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A study of the effect of a specially designed program upon the expressed musical preferences of a selected… Colby, James F. 1971

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"A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF A SPECIALLY DESIGNED PROGRAM UPON THE EXPRESSED MUSICAL PREFERENCES OF A SELECTED GRADE THREE CLASS FOR CONTEMPORARY MUSIC" by JAMES F. COLBY B. A. St. Francis Xavier Uni v e r s i t y , 1966 In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements of the Masters* Degree i n General Music, Department of Music, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department The Univers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine whether or not young childrens 1 preferences f o r contemporary a r t music, through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a classroom music program emphasizing c r e a t i v i t y , can be a l t e r e d . The students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s experiment were' the grade three class at Vancouver College, a private boys school i n Vancouver, B.C., where the researcher was employed as music in s t r u c t o r f o r the 1969-70 school term. A music preference inventory was given to the students p r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g the classroom' program. The inventory con-s i s t e d of the following eight selections chosen by the researcher as representative of various twentieth century compositional s t y l e s : "Ionization" -> Edgar Varesej "Akrata" - Iannis Xenakis; "Gesang der Junglinge" - Karlheinz Stockhausen:; "Visage" -Luciano Berio; "Le Marteau sans Maltre" - Pierre Boulez; "Piece f o r Four Pianos" - Morton Feldman; "Five Pieces f o r Orchestra, Op.16" - Arnold Schoenberg; and, "Cantata No. 1, Op.29" - Anton Webern. Students marked the i r preference on a graphic rating scale of f i v e d i v i s i o n s . The researcher l a t e r superimposed a twelve-point scale over the t e s t - s c a l e , i n in t e r p r e t i n g the scores• Following; t h i s pre-test, the students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a twelve-week classroom* music program which stressed rhythmic im-provis a t i o n , composition i n twelve-tone technique, pereussion pieces, exploration of sound sources, e t c . The program was designed by the researcher based on work by C a r l O r f f , Zoltan Kodaly, R. Murray Sehafer, Peter Maxwell Davies, Richard Addison and George S e l f . At the end of the program the same preference inventory was again administered to the students as a post-test. F i n a l scores were interpreted by means of a two-tail t e s t . Only one s e l e c t i o n showed a change i n preference ( i n t h i s case, an increase) at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of f i v e per cent. Stoekhausen's "Gesang der Junglinge" attained a c r i t i c a l ratio of 5.31*-. Certain l i m i t a t i o n s were recognized: 1) the small sampling of students (twenty-two); 2) the r e l a t i v e l y short duration of the experimental part of the study (twelve weeks), and 3) the lack of any control group. The researcher therefore concluded that, within the severe l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study, his hypothesis was i n v a l i d : that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a classroom music program stressing c r e a t i v i t y w i l l a l t e r a grade three student's preference for contemporary art music. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements Introduction to the Study. 1 S p e c i f i c Problems to be Investigated 3 Application of Findings of the Study 3 Assumptions • 3 A Perspective on C r e a t i v i t y i n Music • h C a r l Orff *f Zoltan Kodaly 5 Peter Maxwell Davie s • 6 Richard Addison 9 George Self •• 9 R. Murray Schafer 10 MENC Contemporary Music Project 12 Review of Related Studies 15 Design of the Study 22 Design of the Music Preference Inventory and Rating Test 23 Design of the Lesson Plans 2h S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques Employed -Explanation of Tables and Graphs 27 Results • • 27 Conclusions 28 Limitations of the Study 29 Suggestions f o r Further Research 29 Summary 30 Bibliography 32 Discography 36 Appendix A Format of pre-test and post-test 37 Appendix B Tables • • 39 Appendix C Graphs ^5 Appendix D Lesson Exerpts 5fc ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would f i r s t l i k e t o thank the Reverend5 Brother H. L. Bucher, p r i n c i p a l of Vancouver College, f o r h i s kind permission to use my grade three class f o r experimental research; also, Miss Margaret Nemersky, grade three teacher at the College f o r her assistance i n presenting and r e i n f o r c i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, and the boys i n my grade three class f o r t h e i r co-operation and t h e i r most important part i n making t h i s study possible. I would also l i k e to thank Mr. Paul Smith f o r h i s a s s i s t -ance i n the s t a t i s t i c a l handling of my data. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank the members of my thesis commmittee f o r t h e i r assistance and guidance i n the preparation of t h i s paper; Mr. Hans-Karl P i l t z , committee chairman; Mr. Cortland Hultberg and Dr. C. Trowsdale. "Contemporary music can't survive a lack of perform-ances on one hand and bad music education on the other." Peter Maxwell Davies Toronto, 1968. M I t i s recognized that many school systems have long em-phasized creative a c t i v i t i e s as part of the elementary school music curriculum* These experiences have included creative i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of songs and dances, use of rhythm instruments and com-p o s i t i o n of simple songs. The use of contemporary music as part of these experiences has been infrequent. This undoubtedly has been due to 1) the assumption that music can best be taught through a chronological approach, and 2) the l i m i t e d background of music teachers with respect t o contemporary music. The o r i g i n a l purpose of t h i s study was to deal with bring-ing contemporary art music (post-Debussy) into the classroom at the elementary school l e v e l . Having discovered that there i s a growing trend i n music education to l i n k creative exercises with contemporary music, I decided to incorporate an experimental -project i n c r e a t i v i t y which would also: deal with the musical pref-erences of my grade three class at Vancouver College, a private boys school i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of t h i s experimental study i s then, to discover i f , through means of a music inventory and preference r a t i n g and a s p e c i f i c a l l y designed twelve-week program of i n s t r u c t i o n , the musical preferences of a grade three class f o r contemporary art music could be alt e r e d . The need f o r expanding school music with respect to con-temporary content i s a growing concern with music educators. F i t z g e r a l d , R. Bernard, from introduction to Experiments i n Musical C r e a t i v i t y . MENC, Washington, D.C. 1966. One need only be aware of recent educational conferences held i n p the U.S. and Canada i n recent years as well as the work of the Contemporary Music Project of the Music Educators National Con-ference to recognize the stress being placed on c r e a t i v i t y i n music and the use of today's music i n music education. "In h i s introduction to Design f o r L i v i n g . Northrop Frye asks the question: does teaching i n the schools r e f l e c t contemporary conceptions of the subject being taught? The answer given f o r academic d i s c i p l i n e s was no. I t might be even more emphat-i c a l l y the answer f o r music education. The gap be-tween what might be or what should be, and what i s , i s of alarming proportions. Contemporary music i n education appears to be p e c u l i a r l y absent among the waves of new math, new reading, creative art and the r e s t and to be absent also i n the investigations of i n s t i t u t e s of c u r r i c u l a r research which are engaged i n working out implications f o r improvement of sub-ject s of the curriculum; yet, the-new music e x i s t s . " 3 2 Tanglewood Symposium, New York, John Adaskin Project P o l i c y Conference. Toronto, 19©7. 3 B i r d , C. Laughton. "Contemporary Music and Education". The  Canadian Composer. No. 3*f. November, 1968, p. 8. SPEGIPIC PROBLEMS TO BE 'INVESTIGATED. 1 • Can a chi l d ' s preference for and affective- response to c e r t a i n types of contemporary art music be a l t e r e d or influenced through a s p e c i a l l y designed program of i n s t r u c t i o n which w i l l expose at the grade three l e v e l , c e r t a i n twentieth century com-p o s i t i o n a l procedures i n music? 