriqued with  77  TABLE 2.8 TAPING SESSIONS: AMG  Age  Adults Dresent  Location of child  Other  (wks) Mother, female E  Living room: crib,  Rattle mobile in  mother's lap, crib  crib.  Mother whis-  pering. None  Living room: crib  Concentration on mobile  Mother, female E  Kitchen: tub Bedroom: crib  Mother whispering  Mother, female E,  Living room: on  psychologist  mother's lap  After Bayley test Watching Christmas tree and gifts  Father, male E  Kitchen  Mother, female E  Kitchen:  Responded vocally to smile, silently to sight of microphone crib  Watching rattle and squeaker toy  78  TABLE 2.9 TAPING SESSIONS: AMR  Adults present  Mother, female E  Location of child  Living room: sofa  Other*  Mother hoding him, then by himself  Mother, female E  Living room  Responded to backrub vocally  Mother, female E  Living room: sofa  Frequent whines  Mother, female E  Living room: on floor  Grunting and crying  Mother, female E  Child's room: crib  as well as cooing Very vocal when alone and watching mobile of butterflies ( 0 } ) . Silent when new toy introduced  On early tapes, Mother was very talkative. In many cases, her utterances overlapped with the child's utterances.  79  TABLE 2.10 TAPING SESSIONS: JLR  Age  Adults present  Location of child  Other  (wks) Parents, female E  Living room: sofa, with mother  Watching colorful block  Father, male E  Living room: on  Watching pink mus- .  father's lap, then  ical toy (0 ) X  on floor  14  Mother, female E  Living room, then quiet room on bed  Rattle (0i). A l l utterances sounded similar (monotone)  Mother, female E  Child's room: in crib  Watching clown (Oj) mobile and stuffed dog (0 ). Seemed to respond differently to each toy (monotone) :  16  Mother, female E  Child's room: in crib, then on table  At first responding to mobile (0i) in crib. Diaper changed and vocalizations seemed to change also. At sight of microphone (0 ) child vocalized more. 2  80  TABLE 2.11 TAPING SESSIONS: DAE  Age  Adults present  Location of child  Other  Parents, female E  Living room: in  Child has rash.  cuddle-seat  Squeals  (wks)  5 7  Parents, female E  Living room  Shots that day. Made acoustically interesting sounds when feeding  10  Parents, female E  Living room  Hiccups, squeals  13  Mother, female E  Living room: in cuddle-seat  Tried to 'stand on head*  16  Mother, female E  Living room  Sounds of wind and saw in background  81  TABLE 2.12 TAPING SESSIONS: MJK  Age  Adults present  Location of child  Other  (wks)  5  Parents , female E  Living room  Child crying. Parents talking to him.  8  Mother, female E  Living room: sofa  Watching mobile, using smiles as response.  10  Mother, female E  Living room  Active but not very vocal. Responds to tickling at end.  13  Mother, female E  Living room  Mother very active  16  Mother, female E  Living room  Teething. Dog enters room. Many aperiodic sounds.  82  on  t h e tape and from  situation. (1)  the w r i t t e n  They were d e f i n e d  Child  alone  - Si  Child  record  as  of each  taping  follows.  vocalizing  with  no a p p a r e n t  referent; (2)  Child  (3)  with  Child  = S+0;  object  with adult  = S+A  Child  vocalizing  o r t a c t f u l l y on a n  object;  and  (further  father vocalizing  Although t h i s with adult, in  one  since  subcategorized  i t was f e l t  E = S+E)i  vocalization.  i n context  a broader d e f i n i t i o n  (i.e.,  o f a n a d u l t ) w o u l d b e t o o ambiguous  t h e c h i l d was u s u a l l y  Child  with  with  adult's  d e f i n i t i o n of c h i l d  that  Child  = S+F, C h i l d  seconds a f t e r  into  i n the presence  child  f o r anal-  of at least  adult.  2.323.  Production  Narrow-band associated The  five  i s a limited  the presence  ysis,  within  fixated,  visually  w i t h m o t h e r = S+M,  Child  while  noise  spectrograms  amplitude  recording,  adjusted  sections  reproduce  signal  (4-5-Hz f i l t e r  were made f o r e a c h  to e l i m i n a t e  distortion.  (due t o n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d  different considered  homes w i t h necessary  b a n d w i d t h ) and  a n d m a r k i n g g a i n s were  f o r each spectrogram  and m i n i m i z e  measured  of spectrograms  their different to m a i n t a i n  noise  a constant  optimally  extraneous  Since  recording  utterance.  tape  intensity conditions  was n o t i n the  l e v e l s ) , i t was n o t gain  level.  However,  83  the gains of  were g e n e r a l l y a d j u s t e d  b e t w e e n 0 a n d - 2 dB.  Each spectrogram  w i t h a 500-Hz r e f e r e n c e were a l s o made e v e r y 2.33.  tone.  Reference  s i x hours  The  the f i r s t  an end-point The  least  with amplitude  a n d end o f t h e h a r m o n i c  harmonic.  p o r t i o n of the  and d i s a p p e a r a n c e  P r e l i m i n a r y wide-band  d i s p l a y s were compared w i t h  h a r m o n i c became v i s i b l e  displays.  In amplitude  i n most c a s e s ,  of at  spectrograms  narrow-band  In the majority  spectro-  of cases,  on t h e n a r r o w - b a n d  spectro-  the u t t e r a n c e  the f i r s t  three  harmonics  the other  that the use o f a t l e a s t  har-  the t h i r d  f o r the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the p e r i o d -  p o r t i o n of the utterance,  produced a constant  s e c t i o n s made a t t h e a p p r o x -  t o more i n t e n s e t h a n  T h u s , i t was f e l t  h a r m o n i c was i m p o r t a n t  of  (M-P)  (E-P).  c e n t e r o f each u t t e r a n c e ,  appeared, monics.  c  a t t h e p o i n t where i n t e n s i t y was r e g i s t e r e d on t h e  amplitude imate  variability.  ( F ) and d u r a t i o n  one o r two ' m i d d l e ' - p o i n t s  o f t h e same u t t e r s a n c e s .  third  grams  spectrograms  s u b j e c t (CAB)  (B-P),  beginning  the t h i r d  grams  calibrated  t o check f o r machine  u t t e r a n c e was d e f i n e d b y t h e o n s e t  ic  tone  reading  u t t e r a n c e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h r e e o r f o u r p o i n t s :  a beginning-point  the  was a l s o  Measurement o f f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y for  and  t o g i v e a VU m e t e r  although  underestimate  this  c r i t e r i o n may have  of the ' a c t u a l '  a s w e l l as somewhat d i f f e r e n t  duration  b e g i n n i n g and  84  end fundamental f r e q u e n c i e s than may  otherwise  have been  obtained. A'middle'-point  was  F  d e f i n e d as a marked change of  o c c u r r i n g anywhere between B-P  and  peak or a d i p i n the Fo-contours. marked change of frequency,  E-P.  I t c o u l d be  Q  either a  I f there was. more than  the two most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  one  changes  were chosen. It was  felt  that the method of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n gave  g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n as to the shape of the contour; p o i n t s would have f a i l e d istically.  p o i n t s was The  not  was  of  plastic  cm  spectro-  about ten minutes, the measurement of more  d u r a t i o n of each u t t e r a n c e was  w i t h i n 50 msec. 31.8  one  real-  feasible.  i n t e r v a l between B-P was  to c h a r a c t e r i z e the u t t e r a n c e  Since the time r e q u i r e d to process  gram completely  fewer  and  E-P  on the spectrogram.  Since i t was  known that one  i n length represents 2.57  template  c a l c u l a t e d as  the  Accuracy spectrogram  seconds, a t r a n s p a r e n t  c o u l d be used f o r measurement where 1.23  cm  = 100 msec. In p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s , i t was  g e n e r a l l y found  that  harmonics above the f i f t h were not c l e a r l y v i s i b l e .  It  d e c i d e d t h e r e f o r e to c a l c u l a t e F  frequency  of  Q  by d e t e r m i n i n g  the f i f t h harmonic and d i v i d i n g by f i v e .  centage of cases, even the f i f t h harmonic was  the  was  In a small pernot  visible.  85  In the  this  harmonics  monic  with calipers  against  Two  lines  vertical  line.  intersection  1000-Hz h a r m o n i c ,  point  compared  and  l i n e were drawn  t h e n drawn f r o m  l i n e was  the  and  drawn f r o m  and  of the r i g h t so on,  on  intersection to  the  the  right  the  intersection  v e r t i c a l l i n e with  t o 6000 Hz.  t e m p l a t e w i t h 10-Hz  d i s t a n c e from M-P  har-  v e r t i c a l l i n e w i t h t h e 500-Hz h a r m o n i c  forming a completed  e a c h B-P,  the second  a millimenter-to-Hz  a t r a n s p a r e n t m i l l i m e t e r graph  The  then  harmonic.  o f t h e 500-Hz h a r m o n i c  A second  of the l e f t  and  v e r t i c a l l i n e w i t h the b a s e l i n e  point  point  c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:  A l i n e was  of the l e f t  figure,  fourth  p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the base  spectrogram.  point  and  and  T h i s d i s t a n c e was  t h a t between the b a s e l i n e  t e m p l a t e was  intersection  it  measuring  then p l o t t i n g a f i f t h  each c a l i b r a t i o n spectrogram,  conversion  point  and  the t h i r d .  o r between the second On  the  n e c e s s a r y t o e x t r a p o l a t e , by  t h e same d i s t a n c e f r o m  checked  the  i t was  d i s t a n c e between the c e n t e r f r e q u e n c y o f the f i r s t  third at  event,  the b a s e l i n e  E-P was  determined  To  this  s h e e t was  the  resulting fastened,  intervals.  to the f i f t h  harmonic  with calipers  t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t d i s t a n c e on  to  and  the template  for  then  to c o n v e r t  to F . o In  the c a l c u l a t i o n  e r r o r was  +k0  Hz  (i.e.,  of the f i f t h + 20  Hz  harmonic,  total  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n  estimated of  the  86  and +20  template  Hz f o r t h e m e a s u r e m e n t ) .  d e t e r m i n e d by a d i v i s i o n by f i v e , was  +8  Hz.  the  e r r o r may  sidered the of  estimated  have i n c r e a s e d  variability  since  error f o r F  to c a . +10-12  preliminary  was  Q  Hz.  Q  necessary  This  was  con-  analysis indicated  that  o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a l i z a t i o n s was  i n excess  value.  2.331.  Intra-observer  and i n t e r - o b s e r v e r  I n t r a - and i n t e r - o b s e r v e r  was  chosen randomly f o r remeasurement.  yielded  values  of d u r a t i o n  identical  no s t a t i s t i c a l  by  determined  spectrograms  the same and a s e c o n d  to the i n i t i a l  a n a l y s i s was  were  A 10% sample o f  t h e measurements  Remeasurement  obtained.  reliability  reliabilities  for  of  F  I n t h o s e c a s e s where e x t r a p o l a t i o n was  acceptable,  this  Since  measurement.  necessary f o r the  reader  Hence,  determination  reliability. Remeasurement  different  results.  for  B-P,  M-P  was  compared w i t h  measurements, variance  t o be  frequency  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  and E-P.  Variance  the v a r i a n c e  between within  (See T a b l e s  and i n t e r - o b s e r v e r acceptable.  was  separately  done,  and  points  second  In a l l cases, than  and 2 . l 4 ,  reliability  slightly  the f i r s t  much g r e a t e r 2.13  did yield  the i n d i v i d u a l  and an F - r a t i o d e t e r m i n e d .  o f t h e sample was  measurements. Intra-  of fundamental  was  that  also  the  within  Appendix A ) .  therefore  considered  87  2.13  Insert Tables  2o3^«>  Measurement for The  and  other  2.l4  and  of fundamental  about  frequency  m e t h o d o l o g y f o r the  and d u r a t i o n  0  of the u t t e r a n c e  unchanged f o r the  subjects.  same manner.  harmonics subject  on  also  a l l of the that  calibration  v i r t u a l l y constant.  plastic subject.  reference  tone  template  calibration  measured throughout  was  noted,  hence t h e  the  template  f o r the p i l o t  calibration  I t was  of the  the  A  standard,  templates  the v a l i d i t y of the  trans-  f o r the  template,  c o n t i n u e d t o be made  Insignificant was  spec-  c o n s i d e r e d uneconom-  templates.  spectrograms study.  essentially  o f t h e d i s t a n c e between  d e s i g n e d from  In o r d e r t o c h e c k  and  and  was  in  spectrograms  the f r e q u e n c y  t o c o n t i n u e t o c o n s t r u c t new  parent  determined  However, measurement  indicated  t r o g r a p h was  first  (F )  characterization  F u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y was  ical  here  subjects.  t h e measurement o f d u r a t i o n r e m a i n e d  other  the  i  variation  considered v a l i d .  88  TABLE 2.13 INTRA-OBSERVER RELIABILITY: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY (CAB)  Source  df  SS  Between utterances (B-P)  121.68 .  1  Within utterances (B-P)  3.6895xl0  36  Between utterances (M-P)  44.237  1  Within utterances (M-P)  3.1662xl0  36  Between utterances (E-P)  136.42  1  Within utterances (E-P)  2.6117x10  5  5  5  36  MS 121.68  F 0.01  10,249.0 44.237  0.01  8,795.0 136.42  0.02  7,254.6  TABLE 2.14 INTER-OBSERVER RELIABILITY: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY (CAB)  Source  df  SS  Between utterances (B-P)  107.79  Within utterances (B-P)  3.6929x10  36  Between utterances (M-P)  437.92  1  Within utterances (M-P)  3.0953x10  36  Between utterances (E-P)  50.947 2.6283xl0  1  Within utterances (E-P)  1 s  5  5  36  MS 107.79  F 0.01  10,258.0 437.92  0.05  8,597.9 50.947 7,300.9  0.01  CHAPTER 3 Results 3.0.  D e f i n i t i o n of age l e v e l and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s A l l c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages are expressed  i n terms of weeks  between b i r t h and r e c o r d i n g or t e s t data, a l l values b e i n g rounded to the nearest week  (e.g., 3 weeks, 4 days = 4 weeks).  Since a l l Ss were not recorded a t the same age i n t e r v a l s , there a r e i n s t a n c e s where no values appear i n the t a b l e s . 3.1.  Duration Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of d u r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d  f o r every c h i l d a t each age l e v e l , as i n Table 3»1»  I n s e r t Table  3 . 1 about  here  For a l l s u b j e c t s but MJK, the mean d u r a t i o n tended  to i n c r e a s e  w i t h age, from c a . 200 msec a t 5 weeks to 4 0 0 - 7 0 0 msec a t 14 weeks and beyond.  Observation and h a n d - p l o t t i n g showed that  the v a r i a n c e was not constant but i n c r e a s e d e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h age.  For t h i s reason,  on age was c a l c u l a t e d  the l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n of l o g  g  of d u r a t i o n  to produce a b e t t e r f i t (where y = e  r e f e r to Appendix B f o r d e t a i l s ) . 89  a  +  b  As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.1,  x  TABLE 3.1 DURATION: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS (All values to nearest msec) Age Subject  Item  5  7  8  9  CAB  Mean  250  220  226  -  322  114 21  -  -  -  13  180  SD N AMG  213  290  SD  159 16  200 77  .a  a  Mean SD N  JLR  Mean SD N  DAE  Mean SD N  MJK  45 5  Mean N  AMR  0 1  10  11  (in weeks) 13 14 12  15  251 • 41  -  167 11  258  -  -  358  -  635  143  -  348  -  -  -  -  375  -  177  186  -  69  88  291  24  475 267 14  -  -  535  663 46  195 15  416 5  412 37  -  41  46  -  -  304  426 263  -  -  584  -  -  -  396 242  -  -  326 193  -  541  -  -  -  418  -  -  137  -  94  -  -  -  -  -  -  33  76  -  -  -  680 431  534  365  -  249 50  430 307 105  -  431 16  -  -  -  - ' -  -  -  -  -  10  56  -  22  21  239 127  440 375  357  33  99  179  -  -  -  217  364  -  443  -  -  385  -  76  166 33  336  -  -  288  -  -  -  354  -  199 14  -  Mean  390  SD N  304  -  35  -  46  -  244  -  134 26  -  -  -  3  -  -  290  -  22  560  71  222  20  300  -  -  18  732  -  -  16  -  Note. — Except as noted, missing values indicated no recording session at age designated. Recording made, but no viable utterances•produced.  -  -  -  -  91  the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  (p_  < . 0 1 ) f o r the same  I n s e r t F i g u r e 3 « 1 about here  f i v e Ss  p_ > . 0 5 ) .  ( f o r MJK,  B a r t l e t t s ' t e s t i n d i c a t e d that  the f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e g r e s s i o n s were homogeneous f o r v a r i a n c e (x  2  -  p_ > . 0 5 ;  1*53506,  cf.  Appendix C f o r d e t a i l s ) .  Consequently, the slopes of the f i v e r e g r e s s i o n  equations  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ages of  c o u l d be compared.  the  c h i l d r e n at which r e c o r d i n g s were made n e c e s s i t a t e d an a d j u s t ment of the means f o r age. means d i f f e r e d , and  I t was  significantly  that the  = 4.85^8,  that the slopes a l s o y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  112.5809,  p_ <  .001).  adjusted £  <  .001),  F-ration ( F ^ i ^ g ^ =  This would i n d i c a t e that the d u r a t i o n of  the harmonic p o r t i o n of u t t e r a n c e age  noted  increases exponentially with  f o r the f i v e c h i l d r e n , but at a d i f f e r e n t  r a t e f o r each  child. 3.11.  Comparison of u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one  and  two  middle-points  To compare the d u r a t i o n of those u t t e r a n c e s w i t h middle-point performed.  (M-P) One  and  of two  those w i t h two,  t - t e s t s were  computer t e s t r o u t i n e s was  as o u t l i n e d i n B j e e r l i n g and Formula  Student's  Seagreaves  (1971,  one  pp.  utilized, 80-83):  ( 1 ) which assumes only that the p o p u l a t i o n s are  normal;  Figure 3.1. Regression of Log  of Duration on Age.  4.0  x n AGE Cwks)  *p_ < ,01 **£ < .001  93  or Formula  ( 3 ) , used when p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e s a r e e q u a l .  For a l l S_s but DAE, p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e s were not equal; hence, Formula w i t h Formula  ( 1 ) was used i n f i v e of the s i x t e s t s .  Since  ( 1 ) a t ' - v a l u e i s c a l c u l a t e d r a t h e r than a t -  v a l u e , d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e n e c e s s i t a t e s the c a l c u l a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l of p r o b a b i l i t y  value of t * , a more a c c u r a t e  (Snedecor  estimate  and Cochrane, 19^7» pp. I l 4 - l l 6 ;  c f . Appendix D f o r d e t a i l s  of c a l c u l a t i o n ) .  For a l l S_s but CAB, the d u r a t i o n of u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one M-P was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s h o r t e r than those w i t h two;  a c r o s s S_s  d u r a t i o n of u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one M-P ranged from c a . 3 2 0 - 4 5 0 msec, whereas f o r those w i t h two, i t ranged from c a . 6 5 0 - 1 0 0 0 msec, as shown i n Table 3 * 2 .  I n s e r t Table 3 » 2 . about  3.2.  Fundamental frequency  here  (FQ)  For each u t t e r a n c e , " d e r i v e d means'  1  (B-P), m i d d l e - p o i n t  (M-P), and end-point  f o r beginning-point (E-P) were  In the a n a l y s i s o f u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one M-P, were f o u r major F^-contours rising-falling,  i t appeared that there  to be c o n s i d e r e d :  and f a l l i n g - r i s i n g .  the a r i t h m e t i c mean was c a l c u l a t e d .  determined.  rising,  In the f i r s t  falling,  tv/o c a s e s ,  In the l a t t e r two, i t was  TABLE 3.2 STUDENT'S t-TESTS OF DURATION OF UTTERANCES WITH ONE MIDDLE-POINT VS THOSE WITH TWO MIDDLE-POINTS (All values for means and SD's to nearest msec) One middle-point  Two middle-points  Subject  Mean  SD  df  Mean  SD  df  CAB  432  397  186  1011  834  8  AMG  349  252  196  730  340  AMR  367  293  260  847  JLR  328  231  468  MJK  328  229  DAE  455  334  t'  t'  .001  2.073  2.302  19  4.885*  3.852  381  89  10.881*  3.431  779  384  72  9.764*  3.448  196  658  361  48  6.099*  3.527  166  896  408  23  5.871*  a  b  Note. — t'-value calculated by Formula (1); cf. Appendix D. a  t'-probability = t'  k t-value calculated by Formula (3), p_ < .001; cf. Appendix D for details.  -  95  felt  t h a t the  a r i t h m e t i c mean w o u l d u n d u l y  E-P,  w h i c h were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  frequency,  while  Therefore,  t h e d e c i s i o n was  or  two,  falling  to a c c o u n t  + E)/4.  The  and  weighted  with  calculated  At  e a c h age  level  f o r every  c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m , i t was  i t best  Given  in F  No  q  the  An  examination  particular  an  child,  Appendix  — E —  M-P  be  point  means and  Due  was was  standard  M-P,  and  to l i m i t a t i o n s  o n l y p o s s i b l e t o use utterance with  two  one  i n the  M-P  M-P,  from  that B-P  E-P,  one E-P  and  o f M-P  as  a  ( c f . S e c t i o n 2.33).  summary o f means and  - 3.7  two  i t c o u l d not  s e p a r a t e l y f o r B-P,  t r e n d s were a p p a r e n t  to  factor  rising-falling-  f u l f i l l e d the c r i t e r i a l d e f i n i t i o n  marked change  a  formula:  c h o s e n f o r a n a l y s i s w h i c h d e v i a t e d most f r o m  since  3.2  by  M-P.  o t h e r s , t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean  f o r t h e d e r i v e d means.  each u t t e r a n c e .  