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"Dual allegiance" in the Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T. - aspects of the evolution and contemporary spatial… Wolforth, John 1970

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"DUAL ALLEGIANCE" IN THE MACKENZIE  DELTA, N.W.T.  ASPECTS OF THE EVOLUTION AND CONTEMPORARY SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF A NORTHERN COMMUNITY  by  3iOHN RAYMOND WOLFORTH B.Sc, M.A.,  University  University  o f S h e f f i e l d , 1958  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the Department of Geography  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1970  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make it f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Depa rtment The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  ABSTRACT  In the f i r s t  p a r t of the t h e s i s , h i s t o r i c a l  a n a l y s i s shows that agents of c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t the  t r a d i n g company and  the a c t i v i t i e s  mission  of n a t i v e Eskimo and  upon the Mackenzie D e l t a . exerted  churches Indian  Sea  Gold Rush were s h o r t - l i v e d and  the more r a p i d a c c u l t u r a t i o n of n a t i v e i n v o l v e d i n them who  eventually d r i f t e d  towards the Mackenzie D e l t a . o f t r a p p i n g a f t e r 1920 of settlements  and  focussed peoples  Centrifugal forces  by w h a l i n g i n the Beaufort  Klondike  -  The  and  the  resulted i n peoples back  intensification  the growth of a p a t t e r n  confirmed the importance of  the  Mackenzie D e l t a i n the e c o l o g i c a l regimes of Eskimos, I n d i a n s grated  and  the white t r a p p e r s  there a t t h i s time, and  emergence o f a D e l t a In the  favoured  who  mi-  the  Community.  second p a r t of the t h e s i s , an  h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g procedure i s used  objective  to  i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c groups of t r a p p e r s  in  terms o f the s p e c i e s they t r a p . i n more d i s t a n t  Groups  specializing  s p e c i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each  ment v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d  settle-  between 1931 and 1951  a  n  d  the s p r i n g muskrat h a r v e s t i n the Mackenzie D e l t a became the dominant a c t i v i t y o f most t r a p p e r s . 1950,  t r a p p i n g camps were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d  In  through-  out the Mackenzie D e l t a and the take of muskrat g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r i n the n o r t h e a s t . b u i l d i n g o f the new planned  A f t e r the  settlement  of I n u v i k  the numbers o f t r a p p i n g camps d i m i n i s h e d and the r e g i o n a l t r e n d of the muskrat h a r v e s t  s h i f t e d as the  takes i n the v i n c i n i t y of the new town F o r the m i d - s i x t i e s , a grouping to d i c h o t o m i z e  decreased.  procedure  " s e r i o u s " and " p a r t - t i m e "  trappers  shows t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the l a t t e r t r a p p i n g camps.  maintained  A n a l y s i s of employment i n I n u v i k  a l s o shows a d i v i d e d commitment  to l a n d and town.  H i g h income and h i g h s t a t u s jobs were o c c u p i e d dominantly required  used  pre-  by white t r a n s i e n t workers s i n c e they  s k i l l s and l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e -  ment possessed  by few n a t i v e p e o p l e .  p e o p l e of M e t i s  origin  showed some success i n  employment, most Eskimos and I n d i a n s menial jobs.  Though n a t i v e  occupied  more  A comparison o f employment i n  government and non-government s e c t o r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t n a t i v e involvement i n the l a t t e r  was growing, many  n a t i v e people i n both s e c t o r s s h i f t e d quently,  jobs  or between jobs and land-based  The town economy of adaptation  like  the l a n d economy  fre-  activities. showed  signs  to the d u a l a l l e g i a n c e f e l t by n a t i v e  p e o p l e t o l a n d and town.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION 1. 2. 3. 4.  5.  The Growth o f S e t t l e m e n t s i n the N o r t h The Concept of "Dual A l l e g i a n c e " The Purpose and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Context The " E c o l o g i c a l " A p p r o a c h The "Man-Land" View o f Human E c o l o g y The " S p a t i a l System" View o f Human E c o l o g y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Ecology The Emergence o f E c o l o g i c a l Groups i n the Mackenzie D e l t a The M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach o f the P r e s e n t Study The P l a c e , the People and the Time The P l a c e The P e o p l e The Time  PART ONE:  THE  CHAPTER I t THE 1. 2. 3.  4. 5. 6.  1  EVOLUTION OF THE EARLY FUR  26 30 30 32 38  DELTA COMMUNITY  TRADE  42  Introduction E x p l o r a t i o n and the F u r Trade The Mackenzie D e l t a a t the Time o f F i r s t Contact The Fur Trade and the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f P e e l ' s R i v e r P o s t ( F o r t McPherson) I n d i a n T r a d i n g at the F o r t E a r l y Attempts to Extend the L i n e o f F o r t s The E a r l y A s s o c i a t i o n of the K u t c h i n w i t h F o r t McPherson and the Lower P e e l The E x t e n s i o n of the F u r Trade to the Eskimos Conclusions  CHAPTER I I : MISSIONARIES, WHALERS, STAMPEDERS POLICE 1. 2.  1 4 8 l4 14 15 18 21 24  Introduction The Coming of the M i s s i o n a r i e s  42 45 48 52 52 54 56 62 73 78  AND 83  83 85  3.  k.  5.  M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y Among the Eskimo and the K u t c h i n The Eskimos (1860-1895) The K u t c h i n (1860-1895) The Impact o f the G o l d Rush and o f Whaling The G o l d Rush Whaling The P o l i c e Changes i n E c o l o g y and N o d a l i t y (18^0-1912)  92 95 108 109 114 118 122  CHAPTER I I I ! CONVERGENCE UPON THE MACKENZIE DELTA  (1912-1929) 1. 2.  3« k* 5«  6. 7. 8.  Introduction T r a d i n g L o c a t i o n s i n the D e l t a F o r t McPherson and A k l a v i k The O r i g i n and Growth o f A k l a v i k P o s t s O u t s i d e the Major S e t t l e m e n t s , The C o a s t a l T r a d i n g V e s s e l s C o m p e t i t i o n Between the T r a d e r s Changes i n the S e a s o n a l Movements o f the K u t c h i n People The Mountain People The D e l t a People Convex-gence and i t s Consequences Changes i n Eskimo D i s t r i b u t i o n The D e l t a Eskimos The C o a s t a l Eskimos The White T r a p p e r s The D e l t a i n 1929  CHAPTER IV t THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A SETTLEMENT PATTERN (1929-1960) 1. 2. 3.  k. 5.  Introduction The Emergence o f a S e t t l e m e n t H i e r a r c h y The Dominance o f I n u v i k C e n t r i f u g a l and C e n t r i p e t a l F o r c e s (1929-1955) The S a t e l l i t e S e t t l e m e n t s Reindeer S t a t i o n Tuktoyaktuk F o r t McPherson A r c t i c Red R i v e r The Growth o f A k l a v i k The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n u v i k  127 127 130 130 13** 1^0 1^5 157 161 162 16k 166 I67 168 169 172 17*» 179 179 182 186 187 197 !97 199 201 20^ 204 211  PART TWO: THE CHANGING NODAL STRUCTURE OF THE DELTA ECONOMY CHAPTER V: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Introduction " S p e c i a l i s t " and " N o n - S p e c i a l i s t " T r a p p i n g The Grouping Procedure Changes i n T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s (1931-51) Changes i n the Muskrat Harvest R e g i s t r a t i o n o f T r a p p i n g Areas S p a t i a l Changes i n the Muskrat Harvest T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s i n the M i d - S i x t i e s T r a p p i n g Camp L o c a t i o n s and T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s Conclusions  CHAPTER V I J 1. 2. 3» 4. 5. 6. 7. 6.  THE CHANGING SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE TRAPPING ECONOMY  INUVIK'S EVOLVING ECONOMY: IN WAGE EMPLOYMENT  TRENDS  Introduction The S t r u c t u r e o f I n u v i k ' s Labour F o r c e i n 1968 The E t h n i c Dimension i n Employment E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement Job Turnover Employment i n the Government S e c t o r Employment i n the Non-Government S e c t o r Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  CHAPTER V I I :  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  230 230 234 243 252 264 264 271 282 293 297  302 302 308 314 322 330 340 351 357 366  REFERENCES  388  APPENDICES  402  LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1  F u r R e t u r n s f o r F o r t McPherson, I85O,  1-2  Recorded  1-3  Indian V i s i t s  1-4  I n d i a n s Debts a t F o r t McPherson and La P i e r r e House, I85I-I87O  3- 1  F u r s T r a d e d by Capt. C T . P e d e r s e n  I860 and 1870  Indian V i s i t s  1840-51  1840-1850  to Fort  McPherson,  to F o r t McPherson,  1  (1918-1922) 4- 1  P o p u l a t i o n o f the Lower Mackenzie,  5- 1  Loss i n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s u l t i n g from the H i e r a r c h i c a l G r o u p i n g o f the " T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s " o f Trappers Trading Furs i n t o A r c t i c Red R i v e r 1962-63 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the F i f t h L e v e l o f G r o u p i n g , Mackenzie D e l t a , 1931-32  5-2  1931  5-3  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l o f G r o u p i n g , Mackenzie D e l t a , 1940-41  5-.4  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l of G r o u p i n g , Mackenzie D e l t a (Random Sample), 1950-51  5-5  Muskrat Takes D e c l a r e d by H o l d e r s o f R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g A r e a s , 1950-58  5-6  Trend S u r f a c e A n a l y s i s o f Muskrat from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g 4 r  e  a  Takes  s  5-7  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l o f G r o u p i n g , Mackenzie D e l t a , 1963-64  5-8  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i a l i s t T r a p p i n g Groups by S e t t l e m e n t , 1963-64  5- 9  Grouping Trappers  o f " S e r i o u s " and " P a r t - t i m e " i n Mackenzie D e l t a S e t t l e m e n t s ,  1964-65 6- 1 6-2 6-3 6-4  6-5  6-6 6-7 6-8a  6-8b  6-9  6-10 6-11  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e by Age, E t h n i c S t a t u s , 1968  29k Sex  and 311  E t h n i c C o m p o s i t i o n o f the I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , 1965 and 1968  313  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e by O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y and P l a c e of O r i g i n , 1968  317  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by E t h n i c S t a t u s and Monthly Income, ( f u l l - t i m e employees o n l y ) 1968  319  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e by E t h n i c S t a t u s , Monthly Income and Sex ( f u l l - t i m e employees o n l y ) 1968  321  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by E t h n i c and E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement, I968  324  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by Age E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement, 1968  Status  and 327  P e r c e n t a g e o f Permanent Employees who had been i n t h e i r Job a t the Time of the Survey f o r l e s s than S i x Months, by Sex and P l a c e of O r i g i n , 1968  333  Percentage of Permanent Employees who been i n t h e i r Job a t the Time o f the Survey f o r l e s s than S i x Months, 1968  33^  had  The Permanent I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , D u r a t i o n o f Employees i n the Job Occupied a t the Time of the Survey, 1968  337  Employment i n Government Departments i n I n u v i k , 1965 and 1968  3**1  F u l l - t i m e Government Employees by E t h n i c S t a t u s and Monthly Income, 1968  3^k  6-12 6-13  6-l4  Government Employees, by O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y and P l a c e o f O r i g i n , 1968  3^6  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s o f Government and Non-Government Employees, by P l a c e o f O r i g i n , 1968  3^8  The Age S t r u c t u r e o f the Labour F o r c e ,  1968 6-15 6-16 6-17  "Non-Government" Employers i n I n u v i k , and 1968  350 19^5  353  Government and Non-Government Employment, by O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y , 1968  356  F u l l - t i m e Non-Government Employment by E t h n i c S t a t u s and Monthly Income  358  LIST OF  FIGURES  Figure 1-1  Indigenous Groups Area  o f the Lower Mackenzie  3-1  T r a d i n g P o s t s E s t a b l i s h e d i n the Lower Mackenzie A r e a , 1912 t o 1929  3- 2  Muskrat Traded a t the Hudson's BayCompany i n Mackenzie D e l t a S e t t l e m e n t s , 1915-16 t o 19^0-41  4- 1  T r a d i n g P o s t s E s t a b l i s h e d i n the Lower Mackenzie A r e a , 1929 t o 1935  4- 2  Muskrat T r a d e d a t A k l a v i k and F o r t McPherson, 1930 to 1950  5- 1  Areas o f R e l a t i v e Abundance o f " D i a g n o s t i c S p e c i e s " i n the Lower Mackenzie A r e a  5-2  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of Trapping P r o f i l e s E r r o r F a c t o r v s . Groups Remaining i n the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red R i v e r , 1962-1963  5-3  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s S t r u c t u r e o f the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red R i v e r , 1962-63  5-4  Muskrat Takes from Mackenzie D e l t a T r a p p e r 1940-41 and 1950-51  5-5  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of Trapping P r o f i l e s E r r o r F a c t o r v s . Groups Remaining i n the H i e r a r c h y , Mackenzie D e l t a : (a) 1931-32; (b) 1940-41; ( c ) 1950-51; ( d ) 1963-64  5-6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f W i n t e r and S p r i n g Camps i n the Mackenzie D e l t a ; (a) I95O-5I; (b) 1964-65; ( c ) 1967-68  5-7  R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie Delta  5-8  I s a r i t h m i c S u r f a c e s o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , 1949-1950, 1 9 5 O - 5 I and 1957-58  5-9  5-10  Trend S u r f a c e s o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a  274  278  R e s i d u a l s t o L i n e a r Trend S u r f a c e s o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 , 1950-51.  1955-56  281  5-11  Incomes from T r a p p i n g , 1963-64  284  5-12  Muskrat Takes from Mackenzie D e l t a T r a p p e r s , 1963-64  287  5-13  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping o f T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s , S t r u c t u r e o f the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red R i v e r , 1963-1964  290  5-14  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping o f T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s , S t r u c t u r e o f the H i e r a r c h y , Tuktoyaktuk, 1963-1964  291  5- 15  Camps o f " S e r i o u s " and " P a r t - t i m e " T r a p p e r s , 1963-1964  296  6- 1  Wage Employment by Income and E t h n i c S t a t u s , I n u v i k , 1965  316  6-2  Length o f Time I n u v i k Employees had spent i n t h e i r C u r r e n t J o b s , August, 1968  339  6- 3  Age S t r u c t u r e o f the Labour F o r c e , I n u v i k , 1968  339  Diagram t o show Major Zones i n the Lower Mackenzie Area  369  7- 1  PREFACE  In I965 Coordination  the w r i t e r was engaged by the N o r t h e r n and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e o f the Department o f  Northern A f f a i r s  and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s  1  to prepare  a p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f the economic geography o f the Mackenzie D e l t a , N.W.T.  T h i s was t o be a c o n t r i -  bution  multi-disciplinary  towards a l o n g  term,  p r o j e c t - the Mackenzie D e l t a R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t d i r e c t e d towards the a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l and economic change i n t h i s p a r t o f n o r t h e r n s e a s o n spent i n the f i e l d current resource  Canada.  The  first  r e s u l t e d i n an i n v e n t o r y o f  uses: ( W o l f o r t h , £19663 ), and i n an  awareness on the w r i t e r ' s p a r t t h a t  the p r o c e s s e s  at  work i n the Mackenzie D e l t a c o u l d not be u n d e r s t o o d outside  t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l context.  Even a  cursory  T h i s l a t e r became the N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h Group o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development.  a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the D e l t a d i v e r s i t y r e s u l t i n g from p r o c e s s e s  has g r e a t  cultural  of contact  spanning  more than a c e n t u r y between t h r e e major e t h n i c There was e v i d e n c e  however t h a t out o f these  groups.  processes  t h e r e had emerged a community o f D e l t a people  i n which  d i f f e r e n c e s due t o e t h n i c o r c u l t u r a l o r i g i n were (Slobodin, 1962: 37-38;  r e l a t i v e l y unimportant S m i t h [ l 9 6 6 ] t 18-28). I t was apparent  a l s o t h a t l i k e many o t h e r  northern  communities, t h a t o f the Mackenzie D e l t a was b e i n g shaken by changes more r a d i c a l than any which had a f f e c t e d i t to d a t e .  I n the p r e v i o u s two decades, the  major s t i m u l u s to change had come from of  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  the new town o f I n u v i k which was d e s i g n e d  i n many  ways to be a showplace o f what Canada' c o u l d do i n the d i f f i c u l t n o r t h e r n environment 1962;  Sullivan, i960).  (Baird, i960;  However, an i n i t i a l  Pritchard, pre-  o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g problems concerned  with  * T h i s i s the l o c a l , p o p u l a r term f o r the a r e a and w i l l be used f o r b r e v i t y i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y .  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f modern, f u l l y (Cooper, 1 9 6 7 )  on p e r m a f r o s t  n  a  serviced often  d  buildings  obscured  p r e s s i n g problems of a s o c i a l n a t u r e r e s u l t i n g from the  l a r g e - s c a l e movement of n a t i v e  new  town as permanent r e s i d e n t s  the major c o n s t r u c t i o n work was came to the studies  (Boek and  demonstrated and  f o r e and  the  people i n t b  1  or as  Boek, i 9 6 0 ;  squatters.  f i n i s h e d these  were d e s c r i b e d  When  problems  i n a number  Lotz,  c o n c e r n of the  the  1962)  of  which  f e d e r a l department,  formed the major impetus f o r the  Mackenzie  Delta  Research P r o j e c t . The  signs  o f s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y w i t h which  d e a l t were o f c o u r s e most i n t e n s e i t s e l f where the bemused and  native population  d i s o r i e n t e d by  the major emphasis o f the also  1  (Mailhot,  I968;  i n the  settlement  frequently  the pace of change, P r o j e c t was  E r v i n , 1968;  place  Lubart,  they  seemed and  there  1970)  .  It  The term " n a t i v e " i s used here i n the n e u t r a l sense o f someone who l i v e s i n the a r e a . I t w i l l be d e f i n e d l a t e r w i t h more p r e c i s i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r terms of a p o t e n t i a l l y p e r f o r a t i v e nature.  was  clear  t h a t those who  had moved i n t o  the  s e t t l e m e n t had not done so s i m p l y as urban like  new immigrants  those i n many p a r t s o f the l e s s d e v e l o p e d 1966:  ( c f . Breese, orientation  73-100).  I n the f i r s t  towards the town was  world  place  not accompanied  a complete break w i t h the l a n d w i t h which many maintained  strong t i e s ,  land-based  activities  their by  still  e i t h e r by c o n t i n u i n g some  themselves  or by e n t e r i n g i n t o  s o c i a l or economic i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h those t h a t d i d . In  the second  experiences  p l a c e , they came w i t h a v a r i e t y  o f what the s e t t l e m e n t had  d e r i v e d from a l o n g and w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  complex h i s t o r y  of p r i o r  to o f f e r of contact  They were thus not  directly  analogous w i t h , say, Eskimos moving i n t o Baker Lake (Vallee,  1967)  o r even F r o b i s h e r Bay  (Honigmann  and  Honigmann, 1965)1 where the c o n t a c t e x p e r i e n c e  pre-  c e d i n g the movement i n t o a s e t t l e m e n t had  less  i n t e n s e and  less  These two town p r o v i d e d  been  complex.  a s p e c t s o f the movement towards the major f o c u s f o r the p r e s e n t  the study  which i s d i r e c t e d towards a number o f r e l a t e d questions, (i)  namely:  What p a t t e r n s  of points of contact  with  the e x t e r n a l c u l t u r e emerged d u r i n g the area's h i s t o r y ? (ii)  What r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i d the i n d i g e n o u s people form w i t h  (iii)  these p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t ?  What changes i n the use o f t e r r i t o r y took p l a c e as these r e l a t i o n s h i p s intensified?  (iv)  What a r e the e f f e c t s on b o t h the l a n d and  the urban economies o f people who  maintain  t i e s with  both?  I t w i l l be seen t h a t these a r e e s s e n t i a l l y questions  about nodal r e l a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e  c e n t r a l to g e o g r a p h i c a l  interest.  Nystuen and  Dacey (1961) suggest a d e f i n i t i o n o f these r e l a t i o n s which i s u s e f u l .  "Nodal r e g i o n s , "  they w r i t e , " a r e  d e f i n e d by e v a l u a t i n g the e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t s areal units.  of small  Each o f these a r e a l u n i t s i s a s s i g n e d  to t h a t p l a c e w i t h which i t has dominant a s s o c i a t i o n . Usually,  t h i s w i l l be a nearby c i t y ,  and t h i s c i t y i s  d e f i n e d as the c e n t r a l p l a c e o r n o d a l p o i n t f o r the  u n i t areas a s s i g n e d  to i t .  The  u n i t areas, i n turn, i s c a l l e d  a g g r e g a t i o n of  the nodal r e g i o n . "  I n the Lower Mackenzie a r e a , the " a r e a l i n q u e s t i o n are those based people  these  units"  t e r r i t o r i e s used by the l a n d -  at d i f f e r e n t  times.  The  "nodal c e n t r e s "  a r e the p o i n t s of c o n t a c t w i t h the e x t e r n a l c u l t u r e w i t h which they have e n t e r e d i n t o t r a n s a c t i o n .  The  q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d above then are concerned  first,  the p a t t e r n s of nodal c e n t r e s a t d i f f e r e n t  with,  times,  and  second, the p a t t e r n s o f nodal r e g i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them.  The  l a s t q u e s t i o n i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y  cerned w i t h the p r e s e n t  con-  i n t e r a c t i o n between n o d a l  r e g i o n and n o d a l c e n t r e , and  the e f f e c t s of a  emphasis from the one  other.  to the  shifting  These q u e s t i o n s a r i s e from the w r i t e r ' s p r e v i o u s i n t e r e s t expressed  i n an a n a l y s i s of the journey  work i n Vancouver, B.C. t h i s work was  directed  (Wolforth, 1 9 6 5 ) .  to  Though  towards a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s  o f e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s , i t l e d to an awareness t h a t changes i n the s t r u c t u r e of nodal c e n t r e s are  p a r a l l e l e d by changes i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the n o d a l r e g i o n s w i t h which they a r e a s s o c i a t e d , and t h a t these a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t D e l t a was an unusual  processes.  The Mackenzie  but i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e to examine  n o d a l c e n t r e s and r e g i o n s f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . I t was c l e a r t h a t over a f a i r l y l o n g h i s t o r y o f over 100 y e a r s that q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f n o d a l centres existed at d i f f e r e n t  times, though i t was  not c l e a r what the p r e c i s e p a t t e r n s were i n a l l c a s e s , nor what the i n f l u e n c e o f the nodal c e n t r e s had  been. A l s o , the r e c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the new town  d i d not simply r e s u l t i n the D e l t a people  c e a s i n g to  t r a p i n o r d e r to take up wage employment, but r a t h e r i n t h e i r abandoning one system o f r e s o u r c e i n f a v o u r o f another  utilization  i n which wage employment c o u l d  be accommodated to a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t . the Honigmanns people  1  In  (1965?77) u s e f u l t e r m i n o l o g y , many  showed a d u a l a l l e g i a n c e to the l a n d and to  the town which was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r  shifting  between them, n e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y g i v i n g up nor t o t a l l y a c c e p t i n g the o t h e r . present  The  the  origins  one and  s p a t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s d i v i d e d  a l l e g i a n c e form the p r i n c i p a l f o c u s of t h i s  study.  The g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d f o r t h i s work has l o n g and d i f f i c u l t ,  been  but made more t o l e r a b l e by the  a s s i s t a n c e , a d v i c e , s u p p o r t and encouragement  o f the  following people. I  owe  a l a r g e debt to my  c o l l e a g u e s i n the  Mackenzie D e l t a R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t who  were always  r e a d y to s h a r e d a t a and d i s c u s s problems o f mutual interest.  I l e a r n e d much about the methods o f  o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s from Dr. P.F, E r v i n , Dr. J.M. Mr. D.G.  Lubart, M i l e . Jose Mailhot,  Smith w i t h whom I worked  v a r i o u s times. the  Cooper, Mr.  In addition,  A.M. and  i n the f i e l d  the permanent  at  s t a f f of  N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h Group i n Ottawa d i d  much to c r e a t e an atmosphere c o l l a b o r a t i o n was  i n which  possible, especially  fruitful the Group's  c h i e f , Mr. A . J . (Moose) K e r r .  I am  grateful  though not  to Dr. P . J . Usher who  especially directly  involved, with  the p r o j e c t c o n t r i b u t e d much to i t s  development w i t h own  h i s knowledgeable a d v i c e ,  such as  s h a r e s the f i e l d w i t h  scholars r i c h e r i n  my  Honigmann and  Dr. R.  Slobodin Mr.  J . O s t r i c k a t the I n u v i k  R.M.  of  and  fortunate  Dr. to t r y to  Hill  Research  one  experience  I count m y s e l f  to seek the a d v i c e  emulate t h e i r examples. Mr.  the Mackenzie D e l t a  i n s i g h t s than o n e s e l f :  to have been a b l e J.J.  to  thinking i n particular. I n an a r e a  and  and  and Laboratory  do much to make such f r u i t f u l a s s o c i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e . The  p e o p l e of the D e l t a have s u f f e r e d  researchers like  p a t i e n t l y f o r some y e a r s  and  I  should  to thank the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e i n p a r t i c u l a r  for  t a k i n g the  Mr.  L. S i t t i n c h i n l i  Aklavik;  Mr.  time to t e a c h me:  F. F i r t h ,  Mr.  B. K u n n i z i , Mr.  and  Rev.  and  Mr.  D.  and  Rev. Mr.  Mrs.  Sarah Ross,  J. Sittinchinli W.  Firth,  P. Thompson, Mr.  Mr.  A.  Kunnizi,  J . Thompson  Wootten i n F o r t McPherson;  L. C a r d i n a l i n A r c t i c Red  in  River;  Mr.  ¥.  Mr.  Clarke Owen A l l e n ,  Mr.  Clarence F i r t h ,  i n Inuvik.  The l i s t  Mr. B. P a s c a l and Mr. K. o f a l l the p e o p l e  s e t t l e m e n t s who h e l p e d  Peelooluk  i n the D e l t a  i n many ways would be much  l o n g e r , but I s h o u l d l i k e  t o r e c o r d my s p e c i a l  thanks  to Mr. and Mrs. V. A l l e n f o r always making me welcome i n t h e i r At  home.  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Dr. J.K.  Columbia,  S t a g e r showed much p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n h i s r o l e as my major a d v i s o r , and Mr. M. C h u r c h guided  me through  the t h i c k e t s o f computer  technology.  F o r making a v a i l a b l e documentary m a t e r i a l I am indebted  t o the e v e r - h e l p f u l s t a f f  o f the P u b l i c  A r c h i v e s o f Canada, t o the A n g l i c a n Church o f Canada, to the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern  Development, to the S c o t t P o l a r R e s e a r c h  Institute,  and to the Governor and Committee o f the  Hudson's Bay Company. The  Northern  S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h Group o f the  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n supported  my p r o j e c t g e n e r o u s l y  Development  i n the f i e l d , and  my time i n r e s i d e n c e  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia was made p o s s i b l e by a F e l l o w s h i p from the C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g Mrs.  Corporation.  U l r i k e L e i g h typed my m a n u s c r i p t  and  p r o d u c e d o r d e r out o f c h a o s . My g r e a t e s t debt i s t o my w i f e J o a n who d i d many o f the r o u t i n e t a s k s o f n u m e r i c a l p r o o f - r e a d i n g and c a r t o g r a p h y  calculation,  and above a l l remained  u n f a i l i n g l y s u p p o r t i v e under the most extreme provocation.  INTRODUCTION  1. The Growth of S e t t l e m e n t s i n the North One  of the most important changes to have  taken  p l a c e i n n o r t h e r n Canada i n r e c e n t y e a r s has been the movement of n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n t o the s e t t l e m e n t s .  In  most areas t h i s has been accompanied by a d i m i n i s h i n g i n t e r e s t i n land-based a c t i v i t i e s which had become e s t a b l i s h e d over many y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g t r a p p i n g and a range  of a n c i l l a r y o c c u p a t i o n s such as h u n t i n g ,  f i s h i n g , whaling and life all  s e a l i n g which d e f i n e d the way  of most n o r t h e r n p e o p l e .  of  Though these were not  n e c e s s a r i l y t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and r a r e l y i f  e v e r conducted  i n t r a d i t i o n a l ways, they  nonetheless  r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the p a s t which has been broken f o r a growing  number of p e o p l e .  v i r t u a l abandonment of the o l d way about  now  The  of l i f e was  brought  i n p a r t by a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the v a l u e of the  f u r trade a s s o c i a t e d w i t h changing f a s h i o n s , and  competition  from s y n t h e t i c s .  At the same time the  settlements  themselves have come t o o f f e r a g r e a t e r  range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and the n a t i v e northerner-has sought r e f u g e  i n them from a l a n d which  no l o n g e r a f f o r d s him a l i v i n g . U n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y , most o f the  settlements  shown p r o m i n e n t l y on the maps of n o r t h e r n i n f a c t l i t t l e more than outposts For  of an a l i e n c u l t u r e .  the most p a r t they c o n s i s t e d of minute c l u s t e r s of  b u i l d i n g s tenuously and  Canada were  connected to the o u t s i d e  housing r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of those  world  institutions  which had been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e f i n i n g the channels of contact with native peoples; Bay  namely, the Hudson's  Company, the Church, and the R.C.M. P o l i c e .  n a t i v e people themselves s t i l l the l a n d and v i s i t e d  The  made t h e i r l i v i n g on  the s e t t l e m e n t s  from time to time  to s e l l f u r s , buy p r o v i s i o n s , get m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n or attend  religious services*  I t i s true that  were to be found i n some o f the l a r g e r c e n t r e s  schools where  a number o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n l i v e d f o r most o f the y e a r  i n h o s t e l s , but few a d u l t s d i d so w h i l e  trapping  remained a p r o f i t a b l e a c t i v i t y and the s e t t l e m e n t s themselves o f f e r e d few i f any competing Today, t h i s has l a r g e l y changed. trappers  still  Some p r o f e s s i o n a l  e x i s t i n the North, but an i n c r e a s i n g  number o f n a t i v e settlements.  opportunities.  n o r t h e r n e r s make t h e i r l i v i n g i n the  T h i s has imposed a s t r a i n on the admini-  s t r a t i o n and the people a l i k e , f o r few s e t t l e m e n t s have a broad enough economic base to absorb a l a r g e number o f r e s i d e n t s , and few n a t i v e people have u n t i l possessed the s k i l l s which a r e r e q u i r e d f u l l y i n an urban environment. c r e a t i o n by the F e d e r a l ,  recently  to l i v e  success-  The r e s u l t has been the  and l a t e r the T e r r i t o r i a l  governments, o f a l a r g e number o f s e r v i c e and maintenance jobs t o absorb as many people as p o s s i b l e wage employment.  into  Even t h i s a c t i o n however has n o t  a v o i d e d burgeoning demands made upon s o c i a l  assistance  o f a l l k i n d s and the appearance o f a g e n e r a t i o n o f t e n expresses i t s l a c k o f a d a p t a t i o n i n terms o f the dominant v a l u e s ,  which  i n anomic o r ,  pathological  behaviour.  Problems abound and have been the s u b j e c t of a number o f s t u d i e s concerned w i t h Eskimo town d w e l l e r s i n particular.  Some of these have a n a l y z e d  changing  p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Honigmann and Honigmann, 1 9 6 5 ) *  of economic r o l e  (Vallee,  1967)*  o r o f v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i t y ( L u b a r t , 1 9 6 9 ) . have been d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y  Others  towards i d e n t i f i a b l e  and indeed w e l l r e c o g n i z e d problems of s o c i a l  deviance  such as e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g or j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y (Clairmont,  1963).  2. The Concept  of "Dual A l l e g i a n c e "  What emerges c l e a r l y from these s t u d i e s i s a t y p o l o g y of n a t i v e peoples expressed i n terms of the degree  to which they have adapted  to the urban e n v i r o n -  ment and which i n c l u d e s the bush d w e l l e r a t one end of the s c a l e and  the town d w e l l e r a t the o t h e r .  Pried  (196k) has suggested a g r a d i e n t of n a t i v e peoples on t h e i r degree  of acceptance of "town-Hiving"  than " b u s h - l i v i n g " w i t h those who  have taken up  based  rather full-time  wage employment at one end, those who  make t h e i r  l i v i n g by t r a p p i n g a t the o t h e r , and i n the middle, those who  s h i f t between working f o r wages h a l f - h e a r t e d -  l y and t r a p p i n g h a l f - h e a r t e d l y . Hon|gmann ( 1 9 ^ 5 )  n a v  e  Honigmann and  examined t h i s g r a d i e n t as i t  e x i s t s i n F r o b i s h e r Bay and have suggested t h a t i t e x h i b i t s what they have c a l l e d a " d u a l a l l e g i a n c e " ( i b i d . : 7?)  to the bush and to the s e t t l e m e n t .  "Dual a l l e g i a n c e to l a n d and town," they wrote, " c o n s t i t u t e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of F r o b i s h e r Bay c u l t u r e about which Eskimos are q u i t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and p r o t e c t i v e . A l l e g i a n c e to the l a n d i s s t r o n g enough to make them r e s i s t what t h r e a t e n s the c o n t i n u i t y of h u n t i n g . Where some f a m i l i e s have chosen c a r e e r s i n town, o t h e r s remain p r i m a r i l y f i x e d i n h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g c a r e e r s . Others seem und e c i d e d o r , unable to keep a j o b i n town, s h i f t back and f o r t h . " I n a seminal study o f the Eskimos Vallee  Lake,  ( 1 9 6 7 ) drew a d i s t i n c t i o n which suggests the  same dichotomy  between what he termed  and the kabloonamiut who  of Baker  had  adopted  the nunamuit  - the l a n d based people and  white ways i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  those 1  A c c o r d i n g to V a l l e e , the term nunamiut i s used l o c a l l y to denote those Eskimos who l i v e on the l a n d . The term Kabloonamiut (kabloona=white man) i s a neologism, but has now enjoyed wide c u r r e n c y i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  He saw moreover a c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s and  dichotomy  the emergent c l a s s system which seems t o l i e a t  the r o o t o f the problems e x p e r i e n c e d settlements,  by many n o r t h e r n  f o r the kabloonamiut, he  suggested  ( i b i d . : ikk), enjoy a more p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n the nunamiut.  than  Not o n l y a r e t h e i r r o l e s d e f i n e d i n  terms o f the s t a t u s e s of the dominant o u t s i d e c u l t u r e both by themselves and by the nunamiut, but more wealth to  now a c c r u e s  to the s u c c e s s f u l wage-earner  the s u c c e s s f u l t r a p p e r .  settl  than  I t i s apparent t h a t the  ement-bush p o l a r i z a t i o n , i f not u n i v e r s a l , a t  l e a s t e x i s t s i n enough n o r t h e r n areas concept  to make i t a  o f some g e n e r a l i t y f o r , b e s i d e s  the w r i t e r s  mentioned, i t has a l s o been r e f e r r e d to by S a a r i o and K e s s e l (1966)  and i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , by Smith  and E r v i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  [1967]  However, the p r o c e s s e s take p l a c e i n the s e t t l e m e n t aspect to  o f s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n which represent  o n l y one  o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g  an urban s o c i e t y .  Another e q u a l l y  important  aspect  concerns the  takes p l a c e resource  s p a t i a l transformation  on the l a n d as a d i s p e r s e d  pattern  u t i l i z a t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y abandoned.  d u a l a l l e g i a n c e to l a n d and  o f the s e t t l e m e n t  and  has  r a t h e r has  i s caught up  quishing a l i f e  response to new  prac-  f o r the Eskimo  i n the p r o c e s s  of  relin-  i n the town, the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s not  The  immediate  q u i t t i n g the  one  in  and favour  of the o t h e r , but r a t h e r i n c r e a t i n g a composite of l i f e which draws from both.  hunts  that  i s even more profound.  c o n s i s t i n simply  the  longer  adapted h i s  i n the bush f o r one  e c o l o g i c a l adaptation  influence  t h a t he d i d b e f o r e  t i c e s to the changing s i t u a t i o n , and or I n d i a n who  The  r a m i f i c a t i o n s throughout  t r a p s i n the same way  does not  the  Even the bush Eskimo or I n d i a n no  i n f l u e n c e e x i s t e d , but  of  town i s expressed i n  e c o l o g i c a l as w e l l as s o c i a l terms, and  system.  which  Often  way  i n f a c t i t seems  t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to become " l o c k e d i n " a p a r t i c u l a r e c o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n not a n e c e s s a r y way  through c h o i c e  or because i t i s  s t a t i o n to the achievement of a  pre-determined  g o a l , but because i t was generated by  the e x i g e n c i e s o f the p r e c e d i n g p a t t e r n . Thus the growth o f the s e t t l e m e n t s has not simply r e s u l t e d i n n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s abandoning the l a n d i n o r d e r to take up wage employment and an urban way o f life. to  C e r t a i n l y "push" f a c t o r s have been i n o p e r a t i o n  make l i f e  on the l a n d l e s s a t t r a c t i v e and the  s e t t l e m e n t s have e x e r t e d a s t r o n g " p u l l " i n terms of both m a t e r i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a m e n i t i e s 1966:  80), but the r e s u l t  ( c f . Breese,  o f these f o r c e s has been  t h a t many have simply abandoned one p a t t e r n o f l a n d based a c t i v i t i e s i n f a v o u r of another. the e f f e c t  o f the s e t t l e m e n t i s not f e l t  I n t h i s way only i n i t s  i n t e r n a l s o c i a l morphology but a l s o i n the changing s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e of i t s h i n t e r l a n d .  3.  The Purpose and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study The  present  study has two d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d  t a s k s which a r e d i r e c t e d of  these e f f e c t s .  towards the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  The f i r s t  o f these concerns the  p a r t which has been p l a y e d  by agents o f the e x t e r n a l  c u l t u r e i n the convergence o f i n i t i a l l y  distinct  e t h n i c groups towards what has been i d e n t i f i e d as a D e l t a Community,(Slobodin, 1962: 37-38; Smith 18-28).  The second concerns the changes which t h a t  community i s e x p e r i e n c i n g  a t the p r e s e n t  time as the  r e s u l t o f the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t has accompanied North.  £l9673  which  the u r b a n i z a t i o n o f the Canadian  I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t w i l l attempt to show t h a t :  1. Agents o f the e x t e r n a l c u l t u r e have  provided  the c a t a l y s t f o r c u l t u r a l convergence which has r e s u l t e d i n the emergence  of a D e l t a  Community, by c a l l i n g f o r e c o l o g i c a l a d j u s t ments which have f o c u s s e d initially  separate  the a c t i v i t i e s o f  e t h n i c communities upon  the Mackenzie D e l t a , and i n d o i n g  so have  widened  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  between  them;  and  2. The e f f e c t o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the new  town o f I n u v i k has not been to draw people o f f the l a n d e n t i r e l y , but i n s t e a d to break down the n o d a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t t e r n s based on the o l d e r D e l t a  trapping settlements  and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c groups; and t o r e p l a c e  them by a s p a t i a l  organization  i n which a l l e g i a n c e to b o t h l a n d and town i s possible.  Since they w i l l  these are s e p a r a t e but be d e a l t w i t h i n two  r e l a t e d hypotheses  p a r t s , the  scope  and  method of which are d i f f e r e n t . PART ONE:  THE  P a r t One  EVOLUTION OF THE will  Community as i t has  t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n of the  external culture.  which c o n t r i b u t e d  to t h i s P a r t ,  methods of h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c e n q u i r y though h i s t b r i c a l work had o f the D e l t a ,  there  i s no  usual  T h i s i s not a gap  in  study presumes to  the appearance of n o d a l c e n t r e s  as f a r as i s p o s s i b l e the extent  the  fill  of document-  associated  w i t h the e x t e r n a l c u l t u r e , and  with  determining  to which these were  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the emergence of new  I8k0, and  the  were used, f o r  s i n c e i t s purpose i s the more l i m i t e d one  Detailed written records  In  comprehensive study which  l i t e r a t u r e which the p r e s e n t  contact  the  with  appeared on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s  c o u l d be used as a s o u r c e .  ing  Delta  been i n f l u e n c e d by c o n t a c t  a s e r i e s of agents of the research  DELTA COMMUNITY  e c o l o g i c a l regimes.  e x i s t f o r the D e l t a  l e s s comprehensive r e c o r d s  since  s i n c e 1789»  though a l l a r e not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e . documentary sources of  consulted include:  The major the r e c o r d s  the Hudson's Bay Company both i n Ottawa a t the  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada and i n London at Beaver House; at  the r e c o r d s of the Church M i s s i o n a r y  Society  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s and o f the A n g l i c a n Church o f  Canada a t Church House i n Toronto;  and r e c o r d s o f  the v a r i o u s government departments charged w i t h the responsibility Territories registry  o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Northwest  i n the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s and i n the f i l e  o f the N o r t h e r n  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Branch o f the  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n F o r t u n a t e l y f o r the r e s e a r c h e r ,  Development,^  there a r e many D e l t a  r e s i d e n t s who have l o n g and a c c u r a t e memories and much u s e f u l d a t a on developments d u r i n g the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y was gathered and  a l s o from p e r s o n a l  interview  checked wherever p o s s i b l e w i t h documentary  Much of the f i e l d  sources.  season i n 1966 and a g a i n i n 1968  was d i r e c t e d towards t h i s end.  * The a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r documentary sources are g i v e n i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  cited  PART TWO:  THE CHANGING NODAL STRUCTURE OF THE  DELTA COMMUNITY P a r t Two w i l l examine the changes i n the s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the D e l t a Community as they r e f l e c t the concept  o f d u a l a l l e g i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e d  pace o f u r b a n i z a t i o n . aspects and  the f i r s t  These w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  concerning  i n two  the changes on the l a n d  the second the changes i n the s e t t l e m e n t , the  complementary components o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n o d a l c e n t r e and n o d a l  region.  S i n c e the major  dichotomy i n the a r e a between t r a p p i n g on the one hand and wage employment on the o t h e r these have been chosen as the most a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i c e s to measure change* The  a n a l y s i s i n P a r t Two t h e r e f o r e f a l l s  sections, and  the f i r s t  i n t o two  concerned w i t h t r a p p i n g p a t t e r n s  the second w i t h wage employment. A f t e r 1929» d a t a was a v a i l a b l e on the q u a n t i t i e s  of  f u r s taken by t r a p p e r s from G e n e r a l  Hunting L i c e n c e  r e t u r n s , and l a t e r from F u r T r a d e r s ' s  Record Books..  I n a d d i t i o n d u r i n g the decade of the f i f t i e s , in  trappers  the D e l t a were r e q u i r e d t o r e g i s t e r t r a p p i n g  and  areas  t o d e c l a r e the number o f muskrat they had taken  from t h e i r a r e a s .  Data t h e r e f o r e e x i s t s which  permits  a comprehensive view o f where t r a p p i n g e f f o r t was b e i n g d i r e c t e d , from which c o u l d be i n f e r r e d p a t t e r n s over a f a i r l y l o n g p e r i o d . analyzed  u s i n g standard  statistical  ecological  T h i s d a t a was techniques o f  t r e n d s u r f a c e a n a l y s i s ( C h o r l e y and Haggett, 1 9 6 5 ) and  grouping  procedures ( B e r r y , 1 9 6 7 ) to y i e l d a  p i c t u r e o f the changing s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the nodal r e g i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t s and  i n general,  with Inuvik i n p a r t i c u l a r . The  second s e c t i o n w i l l be devoted t o a c o n s i d e r -  a t i o n o f the degree of a b s o r p t i o n of n a t i v e people  1  T r a p p e r s were r e q u i r e d by law t o r e c o r d the number o f a l l s p e c i e s , they had taken d u r i n g each season i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , a n d t r a d e r s to r e c o r d a l l s p e c i e s taken by them i n trade i n the second. Both d a t a sources a r e h e l d by the Game Branch of the Government o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , to whom I am i n d e b t e d f o r h a v i n g access t o them.  wage employment. 1965  P a r t of the f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s i n  and a g a i n i n 1 9 6 8 were d i r e c t e d towards making  a d e t a i l e d census o f employment i n I n u v i k . been used  T h i s ha£  t o a n a l y z e the nature and extent of the  involvement  of n a t i v e people i n wage employment, and  s i n c e the surveys were undertaken  t h r e e years a p a r t  o f the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n t h i s important  s e c t o r of settlement l i v i n g .  into  Quanti-  t a t i v e work i n t h i s a r e a was supplemented by i n t e r views w i t h employers which attempted  to d i s c e r n  a t t i t u d e s to n a t i v e employment.  k. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l The  Context  " E c o l o g i c a l * Approach 1  The  approach taken by the p r e s e n t study i s  " e c o l o g i c a l " i n that i t s major concern i s f o r the s p a t i a l arrangement of groups o f people as t h i s reflects  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them, and between  them and the t e r r i t o r y they occupy. term  However, the  "ecology", and"human e c o l o g y " i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  has had wide c u r r e n c y i n a number o f c o n t e x t s ( B a t e s , 1953)  and a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of the study^s  frame of r e f e r e n c e i s d e s i r a b l e .  I n essence, e c o l o g y  i s a " p e r v a s i v e p o i n t of view r a t h e r than a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t matter" ( i b i d . ) which attempts to c o n s i d e r the objects  i t s t u d i e s as components of a "system"  o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n an "environment" Gonzalez, 1965).  (M c M i l l a n  and  The d i f f e r e n c e s between the approaches  which are subsumed under the h e a d i n g o f human e c o l o g y r e s i d e i n the d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s which are g i v e n to these terms and i n p a r t i c u l a r to the l a t t e r *  For  some the "environment" i s equated w i t h c l i m a t i c p h y s i o g r a p h i c or b i o t i c  c o n d i t i o n s , and f o r o t h e r s i t  i s d e f i n e d as the u n i v e r s e of a l l elements the  changes  i n which b r i n g about c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n the s m a l l e r s e t of elements d e f i n e d as the system investigation  under  (Harvey, 1969* ^58).  The "Man-Land" View o f Human E c o l o g y One is  of the most c o n s i s t e n t views o f human e c o l o g y  that which sees i t as a study o f the  between man  relationships  and l a n d , a f a c t l e a d i n g more than one  w r i t e r to suggest that geography  and human e c o l o g y  are one and the same t h i n g (Barrows, 1923» Eyre and Jones, 1 9 6 6 ) .  I n a n t h r o p o l o g y the e c o l o g i c a l  i n t e r e s t has been expressed i n s t u d i e s concerned w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between p r i m i t i v e and t h e i r environment material culture. o f the term, may  groups  through the m e d i a t i o n of a  An e c o l o g i c a l theme, i n t h i s  sense  be d i s c e r n e d i n , f o r example, Forde's  H a b i t a t , Economy and S o c i e t y ( 1 9 3 4 ) , E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d * s (1940) study of the Nuer, B r o o k f i e l d and Brown's (1963) study of the Chimbu o r , to take a n o r t h e r n example, Spencer's (1959) study of the North A l a s k a n Eskimo.  I n a l l these works, the environment  i s con-  s i d e r e d i n i t s p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s a l o n e , or i n the same sense the term was used by the g e o g r a p h i c a l s c h o o l of e n v i r o n m e n t a l determinism.  A v a r i a t i o n on  approach, as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the massive  this  collection  o f essays a p p e a r i n g i n Man's Role i n Changing  the  Face of the E a r t h (Thomas, 1956), has been to c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t of man's a c t i v i t i e s upon the ph y s i c a l  w o r l d , an approach which can be e s p e c i a l l y i n areas l i k e  important  the N o r t h where the p h y s i c a l realm i s  i n s u b t l e and d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e , and where  industrial  man's a c t i v i t i e s have a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r c a t a s t r o p h e (McTaggart-Cowan, 1969). E c o l o g i c a l work i n the man l a n d t r a d i t i o n has been e s p e c i a l l y f r u i t f u l icularly  i n northern research, part-  that which has been concerned  with indigenous  groups i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the l a n d .  (1954)  Margaret  p l e a f o r more work i n human e c o l o g y has now  been met by a growing suggests  corpus of l i t e r a t u r e which both  the framework f o r examining  ecological  p r o c e s s e s and p r o v i d e s the data to do s o .  (1959)  Lantis'  study o f the Eskimos o f the N o r t h  Spencer's  Alaskan  s l o p e i s a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to our knowledge o f the e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two Eskimo groups,  and work conducted  as p a r t o f P r o j e c t C h a r i o t  i n western A l a s k a , p a r t i c u l a r l y by S a a r i o and K e s s e l  (1966),  and Poote and W i l l i a m s o n  (1966),  provide a  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Eskimo  groups undergoing  r a p i d and r a d i c a l change and  a s s o c i a t e d p a t t e r n s of r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y utilization.  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s of t h i s  and  type have  espoused a "systems" approach (Foote and 1968)  their  Greer-Wootten,  and have p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m -  a t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s o u r c e s  and  r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n systems (Freeman, I967» 1970).  Usher,  In p l a c e s where the c o n t a c t s w i t h the l a n d  are weaker however such as the Mackenzie D e l t a , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man important The  and man  than those between man  "Spatial*System"View  may and  seem more the l a n d .  of Human E c o l o g y  An a l t e r n a t i v e view of human e c o l o g y i s t h a t which sees i t as the study o f the ways i n which s o c i a l systems arrange  themselves  i n space and i t i s t h i s  view w i t h which the p r e s e n t study conforms more closely.  