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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Religion, identity and cultural change; some themes from nineteenth century India Malhotra, Lorraine Margaret 1972

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RELIGION, IDENTITY AND.CULTURAL CHANGE: SOME THEMES FROM NINETEENTH CENTURY INDIA by LORRAINE M. MALHOTRA B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f RELIGIOUS STUDIES We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Department of RELIGIOUS STUDIES The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 11 OCTOBER, 1972 ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine t h e p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l dynamics o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e B r i t i s h community i n I n d i a i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y and t h e c l a s s o f I n d i a n s e d u c a t e d i n t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s y s t e m b o t h i n terms o f t h e s t r e s s t h e e n c o u n t e r p l a c e d upon i n d i v i d u a l s o f b o t h c u l t u r a l communities and t h e r e s p o n s e i n i t i a t e d t h e r e b y . A l t h o u g h t h e emphasis o f t h e s t u d y i s on t h e im p a c t o f Western v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s f o r I n d i a n s was t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e B r i t i s h t o t h e s t r e s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h an a l i e n c u l t u r e . The c u l t u r a l change i n d u c e d by t h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a f o c u s e d upon t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o n , r e q u i r i n g a deep r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , m o t i -v a t i o n s and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . But i t i s seen t h a t t h i s k i n d o f change i s n o t e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d . I n d i a n s c o u l d n o t r e j e c t t h e i r own c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and a c c e p t t h e a l i e n ones w i t h o u t d e s t r o y -i n g t h e i r s ense o f i d e n t i t y w h i c h , b e i n g d e r i v e d from t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o n , was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e v a l u e system o f t h e West. Though i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t h e y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h some v a l u e s and i d e a s o f t h e West, e m o t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y t h e y were t i e d t o t h e c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m . T h i s c o n f l i c t caused some I n d i a n s t o e x p e r i e n c e a c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y . I n t h i s t h e s i s i d e n t i t y i s d e f i n e d as a f u n c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n . • The r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m o f a c u l t u r e forms t h e m a t r i x o f a l l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , a t t i -t u d e s , and t h e se n s e o f i d e n t i t y and s e r v e s as t h e o r g a n i z i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g , and s t a b i l i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . A c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y becomes f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c r i s i s ' o f b e l i e f . T h i s was what o c c u r r e d when t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f t h e Hindus were c h a l l e n g e d by t h e a l t e r n a t e v a l u e s y s t e m o f t h e B r i t i s h w h i c h , when d e f i n e d i i by t h e r a c i s t i d e o l o g y and t h e c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , d e s t r o y e d t h e s e n s e of s e c u r i t y and i n t e g r i t y o f t h e n a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e c h a n g i n g images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y and i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i d e o l o g i e s t h a t i n s p i r e d them. I t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e images o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a n c u l t u r e a r e u n i f o r m l y condemning b u t t h a t t h e images o f I n d i a ' s p a s t and f u t u r e v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e o f t h e image makers. The c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e w h i c h p r e v a i l e d t h r o u g h -out m o s t . o f t h e c e n t u r y was one o f i n t o l e r a n c e stemming f r o m t h e b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h c u l t u r e . T h i s a t t i t u d e c r e a t e d an atmos-p h e r e o f c u l t u r a l p o l a r i t y and m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n an i n v i d i o u s c o m p a r i s o n between t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . A framework i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e I n d i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e impact o f B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s o r , r a t h e r , t o t h e c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y and t h e l o s s o f s e l f - r e s p e c t t h a t t h e impact p r o d u c e d . The r e s p o n s e was b a s i c a l l y a d e f e n s i v e one. I t i n v o l v e d a s e a r c h f o r a new c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w h i c h would r e l i e v e t h e s t r e s s o f commitment t o o p p o s i n g v a l u e systems by e f f e c t i n g a compromise. I n d i a n s a t t e m p t e d t h i s r e a l i g n -ment v i a c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o r c u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s m , a p r o c e s s whereby t h e y i n t e r j e c t e d 1 9 t h c e n t u r y Western v a l u e s i n t o t h e i r own c u l t u r a l p a s t t h e r e b y making t h o s e v a l u e s seem g e n e r i c t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n . H i s t o r i -ography " p r o v e d " t h a t p r e s e n t ( 1 9 t h c e n t u r y ) moribund v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t e d a d e v i a t i o n from t h e t r u e v a l u e s o f t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o n . T h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t r e n d e r e d a d j u s t m e n t t o and a c c e p t a n c e o f change e a s i e r . I t p r o d u c e d a c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e contemporary I n d i a n and p r o v i d e d a framework f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l i i i H i n d u i s m a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y w o r l d v i e w . The r e i n t e r p r e t i v e schemes o f R a j a Rammohun Roy and Swami V i v e k a n a n d a a r e used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e I n d i a n r e s p o n s e . T h e i r images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e "myths" o f t h e I n d i a n Golden Age and I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y w h i c h were c a l c u l a t e d t o r e g e n e r a t e I n d i a and I n d i a n s t o a p o s i t i o n o f d i g n i t y and e q u a l i t y i n a w o r l d c u l t u r e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER - v PAGE I . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1 The B a s i s o f the B r i t i s h - I n d i a R e l a t i o n s h i p . . . . . . 1 P u r p o s e , Scope and Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I I . RELIGION,. IDENTITY AND SOCIAL CHANGE: THE INDIAN' SITUATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . .• • . . . . . . . . . . 7 I n d i a as a T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y : , R e l i g i o n , ' I d e n t i t y and P r i m o r d i a l T i e s 10 I n d i a . a s a T r a n s i t i o n a l S o c i e t y : C u l t u r a l Change and I d e n t i t y C r i s i s . . . . . . . . 14 I n d i a as a C o l o n i a l S o c i e t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Notes t o C h a p t e r I I . 33 I I I . NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS . .• . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The O r i e n t a l i s t Image.of I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s . . . . . 37 The E v a n g e l i c a l Image o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s . . . . . 41 The A n g l i c i s t Image o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s . . . . . . 44 I m p e r i a l i s t Images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s ' . . . . . . . - 48 A n a l y s i s o f " t h e B r i t i s h Images as a Response t o S t r e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Notes t o C h a p t e r I I I . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 IV.- THE INDIAN RESPONSE TO NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH ATTITUDES: CULTURAL-CLASSICISM AND THE SEARCH FOR CULTURAL IDENTITY . . . . . . . . . •. . . . ' • ' 63 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 63 V CHAPTER PAGE I d e n t i t y C r i s i s and t h e C o p i n g P r o c e s s . . 65 C u l t u r a l C l a s s i c i s m as a Response t o I d e n t i t y C r i s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Rammohun Roy and t h e Images o f t h e Golden Age and I n d i a n S p i r i t u a l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Swami V i v e k a n a n d a and t h e , G o l d e n Age o f I n d i a n S p i r i t u a l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j 80 Notes t o C h a p t e r IV . . 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . 102 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I . THE BASIS OF THE BRITISH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP I n 1877 Queen V i c t o r i a was p r o c l a i m e d "Empress o f I n d i a , " t h e r e b y g i v i n g o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o a p o l i t i c a l fait accompli o f twenty y e a r s ' d u r a t i o n and an economic d o m i n a t i o n t h a t e xtended back t o t h e e a r l y decades o f t h e c e n t u r y . Through c o l o n i a l a n n e x a t i o n t o B r i t a i n , I n d i a , a t r a d i t i o n a l , a g r a r i a n - b a s e d s o c i e t y , emerged from h e r H i m a l a y a n i s o l a t i o n i n t o t h e w o r l d o f modern n a t i o n a l s t a t e s . The B r i t i s h p l a n t o g a i n supremacy i n t h e power s t r u g g l e o f t h e expand i n g European s t a t e s d e t e r -mined I n d i a ' s d e s t i n y . B r i t a i n needed t o b u i l d a c o l o n i a l e mpire w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e h e r workshops w i t h an abundant s u p p l y o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n d u s t r i a l and economic growth. I n d i a p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a , B r i t i s h Empire s t r o n g enough t o d i c t a t e t h e r u l e s o f t h e game o f power. To do t h i s however, I n d i a had t o undergo a degree o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n g i n o r d e r t o t r a n s f o r m h e r immense p o t e n t i a l i n t o e n e r g i e s u t i l i z a b l e by a modern n a t i o n . The b a s i s o f t h e B r i t i s h - I n d i a r e l a t i o n s h i p was economic. The dynamics o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p were l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e power d i f f e r -e n t i a l w h i c h p e r m i t t e d t h e n a t i o n w i t h s u p e r i o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l and m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h t o c a p i t a l i z e on i t s advantage a c c o r d i n g t o i t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r e s t s . But modern h i s t o r y a t t e s t s t o t h e tendency o f i m p e r i a l i s t a c t i v i t i e s t o g e n e r a t e s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g s amongst t h e c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t t h e v e r y p r o c e s s whereby a c o l o n y i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e f i e l d o f economic g a i n c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l l i f e ( o r p o t e n t i a l n a t i o n a l l i f e ) i n t h e d a u g h t e r c o u n t r y w h i c h make f o r r e s i s t a n c e . We-mi g h t l o c a t e t h e s e n u c l e i t h a t a b s o r b power r e f r a c t e d from t h e i m p e r i a l i s t a c t i v i t i e s i n s e v e r a l a r e a s : i n t h e r i s i n g m i d d l e c l a s s w i t h i t s new w e a l t h and a m b i t i o n s ; i n t h e c l a s s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h s c h o o l s t o a p p r e c i a t e the p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s o f M i l l and Compte; i n t h e p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n s p i r e d by t h e f e r v o u r o f M a z z i n i and Marx; and, f i n a l l y , i n t h e numerous r e l i g i o u s men who e n c o u n t e r e d t h e r a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e r e f o r m movements and f e a r e d t h e i c o n o c l a s t i c , i m i t a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s m a n i f e s t i n t h e r e f o r m e r s would d e s t r o y t h e o n l y t r u e s o u r c e o f n a t i o n a l l i f e : t h e Hin d u r e l i g i o n . B r i t i s h r u l e i n d u c e d c u l t u r a l change t h a t was u n b a l a n c e d . I t e f f e c -t e d a d i s l o c a t i o n o f s o c i a l o r d e r s , s u s p e n d i n g v a r i o u s ' s e g m e n t s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y i n d i f f e r e n t t i m e z o n e s . A t one extreme was an e d u c a t e d e l i t e i n f o r m e d by t h e modern w o r l d w h i l e a t t h e "other were t h e I n d i a n masses who s t i l l b e l o n g e d t o a w o r l d s u b j e c t t o t r a d i t i o n and custom. B r i t i s h p o l i c y a f t e r 1857 tended t o w i t h d r a w f r o m any movements towards s o c i a l r e f o r m w h i c h m i g h t a i d i n b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r t h e f r a c t u r e d segments o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . T h i s had t h e e f f e c t o f w i d e n i n g t h e gap s e p a r a t i n g t h e r u l e r s from t h e r u l e d , i n t e n s i f y i n g a c u l t u r a l e s t rangement t h a t c u l m i -n a t e d towards t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y i n a r a c i a l l y e n t r e n c h e d a l i e n a t i o n . The f o r e i g n government, c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h o s e measures r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s f o r m I n d i a i n t o a u s e f u l member o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , c o n c e n t r a t e d upon c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g , c e n t r a l i z e d , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C oupled w i t h complex developments i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s i n t h e 3 l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h a t l e f t t h e B r i t i s h c o n c e r n e d about m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r tenuous supremacy, t h e d i s q u i e t among t h e n a t i v e s o f I n d i a p r e c i p i t a t e d an a n x i e t y syndrome l e a d i n g t o . a r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e c u l t u r a l p o l i c y o f t h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a . E a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . i m p e r i -a l i s m , e s p o u s i n g the d o c t r i n e o f s a c r e d t r u s t e e s h i p , s a n c t i o n e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s . However, by m i d - c e n t u r y much o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l i s m t h a t m o b i l i z e d t h a t e r a had d i s s i p a t e d i n m a g n i f i c e n t e f f o r t s e f f e c t i n g no s t a r t l i n g r e s u l t s . The M u t i n y o f 1857 s t o o d as a symbol o f t h a t f a i l u r e . When, t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h Crown.wrested c o n t r o l o f t h e s u b c o n t i n e n t from t h e E a s t I n d i a Company, a r e v e r s a l was underway. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f B r i t a i n t o s e t t l e p e r m a n e n t l y i n I n d i a c o u n t e r v a i l e d t h e i d e a l s o f t h e f o r e f a t h e r s , namely, t h a t I n d i a w o u l d soon become a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . I d e a s had changed. S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m l e n t " s c i e n t i f i c p r o o f " . t o t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f some r a c i a l groups o v e r o t h e r s . I t was no l o n g e r b e l i e v e d I n d i a c o u l d become a c i v i l i z e d e q u a l o f t h e B r i t i s h . I I . PURPOSE, SCOPE AND METHOD ' T h i s a b b r e v i a t e d a c c o u n t o f t h e b a s i s o f t h e B r i t i s h - I n d i a r e l a t i o n -s h i p s e r v e s t o i n t r o d u c e a b r o a d e r p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l , i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h forms a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e above' t h e economic b a s e . The dynamics o f t h i s p r o c e s s a r e so i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d i t seems i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e f a c t o r s w h i c h were m o n o c a u s a l l y d e t e r m i n a t i v e . We t e n d t o g i v e names t o t h e l a r g e r event — I m p e r i a l i s m , M o d e r n i z a t i o n , W e s t e r n i z a t i o n , R e n a i s s a n c e — and a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s i n terms o f i t s dominant m o t i f . I t w a s , . f o r example, an economic e n t e r p r i s e s t i m u l a t e d by t h e demands o f •4 i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a p r o c e s s w h i c h may be mapped o u t i n terms o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t i c supply-demand f o r m u l a . Or, i t can be v i e w e d as a r e v i t a l i z -a t i o n movement, t h a t i s , an e n c o u n t e r g e n e r a t i n g a deep r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . Or, i t c a n be seen as a n a t i o n a l i s t move-ment, w h i c h t r a n s f o r m e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d o f p r i m o r d i a l t i e s i n t o t h e modern w o r l d where a u t h o r i t y i s i n v e s t e d i n t h e n a t i o n and i t s l e a d e r s . Numerous p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l p r o c e s s i s amenable t o no s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y we a r e d e a l i n g . h e r e w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h has p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e t o b o t h c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , e n g e n d e r i n g a two-way i m p a c t - r e s p o n s e , between them. I t . i s d i f f i c u l t t o be d e f i n i t i v e about t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e c h a l l e n g e as i t seems t o be t o o i n c l u s i v e a f o r c e t o admit p r e c i s e d e l i n e a t i o n . I t has been n o t e d a l r e a d y , p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t m o t i v a t e d by mercenary i n t e r e s t s seemed t o be t h e p r e v a l e n t o f f i c i a l c o n c e r n , and t h e B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n I n d i a r e f l e c -t e d t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m s d e s i g n e d t o remove impediments t o t h e achievement o f e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l . But t h e e n c o u n t e r o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y i s l o c a t e d where communities and i n d i v i d u a l s may be i d e n t i f i e d . The B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s d i d n o t e x i s t in dbstvaoto i n I n d i a . They formed a community w i t h a v e r y s p e c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by what has been c a l l e d an " e x i l e m e n t a l i t y . " F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f B r i t i s h e r s u n i t e d by a common e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and s t r o n g endogamous t i e s ( t h i s l a t t e r b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e o n l y u n t i l about 1 8 4 0 ) . I n t h e i r g o v e r n i n g r o l e and l i f e s t y l e t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e " i m p a c t " s i d e o f the model, b u t t h e y were a l s o a f f e c t e d by t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a l i e n e n v i r o n m e n t . Hence, a " r e s p o n s e " w h i c h must be gauged. On t h e p a r t o f the I n d i a n community i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y w i t h the 5 B r i t i s h , what i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h e g r a d u a l awakening o f t h i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y h i g h - c a s t e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i t e r a t e group t o t h e i d e a l s and p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e West, t o t h e h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e i r own p e o p l e , and t o t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l l o f w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d them t o t h e s t a g g e r i n g n a t u r e o f t h e Western a l t e r n a t i v e . The c h a l l e n g e was d i f -f u s e d , a f f e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y p e o p l e o f d i v e r s e o r i e n t a t i o n s . I t c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e ' o f ferment w h i c h l e d p e o p l e o f s i m i l a r i n c l i n a t i o n s t o band t o g e t h e r i n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e a t l e a s t a t e m p o r a r y s t a b i l i t y a m i d s t a f l u x o f changes t o o r a p i d and too r a d i c a l t o be a s s i m -i l a t e d . A l l t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . Some, however, p l a y a more f o r m a t i v e r o l e i n t h e dynamics o f change t h a n o t h e r s . The m a i n s t r e a m o f r e s p o n s e f o l l o w e d a c o u r s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f e r m e n t m a n i f e s t l y u r b a n and s e c u l a r , though o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e was an u n d e r c u r r e n t o f r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n w h i c h e x e r t e d a s t r o n g a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a l l i n c i p i e n t change. The r i c h n e s s o f d e t a i l c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h i s " a r c h i t e c t u r e o f r e s p o n s e s " must n o t be i g n o r e d i n t h e s e a r c h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e more'con-c r e t e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s e n c o u n t e r . I n m a g n i f y i n g t h e s u b t l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e i r i n n e r d y n a m i c s , as I propose t o do i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e y may n o t be d e t e r m i n a t i v e , t h e y a r e v i t a l e lements i n t h e dynamics o f t h e e n c o u n t e r . I n c h o o s i n g t o p u r s u e t h i s l i n e o f p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s , t h e a i m w i l l be t o a n a l y z e t h e s o u r c e s o f . p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s , . t o d e t e r m i n e how s u c h s t r e s s a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and t o examine how i n d i v i d u a l s d e a l t w i t h the s t r e s s . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s t y p e o f p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e danger o f 6 f a i l i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e g r a n d e r sweep o f e v e n t s w h i c h s u g g e s t more c o n c r e t e l y t h e "how" and "why" o f t h a t span o f h i s t o r y j from t h e s u b j e c -t i v e e l e m e n t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and i d e n t i t y c r i s i s ; The n a r r o w n e s s o f t h e endeavour j u s t i f i e s i t s e l f o n l y i f one s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e v i e w t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e w hole ca n n o t be c o m p l e t e i f i t i g n o r e s t h e segment o f e n c o u n t e r a f f e c t i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h o s e v a l u e s a r e e n s h r i n e d i n a r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r w o v e n i n t o t h e f a b r i c o f s o c i a l l i f e . 7 CHAPTER I I RELIGION, IDENTITY AND SOCIAL CHANGE: THE INDIAN SITUATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY I . INTRODUCTION I n l a r g e s e c t o r s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y t o d a y , n o t a b l y i n t h e p o p u l o u s r u r a l a r e a s , a t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e s t i l l p r e v a i l s , r e l a t i v e l y u ntouched b y . t h e i n c i p i e n t m o d e r n i t y o f t h e s p r a w l i n g u r b a n c e n t e r s . Over a c e n t u r y ago I n d i a 1 , b o t h i n s p i r e d and c o e r c e d by t h e power o f t h e B r i t i s h n a t i o n , began t h e l o n g p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a modern s t a t e . T o d a y she i s s t i l l i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e j u n a b l e t o e f f e c t t h e metamorphosis i n t o m o d e r n i t y . The o b s t a c l e s w h i c h she has e n c o u n t e r e d encompass a l l t h e e x p e c t e d economic and p o l i t i c a l problems o f a new n a t i o n committed t o economic development. One h i n d r a n c e has p r o v e d m o s t . o b s t r u c -t i v e o f t h e d e s i r e d p r o g r e s s . D e r i v e d i n l a r g e p a r t f r o m t h e above f a c t o r s , i t may be d e s c r i b e d as a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l one. I n d i a i s an o l d s o c i e t y . The w e i g h t o f h e r a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s have l e n t a m a s s i v e n e s s t o t h e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s s u p p o r t i n g h e r t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n . Her r e l i g i o n has formed a f i r m c u l t u r a l m a t r i x w h i c h has s e r v e d t o d e f i n e t h e g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e group and, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Through t h e varnasrama s y s t e m and t h e sanatana dharma}' scheme t h e s e v a l u e s and g o a l s have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o b o t h t he o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . W h i l e h e r v a l u e s y s t e m r e f l e c t e d a t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d v i e w not f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e o f p r o g r e s s ( b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o i t ) , I n d i a ' s s o c i a l o r d e r , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f orm o f t h o s e v a l u e s , was 8 f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t premodern framework. I t i s n o t easy t o e f f e c t a change i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f a c u l t u r e , t o c o n v i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s t o f o r s a k e t h e i r , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and a c c e p t t h o s e o f o t h e r s . But i t i s even m o r e ' d i f f i c u l t , once t h i s change has been made; t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m w h i c h forms,"' t h e b a s i s o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . And y e t t h i s l a t t e r change i s i m p e r a t i v e . I t i s incumbent upon a m o d e r n i z i n g s o c i e t y t o e f f e c t deep r e a r r a n g e -ments o f t h o s e c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s b e l o n g i n g not o n l y t o t h e " i d e o l o g -i c a l - m o t i v a t i o n a l " o r d e r , b u t a l s o t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l " 2 o r d e r . I n I n d i a , t h e e s s e n t i a l a l t e r a t i o n s were s l o w t o o c c u r ; and even when t h e y were a c h i e v e d t h e y were r e s t r i c t e d t o a v e r y s m a l l segment o f t h e s o c i e t y , namely, t h e e d u c a t e d e l i t e . T h i s group was m o d e r n i z e d , b u t o n l y i n a l i m i t e d s ense and o n l y a t t h e expense o f a l i e n a t i o n f rom t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l group. T h i s l a t t e r group, w h i l e s t r u g g l i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r a d i c a l changes demanded o f them tended t o r e c o i l i n f e a r and t a k e an even t i g h t e r h o l d on what was f a m i l i a r . I n a t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y s u c h as t h i s t h e v a l u e systems o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and the modern w o r l d c o e x i s t u n c o m f o r t a b l y and n e i t h e r o b t a i n s - f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f a d j u s t m e n t a m i d s t . r a p i d change. To whom s h o u l d one be l o y a l ? W i t h what i d e a l s s h o u l d one i d e n t i f y ? . By what s t a n d a r d i s one t o j u d g e b e h a v i o u r ? These a r e e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s demanding d e f i n i t e answers, and t h e two v a l u e systems do n o t o f f e r t h e same answers. I n t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e p r o v i n c e o f r e l i g i o n t e n d s t o be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t o i t s t r a n s c e n d e n t p r i n c i p l e s . The d e t a i l s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y change r a p i d l y — d e t a i l s w h i c h used to be u n d e r s t o o d as m e a n i n g f u l b e c a u s e an i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p m e d i a t e d by a s y s t e m o f v a l u e s , was formed between b r o a d r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . When, as i n t h e c a s e o f I n d i a , d i s j u n c t i o n o c c u r r e d between t h e meaning s y s t e m and t h e a c t i o n s y s t e m , t h e n some i n d i v i d u a l s caught i n t h e change e x p e r i -enced a c r i s i s i n i d e n t i t y . Meaning, v a l u e and m o t i v a t i o n had no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e new r e a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e l o s t t h e i r r e l e v a n c e . The p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e b u i l t i n t o t h e scheme o f l e g i t i m a t i o n s was d e s t r o y e d . Y e a t s ' l y r i c p h r a s e s a p t l y summarize t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f r a d i c a l change on s o c i e t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l : " T h i ngs f a l l a p a r t ; The c e n t e r c a n n o t h o l d ; ...The b e s t l a c k a l l c o n v i c t i o n , w h i l e t h e w o r s t / A r e f u l l o f p a s s i o n a t e i n t e n s i t y . ,.• . . _ The o b j e c t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y : how i t o r i g i n a t e s , what i t c o n s i s t s o f , how i t f u n c t i o n s , how i t i s p r e s e r v e d and how i t i s d e s t r o y e d . S i n c e t h e i s s u e a t hand i s p r i m a r -i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r two a s p e c t s i n t h e c h a n g i n g phases o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a n s o c i e t y , ' t h e c h a p t e r w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e d a t a f r o m s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s i n i t s examin-a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i n t r a d i t i o n a l , t r a n s i t i o n a l and c o l o n i a l I n d i a n s o c i e t y . The p e r s p e c t i v e s t h e s e t h r e e d i s c i p l i n e s o f f e r c a n be u t i l i z e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o m p l i c a t e d mass o f d a t a e x i s t i n g o n t h e s u b j e c t o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and s o c i a l change. The I n d i a o f t h e p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n c o n f r o n t s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n i t s TvimXvt-i f o r m : t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t s i t s p r e s e r v i n g a s p e c t , t h e e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s o f t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d r e p r e s e n t s i t s c r e a t i v e , i n n o v a t i v e a s p e c t , w h i l e I n d i a ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t . 4 10 I I . INDIA AS A TRADITIONAL SOCIETY: RELIGION, IDENTITY AND PRIMORDIAL TIES I n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f I n d i a as a ' t r a d i t i o n a l . s o c i e t y t h e emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d upon t h o s e elements o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the f o r m a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . I t must be p o i n t e d o u t i m m e d i a t e l y , though, t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o speak o f the t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a as i f i t were a m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c t u r e . L i k e any o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c r e l i g i o n s i t had i t s s h a r e o f c h a l l e n g i n g h e t e r o d o x i e s , s u b - c u l t u r e s and f o l k r e l i g i o n s — a l l t h e " l i t t l e t r a d i t i o n s " so t y p i c a l o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n l i f e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I n d i a p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h a t s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n t h a t she had an e s t a b l i s h e d o r t h o d o x v a l u e s y s t e m . Because i t a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d and j u s t i f i e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m , i t m a i n t a i n e d an a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e w i d e s t s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y . Each i n d i v i d u a l knew, i n d i s p u t a b l y , who he was, where he b e l o n g e d and what was e x p e c t e d o f him. On a c c o u n t o f t h i s w i d e s p r e a d adherence t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f r e l i g i o u s symbols i t i s p o s s i b l e t o speak, i n a g e n e r a l way, o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n s o c i e t y . S i n c e b a s i c v a l u e judgements c o n s t i t u t e t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m and o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , 5 and b e c a u s e t h e v a l u e s y s t e m o f a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i s governed by t h e r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m , t h e r e l i g i o u s element i s seen t o be f u n d a m e n t a l t o p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . I t s p o s i t i o n as t h e m a t r i x o f a l l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o r , as R o b e r t B e l l a h has termed i t , t h e " h i g h e s t c y b e r n e t i c c o n t r o l mechanism i n a s o c i e t y o r p e r s o n a l i t y , " endows i t w i t h t h e i n t e g r a t i v e c a p a c i t y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a 11 s t a b l e sense o f i d e n t i t y . By making r e f e r e n c e t o an u l t i m a t e s e t o f v a l u e s o r t r u t h s , t h e h i s t o r i c r e l i g i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s e t -of d e f i n i t i o n s encompassing t h e w o r l d and one's p l a c e i n i t , t h e pu r p o s e o f l i f e and one's d e s t i n y i n i t . I n I n d i a , karma, t h e u n i v e r s a l , i r o n - f i s t e d l a w o f j u s t r eward f o r a l l . deeds done, and dharma, t h e p r i n -c i p l e o f d u t y and r i g h t a c t i o n g o v e r n i n g n o t Only t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u t s o c i e t y and t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d as w e l l , when t a k e n t o g e t h e r , f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l and t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . The- l a w o f karma e x p l a i n s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l how he has come t o be t h e p e r s o n he i s — b o r n i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y and perhaps endowed w i t h some a b i l i t i e s b u t n o t o t h e r s . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s him w i t h a b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e e v e n t s w h i c h have shaped h i s l i f e . A l t h o u g h h i s f u t u r e i s n o t e n t i r e l y w i t h i n h i s c o n t r o l ( s i n c e t h e e f f e c t s o f some o f h i s p r e v i o u s deeds have y e t t o b e a r t h e i r f r u i t s ) , s t i l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l knows t h a t by f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s and a v o i d i n g t h e p r o s c r i p t i o n s o f h i s dharma (svadharma) he w i l l o b t a i n much good i n t h i s l i f e and a s s u r e h i m s e l f o f a s t o r e o f m e r i t i n h i s n e x t l i f e . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y g i v e n by t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m communicate t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l an a l l - p e r v a s i v e s ense o f o r d e r and meaning, a s t a b l e ground upon w h i c h he may depend and p r o c e e d t o i n t e r p r e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e s upon. T h i s i s t h e i d e n t i t y f u n c t i o n o f a r e l i g i o n . I t o p e r a t e s i n a s o c i e t y t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n w h e r e i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a l o n g w i t h t h e m o t i v a t i o n s and s k i l l s c o nsonant w i t h t h o s e b a s i c v a l u e judgements, b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s . I n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s s u c h as I n d i a , t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g c o n t i n u i t y between b a s i c s o c i a l i z a t i o n whereby a c h i l d i s i n d u c t e d i n t o 12 society by learning i t s values, patterns of association, s k i l l s and moti-vations, and secondary socialization where the acquired values and s k i l l s are put to the test of usefulness in the adult world. Here the sense of meaning and purpose internalized in childhood as the "true re a l i t y " is not contradicted by the mature person reflecting upon his l i f e and seeking a place for himself in the adult world. This strong sense of continuity absolves doubt and acts as an integrative force in the process of identity formation. Arising out of the cultural religious matrix i t operates to help the individual discover for himself, as Eric Erickson has put i t , "Some central perspective and direction, some working unity, out.of the effective remnants of his childhood and the hopes of the anticipated adulthood...."7 In this sense, then, personal identity is rooted in those cultural factors — values, beliefs and attitudes — constituting the province of religion in traditional societies. The sense of self experienced in traditional societies has a qual-it y of tenacity not shared by our modern, plu r a l i s t i c societies. This is due in part to an effective social concensus, the absence of external threat to the stability of the society and the natural resistance to. change that characterizes the sense of self-identity. But of special importance to the resilience of personal identity in traditional societies is the intimate correspondence between personal identity and the struc-tures of social organization which support the social system. The char-acteristic feature of traditional social organization is i t s primordiality. The network of ties that secure the fabric of society issue from the bonds of blood and kinship, language and religion. In Clifford Geertz's explanation, primordial ties breed a kind of attachment stemming from the 13 " g i v e n s " o r the assumed " g i v e n s " of s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e . "They have an i n e f -f a b l e , and a t t imes overpower ing , c o e r c i v e n e s s i n and of t h e m s e l v e s . . . i The power of the " g i v e n s 1 t o shape an i n d i v i d u a l ' s n o t i o n of who, at bot tom, he i s and w i t h whom, i n d i s s o l u b l y , he belongs i s rooted i n the g n o n - r a t i o n a l foundat ions of p e r s o n a l i t y . " In t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a the s t r o n g e s t p r i m o r d i a l t i e , the b l o o d r e l a -t i o n s h i p , was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the system of the extended f a m i l y . Not o n l y was the f a m i l y the most b a s i c u n i t of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but i t was a l s o the most f o r m a t i v e one. A l t h o u g h the i n d i v i d u a l would t y p i c a l l y extend h i s sense of b e l o n g i n g to i n c l u d e h i s cas te group, the r i g i d i t y of the a s c r i p t i v e order w i t h i t s c o u n t l e s s i n j u n c t i o n s and taboos , prevented 9 him from i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h a w i d e r s o c i a l community. - In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s the i n d i v i d u a l always r e t u r n e d to h i s f a m i l y as the center of l o y a l t y , the source of i d e n t i t y and the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y . Furthermore , the i d e a l s and p r i n c i p l e s of conduct (dharma) tha t determined what an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i o r i t i e s should b e , upheld the primacy of f a m i l i a l d u t y . Thus the i n t i m a c y , i n t r i n s i c to k i n s h i p t i e s was reinforced"-.by sacred j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y , of permanence, c o i n c i d e n t w i t h such a s i t u a t i o n , , b r e d a f e e l i n g of n a t u r a l n e s s , f a m i l i a r i t y , and an i n h e r e n t meaningfulness i n the f l o w of human e x i s t e n c e . There i s a l a r g e r s o c i a l group r e p l e t e w i t h p r i m o r d i a l sent iments which a l s o c la imed the a l l e g i a n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a . T h i s group was bound together by a f e e l i n g of c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y stemming from a sense of s p i r i t u a l a f f i n i t y born of shared v a l u e s and a common w o r l d v i e w . The c u l t u r a l r e l i g i o u s m a t r i x to which such importance was g i v e n i n i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n takes on an even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e because of i t s l o c a t i o n 14 i n t h e network o f p r i m o r d i a l t i e s . The c o e r c i v e n e s s o f r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s o b t a i n s n o t m e r e l y because t h e y a r e b a s i c t o t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s b u t a l s o because r e l i g i o n i s p r e d i s p o s e d t o p r i m o r -d i a l i n t i m a c y and s h a r e s w i t h i t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s o f n a t u r a l n e s s and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . I I I . INDIA AS A TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY: CULTURAL CHANGE AND IDENTITY CRISIS The t e r m " t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y " i s used t o d e n o t e a s o c i e t y t h a t i s in transit between a t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r i m o r d i a l t i e s d i s c u s s e d above and a modern s e c u l a r s t a t e t h a t d i v e s t s t h e s e t i e s o f t h e i r a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I n i t s p l a c e i t s u b s t i t u t e s a l l e g i e n c e t o a sense o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y w h i c h becomes t h e new c o n t e x t w h e r e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t o d i s c o v e r a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ; The t r a n s i t i o n i s from p r i m o r d i a l t o c i v i l t i e s , f rom t h e p e r s o n a l and t h e " n a t u r a l " t o the i m p e r s o n a l and t h e s o c i a l , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g n o t so much " u n n a t u r a l " , a s i t i s a h i g h l y l e a r n e d f o r m o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . The movement i s away f r o m a r e l i g i o u s . o r i e n t a t i o n t o l i f e w h i c h depends f o r i t s a c c e p t a n c e on an a t t i t u d e o f f a i t h , and towards a s e c u l a r v i e w o f human e x i s t e n c e w h i c h a d h e r e s t o r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s . M o d e r n i z a t i o n , t h e n , demands a l e a p r a t h e r t h a n a s t e p . The modern s e c u l a r s t a t e i s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y f o r i t i n s i s t s t h a t n o t o n l y must t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s undergo a deep r e a r r a n g e m e n t b u t a l s o t h e m o t i v a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s y s t e m must be s i m i l a r l y m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e c i v i l o r d e r t o c r e a t e r a d i c a l new f u n c t i o n s f o r t h o s e v a l u e s . 1 ^ There a r e t h r e e s t e p s i n v o l v e d h e r e : t h e r e o r d e r i n g o f the v a l u e s y s t e m , t h e I 5 a l i g n m e n t o f new v a l u e s w i t h new f u n c t i o n s , and t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l towards t h e new g o a l s . I n l a r g e p a r t , t h i s r e q u i r e s what S h i l s c a l l s " t h e d i s p e r s a l o f c h a r i s m a ... t o t h e economic f i e l d , " 1 " ' " s i n c e t h e c e n t r a l theme o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n i s economic development. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h many o f t h e s k i l l s , v a l u e s and m o t i v a t i o n s e s s e n t i a l t o a modern s o c i e t y had e x i s t e d f o r a v e r y l o n g t i m e i n t h e e n t r e p r e n u e r i a l c l a s s e s o f I n d i a , t h e y d i d n o t occupy a c e n -t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l c o n c e r n as th e y have done i n modern s o c i e t i e s . That i s t o s a y , i n t h e H i n d u scheme o f Purushartha, t h e f o u r . g o a l s o f l i f e , p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r artha, t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , and i t i s g i v e n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e .aim o f l i f e . The o r i e n t a t i o n o f artha i s s e c u l a r , b u t i t i s tempered by t h e i d e a l s o f s e l f l e s s n e s s and n o n - a p p r o p r i a t i o n , i d e a l s w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r - w o r l d l i n e s s and a s c e t i c i s m , a r e g i v e n a much h i g h e r v a l u e i n t h e t o t a l scheme o f t h i n g s t h a n i s arthag . F u r t h e r m o r e , as Dube and S h i l s have p o i n t e d o u t , t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n a t t i t u d e s towards w e a l t h a r e n o t c o n d u c i v e 12 t o economic development. S u r p l u s c a p i t a l i s t y p i c a l l y s quandered i n e x c e s s i v e d i s p l a y s o f w e a l t h , u s u a l l y i n t h e c e r e m o n i a l d i s c h a r g e o f r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n s , o r i t i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o g o l d j e w e l l e r y , a form o f s a f e - k e e p i n g w h i c h removes i t s p r o d u c t i v e power from t h e economy. When t h e a l t e r n a t e v a l u e systems o f t r a d i t i o n and m o d e r n i t y encoun-t e r one a n o t h e r i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , p r e s s u r e i s e x e r t e d upon t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m t o adapt o r become d y s f u n c t i o n a l . By t h e t i m e t h i s c o n f l i c t i s d i s c o v e r e d , i r r e v e r s i b l e p r o c e s s e s o f change have a l r e a d y been i n i t i a t e d i n t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e s . Change i s se e n t o 16 be inevitable. Indians were quick to recognize they must have a definite say in.determing the direction of change. It was necessary for them to find an expedient means of interpreting the changes in the context.of India's own, cultural history in order to prevent Westernization from 13 taking control of the modernization process. Some of the reasons for this xenophobic reaction to Western values have been intimated above. Briefly, change must -be meaningful. The changes demanded for modernization acquire meaning only in the context of the modern world view. For the individual who does not comprehend this modern world view, and only realizes he must reject the old, familiar, stable world of his kin or caste group for an unknown world appearing to lack every amenity he presently possesses, change is not only intolerable, i t can.be terrifying. The individual cannot destroy his old values with-out destroying his self — his sense of identity, personal as well as social. Anomie i s implicit in such a sh i f t . And yet he-desires the bene-f i t s of technology, the conveniences and luxuries that are the hallmark of modernity and which could never be acquired under his present way of l i f e . The-ambiguity of his position i s heightened by his fear of being destroyed by the flood of alien imports. The goal of the modernizer i s , then, to avoid an absolute break with the past,.to effect an alignment with two d i -vergent rea l i t i e s so as to produce something that is not an ideological replica of Protestant capitalism. This culturally-based sense of continu-ity v i t a l to personal identity must be assiduously sought,after and im-printed onto the emerging social consciousness by any means, p o l i t i c a l , ideological, or, best of a l l , by astute manipulation of the religious symbol system from the inside, that i s , by persons within the religious tradition.-'-4 17 A s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f p a t h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y c r i s e s amongst t h o s e n a t i v e p e o p l e who c l o s e l y i n t e r -a c t w i t h t h e f o r e i g n c u l t u r a l community. These i n d i v i d u a l s a r e u s u a l l y ' drawn from t h e upper c l a s s e s — Brahmins, K s h a t r i y a s , and V a i s h y a s — and a r e t h e most l i k e l y p e o p l e t o engage i n a c t i v i t i e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n government. I n I n d i a , a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e p e o p l e r e c e i v e d an E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n and p u r s u e d a c a r e e r i n b u s i n e s s , law o r government, t h e r e b y making f i n a n c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s m e n . But t h e s e same p e o p l e had r e c e i v e d a v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l u p b r i n g i n g . T h e i r e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e extended f a m i l y and much o f what t h e y i n h e r i t e d i n terms o f a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and a se n s e o f i d e n t i t y d i d n o t come from t h e modern v i e w s o f t h e i r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s . R a t h e r , t h e y were t h e v a l u e s o f t h e ayas ( n u r s e s ) , t h e aged g r a n d p a r e n t s and t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l mothers who took, c h a r g e o f t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l y t r a i n i n g . As was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s • w h i c h c o n s t i -t u t e a v a l u e s y s t e m and i t s r e l a t e d m o t i v a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s s u s t a i n a n a t u r a l c O e r c i v e n e s s o v e r i n d i v i d u a l s who have i n t e r n a l i z e d them. They p e r t a i n t o a r e a l i t y t h a t imbeds i t s e l f i n t h e de e p e s t e m o t i o n a l c e n t e r s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s a r e a l i t y w h i c h i s s e l f - e v i d e n t i n i t s n o n - r a t i o n a l h o l d o v e r him and f o r m a t i v e i n t h e f o r g i n g o f h i s se n s e o f s e l f . The k i n who a c t as h i s t e a c h e r s s t i l l i d e n t i f y w i t h an orthodoxy-whose s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y w i t h i t s o v e r - a r c h i n g canopy o f r e l i -g i o u s l e g i t i m a t i o n s s t a n d s as t h e most p o w e r f u l f o r c e o f p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y as w e l l as s o c i a l c o h e s i o n . To them no a l t e r n a t e r e a l i t y e x i s t s . I t i s t r u e , however, t h a t most t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s ; i n c l u d i n g 18 I n d i a , a l w a y s s u s t a i n e d an element o f p l u r a l i t y a t t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e i r o r d e r s . These a l t e r n a t e r e a l i t i e s p e r p e t u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d ; : t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment and p r e v e n t e d i t from f o s s i l i z i n g by f o r c i n g i t t o r e m a i n f l e x i b l e and open t o change. But what i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e i s t h e r e was s t i l l a p r e v a i l i n g o r t h o d o x y w h i c h commanded the a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e m a j o r -i t y and tended t o ' g r a d u a l l y a b s o r b changes r a t h e r t h a n t o submit t o them. What t h i s meant f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l was a h i g h d e g r e e o f s t a b i l i t y . - E v e n t s s h a p i n g t h e contours' o f t h i s t y p e . o f e v o l u t i o n a r y change were r a r e l y f e l t i n one g e n e r a t i o n . I n I n d i a t h i s b r e d a sense o f c o n t i n u i t y e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f t h e e v e r - e x p a n d i n g n a t u r e o f t i m e and the e t e r n a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t i m e o f a l l forms o f l i f e . 1 5 One's way o f l i f e was a p a r t o f a d r a m a t i c , e t e r n a l c y c l e : i t had not•changed and t h e r e seemed l i t t l e r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e i t w o u l d o r s h o u l d change. The o l d p e o p l e i n t h e f a m i l y , untouched by t h e t h r e a t o f t h e Western i m p a c t , communicated t h i s s ense o f s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y t o t h e i r y o u n g s t e r s who were soon t o e x p e r i e n c e a c o n t e m p o r a r y scene " l i t t e r e d w i t h f a l l e n i d o l s , d e s e c r a t e d by u n s a n c t i o n e d , v i o l e n c e , 16 an u n c o m f o r t a b l e p l a c e i n w h i c h t o l i v e . " At t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t some o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f modern s o c i e t y and t h e n j u x t a p o s e them o n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . T h i s w i l l b r i n g i n t o f o c u s some o f the problems o f t r a n s i t i o n . P l u r a l i s m i s perhaps t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e modern s o c i e t y . The i n d i s p u t a b l e " U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y " t h a t i n t e g r a t e s man, s o c i e t y and the u n i v e r s e i s h e r e d i v e s t e d o f i t s a b s o l u t i s m by t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f numerous a l t e r n a t e d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y ; C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e p r o d u c e t h e r e l a t i v i s m w h i c h p r e v a i l s i n modern s o c i e t i e s . U l t i m a t e d e f i n i t i o n s 19 o f r e a l i t y a r e no l o n g e r r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r e x c e p t as v e s t i g e s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s o r d e r w h i c h have been s e c u l a r i z e d i n t o an e t h i c a l s y s t e m . R e l i g i o n t e n d s t o become a p r i v a t e c o n c e r n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . . S e c u l a r v a l u e s r e v o l v i n g around an E d e n i c myth e n v i s i o n i n g man i n a w o r l d where work i s m i n i m a l and l u x u r y , c o n v e n i e n c e and c o m f o r t a r e m a x i m a l , c l a i m t h e a l l e g i e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The i d e o l o g y i s t h i s - w o r d l y and s e c u l a r and t h e p r o m i s e o f " h e a l t h , w e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s " i s m o t i v a t i o n enough f o r d i l i g e n t e f f o r t . Because t h e s e v a l u e s p e r t a i n t o t h e e v e r y d a y w o r l d o f work w h i c h i s i n i t s e l f m a s s i v e l y r e a l , and b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e e l y s i a n r ewards i n t h i s w o r l d , t h e y t e n d t o mask r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s . They a r e v a l u e s t h a t r e f e r t o and e x p l o i t a r e a l i t y w h i c h i n i t s g r o s s m a t e r i a l i t y i s so o b v i o u s l y r e a l i t o b f u s c a t e s t h e s u b t l e t y o f t h e r e l i g i o u s i d e a . The v a l u e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i v a t e r e l i g i o u s l i f e a r e o f t e n d i s c o r d a n t w i t h t h e s e c u l a r , i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s g o v e r n i n g h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s b i f u r c a t i o n o f t h e s a c r e d and t h e s e c u l a r , a p r o c e s s t h a t became a s s e r t i v e i n t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n e r a , f o r c e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o "compart-17 • m e n t a l i z e " h i s w o r l d . C u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m o f t e n p r o d u c e s i n t h e i n d i v -i d u a l a p l u r a l i t y o f s e l v e s w h i c h can t h w a r t what seems t o be a p s y c h o - b i o l o g i c a l need f o r i n t e g r i t y and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . At l e a s t t h i s i s t h e c a s e when i n d i v i d u a l s t r y — as d i d b o t h t h e I n d i a n and the E n g l i s h m a n — t o encompass t h e new w o r l d v i e w w i t h t h e o l d r e l i g i o u s myths. T h i s i s n o t t h e p l a c e t o d i s c u s s how t h e r e l i g i o u s i n n o v a t i o n s o f modern man have u n d e r p i n n e d h i s l o s s o f f a i t h ; (The V i c t o r i a n s s e n s e d t h i s l o s s and b a r r i c a d e d t h e m s e l v e s b e h i n d a c u l t o f e t h i c s to. a v o i d f a c i n g i t . ) S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t he has a t t e m p t e d to r e - s a c r a l i z e t h e p r o f a n e c o n d i t i o n o f modern m a t e r i a l man, t o r e - c y c l e h i m s e l f i n t o t h e 20 cosmos by b e s t o w i n g on man t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e w o r l d . The "new r e l i g i o n s " seek t h e r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f man i n t o t h e u n i v e r s e and t h e r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f u l t i m a t e meaning t o human e x i s t e n c e . I n d i v i d u a l s i n t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s s t a n d wedged between the t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d o f m e d i e v a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y , and a modern w o r l d w i t h i t s s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f segments o f t h e . w o r l d , i t s s e c u l a r s y s t e m o f s o c i a l e t h i c s and i t s newly e v o l v i n g s e t o f " r e l i g i o u s " d e f i n -i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . The p r o b l e m i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t most t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s a r e n o n - C h r i s t i a n and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r o l d r e l i g i o u s i d e a s and v a l u e s a r e even f a r t h e r removed from t h e modern w o r l d v i e w . The l a t t e r has drawn much o f i t s s t r e n g t h f r o m i t s own sense o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h a P r o t e s t a n t p a s t imbued w i t h t h e dynamic, i n n o v a t i v e s p i r i t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . Change i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i s , t h e r e f o r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r e i g n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t marches f o r w a r d i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e o l d laws o f g r a d u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n v a d i n g t h e c o u n t r y on c o m m unication l i n e s , l e g i s l a t i v e b i l l s and m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s — a l l t h e p u n c t u a l a c c o u t r e m e n t s o f a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . F i n a l l y , i t a l l i e s i t s e l f w i t h E v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y and p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as an i d e o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e : i n t o l e r a n t o f t h e p a s t , . i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t and dogmat-i c a l l y a s s u r e d o f f u t u r e p r o g r e s s . T h i s k i n d o f change i s v i o l e n t . I t makes i m p o s s i b l e demands upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a l t e r h i s v a l u e s , h i s g o a l s and, f i n a l l y , h i s s e n s e o f s e l f . I t t h r u s t s i n s e c u r i t y upon h i m b ecause a l t h o u g h he a l s o may be i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t , he i s e m o t i o n -a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h h i s own c u l t u r a l p a s t and not n e a r l y as c o n v i n c e d t h a t what w i l l be g a i n e d i n the f u t u r e w i l l compensate! f o r t h e l o s s o f t h a t p a s t . 21 The g e n e r a l r e s u l t o f t h i s k i n d o f c u l t u r a l change i s a w i d e s p r e a d o c c u r r e n c e o f p a t h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y c r i s e s . I n s o c i o l o g i c a l t e r m s , t h i s c r i s i s may be d e f i n e d as a s t a t e , o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t e x p e r i e n c e d when s e v e r e d i s j u n c t i o n o c c u r s between p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s o c i a l i z a -t i o n . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e i n g r e d i e n t s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y become l i k e o i l and w a t e r — t h e y r e f u s e t o combine. T h i s i d e n t i t y , w h i c h i s a dynamic p o i n t between a r e l e v a n t p a s t and an a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e , l o o s e s i t s e n e r g y : - t h e p a s t i s no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t and t h e f u t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . As was n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the p e o p l e most a f f l i c t e d by t h i s k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s were t h o s e I n d i a n s who, t h r o u g h t h e i r knowledge o f E n g l i s h , d e v e l o p e d economic t i e s ( o f t e n dependent ones) w i t h t h e B r i t i s h . The h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f t h e B r i t i s h - I n d i a n e n c o u n t e r adds a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i d e n t i t y c r i s i s w h i c h has h i t h e r -t o been d i s c u s s e d . T h i s i s t h e t h i r d o f t h e t h r e e f a c e s o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a n : h e r c o l o n i a l s t a t u s . Ushered i n by t h e "New I m p e r i a l i s m , " c o l o n -i a l i s m i n I n d i a p r o v e d t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e f o r I n d i a n s . I t -i s t h i s a s p e c t w h i c h i s t o be d i s c u s s e d b elow. IV . INDIA AS A COLONIAL SOCIETY Perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . i s t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e r u l e d p e o p l e . In" a sense the a l l o c a t i o n o f s u p e r i o r - i n -f e r i o r s t a t u s i s i n h e r e n t i n a s i t u a t i o n where a f o r e i g n p e o p l e g o v e r n a n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . I t stems f r o m a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n , perhaps i t may even be c a l l e d a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e , t o c o n s i d e r one's own, group and one's own b e l i e f s t o b e - t r u e and t h e r e f o r e " t h e b e s t . " But l a t e . 1 9 t h c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l i s m c r e a t e d a u n i q u e i d e o l o g y , namely i t s 22 p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c r a c i s m , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f - w h i c h were q u a l i -t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m s i m i l a r examples o f p o l i t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n i n pre-modern t i m e s ; ' The r a c i s t i d e o l o g y a c h i e v e d ascendency i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y and was due t o a ' s p e c i f i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h were f o r m a t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e t o n e o f t h e c o l o n -18 i a l m e n t a l i t y . I n Europe, E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a i n the decades f o l l o w i n g t h e 1860's, s u c h w i d e s p r e a d changes o c c u r r e d i n a l l a r e a s o f human e x i s t e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s _ c o n s i d e r a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s a y i n g a new 19 "modern" frame o f mind had emerged. S i n c e the c o n c e r n i n t h i s paper i s w i t h b o t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g a t t i -t u des o f the B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s i n I n d i a and w i t h t h e I n d i a n ' s r e s p o n s e t o them, and s i n c e b o t h o f t h e s e a r e a f u n c t i o n o f an e n c o u n t e r between two v e r y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e e n c o u n t e r s i t u a t i o n must be examined more c l o s e l y . I t must be n o t e d t h a t one c a n n o t speak o f a m o n o l i t h i c o r t h o d o x y w i t h r e s p e c t t o B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e s towards I n d i a n s . However, t h e end o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y d i d w i t n e s s a g r e a t e r concensus o f o p i n i o n w h i c h f a v o u r e d a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t owards 20 I n d i a n s t h a n had p r e v i o u s l y been the c a s e . A l t h o u g h i t may seem u n j u s t , 21 t o e x c l u d e h e r e t h e p r a i s e w h i c h some B r i t i s h e r s bestowed upon I n d i a n s , t h e r e seems t o be s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t i t was t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e B r i t i s h e r s , t h e i r a l o o f , c o n d e s c e n d i n g and d e n e g r a t i n g p o s t u r e towards them, w h i c h c a r r i e d the f o r c e o f t h e d e g r a d a t i o n I n d i a n s f e l t so k e e n l y . T h i s d e g r a d a t i o n had s u c h a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t t h a t many I n d i a n s began t o f e a r t h e B r i t i s h e r s m i g h t be r i g h t i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s o f I n d i a n c h a r a c t e r . L u c i e n Pye, i n h i s book,•Politics, Personality and.Nation Building, speaks about " t h e h a u n t i n g f e a r s o f 23 22 f a i l u r e t h e d i s t u r b i n g d o u b t s about t h e w o r t h o f t h e s e l f , " f e l t by t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e newly d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h i s i s the l e g a c y o f t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n . I t i s w o r t h q u o t i n g more f u l l y Pye's p e r c e p t i v e a n a l y s i s : The seeds o f such d o u b t s were, o f c o u r s e , p l a n t e d by t h e mechanics o f c o l o n i a l i s m , w h i c h i n e s c a p a b l y c a s t one p e o p l e i n t h e r o l e o f i n f e r i o r . M o r e o v e r , t h e m a s t e r p e o p l e s u s u a l l y d r o v e t h e p o i n t home w i t h permanent e f f e c t by e m p l o y i n g e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y a l l t h e thousand and one t e c h n i q u e s and t r i c k s by w h i c h most e l i t e s t h r o u g h o u t t i m e have sought t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r n a t u r a l . r i g h t s o f m a s t e r -s h i p and t o unnerve and d e m o r a l i z e t h e common p e o p l e . .. .