to  curves.  d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d as w e l l as  the  Since  d i s c e r n e d w h e t h e r any  f o r both  by  basic contours:  r e s p e c t to the  respect  of u t t e r a n c e s w i t h  falling-rising-falling.  observationally  was  made t o w e i g h t M-P  analysis  showed t h a t t h e r e were two  with  and  f o r the d i v e r g e n t  t h e mean t h e n b e i n g c a l c u l a t e d  (B + 2M  rising  symmetrical  w e i g h t B-P  of the  between c h i l d r e n standard  F -contours Q  t a b l e s of values provides  as  for F  Q  deviations at indicated  f o r w h i c h may  be  according  each  age.  i n Figures found  the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n :  in  96  Insert  CAB  ( F i g u r e 3.2);  Figures  3.2  - 3*7  From t h e s i n g l e  utterance  weeks, w h i c h had a f a l l i n g c o n t o u r , a  rising-falling  AMG  (Figure  contour  3»3)» 3*4)t  AMR(Figure falling  From  contours  recording  higher  than  8-15  E-P on most  were e v i d e n t .  at 5  a trend  higher  contour  weeks, b o t h  here.  recorded  t h e r e was  i n w h i c h B-P was  A rising-falling  s e s s i o n s , B-P b e i n g  about  was  toward  than  E-P.  noted  across  occasions*  falling  and  rising-  Note t h a t a t 15 weeks, t h e  s e s s i o n f o r w h i c h y i e l d e d 60%  of the t o t a l  utter-  ances a n a l y z e d ,  a f a l l i n g contour  was  JLR  J  and a r i s i n g - f a l l i n g  ( F i g u r e 3.5)  i n w h i c h B-P was DAE  ( F i g u r e 3*6)  sessions; MJK  (Figure  evident, Across the  B-P  Both a f a l l i n g higher  j  E-P on most  t h e r e was  end o f t h e u t t e r a n c e higher  F o r B-P, M-P, of  contour  was  than  noted  across  occasions.  Over a l l , a r i s i n g - f a l l i n g  a l l children  contour  appeared.  i n w h i c h B-P f r e q u e n t l y e x c e e d e d  w h i c h B-P was  sion  E-P  A rising-falling  exceeded  3*7)J  than  evident.  contour  was  E-P.  a t r e n d towards a drop i n F  and t o w a r d s a r i s i n g - f a l l i n g  Q  at  contour i n  E-P.  E-P and t h e d e r i v e d means, a l i n e a r  fundamental frequency  on age was  calculated  regresf o r each  Figure 3.2. Means for Fundamental Frequency: CAB. Beginning-Point Middle-Point  7  8  x = AGE (wks)  10  12  (continued on next page)  86  Figure 3,4. Means for Fundamental Frequency: AMR Beginning-Point .Middle-Point End-Point 450  Derived Mean O  y  1  m  350  S  v.SJ  I!  1  300  250  i i 9  11 x s AGE (wks)  .12  Figure 3,5, Means for Fundamental,Frequency.: JLR. Beginning-Point Middle-Point 450 ..  ^ s j End,- Point Derived Mean  N X  &  400  1  350  e II  >>  300  250 "  9. x = AGE Cwks).  14  16  Figure 3.6. M^ans for Fundamental Frequency; DAE. r.rrt  x  55  AGE (wks)  x s AGE (wks)  104  child  ( c f . Appendix  significant, child  at  F).  least  (p_<.05-.001).  significant. regressions negative  A l t h o u g h not  one  Except  f o r CAB  were p o s i t i v e ) ,  i n slope;  that  g e n e r a l l y decreased  these  negative  with  regressions  there  three  significant F  d i d not  (i.e.,  were measured  However,  necessarily represent  B-P,  M-P,  E-P)  across  observations  regressions,  no  and  statistical  s i g n i f i c a n c e and  cross-comparisons  the  chidren.  were many d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n w i t h  t o number o f  each  significant  regressions  i n c r e a s i n g age.  for  regressions  at a p a r t i c u l a r  Q  were  significant  were a l l f o u r  (where the  i s , the  same m e a s u r e d p o i n t  Since  o f f o u r was  O n l y f o r JLR  point  the  out  a l l regressions  slope  respect of  c o u l d be  per-  formed. 3.21.  Within-utterance The  for  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the  each u t t e r a n c e  utterance deviation, for  every  range  was  maximum and  c a l c u l a t e d as  variation  ( i . e . range).  a linear  r e g r e s s i o n of  child,  as  i n Figure  Insert  Figure  3.8  3.8  minimum  a measurement  Based  points of  on means and  r a n g e on  age  was  here  standard  calculated  ( c f . a l s o Appendix  about  within-  G).  Figure 3.8. Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Age. 175"  106  With one e x c e p t i o n for  a l l jSs.  utterance  (JLR),  these r e g r e s s i o n s  significant  DAE had, e a r l y on, a n o t a b l y h i g h e r w i t h i n but by l 6 weeks, was w i t h i n  range than the o t h e r s ,  the 7 2 - 9 6 Hz range common to a l l . regressions,  which had a p o s i t i v e  homogeneity  But f o r the f o u r slope,  Bartlett's  of v a r i a n c e was performed, and the  were found to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y Appendix C f o r d e t a i l s ) . therefore,  were  ( x = 8 3 . 0 8 3 1 5 , p_ < 2  The f o u r r e g r e s s i o n s  for in  (discussed  t-tests.  could not,  those  Again,  one of  the  i n S e c t i o n 3 * 1 and Appendix C) was  For a l l S_s but DAE, Formula  ( 3 ) was used.  The  indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater within-utterance  utterances  w i t h two M-P (at  l e a s t p_ . 0 5 ) .  Table 3 * 3 , the means of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e  v a r i e d between . 7 0 - 9 0 Hz f o r u t t e r a n c e s w i t h 1 1 5 - 1 5 5 Hz f o r u t t e r a n c e s  those u t t e r a n c e s  range g e n e r a l l y  w i t h one M-P compared  w i t h two M - P .  Insert  w i t h one M - P .  Table 3 . 3 about  here  range  As can be seen  For DAE, both  means were c a . 125 Hz, a l t h o u g h the v a r i a n c e was for  .QOOl, c f  w i t h one M-P c o n t r a s t e d w i t h those w i t h two were  two formulas  results  for  be compared.  examined by means of S t u d e n t ' s  employed.  test  variances  As f o r d u r a t i o n , the w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range of utterances  significant  greater  107  TABLE 3.3 SHJDENT'S t-TESTS OF VttTHIN-UTTERANCE RANGE LN UTTERANCES WITH ONE VS TWO MIDDLE-POINTS (All means and SD's to nearest Hz)  One middle-point  Two middle-points  Subject  Mean  SD  df  Mean  SD  df  t  CAB  88  86  186  155  69  8  AMG  79  58  196  136  46  19  4.237**  AMR  71  52  260  116  55  89  6.947**  JLR  77  103  468  139  100  72  4.735**  MJK  89  83  196  151  96  48  4.544**  DAE  122  140  166  125  75  23  0.165  2.306*  a  Note: t-value calculated by Formula (3); cf. Appendix D. a  t'-value calculated by Formula (1); t'.05 = 2.454; cf. Appendix D for details  *p_<.021 **p_<.001  109  3.3.  Regression  of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range on d u r a t i o n  A l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range on d u r a t i o n was 3.2  and 3 * 3 )  performed.  Since p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s  i n d i c a t e d that u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one and  generally differed  ( c f . Tables two  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r range and d u r a t i o n , the  r e g r e s s i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r each group. ificant  r e g r e s s i o n s were noted f o r a l l but MJK  w i t h one M-P two  M-P  and  f o r a l l but AMG  ( c f . Figures 3*9  r e g r e s s i o n s may  M-P  be found  and  - 3.10;  DAE  Sign-  i n the group  i n the group w i t h  i n d i v i d u a l data p o i n t s  i n Appendix H).  and  Thus, f o r most Ss,  an i n c r e a s e i n u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h evinces a concomitant  increase  i n w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range.  I n s e r t F i g u r e s 3«9  3.4.  Utterances A frequency  - 3*10  about  here  a c c o r d i n g to context count  was  made of the t o t a l number of u t t e r -  ances measured f o r each i n f a n t and  of the number of u t t e r -  ances w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g c o n t e x t s at each age every (3)  S:  (1)  C h i l d alone  C h i l d w i t h Object  (2)  (S);  (5+0).  The  i n each of these c a t e g o r i e s was  level for  Child with Adult  percentage  (S+A);  of u t t e r a n c e s  then c a l c u l a t e d over  the  Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Duration: Utterances with one Middle-Point.  CAB O  <9  -* y y  43.17 + 1.036x  AMG A — * ** y  43.97 + 1.007x  MJK  y  78.87 + 0.3197X  AMR  « ** y  47.17 + 0.6426X  DAE  •« y  JLR 0 " 0  1500  75.45 + 1.030x  1  -4-  1000  60.00 + 0.6408x  2000  x = DURATION (msec)  2500  3000 p_ < .002 aft D < .001  Figure 3.10.  Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Duration:  Utterances with two Middle-Points ;  275 ••  225 ••  %  R" 175  i  i— i—  125  o  II  CAB ©  <3> * y = 97.90 + 0.5636x  JLR O—O ** y = 59,77 + l.Ollx  75 ••  AMG  ±—*  MJK A — A *  y  = H5.5  + 0.2746X  y  = 100.5 + 0.7730X  AMR • — * * y = 55.57 + 0,7111x 25  DAE " Q  — I —  500  1  1Q00  1500  1  —  2000  x = DURATION (msec)  , , a  y = 126.9 - O.OLSlx 1  1  2500  3000 * p_ < .05 ** p_ < .001  1 1  Ill  total  number of u t t e r a n c e s f o r each S.  The use of the t o t a l  number of u t t e r a n c e s as a b a s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i o n a f f o r d s a more perspicuous  a n a l y s i s of u t t e r a n c e s i n context l o n g i t u d -  i n a l l y and f o r each s e s s i o n , as can be seen i n F i g u r e s 3 * 1 1 3.16  ( i n which the value above the b a r denotes the number of  tokens  comprising  the g i v e n t y p e ) .  I n s e r t F i g u r e s 3 . 1 1 - 3 » l 6 about  Across age  here  Ss, a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n  i s noted.  However, Ss d i f f e r e d  ances produced:  i n t o t a l number of u t t e r -  f o r JLR, twice as many u t t e r a n c e s were recorded  as f o r the o t h e r s ;  CAB, although producing approximately the  same number of u t t e r a n c e s as a l l but JLR, was recorded ten  s e s s i o n s r a t h e r than f i v e o r s i x .  were as f o l l o w s : variability context. later AMG  CAB ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 1 ) :  Individually,  over  results  Over age, there was  i n t o t a l amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n and amount per  There were more tokens  of the type S+0 d u r i n g the  recording sessions.  (Figure 3 * 1 2 ) :  type S than S+A.  G e n e r a l l y , there were more tokens  of the  The r e c o r d i n g f o r 7 weeks i s n o t a b l e , s i n c e  all  u t t e r a n c e s were i n the context  AMR  (Figure 3 . 1 3 ) :  of  over  S+0.  From 8 - 1 2 weeks, there were more  the type S+A than S or S+0.  During the f i n a l  tokens  recording  Figure 3.11. Utterances according to Context f o r CAB: Percentage/total number i  50  Total Utterances: 196 Values over bars = number of observations  46 42  S  S+A 34 g  30  P & w  26  u  22  S+0  18 14  22  4  2'4  .19  10 1 3  6  10  . 10  12  14  x = AGE (wks)  16  18  3  2  20  22  Figure 3.12. Utterances according to Context for AMG:  Percentage/total number  Figure 3.13. Utterances according to Context for AMR:  x = AGE (wks)  Percentage/total number.  Figure 3.14. Utterances according to Context for JLR: Percentage/ total number Total Utterances: 542 Values over bars = number of observations  S+A S+0  137  x = AGE (wks)  Figure 3.15. Utterances according to Context for DAE: Percentage/total number .  50  Total Utterances: 191 Values over bars = number of observations  46 42  -  38 ••  w <;  P M  O,  ^S+A  34  S+0  30 26  CD  f  22 18  29  14  23  6 2  17  .17  10  10  2  1  10 x = AGE(wks)  . 13  16  Figure 3.16. Utterances according to Context for MJK: Percentage/total number. 50 Total Utterances: 246 Values over bars = number of observations  46 42  s  38 +  S+A  34' S+0  7L  f  g 30  ft % w 26' p.*  " 22' >> 1814-  31  29 26  10 r 62+  2 1  12  em  1 5  12  1  10  12 x = AGE (wks)  ML  13  16  118  session,  60%  of the t o t a l  u t t e r a n c e s were p r o d u c e d , most o f  w h i c h were i n t h e c o n t e x t ( F i g u r e 3.l4):  JLR over  age.  than  f o r the other  of  S_s.  o f v o c a l i z a t i o n was  Relatively  No d e f i n i t e  ( F i g u r e 3.l6):  tokens  of S than  3.4l.  Hotelling's mental  situations,  Mother  (S+M);  (S+0^).  On t h e e a r l y  S+A. T  tests  (S+E);  with  alone  trend  reversed.  c o n t r a s t s f o r funda-  Object  (S+0 ); 2  sets of variables  ance range.  Since  (S);  Father  (5) C h i l d w i t h  and E-P, and  F  q  i n different  (2) C h i l d (k)  (S+F);  one O b j e c t  (7) C h i l d  (2) B-P, M-P,  Child  with  (S+OjJ>  (6)  with  were a n a l y z e d  with  third  examines more  E-P, and w i t h i n - u t t e r -  than  p o p u l a t i o n s ) , the H o t e l l i n g ' s the c o n t e x t  groups.  T  Object  f o r each c o n t r a s t :  i t provides a m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis  simultaneously  contrast  recorded.  on, t h i s  of context  (1) C h i l d  (3) C h i l d  second  Two  similar  Relat-  r e c o r d i n g s , t h e r e were more  From 12 weeks  (1) B-P, M-P  (i.e.,  S+0 were  f o r DAE.  frequency  contexts:  with  were  u t t e r a n c e s were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  Experimenter Child  S+0  few o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s  the purpose of c o n t r a s t i n g the c h i l d ' s  following  constant  o f the type  trends appeared  few u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e t y p e  For  tokens  fairly  S+A.  3.15):  DAE(Figure  MJK  Amount  F o r h e r , t h e r e were more  the type  ively  S+0.  2  one v a r i a b l e test  However, o n l y  was  those  o f means on two  used t c groups  119  could  be a n a l y z e d  ances; set  i n which there  kO t e s t s c o u l d  Results  Of  t h e 40  F  o  in  2  -  -  3.9  about  M-P,  3»9»  here  and E-P o n l y ,  implying  that  defined  above.  30  remaining 25$ of s i g n i f i c a n t  T  2  showed  i n the m a j o r i t y  (two T  2  of  i n terms o f  No s i g n i f i c a n t  t e s t s p e r f o r m e d ) a n d S+0 x S+E  contrasts S+0 x  tests  S+M  performed).  t e s t s were d i s t r i b u t e d  as f o l l o w s ;  (1) S x S+Ex (i.e.,  1 significant  contrast  / 1 T  2  test  performed  JLR: l / l )  S x S+M:  2/lk  0/2. (3)  3*4  3*4  t o t o were n o t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s ! T  f o r data  f o r set (2),  of c o n t r a s t s  the c h i l d r e n d i d not v o c a l i z e d i f f e r e n t l y  o v e r Sjs  (2)  Tables  results,  i n the contexts  (six The  i n Tables  t e s t s o f B-P,  non-significant cases,  number  utter-  be p e r f o r m e d f o r e a c h s e t o f v a r i a b l e s .  a r e summarized  Insert  than three  o u t o f a p o s s i b l e 87 c o n t r a s t s  consequently,  (1) a n d a n e q u i v a l e n t  only  were more  S x S+F:  l/k  ( AMR; DAE:  l / 2 , JLR:  0 / 2 , MJK:  l/l,  CAB:  0/4,  AMG:  0/3)5  ( DAE:  l/l,  CAB:  O / l , AMG:  O / l , MJK:  ( JLR:  2 / 4 , CAB:  O / l , AMG:  O / l , MJK:  o/D; (4)  S x S+0:  2/8 o/l);  TABLE 3.1+ HOTELLING'S T" TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: CAB ?  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age  Context  N  5  S  7  S  8  (wks)  10 12  (All values to nearest Hz) B-P  M-P  1  328/ 0  314/ 0  322/ 27  S  5 13  352/ 31 338/ 23 326/ 42 317/ 51  50/ 35 30/ 31  S+M  7  339/ 39 320/ 64  S  22  53/ 34 52/ 37  S+M  19 3  s  c  S+M  2 .  315/ 45 333/ 31  E-P  264/ 0  365/128 393/118 365/118 352/ 72 372/ 55 343/ 65 286/ 30  364/ 38 361/ 43  S+F S+E  2 4  14  S+O  14  407/106 442/ 42 390/ 99 415/ 44 390/ 37 398/ 33 373/ 26 356/ 12 340/ 6 333/ 66 373/ 27 327/ 51  16  S  15  S+M  20  S+F S+O  C  c C  Age  Range  (wks)  64/ 0  8  60/ 51 101/ 32 57/ 49 57/ 35 33/ 29  Contrasts  df  2  T  Associated F-value  S  X  S  X  10  S  16  S S  X X X  0.411  S+M^ 4, 15 6.693 S+M 3 37 1.254  1.394  S+M S+M  4 36 1.810 3 , 31 1.461 4 30 1.461 3 15 9.642 4 14 11.61  0.418 0.458  3. 18 1.853 4» 17 2.684  0.556  a  a  b  a  S X S+M S X S+F S X S+F  5  a  5  X  s+o  a  S  X  s+o  b  74/ 57  S+M  X  374/ 51 441/ 75 388/ 78  101/ 79  S+M  395/ 79  436/ 45 374/ 68  99/ 59  S+M  4  432/ 71  540/233 536/172  179/181  7  364/ 63  399/ 50 360/ 57  67/ 39  S  3 16  1.388  S+M  0.397  0.332 2.836 2.391 0.570  X  S+F 3. 20 11.09 S+F^ 4. 19 13.16  3.360* • 2.841  X  s+o  a  S+M  X  s+o  b  S+F  X  s+o°  a  3 23 4. 22  3.604 4.381  1.105 0.964  -  -  -  (cont inued on next page)  TABLE 3.4 (continued)  2  HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: CAB Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age  Context  N  S+M S+0!  5 9  20  S+0 ° S  1 3  22  S+F S  (wks) 18  2  c  S+M S+E  2 4 11 3  S+0  19  C  (All values to nearest Hz) B-P  M-P  E-P  Range  Age  Contrasts  18  144/ 0  22  460/ 71 435/ 75 308/101 447/ 4 453/ 10 431/ 24  164/ 24  S  25/ 30 132/ 27 113/49  SX s X  353/ 91  325/ 67  396/ 97  S+M x S+0j  3, 10  S+M x S+0!  4, 9 6.419 3, 11 5.467 4, 10 10.86  a  b  206/112 105/ 65  S X S+M  a  s S+M S+M S+M S+M S+0  X  X X X X X X  Associated  1.771 1.204. 1.542 2.088  -  a  0.380  b  0.330 0.669 0.623  a  b  a  b  S+E  a  S+0 X S+E  3, 18 4, 17  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points only. Hotelling's T tests of beginning- middle-., and end-points and within-utterance range. •'• p_ < .05  6.375  S+M c S+E s+o 3, 19 1.258 s+o 4, 18 1.542 s+o 3, 26 2.162 s+o 4, 25 2.793 S+F 3, 10 14.13 S+E 4, 9 16.26 5  b  . Insufficient degrees of freedom for contrast. .  2  F-value  129/140 254/202  339/ 76 306/ 34 315/ 70  T  (wks)  649/201 575/247 532/219 724/309 830/227 644/134 544/ 0 400/ 0 468/ 0  352/115 440/ 58 371/ 69 404/ 49 375/ 34 513/ 86  df  7.369 8.392  3.926 3.048 2.211 1.783  TABLE 3.5 HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: AMG 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age  (All values to nearest Hz)  Context  N  S  S+M°  14 2  413/ 36 383/ 13  425/39 397/ 51 439/ 38 347/ 13  42/ 33 92/ 51  7  S+O  77  357/ 62  407/ 64 365/ 69  9  S  c  12  397/ 48 382/ 37  1  12  S+M S  399/ 66 404/ 0 393/ 68  82/ 59 36/ 31  (wks)  5  15  c  S+M  16 8  S  30  S+F  364/ 55 368/ 75 368/ 45  S+E  10 1  354/ 0  S  28  378/ 92  17 1  c  16  B-P  S+M S+O  c  M-P  E-P  444/ 0 372/ 0 403/ 58 359/ 61 373/ 60 328/ 39  Range  Contrasts  df  12  15  3, 20 4, 19  2.138 4.633  1.000  S x S+F  3, 36 4, 35  0.676  0.214  0.825  0.190  3, 41 4, 40  0.085  0.027  0.931  0.217  a  a  S x S+F  5  16  385/ 76  140/ 0 419/105 368/101 102/ 71 423/ 52 374/ 75 88/ 59  442/ 0  437/ 0  442/ 0  Associated  S x S+M S x S+M  S x S+M  61  S x S+M  b  96/ 29  260/ 0  2  F-value  b  0 86/ 44  400/ 0  T  (wks)  72/  61/ 49 405/ 67 309/ 65 114/ 62 395/ 44 320/ 51  Age  5/ 0  a  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points only.  b  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points and within-utterance range.  c  Insufficient degrees of freedom for contrast.  0.648  TABLE 3.6 HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: AMR 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  8  N  S  2  293/ 30  308/  8  361/ 66  368/ 75  S  18  S+M S+E  Range  (wks)  4  28/ 14  9  87/ 61  37  330/ 61 346/ 47  342/100 355/ 52 307/ 78 376/ 52 318/ 65  1 22  360/ 0 382/ 55  386/ 0 276/ 0 372/ 47 347/ 49  427/ 84  S+M  5 16  S+M  28  333/ 69 341/ 61  455/ 21 431/ 31 338/ 80 316/ 76 351/ 73 337/ 63  1 213  380/ 0 342/ 65  412/ 0 337/ 66  c  S+M° 9  c  11  S+M  12  S  15  Age  (All values to nearest Hz)  Context  S+E  c  S+0  B-P  E-P  M-P  4 293/  df  Contrasts  S x S+M  3  b  12  76/ 47  S x S+M  a  S x S+Mb  110/ 0  15  44/40 63/ 61  32/ 0  330/ 51  91/ 59  0.740  3, 17 12.86 4, 16 12.87  3.836-  c  2  2.709  1.212  0.401  S+M x S+0 4,236  2.426  0.599  a  b  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points only. Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points and within-utterance range. Insufficient degrees of freedom for comparison. * £ <.03 b  0.595  S+M X S+O 3,237  1 a  Associated  3, 51 2.307 4, 50 2.522  73/ 52 77/ 53  402/ 0  2  F-value  S x S+M  66/ 46  T  TABLE 3.7 HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: JLR 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  5  N  S  30  394/ 86  412/ 89  358/ 77  77/ 65  S+M°  2  401/ 86  425/106 339/ 66  S+E  1  332/ 0  S  48  414/126  338/ 0 335/ 0 421/131 414/107  c  c  7  Age  df  Contrasts  T  2  F-value  (wks)  7  Associated  S x S+E  3, 63 10.17  86/ 40  S x S+E  6/ 0 135/139  S x S+0  4, 62 10.24 3, 73 8.545 8.563 4, 72  2.055  a  b  a  S x S+0  b  3.286* 2.441 2.772  S+F S+E  3  365/ 54  387/ 25  349/ 56  83/ 45  S+E x S+0 3, 44  7.577  2.416  19  412/118  154/ 99  S+E x S+0 4, 43  7.582  1.772  S+O  29  373/ 86  480/134 370/ 91 380/115 347/ 87  S  97  352/ 63  S+M  15  372/120  346/ 50 319/ 54  66  344/ 83  C  9  (All values to nearest Hz) B-P E-P M-P Range  Context  S+O  116/116  336/ 56  56/ 51  310/ 36  77/ 94  327/111 313/ 50  72/ 93  a  b  9  Sx S M  3,108  11.50  3.762**  S x S+M  4,107  12.79  S x S+0  3,159 4,158  3.110** 2.417  3  b  a  S x S+0  b  7.343 19.06  4.657***  S+M x S+0 3, 77  2.188  0.711  S+M x S+0 4, 76  3.819  0.919  a  b  (continued on next page)  TABLE 3.7 (continued) HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: JLR 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  14  N  S+Oi S+0  103 34  326/ 46 341/ 91  S  24  S+Oi  17  S+0 s+o  2  16  (All values to nearest Hz)  Context  2 c 3  B-P  M-P  E-P  Age  Range  (wks)  318/ 72 310/ 54 342/ 62 318/ 67  62/ 55 84/ 98  14  314/ 53  347/ 53  81/ 42  16  397/187 332/ 78  140/368  50  446/370 331/ 49  340/ 72  297/ 51  107/ 56  3  337/ 35  346/ 93  279/ 7  117/ 11  327/ 49  df  Contrasts  T  2  F-value  S+0 x S+0  a  2  S+0 x S+0 1  2  Sx s+  a 0 l  S x °ia a S x S+0 S+  a  2  3,133  3.438  1.129  4,132  4.532  1.108  3, 37  4.851  1.534  4, 36 13.53  3.121*  3, 70  2.774*  8.559  4, 69 9.884 S x S+0 S+0 x S+0 3, 63 8.989 2  a  2  S+0 x S+0 2 4, 62  28.07  a  Hotelling's T tests for beginning-, middle-, and end-points only.  