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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effect of pitch distinctions and lateral asymmetry in autonomic responding to shock-associated words… Wood, Barrie George 1973

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THE EFFECT OF P I T C H DISTINCTIONS AND LATERAL ASYMMETRY IN AUTONOMIC RESPONDING TO SHOCK-ASSOCIATED WORDS IN THE NON-ATTENDED CHANNEL OF A DICHOTIC L ISTENING TASK by B a r r i e George Wood B . A . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A b s t r a c t N i n e t y c o l l e g e J3s w e r e f i r s t c l a s s i c a l l y " c o n d i t i o n e d " t o c o l o r names and s u b s e q u e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k r e q u i -r i n g shadow ing o f a f i v e - m i n u t e p r o s e p a s s a g e . Embedded i n t h e n o n -a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l w e r e p r e v i o u s l y s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d c o l o r w o r d s . I n one c o n d i t i o n (same p i t c h ) b o t h t he shadowed and n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l was r e a d by t h e same s p e a k e r . I n t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n ( d i f f e r e n t p i t c h ) t h e shadowed and n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s w e r e r e a d b y d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s . W i t h i n c o n d i t i o n s r i g h t / l e f t e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s h a d o w i n g was f a c t o r i a l l y a r r a n g e d . The dependen t m e a s u r e was p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l to p r e v i o u s l y s h o c k -a s s o c i a t e d s t i m u l i . A u t o n o m i c r e s p o n d i n g was n o t a f f e c t e d by p i t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n showed a s t r o n g e f f e c t ; a u t o n o m i c r e s p o n d i n g t o n o n -a t t e n d e d s t i m u l i was enhanced b y l e f t e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f p i t c h by e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t ; a l e f t e a r a d v a n t a g e was f a v o r e d i n t h e same p i t c h c o n d i t i o n . Shadow ing e f f i c i e n c y was n o t i m p a i r e d a t t h e t i m e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l n o r was s h a d o w i n g p e r f o r m a n c e a l t e r e d b y p i t c h d i s t i n c t i o n s o r e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . The above f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h and T r e i s m a n t h e o r i e s o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . i i Table of Contents Page Abstract 1 List of Tables i i i Acknowledgements • • iv Introduction 1 Selective Attention Models 3 Broadbent's Model 3 Treisman's Model 4 Deutsch and Deutsch's Model 6 Literature Review 8 Method . . 23 Subj ects 23 Apparatus and Materials . 23 Procedure 24 Results 28 Discussion 35 References 45 Appendix A 49 Appendix B 51 and 52 i i i L ist of Tables Page Table I Summary table of mean phasic skin resistance amplitude changes to word type in the non-attended channel as a function of pitch con-dition and ear of presentation of the non-attended channel Table II Combined mean amplitude of electrodermal responses to word type by ear of presentation to the non-attended channel as a function of pitch conditions '. . . Table III Mean amplitude of electrodermal responses in the non-attended channel to word type Table IV Mean electrodermal amplitude responses for word type in the non-attended channel as a function of the ear of presentation of word type to that channel Table V Combined mean amplitude of word type in the dif-ferent pitch condition to a male or female sound source in the non-attended channel . . . . Table VI Summary table of mean shadowing errors pooled estimate of omissions, inarticulations, and additions) as a function of pitch con-ditions and ear of presentation of shadowing . , 32 32 33 33 33 34 i v A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s My t h a n k s e x t e n d f o r e m o s t t o Raymond C o r t e e n who h a s b e e n t h e most v a l u a b l e p e r s o n i n my r e s e a r c h t r a i n i n g a t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . My t h e s i s wo rk owes much to h i s v a l u a b l e t i m e and t h o u g h t s . F o r t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t a s w e l l a s s t i m u l a t i n g i d e a s t o w a r d t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o J o h n Y u i l l e . L a s t l y , b u t p e r h a p s o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , I w o u l d l i k e t o g i v e s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o a l l o f t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t and whose w i l l i n g n e s s changed t h i s e x p e r i m e n t f r o m t h e i m a g i n e d t o t h e r e a l i z e d . I n t r o d u c t i o n C u r r e n t t h e o r i s t s o f s e l e c t i v e ' a t t e n t i o n w o u l d a g r e e t h a t t h e r e i s a l i m i t a t i o n on o u r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m s e y e r a l t a s k s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . An i n t e r e s t i n g examp le o f ou r a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t i v e l y a t t e n d i s f o u n d i n c o n t r a p u n t a l m u s i c where t h e l i s t e n e r i s f a c e d w i t h a s e n s o r i u m o f s o u n d . I n f u g a l f o r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , two t o t h r e e o r m o r e d i f f e r e n t m e l o d i e s o r m u s i c a l i d e a s a r e p e r f o r m e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and t h e l i s -t e n e r i s f o r c e d t o " s e l e c t " one theme f r o m t h e m u s i c a l a r r a y r e j e c t i n g o r a t t e n u a t i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g " n o i s e . " A more p r e c i s e way o f s t a t i n g t h e m e c h a n i c s o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n o p e r a t e s by b l o c k i n g o r a t t e n u a t i n g c e r t a i n c h a n n e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f c o n c e r n , h o w e v e r , i s t h e l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e s e l e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d — does i t o c c u r b e f o r e o r a f t e r a l l s i g n a l s have been a n a l y z e d f o r c o n t e n t . The q u e s t i o n h a s a r i s e n m a i n l y b e c a u s e s i g n a l s f r o m n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s may o c c a s i o n a l l y a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n p r o v i d e d t h e s i g n a l v a l u e h a s some m e a n i n g oi- r e l e v a n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . C h e r r y (1953) i n i t i a l l y made t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t d u r i n g an i n t i m a t e d y a d i c c o n v e r s a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l show an o r i e n t i n g r e s p o n s e t o h i s own name d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i g n a l may have come f r o m a d i s t a n t p e r i p h e r a l s o u r c e . The " c o c k t a i l p a r t y " phenomenon as i t i s now b e i n g c a l l e d , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o i n t t h a t s i g n a l s a r r i v i n g on n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y b e s e l e c t i v e l y a t t e n d e d t o . T h r e e m a i n t h e o r i e s h a v e e v o l v e d i n an a t -tempt t o answer t h e above q u e s t i o n s and b e f o r e g i v i n g a f u l l e r and e x -t e n s i v e e l a b o r a t i o n , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l s e r v e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s . 2 I n c o r p o r a t i n g d a t a f r o m d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s , B r o a d b e n t ' s (1958) answer a s t o how one message i s a d m i t t e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a n o t h e r was t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d i n t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m a f i l t e r w h i c h w i l l s e l e c t a message f r o m a c h a n n e l t o w a r d s w h i c h i t has become b i a s e d . U s u a l l y by some a p r i o r i i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t , e . g . , " r e p e a t b a c k t h e message y o u h e a r i n t h e r i g h t e a r and i g n o r e t h e l e f t e a r c o n t e n t . " The f i l t e r t h e o r y as i t h a s come t o b e known has been r e c e n t l y m o d i f i e d by T r e i s m a n (1960) and by D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h ( 1 9 6 3 ) . T r e i s m a n has s u g g e s t e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e B r o a d b e n t m o d e l by p o s t u l a t i n g a s e r i e s o f f i l t e r s . C h a n n e l c o n t e n t i s s a i d t o b e a n a l y z e d by a s e r i e s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l l y a r r a n g e d f i l t e r s y s t e m s . T r e i s m a n s u g g e s t s t h a t a h i e r a r c h i c a l f i l t e r a n a l y s i s o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s o u r c e s i s b a s e d on a m u l t i t u d e o f a s p e c t s o f t h e s i g n a l s o u r c e s u c h as p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c o u s t i c a l p a t t e r n s and s e m a n t i c r e l e v a n c e . The T r e i s m a n m o d e l w o u l d i m p l y t h e n a h i g h e r o r d e r f i l t e r a n a l y s i s b e f o r e e x c l u s i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s t h a n t h a t c o n c e i v e d by B r o a d b e n t ' s p e r i p h e r a l f i l t e r i n g b a s e d o n l y on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e sound s o u r c e . A l a t e r m o d e l b a s e d on t h e s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n a l d i c h o t i c p a r a d i g m i s g i v e n by D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h ( 1 9 6 3 ) . I t may b e s u b t l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e T r e i s m a n m o d e l w h i c h w i l l become l a t e r e v i d e n t . D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h s u g g e s t a f i l t e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r i n t h a t a l l s t i m u l i ( s i g n a l s ) a r e f i r s t a n a l y z e d f o r c o n t e n t and s e l e c t i o n t h e n t a k e s p l a c e on t h e b a s i s o f s t i m u l i p r i o r i t i e s . The i d e a o f s t i m u l i " p r i o r i t y " w i l l become more a p p a r e n t u n d e r t h e s e c t i o n o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n m o d e l s . A s u b t l e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n the. T r e i s m a n 3 and D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h m o d e l s i s t h a t i n t h e T r e i s m a n m o d e l t h e r e c o u l d be l o w e r o r d e r f i l t e r i n g o f s i g n a l s b a s e d on p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e s t i m u l i ; t h i s i s n o t a p p a r e n t i n t h e D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l w h i c h s u g g e s t s a one c i t e f i l t e r a r r a n g e m e n t . S e l e c t i v e A t t e n t i o n M o d e l s B r o a d b e n t ' s M o d e l (1958) The e a r l i e s t a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n phenome-n a was B r o a d b e n t ' s f i l t e r t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e . B a s i n g h i s m o d e l l a r g e l y on t h e d a t a f r o m d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s w h e r e two c h a n n e l s a r e h e a r d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e f i l t e r t h e o r y a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e e x -c l u s i o n o f one c h a n n e l on t h e b a s i s o f s e l e c t i n g t h e c h a n n e l t o w h i c h a t t e n t i o n must be f o c u s e d s u c h a s s e e n i n t h e s h a d o w i n g t a s k o f a d i c h o -t i c l i s t e n i n g p a r a d i g m . A c c o r d i n g t o B r o a d b e n t , i n f o r m a t i o n i s s a i d t o e n t e r t h e s y s t e m v i a a number o f p a r a l l e l c h a n n e l s e a c h i d e n t i f i e d by s e n s o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as p i t c h , l o u d n e s s , o r a c o u s t i c l o c a l -i z a t i o n . The c e n t r a l a s p e c t o f B r o a d b e n t ' s m o d e l i s t h e i d e a o f a p r o c e s s i n g c h a n n e l o f l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s some s e l e c -t i v e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l l o a d i m p i n g i n g a t any t i m e on t h e s e n s o r y s y s t e m . Thus B r o a d b e n t has i n c o r p o r a t e d a f i l t e r s y s t e m f o r t h e p u r -p o s e o f s e l e c t i n g one o f t h e i n p u t c h a n n e l s w h i l e b l o c k i n g t h e o t h e r " u n w a n t e d " c h a n n e l s . The s e l e c t e d i n p u t . i s t h e n p r o c e s s e d t o some o u t p u t m e c h a n i s m . B r o a d b e n t goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t c h a n n e l s n o t s e l e c t e d may r e m a i n v e r y b r i e f l y i n s e n s o r y memory b e f o r e b e i n g l o s t . The a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n o f c h a n n e l s i s d e t e r m i n e d b a s i c a l l y by some a 4 p r i o r i i n s t r u c t i o n a l set as has p r e v i o u s l y been mentioned. The es-s e n t i a l idea of the model then i s the p e r i p h e r a l f i l t e r i n g of non s e l e c t e d channels of i n f o r m a t i o n . Broadbent has termed h i s theory a stim u l u s - s e t model (Broadbent, 1970) i n that a t t e n t i o n a l s e l e c t i v i t y i s determined by the sensory or p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the s i g n a l s . Blockage of some sensory input thus augmenting only s e l e c t e d i n p u t s has the obvious advantage of the r e d u c t i o n of n e u r a l p r o c e s s i n g as the occ l u s i o n s of i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n reduces the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y load on the c e n t r a l nervous system. Treisman's Model (1960) To overcome c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the Broadbent model which w i l l become apparent l a t e r i n the paper, Anne Treisman (1960) has proposed a model of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n which combines both s t i m u l u s set and response s e t . In Treisman's model, the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s gover-ning the a c t i o n of the f i l t e r are made more e x p l i c i t compared w i t h Broadbent. Information i s again s a i d to be processed through a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l channels which are f i r s t analyzed f o r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the sensory d i s p l a y such as p i t c h , loudness and s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n . Treisman's main departure from Broadbent's model i s her p o s t u l a t e of a h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement of f i l t e r s . The f i r s t o p e r a t i o n or f i l t e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s input on the b a s i s of p h y s i c a l or sensory cues; l a t e r operations are performed on the