2. Is there a re l a t i o n s h i p between a student's f a m i l i a r i t y with contemporary music and'his preference f o r i t ? 3. Are there new techniques and teaching methods i n c r e a t i v i t y and Improvisation that can be used i n presenting contemporary material to small children? APPLICATION OF FINDINGS OF THE STUDY. To show that a student's preferences f o r contemporary music have changed as a r e s u l t of the twelve-week program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a t i v i t y . ASSUMPTIONS. 1. Children at the grade three l e v e l are able to make a value judgment that i s meaningful to them. 2. Selections made by the researcher and recordings of these selections used f o r the preference inventory represent several s t y l e s of twentieth-century a r t music. The hypothesis to be tested, then, i s that the musical preference of a grade three student can be influenced by the type of a c t i v i t y within the music program i n which he p a r t i c i p a t e s . Secondarily, that a rel a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a student's f a m i l i a r i t y with a type of music and hi s preference f o r i t . A PERSPECTIVE ON CREATIVITY IN MUSIC. The educators c i t e d i n t h i s section have been and* are involved with c r e a t i v i t y i n music and ce r t a i n aspects from each of these "schools" have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the classroom program designed by the researcher f o r t h i s experiment. "Creative behavior occurs i n sensing an incompleteness, disharmony or problem. The learner i s uncomfortable, curious, excited—motivated; he searches i n h i s memory and i n other sources such as books and the experiences of others f o r clues, from which he t r i e s to i d e n t i f y the gap i n information or to define the problem. The discovery, solution or production that r e s u l t s from t h i s i s characterized by some degree of c r e a t i v i t y . The degree of c r e a t i v i t y w i l l depend upon the extent to which the r e s u l t shows novelty and value; • . . . i s unconventional i n the sense that i t diverges fromvpreviously accepted ideas; i s true, generalizable, and surprising i n the l i g h t of what the learner knew at the time."^ C r e a t i v i t y as i t applies to t h i s work r e f e r s then to the act of creating by the student i n composition and/or improvised vocal and instrumental performance as well as c r i t i c i s m of h i s own or another's work or performance. C a r l Orff began his association with school music and music f o r children as e a r l y as 1926. The Orff "method" i s based on the program he developed at the Guentherschule i n Munich and 1 Torrance, E. Fault C r e a t i v i t y . San Rafael, C a l i f o r n i a , Dimensions Publishing Company, 1969, pp. v i i , v i i i . on a series of radio broadcasts which he made f o r c h i l d r e n (with c h i l d r e n ) . Orff's c o l l e c t e d material on music education has been published i n f i v e volumes under the t i t l e Das Schulwerk. This method stresses a creative approach using percussion and es-p e c i a l l y designed melodic percussion instruments - soprano and a l t o glockenspiel; soprano and a l t o metallophone, a heavier type of b e l l ; the bordun, a two-stringed bass instrument; small tympani and the regular "rhythm band" complex of instruments — t r i a n g l e s, cymbals, woodblock, j i n g l e s , r a t t l e s , tambourines, bass drum and small drums* Speech patterns and words are translated and converted into rhythmic patterns f o r speaking or singing and then f o r the O r f f instruments. These rhythmic improvisations on the natural rhythm of words l a t e r lead to melodic improvisation. This type of exercise i s also an important part of the programs of Zoltan Kodaly, Mary Helen Richards, Richard Addison and Peter Maxwell Davies. Simple body movements and clapping, slapping, stamping and finger snapping are employed as responses to music. An harmonic element i s furnished by the addition of ostinato basses. Zoltan Kodaly 1s career was that of composer and music-o l o g i s t u n t i l 1925 when he became involved i n the music education of children. Kodaly worked on reorganizing the teaching of music i n the schools of h i s native Hungary. He placed great emphasis on c h i l d r e n learning to read music as soon as they learned to read words. Music reading i s then used to stimulate "sounds" i n the c h i l d ' s mind. Perhaps the a b i l i t y to hear s e r i a l i n t e r v a l s and recognize a simple tone row would be greater i f our American and Canadian schools had a more systematic and consistent approach to i n t e r v a l recognition through singing. In Kodaly*s method, ch i l d r e n sine melodic music before playing i t • The f i r s t book of Kodaly* s choral method i s a series of simple songs consisting of two and three notes. Rhythms are b u i l t from speech patterns which lead to rhythmic and melodic improv-i s a t i o n . Another aspect of t h i s method, a r i s i n g from the emphasis on singing, i s that c r e a t i v e music-making o f any---value- must arise from the a b i l i t y to read music 2 (comparable to the p o s i t i o n of Peter Maxwell Davies - see l a t e r i n t h i s chapter). In England, Peter Maxwell Davies developed a creative program of music education while D i r e c t o r of Music at the Ciren-cester School i n Glouce stershire from 1959 - 1962. Many of h i s compositions are f o r children. Davies points out i n h i s lecture to the Adaskin conference^ that he i n s i s t s on the s t r i c t d i s -c i p l i n e of homework - that music reading i s an absolute necessity i f a c h i l d i s to create and completely understand h i s creation. John Davies, assistant d i r e c t o r of the Contemporary Music Project f o r MENC, speaking at the same conference puts the matter t h i s way: "And i n the schools we found where a reading a b i l i t y had been trained into the childr e n so that they were able to be independent, that they'd seek these exper-iences (musical experiences i n the contemporary idiom), but i f they waited f o r the director to teach them by rote, i f they waited once more f o r the knowledge to 2 Russell-Smith, Geoffrey. "Introducing Kodaly P r i n c i p l e s i n t o Elementary Teaching". Music Educators Journal. Volume No. 3 , November, 1967, pp. lf3-1+5» 3 John Adaskin Project-Policy Conference, Toronto. Nov. 23-25, 1967. come from the oracle on the platform, they were helpless and they would be more helpless following graduation."^ -Peter Maxwell Davies emphasizes the a b i l i t y of h i s students to sight sing and to write down what they are imagining and improvising. "At the same time, we were experimenting with a l l sorts of sounds as well as doing that sort of simple improvisation, perhaps on one common chord and chord V and chord IV - I don't see why one shouldn't use these chords because they are not much used i n com-po s i t i o n now, they're a good starting point; one can very quickly move away from them to other modes, f o l k music modes, Messiaen's modes, and have them singing on these very quickly, and i f you taught them to p i t c h properly, then there's no problem, and one can very quickly go on to atonal music i n say, the t h i r d year."? In speaking of children's a b i l i t i e s to execute complicated rhythmic patterns: "I don't think that we estimate highly enough children's rhythmic p o t e n t i a l i t y . Like so-called primitive people, they've got a f a n t a s t i c rhythmic sense and very quickly they can put, i f you're beating a three, the two against one-half; and they can put f i v e against that very e a s i l y , very quickly and then syncopate that; and. as f a r as changing bars go. w e l l , that doesn't seem to pose any problem any more than a simple i£. The problem I think always l i e s with the teacher not being able to beat f i v e against three or follow a s i x with the exact tj: i n proportion to i t . Children can do i t i f they are shown how or i f they,are allowed to discover i t from t h e i r own experience. 0 He emphatically points out that the teacher must not c r i t -i c i z e a c h i l d * s work from- the point of view of bre aking nine -teenth-century r u l e s , such as using consecutive perfect f i f t h s , e t c . k Davies, John. John Adaskin P o l i c y Conference Report. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre. 1967. p. 19 . 