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A study of George Herbert's Passio Discerpta and Lucus in the context of the tradition of the sacred… Alexander, Irene Rosalyn 1971

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A STUDY OF GEORGE HERBERT'S PASSIO DISCERPTA AND LUCTJS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TRADITION OF THE SACRED EPIGRAM  by  Rosaljm Irene Alexander B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Southampton, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master o f A r t s i n the Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  thesis  at the U n i v e r s i t y make  this  written  thesis  that permission  of  o f B r i t i s h Co 1umbia, I a g r e e  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  shall  ^—v>—\%s~JU^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Columbia  copying o f t h i s  thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  i s understood  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  for extensive  permission.  Department  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  it freely available  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  in partial  that  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The  c r i t i c a l n e g l e c t of the n e o - L a t i n poetry o f  E n g l i s h w r i t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the and  seventeenth  Renaissance  century, p r e s e n t s a d i f f i c u l t y f o r those  students I n t e r e s t e d i n understanding o f an A n g l o - L a t i n author.  the e n t i r e c a r e e r  In H e r b e r t ' s case, h i s neo-  L a t i n p o e t r y p r e s e n t s very d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t s of h i s l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r and techniques, a knowledge of which may  enable f u t u r e r e a d e r s to b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e The  Temple,  H e r b e r t ' s major E n g l i s h work. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h P a s s i o D i s o e r p t a (The  Events  o f the Passion) and Lucus (The Sacred Grove) i n p a r t i c u l a r , and demonstrates t h e i r f i r m p l a c e i n the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram.  In order to form a  clearer  impression of the t r a d i t i o n and H e r b e r t ' s work w i t h i n i t and o f the contemporary models and sources upon which he drew, Chapter  Two  surveys b r i e f l y the epigrammatic  conventions and r e l i g i o u s background from which the sacred epigram  derived.  The  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  epigrammatic s t y l e of M a r t i a l and  of The Greek  Anthology  are d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s a t i r i c and  the sacred epigram.  ii  Chapter Three p r e s e n t s a comparison with o t h e r poets of  the p e r i o d working w i t h i n the same convention, most  n o t a b l y Crashaw, but a l s o such w r i t e r s a s John F r a n c i s Thynne, and John Pyne.  Saltmarsh,  T h i s comparison shows  H e r b e r t ' s s u p e r i o r i t y t o p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s i n h i s use o f the epigram  forreligious  Herbert's s k i l f u l sacred epigram  subject-matter.  use o f the conventions o f the  as a means o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s own deep  r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g i s demonstrated i n the c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s of P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Luous which form Chapters and F i v e , the core o f t h i s t h e s i s . w i t h the poems under the headings and n a r r a t i v e v o i c e .  Four  These c h a p t e r s d e a l of arrangement, imagery,  The a n a l y s i s o f these v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  r e v e a l s s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k s between the arrangement o f the poems w i t h i n each volume and the imagery Herbert uses to  express h i s themes.  The thematic u n i t y , the conscious  s e l e c t i v i t y o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , and the s k i l f u l  use of  the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the r h e t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e a r e shown. On the b a s i s o f t h i s study, H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams as e x e m p l i f i e d by P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus are seen as forming a e s t h e t i c landmarks i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n , and as p r o v i d i n g a new p e r s p e c t i v e from which students of The Temple may understand more f u l l y H e r b e r t ' s e n t i r e l i t e r a r y c a r e e r .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  Page  ONE  INTRODUCTION *  TWO  THE ORIGINS OF THE EPIGRAM AND  ;  1  ITS RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS  16  PREDECESSORS AND CONTEMPORARIES  48  FOUR  A CRITICAL STUDY OF PASSIO DISCERPTA . . .  77  FIVE  A CRITICAL STUDY OF LUCUS  118  CONCLUSIONS  164  THREE  SIX  FOOTNOTES  178  BIBLIOGRAPHY  189  CHAPTER OWE—INTRODUCTION  The major aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o cast a l i t t l e critical  l i g h t on the two sequences o f George H e r b e r t ' s  L a t i n p o e t r y e n t i t l e d P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus, by s t u d y i n g them i n the context o f the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram.  I s h a l l attempt  to i l l u s t r a t e the h i g h  l i t e r a r y and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e o f these two sequences by s comparing H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams w i t h those o f e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r s and by a d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l volume.  F i n a l l y , I s h a l l attempt  study o f each  to demonstrate H e r b e r t ' s  p o e t i c mastery o f the epigrammatic form i n an e f f o r t to emphasize the i n j u s t i c e o f modern c r i t i c a l n e g l e c t o f Herbert's L a t i n poetry. In  s p i t e o f the resurgence  of c r i t i c a l  enthusiasm  d u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h century f o r the M e t a p h y s i c a l poets, i n p a r t i c u l a r the group o f r e l i g i o u s poets i n c l u d i n g Donne, Vaughan, Crashaw, and H e r b e r t , v e r y l i t t l e  criticism i s  a v a i l a b l e on the A n g l o - L a t i n p o e t r y o f the p e r i o d . pf  One  the v e r y few essays on George H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n poems,  by Edmund Blunden, c h a l l e n g e s s c h o l a r s o f h i s time f o r n e g l e c t o f the A n g l o - L a t i n t r a d i t i o n :  s Perhaps the c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s o f t h i s age have not n o t i c e d t h a t such a t r a d i t i o n f l o u r i s h e d , or perhaps they have glanced a t i t and r e c o i l e d from barbarous m i s e x p r e s s i o n s and mismetrings . . . . 1 He  goes on to say: I t r u s t i t i s not f a n t a s y to say t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f our a c t u a l E n g l i s h v e r s e was w r i t t e n by men who had t r a i n i n g i n c l a s s i c a l v e r s e , a l i k e i n p e r u s i n g the authors o f Greece and Rome and i n p r o d u c i n g t h e i r own c o p i e s , t h e i r hexameters, O v i d i a n c o u p l e t s , s a p p h i c s , scazons and the r e s t . 8  Blunden was  w r i t i n g i n the e a r l y 1930's and  the a r e a he had  then c o n s i d e r e d  chosen f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o be "a wide s u b j e c t  3 and a c h a r t l e s s . "  Even now  on H e r b e r t between 1930  a b r i e f survey o f the  and 197G  r e v e a l s the s u b j e c t t o be  as wide and uncharted as Blunden found One  criticism  i t f o r t y years  ago.  d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y upon George H e r b e r t ' s  L a t i n poetry, a c r i t i c a l  study o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , Lucus,  and Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum t o g e t h e r w i t h an E n g l i s h prose t r a n s l a t i o n of these works, was  completed  i n 1966  by  S i s t e r Mary E . Mason,* but a p p a r e n t l y no other study o f s i m i l a r depth or d e t a i l has been  attempted.  Of the numerous and r a p i d l y p r o l i f e r a t i n g  critical  works on H e r b e r t , even the most r e c e n t such as A r n o l d 5 S t e i n ' s George H e r b e r t ' s L y r i c s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1968, have b a r e l y a r e f e r e n c e to H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n p o e t r y . A number of books give H e r b e r t and  the A n g l o - L a t i n r e l i g i o u s  p o e t r y o f the p e r i o d a p a s s i n g note, such as L e i c e s t e r Bradner's Musae A n g l i c a n a e : P o e t r y , 1500-1925.  A H i s t o r y of A n g l o - L a t i n  which w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a t v a r i o u s  3  p o i n t s i n the following pages; but even F.E.  Hutchinson  i n h i s d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n of H e r b e r t ' s works devotes o n l y a few  sentences to a c r i t i c a l 7  L a t i n poetry.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of H e r b e r t ' s  H i s notes are u s e f u l , e s p e c i a l l y i n that  they o f t e n quote the s c r i p t u r a l source o r r e f e r e n c e Herbert was and,  utilizing,  but  they are by no means  which  extensive,  as might be expected, p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d toward t e x t u a l  concerns. The  obvious n e g l e c t  p a r t of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s  of H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n p o e t r y  on  the  i s not an a t y p i c a l case.  It is  understandable t h a t a John Saltmarsh, a F r a n c i s Thynne o r a John Pyne should not  c l a i m much c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n , a e s t h e t i c  or otherwise, but even w r i t e r s l i k e Grashaw and M i l t o n  are  s u f f e r i n g from what can become a s e r i o u s l y l o p - s i d e d view o f t h e i r works i n t o t o , merely because t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the A n g l o - L a t i n  t r a d i t i o n are b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y  When modern c r i t i c s , o f the New  ignored.  t r y i n g to keep pace w i t h the demands  C r i t i c i s m and  the h i s t o r i c a l approach, attempt  to p l a c e E n g l i s h poets i n every p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a b l e it  seems a s t u d i e d myopia on t h e i r p a r t e i t h e r to  the A n g l o - L a t i n  8  poetry  of w r i t e r s l i k e Herbert and  tradition,  neglect Crashaw,  o r , when i t i s p a i d some a t t e n t i o n , to deal w i t h i t as a type of a l i e n excrescence, as not r e a l l y a p a r t of t h e i r work as a whole.  