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The development of education in the Canadian Labour Congress Maynard, Claire 1972

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TIE DEVELOPMENT 05* EDUCATION IN THE CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS by CLAIRE MAYNARD S . A , , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r ee ly a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that 'copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes is fo r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be al1 owed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of urn The Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Th i s study t r a c e s the development of union education w i t h i n the Canadian Labour Congress and i t s predecessors. During the p e r i o d when union education i n Canada o r i g i n a t e d immediately a f t e r World War I I , there were two l a r g e Canadian Congresses, the Trades and Labor Congress (T.L.C.), and the Canadian Congress of Labour (C.C.L.). The C.G.L., formed i n 1940, and i t s a f f i l i a t e d i n d u s t r i a l unions had a p r e s s i n g need f o r union education t o f a m i l i a r i z e i t s members w i t h union p r i n c i p l e s . The T.L.C. as a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d (1883) a f f i l i a t i o n of c r a f t unions had a t r a d i t i o n of l o y a l t y toward union aims and was l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs. When the two Congresses merged i n 1956 and became the Canadian Labour Congress the expansion and growth of membership incr e a s e d the need f o r education w i t h i n the unions. Before the unions organized e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r t h e i r own members other agencies such as the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e and the Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n attempted t o provide a program of l i b e r a l a r t s programs. The programs c o n t r i b u t e d toward the development of the i n d i v i d u a l competen-c i e s o f workers who were not n e c e s s a r i l y union members. The p e r i p h e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e c l i n e d as the unions became more adept a t a d m i n i s t e r i n g union education programs. The C.C.L. with i t s l a r g e r a f f i l i a t e d unions i s i i c onsidered t o be the o r i g i n a t o r of union education i n Canada. Howard Gonquergood, A.L. Hepworth, and Andy Andras, execu-t i v e s of the f i r s t education committee i n the C.C.L., had a l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e on union education trends. The c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c methods used i n union education programs were week-long and weekend schools devoted t o g i v i n g the student a thorough knowledge of the union as a v i a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n dedicated to f u r t h e r i n g the economic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the member. The r i s e i n membership i s i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r i n the development of the union education program. With the merger of the T.L.C. and the C.C.L. i n 1956 t o form the Canadian Labour Congress (G.L.C.), more resources could be d i r e c t e d t o education. A d e s c r i p t i o n i s given of the r o l e of the labour movement i n a d u l t education through v a r i o u s co-operative a c t i v i t i e s such as the Labour U n i v e r s i t y Conference i n 1956, the N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s Forum, and the Canadian Trade Union F i l m Committee. The co-operation of the C.L.C., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , and the U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal, l e d t o the establishment i n 1%3 of the Labour College of Canada as an i n s t i t u t i o n of higher education f o r trade union members. The C o l l e g e provides an eight-week r e s i d e n t i a l program f o r workers of Canada and a l s o those of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . A l s o p o i n t e d out i s the broad i n t e r e s t shown by the unions i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s and the study o f education i n emerging c o u n t r i e s . The study concludes by i d e n t i f y i n g general trends i n union education i n the past and suggesting some new d i r e c t i o n s and program areas f o r union education i n the f u t u r e . TABLE OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES . v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i x Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 Background 2 Sources of Data 5 L i m i t a t i o n s and D e f i n i t i o n s 6 P l a n of the Study 7 Footnotes 8 I I . ORIGINS OF WORKERS' EDUCATION 9 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . 9 Mechanics I n s t i t u t e . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Workers• E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . . . . . 14 The W.E.A. i n Canada 14 Education Program of the W.E.A 17 R e l a t i o n s h i p of the W.E.A. and the Unions 18 Footnotes . . . . . . • • 20 I I I . ORIGINS OF UNION EDUCATION IN CANADA . . . . 22 I n t r o d u c t i o n 22 E a r l y Education W i t h i n the Unions 24 i v V Chapter Page Summer and Winter Schools . . . . . . . . . 28 Weekend I n s t i t u t e s 31 I n f l u e n t i a l Union Educators 37 Footnotes 41 IV. UNION EDUCATION IN THE CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS . 42 I n t r o d u c t i o n 42 Enrollment and Finance 47 Methods and Programs 48 Conferences 30 Correspondence Courses 51 Weekend I n s t i t u t e s 52 Workshops . . . . . . . . . . 52 Summer - Winter Schools 53 S t a f f Seminars 54 Night School Classes 55 I n s t r u c t o r T r a i n i n g Program • • 56 Women's Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 I n f l u e n t i a l Union Educators 60 Footnotes 63 V. CANADIAN. LABOUR CONGRESS INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT EDUCATION . . . . . . 64 I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 F r o n t i e r College 64 N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s ' Forum 68 Canadian Trade Union F i l m Committee . . . . 72 v i Chapter Page Union U n i v e r s i t y Co-operation 76 Manitoba Labour I n s t i t u t e 76 Western Ontario U n i v e r s i t y 77 S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r 77 The Maritime Labour I n s t i t u t e 78 N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y - L a b o u r Committee . . 78 Niagara College School o f Labour Studies and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s 81 Labour College of Canada • • 81 Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education. • 85 N a t i o n a l Conferences 87 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organizations 87 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conferences 90 Footnotes 91 V I . CONCLUSIONS AND PROSPECT 94-Conclusions • °A Prospect 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 LIST OP TABLES Table Page I . T.L.C.-C.G.L. Membership and Education Budget 1946-56 27 I I . Canadian Congress of Labour Education and Welfare Department Budget . . . 29 I I I . Canadian Congress of Labour Education Fund Statement J u l y 1 , 194-9 - August 3 1 , 1950. . 34-IV. Canadian Labour Congress Members and Education Budget 46 V. G.L.C. Revenue and Per cent of Revenue Expended on Education 4-9 V I . P r o p o r t i o n of Females i n the Working P o p u l a t i o n of Canada 59 V I I . Student P r o f i l e 1967 84-v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figur e Page 1. S t r u c t u r e of the Canadian Labour Congress 197*1 4 4 2. I n t e r n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Canadian Labour Congress 45 v i i i i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sinc e r e thanks are extended t o Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n f o r h i s help and guidance throughout t h i s study, and t o Dr. C o o l i e Verner and Dr. James Thornton f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e as members of the committee. The support of Mr. A.L. Hepworth, D i r e c t o r of the Education Department of the Canadian Labour Congress i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. A l s o very much appreciated was the guidance and proof-reading of my daughter-in-law J e n n i f e r Maynard. X DEDICATION To my husband Telfer CHAPTER I THE STUDY INTRODUCTION Before the labour movement undertook the, o r g a n i z -a t i o n of education programs f o r t h e i r own members other agencies were i n t e r e s t e d i n educating the worker. The Mechanics I n s t i t u t e was the gui d i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the n i n e -teenth century. The Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d the paramount p o s i t i o n from 1918 t o 1°A5. With the inc r e a s e i n union membership a f t e r World War I I the l a r g e r unions became aware of the n e c e s s i t y to c o n t r o l t h e i r own educa-t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Labour unions i n Canada have been i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g v a r i o u s kinds of ed u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r members s i n c e 1 ° A 7 , but union educators have r a r e l y paused to examine c r i t i c a l l y and document the work they have done. The needs f o r education v a r y c o n s t a n t l y as do the methods and techniques f o r p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; consequently, the need f o r e v a l u a t i o n remains paramount t o the s u c c e s s f u l conduct of union education. Since the i n c e p t i o n of organized e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the labour movement, persons charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g such l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s 1 2 have been aware of the need f o r an h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of t h e i r programs. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of trends i n union education w i t h respect t o the types of courses and other s e r v i c e s provided, the e f f e c t s of a growing membership, the f i n a n c e s a l l o c a t e d t o education, and the i n f l u e n c e of key persons would provide considerable a s s i s t a n c e t o union educators i n a s s e s s i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r t o 1970 and i n p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e . The purpose of t h i s study i s t o d e s c r i b e the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian Labour Congress and i t s predecessor o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o determine whether or not any trends i n union education may be i d e n t i f i e d . The h i s t o r i c a l d ata w i l l be r e l a t e d t o such p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n -t i a l v a r i a b l e s as membership s i z e , f i n a n c i a l support f o r education, and the i n f l u e n c e of s e l e c t e d union educators. BACKGROUND Before 1956, Canada had two predominant labour bodies, the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada (T.L.G.) w i t h i t s a f f i l i a t e d c r a f t unions and the Canadian Congress of Labour (C.C.L.) w i t h i t s a f f i l i a t e d i n d u s t r i a l unions. The T.L.C. and the C.C.L. merged i n 1956 to become the Canadian Labour Congress (C.L.C.) w i t h a combined membership of 1,030,000. Unions i n Canada have long been i n t e r e s t e d i n education. Free education was d i s c u s s e d a t the f i r s t convention of the T.L.C. i n 1883. At the second convention 3 i n 1886, i t was recommended t h a t a course of winter l e c t u r e s be arranged by the trades and labour c o u n c i l s " f o r the purpose of improving the moral and mental c o n d i t i o n s of the working c l a s s e s . " At the t h i r d s e s s i o n h e l d i n 1887, the Congress was i n favour of a l l organized labour bodies forming n i g h t schools of "male c h i l d r e n of 14 years and upwards, to be i n s t r u c t e d i n the p r i n c i p l e s of Labor pro-gress and a l l questions necessary t o enable them to take 2 t h e i r p l a c e s when of age i n the Labor P a r t y . " Since 1883 the T.L.C. had c o n t i n u a l l y supported r e s o l u t i o n s concerning education submitted at t h e i r conventions, but no concerted a c t i o n was taken, apart from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, u n t i l a f t e r World War I I . The e a r l y years of the labour movement were con-cerned w i t h union r e c o g n i t i o n and the r i g h t t o n e g o t i a t e c o l l e c t i v e agreements.^ With the growth of union membership du r i n g the war years from 359,000 i n 1939 t o 832,000 i n 1946, and w i t h the passing of l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o n t r o l the s e t t l e -ments of d i s p u t e s , leaders i n the labour movement turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r an education program t o f a m i l i a r i z e members w i t h the union movement. Union recog-n i t i o n had been gained i n 1939 through l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n Parliament p r o h i b i t i n g an employer from d i s c h a r g i n g a worker f o r union a c t i v i t i e s . I n 1944, P r i v y C o u n c i l Order 1003 was enacted which f o l l o w e d the general o u t l i n e of the N a t i o n a l Labour R e l a t i o n s (Wagner) Act passed i n 1935 i n the United S t a t e s . These acts gave unionism a b e t t e r b a s i s 4 for c o l l e c t i v e bargaining and a new r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . As P.O. 1003 was a wartime measure, a new I n d u s t r i a l Relations and Disputes Investigation Act was passed i n 1948 to regulate those industries under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Because the B r i t i s h North America Act gave the p r o v i n c i a l governments j u r i s d i c t i o n i n labour l e g i s l a t i o n , the provinces passed t h e i r own statutes to control the organization of unions and the settlement of disputes following the guide-l i n e s set by the federal Act of 1948.* The r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on contract negotiations and disputes required a greater knowledge on the part of trade .union members i n order to understand the complexities of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining and a r b i t r a t i o n , and t h i s i n turn led to a need f o r educational a c t i v i t i e s . Unions were also interested i n laws that a f f e c t the labour movement and t h i s l e d to a necessity f o r education i n labour l e g i s l a t i o n and economics. In the ea r l y days of union formation members were required to be l o y a l and f i g h t for t h e i r organization, but the f i g h t i n g became more sophisticated a f t e r World War II and now requires a broad knowledge on the part of the union negotiator, organizer, and the executive. In addition, union members must also be educated to understand the p r i n c i p l e s of unionism. The growth i n membership of i n d i v i d u a l unions has also contributed to the increased i n t e r e s t of the labour movement i n education. In 1946 the i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n union education was activated by the three largest unions i n Canada: the United Steelworkers of America (U.S.A.) w i t h 35,000 members, the United Automobile, A i r c r a f t and A g r i c u l t u r a l Implement Workers of America (U.A.W.) w i t h 50,000 members,^ and the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers, (C.B.R.E.), w i t h 29,000 members. A l l of those o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a f f i l i a t e s of the C.C.L. which e s t a b l i s h e d an education department i n 1947, I n 1970, none of the 99 unions w i t h l e s s than 10,000 members had an education department. Of 30 unions w i t h 10,000 t o 35,000 members three had education departments, whi l e f o u r unions out of nine with more than 35,000 members 7 had education departments. This would i n d i c a t e t h a t unions w i t h fewer than 10,000 members do not have s u f f i c i e n t resources f o r e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s whereas many of the l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s do. SOURCES OF DATA The main sources of data used i n t h i s study are the minutes and r e p o r t s of the Education Advisory Committee of the Canadian Congress of Labour, the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers, the Canadian Labour Congress, the Proceedings of the Conventions of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada and the -journals p u blished by the above o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The education f i l e s of the C.C.L. are p a r t i c u l a r l y voluminous and c o n t a i n much d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . Mr. A.L. Hepworth, D i r e c t o r of Education of the C.L.C., c o n t r i b u t e d personal advice 6 concerning union education and references to many v a l u a b l e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . LIMITATIONS AND DEFINITIONS This study i s l i m i t e d to the ed u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the C.L.C. up t o 1971 and i t s two predecessor congresses, the T.L.G. and the C.C.L., together w i t h t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d unions. The events and a c t i v i t i e s s t u d i e d were those l e a d -i n g up t o and a f f e c t i n g union education i n the C.L.C. There i s considerable c o n f u s i o n i n usage of the terms workers' education and union education. These terms are o f t e n t r e a t e d as synonymous when i n f a c t there are shades of meaning which permit a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between them. For purposes of t h i s study, the two types of education are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Workers' education. Programs organized f o r the general improvement of workers' i n d i v i d u a l competencies are designated as workers' education. The Workers' Educa-t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n (W.E.A.) used the term t o i d e n t i f y a group of persons e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n . For purposes of t h i s study the terms workers' education and labour education are interchangeable. Courses i n workers' or labour education are administered by many groups a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the labour movement such as unions, government agencies, and u n i v e r s i t i e s . 7 Union education. Union education i s designed t o f o s t e r the growth of the union movement by p r o v i d i n g members with the knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . Such e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s are, f o r purposes of t h i s study, o f f e r e d by unions and a f f i l i a t i o n s of union o r g a n i z a t i o n s . PLAN OP THE STUDY The o r i g i n s of workers' education i n England are described as the predecessors of the movement i n Canada i n Chapter I I . The h i s t o r i c a l development of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada c o n s i s t i n g of a f f i l i a t e d c r a f t unions and the Canadian Congress of Labour and i t s a f f i l -i a t e d i n d u s t r i a l unions are then d e s c r i b e d . The education programs organized by the C.C.L. and the T.L.C. are analyzed and i n f l u e n t i a l persons i n v o l v e d i n union education programs are i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I I . The merger of the T.L.C. and the C.C.L. i n 1956 as the Canadian Labour Congress c o n t r i b u t e d t o an expanded education program which i s described i n Chapter IV. Persons s e r v i n g on C.L.C. Education Committees are described w i t h regard t o t h e i r r o l e s i n the expansion of union education. The v a r i o u s methods used i n union education are o u t l i n e d . Chapter V des c r i b e s the involvement of the Congress i n ad u l t education through co-operation w i t h outside agencies. The major conclusions of the study together w i t h prospects f o r union education are presented i n the f i n a l chapter. 8 FOOTNOTES . • 1 Canadian Labor Congress, Proceedings, Toronto: Labour Record P r i n t , 1886, p. 4. The name of the Congress was changed i n 1886 t o the Trades and Labor Congress of the Dominion of Canada, i n 1893 t o the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, the name i t r e t a i n e d t o 1956. The T.L.C. has a forerunner founded i n 1873 tha t met annually under the name of the Canadian Labor Union. 2 Trades and Labor Congress, Proceedings, 1887* P« 50. Contrary to the Canadian s p e l l i n g of labour, the T.L.C. used the form l a b o r . ^See Labour Unions, ed. Mary Kehoe, Extension Depart-ment, S t . P a t r i c k s ' C o l l e g e , 2d ed,; 1964, Chapter 3» C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g . 