• The c o l o n i a l i s t s ' c a s u a l b u t c e a s e l e s s s t r e s s on c l a s s , on s t y l e , on f o r m and above a l l t h e i r i n f l e x i -b l e s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , even when dead wrong, has l e f t w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n s o f a s p i r i n g l e a d e r s w i ^ h i n c i p i e n t d o ubts a s • t o t h e i r own a b i l i t y t o r u l e . I n t r y i n g t o l o c a t e t h e s o u r c e s o f i d e n t i t y c r i s i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o , l o o k n o t o n l y a t t h e k i n d s o f r a d i c a l changes u p - e n d i n g I n d i a n s o c i e t y , b u t a l s o a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between B r i t i s h e r s and I n d i a n s , a t the images B r i t i s h e r s had o f t h e m s e l v e s , o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s , and a t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , b o t h p r i v a t e and s o c i a l , f o r r e m a i n i n g i n I n d i a ( w hich most o f them d i s l i k e d i n t e n s e l y ) . I n o t h e r words, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s must be a n a l y z e d i n p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l t e r m s . S i m i l a r l y , i t must be d i s -c o v e r e d why I n d i a n s were so i m p r e s s e d by t h e B r i t i s h e r s ' images o f them, why t h e y were so a n x i o u s t o appear i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t b e f o r e t h e E n g l i s h m a n and why t h e y were so d i s t r e s s e d t o r e c e i v e h a r s h c r i t i c i s m f r o m them. 0. Mannoni i n h i s book, Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization, has made an i n t r i g u i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o l o n i a l powers and n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n terms o f t h e t y p e o f i n d i v i d u a l who becomes a c o l o n i a l i s t . A l t h o u g h h i s s t u d y d e a l s 24 s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e F r e n c h i n Madagascar, h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s have a g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y and p r o v e h e l p f u l i n t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a . The c e n t r a l theme o f h i s work i s t h a t t h e - e s s e n c e o f t h e c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y i s a p a s s i o n a t e c o n c e r n f o r o b t a i n i n g s t a t u s . U s i n g as c l a s s i c examples Shakespeare's P r o s p e r o and C a l i b a n (Twelfth Night)' and Defoe's R o b i n s o n Crusoe and F r i d a y , Mannoni d i s c e r n s a v e r y s p e c i f i c s o r t o f p e r s o n a l i t y f i l l i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e . He i s one who i s n o t o n l y i n a r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n a t home, b u t i s a l s o c h a g r i n e d by h i s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . D e s i r i n g t h e power, a u t h o r i t y and s t a t u r e w h i c h stems f r o m b e i n g someone i m p o r t a n t ( o r a t l e a s t f e e l i n g t h a t one i s s i g n i f i c a n t ) , and o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t one's t r u e i d e n t i t y i s t o be found o n l y i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f such a p o s i t i o n , he goes t o t h e c o l o n y . There he f i n d s a ready-made s u p e r i o r i t y and, because he has t h e r i g h t s k i n c o l o u r and speaks t h e r i g h t l a n g u a g e , t h e h i g h e s t s t a t u s i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y bestowed upon him. E q u a l i t y i s n o t a f a c t o r h e r e ; n e i t h e r i s c o m p e t i t i o n . S p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s , b o t h s o c i a l and n a t u r a l , w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s a t home a r e n o t r e q u i r e d i n t h e c o l o n y . He i s r e g a r d e d by an e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e as t h e i r m a s t e r and r u l e r . He becomes an e l i t e , an a r i s t o c r a t . Because t h e c o l o n i a l i s t , who i s t y p i c a l l y o f a m i d d l e - c l a s s b a c k -g r o u n d , t h r i v e s on power, f e e l s t h e s u r g e o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n being someone, he grows t o f i t h i s e x a l t e d image o f h i s own s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e and becomes h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a b u s i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y he has g a i n e d . He i s one t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e i n e q u a l i t y between t h e r u l e r s and t h e r u l e d b e c a u s e t h e p o l a r i t y o f s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r i s e s s e n t i a l t o h i s s e l f - i m a g e . Mannoni i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t , t h a t n o t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who go t o 2 5 2 S t h e c o l o n y a r e n e c e s s a r i l y o u t c a s t e s o r t h e b l a c k sheep o f t h e f a m i l y . -B u t t h e . p o i n t he does s t r e s s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a b i t o f t h e c o l o n i a l i s t l a t e n t i n everyone.and i t s u r f a c e s a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y i n t h e c o l o n i a l s i t -u a t i o n . J o h n , M o r e a r t y adds t o t h i s p i c t u r e o f t h e c o l o n i a l i s t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e element o f do-goodism w h i c h c a n be seen e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e m i s s i o n a r y t y p e . He n o t e s how some "not i n f r e q u e n t l y had ... a p r o f o u n d and s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o do good f o r t h e I n d i a n s , t o b e a r t h e W h i t e Man's Bu r d e n - ( w h e t h e r t o c a r r y o u t t h e demands o f a " d o c t r i n e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , " t o compensate f o r t h e i r own i n f e r i o r i t y c o m p lexes, o r t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e u n w i t t i n g sado-m a s o c h i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h had a t t r a c t e d them t o t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n ) . " 2 6 Hand i n hand w i t h t h e " e l i t i s t m e n t a l i t y " of. t h e c o l o n i a l i s t goes t h e " e x i l e m e n t a l i t y " w h i c h has i t s r o o t s i n t h e m y t h o l o g y o f t h e Nabobs. These m i d d l e - c l a s s e n t r e p r e n e u r s came t o I n d i a e a r l y i n t h e c e n t u r y and, i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , succeeded i n amassing a tremendous f o r t u n e . They r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d armed w i t h t h i s p o w e r f u l commodity and s u c c e s s -f u l l y g a i n e d e n t r a n c e i n t o a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s . They p u r c h a s e d c o u n t r y e s t a t e s , t h e h i g h e s t symbol o f g e n t i l i t y , and l i v e d a l i f e o f c a r e f r e e l e i s u r e a t the p i n n a c l e o f t h e s o c i a l p y r a m i d , f a r removed f r o m t h e f a t -i g u e and d r u d g e r y o f t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s p e o p l e . P o p u l a r s t o r i e s about t h e l i v e s and a d v e n t u r e s o f t h e m a r v e l o u s Nabobs c r e a t e d what W a l t e r Houghton c a l l e d t h e " B o u r g e o i s Dream": r e t i r e m e n t i n t o i d l e n e s s w h i c h was t h e 2 7 "badge o f s t a t u s " o f "a gentleman o f i n d e p e n d e n t means." The V i c t o r i a n s r e g a r d e d work as a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n and as t h e o n l y means o f s o c i a l improvement. F a i l u r e i n l i f e was t h e u l t i m a t e h u m i l i a t i o n f o r i t i n d i c a t e d a weakness o f c h a r a c t e r and i t c o n s i g n e d ; o n e to p o v e r t y and 26 28 shame. C a r l y l e s a i d : "What i s h e l l ? — t h e t e r r o r o f n o t s u c c e e d i n g . " And y e t , d e s p i t e the e t h i c o f work and t h e s c o r n f o r i d l e n e s s , t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s b u s i n e s s m a n y e a r n e d f o r t h e rewards o f work — t h e w e a l t h and the l e i s u r e t o e n j o y l i f e . H i s c u r s e o f t h e a r i s t o c r a t stemmed from h i s 29 envy o f t h e i r i d l e n e s s . By t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h e s i t u a t i o n had changed. The Nabob became a hero o f t h e p a s t b u t h i s achievement remained t o i n s p i r e f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f a s p i r i n g s o c i a l c l i m b e r s . M a s s i v e f o r t u n e s c o u l d no l o n g e r be o b t a i n e d i n I n d i a and t r a n s l a t e d b a c k t o En g l a n d i n terms o f s t a t u s : one c o u l d make a d e c e n t s a l a r y f o r h i m s e l f i n the c o l o n y , b u t one w o u l d have t o make a c a r e e r o f i t . As H u t c h i n s has put i t , " E n g l i s h m e n d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e rewards o f s t e a d y s e r v i c e i n I n d i a r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e more e l u s i v e ones o f f e r e d by E n g l i s h s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s . The a m b i t i o n o f u s i n g I n d i a as an avenue o f advancement i n t h e E n g l i s h s o c i a l 30 s c a l e ' w a s n o t l o s t - s i g h t o f ; i t was s i m p l y t r a n s p l a n t e d t o I n d i a n s o i l . " The f e e l i n g o f b e i n g i n e x i l e w h i c h stemmed from t h i s t o t a l i d e n t i f -i c a t i o n w i t h E ngland a c t e d as a f o r c e o f g r a v i t y k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o t i g h t l i t t l e s o c i a l e n c l a v e s a l l B r i t i s h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e . F a r removed b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y f r o m t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e r p e o p l e and c u l t u r e t h e y were l i v i n g w i t h i n , t h e y c r e a t e d f r o m t h e remnants o f t h e i r b e s t images o f t h e i r o w n , c u l t u r e a s t y l i z e d , i n some s e n s e f o s s i l i z e d r e p l i c a o f t h a t s o c i e t y , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s o c i a l r u l e s , p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h f u r n i s h e d t h e i r own minds. T h i s k e p t t h e i r dream o f h i g h B r i t i s h s o c i e t y i n the f o r e f r o n t o f r e a l i t y and en-a b l e d e v eryone t o s e r i o u s l y a c t o u t h i s a f f e c t e d f a n t a s i e s o f n o b i l i t y . I n Yd.sKMemoivs of. a Bengal Civilian, John Beames n o t e s how even among " t h e 27 m i d d l e and l o w e r c l a s s e s o f Europeans i n I n d i a , e v e ryone . . . c o n s i d e r e d 31 h i m s e l f a ' S a h i b ' o r g e n t l e m a n . " But an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e a r i s t o -c r a t i c p o s t u r e i s t h a t i t have a r e a l and p r e s e n t dependency r e f e r e n t : t h e c o l o n i a l needs t h e n a t i v e i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t h i s dominant s t a t u s . S i n c e t h e newly a c q u i r e d g e n t i l i t y i s n o t t r a n s f e r a b l e t o t h e homeland, i t must be f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e c o l o n y . The n a t i v e must f u l f i l t h e c o l o n i a l -i s t ' s p a s s i o n f o r s t a t u s by becoming a w i l l i n g dependent. The c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r p e t u a t e s t h i s dependency t h r o u g h p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a p t i v i t y — i n . M a n n o n i ' s e x p l a n a t i o n , i t b r i n g s i n t o e x i s t e n c e the need f o r depend-32 ence. A.P. T h o r n t o n , i n h i s book, Doctrines-of' Imperialism},has e x p l a i n e d t h i s p r o c e s s most s u c c i n c t l y . He.says: Where, t h e n , two d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y i m p a c t upon one a n o t h e r , two t h i n g s a r e l i k e l y t o happen. The n a t i v e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s e r o d e d . The c o l o n i a l i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s i n t e n s i f i e d . The n a t i v e ' s environment has been i n v a d e d and t h e r e f o r e h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , a p r o d u c t o f t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t , has a l s o gone down t o d e f e a t . D e p r i v e d o f h i s c u l t u r a l terms o f r e f e r e n c e , he becomes l i t e r a l l y a nobody, n o t o n l y i n t h e i n v a d e r s eyes b u t i n h i s o w n . 3 3 He sums up t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h u s : What, i n e s s e n c e , i s a c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ? I t i s one i n w h i c h the c a p t o r i s h e l d as f i r m l y by t h e c h a i n as t h e c a p t i v e . When the c h a i n i s b r o k e n , as i t how i s i n t h i s p r e s e n t age o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n , he s u f f e r s consequences as t r a u m a t i c . 3 ^ A l t h o u g h b o t h Mannoni and T h o r n t o n s u g g e s t from t h e examples o f A f r i c a n and M a l a g a s y . n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t n a t i v e s a l s o f e a r e d b e i n g abandoned by t h e w h i t e man once t h e d o m i n a t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n had c a p t u r e d t h e i r a l l e g i e n c e , I do n o t f e e l t h a t , i n I n d i a a t l e a s t , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e as c l e a r c u t as t h e y want t o suggest.. Once t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p 28 has been e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e u m b i l i c a l c o r d o f w h i t e man's r a t h e r awesome c i v i l i z a t i o n has f u s e d t h e two p e o p l e s t o g e t h e r , t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y a s t r o n g c a s e f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b i r t h trauma when t h e n a t i o n a l i s t r e s p o n s e m a t u r e s . But a l t h o u g h some ed u c a t e d I n d i a n s d i d a c c e p t t h e o p i n i o n s and images w h i c h B r i t i s h e r s had o f them, namely, t h a t I n d i a n s were meant t o be a dependent p e o p l e , t h a t t h e y were n a t u r a l l y , even c o n -s t i t u t i o n a l l y so ( p r o o f o f t h i s was t h e i r e x c e s s i v e obsequeousness, t h e i r s e r v i l e a t t i t u d e ) , o t h e r I n d i a n s r e f u s e d t o a c q u i e s c e . These l a t t e r ones i n s t i g a t e d t h e movements demanding e q u a l i t y b e f o r e . t h e l a w and r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e government. They a l s o a d v o c a t e d s o c i a l r e f o r m s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e y were n o t c o m p l e t e l y immune t o t h e s c a t h i n g c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h l e v e l e d on I n d i a n s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . O ther I n d i a n s o f t h i s group responded i n e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e way. They became r e a c t i o n a r y , b u t r e s s e d up e v e r y t h i n g i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e as good and r e l e a s e d storms o f i n v e c t i v e upon t h e s i l v e r - t o n g u e d h y p o c r a c y o f t h e i n v a d e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h t r i e d t o i g n o r e t h i s u n r e s t , . t h i n k i n g ; i t t o f o l l o w t h e c l a s s i c p a t t e r n o f 35 a d o l e s c e n t r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e p r o t e c t i v e f a t h e r o b s e r v e d a l r e a d y i n A f r i c a and Madagascar, t h e I n d i a n a g i t a t i o n c o n t a i n e d a n o t e o f t h r e a t e n -i n g i n s i s t e n c e w h i c h u n s e t t l e d t h e B r i t i s h complacency o v e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n I n d i a . T h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d seem t h a t a l t h o u g h I n d i a n s d i d f e e l i n t e n s e l y t h e e r o d i n g e f f e c t on t h e i r i d e n t i t y — p e r s o n a l as w e l l as c u l t u r a l — as a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e c o l o n i a l e n c o u n t e r , t h e r e were some who were n o t r e n d e r e d i m p o t e n t by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e p e n d e n c y : r e l a t i o n s h i p . They were a m b i v a l e n t towards t h e B r i t i s h and a l t h o u g h t h e y were c h r o n i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by p a t h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y c r i s e s , t h e w e i g h t o f t h e i r . 29 own t r a d i t i o n c o u l d n o t be overpowered by t h e i n v a d i n g one. T h e r e f o r e , i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o r e g a r d t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement as a . t r u e e x p r e s s i o n o f a d e s i r e f o r e q u a l i t y . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e movement t h e w i s h t o a t t a i n i ndependence was n o t e x p r e s s e d — i n a r e a l s e n s e i t c a n be s a i d most e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s were n o t unhappy t h e n w i t h t h e dependency r e l a t i o n -s h i p on the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . They d e s i r e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n and were w i l l i n g t o submit t o a t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p . But the p r o j e c t i o n o f a r a c i s t a t t i t u d e onto t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h gave to dependency the r a n k o f human i n f e r i o r i t y was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e I n d i a n i n t e l l e c t . A g a i n s t • t h i s i n s u l t , t h e p i n n a c l e o f d e g r a d a t i o n , . t h e I n d i a n s r e b e l l e d . There i s a c o r o l l a r y t o t h e B r i t i s h e r s ' c u l t u r a l i n s u l a r i t y i n I n d i a and t h e i r e x c l u s i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h an i d e a l i z e d , a r i s t o c r a t i c B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . T h i s was a t o t a l a l i e n a t i o n from I n d i a n c u l t u r e . C o n t a c t w i t h I n d i a n s was, f o r many o f f i c i a l s , r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e m e n i a l s who s e r v e d them i n t h e i r g a r r i s o n e d . q u a r t e r s . I t was p o s s i b l e , a c c o r d i n g t o H u t c h i n s , f o r an E n g l i s h gentleman t o l i v e i n I n d i a f o r an extended p e r i o d o f t i m e and 37 n e v e r once speak t o an edu c a t e d I n d i a n . I t i s i r o n i c t o n o t e how t h e " r e s p e c t a b l e I n d i a n s " t h a t M a c a u l a y wanted t o c r e a t e ("a c l a s s o f p e r s o n s , I n d i a n i n b l o o d and c o l o u r , b u t E n g l i s h i n t a s t e , i n o p i n i o n , i n m o r a l s , 38 and i n i n t e l l e c t ..;". ) d i d come i n t o e x i s t e n c e as t h e I n d i a n m i d d l e - c l a s s , and was much d e s p i s e d by t h e E n g l i s h m e n o f l a t e r g e n e r a -39 t i o n s . They came t o r e g a r d e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s n o t o n l y as u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p e o p l e o f I n d i a , b u t a l s o as c u r i o u s a n o m a l i e s t o b e - s c o r n e d and i g n o r e d . L o r d . Curzon commented: " I s n ' t i t funny t o see them e a t i n g w i t h k n i v e s and f o r k s ? " ^ u T h i s contemptuous a t t i t u d e towards u p p e r - c l a s s 30 I n d i a n s combined w i t h the p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards t h e I n d i a n masses c o u l d h a r d l y c r e a t e a c l i m a t e o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Because t h e B r i t -i s h e r s were so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h b e i n g E n g l i s h i n e v e r y mannerism, i n e v e r y m e t i c u l o u s d e t a i l o f c o n d u c t and d r e s s , and because t h e i r s t a t u s and t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r s ense o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y was d e r i v e d from t h i s v e r y r e a l w o r l d o f t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n , I n d i a n s o c i e t y h a d t o e x i s t o u t s i d e t h e n a r r o w p e r i m e t e r s o f t h e E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y . As T h o r n t o n has s t a t e d above, t h e two p e r s o n a l i t i e s were m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . There was no way an I n d i a n c o u l d hope t o fathom t h e c u r i o u s w o r l d o f B r i t i s h f a s t i d i -o usness and p r o p r i e t y . An Englishman, c o u l d n e v e r hope t o comprehend a c h a r a c t e r so a n t i t h e t i c a l t o h i s own as was t h e I n d i a n ' s . I f - t h e a b o v e ' o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y a r e c o r r e c t , t h e n i t f o l l o w s t h a t any i n c u r s i o n s o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e on t h e B r i t i s h mind would pose a s e v e r e t h r e a t t o the r e a l i t y o f t h e i r p r e t e n t i o u s l i f e s t y l e and t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t sense o f s e l f - r i g h t e o u s i d e n t i t y i t bestowed on them. I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t . s u c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s , B r i t i s h e r s t ended t o emphasize t h e i r o w n . v i r t u e s and d e f i n e them q u i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y . They d i d t h i s n o t o n l y by e x t o l l i n g t h e w o r t h o f t h e i r own c u l t u r a l v a l u e s — w h i c h were most commendable because t h e y d e r i v e d from t h e " o n l y t r u e r e l i g i o n " — b u t a l s o by means o f an i n v i d i o u s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h what had been " o b s e r v e d " about t h e v a l u e s stemming from H i n d u i s m and the c h a r a c t e r t h e y p r o d u c e d . ^ 1 I n d i a n s seemed t o r e p r e s e n t t o t h e B r i t i s h e r i n I n d i a e v e r y t h i n g t h e i d e a l E n g l i s h m a n was n o t and s h o u l d n o t be.- The I n d i a n r e p r e s e n t e d man's s i n f u l n a t u r e . I t was t h e r e f o r e j u s t i f i a b l e f o r t h e B r i t i s h t o keep them under f i r m hand and a t arms l e n g t h . They were d e a l -i n g w i t h " u n c i v i l i z e d c r e a t u r e s " who were, i n K i p l i n g ' s words, 31 " h a l f - d e v i l , h a l f - c h i l d , " b a r b a r i c , c u n n i n g and l a z y ; T h o r n t o n has d e f i n e d t h i s a t t i t u d e i n F r e u d i a n terms as t h e J e k y l l - H y d e m e n t a l i t y . Because o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g u s e by o f f i c i a l s o f such terms " n i g g e r " and " b l a c k g u a r d " w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o I n d i a n s , and the c o n s t a n t d e n u n c i a t i o n o f I n d i a n s as " l a s c i v i o u s " and " e f f e m i n a t e , " t h i s " b a r b a r i a n p e o p l e " s y m b o l i z e d man's d a r k e r , i n s t i n c t u a l n a t u r e : "The n e g r o , t h e n , i s t h e w h i t e man's f e a r o f h i m s e l f . " The images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s emerging from the, B r i t i s h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s had a d e f i n i t e i m p a c t on I n d i a n s . They s t o o d 1 i n awe o f t h e w e a l t h and energy o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire and had a c u r i o u s f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e i n s c r u t i b l e E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r . They d e s p i s e d t h e u n d i s g u i s e d a r r o -gance o f the B r i t i s h and y e t f e l t a c o m p e l l i n g d e s i r e t o g a i n . t h e i r a p p r o v a l . T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a m b i v a l e n c e towards t h e f o r e i g n e r who d i s p l a y e d s u c h an u n r e a s o n a b l e contempt towards I n d i a n s and t h e i r c u l t u r e c r e a t e d much s t r e s s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and was t h e b a s i s o f h i s i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . The f a c t was t h a t B r i t i s h r e s p e c t was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r own k i n d and no m a t t e r how c u l t u r e d an I n d i a n may be o r w i t h what s k i l l he may a f f e c t B r i t i s h mannerisms he was s t i l l r e j e c t e d . Because he c o u l d n o t f u l l y i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f t h e B r i t i s h , w i t h t h e i r e x c e s s i v e o v e r -l a y o f p u r i t y , p r i d e and p a t e r n a l i s m , n o r c o u l d he f i n d a r e l e v a n t s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f h i s own p e o p l e , t h e ed u c a t e d I n d i a n l i v i n g i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y f e l t l i t t l e s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e p a s t and f e l t q u i t e i n e f f e c t i v e w i t h r e g a r d s t o h i s own f u t u r e . What he d i d f i n d , however, i n t h e backwash o f B r i t i s h c o n -tempt and e x c l u s i v e n e s s , . w a s a sense o f f e l l o w s h i p , even k i n s h i p , w i t h o t h e r I n d i a n s who had e x p e r i e n c e d t h e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f t h e w h i t e 32 society. These were individuals•who had been modernized to the extent they f e l t quite keenly what Clifford Geertz has described as "the demand 44 to exist and have a name." He does not refer here to the narrow, sense of primordial identity but to the wider, public — even national — sense of being somebody i n the world. This class of people who represented the intellectual strength of India, who f e l t the effects of the destruction of their tradition-oriented sensibility, were not the type of people to accept humility amidst such contempt. 33 CHAPTER I I . RELIGION, IDENTITY AND SOCIAL CHANGE: THE INDIAN SITUATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e two c o n c e p t s encompass t h e s y s t e m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h e i r a r c h y o f c a s t e (varna), th e r u l e s o f i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (dharma)., and the o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o w o r l d l y l i f e and t o the t r a n s c e n d e n t r e a l m o f th e s a c r e d (Jxshrama). 2 S. C. Dube, " C u l t u r a l Problems i n the Economic Development o f I n d i a , " i n Religion and Progress in Modern Asia, ed. Ro b e r t N. B e l l a h , 1965, pp. 44-45. ^W.-B. Y e a t s , The- Second Coming. 4 . _ Tr%murt% means " t h r e e f a c e d one" and r e f e r s t o t h e H i n d u T r i n i t y o f Brahma, V i s n u and S h i v a who f u n c t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y as C r e a t o r , P r e s e r v e r and D e s t r o y e r o f th e u n i v e r s e . ^G. E. Von Grunebaum, Modern Islam: the Search for Cultural Identity, 1957, p. 15. R. N. B e l l a h , " E p i l o g u e , " op. cit., p. 173. ^quoted i n L u c i e n W. Pye, Politics, Personality and Nation Building, 1962, p. 87. 8 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , "The I n t e g r a t i v e R e v o l u t i o n : P r i m o r d i a l S e n t i m e n t s and C i v i l P o l i t i c s i n t h e New S t a t e s , " i n Old Societies and New States, ed. G e e r t z , 1963, p. 109 and p. 128. 9 Dube, p. 53. 1 0 T h e p h r a s e s "deep r e a r r a n g e m e n t " and " r a d i c a l new f u n c t i o n s " a r e f r o m K a r l D e u t s c h as q u o t e d i n B e l l a h , p. 170. "'""'"Edward S h i l s , "The C o n c e n t r a t i o n and D i s p e r s i o n o f C h a r i s m a , T h e i r B e a r i n g on Economic Development i n U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s , " World Politics, X I , No. 1 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 12. 12 . Dube, p. 54 and S h i l s , op. ext. 13 F o r a good d i s c u s s i o n o f th e d i s t i n c t i o n made;here, see D a v i d K o p f , British Orientalism and the BengalRenaissance, 1969, pp. 275-280. "^Soedjatmoko, " C u l t u r a l M o t i v a t i o n s t o P r o g r e s s : t h e " E x t e r i o r " and t h e " I n t e r i o r V i e w s , " i n B e l l a h , p. 8. • 1"'For a good example o f the I n d i a n c o n c e p t o f t i m e , s ee t h e s t o r y e n t i t l e d "The Para d e o f A n t s , " i n H e i n r i c h Zimmer, Myths and Symbols in-Indian Art and Civilization, 1962, pp. 3-11. 34 •^M. M a t o s s i a n , " I d e o l o g i e s o f D e l a y e d I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Some T e n s i o n s a n d ' A m b i g u i t i e s , " Journal of Economic and Cultural Change, V I ( A p r i l 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 219. 1 7 T h e t e r m i s M i l t o n S i n g e r ' s . See h i s a r t i c l e , "Beyond T r a d i t i o n and M o d e r n i t y i n Madras," Comparative Studies in Society and History3 V o l . 13, 1971, p. 171. 1 8W. E. Houghton, The Victorian Frame of Mind, 1957, pp.'212-215. 1 9 c f . ibid., pp. 30-38. 20 F r a n c i s G. H u t c h i n s , The Illusion of Permanence: British Imperialism in India, 1967, pp. x i i - x i i i . 21 B e r n a r d Conn'has made a good a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and o c c u p a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s . He s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e r e were d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s about I n d i a n s and much p r a i s e f o r t h e i r c h a r -a c t e r from some q u a r t e r s . However, he a g r e e s w i t h H u t c h i n s t h a t a f t e r 1830 " t h e B r i t i s h came t o v i e w t h e i r s t a y i n I n d i a as a k i n d o f m o r a l e x i l e and t o r e g a r d Hindus as "an i n f e r i o r r a c e , t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r s e l v e s i n t h e i r m o r a l c h a r a c t e r . " T h i s i d e a o f a r a c i a l g u l f between I n d i a n s and B r i t i s h was c o n f i r m e d and h e i g h t e n e d by t h e M u t i n y o f 1857." See h i s a r t i c l e , "The B r i t i s h i n B e n a r e s : a N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y C o l o n i a l S o c i e t y , " Comparative Studies in-Society and History, V o l . IV,- No. 2 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.-169-199. 99 z z P y e , p. 9. ^Ibid., p. 9. 2 4-0. Mannoni, Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of- Colonization, t r a n s . , P o w e s l a n d , 1956. 25 B e r n a r d Cohn, however, has n o t e d t h a t , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h I n d i a , " t h e o f t e n made o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d an o c c u p a t i o n f o r second sons o f second sons i s p r o b a b l y l a r g e l y c o r r e c t . " c f . op. cit., • p. 178. 9 f\ J o h n M o r e a r t y , "Images o f I n d i a i n Swami V i v e k a n a n d a and O t h e r s : The I n d i a n G olden Age and I n d i a n S p i r i t u a l i t y , " D i s s . , C h i c a g o , 1969, p. 44; See a l s o H u t c h i n s , pp. 30-32 and p. 19 where he s a y s : "The E v a n g e l i c a l was ... more i n c l i n e d t o work f o r t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , w h e t h e r h e a t h e n I n d i a n o r E n g l i s h workingman, t h a n acknowledge t h e i r e q u a l i t y as human b e i n g s and p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s . The p i o u s works o f E v a n g e l i c a l s were o f t e n t i n g e d . w i t h c o n d e s c e n s i o n ; t h e E v a n g e l i c a l s engaged i n more t h o r o u g h c o n c e r n w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r own r i g h t e o u s n e s s t h a n hope f o r t h e a c t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t and e l e v a t i o n o f t h o s e who s e r v e d as o b j e c t o f t h e i r endeavours ..;."-2 7 H o u g h t o n , pp. 189-190. 35 2 8 Q u o t e d i n ibid., p. 192. 29Ibid., pp. 190-199. 30 H u t c h i n s , p; 107. 31 . Quoted i n ibid., p. 108;. 32 Mannoni, p. 85. A. P. Thornton,.Doctrines of•Imperialism, 1965, p. 191. UIbid., p. 194. 3 5 H u t c h i n s , p. 190. F o r examples, see Dadabhai N a o r o j i , "The B l e s s i n g s o f B r i t i s h R u l e , " and S u r r e n d r a n a t h B a n n e r j e a , "The Need f o r I n d i a n U n i t y , " speeches q u o t e d in.Wm. T. DeBary, ed., Sources-of. Indian Tradition, 1958, pp. 6.69-677. 3 7 H u t c h i n s , pp. 102-103. oo Thomas B a b i n g t o n M a c a u l a y , " M i n u t e on E d u c a t i o n , " ( 1 8 3 5 ) , q u o t e d i n DeBary, p. 601. 3 9 C o h n , p. 187,. . 4 0 Q u o t ed i n H u t c h i n s , p. 15 7. ^ S e e a n a r t i c l e by R. C. Majumdar, " N a t i o n a l i s t H i s t o r i a n s , " i n Social Change, The Colonial Situation, ed. Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i n , 1966, pp. 617-630. He s a y s : "The g e n e r a l h a b i t i n d u l g e d i n ... (by t h e B r i t i s h ) ...• was t o compare the w o r s t f e a t u r e s o f t h e Hindus w i t h t h e b e s t a s p e c t s o f European c u l t u r e . " p. 621. 4 2 H u t c h i n s , p. 113. 4 3 M a n n q n i , pp. 103-104. 4 4 G e e r t z , p. 107. 