MALCOLM ON DREAMING by R. L. Simpson A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment The Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Philosophy We accept this thesis, as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1971 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Philosophy T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date June 14. 1971 ABSTRACT Norman Malcolm's view that dreams are not experiences in sleep rests in large part on Wittgenstein's attempts to eliminate the problem of other minds. In showing that Malcolm's position is untenable, a number of views of Wittgenstein's, particularly those concerning 'private language', are shown to be mistaken. The view that dreams are not experiences of which dream memories are the later recollections i s f i r s t defended against some obvious objections. It i s argued that a sufficiently rich dream l i f e would be a second l i f e in a second real world. What this shows is that Wittgenstein's attempt to eliminate reliance on the 'inner' by an appeal to public 'c r i t e r i a ' presupposes knowledge of an external world, which in turn must be based on the 'inner'. Wittgenstein's views on privacy are examined and i t i s argued that they are without foundation. Malcolm's conclusion that the privacy of dreams makes i t impossible within a dream to distinguish between using a word consistently and seeming to use i t consistently i s accordingly rejected. Malcolm's views on 'cr i t e r i a ' and the identity of concepts are attacked. It i s argued that there i s no principled way of individuating concepts. The claim that the meaning of 'dream' i s determined by that to which one has access when awake, i.e., dream memories, is rejected. It i s shown that the incompatibility between being sound asleep and manifesting experiences i s no more reason to suppose that a sleeper cannot have experiences than i t is to suppose that a stoic cannot. Finally, i t i s argued that rejection of Malcolm's position need not lead to radical skepticism as to whether one i s dreaming or not. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2: The Strength of Malcolm's Position: A Limited Defense . . . . . 8 Chapter 3* An Unsuccessful Attack on the Malcolmian Position . . . . 23 Chapter 4* Dreams and Reality . . . . . 36 Chapter 5: Privacy 56 Chapter 6: 'Criteria', The Identity of Concepts and Induction . . . . . . _1 Chapter 7: Sleep and Behaviour, And a Few-Remarks on Skepticism . . . . 105 Bibliography . . . . . . . . 117 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION My primary aim in this thesis i s to refute Malcolm's well-known claim that dreams are not mental events in sleep. In doing this I examine Malcolm's views on 'cr i t e r i a ' and 'private language', two issues which are of interest quite apart from the question of dreaming. In my f i r s t chapter I outline Malcolm's position and offer a limited defence of i t . Following an argument developed by Shoemaker, I show that, whether Malcolm i s right or wrong, the possibility of a state of total i l l u s i o n cannot be shown by an appeal to the existence of r e a l i s t i c and coherent dreams. If Malcolm i s right, the existence of any kind of dream does nothing to show that a state of total i l l u s i o n i s possible. If, on the other hand, Malcolm i s wrong, someone like Descartes who i s taking the skeptical stance.cannot be sure that there have ever been any dreams at a l l , let alone r e a l i s t i c and coherent ones. Since a l l the skeptic can be sure of i s the existence of certain dream memories and since i t i s only on Malcolm's view that the correctness of a dream memory cannot be questioned, the skeptic cannot appeal to the fact of r e a l i s t i c and coherent dreams in order to show the possibility of a state of total i l l u s i o n . In my second chapter I defend the Malcolmian thesis against an attack by Yost and Kalish. I do this in part in order to show some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in refuting Malcolm's position. Yost and Kalish argue that i f dreams became veridical, i f one could t e l l what went on during the night on the basis of one's dream memories, dreams would certainly be experiences. They argue that i t just happens to be true that dreams are not veridical, and claim that the question of whether or not dreams are experiences i s independent of the question of whether or not they are veridical. I show that Yost and Kalish s t i l l allow the Malcolmian to claim that a l l we can sensibly talk about in connection with dreams are waking impressions, veridical or not. Although I think that the Yost and Kalish attack does not succeed, I think that their notion of a veridical dream does point towards a successful attack. The possibility to be raised in order to undermine Malcolm's position i s not that dreams become veridical, but that they become rich, consistent and coherent. Quinton develops this possibility, and I devote the third chapter to Quinton's fantasy. Quinton argues that i f our dream l i f e were as rich and coherent as our waking l i f e , we should have to conclude that dreams are experiences in a second real world. This.suggests that dreams as we know them are experiences, since any ordinary dream would be an experience in a second real world i f other dreams formed a sufficiently coherent pattern with i t . I do not press this line of argument, however, since someone holding a Malcolmian position can object that Quinton's story has nothing to do with dreams just because i t i s a story about a second real world. My main aim in the third chapter i s to defend Quinton's view that rich, consistent and coherent dreams (or dream-like phenomena) can provide an adequate basis for belief in a second real world, and accordingly that Quinton dreams at least can be misremembered and that in a Quinton dream one can make a distinction between the subjective and the objective. Malcolm's views on dreaming rest in large part on two lines of argument connected with 'private language' and ' c r i t e r i a ' . I f these arguments serve to support his views on dreaming, they should show that there i s something wrong with Quinton's story, because belief in a second real world requires an individual to make objectivity judgments on the basis of his private memories without reliance on public ' c r i t e r i a ' . In the next two chapters I go on to show that Quinton's story can withstand the sort of attack that a Malcolmian might offer. In my fourth chapter I consider the question of 'private language'. Malcolm emphasizes the fact that no one else can corroborate the judgments that one makes in a dream, but I note that a l l of us make judgments when a',\rake which others cannot confirm, judgments whose propriety Malcolm would not question. I argue from this that the mere fact that dreams are private i s no reason to suppose that one cannot make a decision for oneself as to whether one is dreaming or not. It might be objected that what i s at issue i s not de facto privacy but the sort of privacy that requires the use of a 'really' or 'necessarily' private language. I consider expressions such as 'necessarily private language' and argue that terms such as 'really' and 'necessarily' add nothing to 'private language'. I argue that considerations of privacy are of no epistemological importance, and conclude that the privacy of dreams does not force one to accept Malcolm's position. The second line of>argument which Malcolm uses to support his view concerns 'c r i t e r i a ' and the identity of concepts. Malcolm seems to hold the view that we apply words such as 'dream' on the basis of ' c r i t e r i a ' which logically guarantee the existence of things such as dreams which are distinct from the ' c r i t e r i a ' . I argue in my f i f t h chapter that what Malcolm calls ' c r i t e r i a ' are no more than pieces of favoured evidence, that a concept such as dreaming i s not as closely tied to the ' c r i t e r i a 1 for i t s application as Malcolm thinks. I then argue that no empirical claims are absolutely certain, and conclude from this that one can consistently admit to having the 'cr i t e r i a ' (i.e., the best evidence) and s t i l l express doubt as to whether the evidence is good enough. Malcolm seems to think that changing the 'c r i t e r i a ' must involve a shift to a 'different' concept, and I go on to argue that there i s no principled way of individuating concepts. I argue that using the evidence of brain states, etc. to show that someone i s dreaming does not involve a .'different' concept of dreaming. The fourth and f i f t h chapters, the ones just discussed, show that two of Malcolm's three main lines of argument for holding that dreams are not experiences in sleep are thoroughly misguided, but they do nothing to show that dreams are actually such experiences. In the f i n a l chapter, besides dealing with Malcolm's third line of argument, I show that we are justified in believing that dreams are experiences in sleep until we have evidence to the contrary. I f i r s t use the possibility of a second real world as described by Quinton to show that Malcolm's view that dream memories are not really memories i s untenable. Given the possibility of a second real world, I must decide on the basis of evidence available to me whether or not I inhabit such a world. It i s in part because I am entitled to assume (in the absence of reasons to think otherwise) that what I take to be chaotic dream memories are not false memories of coherent experiences that I am entitled to assume that they actually are dream memories. This, in turn, entitles me to assume that I inhabit only one world. A Malcolmian can thus be forced into the position of saying that I must make decisions about the correctness or incorrectness of what I take to be my dream memories in order to decide that they are only dream memories—while arguing that dream memories are not memories at a l l and that the question of their correctness or incorrectness is unintelligible. At this point I think that a Malcolmian i s l e f t only with the argument that there- i s an incompatibility between dreaming and having experiences because any evidence one could have that someone is having experiences i s exactly the sort of evidence one would use to show that the person in question i s not asleep, and hence not dreaming. I show that this argument rests on a muddle, as indeed i t must, for. the same form of argument would show that one cannot be a stoic or even have an experience whose manifestations are unobserved. Once this f i n a l argument i s shown to be mistaken, we are entitled, in the absence of any evidence to suggest otherwise, to suppose that dreams are experiences in sleep—simply because our dream memories suggest that they are. I conclude with a few remarks about the relationship between skepticism and Malcolm's thesis. I argue that Malcolm i s mistaken in thinking that his radical view on the nature of dreams must be accepted i f we are to avoid total skepticism. Once Malcolm's demand for absolute certainty has been shown to be misguided, the mere possibility that ; one i s only dreaming can be dealt with. That things seem consistent does not prove that they are consistent, but i t i s a good reason for thinking so. Skepticism over the question of whether one i s awake, just like skepticism over the questions of other minds and physical objects, i s always i n t e l l i g i b l e . It does not follow that i t i s always reasonable. CHAPTER 2: THE STRENGTH OF MALCOLM'S POSITION: A LIMITED DEFENCE. Norman Malcolm presents arguments in Dreaming-1 to show that dreams do not consist of thoughts, experiences, feelings, etc. that one has in sleep. Malcolm argues that the supposition that dreams do consist of such mental occurrences cannot be supported by any evidence we have or could have, and hence that i t i s meaningless. Much of the interest i n Malcolm's position on the nature of dreams arises from the fact that i t i s developed from some of the central arguments in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations. . Indeed, Malcolm's position might be taken as a reductio ad absurdum of some of Wittgenstein's conclusions. In this chapter I shall try to show that Malcolm's position i s not so absurd as i t might appear at f i r s t glance, from which i t follows that his position and i t s Wittgensteinian basis cannot be demolished by a simple reductio. Several reputable dictionaries^ define the word 'dream' in terms of mental events in sleep, and there seem to be f a i r l y clear semantic intuitions among English-speakers with which such definitions agree. It might seem to follow that Malcolm must be wrong in his claim about the nature of dreams. Someone making this sort of objection to Malcolm could admit that Malcolm might be able to show that i t i s logically impossible for people to dream. He could admit, too, that Malcolm might have true and interesting things to say about something other than dreaming. I think that such obvious objections suffer from two defects. F i r s t , they are t r i v i a l . Malcolm's thesis i s one of some consequence. He argues that the memory-like phenomena that we c a l l 'dream memories' are not memories of prior experiences. He also argues that Cartesian skepticism about whether or not one i s dreaming is unintelligible. These are interesting conclusions; we should not deliberately misinterpret them. The substance of Malcolm's position can be expressed without using the word 'dream': he denies that one can have experiences in (sound) sleep and claims that Descartes cannot consistently say both 'cogito' and 'dormio'. I think that i t follows from this that what i s of interest in Malcolm's position cannot simply be dismissed by an appeal to the semantics of 'dream'. Second, Malcolm presents plausible arguments for the view that our semantic intuitions and the dictionaries' d i s t i l l a t i o n s of them are mistaken. Malcolm is well aware of the natural tendency to insist that dreams are experiences one has in sleep. He cal l s dreaming 'a queer phenomenon'^ just because he thinks that our everyday talk about dreams, while perfectly in order, leads us to what he thinks are unintelligible conclusions. Malcolm argues that 'dream' and i t s cognates are properly used by English-speakers. We make statements such as 'John had a strange dream last night', and we do not find them unusually perplexing. For the most part, at least, we assign truth values to such statements on the basis of certain things that people say and do when they are awake. The mental states of the dreamer during the night ( i f any) are not accessible to us, and yet we confidently say that someone dreamt. The dreamer himself has memories. The correctness of such memories, however, cannot be checked as we check the correctness of other memories. Normally, the question of whether or not one has correctly remembered a dream simply does not arise. For reasons such as these, Malcolm thinks that 'Smith dreamt' i s a statement about Smith's waking state and not a statement about Smith's experiences during sleep. In short, to dream i s to awaken with a dream memory, to awaken thinking that one remembers certain experiences, etc. when in fact this i s not so. I shall argue that Malcolm i s wrong, but I think that his arguments have sufficient force to preclude their being rejected simply on the grounds that Malcolm has lost sight of the concept he trie s to analyse, that he i s talking about dream memories rather than dreams. If we accept Malcolm's analysis, we can use the word 'dream* much as we always have. This shows, I think, that the semantics of 'dream' have not been completely ignored. Malcolm, as I have said, calls dreaming 'a queer phenomenon' because he thinks that the language we use to talk about dreams i s misleading. One of Malcolm's examples of how the language misleads i s the fact that we use the past tense 'dreamt' to describe what i s , according to Malcolm, a present state of a person and not a prior mental c event which caused that state. Malcolm does not deny, of course, that we also use the past tense 'dreamt* in connection with someone's previous waking state, but this i s not misleading. . Another example i s the way we use 'memory' and i t s cognates in talking about dreams. Malcolm argues that dream memories are not a kind of memory.^ This point can be put by saying that 'memory' i s syncategorematic in 'dream memory' just as 'intellectual' i s syncategorematic in 'intellectual dwarf'. These consequences of the view that dreams are not experiences, etc. that one has in sleep do not help to make i t plausible. However, Malcolm thinks that he has conclusive arguments to show that we must accept such consequences. I agree with Malcolm to this extent: i f one could develop sound arguments to show that dreams are not experiences, etc., then one would simply have to accept the result that certain locutions we use in talking about dreams must either be rejected as resting on error or given an implausible analysis. Apart from locutions such as these, Malcolm's position does not require that we change or reinterpret our everyday talk about dreams. In fact, his position i s developed from consideration of our ordinary talk about dreams and experiences, and of the bases on which we ordinarily ascribe dreams and experiences. Malcolm's important insight i s this: the kind of evidence, aside from dream reports, that we do in fact take as tending to show that someone has had an experience at a certain time i s just the kind of evidence that we do in fact take as tending to show that the person in question was not asleep at that time, and hence not dreaming. Malcolm claims that i t follows from this that nothing whatever can confirm or disconfirm a dream memory. From this, in turn, i t would follow, according to completely unexceptionable standards for having meaning, that the claim that a dream memory is correct i s meaningless. If anything i s to count as a necessary truth about memories, i t i s this: memories are caused by, and give knowledge of, prior events; one remembers correctly or else one only seems to remember. If i t i s meaningless to suppose that dream memories are correct, i t follows that dream memories are not a kind of memory at a l l . The crux of Malcolm's argument is the lack of any confirmation. He does not argue that the sleeper's lack of ' behaviour shows that he i s not in some particular mental state. Someone taking a position similar to Malcolm's might argue from the fact that the sleeper l i e s s t i l l with a calm expression to the conclusion that he i s not, say, t e r r i f i e d , that he i s in some mental state which is incompatible with being t e r r i f i e d . An argument might be developed along these lines to. show that one cannot have violent emotions in sleep. I think that this i s about a l l anyone could hope to show with such an argument. Malcolm does not reply on this line of argument and his conclusion i s far more radical: the ascription of any mental state whatever to someone who i s (sound) asleep i s unintelligible. Malcolm devotes a chapter to what he means by 'sound asleep' and to various borderline cases in which we are not sure as to whether we should say that someone i s or i s not asleep. These are essentially peripheral considerations, and I shall not consider cases of people