English scholars usually object i s outside and  t h e i r pale  s i n c e they a r e not c l a s s i c i s t s ,  s i n c e L a t i n i s one o f the languages f u r t h e s t from the  rhythm and s t r u c t u r e o f E n g l i s h . the  that L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e  The r e l a t i v e c l a i m s o f  student o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n i s t  on the n e o - L a t i n are d i s c u s s e d  poetry  proper  o f the Renaissance i n p a r t i c u l a r  s e n s i b l y by Don Cameron A l l e n i n h i s a r t i c l e Q  " L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e " , published  i n 1941.  Allen's attitude  to the study o f Renaissance L a t i n works by E n g l i s h authors i s a more v o c i f e r o u s and l e s s h e s i t a n t c o r o l l a r y o f Edmund Blunden's expressed some seven years e a r l i e r : I f i n the map o f world l i t e r a t u r e there i s a l o s t A t l a n t i s , i t i s the L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e o f the Renaissance When one r e a l i z e s that the L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e o f the Renaissance i n c l u d e s the works of a t l e a s t s i x hundred poets, who wrote on a wide v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s and used every p o e t i c form from the epigram to the e p i c , one p e r c e i v e s that s c h o l a r s have h a r d l y begun to explore t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . . . . A c a r e f u l study o f the L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e o f the p e r i o d o f the Renaissance should be a n c i l l a r y t o a study o f the v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e s , and when such a study i s made, our judgements o f the v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e s , o f the c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c temper o f the p e r i o d , w i l l unquestionably be a l t e r e d . 11 A l l e n ' s p o i n t o f view i s c l e a r l y and p o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d : even though the E n g l i s h s c h o l a r may have obvious and insuperable not  disadvantages, n e o - L a t i n  E n g l i s h poetry  should  s o l e l y be the preserve o f the L a t i n i s t . In the l a s t decade o p i n i o n s  i n favour  of serious  study  of L a t i n works by E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s have been more f r e q u e n t l y voiced.  Recently,  the case has been w e l l put by W i l l i a m  5  Mathews i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to two  papers by James E.  P h i l l i p s and  c r i t i c i z e s "the  habit  Don  Cameron A l l e n ; he  English  o f t h i n k i n g t h a t only t h i n g s w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h  are 12  English He  Don  . . . what i s w r i t t e n  i n L a t i n i s not  English."  adds: But i f t h i s amuses me, i t b o t h e r s me too, f o r I doubt t h a t a proper h i s t o r y o f even the l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h can be w r i t t e n o r learned without adequate acquaintance with l i t e r a t u r e i n L a t i n . And t h i s i s not o n l y the worry o f a m e d i e v a l i s t . The same worry . has f o r some time been nagging i n Renaissance bosoms.' Cameron A l l e n had,  of course, e l o q u e n t l y  3  expressed t h i s  "worry" t h i r t y years e a r l i e r : A l l i n a l l , to study the v e r n a c u l a r w r i t e r s without knowing the L a t i n s i s to p r a c t i s e surgery without l e a r n i n g anatomy . . . . S u r e l y , to comprehend the s t a t u r e o f a v e r n a c u l a r w r i t e r who a l s o wrote i n L a t i n , one must know not only h i s L a t i n works but a l s o t h e i r p l a c e i n the l a t e r L a t i n t r a d i t i o n . 14 A l l e n ' s s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem r e s i d e s  i n the  availability  of a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n s : I n the e d i t i n g o f new t e x t s , i t might a l s o be a d v i s a b l e to ignore the p o l i t e f i c t i o n t h a t a l l s c h o l a r s i n t e r e s t e d i n the Renaissance read L a t i n . A s e r i e s of t e x t s and p a r a l l e l t r a n s l a t i o n s l i k e those o f the Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y would be welcomed not o n l y by those students who do not read L a t i n but a l s o by those who do. 15 Lack of adequate t r a n s l a t i o n i s , o f course, one reasons f o r the n e g l e c t  of Anglo-Latin  Hughes d i d M i l t o n a great  poetry.  of  Merritt  s e r v i c e by p u b l i s h i n g  side  the T.  by  s i d e w i t h h i s e a r l y L a t i n p i e c e s an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , i n h i s e d i t i o n of Milton's  works.^  6  Crashaw has  no  published  6  t r a n s l a t i o n of h i s L a t i n p o e t r y , and o n l y i n the  last  decade d i d H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n p o e t r y r e c e i v e the a t t e n t i o n o f t r a n s l a t o r s w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of McCloskey's and Murphy's The L a t i n P o e t r y o f George H e r b e r t :  A Bilingual  Edition.  1 7  I t has always been a vexed q u e s t i o n as to whether study of poetry i n t r a n s l a t i o n i s a v i a b l e l i t e r a r y  occupation.  In the case o f L a t i n p o e t r y w i t h an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , to study rhyme, rhythm, metre or movement o f the v e r s e , would o b v i o u s l y be n e i t h e r f e a s i b l e nor v a l u a b l e . the study of imagery, treatment, and matter  However,  choice o f s u b j e c t -  i s , I b e l i e v e , both f e a s i b l e and v a l u a b l e .  Knowledge  o f these a s p e c t s can be t r a c e d i n s i m i l a r ways i n p o e t r y £ w r i t t e n both i n L a t i n and  i n E n g l i s h , and can c o n s i d e r a b l y  i n c r e a s e our knowledge of the w r i t e r .  In the case o f the  epigram, i n p a r t i c u l a r , which (as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n greater d e t a i l  i n Chapter Two)  depends f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s  on d i f f e r e n t techniques o f word p l a y , balance and c o n t r a s t , the t r a n s l a t o r i s o f t e n f r u i t f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d by h i s task o f t r a n s p o s i t i o n , and c l o s e approximation the  can p r o v i d e the student w i t h a v e r y  to the s p i r i t as w e l l as the l e t t e r of  original. The g e n e r a l p o i n t s made so f a r i n f a v o u r of study o f  L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n t r a n s l a t i o n , can, I t h i n k , be supported  i n the case o f H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n poems.  adequately The  bilingual  e d i t i o n o f Mark McCloskey and Ralph Murphy, which w i l l r e f e r r e d to throughout  t h i s study f o r q u o t a t i o n s from  be both  7  the L a t i n and the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , g i v e s a v e r y e n j o y a b l e and a c c u r a t e access t o H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n works for  E n g l i s h students i n t e r e s t e d i n a wider view of the poet.  McCloskey and Murphy have p r o v i d e d a t r a n s l a t i o n more than adequate f o r the purposes  o f a study o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ,  imagery, n a r r a t i v e voice,and tone i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus. My main focus i s upon Lucus and P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a for  two r e a s o n s :  firstly,  because these two sequences  are composed o f i n d i s p u t a b l y r e l g i o u s poems (although Lucus does i n t r o d u c e some other themes, and i s not c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the same symmetry and c o n c e n t r a t i o n as P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a ) , and because Herbert i s s t u d i e d as a r e l i g i o u s poet; and secondly, because these two sequences are w r i t t e n w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the sacred epigram, and o n l y w i t h a knowledge o f t h e i r p l a c e i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n can the poems be f u l l y understood  and a p p r e c i a t e d .  upon t h i s knowledge can f u r t h e r s t u d i e s be based  Only o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus t o H e r b e r t ' s E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s poetry. Although  i t i s not known e x a c t l y when P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a  and Lucus were w r i t t e n , the three epigrams on Pope Urban V I I I supply i n t e r n a l evidence f o r the d a t i n g o f the two c o l l e c t i o n s in  t h a t Urban V I I I was e l e c t e d and assumed the papal  i n 1623.  H e r b e r t s t i l l h e l d the p o s i t i o n o f P u b l i c  title Orator  8  to  the U n i v e r s i t y o f Cambridge i n 1623 to which he had been  e l e c t e d on January  21, 1619/20, and which he d i d not  r e l i n q u i s h u n t i l 1627. in Herbert's l i f e  T h i s would be the most l i k e l y p e r i o d  f o r the composition o f h i s L a t i n epigrams.  Around 1605, Magdalen Herbert had sent her t h i r d son t o Westminster School which had a h i g h e r r e p u t a t i o n a t Oxford and Cambridge f o r c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p than most o f the o t h e r London s c h o o l s .  Here Herbert had the best p o s s i b l e  chance o f l a y i n g the groundwork f o r h i s Greek and L a t i n studies. of  F.E. Hutchinson,  i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n  H e r b e r t ' s works, adds an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t : He would a l s o have p r a c t i c e i n w r i t i n g such L a t i n epigrams on sacred themes as he was a f t e r w a r d s to w r i t e at Cambridge, s i n c e i t was i n 1630 and probably e a r l i e r a r e g u l a r employment o f King's S c h o l a r s on Sunday a f t e r n o o n s to w r i t e 'verses upon the preacher's sermon o r the e p i s t l e and g o s p e l l , ' j u s t as Crashaw had s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e a few years l a t e r a t Charterhouse. 18  With an a l r e a d y s t r o n g c l a s s i c a l background from Westminster, and  some years o f continued s t u d i e s i n C l a s s i c s and D i v i n i t y ,  i t was n a t u r a l t h a t a man o f H e r b e r t ' s l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n should use L a t i n for  (anda l i t t l e  Greek) as the medium  h i s e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y work. The f i v e sequences o f L a t i n poems (three o f which I  w i l l not be d e a l i n g with d i r e c t l y ) — M u s a e Respoiisoriae Ad Andreae M e l v l n l S c o t l Antl-Tami-Cami-Categorlam; P a s s i o D l s c e r p t a ; Lucus; Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum ( a l s o known as P a r e n t a l i a ) and A l i a Poemata L a t l n a — c a n be f i t t e d d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s of Anglo-Latin poetry.  