D  Hotelling's T tests for beginning-, middle-, and end-points and within-utterance range.  ° Insufficient degrees of freedom for contrast. *p_<.05 **2<.02 ***£<.01  Associated  2.368 2 904* 6.695****  TABLE 3.8 HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: DAE 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  5  Context  N  S  M-P  E-P  Range  (wks)  2  334/ 88  360/ 88  310/ 48  52/ 37  7  S+F  1  290/ 0  302/ 0  288/ 0  14/ 0  S+E  1  282/ 0  286/ 0  260/ 0  26/ 0  S+F  1  354/ 0  372/ 0  370/ 0  18/ 0  S  5  369/ 64  424/134  345/75  108/110  S+O  26  328/ 84  372/171  336/107  81/123  S  29  490/112  649/227  549/174  243/199  S+F  12  500/119  543/137  405/110  158/108  2  819/612  866/602  478/161  388/441  c  c  c  io  S+E  c  3  497/142  569/224  432/ 58  242/151  S  10  363/107  400/ 88  400/ 89  125/ 86  S+M  21  428/182  486/265  411/200  132/111  S+E  1  399/137  472/147  398/221  103/ 33  S  56  382/108  393/ 96. 369/ 85  83/ 66  17  348/ 72  352/ 46  315/ 64  70/ 69  3  330/ 12  347/ 27  313/ 46  41/ 58  S+M  c  13  C  16  Age  . B-P  c  7  (All values to nearest Hz)  S+M S+O  c  10  13  Contrasts  2  b  c  2  Associated  S x S+O  3, 27  2.280  0.708  S x S+0  4, 26  2.309  0.518  a  b  S x S+F  3, 37 10.42  5  S x S+F  4, 36  S x S+M  3, 27  3.026  0.939  S x S+M  4, 26  3.753  0.841  S x S+M  3, 69  6.301  2.041  S x S+M  68  8.725  2.089  a  a  3,  b  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points only. Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points and within-utterance range. Insufficient degrees of freedom for contrasts. * p<.05 a  T  F-value  5  16  df  10.50  3.294* 2.422  TABLE 3.9 HOSTELLING'S T* TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY:  MJK  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  5  Context  N  S  29  S+F  M-P  E-P  335/ 69  365/ 55  337/ 38  5  298/ 26  320/ 35  308/ 28  65/ 53 33/ 23  S+M  1  349/ 0  332/ 0  34/ 0  S  12  366/ 0 442/264  S+M  2  345/ 86  463/236 352/102 174/223 322/ 67 337/ 7 71/ 4  S  12  372/158  390/130 342/ 92  91/131  S+M  9  320/ 56  334/ 42  68/ 32  S+0  5  319/ 91  365/109 359/160  c  8  c  c  10  (All values to nearest Hz) B-P  297/ 47  Range  81/54  Age  df  Contrasts  T  2  F-value  (wks)  5  S x S+F  3, 30 4, 29  4.196 5.136  1.311 1.164  3, 17 4, 16  4.594  1.370  5.470  3, 13 4, 12  1.519  1.152 0.439  6.433  1.287  a  S+M x S+0 3, 10 S+M x S+0 4, 9  3.035  0.843  b  3.368  0.632  a  S x S+F  b  10  Associated  S x S+M  a  S x S+M  5  S x S+0  a  S x S+0  b  (continued on next page)  TABLE 3.9 (continued) HOTELLING'S T TESTS OF CONTEXT CONTRASTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: MJK 2  Nature of measurement: Mean/SD Age (wks)  12  13  N  S+M  7  321/ 47  S+F  8  328/ 44  S S  1  348/ 0  26 21 3  367/139  c  S+M S+O S  16  (All values to nearest Hz)  Context  S+M  31 74  B-P  286/ 32 304/ 38 304/ 61 331/100  M-P  E-P  326/ 69 340/ 45 378/ 71 281/ 69 307/ 0 ' 266/ 0 445/241 391/216 353/ 57 296/ 43 355/ 78 273/ 22 351/ 51 288/ 59 366/ 82 305/ 77  Range  . 74/. 55  Age  82/ 38 91/ 44 117/ 61  12 13 16  S+M x S+F 3, 11 14.38 S+M x S+F 4, 10 22.31  Associated  a  4.055*  b  4.290**  . S x S+M S x S+M  3,  3, 43  7.531  5  4, 42  9.230  2.399 2.154  S x S+M  3,101  2.133  0.697  S x S+M  4,100  2.486  0.604  3  5  110/ 65  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points only.  D  Hotelling's T tests of beginning-, middle-, and end-points and within-utterance range.  c  Insufficient degrees of freedom for contrast.  **p_<.03  2  F-value  a  *p_<.04  T  (wks)  130/ 52 82/ 0 123/128  df  Contrasts  129  (5)  S+O^x S+Oj  1/2  ( JLR.  1/2);  (6)  S+M x. S+_E:  2/2  ( CAB:  l/l,  (7)  S+M x S+E:  l / l  An  examination  (CAB:  less  different  Furthermore,  and 1 0 / 1 0 o c c a s i o n s ,  t h e s e p o i n t s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  with respect to t h e i r  in  S x S+E f o r J L R a t 7 weeks, M-P  lower type  t h a n M-P  o f type  S i s h i g h e r than  S+E  F -contour;  ( 4 2 1 Hz;  E-P o f t y p e  o f type  4 8 0 Hz) w h e r e a s  S+E  ( 4 l 4 Hz;  Q  (1)  S x S+A:  and  S_ x S+E), t h e o n l y t r e n d n o t e d was' t h a t  In a l l f o u r cases  f o r example,  Q  F o r F , however, t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i s t e n c i e s  t h e mean minimum F  contrast  i n t h e two g r o u p s  symmetrical contrast  and  l / l ) .  o r E-P (9/10  o c c a s i o n s ) t h a n M-P  respectively).  l/l);  o f B-P, M-P a n d E-P i n e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t  shows t h a t B-P was o f t e n (6/10  MJK:  S_ i s E-P o f  370 Hz).  are noted:  (S x S+F, S_ x S+M  twice,  E-P r e p r e s e n t e d  f o r S+A.  Q  (2)  S+M x S+F, o r S+M x S+E:  for  S+E o r S+F r e p r e s e n t e d t h e mean maximum  In the three cases  noted,  M-P  F .  2  Of range,  the f o r t y 34 yielded  following  T  t e s t s which i n c l u d e d w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e  non-significant  groups y i e l d e d  (1)  S x S+F  (4 t e s t s  (3)  S x S+E  (1 t e s t ) , The f i v e  (6  tests).  Ss  as f o l l o w s :  results,  no s i g n i f i c a n t  performed),  results  ( 2 ) S+M x S+E  ( 4 ) S+O x S+E  significant  whereby t h e  (2 t e s t s ) ,  i n toto: (1  test),  ( 5 ) S+M x S+O  c o n t r a s t s were d i s t r i b u t e d  over  130  (1)  2 significant contrasts  S x S+0:  JLR: 2/4,  (i.e., (2)  l/l4  S x S+M:  DAE: (3)  S+Oj^ x S+_0 :  (k)  S+M  In  2  the c o n t r a s t s  was  consistently  each  (JLR: l / l ,  0/2," MJK: 1/2  tests  O / l , CAB: 0 / 2 ) ;  O / l , MJK:  0 / 4 , AMG:  CAB:  performed  0 / 2 , AMR:  0/2,  0/3);  ( J L R : l / 2 ) ; and  1/2  x S+F:  DAE:  / 8 T  (CAB: O / l , MJK:  S x S+0, S x S+M,  l/l).  and S+M  x S+F,  g r e a t e r f o r the second context  the range  group i n  case.  2 In  sum,  i n w h i c h 15 dence  an a g g r e g a t e  T  tests  Some o f t h e s e ,  by c h a n c e .  Distribution  children  d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be random:  differently for F  than  the o t h e r  age  (7 weeks  other  sets, for  Q  children  significance.  i twill  data  be n o t e d  set ( l ) f a i l e d  when r a n g e was  included  following  Again  10 weeks  across  JLR a p p a r e n t l y s i t u a t i o n s more  vocaloften  at the e a r l i e s t f o r the  of the s i x t e s t s Comparing that  p e r f o r m e d f o r AMG  the r e s u l t s  o f t h e two  f i v e of the s i g n i f i c a n t  to reach (S x S+F,  considering  consistencies  sig-  ( 9 / 2 0 o c c a s i o n s ) and a t an e a r l i e r  S+H x S+E), a l t h o u g h one f u r t h e r nificant.  of s i g n i f i c a n c e  in different  compared w i t h  S s ) , w h e r e a s none  reached  performed,  however, a r e p r o b a b l y  nificant  ized  were  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5$ l e v e l of c o n f i -  t e s t s were  or b e t t e r .  of eight  could  significance S x S+M, contrast  t h e two be  sets  noted:  data  contrasts  o v e r a l l S_s.  S x S+E.  S x S+0,  ( S x S+0) was of v a r i a b l e s ,  sigthe  131  (1) S x S+A:  The o n l y  trend appeared  t o be t h e o c c u r r e n c e  of  t h e mean minimum F i n t h e g r o u p S+A, i n w h i c h o mean minimum F . o (2)  S x S+0:  those  cases  The g r e a t e r where  r a n g e was f o u n d  E-P was t h e  i n t h e S+0 g r o u p f o r  s i g n i f i c a n c e was r e a c h e d  i n tests  f o r data  set ( 2 ) . (3) S+M x S+F o r S+M x S+E:  In a l l cases,  (=M-P) and t h e g r e a t e r w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e the  contexts  3.5*  F  Q  r a n g e were n o t e d i n  S+F and S+E.  Summary  of results  Three major a n a l y s e s infant  t h e mean maximum  were p e r f o r m e d  on t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f  vocalizations:  (1) R e g r e s s i o n s  of a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s  on a g e , (2) R e l a t i o n s h i p s  of  F and d u r a t i o n , a n d (3) C o n t r a s t s o ations i n different contexts. Of  t h e r e g r e s s i o n s , n o t a l l were s i g n i f i c a n t .  were, however,  Two  trends  i n c r e a s e o f the d u r a t i o n o f the harmonic  of utterances  of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e  The  vocaliz-  noted:  (1) t h e e x p o n e n t i a l portion  of the c h i l d ' s  relation  with  a g e , and (2) t h e l i n e a r  increase  r a n g e on a g e .  of F  to d u r a t i o n r e v e a l e d a g e n e r a l  increase  o in within-utterance duration  range w i t h  of u t t e r a n c e .  i n c r e a s i n g f l u c t u a t i o n and  The F - c o n t o u r  itself  was n o t e d  t o be  132  rising-falling According 5-l6  weeks  alone  children  the  to c o n t e x t ,  vocalized  less  f o r Hotelling's generally  i t appeared  that  i n the presence The g r e a t T  2  changes of s i t u a t i o n .  number  tests also  d i d not a l t e r  situation  occurred.  c h i l d r e n of  o f an a d u l t of  However,  demonstrated  the f a c t that  than  non-significant  their vocalization  t e s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t d e m o n s t r a t e s  were a t l e a s t c a p a b l e in  cases.  o r w i t h an o b j e c t .  contrasts  given  i n most  that  that  the  pattern 20% o f  the c h i l d r e n  o f a l t e r i n g t h e i r F - c o n t o u r as a change o  CHAPTER 4 Discussion 4.1.  Limitations  4.11.  Subject The  ions.  of experiment  sample  sample  size  limits  Although chosen  on t h e b a s i s  developmental h i s t o r i e s , i n development have  the g e n e r a l i t y  the i n f a n t s  and a c o u s t i c  features  t o be r e v i e w e d a t a l a t e r  larger  study from which  4.12.  Classification Data  variable ently, large  collection recording  Figures  demonstrated analyzed.  A l l trends w i l l  date i n the context of the  i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t  situations  presupposes  w i t h i n and among S s .  subject  comparisons  observations  Lack of p r e c i s i o n  depend  Consequto a  of the recording  i n t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s may  i n some e r r o n e o u s c o m p a r i s o n s ; 3.11 - 3 . l 6 and t h e H o t e l l i n g ' s  were d e p e n d e n t  variability  t h e s e Ss a r e d r a w n .  e x t e n t on s u b j e c t i v e  resulted  o f normal m e d i c a l and  of data  i n t r a - and i n t e r -  sessions.  of a l l conclus-  have  c f . , f o r example, T  2  contrasts,  which  on a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e a c c o r d -  ing  to c o n t e x t .  Classification  for  t h e r e c o r d i n g made o f AMR 133  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  a t age 12 weeks.  difficult  134  4.13»  Measurement i n Section 2.33»  As m e n t i o n e d was  limited  involved  to the  i n p r o d u c i n g and  c h o i c e of the  monic  laborious  and  time-consuming  a n a l y z i n g spectrograms  1500 spectrograms  imately rary  due  t h e number o f m e a s u r e m e n t s  were p r o c e s s e d .  o n s e t and  as measurement c r i t e r i a  The  disappearance  different  E-P  obtained. monic was  Although  portion  the  and  i t was  o f an  encountered  portions  in  f o r B-P  in distinguishing  underestimate  of c e r t a i n  o f d u r a t i o n may  Although  g a v e an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  of the  more u s e f u l  k.lk.  analysis data  this was  and  more t h a n  chronological  or  been  some  har-  difficulty  from  utterances;  consequently  have b e e n  Q  harmonic  counterbalanced  o f B-P, a more  duration into  the major q u a n t i t a t i v e  used  two  age.  M-P,  and  E-P  involved account  sets  variability, of  criterion  Developmental  descriptively  inter-subject one  have  non-harmonic  F -contour, and  somewhat  might  analysis  study,  c o u l d o n l y be  intra-  Q  as a  yielded  i n future research.  Statistical For  F  har-  t o measure o n l y the  t h e measurement  a n a l y s i s which takes both prove  attempted  arbit-  probably  otherwise  utterance at a l l times,  i n the m i d d l e  some c a s e s .  than might  approx-  somewhat  f o r d u r a t i o n has  o f d u r a t i o n , as w e l l  o  —  of the t h i r d  a constant underestimate F  process  these  and  to s u g g e s t since  data.  for  social  reasons f o r  t h e r e were  seldom  135  I n t e r - s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y a c c o r d i n g to c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  limited  the number of p o s s i b l e cross-comparisons,  ularly for F . q  partic-  The d i f f e r e n c e i n numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  both w i t h i n and among S_s must be taken  i n t o account.  JLR,  2  f o r example, showed more s i g n i f i c a n t more s i g n i f i c a n t  Hotelling's T  t e s t s and  r e g r e s s i o n s than the o t h e r s , but these may  have r e s u l t e d i n p a r t from the f a c t  that there were twice as  many u t t e r a n c e s recorded f o r h e r . As can be seen i n Tables 3.4  - 3 . 9 , there were, i n f a c t , few examples of some of the  context c o n t r a s t s .  Those r e s u l t s which were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  2  the H o t e l l i n g ' s T  t e s t s should only be c o n s i d e r e d as i m p l i c -  atory f o r future research i n this area.  With r e s p e c t to the  r e g r e s s i o n s on age, the g r e a t e r number of o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r the l a t e r s e t s of data may have i n f l u e n c e d the slope and s i g n ificance 4.2.  thereof.  Correspondence of the present a n a l y s i s w i t h  previous  findings 4.21.  Duration In the present  study,  i t was found  d u r a t i o n ranged from approximately tween 400-700 msec a t 16 weeks.  that the means of  200 msec at 5 weeks to be-  These values agree g e n e r a l l y  w i t h those r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y by Murai and Lane (1968) although Murai noted  ( i 9 6 0 ) and Sheppard  that a non-crying  ance a t 6 weeks had a d u r a t i o n of 400 msec.  utter-  Both the a r i t h -  136  metic and geometric  means were c a l c u l a t e d i n Sheppard and Lane's  study, the former b e i n g 5 5 0 msec and the l a t t e r 2 9 0 msec. Nakazima ( 1 9 6 2 ) of ate  noted i n a g e n e r a l way that the d u r a t i o n  u t t e r a n c e s i n c r e a s e d with age.  The present f i n d i n g s  that d u r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d e x p o n e n t i a l l y from a t l e a s t 5 to  1 6 weeks f o r f i v e of the s i x Ss, a l t h o u g h a t d i f f e r e n t for  indic-  each S_ ( c f . F i g u r e 3 . 1 ) .  duration f i r s t  Sheppard and Lane found  rate that  decreased from b i r t h to 3 weeks and the i n c r -  eased c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 5 months ( c f . Table 4 . 1 ) .  The e a r l y  decrease might have been due to the number o f l o n g e r c r y i n g u t t e r a n c e s i n the f i r s t and K l u p p e l ( 1 9 6 4 ) cry  few weeks, s i n c e i t was noted i n R i n g e l  study that the mean d u r a t i o n of a neonatal  was approximately 1 . 5 seconds.  I n s e r t Table 4 . 1 about  In eases of  s t a t i n g from the present f i n d i n g s that d u r a t i o n i n c r -  e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h age, i t i s i m p l i e d that the amount  v a r i a t i o n , as w e l l as the mean, i n c r e a s e s w i t h age, as the  data indeed show;  the SD i n c r e a s e d from c a . 1 0 0 msec a t 5  weeks to 5 0 0 msec a t l 6 weeks.  On the o t h e r hand, Sheppard  and Lane, c a l c u l a t i n g the c o e f f i c i e n t it  here  decreased w i t h age.  not determined  of v a r i a t i o n , found  Since the c o e f f i c i e n t  i n the c u r r e n t study, i t cannot  that  of v a r i a t i o n was a t the present  TABLE 4.1. COMPARISON OF PRESENT FINDINGS FOR DURATION AND FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY WITH SHEPPARD g LANE (1968)  Study Sheppard and Lane (1968)  Acoustic feature Fundamental frequency  Present study  Sheppard and Lane (1968)  Duration (msec) Arithmetic mean  Subj ect Birth  21 days  45 days  137 days  401 Hz  384 Hz  420 Hz  420 Hz  438 Hz Male ' CAB (F) -  411 Hz  455 Hz  455 Hz  -  341 Hz  425 Hz  -  382 Hz  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  409  881  492  466 165  327 293  623 304  229  179 220  342 560  -  Female  AMG (F) JLR (F)  -  AMR (M)  -  DAE (M) MJK (M)  -  Female Male  Present study  Geometric mean  Female  Arithmetic mean  Male CAB (F)  -  1130 613 432 267  -  -  347 Hz  JLR CF)  -  290 440  AMR (M) DAE (M)  -  364  MJK (M)  —  AMG CF)  —  -  —  (Based on Sheppard and Lane, 1968, pp. 102-103)  138  t i m e be  d e f i n i t i v e l y s t a t e d t h a t the  concur.  Furthermore,  cluded  i n the  of  longer cries  the  S h e p p a r d and  the c o e f f i c i e n t and  since both  over  study  of c r i e s  reported cries,  may  of v a r i a t i o n .  have  of the  Although  t o be  analyzed.  Fundamental  frequency  the  literature  of  non-crying  do  not  (1951)  Lynip  utterances  a t 8 and  Appendix  both  cries  E).  and  all  means up  Hz,  whereas  than  400  noted  Hz.  data  non-cries  which to a s s e s s  a decrease  to say  Kluppel's was  study  of  t h a t few Those  f o r comparison with incidentally F^ a t 360  that and  study,  In  two most  Lane a l s o  Ss  the  there  their  than  studies reported present  420  Hz,  respect-  for this  study  Lane, a l t h o u g h as  that  non-crying  range noted  ones.  t o 5 months f o r t h e i r  non-  indicated  out.  o f S h e p p a r d and  the p r e s e n t  S h e p p a r d and  cries  variability  evident  i s d i s c u s s e d here  i n the p r e s e n t  that  in  v a r i a b i l i t y for duration  i t was  9 weeks had  The  i n number  r a t e f o r each s u b j e c t ,  v a l u e s b e i n g w i t h i n the  (cf.  by  review,  i n c l u d e s u f f i c i e n t data  both  effected  u t t e r a n c e s have b e e n c a r r i e d  findings.  ively,  the d e c r e a s e  f o r the p r e s e n t  inter-subject  other features  In  not  n o n - c r i e s were i n -  s l o p e s o f r e g r e s s i o n on age  appeared  less  do  e x c l u s i v e , f o r i n R i n g e l and  increase at a d i f f e r e n t  4.22.  and  T h i s i s not  duration  for  findings  only, a small inter-subject  for duration.  a test  cries  Lane s t u d y ,  age  non-cries are mutually  two  one  set of  study,  were 443  Hz  r e p o r t e d an  values  the  over-  and  o f t h e means were initial  of  4l4  less decrease  139  in F  o  from b i r t h to 3 weeks f o l l o w e d by a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e  which s t a b i l i z e d at about 8 weeks ( c f . Table 4.1).  This trend  i s not supported by  the c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s , i n which r e g r e s s i o n s  for  vary from s u b j e c t to s u b j e c t , both  the means of F  Q  i f i c a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . and F  E-P  i n the present  decreased  Significant  r e g r e s s i o n s f o r B-P,  w i t h age f o r each of these p o i n t s .  both present study and  (two-thirds of the p o i n t s w i t h i n  This value i s not e n t i r e l y d i s c r e p a n t w i t h  that of the present ca.  Between-  r e p o r t e d by Sheppard and Lane to be  over age a t 40 Hz  of the mean).  measured i n  i n that of Sheppard and Lane.  u t t e r a n c e v a r i a t i o n was  10%  M-P,  study were n e g a t i v e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  Between- and w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e v a r i a t i o n was  constant  i n sign-  study  i n which there was  25-100 Hz w i t h a u n i m o d a l i t y at 40 Hz.  v a r i a t i o n as measured by  the c o e f f i c i e n t  v a r i a t i o n from Within-utterance  of v a r i a t i o n Sheppard  and Lane a g a i n noted  to be constant a t ko Hz.  study, v a r i a t i o n was  measured by range  between maximum and minimum F ). o  the d i f f e r e n c e  For f i v e out of s i x Ss, mean —  range v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y over age — a positive direction.  (i.e.,  In the c u r r e n t  3  f o r f o u r of these, i n  Furthermore, the v a r i a n c e s of  mean ranges were not homogeneous among Ss.  Since  different  measures of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e v a r i a t i o n are used, the f i n d i n g s cannot be f a i r l y  these  or l e g i t i m a t e l y c o n t r a s t e d .  two  140  In summary, i t appears that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the methodologies f o r the c u r r e n t Lane (1968) may duration.  study and  that of Sheppard  yield far less similar results for F  With r e s p e c t  to the  HSckert et a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  ( 1 9 6 7 ) and  of the Kim  of most p l e a s u r e colleagues 4.23.  ( 1 9 6 8 ) review.  