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A study of George Herbert's Passio Discerpta and Lucus in the context of the tradition of the sacred… Alexander, Irene Rosalyn 1971

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A STUDY OF GEORGE HERBERT'S PASSIO DISCERPTA AND LUCTJS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TRADITION OF THE SACRED EPIGRAM by Rosaljm Irene Alexander B. A., University of Southampton, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co 1umbia, I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r ee t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t he Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f ^ — v > — \ % s ~ J U ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The c r i t i c a l neglect of the neo-Latin poetry of English writers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the Renaissance and seventeenth century, presents a d i f f i c u l t y f o r those students Interested in understanding the entire career of an Anglo-Latin author. In Herbert's case, his neo-L a t i n poetry presents very d i s t i n c t i v e aspects of h i s l i t e r a r y character and techniques, a knowledge of which may enable future readers to better appreciate The Temple, Herbert's major English work. This thesis deals with Passio Disoerpta (The Events of the Passion) and Lucus (The Sacred Grove) i n p a r t i c u l a r , and demonstrates t h e i r firm place i n the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram. In order to form a clearer impression of the t r a d i t i o n and Herbert's work within i t and of the contemporary models and sources upon which he drew, Chapter Two surveys b r i e f l y the epigrammatic conventions and r e l i g i o u s background from which the sacred epigram derived. The differences between the epigrammatic st y l e of Martial and of The Greek Anthology are discussed as well as the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s a t i r i c and the sacred epigram. i i Chapter Three presents a comparison with other poets of the period working within the same convention, most notably Crashaw, but also such writers as John Saltmarsh, Francis Thynne, and John Pyne. This comparison shows Herbert's s u p e r i o r i t y to previous writers i n h i s use of the epigram for r e l i g i o u s subject-matter. Herbert's s k i l f u l use of the conventions of the sacred epigram as a means of expressing h i s own deep r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g i s demonstrated i n the c r i t i c a l studies of Passlo Discerpta and Luous which form Chapters Four and Five, the core of t h i s thesis. These chapters deal with the poems under the headings of arrangement, imagery, and narrative voice. The analysis of these various aspects reveals s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k s between the arrangement of the poems within each volume and the imagery Herbert uses to express h i s themes. The thematic unity, the conscious s e l e c t i v i t y of subject-matter, and the s k i l f u l use of the narrative voice as an i n t e g r a l part of the r h e t o r i c a l structure are shown. On the basis of thi s study, Herbert's sacred epigrams as exemplified by Passlo Discerpta and Lucus are seen as forming aesthetic landmarks i n that t r a d i t i o n , and as providing a new perspective from which students of The Temple may understand more f u l l y Herbert's entire l i t e r a r y career. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page ONE INTRODUCTION * ; 1 TWO THE ORIGINS OF THE EPIGRAM AND ITS RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS 16 THREE PREDECESSORS AND CONTEMPORARIES 48 FOUR A CRITICAL STUDY OF PASSIO DISCERPTA . . . 77 FIVE A CRITICAL STUDY OF LUCUS 118 SIX CONCLUSIONS 164 FOOTNOTES 178 BIBLIOGRAPHY 189 CHAPTER OWE—INTRODUCTION The major aim of t h i s thesis i s to cast a l i t t l e c r i t i c a l l i g h t on the two sequences of George Herbert's L a t i n poetry e n t i t l e d Passlo Discerpta and Lucus, by studying them in the context of the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram. I s h a l l attempt to i l l u s t r a t e the high l i t e r a r y and aesthetic value of these two sequences by s comparing Herbert's sacred epigrams with those of e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s writers and by a detailed c r i t i c a l study of each volume. F i n a l l y , I s h a l l attempt to demonstrate Herbert's poetic mastery of the epigrammatic form i n an e f f o r t to emphasize the i n j u s t i c e of modern c r i t i c a l neglect of Herbert's L a t i n poetry. In spite of the resurgence of c r i t i c a l enthusiasm during the twentieth century for the Metaphysical poets, in p a r t i c u l a r the group of r e l i g i o u s poets including Donne, Vaughan, Crashaw, and Herbert, very l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m i s available on the Anglo-Latin poetry of the period. One pf the very few essays on George Herbert's L a t i n poems, by Edmund Blunden, challenges scholars of his time for neglect of the Anglo-Latin t r a d i t i o n : s Perhaps the c l a s s i c a l scholars of t h i s age have not noticed that such a t r a d i t i o n flourished, or perhaps they have glanced at i t and r e c o i l e d from barbarous misexpressions and mismetrings . . . . 1 He goes on to say: I t r u s t i t i s not fantasy to say that a majority of our actual English verse was written by men who had t r a i n i n g i n c l a s s i c a l verse, a l i k e i n perusing the authors of Greece and Rome and i n producing t h e i r own copies, t h e i r hexameters, Ovidian couplets, sapphics, scazons and the r e s t . 8 Blunden was writing i n the early 1930's and then considered the area he had chosen f o r discussion to be "a wide subject 3 and a chartless." Even now a b r i e f survey of the c r i t i c i s m on Herbert between 1930 and 197G reveals the subject to be as wide and uncharted as Blunden found i t fo r t y years ago. One doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y upon George Herbert's L a t i n poetry, a c r i t i c a l study of Passio Discerpta, Lucus, and Memoriae Matris Sacrum together with an English prose t r a n s l a t i o n of these works, was completed i n 1966 by S i s t e r Mary E. Mason,* but apparently no other study of s i m i l a r depth or d e t a i l has been attempted. Of the numerous and r a p i d l y p r o l i f e r a t i n g c r i t i c a l works on Herbert, even the most recent such as Arnold 5 Stein's George Herbert's L y r i c s , published in 1968, have barely a reference to Herbert's L a t i n poetry. A number of books give Herbert and the Anglo-Latin r e l i g i o u s poetry of the period a passing note, such as L e i c e s t e r Bradner's Musae Anglicanae: A History of Anglo-Latin Poetry, 1500-1925. which w i l l be referred to at various 3 points i n the following pages; but even F.E. Hutchinson i n h i s d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n of Herbert's works devotes only a few sentences to a c r i t i c a l consideration of Herbert's 7 L a t i n poetry. His notes are useful, e s p e c i a l l y i n that they often quote the s c r i p t u r a l source or reference which Herbert was u t i l i z i n g , but they are by no means extensive, and, as might be expected, primarily oriented toward textual concerns. The obvious neglect of Herbert's L a t i n poetry on the part of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s i s not an a t y p i c a l case. I t i s understandable that a John Saltmarsh, a Francis Thynne or a John Pyne should not claim much c r i t i c a l attention, aesthetic or otherwise, but even writers l i k e Grashaw and Milton are su f f e r i n g from what can become a seriously lop-sided view of t h e i r works i n toto, merely because th e i r e f f o r t s in the Anglo-Latin t r a d i t i o n are being r e l a t i v e l y ignored. 8 When modern c r i t i c s , t r y i n g to keep pace with the demands of the New C r i t i c i s m and the h i s t o r i c a l approach, attempt to place English poets i n every possible applicable t r a d i t i o n , i t seems a studied myopia on t h e i r part either to neglect the Anglo-Latin poetry of writers l i k e Herbert and Crashaw, or, when i t i s paid some attention, to deal with i t as a type of a l i e n excrescence, as not r e a l l y a part of t h e i r work as a whole. English scholars usually object that L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i s outside t h e i r pale since they are not c l a s s i c i s t s , and since Latin i s one of the languages furthest from the rhythm and structure of English. The r e l a t i v e claims of the student of English l i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n i s t proper on the neo-Latin poetry of the Renaissance i n p a r t i c u l a r are discussed sensibly by Don Cameron A l l e n i n his a r t i c l e Q "Latin L i t e r a t u r e " , published i n 1941. Allen's attitude to the study of Renaissance L a t i n works by English authors i s a more vociferous and less hesitant c o r o l l a r y of Edmund Blunden's expressed some seven years e a r l i e r : I f i n the map of world l i t e r a t u r e there i s a l o s t A t l a n t i s , i t i s the La t i n l i t e r a t u r e of the Renaissance When one r e a l i z e s that the L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e of the Renaissance includes the works of at least s i x hundred poets, who wrote on a wide v a r i e t y of subjects and used every poetic form from the epigram to the epic, one perceives that scholars have hardly begun to explore t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . . . . A careful study of the Latin l i t e r a t u r e of the period of the Renaissance should be a n c i l l a r y to a study of the vernacular l i t e r a t u r e s , and when such a study i s made, our judgements of the vernacular l i t e r a t u r e s , of the c u l t u r a l and aesthetic temper of the period, w i l l unquestionably be al t e r e d . 11 Allen's point of view i s c l e a r l y and p o s i t i v e l y stated: even though the English scholar may have obvious and insuperable disadvantages, neo-Latin English poetry should not solely be the preserve of the L a t i n i s t . In the l a s t decade opinions in favour of serious study of L a t i n works by English scholars have been more frequently voiced. Recently, the case has been well put by William 5 Mathews in h i s introduction to two papers by James E. P h i l l i p s and Don Cameron A l l e n ; he c r i t i c i z e s "the English habit of thinking that only things written i n English are 12 English . . . what i s written i n L a t i n i s not English." He adds: But i f t h i s amuses me, i t bothers me too, f o r I doubt that a proper h i s t o r y of even the l i t e r a t u r e i n English can be written or learned without adequate acquaintance with l i t e r a t u r e i n L a t i n . And t h i s i s not only the worry of a medievalist. The same worry . has f o r some time been nagging i n Renaissance bosoms.'3 Don Cameron A l l e n had, of course, eloquently expressed t h i s "worry" t h i r t y years e a r l i e r : A l l i n a l l , to study the vernacular writers without knowing the Latins i s to practise surgery without learning anatomy . . . . Surely, to comprehend the stature of a vernacular writer who also wrote i n L a t i n , one must know not only his L a t i n works but also t h e i r place i n the l a t e r L a t i n t r a d i t i o n . 14 Allen's s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem resides in the a v a i l a b i l i t y of accurate t r a n s l a t i o n s : In the e d i t i n g of new texts, i t might also be advisable to ignore the p o l i t e f i c t i o n that a l l scholars interested i n the Renaissance read L a t i n . A series of texts and p a r a l l e l translations l i k e those of the Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library would be welcomed not only by those students who do not read L a t i n but also by those who do. 15 Lack of adequate t r a n s l a t i o n i s , of course, one of the reasons f o r the neglect of Anglo-Latin poetry. M e r r i t t T. Hughes did Milton a great service by publishing side by side with h i s early L a t i n pieces an English t r a n s l a t i o n , i n his e d i t i o n of Milton's works.^ 6 Crashaw has no published 6 t r a n s l a t i o n of his L a t i n poetry, and only i n the l a s t decade did Herbert's L a t i n poetry receive the attention of tr a n s l a t o r s with the publication of McCloskey's and Murphy's The L a t i n Poetry of George Herbert: A B i l i n g u a l E d i t i o n . 1 7 I t has always been a vexed question as to whether study of poetry i n t r a n s l a t i o n i s a viable l i t e r a r y occupation. In the case of L a t i n poetry with an English t r a n s l a t i o n , to study rhyme, rhythm, metre or movement of the verse, would obviously be neither f e a s i b l e nor valuable. However, the study of imagery, treatment, and choice of subject-matter i s , I believe, both f e a s i b l e and valuable. Knowledge of these aspects can be traced in si m i l a r ways i n poetry £ written both i n L a t i n and i n English, and can considerably increase our knowledge of the writer. In the case of the epigram, i n p a r t i c u l a r , which (as w i l l be discussed in greater d e t a i l in Chapter Two) depends f o r i t s effectiveness on d i f f e r e n t techniques of word play, balance and contrast, the tr a n s l a t o r i s often f r u i t f u l l y challenged by h i s task of transposition, and can provide the student with a very close approximation to the s p i r i t as well as the l e t t e r of the o r i g i n a l . The general points made so f a r i n favour of study of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n t r a n s l a t i o n , can, I think, be adequately supported in the case of Herbert's L a t i n poems. The b i l i n g u a l e d i t i o n of Mark McCloskey and Ralph Murphy, which w i l l be referred to throughout t h i s study f o r quotations from both 7 the L a t i n and the English t r a n s l a t i o n , gives a very enjoyable and accurate access to Herbert's L a t i n works for English students interested i n a wider view of the poet. McCloskey and Murphy have provided a tr a n s l a t i o n more than adequate f o r the purposes of a study of subject-matter, imagery, narrative voice,and tone i n Passio Discerpta and Lucus. My main focus i s upon Lucus and Passio Discerpta f o r two reasons: f i r s t l y , because these two sequences are composed of indisputably relgious poems (although Lucus does introduce some other themes, and i s not constructed with the same symmetry and concentration as Passlo Discerpta), and because Herbert i s studied as a r e l i g i o u s poet; and secondly, because these two sequences are written within the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram, and only with a knowledge of t h e i r place i n that t r a d i t i o n can the poems be f u l l y understood and appreciated. Only upon t h i s knowledge can further studies be based of the rel a t i o n s h i p of Passio Discerpta and Lucus to Herbert's English r e l i g i o u s poetry. Although i t i s not known exactly when Passlo Discerpta and Lucus were written, the three epigrams on Pope Urban VIII supply i n t e r n a l evidence f o r the dating of the two c o l l e c t i o n s in that Urban VIII was elected and assumed the papal t i t l e i n 1623. Herbert s t i l l held the position of Public Orator 8 to the Unive r s i t y of Cambridge i n 1623 to which he had been elected on January 21, 1619/20, and which he did not r e l i n q u i s h u n t i l 1627. This would be the most l i k e l y period in Herbert's l i f e f o r the composition of his L a t i n epigrams. Around 1605, Magdalen Herbert had sent her thi r d son to Westminster School which had a higher reputation at Oxford and Cambridge for c l a s s i c a l scholarship than most of the other London schools. Here Herbert had the best possible chance of laying the groundwork f o r h i s Greek and L a t i n studies. F.E. Hutchinson, i n the Introduction to h i s edi t i o n of Herbert's works, adds an intere s t i n g point: He would also have practice in wr i t i n g such L a t i n epigrams on sacred themes as he was afterwards to write at Cambridge, since i t was i n 1630 and probably e a r l i e r a regular employment of King's Scholars on Sunday afternoons to write 'verses upon the preacher's sermon or the e p i s t l e and gospell,' just as Crashaw had similar practice a few years l a t e r at Charterhouse. 18 With an already strong c l a s s i c a l background from Westminster, and some years of continued studies i n Clas s i c s and D i v i n i t y , i t was natural that a man of Herbert's learning and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n should use L a t i n (anda l i t t l e Greek) as the medium for h is e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y work. The f i v e sequences of L a t i n poems (three of which I w i l l not be dealing with directly)—Musae Respoiisoriae Ad Andreae Melvlnl S c o t l Antl-Tami-Cami-Categorlam; Passio Dlscerpta; Lucus; Memoriae Matris Sacrum (also known as Parentalia) and A l i a Poemata L a t l n a — c a n be f i t t e d into d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s of Anglo-Latin poetry. In the very 9 b r i e f introduction to t h e i r b i l i n g u a l e d i t i o n McCloskey and Murphy sum up a generalized approach to each of the sequences, where they mention: "the youthful s a t i r e i n the Musae Responsoriae, the ardent 'Baroque' sense of g u i l t i n the Passio Discerpta, and the s l y didacticism i n the Lucus . . . ;"^ 9 also, "the Memoriae Matrls Sacrum with i t s Petrarchan g r i e f , and the A l i a Poemata Latina with 20 i t s unbounded f l a t t e r y . " More importantly, they continue: Herbert's L a t i n verse i s not only i n the t r a d i t i o n of the Anglo-Latin poetry of h i s time, but i t also reveals s i g n i f i c a n t and little-known sides to h i s character and s t y l e . 21 McClDskey's and Murphy's concise and impressionistic responses to the c o l l e c t i o n s give a hint of the d i f f e r e n t traditions upon which Herbert drew for each of the s e r i e s . Musae Responsoriae i s the best example of Herbert's f a c i l i t y with the s a t i r i c epigram, which derived from the c l a s s i c a l epigrams of M a r t i a l . Passlo Discerpta and Lucus are both representative of the second important branch of the epigrammatic convention, the sacred epigram. Memoriae  Matris Sacrum, while demonstrating many of the common epigrammatic -techniques, i s composed of poems which are rather too long to be termed "epigrams" f i t t i n g l y . Though they are a f i n e example of the L a t i n elegy, Edmund Blunden expresses some surprise at t h e i r being i n L a t i n , and then corrects h i s former impression: 10 I t i s puzzling that he should have chosen to compose h i s elegiac series on the death of h i s mother (1627) i n L a t i n and not English, more p a r t i c u l a r l y because he writes of h i s desire to speak out i n praise of h i s exemplary parent. The s u i t a b i l i t y of the c l a s s i c a l languages f o r panegyric, however, must have appealed to him as Public Orator more than to most men. 22 Indeed, rather than being puzzling, the f a c t that Herbert wrote elegies to h i s mother i n L a t i n rather than i n English i s quite understandable given the reverence accorded L a t i n as the international language of a cultured society. Herbert was too good a f r i e n d and admirer of Francis Bacon not to be imbued with the former's f a i t h i n L a t i n as the language of learned communication and l a s t i n g v a l u e . 2 3 Not only the accumulated t r a d i t i o n of the L a t i n elegy and panegyric would appeal to Herbert with h i s L a t i n t r a i n i n g and profession, but also the b e l i e f that English would not l a s t to p o s t e r i t y as would L a t i n . F i n a l l y , Herbert's least consistent volume of L a t i n poetry, A l i a Poemata Latlna, springs from a t r a d i t i o n of adulatory, occasional L a t i n poetry. This sequence i s i n t e r e s t i n g because three of the poems have been translated into English by Herbert himself and have been included i n place of translations by the e d i t o r s . Of these, two give thanks to John Donne for h i s g i f t to Herbert of h i s sea l , the anchor; the t h i r d i s a t o p i c a l epigram on the expedition of Prince Charles and the Duke of Buckingham to Spain to court the Infanta. Although there are only ten poems 11 i n t h i s group, t h e i r miscellaneous quality explains the t i t l e , and t h e i r very heterogeneous nature i s i n t e r e s t i n g to readers acquainted with The Temple. In spite of the very high respect which h i s contemporaries, and l a t e r seventeenth-century readers, had f o r h i s English works, Herbert's L a t i n poems were never Included in the praise accorded to The Temple, nor did they serve as models as The Temple did f o r so many imitators. Of a l l Herbert's L a t i n poems, Passlo Discerpta and Lucus have received l e a s t attention from e i t h e r readers or commentators, l a r g e l y because they were not published u n t i l 1874 when Grosart included them i n h i s Complete Works i n Verse and  Prose of George Herbert (1874, 3 v o l s . ) . Grosart was the f i r s t e d i t o r of Herbert to make use of the Williams M.S. which contains Passio DlscBrpta and Lucus annexed and i n Herbert's own beautiful s c r i p t . There are few textual problems as f a r as these two c o l l e c t i o n s are concerned, f i r s t l y because Herbert's handwriting i s so clear, and secondly because the words he erased i n order to replace them with others are e n t i r e l y i l l e g i b l e . I t i s surprising that, since the textual problems involved l n the study of Passio Discerpta and Lucus are so few, and that scholars do not have to expend th e i r energies on es t a b l i s h i n g a r e l i a b l e text, more c r i t i c a l attention has not been granted them. I t i s one of the aims of t h i s thesis 12 to suggest that a knowledge of Herbert's L a t i n poetry can illuminate h i s other works and his l i t e r a r y career as a whole and that a knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram and Herbert's work within i t i s necessary to understand Herbert's attitudes to r e l i g i o u s poetry i n both h i s L a t i n and English works. My b e l i e f that the two groups of poems, Passio Discerpta and Lucus, are sacred epigrams i s not accepted by a l l commentators. McCloskey and Murphy, i n t h e i r introduction, seem to acknowledge that they are, by t h e i r grouping of these works under the heading "epigram" when they say: "The s p e c i f i c mark of t h i s form was i t s brevity, as i s to be seen in varying degrees i n a l l the sections of Herbert's verse here, e s p e c i a l l y i n Passio Discerpta and Lucus". 2 4 They also j u s t i f y t h e i r statement by noting that: n . . . the epigram was a vague form using a v a r i e t y of metres, e s p e c i a l l y the elegiac c o u p l e t . " 2 5 Leicester Bradner, on the other hand, i s doubtful of the d e f i n i t e categorization of these works. He says at one point, i n reference to Herbert's L a t i n poems: This seems the proper place to discuss certain other pieces of r e l i g i o u s poetry, which, although they are not epigrams, do not f i t i n very well elsewhere. 26 Yet a few pages e a r l i e r he has said of the Memoriae Matris Sacrum: ''George Herbert's short r e l i g i o u s meditations on h i s mother's death, which may perhaps be classed as sacred epigrams . . . ." I t i s puzzling to f i n d Bradner 13 allowing Memoriae into the class of sacred epigram, and excluding Passio Discerpta and Lucus, e s p e c i a l l y when he praises these l a t t e r poems highly for the q u a l i t i e s p e culiar to the sacred epigram: Much more pleasing than the reply to M e l v i l l e are h i s short poems on the events of Christ's passion i n Passio Discerpta and other poems on moral and r e l i g i o u s themes i n h i s Lucus . . . . Here we f i n d poems combining r e a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g with a high degree of point and p o l i s h . Not so well known as Crashaw's L a t i n epigrams, they may well challenge comparison with them. Also of high rank are his L a t i n poems on the death of h i s mother . . . . 28 This thesis t o t a l l y concurs with Bradner's praise, but, being more d e f i n i t e over c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the poems, w i l l also attempt to demonstrate the f i r m place of Passlo Discerpta and Lucus i n the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram. Gnce we see Herbert as f u l l y aware of the t r a d i t i o n , both English and Continental, behind the sacred epigram which flo u r i s h e d so strongly, though briefly, i n the seventeenth century; ePd capable of expressing through the epigrammatic conventions h i s deep, sincere, personal religious f e e l i n g i n a framework apparently so d i f f e r e n t from that of his English poems, we can begin to see Herbert as a more rounded l i t e r a r y character. The Temple i s too often read and studied as a thing apart, as the one masterpiece of Herbert's short l i f e . With the L a t i n poems kept i n mind also, i t i s easier to reveal certain aspects of Herbert's mind and art which The Temple with i t s a r t l e s s complexity almost conceals. 14 In the following chapters I hope to demonstrate f i r m l y the points here suggested. In order to form a clearer impression of the t r a d i t i o n within which Herbert i s working and the contemporary models and sources upon which he drew, Chapter Two w i l l be a b r i e f survey of the epigrammatic conventions and r e l i g i o u s background from which the sacred epigram drew i t s sustenance. I t w i l l discuss the differences between the epigrammatic s t y l e of Martial and that of The  Greek Anthology, and the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s a t i r i c and the sacred epigram. Chapter Three w i l l present a comparison with other poets of the period working within the same conventions and with the same form, most notably Grashaw, but also such minor and obscure writers as John Saltmarsh, Francis Thynne and John Pyiie. The aim of the Chapter i s to i l l u s t r a t e Herbert's superiority to previous writers i n the use of the r e l i g i o u s epigram and to show some of the differences between Crashaw's use of the form as an expression of the C h r i s t i a n paradox and Herbert's. Chapters Four and Five w i l l comprise a c r i t i c a l study of Passio Discerpta and Lucus, with the intention of i l l u s t r a t i n g Herbert's s k i l f u l use of the conventions of the sacred epigram and thus evaluating the worth of these poems as l i t e r a t u r e . I s h a l l deal with the poems from the point of view of s p e c i f i c poetic techniques: the thematic structure of each work as expressed i n the o v e r a l l arrangement of the poems within each volume, the imagery, and the use of the narrative voice. 15 In Chapter Six I s h a l l discuss the conclusions to be drawn from t h i s study, and also point forward to the s c h o l a r l y work that may be done i n the future, based upon the c r i t i c a l study of Passlo Discerpta and Lucus, on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Herbert's L a t i n poetry to h i s masterpiece The Temple, which w i l l demonstrate the unity of Herbert's l i t e r a r y career as a whole. F i n a l l y , I hope to be able to emphasize Herbert's mastery of the conventions he u t i l i z e d , and the importance and aesthetic value of h i s L a t i n poetry as exemplified by Passio Discerpta and Lucus» CHAPTER TWO—THE ORIGINS OF THE EPIGRAM AND ITS RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS For t h i s Epigramme i s but an i n s c r i p t i o n or wri t i n g made as i t were vpon a table, or i n a window, or vpon the wall or mantell of a chimney i n some place of common resort, where i t was allowed euery man might come, or be s i t t i n g to chat and prate, as now i n our tauernes and common tab l i n g houses, where many merry heades meete, and s c r i b l e with ynke, with chalke, or with a cole such matters as they would euery man should know, and descant vpon. Afterward the same came to be put i n paper and i n bookes, and vsed as ordinarie missives, some of friendship, some of defiaunce, or as other messages of mirth. 1 ^ This passage, from Puttenham's The Arte of English Poesle (1589), presents the idi o s y n c r a t i c and v i v i d view of an Elizabethan l i t e r a r y c r i t i c on the d e f i n i t i o n and use of the epigram. However, Puttenham's three categories, friendship, defiance, and mirth, rather exclude h i s "definition" from the t r u l y l i t e r a r y sphere, although his homely description does give some idea of the o r i g i n a l use, and the development of the epigrammatic form as the Renaissance came to know i t . As Puttenham t e l l s us, the epigram was o r i g i n a l l y an i n s c r i p t i o n , on a building or a tomb* having as i t s subject a person, an incident, or a moral or e t h i c a l exemplum. Most commentators on epigrams and epigrammatists have attempted to define the form by reference to i t s 17 o r i g i n a l purpose. The epigrammatic i n s c r i p t i o n was always b r i e f and'concerned with eith e r one person or event, and as the epigram developed, consonant with i t s o r i g i n a l brevity, i t remained concerned with a single idea. The f a c t that the epigram was often inscribed or engraved on a b u i l d i n g or a stone leads Lessing to comment: The true i n s c r i p t i o n i s not to be thought of apart from that whereon i t stands, or might stand. Both together make the whole from which arises the impression which, speaking generally, we ascribe to the i n s c r i p t i o n alone. F i r s t , some object of sense which arouses our c u r i o s i t y ; and then the account of t h i s same object, which s a t i s f i e s that c u r i o s i t y . 2 Puttenham also has h i s own ideas about the reasons f o r the concision and single-mindedness of the epigrammatic i n s c r i p t i o n : An Epitaph i s but a kind of Epigram only applied to the report of the dead persons estate and degree, or of h i s other good or bad partes to h i s commendation or reproch: and i s an i n s c r i p t i o n such as a man may commodiously write or engraue vpon a tombe i n few verses, p i t h i e , quicke and sententious f o r the passer to peruse, and iudge vpon without any long tariaunce: So as i f i t exeeede the measure of an Epigram, i t i s then ( i f the verse be correspondent) rather an Elegie then an Epitaph. 3 This passage of Puttenham*s, however, also begins to consider one of the major problems for students of the epigram, that of d e f i n i t i o n and categorization: when i s an epigram not an epigram? Commentators both before and since the Renaissance have been puzzled by the Protean qu a l i t y of the epigram. Paul Nixon at the end of his f i r s t chapter i n M a r t i a l and the Modern Epigram gives a neat summary of the general response to t h i s form: 18 I t would be d e l i g h t f u l i f t h i s long discussion i n e v i t a b l y led to a r e a l l y adequate epigrammatic d e f i n i t i o n of the epigram, complete, yet compact. But i t does not. In Greek, L a t i n and modern l i t e r a t u r e , i n a l l three, though i n varying proportions, the epigram may be the solemn epitaph or some savage travesty; i t may be a neat compliment or a s a t i r i c a l thrust; i t may be, i n content, a dainty love poem, a f u g i t i v e piece, an occasional poem on "some single s t r i k i n g idea or circumstance," often hardly to be distinguished from the l y r i c . But no matter what be i t s content, we may usually expect i t to be reasonably short and to end with some graceful, ingenious, pointed, weighty, witty, or s a t i r i c a l turn of thought to which i t s preceding l i n e s lead up; we may always expect i t to end with at l e a s t some rather special emphasis . . . . 4 Nixon expresses a common wish for an "adequate epigrammatic d e f i n i t i o n of the epigram" and i t seems to be overwhelmingly the case that commentators on the epigram prefer to couch th e i r comments i n the form which they are discussing. •Although I do not have the space here to go into t h i s phenomenon i n d e r a i l , examples can be found i n any century; f o r instance, t h i s quatrain by Robert Hayman i n h i s Quodlibets (1628): Sermons and epigrams have a l i k e end, To improve, to reprove and to amend. Some passe without t h i s use, 'cause they are witty: And so doe many Sermons, more's the p i t t y . 5 Probably a better known example i s Coleridge's couplet: What i s an epigram? A dwarfish whole, I t s body brevity, and wit i t s soul. 6 The q u a l i t i e s , or s t y l i s t i c features of the epigram would, at f i r s t glance, appear f a i r l y obvious: brevity and wit as Coleridge t e l l s us. However, when t r y i n g to f i x on a d e f i n i t i o n of the epigram, the student soon becomes faced with the necessity f o r innumerable q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 19 F i r s t l y , does an epigram have tobeany s p e c i f i c length? (This problem a r i s e s with regard to the poems i n Herbert*s Passio Discerpta and Lucus i n that a comparison of t h e i r length with that of Crashaw's epigrams i n Eplgrammata Sacra, f o r instance, shows them on the whole to be much longer.) I t seems to be generally true that the i d e a l epigram i s one which can combine wit with the minimum number of l i n e s . In his e d i t i o n of The Greek Anthology, J.W. Mackail notes that the poems vary from two l i n e s to twenty-eight, but rarely exceed twelve; t h i s comment seems to be generally true of most c o l l e c t i o n s of epigrams. For example, of twenty-one poems in Passio Discerpta, only one i s longer than twelve l i n e s , and of t h i r t y - f i v e poems in Lucus, only three, one of these being the very long "Triumphus Mortis" (The triumph of Death). As Hoyt Hudson notes: Some free souls among the writers, however, from Ma r t i a l down, have protested that they should judge f o r themselves what length i s allowable; so that the business of the student seems to be merely to eount the l i n e s . 