36 CHAPTER I I I NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH' ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS I . INTRODUCTION The 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y may be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s i n terms o f t h e k i n d o f c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s t h a t p r e v a i l e d amongst t h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a . These d i v i s i o n s a r e n o t c l e a r - c u t and c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p p i n g o c c u r s . The f o u r a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h may be d e s i g n a t e d O r i e n t a l i s t , E v a n g e l i s t , A n g l i c i s t and I m p e r i a l i s t , a r e b u i l t upon i d e o l o g i e s t h a t r e f l e c t t h e c h a n g i n g v a l u e s o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y European c u l t u r e . The O r i e n t a l i s t and t h e E v a n g e l i s t a p p r o a c h t o c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r , e x c e p t when they c o e x i s t e d i n t h e same i n d i v i d u a l , r e p r e s e n t e d o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e decades o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . But whereas O r i e n t a l i s m was phased o u t a f t e r 1830, t h e E v a n g e l i s t a p p r o a c h c o a l e s c e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e A n g l i c i s t . The l a t t e r shaded i n t o I m p e r i a l i s m towards t h e c e n t u r y ' s end w h i l e E v a n g e l i s m and I m p e r i a l i s m b e n e f i t e d one a n o t h e r by c r e a t i n g a compromise i d e o l o g y . B e f o r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e p e r i o d s , i n d i v i d u a l l y and t h e images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n them, i t must be n o t e d t h a t i f any common de n o m i n a t o r e x i s t e d between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who p o s s e s s e d t h e s e v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s i t was t h e i r image o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a . A l l had d i f -f e r e n t images o f I n d i a ' s p a s t and h e r f u t u r e , t h e s e d e p e n d i n g upon t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f v a l u e s h e l d . B u t , i n g e n e r a l , b o t h t h e O r i e n t a l i s t and t h e A n g l i c i s t — t h i s l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e E v a n g e l i s t and t h e I m p e r i a l i s t as w e l l — f e l t t h a t p r e s e n t day I n d i a n c u l t u r e was d e g e n e r a t e . ( S p e c i f i c a l l y , O r i e n t a l i s t s t h o u g h t I n d i a n c u l t u r e had degenerated w h i l e A n g l i c i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was degenerate.) C e r t a i n c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f t h o s e . m o r a l and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t h o u g h t t o be b a s i c t o t h e c i v i l i z e d s t a t e . Some f e a t u r e s o f t h e B r i t i s h image o f I n d i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f Be n g a l e e s w i t h whom t h e B r i t i s h were, i n such c l o s e c o n t a c t , were r e c u r -r i n g themes t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r y . The s t e r e o t y p e d image o f I n d i a n c h a r a c t e r c r y s t a l l i z e d by m i d - c e n t u r y i n v a r i a b l y d w e l t upon h i s d e c e i t -f u l n e s s , h i s i n d o l e n c e , h i s i m m o r a l i t y and h i s e f f e m i n a c y . Though t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e images remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , t h e meaning a t t a c h e d t o them by t h e B r i t i s h underwent much a l t e r a t i o n , d e p e n d i n g upon w h e t h e r t h e image was c o u p l e d w i t h a u n i v e r s a l i s t c r e d o o r an e t h n o c e n t r i c one, a s e c t a r i a n b i a s o r a r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . • The i m p a c t o f t h e image i n terms o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s i t c r e a t e d was i n t h e v a l u e judgment t h a t i t c a r r i e d , a judgment t h a t a t t a c h e d i t s e l f t o t h e p a s t , t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e . I I . - THE ORIENTALIST IMAGE OF INDIA AND OF INDIANS The B r i t i s h O r i e n t a l i s t s 1 d e r i v e d i n s p i r a t i o n f rom t h e c o s m o p o l i t a n , 2 u n i v e r s a l i s t s p i r i t o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y philosoyhe. They approached I n d i a n c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n w i t h a t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e f r e e f r o m t h e c u l -t u r a l p o l a r i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r A n g l i c i s t s u c c e s s o r s . T h i s d i d n o t mean t h e y were u n c r i t i c a l , o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was I n d i a n . On t h e c o n t r a r y ; t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s t a t t i t u d e l e d them t o denounce s u p e r s t i t i o n .; and narrow-mindedness, i n h u m a n i t y and i n t o l e r a n c e , a l l o f w h i c h were f o u n d t o some degr e e i n 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a . But t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o 38 c u l t u r a l encounter was guided by t h e i r i d e a l of t o l e r a n c e . They were an i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e who were , i n K o p f ' s words , " ' c l a s s i c i s t ' r a t h e r than ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l o u t l o o k , cosmopol i tan r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l i s t i n t h e i r view of o ther c u l t u r e s , and r a t i o n a l r a t h e r than romant ic i n t h e i r quest f o r those ' c o n s t a n t and u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s ' t h a t express the u n i t y of human n a t u r e . 1 Led by W i l l i a m " O r i e n t a l " Jones , they sought to i n t e r p r e t I n d i a n h i s t o r y a c c o r d i n g to the r e n a i s s a n c e - r e v i t a l i z a t i o n model born of the Enlightenment concept of the c y c l i c p a t t e r n of h i s t o r y : I n d i a , l i k e the mighty empires of Greece and Rome, once exper ienced an Age of G o l d , a p e r i o d of h i g h c i v i l i z a t i o n that was f o l l o w e d by a d e c l i n e and f a l l i n t o a Dark Age. The r e g e n e r a t i o n of t h a t a n c i e n t Golden Age c u l t u r e , or at l e a s t i t s dynamic, c r e a t i v e s p i r i t , was thought to be p o s s i b l e and h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . ^ The Vedio Golden Age The O r i e n t a l i s t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e d i s c o v e r i n g — and, i n some sense , ereating — I n d i a ' s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . As c l a s s i c i s t s they responded e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to an a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e ' t h a t was r i c h and d i v e r s i f i e d , the h a l l m a r k s of a h i g h - c u l t u r e c i v i l i z a t i o n . Jones r e f e r r e d to the S a n s k r i t language as " p o s s e s s i n g a w o n d e r f u l s t r u c t u r e , more p e r f e c t than the Greek, more copious than the L a t i n , and more e x q u i s i t e l y r e f i n e d than e i t h e r . " " ' : He. f u r t h e r suggested that " P y t h a g o -roiis and P l a t o d e r i v e d t h e i r subl ime t h e o r i e s from the same f o u n t a i n as the sages of I n d i a . " Jones was the f i r s t O r i e n t a l i s t to l o c a t e I n d i a ' s Golden Age i n the Vedic era ( ca . 1500 B . C . ) . He sketched an image of " a people w i t h a f e r t i l e and i n v e n t i v e genius . . . tha t i n some e a r l y age . . . were s p l e n d i d 39 i n a r t s and arms, happy i n government; w i s e i n l e g i s l a t i o n , and eminent i n v a r i o u s knowledge."^ He e v i n c e d the h i g h e s t r e s p e c t f o r t h e " P h i l o s o p h y o f t h e A s i a t i c k s " when he s a i d : (There a r e n o t ) ... i n any l a n g u a g e ( t h e a n c i e n t Hebrew a l w a y s ' e x c e p t e d ) more.pious and s u b l i m e a d d r e s s e s t o t h e b e i n g o f b e i n g s , more s p l e n d i d e numerations o f h i s a t t r i b u t e s , o r more b e a u t i f u l d e s c r i p t i o n s ' o f h i s v i s i b l e w o r k s , t h a n i n A r a b i c , P e r s i a n and S a n s k r i t . ...^ D i s c e r n i n g a p o e t i c and r e l i g i o u s g e n i u s i n t h e a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s l i t e r -a t u r e o f I n d i a he came t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y o f I n d i a and P e r s i a was not o n l y s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e West, b u t was i t s a c t u a l s o u r c e : A f i g u r a t i v e mode o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e f e r v o u r of d e v o t i o n , o r t h e a r d e n t l o v e o f c r e a t e d s p i r i t s towards t h e i r b e n e f i c i e n t c r e a t o r , has p r e v a i l e d from t i m e immemorial i n A s i a ; p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e P e r s i a n t h e i s t s , b o t h a n c i e n t Mushangis and modern S u f i s , who seem t o have borrowed i t from t h e I n d i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s o f t h e V e d a n t a s c h o o l ; and t h e i r d o c t r i n e s a r e a l s o b e l i e v e d t o be t h e s o u r c e o f t h a t s u b l i m e b u t p o e t i c a l , t h e o l o g y , w h i c h glows and s p a r k l e s i n the w r i t i n g s o f t h e o l d A c a d e m i c k s . " P l a t o t r a v e l l e d i n t o I t a l y and E g y p t , " s a y s C l a u d e F l e u r y , " t o l e a r n ' t h e t h e o l o g y of t h e pagans a t i t s f o u n t a i n head"; i t s t r u e f o u n t a i n , however, was n e i t h e r i n I t a l y n o r i n E g y p t . ( t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e streams o f i t had been c o n d u c t e d t h i t h e r by P y t h a g o r o u s and by t h e f a m i l y o f M i s r a ) , b u t i n P e r s i a o r I n d i a , w h i c h t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e I t a l i c k s e c t ( P y t h a g o r o u s ) had v i s i t e d w i t h a s i m i l a r d e s i g n . H.T. C o l e b r o o k e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a l f o r m o f t h e G o l d e n Age image o f w h i c h J o n e s ' w r i t i n g s had been so e v o c a t i v e . I t was C o l e b r o o k e who " d i s c o v e r e d " t h e m o n o t h e i s t i c t r a d i t i o n i n V e d i c I n d i a and p r o v e d t h a t i d o l a t r y and p o l y t h e i s m were p r o d u c t s o f much l a t e r p e r i o d s . The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n becomes o b v i o u s when one r e c a l l s t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s . They w i s h e d t o r e g e n e r a t e I n d i a n c u l t u r e , t o r e s t o r e h e r o r i g i n a l , s i m p l e , p u r e , m o n o t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n and t o r e v i t a l i z e the. i n n o v a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s t h a t 40 were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I n d i a ' s f o r m e r g r e a t n e s s b u t w h i c h were thought t o have been o b s c u r e d by m e d i e v a l e x c r e s c e n c e s . I n C o l e b r o o k e ' s words, t h e way t o i n i t i a t e r e f o r m i n I n d i a towards t h e d e s i r e d g o a l s was t o " i n v e s t i g a t e " h e r h i s t o r y " w i t h t h e hope o f f a s c i l i t a t i n g a m e l i o r a t i o n s o f w h i c h t h e y may be found s u s c e p t i b l e . " 1 0 The O r i e n t a l i s t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C o l l e g e o f F o r t W i l l i a m i n C a l c u t t a (1800) t o s e r v e as a c e n t e r o f O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s where Hindus and B r i t i s h e r s c o u l d work t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m u t u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n o f each o t h e r s c u l t u r a l i d e a l s . 1 1 By t h i s means, a communication l i n e was e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e two c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , B e n g a l i and B r i t i s h , w h i c h e n a b l e d t h e f o r e r u n n e r s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e new i d e a s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f r e e from c u l t u r a l p o l a r i t y . B a s i c a l l y , t h e s e schemes f o r i n i t i a t i n g change were s y n c r e t i s t i c , t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s r e c o g -n i z i n g t h a t t h e changes t h e y f e l t t o be n e c e s s a r y c o u l d o n l y b e - e f f e c t e d w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f I n d i a ' s own v a l u e system. So t h e y t u r n e d t o t h e Laws of ManUj t h e Dharma S h a s t r a s and even V e d i c svuti — a l l a u t h o r i t a -t i v e r e l i g i o u s s c r i p t u r e s — t o c o n v i n c e I n d i a n s t h e y had d e v i a t e d (though 12 n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h r o u g h any f a u l t o f t h e i r own), f r o m t h e t r u e i n j u n c t i o n s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t d e g e n e r a t e d s t a t e - o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e was t o be found i n t h i s d e v i a t i o n . . 1 3 The I n d i a n p u n d i t s who were employed as munshis a t t h e C o l l e g e r e s p onded f a v o u r a b l y t o t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s as i n d i v i d u a l s and as s c h o l a r s . They a c q u i e s c e d t o t h e method o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and compar-a t i v e a n a l y s i s engaged i n by t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s even though, as H i n d u s , t h e y were n o t f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o t h e J o n e s - C o l e b r o o k e t h e o r y o f a V e d i c G o l d e n Age s i n c e i t d i s p a r a g e d any l a t e r developments o f H i n d u i s m as m e d i e v a l . ( T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n c a r r i e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f d e g e n e r a c y , o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Dark Ages o f human u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e same way t h a t one speaks d i s p a r a g i n g l y o f m e d i e v a l C h r i s t i a n i t y . ) " ' " 4 H.H. W i l s o n managed t o r e s t o r e a b a l a n c e t o O r i e n t a l i s t s c h o l a r s h i p by d e l v i n g i n t o t h a t u n c h a r t e d p e r i o d o f m e d i e v a l H i n d u i s m t h a t had h i t h e r t o been c o n f i n e d t o o b s c u r i t y by a v i d c l a s s i c i s t s i n s e a r c h o f a G o l d e n Age. W i t h W i l s o n , t h e n , a new b r a n c h o f O r i e n t a l i s t r e s e a r c h opened up, encompassing t h e w i d e expanse o f h i s t o r y between t h e Vedas and t h e M u s l i m c o n q u e s t . Says Kop f : W i l s o n ' s w i d e - r a n g i n g c u r i o s i t y about t h e H i n d u p a s t and h i s encouragement o f m e d i e v a l s t u d i e s endeared him t o many members o f t h e B a n g a l i i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who saw i n h i m a k i n d r e d s p i r i t i n t h e i r e v o c a t i o n o f an a l l - e m b r a c i n g H i n d u renaissance.-'-^ I I I . THE EVANGELICAL IMAGE OF INDIA AND OF INDIANS E x c e p t f o r t h e r a r e m i s s i o n a r y l i k e W i l l i a m Carey who was a b l e t o a b s o r b t h e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s and t h u s become " I n d i a n i z e d , " t h e a i m o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n 1 f\ who e n t e r e d I n d i a was t o " e x t e r m i n a t e h e a t h e n i s m i n I n d i a . " T h e i r commitment t o t h e d ogmatic a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n made them l o o k u n f a v o u r a b l y upon t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f I n d i a ' s p a s t g r e a t n e s s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I n d i a n h i s t o r y was d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o t h a t o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s . They were n o t p r e p a r e d t o admit t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an e n l i g h t e n e d c i v i l i z a t i o n e x i s t i n g o u t s i d e t h e p a l e o f J u d a o - C h r i s t i a n i n f l u e n c e and so t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s by c o n t e n d i n g t h a t I n d i a borrowed h e r c u l t u r e f r o m G r e e k s , A s s y r i a n s , P e r s i a n s and Babylonians."'" 7 Says Majumdar, "wherever t h e r e was t h e l e a s t s i m i l a r i t y between I n d i a n and f o r e i g n i d e a s , I n d i a n s were t a k e n t o be t h e b o r r o w e r s . The e p i c s were supposed t o be i n d e b t e d t o Homer's w o r k s , I n d i a n m a t h e m a t i c s , p h i l o s o p h y and astronomy were 18 d e r i v e d from t h e G r e e k s , and even K r i s h n a c u l t was d e r i v e d from C h r i s t . " He a l s o p o i n t s t o the h a b i t o f m i s s i o n a r i e s o f c o m p a r i n g t h e w o r s t 19 f e a t u r e s o f I n d i a n r e l i g i o n t o t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . A l l t h a t was g r e a t i n I n d i a ' s p a s t d e r i v e d . f r o m c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Greek w o r l d w h i l e a l l t h a t was base and b a r b a r i c appeared when I n d i a c u t h e r s e l f o f f from t h i s d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d l i f e - l i n e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' Her p r e s e n t c o n -d i t i o n was e n t i r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f h e r l o n g adherence t o f a l s e r e l i g i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e f u t u r e w o u l d h o l d p r o m i s e s h o u l d I n d i a once a g a i n a c c e p t i n s p i r a t i o n from t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . Images of-India. The m i s s i o n a r y images o f I n d i a n r e l i g i o n , c u l t u r e and c h a r a c t e r have a demonic f l a v o u r about them, m a i n l y because I n d i a n r e l i g i o n , t h e m a t r i x o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e , was p i c t u r e d as t h e ^ a n t i t h e s i s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . W i l l i a m Ward, a Serampore B a p t i s t , o f f e r s a t y p i c a l m i s s i o n a r y image, r e p l e t e w i t h d e p r i c a t i o n s o f e v e r y t h i n g H i n d u : Everyone who has been o b l i g e d t o employ t h e H indoos has had t h e most m o r t i f y i n g p r o o f s t h a t i f t h e v i c e s o f l y i n g , d e c e i t , d i s h o n e s t y ; and i m p u r i t y , c a n degrade a p e o p l e , t h e Hindoos have sunk t o t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s o f human d e p r a v i t y . He speaks out s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t i d o l a t r y : The m a n i f e s t e f f e c t o f i d o l a t r y i n t h i s c o u n t r y as h e l d up t o thousands o f C h r i s t i a n s p e c t a t o r s , i s an i m m e r s i o n i n t o t h e g r o s s e s t m o r a l d a r k n e s s and a u n i v e r s a l c o r r u p t i o n o f manners.^1 Ward f i n d s t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e p h a l l i c symbol amongst I n d i a n S h i v i t e s e s p e c i a l l y a b h o r e n t : 43 I n t h e months V o i s h a k h u and K a r i k u , t h e L i n g a i s w o r s h i p p e d d a i l y i n numerous'temples d e d i c a t e d t o t h i s ' a b o m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t B e n g a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e s t r a i n one's i n d i g n a t i o n a t t h e s h o c k i n g v i o l a t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g d e c e n t i n t h i s image; n o r can i t be ground o f wonder t h a t a c h a s t e woman, f a i t h f u l t o h e r husband i s s c a r c e l y t o be found among a l l t h e m i l l i o n s o f H i n d o o s , when t h e i r v e r y t e m p l e s a r e p o l l u t e d w i t h f i l t h y images, and t h e i r a c t s o f w o r s h i p t e n d t o i n f l a m e t h e mind w i t h l i c e n t i o u s i d e a s . ^ The f e a t u r e o f H i n d u i s m t h a t r e c e i v e d an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f a t t e n t i o n f r o m m i s s i o n a r i e s and c i v i l i a n s a l i k e was i t s a l l e g e d i m m o r a l -i t y . Abbe Dubois speaks about t h e "shameless s t o r i e s o f t h e i r d e i t i e s , " and s a y s t h a t " i t r e a l l y seems as i f most o f t h e r e l i g i o u s and c i v i l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f I n d i a were o n l y i n v e n t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f awakening and e x c i t i n g p a s s i o n s towards w h i c h t h e y a l r e a d y have such a s t r o n g 23 t e n d e n c y . " Says W i l b e r f o r c e i n 1830: "The H i n d u d i v i n i t i e s were a b s o l u t e m onsters o f l u s t , i n j u s t i c e , c r u e l t y and w i c k e d n e s s . I n s h o r t , t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m i s one g rand a b o m i n a t i o n . " A m i s s i o n a r y i n C a l c u t t a s p e a k i n g on t h e same theme i n 1824 s a i d : We know t h a t t h e c r u e l t y , d e c e i t , l y i n g and u n c l e a n l i n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e s c r i p t u r e s c h a r g e a n c i e n t i d o l a t o r s , b e l o n g t o t h e s e amongst whom we d w e l l . ..; t h e s e i m m o r a l i t i e s ... a r i s e o u t o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . . ' The c h a r a c t e r a s c r i b e d t o t h e i r gods and h e r b e s 1 a r e e x a c t l y a c c o r d i n g . t o what we know o f t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . ^ 5 The e s s e n c e o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l s p i r i t l a y i n i t s c o n v i c t i o n about t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b s o l u t e t r u t h s and i t s b e l i e f t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y a l o n e communicated t h e s e t r u t h s . The m i s s i o n a r y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e , e t h n o c e n t r i c element o f E n g l i s h s o c i e t y and contended w i t h t h e r e l a t i v -i s t i c , c o s m o p o l i t a n e t h o s o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t . Though th e l a t t e r h e l d t h e upper hand i n l i t e r a t e c i r c l e s , 'the f o r m e r w i e l d e d i t s i n f l u e n c e 44 among t h e I n d i a n masses w h i c h t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o c o n v e r t t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . I V . THE ANGLICIST IMAGE OF INDIA AND OF INDIANS The y e a r 1830 marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e dynamic, i n n o v a t i v e c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r f o s t e r e d by t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s o f t h e B r i t i s h E a s t I n d i a Company. The b a s i s o f t h a t e n c o u n t e r , as m entioned above, had been a d e s i r e t o exchange c u l t u r a l knowledge and t o e f f e c t c e r t a i n s o c i a l changes i n . I n d i a i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a t t e r ' s own v a l u e s y s t e m . O r i e n t a l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t p r o h i b i t o r y t a c t i c s o r o u t r i g h t c o e r c i v e methods w o u l d , i f u s e d , p r o v e to be i n e f f e c t i v e means o f i n d u c i n g change. T h e r e f o r e , t h e i r program c o n c e n t r a t e d on d e v e l o p i n g a s y m p a t h e t i c r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who w o u l d s e r v e them as " c u l -t u r a l b r o k e r s , " m e d i a t i n g t o t h e I n d i a n community t h e modern i d e a s o f t h e European. By t h i s means i t was t h o u g h t t h a t i n h u m a n e - p r a c t i c e s ; s u c h as satit t h e i m m o l a t i o n o f a H i n d u widow on h e r husband's f u n e r a l p y r e , c h i l d m a r r i a g e , . a n d f e m a l e i n f a n t i c i d e w o u l d d i e a q u i e t , n a t u r a l d e a t h . I n e x p l a i n i n g why. t h e A n g l i c i s t s , as t h e a n t i - O r i e n t a l i s t f a c t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h Government was c a l l e d , appeared t o be so " a r r o g a n t l y e t h n o -c e n t r i c , " Kopf p o i n t s t o t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f m o d e r n i z -a t i o n was o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d i n some m y s t e r i o u s way t o t h e B r i t i s h c u l t u r e p a t t e r n ..." w h i c h meant f o r them t h a t "... no r e a l change was - 27 p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t r a d i c a l a s s i m i l a t i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h s t y l e o f l i f e . " The men who r e p l a c e d the O r i e n t a l i s t s i n I n d i a i n - 1 8 3 0 a l s o r e p l a c e d t h e l a t t e r s ' t o l e r a n t • s p i r i t w i t h t h i s l e s s - t h a n - t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e . Thomas B a b i n g t o n M a c u l a y ' s famous M i n u t e on E d u c a t i o n (1835) d e n o u n c i n g t h e O r i e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e new t r e n d of thought . He accused the O r i e n t a l i s t s of promoting the t e a c h i n g of " f a l s e h i s t o r y , f a l s e astronomy, f a l s e medic ine . . . and a l i t e r a t u r e 28 admit ted to b e ' o f s m a l l i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . " Al though he r a t h e r grudg-i n g l y admit ted tha t i n "works o f , t h e i m a g i n a t i o n " the E a s t e r n w r i t e r s cou ld c l a i m c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t , ye t he s t r e s s e s t h a t "when i t comes to works i n which the f a c t s are recorded and genera l p r i n c i p l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Europeans becomes a b s o l u t e l y immeasurable . " He goes on to s a y : I t i s , I b e l i e v e , no e x a g g e r a t i o n to s a y , tha t a l l the h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n tha t has been c o l l e c t e d from a l l the books w r i t t e n i n the S a n s c r i t language i s l e s s v a l u a b l e than what may-be found i n the most p a l t r y abridgments used at p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l i n England. In every branch of p h y s i c a l or moral p h i l o s o p h y , the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the two n a t i o n s , i s n e a r l y the s a m e . ^ Macaulay, as p r e s i d e n t of the p o w e r f u l Committee on P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , was a h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l man. H i s commitment to E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n f o r I n d i a and to the a b o l i t i o n of O r i e n t a l s t u d i e s was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n implementing a new era of W e s t e r n i z a t i o n i n I n d i a : change was to be f o r c e d onto the a l i e n system from w i t h o u t . The theory u n d e r l y i n g t h i s approach to c u l t u r a l encounter i s a product of the U t i l i t a r i a n p h i l o s o p h y t h a t James S t u a r t M i l l p r o f e s s e d and t h a t Macaulay imbibed and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o A n g l i c i s m . The d i s t i n c t i o n here i s t h a t M i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t man was capable "of d e v i s i n g a r a t i o n a l system of laws tha t would be u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d . Macaulay adhered to t h i s b e l i e f but i n him i t s u n a v e r s a l i s m was b l u r r e d by h i s f a i t h i n the E v a n g e l i c a l creed and by h i s growing c h a u v i n i s m . E n g l i s h l a w , thought to be the answer to a l l of I n d i a ' s s o c i a l i l l s , was c a l l e d upon by A n g l i c i s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to e r r a d i c a t e problems 46 t h a t were o f a s o c i a l n a t u r e . I m p e l l e d by t h i s c o n v i c t i o n , t h e f i r s t a c t i o n o f t h e new A n g l i c i s t government headed by L o r d B e n t i n c k was t o a b o l i s h sati. . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e e f f e c t i v e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e 30 C o l l e g e o f F o r t W i l l i a m i n 1830. James F i t z j a m e s Stephen, w r i t i n g i n : t h e 1870's r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s l e g a l i s t i c , u t i l i t a r i a n p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e A n g l i c i s t s when he s a i d : The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s y s t e m o f l a w w h i c h r e g u l a t e s t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e d a i l y l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e c o n s t i t u t e s i n i t s e l f a m o r a l conquest more s t r i k i n g , more d u r a b l e , and f a r more s o l i d , t h a n t h e p h y s i c a l conquest w h i c h r e n d e r e d i t p o s s i b l e . I t e x e r c i s e s an i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e minds o f t h e p e o p l e i n many ways comparable t o t h a t o f a new r e l i g i o n . ... Our law i s i n f a c t t h e sum and s u b s t a n c e o f what we have t o t e a c h them. I t i s , so t o speak, t h e g o s p e l o f t h e E n g l i s h , and i t i s a c ompulsory g o s p e l w h i c h a d m i t s o f no d i s s e n t and no d i s o b e d i e n c e . 3 ^ T h i s c o m p l e t e a b o u t - f a c e i n c u l t u r a l p o l i c y r e s u l t e d i n t h e a l i e n -a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who f e l t , and q u i t e r i g h t l y , t h a t t h e movement was one towards W e s t e r n i z a t i o n . Even though many ed u c a t e d I n d i a n s had a g r e e d w i t h t h e c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h O r i e n t a l i s t s l e v e l e d a t some I n d i a n s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , y e t , when f a c e d w i t h t h e i n t o l e r a n t dogma-t i s m o f t h e E n g l i s h U t i l i t a r i a n s , many f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o d e f e n d , t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h o s e v e r y same customs t h a t t h e y were once eager t o h e l p e l i m i n a t e . The s y n c r e t i c changes w h i c h t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s had i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d v i e w o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a had t h e appearance o f b e i n g n a t u r a l o r o r t h o g e n e t i c s i n c e t h e y were p r e s e n t e d from w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . The A n g l i c i s t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, came armed w i t h "a c o m p u l s o r y gospel- t h a t a d m i t s . o f no d i s s e n t and no d i s o b e d i e n c e . " D i s s e n t was t h e n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e . 47 Images of-India The images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s t h a t appear i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f M i l l and Macaulay as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e U t i l i t a r i a n and E v a n g e l i c a l s i d e s o f A n g l i c i s m , a r e r e p l e t e w i t h d e p r e c a t o r y a d j e c t i v e s and meta-p h o r s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e same k i n d o f m o r a l i n d i g n a t i o n towards I n d i a n c u l t u r e seen m a n i f e s t i n t h e m i s s i o n a r y a t t i t u d e s . A few passages from M i l l ' s History of British India, ( 1 8 2 1 ) , w h i c h e n j o y e d a w i d e c u r r e n c y amongst c i v i l s e r v a n t s and e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s a l i k e , s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e ' t h e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s o f t h e man who s t o o d b e h i r i d t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e A n g l i c i s t s . I n t r u t h t h e H i n d u l i k e t h e Eunuch e x c e l l s i n t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a s l a v e ; . . . I n t h e s t i l l more impor-' t a n t q u a l i t i e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e what we c a l l t h e m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , t h e H i n d u r a n k s v e r y low. And f u r t h e r , Even i n manners and t h e l e a d i n g p a r t s o f t h e m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , t h e l i n e s o f r e s e m b l a n c e (between I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e ) a r e s t r o n g . B o t h n a t i o n s ^ a r e t o n e a r l y an e q u a l d e g r e e t a i n t e d w i t h t h e v i c e s o f i n s i n c e r i t y ; d i s s e m b l i n g t r e a c h e r o u s , mendacious, t o an e x c e s s w h i c h s u r p a s s e s even t h e u n u s u a l measure o f u n c u l t i v a t e d s o c i e t y . B o t h a r e d i s p o s e d t o e x c e s s i v e e x a g g e r a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o e v e r y t h i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e m s e l v e s . B o t h a r e c o w a r d l y and u n f e e l i n g . Both a r e t o s t h e h i g h e s t degree c o n c e i t e d o f t h e m s e l v e s , and f u l l o f a f f e c t e d contempt f o r o t h e r s . Both a r e i n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e , d i s g u s t i n g l y u n c l e a n i n t h e i r p e r s o n s and houses. 3 M i l l t r a c e d t h e d e p r a v i t y o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e and I n d i a n p e o p l e t o t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f numerous i n v a d e r s and t o t h e Brahmin p r i e s t s who, t o -g e t h e r , h e l d t h e c o u n t r y and p e o p l e i n t y r a n n i c a l s u b j e c t i o n . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , he h e l d out hope f o r t h e improvement o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y s e e i n g i n I n d i a t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b e n e v o l e n t government ( B r i t i s h ) e x e c u t i n g i t s 48 a u t h o r i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e U t i l i t a r i a n c r e d o . I n 1830, M i l l was a p p o i n t e d Examiner t o t h e B r i t i s h E a s t I n d i a n Company w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o E r i c S t o k e s , s i t u a t e d him a t " t h e . v e r y c e n t e r o f power and i n a p o s i t i o n t o c a r r y i n t o p r a c t i c e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f : u t i l i t y as he had expounded i n h i s History ... ,"34 Between 1830 and 1857, t h e e r a o f A n g l i c i s m , B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n I n d i a o p e r a t e d under t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t I n d i a n s o c i e t y c o u l d be r e g e n -e r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e f o r m s . 