The  s i g n a l s reported  Context c o n t r a s t s  because  r e l a x a t i o n of  of u t t e r a n c e s  data,  pattern  by Wasz-Hflckert and  the present  the  expected i n  rising-falling  his  findings.  (Hotellings s T 1  2  tests)  authors have s t a t e d that an i n f a n t communicates  through the medium of i n t o n a t i o n , a p r o s o d i c Kaplan,  falls,  Q  supported, as would be  i s a l s o supported by  Several  general  F  From a q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r a i s a l of the present  t h i s view appears to be light  and  Wasz-  that f o r i n f a n t s ,  of most u t t e r a n c e s  of reduced s u b - g l o t t a l p r e s s u r e vocal f o l d s .  utterances,  Q  Lieberman claimed  as f o r a d u l t s , at the end  than f o r  Q  F - c o n t o u r of i n f a n t  comparisons can be drawn w i t h Lieberman  and  (1970) reported  f e a t u r e of speech.  that c a r i d a c v a r i a b i l i t y  increased  when i n f a n t s as young as k months were exposed to a sudden s w i t c h between a d u l t male and suggested that the Lieberman of age  i n f a n t s had  ( 1 9 6 7 ) claimed  female recorded perceived  that two  accommodated t h e i r mean F  t h e i r f a t h e r or mother.  Q  v o i c e s , which  the d i f f e r e n c e .  i n f a n t s of 10 and  13 months  to correspond to that  Rough i m i t a t i o n of the  of  'intonational  p a t t e r n of the speaker's i n t e r j e c t i o n or e x p r e s s i o n  of d e l i g h t '  141  at k months was  noted by B e r r y  Weir ( 1 9 6 6 )  (1969);  had  expressed a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n . In the present study, the i n f a n t s ' F^ i n d i f f e r e n t u a t i o n s was  compared by H o t e l l i n g ' s T  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  reached  tests,  The  l e v e l of  i n 15 out of 80 t e s t s and  appeared  2  to be n e i t h e r random f o r age nor f o r §_t  10 of the  compared w i t h a t l e a s t 10 weeks f o r the o t h e r s . these r e s u l t s  that i n f a n t s of a c e r t a i n  i n s i t u a t i o n or v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n , but  Q  to changes  that they do not do  The present f i n d i n g s do not, then,  i v e l y c o n f i r m nor r e f u t e those of Kaplan and Weir  I t appears  developmental  age are capable of responding by v a r i a t i o n i n F  consistently.  signif-  these as e a r l y as 7 weeks,  i c a n t c o n t r a s t s were f o r JLR and  from  sit-  so  definit-  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Berry  (1969),  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , a l t h o u g h they c o n f i r m the need f o r f u t u r e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s aspect of i n f a n t The k i n d of a l t e r a t i o n of F  was  behaviour. not c o n s i s t e n t i n a l l  o contexts.  However, c o n t r a r y to Lieberman's  (1967) claim, i t  can be noted that i n f a n t s up to k months of age d i d not accommodate t h e i r F  q  to correspond more c l o s e l y w i t h that  of an a d u l t male vs an a d u l t female. were made which c o u l d be r e l a t e d (1971)  Certain  alterations  to the o b s e r v a t i o n s of White  that by 4 months i n f a n t s have a h i g h l y  v i s u a l awareness — of a moderately  and of Kagan (1970) —  novel stimulus may  result  developed  that p e r c e p t i o n i n heightened motor  142  activity.  In s i g n i f i c a n t  within-utterance  contrasts  to S_ x S+O, a g r e a t e r mean  range o f t e n accounted f o r the  which suggests that an object may have e l i c i t e d  difference,  qua novel or f a m i l i a r  stimulus  a g e n e r a l l y more v a r i e d u t t e r a n c e .  Similarly,  when the contexts of S+>1 x S+F and S+M x S+E were c o n t r a s t e d , the g r e a t e r w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e  range,  as w e l l as the  greater  mean maximum F , were noted f o r the c o n t e x t s S+F and S+E, o irrespective  of the sex  fathers  were g e n e r a l l y  mother,  the  of the a d u l t . less f a m i l i a r  to the c h i l d than h i s  second a d u l t may have acted as a novel  which induced heightened  motor a c t i v i t y  v a r i e d and h i g h e r - p i t c h e d u t t e r a n c e s . remains ambiguous, trasts  Since both JE and the  since  stimulus  i n the form of more However, t h i s  trend  the only a l t e r a t i o n common to c o n -  between S_ and S+A was the occurrence of the mean min-  imum F stimulus  i n the group S+A.  In t h i s  case,  may have induced a l o w e r i n g of motor  Subjectively,  a t i o n of v o c a l i z a t i o n ; of Turnure  adult voice  resulted  The d i f f i c u l t y results  to a stimulus i n motor  this  times a c e s s -  the p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n g e n e r a l motor q u i e t i n g of this  the c o n t r o v e r s y  i n Chapter 1:  i s s u e from the  to  the  of a recorded the  infants.  present  i n s t u d i e s of i n f a n t  i.e.,  — motor a c t i v i t y ,  activity.  caused at  speech  o b s e r v a t i o n might r e l a t e  (1971) that  in clarifying  reflects  tion discussed  activity.  i t was noted by the author that a d u l t  or the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new o b j e c t  findings  the a d u l t qua novel  what c o n s t i t u t e s a  percepresponse  motor q u i e t i n g or mere change  143  4.3.  R e l a t i o n of p e r c e p t u a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l data to q u a n t i tative  4.31.  findings  Outstanding s u b j e c t In the sample  of s i x S s, JLR was o u t s t a n d i n g b o t h i n  amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n and numbers of t e s t s which reached the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . data may c l a r i f y  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c e r t a i n b i o g r a p h i c a l  this situation.  On the f i r s t B a y l e y t e s t  a t 3 . 5 months, JLR was the only S to perform above her age l e v e l , r e a c h i n g a 5 month l e v e l on psychomotor month l e v e l on mental development  tasks  tasks and a 4 -  ( c f . lable 2 . 2 ) .  Moreover, her environment was notably s t i m u l a t i n g from the p o i n t of view of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h her parents.  These f a c t o r s undoubtedly enhanced  her development,  and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r her to perform a t a more level  than the o t h e r Ss.  advanced  One might a t t r i b u t e the v o c a l  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to environment as an outcome of her advanced development. 4.32.  D i s c u s s i o n of s p e c i f i c  findings.  As noted i n Chapter 3» Ss d i f f e r e d g e n e r a l l y i n amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n .  Whereas JLR produced the g r e a t e s t number of  u t t e r a n c e s , CAB produced the l e a s t , r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g . Since CAB developed a t a slower pace, as measured by the Bayley  144  Scales  of Infant Development  such e f f e c t e d  (1969).  It i s c o n c e i v a b l e  a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to v o c a l i z e .  In none of the t e s t s performed, were r e s u l t s f o r a l l S s , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l comparisons y i e l d e d results  that  f o r f o u r or f i v e  the e x p o n e n t i a l  of the s i x S s .  significant significant  One such example was  i n c r e a s e i n d u r a t i o n f o r a l l S but MJK.  Since M J K was the i n f a n t w i t h g r e a t e s t b i r t h w e i g h t ,  i t could  be p o s t u l a t e d that he was p h y s i c a l l y capable of p r o d u c i n g " utterances  of more v a r i e d and l o n g e r d u r a t i o n s at an e a r l i e r  age than the other S s .  However, t h i s  remains u n c l e a r ,  since  the h i g h l y s t i m u l a t i n g environment of M J K may a l s o have i n fluenced this behaviour. A f u r t h e r t e s t of d u r a t i o n — the Students*  t-test for  u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one vd two M-P - - y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t  results  f o r a l l but CAB, and i n d i c a t e d that u t t e r a n c e s w i t h two M-P were g e n e r a l l y l o n g e r .  For CAB, i t must be noted that  were o n l y nine examples  of u t t e r a n c e s  w i t h two M - P , compared  w i t h 187 w i t h one M - P ;  i n this case,  the s m a l l number of  o b s e r v a t i o n s may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e haviour.  there  of CAB's g e n e r a l b e -  Since CAB was i n f a c t a p i l o t  subject,  i t could also  be that measurement techniques were not h i g h l y r e f i n e d at the time the spectrograms were measured; have been b i a s e d by measurement  i.e.,  the r e s u l t s may  error.  A t h i r d i n s t a n c e where s i g n i f i c a n c e was obtained f o r a l l but  145  one B was range, jectively, reflect  i.e.,  almost monotone  expressed  JLR was not unique i n t h i s  i n a r a m b l i n g mon-  respect,  but the abundance  of monotone v o c a l i z a t i o n s more s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e s subjective  i m p r e s s i o n of  Inter-subject  regressions  v a r i a b i l i t y was noteworthy from other  were p o s i t i v e  f o r example,  i n slope,  sounds d u r i n g e a r l y r e c o r d i n g s , in pitch;  The others  l y seldom, compared w i t h DAE.  squealed a l s o ,  but r e l a t i v e of range  A t - t e s t comparison of range  w i t h one vs two M-P r e v e a l e d that f o r DAE o n l y ,  range was independent i n the u t t e r a n c e .  independent  i n which there were  In two f u r t h e r t e s t s  DAE d i f f e r e d from the other S s .  utterances  number of  there c o u l d only be i n t e r p r e t e d as  experimentations.  for utterances  significant  significantly  As noted i n Table 2.10, DAE made a g r e a t  large glides vocal  four  points  i n d i c a t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n  range w i t h age, but f o r DAE, range decreased  'squealing*  the  contentment.  of view f o r r e g r e s s i o n of range;  w i t h age.  Sub-  i t was noted by E that her behaviour appeared to  a g e n e r a l comfort s t a t e ,  ologue.  ( c f . Table 2.9).  of the number of M-P (or f l u c t u a t i o n )  In a r e g r e s s i o n of range on d u r a t i o n f o r  w i t h two M - P , i t was evident of d u r a t i o n .  that  range was a l s o  However, i n u t t e r a n c e s  w i t h one M-P  DAE was s i m i l a r to other Ss, where range was a f u n c t i o n of duration.  These r e s u l t s  may r e f l e c t  i n the e a r l y r e c o r d i n g s mentioned  the v o c a l  above.  experimentation  146  The  i n t e r a c t i o n of d u r a t i o n and  inter-subject v a r i a b i l i t y ; s i s t e n c y i n t h i s regard.  MJK  and AMG  For MJK,  t r u e f o r AMG.  demonstrated  range was  d u r a t i o n only i n u t t e r a n c e s w i t h two was  range r e v e a l e d other  M-P,  a f u n c t i o n of  whereas the r e v e r s e  These r e s u l t s add another  infant vocal production.  Although  incon-  dimension  to  i n f a n t s g e n e r a l l y demon-  s t r a t e d the dependency of frequency  range on f l u c t u a t i o n  and  d u r a t i o n of the u t t e r a n c e , i t i s a l s o apparent  that such a  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not a necessary  DAE,  should have been d i f f e r e n t biographical  one.  Why  MJK,  i s not immediately  and  AMG  e v i d e n t from  data.  In t e s t s of F , Q  there was  These r e g r e s s i o n s of F  much i n t e r - s u b j e c t  variability.  on age which were s i g n i f i c a n t were not o  n e c e s s a r i l y of the same measured p o i n t . of these s i g n i f i c a n t CAB.  r e g r e s s i o n s was  However, the s l o p e  n e g a t i v e f o r a l l Ss but  There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s  erence;  (1) CAB  produced more h i g h e r - p i t c h e d laughs  on the l a t e r r e c o r d i n g ;  CAB  truly was  slower  produced as t y p i c a l a p a t t e r n . c o n t r a s t between CAB The  the data may  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of her v o c a l b e h a v i o u r ) ; developmentally  and  and  (2) there were fewer data p o i n t s  over a g r e a t e r number of r e c o r d i n g s , ( i . e . , be  diff-  JLR,  and  squ-eals spread not  (3)  than the others and may  not have  Once a g a i n , there i s a notable the most advanced  infant.  other major group of t e s t s i n v o l v i n g F was the 2 Hotelling^ T t e s t s of u t t e r a n c e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s , f o r Q  147  which most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s  were noted f o r JLR  which none were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r AMG.  Possible  JLR's s u p e r i o r i t y have been d i s c u s s e d . 80  t e s t s were performed f o r AMG,  for non-significant  and  for  reasons f o r  Since only 6 out  l a c k of data may  of  have accounted  r e s u l t s obtained.  C e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s among Ss which have f o r i n f a n t s o c i a l behaviour can be  implications  found from a r e l a t i o n of  amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n , c o n t e x t c o n t r a s t s ,  and  biographical  data•. CAB:  No  particular biographical  for recording-to-recording  information  variability  a t i o n i n the context of S+A,  appears to account  i n amount of v o c a l i z -  S or S+0.  The  recording  at  18  weeks i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n c e i t c o n s i s t s almost e n t i r e l y of squeals u t t e r e d w h i l e f i x a t e d on her Hotelling's T  2  and  a subjective  affirmed  t e s t of S+O  x S+M r e v e a l e d  d i d not  ful  to an animate o b j e c t .  blanket.  no d i f f e r e n c e i n  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t , at l e a s t  to F o , CAB object  variegated  22 weeks f o r the c o n t r a s t s  of S+M  same was  x S+O.  The  a l s o r e f l e c t a growing awareness of her  color-  true at l 6  and  f a c t that a f t e r  14- weeks, there were more v o c a l i z a t i o n s i n c o n t e x t of an may  Q  according  s h i f t her a t t e n t i o n from inanimate but The  F  object,  immediate p h y s i c a l  environment. AMG;  This  an a d u l t . when l e f t  subject The  v o c a l i z e d more f r e q u e n t l y  recording  alone than w i t h  at 7 weeks showed p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t ,  alone i n her c r i b w i t h i t s mobile, she  vocalized  148  almost c o n t i n u o u s l y . be  Her  behaviour i n t h i s regard  s i m i l a r to that of CAB  JLR:  Compared w i t h the  mentioned above.  other c h i l d r e n , JLR  more i n the context of an o b j e c t . T  2  t e s t s more o f t e n r e v e a l e d  utterances generally  of S vs S+O less adult  r e l a t e d by that  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  than S vs S+A.  other f i v e .  the h y p o t h e s i s put  i n f a n t s who  are  v o c a l i z e d much  As a r e s u l t , H o t e l l i n g ' s  Furthermore, there  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n her  than i n those f o r the  appears to  recording  These two  forward by  extremely v o c a l do  not  sessions  f a c t s could  Jones and elicit  was  be  Moss (1971) as much  maternal speech as q u i e t e r i n f a n t s , s i n c e t h e i r v o c a l i z a t i o n s do  not  could  serve as novel s t i m u l i f o r the mother. a l s o be  The  inverse,  i n f e r r e d from the present f i n d i n g s w i t h  to the m o t h e r - c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n of AMR,  respect  the d e s c r i p t i o n of which  follows t AMRt  Very few  weeks and mother.  I t was  noted i n Table 2.8  these r e c o r d i n g s ,  over the c h i l d . i t was  vocalization.  that AMR * s mother was  so much so that she  When, f o r the f i n a l decided to leave  w i t h i t s mobile, there was  but  i n the  early  these were, f o r the most p a r t , i n c o n t e x t of h i s  t a l k a t i v e on  series,  v o c a l i z a t i o n s were recorded f o r AMR  This was  i t r e i n f o r c e s the  session  the c h i l d alone i n h i s  a tremendous i n c r e a s e  probably due  theory that  n e c e s s a r i l y s o c i a l , but  recording  often  i n part  of  very spoke the  crib  i n amount of  to m a t u r a t i o n ,  e a r l y v o c a l behaviour i s not  egocentric.  149  DAEi  No trends were evident  MJK:  On the e a r l y r e c o r d i n g s ,  egocentric. stead  Adult  i n the context  c o n t r a s t s f o r DAE  v o c a l behaviour seemed to be  speech tended to induce smile responses i n -  of the d e s i r e d v o c a l response  on the l a t e r r e c o r d i n g s ,  ( c f . Table 2.11).  However,  p a r t i c u l a r l y at l 6 weeks, the i n f a n t  responded v o c a l l y and f r e q u e n t l y to maternal speech.  Develop-  mental o r as y e t undetermined s o c i a l f a c t o r s may have i n f l u e n c e d t h i s change. 4.4.  Implications  4.4l.  f o r theory  and f u t u r e  research  Produc t i o n The  data  c o l l e c t e d was of the i n f a n t s ' v o c a l  production  i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environment from the age of 5-l6 weeks. quently,  Conse-  most t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s concern t h i s aspect of  the communication  process.  Of a l l the a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s of v o c a l i z a t i o n s examined i n the present  study, d u r a t i o n appeared to y i e l d  s i s t e n t r e s u l t s among Ss. creased  For f i v e of the s i x c h i l d r e n , i t i n -  e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h age.  development probably  as the c h i l d ' s  c a p a c i t y develops, he becomes capable  of s u s t a i n i n g longer non-crying anatomical  Anatomical and p h y s i o l o g i c a l  i n f l u e n c e d t h i s phenomenon;  v o c a l t r a c t and l i n g u i s t i c  the most con-  utterances.  Constraints  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l nature probably  d i f f e r e n c e s i n d u r a t i o n of u t t e r a n c e s  with  of an  account a l s o f o r the  one M-P and two M-P  150  as w e l l as f o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e g r e s s i o n s of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range on d u r a t i o n .  W i t h i n a l o n g e r u t t e r a n c e , the c h i l d  more o p p o r t u n i t y to vary the fundamental frequency both i n amount of f l u c t u a t i o n  (number of M-P)  and  (F ) Q  has contour,  range.  An  e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n d u r a t i o n i m p l i e s f u r t h e r that w i t h  age  the c h i l d produces u t t e r a n c e s more v a r i e d i n d u r a t i o n . Again, p h y s i c a l growth probably p l a y s a r o l e i n e f f e c t i n g t h i s change, but  the change may  interest  a l s o r e f l e c t a growing c a p a c i t y f o r and  i n phonatory  ( 1 9 6 6 ) and Berry  experimentation, as d i s c u s s e d by Fry  (1969).  More p r e c i s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  anat-  omical data would p r o v i d e a measure by which to separate i n p a r t p h y s i o l o g i c a l from  psychological factors.  c o u l d a l s o g e n e r a l l y account a s p e c t s of F  analyzed.  o  f o r the v a r i a b i l i t y  at l e a s t  Q  M-P,  and  Compared to d u r a t i o n , F  E-P.  Q  u n r e s t r a i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t to anatomical and constraints.  i n the v a r i o u s  The present data i n d i c a t e that there  are no notable trends f o r development of F , to B-P,  Experimentation  according  is relatively  physiological  Exceptions are shown p o s s i b l y by:  ( 1 ) the  of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range f o r u t t e r a n c e s w i t h one and  t-tests  two  M-P,  i n that u t t e r a n c e s w i t h more f l u c t u a t i o n a l s o have a g r e a t e r w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range; may  be r e l a t e d  to the  and  (2)  the f a l l i n g  'breath-group'  h y p o t h e s i s of Lieberman  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , but, i n any case, i s probably due v o c a l f o l d s and  reduced  a n a l y s i s of F - c o n t o u r Q  to a r e l a x a t i o n of  sub-glottal pressure. than was  F -contours, which o  A more e x t e n s i v e  p o s s i b l e i n the c o n f i n e s of  study, a l o n g w i t h anatomical and p h y s i o l o g i c a l data might further elucidate this  issue.  this  151  G e n e r a l l y , however, a c h i l d over a wide frequency  range,  DAE  i s capable and  of v o c a l i z i n g  CAB,  f o r example, d u r i n g  c e r t a i n r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n s , used h i g h - p i t c h e d squeals themselves, a l t h o u g h  t h i s was  d u r i n g other s e s s i o n s .  