into  In the v e r y  9  b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e i r b i l i n g u a l e d i t i o n McCloskey and Murphy sum up a g e n e r a l i z e d approach t o each of the sequences, where they mention: the Musae Responsoriae,  "the y o u t h f u l s a t i r e i n  the ardent  'Baroque' sense o f g u i l t  i n the P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , and the s l y d i d a c t i c i s m i n the Lucus . . . ;"^  9  a l s o , "the Memoriae M a t r l s Sacrum w i t h  i t s P e t r a r c h a n g r i e f , and the A l i a Poemata L a t i n a w i t h i t s unbounded f l a t t e r y . "  20  More i m p o r t a n t l y , they c o n t i n u e :  H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n v e r s e i s not o n l y i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the A n g l o - L a t i n p o e t r y o f h i s time, but i t a l s o r e v e a l s s i g n i f i c a n t and l i t t l e - k n o w n s i d e s t o h i s c h a r a c t e r and s t y l e . 21 McClDskey's and Murphy's c o n c i s e and responses  impressionistic  to the c o l l e c t i o n s g i v e a h i n t of the d i f f e r e n t  t r a d i t i o n s upon which H e r b e r t drew f o r each of the Musae Responsoriae  series.  i s the best example o f H e r b e r t ' s  w i t h the s a t i r i c epigram, which d e r i v e d from the epigrams o f M a r t i a l .  facility  classical  P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus are  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the second  both  important branch of the  epigrammatic convention, the sacred epigram.  Memoriae  M a t r i s Sacrum, w h i l e demonstrating many of the common epigrammatic -techniques, i s composed of poems which are r a t h e r too l o n g to be termed "epigrams" f i t t i n g l y . Though they are a f i n e example of the L a t i n e l e g y , Edmund Blunden expresses some s u r p r i s e a t t h e i r being i n L a t i n , and  then c o r r e c t s h i s former  impression:  10  I t i s p u z z l i n g that he should have chosen to compose h i s e l e g i a c s e r i e s on the death of h i s mother (1627) i n L a t i n and not E n g l i s h , more p a r t i c u l a r l y because he w r i t e s of h i s d e s i r e to speak out i n p r a i s e of h i s exemplary p a r e n t . The s u i t a b i l i t y of the c l a s s i c a l languages f o r panegyric, however, must have appealed to him as P u b l i c Orator more than to most men. 22 Indeed, r a t h e r than being p u z z l i n g , the f a c t that Herbert wrote e l e g i e s to h i s mother i n L a t i n r a t h e r than i n E n g l i s h i s q u i t e understandable given as the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l language o f a c u l t u r e d  Herbert was not  the reverence accorded L a t i n  to be  too good a f r i e n d and  society.  admirer o f F r a n c i s Bacon  imbued w i t h the former's f a i t h i n L a t i n as  language o f l e a r n e d  communication and  lasting  the  value.  2 3  Not  o n l y the accumulated t r a d i t i o n of the L a t i n  and  panegyric would appeal t o Herbert with h i s L a t i n t r a i n i n g  and  p r o f e s s i o n , but a l s o the b e l i e f that E n g l i s h would not  last  elegy  to p o s t e r i t y as would L a t i n . F i n a l l y , H e r b e r t ' s l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t volume o f L a t i n  poetry,  A l i a Poemata L a t l n a , s p r i n g s from a t r a d i t i o n o f  adulatory,  occasional L a t i n poetry.  T h i s sequence i s  i n t e r e s t i n g because three o f the poems have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by H e r b e r t h i m s e l f and have been i n c l u d e d i n p l a c e of t r a n s l a t i o n s by the e d i t o r s . give thanks to John Donne f o r h i s g i f t s e a l , the anchor; the  Of these,  to Herbert of h i s  t h i r d i s a t o p i c a l epigram on  e x p e d i t i o n of P r i n c e C h a r l e s and S p a i n to court the I n f a n t a .  two  the Duke  the  o f Buckingham to  Although there are o n l y ten poems  11  in  t h i s group, t h e i r m i s c e l l a n e o u s q u a l i t y e x p l a i n s the  title, to  and  t h e i r v e r y heterogeneous nature i s i n t e r e s t i n g  r e a d e r s acquainted w i t h The In  Temple.  s p i t e o f the v e r y h i g h r e s p e c t which h i s  and l a t e r seventeenth-century  contemporaries,  r e a d e r s , had f o r h i s E n g l i s h  works, H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n poems were never Included i n the p r a i s e accorded  to The Temple, nor d i d they serve as models  as The Temple d i d f o r so many i m i t a t o r s . L a t i n poems, P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus  Of a l l H e r b e r t ' s have r e c e i v e d  l e a s t a t t e n t i o n from e i t h e r r e a d e r s or commentators, l a r g e l y because they were not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1874  when  G r o s a r t i n c l u d e d them i n h i s Complete Works i n Verse Prose o f George H e r b e r t  (1874, 3 v o l s . ) .  and  G r o s a r t was  f i r s t e d i t o r o f Herbert to make use of the W i l l i a m s  the M.S.  which c o n t a i n s P a s s i o D l s c B r p t a and Lucus annexed and i n H e r b e r t ' s own  beautiful script.  problems as f a r as these two  There are  few  textual  c o l l e c t i o n s are concerned,  because H e r b e r t ' s h a n d w r i t i n g i s so c l e a r , and  firstly  secondly  because the words he erased i n order to r e p l a c e them w i t h o t h e r s are e n t i r e l y It  illegible.  i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , s i n c e the t e x t u a l problems i n v o l v e d  l n the study of P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus are so  few,  and t h a t s c h o l a r s do not have t o expend t h e i r e n e r g i e s on establishing a reliable  t e x t , more c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n  has  not been granted them.  I t i s one o f the aims of t h i s  thesis  12  to suggest  t h a t a knowledge o f H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n p o e t r y can  i l l u m i n a t e h i s o t h e r works and h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r as a whole and  t h a t a knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n o f the sacred  and H e r b e r t ' s work w i t h i n i t i s necessary to  epigram  understand  H e r b e r t ' s a t t i t u d e s to r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y i n both h i s L a t i n and E n g l i s h works.  My b e l i e f that the two  groups of  poems, P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus,  are sacred epigrams i s  not accepted by a l l commentators.  McCloskey and Murphy,  i n t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n , seem to acknowledge t h a t they a r e , by t h e i r grouping of these works under the "epigram" when they say:  "The  heading  s p e c i f i c mark of t h i s  was  i t s b r e v i t y , as i s to be seen  all  the s e c t i o n s o f H e r b e r t ' s v e r s e here, e s p e c i a l l y i n  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s " . statement  by n o t i n g t h a t :  n  2 4  i n v a r y i n g degrees  form  They a l s o j u s t i f y  . . . the epigram was  in  their a  vague form u s i n g a v a r i e t y of metres, e s p e c i a l l y the elegiac c o u p l e t . "  2 5  L e i c e s t e r Bradner,  on the o t h e r hand,  i s d o u b t f u l o f the d e f i n i t e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f these works. He  says a t one p o i n t , i n r e f e r e n c e to H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n poems: T h i s seems the proper p l a c e to d i s c u s s c e r t a i n o t h e r p i e c e s of r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y , which, although they are not epigrams, do not f i t i n v e r y w e l l elsewhere. 26  Yet a few pages e a r l i e r he has s a i d o f the Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum:  ''George H e r b e r t ' s s h o r t r e l i g i o u s m e d i t a t i o n s on  h i s mother's death, which may epigrams . . . ."  perhaps be c l a s s e d as sacred  I t i s p u z z l i n g to f i n d  Bradner  13  a l l o w i n g Memoriae i n t o the c l a s s of sacred epigram, and e x c l u d i n g P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus, e s p e c i a l l y when he p r a i s e s these l a t t e r poems h i g h l y f o r the  qualities  p e c u l i a r to the sacred epigram: Much more p l e a s i n g than the r e p l y to M e l v i l l e are h i s s h o r t poems on the events o f C h r i s t ' s p a s s i o n i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and o t h e r poems on moral and r e l i g i o u s themes i n h i s Lucus . . . . Here we f i n d poems combining r e a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g w i t h a h i g h degree of p o i n t and p o l i s h . Not so w e l l known as Crashaw's L a t i n epigrams, they may w e l l c h a l l e n g e comparison w i t h them. A l s o of h i g h rank are h i s L a t i n poems on the death o f h i s mother . . . . 28 T h i s t h e s i s t o t a l l y concurs w i t h Bradner's  praise,  but,  b e i n g more d e f i n i t e over c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the poems, w i l l a l s o attempt  t o demonstrate the f i r m p l a c e o f P a s s l o  D i s c e r p t a and Lucus i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the sacred epigram. Gnce we  see H e r b e r t as f u l l y aware of the t r a d i t i o n ,  E n g l i s h and C o n t i n e n t a l , behind the sacred epigram flourished  so s t r o n g l y , though briefly, i n the  century; ePd capable o f e x p r e s s i n g through the  both  which  seventeenth epigrammatic  conventions h i s deep, s i n c e r e , p e r s o n a l religious  feeling  i n a framework a p p a r e n t l y so d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f h i s E n g l i s h poems, we  can begin to see Herbert as a more  rounded l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r . and  The Temple i s too o f t e n read  s t u d i e d as a t h i n g a p a r t , as the one masterpiece  Herbert's short l i f e .  of  With the L a t i n poems kept i n mind  a l s o , i t i s e a s i e r to r e v e a l c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of H e r b e r t ' s mind and a r t which The Temple w i t h i t s a r t l e s s almost  conceals.  complexity  14  In the  the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s I hope to demonstrate  p o i n t s here suggested.  firmly  I n o r d e r to form a c l e a r e r  i m p r e s s i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n which H e r b e r t i s working and the contemporary models and sources upon which he drew, Chapter Two w i l l be a b r i e f survey o f the epigrammatic conventions and r e l i g i o u s background from which the sacred epigram drew i t s sustenance.  I t w i l l d i s c u s s the d i f f e r e n c e s  between the epigrammatic s t y l e o f M a r t i a l and t h a t o f The Greek Anthology, and the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s a t i r i c and the sacred epigram. Chapter Three w i l l p r e s e n t a comparison w i t h o t h e r poets o f the p e r i o d working w i t h i n the same conventions and w i t h the same form, most n o t a b l y Grashaw, but a l s o such minor and obscure w r i t e r s as John Saltmarsh, F r a n c i s Thynne and John Pyiie.  