being almost asleep, etc. Accordingly, I shall henceforth simply write 'asleep' with the intention that i t i s to be understood as 'sound asleep'. My vocabulary w i l l differ from Malcolm's, too, in that I shall restrict my discussion to experiences. Malcolm's claim that i t i s unintelligible to suppose that people make judgments, see images, etc. in sleep rests on' his general principle that i t i s unintelligible to suppose that people have any mental l i f e whatever during sleep. If I can show that i t i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that people have experiences in sleep, Malcolm's principle would be shown to be mistaken. There would then be no reason to deny the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of the supposition that one makes judgments, sees images, etc. in sleep. i -The natural reaction to Malcolm's claim that no evidence whatever could confirm the correctness of a dream -memory i s the suggestion that knowledge of the physical states of the dreamer while he i s asleep could provide confirmation. If, for example, we could correlate a brain state, S, with the experience of being afraid, the fact that someone's brain was in state S during the night, would according to this suggestion, confirm his dream memory of having been afraid. Malcolm has arguments for rejecting any suggestion along these lines. His arguments strike me as being very bad. However, since they involve d i f f i c u l t issues in such areas as induction and the identity of concepts, an adequate refut a t i o n cannot be simple. A thorough examination of Malcolm's arguments w i l l , I hope, cast some l i g h t on matters which have considerable i n t e r e s t quite apart from the thesis i n Dreaming. Our everyday t a l k about dreams does lend some support to Malcolm's p o s i t i o n . Consider, f o r example, the common phrase 'only dreamt'. A man bragging about his courage may say 'I have never experienced fear i n my l i f e ' . ' , and the fact that he dreamt that he experienced fear cannot be used to f a l s i f y h i s claim. S i m i l a r l y , a stock broker might honestly boast 'I have never misjudged a market'.', remembering f u l l well the nightmare i n which he led h i s c l i e n t s and himself to r u i n . As things stand, the question of whether or not someone remembers a dream c o r r e c t l y i s of no p r a c t i c a l importance to us. I t might seem that the correctness of dream memories i s of considerable p r a c t i c a l importance to certain p s y c h i a t r i s t s and t h e i r patients. In a b r i e f appendix to Dreaming T Malcolm argues that acceptance of his views can have no d i r e c t e f f e c t on the practice of psychiatry, although i t must lead to the r e j e c t i o n of certain theories which purport to explain or J u s t i f y that practice. Malcolm does not deny that there i s a respectable branch of psychiatry which deals with the patient's dream memories, nor that t h i s branch of psychiatry can have a t h e o r e t i c a l foundation. What he denies i s the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of a theory of psychiatry which involves the supposition that people have experiences i n sleep. The p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s data are the patient's dream reports. There i s often some doubt as to whether the patient i s reporting a dream memory or inventing a t a l e , but t h i s need not prevent the p s y c h i a t r i s t from sometimes concluding that he has knowledge of the patient's dream memories. This knowledge enables the p s y c h i a t r i s t to diagnose the i l l n e s s . I f one grants t h i s (and denies that the correlations between certain kinds of dream memories and certa i n kinds of i l l n e s s e s are just coincidental)', one i s faced with the problem of determining the causal connection between the i l l n e s s e s and the dream memories. This, c l e a r l y , i s an empirical question. Malcolm claims that any answer which postulates experiences i n sleep as part of the causal connection between the i l l n e s s e s and the dream memories i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , but he does not deny that an i n t e l l i g i b l e answer can be found. One can, of course, r e j e c t Malcolm's claim while admitting that he has raised serious doubts about the legitimacy of simply assuming that dream memories are r e l i a b l e indicators of p r i o r experiences. Sydney Shoemaker has an argument? to show that the p o s s i b i l i t y of a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n cannot be demonstrated by an appeal to coherent and r e a l i s t i c dreams. This follows from Malcolm's po s i t i o n , but Shoemaker argues that t h i s i s so even i f Malcolm i s wrong. In the ' F i r s t Meditation', Descartes says: . . . i n the s t i l l of the night, I have the f a m i l i a r conviction that I am here, wearing a cloak, s i t t i n g by the f i r e — when r e a l l y I am undressed and l y i n g i n bed'.g On the basis of t h i s , i t i s possible to interpret Descartes as claiming that ( l ) he knows that he has had coherent and r e a l i s t i c dreams, and (2) he knows that a dream i s a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n . I t would follow from (l) and (2) that a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n i s possible because such states, v i z . , dreams, have a c t u a l l y occurred. Obviously, i f Malcolm i s r i g h t , Descartes cannot claim (2). I f Malcolm i s wrong, i f i t i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that one has misremembered a dream, a skeptical Descartes cannot claim ( l ) . Descartes, of course, can modify ( l ) . He can simply claim that i t seems to him now that he was i n a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n , that he was dreaming, i n the past. This weaker claim, however, w i l l not simply show the p o s s i b i l i t y of a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n , any more than someone's seeming to remember squaring the c i r c l e w i l l simply show that i t i s possible to square the c i r c l e . What the modified argument does show i s that Descartes has either - i s -made errors in the past or i s now making an error. But there i s no reason to suppose that the latter i s the result of total i l l u s i o n ; i t might well be an isolated mistake. I think that Shoemaker's argument i s valid, and that the possibility of a state of total i l l u s i o n cannot be demonstrated by an appeal to dreams. It might be objected that I have dealt to cavalierly with the suggestion that someone's seeming to remember a state of total i l l u s i o n would show that such a state i s logically possible. The case of someone seeming to remember squaring the ci r c l e seems a l i t t l e far-fetched. The former can be described in great detail, whereas the latter cannot. This i s true, but the objection begs the question. The only basis for claiming that there must be a difference between the two cases i s the (completely rational) belief that total i l l u s i o n i s possible, whereas squaring the c i r c l e i s impossible. The objection relies on the principle that what i s logically possible can be coherently described, and what i s not logically possible cannot be coherently described. I think that this i s an acceptable principle. I claim that any supposition whatever should be deemed to show a logically possible state of affairs u n t i l i t can be shown otherwise. To describe a state of total i l l u s i o n in great detail i s to demonstrate that an attempt to f i l l in details w i l l not show such a state to be logically impossible. The importance of detailed descriptions shows up i n well-known fantasies about time travel. Stories which seem coherent on the surface just cannot be developed in any detail. Much more could be said on this topic, but this is not required for the present argument. The objection presupposes some way of distinguishing the logically possible from the logically impossible. That i s why the supposition that someone might seem to remember in great detail how he squared the ci r c l e i s ruled out a p r i o r i . Whatever principle i s used to rule out this supposition and to allow the supposition that someone might seem to remember a dream in great detail can be used to show that any coherently describable state of total i l l u s i o n i s logically possible. The special case of dreaming does not have to be considered. In my view, one does Descartes an injustice in construing his remarks about dreams as an argument for the possibility of total i l l u s i o n . They should be taken, rather, as an aid to the unimaginative reader. It seems to be Descartes' general position throughout the Meditations that any burden of proof l i e s with the non-skeptic, and I completely agree. Even i f this i s denied, and some justification for radical skepticism i s demanded, i t i s unreasonable to ask the skeptic to justify his position by presenting indubitable instances of total i l l u s i o n . In any event, i t i s not clear, simply from the 'First Meditation', that Descartes has even to assert that a state of total i l l u s i o n i s possible. He says that he must 'withhold assent' and i t i s clear that one can withhold assent to P without affirming that--P i s possible; perhaps i t i s and perhaps i t i s not. I think that the 'First Meditation' i s best under-stood as a statement of methodological principle. Because he cannot be sure that a state of total i l l u s i o n i s impossible, Descartes adopts the principle of assuming that he can be in such a state until he has good reason to think otherwise. No facts or possibilities are asserted or denied; Descartes has simply decided to be cautious. In this chapter, I have tried to show. something of the strength and interest of Malcolm's position. I have agreed with Shoemaker that no argument based on dreams can show that a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n i s logically possible. I have suggested that one can argue for the logical possibility of total i l l u s i o n simply from the possibility of coherently describing an instance of i t , whether this i s a dream or not. It seems to follow that dreams have no special epistemological interest. However, some of Malcolm's arguments concerning dreams are taken by Malcolm, at least, as applicable to any state of total i l l u s i o n , as I s h a l l t r y to show. I think that he would deny that one can give a coherent description of a state of t o t a l i l l u s i o n . For reasons such as these, I think that Dreaming i s worth examining f o r i t s wider philosophical implications as well as for the thesis concerning dreams. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER I Norman Malcolm, Dreaming. 2nd. ed. (London, 1962). P Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations,, 3rd. ed. (Oxford, 1967). 3 E.g., the O.E.D. and Webster* s Third International Dictionary. ^ The t i t l e of the fourteenth chapter of Dreaming. ^ Malcolm, Dreaming t pp. -5-6. ^ Malcolm, Dreaming, pp. 56-7. 7 Sydney Shoemaker, 'Dreaming and Total I l l u s i o n ' , as yet unpublished. Descartes: Philosophical Writings f ed. Anscombe and Geach (London, 1954), p. 62. 9 I b i d . . p. 61. CHAPTER 3 : AN UNSUCCESSFUL ATTACK ON THE MALCOLMIAN POSITION. In 'Miss Macdonald on Sleeping and Waking', A R. M. Yost, J r . and Donald Ka l i s h attack a position which i s e s s e n t i a l l y similar to Malcolm's. Malcolm mentions Yost and Kalish's paper several times i n Dreaming^ but I do not think that he deals adequately with i t . I s h a l l t r y to show that t h e i r argument does not refute the Macdonald-Malcolra p o s i t i o n . In doing t h i s , I hope to bring out some of the deep issues involved i n the position, issues which I s h a l l t r y to deal with i n l a t e r chapters. Yost and K a l i s h o f f e r an argument which-is intended to show that dreams are experiences. They say: Suppose that hereafter a l l dreams led people to make successful predictions a f t e r they awakened. I f a person i n C a l i f o r n i a were to dream that the Washington Monument was being painted blue, he could successfully predict that a telephone c a l l to the C a p i t o l would bring word that the Monument was indeed being painted blue. I f he were to dream that Westminster Abbey was on f i r e , then, a f t e r awakening, he could confidently expect that motion pictures of the f i r e would soon be shown at the l o c a l cinema. And generally, no dream.from now on would c o n f l i c t with any subsequent waking experience. I f t h i s were to happen, we should c e r t a i n l y be perplexed f o r a while. Some might say, 'After a l l t h e i r wayward years, dreams have now become v e r i d i c a l ' . And some might say, 'Instead of having dreams, we now have paranormal but v e r i d i c a l perceptions while asleep; I wonder what the explanation i s ? ' But i f anyone had formerly been i n c l i n e d to accept...the . . . r a d i c a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y of dreams and waking experiences, he would surely abandon i t now. He would want to say now that while he was asleep the Washington Monument did r e a l l y look blue to him, did r e a l l y appear to him i n a context of r e a l objects, etc. He would t o t a l l y r e j e c t the claim that while he was asleep he did not see anything blue ....And he would say that he was mistaken formerly when he believed that a dreamer could not see, touch, hear, etc. .3 I f the s i t u a t i o n that Yost and K a l i s h describe came about and some people said: Instead of having dreams, we now have paranormal but v e r i d i c a l perceptions while asleep, i t would not simply foilow that anyone would change h i s views about dreams. In saying that we no longer dream, one i s protecting the truth of what one has previously said about dreams; new b e l i e f s about paranormal perceptions must be shown to be i n c o n f l i c t with old b e l i e f s about dreams. I think that t h i s could be shown, but i t i s not necessary. We can suppose instead that people say: After a l l t h e i r wayward years, dreams have now become v e r i d i c a l . This s t r i k e s me as a p e r f e c t l y proper way of describing the phenomenon, but i t i s not quite clear whether or not Malcolm would accept t h i s as an e n t i r e l y correct use of the word 'dream1. Ignoring day-dreams and the l i k e , 'Smith dreamt' e n t a i l s 'Smith sl e p t ' . This i s not quite r i g h t ; i f someone-were knocked unconscious and t o l d us when he came to consciousness that he had dreamt, I do not think that we should dispute his claim simply because we generally say that such a person i s unconscious rather than asleep. I think, too, that we could properly say that someone dreamt while he was drugged or drunk, although such people are often described as being i n a drugged or drunken stupor rather than asleep. Malcolm ignores such cases, and so s h a l l I. We may suppose that the people i n Yost and Kalish's example gave every i n d i c a t i o n of being asleep during the night, and take t h i s as being reason enough to say that they were asleep. Malcolm seems to agree that t h i s would be i n order. He says: I f we were required to f i n d out whether someone i s asleep what should we look for? I t would be things of t h i s sort: that he i s recumbent, his eyes are closed, h i s breathing regular, his body mainly i n e r t , and that he does not react to various sounds and movements i n his v i c i n i t y to which he would normally react i f awake.... Our ordinary application of the word 'asleep' i s not guided by any consideration of what is going on in someone's cranium, spinal column or other inward parts, but rather by how his body is disposed and by his behaviour or lack of i t . ^ This suggests that Malcolm would not claim that there i s anything suspect about the Yost and Kalish supposition. People who have given every indication of being asleep sincerely offer dream reports. The only strange thing about the situation i s that the dream reports have predictive and retrodictive value. On the other hand, because most dreams are not veridical and because we often use the fact that something did not happen as evidence that someone only dreamt that i t happened, Malcolm i s led to say: ...the statement 'I dreamt such and such' implies that such and such did not occur.^ This makes i t a necessary truth that one cannot dream that water i s flowing over Niagara Falls , that i t i s cold in the Arctic, and so on. These consequences, clearly, are unacceptable, and Malcolm does admit" that one could dream that Westminster Abbey i s being destroyed by f i r e and discover on awakening that the abbey had burned while one was asleep. If Malcolm i s prepared to accept the possibility that some dreams might be veridical, i t i s hard to see how he could exclude the possibility that a l l dreams might be veridical. I shall try to show that, as far as lost and Kalish's attack i s concerned, Malcolm has no need to reject the latter possibility. Malcolm denies that his position i s threatened by his admission that there could be veridical dreams. He says: Someone in California might dream one night that Westminster Abbey was destroyed by f i r e and discover the next day that this had really happened....But i f his dream narrative contained statements like 'I saw i t burning', 'I heard the walls crashing'; or 'It seemed t&'me that I could see i t burning and hear the walls crashing'—those statements, which ostensibly report experiences he had while asleep, would a l l be f a l s e — i f they were not false they could not properly be said to belong to the description of a dream.y I think that i f Malcolm can maintain his position in the face of the possibility that some dreams might be veridical, there i s l i t t l e reason to suppose that the possibility that a l l dreams might be veridical would threaten i t . This i s the crucial point over which I disagree with Yost and Kalish. There i s a clear sense in which an isolated instance of a veridical dream does not require an explanation. One can quite properly ask for an explanation of such a dream, just as one can quite properly ask for an explanation of any dream. The fact that the dream i s veridical, however, can be dismissed as a coincidence. There i s no reason to suppose that the explanation of a veridical dream must include some reference to the real event in virtue of which the dream i s called 'veridical', although this cannot be ruled out a p r i o r i . If one i s faced with a situation in which a l l or most dreams are veridical, one can no longer dismiss the fact that a particular dream i s veridical as a coincidence. What is to be explained i s not simply a particular dream, but the fact that this dream corresponds to a real event in certain ways. Unlike the case in which one explains an isolated instance of a veridical dream, the reference to the real event in virtue of which the dream i s called 'veridical' must be included in the explanation. It does not follow from this that a mental event in sleep, a non-Malcolmian dream, must be included in i t . Yost and Kalish ask us to imagine a situation in which a l l dreams are veridical. We are asked to suppose that,, within this context, someone in California t e l l s us that he dreamt that the Washington Monument was being painted blue, and that i t turns out l a t e r that the Washington Monument was being painted blue while he sl e p t . According to l o s t and K a l i s h , i f we take them l i t e r a l l y , we are supposed to conclude from t h i s that the person i n question, c a l l him 'Smith', saw the Washington Monument being painted, that i t 'did r e a l l y appear to him'. I f we could accept the conclusion, i t would c e r t a i n l y serve as an explanation. 