1 Though s t i l l o f a p a t r o n i z i n g t o n e and c a r r y i n g t h e e x c e s s e s o f a f e e l i n g o f c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y , t h e E n g l i s h r e f o r m e r s were c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e m o r a l d e p r a v i t y and " p h l e g m a t i c i n d o l e n c e " o f I n d i a n s c o u l d be e r r a d i c a t e d . C h a r l e s G r a n t r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s a t t i t u d e when he s a i d : I f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Hindoos p r o c e e d e d o n l y f r o m a p h y s i c a l o r i g i n , t h e r e m i ght be some f o u n d a -t i o n f o r t h i n k i n g i t u n a l t e r a b l e b u t n o t h i n g i s more p l a i n t h a n t h a t i t i s formed c h i e f l y by m o r a l c a u s e s , adequate t o t h e e f f e c t p r o d u c e d : i f t h o s e causes t h e r e f o r e , can be removed, t h e i r e f f e c t w i l l c e a s e ; and new p r i n c i p l e s and^mptives w i l l p r oduce hew conduct and a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . By i n t r o d u c i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y and E n g l i s h c i v i l l aw i n t o I n d i a , and by e d u c a t i n g I n d i a n s i n t h e n o b l e t r a d i t i o n s o f Western a r t s and s c i e n c e s , i t was t h o u g h t t h a t I n d i a c o u l d r i s e above h e r p r e s e n t " u n c i v i l i z e d , " " b a r b a r i c " s t a t e . V. IMPERIALIST IMAGES OF INDIA AND OF INDIANS . The M u t i n y o f 1857, though v a r i o u s l y s u b t i t l e d , i s u s u a l l y marked as a s i g n i f i c a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e towards I n d i a . However, t h e M u t i n y c o u l d n o t , i n i t s e l f , be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e change i n B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i t n e s s e d t h e t r u n c a t i o n o f t h e 49 r e f o r m i s t s p i r i t and t h e emergence o f a c o n s e r v a t i v e , a n t i - r e f o r m move-ment. To t h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a , t h e M u t i n y s t o o d as l i v i n g p r o o f o f t h e c u n n i n g , t r e a c h e r o u s n a t u r e o f t h e n a t i v e s o f I n d i a . " I t i s n o t c o r r e c t t o s a y , " a c c o r d i n g t o H u t c h i n s " t h a t t h e M u t i n y caused t h e change i n a t t i t u d e . The B r i t i s h r e s p o n s e t o t h e M u t i n y gave a d e f i n i t e shape t o I m p e r i a l a t t i t u d e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e c a d es, p r o v i d i n g i n abundance j u s t i f i c a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e presumed need o f a new p o l i c y o f governance. ...The p a r t i c u l a r manner i n w h i c h E n g l i s h m e n responded t o t h e M u t i n y was n o t n e c e s s a r y o r i n e v i t a b l e , b u t a r e f l e c t i o n o f a p r i o r s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g w h i c h had begun l o n g b e f o r e t h e M u t i n y b r o k e o u t . " The New-Sciences_ The most i n t r i g u i n g t h i n g about t h e emergence o f t h e r a c i s t i d e o l -ogy i n B r i t i s h t h i n k i n g on I n d i a a t t h i s t i m e was i t s d i v e r g e n c e f r o m C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e newly e v o l v i n g " s c i e n c e s " o f e t h n o g r a p h y , c l i m a t o l o g y and p h r e n o l o g y . ( A c t u a l l y , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , t h i s s h i f t i n v o l v e d more o f a m u t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e t h a n i t d i d a d i s t i n c t b r e a k w i t h i t . I n f a c t , C h r i s t i a n i t y p r o v e d r e m a r k a b l y f l e x i b l e i n a d a p t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e new " u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d t r u t h s " t h a t were u n c o v e r e d i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . ) The i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r h e r e i s t h e d e n i a l o f t h e B i b l i c a l i d e a o f a s i n g l e c r e a t i o n . T h e ' v a r i o u s 1 r a c e s o f man were now t h o u g h t t o be t h e r e s u l t o f d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e c r e a t i o n s , and t h e y were t h o u g h t t o have been a r r a n g e d by " P r o v i d e n c e " i n a h e i r -a r c h y o f " b e s t " t o " w o r s t . " A c c o r d i n g t o one A m e r i c a n e t h n o l o g i s t w r i t i n g i n 1857: "There a r e no g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e l i o n , t i g e r and t h e p a n t h e r , o r t h e dog, w o l f and j a c k a l t h a n between t h e W h i t e 37 Man, Negro, and Mongol." F u r t h e r m o r e , p r e c i s e , s c i e n t i f i c measurements 50 of the a n a t o m i c a l f e a t u r e s of the r a c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the s i z e of the c ran ium, now enabled man to a c c u r a t e l y a s c e r t a i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral c a p a c i t i e s of the v a r i o u s r a c e s . I t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t " I n the s i z e of the head and f a c e , and t h e i r mutual r e l a t i o n s , we f i n d the best i n d i c a t i o n s of those mental and animal d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h , under a l l c i rcumstances and from a n t i - h i s t o r i c t i m e s , have mani fes ted themselves as the d i v i d i n g l i n e between the Races of M a n . " Sc ience was a b l e to prove tha t no amount of e d u c a t i o n c o u l d a l t e r the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the benighted r a c e s . Such improvements as would be necessary f o r the achievement of r a c i a l e q u a l i t y would f i r s t r e q u i r e an i n c r e a s e i n the c r a n i a l c a p a c i t y of the i n f e r i o r r a c e s . Proof of t h i s f a c t was d i s c e r n e d i n the case of I n d i a where, even a f t e r l o n g exposure to the b e n e f i t s of European c i v i l i z a t i o n , Indians were yet " u n a l t e r e d and seemingly 39 u n a l t e r a b l e . The y a r d s t i c k of c i v i l i z a t i o n u t i l i z e d by these p s e u d o - s c i e n t i s t s was gauged i n accordance w i t h an a d u l t e r a t e d v e r s i o n of the D a r w i n i a n p r i n c i p l e of N a t u r a l S e l e c t i o n . I t was f o r c e and technology t h a t had enabled the Western n a t i o n s to conquer v i r t u a l l y a l l of A s i a and A f r i c a . The f a c t that i t was the w h i t e man a lone who possessed the means and the a b i l i t y to t h i s end was to be taken as proof of h i s n a t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . The law of the j u n g l e determined tha t o n l y the f i t t e s t would s u r v i v e : the meek c o u l d never i n h e r i t the e a r t h f o r the s t r o n g would i n e v i t a b l y conquer them. U t i l i z i n g the theory of r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y , E . B . T y l e r d e v i s e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme as a means of e v a l u a t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n s . H i s e x p r e s s i o n i s c l a s s i c : 51 The p r i n c i p l e c r i t e r i a o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e t h e a bsense or; p r e s e n c e , h i g h o r low development o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . . . t h e e x t e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t h e c o n d i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and ceremony, t h e d e g r e e o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , . a n d so f o r t h . Thus on t h e d e f i n i t e b a s i s o f compared f a c t s , e t h n o g r a p h e r s a r e a b l e t o s e t up a t l e a s t a rough s c a l e o f c i v i l i z -a t i o n . Few w o u l d d i s p u t e t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g r a c e s a r e a r r a n g e d r i g h t l y i n o r d e r o f c u l t u r e : — A u s t r a l i a n , T a h i t i a n , A z t e c , C h i n e s e , I t a l i a n . 4 0 I t was assumed t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r r a c e s p o s s e s s e d b l o o d t h a t was s t r o n g e r , a c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was f i t . t e r and a k e e n e r i n t e l l e c t t h a n t h e l e s s e r b r e e d s o f h umanity. F u r t h e r m o r e , as a r e s u l t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l i s o l a t i o n o f t h e r a c e s o f man, t h e r e had been no c o n s a n g u i n i t y between them and i t was t o be assumed any movement'in t h a t d i r e c t i o n now w o u l d , r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e weaker r a c e s , r e s u l t i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i o r one. G i v e n t h i s f a c t , t h e b e s t and t h e most n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e v e l o p between t h e r a c e s o f man w o u l d be t o have t h e s u p e r i o r r a c e s g o v e r n t h e i n f e r i o r ones. T h i s was t o be done w i t h j u s t i c e and f i r m n e s s and w i t h t h e g o a l i n mind o f e f f e c t i n g what i m p r o v e -ments were p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e j g i v e n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e weaker r a c e s . Doctrines of' Imperialism T h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c , r a c i s t a t t i t u d e i s w e l l documented i n t h e a n n a l s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . F o r example, i n 1878, S i r George Couper, l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s o f I n d i a made t h i s comment: . . . i t seems t o me t h e t i m e has come f o r us t o c e a s e p u t t i n g o u r heads i n a bush and s h o u t i n g b l a c k i s w h i t e . We a l l know t h a t i n p o i n t o f f a c t b l a c k i s not w h i t e ; and t h e s o o n e r we p l a i n l y r e c o g n i z e and a c t upon t h a t f a c t t h e b e t t e r i t w i l l be f o r o u r i n f l u e n c e and 52 h o l d o v e r t h e m i l l i o n s we g o v e r n . That t h e r e s h o u l d be one law a l i k e f o r t h e European and n a t i v e i s an e x c e l l e n t t h i n g i n t h e o r y b u t i f i t r e a l l y c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n p r a c t i c e we s h o u l d have no b u s i n e s s i n t h e c o u n t r y ... . 4 ^ A n o t h e r example o f t h i s " w h i t e man's b u r d e n " a t t i t u d e a p p e ars i n the w r i t i n g o f Anthony T r o l l o p e . He s a y s : We have r i s e n so h i g h t h a t we may a l m o s t b o a s t t o have p l a c e d o u r s e l v e s above n a t i o n a l g l o r y . The w e l f a r e o f t h e coming w o r l d i s now i n t h e p r o p e r c a r e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n r a c e . 4 ^ S i r C h a r l e s D i l k e , a s t a u n c h d e f e n d e r o f B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m , . p r e f e r r e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e r a c e s o f man on a s c a l e o f " d e a r " t o "cheap": Everywhere we have found t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t impede t h e p r o g r e s s t o u n i v e r s a l d o m i n i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h p e o p l e l i e i n t h e c o n f l i c t ( w i t h t h e c h e a p e r r a c e s . . . . t h e d e a r e r ( r a c e s ) . . . a r e , on t h e w h o l e , l i k e l y t o d e s t r o y t h e cheaper p e o p l e s and ...Saxondom w i l l r i s e t r i u m p h a n t f r o m t h e d o u b t f u l s t r u g g l e . 4 3 Perhaps one o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l v o i c e s o f t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y was t h a t o f James F i t z j a m e s S t e p h e n . He h e l d f i r m l y t o t h e v i e w t h a t men were " f u n d a m e n t a l l y u n e q u a l , " and l e n t h i s w h o l e h e a r t e d s u p p o r t t o t h e i d e a t h a t , on a c c o u n t o f t h e i n e p t i t u d e o f I n d i a n s as l e a d e r s , t h e government o f I n d i a s h o u l d be a u t o c r a t i c and B r i t i s h . I n d e f e n s e o f t h e p r e s e n t government he s a i d : I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a b s o l u t e government founded n o t on c o n s e n t b u t on c o n q u e s t . I t does n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e n a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f l i f e o r o f government, and i t c a n n e v e r do so u n t i l i t r e p r e s e n t s ^/heathenism and b a r b a r i s m . I t -r e p r e s e n t s a b e l l i g e r e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n , and no anomaly can be so s t r i k i n g o r so dangerous as i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by men who, b e i n g a t t h e head o f a government founded on c o n q u e s t , i m p l y i n g a t e v e r y p o i n t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e c o n q u e r i n g , . r a c e ...and h a v i n g no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e e x c e p t t h a t s u p e r i o r i t y , s h r i n k f r o m t h e open, uncompromising, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d 53 a s s e r t i o n of i t , seek to apologize for t h e i r own p o s i t i o n and refuse from whatever cause to uphold and support i t . ^  Religious Doctrines of Imperialism It seems, however, this new f a i t h i n science did not usurp the V i c t o r i a n f a i t h i n the doctrines of Evangelical C h r i s t i a n i t y * Quite the reverse. The new s c i e n t i f i c evidence was brought into the service of the p e c u l i a r dogmatism of t h i s I9th century creed, somewhat i n the capacity of an instrument for " j u s t i f i c a t i o n by science." The V i c t o r i a n s believed themselves to be the chosen race, the New I s r a e l , selected by Providence to lead the peoples of the world to a happy state of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Ainslee Embree sums up the evangelical approach to India a f t e r 1857 i n t h i s way: For those who accepted the evangelical imperatives of C h r i s t i a n i t y — and there were many such men i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n England and i n the C i v i l Service and Army i n I n d i a — the B r i t i s h Government and people had f a i l e d to f u l f i l the o b l i g a t i o n of spreading the knowledge of the Gospel. The Mutiny was seen by them as a warning sent by Providence to c a l l men to more serious C h r i s t i a n endeavour. Alexander Duff, one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l missionaries i n the 19th century, spoke'of the violence of 1857 as evidence that "God i s v i s i t i n g our people i n t h i s land i n hot displeasure," and argued that the events of the war would "portray to men's senses the c r u e l t i e s of heathenism, and proclaim aloud the necessity of the regenerating, humanizing ^ influences of the gospel of grace and s a l v a t i o n . " Duff's objective i n India was to " k i l l Hinduism" which he believed was "from i t s base to i t s highest pinnacle a c i t a d e l of e r r o r . " 4 7 Descrip-tions of Hinduism such as the one following, again excerpted from Duff's writings on the subject, display the t y p i c a l missionary a t t i t u d e , b a s i c a l l y unchanged as i t was throughout the century: Of a l l the systems of f a l s e r e l i g i o n ever fabricated 54 by the perverse i n g e n u i t y of f a l l e n man, Hinduism i s s u r e l y the most stupendous — whether we consider the boundless extent of i t s range, or the boundless m u l t i p l i c i t y of i t s component p a r t s . Of a l l systems of f a l s e r e l i g i o n i t i s that which seems to embody the l a r g e s t amount and v a r i e t y of semblances and c o u n t e r f e i t s of d i v i n e l y revealed f a c t s and d o c t r i n e s * Images of. India and of Indians The concepts of Indian character which grew up w i t h i n t h i s ethno-c e n t r i c ideology q u i t e r e a d i l y submitted to stereotypy. Developed as they were i n a s i t u a t i o n of c u l t u r a l estrangement, where only menials 49 came i n t o f u l l view of the image-makers, the Indian of the c o l o n i a l i s t ' s i magination was an admixture of the most p r i m i t i v e elements of humanity. The f o l l o w i n g quotations present a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of B r i t i s h images of Indian c h a r a c t e r . Indians are at once c h i l d i s h and f e r o c i o u s ... (possessed of a) .;. mixture of treachery, c h i l d -ishness and f e r o c i t y that could be bred only i n the same j u n g l e w i t h the t i g e r who crouches, s p r i n g s , gambols and devours.^ u Comparison of the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the two peoples was common: In po i n t of race the Hindoos have, been regarded by n a t u r a l i s t s as belonging to what they c a l l the Caucasian, and even to the same f a m i l y of that race as the white man of Europe! But t h i s i s a f a n t a s t i c a l n o t i o n ... The European i s white, the Hindoo b l a c k ; ... The European i s t a l l e r than the Hindoo, more robust and more persevering. Even i n -the rudest stages of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the European has e x h i b i t e d a firmness, perseyerence and enter-p r i s e , which s t r i k i n g l y c o n t r a s t w i t h the f e e b l e , slow, i r r e s o l u t e character of the Hindoo.51 Again we see the emphasis on c h i l d i s h n e s s i n J . F. Stephen: A p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to cunning and c h i l d i s h s u b t l e t y e x e r c i s e d upon words i s one of the greatest weaknesses of the n a t i v e s . S e n s u a l i t y and l a z i n e s s were prominent features of the B r i t i s h images: Those n i g g e r s a r e s u c h a confounded s e n s u a l l a z y s e t , cramming t h e m s e l v e s w i t h sweetmeats, and smoking t h e i r c u r s e d c h i l l u m j e e s a l l t h e day and n i g h t , t h a t you might as w e l l t h i n k t o t r a i n p i g s . 5 3 Macaulay v o i c e d t h i s c l a s s i c o p i n i o n about t h e B e n g a l i c h a r a c t e r : What t h e h o r n s a r e t o t h e b u f f a l o , what t h e paw i s t o t h e t i g e r , what t h e s t i n g i s t o the bee, what b e a u t y , a c c o r d i n g to. t h e o l d G r e e k ^ o n g , i s t o woman, d e c e i t i s t o t h e B e n g a l e e . Flamboyantcy was a l s o t h o u g h t t o be a c h a r a c t e r t r a i t o f I n d i a n s : ... w i t h B l a c k y e v e r y t h i n g i s f o r d i s p l a y , and many a d a s h i n g f e l l o w c a r r i e s h i s f o r t u n e i n h i s h o r s e and a c c o u t r e m e n t s D e c e i t f u l , l a s c i v i o u s ; l a z y , o s t e n t a t i o u s , c o r r u p t , c h i l d l i k e — t h e s e were t h e predominant images t h e B r i t i s h e r s had o f I n d i a n s . They t h o u g h t o f t h e m s e l v e s as " l i v i n g amongst t h e seven d e a d l y s i n s . " These p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , anathema as t h e y were t o a l l t h a t was t h o u g h t t o be good and v i r t u o u s by a V i c t o r i a n gentleman, c a n h a r d l y b e - b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t an o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n o f I n d i a n c h a r a c t e r . As-has been n o t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f Mannoni's t h e o r i e s , t h e phenomenon o f p r o j e c t i o n i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y a f a c t o r h e r e ; The m o r a l f a n a t i c i s m o f t h e V i c t o r i a n Age p r e d i s p o s e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s l u f f o f f ont o an i n f e r i o r c r e a t u r e o f h i s own c r e a t i o n , any m o r a l t u r p i t u d e he might d i s c o v e r w i t h i n h i m s e l f . A n g l i c i s t s had a t t r i b u t e d a l l t h e e v i l s o f I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n t o i t s b e n i g h t e d r e l i g i o n , p e r p e t r a t e d as i t was by a c o r r u p t p r i e s t h o o d . But t h e s e i l l s were t h o u g h t t o be r e m e d i a b l e m e r e l y by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and B r i t i s h Law. However, when t h i s m i s s i o n f a i l e d (as was e v i d e n t by t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s ) , t h e causes o f t h e f a i l u r e were n o t a t t r i b u t e d t o a n y l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e dynamics o f c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r p e t r a t o r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . R a t h e r , t h e f a i l u r e t o e r r a d i c a t e ' t h e m o r a l d e p r a v i t y o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e was e x p l a i n e d a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e newly d i s c o v e r e d p r i n c i p l e s o f N a t u r a l Law: t h e i n f e r i o r n a t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n r a c e w o u l d n o t p e r m i t improvement towards t h e c i v i l i z e d s t a t e as i t appeared i n t h e B r i t i s h n a t i o n . V I . ANALYSIS OF THE BRITISH IMAGES AS A RESPONSE TO STRESS The B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e s towards I n d i a and I n d i a n s r e f l e c t a r e a c t i o n t o a s i t u a t i o n o f s t r e s s . They a r e a r e s p o n s e t o a sensed t h r e a t , t o a p e r s o n a l c h a l l e n g e f e l t t o be coming from two d i r e c t i o n s : one f r o m o u t s i d e I n d i a , t h a t i s , f r o m E u r o p e , and t h e o t h e r from w i t h i n I n d i a i t s e l f . The t i g h t l y k n i t s o c i e t y b u i l t by the B r i t i s h i n I n d i a may be e x p l a i n e d as a c o n s e r v a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e r a d i c a l changes i n t h e home-l a n d : t h e r i s e o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s and the d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t movement; t h e c u r r e n t c y o f t h e M a r x i s t i d e a l s d e n o u n c i n g e l i t e s and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a g a i n s t h i s c h a i n s t o t h e b o u r g e o i s i e ; and, most d e c i d e d l y , the i n c i p i e n t a t h e i s m o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l c u l t u r e . The s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d , e l i t i s t v a l u e s o f t h e c o l o n i a l were t h r e a t e n e d by t h e changes w h i c h t h e s e p o p u l a r i d e a s i m p l i e d f o r I n d i a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , I n d i a came t o be r e g a r d e d by t h e s e E n g l i s h men and women as t h e l a s t s t r o n g h o l d o f t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c l i f e . " ^ They r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r c l a i m s on s t a t u s and p r i v i l e g e , f e e l i n g i t t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e d i g n i t y and t r a d i t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e E n g l i s h a r i s t o c r a c y . ( T h i s , o f c o u r s e , marked a d i g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e -a t t i t u d e o f e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s who l o o k e d t o I n d i a as t h e g r e a t hope o f t h e f u t u r e : a l l t h e i d e a l s o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y E n l i g h t e n m e n t were d e s t i n e d t o be r e a l i z e d t h e r e . ) The s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y was a c h i e v e d p a r t l y by t h e s h a r e d s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o a r e s p e c t a b l e group o f t h e h i g h e s t V i c t o r i a n o r d e r . I t was a l s o enhanced by t h e image t h e c o l o n i a l i s t s had o f t h e i r own s o c i e t y i n i t s I n d i a n s e t t i n g . Somewhat on t h e a n a l o g y o f t h e l o t u s , t h e y t h o u g h t o f t h e m s e l v e s as s t a n d i n g p r o u d l y i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e f i l t h and m o r a l d e p r a v i t y o f I n d i a , y e t u n s t a i n e d and u n d e f i l e d by i t . I n d eed, t h i s a t t i t u d e was an e s s e n t i a l element o f t h e i r group s o l i d a r i t y and i t l e d t o i n v i d i o u s c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e dynamic i n t e r - p l a y o f i m p a c t - s t r e s s - r e -sponse o c c u r s i n 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a . The B r i t i s h f e l t t h e t h r e a t o f d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e y responded t o t h i s c r i s i s a c c o r d i n g l y . T h e i r s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e r e a c t i o n c r e a t e d s t r e s s f o r I n d i a n s who were f o r c e d t o a c t i n s u c h a way as t o r e d u c e i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s . The r e a l i s s u e c o n f r o n t i n g b o t h c u l t u r a l communities was t h e f e a r o f change and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t l o s s o f meaning, s t a b i l i t y and i d e n t i t y . B r o ad s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l changes t h r e a t e n e d t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e i r s o c i a l o r d e r s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . However, i n s t e a d o f r e s p o n d i n g t o the r e a l s o u r c e o f t h a t t h r e a t , t h a t i s , r a t h e r t h a n becom-i n g i n v o l v e d i n the changes w h i c h were r e a l i z e d t o be i n e v i t a b l e , t h e B r i t s h i n I n d i a r e t r e a t e d i n t o a r e a c t i o n a r y mold and a t t e m p t e d t o c o u r t t h e p a s t . Then t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s about t h e change s t i l l a s s a i l i n g them was t a k e n o u t on s o m e t h i n g t h a t was s y m b o l i c o f t h e t h r e a t . The symbol f u n c t i o n e d as a d e f e n s e mechanism whereby t h e r e a l t h r e a t need n o t be d e a l t w i t h . To t h e B r i t i s h , t h e I n d i a n s e r v e d as a symbol o f t h e a n t i - C h r i s t . 58 He and h i s " d i s g u s t i n g r e l i g i o n " were a l w a y s t o be k e p t i n mind as an example o f what wou l d happen s h o u l d t h e E n g l i s h f o r s a k e t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e . I n d i a n s f e l t t h e s t r e s s o f change as a - d i f u s e d t h r e a t , d i f f i c u l t t o g r a s p i n i t s t o t a l i t y , i m p o s s i b l e t o p i n - p o i n t a t i t s s o u r c e . One t h i n g d i d s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y , however, and t h i s was t h e h o s -t i l i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h towards them, m a n i f e s t e d as i t was i n t h e i r a c t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . M a n i f e s t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s was t h e d e g r a d a t i o n , t h e i n d i g n i t y and the o v e r w h e l m i n g s e n s e o f l o s s ^ o f d e s t r u c t i o n and o f i n s t a b i l i t y t h e I n d i a n s e x p e r i e n c e d . As a r e s p o n s e t o t h e s t r e s s o f l i f e i n I n d i a i t s e l f , t h e c o n s e r v a -t i v e p o s t u r e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d B r i t i s h p o l i c y and a t t i t u d e s i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f the 1 9 t h c e n t u r y may be e x p l a i n e d as a r e a c t i o n a r y move-ment on t h e p a r t o f a s m a l l f o r e i g n community d i s c o v e r i n g i t s v u l n e r a b i l -i t y i n an a l i e n , h o s t i l e l a n d . Or so t h e M u t i n y o f 1857 w i t h i t s gruesome t a l e s o f u n i m a g i n a b l e a t r o c i t i e s and t r e a c h e r y seemed t o i n d i c a t e . To t h i s s m a l l , c o l o n i a l i s t " f a m i l y , " t h e M u t i n y was a w a r n i n g t h a t t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n was n o t s e c u r e . A n a t i v e r e b e l l i o n was a c h a l l e n g e t o the s t a t u s quo. I t had t o be answered w i t h power and f o r c e b e c a u s e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h i s s t a t u s quo was v i t a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s ' o f e v e r y E n g l i s h m a n i n I n d i a , whether he was a c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l o r a - p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s m a n . The new r a c i s t . i d e o l o g y f u n c t i o n e d t o j u s t i f y t h e B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n i n I n d i a , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e as an i n h e r e n t r i g h t o f t h o s e who g overned I n d i a , and t h e open acknowledgement o f t h e n a t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e . The images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s w h i c h t h e c o l o n i a l i s t s t r a d e d amongst t h e m s e l v e s must be seen i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , 59 b e l i e f s and t h e sense o f i d e n t i t y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h i s s o c i e t y p o s s e s s e d . These images, i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y , b e l o n g t o a b r o a d s y s t e m o f i d e o l o g i c a l symbols w h i c h s e r v e t o m a i n t a i n and p r e s e r v e t h e s ense o f r e a l i t y b e h i n d c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . 60 CHAPTER I I I . NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS The B r i t i s h O r i e n t a l i s t s represented the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e i r a r c h y of the B r i t i s h E a s t . I n d i a Company. They were the c i v i l s e r v i c e e l i t e i n a company p r o t e c t e d by the B r i t i s h Government. Speaking of t h e i r power and t h e i r r o l e , David Kopf. says they were " v i r t u a l C a e s a r ' s e n t r u s t e d w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r e s e r v i n g the Company's possess ions from the inroads of o ther I n d i a n p o w e r s . " British Orientalism and the Bengal Renaissance, 1969, p . . 1 4 . 2 Ib%d., p . 24. 3Ibid., p . 22. ^Ibid., p . 97. - . 5Ibid., p . 38. ^Ibid., p . 38. 7Ibid., p . 39. 8 John M o r e a r t y , "Images of I n d i a i n Swami Virekananda and O t h e r s , " p . 52. ^Ibid., p . 53 . 1 0 K o p f , p . 40.- • •, :• ''"'''One must a l s o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p o l i t i c a l advantage of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c u l t u r a l center such as t h i s . The i d e a of the O r i e n t a l i s t s was to e s t a b l i s h a rappor t w i t h the n a t i v e s so tha t they ( B r i t i s h ) would not be t r e a t e d as a l i e n s . The i n s i g h t s i n t o I n d i a n c u l t u r e d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s way c o u l d then be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . 1 12 The cause of the F a l l was v a r i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e d to the s e r i e s of i n v a s i o n s I n d i a f e l l plague t o , to the mendacious t a c t i c s of the Brahmins , o r , vaguely to the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the n a t u r a l way of t h i n g s . A munshi was a member of the n a t i v e l i t e r a t i who was employed a t the C o l l e g e as a language t u t o r . 1 4 K o p f , p . 24. 15Ibid., p . 175. -^These i n s t r u c t i o n s , " t o exterminate Heathenism i n I n d i a , " were d e l i v e r e d to the f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y i n I n d i a (1713), a German Lutheran named Z i e g e n b a l g , who had become " I n d i a n i z e d " i n the same sense as the O r i e n t a l i s t s were . K o p f , p . 52 . 1 7 R . C. Majumdar, " N a t i o n a l i s t H i s t o r i a n s , " i n Social Change: The--Colonial Situation, ed. Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i n , 1966, p. 620. 18Ibid.3 p. 620. 19 • Ibid., p. 620. Says Majumdar:. t h e i r ( i . e . t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s ' ) r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n was n o t p r o v o k e d by s i m i l a r abuses i n t h e i r own s o c i e t y . Thus, w h i l e t h e b u r n i n g o f widows was r e g a r d e d ' a s a b a r b a r o u s t r a i t i n H i n d u c u l t u r e , no thought was g i v e n t o t h e b u r n i n g o f h e r e t i c s i n E urope. W h i l e c a s t e s y s t e m ( s i c ) was condemned, no r e f e r e n c e was made, even f o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p a r i s o n , t o the s l a v e r y and s e r f d o m i n a n c i e n t and m e d i e v a l E u r o p e , and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e " b l a c k s " by t h e " w h i t e s " i n modern t i m e s . " 20 Quoted i n M o r e a r t y , p. 40. 21 . Quoted i n ibid., p. 40. 2 2 Q u o t e d i n ibid., pp. 40-41. 23 Quoted i n Nemai Sadhan Bose,.2%e Indian Awakening and Bengal, 1969, pp. 63-64. -2 4 Q u o t e d i n K o p f , p. 142. ^Quoted i n M o r e a r t y , p. 25. The p h r a s e i s K o p f ' s . 2 7 K o p f , pp. 246-247; 28Wm. T. De B a r y , ed., Sources of. Indian Tradition, 1958, p. 600.-29Ibid., p. 597. 30 The c l o s u r e o f t h e C o l l e g e o f F o r t W i l l i a m was f a t a l t o t h e e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m b u i l t up by t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s . I t s s i s t e r C o l l e g e s were soon d i s m a n t l e d and E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n r e p l a c e d t h e d u a l I n d i a n - E n g l i s h program o f s t u d i e s i n t h e c i r r i c u l u m o f t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e A n g l i c i s t s . See K o p f , p. 241. 3 1 Q u o t e d i n Thomas R. M e t e a l f , The Aftermath of Revolt, 1964, p. 320. no Quoted i n Majumdar, p. 619. 3 3 Q u o t e d i n K o p f , p. 240. E r i c S t o k e s , English Utilitarians' in India, 1959, p. 48. • ^ F r a n c i s H u t c h i n s , The Illusion of Permanence, 1967, p. 63. 62 36Ibid., pp. 79-80. 3 7 J . C. N o t t , quoted i n M e t c a l f , p. 310. J . A i t k e n M e i g s , . q u o t e d i n ibid., p. 311. 39 R. Knox, q u o t e d i n ibid.3 p. 312. 4 0 Q u o t e d i n H u t c h i n s , p. 124. ^ Q u o t e d i n A n i l S e a l , The Emergence of Indian Nationalism,, 1968, p. 144. ^ Q u o t e d i n L. G a r d i n e r and J . D a v i d s o n , British Imperialism in the Late 19th Century, 1968, p. 10. 4 3 Q u o t e d i n ibid., p. 12. 4 4 Q u o t e d i n M e t c a l f , p. 318. ^ ^ A i n s l i e Embree, 1857 in India, 1963, p. i x . Quoted i n Bose, p. 116. . ^ Q u o t e d i n ibid., p. 67. ^ 8 Q u o t e d i n ibid., (p. 126,. 