4 See Ruben C. B e l l a n , P r i n c i p l e s of Economics and the  Canadian Economy, 2d ed,; (New York: McGraw-Hill Company of Canada L i m i t e d , 1963), Chapter 10. ^The U.A.W. l a t e r became the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and A g r i c u l t u r a l Implement Workers of America. f. The Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers changed i t s name i n 1958 t o the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Transport and General Workers. ^Union Growth i n Canada 1921 - 1967, Economics and Research Branch, Canada Department of Labour, pp. 42, 47. CHAPTER I I ORIGINS OP WORKERS' EDUCATION INTRODUCTION In England from the s i x t e e n t h to the eighteenth century the t y p i c a l p r oduction u n i t had been a s m a l l group • 1 of apprentices and journeymen under a master craftsman. F a m i l i e s a l s o worked at c r a f t s , such as weaving, i n t h e i r own homes and s o l d the products t o merchants. Therefore, men w i t h ambition and a s m a l l amount of c a p i t a l could a s p i r e t o upward m o b i l i t y and become employers. Under the r u l e of Queen E l i z a b e t h , i n 1563, a Statute of A r t i f i c e r s had been 2 enacted t o p r o h i b i t the e x p l o i t a t i o n of t r a i n e e s . This s t a t u t e was repealed i n 1814 t o a l l o w the f a c t o r y system to operate. With the advent of l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s under the c a p i t a l i s t i c system the employee had l o s t a l l r i g h t s and the hope of becoming independent. He could o n l y accept whatever was given to him f o r h i s labour. The apprenticeship-employer r e l a t i o n s h i p had been a c l o s e l e a r n e r - t e a c h e r s i t u a t i o n , but i n the i n d u s t r i a l age the r e l a t i o n s h i p became employee-employer w i t h l i t t l e communication between the workers and the owner. I n an attempt t o bridge the gap between the well-educated owner and the i l l - e d u c a t e d worker, education programs were 10 introduced i n many i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . The r i s e of the unions f o l l o w e d a p a r a l l e l course w i t h the r i s e of workers' education. Mechanics I n s t i t u t e s s t a r t e d i n England before 1820 and spread r a p i d l y t o Canada. The Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada began i n 1918 a f t e r the demise of the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e . These a s s o c i a t i o n s attempted t o develop the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of each member r a t h e r than f o s t e r the growth of the union. The h i s t o r y t h a t f o l l o w s i s a h i s t o r y of educating the Canadian worker. The education of workers s t a r t e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h century without a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of aims. The leaders were p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s aware of the a p p a l l i n g i l l i t e r a c y r a t e . To improve the ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , c l a s s e s were organized f o r working c l a s s men i n any s i t u a t i o n where a teacher and students could be brought together. MECHANICS INSTITUTES -The Mechanics I n s t i t u t e s made the i n i t i a l e f f o r t t o educate working men beyond the elementary reading of the S c r i p t u r e s . While the i n s t i t u t e s d i d not d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e union education i t i s thought t h a t many union members i n the ni n e t e e n t h century attended c l a s s e s . D a n i e l O'Donaghue, considered t o be the f a t h e r of the Canadian labour movement 5 was a member of the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e i n Ottawa. Hudson, 4 who wrote a H i s t o r y of Adult Education i n 1851» compared the Canadian Mechanics I n s t i t u t e t o the E n g l i s h : 11 Beyond the p o l y t e c h n i c e x h i b i t i o n s of London (England) f o r while they (Canadians) e l u c i d a t e , by short l e c t u r e s , the value and importance of new d i s c o v e r i e s i n s c i e n c e , the best methods of farming, and p o i n t out the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g as i t were, new a r t i c l e s of produce, they c a r e f u l l y a b s t a i n from the f i r e - c l o u d and phantasmagoria, and apportion t h e i r r e c e i p t s to the extension of the l i b r a r y , and the improvement of the mechanical workshops.5 The exact date of the f i r s t Mechanics I n s t i t u t e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom i s u n c e r t a i n . Dr. Birkbeck was one of the e a r l y founders of l e c t u r e s f o r working-men. Hudson s t a t e s t h a t Dr. Birkbeck was appointed P r o f e s s o r of N a t u r a l Philosophy a t Anderson U n i v e r s i t y i n 1799- When he had models b u i l t to i l l u s t r a t e h i s l e c t u r e s , he n o t i c e d the strong c u r i o s i t y of the labourers i n h i s apparatus. B i r k -beck determined t o o f f e r .the men a g r a t u i t o u s course of elementary p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e c t u r e s . He f e l t t h a t the c l a s s e s would b e n e f i t the community and h i s prospectus s t a t e d : Whatever the arrogance of l e a r n i n g may have advanced i n condemnation of s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge, and however f i r m l y I may be persuaded t h a t the people cannot be profounded, I have no h e s i t a t i o n i n p r e d i c t -i n g t h a t vast b e n e f i t w i l l accrue t o the community by every s u c c e s s f u l endeavour t o d i f f u s e the substance of great works which cannot be perused by the people at l a r g e , by making them reach the shop and the hamlet, and c o n v e r t i n g them from unproductive splendour t o u s e f u l , though unobserved activity.° The l e c t u r e s were well - a t t e n d e d , the f i r s t by s e v e n t y - f i v e p u p i l s , the f o u r t h by f i v e hundred. Dr. Birkbeck moved t o London i n 1804 and the courses were continued by Anderson's I n s t i t u t i o n . I n 1823, the students disagreed w i t h Anderson's p o l i c i e s and formed an independent a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e i r own under the t i t l e , "Glasgow Mechanics I n s t i t u t i o n " w i t h 12 Dr. Birkbeck as t h e i r patron. There were 374 members w i t h 1,000 a t t e n d i n g the f i r s t l e c t u r e . ^ , I n December of the same year, a London Mechanics I n s t i t u t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h Dr. Birkbeck as i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . The members "consisted almost e n t i r e l y of master-mechanics, shopkeepers, and d e a l e r s i n hardware, w i t h t h e i r workmen, cabinet makers and house-painters. The i n s t i -t u t e s f l o u r i s h e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the next decade. I n 1849, there was a record of 610 l i t e r a r y and mechanics i n s t i t u t e s i n England w i t h 102,000 s u s c r i b i n g members and l i b r a r i e s c o n t a i n i n g 691 *500 volumes.^ Hudson noted the same d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a s s a i l e d the Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n Canada one hundred years l a t e r , "the u n i v e r s a l complaint t h a t mechanics i n s t i t u t e s are attended by persons of higher rank than 10 those f o r whom they are designed . . . " Contemporary research has confirmed Hudson's o p i n i o n t h a t "to a l a r g e extent . . . a d u l t education programs are educating the educated, but t h i s i n no way diminishes the e s s e n t i a l 11 worth of these programs. Hudson was a l s o aware of the p r i n c i p l e s of t e a c h i n g a d u l t s . He wrote t h a t many c l a s s e s were f a i l i n g because of ". . . the manner i n which the education i s conducted . . . The system of i n s t r u c t i o n pursued, appears to have been based on the r u l e of teaching the l a r g e s t number w i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e t r o u b l e . " He considered t h a t "the d i c i -12 p l i n e was f i t t e d r a t h e r f o r c h i l d r e n than men. 13 Workers* education found a root i n Canada when the York Mechanics I n s t i t u t e h e l d i t s f i r s t meeting i n Ontario on December 24, 1830, w i t h John Ewart as i t s 15 p r e s i d e n t . ^ I n 1831» Joseph Howe was a supporter f o r the f i r s t H a l i f a x Mechanics I n s t i t u t e . The I n s t i t u t e s spread to 100 centres i n Ontario and every l a r g e town i n Nova S c o t i a by 1880, but by the t u r n of the century the movement i n Canada, as i n the United Kingdom, had l o s t a l l momentum 14 and almost disappeared. The Mechanics I n s t i t u t e s were the product of a time when few workingmen had been taught t o read. Wage-earners were i n an u n s e t t l e d s t a t e due t o the s h i f t from an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y to a low-paid i n d u s t r i a l community. The poverty and di s c o n t e n t then f l o u r i s h i n g not o n l y urged the worker toward education but encouraged the mi d d l e - c l a s s gentry to p h i l a n t h r o p i c gestures toward s e t t i n g up c l a s s e s 15 t o teach the poor. ^ The f e r v o u r and z e a l of the founders and a few dedicated educators c a r r i e d the movement around the globe. The l a c k of c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r than the l a c k o f sound e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , c o n t r i b u t e d to the I n s t i t u t e ' s demise. The examples of i t s success while i t l a s t e d probably c a r r i e d over to encourage the workers' e d u c a t i o n a l movement of the t w e n t i e t h century. 14 WORKERS'. EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION The Workers' Edu c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n (W.E.A.) grew out of a young s t o r e c l e r k ' s dream. This s t o r e c l e r k was l a t e r granted an honourary degree by Oxford U n i v e r s i t y f o r h i s v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o workers' education. A l b e r t Mansbridge's f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n began i n 1903 i n England w i t h the unwieldy name of "The A s s o c i a t i o n to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men." The purpose was t o i n t e r e s t working people i n U n i v e r s i t y extension c l a s s e s of 16 i n t e r e s t and value t o workers. The o r i g i n a l W.E.A. o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u g g l e d along under a C e n t r a l A u t h o r i t y c o n s i s t i n g of a c o u n c i l of re p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . I n 1907, a j o i n t com-mittee of u n i v e r s i t y and working-class r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was formed t o prepare a r e p o r t on the p r o v i s i o n of t u t o r i a l t e aching f o r working people. With the co-operation of the u n i v e r s i t i e s the method of t u t o r i a l c l a s s t e a c h i n g was adopted. Students pledged themselves to a three year p e r i o d of study w i t h submission of s e v e r a l essays a year. With a change of name t o Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n and a p o l i c y of a l l i a n c e and co-operation between labour and u n i v e r s i t y the d i r e c t i o n of the W.E.A. was determined. The W.E.A. i n Canada Dr. A l b e r t Mansbridge., general s e c r e t a r y of the W.E.A. i n England, v i s i t e d Canada i n 1917 and as a r e s u l t of h i s persuasive o r a t o r y the W.E.A. was:founded i n Toronto i n 1918. The f i r s t P r e s i d e n t was James Richards of the Plumbers' Union and the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t was P r o f e s s o r R.M. Mclver of Toronto U n i v e r s i t y . The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto agreed to place one thousand d o l l a r s annually a t the d i s -p o s a l of the A s s o c i a t i o n t o keep student fees as low as 17 p o s s i b l e and t o a s s i s t the A s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s work. ' There was a r a p i d growth of the W.E.A. and i n 1926 there were 800 members attending c l a s s e s i n Toronto. When i t was discovered t h a t o n l y 56 of the 800 students i n the A s s o c i a t i o n program were manual workers the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto took a c t i o n . The ultimatum was th a t w h i t e - c o l l a r workers should p a r t i c i p a t e i n extension courses and the low-cost W.E.A. c l a s s e s should r e g i s t e r o n l y manual workers. The reasoning behind the ultimatum was th a t the U n i v e r s i t y had given a grant t o the A s s o c i a t i o n t o b e n e f i t the education of workers and not t o those people who could a f f o r d the u n i v e r s i t y f e e s . The U n i v e r s i t y a l s o f e l t t h a t the b l u e -c o l l a r worker d i d not enter i n t o d i s c u s s i o n groups and hindered advancement of others i n the c l a s s e s . The A s s o c i -a t i o n r e b e l l e d at the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on the s t a t u s of t h e i r students but w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t funds t o c a r r y on alone they accepted the e d i c t of the U n i v e r s i t y . As a r e s u l t of the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the U n i v e r s i t y , the Secretary of the W.E.A. A l f McGowan resigned and Drummond Wren was appointed by the Board of Management as A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y f o r the remainder o f the term of o f f i c e . 16 Wren became General S e c r e t a r y i n 1929 and continued i n o f f i c e u n t i l h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1951. The a s s o c i a t i o n gave Wren's e n t e r p r i s e , enthusiasm, and dynamic energy most of the c r e d i t f o r t h e i r success. I n 1°A1 when the W.E.A. was without funds t o pay a f u l l - t i m e s e c r e t a r y , Wren was appointed Education D i r e c t o r of the United Automobile Workers of America and continued on as General S e c r e t a r y f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . During the c o n f l i c t f o r funds Tom Moore, P r e s i d e n t of the Trades and Labor Congress, and other trade union le a d e r s used a c e r t a i n amount of p r e s -sure on the U n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s to keep the W.E.A. going. An attempt was made i n 1928 t o e l i m i n a t e the "Workers'" from the t i t l e of the A s s o c i a t i o n . Some of the members f e l t "workers'" had the connotation of communistic a c t i v i t i e s and f o r t h i s reason t h e i r student enrollment had dropped from 800 i n 1925, t o 135 i n 1928. The W.E.A. voted on the question of changing the A s s o c i a t i o n name without a m a j o r i t y c o n c l u s i o n . The t i e was broken by the vote of the P r e s i d e n t , Dr. W.L. Grant, who s t a t e d "The W.E.A. o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c purpose of b r i n g i n g about c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s between the u n i v e r s i t i e s and trade unions. Therefore, t o c a l l i t a branch of the U n i v e r s i t y was d e v i a t i n g from the 18 fundamental purpose of the W.E.A." A f t e r the annual meeting a system was inaugurated t o a l l o w unions to appoint a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the W.E.A. Board of Management. T h i s move brought about an improvement i n membership by encourag-i n g union members to attend c l a s s e s . 17 Education Program of the W.E.A. The 1952 F a l l and Winter Program of the Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n covered the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : Philosophy, S o c i o l o g y , Psychology ( s o c i a l ) , P u b l i c speaking, Psychology ( i n d u s t r i a l ) , E n g l i s h Composition, Economic H i s t o r y , Economic problems, P o l i t i c a l Geography, Trade Union Education School and Canadian Square Dancing. A student was re q u i r e d t o become a member of the A s s o c i a t i o n a t a fee of S1.50, and ten l e c t u r e s c o s t $2.00 e x t r a . Minimum c l a s s s i z e was tw e n t y - f i v e members, and i f attendance dropped below f i f t e e n f o r three successive evenings the c l a s s was di s c o n t i n u e d . The Trade Union T r a i n i n g School was a t e n -l e c t u r e course i n c l u d i n g : H i s t o r y and development of the trade union i n B r i t a i n ; the i n f l u e n c e of B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s i n the development of Canadian trade unionism; and the p a t t e r n of labour l e g i s l a t i o n i n the Canadian prov-i n c e s . I t a l s o covered Workmen's Compensation, Unemployment Insurance, and P u b l i c Speaking, and gave guidance i n w r i t i n g r e p o r t s . Those c l a s s e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto and i n many cases the l e c t u r e r s were u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . The W.E.A. p r e r e q u i s i t e of u n i v e r s i t y co-ope r a t i o n l i m i t e d the l o c a t i o n o f branches to those areas where u n i v e r s i t y personnel were a v a i l a b l e . I n Ontario the W.E.A. was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h McMaster U n i v e r s i t y of Hamilton, the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and the U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o . The Winnipeg branch was ass o c i a t e d w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. There were a l s o 18 Branch A s s o c i a t i o n s i n Nova S c o t i a , Calgary, Edmonton, and V i c t o r i a a t the height of i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s . The most accurate f i g u r e s showing the extent of the A s s o c i -a t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e are those f o r 1935 when there were 22 D i s t r i c t A s s o c i a t i o n s h o l d i n g 4-3 c l a s s e s with an enrollment of 2,012 members. R e l a t i o n s h i p of the W.E.A. and the Unions I n 1946 v a r i o u s unions became a n t a g o n i s t i c toward 19 the type of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h being propagated by the W.E.A. J I n 1950, J.E. McGuire, Secretary-Treasurer of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers sent out a c i r c u l a r s t a t i n g t h a t the W.E.A. was, "nothing more nor l e s s than a c a p t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Communist 20 P a r t y or i t s supporters." As a r e s u l t of the s u s p i c i o n s of S o c i a l i s t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , the W.E.A. had i t s annual $4,000 p r o v i n c i a l grant w i t h h e l d . As the A s s o c i a t i o n was unable to operate without outside f i n a n c i a l support, Drummond Wren was fo r c e d t o r e s i g n as d i r e c t o r and general s e c r e t a r y t o s a t i s f y c r i t i c i s m . Wren denied any communist t i e s and charged "th a t he has been a t a r g e t of a smear because he would not p l a y p o l i t i c s . A f t e r Wren's retirement the A s s o c i a t i o n was able t o reorganize with the help of the Canadian Congress of Labour and the Trades and Labor Congress and by 1955 there was a r e t u r n of good r e l a t i o n s . Rogers was e l e c t e d N a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t of the W.E.A., a leader acceptable to the unions 19 and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. At t h i s time W i l l i a m C. MacDonald recommended "that i f the trade -onion o r g a n i z a t i o n s , both C.G.L. and the T.L.C. were able t o r a i s e enough money to support the W.E.A. programme i t w i l l be put t o a ve r y good and e f f e c t i v e use." McDonald s t a t e d f u r t h e r , "At t h i s time of course the U.A.W. could not embark upon a campaign t o r a i s e funds of t h i s k i n d u n t i l we have s e t t l e d some d i f -ferences of o p i n i o n t h a t e x i s t between us and t h a t v e r y 22 great 'humanitarian i n s t i t u t i o n ' known as General Motors." The general p r i n c i p l e s of the reorganized W.E.A. were: (1) The W.E.A. s h a l l m aintain a s t r i c t l y non-partisan p o s i t i o n i n p o l i t i c s ; and (2) The W.E.A. s h a l l adhere t o i t s b a s i c f u n c t i o n of sup p l y i n g t o working people an oppo r t u n i t y f o r education i n the l i b e r a l a r t s and sc i e n c e s . Other p r i n c i p l e s s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the W.E.A. would not accept a f f i l i -a t i o n s from unions e x p e l l e d by e i t h e r of the Congresses, nor would they be allowed any form of union r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 23 i n c l a s s e s , committees, or boards. ' The T.L.C. and the C.C.L. h e l d many meetings t o t r y t o r e s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t i e s of co-operating w i t h the Workers' Ed u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . By 1950, the unions were more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own ed u c a t i o n a l programs r a t h e r than depending on an outside agency. There was an unsucc e s s f u l attempt by the labour movement t o c o n t r o l the d u p l i c a t i o n of union education c l a s s e s by the W.E.A. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n was to delegate the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of handl-24-i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s t o the Ontario F e d e r a t i o n of Labour. 20 Although e a r l i e r i n i t s career the W.E.A. had been n a t i o n a l i n extent w i t h an a c t i v e membership i n Manitoba, by 1955 the A s s o c i a t i o n branches were reduced t o those i n On t a r i o . From 1917 u n t i l 1951 the W.E.A. had r e c e i v e d grants of $150,000 through the Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y and the P r o v i n c i a l Government.^ The Toronto D i s t r i c t 26 C o u n c i l gave i t support at one time w i t h a s m a l l cash g i f t . None of the unions at t h i s stage of t h e i r development had access t o t h i s amount of money t o educate t h e i r membership, consequently, the W.E.A. had f i l l e d a v o i d and begun the work t h a t now has been assumed by the Canadian Labour Con-gress Education Department. FOOTNOTES See Ruben C. B e l l a n , P r i n c i p l e s of Economics and  the Canadian Economy, 2d ed,; (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Company of Canada L i m i t e d , 1963). Kate Liepmann, A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1960), p. "y? ^Doris French, F a i t h Sweat and P o l i t i c s , (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1962), p. 11. 4. J.W. Hudson, The H i s t o r y of Adult Education, 1st ed. 1851, (London: Woburn Books L i m i t e d , new impression 1969). 5 I b i d . , p. 219. 6 I b i d . , p. 35. 7 I b i d . , p. 36. 8 I b i d . , p. 4-9. % b i d . , p. v i . ^°Ibid., p. v i i . 11 C o o l i e Verner and J.S. Newberry J r . , "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Education, Summer (1958), V o l . 8, pp. 208-222. 12 Hudson, op. c i t . , p. x i . 13 -Mohn R.W. Whitehouse, "A Note on the Founding of the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e i n Canada," Canadian Labour, January, 1968. 