'Why does Smith's account t a l l y with the j o u r n a l i s t ' s ? ' 'Because they both saw the event i n question.' But, of course, we have at least two reasons for r e j e c t i n g the conclusion. F i r s t , by hypothesis, Smith was asleep. His eyes were shut and he was not seeing anything. Any evidence we could have to show that he was l i t e r a l l y seeing something would be evidence to suppose that he was not asleep, and hence not dreaming. Second, Smith was several thousand miles away from the Washington Monument. He could not have seen i t with h i s eyes open i n broad daylight. Obviously, Yost and Ka l i s h are not to be taken l i t e r a l l y . Let us take i t , then, that the explanatory hypothesis i s that Smith 'saw' the Washington Monument being painted i n a spe c i a l sense of 'saw'. This sense of 'saw' i s such that the claim 'Smith saw event x' i s not refuted by the fact that Smith was asleep, i n the dark, thousands of miles away from x when i t occurred. Yost and Kal i s h obviously intend this to be more than a metaphorical restatement of the fact which i s to be explained; they suggest that one i s forced to the conclusion that Smith had an experience during sleep, that he perceived (in some way yet to be discovered) the painting of the Washington Monument while he was asleep. It would follow from this that a veridical dream memory i s a memory of a perception, of an experience in sleep. I have two criticisms of Yost and Kalish's line of argument. Fi r s t , the conclusion i s not forced on us by the facts of the case; one can describe evidence which would f a l s i f y i t . There are only two data: the Washington Monument was painted during the night and Smith on awakening has a certain a b i l i t y , i.e., he can make certain predictions. We could explain Smith's a b i l i t y i f we could show that i t i s the result of his brain being in a particular state, S, and show how S has been caused by the event in question. Now, i f this chain of events i s anything like ordinary seeing, the occurrence of state S in Smith's brain took place very shortly after the event. There i s no reason, however, to suppose that this must be so. Perhaps the painting of the Washington Monument caused Smith's brain to go into state R in the middle of the night, and his brain changes from state R to state S on awakening. I see no reason why this must be ruled out a p r i o r i . My second criticism of Yost and Kalish w i l l explain why I have not discussed the question of brain states more f u l l y . Malcolm, as I pointed out in my f i r s t chapter, denies that the existence of particular brain states in sleep can support the conclusion that people have experiences in sleep. Let us suppose that brain state S occurred in Smith during the night and that S i s of a kind which we have correlated with perceptions. The supposition that Smith had an experience in sleep would then be supported by three pieces of evidence: Smith's veridical dream memory, his brain state while he was asleep, and the fact that the event in virtue of which we c a l l his dream memory 'veridical', the painting of the Washington Monument, took place while Smith was asleep. In contrast, the supposition that someone who had an ordinary dream had an experience in sleep could be supported by only two pieces of evidence: his dream memory and the existence of certain brain states. I think that this i s an important difference, but I do not think that i t can force Malcolm into any concessions. As long as Malcolm can hold to his position that evidence about brain states has no bearing on his claim that dreams are not experiences, he can reject Yost and Kalish's conclusion. Yost and Kalish have helped to make clear how intuitively unnacceptable Malcolm's thesis i s , but I can think of no argument against Malcolm's rejection of Yost and Kalish's conclusion which cannot serve equally well as an argument against Malcolm's general rejection of brain states as evidence of sleeping experiences. I conclude that arguments based on the possibility that dreams might be veridical are otiose. My objections can be put in terms of Grice's account of perception in 'The Causal Theory of Perception'. Grice argues that some causal chain or other between what i s perceived and the percipient i s a necessary condition of perception. An expansion of Yost and Kalish's story could allow this condition to be satisfied. Grice adds, and I think that he i s clearly right, that this condition i s not sufficient; a special kind of causal chain i s required. Grice suggests that the best way of showing what kind i s by means of examples. He says: ...the best procedure...is to indicate the mode of causal connexion by examples; to say that, for an object to be perceived by X, i t i s sufficient that i t should be causally involved in the generation of some sense-impression by X in the kind of way in which...my hand i s causally responsible for i t s looking to me as i f there were a hand before me...whatever that kind of way may be....g It i s clear how Malcolm would react to Grice's suggestion. He would claim that we can only have knowledge of X' s waking sense-impressions, and argue from this that Grice's sufficient condition could not be met on any version of Yost and Kalish*s story. His position would be that the conclusion that one might perceive in sleep begs the very question which the introduction of the possibility of veridical dreams was supposed to answer. Yost and Kalish suggest an analogy between dreaming and perceiving. This analogy i s not strengthened by their supposition that dreams become veridical because their sense of 'veridical' precludes the possibility of granting the status of a new sense to seeing-in-a-dream. A veridical dream, on their account, i s one which 'led people to make successful predictions after they awakened.' It follows from this that seeing-in-a-dream can have only a confirmatory role, that a waking sense always overrules seeing-in-a-dream. Our familiar senses are not restricted in this way. The ordinary sense of sight i s veridical in that i t allows us to make successful predictions which involve other senses. To see a rose, for example, i s to be able to predict what one will.smell and feel under certain circumstances. There are, however, things which we see but which we cannot touch, hear, smell, etc., purely visible objects such as rainbows. I think that an understanding of why we allow such items in our ontology can help to c l a r i f y the deficiencies in Yost and Kalish's argument. Briefly, the question of whether or not there are rainbows comes down to a question of conceptual economy. Rather than saying that f i f t y people see a rainbow, we could say that they suffer from similar hallucinations. One of the economies afforded by saying that there are rainbows i s the result that we do not have to explain so many instances of mass hallucination. One of the costs i s the possibility that we might have to account for mistakes that people can make about rainbows, a d i f f i c u l t y that could not arise i f we did not grant that rainbows exist endependently of people's perceptions of them. Questions such as these have nothing to do with questions of 'veridicality' in Yost and Kalish's sense, with questions of whether the sense of sight is confirmed by other senses. I think that the story needed to refute Malcolm's position i s not one in which dreams are veridical, but one in which considerations of conceptual economy lead us to say that seeing-in-a-dream i s a legitimate form of perception. What i s needed is a story in which dream objects are given an ontological status purely on the basis of conceptual economy. I should now like to argue that such a story can be coherently told. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 2 1 R, M. Yost, Jr. and Donald Kalish, 'Miss Macdonald on Sleeping and Waking', Philos. _., April 1955, pp. 109-24. Malcolm, Dreaming, particularly Ch. 12 and Ch. 15. 3 Yost and Kalish, p. 120 ^ Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 22. Ibid., p. 66. 6 Ibid.. p. 68. 7 Ibid.. p. 6_. ^ H. P. Grice, 'The Causal Theory of Perception', reprinted in Perceiving. Sensing and Knowing, ed. R. J. Swartz (Garden City, N.Y., 1965), p. 463. CHAPTER 4: DREAMS AND REALITY In t h i s chapter, I s h a l l develop an account of a possible s i t u a t i o n i n which we take our dreams—or phenomena much l i k e dreams^—far more seriously than we do now. I s h a l l argue that i f our dream l i f e were s u f f i c i e n t l y r i c h , consistent and coherent, we should have reasonable grounds for claiming that we inhabit more than one world. My argument i s based on Anthony Quinton's ingenious paper, 'Spaces and Times',"'" i n which he develops a story i n order to show that one can make sense of the idea of two spaces which are not s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e d . I s h a l l not be concerned with t h i s conclusion, but I s h a l l use a modified version of Quinton's story to attack the Malcolmian p o s i t i o n . Suppose that I sleep for twelve hours each day. This i s not s t r i c t l y necessary, but i t avoids complications which are i r r e l e v a n t for present purposes. Suppose, too, that my dream l i f e undergoes some remarkable changes. Formerly, I dreamt only occasionally and my dreams were completely unrelated to each other, and thus I had no reason to take my dream l i f e at a l l seriously. Now, however, I dream every time I go to sleep. Moreover, each night's dream i s connected with the previous night's dream. The book that I started to read i n Monday night's dream i s finished i n Tuesday night's dream. The people I meet i n Wednesday night's dream recognize me i n Thursday night's dream, and so on. In my dreams I am a fisherman by a lake. I work regula r l y and I have a regular pattern of l i f e with my family. Each night when I f a l l asleep I dream that I awaken i n my house by the lake, that my wife feeds me, and that I go out to f i s h . My dream body and my waking body are d i s t i n c t . I f I eat a large meal before f a l l i n g asleep, t h i s does not a f f e c t my appetite for breakfast i n my dream; just as, i n ordinary dreams, dreaming that one has eaten a large meal does nothing to stay the pangs of r e a l hunger. I twist my ankle one day, but i n my dream the following night I do not limp. In my dream I cut my hand, but when I awaken there i s no mark on my hand. This, of course, i s a feature of dreams as we know them. There i s , however, some connection between my waking body and what goes on i n my dreams. My dream memories, whether we accept Malcolm's account or not, are causally dependent on states of my body when I am awake. One day I take a nap a f t e r lunch. During my nap I dream that I have just awakened i n the middle of the night i n my house by the lake. Intrigued by t h i s , I make the experiment of staying up a l l night. Sure enough, x^hen I f i n a l l y do get to sleep, I dream that I awaken by the lake and that people t e l l me that I have slept through an entire day. In short, every sleeping period in Canada is a 'waking' period by the lake of my dreams, and every 'sleeping period by the lake of my dreams i s a waking period in Canada. A remarkable feature of my dream l i f e i s that much of my waking l i f e comes back to me as i f i t were a dream. I t e l l the people by the lake of my dreams about the 'dream' I had, but this i s only a description of what I did in Canada on the day before. People by the lake of my dreams t e l l me not to take my 'dream l i f e ' so seriously, not to worry about my next 'dream', because i t i s not 'real'. In this respect, the situation in my dreams i s just like the situation in Canada. Without going into more detail, the point should be clear: my dream l i f e i s every bit as rich, consistent and coherent as my waking l i f e , and i t becomes increasingly s i l l y to dismiss i t as 'only a dream'. If I must distinguish between dreams and reality in such a situation, i t seems that the choice of which is going to be which must be completely arbitrary. Various questions can arise at this point. It might be objected that the story concerns a second world and our access to i t , rather than dreaming. It might seem to follow from this that i t i s irrelevant to Malcolm's thesis. I shall deal with such questions later. For the moment, I shall simply expand Quinton's story in order to show that his conclusion i s the only rational one we could reach i f we were faced with the circumstances he describes. I shall use the words 'dream', 'memory', 'experience', etc. on the assumption that there i s no error in Quinton's argument. That i s , I shall assume that dream experiences are experiences, at least when the dreams or dream-like phenomena constitute another real world, and so on. I do not intend to .beg any questions by doing so; i t i s simply a device to eliminate scare-quotes and expressions such as 'dream-like phenomena'. I shall also, simply for reasons of brevity, use the term 'Bylake' as a proper name to refer to the second real world. In t e l l i n g the story of my l i f e in Bylake, I have begun by supposing a radical change in the normal pattern of dreaming. I did this in order to make i t easier to imagine two clearly distinct sets of experiences. If I stay with this way of te l l i n g the story, there are going to be problems about my previous l i f e and experiences in Bylake. My past l i f e there, from my point of view, i s going to consist only of my memories of experiences had after the change in my dream l i f e and whatever other people in Bylake t e l l me about my l i f e before the radical change in my dreams occurred. This, of course, i s the situation in which someone suffering from total amnesia finds himself. There seem to be no insuperable conceptual problems over amnesia, and I could describe my l i f e in Bylake as the l i f e of a person suffering from total amnesia. I think that this would be sufficient to meet the objection that a meagre past forces one to deny that the second world is an objective one. If the imbalance between the two sets of experiences. seems too great because of the amnesia, I can t e l l the story so that this imbalance i s removed. Suppose that I am af f l i c t e d with total amnesia here in Canada just at the time when the change in the pattern of my dreams begins. I awaken with a vivid memory of a dream and no memory of anything else. After five days and five nights, I have ten groups of memories which f a l l into two clear sets. Both in my l i f e in Bylake and in my l i f e in Canada, I am a person whose knowledge of his own past (beyond the previous five days) i s almost entirely limited to what he can learn from what others t e l l him. Both in Bylake and in Canada, I can make some inferences about my past based on my own five days of experiences, and these can supplement what I learn from others. Such inferences must be very tentative, but equally so in both cases. The two cases are now exactly - u -symmetrical; more than ever, there seems to be no reason to relegate one set of experiences, one l i f e , to what Quinton calls 'the ontological wastebasket'. There i s no need to suppose a sudden change in my dream l i f e . Now that I have made use of a change in my dream l i f e to i l l u s t r a t e what i t would be like to inhabit more than one world, a plausible account of how we, with our beliefs about the world, might come to think of ourselves as inhabiting two distinct objective worlds can be dropped. Imagine someone growing up from birth with two sets of experiences such as I have described. This way of putting i t , of course, reflects the fact that the only access we can have to a consciousness i s through a body to which we can have access. (I am ignoring the special case of each person's access, i f i t can be called that, to his own consciousness.) Someone whose earliest experiences f e l l quite naturally into two parts, into two lives, should not be hard to imagine i f my earlier story about the change in my dream l i f e i s coherent. There seems to be no conceptual barrier to f i l l i n g out the case. Suppose that English i s spoken in Bylake as i t i s in this part of Canada. The child, hearing English for the better part of twenty-four hours each day, learns the language more quickly than other children. He learns the word 'dream' as most children do. When he i s awake in Canada, he t e l l s adults that the people in his dreams say-that this l i f e i s only a dream; and, when he is awake in Bylake, he t e l l s adults the corresponding thing. Both in Canada and Bylake, adults are amazed at the richness and regularity of the child's dreams, but in both places they go on dismissing the child's other l i f e as 'only a dream'. The child soon learns to do the appropriate thing: in each of his worlds, he learns not to expect others to take what they c a l l 'merely a child's dreams' seriously; nonetheless, this does not prevent the child from taking them seriously. Adults try to force the child into a pattern of intellectual dishonesty—a common enough phenomenon. There i s , of course, no need to suppose that English or any other language with which we are familiar i s spoken in Bylake. It could be the case, as far as I can see, that the language spoken in Bylake is not translatable into English. There seems to be no reason why the language of Bylake should not reflect powers of thought and perception which English-speakers lack. For obvious reasons, such powers are hard to imagine. It might, I think, be the case that the inhabitants of Bylake do not conceive of the space in which they live in a Euclidean way, and their language could reflect this. Whether or not such a language could be translated into English, i.e., made i n t e l l i g i b l e to English-speakers, would depend in part at least on the geometrical imagination of English-speakers. So far as I can see, there could be a language the understanding of which requires more imagination than that of the most imaginative English-speaker. If I learnt the language of Bylake, there would be at least one person who could understand both that language and English. It would not follow from this, however, that the language of Bylake would be translatable into English. At any given moment, either in Canada or in Bylake, I might be able to understand both languages, but i t could s t i l l be a fact about the languages that something expressible in one is not expressible, even at great length, in the other. The case of differing perceptual powers i s similar. The language of Bylake might reflect perceptual discriminations which I can make in Bylake but which I cannot make here. In that case, my situation would be much like the situation of someone who suffers from intermittent colour blindness or intermittent tone