T h i s t r a d i t i o n of human e c o l o g y had i t s  o r i g i n s i n the s c h o o l of s o c i o l o g y of the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  i n the 1920 s, was ,  largely  w i t h human communities i n the c i t y ,  preoccupied  and had as a  major o b j e c t i v e " t o d i s c o v e r the p r i n c i p l e s  and  f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the changing p a t t e r n s of s p a t i a l arrangement  of p o p u l a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s  resulting  from the i n t e r p l a y o f l i v i n g beings i n a c o n t i n u o u s l y changing c u l t u r e " may  (McKenzie, 1931)•  Some c o n f u s i o n  have a r i s e n out o f d i f f e r e n t uses accorded the  term "community" i n the b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l  sciences  (Bates, 1953)i hut from the work o f the human e c o l o g i s t s emerged a c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f a group of human b e i n g s or i n s t i t u t i o n s i n such a way  t i e d by a set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  that a change i n one of those  ships n e c e s s a r i l y affected  the whole.  relation-  I n these  then the concept i s analogous to the " s o c i a l system" o f Murdoch (19^9* 79 -9D ) o r to the  terms  boundary  "role-  complete group" o f Belshaw  (197O: 81) i n that a l l are  bounded, a d a p t i v e , systems  ( M c M i l l a n and Gonzalez,  1965).  Much o f the e a r l y work of the Chicago  had the ambitious o b j e c t i v e of comprehending  school the  complex workings of e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas as f u n c t i o n i n g s o c i a l organisms  (Park and Burgess,  1925)  u s u a l l y i n terms of a number of concepts w i t h s t r o n g overtones On  o f s o c i a l Darwinism (Reissman, 1964:  the o t h e r hand, some had  of d e f i n i n g the boundaries  the more l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e and i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of  more manageable human communities. Roderick  McKenzie as one  the f i e l d  suggested  (193*0  ch. 5) •  F o r example,  of the e a r l y proponents  of  t h a t work on • the e c o l o g y of  the community i s e i t h e r concerned  w i t h the  spatial  d i s t r i b u t i o n of " b i o s o c i a l phenomena", or the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the boundaries  of "communal  C e r t a i n l y by the time a retrenchment  was  organisms". f o r c e d upon  human e c o l o g y by c r i t i c i s m s a r i s i n g out of i t s inability  to take s u b t l e c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n t o  ( F i r e y , 1950)  , a g r e a t d e a l of work was  concerned  such c l o s e l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d t o p i c s as s o c i a l a n a l y s i s , m i g r a t i o n and m o b i l i t y , and work (Reissman, 1964:  112).  account with  area  the j o u r n e y to  I t i s at t h i s point that  t h i s o t h e r t r a d i t i o n of human e c o l o g y and some branches o f human geography i n t e r s e c t , f o r they share above a l l an i n t e r e s t  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t r u c t u r e s  o f human systems and t h e i r s p a t i a l (Ackerman,  expression  1963).  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Ecology C l a s s i f i c a t i o n forms an important p a r t of e c o l o g i c a l work.  Since ecology i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the  b e h a v i o u r o f aggregates but i t s d a t a may be d e r i v e d from the a t t r i b u t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s 1969?  (Dogan and Rokkan,  i t i s g e n e r a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o group  viduals into appropriate classes.  indi-  Many systems o f  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e , but t h a t which has most r e l e v a n c e to the problem a t hand i s s e l e c t e d . "Problems and t h e i r answers," Brown (1963s 171)  reminds  us, "are so c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the c a t e g o r i e s and nomenclature adopted by the i n v e s t i g a t o r that a l l these elements d e v e l o p c o n c u r r e n t l y . "  Thus a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n s , t o take a f a m i l i a r graphical  example,  geo-  i s o n l y u s e f u l when the purpose  o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been c l e a r l y  established.  Though c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s do e x i s t i n geography, as i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s , which have been produced f o r no  purpose o t h e r than o r g a n i z i n g the d a t a , these have g e n e r a l l y not a s s i s t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f new hypotheses (Harvey, 1969: 3 2 6 ) . definition, of  L i k e measurement and  " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be r e g a r d e d as a means  s e a r c h i n g r e a l i t y f o r hypotheses o r f o r s t r u c t u r i n g  r e a l i t y to t e s t hypotheses" Classification division"  (ibid.).  may proceed from above by " l o g i c a l  or "deductive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " ,  o r from  by " g r o u p i n g " or " i n d u c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "  below  (ibid.:  33*0  .  Both p r o c e d u r e s a r e common i n e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i n both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  s c i e n c e s , though the  l a t t e r i s more s u i t a b l e f o r problems where the v a r i a t i o n among the a t t r i b u t e s o f the elements to be c l a s s i f i e d is  c o n t i n u o u s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e d e s i r a b l e to  classify  the elements i n terms of the g r e a t e s t  l a r i t y of their  simi-  a t t r i b u t e s , considered together.  The  c l a s s e s t h a t emerge from t h i s procedure a r e p o l y t h e t i c ( S o k a l and Sneath, 1 9 6 3 : Ik)  i n t h a t "a p a r t i c u l a r  c l a s s of elements so c l a s s i f i e d w i l l share many f e a t u r e s i n common, but no element i n the c l a s s  needs  to possess a l l the f e a t u r e s used to i d e n t i f y the class."  (Harvey, 1 9 6 9 : 3 3 8 ) .  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d are p a r t i c u l a r l y suited  to e c o l o g i c a l problems i n which both elements  and a t t r i b u t e s a r e numerous.  In addition i t avoids  the f a l l a c y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from a p r i o r i p o i n t e d out by S o k a l and Sneath ( 1 9 6 3 : but does not demonstrate  definitions  7 ) » which assumes  the e x i s t e n c e o f a " n a t u r a l "  group i d e n t i f i e d by means o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  attri-  bute observed i n a few o f i t s members, and then a s s i g n s o t h e r elements to the group by v i r t u e o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i n g that a t t r i b u t e .  Inductive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  on the  o t h e r hand makes no assumptions but a l l o w s groups to be generated by whatever procedure has been used. Though both d e d u c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e are h i e r a r c h i c a l ,  classifications  the l a t t e r r e s u l t s i n an h i e r a r c h y  w i t h more l e v e l s s i n c e a l l elements appear as unique u n i t s a t one end o f the h i e r a r c h y , and are o n l y comb i n e d i n t o one s e t a t the o t h e r end through a number of steps%  I t has been suggested t h a t g r o u p i n g s o f  t h i s k i n d are "completely more r e a l i s t i c and almost  o b j e c t i v e and p r e s e n t a  p i c t u r e w i t h the  inter-relationship  continuous v a r i a t i o n of the  groupings  r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d . " (Kershaw, 1 9 6 4 : The  145).  Emergence of E c o l o g i c a l Groups i n the Mackenzie  Delta One  of the more c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  the h i s t o r y of the Mackenzie D e l t a a r e a has been the emergence a t d i f f e r e n t  times of groups o r g a n i z e d to  f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t e c o l o g i c a l regimes.  I n the  early  stages of t h i s h i s t o r y these groups were g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the major e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s , but  the  l i n e s became b l u r r e d w i t h the passage of time.  The  f i r s t p a r t of t h i s study w i l l be concerned q u a l i t i a t i v e , d i s c u r s i v e way  in a  w i t h the emergence of  these groups p a r t i c u l a r l y as they have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t s as nodal c e n t r e s . p a r t , f o r which q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a was describe analysis directed  The  second  available,  will  towards the p r e c i s e  d e f i n i t i o n of groups i n terms of the t r a p p i n g behaviour  o f t h e i r members* The  Mackenzie D e l t a i s r i n g e d by a number o f  areas producing  c e r t a i n s p e c i e s i n abundance p a r t i c -  u l a r l y white fox and  marten, while  i t s e l f i s r i c h i n beaver and ubiquitous  muskrat.  Trapping  the D e l t a  area  mink as w e l l as  the  effort directed  e x c l u s i v e l y o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y towards any  of these  s p e c i e s c o n s e q u e n t l y suggests an a l l e g i a n c e to a p a r t i c u l a r area as w e l l as to a s e a s o n a l activities.  Thus by a n a l y z i n g the  pattern  trapping  of  returns  o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine by  infer-  ence what t h e i r a r e a l a l l e g i a n c e s have been, and  by  g r o u p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n terms o f these r e t u r n s , what patterns different  of a r e a l a l l e g i a n c e s have predominated at times.  a n a l y s i s was  The  working h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n was  not  for this  accompanied  by people l e a v i n g the l a n d a l t o g e t h e r , but r a t h e r i n the s h i f t i n g of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s from the more d i s t a n t to the c l o s e r t r a p p i n g areas i n which l e s s investment o f c a p i t a l equipment was  required,  and  where t r a p p i n g c o u l d be combined with in  the l i f e  of the  participation  settlements*  From a g e o g r a p h i c a l p o i n t of view, the more distant specialist  t r a p p i n g areas c o u l d be  as nodal r e g i o n s c e n t e r e d upon p a r t i c u l a r to one  regarded settlements  which t r a p p e r s r e t u r n e d to t r a d e t h e i r f u r s .  Thus  p a r t of the a n a l y s i s w i l l be to demonstrate  the  a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r t i c u l a r t r a p p i n g regimes by i n f e r e n c e areas u t i l i z e d ) and changing if  settlements.  emphasis from more d i s t a n t  i t can be d e m o n s t r a t e d , w i l l  to c l o s e r  (and The  areas  thus be seen as a  b r e a k i n g down of the n o d a l i t i e s based upon these s e t t l e m e n t s and  t h e i r replacement  by a s i n g l e , more  r e s t r i c t e d n o d a l r e g i o n bounded by the D e l t a The  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach of the P r e s e n t Though the p r e s e n t work has a concern  itself.  Study f o r the  ways i n which n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s have used r e s o u r c e s , its  primary  i n t e r e s t w i l l be i n the s p a t i a l  rami-  f i c a t i o n s of the r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n as i t has  changed through  time, and would thus seem to  fall  more p r o p e r l y i n t o ecology.  the " s p a t i a l " t r a d i t i o n of human  I t w i l l be argued that i n g e n e r a l terms the  i n f l u e n c e o f n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t s has been to r e s t r u c t u r e the e c o l o g y i n t o a n o d a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n so t h a t f o r m e r l y existing  p a t t e r n s based upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  r e s o u r c e s and t r a d i t i o n a l l y s a n c t i o n e d modes o f exploiting  them have been superceded  upon the urban c e n t r e s .  terminology  economic a s p e c t s of l i f e through  them.  based  The s e t t l e m e n t s have i n f a c t  become the o r g a n i z e r s o f " e f f e c t i v e Friedman's ( 1 9 6 5 )  by those  space" i n  i n both  which are now  the s o c i a l and channeled  I f the community may be seen as a  bounded, a d a p t i v e system, as has been suggested, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  then  and growth o f the s e t t l e m e n t s i s  an i n f l u e n c e which has transformed  the s t a t e o f t h a t  system and i t s s p a t i a l e x p r e s s i o n . The twofold.  effect  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the North has been  On the one hand as n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s have  taken up r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n the s e t t l e m e n t s .they have become i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o an emerging s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the degree of a c c u l t u r a t i o n to o u t s i d e v a l u e s e x h i b i t e d by i t s members. o t h e r hand i t has communities and through  the  changed the s t r u c t u r e of n a t i v e  t h e i r resource u t i l i z a t i o n patterns  the t o t a l i t y of responses  t u n i t i e s , even by those who i n t o the s e t t l e m e n t s . North was  On  made to new  oppor-  have not p h y s i c a l l y moved  I n i t s p r e c o n t a c t s t a t e the  o c c u p i e d by d i s t i n c t communities  existing  w i t h i n w e l l d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries  ( c f . Barth,  1969* 15-20).  great  Though there were of course  c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between these communities, v e r s a t i l i t y shown i n the f a c e of differences  ( L a n t i s , 1954)  the  environmental  l e d to ethnographic  dis-  t i n c t i o n s between Eskimo groups which have been w e l l r e c o g n i z e d , and between Eskimo and  I n d i a n groups  d i s t i n c t i o n s were 0 even more profound. is  some evidence 1  1  Though t h e r e  f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f l i n k a g e s  precontact t r a d e ,  the s e r i a l use  of  these  through  resources  or  Though not common, trade d i d e x i s t p a r t i c u l a r l y between groups emphasizing c a r i b o u and those emphasizing sea mammals. For example, i n A l a s k a the i n l a n d nunamiut r e g u l a r l y t r a d e d w i t h the c o a s t a l tareumiut a t a number of recognized p o i n t s ( F o o t e , 1965)•  territory  and o t h e r forms o f s y m b i o s i s ,  each  community i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t e d a c l o s e d system 1965;  ( M c M i l l a n and Gonzalez,  Chin, 1 9 6 1 ) .  Prom a  g e o g r a p h i c a l p o i n t o f view, s i n c e s o c i a l boundary systems were coterminous  with t e r r i t o r i a l  boundaries,  the North c o u l d w e l l be c o n c e i v e d as a mosaic o f r e g i o n s each made d i s t i n c t i v e and i n t e r n a l l y homogeneous by the f a c t  t h a t i t was o c c u p i e d by a group o f people  p u r s u i n g a way o f l i f e t h a t o f i t s neighbours.  discernibly different  from  These d i f f e r e n c e s were most  i n t e n s e o f course where they c o i n c i d e d w i t h the major e t h n i c d i v i s i o n between I n d i a n and Eskimo. As  the i n f l u e n c e o f the s e t t l e m e n t has r a m i f i e d  outwards, i t has r e s u l t e d i n the convergence o f behaviour  towards common o b j e c t i v e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  participation  i n the f u r t r a d e p r i m a r i l y , but a l s o  w i t h r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r  instituionalized  ^ T h i s a g a i n was not common but d i d e x i s t . Rasmussen ( 1 9 2 7 ) c i t e s the example o f the umingmaktormiut and k i l u h i k t o r m i u t u s i n g the same s e a l i n g grounds a t d i f f e r e n t times.  forms o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the o u t s i d e c u l t u r e . processes  The  of convergence have taken p l a c e a t the  i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l as n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s have  shifted  t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y from  the  t r a d i t i o n a l community to the s e t t l e m e n t i n more and more spheres  of a c t i v i t y .  s c a l e the r e s u l t  At the m a c r o - s t r u c t u r a l  of t h i s s h i f t i n g a l l e g i a n c e has  been  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a s e t of c l o s e d systems i n t o wider  system d e f i n e d by the world economy.  geographical viewpoint of  regionalization  1968).  5« The The  From the  i t has been the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  a uniform i n t o a f u n c t i o n a l  (Berry,  1.  the  P l a c e , the People  and  the Time  Place  The  study i s s e t i n the p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y complex  d e l t a of the Mackenzie and P e e l R i v e r s (Mackay, known as the Mackenzie D e l t a .  This f l a t ,  r e g i o n l a c e d w i t h a c o m p l i c a t e d p a t t e r n of  1963)  marshy distri-  b u t a r i e s o c c u p i e s an a r e a of about 4 , 7 0 0 square  miles  (ibid,;  98) between the R i c h a r d s o n  Mountains i n the  west and the C a r i b o u H i l l s i n the e a s t .  The a r e a  s t r a d d l e s the t r e e l i n e and i s thus c l o s e to the tundra areas  and c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t b i o t i c t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupied  people. present  zones and to  by Eskimo and I n d i a n  T h i s makes i t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r the study  s i n c e i t i s one o f the few p a r t s o f the  North where the two major e t h n i c groups have been i n c o n t a c t and have both been drawn i n t o the world economic system.  I t i s a l s o s u i t a b l e i n t h a t , due to  i t s greater a c c e s s i b i l i t y Mackenzie R i v e r and B e r i n g  to the south by way o f the Sea r o u t e s , i t has been  l i n k e d t o t h i s o u t s i d e system f o r a much l o n g e r than many o t h e r p a r t s o f the North.  Contacts  i n f a c t e x i s t e d f o r one hundred and t h i r t y between w h i t e s , expressed  Indians  period  have  years  and Eskimos and have been  d u r i n g t h a t time i n complex,  interdigit-  a t i n g s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s from which has emerged today's community o f g r e a t e t h n i c and cultural variety.  2  •  The People Though the e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s community w i l l be  d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s i t may be h e l p f u l a t t h i s stage to i d e n t i f y the main e t h n i c groups which have c o n t r i b u t e d to i t i f o n l y to d e f i n e the  t e r m i n o l o g y which w i l l be used.  which i s f r a u g h t w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y are  This i s a task s i n c e many  terms  e i t h e r m i s l e a d i n g o r have come to have a p e r j o r a t i v e  connotation.  I n the former c a t e g o r y , f o r example, the  term "Euro-Canadian" which the Honigmanns ( 1 9 6 5 )  found  s u i t a b l e i n F r o b i s h e r Bay c o u l d o b v i o u s l y not be applied  to the s t a l w a r t Orkney men who cameewith the  Hudson's Bay Company to the Mackenzie  Delta  twenty-  seven y e a r s b e f o r e the e x i s t e n c e o f Canada as a political entity.  On the o t h e r hand, the term  "white man" has overtones o f r a c i s m though not i n the N o r t h where i t i s used as a n e u t r a l d e s c r i p t i v e i n which sense i t w i l l work.  term,  a l s o be used i n the p r e s e n t  S i m i l a r l y , the term " n a t i v e " o r " n a t i v e  n o r t h e r n e r " w i l l be a l s o used i n i t s non-derogatory sense o f the people born i n the a r e a or l i v i n g i n  the a r e a a s u f f i c i e n t l y  l o n g time to regards  t h e i r permanent home ( c f . Graburn, 1 9 6 6 ) . e a r l y stages  of course  o f Eskimo and  i t as  In  t h i s can o n l y r e f e r to  I n d i a n o r i g i n but i n the D e l t a ' s  the people later  h i s t o r y would i n c l u d e s e v e r a l of o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . I n the p r e s e n t  D e l t a Community the f o l l o w i n g  e t h n i c s t o c k s are  represented:  (i)  (Osgood, 1934,  The  McKennan,  1935;  399-^04) are an Athapaskan people  whose  Kutchin  Jenness, 1955s t e r r i t o r y had  1936;  t r a d i t i o n a l l y extended westwards from  the Mackenzie D e l t a to the c e n t r a l Yukon V a l l e y i n Alaska.  Of  the e i g h t or nine communities i n t o which  they have been s u b d i v i d e d those  which have p l a y e d  the  major r o l e i n the h i s t o r y of the Mackenzie D e l t a have been the Mackenzie F l a t s (Tetlit), Rat  (Nakotcho) and  though the Upper Porcupine  Peel River  (Tukkuth) and  (Vunta) a l s o t r a d e d i n t o the e a r l y t r a d i n g p o s t s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Mackenzie D e l t a ( S l o b o d i n , 1 9 6 2 ) . Most of the I n d i a n s present  of the Mackenzie D e l t a a t  the  time however are of P e e l R i v e r or Mackenzie  P l a t s o r i g i n though they r e c o g n i z e k i n s h i p t i e s w i t h those on the o t h e r s i d e of the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains and v i s i t  the s e t t l e m e n t o f O l d Crow to see r e l a t i v e s .  The e a r l y e x p l o r e r s o f the Mackenzie R i v e r c a l l e d the Mackenzie F l a t s and P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n  "Loucheux"  ( l o u c h e s yeux) (Hooper, 1 8 5 3 : 269) and t h i s i s the name by which people o f t h i s group r e f e r today b o t h to themselves and to t h e i r language.  Technically  members of t h i s group comprise a l l those who a r e l e g a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the terms o f t r e a t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y l i s t e d on s o - c a l l e d band (ii)  The Eskimo  lists.  to be found today i n the  Mackenzie D e l t a a r e o f complex o r i g i n .  Mackenzie  (1904) found evidence o f Eskimo occupance i n the lower course of the r i v e r which now bears h i s name, but Eskimos were not a c t u a l l y encountered here by white men u n t i l F r a n k l i n (1828) and l a t e r R i c h a r d s o n (1851) visited  the a r e a .  The Mackenzie Eskimo of t h i s  period  were o r i e n t e d towards the west and would be s u b d i v i d e d on the b a s i s o f l o c a t i o n i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t  groups  between S h i n g l e P o i n t and Cape B a t h u r s t Though some Eskimo people to  be found  D e l t a due  of the o r i g i n a l s t o c k are  i n the Tuktoyaktuk a r e a few  remain i n the  to the e f f e c t s of d i s a s t r o u s epidemics  came i n w i t h the whalers a t the t u r n of the The  time  which  century.  m a j o r i t y of Eskimos l i v i n g i n the D e l t a a t  present  1970b).  (Usher,  the  t r a c e t h e i r o r i g i n r a t h e r to A l a s k a n  Eskimo than to Mackenzie Eskimo s t o c k though c o n t a c t w i t h whaling  prolonged  crews has r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e  p r o p o r t i o n o f people w i t h mixed b l o o d .  As w i t h  the  Loucheuxhowever a t e c h n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of the term Eskimo i s p o s s i b l e , namely as any person  legally  d e s i g n a t e d as such by the p o s s e s s i o n of a d i s c number and  the i n c l u s i o n on a s o - c a l l e d d i s c (iii)  The  "whites"  list.  of the Mackenzie D e l t a are  s i m i l a r l y o f complex o r i g i n s , though most would i n t o one  of two  are t r a p p e r s who  major c a t e g o r i e s .  The  "old-timers"  have l i v e d i n the a r e a many y e a r s ,  have m a r r i e d I n d i a n or Eskimo women and r a i s e d there.  fall  families  T h e i r c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s are somewhere  between those o f o t h e r whites and o f many w i t h whom they have shared a c o n s i s t e n t for  many y e a r s .  non-whites  s t y l e of l i f e  A much l a r g e r c a t e g o r y o f whites  today c o u l d be c a l l e d  "transients"  though some who  have l i v e d i n the a r e a f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s now, would no doubt r e s e n t the t i t l e .  Nonetheless members o f t h i s  group can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the " o l d - t i m e r s " by the  fact  t h a t many of t h e i r c u l t u r a l  t i e s are s t i l l  w i t h the "outside" , ^ . a term which they would use w i t h g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y than members of o t h e r groups.  Though  some no doubt have developed a s t r o n g commitment t o the  North and have come t o r e g a r d i t as t h e i r permanent  home, t h e r e a r e a l s o many who have a " t i m e - s e r v i n g "  The use o f the term " o u t s i d e " i s i l l u m i n a t i n g . Though g e n e r a l l y used more o f t e n by the t r a n s i e n t group than by o t h e r s , i t i s h a v i n g i n c r e a s i n g c u r r e n c y even among n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s . I t i s used to d e s c r i b e those areas of Canada and the r e s t o f the world beyond the N o r t h and f o r Mackenzie D e l t a r e s i d e n t s the " o u t s i d e " begins a t Edmonton. L o t z (1970s 22-25) has an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the term f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of the N o r t h by i t s r e s i d e n t s .  a t t i t u d e to r e s i d e n c e t h e r e . (iv) or  The  l a s t major groups c o n s i s t s of M e t i s ,  people of mixed b l o o d .  call  Though many people  themselves Eskimo or I n d i a n f a l l  into  who  this  c a t e g o r y i t i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d o n l y to thdse are  who  not l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as such, t h a t is*, to  non-  t r e a t y I n d i a n and u n l i s t e d Eskimos ( s i o b o d i n , 1966: For  many people however the term has an  5).  historical  c o n n o t a t i o n which r e c o g n i z e s descent from some of the e a r l y white r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a r a t h e r  than  from a more r e c e n t u n i o n and i t i s d o u b t f u l whether the o f f s p r i n g of a r e c e n t w h i t e - I n d i a n marriage,  say,  would be r e f e r r e d to as a M e t i s .  The people who  would  be r e f e r r e d  fall  of  subgroups  to as such themselves  i n t o a number  i n c l u d i n g a few descendents  of the  " o r i g i n a l " Red R i v e r M e t i s , and those of l o c a l between I n d i a n s and f u r t r a d e r s , I n d i a n s and and Eskimos and members of whaling crews.  unions  missionaries,  S i n c e the  whaling crews themselves were of d i v e r s e r a c i a l s t o c k s i n c l u d i n g P o l y n e s i a n "kanakas" and negroes,  the  descendants o f these u n i o n s  are v e r y mixed  racially.  In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s the meaning a t t a c h e d to the above terms w i l l e i t h e r be c l e a r from the context i n which they appear o r w i l l be e x p l i c i t l y defined. 3 . The Time The  p e r i o d c o n s i d e r e d i n the study  w i t h the l a s t  terminates  season of f i e l d w o r k , the summer o f 1 9 6 8 .  I n many r e s p e c t s t h i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t date s i n c e i t appeared t h a t the a r e a t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e s t of n o r t h e r n Canada was on the t h r e s h o l d o f even more r a d i c a l change.  The Prudhoe Bay o i l d i s c o v e r y was  announced e a r l i e r that y e a r and s t i m u l a t e d a r u s h to f i l e  d r i l l i n g p e r m i t s i n the Mackenzie D e l t a  (Vancouver Sun, Aug. 1 9 , 1 9 6 8 ) . The f l u r r y o f a c t i v i t y which accompanied d r i l l i n g  at Tununuk i n the n o r t h e r n  p a r t o f the D e l t a , a t Tuktoyaktuk on the c o a s t , and a t Eskimo Lakes, produced a f e e l i n g o f b u s i n e s s optimism i n I n u v i k which r e s u l t e d i n l o c a l and outside entrepreneurs  investing i n increased  facilities  of  many k i n d s .  was  F o r the f i r s t  time the s e t t l e m e n t  l o s i n g some of the aspect of a planned government  town and d e v e l o p i n g a more mixed economy. to  The  which t h i s change of d i r e c t i o n would a f f e c t  degree local  people would be hard to p r e d i c t . At  the same time the f i n d i n g s of the C a r r o t h e r s  Commission on the development of government i n the Northwest to  Territories  (Canada,  1966)  were b e g i n n i n g  have e f f e c t s as the T e r r i t o r i a l Government assumed  a greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y forthe a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a r e a .  I n I n u v i k the r e s u l t s o f t h i s were to be  found i n the growth of T e r r i t o r i a l a u t h o r i t y and appearance  of c i v i l  the  servants with a Yellowknife rather  than an Ottawa o r i e n t a t i o n .  Though these were i n  1968  they seemed to h e r a l d a  not widespread  time of growing  effects,  commitment to the North of people  had come t h e r e from " o u t s i d e " as permanent At  the same time, there appeared  who  residents.  to be a growing  awareness on the p a r t of n a t i v e people which  was  self-  evidenced  by the s t i r r i n g s among some teenagers o f  incipient  "Red Power".  I t seemed to be a time when  new d e f i n i t i o n s would be g i v e n -to o l d a s c r i p t i o n s and when change was e v i d e n t on many f r o n t s .  PART ONE:  THE EVOLUTION OF THE DELTA COMMUNITY  CHAPTER I  THE  1.  EARLY FUR TRADE  Introduction  Though the Mackenzie D e l t a was f i r s t the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h  century,  explored i n  trading establishments d i d  not e n t e r the a r e a u n t i l 18^0.  As i n o t h e r p a r t s o f  the North, one c o n t a c t agent was soon f o l l o w e d by o t h e r s , though i n a d i f f e r e n t the E a s t e r n A r c t i c . adjacent  areas,  o r d e r than t h a t which o c c u r r e d i n I n the Mackenzie D e l t a and  the Hudson's Bay Company was f o l l o w e d  d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y by m i s s i o n a r i e s o f both  the A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c f a i t h s and by whalers from the P a c i f i c Coast p o r t s o f the U n i t e d t h i s chapter  States.  In  i t w i l l be argued t h a t the impact o f the  t r a d e r s was to channel the a c t i v i t i e s o f the i n d i g e n o u s people o f the a r e a  through a number o f c o n t a c t  Though the l o c a t i o n , o f these  f u n c t i o n and r e l a t i v e  points.  importance  was t o change from time to time, they were  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the Mackenzie D e l t a and a d j a c e n t  parts  o f the Lower P e e l V a l l e y and A r c t i c Coast due to the greater  a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the South enjoyed by these  areas. W i l l i a m s o n (1969) has argued that f u r trade  i n the N o r t h was to e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l  i d e n t i t i e s associated Canada.  the e f f e c t o f the  with access routes to southern  T h i s was undoubtedly the case i n the Mackenzie  D e l t a where the Mackenzie R i v e r , the B e r i n g  Sea r o u t e ,  and t o a s m a l l e r  extent,  were e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d as s t r o n g  l i n e s o f communication between the a r e a and the outside  world.  t h a t i n most  W i l l i a m s o n ( i b i d . ) f u r t h e r contends  places:  " . . . t h e r e was a tendency towards the c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e r n a l trade o r i e n t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to r e g u l a r t r a d i n g habit. The t r a d i n g p o s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d at a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s i n c l o s e touch w i t h d i a l e c t a l sub-groups where t r a d i n g p r o s p e c t s l o o k e d good. Though s t i l l nomadic w i t h i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l range, the h u n t i n g f a m i l i e s tended to remain i n the a r e a o f the t r a d i n g post w i t h which t h e i r on-going c r e d i t - d e b t r e l a t i o n s h i p s had been d e v e l o p e d . Thus the t r a d i t i o n a l d i a l e c t a l group tendency towards e x c l u s i v e ness was to some e x t e n t r e i n f o r c e d . "  Though t h i s was  t r u e i n the case o f e a r l y  trade  w i t h the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n , the r a p i d involvement  in  t r a d e of o t h e r K u t c h i n groups and,  of  more important,  the c o a s t a l Eskimo, soon l e d to the breakdown of p r e trade c u l t u r a l and  affiliations  the appearance of new  and e c o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s ,  ones i n which the Mackenzie  D e l t a f e a t u r e d as an important  common t e r r i t o r i a l  component* Contact i n the Mackenzie D e l t a and a d j a c e n t was  not a simple b i - p o l a r p r o c e s s as i t was  p a r t s of the N o r t h .  Not  only d i d southern  areas  i n other institutions  have d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s which i n t e r a c t e d w i t h each o t h e r i n c o m p l i c a t e d ways, but t h e i r c l i e n t s d i d not e x h i b i t a u n i f o r m Initially  culture.  the major d i v i s i o n between the K u t c h i n  the Eskimo peoples was  r o u g h l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the t r e e  l i n e , but as time went on new affiliations  and  groupings  and  cultural  emerged which were superimposed upon, and  sometimes cut a c r o s s the l a r g e r e t h n i c systems.  These  were f o s t e r e d by two difficulty  factors principally.  First,  the  of m a i n t a i n i n g a l a r g e number of t r a d i n g p o s t s  f o c u s s e d a c t i v i t y on the few which e x i s t e d and  tended  to  break down nomadic p a t t e r n s which had p r e v i o u s l y been very extensive into r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t hinterlands each c e n t e r e d upon a t r a d i n g p o s t . a c t i v i t y i t s e l f was  Second, the t r a d i n g  not adopted i n a homogenous way  r e s u l t e d i n d i s t i n c t i o n s a r i s i n g between those who drawn i n t o the f u r t r a d e to a g r e a t e r o r a l e s s e r  2. E x p l o r a t i o n and The i n 1840 time  first  reaches  the Mackenzie D e l t a was  t r a d i n g system which had  from the  two  Company and  extent*  the Fur Trade  of the P e e l R i v e r , a t which s t i l l p e r i p h e r a l to the  encompassed most of B r i t i s h  Historically,  the f u r trade had  c e n t r e s of Hudson Bay  V a l l e y , the one  were  t r a d i n g post i n the a r e a was e s t a b l i s h e d  on the lower  North America.  and  through  and  diffused  the S t . Lawrence  the agency of the Hudson's  the o t h e r through  that of the l o o s e l y  Bay knit  group o f merchants known as the Northwest Company. The  s t r a t e g y o f the l a t t e r i n e n c i r c l i n g and c u t t i n g  o f f the sources competitor,  o f supply  of i t s older-established  i n e v i t a b l y channeled i t s a c t i v i t i e s  from  the head o f Lake S u p e r i o r a c r o s s the h e i g h t  o f l a n d to  the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca d r a i n a g e  basins.  The  i n s t i t u t i o n o f the " w i n t e r i n g p a r t n e r "  1956: 242) a l l o w e d  the Northwest Company to p e n e t r a t e  deep i n t o the i n t e r i o r o f the c o u n t r y posed a c o n s t a n t  (innis,  from where i t  t h r e a t to the Hudson's Bay Company.  I t i s a g a i n s t t h i s backdrop o f c o m p e t i t i o n the  between  two companies from I 7 8 7 u n t i l 1821, that the f i r s t  e x p l o r a t o r y p e n e t r a t i o n o f the Mackenzie drainage took p l a c e .  basin  As e a r l y as 1775 Joseph F r o b i s h e r , a  w i n t e r i n g p a r t n e r o f the Northwest Company, had met a party of Indians trade with and  on the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r on t h e i r way to  the Hudson's Bay Company at F o r t  Churchill,  had persuaded them to trade w i t h him i n s t e a d  (Mackenzie, 1904: x x x i v ) .  H i s success  i n this  venture  persuaded o t h e r t r a d e r s o f the Saskatchewan R i v e r to  tap  the more n o r t h e r l y f u r trade  Peter  themselves, i n c l u d i n g  Pond whose s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s i n the w i n t e r o f  1778-79 e s t a b l i s h e d  the Northwest Company even more  f i r m l y i n the a r e a . I t was Pond's t r a d i n g post a t F o r t Chipewyan i n fact  t h a t became the base f o r Mackenzie's j o u r n e y t o  the A r c t i c Ocean i n 1789 which r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t contact  o f a white man w i t h the Mackenzie D e l t a .  j o u r n e y was o f more g e n e r a l  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n that i t  opened up a new r i c h f u r a r e a and marked a t u r n i n g in  the s t r u g g l e  between the Northwest Company and the  Hudson's Bay Company ( s t a g e r , Mackenzie h i m s e l f covery.  point  1965)1  though i n 1789  was f a r from sanguine about h i s d i s -  Hoping u n t i l  the l a s t minute  that  the r i v e r  would l e a d him to the P a c i f i c Ocean, he r e c o g n i z e d J u l y 10th at Point  Separation  to the A r c t i c Ocean and would commercial v a l u e .  that i t c o u l d therefore  only  on lead  have but l i m i t e d  The f a c t that h i s j o u r n e y o f 1793  was s u c c e s s f u l i n c h a r t i n g a route probably a f a c t o r i n delaying  to the P a c i f i c  the e n t r y  was  o f the f u r trade  to the Lower Mackenzie a r e a . would have p l a c e d a severe technology The  I n any case such a trade  s t r a i n upon the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  o f even the Northwest Company.  Mackenzie D e l t a a t the Time o f F i r s t  Contact  Mackenzie's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the D e l t a p r o v i d e s the b a s e l i n e on which f u t u r e change took p l a c e . established  It  t h a t the a r e a below P o i n t S e p a r a t i o n ,  over  which Mackenzie t r a v e l l e d , was p r o b a b l y  not important  f o r e i t h e r the I n d i a n s  Indeed the  o r the Eskimos.  a t t i t u d e o f Mackenzie's guides and  the f a c t  (Mackenzie, 1904: 2%k)  t h a t he had no evidence  o f Eskimo occupance  suggested t h a t the Upper D e l t a was a "No Man's Land" which both a v o i d e d . situation,  As a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s  the image o f the Eskimo as a f i e r c e and  b e l l i g e r e n t people was p o s t u l a t e d , a f a c t which was to affect and  the f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n taken by both the f u r trade  by m i s s i o n a r y  activity.  Mackenzie's o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  I n the Lower D e l t a ,  though p a r t i a l , i n d i c a t e d  some s i g n s o f Eskimo occupance but these were not extensive.  S i n c e Mackenzie  d i d not i n f a c t encounter Eskimos  on t h i s j o u r n e y h i s c o n c l u s i o n s about  them are based  what he heard from h i s I n d i a n guides and from  on  the  examination of a number o f encampments ( i b i d . : 259)• D i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g h i s r o u t e ( B r e d i n , 196-2; S t a g e r , 1965)  are r e l e v a n t here o n l y i n s o f a r as they throw l i g h t  upon the l o c a t i o n s of encampments. by Mackenzie,  The  first  Stager (1965) suggests, was  m i l e s downstream from the Oniak Channel  one  t h i r t y or more  on the Main  Channel, and i t s l o c a t i o n seemed to Mackenzie determined his  observed  by i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r f i s h i n g .  to be  He wrote i n  journal: "They must have been here f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time, though i t does not appear t h a t they have e r e c t e d any h u t s . A g r e a t number o f p o l e s , however, were seen f i x e d i n the r i v e r , to which they had a t t a c h e d t h e i r n e t s , and there seemed to be an e x c e l l e n t f i s h e r y . (Mackenzie, 1904: 259-62). w  L a t e r i n the same day he landed a second time to examine t h r e e huts which he a g a i n assumed were those of Eskimos,  and once more t h e r e seemed to be  evidence  t h a t these r e l a t i v e l y permanent s t r u c t u r e s marked a  s u i t a b l e f i s h i n g a r e a , s i n c e what Mackenzie took to be f i s h d r y i n g r a c k s were p r e s e n t ( i b i d . : 260). A t h i r d encampment  was d i s c o v e r e d a t the s o u t h - e a s t  t i p of the i s l a n d which marked the terminus o f Mackenzie downstream journey, named Whale I s l a n d by him and p r o b a b l y the G a r r y I s l a n d o f modern maps ( B r e d i n , 1962; Mackay, 1963. S t a g e r , I965)•  This f i n a l  encampment  was an o l d e r one c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e o r s i x huts which had e v i d e n t l y not been o c c u p i e d f o r many y e a r s (Mackenzie,  1904: 271).  E a s t Channel,  n e i t h e r Eskimos nor f u r t h e r  were encountered the terminus  On the r e t u r n journey up the  even a t Campbell  encampments  R i v e r which marked  o f a convenient portage from Eskimo Lakes  to the D e l t a (Mackay, 1963: 7; S t a g e r , 1965). a l t h o u g h Mackenzie's  Thus,  expectations of encountering  Eskimos were not i n f a c t met, h i s journey does i n d i c a t e t h a t the D e l t a was c e r t a i n l y o c c u p i e d by Eskimos n o r t h o f the t r e e l i n e ,  that encampments were  relatively  numerous and r e l a t i v e l y permanent and that they were used  e x c l u s i v e l y o r m a i n l y as f i s h i n g camps.  Mackenzie'  e x p e d i t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y mapped out the n o r t h e r n f u r f i e l d s and p r o v i d e d (innis,  1956::  I n 1799*  f o r a r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f trade  20). the massacre o f Duncan L i v i n g s t o n ' s  e x p e d i t i o n by a p a r t y o f Eskimos a t A r c t i c Red R i v e r (Wentzel, 1832$ trade  to these  conditioned  78-79) discouraged  the e x t e n s i o n o f  people f o r almost h a l f a c e n t u r y and  the views h e l d by whites o f them d u r i n g  time ( s t a g e r , 1967)•  Though the n o r t h e r n  a r e a s appeared to be p r o m i s i n g ,  that  f u r producing  the e f f o r t s o f the  t r a d e r s were d i r e c t e d towards more southern  areas i n  the decades f o l l o w i n g the e x p l o r a t i o n s o f Mackenzie and  Livingston®  C o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the f u r trade i n the  Mackenzie b a s i n d i d occur  and by 1821, the date o f  amalgamation o f the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Company, the p o t e n t i a l o f the F a r N o r t h was soon to be r e a l i s e d .  In that year,  remarked o f the Lower Mackenzie: the c o u n t r y  W.F.  Wentzel  "From a l l p a r t s o f  t h a t I have attempted t o d e s c r i b e  beaver and o t h e r p e l t r i e s have been o b t a i n e d  herein, while  I  was  i n Mackenzie's r i v e r , a c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f of  how  worthy they are of n o t i c e i n a commercial p o i n t of view." (PAC,  MG  3. The  19,  A2).  The  F u r Trade  Establishment The  and  the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n  of P e e l ' s R i v e r Post  f u r t r a d e f i n a l l y p e n e t r a t e d the Mackenzie  D e l t a w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1840 Post.  ( F o r t McPherson)  of Peel's R i v e r  P e e l ' s R i v e r had been known as a p o t e n t i a l f u r  p r o d u c i n g a r e a s i n c e i t s d i s c o v e r y by F r a n k l i n i n 1827» and attempts  had been made to e s t a b l i s h a post t h e r e .  F o r example, P e t e r Warren Dease had been i n s t r u c t e d  by  the Governor and C o u n c i l of the N o r t h e r n Department of the Hudson's Bay Company to take the f i r s t d o i n g so as e a r l y as 1828 a b l e to r e p o r t i n 1829  (Stewart,  1955* 167)  t h a t the "lower  the o n l y I n d i a n s occupying  s t e p s towards  squint  and  was  eyes",  the P e e l R i v e r d r a i n a g e  a r e a , were not a b l e to t r a d e c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h e x i s t i n g post a t F o r t Good Hope s i n c e i t was  the  too f a r  from  t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds.  The P e e l R i v e r I n d i a n s  were i n f a c t p e r i p h e r a l to the t r a d i n g systems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both the Yukon and the Mackenaie r i v e r s , they had s l i g h t c o n t a c t w i t h both.  Franklin  although (1828)  r e p o r t s f o r example t h a t "mountain I n d i a n s " a r r i v e d a t H e r s c h e l I s l a n d a t the same time as h i m s e l f w i t h  articles  o f R u s s i a n manufacture, and Thomas Simpson had a l s o seen R u s s i a n goods i n the a r e a i n I836 (Simpson, 1843: 103). I n I838, a more d e f i n i t e attempt  was made to draw  the I n d i a n s towards the Mackenzie system when S i r George Simpson wrote to Murdoch Macpherson, then i n charge o f the Mackenzie  District:  "For some time p a s t I have been o f the o p i n i o n t h a t a new post might w i t h e v e r y p r o s p e c t o f advantage be e s t a b l i s h e d on P e e l ' s R i v e r and I s h a l l be g l a d i f you w i l l t u r n your a t t e n t i o n to t h a t o b j e c t . I t might not be s a f e to ascend the Mackenzie so as to mount P e e l ' s R i v e r from i t s o u t l e t as by t h a t route we s h o u l d come i n t o c o l l i s i o n w i t h the l a r g e bodies o f Esquimaux that u s u a l l y encamp a t the o u t l e t s o f those r i v e r s d u r i n g the summer, but from the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the c o u n t r y which i s so much i n t e r s e c t e d by streams and l a k e s , t h a t a water communication i n t e r c e p t e d by o c c a s i o n a l p o r t a g e s , may be had i n almost any d i r e c t i o n . " ( c i t e d by Stewart, 1955:. 169) .  I n 1839» P e t e r Warren Dease and Thomas Simpson e x p l o r e d P e e l ' s R i v e r and r e p o r t e d an abundance o f fur,  and  the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the post was e s t a b l i s h e d  by John B e l l and Andrew I s b i s t e r as the f i r s t  to be  e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r trade w i t h the I n d i a n s t h i s area. awaited  That  these I n d i a n s , the K u t c h i n ,  the t r a d i n g p a r t y met  but a s m a l l group awaited (HBC, was  eagerly  the a r r i v a l of the t r a d e r s i s f u r t h e r evidence  s u g g e s t i n g a p r i o r c o n t a c t w i t h trade goods. was  of  B/l57/a/l).  Not  only  by an e s c o r t on the Mackenzie, i t s a r r i v a l on the P e e l  Although  the f i r s t  trading  encounter  d i s a p p o i n t i n g from the Company's p o i n t o f view,  " c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y of b a d l y d r e s s e d l e a t h e r and musquash" ( i b i d . ) , assurance  the Indians o f the Rat R i v e r gave  of h a v i n g caches of f i n e f u r i n the mountains  which they would b r i n g i n l a t e r  visits.  I n d i a n s T r a d i n g at the F o r t Of the d i s t i n c t K u t c h i n groups g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and named i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s study,  trade  was  first  e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y w i t h those  Flats  (Nakotcho) and  "Rat  I n d i a n s " who  the P e e l R i v e r ( T e t l i t ) .  visited  stage were p r o b a b l y  not  i t was  recorded  The  the f o r t a l s o at an e a r l y  the Vunta but  K u t c h i n from the Porcupine 1840  of the Mackenzie  River.  r a t h e r Tukkuth  A l s o i n the f a l l  t h a t there a r r i v e d a t the  "a strange  I n d i a n who  the source  o f the P e e l " who  of  fort  i n h a b i t s the mountains beyond was  given a g r a t u i t y i n  r e t u r n f o r the promise t h a t he would b r i n g back h i s relatives  the f o l l o w i n g y e a r  (HBC,  B/l57/a/l).  e x t e n s i o n of the trade i n v o l v e d o t h e r K u t c h i n  Later groups  which l e d Osgood ( 1 9 3 4 )  to d i s t i n g u i s h a t o t a l  on the b a s i s of t r a d e .  These were: ( i ) the P e e l  R i v e r ( T e t l i t ) occupying Richardson  Mountains;  (Nakotcho) occupying (iii)  southern  ( i i ) the Mackenzie F l a t s  Kutchin  the Upper Mackenzie D e l t a ;  the Upper Porcupine  more r e c e n t l y those  the P e e l P l a t e a u and  of s i x  Kutchin  (Tukkuth) i n c l u d i n g  o f Old Crow F l a t s and  of the  and B e l l R i v e r s ;  ( i v ) the Tutchone K u t c h i n of  O g i l v i e Range and  s o u t h e r n Eagle P l a i n s ;  Rat  the  (v) the  Old  Crow R i v e r K u t c h i n ;  and ( v i ) the Yukon F l a t s and  Chandelar R i v e r K u t c h i n  (Fig. l - l ) .  Soon a f t e r the f o r t had been e s t a b l i s h e d on a low  bank some one and o n e - h a l f m i l e s above the p r e s e n t  s i t e o f F o r t McPherson, which from the b e g i n n i n g  B/157/a/l),  r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g (HBC, the Company^ t r a d e r s saw l i t t l e clients until  of their  the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g .  Bell  was  indigenous heard  rumours t h a t the m a j o r i t y had r e t u r n e d to t h e i r  winter  h u n t i n g ground i n the mountains a t the headwaters o f the P e e l , but a p a r t from a few s t a r v i n g and d e s t i t u t e f a m i l i e s who a r r i v e d a t the f o r t he had no d i r e c t c o n t a c t .  j u s t before  Christmas,  "Not a s i n g l e Loucheux have  I seen d u r i n g the whole w i n t e r , " he wrote i n h i s j o u r n a l , "except on the 2 3 r d . "  ithe s t a r v i n g f a m i l i e s t h a t were here  (HBC, B / l 5 7 / a / l ) .  E a r l y Attempts to Extend the L i n e o f F o r t s One o f the r e s u l t s o f the poor c o n t a c t w i t h the l o c a l K u t c h i n was t h a t the f o r t r a n s e r i o u s l y of food.  T h i s was i n f a c t  short  to be a r e c u r r e n t problem  in  the w i n t e r s to come and one which caused  as w e l l as a n x i e t y .  hardship  I t was a l s o a f a c t o r i n the  e v e n t u a l spread o f the f u r trade system a c r o s s the mountains i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l o s e r to the sources  o f meat.  of s a t e l l i t e Only  posts  three y e a r s  after  the s e t t i n g up o f P e e l ' s R i v e r P o s t , B e l l made the first  attempt to determine the p o s s i b i l i t y o f opening  a post on the western s i d e o f the mountains, where i t was by t h i s time c l e a r t h a t the K u t c h i n spent w i n t e r s i n a r e l a t i v e abundance o f game. first  their  A f t e r the  o f h i s journeys a c r o s s the mountains B e l l  con-  cluded that: M  An e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t the p l a c e i n the midst of an e x t e n s i v e c o u n t r y r i c h i n Beaver and l a r g e animals would no doubt be a v a l u a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n , but i n my o p i n i o n i t i s a l t o g e t h e r i m p o s s i b l e to succeed i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i t from t h i s p l a c e ( P e e l R i v e r ) owing to the d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s p o r t i n g the n e c e s s a r y goods f o r c a r r y i n g on the trade through a l o n g c h a i n o f h i g h and rough mountains u t t e r l y d e s t i t u t e o f wood, and f r e q u e n t l y o f water." (HBC, B/157/a/l). During  the e a r l y y e a r s o f the f o r t ' s l i f e ,  these  attempts to f i n d a s u i t a b l e water r o u t e a c r o s s the  mountains c o n t i n u e d , f i r s t Lewis and Boucher.  The  not a water r o u t e l i k e  by B e l l and  l a t e r by Prudeau,  c o n c e p t u a l jump of e s t a b l i s h i n g those of the e n t i r e summer  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network of the Company, but a w i n t e r l a n d r o u t e had y e t to be made. p o i n t s out, u n t i l  (l958j  As S t e f a n s s o n  the e v e n t u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  La P i e r r e House,^ no p o s t had been s e t up which not s u p p l i e d by boat i n the summer months*  192)  was  Thus the  l a t e r e x p e d i t i o n of Prudeau, Lewis and Boucher f o l l o w e d the water r o u t e of the Rat R i v e r but was i t s guide and had  to r e t u r n (HBC,  abandoned by  B/l57/ /l). a  t h i s time, however, t r a d e w i t h the more d i s t a n t a c r o s s the mountains was middlement.  During Indians  established v i a Peel River  F o r example, i n 1843* Grand B l a n c ,  the  2 l e a d e r of the "musquash I n d i a n s "  was  advanced  one  hundred "Made Beaver", c h i e f l y i n beads, ammunition, and  tobacco  f o r the purpose of t r a d i n g w i t h  more d i s t a n t groups.  Trade  these  through middlemen was  very  i r r e g u l a r and u n r e l i a b l e however. ^ A l s o L a p i e r r e House and L a p i e r r e • s House. From the c o n t e x t of r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s group they were p r o b a b l y Tukkuth-Kutchin of the O l d Crow F l a t s .  With the s e t t i n g up o f La P i e r r e House i n 1 8 4 5 , B e l l was a b l e t o c o n t i n u e to i n t e r c e p t  a c r o s s the portage  the Yukon d r a i n a g e ,  year Alexander  i n 1846  and the f o l l o w i n g  Murray f o l l o w e d the same r o u t e to  e s t a b l i s h F o r t Yukon a t the j u n c t i o n o f the Yukon and the Porcupine  Rivers (stager, 1962).  tenuous c h a i n o f f o r t s Company attempted  Through t h i s  s u p p l i e d from P e e l ' s R i v e r , the  to c o n t r o l  the h u n t i n g p a t t e r n s o f  I n d i a n s r a n g i n g over a t e r r i t o r y e x t e n d i n g from the Upper Mackenzie D e l t a to the middle with success. end  Alexander  Yukon, hot always  Murray's F o r t Yukon a t the  o f the c h a i n was o f course  the most d i f f i c u l t to  s u p p l y w i t h t r a d e goods and a l t h o u g h  i t was p r e f e r r e d  t h a t the more d i s t a n t p o s t s would s u p p l y t h e i r from  local  food  s o u r c e s , both F o r t Yukon and La P i e r r e House  were f o r c e d to use t h e i r s t o r e s o f pemmican when game was inadequate  (PAC, MG 1 9 ,  A2).  At the P e e l ' s R i v e r  Post an attempt was made to keep c a t t l e i n the 1840•s, but  t h i s was abandoned a f t e r a b u l l c a l f had drowned i n  the r i v e r ,  and the r e m a i n i n g  two animals  were  taken  o v e r the mountains to La P i e r r e House. Difficulties posts,  as w e l l as s h i p p i n g  Muskrat was effects out  of b o t h s u p p l y i n g  on  refused  to 8k-  f u r s out,  marten and  pound b a l e s  298).  