21 E.A. Corbett, "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Adult Education i n Canada" Adult Education i n Canada, ed. by J.R. K i d d (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1950), p. 4 . 15 ^See I n t r o d u c t i o n and B i b l i o g r a p h y Notes by Coo l i e Verner t o Thomas Pole^ Pole's H i s t o r y of Adult Education, 1st ed. 1Q16, new ed. 1967; Washington, B.C.: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A.). 16 Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : 1903 - 1955 Golden J u b i l e e , Booklet published by the W.E.A., undated. See a l s o , Mary Stocks, The Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : The F i r s t F i f t y Years, (London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1953. ^ G o l d e n J u b i l e e Booklet, op. c i t . , The f i r s t meeting was h e l d at the C e n t r a l T e c h n i c a l School, Toronto, A p r i l 29, 1918, w i t h S i r Robert Falconer p r e s i d i n g , p. 11. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 15. ^%.A. Logan, Trade Unions i n Canada, (Toronto: The McMi l l a n Company of Canada L i m i t e d , 1948), p. 607. 2 0 C i r c u l a r No. 676-NST-50. Signed by J.E. McGuire, N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y Treasurer of the C.B.R.E. & O.T.W., "November 20, 1950. Pi * Toronto S t a r , February 21, 1951. ^ L e t t e r addressed t o A.L. Hepworth, C.B.R.E. & O.T.W., November 20, 1950, from W.C. McDonald, Education D i r e c t o r , U.A.W.-C.I.O. 23 •'Prospectus accompanying l e t t e r t o A.R. Mosher, P r e s i d e n t of the C.C.L., signed by James Rogers, P r e s i d e n t of the W.E.A., dated J u l y 24, 1951, C.C.L. F i l e s . ^ L e t t e r addressed to Gordon M i l l i n g , Education and Research, Ontario F e d e r a t i o n of Labour, from A.L. Hepworth, S e c r e t a r y of the Committee on Education, C.C.L. ^ L e t t e r addressed t o J.A. McGuire, Education D i r e c t o r , C.C.L., dated October 25, 1951, signed James Rogers, P r e s i d e n t W.E.A. .A. Logan, op. c i t . , p. 607. CHAPTER I I I ORIGINS OP UNION EDUCATION IN CANADA INTRODUCTION The f i r s t unions i n Canada were organized by c r a f t s -men e a r l y i n the nineteenth century; however, records were not preserved as the unions met i n secrecy. Shoemakers had a union i n Montreal i n 1827 and p r i n t e r s organized the same year i n Quebec C i t y . The f i r s t body of a f f i l i a t e d unions was the Toronto Trades Assembly which was formed i n 1871» but c o l l a p s e d owing t o the severe depression of the s e v e n t i e s . The Canadian Labour Congress was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1883 and a f t e r going through v a r i o u s name changes was t e n years l a t e r f i n a l l y renamed the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada ( T . L . C ) . A l l the l o c a l union a f f i l i a t e s of the T.L.C. were c r a f t unions such as b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , i r o n moulders, t y p o g r a p h i c a l unions and the t a i l o r ' s union. Tom Moore, Pr e s i d e n t of the T.L.C. between 1918 and 1946, i s considered t o be i t s most outstanding l e a d e r . I n the years of h i s presidency union membership i n the T.L.C. more than doubled from 117,498 to 330,000. I n 1946 the T.L.C. accounted f o r 42.8 per cent of the t o t a l membership of unions i n Canada. I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to i n t e r p r e t a l l the causes of the r i s e i n union membership 22 ~ 23 but i t can be a t t r i b u t e d at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y t o the personal i n f l u e n c e of the leaders of the movement. The Canadian Congress of Labour (C.C.L.) was estab-l i s h e d i n 1°A0 as a f e d e r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l unions. I t s immediate predecessor was the All - C a n a d i a n Congress of Labour (A.C.C.L.), a group of n a t i o n a l unions t h a t a f f i l i a t e d i n 1927. The A.C.C.L. represented the merging of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers and a number of sma l l e r unions. A.R. Mosher, P r e s i d e n t o f the C.B.R.E. sin c e i t s beginning i n 1908, continued as Pres i d e n t of the A.C.C.L. u n t i l the second merger i n 1940. He was again s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g the Presidency of the new body, the Canadian Congress of Labour. A f t e r 1898 the T.L.C. exchanged delegates w i t h the American F e d e r a t i o n of Labor, a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r labour b o d i e s . The A.F.of L. had been formed i n the Uni t e d States i n 1886 t o f o r m a l i z e and i n t e r p r e t the p r i n c i p l e s of the trade union movement. A f t e r 1902 the A.F. of L. and i t s a f f i l i a t e s were committed to a stro n g p o l i c y of e x c l u d i n g from membership n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions which c o n f l i c t e d i n j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r a f t unions. I n 1935, the newly-formed Committee f o r I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a f f e c t e d the development of labour o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. The C.I.O. disagreed w i t h the A.F. of L. p o l i c y t h a t each c r a f t should be organized i n t o i t s own union. The new p r i n c i p l e was t h a t unions should be organized t o i n c l u d e 24 members of an i n d u s t r y . When a l l 42 n a t i o n a l and i n t e r -n a t i o n a l C.I.O. a f f i l i a t e s were e x p e l l e d from the A.F. of L. i n 1937, the O r g a n i z a t i o n was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and renamed the Congress of I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Congress thereby r e t a i n e d i t s i n i t i a l s C.I.O. The Canadian d i s s i -dents from the T.L.C. amalgamated w i t h the A.C.C.L. to form the Canadian Congress of Labour. I n the United States i t was the A.F. of L. and the C.I.O., while the p a r a l l e l organ-i z a t i o n s i n Canada were the T.L.C. and the C.C.L. Due to the preoccupation of the unions i n becoming e s t a b l i s h e d , workers' education had been l e f t l a r g e l y t o agencies outside the labour movement u n t i l the 1940's. By 1948 the i n f l u e n c e of the Workers' E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n had decreased as the union education programs i n c r e a s e d . The f o l l o w i n g pages describe the e f f o r t s of the C.C.L. and the T.L.C. to e s t a b l i s h education programs w i t h i n the union s t r u c t u r e . EARLY EDUCATION WITHIN THE UNIONS Before the end of World War I I there was l i t t l e organized education w i t h i n the unions. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ladies Garment Workers' Union had a broad e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o -sophy and a long record of programs s t a r t i n g i n 1916 i n language, r e c r e a t i o n ^ unionism, and courses f o r d i s p l a c e d persons. The most popular c l a s s e s were i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l or hobby f i e l d . The Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers had p u b l i c speaking 25 and l e a d e r s h i p courses. The C.B.R.E. D i r e c t o r of Education, A.L. Hepworth, was i n c l o s e contact w i t h the Canadian Congress of Labour and co-operated i n t h e i r education pro-grams. The United Automobile and A g r i c u l t u r a l Implement Workers of America (U.A.W.) were a l s o developing an educat-i o n a l program under the d i r e c t i o n of W i l l i a m MacDonald. T h e i r workshops and evening c l a s s e s were confined to Windsor, Oshawa, Ottawa, Toronto, and B r a n t f o r d . The United S t e e l -workers of America (U.S.A.) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the C.C.L. edu c a t i o n a l programs and a l s o organized workshops and audio-v i s u a l programs. 2 The C.C.L., formed from i n d u s t r i a l a f f i l i a t e s i n 1940, was faced w i t h the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f a s t -growing membership. Not having t r a d i t i o n s and l o y a l t i e s s i m i l a r t o those engendered by c r a f t unions, the C.C.L. membership needed an education program to promote the aims of the labour movement. E a r l y i n 1?A5 a s m a l l committee i n c l u d i n g A.L. Hepworth and A. Andras i n v e s t i g a t e d union education programs here and i n the United S t a t e s . A s t a t e -ment of three b a s i c aims of an education program emerged: . . . t o a s s i m i l a t e through education and inform-a t i o n , the thousands of new members j o i n i n g the Congress unions; t o provide a t r a i n i n g program which would enable new o f f i c e r s and shop stewards to more e f f e c t i v e l y do t h e i r jobs; and to provide a frame of reference t o encourage the member to see h i s union and the labour movement i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e i n the world around him, at the community, p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l levels.3 Subsequently, the 1°A7 C.C.L. Convention e s t a b l i s h e d a Committee on Education "to study and develop, subject t o 26 the approval of the Congress, an i n t e g r a t e d education p r o-4 gram s u i t e d to the need of the unions and t h e i r members." The f i r s t o f f i c i a l meeting of the Committee on Education was h e l d i n 194-7• The executive c o n s i s t e d of Andras, A s s i s t a n t Research D i r e c t o r of the C.C.L., as Chairman, and Hepworth, Executive A s s i s t a n t of the C.B.R.E., as S e c r e t a r y . Howard Conquergood was a l s o on the committee tha t i n c l u d e d f i v e D i r e c t o r s of Education of unions a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C.C.L. In a d d i t i o n , Nova S c o t i a , Quebec, O n t a r i o , Saskatchewan, and B r i t i s h Columbia were represented by corresponding members of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Federations. I n 194-7 the C.C.L. Committee on Education had not been provided w i t h a budget, and any expenditures f o r education had to be approved by the head o f f i c e (Table I ) . This f i n a n c i a l arrangement c u r t a i l e d a c t i v i t i e s but under the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s no other a c t i o n was p o s s i b l e . I t was not u n t i l 1951-52 t h a t a per c a p i t a allowance of .08 cents was a l l o c a t e d to education purposes. I n November 1950, J.E. McGuire, N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y -Treasurer of the C.B.R.E. became Chairman of the Education Committee r e p r e s e n t i n g the C.C.L. e x e c u t i v e , a p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l March 1952. S t a r t i n g on A p r i l 1, 1951, Conquer-good was appointed D i r e c t o r of Education and Welfare. Hepworth remained as S e c r e t a r y and i n 1953 became A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . Although the Education Committee had been working together s i n c e 194-7 i t had not been recognized as a depart-ment. A f t e r A p r i l 1, 1951, the Education and Welfare TABLE I T.L.C. - C.C.L. MEMBERSHIP AND EDUCATION BUDGET 1946-56 No. of Schools No. of Members Education Budget Per C a p i t a Education Budget Year T.L.C. C.C.L. T.L.C. C.C.L. T.L.C. C.C.L. T.L.C. .C.C.L. 1946-4-7 1 350,120 314,025 1947-48 4 403,003 329,058 1948-49 15 439,029 338,627 1949-50 13 459,068 301,729 $3 ,930. $5,698. .008 .01 1950-51 : 10 < 470 ,926 312,532 NA 1,000. - .003 1951-52 19 522,965 330,778 NA 29,375. - .08 1952-53 2 32 558,722 352,538 15,518. 30,887. .027 .08 1953-54 24 37 596,004 360,782 24 ,319. 36,522. .04 .10 1954-55 32 40 600,791 361,271 16 ,574. 36,439. .027 .10 1955-56 640,271 377,926 NA NA — 28 Department proposed a budget of $25,GOO (Table I I ) and obtained an o f f i c e i n Toronto, The i n f o r m a t i o n given i n the proposed budget i n d i c a t e s an e f f o r t to economize. The amount of $1,200 a l l o c a t e d f o r programs would a l l o w o n l y $120 f o r each P r o v i n c e . Conquergood, as D i r e c t o r , was f i n a l l y allowed a $20,000 expenditure f o r t e n months and exceeded t h a t by a d e f i c i t of $1,680. During h i s f i r s t year as D i r e c t o r , Conquergood d e v e l -oped the Department of Education p r o d u c t i o n s e r v i c e s t o i n c l u d e l i t h o g r a p h i c f a c i l i t i e s t o p r i n t i t s own f o l d e r s , workbooks, and l e a f l e t s . This l i t h o g r a p h i c s e r v i c e enabled the Education Committee t o provide a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of l i t e r a t u r e f o r scho o l s , seminars, and weekend i n s t i t u t e s . O r v i l l e Ganes, a t a l e n t e d c a r t o o n i s t and i l l u s t r a t o r , supervised the o f f i c e and prod u c t i o n work of the s e r v i c e department. Conquergood's i n n o v a t i o n of the l i t h o g r a p h i c s e r v i c e was considered as a major step i n the department as i t made p r i n t e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e q u i c k l y , and economically. SUMMER AND WINTER SCHOOLS A f t e r 1°46 the unions became more a c t i v e i n the f i e l d of education. The f i r s t Canadian Summer School was promoted i n 194-7 by a group of C.C.L. a f f i l i a t e d unions. Conquergood was the o r g a n i z e r and Gamp D i r e c t o r of the two week school h e l d at the Y.M.C.A. camp on Lake Couchiching i n O n t a r i o . F i n a n c i a l l y , the camp was a success. S t a f f and l e c t u r e r s from the unions were already on the p a y r o l l and TABLE I I CANADIAN CONGRESS OF LABOUR EDUCATION AND WELFARE DEPARTMENT BUDGET Monthly 1 9 5 1 (based on) (Apr.-Dec.) Y e a r l y D i r e c t o r ' s S a l a r y D i r e c t o r ' s Expenses Secretary's S a l a r y Stenographer's S a l a r y P r o d u c t i o n A s s i s t -ant's S a l a r y O f f i c e Expenses O f f i c e Rent L i t e r a t u r e , Resource M a t e r i a l Audio V i s u a l Program Program Contingencies $442.00 400.00 250.00 300.00 100.00 150.00 50.00 100.00 100.00 $2,047.00 O f f i c e Equipment Program Equipment $3,975.00 3,600.00 2,070.00 175.00 1,575.00 2,700.00 900.00 1,350.00 450.00 900.00 900.00 . 580.00 3,500.00 2,500.00 $5,300.00 4,800.00 2,760.00 2,100.00 3,600.00 1,200.00 1,800.00 600.00 1,200.00 1,200.00 440.00 $25,000.00 $25,000.00 30 r e c e i v e d no f u r t h e r s a l a r y except f o r t r a v e l expenses. Each student was charged a fee t h a t covered room, board, and i n c i d e n t a l expenditures. The f i n a n c i a l arrangements inaugur-ated by Gonquergood a t the f i r s t summer school became the accepted c r i t e r i a . The p o l i c y t h a t developed and has continued i s t h a t education programs should be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and non-c o n t i n u i n g . Every e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y organized has been expected t o charge a fee t h a t would cover expenses without a p r o f i t or a d e f i c i t . This has o n l y been p o s s i b l e by u s i n g s t a f f members f o r l e c t u r e s and having a l i t h o g r a p h i c s e r v i c e to supply low cost p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t o a f f i l i a t e s . F o l l o w i n g the 1°/*7 school at Lake Couchiching an attempt was made to f i n d a s u i t a b l e s i t e i n Canada to e s t a b l i s h a permanent summer s c h o o l . Conquergood searched d i l i g e n t l y but was not a b l e l p t o l o c a t e a f a v o r a b l e property. Although i t was against the p o l i c y of the C.C.L. executive to use f a c i l i t i e s i n the United S t a t e s , the F.D.R.-C.I.O. Centre of the Michigan C.I.O. at F o r t Huron was s e l e c t e d f o r the 1948 Summer School. This l o c a t i o n continued t o be used u n t i l June 1957» when the Canadian U.A.W. Education Centre at P o r t E l g i n , O n t a r i o , and the Club Whitesands, owned by the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Chemical Workers Union, were opened. The summer schools are u s u a l l y a week-long r e s i d e n t i a l program. There are general l e c t u r e s and a choice of courses, and the subject m a t e r i a l i s u s u a l l y f u r t h e r advanced than t h a t g i v e n at a weekend i n s t i t u t e . The aim of the schools i s the development of union l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . The students, 31 i n a r e l a x i n g environment, are expected t o develop a rapport w i t h f e l l o w members. I n a d d i t i o n , a new dimension i n the value of the union i s created through the combination of the course t o p i c s and union f e l l o w s h i p . Union schools were held i n the winters of 1948-49 under the j o i n t sponsorship of the C.C.L. and the I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, The school fee of $25 i n 1948, $32.50 i n 1949, covered one course, meals, l o d g i n g , and a t i c k e t t o a hockey game a t Maple Leaf Gardens. Each course i n c l u d e d 23 hours of l e c t -u r e s, d i s c u s s i o n s , and p r a c t i c a l work i n a f i v e day p e r i o d . "Our aim," s a i d school d i r e c t o r Conquergood, " i s t o t r a i n union l e a d e r s h i p i n a l l phases of union a c t i v i t y . The d e l e -gates t o t h i s school are r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e i r l o c a l s and w i l l have to show the b e n e f i t s of the courses when they go back,"^ The Winter Schools appeared t o be s t i m u l a t i n g experiences f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The Schools drew the members together t o form a bond t h a t promoted the aims of the labour movement and i n s t i l l e d l o y a l t y to the Congress, There was no e v a l u a t i o n made of the Winter Schools but the correspondence on f i l e i n d i c a t e d an a r o u s a l of i n t e r e s t and many of the students committed themselves t o conduct e d u c a t i o n a l work i n t h e i r l o c a l s . WEEKEND INSTITUTES The weekend i n s t i t u t e was one of the e a r l i e s t methods of union education developed a f t e r World War I I . 32 The i n s t i t u t e s are sponsored "by labour c o u n c i l s i n co-o p e r a t i o n w i t h the education department' of the n a t i o n a l labour body or by unions l a r g e enough to support t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . An i n s t i t u t e i s u s u a l l y a two-day school w i t h a 10-hour program of study, i n c l u d i n g such s u b j e c t s as Grievance Procedure, C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , The Job of the Steward, How to Conduct a Meeting, or t o p i c s of p e r t i n e n t i n t e r e s t t o the l o c a l union. "Tool" courses, or those programs such as shop steward t r a i n i n g , t h a t increase the s k i l l of the student, are the most f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d . General courses, such as labour's r o l e i n s o c i e t y , are b r o a d l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r . There i s o f t e n a s m a l l fee of f i v e t o seven d o l l a r s to cover c o s t s . Students who are delegated to attend by t h e i r l o c a l union u s u a l l y have t h e i r expenses p a i d . S e l e c t i o n i s i n f o r m a l and students normally v o l u n t e e r t o take the course. The i d e a of the weekend i n s t i t u t e s has been popular f o r a number of reasons: p r o v i s i o n f o r paying wages f o r l o s t time i s not r e q u i r e d ; the t r a v e l l i n g d i s t a n c e i s not great; an i n s t i t u t i o n can make the Congress a r e a l i t y f o r many members who have a nebulous concept of the aims of the labour movement; and the i n s t i t u t e s are f l e x i b l e , a l l o w i n g members to d i s c u s s r e g i o n a l t o p i c s . R e c o g n i t i o n f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of weekend i n s t i t u t e s must be a t t r i b u t e d t o Conquergood as i t was h i s a b i l i t y , and hard work t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d the C.C.L. education program. 33 The i n s t i t u t e s evolved from an i d e a f o r a group of i n s t r u c t -ors to t o u r the country t a k i n g p a r t i n l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g when i t was evident t h a t i n many p a r t s of Canada the a f f i l i -ated unions were too sm a l l to s e r v i c e t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l needs or i n many cases to even be aware t h a t they had a need f o r education programs. I n the summer of 194-9 a " t r a v e l l i n g f a c u l t y " which i n c l u d e d Andras, Chappell ( N a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t of the C.B.I. E . ) , Conquergood, and Hepworth, conducted i n s t i t u t e courses i n co-operation w i t h l o c a l Labour Co u n c i l s at Nanaimo, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Regina, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg. At each i n s t i t u t e e i t h e r C.C.L. P r e s i d e n t A.R. Mosher or Secretary-Treasurer Pat Conroy was a s p e c i a l guest a t the f i n a l banquet. I n the f a l l of 1°A9 a Memorandum was i s s u e d by Andras t o the e f f e c t t h a t u n t i l adequate f i n a n c e s were a v a i l a b l e no la r g e s c a l e education programs were p o s s i b l e . Weekend i n s t i -t u t e s were l i m i t e d to Ontario and Quebec where t r a v e l l i n g and other expenses were not too h i g h . I n order t o continue w i t h the i n s t i t u t e program and to cover the remaining p r o v i n c e s , a per c a p i t a donation was requested from a f f i l i a t e d unions. T o t a l r e c e i p t s amounted t o $5,698.00 as i t e m i z e d i n Table I I I . The C.B.R.E. a year l a t e r c o n t r i b u t e d $1,000.00. This fund f o r f u r t h e r educa- "'• t i o n programs was administered by Pat Conroy. While i n s t i t u t e s were expected t o be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , the t r a v e l -i n g expenses of i n s t r u c t o r s and s a l a r i e s f o r o f f i c e help TABLE I I I CANADIAN CONGRESS OF LABOUR EDUCATION FUND STATEMENT JULY 1, 1949 - AUGUST 31, 1950 J u l y 1, 1949 t o May 31, 1950 June 1, 1950 to August 31, 1950 Receipts United Auto Workers - CIO. Amalgamated Lithographers O i l Workers I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union United Packinghouse Workers of America Brotherhood of Express Employees Amalgamated C l o t h i n g Workers T e x t i l e Workers Union United Mine Workers, D i s t r i c t 18 United Rubberworkers Shoe and Leather Workers Labatt s - Donation T o t a l Receipts $2,500.00 75.00 50.00 600.00 150.00 223 .15 700.00 400.00 425.00 75.00 500.00 $5,698.15 $5,698.15 (continued) TABLE I I I (continued) J u l y 1, 1°A9 June 1 , 1950 t o May 31, to August 31, 1950 1950 Expenses O f f i c e expense $ 98.83 $ 220.30 General expense 262 .7© 203.89 S a l a r i e s 279.00 384.17 T r a v e l l i n g " 2,854.84 1,246.66 Miscellaneous 41.50 -T o t a l Expenses $3-536.87 $2,055.02 $5,591.89 Balance remaining i n Fund, May 31, 1950 $2,161.28 Balance remaining i n Fund, August 31, 1950 $ 106.26 Explanatory Note: The d e c i s i o n of the C.C.L. Executive C o u n c i l t o appeal f o r funds f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes was made at i t s meeting of J u l y 5, 194-9? the c o n t r i b u t i o n s 1 l i s t e d above i n the Receipts s e c t i o n were received by the Congress during the succeeding months of 1949. 