4 9 H u t c h i n s , p. 102. ^^Henry Lawrence, quoted i n . ibid., p. 177. 5^-From India: Geographical Statistical and Historical, 1858, qu o t e d i n ibid., p. 68. 52Quoted i n ibid., p. 71. 5 3 W i l l i a m H. R u s s e l l , q uoted i n ibid., p. 59. •^Quoted i n ibid., p. 55. "^Quoted i n ibid., p. 55. ^Ibid., p. 128. I n t h e words o f J . F. Stephen, I n d i a was " t h e one s p h e r e i n w h i c h an E n g l i s h m a n who i s n e i t h e r b o r n i n t h e p u r p l e n o r minded t o f l a t t e r mobs, can hope j u s t a t p r e s e n t t o s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y t o any s e r i o u s p u r p o s e . " 63 CHAPTER IV THE INDIAN RESPONSE TO NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH ATTITUDES: CULTURAL CLASSICISM AND THE SEARCH FOR CULTURAL IDENTITY I . INTRODUCTION I n terms o f i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t , t h e i m p a c t o f t h e B r i t i s h images o f I n d i a and o f I n d i a n s i s t o be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e i d e n t i t y c r i s e s i t engendered amongst t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s . 1 S u s c e p t i b l e as t h e e d u c a t e d I n d i a n was t o A n g l i c i z a t i o n , he f e l t k e e n l y t h e l o s s o f d i g n i t y t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y image.of I n d i a and I n d i a n s i m p l i e d . The e x p l i c i t v a l u e judgement c o n t a i n e d i n the B r i t i s h images undermined the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e as an I n d i a n , . d i s l o c a t e d h i s s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y — . c u l t u r a l as w e l l as p e r s o n a l — t h r e a t e n i n g t h e r e b y h i s sense o f w o r t h as an i n d i v i d u a l and as a H i n d u . He p e r c e i v e d t h i s i n d i g n i t y as " s p r e a d i n g o u t i n w i d e n i n g c i r c l e s f rom t h e p e r s o n h i m s e l f , t o h i s f a m i l y , t o t h e w h o l e o f h i s c u l t u r e (Hinduism) a t t h e p r e s e n t moment, and f i n a l l y i n t o t h e p a s t as w e l l . " 2 •J To t h i s newly formed c l a s s o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s w h i c h was, t o use M c C u l l y ' s p h r a s e , "an anomalous ... h y b r i d c l a s s ... n e i t h e r w h o l l y E n g l i s h n o r w h o l l y n a t i v e , " 4 t h e c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y was nowhere more s t r o n g l y i m p r e s s e d upon them as i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n i n t h e c u l t u r a l d i c h o t o m y e x i s t i n g i n t h e tiome. 5 Here t h e c o n f l i c t between newly found i n t e l l e c t u a l t i e s w i t h t h e a l i e n "modern" c u l t u r e n u r t u r e d i n the E n g l i s h s c h o o l , and t h e " p r i m i t i v e w o r l d o f naked c h i l d r e n , u n c u l t u r e d s e m i - c l a d women and s u p e r s t i t i o u s s e r v a n t s " p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e home, became e x a g g e r a t e d and remained u n r e s o l v e d . Summarizing an e d i t o r i a l w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e 64 Indian Mirror, a journal of the Brahmo Samaj, in. 1885, McCully-offers this example of the family situation: To take an ordinary case, the family idols were tended by the mother and other female members of the family at sunrise, and sunset with flowers, ablutions and ceremonial observances. In the meantime, the midday occupation of the student might consist in analyzing Milton's Areopag'iiioa, . a favourite text book, or some other scathing exposition of priestcraft and idolatry. 7 • The implications of this type of confrontation of values within the individual have been discussed more ful l y in Chapter II; Levenson brings out very well the nature of the tension that results when disjunction occurs between the source of one's cultural and personal identity (history) and the source of one's loyalties (value). He says: History and value are worlds apart, but men are drawn to both, with an emotional commitment to. the f i r s t and an intellectual commitment to the second; they need to ask the two incompatible questions, and they yearn to be able to answer "Mine" and "True." 8 The task of the following pages w i l l be to document the ways in which some Indians sought to effect a re-alignment between these two diverse cominitments; " II. IDENTITY CRISIS AND THE COPING PROCESS Taking, at face value the indictments of the British, some educated Indians came to feel ashamed of their religion, their cultural traditions and even their own people. As a result they experienced cultural alien-ation and identity c r i s i s , this latter indicating the severity of the conflict between intellectual and emotional commitments within the individual.- Some became apostates which made them outcastes, in i t s 65 l i t e r a l s e n s e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . A p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e e x o t i c E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , t h e y hoped t o a c q u i r e a new s t a t u s and a new i d e n t i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most o f them c o u l d do l i t t l e more t h a n i m i t a t e t h e a c t i o n s of t h e " S a h i b s . " A t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f such A n g l i c i z e d I n d i a n s as seen t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f t h e i r own countrymen appeared i n . a C a l c u t t a p e r i o d i c a l i n 1851: He has a s m a t t e r i n g o f E n g l i s h ... i s u l t r a f a s h i o n -a b l e i n d r e s s and u n c e r e m o n i o u s l y d r a g s p o o r Shakespeare and M i l t o n f r o m t h e i r r e p o s e and m i s q u o t e s t h e most f a m i l i a r p a s s a g es ... s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s a r e t h e goddesses o f h i s i d o l a t r y . He e a t s b e e f , c r a c k s a whole b o t t l e o f cognac a t Spence's o r W i l s o n ' s ... 9 The m a j o r i t y o f t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s , however, p r e f e r r e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . They found i t e a s i e r t o a c c e p t h y p o c r i s y i n t h e m s e l v e s o r t o l i v e a d o u b l e l i f e t h a n t o submit t o t h e 10 chaos and m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s t h e a p o s t a t e was f o r c e d t o cope w i t h . So, even f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l who chose s t a b i l i t y t h e r e was y e t t h e p r o b l e m o f extreme p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s . The t e n s i o n he p e r c e i v e d as e x i s t i n g between t h e a t t i t u d e o f f a i t h demanded o f him as a good H i n d u and t h e s p i r i t o f c r i t i c i s m i n c u l c a t e d i n him v i a h i s e d u c a t i o n demanded r e s o l u - ^ t i o n . A c r i s i s o f i d e n t i t y m o t i v a t e d him t o s e a r c h f o r a new, v i a b l e i d e n t i t y , one w h i c h c o u l d r e u n i t e t h e now d i s p a r a t e c l a i m s o f " h i s t o r y " and " v a l u e . " He was u n w i l l i n g t o embrace i c o n o c l a s m and r e j e c t a l l t h e symbols and t h e i d o l s t h a t c l a d t h e s p i r i t u a l c e n t e r o f t h e H i n d u r e l i g i o n , and y e t he was committed t o t h e new i d e a s w h i c h f l o o d e d I n d i a d u r i n g t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , i d e a s w h i c h were n o t amenable t o c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s n o r t o t h e s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y d e r i v e d f r o m them. They were n o t , t o use Levenson's p h r a s e , " c o n g e n i a l t o t h e c l a i m s o f h i s t o r y . " "Man," s a y s Levenson " i s n o t a n e u t r a l machine, c a l m l y -r e c o r d i n g r i g h t answers; i f a f o r e i g n answer i s t o be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e p t e d as r i g h t , t he e m o t i o n a l c l a i m s o f h i s t o r y must somehow be 12 s q u a r e d . " Thus t h e I n d i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n a "supreme e f f o r t o f c u l -13 t u r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " a p p e a l e d t o h i s c u l t u r e ' s p a s t , t o h i s own c u l t u r a l a n c e s t o r s , t o y i e l d a s o l u t i o n t o h i s p r e s e n t c r i s i s : t h e r e s t o r -a t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f t h e d i g n i t y and p r i d e i n h i m s e l f and i n h i s h e r i t a g e , i n t h e eyes o f t h e f o r e i g n e r as w e l l as i n h i s own ey e s . I n o t h e r words, he c o n s u l t e d h i s p a s t f o r a " f o r m u l a w i t h w h i c h t o keep t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l peace.""'"4 I n t u r n i n g t o r e l i g i o n t o a i d him i n the s e a r c h f o r a new c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n , h i m s e l f f a c i n g a c r i s i s o f i d e n t -i t y spearheaded by a l o s s o f f a i t h i n t h e v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s t h a t c o m p r i s e d t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m , was c o n s e n t i n g — e v e n i f uncon-s c i o u s l y — t o the f o r m a t i v e r o l e o f r e l i g i o n i n t h i s most s t r a t e g i c d i m e n s i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e . B e f o r e t h e i n t r u s i o n o f Western v a l u e s , H i n d u i s m p r o v i d e d a v i a b l e s e t o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e world-and'one's p l a c e i n i t . However, t h e A n g l i c i z e d I n d i a n r e a l i z e d t h a t f o r him, H i n d u i s m had c e a s e d t o p e r f o r m i t s b a s i c f u n c t i o n - o f i n t e g r a t i n g s o c i e t y and p e r s o n a l i t y , m a i n l y because t h e s t r u c t u r e s and v a l u e s o f t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y had changed w h i l e n e i t h e r t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f s o c i e t y n o r i t s r e l i g i o u s m a t r i x had f o l l o w e d s u i t . T h i s s t r e s s o f b e l i e f f o r c e d him i n one o f t h r e e d i r e c t i o n s : he r e j e c t e d H i n d u i s m as f a l s e , he s p i r i t u a l i z e d i t o r he r e - i n t e r p r e t e d i t . Except f o r a few c o n v e r t e d A n g l o p h i l e s , t h e A n g l i c i s t a l t e r n a t i v e was always an e x c e l l e n t r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g one o f t h e l a t t e r two p a t h s . The A n g l i c i s t s n o t o n l y c l a i m e d t o be a b l e t o p r o v i d e u l t i m a t e t r u t h s f o r a l l a r e a s o f human c o n c e r n , b u t t h e y a l s o d i s p l a y e d a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o f o r c e • C h r i s t i a n i t y and B r i t i s h Law upon-I n d i a and " e x t e r m i n a t e h e a t h e n i s m " i n t h e p r o c e s s . R e s i s t i n g t h e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l i n c u r s i o n s o f a l i e n and a l i e n a t i n g c u l t u r a l f o r m s , t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n made the "supreme',jeffort o f c u l t u r a l c o n -s c i o u s n e s s " i n c h o o s i n g , t o remain, a H i n d u . He r e s i s t e d t h e e t h n o c e n t r i c c l a i m s o f t h e A n g l i c i s t , t h e E v a n g e l i s t and t h e I m p e r i a l i s t , . c o n s u l t e d h i s p a s t ( i n e f f e c t , t h e l e g a c y o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s ) , and demanded i t y i e l d up t o him t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e new r e a l i t y he was e x p e r i e n c i n g . The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e v a l u e s and d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h were, i n M o r e a r t y ' s words " i n t h e a b s t r a c t W estern as w e l l as I n d i a n , were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s e t • of'/-symbols w i t h w h i c h t h e H i n d u community i d e n t i f i e d i n a s p e c i a l 15 16 way." Out o f h i s p a s t he f o r g e d two new myths, t h o s e o f t h e I n d i a n G o l d e n Age and o f I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y . By t h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i o n , t h e I n d i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l became b o t h a c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r and a " c u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s t . " " ' " ^ I I I . CULTURAL CLASSICISM AS A RESPONSE TO IDENTITY CRISIS C u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s m must be u n d e r s t o o d as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s The c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r does n o t a p p r o a c h h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a n e u t r a l , o b j e c t i v e frame o f mind. R a t h e r , he l o o k s a t h i s m a t e r i a l from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i t s v a l u e t o him. I n o t h e r words, t h e f a c t s o f h i s t o r y a r e f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c v a l u e s y s t e m tuned i n t o t h e needs and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s own " p r e s e n t t i m e . " Any h i s -t o r i o g r a p h y , says Von Grunebaum " i s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e one hand by c o n t e n t ( d a t a ) , f u n c t i o n ( o f d a t a w i t h i n c o n t e x t s t u d i e d ) , and s t r u c t u r e ( o f t h e d a t a making them amenable t o t r e a t m e n t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t ) , and, on t h e o t h e r hand, by m o t i v a t i o n o r o b j e c t i v e ("use") and method and s t y l e o f 18 p r e s e n t a t i o n . M i t den Z e i t e n w e c h s e l n du P r o b a b i l i t a t e n . ' " A l t h o u g h t h e r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e p a s t d i s p l a y e d by t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r a p p e a r s a t f i r s t t o be r o m a n t i c and c r e d u l o u s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e p a s t i s b a s i c a l l y a m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t , an i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t o f t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r h i m s e l f . H i s v i s i o n i s u n a l t e r a b l y a p r o d u c t o f h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n p l u s h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n . o f t h e f u t u r e , - a n d i t i s t h i s v i s i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l model. M a u r i c e N a t a n s o n , i n h i s e s s a y " H i s t o r y as a F i n i t e P r o v i n c e o f Meaning," c l a r i f i e s t h e s u b j e c t i v -i t y o f o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y , when he s a y s : Man i s n o t o n l y a b e i n g who l i v e s i n t h e w o r l d ; he i s a b e i n g who has a w o r l d , and even f u r t h e r , we may s a y , he i s a b e i n g who <isva£world. .What-e v e r i s g i v e n t o him i n e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s t r a n s p o s e d and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e f a b r i c o f h i s c o g n i t i v e and c o n a t i v e l i f e and becomes r e s t r u c t u r e d and re f o r m e d i n t o an a s p e c t o f h i s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . ( H i s t o r y ) i s a r e a l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y t h a t c r e a t e s and d e f i n e s i t , t h a t b e a r s i t s meaning, and t h a t i s w i t n e s s t o i t s t r u t h . I 9 The dynamic f u n c t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i c i s t ' s endeavour now becomes c l e a r . I n t h e hands o f t h e h i s t o r i a n , who i s a c t u a l l y a s o c i a l p h i l o s o -p h e r , t h e p a s t n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s a f o o t h o l d and an i d e n t i t y f o r t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e , b u t i t a l s o s e r v e s t o j u s t i f y t h e p r e s e n t need f o r change. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , b o t h ' t h e c l a i m s o f h i s t o r y and t h e demands o f t h e f u t u r e impose t h e m s e l v e s on t h e r e f o r m e r ' s mind when he c o n s t r u c t s an a u t h o r i t a t i v e model f o r change from f r a g m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m h i s c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . T h i s i s what i s known as f o r m a t i v e h i s t o r y . I t i s an e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r r e n d e r i n g h e t e r o g e n e t i c change i n t o o r t h o g e n e t i c change 69 and t h e r e b y g i v i n g i t meaning and v a l u e . I t a l s o e n a b l e s a p e o p l e t o 20 a c h i e v e what Von Grunebaum c a l l s " s e l f - s t y l i z a t i o n , " t h e s e n s e o f c o l -l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y so v i t a l t o m o d e r n - s o c i e t y . I n t h e l i g h t o f Mannoni's a n a l y s i s o f the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n , Von Grunebaum's comments on t h e two b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s , o f c l a s s i c i s m a r e r e v e a l i n g . F i r s t he p o i n t s t o t h e f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y and s e l f - a s s u r a n c e . w h i c h may be drawn from t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h i s t o r y f i l l e d w i t h h e r o e s and g l o r y . Thus c l a s s i c i s m s e r v e s t o d i m i n i s h t h e s e n s e o f i n a d e q u a c y o r shame a c u l t u r a l group may e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . T h i s new found c o n f i d e n c e i n j e c t s a new l i f e i n t o t h e g roup. L i k e a r e - b i r t h , i t r e a c t i v a t e s i n d i v i d u a l s I m m o b i l i z e d by t h e l o s s o f ' d i g n i t y and t h e t h r e a t o f t h e l o s s o f i d e n t i t y . Not o n l y does c l a s s i c i s m o p e r a t e t o r e a r r a n g e t h e v a l u e s y s t e m o f a c u l t u r e , b u t i t a l s o d i s c o v e r s f o r t h e group a dynamic, new c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h s t i m u l a t e s and r e d i r e c t s t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n 22 a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e new s e l f - i m a g e . I n summary, t h e e f f e c t o f t h e W estern impact ca n be s e e n i n t h e i d e n t i t y c r i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d by I n d i a n s who, t h r o u g h E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n and employment i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and the Government, came i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e . c u l t u r e o f t h e B r i t i s h . D i s r u p t i v e as t h i s i m p a c t was o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , t h e e n s u i n g i d e n t i t y c r i s i s p l a c e d him under s e v e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and f o r c e d him t o r e s p o n d i n s u c h a way as t o r e d u c e i t s d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s . He e x p e r i e n c e d h i m s e l f as s u r -rounded by-"an e x p a n d i n g n e t w o r k o f c o n t a c t s and l o y a l t i e s " w i t h no i n t e g r a t i v e element t h e r e i n t o a s s i s t him i n making h i s e x p e r i e n c e s mean-i n g f u l . R e sponding t o t h i s s t r e s s , . h e sought t o d i s c o v e r , by means o f 70' t h e c l a s s i c i s t p u r s u i t , a new c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , one t h a t w o u l d r e s t o r e h i s f a i t h i n h i m s e l f and i n h i s h e r i t a g e as w e l l as e a r n him t h e r e s p e c t o f f o r e i g n e r s . I t w i l l be s e e n . i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who engaged i n t h e c l a s s i c i s t p u r s u i t , b o r n as i t was o f a c u r i o u s m a r r i a g e o f E a s t and West, e n c o u n t e r e d s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , not t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h stemmed f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d community r e p r e s e n t e d a 2 A-t i n y , a l m o s t i n s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y o f t h e t o t a l I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . Because t h e i r methods were e c l e c t i c , t h e y produced s y n c r e t i s t i c schemes •'25' w h i c h were o f t e n u n i n s p i r e d , s u p e r f i c i a l , and s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y . W i t h t h e i r d u b i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s and t h e i r o f t e n 27 a b s u r d methods o f e x e g e s i s , t h e y o f f e n d e d the o r t h o d o x community who were q u i c k t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e m o d e r n i z e r s . And, o f c o u r s e , t h e B r i t i s h e r was l i t t l e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e f r e q u e n t . c l a i m i s s u i n g f r o m t h i s c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , namely, t h a t H i n d u i s m , i n i t s p u r e form, was e q u a l , i f n o t s u p e r i o r t o — a n d perhaps even the' s o u r c e o f -T t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . I n l o o k i n g a t c l a s s i c i s m as a r e s p o n s e t o d e g r a d a t i o n and i t s c o r o l -l a r y o f i d e n t i t y c r i s i s i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t , as an o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , c l a s s i c i s m p e r s i s t e d i n some fo r m o r a n o t h e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r y . T a k i n g / t h i s r e s p o n s e t o be a c o n s t a n t w i t h i n the E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d community, i t s p r i m a r y v a r i a b l e i s s e e n t o b e ' t h e d e g r e e o f i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n w i t h one c u l t u r a l community as o v e r a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . T h i s , i n t u r n , was a f u n c t i o n o f e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , namely, t h o s e p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s w h i c h a l t e r e d b o t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s and t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s j and t h e p a t t e r n o f 71 l o y a l t i e s and i d e n t i t i e s dependent t h e r e o n . W i t h o u t d w e l l i n g t o o much on t h e s e e x t e r n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c h a p t e r . w i l l a t t e m p t t o map o u t two ma j o r movements o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i n , t h e c o u r s e o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . . 28 F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y may be d i v i d e d i n t o two phases o f c u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s m and the r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i n d u i s m . The e a r l y p h a s e , 1820-1860, was marked by a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o make H i n d u i s m c o n f o r m t o t h e i d e a l s and v a l u e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e d e g r e e o f i d e n t i t y t h e n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a had w i t h B r i t i s h c u l t u r e . - The myth o f t h e s p i r i t u a l E a s t v e r s u s t h e m a t e r i a l West b e g i n s t o w i n c o n v e r t s i n t h e e d u c a t e d community and i t i s c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e c e n t r a l theme o f the r e i n t e r p r e t i v e schemes, namely, t h e image o f t h e V e d i c e r a as a G o l d e n Age. I n t h e l a t e r phase, 1860-1900, a p o l o g e t i c s become more d e f i a n t and show an i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e o f l i b e r a t i o n f rom t h e bondage t o C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . The V e d i c G o l d e n Age myth b e g i n s t o l o s e some o f i t s l u s t r e as members o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a g r a d u a l l y t u r n t o j o i n t h e o r t h o d o x d e f e n s e o f P u r a n i c r e l i g i o n . T h i s was t h e e r a o f c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l n a t i o n a l i s m when i n d i v i d u a l s began t o f e e l t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p u r g i n g t h e c o u n t r y o f a l i e n r u l e r s and a l i e n i d e a s . Towards t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d , Neo-Vedantism comes i n t o t h e f o r e and, i n t h e p e r s o n o f Swami V i v e k a n a n d a , e f f e c t s a v i a b l e s y n t h e s i s w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t i n g images o f I n d i a ' s h e r i t a g e . IV. RAMMOHUN ROY AND THE IMAGES OF THE GOLDEN AGE AND INDIAN SPIRITUALITY R a j a Rammohun Roy (1772-1833) was one o f t h o s e t r u l y s e m i n a l f i g u r e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f I n d i a n m o d e r n i z a t i o n . Y e t he was a l s o a t r a n s i t i o n a l 72 i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a i n i n g w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h e seeds o f a m b i v a l e n c e so c h a r a c -29 t e f i s t i c o f t h e " a s s a u l t e d " i n t e l l e c t u a l . Kopf d e s c r i b e s Rammohun as a t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e educ a t e d I n d i a n who, w i t h h i s "adherence t o t h e s p i r i t o f U t i l i t a r i a n r a t i o n a l i s m , h i s a f f i n i t y f o r S u f i m y s t i c i s m , h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r C h r i s t , h i s e m o t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e ; V e d i c 30 age, and h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o p a r t w i t h t h e B r a h m a n i c a l s a c r e d t h r e a d ..." had, w i t h t h e t y p i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y , ... combined w i t h i n h i m s e l f , as i t were, t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e H i n d u t r i n i t y o f Brahma, S h i v a and V i s h n u , c o n c e i v i n g o f h i m s e l f , i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s own s o c i e t y , as c r e a t o r , d e s t r o y e r and p r e s e r v e r . L i k e h i s c o u n t e r -p a r t i n modern J a p a n , he s o u g h t ' t o c r e a t e new l e v e l s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , a t t h e same t i m e t h a t he s t r o v e t o p r e s e r v e s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l t i e s w i t h f a m i l y , k i n and the. t r a n s c e n d e n t s o c i e t y o f t h e sacred. 3-*-Rammohun was t h e f i r s t I n d i a n t o u t i l i z e t h e G o l d e n Age image.of I n d i a as a means t o r e s t o r i n g t h e d i g n i t y o f I n d i a n s and as a r a t i o n a l e f o r s o c i a l change; I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t Rammohun, though an avowed r a t i o n a l i s t w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s , i n d i c a t e s by h i s use o f t h e p a s t a s t r o n g dependency upon t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f thought.. H i s p e r -c e p t i o n o f t h e p a s t p l a c e s him s q u a r e l y i n t h e framework o f t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l v i e w o f t i m e as b e i n g a cont i n u u m . The G o l d e n Age myth depends, f o r i t s e f f i c a c y on t h e b e l i e f t h a t between t h e p a s t w h i c h i s "our p a s t " o r , . 32 b e t t e r s t i l l , " our p a s s e d , " and t h e p r e s e n t w h i c h i s " o u r p r e s e n t , " t h e r e e x i s t s no o b s e r v a b l e b r e a k . Rammohun, t h e n , i s n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a link between " t h e " p a s t and " t h e " p r e s e n t by means o f t h e Gol d e n Age myth. R a t h e r , what he i s d o i n g i s e x t e n d i n g h i s p r e s e n t d u r -33 a t i o n t o include t h a t w h i c h has p a s s e d , t h e r e b y v e r i f y i n g t h e u n i t y o f t h e u n i v e r s e , o r a t l e a s t t h e segment o f t h e u n i v e r s e h i s c u l t u r a l a n c e s t o r s have shaped. He a l s o c h o o s e s , v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , a p a r t i c u l a r segment o f t h a t " p a s s e d , " namely, t h e iZZud tempus. I n a p p e a l i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l a n c e s t o r s , t h e p r i m a l p a r e n t s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n , as t h e o n l y t r u e a u t h o r i t i e s , and i n a d v o c a t i n g b o t h a r e t u r n t o t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and a r e n e w a l o f t h e i r c r e a t i v e powers i n the p r e s e n t day, Rammbhun i s t h i n k i n g i n m y t h i c a l terms r a t h e r t h a n i n r a t i o n a l ones. He i s v e r i f y i n g t h a t 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I n d i a i s i n d i s o l u b l y c o n n e c t e d i n t i m e and i n b l o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p ( t h r o u g h t h e a n c e s t o r s ) w i t h a h i g h A r y a n c u l t u r e . I f one a c c e p t s s u c h a dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e n i t f o l l o w s n a t u r a l l y what was a p p l i c a b l e t o one's a n c e s t o r s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o o n e s e l f : i f one's a n c e s t o r s were g r e a t h e r o e s w o r t h y o f p r a i s e , . s o t o o a r e t h e i r l i n e a l d e s c e n d e n t s ; i f one's a n c e s t o r s adhered t o c e r t a i n m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t h e n t h e i r d e s c e n d e n t s a r e o b l i g e d t o submit t o t h e s e same p r i n c i p l e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y a r e deemed t o be t h e s o u r c e o f a n c e s t r a l g r e a t n e s s . M o r e a r t y s u g g e s t s t h i s t y p e o f t h i n k i n g i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u s i v e to t r a d i t i o n a l o r pre-modern c u l t u r e s b u t i t i s o b s c u r e d by t h e e x c e s s i v e o v e r l a y o f r a t i o n a l i s t i c t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e modern v i e w o f t h e u n i v e r s e : The f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e ... i s t h a t t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c , monadic, model o f t h e u n i v e r s e , i s a g r o s s l y inade-- .' q u a t e one, u n t r u e t o human p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n t e r -dependency, and t h a t F r e u d i a n p s y c h o l o g y and p r o c e s s p h i l o s o p h y come much c l o s e r t o d e s c r i b i n g , t h e b a s i c and i n t e r n a l f l o w o f c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h i s f e l t t o e x i s t e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t h e c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s ( w i t h t h e i r " t i e d " v a l u e s ) , and t h e n , by e x t e n s i o n , between one's p r e s e n t community and i t s b i o l o g i -c a l - c u l t u r a l " a n c e s t o r s . " 3 4 The c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f Rammohun's image o f G o l d e n Age I n d i a was t h e emphasis on t h e m o n o t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n o f t h e A r y a n a n c e s t o r s . I n f a c t , h i s image was a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a r e l i g i o u s one: i t s f o r m a t i v e e lements were s p i r i t u a l , a theme consonant w i t h h i s b e l i e f t h a t I n d i a was 74 e s s e n t i a l l y a s p i r i t u a l n a t i o n . I t - i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t i n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on monotheism, Rammohun i s e n u n c i a t i n g a b e l i e f he o b t a i n e d 35 perhaps more as a r e s u l t o f h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h S u f i •. m y s t i c i s m as a young man t h a n t h r o u g h h i s l a t e r e n c o u n t e r w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y and h i s . i n d i r e c t 36 c o n t a c t 1 w i t h t h e O r i e n t a l i s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e m a t e r i a l a c c o m p l i s h -ments o f a n c i e n t I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n so h i g h l y e u l o g i z e d i n l a t e r p e r i o d s 37 when t h e impact o f Western t e c h n o l o g y was f e l t more t h r e a t e n i n g l y , a r e n o t a p a r t o f Rammohun's image. T h i s o m i s s i o n may a l s o b e , c o n s t r u e d t o be a s t r a t e g i c one i f one t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t Rammohun's r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c -t i o n s , h i s s o c i a l aims and h i s a t t i t u d e towards t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s , a l l o f w h i c h p o i n t t o h i s keen d e s i r e t o p r o v e H i n d u i s m was n o t i n f e r i o r t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e r a t h e r d u b i o u s p r o s e l y t y z i n g methods o f " t h a t body o f E n g l i s h g e n t l e m e n , who a r e c a l l e d m i s s i o n a r i e s , " Rammohun l e v e l s t h i s p o i n t e d c r i t i c i s m : I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e a p o s t l e s o f J e s u s C h r i s t u s e d t o p r e a c h t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n t o t h e n a t i v e s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . But we must r e c o l l e c t t h a t t h e y were not o f the r u l e r s o f t h o s e c o u n t r i e s where t h e y p r e a c h e d . Were t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s l i k e w i s e t o p r e a c h t h e G o s p e l and d i s t r i b u t e books i n c o u n t r i e s n o t conquered by t h e E n g l i s h , s u c h as T u r k e y , P e r s i a & c . j w h i c h a r e much n e a r e r E n g l a n d , t h e y w o u l d be esteemed a body o f men t r u l y z e a l o u s i n p r o p a g a t i n g r e l i g i o n and i n f o l l o w i n g t h e example o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . I n - B e n g a l , where t h e E n g l i s h a r e t h e s o l e r u l e r s , and where t h e mere name o f E n g l i s h m a n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o f r i g h t e n p e o p l e , an encroachment on t h e r i g h t s o f h e r p o o r , t i m i d and humble i n h a b i t a n t s and upon t h e i r r e l i g i o n , cannot be v i e w e d i n t h e eyes o f God o r t h e p u b l i c as a j u s t i f i a b l e a c t . F o r w i s e and good men a l w a y s f e e l d i s i n c l i n e d t o h u r t those,who a r e o f much l e s s s t r e n g t h t h a n t h e m s e l v e s , and i f s u c h weak c r e a t u r e s be dependent on them and s u b j e c t t o t h e i r a u t h o r i t y , t h e y c a n n e v e r a t t e m p t , even i n t h o u g h t , t o m o r t i f y t h e i r f e e l i n g s . 