b a s i s of s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n s , and semantic relevance. In Treisman's terminology "...we argue (Treisman and Geffen) that i f one assumes that speech p e r c e p t i o n i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l process i n which c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s may be made at a number of d i f f e r e n t 1 5 l e v e l s s u c h as t h e p h y s i c a l s o u n d s , t h e phonem ic p a t t e r n , t h e w o r d , t h e s y n t a c t i c r e s p o n s e and t h e s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e n i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r d i f f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s t o be s e l e c t e d and programmed a t d i f -f e r e n t s t a g e s i n t h e s e q u e n c e r a t h e r t h a n a l l b e i n g d e p e n d e n t on i t s c o m p l e t i o n . " A n o t h e r m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f T r e i s m a n ' s m o d e l i s t h e n o t i o n o f a t t e n t u a t i o n o f unwanted s i g n a l s , t h e r e b y a u g m e n t i n g t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o o f t h e a t t e n d e d / n o n - a t t e n d e d s o u r c e s . I n t h e d i c h o t i c p a r a d i g m , f o r e x a m p l e , i f a l i s t e n e r h a s b e e n t o l d t o l i s t e n t o one e a r , t h e n t h e message f r o m t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l w i l l b e w e a k e n e d . The m e c h a n i c s of the change o f s i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a t t e n t u a t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s h a s n e v e r b e e n made e x p l i c i t by T r e i s m a n . The t h i r d i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t o f T r e i s m a n ' s m o d e l c o n c e r n s t h e i d e a o f d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s . A l t h o u g h n o t r i g i d l y d e f i n e d by T r e i s m a n d i c t i o -n a r y u n i t s c o u l d b e a n a l o g o u s t o a memory b a n k o r s t o r a g e s y s t e m . The d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s h a v e b e e n l i k e n e d t o a memory bank as t h e u n i t s s e r v e as r e c o g n i z e r s o f s i g n a l v a l u e . T r e i s m a n adds t h a t b o t h t h e a t t e n d e d and n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s p a s s t h r o u g h t h e d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s a l t h o u g h two s p e c i a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r n o n -a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s o u r c e s t o b e r e c o g n i z e d . D i c t i o n a r y u n i t s a r e s u b -j e c t t o d i f f e r e n t i a l t h r e s h o l d s f o r e x c i t a t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i g n a l v a l u e s . T h i s p o s t u l a t e a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h e o f t c i t e d phenomena o f n o n - a t t e n d e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t s i g n a l s . T r e i s m a n s u g g e s t s h e r e t h a t c e r t a i n d i c t i o n a r y 6 u n i t s have p e r m a n e n t l y l o w e r e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r e x c i t a t i o n . The s e c o n d c o n c e p t o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s i s t h e n o t i o n o f v a r i a b l e t h r e s h o l d s e t t i n g s . T h i s c o n s t r u c t e x p l a i n s t h e i d e a o f e x p e c t a t i o n o r p e r -c e p t u a l s e t i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s i g n a l s . I n summary, T r e i s m a n ' s t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t s e l e c t i o n f i r s t o p e r a t e s d u r i n g i n p u t by t h e a t t e n t u a t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s and t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s a t w o - s t a g e p r o c e s s s i n c e f i r s t t h e r e i s f i l t e r i n g on t h e b a s i s o f c h a n n e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s e c o n d , by t h e t h r e s h o l d s e t t i n g o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s . One i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e T r e i s m a n - B r o a d b e n t m o d e l s i s t h e l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e f i l t e r o p e r a t e s . As d i s c u s s e d , B r o a d b e n t v i e t ^ed t h e s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r as o p e r a t i n g a t a p e r i p h e r a l s t a g e o f a n a l y s i s w h i l e T r e i s m a n h a s s u g -g e s t e d a h i g h e r o r d e r f i l t e r . A s Norman (1969) s t a t e s o f t h e T r e i s m a n mode l " . . . o b v i o u s l y i t i m p l i e s t h a t a l l s i g n a l s w h e t h e r t h o u g h t t o b e r e l e v a n t o r n o t must r e c e i v e a good d e a l o f a n a l y s i s i f o n l y so t h a t t h e y may be d i s c a r d e d w i t h some c e r t a i n t y . " The D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h M o d e l (1963) I t i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , b u t some t imes n e c e s s a r y , t o c o n s i d e r t h e T r e i s m a n m o d e l o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n as a c o m p r o m i s e be tween t h e e a r l i e r m o d e l p r o p o s e d by B r o a d b e n t and t h e more r e c e n t m o d e l p r o p o s e d by D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h ( 1 9 6 3 ) . D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h (1963) h a v e p o s t u l a t e d a s c a n n i n g mechan ism t o e x p l a i n some o f t h e s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n d a t a . The D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l has many o f t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f f i l t e r s u s e d by T r e i s m a n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t a h i e r a r -c h i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f f i l t e r s i s n o t made e x p l i c i t . D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h 7 s p e a k o f t h e i n p u t (channe l . ) l i n e s as h a v i n g d i r e c t a c c e s s t o d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s t h u s b y p a s s i n g T r e i s m a n h i e r a r c h i c a l f i l t e r s y s t e m . The i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l i s t h a t a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y u n i t s e a c h s i g n a l i s a n a l y z e d and r e c o g n i z e d f o r i t s s i g n a l v a l u e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e D e u t s c h s ' , t h e o u t p u t a c t i v i t y o f t h e r e c o g n i z e r f i r e s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h a t s i g n a l t o t h e o r g a n i s m . A c r i t i c a l t e s t b e t w e e n t h e D e u t s c h s ' r e s p o n s e s e t m o d e l o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n and T r e i s m a n ' s s t i m u l u s - s e t / r e s p o n s e - s e t t h e o r y o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n has i n t h e p a s t b e e n b e s e t b y d i f f i c u l t i e s . By f a r , t h e mos t s e r i o u s i s t h e c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e two m o d e l s . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f i l t e r f o r s e n s o r y and p h y s i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s t i m u l i ( T r e i s m a n ) , t h e two mode l s a r e i d e n t i c a l . The D e u t s c h s ' c r i t i c i s m o f t h e T r e i s m a n m o d e l i s t h a t i t i s r e d u n d a n t and t h a t a l o w e r l e v e l f i l t e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s e n s o r y o r p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f s t i m u l i i s u n n e c e s s a r y . B o t h t h e o r i e s make t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t s i g n a l s o f b i o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e w i l l become a t t e n d e d t o d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i g n a l s may h a v e a r i s e n f r o m an u n a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e two t h e o r i e s m o s t l y c o n c e r n s t h e mechan isms a t w h i c h n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s w i l l become a t t e n d e d . T r e i s m a n s u g g e s t s a h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s ; t h e D e u t s c h s ' p o s i t i o n seems an a n a l y s i s b a s e d on h i g h e r o r d e r s c a n n i n g . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e B r o a d b e n t mode l and h i g h l i g h t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s o f t h e m o d e l s p r o p o s e d by T r e i s m a n and D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h . 8 L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w S e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n h a s been mos t w i d e l y s t u d i e d i n t h e a u d i t o r y m o d a l i t y and one o f t h e most w i d e l y u s e d p a r a d i g m s h a s been t h e d i c h o -t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i . C h e r r y (1953) was p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t t o s t r e s s a s p e c t s o f a u d i t o r y s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n u s i n g d i c h o t i c as d i s t i n c t f r o m b i n a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I n t h e 1953 p a p e r , C h e r r y s e t ou t a s e r i e s o f c r i t e r i a o f c u e s t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e s p e e c h r e c o -g n i t i o n , and t h e a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n . Among s u c h w e r e t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e s p e a k e r , p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h e s o u n d s o u r c e , i . e . , m a l e - f e m a l e s p e a k e r , a c c e n t , p i t c h and l a n g u a g e t r a n s -i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s . I n t h e b i n a u r a l c o n d i t i o n w h e r e two d i f f e r e n t s i m u l t a n e o u s messages a r e b o t h p r e s e n t e d t o e a c h e a r , _Ss r e p o r t e d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y when a s k e d t o s e p a r a t e one o f t h e two m e s s a g e s . C h e r r y f o u n d t h a t p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s ( e . g . , m a l e - f e m a l e s p e a k e r s ) w o u l d a i d i n s e p a r a t i n g t h e b i n a u r a l s p e e c h e s . E v e n i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , a d i s e n t a n g l e m e n t o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s m e s -s a g e s c o u l d be done i f s u f f i c i e n t g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s w e r e i m p o s e d . W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a x a t i o n by u s i n g s p e e c h e s c o n s -t r u c t e d o f c l i c h e s o r m e a n i n g l e s s p h r a s e s t h e t a s k became e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . T h e s e r e s u l t s w e r e a m p l i f i e d by T r e i s m a n (1964) who i n -v e s t i g a t e d a s e r i e s o f p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d - m e s s a g e i n a b i n a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . When t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n ( m a l e - f e m a l e s p e a k e r s ) , t h e r e was no d i f f i c u l t y i n r e p e a t i n g b a c k ( s h a d o w i n g ) t h e a t t e n d e d " r e l e v a n t " message w h i l e i g n o r i n g t h e i r r e -l e v a n t m e s s a g e . S i m i l a r p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , b u t m e s s a g e s i n 9 d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s c a u s e d some i n t e r f e r e n c e ; j>s showed d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e more f a m i l i a r t h e l a n g u a g e was t o t h e s u b j e c t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e i r r e l e v a n t message i n t e r f e r e d . By f a r t h e most d i f f i c u l t a t t e n t i o n a l t a s k was when t h e i r r e l e v a n t message was s p o k e n i n t h e same l a n g u a g e and same v o i c e as t h e a t t e n d e d (shadowed) m e s s a g e . The u s e o f d i c h o t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n has had one p r i m e a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e b i n a u r a l p a r a d i g m i n t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n o f c h a n n e l s c a n b e m a x i m i z e d . T h u s , a n a d d i t i o n a l cue f o r s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e d i c h o t i c p a r a d i g m i s t h a t o f s i g n a l d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . I n t h i s w a y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n a t t e n d t o a r e l e v a n t message i n one e a r w h i l e i g n o r i n g m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o t h e o t h e r e a r . C h e r r y (1953) f o u n d t h a t i n t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k w h e r e J3s w e r e t o shadow a r i g h t e a r m e s s a g e , v e r b a l c o n t e n t o f t h e n o n - a t -t e n d e d ( l e f t e a r ) c h a n n e l was c o m p l e t e l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t . So d r a m a t i c we re t h e r e s u l t s t h a t even i f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was r e a d i n E n g l i s h and s u b s e q u e n t l y changed t o a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , jSs w e r e unaware o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n ; t h e message i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was t h o u g h t t o be " i n E n g l i s h . " E x t e n d i n g t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f n o n - a t -t e n d e d message c o n t e n t , C h e r r y f o u n d t h a t J>s w e r e a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h a change o f v o i c e i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l as w e l l as t h e i n t r u s i o n o f a t o n e ; howeve r v e r b a l c o n t e n t was r a r e l y r e p o r t e d . C h e r r y ' s wo rk u s i n g t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g p a r a d i g m had s u r p r i -s i n g l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n u n t i l t h e l a t e 50s when Moray and T r e i s m a n d i d a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g t h e s h a d o w i n g t e c h n i q u e . 