to be  sent  on Yukon s l e d s as f a r as  l a r g e r packs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n up 1956:  deleterious  fox had  the P e e l R i v e r , where they then had  (innis,  were immense.  a t F o r t Yukon w i t h  t r a d e , and  i n 6©-  these more d i s t a n t  to be made up the  A c c o r d i n g to I n n i s  into  Mackenzie (ibid:  32k)t  "The c o m p l a i n t s o f A. H. Murray as to h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n competing w i t h the R u s s i a n s at F o r t Yukon f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the problem of c o n t r o l i n d i s t a n t a r e a s . R e q u i s i t i o n s f o r commodities i n g r e a t demand, such as guns and beads, c o u l d be f i l l e d o n l y a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of time had e l a p s e d ... Resort to q u e s t i o n a b l e methods of trade was e s s e n t i a l . " These problems r e s u l t e d e v e n t u a l l y ment as  the  s u c c e s s o r on House and  o r i g i n a l F o r t Yukon c l o s e d the B r i t i s h  s i d e of the  La P i e r r e House i n 1 8 9 3 •  in a  retrench-  in 1869»  its  b o r d e r Rampart  k.  The E a r l y A s s o c i a t i o n o f the K u t c h i n  with  F o r t McPherson and the Lower P e e l Of the three K u t c h i n groups who traded a t F o r t McPherson as the P e e l R i v e r Post was soon c a l l e d i n its first  decade, those  from the Porcupine  River  (Tukkuth) and the Mackenzie R i v e r (Nakotcho) seem to have f r e q u e n t e d  the f o r t  Peel River i t s e l f notes ( 1 9 6 2 :  21)  sooner than those  (Tetlit-Kutchin), the w i n t e r h u n t i n g  from the  As S l o b o d i n grounds o f the  l a t t e r were a l o n g d i s t a n c e from the f o r t , and the technology  o f both h u n t i n g  c l u d e d much summer t r a v e l .  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r e I n a d d i t i o n , i t took some  time f o r needs to be c r e a t e d which would make v i s i t s to the f o r t e s s e n t i a l s i n c e the commodities o f f e r e d i n trade were few i n q u a n t i t y and, a t l e a s t i n the e a r l y years  o f t r a d e , not immediately r e l a t e d to the  needs o f the people.  E s s e n t i a l l y they c o n s i s t e d o f  d e c o r a t i v e items such as beads, c l o t h items such as b l a n k e t s , and guns and t o o l s (PAC, MG 1 9 , D 1 2 ) .  Though some o f these had an obvious appeal to the people the acceptance of others  required a learning  p r o c e s s which took some time.  The Hudson's Bay Company  g e n e r a l l y d i d not f a v o u r  i n l i q u o r ( c f . Rich,  and  trade  I960)  even tobacco was not immediately a c c e p t e d 1962s 2 2 ) .  (Slobodin, of the f o r t Kutchin  Nonetheless, the e a r l y h i s t o r y  i n d i c a t e s that though the P e e l  River  v i s i t e d f a i r l y infrequently, a pattern of  v i s i t a t i o n emerged d u r i n g  the p e r i o d from 1840 to 1870  which l i n k e d them more c l o s e l y to the Lower P e e l . T h e i r e a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the f u r trade was supported by  the f a c t  visited before  that a t l e a s t some members o f the band  the Lower P e e l  to f i s h and hunt muskrat even  the f o r t was e s t a b l i s h e d and t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e  continued  during  i t s early  years.  Though the home t e r r i t o r y o f the P e e l R i v e r was undoubtedly i n the mountains there  Kutchin  i s clear  evidence t h a t some a t l e a s t came downriver i n canoes a f t e r breakup, f i s h e d and hunted muskrat and r a b b i t s i n the Lower P e e l and r e t u r n e d  u p r i v e r at freezeup.  Thus, i n May  1842, i t was  "Peel's Indians fort  reported that a p a r t y - o f  from Fond du Lac" had camped about the  and l a t e r went o f f below to hunt muskrat  (HBG,  B/l57/l/a).  They r e t u r n e d b r i e f l y  plaining significantly, plentiful  i n June com-  t h a t the muskrat were not as  as i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s , and then were not eeen  again u n t i l  they passed the f o r t  i n November ( i b i d . ) .  on t h e i r  way  The same p a t t e r n was  the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , as John B e l l noted  upriver  repeated  t h a t the I n d i a n  had gone down to hunt muskrat "as they u s u a l l y d i d " (ibid.).  A  s  a f u r of r e l a t i v e l y  was not f a v o u r e d  low v a l u e ,  muskrat  by the t r a d e r , and by the end o f the  decade, Augustus Peer r e c o r d e d  t h a t the I n d i a n s  had  gone to the Lower P e e l to hunt muskrat, though g i v e n "no encouragement  to do so." (PAC, MG 19» D 12).  muskrat were r e f u s e d a t F o r t Yukon the Rat  Indians  t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s to t r a d e them a t F o r t McPherson The r e t u r n s f o r the f i r s t fort's  When  (ibid.).  three decades o f the  o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t attempts to d i s c o u r a g e  the h u n t i n g  of muskrat might have r e s u l t e d i n s m a l l e r  F u r Returns f o r F o r t McPherson , 1850  Fur  1 68 75 23 193  14  16  1  392  1,635  647  8  58  46  11,991  2,070  2,740  fCross) Red) [Silver) (White)  -  Lynx Marten Mink Wolf  2  Wolverine  1  -  Otter  2  —  Source:  HBC,  amounts of  167  5  iko kl  176  l  l  B/l57/d/l-2U.  t h i s species  ( T a b l e 1-1) .  50 550  35 28 12  —  Muskrat  11  60 959  362  1[Blue)  Fox  1870  Ik  12  Beaver 1( l b s c a s t o r s ) I( P e l t s )  I 8 6 0 and 1870  I860 6  Bear  1850 ,  b e i n g taken  into  trade  The d a t a however i s s u g g e s t i v e  only,  s i n c e the ammounts t r a d e d i n i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s not a v a i l a b l e .  As more needs f o r trade goods were  c r e a t e d among the K u t c h i n is  likely  were  ( c f . Slobodin,  t h a t the low r e l a t i v e v a l u e  e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o the I n d i a n s v a l u a b l e beaver and marten.  1962: 22)i t  o f muskrat  f a v o u r i n g the more I n 1 8 4 8 the muskrat  pelt  was v a l u e d at about s i x pence, the beaver a t nine pence and  the marten a t about t e n s h i l l i n g s  (PAC, MG 1 9 ,  D  12).  B e s i d e s drawing a t t e n t i o n to the e a r l y importance o f the muskrat, the r e t u r n s f o r P o r t McPherson a l s o throw some doubt on the n o t i o n that i t was ever a meat post  ( S l o b o d i n , 1962:  i n l i g h t o f the f a c t assured.  22; Bissett,  1967:  34),  especially  t h a t s u p p l i e s o f meat were never  On the c o n t r a r y , i t seems that though the  Kutchin v i s i t e d  the f o r t i n f r e q u e n t l y and almost  always i n the s p r i n g and l a t e f a l l ,  when they d i d so  they t r a d e d v i g o r o u s l y and i n the more v a l u a b l e f u r species. The its first nature  exact numbers o f I n d i a n s v i s i t i n g  the f o r t i n  decade a r e not known though the d e t a i l e d  of the j o u r n a l s kept a t t h i s time r e v e a l s a  f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f when v i s i t s the probable ( T a b l e s 1-2  o c c u r r e d and  o r i g i n o f the v i s i t o r s i n each case and 1 - 3 ) .  The d i s t i n c t i o n was u s u a l l y  made between the "Rat I n d i a n s " "Mackenzie I n d i a n s "  (Tjuikkuth-Kutchin) ,  (Nakotcho-Kutchin),  and those  Recorded I n d i a n V i s i t s Date June 1 5 , 1840 J u l y 26 Sept. 18 J  Sept. 30 Oct. 5 O c t . 19 Oct. 30 Nov. 9 Mar. 12, 1841 Mar. 18 Mar. 27 Mar. 31 Apr. 1  Apr. 1 5 , May 1 May 20 June 1* June 11 June 1 3 *  1840-1851  Reference to a V i s i t "A p a r t y o f Loucheux" "a p a r t y o f Rat I n d i a n s " "some I n d i a n s from the upper p a r t o f the river" "Indians from L i a r d ' s Lake" "three I n d i a n s from Red R i v e r " "ten men and boys o f the Rat I n d i a n s " "Loucheux from the Red R i v e r " "two Loucheux from Fond du Lac" "three Loucheux from the camp o f the Rat Indians a c r o s s the mountain" " s m a l l p a r t y from the Red R i v e r " "Loucheux from a c r o s s the mountains" "a p a r t y o f Loucheux" "two  1842  to F o r t McPherson,  Loucheux from Mackenzie's  River"  Break i n Record "Indians from Mackenzie's R i v e r " " s i x f a m i l i e s from a c r o s s the mountains" " P e e l ' s I n d i a n s from Fond du L a c " "Indians from Upper P e e l " "Indians a r r i v e d " " I n d i a n s e t u r n e d from mouth o f P e e l "  B  Source 157/a/l  I n f e r r e d Grou oup. Mackenzie Rat (R)3 P,eel (P) * (?) M R M P 2  R M  R (?) (?) M  M R P P (?) P  Table  1-2  Date Nov. 12 Nov. 15 May 1 5 , * June 6 * June 26 Nov.  (continued)  M  1843  16*  Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct.  16, 17 22 26  Nov. Nov.  2 11  Reference to a V i s i t "Indians from below "some Mackenzie R i v e r I n d i a n s " "Chief's brother" "Indians...gone down to hunt r a t s " "Musquash I n d i a n s . . . from a c r o s s the mountains" "Indians who have been below r e t u r n e d "  1847  Nov. 16 Apr. 2 7 , 1848 May 4 June 2 * June 2 9 * J u l y 11 J u l y 25 J u l y 30 J a n . 9 , 1849 Apr. 24 Apr. 25 May 15 May 2 0 *  Break i n Record "Small p a r t i e s of f a m i l i e s " "two I n d i a n s " " 'Bear Hunter' from L a p i e r r e House" " ' L e t t e r C a r r i e r ' from h i s Youcon quarters" "Fond du Lac Indians i n " " p a r t y o f Indians from Mackenzie River" "two of Grand Blanc's b r o t h e r s " "a p a r t y o f s t a r v i n g I n d i a n s " "ten P e e l I n d i a n s " "brigade of 19 canoes" "few Indians from Mackenzie's R i v e r " "nine Rat I n d i a n s " " p a r t y from Fond du L a c " "twenty-two Rat I n d i a n s " " l a r g e p a r t y of P e e l R i v e r I n d i a n s " "some Indians from Mackenzie R i v e r " "Rat I n d i a n s " "three Fond du Lac men" "band o f Loucheux"  Source B 157/a/l " " " " "  MG 1 9 , D 12 n tt  I n f e r r e d Group P (?) M P P (?) R P (?)  (?) (?)  R (?)  it n  R (?) P  11 11 it it w tt tt n n tt tt tt tt 11  M R (?) P P M R P R P M R P P (?)  03  T a b l e 1-2  (continued)  Date June 2 * June 16 July 5 J u l y 6* June 2 2 , 1850 June 26 Nov. 9 May 7 , * 1851 May 8 June 3 * July k Dec. 19  Reference to a V i s i t "Fond du Lac Indians i n 2k canoes" "Indians from above i n c l u d i n g one o f the Gens du Roche" "Grand Blanc w i t h some o f h i s men" "Rat I n d i a n s " "two Mackenzie R i v e r I n d i a n s " "Indians from a c r o s s the mountains" "twenty Fond du Lac I n d i a n s " " s e v e r a l Indians " s e v e r a l Mackenzie R i v e r I n d i a n s " "almost a l l Indians o f f t o hunt * a t s " " p a r t y o f Indians from Mackenzie R i v e r " "ten Indians w i t h marten"  An a s t e r i s k i n d i c a t e s a r e f e r e n c e to muskrat The Nakotcho of Osgood of Osgood  11 n  « it 11 ti M II It II II  hunting.  (1932).  E i t h e r the Tukkuth (Osgood, 1932) The T e t l i t  Source I n f e r r e d Group P MG 1 9 , D 12  (1932).  or the Vunta ( M c C l e l l a n , 1 9 5 0 ) .  P R R M R P P (?) M (?) M (?)  Indian V i s i t s Date P 1840  1841  1842  J p M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M A M J J A S  0€  1843  N D J F M A M J j A S 0  N D  t o F o r t McPherson, Band R M  1840-1850  Date  Banrf  0  P 1847  R  0  N **  D J F M A M J J A S O N D 1849 J F M A M J J A S  M  * *  0 * * *  1848  * * * * *  *  **  *  **  * *  * **  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * * *  *  *  * *  * * **  *  *  **  0  N D 1850 J F M A M J J A S $ N  *  *  *  •  An a s t e r i s k i n d i c a t e s a r e c o r d e d I n d i a n v i s i t (P=Peel R i v e r K u t c h i n , R=Rat I n d i a n s , M=Mackenzie I n d i a n s , 0=Not known)  from the Upper P e e l Kutchin). Indians  The  (The  l a t t e r were a l s o c a l l e d  from a p o i n t up  l o c a t i o n of which can no 17)«  1962:  Peel River Kutchin,  the Fond du  the P e e l R i v e r , the  Lac  exact  l o n g e r be i d e n t i f i e d  V i s i t s from members of a l l three  were f a i r l y  or T e t l i t  (Slobodin, groups  common though the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n more  f r e q u e n t l y appeared i n l a r g e groups e s p e c i a l l y i n the spring. of any  There are p r a c t i c a l l y  no r e c o r d s  group v i s i t i n g the f o r t between December  F e b r u a r y , the one  major e x c e p t i o n b e i n g  when a l a r g e p a r t y of P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n (PAC,  of members  MG  19»  D 12).  and  i n January camped  1849  there  J u l y and August were a l s o times  when v i s i t s were f a i r l y  i n f r e q u e n t f o r the r e a s o n  noted  above. A f t e r I 8 5 O the trade had extent  become s t a b i l i z e d  t h a t , a p a r t from l o s s e s due  to epidemics,  number of people t r a d i n g at F o r t McPherson and House remained constant The  forts  during  lost  at about one  the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s  the 1840's due  to  the  La P i e r r e  hundred (Table  they had  suffered  to l a c k of meat and w i t h  the  the  1-4).  Indians' Debts^at  F o r t McPherson and La P i e r r e House,  1851-1870 Year 1851 1854 1855 I857 1859 1862 1863 1864 1865 1868 1869 1870  Peel 38  Mackenzie 54  75  Rat 21  35  Total  Source  93 PAC, MG 1 9 , D 12 113 B 157/d/6/29 104 B 157/d/7/28-29 117 B 157/d/8/l4 112 B 157/d/lO/ll 110 B 157/d/l3/l2 99 B 157/d/l4/2l 112 B 157/d/l5/7 552 B 157/d/l8/20 75 B 157/d/28-29 3 9 5 B 157/d/23/9 97 B 157/d/24/l9  The debt system was used from the b e g i n n i n g on the P e e l R i v e r . I n d i a n h u n t e r s were encouraged to e s t a b l i s h a debt to the Company by a c c e p t i n g goods a g a i n s t the next season's f u r s t r a d e d . I n t h i s way they were c o n s t a n t l y o b l i g a t e d to the f u r t r a d e company. I t was a system which worked to the advantage o f both p a r t i e s u n t i l the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t r a d i n g companies l e d to i t s abuse. S i x t e e n Mackenzie R i v e r K u t c h i n t r a d e d a t F o r t Anderson but r e t u r n e d to the P e e l R i v e r when F o r t Anderson c l o s e d i n 1866. The numbers a l s o f e l l i n t h i s y e a r due to the death o f 29 people of s c a r l e t f e v e r . I n a d d i t i o n , seven Eskimos were l i s t e d , the f i r s t r e c o r d o f Eskimo debts a t F o r t McPherson.  a d d i t i o n s o f the Eskimo trade to t h a t o f the P e e l , Mackenzie and Rat K u t c h i n the c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d e was assured.  As the h o s t i l i t y between the K u t c h i n and  Eskimos a l s o decreased, removed f o r both peoples  5•  a f u r t h e r i n h i b i t i o n was to trade on the P e e l R i v e r .  The E x t e n s i o n o f the F u r Trade The  first  t o the Eskimos  c o n t a c t s made w i t h the Eskimos were  p r o b a b l y through K u t c h i n middlemen.  As e a r l y as 1 8 4 7 ,  Grand B l a n c , i d e n t i f i e d as the l e a d e r o f the Rat I n d i a n s undertook to b a r t e r f u r s w i t h the Eskimos (PAC,  MG 1 9 , D 1 2 ) , though i n f a c t h i s agreement to  come i n t o the f o r t  the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g was broken  ( i b i d . ) and thus i t i s not known whether t r a d i n g t a c t was made a t t h i s time.  con-  I n 1 8 4 9 , c o n t a c t was made  by a Mackenzie R i v e r K u t c h i n w i t h a p a r t y o f s i x Eskimos camping a t what i s r e c o r d e d as t h e i r rendezvous" from  "usual  on the o t h e r s i d e o f the Mackenzie R i v e r  the mouth o f the P e e l .  Though the Eskimos were  not c o n s i d e r e d to be as u n f r i e n d l y w i t h the Mackenzie  River Kutchin  (Nakotcho) as with those  o f the P e e l  R i v e r , c o n v e r s a t i o n s took p l a c e "out o f arrow range" and  the Eskimos expressed  the view t h a t the white  t r a d e r had g i v e n arms to the K u t c h i n to k i l l The  them.  a t t i t u d e o f the Hudson's Bay Company f a c t o r i s  i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e though prepared he a l s o r e c o r d e d i n h i s j o u r n a l , inclined  t o be c i v i l ,  to reason w i t h them "... i f I f i n d  them  w e l l and good, but i f on the  c o n t r a r y they should be i n c l i n e d t h i n k i t p r o p e r and f i t t o f i r e  to m i s c h i e f , I s h a l l on them."  In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n f a c t  (ibid.).  some K u t c h i n  accompanied by two Company employees t r a d e d w i t h a group o f Eskimos a t P o i n t S e p a r a t i o n but soon f e l l to blows and then t o s h o o t i n g w i t h the r e s u l t Eskimos were k i l l e d .  Thus the i n i t i a l  that four  c o n t a c t s made  w i t h the Eskimos were not p r o p i t i o u s and the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g i t was r e c o r d e d  t h a t no encounters  were made  w i t h them ( i b i d . ) . L a t e r i n the y e a r however some I n d i a n s were sent to l o o k f o r Eskimos and r e t u r n e d w i t h the r e p o r t t h a t they had d i s c o v e r e d a p a r t y of  seven i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains and t h a t t h e i r r e c e p t i o n had been f r i e n d l y .  When P e e r s  h i m s e l f s e t o f f to f i n d them, however, he found o n l y t h e i r abandoned " c u r i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d houses", but expressed the view t h a t he was "anxious to see these people and. endeavour to e s t a b l i s h and  the I n d i a n s . "  peace between them  (ibid.)  In Peer's eyes the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and I n d i a n s was e s s e n t i a l  o f the Eskimos  f o r the c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l o f  the f u r t r a d e i n the a r e a f o r h o s t i l i t y between the two people was undoubtedly visiting  the f o r t .  account: purpose  d i s c o u r a g i n g both  A c c o r d i n g to R i c h a r d s o n ' s  " I t i s probable  from ( 1 8 5 I : 215)  ... that the Eskimos had a  o f opening a t r a d e d i r e c t l y w i t h the white  people; interests  but t h i s , b e i n g so o b v i o u s l y c o n t r a r y to the o f the K u t c h i n , was l i k e l y  to meet w i t h a l l  the o p p o s i t i o n they c o u l d o f f e r , and hence t h e i r on the Eskimos without The was  first  made i n  direct  I 8 5 I  firing  parley." c o n t a c t between whites and Eskimos  on two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s and on the  Eskimos' own  initiative.  The  first  was  at La P i e r r e  House, where f o u r Eskimos brought f o u r fox s k i n s to t r a d e - a s m a l l o f f e r i n g , but as Peers remarked, " e v e r y t h i n g must have a b e g i n n i n g . " The  second was  Eskimos v i s i t e d to  be  (PAC,  MG  19,  made l a t e r i n the summer when a group of the P e e l R i v e r post and were r e p o r t e d  "much taken up with e v e r y t h i n g " s i n c e t h i s  the f i r s t  time they had  meeting was  12).  D  was  seen white mens' houses.  not a l t o g e t h e r an a u s p i c i o u s one  s t o l e a s m a l l boat b e f o r e d e p a r t i n g  This  since  they  (ibid.).  These e a r l y c o n t a c t s r e s u l t e d i n the Hudson's  Bay  Company a d o p t i n g a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards  the  development o f the Eskimo trade which i n c l u d e d the i s s u i n g of a number of d i r e c t i v e s d e a l i n g w i t h m a t t e r s as the s p e c i a l treatment  to be g i v e n to  Eskimos, the p r e p a r a t i o n of f u r s and good r e l a t i o n s w i t h the I n d i a n s  such  the promotion-of  (stager,  1967).  This  p o l i c y r e s u l t e d i n more Eskimos b e i n g drawn i n to t r a d e at P o r t McPherson and  e v e n t u a l l y to the  establish-  ment of F o r t Anderson e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the Eskimo  trade  between 1861 and 1 8 6 6  (stager,  development was g r e e t e d and  i t was r e p o r t e d  pleased place,  and they s a i d  B/6/a/l: 4).  the  indirect  latter  "They a r e e x c e e d i n g l y  well  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them a t t h i s  they would do wonders i n the way  o f h u n t i n g f u r s and t h a t (HBC,  This  by the Eskimos w i t h enthusiasm  that;  at having a f o r t  1967).  they would b r i n g us the whole."  Though the post  probably  intercepted  trade which the Eskimos had w i t h R u s s i a n  traders,  and a l s o reduced the middleman's r o l e o f the  Kutchin,  i t was not a s u c c e s s .  returns Sea  I t was i n t e n d e d  from F o r t Anderson would go out v i a the B e a u f o r t  and the Mackenzie D e l t a and t h a t ,  contact  consequently,  would be made each season w i t h a l l Eskimos  l i v i n g i n the a r e a (HBC 6 / a / l : 3 ) . not  well located  the  area,  F o r t Anderson was  to f o c u s the e n t i r e Eskimo trade of  however, and the Mackenzie Eskimos, who  remained a l o o f from those of the Anderson R i v e r , tinued  that  to trade  a t F o r t McPherson ( s t a g e r ,  1967) •  con-  6. During  Conclusions  the f i r s t  t h i r t y years o f the f u r t r a d e i n  the Mackenzie D e l t a a r e a c o n t a c t had been made w i t h a number o f K u t c h i n groups and, l e s s e x t e n s i v e l y , w i t h the Eskimos. of  During t h i s time three s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s  trade had p r e v a i l e d r o u g h l y i n sequence.  These  were: (i)  Trade  based upon one c e n t r a l post  (Peel's River)  e i t h e r d i r e c t l y w i t h the n e a r e r groups, o r indirectly,  through middlemen, w i t h  those  f a r t h e r away. (ii)  Trade  through  the s a t e l l i t e p o s t s o f La P i e r r e  House and F o r t Yukon i n K u t c h i n t e r r i t o r y t o the west, and F o r t Anderson to the e a s t , (iii)  Trade  based upon one c e n t r a l p o s t a g a i n , but  i n which the r o l e o f the middleman had d i s a p p e a r e d and a l l c l i e n t hunters in  person.  In  the f i r s t  traded  stage the middlemen ( l i k e Grand  e v i d e n t l y s t r o v e to m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r o f i t a b l e  role  Blanc)  a g a i n s t some odds. they conducted  The  more d i s t a n t I n d i a n s w i t h whom  trade e v i d e n t l y l e a r n e d soon t h a t the  white man's goods c o u l d be o b t a i n e d more c h e a p l y a t the white man's t r a d i n g p o s t . was  By  the same token i t  e v i d e n t l y i n the company's i n t e r e s t s a l s o to have  d i r e c t c o n t a c t s r a t h e r than through it  middlemen, s i n c e  enabled more c o n t r o l to be e x e r c i z e d over the s p e c i e s  offered i n trade. c o n t r o l through  The  attempt to e s t a b l i s h  s a t e l l i t e p o s t s was  direct  not s u c c e s s f u l  however e i t h e r because the p o s t s were d i f f i c u l t  to  supply w i t h the Company's e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technology  ( f o r example, F o r t Yukon), or because  were not i n easy l o c a t i o n s f o r i n d i g e n o u s visit  ( l i k e F o r t Anderson).  people  they to  However, the experiment  w i t h s a t e l l i t e p o s t s accustomed a g r e a t number of I n d i a n and Eskimo people  to trade goods which c o u l d  o n l y be o b t a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y cheaply, p o s t s c o l l a p s e d , by v i s i t i n g  once the  satellite  the o r i g i n a l mother post  on the P e e l R i v e r . Thus the c o l l a p s e of the s a t e l l i t e  posts  encouraged a much g r e a t e r number of both I n d i a n s  and  Eskimos to v i s i t  before,  and  the P e e l R i v e r than had  done so  thus i n c r e a s e d the n o d a l f u n c t i o n of the  R i v e r Post t h i s was  over a wide a r e a .  The  major e x c e p t i o n  the case o f the K u t c h i n who  on the U.S.  Peel  found  to  themselves  s i d e of the A l a s k a boundary i n 1 8 6 7  and  thus w i t h i n the purview of the more a c c e s s i b l e American traders.  Even among these .however, l o y a l t y to  Hudson's Bay  Company was  the P e e l R i v e r Post The  effect  the  s t r o n g enough to draw them to  from time to time.  of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the Lower  P e e l R i v e r i n c r e a s e d the importance of the Mackenzie Delta.  Though there i s good evidence  p a r t of the D e l t a was  occupied  l e a s t some o f the K u t c h i n ,  i n the s p r i n g by at  i t i s c l e a r t h a t the  to the f o r t r e i n f o r c e d i t s importance. p e l t s were not welcomed by  t h a t the upper  Though muskrat  the t r a d e r s the  propensity  to go down i n t o the D e l t a f o r s p r i n g " r a t t i n g " i n t h i s period.among the K u t c h i n . Eskimos who  came up  to the f o r t  visits  Similarly,  increased the  to t r a d e were a l s o  p e r f o r c e drawn more c l o s e l y i n t o the D e l t a . amounted to i n simple  terms was  What  the expansion o f  this the  a r e a of t e r r i t o r i a l o v e r l a p of both peoples i n the Upper D e l t a i n the s p r i n g so that t h i s a r e a became much l e s s a "No  Man's Land" than i n Mackenzie's  To r e t u r n to the h y p o t h e s i s mentioned at the b e g i n n i n g  of Williamson  of t h i s c h a p t e r ,  c l e a r t h a t though the f u r trade had  time. (1969)  i t seems  not y e t e s t a b l i s h e d  a s t r o n g r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n the Mackenzie D e l t a i t had  s t a r t e d a tendency i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n .  niche  shared  by  the K u t c h i n and  The e c o l o g i c a l  the Eskimo had  widened  though the c o n t a c t s between them were s t i l l  fraught  with h o s t i l i t y .  trading  posts,  U n l i k e some o t h e r n o r t h e r n  t h a t on the P e e l R i v e r had  drawn s e v e r a l  d i a l e c t a l sub-groups i n t o i t s sphere f o r reasons t h a t have been o u t l i n e d above.  Consequently f a r from  r e i n f o r c i n g the t e n d e n c i e s  towards e x c l u s i v e n e s s ,  Williamson  ( i b i d . ) has  suggested, i t tended to break  them down.and to i n i t i a t e vergence.  as  some s m a l l degree o f con-  T h i s convergence was  to be  i n c r e a s e d when  o t h e r agents of* c o n t a c t widened the areas of common interest.  CHAPTER I I  MISSIONARIES, WHALERS, STAMPEDERS AND POLICE  1. As  Introduction  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the North, the t r a d i n g  company opened the way f o r other agents o f c o n t a c t , particularly  m i s s i o n a r i e s o f both the A n g l i c a n and the  Roman C a t h o l i c f a i t h s .  The f a c t  t h a t the Mackenzie  D e l t a was more a c c e s s i b l e than many o t h e r p a r t s o f the N o r t h both v i a the Mackenzie R i v e r and the B e r i n g Sea r o u t e , opened i t a l s o t o other sources  of i n f l u e n c e .  While the i n t e r i o r o f A l a s k a was a t t r a c t i n g of mineral prospectors,  whaling s h i p s were  the a t t e n t i o n edging  a l o n g the n o r t h coast i n s e a r c h o f Bowhead whale and were to r e a c h  the v i c i n i t y o f the Mackenzie D e l t a i n  the l a t e  1880*s.  The famous g o l d s t r i k e i n the  Klondike  i n c r e a s e d the i n t e r e s t  i n p r o s p e c t i n g and  many o f the stampeders to the g o l d f i e l d s f o l l o w e d the  arduous but now w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t e down the Mackenzie and then a c r o s s the R a t - B e l l Portage Yukon.  Both whaling  t o the  and the Gold Rush f o c u s s e d the  a t t e n t i o n o f the Canadian Government on the Northwest and r e s u l t e d i n the appearance i n the Yukon and the A r c t i c Coast  of the Royal Northwest Mounted  Police.  The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n t a c t w i t h the outside c u l t u r e and economy had a number o f e f f e c t s upon the Mackenzie D e l t a . first  tended  The a c t i v i t y o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s a t  to f u r t h e r the p r o c e s s e s o f c u l t u r a l  convergence s t a r t e d by the f u r t r a d e .  As p r o s e l y -  t i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d both I n d i a n and Eskimo people visited  the m i s s i o n post e s t a b l i s h e d a t P o r t McPherson  with g r e a t e r frequency.  Rather  than r e i n f o r c i n g  this  p r o c e s s , the Gold Rush and the whaling boom i n i t i a t e d some d i v e r g e n c e .  The P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n were a t t r a c t e d  t e m p o r a r i l y towards the Yukon s i d e of the R i c h a r d s o n Mountain d i v i d e by the a c t i v i t y on the K l o n d i k e . the same time, Eskimo v i s i t s  At  to the Lower P e e l became  l e s s frequent  as they d r i f t e d  towards H e r s c h e l  where the whalers e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r w i n t e r I n the l o n g term view both events i n f a c t  Island  quarters. increased  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r convergence when K u t c h i n and Eskimo came i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t  a g a i n i n the D e l t a .  Residence i n the Yukon broke down some o f the c o h e s i v e ness o f the K u t c h i n  and made t h e i r c l o s e r involvement  i n t r a p p i n g more p o s s i b l e .  The d e c i m a t i o n  o r i g i n a l Mackenzie Eskimos by d i s e a s e  o f the  allowed  of more a c c u l t u r a t e d A l a s k a n Eskimos to e n t e r and  a wave the D e l t a ,  these were a l s o more r e a d i l y absorbed i n t o the  t r a p p i n g economy.  2 . The Coming o f the M i s s i o n a r i e s Missionary and  a c t i v i t y began i n the area i n i 8 6 0  as i n other p a r t s o f the North was s t r o n g l y  dependent upon the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network developed by the Hudson's Bay Company, a f a c t which was by  t r a d e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s a l i k e .  recognized  Of the b i s h o p o f  the Athabasca-Mackenzie V i c a r i a t e , Douchaussois noted (1937: will  9):  "Without the good g r a c e s o f the Comapany he  be h e l p l e s s :  himself  he w i l l not be a b l e  even the n e c e s s a r i e s  Generally  to p r o c u r e f o r  of l i f e . "  the a t t i t u d e o f the t r a d e r s towards the  m i s s i o n a r i e s was not e n c o u r a g i n g , though some preference  slight  was o f t e n g i v e n by the P r e s b y t e r i a n  f a c t o r s to the A n g l i c a n  Company  over the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s .  As l a t e as I 8 7 6 , however, C h i e f Commissioner Grahame wrote to H a r d i s t y :  "Should any boat a r r i v e a t P o r t a g e  La Loche not employed by the Company!,", but c a r r y i n g passengers, p r i e s t s , m i s s i o n a r i e s for  McKenzie's R i v e r , you w i l l  or f r e i g h t  intended  decline furnishing  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r them beyond t h a t p o i n t o r a s s i s t a n c e i n any way whatsoever." Generally  (innis, I956:  the Company o f f i c i a l s  37l)»  regarded r e l i g i o n  as a d i s t r a c t i o n from t r a p p i n g and a f a c t o r which caused the I n d i a n s to congregate around the f o r t s  when  there was no good economic reason f o r them to do so.  Thus m i s s i o n a r y  a c t i v i t y was o f t e n c a r r i e d out i n f a c e  o f an u n c o o p e r a t i v e company. mission  a t t i t u d e on the p a r t o f the t r a d i n g  Similarly)*, the a t t i t u d e o f the two major groups to each o t h e r was one o f o u t r i g h t  hostility,  f o r the m i s s i o n a r i e s were o f d i f f e r e n t  n a t i o n a l i t y and language as w e l l as o f a d i f f e r e n t religious  tradition.  Protestant  d i r e c t e d by the Church M i s s i o n a r y  mission  a c t i v i t y was  Society with i t s  h e a d q u a r t e r s i n London, and C a t h o l i c by the O b l a t e Fathers  from t h e i r mother house i n Belgium.  was l i t t l e the f i e l d  there  common ground between the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n o r between the m i s s i o n a r i e s and the Company.  Anglican Rev.  Thus  i n t e r e s t i n the area began i n 1 8 5 7 when  James Hunter p r e p a r e d to v i s i t  trading posts  down  the Mackenzie R i v e r as f a r as the A r c t i c Coast the f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n an attempt to " o u t f l a n k "  the C a t h o l i c  m i s s i o n a r i e s who, i t was noted, would be " d r i v e n i n t o the sea" i f they attempted (CMS,  C.l/O, Nov. k, I 8 5 7 ) .  to go beyond F o r t  Simpson  He was encouraged i n the  e f f o r t by the f a c t D i s t r i c t w i t h one  that, " a l l  the gentlemen of the  e x c e p t i o n are P r o t e s t a n t s and  m a j o r i t y of the men,  and  the  they are a l l anxious, and  eve  n  zealous f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n s throughout  the D i s t r i c t . "  As a consequence, t h i s  was  c o n s i d e r e d to be the "most p r o m i s i n g f i e l d f o r m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n the whole of the c o u n t r y . " J u l y 31,  C/l/o,  (CMS,  1858).  In f a c t ambivalent  the a t t i t u d e of the Company was  and  rather  S i r George Simpson, though a s s u r i n g  that a s s i s t a n c e would be g i v e n to Hunter, was  con-  cerned t h a t m i s s i o n p o s t s should not be expected depend upon the t r a d i n g p o s t s . have s c h o o l s and c o l l e c t  "As  to  i t i s proposed  to  the Indians about the m i s s i o n , "  he noted i n a l e t t e r to Bernard Ross, the C h i e f T r a d e r a t Norway House, " I f u r t h e r informed we  the Bishop  that  should p o s i t i v e l y o b j e c t to i t s b e i n g p l a c e d ( a t )  P o r t Simpson or any of the Company's p o s t s , recommended t h a t a s i t e  should be  v i c i n i t y of some good f i s h e r y . "  and  s e l e c t e d i n the (CMS,  C.l/O,  June,  I858).  At the same time as r a t h e r g r u d g i n g a s s i s t a n c e was b e i n g g i v e n to the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , i t was not b e i n g d e n i e d to those o f the a l t e r n a t i v e  persuasions  so t h a t the same b r i g a d e which took Hunter n o r t h , a l s o c a r r i e d f o u r p r i e s t s and a f r i a r from  "with f u l l  the a u t h o r i t i e s t o go a l l through  m i s s i o n s and t o remain June 1 0 ,  I858).  permission  establishing  t o c a r r y them on." (CMS, C.l/M,  The r e s u l t was the r a t h e r unseemly  r a c e down the Mackenzie which c u l m i n a t e d i n both m i s s i o n groups r e a c h i n g F o r t McPherson a t about the same time.  At p o i n t s a l o n g the r i v e r mass  baptisms  were c a r r i e d on by A n g l i c a n s and C a t h o l i c s a l i k e an e f f e c t  t h a t can h a r d l y have been l a s t i n g .  p o s s i b l e good can r e s u l t  with  "No  to the b e n i g h t e d heathen o f  these r e g i o n s , " r e c o r d e d a Company t r a d e r , "by a system  of p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n being c a r r i e d  out between  the two s e c t s , indeed p o s i t i v e i n j u r y may r e s u l t it."  (CMS, C . 1 / 0 ,  Aug. 2 3 ,  Fr. G r o l l i e r arrived  from  I858).  a t F o r t McPherson i n September,  i 8 6 0 and b a p t i z e d a number o f I n d i a n s and a l s o some Eskimos who were g a t h e r e d t h e r e . r e p o r t e d to have r e c o n c i l e d 1937:  291;  M o r i c e , 1910:  Though he i s v a r i o u s l y  the two p e o p l e s  (Douchaussois,  3 3 2 ; Lecuyer, n.d.),  this  seems u n l i k e l y i n view o f the s h o r t time he spent a t the f o r t , the f a c t  the few Eskimos with whom he made c o n t a c t and t h a t h o s t i l i t i e s between the two p e o p l e s  continued w e l l a f t e r h i s v i s i t . many C a t h o l i c K u t c h i n g i v e c r e d i t  To t h i s time, however, to the p r i e s t s f o r  b r i n g i n g peace to the a r e a , j u s t as many A n g l i c a n Kutchin give credit It  seems more l i k e l y  to the m i n i s t e r s  (Slobodin, 1962:25).  that when e a s i e r r e l a t i o n s were  e s t a b l i s h e d between the two peoples i t was the r e s u l t o f t h e i r both b e i n g drawn t o g e t h e r by the f u r t r a d e r a t h e r than to the e f f o r t s of e i t h e r o f the p r o s e l y t i z i n g sects. I n the summer of 1861,  F r . G r o l l i e r r e t u r n e d to  F o r t McPherson o v e r t a k i n g the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y , Rev. W.W.  K i r k b y a t F o r t Norman, but was p r e v e n t e d  from  s t a y i n g l o n g by a severe a t t a c k of asthma (Lecuyer, n . d . ) .  The  results  of t h i s f a i r l y  been q u i t e profound, this particular who  through  trivial  for Grollier's  infirmity  the agency of Rev.  out the Upper P e e l and  Robert  l e d to  MacDonald, made  centre f o r Indians  the Yukon.  a f a v o u r a b l e one and he was  g r e e t e d by the P r o t e s t a n t  and 37 Eskimos, some of whom he had S e p a r a t i o n on the journey  (CMS,  through-  Kirkby's reception  Hudson's Bay Company people and by about 140  The  have  area b e i n g abandoned to the A n g l i c a n s ,  F o r t McPherson an important  was  occurrence may  encountered  C.l/O,  subsequent f a i l u r e o f F r . Seguin  Indians at Point  June 1 7 ,  l86l).  to make c o n v e r t s  i n the Yukon i n the f a c e of a v i g o r o u s m i s s i o n by Rev.  Robert  MacDonald d i s c o u r a g e d  c o n t i n u i n g i n the a r e a and  the O b l a t e s  entrenched established  from  though v i s i t s were p a i d to  F o r t McPherson i n the s p r i n g s of 1864, the A n g l i c a n f a i t h was  the  by t h i s  time  I 8 6 5 and  1866,  too s t r o n g l y  f o r a permanent C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n to be there.  T h i s was  significant  f o r a number of r e a s o n s .  The v i r t u a l abandonment of t h i s a r e a to the A n g l i c a n s  p l a c e d the l a t t e r i n a f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r the e v e n t u a l e x t e n s i o n of m i s s i o n a c t i v i t y  to the Eskimos.  A major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the r e l a t i v e o f the A n g l i c a n church was o f the Rev.  Robert  strength  undoubtedly the p e r s o n a l i t y  MacDonald whose m i s s i o n a r y  out of P o r t McPherson and  activity  i n t o the Yukon gave the  a c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r I n d i a n s who  fort  ranged over a  wide a r e a and brought them to the Lower P e e l R i v e r f o r r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s as w e l l as f o r t r a d e .  The  mission  thus i n c r e a s e d the f o r t ' s p o t e n t i a l as a u n i f y i n g Finally,  the e x c l u s i o n of the C a t h o l i c s from F o r t  McPherson l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t m i s s i o n a t A r c t i c Red  R i v e r , and  of an  alternative  the p o l a r i z a t i o n of  the K u t c h i n of the Mackenzie D e l t a a r e a a l o n g l i n e s which have p e r s i s t e d  to the p r e s e n t  Not  effect  of m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y was  only d i d i t r e s u l t  religious  time.  U« M i s s i o n a r y A c t i v i t y Among the Eskimo and The  force.  Kutchin  twofold.  i n an i n c r e a s e d pace of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n among n a t i v e p e o p l e s ,  but i t strengthened  the nodal f u n c t i o n s of a number of p o i n t s of c o n t a c t between both the K u t c h i n and external world.  While  the Eskimo and  the  i t had never been i n the  i n t e r e s t s of the t r a d i n g company to teach t h e i r i n digenous  clients  to read and w r i t e , i t was  v e r y much i n  the i n t e r e s t s of the m i s s i o n a r i e s to do so.  MacDonald's  t r a n s l a t i o n of the Tukkuth language and P e t i t o t ' s the d i a l e c t  of  of the Mackenzie Eskimos c o n t r i b u t e d  s t r o n g l y to the degree to which both peoples were opened to the i n f l u e n c e s of the o u t s i d e world ( c f . Jenness,  1964:  15)•  At the same time,  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m i s s i o n p o s t s a t the f u r trade or indeed a t c o m p l e t e l y new  forts,  l o c a t i o n s encouraged them  to gather f o r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s a t c e r t a i n times of the year, o f t e n w i t h profound established hunting p a t t e r n s .  e f f e c t s upon p r e v i o u s l y F o r example, the  n e c e s s i t y f o r C h r i s t i a n i z e d K u t c h i n to a t t e n d s e r v i c e s i n F o r t McPherson e f f e c t i v e l y reduced w i n t e r h u n t i n g grounds. m i s s i o n a r i e s a l s o had  The  activities  the e f f e c t  Christmas their  of'the  of r e p l a c i n g o l d  patterns  of l e a d e r s h i p and  s o c i a l cohesion,  as  c a t e c h i s t s came somewhat to assume the r o l e occupied  by  (Slobodin,  shamans, sometimes i n the same p e r s o n 1962:  26).  G i v e n the r e l a t i v e missionaries  e x c l u s i o n of the C a t h o l i c  from the Lower Mackenzie and  C o a s t , the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s had i n f l u e n c e , though C a t h o l i c i s m was p o i n t s up cularly  very  the Mackenzie R i v e r .  the  the  Arctic  strongest  dominant at  other  This applied p a r t i -  to m i s s i o n work among the Eskimos w i t h  exception was  previously-  of t h a t of E r . E m i l e P e t i t o t strong,  though he was  Eskimos f o r a s h o r t time.  what of a maverick i n h i s own e f f o r t among the Eskimos was  whose i n f l u e n c e  only with  Petitot  was  the  the Mackenzie  however some-  church and  later  dominated by  two  mission  Anglican  clergymen, Rev.  ( l a t e r Bishop) W.C.  and  1.0.  In the P e e l R i v e r area and  fact  Rev.  Stringer.  Bompas  throughout the Yukon d r a i n a g e a r e a , Rev.  Archdeacon) Robert MacDonald stood head and above o t h e r m i s s i o n a r i e s .  in  (later shoulders  In the s o u t h - e a s t e r n  part  of  the D e l t a , C a t h o l i c i s m was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d when the mission  was e v e n t u a l l y abandoned o f f i c i a l l y a t P o r t  McPherson and opened a t A r c t i c Red R i v e r . the  Because o f  s e p a r a t i o n o f the two m i s s i o n i z i n g s e c t s , and the  importance o f the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s , missionary  a c t i v i t y among the Eskimos and the K u t c h i n  may be d e a l t w i t h 1895  separately after i 8 6 0 .  The y e a r  marks a convenient t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r i t saw both  the permanent e s t a b l i s h m e n t the Eskimos a t H e r s c h e l of a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n events o c c u r r e d  o f an A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n to  I s l a n d and K i t t i g a z u i t , and  a t A r c t i c Red R i v e r .  Both  however when other agents o f a c c u l -  t u r a t i o n were becoming more dominant than the c h u r c h , (a) The Eskimos  (186O-I895)  E a r l y missionary  a c t i v i t y among the Eskimos was  discouraged  by t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r h o s t i l i t y  white man.  Thus on Hunter's f i r s t  the Mackenzie he c o n s i d e r e d  to the  e x p e d i t i o n down  that i t would o n l y have  been p o s s i b l e to have gone to the A r c t i c Coast w i t h a l a r g e armed p a r t y s i n c e the Eskimos he noted were  "a v e r y t r e a c h e r o u s and b l o o d t h i r s t y race and... c o n t i n u a l l y a t war w i t h the Loucheux." 30,  Nov. Point  I 8 5 8 ) .  K i r k b y ' s encounter  w i t h Eskimos a t  S e p a r a t i o n was f a i r l y p e a c e f u l and he was  o f f e r e d muktuk i n r e t u r n f o r tobacco. for  (CMS C.l/O,  more tobacco were not complied  When demands  w i t h by the m i s s i o n a r y ,  however, the Eskimos became more quarrelsome was  compelled  to seek h i s escape  June 1 5 ,  A t P o r t McPherson, the few Eskimos p r e s e n t  I 8 6 l ) ,  attended d i v i n e s e r v i c e much u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  though not a p p a r e n t l y w i t h  K i r k b y noted however t h a t they  were fond o f s i n g i n g and appeared for  (CMS C . l / 0 ,  and he  t o have a good e a r  music and, d e s p i t e h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s  at Point  S e p a r a t i o n , he c o n s i d e r e d them a f i n e r a c e o f people and p r o b a b l y s u p e r i o r to the I n d i a n s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e (CMS,  C.1/0,  In  June 1 7 ,  l 8 6 l ) .  the e a r l y y e a r s o f Rev. Robert  MacDonald*s  m i s s i o n , c o n t a c t s w i t h the Eskimos i n c r e a s e d m a i n l y due  to the i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r v i s i t s t o  the f o r t .  Christianity  does not appear to have  impinged on them as s t r o n g l y a t t h i s stage as i t d i d on the K u t c h i n .  One  r e a s o n f o r t h i s was  the  of c o n v e r s i n g w i t h them, f o r though those frequented  the f o r t  who  spoke a f u r t r a d e " j a r g o n " w i t h  both whites and I n d i a n , those from f u r t h e r spoke o n l y the Eskimo language 1866;  Feb. 2k,  difficulty  1868).  (CMS  afield  C.l/O, May  MacDonald was  31,  to become w e l l  known f o r h i s Tukkuth l e x i c o g r a p h y , but he never mastered  the Eskimo tongue.  Consequently, no  e f f o r t s were made to p r e s e l y t i z e a r r i v a l of Rev. W.C.  fully  strong  the Eskimo u n t i l  ( l a t e r Bishop) Bompas i n  the  1870.  Bompas had e a r l y expressed the wish to c a r r y out m i s s i o n work among the Eskimos 1870)  and made a b r i e f v i s i t  (CMS,  C.l/O, J a n . 7 »  to the c o a s t i n  1871  d u r i n g which he noted some s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r way  of l i f e  The annual v i s i t s  a t that time (CMS,  C.l/O,  to the f o r t had now  e s t a b l i s h e d and were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c y c l e o f most f a m i l i e s . the v i s i t  I871).  become w e l l the y e a r l y  A f t e r the s p r i n g f i s h i n g  to F o r t McPherson to t r a d e , the  Eskimos  and  r e t u r n e d to the c o a s t to hunt s e a l , walrus,  some sea o t t e r and  the meat of which they cached  following winter.  u n t i l the  Whales and c a r i b o u were a l s o hunted  a l o n g the c o a s t d u r i n g the summer months and f i s h  nets  were s e t on the r i v e r s f o r w h i t e f i s h , inconnu and j a c k f i s h , w h i l e muskrat were taken by the Eskimos as they passed fort.  through  the D e l t a on t h e i r way to the  Though f o x and bear  were t r a d e d f o r tobacco,  s k i n s and some whale o i l  and i r o n pots and k e t t l e s , the  Mackenzie Eskimos were by no means s t r o n g l y dependent upon trade a t t h i s time,  though Bornpas expressed the  f e a r t h a t l i q u o r from the U n i t e d S t a t e s t r a d e r s i n A l a s k a might b r i n g about the d e g e n e r a t i o n Eskimos i n the D e l t a a r e a .  o f the  There was s u f f i c i e n t  i n t e r e s t i n trade by t h i s time f o r . the Eskimos to want a t r a d i n g post e s t a b l i s h e d halfway  between the Coast  and F o r t McPherson, a wish which was not to be f u l filled until  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  century l a t e r . first  direct  of A k l a v i k h a l f a  Though Bornpas' t r i p e s t a b l i s h e d the  c o n t a c t between the m i s s i o n a r i e s and the  Eskimos i n the home t e r r i t o r y of the l a t t e r , the was  not f o l l o w e d up and  take p l a c e mainly  effort  future contacts continued  to  a t F o r t McPherson.  Bompas• e a r l y approach to the Eskimos was  to  bear  f r u i t when he a c h i e v e d a p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y and  was  thus a b l e to promote the m i s s i o n to the Eskimos w i t h greater force. years.  T h i s was  In 1881,  not to occar however f o r twenty  as Bishop  s i n c e the Eskimos were now  of Athabasca, f r i e n d l y and  i n t e r p r e t e r s were a v a i l a b l e ,  he noted  that  s e v e r a l good  the time was  ripe for  appointing a missionary e x c l u s i v e l y responsible f o r works among them (CMS  C.l/O, May  9,  1881).  The  growing f e a r s of American i n f l u e n c e i n the  area  i n c r e a s e d Bompas' d e s i r e to have a m i s s i o n a r y i n the f i e l d but for  though the Canadian Government now  the f i r s t  time to pay  one h a l f of a  s a l a r y , the Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y was p o s i t i o n to make an appointment (CMS 1880).  offered  teacher's not i n a  C.l/O, Oct.  Bompas' a t t i t u d e to m i s s i o n work was  s h o u l d p r o v i d e a f o r c e f o r economic change i n  8,  that he  bettering  the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i n d i g e n o u s  peoples.  " I f we c o u l d i n t r o d u c e s c h o o l i n g , o r f a r m i n g  or even a steamer on t h i s m a g n i f i c e n t "it  might e l e v a t e somewhat  r i v e r , " he noted,  the c h a r a c t e r o f the l a n d (CMS, C . l / 0 ,  i n respect to c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  Nov. 28,  1881).  An appointment was f i n a l l y made i n the p e r s o n o f Rev.  1.0.  S t r i n g e r who f i r s t  summer o f 1 8 9 2 .  visited  the c o a s t i n the  When i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he was not  a t r a d e r he was not encouraged to s t a y by the Eskimos and moved on to H e r s c h e l I s l a n d where American whalers were a l r e a d y h a v i n g an impact on the Eskimo f a m i l i e s gathered  there  (CMS C . l / 0 ,  S t r i n g e r was a i d e d by the f a c t gathered  Sov. 1,  1893) .  t h a t Eskimos now  i n q u i t e l a r g e numbers d u r i n g the summer  e i t h e r a t t r a d i t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s - one o f which, at  the mouth o f the Mackenzie, had a good s i z e d l o g  meeting house which he used as a church l y a t whaling  s t a t i o n s (CMS C . l / 0 ,  Herschel I s l a n d i n 1894,  - or increasing-  June 1 8 9 4 ) .  S t r i n g e r d e s c r i b e d the  At  village  o f h a l f underground huts b u i l t  of poles  covered w i t h sod and snow which now c l u s t e r e d c l o s e to the  ships  and the presence o f Eskimos from the west  who had never v i s i t e d  P o r t McPherson.  Radical  change  was e v i d e n t l y underway and S t r i n g e r r e c o r d e d w i t h some anxiety:  "Influences  are bearing  i n , which w i l l  make  ( m i s s i o n a r y ) work f a r more d i f f i c u l t i n the y e a r s to come ... I f u l l y b e l i e v e the  t h a t a few y e a r s w i l l see  s a l v a t i o n o r the r u i n o f the Eskimos." (CMS C.l/O,  June  1894). In the f o l l o w i n g  two y e a r s a permanent  mission  was e s t a b l i s h e d among the Eskimos a t K i t t i g a z u i t , where a new b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d ,  and a t Hersehe1 I s l a n d ,  where one b u i l d i n g was purchased and another put up by  the American Whaling Company a t i t s own expense  (CMS C.l/O, 1 8 9 6 ) . desribed no  Though H e r s c h e l I s l a n d had been  as "the world's l a s t  jumping-off p l a c e ,  law e x i s t e d and no w r i t s r a n "  there  i s some evidence that  missionaries  where  ( W h i t t a k e r , 1937*  2  the whalers welcomed the  as a c i v i l i z i n g f o r c e .  By I896 however  35) »  the breakdown of the Eskimo s o c i a l l i f e  which had  accompanied the coming of the whalers had reached major p r o p o r t i o n s and the a c c u l t u r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the m i s s i o n a r i e s was p r o b a b l y in i t s practical effects,  subordinate, at l e a s t  to t h a t o f the w h a l e r s .  numbers of Eskimos now gathered  Large  at Herschel Island  d u r i n g the summer, where they worked o r hunted f o r the whaling  s h i p s , while  the w i n t e r s were spent i n  i d l e n e s s (CMS C.l/O, Feb. 1 1897). suggests  Jenness ( 1 9 6 4 :  15)  t h a t the r o l e o f the m i s s i o n a r y was to  " s t r e n g t h e n and r e s t o r e t h e i r s p i r i t u a l e q u i l i b r i u m , which had been p r o f o u n d l y shaken when the world of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s crumbled under the impact civilization."  of white  The m i s s i o n a r i e s made t h e i r s t r o n g e s t  c o n t a c t s w i t h the Eskimos of the Mackenzie D e l t a  just  when t h a t e q u i l i b r i u m was most d i s t u r b e d , (b) The K u t c h i n  (1860-1895)  F o r some years a f t e r i 8 6 0 , A n g l i c a n s and C a t h o l i c s continued F r . Seguin  to compete f o r the s o u l s of the K u t c h i n . continued  to v i s i t  the P e e l R i v e r a r e a  d u r i n g the s p r i n g s of I 8 6 3 ,  1864  and  1866  but  without  b e i n g a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a permanent m i s s i o n t h e r e to  the h o l d e s t a b l i s h e d by the A n g l i c a n s .  was  c o n s i d e r a b l y strengthened  when Rev.  C.1/0, Sept. 11;  MacDonald was  c f . S l o b o d i n , 1962:  remarkable i n t h a t he  This hold  Robert  MacDonald a r r i v e d i n the a r e a i n the f a l l (CMS  due  of  1866  25).  travelled  widely  a l o n g the network of p o s t s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Hudson's Bay  Company so t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e was  K u t c h i n of the Lower Yukon.  Though some attempts  were made by MacDonald to convert  the K u t c h i n of  Mackenzie R i v e r (Nugoochonjyet)^from (CMS  C.l/O, Nov.  success.  11,  the  Roman C a t h o l i c i s m  1867), these d i d not meet w i t h  Hence w h i l e r e l i g i o n tended  the K u t c h i n o f the P e e l and separated  f e l t among the  to draw  together  the Yukon R i v e r s , i t  them from those of the Lower.Mackenzie  A r c t i c Red  Rivers.  I n 1868  t h i s d i v i s i o n was  and  widened  when the O b l a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d a s m a l l m i s s i o n house first  at the mouth of the A r c t i c Red  Oct. 28,  1868)  and  R i v e r (CMS  l a t e r at Tretchigwarat,  C.l/M,  six miles  1  The term i s MacDonaH's. mentioned e a r l i e r .  These are the Nakotcho  downstream  (Lecuyer,  R i v e r people. prevent  n.d.) to serve  the Mackenzie  R e l i g i o u s s c r u p l e s d i d n o t , however,  Mackenzie R i v e r C a t h o l i c s from p a s s i n g through  P o r t McPherson  on t h e i r way to the mountains, and  even a t t e n d i n g A n g l i c a n c h u r c h s e r v i c e s there  (CMS  C . l / 0 , J u l y 8, 1876). Another source gradual  encroachment  of concern to MacDonald  o f American t r a d e r s i n the west.  A f t e r the purchase o f A l a s k a , U n i t e d companies with  was the  States  trading  sent s h i p s to the mouth of the Yukon R i v e r  the i n t e n t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a d i n g p o s t s  the r i v e r  along  (CMS C.l/M, O c t . 28, 1868)»which might have  drawn the K u t c h i n f u r t h e r away from the i n f l u e n c e not o n l y o f the Hudson's Bay Company but a l s o of the missionaries.  