8 M a r t i a l , as might be expected, has the l a s t word on the appropriate length of the epigram: Cosconius, who think my epigrams long, you would be useful f o r greasing axles. On t h i s p r i n c i p l e you would fancy the Golossus to be t a l l , and would describe Brutus*s boy as short. Learn what you are ignorant of: often two pages of Marsus and of learned Pedo treat of a single theme. Things are not long from which you can subtract nothing; but you Cosconius make yourdistichs long. 9 Length, then, i s not the only important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the epigram. What then of i t s wit? 20 On the question of wit also q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are necessary, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to the sacred epigram, where subject-matter l a r g e l y controls the kind of wit employed, not only f o r the ending, which i s the usual place to f i n d a display of wit in the epigram, but throughout the poem. In the New Engl i s h Dictionary the "epigram" i s defined as: "A short poem ending i n a witty or ingenious turn of thought, to which the rest of the composition i s intended to lead up." 1 0 This "witty or ingenious turn of thought1? i s usually accompanied or expressed by such devices as anti t h e s i s , paradox, punning, reversal of the thought or idea that has been expressed or intimated throughout, or even simple explanation or disclosure of the " r e a l " subject of the epigram. Of the effectiveness of the l a s t method, t h i s epigram of S i r John Harington's i s a good example: Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason? Why i f i t prosper, none dare c a l l i t treason. (Epigrams, 1618) 11 Hoyt Hudson introduces another q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the "witty or ingenious turn": . . . one based upon the r h e t o r i c a l teaching of the sixteenth century, and the resultant p r a c t i c e . We know what stress that century placed upon sententiousness— or "sentence", as i t was sometimes c a l l e d . I f we are to give epigrammatists of the time t h e i r due, we should amend our d e f i n i t i o n . . . . For the point of an epigram— and I believe t h i s holds true f o r the C l a s s i c a l period as well as for the Renaissance—does not always depend upon a turn of thought. The thought may go straight :? forward, and the point may be merely an emphatic summary of what has already been presented, or a d i s t i l l a t i o n from i t . 12 21 In Greek, the name for t h i s r h e t o r i c a l device i s eplphonema, i n L a t i n , acclamatio. Erasmus, in his Copia Verborum, Liber I I , De Sententils, gi^es t h i s as his description of t h i s f i g u r e : "Now another kind of sententia called eplphonema by the Greeks, Q u i n t i l i a n c a l l s acclamatio. I t i s the f i n a l acclamation of the thing narrated or proved. . . . 13 This kind i s suited to epigrams." A good example of t h i s r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e , the " f i n a l acclamation of thing narrated or proved", i s i n Crashaw's English epigram on the text from St. Matthew, Chapter 28, "Come and see the place where the Lord Lay n: Show me himselfe, himselfe (bright S i r ) 0 show Which way my poore Tears to himselfe may goe, Were i t enough to show the place, and say* Looke, Mary, here see, where thy Lord once lay, Then could I show these armes of mine, and say Looke, Mary, here see, where thy Lord once l a y . H Repetition i s a technique commonly used by Crashaw i n h i s sacred epigrams to present the reader with a concluding acclamatio. Here the f i n a l repeated l i n e serves to contrast the tomb i n which Christ's body was placed,with Mary's arms i n which Christ also lay, and the contrast i s made more s t r i k i n g by the f a c t that the l i n e i s repeated word fo r word. The acclamatio Crashaw uses here i s a l l i t t l e more complex than the examples which Erasmus gives i n the continuation of the passage quoted above since i t involves, as well as the repeated assertion, a turn of thought i n the contrast between Mary's arms and Christ's sepulchre. 22 Puttenham, as well as Erasmus, gives the Renaissance t h e o r i s t ' s view of t h i s r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e : Our poet i n h i s short d i t t i e s , but s p e c i a l l y playing the Epigrammatist, w i l l vse to conclude and shut up h i s Epigram with a verse or two, spoken i n such a sort, as i t may seem a manner of allowance to a l l the premisses, and that with a j o y f u l l approbation, which the Latines c a l l Acclamatio. . . . S i r P h i l i p Sidney very p r e t i l y closed up a d i t t i e i n t h i s s o r t . 15 Acclamatio, provides a le s s usual ending for the epigram than does the "witty or ingenious turn of thought*?, and epigrams involving a n t i t h e s i s , paradox, and punning, are not hard to f i n d . Puttenham quotes t h i s couplet of S i r P h i l i p Sidney's as an example of acclamatio, although i t i s also a good example of a n t i t h e s i s : What medecine then, can such disease remoue, Where love breedes hate, and hate engenders loue. 16 A t y p i c a l example of the epigram based on a concluding pun i s this by Hook: Here comes Mr. Wynter, surveyor of taxes, I advise you to give him whatever he axes, And that, too, without any nonsense or flummery, For though h i s name^s Wynter, his actions are summary? 17 In contrast to the example of acclamatio already given from one of Crashaw's poems, the ending of the poem e n t i t l e d *?Two went up into the Temple to pray" from t i i Steps to the Temple gives a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of h i s f a c i l i t y with the more common witty or ingenious ending f o r an epigram: 23 Two went to pray? 0 rather say One went to brag, th* other to pray: One stands up close and treads on high, Where th*other dares not send his eye. One neerer to Gods A l t a r trod, The other to the A l t a r s God. 18 Here i t i s the a n t i t h e t i c a l inversion i n the l a s t l i n e which gives point to the ending of the epigram, and emphasizes, by the very s i m i l a r i t y of the phrasing, the s p i r i t u a l distance between the two men. These two d i f f e r e n t techniques for concluding an epigram derived from the two v a r i a t i o n s of the epigrammatic form which flourished h e a l t h i l y side by side during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in England. These two sources were the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n epigrams of M a r t i a l , generally s a t i r i c i n intention, and the c o l l e c t i o n of poems known as The Greek Anthology. These two sources are, i n f a c t , not as d i s t i n c t as might be expected since i t i s apparent from some of the epigrams i n The Greek Anthology that the writers had already adopted the t y p i c a l epigrammatic style of M a r t i a l ; these poems appear side by side with other epigrams which could t r u l y be termed "Greek epigrams", so that The  Greek Anthology did present f o r Renaissance writers examples of both the epigrammatic forms. The difference between what one might c a l l the "Roman epigram" and the Greek i s one of technique and intention. Hoyt Hudson u s e f u l l y quotes Lord Neaves on t h i s point: 24 The true or best form of the early Greek epigram does not aim at wit or seek to produce surprise. . . . It s purpose i s to set f o r t h i n the shortest, simplest, and plainest language, but yet with perfect purity and even elegance of d i c t i o n , some fac t or f e e l i n g of such i n t e r e s t as would prompt the r e a l or proposed speaker to record i t in the form of an epigram. 19 Although i n both forms of the epigram a l l the emphasis i s thrown upon the conclusion, Martial i s more concerned with a "witty or ingenious turn of thought" at the end of h i s epigram, whereas the poets of The Greek Anthology normally display a tendency to conclude with what Renaissance commentators would c a l l a sententla or an acclamatio. Take, f o r example, these two poems from The Greek Anthology; I f the best merit be to lose l i f e well, To us, beyond a l l else that fortune came; In war, to give Greece l i b e r t y , we f e l l , Heirs of a l l time's imperishable fame. 20 Cruel i s death,—nay, kindl He that is ta'en Was old i n wisdom, though h i s years were few; L i f e ' s pleasure he has l o s t ; escaped l i f e ' s pain; Nor weddeid joys nor wedded sorrows knew. 21 Martial, on the other hand, was a wit, and a poet s k i l l e d i n the use of innumerable r h e t o r i c a l devices to gain h i s epigrammatic point. His sophisticated narrator assumes a public v o i c e — h i s poems are meant f o r an audience, whereas the e f f e c t of the Greek epigrams more frequently comes from t h e i r i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i m p l i c i t y . Martial's epigrams do not have the s i m p l i c i t y , s i n c e r i t y or that q u a l i t y i n many of the poems of The Greek Anthology which approximates l y r i c i s m . (This r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l y r i c and the epigram i s an 25 i n t e r e s t i n g one e s p e c i a l l y from the point of view of Herbert's early epigrams and the poems generally c a l l e d " l y r i c s " , which constitute The Temple.) The o r i g i n a l Greek epigram was the closest to the primitive memorial i n s c r i p t i o n , and the poems of The Greek Anthology can move e a s i l y into the tone or content of epitaph or elegy: Here lapped i n hallowed slumber Saon l i e s , Asleep, not dead; a good man never dies. 22 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate on the rel a t i o n s h i p of the Renaissance developments of the epigram to these two sources: the s a t i r i c a l , witty epigram based on those of M a r t i a l , and the f l a t t e r , l e s s r h e t o r i c a l , poems of The Greek Anthology, with t h e i r sincere, and often r e l i g i o u s tone. The development of the sacred epigram i s a late phenomenon of the sixteenth century. The almost wholly secular, pagan aspects of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e greatly!influenced the i n i t i a l impetus of English neo-Latin poetry, i n p a r t i c u l a r the epigram. For Martial's bent towards moral and s a t i r i c a l comment i n h i s epigrams resulted, during the Renaissance, i n a great and widespread i n t e r e s t i n the s a t i r i c epigram. As a man of wit and worldly so p h i s t i c a t i o n he attracted the deeply humanistic Renaissance scholars and writers more than did the anonymous writers of The Greek  Anthology. The popularity of the epigram as a form i s symptomatic of the Renaissance voraciousness to incorporate into English l i t e r a t u r e c l a s s i c a l models, ideas, and concepts. 26 The resurgence of c l a s s i c a l learning i n the f i f t e e n t h and sixteenth centuries created an incredible reservoir of l i t e r a r y forms, upon which not only the r a p i d l y developing vernacular l i t e r a t u r e s drew, but also the neo-Latin l i t e r a t u r e of England as well as of the Continent. A good example of the closeness of the two kinds of writing, neo-Latin and vernacular, occurs at the end of the sixteenth century, f i r s t with the group of poets and writers c a l l e d the Pleiade i n France and s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n England the Areopagus, the group of men including Gabriel Harvey, Edmund Spenser, S i r P h i l i p Sidney, Edward Dyer, Fulke G r e v i l l e and Daniel Rogers, whose aim was to t r y to write E n g l i s h poetry using the L a t i n quantitative metric system. The attempt f a i l e d , but i t does indicate a strong desire on the part ©f English poets to make the L a t i n t r a d i t i o n a r e s e r v o i r of metres and forms as well as myths and a l l u s i o n s . As more and more c l a s s i c a l L a t i n documents were unearthed, Renaissance scholars began to discover the beauty of Augustan and S i l v e r L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n comparison with the language of medieval and fifteenth-century writers. Don Cameron A l l e n , i n h i s a r t i c l e "Latin L i t e r a t u r e " , 2 3 mentions the wholesale hunt for new L a t i n texts carried out by men! l i k e Poggius, Orsinus, Aurispa and Landrianus, and the f a c t that they "considered L a t i n of the middle period barbarous 27 and heavy-handed." Thus developed an increased awareness, on the part of the neo-Latin writers of the sixteenth century, of the or i g i n s of the t r a d i t i o n from which t h e i r work sprang, as well as an eagerness to u t i l i z e any l i t e r a r y form a v a i l a b l e . Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, c o l l e c t i o n s of epigrams were written by men f o r whom the very v a r i e t y of poetic literary forms to choose from (epic, l y r i c , sonnet, pastoral, elegy, epigram etc.) was a challenge, and even the most obscure poets dabbled i n every conceivable kind of poetic form, English and L a t i n . S i r Thomas More, one of the f i r s t important writers of the sixteenth century, provides a good example of the v e r s a t i l i t y of Renaissance scholars. More's s a t i r i c epigrams were translations or imitations of poems from both the L a t i n and The Greek Anthology; he also composed many o r i g i n a l epigrams, some on p a r t i c u l a r l y English topics, f o r instance, the fi v e poems at the beginning of Eplgrammata 2 on the marriage and succession of Henry VIII. Innumerable English epigrammatists followed More's example, although the f i r s t anthology of epigrams did not appear u n t i l late i n the sixteenth century with Timothe Kendall's Flowers  of Epjgrammes (1577). More, however, was not alone i n h i s e f f o r t s . The other great humanist scholars and teachers, Grocyn, Linacre and Erasmus, were experimenting at the same time with-the epigram i n L a t i n , Greek, and Eng l i s h . 2 8 I t Is not u n t i l well into the sixteenth century, however, that t h i s poetic v a r i e t y and v e r s a t i l i t y began to include the sacred epigram. The development of the sacred epigram i s a late phenomenon i n the sixteenth century, and i s , I believe, dependent upon another occurrence which greatly influenced English l i t e r a t u r e , and followed n a t u r a l l y a f t e r the l a r g e l y secular i n t e r e s t of the humanistic scholars and writers l i k e Grocyn, Colet, and More. This was the reaction of many men, whether writers or otherwise, against the i n f l u x of c l a s s i c a l , pagan concepts that occurred during the Renaissance, and the attempt to oppose these concepts with those of the C h r i s t i a n l i f e . They could e i t h e r oppose them, or do as the C h r i s t i a n church had done in the very beginning, when she absorbed them into her own context and imposed her own values upon them. L i l y B. Campbell, i n her Divine Poetry and Drama l n  Sixteenth Century England. ° discusses the attempt of sixteenth-century writers to incorporate B i b l i c a l material into t h e i r poems and drama. (It i s B i b l i c a l material alone which she c a l l s n d i v i n e n , and her book i s not concerned with r e l i g i o u s or devotional tone or attitude i n poetry.) Campbell deals with a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t forms: epics, t r a n s l a t i o n s , Mirrors, e p y l l i a and sonnets, although she does not touch upon the epigram. She says that her 29 book i s an attempt to t e l l "The secondary story of the use of the Bible to combat the influence of the new paganism and the new secularism which accompanied the rediscovery of ancient works of l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , " and which "has, 27 however, received scant attention." The sixteenth century saw a concentrated attempt on the part of men l i k e Tyndale and Coverdale to have authorised a Bible i n E n g l i s h . F i n a l l y , i n 1537, the so-called "Matthews Bi b l e " was issued with the King 1 s licence on the t i t l e page. A large part of Tyndale*s t r a n s l a t i o n was retained i n t h i s B i ble, and since Tyndale's choice had been to make his t r a n s l a t i o n popular rather than l i t e r a r y , for the layman rather than the theologian, writers^ i n p a r t i c u l a r , had at t h e i r disposal a vast source book, not only of B i b l i c a l material, but also of idioms and sentence structures which were to become part of r e l i g i o u s and divine poetry. The Authorised Version of the English B i b l e , issued under King James in 1611, i s now recognized as having influenced the English language to a remarkable degree; phrases we can no longer place as B i b l i c a l have become ine x t r i c a b l y woven into the c o l l o q u i a l texture of our d a i l y language. But although t h i s Bible was the product of a committee of learned men, the basis for t h e i r version remained that of Tyndale translated a century e a r l i e r . 30 The almost innate and inadvertent use of B i b l i c a l phrases, Idioms and sentence structures can be i l l u s t r a t e d from any of the r e l i g i o u s poets of the seventeenth century, perhaps best from Herbert and Vaughan, since The Temple and S l l e x S c l n t l l l a n s continually reveal a poetic language based on the prose style of the Authorised Version. The urge amongst poets and dramatists to supplant secular subject-matter with divine affected almost every l i t e r a r y form, the epigram being no exception. In the case of Herbert's sacred epigrams, the two movements which had affected l i t e r a t u r e int&he very beginning of the sixteenth century—the renewed i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s i c a l learning and l i t e r a t u r e , and the desire to combat c l a s s i c a l paganism with C h r i s t i a n material and d e v o t i o n -reached a happy compromise. As he was to do l a t e r and with increased s k i l l i n The Temple, Herbert used his knowledge of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and mythology to heighten his C h r i s t i a n reader's awareness by revealing the C h r i s t i a n l i f e , based on the l i f e and s a c r i f i c e of Jesus Christ, as superior to the pagan l i f e as expressed i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Herbert's contrast was not merely a negative one, as had been that of so many of the e a r l i e r sixteenth-century writers. Whereas John H a l l i n h i s Courte of Vertue (1565) derided by parody and derogatory imitation what he saw to be the pagan, c l a s s i c a l 31 ethic i n an anthology such as the Courte of Venus, Herbert, l i k e Cowley and Milton, used c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s or echoes f o r typological effectiveness, b e n e f i t t i n g by t h e i r metaphorical or imagistic richness while s t i l l e xalting h i s C h r i s t i a n purpose. A more detailed example at thi s point might c l a r i f y the importance of seventeenth-century r e l i g i o u s writers* awareness of c l a s s i c a l material, and the various ways i n which they drew on i t to enrich t h e i r poetry. Miltai, the greatest of the seventeenth-century poets to combine c l a s s i c a l and Ch r i s t i a n elements i n his writing, makes a good comparison with Herbert, f o r i n Milton the reader becomes very much aware of the poet's s e n s i t i v i t y to c l a s s i c a l myth and value and his use of them to give added richness to h i s verse. Consider, f o r example, t h i s description of Eve from Paradise Lost, Book IV: And heavenly choirs the hymenean sung, What day the genial angel to our s i r e Brought her, i n naked beauty more adorned, More lovely, than Pandora, whom the gods Endowed with a l l t h e i r g i f t s ; and G too l i k e In sad event, when to the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnared Mankind with her f a i r looks, to be avenged On him who had stole Joves authentic f i r e . 28 Here Milton prefigures Eve's fate and betrayal of Adam by r e f e r r i n g to Pandora. The comparison with Pandora adds to Eve's stature i n one way, since Pandora was i n legend the most be a u t i f u l of women, and diminishes i t obviously i n another, f o r Pandora loosed every kind of e v i l upon mankind. 32 Herbert's use of c l a s s i c a l material i n a C h r i s t i a n context i s d i f f e r e n t from Milton's i n that i t i s often simpler, barer i n description; often the proper names i n the myth are l e f t to work f o r themselves and gain t h e i r own e f f e c t . For example, i n the twenty-second poem of Lucus, "In Improbum disertum*' (On the eloquence of the wicked), Herbert uses the c l a s s i c a l myth of Philemon and Baucis, almost i n passing: Sericus est d i c t i s , f a c t i s pannusla Baucis: Os & lingua t i b i dlues, egena menus: Your words are s i l k , your deeds The clothes of Baucis: r i c h Your mouth and tongue, poor Your hand. (L, pp. 98-99) 29 There i s nothing of Milton's r e i n f o r c i n g i n h i s own voice the impression he wants his comparison to make on the reader (. . . and 0 too l i k e / i n sad event . . . ) . Herbert, having made his i n i t i a l comparison between the richness of the words of the wicked and the paucity of t h e i r deeds by using the image of Baucis and Philemon, the old, poverty-stric k e n couple who were yet r i c h i n humility and h o s p i t a l i t y to Zeus and Hermes when v i s i t e d by these Gods i n disguise, i s able to leave h i s single reference reverberating i n the minds of h i s readers and conclude his epigram by r e f e r r i n g to another myth, that of Charon, the ferryman of Styx: "Aurea pro naulo lingua Charontis e r i t . " (Your gilded t a l k w i l l be/ Charon's passage money.) The tendency throughout the 33 epigram to h o r r i f y the reader at the eloquence of the wicked r e s u l t s from the use of concrete metaphors rather than abstract ones: words are l i k e s i l k e n cloth, deeds become poor rags, a soul can '•creep'' down an arm, etc. The continual contrasts which these metaphors set up would be underlined throughout the poem f o r the seventeenth-century reader by the comparison between the two myths introduced. I t i s hard to believe that i n h i s reference to Baucis Herbert did not have i n mind the ending of Ovid's story i n The Metamorphoses: Jove and Hermes, delighted at the goodness and h o s p i t a l i t y of the old couple, transform t h e i r poor farm into a marble temple where Baucis and Philemon become p r i e s t s of the Gods, u n t i l f i n a l l y , f r a i l with old age, they are metamorphosed into two trees, t h e i r branches entwining. The legend of Charon represents the complete a n t i t h e s i s of t h i s myth, i n that Charon, squalid and old, f e r r i e d the s p i r i t s of the dead across the Styx, one of the r i v e r s of the underworld, into Hades. The fee f o r the passage was an obol, the coin placed in the mouth of the dead; but f o r the wicked man i n Herbert's epigram, the onlyv:fee he has f o r the passage i s h i s gilded talk, which w i l l lead to death. The successful integration of C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l elements i n poetry was the achievement of only a few writers. The majority tended to s p l i t t h e i r subject-matter into sacred and secular categories, or i n Renaissance terms 34 •^humane" and "divine*?. But the development of the epigram as a medium fo r r e l i g i o u s poetry by writers l i k e Saltmarsh and Thynne did not begin u n t i l at least a century a f t e r the epigram as a s a t i r i c medium was popularised by men l i k e S i r Thomas More and Grocyn at the beginning of the sixteenth century. As in the case of the sonnet, i t s development was determined not by c l a s s i c a l models or derivation, but by contemporary l i t e r a r y models and the p r e v a i l i n g r e l i g i o u s atmosphere. Like the sonnet, the epigram could e a s i l y serve two masters. Barnabe Barnes, Henry Constable, and G i l e s Fletcher used the sonnet form f o r both sacred and secular subject-matter, just as, a l i t t l e l a t e r , John Saltmarsh, Herbert,and Crashaw were to use the epigram. The concision and wit necessary f o r a good epigram, the concomitant r e s t r a i n t these q u a l i t i e s enforced, and the i n t e l l e c t u a l ingenuity they demanded from the poet, suited equally the expression of a s a t i r i c purpose or a r e l i g i o u s one. Although i t i s a-generalization to divide the subject-matter of the epigram into two main categories, s a t i r i c and sacred, to look back on the epigram l i t e r a t u r e from 1515, when More was writing, to 1634 when Crashaw's Epigrammata Sacra was published, these two categories do stand out as the most comprehensive. Herbert|aof course, i s one of the best examples of a young neo-Latin writer interested i n experimenting with both types of epigram; 35 and from the point of view of t h i s thesis i t i s easier and more useful to compare and contrast the sacred epigrams of Herbert with h i s own use of the s a t i r i c epigram i n Musae Responsoriae 3 (especially since I s h a l l not be dealing with Herbert's s a t i r i c epigrams i n the rest of thi s t h e s i s ) , than with epigrams on various topics such as those of Harington or Hook;rquoted e a r l i e r . To point out some of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between one or two poems from Musae Responsoriae and Passio Discerpta might be useful i n showing the extent to which sacred epigrammatists both followed and moved away from t h e i r secular brothers. The s a t i r i c epigram was normally "occasional*' l n the sense that i t was directed at some person or some p a r t i c u l a r event, although, of course, i t s ap p l i c a t i o n was usually meant to widen i n d e f i n i t e l y . The poems i n Musae Responsoriae are mostly "occasional", but i n comparison those of Passio Discerpta are also "occasional" being concerned with the events of the passion and the story of one p a r t i c u l a r man, much more obviously so than are any of the poems l n The Temple, except perhaps for "The S a c r i f i c e " . Many of the poems i n Musae Responsoriae are concerned with sacred subjects or r e l i g i o u s dogma, the s a t i r e being directed towards the attitudes and b e l i e f s of M e l v i l l e and the a n t i - P r e l a t i s t s . Thus, the tenth poem i n Musae Responsoriae, "De Signaculo 36 Crucis" (On the sign of the cross), can be compared to a poem l i k e the thirteenth epigram i n Passio Discerpta, n C h r i s t u s i n eruce" (Christ on the cross). The central focus of the two poems i s , of course, d i f f e r e n t . In the f i r s t Herbert i s concerned to r i d i c u l e M e l v i l l e ' s attitudes towards the "innocuam Crucem" (blameless cross), and does so by using a v a r i e t y of images involving the G r o s s i t s e l f , f o r example, the v i s u a l image of "miserly d e v i l s " being l e s s r e p e l l e d by the cross than M e l v i l l e and h i s a n t i - P r e l a t i s t f r i e n d s : Non plus maligni daemones C h r i s t i cruce Vnquam f u g a r i , quam t u i s o c i j solent. Miserly d e v i l s were Never more repelled by i t Than your friends are wont to be By C h r i s t ' s cross. (MR, pp. 18-19) By the end of the poem the epigrammatic conclusion involves a f i n a l image of the cross as object as well as s a t i r i c play and punning on the word "cross" i t s e l f : Sed non moramur: namque vestra crux e r i t , Yobis fauentibusue, v e l negantibus. But l e t us get to the point: For i t w i l l be your cross, Whether you say yes Or no to i t . (MR, pp. 18-19) Here the i n c i p i e n t "point" of the epigrammatic form i s a c t u a l l y drawn to the reader's attention by the poet h i m s e l f — "Sed non moramur" (But we do not t a r r y ) — and the effectiveness of his point i s enhanced by h i s firm tone of assurance that the cross of Christ w i l l be M e l v i l l e ' s , whether he l i k e s i t or not, such i s the power of God. On a more human l e v e l , 37 the effectiveness i s gained by the sense of M e l v i l l e ' s s t u p i d i t y and argumentative nature, conveyed by the pun on the word "cross** j as a hindrance to or a statement immediately objected to by M e l v i l l e . In the L a t i n verse i t s e l f , the stu p i d i t y of a man automatically objecting to a statement or an idea, whether he agrees pr disagrees with i t , i s captured l n the neat a n t i t h e t i c a l structure and a l l i t e r a t i v e and assonantal e f f e c t : "Vobis fauentibusue, v e l negantibus." The point gained here i s one of wordplay and a n t i t h e s i s , using the conventional epigrammatic conclusion to comment simultaneously on the pos i t i v e aspects of the cross as C r u c i f i x , as well as s a t i r i c a l l y upon the object of the epigram's a t t a c k — M e l v i l l e . A comparison of the above poem with "Christus i n cruce" from Passio Discerpta reveals much the same tenor of approach. There i s the same concentration upon a single thought or l i n e of thought, although the l a t t e r poem does display one d i s t i n c t i v e feature of the epigram not so apparent i n the former: i t i s much more obviously the complement of a highly v i s u a l i s e d image—the actual Crucifixion,(The l i n k s between the form and purpose of the epigram and the emblem , 30 have frequently been commented on). The opening l i n e , with the immediacy of i t s narrative voice and one word "Hie" (here), c a l l s the attention of the reader with an i n s c r i p t i o n a l abruptness: 38 Hie, vbi sanati s t i l l a n t opobalsama mundi, Aduoluor madidae laetus hiansque Cruci: Here, where the healed world•s Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I, joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am driven to the drenched cross: (PD, pp. 70-71) In spite of the necessary r e s t r a i n t i n scope enforced by the brevity of the form, and the necessity of the whole poem concentrating upon one idea, the same technique of •4 sual richness i s employed through the imagery as i t was i n "De Sjgjaculo Crucis". The poem i s ostensibly concerned with the flowing of the blood of Christ during the C r u c i f i x i o n ; however, within the poem that blood has connected with i t a v a r i e t y of images. I t i s "opobalsama" (smooth balm), " s t i l l a r u m " (dew), a rushing torrent with "acres . . . insultus." (rigorous assaults), and f i n a l l y , the blood flowing from Christ becomes both spring and r i v e r i n one l i n e : Christe, fluas semper; ne, s i tua flumina cessent . . . . C h r i s t , keep welling up, for i f your flooding stops . . . . (PD, pp. 70-71) Here the i n t e n s i t y and complexity of t h i s sequence of images, concentrated upon one aspect of the C r u c i f i x i o n , present the reader with a v i s u a l richness into which the paradoxical q u a l i t y of the subject-matter i s integrated. For example, the second image of the narrator "laetus hiansque" (joyous, and my mouth wide open) i s a description rather than an explanation. That he i s t h i r s t y metaphorically f o r the blood 3 9 of C h r i s t i s made apparent i n the l a s t two l i n e s of the epigram, where h i s t h i r s t becomes the r e s u l t of g u i l t and i s only kept at bay by the redeeming blood of C h r i s t : Christe, f l u a s semper; ne, s i tua flumina cessent, Culpa redux iugem te neget esse Deum. Christ, keep welling up, for i f your flooding stops, Revived g u i l t w i l l say you!re not eternal God. (PD, pp. 70-71) The epigram here does not make use of wordplay or . punning, but of an i n t e l l e c t u a l complexity which challenges the reader to a reassessment of h i s habitual responses to the scene that Herbert has placed i n front of him*, The imperative i n the penultimate and the strong negative construction i n the f i n a l l i n e reverse the natural expectations of the reader. T£ere i s no g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the C r u c i f i x i o n as s a c r i f i c e , no intense physical description, no paean of praise, only the a n t i d i a b e t i c and f e a r f u l statement that unless the blood keeps flowing s i n f u l man w i l l lose h is f a i t h . The most s t r i k i n g thing about t h i s epigram i s i t s subtlety and unorthodox use of the conventions. The conclusion of the epigram draws together the t o t a l e f f e c t of the imagery and reinforces what Herbert wishes to convey as the meaning of the C r u c i f i x i o n by i t s use of anticlimax to enhance the f a i t h l e s s and voracious nature of man. The poem i s completely egocentric from the narrator's point of view. There i s none of the usual sense of the agony of the C r u c i f i x i o n and pain that the s a c r i f i c e was made fo r such 40 an unworthy sinner. The wit or ^point" of the epigram i s made by an unusual reversal of expectations; in t h i s case the wit i s being directed towards the reader rather than away from him. One more very b r i e f example of Herbert's a b i l i t y with epigrammatic techniques should demonstrate f u l l y the s i m i l a r i t i e s between s a t i r i c and sacred epigrams, and the way that the sacred epigrammatist could vary the epigrammatic conventions to gain effectiveness i n h i s poetry. Herbert's poem from Musae Responsoriae, ^De iuramento E c c l e s i a e " (On the oath to the Church), once again shows the use of a pun to achieve a witty ending: 0 vere dictum, & b e l i e l cum torqueat omnes Ordinis osores a r t i c u l a r e malum, 0 true, 0 lovely answer'. For every hater of r i g h t order Suffers from a r t i c u l a r disease, (MR, pp. 2Q-E1) Here the pun i s on the word " a r t i c l e " . The s a t i r i c target i s a certain man who cannot kneel down to assent to the Thirty-Nine A r t i c l e s of the Church of England because of his gout. In comparison, the sacred epigrams usually display, i n place of an outright pun, the "witty or ingenious turn of thought" mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. Consider, f o r example, the two li n e epigram "In pium Latronem" (On the good t h i e f ) : 0 nimium La t r o l r e l i q u i s furatus abunde, Nunc etiam Christum c a l l i d u s aggrederis. 41 0 too much a thiefS You have stolen A great deal from everyone E l s e ; now also, c r a f t y , you go up to C h r i s t . (PD, pp. 70-71) Here the epigram gains i t s witty e f f e c t by i t s deliberate ignoring of the t h i e f ' s conversion and subsequent reversal of character. The t h i e f i s good only i n the t i t l e of the epigram, f o r he has, i n f a c t , stolen eternal l i f e . The wit of this statement on the narrator's part r e l i e s upon an underlying envy of the narrator f o r the t h i e f , who, though an unworthy sinner, i s s t i l l redeemed whereas the narrator, as yet, i s not. One of the i n t e r e s t i n g aspects of Herbert's use of the epigrammatic form f o r both sa t i r i c and r e l i g i o u s subject-matter i s that of the intended audience of the epigram, or, from the opposite viewpoint, the "voice" that the poet uses to present h i s epigram. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, this consideration was c l o s e l y linked to the observance of r h e t o r i c a l forms, the study and s k i l f u l practice of which was one of the major occupations and goals of the Renaissance writer. The theory of poetics was coloured by t h i s desire f o r r h e t o r i c a l excellence and s k i l l with " f i g u r e s " . Hudson quotes Erasmus on t h i s point: My greatest approbation i s reserved f o r a r h e t o r i c a l poem and p o e t i c a l oratory . . . the r h e t o r i c a l a r t should transpire through the poem. 31 Of a l l the l i t e r a r y j f o r m s i n use during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the epigram i s perhaps more than 42 any other a ^ r h e t o r i c a l poem." Like any other piece of r h e t o r i c , i t i s designed f o r e f f e c t ; as John Stuart M i l l said i n his famous apothegm, "Eloquence i s written to be heard, poetry to be overheard." Hudson comments: Epigrams are always written to be heard. Their authors address them to an audience. They have the touch of display; and they frequently have as well the persuasive purpose.32 I f we agree that the epigram i s a form which, i n general, u t i l i z e s r h e t o r i c to gain i t s e f f e c t , can we apply Hoyt Hudson's comment above to sacred as well as s a t i r i c epigrams? In the case of r e l i g i o u s poetry, i t _ i s d i f f i c u l t to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between what one might c a l l a r h e t o r i c a l , public, narrative voice, and a simple, unpersuasive, private voice. The "voice" i n The Temple i s usually thought of as personal and intensely private, but i n the epigram we expect the narrator to use a public voice, and speak d e l i b e r a t e l y to an audience. Certainly Herbert described The Temple as the r e s u l t of "the many s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t s that passed r ^ 33 betwixt God and [hisj soul," but he also delivered the manuscript to Edmund Duncon with the injunction that i f i t would do any other poor soul good, i t should be preserved. Helen Gardner in her introduction to her e d i t i o n of John Donne's Divine Poems comments that the r e l i g i o u s poet, no l e s s than the love poet or s a t i r i s t , 54 adopts a pose. The epigrammatist i s obviously a poseur, but i n the seventeenth century the religious writer 43 was also employing a persuasive r h e t o r i c a l pose to " a f f e c t " his readers, and arouse t h e i r emotions. The seventeenth-century r e l i g i o u s background from which the sacred epigram drew i t s sustenance was based upon a t r a d i t i o n of " a f f e c t i v e p i e t y " which had developed during the eleventh century. I t was described by medieval r e l i g i o u s commentators such as Adam St. V i c t o r and St. Bernard as " a f f e c t i v e " i n that i t s intention was to rouse r e l i g i o u s emotions or thoughts within the reader or l i s t e n e r . During the f i f t e e n t h and sixteenth centuries t h i s kind of r e l i g i o u s poetry became intimately linked with the theory and practice of meditation, and by the seventeenth century much of the r e l i g i o u s poetry was based on meditational manuals and tr e a t i s e s by such men as St. Ignatius Loyola and Francois de Sales. The type of meditational poetry 35 which Louis Martz has studied i n d e t a i l , although i t might seem a private and intensely personal kind of writing, i s motivated by a desire not only to exercise the f a c u l t i e s of the meditator but those of the reader also . The a r t of meditation was at the root of r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n the seventeenth century. The control and use of what St. Ignatius Loyola c a l l e d "the three powers of the soul" •— the memory, the understanding, and the w i l l —wereone of the lowest steps on the ladder towards a t r u l y s p i r i t u a l l i f e . They 4 4 were considered to be a necessary part of d a i l y l i v i n g , leading towards the second stage—contemplation. As the i n d i v i d u a l practised meditation, i t was, of course, a private and personal exercise, but when meditation i s transformed into poetry, i t s public voice i s revealed, not only i n i t s " a f f e c t i v e " intentions, but also i n the rhetoric that i s an i n t e g r a l part of i t s expression, since i n i t s r h e t o r i c l i e s i t s persuasive power. A very good example of • seventeenth-century poems based on meditational theory and practices, i s Donne's Anniversaries. Each of the Anniversaries, the F i r s t and the Second, i s divided into f i v e highly structured sections, just as Saint Ignatius Loyola lays down the f i v e stages of meditation i n 36 h i s S p i r i t u a l Exercises; also the tone and expression of the se poems are s t r i k i n g f o r t h e i r deliberate and often exaggerated r h e t o r i c . We know when Donne addresses h i s soul, as i n the following passage, that he i s almost more concerned with the reader than with himself: Thinke then, my soule, that death i s but a Groome, Which brings a Taper to the outward roome, Whence thou spiest f i r s t a l i t t l e glimmering l i g h t , And a f t e r brings i t nearer to thy sight. 37 The Anniversaries are not an is o l a t e d example of t h i s r h e t o r i c a l public narrator i n Donne's r e l i g i o u s poetry; the Holy Sonnets have much of the same r h e t o r i c a l force, and f o r many c r i t i c s are too " t h e a t r i c a l " i n comparison with a poet l i k e Herbert. However, from the point of view 45 of purpose and tone, the Anniversaries would make an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison with Herbert's Memoriae Matris Sacrum, for t h i s sequence of poems reveals Herbert i n a pose completely d i f f e r e n t from that he assumes i n the sacred epigrams or i n The Temple. Although Memoriae Matris Sacrum does not show as great a dependence upon meditational practices as does the Anniversaries, Herbert does, i n many of the poems of The Temple, r e l y to a certain extent upon the meditational t r a d i t i o n . Louis Martz has shown him to be very s i m i l a r i n his r e l i g i o u s attitude to St. Francois de Sales, the seventeenth-century French writer whose Introduction a La Vie Devote (1609) provides a prose guide to Herbert's 38 inner r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Herbert thus i s one of the best examples of the widespread e f f e c t s of r e l i g i o u s movements, that are the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of the r e l i g i o u s background of the seventeenth century. The meditational manuals and handbooks stemmed mainly from a Roman Catholic t r a d i t i o n carried on a c t i v e l y by the J e s u i t s a f t e r the Counter-Reformation, but the theories of meditation and the rule s of holy l i v i n g were well known to Catholics,& Protestants, and Puritans a l i k e . The influence of the medieval t r a d i t i o n on the r e l i g i o u s poetry of the seventeenth century, with i t s encouragement of a public and r h e t o r i c a l voice on the part of the narrator, 46 accounts lar g e l y f o r the appeal that the epigram as a form had f o r r e l i g i o u s poets. But there was also another influence i n the form of the theories of the Je s u i t poets w r i t i n g i n the sixteenth century. Their theories of " a f f e c t i v e " poetry are cl o s e l y linked to Renaissance theories of the epigram, i t s r h e t o r i c , and i t s concentration on a single i d e a . 3 9 I t i s possibly t h i s strong connection between the r h e t o r i c of the epigram and the " a f f e c t i v e " and persuasive aims of the r e l i g i o u s poets which has been l o s t sight of by twentieth-century readers. The r h e t o r i c a l force of Donne's Holy Sonnets appears " t h e a t r i c a l " to some twentieth-century readers simply because they regard only the intensely private voice as f i t t i n g f o r a r e l i g i o u s poem and cannot understand how r h e t o r i c a l conventions can be used to express r e l i g i o u s s i n c e r i t y . I would l i k e to conclude t h i s chapter by r e i n f o r c i n g the argument i n favour of the epigram as an eminently suitable form for r e l i g i o u s poetry. As the epigram developed through the Renaissance and seventeenth century, i t s concision and wit were recognized as providing poets with q u a l i t i e s of form which other c l a s s i c a l models did not o f f e r them. For the vernacular writers the long epic or e p y l l i a provided scope and range f o r development and experimentation with a new and growing language. For the neo-Latin writer i n search of the s i m p l i c i t y and sophist i c a t i o n of Martial and 47 the refined Augustan La t i n which had been a l l but l o s t during the Middle Ages, the epigram allowed him to display h i s wit and h i s knowledge of a language f l e x i b l e enough to express adequately and b r i e f l y that wit with perfect refinement of d i c t i o n . For the r e l i g i o u s poet the epigram provided a form which, -through the i n t e l l e c t u a l ingenuity i t demanded, allowed him to express the e s s e n t i a l paradoxes upon which h i s b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n i t y was founded! In the following chapter I s h a l l compare Herbert with other sacred epigrammatists of the period i n order to demonstrate his superiority, not only in the use of the t r a d i t i o n a l epigrammatic conventions discussed i n this chapter, but also i n his use of those conventions to express his r e l i g i o u s s i n c e r i t y and arouse the r e l i g i o u s emotions of h i s reader. CHAPTER THREE—PREDECESSORS AND CONTEMPORARIES In t h i s chapter I should l i k e to consider very b r i e f l y the r e l a t i v e merits of the sacred epigrammatists e a r l i e r than and contemporary with Herbert, and of Herbert himself as displayed in Passio Discerpta and Lucus. Herbert's use of the sacred epigram, as I hope to show, i s undoubtedly superior to that of any of the sixteenth-or seventeenth-century writers, e i t h e r i n L a t i n or i n English. The majority of the sacred, or indeed secular, epigrams written at t h i s time were i n L a t i n rather than English, although many of the writers of L a t i n epigrams also supplied English translations of t h e i r own work. Since i n t h i s chapter I am to be l a r g e l y concerned with d i f f e r e n t uses of the common epigrammatic techniques, I s h a l l use epigrams both i n English and L a t i n f o r the purposes of comparison with Herbert. In t h i s chapter I have classed as sacred epigram writers only those predecessors or contemporaries of Herbert whose work with the epigrammatic form follows c l o s e l y the outlines suggested i n Chapter Two. Of the writers I have chosen to compare with H e r b e r t — Timothe 49 Kendall, Andrew W i l l e t t , Robert Farley, Francis Thynne, John Saltmarsh, John Pyne, and Richard Crashaw—Willett and Farley are included only to sharpen s l i g h t l y my d e f i n i t i o n of a sacred epigrammatist and distinguish him quite c l e a r l y from the emblem wr i t e r . None of the other men named here has as established a reputation as Herbert, but each i s i n t e r e s t i n g as demonstrating a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the growth of the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram. Kendall, f o r instance, was a translator and anthologist rather than an o r i g i n a l w r i t e r , hut had a d e f i n i t e interest i n the epigram form, and Thynne i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r h i s clear d i s t i n c t i o n between the emblem and epigram. Saltmarsh demonstrates the desire of the Renaissance writers to draw the Bible into English l i t e r a t u r e , and Crashaw serves as the most comparable measure in the period of Herbert's s k i l l with the form. The works of these writers show the form of the epigram gradually developing as a medium f o r the expression of sincere relgious f e e l i n g i n a writer l i k e Herbert, and, at h i s very best, Crashaw. Saltmarsh was too often concerned with h i s witty r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a B i b l i c a l incident; Pyne too often used h i s "epigrammata r e l i g i o s a " f o r s a t i r i c a l thrusts at Catholicism. Crashaw frequently forgot h i s s i n c e r i t y i n the delight of h i s wordplay. Herbert's 50 achievement was to maintain within the form of the sacred epigram his own genuine r e l i g i o u s emotion and h i s own d i s t i n c t i v e n a r r a t i v e . But Herbert's achievement can only be judged by comparison with the work of previous writers. As I Mentioned e a r l i e r i n Chapter Two, the resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n the epigram as a form began at the beginning of the sixteenth century, with writers l i k e More, Grocyn and Linacre; however, i t was not u n t i l much l a t e r i n the century, in 1577, that the f i r s t English anthology of epigrams was published by Timothe Kendall. Kendall's Flowers of Epigrammes, out of sundrle the moste singular  authours selected . . . i s composed of h i s own translations of the epigrams of a va r i e t y of "the best writers, as well antique as neoterique, of Epigrammes".1 The antique writers include men l i k e M a r t i a l , Balbus, and Ausonius, while the neoterique are represented by Buchanan, Haddon, Parkhurst, More, Ascham, and Kendall. In f a c t the author most widely represented in the volume i s Kendall himself. Kendall's selection of epigrams does not provide many that could be classed as sacred in subject-matter or tone. Some of h i s translations of epigrams from The Greek  Anthology approximate r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , but these poems show none of the so p h i s t i c a t i o n of the epigrammatic conventions to be found i n Herbert. What i s e s p e c i a l l y noticeable as lacking i s the subtle s k i l l with which the climax of 51 the epigram i s engineered. In an epigram such as the following there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between the body of the epigram and i t s ending. The moral purpose of the epigram renders the thought continuous i n the four l i n e s ; there i s no "turn" or ingenuity involved: Nothyng Hid from God Thou C a i t i f f e though thou doe conceale, thy crimes from men belowe: Yet them to God thou must reveale, whether thou w i l t or no. 2 A comparison of t h i s poem with Herbert's "In Stephanum lapidatum" (On the stoning of Stephen) reveals the difference between the two types. Since the Greek epigram i s , i n f a c t , very d i f f e r e n t from the L a t i n epigram of M a r t i a l or l a t e r writers in i t s use of the epigram form, i t i s 3 perhaps unfa i r to compare i t with Herbert. However, even a comparison with one of Kendall's own epigrams which could be classed as "sacred" s t i l l reveals either o Herbert's superiority, or the great develpment of epigrammatic techniques between 1577 and 1620: Christe speaketh. The ayre, the earth, the seas, the woods, and a l l s h a l l once awaie: Alone my worde s h a l l s t i l l remaine, and (standing stedfast) s t a l e . 4 I t i s hard not to be harsh to Kendall on the score of this epigram, but he does have an excuse i n the t i t l e of the s e l e c t i o n of his own poems: " T r i f l e s by Timothe Kendal 52 deuised and written (for the moste part) at sundrie tymes i n his yong and tender age."° Kendall's volume i s i n t e r e s t i n g also because i t contains a number of epigrams by a variety of l a t e r writers concerned with Rome and the Pope. He selects two from George Buchanan, f o r instance, "Of Rome" and'Against Pope Pius", both of which are an improvement upon Kendall's own poem ^A Comparison betweene Christ and the Pope". The Pope and Rome seem to be common subjects i n l a t e r epigram c o l l e c t i o n s , and th i s prevalence may have influenced Herbert i n h i s series of poems on Pope Urban VIII i n Lucus. Buchanan's poem "Of Rome" i s more heavy-handed than say Herbert's "Roma. Anagr." (Rome. An anagram), but i t handles w i t t i l y the wordplay upon the basic metaphor of the shepherd and the wolf, and the c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n to Romulus-and Remus who were suckled by the wolf and founded Rome. I t also has an extremely c o l l o q u i a l and i n t e r e s t i n g narrative voice, and, as i n many of Herbert's poems, the e f f i c a c y of the epigram i s due as much to the manipulations of the tone, as to what i s said: Of Rome I nothyng muse a Shepheard doeth, i n Rome the scepter holde: S i t h that a Shepheard b u i l t the same, (as sundrie bookes have tolde) And s i t h the founder of the same, with Woulvishe milke was fedde: I marvell nothyng at a l l , -though Rome of Woulves be spedde. 53 But t h i s me thinketh wondrous straunge, that l a t e a flocke should rest In Rome of ravenyng murdryng woulves, and never he opprest. 7 Although Kendall's anthology was the f i r s t of i t s kind, i t was not an o r i g i n a l volume. Kendall took on the task of selection and t r a n s l a t i o n from mainly Latin, or Anglo-Latin authors, and was concerned with presenting a representative s e l e c t i o n . I t was not u n t i l the turn of the century, t h i r t y years l a t e r , that c o l l e c t i o n s s o l e l y of sacred epigrams began to be Issued. Leicester Bradner, i n Musae Angllcanae, mentions the simultaneous r i s e of the sacred epigram and the emblem: In the r e l i g i o u s f i e l d the sacred epigram, based upon the Bible or the feasts and f a s t s of the C h r i s t i a n year acquired a great popularity, which however, i t was obliged to share with the emblem-books containing short poems expounding the p i c t u r e s . 8 Bradner appears to l i n k the epigram and the emblem because the writers of both made use of Ovidian style and r h e t o r i c : The sacred epigram, as we have noted at the beginning of t h i s section, was developed greatly at the end of the Renaissance by the Je s u i t writers. Their aim seems to have been to produce a body of r e l i g i o u s L a t i n verse i n Ovidian s t y l e to counteract the influence of e r o t i c secular L a t i n verse. To t h i s end the Jesuit poets on the Continent u t i l i z e d a l l the t r i c k s of Ovidian r h e t o r i c i n dealing with r e l i g i o u s themes and s i t u a t i o n s . In the same way the authors of r e l i g i o u s emblem-books applied Ovidian style to drawing the moral i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r p i ctures. 9 Thus s l i g h t l y l a t e r Bradner mentions Andrew W i l l e t t ' s volume of 1596 as the f i r s t English c o l l e c t i o n of sacred epigrams to be published: 54 . . . i t was not u n t i l 1596 that a volume appeared con-t a i n ingv r e l i g i o u s epigrams. This was the Sacrorum  emblematum centurla una of the noted clergyman, Andrew W i l l e t t . W l l l e t t was not by nature a poet, and h i s emblem-verses, which he provides with an English t r a n s l a t i o n , are l i t t l e more than imitations of the conventional type already established by Continental w r i t e r s . 10 Undoubtedly Elizabethan and Jacobean usage of the term "epigram* was very loose and the term covered a great many d i f f e r e n t kinds of poems; however, the f i r s t English emblem book had appeared i n England i n 1586 with Gecffrey Whitney's Choice of Emblemes, and by 1596 the term emblem had been f a i r l y well defined, even i f the word "epigram" had not. In view of the fact that W i l l e t t a c t u a l l y describes his hundred poems as "emblems", and also that i n the majority of cases the poems do not reveal any of the intentions or techniques of the epigram as i t was r a p i d l y being recognized, I think i t i s reasonable to accuse Bradner pf rashness i n elevating W i l l e t t to the height of f i r s t Elizabethan sacred epigrammatist. Hoyt Hudson puts very well the argument f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two terms "emblem" and "epigram"; he admits that "the emblem f a l l s within the scope of epigrammatic poetry, broadly considered", 1 1 then continues: the emblem i s easy to recognize, since i t accompanies an a l l e g o r i c a l pr a symbolical pic t u r e ; and i t s purpose i s to point out the "lesson" of the pi c t u r e . I t i s , to be sure, a kind of i n s c r i p t i o n , but i t s a l l e g o r i c a l , symbolical, and homiletic nature set i t apart from the true epigram. In practice, the two are not often confused. Francis Queries wrote both emblems and epigrams, but he kept them f a i r l y d i s t i n c t ; and the same statement holds f o r Francis Thynne and f o r Henry Peacham. Thynne had no pictures prepared for h i s 55 emblems, and r e a l i z i n g the importance of the omission he apologized f o r presenting them "naked (for soe I doe terme them, because they are not clothed with engraven p i c t u r e s ) . " 12 Like Thynne and Peacham, W i l l e t t also l e f t h i s emblems "naked". That i s , they are not accompanied by pictures, but s t i l l t h e i r emblematic q u a l i t i e s , as against epigrammatic, can be pointed out, e s p e c i a l l y when compared with an epigrammatist l i k e Herbert. Consider, f o r example, this poem of W i l l e t t * s on the same subject as Herbert's ?Auaritia5 i n Lucus; AVARTJS. Emblema 36. Vt ventum unus captat & a l t e r i n igne laborat Tertius atque lutum t r a c t a t ineptus humi. Hi perdunt operam, sed tentans omnia cura In nihilum r e c i d i t , t a l i s avarus e r i t . Sicut ventus opes fugiunt, ut i n igne liquescuunt, Istque a e r i s prorsus s i c lutulentus amor. The Translation. Here one the winde would catch i n hand, another workes i n f i r e : The t h i r d doth digge f o r heauy sand, and s t i r r e s i n stinking mire. A l l these doe but t h e i r labour loose, i n vaine they take this care: So i s the man that doth repose h i s t r ust i n earthly ware. For riches f i l e as f a s t as winde, and melt even as with heate, And he that gaine with greedie minde makes earth h i s meate. 13 The poem consists of a series of images which are, i n f a c t , similes, although i n the poem they are not stated as such, l a r g e l y because they are actual verbal descriptions of what would be v i s u a l l y represented i n the p i c t o r i a l emblem. 56 The usual pattern of the emblem was description, application, and explanation, as can be seen in the above poem of Wi l l e t t * s . In the English version, l i n e s 1 to 6 are descriptive, l i n e s 6 to 9 apply these various descriptions to the moral object upon which the poem i s centring, and l i n e s 10 to 13 expand and amplify the a p p l i c a t i o n . The poem i s neatly s p l i t into three sentences to follow t h i s pattern exactly, and the three parts are c l o s e l y linked and move forward l o g i c a l l y towards the end of the poem. The differences between this poem and Herbert's " A u a r i t i a " (Avarice) point out very obviously the differences between the epigram and emblem: Aurum nocte videns, v i d i s s e insomnia d i c i t : Aurum luce videns, n u l l a videre putat. 0 falsos homines'. T i g i l a t , qui somniat aurum, Plusque habet hie laetus, quam v e l Auarus habet. Gold seen at night i s said To be a dream, And i n the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . 0 vain Men, he i s awake who dreams Of gold: he's got more gold than even The avaricious man. (L, pp. 86-87) Herbert's poem i s not a verbal description of an imaginary p i c t u r e ; h i s imagery i s functional and does not serve the purpose of a descriptive, a l l e g o r i c a l meaning, but displays verbal wit. Also, the effectiveness of t h i s epigram i s gained more frequently by the d i s t i n c t contrast between the ideas within i t . Whereas i n the emblem the parts of the 57 poem move, l o g i c a l l y connected, toward the conclusion, the climax of the epigram usually takes the form of a witty turn of thought or reversal of expectation. The aim of the emblem, even i f i t i s not accompanied by an actual picture, i s to draw attention to the art and meaning of a work other than i t s e l f , where the aim of the epigram i s to draw attention to the a r t , or wit, of i t s own construction and idea. Rosemary Freeman has a rather harsh comment upon "the laborious and learned Dr. W i l l e t " : 1 4 The Centuria demonstrates the extent to which the emblem could become elementary, and though i t s author has a place among the emblem writers f o r h i s profession of o r i g i n a l i t y , a place among the poets he could scarcely claim. 15 Like Andrew W i l l e t t , the Scottish poet Robert Farley, whom Leicester Bradner places i n the company of the epigrammatists John Saltmarsh and Richard Crashaw, i s also undoubtedly an enHematist. His Lychnocausla sive moralia  emblemata (1638), h i s best known work, i s a series of L a t i n emblems, with the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and h i s own English t r a n s l a t i o n s . Lesser known and more in t e r e s t i n g f o r t h i s paper i s his Kalendarlum Humanae Vltae (1638). Lychnocausla i s comprised of poems that are undoubtedly emblems, but the Kalendarlum, though i t also makes use of emblem i l l u s t r a t i o n s , frequently reaches out i n some of i t s poems beyond the s u p e r f i c i a l meaning of the picture, and at times Farley u t i l i z e s the techniques and approaches the form of the epigram; f o r 58 example, t h i s poem from the Kalendarlum i l l u s t r a t i n g an emblem with the motto "Ecce novum gaudium" (Behold new Joy): 0 what a pleasure i s ' t to see My new-sprung bud, which w i l l be tree! The g l i s t ' r i n g grasse with Phoebus ray Doth make me cheere f u l l looke, and gay: But (ah!) i f these my Flowers should die, Lord what would then become of me. l i e / t e l l thee, t h i s thy brood w i l l wither, Doe not despare, you'le have another. 16 This poem does u t i l i z e c e r t a i n of the epigrammatic techniques whieh Herbert uses to such great e f f e c t . For example, i n the second h a l f of the poem, the author completely changes the thought and tone by transforming h i s poem into a dialogue i n the l a s t two l i n e s . Herbert's more refined use of t h i s technique i s evident i n a poem such as "Martha: Maria" (Martha; Mary) from Lucus, but Farley's poem does p a r t i a l l y display the techniques and the e f f e c t of the epigrammatic form. Discounting W i l l e t t or Farley as the f i r s t English writers of o r i g i n a l epigrams, whether i n L a t i n of English, we are l e f t with Francis Thynne, whose manuscript Emblernes and Epigrames was prepared f o r publication i n 1600, but was not published u n t i l 1876. Thynne, as his t i t l e suggests, makes a very cl e a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n his volume between the emblems and epigrams. Rosemary Freeman mentions that his emblems, f o r the most part, were based upon Continental or contemporary models, but only b r i e f l y mentions h i s epigrams: Although the emblems are naked ('for soe I doe terme them because they are clothed with engraven p i c t u r e s ' ) , Thynne has them always very c l e a r l y before h i s eye: . . . . I t i s t h i s feature which distinguishes 59 the emblems from the epigrams that follow. Those r a r e l y have any p i c t o r i a l reference and aim purely at verbal wit; the emblems, however, are f i r m l y based on:«their imaginary pictures. 17 Thynne's epigrams are by no means s o l e l y "sacred" i n character. The majority are s a t i r i c a l or t o p i c a l , some are cautionary, but there are a few that can be compared i n subject and tecMique with those of Herbert, although t h e i r quality, on the whole, i s undoubtedly i n f e r i o r . Consider, f o r example, Thynne's twenty-fourth epigram "Fayth": Our Saviour Christ, with words of g r e i f e complayned, that when he came to Iudge the world by fyer, that fayth should not be found to h i s desire, soe g r e a t l i e should the Ch r i s t i a n fayth be strayned. but i f he nowe the same would come to finde, he should see faythes more than stande with h i s minde; f f o r greater and more f a i t h s i n yearth, with menn did not abounde, Soe contrarie, soe confident, soe pleasant to bee founde. 18 This poem can be well compared with Herbert's epigram from Passio Discerpta, "In Arund. Spin. Genuflex. Purpur." (On the reed, thorns, bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) , which i s concerned, i n a d i f f e r e n t way, with f a i t h : Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s , Gens improbal quam male cedunt Scommatal Pastorem semper Arundo decet. Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s l cum qub magis angar acuto Munere, Rex tantb v e r i o r inde prober. How vain your fun, you wicked brood1 How badly ; jokes turn out I How vain your funl The reed W i l l always be the shepherd's. The more acute the g i f t of pain, * The truer King i t proves I am. (PD, pp. 66-67) 60 Thynne's epigram i s i n reported speech, whereas Herbert's i s an address d i r e c t l y to the "barbari men" from Christ himself; but both poems follow the form of the medieval "Complaint" from the Cross. These two poems contrast strongly i n the tone which i s used. Herbert's epigram i s t r u l y serious, in keeping with h i s speaker. The wit of Herbert's ending i s serious, unlike Thynne's which i s d i s t i n c t l y humorous, because, in Herbert* s case, h i s '•witty" ending i s the r e s u l t of the turn of thought he uses, and his playing with;.the C h r i s t i a n paradox of l i f e and death. Much of the e f f e c t of Herbert's epigram follows from his use of an indignant, indeed almost piqued narrative voice which, of course, i s that of C h r i s t . Where the normal expectation would, fe reinforcement, at the end of the epigram, of the B i b l i c a l statement that Christ died that we might l i v e , here we do not receive that reinforcement, but the assurance that those without f a i t h , i n t h i s case the Jews, are murderers, and Christ w i l l receive e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e to watch them di e . Thynne*s epigram does not have the complexity of f e e l i n g or thought that Herbert's epigram reveals, but i t gains i t s e f f e c t through s i m i l a r techniques, and i s by no means a poor example of i t s kind. Itsywit and humour stem from i t s c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n and sentence structure, and the fac t that Thynne takes the idea of the ''Complaint" so l i t e r a l l y . The wit i n the climax of the epigram derives from i t s complete reversal 61 of the reader's expectations. Christ might be expected to condemn the f a i t h l e s s on earth, but a l l the reader receives i s the impression of a multitude of faiths and the l i l t i n g l i n e describing them. However, Francis Thynne cannot be t r u l y regarded as a sacred epigrammatist. His f l a i r was much more towards humour than wit, as can be seen from the epigram "Fayth" or some of his more topieal poems such as "A Tench and a Wench", an amusing dialogue between a Catholic and a Protestant who are s i t t i n g at dinner, one eating f i s h , the other f l e s h : At length the Catholike complaind, our wantoun times to bee disordered i n everie thinge, as d a i l i e hee did see: • f f o r nowe our Protestants, (said hee,) which newe Rel-igion take, Twixt Pigg and BJke, twixt Carpe and Capon, not anie difference make.* To whome the other r e p l i e d : 'wee make such difference of t h e i r kinde As Papists doe twixt tench and wench, to serve t h e i r wantoun minde. 19 This kind of use of the epigrammatic techniques i s very f a r removed from the wit and emotional f e e l i n g of Herbert's poems on Urban VIII, f o r instance. Another poet who was contemporary with Herbert, and can be f a i r l y classed as a sacred epigrammatist, i s John Saltmarsh, whose volume Poemata Sacra, Latine, a c Anglice  s c r i p t a was published at Cambridge i n 1636. Saltmarsh 62 i l l u s t r a t e s very well the movement during the late sixteenth and e a r l y seventeenth centuries to incorporate B i b l i c a l material into l i t e r a t u r e . A l l of Saltmarsh's "sacred poems" are on subjects taken from the Old Testament, and not only f o r t h i s reason, but because h i s poems are i n L a t i n with no English t r a n s l a t i o n , does he provide a good contrast with Herbert. The t i t l e s of Saltmarsh's poems are a l l taken from the L a t i n version of the Old Testament; f o r example, "De lapsu primi hominis" (On the f a l l of the 20 f i r s t man), "In Adamum se abscondentem i n t e r arbores h o r t i a f a c i e Del" (On Adam hiding himself from the face 21 of God amongst the trees of the garden), or "Ad Noam 22 de Columba" (The Dove to Noah). Saltmarsh's poems on the whole are ^ shorter than Herbert's, but display, ..within l i m i t s , the same techniques and conventions. The one l i m i t a t i o n of Saltmarsh's volume i n comparison with Herbert's i s i t s very narrow range of subject-matter and reference. In a poem l i k e " A f f l i c t i o f - 5 n i ( A f f l i c t i o n ) from Lucus, Herbert i n the space of four l i n e s makes i m p l i c i t reference to several B i b l i c a l incidents, whereas Saltmarsh would usually concern himself only with the witty i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the one he had chosen. However, a few of Saltmarsh's epigrams involve a t least one reference other than that at the basis of the poem; f o r example, h i s "In gladium flammam vibrantem, custodientem hortum Eden" (On the waving sword of flame, guarding the garden of Ed e n ) : 2 3 63 QValis erat gladius? Mors i n rauerone latebat: Ardebat flammis saeva gehenna su i s . What kind of sword was i t ? Death larked at i t s point: A savage Gehenna glowed i n i t s flames. 24 Here the point of the epigram gains i n effectiveness by Saltmarsh's use of .the reference to Gehenna, the Hebrew word f o r H e l l , but also a name f o r the v a l l e y of Hinnom where, 25 i n Chronicles 2, Ahaz s a c r i f i c e d h i s children by f i r e . The wit and s k i l l of Saltmarsh's epigram l i e s i n h i s concise i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the fate of Adam and Eve a f t e r they have been expelled from Paradise, and warned not to return by the waving sword. In Genesis, no inter p r e t a t i o n i s put upon the sword, although we are to l d that i t i s there to prevent Adam or Eve from returning and eating of the tree of l i f e . Saltmarsh l i n k s the sword, an instrument of death, with the earthly mortality that Adam and Eve are subject to, and the flames of the sword he l i n k s with the flames of H e l l . The reference to Gehenna here would also undoubtedly bring to the seventeenth-century reader's mind the s a c r i f i c e of innocent children by f i r e i n Hinnom. pet Again, i n "Comix & Columba" (The Crow and the Dove) Saltmarsh displays h i s verbal and i n t e l l e c t u a l wit i n the epigram by using h i s own inter p r e t a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r Old Testament incident: Effusa i n pennam Comix ingrata volabat: Missa Columba volat, nuntia grata r e d i t . Dispar par volucrum, mens l l l i s d i s c o l o r : Inde Alba Columba f u i t , Corvus at ater erat. 64 Spreading f o r t h i t s wings, the Crow ungratefully set o f f : The Dove sent out, sped f o r t h , and, a grat e f u l messenger, returned. An unequal p a i r of birds, t h e i r hearts were of d i f f e r e n t colours: Thenceforth the Dove was white, but black the Raven. 