The aim of the Chapter i s to  i l l u s t r a t e H e r b e r t ' s s u p e r i o r i t y to p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s i n the  use o f the r e l i g i o u s epigram and t o show some o f the  d i f f e r e n c e s between Crashaw's use o f the form as an e x p r e s s i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n paradox and H e r b e r t ' s . Chapters Four and F i v e w i l l of  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f  illustrating the  comprise a c r i t i c a l study  H e r b e r t ' s s k i l f u l use of the conventions o f  sacred epigram and thus e v a l u a t i n g the worth o f these  poems as l i t e r a t u r e .  I s h a l l d e a l w i t h the poems from the  p o i n t o f view o f s p e c i f i c p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s :  the thematic  s t r u c t u r e o f each work a s expressed i n the o v e r a l l of the  arrangement  the poems w i t h i n each volume, the imagery, and the use o f narrative voice.  15  In Chapter S i x I s h a l l d i s c u s s the c o n c l u s i o n s to be drawn from t h i s study, and a l s o p o i n t forward work t h a t may  to the s c h o l a r l y  be done i n the f u t u r e , based upon the  critical  study o f P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus, on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of H e r b e r t ' s  L a t i n p o e t r y to h i s masterpiece The  Temple,  which w i l l demonstrate the u n i t y of H e r b e r t ' s  literary  c a r e e r as a whole. F i n a l l y , I hope to be a b l e to emphasize mastery o f the conventions  he u t i l i z e d , and  Herbert's the  importance  and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e of h i s L a t i n poetry as e x e m p l i f i e d P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus»  by  CHAPTER TWO—THE ORIGINS OF THE EPIGRAM AND ITS RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS  F o r t h i s Epigramme i s but an i n s c r i p t i o n or w r i t i n g made as i t were vpon a t a b l e , o r i n a window, o r vpon the w a l l o r m a n t e l l o f a chimney i n some p l a c e o f common r e s o r t , where i t was allowed euery man might come, o r be s i t t i n g t o chat and p r a t e , as now i n our tauernes and common t a b l i n g houses, where many merry heades meete, and s c r i b l e w i t h ynke, w i t h c h a l k e , o r w i t h a c o l e such matters as they would euery man should know, and descant vpon. A f t e r w a r d the same came t o be put i n paper and i n bookes, and vsed as o r d i n a r i e m i s s i v e s , some o f f r i e n d s h i p , some o f d e f i a u n c e , o r as o t h e r messages o f m i r t h . 1 ^ This passage, from Puttenham's The A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s l e (1589), p r e s e n t s the i d i o s y n c r a t i c and v i v i d view o f an E l i z a b e t h a n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c on the d e f i n i t i o n and use o f the epigram.  However, Puttenham's three c a t e g o r i e s ,  f r i e n d s h i p , d e f i a n c e , and m i r t h , r a t h e r exclude h i s " d e f i n i t i o n " from the t r u l y l i t e r a r y sphere, a l t h o u g h h i s homely d e s c r i p t i o n does give some i d e a o f the o r i g i n a l use, and t h e development  o f the epigrammatic  form as  the Renaissance came to know i t . As Puttenham t e l l s us, the epigram was o r i g i n a l l y an i n s c r i p t i o n , on a b u i l d i n g o r a tomb* having as i t s s u b j e c t a person, an i n c i d e n t , o r a moral o r e t h i c a l exemplum.  Most commentators on epigrams and epigrammatists  have attempted t o d e f i n e the form by r e f e r e n c e to i t s  17  o r i g i n a l purpose.  The epigrammatic  b r i e f and'concerned  i n s c r i p t i o n was  always  with e i t h e r one person o r event, and  as the epigram developed, consonant with i t s o r i g i n a l b r e v i t y , i t remained fact  concerned w i t h a s i n g l e i d e a .  t h a t the epigram was  The  o f t e n i n s c r i b e d or engraved  on a b u i l d i n g o r a stone l e a d s L e s s i n g to comment: The true i n s c r i p t i o n i s not t o be thought o f a p a r t from t h a t whereon i t stands, o r might s t a n d . Both together make the whole from which a r i s e s the i m p r e s s i o n which, speaking g e n e r a l l y , we a s c r i b e to the i n s c r i p t i o n a l o n e . F i r s t , some o b j e c t o f sense which arouses our c u r i o s i t y ; and then the account o f t h i s same o b j e c t , which s a t i s f i e s that c u r i o s i t y . 2 Puttenham a l s o has h i s own the  i d e a s about the reasons f o r  c o n c i s i o n and single-mindedness o f the epigrammatic  inscription: An E p i t a p h i s but a k i n d o f Epigram only a p p l i e d to the r e p o r t o f the dead persons e s t a t e and degree, o r of h i s o t h e r good o r bad p a r t e s t o h i s commendation o r r e p r o c h : and i s an i n s c r i p t i o n such as a man may commodiously w r i t e o r engraue vpon a tombe i n few v e r s e s , p i t h i e , quicke and s e n t e n t i o u s f o r the p a s s e r to peruse, and iudge vpon without any l o n g t a r i a u n c e : So as i f i t exeeede the measure o f an Epigram, i t i s then ( i f the v e r s e be correspondent) r a t h e r an E l e g i e then an E p i t a p h . 3 T h i s passage  o f Puttenham*s, however, a l s o begins to  c o n s i d e r one o f the major problems epigram,  f o r students of the  that o f d e f i n i t i o n and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n :  an epigram not an epigram?  when i s  Commentators both b e f o r e and  s i n c e the Renaissance have been p u z z l e d by the Protean q u a l i t y o f the epigram.  P a u l Nixon a t the end o f h i s f i r s t  chapter i n M a r t i a l and the Modern Epigram g i v e s a neat summary o f the g e n e r a l response to t h i s  form:  18  I t would be d e l i g h t f u l i f t h i s l o n g d i s c u s s i o n i n e v i t a b l y l e d to a r e a l l y adequate epigrammatic d e f i n i t i o n o f the epigram, complete, yet compact. But i t does n o t . In Greek, L a t i n and modern l i t e r a t u r e , i n a l l t h r e e , though i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s , the epigram may be the solemn e p i t a p h or some savage t r a v e s t y ; i t may be a neat compliment or a s a t i r i c a l t h r u s t ; i t may be, i n content, a d a i n t y l o v e poem, a f u g i t i v e p i e c e , an o c c a s i o n a l poem on "some s i n g l e s t r i k i n g i d e a o r circumstance," o f t e n h a r d l y to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the l y r i c . But no matter what be i t s content, we may u s u a l l y expect i t to be r e a s o n a b l y s h o r t and to end w i t h some g r a c e f u l , i n g e n i o u s , p o i n t e d , weighty, w i t t y , o r s a t i r i c a l t u r n of thought to which i t s p r e c e d i n g l i n e s l e a d up; we may always expect i t to end w i t h a t l e a s t some r a t h e r s p e c i a l emphasis . . . . 4 Nixon expresses a common wish f o r an "adequate  epigrammatic  d e f i n i t i o n of the epigram" and i t seems t o be overwhelmingly the  case that commentators on the epigram p r e f e r to  couch t h e i r comments i n the form which they are d i s c u s s i n g . •Although I do not have the space here to go i n t o phenomenon i n d e r a i l , examples for  this  can be found i n any c e n t u r y ;  i n s t a n c e , t h i s q u a t r a i n by Robert Hayman i n h i s  Quodlibets  (1628): Sermons and epigrams have a l i k e end, To improve, to reprove and to amend. Some passe without t h i s use, 'cause they are w i t t y : And so doe many Sermons, more's the p i t t y . 5  P r o b a b l y a b e t t e r known example i s C o l e r i d g e ' s c o u p l e t : What i s an epigram? A d w a r f i s h whole, I t s body b r e v i t y , and wit i t s s o u l . 6 The q u a l i t i e s , or s t y l i s t i c  f e a t u r e s of the epigram  would, a t f i r s t g l a n c e , appear f a i r l y o b v i o u s : wit  as C o l e r i d g e t e l l s us.  b r e v i t y and  However, when t r y i n g to f i x on  a d e f i n i t i o n o f the epigram, the student soon becomes faced w i t h the n e c e s s i t y f o r innumerable  qualifications.  19  Firstly,  does an epigram have tobeany s p e c i f i c  length?  ( T h i s problem a r i s e s with regard to the poems i n H e r b e r t * s P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus i n t h a t a comparison of t h e i r w i t h t h a t of Crashaw's epigrams i n Eplgrammata Sacra,  length  for  i n s t a n c e , shows them on the whole to be much longer.) It  seems to be g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t the i d e a l epigram  i s one lines.  which can combine wit w i t h the minimum number of In h i s e d i t i o n o f The Greek Anthology,  M a c k a i l notes that the poems v a r y from two twenty-eight,  but r a r e l y exceed twelve;  J.W.  l i n e s to  t h i s comment  seems to be g e n e r a l l y true o f most c o l l e c t i o n s of epigrams. F o r example, of twenty-one poems i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , o n l y one  i s longer  than twelve l i n e s , and  poems i n Lucus, o n l y t h r e e , one l o n g "Triumphus M o r t i s " (The  of  thirty-five  of these b e i n g the  triumph o f Death).  very  As Hoyt  Hudson n o t e s : Some f r e e s o u l s among the w r i t e r s , however, from M a r t i a l down, have p r o t e s t e d t h a t they should judge f o r themselves what l e n g t h i s a l l o w a b l e ; so t h a t the b u s i n e s s o f the student seems t o be merely to eount the l i n e s . 8 M a r t i a l , as might be expected, has  the l a s t word on  the  a p p r o p r i a t e l e n g t h o f the epigram: Cosconius, who t h i n k my epigrams l o n g , you would be u s e f u l f o r g r e a s i n g a x l e s . On t h i s p r i n c i p l e you would fancy the Golossus to be t a l l , and would d e s c r i b e Brutus*s boy as s h o r t . Learn what you are i g n o r a n t o f : o f t e n two pages of Marsus and of l e a r n e d Pedo t r e a t o f a s i n g l e theme. Things are not l o n g from which you can s u b t r a c t n o t h i n g ; but you Cosconius make y o u r d i s t i c h s l o n g . 9 Length, then,  i s not  the o n l y important  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the epigram.  characteristic  What then of i t s wit?  20  On the question  o f w i t a l s o q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e necessary,  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard  to the sacred  epigram, where  subject-  m a t t e r l a r g e l y c o n t r o l s the k i n d of w i t employed, not o n l y f o r the ending, which i s the u s u a l p l a c e to f i n d a d i s p l a y o f w i t i n the epigram, but throughout the poem.  I n the  New E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y the "epigram" i s d e f i n e d a s : "A  short poem ending i n a w i t t y o r ingenious  turn o f  thought, to which the r e s t o f the composition i s intended to l e a d u p . "  1 0  T h i s " w i t t y o r ingenious  t u r n o f thought ? 