T h i s c o n c e r n was i n t e n s i f i e d when the  Hudson's Bay Company d e c i d e d  i n 1869 t o abandon  Yukon s i n c e i t was now b e l i e v e d to be on U n i t e d Territory. possession  The Church M i s s i o n a r y  Port States  S o c i e t y was g i v e n  o f the f o r t under the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the  Hudson's Bay Company c o u l d resume c o n t r o l should  s u r v e y s prove  i t to be i n B r i t i s h T e r r i t o r y a f t e r  but the u n f a v o u r a b l e  all,  r e a c t i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s  t r a d e r s P a r r o t t and Co. and Hutchinson, r e s u l t e d i n the I n d i a n s withdrawing the Hudson's Bay Company proposed  Kohl and Co.  to the e a s t .  s e t t i n g up a new  post a t the Rat (Porcupine) R i v e r on B r i t i s h time Canadian) t e r r i t o r y  When  (by t h i s  the m i s s i o n post was a l s o  moved t h e r e . MacDonald t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y through  the Canadian  p a r t o f the Yukon d u r i n g the 1870's, p r e a c h i n g and h o l d i n g s c h o o l at La P i e r r e House, Rampart House and F o r t Yukon as w e l l as a t F o r t McPherson.  The f a c t t h a t  he was p a r t l y of Cree descent, and soon a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l m a r r i e d a K u t c h i n woman, i n c r e a s e d h i s i n f l u e n c e w i t h the I n d i a n s o f t h i s v e r y l a r g e a r e a . an attempt  was made by F r . Giroux  Thus, when  to e s t a b l i s h a  permanent C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a t F o r t McPherson i n 1890 (Douchaussois,  1937: 3 3 ^ ; Lecuyer,  meet w i t h much s u c c e s s .  n.d.),  i t d i d not  I n 1891 F r s . Grouard and  L e f e b r e j o i n e d the m i s s i o n , the l a t t e r w i t h the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of m i n i s t e r i n g to the Eskimos, and the w i n t e r s  of 1892  and  1893» Giroux  toured  the camps  of the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n i n an attempt to g a i n and  in  to l e a r n the Tukkuth language (Lecuyer,  converts  nid.).  However, antagonism between the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s on the one and  hand and  the Hudson's Bay  Protestant Kutchin  ment i n 1895  on the other  The  l e d to the abandon-  °f the P e e l R i v e r M i s s i o n i n f a v o u r  permanent m i s s i o n at A r c t i c Red Licuyer,  River  of a 196I;  (Henoch,  n.d.). s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s l i e s  the A n g l i c a n s  i n the f a c t  the l a t t e r ,  that  p l a c e d more emphasis on n a t i v e c a t e c h i s t s  than d i d the C a t h o l i c s , so that w i t h  the d e p a r t u r e  the c a t e c h i s t s came to f i l l  r o l e among the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n . Slobodin  Company f a c t o r  (1962: 26):  possible exception,  an  important  According  to  " A l l the c a t e c h i s t s , w i t h were group l e a d e r s  and  p r i o r to t h e i r Church a c t i v i t y ;  men  who,  of  one  independently  t h a t i s , they were  i n s o c i a l groups l a r g e r than the f a m i l y but  s m a l l e r than the band g a t h e r i n g , were l i k e l y  to d i r e c t  economic or ceremonial  activity."  The A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n thus p l a y e d q u i t e a nificant  r o l e i n c o n f i r m i n g e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of  l e a d e r s h i p among the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n . important  t h a t the presence  of two  brought about the appearance of two c e n t r e s , one  distinct  f o r the e a s t e r n and one  c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d on a church k  t  nodal  f o r the western  (CMS,  rebuilt  C.l/0,  1 8 7 8 ) , F o r t McPherson was c l e a r l y the main  c e n t r e f o r the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n . still  missions  By I 8 7 6 , when the m i s s i o n house was  Kutchin.  Feb.  More  f o r the e v o l v i n g s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e of the  a r e a however was  and  sig-  gathered  at Rampart House and La P i e r r e House  (CMS,C.l/0, J a n 2 5 , attracted  Though I n d i a n s  1876),  the r e l i g i o u s  festivals  the l a r g e s t numbers to F o r t McPherson.  a d d i t i o n , some c h i l d r e n now  remained at the f o r t  a t t e n d s c h o o l , 15  doing so i n I 8 7 6  Sept. 27,  In 1877,  1876).  Kenneth l e f t  (CMS,  C.l/0,  MacDonald's b r o t h e r  the s e r v i c e o f the Church M i s s i o n a r y  S o c i e t y to become Hudson's Bay Company f a c t o r a t  In to  Rampart House, and MacDonald h i m s e l f suggested the l a r g e s i z e o f the d i s t r i c t visiting another to  him from  a l l those i n h i s charge and t h a t u n l e s s m i s s i o n a r y were a p p o i n t e d ,  cover the e n t i r e a r e a 6, 1879).  Feb.  prevented  that  i t would be i m p o s s i b l e  (CMS, C.l/O, Feb. k,  H i s journeys  I878;  to the Yukon d i d i n f a c t  become l e s s f r e q u e n t a f t e r that time, and c h r i s t i a n i z e d K u t c h i n i n c r e a s i n g l y came t o the m i s s i o n p o s t .  At  A r c t i c Red R i v e r a l s o , an e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e was t  beginning The  to appear about the Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n .  Hudson's Bay Company had maintained  f i s h e r y here and  f o r some time  a summer  (CMS, C.l/O, Sept. 2 7 ,  i n 1902 e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g outpost  there was l i t t l e visit  1867),  so t h a t now  reason f o r the e a s t e r n K u t c h i n to  F o r t McPherson.  4. The Impact o f the Gold Rush and o f Whaling I n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y two developments took p l a c e which l e d to a more a c t i v e interest  on the p a r t o f the Canadian Government i n  the Western A r c t i c . American whaling  These were the appearance of  s h i p s a l o n g the Canadian s e c t i o n of  the B e a u f o r t Sea c o a s t , and former a f f e c t e d  the Yukon Gold Rush.  The  the c o a s t a l Eskimos most s t r o n g l y  by i n t r o d u c i n g new  d i s e a s e s and new  patterns of  life,  w h i l e at the same time c a u s i n g a f a i r l y major immigrat i o n of A l a s k a n Eskimos.  The  latter affected  the  R i v e r K u t c h i n i n s h i f t i n g the f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n  Red from  P o r t McPherson to the K l o n d i k e and by i n t r o d u c i n g new f o r c e s of r a d i c a l c u l t u r e change which r e s u l t e d i n the emergence of a s u b - c u l t u r e of Dawson C i t y K u t c h i n . As f a r as e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s were concerned,  both  the Gold Rush and Whaling l e d to the appearance f o r the f i r s t  time i n t h i s a r e a of d i r e c t  agents  of the  F e d e r a l Government i n the form of o f f i c e r s of the R o y a l Northwest  ( l a t e r , R o y a l Canadian) Mounted P o l i c e ,  (a) The G o l d Rush During  the K l o n d i k e Gold Rush of  1898-99  and  the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g , the Mackenzie R i v e r p r o v i d e d a f a v o u r e d though tough r o u t e to the g o l d f i e l d s .  From  F o r t McPherson, p r o s p e c t o r s t r a v e l l e d up i n t o Wind and Rat R i v e r s u n t i l p r o g r e s s by  scow.  r a p i d s impeded t h e i r f u r t h e r  At these p o i n t s , c a l l e d Wind C i t y  and D e s t r u c t i o n C i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y , scows and waited u n t i l  s u f f e r e d were o f t e n i n t e n s e and scurvy and  hardships  a c r o s s to the Yukon w i t h the a i d of  i t was  many as 6 0 0 people 2 0 0 had  The  l a r g e numbers d i e d  guides from the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n . 1898-99  their  of exposure, though many succeeded i n  making t h e i r way  of  they broke up  freeze-up permitted e a s i e r  l a n d t r a v e l a c r o s s the mountains.  of  the  e s t i m a t e d by one  During informant  the  t h a t as  camped a t F o r t McPherson and  s m a l l e r camps i n the mountains.  i n c u r s i o n s of people  winter  another  Such l a r g e  from the south had an undoubted  e f f e c t upon the K u t c h i n w i t h whom they came i n t o c o n t a c t i n t r o d u c i n g them to a number of i n n o v a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g , r e p u t e d l y , money ( S l o b o d i n , The  most important  effect  was  to cause a s h i f t  1962s  30).  of the Gold Rush however  i n emphasis from F o r t McPherson  to Dawson C i t y which l a s t e d  three decades.  Those  P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n who as guides  accompanied the  stayed on the other s i d e of the mountains  to hunt, encouraged by  the i n f l a t e d p r i c e s to be  r e c e i v e d f o r meat i n Dawson C i t y and lities  prospectors  by  the  of p i c k i n g up d i s c a r d e d gear from  miners.  failed  I n time they were j o i n e d by o t h e r members  of the band u n t i l by 1901 Kutchin  possibi-  looked  most of the P e e l  River  to Dawson C i t y r a t h e r than to F o r t  McPherson. T h i s change i n o r i e n t a t i o n from the P e e l to Yukon c o n t i n u e d i n d u s t r y was  u n t i l about 1910  r a t i o n a l i z e d and  boom c h a r a c t e r .  the  when the g o l d mining  Dawson C i t y l o s t i t s  I t s e f f e c t s on the P e e l R i v e r people  have been d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by S l o b o d i n  (1962:30-35)*  i n p a r t i c u l a r the emergence of the g e n e r a t i o n  of  people he  1963)*  termed the "Dawson Boys" ( S l o b o d i n ,  These c o n s i s t e d of men time and  acquired  remained with  who  worked i n Dawson C i t y f o r a  there an urban s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which  them even a f t e r they d r i f t e d back to  the P e e l R i v e r , s e t t i n g them a p a r t from the  less  s t r o n g l y a c c u l t u r a t e d younger g e n e r a t i o n born a f t e r the r e t u r n from the Yukon.  In a d d i t i o n to  new  a t t i t u d e s they a l s o brought back to the P e e l R i v e r a number o f i n n o v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g b r e e c h - l o a d i n g and  rifles  canvas t e n t s . During  vacuum was  the absence of the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n , c r e a t e d i n the Upper D e l t a which  a  was  r e f l e c t e d i n g r e a t l y reduced trade f o r F o r t McPherson and  the c l o s i n g of Rampart House and  i n 1893  (Stewart,  1955s 2ko).  made by  the Hudson's Bay  La P i e r r e House  Though some attempt  Company f a c t o r John F i r t h  was to  s t i m u l a t e t r a d e w i t h the Eskimos, the whaling s h i p s the coast p r o v i d e d  a s t r o n g inducement f o r them to  s t a y away from F o r t McPherson. of Eskimos d i d go up  I n 1902,  a large party  to F o r t McPherson where many  c o n t r a c t e d measles from I n d i a n s v i s i t i n g from Dawson C i t y s i d e .  The  the  r e s u l t i n g epidemic on the  c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced the number of the Mackenzie Eskimos p a r t i c u l a r l y , and reason  on  f o r Eskimo v i s i t s  coast  original  provided  another  to the P e e l R i v e r to become  between 1905  In a l l ,  Upper D e l t a and  the Lower P e e l R i v e r were largely-  deserted The  by  the Eskimos and  the Gold Rush s i n c e , a f t e r  of the m i s s i o n  A r c t i c Red  River,  A r c t i c Red  f o r C a t h o l i c missionary  R i v e r was  the g o l d f i e l d s f o r which Mgr.  The  i n 1900  A r c t i c Red  with  Lower Mackenzie and  two  now  i n 1901  and  entirely  who  i n towards F r . Le C r e f f  (Lecuyer,  trapping  n.d.).  still the  a permanent t r a d i n g post Nagle, a f a c t  which  to the m i s s i o n a r i e s and  Company f a c t o r a l i k e  which confirmed  of  however a base  Grouard and  with hunting  caused some c o n s t e r n a t i o n  and  and  l o c a l guides  e s t a b l i s h e d by Hyslop and  Hudson's Bay  less  the abandonment  R i v e r people themselves were  p r i m a r i l y occupied  was  were  work among the Eskimos,  were v i s i t e d by F r . G i r o u x i n 1899»  departed  alike.  at F o r t McPherson i n f a v o u r  t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n was  towards the e a s t .  the  Peel River Kutchin  C a t h o l i c Mackenzie R i v e r K u t c h i n s  a f f e c t e d by i n 1893  and  1910  l e s s frequent.  (Lecuyer,  the  n.d.),  the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the Mackenzie  R i v e r p e o p l e towards A r c t i c Red  River.  (b) Whaling Whaling had s i n c e the middle principally  been a c t i v e on the n o r t h A l a s k a of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and  coast  directed  towards the Bowhead whale which p r o v i d e d  b o t h whale o i l and  baleen.  p r o d u c t s d u r i n g the l a t e  As r i s i n g p r i c e s f o r  1880's encouraged a deeper  p e n e t r a t i o n of these waters, f a r east as H e r s c h e l I s l a n d . cutter Thetis  was  such  some s h i p s w i n t e r e d When the U.S.  sent there i n 1889  as  revenue  to determine  the i s l a n d ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the Canadian-U.S. border,  a number of whaling  s h i p s were a l r e a d y i n the  v i c i n i t y i n c l u d i n g the Grampus and Herschel Island i t s e l f 1964:  2).  the Mary D. Hume a t  ( S t o c k t o n , 1890;  cf_. C u r r i e ,  Continually r i s i n g prices especially for  b a l e e n on the one  hand and  the s u i t a b i l i t y as a harbour  of P a u l i n e Cove on the south s i d e of the i s l a n d  on  the o t h e r hand, made t h i s a f a v o u r e d p l a c e f o r whalers to g a t h e r d u r i n g the I 8 9 O ' s . a s i n g l e whale was yield  By  1893  the b a l e e n  worth $ 8 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 and  i n a d d i t i o n $100  p e r ton (Foote, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  from  the o i l and  no  fewer than f i f t e e n s h i p s spent Island  (CMS,  C.l^O, June, 1894;  In a l l ,  170  s h i p s are e s t i m a t e d  the w i n t e r on Jenness, 1964:  13).  to have wintered  o f P o i n t Barrow between the years (poote,  Herschel  I889 and  east  1914  1964), w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t upon the  indigenous The  population.  most important  of these was  the d e p l e t i o n of  the p o p u l a t i o n by d i s e a s e s to which the Mackenzie Eskimos had v e r y weak immunity. d i s e a s e s imported between I85O and  The  by the whalers had  worst ravage of been f e l t  I885, d u r i n g which time the Eskimo  p o p u l a t i o n of the n o r t h c o a s t had been h a l v e d 1964), and  i n Alaska  these e f f e c t s were c o n t i n u e d  p a r t of the c o a s t a f t e r 1889.  (Foote,  i n the Canadian  In a d d i t i o n , the measles  epidemic brought i n from the Yukon a l s o took a heavy t o l l among the Mackenzie Eskimos and which was  c r e a t e d a vacuum  f i l l e d by an i n c r e a s i n g number of  immigrants.  According  to Usher's ( 1 9 7 ^  Alaskan  estimates,  the t o t a l n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n between Demarcation P o i n t and B a i l l i e  I s l a n d was  over 350,  of whom 250  were  Mackenzie  Eskimos ( c a l l e d  A l a s k a n immigrants. remained  While  " K o g m o l l i c k s " ) and 100 the Mackenzie  Eskimos  a l o n g the c o a s t the Alaskans d r i f t e d  into  the D e l t a to take up t r a p p i n g . Of almost equal importance  to changes i n demography  were those which were induced i n e c o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s and nodes o f l i f e . w i t h the Eskimos, to  Uninterested at f i r s t  i n trading  the whalers were e v e n t u a l l y  compelled  do so by the p r a c t i c e of w i n t e r i n g i n the A r c t i c  which made them dependent upon Eskimo hunters f o r meat.  The commodities  cheaper  o f f e r e d i n t r a d e were not o n l y  than those a v a i l a b l e from the f u r t r a d e r s but  of  much g r e a t e r v a r i e t y .  F i r e a r m s were f i r s t  offered  in  trade a f t e r I863 and l i q u o r a f t e r 1870 (Foote, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  as w e l l as a number o f f o o d items which had not been o f f e r e d to the Eskimo b e f o r e (Stevenson, 1 9 6 8 a ) . 1891,  In  Eskimos went up to F o r t McPherson w i t h many  e x o t i c items gained i n t r a d e w i t h the whalers and an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt  was made by John F i r t h , the  Hudson's Bay Company f a c t o r ,  to persuade  the Americans  not  to trade  i n exchange f o r m a i l i n g p r i v i l e g e s v i a  the Company's f a c i l i t i e s  (Stewart, 1955$ 2 6 2 ) .  a d d i t i o n a combined e f f o r t was Archdeacon MacDonald and whaling captains  restrict  J.S. the  made by F i r t h ,  tinued  Stringer,  C a m s e l l to have indiscriminate  cir-  However, the w h a l i n g s h i p s  to a t t r a c t p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s from the  t r a d i n g companies, not less frequently,  the  1895  c u l a t i o n of l i q u o r w i t h some e f f e c t a f t e r (Stevenson, 1 9 6 8 b ) .  In  con-  established  o n l y among the Eskimo but  the I n d i a n  people.  As  e a r l y as  also, 1889»  I n d i a n s from the v i c i n i t y of Rampart House were a t Barter  Island  (Stockton,  House at H e r s c h e l I s l a n d In r e t u r n f o r trade  I 8 9 0 ) and  (Stewart, 1955:  as a consequence, s u f f e r e d  depleted at the  herds and  provided  with driftwood  p l e t e d i s r u p t i o n of p r e - e x i s t i n g e c o l o g i c a l Both c a r i b o u  Pierre  262).  goods, the Eskimos  the whaling s h i p s w i t h meat and w i n t e r f u e l and,  i n I 8 9 6 of La  for  the  com-  patterns.  marine mammals were s e r i o u s l y  to p r o v i d e f o r the needs of the whales  same time, the m a t e r i a l  c u l t u r e of the  and,  Eskimos  was  p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d as the r i f l e  came i n t o common  use and  the whaleboats r e p l a c e d the umiak and  kayak.  I n 1906,  to  the p r i c e of b a l e e n f e l l  40 cents per l l i b . (Stevenson,  where i t had 1964), and  s o l d f o r $1.53  the whaling  B e a u f o r t Sea f o r good.  1969;  the  drastically  C u r r i e , 1964:  per l b . i n . 1863  2)  (Foote,  s h i p s began to l e a v e the A c c o r d i n g to Jenness (1964;:  14):  The whalers who had accompanied or f o l l o w e d up the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p l o r e r s had k i l l e d o f f most of the whales i n the waters of Canada's E a s t e r n and Western A r c t i c , had unconcernedly decimated the Eskimo i n h a b i t a n t s o f both r e g i o n s , and had d e s t r o y e d t h e i r indpendence by r e p l a c i n g w i t h manufactured goods the t o o l s and weapons, the stone c o o k i n g v e s s e l s and the s k i n boats t h a t they c o u l d make from l o c a l m a t e r i a l s w i t h t h e i r own hands. Now at the c e n t u r y ' s end, h a v i n g s h a t t e r e d the a b o r i g i n a l economy, the whalers were d e p a r t i n g , and the Eskimos no l o n g e r p o s s e s s i n g t h e i r a n c i e n t s k i l l s or food r e s o u r c e s , had to b u i l d t h e i r economy on a new base or p e r i s h . (c)  The  Police  Both the Gold Rush i n the Yukon and  the  whaling  boom a l o n g the A r c t i c Coast r e s u l t e d i n the appearance of  the Royal Northwest Mounted P o l i c e to m a i h t a i n  Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y .  In the Yukon the major  concern  had been to prevent  the l a w l e s s n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Gold Rush towns i n A l a s k a s p r e a d i n g to territory.  Canadian  I n the B e a u f o r t Sea a r e a as elsewhere  the A r c t i c i t was  to c o n f i r m Canadian  which might otherwise be d i s p u t e d . Neptune e x p e d i t i o n was  right  in  to areas  Thus i n 1903,  launched i n the e a s t  the  (Jenness,  196k?. 18) and p o l i c e p o s t s e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t McPhecson f  and H e r s c h e l I s l a n d i n the west.  That  sovereignty  was  the main i s s u e i n these events i s i n d i c a t e d i n f e a r s expressed by S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r c o n c e r n i n g the r i s k s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s e s t a b l i s h i n g p o s t s i n the A r c t i c , like  that "at the mouth of the Mackenzie  R i v e r " and  e v e n t u a l l y l a y i n g c l a i m to these a r e a s (PAC, I I , B 1,  v o l . 2 : 72).  There  is a local  MG  27,  t r a d i t i o n i n the  Mackenzie D e l t a that c o n t i n u i n g h o s t i l i t y between the I n d i a n and Eskimos prompted John F i r t h to a p p e a l f o r p o l i c e a s s i s t a n c e (.cf. Rasmussen, 1927* 3 0 l ) , but t h i s i s not l i k e l y consideration.  to have been o t h e r than a minor  Constantine  o f K l o n d i k e fame ( c f , B e r t o n ,  1963:  27)  t r a v e l l e d down the Mackenzie to s e t up the p o l i c e at  Tort McPherson accompanied by Sergeant  post  Fitzgerald  and C o r p o r a l S u t h e r l a n d , who were to proceed  to the  H e r s c h e l I s l a n d p o s t , " t o c o l l e c t duty and prevent the d e m o r a l i z a t i o n of the Eskimo" ( L o n g s t r e t h , 1933:  2^2).  I n f a c t , t h e i r d u t i e s were f a r from  c l e a r i n the e a r l y  stages and they f r e q u e n t l y operated  on b l u f f r a t h e r  than c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y ( G o d s e l l , 19^2; Stevenson,  1969)•  C e r t a i n l y the major a n t a g o n i s t was  c l e a r to the o f f i c e r s i n the f i e l d as S u t h e r l a n d wrote from H e r s c h e l I s l a n d :  " I t i s a beastly b u s i n e s s  and I wish I were out of i t .  But I've t r i e d not to  s h i r k my duty so f a r , but suppose I must s t i c k i t out to show these Yankees that there i s a law or two even i n the A r c t i c . "  ( L o n g s t r e t h , 1927:  265).  Ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h the American  whalers  were  impeded however by the l a c k of a u t h o r i t y , as C o n s t a n t i n e • s s u c c e s s o r I n s p e c t o r Howard r e p e a t e d l y reminded h i s superiors  (RNWMP, 1906,  1907).  The presence o f the p o l i c e i n the A r c t i c was significant  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  context i t s i g n a l l e d  I n the w i d e r  the b e g i n n i n g of a government  in  the a r e a w h i l e a t the same time d e f i n i n g t h a t  in  static  terms.  role  role  I t was accompanied however by the  c r e a t i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n the Northwest Territories the  Amendment A c t o f 1905 which p r o v i d e d f o r  appointment o f a Commissioner and a C o u n c i l o f  f o u r members (Rea, 1968s 3 4 ; Jenness, 1964: as  21),  though  JJenness p r o p e r l y o b s e r v e s , the appointment o f a  s e n i o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r , L t . C o l . P r e d e r i k White, to the p o s i t i o n o f Commissioner d i d not suggest an a t t i t u d e of c r e a t i v e development.  The A c t n o n e t h e l e s s l a i d t h e  foundations f o r future p o l i t i c a l  development.  Beyond  some a s s i s t a n c e towards the p a y i n g o f t e a c h e r s * salaries,  however, (PAC, RG 1 8 , A 2)  little  c o n t r i b u t i o n was made towards the s o c i a l of the  the A r c t i c .  official  development  On the o t h e r hand, a t the l o c a l  level  p o l i c e f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d towards the w e l f a r e  of i n d i g e n o u s people by s u p p o r t i n g those i n need and by  protecting  them f o r some of the worst e f f e c t s o f  commercial  exploitation.  (1840-1912)  S>. Changes i n E c o l o g y and N o d a l i t y When the f u r trade began i n 1 8 4 0 ,  the Mackenzie  Beslta was p e r i p h e r a l to the p r e - c o n t a c t  ecological  systems o f both  the Mackenzie Eskimos and the P e e l  River Kutchin.  Though there i s evidence  t h a t numbers  o f both groups o c c u p i e d i t s n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n s f o r l i m i t e d times  each y e a r ,  the f o c u s o f  a c t i v i t i e s was elsewhere.  The K u t c h i n l i v e d f o r most  of the y e a r i n the mountains between the P e e l and the Yukon d r a i n a g e b a s i n s , where t r a d i t i o n p o i n t s t o the n o r t h e r n O g i l v i e and western R i c h a r d s o n  Mountains as  the major w i n t e r h u n t i n g grounds ( s i o b o d i n , 1 9 6 2 :  16).  Eskimo t e r r i t o r y on the o t h e r hand comprised the Arctic  l i t t o r a l from Demarcation P o i n t to Cape  B a t h u r s t w i t h some movement i n t o the Eskimo Lakes and Anderson R i v e r areas The  (Richardson,  1851:  215).  D e l t a was used by both people f o r f i s h i n g  during  the  summer months and  the Lower P e e l and  the K u t c h i n hunted muskrat i n  probably  there i s enough evidence peoples  (Whymper, 1869:  Mackenzie, 1904: o f a "No  254)  the Upper D e l t a .  of h o s t i l i t y  However,  between the  225» R i c h a r d s o n ,  1851s  two  215;  to g i v e n credence to the  concept  Man's Land" which comprised the g r e a t e r p a r t  of the c e n t r a l  D e l t a and  ( S l o b o d i n , 1962s as S e p a r a t i o n f i s h during  18).  was  shunned by both  Eskimos v e n t u r e d  P o i n t , and  from the Mackenzie R i v e r K u t c h i n , River Kutchin  as f a r upstream  perhaps A r c t i c Red  the summer m a i n t a i n i n g  peoples  River,  a cautious but w i t h  t h e i r c o n t a c t s were few  and  to  distance  the  Peel  invariably  bellicose. While o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s immediately t o g e t h e r ,  d i d not drawn both  they d i d have the  peoples  effect  of  making p e a c e f u l c o n t a c t s more common e s p e c i a l l y I865»  when Eskimos began to v i s i t  l a r g e numbers to t r a d e . fur  trade had  P o r t McPherson i n  Though the e f f e c t which  upon the Eskimo i s not  seems v e r y p r o b a b l e  after  entirely  the  sure i t  t h a t the n e c e s s i t y of v i s i t i n g  Port  McPherson drew them more deeply  and  frequently  into  the Mackenzie D e l t a , where they congregated at camps, one  o f which was  probably  A k l a v i k , f o r s e v e r a l weeks. Peel River Kutchin  missions  The  the same time  of  the  to hunt muskrat between  l a t e summer v i s i t s to the f o r t .  The  which i n c r e a s e d i n importance d u r i n g  1870*3 and provided  site  a l s o moved down to the upper p a r t  of the D e l t a to f i s h and s p r i n g and  At  the present  fishing  1880's, and  the f a c t  t h a t one  their religious  the  sect p r e v a i l e d ,  a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r convergence. G o l d Rush and  the whaling boom had  the  effect  of drawing both people away from the D e l t a d u r i n g  the  c r u c i a l summer months so t h a t fewer meetings of Eskimo and  Kutchin  took p l a c e between 1902  the K u t c h i n d i d not f r e q u e n t  and  1912.  the P e e l R i v e r  t h i s p e r i o d , the Eskimos were engaged a l o n g i n support  While during the  a c t i v i t i e s f o r the w h a l i n g s h i p s or  congregated a i m l e s s l y at the whaling d e p o t s .  coast simply  During  t h i s time the o r i g i n a l Mackenzie Eskimos d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y i n numbers so t h a t when a movement back  into  the D e l t a e v e n t u a l l y took p l a c e i t i n v o l v e d  largely different  actors.  F o r the most p a r t the  r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d Mackenzie Eskimo had been r e p l a c e d by more h i g h l y a c c u l t u r a t e d , o r i e n t e d Eskimos who eastward from By 1912,  the whaling  o f g r a v i t y f o r both the P e e l  and the Eskimo who  now  came to r e - f o c u s  this  With the  g r a v e l s , the K u t c h i n  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s upon F o r t McPherson  though t h e i r way  upon the r e s o u r c e s until  inhabited  s h i f t i n g back towards the D e l t a .  working out of the r i c h e r K l o n d i k e  and  ships  Alaska. the c e n t r e  River Kutchin a r e a was  had f o l l o w e d  commercially  of l i f e  still  rested primarily  o f the mountains and was  to do so  the e a r l y 1920's, the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  Kutchin  c o u l d now be much more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d  the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the s e t t l e m e n t .  Similarly,  with  with  the d e c l i n e of w h a l i n g and the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f most of the w h a l e r - t r a d e r s , through the D e l t a a g a i n McPherson.  the Eskimos too were drawn to trade  t h e i r f u r s at Fort  Residence i n Dawson C i t y and c o n t a c t  with  the whaling s h i p s had c r e a t e d a s e t of more complex needs f o r each people t h a t bound them i r r e v o c a b l y to the f u r t r a d e .  F o r t McPherson formed the n o d a l  centre  i n which some of these needs were met about which both the Eskimo and the K u t c h i n  organized  their  a c t i v i t y i n the decade which f o l l o w e d .  trapping  CHAPTER I I I  (1912-1929)  CONVERGENCE UPON THE MACKENZIE DELTA  1.  Introduction  The p e r i o d from 1912  to 1929  saw a s h i f t i n the  h u n t i n g p a t t e r n s o f both the K u t c h i n and Eskimo peoples  towards the Mackenzie D e l t a i t s e l f .  t h i s was in  the r e s u l t  o f an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f  In part, interest  the f u r t r a d e g e n e r a l l y which accompanied a  r i s e i n the p r i c e s r e c e i v e d f o r a l l f u r s , cularly  f o r muskrat.  sharp  and p a r t i -  Thus white f o x s o l d f o r $ 5 0 . 0 0  i n P o r t McPherson i n 1919  compared w i t h $ 2 . 5 0  only  f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r , marten f o r $55«00 compared $2.50,  and mink f o r $ 2 0 . 0 0 compared  (PAC, RG 18, F l ) . Though  with  with  $1.00  the p r i c e o f muskrat d i d  not r i s e as d r a s t i c a l l y , from some kO c e n t s i n 19lk to $ 1 . 5 0  i n 1920  ( S l o b o d i n , 1962:  36),  muskrat  may  be taken i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s at break-up w i t h a relatively  small expenditure  of e f f o r t .  I t was  this  c o n s i d e r a t i o n more than any o t h e r which made the Mackenzie D e l t a , the a r e a i n which muskrat are prolific, people.  attractive  to both the K u t c h i n and  However, the d r i f t  D e l t a was  a l s o connected  especially  Eskimo  of p o p u l a t i o n i n t o  the  w i t h the movement away from  o t h e r areas d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r  and  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e c l i n e of whaling a l o n g the c o a s t and  of g o l d - m i n i n g 1912,  In form who  i n the Yukon.  though the Eskimo and K u t c h i n d i d not  two homogeneous c o h e s i v e groups,  there were  few  were not bound to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r e x t e n t  the f u r t r a d e .  Most had  to  i n f a c t become dependent  upon a wide range of t r a d e goods so t h a t , though they still did  lived  "on the l a n d " i n the l i t e r a l sense,  so o n l y w i t h h u n t i n g and  t r a p p i n g equipment,  c l o t h i n g and even some food p r o v i d e d by the companies. to  new  Thus they tended  trading  to be q u i t e r e s p o n s i v e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d by changes i n the  s t r u c t u r e o f the f u r f / t r a d e . 1929  they  saw  The  p e r i o d from 1912  the dependence upon t r a p p i n g become even  price to  g r e a t e r as the number of t r a d i n g companies and i n c r e a s e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the D e l t a and coast*  I n the p a s t , the f o r t s had  along  the  been o c c u p i e d  o n l y three i n s t i t u t i o n s a t most - the Hudson's Company, the church and, and  posts  by  Bay  more r e c e n t l y , the p o l i c e  t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s had been e n t i r e l y white or  i n ethnic o r i g i n .  During  Metis  the n i n e t e e n t w e n t i e s as  number of t r a d i n g p o s t s i n c r e a s e d and i n s t i t u t i o n s became more apparent,  other  -  the  southern  they came to more  c l o s e l y resemble s e t t l e m e n t s than merely t r a d i n g or mission posts.  I n the l a t t e r p a r t of the p e r i o d some  I n d i a n and Eskimo people permanent r e s i d e n t s .  c o u l d even be regarded  These two  convergence upon the D e l t a and  as  developments - the the growth of  ments per se - were accompanied by  settle-  the emergence of  the " D e l t a Community" i n which e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s were subsumed by common i n t e r e s t s i n trade and o r i e n t a t i o n towards s e t t l e m e n t Though the two t r a d i n g p o s t s and  an  life.  a s p e c t s of the p r o l i f e r a t i o n  the convergence o f n a t i v e  of  peoples  upon the D e l t a are o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d ,  they w i l l be  d e a l t with separately i n t h i s chapter. considered  F i r s t w i l l be  the changes which took p l a c e i n the economic  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y the growth i n the number o f t r a d i n g l o c a t i o n s .  The g r o s s movements  o f the K u t c h i n and Eskimo people  and the changes which  o c c u r r e d i n t h e i r s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n of a c t i v i t i e s which paralleled  t h i s growth i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w i l l be  c o n s i d e r e d second.  2 . T r a d i n g L o c a t i o n s i n the D e l t a F o r t McPherson and A k l a v i k The s h i f t  of t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t y towards the D e l t a  was p a r a l l e l e d by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g activity. still  shift  i n trading  Though both K u t c h i n and Eskimo  trappers  t r a d e d a t F o r t McPherson, a l t e r n a t i v e t r a d i n g  l o c a t i o n s were b e g i n n i n g important  to emerge.  The most  o f these was A k l a v i k which was e s t a b l i s h e d  as a t r a d i n g post i n  1912  and by the e a r l y 1 9 2 0 s ,  had become a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a number o f t r a d i n g  companies and o t h e r s o u t h e r n i n s t i t u t i o n s . importance D e l t a and  arose from i t s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n the the s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h i s gave i t as the  p r i n c i p a l p o i n t f o r the t r a d e i n muskrat. it  I t s major  Also since  soon c o n t a i n e d a v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s and became  a more f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d p o i n t , i t s f u n c t i o n  differed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that of F o r t McPherson. Though both I n d i a n s and Eskimos gathered i n l a r g e numbers to t r a d e a t F o r t McPherson i n June and  July  and o c c a s i o n a l l y a t o t h e r times of the y e a r a l s o , d u r i n g i t s e i g h t y - y e a r h i s t o r y i t had never been o t h e r than an a l i e n o u t p o s t .  I t s p o p u l a t i o n had been almost  e x c l u s i v e l y white or M e t i s and the i n s t i t u t i o n s i t c o n t a i n e d e x i s t e d s o l e l y to serve a c l i e n t e l e which was  not permanently  i n r e s i d e n c e , but which merely  passed through a t c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d  times of the y e a r  i n o r d e r to s a t i s f y a number o f wants.  These c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s were r e f l e c t e d i n i t s i n t e r n a l morphology which was  dominated  the A n g l i c a n c h u r c h .  by the Hudson's Bay Company and At the b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d  under review F o r t McPherson c o n t a i n e d s t o r e s o f the Hudson's Bay Company and N o r t h e r n T r a d i n g Company, the church b u i l d i n g s , p o l i c e b a r r a c k s ,  twenty  r e s i d e n c e s i n c l u d i n g the m i s s i o n and t h i r t e e n b u i l d i n g s and a permanent p o p u l a t i o n o f 112  other  (ACR,  F o r t McPherson, 1914, 1915). Prom 1912  to 1920, o t h e r t r a d i n g p o s t s were  e s t a b l i s h e d i n a d d i t i o n to those the b e g i n n i n g .  two i n e x i s t e n c e a t  The Scogate M e r c a n t i l e Company opened  a s t o r e i n 1 9 l 4 b r i n g i n g i n s u p p l i e s from Dawson City  (PAC, RG 18, A l ) , Lamson and Hubbard i n 1919*  u s i n g the Mackenzie R i v e r r o u t e  (ACR, F o r t McPherson,  1 9 1 9 ) , and t h r e e others i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the period  ( F i g . 3-1;  Appendix A ) .  however soon overtaken  F o r t McPherson was  by A k l a v i k . i n s i z e , number o f  t r a d i n g p o s t s and q u a n t i t i e s o f f u r s e n t e r i n g i n t o t r a d e and by 1929 a l l the new p o s t s had been abandoned l e a v i n g o n l y the Hudson's Bay Company r e m a i n i n g .  In  a d d i t i o n , soon a f t e r A k l a v i k ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i t assumed some o f the o t h e r r o l e s p r e v i o u s l y enjoyed by  I H  >  H  <t>  fl)  P O, - H-  3  VO  f- IS to o  CD ct ct O 01 H M \o to ro ct  vo P CT H H(fl  0*  <B P>  ft  cr  ©  r o s  fl)  o  (D  3  N  H<D  The  O r i g i n and Growth o f A k l a v i k A k l a v i k had i t s b e g i n n i n g s  i n 1915 when  Northern  T r a d e r s and l a t e r the Hudson's Bay Company p l a c e d a post a t Pokiak P o i n t o r Shingnek ( B i g P o i n t ) o p p o s i t e the p r e s e n t The  site  (Toronto S t a r Weekly, Feb. 1 9 ,  p o s t s were d i r e c t e d  towards the Eskimo trade  p r i n c i p a l l y which had tended  to f a l l  to the whaler-  t r a d e r s from West Coast p o r t s who now p l i e d Coast.  1927).  the A r c t i c  Due t o the cheaper t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v i a B e r i n g  S t r a i t lower  p r i c e s c o u l d be maintained  t r a d e r s a t H e r s c h e l I s l a n d than by t h e i r a t F o r t McPherson and A r c t i c Red R i v e r .  by the whalercompetitors F o r example,  f l o u r was $6 to $8 p e r hundred pounds a t H e r s c h e l I s l a n d and $18 a t McPherson ( i b i d . ) .  The new p o s t s  f u r t h e r down i n the D e l t a were i n t e n d e d  to draw some  of the Eskimo trade back t o western Canadian interests.  business  With the i n c r e a s e i n the importance of  the trade i n muskrats they assumed new s i g n i f i c a n c e as the n u c l e i f o r the growth of a new D e l t a s e t t l e m e n t .  As e a r l y as 1915 i t was r e c o r d e d Bay  t h a t the Hudson's  Company post had a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e g a t h e r i n g of  Eskimos i n December when the w h a l e r - t r a d e r s had gone south a g a i n .  A f t e r some e a r l y d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n d o c k i n g r i v e r steamers a t Pokiak  P o i n t , both the  Hudson's Bay Company and the Northern (the s u c c e s s o r to N o r t h e r n p r e s e n t s i t e i n 1921  experienced  T r a d i n g Company  T r a d e r s ) moved t o the  ( i b i d . ) which had by t h i s  time  been g i v e n the bame of A k l a v i k ( P l a c e o f the Brown Bear). During  the 1 9 2 0 ' s a number o f o t h e r t r a d i n g p o s t s  a l s o l o c a t e d a t A k l a v i k ( F i g . 3-1» Appendix A) many o f which were s h o r t - l i v e d .  Some r e p r e s e n t e d  companies such as the Hudson's Bay Company,  large Northern  T r a d i n g Company, H. L i e b e s and Company and LamsonHubbard, w h i l e o t h e r s were operated pendent, and sometimes i t i n e r a n t  by s m a l l , i n d e -  traders.  H. L i e b e s  and Company, the San F r a n c i s c o f u r w h o l e s a l e r s u p p l i e d by Capt. C T . Pedersen v i a B e r i n g  was  Strait  (NANR, NALB, 5 4 0 - 3 , v o l . 3) but a l l o t h e r s were s u p p l i e d  by  the Mackenzie system by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n under the  c o n t r o l o f e i t h e r the Hudson's Bay Company o r the N o r t h e r n T r a d i n g Company. maintained  a post from 1921  was s u p p l i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y  The Lamson-Hubbard  Company  (PAC, RG 18, F l ) which until  the company and i t s  s u b s i d i a r y , the A l b e r t a and A r c t i c  Transportation  Company, were purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1924 (NANR, NASF, 3 8 6 , 3 8 9 ; I n n i s , 1956: Improvements i n t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s  372).  and i n t e n s e  com-  p e t i t i o n between the t r a d i n g companies encouraged p r i c e s to f a l l  to the l e v e l o f those  of Herschel  I s l a n d and A k l a v i k s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t r a c t e d the Eskimo t r a d e as w e l l as some o f t h a t of P e e l R i v e r people who were d r i f t i n g back to the D e l t a .  I t was c l e a r  t h a t not o n l y d i d the Hudson's Bay Company no l o n g e r enjoy a monopoly, but t h a t A k l a v i k had assumed a dominant p o s i t i o n as a t r a d i n g l o c a t i o n * I n o t h e r ways a l s o AklaviJfc was d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y as a s e t t l e m e n t .  I n 1920 i t was recommended  s i n c e A k l a v i k was "now f r e q u e n t e d  that  more than any o t h e r  i n the s u b - d i s t r i c t by the n a t i v e s " a p o l i c e post should  be s e t up there  (PAC, RG 1 8 , A l ) .  the p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s was i n f a c t  In 1922,  t r a n s f e r r e d from  F o r t McPherson (NANR, NALB, 5 ^ 0 - 3 , v o l . l ) , cons t r u c t i o n was s t a r t e d on the b u i l d i n g s f o r the Anglican mission post  (ACR, A k l a v i k , 1 9 2 2 ) , and the f i r s t  o f f i c e o f the western A r c t i c e s t a b l i s h e d  A survey p a r t y l a i d out the townsite  (ibid.).  i n the summer of  1922 and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r c o n s t r u c t i o n began on a h o s p i t a l which would "embody i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s such as a r e economic and can be s u p p l i e d from the Arctic."  (ACR, A k l a v i k ,  1923).  By the mid-twenties,  A k l a v i k was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d as the major  centre  o f the r e g i o n w i t h a number o f f a c i l i t i e s which had not  e x i s t e d to date elsewhere. By  the mid-twenties i t was d e s c r i b e d  as the  Canadian c a p i t a l o f the Western A r c t i c w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f o l l o w s : "The Hudson's Bay Company, the N o r t h e r n T r a d e r ' s Company and one o r more independent t r a d e r s have permanent establishments; the Royal Canadian  Mounted P o l i c e have an important post of f o u r men w i t h a non-commissioned o f f i c e r i n charge. They a l s o handle the p o s t b f f i c e . A d u l y q u a l i f i e d p h y s i c i a n , who ministers to a l l and sundry as o c c a s i o n demands, forms p a r t of the p o l i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A government s a w - m i l l i s a l s o under t h e i r management* C o u r t , p r e s i d e d over by an A l b e r t a judge, s i t s once a y e a r . There are m i s s i o n s o f the A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c churches, w i t h s c h o o l s and h o s p i t a l ; There i s a r a d i o s t a t i o n managed by men of the S i g n a l S e r v i c e o f the M i l i t i a Department which sends and r e c e i v e s to and through s t a t i o n s at Simpson and Smith to Edmonton, and a l s o to Dawson and Mayo i n the Yukon. (Toronto S t a r Weekly, Feb. 19. 1 9 2 7 ) . Though F o r t McPherson r e t a i n e d a t r a d i n g post f o r a w h i l e a g a i n s t Aklavik,  the  i t s p o s i t i o n as competition  l a t t e r assumed a dominant p o s i t i o n  e s p e c i a l l y i n the important muskrat trade a f t e r 1925 The  (Fig.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of e a r l y A k l a v i k  as a c e n t r e  been noted elsewhere  as new  s o c i a l problems appeared.  it  noted that  firm  of  (Slobodin,  Some of the p a t h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of urban  l i f e were becoming apparent at a l l o f the  was  some time  3-2).  f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y has 1962& 37)•  from  settlements  I n F o r t McPherson  "with the advent of the new  (Northern Trading  Company) has  gambling epidemic among n a t i v e s  and  crept  trading  in a  w h i t e s " (ACR,  Fort  1915-16 Fig.  20-21 3-2  25-26  30-31  Muskrat  Traded  Company  i n Mackenzie  35-36  a t the Hudson's  1915-16 t o 1940-41  Delta  4C  Bay  Settlements,  McPherson, 1920). boats N o r t h l a n d  The.annual a r r i v a l of the steam-  Trade and  D i s t r i b u t o r had generally-  c r e a t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n e b r i a t i o n among the whites, but l i q u o r was  now  having a wide  among Eskimo and I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s a l s o .  circulation These  t e n d e n c i e s were most s t r o n g l y marked i n A k l a v i k , to a l a r g e e x t e n t due  to the unaccustomed a f f l u e n c e  brought about by the t r a p p i n g boom.  Rasmussen  ( 1 9 2 7 : 294-295) commented on the m a t e r i a l i s m of the Mackenzie D e l t a Eskimos compared w i t h those he had i n the e a s t e r n A r c t i c and  there i s no doubt t h a t  many of the Eskimos i n p a r t i c u l a r were r i c h by standards.  met  Of the f o r t y - f i v e Eskimo f a m i l i e s  traded i n t o A k l a v i k i n I 9 2 3 .  any who  most were r e p o r t e d to  own  schooners v a l u e d a t between $ 2 , 0 0 0 and $ 7 , 0 0 0 each  and  some had  429,  39^3).  P o s t s Outside Besides  bank accounts  the Major  i n S e a t t l e (NANR, NASF,  Settlements  the posts e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t McPherson  and A k l a v i k a number of others l o c a t e d i n the D e l t a  and a l o n g the c o a s t . had  Though the e s t a b l i s h e d companies  s e t up o u t p o s t s at times  to tap the trade of more  d i s t a n t a r e a s , t h i s marked the f i r s t  time t h a t  independent t r a d i n g companies e x i s t e d i n abundance. The  r e s u l t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n was  most i n t e n s e and  was  encouraged by the i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y of the  individual  trapper.  Many of the Eskimos i n p a r t i c u l a r  had  purchased  whaleboats and  schooners from the proceeds  o f t r a p p i n g and were t h e r e f o r e able to e x e r c i s e cons i d e r a b l e c h o i c e as to where they s h o u l d trade f u r s (Hargrave,  1965).  By 1924,  the f l e e t of v e s s e l s  owned by Eskimos i n the D e l t a area numbered f i v e schooners and  twenty-eight  posts  ( i n n i s , 19'5'6) •  themselves were v e r y t r a n s i t o r y and  cases simply r e p r e s e n t e d t r a p p e r had d e c i d e d  thirty-  whaleboats v a l u e d a t  $128,000 and a l l of which had been purchased the p r e c e d i n g f i v e y e a r s  their  the f a c t  The  within trading  i n many  that a p a r t i c u l a r  to supplement h i s income from  t r a p p i n g by t a k i n g out a l i c e n s e to t r a d e , as everyone o t h e r than Eskimo, I n d i a n or Metis r e s i d e n t s of  the  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s were r e q u i r e d to do a f t e r the enactment of the Northwest Game A c t i n 1917* A r c t i c Red R i v e r saw the opening o f s e v e r a l posts a t which the e a s t e r n branch o f the K u t c h i n it The  traded but  d i d not assume the importance o f P o r t McPherson. Hudson's Bay Company had a post here by 1912 and  the Northern  T r a d i n g Company purchased the H i s l o p and  Hagle post the f o l l o w i n g year  ( i n n i s , 1956  s  366).  When the Scogate M e r c a n t i l e Company opened a post a t P o r t McPherson i n 1914,  they a l s o opened one i n  A r c t i c Red R i v e r (PAC, RG 18, A l , v o l . 2 2 7 ) .  The  Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n t r a d e d there a f t e r 1927» and a s m a l l t r a d e r a f t e r 1928 (Usher,  1970).  However,  A r c t i c Red R i v e r was not as w e l l f r e q u e n t e d P o r t McPherson o r A k l a v i k f o r f e s t i v e  as e i t h e r  occasions  (NANR, NALB, 5 4 0 - 3 , v o l . l ) , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the d e p l e t i o n o f the l o c a l K u t c h i n by i n f l u e n z a i n 1928 (NANR, NALB, 540-3, v o l . 3 ) .  Trading figures f o r  the Hudson's Bay Company i n d i c a t e t h a t A r c t i c Red R i v e r d i d not share  i n the muskrat boom except  very  b r i e f l y i n the l a t e The tookplace and  (Pig. 3 - l ) .  'twenties  major p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p o s t s along  outside  the c o a s t d u r i n g the e a r l y  i n the D e l t a i n the l a t e  'twenties.  Aklavik  •twenties  The c o a s t a l  p o s t s were f a i r l y w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h t r a d e r s a t Clarence  Lagoon. H e r s c h e l  Island, Shingle  Kendall Island, K i t t i g a z u i t , Atkinson Bay, Point  Point,  Point, McKinley  L i v e r p o o l Bay, N i c h o l s o n I s l a n d and M a i t l a n d ( P i g . 3 - 2 ) , though p o s t s  opened more f r e q u e n t l y  on the c o a s t e a s t o f the D e l t a i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the p e r i o d . in  The p o s t s i n the D e l t a were more numerous  the south and e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g  the P e e l R i v e r and  the upper p a r t o f the e a s t channel, Eckhardt  maintained  though A.W.P.  h i s post a t K i p n i k i n the Lower  D e l t a u n t i l 1 9 3 0 when he moved to A k l a v i k (NANR, NASP, 4 6 2 , 5 6 5 3 ) . The  small traders using e c c e n t r i c a l l y located  p o s t s were o f t e n i l l - e q u i p p e d and c a r r i e d a s m a l l range o f trade goods, l i k e  the D e S t e f f a n y  brothers  who made t h e i r way from B a i l l i e I s l a n d to A t k i n s o n  P o i n t near s t a r v a t i o n (NANR, NALB, 5^0-3, v o l . l ) , but  as I n n i s  (1956: 369) r e p o r t e d ,  were able  to com-  pete a t l e a s t f o r a time w i t h l a r g e r , w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d companies because o f the m o b i l i t y o f the Eskimo population.  The s m a l l t r a d e r s were s u p p l i e d from a  number o f sources but u s u a l l y e i t h e r from the Hudson's Bay  Company, the N o r t h e r n T r a d i n g  Company, or Capt.  Pedepsen, a l t h o u g h some s u p p l i e d themselves from Edmonton w h o l e s a l e r s . i n Aklavik, Williams and  F o r example, i n 1923, H. Warner and Ostergaard  the D e S t e f f a n y b r o t h e r s  a t L i v e r p o o l Bay,  on the Anderson R i v e r and  at Pearce P o i n t were a l l s u p p l i e d from Edmonton, P. Wyant a t B a i l l i e  I s l a n d by Capt. C.T. Pedersen,  and J . D i l l o n near K i t t i g a z u i t by the N o r t h e r n Company i n A k l a v i k traders with  (NANR, NASP, 429, 39^3).  t h e i r own schooners formed a  Trading  Those  separate  group s i n c e they d i d not r e l y upon middlemen and c o u l d go wherever the t r a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s seemed most favourable.  3. As  the whaling  whalers to  The C o a s t a l  were  visit  function since of  rather  trade  goods  were  Olga  Island, Argo  on a  which  would  ventures Herman  trip  draw  east  area.  This  the  Coronation  ( P A C , RG  place  development area  quantities  o f 1914,  Bear  the  and the  of  Herschel  Bear  and the  and the Rosie 18, A l , v o l .  i n the east  Point,  C.T. P e d e r s e n  Gulf  west  the Teddy  o f these  of Pearce  of Capt.  Bay  most  function,  had c a r r i e d  i n the east,  taking  existing  o f a new  the Polar  Island  continued  i n the area,  i n U.S. w a t e r s  was  i n an  of the  this  In the winter  Star,  at Baillie  development  ships  ships  Stofen,  and  To an e x t e n t  the adoption  the North  trading  ships  i n emphasis  trading  frozen  i n 1 9 0 6 , many  trading  as b a l l a s t .  the A l i c e  wintering A  as  Sea.  than  eight  Vessels  ended  o f the whaling  Belvedere, Anna  refitted  a change  most  there  boom  the Beaufort  represented  Trading  however  vessels  mn  trading  leaving  only  the  i n t h e M a c k e n z i e *•;•?«  was  the opening  f o r trade,  after  up o f  the  H. 227).  d i s c o v e r y o f the C o r o n a t i o n G u l f Eskimos. Though a t one time the C o r o n a t i o n G u l f people had been i n c o n t a c t w i t h the Mackenzie  Eskimos,  links  between the two groups had been s e v e r e d by the westward movement of the l a t t e r The f i r s t  the w h a l e r s .  white t r a d e r to make c o n t a c t had been  C. Klengenberg  (Klengenberg, 1 9 3 2 ) , who w i n t e r e d the  Olga on the southwest 1905.  towards  c o a s t of V i c t o r i a l l s l a n d i n  Capt. H. Mogg f o l l o w e d i n 1907 and Capt.  J . Bernard i n 1910,  1912  and 1913 a f t e r which  time  the Canadian A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n was launched to study the C o r o n a t i o n G u l f Eskimos  i n depth.  f o x t r a p p i n g had been encouraged  S i n c e white  by J . Bernard,  o t h e r t r a d i n g v e s s e l s were a t t r a c t e d eastwards to trade w i t h Eskimos  who were s t i l l  r e l a t i v e l y innocent  o f the f u r trade (PAC, RG 1 8 , B2). summer o f 1915>  Thus i n the  there a r r i v e d a t B a i l l i e  I s l a n d the  Buby w i t h s u p p l i e s f o r the Hudson's Bay Company p o s t , Capt. F. Wolki's G l a d i a t o r , Capt. P o l a r Bear, both t r a d i n g out o f S e a t t l e ,  Lane's Capt.  A. A l l e n ' s E l Sueno out of Nome, and Bay  the Hudson's  Company's McPherson out of H e r s c h e l I s l a n d  (PAC,  RG  18,  B2).  I n a d d i t i o n , the Church M i s s i o n a r y  S o c i e t y v e s s e l Atkoon a r r i v e d en r o u t e to Harbour where i t was  intended  Bernard  to open a m i s s i o n  (Webster, 1966). I n 1 9 1 9 » the Herman was western area Capt. C T .  (NANR, NALB, 540-3, v o l . 3 ) from which  Pedersen traded at s e v e r a l p o i n t s  the c o a s t w i t h with The  the o n l y v e s s e l i n the  the Mackenzie Eskimos, and  the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n movement of A l a s k a n  i t s e l f which had whalers and  along  on  occasions  ( S l o b o d i n , 1 9 6 2 : 34).  Eskimos i n t o the D e l t a  o c c u r r e d s i n c e the d e p a r t u r e  of  the subsequent s c a r c i t y of game,  was  the  r e f l e c t e d i n the l a r g e number of muskrat r e c e i v e d by Pedersen i n trade  (Table 3 - 1 ) .  