27 Saltmarsh*s technique here i s to a t t r i b u t e to the Dove and Raven human responses and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; one i s "ingrata** (ungrateful), the other "grata" ( g r a t e f u l ) . Thus, he can use as h i s witty climax the comparison between each bird's "mental a t t i t u d e " and i t s physical appearance. This technique i s s i m i l a r to that used by Herbert i n "In pium Latronem" (On the good t h i e f ) from Passlo Discerpta, where the wordplay i s based upon mental attitude and appearance. Herbert, however, i n h i s epigram, takes the comparison one step further by regarding the goodness of the t h i e f as merely another example of h i s c r a f t . One more example from Saltmarsh should demonstrate c l e a r l y the kind of techniques that writers contemporary with Herbert regarded as necessary f o r and appropriate to the epigrammatic form. "In Arcum Pluvium" (On the Rainbow) shows Saltmarsh once again r e i n t e r p r e t i n g a B i b l i c a l incident i n order to demonstrate h i s verbal wit and i n t e l l e c t u a l a g i l i t y : Imicat i n c o e l i s Arcus, sed n u l l a Sagitta: Tempore D i l u v i i missa Sagitta f u i t . A bow flashes i n the sky, but no arrow: The arrow was shot at the time of the flood . 28 65 As i n "In gladium flammam vlbrantem", the poet's r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n involves a strong sense of the wrath of God and the fate which man has brought upon himself, rather than hopeful and promising aspects of the appearance of the rainbow to Noah. The turn of thought i n the epigram i s simple. The reader i s surprised i n the f i r s t l i n e by being told that the arrow does not l o g i c a l l y folbw the appearance of the bow, and surprised i n the second that the arrow has i n fact preceded the bow. However, the studied understatement and concision of the second l i n e , combined with i t s tone of foreboding and pessimism, make the poem more successful than some of Saltmarsh's apparently more complex epigrams. F i n a l l y , a sacred epigrammatist who forms a good contrast with Saltmarsh and Herbert, i s John Pyne who i s almost c e r t a i n l y the author of a volume e n t i t l e d Eplgrammata r e l i g i o s a , o f f i c l o s a , locosa, which was published in London i n 1627. Pyne's epigrams are i n both L a t i n and English, and, i n the section e n t i t l e d "Eplgrammata r e l i g i o s a " , are on a variety of subjects some sacred, some secular and t o p i c a l . Pyne had a certain f l a i r f o r humour as well as verbal wit i n h i s epigrams; l o r instance, the humour i n the epigram "De I t a l i a . Ad Geographos." 29 (On Italy. To the Geographers.) compares very well with Herbert's more sophisticated humour i n his three poems on Pope Urban VIII: 66 I t a l a cum c r u r i s i t facta simillima Terra, Cur Romam Terrae venditat esse Caput. Is I t a l i e a Legge, and Rome confinde Therein would he the Head; 0 haughtie mindel 30 It i s Byne.ls English t r a n s l a t i o n rather than h i s L a t i n that reveals the latent humour of the epigram. I think that the epigram speaks f o r i t s e l f . The absurdity of the mental picture that it conjures up i s the r e s u l t of s l y good humour rather than verbal wit or wordplay; Herbert, on the other hand, uses a much more refined and elegant tone i n an epigram such as "Respons. ad Vrb 7 I I I n (Response to Urban Y I I I ) : Non placet vrbanus noster de nomine lusus Romano, sed res ser i a Roma t i b i est: Nempe Caput Romae es, cuius mysteria v e l l e s Esse iocum s o l i , plebe stupente, t i b i : OQur urbane game about the Roman name Does not please you, But Rome herself concerns you very much. For sure you are the head of Rome, The mysteries of whom you would Like to make a private joke of, With cowlike commoners around. (L, pp# 104-105) The difference between th i s epigram by Herbert and Pyiie's just quoted i s that Herbert's tone places him i n a morally superior p o s i t i o n to the Pope he i s deriding. The narrator of Pyne's epigram i s dealing with a much simpler idea and gives the impression of a man merely t r y i n g to make ri d i c u l o u s h i s target rather than subtly undermining i t with h i s wit. 67 Pyne's English translations can sink to a much more elementary l e v e l than the one quoted above; f o r example, the epigram e n t i t l e d simply ••Roma** (Rome): Roma Caput Mundi se i a c t i t a t esse, Monarchas Pr o d i d i t , abscindi debuit ergo Caput. Rome would as Head ouer the World be dreaded, But shee's a Traytor, and should be beheaded. 31 Yet Pyne's English epigrams are inter e s t i n g because i n many cases they u t i l i z e a d i s t i n c t l y emblematic approach and method, which Herbert r a r e l y or never did i n h i s L a t i n epigrams: Words. As Smoake which from the Chimney doth proceed, Doth argue some f i r e which Is burning there: So Words a breath l i k e Smoake, which tMheart doth breed, Should shew the ardent loue which th*heart doth beare. But as most Smoake doth from le a s t f i r e s ascend, So they vse most Words who least Love intend. 32 Except f o r the f a c t that there are i n s u f f i c i e n t examples and similes, t h i s might be a poem accompanying an emblem. So f a r the poets I have chosen to compare with Herbert as writers of sacred epigrams have been r e l a t i v e l y obscure, and t h e i r poetry i s , on the whole, on a much lower aesthetic l e v e l than Herbert's. Richard Crashaw i s p r a c t i c a l l y the only r e l i g i o u s poet of the period who wrote sacred epigrams whose reputation i s comparable to Herbert's, and whose sacred epigrams are at a l l read and appreciated. Like many of the epigram writers of the period, Crashaw wrote i n L a t i n as well as i n English, and, l i k e those of Saltmarsh, 68 h i s epigrams are based very c l o s e l y upon B i b l i c a l events and passages. Saltmarsh based h i s work only on the Old Testament, Crashaw uses only the New, as does Herbert f o r the majority of h i s epigrams. Although Crashaw i s generally regarded as a Roman Catholic poet, i t i s almost certain tha.t h i s L a t i n epigrams were written while he was at Cambridge between 1631 and 1634 when he graduated with a B.A., although i t i s possible that some of them were written while he was 33 at school. His Epigrammaturn Sacrorum L i b e r was published i n 1634; and the Divine Epigrams i n English were included i n Steps to the Temple, published i n 1646, before his t r i p to Rome and eventual conversion to Roman Catholicism. However,-Crashaw's High Anglicanism during the 1630*s rendered h i s approach to poetry quite d i f f e r e n t from Herbert's. Crashaw came much more under Continental influences (mainly Marino and the Je s u i t epigrammatists) than did Herbert, and the differences to be found between h i s L a t i n and English epigrams can l a r g e l y be accounted f o r by the differences inherent i n Marino's style and that of the neo-L a t i n J e s u i t writers. The focus of the Je s u i t writers* use of c e r t a i n of the epigrammatic techniques, not necessarily i n epigrams, was the attempt to arouse the emotions of the reader, as the f i r s t step towards meditation. The Jesuit poet, i n the same way as the epigrammatist, attempted to stimulate the a f f e c t i o n s of the reader by conjuring up a metaphor which 69 would immediately draw attention to the object of the poem. As Raspa states i n h i s a r t i c l e "Crashaw and the Jesuit Poetic", t h e i r goal was to e l i c i t at the beginning of a long poem the emotional response which usually occurred at the end of the short standard epigram, and to sustain i t throughout by t h e i r s k i l l and subtlety i n handling and varying the basic metaphor, 3 4 Raspa concludes: I t was to bear the reader 'on the wings of meditation* that the epigrammatic style was developed. 35 Ruth Wallerstein, using both her knowledge of the l i t e r a c y influences upon Crashaw, and the techniques of r h e t o r i c which he and a l l other Renaissance epigrammatists u t i l i z e d , gives a good c r i t i c a l appreciation of Crashaw*s epigrams, both L a t i n and English: They are highly rhetorical, f i r s t , i n t h e i r use of dramatic question and answer, whether the figures and objects i n the epigram speak to each other, or the author addresses them int$he proud consciousness of his own superior insight; secondly, they are r h e t o r i c a l i n t h e i r excessive use of v i o l e n t contrast and of paradox; t h i r d l y i n the frequent use of verbal turn or r e p e t i t i o n to emphasize the contrast and the paradox, though the paradox i t s e l f i s not v e r b a l . 36 Undoubtedly the rhetorical and the verbal ingenuity are much more s t r i k i n g i n Crashaw than i n Herbert, and, as Wallerstein comments, Crashaw*s epigrams are "to our modern taste highly r h e t o r i c a l and c h i l l " . However, the difference between the two poets i s l a r g e l y one of approach. Although I would agree with Wallerstein on the question of Crashaw's r h e t o r i c as f a r as i t s reception by twentieth-70 century readers i s concerned, I would add that i t i s more than l i k e l y Crashaw*s approach to the material, rather than h i s technique, that renders h i s epigrams "melodramatic i n t h e i r emotions". Herbert i s frequently no l e s s r h e t o r i c a l than Crashaw, and e e r t a i i y no les s or more s k i l l e d i n the handling of epigrammatic techniques, but h i s approach to hi s sacred subject-matter, e s p e c i a l l y i n Passio Discerpta, i s i n a much lower emotional key than i s Crashaw*s. Cbmpare, f o r example, Crashaw*s epigram from Steps to the Temple, "Why are yee a f r a i d , 0 yee of l i t t l e f a i t h ? " and Herbert's "Tempestas Christo dormiente" (The Storm, while C h r i s t sleeps), both of which are concerned with the storm on the Sea of Gal i l e e while Christ s l e p t . Crashaw's epigram i s much longer than Herbert's and much more complex i n i t s handling of metaphor and imagery: As i f the storme meant him; Or, 'cause Heavens face i s dim, His needs a cloud. Was ever froward wind That could be so unkind, Or wave so proud? The Wind had need be angry, and the Water black That to the mighty Nepitune's s e l f dare threaten wrack. There is no storme but t h i s Of your owne Cowardise That braves you out; You are the storme that mocks Yourselves; you are the Rocks Of your owne doubt: Besides t h i s feare of danger, there's no danger here And he that here feares Danger, does deserve h i s Feare. 3 9 71 Here Crashaw reveals a technique which occurs often i n his epigrams; that i s , of expressing i n various ways throughout the poem the basic wordplay of contrast and idea which i s to form the witty climax of his poem. For instance, i n t h i s epigram l i n e s 9-14 express the analogy between the storm i t s e l f and the s p i r i t u a l state of the d i s c i p l e s . These l i n e s play with the reversal of the actual metaphor and the idea more s k i l f u l l y than the f i n a l l i n e s play with the abstractions danger and fear. The r h e t o r i c a l techniques of Crashaw's epigram are much more obvious than i n Herbert's poem: Cum dormis, surgit pelagus: cum, Christe, resurgis, Dormitat pelagus: Quam bene fraena tenes! While you sleep the sea a r i s e s : When,Christ, you r i s e up again, The sea slumbers. How well You master thingsl (L, pp. 90-91) Herbert displays the same use of balancing ideas and clauses i n the body of the poem as Crashaw does i n h i s f i n a l couplet, but Herbert's r h e t o r i c a l devices are p a r t l y disguised by his simple concluding exclamation which, with i t s note of wonder and awe, expresses the natural ease with which Ch r i s t can control the elements at w i l l . Crashaw, on the other hand, has much more complexity.in h i s narrative voice whichis addressing the d i s c i p l e s and chastising them fo r t h e i r fear; and t h i s narrative voice, i n spite of the c o l l o q u i a l opening of the epigram, functions to draw 72 attention to the r h e t o r i c a l techniques: questions, antitheses, and repeated sentence structures which Crashaw uses i n his epigram to heighten the e f f e c t upon his reader of his witty reversal i n the l a s t two l i n e s . As I s h a l l demonstrate in Chapters Four and Five, Herbert was concerned to distance the reader, by means of the narrative voice, from the material he was using, i n the case of Passio Discerpta the story of the C r u c i f i x i o n . Crashaw, on the other hand, uses every available epigrammatic technique to draw the reader as close as possible to "the phy s i c a l d e t a i l s of the l i f e of C h r i s t . " 4 0 This i s e a s i l y demonstrated by comparing Crashaw 1s "In vulnera Dei pendentis" (On the wounds of the c r u c i f i e d Lord), and Herbert's poem from Passio Discerpta, "Christus i n cruce" (Christ on the cross). Wallerstein chooses four l i n e s from Crashaw's poem to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point: Quisque c a p i l l u s i t exiguo tener alveus amne, Hoc quasi de rubro r i v u l u s oceano. 0 nimium vivae p r e t i o s i s amnibus undae'. Fons vitae nunquam v e r i e r i l l e f u i t . Each hair goes with a small stream (of Blood) as i f a r i v u l e t from t h i s purple ocean. Oh, too l i v i n g waters of these precious rivers', never more t r u l y was he the fountain of l i f e . 41 Crashaw also gives h i s own t r a n l a t l o n of t h i s poem i n an expanded version: Not a halre but payes h i s River To t h i s Red Sea of thy blood, Their l i t t l e channels can deliver Something to the general1 f l o o d . ^ere was't thou in a sence so sadly true, The well of l i v i n g Waters, Lord, t i l l now. 42 73 Crashaw*s style i s characterized by his examination of minute d e t a i l s , although h i s figure of Christ on the cross i s not " r e a l i s t i c " i n the sense that the twentieth century uses the term. His figure i s a tableau or church sculpture, but nonetheless described i n fine d e t a i l . Herbert uses the same imagery of water and r i v e r s , but focuses not upon the figure on the cross but upon the narrator: Hie, v b i sanati s t i l l a n t opobalsama mundij Aduoluor madidae laetus hiansque Cru c i : Pro lapsu s t i l l a r u m abeunt peccata; nec acres Sanguinis insultus exanimata ferunt. Here, where the healed world's Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I, joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am driven to the drenched cross: By the f a l l i n g of that d i s t i l l a t i o n , Sins depart; dead things, they cannot bear That blood's rigorous assaults. (PD, pp. 70-71) There i s the same conscious use of rhetorics i n both poets, but i t s use i s much more e f f e c t i v e and o r i g i n a l i n the climax of Herbert's epigram, than i t i s i n Crashaw's. Where Crashaw uses a common Chr i s t i a n metaphor f o r the conclusion of his epigram, which has l o g i c a l l y been prepared f o r by the imagery throughout the epigram, Herbert gives a more complex idea, which i s i i n t e l l e c t u a l l y stimulating because unexpected: Christe, fluas semper; ne, s i tua flumina cessent, Culpa redux iugem te neget esse Deum. Chr i s t , keep welling up, fo r i f your flooding stops, Revlvied g u i l t w i l l say you're not eternal God. (PD, pp. 70-71) 74 Herbert here extends the B i b l i c a l metaphor more than Crashaw to expand the meaning of the poem beyond the actual figure of Christ on the cross. However, apart from this basic difference i n approach between the two poets, both show a s i m i l a r s k i l l in t h e i r handling of the epigrammatic techniques. Compare, f o r example, Crashaw's English epigram "Vpon the Thornes taken downe from our Lords head bloody" and Herbert's "In Goronam splneam" (On the crown of thorns). Both poets use the same immediacy and directness of address, r h e t o r i c a l sentence structures and basic metaphors, though Crashaw i s once again concentrating much more c l o s e l y upon the actual incident of the thorns being removed from the Lord* s head: Know'st thou t h i s , Souldier? ' t i s a much chang'd plant, which yet Thy selfe did'st set, *Tis chang'd indeed, did Autumn e're such beauties bring To shame h i s Spring? 01 who so hard an husbandman could ever f i n d A soyle so kind? Is not the s o i l e a kind one (thinke ye) that returnes Roses f o r Thornes? 43 In Herbert's poem also the narrative voice i s prominent, but i t s verbal ingenuity i s not the poem's ralson d'etre, as i t sometimes has a tendency to become i n Crashaw's poems: Spicula mutemus: capias Tu serta Rosarum, Qui Caput es, spinas & tua Membra tuas. Let us trade our hurts: You, who are the head, take the rose for wreath, And we, your members, take up your thorns. (PJD, pp. 66-67) 75 However, as both Wallerstein and Leicester Bradner agree, * there i s a vein of "passionate seriousness" running through Crashaw*s epigrams which not a l l h i s r h e t o r i c a l devices and ^melodramatic emotions can conceal. Herbert's rh e t o r i c i s not so obtrusive as Crashaw* s which renders him l e s s susceptible to c r i t i c i s m . Crashaw i s undoubtedly the only seventeenth-century equal of Herbert as a writer of sacred epigrams. Previous poets l i k e Saltmarsh, Thynne, and Pyne were moving towards a use of the form which would f u l l y express t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g and convey the power of the B i b l i c a l story upon Renaissance minds. For r e l i g i o u s writers the epigram provided a perfect means of expression of the C h r i s t i a n paradox. In the epigram^ -Paradox i s the dominant method, giving color to a l l the other devices. The themes of Crashaw and of the J e s u i t s deal wholly with r e l i g i o u s story, and i t i s perhaps f o r t h i s reason, as well as by the mere process of s t y l i z a t l o n , that they use paradox so frequently; fo r to them l i f e i s a constant paradox between the forms of things and th e i r a l l e g o r i z e d meaning, the objects of t h i s world being one extended al l e g o r y of the s p i r i t u a l world; or between the values and vways of l i f e of t h i s world as the man of the world reads, and l i v e s i t , on the one side, and on the other, the values of the s p i r i t . 45 But the epigram also provides a trap for the r e l i g i o u s writer. I t s r e l i ance upon r h e t o r i c , dramatic question, wit, and verbal or i n t e l l e c t u a l ingenuity f o r i t s e f f e c t can betray the poet into neglecting the meaning and s i n c e r i t y of h i s subject f o r the sake of display. It was one of Herbert's 76 greatest achievements that in his sacred epigrams he was able to maintain a balance between religious feeling and epigrammatic expression. CHAPTER FOUR—A CRITICAL STUDY OF PASSIO DISCERPTA The purpose of the c r i t i c a l study which I s h a l l present i n t h i s and the following chapter i s two-fold. I wish not only to demonstrate the aesthetic value and l i t e r a r y interest of Passio Discerpta and Lucus, but also to use t h i s demonstration to assert t h e i r importance f o r students of The Temple. I w i l l t r y to judge the aesthetic success or f a i l u r e of individual poems from these two sequences i n the l i g h t of the conventions of the epigram, basing my discussion on the points suggested i n Chapter Two, giving a more detailed study of Herbert's sacred epigrams than was attempted i n Chapter Three. The obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in carrying out a complete, c r i t i c a l analysis of the two c o l l e c t i o n s of poems are s l i g h t l y lessened i n t h i s study by the fac t that i t i s based on tr a n s l a t i o n s , and deals only with those aspects of poetry which can be accurately studied i n t r a n s l a t i o n : choice of subject-matter, the arrangment of the poems, imagery, and the narrative voice. However, even though lessened, the d i f f i c u l t i e s are s t i l l apparent, and, since a study of each poem separately i s impractical, I have decided to divide each of the following two chapters 78 into three categories: arrangement of the poems within each c o l l e c t i o n ; the imagery used (I s h a l l include such aspects as metaphor under t h i s heading); and, l a s t l y , the p o s i t i o n of the narrator i n the poems, the ^voice" he adopts. 79 I The Arrangement of the Poems i n Passio Discerpta C r i t i c a l controversy over the arrangement of the poems i n The Temple i s s t i l l r i f e ; however, the es s e n t i a l rMinity" of Herbert's masterpiece i s usually agreed on, i n that a l l the poems use s i m i l a r techniques and are thematically linked to provide a d e f i n i t e progression i n thought and meaning. This very important aspect of TKe Temple i s also evident i n Passio Discerpta, and i t i s the arrangement and unity i n theme and imagery of this volume which I wish to discuss here. I begin with Passio Discerpta because i t comes before Lucus i n the Williams Manuscript and because i t has a much more obviously schematised arrangement than Lucus. The t i t l e , "The Events of the Passion", n a t u r a l l y suggests a chronological progress through the various stages of the C r u c i f i x i o n described i n the New Testament. Herbert, of course, does t h i s , but he i s necessarily s e l e c t i v e ; and the sel e c t i v e aspect of his arrangement i s one of the i n t e r e s t i n g features of the volume. Herbert, i n his twenty-one epigrams, has dealt with a l l the major incidents which occurred on Good Friday. However, there i s a very obvious grouping of the incidents within the volume, 80 which might suggest something about Herbert's thematic concerns and h i s interpretation of the C h r i s t i a n story. Of the twenty-one poems, only two are concerned with the C r u c i f i x i o n per se; "In Christum crucem ascensurum" (To Christ about to ascend the cross) and "Christus i n cruce" (Christ on the cross). Even the former of these two i s not d i r e c t l y and completely about the C r u c i f i x i o n . I t r e f e r s a n a l o g i c a l l y to small Zacchaeus' attempt to see Jesus by climbing up a sycamore tree, and i t compares this event with the C r u c i f i x i o n . Of the remaining nineteen poems, only s i x are concerned, and then only i n d i r e c t l y , with the actual image of Christ on the cross. For whatever reason, Herbert was not s o l e l y concerned with the centtal tableau of Good Friday. A Beading of any of the Gospel accounts of the C r u c i f i x i o n from the New Testament quickly brings to the attention a number of incidents which might seem suitable material for an e f f e c t i v e sacred epigram i n the seventeenth century; f o r example, the progress towards Calvary, and Simon of Cyrene's s a c r i f i c e i n carrying Jesus' cross. Yet Herbert makes no mention of these l i k e l y incidents, unless the second poem "In sudorem sanguineum" (0n the bloody sweat) re f e r s obliquely to t h i s event as well as to the C r u c i f i x i o n i t s e l f . He does not mention the o f f e r i n g of a drink of wine mixed with a b i t t e r drug, and Jesus' 81 r e f u s a l to drink; nor the placard nailed over his head with the charge against him: •JThis i s Jesus, the King of the Jews"; nor the taunts of the crowd, daring Christ to save himself; nor Jesus* cry " E l l , E l l lama sabachthani?" (My God, my God, why did you forsake me?); nor the f i n a l o f f e r i n g of vinegar on a sponge. On the other hand, he does mention i n "In Christum crucem ascensurum" an incident which occurred p r i o r to the C r u c i f i x i o n . This l i s t emphasizes, I believe, the fac t that Herbert's interests and thematic concerns did not focus d i r e c t l y and so l e l y on the death of Christ as an event which required, or benefitted by, • ' r e a l i s t i c " , or accurately detailed p o r t r a y a l . Herbert was concerned with the wider s p i r i t u a l implications of the C r u c i f i x i o n ; not with the event as such, but with i t s meaning f o r the average C h r i s t i a n . Rather than focus upon the figure of Ch r i s t on the cross, Herbert selected subjects f o r h i s epigrams from the incidents leading up to the C r u c i f i x i o n , and from the various phenomena which resulted from the death of C h r i s t . The incidents which occurred d i r e c t l y before the C r u c i f i x i o n were not part of l e g a l or c i v i l punishment, but were the expression of human pettiness, malicious cruelty, greed, and callous indifference. "In Sputum et Conuicia" (On the s p i t t i n g and mocking), "In Coronam spineam" (On the crown of thorns), "In Arund. Spin. Genuflex. Purpur." (On the reed, thorns, bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) , "In Alapas" 82 (On the slaps), "In Flagellum" (On the whip), "In vestes d i u i s a s " (On the portioned garments) a l l r e f e r to petty acts of cruelty of minor characters i n the drama of the C r u c i f i x i o n . Just as the C r u c i f i x i o n occurred approximately at mid-day, the two poems which are a c t u a l l y concerned with Christ on the cross, and which follow the l i s t of poems given here, are almost exactly at the mid-point of the volume. The e f f e c t of this arrangement i s to take the emphasis o f f the C r u c i f i x i o n and spread i t equally to incidents occurring before and a f t e r i t . This distances the event from the reader and allows him to see the t o t a l picture i n perspective. I t i s also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Herbert's technique throughout the volume; that, i s , to mediate between the reader and the event.. The l a s t six poems of the volume are concerned with the physical r e s u l t s on earth of the death of C h r i s t . At the end of the volume the events of the Passion are out of the hands of human beings; Herbert i s concerned with emphasizing to the reader the timeless and universal aspects of the C r u c i f i x i o n and i t s meaning. For example, i n the f i r s t group of poems, Herbert's anger i s directed towards the Jews who spat and mocked at Ch r i s t , and h i s plea i s f o r the Gentiles to draw from the well, which i s the body of C h rist, the waters of l i f e : 83 Parate s i t u l a s , Ethnic!, lagenasque, Graues lagenas, Tester est Aquae-duetus. G Gentiles, Fetch you j a r s and b u c k e t s — b i g j a r s to your well! (PD, pp. 64-65) In contrast, i n the poem "Petrae s c i s s a e n (The c l e f t rocks), the narrator reaches out away from the immediate present, which i s the time of the C r u c i f i x i o n , which the volume creates for the reader. The meaning of the whole event widens and the conclusion of the poem has a much more general s i g n i f i c a n c e : corda . . . Quae eontrita tamen caetera damna leuant. Hearts, However, when ground to powder lighten A l l other losses. (PD, pp. 78-79) Another i n t e r e s t i n g point about Herbert's s e l e c t i o n of incidents i s raised when one r e c a l l s that Herbert does not mention the B i b l i c a l characters, r e l a t i v e s and friends of C h r i s t , who were witnesses at the C r u c i f i x i o n , and an important minority who stand out v i v i d l y i n the various New Testament descriptions of the scene. Herbert does not mention the female characters, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Mary, the mother of Christ, and Mary Magdalene, the two characters who might be expected to convey much of the emotional i n t e n s i t y . The only individuals to whom..he refers thoughout the volume are the good t h i e f , Zacchaeus, Plato, C h r i s t , and himself. I t would be easy and possibly mistaken to over-84 emphasize t h i s point, but complete omission of the mourning followers of Ch r i s t from the picture Herbert gives does enable him to throw into r e l i e f h is sense of awe and gratitude for Christ's s a c r i f i c e , rather than concentrating hi s attention on the emotions and sense of loss of the witnesses of the scene. Herbert's technique throu^ioutthe volume i s to move away from the-actual r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s of the scene. He uses the conventions of the sacred epigram, to move h i s poem away from the image the t i t l e would normally create i n the mind of the reader towards the witty or ingenious turn of thought to which the rest of the epigram i s intended to lead up. A good example of t h i s i s i n the very f i r s t poem of the volume, "Ad Dominum morientem" (To the dying Lord). The poem serves as an introduction to the volume i n that i t immediately focuses attention on the central C h r i s t -figure of the event, and i t also moves, as so many of the following epigrams are to do, from one p a r t i c u l a r fact of the Crucifixion,back to the narrator. In spite of the immediacy of the present p a r t i c i p l e "morientem'' (dying) i n the t i t l e of the poem, and the sense o f an eye-witness account given i n the f i r s t l i n e , "Cum lacrymas oculosque duos tot vulnera vlncant" (Since so much wounding overcomes my eyes, my tears), the whole emphasis of the poem i s upon the narrator's response to the meaning of the scene, and i s not d i r e c t l y concerned with an image of the dying Lord. 85 Although I s h a l l deal with t h i s aspect more f u l l y l a t e r , i t i s obvious from the very beginning of the volume that Herbert i s pla c i n g h i s narrator very firmly between the scene he i s describing and the reader. I t i s thi s narrator's display of wit and rhetoric i n presenting the epigram and concluding i t with a witty or ingenious turn of thought which arouses the reader's emotions and sense of awe at the paradox and ingenuity of i t s expression. The second poem, "In sudorem sanguineum" (On the bloody sweat), demonstrates even more c l e a r l y the immediacy which Herbert can create even while moving the reader's attention away from the actual event. The poem begins with one of Herbert's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o l l o q u i a l openings: "Quo fugles, sudor? (Sweat, where w i l l you go?). The only r e a l i s t i c or "gory" d e t a i l in the whole poem i s the t i t l e , where the sweat i s bloody. And, although Herbert gives no further descriptive d e t a i l s , the image of the bloody sweat dripping down Christ's body i s behind the witty conclusion to the epigram: Ni me forte petas; nam quanto indignior ipse, Tu mihi subueniens dignior esse potes. Unless perhaps you seek me; f o r the more I am unworthy, the worthier You can be, coming to help me. (PD, pp. 62-63) The poem moves progressively away from the cross, out into the crowd of spectators on Calvary, and f i n a l l y to one i n d i v i d u a l , the narrator. 86 This movement from the general to the s p e c i f i c and back again i s , I think, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the volume and can be used to account to some extent f o r the sel e c t i o n and arrangement of the poems within i t . The poems often move from the s p e c i f i c incident, Christ at the time of the C r u c i f i x i o n , f o r example, to a general meaning of t h i s s a c r i f i c e for a l l C h r i s t i a n s . A good example of t h i s technique occurs i n "In Alapas" (On the slaps): Ahl quam caederis hinc & inde palmlsl Sic vngBnta solent manu f r i c a r i : S i c t o t i medicaris ipse mundo. Ah, how with hands You are on each side slapped! I t ' s thus that ointments are Wont to be rubbed i n the hand: I t ' s thus you yourself Make well a l l s t h e world. (PD, pp.©6-67) Here the ingenious turn of thought which leads Herbert from the s p e c i f i c to the general i s the reversal involved i n the metaphor of ointment, a metaphor of gentleness and healing i n contrast to the b r u t a l i t y of Christ's treatment at the hands of the Jews. >m&® Some of the poems, on the other hand, move d i r e c t l y from the s p e c i f i c address to Christ to the narrator's a p p l i c a t i o n of the incident to himself as a f a i t h f u l and repentant C h r i s t i a n . For example, the very short epigram "In latus perfossum" (On the pierced side) demonstrates t h i s : 87 Christe, v b i tarn duro patet i n te semita f e r r o , Spero meo cordi posse patere viam, Ch r i s t , when remorseless s t e e l has opened up a path i n you, I hope there can be opened up a pathway fo r my heart. (PD, pp. 64-65) Here the wit derives from the double a p p l i c a t i o n of the word "path", and the very simple acclamatio which forms the l a s t l i n e of the epigram. It gains i t s simple assertive e f f e c t from the complete lack of any emotional overtones with regard to the actual p i e r c i n g of Christ's side by the spear. The narrator juxtaposes the two l i n e s with a s i m p l i c i t y and bluntness which create a certa i n sense of emotional shock i n the reader, and i n turn lead to i n t e l l e c t u a l stimulation. In the volume as a whole these various movements are subsumed i n an o v e r a l l progression towards a general and universal meaning derived from the event of the C r u c i f i x i o n . This can be best demonstrated by comparing the f i r s t and the l a s t poems of the volume: "In Dominum morientem" (On the dying Lord) and "In Mundi sympathiam cum Christo" (On the harmony of the world with C h r i s t ) . As I remarked e a r l i e r , the f i r s t poem i n the volume i s concerned p r i m a r i l y with the narrator's response to the personal meaning of the C r u c i f i x i o n f o r himself; the more universal C h r i s t i a n meaning of every man's g u i l t f o r his s i n , and the redemption pf that s i n through the C r u c i f i x i o n are only i m p l i c i t here. In the f i n a l poem of the sequence, "In Mundi 88 sympathiam cum Ghristo", the universal meaning i s made e x p l i c i t by the use o f the same metaphors of earthly collapse and catastrophe that Herbert has been using throughout the second h a l f of the c o l l e c t i o n : Non moreris solus: Mundus simul i n t e r i t i n te, Agnosoitque tuam Machina totaJCrucem. You do not die alone: The world, at the same Time, dies i n you, And the whole mechanism Is with your cross i n tune. (PD, pp. 78-79) Here, as i n the poem before i t , "Petrae seissae" (The c l e f t rocks), the destruction of the earth i s used as the basis of a posit i v e metaphor giving hope for C h r i s t i a n redemption. In "Petrae scissae", hearts ground to powder li g h t e n a l l other losses; i n "In Mundi sympathiam cum Christo", the world i s i n tune with Christ's cross, a symbol of destruction but also of redemption, just as the signs of earthly destruction on Good Friday convinced spectators of the sinfulness of the world. From t h i s general meaning the poem returns f i n a l l y and p o s i t i v e l y to the narrator, with a s p e c i f i c reference: v e l tua mundum Ne nimium vexet quaestio, pone meam. Or, l e s t your inquiry Distress the world too much, Look f o r him i n me. (PD, pp. 78-79) Whereas "In Dominum morientem" ended with i t s focus on a s i n f u l and unworthy narrator, the l a s t poem ends on a 89 p o s i t i v e note: the s a c r i f i c e was not a f u t i l e one. The f i n a l three or four poems of the sequence conclude i n such a way as to reinforce the concluding note of the l a s t poem. For example, "Velum scissum" (The ripped v e i l ) ends with the idea that God i s omnipresent: Vbique est Deus, Agnus, Ara, Flamen. And God i s everywhere— The Lamb, the P r i e s t , the A l t a r too. (PD, pp. 76-77) The arrangement of the poems suggests that t h i s thematic progression though the sequence was d e f i n i t e l y intended by Herbert. I have already mentioned that the c o l l e c t i o n f a l l s f a i r l y d i s t i n c t l y into three parts: the opening based on the incidents stemming from the petty b r u t a l i t y of the characters involved; the very short section made up of "In Christum crucem ascensurum" and "Christus i n cruce", the two poems ac t u a l l y concerned with Christ ascending or hanging on the cross; and the f i n a l section concentrating on the signs of earthly destruction subsequent to the death of C h r i s t . However, Herbert could have achieved a thematic purpose sueh as I have outlined without choosing the p a r t i c u l a r Incidents and arrangementfcwhich he did. I t i s possible that the sequence was based on other works, possibly parts of the Catholic r e l i g i o u s services such as the Improperia f o r Good Friday on which he based his poem from The Temple, "The S a c r i f i c e " . Such a 90 r e l a t i o n s h i p has not yet been uncovered, but there are cer t a i n oddities about Herbert's arrangement that would suggest a firmer reason than mere whim. For instance, i n the opening of the sequence, as I w i l l be pointing out i n the following section, i t i s the imagery which l a r g e l y provides the connecting l i n k s between the poems, rather than the chronological arrangement of incidents. The f i r s t poem of the sequence i s obviously an explanatory address, and serves the rest of the volume i n the same way as the o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n would have served the building or stone whereon i t was engraved. However, the second, t h i r d , fourth, f i f t h , and sixth poems seem d e f i n i t e l y to be out of place i n a chronological arrangement, p a r t i c u l a r l y the poem "In latus perfossum'' which one might expect to follow the poems about Christ a c t u a l l y on the cross. This i r r e g u l a r i t y i n a chronological arrangement, which Herbert follows f a i r l y c losely, does no harm to the aesthetic effectiveness of the volume because i t does have very strong imagistic and also thematic l i n k s as explained by the three categories into which the poems f a l l . For instance, as I w i l l show i n the following section, although "In latus perfossum" seems to be misplaced from the point of view of a chronological arrangement i n the volume, i t s imagery l i n k s i t very strongly with the poems preceding and following i t . Thus i t s p l a c i n g appears to be the r e s u l t of de l i b e r a t i o n rather than whim. 91 The major points to be kept i n mind about Herbert's arrangement of poems i n t h i s sequence are the three major parts into which they f a l l , t h e i r movement from general to s p e c i f i c and back again, and the way the arrangement enhances the p o s i t i o n of the narrator as d i r e c t mediator and conveyer of emotions between the actual incidents and the reader. The foil-owing section w i l l deal more s p e c i f i c a l l y with imagery and attempt to r e l a t e Herbert's use of imagery to his arrangement and selection of poems. 