10 Moray (1959) c o n f i r m e d C h e r r y ' s (1953) o r i g i n a l f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t s o f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d message was u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l i s t e n e r . A s e v e n - w o r d l i s t was r e p e t i t i v e l y heard (35 t i m e s ) - i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r w h i l e Ss shadowed a l o n g p r o s e p a s s a g e . I n v a r i a b l y , Ss c o u l d r e p o r t v i r t u a l l y none o f t h e wo rds t h a t h a d b e e n r e p e a t e d i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , M o r a y ' s r e s u l t s compor t w i t h t h e JBroadbent m o d e l — a t t e n t i o n t o one c h a n n e l b l o c k s a s e c o n d i n c o m i n g c h a n n e l — a f i l t e r i s p o s t u l a t e d . F u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s h a v e s u p p o r t e d B r o a d b e n t ' s f i l t e r b l o c k i n g mode l i n s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . Moray (1958) showed t h a t e v e n by i n c r e a -s i n g t h e a p p a r e n t l o u d n e s s of the n o n - a t t e n d e d m e s s a g e d i d n o t r e s u l t i n v e r b a l r e t e n t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s , howeve r s h a d o w i n g a n a l y s i s was s l i g h t l y i m p a i r e d p o s s i b l y due t o s i g n a l n o i s e i n t e r f e r e n c e . S u p p o r t o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n comes f r o m a r e l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t ( M o r a y , 1 9 5 8 ) . Moray f o u n d t h a t when t h e two messages w e r e o f e q u a l i n t e n s i t y i n a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k , t h e r e w e r e v i r t u a l l y no d e c r e m e n t s i n shadow ing t h e a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . Moray (1959) f a i l e d t o a l t e r t h e l i s t e n e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e by g i v i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t o r e c e i v e a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f s i g n a l s i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . R e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p a s s a g e s w e r e u s e d f o r s h a d o w i n g w h i l e 4 d i g i t s w e r e embedded i n b o t h t h e a t t e n d e d (shadowed) and n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s . S_s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e i r ma in t a s k was a c c u r a t e s h a d o w i n g , howeve r t h e y were t o memor i ze as many o f t h e h e a r d d i g i t s as t h e y c o u l d i n e i t h e r e a r . Moray f o u n d t h a t Ss showed l i t t l e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e d i g i t s i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r . T h u s , e v e n by g i v i n g an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t h a t l e n d e d 11 some i m p o r t a n c e t o s i g n a l s i n a n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l i t was f o u n d t h a t Sis s t i l l seemed t o d e v e l o p a p e r c e p t u a l b l o c k . B r o a d b e n t (1954) gave e x p e r i m e n t a l s u p p o r t t o h i s s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r p o s t u l a t e b a s e d on a n a l y s i s o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n s . So t h a t s t i m u l i c o u l d be h e a r d s e r i a l l y , t h r e e (3 ) p a i r s o f d i g i t s w e r e p r e -p r e s e n t e d d i c h o t i c a l l y . B r o a d b e n t o b s e r v e d t h a t ^ s o r g a n i z e d t h e i r o u t p u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i n p u t . An e x a m p l e w i l l s u f f i c e . I f t h e t h r e e p a i r s o f d i g i t s w e r e h e a r d ( s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t ) 2 - 3 , 5 - 6 , 7 - 4 , Ss o r g a n i z e d t h e i r o u t p u t ( b a s e d . o n f r e e r e c a l l ) by g r o u p i n g a l l t h e d i g i t s h e a r d f r o m one e a r f o l l o w e d by t h e g r o u p i n g f r o m t h e o t h e r e a r ( 2 5 7 , 364) i n p l a c e cf t h e i r more n a t u r a l t e m p e r a l o r d e r . The f i n d i n g o n l y h e l d f o r f a s t s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s (2 p a i r s / s e c ) . A t s l o w e r s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a t e m p e r a l o r -de r s t r a t e g y was o b s e r v e d . B r o a d b e n t c o n c l u d e d t h a t r a p i d s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s c a u s e d an i n a b i l i t y o f t h e f i l t e r t o s w i t c h c h a n n e l s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Emmer ich e t a l . (1965) u s i n g t h e i d e n t i c a l p a r a d i g m and p r e s e n t a -t i o n r a t e s ( B r o a d b e n t ) b u t u s i n g m o n o s y l l a b i c wo rds i n s t e a d o f d i g i t s , f o u n d Ss made f e w e r e r r o r s by g i v i n g a t e m p e r a l o r d e r , i . e . , s w i t c h i n g be tween c h a n n e l s e s p e c i a l l y when t h e p a i r a n a l o g u e p r o d u c e d m e a n i n g f u l d y s y l l a b i c w o r d s . Moran and J o r d o n (1966) h a v e f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n e d B r o a d b e n t ' s ' s w i t c h i n g t i m e " h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g S s ' t e n d e n c y t o r e -p r o d u c e d i g i t s s u c c e s s i v e l y r a t h e r t h a n a l t e r n a t i v e l y . Ss w e r e g i v e n a p a i r e d d i g i t t a s k b u t w e r e r e q u i r e d t o p r e s s a k e y b o a r d w i t h t h e l e f t hand f o r d i g i t s h e a r d i n t h e l e f t e a r and w i t h t h e i r r i g h t hand f o r 12 d i g i t s h e a r d i n t h e r i g h t e a r . Moray e t a l . ( 1 9 6 6 ) f o u n d _S_s c o u l d e a s i l y accommodate i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m b o t h e a r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e v e n a t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e s e q u a l t o B r o a d b e n t ' s o r i g i n a l p a r a d i g m . Mo ray (1960) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t B r o a d b e n t ' s o r i g i n a l g r o u p i n g s t r a t e g y f i n d i n g s may be t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r f e r e n c e o f s i m u l t a n e o u s d i g i t p r e s e n t a t i o n . Such a c o u s t i c c o n f u s i o n be tween c h a n n e l s may r e s u l t i n r e p o r t i n g c h a n n e l s s e p a r a t e l y . C e r t a i n l y M o r a y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t i t e m s w i t h l e s s a c o u s t i c a l c o n f u s i o n s h o u l d show a t e m p e r a l ( s w i t c h i n g c h a n n e l ) s t r a t e g y o f r e p o r t . The t h e o r y f i n d s some s u p p o r t i n t h e w o r k by Emmer ich (1965) and by t h e ^ a r l y c l a s s i c s t u d y done by Grey and Wedderbu rn ( 1 9 6 0 ) . I n a s i m p l e b u t c r u c i a l e x p e r i m e n t , G r e y and W e d d e r b u r n h a v e shown t h a t t h e B r o a d b e n t s t i m u l u s s e t s t r a t e g y i s s i m p l y i n a d e q u a t e . C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g d i c h o t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n L e f t e a r R i g h t e a r EX 6 2 T I R PATE 9 I f Ss w e r e o p e r a t i n g on a s t i m u l u s s e t s t r a t e g y ( i . e . , Ss t o l d t o shadow t h e r i g h t e a r ) and t h u s s h o w i n g a g r o u p i n g e f f e c t , t h e p r e s e n -t a t i o n w o u l d be r e p e a t e d as EX 2 PATE o r 6 T I R 9 . G r e y and W e d d e r b u r n f o u n d t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . The g r o u p i n g e f f e c t ( s t i m u l u s s e t ) was d i s p l a c e d by a r e g a r d f o r m e a n i n g . T h u s , J3s w o u l d r e p e a t " e x t i r p a t e " and 2 , 6 , 9 . T h i s t y p e o f s t r a t e g y h a s b e e n r e f e r r e d t o as r e s p o n s e s e t . 13 I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a l a r g e body o f e v i d e n c e has b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d t h a t f u r t h e r a t t e s t s t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n mode l p r o p o s e d by B r o a d b e n t . C h e r r y (1953) f o u n d t h a t i f jSs w e r e t o shadow a p r o s e p a s s a g e and t h e same shadowed message d i s p l a c e d i n t i m e was " h e a r d " i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r , _Ss r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e two m e s s a g e s w e r e t h e same d e s p i t e the d i s p l a c e m e n t e f f e c t . T r e i s m a n (1961 ) s y s t e m a -t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t d e l a y s o f t h e same m e s -s a g e h e a r d i n b o t h t h e a t t e n d e d (shadowed) and n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r . JSs we re aware o f t h e i d e n t i c a l messages even when t h e y w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s p l a c e d by as much as 10 s e c o n d s . T h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s ( C h e r r y and T r e i s m a n ) l e a d one t o t h e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d message may n o t b e c o n s c i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e l i s -t e n e r , t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two messageSmay b e s u c h t h a t t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m c a n n o t a c c e p t one and r e j e c t t h e o t h e r . T r e i s m a n ' s wo rk a g r e e s w e l l w i t h an e a r l i e r s t u d y by P e t e r s ( 1 9 5 4 ) . P e t e r s (1954) has shown t h a t i f an unwan ted message i s s i m i l a r i n c o n t e n t t o t h e a t t e n d e d message i n a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k , t h e f o r m e r p r o d u c e s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e l a t t e r , i . e . , t h e shadowed m e s s a g e . The s t u d y i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f b o t h messages a r e a n a l y z e d p r i o r t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f one and r e j e c t i o n o f t h e o t h e r ( B r o a d b e n t ) . P e t e r ' s w o r k has b e e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n a r e c e n t wo rk by L e w i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) . U s i n g v e r b a l r e a c t i o n t i m e , L e w i s (1972) f o u n d t h a t i f Ss w e r e t o shadow a s e r i e s o f w o r d s , r e a c t i o n t i m e t o t h e a t t e n d e d words was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r i f t he n o n - a t t e n d e d p a i r a n a l o g u e s w e r e l o w 14 a s s o c i a t i v e synonyms than i f they were non-synonyms. The d i f f e r e n c e s between treatment c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e s that non-attended p r o c e s s i n g i s at a f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d n e u r a l l e v e l . Lewis' r e s u l t s seem to support the t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n that non-attended channels are processed at a semantic l e v e l i m p l y i n g a higher order f i l t e r (Treisman and Deutsch and Deutsch). A d d i t i o n a l support f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n comes from experiments by Treisman (1960), Moray (1960), and Howard and E l l i s (1961). Treisman (1960) found that i f jSs were presented two messages d i c h o t i c a l l y , o n e to each ear, and Ss were r e q u i r e d to shadow one ear, words could be picked up ( i . e . , shadowed) on the non-attended channel i f they showed high t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s . The paradigm r e q u i r e d LSs to shadow a message heard i n t h e i r r i g h t ear and to ignore the l e f t ear in p u t . I t was found that i f the message S> was shadowing i n the r i g h t ear was switched to the l e f t (non-attended) ear, ^ Ss shadowed the non-attended channel s h o r t l y a f t e r the message t r a n s i t i o n . Treisman con-cluded that one of the occasions on which a t t e n t i o n passed out of the l i s t e n e r ' s c o n t r o l was when the s i g n a l i n the non-attended message was h i g h l y probable i n the context of the s i g n a l s j u s t p e r c e i v e d on the attended (shadowed) channel. In a r e l a t e d study, Treisman (1961) showed that French-English b i l i n g u a l s showed i n t e r f e r e n c e i n a sha-dowing task when the unattended message was a French t r a n s l a t i o n of the E n g l i s h shadowed message. Moray (1960) found that an i n s t r u c t i o n a l set i n the non-attended channel of a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task was r a r e l y n o t i c e d (e.g., change to your other e a r ) , however, i f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l set was prefaced by one's own name, the i n s t r u c t i o n s were heard and fol l o w e d . Again t h i s supports the anecdotal c o c k t a i l p a r t y phenomena; .15 c e r t a i n s i g n a l s are capable of d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n even i f the channel to which i t has been d e l i v e r e d had presumably been f i l t e r e d of v e r b a l content. Howard and E l l i s (1961) r e p l i c a t e d Moray's study w i t h the a d d i t i o n of i n v e s t i g a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l t hresholds of S^ s name. Howard and E l l i s found that j^s showed an a f f i n i t y towards t h e i r own name. In summary, from the body of s t u d i e s c i t e d i t seems c l e a r t h a t the model of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n proposed by Broadbent (1958) i n P e r c e p t i o n and Communication r e q u i r i n g a f i l t e r to b l o c k out p e r i p h e r a l sensory input i n non-attended m o d a l i t i e s i s simply inadequate. Both the models of Treisman and Deutsch and Deutsch seem equiped to handle the more recent data on s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n , but the choice of d e c i d i n g which theory best accommodates the data has been beset w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s as had p r e v i o u s l y been shown. Treisman (1967) has provided an e x p e r i -ment which she f e e l s i s a c r i t i c a l t e s t of her p o s i t i o n . Two prose passages were presented d i c h o t i c a l l y w h i l e Sis shadowed one of two passages (primary response). The secondary response r e q u i r e d Ss to tap to t a r g e t words i n both the attended and non-attended channels. Treisman (1967) found that jSs made the m a j o r i t y of tapping responses to t a r g e t words i n the attended (shadowed) channel. The r e s u l t was i n t e r -preted by Treisman as a p e r c e p t u a l l i m i t a t i o n i n s e l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . A d d i t i o n a l support comes from a r e l a t e d experiment (Treisman, 1967b) i n which homophones were played i n the attended (shadowed) and non-attended ear. Ss were to tap only when the word " r i g h t " was heard (the homophone i d e n t i f i e d by the context) and not to tap to the homo-phones of " r i g h t " (e.g., w r i t e , r i t e - a g a i n i d e n t i f i e d by c o n t e x t ) . In 16 t h e a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l , had no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e homophone d i s c r i -m i n a t i o n , however, i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l >^s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Most e r r o r s were f a l s e d e t e c t i o n w h i c h s u g g e s t s a p h o n e t i c r a t h e r t h a n s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s . T h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h o s e f i n d i n g s e a r l i e r c i t e d by P e t e r s (1954) and L e w i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; however, t a s k d i f f e r e n c e s may r e s o l v e some o f t h e . a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . I t may be u s e f u l t o r e v i e w t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s ( T r e i s m a n , 1967a, 1967b) f o r th e y seem c r i t i c a l t e s t s o f T r e i s m a n ' s p o s i t i o n on h e r s t i m u l u s - s e t / r e s p o n s e - s e t model. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t a p p i n g r e s p o n s e t o a t t e n d e d and n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s s u g g e s t s a p e r c e p t u a l f i l t e r ( B r o a d b e n t ) o p e r a t i n g b e f o r e the two messages a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d . As T r e i s m a n a r g u e s , s i n c e b o t h s i g n a l s and r e s p o n s e a r e i d e n t i c a l f o r the a t t e n d e d and n o n - a t t e n d e d messages, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a r g u e f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e (Response b i a s - D e u t s c h s 1 ) and t h e r e s u l t s a r e b e s t e x p l a i n e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e u n a t t e n d e d t a r g e t words a r e p e r c e p t u a l l y f i l t e r e d . Lawson (1966) u s i n g a s i m i l a r p a r a -d i g n t o T r e i s m a n ' s found t h a t when u s i n g b r i e f t o n e s o r p i p s as t h e s t i m u l i f o r t h e t a p p i n g r e s p o n s e as opposed t o words, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t a p p i n g r e s p o n s e s measured by r e a c t i o n t i m e t o p i p s i n b o t h t h e a t t e n d e d and n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s were n e g l i g i b l e . Lawson's f i n d i n g s have been i n t e r p r e t e d by T r e i s m a n as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f s i m p l e p h y s i c a l s i g n a l s ( p i p s ) p r e c e d e s t h e s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r . T h i s f i n d s some s u p p o r t w i t h C h e r r y ' s (1953) i n i t i a l f i n d i n g s t h a t a l -though j5s were u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e v e r b a l c o n t e n t o f n o n - a t t e n d e d 17 m e s s a g e s , t h e y c o u l d i n v a r i a b l y d e t e c t t h e i n t r u s i o n o f a t o n e on a n u n a t t e n d e d m o d a l i t y . I n a c r i t i c i s m o f T r e i s m a n ' s p o s i t i o n , D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h a r g u e t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t h e o r y s t i m u l i ( s i g n a l s ) , w i t h a g r e a t e r w e i g h -t i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e i n h i b i t c e r t a i n o u t p u t s o f the s t r u c t u r e s p r o c e s s i n g s t i m u l i w i t h a l e s s e r w e i g h t i n g o f i m p o r t . D e u t s c h a r g u e b r i e f l y t h a t T r e i s m a n ' s p a r a d i g m g i v e s more s t i m u l i o r s i g n a l w e i g h t t o t h e a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l (by t a p p i n g t o t a r g e t wo rds and s h a d o w i n g ) , and i n t h i s w a y , o c c l u d e s t h e o u t p u t o f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . A t t h i s p o i n t , i t seems a d v i s a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e D e u t s c h s ' p o s i t i o n w i t h more s c r u t i n y . D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h do n o t q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m i s l i m i t e d , n o r do t h e y q u a r r e l w i t h t h e p r o p o -s i t i o n t h a t a t some s t a g e d u r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a -t i o n , t h e r e o c c u r s a f i l t e r mechan i sm w h i c h g i v e s p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t -ment t o some i n p u t a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s . The D e u t s c h s ' t h e o r y r e s t s m a i n l y on t h e s i t e o f t h e f i l t e r p r o c e s s . The D e u t s c h s ' i m p l i c a t i o n o f a h i g h e r o r d e r n e u r a l f i l t e r has b e e n m o t i v a t e d by t h e o f t - c i t e d s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g s i g n a l s p i c k e d up on a n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h a r g u e , q u i t e s u c c i n t l y , t h a t a s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r must o c c u r a f t e r d i c h o t i c messages h a v e been f u l l y a n a l y z e d by t h e p e r c e p t u a l s y s -tem a n d , t h e r e f o r e , p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r m u l t i t a s k c o n d i t i o n s m i g h t b e due to a l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e s t o r a g e o f messages and r e s p o n s e s t o them. L i n d s l e y (1967) has a r g u e d t h a t memory componen ts o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d and f u r t h e r c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e T r e i s m a n 18 and G e f f e n (1967) f i n d i n g s may be t h e r e s u l t o f memory i m p a i r m e n t s u c h as t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f r e h e a r s a l . I n a r e p l y t o D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h and L i n d s l e y , T r e i s m a n (1968) p e r f o r m e d a f u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s u p p o r t i n g h e r p o s i t i o n . Ss w e r e a s k e d to shadow a s e r i e s o f d i g i t s p r e s e n t e d d i c h o t i c a l l y and s t o p s h a d o w i n g and t a p i f t h e y h e a r d a l e t t e r ( t a r g e t wo rd ) i n e i t h e r c h a n n e l . T a r g e t words w e r e v a r i e d i n two c o n d i t i o n s : h e a r d i n t h e same v o i c e as t h e s p o k e n d i g i t s and 2) t h e t a r g e t wo rds w e r e h e a r d i n a d i f f e r e n t v o i c e f r o m t h o s e o f t h e d i g i t s . The r e s u l t s a r e f a i r l y d r a m a t i c . I n t h e u n a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l w h e r e t a r g e t w o r d s w e r e h e a r d as t h e same v o i c e t a r g e t , d e t e c t i o n was 28% as compared w i t h 71% f o r t a r g e t w o r d s i d e n -t i f i e d i n t h e a t t e n d e d (shadowed) c h a n n e l . When p i t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we re c h a n g e d , h o w e v e r , d e t e c t i o n r a t e i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l r o s e to 97%, n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l t a r g e t d e t e c t i o n . As D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h make no d i s t i n c t i o n s i n t h e i r t h e o r y f o r a f i l t e r b a s e d on d e t e c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s i g n a l s o u r c e , T r e i s m a n ' s f i n d i n g s a r e n o t e a s i l y h a n d l e d by t h e D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l . The a i m o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n t h i s p a p e r was t o t e s t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s o f t h e T r e i s m a n - D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h m o d e l s o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n by r e c o r d i n g a u t o n o m i c changes i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l o f a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k - t o s i g n a l s w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d " s i g n a l " v a l u e . I n a b r i e f l y r e p o r t e d s t u d y , Moray (1969) f o u n d t h a t i f j>s had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n c l a s s i c a l l y " c o n d i t i o n e d " t o a v e r b a l s t i m u l u s , t h e r e was some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e " c o n d i t i o n e d " wo rd embedded 19 i n the non-attended channel of a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task e l i c i t e d an autonomic response (G.S.R.), despite the f a c t that the l i s t e n e r was apparently unaware that the "conditioned" word had been presented. A much-more extended study of the d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g paradigm using autonomic measure (GSR) was done by Corteen and Wood C 1 9 7 2 ) . jSs f i r s t heard a 12-word noun conditioning l i s t (NCL) through headphones repeated three times i n random order. The l i s t included three c i t y names which were paired with a b r i e f shock to the f i n g e r t i p s . The remaining words were proper nouns equated i n s y l l a b i c and l e t t e r content. While _Ss were l i s t e n i n g to the conditioning l i s t , E monitored the polygraph for electrodermal /[phasic s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes) responses to the "conditioned" s t i m u l i . A t e s t t r i a l i n d i c a t e d the degree of conditioning. In the second part of the experiment, Ss were subsequently placed into a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task and t o l d to shadow a 5-minute prose passage i n t h e i r r i g h t ear, and to ignore the l e f t ear input which, they were t o l d , consisted of a s e r i e s of random words. Embedded i n the non-attended sequence of random words were the following: 1) 3 c i t y names previously shock associated; 2) 3 proper nouns heard previously i n NCL, but never shock associated, 3) 3 control proper nouns not previously heard i n the NCL, and 4) 3 con t r o l proper nouns not previously shock associated. Electrodermal measures were monitored from the l e f t ear (non-attended channel) and phasic short-term resistance changes served as the dependent measure. It was found that shock associated c i t y names gave r i s e to a s i g n i f i -cant number of responses; non-shock associated c i t y names showed s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more responses than c o n t r o l s . Responding to NCL non-shock 20 words w e r e as f r e q u e n t as n o n - N C L c o n t r o l s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e s i s t a n c e changes i n t h e d i c h o t i c p a r a d i g m w e r e n o t m e r e l y a f u n c t i o n o f h a v i n g been ' h e a r d " p r e v i o u s l y . Two i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e t h a t Ss showed s i g n i f i c a n t p h a s i c r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s i n a n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l o f a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k t o p r e v i o u s l y a c -q u i r e d " e m o t i o n a l " s i g n a l s and 2) Ss w e r e a p p a r e n t l y unaware t h a t t h e s t i m u l i had b e e n p r e s e n t e d . T h i s was a s c e r t a i n e d r a t h e r c r u d e l y by a n i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w a s k i n g t h e s u b j e c t i f h e had h e a r d a n y t h i n g " r e l e -v a n t " i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r . The s e c o n d f i n d i n g was t h e f a c t t h a t J!s showed a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n g r a d i e n t t o n o n - s h o c k a s s o c i a t e d c i t y names i n d i c a t i n g a n o n - a t t e n d e d a n a l y s i s b a s e d on s e m a n t i c c l a s s . T h i s s t u d y i s i m p o r t a n t as i t has g i v e n f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o b o t h t h e T r e i s m a n and D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l s o f h i g h e r o r d e r f i l t e r i n g o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s . The s t u d y , h o w e v e r , f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e two m o d e l s . The a i m o f t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t was b a s e d on a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s by C o r t e e n and Wood ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c e n t e r e d on a s s e s s i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T r e i s m a n and D e u t s c h s ' m o d e l s o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . The e x p e r i m e n t was a imed a t a f a i r l y d i r e c t t e s t o f T r e i s m a n ' s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n . T r e i s m a n t h e o r i z e d t h a t s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e s a s e r i e s o f o p e r a t i o n s on i n c o m i n g s i g n a l s . The f i r s t t e s t ( o p e r a t i o n ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s i g n a l s on s y l l a b i c p a t t e r n s , w o r d s and t h e i r s e m a n t i c r e l e v a n c e s . T r e i s m a n i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a l l i n c o m i n g s i g n a l s a r e a n a l y z e d t o some e x t e n t by a s e q u e n c e o r s e r i e s o f f i l t e r s ; s i g n a l s a r e f i r s t s e p a r a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r by t h e i r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s ( s t i m u l u s 21 s e t ) and l a t e r by t h e i r s e m a n t i c v a l u e ( r e s p o n s e s e t ) . T h i s may b e s u b t l y c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e D e u t s c h s ' p o s i t i o n w h e r e a l l s i g n a l s a r e s a i d t o s c a n t h r o u g h a memory bank o r d i c t i o n a r y s e a r c h , and s e l e c t i o n i s made on a " p r e - s e t " v a l u e o f i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e D e u t s c h s m o d e l , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c h a n n e l s b a s e d on s t i m u l u s s e t , i . e . , t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t i m u l i i s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . A d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g p a r a d i g m was d e s i g n e d t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e d s t i m u l u s s e t / r e s p o n s e s e t and a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k t h a t u s e d a s i t s o n l y o p t i o n , r e s p o n s e s e t ( D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h , 1 9 6 3 ) . O p e r a t i o n -a l l y d e f i n e d , we may c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n c e s • i n p i t c h , i . e . , m a l e - f e m a l e as an a i d t o s t i m u l u s s e t . T h i s i s so b e c a u s e a s e p a r a t i o n o f a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l s i s enhanced when d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s a r e h e a r d on d i f f e r e n t c h a n -n e l s . I n t h e s h a d o w i n g t a s k , f o r e x a m p l e , r e p e a t i n g b a c k a f e m a l e sound s o u r c e w h i l e a m a l e i s h e a r d i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r h a s b e e n shown t o a i d a t t e n t i o n a l s e l e c t i v i t y ( C h e r r y , 1 9 5 3 ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , two d i c h o t i c t a p e s w e r e u s e d b o t h w i t h t h e same m a t e r i a l on e a c h c h a n n e l b u t d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n t h e p h y s i c a l o r s e n s o r y ( i . e . , p i t c h ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . One t a p e c o n s i s t e d o f d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s (male and f e m a l e ) r e c o r d i n g a p r o s e p a s s a g e i n one c h a n n e l , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s p e a k e r r e c o r d e d a s e r i e s o f random words w i t h embedded c r i t i c a l s t i m u l i i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . The c o n d i t i o n was c a l l e d t h e s t i m u l u s s e t / r e s p o n s e s e t ( T r e i s m a n , 1 9 6 0 ) . The o t h e r t a p e s c o n s i s t e d o f b o t h t h e shadowed and n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l b e i n g h e a r d by t h e same s p e a k e r . T h i s c o n d i t i o n was c a l l e d t h e r e s p o n s e s e t o n l y o p t i o n ( D e u t s c h , 1 9 6 3 ) . S i n c e t h e D e u t s c h s ' do n o t make any d i s t i n c t i o n s o f 22 l o w e r o r d e r f i l t e r i n g on t h e b a s i s o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e sound s o u r c e , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes t o c r i t i c a l wo rds embedded i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l w o u l d be s i m i l a r f o r b o t h p i t c h c o n d i t i o n s . By c o n t r a s t , t h e T r e i s m a n m o d e l w o u l d p r e d i c t r e s p o n s e f a c i l i t a t i o n i n t h e s t i m u l u s s e t / r e s p o n s e s e t c o n d i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s h o u l d be s u b j e c t i v e l y r a t e d l e s s l o u d as compared w i t h t h e shadowed c h a n n e l . T h i s w o u l d be i n l i n e w i t h T r e i s m a n t h e o r y o f a t -t e n t u a t i o n o f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . 23 Method Sub j e c t s N i n e t y Ss (57 f e m a l e s , 33 m a l e s ) w e r e s e l e c t e d on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s f r o m j u n i o r and s e n i o r P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s h e l d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s e s s i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Ages r a n g e d f r o m 17 t o 34 w i t h a mean age o f 2 0 . A p p a r a t u s and M a t e r i a l s T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f a t w o - t r a c k Sony T C - 6 3 0 s t e r e o t a p e r e c o r d e r , a s m a l l Sony T C - 1 0 6 p o r t a b l e t a p e r e c o r d e r , 2 S h a r p e H A / 6 6 0 h e a d p h o n e s , a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n s t r u m e n t a d j u s t a b l e s h o c k e r and a G r a s s M o d e l 7 , s i x c h a n n e l P o l y g r a p h . Two c h a n n e l s o f t h e G r a s s #7 w e r e u s e d : a DC P r e -Amp M o d e l 7 P I A c h a n n e l f o r r e c o r d i n g s k i n r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s (GSR) and a DC Pre -Amp M o d e l 7 P I A c h a n n e l w h i c h s e r v e d as a m a r k e r . R e c o r d i n g s were made u s i n g B A S F t a p e . A n o u n c o n d i t i o n i n g l i s t (NCL) o f 9 wo rds e q u a t e d f o r l e t t e r l e n g t h and s y l l a b i c c o n t e n t w e r e r e c o r d e d m o n o p h o n i c a l l y by a m a l e s p e a k e r . T h r e e c o l o r names y e l l o w , o r a n g e , and brown w e r e s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d . The r e m a i n i n g s i x w o r d s w e r e p r o p e r nouns and i n no way r e l a t e d t o c o l o r s . C o l o r wo rds w e r e i n t e r s p e r s e d r a n d o m l y i n t h e N C L . F o r t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k , 4 t w o - t r a c k t a p e s we re made. I n one t a p e , a f e m a l e s p e a k e r r e c o r d e d a 6 0 0 - w o r d p r o s e p a s s a g e a t t h e r a t e o f 120 wo rds p e r m i n u t e i n t h e r i g h t c h a n n e l w h i l e t h e same m a l e s p e a k e r a s h e a r d i n t h e P a r t 1 NCL r e c o r d e d a l i s t o f random words i n t h e l e f t c h a n n e l a t t h e r a t e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 96 words p e r m i n u t e . Embedded i n t h e l e f t ( n o n - a t t e n d e d ) c h a n n e l s p a c e d 24 a t 20 words i n t e r v a l s w e r e 1) 3 c o l o r names p r e v i o u s l y s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d f r o m t h e N C L , 2) 3 c o l o r wo rds n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n N C L , 3) 3 n o n -s h o c k NCL w o r d s , and 4) 3 non -NCL ( c o n t r o l ) wo rds s i m i l a r i n l e t t e r l e n g t h and s y l l a b i c c o n t e n t t o n o n - s h o c k NCL w o r d s . O r d e r o f p l a c e m e n t o f t h e 12 c r i t i c a l wo rds i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was d e t e r m i n e d r a n d o m l y . The s e c o n d t a p e was i d e n t i c a l i n e v e r y r e s p e c t t o t h e a b o v e w i t h ..the e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e m a l e ( p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n t h e NCL) r e c o r d e d t h e r i g h t c h a n n e l p r o s e p a s s a g e , w h i l e a f e m a l e was h e a r d i n t h e l e f t c h a n n e l . D i c h o t i c t a p e s 3 and 4 u s e d t h e i d e n t i c a l m a t e r i a l a s above and d i f f e r e d o n l y i n t h e r e s p e c t t h a t i n one t a p e a f e m a l e was h e a r d on b o t h c h a n n e l s and i n t h e s e c o n d t a p e , a m a l e was h e a r d on b o t h c h a n n e l s . An a d d i t i o n a l 3 - m i n u t e d i c h o t i c t a p e was made w i t h p r o s e p a s s a g e s r e a d i n each e a r . The i n i t i a l r a t e was 80/wpm i n c r e a s e d g r a d u a l l y t o 120 wpm. T h i s s e r v e d as a p r a c t i c e t a p e t o f a m i l i a r i z e Ss w i t h t h e d i c h o t i c t a s k . P r o c e d u r e Upon e n t e r i n g t h e room, Ss w e r e t o l d t o wash t h e i r h a n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f GSR r e c o r d i n g s . Upon r e - e n t e r i n g , e a c h i n d i v i d u a l S_ was s e a t e d c o m f o r t a b l y i n an a r m c h a i r and v e r b a l l y g i v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i l l c o n s i s t o f two p a r t s . I n b o t h p a r t s , y o u w i l l b e h e a r i n g v e r b a l m a t e r i a l t h r o u g h a p a i r o f headphones (J5 shown h e a d p h o n e s ) . I n P a r t 1 , y o u w i l l be h e a r i n g a s e r i e s o f wo rds t h r o u g h t h e h e a d p h o n e s . Y o u r t a s k i s m e r e l y t o l i s t e n t o them. I n P a r t 1 1 , a p r o s e p a s s a g e w i l l be h e a r d i n t h e r i g h t ( l e f t ) c h a n n e l w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l w i l l be coming t h r o u g h t h e l e f t ( r i g h t ) c h a n n e l . Y o u r t a s k i s t o r e p e a t b a c k ( i . e . , shadow) t h e message i n t h e r i g h t ( l e f t ) e a r . P l e a s e r e p e a t i t as you h e a r i t and t r y t o i g n o r e t h e l e f t ( r i g h t ) ' e a r message w h i c h i s a measu re t o d i s t r a c t y o u . Y o u r s h a d o w i n g t a s k w i l l b e 25 t a p e d , so p l e a s e be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e . A f t e r y o u l i s t e n t o t h e words i n P a r t 1 , I w i l l t e l l you when y o u r s h a d o w i n g t a s k b e g i n s . B e f o r e we s t a r t t h e e x p e r i m e n t p r o p e r , I w i l l g i v e you . a 3 - m i n u t e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n i n s h a d o w i n g t o g e t y o u f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e . T h i s d o e s n ' t c o u n t , j u s t a p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n . B e f o r e t h e p r a c t i c e shadow ing s e s s i o n , Ss w e r e t o l d t h a t GSR m e a s u r e s w o u l d b e t a k e n t h r o u g h o u t t he e x p e r i m e n t . P a l m a r p l a c e m e n t w e r e made on Ss l e f t h a n d . Sis w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o keep t h e i r hands r e s t e d on an a r m c h a i r . B a s a l s k i n r e s i s t a n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d . A f t e r t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e g i v e n t o t h e S s . I am a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e f f e c t s o f m i l d e l e c t r i c s h o c k i n t h e s e t a s k s ( p l u r a l i t y e m p h a s i z e d ) . P l e a s e h o l d t h e s e t i p s i n y o u r r i g h t h a n d . I w i l l a d j u s t t h e s h o c k now t o y o u r c o m f o r t (Ss t h r e s h o l d was r e a c h e d ) . The s h o c k s w i l l be d e l i v e r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y t h r o u g h t h e s e t a s k s . I f y o u d o n ' t h a v e any q u e s t i o n s , we w i l l b e g i n now. Ss w e r e t o l d t h a t s u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p u r e l y v o l u n t a r y and t h a t t h e y had t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t any t i m e . No Ss w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t . P a r t 1 : F o r b o t h p a r t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , Ss w e r e s e a t e d b e h i n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r and w e r e n o t a b l e t o v i e w p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d i n g s . I n P a r t 1 , Ss h e a r d t h e noun c o n d i t i o n i n g l i s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 9 w o r d s s p a c e d a t 10 s e c o n d i n t e r v a l s . S h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d s t i m u l i we re t h e c o l o r s y e l l o w , o r a n g e , and b r o w n . The s i x NCL c o n t r o l w o r d s w e r e m i r r o r , i n f a n t , l e t t e r , g a r b a g e , p e n c i l , o b j e c t . The s h o c k - a s s o c i a t i n g p r o c e d u r e was a s f o l l o w s : t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , w h i l e m o n i t o r i n g t h e NCL l i s t and m a k i n g n o t a t i o n s on t he p o l y g r a p h when each. NCL word was h e a r d , d e l i v e r e d a 1 s e c o n d d u r a t i o n s h o c k f o l l o w i n g e a c h c o l o r name h e a r d . The CS-UCS i n t e r v a l c l o s e l y a p p r o -x i m a t e d 400 m s e c . as c o n f i r m e d b y measurement on t h e r e c o r d i n g s h e e t . The J3s h e a r d t h e l i s t r e p e a t e d t w i c e i n random o r d e r and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 26 shock association was established by a CS t e s t t r i a l . Short-term changes i n skin resistance served as the dependent measure. Part II Immediately a f t e r Part I, Ss were transferred to a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task. S^  shadowed the r i g h t channel c o n s i s t i n g of a 600 word prose passage (from a Steinbeck novel) read i n a n a t u r a l meaning-f u l manner while the l e f t non-attended channel consisted of 480 random words presented at a rate of 1.6/sec. Both l e f t and r i g h t channel material began and ended nearly simultaneously. Embedded i n the random word l i s t spaced at 120 word i n t e r v a l s were 1) three shock-associated color names previously heard i n NCL, 2) three color names not previously heard i n NCL, 3) three non-shock NCL words, and 4) three c o n t r o l words s i m i l a r i n l e t t e r length and s y l l a b i c content to non-shock NCL words. The actual c r i t i c a l word at each point was determined randomly. In conditions 1 and 4, both channels were heard by the same speaker either female (condition 1) or male (condition 4). In condition 2, a male was heard i n the r i g h t channel prose passage, while a female was heard i n the l e f t channel. In condition 3, the s i t u a t i o n was reversed. For convenience, conditions 1 and 4 have been termed the "same p i t c h " (Response set only) condition, while conditions 2 and 3 have been termed the " d i f f e r e n t p i t c h " (Stimulus set/Response set) condition. Within conditions, h a l f the _Ss shadowed the prose passage with the r i g h t ear, and ha l f the _Ss shadowed the prose passage with the l e f t ear. The experimenter, by the use of headphones, monitored the non-27 a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l m a k i n g a n o t a t i o n on t h e p o l y g r a p h when e a c h o f t h e above t w e l v e wo rds we re p r e s e n t e d w h i l e t h e was u n d e r g o i n g t h e s h a -dowing t a s k . j>s s h a d o w i n g was r e c o r d i n g on a s e p a r a t e t a p e r e c o r d e r and s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y z e d f o r o m i s s i o n s , i n a r t i c u l a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s . Shock e l e c t r o d e s r e m a i n e d a f f i x e d d u r i n g t h e d i c h o t i c p h a s e . Ss w e r e n e v e r g i v e n s h o c k s d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . j3s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o f i l l o u t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) t o a s c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n -c e r n i n g t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n I n summary, t h e d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r a b e t w e e n w i t h i n - a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , t h e r e p e a t e d measu re b e i n g word t y p e (C) w i t h 4 c o n d i t i o n s : 1) t h r e e s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL c o l o r s , 2) t h r e e n o n - s h o c k a s s o c i a t e d c o l o r s n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n N C L , 3) t h r e e n o n - s h o c k NCL wo rds and 4) t h r e e n o n -s h o c k c o n t r o l s n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n N C L . The b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s w e r e p i t c h (A) same v s . d i f f e r e n t w h i c h was f a c t o r i a l l y a r r a n g e d w i t h e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l (B) r i g h t and l e f t e a r . T h u s , t h e d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r a 2 x 2 x 4 b e t w e e n - w i t h i n m a t r i x . 28 R e s u l t s A r e s p o n s e was r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g o c c u r r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a word i f t h e r e was a d i s c r i m i n a t e change i n c o n d u c t a n c e w i t h i n t h r e e s econds of t h e word b e i n g f e d t o t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d e a r . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e p a r a m e t e r s f o r making a d e c i s i o n about t h e o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r a n c e o f a r e s p o n s e i s d i f f i c u l t , b u t i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a r e s p o n s e s h o u l d o n l y be c l a s s i f i e d i f t h e r e was a change o f a t l e a s t 1 k i l o h m (3.77 mm. pen d e f l e c t i o n ) w i t h t h e change t a k i n g p l a c e o v e r n o t more t h a n t h r e e s e c o n d s . These were t h e c r i t e r i a s e t f o r t h e C o r t e e n and Wood paper (1972) and f e l t t o be q u i t e r i g o r o u s . E l e c t r o d e r m a l ( p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e ) a m p l i t u d e s were measured i n m i l l i m e t e r s f o r b a s e l i n e , and a l l r e s u l t s f r o m p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e measures w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be g i v e n i n m i l l i m e t e r a m p l i t u d e changes. T a b l e I p r e s e n t s an o v e r a l l summary t a b l e o f means f o r t h e between v a r i a b l e p i t c h (A) and e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l (B) and t h e w i t h i n v a r i a b l e word t y p e ( C ) . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d on e l e c t r o d e r m a l a m p l i t u d e r e s p o n s e s showed t h a t t h e p i t c h c o n d i t i o n (A) was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .002 d f 1/86 p > 0 5 ) . E l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s were a f f e c t e d by e ar o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l (B) [F = 5.5 d f 1/86 p < 0 5 ] ; a l e f t e a r a d v a n t a g e was f o u n d f o r n o n - a t t e n d e d s i g n a l s . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f p i t c h by e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 13.60 d f 1/86 p < 0 1 ) . Word t y p e (C) was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 11.58 d f 3/258 p < 0 1 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f word t y p e by p i t c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .86 d f 3/258 p > 0 5 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f e ar o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f word t y p e t o 29 t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 4 . 5 2 d f 3 / 2 5 8 p < 0 1 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f wo rd t y p e t o t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l as a f u n c t i o n o f p i t c h c o n d i t i o n s was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t (F = 1 .68 d f 3 / 2 8 5 p > 0 5 ) . T a b l e I I p r e s e n t s c o m b i n e d mean a m p l i t u d e o f w o r d t y p e f o r p i t c h c o n d i t i o n by e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f wo rd t y p e i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . I n t h e same p i t c h c o n d i t i o n , t h e r e was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e f t e a r a d v a n t a g e f o r e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s t o w o r d t y p e i n t h e n o n -a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l (F = 1 1 . 2 8 d f 1 /86 p < 0 1 ) . I n t h e d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c o n d i t i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t l e f t e a r a d v a n t a g e was f o u n d (F = . 1 0 d f 1 /86 p > 0 5 ) . T a b l e I I I shows mean a m p l i t u d e o f e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s t o w o r d t y p e . The f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t b y Newman K e u l s : s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d words p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n t h e P a r t 1 NCL s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e d f r o m n o n - s h o c k NCL w o r d s . E l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e t o n o n - s h o c k b u t same c l a s s as s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d wo rds s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e d f r o m n o n -s h o c k NCL w o r d s . The c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n n o n - s h o c k NCL w o r d s and c o n t r o l words n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n NCL was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . S h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL wo rds and n o n - s h o c k same c l a s s n o n - N C L wo rds d i d n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r . T a b l e IV p r e s e n t s mean a m p l i t u d e changes o f e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s to e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f wo rd t y p e i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e f t e a r a d v a n t a g e was f o u n d f o r s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL wo rds ( t = 2 . 8 1 d f 1 /88 p < 0 1 ) . Words o f t h e same c l a s s as s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t by e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n ( t = 1 .92 d f 1 /88 p > 0 5 ) . 30 E a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r n o n - s h o c k NCL wo rds ( t = 1 4 . 8 d f 88 p > 05) n o r was e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a n c e f o r e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s t o n o n - N C L c o n t r o l w o r d s (t = . 81 d f 88 p > 0 5 ) . T a b l e V p r e s e n t s comb ined mean a m p l i t u d e c h a n g e s o f wo rd t y p e as a f u n c t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was s p o k e n by a m a l e o r f e m a l e sound s o u r c e . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed t h a t e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n d i n g i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s e x o f t h e s p e a k e r (F = . 7 9 d f 1 /162 p > 0 5 ) . Ss s h a d o w i n g a c c u r a c y was s c o r e d f o r o m i s s i o n s , i n a r t i c u l a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s . A p o o l e d e s t i m a t e was u s e d t o i n d i c a t e s h a d o w i n g e r r o r s . T a b l e V I p r e s e n t s a summary t a b l e o f means f o r e r r o r s i n s h a d o w i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f p i t c h and e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was a p p l i e d t o t h e m a i n e f f e c t s ( p i t c h and e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n ) and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . S h a d o w i n g e r r o r s w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f w h e t h e r t h e same v o i c e was h e a r d i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l o r a d i f -f e r e n t v o i c e (F = . 1 2 d f 1 /88 p > 0 5 ) . E a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e shadowed m a t e r i a l was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (F = . 3 3 d f 1 /88 p > 0 5 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f p i t c h by e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e shadow ing e r r o r s (F = 1 .71 d f 1 /88 p > 0 5 ) . A s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g o f l o u d n e s s was o b t a i n e d by having Ss r a t e w h e t h e r t h e m a t e r i a l t h e y h e a r d i n b o t h c h a n n e l s a p p e a r e d o f e q u a l l o u d -2 n e s s . A x a n a l y s i s showed t h a t _Ss r a t e d t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d m a t e r i a l a s 2 " a p p e a r i n g " l o u d e r (x = 8 .64 d f 1 p < 0 1 ) . The s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g o f l o u d n e s s o f s h a d o w e d / n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l s was i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a r o f 31 p r e s e n t a t i o n (x = 2 . 8 8 d f 2 p > 0 5 ) , n o r d i d t h e p i t c h c o n d i t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g o f l o u d n e s s ( x^ = 4 . 9 2 d f 2 p > 0 5 ) ; t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l was s u b j e c t i v e l y r a t e d as " l o u d e r " r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e v o i c e h e a r d i n t h e a t t e n d e d (shadowed) c h a n n e l was t h e same p i t c h o r i n a d i f f e r e n t p i t c h . A c h i s q u a r e a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on S_ r e c o g n i t i o n o f n o n - a t -t ended w o r d s . The r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) c o n s i s t e d o f 9 i t e m s w i t h 5 w o r d s p e r i t e m , one o f w h i c h was a l l e g e d l y h e a r d i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . S t i m u l i c o n s i s t e d o f 1) t h r e e NCL n o n - s h o c k wo rds 2) t h r e e n o n - N C L same c l a s s a s s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d w o r d s , and 3) t h r e e c o n t r o l wo rds n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n t h e NCL o r d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k Word t y p e was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( x ^ = 1 7 . 4 2 d f 2 p < 0 1 ) . N o n - s h o c k NCL wo rds w e r e more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a n c o n t r o l s . N o n - s h o c k NCL w o r d s , b u t o f t h e same c l a s s as s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d , w e r e more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a n c o n t r o l s . Word r e c o g n i t i o n was i n d e p e n d e n t o f p i t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( x ^ = 3 . 7 1 d f 2 p > 0 5 ) , n o r was wo rd p r e s e n t a t i o n d e -penden t on e a r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n (x^. = 1 . 6 3 d f 2 p > 0 5 ) . 32 TABLE I Summary T a b l e o f Mean P h a s i c S k i n R e s i s t a n c e A m p l i t u d e Changes t o Word Type i n t h e N o n - a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l as a F u n c t i o n o f P i t c h C o n d i t i o n and E a r o f P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e N o n - a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l N C L - s h o c k n o n - N C L N C L - n o n - n o n - N C L same c l a s s s h o c k ( c o n t r o l ) . „_ , r i g h t e a r 2 . 8 6 mm 2 . 5 9 mm 3 . 2 7 mm 3 . 6 8 mm same p x t c h l e f t e a r ]_2.23 mm 7 . 7 6 mm 2 . 4 2 mm 3 . 5 3 mm j . , - , - ^ r i g h t e a r 6 . 4 7 mm 5 . 8 5 mm 4 . 6 1 mm . 38 mm d i f f e r e n t p i t c h l e f t £ a r 5 > g 0 ^ 5 > 9 5 m m 2 ^ 2 3 ^ 1 > 8 5 ^ TABLE I I Combined Mean Amp l i t ude o f E l e c t r o d e r m a l R e s p o n s e s t o Word Type by E a r o f P r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e N o n - a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l as a F u n c t i o n o f P i t c h C o n d i t i o n s same p i t c h d i f f e r e n t p i t c h (as h e a r d i n t h e (as h e a r d i n t h e shadowed c h a n n e l ) shadowed c h a n n e l ) n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l L e f t e a r 6 . 4 8 mm 3 . 9 8 mm R i g h t e a r 3 . 1 0 mm 4 . 32 mm 3 3 TABLE I I I Mean A m p l i t u d e o f E l e c t r o d e r m a l R e s p o n s e s i n t h e N o n - a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l t o Word Type N C L - s h o c k non -NCL NCL n o n - n o n - N C L -(same c l a s s ) s h o c k c o n t r o l 6.86 mm 5.54 mm 3 . 1 3 mm 2.14 mm TABLE IV Mean E l e c t r o d e r m a l A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e s f o r Word Type i n t h e N o n -a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l as a F u n c t i o n o f t h e E a r o f P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Word Type t o t h a t C h a n n e l N C L - s h o c k n o n - N C L NCL n o n - n o n - N C L (same c l a s s ) s h o c k c o n t r o l L e f t e a r 9.06 mm 6.87 mm 2.32 mm 2 . 1 8 mm R i g h t e a r 4.66 mm 4.22 mm 3.94 mm 2 . 1 0 mm TABLE V Combined Mean A m p l i t u d e o f Word Type i n t h e D i f f e r e n t P i t c h C o n d i t i o n t o a M a l e o r F e m a l e Sound S o u r c e i n t h e N o n - a t t e n d e d C h a n n e l M a l e F e m a l e 5.09 mm 4.18 mm 34 TABLE V I Summary T a b l e o f Mean Shadow ing E r r o r s ( P o o l e d E s t i m a t e o f O m i s s i o n s I n a r t i c u l a t i o n s and A d d i t i o n s ) as a F u n c t i o n o f P i t c h C o n d i t i o n s and E a r o f P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S h a d o w i n g R i g h t e a r s h a d o w i n g L e f t e a r s h a d o w i n g same v o i c e i n e a c h c h a n n e l 2 5 . 7 1 2 3 . 6 0 d i f f e r e n t v o i c e i n e a c h c h a n n e l 2 0 . 4 2 3 1 . 2 9 35 D i s c u s s i o n The f i n d i n g s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y compor t w i t h t h e e a r l i e r w o r k by C o r t e e n and Wood i n t h a t p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes t o s t i m u l i w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d " e m o t i o n a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e c a n b e demons-t r a t e d i n a n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l w h e r e a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n d i v e r t e d t o t h e s h a d o w i n g o f a p r o s e p a s s a g e . T h e s e s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes t o p r e v i o u s l y s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL w o r d s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o p r i o r f a m i l i a r i t y as n o n - s h o c k NCL w o r d s w e r e n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f v a r i a n c e . No r c a n t h e p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes b e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p r i o r p i t c h f a m i l i a r i t y . T h i s c r i t i c i s m c o u l d b e j u s t i f i a b l y l e v i e d i n t h a t t h e m a l e s p e a k e r h e a r d i n t h e NCL l i s t was a l s o h e a r d i n t h e n o n -a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l i n some c o n d i t i o n s . An a n a l y s i s showed t h a t p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes t o m a l e o r f e m a l e p i t c h i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l were e q u a l l y p r o b a b l e . T h u s , p r i o r p i t c h f a m i l i a r i t y c a n n o t a c -c o u n t f o r t h e above f i n d i n g s . One a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e e a r l i e r s t u d y ( C o r t e e n and Wood) was t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e changes w e r e g i v e n t o wo rds o f t h e same c l a s s as s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL s t i m u l i . The d e g r e e , h o w e v e r , o f s e m a n t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was much g r e a t e r t h a n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e e a r l i e r p a p e r . I n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e t o s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d NCL words d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r f r o m e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e t o n o n - s h o c k same c l a s s w o r d s . T h i s h i g h e r r a t e o f s e m a n t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n may be p a r t l y f o u n d i n t h e s t i m u l i u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k . S t i m u l i u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t r e p o r t w e r e c o l o r names , w h e r e a s i n t he e a r l i e r w o r k , c i t y names s e r v e d a s t h e " e m o t i o n a l l y " s i g n i f i c a n t 36 s t i m u l i . The discrepancy between the two r e p o r t s may be the r e s u l t of semantic r e s t r i c t i o n ; the present work employing a much more c l a s s -r e s t r i c t e d form of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Further r e p l i c a t i o n of the present work using v a r i e d parameters of a semantic g r a d i e n t curve w i l l be u s e f u l i n t h i s respect. The f i n d i n g s of a semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n a non-at-tended modality i s of t h e o r e t i c a l importance. Both the models of the Deutschs and Treisman w i t h t h e i r use of higher order f i l t e r i n g would not be incompatible w i t h the more complex v e r b a l processing as would be req u i r e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . The main i n t e r e s t i n the present research was a t e s t of the Treisman and Deutschs' t h e o r i e s of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n by the use of p i t c h d i s -t i n c t i o n s . In the d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c o n d i t i o n , the Treisman model would have p r e d i c t e d that an i n c o r p o r a t i o n of stimulus set/response set would f a c i l i t a t e p h y s i o l o g i c a l ( i . e . , p h a s i c s k i n r e s i s t a n c e ) changes to c r i t i c a l non-attended m a t e r i a l . By c o n t r a s t , i n the same p i t c h c o n d i t i o n w i t h the r e l a x a t i o n of p h y s i c a l cues ( i . e . , the only o p t i o n a v a i l a b l e being