36 f o r the Education D i r e c t o r came from C.C.L. f i n a n c e s . Four i n s t i t u t e s were h e l d i n the Maritimes i n 1950 t o complete the coast-to-coast e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e . P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Newfoundland were the only provinces where an i n s t i t u t i o n had not been h e l d . I n June 1950, an e v a l u a t i o n of weekend i n s t i t u t e s was made by the committee on education. The committee agreed t h a t (1) the c u r r i c u l u m should be broadened, (2) there was a shortage of t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s , (3) they d i d not have the a b i l i t y t o evaluate courses, (4) there were inadequate resources f o r education, (5) the courses contained too much m a t e r i a l , (6) weekend i n s t i t u t e s were merely an i n t r o -d u c t i o n , (7) i t was necessary to have follow-up courses. However, the weekend i n s t i t u t e has continued over the years to be the most important l i n k i n the Congress education program. I n 1953 the T.L.C. and the C.C.L. began a J o i n t venture t o sponsor a weekend i n s t i t u t e t o be h e l d i n the H a l i f a x area. The D i r e c t o r of Education f o r the T.L.C. was Max Swerdlow, who worked w i t h Hepworth to make the school a success. The I n s t i t u t e was conducted by a s p e c i a l committee of the T.L.C. H a l i f a x Labour C o u n c i l and the O f f i c e r ' s Club of the C.B.E.E. i n co-operation w i t h Guy Henson, D i r e c t o r , Adult Education D i v i s i o n of the Nova S c o t i a Department of Education. The H a l i f a x I n s t i t u t e s were h e l d , one i n May 1953, two i n 1954, and one i n 1955- They were s t a r t e d two years 37 before a merger of the two Congresses was considered. The undertaking r e q u i r e d diplomacy from the o f f i c e r s . A c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of leaders and course m a t e r i a l was a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r success. The union c r i t e r i o n f o r resource people r e q u i r e d sympathy f o r unions, and an a b i l i t y to r e l a t e i n s t r u c t i o n t o union programs. There was d i s t r u s t and f e a r t h a t one Congress was attempting to i n f l u e n c e the members of others t o change t h e i r l o y a l t i e s . I n h i s e v a l u a t i o n of the I n s t i t -ute Hepworth wrote t h a t (1) c l a s s e s were too l a r g e , (2) there were too few i n s t r u c t o r s , (3) more p r e - i n s t i t u t e p u b l i c i t y was needed, (4) i n f o r m a t i v e f i l m s were needed, (5) the Labour Forum should be tape-recorded f o r the use of l o c a l unions, (6) the number of courses should be reduced 7 t o a l l o w a broader coverage of m a t e r i a l . ' I n 1955 and u n t i l the merger i n 1956, j o i n t C.C.L.-T.L.C. i n s t i t u t e s were held across the country. These i n s t i t u t e s enabled the members and s t a f f t o overcome some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of working together. INFLUENTIAL UNION EDUCATORS A number of persons were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the e a r l y development of union education c l a s s e s . Howard Conquergood was known both as an educator and as an e f f e c t i v e s t r i k e o r g a n i z e r . A graduate of Queen's U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, he j o i n e d the United Steelworkers of America i n 1943* At the S t e l c o p l a n t s t r i k e i n Hamilton, Conquergood supervised welfare a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This i n v o l v e d 58 the s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n i n g of a s t a f f of 200 s t r i k e r s i n a l l aspects of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n necessary f o r a s t r i k e of 5,000 workers. . Subsequently, Conquergood, i n the c a p a c i t y of Welfare D i r e c t o r , was i n charge of a number of other s t r i k e s f o r the Steelworkers. As a r e s u l t of Conquergood's e f f o r t s , a number of Canadian Congress of Labour a f f i l i a t e s s u c c e s s f u l l y con-ducted a Union Summer School i n 194-7. He advocated an education program t h a t attempted t o reach a l l the l o c a l union members. I n consequence, he commenced a to u r i n 1948 to conduct i n s t i t u t e s i n co-operation w i t h C.C.L. Labour Cou n c i l s from coast t o coast. I n 1951, when the Congress o f f i c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a Department of Education, Conquer-good was the l o g i c a l choice as D i r e c t o r of Education and Welfare. On i n d e f i n i t e leave of absence from the S t e e l -workers union, he undertook the task of extending the union education program. H i s a s s o c i a t e s p r a i s e d h i s dynamic energy and rued h i s i n a b i l i t y t o s t i c k to a budget or t o answer correspondence, but h i s i n i t i a t i v e l a i d the foundations of Canadian union education. A f t e r the merger of the C.C.L. and the T.L.C, Conquergood turned t o one of h i s e a r l y i n t e r e s t s , p o l i t i c a l education f o r the Canadian Labour Congress. While Howard Conquergood was the f o r c e t h a t s t a r t e d the union education program, A.L. Hepworth was the resource t h a t backed every e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the C.C.L. up t o 1956. Hepworth had been a member of the Executive Board 39 of the All-Canadian Congress of Labour and was i n charge of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r the A.C.C.L. A f t e r the form-a t i o n of the C.C.L. i n 1940 he was appointed part-time Education and Welfare D i r e c t o r . I n 1953 he was appointed D i r e c t o r of the Department of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers and a l s o A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r and Se c r e t a r y of the C.C.L. Advisory Committee on Education. He had become a member of the C.B.R.E. Montreal D i v i s i o n i n 1935, and i n 194-5 j o i n e d the s t a f f of the Brotherhood as Executive A s s i s t a n t at Ottawa. He has been a committee member of most ed u c a t i o n a l agencies working w i t h the C.C.L. and l a t e r the G.L.C. On A p r i l 1, 1962 Hepworth resigned from h i s p o s i t i o n i n the C.B.R.E. t o accept an appointment as program d i r e c t o r f o r the Overseas I n s t i t u t e of Canada. I n 1963 he was appointed A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the L e g i s l a t i v e and Govern-ment Employees Department of the C.L.C. and i n 1968 Education D i r e c t o r and R e g i s t r a r of the Labour College of Canada. Andy Andras, a member of the headquarters s t a f f of the C.B.R.E. i n 1940, was a l s o appointed a s s i s t a n t research d i r e c t o r f o r the C.C.L. i n 1 ° A 1 . He was confirmed i n t h i s p o s i t i o n at the merger i n 1956* At h i s death in'1971, he was an acknowledged a u t h o r i t y on unemployment insurance and other aspects of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y i n Canada. Andras and Hepworth worked c l o s e l y together on the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the education department. Andras wrote a number of a r t i c l e s on education f o r v a r i o u s 40 magazines and was the f i r s t chairman of the education com-mittee i n 1947. A f t e r the committee was formed he acted as a course leader at many education programs across Canada. Max Swerdlow was the counterpart i n the T.L.C. of Howard Conquergood i n the C.C.L. The T.L.C. e s t a b l i s h e d i t s education department a few years l a t e r , however, the p r i n -c i p l e s of union education had a l r e a d y been l a i d down and the T.L.C. were able t o undertake weekend i n s t i t u t e s and s t a f f seminars without too many problems. Large unions a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C.C.L. who had t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were always generous i n s h a r i n g t h e i r personnel and f a c i l i t i e s . The range of subjects taught at union schools i s s i m i l a r r e g a r d l e s s of the nature of the union. Gower Markel, D i r e c t o r of Education and Welfare f o r the Steelworkers, has worked on committees and conducted courses from coast to coast. W i l l i a m MacDonald of the United Automobile A i r c r a f t and A g r i c u l t u r a l Implement Workers of America a l s o sat on committees and was p a r t of the s t a f f f o r i n s t i t u t e s and Summer Schools. A l l a n Schroeder l a t e r took over t h i s D i r e c t o r s h i p . John Whitehouse was D i r e c t o r of Education f o r the T e x t i l e Workers Union of America and was a delegate on the Education A d v i s o r y Com-mittee of the C.L.C. Harry Jacks of the C.B.R.E. was a l s o a committee member. Prominent Regional D i r e c t o r s have been Dan Radford of B r i t i s h Columbia and Henry Weisbach of O n t a r i o . P h i l i p p e V a i l l a n c o u r t , Quebec Regional D i r e c t o r , has a l s o been an 41 a c t i v e member. Other names connected w i t h education programs t h a t r e c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y over the years were Joe Morris and Jean Jacques Jauniaux both of the C.L.C. Henry Weisbach, Ontario D i r e c t o r of Education from 1956 to 1961, t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Ontario Federation of Labour h o l d i n g the same p o s i t i o n . L i n c o l n Bishop then took over Weisbach's former D i r e c t o r s h i p . FOOTNOTES ^C.I.O. i n i t i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the Committee which organized i n d u s t r i a l unions, l a t e r the i n i t i a l s stood f o r the f e d e r a t i o n to which these unions a f f i l i a t e d . A l l data i n t h i s chapter was obtained from the f i l e s of the C.C.L. and the C.B.R.T. unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . ^A. Andras, "Labour Education i n Canada," Adult  Education i n Canada, ed., J.R. K i d d , (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1950), p. 282. ^"A.L. Hepworth, " H i s t o r y of Labour E d u c a t i o n - i n Canada," Les Tendances A c t u e l l e s de L'education dans Le  Monde Ou v r i e r , Cahier No.8, ( I n s t i t u t e Canadien d'education des A d u l t s , undated), p. 4. ^ " U n i o n i s t s at C o l l e g e , " The Standard, Montreal: February 14, 1948. ^ " E v a l u a t i o n of Weekend I n s t i t u t e s , " Minutes of Meeting of the Committee on Education, June 12, 1950. F i l e : Committee on Education, C.B.R.E. & O.T.W. F i l e s . ?A.L. Hepworth, F i l e , H a l i f a x J o i n t Union I n s t i t u t e , January 1?, 1954. CHAPTER 17 UNION EDUCATION IN THE CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS INTRODUCTION As the agencies organized t o educate workers became i n a c t i v e the education program of the Congresses i n c r e a s e d . A f u r t h e r impetus t o t h i s a c t i v i t y was the merger of the Canadian Labour Congress and the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada to form the-Canadian Labour Congress ( C . L . C ) . The welding together o f the two powerful bodies d i d not change the d i r e c t i o n of the education program hut allowed i t t o expand. To understand the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the education department i t i s necessary to understand the i n t e r n a l organ-i z a t i o n of the C.L.C The s t r u c t u r e of the C.L.C was e s t a b l i s h e d at the merger and has changed l i t t l e over the years. The main f u n c t i o n s of the Congress are to serve a f f i l i a t e d unions i n r e g u l a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n r e p r e -s e n t i n g members before government and n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , unions are s e r v i c e d by v a r i o u s departments respon-s i b l e f o r the education and welfare of the members and f o r s t i m u l a t i n g the growth of the labour movement. The Congress t i s an autonomous n a t i o n a l body without s t r u c t u r a l connections 42 43 to other labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n any p a r t of the world (Figure 1 ) . A f f i l i a t e d t o the C.L.C. i n 1971 were 91 i n t e r -n a t i o n a l unions w i t h members both i n Canada and the Uni t e d 1 S t a t e s . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Confederation of Free Trade Unions w i t h 61 m i l l i o n members has f r a t e r n a l t i e s but no j u r i s d i c t i o n over the C.L.C. A b i e n n i a l convention determines the p o l i c y of the C.L.C. and e l e c t s the Executive C o u n c i l as a governing body between conventions. Each a f f i l i a t e d l o c a l union i s r e p r e -sented by one delegate f o r 1,000 or fewer members, and f u r -t h e r delegates f o r each a d d i t i o n a l 1,000 members or major f r a c t i o n . Two members are delegated from each i n t e r n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l a f f i l i a t e , and from each p r o v i n c i a l f e d e r a t i o n of labour and labour c o u n c i l (Figure 2 ) . The purposes as s e t out i n the ten a r t i c l e s of the c o n s t i t u t i o n are t o promote, a s s i s t , encourage, p r o t e c t , and preserve the aims of the labour movement and t o otherwise encourage the growth and o r g a n i z a t i o n of unions. I t recog-n i z e s the i n t e g r i t y of each a f f i l i a t e d union i n the Congress while at the same time encouraging " . . . the e l i m i n a t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s through the process of agreement, merger, or other means „2 _ • ' • • • Membership i n the C.L.C. has r i s e n s t e a d i l y w i t h the exception of the years 1960 to 1962 when there was a s l i g h t d e c l i n e (Table I V ) . These f i g u r e s f o l l o w e d the general FIGURE 1 STRUCTURE OF THE CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS 1 9 7 1 C 1 L • C t 1 , 6 5 0 ,OOO MEMBERS 9 4 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Unions 2 2 N a t i o n a l and R e g i o n a l Unions I n t e r n a t i o n a l Confedera t ion of Free Trade Unions 6 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 Members CHARTERED BY THE C . L . C . 7 , 1 0 0 L o c a l Unions 1 0 P r o v i n c i a l Federa t ions of Labour 1 2 0 L o c a l Labour C o u n c i l s 1 5 0 C . L . C . D i r e c t l y Char tered L o c a l Unions Source : Canadian Labour Congress , "Notes on Unions" 45 FIGURE 2 INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OP THE CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS CONVENTION ( B i e n n i a l ) EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OFFICERS 4 GENERAL VICE-PRESIDENTS 13 REGIONAL VICE-PRESIDENTS (Governing Body between Convent ions) EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 4 OFFICERS k GENERAL VICE-PRESIDENTS OFFICERS PRESIDENT SECRETARY-TREASURER 2 EXECUTIVE VICE-PRESIDENTS DEPARTMENTS ORGANIZATION - LEGISLATION - RESEARCH - EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS - GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES PROVINCIAL FEDERATIONS and LOCAL LABOUR COUNCILS POLITICAL EDUCATION - PUBLIC RELATIONS REGIONAL Depts . of Organ i za t i on REGIONAL Dep t s . *o f Educa t ion Source; Canadian Labour, J u l y - A u g u s t , 1962 46 TABLE IV CANADIAN LABOUR -CONGRESS MEMBERS AND EDUCATION BUDGET Year No.of members Percent i n c r e a s e (decrease) Education budget Percent i n c r e a s e (decrease) Per c a p i t a Education budget $ 1956 1,030,000 $99,750 10.0 1957 1,070,129 3.9 214,270* 6.2* 9.9 1958 1,144,120 6.9 109,060 +2.9 9.5 1959 1,153,756 .8 116,824 7.1 10.1 1960 1,122,831 -2.7 129,708 11.0 11.6 1961 1,070,837 -4.6 133,915 3.2 12.5 1962 1,049,145 -2.0 130,111 -2.8 12.4 1963 1,079,909 2.9 130,354 .2 12.1 1964 1,106,020 2.4 141,079 8.2 12.8 1965 1,181,147 6.8 149,940 6.3 12.7 1966 1,282,039 8.5 154,140 2.8 12.0 1967 1,450,000 13.1 159,166 3.3 11.0 1968 1,571,514 8.4 175,778 10.4 11.2 1969 1,588,651 1.1 212,536 20.9 . 13.4 1970 1,641,000 3.3 228,689 7.6. 13.9 Source: Canadian Labour Congress F i n a n c i a l Statements. * The v e r y l a r g e expenditure f o r 1957 i n c l u d e s $58,400 f o r I.C.F.T.U. Seminar of which $56,700 was recovered from revenue. P r o d u c t i o n Department a l s o r e a l i z e d $51,600 as against • $56,500 f o r expense. Adjusted f i g u r e $105,959 was used i n c a l c u l a t i n g percentage. 4? p e r i o d of sta g n a t i o n i n union membership both i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . Since 1963 the upward tr e n d has been steady. Government s t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t t h a t between 1942 and 1967 about a t h i r d of the t o t a l Canadian membership were members of the t e n l a r g e s t unions, and between o n e - f i f t h and one-quarter were represented by the f i v e l a r g e s t unions. By 1970 a l l f i v e of the l a r g e s t C.L.C. a f f i l i a t e s had t h e i r own education department. Those o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e d the United Steelworkers of America w i t h 1*30,000 members, Canadian Union of P u b l i c Employees (136,000), P u b l i c S e r v i c e A l l i a n c e of Canada (120,000), I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union, United Automobile Aeorospace, and A g r i c u l t u r a l Implement Workers of America (109,274), and United Brotherhood of Carpenters and J o i n e r s of America (72,209). ENROLLMENT AND FINANCE Because of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t a f f , o n l y 31 e d u c a t i o n a l programs were scheduled by the new Congress i n 1956 w i t h no announcement of enrollment f i g u r e s . The f i g u r e s jumped t o 303 i n s t i t u t e s and other schools w i t h an attendance of 23,000 f o r 1958. A large seminar of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Confederation of Free Trade Unions was held i n Banff i n 1957; t h i s took a major p o r t i o n of the o r g a n i z i n g time of D i r e c t o r of Education, Max Swerdlow. He was a l s o a member of the s t e e r i n g committee of the Canadian Conference on Education h e l d i n Ottawa i n 1958. A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e were over 800 delegates sponsored by 19 48 educational organizations with 4-5 representatives from the Congress. After 1958, data pertaining to enrollment i n union education programs are scarce. Allen Schroeder, of the United Automobile Workers, reported i n 1962 that the larger 5 unions have as many as 2,000 attending classes each year. Swerdlow stated that the educational activities of national and international unions and the C.L.C. involved approximately 12,000 for Congress schools i n 1962. From the above figures i t i s apparent that enrollment data are rarely obtainable and can not be relied upon. The financial statements of the education department of the Congress are available from 1956 onward (Table 5). The very large expenditure for 1957 includes $58,440 for the I.C.F.T.U. Seminar at Banff of which $56,74-2 was re-covered i n Seminar revenue. The Production Department also realized $51,569 against an expense of $56,439. With these items adjusted there i s a steady rise i n expenditure for education with the exception of a slight drop i n 1962 and 1963 which followed a period of general stagnation i n member-ship. Since 1956, the budget for education has ranged around 10 per cent of the total C.L.C. budget and the 14-year average i s 10.16 per cent. METHODS AND PROGRAMS The educational activities of the Canadian Labour Congress occur seven days a week throughout the year. The TABLE V C.L.C. REVENUE AND PER GENT OF REVENUE EXPENDED ON EDUCATION Year Revenue Education Expenditure % of Revenue 1956 $ 775,612 $99,750 12.86 1957 1,319,465 214,271 16.24* 1958 1,191,453 109,060 9.15 V 1959 1,219,907 116,824 9.58 1960 1,283,921 129,708 10.10 1961 1,378,991 133,915 9.71 1962 1,372,645 130,111 9.48 1963 1,415,387 130,354 9.21 1964 1,566,108 141,079 9.01 1965 1,616,858 149,940 9.27 1966 1,649,144 154,140 9.35 1967 1,764,337 159,166 9.02 1968 1,920,651 175,778 9.15 1969 1,932,889 212,536 11.00 1970 2,268,925 228,689 10.08 Source: Canadian Labour Congress F i n a n c i a l Statements * The l a r g e expenditure f o r 1957 i n c l u d e s $58,400 f o r a I.C.F.T.U. Seminar of which $56,700 was recovered from revenue. The Prod u c t i o n Department a l s o r e a l i z e d $51,600 as against $56,500 f o r production expense. 