3 8 He goes on t o l i k e n t h e C h r i s t i a n g entlemen, t o "savage c o n q u e i r e r s , 1 1 who 75 a t t e m p t t o f o r e e t h e i r r e l i g i o n "by means o f abuse and i n s u l t ; " 3 9 Says M o r e a r t y : ... i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o s e n s e . . . b e n e a t h t h e p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e o f i n t r i c a t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l argument, Rammohun's s u b l i m a t e d r a g e a t t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s ' p r e a c h i n g s o f t h e "debasedness" o f h i s r e l i g i o n and t h a t o f t h e H i n d u community. 4^ Thus we f i n d Rammohun w r i t i n g a s c h o l a r l y pamphlet e n t i t l e d The Precepts of Jesus: the Guide to Peace and Happiness, w h e r e i n he a t t a c k s t h e " D i v i n e M y s t e r y " o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e T r i n i t y : , They c a l l . J e s u s C h r i s t t h e Son o f God and t h e v e r y G o d : -How c a n t h e son be t h e v e r y F a t h e r ? They sometimes c a l l J e s u s C h r i s t t h e Son o f man, and y e t say no man was h i s F a t h e r . They say t h a t God i s one, and y e t say t h a t t h e F a t h e r i s God, , the, Son i s God and t h e H o l y Ghost i s God. They say t h a t God must be w o r s h i p p e d i n s p i r i t and y e t the y w o r s h i p J e s u s C h r i s t as v e r y God, a l t h o u g h he i s p o s s e s s e d o f a m a t e r i a l body. They s a y t h a t t h e Son i s o f t h e same e s s e n c e and e x i s t e n c e as t h e F a t h e r , and t h e y a l s o say t h a t t h e Son i s e q u a l t o t h e F a t h e r . But how can e q u a l i t y s u b s i s t e x c e p t between o b j e c t s p o s s e s s e d o f d i f f e r e n t e s s e n c e s and e x i s t e n c e s ? ^ ! He c o n c l u d e s , t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y t a u g h t by t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s , namely, t h e w o r s h i p o f a Man-God o r a God-Man, was a b s u r d , i r r a t i o n a l and s e l f - c o n t r a -d i c t o r y . I n d eed, i t was a f a l s e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e m o n o t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n w h i c h J e s u s , who was a man and n o t a D i v i n e I n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e Supreme God, t a u g h t t o t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e . I f H i n d u i s m had s t r a y e d from h e r f o r m e r adherence t o p u r e monotheism, t h e n C h r i s t i a n i t y was no l e s s g u i l t y o f t h e same o f f e n s e . H i s a d v i c e t o t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s was t o s e p a r a t e o u t t h e "monstrous" d o c t r i n e s o f t h e Atonement and t h e T r i n i t y j " t h e f r a i l e d i f i c e o f t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y C r e e d , " w i t h i t s " p a r t i - c o l o u r e d v e i l o f s o p h i s t r y , " and p r o c e e d t o p r e a c h t h e p r a c t i c a l p a r t s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n , namely, t h e p r e c e p t s o f J e s u s w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r emphasis on sound m o r a l 76 p r i n c i p l e s , would prove b e n e f i c i a l to anyone who would hear them. Rammohun s t a t e s t h a t h i s i d e a l of showing t o l e r a n c e f o r a l l r e l i g i o n s made him r e l u c t a n t to engage i n such a c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n -a r i e s . But he f e e l s compelled to do so on account of the i n v i d i o u s comparisons of the two r e l i g i o n s engaged i n by the m i s s i o n a r i e s : In accordance w i t h the m i l d and l i b e r a l s p i r i t o f u n i v e r s a l t o l e r a t i o n , which i s w e l l - k n o w n to be' a fundamental p r i n c i p l e of Hindooism, I am f a r from w i s h i n g to oppose any system of r e l i g i o n , , much l e s s C h r i s t i a n i t y ; and my regard f o r the f e e l i n g s of i t s p r o f e s s o r s would r e s t r a i n me from thus exposing i t s e r r o r s , were they not f o r c e d upon my n o t i c e by the i n d i s c r e e t a s a u l t s s t i l l made by C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s on the Hindoo r e l i g i o n . But when they s c r u p l e not to wound the f e e l i n g s of a Hindoo , by a t t a c k i n g the most a n c i e n t and sacred o r a c l e s of h i s f a i t h , the i n s p i r e d Vedas, which have been revered f o r g e n e r a t i o n s , f o r t ime immemorial , should he submit to such wanton a g g r e s s i o n w i t h o u t endeavouring to convince these gentlemen, t h a t , i n the. language of t h e i r own S c r i p t u r e , they " s t r a i n a t a gnat and swal low a . camel" (Mat t . X X I I I . , 24)? Hence they may a t l e a s t learn from experience a l e s s o n of Charity,, •• which they are ready enough to i n c u l c a t e upon o t h e r s , o v e r l o o k i n g , a t the same t i m e , the precept g i v e n by t h e i r God: "Do unto o thers as you would w i s h to be done b y , " i m p l y i n g , t h a t i f you w i s h o thers to t r e a t your r e l i g i o n f a i r l y , you should not throw o f f e n s i v e r e f l e c t i o n s upon the r e l i g i o n of o t h e r s . 4 3 Rammohun b e l i e v e d that " t h e r e a l s p i r i t of the Hindu s c r i p t u r e s . . . i s but the d e c l a r a t i o n of the u n i t y of G o d . " 4 4 He set out to prove " t h a t the a d o r a t i o n of the Supreme Being i n s p i r i t was p r e s c r i b e d by the Vedas to men of unders tanding . . . (and t h a t ) . . . the Veda a c t u a l l y p r o h i b i t e d the worsh ip of any k i n d of f i g u r e d b e i n g s . " 4 - ' He b e l i e v e d tha t the numerous d e i t i e s which appeared i n the Vedic hymns were not separate gods but were o n l y a p p e l l a t i o n s of the Supreme B e i n g : 77 I t i s i n d i s p u t a b l y e v i d e n t t h a t none o f t h e s e m e t a p h o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w h i c h a r i s e from t h e e l e v a t e d s t y l e i n w h i c h t h e Vedas a r e w r i t t e n , were d e s i g n e d t o be v i e w e d i n any o t h e r l i g h t t h a n mere a l l e g o r y . I n d e f e n s e o f h i s p o s i t i o n , , h e s a y s : Never have I e v e r p r e t e n d e d to :reform o r t o discover t h e d o c t r i n e s o f t h e u n i t y o f God, n o r have I e v e r assumed t h e t i t l e o f a reformer o r discoverer; so f a r f r o m such an a s s u m p t i o n , I have u r g e d i n e v e r y work t h a t I have h i t h e r t o p u b l i s h e d , t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e u n i t y o f God i s r e a l H i n d u i s m , as t h a t r e l i g i o n p r a c t i c e d by o u r a n c e s t o r s , and as i t i s w e l l - k n o w n even a t t h e p r e s e n t age to.many l e a r n e d B r a h m i n s . 4 7 We see Rammohun's d o u b l e aim o f d e f e n d i n g and r e f o r m i n g i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s e n d e a v o u r s : I n o r d e r ... t o v i n d i c a t e my own f a i t h and t h a t o f our forefathers, I have been e n d e a v o u r i n g , f o r some t i m e p a s t , t o c o n v i n c e my countrymen o f t h e true meaning of our sacred books;, and' p r o v e t h a t my a b b e r a t i o n d e s e r v e s n o t t h e op-p r o b r i u m w h i c h some u n r e f l e c t i n g p e r s o n s have been so ready t o throw upon me. • • • • I e x p e c t t o p r o v e t o my European f r i e n d s t h a t t h e s u p e r -s t i t i o u s p r a c t i c e s w h i c h deform t h e Hindoo r e l i g i o n , have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e p u r e • s p i r i t o f i t s d i c t a t e s . 4 8 I n h i s t i m e , Rammohun was r e v i l e d on b o t h s i d e s : he o f f e n d e d t h e o r t h o d o x Hindus and i n f u r i a t e d t h e C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . I t w o u l d seem, i n t h e o r y , Rammohun's image o f I n d i a c o n t a i n e d a l l t h e I n g r e d i e n t s f o r s u c c e s s . I n a c t u a l i t y , though, h i s image, d e r i v e d as i t was f r o m h i s r e n a i s s a n c e t h e o r y , was not c o n g e n i a l t o t h e c l a i m s o f h i s t o r y as p e r c e i v e d by t h e w i d e s t s e c t o r s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . Most I n d i a n s p l a c e d a g r e a t e r v a l u e on t h e i p b s t - V e d a n t i c o r P u r S n i c forms o f H i n d u i s m , t h o s e " m e d i e v a l e x c r e s c e n c e s " w h i c h Rammohun r a i l e d a g a i n s t . H i s condemnation o f 78 i d o l a t r y , the p r i n c i p l e r i t e o f P u r a n i c r e l i g i o n , d i s p l a y s an i n t o l e r a n c e h a r d l y c o n d u c i v e t o w i n n i n g c o n v e r t s : I d o l a t r y , - as now p r a c t i c e d by our countrymen and w h i c h t h e l e a r n e d Brahman so z e a l o u s l y s u p p o r t s as c o n d u c i v e t o m o r a l i t y , i s n o t o n l y r e j e c t e d by t h e S h a s t r a s u n i v e r s a l l y , b u t must a l s o be l o o k e d upon w i t h g r e a t h o r r o r by common s e n s e , as l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y t o i m m o r a l i t y and d e s t r u c t i v e o f s o c i a l c o m f o r t s . 4 9 Rammohun may be c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g t o o e x c l u s i v e i n t h e image o f I n d i a he s ought t o b r i n g t o l i f e , and t o o dogmatic i n h i s t h e o l o g i c a l c l a i m s . These same" c r i t i c i s m s may be l e v e l e d a t t h e image o f t h e f u t u r e t h a t g u i d e d Rammohun's s o c i a l r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s : i t was t o o i d e a l i s t i c and was n o t amenable t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f I n d i a n l i f e . I n 1828, Rammohun founded an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c a r r y on h i s i d e a s o f r e l i g i o n , w o r s h i p and s o c i a l r e f o r m . The Brahmo Sabha (Samaj) answered a need i n t h e newly emerging c l a s s o f A n g l i c i z e d I n d i a n s t o have a v i a b l e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e . There i s a l s o some r e a s o n to b e l i e v e i t s c r e a t i o n was a r e s p o n s e t o t h e t h r e a t o f C h r i s t i a n p r o s e l y t i z -a t i o n w h i c h was b e g i n n i n g t o make c o n v e r t s among t h e a l i e n a t e d y o u t h g r a d u a t i n g from t h e c o l l e g e s . " * 0 I n e f f e c t , Brahnioism became a new r e l i g i o n , n e i t h e r w h o l l y H i n d u n o r w h o l l y C h r i s t i a n , though o b v i o u s l y much i n d e b t e d t o t h e l a t t e r . " ^ I t was n o t e d above t h a t Rammohun had a s p e c i a l a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e p r e c e p t s o f J e s u s . He f e l t , a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s o f mankind, t h e "law t h a t t e a c h e s t h a t man s h o u l d do unto o t h e r s as he w o u l d w i s h t o be done by ... i s p r i n c i p a l l y i n c u l c a t e d i n C h r i s t i -52 a n i t y . " He b e l i e v e d a l l r e l i g i o n s w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m s e p a r a t i n g o u t f r o m t h e d ogmatic a s s e r t i o n s o f t h a t c r e e d , i t s sum and s u b s t a n c e w h i c h was: 79 ... a simple code of religion and morality ... admirably calculated to elevate men's ideas to high and l i b e r a l notions of one God, who has equally subjected a l l l i v i n g creatures, without distinction of caste, rank, or wealth, to change, disappointment, pain and-death, and has equally admitted a l l to be partakers of the bountiful mercies which he has lavished over nature, and is also so well fitt e d to regulate the conduct of the human • race in the discharge of their various duties'. .' to God, to themselves and to society ... As a new religion, Brahmoism tended to separate out and emphasize the hybrid nature of the English educated people who patronized i t . The Samaj helped to seal the emerging solidarity of that transitional class. Again, this solidarity was neither here nor there — truly a "mixed bag" of loyalties and ties. The Samaj also nurtured the growth of a nascent identity, uncertain of i t s future, but intent on experimenting with various combinations of i t s culturally hyphenated past.-Throughout i t s history, the Brahmo movement was divided within i t s e l f , attempting as i t did to embrace two contradictory ideologies: a trans-cultural universalism (Rammohun founded a Unitarian Mission in 1821) and a strong Hindu bias. Because i t reflected the unique problems of a minority group, i t s influence as a religious creed did not spread beyond i t s membership which did not include a l l of the English educated community. Under Rammohun's successor, Debendranath Tagore, who renounced the doctrine of the i n f a l l i b i l i t y and eternality of the Vedas, the Samaj began to sever i t s ties with the mother religion. This process was-completed and the movement severely weakened by Keshub Chandra Sen who, i n 1872, declared that as a Brahmo, he was "... not a Hindu, not a Mussalman, not a Christian." 80 V. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA AND THE GOLDEN AGE OF INDIAN• SPIRITUALITY SwamI Vi v e k a n a n d a ' s images o f : I n d i a a r e f a r more complex and f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d t h a n t h o s e o f Rammohun Roy, r e f l e c t i n g a s . t h e y do a r e s p o n s e matured o v e r two g e n e r a t i o n s o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e I n d i a n community, and m o d i f i e d by t h e c h a n g i n g phases o f t h e B r i t i s h - I n d i a r e l a t i o n s h i p . A b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e s e changes and t h e e f f e c t s t h e y were p r o d u c t i v e o f i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d Swami Vi v e k a n a n d a ' s image f o r a new I n d i a . The r a c i s t i d e o l o g y d e f i n i n g B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n I n d i a i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y p l a c e d a s e v e r e s t r a i n on r e l a t i o n s between t h e two c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . Racism was n o t j u s t an a b s t r a c t i d e o l o g y f a s h i o n i n g c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and c a u s i n g a few I n d i a n s t o e x p e r i e n c e p s y -c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . I t was a much more m a s s i v e l y r e a l f o r c e i n t h e dynamics o f t h e encounter,, a f f e c t i n g more.people t h a n j u s t t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s . R a c i a l p r e j u d i c e m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e p h y s i c a l abuse o f I n d i a n s i n a l l s t r a t a s o f s o c i e t y , abuses w h i c h u s u a l l y went u n p u n i s h e d . I t a l s o had r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n the economic and p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e s where t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e f o r t h e r u l i n g c l a s s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t h e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a t t e r , we f i n d t h e r a n k s o f t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s had s w o l l e n c o n s i d e r a b l y by t h e m i d - e i g h t i e s . M c C u l l y e s t i m a t e s t h e r e were about 60,000 g r a d u a t e s o f E n g l i s h c o l l e g e s by 1885, t h e m a j o r -i t y o f them b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e l a r g e u r b a n c e n t e r s o f C a l c u t t a , Madras and B o m b a y . U n e m p l o y m e n t was a c r i t i c a l p r o blem. L i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t e d f o r an e d u c a t e d I n d i a n t o o b t a i n ' a j o b o f f e r i n g a 81 l i v i n g s a l a r y and one w h i c h would a l s o e n a b l e him t o r e a l i z e h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . He was o f t e n f o r c e d by e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o s u b m i t t o p e r f o r m i n g m e n i a l t a s k s w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d d e g r a d i n g . M c C u l l y r e c o r d s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p l i g h t o f t h e e d u c a t e d young man:' I t i s m e l a n c h o l y t o see men.who once appeared t o r e c e i v e t h e i r h onors i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o n v o c a t i o n , now a p p l y i n g f o r some lowly^-paid. a p p o i n t m e n t , a l m o s t b e g g i n g f r o m o f f i c e t o o f f i c e j f r om department t o d e p a r t m e n t , o r s t r u g g l i n g f o r t h e o f f i c e o f a p e t t y p r a c t i o n e r , and a f t e r a l l Q t h i s r e t u r n i n g b a f f l e d and d i s h e a r t e n e d t o a "5 5 p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n home'... . E n g l i s h s c h o o l s t r a i n e d thousands o f young men e v e r y y e a r f o r j o b s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s o r i n Government. However, t h e r e was no p o s i t i o n open i n t h e Covenanted C i v i l S e r v i c e f o r an I n d i a n s i n c e t o p - r a n k i n g p o s t s were r e s e r v e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e B r i t i s h . The i n j u s t i c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i m p r e s s e d i t s e l f upon t h e unemployed, as t h i s e x c e r p t from t h e Indian Spectator, 1883, r e v e a l s : The n a t i v e g r a d u a t e sees t h e s p e c t a c l e o f t h o u -sands o f f o r e i g n e r s m o n o p o l i z i n g a l l t h e b e s t p l a c e s under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He must be more ' t h a n a man i f he cannot f e e l f o r h i m s e l f and h i s c o u n t r y . Whether t h e Government l i k e s t h e t r u t h o r n o t , t h e y must know t h a t t h e e d u c a t e d n a t i v e has l e a r n e d t o l o o k upon h i m s e l f as h e i r presump-t i v e t o t h e C o l l e c t o r s h i p s o r any o f t h e numerous p a i d o f f i c e s w h i c h have h i t h e r t o been so a b l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by f o r e i g n w o r k e r s . The unemployed e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e and made demands upon t h e Government by means o f the P r e s s w h i c h by t h i s t i m e had grown.to be a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e , h e l p i n g as i t d i d t o f o r g e a sense o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t e d community. E n g l i s h p a p e r s and I n d i a n p a p e r s exchanged abuses and v i l i f i c a t i o n s , t h e I n d i a n s demanding b o t h . e q u a l i t y i n o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e Government p o s t s and b e f o r e t h e law. 82 In t h e l i g h t o f t h e u n p u n i s h e d a c t s o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e p e r p e t r a -t e d by t h e B r i t i s h e r ' s a g a i n s t , t h e H i n d u s , t h i s l a t t e r demand became'an e s p e c i a l l y e m o t i o n a l i s s u e . The I n d i a n P r e s s e a g e r l y p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s o f c r i m e s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v i n g t h e d e a t h o f t h e H i n d u and o n l y a s e v e r e r e p r i m a n d , a f i n e o r a s h o r t p r i s o n term f o r t h e E n g l i s h m a n . 5 7 The i s s u e was i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e d e f e a t o f t h e I l b e r t B i l l i n 1883, an amendment prop o s e d by L o r d R i p o n w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w I n d i a n j u d g e s t o s i t i n t r i a l f o r c a s e s i n v o l v i n g the c r i m e s o f B r i t i s h e r s . B i p i h Chandra P a l , a commenta-t o r on c o n t e m p o r a r y ' e v e n t s , a t t a c h e d much s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s l a t t e r event as b e i n g " t h e s t r a w t h a t b r o k e t h e camel's back": e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s began to; d e s p i s e t h e B r i t i s h , s e v e r t h e i r t i e s o f l o y a l t y and I d e n t i t y , and seek a b a s i s o f u n i t y and s o l i d a r i t y i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e them t o e x p e l the f o r e i g n e r . P a l s a y s : The I l b e r t B i l l C o n t r o v e r s y p r o v o k e d a most v i o l e n t and savage a t t a c k upon H i n d u r e l i g i o n s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by t h e spokesmen o f t h e European com-m u n i t y i n I n d i a , one o f t h e s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f whom was p r o p o s e d t o be t a k e n away from them by t h i s measure ... . T h i s v i o l e n t and p r e j u d i c e d a t t a c k on H i n d u r e l i g i o n s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w o r k i n g on t h e u n i v e r s a l c o n t r a r i n e s s o f human n a t u r e , d r o v e th e H i n dus t o s t a n d up b o l d l y i n d e f e n s e o f i n s t i t -u t i o n s w h i c h t h e y had a t one t i m e r e g a r d e d as i r r a t i o n a l and h u r t f u l and w h i c h t h e y , h a d been t r y i n g t o r e f o r m . T h i s was the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n o f t h e movement o f s o c i a l r e a c t i o n and r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l among t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d Hindus i n t h e e i g h t i e s ... ,->8 • . I n t h e backwash o f s c o r n , e x c l u s i v e n e s s , and an i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n between t h e two i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e I n d i a n s t u r n e d away f r o m t h e B r i t i s h , t u r n e d t o d e f e n d t h e r e l i g i o n and t h e c u l t u r e , o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s and began t o t a l k about f r e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s from t h e y oke o f a f o r e i g n government w h i c h had t a u g h t them t o l o v e freedom and e q u a l i t y 83 but refused to put these values into p r a c t i c e i n I n d i a . ^ C u l t u r a l , p o l -i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s nationalism grew out of t h i s new i n s p i r a t i o n . Liberated from the t i e s of i d e n t i t y with,English c u l t u r e , t h i s highly emotional movement threatened to become ul t r a - r e a c t i o n a r y , r e j e c t i n g all 60 that was foreign. When Swaml Vivekananda (1863-1902) entered into public l i f e i n 1893 t h i s r e v e r s a l had already permeated the upper classes and the c u l t u r a l b a t t l e l i n e s had been drawn. He perceived h i s r o l e to be that of a synthesizer, to f i n d a middle path between.the two extremes of c u l t u r a l i s m and Westernization that could stem the mounting fanaticism and r e c o n c i l e Indians to the idea of accepting c e r t a i n Western values which he discerned to be e s s e n t i a l to the resurgence of India as a nation among equals. It w i l l be seen he also conceived of himself as a synthes-i z e r on a l a r g e r , i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Vivekananda's v i s i o n and h i s message were a c a l l to the West to recognize the worth of c e r t a i n Indian values her s p i r i t u a l values — and to accept and incorporate them into t h e i r national l i f e j u s t as India was a s s i m i l a t i n g Western values into hers. Like Rammohun Roy, Swaml Vivekananda had a dual purpose, one i n v o l v -ing India and Indians as seen through t h e i r own eyes, and another in v o l v i n g India and Indians as seen through the eyes of the world. Unlike Rammohun, however, Vivekananda was intimately i n touch with the r e a l i t i e s of Indian 61 l i f e . He perceived that the only way to make'change meaningful to a people committed to the past and t r a d i t i o n ^ was to i n t e r p r e t change i n the context of Indian thought while at the same time avoiding any kind of exclusivism which might offend or a l i e n a t e any segment of the population. The creed required an ethnocentrism that would make i t amenable to the 84 c l a i m s of t r a d i t i o n and a u n i v e r s a l i s m : t h a t would permit i t to embrace b o t h the d i v e r s i t y of r e l i g i o u s custom i n I n d i a i t s e l f as w e l l as the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s ' s y s t e m s of the w o r l d . I n o r d e r to p r o j e c t h i s u n i v e r s a l message of e q u a l i t y and t o l e r a t i o n a n d ' f u l f i l h i s p u r p o s e ' t o regenerate I n d i a and r e s t o r e her d i g n i t y ; Vivekananda a p p r o p r i a t e d the i d e a of the Golden Age of I n d i a and the image of I n d i a as a s p i r i t u a l n a t i o n . He fused together these two s e t s o f symbols.making the Golden,Age of I n d i a the r e s u l t of the t r iumph of s p i r -i t u a l i t y as- a way of l i f e i n I n d i a . The f o r c e of the new myth l a y i n . t h e c r e a t i v e manner i n which Vivekananda adapted i t to the c l a i m s of h i s own c u l t u r e ' s h i s t o r y and to the demands of the present day . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s new image of I n d i a r e v o l v e d around (and depended upon f o r i t s v a l i d i t y ) two fundamental p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t of these was Vivekananda ' s b e l i e f i n the Oneness of the u n i v e r s e and the d i v i n i t y of man: i n t h i s u n i v e r s e t h e r e i s but one U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y and we a r e ' i t s very essence. The second r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e d e s c r i b e s t h i s U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y as an Impersonal B e i n g , a Supreme I n t e l l i g e n c e tha t expresses i t s e l f through d i v e r s i t y : i t evo lves o r p r o j e c t s out of i t s e l f " a l l the myriad t h i n g s of the w o r l d , " bestowing on each i n d i v i d u a l a d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y but not a l t e r i n g the s p i r i t u a l essence of the i n d i v i d u a l which s t i l l par takes of the Oneness and a t t e s t s to i t by b e i n g con jo ined to i t s d i v e r s e m a n i f e s -t a t i o n s . These are the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of A d v a i t a (Non-dual) Vedanta , a v e r y o l d system of thought w h i c h , i n Vivekananda ' s m i n d , t r a c e s i t s o r i g i n back to the Golden Age of I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Vivekananda 's w o r l d v iew and h i s p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y r e f l e c t a Neo-Vedant ism, c o l o u r e d as the new system was by the exper iences and v a l u e s of a 19th c e n t u r y , E n g l i s h 85 educated Swami. In h i s search f o r a new c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y f o r I n d i a , one that would be amenable to the claims of h i s t o r y and value, Vivekananda was a f f i r m i n g the new s t a t u s of I n d i a as a modern n a t i o n , or at l e a s t her r i g h t to become one. He was responding to the c r i s i s of i d e n t i t y I n d i a n s - f e l t because they were i n transit between an o l d sense of i d e n t i t y l o c a l i z e d i n p r i m o r d i a l t i e s and a new sense of i d e n t i t y which was an out-growth of 62' t h e i r i n ner "demand to e x i s t and have a name" as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a world c u l t u r e . Becoming conscious of a wider community of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s and n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , Indians r e q u i r e d a n a t i o n a l image, a f i x e d p o i n t of reference where they could l o c a t e a sense of personal i d e n t i t y p r e s e n t l y t h r e a t e n i n g to d i s s o l v e i n the expansiveness of the modern network of human a s s o c i a t i o n s . The new myth, functioned as a model f o r that n a t i o n a l image.. By examining more c l o s e l y the two Neo-Vedantic presuppositions s t r u c t u r i n g the myth of the S p i r i t u a l Golden Age,,the dynamics of Vivekananda's form of c l a s s i c i s m w i l l become c l e a r . -According to the Advaita (monistic) system, there l i e s beneath a l l d i v e r s i t y a b a s i c u n i t y , a sameness of essence knowing no u l t i m a t e d i s -t i n c t i o n between the Impersonal Soul of the universe and the Soul w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . The theory r e s t s on the sacred a u t h o r i t y of the Upanishads of the Veda which A d v a i t i n s regard as the r e p o s i t o r y o f , e t e r n a l , 6 3 uncreated t r u t h s discovered by the ancient sages of I n d i a . The essence of t h i s teaching i s found i n the dictum, OAf, tat tvam asi,. meaning, "That thou a r t , " T h a t " r e f e r r i n g to the macrocosmic S e l f , and "thou" r e f e r r i n g to i t s microcosmic counterpart i n the i n d i v i d u a l . In the f o l l o w i n g quotation we see how Vivekananda i n t e r p r e t s the idea of s p i r i t u a l e q u a l i t y i n terms 86 o f u n i v e r s a l b r o t h e r h o o d and t h e e q u a l i t y o f a l l b e i n g s : .;. a l l powers, b l e s s i n g , p u r i t y , o m n i p r e s e n c e , o m n i s c i e n c e a r e b u r i e d i n e a c h ' s o u l . That i s a grand i d e a we ought t o remember. I n e v e r y man and i n e v e r y a n i m a l , however weak o r w i c k e d , g r e a t o r s m a l l , r e s i d e s t h e same o m n i p r e s e n t , o m n i s c i e n t s o u l . The- d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t i n t h e s o u l b u t i n t h e mani-f e s t a t i o n . Between me and the s m a l l e s t a n i m a l t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s o n l y i n m a n i f e s t a t i o n , b u t as a p r i n c i p l e he i s t h e same as I am, he i s my b r o t h e r , he has the same s o u l as I have. T h i s i s the g r e a t e s t p r i n c i p l e . t h a t I n d i a has p r e a c h e d . The t a l k o f t h e . b r o t h e r h o o d o f man becomes i n I n d i a t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f u n i v e r s a l l i f e , o f a n i m a l s and o f a l l l i f e down:to t h e l i t t l e a n t s — a l l t h e s e a r e o u r b o d i e s . 6 4 T a k i n g a n o t h e r o f the famous V e d i c p a s s a g e s , t h i s o n e'from.the o l d e r R i g Veda, V i v e k a n a n d a f i n d s s u p p o r t f o r h i s b e l i e f i n t h e e q u a l i t y o f a l l r e l i g i o n s as w e l l as f o r t h e i d e a o f u n i v e r s a l r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d f o l l o w from s u c h a b e l i e f . The q u o t a t i o n i s • f r o m R i g Veda 1:164 and i t r e a d s : ekam sadvipra bahudha.vada.nti, "That w h i c h e x i s t s i s One; sages c a l l I t by v a r i o u s names." V i v e k a n a n d a e x p l a i n s i t : You may be a d u a l i s t , and I may be a m o n i s t . You may b e l i e v e t h a t you a r e t h e e t e r n a l s e r v a n t ' o f God,, and. I may d e c l a r e t h a t I am one w i t h God H i m s e l f ; and y e t b o t h o f us a r e good H i n d u s . How i s t h a t p o s s i b l e ? Read t h e n , ekam sadvipra bahudha vadanti — "That w h i c h . e x i s t s i s One; sages c a l l I t by v a r i o u s names." Above a l l o t h e r s , my countrymen, t h i s i s t h e one,grand t r u t h t h a t we have t o t e a c h t h e w o r l d . Even t h e most e d u c a t e d p e o p l e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t u r n up t h e i r noses a t a f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e a n g l e and c a l l o u r r e l i g i o n i d o l a t r y . I have seen t h a t ; and t h e y n e v e r s t o p p e d t o t h i n k what a mass o f s u p e r s t i t i o n t h e r e was i n t h e i r own heads. I t i s s t i l l so everywhere, t h i s tremendous s e c t a r i a n i s m , t h e low narrowness o f mind. The t h i n g w h i c h a man has i s t h e o n l y t h i n g w o r t h h a v i n g ; t h e o n l y l i f e w o r t h l i v i n g i s h i s own l i t t l e l i f e o f d o l l a r - w o r s h i p and mammon-worship; th e only-l i t t l e p o s s e s s i o n w o r t h h a v i n g i s h i s own p r o p e r t y , and n o t h i n g e l s e . I f he can m a n u f a c t u r e a . l i t t l e c l a y nonsense o r i n v e n t a machine, t h a t i s t o be admired beyond t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s e s s i o n s . ^ 5 87 The reason f o r Vivekananda 's emphasis on t o l e r a t i o n may be d i s c o v e r e d i n h i s exper ience of i n t o l e r a n c e and i n d i g n i t y i n the hands of the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . He i s very s u g g e s t i v e of t h i s i n another passage: Monotheism l i k e a b s o l u t e monarchy i s q u i c k i n e x e c u t i n g o r d e r s , and a great c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of f o r c e , but i t grows no f a r t h e r , and i t s worst f e a t u r e i s i t s c r u e l t y and p e r s e c u t i o n . A l l n a t i o n s coming w i t h i n i t s i n f l u e n c e p e r i s h v e r y soon . . . . I n I n d i a the same problem presented i t s e l f — the s o l u t i o n found — ekam' sadvipra. bdhudha. vadanti. T h i s i s the keynote to e v e r y t h i n g which has succeeded, and the keystone of the a r c h . The r e s u l t i s tha t w o n d e r f u l t o l e r a t i o n of the V e d a n t i s t . 