deafness. Apart from perceptual discriminations T there could be totally different senses in Bylake, and the language could reflect this state of a f f a i r s . Different modes of perception would involve different sensations, and a variety of sensations and sensation terms which are unique to Bylake may be supposed. There i s no reason why the story has to involve just one person. No doubt i f several people shared a l i f e in Canada and shared a l i f e in Bylake, they would be bolder than the unique child in making the claim that the so-called 'dream l i f e ' i s every bit as real as l i f e in Canada. If several people in Canada were to arrange to meet each other at a certain place and time in Bylake, for example, this would demonstrate considerable confidence in the reality of Bylake. One could t e l l the story so that everyone on the planet shared the l i f e in Bylake; the world of Bylake would then be as populated as this world. If that were so, we should have no use for the concept of a 'dream', of that particular kind of unreality; there would not be even a temptation to dismiss one set of experiences as 'unreal'. I have argued that I might have a dream l i f e which i s rich enough to allow me to use the concept of another world. Could i t be rich enough to force me to use such a concept? I think so. What allows us to relegate our dream experiences to 'the ontological wastebasket', to deny that they are experiences of an objective world (and, i f we follow Malcolm, to deny that they are experiences at a l l ) , i s the fact that they are fragmentary, relatively rare, and completely disjointed. If our dream experiences were as rich and coherent as our other experiences, i t would require a completely unjustifiable decision to take one set of experiences seriously and to ignore the other. One might as well refuse to allow observations made on Fridays to f a l s i f y scientific hypotheses. This, too, could be done: there i s , however, as things stand, absolutely no rational basis for doing so. Using Quinton's metaphor of 'the ontological wastebasket', a man i s merely eccentric i f he keeps important papers in a round basket on the floor and keeps l i t t e r in a desk drawer: what distinguishes important papers from l i t t e r is not the place in which they are kept, but the importance that people attach to them. If I am to think of Bylake as an objective world, as having an existence apart from my experience of i t , I must allow a place in my conceptual scheme for the concept of being mistaken about something in Bylake. To say that Bylake i s an objective world i s to say that i t does not only seem so to me. This, in turn, requires the possibility that certain things in Bylake are not what they seem to be. The distinction between the way things seem and the way things are would be made in Bylake much as i t is-here. For example, i f the laws of optics are the same as they are here, an oar that i s partly immersed in water would look bent. I could say, just as I say in Canada, that i t seems bent but i s 'straight. There i s no need to suppose that physical laws in Bylake are the same as physical laws here. However, i t i s part of Quinton's story that there are regular patterns of events in Bylake, and i t follows from this that physical laws of some sort can be developed. These, in turn, would alio** me to make predictions about events in Bylake, and give me an additional basis for applying the distinction between the subjective and the objective. On the basis of these laws, I could predict events in Bylake while I am awake in Canada, i.e., I could predict my future 'dream' memories. Indeed, other people working from my descriptions of Bylake could formulate the physical laws of Bylake and predict what my 'dream' memories w i l l be, perhaps far more successfully than I could. This i s another way in which the distinction between the way things seem and the way things are in Bylake need not be idle for me. I now turn to the question of personal identity. What gives me the right to say that I inhabit Bylake? Why not say, rather, that I have knowledge of someone else's l i f e in Bylake? I think that there are no:insurmountable conceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s in the supposition that one person, one consciousness, could have two bodies and two sets of experiences. The d i f f i c u l t i e s are not essentially different from those connected with the question of why I can c a l l a single body and a single set of experiences 'mine1. In te l l i n g the story of Bylake, I have suggested that I could simply trust my memory and claim prior experiences which seem to be mine as mine. To base personal identity on memory i s to run the risk, as Locke's c r i t i c s have pointed out, of developing a circular argument. I think that cir c u l a r i t y can be avoided by distinguishing between memories and memory-like phenomena in terms of characteristic causal connections between events and the memories of those events. A promising argument along these lines has been 2 developed by Shoemaker in 'Persons and Their Pasts'. Obviously, the characteristic causal connections between Bylake and this world would be radically different from those which now exist, but presumably they could be discovered. An. element of circularity would s t i l l be involved, since one would have to have some notion of what a memory of Bylake i s before one could determine the nature of the causal chain which makes such memories possible. I shall not deal with this problem here, but only point out that i t i s not a problem which arises only because of the peculiar features of Quinton's story. The element of circularity remains even when this account of personal identity i s applied to the usual sort of case. In t e l l i n g Quinton's story, I have begun by saying that I did things in Bylake, that certain experiences were mine, etc. It might seem that questions of personal identity have, been begged in f i r s t t e l l i n g the story. I have tried to show that this i s not so, but perhaps something should be said about the peculiar features of f I ' . Coval discusses some of these features in Scepticism and the First Person.^ Coval i s concerned to show that there i s no essential assymmetry between 'I' and other personal pronouns. His point i s that the apparent assymmetry between ' I 1 and other personal pronouns gives solipsism a specious plausi b i l i t y . I want to use the same conclusion to make a different point: the essential symmetry between ' I 1 and other personal pronouns can be used to show that I can use'I' without committing1 myself to the sort of claims which lead to solipsism. There are certain features of the way we can use 'I' which are not shared by 'he'. These are brought out in considerations such as these: one can walk into a room and say 'I am tired' without introducing oneself, pointing to oneself, or previously saying something which indicates the person to whom the pronoun, 'I', refers. By contrast, i f one i s to be understood when one says 'He i s tired', one must do one of these things or something similar. I do not question these facts about the use of 'I' and 'he', but i t does seem to me that too much importance can be attached to the differences. I claim that i t i s only a contingent matter that we can use f I ' without preliminaries, and only a contingent matter that we must use such preliminaries to make ourselves understood when we use fhe'. It i s only a contingency that we move our lip s when we speak. If we could produce sounds without showing i t , we should have to point to ourselves or do something which serves this purpose in order to make clear to others the reference of 'I'. We have roughly this sort of situation when we speak on the telephone. To describe a suitable change for the case of 'he' i s more d i f f i c u l t , and i t i s hard to do i t without making some rather bizarre suppositions. However, I see no reason in principle why something like the following should not be the case: whenever I use the pronoun, The', I produce in the person to whom I am referring some sign which makes i t clear to those nearby that he i s the person referred t o — perhaps ha gives a start or his hair stands on end. This i s a far more radical change than was need for 'I', and I think that i t would have to involve some causal connection between my intention to refer to a particular person and that person. Something like this can be found in real l i f e . One can, in suitable circumstances, show to whom 'he' refers by saying something like 'He i s a thief, and he always blushes when this fact i s mentioned.' I think that i t follows from this that i t i s not the 'logic' of 'I' or 'he' that accounts for the different ways they can be used, but certain contingencies about human bodies and the world in which we l i v e . I think that the important difference i s between 'I' and other personal pronouns, and I could have dealt with 'I' and 'you'. This would have been far easier; i t i s clear that one does not have to t e l l such a fantastic story to show how 'you' might be used without preliminaries. However, I wanted to argue that there i s no essential assymmetry between 'I' and any other personal pronoun. I conclude from a l l this that I am entitled to use 'I' in t e l l i n g Quinton's story, that my use of the word does not in i t s e l f beg any questions. My conclusion that 'I' i s a pronoun much like any other conflicts with Alston's account of the word's meaning in Philosophy of Language. Alston says: 'the word has a single .4 meaning—the speaker.' I do not think that this i s even approximately right; i t cannot be salvaged by substituting 'speaker or writer' for 'speaker', nor 'this' for 'the'. There seems to be no way of avoiding the claims of traditional grammar books. A possible objection to Quinton's story i s this: suppose that we come across someone who t e l l s us a story like Quinton's. Why should we believe him? Why should we not say, rather, that he i s deluded? One way to deal with this objection i s to admit i t . For my purposes (which w i l l become clearer later in this chapter), I think that I can grant that we should never have good reason to believe that a person has access to an objective world which i s denied to us. To grant this i s not to deny that such a person could have unique access to a second objective world. I think that the situation would be analogous to one in which someone claims to have witnessed a miracle, and Hume's arguments on the latter topic5 seem relevant. According to Hume, there i s nothing incoherent in the notion of a miracle, a violation of a law of nature. Nevertheless, we are never justified in accepting a report of a miracle, because the balance of evidence can never be in i t s favour. Similarly, i t may be that the balance of evidence i s always against the truth of a person's claim to have unique access to another objective world, but this does not show that there i s anything incoherent in his claim, that i t might not be true. I am not forced, however, to admit the objection. I have already pointed out that other people in Canada could make predictions about my 'dream' reports on the basis of my earlier 'dream' reports. If these were kept from me, the question of my cheating would not arise. If I developed s k i l l s in Bylake which I had not had the opportunity to develop here, others would have reason to take my story seriously. It could be that the science of Bylake i s far more advanced than science here, and I could apply what I learn in Bylake to the technological and scientific problems we face here. Perhaps I could show others how to cure many of the serious diseases which a f f l i c t people in Canada. It would be very hard to argue that I had l i t e r a l l y 'dreamt up' cures for a variety of diseases with no access to st a t i s t i c s , laboratories or patients. It seems quite clear that Quinton's story can be told so that others can apply objectivity concepts to Bylake, even though their only access to Bylake i s my reports and my behaviour in Canada. Quinton's story shows how one could come to think of a dream world as a real world. I have argued that enough coherent dream memories constitute a real past, just as our ordinary memories constitute a real past. This needs some explanation. The correctness of any memory of Bylake can be questioned, just as the correctness of any ordinary memory can be questioned. In neither case does i t follow from this that one can sensibly question a l l memories. As Shoemaker argues in Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity,^ i f we are to have a usable concept of the past, we must assume that most memories are correct. Any memory can be checked against other memories and found to be incorrect, but there i s nothing against which one can check a l l memories. It might seem that present evidence of past events could provide a check on memory which does not rely on other memories, but this i s not so. To see this, one has only to consider Russell's famous ...hypothesis that the world sprang into being five minutes ago, exactly as i t was then, with a population that "remembered" a wholly unreal past.7 Without causal laws and the reliance on memory that they require, ashes and fossils are just further items in the present world. I do not mean to deny that much of the language we use to describe present phenomena implies that the phenomena has had a certain history. Thus i t i s a necessary truth that ashes are the result of f i r e and that fossils have fossilized. A l l this shows, of course, i s that we cannot properly use terms such as 'ashes' and 'fossils' without implying a claim about the past. Someone might grant that we cannot sensibly suppose a l l memories to be delusive, but s t i l l object that a l l memories of Bylake might be delusive. This i s a possibility, but the radical nature of Quinton's story, the fact that i t i s a story about two worlds T makes i t a remote one. I think that i t would require an alternative causal account of Bylake memories. I would retract my claim about the objectivity of Bylake i f I were convinced that something like the following took place: every night when I f a l l asleep a super-psychologist with his super-machine—the equivalent of Descartes' e v i l genius—implants Bylake 'memories' in me. It i s just possible that consistent and coherent Bylake 'memories' are naturally produced in me without human agency, but this astronomically improbable eventuality can safely be ignored. The important point i s that I am not in the position in which Descartes took himself to be; I can bring evidence to bear on the supposition that a l l my Bylake memories are delusive. Someone who i s skeptical about my Bylake memories needs evidence to support his skepticism; Quinton's story can be told so that this evidence i s lacking. I think that Quinton's story raises d i f f i c u l t i e s for Malcolm's position, although.in i t s e l f i t does not show that Malcolm is mistaken. Malcolm's position rests in large part on his views on 'private language' and ' c r i t e r i a ' , and I shall go on to show that the possibility of Bylake makes these views untenable. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 4 Anthony Quinton, 'Spaces and Times', Philosophy, vol. 37 (1962), pp. 130-47. 2 Sydney Shoemaker, 'Persons and Their Pasts', American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 7, number 4, Oct. 197Q, pp. 269-235. S. C. Coval, Scepticism and the First Person (London, 1 9 6 6 ) . ^ W. P. Alston, Philosophy of Language (Englewood C l i f f s , 1964), p. 13. See An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. 2nd. ed. (Oxford, 1902), Section X. Sydnev Shoemaker, Self-Knowledge and Self-Identitv (Ithaca, 1963), pp. 229-39. ^ Bertrand Russell, The Analysis of Mind (London, 1921), p. 159. CHAPTER 5: PRIVACY It i s a common opinion that stories such as Quinton's are suspect because they place an individual in the position of having to decide by himself what is objective and what i s merely dreamt. This view i s held not only by thoroughgoing Wittgensteinians like Malcolm. In a section of The Bounds of Sense entitled 'Why only one Objective World?' which clearly is addressed to the sort of story Quinton t e l l s , Strawson makes this astonishing claim: If fantasies of the kind I speak of are to have any chance of getting us to admit the conceivability of a multiplicity of objective worlds, they must at least take account of this factor; they must at least allow for the point that another name for the objective i s the public This suggests that the question of whether or not Bylake i s an objective world i s not to be settled by me alone, but that I must appeal to 'the public' to help me. In te l l i n g Quinton's story, I have allowed a place for two publics, the public of the world which includes Canada and the public of Bylake. I assume that i t i s the former that Strawson had in mind. In this chapter, I shall argue that the question of the objectivity of Bylake—and a l l other questions of objectivity—can be distinguished from questions of publicity. I shall argue that the public and the objective are not logically equivalent, let alone tied together by simple semantics as Strawson suggests. In claiming that I could come to think of Bylake as an objective world, I pointed out that I could make a distinction between the way things are in Bylake and the way things seem,-..that I could apply such concepts as mistake, evidence, etc. I shall continue to make the distinction between the objective and the subjective in this way. I . think that i t is only i f the distinction i s drawn in this way that there i s any philosophical interest in the equation of the objective with the public. There i s a perfectly correct use of the word 'objective' in which the objective i s contrasted not to the unreal, the dreamt, the imaginary, etc., but to the personal or subjective. One can speak of a man's subjective reactions to a work of art, for example, without denying that there i s an objective answer to the question of whether he has those feelings. I have pointed out this other way of drawing the distinction between the objective and the non-objective—the other sense of 'objective', i f this i s preferred—only to make clear that I shall not use i t . The question of whether Bylake i s a real world or a dream world and the question of whether I have experiences in sleep or only awaken thinking that I have can be put in terms of the distinction between the objective and the non-objective only i f that distinction i s drawn as I shall draw i t . Likewise, i t i s only by drawing the distinction i n this way that one can understand Strawson's reasons for thinking that there can be only one objective world and put a non-trivial interpretation on his equation of the objective with the public. Malcolm's version of the equation of the objective with the public takes the form of the claim that there cannot be a 'private language'. Malcolm would argue that objectivity i s conceptually tied to the possibility of making a mistake. This i s why he attaches so much importance to his claim that i t does not make sense to suppose that a dream memory i s incorrect. I agree with Malcolm on the question of the possibility of error, and I have tried to show how I could make mistakes about Bylake. Malcolm sees that knowledge of having made a mistake in the past is propositional knowledge, that i t presupposes a language. Malcolm thinks that one cannot use a language without reference to other users of that language, that one cannot have a private language. Malcolm uses his claim that there cannot be a private language as the basis for various reductio ad absurdum arguments. In his review of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, he says: The idea of a private language is presupposed by every program of inferring or constructing the 'external world' and 'other minds'. It is contained in the philosophy of Descartes and in the theory.of ideas of classical British empiricism, as well as in recent and contemporary phenomonalism and sense-datum theory.2 It follows from this that there must be something wrong with Quinton's story i f the notion of a private language i s incoherent, since i t is a story about 'inferring or constructing' an external world. On Malcolm's view, i t i s not just Quinton's conclusion that i s mistaken; the very notion of private experiences that one has in sleep i s rejected. Malcolm argues for his central claim in Dreaming, the denial that dreams are experiences, by an appeal to the impossibility of a private language. He says: ...the sentence 'I am asleep' cannot be used to make a judgment. Let us remember that no one can know whether another person makes a correct use of the sentence 'I am asleep' to describe his condition....