50 d i r e c t o r of education i n 1960, Max Swerdlow, reported t h a t approximately 50 per cent of the t o t a l number of schools were h e l d i n the Ontario r e g i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canadian union education programs on t h a t date was estimated at one per cent of the C.L.C. membership, o r some 11,000 p a r t i c i -pants annually. The e d u c a t i o n a l program uses a v a r i e t y of courses to give the member a b e t t e r understanding of union p o l i c i e s i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , pensions, h e a l t h insurance, auto-mation, and grievance procedure. I n a d d i t i o n , a broader f i e l d i s explored i n labour h i s t o r y , economics, labour and s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l education, community respon-s i b i l i t i e s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . Courses are prepared to meet the needs of s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , l o c a l union o f f i c e r s and r a n k - a n d - f i l e members. Conferences A conference i s u s u a l l y organized by l a r g e r bodies such as a P r o v i n c i a l F e deration of Labour or the C.L.C. P a r t i c i p a n t s o f t e n i n c l u d e agencies w i t h i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r to those of the union. Topics may be l i m i t e d or cover a broad s u b j e c t , f o r example, a conference on "Canadian Education." Delegates are u s u a l l y appointed s t a f f personnel. The speakers are s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l knowledge and eloquence. Conferences are intended to impart hew knowledge and serve as s t i m u l a n t s t o a c t i o n by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 51 Correspondence Courses The C.L.C. through the Labour College of Canada, provides a correspondence course as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r College attendance. The course i s a v a i l a b l e to members of a f f i l i a t e d unions even though they do not a n t i c i p a t e e n t e r i n g C o l l e g e . The correspondence program c o n s i s t s of 12 lessons; three i n Economics, three i n P o l i t i c a l Science, three i n Sociology, and three s p e c i a l l essons: one on how t o read textbooks, take notes, and w r i t e assignments; one on how to read graphs; and a t h i r d one which teaches the b a s i c elements of account-i n g . Assignments are mailed t o the College f o r each l e s s o n and are c o r r e c t e d and returned w i t h a model assignment t o all o w the student t o evaluate h i m s e l f . C e r t i f i c a t e s are awarded f o r s u c c e s s f u l completion of the 12 l e s s o n s . The Canadian Union of P u b l i c Employees use the Labour College Correspondence Course as L e v e l 5 of t h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n from beginners course t o the advanced l e v e l . L e v e l 6 i s the Labour Col l e g e R e s i d e n t i a l Program. The s i x - l e v e l program of CUPE i s designed p r i m a r i l y f o r home-study. I n a d d i t i o n , c r e d i t s are given t o those students who attend comparable courses given at weekend schoo l s , l o c a l union workshops, and week-long summer or win t e r s c h o o l s . I n order to move from one l e v e l t o the next, i t i s necessary t o accumulate a c e r t a i n number of c r e d i t s . A c e r t i f i c a t e i s awarded upon completion of the r e q u i r e d c r e d i t s at each l e v e l . 52 Weekend I n s t i t u t e s The weekend school format developed by Conquergood has become the main element of the Canadian union education program. While most i n s t i t u t e s concentrate on " t o o l " courses there i s u s u a l l y a speaker to present a key-note speech on a t o p i c of i n t e r e s t to union members. I t i s u s u a l f o r the school to s t a r t on Saturday morning but there are a few t h a t r e g i s t e r students on F r i d a y n i g h t or even Thursday. Many i n s t i t u t e s h old a banquet and a s o c i a l evening on Saturday n i g h t . I n 1971 v a r i o u s schools were h e l d f o r the purpose of i n f o r m i n g union members of the new r e g u l a t i o n s of the Unemployment Insurance Act. D r a s t i c changes had been made i n the Act and i t was t o the advantage of a l l employees to have knowledge of the b e n e f i t s they could r e c e i v e . I n s t i t u t e s are organized by i n d i v i d u a l unions and labour c o u n c i l s w i t h the co-operation of the C.L.C. I n some cases a group of labour c o u n c i l s i n an area w i l l band t o -gether to support one i n s t i t u t e . The u s u a l fee i n 1971 was ten d o l l a r s i n c l u d i n g one banquet guest, compared to seven d o l l a r s i n 194-7. There i s an extensive use made of f i l m s at i n s t i t u t e s t o supplement the program and t o s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n . Workshops Workshops are organized i n a manner s i m i l a r t o i n s t i -t u t e s but the course content i s more f u n c t i o n a l . I n a "Time Study Course" a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n could take place 53 u s i n g a c o n t r i v e d model, or an e n t i r e course could be based on p r a c t i s e as i n p u b l i c speaking or conducting a meeting. Summer-Winter Schools Summer-winter schools are he l d f o r a week or longer d u r a t i o n . Although the winter s c h o o l i s r a r e l y h e l d , the summer school i s organized annually i n f i v e l o c a t i o n s . Two schools are held i n Ont a r i o ; at the U.A.W. Education Centre, P o r t E l g i n , and the Whitesands I.C.W.U. Education Centre, Peterborough. I n the A t l a n t i c Region a one week summer school i s h e l d at S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y i n Antigon-i s h , Nova S c o t i a . The Saskatchewan Federation of Labour, i n co-operation w i t h the C.L.C, holds a one week summer school at V a l l e y Centre, F o r t Qu 1Appelle. Manitoba Fe d e r a t i o n of Labour a l s o has a one week school at Lake Wendigo, Lac du Bonnet. The summer school i s considered t o be between the I n s t i t u t e and the Labour College i n p r o g r e s s i o n . While the week-long r e s i d e n t i a l program i s aimed e s p e c i a l l y at the more advanced student, b a s i c courses are a l s o provided. When r e g i s t e r i n g the student s e l e c t s the course i n which, he i s most i n t e r e s t e d and a l s o an a l t e r n a t i v e i n case h i s f i r s t s e l e c t i o n i s al r e a d y f i l l e d . A l l students are expected to a ttend the general sessions on t o p i c s of concern to the union movement. I n a d d i t i o n to work s e s s i o n s , the students p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l gatherings and summer r e c r e a t i o n a l events. 54 I n 1971 the fees f o r the summer schools i n c l u d i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n , rooms, and meals f o r one week.ranged from $54.00 at Qu'Appelle to $90.00 at Whitesands. A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n are made through the l o c a l union or labour c o u n c i l . Course i n s t r u c t o r s are u s u a l l y s t a f f personnel from the C.L.C. or the l a r g e r unions. Representatives from the government are o f t e n i n v i t e d t o conduct courses on t h e i r s p e c i a l t y , f o r example Unemployment Insurance or P r o v i n c i a l Labour L e g i s l a t i o n . A course on Labour's P o l i t i c a l Respon-s i b i l i t y might have a l e c t u r e by an important member of the New Democratic P a r t y . I n 1947, A.R. Mosher, P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian Congress of Labour, r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r i n p r a i s e of the summer sc h o o l , "although i t has i t s f a u l t s , " the w r i t e r recommended i t s continuance, s i n c e " . . . what we r e q u i r e i s more edu-c a t i o n f o r ourselves and our membership, so t h a t we w i l l be b e t t e r equipped t o handle the problems t h a t face us from a 4 proper p e r s p e c t i v e . " T h i s a t t i t u d e has been r e i t e r a t e d throughout the correspondence on f i l e . S t a f f Seminars S t a f f seminars have been organized p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r personnel o f chartered or a f f i l i a t e d unions f o r advanced study of problems c o n f r o n t i n g the labour movement. They are u s u a l l y h e l d at prominent l o c a t i o n s i n h o t e l s w i t h conference rooms such as whitesands or the Banff H o t e l . I n 1958 55 Swerdlow pointed out t h a t the Education Department f o l l o w s s t r i c t l y the p o l i c y e s t a b l i s h e d by the Executive C o u n c i l , Weekend i n s t i t u t e s are organized w i t h the labour c o u n c i l s , while s t a f f seminars are c o - o p e r a t i v e l y held w i t h f e d e r -a t i o n s . I n Ont a r i o , however, the Ontario Federation of Labour had not sponsored any seminars because the f e d e r a t i o n had too many problems t o c o n s i d e r . ^ I n 1965 Swerdlow reported t h a t s t a f f seminars were no longer w e l l attended anywhere and Ontario had not had one f o r two ye a r s . A f t e r 1967» s t a f f seminars t h a t were a l s o i n s t r u c t o r t r a i n i n g programs appeared to have a higher r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Night School Classes Night c l a s s e s have been attempted at v a r i o u s times throughout the h i s t o r y of the union education movement w i t h l i t t l e success. T h e i r f a i l u r e may have been due to the o r g a n i z a t i o n or to the f a c t t h a t u n t i l r e c e n t l y union members have been manual workers who d i d not have the energy to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an evening c l a s s . With the o r g a n i z a t i o n of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers these c o n d i t i o n s may have a l t e r e d . The Canadian Union of P u b l i c Employees, founded i n 1963, has e s t a b l i s h e d a n i g h t s c h o o l program i n some l o c a t i o n s . These c l a s s e s are step one i n a S i x L e v e l C e r t i f i c a t e P r o -gram. The three b a s i c courses i n l e v e l one are; Steward T r a i n i n g , Parliamentary Procedure, and Union A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f i r s t two use programmed i n s t r u c t i o n books, the t h i r d a t e x t book. 56 I n s t r u c t o r T r a i n i n g Program The I n s t r u c t o r ' s T r a i n i n g Program was organized t o f i l l the need f o r q u a l i f i e d course l e a d e r s . Since 1956 Swerdlow had r e i t e r a t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n -i n g . An example of such a program i s the one h e l d at P a r k s v i l l e , B r i t i s h Columbia and arranged by the B r i t i s h Columbia Regional D i r e c t o r of Education. I n s t r u c t o r s f o r the program have come from the Department of Adult Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The course l a s t s f o r seven days and p a r t i c i p a n t s are a s s i s t e d i n l e a r n i n g "how t o t e a c h — n o t what t o teach." The purpose i s t o develop s t a f f members and l o c a l o f f i c e r s as i n s t r u c t o r s i n union education a c t i v i t i e s . The C.L.C. pays a l l t u i t i o n f e e s , room and board. The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s union u s u a l l y pays t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l o s t wages. The student i s expected t o attend the school f o r one week each year f o r three years. P a r t i c i p a n t s are then ready t o a s s i s t w i t h education programs w i t h i n t h e i r own unions and from time t o time w i t h Labour C o u n c i l Schools. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not l i m i t e d to s t a f f members. The c r i t e r i a f o r admission t o the program i s an i n t e r e s t i n union education and the a b i l i t y t o become an i n s t r u c t o r . Gary D i c k i n s o n , t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, r e p o r t s t h a t the average age of students i s between 35 and 40 years.'' A t o t a l of 34 men and one woman have taken the f i r s t year course, 15 have completed the second year, and 5 the t h i r d y ear. Since the I n s t r u c t o r 57 T r a i n i n g Program only began i n 1967 i t s r e s u l t s cannot be evaluated at t h i s date. Women's Classes The C.L.C. has been extremely c a r e f u l not to d i s -c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t women and i n a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s of agreements, women's r i g h t s are considered t o be equal to those of men. For t h i s reason separate c l a s s e s f o r women have r a r e l y been h e l d . I n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y , the C.L.C. and the Quebec Fe d e r a t i o n of Labour j o i n t l y sponsored a week-long school f o r women only . I t was held i n May 1971» at S t . Donat, n o r t h of Montreal. There were two su b j e c t s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o women: Women's subjugation i n North American s o c i e t y , and a round-table d i s c u s s i o n of the problems of working women. The remainder of the program was s i m i l a r t o that of r e g u l a r trade union schools w i t h courses i n g r i e v -ance procedure, labour l e g i s l a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , parliamentary procedure, union s t r u c t u r e , workmen's compen-s a t i o n and unemployment insurance l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and s o c i o l o g y . Jean-Jacques Jauniaux, C.L.C. Quebec education d i r e c t o r explained t h a t , "There i s no i n t e n t i o n t o i n i t i a t e a p o l i c y of segregation of the sexes w i t h i n the labour move-ment and i n f a c t a l l other C.L.C. sponsored courses remain 8 on a mixed b a s i s . " He f u r t h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t mixed c l a s s e s u s u a l l y c o n t a i n one or two women f o r every 20 men. "Obviously under such c o n d i t i o n s you cannot expect women t o . 5 8 express themselves and p a r t i c i p a t e as f e e e l y as they would wish," s a i d Jauniaux.^ R e s u l t s would i n d i c a t e t h a t the experiment was a success as female p a r t i c i p a t i o n at mixed courses has since i n c r e a s e d t o 13 per cent of attendance at t h a t course. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a dies' Garment Workers' Union has an unique education program based on a r t s , c r a f t s , s c i e n c e , and s p o r t s . The fee f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s two d o l l a r s per year. Classes a t t r a c t 500 of the t o t a l 17,000 I.L.G.W. Canadian members. While union membership i s 95 per cent female, men may p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c l a s s e s . The program i s conducted i n the I.L.G.W. b u i l d i n g i n downtown Montreal. The Ladies' Garment Workers' Union i s anxious t o meet the needs of t h e i r members and t o increase t h e i r s e r v i c e , they have sent out questionnaires t o a l l members re q u e s t i n g t h e i r preferences f o r an education program. While the I.L.G.W. program does not f a l l under the d e f i n i t i o n of union education i n t h a t i t does not sponsor the growth of unions, i t i s one of the few programs i n which women p a r t i c i p a t e to any extent. The p r o p o r t i o n of female workers i n the labour f o r c e i s r a p i d l y r i s i n g and showed a 13.6 per cent increase i n f i v e years t o a t o t a l of 31»0 per cent of the Canadian labour f o r c e i n 1967 (Table V I ) . That r a t e had increa s e d t o 35«5 per cent by 1970. I t i s apparent t h a t women have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n union education to the same extent as men, but t h i s w i l l probably change i n the f u t u r e as the p r o p o r t i o n of female union members 59 TABLE VI PROPORTION OF FEMALES IN THE WORKING POPULATION OF CANADA8-Year T o t a l Number of Women Percentage of the T o t a l Increase i n Percentage of the Number of Women 1901 1,783,000 238,000 13.3 1911 2,724,000 365,000 13.4 .75 1921 3,164,000 489,000 15.5 15.6 1931 3,922,000 665,000 17.0 9.7 1941 4,516,000 834,000 18.5 8.8 1951 5,286,000 1,147,000 21.1 19.5 1961 6,458,000 1,764,000 27.3 23.5 1967 7,730,000 2,395,000 31.0 13.6 Less the Yukon and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . Before 1921 females 10 years and over; from 1921 t o 1951 females of 14 years and over; a f t e r 1961 females of 15 years and over. Source: Kathleen A r c h i b a l d , Les deux sexes dans l a F o n c t i o n p u b l i q u e , Commission de l a F o n c t i o n publique du Canada, "1969, p. 16. 60 continues to rise . The increased participation "by women may require the development of new forms of union education that are especially adapted, to the needs of women. INFLUENTIAL UNION EDUCATORS In the years between 1°A6 and 1956, education committees had to scrounge for funds, coerce executives into leading courses, account for every penny of expense accounts, and combat inter-union s t r i f e . These committees were composed of men dedicated to the f i e l d of union edu-cation, many of whom had their lives shortened by the un-ceasing work demands of their occupation. Because of the increased office work and larger staffs, today's education advisory committee members do not have the personal influence of the organizers i n the early years. The work i s now distributed between the five regional directors who have support from the head office. The regional offices are located i n Vancouver, Regina, Toronto, Montreal, and Saint John, New Brunswick. After the merger i n 1956, Max Swerdlow became Director of the combined education departments of the C.C.L.-T.L.C. He defined~the goals of his department as: The basic aim of the department consists of a variety of schools and seminars. The Education Department promotes, organizes and conducts such schools i n co-operation with local labour councils, and provincial federations of labour. In addition, the department also co-operates wi£h a growing number of unions i n establishing courses_for their members. The department has laid considerable emphasis on this phase of i t s activities and has continued to encourage this development."^ 61 Swerdlow was e s p e c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n the founding of the Labour College of Canada. I n the years when t h i s took a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n the education program decreased from 374 events i n 1961 t o 355 i n 1962. F i g u r e s f o r the years 1963 to 1965 are not a v a i l a b l e . I n 1966 there were 400 programs reported. A f t e r 1966 e d u c a t i o n a l programs have been so numerous th a t data were not p u b l i s h e d . L i n c o l n Bishop, who r e t i r e d as C.L.C. Ontario Education D i r e c t o r i n 1970, was appointed executive d i r e c t o r of the Labour College of Canada f o r 1971- He had p r e v i o u s l y acted as a s s i s t a n t r e g i s t r a r and p r i n c i p a l of the C o l l e g e . Luc M a r t i n , a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r i n the s o c i o l o g y department of the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal, was appointed P r i n c i p a l of the Labour College f o r the 1972 term. Since r e t u r n i n g t o the Education Department as D i r e c t o r i n 1968, Bert Hepworth has i n i t i a t e d a survey of union education and a l s o the correspondence courses i n prep-a r a t i o n f o r Labour College r e g i s t r a t i o n . The three men who have had the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on the union education program have been Conquergood, Swerdlow, and Hepworth, a l l w i t h d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t r o l e s t o p l a y , and a d i f f e r e n t development approach. Conquergood had o r i g i n a l ideas and the a b i l i t y t o s t i m u l a t e h i s c o l l e a g u e s . Although unable t o organ!ze h i s own o f f i c e and correspondence, he seemed t o be l e a d i n g i n s t i t u t e s i n every p a r t of the country at once. Conquer-good appeared t o be the p a r t i c u l a r type of man the e r a 62 demanded, w i l l i n g to break the r u l e s and to use h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . Hepworth supported Conquergood i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t a i l s and helped t o smooth h i s way when he got i n t o d i f f i -c u l t i e s . When Conquergood c o l l a p s e d from an u l c e r on a western t r i p , Hepworth took over and f i n i s h e d h i s t o u r of conducting i n s t i t u t e s . Over the l a s t 30 years, as leaders have changed, Hepworth has remained a steady i n f l u e n c e . He has supported everyone w i t h sound ideas i n h i s e f f o r t t o improve the union education program. Swerdlow*s a b i l i t i e s were best d i s p l a y e d i n develop-i n g the l a r g e concepts such as the Labour C o l l e g e , an unique c o n t r i b u t i o n to the labour movement. During h i s tenure many Canadian conferences were h e l d , i n c l u d i n g the L a b o u r - U n i v e r s i t y N a t i o n a l Conference, the f i r s t Canadian Conference on Education, an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Confederation of Free Trade Unions,, the N a t i o n a l Human Rig h t s C o u n c i l , the Second Conference on Education, and the World Conference on Adult Education. Swerdlow was e i t h e r a member of the s t e e r i n g committee o r g a n i z i n g the conference or ah important r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the C.L.C. He was a l s o a member of the f e d e r a l government N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l and s e c r e t a r y of the C.L.C. Advisory Committee on Manpower T r a i n i n g . I n 1966 Swerdlow was granted leave of absence t o a s s i s t i n developing the C i p r i a n i Labour College i n the West Ind i e s f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , an 63 agency of the United Nations. H i s r e s i g n a t i o n from the C.L.C. i n favour of a permanent post w i t h I.L.O. took e f f e c t on November 1, 1968. FOOTNOTES 1 S t r u c t u r e based on a r t i c l e by Donald MacDonald, "The S t r u c t u r e of the C.L.C.,11 Canadian Labour, July-August, 1962, p. 5. 2 I b i d . , C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Canadian Labour Congress, A r t i c l e 8. p. 6. <Allen Schroeder, "Educating the Organized," Canadian Labour, A p r i l , 1962, p. 15. 4 L e t t e r signed by Vern C a l k i n s t o A.R. Mosher, Canadian Congress of Labour F i l e on Union Summer School, Geneva Park, Dated J u l y 26 t o "August 9, 1947. ^Minutes, N a t i o n a l Advisory Committee of the Canadian Labour Congress, December 11, 1958. 6 I b i d . , March 24, 1965. ^Gary Di c k i n s o n and Ron Tweedie, "A T r a i n i n g P r o -gram f o r Labour Union I n s t r u c t o r s , " Adult Leadership, January, 1971, p. 241. 