6 6 I n the A d v a i t a system, the d i f f e r e n c e s to be found between men i n terms of p e r s o n a l i t y , mode of worsh ip and b e l i e f are due to the l e v e l of unders tanding of the t r u e na ture of the u n i v e r s e a t t a i n e d by the i n d i v -i d u a l . R e a l i z a t i o n of the U l t i m a t e T r u t h i s not a s i m p l e , i n t u i t i v e m a t t e r . I t r e q u i r e s e f f o r t and i n v o l v e s a process of s p i r i t u a l progress from the lowest l e v e l of unders tanding to the h i g h e s t . Consonant w i t h t h e i r s tage of s p i r i t u a l e v o l u t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s adopt, a p a r t i c u l a r form of r e l i g i o n . One does not cons t rue from t h i s tha t one r e l i g i o n i s wrong and the o t h e r i s r i g h t . R a t h e r , we are d e a l i n g here w i t h v a r i o u s degrees of t r u t h . A l l modes of worship are t r u e and good; what may be the bes t p a t h f o r one i n d i v i d u a l may be t o t a l l y wrong f o r a n o t h e r : As a f a c t , we f i n d tha t there are so many sec t s i n I n d i a , and at the same t ime we know t h i s m y s t e r i o u s f a c t that these sec t s do not q u a r r e l w i t h each o t h e r . The S h a i v i t e does not say t h a t every V a i s h n a v i t e w i l l be damned. The S h a i v i t e s a y s , t h i s i s my p a t h , and you have y o u r s ; at the end we must come t o g e t h e r . They a l l know tha t i n I n d i a . T h i s i s the theory of the Ishta. I t has been r e c o g n i z e d i n the most a n c i e n t t imes tha t there are v a r i o u s forms of w o r s h i p p i n g God. I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t d i f f e r -ent natures r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t methods.- Your method of coming to God may not be my method, p o s s i b l y i t 88 m i g h t h u r t me. Such an i d e a as t h e r e i s b u t o n e w a y f o r e v e r y b o d y ' i s i n j u r i o u s , m e a n i n g l e s s , and e n t i r e l y t o be a v o i d e d . ... Mind yo u , we have no q u a r r e l w i t h a n y ' r e l i g i o n i n t h e w o r l d . We have each o u r Ishta. B u t when we see men coming and s a y i n g , " T h i s i s t h e o n l y way," and t r y i n g t o f o r c e i t on us i n I n d i a ... . we l a u g h a t them. F o r s u c h p e o p l e want t o d e s t r o y t h e i r b r o t h e r s because t h e y seem t o f o l l o w a d i f f e r e n t p a t h towards God — f o r them t o t a l k o f l o v e . i s a b s u r d . T h e i r l o v e does n o t c o u n t f o r much. How can. t h e y speak o f l o v e who cannot b e a r a n o t h e r man t o f o l l o w a-d i f f e r e n t p a t h from t h e i r own.° 7 Here V i v e k a n a n d a i s e x t e n d i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l meaning o f I s h t a d e v a t a , c h o i c e o f y o u r own f o r m o f w o r s h i p , t o i n c l u d e a l l r e l i g i o n s ; n o t j u s t t h e H i n d u s e c t s , and i s e m p h a s i z i n g a g a i n h i s p l e a f o r t o l e r a t i o n . But he a l s o w i s h e s t o make the p o i n t t h a t t h e r e i s a g o a l , t h e r e i s s u c h a t h i n g as s p i r i t u a l p e r f e c t i o n t o be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e I m p e r s o n a l , t h i s b e i n g none o t h e r t h a n t h e w o r s h i p o f man. R e l i g i o n i n I n d i a p r o -g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f s p i r i t u a l e v o l u t i o n , f i n a l l y r e a l i z i n g p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e A d v a i t a . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w o r s h i p o f many gods, i t a r r i v e d a t t h e m o n o t h e i s t i c i d e a a t a v e r y e a r l y p e r i o d b u t "threw i t a s i d e , as i t were, as a v e r y p r i m i t i v e i d e a and went f u r t h e r on," f i n a l l y d i s s o l v i n g a l l d u a l i s t i c t h e o r i e s i n an a l l - e m b r a c i n g monism. V i v e k a n a n d a u t i l i z e d t h e A d v a i t a t e n e t s t o p r o v e . t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i g n i t y o f man (man i s n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y e v i l ; i n e s s e n c e , he i s t h e d i v i n e i t s e l f ) , t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e g o a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t o p r o g r e s s : t o s p i r i t u a l p e r f e c t i o n , and t o p r o v e t h a t t h e n a t u r a l outcome o f b e l i e f i n t h e m o n i s t i c t h e o r y i s n o t o n l y u n i v e r s a l t o l e r a t i o n b u t a l s o an a c t i v e , " s e l f - l e s s " d e d i c a t i o n t o s e r v i n g one's f e l l o w man who i s , i n a c t u a l i t y , 69 one's v e r y s e l f . Not o n l y was t h i s d o c t r i n e c a l c u l a t e d t o r e s t o r e t h e d i g n i t y o f I n d i a n s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p , b u t i t was a l s o d e s i g n e d t o p l a c e a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n upon t h e individual to act for the welfare and upl i f t of the.masses of Indian people. To Vivekananda, the poor of India symbolized the degeneration of Indian s p i r i t u a l i t y . Living a veritable d e a t h - i n - l i f e t h e y were "the dead bones of lost hope, activity, joy and courage."7^ Finally, Vivekananda exhorted people to respond.to the "stress of the divine within." A per-sistent theme throughout a l l his writings and addresses was the c a l l to strength, to manliness and to faith in oneself, because a man who realized the divine within possessed by that knowledge the powers of omniscience and omnipotence, those special strengths of gods: What our country now wants are muscles of iron and. nerves of.steel, gigantic wills which nothing can resist, which can penetrate into the mysteries and secrets of the universe, and w i l l accomplish their purpose in any fashion even i f i t meant going down to the bottom of the ocean and meeting death.face to face. That is what we want, and that can only be created, established, and strengthened by understanding and realizing the ideal of the Advaita, that.idea of the oneness of a l l . Faith, faith, faith in ourselves, faith, faith i n God -. this i s the secret of greatness.'1 Adhering to the renaissance view of history, Vivekananda f e l l within the tradition of the Orientalists. But he was also indebted to the human-itarian nationalists, a group of 18th century philosophers who believed each cultural group was endowed with a unique personality which should be 72 cultivated, but not at the expense of other cultural groups. These two ideas Vivekananda combined into Neo-Vedantism, drawing upon the traditional Indian ideas of the cyclic pattern of the universe and the ancient Sankhya philosophy which described the evolution and devolution of the universe i n terms of progress towards spiritual perfection. The latter idea-about' cultural personality he interpreted in terms of the unity-diversity theme: just as an individual has his)own path to perfection, so also should each 90 n a t i o n which i s j u s t a l a r g e r , c o r p o r a t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the d i v i n e essence . Thus Vivekananda b e l i e v e d there was a u n i v e r s a l p l a n r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . The p e r s o n a l i t y of each country I s i t s g e n i u s , i t s source of g r e a t n e s s , and the d e s i g n or law of the u n i v e r s e r e q u i r e d each c u l t u r e or n a t i o n to communicate i t s ' s e c r e t of success to the o t h e r s so a l l would b e n e f i t from the v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of d i v i n e : p e r f e c t i o n : Each race . . . has a p e c u l i a r b e n t , each race has a p e c u l i a r raison- d'etre, each race has a p e c u l i a r m i s s i o n to f i l l i n the l i f e of the w o r l d . Each race has to make i t s own r e s u l t , to f u l f i l i t s own m i s s i o n . P o l i t i c a l greatness or m i l i t a r y p o w e r - i s never the m i s s i o n of our r a c e ; i t never was, and, mark my words , i t never w i l l be . But there has been the o t h e r m i s s i o n g i v e n to u s , which i s to conserve , to p r e s e r v e , to accumulate , as i t were , i n t o a dynamo, a l l the s p i r i t u a l energy of the r a c e , and tha t concentra ted energy i s to pour f o r t h i n a deluge on the w o r l d when-ever c i rcumstances are p r o p i t i o u s . Let the P e r s i a n o r the Greek, the A r a b , o r the Englishman march h i s b a t t a l i o n s , conquer the w o r l d , and. l i n k the d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s t o g e t h e r , and the p h i l o s o -phy and s p i r i t u a l i t y o f I n d i a i s ever r e a d y to f l o w a l o n g the new-made channels i n t o the v e i n s of the n a t i o n s of the w o r l d . The H i n d u ' s calm b r a i n must pour out i t s own quota to g i v e to the sum t o t a l o f human p r o g r e s s . I n d i a ' s g i f t to the w o r l d i s the l i g h t s p i r i t u a l . ' ' 3 The t e l e o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n appears i n t h i s passage: We Hindus have now been p l a c e d under God's p r o v i d e n c e , i n a very c r i t i c a l and r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n . The n a t i o n s of the West .are coming to us f o r s p i r i t u a l h e l p . A . g r e a t moral o b l i g a t i o n resjts on the sons of I n d i a to f u l l y equip themselves f o r the work of e n l i g h t e n i n g the w o r l d on the problems of human e x i s t e n c e . T h i s i s the law of g i v e and take and I n d i a must f o l l o w i t s f u l l d i c t a t e s . She has something great to g i v e , but she a l s o has much to l e a r n . I n t h i s address d e l i v e r e d i n South I n d i a , we see Vivekananda ' s s u b t l e endorsement 91 of Western values: ... spirituality is.what you have'to teach the world. Have we to learn anything else, have we to learn anything from the world? We havej perhaps, to gain'a l i t t l e in material knowledge, in the power of organization, in the ability to handle powers, organizing powers, in bringing the best results out of the smallest causes. This perhaps to a certain extent we may learn from the West.,: ... perhaps some sort of materialism, toned down.to our own. requirements, would be a blessing to many of our brothers who are not yet ripe for the highest truths. 7^ History demonstrated that when people obeyed the law of give and take, remaining open and flexible in relationships with others, they became great.' When they forgot to give or refused to take, their civilization declined steadily and its genius became obscured or debased. In religious terms, the cultural group lost the perspective of unity-in-diversity, of the constant "flow" or recognition of the Self of one in; the Self of others: The sign of l i f e is expansion; we must go out', • expand, show l i f e , or degrade, fester, and. die. ... One of the great causes of India's misery and downfall has been that she narrowed^hersel-f ... and refused to give her jewels and treasures ' to the other races of mankind... . That has been the one great cause; that we did not go out, that we did not compare notes with other nations.. ... Therefore we must go out, and the secret of l i f e is to give and take; 7 0 According to Vivekananda's philosophy of history, India's genius was and s t i l l is her spirituality. Once.she gave freely of-herself to a l l the cultures of the world: Once in far remote antiquity, the Indian philosophy, coming in contact with Greek energy, led to the rise of the-Persian, the Roman, and other great nations. After the invasion of Alexander the Great, these two great waterfalls colliding with each other, 92 d e l u g e d n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e g l o b e w i t h s p i r i t u a l t i d e s s u c h as C h r i s t i a n i t y . A g a i n , a s i m i l a r c o m m i n g l i n g , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e improvement' and p r o s p e r i t y o f A r a b i a , l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f modern European c i v i l i z a t i o n . And p e r h a p s , i n . our own day, s u c h a t i m e f o r t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e s e two g i g a n t i c f o r c e s has p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f a g a i n . T h i s t i m e t h e i r c e n t e r i s I n d i a . ? 7 The-cause o f I n d i a ' s d e c l i n e was h e r w i t h d r a w a l i n t o h e r s e l f ; t h e o n l y way she c o u l d be r e g e n e r a t e d w o u l d be by e x p a n d i n g , by a c c e p t i n g from t h e West what i t had t o o f f e r i n t h e knowledge o f t h i n g s m a t e r i a l . I n d i a needed t e c h n o l o g y , she had t o l e a r n how t o be a l i t t l e more, a g g r e s s i v e and she had t o m a s t e r t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t - t h e n w o u l d f a l l upon I n d i a t o r e c i p r o c a t e by g i v i n g t o t h e West some o f I n d i a ' s s p i r i t u a l i t y w h i c h she had been h o a r d i n g f o r c e n t u r i e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p assage V i v e k a n a n d a c a l l s upon t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a c u l t u r a l a n c e s t o r , Manu, t h e a n c i e n t l a w - g i v e r . He expands one o f Manu's p r e c e p t s t o i n c l u d e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f I n d i a n s i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y f a c e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a c c e p t i n g t h e i d e a s - o f f o r e i g n e r s : W i t h a l l my l o v e f o r I n d i a , and w i t h a l l my p a t r i o t i s m and v e n e r a t i o n f o r t h e a n c i e n t s , I c a n n o t b u t t h i n k t h a t we have t o l e a r n many t h i n g s from o t h e r n a t i o n s . We must be a l w a y s ' r e a d y t o s i t a t t h e f e e t o f a l l , f o r , mark y o u , e v e r y o n e , c a n t e a c h us g r e a t l e s s o n s . Says o u r g r e a t l a w - g i v e r , Manu: " R e c e i v e some good knowledge even f r o m t h e l o w - b o r n , and even f r o m t h e man o f l o w e s t b i r t h l e a r n by s e r v i c e t h e r o a d t o h e a v e n . " We, t h e r e f o r e , as t r u e c h i l d r e n o f Manu, must obey h i s commands and be r e a d y t o l e a r n ... . A t t h e same t i m e we must n o t f o r g e t t h a t we have a l s o t o t e a c h a g r e a t l e s s o n t o t h e w o r l d . ... That we d i d n o t go out t o compare t h i n g s w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s , d i d n o t mark th e w o r k i n g s t h a t have been a l l around u s , has b e en.the one g r e a t c a u s e o f t h i s d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n mind. We have p a i d t h e p e n a l t y ; l e t us do i t no more. . . i The f i r s t m a n i f e s t e f f e c t o f l i f e i s e x p a n s i o n . ' You must expand i f you want t o l i v e ; The moment you have c e a s e d t o expand, d e a t h i s upon y o u , danger i s ahead.^8 93 Openness t o new i d e a s , f l e x i b i l i t y , i n n o v a t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n and e x p a n s i v e -n ess — t h e s e were t h e h a l l m a r k s o f g r e a t n e s s , f o r s u c h i d e a l s were i n harmony w i t h a u n i v e r s e e v e r e x p a n d i n g towards p e r f e c t i o n : The watchword and t h e e s s e n c e ( o f l i f e ) have been p r e a c h e d i n t h e days o f y o r e when the V e d a n t i c t r u t h was f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d , t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f a l l l i f e . One atom i n t h e u n i v e r s e cannot move w i t h -o u t d r a g g i n g the whole w o r l d a l o n g w i t h i t . There cannot be any p r o g r e s s w i t h o u t t h e w h o l e w o r l d f o l l o w i n g i n t h e wake . . . . E v e r y i d e a has t o become b r o a d " t i l l i t c o v e r s t h e w h o l e o f t h i s w o r l d , e v e r y a s p i r a t i o n must go on i n c r e a s i n g t i l l i t has e n g u l f e d t h e w h o l e o f h u m a n i t y , nay, t h e whole o f l i f e , w i t h i n i t s s c o p e . 7 9 The G o l d e n Age o f I n d i a e n v i s i o n e d by V i v e k a n a n d a encompassed a w i d e span o f h i s t o r y d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e I n d i a was d e v e l o p i n g h e r s p i r i t u a l i t y . I t began about 8000 t o 9000 y e a r s a g o 8 u when the A r y a n s d i s c o v e r e d t h o s e t r u t h s r e c o r d e d i n t h e Veda. From c r u d e s p e c u l a t i o n where t h e l i g h t o f s p i r i t u a l i t y was j u s t a s p a r k , t h e sages o f I n d i a , men o f s u b t l e i n t e l l e c t and p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t , g r a d u a l l y u n c o v e r e d t h e u l t i m a t e . m y s t e r y o f t h e u n i v e r s e , ; namely, i t s u n i t y . T h i s A d v a i t a became th e g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e n a t i o n a l l i f e and i t was strong', i n v e n t i v e and p r e e m i n e n t l y s p i r i t u a l , c o n s t a n t l y g i v i n g o f i t s e l f and a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e S e l f o f o t h e r s . S p i r i t u a l i t y became t h e l i f e - b l o o d o f t h e n a t i o n : "That w h i c h e x i s t s i s One; sages c a l l I t by v a r i o u s names." The w h o l e h i s t o r y o f I n d i a you may r e a d i n t h e s e few w o rds. The w h ole h i s t o r y has been a r e p e t i t i o n i n m a s s i v e l a n g u a g e , w i t h tremendous power, o f t h a t one c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e . I t was r e p e a t e d i n the l a n d t i l l i t had e n t e r e d i n t o t h e b l o o d o f t h e n a t i o n , t i l l i t began t o t i n g l e w i t h e v e r y drop o f ,blood t h a t f l o w e d i n i t s v e i n s , t i l l i t became one w i t h t h e l i f e , p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e m a t e r i a l o f w h i c h i t was composed; and t h u s t h e l a n d was t r a n s m u t e d i n t o t h e most w o n d e r f u l l a n d o f t o l e r a t i o n , g i v i n g t h e r i g h t t o welcome t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s as w e l l as a l l s e c t s i n t o t h e o l d m o t h e r - c o u n t r y . 8 1 \ 94 I n d i a must always be a s p i r i t u a l n a t i o n : to f o r s a k e the genius which made her great would cause her d e a t h . I n order to have a resurgence , t h e n , I n d i a must c o n s u l t her c u l t u r a l a n c e s t o r s . She must not t r y to i m i t a t e o thers and seek to become something she i s n o t , ' but she must a l s o take care not to become f a n a t i c i n her r e v i t a l i z i n g program: . We have to f i n d our way between the S .cy l la of o l d s u p e r s t i t i o u s orthodoxy and the Charybdis of m a t e r i a l i s m — o f Europeanism, . of s o u l l e s s n e s s , of the s o - c a l l e d re form — which has p e n e t r a t e d to the f o u n d a t i o n of -Western p r o g r e s s . . . . I n -N the f i r s t p l a c e , . w e cannot become Westerns ; t h e r e -f o r e , i m i t a t i n g the Westerns , i s u s e l e s s . Suppose you can i m i t a t e the Westerns , tha t moment you w i l l d i e , you w i l l have no more l i f e i n y o u . I n the second p l a c e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e . A stream i s t a k i n g i t s r i s e , . away beyond where t ime began, f l o w i n g through m i l l i o n s of ages of human h i s t o r y ; , do you mean to get h o l d of tha t stream and push i t back to i t s s o u r c e , to a Himalayan g l a c i e r ? Even., i f t h a t were p r a c t i c a b l e , i t would not be p o s s i b l e f o r you to be E u r o p e a n i z e d . I f you f i n d that i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r the European to throw o f f a few 1 c e n t u r i e s of c u l t u r e which there i s i n the West, do you t h i n k i t i s p o s s i b l e for . you to throw o f f the c u l t u r e of s h i n i n g scores of c e n t u r i e s ? I t .• cannot be .82 I n h i s v iew of t i m e , Vivekananda f o l l o w e d Rammohun Roy, p e r c e i v i n g the u n i v e r s e as a u n i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the time dimension of h i s own c u l t u r a l group . Having e s t a b l i s h e d a dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p , he appealed to the a u t h o r i t y of the f o r e f a t h e r s who had founded the c u l t u r a l . " f a m i l y " — t h e ances tors par excellence. They belonged to the illud tempus and i t was through t h e i r c r e a t i v e genius t h a t the c u l t u r e ach ieved g r e a t n e s s . Vivekananda c o n s t r u c t e d from the past a model f o r I n d i a ' s ' r e g e n e r -a t i o n . By making the v a l u e s of the modern w o r l d v iew appear to be those of the ances tors who b u i l t a Golden c i v i l i z a t i o n , he p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r d i s c a r d i n g moribund v a l u e s and f o r " r e c l a i m i n g " the o r i g i n a l , dynamic-95 v a l u e s and goals of the f o r e f a t h e r s . H i s i n c l u s i v e image of I n d i a ' s Golden Age was more compat ib le w i t h the r e l i g i o u s p r o p e n s i t i e s of the I n d i a n people as a whole than was Rammohun's f o r even though a v a l u e judgement was i n v o l v e d , i t was not a condemning one. A new c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was designed by Vivekananda to d i m i n i s h the shame and i n f e r i o r i t y f e l t by Indians i n the face of a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e which appeared i n many ways•to be o b v i o u s l y s u p e r i o r . T h i s i d e n t i t y was c a l c u l a t e d to i n s t i l conf idence by a l t e r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d i a and the new w o r l d c u l t u r e . Indians d i s c o v e r e d I n d i a had an i n d i v i d u a l i t y , a genius l a t e n t i n her p e r s o n a l i t y which the w o r l d was w a i t i n g to r e c e i v e . No l o n g e r must she s i t a t the f ee t of the Westerners and humbly " p l e a d and beg . . . c r y i n g ; ' ' G i v e , g i v e , ' she now had a m i s s i o n to humanity , something to c o n t r i b u t e to the w o r l d that was e s s e n t i a l t o the progress of humanity and which o n l y she c o u l d g i v e . Vivekananda c a n d i d l y suggested I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y was- the key to the f u t u r e of the w o r l d . Al though Vivekananda 's image of I n d i a was more commendable to Indians than was Rammohun's, i t was o n l y moderately s u c c e s s f u l as an ins t rument of change. The s p i r i t u a l I n d i a myth captured the i m a g i n a t i o n of many Indians•and i t has been i n c o r p o r a t e d , to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i n t o the n a t i o n a l image p r o j e c t e d onto the w o r l d by I n d i a n s . But the c o n -f i d e n c e which-was to be i n s t i l l e d by t h i s new i d e n t i t y and which was to i n s p i r e Indians•to s e l f l e s s s e r v i c e of the n a t i o n ' s p o o r , d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e . Vivekananda wanted to c r e a t e an o r g a n i z a t i o n of d e d i c a t e d young people who would work among the poor and he lp u p l i f t them through e d u c a t i o n . To t h i s end, he e s t a b l i s h e d the Ramakrishna M i s s i o n , named i n 96 honor o f h i s g u r u , Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, and modeled a f t e r C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But i n s t e a d o f a c t i v a t i n g a dynamic, s p i r i t u a l e nergy V i v e k a n a n d a 1 s f i e r y e n t h u s i a s m o n l y p r oduced a c o m p l a c e n t , s p i r i t u a l p r i d e among t h e upper c l a s s "moderns" whom he wanted t o m o b i l -83 i z e . H i s a p p a r e n t v i c t o r y i n t h e West, so much p u b l i c i z e d i n I n d i a , h e l p e d r e s t o r e t h e i r d i g n i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t , b u t h i s message o f e q u a l i t y c o u l d n o t p e n e t r a t e t h e b a r r i e r s o f c a s t e e x c l u s i v e n e s s . 97 CHAPTER I V . THE INDIAN RESPONSE TO NINETEENTH CENTURY BRITISH ATTITUDES: CULTURAL CLASSICISM AND THE SEARCH'FOR CULTURAL IDENTITY "''The e a r l i e s t f o r m a l c l a s s o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s were t h e g r a d u -a t e s o f H i n d u C o l l e g e , an i n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1816 by a group o f w e a l t h y , u p p e r - c a s t e Hindus who w i s h e d t o send t h e i r sons t o a c o l l e g e t h a t w o u l d t e a c h them b o t h I n d i a n and European s u b j e c t s , t h e l a t t e r e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t w o u l d p r o v e l u c r a t i v e ' f o r t h e f a m i l y . • •• • ' 2 . • M o r e a r t y , pp. 31-32. o The E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d community, as a group s e p a r a t e d from t h e n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , came i n t o e x i s t e n c e , so t o speak, around 1820. At l e a s t , t h i s was when t h e y became a v o c a l group. They'were as y e t , an e x t r e m e l y s m a l l group o f p e o p l e , perhaps numbering i n t h e few hund r e d s , and t h e y c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d t h e u r b a n c e n t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y C a l c u t t a , where t h e O r i e n t a l i s t c o l l e g e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . 4 B . T. M c C u l l y , English Education and the Origins of Indian National-ism, 1940, p. 223. ^See above, C h a p t e r I I , p. 17. Calcutta Review, 1871, q u o t e d i n M c C u l l y , p. 219. 7 M c C u l l y , pp. 219-220. 8 J . R. L e v e n s o n , . " " H i s t o r y " and " V a l u e " : The T e n s i o n s o f I n t e l l e c t u a l C h o i c e i n Modern China, 1" Studies in Chinese Thought, e d ; A. F. W r i g h t , 1953, p. 150. 9 Q u o t e d i n K o p f , p. 208. "*"UMany' p r o v e d u n a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e i r s e l f - i m p o s e d c u l t u r a l e x i l e and -'6J.fr_hesei-5-miany t u r n e d t o a l c o h o l i s m and some few found c o m f o r t by c o n v e r t -i n g t o a h i g h l y s p i r i t u a l f o r m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . See Ko p f , p. 258 and p. 262. "'""''Levenson, p. 150. 12Ibid., p; 150. 1 3 G . E. Von Grunebaum, Modern Islam, 1964, p. 73. 1 4 L e v e n s o n , p. 150. •'--'Morearty, p. '34. 98 16I f o l l o w h e r e M o r e a r t y ' s use o f t h e term "myth" i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e images.of t h e p a s t : "They a r e b o t h myths i n no s p e c i a l t e c h n i c a l s e n s e , s i m p l y i n t h a t t h e y a r e l a r g e - s c a l e , f u n d a m e n t a l , p u b l i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o r a c c o u n t s i n terms o f w h i c h t h o s e who.thought and spoke them u n d e r s t o o d and d e a l t w i t h t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y found t h e m s e l v e s ..;.The c r u c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h makes p a s t e v e n t s p a r t o f a "myth" as :I s h a l l u s e t h e term,, i s n o t whether o r n o t t h e y happened, b u t whether o r n o t t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d as p o s s e s s i n g a continuing validity .Ibid., p. 1. . l ^ T h e t e r m " c u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s t " i s Von Grunebaum's. He d e s c r i b e s t h i s k i n d o f c l a s s i c i s t as one who engages i n " c u l t u r a l c l a s s i c i s m , " w h i c h he d e f i n e s as "... a c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n ... h a v i n g f o u r ' c o n s t i t u e n t s : (1) a p a s t ( p r m e r e l y an a l i e n ) phase o f c u l t u r a l development i s r e c o g n i z e d as a c o m p l e t e and p e r f e c t r e a l i z a t i o n o f human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ; (2) t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e i n h e r i t a n c e o r p o s s e s s i o n ; (3) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y i s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t may be r e c a s t i n terms o f p a s t ( o r a l i e n ) p e r f e c t i o n ; (4) t h e a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e p a s t . ( o r a l i e n ) c u l t u r e phase i s a c c e p t e d as exemplary and as b i n d i n g on t h e p r e s e n t . " P . 73. • . . : • ' 18 Ibid.3 pp. 98-99. He quotes J . J . B a c h o f e n . 1 9M. N a t a n s o n , " H i s t o r y as a F i n i t e P r o v i n c e o f Meaning," Literature, Philosophy and the Social Sciences, 1962, p. 177. 20 Von Grunebaum, p. 76. Z1Ibid., pp. 80-83. 22Ibid.3 p. 93. 2 3 K o p f , p. 9. 2 4 S e e t h e p o p u l a t i o n - e d u c a t i o n t a b l e s i n M c C u l l y , pp. 178-179. F o r example, i n 1881 i n B e n g a l , t h e number o f e d u c a t e d n a t i v e s was e s t i m a t e d a t 16,639 o u t o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 69,536,861. 2 5 K o p f , p. 9. 2 6 S e e Agehananda B h a r a t i , "The M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f H i n d u i s m , " i n Religion and Change in Contemporary Asia, ed. R. F. S p e n c e r , 1971, p. 83. 27 -See Dayananda S a r a s w a t i ' s e x e g e s i s o f a "Hymn t o A g n i " i n J . N. Farquhar,.Modern Religious Movements in-India, 1967,.pp. 117-118. 28 • D i v i d i n g t h e c e n t u r y t h u s i s g r e a t l y s i m p l i f y i n g i f n o t o v e r - s i m p l i -f y i n g a v e r y complex r e s p o n s e t o c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r . There were adamant d e f e n d e r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i n d u i s m among t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d community i n t h e f i r s t phase, j u s t as t h e r e were a r d e n t a d v o c a t e s o f w e s t e r n i z a t i o n i n t h e second phase; 99 2 9 T h e t e r m i s Mary M a t o s s i a n ' s , " I d e o l o g i e s o f D e l a y e d I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Some T e n s i o n s and' A m b i g u i t i e s , " Journal of Economic and Cultural Change, V I , ( A p r i l 1 9 5 8 ) . K o p f , p. 9. f 31Ibid.3 p. 9. - ^ M o r e a r t y , p. 23. 33Ibid.3 p. 26. 3kIbid.3 p. 163. 3 5 R a m m o h u n ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d pamphlet, Tuhfatul Muwdhhiddin ( P e r s i a n ) , 4 Gift to Monotheists3 grew out o f t h i s e a r l y e n c o u n t e r . Rammohun n e v e r p a r t i c i p a t e d ... i n any o f t h e O r i e n t a l i s t i n s t i t u ^ - ' t i o n s p r o m o t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m . Recent s t u d i e s have p r o v e d t h a t he was n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t h e H i n d u C o l l e g e . " K o p f , p. 198. 37 The most r e c e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f c u l t u r a l p r i d e , w h i c h i s j u s t a s much a l i v e today i n I n d i a as i t was a c e n t u r y ago (a f a c t w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e n a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y c r i s i s ' f e l t by I n d i a n s c h o l a r s ) , i s a mammoth c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d India's Contrib-ution to World Thought and Culture (705 pp.) The t i t l e p a g e - s t a t e s t h a t i t i s " D e d i c a t e d t o a l l - t h e known and unknown A c h a r y a s who c a r r i e d The Message o f Mother I n d i a t o v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e W o r l d t h r o u g h t h e Ages." I t seems t h e myths o f t h e I n d i a n G o l d e n Age and I n d i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y have been combined i n a new myth t h a t has i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n s , namely, t h e Myth o f Mother I n d i a , t h e S o u r c e o f World C u l t u r e . ' 3 8 R a j a Rammohun Roy,, The English Works of, Raja Rammohun Roy3 P a r t I I , 1945-1951, p. 137. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as 'MRRR) 3 9 Ibid.3 138. 4 0 M o r e a r t y , p. 59. t*1EWRRR3 I I , p. 157. klIbid.3 p. 183. k3Ibid.3 p. 171. kkIbid.3 p. 85.-k5Ibid.3, p. 103. ^6Ibid.3 p. 66. hlIbid.3 p. 84. 100 k9Ibid.3 p. 105. "^K o p f , p. 262. "^See F a r q u h a r , p. 34 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o r s h i p s e r v i c e o f t h e Brahmo Samaj. I t b e a r s a s t r i k i n g r e s e m b l a n c e t o a C h r i s t i a n s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g i n i t s program hymn s i n g i n g and a sermon on t h e Vedanta. 52EWRRR3 V, p-. -3. 53Ibid:3 p. 4. , • 5 4 M c C u l l y , p. 177. 55Ibid.3 p. 194. 56Ibid.3 p. 199. ^7R. C. Majumdar, British Paramountoy and the Rise of Indian National-ism3. II3 The History and Culture of the Indian People3 1965, pp. 337-378. 58 Quoted i n M o r e a r t y , p. 111. 59 The w r i t i n g s o f M i l l and Spencer were s t a n d a r d t e x t s i n t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s y s t e m . ^°Born N a r e n d r a n a t h D a t t a , J i e ^ t o p k t h e name V i v e k a n a n d a upon i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e o r d e r o f 'shhyasins (monks); ^ F o r t w e l v e y e a r s between 1881 and 1893, V i v e k a n a n d a wandered t h r o u g h -ou t I n d i a as a mend i c a n t . He-speaks o f t h i s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e as t h e t i m e when he came t o know t h e " r e a l I n d i a . " 62 See p. 35, f o o t n o t e No. 44. Vi v e k a n a n d a c o n c u r s w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n t h e e t e r n a l , u n c r e a t e d n a t u r e o f t h e Veda. See The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda3 I I I , 1964, pp. 118-119. ( H e r e a f t e r , t h e s e r i e s i s r e f e r r e d t o as CWSV.) bkIbid.3 p. 126. 65 Ibid.3 pp. 113-114. 66CWSV, I V , p. 310. 67CWSV, I I I , pp..131-132. 68CWSV, I , p. 346. 69CWSV, I I I , p. 158. 7°CWSV, V, p.,441. 101 71CWSV3 III, p. 190.. 72 S. L. Malhbtra, Social and P o l i t i c a l Orientations ofNeo-Vedantism3. 1969, pp. 90-91. 73CWSV, III, p. 108. 7kibid.3 p. 139. 75Ibid.3 p. 149. 76Ibid.3 p. 317. 77CWSV.3 p. 402. 78CWSV, III, p. 272. 79Ibid.3 p. 269. 8 0 ^ 5 7 , I, p. 349. 81CWSV, III, p. 113. 82Ibid.3 pi 172. 83 — Vivekananda spent about half of his period of public l i f e in England and America where he established Vedanta societies and taught Indian philosophy and religious practices. Though i t is debatable, that he created a spiritual catyclysm in the West, as was reported in Indian newspapers, he most certainly had some success in making converts. In any event; what was important was Indians believed he had conquered the West with Indian s p i r i t u a l i t y . 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , F r a n c i s R. • Socio-Cultural Dynamics: An Introduction to Social Change. New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n Company; 1971. Ames, M i c h a e l . " I d e o l o g i c a l and S o c i a l Change i n C e y l o n . 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