not a common mode of  expression  capable  of  that k i n d of e x p r e s s i o n when the s i t u a t i o n changed weeks, changing from a monotone w h i l e  age  The  the c a p a c i t y f o r experimentation  becoming capable  of producing  (i.e., l6  on the t a b l e  increase i n within-utterance  f o r f o u r of the s i x S_s f u r t h e r supports  w i t h age  altering  i n her c r i b watching  to a h i g h l y v a r i e d p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e  b e i n g changed.)  express  More o f t e n than the o t h e r s , JLR v o c a l -  i z e d i n a low-pitched montone, y e t she was  mobiles,  to  range w i t h  the h y p o t h e s i s  develops,  the  that  child  a wide range of f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h i n  the bounds of one e x p i r a t i o n . h,k2,  P r o d u c t i o n and Utterances  i n two  ways:  S, S+A,  and  perception:  Context  contrasts  were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to context  and  studied  (a) a c c o r d i n g to amount of v o c a l i z a t i o n i n c o n t e x t s S+O  ( F i g u r e 3.11  - 3 . l 6 ) , and  t e s t s of c o n t e x t c o n t r a s t s (Tables J.k appeared from the f i r s t i n the c o n t e x t s  S and  study  S+O  than  (2) H o t e l l i n g ' s T  - 3.9).  It generally  that c h i l d r e n v o c a l i z e d more o f t e n i n the context  S+A.  that much of e a r l y v o c a l p r o d u c t i o n i s e g o c e n t r i c and/or r e f l e c t s  2  This  suggests  behaviour  the i n f a n t s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s immediate p h y s i c a l  environment, i . e . , what he p e r c e i v e s v i s u a l l y and  tactually.  152  Piaget's  concept of e a r l y sensorimotor i n t e l l i g e n c e would  appear to be  supported from t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n .  the l a r g e percentage Hotelling's T  2  (80) of n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s f o r the  t e s t s would a f f i r m that the c h i l d r e n do  o f t e n respond d i f f e r e n t l y by  F  Q  to what they may  p e r c e i v e as a change i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  the most advanced S, JLR,  d i f f e r e n t l y by  F  not  or may  not  However, the  that there were s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s at a l l , and for  Furthermore,  fact  particularly  that the c h i l d r e n c o u l d  to t h e i r environment on o c c a s i o n .  respond Their  o  response i m p l i e s a l i n k between p e r c e p t i o n and The  k i n d of v o c a l p r o d u c t i o n ,  may  be,  i n f a c t , a mere h e i g h t e n i n g  perception it  as d e s c r i b e d  of a novel  stimulus.  i s not p o s s i b l e to s p e c u l a t e  of motor a c t i v i t y  as to the m o d a l i t y  4.5»  of percep-  l i n k may  as c a r r i e r s  of  reinoperative  information.  Summary Non-crying u t t e r a n c e s  in  upon  production.  that supra-segmental f e a t u r e s are y e a r of l i f e  4.23,  With the data a v a i l a b l e ,  However, the apparent p e r c e p t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n  e a r l y i n the f i r s t  production.  i n Section  t i o n which most i n f l u e n c e s the changein v o c a l  f o r c e the theory  vocal  of 5-  to l6-week-old i n f a n t s  t h e i r environments were analyzed  amental frequency performed were:  ( F ) and Q  duration.  s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a l l y f o r fundThe  three major  ( r e g r e s s i o n s of a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s on  (2) R e l a t i o n s h i p of F  and  recorded  d u r a t i o n , and  analyses age,  (3) c o n t r a s t s of  the  153  c h i l d ' s vocalizations i n d i f f e r e n t contexts. Not ical  a l l regressions  of a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e s  age were s i g n i f i c a n t .  Two s i g n i f i c a n t  on c h r o n o l o g -  t r e n d s , however  were: (1)  the e x p o n e n t i a l  increase  (2) the l i n e a r i n c r e a s e  of d u r a t i o n  on age, and  of w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e  range on age.  With c h r o n o l o g i c a l age as a b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s , i n t e r - s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y was noted even f o r these t r e n d s . and  perceptual  data are used q u a l i t a t i v e l y  Biographical  to suggest reasons  f o r both i n t e r - and i n t r a - s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y .  Since  develop-  ment i s not a completely uniform process w i t h i n and among c h i l d r e n , and s i n c e each c h i l d ' s environment i s d i f f e r e n t ,  it  would f o l l o w that developmental and s o c i a l data p r o v i d e a f i r m e r b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s than c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  The r e s u l t  that c h i l d r e n of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age v o c a l i z e d e n t l y simply  by number of u t t e r a n c e s  differ-  f u r t h e r supports the need  f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e developmental and s o c i a l data as c r i t e r i a f o r analysis. The  i n t e r a c t i o n of F  q  and d u r a t i o n  showed g e n e r a l l y  that  frequency range was dependent on f l u c t u a t i o n and d u r a t i o n of utterance.  A more complex a n a l y s i s of the F - c o n t o u r than o  can be p r o v i d e d  s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a l l y might y i e l d more  information  about t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n data from c h i l d r e n of the same developmental age.  154  The  child's  vocal interaction  w i t h h i s environment was  s t u d i e d both q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . count of the number of u t t e r a n c e s i n d i f f e r e n t that most c h i l d r e n  vocalized  A frequency contexts  revealed  more alone or w i t h an o b j e c t  than  w i t h a person. Hotelling's  T  2  tests  of the F  i n different  c o n t e x t s showed  o that most f r e q u e n t l y , the c h i l d r e n  d i d not a l t e r the F -  c o n t o u r or w i t h i n - u t t e r a n c e range as a response to d i f f e r e n t situations.  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New York:  APPENDIX A INTRA-OBSERVER RELIABILITY FOR FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: BEGINNING-POINT (CAB) -1 316 Hz.  -2 326 Hz.  300  298  344  352  364  366 312  310 356  356  284  288  198  204  474  466  338  338  126  124  446 382 544  470 382 560  478 242 376  492 240 376  410" 350  404 352  6638  6706 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  Source  df  ss  Between utterances  121.68  Within utterances  3.6895xl0  36  Total  3.6907xl0  37  1 5  5  162  MS 121.68 10,249.  F 0.01  APPENDIX B LINEAR REGRESSIONS OF LOG OF DURATION ON AGE e (y = e  )  y = Log of duration Ccsec), e  x = Age (wks)  The following figures represent xerox reductions of computer printout. At the top of each figure are listed the constant a, the coefficient b, and the F-probability. The "."and "*" are used to plot the regression lines, "*" being used when a plot point covers data points. Integers (I) represent approximately 2 x 1 data points; 0 represents 1 or no data points; A represents 20 or more data points. I f 'D-01' follows any number in the printout, that number must be divided by ten. Figure B.l: CAB Figure B.2: AMG Figure B.3: AMR Figure B.4: JLR Figure B.5: DAE Figure B.6: MJK  163  rigure B . l . Regression o f L o g of Duration.on Ago: GAB T.CP " IM) 'CONST CO Cr F FKATIo"" FPR.0B STU I'RR ' STD FPR " ' S T C ERR ~ " RSO VAR VAR A B (P) (HI (A) (F< I (Y) IOG OUR AGE 2.795 O.^ebD-Ol 2 2 . 33 C.0O0P 0.1591 0 . 1032C-01 C.7060 n.1073 THE « . » AND • • * " ARE USEC TC PLOT THE RECK ESS ION L I N E ; THE " • " I S USED WHEN A HLCT P C I M CCVERS DA TA POINTS a  5.70C  1.900 CD  2.1  1  CO  . 2 0  miiiiiinn 5. C C ) -  C I S T A N C C  / J/////J/I mi 7 B E T W E E N  8  III I\I \IIII ii ii i\ \i i III 111\ n\i inn \n  H.«C")  S L A S H E S  (INTHC  1 0 X - A X I S  1 1 . 8 0 I S  m  C . 1 7 0 0  x = AGE (wks)  1 5 . 2 0 1 6  II i\ui i A IIIM miiiSi 1 8  1 8 . 6 0 2 0  i  II ni II in 2 2 .  _ O  E  P  VAR  NO  CCNST  THE  ACF " . "  5.100  REPRESENTS  "  1  /  1  OR  TO- P L O T ANO 9 ,  FEWER  B.2.^Regression  FKATIO  LINE:  ST C  IS 2*1  REPRESENTS  20  USED  CATA  AM3 EH R  S T C EPR  {H )  0.1390  THE  APPROXIMATELY "A"  on Age:  (A>  C.OOOf)  THE R E G R E S S I O N POINTS;  of Duration "STO E'R  (R)  4 1 . 4 3  REPRESENTS  DATA  oi_Log_  FPRGO  (R)  C.77070-01  ARE USED  "I",BETWEEN  INTEGER  _»0"  '  B  2.524 ANO " • "  Figure  COEFF  A  V A R  LCGOIH AN  _ I  WHFN  A  PL TT  R SO  (Y)  0.11S7D-C1  C.72A8  161ft  F C I NT . C X V E R S  DATA  POINTS  POINTS  OR M O R E  DATA  POINTS 0  y = 2.524  +  •  f-.KV  0.07702X  ' . ' 3 1 4.our 4.SO"  0 0 0 >  o  4.75!  o  4. 6*1 r-  t . t K  r* 3  r.  4 . A 7:  1 C  n r.  4. 4 r c 4..->->:  0  1  3  I 1  c /  .  ! !  4.s?r  1 1  /  1  ! ;  j  4 . ? Ai. 4. 1  i  4 . 1 2 '  ;  i  <>. /  0  /  0  I I  / 3.70C  8  M  o o  0 1  3 0  4  / / /  z  •  -  0  0  0  I  •»  1 0  c  1  1  3 . 4'">  •  ? . 77.-  2.  2  l  0  1  l  c  2  0  0  2  3 . OK"-  !  J  i  3.7.-C  ;  3.03"  ;  3 . 4 or  /  1  2  /  0  4  0  3 .4?i" 3 . 3«r3.2F."' 3.14.'.  3.C00  -  0  .  5  3  1  2  1  3 . " 7'-. i . r n r  2.'-)3r  >>  I  2. 2.79-' /  1  4  0  0  1  2. 720 2 . 3  ;  2 . * IC2.44^  !  2.37:^ 2.300  -  1  3  2  5  ',  2." o 2. - V  ; 1  l.=»f'"  '  d  ',  i . ? i 1 . 7 4 .•  /  i i/\//ii/////\//////i\/\ //////i//\i//n\///\/i/////n\  -  !  2.231 I'.lfr-"  / /  1.6C0  2.3:r  1  5.000 DISTANCE  3  BETWEEN  7 7.200 S L A S H E S ON TFE  1.--7' 0  f l  X-AXIS  9 IS  9.4C0 n .1 i o n  II  mini\iiitiiIInii  x = AGE (wks)  11.60  •  IIIIIIn  i/i/II 13.8.'  inillll/lll/\ 15  1 6 .  1.6CC  Figure B.3. Regression of U>£L of Duration oh Age AMR CN S T s i n r <R " ~ " s T h YKR CnFfF fKAIIC fPHOn STD B'R A B (rl) (B) (A) (KI (Y| VAR VAR 1 .991 0.1208 £2.57 O.i'iOOn 0. 2UH2 0. 15270-C1 C.7in;j LOGCUR AGE " APF USED Tfl PLOT THC REGRESSION L I N E ; THF " » " IS USED WHEN A PLOT POINT C.OVFRS AND ANTHEINTEGER "I",BETWEEN 1 ANO 9 , REPRESENTS APPROXIMATELY 3*1 DATA POINTS " 0 " REPRE SENTS 1 OR FFV.ER DATA POINTS; " A " REPRESENTS 29 DP MORE DATA POINTS or  P  C  i w  r  y = 1.991 + 0.1208X  1 i ;  4.7C0  1 i i 1  a  1  3  !  fi •H  < !  <  3 3 4 2 2  0 0 0 1 1  3.900  0  1 0  i  1  0  0  3  ^  !  ><  "3.100  /  1  2  • •  >  r  . 1  4  re  4 . i' (•: 4 . rK. 4.1 ? l '..•3'..  4  .4  t,. 4.1'.''  3 .IK!  4 «  3 . 9 1..-2C 3 . 74(' «. r.r-  7  l  «  0  1  2  1  6  6  m l  '. . 3 ^ i . 4 .?.?.  1  r  r  A  . ^ Hi *.  v-i'f  * ?f 3.341. 3.  •> . .'(.-!•  3 . I «••>  / 1  4  / 1  l  2  2  3  - 1  l  1  2  2  j i  3 . •>. ''?<• 7. " 4 f 2 . "W 2.7H" 2 . 70,-" '?.('?••• 2.S4. 2 . 4 of .'. 3 0 2 . 3Of .-.??'• 2.1 4 f " 2 . ^60 1. T' 1 .'VK 1. « 2 ' 1.740 t.'-r. v  1 j '  '.,?t f  '>. 1 i>'  «;  •  •/  ; 1  2 3 2 1  0 1 1  ',  ;  ;  0  ;  r  1 r 1  0  i  .1 '2C NTS  0  i  1  I o<l[  2.300  ',  i  i  1 1  i 0  0  l 1.501  0  1 . «• !)•••  / / i ii ii ii 11 i\u i\ii 111 \ ii 111111 ni 111 ii 11 I\I i\u 111 ni 11 ti I\I I\I i n 1111 I\I 111 ii i n\i i ii1 .i5 nOf 11 \ a a 11 a i\  S.OOn 9 9.400 DISTANCE BETWEEN SLASHES ON THE X-AXIS  IS  10. 80 0.7000E-01  12 1 2 . 2 C  x = AGE (wks)  13.6"  1*.  CD CO  Figure  B.'l. Regression o f Logg o f D u r a t i o n o n A g e :  JLR  CONST "CYIEVE FRATIf) ' FOR On "~ST0 fc'RR~ S I [T F ' » p " ' S'TITFRR CC" IM) A B IB) I B ) <A» (B) t Y) VAR V AH 3.142 0.23670-01 7.345 1.1(169 0.1000 0.9735C-02 C..7340 LOGOUR AGO THE " NO • • • » A R E U S E C TO P L O T T H E R E C E S S I O N L I N E : THE « * » I S U S E D W H E N A P L C T P C I N T C E V F P S AN I N T E G E R " I " , B E T W E E N 1 AND 0 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3 * 1 CATA POINTS "0" RE PRE E N T S 1 OR FEWER D A T A P O I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S 2 9 OR MORF OA TA P O I N T S  FSO 1.1134 OAT A  PC I N T S  5.30C  5.  i . 2 2''  0 y  = 3.W2 +  '-.1  0.02367x  1 0  • 4. 4 4. '..  0  4.' '6' i: ji i i »2 ' 7 40  4 .(•*:. 4. 4.500  4 . 26.  4 . 4.  M -  1 1,' '•.<?/ \ . o 4*  3. t ' 6 i •3.7B' > , 7 V 1. 6 ' " '  3.700  3.f.4i  3  .46"  3 . 3 S;'"  3.3.''' 3.22^  Q  3.  O  1 4.;  3.: 6 3  •>. 'J V 2. 1 2.74'  2.900  2.  .-A'  2. i i " ' 2•*'V 3. 4 ? " 3 . 2*>  r  2. 1 2.  2.100  -i  <r  1 • >  ( >r»  1 . 4'' 1 . 3 6l 1 .7S' 1. 7 2 " Q  l.'.2<" I . * 41.46 ^  1 .300  1.3*3  i t\i 111 IIIII\II II 111\i \ 11 IIIIII I\IIII i\ii/t\ti 5.ICO DISTANCE  BETWEEN  7 7.200 S L A S H E S ON THE X - A X I S  9 IS  1  9.40 "0.1103  11.60 X =  . V I  IIII 11 I\I 111 IIII t\i 11111 ti I\III i it 11 i\\iit 11 m \ it n ti tin  1  AGE  (wks)  13.9)  l h .  cn  CFP V»U Lnr.r.ijP TK-  Figure B.5. Regression o f l o g I r:0 C O N S T " " C O EFT ' F P . ATIO H'Rnn" " VAP A R IB) ( 0) ACt 2.T40 . 0.5<) .6n-Cl 1 7 . «3 7 C.OOOl " . " AND ' • « " ARE I I S F H T O PLOT T H F R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; THE " * " r  o f D u r a t i o n o n A g e : DAE STI) l'RR ST 11 E R R ' " " " S T C F.PR (A) IK) (Y) O.1H00 0.140SC-CI O.tPh'i I S L S F P WHEN A P L C T P C I C T C C V F R S D A T A  _ RSC C.0R68 POINTS  5.2<-0 y  » 2.9t9  +  0.05956x  *i . 1 ?>•• S . ">4 0 4.060  4.H:»J 4. HO'' "  4.720 4.640 4. ^ 0 4 .4ir4.or. 4. 3?" 4.24C 4 . 1 60  4. 4C0  4. 0 31  4.P".'I 3."20 ».f>40  " 3.76<-' 3 . r , S O  5  3.601 3 . 2 0  3'. * C 0  g  3,440 3. 360 3 . 2  0  : '  3.20T 3.120 3.040 2 . ih: "  '  2.ion  >4 .  2 .H-V 2.7?o 2. '.4r 2 .560 2 . 2. 400 2 . )?o 2.240 1 (-0 2.0 2.000 1 . o 20  4H0  7.  2.CCO  HO  .*40  1 .200  //1 ii ii m 111 ii ii ii I\I i\ ii III in i \ in minx 5.'100 7 7.2(0 . P . ? S T A N C F J B F J WEEN. _S LA SHE S . . 0 N :  JHLJt  in i\ i in i n mm  i \mi 11 n /1 n\i u i i i M i m i III\ mini  11.AO  o.tftnio AX L L J . S . _ C . l . I C O x = AGE ( w k s )  1 1 . 760 1 .6R0 1. * o r 1 . " 0 1.440 '""I . 3 « C " 1 .2*0 1.200  13  13.80  )(., r o  ni  cn oo  Eigure  or.  p  /r, r  i c r r HP IHf-  "  Afj PIT  3.2^5  B.6. Regression o f Log o f Duration STO F K R Fi-pnit i A i ( H)  COEFF " -FUATIO l> IP) o.i', u u ) - r i ].<.••. 7  o n A g e : MJK 5 1 0 FRR (n )  STO ERR iY i  c.2 1 0 ) 1  0.1515 0.1159E-01 Akt- LSF.C K P I O T U i F R I G I ' I S S I CN I. I N F ; T h f " » " I S U S F n W H E N A P L t l P C I M ".rUTWFFN 1 A NO 0 . I t f P I ' F J E M < A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3*1 0 A T A P O I N T S 2 9 DU MIIP.F D A T A POINTS S 1 H P EF.WFR f.A T A P O I N T S ^ " A " R FPP F S T N T S  0.7068 COVERS  DATA  PSC 0.1061 POINTS  " 5 . U C  5 . 0 30 4 .'160 4 . <5'=0 4.R20 r 4 . 7 '0 4, 6P0 4.610 . '.AO 4 . 4 70 4 .400 4 . )1H 2' 0 4 . 1 •>-> 4.12C 4 . 0^0  0  y = 3.255 + 0.01W.6X  o  4  •3.«af 3.111 3. 1140 ' 3 . 770  3.700 3.630 3. .6C r  3.  40A 3. 4 2 0 3 . 3 5f 3. 2 10 3.210 3.140 3 . f 70 3 . 0 00 2 .-HO 2. °6( 2 . 7>51 2 . 720 2 . 6^0  CD CD  2."> r i,  2.510 2 . 440 2 . 3 70 2 .3 00 2 . 2 30 ' 2 . 1 60• " .» . 3 9 0 2. 0 2 0 1 .''50 1 .830 l.«IC 1 . 7 40 1 .670 1.6 00  i 1 I\I i II 11111 \ n 11 II 111\ II 1111\ i I\I i II 11111 \ 111 I\I 11 I\II 111111 I\I 11\ 11 II i\i •30 i\i II 11 I\I 11111 II ni 111111 0  n  5.nf'i SIAMCI;  'iriwFCII  7.?ro 8 S I . A I H I ' S CN T h E X - A X I S  IS  9 . 4 0 0 IOC C l l C O  11.60  x = AGE ( w k s )  13  13.«0  16.  APPENDIX C LOG  OF DURATION AND WITHIN-UTTERANCE RANGE: e BARTLETT'S TEST FOR HOMDGENETTY OF VARIANCE  When more than two independent estimates of variance exist, Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance has been used (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967, pp. 296-298). For samples of different sizes, the following formula is applied: M = (log 10)[ (EfJlog s - Efjlog s 2  2 i  J  where M = the test criterion log 10 = 2.3026 e s = Ef.s. /Ef. 6  2  2  ii  l  f = size of sample s  2  = variance  On the null hypothesis that each variance is a measure of the same a , the 2  quantity M/C is distributed approximately as X with 2  (a - 1) degrees of  freedom, where a = the number of samples, and C =1 +  — [E — - — J 3(a - 1) f. zf.  l  l  In the present study, this statistic was utilized to test the variances of log of duration and within-utterance range between children (cf. Sections e  3.1 and 3.2). Details of these calculations folia-/ in Table C.l. 170  171  TABLE C.l BARTLETT'S TEST FOR HOMOGENEITY OF VARIANCE  Sample  M  C  df  Loge of duration  1.53750  1.00159  4  1.53506  83.22807 1.00174 3  83.08315  &  Within-utterance range  X  2  x2  .95  x  .9999  9.488 21.108  APPENDIX D STUDENT'S t-TESTS OF DURATION AND WITHIN-UTTERANCE RANGE FOR UTTERANCES WITH ONE AND TWO MIDDLE-POINTS Student's t-tests are used to test whether two means are significantly different (i.e., derive from different populations). As outlined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 (pp. 89-107 )J  o n e  °f '^ computer t-test routines was wo  utilized to determine whether there was a significant difference between utterances with one M-P versus those with two, both for duration and within-utterance range: Formula (1) and Formula (3), as defined in Bjerring  and Seagraves (1971, pp. 80-83).  Formula (1) assumes only that the parent populations are normal. In Section 3.1, i t was noted that the t-value calculated i s i n fact t' as designated in Snedecor and Cochran (1967, pp. 114-116).  (la) t  (Xi - x )  f  where M = number of obser-  2  s  2  vations/sample  -)-  M  Mi  X = mean of a sample  2  s  2  - variance of a sample  (lb)  df  si Mi  2  + 2  Mi  M +  (Mi - 1)  —  (M - 1) 2  172  173  For the t'-value deterimjied, a probability level must also be calculated, according to the following procedure:  (lc)  t  l  + wt.  W j t i  =  2-  2  Wi  +  W  w=  where  2  M  2  ti = significance level for (M - 1) df a  t  2  - significance level for CM - 1) df 2  TormuLa C3) represents a more sensitive version of the first formula and is used when populations are heterogeneic for variance.  C3a).  t  CXj ^  s (Mj - Ds-i  +  2  ^2 ^  (M - D s 2  2 2  Mj + M - 2  M  C3B)  M  2  2  2  df s Mj + M - 2 2  Duration Ccf. Section 3.1) Tor a l l Ss but DAE, Formula Cl) was used to compare the means of duration of utterances with one and two M-P, A f u l l example of the calculation i s presented helow: CAB Cla)  .. t' ="  ^3.2086  - 101.111  1(39.6778) 187  _  C83.3583) 9  2  2  4-  5 7 < 9 0 1 1 +  27.9372  2.073  174  (83.3583) ' 2 9 J  K39.6778) 4r L 187 = "(39.6778) 2 187 J  2  2  (lb) df  (83.3583) ' 2 L 9  8.1754 = 8  74511.3706  2  2  8  186  (lc)  609158.5523  t'-probability at the .05 l e v e l t i = 2.576 w  t  (39.6778)  _  2  =  W 2  2  = 3.355 =  (83.3583)  187 t  i  _ /„/„2„. 0 6 /„3 n c  Q  9  [(8.4188) ( 2 . 5 7 6 ) : + [(772.0673) (3.355)].  =  •  2  (8.4188)  0 5  _  3  3 1 | 6 5  + (772.0673)  Since t ' i s less than the calculated p r o b a b i l i t y , the populations are not significantly different. For the Ss AMG, AMR, JLR, and MJK, calculation of t _ AMG:  t' •  A M  n n 1  Avm  +i  AMR:  t'  n  • JLR.  t  MJK*  t '  -  ,  n  X  •  [(3.2987) ( 3 . 2 9 1 ) ] + [(16.1598) ( 3 . 4 6 0 ) ] _ o  U  1  d..H_Lcs  o  (3.2987) + (16.1598)  U U 1  ' .001 =  i s provided below:  [(3.2314) ( 3 . 2 9 1 ) ] + [(57.6841) ( 3 . 8 8 3 ) 1 _ _ d.bblb (3.2314) + (57.6841)  =  =  1  [(1.1344) ( 3 . 2 9 1 ) ] + [(20.1572) ( 3 . 4 6 0 ) ] (1.1344) + (20.1572)  =  3  [(2.6678) ( 3 . 2 9 1 ) ] + [C26.5593) ( 3 . 5 5 D J _ .001  U  3  Q  2  5 2 ? 3  (2.6678) + (26.5593)  Calculation of t f o r HAE hys'Forxnula, 13)_ i s as. follows. (3a)  t = —  45.4790 - 89.5833  ;Q66) ( 3 3 . 4 3 4 1 ) ] + [(.23) 2  167  +  24  ^  2  =  (40.7782) ] 2  167  24  _  5 > 8 7 1 2  175 (3b) df = 167 + 24 - 2 = 189  £  < .001.  Within-utterance range (cf. Section 3.2) For DAE only, Formula (1) was u t i l i z e d to analyze the difference i n means f o r utterances with one vs two M-P with respect t o within-utterance range. DAE: (la)  (lb)  122.31 - 125.41  V =  3.10  74.7901) 24 _(74.790) 24 (74.790) 24  df  (140.415)  2  (140.415) 167  2  E  2  +  =  110649.1317 = 50.4116  2  2445.662  23  166 (lc)  = 0.165  18.7382  2  = 50  t ' probability at the .05 ..level t i = 1.98 w  2  t'  =  ( l l f 0  t , = 2.069  -. 167  4 1 5 ) 2  = 118.0621  W  2  =  w(74 t . / a790) u;  •= 233.0650  24  C(018.0621) CI.98) + 1(233.0650) (2.069)3  = 2,4544  C118.0621) + C233.0650)  "05  2  Thus, the samples are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different. One example of a Formula (3) calculation f o r within-utterance range i s as follows: CAB: (3a)  t =  •  8  7  -  6  8  9  8  .-V  1 5  "- . 8  8 9  •  .  :  rT(187 - 1) (86.0356) ] + [(9 - 1) (69.1094) ] 2 187 187 + 9 - 2 2  (3b)  df = 187 +  9  -  2 = 194  =2.305  2  Hence, p_ < .05  +  i-  APPENDIX E FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR BEGINNING-POINT, MIDDLE-POINT, END-POINT, AND DERIVED MEANS  TABLE E.l  Beginnixig-Point  TABLE E.2  Middle-Point  TABLE E.3  End-Point  TABLE E.4  Derived Means  176  TABLE E.l: BEGINNING-POINT (All values to nearest Hz ) Age Subject  Item  5  7  8  9  10  CAB  Mean  328  322  323  -  359  SD AMG AMR JLR  41  400  62  -  _a  _a  347  341  -  -  65  52  SD  393 84  400 113  Mean  319  334  357  SD  35  Mean SD  SD MJK  27  409  Mean  Mean  DAE  0  Mean SD  352  79  -  330  -  428  65  -  246  67  64  78  -  105  507 158 344 119  11  (in weeks) 12 13  -  363  382  355 82  55  -  67 383 65 ' -  160 329 110  15  16  333  —  66  -  -  368  382  67  85  330  -  60 406  326 43  14  -  342 64  386 68  348 166 373 99 323 91  18  20  687  5  262  51  82  -  -  -  Note: Except as noted, missing values indicated no recording session at age designated. For number of observations (N) for each child at each age level, refer to Table 3.1. a  Recording made, but no viable utterances produced.  