5 Davies, Peter Maxwell. Op. C i t . p. 27. Peter Maxwell Davies i s the author of Music Composition by Children^, (a recording of compositions written and performed by pupils of Cirencester Grammar School) and has lectured on hi s work 8 under the t i t l e : "The Latent Musical C r e a t i v i t y of Children". Davies f e e l s that the natural c r e a t i v i t y of children i s s t i f l e d by our education system which overemphasize s me chanical d i s c i p l i n e s at the expense of c r e a t i v i t y . "The t e r r i b l e t r u t h i s that our music education system knocks out of a c h i l d any music that he ever had i n him."9 He applied his musical philosophies at Cirencester with the appar-ent r e s u l t that ch i l d r e n , as young as eight years o l d , were able to perform, conduct and even compose music. But perhaps the most important r e s u l t of t h i s type of program w i l l be the attitude of these childr e n towards the contemporary music idiom by having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the creation of a performance of "new" music. Davies (with Kodaly) f e e l s that singing should be c a r r i e d on unaccompanied so that children r e l y on t h e i r ear instead of instruments f o r correct p i t c h . He also emphasizes the need f o r a music teacher to be able to arrange and compose f o r h i s students (as do many present-day composer-educators). Davies, when writing f o r h is students, does so with t h e i r co-operation; i f i n rehearsal a passage i s unplayable or unsingable, i t i s discussed and the dec i s i o n i s made whether to change i t or not. Also, i n some 7 Published by Butterworth, Colsten Paper No. 1^; "Music i n Education"• 8 MacMillan Lectures, Toronto, J u l y 8 , 1968. 9 The Canadian Composer, September, 1968. No. 32, p. 30 . pieces, places are l e f t open f o r improvisation (with l i m i t s of improvisation defined and discussed beforehand with the students). In h i s classes, Davies emphasizes improvisation and composition -experimenting with the nature of sound, discovering what kind of sounds each c h i l d i s interested i n to f i t d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Richard Addison, another Englishman with an approach s i m i l a r to that of Peter Maxwell Davies, i s a member of the s t a f f of the U n i v e r s i t y of Newcastle. He was formerly i n charge of music at St. Hilds College i n Durham. Addison* s basic philosophy i s that music should be approached as a creative as well as a recreative art at a l l l e v e l s . His book, Make Music (and the tape commentary Students Compose), i l l u s t r a t e some of the work he has c a r r i e d out with students and teachers. George S e l f has written a book e n t i t l e d . New Sounds i n  Class; A Contemporary-Approach to Music. He describes h i s book as a p r a c t i c a l approach to the understanding and performing of contemporary music i n schools. S e l f i s also a composer and bases his program of i n s t r u c t i o n on a new system of rhythmic and temporal notation (similar to that used by Murray Schafer). Self points out that the general teacher as well as the music s p e c i a l -i s t should have no problems working with the material which i s b a s i c a l l y a categorization of sound sources, types of sounds, and the symbolic notation f o r these: sounds. His approach to composition i s the rhythmic, percussion-piece type, rather free and aleatoric i n nature. In the introduction to his book Self states: "•• the aim of this book i s to form a link be-tween contemporary music and instrumental work i n the classroom. It i s not intended to provide an alternate to existing methods of music training, but to be complementary to them. Pupils so often leave school with l i t t l e knowledge of even the existence of the serious music of their own time and yet for the f i r s t time i n this century i t i s possible to i n -troduce avant-garde idioms into the classroom with-out watering down the style to such an extent that no livi n g music remains." R. Murray Schafer i s the author of a series of books on music, sounds, and "sound p o l l u t i o n " ; The Composer i n the Glass-room. Ear Cleaning. The New SoundScape, and When Words Sing. His philosophy i s based on the premise that we must learn to l i s t e n to sounds before we can proceed to relate sounds. One of the f i r s t lessons Schafer gives a class i s : "Silence i s e l u s i v e -try to find i t " . Another typical lesson i s : "make an interesting sound'— make another Interesting sound that i s a complete contrast to the f i r s t " . From this, the class builds up a repertoire of sounds prior to putting sounds together. The teacher must program for discovery and set up a creative problem for the student to solve creatively. Along the same line of thinking as the English educators just mentioned, Schafer asks his students to perform the music they compose i n front of the rest of the class, which acts as c r i t i c . This way, a student w i l l t r y to perfect h i s own composition. Another i n t e r e s t i n g concept put f o r t h by Murray Schafer i s that behind every piece of music i s background sound - extraneous sounds which become, as i t were, a second piece of music. "Bing, Bang, Boom" i s a new f i l m available from the National Film Board i n which Schafer takes a grade seven, Scarborough, Ontario class (at Tecumseh Senior Public School) f o r a series of lessons i n which the students discover, explore, and organize sounds from t h e i r own environment and vocal sounds and mould them int o small compositions. The f i l m shows the students engaged i n composition, rehearsals, evaluation and "repair" of t h e i r works. Murray Schafer•s "Statement i n B l u e " 1 0 was written f o r youth orchestra i n 1963. The work was commissioned f o r use i n Canadian Schools by the Canadian Music Centre on a grant from the Canada Council. The Music Educator's Association of the United States through the Music Educators National Conference has been b u s i l y engaged f o r the l a s t decade i n exploring and developing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between creative and contemporary idioms In music education. The Contemporary Music Project, under the chairman-10 Published by BM1 Canada L t d . , Toronto, 1966. ship of Norman d e l l o Joio began with the Composers i n Public Schools Program i n 1959 when the Ford Foundation placed twelve young composers i n public secondary schools to spend a year i n residence i n school communities. (A s i m i l a r project was being developed by the John Adaskin Project p o l i c y conference i n 1967 i n Toronto f o r Canadian schools. In 1963, the Ford Foundation granted $1,380,000 to the MENC to e s t a b l i s h and administer a project which incorporated the composers i n p u b l i c schools-program with other programs under the general heading "Contemporary Music Project f o r C r e a t i v i t y i n Music Education". The scope of the Contemporary Music Project has encompassed not only the p l a c i n g of composers i n public schools but also the establishment of s i x regional I n s t i t u t e s f o r Music i n Contemporary Education (ICME). The report on three p i l o t p r ojects sponsored by the Contemporary Music Project has been published under the t i t l e "Experiments i n Musical C r e a t i v i t y " . The three projects occurred i n three d i f f e r e n t American c i t i e s — B a l t i m o r e , San Diego, and Farmingdale (New York) during the spring and summer of 1964-. The projects i n Baltimore and San Diego were organized to provide an i n - s e r v i c e seminar f o r music teachers i n conjunction with p i l o t classes at selected grade l e v e l s i n d i f f e r e n t types (socio-economic) of schools. The seminars met each week, were conducted by a composer-consultant, and involved the study and analysis of contemporary music and assignments i n musical composition using various contemporary techniques. The p i l o t c l asses, taught by teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the seminars, served as laboratory groups f o r experimentation with techniques and materials presented i n the seminar. The objectives of these two projects were: 1) to f i n d suitable approaches f o r the present-ation of contemporary music to children at several grade l e v e l s (kindergarten to grade seven); 2) to experiment with techniques for providing creative music experiences f o r children; 3) to i d e n t i f y contemporary music suitable f o r use with students at the several grade l e v e l s ; h) to provide a new dimension i n creative experiences through the use of contemporary music; and 5) to pro-vide in-service education for teachers. These two projects were e n t i t l e d "Creative Approaches to Contemporary Music i n the Element-ary School" (Baltimore) and "Developing Musical Understanding through Contemporary Music" (San Diego). The Farmingdale, N.Y. project, "Two Approaches to Creative 11 Experiences i n Music1;, represented a d i f f e r e n t approach and was designed to demonstrate two types of creative teaching. The ob-j e c t i v e s of t h i s project were: 1) to demonstrate experimental techniques i n musical composition using twentieth-century idioms; and 2) to demonstrate the development of musical resources through rhythmics, singing, improvisation, and composition. The project was conducted with a selected group of thirty-one musically t a l -ented children from grades s i x to eight for a six-week period during the summer of 196^. "Recent renewed in t e r e s t i n c r e a t i v i t y i n the entire cur-riculum has brought about a resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s aspect of music education. While previous a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s type usually have been focused upon creative experience with t r a d i t i o n a l 11 A f u l l report on t h i s project i s found i n Experiments i n  Musical C r e a t i v i t y . musical styles and materials, the emphasis on contemporary music 1 p i n the P i l o t Projects represents a new dimension" . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note here, with reference to the Baltimore project, a report on the a c t i v i t y of the grade three class involved: " I t was d i f f i c u l t to reconcile the extraordinary growth i n musical understanding with the f a c t that the majority of the students were only e i g h t years o l d . They improvised with enthusiasm, improved i n singing, and l i s t e n e d to longer and more complex compositions. They experimented with musique concrete; and when they played t h e i r composition f o r percussion on the large v a r i e t y of objects brought from home, they discovered that plucked rubber bands would not be heard without a resonating chamber and that the r a t t l e of cellophane being crushed did not have enough sonority to be included i n t h e i r composition. . The exploration of the 12-tone row held the greatest appeal to t h i s group. They took pride i n one of t h e i r tone rows; and, when i t was played i n the rhythm of a f a m i l i a r f o l k song, i t became one of t h e i r f a v o r i t e compositions • 1 , 1 3 I t was concluded that the P i l o t Projects were very suc-c e s s f u l and t h a t they reinforced the point of view that the a b i l -i t y of childr e n i s often underestimated-—that they are challenged by experience i n creating and performing i n conjunction with l i s t e n i n g . "The i n t e r e s t and motivation evidenced by students p a r t i c i p a t i n g In these projects suggests that involve-ment i n the creative process i s a stimulating and e f f e c t i v e way of learning that should be incorporated as part of the music curriculum." 1^ 12 Experiments i n Musical C r e a t i v i t y . Washington: MENC. 1966. 13 I b i d . Pg. 16. 1*t I b i d . Pg. 87. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES. A study c a r r i e d on by Robert F. Shuckert and Ruth L. MacDonald* attempted to modify the musical preferences of pre-school children. Students were asked to make a preference be-tween two types of music: c l a s s i c a l and jazz. The selections which were l e a s t preferred were then offered r e p e t i t i v e l y during playtime. While the magnitude of preference s h i f t was not shown to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , approximately one-half of the subjects were observed to a l t e r t h e i r preferences. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a student 1s understanding of con-temporary music and h i s preference f o r t h i s music was the topic 2 of a study made by Charlene P a u l l i n Archibecque. " I t would seem that students who have not studied contemporary music d i s l i k e contemporary music to a greater degree than students who have studied i t . " 3 In her f i n a l analysis Miss Archibecque concluded that students who had studied contemporary music indicated a greater preference f o r an experimental type composition than students who had not studied contemporary music. From the r e s u l t s of her study, she also concluded that there was no evidence that previous musical t r a i n i n g , attitude towards music c l a s s , or academic grades have any re l a t i o n s h i p to a student's preference f o r contemporary music or hi s understanding of i t . 1 Shuckert, Robert F. and Ruth L. MacDonald. "An Attempt to modify the Musical Preferences of Preschool Children"• Journal  of Research i n Music Education. Volume XVII, No. 1, Spring, 1968. P. 39- 1*. 2 Archibecque, Charlene P a u l l i n "Developing A Taste for Contem-porary Music". Journal of Research i n Music Education. Volume XIV, No. 2. Summer, 1966, p. 1«t2-1*f7. 3 Ibid. P. 1»+5. This study dealt only with two grade seven classes and Miss Archibecque recognized the l i m i t a t i o n of g e n e r a l i z i n g on the basis of r e s u l t s obtained from a small sampling such as t h i s . 4. Vincent Roger's doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a study of de-termining the f a c t o r s that influence the musical preferences of c h i l d r e n at succeeding grade l e v e l s . Rogers states that i t i s apparent from evidence that musical preferences are determine^ by environmental rather than natural or innate f a c t o r s . Rogers also warns the researcher of making sweeping conclusions on the basis of r e s u l t s gathered from an extremely small sampling. In observing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of age and musical preference, Rogers remarks that there i s more agreement (on the part of r e -searchers) than disagreement on the basic point, that as one grows older he adopts more and more the musical pattern of h i s environment. He found c o n f l i c t i n g evidence concerning the f a c t o r of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between musical t r a i n i n g and preferences. Gernet^, 6 7 RubihKRabson , and Krugman' found that of a l l the f a c t o r s e o r r e l -4 Rogers, V.R. "Children's Expressed Musical Preferences at S e l -ected Grade Levels." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . 1956. 5 Gernet, S. "Musical Discrimination at Various Age and Grade Levels". Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1940. 6 Rubin-Rabson, G. "The Influence of Age, I n t e l l i g e n c e , and Tr a i n i n g on Reactions to C l a s s i c and Modern Music". Journal of Genetic Psychology. Volume 22, 1940. p. 413-429. 7 Krugman, H.E. " A f f e c t i v e Response to Music as a Function of F a m i l i a r i t y " . Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Volume 38, 1943, p. 392 . ated with musical preferences, t r a i n i n g i s the most c l o s e l y r e -l a t e d f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the l e v e l of appreciation. In Roger's conclusions, he states that the general pattern of preferences appears to he the same regardless of grade l e v e l and that age influences musical preferences to the extent that the i n d i v i d u a l , as he grows older, f i t s more and more int o the c u l t u r a l pattern prescribed by s o c i e t y . The preference inventory used by Rogers included categor-i e s of music such as c l a s s i c a l , f o l k , e t c. Ian Bradley, i n the e a r l y part of h i s doctoral d i s s e r t -8 a t i o n , o f f e r s the following quote by Harry S. Broudy: "Growth i n taste and appreciation has been held to be c o r r e l a t i v e with growth i n musical s k i l l , knowledge, and the a b i l i t y to comprehend and discriminate the musical q u a l i t i e s . I f t h i s i s so, then the program can be formally designed, systematically and d e l i b e r a t -el y i n s t i t u t e d f o r both knowledge and s k i l l can be taught systematically."9 Bradley worked with 1,007 grade seven students i n the Van-couver area to t e s t t h i s hypothesis i n connection with contemporary music. A s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g program was created and used on one group of students without r e p e t i t i o n s of s e l e c t i o n s ; a second group received the same program (which included analysis 8 Bradley, Ian L. "A Study of the E f f e c t s of a S p e c i a l l y de-signed L i s t e n i n g Program i n Contemporary Art Music Upon the Ex-pressed Musical Preferences of Grade Seven Students". Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . Faculty of Education. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A p r i l , 1969. 9 Broudy, Harry S. "A R e a l i s t i c Philosophy of Music Education". Basic Concepts i n Music Education. Chicago: NSSE. U n i v e r s i t y . of Chicago Press. 