I n the  Pedersen t r a d e d from the Nanook and schooner P a t t e r s o n  (Larsen,  1967s  the new  14,  q u e s t i o n arose at t h i s time c o n c e r n i n g o f a U.S.  95)»  1920's, 9 0 0 ton though a  the p r o p r i e t y  s h i p t r a d i n g i n Canadian waters (NANR,  NASF, 429,  393. 1923).  Other s h i p s i n the a r e a  i n c l u d e d the Maid o f O r l e a n s o u t f i t t e d C. Klengenberg i n Vancouver, at  which s u p p l i e d h i s post  Rymer P o i n t , and the Anna Olga of Capt.  Andreasson 1967:  (NANR, NASF, 429,  17- 20).  share of the to  by Capt.  3943, 1923; L a r s e n ,  Pedersen c o n t i n u e d to trade i n the Mackenzie  o u t f i t other  a s s e t s of h i s  take the  t r a d e r s ( I n n i s , I956: 369) u n t i l  1930's.  3-1  Species Beaver  1918-1919  1921-1922  105  15  10,747 1,868  1,009  721  30  2,187  7  13 76  7  92  18  141  31  91  90  P o l a r Bear  1920-1921  219  Muskrat Lynx  1919-1920  2  Marten Fox  Pedersen (1918-1922)  62  13 2  Foxes  the  Canalaska T r a d i n g Company were purchased  F u r s Traded by Capt. C T .  White  lion's  D e l t a a r e a and  by the Hudson's Bay Company i n the l a t e TSble  M.  179 10  Source: NANR, NASF, 427,  3943.  -  pages 1U9-156 oramited i n page numbering  k. The  C o m p e t i t i o n Between the  increase  i n t r a d i n g posts during  evidently required difficult  r e g u l a t i o n not  1920*s  o n l y because i t  seemed to be a d e s i r e on the  of government to p r o t e c t people who  the  i n t e r e s t s of  The  a l s o be  e x p l o i t e d by  p r a c t i c e of " t r i p p i n g " which  the e s t a b l i s h e d  undermined the debt system.  By  established  5066).  intense  consisted  especially  selling their furs they c o u l d  t r a d i n g post where they may  debt (NANR, NASF, 452,  part  companies s i n c e i t  immediately to i t i n e r a n t t r a d e r s the  but  unscrupulous  of a t r a d e r moving from camp to"camp was c r i t i c i z e d by  was  native  a l t h o u g h o f t e n b e n e f i t t i n g from  compeition could  visiting  the  to c o l l e c t duty from i t i n e r a n t t r a d e r s  a l s o because there  traders.  Traders  As  avoid  have had  a consequence,  a the  t r a d e r s were o f t e n compelled to m a i n t a i n  "runners" to v i s i t  the camps a l s o .  I n an attempt  to  impose some c o n t r o l , the N o r t h e r n A d v i s o r y Board proposed to p r o h i b i t t r a n s i e n t t r a d i n g by a l i e n s  and  permit fee  i t f o r B r i t i s h subjects only at increased  (ibid.).  T h i s p r o p o s a l would have been  to the o l d - e s t a b l i s h e d companies  s i n c e i t would  e f f e c t i v e l y b a r r e d not j u s t i t i n e r a n t s m a l l t r a d e r s g e n e r a l l y (Edmonton 1926).  t r a d e r s but  however t h a t a  s o l u t i o n would be to compel a l l p o s t s t o  be l i c e n s e d and t o grant which were operated vol. 2).  have  J o u r n a l , Feb. 11,  The M i n i s t e r a p p a r e n t l y f e l t  more j u s t  acceptable  l i c e n s e s o n l y to those  the y e a r round (NANR, NALB,  posts 5^0-U,  The r e s u l t was the p a s s i n g o f an o r d e r - i n -  c o u n c i l which r e q u i r e d t h a t :  "no t r a d i n g post ...  s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d o r maintained  i n any p a r t of  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , u n l e s s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of such post has been a u t h o r i z e d by the Commissioner." (P.C. 1146,  Ottawa, J u l y 1 9 ,  1926).  The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t r a d i n g p o s t s and the expansion o f trade g e n e r a l l y was a f u n c t i o n o f improved communication.  I n 1920-21  the f a l l  i n prices  which had o c c u r r e d i n the southern f u r markets was not known by t r a p p e r s i n the D e l t a who  consequently  s u f f e r e d heavy l o s s e s . was  not  However r e p e t i t i o n of  l i k e l y a f t e r the Royal Canadian Corps of  S i g n a l s s e t up  a c h a i n of r a d i o a s t a t i o n s l i n k i n g the  Mackenzie D i s t r i c t (Zaslow, 1957:  and  204-205).  I t was  now  immediately r e s p o n s i v e  and  r i s k to be  o f the f u r t r a d e .  therefore  the decade a i r t r a v e l a l s o had i n the r e g i o n and awarded a c o n t r a c t  i n 1929,  f o r much of At  to the  the  end  Commercial Airways  was  to c a r r y m a i l between McMurray  so t h a t A k l a v i k now  of  become more important  received  eight  d e l i v e r i e s each w i n t e r i n s t e a d of two (ibid.:  2  possible for fur  the economic c l i m a t e taken out  19 3  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y a f t e r  p r i c e s i n the D e l t a to be  Aklavik  this  and  mail  by dog  team  210).  More important y e t was  the improvement i n water  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n which o c c u r r e d and  the  one  company alone ( I n n i s , 1956:  on the Mackenzie system  f a c t that f o r a w h i l e i t was  D i s t r i b u t o r was  341-379).  b u i l t by Lamson and  f o r the Mackenzie R i v e r and  not  acquired  c o n t r o l l e d by The  Hubbard i n the  1920  following  y e a r by the A l b e r t a and A r c t i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company (NANR, NASF, 379, 3 5 . I n n i s , 1 9 5 6 : 3 4 5 ) . T r a d e r was operated by the Northern  The N o r t h l a n d  T r a d i n g Company  u n t i l i t sank i n 1924, a f t e r which the company cont r a c t e d w i t h the A l b e r t a and A r c t i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company to c a r r y f r e i g h t was purchased (Zaslow,  (ibid.: 366).  T h i s company  by the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1924  1 9 5 7 : 171)  who thus r e g a i n e d c o n t r o l over  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , but i t was never a g a i n a b l e to e x e r c i s e the c o n t r o l through  i t s s u b s i d i a r y as i t had d u r i n g  the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y when i t c o n t r o l l e d t r a n s p o r t ation directly.  I n 1924,  the A l b e r t a and A r c t i c  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company operated  the D i s t r i b u t o r from  F o r t Smith t o A k l a v i k and r e t u r n t w i c e , the L i a r d R i v e r from F o r t L i a r d to A k l a v i k and r e t u r n once (ibid.j  345» f o o t n o t e 1 0 ) .  I n a d d i t i o n , the s u p p l y  r o u t e v i a B e r i n g S t r a i t was kept  open by the Hudson's  Bay Company's Lady K i n d e r s l e y u n t i l i t was l o s t i n 1924 ( L a r s e n , I 9 6 7 : 2 3 ) , and by Pedersen and o t h e r s until  the 1 9 3 0 ' s .  The o v e r l a n d r o u t e from Dawson  C i t y was  a l s o used from time to time by  trapper-traders Mercantile The  and  itinerant  as mentioned above by  Company (PAC,  RG  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  and  Scogate  227).  18, A l , v o l .  d i f f u s i o n of t r a d i n g p o s t s  the  the  improvement  formed the backdrop  against  which r a t h e r complex changes were t a k i n g p l a c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and and  seasonal  Eskimo p e o p l e .  cause and  a c t i v i t i e s o f both the  These changes were p a r t l y the  p a r t l y the r e s u l t  s t r u c t u r e i n the D e l t a and themselves.  For  the  w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  of the growth i n i n f r a they were connected among  sake o f convenience, however they  as  two  fairly distinct  i n v o l v i n g the K u t c h i n  and  the Eskimo p e o p l e .  5.  Kutchin  Changes i n the  phases  Seasonal Movements of  the K u t c h i n People"*" The  first  of these phases i n v o l v e d the  radical  The f o l l o w i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s based i n p a r t on c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h e l d e r l y D e l t a r e s i d e n t s whose a s s i s t a n c e the w r i t e r i s p l e a s e d to acknowledge w i t h g r a t i t u d e . In p a r t i c u l a r he would l i k e to thank Mr. Lazarus s i t t i n c h i n l i and Mrs. Sarah Ross i n Aklavik; Mr. Jimmy Thompson, Mr. P e t e r Thompson, Mr. F r e d F i r t h , Mr. W i l l i a m F i r t h , Mr. Andrew K u n n i z i and Mr. Ben K u n n i z i i n F o r t McPherson and Mr. B a p t i s t e P a s c a l , Mr. Kenneth P e e l o o l u k , Mr. Tom K a l i n e k and Mr. Owen A l l e n i n I n u v i k .  change which o c c u r r e d  i n the s e a s o n a l movements of  the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n between 1912 w i l l be r e c a l l e d from the p r e v i o u s the d e c l i n e of g o l d - m i n i n g  1923.  and  chapter  It  that  i n the Yukon had  seen a  r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the band's a c t i v i t i e s back towards the P e e l R i v e r . was  still  I n 1912,  the c e n t r e  i n the R i c h a r d s o n  where the band spent though they now  O g i l v i e Mountains  the g r e a t e r p a r t of each  they had  By 1923,  i t had  shifted  i t i o n a l p e r i o d two  duration.  separate  R i v e r K.utchin c o u l d be The  to the  spent  occupied  During  south  i n the  i n c u r s i o n s i n t o the mountains  i n both d i s t a n c e and  year,  s p o r a d i c a l l y s i n c e at  as a g r e a t e r p a r t of each year was i t s e l f and  activity  traded i n F o r t McPherson and  the upper D e l t a as l e a s t 1840.  and  of  the  Delta  shortened trans-  sub-groups of the  Peel  recognized.  Mountain P e o p l e . Though the r e t u r n to the P e e l R i v e r from  Yukon had going up  the  marked a resumption of the p a t t e r n of the r i v e r b e f o r e  freeze-up  and down a f t e r  break-up ( S l o b o d i n , were b e g i n n i n g  1962:  36),  to appear.  For many of the band  d e p a r t u r e to the mountains was they c o u l d  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s  postponed so  spend Christmas and New  McPherson before  that  r e a r at F o r t  s e t t i n g o f f i n e a r l y January.  moose-skin boats by which they would r e t u r n break-up were then c o n s t r u c t e d r a t h e r than being Though the and  i n the  mountains  F o r t McPherson, 1920;  more u s u a l p a t t e r n was  and  PAC,  RG  June 18,  Thus d u r i n g  F l ) , the  the e a r l y  the a r r i v a l a t F o r t McPherson  o f a l a r g e p a r t y of P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n McPherson, 1921,  1920  to s t a y away from the Lower  P e e l only f o r s i x months. 1920»s each June saw  past.  i n the mountains f o r a y e a r  a h a l f , between January 1919  (ACR,  The  after  s a i l e d upstream as i n the  band stayed  the  2922,  1923).  (ACR,  After a brief  Fort stay  at F o r t McPherson the p a r t y would then go down to f i s h camps i n the D e l t a not  to r e t u r n  until  November when they would s t a y i n the v i c i n i t y the Lower P e e l u n t i l  the f o l l o w i n g New  of  Year took  them back to the mountains. a c t i v i t y however was  This pattern  incompatible  of  w i t h an i n t e n s i v e  e f f o r t at r a t t i n g i n the Upper D e l t a s i n c e the time f o r t h i s was  i n the  or j u s t a f t e r break-up.  spring e i t h e r just  before  Consequently the l a s t moose-  s k i n boat came down i n June 1923 and  best  1962:  (Slobodin,  i t s occupants s i g n i f i c a n t l y h u r r i e d o f f to  r a t t i n g camps (ACR,  P o r t McPherson, 1 9 5 3 ) .  mountain regime was  thus broken and  apart  b r i e f r e v i v a l of u p r i v e r t r a p p i n g i n the  36),  their  The from a  19^0's  never resumed. The  D e l t a People D u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h  century  a number of f a m i l i e s of the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n taken to h u n t i n g the w i n t e r  beaver i n the Upper D e l t a  (Slobodin,  were then b e t t e r able which allowed Delta during to mid-June.  1962:  28-29).  had  during  These people  to accommodate to a p a t t e r n  f o r the maximum time spent i n the the c r u c i a l r a t t i n g p e r i o d from A p r i l For these the w i n t e r  was  spent  trapping  the Upper D e l t a f o r beaver, mink and occasional excursions n o r t h as the s i t e  with  to f i s h under the i c e as f a r  of A k l a v i k and  Mountains to hunt c a r i b o u .  i n t o the  Richardson  These people would then  converge on P o r t McPherson w i t h people who  lynx  the Old Crow f l a t s  s i n c e the c l o s i n g of La P i e r r e House  t r a d e d here a l s o , b e f o r e going down to the for  the s p r i n g r a t t i n g .  now  Delta  They would then r e t u r n to  F o r t McPherson to trade i n June a t which time i t would be  t h r o n g i n g not  only with  people both from the D e l t a and  the P e e l R i v e r  the Upper P e e l ,  a l s o w i t h Eskimos from the coast  but  or the middle D e l t a .  A f t e r about a month most of the K u t c h i n would go their f i s h fort  i n August and  Since in  camps on the Lower P e e l to r e t u r n to  the  September to t r a d e d r i e d f i s h .  the m a j o r i t y of time was  the D e l t a they b u i l t  spent  by  these  permanent c a b i n s  w i t h the o t h e r members of the band who the summer months i n the D e l t a and tents.  to  compared  spent  lived  people  only  i n skin  Convergence and i t s Consequences By 1923 then the m a j o r i t y of the K u t c h i n  people  f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n o f a c t i v i t y which allowed f o r a fairly  e x t e n s i v e time i n the Upper D e l t a d u r i n g the  s p r i n g and summer months.  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h i s  was r e f l e c t e d i n a change i n the f u r t r a d e , i n p a r t i c u l a r by a g r a d u a l r i s e i n the q u a n t i t i e s o f muskrat e n t e r i n g i n t o trade a t F o r t McPherson and other t r a d i n g posts  (Fig. 3 - 2 ) .  I t was a l s o r e f l e c t e d  i n more f r e q u e n t and l e s s h o s t i l e meetings between K u t c h i n and Eskimo people and  who now o c c u p i e d a d j o i n i n g  occasionally interdigitating territories f o r  p a r t of each y e a r . K u t c h i n people  I t a l s o became not uncommon f o r  to t r a v e l to the c o a s t d u r i n g the  summer t o work a t the m i s s i o n a t H e r s c h e l I s l a n d and l a t e r S h i n g l e P o i n t and to trade meat f o r d r y goods and  r i f l e s w i t h the t r a d i n g s h i p s , e s p e c i a l l y  Pedersen's.  Here a g a i n , f r i e n d l y c o n t a c t s were made  w i t h the Eskimos i n what might have been as t h e i r home  with  territory.  regarded  In the e a s t e r n p a r t of the D e l t a , the e a s t e r n branch o f the K u t c h i n  who g e n e r a l l y traded  into  A r c t i c Red R i v e r had a l s o been drawn down i n t o the D e l t a as i n d i c a t e d by the l o c a t i o n of known t r a p p i n g camps a t the time and by the q u a n t i t i e s o f muskrat e n t e r i n g i n t o trade numbers  ( F i g . 3-2),  By 1923,  large  o f them are known to have been i n the D e l t a  i n the s p r i n g as f a r downstream as the head of the A k l a v i k channel where they too must have come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h Eskimo trappers,(ACR, F o r t McPherson, 1923).  6 . Changes i n Eskimo D i s t r i b u t i o n L i k e the K u t c h i n  the Eskimo too c o u l d be d i v i d e d  i n t o two f a i r l y d i s t i n c t groups a t the b e g i n n i n g the p e r i o d under r e v i e w .  The w h a l i n g boom had  a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e number of Eskimos from A l a s k a the B e a u f o r t Island.  Sea c o a s t , e s p e c i a l l y to H e r s c h e l  By 1912  of  the s c a r c i t y of game a l o n g the  to  c o a s t and the d e p a r t u r e  o f the w h a l i n g s h i p s was  e n c o u r a g i n g a d i s p e r s a l but t h i s had not y e t reached i t s maximum p r o p o r t i o n s . occupied  The Mackenzie D e l t a was  by the remnants o f the Mackenzie Eskimos  now s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d by the d i s e a s e which had been brought i n t o the a r e a by the whalers and by the K u t c h i n from the Yukon. The  D e l t a Eskimos These D e l t a Eskimos occupied  the c e n t r a l and  western p o r t i o n s as f a r up as the head of the Husky Channel.  Here they occupied  sod covered  permanent, c o n i c a l ,  b u i l d i n g s d e s c r i b e d by B i r k e t t - S m i t h  (1959s 22) as t y p i c a l o f the Mackenzie Eskimos. L i k e the D e l t a K u t c h i n  they trapped  the D e l t a  during  the w i n t e r months f o r beaver, marten, l y n x and mink. Since b i g game i s not abundant i n the D e l t a , r a b b i t s and  muskrat formed an important  source  o f f o o d and  the o c c a s i o n a l moose would a l s o be taken.  After  the s p r i n g r a t t i n g , f a m i l i e s would t r a v e l to F o r t McPherson, or those  i n the e a s t e r n p a r t to A r c t i c  Red  River,  to trade b e f o r e  for  the summer.  going  down to the c o a s t  Thus the Eskimos a r e recorded  h a v i n g l e f t P o r t McPherson f o r the c o a s t J u l y o f 1914,  1915,  1916 and 1917  McPherson, 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 1 7 ) .  as  i n early-  (ACR, F o r t  A t the c o a s t  they engaged  i n domestic r a t h e r than commercial whaling a t K i t t i g a z u i t and Shingle  P o i n t , and a l s o v i s i t e d the  trading ships at Herschel  Island.  By the e a r l y p a r t  of the p e r i o d a l a r g e r number of A l a s k a n Eskimos began to move i n t o the D e l t a a l s o , so that as e a r l y as 1917  i t a s reported w  trappers already  non-Canadian  and h u n t e r s were i n the D e l t a and were responsible f o r taking two-thirds  f u r i n the a r e a The  that t w e n t y - f i v e  o f the  (NANR, NALB, 5^0-3, v o l . 3 ) .  C o a s t a l Eskimos With the withdrawal o f the whalers i t was no  longer  i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the c a p t a i n s  of v e s s e l s  to have the c o a s t a l Eskimos congregate i n a few l o c a t i o n s as they had d u r i n g r a t h e r to d i s p e r s e a l o n g  the whaling days, but  the coast where they  could  more e f f i c i e n t l y  t r a p white f o x .  Thus Eskimo f a m i l i e s  now tended to break i n t o s m a l l groups d i s p e r s e d  along  the c o a s t as f a r to the east as Pearce P o i n t (Hargrave, 1 9 6 5 ) . point awaiting  Those that d i d congregate a t one  the a r r i v a l  o f the t r a d i n g v e s s e l s  which had now r e p l a c e d the whalers s u f f e r e d hardship  i f the s h i p s d i d not a r r i v e ,  t h e i r dependence upon them. o f 1913» 200 Eskimos waited  considerable  so g r e a t was  F o r example, i n the summer on H e r s c h e l  t r a d i n g s h i p s which d i d not appear, and  Island f o r consequently  were s h o r t o f food and s u p p l i e s (PAC, RG 1 8 , A l ) . During  the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r  remained on H e r s c h e l going  only seven f a m i l i e s  I s l a n d , the remainder e i t h e r  i n t o the D e l t a to t r a p ( i b i d . ) or camping on  the i c e around the s h i p s f r o z e n i n t o U.S. waters By  (ibid.).  1920 the once f l o u r i s h i n g Eskimo s e t t l e m e n t a t  Herschel  I s l a n d which had come i n t o b e i n g w i t h the  whalers and been m a i n t a i n e d  by the t r a d i n g s h i p s had  virtually  The A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n te  ceased to e x i s t .  which had been i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e I 8 9 6 c l o s e d i n 1920  and  moved to S h i n g l e P o i n t  though the Hudson's Bay 1938  until  and  (ACR,  P o r t McPherson, 1 9 2 0 ) ,  Company t r a d i n g post  the p o l i c e post u n t i l  1964,  after  though o n l y d u r i n g the summer months (PAC, Currie, 1964).  S h i n g l e P o i n t a l s o was  remained  18,  RG  occupied  i n the summer months and h a r d l y at a l l d u r i n g winter,  as i n d i c a t e d by  kept there The  (NANR, NASP, 6 3 3 4 ,  and  so meat was  Herschel  by  now  RG  the demands of the  shifted  (PAC,  RG  Though  1»,  F l , v o l . 12).  In  of the D e l t a were  the D e l t a was  p l a c e to be.  The  fox  i n the p e r i o d  to be h i g h and w i t h i t s g r e a t e r v a r i e t y  food resources, secure  whalers  to t r a p p i n g , white  ( i b i d . ) and  c o n t r a s t , the mink r e s o u r c e s reported  main f a c t o r s .  18, A l , v o l . 2 2 7 ) .  were not numerous i n 1 9 l 4 to 1922  the  s c a r c e i n the neighbourhood of  I s l a n d (PAC,  the emphasis had  from 1919  records  478).  be a s c r i b e d to two  been d e p e l e t e d  mainly  the  withdrawal from the west c o a s t d u r i n g  w i n t e r months can Game had  s c h o o l attendance  FT;  still  i n any  case a more  abundant muskrat  of  provided and  a more r e l i a b l e  source  of income f o r t r a p p e r  t r a d e r a l i k e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the season had been  extended to the more r e a l i s t i c date of June 15th (PAC,  RG 18, P l , v o l . 1 2 ) .  Thus j u s t as the mountain  K u t c h i n moved i n t o the southern  p o r t i o n o f the D e l t a ,  so the c o a s t a l Eskimos moved i n t o the n o r t h .  7. The White T r a p p e r s High f u r p r i c e s encouraged an i n f l u x of white t r a p p e r s i n t o the Mackenzie D e l t a as w e l l as those o f I n d i a n or Eskimo o r i g i n .  By 1921 the ten white  t r a p p e r s i n the D e l t a and a d j o i n i n g p a r t s o f the c o a s t were r e p o r t e d  to be doing w e l l ( i b i d . ) though  some concern was b e i n g  expressed  t h a t the p o l i c e a t  F o r t McPherson should be empowered to prevent improperly (PAC,  equipped t r a p p e r s from p r o c e e d i n g  RG 18, F l . v o l . 8 ) .  This revived a  further  suggestion  which had been made e a r l i e r t h a t the n a t i v e people should  be p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t i n d i g e n t white men  becoming "beachcombers and squaw men" and a charge on  the  i n d i g e n o u s community„(PAC, RG 18, B2).  This  concern, combined w i t h f e a r s that the d i s c o v e r y of oil  a t Norman W e l l s would r e s u l t  prospectors passing that  i n a rush  of o i l  to the North, was to l e a d to the e v e n t u a l  o f the E n t r y Ordinance i n 1921 which s t a t e d  "no p e r s o n may e n t e r  Mackenzie, NWT,  the P r o v i s i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f  without f i r s t h a v i n g s a t i s f i e d the  RCMP o f f i c e r a t ( s e v e r a l s p e c i f i e d i s not l i k e l y  l o c a t i o h s ) t h a t he  to become a p u b l i c charge."  (NWT  Council  Minutes, March 18, 1 9 2 1 ) .  I n general,however the  e x p e r i e n c e d white t r a p p e r s  who entered  the r e g i o n  brought w i t h themrnew s k i l l s and p r a c t i c e s which g e n e r a l l y enhanced the q u a l i t y of t r a p p i n g ,  as d i d the  A l a s k a n Eskimos and the r e m a i n i n g "Dawson Boys" (Slobodin,  1963)  r e t u r n i n g to the P e e l R i v e r from the  Yukon. P o l i c e r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e that the problem p e r s i s t e d however s i n c e a number of white t r a p p e r s  came down-  r i v e r i n canoes i n the summer o f 1922 and s t a r t e d trapping  i n the D e l t a  though e v i d e n t l y q u i t e  ill-  equipped (PAC, v o l . 1).  I n 1924  t r a p p e r s had had  18, P I , v o l . 12;  RG  i t was  r e p o r t e d t h a t the white  not done w e l l and  h a r d l y been able to pay  NALB, 540-3» v o l . l ) . The t r a p p e r s and  i n 1926  establishment  t h a t those  8. The Delta.  1 9 2 0 s had ,  In 1912,  (NANR,  t h e i r presence e l i c i t e d  e v i d e n t l y a f a c t o r i n the  of a number o f game p r e s e r v e s ,  (PC,  The  which were c l o s e d  ll46, July... 19,  Delta i n  1926).  1929  seen a major change i n the Mackenzie  a t the  time of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the t r a d i n g post at A k l a v i k , the D e l t a had  had By  and  the D e l t a was  almost without  the  o n l y a s m a l l number of each group  l i v e d there d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t of the 1929,  of  been  p e r i p h e r a l to the a c t i v i t i e s of the K u t c h i n and Eskimo people,  Delta  i n c r e a s i n g number of white  i n c l u d i n g the P e e l R i v e r Preserve to white t r a p p e r s  i n the  for their outfits  the complaints  from n a t i v e t r a p p e r s was  NANR, NALB, 5 4 0 - 3 ,  the f o c a l area f o r the  e x c e p t i o n and  year. Kutchin  f o r many Eskimos of b o t h  l o c a l and A l a s k a n  origin.  The  areas which had  been f o c a l were themselves p e r i p h e r a l . change has The  radical  been a s c r i b e d to a number of f a c t o r s .  K u t c h i n people had  returned  to the P e e l  a f t e r t h e i r decade i n the Yukon and down towards the D e l t a by f o r muskrat.  Similarly,  c r e a t e d f o r the Eskimo by was  This  once  also f i l l e d  i n t o the D e l t a . the D e l t a had  were a t t r a c t e d  the h i g h p r i c e s r e c e i v e d the vacuum which had  been  the departure  o f the whalers  by the f u r boom as they  too were drawn  The  f o c u s s i n g of a c t i v i t i e s upon  r e s u l t e d i n more f r e q u e n t  between Eskimo and K u t c h i n p e o p l e s ,  and  contacts i n a conver-  gence of t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e s and v a l u e so t h a t by 1929  a specifically  be  A k l a v i k was  recognized.  River  " D e l t a community" c o u l d  a key f a c t o r i n t h i s  convergence s i n c e i t p r o v i d e d  the prime meeting p l a c e  f o r I n d i a n s , Eskimos, whites and M e t i s . P o r t McPherson there had o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  systems  been o n l y two  these had  Where a t major agents  u s u a l l y been i n con-  sensus, at A k l a v i k the chuatches, t r a d i n g companies  and  government a g e n c i e s p r e s e n t e d a much more m u l t i f a c e t e d i m p r e s s i o n of " o u t s i d e " s o c i e t y . ment i n i t s p l u r a l i s t i c the world  The  c h a r a c t e r , resembled  o u t s i d e the North more than any  settlethose  of  other  n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t had done to date* The  pace of a c c u l t u r a t i o n to o u t s i d e v a l u e s  become i n c r e a s i n g l y r a p i d d u r i n g the 1 9 2 0 ' s . of course, t h i s had been the r e s u l t m a t e r i a l i s m brought  had  In part,  of a growing  about by r i s i n g f u r p r i c e s  and  the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of goods o f f e r e d f o r s a l e i n the trading posts.  I n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  Hudson's Bay Company at F o r t McPherson had  the offered  a l i m i t e d range of goods - guns, ammunition, t r a p s and b l a n k e t s - i n exchange f o r f u r s . Kitto  ( 1 9 3 0 : 68)  In the 1920's,  reported:  ...the i g l o o s have g i v e n p l a c e to comf o r t a b l e w i n t e r d w e l l i n g s of l o g s or rough lumber, i n many cases f i n i s h e d w i t h w a l l board and d r e s s e d lumber. White f l o u r , sugar, b u t t e r , jam, canned f r u i t and o t h e r l u x u r i e s are i n c l u d e d now i n their diet. Long w i n t e r evenings are passed p l e a s a n t l y l i s t e n i n g to good music p r o v i d e d by expensive gramophones and r a d i o s e t s . Up-to-date sewing machines make the l o t of women e a s i e r .  I n p a r t a l s o i t had been the r e s u l t o f improved and more f r e q u e n t communications, i n c l u d i n g aircraft  and  the  to c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s by the government  to equip the n a t i v e p e r s o n f o r some k i n d of r o l e i n the wider  society.  I n 1929  the view  was  expressed by a Deputy M i n i s t e r t h a t :  "...the Department(of the I n t e r i o r ) a l s o f e e l s t h a t something s h o u l d be done i n the way of e d u c a t i o n of the Eskimo c h i l d r e n . The white r a c e i s now mixing w i t h them f r e e l y and the n a t i v e s must have some measure o f e d u c a t i o n to enable them to b e t t e r c a r r y on t h e i r commercial p u r s u i t s w i t h them." (NANR, NASF, 6334, 478).  The  Church of England  F o r t McPherson and  maintained  schools at  a t A k l a v i k and a f t e r 1929  S h i n g l e P o i n t , and r e c e i v e d a s m a l l s u b s i d y the government f o r d o i n g so (cf.. Jenness,  a  t  from  1964:  At the eve of the world d e p r e s s i o n the economic and  s o c i a l o r d e r s of the K u t c h i n and  Eskimo  people were i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h the world Both K u t c h i n and Eskimo peoples had  economy.  been  kZ)  influenced  by the boom a f t e r the F i r s t  War, the r e c e s s i o n  i n 1922 and the g r a d u a l  i n p r i c e s d u r i n g the 1920's. affected  World climb  Both were to be  even more by the economic v i c i s s i t u d e s  o f the 1930's and 1920's.  CHAPTER IV  (1929-1960)  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A SETTLEMENT PATTERN  1.  Introduction  It i s significant  t h a t the world  depression  b e g i n n i n g i n 19^9 should have had l o c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s in  the Mackenzie D e l t a , f o r t h i s r e g i o n was now  inextricably  bound to the world economy.  Though the  t r a p p e r s o f the Mackenzie D e l t a were b e t t e r a b l e those  o f o t h e r p a r t s o f the North  to w i t h s t a n d the  slump i n f u r p r i c e s which o c c u r r e d throughout Arctic  d u r i n g the e a r l y t h i r t i e s (Jenness,  the change i n d i r e c t i o n of i n d i r e c t  effects.  than  the  1964:  50),  o f the f u r trade had a number  F i r s t , the more m a r g i n a l t r a d i n g  p o s t s c l o s e d down and the t r a d i n g tunctionabecame c o n c e n t r a t e d more i n the e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e m e n t s . Second, and i n p a r t because o f t h i s , the s e t t l e m e n t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r power as the o r g a n i z e r s of a c t i v i t y i n the r e g i o n as the s o c i a l as w e l l as economic  activities focussed places  of n a t i v e peoples were i n c r e a s i n g l y  upon them and  of b o t h the Eskimosand the K u t c h i n  former s i g n i f i c a n c e . and  the more t r a d i t i o n a l meeting  1929  I f i n the y e a r s  the Mackenzie D e l t a had  lost  between  emerged as a  their 1912 relatively  homogeneous c u l t u r e r e g i o n , i n which s e t t l e m e n t s played  had  an important but not dominant r o l e , trien a f t e r  I929 t h e i r growing dominance was formation  of the r e g i o n ' s  spatial  to l e a d to a t r a n s structure into a  more n o d a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y a primitive hierarchy by  the s h a r i n g of lowest order  among a l l the  settlements  appearance of some h i g h e r A k l a v i k on the o t h e r .  1  emerged as shown  f u n c t i o n of t r a d i n g  on the one  hand and  the  order c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s a t  Then as t r a d i n g h i n t e r l a n d s  emerged, the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of human a c t i v i t y became i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r u c t u r e d by  1  the  settlements  in  Anteexcellent though now out of date b i b l i o g r a p h y of C e n t r a l P l a c e s t u d i e s was p r e p a r e d by B e r r y and Pred (1967)• A more r e c e n t review of urban h i e r a r c h i e s i s to be found i n B e r r y and Horton (1970: 1 6 9 - 2 4 9 ) .  t h a t community i n t e r e s t s were r e c o g n i z e d o f l o y a l t y to and  settlements  complex and which was The  establishment  of Inuvik  more  times.  i n the l a t t e r  of the emergence of a s e t t l e m e n t  of p o p u l a t i o n  and  part  the a r r e s t r a t h e r than  over-  which were  economic a c t i v i t y  alike.  the same time, the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of t r a p p i n g  a viable a c t i v i t y eliminated  the v a l i d i t y o f  h i e r a r c h y based upon c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s and the s e t t l e m e n t s centres.  The  under review can  seen as o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n two which, i n t h e i r separate strengthening  distinct  established  thus  atomistic  be  phases b o t h of  ways, c o n t r i b u t e d  of the s e t t l e m e n t  as  the  as much more s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and  processes  the  hierarchy  a t t r a c t i v e force  shadowed t h a t of the s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s  At  same time,  showed s i g n s of the s o c i a l p o l a r i z a t i o n  t h a t i t s dominant r o l e and  drained  the  themselves became l a r g e r and  of the p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t e d  in  At  to loom l a r g e r i n more r e c e n t  culmination  basis  a f f i l i a t i o n with a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t l e -  ment as w e l l as to an e t h n i c group. the  on the  milieu.  to  the  These were:  ( i ) the emergence of a s e t t l e m e n t h i e r a r c h y , and. (ii) The  the dominance of I n u v i k , Emergence of a Settlement The  Great  Depression,  c h a p t e r c l o s e d , had more m a r g i n a l encouraging  Hierarchy  w i t h which the  the e f f e c t o f e l i m i n a t i n g the  t r a d e r s i n e c c e n t r i c l o c a t i o n s and  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the t r a d i n g f u n c t i o n i n  e s t a b l i s h e d settlements  (Pig. 4-l).  t h a t these came to f i l l  more the r o l e  s t r i c t u sensu s o c i a l and  preceding  than they had  The  result  of urban c e n t r e s  i n the p a s t , i n t h a t  economic a c t i v i t i e s came to be  s t r u c t u r e d by  was  t h e i r presence.  As  increasingly  the movements of  Eskimo, I n d i a n , M e t i s and white r e s i d e n t s of the D e l t a were c h a n n e l l e d through a c t i o n s conducted  the s e t t l e m e n t s , the t r a n s -  there came to dominate the use  the r e s o u r c e s of the D e l t a and  surrounding  of  areas.  Where i n the past t r a p p i n g had been a p a r t , a l b e i t an important  one,  of the domestic  became i t s primary g e n e r a t o r .  economy, i t now  Where i n the past  the  *3  CRJ  I  >  1 P) p.  - H-  13  H  Oq  VO to h3  vo o cc  cf ctO tt  H W  vo co  U) ctVjl p >  cr  H H-  CO  P*  00  (0  P. H-  3  ct-  cr CD  r  o  TRADING POSTS OPEN/N 6 (929-/935  s e> o ** CD  •  Posts Existing in 1929  A  Posts Opening (1929-1935)  •  Posts Existing In 1935  3  N HCD  •  Land over 2 0 0 0 ' Miles  visit  to the t r a d i n g post had been an a d j u n c t  land-based and  to  economy as a means of g a i n i n g equipment  food w i t h which to conduct a c t i v i t i e s on the  with greater e f f i c i e n c y , important As  the  i t now  land  became i t s most  component.  the s e t t l e m e n t s  came to assume g r e a t e r  import-  ance, at the same time they became both more d i v e r s e i n f u n c t i o n and structure.  To  complex i n morphology and the t r a d i n g f u n c t i o n was  o f o t h e r s , each a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one A f t e r 1930  H e r s c h e l I s l a n d , S h i n g l e P o i n t and n o r t h , and  added a number  particular  F o r t McPherson, A r c t i c Red  were j o i n e d by Reindeer S t a t i o n and  social  R i v e r and  Aklavik  Tuktoyaktuk,  while  Kittigazuit  I n d i a n V i l l a g e at the mouth of the  River continued  o n l y as i n t e r m i t t e n t l y  have once had.  Functional  Peel  importance  specialization  appeared as A k l a v i k came i n c r e a s i n g l y to be f u r entrepot  i n the  occupied  " n a t i v e " v i l l a g e s which never r e g a i n e d any they may  centre.  the major  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e , F o r t McPherson  and A r c t i c Red  River s a t e l l i t e  t r a d i n g posts c a t e r i n g  to an e x c l u s i v e l y I n d i a n c l i e n t e l e and w i t h i s h i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , Reindeer  dimin-  Station  the supply base" f o r the Canadian r e i n d e e r h e r d , Tuktoyaktuk coastwise  the transhipment  and  and  p o i n t between r i v e r  and  traffic.  The r e s u l t s o f these developments i n the s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n were t w o f o l d .  In the f i r s t  p l a c e , the  addition  o f f u n c t i o n s o t h e r than t h a t of t r a d i n g which had the p r e s e r v e of whites  and Metis now  f o r the h i t h e r t o land-based up r e s i d e n c e and settlements.  been  made i t f e a s i b l e  Eskimo and  I n d i a n to take  employment on a l i m i t e d s c a l e i n the  T h i s f a c t was  to l e a d to the dichotomous  s o c i e t y which i s found  i n settlements at present  to the d u a l a l l e g i a n c e  to land and  and  town which  c h a r a c t e r i z e the Eskimo and I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t d w e l l e r and which has been a theme of t h i s second  study.  In the  p l a c e i t a l l o w e d a l l s e t t l e m e n t s to share  t r a d i n g f u n c t i o n f o r an immediate and  limited  the  hinter-  l a n d , while A k l a v i k took on a few f u n c t i o n s which were a d m i n i s t e r e d to the a r e a as a whole.  Thus i n 1929»  though s t i l l A k l a v i k was  most important  as a f u r trade p o s t ,  to i n c r e a s e i t s r o l e as b r o k e r between the  s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s and  the world  o u t s i d e as  the  number of southern based i n s t i t u t i o n s l o c a t e d there continued The  to p r o l i f e r a t e .  Dominance of I n u v i k T h i s p r o c e s s was  a r r e s t e d by  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  I n u v i k a t a time when r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g f u r p r i c e s removed the economic u n d e r p i n n i n g s s e t t l e m e n t s and hastened Rather  o f the  smaller  the r e t r e a t from the l a n d .  than s i m p l y assuming A k l a v i k * s p o s i t i o n a t  the  head of the h i e r a r c h y , I n u v i k became the focus of a r e l a t i v e l y massive m i g r a t i o n o f f the l a n d and  out  the s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s as the emphasis of the economy s h i f t e d from t r a p p i n g , h u n t i n g and  of  local  fishing  to wage employment. T h i s was and  to have e f f e c t s both w i t h i n the  i n the h i n t e r l a n d .  centre  S t u d i e s of urban e v o l u t i o n  are u s u a l l y by t h e i r nature  concerned  more w i t h  c e n t r a l p l a c e s than w i t h the r e g i o n s they  serve,  the  though the g r a d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t ,  and  i n this  case  the e l i m i n a t i o n of a s e t t l e m e n t h i e r a r c h y , undoubtedly c a l l s f o r r a d i c a l readjustments  i n the  spatial  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r e g i o n s served as w e l l as i n the c e n t r a l p l a c e s and them.  Both are two  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  s i d e s of the same c o i n and  be c o n s i d e r e d i n P a r t Two. limited  This chapter w i l l  will be  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  I n u v i k i n an attempt  to show how  of  i t differed  q u a l i t a t i v e l y from the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of a l l p r e c e d i n g  s e t t l e m e n t s i n the r e g i o n ,  2.  C e n t r i f u g a l and C e n t r i p e t a l F o r c e s The  (1929-1955)  growing dominance of the s e t t l e m e n t s  took  p l a c e a g a i n s t a background of changes i n the f u r economy and The  i n the demography of the Mackenzie D e l t a .  p e r i o d saw  a r e a and  both a growth i n the economy of the  the p l a n t i n g of the seeds o f i t s c o l l a p s e .  While the q u a n t i t y of f u r s traded and r e c e i v e d f o r them c o n t i n u e d  the p r i c e s  to r i s e i n g e n e r a l and  the  p o p u l a t i o n grew apace, no d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economy took p l a c e .  Even a t b e s t ,  provides  base f o r economic growth due to  an u n s t a b l e  the f u r economy  w i l d f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s p r i c e which occur as the r e s u l t o f the v a g a r i e s o f nature on the o t h e r . pelt  F o r example, i n 1935  s o l d f o r 70 cents, i n 1939  $4.50, 1965  on the one hand and f a s h i o n  i n 19^7  f o r $3.00  back to 70 cents  a l a r g e muskrat  f o r $1.10,  ( b l o b o d i n , 1962)  i n 19^5 f o r and i n  ( W o l f o r t h , ["1966]) .  Thus the f u r economy e x e r t e d both a c e n t r i f u g a l and a c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e w i t h r e s p e c t On the one hand, the s e t t l e m e n t s o n l y as a p l a c e  to the  settlements.  a t t r a c t e d people not  to t r a d e , but a l s o i n which to seek  s e c u r i t y i n times of h a r d s h i p .  On the other  as they became more a l i e n i n c h a r a c t e r ,  hand,  they r e p e l l e d  the n a t i v e t r a p p e r so t h a t he removed h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y to more d i s t a n t t r a p p i n g areas which many s t i l l a s s o c i a t e d with  the p r e - t r a p p i n g p e r i o d but  which, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a l s o produced the most v a l u a b l e fur  species.  In 1 9 3 1 there were 1,182  people  living  i n the  Lower Mackenzie area w i t h a g e o g r a p h i c a l and distribution indigenous  shown i n T a b l e  4-1."*"  40 per cent as Eskimo.  r e c o r d e d as  A r c t i c Red  Indian  Whites were a f a i r l y  s m a l l m i n o r i t y i n the p e r i p h e r a l areas comprised  time  people undoubtedly predominated f o r of the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , 48 per cent was and  At t h i s  ethnic  since  they  o n l y f i v e per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n of R i v e r and d i s t r i c t ,  F o r t McPherson and d i s t r i c t ,  two  two  per cent of t h a t of  per cent of t h a t of  Banks I s l a n d , and f i v e per cent of t h a t of  Baillie  I s l a n d , Pearce  other  hand, whites  P o i n t and d i s t r i c t .  On  the  composed a f a i r l y s i z a b l e m i n o r i t y i n  the c e n t r a l a r e a of A k l a v i k and  district.  I t i s u n c l e a r from the source from which t h i s t a b l e i s d e r i v e d whether Metis are i n c l u d e d i n the "white" c a t e g o r y . I t i s v e r y probable t h a t they were s i n c e t h i s was common p r a c t i c e a t the time.  P o p u l a t i o n of the Lower Mackenzie Total  Indian  Eskimo  411 148 214 51 268 9k  180  140  91  191  23 2 13  A k l a v i k and D i s t r i c t A r c t i c Red R i v e r B a i l l i e I s l a n d , Pearce P t . Banks I s l a n d F o r t McPherson Herschel Island Source: The  Minutes, NWT  1931  Council:  132  White 16  k9  255  9k  I899.  g r a d u a l movement towards the east which  been d i s c e r n i b l e d u r i n g the 1920*s was  had  accelerated  d u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s as more white t r a p p e r s moved i n t o the D e l t a and Eskimo t r a p p e r s l e f t f o r the c o a s t i n order to keep ahead of them (NANR, NALB, 5 4 0 - 3 , v o l . Even by 1929  i t was  recorded  2).  that a few Eskimos from  the Mackenzie D e l t a were t r a p p i n g f o r white f o x a t B a i l l i e I s l a n d where the m a j o r i t y were r e c e n t migrants from A l a s k a  (ibid.).  The  however f o r not o n l y was a l s o to those who sum  a selective  one  i t l i m i t e d to Eskimos, but  were able to i n v e s t a c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n p r o v i s i o n s and  estimated  movement was  t r a p p i n g equipment.  It  i n the e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s t h a t the c o s t of f  was  p u r c h a s i n g a complete  winter o u t f i t  f o r fox trapping,  i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s , c l o t h i n g , gasolene and c o a l was i n the neighbourhood NASF, 3 7 8 ,  12).  wealthy Eskimos undertake  o f $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 6 , 0 0 0  (NANR,  Consequently, o n l y the r e l a t i v e l y who owned schooners were able t o  the c o s t s o f t r a p p i n g f o x a l o n g the c o a s t ,  the b e s t examples b e i n g those who t r a v e l l e d as f a r as Banks I s l a n d . h a r d s h i p to r e v e r t  The l e s s wealthy  tended i n times o f  to l i v i n g o f f the land  by h u n t i n g  c a r i b o u i n the w i n t e r and g o i n g to the c o a s t f o r s e a l i n g i n the s p r i n g . Usher  (1970:  47 e t . seq.) s u g g e s t s t h a t by the  1 9 3 0 ' s t h r e e d i s t i n c t Eskimo groups had emerged: the D e l t a p e o p l e , mainly of A l a s k a n s t o c k , the TuktoyaktukH e r s c h e l I s l a n d p e o p l e , of the o l d Mackenzie  Eskimo  s t o c k , and an e a s t e r n group composed o f A l a s k a n Eskimos  and the o f f s p r i n g of unions between whalers  and Mackenzie Eskimo women. had  Since t h i s l a t t e r  group  both s e a l h u n t i n g and c a r i b o u h u n t i n g s k i l l s and  had adopted  t r a p p i n g w i t h enthusiasm,  they were most  influential until led  i n extending  the f a l l  trapping  towards the  east  of white f o x p r i c e s i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s  to retrenchment.  D u r i n g the  time of  their  ascendency however they formed i n comparison  with  the D e l t a and  the T u k t o y a k t u k - H e r s c h e l I s l a n d Eskimos,  a distinctive  trapping e l i t e  (ibid.J  19).  D u r i n g the e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s , a major f i s s u r e i n the D e l t a Community between the bona f i d e  t r a p p e r s who  r e l a t i v e l y poor y i e l d l i v e d o f f the  l a n d and  were able or low  p o o r e r equipment p e r m i t t e d .  well-equipped  to r i d e the  p r i c e s , and  trapped  times of  those who  o n l y i n s o f a r as  The  c o a s t a l group  g a t h e r e d a t a number of temporary meeting d u r i n g most of the y e a r ,  appeared  their still  places  i n c l u d i n g K i d l u i t Bay,  Pullen  I s l a n d , Kendall I s l a n d , Shingle P o i n t , King  Point,  Head P o i n t , between H e r s c h e l  I s l a n d and  Firth  R i v e r , Toker P o i n t , A t k i n s o n  P o i n t , S e a l Bay,  I s l a n d and  Horton R i v e r .  the  Baillie  When white fox p r i c e s became  d e p r e s s e d i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s , t h i s d i s p e r s e d  pattern  broke down as l a r g e numbers of people moved back i n t o  the D e l t a where, even though muskrat d i d not p r o v i d e the l a r g e cash incomes which white f o x had, a l l the t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u b s i s t e n c e were p r e s e n t .  The  D e l t a seems to have formed a r e f u g e i n a sense, where people c o u l d at l e a s t s u b s i s t a l l through the y e a r when f i n e f u r s were not b r i n g i n g i n adequate c a s h . The f i s s u r e s t i l l  remained even i n times o f poor p r i c e s  s i n c e the more p r o s p e r o u s , by r e t a i n i n g l a r g e dog teams and equipment, kept t h e i r freedom of movement, even though the schooners f e l l  1964:  i n t o d i s u s e (Jenness,  51). The K u t c h i n had not b e n e f i t t e d as much from the  r i s i n g p r i c e s of the 1 9 2 0 ' s and so a comparable wealthy group had not emerged.  However, the r e v i v a l of up-  r i v e r t r a p p i n g which took p l a c e i n the 1 9 4 0 ' s among the P e e l R i v e r people was analogous to the Eskimo a l o n g the c o a s t i n the e a r l i e r decade. ( 1 9 6 2 : 39)  r e c o r d s t h a t i n 1945  drift  Slobodin  over t h i r t y  families  and a number o f men without t h e i r f a m i l i e s were t r a p p i n g f o r marten a l l w i n t e r i n the Upper P e e l f o r the f i r s t  time s i n c e 1 9 3 . 2  ment was  Although a greater c a p i t a l i n v e s t -  undoubtedly r e q u i r e d f o r marten t r a p p i n g  for spring ratting,  the K u t c h i n i n 19^5  s t a r t e d from  a lower base than t h a t of the Eskimos i n 1935» o f t e n had  a  nd  as t h e i r g o a l simply g e t t i n g ahead of  debt system ( i b i d . : 39-40).  The  than  the  social results  of  the r e v i v a l of u p r i v e r t r a p p i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r a c c o r d i n g to S l o b o d i n  (ibid.:  39)s  ...to the o l d e r and middle g e n e r a t i o n s , and even to some of the young, the u p r i v e r mountain country i f s t i l l the proper c o u n t r y of the P e e l R i v e r K u t c h i n . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t i t u d e of d i s d a i n f o r the • r a t - e a t e r s , the I n d i a n s and h a l f - b r e e d s who remained near F o r t McPherson has not been c o m p l e t e l y e x t i n g u i s h e d . ...The u p r i v e r c o u n t r y r e t a i n s much symbolic v a l u e as the country par e x c e l l e n c e of the ' r e a l I n d i a n s ' . 1  F o r the I n d i a n people  then the r e c o g n i t i o n of the  Upper P e e l as b e i n g s u p e r i o r to the D e l t a and a c c e s s i b l e o n l y to the s u p e r i o r t r a p p e r - the " r e a l " I n d i a n p r o v i d e d a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g f o r c e to the p u l l of settlements  d u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s and  At the same time,  -  the  1940's.  government r e l i e f which might  have formed a c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e at t h i s time as i t d i d  l a t e r was kept to a minimum.  D u r i n g the 1930*s the  f e d e r a l government m a i n t a i n e d the view that should be l e f t was  to the t r a d i n g companies, though some  i n f a c t administered  need.  relief  by the RCMP i n cases of d i r e  The o f f i c i a l o p i n i o n was  following directive:  t h a t expressed i n the  "In d e a l i n g with a p p l i c a t i o n s  f o r p e r m i t s to e s t a b l i s h posts  i n outlying d i s t r i c t s ,  the Department has s t i p u l a t e d that the a p p l i c a n t s must assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w e l f a r e n a t i v e s who  trade with  of the  them and the d e s t i t u t e n a t i v e s  must be m a i n t a i n e d without expense to the Department." (Jennes, 1964:  54).  I n the D e l t a s p e c i f i c a l l y , the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e l i e f became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Dr. Urquhart, the Department's M e d i c a l was  advised  not to a d m i n i s t e r  Office*?, who  a i d unless  absolutely  n e c e s s a r y s i n c e i t was not d e s i r a b l e to " l e s s e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the n a t i v e towards the aged and helpless brethren the s e t t l e m e n t s areas."  and encourage him to congregate i n  and away from the h u n t i n g  (NANR, NASF, 378,  18).  and  trapping  I t was r e c o g n i z e d  that  i n d i g e n t whites might a l s o need a s s i s t a n c e , but too was  o n l y to be g i v e n i n order  passage out The  o f the  s p i r i t was  r e l i e f was  to a s s i s t  this  their  Territories. one  of optimism however even though  r e q u i r e d at times.  C e r t a i n l y the  Mackenzie  D e l t a t r a p p e r s were c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r o f f than those i n other p a r t s of n o r t h e r n  Canada.  i n p r i c e s which took p l a c e d u r i n g fur  A f t e r the  the Great D e p r e s s i o n ,  p r i c e s g e n e r a l l y rose d u r i n g the  1940's w i t h firmed  o n l y temporary setbacks,  the m a j o r i t y  and  the acceptance of r i s k as normal. from good y e a r s were s u f f i c i e n t years given  and  thus con-  Metis  and  t r a p p i n g economy and  a c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e of mind which was  over the bad  later 1930's  of Eskimo, I n d i a n ,  white r e s i d e n t s both i n the  fall  in  characterized  Usually  the  by  returns  to c a r r y most people  the e x i s t e n c e  of a  sharing  e t h i c which l e d to the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l resources  to the b e n e f i t o f the t e m p o r a r i l y  dis-  advantaged as w e l l as of the d i s a b l e d , aged and  infirm.  3•  The  U n t i l 1930,  Satellite  settlements  Settlements owed t h e i r o r i g i n s and  l o c a t i o n s to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l F o r McPherson, A r c t i c Red I s l a n d and as  Shingle  trading posts  peoples had  and  River, Aklavik,  P o i n t had  Herschel  been e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r  or w h a l i n g depots and  gathered at these p o i n t s  economic transactions w i t h  resources.  indigenous  to c a r r y  the white man.  Missionaries  p o l i c e a l i k e e s t a b l i s h e d themselves as  to t r a d i n g and w h a l i n g c e n t r e s the a c t i v i t i e s of whites and a c t i o n between them.  existence  At  regulate  the  with  inter-  settlements  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to  which t o g e t h e r  contributed  hierarchy. centres  but  other  adjuncts  to  n a t i v e s and  A f t e r 1930  appeared which were not resources,  i n order  out  local  those a l r e a d y  towards an e v o l v i n g  in  settlement  the same time the o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d  changed i n f u n c t i o n and  in relative  importance.  Reindeer S t a t i o n The  attempt to i n t r o d u c e  the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t has  reindeer herding  been d e s c r i b e d  into  elsewhere  1963),  ( e . g . Abrahamson,  and  i s r e l e v a n t to the  p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n o n l y i n s o f a r as i t throws l i g h t the s e t t l e m e n t forming p r o c e s s .  When the herd  d r i v e n a c r o s s from A l a s k a a temporary f o r i t s management was moved i n 1932 Delta.  The  s e t up a t K i t t i g a z u i t , but  given f o r choosing  l o c a t i o n were that i t was and  summer ranges,  a source  U n t i l i t c l o s e d i n 1968,  the  the  winter both  c l o s e r to A k l a v i k , and  Reindeer  RG  22,  Al, vol.  S t a t i o n (or  h e r d e r s , s i n c e the h e r d e r s the herd on the Reindeer Thus Reindeer  the f a m i l i e s of the  themselves l i v e d c l o s e to  Reserve f o r much of the  S t a t i o n was  not  intended  to  become, nor d i d i t become u n t i l much l a t e r , a n a t i v e settlement. o p e r a t i o n was  Indeed, one  of the hopes of the r e i n d e e r  t h a t i t would d e c e l e r a t e any  339).  