1  i s u s u a l l y accompanied o r expressed by such d e v i c e s as a n t i t h e s i s , paradox, punning, r e v e r s a l o f the thought o r idea has  that  been expressed o r i n t i m a t e d throughout, o r even  simple e x p l a n a t i o n the epigram.  o r d i s c l o s u r e o f the " r e a l " subject o f  Of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the l a s t method,  t h i s epigram of S i r John H a r i n g t o n ' s i s a good example: Treason doth never p r o s p e r : what's the reason? Why i f i t p r o s p e r , none dare c a l l i t t r e a s o n . (Epigrams, 1618) 11 Hoyt Hudson i n t r o d u c e s " w i t t y o r ingenious  another q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the  turn":  . . . one based upon the r h e t o r i c a l t e a c h i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h century, and the r e s u l t a n t p r a c t i c e . We know what s t r e s s t h a t century p l a c e d upon s e n t e n t i o u s n e s s — o r "sentence", as i t was sometimes c a l l e d . I f we a r e to give epigrammatists o f the time t h e i r due, we should amend our d e f i n i t i o n . . . . F o r the p o i n t o f an e p i g r a m — and I b e l i e v e t h i s h o l d s true f o r the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d as w e l l as f o r the R e n a i s s a n c e — d o e s not always depend upon a t u r n o f thought. The thought may go s t r a i g h t :? forward, and the p o i n t may be merely an emphatic summary o f what has a l r e a d y been presented, o r a d i s t i l l a t i o n from i t . 12  21  In Greek, the name f o r t h i s r h e t o r i c a l device i s eplphonema, in L a t i n , acclamatio.  Erasmus, i n h i s Copia Verborum, L i b e r  I I , De S e n t e n t i l s , g i ^ e s t h i s as h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of figure:  "Now  this  another k i n d of s e n t e n t i a called eplphonema  by the Greeks, Q u i n t i l i a n c a l l s a c c l a m a t i o . f i n a l acclamation  I t i s the  of the t h i n g n a r r a t e d or proved. . . . 13  T h i s k i n d i s s u i t e d to epigrams." A good example o f t h i s r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e , the acclamation  "final  o f t h i n g n a r r a t e d or proved", i s i n Crashaw's  E n g l i s h epigram on the t e x t from S t . Matthew, Chapter "Come and  see the p l a c e where the Lord L a y : Show me h i m s e l f e , h i m s e l f e ( b r i g h t S i r ) 0 show Which way my poore Tears to h i m s e l f e may goe, Were i t enough to show the p l a c e , and say* Looke, Mary, here see, where thy L o r d once l a y , Then could I show these armes o f mine, and say Looke, Mary, here see, where thy L o r d once l a y . n  R e p e t i t i o n i s a technique sacred epigrams to present acclamatio.  commonly used by Crashaw i n h i s the reader w i t h a  Here the f i n a l repeated  Mary's arms i n which C h r i s t a l s o l a y , and  placed,with  the c o n t r a s t i s  made more s t r i k i n g by the f a c t t h a t the l i n e The  concluding  l i n e serves to  c o n t r a s t the tomb i n which C h r i s t ' s body was  f o r word.  28,  i s repeated  word  a c c l a m a t i o Crashaw uses here i s a l l i t t l e  more complex than the examples which Erasmus g i v e s i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the passage quoted above s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s , as w e l l as the repeated a s s e r t i o n , a t u r n of thought i n the c o n t r a s t between Mary's arms and C h r i s t ' s s e p u l c h r e .  H  22  Puttenham, as w e l l as Erasmus, g i v e s the Renaissance view o f t h i s r h e t o r i c a l  theorist's  figure:  Our poet i n h i s s h o r t d i t t i e s , but s p e c i a l l y p l a y i n g the Epigrammatist, w i l l vse to conclude and shut up h i s Epigram w i t h a v e r s e or two, spoken i n such a s o r t , as i t may seem a manner of allowance to a l l the premisses, and t h a t w i t h a j o y f u l l a p p r o b a t i o n , which the L a t i n e s c a l l A c c l a m a t i o . . . . S i r P h i l i p Sidney v e r y p r e t i l y c l o s e d up a d i t t i e i n t h i s s o r t . 15 A c c l a m a t i o , p r o v i d e s a l e s s u s u a l ending f o r the epigram than does the " w i t t y o r i n g e n i o u s turn of thought*?, and epigrams are  involving antithesis,  not hard to f i n d .  paradox,  and  punning,  Puttenham quotes t h i s c o u p l e t o f  S i r P h i l i p Sidney's as an example o f a c c l a m a t i o , although it  i s a l s o a good example o f  antithesis:  What medecine then, can such d i s e a s e remoue, Where l o v e breedes hate, and hate engenders l o u e . 16 A t y p i c a l example o f the epigram based on a c o n c l u d i n g pun i s t h i s by Hook: Here comes Mr. Wynter, surveyor o f taxes, I a d v i s e you t o g i v e him whatever he axes, And t h a t , too, without any nonsense or flummery, F o r though h i s name^s Wynter, h i s a c t i o n s are summary? 17 In c o n t r a s t t o the example o f a c c l a m a t i o a l r e a d y g i v e n from one o f Crashaw's poems, the ending of the poem e n t i t l e d *?Two went up i n t o the Temple to pray" from t i i Steps t o the Temple g i v e s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of h i s f a c i l i t y w i t h the more common w i t t y or i n g e n i o u s ending f o r an epigram:  23  Two went t o pray? 0 r a t h e r say One went to brag, th* other t o p r a y : One stands up c l o s e and t r e a d s on h i g h , Where t h * o t h e r dares not send h i s eye. One n e e r e r to Gods A l t a r t r o d , The o t h e r t o the A l t a r s God.  18  Here i t i s the a n t i t h e t i c a l i n v e r s i o n i n the l a s t  line  which g i v e s p o i n t to the ending o f the epigram, and emphasizes, by the v e r y s i m i l a r i t y o f the p h r a s i n g , the s p i r i t u a l d i s t a n c e between the two  men.  These two d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s f o r c o n c l u d i n g an epigram d e r i v e d from the two v a r i a t i o n s o f the epigrammatic form which f l o u r i s h e d h e a l t h i l y s i d e by s i d e d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s i n England.  These  two  sources were the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n epigrams of M a r t i a l , g e n e r a l l y s a t i r i c i n i n t e n t i o n , and the c o l l e c t i o n o f poems known as The Greek Anthology.  These two sources a r e , i n f a c t ,  not as d i s t i n c t as might be expected s i n c e i t i s apparent from some o f the epigrams i n The Greek Anthology t h a t the w r i t e r s had a l r e a d y adopted the t y p i c a l epigrammatic s t y l e o f M a r t i a l ; these poems appear s i d e by s i d e w i t h o t h e r epigrams which c o u l d t r u l y be termed "Greek epigrams", so that The Greek Anthology d i d p r e s e n t f o r Renaissance w r i t e r s examples o f both the epigrammatic forms. The d i f f e r e n c e between what one might c a l l the "Roman epigram" and the Greek i s one o f technique and  intention.  Hoyt Hudson u s e f u l l y quotes Lord Neaves on t h i s p o i n t :  24  The true or best form o f the e a r l y Greek epigram does not aim a t w i t or seek to produce s u r p r i s e . . . . I t s purpose i s to s e t f o r t h i n the s h o r t e s t , s i m p l e s t , and p l a i n e s t language, but y e t w i t h p e r f e c t p u r i t y and even elegance o f d i c t i o n , some f a c t o r f e e l i n g of such i n t e r e s t as would prompt the r e a l o r proposed speaker to r e c o r d i t i n the form o f an epigram. 19 Although i n both forms o f the epigram a l l the emphasis  i s thrown upon the c o n c l u s i o n , M a r t i a l i s more  concerned w i t h a " w i t t y o r i n g e n i o u s t u r n of thought" a t the  end of h i s epigram, whereas the poets o f The  Greek  Anthology n o r m a l l y d i s p l a y a tendency t o conclude w i t h what Renaissance commentators would acclamatio.  Take, f o r example,  c a l l a s e n t e n t l a o r an these two poems from The  Greek  Anthology; If  the best m e r i t be t o l o s e l i f e w e l l , To us, beyond a l l e l s e that f o r t u n e came; In war, to g i v e Greece l i b e r t y , we f e l l , H e i r s o f a l l time's i m p e r i s h a b l e fame. 20 Cruel i s death,—nay, kindl He t h a t i s ta'en Was o l d i n wisdom, though h i s years were few; L i f e ' s p l e a s u r e he has l o s t ; escaped l i f e ' s p a i n ; Nor weddeid j o y s nor wedded sorrows knew. 21 M a r t i a l , on the o t h e r hand, was a w i t , and a poet  skilled  i n the use of innumerable r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s to g a i n h i s epigrammatic p o i n t .  H i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d n a r r a t o r assumes a  p u b l i c v o i c e — h i s poems are meant f o r an audience, whereas the  e f f e c t o f the Greek epigrams more f r e q u e n t l y comes from  their inscriptional simplicity. have the s i m p l i c i t y , the  M a r t i a l ' s epigrams do n o t  s i n c e r i t y o r t h a t q u a l i t y i n many o f  poems o f The Greek Anthology which approximates l y r i c i s m .  ( T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l y r i c and the epigram i s an  25  i n t e r e s t i n g one e s p e c i a l l y from the p o i n t o f view o f H e r b e r t ' s e a r l y epigrams and the poems g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d which  constitute The Temple.)  "lyrics",  The o r i g i n a l Greek epigram  was the c l o s e s t t o the p r i m i t i v e memorial  inscription,  and the poems o f The Greek Anthology can move e a s i l y i n t o the tone o r content o f e p i t a p h o r e l e g y : Here lapped i n hallowed slumber Saon l i e s , A s l e e p , not dead; a good man never d i e s . 22 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Renaissance developments the  o f the epigram t o these two s o u r c e s :  s a t i r i c a l , w i t t y epigram based on those of M a r t i a l ,  and the f l a t t e r , l e s s r h e t o r i c a l , poems o f The Greek Anthology, w i t h t h e i r s i n c e r e , and o f t e n r e l i g i o u s tone. The development of  o f the sacred epigram  the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The almost wholly s e c u l a r , pagan  aspects of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e the  initial  the  epigram.  satirical  greatly!influenced  impetus of E n g l i s h n e o - L a t i n p o e t r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r F o r M a r t i a l ' s bent towards moral and  comment i n h i s epigrams r e s u l t e d , d u r i n g the  Renaissance, i n a g r e a t and widespread satiric  i s a l a t e phenomenon  epigram.  i n t e r e s t i n the  As a man o f w i t and w o r l d l y s o p h i s t i c a t i o n  he attracted the deeply humanistic Renaissance  scholars  and w r i t e r s more than d i d the anonymous w r i t e r s o f The Greek Anthology.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f the epigram as a form i s  symptomatic  o f the Renaissance v o r a c i o u s n e s s t o i n c o r p o r a t e  i n t o E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e c l a s s i c a l models, i d e a s , and concepts.  