~ From the fact that no one else can know whether or not I use the sentence 'I am asleep' correctly, Malcolm argues: There could be nothing whatever that would tend to show that I employ that sentence correctly. I have no conception of what i t would mean to say that not only have I identified my state as that of sleep but that my identification i s furthermore right Malcolm seems to be arguing here that i f I try to use a language privately, I cannot even understand the distinction between correct and incorrect use of language. Before dealing with this argument, I should point out that Malcolm sees i t as applicable to a l l contents of dreams. He says: The argument just gone through... applies to an indefinite number of kinds of mental acts and psychological states and occurrences. As stated there i t referred only to judging.... What we have is a schema of proof which...can be made into a proof that thinking in sleep, reasoning in sleep, imagining in sleep and so on, are a l l unintelligible notions.^ I now turn to the question of what is meant by the claim that there cannot be a private language. I take i t that no one wants to deny that I can write a diary in a private code or that I can use English when I am alone. The claim needs to be explicated, and this requires an explication of the phrase 'private language'. In .''Wittgenstein on Privacy' , John W. Cook says: A chief complaint against Wittgenstein i s that he does not make i t sufficiently-clear what the idea of a private language includes—what i s meant by "a private language"....He does not try to make this clear because the idea under investigation turns out to be irremediably confused... If this i s correct, i t follows that nothing significant i s asserted by.saying, 'There cannot be a private language.' Cook does not reach this conclusion, but I think that i t i s inescapable. It i s a necessary condition of our understanding anything of the form, 'There cannot be an R', that we understand the meaning of 'R'. "(My argument here commits me to the position that expressions such as 'square circ l e ' have meaning, a position which I should be prepared to defend independently of present considerations.) Moreover, i f Malcolm cannot give some account of the meaning of 'private language', we cannot understand his claim that 'the idea of a private language i s presupposed by' various positions that he wishes to attack. Malcolm does not try to elucidate the meaning of 'private language' in Dreaming, but he refers the reader to his review of the Philosophical Investigations.^ He says in the review: By a 'private language' i s meant one that not merely is not but cannot be understood by anyone other than the speaker.g The force of 'cannot' i s expanded as follows: ...a language which i s really private (i.e. i t i s a logical impossibility that anyone else should understand i t or should have any basis for knowing whether I am using a particular name consistently)....9 This allows us to interpret the argument in Dreaming. I cannot use a language in my dreams because such a use of language i s 'really private', because i t i s a logical impossibility for others to understand i t — q u a language used in a dream. That i s , anything which makes i t possible for others to understand the language I use in a dream would be evidence, on Malcolm's view, for the conclusion that I am not asleep, and hence not dreaming. The d i f f i c u l t y with this interpretation of 'private language' i s that there i s no reason whatever to suppose that such a language i s impossible. On this interpretation of 'private language', I cannot go for a solitary walk and remind myself to return before dark. The language I use on a solitary walk i s , qua language used on a solitary walk, a language of which i t i s true that ' i t i s a logical impossibility that anyone else should understand i t . ' Since every private use of language i s , qua some feature or other, a use of language of which i t i s true that ' i t i s a logical impossibility that anyone else should understand i t ' , there i s nothing to distinguish Malcolm's 'really private' language from a language or use of language which is in fact private. My argument here i s based on Jonathan Bennett's discussion of private languages in Kant's Analytic. Bennett speaks of 'a necessarily private language', but the same considerations apply. The form of words, 'a necessarily private language', has been so much used that i t i s easy to simply assume that i t must make sense. Bennett suggests that the emperor has no clothes by asking: Gould there be.a necessarily private hat, i.e. one which could not be worn by more than one person? The question i s absurd: i t i s a piece of pre-L-ockean essentialism, an e l l i p s i s which we are not told how to expand.., n I think that Locke's account of 'essence' is correct and completely clear. Once i t i s understood, i t can be seen that expressions such as Malcolm's 'really' or 'necessarily' f a i l to add anything to 'private language'. Locke says: It i s necessary for me to be as I am; God and nature has made me so....if i t be asked, whether i t be essential to me or any other particular corporeal being, to have reason? I say no; no more than i t i s essential to this white thing I write on to have words on i t . But i f that particular being be to be counted of the sort man, and to have the name man given to i t , then reason is essential to it...as i t is essential to this thing I write on to contain words, i f I w i l l give i t the name treatise. and rank i t under that species. Bennett's conclusion i s correct. The claim, 'There cannot be a necessarily ("really", etc.) private language is defective: either i t i s a claim about the impossibility of a private language, in which case 'necessarily' does no work: or i t i s a claim about the impossibility of a language having certain features which entail privacy, in which case i t should be expressed as a claim about the impossibility of a language having those features. Bennett points out the possibility that the claim may be some combination of these two, but I think that this interpretation can safely be ignored. If we waive for the moment the possibility of Bylake, the language one uses in a dream is 'necessarily private', i.e., i t has a feature (being used in a dream) which entails privacy. But since the only reason which Malcolm gives for supposing that one cannot use a language in a dream i s the fact that such a language would be private, we are driven back to the question of privacy. Malcolm thinks that there cannot be a private language because: _ I shall be the sole arbiter of whether this i s the same as that. What I choose to c a l l the 'same' w i l l be the same. No restriction whatever w i l l be imposed upon my application of the word. But a sound that I can use as I please is not a word. Malcolm's point i s that I cannot make sense of the notion of correctly applying a word unless I understand what i t would be like to misapply, i t . This in turn requires that I have some way of distinguishing between 'I am using this word correctly' and 'It seems to me now that I am using this word correctly' which, of course, must be independent of the way my use of the word seems to me now. That i s a l l right, but Malcolm has not given any argument to show how the public comes into the picture, why any check on my use of words must involve others. . This gap in the argument is discussed by M. J. Scott-Taggart in 'Private Languages and Linguistic Stipulation'. Scott-Taggart says: It seems that, for Malcolm, an appeal to an independent check i s an appeal to a concensus. This explains his thinking that 'in the nature of the case there cannot be such an appeal.' That this i s indeed his view i s further confirmed when he says, echoing Wittgenstein's 'whatever is going to seem right to me is right', that'a sound that I can use as I please is not a word.' This locution, in the normal use which is here being employed, we find in sentences like 'You can do as you please', which carry the implication that other people are in some way not relevant to whatever is going to be done. Taken together, these points make clear that Malcolm construes the 'independent' in 'independent check' to mean 'independent of my own decision'. If we define 'independent' in this way, then a private language is indeed impossible.-,^ As Scott-Taggart sees, we do not have to define 'independent' in this way. What i s required is some way of distinguishing 'It seems to me now that I am using this word correctly' from 'I am using this word correctly.' To see that this distinction can be made without reference to a public, i t i s helpful to consider the language of a Robinson Crusoe. I think that A. J. Ayer has done much to cl a r i f y the difference between the public and the objective in his paper, 'Can There Be a Private Language?' Ayer raises the question of whether a congenital Robinson Crusoe could develop a language and make a distinction between the way things are and the way things seem, and concludes that he could. Of such a man, Ayer says: He w i l l certainly be able to recognize many things upon the island, in the sense that he adapts his behaviour to them. Is i t inconceivable that he should also name them?... But i f we allow that our Robinson Crusoe could invent words to describe the flora and fauna of his island, why not allow that he could also invent words to describe his sensations? In neither case w i l l he be able to justify his use of words by drawing on the evidence provided by a fellow creature: but while this is a useful check, i t i s not indispensable.... Undoubtedly, he may make mistakes....but to say that nothing turns upon a mistake is not to say that i t i s not a mistake at a l l - H No doubt a congenital Crusoe would be li k e l y to make mistakes on which nothing turns, but I think he could also make mistakes whose consequences would be apparent to him. Suppose for example, that Crusoe develops a crude theory about the relationship between rainfall, and crops. Suppose that he writes in his diary something to the effect that rain in the spring produces good crops in the f a l l . Year after year, events occur which confirm this theory and which tend to show a consistency in Crusoe's use of words. One f a l l , after what Crusoe thinks was a wet spring, the crops are very poor. This need not force Crusoe to suppose that he is now attaching a different meaning to 'wet', 'poor' or 'crop', etc. There are at least two other suppositions that Crusoe can make: he can suppose that he was mistaken in thinking that i t rained last spring or he can suppose that his theory i s not so reliable as he thought. Crusoe realizes that he has made a mistake, and he can find good reasons for supposing that i t was one kind of mistake rather than another. If he decides that his theory-i s unreliable, he could set about developing a better one. If the improved theory turns out to be well confirmed, Crusoe can use this fact as evidence that he had not made a semantic error when he f i r s t supposed that the crops in the f a l l were poor even though the spring had been wet. A similar argument w i l l show, I think, that Crusoe could develop a language in terms of which he could refer to his sensations. He uses the word 'pain' to refer to a sensation. The next day he uses the same word to refer to what strikes him as being a very similar sensation, i.e., he thinks that the word 'pain' i s appropriate on this occasion. Now, the question can arise for -him of whether he i s being consistent in his use of the word 'pain 1. He can appeal to his memory, but as Malcolm points out, memories are not i n f a l l i b l e . As I argued in the previous chapter, i t i s absurd to try to justify reliance on memory in general, but our Crusoe can find some justification for his belief that he i s entitled to trust his memory on this particular occasion. He has noted in his diary that certain concomitants accompany pain; i t has characteristic causes, and effects. So the question of whether the sensation he now has i s pain or not has some substance for him. It might even be extremely important to him. For instance, i t matters whether eating a certain fruit causes pain, and Crusoe might have a v i t a l interest in the truth of his belief that pain causes him to misjudge his aim while hunting. I have argued that Crusoe could check the correctness of a particular memory by an appeal to the causes and effects of his sensations, i.e., to an objective world. The concept of an objective world would-allow him to develop a large- body of memories and beliefs, against which he could check his present belief that he i s using a sensation term correctly. The employment of the concept of an objective world would not guarantee thai: Crusoe i s using the sensation term consistently, but i t would allow him to weigh one claim against another, to say, 'Either this memory is incorrect or a l l those memories and/or that hypothesis are incorrect.' There have been two main lines of criticism of Ayer's position. Rhees, in a direct reply to Ayer's paper,^ fastens onto Ayer's claim that Crusoe could invent words. It i s not clear just what Rhee's position i s , but I think that he wants to point out that 'mere naming' is not organizing one's experience. One cannot say 'I shall henceforth c a l l a l l s "birds'" unless one already has something with which to f i l l in the blank. If this i s Rhees's objection, i t i s not totally without foundation. However, i t misses Ayer's fundamental point. The suggestion that one consider a congenital Crusoe i s only introduced in order to make i t quite clear that other people have never had any part in the use of Crusoe's language. Ayer does not give an account of how Crusoe could organize his experience to the point at which he could name recurring items in i t , and I do not think that i t i s incumbent upon Ayer or myself to do so. The issue i s whether one can have a private language. Unless there are positive reasons to suppose that a solitary person could not acquire a language—and there are no such reasons—the question of the origin of Crusoe's language i s irrelevant. Moreover, no one, as far as I know, has yet given anything like a plausible account of how the f i r s t two cavemen developed a language, but i t would be absurd to take this to show that there cannot be a public language. The second line of criticism of Ayer's position i s exemplified by Malcolm's distinction between a language which i s not and a language which cannot be understood by others. I have already dealt with one interpretation of 'cannot', the 'logical impossibility' interpretation. Is there any other interpretation of 'cannot' which adds anything to 'is not'? There is one obvious interpretation, but this w i l l turn out to be insufficient to save Malcolm's position or anything like i t . In most contexts at least, there i s nothing to choose between 'I cannot understand French' and ' I do not understand French.' Someone looking at a d i f f i c u l t philosophical argument for the f i r s t time might be expected to say either 'I do not understand i t ' or 'I cannot understand i t . ' After making a serious effort, someone might well despair of ever being able to understand i t . Such a person i s more l i k e l y to say 'I cannot understand i t l ' , the emphasis on 'cannot' suggesting that he has tried but failed, that i t i s beyond his capabilities. I think that this i s about a l l that 'cannot' adds when we are talking about understanding. Someone coming across a Robinson Crusoe might make a serious effort to read what he takes to be Crusoe's diary, f a i l , and say 'I cannot understand his language.' If enough people tried and failed to understand what they took to be Crusoe's language, we could have an instance of a l l that can be seriously meant by 'a private language', a language which i s not and cannot be understood by others, even when they make a determined effort to understand i t . I say that we could have an instance of a private language because the facts would not force us to that conclusion. After many attempts to read the putative diary, we might decide that we were wrong in supposing that the book was a diary; we might decide, despite some evidence to the contrary, that Crusoe merely was in the habit of scrawling meaningless marks into his book. But the facts would not force us to that conclusion either. The facts of the case leave i t an open question as to whether we are faced with a private language or no language at a l l . On Malcolm's view, Crusoe could not have a language which no one else could understand, because this precludes the possibility of others checking Crusoe's use of words. Malcolm thinks that Crusoe cannot have a distinction between using a word consistently and seeming to use i t consistently unless i t is possible for others to check his use of words. The importance that Malcolm attaches to a mere possibility is puzzling. Crusoe is alone. He cannot appeal to others to help him make a house, cure his illnesses or check on the consistency in his use of language. A possible builder creates no houses and a possible doctor cures no illnesses: what use i s a possible public? Malcolm i s not clear on this point, but he might be thinking along these lines: the distinction between being consistent and seeming to be consistent gets i t s meaning from the concept of a public check. On this view, Crusoe's belief that he i s using words consistently just i s the belief that i f others came to his island they could learn his language and find his use of words to be (briefly but paradoxically) consistent. This line of thought rests on the v e r i f i a b i l i t y theory of meaning, and reflects Malcolm's insight that the distinction between using a word consistently and seeming to use i t consistently must have some basis other than mere strength of conviction. On the face of i t , 'I am using the word "x" consistently' does not mean 'If others checked my use of "x", they would not find i t erratic' or anything similar. One might be forced to claim that they are equivalent i f one could not conceive of any way of verifying 'I am using the word "x" consistently' which did not involve a public check. I have already argued that Crusoe could bring evidence to bear on his belief that he i s using a word consistently. If Crusoe can do this, he does not need to equate 'I am using the word "x" consistently' with some statement about what others would do i f they observed his linguistic behaviour. Malcolm's view that the public must be involved in the verification of my belief that I am using a word consistently seems to rest on a very bad argument which Wittgenstein developed in the Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein's argument runs along these lines: anything we want to c a l l 'language' must be in some sense rule-governed; i t must be possible to use a word incorrectly as well as correctly. This seems unexceptionable. Wittgenstein, however, sees the d i f f i c u l t i e s in the concept of a rule. He points out that any number of formulae can generate a given f i n i t e series of numbers, and adds the point that the formula which strikes one as being the one which generates the series might not be the one which occurs to others. This i s correct, but hardly original. It must have occurred to many people who have been subjected to so-called 'intelligence tests'. Wittgenstein goes on to make an original and far more interesting point: even given a formula, there are d i f f i c u l t i e s in setting an objective standard of what counts as applying i t consistently. Thus someone could claim to understand the formula, 'add 2', give every sign of being able to add 2 just as we a l l do, and then at some point deviate from what we expect and s t i l l insist that he i s 17 following the rule, 'add 2'. It seems clear that Wittgenstein i s right in this. It follows, I think, that i f we are to c a l l the man who claims that the series, 1002, 1004, 1006, 1003, 1012, i s generated by the rule, 'add 2', 'deviant' in his understanding of the rule, we must do so on the grounds that he deviates from the rule as we generally apply i t . I completely f a i l to see how i t can follow from this that one cannot follow a rule privately. Wittgenstein concludes: And hence also 'obeying a rule' i s a practice. And to think one "is obeying a rule i s not to obey a rule. Hence i t i s not possible to obey a rule 'privately': otherwise thinking one was obeying a rule would be the same thing as obeying it.