92 II The Imagery i n Passio Discerpta The imagery i n Passio Discerpta i s i n t e r e s t i n g not only f o r i t s own sake, but also f o r i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s to the l a t e r imagery of The Temple. In Chapter Two with which Herbert enhanced the single idea which was usually the centrum of the epigram proper. This i s true of many of the poems i n Passio Discerpta as well as "Christus i n cruce", the example I gave e a r l i e r . Along with t h i s v a r i e t y and richness there goes a patterned grouping of thematic images which occurs i n the case of certain poems on s i m i l a r subjects. One of the f i r s t of these patterned image groupings occurs at the beginning of the volume. Although, as I have pointed out i n the previous section, the choice of subject-matter f o r the various poems might seem odd and out of context, the imagery has obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s which l i n k the poems. In the f i r s t of these groups the image i s of f l u i d or running l i q u i d . "Ad Dominum morientem" introduces an i n i t i a l image used more f u l l y i n subsequent poems, and, without using a colour image e x p l i c i t l y , implies an underlying colour scheme i n i t s imagery. commented upon the variety and richness of imagery 93 Students of Herbert are well aware that throughout The Temple runs a theme that involves the concept of words, of writing, and poetic c r e a t i v i t y as being i n t e g r a l l y related to r e l i g i o u s emotion and i t s expression. Herbert does not use t h i s theme i n the same way i n Passio Discerpta, but s i g n i f i c a n t l y i t does occur i n the very f i r s t poem, the i n s c r i p t i o n a l address to the dying Lord. Here the image connects two metaphors: ink i s the colour of s i n , black, but i t i s also a means of expressing repentance and gaining redemption. I t i s worthwhile quoting the whole poem: Gum lacrymas oculosque duos tot vulnera vincant, Impar, & l n fletum v e l resolutus, ero; Sepia concurrat, peccatis a p t i o r humor, Et mea iam lacrymet culpa colore suo. Since so much wounding overcomes my eyes, my tears, I w i l l have no e f f e c t , though melted down i n weeping. Let ink help me out, A l i q u i d more akin to g u i l t ; Let my sins, now tinted r i g h t , pour forth t h e i r tears. (PD, pp. 62-63) The colour imagery i m p l i c i t here i s threefold: I am assuming that the ink would be black, the "wounding*' of Christ on the cross naturally brings to mind red or s c a r l e t , and the narrator's tears are colourless. This t r i p l e aspect of the imagery gains i t s f u l l e f f e c t cumulatively as each subsequent poem builds on the i n i t i a l pattern set up. The witty turn of thought i n t h i s epigram gains i t s e f f e c t from the mingling of two metaphors; h i s words, 9 4 the black ink i n a p a r t i c u l a r form, come to stand for h i s sins and his tears of repentance. The "wounding" i s forgotten a f t e r the f i r s t l i n e , but the redness, the bloodiness of the s a c r i f i c e which makes these tears necessary, i s not forgotten. The following poem, "In sudorem sangiineum", uses the imagery pattern established i n the f i r s t epigram. The poem i s about the "bloody sweat", a combination of two of the images mentioned above: Quo fugies, sudor? quamuls pars a l t e r a C h r i s t ! Nescia s i t metae; venule, c e l l a tua est. Sweat, where w i l l you go? No matter How much the other side of Christ Mayknow no l i m i t , the vein Is where you l i v e . (PD, pp. 62-63) Again there i s no mention made of colour in the imagery, except that the word "venula" (vein) brings to mind the colour of blood. The wit at the end of t h i s epigram functions on a number of l e v e l s , but one of these i s a continuation of the metaphor i n i t i a t e d i n the f i r s t poem: Ni me forte petas; nam quanto indignlor ipse, Tu mihi subueniens dignior esse potes. Unless perhaps you seek me; f o r the more I am unworthy, the worthier You can be, coming to help me. (PD, pp. 62-63) Here the sweat becomes worthier coming to help a narrator unworthy because of his black sins. The metaphor of 95 w r i t i n g i n the f i r s t poem i s carried over by association into t h i s , where the help afforded could, on one l e v e l , r e f e r to the redemptive powers of the blood (and therefore the sweat of Christ), and on another help with w r i t i n g the epigrams and expression of the narrator's own s i n s . The t h i r d poem i s e n t i t l e d "In eundem" (On the same), although, i n fact, i t i s not upon the same subject as the previous poem. The s p e c i f i c word used i n the two-line epigram i s "blood" not "bloody sweat": Sic tuus effundi g e s t i t pro; crimine sanguis, Vt nequeat paulo se cohibere domi. Your blood joys to be poured our for s i n so much, I t can't keep a drop of i t at home, (PD, pp. 64-65) The witty ending here i s gained by the use of the metaphor of Chr i s t ' s body as a "home", with the concomitant idea that Ch r i s t i s shedding Ihis blood w i l l i n g l y , which of course i n one sense he was. However, underlyingfethe poem and continually i n the reader's mind i s the knowledge of the physical agony and b r u t a l i t y that the C r u c i f i x i o n involved. This i m p l i c i t association i s made e x p l i c i t i n the following poem, "In latus perfossum", where one aspect of t h i s b r u t a l i t y i s brought home to the reader: Christe, v b i tarn duro patet i n te semita f e r r o , Spero meo cordi posse patere viam. Ch r i s t , when remorseless steel has opened up a path i n you, I hope there can be opened up a pathway fo r my heart, (PD, pp. 64-65) 96 Again the wit derives from the narrator's treatment of the incident. The image of remorseless steel i s succeeded i n the second l i n e by the gentle and tender image of the repentanttand redeemed heart of the narrator n e s t l i n g within the body of C h r i s t . (There are a number of other interpretations to which the poem i s susceptible, however.) 1 But the poem also has underlying associations which l i n k i t with the previous three. The whole point of the pierced side i n the Bible i s the f a c t that the withdrawn spearhead brought only water not blood. I t i s t h i s image of water which i s picked up i n the f i f t h poem "In Sputum et Conuicia" (On the s p i t t i n g and mocking). The narrator i s expressing indignation at the "Barbaros", the barbarlo men who r e v i l e d Jesus: 0 Barbarosl s i c os rependitis sanctum, Visum quod vni praebet, omnibus vitam, . . . 0 barbaric ment Is t h i s how you pay back the holy face, Which gives sight to one, and l i f e to a l l . . . . (PD, pp. 64-65) But the image which he uses in the next sentence i s one of impure men p o l l u t i n g holy waters: s i c Aquas vitae Contaminatis alueosque caelestes Sputando, blasphemando? Is t h i s how you d e f i l e , With s p i t and blasphemy, the waters < Of l i f e and the sacred conduits? (PD, pp. 64-65) 97 And the waters of l i f e are, of course, i n one l i t e r a l sense, the waters that flowed from Christ's body. The turn of thought at the end of the epigram involves a witty use of the Jew's own word f o r unclean stranger, "Gentile" against the Jews themselves i n combination with the metaphor of water which Herbert has already i n i t i a t e d . Since the Jews only r e v i l e Christ and pollute his holy waters, the narrator enjoins the Gentiles, b e l i e v i n g Christians, to carry vessels to the well which i s Christ's body overflowing with the waters of l i f e : Parate s i t u l a s , Ethnic!, lagenasque, Graues lagenas, Vester est Aquae-ductus. 0 Gentiles, Fetch you jars and buckets--big j a r s to your w e l l ! A f t e r the f i f t h poem i n the sequence, this image grouping gives way to another, s t i l l centring on the pettiness and b r u t a l i t y of Christ's tormentors, but viewing the incidents from the impressions given by another image pattern. This pattern centres upon the actual pain that Christ suffered, and the paradox that provides the witty material for the narrator i n the following epigrams i s that what f o r Christ was pain i s f o r us joy and redemption. The paradox i s very neatly expressed in the sixth poem "In Coronam spineam" (On the crown of thorns): 98 Christe, dolor t i b i s u pplicio, mini blanda voluntas; Tu spin& misere pungeris, ipse Rosa". C h r i s t , your punishment i s pain, Mine d e l i c i o u s ease; you are pricked with thorns, I with the rose. (PD, pp. 64-65) The narrator has extended the metaphor of the thorns to include also the rose i n order to extend the associations underlying h i s paradox and to increase its-;wit and i n t e l l e c t u a l ingenuity. The rose was the t r a d i t i o n a l symbol f o r Mary! i n the medieval L a t i n hymns she i s frequently the n r o s a sine s p i n i s " (rose without thorns), and the symbol i s sometimes also applied to C h r i s t . Here Herbert i s a l so calling-upon a medieval idea, which was that the rose was a flower of great medicinal e f f i c a c y . The imagistie richness of t h i s poem i s increased by Herbert's introduction of the metaphor of the head and the body: since the rose i s at the t i p of the stem, Christ should wear the flower, and f a i t h f u l Christians should serve as members, that i s branches, and wear the thorns. The narrator displays h i s wit also by ending t h i s epigram with a pun on "members". Not only are the f a i t h f u l Christians referred to, members in the physical sense of arms or legs, but they are also "members" of the body of the Church i n C h r i s t . Just as the poem "In latus perfossum" (On the pierced side) was followed by an indignant poem describing the r e v i l i n g of Jesus, so t h i s poem on the crown of thorns i s 99 followed by another angry epigram concerned generally with the taunting and the pain Jesus suffered: "In Arund. Spin. Genuflex. Purpur." (On the reed, thorns, bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) . This i s an unusual poem f o r t h i s sequence i n that i t i s spoken by Christ himself. I t i s s i m i l a r to the "Reproaches" spoken by C h r i s t in the medieval services 4 f o r Good Friday, directed at mankind. Once again the instrument of the pain being i n f l i c t e d upon Christ i s the subject of a pun: Pastorem semper Arundo decet. Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s l cum quo magis angar acuto Munere, Rex tanto v e r i o r inde prober. The reed W i l l always be the shepherd's. The more acute the g i f t of pain, The truer King i t proves I am. (PD, 66-67) Herbert i s playing with the pastoral associations that are an i n t e g r a l part of the B i b l i c a l descriptions of Christ and h i s Church. The shepherd's reed, usually an oaten pipe i n the pastoral poems of the Renaissance, here becomes an instrument of torture f o r C h r i s t ; but the unquestioned leader or King of the shepherds was usually he who could best play h i s reed, and Christ w i l l prove he i s king by the r e j e c t i o n of the pain which t h i s reed causes him. The turn of thought at the end of the epigram involves the paradox basic to C h r i s t i a n i t y of l i f e and death: 100 At non lusus e r i t , s i quem tu laeta necasti Viuat, & i n mortem v i t a s i t i l i a tuam. But i t won't be a game I f he whom you are glad to murder l i v e s , And that l i f e turns out To be your death. (PD, 66-67) The s t r i k i n g thing about t h i s poem which I s h a l l be dealing with more cl o s e l y i n the following section i s the f a m i l a r i t y and c o l l o q u i a l i t y of the voice of Christ the speaker, i n comparison with the very s t y l i z e d q u a l i t y of "The S a c r i f i c e " from The Temple. The following two poems "In Alapas" (On the slaps) and *?In Flagellum" (On the whip) both make use of the same kind of paradox as was apparent i n "In Coronam spineam". I have mentioned "In Alapas" e a r l i e r , and noted i t s use of contrasting metaphors: the b r u t a l i t y of the s o l d i e r s slapping Christ and the gentle image of ointment being rubbed into the hand. "In Flagellum" has a much more in d i v i d u a l i z e d tone than the previous poem. I t compares very well with Herbert's poem " D i s c i p l i n e " from The Temple i n i t s desire f o r God's d i s c i p l i n e and yet h i s love. In t h i s poem, the metaphor of the whip, which was used afgainst Christ before h i s C r u c i f i x i o n , becomes mingled with the metaphor involving the " s t a f f " of Christ which upholds weary pilgrims on the way. There i s also the suggestion i n the second and t h i r d l i n e s of the punishment that f l e s h i t s e l f i s to the soul: 101 Crimina cumeturgent, & mea poena prope est, Suauiter admoueas notum t i b i came flagellum, When accusations swell And my punishment i s near, Make sweetly imminent the lash, Which i n the f l e s h you've known; (PD, pp, 68-69} Christ suffered the torments of a l i t e r a l whip; the ordinary C h r i s t i a n suffers the temptations of the whiplash which i s the f l e s h . This i s p a r t l y expressed by the conclusion of the epigram: M i t i s agas: tenerae duplicant s i b i verbera mentes, Ipsaque sunt ferulae mollia corda suae. Be gentle: tender minds Compound the blows upon them And meek hearts are whips Unto themselves. (PD, pp. 68-69) One more poem, w I n Clauos" (On the n a i l s ) , f i t s e a s i l y into t h i s p a r t i c u l a r image grouping, although i t i s a c t u a l l y placed beyond the middle group of poems concerning C h r i s t on the cross. In t h i s poem Herbert once again utilized the pastoral metaphor. The whole tone of this poem i s one of delight, gratitude and also a kind of gloating possession. By h i s tone the narrator, who implies that he has forgotten the f i n a l reassertion of the "melior natura" (the God-nature) of Christ, forces the reader to remember i t . The paradox l i e s i n the fact that although we retained the human side of Ch r i s t by pinning him on the cross, that action did i n fac t bestow for a l l time the "melior natura" upon us. The narrator, however, brings the poem down to an intensely personal and possessive l e v e l by h i s use of the pastoral metaphor: 102 lam meus es: nunc Te teneo: Pastorque prehensus Hoc ligno, his c l a u i s est, quasi Falce sua. Now you are mine, I hold you now: By t h i s wood the Shepherd has been seized, And by these n a i l s — a s by his own Pruning hook. (PD, pp. 72-73) Once again the witty turn of thought at the conclusion of th i s epigram depends f o r i t s effectiveness upon the contrast between the gentleness of the shepherd and h i s tools and the cruelty with which Christ the shepherd i s treated. Of the three categories of poems which I outlined i n the previous section the l a s t group shows a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g pattern of images. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t i s a patterning which dominates most of the poems in and also the t o t a l structure of The Temple i t s e l f ; i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y what one might c a l l t h e n a r c h i t e c t u r a l n or architectonic meta-hor in Herbert's work. This kind of image has already appeared i n the e a r l i e r poems of this sequence, although I have not commented on i t . For example, i n the t h i r d poem "In eundem" (On the same), where Christ cannot keep a drop of h i s blood "at home"; or i n "In sudorem sanguineum" where the sweat " l i v e s " i n the v e i n . This metaphor comes out much more c l e a r l y i n a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the L a t i n : "venula, c e l l a tua est" (the vein, that i s your c e l l ) . 5 The word "celfe" could also mean the sanctuary of a temple. 103 The metaphor of "house" or "home" f i r s t occurs i n the f i f t e e n t h poem ! WInclinato capite, J 0 H, 19" (On the bowed head) where the homes of d i f f e r e n t creatures are considered in comparison with the cross as the home of C h r i s t : Yulpibus antra f e r i s , nldique volucribus adsunt, Quodque suum nouit str6ma, cubile suum. Caves belong to wild foxes, and nests to birds; Each thing knows i t s nook. (PD, pp. 72-73) In the following poem "Ad Solem deficientem" (On the sun i n e c l i p s e ) , the basic metaphor running throughout the poem i s that of the sun being, not the master of a house, as one might expect, but merely the porter. The r e a l Sun i s , of course, the "Son of God" who i s the master of the house, of the world: Quid hoc? & ipse d e f i c i s , C a e l i gigas, Almi choragus lumihis? Tu promis Orbem mane, condis vesperi, Mundi f l d e l i s clauiger: What's this? You too gone out, Giant of heaven, master of l i g h t That f r u c t i f i e s ? You unwrap your c i r c l e In the morning, and i n the evening You cover i t , f a i t h f u l porter Of the world. (PD, pp. 72-73) Our expectations, however, i n the beginning of the poem u n t i l we reach the word'porter"are that the sun i s the master of the universe. The darkness covering the land from the s i x t h to the ninth hour on Good Friday i s caused, says the narrator, by the fact that both the "sun" and the "Son" are i n e c l i p s e : 104 Nempe Dominus aedium Prodegit integrum penu.„ . . For sure the Master of the house Has wasted everything From hi s store, ...(PD, pp. 72-73) The tone of t h i s poem i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of i t s t o t a l optimism expressed with gentleness and hop% completely i n terms of metaphors: Tunc instruetur l a u t i u s r a d i j s penu, T i b i supererunt & mihi. Then with the beams the store w i l l be (More l a v i s h than before) f i l l e d up;: For you and me there w i l l be More than enough. (PD, pp. 74-75) In "Monumenta aperta" (The opened tombs), the metaphor of house or dwelling place i s used to foreshadow the placing of C h r i s t ' s body in the sepulchre and the subsequent Resurrection: S c i l i c e t i n tumulis Crucifixum quaerite, v i u i t : Gonulncunt vnam multa sepulcra Crucem. Yes, seek the C r u c i f i e d i n tombsl He l i v e s I Many sepulchers Negate t h i s single cross. (PD, pp. 74-75) Also, early i n the poem, Herbert introduces the idea of Christ as a prisoner: Proque vno vineto turba soluta f u i t . and by Virtue of a single prisoner Many have been loosed. (PD, pp. 74-75) 105 The end of the epigram uses the metaphor of the dead r i s i n g from th e i r tombs l i k e men leaving t h e i r homes, to accentuate the power of God to perpetuate l i f e : S i c , pro Maiestate, xDeum, non perdere vitam Quam t r i b u i t , verum m u l t i p l i c a r e decet. Thus i t i s r i g h t For God, because he i s a king, Not to waste the l i f e he gave, But make i t grow. (PD, pp. 74-75) The eighteenth poem, "Terrae-motus" (The movement of the earth), uses e f f e c t i v e l y the metaphor of an actual B i b l i c a l event, the destruction of the house of the P h i l i s t i n e s by the I s r a e l i t e , Samson, who though b l i n d had regained h i s strength with the growth of h i s h a i r . The narrator compares Christ to Samson by comparing the palace which Samson pulled down to the earth which moved and trembled a f t e r the C r u c i f i x i o n : Te f i x o v e l Terra mouet: nam, cum Cruce, totam Circumferre potes; Sampson vt ante fores. With you nailed up, even The earth moves: for with the cross You move the whole thing to and fro As Sampson moved the p i l l a r s long ago. (PD, pp. 76-77) In "Velum scissum" (The ripped v e i l ) , the metaphor of the house or dwelling i s greatly expanded. The narrator sees t h i s phenomenon of the ripp i n g of the v e i l as a sign of the omnipresence of God. A house or temple cannot keep him i n or out: 106 Frustra, Verpe, tumes, propola cultus, Et Templi parasite; namque velum Diffissum reserat Deum latentem, Et pomoeria terminosque sanctos Non vrbem f a c i t vnicam, sed Orbem. You, Jew, Huckster of worship, sponger Of the Temple, you strut in vain, For the ripped v e i l Discloses the hidden God, And makes the outer walls, and the sacred Inner Temple grounds themselves, Not one c i t y only, but a world. (PD, pp. 76-77) The metaphor moves from an inner sanctum to the outer walls, to the grounds, to a c i t y , t o the world. The following l i n e s show a close s i m i l a r i t y to the ideas i n some of the poems of The Temple, f o r instance "The A l t a r " : Et pro pectoribus recenset aras, Dum cor omne suum s i b i requirat Structorem. . . , Instead of looking into hearts As hearts, he looks f o r a l t a r s there, T i l l every heart s h a l l seek i t s maker.t>lPD, pp. 76-77) The C h r i s t i a n heart becomes, i n f a c t , the temple of the Lord and accordingly has within i t an a l t a r to the Lord. The f i n a l l i n e s of the epigram reinforce the omnipresence of God: God i s everywhere; i n the heart of the Ch r i s t i a n he i s "Agnus, Ara, Flamen", the p r i e s t at h i s own a l t a r . The penultimate poem of the sequence, "Petrae scissae", uses the a r c h i t e c t u r a l metaphor i n a di f f e r e n t fashion. I t i s concerned with metaphors of building up and tearing down. I t begins with the raw material of C h r i s t i a n i t y : the clay of Adam and Eve's creation: 107 Sanus Homo factus, vitiorum purus vterque; At s i b i c o l l i s i t f i c t i l e Daemon opus. Man was fashioned whole, Adam And Eve unstained by v i c e . But the Devil f o r his own Sake broke the clay. (PD, pp. 78-79) Each of the images i n the poem i s that of a building up and a subsequent breaking down: Post vbi Mosaicae repararent fragmina Leges, Infectas tahulas facta iuuenca s c i d l t . When in a f t e r times The Mosaic covenant Fixed the pieces, A brazen h e i f e r broke And wrecked the t a b l e t s . (PD, 78-79) Here Herbert has achieved a very witty pun on the a d j e c t i v e " M o s a i c a e a t l e a s t i n the English sense of the word, that i s as mosaic on a f l o o r or wall, b u i l t up of ti n y pieces of pottery or other material. In the La t i n , however, the sense remains r e s t r i c t e d to Moses and the Ten Commandments. The comparison i s made with the death of Christ when the "inaecessas d i s s i l u i s s e petras" (unscalable crags collapsed). The comparison between Christ and Adam i s apt at t h i s point, since Adam l o s t Paradise in much the same way as man l o s t C h r i s t , when the Passion was followed by t e r r i f y i n g earthly phenomena. The wit of the epigram i s gained by the reversal i n the l a s t image. Hearts are not broken by s i n and error, they are ground to powder, reduced to the least possible earthly substance and then they are of some value to C h r i s t : 108 Omnia, praeter corda, scelus confregit & error, Quae co n t r i t a tamen caetera damna leuant. Hearts, However, when ground to powder lighten A l l other losses. (PD, pp. 78-79) The f i n a l poem in the sequence, "In Mundi sympathiam cum Christo" (On the harmony of the world with C h r i s t ) , l i n k s the two ideas of the world as house or dwelling place and the i n d i v i d u a l heart, once i t i s joined to C h r i s t , as being or/having the world within i t : v e l tua mundum Ne nimium vexet quaestio, pone meam. Or, l e s t your inquiry Distress the world too much, Look f o r him (Christ] i n me. (PD, pp. 78-79) I have attempted to show as f u l l y as possible the major image groupings which p r e v a i l i n Passio Discerpta. This section can, at best, only stand as the very b r i e f e s t of introductions to the imagery of the volume, but I hope i t w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t foundation for the f i n a l section i n t h i s chapter on the narrative voice revealed i n the sequence. 109 I I I The Narrator as Mediator: the Voice i n Passio Discerpta As much as the imagery, i t i s the narrative voice i n the sacred epigram which ensures the e f f e c t that the poem w i l l have on the reader. I have dealt at previous points, both i n the foregoing sections and i n Chapter Two, with functions of the narrative voice i n p a r t i c u l a r poems. In t h i s section I s h a l l analyze the eff e c t of the p o s i t i o n of the narrator between the reader and the event upon which the poem i s based. Although I have already said a great deal about the f i r s t poem in the sequence, "Ad Dominum morientem" (On the dying Lord), i t does provide a very good example of the function of mediator that the narrator i s to play i n the following poems. As mentioned i n Section I I , the poem quickly passes from i t s single reference to the C r u c i f i x i o n , i n the word "wounding", to a detailed consideration of the narrator's response by means of the t r i p l e metaphor pattern of water (tears, repentance), blood (wounding, redemption), and ink (black, s i n ) . The narrative voice presents an ameliorated kind of introduction to the whole of the volume: we are not immediately shown the 110 picture of the C r u c i f i x i o n i n a l l i t s personal horror. The horror i s not presented d i r e c t l y to the reader, but i s transnltted through the narrator who passes itto us by means of the metaphor which i s an i n t e g r a l part of the epigrammatic technique. The emotional i n t e n s i t y with which we are presented i s that of the narrator, not of the Chr i s t - f i g u r e himself. Throughout t h i s volume the q u a l i t i e s of the epigram as a medium f o r r e l i g i o u s themes and sacred subject-matter, stand out sharply. As a form, the epigram provides an ambiguous medium, i n that i t can both distance the reader from the material, and at the same time, bring him intensely close to the one, simple subject with which, on the surface, the epigram i s usually concerned. The narrator i n nAd Dominum morientem" i s not only mediator between the reader and his material, but, by his handling of the conclusion of the epigram, heralds the tenor of the rest of the volume. For example, the l a s t l i n e of the poem— nEt mea iam lacrymet culpa colore suo. n (Let my sins, now tinted r i g h t , pour forth?;their tears)•*-contains the verb "lacrymet" i n the subjunctive mood (i n the En g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i t i s imperative), which t e l l s the reader a great deal about the rest of the volume. On one l e v e l , Herbert obviously intends the volume of epigrams to stand as an expression of h i s own g u i l t I l l and sense of unworthiness, and i n one way i t does; on another, he i s bewailing the sins of mankind i n general f o r making necessary the events of the Passion. The s k i l f u l r h e t o r i c a l handling of the conclusion of the epigram i s one of the most important aspects of the narrative voice i n Herbert's sacred epigrams. This kind of s k i l f u l and often unexpected rhetoric i s well displayed in the short poem "In vestes diuisas" (On the portioned garments): S i , Christe, dum s u f f i g e r i s , tuae vestes Sunt hostium legata, non amicorum, Yt postulat mos; quid t u i s dabis? Teipsum. I f , C h r i s t , while you are nailed, Your garments are inheritance To enemies and not to friends As custom rules, what W i l l you give your friends? You yourself. (PD, pp. 68-69) This poem at f i r s t glance i s extremely simple, containing only one, at the most two, major ideas. However, Herbert's s k i l l i s apparent i n the r h e t o r i c a l dialogue which he has set up i n the poem, and which allows him to make the simple acclamatio at the end of the poem: "Teipsum" (You y o u r s e l f ) . Once again the wit i n the epigram i s gained from the brutal juxtaposition of two ideas. The metaphor of inheritance i s applied to the portioned garments i n the middle of the poem and the body of Christ himself i n the acclamatio at the end. The whole associative aura around 112 the word "inheritance" i s of peaceful death, mourning friends and r e l a t i v e s , an atmosphere of p i t y , gentleness and sorrow; a l l these ideas come into d i r e c t opposition with the actual events of the C r u c i f i x i o n , when so l d i e r s gambled f o r the clothes of the dying C h r i s t . The r h e t o r i c a l dialogue set up within the poem gains much of i t s e f f e c t from the c o n f l i c t of ideas mentioned. The r h e t o r i c a l question "quid t u i s dabis?* (. . . what w i l l you gitre your f r i e n d s ? ) , i s asked by the narrator himself; the tone in the rest of the poem i s indignant, almost b i t t e r , but t h i s tone merely gives the quiet reversal of the a n t i c l i m a c t i c acclamatio more weight} f o r the narrator i s here rep l y i n g to h i s own question. In the poem "In Christum crucem ascensurum" (To Christ about to ascend the cross), the ending of the poem also involves acclamatio, but i t i s not a reversal as in the previous poem so much as a r h e t o r i c a l climax, prepared f o r and b u i l t up to throughout the whole poem. As explained i n Section I I , t h i s poem re l a t e s metaphorically to the actual C r u c i f i x i o n an incident which occurred before Good Friday. The narrative voice r e l a t e s the two incidents and w i t t i l y draws a conclusion from the comparison: 113 Zacchaeus, vt Te cernat, arborem scandit: Nunc ipse scandis, vt labore mutato Nobis f a c i l i t a s cedat & t i b i t s u d o r * Zacchaeus, that he might see you, Climbed a tree: now you yourself Climb up, so that, the work turned round, Ease may be stored up for us, And sweat f o r you. (PD, pp. 70-71) The four poems which form th i s central section on the C r u c i f i x i o n — " I n plum Latronem", "In Christum crueem ascensurum", "Christum i n cruce* 1, and "In C l a u o s " — are a l l based on imagery of r i s i n g and f a l l i n g . In "In pium LatronemS (On the good t h i e f ) , the t h i e f i s going up to C h r i s t , having stolen eternal l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , in t h i s poem the analogy which Herbert i s making between the Publican and sinner, Zacchaeus, and Jesus on the cross depends on the imagery of r i s i n g , and i s linked by the tree i n both cases: i n the f i r s t , the "sycomore" which the "man of l i t t l e stature" (St. Luke) climbed to see the Saviour, i n the second,the tree on which Christ was c r u c i f i e d . In the o r i g i n a l L a t i n , a simple ablative absolute construction "labore mutato" (the work turned round) expresses the complex idea which the r h e t o r i c a l ease of the poem somewhat disguises; that i s , that whereas Zacchaeus climbed a tree i n order to see C h r i s t , i n t h i s case Christ elevates himself i n order to be seen. The wit i n the conclusion of the epigram i s based f i r m l y upon t h i s foundation image: 114 Sic omnibus v i d e r i s ad modum vi s u s . Fides gigantem sola, v e l f a c l t nanum. And so to each you seem According to his way of seeing: f a i t h Alone makes a giant or a dwarf, (PD, pp. 70-71) The narrator s k i l f u l l y draws his acclamatio from the associations brought to mind by the previous l i n e s of the poem, U n t i l the l a s t two l i n e s , the reader's knowledge of the Bible i s l e f t to f i l l i n the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Zacchaeus: the f a c t that he i s f a i t h f u l and of small stature. Another association upon which the ending of the epigram draws i s the reference i n the Psalms to the giant who r e j o i c e s to run his course and was frequently glossed during the Renaissance as symbolizing fi Ch r i s t . Of course, the very f a c t that Christ was w i l l i n g to accept the cup that his father gave him. i s s u f f i c i e n t to make him a giant from the point of view of faith. The point of the story of Zaccaeus i n the Gospels i s to show Chri s t " r a i s i n g up" Zacchaeus from the contemptible p o s i t i o n which he was considered to hold by the people of the town. The paradox upon which the acclamatio i s based at the end of the poem i s that although Zacchaeus was a small-man, he was a giant by the standards of f a i t h . The imagery of r i s i n g and f a l l i n g i s also very d i s t i n c t i n "Christus i n cruce" (Christ on the cro s s ) . In t h i s poem, 115 the narrative voice becomes s l i g h t l y more prominent because of the obvious f i r s t person narration of the poem and the emphasis upon the narrator's response: Hie, vbi sanati s t l l l a n t opobalsama mundi, Aduoluor madidae laetus hiansque Cruel: Pro lapsu s t i l l a r u m abeuntipeccata; nec acres Sanguinis insultus exanimata ferunt. Here, where the healed world's Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I i joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am driven to the drenched cross: By the f a l l i n g of that d i s t i l l a t i o n , Sins depart; dead things, they cannot bear That blood's rigorous assaults. (PD, pp. 70-71) The changes of tone i n t h i s poem provide one of the most in t e r e s t i n g aspects of the narrative voice. The poem begins f u l l of joy, optimism, and yearning, moves into a more contemplative tone with a consideration of the power of the blood of God ( t h i s middle section i s s l i g h t l y l e s s o p t i m i s t i c , e x p e c i a l l y since i t comes a f t e r the word "healed" i n the f i r s t l i n e ) , and f i n a l l y ends with a tone of fear, doubt, and s e l f -recrimination: Christe, f l u a s semper; ne, s i tua flumina cessent, Culpa redux iugem te neget esse Deum. Chr i s t , keep welling up, f o r i f your flooding stops, Revived g u i l t w i l l say you're not eternal God. (PD, pp. 70-71) The ending of t h i s epigram does not present acclamatio, reversal or wordplay, but a kind of rhetoric;: which expresses a posi t i v e hope by means of a negative statement and gives the r e s u l t i n g reversal i n tone, i f not in content. 