26  The and  resurgence o f c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g i n the  s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s created  l i t e r a r y forms, upon which not vernacular  fifteenth  an i n c r e d i b l e r e s e r v o i r of only the r a p i d l y  l i t e r a t u r e s drew, but a l s o the  developing  neo-Latin  l i t e r a t u r e of England as w e l l as of the C o n t i n e n t . good example of the c l o s e n e s s neo-Latin century,  and  vernacular,  o f the two  kinds of w r i t i n g ,  occurs a t the end of the  f i r s t w i t h the group of poets and  the P l e i a d e  i n France and  A  sixteenth  writers  called  s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n England  Areopagus, the group of men  the  i n c l u d i n g G a b r i e l Harvey,  Edmund Spenser, S i r P h i l i p Sidney, Edward Dyer, Fulke G r e v i l l e and  D a n i e l Rogers, whose aim was  poetry  to t r y to w r i t e  u s i n g the L a t i n q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t r i c  attempt f a i l e d , but  English  system.  The  i t does i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g d e s i r e  on  the p a r t ©f E n g l i s h poets to make the L a t i n t r a d i t i o n a r e s e r v o i r o f metres and  forms as w e l l as myths  and  allusions. As more and  more c l a s s i c a l L a t i n documents were unearthed,  Renaissance s c h o l a r s began to d i s c o v e r the beauty o f Augustan and  S i l v e r L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n comparison w i t h the  o f medieval and Allen,  fifteenth-century writers.  in his a r t i c l e "Latin L i t e r a t u r e " ,  Don 2 3  language  Cameron  mentions the  wholesale hunt f o r new  L a t i n t e x t s c a r r i e d out by  men!  l i k e Poggius, O r s i n u s ,  Aurispa  the  t h a t they " c o n s i d e r e d  and Landrianus, and  L a t i n o f the middle p e r i o d  fact  barbarous  27  and heavy-handed."  Thus developed an i n c r e a s e d awareness,  on the p a r t o f the n e o - L a t i n w r i t e r s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , of the o r i g i n s o f the t r a d i t i o n from which t h e i r work sprang, as w e l l as an eagerness to u t i l i z e any l i t e r a r y form a v a i l a b l e .  Throughout  the s i x t e e n t h and  seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , c o l l e c t i o n s o f epigrams were w r i t t e n by men f o r whom t h e v e r y v a r i e t y o f p o e t i c l i t e r a r y to choose  from  (epic, l y r i c ,  forms  sonnet, p a s t o r a l , e l e g y ,  epigram e t c . ) was a c h a l l e n g e , and even the most obscure poets dabbled i n every c o n c e i v a b l e k i n d o f p o e t i c  form,  E n g l i s h and L a t i n . S i r Thomas More, one o f the f i r s t  important w r i t e r s  o f the s i x t e e n t h century, p r o v i d e s a good example o f the v e r s a t i l i t y o f Renaissance  scholars.  More's s a t i r i c  epigrams were t r a n s l a t i o n s o r imitations o f poems from both the L a t i n and The Greek Anthology; he a l s o composed many o r i g i n a l epigrams,  some on p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h  topics,  f o r i n s t a n c e , the f i v e poems a t the beginning o f Eplgrammata on the marriage  and s u c c e s s i o n o f Henry V I I I .  2  Innumerable  E n g l i s h epigrammatists f o l l o w e d More's example, although the f i r s t anthology o f epigrams  d i d not appear u n t i l  late  i n the s i x t e e n t h century w i t h Timothe K e n d a l l ' s Flowers o f Epjgrammes (1577). his efforts.  More, however, was not alone i n  The o t h e r g r e a t humanist  s c h o l a r s and t e a c h e r s ,  Grocyn, L i n a c r e and Erasmus, were experimenting a t the same time with-the epigram  i n L a t i n , Greek, and E n g l i s h .  28  I t Is not u n t i l w e l l i n t o the s i x t e e n t h  century,  however, that t h i s p o e t i c v a r i e t y and v e r s a t i l i t y began to i n c l u d e the sacred epigram. sacred  The  development of  epigram i s a l a t e phenomenon i n the  century,  and  sixteenth  i s , I b e l i e v e , dependent upon another  occurrence which g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d E n g l i s h and  the  literature,  f o l l o w e d n a t u r a l l y a f t e r the l a r g e l y s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t  o f the humanistic s c h o l a r s and w r i t e r s l i k e Grocyn, C o l e t , and More.  T h i s was  the r e a c t i o n o f many men,  w r i t e r s or otherwise, a g a i n s t pagan concepts that occurred  the i n f l u x o f  whether classical,  d u r i n g the Renaissance,  the attempt to oppose these concepts with those of Christian l i f e .  context  and  imposed  her  upon them.  L i l y B. Campbell, i n her D i v i n e P o e t r y and Sixteenth  Century England. ° d i s c u s s e s  sixteenth-century  alone which she  drama. n  w i t h r e l i g i o u s or d e v o t i o n a l  Biblical  (It i s B i b l i c a l  c a l l s d i v i n e , and n  Drama l n  the attempt  w r i t e r s to i n c o r p o r a t e  i n t o t h e i r poems and  of material  material  her book i s not  concerned  tone o r a t t i t u d e i n p o e t r y . )  Campbell d e a l s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t forms: t r a n s l a t i o n s , M i r r o r s , e p y l l i a and she  as  done i n the very beginning, when  she absorbed them i n t o her own values  the  They could e i t h e r oppose them, o r do  the C h r i s t i a n church had  own  and  epics,  sonnets, although  does not touch upon the epigram.  She  says t h a t  her  29  book i s an attempt to t e l l "The of the B i b l e to combat the and  the new  secondary s t o r y o f the  i n f l u e n c e of the new  s e c u l a r i s m which accompanied the  use  paganism  rediscovery  o f a n c i e n t works of l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , " and which  "has,  27 however, r e c e i v e d The  scant a t t e n t i o n . "  s i x t e e n t h century  on the p a r t o f men authorised  saw  l i k e Tyndale and  a Bible i n English.  s o - c a l l e d "Matthews B i b l e " was l i c e n c e on the t i t l e page. t r a n s l a t i o n was choice had literary, writers^  a concentrated  attempt  Coverdale to have  Finally,  i n 1537,  the  i s s u e d w i t h the K i n g s 1  A l a r g e p a r t o f Tyndale*s  r e t a i n e d i n t h i s B i b l e , and  s i n c e Tyndale's  been to make h i s t r a n s l a t i o n p o p u l a r r a t h e r than f o r the layman r a t h e r than the  i n p a r t i c u l a r , had  theologian,  at their disposal a vast  source book, not o n l y of B i b l i c a l m a t e r i a l , but a l s o of idioms and  sentence s t r u c t u r e s which were to become p a r t  o f r e l i g i o u s and The  divine  Authorised  poetry.  V e r s i o n o f the E n g l i s h B i b l e , i s s u e d  under K i n g James i n 1611,  i s now  recognized  as h a v i n g  influenced  the E n g l i s h language to a remarkable degree;  phrases we  can no l o n g e r p l a c e as B i b l i c a l have become  i n e x t r i c a b l y woven i n t o the c o l l o q u i a l texture of d a i l y language.  But although t h i s B i b l e was  o f a committee o f l e a r n e d men,  our  the product  the b a s i s f o r t h e i r v e r s i o n  remained that of Tyndale t r a n s l a t e d a century  earlier.  30  The almost  innate and  Idioms and  sentence  any  i n a d v e r t e n t use o f B i b l i c a l phrases,  s t r u c t u r e s can be i l l u s t r a t e d  of the r e l i g i o u s  poets o f the seventeenth  perhaps best from H e r b e r t and Vaughan, s i n c e The and S l l e x S c l n t l l l a n s language based The  from  century, Temple  continually reveal a poetic  on the prose s t y l e  of the A u t h o r i s e d V e r s i o n .  urge amongst poets and d r a m a t i s t s t o supplant  s e c u l a r subject-matter w i t h d i v i n e a f f e c t e d almost l i t e r a r y form, the epigram  b e i n g no e x c e p t i o n .  every  I n the  case o f H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams, the two movements which had a f f e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e  int&he v e r y beginning o f  the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y — t h e renewed i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g and  l i t e r a t u r e , and  the d e s i r e to combat  c l a s s i c a l paganism w i t h C h r i s t i a n m a t e r i a l and  devotion-  reached a happy compromise. As he was  to do l a t e r and w i t h i n c r e a s e d s k i l l i n  The Temple, H e r b e r t used h i s knowledge of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and mythology  to h e i g h t e n h i s C h r i s t i a n  awareness by r e v e a l i n g the C h r i s t i a n l i f e , based and  life  in classical literature.  Herbert's contrast  not merely a negative one, as had been t h a t of so many  o f the e a r l i e r Hall  on the  s a c r i f i c e of Jesus C h r i s t , as s u p e r i o r to the pagan  l i f e as expressed was  reader's  sixteenth-century writers.  i n h i s Courte of Vertue  Whereas John  (1565) d e r i d e d by parody and  derogatory i m i t a t i o n what he saw  to be the pagan, c l a s s i c a l  31  e t h i c i n an anthology such as the Courte o f Venus, H e r b e r t , l i k e Cowley and M i l t o n , used c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s o r echoes f o r t y p o l o g i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , b e n e f i t t i n g by t h e i r m e t a p h o r i c a l o r i m a g i s t i c r i c h n e s s while s t i l l his Christian  exalting  purpose.  A more d e t a i l e d example a t t h i s p o i n t might the importance  o f seventeenth-century  clarify  religious writers*  awareness o f c l a s s i c a l m a t e r i a l , and the v a r i o u s ways i n which they drew on i t t o e n r i c h t h e i r p o e t r y . Miltai, the g r e a t e s t o f the seventeenth-century  poets t o  combine c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n elements i n h i s w r i t i n g , makes a good comparison w i t h Herbert, f o r i n M i l t o n the r e a d e r becomes v e r y much aware o f the poet's  sensitivity  to c l a s s i c a l myth and v a l u e and h i s use of them to give added r i c h n e s s t o h i s v e r s e .  C o n s i d e r , f o r example,  t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Eve from P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book I V : And heavenly c h o i r s the hymenean sung, What day the g e n i a l angel t o o u r s i r e Brought her, i n naked beauty more adorned, More l o v e l y , than Pandora, whom the gods Endowed with a l l t h e i r g i f t s ; and G too l i k e In sad event, when t o the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnared Mankind w i t h h e r f a i r l o o k s , t o be avenged On him who had s t o l e Joves a u t h e n t i c f i r e . 28 Here M i l t o n p r e f i g u r e s Eve's f a t e and b e t r a y a l o f Adam by r e f e r r i n g t o Pandora.  The comparison w i t h Pandora adds  to Eve's s t a t u r e i n one way, s i n c e Pandora was i n legend the most b e a u t i f u l o f women, and d i m i n i s h e s i t o b v i o u s l y i n another, mankind.  