-j_g What baffles me about this f i n a l move is the jump from the claim that obeying a rule i s a practice to the claim that one needs a public to check one's use of a rule in order to make a distinction between thinking that one i s obeying a rule and obeying i t . Wittgenstein i s certainly right in saying that we must make a distinction between thinking that we are obeying a rule and obeying i t , i f we are to have any use for a rule. I think that Ayer's Crusoe can make this distinction. In using a language in the way I have described, Crusoe i s trying to use words according to a rule. What i s crucial is that he has a use for the concept of being mistaken in his use of a word. He is trying to be consistent, to use words in the same way, and he has some idea of whether or not he is succeeding. True, he can never be absolutely certain that he i s being consistent in his use of a word, but I claim that we are' in the same situation. The public to which I have access i s limited, and i t i s certainly i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that this segment of the public might be mistaken. Moreover, i f we are to be as skeptical over the ordinary case as we are over the case of Crusoe, access to a l l the English-speakers in the world w i l l not guarantee that I am using a word consistently. If I take the skeptical stance, I can only claim that i t seems to me that others observe my linguistic behaviour and comment on i t . Only an objective public can be of use to me; without some way of distinguishing between the way things are and the way things seem, I cannot distinguish between 'Someone else i s confirming my judgment' and 'It seems to me that someone else is confirming my judgment.' I do not want to deny that others can help one to decide whether something is so or merely seems so. The drunkard can certainly ask others whether there are pink rats in the corner, but of course he may be imagining the other people just as he i s imagining the pink rats. Epistemologically, other people have the same status as scientific instruments. If I want to confirm my judgment that a particular piece of paper i s blue, I can show i t to others or examine i t with a spectroscope. If others disagree with my judgment, I can always suppose that they are colour blind or insincere; i f the spectroscope does not help to confirm my judgment, I can always suppose that the instrument i s defective. Whether I appeal to other people or to instruments, the conclusion I reach i s , in the last analysis, my own. Scott-Taggart makes much the same point in 'Private Languages and Linguistic Stipulation': even when one has a public, i t cannot serve as 'a linguistic super-ego',"^"9 i t cannot make my decisions. I can now return to the comparison I made earlier between the language which i s private in virtue of being used on a solitary walk and the language which i s private in virtue of being used in a dream. My conclusion in the previous chapter about memory i s relevant here. I think that both the solitary walker and the dreamer can simply trust their memories unless they have a reason not to. If i t seems to me on a solitary walk or in a dream that 'fear' properly describes the sensation I am now having, the presumption i s that 'fear' does properly describe the sensation. There are, however, two differences between the cases; one minor, the other important. The possibility that someone might join me when I am out on a walk i s not remote, whereas the possibility that my dream might be my f i r s t experience of a second real world, a Bylake with people who can check my use of language, i s remote. I think that this i s the only relevant difference i f the issue is privacy. But the issue, as I have tried to show, i s not privacy, and this is not the important difference. It is only possible that my dream world i s a real world, whereas i t i s a fact that the world I l i v e in when I take a solitary walk i s a real world. If I wish to check the consistency in my use of words when I am on a solitary walk, I can in fact make use of evidence. For example, I can confirm that I am using the word 'pain' correctly by noting that a wasp- is resting on my hand. In a dream, this sort of thing i s impossible; wasps in dreams are as l i k e l y to turn into princesses as they are to cause pain. A l l that this shows is that in fact I can bring less evidence to bear on the truth of claims that I make in dreams than I can on the truth of claims that I make on a solitary walk, that in dreams I must trust my memory more that I do in waking l i f e . It does not follow from this that I can make no distinction between using a word correctly and seeming to use i t correctly when I am dreaming. I have tried to show that the concept of objectivity does not rest on the concept of publicity. I have argued that the dreamer can have a public, the public of Bylake. To see this is to see that he does not need one, i t i s to see that the privacy of dreams is not a fact which supports Malcolm's position. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 5 1 P. F. Strawson, The Bounds of Sense (London, 1966), . 151. P 2 Malcolm, 'Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations' reprinted in Wittgenstein: The Philosophical Investigations: A Collection of C r i t i c a l Essavs. ed. George Pitcher (Garden City, N.Y., 1966), p. 66. 3 Malcolm, Dreamingt p. 12. 4 Ibid., p. 13. 5 Ibid., p. 45. 6 John W. Cook, 'Wittgenstein on Privacy', reprinted in Pitcher, o_£. , p. 286. 7 Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 54n. Pitcher, op_. c i t . , p. 66. 9 Ibid.. p. 70. 10 Jonathan Bennett, Kant's Analytic (Cambridge, 1966), p. 211. ^ Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (New York, 1959), Bk. HI, Chap. VI, Sect. 4. Pitcher, op_. c i t . . p. 73. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 5, cont'd. 13 M. J. Scott-Taggart,'Private Languages and Linguistic Stipulation' in J. J. Macintosh and S. C. Coval (eds.), The Business of Reason (London, 1969), p. 232. A. J. Ayer, 'Can There Be a Private Language reprinted in Pitcher, op., c i t . , pp. 259-60. 15 R. Rhees, 'Can There Be a Private Language?' reprinted in Pitcher, op., c i t . , pp. 267-85. -1 /: Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, particularly Sections 143-7.. 17 Ibid.. particularly Sections 185-90. 18 Ibid., Section 202. 19 Scott-Taggart, op_. c i t . f Section 2. CHAPTER 6: 'CRITERIA', THE IDENTITY OF CONCEPTS AND INDUCTION Although I have argued for the possibility of a private language, English i s in fact a public language. If I am to communicate with others, I must take account of their linguisitc practices. For example, i f others are to understand my claim that dreams are experiences, my use of the word 'experience' must meet certain public standards. Malcolm properly insists on this point, and this marks one aspect of his thought on the question of meaning. Unfortunately, Malcolm does not distinguish these sorts of considerations carefully enough from another aspect of his thought on the question of meaning, a strong interpretation of the v e r i f i a b i l i t y theory of meaning. I think that his use of the word 'cri t e r i a ' reflects this failure to distinguish between two different claims. There i s no doubt that Malcolm thinks that his use of the technical term 'crit e r i a ' is the same as Wittgenstein's, but I shall completely ignore the question of what Wittgenstein meant by 'criteria' and a l l other questions connected with Wittgenstein's use of the word. My only concern w i l l be with Malcolm's use of the word, which may or may not approximate Wittgenstein's. In a chapter entitled 'The Concept of Dreaming', Malcolm asks: ...how could i t be determined that the inner states of different people were the same and, therefore, that they meant the same thing by the word 'dreaming'?-^ The point of this rhetorical question i s clear: i f we are to be able to talk about others' mental states and i f we are to be able to understand others when they talk about their own mental states, we must establish or learn the meaning of words. This can only be done by reference to something public, something to which several members of the linguistic community have access. I think that this i s right. I see no way in which words used to describe or refer to mental states could have a place in a public language unless they can be applied on the basis of publicly observable phenomena. In fact, the phenomena we use to apply and learn mental terms i s , at least for the most part, behaviour. The requirement of public accessibility i s met by pulse rates and brain states, but in fact we do not usually learn or apply mental terms on the basis of such phenomena. It i s a fact about human history that we have learned to correlate such things as brain states with sensations. Malcolm sees the absurdity, in supposing that we could have learned to correlate in this way a l l the outer manifestations of inner sensations with the sensations themselves. He says: ...one may be inclined to think that there cannot be a criterion (something that settles a question with certainty) of someone's having a sore foot or having dreamt, but merely various 'outer' phenomena that are empirically correlated with sore feet and dreams. This view, however, is self-contradictory: without c r i t e r i a for the occurrence of these things the correlations could not be established.2 What I object to in this passage is the claim that one cannot correlate dreams and sore feet with outer manifestations unless one can be certain that one has found examples of dreams and sore feet. I shall argue that i t is enough to have reasonable grounds for supposing that someone has dreamt or has sore feet in order to go about establishing correlations. Malcolm is not alone in his insistence that certainty i s required for the establishment of correlations. Strawson argues in much the same way in Individuals. He says: And, in the case of at least some P-predicates, the ways of t e l l i n g must constitute in some sense logically adequate kinds of c r i t e r i a for the ascription of the P-predicate. For suppose in no case did these ways of t e l l i n g constitute logically adequate kinds of c r i t e r i a . Then we should have to think of the relation between the ways of t e l l i n g and what the P-predicate ascribes, or a part of what i t ascribes, always in the following way: we should have to think of the ways of t e l l i n g as signs of the presence, in the individual concerned, of this different thing, viz. the state of consciousness. But then we could only know that the way of t e l l i n g was a sign of the presence of the different thing ascribed by the P-predicate, by the observation of correlations between the two.-Strawsbn does qualify his claim that the ways of t e l l i n g must be 'logically adequate' with the phrase 'in some sense','tiut the later part of the passage I have just quoted suggests that this is not much of a qualification. Malcolm speaks of 'something that settles a question with certainty' and Strawson speaks of 'ways of t e l l i n g ' . Expressions like these suggest that what is being discussed is our everyday application of words, the decision procedures we in fact use in deciding whether or not someone is in pain or has dreamt, etc. I think that notions such as 'certainty' and 'logically adequate kinds of c r i t e r i a ' have no place here. Before arguing for this position, I should make i t clear that I am not claiming that there is anything i n t r i n s i c a l l y dubious about such notions. There is nothing illegitimate in saying that memory can supply a logically adequate criterion of personal identity. Likewise, i t i s quite in order to argue that the concept of morality i s logically tied to the concept of the happiness of sentient beings. As long as one is dealing with questions of conceptual dependence, with questions such as 'What i s a dream?' and 'What i s a physical object?', there is nothing wrong with speaking of 'logically adequate c r i t e r i a ' , etc. Malcolm denies that he i s dealing with such questions. He explains his use of 'criterion', in this way: One cause of the d i f f i c u l t y i s a temptation to think that when one states the criterion for something one says what that something is—one defines i t . But this i s wrong. The criterion of someone's having a sore foot i s what he does and says in certain circumstances: and that i s not a sore foot.. Indeed, Malcolm seems to find questions of conceptual dependence and definition unintelligible. He says: ...I am not trying to say what dreaming i s : I do not understand what i t would mean to do that. I merely set forth the reminder that in our daily discourse about dreams what we take as determining beyond question that a man dreamt is that in sincerity he should t e l l a dream or say he had one.^ Dreaming looks like an analysis of the concept of dreaming. Malcolm's conclusion that dreams are not experiences looks like part of the answer to the question 'What i s dreaming?' I think that we must construe Malcolm's enterprise as being a conceptual investigation, notwithstanding his denial. I think that the fact that we ascribe sensation predicates on the basis of behaviour and the fact that we say that someone has dreamt on the basis of his dream report are important. I think there are conceptual connections between sensations and behaviour, between dreams and sincere dream reports, and so on. What I deny i s that these conceptual connections are of a kind which make behaviour and dream reports 'logically adequate c r i t e r i a ' for saying that someone has a certain sensation or has dreamt. I deny that there is anything to which we can have access which can determine 'beyond question' that someone has dreamt or has a sore foot. What needs to be examined i s not 'what we take as determining beyond question', but what we take as good evidence for, good reasons for thinking that, and so on. I think that i t might be helpful to suggest an analogy' between the ways we ascribe mental predicates on the basis of behaviour and the ways in which we make physical object claims on the basis of our sensory experiences. It is clear that the only evidence one has for a claim about physical objects i s the 'evidence of the senses', one's sensory experiences. On the question of the perception of physical objects, I should be prepared to argue, much as Malcolm argues on the question of feelings, experiences, etc., that i t i s unintelligible to suppose that we could have discovered that our senses are usually reliable by discovering empirical correlations between our sensory states and physical objects. I do not think that i t follows from this that there must be some privileged kind of sensory states or a large enough body of sensory states, a 'criterion' of perception, against which one can check other sensory states. If one looks across a f i e l d and sees or seems to see a two-headed cow, the mere fact that this i s unusual makes one dubious as to whether there really is a two-headed cow there. But looking from another angle and seeing that there are two cows i s not a special way of looking; there are no privileged angles for looking at cows, although in each particular case there are better and worse angles. Touching the cows or looking several times from different angles w i l l , for practical purposes, settle the question of whether there are one or two cows, but this does not show that touching or a certain number of looks constitutes evidence which determines 'beyond question' the existence of two cows. The sort of mild skepticism which I am maintaining i s not, of course, without i t s c r i t i c s . Austin's criticism i s most well-known, but I shall deal only with one of Malcolm's arguments. Malcolm claims that we can have absolutely certain knowledge of some matters of fact. He claims that he can know with certainty that there is an ink-bottle on his desk on the basis of present evidence, and denies that future events could force him to admit that he was mistaken. Malcolm says in 'Knowledge and B e l i e f : Now could i t turn out to be false that there i s an ink-bottle directly in front of me on this desk? Many philosophers.... would say that many things could happen of such a nature that i f they did happen i t would be proved that I am deceived....It could happen that when I next reach for this ink-bottle my hand should seem to pass through i t . . . . I t could happen that in the next moment the ink-bottle w i l l suddenly vanish.... Not only do I not have to admit that those extraordinary occurrences would be evidence that there i s no ink-bottle here; the fact i s that I do not admit i t . There is nothing whatever that could happen in the next moment or the