Reindeer  known e a r l i e r ) c o n t a i n e d o n l y the  homes of an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and  year.  was  particular  had a good s u p p l y of timber  of p o t a b l e water (PAC,  Depojtt as i t was  this  c l o s e r to both  f o r b u i l d i n g and f o r f u e l , was had  was  headquarters  to a s i t e on the e a s t e r n s i d e of reasons  on  tendeaicy  f o r Eskimo people to move i n t o the e x i s t i n g s e t t l e ments by p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l source of food c l o t h i n g from a land-based a c t i v i t y I t was  (Jenness,  1964s  s p e c i f i c a l l y noted i n a meeting of the  should  operation  not  be  f u l n e s s and  that the e x i s t e n c e  of the  expected to lower the n a t i v e s  independence, and  r e i n d e e r meat should (Minutes, NWT  35)  North-  west T e r r i t o r i e s C o u n c i l i n the e a r l y y e a r s of reindeer  and  the  herd resource-  that those r e c e i v i n g  be expected to work i n r e t u r n  Councils  7 9 5 ) • R e i n d e e r S t a t i o n con-  s i s t e d o n l y of a s c a t t e r i n g of houses ( T a y l o r , 1 9 4 5 ) without b e n e f i t of a s t o r e u n t i l Company e s t a b l i s h e d one settlement centre  the Hudson's  i n 1 9 4 9 . a f t e r which  Bay the  took on l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n s as a s e r v i c e  f o r the  sisted u n t i l  e a s t e r n p a r t of the D e l t a which p e r -  the  establishment  of  Inuvik.  Tuktoyaktuk The  wreck of the Hudson's Bay  Lady K i n d e r s l e y Bay  i n 1 9 2 4 (Larsen,  Company v e s s e l s  1 9 6 7 : 2 3 ) and  Chimo i n 1 9 3 1 ( L l o y d , 1 9 4 9 . Ch.  10: 32)  the  together  •  w i t h the abandonment o f the A r c t i c C.T. Pedersen i n 1938  trade by Capt*  f i n a l l y c l o s e d the hazardous  B e r i n g S t r a i t r o u t e which had been used s i n c e the w h a l i n g days.  intermittently  As an a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e , the  Hudson's Bay Company now developed a transhipment p o i n t a t Tuktoyaktuk ( f o r m e r l y P o r t Brabant) to s e r v i c e s o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t s v i a the Mackenzie NANR, 405/5/1, v o l . 4 ) .  system  The opening o f t h i s  (IAND, port  c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r Eskimos to be employed seasonal basis.  as longshoremen, I n 1944  but o n l y on a l i m i t e d  a s m a l l s h i p y a r d was a l s o i n  o p e r a t i o n and about a dozen Eskimo f a m i l i e s l i v e d a t Tuktoyaktuk i n a d d i t i o n to the Hudson's Bay Company manager and two C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s  (Taylor,  1945).  At  t h i s time b o t h permanent huts and t e n t s were c l u s t e r e d away from the Company's compound, some near the m i s s i o n and some on the s o u t h e r n end of the promontory  on  which the s e t t l e m e n t i s l o c a t e d , a s e g r e g a t i o n of n a t i v e and white h o u s i n g which has p e r s i s t e d p r e s e n t time.  to the  Fort  McPherson F o r t McPherson was overshadowed d u r i n g  p e r i o d i n every r e s p e c t by A k l a v i k .  this  Where the numbers  o f muskrat traded a t A k l a v i k expanded g r e a t l y 1934 to 1938 ( F i g . 4 - 2 ) ,  the numbers a t F o r t  remained f a i r l y c o n s t a n t and, at the same  from McPherson  time,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l f u n c t i o n s which had been s t r o n g there had s h i f t e d The I n d i a n s who s t i l l  to the newer s e t t l e m e n t .  regarded F o r t McPherson as  t h e i r p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h o u t s i d e i n s t i t u t i o n s maintained  a g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y f o r the l a n d than  who had s h i f t e d  their allegiance  the m i d - t h i r t i e s ,  to A k l a v i k .  also those  Thus i n  the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y r e g r e t t e d  t h a t s i n c e he was ordered by h i s b i s h o p  to remain i n  the s e t t l e m e n t he was f a c e d w i t h the p r o s p e c t o f m i n i s t e r i n g to a mere f i f t e e n M e t i s w h i l e the c a t e c h i s t had  the s p i r i t u a l needs o f seventy-one  I n d i a n s to  l o o k a f t e r i n the camps (ACR, F t . McPherson, At the same time he noted, I n d i a n s seemed more l i k e  significantly,  1935)*  that the  " t h i r d c l a s s white  people"  Fig.  4-2  M u s k r a t T r a d e d a t A k l a v i k and F o r t M c P h e r s o n , 1930 to 1950  and harboured  the view t h a t "the government has  l o o k a f t e r them."  to  (ibid.).  L i k e t h a t of Tuktoyaktuk, the morphology of F o r t McPherson showed s t r o n g s i g n s of e t h n i c gation although  segre-  on r a t h e r more complex l i n e s .  The  e x i s t e n c e of a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d M e t i s group i n a d d i t i o n to the I n d i a n was  r e f l e c t e d i n the p a t t e r n  o f housing which e x i s t e d i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s and  1940's,  i n which M e t i s households c l u s t e r e d at the n o r t h  end  around the Hudson's Bay Company compound and  the  I n d i a n s , when i n r e s i d e n c e , at the south end  c l o s e to  the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n ( S l o b o d i n , 1962:  56}  Taylor, 1945).  I n the 1940's a c e r t a i n amount of rowdyism  had  appeared i n the s e t t l e m e n t c a u s i n g the A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r to p e t i t i o n f o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t RCMP post which had Council: 3061).  c l o s e d i n 1922  By 19^7.  (Minutes,  f i f t e e n Indian  l i v e d permanently i n F o r t McPherson and l i n e s out of the s e t t l e m e n t and  NWT  families operated  two y e a r s  government r e c o g n i z e d the c o n t i n u e d  of the  trap-  later  e x i s t e n c e of the  settlement 1000/118,  by r e - o p e n i n g  the RCMP post  (IAND, NANR,  vol. i ) .  A r c t i c Red R i v e r Of a l l the s e t t l e m e n t s , A r c t i c Red R i v e r seemed to have undergone l e a s t More than  change d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  the o t h e r s i t r e t a i n e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t r a d i n g and m i s s i o n post r a t h e r than a t t r a c t i n g a native population.  Thus i n the 1940's, o n l y  Indian f a m i l i e s l i v e d o r so v i s i t e d 19^5)•  three  there permanently, though 200  f o r f i s h i n g d u r i n g the summer ( T a y l o r ,  S i n c e A r c t i c Red R i v e r remained an e x c l u s i v e l y  I n d i a n and e x c l u s i v e l y C a t h o l i c c e n t r e i t a l s o showed no was  s i g n s o f the i n c i p i e n t  p a t t e r n of s e g r e g a t i o n which  e v i d e n t a t some o f the other  settlements.  4. The Growth o f A k l a v i k A k l a v i k o f course the  became the most complex o f  settlement's d u r i n g the p e r i o d b o t h i n i t s e x t e r n a l  r e l a t i o n s and i t s i n t e r n a l morphology.  I t had  d e v e l o p e d s t r o n g e r t i e s w i t h the south b o t h i n the  form of r e g u l a r steamboat s c h e d u l e s , and by a i r c r a f t .  The  expansion  in freight  increasingly  c a r r i e d by  Mackenzie R i v e r T r a n s p o r t Company which had the i n c r e a s e of mining c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g the 1957s  by  166),  and  i n the Mackenzie  1930*s  the f i r s t  (Robinson,  service  1957$  (Rea,  of  in 1929  i n i t i a t e d f a i r l y regular a i r  2^5),  1968: 216).  accentuated  governmental and  Zaslow,  1945;  a i r m a i l brought i n t o A k l a v i k  Increased  contact with  South gave A k l a v i k the l e a d over o t h e r which was  accompanied  District,  the v e t e r a n n o r t h e r n p i l o t Punch Dickens  (Fleming,  the  the  settlements  by the l o c a t i o n of a number  o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s there d u r i n g  the  1930's.  The boarding  most important  of these were the two  s c h o o l s , the f i r s t  m i s s i o n a t the upstream end and  the second moved by  Shingle Point i n end.  The  +936  opened by  mission  the C a t h o l i c  o f the s e t t l e m e n t  in 1929  the A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n from  and  immediate r e s u l t  l o c a t e d at the downstream of t h i s move was  that  c h i l d r e n were no l o n g e r sent out of the a r e a to  s c h o o l and thus  the i n c e n t i v e to a t t e n d was s t r o n g e r  ( c f . Jenness, 1964:  68).  The b o a r d i n g  schools a t  t h i s time became s t r o n g agents of a c c u l t u r a t i o n both f o r the c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d ,  and a l s o f o r the p a r e n t s  who now stayed i n the s e t t l e m e n t i n o r d e r to v i s i t suggest  f o r longer  t h e i r youngsters.  periods  T h i s i s not to  t h a t e d u c a t i o n was now w i d e l y r e c e i v e d , s i n c e  o f the 1,450  I n d i a n and Eskimo c h i l d r e n between the  ages o f 5 and 14 i n the Mackenzie R i v e r b a s i n , o n l y 55 attended schools i n  day s c h o o l and 115  1943*44  (ibid.:  l i v e d i n the b o a r d i n g  69).  Another f a c t o r which  i n c r e a s e d the a t t r a c t i o n o f A k l a v i k was the e s t a b l i s h ment o f a h o s p i t a l i n 1937  (Fleming,  1957:  263) and  o f an " I n d u s t r i a l Home" i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r (Jenness,  1964:  69).  Thus d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d A k l a v i k  became the home not o n l y o f a number o f young  people  d u r i n g t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s , but a l s o o f the aged and  infirm. The  morphology of the s e t t l e m e n t  remained  linear,  as t r a d i n g p o s t s extended from the p o i n t towards the  A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n i n one the o t h e r . was  The  d i r e c t i o n and  the C a t h o l i c i n  i n c r e a s e i n the number of such  posts  the most s i g n i f i c a n t development i n A k l a v i k d u r i n g  t h i s p e r i o d as white t r a d e r s not o n l y moved i n from the south but a l s o from the c o a s t when white fox p r i c e s slumped i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s .  In a d d i t i o n to  the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d Hudson's Bay Company and T r a d e r s L i m i t e d , there was  a handful of  Northern  so-called  " f r e e " t r a d e r s most of whom set up b u s i n e s s i n the s e t t l e m e n t f o r the f i r s t  time i n the e a r l y  ( F i g . 4-1;  In 1932,  Appendix A ) .  h i s s t o r e i n the bush behind l e v e e , s e t t i n g a new  H.E.  the now  thirties  P e f f e r opened  q u i t e crowded  d i r e c t i o n i n the  settlement's  growth. The  1930's r e p r e s e n t e d  the heyday of A k l a v i k as  schooners came i n from Banksland  a f t e r breakup  D e l t a Eskimos came i n * to trade muskrat b e f o r e o f f f o r summer whaling  and setting  camps at S h i n g l e P o i n t ,  W h i t e f i s h S t a t i o n and K i t t i g a z u i t .  Though muskrat  p r i c e s v a r i e d they were u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h to  p r o v i d e an adequate income g i v e n the f a i r l y  limited  needs o f the time and the minimal e x p e n d i t u r e o f effort required.  T h i s made the D e l t a a t t r a c t i v e t o  Eskimos i n Tuktoyaktuk as w e l l as the I n d i a n s  o f the  P e e l , which added t o the s t r o n g e f f e c t which A k l a v i k i n p a r t i c u l a r had as a p l a c e o f s o c i a l and e t h n i c admixture.  Gambling and h i g h l i q u o r consumption were  both p r e v a l e n t , and though A k l a v i k was s t i l l i n s i z e i t possessed  a village  more v a r i e d and urban f e a t u r e s  than any o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t  i n the a r e a .  Gambling was  e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e a f t e r the s p r i n g muskrat hunt and t h e r e was j e a l o u s y r e p o r t e d between I n d i a n and Eskimo t r a p p e r s as to who p l a y e d f o r the b i g g e s t (IAND, NANR, 1000/119, v o l . l a ) .  stakes  Many n a t i v e  trappers  were used to h a n d l i n g v e r y l a r g e sums of money a t t h i s time, as evidenced was  by the f a c t  that $11,000  credit  extended t o one t r a p p e r by a f r e e t r a d e r ( IAND,  NANR,  . 1 0 0 0 / 1 9 , v o l . l a ) , o r that Bishop  Breynat was  o f f e r e d $ 3 5 , 0 0 0 i n cash f o r the schooner Lady ofHourdes by another  ( F r . Franche, pers.comm. J u l y , 1968)  .  Though T a y l o r (19^5) had  no h e s t i t a t i o n i n c l a s s i -  f y i n g i t as an " i n f a n t i l e " noted  t h a t i t had  o f whites  nonetheless  the b e g i n n i n g of a town p l a n i n  the shape of a square buildings.  s e t t l e m e n t , he  and  many f a i r l y  impressive  As w i t h o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s , the and  housing  n a t i v e s showed a de f a c t o s e g r e g a t i o n  from the b e g i n n i n g  ( T a y l o r , 19^5)  s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n which was  which r e f l e c t e d a perhaps more s t r o n g l y  marked i n A k l a v i k than i n o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s due the g r e a t e r number of white r e s i d e n t s and,  to  especially  w i t h the l a t e r a r r i v a l of government departments, t h e i r more o f f i c i a l  s t a t u s ( S l o b o d i n , 1962s  In summary, both the new  and  37).  the o l d s e t t l e m e n t s  began to e x h i b i t c e r t a i n common f e a t u r e s d u r i n g period.  Where i n the p a s t they had  contained  this  little  more than the t r a d i n g p o s t , the m i s s i o n and  later  RCMP p o s t , they now  residences.  u s u a l l y c o n t a i n e d a few  the  Though these were not n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u p i e d by n a t i v e people  a l l d u r i n g the y e a r , t h e i r presence  t h a t a l a r g e r number of n a t i v e people  spent  indicated long  enough i n the s e t t l e m e n t f o r them to c o n s i d e r i t worth e r e c t i n g a permanent home t h e r e . t h i s tendency  was  As might be  most s t r o n g l y marked i n the  expected settlements  c o n t a i n i n g the g r e a t e s t number of o u t s i d e i n s t i t u t i o n s , l i k e A k l a v i k , and t a i n e d few  l e a s t s t r o n g l y a t those which  such i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  I n each case, there was  l i k e A r c t i c Red  River.  a f a i r l y s t r o n g l y marked  s e g r e g a t i o n of the r e s i d e n c e s of n a t i v e and p e r s o n s , and  con-  non-native  a l s o more s u b t l y , those of I n d i a n s  and  M e t i s i n F o r t McPherson, or I n d i a n s and Eskimos i n Aklavik.  Some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r employment  had  appeared, though on a v e r y s e a s o n a l b a s i s , and o n l y groups of n a t i v e people  the  l i v i n g permanently i n  the s e t t l e m e n t s were c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , the s i c k i n the h o s p i t a l s , or the aged and  i n f i r m i n the  i n d u s t r i a l homes. The p h y s i c a l movement of n a t i v e people l a n d and The  i n t o the s e t t l e m e n t was  i n c e n t i v e s to l i v e  o f f the  to come much l a t e r .  i n the s e t t l e m e n t were as y e t  s l i g h t and government s t i l l  pursued  an a c t i v e  policy,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e l i e f o f ?  indigenous and  on the l a n d .  However, the 1 9 3 0 ' s  1 9 4 0 s saw the appearance o f many more reasons to ,  visit of  people  keeping  the s e t t l e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y A k l a v i k .  The d e c l i n e  white f o x p r i c e s i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s caused  a  r e t r e a t i n t o the D e l t a accompanied by the c l o s i n g of more p e r i p h e r a l t r a d i n g p o s t s . people  T h i s brought more  c l o s e r to the s e t t l e m e n t s and the presence  of a  growing number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y i n A k l a v i k encouraged them to v i s i t  more o f t e n .  the s e t t l e m e n t way o f l i f e ,  In t h i s period  though not y e t adopted,  was c e r t a i n l y becoming more f a m i l i a r .  5. The E s t a b l i s h m e n t The e s t a b l i s h m e n t departure  o f lEnuvik  of I n u v i k r e p r e s e n t e d a r a d i c a l  from the p r o c e s s e s  which had o c c u r r e d b e f o r e .  of s e t t l e m e n t  formation  The form o f p r e c e d i n g  s e t t l e m e n t s had been l a r g e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by the needs of  the people  they s e r v e d .  posts represented  The m i s s i o n s and t r a d i n g  the most a c t i v e southern  institutions.  w h i l e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n was u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y by the RCMP p o s t .  I n u v i k , i n c o n t r a s t , came i n t o  being l a r g e l y through d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s which went on o u t s i d e the North, and from the f i r s t a planned to  s e t t l e m e n t i n which f a c i l i t i e s  be s i m i l a r t o those i n the South.  argued  i t was  were d e s i g n e d  While i t c a n be  t h a t agents o f the wider s o c i e t y were more  i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l o c a t i o n and morphology of  even the o l d e r s e t t l e m e n t s , c o n t i n u i n g mutual  adjustments  d i d take p l a c e between these agents and  t h e i r indigenous c l i e n t s .  Thus, t r a d i n g p o s t s and  m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d and abandoned i n response  t o e c o l o g i c a l s h i f t s which to a l a r g e extent  were beyond the c o n t r o l o f the agents concerned, and even detachments o f the RCMP were r e l o c a t e d from to  time  time i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r a d m i n i s t e r a p o p u l a t i o n  which was e s s e n t i a l l y m i g r a t o r y . The  importance  of Inuvik l i e s  i n the f a c t  that  c o n t r o l was e x e r c i s e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y from o u t s i d e w i t h the l o c a l s o c i e t y and economy r e s p o n d i n g t o  events over which there was l i t t l e  o r no l o c a l c o n t r o l .  A p e r i o d o f g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d change was i n i t i a t e d by the b u i l d i n g o f I n u v i k , opportunity  above a l l by p r e s e n t i n g an  f o r n a t i v e people to abandon a l i f e on  the l a n d i n f a v o u r  of one i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  The f a c t  t h a t I n u v i k was b u i l t a t a time when d e c l i n i n g incomes from t r a p p i n g made a l i f e  on the land l e s s a t t r a c t i v e  added f u r t h e r f o r c e to i t s c e n t r i p e t a l a t t r a c t i o n . The e v o l u t i o n of I n u v i k  as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e i s  t h e r e f o r e o f some i n t e r e s t s i n c e a l t h o u g h wage employment w s not a dominant c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i t i a l l y , i t a  came to assume g r e a t e r importance as the p r o j e c t got under way.  Had I n u v i k been planned as a c e n t r e o f  change r a t h e r than becoming one p e r f o r c e ,  there i s  l i t t l e doubt that i t s form and f u n c t i o n would have devolved i n d i f f e r e n t ways and would have done so more through a d i a l o g u e  i n v o l v i n g indigenous people  than  was the c a s e . By the e a r l y 1950' » 3  the expansion o f government  f a c i l i t i e s which had been experienced  a t A k l a v i k had  given r i s e  to some problems.  However adequate f o r  the t r a d i n g p o s t s of the t w e n t i e s , the s i t e p a t e n t l y inadequate  f o r the burgeoning By 1953» f i v e  s e c t o r of the f i f t i e s . departments (Resources  was  government government  and Development, T r a n s p o r t ,  N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare, N a t i o n a l Defence R.C.M.P.) were r e p r e s e n t e d a t A k l a v i k , and their  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s accounted  the s e t t l e m e n t ' s t o t a l f i x e d I n October 196ki met  19 ) 2  for 36.5  investment  and  together  per cent of (ACND, N D - 6 8 ) .  of t h a t y e a r , the r e c e n t l y r e v i v e d A d v i s o r y Committee on N o r t h e r n  (Jenness,  Development  to c o n s i d e r the problems which A k l a v i k ' s s i t e  might p r e s e n t f o r p o s s i b l e c o n t i n u e d expansion. most of these were p o s s i b l e s a n i t a r y problems from  the s e t t l e m e n t ' s inadequate  Forearising  sewage d i s p o s a l  f a c i l i t i e s , which c o u l d o n l y be brought  into  satis-  f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n through an e s t i m a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e some one m i l l i o n  dollars  (ACND, N D - 6 8 ) .  however i n c l u d e d the annual  Other  r i s k of f l o o d i n g ,  of  problems the  e r o s i o n of the upstream r i v e r bank, the g e n e r a l l a c k  o f space and  the l a c k of s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s f o r  b u i l d i n g roads and g r a v e l pads f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some thought  was  g i v e n a t t h i s time  A k l a v i k s t o t a l f i x e d investment 1  to r e l o c a t i n g  of three  million  d o l l a r s to a more f a v o u r a b l e s i t e a t an approximate e s t i m a t e d c o s t of one and  and  one-third m i l l i o n  dollars,  then p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o s e d b u i l d i n g s  a t the new  location  (ibid.).  In o r d e r to c o n s i d e r t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i n g r e a t e r depth,  an A k l a v i k Sub-Committee of the A d v i s o r y ei?  Committee of Northern 1954  Development wasset up i n January  and made s e v e r a l recommendations soon a f t e r w a r d s .  I t was  suggested  by t h i s sub-committee t h a t the work  o f r e l o c a t i o n should be c a r r i e d out i n three  stages  under the a u s p i c e s of the Department of P u b l i c Works. First,  earthwork and c o n c r e t e i n s t a l l a t i o n s s h o u l d  c o n s t r u c t e d a t the new been found.  s i t e when a s u i t a b l e one  had  Second, those b u i l d i n g s a t A k l a v i k which  were worth s a l v a g i n g s h o u l d be moved to the new and  be  the c o s t s borne by  site  the government departments  concerned,  or i n the case o f b u i l d i n g s not owned by  government departments, by the Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources.  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was  recommended that the F e d e r a l Government should a l s o a s s i s t A k l a v i k r e s i d e n t s t o move and should make s u i t a b l e arrangements f o r the t r a n s f e r o f l a n d (ACND, ND-81).  TWO  concepts  were i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s  stage which r e p r e s e n t e d a new d e p a r t u r e  i n the p l a n n i n g  of n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t s , and these were to remain constant  throughout  f o l l o w i n g developments.  These were  that the new s e t t l e m e n t s should be zoned and t h a t the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code s h o u l d be e n f o r c e d . i n t r o d u c t i o n o f these concepts producing  The  was a key element i n  the m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y segregated  settlement  t h a t I n u v i k teas to become. The bility  p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s was to be the r e s p o n s i -  o f the T e r r i t o r i a l Government a l t h o u g h  i n d i r e c t l y by the F e d e r a l Government.  funded  In d e t a i l , i t  was recommended that the s e n i o r government was to make an o u t r i g h t c a p i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n equal to the  value  of A k l a v i k ' s  then inadequate summer water  supply  system, and a l o a n to the j u n i o r government to cover the e x t r a c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g an adequate a l l y e a r round system a t the new l o c a t i o n (ibid»)» i n A k l a v i k was a t t h i s  time s u p p l i e d Dy the  owned A k l a v i k Power and supply location,  Electricity  Company.  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  privately  At the new  Power Commission  was to i n v e s t i g a t e how e l e c t r i c i t y should  be  t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p o s s i b i l i t y  o f u s i n g the  p l a n t and equipment o f t h i s At  t h i s e a r l y stage,  been c o n s u l t e d come e n t i r e l y Advisory  provided,  company,  A k l a v i k i n h a b i t a n t s had not  on developments, s i n c e i n i t i a t i v e had from Ottawa, and s p e c i f i c a l l y from the  Committee on N o r t h e r n Development.  a p r o j e c t manager was appointed  However",  to s u p e r v i s e  the move  i n the f i e l d and to a c t as l i a i s o n w i t h A k l a v i k dents through a l o c a l a d v i s o r y at  the l o c a l  institutional  committee.  Opposition  l e v e l had thus had n e i t h e r time nor s t r u c t u r e s to express i t s e l f ,  resi-  the  although  some r e s e r v a t i o n s had been expressed by other  government departments. r e l o c a t i o n had  In p a r t i c u l a r , o p p o s i t i o n  been expressed by o f f i c i a l s  Department of N a t i o n a l Defence who existing f a c i l i t i e s not be moved and at a higher  would t h e r e f o r e have to be o r i g i n a l l y been  Specifically,  whether an a l l - w e a t h e r a t A k l a v i k was  that  the the  of the Royal Canadian Navy c o u l d  c o s t than had  (ACND, ND-91).  felt  of  to  still  the  thorny  estimated question  a i r s t r i p c o u l d be  an open one.  replaced  constructed  Opinion  Department of N a t i o n a l Defence at the  of  i n the  time seemed to  l e a n towards the l e s s c o s t l y a l t e r n a t i v e of constructing such a s t r i p u s i n g g r a v e l barged i n from elsewhere i n the Mackenzie D e l t a July,  ( L t / C d r L. Mann, pers.comm.,  1965). However, by  A k l a v i k had  this  time the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e  a l r e a d y been made at the  and  i n a meeting of December 3 r d ,  had  been g i v e n  cabinet  1953»  level  approval  to the r e l o c a t i o n p r o p o s a l ,  provided  t h a t a l l f e d e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n at A k l a v i k be  suspended,  and  s t a r t e d the  that surveys f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e be  f o l l o w i n g summer (IAND, NALB, 1 0 0 0 / 1 1 9 - 1 , v o l . A few days a f t e r the  t h i s meeting, a r e l e a s e was  p r e s s announcing  1).  made to  the proposed move as f o l l o w s :  " A k l a v i k i s b e i n g moved f o r the good of i t s h e a l t h . S a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s are u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Water s u p p l y  and sewage d i s p o s a l are inadequate and are  growing  worse year by y e a r . " ( i b i d . ) . The reasons f o r r e l o c a t i o n were made more s p e c i f i c w i t h i n the Department. month i t was  F o r example, l a t e r i n the  noted that depressed f u r p r i c e s i n  p r e c e d i n g y e a r s made the need f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i v e training was  and new  certainly  employment e s s e n t i a l  some v a l i d i t y to t h i s c l a i m .  had indeed dropped  Fur  r a d i c a l l y from the r e l a t i v e  days o f the l a t e f o r t i e s . resulting  (ibid.).  The  There prices bonanza  l o c a l depression  from low f u r p r i c e s had a l s o been aggravated  by an i n f l u e n z a epidemic a t the h e i g h t of the p r e v i o u s muskrat not  season which bad r e s u l t e d i n many t r a p p e r s  b e i n g a b l e to pay o f f debts to the t r a d e r s .  The  t o t a l debt o f the seven t r a d e r s then o p e r a t i n g i n the  A k l a v i k a r e a was e s t i m a t e d o r d e r of $42,000  i n June 1952  to be i n the  (IAND, NALB, 1000/19, v o l . l a ) .  In  a d d i t i o n , some t r a d e r s were themselves i n debt to the f u r d e a l e r s o u t s i d e and were consequently sound p o s i t i o n to advance f u r t h e r loans Thus the economic p l i g h t Yet  not i n a to t r a p p e r s .  of the a r e a was a s e r i o u s one.  the r e l o c a t i o n o f A k l a v i k c o u l d o n l y  provide  a temporary a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n u n l e s s i t were accompanied by some more r a d i c a l a d d i t i o n to the economic base o f the a r e a .  Some employment would  c e r t a i n l y become a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the p r o c e s s  of  r e l o c a t i o n , but no c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been g i v e n a t t h i s time to p r o v i d i n g a permanent the new  location.  employment base a t  However, the f a c t o r of employment  was one which would r e c e i v e i n c r e a s i n g emphasis as plans progressed,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n discussions  Mackenzie D e l t a r e s i d e n t s .  with  F o r example, when the  M i n i s t e r of the new Department of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources v i s i t e d A k l a v i k i n the summer of 1953> he gave c o n s i d e r a b l e  s t r e s s to the hope t h a t the  b u i l d i n g o f the new  settlement  programme of employment  would i n i t i a t e a  f o r I n d i a n and Eskimo  people  (Berton, 1956 ) . That t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n should have r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r emphasis as r e l o c a t i o n p l a n s p r o g r e s s e d have been motivated  by two f a c t o r s .  First,  no doubt t h a t as the p r o p o s a l m a g n i f i e d hopes o f p r o v i d i n g employment fication.  may  there i s  i n scale,  received greater  A l s o , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  justi-  t h a t an  i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f the economic problems o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s made any p r o p o s a l which promised to p r o v i d e employment attractive  even on a s h o r t term b a s i s v e r y  to the e x e c u t i v e  l e v e l o f government.  As  Jenness p o i n t s out, the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of government departments i n 1950 which r e s u l t e d i n the  establishment  of the Department of Resources and Development  with  a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s had marked  the b e g i n n i n g o f  a more a c t i v e f e d e r a l r o l e i n t h i s a r e a  (jenness,  1964:  78 e_t passim) . However, a l t h o u g h  some a t t e n t i o n had been g i v e n  to  the  pressing  Mackenzie were  Delta,  idea  discussions of  the  factors  of  were  and  water  deep  supply  sources  to  and  supplies  to  to be  of  considered  possible  site  and  possible  to  a  site.  was  by  of  a  i t s possible  strip, sewage  sand  and  to  a  disposal gravel  for  f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power of  the  in  coal  1  the Some  from  field  were  the team  i t s  permanent  sewer  access  a  to  suitable  i t s proximity  i t s location with  source  these  gained  These  i t s proximity air  the  that least  be  considered  new  all-weather  at  can  construction  channel,  and  account,  of  relocation proposal.  be  system,  needs  evidence  criteria  a  the  supply  water an  for  social  i s no  the  to  i t s s e l e c t i o n of  and  into  paramount  which  suitability  for  there  s e r i o u s l y taken  early  in  economic  to  site water  facilities, building.  Also  respect  a  to  development  (IAND,  NALB,  W i t h r e g a r d to the l a s t mentioned p o i n t , c o a l w i t h a t h e r m a l v a l u e of 11,035 B . t . u . ' s per l b . had been mined s u c c e s s f u l l y a t Moose C h a n n e l i n the north-western p a r t o f the D e l t a f o r a number o f y e a r s , and had s u p p l i e d the l i m i t e d n e e d s o f R e i n d e e r S t a t i o n and the Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a t A k l a v i k . H o w e v e r , t h i s was r e j e c t e d as a s o u r c e of h e a t i n g f u e l a t an e a r l y stage and n e v e r became a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the choice o f t h e new settlement location. Similarly, a proposal t h a t t h e new settlement might r e p l a c e T u k t o y a k t u k as a trans-shipment p o i n t from r i v e r to seagoing v e s s e l s was a l s o dropped at an e a r l y stage.  Finally,  i t was suggested that  give consideration be  suitable  view" but, neither  the i ' i e l d team might  to s e l e c t i n g a s i t e which would  "from the economic and s o c i a l p o i n t of s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s s u g g e s t i o n was made  prominent nor s p e c i f i c  D u r i n g 1954, the r e l o c a t i o n momentum as f i e l d  (ibid.). project  surveys were c a r r i e d  gathered  out and l o c a l  people were brought more c l o s e l y i n t o developments. The  s i t e survey team a r r i v e d  a t A k l a v i k and a l o c a l  a d v i s o r y committee was o r g a n i z e d , both on A p r i l 1954  (ACND, ND-91).  I n the s h o r t season  1,  available,  some urgency was n e c e s s a r y so that by August seven s i t e s had been c o n s i d e r e d of which s i t e E - 3 on the e a s t e r n edge o f the D e l t a was d e s i g n a t e d the most suitable.  The s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s s i t e on the b a s i s  of l a r g e l y e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s .  First,  since E - 3  w  a  s so f a r from  A k l a v i k - seventy m i l e s by water - the p h y s i c a l relocation  of existing buildings  than a n t i c i p a t e d  would be more c o s t l y  and a l t h o u g h t h i s s t i l l  remained a  f e a t u r e o f the p r o j e c t , l a t e r events were to make i t impractical. had  Estimated  c o s t s , f o r the e n t i r e p r o j e c t  escalated considerably  (ACND, ND-68)  from $ 2 , 3 2 5 , 0 0 0 i n 1953  to $ 9 , 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1955 (IAND, NALB,  1 0 0 0 / 1 2 5 , v o l . l ) as the dimensions o f the p r o j e c t came more s h a r p l y i n t o f o c u s . i n an a r e a  second, s i n c e E - 3 was  of r e l a t i v e l y scarce n a t u r a l  resources,  i t s s e l e c t i o n showed e i t h e r a d i s r e g a r d f o r o r a conscious  break with a h u n t i n g ,  t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g  economy. T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t was by t h i s time apparent t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s among whom some o p p o s i t i o n began to appear.  By August 1955» when c o n s t r u c t i o n had s t a r t e d  a t E-3» i t was noted by a prominent l o c a l t h a t many people would not wish to l e a v e settlement  due to i t s p r o x i m i t y  f i s h i n g areas ( i b i d . ) .  resident the o l d  to good h u n t i n g and  To these l o c a l l y  expressed  doubts, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n seems to have adopted a l e s s r i g i d view than i s admitted l o c a l l y a t the present time.  F o r example, 1 the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y a t t h i s  time was  that i t was  to move, but no  not  intended  to compel anyone  t h a t f o r a number of r e s i d e n t s who  t r a p p i n g areas or other adequate means of  livelihood  the new  town would p r o v i d e  earning  a l i v i n g or supplementing t h e i r incomes  during  in  a welcome o p p o r t u n i t y  the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d and  s e r v i c e , maintenance and  operation  first  l a t e r i n government of u t i l i t i e s  and  stages of d i s c u s s i o n , i t seems  to have been g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d continue  to e x i s t ,  However, the b e l i e f was the new  l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n was  costs  by  the new  prevalent  form, i n settlement.  l o c a l l y that  plans  town i n v o l v e d the d i s a p p e a r a n c e , or even  d e s t r u c t i o n of the o l d .  now  t h a t A k l a v i k would  even i f i n a t t e n u a t e d  f a c e of a t t r a c t i o n s e x e r t e d  had  for  other a c t i v i t i e s which might develop ( i b i d . ) . From the e a r l i e s t  for  have  acquired  Around t h i s b e l i e f much  focussed.  Since  a c e r t a i n urgency due  the p r o j e c t to i n c r e a s i n g  (Rowley, 1955)• l o c a l l i a i s o n became r a t h e r  superficial  l e a d i n g to a number of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s .  F o r example, as l a t e as 1956  a prominent  local  r e s i d e n t c o u l d c l a i m t h a t the move had been made without l o c a l  c o n s u l t a t i o n though there had been  overtures  i n that d i r e c t i o n  vol.  To o b j e c t i o n s  2).  (IAND, NALB, 1000/125,  t h a t the new settlement  be too f a r from the c a r i b o u h u n t i n g  would  areas o f the  R i c h a r d s o n Mountains and t h a t i t was a poor l o c a t i o n for  fishing,  o f f i c i a l r e p l i e s again  A k l a v i k should  continue  suggested t h a t  to e x i s t as a c e n t r e  who wished to make a l i v i n g from the l a n d . fically,  f o r those Speci-  i t was m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the government  was  p r e p a r e d to have a day s c h o o l a t A k l a v i k and to see a s m a l l community  continue  to e x i s t  there xfs there  were people to whom i t would be advantageous However, i t was assumed  (ibid.).  by government, and  i n c r e a s i n g l y by n a t i v e p e o p l e , t h a t I n u v i k  would  dominate the r e g i o n by c h a n n e l l i n g the younger people off  the l a n d and i n t o wage employment, and go some  way towards e a s i n g  the l o c a l  economic  depression.  Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t e d i n g r e a t while  numbers  the town was i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , but have o n l y been  sustained  s u b s e q u e n t l y by the c r e a t i o n of top heavy  administrative for  structure.  In g e n e r a l  the  which n a t i v e people were t r a i n e d were r e l a t e d to  the c o n s t r u c t i o n phase r a t h e r than to the phase.  delayed  more d i f f i c u l t  f o r some people  or p r o h i b i t e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of  which would have more l a s t i n g v a l u e economy as i t was I n the f i r s t  skills  w i t h i n the  local  l a t e r to d e v e l o p . two  summers of c o n s t r u c t i o n work,  wage employment p r o v i d e d  little  more than a p o t e n t i a l  fillip  to the l a g g i n g t r a p p i n g economy.  Inuvik  i n the summer months d i d not  flict  administrative  T h i s undoubtedly made adjustment to wage  employment a l i t t l e and  occupations  w i t h making a l i v i n g  Working i n  n e c e s s a r i l y con-  on the l a n d , f o r many  n a t i v e people used the e x t r a income from summer employment to r e p a i r and and  r e p l e n i s h t r a p p i n g equipment  q u i t t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n jobs e a r l y enough i n  September to get i n a supply t r a p p i n g season. was  of f i s h f o r the  coming  For a l a r g e r number however the  c a s t f o r wage employment or a t l e a s t f o r a  die  life  in  the s e t t l e m e n t .  s t r u c t i o n work was  Much o f the income from conr e d i s t r i b u t e d i n poker games,  the major form of e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and d i s s i p a t e d i n purchase of l i q u o r , which c o u l d o n l y be a c q u i r e d by chartering a i r c r a f t  to A k l a v i k , s t i l l  at t h i s  the s i t e of the T e r r i t o r i a l L i q u o r Commission The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n u v i k undoubtedly profound e f f e c t s on the economy of the  time store. had  Mackenzie  D e l t a , which were r e f l e c t e d both i n the changing economic  complexion of the s e t t l e m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  Inuvik i t s e l f ,  and i n the a c t i v i t i e s based upon the  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of the l a n d .  The  reorganization  of the r e g i o n ' s s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e and the growing a s s i m i l a t i o n of n a t i v e people i n t o I n u v i k ' s economy w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t Two.  I t s h o u l d be  clear  from the above d i s c u s s i o n however that these were to take the form of a response to development t h e r e was  little  local  control.  over which  PART TWO:  THE CHANGING NODAL STRUCTURE OF THE DELTA COMMUNITY  CHAPTER V  THE  CHANGING SPATIAL ORGANIZATION THE  OP  TRAPPING ECONOMY  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t s  which c u l m i n a t e d i n the b u i l d i n g of I n u v i k opened up  new  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n town l i v i n g and c a l l e d f o r  readjustments i n the s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e of r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n patterns.  I n the p r e v i o u s  these have been r e p r e s e n t e d simply as and  centripetal forces.  chapter centrifugal  I t i s c l e a r that trappers  adjusted t h e i r pattern of a c t i v i t i e s  to accommodate  the growing i n f l u e n c e of towns i n much the same  way  t h a t r u r a l peasants i n o t h e r p a r t s of the world have responded to the p r e s s u r e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n ( e . g . Wolf, 1966).  However, where r u r a l d e p o p u l a t i o n i n a g r i -  c u l t u r a l areas l e a v e s i t s mark i n the form of p a t t e r n s o f l a n d use which are d i s c e r n i b l e on the  landscape,  the changes which occur i n a h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g  economy are not as c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . reaching  adjustments w i t h i n a complex and  system which r a m i f y not  They i n v o l v e f a r  outwards and  are  so much i n the landscape i t s e l f  subtle patterns  closely knit  to be  discerned  as i n the more  of economic, e c o l o g i c a l and  social  relations. The  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of the  to which P a r t One  of t h i s study has  been devoted  shown t h a t i t i s capable of s u p p o r t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e and having  i t s own  s t r a d d l e s the  competing e c o l o g i e s . distinctive biotic  t r e e l i n e and  other d i f f e r e n t  a number of As w e l l  community the  Delta  Which of these have indeed  s t a t e of the economic environment, c o n d i t i o n e d e a r l y stages  by  the p e o p l e .  In v e r y g e n e r a l  been  seasonal  depended i n l a r g e measure on  l e a s t i n the  own  capable of e n t e r i n g i n t o  i n what system of p r i o r i t i e s and has  as  communities, each c o n t a i n i n g i t s  the l o c a l economies.  preferences,  has  i s t h e r e f o r e a c c e s s i b l e to  p a r t i c u l a r a r r a y of r e s o u r c e s  used, and  region  the at  the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of terms though i t would  seem t h a t an expanding economy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h fur  p r i c e s has  supported  high  an e x t e n s i v e p a t t e r n of  r e s o u r c e use w i t h the K u t c h i n e x p l o i t i n g the headwaters of  the P e e l and  the Eskimo s p r e a d i n g out i n t o  the  c o a s t a l tundra a r e a s , w h i l e f a l l i n g f u r p r i c e s have u s u a l l y been accompanied by a r e t r e a t o f both  peoples  i n t o the D e l t a i t s e l f , where the g r e a t e r range of r e s o u r c e s may expenditure  be used to support  life  with  of e i t h e r e f f o r t or c a p i t a l  Which d i s t r i b u t i o n i s favoured  less  resources.  i s reflected in  l a r g e measure i n the f u r s p e c i e s e n t e r i n g i n t o T h i s i s so i n more r e c e n t times f u r s t r a d e d have formed f a i r l y  trade.  i n p a r t i c u l a r when reliable  indicators  of  the p r e v a i l i n g e c o l o g i c a l systems and have the a d d i t i o n a l advantage t h a t they are q u a n t i f i a b l e . t r a p p e r may  i n f a c t be i d e n t i f i e d by the number  type of f u r s p e c i e s t h a t he p r e s e n t s i n trade these i n t u r n g i v e some c l u e c o n c e r n i n g which he had  Each and  and  the a r e a to  d i r e c t e d most of h i s e f f o r t , as w e l l as  the nature and  extent of that e f f o r t .  I n o t h e r words,  the a r r a y of f u r s t r a d e d by a t r a p p e r i n any year c o n s t i t u t e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  one  trapping p r o f i l e  r e p r e s e n t i n g i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms the behaviour t h a t t r a p p e r d u r i n g the y e a r .  Though of course  p r o f i l e i s an a b b r e v i a t e d one and important  a s p e c t s of behaviour,  i n c l u d i n g the  convenient,  The  of p r o f i l e s thus becomes a  way  of e x p r e s s i n g the p e r -  formance of the D e l t a Community i n any one The  related  o f t e n be subsumed i n t r a p p i n g  aggregate  short-hand  getting  i n recent  times, p a r t - t i m e employment i n a c t i v i t i e s not  activities.  the  l e a v e s out many  of r e s o u r c e s not e n t e r i n g i n t o trade and,  to the l a n d , these may  of  year.  e x i s t e n c e of d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s of f u r takes  makes i t p o s s i b l e to examine w i t h some p r e c i s i o n changes i n t h a t performance which accompanied i z a t i o n i n the a r e a .  Two  the  urban-  sources of d a t a are used i n  t h i s c h a p t e r to c a r r y out two d i f f e r e n t modes of a n a l y s i s on r e l a t e d  topics.  The  first  i s directed  towards the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t r a p p e r s i n terms of  t h e i r t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s over a p e r i o d o f three decades i n o r d e r occurred  to determine the changes t h a t have  i n the use of areas p e r i p h e r a l to the Mackenzie  Delta i t s e l f .  The second i s d i r e c t e d towards the  a n a l y s i s of the s p a t i a l changes i n the muskrat  harvest  of the Mackenzie D e l t a which took p l a c e d u r i n g the most i n t e n s e p e r i o d o f u r b a n i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d the b u i l d i n g of I n u v i k . concerned d i r e c t l y w i t h  Neither  with  a n a l y s i s w i l l be  the nature o f the s u b s i s t e n c e  c y c l e s o f the land-based D e l t a Community s i n c e  this  t o p i c has beenuconsidered elsewhere (Smith |^1967j 5 B i s s e t t , 1967), these p r o v i d e and  hut r a t h e r w i t h  the extent  to which  an index o f the i n f l u e n c e o f s e t t l e m e n t s  other a c c u l t u r a t i v e f a c t o r s .  " S p e c i a l i s t " and " N o n - S p e c i a l i s t "  Trapping.  T r a p p e r s may be d i v i d e d i n t o what might be c a l l e d , f o r the want of a b e t t e r term, ^ s p e c i a l i s t " and " n o n - s p e c i a l i s t " groups.  The former r e q u i r e s p e c i a l  equipment to hunt or t r a p s p e c i e s which g e n e r a l l y are found o u t s i d e  the D e l t a , and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s imply a  g r e a t e r commitment to t r a p p i n g than i s i m p l i c i t those  of the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s .  specialist  For  the  t r a p p e r must engage i n a range of  which are i n t e n d e d  to support  h i s t r a p p i n g by  v i d i n g f o o d f o r h i m s e l f and h i s dog and  example,  r e p l e n i s h i n g h i s equipment.  team,and  Since  in  activities promaintaining  t h i s equipment  cannot g e n e r a l l y be used f o r o t h e r purposes,  specialized  t r a p p i n g r e q u i r e s a l s o a l a r g e c a p i t a l o u t l a y which may  o n l y be  effort. takes  recovered  by s e v e r a l y e a r s  In c o n t r a s t , the  of  sustained  " n o n - s p e c i a l i s t " trapper  s p e c i e s found w i t h i n the D e l t a i t s e l f e i t h e r  w i t h minimal equipment or w i t h t h a t which can f o r other purposes. One  of the f a c t o r s which makes  the s h o o t i n g  of muskrat i n open water i n the  more p o p u l a r  than t r a p p i n g them i n the w i n t e r  it  requires only a r i f l e  are used f o r other  1  double  spring i s that  and a canoe, both of which  activities."''  Throughout t h i s chapter the term " t r a p p e r " i s used f o r convenience to d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n t a k i n g f u r s f o r sale. I t must be acknowledged however t h a t many " t r a p p e r s " i n f a c t g a i n most o f t h e i r f u r take by means o t h e r than t r a p p i n g .  Trapping  profiles  then may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on  the b a s i s o f whether they i n d i c a t e maximum directed  effort  towards " n o n - s p e c i a l i s t " or " s p e c i a l i s t "  activities. a r e a occur  Because the s p e c i e s i n the Lower Mackenzie i n abundance i n w e l l d e f i n e d areas the  exact nature  o f the t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e  geographical  area to which t r a p p i n g a t t e n t i o n has been  directed.  i n d i c a t e s the  I t thus becomes not o n l y a short-hand  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n o f a p a r t i c u l a r t r a p p e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s but a l s o the a r e a probably  occupied.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  t h a t he has  "specialist"  t r a p p i n g i s d i r e c t e d towards on o r two s p e c i e s which, because they are c o n c e n t r a t e d p h e r a l to the D e l t a proper distributions.  i n d i s t i n c t areas  peri-  are d i a g n o s t i c of population  These s p e c i e s are marten, white f o x ,  beaver, mink, and to a s m a l l e r e x t e n t ,  coloured f o x .  Most t r a p p e r s on the o t h e r hand spend a t l e a s t o f each y e a r h u n t i n g  part  muskrat i n the s p r i n g .  Throughout most o f the known h i s t o r y of the D e l t a , the muskrat h a r v e s t has i n some form o r another been  important  and muskrat h u n t i n g has  featured  prominently  i n the e c o l o g i c a l regimes of most D e l t a p e o p l e .  What  is  important  but  how  i t has  however i s not  this a c t i v i t y i t s e l f  f e a t u r e d i n combination  w i t h other  activities.  I t i s p o s s i b l e today to d i s t i n g u i s h a v e r y l a r g e group of i n d i v i d u a l s the g r e a t e r p a r t of whose income from f u r s i s gained  from a few  muskrat i n the s p r i n g . specialist  b r i e f weeks of  shooting  In c o n t r a s t to these  the  t r a p p e r s have ranged f u r t h e r a f i e l d  the D e l t a f o r f a i r l y have r e t u r n e d in "ratting".  than  l o n g p e r i o d s , even though  there i n the s p r i n g to j o i n the At v a r i o u s times  they others  i n the h i s t o r y of  the  D e l t a area the f o l l o w i n g groups have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d : (i)  The  marten t r a p p e r s of the P e e l R i v e r people  have trapped  the headwaters of the C a r i b o u  V i t t r e k w a R i v e r s i n the R i c h a r d s o n combination (ii)  have trapped  and  Mountains i n  with the winter c a r i b o u hunt,  Thesmarten t r a p p e r s of A r c t i c Red  who  River  the T r a v a i l l a n t Lake a r e a .  who  (iii)  The beaver h u n t e r s of both the A r c t i c R i v e r and the P e e l R i v e r people who  Red  have  trapped the Upper D e l t a i n the w i n t e r or hunted beaver there i n the s p r i n g ; (iv)  and  The white f o x and marten t r a p p e r s of Tuktoyaktuk. These s p e c i a l i s t groups a l s o take muskrat i n the  s p r i n g months when the major w i n t e r t r a p p i n g season i s f i n i s h e d but t h i s i s not t h e i r major a c t i v i t y as it  i s w i t h the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t group. At the p r e s e n t time s p e c i a l i s t  directed  towards one or two of the f o l l o w i n g  the approximate areas of abundance in Fig.  t r a p p i n g may  be  species,  of which are shown  5-1:  ( i ) Marten Though marten i s found throughout the t r e e d it  i s r a r e i n the D e l t a i t s e l f and e s p e c i a l l y  i n three o t h e r a r e a s .  These a r e :  area  abundant  the southern p a r t  of the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains i n the headwaters of the C a r i b o u and V i t t r e k w a R i v e r s ;  the T r a v a i l l a n t  Lake  P i g . 5-1  Areas o f R e l a t i v e Abundance of " D i a g n o s t i c i n the Lower Mackenzie Area  Species"  a r e a and south to the Mackenzie Anderson River.  River;  and  the  R i v e r a r e a e x t e n d i n g west to the Kugaluk Marten  i s taken d u r i n g the w i n t e r months from  December to March and s i n c e the areas of c o n c e n t r a t i o n are a l o n g way  from the s e t t l e m e n t s some e x p e n d i t u r e  of time and money i s r e q u i r e d to get to them.  The  T r a v a i l l a n t Lake a r e a i s a c c e s s i b l e  to A r c t i c  R i v e r , and  to F o r t McPherson  the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains  Red  by dog s l e d , but D e l t a t r a p p e r s have c h a r t e r e d a i r c r a f t to get to the Anderson  River.  I n a l l cases i t i s not  p o s s i b l e f o r the t r a p p e r to commute to the D e l t a s e t t l e ment s • ( i i ) White  Fox  White f o x i s widespread a r e a s , though can r e s u l t  i n the c o a s t a l  o v e r - t r a p p i n g and s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s  i n local scarcity.  They are taken from  e a r l y i n November from areas that are accessible  tundra  to Tuktoyaktuk  from the D e l t a .  relatively  people though not to those  (iii)  Beaver Beaver f l o u r i s h i n a wet  t r e e - l i n e and are found dwellers.  They may  h a b i t a t south of the  i n the Upper D e l t a as bank  be taken e i t h e r w i t h t r a p s s e t  under the i c e i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the w i n t e r or shot i n w i n t e r and  spring.  d e c l a r e d a beaver and  The  Mackenzie D e l t a  s a n c t u a r y between 1940  was  and  195°"  i n t h i s p e r i o d the major u n p r o h i b i t e d areas were  a l o n g the P e e l and Mackenzie R i v e r s .  Beaver-prolific  a r e a s are more a c c e s s i b l e to the Upper D e l t a s e t t l e m e n t s than to I n u v i k and A k l a v i k . ( i v ) Mink Mink are a l s o found be  trapped i n combination  i n the D e l t a where they w i t h muskrat.  a l a r g e r s i z e of t r a p however and expenditure  on s p e c i a l equipment.  They r e q u i r e  consequently The  may  usual  some  time  f o r t r a p p i n g mink i s i n the e a r l y p a r t of the w i n t e r . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t one  of  the consequences of the growth of s e t t l e m e n t s i n the D e l t a has been the e r o s i o n of s p e c i a l i s t groups t a k i n g  these s p e c i e s as more people the urban c e n t r e s .  The  choose to l i v e c l o s e to  p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s have  attempted to show t h a t the s p e c i a l i s t  trapping a c t i -  v i t i e s have o f t e n been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e t t l e m e n t s and in  may  t h a t , at l e a s t i n s o f a r as those  them have r e t u r n e d to one  f u r s and  particular  settlement  to trade  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  be regarded  hypothesized  as n o d a l c e n t r e s .  engaging  these  It i s further  that an a d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t  of the i n f l u e n c e  of s e t t l e m e n t s has been the b r e a k i n g down of the r e g i o n s based upon the s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s and replacement  their  nodal  this  by a s t r u c t u r e i n which f i r s t A k l a v i k and  l a t e r I n u v i k have dominated. examined by grouping  These hypotheses were  the t r a p p e r s i n terms of  their  t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s i n o r d e r to examine the extent  to  which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c groups have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s e t t l e m e n t and how time .  these have changed  through  2. The Trappers  G r o u p i n g Procedure  were grouped u s i n g a procedure  by Ward (1963)  t o r forming  suggested  from a u n i v e r s a l s e t ,  h i e r a r c h i c a l groups of m u t u a l l y  e x c l u s i v e subsets,  the members of each of which are most s i m i l a r respect  to a s p e c i f i e d a r r a y of v a r i a b l e s .  geographical  literature  for regionalization  and  Chorley,  1969s 244).  In  1  the  t h i s method i s analagous to  those which have been used f o r both and  with  cluster analysis  (Berry, 1 9 6 7 »  1968;  I n the p r e s e n t  Haggett  example,  the u n i v e r s a l s e t c o n s i s t e d of a l l t r a p p e r s t r a d i n g f u r s i n t o a given settlement  i n a g i v e n year, and  v a r i a b l e s the number of f u r s p e c i e s t r a d e d by The  each.  v a r i a b l e s thus d e f i n e d the t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e  each t r a p p e r  (see above) and  the purpose of  the  of  the  I am i n d e b t e d to R. W h i t t a k e r f o r p e r m i t t i n g me to use a computer programme adapted by him from one a p p e a r i n g i n Veldman ( 1 9 6 7 : 308-319) to d e a l w i t h t h i s problem, and to M. Church f o r h e l p i n g me to transpose d a t a i n t o a form s u i t a b l e f o r the programme and f o r g i v i n g a d v i c e on i t s o p e r a t i o n . See Appendix B.  zkh  a n a l y s i s was to group t r a p p e r s whose p r o f i l e s were most s i m i l a r .  The a n a l y s i s was thus seen as a means  o f i d e n t i f y i n g s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t r a p p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the p o p u l a t i o n e i t h e r of the e n t i r e D e l t a o r o f each s e t t l m e n t both i n space and time. The set  grouping  (u)i  B.i»  procedure s t a r t s w i t h a u n i v e r s a l —j'*''  — n °^ —  s u  ^  s e  ts,  where n i s  the number o f t r a p p e r s t r a d i n g f u r s i n t o a g i v e n settlement  i n a g i v e n y e a r and e, , e_, e„..., e a r e —1 —2 —3 —n  the t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s o f each t r a p p e r . the b e g i n n i n g  there as many subsets,  That i s , a t  or groups, as  t h e r e are t r a p p e r s and the g r e a t e s t amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the system i s a v a i l a b l e . the grouping n,  The purpose of  i s to reduce the number of subsets  through ( n - l ) ,  (n-2),  from  e t c . to 1 so t h a t the minimum  l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s a t each stage, where the l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n by an o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y as the sum o f the squared d e v i a t i o n s about the means o f the number o f s p e c i e s  appearing  i n the p r o f i l e s .  T h i s "errorsum  ,of, squares"  i s g i v e n by: m i=l Where m = number o f s p e c i e s e n t e r i n g i n t o trade x^ = number o f i t h s p e c i e s o f f e r e d i n t r a d e by i n d i v i d u a l t r a p p e r Using coherent  t h i s procedure i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y  groups o f r e l a t i v e l y i n t e r n a l homogeneity.  Each union i n v o l v e d some l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  reflected  i n the s i z e o f the ESS, so t h a t the g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e between the two subsets u n i t e d the g r e a t e r was the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the ESS.  Thus by p l o t t i n g the  i n c r e a s e i n the ESS, i t was p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n by major changes i n slope the combining o f two r e l a t i v e l y u n l i k e groups. 63  To take a simple  example, i n the 1962-  t r a p p i n g season, t h i r t y people  settlement  o f A r c t i c Red R i v e r each w i t h h i s own  characteristic grouping  t r a d e d f u r s i n t o the  trapping p r o f i l e .  The h i e r a r c h i c a l  of these p r o f i l e s r e s u l t e d i n the ESS v a l u e s  shown i n t a b u l a r form i n T a b l e 5*1  a  n  (  l  graphically i n  Loss i n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s u l t i n g from the H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping  o f the " T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s "  T r a d i n g F u r s i n t o A r c t i c Red R i v e r , Step  No. o f Groups  1 (17 and 18) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  29  12 13 14 15 16 17  18  ii  18  19 20 21 22 23 2k  25 26 27  28 29  28 27 26 25 2k  23 22 21 20 19 17 16 15  Ik  13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 k  3 2 1  of Trappers 1962-63 ESS  7.000 30.500 55.500 94.667 156.917 225.417 389.583 566.083 864.583 1173.916 1566.749 2046.249 2585.749 3146.249 3729.249 4597.582 5654.930 7069.094 9592.820 13067.250 16867.348 20966.758 26485.258 37500)1109 52358.609 80000.500 114064.500 269197.812 867539.000  F i g . 5-2.  At the f i r s t  s t e p the two  p r o f i l e s were combined i n t o one t o t a l number of subsets by 1,  most l i k e t r a p p i n g  subset, r e d u c i n g the  and r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s  o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n an ESS  of 7 * 0 ,  o b t a i n e d as  follows: S p e c i e s Traded Beaver Marten Mink Trapper No. 17 Trapper No. 18 Total Mean ( D e v i a t i o n f o r No.17)( D e v i a t i o n f o r No.18)  7 8 15 7.5 °» 5 0.25  3 0 3 1.5 2.25 2.25  2  second  step s i m i l a r l y r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s of  i n f o r m a t i o n of 3 0 . 5 * I f the ESS  +2 = 7 . 0  +4.5  0.5 The  2 0 2 1 1 1  the t h i r d of 55»5» <* so an  on.  i s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t the number of s t e p s  ( o r remaining groups) a c c e l e r a t i o n s i n the i n d i c a t e the combining  of two  curve  r e l a t i v e l y u n l i k e sub-  s e t s , as f o r example a t p o i n t A i n F i g . 5 - 2 .  Com-  p a r i s o n w i t h the d a t a i n t h i s simple case i n f a c t c o n f i r m s t h a t the d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n the subsets comb i n e d i n the next  step (27)  may  be r e l a t e d  to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t r a p p i n g p a t t e r n s .  empirically The  Groups Fig.  5-2  Remaining in Hierarchy  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of Trapping P r o f i l e s , E r r o r F a c t o r v s . Groups Remaining i n the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red R i v e r , I 9 6 2 - I 9 6 3 .  generation 1968;  of a t r e e diagram or dendrogram (McCammon, K i n g , 1968:  Cole and  585)  also pointed  c o n t i n u i t i e s as w e l l as d i s p l a y i n g the  example under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , be d i s c e r n e d 30), (of  the  two  Trappers 1  itself  major groups  through 7»  8 through  and  they c o u l d be  of the  could  12  through  subgroups 11).  example, a more  examination of these subgroups was  even a c u r s o r y  not  warranted,  comparison w i t h the d a t a showed t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  Group I . (Trappers 1  through  follows:  7)  T h i s group c o n s i s t e d of t r a p p e r s amounts of muskrat t o g e t h e r  t a k i n g moderate  w i t h some marten, mink  i n a few  cases,  Group 2 .  (Trappers 8 through l l )  This  and  c o n s i s t i n g of two  Though i n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i v e rigorous  Thus, i n  ( o f T r a p p e r s 1 through 11,  smaller  dis-  structure  g r a p h i c a l l y ( F i g . 5-3)•  the h i e r a r c h y  to  and  beaver.  s m a l l group c o n s i s t e d of the  most of whose income was  "professionals"  d e r i v e d from q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l  marten takes supplemented by muskrat.  Parenthetically,  NON-SPECIALIST  SPECIALIST T R A P P E R S  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 0 21 22 2324 25 2627 28 29 30  Fig.  5 - 3 H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s , S t r u c t u r e o f the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red R i v e r , 1 9 6 2 - 6 3  3 o f the 4 had good sum no one  t r a p p i n g incomes of over $1,800, a  f o r A r c t i c Red R i v e r i n 1964  i n the o t h e r two  Group 3.  and r i v a l l e d by-  groups.  (Trappers 12 through  30)  T h i s l a r g e s t group g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f the " p a r t - t i m e " t r a p p e r s , supplementing  income from  other  sources w i t h meagre takes of muskrat, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l mink, marten or beaver,  though there were some  which would be r e v e a l e d by a f i n e r  anomalies  grouping.  The h i e r a r c h i c a l grouping method was  thus seen to  have a number of advantages f o r a n a l y z i n g changes i n t r a p p i n g p a t t e r n s i n the Mackenzie D e l t a .  While  g e n e r a l i z i n g a g r e a t amoung of d a t a , i t n o n e t h e l e s s enabled g r o s s p a t t e r n s to be r e t a i n e d i n a way  which  facilitated  from  comparisons  from y e a r to y e a r , and  s e t t l e m e n t to s e t t l e m e n t . ESS  curves and  As h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e s , both  tree-diagrams  c o n v e n i e n t l y expressed  the a g g r e g a t i o n of t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s of a l a r g e number of t r a p p e r s w h i l e a t the same time not l o s i n g of i n d i v i d u a l performances.  The  sight  method therefore  p e r m i t t e d comparison w i t h other e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d sources of d a t a , i n c l u d i n g t r a p p i n g camp l o c a t i o n s and r e s i d e n c e i n s e t t l e m e n t s .  3. The  Changes i n T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s first  (1931-51)  p a r t of the a n a l y s i s was d i r e c t e d  towards the D e l t a Community as a whole with the j e c t i v e of d e t e r m i n i n g  whether c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  ob-  trapping  p r o f i l e s c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s e t t l e m e n t if  so whether these had  and  changed i n the decades p r e -  ceding Inuvik's establishment.  Three t r a p p i n g seasons  were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s the c h o i c e b e i n g i n p a r t determined by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d a t a . 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 , 1940-41 and 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 5 appearing  1  1  and  the  These were settlements  i n the a n a l y s i s at these dates were A k l a v i k ,  The number of i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n 1950-51 exceeded the l i m i t of s u b j e c t s the computer p r o gramme was capable of h a n d l i n g . I n t h i s case o n l y a random sample was s e l e c t e d weighted i n the r a t i o o f i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n t o ea£h s e t t l e m e n t . The sample r e p r e s e n t e d 76 per cent of the t o t a l number of t r a p p e r s i n the 1950-51 season.  F o r t McPherson, A r c t i c Red R i v e r and, except f o r 1931-32, Tuktoyaktuk.  D u r i n g these y e a r s t r a p p e r s  from a l l s e t t l e m e n t s t r a d e d s i z a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f muskrat,  which tended to obscure d i f f e r e n c e s i n  t h e i r t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s which c o u l d be a s c r i b e d to other species.  Consequently the a n a l y s i s i n t h i s  s e c t i o n was l i m i t e d to the d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s outl i n e d i n the f i r s t  p a r t o f the c h a p t e r .  The j u s t i -  f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s procedure should be c l e a r from the foregoing  pages.  I t i s apparent from F i g . 5-4 that both i n 1940-41 and i n 1950-51 the m a j o r i t y o f t r a p p e r s t r a d e d s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s o f muskrat  though some  change was e x p e r i e n c e d between the b e g i n n i n g and the end o f the decade.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , where i n the  e a r l i e r season the g r e a t e r number o f t r a p p e r s had brought i n over 1,000 muskrat t h i s was not so.  i n the l a t e r  Then the m a j o r i t y of t r a p p e r s  brought i n l e s s than 400 muskrat, t h e r e was s t i l l  season  about  though i n A k l a v i k  the same number brought i n  B. 1950-1951 SEASON  40.  Hi  Aklavik i  Fort McPherson 30  Hi  Arctic Red River  111  Tuktoyaktuk  0- 100- 200-300-400-500-600-700-800-900 Over 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 10001000 P i g . 5-4  ANNUAL MUSKRAT TAKE  Muskrat Takes from Mackenzie D e l t a T r a p p e r s ,  1940-41 and 1950-51  large quantities.  P a r t o f the d i f f e r e n c e  a s c r i b e d to the r e g i s t r a t i o n  may be  o f t r a p p i n g areas i n  the  D e l t a which w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l below  but  which m i l i t a t e d  a g a i n s t more v i g o r o u s  ratting.  A n a l y s i s of the d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s was more i n f o r m ative . For  the three seasons a n a l y z e d , ESS c u r v e s  a c c e l e r a t e d w i t h about f i f t e e n groups r e m a i n i n g (Fig.  5-5 a, b and c) i n d i c a t i n g  that about  this  number of s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  trapping  might be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  that the a t e of  acceleration  The f a c t  patterns  was somewhat l e s s f o r the 1931-32  season would suggest however that the  differences  were l e s s c l e a r l y marked, due perhaps to the f a c t t h a t o n l y two s e t t l e m e n t s - F o r t  McPherson and A r c t i c  Red  R i v e r - e n t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t o the a n a l y s i s .  For  t h i s e a r l i e r season the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r a p p e r s  falling  into  differences  separate groups suggested that the c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t s .  T a b l e 5-2 shows t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n a t the f i f t h  level  50 40 30 20 Group* Remaining in Hierarchy  10  50 40 30 20 Groups Remaining in Hierarchy  50 40 30 20 Groups Remaining in Hierarchy  10  50 40 30 20 Groups Remaining in Hierarchy  Fig. 5-5  10  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping o f T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s E r r o r F a c t o r v s . Groups Remaining i n the H i e r a r c h y , Mackenzie D e l t a : (a) 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 ; (b) 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 ; ( c ) 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 ; (d) 1963-64  of g r o u p i n g - i . e . that l e v e l o f h i e r a r c h y o n l y f i v e groups r e m a i n e d  a t which  - and c o n s e q u e n t l y some  1  u n l i k e groups had been combined a t t h i s  stage.  T a b l e 5-2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the F i f t h L e v e l o f Grouping, Mackenzie D e l t a , 1931-32. GROUP  DOMINANT SPECIES  TRAPPERS Ak No.  1  BEAVER (+mink & marten)  2  MARTEN (•beaver & mink)  Ft.McP.  1  No.  p. c.  -  11  -  p. c.  P.C.  24  9  36  2  4  9  36  2 4 1  8 16 4  13  2  4  NONE  25  24  50  NONE  5  62  8 1  16  NONE  5  5  Ind.^  2  1. A k l a v i k . 2. F o r t McPherson. J. A r c t i c Red R i v e r . 4. I n d i v i d u a l s not i n c l u d e d i n a group. 5* None o f the " d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s " and t h e r e f o r e muskrat by inference. Trappers f a l l i n g  i n t o Group 1 were  characterized  by t r a d i n g f a i r l y l a r g e numbers o f beaver supplemented by a few marten or mink.  3  No.  1 2  3 4  A.R.R.  2  S l o b o d i n (1962: 28) n o t e s  t h a t beaver h u n t i n g i n the D e l t a has been  tradition-  a l l y o f importance to A r c t i c Red R i v e r people but Groups c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l were excluded.  was  taken up by the P e e l R i v e r people at the t u r n  of the c e n t u r y .  S i n c e beaver  i s predominantly  a  D e l t a s p e c i e s , to engage i n beaver h u n t i n g i n v o l v e s spending and  e i t h e r the s p r i n g or w i n t e r i n the D e l t a ,  thus the P e e l R i v e r t r a p p e r s who  numbers of beaver^probably  take  significant  do not go f a r i n t o  R i c h a r d s o n Mountains i n the w i n t e r ( i b i d . ) . the A r c t i c Red R i v e r people,  with other a c t i v i t i e s .  though, i n 1 9 3 I - 3 2 » beaver  For  the absence of a d i s t a n t  w i n t e r h u n t i n g a r e a makes beaver compatible  the  t r a p p i n g more Significantly  a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number of the  t r a p p e r s were c e n t e r e d on F o r t McPherson than  on A r c t i c Red  River.  However, a l a r g e r number of A r c t i c Red trappers f e l l  River  i n t o Group 2, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r takes o f marten, w i t h and mink i n a secondary  position.  are found i n the D e l t a i t s e l f ,  beaver  Though marten  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are  found i n the headwaters of the V i t t r e k w a and  Caribou  R i v e r s , the o l d w i n t e r grounds of the P e e l R i v e r  people,  and  the T r a v a i l l a n t Lake a r e a , which i s  a c c e s s i b l e to the A r c t i c Red  R i v e r people.  I t might  be i n f e r r e d from the f a c t t h a t few F o r t McPherson t r a p p e r s c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a t t h i s time as marten t r a p p e r s t h a t few were spending u p r i v e r , and people  fell  the  i n f a c t the m a j o r i t y of P e e l R i v e r r a t h e r i n t o a group which would seem to  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the D e l t a , s i n c e no s p e c i e s was  outstanding i n the a r r a y  I n 1940-41 the s t r u c t u r e and groups had The  winters  particular  traded*  composition  changed somewhat as shown by Table  5-3*  m a j o r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n t o  A k l a v i k , F o r t McPherson and Tuktoyaktuk f e l l the two  groups ( l and  dominated among those The  of  k)  i n which no  into  species pre-  e n t e r i n g i n t o the a n a l y s i s .  s p e c i a l i s t groups were Group 2 i n which white  f o x predominated i n combination ities  of c o l o u r e d f o x e s ;  foxes predominated;  w i t h s m a l l e r quant-  Group 3»  Group 5»  i  n  i  n  which c o l o u r e d  which marten p r e -  dominated accompanied i n some cases by beaver;  and  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l o f Grouping, Mackenzie D e l t a , 1940-41 GROUP  -1 2  DOMINANT SPECIES NONE  Ak. No. p.c. 35 40  TRAPPERS Ft.McP. ARR No. p . c . No. p . c .  16  44  2  8  1 WHITE POX (•coloured f o x )  1  1  1  -  40  45  15  42  3  12  5 5  6 6 1  3 2  8 6  6  25 55  3  COLOURED FOX  4  NONE  5  MARTEN (•beaver) BEAVER  6  Ind.  l  -  Tuk. JNo. p . c .  17  13  3  51 9  7  22 12  2  6  1. Tukt oyaktuk  T a b l e 5-4 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l o f G r o u p i n g , Mackenzie D e l t a (Random Sample), 1950-51 GROUP 1 2 3  DOMINANT SPECIES  NONE WHITE FOX MARTEN  4  WHITE FOX (•marten)  5  MINK+COLOURED FOX  6  WHITE FOX  Ind.  Ak. No . p . c .  93 1  -  87 1  TRAPPERS Ft.McP. ARR No. p . c . No. p . c .  43  -  12  11  3  1  1  -  -  94  6  8  -  36  14  -  64  Tuk. No. p . c .  9 3  39 13  6  2  27 9  1  4  1 1  4 4  Group 6, i n which beaver a l o n e predominated. 1940-41 i t i s apparent that the i n t e r e s t  By  i n beaver  h u n t i n g had s h i f t e d from the F o r t McPherson t r a p p e r s to those o f A r c t i c Red R i v e r , and f o r most o f t h e s e , r e p r e s e n t e d an e x c l u s i v e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  F o r the  F o r t McPherson people t h i s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t the d e c l a r a t i o n o f the D e l t a as a beaver s a n c t u a r y i n 1940 d i s c o u r a g e d beaver h u n t i n g t h e r e , w h i l e the A r c t i c Red R i v e r beaver h u n t i n g a r e a s were not a f f e c t e d .  A few Tuktoyaktuk t r a p p e r s s p e c i a l i s e d  and produced e i t h e r white f o x i n combination w i t h coloured fox, or coloured fox alone.  In addition,  two i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a group a t the l e v e l o f h i e r a r c h y shown i n T a b l e 5 - 3 produced  large  q u a n t i t i e s of white f o x . By the 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 t r a p p i n g season the s p e c i a l i s t groups were much reduced i n numbers; majority of trappers f e l l  the g r e a t  i n t o groups which were not  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by any o f the s p e c i e s e n t e r i n g the a n a l y s i s .  into  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y true f o r those  centered fell  on A k l a v i k and P o r t McPherson, though a  few  i n t o groups (e.g. Group 5) i n which mink and  coloured fox - e s s e n t i a l l y Delta species - c o n s t i t u t e d a specialism. A r c t i c Red  The  more p e r i p h e r a l s e t t l e m e n t s  R i v e r and Tuktoyaktuk d i d c o n t a i n some  t r a p p e r s who  fell  i n t o s p e c i a l i s t groups.  i n t o which the m a j o r i t y of the A r c t i c Red fell,  was  of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e beaver  Tuktoyaktuk t r a p p e r s who  River  6, trappers  takes.  specialized f e l l  three groups, Groups 2 and  Group  i n t o one  4 i n which white fox  of  pre-  dominated, the l a t t e r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h marten,  and  Group 3 i n which marten predominated. The  a n a l y s i s shows t h a t f o r the three s e l e c t e d  seasons p r e c e d i n g I n u v i k ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , groups were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t R i v e r t r a p p e r s and  i s the f a c t  the  specialist  settlements.  t h a t both A r c t i c  those from Tuktoyaktuk have  i n t o groups c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i g n i f i c a n t marten The  Red  fallen takes.  major marten t r a p p i n g area f o r the former i s i n  the T r a v a i l l a n t Lake a r e a , and  f o r the l a t t e r i n the  Anderson R i v e r a r e a .  The  a n a l y s i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t  an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n beaver h u n t i n g Red  R i v e r people The  was  by the  accompanied by d e c r e a s i n g  in  marten.  of  the P e e l R i v e r people  traditional interest was  not  the b e g i n n i n g  Mountains had  shown i n the a n a l y s i s  the p e r i o d of the a n a l y s i s the  39)i specialist  ments tended to become r e l a t i v e l y l e s s important g r e a t e r numbers of t r a p p e r s f e l l  settleas  i n t o a group i n which  none of the d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s was  it  by  however r e f l e c t e d i n the  t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each of the  muskrat was  of  A brief revival in  a n a l y s i s f o r 1940-41 ( c f . S l o b o d i n , 1 9 6 2 : During  area  a l r e a d y taken p l a c e  of the t h i r t i e s .  u p r i v e r marten t r a p p i n g was  interest  i n marten t r a p p i n g  s i n c e the movement away from the m a r t e n - r i c h the R i c h a r d s o n  Arctic  outstanding.  Since  not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p a r t of the a n a l y s i s ,  f o l l o w s t h a t those  i n d i v i d u a l s would have  gained  the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r t r a p p i n g income from muskrat, or t h a t they trapped v e r y l i t t l e  of a n y t h i n g .  Both  imply a c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the D e l t a and  cases  with  the s e t t l e m e n t s  s p e c i f i c a l l y than i s i m p l i e d by  membership o f a s p e c i a l i s t group.  Of the s e t t l e m e n t s  the more p e r i p h e r a l ones o f A r c t i c Red R i v e r and Tuktoyaktuk seem to have been best able to m a i n t a i n some s p e c i a l i s m s , i n the former case d i r e c t e d towards beaver and marten, and i n the l a t t e r towards white f o x and marten.  The f a c t  t h a t even i n these  the s p e c i a l i s t groups have become r e l a t i v e l y important, fifties,  settlements less  would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t by the e a r l y  the g r e a t e r number o f t r a p p e r s had converged  towards a D e l t a type o f t r a p p i n g p a t t e r n i n which o n l y muskrat stood out as a s p e c i e s t r a d e d i n q u a n t i t y .  4. Changes i n the Muskrat R e g i s t r a t i o n of Trapping  Harvest  Areas  The muskrat had been o f some importance to indigenous peoples  a t l e a s t s i n c e the beginnings  of the f u r trade..  I t s importance as a s p e c i e s e n t e r i n g i n t o trade  really  began, however i n the 1920's and was a c c e l e r a t e d w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t r a p p e r s i n the D e l t a which became  p a r t i c u l a r l y marked a f t e r 1946.  At t h i s time,  a  g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the average p r i c e r e c e i v e d f o r white f o x from $ 2 0 . 0 0 i n 1946  to $ 3 . 5 0 i n 1949  (NWT C o u n c i l , Minutes, 3709) made t r a p p i n g along the c o a s t a much l e s s a t t r a c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n .  In contrast,  the D e l t a ' s g r e a t e r range of food r e s o u r c e s  provided  the same measure o f s e c u r i t y that i t had i n the Depression.  Though the average p r i c e r e c e i v e d f o r a  muskrat p e l t f e l l  a l s o throughout the Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s from $ 2 . 7 5 i n 1946 (Canada, DBS, 1950) that experienced  to $ 1 . 2 0 i n 1949  the f a l l was r e l a t i v e l y l e s s  than  by o t h e r s p e c i e s and the g r e a t e r  a v a i l a b i l i t y of muskrat i n the D e l t a ensured t h e r e a l a r g e r p o t e n t i a l income than  the t r a p p e r  elsewhere.  Immigrants to the D e l t a i n c l u d e d A l a s k a n who were a t t r a c t e d a l s o by more f a v o u r a b l e  Eskimos  Canadian  s t a t u t o r y payments p r e v a i l i n g a t t h i s time (LACO Hunt, p e r s . comm.), and some white and I n d i a n t r a p p e r s from elsewhere i n the t e r r i t o r i e s  (Black, 1961).  By  1948,  t h e r e were i n the D e l t a some 228 t r a p p e r s , of whom  43 p e r cent were Eskimo, 31 p e r cent I n d i a n , 13 p e r cent M e t i s and 13 p e r cent white 3557),  and there i s l i t t l e  rather seriously r e s o u r c e base.  (NWT C o u n c i l , Minutes,  doubt t h a t the a r e a was  overpopulated  i n terms o f i t s l i m i t e d  The r e s u l t s o f o v e r p o p u l a t i o n were not  f e l t . h o w e v e r while the market f o r muskrat remained r e l a t i v e l y good and some a d d i t i o n a l were a v a i l a b l e ,  e s p e c i a l l y from  r e l i a n c e upon a s i n g l e of p o t e n t i a l  gsources  o f income  the DEW l i n e .  The  species d i d present a s i t u a t i o n  concern however.  Two p r i n c i p a l methods a r e used  to take muskrat.  During the w i n t e r the muskrat l i v e s i n a den the entrance  t o which i s below the i c e , but m a i n t a i n s  c o n t a c t w i t h the s u r f a c e through 1955)•  Traps  "pushups"  (Stevens,  s e t i n these pushups d u r i n g the w i n t e r  y i e l d a h i g h q u a l i t y f u r but c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d to s e t and check t r a p s .  Consequently  a more  f a v o u r e d method has been to shoot muskrat i n the water a f t e r breakup.  T h i s method may be r e l i e d upon to  produce much g r e a t e r t o t a l y i e l d s though i n d i v i d u a l  p e l t s are o f t e n damaged with I n the 1 9 ^ 0 ' s , r e c e n t followed  gunshot.  immigrants to the  the p r a c t i c e of h u n t i n g  muskrat  throughout  the area a f t e r breakup by f o l l o w i n g the down to A k l a v i k  ( B l a c k , 1961).  Delta  floodwaters  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n some  d i s a f f e c t i o n among the o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d D e l t a who  feared, probably with  justification,  that  tfrappers this  p r a c t i c e would r e s u l t i n a s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n of I n 19^6  muskrat p o p u l a t i o n .  T r a p p e r s A s s o c i a t i o n was o f the l o c a l  trappers  the Mackenzie D e l t a  formed to p r o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s  (NANR, NALB, 515.  same time the Department o f Mines and engaged a b i o l o g i s t , Dr.  the  7238).  At  Resources  Ian McTaggart-Cowan, to c a r r y  out a survey of the D e l t a ' s  t r a p p i n g p o t e n t i a l and  make recommendations c o n c e r n i n g e f f e c t i v e management ( i b i d . ) .  Of  the two  major manage-  that of r e g i s t e r i n g  t r a p p i n g areas was  over marsh management  and  favoured  to the p h y s i c a l complexity  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  the area's more  ment procedures c o n s i d e r e d ,  schemes due  the  t h i s would present  o f the  Delta  for enforcing  game laws.  Consequently i n the summer of 1947  t r a p p e r was  invited  to r e g i s t e r  then be f o r h i s own  with  the a p p r o v a l  of t r a p p e r s , though there was  registration to  an a r e a which would  e x c l u s i v e use.  T h i s scheme met  P e e l R i v e r people,  each  of the  majority  some d i s s e n s i o n .  f o r example, saw  The  trapping area  as a l i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r r a t t i n g  activities  the l e s s p r o d u c t i v e Upper D e l t a ( s l o b o d i n , 1962.  while  the Tuktoyaktuk people  r e s e n t e d what they  s i d e r e d as a u s u r p a t i o n of t h e i r r e s o u r c e newcomers from A l a s k a  (.NA <;> NR,  47),  con-  base by  NALB, 7282).  However,  the advantages of the scheme were apparent to most Delta trappers. e x c l u s i v e use  The  of one  setting  a s i d e of an area f o r the  t r a p p e r encouraged him  out c o n s e r v a t i o n measures ( B l a c k , were l e f t unharvested and  channels  1961).  Some l a k e s  to r e p l e n i s h themselves n a t u r a l l y ,  were dammed to prevent  from d r a i n i n g .  to c a r r y  Most important  was  productive the f a c t  lakes  that  t r a p p e r s were once more encouraged to t r a p muskrat i n the w i n t e r  r a t h e r than hunt.them at breakup and  thus  to produce a b e t t e r q u a l i t y f u r .  I n the 1950-51  season, the t r a p p i n g p o p u l a t i o n was d i s p e r s e d the D e l t a i n the w i n t e r  over  ( P i g . 5-6) and the a r e a was  p r o b a b l y as e f f i c i e n t l y trapped  as a t any other  time  in i t s history. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was however to be s h o r t l i v e d .  Prom  a b r i e f u p t u r n to $ 2 . 0 1 i n 1950 the average p r i c e r e c e i v e d f o r a muskrat p e l t i n the Northwest t o r i e s d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y to about 60 cents (Canada, DBS, i 9 6 0 ) . f o r a trapper  I t was thus no l o n g e r  Terri-  i n 1959 possible  to make an adequate l i v i n g from the  average r e g i s t e r e d a r e a o f between f i v e and 8k square miles  (Black,  1961).  At the same time as the incomes  from t r a p p i n g d e c l i n e d so new o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n wage employment were o f f e r e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f I n u v i k a f t e r 1955*  Trapping  a r e a s were g r a d u a l l y abandoned  i n the more d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n s , w h i l e e x i s t i n g settlements  those c l o s e to  o r the E - 3 c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e were  r e t a i n e d only f o r part-time  activities.  By 1958-59  the system was abandoned a l t o g e t h e r i n favour  of a  5  0  5 10  25  Miles  Pig.  5-6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Winter and S p r i n g Camps i n the Mackenzie D e l t a ; (a) 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 ; (h) 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ; ( c ) 1 9 6 7 - 6 8  group t r a p p i n g a r e a , r e t a i n t h e i r own  though, a few  r e g i s t e r e d areas c l o s e to the  ments w e l l i n t o the s i x t i e s however 35 per cent cent  ( F i g . 5-7).  By  settle-  1959  of the A k l a v i k t r a p p e r s  of the F o r t McPherson t r a p p e r s had  i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s and area  individuals did  and  51  per  relinquished  j o i n e d the Mackenzie D e l t a group  ( B l a c k , 1961).  S p a t i a l Changes i n the Muskrat Harvest D u r i n g the registration, to d e c l a r e  ten y e a r p e r i o d of t r a p p i n g  t r a p p e r s were r e q u i r e d by  area  the game laws  the number of muskrat taken from  areas i n each t r a p p i n g y e a r .  their  Though these d e c l a r a t i o n s  took the form of rough e s t i m a t e s ,  they l e n d  themselves  to the a n a l y s i s of the s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e of i n the D e l t a d u r i n g change.  For  were f a i r l y  the p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t  the f i r s t  trapping recent  p a r t of the p e r i o d , the  complete and  represented  of the t o t a l muskrat h a r v e s t .  the major p o r t i o n  A f t e r 1955,  r e g i s t e r e d t r a p p i n g areas were abandoned, a p r o p o r t i o n o f the muskrat take f a i l e d  returns  a  s  greater  to appear i n the  F i g . 5-7  Registered Delta  Trapping  Areas i n the Mackenzie  r e t u r n s f o r the r e g i s t e r e d areas and the d a t a a r e therefore less r e l i a b l e Table  (Table 5 - 5 ) .  5-5  Muskrat Take D e c l a r e d by H o l d e r s o f R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas, Year  1950-1958  T o t a l Muskrat Take  Take from R.T.A.'s  282,242;* 217,679o 150,708;? 170,223;? 186,292;?  130,797 110,696 75,653 79,721 72,163 116,391 65,514 32,427 27,879  1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58  24l,864r;  140,2117  66.1211 46,161^  Percent.  46 51 50  46 39 40  46 48 5?  Fur T r a d e r s Record Books, A k l a v i k , F o r t McPherson, A r c t i c Red R i v e r , Reindeer S t a t i o n and I n u v i k . ^ R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Area r e t u r n s . ^ E x c l u d i n g A r c t i c Red R i v e r . E x c l u d i n g F o r t McPherson and A r c t i c Red R i v e r . 2  The the d a t a .  f o l l o w i n g procedures  were used  to analyze  The numbers o f muskrat taken i n each  r e g i s t e r e d a r e a were f i r s t  p l o t t e d as i s a r i t h m i c  s u r f a c e s f o r each o f the e i g h t years f o r which r e t u r n s were a v a i l a b l e  ( F i g . 5-8 shows t h r e e o f t h e s e ) .  were a v a i l a b l e f o r the whole D e l t a u n t i l 1955  Returns  after  which some b l o c k s of d a t a were not a v a i l a b l e f o r the southern p a r t .  I n a l l cases, zero v a l u e s were i g n o r e d  on the assumption that they r e p r e s e n t e d data which had  page 27k omitted page numbering  5  0  5  10  25  Miles  F i g . 5-8  I s a r i t h m i c Surfaces o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , 1949-50, 1950-51 and 1957-58  e i t h e r never been d e c l a r e d or had been  subsequently  l o s t , and would t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c e gaps which would not e x i s t i n r e a l i t y . Trend s u r f a c e s were next f i t t e d  to the i s a r i t h m i c  s u r f a c e s i n o r d e r to determine t h e i r g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e , if  any.  The m e r i t s o f a p p l y i n g t r e n d s u r f a c e a n a l y s i s  to continuous  a r e a l d a t a have been argued by a number  of w r i t e r s , notably Chorley  and Haggett  (l965)»  (1968: 375-379)  and L. King  (1969:  and  C. King  In p a r t i c u l a r i t i s seen as a means o f damping i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n order  case,  152-153). local  to g i v e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f  r e g i o n a l t r e n d s , and to a l l o w residuals  Cole  the s e p a r a t i o n o f l o c a l  ( C h o r l e y and Haggett, 1 9 6 5 ) .  I n the present  the a n a l y s i s was used f o r both purposes though  r e s u l t s were d i a g n o s t i c r a t h e r than p r e s c r i p t i v e . L e v e l s o f e x p l a n a t i o n were p a r t i c u l a r l y low i n the r e t u r n s f o r 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 , 1952-53 and 1953-54 y e a r s were not a n a l y s e d the l i n e a r e q u a t i o n  further.  and these  I n the o t h e r  years  d i d not e x p l a i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  of the v a r i a b i l i t y and the goodness o f f i t was not  g r e a t l y improved by the q u a d r a t i c or c u b i c s u r f a c e s . L e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e d i d i n d i c a t e however t h a t trends were " r e a l " and  therefore suggestive  of some  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t r u c t u r e of the muskrat from r e g i s t e r e d areas  the  harvest  (Table 5 - 6 ) .  I n the e a r l i e r y e a r s  the l i n e a r t r e n d  surface  d i p s c o n s i s t e n t l y towards the south west ( F i g . 5 - 9 & shows t h a t f o r  19^9-50)  which would seem to conform  w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n more g e n e r a l terms by b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h (e.g. Stevens, and  by the o b s e r v a t i o n s  1955 s  of D e l t a t r a p p e r s t h a t y i e l d s  g e n e r a l l y tend to be h i g h e r i n the n o r t h s e c t i o n of the D e l t a . directed  Hawley, 1 9 6 8 )  eastern  Though a n a l y s i s was  not  towards t h i s p o i n t , the s u r f a c e s a l s o bear  s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t y to those  of p h y s i o g r a p h i c  and  b i o t i c v a r i a b l e s such as the h e i g h t  of l e v e e s above  low water l e v e l  and  (ibid.: 1950-51  167).  a n <  i  (Mackay, The  1955-56  west of the p r e s e n t  1963s  126)  t r e e coverage  quadratic surfaces f o r  19^9-50,  a l l show a peak to the n o r t h l o c a t i o n of I n u v i k  (Fig. 5 - 9 °  and  F i g . 5-9  Trend Surfaces o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a  T a b l e 5-6 Trend  S u r f a c e A n a l y s i s o f Muskrat Takes from R e g i s t e r e d  T r a p p i n g Areas Year  Order o f Surface  Coefft. of Determination  P. R a t i o  1949-1950  1 2 3  .21 .25 .27  14.16 7.14 4.28  1950-1951  1 2 3 l 2 3  ,12 .15 .19  7.24 3.71 2.67  .07 .11 .17  4.14 2.69 2.38  1955-1956  l 2 3  • 17 .22 .25  7.39 3.94 2.49  1956-1957  l 2 3 1 2 3  .13 .16 .22  3.83 1.88 1.43  .21 .22 .38  5.14 2.07 2.19  1954-1955  1957-1958  Degrees o f Freedom 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 9 2 5 9  Significance Level  and 109 and 106 and 102  0.5 0.5 0.5  and 111 and 108 and 104 and 112 and 109 and 105 and 73 and 70 and 66  0.5 0.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5  and and and  53 50 46  0.5 0.5 2.5 10.0 25.0 25.0  and and and  39 36 32  2.5 10.0 10.0  shows that f o r  1949-50).  A f t e r 1 9 5 5 1 the d i p o f the s u r f a c e was changed to the south east i n d i c a t i n g g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r  muskrat  takes from r e g i s t e r e d areas i n the upper p a r t of the D e l t a f u r t h e s t from the E - 3 c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e .  So  many people were abandoning r e g i s t e r e d areas at t h i s time.however that the f i g u r e s are of d o u b t f u l s i n c e they no l o n g e r harvest. interest  represent  o f the  They do perhaps suggest a l e s s e n i n g o f i n trapping  i n the r e g i s t e r e d areas c l o s e s t  where the new town was b e i n g the f a c t  the m a j o r i t y  value  built  consistent  with  t h a t many were t a k i n g advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r employment i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . Residuals  to the trend  surfaces  p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of t h e ' c o n s t r u c t i o n both  1949-50  l i n e a r trend centre and up  b).  and  1950-51  a l s o i n d i c a t e the of Inuvik.  In  the p o s i t i v e r e s i d u a l s to the  s u r f a c e formed a r i d g e r u n n i n g down the  o f the D e l t a from n o r t h  to south ( F i g . 5 - 1 0 a  A f t e r 1 9 5 5 n east-west trough began t o open  roughly  a  between A k l a v i k  and I n u v i k  i n d i c a t i n g that  P i g . 5-10  R e s i d u a l s to L i n e a r Trend S u r f a c e s o f Muskrat Taken from R e g i s t e r e d T r a p p i n g Areas i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , 19^9-50, 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 , 1955-56  takes from r e g i s t e r e d a r e a s were l e s s than would p r e d i c t e d by  the l i n e a r t r e n d s u r f a c e i n t h i s  (Fig. 5-10°)• explanation  However, g i v e n  o f f e r e d by  the  the low  level  be  area.  of  t r e n d s u r f a c e these  ob-  s e r v a t i o n s are t e n t a t i v e .  5* T r a p p i n g  P r o f i l e s i n the  Change between 1951 ways a l s o .  and  Though there was  1964  Mid-Sixties was  reflected i n  a g r e a t e r number of  people t r a d i n g f u r s * i n the m i d - s i x t i e s , few c o u l d now  be  o f these  regarded as p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a p p e r s ,  even those t h a t c o u l d g e n e r a l l y had too low  to s u s t a i n l i f e  other  trapping  and  incomes  at an adequate l e v e l without  some supplement from o t h e r  sources.  One  those t r a d i n g f u r s i n D e l t a s e t t l e m e n t s  third  of  i n the  1 9 6 3 - 6 4 season, f o r example, r e c e i v e d l e s s than  Data f o r t h i s p a r t o f the a n a l y s i s were taken from r e t u r n s r e c o r d e d i n the Fur T r a d e r Record Books.  $100  and  o n l y f i f t e e n had  ( W o l f o r t h [ 1 9 6 6 ] : 13» residents,  $2,000  incomes g r e a t e r than P i g . 5-11).  t r a p p i n g had  For most D e l t a  become a p a r t - t i m e  activity  o f t e n c a r r i e d on out of the settlement as a source "pocket  of  money" to augment income from wage employment,  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and agespensions  and  such s t a t u t o r y payments as o l d  f a m i l y allowances.  The  convergence  upon the D e l t a , and p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the which had been i n p r o c e s s l a r g e l y complete and was  settlements,  s i n c e the 1 9 2 0 ' s was  now  r e f l e c t e d above a l l i n the  extreme a t t e n u a t i o n of the number of t r a p p e r s c a r r y i n g on s p e c i a l i s t  activities.  As w i t h the data f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s p r o f i l e f o r the 1963-64 season was  the t r a p p i n g  analysed  excluding  2 muskrat takes i n i t i a l l y .  The  a n a l y s i s of the  sample  of i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n the 1963-64 season The number of i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n 1963-64 exceeded the l i m i t of s u b j e c t s the computer programme was capable of h a n d l i n g . A random sample was s e l e c t e d weighted i n the r a t i o & o f i n d i v i d u a l s t r a d i n g f u r s i n t o each s e t t l e m e n t . The sample r e p r e s e n t e d 44 per cent of the t o t a l number of t r a p p e r s i n the 1963-64 season.  INCOME FROM TRADING FURS  I60_  1963-1964 I40_  EH3  A K L A V I K  13  I N U V I K  •  F O R T  M C P H E R S O N  •1  A R C T I C  •  R E I N D E E R  1000-1499  1500-1999  R E D S T A T I O N  100.  UNDER 100  100-499  500-999 INCOME  Fig.  5-11  (DOLLARS)  Incomes from T r a p p i n g ,  1963-64  OVER 2000  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Groups a t the S i x t h L e v e l o f Grouping, Mackenzie D e l t a , 1963-64  GROUP  DOMINANT SPECIES  In. No. p.c.  TRAPPERS AkT Ft.McP. No. p . c . No. p.c.  1  1  NONE  26  65  44  69  39  72  2  MINK  13  33  16  9  16  3 4  MINK  25 3 2  MARTEN  5  MARTEN+ MINK  6  WHITE FOX  Ind. 1.  Inuvik  1  2 1  -  2  -  1  ( i n c . Reindeer  -  6  2  ARR Tuk. No. p . c . No. p . c .  7  47  17  77  2  13  2  9  6  40  -  2  —  1  9 5  -  12  -  -  -  station)  r e s u l t e d i n an ESS curve which, l i k e  those o f the p r e v i o u s  a n a l y z e s , a c c e l e r a t e d most r a p i d l y w i t h about groups remaining  -  ( F i g . 5 5<i) . _  fifteen  At the s i x t h l e v e l o f the  h i e r a r c h y , the m a j o r i t y o f t r a p p e r s f e l l  i n t o the non-  s p e c i a l i s t group even i n the more p e r i p h e r a l s e t t l e m e n t s . Of  the s p e c i a l i s t groups the l a r g e s t  (Group 2) was one  i n which mink appeared more p r o m i n e n t l y  than o t h e r s p e c i e s  i n d i c a t i n g an o r i e n t a t i o n towards the D e l t a .  Even f o r  t h i s group the q u a n t i t i e s o f mink t r a d e d were s m a l l and o n l y two t r a p p e r s from A k l a v i k ( i n Group 3) were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by l a r g e mink t a k e s .  The remaining  specialist  groups showed a s t r o n g emphasis on marten (Group k),  trapping  a weaker emphasis on marten t r a p p i n g i n  combination w i t h mink (Group 5)t white f o x (Group 6 ) .  and an emphasis  The a s s o c i a t i o n between  on  certain  t r a p p i n g s p e c i a l i t i e s and c e r t a i n s e t t l e m e n t s which noted f o r p r e v i o u s y e a r s was v e s t i g i a l form. 22 t r a p p e r s  still  was  p r e s e n t though i n  Of the sample a n a l y z e d o n l y two o f the  (9 per cent) from Tuktoyaktuk c o u l d be  dis-  t i n g u i s h e d as s p e c i a l i s t white f o x t r a p p e r s and two as marten t r a p p e r s .  In A r c t i c Red R i v e r e i g h t out of f i f t e e n  t r a p p e r s (53 per c e n t ) i n the sample c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as marten t r a p p e r s though o n l y two o f these trapped in larger  marten  quantities.  Where i n p r e v i o u s seasons f o r a t r a p p e r not to have belonged to a s p e c i a l i s t group g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d  that  h i s major t r a p p i n g i n t e r e s t was i n muskrat, t h i s was not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e i n the 1963-64 seasons.  As might be  expected from the low t r a p p i n g incomes, even muskrat takes were low f o r a g r e a t number o f people ( F i g . 5-12). Thus membership i n the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t group i n d i c a t e d  1963-1964 SEASON  Mackenzie Delta Aklavik Fort McPherson Arctic Red River Tuktoyaktuk •Inuvik and Reindeer Station  0100- 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 700- 8 0 0 - 900- Over 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1000 ANNUAL MUSKRAT TAKE P i g . 5-12  Muskrat Takes from Mackenzie D e l t a T r a p p e r s , 1963-64  f o r many an absence o f any t r a p p i n g i n t e r e s t a t a l l .  Thi.s  was e s p e c i a l l y so i n A r c t i c Red R i v e r and Tuktoyaktuk where, unlike  the p r e v i o u s  seasons a n a l y z e d ,  muskrat had l a r g e l y  ceased to f e a t u r e i n the a r r a y o f s p e c i e s The  trapped*  c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from t h i s i s t h a t where  i n previous  seasons a w i t h d r a w l from s p e c i a l i s t  trapping  i n d i c a t e d a b i a s towards the D e l t a , and e s p e c i a l l y  towards  the muskrat h a r v e s t , by the m i d - s i x t i e s i t i n d i c a t e d i n s t e a d a withdrawal from t r a p p i n g a l t o g e t h e r towards some a l t e r n a t i v e occupation. occupations considered Since  The extent  were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  to which a l t e r n a t i v e  by wage employment w i l l be chapter.  the sample f o r the 1963-64 season was r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l , the p r o f i l e s o f a l l t r a p p e r s i n each were a l s o a n a l y z e d  and f i t t e d  settlement  i n t o the taxonomy which had  emerged from the g r o s s a n a l y s i s of the D e l t a as a whole. Thus i n A r c t i c Red R i v e r t h e r e were found to be t h r e e t r a p p e r s o f the t o t a l a f 3 3 f a l l i n g i n t o a group fied  i n the g r o s s a n a l y s i s as s p e c i a l i s t marten  identitrappers  (Group 4) and n i n e w i t h a weaker b i a s towards marten  t r a p p i n g ( i n Group 5)» for Arctic  Red  that branching  The  s t r u c t u r e of the h i e r a r c h y  River ( F i g . 5-13)  i n d i c a t e d , by the  o c c u r r e d at h i g h e r l e v e l s  f o r the  fact  specialist  than f o r the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t group, t h a t the former more heterogeneous t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s . Tuktoyaktuk t h e r e were found fox trappers Group k)  ( i n Group 6)  had  Similarly i n  to be e i g h t s p e c i a l i s t  and  white  nine marten t r a p p e r s ( i n  both a l s o showing g r e a t e r h e t e r o g e n e i t y  the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t group ( F i g . 5 - l 4 ) .  than  Therefore,  i n the  p e r i p h e r a l s e t t l e m e n t s where t r a p p i n g s p e c i a l i s m s were still  q u i t e entrenched,  among the s p e c i a l i s t s  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance  v a r i e d widely.  I n A k l a v i k there were 31 h i g h e r takes  of mink (Group 2)  showed v e r y h i g h takes  t r a p p e r s showing s l i g h t l y i n a d d i t i o n to two  (Group 3 ) •  who  Also a f u r t h e r small  group o f t h r e e s p e c i a l i s t marten t r a p p e r s which had appeared i n the a n a l y s i s o f the D e l t a as a whole r e v e a l e d by all  the f i n e r g r a i n e d a n a l y s i s and  not  was  significantly  three memebers of the group were known to have  trapped  i n the Anderson R i v e r a r e a .  I n F o r t McPherson  4 — FTE*S  GROUPEO  >K  1  5  3 STEP  1  2 3 4  5  6 7 8 9  10 11  12 13 14  15 16 17 18  19  20 21 22  23  24  25 26 27 28 29 30  31  32 33  !  J  23 9 13 13 11 29 9  27  30  32 19 11 17 29 34 13 14  14 9 9  25  22 7 9 7 9 6 23 20 1 2 6 8  2  7  8  1 5 7 2 1 1  18  21 31 12 33  15  25 28 30  24  26 3 10 16 9 20 22 23 4 6 8.  5  2 7  ERROR  0.5C 000000 1.5C000C00 2.5CCOO00O 4 . 16666603 6.16666603 8.16666603 1C.4C.99S90 12.9999990 16.4S99847 20.3666382 27.1666260 35.8332825 49.3332825 64.6665955 80.2915344 100.481949 129.356888 160.856888 192.356888 224.356888 264.856689 3 2 5 . 8 566 89 394.856689 474.356445  57C.656201  680.054199 829.168701 1136.66E70 1510.86865 2264.92017 3187.10645 6727.375CC 20595.6250  * * *+ * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * *  *'  * *  26 2  5  Pig. 5-13  13 32 16  I 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ) 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1r i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1l l I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I J 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I1 M i l l 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 M i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1I I 1 I I 1 1.1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1I I I II 1 1 1 IJ I I I I I I 1_l M M I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 T i 1 1 1 I I i i i i i i i i I I 1 1 i i i I I i i i i 1 i I I i i I I i i 1 l l 1 i i  i  OF  THE  8 33  31  15 11  34  29 21  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  * * * * * * * * * * *  STRUCTURE  7— 25  7  30  20 4  ^ 6  10  9 22  18  -} 14 27 19 24 12 28 17 23  *  * *  * * * * * * * * * * *  *  * * * *  *.**»•**. * « * * * » * * » * * * . * * *  HIERARCHY,  *  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 l_l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 M 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 * 1 IJ 1 1 II 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L I II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 LI 1 1 1 1 1 1 • i i i u i i i i II i i i i I I l i I I I i I i I I i i i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 *. 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I J 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 * I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 l _ . 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 * 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1l _ l I I I I t * 1 I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I _ I I I I 1 1 * 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 * I 1 * I 1 * 1 1 1 1 . . , . J  ARCTIC  RED  RIVER  1963-64  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping of T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s , S t r u c t u r e o f the H i e r a r c h y , A r c t i c Red River, 1963-1964  *. » * *  6 —K  4 ITEMS  GROUPED  I  2ft 7  STEP  I  J  ERROR  2  2 23  47  4 10  49 1 1  20 35  40 21  f  12 3  33 29  . 27  13  48  42 24  18  31  31  37 5  28 41  44 17  36  32 30  46  9  34  15 6  39 19  23  16  8  *  >" 14  43 50  25  4  *  45  51  '  «  1  H  7*—6.Or606160—* I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l _ l I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I' V I I I *  2 3 4  17 17 17  37 44 46  0.0000200 O.OC00030P 0.00000400  5  24  28  O.nrcOOSOC  • | I I I I I.I  6 7 8 9 10 11  30 3"3 41 2 9 13  50 3* 48 lO 15 31  0.PC 000600 O.Of COC700 o.nroccnoo O.5GP0C799 1.T0OC763 1.50C0C763  ' I I I *~1 I I • I I I * | I I  12  23  32  2 .00000763  >  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  IT 14 15 16 17 18  ITS 17 2 23 17 18  I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I  | I I I I I  I Tl I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  I I I  * * * * * *~\ *  I | I I I  26 27 28 29 30 37. 