f o r Pandora l o o s e d every k i n d o f e v i l upon  32  H e r b e r t ' s use o f c l a s s i c a l m a t e r i a l i n a C h r i s t i a n context i s d i f f e r e n t from M i l t o n ' s i n t h a t i t i s o f t e n s i m p l e r , b a r e r i n d e s c r i p t i o n ; o f t e n the p r o p e r names i n the myth are l e f t to work f o r themselves and g a i n t h e i r own  effect.  F o r example,  i n the twenty-second  poem o f Lucus, "In Improbum disertum*' (On the eloquence o f the w i c k e d ) , H e r b e r t uses the c l a s s i c a l myth o f Philemon and B a u c i s , almost i n p a s s i n g : S e r i c u s e s t d i c t i s , f a c t i s pannusla B a u c i s : Os & l i n g u a t i b i d l u e s , egena menus: Your words are The c l o t h e s o f Your mouth and Your hand. (L,  s i l k , your deeds Baucis: rich tongue, poor pp. 98-99) 29  There i s n o t h i n g o f M i l t o n ' s r e i n f o r c i n g i n h i s own  voice  the i m p r e s s i o n he wants h i s comparison to make on the reader (. . . and 0 too l i k e / i n sad event . . . ) . H e r b e r t , h a v i n g made h i s i n i t i a l comparison between the r i c h n e s s of the words o f the wicked and the p a u c i t y o f t h e i r  deeds  by u s i n g the image of B a u c i s and Philemon, the o l d , p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n couple who  were yet r i c h i n h u m i l i t y and  to Zeus and Hermes when v i s i t e d  hospitality  by these Gods i n d i s g u i s e ,  i s a b l e to leave h i s s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e r e v e r b e r a t i n g i n the minds o f h i s r e a d e r s and conclude h i s epigram by r e f e r r i n g to another myth, that o f Charon, the ferryman o f S t y x : "Aurea pro naulo l i n g u a C h a r o n t i s e r i t . " w i l l be/ Charon's passage money.)  (Your g i l d e d  talk  The tendency throughout the  33  epigram  t o h o r r i f y the reader a t the eloquence  r e s u l t s from the use of concrete metaphors ones:  of the  wicked  r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t  words are l i k e s i l k e n c l o t h , deeds become poor r a g s ,  a s o u l can '•creep'' down an arm,  etc.  The c o n t i n u a l  c o n t r a s t s which these metaphors set up would be u n d e r l i n e d throughout  the poem f o r the seventeenth-century reader by the  comparison  between the two myths i n t r o d u c e d .  I t i s hard  to b e l i e v e t h a t i n h i s r e f e r e n c e to B a u c i s H e r b e r t d i d not have i n mind the ending o f Ovid's s t o r y i n The Metamorphoses: Jove and Hermes, d e l i g h t e d a t the goodness and  hospitality  o f the o l d couple, t r a n s f o r m t h e i r poor farm i n t o a marble temple where B a u c i s and Philemon  become p r i e s t s of  the Gods, u n t i l f i n a l l y , f r a i l w i t h o l d age, they are metamorphosed i n t o two t r e e s , t h e i r branches  entwining.  The legend o f Charon r e p r e s e n t s the complete  antithesis  o f t h i s myth, i n t h a t Charon, s q u a l i d and o l d , f e r r i e d  the  s p i r i t s o f the dead a c r o s s the Styx, one of the r i v e r s o f the underworld,  i n t o Hades.  The fee f o r the passage  was  an o b o l , the c o i n p l a c e d i n the mouth of the dead; but f o r the wicked man  i n H e r b e r t ' s epigram,  the onlyv:fee he has f o r the  passage i s h i s g i l d e d t a l k , which w i l l l e a d to death. The elements  s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n and i n p o e t r y was  The m a j o r i t y tended sacred and  classical  the achievement of o n l y a few  to s p l i t  writers.  t h e i r subject-matter i n t o  s e c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s , o r i n Renaissance  terms  34  •^humane" and "divine*?.  But the development  of the epigram  as a medium f o r r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y by w r i t e r s l i k e Saltmarsh and Thynne  d i d not begin u n t i l a t l e a s t a century a f t e r  the epigram as a s a t i r i c medium was p o p u l a r i s e d by men  like  S i r Thomas More and Grocyn a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h century. was  As i n the case o f the sonnet, i t s development  determined not by c l a s s i c a l models o r d e r i v a t i o n , but  by contemporary  l i t e r a r y models and the p r e v a i l i n g  religious  atmosphere.  L i k e the sonnet, the epigram could e a s i l y serve  two masters.  Barnabe Barnes, Henry Constable, and  F l e t c h e r used the sonnet form f o r both sacred and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , j u s t as, a l i t t l e  Giles secular  l a t e r , John Saltmarsh,  Herbert,and Crashaw were to use the epigram.  The  concision  and w i t n e c e s s a r y f o r a good epigram, the concomitant r e s t r a i n t these q u a l i t i e s e n f o r c e d , and the  intellectual  i n g e n u i t y they demanded from the poet, s u i t e d e q u a l l y the e x p r e s s i o n o f a s a t i r i c purpose  or a r e l i g i o u s  one.  Although i t i s a - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o d i v i d e the matter of the epigram i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s ,  subject-  satiric  and s a c r e d , to look back on the epigram l i t e r a t u r e  from  1515, when More was w r i t i n g , to 1634 when Crashaw's Epigrammata S a c r a was p u b l i s h e d , these two c a t e g o r i e s do stand out as the most comprehensive.  H e r b e r t | a o f course,  i s one of the best examples of a young n e o - L a t i n w r i t e r i n t e r e s t e d i n experimenting w i t h both types o f epigram;  35  and from the p o i n t o f view o f t h i s t h e s i s i t i s e a s i e r and more u s e f u l t o compare and c o n t r a s t the s a c r e d epigrams o f H e r b e r t w i t h h i s own use o f the s a t i r i c epigram i n Musae R e s p o n s o r i a e  3  ( e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e I s h a l l not be  d e a l i n g with H e r b e r t ' s s a t i r i c epigrams  i n the r e s t o f t h i s  t h e s i s ) , than w i t h epigrams on v a r i o u s t o p i c s such as those o f H a r i n g t o n o r Hook;rquoted  earlier.  To p o i n t out some o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between one or two poems from Musae Responsoriae and P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a might be u s e f u l i n showing  the extent t o  which s a c r e d epigrammatists both f o l l o w e d and moved away from t h e i r s e c u l a r b r o t h e r s . The s a t i r i c epigram was n o r m a l l y "occasional*' l n the sense t h a t i t was d i r e c t e d a t some person o r some p a r t i c u l a r event, a l t h o u g h , o f course, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n was u s u a l l y meant to widen i n d e f i n i t e l y .  The poems i n Musae Responsoriae  are mostly " o c c a s i o n a l " , but i n comparison those o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a a r e a l s o " o c c a s i o n a l " b e i n g concerned w i t h the events o f the p a s s i o n and the s t o r y o f one p a r t i c u l a r man, much more o b v i o u s l y so than a r e any o f the poems l n The Temple, except perhaps  f o r "The S a c r i f i c e " .  Many o f  the poems i n Musae Responsoriae are concerned w i t h s a c r e d s u b j e c t s o r r e l i g i o u s dogma, the s a t i r e b e i n g d i r e c t e d  towards  the a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s o f M e l v i l l e and the a n t i - P r e l a t i s t s . Thus, the t e n t h poem i n Musae Responsoriae, "De S i g n a c u l o  36  C r u c i s " (On the s i g n of the c r o s s ) , can be compared to a poem like  the t h i r t e e n t h epigram i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ,  i n eruce" ( C h r i s t on the two  cross).  The  poems i s , of course, d i f f e r e n t .  n  Christus  c e n t r a l focus of In the f i r s t  Herbert  i s concerned to r i d i c u l e M e l v i l l e ' s a t t i t u d e s towards "innocuam Crucem" (blameless c r o s s ) , and a v a r i e t y o f images i n v o l v i n g the r o s s G  does so by  the  using  i t s e l f , f o r example,  the v i s u a l image o f " m i s e r l y d e v i l s " being the c r o s s than M e l v i l l e and  the  l e s s r e p e l l e d by  his anti-Prelatist friends:  Non p l u s m a l i g n i daemones C h r i s t i cruce Vnquam f u g a r i , quam t u i s o c i j s o l e n t . M i s e r l y d e v i l s were Never more r e p e l l e d by i t Than your f r i e n d s are wont to be By C h r i s t ' s c r o s s . (MR, pp. 18-19) By the end a final and  of the poem the epigrammatic c o n c l u s i o n  involves  image of the c r o s s as o b j e c t as w e l l as s a t i r i c  play  punning on the word " c r o s s " i t s e l f : Sed non moramur: namque v e s t r a crux e r i t , Y o b i s fauentibusue, v e l n e g a n t i b u s . But l e t us get t o the p o i n t : F o r i t w i l l be your c r o s s , Whether you say yes Or no to i t . (MR, pp. 18-19)  Here the i n c i p i e n t " p o i n t " o f the epigrammatic form i s a c t u a l l y drawn to the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n by the poet "Sed  non moramur" (But  of h i s point  we  do  not  t a r r y ) — and  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i s enhanced by h i s f i r m tone of assurance t h a t  the c r o s s o f C h r i s t w i l l be M e l v i l l e ' s , whether he o r not,  himself—  such i s the power o f God.  likesit  On a more human l e v e l ,  37  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s gained by the sense o f M e l v i l l e ' s s t u p i d i t y and argumentative  nature, conveyed by the pun  on the word "cross** j as a hindrance immediately itself,  o b j e c t e d to by M e l v i l l e .  statement  I n the L a t i n v e r s e  the s t u p i d i t y o f a man a u t o m a t i c a l l y o b j e c t i n g  to a statement with i t ,  to or a  o r an i d e a , whether he agrees p r d i s a g r e e s  i s captured l n the neat a n t i t h e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e  and a l l i t e r a t i v e and a s s o n a n t a l e f f e c t : v e l negantibus."  "Vobis f a u e n t i b u s u e ,  The p o i n t gained here i s one o f wordplay  and a n t i t h e s i s , u s i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l epigrammatic c o n c l u s i o n to comment s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f the c r o s s as C r u c i f i x , as w e l l as s a t i r i c a l l y upon the o b j e c t o f the epigram's a t t a c k — M e l v i l l e . A comparison o f the above poem w i t h " C h r i s t u s i n c r u c e " from P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a r e v e a l s much the same t e n o r o f approach. There i s the same c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon a s i n g l e thought o r l i n e o f thought,  although the l a t t e r poem does d i s p l a y one  d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f the epigram former:  not so apparent  i n the  i t i s much more o b v i o u s l y the complement o f a  highly v i s u a l i s e d image—the actual Crucifixion,(The l i n k s between the form and purpose o f the epigram and the emblem , 30  have f r e q u e n t l y been commented o n ) .  