next year that would by me be called evidence that there is not an ink-bottle here now. No future experience or investigation could prove to me that I am mistaken.,. Malcolm's use of the phrase 'be proved that I am deceived' and 'could prove to me that I am mistaken' suggest the sort of muddle which Malcolm i s in. Of course the skeptic cannot provide proof that a mistake has been made; his position i s that there can be no st r i c t proof of empirical claims. Malcolm argues for his position in the following way: Someone asks you for a dollar. You say "There i s one in this drawer." You open the drawer and look, but i t i s perfectly empty. Your statement turned out to be false. This can be said because you discovered an.', empty drawer-. It could not be said i f i t were only probable that the drawer i s empty....One statement about physical things turned out to be false only because you made sure of another statement about physical things. The two concepts cannot exist apart. Therefore i t i s impossible that every statement about physical things could turn out to be false.g There are two obvious criticisms of this line of argument. Fi r s t , as I have already argued, we are justified- in'saying that we have made a mistake when we have good reason's to think so; Malcolm is wrong in thinking that we must make sure that the drawer i s empty before concluding tha't the claim that there i s a dollar in the drawer was mistaken. Second, even the conclusion that i t i s impossible that every statement about physical things could turn out to be false does not guarantee the truth of any particular empirical statement, any more than the impossibility of every Canadian becoming the next Prime Minister guarantees that Smith w i l l not become the next Prime Minister. This error seems so gross that i t i s hard to believe that Malcolm i s making i t ; but i f he i s not, there seems to be no point to his conclusion that i t is impossible that a l l empirical claims could turn out to be false. I have suggested an analogy between the claims we make about other people's mental states and the claims we make about physical objects. I have argued that we can never be absolutely certain in our claims about things like ink-bottles, but that nevertheless terms such as 'ink-bottle' have a place in the language. I think that an element of uncertainty in the claims we make about other people's mental states i s , likewise, no reason for supposing that we cannot use mental terms. In both cases, I reject the line of argument which suggests that there must be examples about which there can be no doubt, so-called 'paradigm cases', i f the language i s to be taught and used. I should point out an important disanalogy between claims about physical objects and claims about other people's mental states. People have knowledge of their own mental states and they do not get i t as others do, by observing their behaviour. This suggests a basis for skepticism over claims about others' mental states which i s lacking in physical object claims. One can always be skeptical about a physical object claim because one can always claim that there i s not enough sensory evidence, but this i s the only basis for such skepticism. One can be skeptical over a claim about others' mental states on this basis, and i t can at least be argued that one can also be skeptical over such claims because we do not have the right kind of evidence; that we have only behaviour, no A matter how much evidence we gather. This radical skepticism over other minds is not jus t i f i e d . It i s a necessary condition of our being able to put mental terms to a serious use in a public language that we should be able to apply them on the basis of publicly observable phenomena. Mental terms are put to a serious use, and hence the necessary condition obtains. This i s a point about the nature of terms which are used in a public language,. and I think that i t is what underlies Strawson's clearly false claims about 'logically adequate c r i t e r i a ' . I have tried to show that the search for certainty i s misguided; the word 'dream' can have a use, even though we can never be absolutely certain that someone has dreamt. From the insight that something which i s accessible to the public must have some bearing on the truth of claims such as 'He dreamt last night' i f others are to understand i t , Malcolm slides to the position that the meaning of 'He dreamt last night'is determined by the evidence we actually use to justify the claim. This i s discussed by Putnam in 'Dreaming and "Depth Grammar"'. I completely agree with Putnam's criticism: ...the thesis that the existence of a 'criterion', in Malcolm's sense, is a prerequisite for even the assignability of truth-values is badly in need of support. I do not wish to discuss the whole issue of Verificationism here; but let me point out that Malcolm's requirements are much stronger than those of other Verificationists, e.g., Carnap and Reichenbach. Carnap and Reichenbach require only that a sentence should be able to be used to express the conclusion of an inductive inference, or s t i l l more weakly, that i t should be possible to assign some kind of inductive probability to i t , for i t to be 'cognitively meaningful'. Malcolm, in effect, rejects this view on the ground that you cannot assign a probability to something that is unintelligible, and that a sentence i s unintelligible i f there is no criterion for i t s being used to say what i s true. If this has any plausibility at a l l , i t seems to accrue from the ambiguity: criterion=set of truth conditions, vs. criterion= Tway of settling a question with certainty' (Malcolm's notion). n Putnam's paper was originally entitled 'Arguments based on children's learning to talk', and I now turn to Malcolm's emphasis on the fact that children cannot be taught the word 'dream' while they are dreaming. Malcolm uses considerations of how the word 'dream' is taught to support his claim that dreams are not experiences that one has in sleep. He says: If after waking from sleep a child t e l l s us that he saw and did and thought various things, none of which could be true, and i f his relation of these incidents has spontaneity and no appearance of invention, then we say to him 'It was a dream.'-^ Q No doubt many children learn the word 'dream' in much this way, but I see no reason why this has to be so. Malcolm does not even consider the possibility that a child might be taught that 'dream' means 'an experience or thought had while asleep'. This would seem to be the natural way to teach the word to someone who has never dreamt. There are people who sincerely claim that they have never dreamt; presumably they understand what they are saying. Such people give every indication of understanding the word 'dream'; nothing in their linguistic behaviour suggests that they do not. I do not know how such people learnt the word 'dream', and I do not. think that i t matters. What i s known, and what does matter, i s that some people did not learn how to use the word in the way that Malcolm suggests. Even supposing that Malcolm i s right and that everyone who can use the word 'dream' correctly learnt how to do so in the way that Malcolm says, I do not think that his position is supported by such considerations. I do not think that the meaning of a word and the way in which i t i s taught are as closely linked as Malcolm would have us believe. The most favourable examples for Malcolm's position are those in which a word i s always learnt ostensively, colour words, for example. I see no reason why a child should not learn the meaning of 'green' by being shown things that only seem green. Suppose a child were kept away from everything green. To teach him the word 'green', he i s shown blue objects in a yellow light against a yellow background. We have every reason to suppose that the child, when he subsequently comes across green things, w i l l be able to correctly identify their colour. To be able to do this just i s to understand what 'green' means. A possible objection i s that the child in my example w i l l not mean by 'green' what we do, but w i l l mean 'seems green'. This objection would have considerable force i f the distinction between being green and seeming to be green worked in the same way as the distinction between being green and being, say, red. It does not. The child in my example, on discovering that he has been systematically deceived, might well be more cautious than most people in making claims about the colour of things, and this could show in his use of 'seems', 'I think that', etc. I do not think that anyone would want to seriously argue that this would constitute even a partial failure to have learnt the meaning of 'green'. Putnam argues for my claim that we do not need 'cr i t e r i a ' in Malcolm's sense. He says: Could we have only 'indications' and no 'criterion'? Consider the following case: there is a disease, multiple sclerosis, which is extremely d i f f i c u l t to diagnose. The symptoms resemble those of other neurological diseases; and not a l l of the symptoms are usually present. Some neurologists believe that multiple sclerosis i s caused by a virus, although they cannot presently specify what virus. Suppose a patient, X, has a 'paradigmatic' case of multiple sclerosis. Then Malcolm's view is that, no matter what we find out later, X has multiple sclerosis because that is what we presently mean. In particular, i f we later identify a virus as the cause of multiple sclerosis, and this patient's condition was not caused by that virus, he s t i l l had multiple sclerosis. (Saying that this virus was the cause of multiple sclerosis was changing the concept. One could even say in the manner of Malcolm, p. 81: 'Considering the radical conceptual changes that the adoption of a virological criterion would entail, i t i s evident that a new concept would have been created that only remotely resembled the old one.' Perhaps the discoveries of the investigators would not 'pertain to multiple sclerosis','. )-^ I shall try to show that this i s not unfair to Malcolm. In discussing some empirical studies on dreaming, Malcolm says: We ought to...ask ourselves whether i t is appropriate to c a l l this creation a concept of dreaming. If rapid eye movements during sleep became the criterion of dreaming one consequence i s that i f someone were to t e l l a dream i t could turn out that his impression that he dreamt was mistaken....Another consequence is.that i t would be possible to discover that a man's assertion that he had slept a dreamless sleep was in error....-I think that most people would consider 'this creation' to be the familiar concept of dreaming. The supposition that one only thinks that one has dreamt strikes most people as completely i n t e l l i g i b l e , indeed this is what many people take Malcolm's thesis in Dreaming.to be. Likewise, the supposition that we dream and forget our dreams before awakening does not strike most people as unintelligible. Malcolm thinks that such suppositions must involve a 'new concept' of dreaming. If this move i s allowed, there seems to be no reasonable basis for disallowing the claim that research into multiple sclerosis must involve a 'new concept' of multiple sclerosis. . In a chapter entitled 'The Criteria of Sleep', Malcolm says: In addition to...the criterion of behaviourT there i s the criterion of.. .testimony.-i o The differences in 'crit e r i a ' lead Malcolm to suppose that there are two concepts of sleep, one applicable to animals and human infants, the other to adults and older children. It i s worth pointing out that giving testimony i s a kind of behaviour. Of course Malcolm could reword this passage, but i f he did so I think that his claim that there are two concepts of sleep would lose any plau s i b i l i t y i t now has. I shall not press this point, since I am now going to argue that the question of how many concepts of sleep (or of anything else) there are rests on a confusion. Malcolm assumes, but. never explicity states, that there are definite ways in which concepts can be individuated. This assumption needs to be examined. I have denied that Malcolm's 'c r i t e r i a ' can serve to clearly individuate concepts, and I do not think that some other way of systemati-cally individuating concepts can be given. I claim that the notion of the identity of,concepts has not been made precise enough to do the sort of work that Malcolm wants i t to do. The prospects of rectifying this state of affairs look bleak. Consider the concept of pain. Sometimes one wants to say that a man i s in pain and sometimes one wants to say that a fish i s in pain. The question of whether the concept of pain i s 'the same' in both cases just i s the question of whether 'pain' i s ambiguous. I do not think that there i s any principled way of settling this question. Quine's remarks on ambiguity,^ while they have not demonstrated that there can be no principled distinction between ambiguity and vagueness, have cast the gravest doubts on what many people have taken to be a distinction which does not need to be explicated. A man's pain behaviour differs from a fish's, but of course one man's pain behaviour differs from another's. I do not think that much more can be said than that we find i t natural to use a single word, 'pain', in speaking of both men and f i s h . As we learn more about men and fish, we may find i t either more or less natural to do so. I think that the same considerations apply to the question of whether or not the experimental psychologists's and the layman's concepts of dreaming are different. Both use the word 'dream' and neither feels that the other's use of the word i s eccentric. As long as that i s so, they both have the 'same concept' of dreaming—on the only i n t e l l i g i b l e interpretation of 'same concept'. Malcolm, in a passage I have already quoted, speaks of rapid eye movements becoming the 'criterion' of dreaming, and suggests that this would be a different concept of dreaming. Of course an experimental psychologist who said 'By "dream" I mean mental events correlated with rapid eye movements in sleep' would be straining our present linguistic intuitions, but few people say this sort of thing. If i t were established that a very strong correlation obtained between rapid eye movements and dream.memories, and i f this were a matter of general knowledge, then I think that our linguistic intuitions would be less strained. Some people might continue to insist that there is merely an extensional equivalence between 'dreams' and 'mental events correlated with rapid eye movements in sleep', but this position would be d i f f i c u l t to maintain. The d i f f i c u l t i e s in the distinction between intension and extension are brought out by Quine in 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism' ."^ (Quine's remarks in 'Two Dogmas' are very similar in s p i r i t to the views of Putnam which I have quoted. One can trace a line of thought from 'Two Dogmas' to Putnam's 'The Analytic and the Synthetic' to Putnam's discussion of cluster-concepts in 'Brains and Behaviour'1& and on to 'Dreaming and "Depth.Grammar"'.) As I have said, the experimental psychologist does not begin by making his hypothesis true by definition. Like the layman, he thinks that dreams are experiences in sleep. The data that he works from are people's dream reports, and his belief that people have experiences in sleep cannot be conclusively verified by dream reports or anything else. This does not make his belief worthless. As I have tried to show earlier in this chapter, our most mundane beliefs about the objects we deal with in ordinary l i f e cannot be conclusively verified. It i s enough for the experimental psychologist to have good reasons to think that someone has dreamt in order to go about correlating dreams with such things as rapid eye movements in sleep. Once such a correlation i s even tentatively established, rapid eye movements in sleep and so on have some evidential value. Given a correlation between rapid eye movements in sleep and dreams, and faced with a case in which there were rapid eye movements in sleep but no dream memories, the psychologist does not have to abandon his hypothesis. He can simply claim that the dreamer forgot his. dream. As Malcolm points out, such claims must be confirmable in principle i f they are to be i n t e l l i g i b l e . I think that the psychologist's claim would be confirmable in principle, and not just by the rapid eye movements in sleep. The psychologist thinks, although he does not know, that other evidence could be found which would have a bearing on the question. Perhaps brain states could also be correlated with dreams. The point i s that the choice between claiming that the dreamer forgot his dream and abandoning the hypothesis that dreams are correlated with rapid eye movements in sleep need not be arbitrary; a network of beliefs might be involved. Moreover, the psychologist can modify his hypothesis. He can say that rapid eye movements in sleep usually are a sign of dreams, and this would not destroy the evidential value of rapid eye movements in sleep. Malcolm's objection to correlating experiences with brain states and using the existence of those brain states in sleep as evidence for the claim that dreams are experiences in sleep also involves confirmation. He says: The imagined correlation would, of necessity, have been established only for the case of people who were awake ...-.The attempt to extend the inductive reasoning to the case of sleeping persons would yield a conclusion that was logically incapable of confirmation.-^ I claim that dream memories would provide confirmation. Not conclusive confirmation, but confirmation nevertheless. Of course we do not have to remain;:passive observers. Perhaps we could induce the brain states in question with drugs, and i f this always resulted in dream memories, i t would become very hard to deny that dreams are experiences in sleep. I shall end my discussion of confirmation with a f i n a l quotation from 'Dreaming and "Depth Grammar"': More importantly, kinds of confirmation and disconfirmation are possible that Malcolm simply does not consider: model building and theory construction.... Thus, assuming that dreams take place 'in physical time'—i.e., that they start and stop at some time or other—various things become inductive evidence that correlations hold: correlations between the things we do with our eyes, muscles, vocal cords, as we sleep and dream events; and correlations between the neural processes that normally go with 'seeing' certain things and dream events. If these correlations appear to be not only s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant, but also to ' f i t ' into an explanatory theory of dreaming, then they are not only highly confirmed; but the underlying assumption that dreams 'take place in physical time' is equally highly confirmed. It sometimes appears as i f Malcolm wants to eliminate this kind of, 'inverse deductive method' (as M i l l calied it) from science, and to allow only (l) conclusive verification based on the application of 'c r i t e r i a ' , and (2) inductive inference in the most restricted possible sense: induction by simple enumeration. But as M i l l remarked, no developed social science (or any other science, one might add) w i l l ever be possible on this basis.20 I conclude that empirical investigation could f a l s i f y Malcolm's thesis. By the same token, empirical investigation could verify •Malcolm's thesis. We could have evidence which would lead us to reject the common belief that dreams are experiences which we later remember, but this sort of evidence i s just the sort of evidence which Malcolm claims is irrelevant to FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 6 Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 54. 