8 "Womens School," Canadian Labour, V o l . 16, No. 5, May 1971, p. 12. 9 I b i d . 10 Max Swerdlow, "Education Report - CLC," Canadian  Labour, V o l . 9, No. 1, January, 1964, p. 18. CHAPTER V CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT EDUCATION INTRODUCTION The Canadian Labour Congress together with i t s a f f i l i a t e s and predecessors has of necessity concentrated upon the provision of educational services directly to their membership i n the form of events that are designed to improve competencies i n union a f f a i r s . Labour involvement i n education, however, has not been restricted solely to union education. The labour movement has also participated actively i n a number of organizations, institutions, and events designed to foster the growth of adult education generally i n Canada and elsewhere. Some of those major activities i n the broader f i e l d of adult education are described i n this chapter. FRONTIER COLLEGE The goal of Frontier College i s to bring a f u l l e r l i f e through education to those who work on the Canadian frontier. Although the College i s designed for workers, i t cannot be classified as union education, however, the C.L.C. has taken an active interest i n the College program. 64 65 Reverend Alfred Fitzpatrick graduated from Queen's University i n 1896 as a Presbyterian minister. He immedi-ately served a f i e l d assignment i n the logging camps where he saw the need for an enrichment program for labourers. In his efforts to educate the men, he established the "Read-ing Camps Association" and recruited other university men to assist i n teaching. One of his helpers i n 1902 had the idea of working for wages as a manual labourer during the day and conducting bunkhouse classes i n the evening. This became the standard practice for a l l later teachers. In 1913, the Association changed i t s name to Frontier College and i n 1922 was granted a Canadian charter with the power to issue degrees. Three labourers had earned Bachelor of Arts degrees when the charter was cancelled i n 1951* The College has continued as a non-credit institution financed by donations from various sources. In 1903, Edmund W. Bradwin, a tough, kindly man, joined Fitzpatrick and became the epitomy of the "bunkhouse teacher." Dr. Bradwin earned his Doctoral degree from Columbia University i n 1922 by attending winter courses. From 1900 to 1920, five hundred university students were placed at more than 600 campsites across Canada. Some students were so dedicated they served for two or three p summers. By 1958, more than 3,000 labourer-teachers had taught one quarter of a million worker students. The classes were varied so that no school could be called typical, but the following report of a night school 66 i n a bush camp i s a good example of the type of program used by F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e . The camp employed 58 t o 76 men f o r the fo u r w i n t e r months when the school was i n op e r a t i o n . C l a s s 1 - One In d i a n , one Frenchman. The I n d i a n , age 25, had never been to s c h o o l . I n f o u r months he covered s i x months of f i r s t grade work. "He never missed a n i g h t and was most a s s i d i o u s i n h i s e f f o r t s t o take advantage of the s c h o o l . The Frenchman, 19, had a good common education. He spent h i s time on E n g l i s h grammar, s p e l l i n g , and reading E n g l i s h . " Glass 2 - S i x men, aged 14- t o 35, who reviewed t a b l e s , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n . C l a s s 3 - F i v e men, aged 20 t o 42, spent t h e i r evenings on a r i t h m e t i c covered by grade 7 , such as f r a c t i o n s , measurement of bark-p i l e s , logs and lumber. C l a s s 4 - Three men, aged 19 to 22, each o f whom had passed hi g h school entrance. They took up commercial a r i t h m e t i c and the rudiments of bookkeeping. Classes s t a r t e d each evening at 7:30 and c l o s e d a t nine o'clock, the l a s t h a l f - h o u r being given t o a general c l a s s on any one of the f o l l o w i n g : (1) reading of l i t e r a r y s e l e c t i o n s ; (2) geography and the empire; (3) current events from newspapers; (4) simple experiments i n phy s i c s or chemistry, and (5) physiology. The school was a l s o used •z by non-students f o r w r i t i n g l e t t e r s and reading. There was a t o t a l of s i x t e e n students i n the camp. The i n s t r u c t o r earned the going r a t e f o r the job he d i d dur-i n g the day p l u s a pro-rat e d bonus, u s u a l l y $225, from F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e . At the end of the season a student would 4 have between $600 and $700 t o help w i t h h i s student f e e s . 67 Although Fr o n t i e r College i s s t i l l a c t i v e l y working from i t s headquarters i n Toronto with an across-Canada : r e c r u i t i n g campaign each year, the necessity f o r t h e i r type of program i s not as great as i t was i n the pre-war years. Unions have helped to improve conditions i n the camps and have been represented on the College board of governors and the executive committee. Max Swerdlow, as C.L.C. education d i r e c t o r , worked a c t i v e l y to a s s i s t the aims of the College i n bringing education programs to mining, logging, and con-s t r u c t i o n camps of the north. In 1972 Swerdlow was honoured by being named a fellow of Fr o n t i e r College. Companies now o f f e r the workers better accommodations and recreational services. Workers i n general have a higher standard of education, so that there i s less demand f o r basic English, . mathematics and general courses. The present-day program has become oriented more toward the Eskimo and Indian of the North and less to the labourer. The 1972 r e c r u i t i n g poster depicts a teacher helping a native Canadian and asks f o r Labourer-Teachers "To devote a l l t h e i r free time to Adult Education; English, French, Mathematics, etc., as well as recreational, c u l t u r a l , and community development pro-grams." The h i s t o r y of Fr o n t i e r College i s the h i s t o r y of men dedicated with a missionary zeal to help the labourer. When the influence of the founders has passed, the College w i l l need a fresh approach or a new focus to give greater meaning i n a changing society. 68 NATIONAL CITIZENS 1 FORUM I n 1°/t-3 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation i n Co-operation w i t h the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education (C.A.A.E.) sponsored a conference on "Education f o r Recon-s t r u c t i o n . " ^ This conference -led t o the development of C i t i z e n s ' Forum which became an a d u l t education medium of n a t i o n a l scope. A.L. Hepworth of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport Workers attended the Conference as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s union and submitted a r e p o r t from the labour viewpoint. There were 160 d e l e -gates from a wide range of o r g a n i z a t i o n s : U n i v e r s i t i e s , government departments, c o l l e g e s , teachers' a s s o c i a t i o n s , l i b r a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , s o c i a l workers, Y.W.C.A., C.B.C., R.C.A.F., and the D i r e c t o r a t e of Army Education. Dr. Corbett as D i r e c t o r of the C.A.A.E. announced t h a t as many o r g a n i -• z a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e had been i n v i t e d t o send delegates, but Hepworth was not h e s i t a n t t o p o i n t out i n h i s r e p o r t t o h i s union " t h a t as f a r as I knew, organized labour had not been 7 i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e except by b i d s t o the two Congresses. As the program became e s t a b l i s h e d a union executive was added t o the Advisory Committee. Hepworth was a member i n 1948-49 and J.E. McGuire, N a t i o n a l Secretary-Treasurer of the Brotherhood, was an ad v i s o r i n 1950-51* Hepworth, i n a personal o b s e r v a t i o n , made the comment " i t seems to me tha t the important p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h i s p r o j e c t make i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t organized labour take as 69 p r o m i n e n t a p a r t as p o s s i b l e ; we c a n n o t a f f o r d t o s t a y o u t . . . We s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o s u b m i t s u g g e s t i o n s on t h e m a t e r i a l , i t s f o r m , t a k e p a r t i n t h e l o c a l communi ty s t e e r -i n g commi t t ee s a n d , i n g e n e r a l , see t h a t t he who le t h i n g i s r u n d e m o c r a t i c a l l y and w i t h an eye t o t h e needs o f v a r i o u s c l a s s e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . " The Forum as e n v i s a g e d c a l l e d f o r a p r o g r a m o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a o f r a d i o , f i l m s , d i s c u s -s i o n s , and r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s on t h e g e n e r a l theme o f p o s t -war c o n s t r u c t i o n . The b r o a d c a s t s were d e s i g n e d t o r e a c h F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g as w e l l a s E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s . C i t i z e n s ' Forum d e v e l o p e d i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s s t a r t i n g a r o u n d t h e m i c r o p h o n e and c o n t i n u i n g i n homes a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . S p e a k e r s were c o m p l e t e l y f r e e t o s a y what t h e y b e l i e v e d and l i s t e n e r s c o u l d w r i t e i n t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s . The Second N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commit tee o f C i t i z e n s ' Forum had t h e e x p r e s s e d p u r p o s e o f a p p r a i s i n g t h e 194-3 s e a s o n and p l a n n i n g f o r 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 . Hepwor th r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s e r i e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r U n i o n E d u c a t i o n . " W i t h r e s p e c t t o o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r ' s p l a c e i n s u c h a p r o g r a m , I p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t i s a m a t t e r o f i n t e g r a t i n g i t w i t h a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d o r p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m s . " ^ P r o m i n e n t u n i o n o f f i c i a l s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e as s p e a k e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t n i n e y e a r s o f t h e s e r i e s . A.E. K o s h e r , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C . C . L . spoke on "Boom o r B u s t , " P e r c y Bengough , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T . L . C . "Rent C o n t r o l 70 i n Canada," Gordon Cashing, Secretary-Treasurer of the T.L.C. on "Manpower f o r Defense: How Can We Meet the Need," George B u r t , Canadian D i r e c t o r of the U.A.W.-C.I.O., on "Does Democracy Work i n the Labour. Union?", Pat Conroy, Secretary-Treasurer of the C.C.L. on "Does Canada Need a N a t i o n a l Labour Code?", While a number of labour groups provided speakers, o n l y the Brotherhood was a c t i v e i n encouraging members to p a r t i c i p a t e . I n a l e t t e r t o Hepworth, the S e c r e t a r y of the C i t i z e n s * Forum wrote of t h e i r a p p r e c i -a t i o n o f the C.B.R.E. e f f o r t s t o p u b l i c i z e the s e r i e s , and f u r t h e r , " I have always been s o r r y t h a t C i t i z e n s ' Forum has h o t been taken s e r i o u s l y by most of the trade unions.; indeed your group i s the only one t h a t i s making a systematic 10 e f f o r t t o e l i c i t i n t e r e s t i n C i t i z e n s ' Forum." While the Brotherhood through McGuire and Hepworth, who were both conscious of the need f o r education, kept t h e i r members informed regarding programs, the C.L.C. d i d not ignore the s e r i e s . Pat Conroy sent out a c i r c u l a r t h a t pointed out, T h i s p r o j e c t gives to labour a magnificent oppor-r-t u n i t y t o make i t s v o i c e heard and i t s i n f l u e n c e f e l t on t h i s a l l important question. I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s an opportunity t o c a r r y i n t o e f f e c t the recommendations of the P u b l i c i t y and Education Committee, adopted at the recent Congress Convention, t h a t unions should -set t o work f o r m u l a t i n g plans f o r the conversion t o peacetime purposes of the p l a n t s and i n d u s t r i e s i n which t h e i r members work, and a l s o plans f o r m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n g e n e r a l . The o p p o r t u n i t y should be f u l l y u t i l i z e d . " Although C i t i z e n s ' Forum continued w i t h d i m i n i s h i n g i n t e r e s t u n t i l 1965 the unions were not a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s 71 a f t e r 1952. The broadcasts covered a wide v a r i e t y of sub-j e c t s t h a t d i d not a t t r a c t or hold workers' a t t e n t i o n , and many f e l t there was too much d i s c u s s i o n and not enough a c t i o n . I s a b e l Wilson wrote "Some people have f e l t t h a t subjects o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern are too remote from every-day l i v i n g t o s u s t a i n group i n t e r e s t , " w h i l e "people have a sense of f r u s t r a t i o n i n the face of problems because they see no p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n they can take a f t e r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n . " The broadcasts attempted t o overcome these problems by hav-i n g the f o u r t h broadcast i n each s e c t i o n l e f t open f o r "In the News" sub j e c t s of current i n t e r e s t . Twice a year there was an opp o r t u n i t y f o r r e p o r t s from across the country i n "What People Say," but even w i t h these i n n o v a t i o n s t h e i r audience was by then c a p t i v a t e d by t e l e v i s i o n . While the 1°A3 theme had been "Education f o r Recon-s t r u c t i o n " w i t h plans f o r post-war employment, the p r e s s i n g problem f o r the labour movement i n the m i d - f i f t i e s was o r g a n i z a t i o n and u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n union ranks. I n 1°A0 union membership was o n l y 7*9 per cent of the c i v i l i a n l abour f o r c e but by 1952 i t had r i s e n t o 21.4- per cent w i t h membership fragmented i n t o the Trades and Labor Congress, the Canadian Congress of Labour, and the Canadian C a t h o l i c Confederation o f Labour. At a time when the N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s ' Forum was attempting t o draw the e n t i r e country together by an a c r o s s -Canada d i s c u s s i o n of common problems, the union needed s p e c i f i c education t o d e a l w i t h i n t e r n a l concerns. 72 CANADIAN TRADE UNION FILM COMMITTEE An excerpt from the Massey Report concerning the Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e ( f o r m e r l y the N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y ) s t a t e s t h a t . . . i n 1935» when many European c o u n t r i e s had a h i g h l y developed system of pro d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n , the only non-commercial d i s t r i b u t i o n agency i n Canada was the Extension Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . I n t h i s same year a few i n t e r e s t e d people founded the N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y to provide i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v i c e s t o groups of n o n - t h e a t r i c a l f i l m users such as departments of education, a d u l t education groups and v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The F i l m S o c i e t y b u i l t up a cooperative f i l m l i b r a r y and i t s c e n t r a l o f f i c e was prepared to procure and len d f i l m s and t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s to i t s member groups and oth e r s . Most of the f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s venture i n i t s e a r l y years came from B r i t i s h and American sources. . The B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l Trust p a i d the expenses of a general o r g a n i z a t i o n meeting f o r a n a t i o n a l f i l m committee i n 1938 and gave more than $8,000 f o r the purchase of B r i t i s h f i l m s ; the Carnegie Corporation gave a s m a l l sum f o r a survey of Canadian f i l m needs and t h i s was foll o w e d by s u b s t a n t i a l annual grants from the R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation from 1937 t o 1946. This help from without made p o s s i b l e the f i r s t n a t i o n a l centre f o r documentary f i l m i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Canada.13 While the N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y was founded i n 1935* i t was not u n t i l 1943 t h a t the i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t of the unions i n ed u c a t i o n a l f i l m s was recorded. At th a t time, Dr. E.A. Forsey, Education and P u b l i c i t y Chairman of the Canadian Congress of Labour, was booking N a t i o n a l F i l m Board 14 Trade Union C i r c u i t f i l m s to the union l o c a l s . I n 1946, the Winnipeg Labour Union F i l m C o u n c i l formed t o review education f i l m s from the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. Manitoba unions a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the C o u n c i l by p r o c u r i n g 73 p r i n t s through the f i l m l i b r a r y . I n 194-7, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Winnipeg C o u n c i l wrote t o Mosher, C.C.L. p r e s i d e n t , suggesting the formation of a n a t i o n a l c o u n c i l on union f i l m s t o f u r t h e r the aims of the Congress education department. I n 1950, the N a t i o n a l Trade Union F i l m Committee was organized t o represent the i n t e r e s t s of the labour unions. I n 1955, " N a t i o n a l " was changed to "Canadian" to make the name more i d e n t i f i a b l e . The committee was formed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C.C.L., the T.L.C, and the Canadian and C a t h o l i c Confederation of Labour, the Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e , the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, and the f e d e r a l Department of Labour. George Cushing, s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r of the T.L.C. was the f i r s t chairman. The program of the committee as o u t l i n e d at an e a r l y meeting was seen as: the procurement of s u i t a b l e labour f i l m s , produced i n s i d e or outside Canada; the e v a l u a t i o n of labour f i l m s ; encouragement and advice i n the prod u c t i o n of f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s f o r use by organized labour; the promotion of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of such f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s ; the development of e f f e c t i v e use of f i l m s ; and the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and a clearing-house on a l l aspects of the fo r e g o i n g . The Trade Union F i l m Committee's goal was to provide "package" f i l m programs t o c i r c u l a t e i n v a r i o u s areas across the country. A program would c o n s i s t of one or two f i l m s , 74 comments, and d i s c u s s i o n guides. The f i l m s would be com-bined t o g i v e a standard f i l m l e n g t h f o r an evening's viewing, of 30 t o 40 minutes. U s u a l l y , a program spent one month i n an area and was then exchanged f o r another. Howard Conquergood, education d i r e c t o r of the C.C.L. i n 1951» was aware of the many d i f f i c u l t i e s union l o c a l s had i n screening f i l m s . Shipping f i l m s to ensure t h a t they a r r i v e d on the c o r r e c t date was always a problem; a l s o there was a shortage of s u i t a b l e f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h union t o p i c s . There were too few s k i l l e d persons t o p r o j e c t and care f o r the f i l m s . I n a d d i t i o n , the p o s t - f i l m d i s c u s s i o n i s v i t a l t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e , and there was a shortage of people competent to l e a d these d i s c u s s i o n s . The most popular f i l m s i n use year a f t e r year have been L o c a l 100, The Shop Steward, The S t r u c t u r e of Unions, The Grievance, Union L o c a l , The Research D i r e c t o r , Dues and the Union, S t r i k e i n Town, and Parliamentary Procedure. I n 1953, the Canadian Department of Labour undertook the sponsorship of labour f i l m s . I n 1955, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, 31 E n g l i s h and 16 French programs of labour f i l m s were being c i r c u l a t e d among the trade unions of Canada. The minutes of the committee f o r 1957 reported the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board's d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the p a s t year: B r i t i s h Columbia, 108 bookings or l e s s than one per month per c i r c u i t ; Nova S c o t i a , 13 programs w i t h 32 showings; Manitoba, i n a four-month p e r i o d , r e p o r t e d no showings; 75 i n s i x months Quebec reported 150 showings, which was con-s i d e r e d v e r y low; Ontario's program had almost t o t a l l y c o l l a p s e d and i t was recommended t h a t the f i l m s should be l o c a t e d i n f i l m l i b r a r i e s f o r spot bookings. I t was apparent t h a t the c i r c u l a t i o n of f i l m s had f a l l e n below exp e c t a t i o n s . I n 1959, the d i s t r i b u t i o n through b l o c k s of f i l m s on a c i r c u i t was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n favour of l o c a t i n g f i l m s at the o f f i c e s of union education personnel i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the country. By t h i s system, spot-booking was made to unions and i n d i v i d u a l s as the need arose. With the advent of spot-booking and the b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of f i l m s , the Canadian Trade Union F i l m Com-mittee l o s t much of i t s usefulness except to advise on f i l m s and view new productions f o r