response set o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t pre-v i o u s l y " c o n d i t i o n e d " s t i m u l i w i l l now have emotional connotation to the jS the Treisman model would p r e d i c t that autonomic responding to non-at-tended c r i t i c a l s i g n a l s would be l e s s l i k e l y . In s h o r t , p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s to non-attended " c o n d i t i o n e d " s t i m u l i should be dependent on Ss u t i l i z a t i o n of stimulus set/i-esponse s et or response s e t only s t r a t e g i e s . The present f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p i t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e autonomic responding suggest a weakness i n the Treisman model that " a l l s i g n a l s are analyzed by a sequence of o p e r a t i o n s " 37 or that physical cues (stimulus set) are a prerequisite for a separa-tion of channels thus.aiding the a v a i l a b i l i t y of response set. The present findings of n e g l i g i b l e differences i n autonomic responding to non-attended signals when cues are based on physical d i s t i n c t i o n s as opposed to when they are not lend some support to the Deutschs' model of response set. The Deutschs' model of sel e c t i v e attention requires that a l l sensory signals are afforded some degree of analysis. This interpre-t a t i o n , however, should s t i l l be considered tentative. Treisman and Riley (1969) have shown that there does seem to be some immediate and very e f f e c t i v e analysis i n terms of physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sound source. Treisman and Riley (1969) found that i f JSs were asked to shadow a prose passage and to tap to target words i n both the attended and non-attended, JSs made the majority of tapping responses to words i n the attended (shadowed) channel. However, i f the target words were heard i n a different voice from the voice heard i n the non-attended channel, tapping responses to both target words i n the attended and non-attended channel were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The second finding i n the present research was that shadowing performance was neither altered by pi t c h d i s t i n c t i o n s nor by ear of presentation. The in t e r a c t i v e effect of pi t c h by ear of presentation was not s i g n i f i c a n t . I t was predicted that o v e r a l l shadowing e f f i c i e n c y would be f a c i l i t a t e d by a pi t c h d i s t i n c t i o n between the channels. This hypothesis was based on Cherry's (1953) binaural findings that pit c h d i s t i n c t i o n s enabled a disentanglement of two simultaneous messages. Certainly Treisman's stimulus set/response set f i l t e r theory would 38 p r e d i c t improved shadowing e f f i c i e n c y w i t h d i s t i n c t a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l s as one c h a n n e l can be s e l e c t e d t o on t h e b a s i s o f i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s w h i l e o t h e r c h a n n e l s become a t t e n t u a t e d ( T r e i s m a n , 1964). The f i n d i n g s t h a t shadowing e f f i c i e n c y was n o t f a c i l i t a t e d by p i t c h d i s t i n c t i o n s somewhat weakens th e T r e i s m a n t h e o r y o f a t t e n t u a t e d s i g n a l s i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , though t h e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u -s i o n s r e a c h e d i n the p r e s e n t p a p e r cannot be s u p p o r t e d by p r e v i o u s r e -s e a r c h , whose paradigms have been r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e same s p e a k e r h e a r d i n b o t h c h a n n e l s . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , f a i l u r e t o f i n d shadowing i m p a i r m e n t was based on a p o o l e d e s t i m a t e of o m i s s i o n s , i n a r t i c u l a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s . T h i s measure o f shadowing e f f i c i e n c y may n o t be s e n s i t i v e i n t h e p r e s e n t p a r a d i g m t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s u b t l e t i e s of p i t c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e s -p e c i a l l y t h e f i n d i n g s , of l a t e r a l asymmetry of t h e o f t - c i t e d f i n d i n g s o f a r i g h t e a r advantage f o r v e r b a l r e c o g n i t i o n ( K i m u r a , 1961a, 1961b; B r o a d b e n t and G r e g o r y , 1964). I t has been s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t some measure o f l a t e n c y m i ght be more a p p r o p r i a t e t h a n e r r o r and o m i s s i o n r a t e s . C e r -t a i n l y a more d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be made c o n c e r n i n g shadowing i m p a i r m e n t a t c r i t i c a l p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k . Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e n a t u r e of t h e shadowing t a s k made any a c c u r a t e measures of l a t e n c i e s i m p o s s i b l e . Ss d i d n o t shadow words i n d i v i d u a l l y , r a t h e r t h e y shadowed i n p h r a s e s o r i n i d i o s y n c r a t i c word g r o u p i n g s . To be s u r e l a t e n c i e s i n shadowing were e v i d e n t due t o word g r o u p i n g s however, t h e n a t u r e of the p r o s e made q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e . L a t e n c y measurement wou l d r e q u i r e shadowing of i n d i v i d u a l w o r d s , p h r a s e s , l e t t e r s , o r d i g i t s . 39 In a test of the Treisman attentuation theory, i t was predicted that the non-attended channel would be s u b j e c t i v e l y reported as l e s s loud and that subjective loudness may be af f e c t e d by p i t c h d i s t i n c t i o n s and by the ear of presentation of the non-attended channel. A c h i square analysis indicated that the non-shadowed channel was estimated as louder. This observation further weakens Treisman's attentuation theory, however some caution should be observed. The fac t that Ss shadowed, i . e . , repeated out loud the attended channel may have caused some interference with that channel thus r e l a t i v e l y assessing the non-attended channel as louder. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n gains credence i n a p i l o t study by the author i n which jSs were required to rate the same tapes on loudness d i f -ferences between the channels; Ss were not given the shadowing task. A l l JSs rated the "attended" and "non-attended" channels as equally loud. In a d d i t i o n , at the onset of the experiment, c a r e f u l consideration was made to balance the decible i n d i c a t i o n s i n the two tracks. The find i n g s that subject loudness was independent of p i t c h and ear of presentation of the non-attended channel are i n themselves i n t e r e s t i n g . The findings guard against the possible c r i t i c i s m that autonomic responding i n the non-attended channel was due to uneven p i t c h d i f f e r e n c e s or ear of presentation. The present research i n d i c a t e s a cerebral l a t e r a l i t y e f f e c t i n the d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task. Ear of presentation of non-attended s i g n a l s was highly s i g n i f i c a n t , however, the e f f e c t was q u a l i f i e d by a considera-t i o n of p i t c h conditions. When both the shadowing and non-attended channels were heard i n the same voice (either male or female) there was 40 an enhanced l e f t ear advantage f o r word type i n the non-attended channel. When the attended (shadowed) and non-attended channels were heard by d i f -f e r e n t speakers, ear of p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e autonomic responding to word type i n the non-attended channel. Two f i n d i n g s must be r e s o l v e d i n t h i s context. In the f i r s t p l a c e , a l e f t ear advantage f o r v e r b a l m a t e r i a l i s somewhat anomalous c o n s i d e r i n g e a r l i e r work (Kimura, 1961a, 1961b; Broadbent and Gregory, 1964) which has c o n s i s t e n t l y shown a r i g h t ear advantage f o r v e r b a l m a t e r i a l using d i c h o t i c a l l y presented d i g i t s . I t should be noted, however, that the e a r l i e r paradigms do not r e q u i r e shadowing m a t e r i a l which makes the d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g task a more complex l i n g u i s t i c paradigm. The present f i n d i n g s of a l e f t ear advantage f o r v e r b a l s t i m u l i may be considered conforming to the e a r l i e r work i f one accepts the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t j5s found the r i g h t ear shadowing task e a s i e r due to the more e f f i c i e n t c o n t r a l a t e r a l f i b e r s (Kimura, 1961a) to the l e f t temporal lobe and i n t h i s way, accommodated l e f t ear non-attended p r o c e s s i n g . This i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n though must be q u a l i f i e d i n view of the f i n d i n g s i n the present research of a s e l e c t i v e l e f t ear advantage only i n the same p i t c h con-d i t i o n , i . e . , when both channels are heard by the same speaker. This f i n d i n g i s not e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d , but one approach may be considered. In the same p i t c h c o n d i t i o n , a c o u s t i c a l s e p a r a t i o n i s minimal and much a c o u s t i c a l overlap between the channels i s evident. In order to avoid t h i s a c o u s t i c a l c o n f u s i o n , i t may be a stratagem f o r Ss to concentrate ( s e l e c t i v e l y attend) more c l o s e l y i n t h i s p i t c h c o n d i t i o n than when a c o u s t i c a l s e p a r a t i o n i s maximal ( d i f f e r e n t p i t c h c o n d i t i o n ) . This 41 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a l b e i t speculative w i l l p r o f i t by further t e s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y varying the a c o u s t i c a l parameters i n the d i c h o t i c d i g i t paradigm (Kimura, 1961). A s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g i n the present thesis was the observation that the cerebral l a t e r a l i t y e f f e c t was dependent on the presentation of word type; a l e f t ear advantage was found only f o r shock-associated words. The f i n d i n g that only NCL shock-associated words d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ear of presentation suggests a t r u l y s e l e c t i v e ear asymmetrical processing. The f i n a l p o rtion of t h i s paper has been reserved f o r a di s c u s s i o n of the nature of awareness on s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . Perhaps the most co n t r o v e r s i a l f i n d i n g i n the Corteen and Wood (1972) paper was the ob-servation that although a S_ would give an autonomic response to s i g n i f i -cant s t i m u l i both to shock-associated words and non-shock words of the same c l a s s , the was unable to report that he had heard the non-attended s t i m u l i , being questioned one to f i v e minutes a f t e r the occurrence of a c r i t i c a l word. There are several i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r these r e s u l t s ; however, the two most l i k e l y f a c t o r s suggest e i t h e r a memory d e f i c i t or a true subliminal perception of processing. These hypotheses should be stated more c l e a r l y . The subliminal perception hypothesis would argue that Ss are not aware of the s i g n i f i c a n t s t i m u l i impinging i n the sen-sory system. The memory d e f i c i t hypothesis would suggest that there i s some b r i e f awareness of the s t i m u l i , however the memory of i t i s subject to the rapid decay c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of sensory short-term memory where there i s no opportunity f o r rehearsal. The subliminal perception hypo-t h e s i s would suggest an analysis with assigning of s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, 42 no s w i t c h i n g o f a t t e n t i o n . The s h a d o w i n g a n a l y s i s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s p a p e r i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s u c h a h y p o t h e s i s . The h y p o t h e s i s o f p r o -c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t a w a r e n e s s con foms more c l o s e l y t o t h e D e u t s c h and D e u t s c h p o s i t i o n (1963) t h a n t o t h a t p r o p o s e d by T r e i s m a n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . T r e i s m a n ' s p o s i t i o n s u g g e s t s r e j e c t i o n w i t h o u t f u l l a n a l y s i s u n l e s s an i t e m c o n f o r m s t o some e x p e c t a n c y a t w h i c h t i m e one c o u l d c o n -c e i v e o f a s h i f t o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t i t e m . The s u b l i m i n a l p e r c e p t i o n h y p o t h e s i s t h e n w o u l d s u g g e s t a n a n a l y s i s w i t h o u t a n a p p a r e n t a t t e n t i o n a l s h i f t . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t s t i m u l i may h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m a memory i m p a i r m e n t c a n n o t be c o n c l u s i v e l y r u l e d o u t . Norman (1969) f o u n d t h a t i f Ss we re p r o b e d j u s t s h o r t l y a f t e r a d i g i t had b e e n h e a r d i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l , Ss c o u l d i n v a r i a b l y r e p o r t ( u s i n g a c o n f i d e n c e s c a l e ) t he c o r r e c t d i g i t ; h o w e v e r , i f a 2 0 - s e c o n d d e l a y was i n t e r p o l a t e d b e t w e e n the l a s t d i g i t and r e q u e s t f o r r e c a l l , Ss had no memory o f t h e d i g i t b e i n g h e a r d . Norman s u g g e s t s t h e n a momentary awa reness o f n o n - a t t e n d e d s t i m u l i w h i c h i s s u b j e c t t o r a p i d d e c a y . The p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a t t e m p t e d t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f wo rd t y p e r e c o g n i t i o n by u s i n g a 9 - i t e m c h e c k l i s t e a c h c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e w o r d s , one o f w h i c h was s u p p o s e d t o h a v e b e e n h e a r d i n t he n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . The n i n e e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r d s we re 3 n o n - N C L same c l a s s a s s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d s t i m u l i , 3 n o n - s h o c k NCL wo rds and 3 c o n t r o l w o r d s , i . e . , w o r d s n o t p r e v i o u s l y h e a r d i n t h e P a r t 1 noun c o n d i t i o n i n g l i s t , b u t a p p e a r e d i n t h e d i c h o t i c t a s k . The f i n d i n g s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t non -NCL words of t h e same c l a s s a s NCL s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d wo rds w e r e more 43 r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a n c o n t r o l s . NCL words n o t p r e v i o u s l y s h o c k - a s -s o c i a t e d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e a d i l y c h o s e n t h a n c o n t r o l s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e word t y p e r e c o g n i t i o n was b e s e t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s so much so t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s t h e m s e l v e s may have been a r t i f a c t u a l . The most s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m was t h e c