1958, p. 86. of l i s t e n i n g selections and i n s t r u c t i o n i n the twentieth century compositional techniques involved); a t h i r d group (set up as a control group) heard only the selections, receiving no i n s t r u c t i o n . Bradley concluded at the end of the study that a program of exposure to a music l i s t e n i n g course i n "contemporary art music" (described by a panel of q u a l i f i e d professional musicians) r e s u l t e d i n s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n the expressed preferences of students f o r the selections of music prescribed f o r the study. From these r e s u l t s i t was thus apparent that the e s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g program was e f f e c t i v e . The study of Louis J . R u b i n 1 0 opens with the following remark: "There are a l i m i t e d number of resources with which to estimate an i n d i v i d u a l ' s musical preferences: t h i s estimation of taste must of necessity r e s u l t from the subject's verbalized or demonstrated behavior. The estimation i s consequently dependent upon the subject's introspective accuracy as well as his honesty of response." 1 1 Rubin l a t e r states: "We prefer, e s s e n t i a l l y , the music which provides us with the greatest degree of pleasurable response, whether the response be i n t e l l e c t u a l , a f f e c t i v e , or imaginative. Thus the assumption that we appreciate anything which we understand, while true i n a d e f i n i t i v e sense, has l i t t l e pertinence to musical p r e f e r e n c e s . " 1 2 Rubin f e e l s that the sensory capacities (pitch, rhythm, auditory acuity) involved i n the process of appreciation have l e s s e f f e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s preferences than his perceptive a b i l i t i e s 10 Rubin, Louis J . "The E f f e c t s of Musical Experience on Mus-i c a l Discriminations and Musical Preferences", Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1952. 11 Ibid. p. 3 . (knowledge of form, structure, and theory) and h i s emotional and a f f e c t i v e reactions to music. " I f the assumption that preferences are i n part, con-t r o l l e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree of appreciation, i s accepted, i t follows that s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g should have some e f f e c t on h i s preferences."-'-5 Rubin's study deals with the p o s s i b i l i t y of various types of t r a i n i n g being more e f f e c t i v e than others i n shaping p r e f e r -ences as opposed to a l l musical t r a i n i n g being equally e f f e c t i v e i n shaping preference. The study i s also concerened with d i s -criminatory a b i l i t i e s regarding melody, harmony and rhythm. The grades tested were seven, nine, and eleven. "Evidence as to the actual musical preferences of students would be of fundamental value to music ed-ucation. Education has generally accepted the premise that the most e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g must n e c e s s a r i l y s t a r t at the e x i s t i n g l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s development. Hence an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s l e v e l i s v i t a l . Rubin also goes into the r e l a t e d f a c t o r of the e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n upon preferences. He states that repeated hearings of music tend to a f f e c t the l i s t e n e r i n a v a r i e t y of ways: c e r t a i n kinds of music f o r example, might grow more pleasurable with f a m i l i a r i t y whereas, other kinds would evoke fatigue or boredom. Rubin's inventory was based on one hundred and twenty musical s e l e c t i o n s , with an exerpt of f o r t y - f i v e to s i x t y seconds per s e l e c t i o n presented. The pieces were selected on a basis of two c r i t e r i a : 1) frequency of performance and 2) the broadest possible representation of various s t y l e s and types i n each case. 13 Rubin, Louis J . op. c i t . p. 1 9 . 14- I b i d . p. 20. The frequency of performance was determined by reference to a catalogue of sales-ratings prepared by the commercial phonograph-record industry. A panel of teachers, graduate students, and professional musicians selected f o r t y - f i v e items for the tes t (out of the o r i g i n a l one hundred and twenty s e l e c t i o n s ) , which was designed f o r estimating the subjects 1 expressed preference for three types of musics a rt music, f o l k music, and music of tr a n -s i e n t , current vogue. Students marked on a four point scale, four indieating maximum preference. " i f the purpose of the Test of Musical Preference i s simply to f i n d out what musical preference the subjects have, and the structure of the tes t causes the subjects to indicate t h e i r preferences, the test then has a high degree of v a l i d i t y with respect to the i n d i c a t i o n of musical preference." 1 5 Data of such tests i s of course v a l i d only with respect to the p a r t i c u l a r sampling used and only at the p a r t i c u l a r time of t e s t i n g . This type of t e s t i s c r i t i c i z e d because of a lack of e m p i r i c a l l y determined v a l i d i t y , but se l f - r e p o r t devices are used because of the lack of any other type of measuring device fo r preferences. We can only know a person's preferences by h i s t e l l i n g us what he prefers. The s e l f report t e s t i s l i m i t e d i n i t s capacity to show the i n t e n s i t y of opinion or preference. A student may score that which he considers desirable. The complexity of the s t i m u l i i n each item may also con-t r i b u t e a l i m i t a t i o n on the use and in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the prefer-ence t e s t . A preference may be based upon the t i t l e of the s e l e c t i o n ( i n my study - t i t l e s were not revealed to the students. • selections were i d e n t i f i e d on the test by number only); i n another 15 Rubin, Louis J . op. c i t . p. 111. i t may be based on the instrumentation; i n a t h i r d , i t may be based on the p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y of orchestration; and i n yet another, i t might be based on the momentary mood of the i n d i v -i d u a l . Such v a r i a b i l i t y must be considered i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . "In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s , when the scores are i n t e r p r e t e d i n a v a l i d and sensible fashion, the t e s t of musical preference i s a valuable means of comparing the preferences of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, and of i n d i c a t i n g the general trend of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s musical preferences."1° Rubin concluded that h i s research demonstrated that mus-i c a l experience has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the musical preferences of school students. The preferences of both musically experienced and inexperienced students show a predominant i n t e r e s t i n music of a t r a n s i e n t , current vogue. "In discussing the e f f e c t of experience on musical preferences, the only possible c r i t e r i a i s increase of i n t e r e s t . From the data gathered i t may be con-cluded that musical experience has a l i m i t e d e f f e c t on discriminatory a b i l i t y . "•*-' 16 Rubin, Louis J . op. c i t . p. 114. DESIGN OF THE STUDY. 1. This research project w i l l be experimental, 2 . Pre-test and post-test (music preference inventory) s h a l l be administered to a selected grade three class of students (approximately 25 p u p i l s ) . 3. The test to be used s h a l l be a music inventory preference t e s t of such design that upon hearing the musical selection) the student s h a l l r e l a t e h i s preference on a five-degree scale. (This five-degree scale i s used by Ian Bradley i n his experimental study). h. The t e s t selections w i l l be chosen by the researcher as representative of contemporary art music based on the previous study of Mr. Ian Bradley and the advice of Mr. Cortland Hultberg. 5. The tests w i l l be administered by, evaluated by, and the findings analyzed,by the researcher. 6. The twelve-week program of i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be designed by the researcher, using: materials dealing with rhymthic improvis-a t i o n and composition from the following sources: Addison, Richard. Make -Music. Cheyette, Irving and Herbert Cheyette. Teaching Music  Creat i v e l y i n the Elementary School. Masters, R.E. Sounds and Music. Sounds ande the- Orchestra. Schafer, R. Murray. Ear Cleaning. The New SoundScape. S e l f , George. New Sounds i n Class. 1 Bradley, Ian. "A Study of the E f f e c t s of a Sp e c i a l l y Designed L i s t e n i n g Program i n Contemporary Art Music Upon the Expressed Musical Preferences of Grade Seven Students." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . Faculty of Education, The Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. DESIGN OF THE PREFERENCE INVENTORY AND RATING TEST. The preference inventory was l i m i t e d to eight selections chosen by the researcher as i l l u s t r a t i v e of several compositional s t y l e s of contemporary art music: 1 . "Ionisation" Edgar Varese 2 . "Five Pieces f o r Orch-e s t r a , Op. 16" Arnold Schoenberg 3 . "Cantata No. 1 , Op. 2 9 " Anton von Webern A 4. "Le Marteau sans Maitre" P i e r r e Boulez 5. "Piece f o r Four Pianos, 1957" Morton Feldman 6. - "Visage" Luciano Berio 7 . "Gesang der Jtinglinge" Karlheinz Stockhausen 8. "Akrata" Iannis Xenaxis Five-minute segments of each piece were presented to the cl a s s which was i n s t r u c t e d to wait u n t i l completion of the segment before r a t i n g t h e i r preference - a s u f f i c i e n t time was allowed between s e l e c t i o n s f o r marking. The pre-test was administered on January 9 , 1970 and the post-test on March 16, 1970. On the day p r i o r to the administration of the p r e - t e s t , the format of the preference inventory and procedure f o r marking was explained to the students by t h e i r teacher, Miss Margaret Memersky. Format of the preference inventory w i l l be found i n Appendix A. The r a t i n g scale used f o r gathering data on t h i s inven-tor y was a s t r a i g h t l i n e of s i x inches with f i v e d i v i s i o n s . A f t e r the t e s t s were administered, a twelve-point scale was superimposed over the l i n e , thus g i v i n g each d i v i s i o n of one-half inch, a score of one, r e s u l t i n g i n a possible score f o r each s e l e c t i o n of from one to twelve. DESIGN OP THE LESSON PLANS. The lesson plan was implemented, a f t e r administration of the pre-te s t , i n the grade three c l a s s (twenty-five boys) at Vancouver College, 3 9 t h and C a r t i e r , Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver College i s a private boys' school (grades 1-12) operated by the C h r i s t i a n Brothers. The p r i n c i p a l of the school at the time of the experiment was The Rev. Brother H.L. Bucher. The grade three teacher was Miss Margaret Nemersky. The cla s s received two forty-minute periods of music i n s t r u c t i o n each week. The o v e r a l l design of the lesson plans was to begin with a study of sounds and sound sources, and progress through improv-i s a t i o n s i n rhythm and melody, experiments i n musique concrete and 12 tone procedure, ending with a student conducted and per-formed a l e a t o r i c (though somewhat controlled) composition. The following i s an outline of the program a c t i v i t i e s followed during the 12 weeks. (See also Appendix D). Week 1 - Administration of the Pre- t e s t . Week 2, 3 - Experimenting with Sound - a discussion of sound sources and sound producing i n -struments and bodies Lesson 3 - Make Music ("Body Sounds") Ear Cleaning Sounds and the Orchestra Sounds and Music Making instruments -Lessons 1, 2 - Make Music e f f e c t s of material on sound pro-ducedjtypes of sounds and a use-f u l notation f o r them New Sounds i n Class, p. 9-13 1} sounds that die away quickly. 2) sounds that die away slowly. 3) sounds that are prolonged Week *+, 5 - Improvisation with Rhythms Week 6 -Week 7 -Week 8 -Week 9 -Lessons 5> 6> 7 Make Music "About beats and rhythms" Lessons 8, 9 Lesson 2h "sound" pictures Lesson h -"Rhythms with Character" "Twos and threes" Changing meters, polyrhythms Teaching Music Creatively p. 237-2*1. Make Music Combining sounds to produce images and e f f e c t s Improvisation on instruments and other sound sources under teachers d i r e c t i o n ; under another student's d i r e c t i o n . Linear Development of music Le ssons 11-15 Make Music "Melody" using 2 d i f f e r e n t notes names, short phrases setting a poem to music Lessons 17-32 Make Music making up a background of sound, ostinato; clusters Musique Concrete working with the tape re? corder sounds s i m i l a r i n timbre sounds s i m i l a r i n volume a l t e r a t i o n of sounds -speed, volume, f i l t e r m u l t i - l e v e l sound e l e c t r o n i c music The 12-tone row (a series of notes which appear or are used i n the order i n which the composer has written them) Setting up a tone row Using the row as the basis f o r composition Octave displacement Experiments i n Musical C r e a t i v i t y  Teaching Music Creatively Week 10 - Q u a l i t i e s of sound Timbre, c o l o r The v e r t i c a l aspect of sound using sounds together Lessons 28, 29 Make Music Sounds and the Orchestra Week 11 - "Free" music Contemporary percussion music New Sounds i n Class Explanation and review of notation used by Self. Short sounds, long sounds, prolonged sounds. Week 12 - Administration of Post-test. Table A (see Appendix B, page 36) gives a comparison of the seores (pre-test/post-test) f o r each s e l e c t i o n and each student, thus showing i n d i v i d u a l changes i n preference. Students are de-noted by the numbers one to twenty-two. Table B shows the per-centage of t o t a l students whose preference a) increased, b) de-creased, or c) remained the samej f o r each of the eight s e l e c t i o n s , from pre-test to post-test. Table B also shows % mean change from pre-test to post-test. Table C i s a tabulation of the de-gree of increase noted by a plus (-f) percentage, or decrease, de-noted by a minus (-) percentage f o r each s e l e c t i o n and- each student. A figure of 00.0$ indicates no change i n preference from pre-test to post-test. RESULTS. A tw o - t a i l t e s t was u t i l i z e d to s t a t i s t i c a l l y prove or disprove the value of my program. The following table provides pertinent data f o r the two-t a i l t e s t : Test Piece Mean Change SE of Mean C r i t i c a l ( i n t e s t scale units) Change Ratio "Ionisation" -1 M 1.05 -1.3^ "Five Pieces f o r Orchestra" - 0 . 5 9 .62 - 0 . 9 5 "Cantata Nov 1" -1 .05 .83 -1.27 "LeMarteau sans Maitre" 0.00 0.00 0.00 "Piece f o r h Pianos" 0.32 0.85 O.38 "Visage" -0.82 0.91 -Q.90 "Gesang der Junglinge" ^.59 0.86 5.3^ "Akrata" 1.36 0.90 1.51 Of the eight t e s t pieces, only one reached the required c r i t i c a l r a t i o of•+ 2.00 at a % l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . This t e s t piece was "Gesang der Junglinge" by Stockhausen and therefore was the only piece to support my o r i g i n a l hypothesis at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l * The r e s u l t s would therefore indicate that my program had l i t t l e e f f e c t (at a % l e v e l of significance) on a l t e r i n g the expressed preferences of grade three students f o r contemporary art music and that a f a m i l i a r i t y with a piece of music or the com-p o s i t i o n a l technique used i n that piece of music does not nec e s s a r i l y increase the student's preference f o r that s e l e c t i o n . The f a c t , however, that some increase i n preference f o r each s e l e c t i o n was recorded prompts me to do further, more con-t r o l l e d research on t h i s subject. F i r s t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the present study must be recognized* LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. 1. Only twenty-two subjects, a l l boys age seven to nine, took part i n the project• 2. The duration of the experiment was only twelve weeks. 3. No control group was used. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH. I would recommend further research i n t h i s area of music education with the following suggestions: 1 • Use of more than one- age- group or grade l e v e l . 2. Use of both boys and g i r l s . 3. Use of subjects from more than one school system and school s i t u a t i o n . h. Use of a control group. 