32 33 34 35 36 77 38 39 40 41 42  17 19 4 12 17 4" 3 2 7 14 18 4" 9 12 5 1 3 i 3 2 11 6 22  2 . bl 6 6 7 3 6 6 3.5O0O0477 4.33333778 5. 16667C80 6.04762077 7.38C95C93 8.88895093 10.4999905 1 2.4999505 14.9999905 17.9959847 21.2499542 24.4999390 27.S999390 23.4,165955 39.9165955 46.4165955 53.2022858 6U.-6522675 70.9022522 81 . 1 7 2 0 5 8 1 "6.178421 0 113.678421 133.206100 156.7C6iro 198.859314 266.02002C 429.02"C2C 614.436279 908.936279  * * ' * * •  20 21 22 23 24  41 34 40 43 45 24 42 30 51 35 27 23 3~3" 13 29 47 39 36 27! 19 18 17  * * * *~\ ' * • * T *  I l_l I I I I I I I I I I I I I | r  4T  7  3  44 45 46 47 48 49 50  1 6 1 2 1 2 1  11 14 22 6 21 16 2  ~~F>  TT,  7  12 ti 5 4 26 9 49  * •  I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I | | I |  I I I |  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I |_| I I I  I I I I  I I CT I I  M I I I I I I  I I I I  I I I I  I I I I I I I I  I I.I  I I I I I I I l_l I I  I I I I  * I II I I II I I I I I I I I II I II I I * I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IJ I I I I  H  I  I  II I I II I  I I I I | I | I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  * * * *  I  I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I |_I I I I I I I I I l_l I  I  1329.3671)?—*  I  I  I  I  2055.16699 2793. 12305 5806.67188 11154.5937 231C7.32S1 35B89*. 1 2 5 C 104490.812  I  I  I I I  I I I I I  * * * * * * *  I I I I  I I  I  I I I I  I I S  I  I  I  I  I  I  I I I I I I  T~l II I I I I II II  J \  I  I  I  I I I  I I I I I I I  I I I I I I l_l I I I  1 I I I I I I  I I I I  I I I  I I I I T~l  I I  I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  I  I  I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I  I  I  I I I I I I  I I I I I  I  I  I I I  I I  I  I I  I  I I  I  I I  I I I  I I I I  I I I I II II  I  II  I I I  I I I  I I I I I I  I I I  I I I  I I I I I I I I  I I I I  I I I  I « r~* I N * , I I *  !  I  !  !  III I- I  I  I  I  I-  I i~I III I I I I I I III I I I  I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  T I I I  I  I I I I  I  I  I  I  I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I -1  I  I I I I I I I  ; I I I  .  I  j  [  I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I II  I I  I I  j  I I I I  I T~I  I I I I  I I  j  1  I I I I I I I I  I  *  I I I * I I I * I I I * I I I * I I I « 1 I T* I I I *  I' I  I I I I I  I  I I  I I I II . I I ' I I l_U  I  III*  III*  I I l_ I  I I I  I  I I I  I  I I I I I I I I I I I  _J  ~1  ~~I I I  I 1 I I  : I  *  I * I * I I * V» I * I * I * I * I * T*  I  *  I I I I  » * » *  H* I I I I I '  * * * * * * *  »  S T R U C T U R E OF T H E H I E R A R C H Y , T U K T O Y A K T U K 1 9 6 3 - 6 4  P i g . 5-14  III* III*  II l_l I I I I I  I II  • I I  '  I I  I I I I I I I  I  I I  I I I*  I I I * I I I * I I I * I I I * I I I * I I I »  I I I  I I I I  I » I * I *  I I I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I I ~ l I I  I I I  I I I I I I  II I I I I I I II I I I I  1  I  I I I  I I I I I I I.I I I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I 1  I I I ' I I I I  I I I  II I II I  I  I I I I I I  I I I I. I  I I I I II  I I I I  I I I  I I I  I I I I  I  I  I I I  Tin  I  I I I  I I I  .  I  I  I I I  I  I I I  I I I  I  I  III  I  I  I I I I I I  III I I I III III  I I  TT II I I I I II II  I  I I  I I I I I I I I I I l_l I I I I I I I I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i r~i  I I II I  I  I TTH  I | I I I I I  I I I I I I I I I i  I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I III I III  I I I | I I I I I I X~l I I  * II I II I I I  »  I  I  I I I I I I  H i e r a r c h i c a l Grouping o f T r a p p i n g P r o f i l e s , of the H i e r a r c h y , Tuktoyaktuk, 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 6 4  Structure  .  t h e r e were found  to be f i f t e e n t r a p p e r s w i t h a s l i g h t  emphasis on mink ( i n Group 2) and twelve emphasis on marten (Group 5)«  with a s l i g h t  I n I n u v i k and R e i n d e e r  S t a t i o n , t h i r t y - o n e of the t r a p p e r s showed a weak emphasis on mink. Table 5-8 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i a l i s t T r a p p i n g Groups, by Settlement,  1963-64 No. i n Group  Settlement  Percentage  A r c t i c Red R i v e r (i) Marten t r a p p e r s (ii) Trappers w i t h a b i a s to marten  9  9 26  Tuktoyaktuk (i) White f o x t r a p p e r s (ii) Marten t r a p p e r s  8 9  16 18  Aklavik (i) Mink t r a p p e r s (ii) T r a p p e r s with b i a s to mink (iii) Marten t r a p p e r s  2 31 3  1 22 2  F o r t McPherson Trappers Trappers  15 12  12 10  31  32  dl]  w i t h b i a s to mink w i t h b i a s t o marten  I n u v i k and R e i n d e e r S t a t i o n (i) Trappers with b i a s t o mink  C l e a r l y by the 1963-64 season even i n the p e r i p h e r a l settlements more d i s t a n t  the i n t e r e s t i n t r a p p i n g s p e c i e s from the t r a p p i n g areas had d i m i n i s h e d  considerably  6.  Trapping  Camp L o c a t i o n s  and  Trapping  G i v e n the d e c l i n i n g importance of the s p e c i e s common o u t s i d e  Profiles  trapping  of  5-8,  the D e l t a shown i n T a b l e  muskrat assumes much g r e a t e r importance as an i n d i c a t o r o f i n t e r e s t i n t r a p p i n g i n the s i x t i e s  than i n  decades.  i n c l u d e d i n the  Consequently muskrat was  now  previous  a n a l y s i s of f u r takes f o r the 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 season i n o r d e r d i s t i n g u i s h what might be those who  termed s e r i o u s t r a p p e r s  held a general hunting  hunt as a weekend s p o r t .  The  time" are of course r e l a t i v e be w e l l r e c o g n i z e d  from  l i c e n c e to t r a p  or  term " s e r i o u s " and though the  by D e l t a r e s i d e n t s .  to  "part-  concepts would Though an  a r b i t r a r y d i s t i n c t i o n might be made between the  two  c l a s s e s - i n terms of income, say - the h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g procedure allowed The  a more o b j e c t i v e measure.  t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e s of a l l t r a p p e r s  l a r g e r settlements  of I n u v i k ,  1  three  F o r t McPherson and  were grouped i n c l u d i n g a l l s p e c i e s and  I n c l u d i n g Reindeer S t a t i o n .  i n the  the  Aklavik  composition  o f the groups analyzed  a t the l e v e l o f g r o u p i n g a t  which the g r e a t e s t a c c e l e r a t i o n . o f the ESS curve experienced.  I t was assumed t h a t the  of trappers  groups were b e i n g  would be  a t which the most u n l i k e  combined.  The most r a p i d a c c e l -  e r a t i o n took p l a c e a t the f o u r t h and  dichotomization  i n t o " s e r i o u s * and " p a r t - t i m e "  i n d i c a t e d a t t h i s stage,  was  1  l e v e l f o r Inuvik  P o r t McPherson, and the second f o r A k l a v i k .  Table  5-9  Mackenzie D e l t a S e t t l e m e n t s , SETTLEMENT  1964-65  TRAPPERS  Inuvik Aklavik F o r t McPherson  "Serious"  "Part -time"  53 (3 Groups) 22 (1 Group) 51 (3 Groups)  58 ( 1 Group) 129 ( 1 Group) 71 ( 1 Group)  I t has been suggested that one o f the c h a r a c t e r , i s t i c s o f t r a p p i n g i n the s i x t i e s i n the Mackenzie D e l t a i s t h a t i t i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the settlements.  Excluding  While i n the past  t r a p p i n g , and  groups c o n s i s t i n g o f one i n d i v i d u a l  e s p e c i a l l y what has been i d e n t i f i e d as  speciality  t r a p p i n g , i n v o l v e d m a i n t a i n i n g a w i n t e r or s p r i n g camp o f t e n at some d i s t a n c e from the D e l t a s e t t l e m e n t s , t h i s was  not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e i n the 1 9 6 0 s . f  In o r d e r  to examine the extent to which " s e r i o u s " t r a p p i n g  was  c a r r i e d out from the s e t t l e m e n t s , the l o c a t i o n s of a l l w i n t e r and  s p r i n g camps were o b t a i n e d f o r the  1964-65 season and p l o t t e d on a map ( F i g . 5-15)»^  of the D e l t a  Those camps occupied by t r a p p e r s c l a s s i -  f i e d as " s e r i o u s " were next i d e n t i f i e d and found comprise a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l . " s e r i o u s " I n u v i k t r a p p e r s , 45 per cent  Of  to  the  maintained  camps, 50 p e r cent of those of A k l a v i k and  71  per  cent  2 of one  those of F o r t McPherson.  In o t h e r words, about  h a l f o f the t r a p p e r s of I n u v i k and A k l a v i k  who  These were o b t a i n e d by p e r s o n a l communication w i t h t h e i r occupants i n many cases and checked w i t h the Game O f f i c e s at A k l a v i k and F o r t McPherson.  Z  A few o f the F t . McPherson people had camps on P e e l R i v e r and are consequently not shown on Fig. 5-15*  the  produced more s u b s t a n t i a l muskrat takes d i d t h e i r t r a p p i n g or h u n t i n g That the p r o p o r t i o n was  out of the  nonetheless settlement.  much l e s s f o r P o r t McPherson  may  be a s c r i b e d e i t h e r to the f a c t t h a t the " o l d ways"  had  l a s t e d there l o n g e r , as shown a l s o i n the  a n a l y s i s by the p e r s i s t e n c e of s p e c i a l i s t o r to the f a c t  t h a t the s e t t l e m e n t  the b e t t e r muskrat h u n t i n g  7• T h i s c h a p t e r has  areas  previous  trappers,  i s f u r t h e r from  of the D e l t a .  Conclusions attempted to i n f e r from the  species  which t r a p p e r s have o f f e r e d i n trade the areas  which  they have u t i l i z e d and  have  the ways i n which these  changed over a p e r i o d of some three decades.  Since  the  Mackenzie D e l t a i s an area of some d i v e r s i t y i n which a number of d i f f e r e n t e c o l o g i c a l regimes may supported  be  i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  t r a p p e r s on the b a s i s of the a r r a y of s p e c i e s  they  trap.  the  T h i s i s not so f o r many o t h e r p a r t s of  North, where t r a p p e r s engage i n a u n i f o r m  p a t t e r n of  t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t y and may only be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f the enthusiasm and success w i t h which they pursue i t . I n the Mackenzie D e l t a i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h trappers  on the b a s i s of whether they t r a p  the D e l t a i t s e l f c l o s e to the s e t t l e m e n t s  with  minimal  equipment and t h e r e f o r e produce an a r r a y o f s p e c i e s i n whicn muskrat predominates, or whether they t r a p more d i s t a n t areas w i t h more s p e c i a l i z e d equipment and t h e r e f o r e produce an a r r a y which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o t h e r more v a l u a b l e The  f u r species.  a n a l y s i s has shown that on the b a s i s of the  array of species  trapped  summarized as what has been  termed a t r a p p i n g p r o f i l e , groups of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a p p e r s have been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d p a r t i c u l a r settlements.  F o r example, beaver  with  trapping  was a s s o c i a t e d s l i g h t l y with A r c t i c Red R i v e r i n 1931-32 and much more s t r o n g l y i n 19^0-41;  marten  t r a p p i n g w i t h A r c t i c Red R i v e r and Tuktoyaktuk i n a l l years;  and white f o x t r a p p i n g w i t h Tuktoyaktuk i n  19^0-41 and s l i g h t l y i n 1950-51.  Since  i t was known  t h a t these the  s p e c i e s are abundant i n p a r t i c u l a r  settlements  i n which s p e c i a l i s t  t r a p p i n g groups  were s i g n i f i c a n t c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Thus d u r i n g  the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n  u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n c o u l d be one  areas*  resource  conceptualized  as a  I t i s c l e a r however t h a t d u r i n g  from 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 to 1 9 5 O - 5 I t h i s nodal weaker as more t r a p p e r s r e q u i r i n g them to go  nodal  upon the  period  specialisms  to more d i s t a n t areas and  conver-  Delta.  to the D e l t a and  specialized  the  s t r u c t u r e became  abandoned t r a p p i n g  I n F o r t McPherson and ible  the  these  i n which c e r t a i n a r e a s were t r i b u t a r y to c e r t a i n  settlements.  ged  areas,  A k l a v i k , both e a s i l y  access-  l e s s a c c e s s i b l e to more  trapping areas,  most t r a p p e r s  groups t h a t were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by muskrat, e i t h e r a p p e a r i n g  alone  fell  into  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of  or i n combination  with  o t h e r D e l t a s p e c i e s such as mink. While i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the p e r i o d most trappers  even from the more p e r i p h e r a l  settlements  produced s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of muskrat, i n f e r r i n g  that  it  was common f o r them to converge upon the D e l t a f o r  s p r i n g " r a t t i n g " , t h i s was not so i n the l a t e r p a r t o f the p e r i o d .  The r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t r a p p i n g a r e a s i n  the D e l t a tended to s t a b i l i z e  the muskrat h a r v e s t f o r  a w h i l e , but the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f I n u v i k was e v i d e n t l y a disruptive force.  Many people abandoned  their  t r a p p i n g a r e a s to work i n the new town's c o n s t r u c t i o n and  the s p a t i a l nature o f the muskrat h a r v e s t  changed  such t h a t l e s s e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d towards the a r e a of the D e l t a c l o s e s t t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n By  the m i d - s i x t i e s few t r a p p e r s  site. indeed  were  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n those s p e c i e s which c o u l d o n l y be produced i n q u a n t i t y from the more d i s t a n t a r e a s , and though some s p e c i a l i s m s c o u l d c e r t a i n settlements, Most t r a p p e r s  still  be a s s o c i a t e d  with  t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was v e r y weak.  from a l l s e t t l e m e n t s  except Tuktoyaktuk  now showed an o r i e n t a t i o n towards the D e l t a which would i n d i c a t e e i t h e r an emphasis on muskrat or t h a t had  ceased to be important a t a l l .  The f a c t  trapping t h a t musk-  r a t takes were a l s o low would i n d i c a t e t h a t the l a t t e r  was  the  case.  An o b j e c t i v e measure o f " s e r i o u s " and t r a p p i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t most people so on p a r t - t i m e b a s i s and  trapping furs did  t h a t t h e i r major income  to come from o t h e r s o u r c e s . s t i l l maintained  "part-time"  had  However, of these many-  camps i n the D e l t a , and  only f o r  F o r t McPherson people were the m a j o r i t y of camps o c c u p i e d by s e r i o u s t r a p p e r s .  T h i s would i n d i c a t e  t h a t even f o r those f o r whom t r a p p i n g was viable activity, sufficiently  no l o n g e r a  the a l l e g i a n c e to the land  was  s t r o n g f o r them to f o l l o w p a t t e r n s of  a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a p p i n g even when these l o s t whatever economic r a t i o n a l e On was  they may  the o t h e r hand, the a l l e g i a n c e to the sufficiently  have  had  had.  settlements  s t r o n g to d e t e r them from t r a p p i n g  the more d i s t a n t a r e a s . t h i s a l l e g i a n c e was  The  expressed  q u e s t i o n remains whether i n simply l i v i n g i n the  town or b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the town's economy, and  t h i s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  CHAPTER VI  INFVIK'S EVOLVING ECONOMY J  TRENDS IN  WAGE EMPLOYMENT  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  The analyzed  changes w i t h i n the t r a p p i n g h i n t e r l a n d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r  were accompanied  by p a r a l l e l changes i n the s e t t l e m e n t s as e r s t w h i l e t r a p p e r s were drawn i n t o the wage economy.  Since  job  o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been v e r y much g r e a t e r i n I n u v i k than i n any  o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g the h i s t o r y of  Mackenzie D e l t a , i t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g that  changes have been g r e a t e s t t h e r e . be  taken as the paradigm of a new  m a j o r i t y of n a t i v e and  Indeed I n u v i k  The  fact  a t maximum should not obscure  the l i f e urban.  may  n o r t h i n which the  s t y l e s f o l l o w e d i n them are  live in  t h a t most n o r t h e r n  s e t t l e m e n t s have p o p u l a t i o n s of o n l y a few people  these  t r a n s i e n t people w i l l  an u r b a n i z e d environment.  the  hundred  the f a c t  that  essentially  I t i s thus not m i s l e a d i n g to c o n s i d e r  the  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l change o c c u r r i n g i n the f a r n o r t h as concomitants of u r b a n i z a t i o n t h a t bear some comparison  w i t h that p r o c e s s as i t takes p l a c e i n the  l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s Chapter  (cf_. Breese, 19661  especially  3).  I t has become almost commonplace to suggest t h i s p r o c e s s c a r r i e s many problems Eskimo p e r s o n caught up i n i t .  that  f o r the I n d i a n or  Recent  immigrants  to  urban areas i n o t h e r p a r t s of the world share these problems,  which i n c l u d e an unpreparedness  to compete  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the urban economy (ibid,; 77) » the tension f e l t  i n the c o n f l i c t between the non-urban and  the urban c u l t u r e s  (ibid.: 8 6 ) ,  and  the a n t i - s o c i a l  r e s u l t s of these t e n s i o n s which are r e f l e c t e d i n a l c o h o l i s m , crime and mental d i s o r d e r , amongst the young (ibid.: 7^,  87).  especially  The f a c t  that i n the  N o r t h the a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s the accommod a t i o n not o n l y to urban v a l u e s but to white v a l u e s adds another dimension to the The  first  urban  problem.  p a r t of t h i s study has made i t c l e a r  t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s more confused i n the  Mackenzie  D e l t a than i n perhaps any North.  other p a r t of the Canadian  Though over a c e n t u r y of e t h n i c admixture  produced  a people  i n which the pure Eskimo, I n d i a n or  European s t r a i n i s uncommon, n o n e t h e l e s s between the person who D e l t a and he who indeed.  has  the c o n t r a s t s  has been r a i s e d i n the Mackenzie  has been r a i s e d o u t s i d e are s t r o n g  I t i s the l a t t e r however who  r e p r e s e n t s the  dominant norms and v a l u e s . S t u d i e s of r e c e n t c u l t u r a l and the North have noted n a t i v e peoples  the emergence of a t y p o l o g y of  expressed  i n terms of the degree to  which they e x h i b i t at l e a s t these norms and v a l u e s . Honigmann (1967)  (1965),  s o c i a l change i n  s u p e r f i c i a l c o n f o r m i t y to  Fried  (1964),  S a a r i o and K e s s e l  (1966)  have a l l drawn a t t e n t i o n to the  of n a t i v e people  Honigmann and  polarization  i n t o those w i t h a town and  a bush o r i e n t a t i o n as a key  and V a l l e e  those  with  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t s .  Underlying  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s what the Honigmanns  (1965s  have c a l l e d a " d u a l a l l e g i a n c e " to the l a n d and  to  77)  the s e t t l e m e n t , one  of the a s p e c t s of which, t h a t of  the commitment towards t r a p p i n g , has been c o n s i d e r e d in  the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r .  This chapter w i l l  consider  the o t h e r aspect of the a b s o r p t i o n of n a t i v e i n t o urban l i f e  i n the important  peoples  s e c t o r of wage  employment. I n a l l the s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d to above, of  acceptance  wage employment i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a prime index  of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n l a r g e l y because i t i m p l i e s a number of o t h e r t h i n g s f o r the n a t i v e person, the r e j e c t i o n of a way of  the l a n d and  i n c l u d i n g above a l l  of l i f e based upon the  the s e v e r i n g of a number of  s a n c t i o n e d s o c i a l and  r e j e c t i o n of the bush l i f e was  an urban c e n t r e i s seen as the r e s u l t "pull" factors  changes may  The  to which the  r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n  the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a p p i n g .  and  traditionally  economic arrangements.  p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r e d the e x t e n t  resources  (Breese, 1966:  80),  I f m i g r a t i o n to of both then  "push"  these  be s a i d to c h a r a c t e r i z e the former r a t h e r  than the l a t t e r .  In t h i s p r e s e n t  chapter,  the more  p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the wage economy are c o n s i d e r e d . The carried first  a n a l y s i s which f o l l o w s i s based out i n the summers of 1965  and  on  surveys  1968.  I n the  of these, a l l employers i n the s e t t l e m e n t s of  the D e l t a were asked  for lists  of t h e i r  employees  arranged by monthly income and e t h n i c s t a t u s .  The  a n a l y s i s of t h i s data p r e s e n t e d i n a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t to the N o r t h e r n C o o r d i n a t i o n and Research ( l a t e r Northern  Science Research  Centre  Group) of the  Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n r e v e a l e d c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and  Development  trends ( W o l f o r t h ,  [1966]). With few based  e x c e p t i o n s , employment f o r wages  on non-basic  was  r a t h e r than b a s i c a c t i v i t i e s  the e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was  and  almost  e n t i r e l y i n the hands of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s working a l o n e and g e n e r a l l y l i v i n g tence l e v e l .  little  above the s u b s i s -  I n u v i k s economy i n p a r t i c u l a r was 1  s t r o n g l y b i a s s e d towards those s e r v i c e  activities  very  directed  to the s e t t l e m e n t  wider r e g i o n .  i t s e l f r a t h e r than  In Inuviij. the m a j o r i t y of permanent  j o b s were h e l d by t r a n s i e n t whites  from o u t s i d e  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and many of these, i n government s e r v i c e ,  serving" attitude  who  e t h n i c b a s i s was  the  •"timesettlement.  were employed g e n e r a l l y had  jobs i n the l e s s s k i l l e d , the v e r t i c a l  particularly  often exhibited a  towards t h e i r jobs and  Those n a t i v e people  the  seemed to have a v e r y weak  commitment to the n o r t h and  and  the  lower  salaried  occupations  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of employment on a fairly  widespread source  of  an  frustration  among them, w i t h s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences which has been noted by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n the (Ervin,  1968;  Lubart,  1969,  1970).  A major purpose of the l a t e r survey was determine whether these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had over the t h r e e year p e r i o d and Though c o n f i n e d e n t i r e l y the 1 9 6 8 survey was of  1965.  As  area  to i n d i c a t e  to the s e t t l e m e n t  v e r y much more d e t a i l e d  i n the e a r l i e r survey,  to altered  trends. of I n u v i k , than t h a t  a l l employers i n  I n u v i k were p o l l e d , but w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which e l i c i t e d more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each employee on t h e i r p a y r o l l were not asked  (See Appendix C ) .  Though employers  to i d e n t i f y employees by name i t was  p o s s i b l e i n some cases  to c r o s s - c h e c k d a t a w i t h  employers themselves and  to g a i n more d e t a i l e d  the but  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data from i n t e r v i e w s i n depth.  2. The  S t r u c t u r e of I n u v i k ' s Labour Force i n  I n the summer of 1968  there were 6 1 0 1  1968  people  in  I n u v i k e i t h e r working f o r wages or i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s on t h e i r own 40  behalf.  per cent over  of 1965.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e of  the comparable f i g u r e f o r the summer  I n t h i s three y e a r p e r i o d there had been some  s m a l l growth i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , but growth had The  o c c u r r e d i n the government  f u n c t i o n s of I n u v i k had  remained  unchanged, t h a t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  1  the  largest  establishment. essentially supply  centre  E x c l u d i n g armed s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l a t t a c h e d to C.F.S. I n u v i k , RCMP o f f i c e r s and r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n a r i e s not working i n c h i l d r e n s J . h o s t e l s .  f o r the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t , but a l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t  r e s o u r c e base had appeared i n  the p e r i o d , the d i s c o v e r y of o i l a t Prudhoe Bay i n A l a s k a and the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with  the P a n a r c t i c scheme had r a i s e d  concerning which may in  expectations  the s e t t l e m e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r growth, to be a s c r i b e d some at l e a s t  of the expansion  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Of the 598 persons  working f o r wages i n 1968,  no  fewer than 23 p e r cent were i n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s , of whom 49 p e r cent were drawn from the Mackenzie D e l t a , Ik  per cent from elsewhere i n the Yukon and Northwest  Territories South.  and the remaining  37 p e r cent from the  I n a d d i t i o n , 5 p e r cent o f the l a b o u r f o r c e  were employed i n managerial  and o f f i c i a l  13 p e r cent i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s ,  occupations, 13 per cent  i n c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , k p e r cent i n s a l e s , 6 p e r cent i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 3 per cent i n s k i l l e d t r a d e s , Ik p e r cent i n maintenance, and the remaining were l a b o u r e r s .  17 p e r cent  L i k e that o f o t h e r n o r t h e r n communities the l a b o u r f o r c e was r e l a t i v e l y young. of  those  employed f o r wages o r s a l a r i e s  y e a r s o f age i n 1968, and  Only 26 p e r cent  37 P  e r  were over 40  23 per cent were i n t h e i r  cent i n t h e i r  twenties.  was marked both f o r men and women.  This  thirties  characteristic  Of the 374 males i n  the l a b o u r f o r c e , 29 per cent were over 40 y e a r s o f age, 23 per cent were i n t h e i r their  twenties:  t h i r t i e s and 35 P  o f the 222 females,  over kO, 21 p e r cent i n t h e i r in  their  twenties.  e r  cent i n  22 per cent were  t h i r t i e s and 4 l p e r cent  T h i s b i a s i n the l a b o u r  force  toward young workers was r e p r e s e n t e d by a predominance of whites i n o t h e r age groups.  Of a l l the workers i n  their  t w e n t i e s , 51 p e r cent were white;  their  thirties,  cent;  67 per cent;  and i n t h e i r f i f t i e s ,  o f workers i n  i n their forties, 60 p e r c e n t .  Only amongst  the a d o l e s c e n t s d i d n a t i v e workers predominate, 47 per cent o f the teenagers  6-1).  since  i n the l a b o u r f o r c e were  Eskimo, 18 p e r cent I n d i a n and 27 p e r cent (Table  67 per  Metis  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by Age, Sex and E t h n i c S t a t u s , 1968  Age  M  N.R. T F  M  Whites T F  M  Eskimos T F  M  Indians F T  M  Metis F T  M  Total F T  14  18  32  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  20  19  4l  0  2  2  4  12  9  21  6  2  8  9  3  12  29  16  45  1  1  75  38 113  32  57  7  16  23  15  11  26  129  91 220  0  0  0  58  33  18  26  3  6  0  10  0  10  89  47 136  40-49  0  0  0  43  19  91 62  25 8  17  2  2  4  7  2  9  66  26  92  50-59  0  0  0  17  13  30  6  3 2  8  2  3  3  4  7  28  22  50  60-69  0  0  0  0  8  3  1  4  1  0  5 1  l  0  1  13  1  14  Totals  6  2  10  340  85  48 133  21  29  50  45  20  65  374  6  1  9  10-19  0  0  20-29  0  30-39  N.R.  1  2  8 217  123  14  I n a l l t a b l e s , N.R." = not r e c o r d e d . n  I n c l u d i n g two s u b j e c t s f o r whom sex was not r e c o r d e d .  222 598  2  i n 1 9 6 5 there were more whites  As in  the l a b o u r f o r c e .  found  than n a t i v e s  I n the e a r l i e r survey i t was  that 6 5 p e r cent o f the l a b o u r f o r c e was  white,  1 7 p e r cent Eskimo, 1 0 p e r cent I n d i a n and 8 p e r cent I n 1 9 6 8 s i n c e the a b s o l u t e number of whites  Metis. had  remained almost  unchanged w h i l e  f o r c e had expanded, the percentage  labour  o f whites had  I n 1 9 6 8 , 5 7 p e r cent o f the l a b o u r f o r c e was  dropped. white,  the t o t a l  2 2 p e r cent Eskimo, 8 p e r cent I n d i a n and 1 1 per  cent M e t i s  (Table 6 - 2 ) .  (Wolforth,  £l966j:  Ik),  l a b o u r f o r c e can r e s u l t regarded  as a "bystander  As suggested  previously  the white predominance i n the i n the n a t i v e person to the economic  being  scene,"  r e s u l t i n g from h i s b e i n g i l l - e q u i p p e d by p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g to f i l l  the m a j o r i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s  administrative centre l i k e Inuvik contains.  t h a t an Unlike  the s e t t l e m e n t s o f p r e v i o u s e r a s , I n u v i k from i t s beginnings  employed a l a r g e number o f people  jobs were not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d  whose  to the n o r t h e r n m i l i e u  and many o f which would appear incomprehensible  to the  native person.  As F r i e d  (1964)  notes,  the phase o f  u r b a n i z a t i o n which o c c u r r e d i n the North a f t e r  1950  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the appearance o f l a r g e numbers o f white  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , t e a c h e r s and  o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l people w i t h weak grounds f o r social Table  i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n . 6-2  E t h n i c Composition 1965 and 1968  o f the I n u v i k Labour F o r c e ,  1965 Number White  320  Percentage of t o t a l  1968 Number  Percentage of t o t a l  3^0  83 50 36 0  65 per cent tt 17 11 11 it 10 It 8 w II 0 n  65 10  57 p e r cent n 22 n n 8 11 •t •t 11 11 2 «  489  100 per cent  598  100 p e r cent  Eskimo Indian Metis N.R.  I t appears  133 50  then t h a t i n the three y e a r p e r i o d between  the two s u r v e y s , the involvement  o f n a t i v e peoples i n  wage employment had advanced somewhat. w h i l e the number o f employed whites remained s t a t i c  In p a r t i c u l a r  and I n d i a n s has  the number o f employed Eskimo and  M e t i s has has  increased considerably.  Eskimo employment  i n c r e a s e d 60 per cent over i t s 1965  M e t i s employment 80 per  cent.  value,  and  1  3. The E t h n i c Dimension o f Employment The  s t r u c t u r e of employment i n I n u v i k has  s t r o n g l y e t h n i c dimension  w i t h whites g e n e r a l l y i n the  dominant and o t h e r s i n the s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s . I n u v i k was almost  a  Since  c o n c e i v e d as a n o r t h e r n outpost o f an  e x c l u s i v e l y white  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e community, i t  i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n has  persisted,  even i n the f a c e of a growing n a t i v e involvement employment.  The  n o r t h e r n e r e n t e r s the employment  in field  Though the terms " n a t i v e " and " i n d i g e n o u s " p e r s o n a r e sometimes thought to c a r r y a p e r j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n , they are i n e s c a p a b l e i f any u s e f u l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are to be made about the r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t w i t h i n the population. I n t h i s work both terms have been used to d e f i n e people who because of t h e i r a n c e s t r y may be c o n s i d e r e d n a t i v e to the a r e a whether Eskimos, I n d i a n s or M e t i s . The term "white" has been used to r e f e r to a l l o t h e r s whether they are long-term or s h o r t - t e r m r e s i d e n t s i n the a r e a or i n the t e r r i t o r i a l N o r t h and the term " n o r t h e r n e r " r e s e r v e d f o r those born i n the t e r r i t o r i a l North, whether of Eskimo, I n d i a n , M e t i s or white a n c e s t r y . F o r the s t a t i s t i c a l ../..  through  those o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a minimum o f  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g and seldom a c h i e v e s the means o f becoming upwardly mobile.  Thus, i n 1968, 13 y e a r s  a f t e r the d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h I n u v i k had been s e t i n t o motion, 86 p e r cent o f those i n m a n a g e r i a l and o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s were from o u t s i d e the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , p l u s 96 p e r cent o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 65 p e r cent o f c l e r i c a l workers. c e n t o f the l a b o u r e r s were from  I n c o n t r a s t , 79 p e r the Mackenzie D e l t a  ( T a b l e 6-3). T h i s f a c t o r showed a s t r o n g e f f e c t on the wage structure.  I n 1965, 93 p e r cent o f a l l employed  Eskimo persons, persons, earned  82 p e r cent o f a l l employed I n d i a n  and 80 p e r cent o f a l l employed M e t i s  persons  l e s s than $350 p e r month w h i l e , i n c o n t r a s t ,  71 p e r cent o f a l l employed white persons than t h i s amount ( F i g . 6-1).  earned  more  I n 1968, wages had  r i s e n g e n e r a l l y w i t h those o f the c o u n t r y a t l a r g e and  t h e r e had been some tendency  a l s o f o r Eskimo,  a n a l y s i s on which t h i s c h a p t e r i s based r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c working d e f i n i t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix C.  WAGE EMPLOYMENT, BY INCOME a ETHNIC STATUS  140 W H I T E  120  M E T I S INDIAN ESKIMO  100 2 C $ CD ni  80 Hi $ "0  o -<  60  PV  40  20  450  and above MONTHLY INCOME (Dollars) P i g . 6-1  Wage Employment by Income and E t h n i c S t a t u s , I n u v i k , 1965  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e by O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y of O r i g i n ,  and P l a c e  1968. Mackenzie Delta  Managers, Officials Professional Clerical Sales Service  Elsewhere i n NVT or Yukon  O u t s i d e the NWT o r Yukon  Total  1  2  25  29  3 22  0  80  6  5 0  77 52 20  79 26  68  19  51  139  k  34 4  k  0  13 0  10  2  8  20  Maintenance  22  6  Labourers  81  8  57 12  85 102  Transport Agricultural Skilled  Trades  I n d i a n and M e t i s people salaried  employed Eskimo persons earned  the h i g h e r  Even so, 64 p e r cent o f a l l  occupations.  I n d i a n persons  to move i n t o  and 80 p e r cent o f a l l employed  less  than $450 p e r month w h i l e  69 p e r cent o f a l l employed white persons than t h i s amount.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , people  earned more of Metis  origin  seem to have been more s u c c e s s f u l i n moving i n t o the higher salaried  occupations during t h i s three year  p e r i o d , s i n c e 55 per* cent earned more than $450 p e r month i n 1968 (Table 6-4). Analysis i n d e t a i l reveals other d i f f e r e n c e s between and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups.  M e t i s men had been  the most s u c c e s s f u l a t moving i n t o  the more h i g h l y p a i d  o c c u p a t i o n s , s i n c e i n 1968, 58 p e r cent o f a l l those employed earned more than $450 p e r month, compared w i t h 52 p e r c e n t o f a l l employed Eskimo men, and 33 p e r cent of a l l employed I n d i a n men (Table 6-5). Among employed women, M e t i s a l s o r e c e i v e d h i g h e r  salaries  than t h e i r Eskimo and I n d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , though the s m a l l e r numbers make comparison l e s s v a l i d .  Of a l l  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by E t h n i c S t a t u s and Monthly Income, ( f u l l - t i m e employees  Less than White Eskimo  N.R.  19 0  Metis  0 1  N.R.  Indian  Total  200 0 0 1  o n l y ) , 1968 MONTHLY INCOME(DOLLARS)  200250 1 4 4  250300 1 7 2  300350 17 21  400  25 26  4oo450 38 22 11  9  10  3 0  11  64  0  l  0  0  0  0  3 1  20  1  10  20  51  10  350-  450500 12 9 1  More than  500 207 37 8  Total  320 126 46  32 0  64  0  3 0  82  25  284  557  1  employed M e t i s women, 63 p e r cent earned more than  $400  p e r month compared w i t h  36 p e r cent  of Indian  women and 17 p e r cent o f Eskimo women (Table Slobodin  (1966: 105) has  noted  6-5).  t h a t a l t h o u g h wage  employment has been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r M e t i s  people  s i n c e t h e i r appearance i n the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t i t has u s u a l l y been i n o c c u p a t i o n s connected  with trans-  p o r t a t i o n and the f u r t r a d e , n e i t h e r o f which have r e q u i r e d adherence t o a r i g i d r o u t i n e .  I t appears now  t h a t both male and female M e t i s a r e showing g r e a t e r s i g n s than e i t h e r the Eskimo o r I n d i a n people o f a d j u s t i n g t o wage employment i n I n u v i k , i f the r a p i d i t y o f movement i n t o the h i g h e r s a l a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n s may be  taken as a v a l i d  criterion.  T h i s o f course i s not due t o any i n n a t e  superiority  based upon r a c e , but r a t h e r upon the a b i l i t y t o take advantage o f a t l e a s t one a s p e c t o f m a r g i n a l i t y , t h a t o f b e i n g a b l e t o r e l a t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o Eskimo and I n d i a n people  on the one hand and t o whites  o t h e r ( S l o b o d i n , 1966:  89).  on the  A l s o the c l a n n i s h n e s s  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by E t h n i c S t a t u s , Monthly Income and Sex ( f u l l - t i m e employees o n l y ) , 1968. MONTHLY INCOME (DOLLARS) Less than  White  250 3001  300350 M. F.  N.R. M. F.  200  2001 — 2501  M. F.  M. F.  M. F.  1 18  0  0  0  1  0  1  2 15  Eskimo 0  0  0  0  0  4  2  5  Indian 0  0  0  1  1  1  1  Metis  1  0  0  0  1  8  2  N.R.  0  0  0  0  3 0 0  0  0  0  0 0  Total  2 18  0  1  3  7  11  9  8 43  5 16 1 8 3 1  350  4001 M. F.  15 10 16 10 5 2  5 1  0  0  38 26  400  450  450500  M. F.  M. F.  15 23  6  6  17 4  7 1  2  1  2  0  More than  500  M. F .  164 43 37 6  0  0  25 0  7 0  44 38 15 10  232  8 0  5  7 3 0  0  2  5 2  sometimes e x h i b i t e d by M e t i s people has  ramifications  in  business  the employment f i e l d  as a t l e a s t one  a c t i v i t y owned by a M e t i s e n t r e p r e n e u r employed M e t i s people almost M e t i s people be e x c l u d e d .  exclusively.  The  other  possibility  o v e r - r e a c t i n g to an i m p l i e d stigma One  cannot  M e t i s i n f o r m a n t , f o r example,  r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d from a p r i s o n sentence,  r e f u s e d to  a c c e p t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e because o f what he "Metis stubborness"  called  and e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i r e d an  employment r e c o r d "to show," he s a i d , A d m i n i s t r a t o r I c o u l d do  k.  of  "the  excellent  Regional  it."  E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement  E d u c a t i o n a l achievement has been r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , as elsewhere the e n t r e e to w e l l p a y i n g j o b s .  i n Canada, as  To a c e r t a i n  extent  a l s o i t has been seen as a major remedy o f the economic problems of n a t i v e p e o p l e s .  F o r example, i t has  f r e q u e n t l y been assumed t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, n a t i v e peoples would g r a d u a l l y come to  fill  r o l e s which up  by o u t s i d e r s .  The  to the p r e s e n t have been assumption  of course r e s t s on  b e l i e f t h a t young n a t i v e people who h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n are content n o r t h e r n home communities.  filled  have a c q u i r e d a  to r e t u r n to  their  To date few n a t i v e  a d o l e s c e n t s have p r o g r e s s e d beyond Grade 12 and s e q u e n t l y the evidence  one way  white,  i  n  con-  or the o t h e r i s s l i m .  Of a l l permanent employees w i t h a secondary or more (283  the  education  a l l ) no fewer than 80 per cent were  compared w i t h 8 p e r cent Eskimo, 5 per cent  I n d i a n and 7 per cent M e t i s . w i t h an elementary  I n c o n t r a s t , of a l l those  e d u c a t i o n or l e s s  37 per cent were white,  (181 i n a l l )  38 per cent Eskimo, 13 per cent  I n d i a n and 12 per cent M e t i s . A more d e t a i l e d breakdown o f the t o t a l f o r c e of b o t h permanent and ( T a b l e 6-6)  labour  temporary employment  shows t h a t 56 per cent of a l l Eskimo  employees, kZ per cent of a l l I n d i a n and 45 per cent o f a l l M e t i s had not proceeded grades.  beyond the  elementary  I n c o n t r a s t , 89 per cent of a l l white  employees  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by E t h n i c S t a t u s and Achievement,  Level of Educational Achievement N i l or N.R.  1968.  White Eskimo M. F. T. M. F. T .  Elementary  36 15 31 8  Grade 8 & 9  16  6  Grade  10  61  Grade  12  61  5 6  Grade 12 & Voc.  68  University  20  Total  Educational  6 1  51 20 3 38 48 27 22 5 6 66 9 4  . Total Metis ( i n c . N. R.) F. M. F. T. M. To 2 3 35 100 5 64  75 18 11 4  5 11 3 21 20 0 4 6  13  7 1  2  3 0  23  67  2  3  5  74 21  6  0  6  0  0  0  293 47 340  Indian M. F .T.  6  9  29 117  47  164  3  9 13 6  31  15  46  83 70  18  101  3 0  79 20  6  0  9 1  6  7 0  1  4  2  1  0  0  0  0  90 43 133 39 11 50 42 23  65 464  9  79  8 1  87 21  133  598  had  at least  some secondary  education.  however, there was some i n d i c a t i o n opening  Within Inuvik,  t h a t e d u c a t i o n was  some doors f o r M e t i s p e o p l e .  As elsewhere i n  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , e d u c a t i o n i s the p r e s e r v e of the young.  Of I n u v i k ' s l a b o u r f o r c e o f 1 9 6 8 , 56" p e r  cent had some secondary  e d u c a t i o n and o f these, 55 p e r  cent were l e s s than 30 y e a r s o f age.  F o r those  with  p l a c e s o f o r i g i n i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s t h i s correspondence  o f youth and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement  i s even more pronounced. some secondary  o n l y 3k p e r cent had  Although  e d u c a t i o n , no fewer than 91 p e r cent o f  these were l e s s than 30 y e a r s o f age.  On the o t h e r hand,  p r a c t i c a l l y none o f the employed persons w i t h p l a c e s of o r i g i n i n the t e r r i t o r i a l  North and over 30 y e a r s  o f age had b e t t e r than elementary People position  i n the middle  education  (Table 6 - 7 ) .  age groups were i n the  o f l e a s t c h o i c e s i n c e they u s u a l l y l a c k e d  sufficient  e d u c a t i o n even t o embark on programmes o f  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r a d u l t s , a l t h o u g h some had been made a t o f f e r i n g u p g r a d i n g  attempt  programmes.  For  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by Age and E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement,1968. (a) T o t a l  Population  MAXIMUM EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ACHIEVED Gr.12 Elemen- Grade 8 and tary or 9 Gr.10 Gr.12 Voc. U n i v . T o t a  Age  N.R.  N.R.  35  0  0  0  6  0  0  41  5  15  7  14  2  2  0  45  20-29  21  47  20  38  39  51  4  220  30-39 40-49  12  45  14  23  15  21  6  136  12  35  2  17  13  8  92  50-59  13  16  3  7  2  5  5 4  60-69  2  6  0  2  2  0  2  14  Total  100  164  46  101  87  21  598  Less  than 20  72  50  Table  6-7  The I n u v i k Labour F o r c e , by Age and E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement, 1968 (b)  People w i t h O r i g i n s i n the NWT and Yukon  MAXIMUM EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ACHIEVED  ' Ase  N.R.  N.R. Less  than 20  Elementary  Grade 8 Gr.10 or 9  Gr7l2  .......  Gr,12  and Voc.  Univ.  Total  6  0  0  0  0  0  0  6  4  7  13  1  2  0  42  16  19  16  12  0  121  20-29  14  15 kk  30-39  6  36  3  3  1  0  0  49  40-49  .7  25  0  0  0  0  0  32  50-59  9  12  1  0  0  0  0  22  60-69 Total  2 48  6 138  0 27  0 35  0 18  0  0 0  8 2e0  14  u>  young people  still  i n s c h o o l , or out o f s c h o o l f o r l e s s  than three y e a r s , the p r o s p e c t s were much b e t t e r both w i t h r e g a r d to a v a i l a b l e v o c a t i o n a l programmes and a c q u i r i n g f i n a n c i a l support.  to  F o r those w i t h more than  a Grade 10 l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , g r a n t s and l o a n s were a v a i l a b l e from  the T e r r i t o r i a l Government f o r con-  t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a t i n s t i t u t e s o f technology and f o r those w i t h Grade 12, a t u n i v e r s i t i e s . people who  F o r young  had been out of s c h o o l f o r l e s s than  y e a r s , comparable f i n a n c i a l support was  three  available  the Department of Manpower s u b j e c t to evidence  from  t h a t the  s k i l l b e i n g a c q u i r e d would be u s e f u l i n the c u r r e n t l a b o u r market.  I n 1968  t h e r e were t e n s t u d e n t s  from  the e n t i r e Mackenzie D i s t r i c t e n r o l l e d a t u n i v e r s i t i e s and  of these, o n l y t h r e e were not the c h i l d r e n o f  o u t s i d e r s (Government of the Northwest ).  The  Territories,  c h i l d r e n of n a t i v e people were making  much g r e a t e r use however of the programmes o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and F o r example, a d o l e s c e n t s from  elsewhere.  the Mackenzie D e l t a were  being  t r a i n e d at v a r i o u s c e n t r e s  i n the south to  be  s e c r e t a r i e s , cooks, telecommunications workers, community h e a l t h workers, nurses a i d e s and The  generation  of a d o l e s c e n t s  electricians*  surveyed  had  g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement than i t s p r e decessors.  I t was  a l s o much more open to i n f l u e n c e  from the o u t s i d e , not communication, but was,  o n l y through the media o f  a l s o through d i r e c t c o n t a c t .  i n consequence, the g e n e r a t i o n  most s i g n s of s t r e s s . the world o u t s i d e access  to i t had  " K i c k e r " and work but  Adolescents  The  sought the  rewards  o f t e n shunned the means of  Honda m o t o r c y c l e ,  the Skidoo p r o v i d e d  the  45-horse  the i n c e n t i v e f o r  o f t e n o n l y s u f f i c i e n t work r e q u i r e d f o r  attainment. was  restricted  r e s u l t e d i n ambivalent a t t i t u d e s  o f the o u t s i d e w o r l d , but them.  shown  In p a r t i c u l a r , a knowledge of  the N o r t h combined w i t h  towards employment.  achieving  which had  The  ethie  o f work and  a concept which as y e t had  acceptance.  It  not  their  i t s implications r e c e i v e d wide  Adolescent uncompetitive i n Inuvik. little  boys b e n e f i t t e d from the  relatively  employment f i e l d which had been c r e a t e d  I t was  p o s s i b l e even f o r those w i t h  e d u c a t i o n to f i n d jobs much more e a s i l y  would be f o r t h e i r southern c o u n t e r p a r t s . however, these were not expected  Often,  " s e r i o u s " jobs t h a t c o u l d be  S i n c e jobs were a c q u i r e d  they were c o n s e q u e n t l y  which was  than i t  to l e a d anywhere, even though they might  w e l l remunerated. easily  very  reflected  a d o l e s c e n t boys.  relatively  not h i g h l y v a l u e d , a f a c t  i n h i g h job t u r n o v e r r a t e s f o r  That  this characteristic  may  be  shared by o t h e r n o r t h e r n communities i s i n d i c a t e d the Honigmann*s study of F r o b i s h e r Bay noted  t h a t at the time  boy  job (Honigmann &  179).  5. Both i n 1965 employees was  by  where i t was  o f the study no a d o l e s c e n t  had y e t succeeded i n h o l d i n g a steady Honigmann, 19651  be  Job and  Turnover  i n 1968,  the t u r n o v e r r a t e among  u n u s u a l l y h i g h , and  one  job might i n a  p e r i o d o f o n l y a few months be o c c u p i e d by s e v e r a l workers.  Employers, e s p e c i a l l y those i n the government  and quasi-government s e c t o r s , were t o l e r a n t o f absenteeism  on the whole and were g e n e r a l l y p r e p a r e d to  re-eraploy a l l but the most c o n s i s t e n t absentees. T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r those jobs which d i d n o t require a high l e v e l of s k i l l s ,  and tended  t o encourage  the e x i s t e n c e o f a l a r g e p o o l o f u n s k i l l e d workers who would accept a j o b when they needed one and l e a v e when they had had enough.  Much o f the employment i n I n u v i k  was s e a s o n a l i n any case, l a r g e l y due t o the e x i g e n c i e s o f c l i m a t e , and to the f a c t  t h a t the pace o f a l l economic  a c t i v i t y ought t o q u i c k e n i n the summer months.  Of  the 598 employees i n I n u v i k i n 1968, o n l y k6k were i n j o b s t h a t were regarded men and 188 women.  as permanent, o f whom 276 were  Even among permanent employees the  time spent i n any one j o b was o f t e n v e r y s h o r t . I n August 1968, 22 p e r cent o f a l l permanent employees, 32 p e r cent o f those from  the Mackenzie  D e l t a and 17 p e r cent o f those from o u t s i d e the Yukon  and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s had been i n the same j o b f o r l e s s than s i x months (Table 6-8a)•  There were  c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t j o b t u r n o v e r was h i g h e r among Eskimo and I n d i a n employees than among e i t h e r or Metis.  whites  T h i r t y - f i v e p e r cent o f a l l permanently  employed Eskimos, 33 p e r cent o f I n d i a n s , 22 p e r cent o f M e t i s and 18 p e r cent o f whites had been i n the same job f o r l e s s than s i x months (Table 6-8b).  U s i n g the  same index i t would appear a l s o t h a t t r a n s f e r was somewhat h i g h e r among women than among men f o r the l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole.  T h i s was accounted  f o r by the f a c t  t h a t 25 p e r cent o f the permanent female  employees  from o u t s i d e the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s had been i n the same j o b f o r l e s s than s i x months, compared w i t h 16 p e r cent o f the permanent male employees. F o r those w i t h o r i g i n s i n the Mackenzie D e l t a , on the o t h e r hand, the percentages  were v e r y s i m i l a r :  in  b o t h cases about o n e - t h i r d o f the employees had been i n the same j o b f o r l e s s than s i x months. The  c o r r e l a t i o n between the amount o f e d u c a t i o n  Table  6-8a.  Percentage o f Permanent Employees who Job  had been i n t h e i r  at the Time of the Survey f o r l e s s than S i x Months,  by Sex and P l a c e of O r i g i n ,  1968.  Place of O r i g i n •  Mackenzie D e l t a  NVT & Yukon  Outside  Total  A l l Employees  32.2  22.2  17.0  22.4  Males Only  31.5  27.8  16.0  19.4  Females Only  33.3  16.7  25.2  27.1  Percentage o f Permanent Employees who had been i n t h e i r Job a t the Time o f the Survey f o r l e s s than S i x Months, 1968,  (i)  By Sex and E t h n i c  White  Status  Eskimo  Indian  Metis  Total  A l l Employees  17.4  34.5  33.3  21.4  22.4  Males Only  12.8  36.8  28.6  16.0  19.4  Females Only  24.8  30.3  36.0  23.5  27.1  (ii) Elem. Educ.  £  By E d u c a t i o n and E t h n i c Status**20.9(14)30.9(16) 33*3 (8) 13.7(3) 26.0  16.4(37)45.5(5)  33.3 (5)  30.0(6) 20.5  1 F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e a b s o l u t e numbers.  (46)  (58)  r e c e i v e d and a t t i t u d e towards work has been noted elsewhere.  Stevenson  (1968: 8 ) , f o r example, s t a t e s  t h a t , w i t h r e s p e c t t o employment on the Great Lake  Slave  Railway: "Eskimo men w i t h grade s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n o n l y , seem to form two c a t e g o r i e s : Those w i t h grade e i g h t o r h i g h e r i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r awareness and a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from wage labour. They i n c l u d e men w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as w e l l as those without t h i s added b e n e f i t . The second c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s those w i t h l e s s than grade e i g h t ( a g a i n i n c l u d i n g those w i t h v o c a t i o n a l training). T h i s group d i s p l a y e d the g r e a t e s t degree o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h b o t h the work and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . " Whether t h i s w i l l be the case w i t h employment i n  I n u v i k remained to be seen, w i t h any secondary force.  The f a c t  s i n c e few n a t i v e people  e d u c a t i o n had y e t e n t e r e d the l a b o u r  t h a t k6 p e r cent o f Eskimo employees  w i t h some secondary  e d u c a t i o n had o n l y been i n the same  job f o r s i x months compared w i t h 31 p e r cent o f those w i t h no secondary  e d u c a t i o n , 33 p e r cent o f I n d i a n s  w i t h some secondary  e d u c a t i o n compared w i t h 33 p e r cent  w i t h none, 3 0 p e r cent o f M e t i s employees w i t h some secondary  e d u c a t i o n compared w i t h Ik p e r cent with, none;  all  o f these may p r o b a b l y be a s c r i b e d both to the v e r y  small absolute f i g u r e s g r a d u a t i o n o f almost high school t r a i n i n g .  (Table 6 - 8 b ) and to the r e c e n t  a l l n a t i v e a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h any F o r the l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole,  t h e r e were c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the attainment secondary  education a f f e c t e d job turnover:  o f a l l those permanent employees w i t h no  o f some  26 p e r cent  secondary  e d u c a t i o n had been i n the same j o b f o r l e s s than s i x months compared w i t h 2 1 p e r cent o f those w i t h some secondary  education.  Of course  t h e r e a r e employees from each e t h n i c group  who have been i n t h e i r same j o b f o r some l e n g t h o f time. I n August 1 9 6 8 , 40 p e r cent o f those w i t h o