22  360  TABLE E.2: MIDDLE-POINT (All values to nearest Hz )  Subject  Item  5  7  8  9  10  CAB  Mean SD  314  332  _  0  352 31  -  383 93  Mean  427  407  -  401  -  48  -  AMG AMR JLR  SD  34  64  -  Mean SD  _a  _a  356  -  -  Mean  411  419  SD DAE  Mean SD  MJK  40  Mean SD  71  88  128  -  341  377  -  70  161  -  -  442  359 54  —  224  369 52  -  Age 11  (in weeks) 12 13  373  -  393  402  372  366  47  87  324 70  -  459  -  -  220  -  351  401  -  -  71  183  —  —  -  -  -  79  -  -  -  —  229 366 103  —  27  59  -  623  15  380 41  —  337  -  14  —  61 339 67  16  18  20  22  441  716 264  442 54-  413  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  —  —  —  88 421 87 -  352 100 382 87 362 74  -  Note: Except as noted, missing values indicated no recording session at age designated. For number of observations (N) for each child at each age level, refer to Table 3.1 a  Recording made, but no viable utterances produced.  85 -  TABLE E.3: END-POINT (All values to nearest Hz)  Subject  Item  5  7  8  9  10  CAB  Mean  264  338  317  .  355  0  23  48  391  365  SD  51  Mean SD Mean  SD Mean  AMG AMR JLR  SD DAE  Mean SD  MJK  Mean SD  Age 11  97  (in weeks) 12 13  327  44  51  -  16  18  391  595  357  320  92  168  99  59  -  -  -  -  348  -  310  372  55  -  61  91  344  -  331  -  312 57  -  310 57  407  -  -  170  -  -  355 82  344  -  -  300  165  -  381  -  69  35  _a  _a  332  314  -  347  -  -  91  68  -  49  84  357  384  -  326  75  101  -  53  -  -  303  336 99  -  '-  -  -  501 164  -  -  350  -  329  -  -  94  -  -  96  333 37  15  365  -  36  14  306  - ;  64  52  72  -  -  20  22  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Note: Unless otherwise indicated, missing values represent times.when recordings were not made. For number of observations (N) for each child at each age level, refer to Table 3.1. a  Recording made, but no viable utterances produced.  TABLE E.4:  DERIVED MEANS  (All values to nearest Hz )  Subject  Item  5  7  8  CAB  Mean  302  341  324  0  13  38  413  •382  33  55  SD AMG AMR  Mean SD Mean  DAE  -  369 94  396  .-  46  -  347  348  -  -  66  49  Mean SD  392 76  407  339  Mean  326  356  -  61  116  -  -  546 163  345  -  415  -  348  SD MJK  —  10  -  SD JLR  -  9  Mean SD  45  91  —  183  62  -  86  Age 11 —  368 46  -  —  (in weeks) 12 13  14  372  351  40  32  356 77  -  -  323 51  379 49  16  18  _  413  -  71  680 218  15  366 53 341 43  -  397  -  75  -  -  -  342 87  -  374  433  -  184  -  -  78  -  335  —  —  330  366  41  151  64  -  20 425  375  56  65  -  -  -  -  -  -  —  Note: Except as noted, missing values indicated no recording session at age designated. a  22  For number of observations (N) for each child at each age level, refer to Table 3.1. Recording made, but no viable utterances produced.  -  —  APPENDIX F LINEAR REGRESSIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY ON AGE y = a + bx y = Fundamental frequency  (Hz),  x = Age (wks)  The following figures represent xerox reductions o f computer p r i n t out. At the top o f each f i g u r e are l i s t e d the constant, a, the c o e f f i c i e n t b, and the F - p r o b a b i l i t y . The "." and "*" are used t o p l o t the regression l i n e s , """ being used when a p l o t point covers data points. Integers (I) represent approximately  2 x 1 data points; 0 represents 1 o r no data points;  A represents 20 o r more data points. For each S_, regressions o f beginning-point, middle-point, and end-point as w e l l as the derived mean are p l o t t e d . Figures F . l - F.4: CAB Figures F.5 - F.8: AMG Figures F.9 - F.12: AMR Figures F.13 - F.16: JLR Figures F.17 - F.20: DAE Figures F.21 - F.24: MJK  181  Figure  nr p  i  V »0  V AP  BEGIN THE  C C N S T " " " c r i r F F  N O  AGE " . " ANO  A  B  298.9 « «' ' A R t L S E O  .  F . l . Regression o f Boginniiig-Pcdnt  " F R A T I C  ~  IB) ft.003  TO P L O T  FPi'OB  "  IB)  . 9.546  C.0025  THE REGRESS I C N L I N E ;  THE ' • * "  o n A g o : CAB  jTO E K K  (B)  29.95 I S USEO  STO  S T F I F P R  (Al  1.943 WHEN  A PLOT  ERR  RSU  (Y) 1 3 2 . 9 POINT  COVERS  0 . 1 4 6 9 OATA  POINTS  1240. 1 2 1 P. 1 196. 1 I 74. 1112.  1240.  y " 298.9 + 6.003x  _1 1 30._ U C 3. 1086. 1064. 1042. H 2 0 . 99H.C " 976.0~ 9*i4.0 "32.C 910.0 888.0 _866.0_ 844 .0 B22.0 BOO . 0 77,3.0  1020.  5 G 0 . O  t,  756.0 734 . 1 " 712 .(• " 690.1 66R .0 646 . 0 624.0 _ 6 3 2 .0 580.0" 558.0 536.0 514.0 4O2.0 470 .0  5 H C . 0 '  "443.0"" 426.0 404 .0 3H2.0 3 60.0 3 3 8 .C  360 . 0  "'316.0" 294.0 272.0 250.0 228.0  140.0  / / i / / / / / / / / / 1 /I mi 5.001 7 DISTANCE  BETWEEN  I\I 11 II i in i\i II ilium 8 8.400  SLASHES  la  CN THE X - A X I S  IS  \UIIIIII\II\IIIIII 11.80 0.1700  m  *••= AGE (wks)  M 11At 11nn n AnI\I11111An aII  15.20 16  18 18.60 20  inin  2 06.0 " 1 8 4 . 0 * 162.0 140.0  22,  00  I—'  CO  Figure F.2.  Kegreosion o f Middle-Point  o nApo:  f  !  A  R  OCP IND CONST COEFF FKATIO FPROB S T D FUR ST 0 E R R S T C ERR VAR VAR A R I R I ( B l <A) ( B l »Y) MID AG F 2 1 8 . 7 P.421 1 9 . 4 1 0.0000 29.46 1.911 1 3 0 . 7 IFF " . " A N O " » • • A R E U S E C TO P L O T T h E R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; THE " • " I S U S E D W H E N A P L C T P C I N T C C V E R S D A T A AN I N 1 F G E R " I " , B E T W E E N 1 ANO 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 2 * 1 CATA POINTS " 0 " REPRESENTS 1 O R FEWER D A T A P O I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S 2 0 OR MORE D A T A P O I N T S 12 8 C . " " " 0 y  = 298.7 •  8.t21x  KSO 0.0910 POINTS  1 2*C."~ 1258. 1 236. 1 2 1 4. 1 1"2. 1170._ ~ i i«8. 1 126. 1 104. 10H2. 1060. 103R.  1060.  ~'i016." 994.0 9Y2.0 950.0 928.0 _ 9 0 6 .r.  884.6 ' fj  »  862.0 840.0 Rlft.C 796.0 774 .0  340.0  "7 52.0 ' 7 30.0 708 .0 6H6.0 664.0 642.0_ 620.0 59(1 . 0 S 76 .f. '•54. 0 S32.0 510.0 "'488.0 4 66 .0 444.0 422.0 400.0 3 71.0  620.0  0  400.0  "l 1  7  -•— 18C.C  //1  0 0 3 2 1 1 0  26 8.0 246.0 " 224.0 ' 20 2 . 0 1 80.0  "o"  mi n III l A IUII\I  5.003 . 0 1 SJANCE  " 3 56.0" 3 34.0 312.0 290.0  I//////u\11 II i u in\\i  7 8 0.400 10 B E T W E E N S L A S H E S ON THE X - A X I S " "  IS  II II in | 1A1//111 l inikiiii \u iiiSm l imiiAi l in i in II I  1 1 . 8 0 l"t 0 . 1 7 0 0 '_ x ' AGE " ( w k s )  1 5 . 20 16  18  1 8 . 6 0 20  2 2 , 00  I—  1  CO CO  Figure Cl'P VA° fNU THF  IND VAK AC F ».« AN:  CCNST A 332 . 0 ARE U S E C  F.3.  Regression o f End-point  ™ C . F . F F " " F R AT I r ) B IB) 2. 517 2.435 T O PLOT THE R E G R E S S I O N  F  on  Age:  CAB  P  R O B S T D FRR " $ T D ' r ' P B ~ S T C FRR IH) (A) IB) IY) 0.116O 24.87 1.613 110.3 LINE: THE » * " I S U S E D WHEN A P L C T P C I M C C V E R S  RSC  OATA  "\.  0.0124 POINTS  9 10.0 895.0 3RC. 8 65 .  913.0 y  332.0 +  2.517x  310. 8 35. 8 20 H05. 790.0 7 71.0 760.0 7 4 5 .0 ~7 3f).0~ 71 5 . 0 7.0.0 685 .0 6 70.0 ( . « .0  760.0  U  ""640.r ' 625.0 6 10 . 0 595 .0  619.0  18 3 . 0 565 .0 550.0 ' 5 35.0 520 .0 501.0 490.0  471.0 "4 60.0"' 44S.0  r  43 3 . 415.0 401. p  38S.O " " 3 7 n . l>~ 355.0 34O.0 325.0 310.0 2 95 .0  310.0  " 2 80.0" 265.0 2 50.0 23 5.0  160.0  //111 ii ii i ii I\iIIIIAI1 ii 11 ii iik ii 11 ii n 11 5.000 0 1 STANCE  7 H F 7 V f EN  8 8.400 S L A S H E S (JN T H E  10 X-AXIS  IS  ii ii 11 nhiiiii  1 1 . 80 0.17CO x  = AGE  W (wks)  15.20  i  iinhiii1  ii ii ih in 11 II n i \i i  16  18  18.60  20  22". 0 2 05, 190. 175, 160.  /////////i 22,  00  CD  Of P ' VAR  ME AN  F  »:6  1  " C C N C T " "  ~  A  VAR  ACf  Figure F.<4. Regression o f frnn f FRIHc" FPP.I'B (B) (Rl  " "COFFF  n  305.2  6.392  13.64  on Age> ST D F k R * (Al C  Q  0.0004  A  B  _ . _ ST  2 6 . 68  6  FRP.'" (B I  STD FRR (Yl  1 . 721  118.4  Tt-E ••.» AND " • " AftF LSFC TO PLOT THF REGRESSION LIME; THF ••*•• IS USED WHFN A PI DT POINT AN INTEGER "I", BETWEEN 1 AN 0 9 , REPRESENTS APPROXIMATELY 2 « I DATA POINTS " C " REPRESENTS 1 OR FEWER DATA PCINTS; " A " REPRESENTS 2 0 OR MORE DATA POINTS  ""* "  1 1 3 0 . -  /  y  = 305.2  RSO  "  COVERS D A T A  0.0657 POINTS  0  1 1 30. 1111.  + 6.392X  10^2. 1D73. 1 054;  / /  1 0.-4.  /_ /  " 1 0 1 6 . "  /  997 .0 978.0  /  / 943 .  0  0 S Q .  _ ° 2 l  / '  902.f  / "  I I I I  "  8t» 3 . u 864  .0  t)4 5 . 0 "."•6 . 0 «r>7 . 0  _ / •/  " " 7 8 8 . O'" 769 . 0  /  7 0 .0 C  7 50.C  731  /  712.C 693  / / / /  5°a .o 5 79.1 5fO. 0  /  541 .0 522 .0  / /  503.0  0  / /  0 1  0  /  0  /  *  0 0  / /  484 . 0 46S.0  2  4 4 6.0 427 .0  *  1 1  4 0,4.(1  1 1  /  /  _ _  /  1  1  0  / /  .r  6 74.0" 65"> . r 6 3 6 .0 617.0  /  .  .C  / _ /  370.0  fl  9 4 0 .C  0  /  _ _ _ _ _  _  370 . 0 351.0 '  i I\I i II 111  i II  \ 1111111 11 ill i  7 8 8 .400 3.0 BETWEEN SLASHFS UN THE X-AXIS  "  IS  11.80 0.1 700  x  11 II u _  It  = AGE (wks)  332.0 313 .0 294.0 2 7 5.0 256.0 237.0  _ _ _ _ _  "  /  5.0CCI STANCE  389.0  1  /  /  3 1 3 0 1  1111 I\I i n\i II i\i 111/\n i in 11\ i\ni\i11111 in 1 5 . 2 0 16 18 18. 60 20 _  _  _  "  _  _  22.  218.0"  1 99.0 180.0  00  CO Cn  DF P VAR BEGIN THE  I NO V AP AGE '.« ANO  CCNST A 367.1 «*"  ARE  USED  AMG_ F i g u r e F.5, Regression o f B e g i n n i n g - P o i n t o n Age: F P K I I B ""' ~~ST0 F P R S T I ) I PR Fl'AT I C (Bl (Bl (Al (Bl 0.2707 0.6C9R 13.24 1.132  CFIEFF fl 0.58B9 TO  PLOT  THE  R E G R E S S 1CN L I N F :  THE  " * "  IS  USED  WHFN  A  PLOT  POINT  RSO  STO F F R IY I 6F.76 COVFRS  0.0013 DATA  POINTS  CD  CT)  210.0  \ 11111\111 \ 111111111 \ 111111111 \ l 11\11111 \ 111111111 \ 111111111 ]\ 11111111 i m i ii ii 11 i\u 11 ii111111111 i\n .200 9.400 11.60 13.HO 16. 9  5.000 0 1 STANCE  7 SLASHES 7  ON  THE  X-AXIS  1  IS  0.1100  BETWEEN x  a AGE  (wks)  5  Figure OFP  IND  VAR  VAR  MIDDLE TrE  "Yeo.6"  670.0  56C.0  AGE  4 50.0  ARE  C.  USEC  TO  (P.)  1270  PLOT  REGRESSION  THF  ««»  USFF)  ST~f:"l PT" :  (11)  12.Rl IS  (V)  1.055 WHCN  A  PLCT  66.53 PC I NT  COVFRS  OAT A  0.0001 PCINTS  /  7rt .i r  y  = t07.2  +  76 9 . 0  1  0.1270X  1 < i>. ."'  S !  '  r  747.f  ,  736 . C 7 ? i . (' 714. (  j  7"3.r 6Hl.(  671.0  1 c..' 1 1  6 3 7.1 6 2 ' . . <•  !  6 1 •'• . 0 6r-4.''  1  9 ?. 0  R  5M?  1  .(  « 71 ."• 56 .C,  1  1 1  1 1  1 3  1 1 1 / 1  2  1  3  1  5  2  2  2  5  1  /  1  6  /  5  5  1 3  / «  2 9  IV 1 1 11 -1  2 1 3  1  2  3  1 7  1  2  3  7  3  1 1  2  2  5  2  2  3  9 1  6  1  3  2  5  5! ^ . 0  1  1  1  1  1  i  2  4  1  2  1 2  4H3.0  4 72.T "4  5,1.  4 3 9.,'' 4 ' :l. •  "'3 I  i  4 1 7 ,r  4',o."  7  /,  —J  4'-l . ••  1 2  /  1  CO  r  - 1 6 . :•  4-14.0  1  "  5?7. r  2  - i —  i  4 > « . 0  3  /  ;  373 .'' 36?. C 3M  .'  34-i.,12 9 . o "31.-i.l3,17..-  ; ".  2 1 296.0 j 1 1 2S5.C 1 ?''-. . ' ' 1 ?63.i 1 ?5?.0 1 1 ? 4 1 .1 _1 "* 3 • ( 1l\l1IIIIIII [I1IIIIl\l\II1111II71 iiuilim 111 /11111 \ 11 /111111 \ 11A11111 \ 111111111 \ i 11111111 \ \ 1111 II 11 \ ' i 5. 0C0 7 7.200 9 9.400 11 .60 1 3 . BO 15 1 6.  /  230.0  AMG  ST r~ FRS  (A)  0.S741  LINF;  on Age:  STO' DR~p"  (H)  0.1344D-01 THE  of Middle-Point  FPPfll)  1  /  340.0  •'*"  -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' / /  „  fl  4C7.2 ANO  F . 6 . Regression  FPA Tin  CO F E E  CONST A  CISTANCC  BETWEEN  SLASHES  CN THE X-AXIS IS  0.11C0 x =  A G E (wks)  Figure F . 7 . Regression of End-Point on Age: AMG C E P  inn  V A R  V A R  E N D  cocrF  C O N S T  A G E  A 3 8 9 . 1  " 7 - C . C  R E P R E S E N T S "  6 . 1 4 7  D A T A  P O I N T S ;  THE L I N E I M A T F L Y  " A " R E P R E S E N T S  FRR  STO  IA)  < R 1 C . H 3 4  P L O T T H ER E G R E S S I O N 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X  1 O R F E W E R  STO  FI>ROB  lei  - 2 . 9 7 8  T F E A N D • ' » » A R E U S F O ' T O A N I N T E G E P " I " , B E T W E E N 1 AN O " O "  F R A T I O  B  1 3 . 8 1  '"«"  IS  2 « I  C A T A 2 0  I: R P  (fll  USED  A  PLCT  l.  S.J  (V)  1 . 1 P I  WHEN  S I T. F F R  POINT  7 1 . 7 4 CCVERS  DATA  " . - > 2 7 8 POINTS  P O I N T S  O R M O R E  D A T A  P O I N T S  - " / / / /  7K y  = 389.1 -  2.928X  732.1 72.' . . '  "/ / / /  . 0  »:*.:'"  o°6.l  /  ~~l  ' ?4 .1 6 72 . ' • 662.( 64 H .•-  \  6  3 6 . '•" 6 2 4.0 61 2 . 0 !.1'0 . •• 5K3.0,  /  / / /  576 . 1 -  /  £  /  5 52.0 ••40 .0  / /  52*.'' 516.  /  5'."4 . !  5 * 0 . 0  "  / / / / /  4 f:. o 4-A.O 456 . r 4 4 4, 0  _/  4  4 . 0 . 0  1  /  3H4.C  ° /> .t  /  372.c  /  ••... _ ' 3 <• .1 . •'• ?3*.0 3 2 4 .0 313.;  / /  3 0 0 . 0  31-O.O  2 * •'" 2 7o.( ' 2 64.r 25 7 .0 24.'.f 223.1 21t>.''< "?•: 4 . T ' 1°2.< M'" . o  /  q  " / / / / /  /  I  £ 0 . 0  ^  /  /  1  1  ~*> i.C  /  'I  r  744.0  _/ 6 6 C  .  It •>.<  «  " "  / -  0  .  inunuunuiiiii\i\iiiiiiiii\iiiii\iii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ii\iiiii\inuiiii\iiiiiiiiiwiiuiiii\ 7  5 . 1 0 0 DISTANCE  BETWEEN  9  7 . 2 0 0  SLASHES  ON T H E  X-AXIS  IS  11 . 6 '  9 . 4 0 0 O.llCO x  a AGE ( w k s )  1 3 . « "  15  I l.  co oo  Figure CFP  IN 0  VAR  VAR  MEAN  F  IFF AN  AGE  CO FF F B - C . 7057  F.8.  Regression  FPATIO (0) 0.5370  o f Mean F  FPRflB IB) 0.4711  "*" A R E U S E C Tt) P L O T T H E R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; THE R E P R E S E N T S A P P R C X I M A T FL Y " I • i B E T W E F N 1 ANO 9 ,  REPRESENTS  1  OR  FEWER  OATA  POINTS;  "A"  on  Age:  AMG ST 0 F P R (11)  OR  MORF  OATA  A  PL C T  F <(J  S T C FRR ( V 1  0 . 9 6 30  I S U S E D WHEN CATA POINTS  20  REPRESENTS  Q  STO ERR (A) 11.26  " ••' 2*1  AND  INTEGER  " 0 "  CONST A 392.7  -6.5C POINT  CCVEPS  U.OC25 OAT A  Pf'INTS  POINTS 6  6EC.C y  = 392.7 -  6 M  7.057x  6- 6 2  (•«  r 44 '  31  "n2r M  ' i"  Q  O •1  590.0  59' S 7? ".•.fa *27  5 13 «.;n 5,' -  6 r\  500.0  4 91  4 1_  4 7.'  4  454  4 46  43 7 42:1  4 19 »  "4 t .  410.0  4.'1 39 2 1 S3 174 '65  "l5h 34 7 32° 3?'311 "iO? 2°3 2-14  320.0  2 75 264 - 4 7 2 " -i 2 <9 230.C  / / i n u 1111 i\u 11 ii i\/i HI HI in i a iihm 1111111111 \ 111111111 \i 11\11111 \ 111111111 \ 11111111 n li uium 5.000 01 STANCE  7 BE TWEEN  7.200  SLASHES  ON  THE  X-AXIS  9  9. 400  IS  0.1100  11 . 6 0  13.HO  12 _  x  = AGE  (wks)  15  16.  NI)  DE P  |  VAK  VAP  BECI.>  AGE  THF AN  CONST A 361.4  " . "  "  ' C r j - F F ™ ' B -1.191  AND  • • » • • A R E L S E C TO 1 ANC " I",BETWEEN  INTEGEt  " 0 "  REPRESENTS_  550.0"  -  1  OR  FEWER  F i g u r e F.9. Regression o f J e g i n n i n g - P o i n t on Age: AMR " ' FPATI1I " FPPnrf " S T D CRF " S T O ' C K R (0) IB) (A) IH) C.7615 0. 3 8 7 6 ie.61 1.364  PLOT T h E R F G K F S S l f \ L I N E ; THE 9, REPRESENTS APPROXIMATELY DATA  PCINTS;  "A"  " » " 3*1  REPRESENTS  29  I S U S E D WHEN DATA POINTS OR  MORE  DATA  A  PLCT  S l f ! 'F'KR IY) 63.41 PCINT  CTVFPS  F SC '. OATA  .C?2  POINTS  POINTS  y = 3 6 1 . 1 - 1.191X  * 4? . 4 34. 5 26 .  •:• 1  j  _M' 4  9^ ,  4 "6.  47, ,  4 7  47C.0  -  4 f 2  '"4 V .  44* . 4  ,  422 . _4  1  4 " f  3  350.0 3  42.  17-.. ? 4'' 3 42.  31 * .  i  "31 •  10 . 0  7'It* 27 " 2 62. 254 . 24?, 2 3.3. 230.0  2 «•"  J??  2 l"4  .  2 - 6 .  1  9.3.  1 «!• ! .-I.-. 1 74. "1 6r-. 150.0  143. 1 4 V  i I\I i in 11 n\ 11 hi 11111\ 111111111 \ 111111111 \ i K' 111111 \ 111111\11 \ 111111111 \ 111111111 \ 111111111 8.000 DISTANCE  BETWEEN  9 9.400 S L A S H E S C N THE  X-AXIS  IS  10.80 0.7OO0E-O1 x  12 = AGE  (wks)  12.21  13.60  15.  __ _ OEP  IND  VAR  VAR  MIDOLE THE AN 560  Figure F.10. Regression of Middle-Point on Age:  ' C O N S T C C f C F F A  AGE ».»  4 15.5  FKATIC  1  .0  1  OR  TO P L O T ANO 9 ,  FEWER  EPKOR  ( HI  -5.023  USED  "I".BETWEEN  REPRESENTS  ""  B  AND "*•• A R E  INTEGER  "0"  ""  (B)  12.99 THE  PCINTS;  LINE;  T HF  APPROXIMATELY "A"  EKK  3*1  REPRESENTS  USED  DATA  2 9 OR  ERR  (B)  19.02  " » • • IS  AMR  STO  (A»  0.0005  REGRESSION  REPRESENTS  CATA  STO  '  STO  1.3S4 WHEN  A  FPR  "  "  '  RSO  (Y)  PL OT  64.H4 POINT  n..i319  COVERS  DATA  POINTS  POINTS WIRE  DATA  POINTS I n '  y = 115.5 - 5.023x  c  5 1 • •' 7.1  14  ri  1  470.0  r  /  7 V / / /  / o /  ?  4 14.'"  1  4 2 1 .' 416..  2 3  4'- r.. '" i o < . , 3P'> .  4  * 4  7 3  t  7 ' c  3 2 1 1  1_ 1 1 1 1 200.0  M  . •  ;  .r  371.1-  362  .1  3 ••••>.; )44.>  3 3 ' .f 32' .' M7.i r  i.  H .>'  2° . ' 2 ''•' .2 2 3i.': 2 7?..' 263.. 214 . 1 J  ~> 4  ,  1  2 , t . i' 2 2 7 .r 2 1 H. 2 7'".<' 7 .i 1^1 . :  r  / -  / / / / /  "/'  —  - -  -  -  1 0  r  1  r r '"'  ' • '  "  "  _  •-  •  -  -  --  _  -  -  -  -  1F7.C  17 3.0 164..1 1 5 1 . r  1 4 6 .: 1 37., 12 3 . ' l io.r no.'' r  / 110.0  til.' 4'. 2.<  3  4  "250.0  4 7  4 4 3  _ «; 7  38C.0  i 3 3 .' 1 24 . 1 51 i . i 4<>7., 4 •<*. " 4 7" ..'  i I\I i ii 1111 t\n h ii 111 \ ii ii ii ii i\n i n 111 n I\I 111111 \ n 1111\i m i n 1111 nu 1111 n i\mi I HI nn n mi n 9  B. ICO  01 S T A N C E  BETWEEN  9.400  SLASHES  ON  THE  X-AXIS  IS  10.80 C.7CC0F-O1 x  11  =  AGE (wks)  1 2 . 20  1 3 . 60  1 5.  H-  i  CO  Figure F . l l . Regression o f . E n d - P o i n t on Age:_AMR CEP I ND CONST COEFF FPATIO FPR'10 STD ri'P STD TKP ST 0 E P P VAR VAN A n (BI (HI (A I (HI (Yl END AGE 311.4 1.404 1.239 r.2656 17.20 1.261 5F.64 T H E " . " A N D " • « A R E U S E C T O P L O T T H E R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; T H E • • * • ' I S U S E D WHEN A P L C T P C I N T C C V E R S AN INTEGER " I " , B E T W E E N 1 AND 9 i R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3 « I CATA POINTS " 0 " REPRESENTS 1 OR FEWER D A T A P O I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S 2 9 OH MORE D A T A P C I N T S  '5 7 0 . 0  "  -  -  •  '  - -  -  PSO 0.0035 POINTS  OATA  •  (  -  -  y = 3 1 1 . 4 + 1.10MX  r  /  •  .'.6. 4 > » .  /  V',.'.  / /  522. 414.  /  S'./  /  0  / / / /  4«,-. 4 " ? .  "  ~  >~ S ' 330.0  250.0  4 6 6 . 4>>1.  0 0  .  0 o  ""<••>,: 4 1 " . 4K .  0  0  1  1  2  4 " ' .  ?  3 9 4 .  0  3  3 (• 4 .  1 0  3 ~ 7». 6 .3 7 . 5 3i. 2 . 7 164. • > • " • < • .  ~  ~  4 42. 4>4.  /  0  '  C  -  I  0  0  I _  ^  " " ' • 7 - .  "  0  " " " / " ~ / / / /  3  0"  0  /  "_3' fa £  "'  "1 " 1  /  9  ~  0  / /  410.0  .  4>M.  J  0  /  J•i  <  4 * 4 .  / /  490.0  r  '62.  1 '  .  0 0 . 1  0 ~ ~ 0 "  '  '  "  _  "  ~  _  ?«••. ' 2--2. 274. ?'6. 25^. 24.'.  22s. 2 1 - . „!•'. ( . ! . ' .  0  ""  "  "'  '  ''• 1  0  ? 9 * .  '  0  _  / / I / / / / / / / / / I / / / / / / / / / I B.000 DISTANCE  '  1 1 0 0  / /  3 | , . 3.-6.  5 2 2 1 2  0  /  ' 3 ' . •<?.?.  3"  —~C> 1  " ""•  3 3 0 .  3 3 3 2 (  0  ' 0 "'"  1 70.0  4  0  0  I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0  0  0  ~  I 0 1 1  / / / / /  1 1  1 2 1 1 1  I  " " / / / / / / / / / /  0  0 1 0  "l'i6V 17-».  0 / / / / / / / / / I  9 9.400 BETWEEN _SLASHES_0N_THE  nun 1111111111/1111/11  X - M 1 S  IS  1 0 . 80 x = AGE ( w k 1s 2) C.70</().-01  1?.?0  111111 m 11111111111 I\I 1111111 I\II 1111111\ 13.6''  ;  15..'^  Figure  F.12. Regression  o f Mean F  o n A g o : AMR  CONST ' "COFPF ~ ' F P MIP FPF.OH STL) f 1<R STI1 E R R ST C E P R OEP 1N0 IB 1 (Y> VAR VAR A H IR) ID) (A) 1 . 0 1 9 47.40 MEAN F AGE 368.6 -1.788 3.080 1.0763 13.90 THE " . " ANO " * • ' A R E U S E C T O PLOT THE P E O R C S S I O N L I N E ; THE ' • * " I S U S E D WHEN A P L C T P O I N T C C V E R S AN I N T E G f r " I " , B E T W E E N I A N O 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I MAT F L Y 3 * 1 OAT A P O I N T S " 0 ^ J<EPRJSENTS 1 OR FEWER D A T A P O I N T S : " A " P E P R F SF N T S 2 9 OR H O R F O A T A POINTS 520.0 " - ~ " ... / y = 3 6 8 . 8 - 1.788X / / / 0 /  «S 0  DATA  o.oce7 POINTS  .14.< .1' 5i'2. 1 4 06.0 400 .0 ' 4 34.0"' 4 78.0 4 72.1 4„6.o r  SrH  460.0 .I 4 4 X . 2* 4 4 2 . (' '.36.0 432.2 424.0 4 l 8 .I/ 4 l 2 . " 416." 4 I ' ! .I' 394. 0 3 8 8. ^ 3*2 4 5 4  "  400.0  3 76. 0 " 3 7o.C 364.( 35*.C 352.0 _ 3 4r>.0 340.fi"  ( 4 - . ' . i.'."  314.0 32 l . l " 372.1 116.0  / / / / /  0  M... 314.0 ' 29*..'-  "7'"o~ / / /  0  280.0 / 0 "T~0~  I I I  C  l l 220.0  2*6.i 2 80.0 274.0 26*.11 26 7 . C256.0 2 7.o 244.0 2 38 .( 232.r ' 226.0 22i.f  ii\iiiiiiiii\iihiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ii\iiiiii\iiiiii\ii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiin\ 8.000 0 1 STANCE  9 BETWEEN  9.400  SLASHES  CN THE X - A X I S  1 0 . BO IS  12  0.70'mE-Ol x = AGE ( w k s )  12 . 2 0  13.60  II II in 11\ 15.  LD CO  Of- P  _  . I NO  CONST  COCFF  VAR.  VAR  A  B  BEGIN  AGE  415.5  V r  _  > . " AND A P E L S E D TC I NTCGER " I " t B E T W E E N 1 ANO  - 0 "  REPRESENTS  3  (Ul  -5.376  THE AN  F i g u r e P. 1 3 , . R e g r e s s i o n o f . B e e i n n i n g - P o i n t FP.ATIO FPROB STil f K R  OR  (Bl  19.11  (Al  0.0000  PLOT THE R E G R E S S I O N I I N F ; T HE 9, REPRESENTS APPROXIMATELY  FEWER  DATA  POINTS;  "A"  REPRESENTS  an Ace:.. JLR....__... . STO ERR SIC (Ul  14.OB  " * " 6*1 5fi  l . ? 3 0  I S U S F O WHEN CATA POINTS OR  MIRE  DATA  A  PLOT  CRP  RSO  (VI 103.3 POINT  CCVFKS  0.0342 POI NTS  POINTS 15 7 ' ' . I*<6. 1 Si?. 17'j". 1 7  "1370. y  o 11S.S -  5.376X  1 7-'0. l6t-6.  '  i n ; . 1 *^ H. r  1 "•(>'..  1 5 3.1.  1530.  1 4>)6.  " 1 4.-2. " 1  1 1-4.  ! 3t . . 13:.,.  i ' I  i 224. 1 IK'. 1156. 1 I2 2 . 1 "•*•>.  1190.  I 1 g_  i •:  .""  1 ••. 'il>6.0  912  11*.'. 8*4.0  » 6"50"7(T  81"  .0™  7 2.0 a  748 . 1  7 i 4 .i6-1 " . < •  546.."'  6 1 2 ...i 5 7.3. 0  544 . 0  - 1  510.C  r  4 76.'-  4 4 2 .f  4 08 . 0  3 7-. . 1  34 • > .<•  3 1 1 o 170.0  J •"..<•  2 72."  2 1c  2C4.0  1 70.'  i i\n ii III U\u 11 II iv n IImi IIi \ it 11 I\I i mi 1111111\ II II it II ni IIII i II n II 11 II 11 i\i\t in i II nii II i II II i 5.000 0 1 ST ANCE  BETWEEN  ' 7.200 S L A S H E S ON THE  X-AXIS"  9 IS  9.400 0.1100  11 .60 X = AGE  (wks)  13.HO  16.  