116 There are atnumber of other inte r e s t i n g points that can be made in passing about the use of the voice i n Passlo Discerpta, One i s Herbert's i n c l u s i o n of just one poem whose narrator i s Christ himself. It i s curious that the ending of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r epigram i s i n many ways l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than those of a number of others in the volume, but the poem does display an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n on the "Reproaches" of the Good Friday services, i n which Ch r i s t reproached mankind in general. Herbert's narrative ''persona" i n t h i s volume i s that of a highly s e n s i t i v e , and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as well as emotionally intense spectator. One of h i s d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i t s , which i s also common to the "persona" i n The Temple, i s h i s f a m i l i a r and c o l l o q u i a l tone, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the openings of the poems. Consider, fo r example, the opening of "In Alapas" (On the s l a p s ) : Ah! quam eaederis hinc & inde palmisi AhJ how with hands You are on each side slapped! (PD, pp. 66-67) Another good example i s the highly c o l l o q u i a l opening of "Ad Solem deficientem" (On the sun i n e c l i p s e ) : Quid hoc? & ipse d e f i c i s , C a e l i g i g a s , . , » What's this? You too gone out, Giant of heaven,, , fc (PD, pp. 72-73) 117 Such c o l l o q u i a l language i s s t r i k i n g i n contrast with the apparently schematised form and techniques of the epigram, and stands out much more clearly than i t does i n The Temple where Herbert's aim i s l a r g e l y to disguise any schema that might appear to control the poems. The narrative voice i n this volume provides a tone which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n d i v i d u a l to make the subjects of each poem i n t e r e s t i n g i n and f o r themselves, and yet convincing enough to make the point of view expressed that of any of h i s C h r i s t i a n readers. The rhetoric and display of wit are s k i l f u l l y tempered by the expressively human response of Herbert's narrator. CHAPTER FIVE—A CRITICAL STUDY OF LUCUS In the following chapter on Lucus I s h a l l dealswith the poems under the same categories that I used i n Chapter Four; that i s , the arrangement of the poems within the volume as a whole, the imagery of the poems, and the narrative voice which Herbert uses. By maintaining these categories f o r the second volume some of the differences between i t and Passio Discerpta are made more obvious; for instance, the breadth of subject-matter upon which Lucus draws, contrasted with the del i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d range 1 of Passio Discerpta. I hope also by maintaining t h i s organization to demonstrate Herbert's s k i l l i n the use of various epigrammatic techniques applied to a wide v a r i e t y of subject-matter i n Lucus. 119 I The Arrangement of the Poems i n Lucus As i n the case of Passio Discerpta, the arrangement of the t h i r t y - f i v e poems of Lucus i n the Williams Manuscript has never been challenged nor have the poems been reordered by any editor. Since the poems are i n Herbert's own handwriting with few corrections to the text, we must assume that t h i s was the order i n which Herbert intended to leave the poems; he made no subsequent major revisions i n either d i c t i o n or arrangement. In t h i s section, therefore, I am not defending one stated theory of h i s arrangement against another, as much as pointing out some of-the poetic advantages and disadvantages of the arrangement as i t stands in the Williams Manuscript. By gi v i n g his volume a t i t l e as vague and yet suggestive as Lucus (The Sacred Grove), Herbert allowed himself a great deal more freedom than he had scope f o r i n the previous volume, Passio Discerpta (The Events of the Passion), where, even i f he did not intend to follow chronologically the events as they are narrated i n the Bible, h i s reader would naturally expect, from the t i t l e , such an arrangement. In Lucus, as i n The Temple, 120 the grouping and arrangement are l e f t to emerge i n t h e i r own pattern as the reader proceeds through the volume, with no immediate superimpositions of associations or ideas. The volume i s much more loosely grouped and arranged than i s Passlo Discerpta, however. On a cursory reading, the poems seem to have few, i f any, l i n k i n g themes or images, and many of the t i t l e s and the subjects of the poems seem out of place i n a volume with the t i t l e , "The Sacred Grove". One group of poems which seems a l i e n to the r e s t of the Volume as a whole i s that concerned with various f o l l i e s and vices of mankind; such poems as " A u a r i t i a " (Avarice), "In Superbum" (On the^proud man), "In Tre/vc^oE^'oN" (On vainglory), and "In Gulosum" (On the glutton). I t i s possibly the mixture of t h i s kind of poem with epigrams on more directly;!sacred subjects that prompted McCloskey and Murphy i n t h e i r b i l i n g u a l e d i t i o n to comment that: . . . b o t h the Passio Discerpta and the Lucus are lar g e l y d i d a c t i c rather than devotional i n the sense of many of his Herbert's l a t e r English poems . . . . 1 I t must be admitted that they do appear at f i r s t glance to be scattered throughout the volume at random, but I believe that i n many instances a reasonable case can be made f o r t h e i r deliberate and advantageous pos i t i o n i n g i n the manuscript. 121 Just as In Passio Discerpta, the poems do tend to f a l l into obvious groups. The best example of t h i s i s the four poems towards the end of the volume on Rome and Pope TJrban VIII (who was holding the papal t i t l e at approximately the same time as Herbert was writing the volume). A sim i l a r grouping occurs near the middle of the volume with the poems on p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s . However, the arrangement on the whole i s not as systematic as i n Passio Discerpta. For .example, when one begins reading the volume, the f i r s t f i v e poems appear to be linked both thematically and through t h e i r images, but the s i x t h poem "In pacem Britannicam" (On the B r i t i s h peace), breaks the sequence which i s not resumed. This breaking of an apparently c a r e f u l l y constructed sequence occurs frequently. S:-v* One fact o r , though, tends to keep the reader mentally a l e r t to the possibility of a deliberate and c a r e f u l l y thought out structure on Herbert's part, and that i s the fa c t that the majority of poems, i f they are not t o p i c a l , are based on incidents from the New Testament; for example, "Tempestas Christo dormiente" (The storm, while Christ sleeps), "In Vmbram P e t r i " (On Peter's shadow), and "Martha: Maria" (Martha, Mary). The incidents do not seem to be arranged as they occur i n the Gospels except by the most tenuous of l i n k s . For example, i n St. Luke, Christ's meeting with 122 Martha and Mary i s clos e l y followed by h i s meeting at dinner with the Pharisee. It i s possible that Herbert meant h i s poem n I n Superbum" (On the proud man) to r e f e r to t h i s incident, and to contrast with both the preceding poems, "Martha: Maria" (Martha; Mary) and "Amor" (Love), but there i s no d e f i n i t e reference i n "In Superbum" to the meeting with'the proud and s i n f u l Pharisee. As in Passlo Discerpta, the scheme behind Herbert's arrangement depends l a r g e l y upon his use of imagery, which l i n k s the poems in a way that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the opening of the volume. The f i r s t three poems "Homo, Statua" (Man the statue), " P a t r i a " (Homeland), and "In Stephanum lapidatum" (On the stoning of Stephen), introduce i n various ways two images, those of rock and f i r e , which Herbert uses separately and together in d i f f e r e n t contexts. In "Homo, Statua" (Man the statue), he uses the image of rock to s i g n i f y s i n and "improbitas" (impurity) i n the human heart, which was so common as an emblem in the seventeenth century and was based on the same image in the Bi b l e : Sum, quis nescit, Imago Dei, sed saxea certe: Hanc mihi duritiem c o n t u l i t improbitas. I am, stupid, the Image of God but Surely rock. Impurity Put t h i s hardness On me. (L, pp. 80-81) 123 The image of man as a statue l i n k s , i n i t s c l a s s i c a l associations, with the t i t l e , f or the Romans sculpted statues of t h e i r Gods and Goddesses i n order to worship them in temples or even possibly in sacred groves. Here, Herbert's narrator i s i n the image of God, but the statue does not denote beauty, grace and worship, but impurity and sinfulness. He conveys these negative connotations by using not the word "marmor'* (marble), but the a d j e c t i v a l "saxea" (of rock, rocky). The beauty of the following l i n e s leads into the f i n a l reference to marble; i t does not harden l i k e the scarlet corals, but weeps. Herbert's heart also must weep i n order to prove that i t i s not harder than stone. The imagery of f i r e i s introduced in the next poem "P a t r i a " (Homeland), and i s combined with the image of rock, to comment upon the s p i r i t u a l state of the narrator. A simile of f i r e i s used to r e f e r to the devotional state of the mind: TJt tenuis flammae species caelum vsque minatur, Igniculos legans, manserit ipsa l i c e t ; S i c mucronatam reddunt s u s p i r i a mentem, Yot&que s c i n t i l l a e sunt animosa meae. As the form of r a r e f i e d flame Shooting o f f sparks leaps to the sky, though i t Stays back i t s e l f , so do sighs Make sharp the mind, and f i e r y prayers Are my sparks. (L, pp. 82-83) 124 The image of rock i s juxtaposed, hut subordinated to t h i s , and used to r e f e r to the body only at the end of the epigram. In the previous poem, the heart or the mind was only glanced at, since i t was imprisoned i n the rock that was the narrator's body. Here, the heart cannot only weep, but "Asslduo stimulo carnem . . . l a c e s s i t " (beat the 2 f l e s h with nagging pain), and "perterebrare ^ potest" (tunnel through i t ) . The word "perterebrare" (to bore through) 3 obviously brings with i t the image of rock. The t h i r d poem, "In Stephanum lapidatum" (On the stoning of Stephen), combines the two images d i r e c t l y i n two l i n e s : Qui s i l i c e m tundit, (mirum tamen) e l i c i t ignem: At Caelum e saxis e l i c u i t Stephanus. How marvelousI Who Pounds rock gets f i r e . But Stephen from Stones got heaven. (L, pp. 82-83) This poem i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t r e f e r s i n part to a very common emblem in the seventeenth century, the " s i l e x s c i n t i l l a n s " ( f l ashing rock) as Vaughan chose to c a l l i t when he used the phrase as the t i t l e f o r h i s volume of poems i n 1650. The emblem usually depicted a thunderbolt s t r i k i n g sparks from a rock i n the shape of a heart, and from the heart issue one or two tears. These tears are d e f i n i t e l y tears of repentance i n the f i r s t poem. But 125 here, Stephen does not gain tears of repentance from the stones, but the next stage, Heaven. This point i s also reinforced by the d i c t i o n of the poem. Herbert uses the word " s i l e x " f o r rock just as the emblem writers, as well as Vaughan, frequently did, and also he uses the verb " e l i e l o " (to draw out) i n the f i n a l l i n e , and t h i s verb has a p a r t i c u l a r meaning of " c a l l i n g down a God". The stoning of Stephen occurs i n the Acts of the Apostles (Chapter VII, 56-60), and the incident with Simon the sorcerer occurs only a few verses l a t e r . The two poems obviously make a good contrast i n theme: Stephen the f a i t h f u l martyr, i n whom the Holy S p i r i t was radiant, and Simon who believed that he could buy for money the power of the Holy Ghost: Ecquid ernes Christum? pro nobis s c i l i c e t olim Venditus est Agnus, non tamen emptus e r i t . W i l l you buy Christ? No doubt long ago The Lamb was sold for us; yet he w i l l Not be bought. (L, pp. 82-83) This poem introduces the image of money which occurs i n cert a i n of the following poems; i t also r e f e r s back to the "Imago Dei" (Image of God) mentioned i n the f i r s t poem "Homo, Statua" (Man the statue): Vnicus est nummus, caelo Christoque petitus, Nempe i n quo clare" lucet Imago Dei. 126 There* s but one kind of coin Looked for by C h r i s t and heaven; Truly the one i n which God*s likeness gleams C l e a r l y etched. (L, pp. 84-85} The f i f t h poem of t h i s group, "In S. Scripturas" (On the Sacred Scripture), uses, i n a d i f f e r e n t context, the f i r e imagery used i n the e a r l i e r poems: Heu, quis s p i r i t u s , igneous que turbo Regnat vi s c e r i b u s , melisque versat Imo pectore cogitationes? 0 what s p i r i t , what f i e r y whirlwind Takes my bones and s t i r s My deepest thoughts? (L, pp. 84-85) However, the general importance of t h i s poem i s not of imagery as much as theme. The Sacred Scripture to which Herbert i s r e f e r r i n g i s , of course, the New Testament, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Acts of the Apostles. The i m p l i c i t reference i n the f i r s t l i n e with the word " s p i r i t " would seem to be to the Holy Ghost; the passage from Acts, Chapter Two, reads: 2And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and i t f i l l e d a l l the house where they were s i t t i n g . 3And there appeared unto them cloven tongues l i k e as of f i r e , and i t sat upon each of them. The repeated imagery of "house", "lodging", " a l l e y s " , etc. i s already suggested by the B i b l i c a l passage; Herbert merely i n d i v i d u a l i z e s i t to r e f e r to himself. However, since he cannot claim to have received the Holy S p i r i t 127 as such, i n h i s poem the " s p i r i t " becomes the power of Sacred Scripture upon the human soul. This f i f t h poem l i n k s and summarises the previous four very e f f e c t i v e l y ; but at t h i s point, there i s a break i n the volume with "In pacem Britannicam". This poem has for i t s witty ending a reference to the incident i n the Gospels of Christ's walking upon the Sea of G a l i l e e . I t also has an i m p l i c i t reference to the parting of the waters of the Red Sea f o r the children of I s r a e l i n t h e i r f l i g h t from the Egyptians: •'Et quae eorrumpit moenia, murus aqua est." (And water which wrecks walls, i s I t s e l f a w a l l ) . The epigram possibly r e f e r s in general to the T h i r t y Years War (1618-1648) which was fought over r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . England, because of James I's p a c i f i c p o l i c i e s , d i d not become involved i n t h i s war: Anglla cur solum fuso sine sanguine sicca est, Gum natet i n t a n t i s caetera terra malls? Why i s England dry (Not having poured her blood out), While a l l the earth wades :- -!..-'-v.-- = i ^ f Through tides of e v i l ? (L, pp. 86-87) This poem does contrast with the one before i t i n that Herbert i s now r e f e r r i n g to peace and enlightenment on a general, national l e v e l , whereas i n ''In S. Scripturas" he was concerned s o l e l y with the i n d i v i d u a l , personal response of the narrator. 128 The seventh poem " A u a r i t i a " (Avarice), returns to the image of gold or tainted money introduced in "In Simonem Magum (On Simon Magus): Aurum nocte videns, vidlese insomnia d i c i t : Aurum luce videns, n u l l a videre putat. 0 f a l s o s homines*. V i g i l a t , qui sbmniat aurum, Pltfsque habet hie laetus, quarn v e l Auarus habet. Gold seen at night i s said To be a dream, And in the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . 0 vain Men, he Is awake who dreams Of gold: he's got more gold than even The avaricious man. (L, pp. 86-87) The subject of thi s poem i s secular rather than sacred, but the concision and witty turn of thought are admirable and completely t y p i c a l of Herbert at hi s best. The next group of poems from number eight to number twenty-four appears to be a heterogeneous and disparate group linked as much by associations as by de f i n i t e themes or images. Their one common l i n k i s that o they are l a r g e l y based upon incidents taken from the Gospels, although within t h i s group there i s the c o l l e c t i o n of cautionary poems mentioned e a r l i e r , such as "In Gulosum" (On the glutton), "In Improbum disertum" (On the eloquence of the wicked), etc. "In Lotionem pedum Apostolorum" (On the washing of the apostles' feet) i s based upon a passage i n the Gospel of St. John: 129 A f t e r that he poureth water into a basin, and began to wash the d i s c i p l e s * feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. (13: v) This poem i s followed quite naturally by"In D. Lucam** (On Luke the doctor), since Luke was one of the writers of the Gospel and f i l l e d with the Holy Ghost: Cur Deus e l e g i t Medicum, qui numine plenus Diuina C h r i s t ! scriberet acta manu? Why did God a doctor pick, That he, f i l l e d up with the Holy S p i r i t , Might with h i s consecrated hand Record the acts of Christ? (L, pp. 88-89) **Papae t i t u l u s , Nec Deus Nec Homo** (The Pope's t i t l e (not God or man] ) does not l i n k with the poem previous s o l u t i o " (The payment of t r i b u t e ) . Both Mark and Luke record the question the Pharisees put to Jesus concerning payment of Tribute to Caesar. Herbert, by juxtaposing the two poems here, emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the positions of Caesar and the Pope. In the f i r s t poem, the Pope i s not even allowed the dignity of being regarded as the A n t i c h r i s t , while i n the second, the point i s made that: Quod-omnibus tute imperes, nemo t i b i . For you of everyone Are uncontested king, While no one i s of you. (L, pp. 88-87) The power of Christ i s referred to l n the following poem^"Tempestas Christo dormiente" (The storm, while Chr i s t ' s l e e p s ) , while humility i s the subject of the to i t , but with that following i t , " T r i b u t i 130 following poem "Bonus C i u i s " (The good c i t i z e n ) . The f i f t e e n t h and sixteenth poems "Martha: Maria" (Martha; Mary) and "Amor" (Love), are obviously linked i n theme. The love of Martha and Mary f o r Christ as recorded in St. Luke, Chapter Ten, i s expressed bytthe two women i n d i f f e r e n t ways, and i n the following poem Herbert expresses love i t s e l f and the state of love by means of various metaphors and s i m i l e s . With "In Superbum" (On the proud man), Herbert begins a short group of cautionary poems quite unlike the rest of the epigrams i n subject or emphasis. " A f f l i c t i o " ( A f f l i c t i o n ) and "Consolatio" (Consolation), which are inserted i n t h i s group, are more obviously on sacred subjects, and " A f f l i c t i o " r e f e r s again to the incident of Chr i s t ' s walking on the water. The l i n k s between the other poems, apart from the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r subjects, are also forged by the imagery. For example, at the end of "In K t ^ o ^ o L ^ *», an image of food i s used to describe q u a l i t i e s of character and temperament: Morosus, oxygala est: l e u i s , coagulum. Moroseness has a curdlike thickness, And giddiness i s rennet-thin. (L, pp. 96-97) This poem then leads into "In Gulosum" (On the glutton): 131 Dum prono rapis ore cibos, & f e r c u l a v e r r i s , Intra extraque graui plenus es i l l u u i e . While youffshovel food In your swooping mouth And pick clean whole trays, You are weighted down within And without with a flood Of d i r t . (L, pp. 96-67) The f i n a l image of "In Gulosum" (On the glutton), i s that of death and interment: Te petet, ante diem quisquis obire cupit. He w i l l v i s i t you Who wants to be interred before h i s time. (L, pp. 98 And the following poem "In Improbum disertum" (On the eloquence of the wicked), i s also concerned with physical s i n , the pleasures of the f l e s h and eventual death: Aurea pro naulo lingua Charontis e r i t . Your gilded talk w i l l be Charon's passage money. (L, pp. 98-99) "Consolatio" (Consolation) summarises t h i s cautionary group by bringing to the reader's attention the C h r i s t i a n consolation f o r the fact of death on a general l e v e l : Viuimus in praesens: hesternam viuere vitam Nemo potest: hodie v i t a sepulta p r i o r . We l i v e For the present: no one can l i v e The l i f e that was the day before. (L, pp. 98-99) 132 This Christian consolation moves, in the next poem, "In Angelos" (On angels), to an even higher sphere. WheraaSthe previous poem referred to the height that human beingscould reach in death, this poem compares the nature of angels with the characteristics and physical limitations of the human being upon earth. This movement out of the group of cautionary poems onto a more philosophical level is not continued further than "In Angelos". The sequence here appears to break off and lead into a group of highly topical poems concerned with Pope Urban VIII. The twenty-fifth poem, "Roma. Anagr." (Rome: an anagram) serves as an introduction to three poems which are almost s a t i r i c rather than sacred epigrams, such is their topicality. The four poems form a logical sequence, seemingly complete in i t s e l f . The seven remaining poems of the volume form another heterogeneous and disparate group. T^^nk^Boirvc*." (Reasonable sacrifice) and "In Thomam Didymum" (On Thomas Didymus) return to Christian rather than topical subjects, the latter referring to the well-known incident of Thomas the Doubter in the New Testament. "In Solarium" (On the sundial) returns, however, to a general consideration of the human condition, the human being's position upon earth, as a creature who "animaque & corpore constat" (hangs between body and a s p i r i t ) . This i s followed by the 133 very long and p a r t i a l l y descriptive poem "Triumphus Mortis" (The triumph of Death), the ending of which i s powerful but pessimistic. It i s followed very f i t t i n g l y by a much shorter epigram "Triumphus C h r i s t i a n i : i n Mortem" (The Christian's triumph: against Death), which, i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y and assurance, contrasts s k i l f u l l y with the foregoing poem and prepares the way for "In Johannem'i1iH<?T^&"tf)v'* (To John, leaning on the Lord's breast). This poem and "Ad Dominum" (To the Lord), the l a s t in the volume, reintroduce ' the personal and in d i v i d u a l i z e d tone of the narrator into the sequence. The narrator w i t t i l y r einterprets John's leaning on the Lord's breast as the act of a suckling c h i l d . This metaphor of a woman's l i f e - g i v i n g breast f o r the open and wounded breast of Chr i s t i s continued in the opening of the following poem: Christe, decus, dulcedo, & centum c i r c i t e r Hyblae, Cordis apex, animae pugneique paxque meae . . . . Christ, bright one, sweet one, more l i k e A hundred fabled honey-bearing towns, Heart's highest seat, the war Of my s p i r i t , and i t s peace....(L, pp. 120-121) The C h r i s t i a n metaphor i s , of course, of Christ as the lover of the human soul, but the metaphor i s heightened by the secular overtones of the method of address. This poem, the l a s t i n the sequence, expresses the f i n a l plea of the f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n to see Chr i s t : 134 Quin, sine, te cernam; quoties iam dixero, cernam; Immoriarque o c u l i s , o mea v i t a , t u i s . 0 l e t me see;you! As often As I say i t , I w i l l see you. In your eyes, 0 my l i f e , I w i l l die. (L, pp. 120-121) This emphasis at the end of the volume on the narrator's personal rel a t i o n s h i p with Christ contrasts with the concluding poems of Passio Discerpta, i n that the emphasis there was on the more general and universal meaning of the Ch r i s t i a n story rather than on the more personal and ind i v i d u a l response of the narrator as i t was at the beginning of the volume. Lucus, l i k e Passio Discerpta, also moves from the general to s p e c i f i c and vice versa, but I believe that the movement i s not as deliberate or as e f f e c t i v e as i t i s in the l a t t e r volume. The t i t l e Lucus (The Sacred Grove) gave Herbert much more freedom than did the t i t l e Passio Discerpta. The poems in Lucus, as might be expected, are on a much greater v a r i e t y of topics. Their arrangement seems at times p e r f e c t l y understandable and extremely s k i l f u l , and at others merely puzzling. I t i s obvious that the arrangement and choice of subject-matter f o r many of the poems i n the volume i s dictated by the incidents in the Gospels, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the Acts of the Apostles; but there are also many poems which appear to havfe l i t t l e i n common with the others i n the volume, or even with the t i t l e "The Sacred Grove". 135 I f the arrangement of the poems i n the volume cannot be t o t a l l y j u s t i f i e d , the v a r i e t y and use of the imagery which Herbert employed c e r t a i n l y can. I s h a l l attempt to show i n the following section a few of the aspects of hi s use of imagery and some of the major image patterns which he employs in the volume. 136 II The Imagery i n Lucus One of Herbert's most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s k i l l s i s h i s a b i l i t y to use i n a new and s t a r t l i n g way an image that may be common or overworked. Thus, although the imagery of Lucus i s often s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to that o f Passio  Discerpta, Herbert's use of that imagery and the contexts i n which he places i t are always varied. Tfee imagery of Lucusri is s i m i l a r to that of Passio Discerpta not only i n single images but i n image groupings or c l u s t e r s . A number of these groupings are immediately recognizable even on a cursory reading. A good example i s the c l u s t e r of images r i g h t at the beginning of the volume involving rock and f i r e . In the very f i r s t poem, Herbert's a b i l i t y to f i n d a s t r i k i n g and beautiful image Is displayed by h i s l i n e on the red c o r a l s : Durescunt p r o p r i j s euulsa c o r a l l i a fundis, Red corals, Pulled out Of t h e i r habitat Harden. (L, pp. 80-81) The epigram moves i n a s k i l f u l progression of ideas and references to the actual substances which embody those ideas. The narrator begins by drawing immediate attention to himself, but as the poem moves on he moves 137 backward in time. The s t r i k i n g , inserted image of the corals amplifies not only the previous sentence describing the narrator's present condition, but also the following sentence using Adam's fate to explain the narrator's r o c k - l i k e heart. The poem moves through three substances: the unyielding rock, the coral slowly hardening and fading, and the marble, bea u t i f u l and softer than the other two i n that i t weeps. The address to God (who has only been mentioned obliquely so f a r ) , forms the climax of this meditative epigram and Herbert's wit i s displayed i n h i s introduction of a substance which i s both beautiful and softer than the substance of his own heart. The ending of th i s poem i s an acclamatio of an unusual kind i n that i t i s a plea couched negatively in the form of an imperative or command: Tu, qui cuncta creans d o c u i s t i marmora f l e r e , Haud mihi cor saxo durius esse sinas. You who Creating a l l things gave Marble the power to weep, Do not l e t my heart Be harder than stone. (E, pp. 80-81) This epigram also gives a kind of parody of the o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n a l form of the epigram, either engraved i n a stone or b u i l d i n g , or r e f e r r i n g to i t , when one remembers that the narrator i s r e f e r r i n g to himself as a statue. Also the vocative address reminds one of the injunction to the 138 passer-by i n many epitaphs. The concluding turn of thought here depends p a r t l y upon surprise, for u n t i l the l a s t l i n e we are not t o l d e x p l i c i t l y the relat i o n s h i p between the metaphors which Herbert i s using, and the s p i r i t u a l state of the narrator. The imagery of f i r e i n " P a t r i a " (Homeland) i s much more complex i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the idea which i t expresses than i s the imagery of rock i n the above poem. There i s a one to one c o r r e l a t i o n between the parts of the image as a simile and the idea i t i s describing, that i s the form of the f i r e , the f i r e i t s e l f , and i t s sparks represent respectively the narrator's sighs;.his mind, and his prayers. But i t i s the complexity and f i e r c e i n t e n s i t y of the image that make the simile e x c i t i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y stimulating: Ut tenuis flammae species caelum vsque minatur, Igniculos legans, manserit ipsa licet.; Sic mucronatam reddunt s u s p i r i a mentem, Votaque s c i n t i l l a e sunt animosa meae. As the form of r a r e f i e d flame Shooting o f f sparks leaps to the sky, though i t Stays back i t s e l f , so do sighs Make sharp the mind, and f i e r y prayers Are my sparks. (L, 82-83) The complexity of the f i r e imagery here derives from i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the narrator's mind at a period of s p i r i t u a l s t r i v i n g . The image of "r a r e f i e d flame" i s used as a description of the narrator's sighs, which i n turn sharpen h i s mind as they are expressed. The r a r e f i e d 139 flame takes sparks up from the f i r e , just as the narrator's sighs carry up with them hi s prayers. The image here i s d e l i b e r a t e l y expanded i n the opening of the poem i n order that i t can be used to give greater weight to the starkness of the concluding acclamatio: Assiduo stimulo carnem Mens v i t a l a c e s s i t , Sedula s i f u e r i t , perterebrare potest. The mind beats the body a l l the t i m e — And i f i t perseveres, Can tunnel through i t . (L, pp. 82-83) In contrast to the previous poem, the body here has become rock although t h i s i s only i m p l i c i t l y stated in the word "perterebrare" (to tunnel). The t i t l e of the poem i s ambiguous; i t could refer either to heaven, the homeland that the mind i s s t r i v i n g to reach, or, i n an i r o n i c sense, to the body, which i s home f o r the mind on earth but which must be l e f t . The complexity of the imagery of f i r e i n t h i s poem forms a good contrast with the bare and simple statement of ''In Stephanum lapidatum" (On the stoning of Stephen): Qui s i l i c e m tundit, (mirum tamen) e l i c i t ignem: At Caelum e saxls e l i c u i t Stephanus. How marvelous'. Who Pounds rock gets f i r e . But Stephen from Stones got heaven. (L, pp. 82-83) Here, the wit depends upon th i s starkness of statement and the reader has already been prepared by the previous poem 140 f o r the l i n k between f i r e , sparks, and a s p i r i t u a l state. There i s no suggestion, and indeed no space, for an emotional response on the part of the narrator to Stephen's martyrdom, the wit i s derived from the play of the i n t e l l e c t around the bare facts of the incident. The s i m p l i c i t y of the imagery r e f l e c t s the thought i n the epigram. The use of bare and unelaborated imagery i s much more prevalent i n Lucus than i n Passio Discerpta; f o r example, i t s use i n " A u a r i t i a " (Avarice): Aurum nocte videns, v i d i s s e insomnia d i c i t : Aurum luce videns, n u l l a videre putat. Gold seen at night i s said To be a dream, And i n the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . (L, 86-87) Here the image i s not expanded; i t i s there simply as a fact to provide the basis f o r the turn of thought at the end of the poem. The narrator i s playing with the theme of i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y , but i n the body of the poem one i s no more elaborated on than the other. They balance each other p e r f e c t l y , and the conclusion sums both up with wit and irony, expressing the turn of thought appropriately i n terms of possession: Plusque habet hie laetus, quam v e l Auarus habet. he's got more gold than even The avaricious man. (L, pp, 86-87) 141 Of course, the point of the epigram i s that gold i s worthless; the man with gold has no more substance than the man who dreams of i t . This short poem i s i n part an explanation of the theme of "In Simonem Magum" (On Simon Magus), where the concept of money and buying i s linked to C h r i s t ' s "buying back" mankind from s i n : Quin nos Ipse emit, precioso faenora soluens Sanguine: nec precium merx emit v l l a suum. No, He bought us, l i q u i d a t i n g Our debt with his Rich blood. (L, pp. 88-83) During the middle ages r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s frequently employed the pun on the "redemption" which i s derived from the "Latin "redimere", to buy back. For example, these l i n e s from the fourteenth-century l y r i c "How Christ s h a l l Come": I come vram the chepyng as a Riche chapman, thet Mankynde habbe ibouzt. I come vram an vncouthe londe as a sely pylegryme, thet f e r r habbe i-souzt. 