5. A longer i n s t r u c t i o n a l program - one term or even a year's program with the addition of a l i s t e n i n g program i n con-temporary art music. Also, the study of the e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n on the r e s u l t s i n preference a l t e r a t i o n s and the use of rhythmic movement as part of the program!. The program should also allow more time f o r improvisation with instruments and compositon. SUMMARY. The scope of t h i s study was experimental and exploratory i n nature. A class of twenty-two grade three boys (ages seven to nine) at Vancouver College were given a preference inventory featuring f i v e minute exerpts of eight musical selections representative of contemporary art music which they rated from one to f i v e on a graphic r a t i n g scale. In analyzing the t e s t s , the researcher superimposed a twelve point scale over the students' f i v e - p o i n t scale. The inventory was administered twice - once i n January as a pre-test and again i n March as a post-test. Between the two, the grade three class p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a twelve-week program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n contemporary art music techniques. The program emphasizing improvisation and composition was designed by the researcher, based on concepts of Richard Addison, George S e l f , Murray Schafer, R.E. Masters, Herbert and Irving Cheyette, and reports of the Contemporary Music Project on C r e a t i v i t y i n music education. The primary hypothesis to be tested was: w i l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such a program a l t e r a child's preference f o r contemporary music? Secondly, i s there any r e l a t i o n s h i p betweeen a c h i l d ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with a piece of music and h i s preference f o r i t ? Only one test s e l e c t i o n reached a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of t;2.00 at a % l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . This test piece was "Gesang der Junglinge", an e l e c t r o n i c work by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o of t h i s piece was 5 « 3 ^ The class barely touched on e l e c t r o n i c techniques i n t h e i r I n s t r u c t i o n a l program although a good deal of time was spent on musique-concrete and one student i n the class prepared four d i f f e r e n t tapes i l l u s t r a t i n g musique concrete. The s e r i a l pieces ("Five Pieces for Orchestra", Cantata No .1, Opus 19" and "Le Marteau sans Maitre") received the l e a s t amount of s h i f t i n preference. From the r e s u l t s obtained, I concluded that a program i n contemporary techniques does not make a marked change i n students' preferences (at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l ) f o r t h i s type of music and that a student's f a m i l i a r i t y with the compositional procedure behind a piece of music does not necess a r i l y a l t e r h i s preference for i t . BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Addison, Richard. Make Music. Edinburgh: Holmes, McDougall, Ltd., 1967. Addison, Richard. Children Make Music (Teacher's Manual) Edinburgh: Holmes, McBougall, Ltd., 1967. Boardman, Eunice and Beth Landis. 'Exploring Music. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.: New York: 1966. Cheyette, I r v i n g and Herbert Cheyette. Teaching Music C r e a t i v e l y  i n the Elementary School. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969-Churchley, Frank. Music Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n . Toronto: McGraw-Hill Co. of Canada, Ltd. 1969. Coleman, S a t i s N. Creative Music f o r Children. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1921. Cowan, Don. Search f o r a New Sound. (Basic Goals i n Music-Book 8). Toronto: McGraw H i l l Book Co. of Canada, L t d . 1967. Curwen, John. Musical Theory. London: J . Curwen and Sons, L t d . 1879. Darazs, Arpad and Stephen Jay. Sight and Sound. (Teachers' Manual). Oceanside, New York: Boosey and Hawkes. 1965. Eosze, Laszlo. Zoltan Kodaly: His L i f e and Works (trans, by Istvan Farkas and Gyula Gulyos). London: C o l l e t . 1962. Garrett, Henry E. Elementary S t a t i s t i c s . New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1956. Jacques-Dalcroze, Emile. Rhythm, Music and Education. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1921. Landeck, Beatrice; E l i z a b e t h Crook, Harold C. Youngberg, and Otto Luening. Making Music Your Own. Morristown, N.J.: S i l v e r Burdett Co., 1964. Leonhard, Charles and Robert W. House. Foundations and P r i n c i p l e s  of Music Education. New York: McGraif-Hill Co. 1959. Masters, R.E. Sounds and Music. Toronto: MacMillan and Co. of Canada, L t d . 1967. Masters, R.E. Sounds and the Orchestra. Toronto: MacMillan and Co. of Canada, Ltd. 1967. Richards, Mary Helen. Threshold to Music. Pao A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Fearon Publishers, 1964. Schafer, R. Murray. The Composer i n the Class Room. Don M i l l s , Ontario: BMI Canada Limited. 1965. Schafer, R. Murray. Ear Cleaning. Don M i l l s , Ontario: BMI Canada Limited! 1967. Schafer, R. Murray. The New SoundScape. Don M i l l s , Ontario: BMI Canada L i m i t e d ^ 1 9 6 9 . Schaferj R. Murray. When Words Sing. Don M i l l s , Ontario: BMI Canada Limited. 1970. Schaefer, W.E. (et a l ) . C a r l O r f f . A Report i n Words and  Pictures (second e d i t i o n ) . Mainz, Germany: B. Schotts S o n n e . i 9 6 0 . S e l f , George. New Sounds i n Class: A Contemporary Approach to  Music. L o n d o n : U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n , L t d . 1 9 6 7 . Torrance, E. Paul. C r e a t i v i t y . San Rafael, C a l i f o r n i a : Dimension Publishing Company. 1969. Torrance, E. Paul. Constructive Behavior: Stress. Personality  and Mental Health. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1965. Torrance, E. Paul. Education and the Creative P o t e n t i a l . Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. 1963. Young, Percy Marshall. Zoltan Kodaly. A Hungarian Musician. London: E. Brun. 196^. Published' Reports: "Education Through Music." Richards Ins t i t u t e of Music Education and Research. Portola Valley, C a l i f o r n i a . 1969. "Experiments i n Musical C r e a t i v i t y " . Washington, D.C: Contemporary Music Projeet/MENG. 1966. "Influences from Abroad." Perspectives i n Music Education. Source Book, I I I . Washington, D.C. MENG. 1966, p. 381-*f07. "John Adaskin Project-Policy Conference". Toronto: Canadian Music Centre. 1967. Unpublished Material: Bradley, Ian. "A Study of the E f f e c t s of a Sp e c i a l l y Designed Listening Program i n Contemporary Art Music Upon the Expressed Musical Preferences of Grade Seven Students." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . Faculty of Education. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1969. Einkley, Peter. "A Music Curriculum." A Report Presented to the Nova S c o t i a Department of Education. 1966. Hornyak, Roy Robert. "A Factor Analysis of the Relationship Between the Components of Music Present i n Selected Music Examples and the Preference Rating Responses of College Students to the Selected Music Examples." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1964. Rogers, V.R. ""Children's Expressed Musical Preferences at S e l -ected Grade Levels." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n s , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . 1956. Rubin, Louis J . "The E f f e c t s of Musical Experience on Discrim-i n a t i o n and Musical Preferences". Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1952. Journals and P e r i o d i c a l s Adaskin, Murray. "Contemporary Music." The Canadian Composer. No. 34, November, 1968, p. 8. Archibecque, Charlene P a u l l i n . "Developing a Taste f o r Contempor-ary Music". Journal of Research i n Music Education. Volume XIV, No. 2 , Summer, 1966. pp. 142-147. B i r d , C. Laughton. "Contemporary Music and Education". The Canadian Music Educator. Volume I I . No. 1, Autumn, 1969, p. 4. Burke, C l a i r e Senior, "Music Education f o r the Young". The Can-adian Composer, No. 28, A p r i l , 1968, p. 16. Clark, James M. "The Challenge of Musical C r e a t i v i t y " . The Can-adian Music Educator , Volume I I , No. 1 Autumn, 1969, p. 9-10. Chidester, L.W. "Contemporary Music and the Music Educator". The  Music Educator's Journal, April-May, 1965. Dello J o i o , Norman. "The Place of Contemporary Music i n Music Education". Inter-American Music B u l l e t i n . No. 57, January, 1967. Downe, Cynthia. "Music Education i n Europe". The Canadian Music  Educator. Volume 10, No. 4, p. 41-44. Grentzer, Rose Marie. "Preparation of the Music Educator to Use the Music of h i s own Time". Inter-American Music B u l l e t i n . No. 56, November, 1966. Johnston, Richard. "Music f o r Children". The Canadian Music  Educator. Volume 10, No. 2, p. 39-43. K e l l y , David T. "A Study of Musical Preferences of a Select Group of Adolescents." Journal of Research i n Music Education. Volume I I , F a l l , l^ET. Kushner, Gordon. "Can we learn from the Hungarians how to Teach Music to Children?" The Canadian Composer. No. 3 7 , February, 1969, P. 3 0 . Lavender, Emerson. "Report on the Committee on Aims and Ob-j e c t i v e s of Education." The Canadian Music Educator. Volume 10, No. 2 , p. 2 9 - 3 2 . MacKinnon, A.R. "Knowing where the Rocks are Not". The Canadian  Music Educator. Volume 10 , No. 2 , p. 17-24. "Peter Maxwell Davies". The Canadian Composer. No. 2 9 , May, 1968. Pinto, I s a b e l l e M. "Possible Factors Influencing Musical P r e f e r -ences f o r D i f f e r e n t Types of Music." Journal of Genetic  Psychology. Volume 8 7 , March 1955. Rubin-Rabson, G. "Influences of Age, I n t e l l i g e n c e , and Training on Reactions to C l a s s i c and Modern Music". Journal of  Genetic Psychology. Volume 2 2 , 1940. Russell-Smith, Geoffrey. "Introducing Kodaly P r i n c i p l e s into Elementary Teaching". Music Educators Journal, V o l . 