CD  -F  .. OFP  I NO  VAR  VAR  MIDDLE THE AN I  AGF " . " AND  ISTEC.FR  "C"  CONST A "*••  423. 9 ARE USED  "I",BETWEEN  RE PR E S E N T S  2  I  OR  . COEFF  F i C u r c P . 14. FRATIO  B -6.247 TO P L O T T H F ANO  9,  FEWER  REPRESENTS  OATA  R e g r e s s i o n of. M i d d l e - P o i n t o n FPROB S T D ERR  (B) 29.73 R FOR E S S I C N  POINTS;  IB) 0.0000 LINF; THE ••*•'  APPROXIMATELY "A"  10".  4»I  REPRESENTS  39  Age:. JLR — S T C ERR  (A) 1 3 . 12 I S US EO W H F N DATA OR  (B) 1 . 1 46 A PLOT  STD  RSO  FPR  (Y ) 56.27 POINT  COVFRS  0.^522 DATA  POINTS  POINTS MORE  DATA  POINTS 1111.  0  /  y  = 423.9  -  1 3° 1 . 1'" 6 ' . 1 " 43. 1 24. 1 i T 4.  6.247x  /  I  / /  J  067  /  .<••  9 4 ,° .  / 910.0  °3r  '  /  /  r  r  H<>1 . 1  _/ /  0  •f72.r  / /  .f  H53  0  .-134.0  /  " 1  / _/  .0  5  l».  0  777.0_ " 7 5 . .C 7 3 3.C 72c.0 7 1 1 .0 6 P? 6 6 1. I _ '" 6 4 4 . 0 " 625 . " 61 6 . 0  / / 720.0  i  5ri7 4 6.  „  .(  .  i  449.0  530.0"  " 4 : - , .(•  0  /  0  / /  0  0  /  0  A  1 1 1  / ""/ / /  2  /  3 3  /  5 6  340.C  150.0  r  2> .0 91 > . 9  ~I I I I I I "I I  1  (  2 1 6  t "  * 1  4  0  1 1  C 1 1  0  1  0  0  r  0  inn  ii iiiiIMI  5.000 OISTANCE  uii i\IM7i11un\ 7  BETWEEN  111II\IiI\I1171111Hi111IIiiI\Ini111mili1  7.200  SLASHES  ON  9 THE  X-AXIS  IS  9.400  11 . 6 0  0.1100 x  = AGE  (wks)  u/1I\I\Ii1i11nil 13.90  r  111IIi / l  4 11 .'• ' " . I '  4 7 3 .( 444 ..' 4 ? . \" • 4 1'...' 3 1 7 . •.• 3 7f. : 3 49 34 1.1 '?l.i' 6  312..'  2 4.1 244.1 2 2 6 . '.1 2"i7.i 1S-1.' 169.0 140..-  1 6.10  l->  CD Cn  r  Figure  F.1S. Regression o f End-Ftoint on A g e :  JLR  FI'RI'R ST(< F R R STO TRR CONST cntrr FwATIO OEP I NO s r o I'KR (V| A ( R) IB I B ( R) VAR VAR (At 69.15 5 1.46 396.2 -5.903 I . 82 ENO AC E 9.4?4 THE A N O « * • ' A R E U S E O TO P L O T T H E R C C R E S S I C N L I N E ! T H F " * " I S U S E D WHEN A P L O T P O I N T C O V E R S AN I N T E G E R " l " , B C T W I E N 1 ANO 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3*1 DATA POINTS _ « C " REPRESENTS 1 OR FFWF.R C A T A P C I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S 2 9 OR MOP F D A T A P O I N T S 740'.0" / / y ' 3 9 6 . 2 - 5.903X  ?f>  r. ocoo  DATA  R7.i POINTS  740 . ' 7?i*.'716.•• 7o4.l A •''2 . 0 682.i_ 6 * .'* 6 5*64 4.1  / /  /  6  V.'  2.' ... 6( ..  620.0  I.  5'>6 . 1 C U4 .'• '•77.' 16'. . i 64*. 5 3 4 . ' '• (  '  * 2 4  5 o'. r  500.0  4 76.1 4 6 4.." 4 ' . 2 .1 441.0 47 * . 4 16.' 414 . 0 1  Si ft i." 3 8 0 . 0 "  36*.'  3 ' ' 7 . '7 3 '' • 5 t 1 * . •; 796. : ">4 . 1 272 . 1 26 2.' 24,*.' 2 *!• . ' ' 2 24.C  260.0 ) / / / / _/ /  140.0  l n  "  ' T  o 1  0 1  1 1  217.0 -» >- 0 1 **.0 1 76.i 1 >-4.0' 15?.'. 1 *i'  _ 0 ""  "  ""  •  "  ii\iiiiiiiii\iiiitii\i\tiiiiiiii\iiiii\iii\iiitiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\\iiiitiit\iiittiiii\ 5 . OOO 01 ST A N C F  BETWEEN  7 7.200 SLASHES ON T I C  X-AXIS  9 IS  9.400 0 . 1 ICO  11 . 6 0 x = AGE ( w k s )  13.80  16.  I— CD cn 1  Figure F.16. Regression of Mean F on Age: JLR CFP INO CON S T COEFF FKATIO FPROR ^ T l ) ERR STO FRR S I C ERR VAR VAK A B (Rl (B) (A) <0) (Y) MEAN F AO F 415.1 -5.910 44.23 0.000O 10.18 O.eSflf 74.67 THE " . " A NO ••*•• A R E USE C TO P L O T THE R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; IMF » * " I S USED WHFN A P L C T F C I N T CCVERS AN I N T E G E R " I " , B E T W E E N I ANO 9 , REPRESENTS APPROXIMATELY 4 * 1 CATA POINTS "0" REPRESENTS 2 OR FEWER OA TA P O I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S 3 9 OR MORE D A T A PCIMS  R SO  DATA  0."757 POINTS  I K  1 ICC.  115.1 - S.910x  l'» l " f  I J II  74  O-J 1  o 7<. 95to »,i O" 1 1  920.0  366 34(i H IO 31? 7<~4 ' 7 76 T 8 74727  6V  f 14 S O , ,  II 5 6 0 T 5  •'. 7* ' 16 1 '4 2 624 6 ! 6 88 4 7 1 4 34 416  -  /  0  / /  0  /  0  r  / J_ To  I  380.0  0 *  /  0  /  0  / / /  1 0  /  1  _/ 200  .0  l  / / -  30B  >"!' •<62 3 44 ^2 6 3f 8 ?or. 272 254  T I 11\111/11111\1111nAi\111111111 \  5.000 DISTANCE  BETWEEN  7 7.200 S L A S H E S O N THE  X-AXIS  9 IS  21 i•»o o iuiKiii\iiiiiiiii\/iiiut/i\iiuiiiu\iiiunii\i\jiuiiii\iiiiiiiii\ 9.400 0.1100  11 . 6 0  X  = AGE (wks)  13.80  1 6. oo  Figure F.17. Regression on Beginning-Point on Age: DAE or- p  I NO  T  Hp »  C  O  E  ANO  " ''"  PPESENTS 1260. /  "  F  " "  1  1  T C PLOT A N O1,  OR FEWER  FUATIO  FUROR"  (IM  -2.316  A R E CSFO  "I" .BETWEEN  | M ICE*  F II  431.11  ACE . "  '  A  VA  WR R t- r, i N AN  CCNST  (01  C.f653 T H E RrGRESSICN  REPRESENTS  C A TA  PCI N T S \  " " y » 131.8 - 2.316x  S T O ERR (Al  C . 4 2 1 0 L I N E :  2*I  " A " PEPRFSENTS  '  IS  CISCO  DATA  2 0 OR  ' o " '  A  PLOT  P  R  ^ "  P  S  0  ~  ( Y I  2 . 8 3 0 WHEN  ^ S T O F  (Bl  36.3 6  T F E " * "  APPROXIMATELY  '  "' S T O ERR  1 3 8 . 7 P O I N T  C C V E R S  0 . 0 0 3 5 DATA  POINTS  P O I N T S VORF  DATA  P O I N T S 1 260. 1238. 1 2 1 1 .  / /  1 104.  /  1172. I 1 6 0 .  / "  /  104C.  5  320.0  I I I I "" I I I I I I I I I I  1162. 1 04 0 . 101 <>. "  "  052.0 "3.1.0  113  . 0  886.0 "64.1 842 . 0 K20.0 70.8 . 0  7 76 . 1 4 . 0  /  7  /  7 3?  .f  710.0 688.0 666 . 0  /  600.0"'  <J'15.0 Y74 . 0  I  g  16 .  1 034.  /  (3  1 1 2 «. 1 1  I I  644 . 0 6  22.1  600 .0  /  57  /  5«-6.0  /  c  3.0  3 4 . 0  /  512.1  /  4  /  4( 3  /  446 . 0  / . /  0,1.1 .1  424.0 4 0 ? . i  0  381.0  3 3  5 8.0 36.0  314.0 292.1 2 70 . 0 248.0 226.0 214.0 l 32 . 0  ii\niniiii\iiiiin\i\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iii\iiii\iiiiinii\iiiiiiiu\iXiiuii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ 5 . "Al  C I S T A N C E B E T W C E N  7 7.200 SLASHES  C N_ T H C _ _ X - A X I S _ l S _  9 . 4 0 . 1  L  0 . 1 100  F  1 1 . 6 0  J  _  x = AGE (wks)  13  1 3 . 8 0  160.0 1 6 . 00  Figure F.18. Regression of Middle-Point on Age: DAE CCN<T CUFfF FKATIO FPROn S T O HRP ST C ERR S T O ERR DC" 1 NO A F) (BI (B) (A) (B) 1Y) VAR VAR 566.2 -9.298 5.540 0.0187 50.59 3 . 9 . 1 153.0 MI D O L E AG F APE USED 'TO P L O T THE R F C P E S S I C N L I N F ; T H F " * " I S US ED W H E N A P L O T P O I N T C O V E R S D A T A THC " . " ANO "I",DETwCFN 1 AND 9 , R E P R E S E N T S APPROXIMATELY 3 * 1 DATA POINTS AN INTEOE 2 9 OR MORE D A T A POINTS " i " REPRF FNTS 1 OR F F K F R C A T A P C I N T S ; " A " REPRESENTS " 1403. 566.2 - 9 . 2 9 8 X  114C.  R SQ 0.0285 POINTS  I 4.10. 1 374. 1 34«. 1 322. 1 216. 127". '1244.' 1218. 1 192. 1166. 11'.('. 111'. 118 . 1162. 1 036. 1110. 984 . 0 9":n. r  " 93? .1 ' 91/ ,i>  a  8»0. 0 8 5 4 .C 82 .0 802.1 7 It, . 0 74.1.1 724.0 (,•>.•> . 0 672 .0 64f . 0 6 20 . 0 494 . 0 56-3.0 542.0 416.0  880.O  J  I  1 t-j  „ 6 20.0  411. 1 4( 4 . 0 43 8 . 0  I l\l U  II1111  5.0C0 STANCE  111II  BETWEEN  \  1111111/IMI 1111111 \ III A111 IMI  7 7.200 S L A S H E S ON THE X - / 1 X I S  IS  9 . 4 0 0 10 0.11C0  x = AGE (wks)  IIIIII  IM  11. 6 0  IIIIIIII  \ll\l 13  412.0 3Mh . r 360.0 3 34.0 " ' 3.") • » . . " ' 2 8? . 0 246.1 2 30.O 214 .0 1 78.1 14 2 . 0 * 1 26 . 0 100.C  II111 \l 1111111 IM 11111111\  1 3 .8 0  1 6 ,0 0  CD CD  Figure F.19. Regression of End-Point on Age: DAE  ii!  t> I M I f.CMsT enrrr FI<ATH: FPP.I'H sin E R R sn> F U R S T D ERR R S C VAR V A R A Fl IP) ( RI ( A ) ( R l ( Y ) F N O A G E 445.1) - A . 1 3 3 2.0H5 0.1463 36.65 2.862 1 3 " . R C.01C9 T H Ann Ai' r t s m m PLOT Tnr pre-- r s s I C N L I N E ; T H E is U S E D H H F N A P L C T P O I N T C C V E R S D A T A P O I N T S AN I N T FGFr< " I " , B E T W E E N 1 A N 0 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 2 * 1 DATA P O I N T S ••<•" R F P 3 F S F N T S 1 OR F F W F R O A T A P C I N T S i " A " REPRESENTS ?P_OR MC1R E DA T A _ P O I NT S _ _ _____ R  "  .o  "  -  "  '  y = 445.8 -  / / / / / / /  " "  '  * '  4.133x  .  '  ' o  "  0  / / -  5CC.C  ~  O'lf  0  0 0  /  _  _  _ 0  /  /  728.1  0  7 10 . 1 6 9? . 0  / /  g  ^  _  / /  62^.0  B  . 0  a  e  2 I  _ 4 40.0 "  >.  "  / -  0 "  "  I • / / /  / / / / /  "  0  0 1  0  0 1 "1  '"  4 40  2 3 .  1 1 I 1 1  0 1 1  ""_'  "6  1 3 3 0 0 0  1 0 0  •  1 2 0_ 1 1  •  4 7" 4  P  3  1 1 1  1  1  8 '. .  3  0  Vrl."  3 51.0 ' 3 3 2 .C 3 1 4 .1 2 6. 0 n  278.1 2 6 O.o 242.0 224 .0  0  0  06 . 0 1 03.0 170.0  0  / /  _  _  / 30.ro  .I"  4 2 2 .1 4 04.1  2  / /  /  1 .0  4 3 0.0 4 1?. 4U4.0 4 76 . 0 4 4 ij . 1 n  1  1 1  •  466. 448  0  o  o o l 3  I  /  26C.C  o  .1  46  6?R . 0 66 ?2 10 .. 1o 6 112 2 6 . 0. 0 4 1 ' "8 4• . "  o  1  / / / /  ' /  "  6 74.1  ' 6  o  / =_  „  1 1 0  /  P"0.0 •(72.1 8 4 4 .1." 8 36.0 8 I , 0 8 00.1 7 f> 2 . 0 7< 4 . 1 74 (. . 0 Q  0  /  .0  942 . 1 9 4. 0 "26.0 "OH .1  0  _  -  / / i II in 11 II i n II II I\I i II ilium 1.1(3 . C I STANCE . H F T W F F N  _  7 7.2f0 S L A SHE _S _CNI.THE  _  152.1 l 34.0 ' l 16.1  _  -  -  -— - -  -  0  11111 II 11 \ i u Su II IMI 111 II mn II u 11 i\u\iii II i \i II 111 II IMI 11111 m X- AXI S J S  9.400 10 C.11C0  x = AGE (wks)  11 . 6 0  13 _  _  13.BO _  98.00 RO. 00  1 6 . 1 1 __  _  g  DAE  Figure F.20. Regression of Mean F on Age C K VAR 1  no  OntlST  " " '  COEFF 6 . 1 6 9 PLOT  ? T 0  FI'Rl'.H  (i' i  n  A  AGE 5 0 1 . 7 " . " A N O " • " A F T U 5 " 0 TO I K AN I N i t OCR " 1 " . B E T W E E N 1 A N O 1 0_R__F E W E R R E P R E S E N T S "  ERAMO  (R i  3 . 9 4 0  THF ' • « • '  9 , KE PR bS FN T S AF F P C X I M A T FL V _C A T A P O I N T S ; " A " R E P R E S E N T S  S T C  U S 5 0  S T C  W H E N  P O I N T S 3 * 1 C A T A 29 O RM O R E D A T A  A  P L C T  E R R  R S O  (VI  3.ice  39.RO IS  E R R  I It I  I A I  0 . 0 4 5 9  T N T R FOR C SS I ON I I N F ;  EKR  1 ? 1 . R F C I N T  C C V F R S  C . 0 2 0 4 D A T A  P O I N T S  P O I N T S 1 22". I 200. 1 1 I " . 1 1*0.  122C.'  y a 501.7 - 6.169.x  / / / /  I 1 40.  /  I I 20. 1 110. 10*o.  /  "  / /  1060. 1 040. K 2 0 . 1000.  / 1 0 2 0 . /  .  _  «po. o 940.n  ' / /  9 4 0 .C  /  I  o ooi.n  920.  /  880.0  / /  R60.  /  840.0  "  0  8 21.0  8 2 0 . 0 /  HOO.  /  710.0  /  760 . 1  7 / / / / /  o  740.0 720.0 700.0 6"C'. 0 661.1 640 .0 '6?0.0  6 2 0 . 0  600.0 180 .0 141. 0 54 0 . 1 123.1 IfC.O 4HG.1 460.0 440.0 42C.1  4 2 0 . 0  4 X " 3  .0  Si.1  360.1 3 41,1 320.  0  300.0 2PO.0 260.C 2 40.0 2 2 0 . 0  / / I IIII u III I ii mi i\i\ 11111 u 111 min in\ im\ii n\ in 111 ii 111 III mi 11 7 7, 2f  5 . 0 0 0 01  S T A N C E  BETWEEN  SLASHES  CN  0  9 . 4 0 0 THE  X - A X I S  I S  0  11  10  . 1 1 0 0  X = AGE (wks)  . 6 0  13  IIII n 11 in III i \ tin nun 1 3 . 8 0  220.0  1 6 . 0 0  1)1'  l  l>  •figure F . 2 1 . Regression of Beginnin_-Point on Age:  no  r.rNST A  V A3  3EC I N T(-' AN  AOC  - >i .ii  3 6 6 . 6  T P A I I C (HI  -2.','.')  F P R O P ( 0 1  2 . 2 0 R  S T O „ K R ( A )  0 . 1 3 4 4  THF "< •• A P E L S E O Tl) P L O T T H F R E C E S S I O N L I N E ; 1 A N D 0 , F F P U E SCr) T S A P P P O X I MA TF L Y " I " , BETWllU 1 O R FEUER CATA P C I M S ! "A" RFPPFSENTS OEPK.H S NT S A'l. C  2 9 OR  /  y  /  = 366.6  -  _  OS F D W H E N  A  __ S T D (Y)  E  R  R  R  S  ICR.5  1 . 7 E C PLOT  POINT  POINTS  _  Q  "  0 . 1 0 9 P  COVERS  OATA  POINTS  POINTS MOR F O A T A  o  2 4 3 .  1 1 2C.  IS  3 * 1 D A T A  MJK  S T OE R R ( R »  2 3 . 2 6  " * "  IMEOTk  t . ~ (I  1  C O F F F p.  "  " '  1  2 4 0 .  1 2 1 8 .  2.6U5x  1 1 9 6 .  /  1 1 7 4 .  /  1 1 5 2 .  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  1 1 3 0 . 1  lv».  1 0 8 4 . 1 0 6 4 . 1 0 4 ? . l i ? 0 . 9 9 8 .  0  9 7 6 . 0 ° 5 4  . 0  9 3 2 . 0 9  . 0  H i ? .3 . 0  C  H 6 6 .  84'. . 0 8 2 2 . 0 P O O . 0 773  . 0  754  . 0  r  7 3 4 .  7 1 2 .( 6 9 C  . 0  6 6 8 . 0 6 4 6 . 0 6 2 4 . 0 6 0 2  /  . 0  481.C  5 6 0 . C  55  8 . 0  5 3 4 . 0 4\4.0 4 9 ? . 0 4  7 0 . 0  4 4 0 . 0 4 2 6 . 0 414 . 0  0 0  3 82.  0  3 6 0 . 1  0  2  3 3 8 . 0 3 1 6 . 0  " \ "  2 9 4 . 0 2 7 2 . 0  1  2 5 3 . 0  0  223. r ?0!>.0 1 B4.0 162 . C  I*C  i I\I III 1111 I\II 11 III i I\II 111X1 I\IIIIIIIII\I 11 \ 111 I\II IIII i II\II An 11 i\i\i 5 . 3 1 1  DISTANT  7 . 2 0 0  6  Ri!TV,CrN SLASHES C I * THE X - / X I S  9 . 4 0 1 1 0  IS  O.ll'O x  =  AGE (wks)  1 1 . 6 0 .  1 3  uu  13.RO  i\m  inn  iMiu  1 4 0 . 0  in n\  1 6 , 0 0  ro o ro  Figure F.22. Regression of Middle-Point'.orrAge: MJK 0~P VAR MI 0 0 I E TEr AN  INI)  .  _.  CCNST A 385.1 '•*•• \ R F US .D  CflFFF FI-ATIC FPROP S T O ERH S T O EP.R S T O EHR R (Bl (Bl IAI (Bl (V| AO, E -C.S333 0.2304 0.6361 25.41 1.944 118.5 '." AND TO P L O T THE R E G R F S S I C N L I N E : T h E " * " IS USED WHEN A P L O T P O I N T COVERS INTEGER "I".BETWEEN 1 ANO 9 , R C P P C S C N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 3 * 1 OA TA P O I N T S 2 9 OR MORE D A T A POINTS 1 OR FEWER C A T A PC1NTS: •A" REPRESENTS RFpafSE'lTS  VJ1  C  RSO  DATA  0.0009 POINTS  1 1 70. 114?. 1126. 1104. 1 082. 1 061. I 0 38 . 1 016. "94.0 9 7 2.0 951.0 "23.0 106 .0 884 . 0 «62.0 841 .0 111 8 . 0 796.0  1 170. / / / / / / / / /  y = 385.1  -  0.S333X  95C.C /  " / / / / / / / /  i  " 774 . 0 752.0 7 3 0 .1 708.( 686.0 664.0 6 4 ? .0, 620.0 613 . 0 6 76 . 0 154. 0 5 32 . 0 ""51 i . i " 48H. 0 466.0 444 . 0 422.9 400 . 1 " 3 7 •> . 0 " 3 56.0 3 34 . 0 312.9  / / / / / / / / /  51C.C / / / / / / / / / 2SC.C / / / / / / / / / 70.00  i I\I 11111111 \ u 11 ii 111 \ ii 11 I\I 11 \ 111 u 111 n 111 i\u 11 \ ii 111111 I\I i\i 1111  5.OCO riSTANCE  BETWEEN  7.200 S L A S H E S VM  8 THF  X-AXIS  IS  9.40O 10 . 1 1 C E,  r  x = AGE (wks)  11.60.  i  3  13.80  2 "0.0 268 .0 '246.0" 224.0 2O2.0 1 80.1 158.0 1 36.0 114.0 9 2 . OC 70.00  oo O CO  1111 I\I i III i ii I\I 11111111\  1 6 . 00  CM  G<J~-f\.-J'-CP-.  —  O  - <- c • • a o — —• o — — :  — c  9  o  OU _ • X  <  - O l- > i  .  rJ  I/.  ». <  —' C  <J  r- —• c  ^  1  2 ; 1/1  i oj Q C '.C C_>  a. U;  <r. ~  '_• u '  I a  r-  <  »—  r".  < ,  c  i—  z  u  a;'  U-  •  <  -t  ; -C r~ < «—  ^ C- '  C . "S. V .  * a  I  «s. V . "N. -S. >s. *  . \  — rj • ->v \  "v.  •«v  j - i f\j • I  ^  -  —  . N.  x.  t  •  IT  ^  <  •-  _.  Filjwre. F . 2 4 . I NI)  fir p  COEFF  C O A T A  Cf A N  f  Af.f  THE Af;  "."  no«  374  "  .0  -  1  OR  F FWFR _C AT A  "  /  " y  KFPRFSENTS  = 37"*.0  ~" "  M e a n F_  I Al  POINTSJ,  T H E "*•• 3*1 29  REPRJ SFNTS_ "  STD  I"  USED  DATA OR  CPR  STD  (HI  2C.S7  C . 2024 LINE;  MJK  Age:  (H)  APPROXIMATELY  '  on  jfto E R R  1-612 THE RCGRESSICK  PL01 <),  of  FPmm  (H)  - 2 . 0 3 .  "«•• AKb . s e c TC "I",BETWEEN 1 AND  OFPPFSEMS  9HC.0  8  ANO  I N T EG E"  Regression  ' - F P ' A T 10  1 .6C5 WHEN A  PLCT  RSC  CPR  (VI 97.8.6 PCINT  CCVFRS  G.0066 OATA  POINTS  PCINTS MORE  DATA  POINT?  " ?eo. o  ~  964.0  - 2.038X  /  941. 0  / /  934.0 92 0.0  /  905.0  /  8 75 . 0  •<50 . 0 860.0  / /  845.0  C  R30.C  P30.0 8 15.0 800.0 735.C 770.0 7->4.C 74 0 . 0 725.C '710.0 594.1  _.  0  480.0  6P0.O 665.0 640.r  i  0  n s . r 620 .0 614 .0 49C.0 575.0 561.0 44 4 . "  ^  430 .0  531.iC~  514.0 4:1.0 485.r 470.0 0  444.0 440 .0 4 2 5 . r  1 0  4 10.0 V)4 . 1  1  3  1  3  3 8 0.1 -<64. p  1 0  1  0  |  1 38C.O  i r i  1  *  0  n  1  2-0  '  "  " 7  1 0  33 5 . 0 320.0  4  2  0  2  304.0 270.0  1  1  2  2 75.0  1  1  2 6 3.0  0  2  3  l  0  0  l  .0 5.3< 0 0 1 STANCE  , 2u1 PETWFEN  SLASHES  ON  8  THF  0 . 4 C 0 X-AXIS  IS  0 .1  " 35 1 . 1  0  0  1 0 0  '  • 4  2  10  K C  x = AGE (wks)  1 1 .60  13  13.80  1  245.0  1  2 3 1 . 0  16.01  APPENDIX G LINEAR REGRESSIONS OF V/TTHIN-UTTERANCE RANGE ON AGE y = a + bx y = Fundamental frequency (Hz),  x = Age (wks)  The following figures represent xerox reductions of computer printout. At the top of each figure are listed the constant a, the coefficient b, and the F-probability. The "." and  are used to plot the regression  lines, "*" being used when a plot point covers data points. Integers (I) represent approximately 2 x 1 data points; 0 represents 1 or no data points; A represents  20  or more data points. If 'D-01' follows any number  in the printout, that number must be divided by ten. Figure G.l: CAB Figure G.2: AMG Figure G.3: AMR Figure G. M-: JLR Figure G.5: DAE Figure G.6: MJK  _ O E P V A « R A N G E  i \o V A R A G F  T H E  <"  " . " ANO  _  ^ B " o e G.l.  Regression o f j v i r h i n - U t t e r a n c e  TflNST ~ ~" COFFF ""FHAll'C A B (B> -7.C65 A . A i l 32.65 " A R E L S F O TO P L O T THE R E G R E S S I O N  FPRnS"' " (B) 0.0000 LINE: THE " » "  Range o n A g e :  'ST0'~F~RR * ~ (Al 18.05 I S U S E D WHEN  CAB  S T C ERR* STO'F.RR ( B l (Yl 1 . 1 71 EC.OS A PLCT P C I N T COVERS  5 7C.O  RSQ  DATA  0.1441 POINTS  570.0 558.0 546. f 534.0 522.0 MP.O 4CK.0  1 / ' / / / /  i 1  y = -7.065  +  6.691X  / / /  486 . 0 474.o 462.0  1  450.0  45C.0 / / /  433.0  I  4 2 6. 0 4 14.0 402.0  / /  1 2  / / /  3 .0 378 .0 366. 0 o  354 . 0  /  -/  1  / / /  B  a  / / / /  1 1  r i £  /  1  /  1  i a.  1  1  2 1 1 . i  "  1 / / / /  1  / / /  2  1 1  /  1  1  1  1  1  3  2  1 2 2  9 0 . CO / / / / /  i  1  2 .  / /  -30. 0 0  7 42 33C. 0 318.0 3 06 .0 294.0 2 2.0  a  9  n  1 1 5.1 " i CISTANC?  1 1  .  1  .  4 2 4  I  4  I  4 8 3 4  1  1  •  1 2 2 1  5 6  1 2  1 1 3  1  2  1  1 4  1  1  1 1  * •  .  2 4  3 2  1  7  2 a  2  1  3 4 3 1  1 1  1  ? 1  2 34 .0 222.0 21 7.0 1 9 3 .0 1 86. 0 1 74.0 1 62 1 50.0 1 3 0.C 126.0 114.0 10 2.0 °0.00 78.00 6h.00 64.0"  4 2.00 30 . o n 18.00  1  1  1  6.000 -6.100 -1 8.00 -30.00  1  78 8.4f0 10 BETWEEN S L A S H E S ON THE X - A X I S  2 2  2 3  4  1 1 2 3  1 1 2  270.c 218.0 246.0  11.80 IS  14  C.170C  " " "x'VAGE ~(wks>  15.2016  18  18.60  20  22.00  ro o  _____ _ I NO " ""CONST' VAR A AGE 46.72 . « A N O » • • • ARE U S E C  Z.6  ur>e  ~ CO E F F D 3.248 T O P L O T THE  <».Z. K'gression of Within-Utterance Range on Age: AM3  FPATIO~~ (BI 11.7* REGRESSION  '"  F PR OR (PI C.0U09 LINF; THF " * ' •  STO FRP ~ S T l f t"PP ST C FRR (Al (PI (VI 11.OH O.Q471 57.52 I S USED WHEN A P L C T P C I N T CCVFRS  RSO  OATA  "i.i-fl. PCINTS  31"  y a U8.72 + 3.248x /  J'^'  1  ' '  ?s)  /  232  /  2  /  "/••«  7c  2<-l  / / /  1  /  2<- '  '  /  1  "3-1  7.  1  / / / /  '??!•  1 1  219 212 2. 4 I -•'  ' 1  /  _  / / / /  1 I 3 1 1  _  I  i  / -  I  / / / /  _  "" ~  2 *  /r  ""~  / / /  1 I 1 2  l  1  5 5 5 5 5 4  2 3  ~5  / I / 1 / 3  " /  1 1  _  1 1  '  5 4 4 1' 3 *  3  ••""  1 1 1 2 2 "3 1  " "  4 3  2  3 1 2  1 2 ^ ^ " ~ 3  I "" 1  "  4  »/..  1 1 2 _  70. 72.  5 1  2 3 1  /  7  4  1 '  l  .' "V ••  r  /  '-4.  "4  6.  4 ) .  4 i . 37. 3 i . ?3. " U - . 3.'' 2.0 - 4 . i -12.  -19.  /  "  /  "  ~  ""  ti\u 111\i 5 . 0 01111tu\iiit 1 7 7 . 2\11nuut\uuI\I11 00 9 9 . 4\ 0 0111in111 \n 11 1 unt\iiX11ui 1 . M DISTANCE  1  2  /  "  L  2 3 2 1  2  -  l'?  i  7  . .  1 1 7 7 1711(0 3 15. 1 '•••> " 1 " 2 13'. 123 2 121 2 114  3" 4 2 1 2  1  ],  ~  4 2  1  1  3  ^  1 1  ~  / / I / 1 / '  ?'-4  1  BETWEEN  SLASHES  ON  TEC  X-AXIS  IS  O.1100  x = AGE (wks)  -?3.  \uu1111I\Itut/ni\ttuutu\ IS I L " '  13.80  CFP  I NO  CONST  CDEFF  VAP  VAR  A  P  RANGE  AGE  THE AN  34.71  " . "  A NO  INTEGER  »0_  ARF l  ( 8 I  3.546  USFC  "I'SUETWEFN  _EP_ISFNTS  29C.0  Figure G.3. Regression of Wilhtii-lTtleruruje Range on Age: AMR (I R K A A TT II O U F ri'Knn I'ROH isin l l ) Ii H n<i Ssi i l ln F FPR PR S S TTC  TO  1  OR  A AO FEWER  PLOT 9,  8. 706 THE  POINTS;  LINE;  THF  APPROXIMATELY "A"  (Al  C."035  RFCPESSION  REPRESENTS  OATA  in)  16.39  •'«••  IS  2*1  CATA  REPRESENTS  ((I  20  USFO  I  1.202 WHEN  A  PLCT  •'SC  FI-'R  (YI 55.90 FONT  CCVFRS  0.';243 OATA  POINTS  POINTS  OR MORE  OATA  POINTS r  - " ' / / /  y  o 34.71 •  ?</.'•  7 :\:  3.546X  ?7K n  2 7?  l  ?f (  /  ?••«.  /"  2 A n  / /  •><•?  /  ?3t  0  2 3 ' 224  2 30.0 /  l .....  / /  0  /  „  /  g  /  £  /  U  170.0  I  _____ ~  "**  :  //  I  2C  I  ? (  ol  ..  o  l 2 r,  1 °2  3  1 64 1 '-P  t  1 ' 2 1 4... 1 4 ."•  ' 1  0  1 >4  c  /  1?3  / / n o . o  -  l o o  o  /  l  / /  o  0 o  7  0 0  * 0  /"  0  l  2 l  -  l 0  /~"i5 in  ~~~  V i  /_n  -10.00  /  .  8.COO 0 1 STANCE  l _o_  9.400 ON T H E  IS  f. •'.  4 4 .  4  IS. 32.  0  l  5  26.  I  0 0  •>  2". 14.  3  *? • *  1 ,  10. 80 X-AXIS  •>  4  |  SLASHES  64.  l  ii 11 IMI ii 11 ii I\II ii inn iiiriiiui 9  eETWFEN  3  r~  o  ~ "" ~ r  IIMIIIIIIIIMIiv  «.  l  2  /  7  l 0  l  o o  1  ' 74.  0  0  -16.  - .  0  2  / /  l  2  1 •  - . °? . 13  3_  •  "l  IV-  0  /  /  1 22 1 lr  ] f-  l  /  50.00  I  /  /  rt  l  11'  I  / /  '  194 1 •' a  l  0  '•"  :  21 2  l  0  -  ' 3 1 >  f  - K  i/in nv i ni i in in i \tt nun I\I in mi i\ II 11 II i in 12  O.?OQ0F-11  "*  x = AGE (wks)  12.20  13.6'-  14.r-i  _Figure G.M. Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Age: JLR_ sfo~'rRR'  '  OEP 1 NO CONST CO EE F FPATIO' FPR'IB STD F K l f S T O C^P VAR VAP A B (Bl (BI (Al IB I RANGE AGF 94.53 -0.8359 0.4483 C.51CB 14.3? 1. 2 5 0 THE AND A R E L S E D TO P L O T T H E R E G R E S S I O N L I N E T H E " * " I S U S E D WHEN A P L C T P C I N T A N I N T E G E R " l " , B E T W F E N 1 ANO 9 , R E P R E S E N T S APPROXIMATELY 8 * 1 OATA POINTS "0" REPRESENTS 4 OR F E W E R D A T A P C I N T S i " A " REPRESENTS 7 7 O R - M O R F OATA POINTS 1560. y = 94.53 - 0.8369X  '  (Y) 1C5.0 CCVERS  "  DATA  RS'J 0 .0008 POINTS  0  \ 1 1  1240. .  1 36 3 . 1 ">36.  ', ;  1 V 4. 1 ?7?. 1 ?4". 1 ?. P. 1 1 76. 1 144. 111?. 1 H i . 1 048.  i  s  K ! » . ')84 .-' 96? .0  ft «  l ' h o . 1 •> ? 8 . 1 496. 1 46 4 . 1 '. \ ? . 14'".  920.0  ° ? . ( .3*3.0 8 6 ..• H?4.0 A  k  1  /•>? .( 7*- . (• 7? 3. 0 6 9 6 .1  I 1 II  r  664 0  600.(5  6 ? ?. r 6< ' .0 t * . .v  0  0  0  s: 4  0 0  \ 280.0  -40.00  / / / /  0 0 o *  / / /  1 1 0  BETWEEN  SLASHES  6 I  8  IIIII\II\II 111/iin irii/\ii/\ ON THE X - A X I S  9 IS  ~  0 l l 3 4  ?  7 7.200  5 . CCO  . 1  74*.O  0  1 1 3 6  3 1  '< 1 ?  ?80.C  ' 0o • •  2  376.0 344.0 (•  0 0  0 1 1  inn i/ititi\ii DISTANCE  4-,'M.O  0  0 0  1 0 0 0  1 0 / 0  .1  4 73.0  II iiiiiinii/i/iiinii 9 .400 O.UCO  it IIII I\IIII iiiin/\ti/iin 1 1 .60  x = AGE (wks)  13.80  '  C" 1 1 ? • 3 "l " 1  i\n mum 16.  '?lt..' 184.0 15?.0  !?'.'' '18. C I "  ?4..-(" -n."00  ro I— O 1  Figure G.5.Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Age:__DAE P ANO E AG L 196.9 - 6 . 0 2 8 4.545 C.0259 ThF » . ' • A N D • • « ' • ARE L S E C TO P L O T T H REGRESSION L I N F ; T H F ••*•• A'i INTEGER "I",BETWEEN 1 AND 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I MA TF L V 2+1  3 4 . 72 I S U S C O WHEN OATA POINTS  P  RFPPFSFNTS  »C 760.0  / / /  _ 1  "  OR "' y  F F WER  OATA  " •> 1 9 6 . 9  PC1NTS;  "A"  RFPRfSFNTS  / "  /  O R _ M O R F _DATA  2 . 7 11 PLCT  PCINT  132.4 CCVFRS  OATA  0.0255 POINTS  POINJS  ~  0  76".0 744 . i 728.1 7l?.o  0  6 96 . 0  ' 0 - 6.028x  / _  20  A  ~  '"  .  6<=0.0  '  6 6 4 . 0  /  0  6 4 R . 0  /  632.0  / 6C0.O  6 16.0  .  -  .  /  6 0 0 . "  '  """ /  "  "  *  "  "  ~  *  "  "  56».ri  /  542.0  /  0  5">6.1  /  4 ?,;..(,  /  0  ""'  /  '  / 440.C  4  0<. . 0 PS. 1  4  72 . 0  4  / "  4 5 6 .0  /  0 o  440.0 424.r  o  /  08.0  4  /  0  /  '  _  3"V.O  0 "  -  -  •  -\T .c  -  h  I  -61.0  /  0  344.0  0 1  3 1 2 . " 294.0  /  328.0  / /  0 _ _  _  _  _  _  _  _  !  _  / 1  /  0  0  /  1  0  / /  1 "  "'  ""  " "  /  0  ~ ' " " " "  "  1 ' 2 "  "  '  -  1  5  1  0  /  .  -  .  __  0  2 16 . 1  -  -  -  "O*  200.0 184.1 1 1 6 3 . 0  0.  1  1 52.0  0  0  2  1 1 6 . 0  . _ "  _ ~  "  "  1  ~  l  "  ?  _  ~  "  "  1?.00  4  2  6  0  4  . 1  0  "  ' ~  2  0 _  2 12-i.r * _ 104.0 3 " rtp . 0 "  1  " T  46.11 4 0 . 1 1  6  "  '  / 40.30  2 32.0  0  2 I  1  / /  4 8.0  0 .  2 1 \  ~  2 1  / _  2 6 4 . "  0 1  / "' /  0  2  ""'  .  /  I  '  .  / 120.0  _  1  /  /  °4.0  4  "  2 4 . 00 _  8.000  " - .  ,0"tl  - 2 4 . 0 1 •  .  ii\nunn/\iiuni\i\/iiiiuii\iniuni\iii\iiii\unnin\iiiiiiiii\i\iiiiin\iiiijiiii\iiiiiiiii\ 5.1( 1  _E I I<;  4N(:,:  7 PFTWEEN  7. 200  SLASHES  ON  9.401 THE  X-AXIS  IS  10  1 1 .60  0.11C0 x  =  AGE (wks)  . 13  -40.00 13.80  16.00  Figure G.6. Regression of wirliin-Ut terance Range on Aget flJK CEP  IV)  CONST  "  OlEFE  l-'HAIIfl  FPI.OB  STO  VAR VAR A e IB) (HI RANGE ACE 58.59 „ 3.476 5.679 0.0176 THE " . " A N ) • • » " A P E O S E C TO P L O T THE R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; THE " * " A ' : I N T E G E R " I " . B E T W E E N 1 A NO 9 , R E P R E S E N T S A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 2»I "0~7SC.C  REPRESENTS '  1 OR  FEWER  OATA  POINTS:  "A"  REPPF SENTS  CEP  STC  (A) 18.87 i S U S F O WHEN CATA POINTS  20_ OP  MORE  fRP  (B1 1.444 A PLCT  DATA  ""'  PCINT  STC  ERR  (Y> 88.C3 CCVERS  F S C  OATA  0.0226 POINTS  PC I M S  o  / / / /  y = 58.99  7?o.o 71 5 . 0 700 .0 681.0 6 70.0 651.0 ~ 640.0 " 671.0 6 10.0 591. o 1 '< 0 . 0 565.0 ' 54C.0" 531.0 12".0 501. o 4"0.0 471.0 460.0 445.0 4 30 .0 4 l 4 . 0  + 3.426X  / / / / / StiO.O  "  /  ^  I I I I I  5  " / /  |  430.0 / / / / / / / / /  l  / / / /  j 133.0  ' /' / / / -  400.r 331.C 3 70.0 3 11.0 340.0 37 5. 0 3 10.0 795.0  ?«r.r "  o "  1 1  0  / o  - 2 0 . CO  765.0 750 .0 735.0 770.0 ?oi.C 19C.0" 1 71.0 169.0. 1 45.0 130.0 114.0 lOO.p" 85.CO 70.00 51. 00 40.00 75.00 10. 00 -5.000 -20.00  0  /  3  / / / / / / /  1 * 7 1 3 3  _  1  1 0 0  i" 2 l l I l 7  1 1 1 1 0  2 1 ? ...  ^  4 3 7 2 C 0  ii\iinii/n\iiiitiiii\niii\in\iiiiiiiii\iii\iiii\niiiiiii\i/i\niii\/i\iiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ 5.COO  OISTANCF  '. BETWEEN  7.2'n  SLASHES  CN  8 THE  " . 4 ( 0 X-AXIS  IS  1.0  0.1100  x = AGE (wks)  11.60  13  13.80  16,  07  ro H ro  APPENDIX H LINEAR REGRESSIONS OF WITHIN-UTTERANCE RANGE ON DURATION FOR UTTERANCES WITH ONE AND TWO MIDDLE-POUITS y = a + bx y = Fundamental frequency (Hz),  x = Duration (csec)  The following figures represent xerox reductions of computer printout. At the top of each figure are listed the constant a, the coefficient b, and the F-probability. The "." and  are used to plot the regression  lines, """ being used when a plot point covers data points. Integers (I) represent approximately 2 x 1 data points; 0 represents 1 or no data points; A represents 20 or more data points. If 'D-01' follows any number in the printout, that number must be divided by ten. For each child, regressions of within-utterance range on duration are calculated separately for utterances with one and two middle-points  Figures H.l - H.H: One middle-point Figures H.7 - H.12: Two middle-points  213  . F i g u r e INn  r.CNST A  VAR CUR A NO  RepccGGion.of  APE  TO  PLOT  STD  (B)  17.70 THE  Range o n D u r a t i o n  FPRnfl  (B)  0.64CR  IISEC  Within-Utterunce  FRA'TIO  •  U  60.(10  . "  H.l.  CDtFt-'  0.O001 L I N E ;  REGRESSION  THE  " » "  —  FRP  Utterance, ERR  "STD  (A)  (BI  8.923  0.1523  IS  WHEN  USED  A  idtli  ~  SIC  one M i d d i e - P o i n t : FRR  CAB  RSQ  (Y)  8 2 . 4 1  PLOT  POINT  0 . 0 8 7 3  COVERS  DATA  POINTS  1  570.0  /  558.0  /  y  = 60.00  +  0.6408X  546.0  /  534.0  / _/  522.0 .  5 10.0  /  .  .  .  A  /  g  f  _  (  p  486.0  /  1  474.0  /  462.0 450.0  _/  1  ;  438.0 '  426.0  /  414.C  /  402.0  /  1  /  1  390.0  1  378.0  /  366.0  /  '  "  354.0'  /  342.0 1  330.0  /  318.0  /  304.0  /  294.0  /  ~  "  "  /  "  "  2  1  8  2  .  0  270.0  /  258.0  /  1  246.0  /  .  234.0  _ /  222.0 I  ~"  ~ ~  '"  "  ~  "  /  "  ""  "  " " " 2 1 0 . 0  .  /  1  /  1  .  2  /  1  1  1  /  1  1  /  1  /  1  1  1  1 1  /  21  1  22  1  1 3  /  .  /  13  . 2  /  1  /  2  / /  16  "  174.0 . 1  " l l  4  / /  1  1  1  1  •  1 _  162.0  1  _  ".  "  '  126.0  1  2  1  1  114.0  1  1 3  2  .  2  1 1  2 3,1  '  12  5  34  " 1  I  52  1  11  1  2  41  3  2  51  3  3  41  3  1  102.0 1  1  1  2_  90.00  1  1  '  1  "  1  " l  -  ,  _ "  "  1 1 1  _ ""  78.00 66.00 54.00  1  1 II  150.0 138.0  1 12  198.0 186.0  1  2 _1_1  2  1  42.00  1  30.OF  1  18.00  1  6.000  /  - 6 . 0 0 0  /  -18.00 -30.00 - 3 0 . V.  0 1 STANCE  30.00 BC T U F E N  S1ASHFS  f N  00.00 THE  X-AXIS  IS  3.000  * « DURATION (cseo)  150.0  210.0  270.0  Figurejf, 2. Regression of Within-Utterance Range onDuration • •)i ••'  !>.->  VA~  VAP  UA'.r.z  C'lUST A  nijo  Th=  C'lrrr R  41.57  ».••  ANO  " • "  EEATIC  AtT  (HI  l.ii)7  US5U  TO  FPRPR  PLOT  (R)  46.83 THE  STO  I INF:  STO  (Al  0.0000  REGRESSION  Utterances with One Middle-Point: A*i5  FRR  THE  5.325  "*••  IS  FRP  STO  (RI 0.1471  USED  WHEN  A  FRR  RSO  (Yl  PLCT  51.95 PCINT  COVERS  0.1937 DATA  POINTS  '10.  310.0 303.0  y = 13.97 + 1.007x  2"6.0 289.0 282.0 275.0 268.0 261 .0 254.0 247.0 240.0  24C.0  233.0 226.0 ?I<).0 212.0 205.0 198.0 111.0 /  18 4 . 0  /  177.0 1 70.0  /  163.0  /  1 56.0  _/  1 '°- . 0 r  1  on  1 15.0 1 23.0 l  1  121.0  I  114.0 ...  i  f 1  /  1  l l  / .  i .. /  r—  1 42.0  /  / /  r-o  149.0  7 / / / / /  107.0  ....  1C0.0 93.00  1 2  8 6. 00 79.00  1  2  ?  1'  2  4  2  1  72 . 0 0  1  6 6.00 58 . 0 0 5 1 .00  2  44.00  1  l 3  /  37.00  1  3 0.00  > • ) . • * '•  23.00  /  l  /  2  i  »  r  /  4  5  1  1  i  "  i  1  16.00 9.000  1  2.000 -5.000  / /  _/  _  f~  - I  _  "  ""  "  "  ""  "  '  "  "  "  '•.<!'  3 l . f i nriwrrM  51 A S H E S  ON  '.7.00 THE  X-AXIS  IS  '  -26.00 - 3 3 . 0 0 - 4 0 . 0 0  ii\iiiiiiiii\iininii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiini\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiifiiii\iiiii/iii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ DISTViri  2.00  -19.00  R3.00  1.300  * • DURATION (cseo)  109.0  135.  "  rigure.H. 3. Re_re3_ion_of Within-utterance on Duration^— Utterances_ with One Middle-Point:  C"  "  |  ' r"r n  "inTi  VA« PJ»'« I F F  V A O O U R "." A C O  2-30.1  r  CVN.  ••*'•  c n t r r  F  )\  A '.7.17 A " F IJS.C  / / / / /  "  F  A  T  I  O  (8) 0.0000 L I N E ! T H E "*"  ( B ) 38.13 R E O / P F S S I O N  0. 6426 T O Pi i n T H E  " F P B C I H s f n  "  E R R '  ( A ) 4.H18 I S U S E D  ~  S T O ' F R R " ( B ) 0 . 1035 A P L O T  W H E N  S T C  P C I N T  R S Q 0.1295 P O I N T S  O A T A  = 47.17 *  0.S426X  1 .  _ -  / / / / /  -  -  -  -  I  " £ ""  / / / / /  17'.0  1 1 1 1 1 1  .  1  50. ' f  1  i  / / I  2 1 3 2 1 1 1 4 1.1 3  -  .  1  ,  r  * i  1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1 '  . . '  "  / / / /  2  2 1 2 1 3 1 2 2  3 1 11 1  *  2 1 5 2 4_2 5"'l- 2 4 1 6  1  rrs'T  3  1  1 1  2  1  I  .  1 1  .  1 1  1  .  1 .  1  2 1  1  1 1  1  1 1 1  1  1 1  1  1  1 1 1 1  2  1 1  68.00 62.00 56.00  1  1 1  -  -  -  -  -  1 1  5 0 . 00 4 4.0 38.00 32.00  _ "  1  -  n  "  1 1  1  26.00 20.00 14.00 8.000  2 J 1  1  1  '  _  i  _  '  _  ~"  " " "  '  2.000  / -IO.'.'  1  - 4 . 0 0 0  -  ii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiui\ -2.0.1'/ 0 1 STANCE  0  140.0 134.0 128.0 122.0 116.0 110.0 104.0 98.00 9 2.00 86.00 80.00 74.00  1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2. 1  1 2 1  ' 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 ? 1 2 3  ""  1  2 3 2 2  _  i46.o .  1  1  188.0 " 1 8 2.0 176.0 170.0 164.0 158.0 H 2 . 0  1 1  "2 '  1  /  1 1  1  <  194.0  .  1 1  1  / / / / / / / / / / /  / / / .  1 1  1 1  5  212.0 204.0 200.0  1 .  / "  110."  2  248.0 242.0 236.0 230.0 224.0 218.0  /  X  290.0 2 84 . 0 278.0 272.0 266.0 260.0  1 y  / / / _  "  (Y) 48.98 C O V E R S  /  231.C  AMR  F R R  »f.rwS*.|  3 0 . On S I . A S H F S CU TFF  X-AXIS  IS  80.00 2.500  x = DUWION (csec)  iiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiii\iitiiiiiiMiiumi\ 130.0  180.0  -10.00  230.0  Figure H.4. Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Duration — Utterances with One Middle-Point:_ JLR UE.P VAR  i N l VAR  CONST  CUCFF  F i l AT 11]  A  II  (It)  FPROB  (Bl  STO ERR  STO  (A)  ERR  IB)  STO  E1R  y  / / / /  = 43.17 •  RSC  m  RANGE CUR 43.17 1.036 26.33 O.OCOO 8.097 0.2019 100.7 I S USEO WHEN A P L O T P O I N T COVERS •" A ^ S USCO to P L O T T H E R E G R E S S I O N L I N E ; T H E " • " THE " . " A N D 3 * 1 UATA POINTS AN I N T E G E R " l " , H E I W E E N I A NO 9 , R E P R E S E N T S APPROXIMATELY " 0 " REPRESENTS 1_UK. F E W E R U A . I A _ P 0 I N I S ; . . _ _ . _ . R E | > R E S _ N I S _ . _ _ 2 9 . . O R . M O R E . O A T A - P . O I N L S 1 560. y = 43.17 + 0. /  DATA  0.053* POINTS  156'J. 1 528. 1 496. 1464. 1 432 . 1400 I 36b. 1 3 36 . 1304. 1 272. 1 240. 123H. 1 1 76. 1 144.  1.036X  / / / / 1240.  .... / / / / / / ..../ / /  111?.  lOtiO. 1048. 1016. 9114.0 952.0  920.0  920.0 888.0 856.0 .824.0 792.0 760.0 7?rt . 0 696.0 664.0 632.0 6C0.0 56B.0 536.0 504 .0 472.0 440.0 408.0 376.0 344.0 312.0 230.0  / / . . / / / / / /  /._  0_  6CO.0 / / / /  /.. / / / / 280.0  __/... / / / / /  -40.00  I. I I  I  C  Q. 0  0 2 4 2 2 3 . / 6 6 2 1  u...  1 U  0  C  0  0 _] 1  DISTANCE  0  0..  -8.000 -40.00  //I/////////1 III it tn i\i 11 in i/i I iii/ii/i/1 5.CC0  ..248.0 216.0 184.0 152.0 120.0 88. 00 56.00 24.00  4 1 . 0 0 BaiWEEN.SLASHES.UN-IHE_X-AXI.S_I5  mi 11 in i in II in 111 II i II in i i/ii/iii/i 77.00  113.0  l.BOQ.x.=„DURATION (csec)  II i in in 11 it. 0II II 111  1 4 9 . 0  _  185  .  _.^i_^r--Hi---_? 8~«o_on._of Within-Utteranco c  nri' VJ.» PANr.t i>F  IM) VA» OMR «.» AHO  "car.T  enrrr  '  A I - . * APF i/SFO -  " 7/0.  TfJ  F R A T I O  .". 1.030 P L O T THF  Range o n D u r a t i o n  F P P C B  (Rl lO.'T RFCFFSSION  STD  IB) 0.0016 LINE; THE " • "  —  Utterances  CPR  (A) 17.B7 IS U S E D  STD  WHEN  w i t h One ERR  IB) 0.3170 A PLOT  Middle-Point.: S T C  PCINT  FRR  IV) 136.5 COVERS  DAE R S Q "  "" 0.0602 POINTS DATA 760.0 744 . 0 728.0 712.0 6"4 .0 680 664 648 632 616 6 00 584 . 0 568.0 552.0 536.0 520.0 504.0 488.0 472.0 456.0 440.0 424.0 408.0 312 .0 376.0 160.0 344 . 0 32B.0 312.0 2 96.0 280.0 264.0 248.0 2 32.0 216.0 200.0 1 84.0 16H . 0 1 52.0  75.45 + 1 . 0 3 0 X  4 0 ' • •". r  4 40.0  1 JP"  1  .0  1  1  1 1 l ? - . o  1 / / / / / _ / l" I  2  2  B  2 '" 1 4 2  1 l" 1 2 3 2  1 *  1 1  I 1 1  1  I  1 1 1  1 34.0 120.0 104.0 88.00 72.00 5 6 . 00 40.00  3 1  1  1  !  III1111 l\l 111II111 \ 111111111 \ 11111II11 \  \l 5.C<r C I S 141:0'II  1 1 4 . 2 I 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 6 6 3 3 ?  1 ] 1 2 3 2  ITIWI'l'l  30.(0 51 A . H I " ' . I N TI IF  X-AXIS  IS  73.00 1.700  x = DURATION  l l l l l l l l l \ l l l l l l l l l \ l l l l l l l l l \ I I I I I I U I \ l l l l l l l l l \ l 107.0 141.0 175.  (csec)  2 4.00 B.000 8.000 24.00 40.00 l l l l l l l l \ 0  ro H CO  _ *  '  i•>•!•"  ~  VI!'  Figure H.6, Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Duration:— Utterances with One Middle-i oint: MJK rrf.v» ' cnirr f A t i n FI-RUR S T O I R » S T O F R R S T O F R R " R  i'to V A ! .  p v r t  r u t  rn'  7H.I7  f->i\ i r . r o  " . " / " i n ••»" lOTFOri-  AM  |>  A  ••!•>,niTwr^'J  .. B h P - r s r f - T S 7'.; . 0 -  (R)  1 OR F F W T P 0  T o r  prr.ors^inN  o, R F P R E S F M T S OATA  R  I  (  0.2138  1.->]r,7 T O PI o i  1 AN O  ( i I ^ F :  T M T  P O I N T S ;  U S F O  DATA  (  0.2578 M I F N  Y  S O  )  82.73  A P I D T  P O I N T  C O V E R S  0.0078 D A T A  P O I N T S  P O I N T S  20 O R M O S T  " A " P F P P F S I N T S  ( 0 )  )  1 0 . 3 2  ••*•• i s 2»I  A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  A  D A T A  P O I N T S  730.0  y - 78.87 * 0.3197X  ] ] ^ \ % 685.0  I /  ft  7 0 . 0  /  _  7"  "  "  "  "  "  ~  / /  5>e . 0  _ "  * 5 S . O  64 0 . 0 625.0 6 1 0 . 0  /  595.0  -  5 80.0  l  o  __.  ~  ' /  .  -  _  1 6 5 . o 650.0 535.0  -  O  /  520.0  /  605.0  /  490.0  /  476.0  / 4  3  9  .  0  "  ~  "  "  -  -  -  -  460.0  /  445.0  /  4 1 5 . 0  -  430.0 /  400.0  / ' /  *>P"i".0"  -  3 85 . 0 370.0  _.  /  355.0  /  3 4 0 . 1  /  325.0  /  3 1 0 . 0  I -~ / /  """  / /  0 n  1  / /  0  l.  0  0 0  / / -  9  0  1  0  1 1  /  *  ! 9  2  9  9  6  /  2  9  2  l - i  I /"  ') "  /  0  1 i  1 1  I1  0 0  0 0  0  1 7 5 . 0  1 1 1  1  0  -  0 0  c. !\r, * 1 0 0 2 fn > 1 ? 'J 0 0  4  _J  2 ?' 1  11  0 . 1  / /  0  1 6 0 . 0  1 1  /  206.0 1 9 0 . 0  0  1 1  /  11  9 _ _ i  1 1 20 1 1 0 0 n9 0  1 1 01 1 1 1 1 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 11 0 0  0  0  1  1 4 5 . 0  0 0  .  0  1 15.0  0 0  1  r  PFTwrr*!  37,Of.) SI.AS'II 5 O N TMF  1 3 0 . 0  . 0  0  liO.O 85.00  0  1  70.00 55.00  1 1 "  O  0 "  '  ~  "  _o _ " "  40.00  _ "  "  "  1  0  .  0  ii\iiiiniii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiuii\iiiiiiiii\uiu/iu\iiiiinii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiiniiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\  -".'' I) 1 W.f.'O''  295.0 280.0 265.0 250.0 235.0 220.0  o 0  /  139.3  -  X - AX I S  IS  64.00 1.61(1  96.00  x = DURATION (csec)  1 2 8 . 0  2 5.00 0 -5.000 -20.00  1 6 0 . 0  Figure H . 7 . Regression of Within-Utterwice Range on Duration ~ Utterances with two Middle-Points: CAB  . !\i> VA."Cuo . ' • AflO  CFNST A 57.90 » » • • APE U S F P  y  COFFF FP AT 1 0 R (R> 0 . 5 . - 3'. 6.C15 TO PLOT T H E R E G R E S S I O N  FPROR (R) 0.0428 L I N E : THF " * "  STD ERR (A) 29.43 I S U S E D WHEN  STD ERR S T C ERR (R) (Yl 0.229ft 54.1A A PLOT P O I N T COVERS DATA  RSQ 0.4622 POINTS  = 97.90 + 0.S636X  1  260.0  .  255.0 250 .0 245.0 240.0 2 35.0 2 30.0 225.0 2 20 . 0 214.0 210.0  •  1  • . 1  -  205.0 2 00.0  '  195.0 190.0 1R5.0 180.0 175.0  . 1  ""170.0 165.0 160.0 155.0 150.0 145.0 " 14 0 . 0 135.0 130.0 125.0 120.0 115.0  1 1 . "  "  _  _  "  "  _  "  "  "  "  "  1  " " " " " " " .  "  '  "  "  " ""  "'  . •  _  _ i  "'"  __  '  ""  "'"  '  "  "  "  _ •  ~  2 ' . 4 0 . 0 1 STANCE I I T T H F E N SLASHES  "  '  _ ~  "  "  1  //1 / / / / / / / n \ II II nm I iiiuiui1  "  no.o 105.0 100.0 95.00 90.On R5.00 80.00 75.00 70.00 65.00 60.00 55.00 50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00  in i mi 11 n in II 11\ 111111111111 im II i\ II i in m 1111 II i II n mi i mi I  ni I N TEG X - A X I S  IS  10 0 . 0 3.000  160 .0  x = DURATION Ccsec)  220.0  280.0  _  r  Figure H.8. "'  V»= PA (.'-.'•THF  '|."fi VA ou<-' r  •' . "  .'.'I'V  Regression of Within-Uttorance Range on Duration —  rir!';I .'. I I S . i i,srn  ftut  001-11-  FMATin  « 0.2744  ( R l 0.7798  hMCB (Rl 0.3927  TO P | i ) T TMT P F O l . F S S I O K  LIMf i  THF " * "  Utterances with Two  S T D f.KH (Al 24.93 IS  USFO  Middle-Points:_ AMG  S T D FRO ( R l 0.3110  WHEN  A  PLOT  S T D FRR  R SO  IY) 46.04 POINT  COVFRS  0.0415 DATA  POINTS  1  226.0  1  2 2 2 .4  y = 11S.5 + 0.2746X  218.8  2_'  215.2 211 .6 20R.0 204.4 200.8 197.2 193.6 1 90.0 1R6.4 182.8 179.2 175.6 172.0 168.4 1 64.8  -g  161.2 157.6  ?-  154.0  1 5 4 . 1  150.4 146.8 143  2 1 3 9 ,6 O 132 4 12ft 8  136  125 121  2 6  118.0 1 1 4 .4 1 11.R 107.2 1 0 3 .6 100.o 9 4 . 40 92.80 B 9 . 20 8 5.60 82.00  •4 2 . <  78. 40 7 4 . 80' 71 . 2 0 6 7 . 60 64.00 60.40 56. 80 53.20 49.60 46.00  ii\iiiiiiin\iiiiiiiii\iiiii/iii\iiniiiii\iiiuiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiu\iuiiiiii\ ?'i.'i3 HISTA'l.F  'I' HJFI M -  4 A . r o SI A SMI S UN THF  X-AXIS  IS  76.00 1.400  1 0 4 . 0  x = DURATION (csec)  1 3 2 . 0  1 6 0 . 0  IE" V!f  "rr'NST  TEE  " . "  COIEE  55.57  ANO •  Al>  FPATin  n  A  nu"  PANG*  Regression of Within-JJttprance Ran£o on Duration — Utterances with Two Miildln-Pointa:  Figure II.9.  pin V A<  in)  0.71 U  IISFO  ( B )  28.42  T O , l>l U T THE  STO  F P R O B  L I N E ;  "  S T DF P R (0)  ( A I  0.0000  P . E G E E SS I O N  F R R  12.37  T H E" « "I S U S E O  A  P L O T  AMR R S O  ( Y )  0.1334 W H F N  S T O E R R 47.99  P O I N T  C O V E R S  270.n  0.2441 O A T A  P O I N T S 270.0  y = S5.57 • 0.711_x  265.0 260.0 255.0 740.0 245.0 240.0 235.0 230.0 225.0  22".  n  220.0 215.0 210.0 205.0 200.0 19*.0 190 . 0 1 85.0 1 80.0 1 75.0  Ij.i  170.0 165.0 160.0 155.0 150.0 145.0 140.0 135.0 130.0 1 25.0  "  1 20.0  1 2'  115.0 1  I  1  10.0  105.0 1 00.0 95.00 90 . 0 0 35.00 I  80.00  1  7f.CC  75.00 1  70.00  1  6^.00 60.00 55.00 50.00 45.00 40.00 35.  CO  30.00 25.00 2 0 . OO  ll\IIIIIIIU\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\lllllllll\llllllltl\ 35.''0  U I S T A'H'.i  7|.00  I'.FrwCIM  SLASHES  UN  107,0  IHL  X-AXIS  IS  20.00 143.0  1.80.0  X = DURATION (csec)  179.0  215.0  ro ro ro  Figure H.10. Regression of Within-Utterance Range on Duration — Utterances with Two Middle-Points: JLR^ HK-P VAR RAN-E THE  IM) VAR  CONST A  CUS " . " A NO  " * "  560.0  CCF.FF H  51.71 ARE U S F C  FKATIII (II)  FPRUll (ID  I . O i l 12.59 TO P L O T T H E R E G R E S S I O N  LINE)  S T O ERR (A)  0.0008 THE " • "  IS  STO CRR (H)  24.71 U S E O WHEN  0.2850 A PLOT  S T D CRR (Y ) POINT  92.76 COVERS  / / / / 450.0 . / / / / / / / / / B  _.  340.0 / / . / _.. / / / / /  - V .... 230.0  1 120.0  10.00  2  L.  —  DATA  0.1506 POINTS  560.0 549 .0 538.0 52 7 . 0 516.0 505.0 494.0 483.0 472 461 450 . 4 39 42« 417 4C6 395.0 384.0 373.0 362.0 351.0 340.0 32) - J 318.0 30^.0 296.0 285.0 274. 0 263.0 252.0 241.0 23U.0 219.0 208.0 197.0 1H 6 . 0 175.D 164.0 1 53.0 142.0 1 31 . 0 120. 0 109.0 98 . 0 3 8 7.00 76.00 65.00 54.00 43.00 32.00 21.00 10.00  y = 59.77 t l.Ollx  / / / /  RSCl  1...-  / / I / / / / / / / / / i mi i ii i i i i i III i u ui HUM mi mi 11 ii ii i III 11 III ii III I t u n it it1 III mi in u i nm 11 1C.00 DiSTA.-JCc  38.00 UETwELN  SLASHES .OM.IHE_JCrAXlS  66.00 IS.  94.00  1.4CC  X = DURATION (csec)  . .  122.0 . .'.  150.  CO  r i  Figi___H.ll._ Regression of_Within-Utterance Range on Duration »- Utterances with Two Middle-Points; DAT, MfJ  - tt>r,r  Tf/> VAR HIR •." AMD  rT'-'.T  " c m  A 126.9 " » • • M'F USfr"  i"  '  h  A Ti n " r p f t r m  " ~ ~  M ( R) (BI -0.16]nn-oi 0. 1 6 9 6 0 - 0 2 C . 9 1 1 1 TO P l n T T I I F P F G R F S S I C N L I N F ; T H F "*•'  y s 126.9  S T O "F P . R S T O  "FR*  STO  IR)  ( A I 3 8 . 3 5 I S IISFO W H F N  0 . 3 9 1 0 A P L O T  C R R '  RSQ  (YI P O I N T  7 6 . 4 7 C O V E R S  O A T A  0 . 0 C 0 1 P O I N T S  2B0.0 274.0 268 . 0 262.0  - 0.01610X  2^6.0  250.0 244.0 238.0 202.0 226.0 220.0 2 14 . 0 "" 2 0 n . O 202.0 106.0 1 90.0 184.0 178.0 172.0 166.0 160.0 154. 0 148.0 142.0 1 06.0 1 30.0 124.0 11R.0 1 12.0 106.0 ' 1Oi.P 94.00 83.00 82. 00 76.00 7".00 64.00 58.00 52.00 46.00 40.00 34.00 28.00 22.00 16.00 10.00 4.000 -2.000 -8 .000 -14.00 -20.00  220.'  5  lfto.o  l  l  u\niniiii\iiuiuii\iiiiiiiii\iiuiiiii\iiitiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiuiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\ 70.01 "ISTANCF  "flWIF'l  6 8 . 0 0 S I . A S u r s ON T I I F  X-AXIS  8 6 . 0 0 IS 1 . 4 0 0  1 1 4 . 0  x = DURATION (csec)  1 4 2 . 0  1 7 0 . 0  to 4=-  „F_gureJH_12. Regression of WithirwUtterance Range on Duration — Utterances with Two Middlc-PointG: MJK c n r f r ~ " Fi'ATin FPRFIR STn F R R S T D F R R S T D F R R R S Q  i-tp  i'»i<i  VAR  V A F  P A ' . r  Ti-r  V.rf:«u  p  A 10". >  » . "  AND " * "  AT.  (R|  0 . 7 7 1 "  R  IJSFO  TO P L O T  (R|  A . 3 7 7  (Al  O . O 3 0 7  T H ER E G R E S S I O N  Ll N F ;  (RI  ? 7 . 6 6  T H F " » "I S U S E D  I Y )  0 . 3 6 9 5 W H E N  A  P LF T  0 . 0 8 5 2  12.fi P O I N T  C O V E R S  D A T A  P O I N T S  400.0 1  4R0 . 0  1  470.0  yy= 100.5 + 0.7.730X  460.0 4 50.0 440.0 430.0 4 2G . 0 410.0 400.0 390.0 3H0.O 370.0 160 . 0 350.0 340.G 330.0 3?0.C 310.0 300  .r  290.0  7 00 . 0  2R0.0  ro ro cn  270.0 260.0 240.0 240.0 230.0 2 20.0 210.0 200.0 190.0 1H0.0 170.0 160.0 150.0 140.0 1  1<0.0  1  120.0 1 10.0  1  100.0  •fO.ro  00.00  1 1  RO. 0 0  . 1 1  70.00 1  1  60.00  1  40.00 40 . 0 0 3C.00 2n.0n 10.00 - 0 . 0 -1-  - 1 0 . 0 0  ii\iiiiiiiii\iiiiiun\iiiiiiiii\iiiuiiii\iiuiiiii\iitiiiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiitiiii\iiiiiiiii\iiiuiiii }i.''<  <R.ro  . 0 H T A M C . P f TWFrN r  , I . A S " . S  ' I N THF  66.on X - A X 1 <  IS  U  9A.O0  «  x = DURATION (csec)  1 2 2 . 0  I  1 5 0 . 0  '  

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