2 Ibid., pp. 60-1. P. F. Strawson, Individuals (London, 1959), pp. 105-6. ^ Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 60. 5 Ibid.. p. 59. ^ J. L. Austin, 'Other Minds', reprinted in J. L. Austin, Philosophical Papers (Oxford, 1961), pp. 44-84, and Sense and Sensibilia (Oxford, 1962), Ch. X. 7 Malcolm, 'Knowledge and B e l i e f , reprinted in Malcolm, Knowledge and Certainty (Englewood C l i f f s , N. J.,'.1963), pp. 66-8. Ibid.. p. 69. PP 9 H. Putnam, 'Dreaming and "Depth Grammar'", in R. J. Butler, ed., Analytical Philosophy. First Series (Oxford, 1962), p. 218. Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 55. ^ Putnam, 'Dreaming and "Depth Grammar'", pp. 218-19. -1-2 Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 80. 13 Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 22. 1Zt" Ibid., p. 23. 15 W. V . 0. Quine, Word and Object (Cambridge, Mass., I 9 6 0 ), Section 2 7 . 1 6 W. V. 0. Quine, 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism', reprinted in From a Logical Point of View (New York and Evanston, I96D, pp. 20-46. 17 H. Putnam, 'The Analytic and the Synthetic' in Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. I l l (Minneapolis, 196277 pp. 353-97. 18 H. Putnam, 'Brains and Behaviour', in R. J. Butler, ed., Analytical Philosophy, Second Series (Oxford, 1965), pp. 1-19. 19 Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 43. 20 Putnam, 'Dreaming and "Depth Grammar"', pp. 226-7. CHAPTER 7: SLEEP AND BEHAVIOUR, AND A FEW REMARKS ON SKEPTICISM I have argued that Malcolm's notion of 'criteria' rests on a mistake, but i t i s worth examining a line of argument that Malcolm might present against Quinton's story. I think that Malcolm would argue against Quinton that the story of Bylake must remain the story of a strange series of dreams. He would argue that I cannot be awake and fishing in Bylake because I am asleep, and '.this in turn can be established because the 'c r i t e r i a ' of sleep have been met. This line of argument i s fallacious because i t begs the question against Quinton. Of course we are justified in saying that a person is asleep when we see one body lying s t i l l in bed; we have every reason to suppose that there i s no Bylake in which the person in question i s wide awake. However, the fact that we assume that there i s no Bylake does not show that there cannot be one. In order to apply a 'criterion' of bodily behaviour in deciding whether or not Smith i s asleep, we must f i r s t find out which body i s Smith's. There is no a pr i o r i guarantee that Smith does not have a second body, in this world or another. It might seem that I have been unfair to Malcolm in supposing that he would argue in this way, but I think that Malcolm would be in trouble i f he modified his position. Suppose that Malcolm grants Quinton his story, but claims that i t has nothing to do with dreams just because i t i s a story about a second real world. If Malcolm conceded this much, I think that he would immediately have to make two further concessions. F i r s t , he would have to retract his claim that we have usable ' c r i t e r i a ' in terms of which to learn and apply the words 'sleep' and 'dream'. Second, and far more important, his claim that i t i s unintelligible to ask whether a dream memory i s correct becomes empty. This needs some explanation.. . Now, while I am awake in. Canada, I do not believe that I have a second l i f e in Bylake. My belief that I inhabit only one world i s based on my dream memories. I assume, but I do not know with absolute certainty, that my dream memories are at least accurate enough to justify my claim that I inhabit only one world. This i s an empirical claim which could conceivably be f a l s i f i e d . It would be f a l s i f i e d i f I had reason to believe that a l l or most of my dream memories up to now were mistaken in a particular way, i f I had reason to believe that I had so misremembered Bylake that I have wrongly concluded that i t does not exist. In f i r s t discussing Quinton's story, I raised the possibility that I might come to think of my past in Bylake in much the same way that someone suffering from total amnesia comes to think about his past here. I think that I could come to believe that my past dream memories were a l l or mostly incorrect on the basis of future knowledge that I could obtain in Bylake. Granted, this possibility i s remote, but i t supplies the necessary empirical content to the supposition that a l l or most of my dream memories up to now have been incorrect. If this i s right, i f i t i s always inte l l i g i b l e , to suppose that a l l or most of my dream memories up to now have been incorrect, i t follows that i t is always i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that some or any one of them have been incorrect. Malcolm would object that what has been shown i s not that i t i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that a dream memory i s incorrect but, rather, that i t i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that what one has taken to be a dream memory could turn out to be a real memory. He would point to the common phenomenon of someone not knowing whether he did something or whether he merely dreamt that he did i t , and correctly claim that we have straightforward ways of settling such questions. If I awaken wondering whether I had an accident with my car or whether I merely dreamt that I had an accident with my car, I can settle the question by looking at my car. That i s , I can settle the question by appealing to something other than memories or dream memories. In contrast, I cannot bring such evidence to bear on my belief that I inhabit only one world; a l l I have that is relevant to the question i s a group of items in my present experience which might be dream memories or might be real memories. If Malcolm grants that Bylake i s a logical possibility, then he is faced with a strange situation. I assume that my dream memories are not grossly incorrect memories of Bylake; because I trust my memories, I think that they are merely dream memories. On Malcolm's view, this comes down to saying that because I think that my memories are more-or-less correct, I am justified i n saying that the question of their correctness i s unintelligible. This point can be put in another way: unless we assume that Malcolm is wrong in his claim that i t i s unintelligible to say that a dream memory i s right or wrong, we are never justified in calling a memory-like phenomenon a 'dream memory'. In discussing Yost and Kalish's veridical dreams, in te l l i n g the story of Bylake, in attacking Malcolm's position on 'private language' and 'c r i t e r i a ' , and in showing the strange consequences of the view that i t is unintelligible to ask whether a dream memory is correct, I have not refuted Malcolm's thesis. However, I think that I have forced anyone who holds a Malcolmian view back to a single point: the claim that only a person who i s awake can i n t e l l i g i b l y be said to have experiences, because only a person who i s awake can behave in a way which suggests that he i s having experiences. It i s on this point that Malcolm must make his case. Malcolm does not equate having a certain experience with behaving in a certain way; he does not claim that there cannot be experiences which are not manifested in behaviour. He does not deny that i t i s i n t e l l i g i b l e to suppose that a person who is awake i s now having an experience although he gives no outer sign of i t , because we know what i t would be like for him to give an outer sign of i t . In contrast, according to Malcolm, nothing could count as behavioural evidence that a sleeping man i s now having an experience, since any such evidence would be evidence to show that he i s not asleep. I have no objection to the logical point; I see nothing wrong with the claim that 'Smith i s asleep' entails 'Smith is not behaving in a way which suggests that he is having experiences.' It i s Malcolm's use of the point which is in error. In a passage which I have already quoted in connection with Malcolm's views on inductive evidence, Malcolm says: The attempt to extend the inductive reasoning to the case of sleeping persons would yield a conclusion that was logically incapable of confirmation. ]_ Likewise, i t i s considerations of logical impossibility that lead Malcolm to say: Surely there i s something dubious in the assumption that there can be a true judgment that cannot be communicated to others.g This brings to mind the discussion of 'private language', and I shall now argue that Malcolm's whole position on dreaming rests on the same muddle over modalities as does his position on 'private language'. I take i t that- no one wants to deny that a stoic can feel pain, be afraid, make judgments, etc. without showing i t . Certainly Malcolm would not claim that i t i s unintelligible to suppose that a stoic i s in considerable pain although he gives no sign of i t , and this i s only to admit that there can be stoics. Now, what differences are there between the supposition that Smith, the sleeper, i s having an unpleasant experience and not showing i t , and the supposition that Jones, the stoic, is having an unpleasant experience and not showing i t ? It is true that any manifestation of the experience by Smith i s reason to think that he i s not asleep. But likewise, any manifestation of the experience by Jones i s reason to think that he i s not a stoic. These are both necessary truths. Malcolm makes his case on the claim that i t is a necessary truth that a sleeper cannot manifest experiences in behaviour. This i s . not quite right. It i s a necessary truth that a sleeper, qua sleeper, cannot manifest experiences in behaviour. But likewise, i t is a necessary truth that a stoic, qua stoic, cannot manifest experiences in behaviour. Obviously, i t i s not a necessary truth that Smith and Jones cannot at any particular time behave in any particular way. I think that the two cases are symmetrical in a l l relevant respects. My argument can be generalized beyond the example of the stoic. Of anyone, in any situation whatever in which he i s not manifesting his experiences, i t i s necessarily true that he i s , qua person not manifesting his experiences, not manifesting his experiences. Once i t i s seen that Malcolm's point that i t i s a necessary truth that a sleeper cannot behave in a way which suggests that he is having experiences i s e l l i p t i c a l , his position loses any plausibility i t might have had. It can now be seen that the fact that 'I am asleep' i s false whenever i t is asserted does nothing to support Malcolm's position. 'I am in pain but not t e l l i n g anyone' i s likewise false whenever i t i s asserted, and many more examples could be developed. 'I am asleep' and 'I am dreaming' are peculiar only in that they are simple. However, I see no reason why there should not be a word,'W, which means 'in pain but not t e l l i n g anyone'. 'I am W would be just like 'I am asleep' and ' I am dreaming', and i t seems clear that our vocabulary could have many more words like 'W in i t than i t does. I conclude that there are no conceptual grounds for supposing that dream memories are not memories of experiences in sleep. Although Malcolm does not think so, we could, as I argued in the previous chapter, bring physiological evidence to bear for or against the natural supposition that dream memories are memories of experiences in sleep. In the absence of such evidence, we are entitled to assume that our dream memories are correct memories of experiences i f they do not conflict with our beliefs about the world. The only way in which this conflict can arise i over the question of the duration of dreams. If I sleep fo eight hours and then awaken thinking that I have been anxious for ten hours since I f e l l asleep, then I must assume that my dream memory i s mistaken or that my judgment of time in my dream was in error. I have totall y rejected Malcolm's conclusions, and I should now deal with his view that we are doomed to hopeless skepticism i f we do not accept them, i f we admit the legitimacy of questions such as 'Am I dreaming?' Malcolm argues: There i s , prima facie, a simple but devastating objection to the use of the coherence principle for finding out whether one i s awake or dreaming, and i t i s surprising that either i t has not occurred to the philosophers who accept the principle or, i f i t has, that they have said nothing about how to deal with it....The objection that should occur to anyone i s that i t i s possible a person should dream that the right connections hold, dream that he connects his present perceptions with 'the whole course of his life!-, - a On the basis of this 'devastating objection', Malcolm dismisses Ayer's discussion of dreaming in The Fpundations of Empirical Knowledge. I think that Ayer has seen the objection and has dealt adequately with i t . Malcolm quotes the following passage from Ayer: I may find among my sense-data the relations that justify me in grouping them to form material things; I may apply the authorized methods for assigning to these things their,'real characteristics'; I may even have such experiences as I should ordinarily describe by saying that I was making use of the c r i t e r i a of measurement; and s t i l l I may wake to find that I have been dreaming a l l along....^ Obviously, Ayer has seen the objection. Malcolm makes a further quotation from Ayer: So long as the general structure of my sense-data conforms to the expectations that I derive from the memory of my past experience, I remain convinced that I am not li v i n g in a dream; and the longer the series of successful predictions is extended, the smaller becomes the probability that I am mistaken._ Malcolm does not quote the sentence immediately following this passage. Ayer continues: "•• Admittedly, this progressive limitation of the probability of i l l u s i o n can never reach the status of a formal demonstration. But then...it i s unreasonable to expect that i t should.£ I have dealt with Malcolm's demand for absolute certainty in my previous chapter. Ayer has shown how we can be certain for a l l practical purposes that we are not dreaming. That things seem coherent i s good, but not conclusive, evidence that they are coherent; the possibility that we are mistaken need not prevent us from weighing evidence. In discussing the principle of coherence, Malcolm says: I suspect that the principle has been accepted...because philosophers have assumed that i t must be possible to t e l l whether one i s awake or asleep (at least with probability) and also i t has seemed to them that there could not be a test for this other than coherence. Without thinking i t through they have supposed that coherence works as a test, because i t has to work.-This sort of diagnosis f i t s Malcolm's position better than Ayer's. It can be argued that Malcolm adopts his radical position largely because he thinks that such a position i s needed to avoid an abyss of hopeless skepticism. Malcolm's book i s developed from a few remarks about dreaming that Wittgenstein makes in the Philosophical Investigations.^ Malcolm's conclusions rest heavily on Wittgenstein's doctrines about 'private language' and Wittgenstein's attitude to the general problem of other minds. It would be much harder to see some of the errors in the Philosophical Investigations i f Malcolm had not developed them to what I have tried to show are completely untenable conclusions. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 7 ^"Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 4 3 . 2 Ibid., p. 9 . 3 Ibid.. p. 108. ^ A. J. Ayer, The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge (London, 1940), p. 2 7 3 , quoted by Malcolm. Dreaming, p. 111. 5 Ibid.. p. 274, quoted by Malcolm, Dreaming, p. 111. 6 Ibid.. p. 274. ^ Malcolm, Dreaming. pp. 108-9. L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations. 2nd. ed. (Oxford, 1953), p. 134 and pp. 222-3. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alston, W. P. Philosophy of Language. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. Austin, J. L. Philosophical Papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961. . Sense and Sensibilia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19627 Ayer, A. J.. The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge. London: Macmillan and Co., 1940. Bennett, Jonathan. Kant's Analytic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966. Butler, R. J. ed. Analytical Philosophy. First Series. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962. . Analytical Philosophy. Second Series. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965. Coval, S. C. Scepticism and the First Person. London: Methuen, 1966. Descartes: Philosophical Writings. Ed. Anscombe and Geach. London: Nelson, 1954. Feigl, H. and G. Maxwell. Eds. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Vol. III. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962. Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. 2nd. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1902. Locke, John. An Essay Coneerning Human Understanding. New York: Dover, 1959. Macintosh, J. J. and S. C. Coval. Eds. The Business of Reason. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969. - l i d -BIBLIOGRAPHY - cont'd Malcolm, Norman. Dreaming. 2nd. ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. . Knowledge and Certainty. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall,. 1963. Pitcher, George.. E d . Wittgenstein: The Philosophical Investigations: A Collection of C r i t i c a l Essays. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. Quine, W. V. 0. From a. Logical Point of View. New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1961. . Word and Object. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of the M.I.T., i960. Quinton, Anthony. 'Spaces and Times.' Philosophy, Vol. 37, 1962. Russell, Bertrand. The Analysis of Mind. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1921. Shoemaker, Sydney. 'Dreaming and Total Illusion.' Unpublished. . 'Persons and Their Pasts.' American Philosophical Quarterly. Vol. 7, Number 4, Oct. 1970. . Self-Knowledge andr< Self-Identity. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1963. Strawson, P. F. The Bounds of Sense. London: Methuen, 1966. . Individuals. London: Methuen, 1959. Swartz, R. J. Ed. Perceiving. Sensing and Knowing. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965 BIBLIOGRAPHY _ cont'd. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. 3rd, ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967. Yost, R. M., Jr. and Donald Kalish. 'Miss Macdonald on Sleeping and Waking.' Philosophy Quarterly, April 1955.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Malcolm on dreaming Simpson, R. L. 1971
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