5 Herbert i s obviously playing with the same pun i n the imagery of ^ In Simonem Magum": Ecquid ernes Christum? pro nobis s c i l i c e t olim Vendltus est Agnus, non tamen emptus e r i t . W i l l you buy Christ? No doubt long ago The Lamb was sold f o r us; yet he w i l l Not be bought. (L, pp. 82-83) Simon's money was tainted, and the image at the end of the poem becomes a metaphor involving a contrast between "true" and "tainted" money: 142 Vnicus est nummus, .caelo Christoque petitus, Nempe i n quo clare l u c e t Imago Dei. There's but one kind of coin Looked by Christ and heaven; Truly the one i n which God's likeness gleams C l e a r l y etched. (L, pp. 84-85) Man i s "forged" in the image of God, just as the coin i s forged or minted, but i f God's likeness i s not to be seen on the ''coin", i t i s worthless, tainted, counterfeit. Thus, by the end of the poem, the narrator has w i t t i l y rendered Simon as tainted as h i s money. The image of the star mentioned e a r l i e r i n the poem becomes a metaphor f o r C h r i s t . Simon cannot o f f e r enough money to buy t h i s "star", whereas Christ paid the f u l l price to " l i q u i d a t e " our debt, and buy back mankind. I have already commented on the reappearance i n t h i s poem of the phrase "Imago Dei". The star image also recurs i n "In S. Scripturas": Nunquid pro foribus sedendo nuper Stellam vespere suxerim volantem, Haec a^utem hospltio latere t u r p i Prorsus nescia, cogitat recessum? When I was r e s t i n g Near my door not long ago, And i t was evening, did I Swallow a f a l l i n g star? And i s i t Trying to escape, not knowing how In t h i s disgraceful lodging to be-ihidden? (L, pp# 84-85) Again, the " f a l l i n g s tar" i s synonomous with the divine - force, Christ or the Holy Ghost. 143 This recurrence of images often a number of poems apart, i s a c t u a l l y more frequent than clu s t e r s of s i m i l a r images such as were to be found i n Passlo Discerpta. The o v e r a l l theme of Lucus which the imagery i s used to express i s the appearance and presence of the Holy Ghost. Such i s the arrangjuent of the poems that the volume seems to lend i t s e l f more e a s i l y to the e f f e c t i v e use of images which recur i r r e g u l a r l y but powerfully, rather than c l o s e l y linked clusters of images in a number of poems. However, there are two major image groups linked f a i r l y c l o s e l y within Lucus. The f i r s t of these, which occurs d i r e c t l y a f t e r " A u a r i t i a " (Avarice), i s that of water, for defence, p u r i f i c a t i o n , and as fa symbol of power and humility; the second involves a r c h i t e c t u a l images of habitat or lodging. In n I n pacem Britannicam" (On the B r i t i s h peace), the image of the sea around an island i s the basis of the epigram, and with t h i s are linked f l u i d images of blood and "tides of e v i l " . The poem also r e f e r s to the crossing of the Red Sea and Christ's walking upon the waters. In t h i s poem the sea i s a metaphor e i t h e r for peace or war; f o r England i t means peace. The narrator opens the poem by putting a r h e t o r i c a l question: Anglia cur solum fuso sine sanguine sicca est, Citm natet in t a n t i s caetera t e r r a malis? Why i s England dry (Not having poured her blood out), While a l l the earth wades Through tides of e v i l ? (L, pp. 86-87) 144 He then w i t t i l y uses the metaphor of the sea's ebbing and flowing to answer h i s own question: S i t l i e e t i n pelago semper, sine f l u c t i b u s i l i a est, Cum qui plus terrae, plus habuere maris. Though she i s always i n the sea, She has no waves; at the same time, They who have more land more sea possess. (L, pp. 86-87) For other countries not at peace, war means possession: Naufragij causa est a l i j s mare, roboris Anglo, The sea i s the cause of shipwreck to them; To England, a source of s t r e n g t h — (L, pp. 86-87) The sea means shipwreck, the ship of state i s l o s t i n war. But B r i t a i n , because she i s at peace, i s defended by her p o t e n t i a l l y destructive waters, and peace means the f l o u r i s h i n g of Reli g i o n : Nempe hie R e l i g i o F f l o r e t , regina q u i e t i s , Tuque super nostras, Christe, moueris aquas. For sure Religion flowers here, the Queen of Peace, And you, Christ, move upon our waters. (L, pp. 86-87) In t h i s epigram a series of metaphoric images i s used to b u i l d , with a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t meanings, towards the f i n a l statement. Like a jigsaw puzzle a l l the various pieces of the metaphor are f i t t e d together—dryness, goodness, peace, s t i l l waters, weakness, protection, R e l i g i o n — u n t i l the f i n a l l o g i c a l step i s reached, the presence of C h r i s t . Herbert, admirer of James I's p a c i f i c p o l i c i e s towards Europe, must have been aware i n t h i s poem of the irony of the Th i r t y Years War. Although the Catholic and 145 Protestant European countries were struggling over r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , the only true upholders of r e l i g i o n were the countries at peace and free to worship and practise t h e i r r e l i g i o n , R eligion i s the "regina q u i e t i s " (the Queen of Peace). Another i n this group of poems using imagery of the sea i s "In Lotionem pedum Apostolorum" (On the washing of the apostles'- f e e t ) . Again the imagery i s extremely func t i o n a l ; there i s only one adjective, " g e l i d i s " (ice-cold) which describes "aquis". The juxtaposition of the myth with the Gospel incident i s blunt and at f i r s t sight the two ideas are not completely integrated: Solem ex Oceano Veteres exurgere fingunt Postquam se g e l i d i s nocte r e f e c i t aquis: Veriiis hoc olim factum est, v b i , Christe, lauares I l l o s , qui mundum circumiere, pedes. The ancients believed the sun Heaved up out of the sea A f t e r he'd refreshed himself At night i n ic e - c o l d water.. This was truer long ago When you, C h r i s t , bathed those feet Which made t h e i r way around the world. (L, pp. 86-87) However, in t h i s case, the wit of the epigram derives exactly from t h i s juxtaposition. The i n i t i a l image i s , i n f a c t , a si m i l e , although i t i s not i m p l i c i t l y stated as such. The contrast between the image and the explanation at the end:?6f the epigram appears sharp and puzzling u n t i l the reader recognizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two ideas, and the application of the i n i t i a l image to the 146 following incident. The pun, or double entendre on the word "sun" i s revealed i n the t h i r d l i n e with d i r e c t mention of Ch r i s t . The sun renews himself i n the sea overnight. Christ, on the other hand, renews or refreshes himself by using water to p u r i f y the feet of his apostles who w i l l spread his word anew around the world. The l a s t l i n e with i t s idea of t r a v e l l i n g l i n k s the images of both the sun and the sea which the poem has used, for the sun travel s daily, returning to the sea at night when i t sets. The poem "Tempestas Christo dormiente" (The storm, while Christ sleeps), i s a much simpler epigram than many others i n the volume. The main image again i s of the sea, although t h i s two-line poem depends on i m p l i c i t references to at l e a s t three Gospel incidents: the storm on Gal i l e e while Christ slept, the Resurrection, and Christ's walking upon the waters: Gum dormis, surgit pelagus: cum, Christe, resurgis, Dormitat pelagus: Quam bene fraena tenes'. While you sleep the sea a r i s e s : When, Chr i s t , you r i s e up again, The sea slumbers. How well You master things'. (L, pp. 90-91) The poem works upon a simple contrast and r e v e r s a l . As in "In pacem Britannicam" (On the B r i t i s h peace), the sea again represents a force both peaceful and destructive, which Herbert sees elosely linked to Christ's story. The f i n a l phrase "Quam bene fraena tenesl" (How well you 147 master things*.) l i n k s hack to the previous poem " T r i b u t i s o l u t i o " (On the payment of tribute), which also uses i n d i r e c t l y the image of the sea, with Christ*s injunction to Peter to catch a f i s h , f i n d money i n i t s mouth and o f f e r i t f o r tribute (Matthew 17; 27). The point of " T r i b u t i s o l u t i o " i s to prove that Christ i s "uncontested king", and i n the following poem his power i s expressed by h i s command of natural forces, i n t h i s case the sea. A f i n a l example of Herbert 1s use of sea and water imagery i s i n " A f f l i c t i o " . Once again he i s r e f e r r i n g to two incidents. E x p l i c i t l y , he i s r e f e r r i n g to C h r i s t ' s walking on the waves in the New Testament, and to the crossing of the Red Sea by the children of I s r a e l : Q,uos tu c a l c a s t i f l u c t u s , me, Christe, lacessunt, Transiliuntque caput, qui subiere pedes. Christe, super f l u c t u s s i non discurrere detur: Per f l u c t u s saltern, fac, precor, ipse vadem. Those waves you walked upon, My Lord, and which come up to Your feet, pound and leap above My head. Ch r i s t , i f I can't go On top of the water, l e t me at l e a s t , I beg you, pass through the waves. (Lgpp.* 94-95) In t h i s poem the narrator's personal voice comes through very c l e a r l y , and the conclusion of the epigram depends upon t h i s personal voice f o r the witty e f f e c t of i t s plea. The sharp and concise juxtaposition of ideas adds to the witty climax. The narrator i s comparing Christ's act of walking on the water to the f l i g h t of the I s r a e l i t e s , and h i s s p i r i t u a l condition i s compared metaphorically 148 to the condition of a man about to drown. I f he cannot walk upon the water as Christ did, h i s plea i s to reach the Promised Land by passing unharmed through the waves. The sea thus becomes a metaphor f o r the t r i a l s and temptations of earthly l i f e , which Christ has transcended, the I s r a e l i t e s passed through, and which the narrator must struggle with i n order to reach s p i r i t u a l peace. This group of poems using sea or water imagery does form a pattern of themes and references, even, i f the poems are rather spread out and disparate. Since i t serves, i n the epigrams where i t appears, a l a r g e l y functional purpose, i t s e f f e c t i s gained to a large extent by the associations i t brings with i t , mainly involving New Testament events. The same statement i s true of the second type of image which frequently recurs i n t h i s sequence and i s even more noticeable i n the epigrams of Passio Discerpta; t h i s image involves metaphors of housing or habitat. The idea of habitat or lodging i s hinted at i n the very f i r s t poem, "Homo, Statua n. Here the image of the hardening corals r e f e r s to the f a c t that they have been pulled from t h e i r r i g h t f u l habitat, just as Adam was sent from h i s home, Paradise, into e x i l e . In the next poem, "P a t r i a " (Homeland), the t i t l e i t s e l f provides an image which r e f l e c t s on the rest of the poem. Although i n t h i s 149 case the body Is the "home" or "lodging" of the s p i r i t , and the s p i r i t continually t r i e s to leave the body. The correct lodging of the s p i r i t , as Herbert emphasizes, i s not the human body of f l e s h , but the body of C h r i s t ; f o r instance, In the poem "In Thomam Didymum".(On Thomas Didymus), where Christ's body i t s e l f provides a shelter and a lodging i n a s p i r i t u a l sense. In "In S. Scripturas" (On Sacred Scripture), the image of "lodging" i s used i n a v a r i e t y of ways, and a series of images i s b u i l t up on which to found the r e a l i z a t i o n at the end of the epigram. The most concrete reference i n the poem i s to the narrator's dwelling: Nunquid pro foribus sedendo nuper . . . . When I was r e s t i n g Near my door not long ago . . . ,(L, pp. 84-85) But the "hospitio . . . t u r p i " (disgraceful lodging) referred to i s not the house but the actual body of the narrator. The combined images of the lodging and the star are possibly meant to be associated i n the reader's mind with the N a t i v i t y at Bethlehem. The star then becomes Christ himself wao has taken as h i s own dwelling the human body, the "disgraceful lodging", which i s h i s as well as the narrator's. In the second image the divine s p i r i t of the Holy Writ becomes a bee whose "house" i s Holy Scripture i t s e l f , a kind of honey-comb from which the t h i r s t i n g C h r i s t i a n can suck the divine influence: 150 Nunquid mel comedens, apem comedi Ipsa cum doming domum vorando? Have I i n sipping honey Consumed the bee, i n eating up The house eaten up the mistress of the house? (L, pp. 84-85) The f i n a l image i s of the heart or body as a b u i l d i n g : Ah, quam doeta perambulare^calles Maeandr6sque plicasque, quam p e r i t a esi Quae v i s condidit, ipsa nouit aedes. Ah, how wise and s k i l l e d you are To s l i p through these paths, windings, knots. The s p i r i t that has reared the building Knows i t best. (L, pp. 84-85) The .identical image i s used i n a d i f f e r e n t way i n "Martha: Maria" (Martha; Mary). Here the imagery i s domestic i n the way so t y p i c a l of Herbert's poetry.in The Temple. The f a m i l i a r and c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n of t h i s homely dialogue make this poem stand out as unique i n the c o l l e c t i o n : Christus adest: crebris aedes percurrite scopis, Excutite aulaea, & lueeat igne focus. "Christ i s here. Sweep up the rooms, Shake out the curtains, l e t a f i r e Light the hearth. (L, pp Y92-93) The quiet tone of Mary's rejoinder which makes up the emphatic ending of the epigram reinforces the wit of the metaphor. Martha i s more concerned with the dust i n her house than i n her heart: 151 0 cessatrices'. eccum puluisculus i l l i c l Corde tuo forsan, caetera munda, SOROR. Oh, slowpokes! Look, there's s t i l l Some fine dust here!" "Perhaps i n your heart, S i s t e r . A l l else i s clean," (L, pp. 98-93) -The image of the body as a building or lodging i s also used i n "In Gulosum" (On the glutton). Here the image of the glutton's body i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y ugly and cautionary: . . . verum spelunca vocetur I l i a cauerna, in qua tot coiere ferae. Ipse fruare, l i c e t , solus graueolente sepulcro; Te petet, ante diem quisquis obire cupit. Don't just c a l l i t b e l l y now, But cavern, i n which so many Fierce beasts have been packed together. You alone can take pleasure In a tomb's stench. He w i l l v i s i t you Who wants to be interred before his time. (L, pp. 98-99) The body here, however, i s a lodging of a d i f f e r e n t kind; i t becomes a cavern and f i n a l l y a tomb. The end of the epigram warns o f f those who do not wish to go the same way as the glutton. The l a s t two poems making use of t h i s kind of image are T V a ^ v ^ Q o i n a -" (Reasonable s a c r i f i c e ) and "In Thomam Dldymum" (On Thomas Didymus). In "/\cyiiro^feutri4»! (Reasonable s a c r i f i c e ) the body becomes "viva . . . Ara Dei" (the l i v i n g a l t a r of God), a l i n e which has obvious associations with the idea of Church, Temple, or place of worship. 152 Man becomes a body which-Christ can inhabit. n I n Thomam Didymum" (On Thomas Didymus) takes the incident of Thomas the Doubter from St. 'John 20: 24-29, and uses a metaphor of Christ's body as a "hospitium torumque dulcem" (a shelter and sweet r e s t ) . At the end of the epigram t h i s shelter and sweet rest becomes a " f i d a statione & area certa" (a good inn and a strong f o r t ) , a much stronger image which in turn emphasizes the dangers of a "spissae f i d e i breuique menti" (a grudging f a i t h and a narrow mind). The conclusion of the epigram i s turned into a miniature Pilgrim's Progress. The good inn or strong f o r t i s a powerful yet homely image c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Herbert at his best in the epigram form. Herbert's s k i l l with his imagery could be demonstrated at much greater length; the incredible array of imagery used i n Triumphus Mortis" (The triumph of Death),for example, or h i s b r i l l i a n t use of various images to construct the ingenious anagram/epigram "Roma, Anagr.5' (Oram, Maro, Ramo, Armo, Mora, Amor). However, the main function of his imagery i n these epigrams i s to give the concise epigrammatic form a foundation of ideas, associations, references, upon which to b u i l d towards the f i n a l e f f e c t i v e conclusion. The imagery, as 153 I have pointed out, does f a l l into d i s t i n c t and recognizable groups, but i n each separate poem i t s use i s determined by the kind of e f f e c t i v e climax Herbert wished the narrator to reach and the voice i n which he intended him to convey th i s climactic thought. In the following section I s h a l l attempt b r i e f l y to i d e n t i f y some of the d i f f e r e n t voices Herbert's narrator u t i l i z e s . 154 III The Narrator as Informant: The Voice in Lucus The much greater v a r i e t y of subject-matter in Lucus than i n Passio Discerpta n a t u r a l l y allows the narrative voice revealed i n the various poems much greater freedom in the matter of tone, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of climactic e f f e c t . Where the narrator in Passio Discerpta mediated between the events of Good Friday and the reader's perception of them in the sequence, the narrator i n Lucus i s freer to stimulate the reader i n t e l l e c t u a l l y through the epigrammatic form by juxtaposing ideas, images, and metaphors i n order to create a new perspective within the poem. For example, where the narrator i n "In Alapas" (On the slaps) from Passio Discerpta, w i l l lead the metaphor of the healing ointment to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion by making e x p l i c i t , i n a simple acclamatio, the comparison with Christ, the narrative voice i n "In Stephanum lapidatum" from Lucus, w i l l sharply juxtapose two images, and reveal not only his wit i n the comparison, but also the underlying meaning of the incident as he has related i t . I t would be a misrepresentation of Herbert's s k i l l and v e r s a t i l i t y to attempt to draw the above d i s t i n c t i o n too "fi n e l y . The epigrams i n Lucus display a difference 155 In narrative voice mainly because t h e i r subject-matter i s wider than that of Passio Discerpta; but studying the d i f f e r e n t types of narrative voice revealed i n Lucus does show the narrator serving a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t purpose from that in Passio Discerpta: he serves l e s s as a mediator and more as a stimulator, to surprise and frequently to shock the reader. One of the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the narrative voice i n Lucus i s i t s v a r i e t y . Once again, the range of subjiect-matter i s l a r g e l y responsible. The poems range from s t r i c t l y r e l i g i o u s subject-matter and devotional expression, such as i s found i n the f i n a l poem of the s» ;:• sequence, nAd Dominum" (To the Lord), to very t o p i c a l , secular subjects, the treatment of which verges upon the s a t i r i c ; f o r example, the series of poems on Rome and Pope Urban VIII. The v a r i e t y of subject-matter allows the narrator a v a r i e t y of images which i n turn allow him a v a r i e t y of tones. Consider, f o r example, the poem n I n D. Lucam" (On Luke the doctor) and the poem which follows i t , "Papae t i t u l u s , Nec Deus Nec Homo'? (The Pope's t i t l e not God or man ). The narrator in the former uses a technique common i n Herbert's epigrams, the question answered by the narrator himself i n the following l i n e : 156 Cur Deus e l e g i t Medicum, qui numine plenus Diuina C h r i s t ! seriberet acta manu? Tt dlscat s i b i quisque, quid v t i l e : nempe nocebat Crudum olim pomum, t r i s t i s Adame, t i b i . Why did God a doctor pick, That he, f i l l e d up with the Holy S p i r i t , Might with h i s consecrated hand Record the acts of Christ? I t was in order that each man Might learn what's good for him. Surely the unripened f r u i t of old Was agony f o r you, unlucky Adam. (L, pp. 88-89) The three separate sentences which form the poem are linked by the o v e r a l l metaphor of Luke's dual profession. In Colossians, Chapter 4, verse 14, he i s "Luke, the beloved physician", a doctor of physical i l l s ; here Herbert sees him as a s p i r i t u a l doctor, and the wit of the metaphor i s enhanced by the unexpected reference to Adam. After the question from the narrator, and his own answer with i t s tone of assurance and subdued wit i n the double meaning, both s p i r i t u a l and physical, of the word "good", the tone of the f i n a l statement, which i s phrased almost as a question, comes with abruptness and a certai n wry humour. The di r e c t address to " t r i s t i s Adame" (unlucky Adam) who has not yet been mentioned, combined with the immediacy and homeliness of the image, i t s play on the domestic q u a l i t i e s of Adam's situation, give a c o l l o q u i a l tone and yet underlying irony which*, make the reader immediately r e f l e c t upon h i s own s i t u a t i o n : i f Adam suffered so greatly f o r the apple he was tempted into taking, what of us who are knowledgeable and deliberate i n our sin? 157 The subtlety of the narrative voice i n "In D. Lucam" (On Luke the doctor) i s equalled i n the following poem "Papae t i t u l u s " (The Pope's t i t l e ) . Here Herbert's sense of epigrammatic concision gives i n only two l i n e s one of his best short poems. The tone of the poem i s not the wry heartiness revealed i n the previous poem, rather i t i s the tone of a man decrying a s s e r t i v e l y but not arrogantly, and supplying i n f u l l confidence, h i s own indubitably r i g h t answer; Quisnam A n t i c h r i s t u s cessemus quaerere; Papa Nec Deus est nec Homo: Christus vterque f u i t . Let us not continue asking Who i s the A n t i c h r i s t . The Pope i s not God or man: Christ was both. (L, pp. 88-89) In i t s t o t a l diminution and v i r t u a l a n n i h i l a t i o n of i t s subject the poem verges upon s a t i r e . However, the tone i s completely without b i t t e r n e s s . The calm assertion of the f i n a l sentence creates f o r the reader the ultimate sense of being completely above, in the sense of superior to, what i s being discussed. Even the t i t l e of the poem i s not concerned with the Pope himself, but with his t i t l e . By the end of the poem he i s not even allowed the dignity of being regarded as the A n t i c h r i s t ; since he i s not the opposite of Christ he cannot lay claim to that t i t l e . The very word "Pope" raises him above man but does not place him as high as God. Christ was 158 both God and man, therefore the Pope cannot be h i s d i r e c t opposite. The extreme concision of the idea and the s i m p l i c i t y of i t s expression appear to give the narrative voice only an explanatory function, but the structure of the negative imperative which opens the poem gives the narrator the combined tone of a r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s t and f a i t h f u l , assured C h r i s t i a n . One of the best examples of the use of homely imagery and v a r i e t y of tone in the sequence i s i n "Martha: Maria" (Martha; Mary). The poem i s i n the form of a very unequal dialogue; the effectiveness of the end of the epigram depends upon the fact that Mary's part i n the dialogue i s minute but penetrating. The tone of Martha's speech b e a u t i f u l l y conveys her character as Herbert has created i t , f o r he f i l l s i n the personalinsight into Martha's character which the B i b l i c a l account,, i n St. Luke, Chapter 10J does not attempt to do: 40But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my s i s t e r hath l e f t me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me. 41Ahd Jesus answered^and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou a r t careful and troubled about many things: 42But one thing i s needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which s h a l l not be taken away from her. In Herbert's epigram we see behind the scenes i n the household. Martha's general speech to her servants i s a masterpiece of c o l l o q u i a l i t y and sensitive characterisation. 159 In Martha's world, though Christ i s important, and he appears i n the f i r s t l i n e of her speech, his importance i s only that of the guest who i s subordinated to her s u p e r f i c i a l concerns with appearance. The short speech of Mary provides a contrast i n tone, which not only h a l t s the flow of Martha's dialogue, hut reasserts with i t s calm irony the r e a l importance of Christ which has been forgotten by her s i s t e r . This type of reversal of tone ends the epigram i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e way, because i t s understatement reinforces the power of what i t represents. This technique i s r e a l l y a v a r i a t i o n of the r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e , acclamatio, a simple assertion or r e v e l a t i o n at the end of an epigram, rather than punning or word play. Herbert was extremely s k i l f u l l i n placing and wording h i s f i n a l acclamatio, so that the tone of the narrative voice became as s t r i k i n g in i t s contrast as what was a c t u a l l y said. A good example of aocteaatio used with a s t r i k i n g contrast of tone i s found i n the t h i r t y - t h i r d poem of Lucus "Triumphus C h r i s t i a n i : i n Mortem" (The Christian's triumph: against Death): Gladlosue, Catapultasue teneam, quin neque Alapas nec Arietes? Quid ergo? Agnum & Crucem. . . . no swords Or cannons, indeed No f i s t s or battering rams? What can I use against you? The Lamb, the cross. (L, pp. 118-119) 160 In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem the narrator serves the functions of both mediator, in a sense, and informant. The concluding acclamatio gains i t s e f f e c t and reversal of tone from the prominence of the narrator i n the poem who i s brought to the reader's attention by the fact that he i s standing so obviously between the C h r i s t i a n Salvation and the force of Death. The mention by the narrator of the one instrument-he has with which to defeat death, "Agnum•> & Crucem" (The Lamb, the cross), i s the revelation which the whole of the epigram leads up to, and which reinforces the reader's i m p l i c i t knowledge throughout that Christ i s the only method of defence against death. However, the description at the opening of the poem of the power and notoriety of the personified figure of death (who i s never named as such), and the catalogue of physical weapons which are useless against him, lead the reader to expect a si m i l a r description of the Christian's means of triumphing over death. The simple acclamatio of two words i s both an explanation, a cry of approval, and also a complete reversal of the reader's expectations throughout the poem i n that Christ's power i s underplayed i n the quiet tone and s i m p l i c i t y of the concluding two words. Because the tone at the end of epigram only sounds l i k e an anticlimax, i t gives a sense of irony: the power of fThe Lamb, the cross" does not need to be vaunted. 161 The voice i n many of the poems i n Lucus not on overtly r e l i g i o u s subjects can range from the explanatory to the i r o n i c and even s a r c a s t i c , Herbert can invest the apparently simple acclamatio with an astonishing range of tone. Consider, i n contrast to "Triumphus C h r i s t i a n i " discussed above, the poem "In Superbum" (On the proud man). Throughout t h i s poem the tone i s in t e r e s t i n g f o r i t s semi-satiric contempt: Magnas es; esto. Bulla s i vocaberis, Largiar & is t u d : s c i l i c e t Magnatibus D i f f i c i l i s esse haud soleb: nam, pol, s i forem, I p s i s i b i sunt nequiter f a e i l l i m i . You're a personage: so l e t i t be. I f by "bubble" y o u ' l l be c a l l e d , I ' l l - f l a t t e r you with that. To be sure, with personages I'm not accustomed to be saucy. Indeed, i f I should be so, They'd s t i l l be with themselves Most v i l e l y l e n i e n t . (L, pp. 9 4 - 9 5 ) The f i n a l acclamatio or rev e l a t i o n shows the narrator as s a t i r i c informant; h i s f i n a l explanation completely diminishes and degrades the subject of the epigram: Quin, mitte nugas; teque carnem & sanguinem Communem habere crede cum Cerdonibus: Ilium volo, qui calceat lixam tuum. Rather, l e t ' s Quit t h i s nonsense: believe you're Blood-relative to cobblers--I mean the kind who f i t Shoes on your servants. (L, pp. 9 4 - 9 5 ) 162 Herbert i s also very s k i l f u l with e f f e c t i v e and witty word play and punning at the end of the epigram. In contrast to the above example of s a t i r i c acclamatio, the ending of "Vrbani VIII Pont. Respons." (The response of Pope Urban VIII) gives a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of Herbert's f a c i l i t y with the witty or ingenious ending f o r an epigram. Hostibus haec etiam parcens imitatur Iesum. Inuertis nomen. Quid t i b i d i c i t ? AMOR. Also, i n f o r g i v i n g her enemies, she imitates Jesus. Invert the name. What does i t t e l l you? "I am loved." (L, pp. 104-105) Once again, the s i m p l i c i t y of the sentence structure at the conclusion of the epigram gives a tone of calm assertion combined with witty explanation; and the s i m p l i c i t y of the anagram, changing the word "Rome" into "Love" e f f e c t i v e l y supports the t o t a l assertion which forms the epigram. Herbert, i n t h i s poem, has transformed his narrative voice into that of the Pope, but Herbert in e v i t a b l y has the l a s t word i n this series of poems. In "Respons. ad Vrb. V I I I " (Response to Urban VI I I ) , the pun of the Pope's name, Urban, and the L a t i n meaning of the adjective "urbanus" (witty), i s referred to throughout the poem: 163 Non placet vrbanus noster de nomine lusus Romano, sed res s e r i a Roma t i b i est: Our urbane game about the Roman name Does not please you, But Rome herself concerns you very much. (B, pp. 104-105) The tone i n t h i s poem i s p l a y f u l and the latent irony i s not exploited as f u l l y as i t might be; t h i s i s p a r t l y due to the form of the poem's address, i n that i t i s directed to the Pope himself and extremely c o l l o q u i a l in expression: Attamen VRBANI delecto nomine, constat Quam satur & suauis s i t t i b i Roma iocus. S t i l l , with Urban your chosen name, to you f o r sure How r i c h and sweet a jest i s Rome. (L, pp. 104-105) The v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t voices and moods i n the poems of Lucus ensures that the epigrams never become boring o r - r e p e t i t i v e i n t h e i r structure; t h e i r wit and i n t e l l e c t u a l playfulness, t h e i r moving pleas and expressions of s p i r i t u a l f a i t h and unrest never become overwhelmed by the formulas of epigrammatic effectiveness. Herbert's f a c i l i t y with d i f f e r e n t voices and tones allows him to convey a much wider range of subject-matter and emotion than was possible i n Passio Discerpta. The e f f i c a c y of h i s epigrams depend upon the witty and informing voice of h i s narrator. CHAPTER SIX--CONCLUSIONS The basic premise upon which th i s study i s founded i s that Passio Discerpta and Lucus are sacred epigrams and must be studied i n that l i g h t i f t h e i r true aesthetic value i s to be appreciated, and t h e i r place i n Herbert's canon recognized as necessary f o r an understanding of Herbert's entire l i t e r a r y career and the r e f l e c t i o n i t gives us of the period i n which he l i v e d . The current c r i t i c a l neglect of Herbert's Anglo-La t i n poetry i s indicative of the general neglect of the English neo-Latin t r a d i t i o n as a whole, and has stemmed la r g e l y from the lack of adequate, accessible t r a n s l a t i o n s , and a c e r t a i n fear on the part of English scholars that by studying neo-Latin poetry of any period they were trespassing beyond acknowledged boundaries. The gradual appearance of accurate, scholarly translations has made possible the study of a l i t t l e of the extant Renaissance neo-Latin poetry. Herbert i s among the f i r s t to have received the attention of translators, but as yet there i s l i t t l e c r i t i c a l attention based on these translations. 165 In order to conclude that Passio Discerpta and Lucus can be r i g h t l y described as sacred epigrams i n both form and content, i t was necessary f o r t h i s study to outline the important aspects of the epigrammatic t r a d i t i o n which undoubtedly formed the basis of Herbert's L a t i n epigrams. The two basic uses of the epigram are to be found i n the Latin epigrams of Martial and those l a t e r writers who used h i s epigrams as t h e i r model, and the Greek epigrams which are to be found i n The Greek Anthology. The Greek epigram was often close i n form to the o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n from which i t gradually developed. I t was marked by s i m p l i c i t y of tone and expression which often verged on l y r i c i s m , and, although i t s emphasis was usually upon i t s conclusion, the writer of the Greek epigram was not concerned with displaying h i s wit or surprising the reader with a turn of thought. Martial's use of the epigram form, on the other hand, was characterised by his s a t i r i c intention, wordplay, wit, and h i s concern to emphasize h i s conclusion strongly by the use of a reversal or a turn of thought. From the point of view of form, Passlo Discerpta and Lucus demonstrate that Herbert had absorbed the conventions of the Latin and the Greek epigram, both of which were well known and practised during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In these two volumes Herbert 166 uses bo$h the witty or ingenious conclusion of the Latin epigram, and the f l a t t e r , more assertive acclamatio or acclamation of a point already made in the epigram, which frequently concluded the Greek type. The content*of Herbert's Passio Discerpta and Lucus undoubtedly proclaims them as sacred epigrams, although Herbert did not specifically claim them as such in his t i t l e s as did many of his contemporaries. John Saltmarsh's Poemata Sacra, John Pyne's Epigrammata Religiosa, and Richard Crashaw's Eplgrammata Sacra, for example, are t i t l e s which reveal that the poets of the period were concerned with the new use to which they were putting the epigrammatic form. The desire to incorporate B i b l i c a l material into literature in order to oppose the growing interest of Renaissance writers in secular and often erotic subject-matter is evident throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and in men li k e Saltmarsh and Pyne the early stages of the integration of sacred subject-matter and secular l i t e r a r y forms are clearly demonstrated. Although Herbert did not himself assert that the poems of Passio Discerpta and Lucus were sacred epigrams, a comparison -of his work with that of his contemporaries clearly reveals his relationship to the sacred epigram tradition. 