approval. I n 1967* the N a t i o n a l Education' A d v i s o r y Committee asked the Canadian Labour Congress t o r e v i t a l i z e the f i l m committee but t h i s does not appear t o have happened. New f i l m s have been produced w i t h the backing of the C.L.C: i n 1966 "Labour C o l l e g e " ; i n , 1968, the v e r y s u c c e s s f u l "Do Not F o l d , Bend, Staple or M u t i l a t e " ; and a f i l m on p o l l u t i o n sponsored by the C.L.C, "What i f Nobody Game?". Trade union f i l m s are now a standard e d u c a t i o n a l device used to i l l u s t r a t e i d e a s , s t a r t d i s c u s s i o n s , docu-ment a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , make a program more a t t r a c t i v e , 15 and t o a s s i s t l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n of m a t e r i a l . y They are used a t i n s t i t u t e s , summer sc h o o l s , seminars and work-shops. Regional C.L.C education o f f i c e s own some f i l m s 76 and r e n t others from the N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l F i l m L i b r a r y , a j o i n t undertaking of the Canadian Department o f Labour and the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. The f i l m committee considered t h a t Canada has been the leader among na t i o n s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g toward the develop-ment o f _ f i l m s as an important a i d i n union education. P r i n t s of union f i l m s have been placed i n every Canadian embassy o r trade commissioner's o f f i c e around the world. UNION-UNIVERSITY CO-OPERATION Manitoba Labour I n s t i t u t e The Workers' Education A s s o c i a t i o n was the o r i g i n -a t o r of u n i v e r s i t y - l a b o u r co-operation i n Canadian education 16 programs. I n 1936 the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba and the W.E.A. entered i n t o j o i n t sponsorship of labour education programs. I n 1950, on the i n i t i a t i v e of the chairman of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s Committee on the Evening I n s t i t u t e and the W.E.A., a meeting of s e n i o r union personnel i n Winnipeg was c a l l e d and the Manitoba W.E.A. was renamed the Manitoba Labour I n s t i t u t e (M.L.I.). While the M.L.I, considered i t s e l f as an educa-t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Canadian Congress of Labour there was no formal r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The 1950 By-Laws d i d not r e s t r i c t membership t o unions but s p e c i f i e d t h a t the members should c o n s i s t of men and women employed i n i n d u s t r y and bus i n e s s , t h e i r wives or husbands, and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A survey i n 1958 reported t h a t the M.L.I, was 77 supported f i n a n c i a l l y by the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba and the Department o f Education of the Government of Manitoba.. The U n i v e r s i t y and the Department shared the t o t a l c o s t o f l e c t u r e r s ' stipends and the U n i v e r s i t y provided accommodation and equipment when i t was au t h o r i z e d . The U n i v e r s i t y Extension D i v i s i o n a s s i s t e d the I n s t i t u t e i n s e l e c t i o n of l e c t u r e r s , while the I n s t i t u t e looked a f t e r p u b l i c i t y , r e c r u i t i n g and other matters. The r e p o r t f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t i t seemed "that a l a c k of e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween the M.L.I, and the o f f i c i a l labour c i r c l e s i n h i b i t s 17 the work of the I n s t i t u t e . ' Western Ontario U n i v e r s i t y Western Ontario U n i v e r s i t y a l s o began a co-operative program w i t h the W.E.A. i n the 1930's. The U n i v e r s i t y worked w i t h the S t r a t f o r d W.E.A. Committee and the London Labour C o u n c i l of the C.C.L. This area was e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n union education but no s p e c i a l committee developed. S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r has a c t i v e l y co-operated w i t h unions i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs s i n c e 1931. The Extension Department works from the u n i v e r s i t y campus a t Anti g o n i s h and a l s o from an o f f i c e i n Sydney, Nova S c o t i a . A j o i n t committee of U n i v e r s i t y and Union members was set up i n 1°A4 as an advi s o r y board. The Committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of t o p i c s t o be discussed i n the c l a s s -room, on r a d i o , or on t e l e v i s i o n . The aim of the S t . F r a n c i s 78 X a v i e r courses was t o t r a i n people f o r c i t i z e n s h i p and f o r union and community l e a d e r s h i p . The Maritime Labour I n s t i t u t e The Maritime Labour I n s t i t u t e was s t a r t e d i n the sp r i n g of 1944. I t s purpose was t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n and education t o members of labour unions on s o c i a l , economic, and governmental problems. The p l a n o r i g i n a t e d from unions a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the T.L.C. and the C.C.L. and was put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n co-operation w i t h Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y . The' I n s t i t u t e has undertaken day courses, evening courses, weekend i n s t i t u t e s , and conferences. The courses d e a l t w i t h general t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t t o labour. P r o f e s s o r L. R i c h t e r was the Chairman and D i r e c t o r of the Maritime Labour I n s t i t u t e from it's i n c e p t i o n u n t i l h i s death i n 1948. Dr. R i c h t e r had an i n s i g h t i n t o labour problems t h a t gave the I n s t i t u t e an honourable standing among union men. A f t e r h i s death: there were some misunder-standings u n t i l the I n s t i t u t e became r e - e s t a b l i s h e d under c o n d i t i o n s acceptable t o union e x e c u t i v e s . I t i s financed by grants from unions, the Department of Labour, and the Government of Nova S c o t i a . I n 1971 the Maritime Labour I n s t i t u t e continues w i t h education programs of i n t e r e s t t o union members. N a t i o n a l University-Labour Committee I n 1956 the Canadian Labour Congress and the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education c a l l e d a j o i n t conference 79 on labour education i n Canada. The aim of the conference was t o explore methods of compatible i n t e r a c t i o n between (a) u n i v e r s i t i e s and unions (b) unions and government departments (c) unions and the mass media. T o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n was 110 w i t h 28 delegates from 14 u n i v e r s i t i e s . John F r i e s e n , D i r e c t o r of Extension at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, was the U n i v e r s i t y Education Convenor. Max Swerdlow, C.L.C. Education D i r e c t o r , saw the r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t y as (a) p r e p a r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s (b) e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs, and (c) research. From the 1956 meeting a N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y - L a b o u r Committee (NU-LC) was formed w i t h Napoleon Le Blanc of L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y as Chairman. Two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each l o c a l U n i v e r s i t y -Labour Committee were i n v i t e d t o become, members of the NU-LC and committees were e s t a b l i s h e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y and S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r . The formation of NU-LC was t o l e a d t o a survey i n 1957-58 of u n i v e r s i t y - l a b o u r education. Questionnaires prepared i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h P r o f e s s o r M.A. Tremblay and P r o f e s s o r Emile G o s s e l i n were sent to 19 u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1958. R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from s i x t e e n . From the data i t was evident t h a t few u n i v e r s i t i e s had labour programs but a l l were i n t e r e s t e d i n developing t h i s a c t i v i t y . The general trend appeared to be the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s e s that would appeal t o a wide audience on the subject of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s or s o c i a l problems. These programs were 80 u s u a l l y under the d i r e c t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y extension depart-ments. An a n a l y s i s of the survey would i n d i c a t e t h a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s were eager t o co-operate i n programs at the request of the unions. They saw t h e i r r o l e i n a d u l t educa-t i o n not as l e a d e r s h i p hut as c o u n s e l l i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t education p r o j e c t s . The obs t a c l e s t h a t were s p e c i f i e d i n the survey i n c l u d e d : (1) Some u n i v e r s i t i e s reported the fami,liar problem t h a t a r i s e s w i t h a heterogeneity of students; many p a r t i c -i p a n t s are a f r a i d t o speak before employers or employees. (2) U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y are h e a v i l y committed to i n t r a -u n i v e r s i t y a f f a i r s and f i n d wages from extension l e c t u r e s l e s s a t t r a c t i v e . (3) Unions are not always c l e a r about t h e i r expectations from u n i v e r s i t i e s or the r o l e labour should p l a y i n education. (4) Lack of research i n the f i e l d of labour. F r i e s e n wrote i n regard t o labour research t h a t "research i s the l i f e - b l o o d of u n i v e r s i t y t eaching and published and unpublished i n v e s t i g a t i o n s about c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , a r b i t r a t i o n , c o n c i l i a t i o n procedures and so. f o r t h are mainly d e s c r i p t i v e and concerned w i t h s o c i a l process." J A f t e r 1963 NU-LC was i n a c t i v e . I n March 1971, the remaining funds were turned over t o the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education and the Committee was terminated. 81 Niagara College - School of Labour Studies  and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . Community Colleges have developed a new concept i n the education f i e l d as they are designed t o serve expressed community needs. The School of Labour Studies at Niagara C o l l e g e , inaugurated i n 1968, and the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Program, begun i n 1970, are pioneer developments i n Canada. There i s a C e r t i f i c a t e Program f o r part-time students, or i n d i v i d u a l courses may be taken by any union member. The I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Program i s considered as "an in-depth study of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g process 20 . . ." I t i s o f f e r e d as a two-year diploma program and a l s o f o r a C e r t i f i c a t e i n Labour Management on a part-time b a s i s . Unions have not f u l l y u t i l i z e d the resources of the community c o l l e g e or considered the c o l l e g e s as a labour-o r i e n t e d l e a r n i n g environment. Labour College of Canada The model f o r labour c o l l e g e s around the world i s Ruskin College at Oxford, s t a r t e d by the e f f o r t s of two Americans, Walter Vrooman and Charles Beard i n 1899. Ruskin has i t s own b u i l d i n g s and residence f o r approximately 120 students and some 2,500 f o l l o w correspondence courses. No academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are r e q u i r e d f o r admission but 21 students must be union members. The most ambitious Canadian program i n v o l v i n g union-u n i v e r s i t y co-operation i s the Labour College of Canada 82 chartered as an independent i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1963. The establishment of a Labour College had been a union g o a l as f a r back as 1911 when a motion was approved by 22 the Trades and Labor Convention f o r such an undertaking. Max Swerdlow, Education D i r e c t o r of the C.L.C, began nego-t i a t i o n s w i t h a number of u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1938. F i n a l l y a Memorandum of Agreement was reached between the C.L.C. and the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . Subse-quently, upon the request of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the Confeder-a t i o n of N a t i o n a l Trade Unions was i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The C.N.T.U. withdrew i t s support i n 1967 but the Quebec Government continued i t s f i n a n c i a l a i d . The eight-week courses are h e l d i n May and June each year. A longer p e r i o d of t e n weeks has been suggested by former students but the College has not been able t o implement t h i s recommendation. F i v e courses are i n c l u d e d i n the program; Economics, H i s t o r y , S o c i o l o g y , P o l i t i c a l S c ience, and Trade Unionism. A correspondence program of 12 l e s s o n s ; three i n Economics, three i n P o l i t i c a l Science, and three i n S o c i o l o g y , i s administered by the College and recommended as a preparatory course. The fee f o r the 12 lessons i s $15 and may be taken by any C.L.C. member. Prep-a r a t o r y classroom courses have a l s o been given i n B r i t i s h Columbia, O n t a r i o , and Quebec. I n 1967 o n l y e i g h t of the 93 students had no p r e p a r a t i o n of any k i n d , and the number of students who had p r e p a r a t i o n rose to 87% compared to 70% i n 1 9 6 6 . 2 3 83 Labour College t u i t i o n i n 1971 was $210, books cost $50, rooms were $20 per person, and meals approximately $336. S c h o l a r s h i p s are a v a i l a b l e t o members of unions t h a t have made c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the College and some a f f i l i a t e d unions o f f e r s c h o l a r s h i p s and pay expenses of t h e i r own members. A student p r o f i l e p u b lished f o r the f i r s t s e s s i o n i n 1963 showed t h a t : The average student who has a p p l i e d t o attend the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the Labour College of Canada i s l i k e l y t o be a married man w i t h three c h i l d r e n i n h i s e a r l y 30 's. He has probably been a member of h i s trade union f o r a number of years, and i s at present a l o c a l union o f f i c e r or business agent. H i s main reasons f o r wishing t o attend the sessions of the College are: he would l i k e t o improve h i s l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s ; he f e e l s t h a t w i t h more formal e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g he w i l l be able t o do a b e t t e r job of rep r e s e n t i n g h i s f e l l o w workers; and he i s seeking t o improve h i s own knowledge and experience .24-The f u l l student p r o f i l e prepared by the College i s shown i n Table 7« The main f i n a n c i a l support f o r the College i s obtained from C.L.C. a f f i l i a t e d unions. Grants are r e c e i v e d from the f e d e r a l and most p r o v i n c i a l governments. A few i n d u s t r i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d s c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. The t o t a l income f o r the f i r s t f i v e years amounted to $128 ,870,000 and the t o t a l expenditures to $165,617,00 f o r 523 students or $316 per student. The Labour College of Canada i s the p r e s t i g e i n s t i -t u t i o n of the Canadian labour movement. Swerdlow, who was the f i r s t r e g i s t r a r and main impetus to the establishment 84 TABLE V I I STUDENT PROFILE 1967 Overseas students financed by Canada's E x t e r n a l A i d Program: 26 Canadian students: D i s t r i b u t i o n by Pr o v i n c e , A l b e r t a Manitoba Nova S c o t i a P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Saskatchewan B r i t i s h Columbia 9 Newfoundland 1 Ontario 24 Quebec 21 67 T o t a l number of students 1967 -31 e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadian Students Years 20 - 29 30 - 39 4 0 - 4 9 5 0 - 5 4 Number of Students 16 28 20 67 Ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of Canadian Students Primary 7 8 9 E n g l i s h - 3 2 French 1 2 6 Grades  Secondary  10 11 12 13 14 12 13 9 1 4 4 1 1 U n i v e r s i t y - _ 2 46 21 6 Labour College of Canada, Report of the f i f t h term,,June 18, August 11, 1.967, p. 11. 85 of the C o l l e g e , has s i n c e a s s i s t e d the foundation of the C i p r i a n i Labour College i n P o r t of Spain, T r i n i d a d , i n 1966 and the C r i t c h l o w Labour C o l l e g e , Georgetown, Guiana, i n 1967. Both of those c o l l e g e s are modelled a f t e r the Labour College of Canada. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assess the value of the College t o the C.L.C. u n t i l a survey i s completed on the student expectations and t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n of those e x p e c t a t i o n s . There i s a value i n having a model and goal f o r those s t u d -ents who want t o continue to a higher l e v e l i n t h e i r union education. The goal a l s o encourages other members t o begin •their education as union members and t o take the respon-s i b i l i t y f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r own knowledge. , CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education (C.A.A.E.) had r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of organized labour on every board and committee. By these c o n t a c t s , the union education committee were i n touch w i t h v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s i n important education p r o j e c t s . I n 194-9» David Smith c a r r i e d out a Survey Report on Labour Education i n Canada under the auspices of the 25 C.A.A.E. y The survey arose from a n a t i o n a l conference on labour education sponsored by the A s s o c i a t i o n . Smith i n v e s t i -gated the union education programs of the labour Congresses and agencies working i n co-operation w i t h the unions. The purpose was t o give an o v e r a l l impression of the Canadian union education a c t i v i t i e s , but the e v a l u a t i o n was i n d e c i s i v e I 86 owing t o a s c a r c i t y of data and l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . The C.A.A.E. played an important r o l e i n o r g a n i z i n g seminars, conferences, n a t i o n a l meetings and committees i n co-operation w i t h the unions* The A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o worked w i t h Kalmen Kaplansky from the Department of I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s of the C.L.C. to e r a d i c a t e r a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e . Dr. K i d d wrote t h a t the "simple ideas on which we operated at t h i s time were somewhat as f o l l o w s : " • organized labour was of tremendous n a t i o n a l importance and c o n s t i t u t e d a major c l i e n t e l e f o r a d u l t education. • there was a genuine concern t h a t organized labour might set up a f a i r l y complete i s o l a t e d system of education - a new form of segregated education and w h i l e i t was obvious t h a t they must do many t h i n g s f o r themselves i t was important t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s should not be completely i s o l a t e d o r separate. • i t was r i d i c u l o u s to keep organized labour out of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the major e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Canada. • the most able colleagues, we had i n the C.A.A.E. were people l i k e Bert Hepworth, Howard Conquergood, Wax Swerdlow, Gower Markel, John Whitehouse, B i l l MacDonald. at U.A.W., Donald McDonald, e t c . • the most c r e a t i v e use of media i n a d u l t education were oft e n w i t h i n the unions -and union schools o f t e n developed e x c e l l e n t methodology f o r teaching. • organized labour were a c t i v e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s , at UNESCO and elsewhere.26 The C.A.A.E., by a s s i s t i n g i n these p r o j e c t s , considered t h a t they were advancing the cause of adult 87 education as well as that of union education. . NATIONAL CONFERENCES The f i r s t Canadian Conference on Education was held i n Ottawa i n 1958. The sponsor was the Canadian Labour Congress and 19 national organizations interested i n education. The Canadian Association for Adult Education was an active member represented by Dr. J. Roby Kidd. Seventy organiza-tions were represented by 800 delegates. The C.L.C. sent 4-5 members to participate i n the discussions. The f i r s t Conference attempted to analyze the problems of education and the inadequacies of educational f a c i l i t i e s and oppor-tunities. One of the most pressing problems facing education, as outlined by the Conference, was the lack of funds and 12 of the 32 resolutions dealt with finances.^ 7 The second National Conference on Education was held i n 1962, again co-sponsored by the C.L.C. While the second Conference had a larger attendance with 2,000 dele-gates and was considered a success, the criticism was that delegates lacked authority to make changes and did not have the funds to do so. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS The Canadian Labour Congress i s represented on two world organizations with an interest i n union education. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (I.C.F.T.U.) was founded i n 194-9 by the C.L.C. predecessor central labour 88 "bodies and other unions. I n 1970, the I.C.F.T.U. with head-quarters i n Br u s s e l s had 122 a f f i l i a t e s i n 95 c o u n t r i e s . The aim of the Confederation i s the development of f r e e trade unionism, e s p e c i a l l y i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the work i s the establishment of union education c e n t r e s . ORIT i s the western hemisphere branch of the I.C.F.T.U., founded i n Mexico C i t y i n 1951. The i n i t i a l s stand f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n Regional Interamerican de Trabajadores (Inter-American Organization.of Workers). ORIT has an ambitious education program e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . The second world body i s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Or g a n i z a t i o n (ILO). ILO was founded i n 1919 under the terms of the t r e a t y of V e r s a i l l e s . The O r g a n i z a t i o n was p a r t of the League of Nations u n t i l the League's d i s s o l u t i o n at the beginning of World War I I . I n 1946 the ILO became the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency t o j o i n the Uni t e d Nations f a m i l y . On i t s 50th Anniversary, i n 1969, i t was awarded the Nobel Peace P r i z e . The s t r u c t u r e of ILO i s t r i p a r t i t e . Each p a r t i c i -p a t i n g government sends f o u r delegates t o the annual Conference: two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from government, one from employers, and one from workers. The Conference e l e c t s a Governing body of 12 workers, 24 governments, and 12 employ-er s . T h i s body supervises the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e . Joe M o r r i s , an executive v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the C.L.C, who has been a member of the governing body of ILO f o r a number of years, was e l e c t e d chairman of the Workers' Group i n 1969. 89 Kalmen Kaplansky, appointed C.L.C. D i r e c t o r of, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s i n 1957, b e l i e v e d t h a t Canadians p l a y an important r o l e i n world union a f f a i r s . He wrote i n 1961: The advice and s e r v i c e of Canadian, trade- unions are eagerly sought a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l meetings of expe r t s . Many Canadian trade u n i o n i s t s attend each year i n t e r -n a t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s , and s p e c i f i c a l l y ILO and ICFTU Conferences and meetings of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade S e c r e t a r i a t s . Canadians have a l s o occupied important p o s i t i o n s i n the " C i v i l S e r v i c e " of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l movement.28 C.L.C. P r e s i d e n t , Claude Jodoin, i n h i s Opening Address at the I.C.F.T.U. B r u s s e l s Conference i n 1959, emphasized the r o l e of education and the development of a f u n c t i o n a l program. "The Confederation i s not o n l y a Spokesman f o r our c o l l e c t i v e conscience i n the c o u n c i l s of the world, but an a c t i v e f a c t o r i n the never-ending attempts to improve the l o t of the workers i n less-developed c o u n t r i e s , through trade unionism and education.*"^ Funds f o r e d u c a t i o n a l programs and other a c t i v i t i e s are financed by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o l i d a r i t y Fund of the I.C.F.T.U. The fund i s made up of v o l u n t a r y pledges from a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s best able t o c o n t r i b u t e . E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e r e s i d e n t i a l union t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s i n C a l c u t t a , founded i n 1952, i n Kampala, A f r i c a , s i n c e 1958, and i n Mexico s i n c e 1962. I n 1966 ORIT expanded the f a c i l i t i e s of the I n s t i t u t e f o r Labour Studies at Cuernavaca, Mexico, and i t has become the centre of trade union education f o r C e n t r a l and South America. The C.L.C. has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n and oper a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . The b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e dorm-i t o r i e s , classrooms, o f f i c e s , and a l i b r a r y . The n e c e s s i t y f o r Congress p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l education programs i s summarized i n a Canadian  Labour a r t i c l e s t a t i n g t h a t : From i t s v e r y beginning the I.C.F.T.U. has recognized t h a t there can not be good trade union o r g a n i z a t i o n without sound trade union education. There i s no g r e a t e r , nor more i n s i s t e n t demand made on the I.C.F.T.U. by i t s younger and weaker a f f i l i a t e s than f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n a trade union t r a i n i n g program. Thus the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of the I.C.F.T.U. encompass today a l l l e v e l s of the movement. Leadership t r a i n i n g i s everywhere one of the g r e a t e s t concerns . 3 0 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES A UNESCO World Conference on Adult Education was held i n Canada i n 1960. A f t e r the Conference the C.L.C. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e organized a three day Workshop i n Ste. Agathe, Quebec. The t i t l e of the program was the "Teaching of Workers about the ILO and I t s Work." The Workshop enabled i n s t r u c t o r s , o r g a n i z e r s , and d i r e c t o r s of union education programs to confer w i t h ILO s p e c i a l i s t s . From t h i s conference the "Montreal D e c l a r a t i o n " was adopted by delegates. I n p a r t i t reads: We b e l i e v e t h a t a d u l t education has become of such importance f o r man's s u r v i v a l and happiness th a t a new a t t i t u d e toward i t i s needed. Nothing l e s s w i l l s u f f i c e than t h a t people everywhere should come to accept a d u l t education as normal, and the Governments should t r e a t i t as a necessary p a r t of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n of every country.31 ! Delegates from the Education Department a l s o 91 represented the C.L.C. abroad. Henry Weisbach and Bert Hepworth attended the 1958 I.C.F.T.U. Seminar i n Germany. Max Swerdlow c o n t r i b u t e d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n and was a delegate and leader a t the f i r s t A s i a n Labour Seminar, October 11-13, 1958, i n the P h i l l i p p i n e s . Swerdlow a l s o a s s i s t e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar of the I.C.F.T.U. at Banff i n 1957-The Canadian Labour Congress i s v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s and a l l o c a t e d 1.5 per cent of i t s income f o r t h i s purpose i n 1970. FOOTNOTES 1The Saturday Evening P o s t , October 27, 1951, p. 81. 2 ' S c o t t Young, "The Northland Bunkhouse P r o f e s s o r s , " (1958), Learning and S o c i e t y , ed. J.R. Kid d , ( A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1963), p. 75. ^ A l f r e d F i t z p a t r i c k , The U n i v e r s i t y i n O v e r a l l s , (Toronto: Press of the Hunter-Rose Co., L i m i t e d , 1920), Appendix C, p. x x v i i i . Young, op. c i t . , p. 76. ^Conference held at Macdonald C o l l e g e , Quebec, September 10-12, 194-3. A.L. Hepworth, Report of Conference on "Education f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n " made t o the C.B.R.E. & O.T.W., September 1943. 7 I b i d . , p. 1. 8 I b i d . , p. 5. ^A.L. Hepworth, Second N a t i o n a l Planning Committee of C i t i z e n s ' Forum Report, Macdonald C o l l e g e , Quebec, June 15-17, 1944, p. 5 . 10 L e t t e r from N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s * Forum, signed by Douglas P. C l a r k , N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y , October 30, 1947. 92 " 1 1 Canadian Congress of Labour C i r c u l a r L e t t e r No. 45, signed by Pat Conroy, Secretary-Treasurer, November 24, 1943. 12 I s a b e l Wilson, " N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s ' Forum," Ad u l t  Education i n Canada, E d i t e d by J.R. Ki d d , (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1950), p. 180-81. 1 3 "Report of the Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Develop-ment i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and Sciences, 1951, No. 4, p. 51. 14 A l l data on union e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s was obtained from the f i l e s of the Canadian Congress o f Labour, and Canadian Labour Congress, 1943-1969, unless s t a t e d otherwise. 15 -"w.F. McGown, " I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices i n Adult Education," (unpublished Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), pp. 69-102. See a l s o , Brunner, Wilder, K i r c h n e r and Newberry, An Overview of Adult Education  Research, (Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959), pp. 154-155; Jayne and Spence, Ad u l t Education, (New York: Dryden P r e s s , 1954), pp. 373-379. " 16 See Chapter Two, Workers* E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 17 'Report on a Survey of Labour Education i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . Conducted A p r i l 1957 to September 1958 on beh a l f of the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y - L a b o u r Committee. ^^Max Swerdlow, "Trade Union Education," Conference  Report, C.L.C, Ottawa, 1956, L a b o u r - U n i v e r s i t y Cooperation on Education, p. 14. ^ 9 J o h n K. F r i e s e n , "Labour Education and the Uni v e r -s i t i e s , " Food f o r Thought, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, March 1957, p. 295. See a l s o Dean G.F. C u r t i s , "A U n i v e r s i t y P o i n t of View," Conference Report, 1956, p. 30. 20 Dorene Jacobs, The Community Colleges and t h e i r  Communities, A Report of the Community Colleges Committee, Ontario A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Continuing Education, December 1970, r e v i s e d 1971, p. -46. 21 C. H a r t l e y Grattan, I n Quest of Knowledge, A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e of Adult Education, (New York: A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1955), P» 46. ~ 22 Trades and Labour Congress Convention, 1911, Proceedings. -^A.J. Hepworth, "Labour College of Canada," Canadian Labour, May, 1968, p. 6. 93 24 Canadian Labour, A p r i l , 1963, p. 6. ^ D a v i d Smith, "Labour Education i n Canada: A Survey Report," Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education, 1951-^ L e t t e r from Dr. J.R. K i d d , P r o f e s s o r of Compara-t i v e S t u d i e s , Department of Adult Education, The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, A p r i l 20, 1972. ^Max Swerdlow,. "The Conference Ob j e c t i v e s were Met," Canadian Labour, V o l . 3, No. 4-, A p r i l 1958, p. 64. ^^Kalmen Kaplansky, "Labour's World Role," Canadian  Labour, July-August, 1961, P« 5» 29 yClaud Jodoin, "Opening Address ICPTTJ Conference," Canadian Labour, January 1960, p. 16. 5°"Congress P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the I.C.F.T.U.-ILO," Canadian Labour, July-August, 1961, p. 5. ^ J . R . K i d d , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conferences on Adult Education i n Canada," Canadian Labour, November 1960, p. 21. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND PROSPECT This study has t r a c e d , through the use of h i s t o r i c a l documents, the e v o l u t i o n of education provided by unions i n Canada f o r t h e i r members. The f o l l o w i n g pages present a number of conclusions d e r i v e d from the mat-e r i a l presented as w e l l as suggest some d i r e c t i o n s i n which union education may continue t o evolve i n the f u t u r e . CONCLUSIONS P r i o r to the o r i g i n of union education the i n s t r u c t i o n of labourers was i n the hands of other agencies. The method was by l e c t u r e e i t h e r on b a s i c s u b j e c t s or on a l i b e r a l a r t s program. The aim was the development of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l workers. As the unions took over the task of educating t h e i r own workers, these p e r i p h e r a l agencies d e c l i n e d . Union co-operation w i t h non-labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s produced e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were s t i m u l a t i n g but not productive t o union growth. The r o l e of u n i v e r s i t i e s and a d u l t education o r g a n i z a t i o n s was t h a t of a s s i s t i n g and expanding union p r o j e c t s . The u n i v e r s i t i e s were not con-cerned w i t h the values of the labour union but w i t h t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s as academic l e a d e r s . 94-95 The need f o r education w i t h i n the union s t r u c t u r e developed along w i t h the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The increase i n union membership was of consider-able importance, as s i z e i s i n d i c a t i v e of the a b i l i t y t o provide e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o members. U n t i l 1950 the Trades and Labor Congress supported the expansion of f r e e p u b l i c education r a t h e r than union education. The means f o r f u r t h e r i n g the education program came f i r s t from the three l a r g e s t unions i n Canada i n co-operation w i t h the Canadian Congress of Labour. The unions a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C.C.L. c o n t r i b u t e d f i n a n c e s and loaned t h e i r personnel, who were not t r a i n e d educators but men dedicated to union p r i n c i p l e s . Prom t h i s s m a l l beginning the Education Committee groped and experimented t o develop a b a s i c union education program. The program t h a t evolved seeks to f o s t e r the growth of the union movement, inc r e a s e the bene-f i t s of union membership t o the labour f o r c e , and develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the community and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . The merger of the T.L.C.-C.C.L. i n 1956 increased the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop the education department as p r i o r to th a t resources had been fragmented and goals had hot been p o s i t i v e . P r e s e r v i n g peace between the two bodies had demanded ene r g e t i c v i g i l a n c e . A f t e r the merger the two education departments became one so t h a t the e l i m i n a t i o n of d u p l i c a t e departments and the higher per c a p i t a budget extended the s e r v i c e s t h a t had been provided p r e v i o u s l y . While the per c a p i t a education budget has only 96 i n c r e a s e d to f o u r t e e n cents i n 1970 from t e n cents i n 1956, the extended o r g a n i z a t i o n appears to have improved the education f a c i l i t i e s . The appointment of r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s of education gave more equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the f i v e r e g i o n s . Because the content of the education program has changed v e r y l i t t l e i n the past twenty years, the a d v i s o r y committee has concentrated i n extending and improving b a s i c education s e r v i c e s . The foundation of the Congress union education pro-gram has been the weekend i n s t i t u t e . I t has encouraged f e l l o w s h i p and union l o y a l t y , and provides approximately t e n hours of u n i n t e r r u p t e d course work. The i n s t i t u t e was one of the e a r l i e s t developments and over the years has remained the standard method of educating the union member. I n a d d i t i o n , seminars, workshops, conferences, and summer-win t e r schools have been organized throughout the year. The Labour College of Canada i s a notable achieve-ment i n the education program. Por f i f t y years a permanent school had been a union g o a l , and i t s attainment has con-.. t r i b u t e d t o the p r e s t i g e of the Canadian Labour Congress. The College has provided a working model f o r s e v e r a l develop-i n g c o u n t r i e s . The complex values of l e a d e r s h i p , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t r a d i t i o n are d i f f i c u l t t o appraise. Leadership has been the p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r success i n each of the p e r i p h e r a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n s under review. P e r s o n a l i t i e s played a l a r g e p a r t i n the formative years o f the union education movement, but i t -• 97 i s questionable whether or not i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l p l a y as l a r g e a r o l e now t h a t the education program i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Support and comprehension of the need f o r union education has not always been forthcoming from top union l e a d e r s h i p . As the program has changed v e r y l i t t l e a system of o r g a n i z -a t i o n has developed and t r a d i t i o n has been considered at each step of the education development. The Congress has always b e l i e v e d i n freedom from the power of Government and corporate ownership. The neces-s i t y f o r t h i s freedom has i n f l u e n c e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h u n i v e r s i t i e s and other agencies i n t h a t the unions must have c o n t r o l of t h e i r own education programs' The Canadian Labour Congress and i t s predecessors were adamant i n r e s i s t i n g S o c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e s , and any program t h a t had the f a i n t e s t S o c i a l i s t i c a u t h o r i t y was vetoed. The t r a d i t i o n of the union a l s o makes education imperative t o give a l l members an understanding of union g o a l s . ; PROSPECT There appears t o e x i s t now a need f o r union educa-t i o n programs t o expand i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s , suggested p r i m a r i l y by the emerging s o c i a l s t a t u s of union members. Among the new d i r e c t i o n s suggested by t h i s study are programs f o r white c o l l a r workers, women, and s m a l l e r unions; g o a l -o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n a l programs; i n t e r n a t i o n a l education-t r a v e l programs; and the emerging r o l e of the community c o l l e g e . 98 I t i s estimated i n the Labour Gazette of June 1971 t h a t w h i t e - c o l l a r workers w i l l outnumber b l u e - c o l l a r by SO per cent by 1980. Further, non-manual workers are known t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t education c l a s s e s i n g r e a t e r numbers than manual workers. Because of these changing work p a t t e r n s , union education programs can expect an increased number of students. The union education c u r r i c u l u m , geared h i s t o r i c -a l l y t o blue c o l l a r workers, w i l l r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s to accommodate the new work f o r c e . An important change re v e a l e d by t h i s study i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r an education program to meet the unique requirements of women u n i o n i s t s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y the C.L.C. does not give any member p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment, but there appears to be a need to encourage women to take p a r t i n union a f f a i r s . Often women are unaware of the advantages t h a t the union has obtained f o r them. S p e c i a l l e c t u r e s could cover such p o i n t s as; m a t e r n i t y leave, equal pay, job s e n i o r i t y , c h i l d care c e n t r e s , and housing f o r working mothers. A study could a l s o be made of the survey c a r r i e d out by member nat i o n s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Organiz-a t i o n on the r i g h t s of women. A s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l u m f o r women would i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t a la r g e p o p u l a t i o n because of the i n f l u e n c e mothers have on l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . Since the i n c e p t i o n of the education department the unions have searched f o r a program having an o r d e r l y progres-s i o n of l e a r n i n g achievements. A f l e x i b l e program u s i n g three or f o u r interchangeable methods i s i n d i c a t e d by t h i s 99 study as being the most p r a c t i c a l . A combination of c o r r e s -pondence courses, programmed l e a r n i n g , i n s t i t u t e s , and week-long s c h o o l s , s i m i l a r to the approach used by the Canadian Union of P u b l i c Employees, should r e c e i v e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . While correspondence courses have never met w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t success they do provide low cost e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r highly-motivated students. A higher l e v e l of completion might be p o s s i b l e i f correspondence courses were combined w i t h an i n s t i t u t e as p a r t of the program. This study has i n d i c a t e d t h a t smaller unions do not have the resources t o develop t h e i r own education programs. Therefore, more a t t e n t i o n should be devoted t o t h i s area.. S p e c i a l encouragement should be g i v e n to unions with fewer than 10,000 members to take advantage of the v a r i o u s educa-t i o n programs, and some programs might be o f f e r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A system of i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange h o l i d a y s could be implemented t o provide a b e t t e r understanding of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s and the problems of other c o u n t r i e s . A co-operative f i l e of workers i n other lands who would exchange rpom and board w i t h Canadian u n i o n i s t s could be set up. I n t h i s way expenses would be l i m i t e d to t r a v e l f a r e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l value would be high w i t h r e a l involvement of the u n i o n i s t and h i s f a m i l y . The community c o l l e g e a l s o has the p o t e n t i a l to help u n i t e the general p u b l i c and the unions. The c o l l e g e could provide low cost education programs t o union members and use p u b l i c funds f o r union education. The development of t o p i c s by the community c o l l e g e acceptable to the union education a d v i s o r y committee would b r i n g union education out of a self-imposed i s o l a t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n as a whole would b e n e f i t from such c l a s s e s . Union support t o community c o l l e g e s would help them t o e s t a b l i s h long-term programs s e r v i n g the range of i n t e r e s t s represented i n the community. 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, L. K. "Education i n C.C.L.," Evening Telegram. S t . 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