a r r y o v e r e f f e c t f r o m P a r t 1 t o P a r t 2 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I t was o b v i o u s to Ss t h a t t h e y were c l a s s i c a l l y " c o n d i t i o n e d " t o c o l o r names i n P a r t 1. C o u l d t h i s a c c o u n t f o r t h e s u p e r i o r r e c o g n i t i o n r a t e f o r non-NCL same c l a s s as s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d s t i m u l i ? C o n c e r n i n g NCL non-shock w o r d s , £>s had p r e v i o u s l y been exposed t o t h a t s t i m u l i a r r a y i n P a r t 1, and i t c o u l d be argu e d t h a t word t y p e r e c o g n i t i o n was a f u n c t i o n more of P a r t 1 e x p o s u r e t h a n a c t u a l l y had been " h e a r d " i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . These c r i t i c i s m s a r e s e r i o u s and j u s t i f y t h e use of a d i f -f e r e n t p a r a d i g m t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f memory i m p a i r m e n t o f non-a t t e n d e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r t r u l y an a n a l y s i s based w i t h o u t a wareness. An i n c o r p o r a t i o n of t h e T r e i s m a n and R i l e y (1969) t a p p i n g r e s p o n s e t o t a r g e t words a l o n g w i t h t h e use of p h a s i c r e s i s t a n c e changes t o s h o c k -a s s o c i a t e d words has been t r i e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y by C o r t e e n and Dunn (1973). The e x p e r i m e n t c a l l e d f o r t h e u s u a l t e c h n i q u e of e s t a b l i s h i n g a " c o n d i t i o n e d " r e s p o n s e t o a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f words and t h e n embedding them i n t h e n o n - a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l o f a d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k . Ss were asked as t h e p r i m a r y t a s k t o shadow t h e r i g h t e a r message, b u t t a p i n e i t h e r c h a n n e l i f t h e y h e a r d a " c o n d i t i o n e d " word. I t was f o u n d t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s , autonomic r e s p o n d i n g was n o t c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h a t a p p i n g r e s p o n s e . These r e s u l t s t e n d t o s u p p o r t a s u b l i m i n a l h y p o t h e s i s , a t l e a s t t e n t a t i v e l y . A t any r a t e , t h e i n g e n u i t y o f t h e p a r a d i g m i s w o r t h y o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 45 R e f e r e n c e s B r o a d b e n t , D . The r o l e of a u d i t o r y l o c a l i z a t i o n and a t t e n t i o n i n memory s p a n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 4 , 4 7 , 1 9 1 - 1 9 6 . B r o a d b e n t , D . P e r c e p t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n . L o n d o n : Pergamon P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . B r o a d b e n t , D. S t i m u l u s s e t and r e s p o n s e s e t . Two k i n d s o f s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . I n D . I . M o s t o f s k y ( E d . ) . A t t e n t i o n : C o n t e m p o r a r y  t h e o r y and a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 7 0 . B r o a d b e n t , D. and G r e g o r y M. A c c u r a c y o f r e c o g n i t i o n f o r s p e e c h p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r i g h t and l e f t e a r . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x - p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 , 1 4 , 3 5 9 - 3 6 0 . C h e r r y , C . Some e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s p e e c h w i t h one and two e a r s . J o u r n a l o f t h e A c o u s t i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , 1 9 5 3 , 2 5 , 9 7 5 - 9 7 9 . C o r t e e n , R . S . and Wood, B . G . A u t o n o m i c r e s p o n s e s t o s h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d wo rds i n an u n a t t e n d e d c h a n n e l . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l - o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 9 4 , 3 0 8 - 3 1 3 . C o r t e e n , R . S . and D u n n , D. S h o c k - a s s o c i a t e d wo rds i n a n o n - a t t e n d e d message — a t e s t f o r momentary a w a r e n e s s . 1 9 7 3 . I n p r e p a r a t i o n . D e u t s c h , J . A . and D e u t s c h , D. A t t e n t i o n : Some t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 3 , 7 0 , 8 0 - 9 0 . D e u t s c h , J . A . and D e u t s c h , D. Comment on s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n : S t i m u l u s o r r e s p o n s e ? Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 , 3 6 2 - 3 6 8 . 46 E m m e r i c h , S . C i t e d i n M o r a y , N . A t t e r i t i o n - s e l e c t i y e p r o c e s s e s i n v i s i o n and h e a r i n g . L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n , 1 9 7 0 . G r a y , J . and W e d d e r b u r n , A . G r o u p i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s s t i m u l i . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 1 2 , 1 8 0 - 1 9 5 . H o w a r d , C . I . and E l l i s , K. The r e l a t i v e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y t h r e s h o l d f o r o n e ' s own name compared w i t h o t h e r names . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 1 3 , 2 3 6 - 2 3 9 . K i m u r a , D. Some e f f e c t s o f t e m p e r a l l o b e damage on a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 15_, 1 5 6 - 1 6 5 . K i m u r a , D. C e r e b r a l d o m i n a n c e and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f v e r b a l s t i m u l i . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 15_, 1 6 6 - 1 7 1 . L a w s o n , E . D e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e j e c t e d c h a n n e l . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , 1_8_, 2 6 0 - 2 6 8 . L e w i s , J . L . S e m a n t i c P r o c e s s i n g o f u n a t t e n d e d m e s s a g e s u s i n g d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 85_, 2 2 5 - 2 2 8 . L i n d s e y , P . Comment on s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n : S t i m u l u s o r r e s p o n s e . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1967 , 19_, 3 6 2 - 3 6 8 . M o r a y , N . A t t e n t i o n : S e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n v i s i o n and h e a r i n g . L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n , 1 9 6 9 . M o r a y , N . A t t e n t i o n i n d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g a f f e c t i v e c u e s and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l Of E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 9 , 1 1 , 5 6 - 6 0 . M o r a y , N . The e f f e c t o f t he r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f m e s s a g e s i n d i c h o t i c s h a d o w i n g . L a n g u a g e and S p e e c h , 1 9 5 8 , 1_, 1 1 0 - 1 1 3 . M o r a y , N . B r o a d b e n t ' s f i l t e r t h e o r y — p o s t u l a t e H and t h e p r o b l e m 47 o f s w i t c h i n g t i m e . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 1 2 , 2 1 4 - 2 2 1 . M o r a y , N . and J o r d o n A . P r a c t i c e and c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n 2 c h a n n e l s h o r t -t e rm memory. P s y c h o n o m i c S c i e n c e , 1 9 6 6 , 4 2 7 . M o s t o f s k y , D . I . ( E d . ) A t t e n t i o n : C o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r y and a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 7 0 . Norman , D . A . Memory and A t t e n t i o n . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y , 1 9 6 9 . Norman , D . A . Memory w h i l e s h a d o w i n g . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 9 , 2 1 , 8 5 - 9 3 . P e t e r s , D. C i t e d i n D e u t s c h , J . and D e u t s c h , D. A t t e n t i o n : Some t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 3 , 7 0 , 8 0 - 9 0 . T r e i s m a n , A . M . C o n t e x t u a l c u e s i n s e l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . Q u a r t e r l y  J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 1 2 , 2 4 2 - 2 4 8 . T r e i s m a n , A . M . V e r b a l c u e s , l a n g u a g e and m e a n i n g i n a t t e n t i o n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 , 77_, 2 0 6 - 2 1 4 . T r e i s m a n , A . M . The e f f e c t s o f r e d u n d a n c y and f a m i l i a r i t y on t r a n s -l a t i n g and r e p e a t i n g b a c k a f o r e i g n and a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , _56, 3 6 9 - 3 7 9 . T r e i s m a n , A . M . and G e f f e n , G. S e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n : P e r c e p t i o n o r r e s p o n s e ? Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 , 1 - 1 6 . T r e i s m a n and G e f f e n , G. S e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n and c e r e b r a l d o m i n a n c e i n p e r c e i v i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o s p e e c h m e s s a g e . Q u a r t e r l y  J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 8 , 2_0, 1 3 9 - 1 5 0 . 48 Treisman, A.M. and Riley, J.G. Is selective attention selective per-ception or selective response? A further test. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, _79, 27-34. 49 Appendix A Shadowed Prose Passage There was a l i t t l e s t r e e t not f a r from the town square, where smal l peaked roofs and l i t t l e shops were mixed up together. The snow was beaten down on the walks and i n the s t r e e t , but i t p i l e d h igh on the fences and i t puffed on the roof peaks. I t d r i f t e d against the shuttered windows of the l i t t l e houses. And in to the y a r d s , paths were s h o v e l l e d . The night was dark and co ld and no l i g h t showed from the windows to a t t r a c t the bombers. And no one walked i n the s t ree t s for the curfew was s t r i c t . The houses were dark lumps against the snow. Every l i t t l e whi le the p a t r o l of s i x men walked down the s t r e e t , peer ing about, and each man c a r r i e d a long f l a s h l i g h t . The hushed tramp of t h e i r feet sounded i n the s t r e e t , the squeaks of t h e i r boots on the packed snow. They were muffled f igures deep i n t h i c k coats ; under t h e i r helmets were k n i t t e d caps which came down over t h e i r ears and covered t h e i r chins and mouths. A l i t t l e snow f e l l , only a l i t t l e l i k e r i c e . The p a t r o l ta lked as they walked, and they ta lked of things that they longed for — of meat and of hot soup and of the r i chness of b u t t e r , of the p r e t t i n e s s of g i r l s and of t h e i r smiles and of t h e i r l i p s and of t h e i r eyes. They ta lked of these things and sometimes they ta lked of t h e i r hatred of what they were doing and of t h e i r l o n e l i n e s s . A s m a l l , peak-roofed house beside the i r o n shop was shaped l i k e the others and wore i t s snow cap l i k e the others . No l i g h t came from i t s shuttered windows and i t s storm doors were t i g h t l y c l o s e d . But i n s i d e a lamp burned i n the smal l l i v i n g - r o o m and the door to the k i t chen was 50 open and t h e d o o r t o t h e bedroom was o p e n . A n i r o n s t o v e was a g a i n s t t h e b a c k w a l l w i t h a l i t t l e c o a l f i r e b u r n i n g i n i t . I t was a wa rm, p o o r c o m f o r t a b l e r o o m , t h e f l o o r c o v e r e d w i t h w o r n c a r p e t , t h e w a l l s p a p e r e d i n warm h u e s w i t h an o l d f a s h i o n e d f l e u r - d e - l i s f i g u r e on t he w a l l . And on t h e b a c k w a l l we re two p i c t u r e s , one o f f i s h l y i n g dead on a p l a t e o f f e r n s and t h e o t h e r o f g r o u s e l y i n g d e a d on a f i r b o u g h . On t h e r i g h t w a l l t h e r e was a p i c t u r e of C h r i s t w a l k i n g on t h e waves t owa rd t h e d e s p a i r i n g f i s h e r m a n . Two s t r a i g h t c h a i r s w e r e i n t h e room and a c o u c h c o v e r e d w i t h a b r i g h t b l a n k e t . T h e r e was a l i t t l e r o u n d t a b l e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e r o o m , on w h i c h e t o o d a k e r o s e n e lamp w i t h a r o u n d f l o w e r e d s h a d e on i t , and t h e l i g h t i n t h e room was warm and s o f t . I n a c u s h i o n e d o l d r o c k i n g - c h a i r b e s i d e t h e t a b l e M o l l y M o r d e n s a t a l o n e . She was u n r a v e l l i n g the w o o l f r o m a n o l d s w e a t e r and w i n d i n g t h e y a r n on a b a l l . She had q u i t e a l a r g e b a l l o f i t . And on t h e t a b l e b e s i d e t h e r e was h e r k n i t t i n g w i t h t h e n e e d l e s s t i c k i n g i n i t , and a l a r g e p a i r o f s c i s s o r s . H e r g l a s s e s l a y on t h e t a b l e b e s i d e h e r , f o r she d i d n o t n e e d them f o r k n i t t i n g . She was p r e t t y and young and n e a t . H e r h a i r was done up on t h e top of h e r head and a bow was i n h e r h a i r . He r hands w o r k e d q u i c k l y w i t h t h e r a v e l l i n g . A s she w o r k e d , she g l a n c e d now and t h e n a t t he d o o r t o t h e p a s s a g e . The w i n d w h i s t l e d i n t he ch imney s o f t l y , b u t i t was a q u i e t n i g h t . f r o m " T h e Moon i s Down" J o h n S t e i n b e c k 51 A p p e n d i x B Name' ' Age Sex R i g h t Handed L e f t Handed I t w o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d i f you w o u l d c o m p l e t e a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d b e l o w . A l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k . P l e a s e answer a s a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . 1) D i d you f e e l t h a t t h e two messages i n t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t a s k were o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l l o u d n e s s ? I f n o t , w h i c h message a p p e a r e d l o u d e r t o you? 2) Was t h e s p e a k e r i n t h e non -shadowed e a r ( i . e . , t h e message h e a r d i n t h e e a r you we re n o t r e p e a t i n g b a c k ) t h e same s p e a k e r who was h e a r d i n t h e p r o s e p a s s a g e you we re s h a d o w i n g , i . e . , r e p e a t i n g b a c k . 3) Was t h e s p e a k e r i n t h e non -shadowed e a r a ma le o r f e m a l e ? 4) D i d t h e non -shadowed m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t o f a p r o s e p a s s a g e o r m e r e l y a s e r i e s o f random w o r d s ? 5) P l e a s e r a t e t h e s h a d o w i n g t a s k i n t e rms o f d i f f i c u l t y . 6) L i s t e d on t h e n e x t page a r e n i n e (9) s e t s o f w o r d s . E a c h s e t c o n -s i s t s o f f i v e (5) wo rds e a c h . I n e a c h s e t (9 i n a l l ) one o f t h e f i v e wo rds was h e a r d i n t h e non -shadowed m e s s a g e . F o r e a c h s e t , p l e a s e t r y and p i c k ou t t h e word you h e a r d i n t h e non -shadowed m e s s a g e . I am o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what you h e a r d i n t h e NON-SHADOWED MESSAGE ONLY. FOR EACH SET, PLEASE CIRCLE ONE WORD OF THE FIVE LISTED bank coat surf dress mirror industry course pencil them tape clock t i l e negro smoke summer black paper subject chalk c i r c l e calendar fence ha l l film council l i f e page stove watch book white wave voice staff ba«ttery eraser wall chair inf ant hand program estate box university red 

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