1 6 7 We can also gain a clearer view of the aims and achievements of the sacred epigram writer in general, and Herbert in particular, by recognizing the differences between the epigrammatist and the emblem writer. The moral purpose of the emblem writers, men like Andrew Willett or Robert Farley, is much more in evidence than i t i s in the work of the epigrammatists. Although some modern c r i t i c s have regarded the emblem as merely another type of epigram, the two forms have marked differences, the most obvious of which is the fact that the written emblem is meant to accompany a picture and i s not complete in i t s e l f , whereas the epigram i s a total unit, meant to draw attention to i t s own a r t i s t i c and rhetorical s k i l l rather than illustrate that of another a r t i s t i c work. A comparison of Herbert with a writer such as John Pyne, who had a tendency to mingle some of the techniques of the emblem with those of the epigram, reveals the stage of refinement that the epigram reached in the hands of Herbert, and the high degree of poetic s k i l l he achieved while using i t . The brief c r i t i c a l study given in Chapter Three of some of the seventeenth-century writers who played a part in the development of the sacred epigram tradition revealed for the most part their relative inferiority in comparison with Herbert. However, a study of these poets in far 168 greater d e t a i l i s v i t a l to our understanding of the sacred epigrara> t r a d i t i o n , not only i n i t s culmination i n Herbert and Crashaw, but in writers such as James Duport who carr i e d on the t r a d i t i o n i n the seventeenth century as l a t e as the Restoration. 1 With the poets quoted i n Chapter Three as a basis f o r comparison with Herbert, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to conclude, even from the b r i e f study i n Chapters Four and Five, that Herbert's sacred epigrams i n Passio Discerpta and Lucus display considerable poetic s k i l l , aesthetic value and knowledge of the epigrammatic conventions as they were practised during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Herbert's success with the sacred epigram i s f i n a l l y dependent not solely upon h i s s k i l l i n the handling of the conventions, the r h e t o r i c a l voice, the verbal wit and wordplay, but upon the use of these conventions to express sincere r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g and to arouse the r e l i g i o u s emotions of the reader. This conclusion as to Herbert's success i s supported by the comparison of writers l i k e Saltmarsh and Crashaw with Herbert. Saltmarsh was concerned d i r e c t l y about h i s use of B i b l i c a l material and the witty in t e r p r e t a t i o n of that material which usually formed the conclusion of h i s epigram. The reader gains l i t t l e or no sense of Saltmarsh's own personal reBgious involvement i n the substance of the epigram. 169 Crashaw, on the other hand, i s much more personally involved in his material, but his obvious r e l i g i o u s s i n c e r i t y loses much of i t s e f f e c t when he becomes caught up i n the wit and s k i l l of h i s own wordplay. Herbert stands i d e a l l y between the two, balancing h i s use of the conventions with h i s own r e l i g i o u s emotion, allowing the conventions to gain t h e i r e f f e c t by expressing the paradoxes basic to C h r i s t i a n i t y which he f e e l s deeply as a part of h i s own l i f e . The basic conclusion of t h i s thesis i s that the Anglo-Latin poetry of any period i n English l i t e r a t u r e , but p a r t i c u l a r l y during the Renaissance and seventeenth century, must not and cannot be ignored i f English l i t e r a r y studies are to achieve t h e i r aim of understanding and appreciating f u l l y the l i t e r a t u r e of p a r t i c u l a r men i n p a r t i c u l a r periods. U n t i l the eighteenth century, the large majority of the figures i n English l i t e r a t u r e which are now most c l o s e l y studied wrote both i n L a t i n and i n English. In Herbert's c&se^a knowledge of h i s L a t i n poetry as well as of his English works may possibly allow us to trace the Influences of a variety of t r a d i t i o n s upon his w riting, and i n turn to illuminate these t r a d i t i o n s by studying his work within them. 170 Further, a study of Herbert's career including his Lat works can raise a number of in t e r e s t i n g and as yet unanswered questions. For instance, why should a man l i k e Herbert, s k i l l e d , competent in and obviously at ease wri t i n g L a t i n poetry begin writing poetry i n English? Since the vernacular had been established a hundred years previously as the language of the Liturgy i n the Anglican church, one of the answers to t h i s question might be found i n Herbert's chosen career, that of Anglican clergyman. I t was natural and necessary that Herbert should employ English rather than L a t i n i n The Temple which he professes to be b a s i c a l l y concerned with the church, the f e s t i v a l s of the C h r i s t i a n year, and the average Christian's struggles with his own soul. I t i s necessary to have some knowledge of Herbert's r e l i g i o u s poetry written i n L a t i n before the connection between the language of The Temple and i t s purpose can be f u l l y appreciated. Even to be aware that the sacred epigram had i t s own developing t r a d i t i o n during the l a s t few years of the sixteenth and f i r s t h a l f of the seven teenth century allows the scholar to l i n k the use of the form with c e r t a i n other movements of the time both l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l . For example, as was mentioned e a r l i e r , the desire among writers to incorporate B i b l i c a l l i t e r a t u r e into various secular l i t e r a r y forms was an important l i t e r a r y aspect 171 of the period, and was echoed by Anglican writers like Herbert, in the attempt to express by the actual form of their poetry, the Anglican sense of harmony, order, and r i t u a l as the basis of religious l i f e . The very definite conventions of the epigram imposed a form upon the writer, the necessary concision of which was eminently suited to the expression of the paradoxes which were the basis of Christianity. An awareness of the tradition of the sacred epigram allows us to appreciate the poems in Passio Discerpta and Lucus separately as sacred epigrams and, by comparison with the volumes of other contemporary writers, as a r t i s t i c units in which the subject-matter for each poem has been carefully selected and the poems themselves carefully arranged to express a particular theme or concept. On the question of the arrangement of the poems in each volume, Herbert is very far in advance of his contemporaries, who aiemore concerned with each epigram as a single unit rather than with linking various groups of epigrams together by means of imagery and theme. The arrangement of the epigrams in Passio Discerpta, for example, illustrates Herbert's concern to describe the events of the Crucifixion in such a way as to reinforce the general Christian meaning of Good Friday. 172 Both the imagery and the narrative voice i n Passio Discerpta supplement the movement, as expressed by the arrangement of the poems, away from the actual d e t a i l s of the C r u c i f i x i o n . Herbert's s k i l f u l use of recurring images i s the r e s u l t of h i s desire to weld each epigram into the t o t a l scheme of the volume. The narrative voice, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Passio Discerpta, i s also a part of the thematic unity of the volume, since i t i s through the narrative voice that Herbert leads the reader's attention away from the actual d e t a i l s of the C r u c i f i x i o n and towards the more general meaning of the event f o r a l l Christians, and at the same time, within each in d i v i d u a l epigram, reveals to the reader Herbert i B w i t t y perception and interpretation of the sacred subject he has chosen to write on. F i n a l l y , a c r i t i c a l study of Herbert's r e l i g i o u s poetry allows us not only to reach some conclusions about his mastery of the form he had chosen to use, but also to point forward to some discoveries that might be made in the future concerning Herbert's English works, based upon the techniques and ?sj;yle he used i n h i s L a t i n poetry. It i s impossible f o r a reader with p r i o r knowledge of The Temple to read Passio Discerpta and Lucus without being reminded at various points of the l a t e r English work. The argument in favour of knowing as much as possible of a writer's l i t e r a r y output before pronouncing 173 a judgement upon him i s obvious and sound, hut i t becomes even sounder when the lesser known works of an author appear to reveal such s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s in poetic technique and f e e l i n g with the major and recognized body of poetry. Passio Discerpta and Lucus display such s i m i l a r i t i e s with The Temple. A comparison of the three volumes under the three headings which were used to comment upon the two L a t i n volumes, arrangement, imagery, and narrative voice, i l l u s t r a t e s c l e a r l y some of the most important of these s i m i l a r i t i e s . The Temple reveals a very strong thematic arrangement of i t s poems just as does Passio Discerpta (and to a less e r extent Lucus). The Temple i s divided into three parts, "The Church-porch", "The Church" and "The Church M i l i t a n t " , and Herbert, as an Anglican poet, i s concerned with the .function of the Anglican Church, as a building, as a body of Christians, and as an i n s t i t u t i o n which uses ce r t a i n forms of worship to which he continually r e f e r s . Herbert uses the f e s t i v a l s of the Ch r i s t i a n year and various r i t e s of the Anglican church service, such as Baptism and Communion, -to plot the d i f f e r e n t stages of his thematic and s p i r i t u a l progress through the volume. He begins with "the S a c r i f i c e " , which embodies the central idea upon which Passio Discerpta i s based, and ends the 174 volume with "Love" ail' 1 a l l e g o r i c a l description of Communion and i t s central meaning, Passlo Discerpta also ends on the same universal l e v e l with "In Mundi sympathiam cum Chr i s t o " (On the harmony of the world with C h r i s t ) . Also many of the images or image clusters found i n Passio Discerpta and Lucus recur frequently and i n s i m i l a r contexts i n The Temple. For example, the image of the sea used i n a number of poems i n Lucus i s also found i n the poem from The Temple "The Storm", where Herbert uses, in the same way as he did i n Lucus, the metaphor of the stormy sea to describe his own mind, torn by g u i l t , I s i n , and temptation, s t i l l s t r i v i n g to reach a state of peace. One of the most s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n imagery between the three volumes i s Herbert's use of a r c h i t e c t u r a l metaphors of building or actual dwellings and the images of rock, stone and dust which usually accompany them. For example, the poem"Homo, Statua" fMan the statue) from Lucus uses imagery of stone as a metaphor f o r the s p i r i t u a l condition of the narrator, i n the same way as the image: of the stone a l t a r i s used'in "The A l t a r " from The Temple. As F.E. Hutchinson points out in the commentary on the text of the L a t i n poems given i n h i s e d i t i o n , 2 many of the phrases and images from Passio Discerpta and Lucus recur i n p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l form and in very s i m i l a r contexts i n The Temple. A good example i s the reference 175 to Samson i n the eighteenth poem of Passio Discerpta, "Sampson vt ante fores." (. . . Sampson moved the p i l l a r s long ago) which i s repeated almost exactly i n the seventh stanza of "Sunday" from The Temple. More important from the point of view of tracing the continuity i n Herbert's s t y l e , i s h i s delight in the L a t i n poems i n the same kind of homely and domestic images which he uses i n The Temple and which are one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aspects of h i s imagery. For instance, the jars and buckets of "In Sputum et Conuicia" (On the s p i t t i n g and mocking), the ointment rubbed i n the hand i n "In Alapas" (On the slaps), and the houseboy of "Ad Solem deficientem" (On the sun i n eclipse) are t y p i c a l of Herbert's use of imagery in The Temple, where he uses the f a m i l i a r i t y of common household things to convey h i s s p i r i t u a l analogy. The f a m i l i a r i t y and homeliness of h i s imagery are echoed by the narrative voice he uses f o r his poems, which although i t varies continually, i s marked i n both the L a t i n and the English poetry by c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n and immediacy of address as i f the reader had broken i n on a conversation. Like Donne, Herbert i s fond of the abrupt, s t a t t l i n g , and often very c o l l o q u i a l opening for h i s poems. But the techniques he used in The Temple and which we associate only with his English poems can also be very well I l l u s t r a t e d from Passio Discerpta and Lucus. 1 7 6 - He f r e q u e n t l y opens a n e p i g r a m w i t h a q u e s t i o n ; f o r i n s t a n c e , i n " I n sudorem s a n g u i n e u m " (On t h e b l o o d y sweat) a n d " A d S o l e m d e f i c i e n t e m n (On t h e s u n i n e c l i p s e ) . These poems c a n be compared w i t h t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f "The C h u r c h - f l o o r e " o r "The Windows" i n The T e m p l e . A s I a t t e m p t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e i n my c r i t i c a l s t u d y o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s , H e r b e r t ' s u s e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n h i s s a c r e d e p i g r a m s must be s e e n a s p a r t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f the e p i g r a m f o r m and i t s f u n c t i o n i n the e p i g r a m c a n n o t be d i s s o c i a t e d f r o m t h e o t h e r p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by t h e w r i t e r . A l t h o u g h P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s a r e r i g h t l y d e s c r i b e d a s s a c r e d e p i g r a m s and the poems o f The Temple a r e u s u a l l y a g r e e d t o be r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s , a s t u d y o f t h e v a r i o u s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s w i t h i n e a c h vo lume m i g h t r e v e a l n o t o n l y some o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n a n d E n g l i s h w o r k s , b u t a l s o - — - i l l u m i n a t e the p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s o f h i s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n a l l t h r e e v o l u m e s . The m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn f r o m a s t u d y o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s a r e f i r s t , t h a t t h e poems, t o be u n d e r s t o o d f u l l y , must be j u d g e d b y the c o n v e n t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s o f t h e s a c r e d e p i g r a m and i t s t r a d i t i o n i n t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , a n d s e c o n d , t h a t once the s a c r e d e p i g r a m t r a d i t i o n h a s been r e c o g n i z e d a n d g r a n t e d i t s own i m p o r t a n c e , H e r b e r t ' s work c a n be 177 measured against i t and clearly seen as one of the aesthetic landmarks of that tradition* The excellence of Herbert's sacred epigrams by comparison with those of his contemporaries points towards a new area of study involving not only Herbert's English works as has been the case up to now, but also his Latin poetry; a study of which might, by carefully assessing a l l -of Herbert's Latin poetry, bring new insights to bear on his li t e r a r y career in particular and seventeenth-century studies in general. FOOTNOTES Chapter One 1 Edmund Blunden, "George Herbert's L a t i n Poems," Essays and Studies, XIX (1934), 29. 2 Blunden, 29. 3 Blunden, 29. 4 S i s t e r Mary E. Mason, "A Study of the L a t i n Poems of George Herbert, Passlo Discerpta, Lucus, Memoriae  Matris Sacrum, With a Prose Translation," unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n from Loyola University, Chicago, 1966. Unfortunately, since Loyola University, Chicago, does not subscribe to Dissertation Abstracts I was unable to obtain a copy of t h i s thesis or even i t s abstract. As f a r as I have been able to discover, i t i s the only major piece of work on Herbert's L a t i n poetry thus f a r attempted. 5 Arnold Stein, George Herbert's L y r i c s (Baltimore, 1968). 6 Leicester Bradner, Musae Anglicanae: A History of  Anglo-Latin Poetry, 1500-1925 (New York, 1940). 7 The Works of George Herbert, ed. F.E. Hutchinson (Oxford, 1941). 8 , The only detailed study of Crashaw's L a t i n poems i s an unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n by S i s t e r Maris S t e l l a Milhaupt, 0.P., "The L a t i n Epigrams of Richard Crashaw: With Introduction, English Translation and Notes," DA, XXIII, 4687 (Michigan University, 1963). 179 9 Don Cameron A l l e n , "Latin L i t e r a t u r e , " Modern  Language Quarterly, II (1941), 403-420. 10 A l l e n , 403. 11 A l l e n , 414. 12 Neo-Latin Poetry of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth  Centuries, introduction by William Mathews (Los Angeles, 1965), p. 2. (See bib. under A l l e n and P h i l l i p s ) . 13 Mathews, p. 3. 14 A l l e n , 418. 15 A l l e n , 416. 16 John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes (New York, 1957). 17 Mark McCloskey and Paul R. Murphy, trans. The L a t i n  Poetry of George Herbert: A B i l i n g u a l E d i t i o n (Athens, Ohio, 1965). This e d i t i o n w i l l be used both f o r L a t i n and English throughout t h i s t h esis, and i s the source, unless otherwise stated, of a l l subsequent references to Passio Discerpta and Lucus. The L a t i n text i n t h i s e d i t i o n i s from Hutchinson's The Works of George Herbert. 18 Hutchinson, p. xxiv. 19 McCloskey and Murphy, p. v. 20 . McCloskeyaand Murphy, p. v. 21 McCloskey and Murphy, p. v. 180 22 Blunden, p. 31. 23 A l l of Herbert's correspondence with and his adulatory poems dedicated to Bacon are i n L a t i n . Blunden speculates u s e f u l l y on t h i s point: "The biographer of Francis Bacon . . . might with advantage glance at the friendship between him and Herbert, evidences of which Herbert's L a t i n l e t t e r s and copies of verses both provide** (Blunden, p. 3 5 ) . 24 McCloskey and Murphy, pp. v - v i , 25 McCloskey and Murphy, : p. v i . 26 Bradner, Musae Angllcanae, p. 96. 27 Bradner, p. 91. 28 Bradner, p. 97. Chapter Two JGeorge Puttenham], The Arte of English Poesle (London, 1589). This passage i s from Book I, Chapter XXVII, and i s quoted i n Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, The  Epigram i n the English Renaissance (Princeton, New Jersey, 1947), p. 15. 2 Gotthold Lessing, Samtliche Schriften, ed. Lachmann (Stuttgart, 1895), X I , p. 217. The t r a n s l a t i o n given here i s by Hudson, pp. 9-10. 3 Puttenham, Book I, Chapter XXVIII, quoted by Hudson, p. 15. , 181 4 Paul Nixon, M a r t i a l and the Modern Epigram (New York, 1963), p. 29. 5 Quoted hy Hudson, p. 17. 6 Quoted by Nixon, p. 6. 7 J.W. Mackail ed., Select Epigrams from the Greek  Anthology (London, 1890), p. 2. 8 Hudson, pp. 18-19. 9 Quoted by Hudson, p. 19. The epigram i s I I , 77 and the t r a n s l a t i o n i s by W.C.S. Ker i n M a r t i a l , Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library (London, 1969). 10 This i s the meaning that T.K. Whipple uses i n h i s study of the epigram i n "Martial and the English Epigram," University of C a l i f o r n i a Publications i n  Modern Philology, X (Berkeley, 1925), 279-414. 11 Quoted by Hudson, p. 12. 12 Hudson, p. 4. 13 Quoted and translated by Hudson, p. 5. 14 The Poems English, Latin, and Greek of Richard  Crashaw, ed. L.C. Martin (Oxford, 1927), p. 87. 15 Puttenham, quoted by Hudson, p. 5. 16 Quoted by Hudson, p. 5. 182 17 Quoted by Nixon, p. 9. 18 Martin, p. 89. 19 Quoted by Hudson, pp. 6-7 from Lord Neaves introduction to The Greek Anthology (London, 1874). 20 Quoted by Nixon, p. 15. 21 Quoted by Nixon, p. 15. 22 Quoted by Nixon, p. 15. 23 Don Cameron A l l e n , "Latin L i t e r a t u r e , " Modern  Language Quarterly, II (1941), 403-420. 24 A l l e n , 403, 25 S i r Thomas More, Eplgrammata (Basle, 1518). 26 L i l y B. Campbell, Divine Poetry and Drama i n  Sixteenth Century England (Cambridge, 1959). 27 Campbell, p. v i i . 28 John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes (EFew York, 1957), pp'. 294-295. 29 A l l subsequent quotations from McCloskey and Murphy w i l l be followed by an abbreviated form of the t i t l e from which the poem i s taken, e.g. MR (Musae  Responsoriae), PD,, (Passio Discerpta), L (Lucus), and the page numbers upon which both L a t i n and English verses occur. 30 See Hudson, p. 33. See also Chapter Three, p. 54f. 183 31 This passage occurs i n a l e t t e r translated by-Woodward, Desiderius Erasmus Concerning the Aim and Method  of Education (Cambridge, 1904), p. 124. The passage i s quoted by Hudson, p. 16. 32 Hudson, p. 17. 33 Part of Herbert's l a s t message from his deathbed to h i s f r i e n d Nicholas Ferrar. See Marohette Chute, Two Gentle Men (New York, 1959), p. 148, and Hutchinson, p. x x x v i i . 34 Helen Gardner ed., John Donne: The Divine Poems (Oxford, 1952), p. x v i . 35 Louis Martz, The Poetry of Meditation (New Haven and London, 1962). 36 See Martz, pp. 25-34. 37 John Donne: Po e t i c a l Works, ed. S i r Herbert Grierson (London, 1966), p. 229. 38 See Martz, Chapter VII. 39 See Anthony Raspa, "Crashaw and the Jesuit Poetic," University of Toronto Quarterly. XXXVI (1966), 37. Chapter Three 1 Timothe Kendall, Flowers of Epjgrammes out of  Sundrie the Most Singular Authors Selected ~ '. I (London, 1577). The quotation i s from Kendall's dedication "To the r i g h t honourable, the Lorde Robert Dudley . . . " and i s on page 4 of the re p r i n t of the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n made f o r the Spenser Society, 1874. 184 2 Kendall, p. 139. 3 See Chapter Two, p. 23f. f o r a discussion of the differences between the Greek and L a t i n epigram. 4 Kendall, p, 255. 5 Kendall, p. 241. 6 Compare Herbert's "De Lupa l u s t r i V a t i c a n i " (On the she-wolf of the Vatican brothel) from Musae Responsoriae which uses the same metaphor. 7 Kendall, p. 189. 8 Bradner, Musae Anglicanae, p. 78. 9 Bradner, p. 91. 10 Bradner, p. 91. 11 Hudson, The Epigram in the English Renaissance, pp. 32-33. 12 Hudson, p. 33. 13 Andrew W i l l e t t , Sacrorum Emblematum Centurla Una . . . (Cambridge, 1596). Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 553. 14 Rosemary Freeman, English Emblem Books (London, 1967), p. 64. 15 Freeman, p. 65. 16 Robert Farley, Kalendarium Humanae Vitae (London, 1638), Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 790. 185 17 Freeman, p. 67. 18 Francis Thynne, Emblemes and Epigrames, ed. F.J. F u r n i v a l l , published for the Early English Text Society (London, 1876), p. 63. 19 Thynne, p. 64. 20 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 21 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 22 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 23 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 24 My t r a n s l a t i o n . The poem i s from John Saltmarsh, Poemata Sacra, Latine ac Anglice Scripta (Cambridge, 1636). Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 1079. 25 Chronicles I I , Chapter 2, v. 1-4. 26 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 27 John Saltmarsh, Poemata Sacra. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 28 Saltmarsh, my t r a n s l a t i o n . 29 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 30 John Pyne, Epiarammata Re l i g i o s a . O f f l c l o s a , Iocosa (London, 1627). Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 785. 186 31 Pyne. 32 Pyne. 33 See Austin Warren, "Crashaw's Eplgrammata Sacra," Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XXXIII (1954), 233-239. 34 Anthony Raspa, "Crashaw and the Jesuit Poetic," University of Toronto Quarterly, XXXVT (1966), 37-54. 55 Raspa, p. 52. The int e r n a l quotation i s from "The Preface to the Reader" before Crashaw's Steps to the  Temple, p. 75 i n L.C. Martin ed., Crashaw* s P o e t i c a l Works (Oxford, 1927). 56 Ruth Wallerstein, Richard Crashaw: A Study i n  Style and Poetic Development (Madison. 1959). p. 60. 57 Wallerstein, p. 65. 58 Wallerstein, p. 60. 59 Martin, p. 88. 40 Wallerstein, p. 62. A good example of the kind of Roman Catholic sacred prose with which Crashaw would probably have been f a m i l i a r i s Fasciculus Myrrhae; or a Treatise  of Our Saviours Passion (St. Omer, 1655) by John Falconer, S.J. Falconer was c e r t a i n l y interested in the physical d e t a i l s of Christ's l i f e , but l i k e Crashaw h i s concern was not for a l i t e r a l narrative but a highly metaphorical description which would "affectW the reader and arouse his emotions: His hands, bored through the tender palmes therof, were l i k e two boles of warme bloud, s a c r i f i c e s by our high P r i e s t , & graciously prepared to cleanse, and sanctify f a y t h f u l l soules afterwards with i t . This quotation occurs on p. 76 of the work on the University Microfilm from Ann Arbor, Michigan, no. 476, r e e l 790. 187 41 This i s Wallerstein's t r a n s l a t i o n of Crashaw's L a t i n , p. 62 of Richard Crashaw: A Study l n Style and  Poetic Development. For "In Vulnera Dei Pendentis" see Crashaw, ed. Martin, p. 27. 42 Crashaw, ed. Martin, p. 102. 43 Martin, pp. 96-97. 44 • See Wallerstein, p. 63, and Bradner, p. 93. 45 Wallerstein, p. 61. Chapter Four 1 The most obvious al t e r n a t i v e interpretation to the one given here i s to read "pathway" i n the second l i n e as r e f e r r i n g not to the pathway a c t u a l l y made i n Christ's side by the spear, but to a more vague s p i r i t u a l journey upon which the heart must travel. 2 See Rosemary Woolf, The English Religious L y r i c  l n the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1968), pp. 287-289 for a discussion of the V i r g i n Mary's connection with flower imagery, i n p a r t i c u l a r the rose. Also Sarah Appleton Weber, Theology and Poetry l n the Middle English L y r i c : A Study of Sacred History and Aesthetic Form (Ohio, 1969), pp. 53-54. 3 Stephen Manning, Wisdom and Number: Toward a  C r i t i c a l Appraisal of the Middle English Religious L y r i c (Lincoln, 1962), pp. 156-157. 4 For a discussion of the medieval "Reproaches" or Improperla see Rosemary Woolf, The English Religious L y r i c  i n the Middle Ages, pp. 40-42. 188 5 My t r a n s l a t i o n from the L a t i n . 6 This i s noted by Helen Gardner and G.M. Story i n t h e i r e d i t i o n of The Sonnets of William Alabaster (Oxford, 1959), p. 46. Chapter Five 1 McCloskey and Murphy, p. 179. 2 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 3 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 4 Professor de Bruyn has suggested a possible a l l u s i o n to the myth of Prometheus. Prometheus brought f i r e down to man, Herbert sends f i r e up to God. 5 Carle ton Brown, Religious L y r i c s of the Fourteenth  Century (Oxford, 1924), p. Chapter Six 1 James ^uport, Epigrammata Sacra (London, 1662). Herbert's Musae Responsoriae f i r s t appeared i n Duport's E c c l e s i a s t e s Solomonis (1662). 2 See Hutchinson, pp. 590-594. BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Crashaw, Richard. The Poems English, L a t i n , and Greek  of Richard Crashaw, ed. L.C. Martin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927. Donne, John. John Donne: Poetica l Works, ed. S i r Herbert Grierson. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. Duport, James. Eplgrammata Sacra. London, 1662. - E c c l e s i a s t e s Solomonis. London, 1662. Falconer, John. Fasciculus Myrrhae; or a Treatise of Our  Saviours Passion. St. Omer, 1633. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 790.) Farley, Robert. Kalendarlum Humanae Vitae: The Kalendar  Of Man* s LlfeT London, 1638. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 790.) Lychnocausla Slve Moralia Facum Emblemata: Lights Morail Emblems^ London, 1638. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 790.) Herbert George. The Works of George Herbert: A B i l i n g u a l  E d i t i o n , trans. Mark McCloskey and Paul R. Murphy. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1965. Kendall, Timothe. Flowers of Epigrames. Manchester: Printed for the Spenser Society, 1874. (Reprinted from the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n of 1577.) More, S i r Thomas. Epigrammata. Basle, 1518. {Pynej, JohnT) Epigrammata Religiosa, O f f i c l o s a , Iocosa. London, 1627. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 1079.) Saltmarsh, John. Poemata Sacra, Latlne, ac Anglice Scr i p t a . Cambridge, 1636. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 1079.) 190 Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology, ed. J.W. Mackail. London, New York: Longmans Green and Co., 1890. Thynne, Francis. Emblemes and Epjgrames, ed. F.J. F u r n i v a l l . London: N. Trubner and Co., 1876. (Published f o r the Ear l y English Text Society.) W i l l e t t , Andrew. Sacrorum Emblematum Centurla Una. Cambridge, 1596. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, no. 476, r e e l 553.) 1 9 1 Secondary Sources Allen, Don Cameron. "Latin Literature," Modern Language  Quarterly, II (Sept. 1941), 403-420. "Milton as a Latin Poet," in Neo-Latln Poetry of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, intro. William Mathews. Los Angeles: University of California, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1965. Blunden, Edmund. "George Herbert's Latin Poems," Essays and Studies, XIX (1934), 29-39. Bottrail, Margaret. George Herbert. London: John Murray, 1954. Bradner, Leicester. Musae Anglicanae: A History of Anglo-Latin Poetry, 1500-1925. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1940 (reprint 1966). Brown, Carleton. Religious Lyrics of the Fourteenth  Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924. Bush, Douglas. English Literature in the Earlier Seventeenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962. Caldwell, Harry B., Edward E. Samaha, Jr., and Donna G. Fricke. "George Herbert: A Recent Bibliography, 1960-1967," Seventeenth-Century News, XXVI, i i i , item 7. Campbell, L i l y B. Divine Poetry and Drama ln Sixteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1959. Carnes, Valerie. "The Unity of George Herbert's The Temple: A Reconsideration," ELH, XXXV (1968), 505-526. Chute, Marchette. Two Gentle Men. New York: E.P. Dutrton and Co. Inc., 1959. Fogelman, Roger. "Revision and Improvement in George Herbert's The Temple," Nassau Review (Nassau Community College), I, v (1968), 65-85. 192 Freeman, Rosemary. English Emblem Books. London: Chatto and Windus, 1967. Freer, Wilbert C. "George Herbert's Style and the Metrical Psalms," DA, XXIX (1968), 869A (University of WashingtonTT Gardner, Helen ed. John Donne: The Divine Poems. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952. Hanley, Sara W. "Temples i n The Temple: George Herbert's Study of the Church," Studies i n English L i t e r a t u r e , VIII (1968), 121-135. Hudson, Hoyt Hopewell. The Epigram in the English Renaissance. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1947. Hughes, MerrittY. ed. John Milton: Complete Poems and  Major Prose. New York: Odyssey Press, 1957. Manning, Stephen. Wisdom and Number: Toward a C r i t i c a l  Appraisal of the Middle English Religious L y r i c . L i n c o l n : University of Nebraska Press, 1962. Martz, Louis L. The Poetry Of Meditation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1962. M e r r i l l , Thomas F. "'The S a c r i f i c e ' and the Structure of Religious Language," Language and Style, II (1969), 275-287. Milhaupt, S i s t e r Maris S t e l l a , O.P. "The L a t i n Epigrams of Richard Crashaw: With Introduction, English Translation and Notes," DA^ XXIII (1963), 4687 (Michigan U n i v e r s i t y ) . Nicole, P i e r r e . An Essay on True and Apparent Beauty i n Which from Settled P r i n c i p l e s i s Rendered the Grounds f o r  Shoos ing and Re jec ting Epigrams. T r a n s l . J.V. Cunningham"7 Augustan Reprint Society, No. 24 (Series IV, No. 5). Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1950. Nixon, Paul. M a r t i a l and the Modern Epigram. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, Inc., 1963. 193 P h i l l i p s , James E. ^"Daniel Rogers: A Neo-Latin Link Between the Pleiade and Sidney's 'Aropagus'," i n Neo-Latin Poetry of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth  Centuries, introd. William Mathews. Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a , William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1965 Praz, Mario. The Flaming Heart: Essays on Crashaw, Machiavelli and other studies of the re l a t i o n s  between I t a l i a n and English l i t e r a t u r e from Chaucer  to T.S. E l i o $ . Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Ltd., 1958. Raspa, Anthony. "Crashaw and the Jesu i t Poetic," U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Quarterly, XXXVI (1966), 37-54. Rickey, Mary E l l e n . Rhyme and Meaning i n Richard Crashaw. Kentucky: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. Utmost A r t : Complexity in the Verse of George Herbert. Kentucky: Univ e r s i t y of Kentucky Press, 1966. Ross, Malcolm Mackenzie. Poetry and Dogma. New Brunswick, New Jerssp: Rutgers University Press, 1954. Stein, Arnold. George Herbert's L y r i c s . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1968. Story, G.M. and Helen Gardner eds. The Sonnets of William  Alabaster. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Summers, Joseph H. George Herbert: His Religion and A r t . London: Chatto and Windus, 1954. Swardeon, H.R. Poetry and the Fountain of Light. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1962. Tuve, Rosemond. A Reading of George Herbert. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : U niversity of Chicago Press, 1952. Wallerstein, Ruth C. Richard Crashaw: A Study l n Style and Poetic Development. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. Warren, Austin. "Crashaw's Epigrammata Sacra," Journal  of English and Germanic Philology, XXXIII (1934), 233-239. 194 Weber, Sarah Appleton. Theology and Poetry i n the Middle English L y r i c : A Study of Sacred History and Aesthetic  Form. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1969. Whipple, T.K. "Martial and the English Epigram," University of C a l i f o r n i a Publications i n Modern  Philology, X (Berkeley, 1925), S79-414. White, Helen C. The Metaphysical Poets: A Study i n  Religious Experience. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936. Willey, B a s i l . Richard Crashaw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1949. Woodhouse, A.B.P. The Poet and his F a i t h . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965. Woolf, Rosemary. The English Religious L y r i c i n the  Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Van Tieghem, Paul. La L i t t e r a t u r e Latlne de l a Renaissance. Geneve: Slatkine Reprints, 1944. 

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