5 4 , No. 3 , November, 1967, pp. 43 -41H Sampson, Peggy. "Creative Musicianship f o r Children". CFMTA News  B u l l e t i n . Volume 2 3 , No. 3 , p. 8 . Shuckert, Robert F. and Ruth L. MacDonald. "An Attempt to Modify the Musical Preferences of Preschool Children." Journal of Research i n Music Education. Volume XVII, No. 1, Spring, 1968, p. 3 9 - 4 4 . Sur, William R. "Music i n Elementary Education." The Canadian  Music Educator. Volume 10 , No. 4 , p. 2 1 - 2 6 . Films. "Bing, Bang, Boom". Joseph Koenig, Producer. Joan Henson, Dire c t o r and E d i t o r , National Film Board, 1969. The following recordings were used i n presentation of the music inventory - pre-test and post-test i n the order l i s t e d : " Ionisation" (1931) - Edgar Varese (1883-1965). Music of Edgar  Varese. Robert C r a f t , conductor. Columbia MS 6146. "Five Pieces f o r Orchestra, Op. 16" ( 1 9 0 9 )(revised 1949) - Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) Nonesuch. H 7 1192. Lamoureux Concerts. Orchestra. Gtlnter Wand, conductor. "Cantata No. 1, op. 29" (1940) - Anton von Webern (1883-1945) Nonesuch H7 1192. Gttrzenich Chorus and Symphony Orchestra of Cologne. Gtlnter Wand, conductor. "Le Marteau sans Maitre" (1959) - Pi e r r e Boulez (1925- ) Turnabout TV 34081S, Pi e r r e Boulez, conductor. "Piece f o r Four Pianos, 1957" - Morton Feldman (1926- ). Music  of our Time; Morton Feldman: The E a r l y Years. Columbia Odyssey 32 160302. "Visages" (1961) - Luciano Berio (1925- ). E l e c t r o n i c Music. Turnabout TV 340465. "Gesang der Jtlnglinge" (1956) - Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928- ) Deutsche Grammaphon Gesellschaft 138 811 "Akrata" (1964-65) - Iannis Xenakis (1922- ). Nonesuch H 71201 Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra. Lukas Foss, conductor. APPENDIX A Format of the pre-test and post-test Name Date Explanation: For each s e l e c t i o n that you hear place an X on the l i n e to indicate how well you l i k e the music. The mark may be placed at any point on the l i n e . The further to the r i g h t you place the X, the greater i s your in d i c a t e d enjoyment of the piece of music. I d i s l i k e I d i s l i k e I am i n d i f - I l i k e I l i k e i t i t very much. i t . ferent to i t i t . very much 1. 2. 3. 4-. 5. 6. 7. APPENDIX B Comparison of i n d i v i d u a l s t e s t ) i n d i c a t i n g increase or decre "Ionisation" "5 Pieces 1. 1/1 1/1 2 . 3/7 11/9 3 . 11/1 9 A 4. H / l 11/4 5. 1/1 11/11 6. 11/1 4/4 7 . 2/7 9/4 8. 11/6 1/4 9 . 11/11 6 /7 10 9/9 11/9 n . l l / l 6/4 12 . 11/11 7/H 1 3 . 7/7 4 /2 14. 7/9 11/9 1 5 . 11/7 9/9 16. 1/1 6 /7 17 . 1/1 7/9 18. 11/9 4 /7 19 . 4 /9 9/6 2 0 . l l / l l 8/6 2 1 . 2 /9 2 /7 22 . V l 1/1 ores (pre-test and post-se i n preference: "Cantata No. 1" "Le Marteau" 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/2 7/9 7/7 9/7 7/9 7/1 4 /7 7/2 9/6 4 /1 1/4 l / l 3/1 9/9 6/4 11/2 9/4 4 / 7 6 /9 l / l l 7/11 1/2 7/9 1/4 9/6 7/4 7/7 6/4 4 /9 4/6 9/4 7/1 5/7 4 /3 4 / 1 6 /1 6 /3 2 /1 4/4 1/1 1/4 TABLE A. (continued) "Piece f o r Pianos" "Visage" "Gesang" 1. 1/1 1/1 1/1 7/1 2 . 5/7 4 / 2 7/10 1/10 3 . 1/2 11/11 1/4 4 /7 4. 1/7 11/11 1/11 4 / 1 5 . 1/9 11/9 9/6 4 /11 6. 1/2 11/6 1/4 4 /2 7 . 11/7 11/9 9/11 4 /11 8. 1/1 9/1 1/11 4 / 1 7/9 9 . 1/1 11/11 4 /11 10 . 7/7 9/1 1/7 4 / 7 1 1 . 1/7 6 /1 1/11 4 / 1 12 . l / l l 11/11 1/11 1/11 1 3 . l / l 1/4 1/11 9/9 14. l l / l l 9/1 4/6 7/3 1 5 . 4 /1 7/9 1/7 4 / 7 16. 6 /1 6 /3 6/6 6 /9 17 . 7/1 2 /9 4 /1 4/6 18. 9/4 1/9 4/6 7/6 19 . 7/6 l / l 1/6 1/6 20 . 4 / 1 6 /11 1/11 4 /1 2 1 . 1/1 1/1 1/4 7/6 2 2 . 1/1 1/1 1/6 4/6 "Ionisation" "5 Pieces" "Cantata "Le Mar£eau No.l" sans Maitre" Increase 22.7$ 35.6$ 27,3$ 45.4$ Decrease 35.6$ 45.4$ 54.5$ 35.6$ Same 40.9$ 19.0$ 18.2$ 19.0$ $ Mean Change -11.75$ -4.92$ -8.75$ 00.0$ "Piece f o r 4 "Visage" "Gesang der "Akrata" Pianos" Jtinglinge"  Increase 35.6$ 22.7$ 81.8$ 54.5$ Decrease 27.3$ 40.9$ 9.1$ 40.9$ Same 35.6$ 36.4$ 9.1$ 4.6$ $ Mean Change +2.65$ -6.83$ +38.25$ +11.33$ Degree of increase or decrease i n preference: II I o n i s a t i o n " "5 Pieces" "Cantata No. 1" "Le Marteau 1. 00.0$ 00.0$ 00.0$ 00.0$ 2. +33.3$ -16.6$ - 8.4-$ + 8.4$ 3 . -83.3$ -4-1.7$ +16.6$ 00.0$ 4. -83.3$ -58.3$ -16.6$ +16.6$ 5. 00.0$ 00.0$ -50.0$ +25.0$ 6. -83.3$ 00.0$ 4-1.7$ -25.0$ 7. +41.7$ -4-1.7$ -25.0$ +25.0$ 8 . -41.7$ +25.0$ 00.0$ -16.6$ 9. 00.0$ + 8.4-$ 00.0$ -16.6$ 10. 00.0$ -16.6$ -75.0$ -41.7$ • 11. -83.3$ -16.6$ +25.0$ +25.0$ 12. 00.0$ +33.3$ +83.3$ +33.3$ 13. 00.0$ -16.6$ + 8.4-$ +16.6$ 14-. +16.6$ -16.6$ +25.0$ -25.0$ 15. -33.3$ 00.0$ -25.0$ 00.0$ 16. 00.0$ + 8.4-$ -16.6$ +41.7$ 17. 00.0$ +16.6$ +£6.6$ -41.7$ 18. -16.6$ +25.0$ -50.0$ +16.6$ 19. +4-1.7$ -25.0$ •T 8.4-$ -25.0$ 20. 00.0$ -16.6$ -4-1.7$ -25.0$ 21. +58.3$ +4-1.7$ - 8.4-$ 00.0$ 22. -25.0$ 00.0$ 00.0$ +25.0$ TABLE 0 (continued) "Piece f o r 4 "Visage" "Gesang der "Akrata" Pianos" Jtinglinge " 1. 00.0$ 00.0$ 00.0$ -50.0$ 2. +16.6$ -16.6$ +25.0$ +75.0$ 3. + 8.4$ 00.0$ +25.0$ +25.0$ 4. +50.0$ 00.0$ +83.3$ -25.0$ 5. +66.6$ -16.6$ -25.0$ +58.3$ 6. + 8.4$ -41.7$ +25.0$ -16.6$ 7. -33.3$ -16.6$ +16.6$ +58.3$ 8. 00.0$ -66.6$ +83.3$ -25.0$ 9. 00.0$ 00.0$ +58.3$ +16.6$ 10. 00.0$ -66.6$ +50.0$ +25.0$ 11. +50.0$ -41.7$ +83.3$ -25.0$ 12. +83.3$ 00.0$ +83.3$ +83.3$ 13. 00.0$ +25.0$ +83.3$ 00.0$ 14. 00.0$ -66.6$ +16.6$ -33.3$ 15. -25.0$ +16.6$ +50.0$ +25.0$ 16. -41.7$ -25.0$ 00.0$ +25.0$ 17. -50.0$ +58.3$ -25.0$ +16.6$ 18. -41.7$ +66.6$ -16.6$ - 8.4$ 19. - 8.4$ 00.0$ +41.7$ +41.7$ 20. -25.0$ +41.7$ +83.3$ -25.0$ 21. 00.0$ 00.0$ +25.0$ - 8.4$ 22. 00.0$ 00.0$ +41.7$ +16.6$ APPENDIX C 0 91 83 75 66 58 50 i l l 33 25 16 8 ( 0^0 ( + ) 8 16 25 33 hi 50 58 66 75 83 91 "VISAGfi" Luciano Berio "GESAIIG DER JUKGLINGE-a K a E 4 ~ h 4 i n z — Stockhaus en \ (-) (-) APPENDIX D From George S e l f ' s New Sounds i n Class. Week 3 - Continuation of Experimenting with. Sound Categories of Sound. I. Instruments which produce a short sound only -(Notation a short sound . ) tremolo VAWV a) Wood bars b^ Wood blocks c) Small d.rums - s t r i k i n g skin and rim using v a r i e t y of s t i c k s - wood, rubber, f e l t , wire brush Claves e) Bottles - p i n t b o t t l e gives approximately E , three octaves above middle C use wood or metal s t i c k s t r i k e between two r a p i d l y f o r a tremolo e f f e c t f ) Vibrators - table k n i f e , r u l e r . I I . Instruments which produce a sound which dies away gradually -(Notation a sound of natural length a short sound (damped) • tremolo IWvWMA a) Piano - single sounds, c l u s t e r s with palm - large e l u s t e r s with forearm i n t e r i o r of piano b) Autoharp - s t r i k i n g , plucking tremolo, g l i s s a n d i retuning of autoharp to produce new chords c) Large drums d) Cymbals - suspended, etc. e; Gongs f ) Triangles g) Chime bars - For s p e c i a l e f f e c t s using chime bars, see page 12 of S e l f ' s book) h) .Maracas I I I . Instruments which can make a sustained sound (Notation _ staccato sound sustained u n t i l next tremolo a} Strings b) Brass c) Woodwinds Week 7 - Sett i n g the poem "The Spider" to music. For the c l a s s ' tune, see attached sheet (page 57') Creation of background f o r song included: drums,.block, cymbals - on the beat t r i a n g l e , tambourine - o f f the beat chime bars - ostinato pattern piano c l u s t e r s John's f i r s t tape — included recorded sound a l t e r e d with r e l a t i o n to speed voices some recording of e l e c t r o n i c sounds Week 8 - The 12-tone row. The c l a s s constructed the following tone row: • G A E B D F C D B E F G A f t e r playing the row i n the rhythms of several f a m i l i a r f o l k songs the class decided to re-set "the Spider" to t h i s row. Week 10 - Tenney's f i r s t tape: Autoharp, voices, ukelele, organ, piggy bank, dishwasher, exerpts from several LP recordings John's second tape: "Kitchen noises". Week 11 - John's t h i r d tape: a combination of exerpts from a ' recording of Prokofiev's "Peter and the Wolf" and French dialogue -i n t e r j e c t i o n s of organ and gu i t a r . F i r s t free piece f o r percussion (notation based on that of George S e l f ) Created by students and teacher. See following page f o r score. "The Spider" words from RichardEfr Addison's Make Music I saw a spi - der, Crawl, crawl, crawl— I saw a spi - der, crawl-ing up a wall. ARREX MANUSCRIPT PAD No. 2 - Empire Music Publishers Limited, New-Westminster, B.C. Canada "Free Piecd Wo. L " Wednesday, March 11, 1970 Drum I Drum II Triangle I Triangle II Recorder I Recorder II Piano Cymbals Wood Blocks « • • • / V W V W • • • « • • • A/VyvVW\/\A Wv^/WvVWW\ A A A V W V V V W / W W i^VvVVvVNA/VAAA o o o • • • o. p rr X - cymbal crash o cluster (these symbols were created by the students ) 

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