The opening  line,  w i t h the immediacy o f i t s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e and one word " H i e " ( h e r e ) , c a l l s the a t t e n t i o n o f the reader w i t h an inscriptional  abruptness:  38  H i e , v b i s a n a t i s t i l l a n t opobalsama mundi, Aduoluor madidae l a e t u s hiansque C r u c i : Here, where the healed world•s Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I, joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am d r i v e n to the drenched c r o s s : (PD, pp. 70-71) I n s p i t e o f the necessary  r e s t r a i n t i n scope enforced  the b r e v i t y o f the form, and poem c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon one  the n e c e s s i t y o f the whole i d e a , the same technique  • 4 u a l r i c h n e s s i s employed through s  i n "De  Sjgjaculo C r u c i s " .  by  of  the imagery as i t was  The poem i s o s t e n s i b l y concerned  w i t h the f l o w i n g o f the blood o f C h r i s t d u r i n g the C r u c i f i x i o n ; however, w i t h i n the poem t h a t blood has w i t h i t a v a r i e t y of images. balm), " s t i l l a r u m "  connected  I t i s "opobalsama" (smooth  (dew), a r u s h i n g t o r r e n t w i t h " a c r e s . . .  i n s u l t u s . " ( r i g o r o u s a s s a u l t s ) , and  finally,  the blood  f l o w i n g from C h r i s t becomes both s p r i n g and r i v e r i n one line: C h r i s t e , f l u a s semper; ne, C h r i s t , keep w e l l i n g up,  s i tua f l u m i n a cessent  . . . .  f o r i f your f l o o d i n g s t o p s . . . . (PD, pp. 70-71)  Here the i n t e n s i t y and  complexity o f t h i s sequence o f images,  concentrated upon one aspect of the C r u c i f i x i o n , p r e s e n t  the  reader with a v i s u a l r i c h n e s s i n t o which the p a r a d o x i c a l q u a l i t y o f the subject-matter  i s integrated.  For example,  the second image of the n a r r a t o r " l a e t u s hiansque"  (joyous,  and my mouth wide open) i s a d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than explanation.  That he  an  i s t h i r s t y m e t a p h o r i c a l l y f o r the blood  39  o f C h r i s t i s made apparent i n the l a s t two l i n e s o f the epigram, where h i s t h i r s t becomes the r e s u l t o f g u i l t and i s o n l y kept a t bay by the redeeming blood o f C h r i s t : C h r i s t e , f l u a s semper; ne, s i tua flumina Culpa redux iugem te neget esse Deum.  cessent,  C h r i s t , keep w e l l i n g up, f o r i f your f l o o d i n g stops, Revived g u i l t w i l l say you!re n o t e t e r n a l God. (PD, pp. 70-71) The epigram here does not make use o f wordplay o r . punning, but o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l complexity which c h a l l e n g e s the r e a d e r to a reassessment o f h i s h a b i t u a l responses t o the scene that H e r b e r t has p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f him*, The imperative i n the penultimate and the strong n e g a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the f i n a l l i n e r e v e r s e the n a t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the r e a d e r .  T£ere i s no g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the C r u c i f i x i o n  as s a c r i f i c e , no i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , no paean o f p r a i s e , o n l y the a n t i d i a b e t i c and f e a r f u l statement that u n l e s s t h e blood keeps f l o w i n g s i n f u l man w i l l l o s e h i s faith.  The most s t r i k i n g t h i n g about t h i s epigram i s i t s  s u b t l e t y and unorthodox use o f the c o n v e n t i o n s . The c o n c l u s i o n of the epigram draws t o g e t h e r the t o t a l e f f e c t o f the imagery and r e i n f o r c e s what H e r b e r t wishes t o convey as the meaning o f the C r u c i f i x i o n by i t s use o f a n t i c l i m a x to enhance  the f a i t h l e s s and v o r a c i o u s nature o f man.  The poem i s completely e g o c e n t r i c from the n a r r a t o r ' s p o i n t o f view. There i s none o f the u s u a l sense o f the agony o f the C r u c i f i x i o n and p a i n t h a t the s a c r i f i c e was made f o r such  40  an unworthy s i n n e r .  The w i t o r ^ p o i n t " o f the epigram i s made  by an unusual r e v e r s a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n t h i s case the w i t i s being d i r e c t e d towards the reader r a t h e r than away from him. One more v e r y b r i e f example o f H e r b e r t ' s a b i l i t y  with  epigrammatic techniques should demonstrate f u l l y the s i m i l a r i t i e s between s a t i r i c and sacred epigrams, and the way t h a t the sacred epigrammatist  could v a r y the epigrammatic  conventions t o gain e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h i s p o e t r y . poem from Musae Responsoriae,  Herbert's  ^De iuramento E c c l e s i a e "  (On the oath t o the Church), once a g a i n shows the use of a pun t o a c h i e v e a w i t t y ending: 0 vere dictum, & b e l i e l cum torqueat omnes O r d i n i s osores a r t i c u l a r e malum, 0 t r u e , 0 l o v e l y answer'. For every h a t e r o f r i g h t order S u f f e r s from a r t i c u l a r d i s e a s e , (MR, pp. 2Q-E1) Here the pun i s on the word " a r t i c l e " .  The s a t i r i c t a r g e t  i s a c e r t a i n man who cannot k n e e l down t o a s s e n t t o the T h i r t y - N i n e A r t i c l e s o f the Church o f England gout.  I n comparison,  because o f h i s  the sacred epigrams u s u a l l y d i s p l a y ,  i n p l a c e o f an o u t r i g h t pun, the " w i t t y o r ingenious t u r n o f thought" mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . example, the two l i n e epigram  Consider, f o r  " I n pium Latronem" (On the  good t h i e f ) : 0 nimium L a t r o l r e l i q u i s f u r a t u s abunde, Nunc etiam Christum c a l l i d u s a g g r e d e r i s .  41  0 too much a t h i e f S You have s t o l e n A g r e a t d e a l from everyone E l s e ; now a l s o , c r a f t y , you go up to C h r i s t . (PD, pp.  70-71)  Here the epigram gains i t s w i t t y e f f e c t by i t s d e l i b e r a t e i g n o r i n g of the t h i e f ' s c o n v e r s i o n and of character.  The  t h i e f i s good only  epigram, f o r he has,  subsequent r e v e r s a l i n the t i t l e  of  in fact, stolen eternal l i f e .  the  The  w i t of t h i s statement on the n a r r a t o r ' s p a r t r e l i e s upon an u n d e r l y i n g envy of the n a r r a t o r f o r the an unworthy s i n n e r , i s s t i l l  t h i e f , who,  redeemed whereas the  though narrator,  as y e t , i s n o t . One  of the i n t e r e s t i n g aspects o f H e r b e r t ' s use  the epigrammatic form f o r both s a t i r i c and matter i s t h a t o f the intended from the opposite viewpoint, t o present  h i s epigram.  religious  of subject-  audience o f the epigram, o r ,  the " v o i c e " t h a t the poet uses  In the s i x t e e n t h and  c e n t u r i e s , t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  seventeenth  c l o s e l y l i n k e d to  the  observance of r h e t o r i c a l forms, the study and  s k i l f u l practice  o f which was  goals of  one  of the major occupations  Renaissance w r i t e r .  The  and  theory o f p o e t i c s was  d e s i r e f o r r h e t o r i c a l e x c e l l e n c e and  the  coloured  by  s k i l l with " f i g u r e s " .  Hudson quotes Erasmus on t h i s p o i n t : My g r e a t e s t approbation i s r e s e r v e d f o r a r h e t o r i c a l poem and p o e t i c a l o r a t o r y . . . the r h e t o r i c a l a r t should t r a n s p i r e through the poem. 31 Of a l l the l i t e r a r y j f o r m s i n use d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h  and  seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , the epigram i s perhaps more than  this  42  any  o t h e r a ^ r h e t o r i c a l poem."  rhetoric, said  L i k e any  other piece  i t i s designed f o r e f f e c t ; as John S t u a r t  of Mill  i n h i s famous apothegm, "Eloquence i s w r i t t e n to be  heard, poetry  to be overheard."  Hudson comments:  Epigrams are always w r i t t e n to be heard. Their a u t h o r s address them to an audience. They have the touch of d i s p l a y ; and they f r e q u e n t l y have as w e l l the p e r s u a s i v e purpose.32 I f we  agree that the epigram i s a form which, i n  u t i l i z e s r h e t o r i c to g a i n i t s e f f e c t , can we  general,  apply Hoyt  Hudson's comment above to sacred as w e l l as s a t i r i c epigrams? I n the case of r e l i g i o u s poetry,  it_is difficult  to make a  d i s t i n c t i o n between what one might c a l l a r h e t o r i c a l , p u b l i c , n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , and  a simple, unpersuasive, p r i v a t e v o i c e .  The  " v o i c e " i n The  Temple i s u s u a l l y thought of as  and  i n t e n s e l y p r i v a t e , but  i n the epigram we  n a r r a t o r to use a p u b l i c v o i c e , and an audience.  personal  expect  the  speak d e l i b e r a t e l y to  C e r t a i n l y Herbert d e s c r i b e d  The  Temple  as the r e s u l t o f "the many s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t s that passed r betwixt God  ^  33  and [hisj s o u l , "  but he a l s o d e l i v e r e d  manuscript to Edmund Duncon w i t h the i t would do any preserved.  injunction that i f  other poor soul good, i t should  Helen Gardner i n her  the  be  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  her  e d i t i o n of John Donne's D i v i n e Poems comments that r e l i g i o u s poet, no l e s s than the love poet or  the  satirist,  54 adopts a pose. but  i n the  The  epigrammatist i s o b v i o u s l y a poseur,  seventeenth century  the r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r  43  was a l s o employing a p e r s u a s i v e r h e t o r i c a l pose t o " a f f e c t " his  r e a d e r s , and arouse The  t h e i r emotions.  seventeenth-century  r e l i g i o u s background from  which the sacred epigram drew i t s sustenance  was based  upon a t r a d i t i o n o f " a f f e c t i v e p i e t y " which had developed d u r i n g the e l e v e n t h century.  I t was d e s c r i b e d by medieval  r e l i g i o u s commentators such as Adam S t . V i c t o r and S t . Bernard as " a f f e c t i v e " i n that i t s i n t e n t i o n was t o rouse r e l i g i o u s emotions o r thoughts w i t h i n the reader o r listener. D u r i n g the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h i s k i n d o f r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y became i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d  with  the theory and p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n , and by the seventeenth c e n t u r y much o f the r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y was based on m e d i t a t i o n a l manuals and t r e a t i s e s by such men as S t . I g n a t i u s L o y o l a and F r a n c o i s de S a l e s .  The type o f m e d i t a t i o n a l p o e t r y 35  which L o u i s Martz has s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l ,  although i t  might seem a p r i v a t e and i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l k i n d o f w r i t i n g , i s motivated  by a d e s i r e  not only t o e x e r c i s e the f a c u l t i e s  of  the m e d i t a t o r  of  m e d i t a t i o n was a t the r o o t of r e l i g i o u s l i f e  seventeenth  but those o f the reader a l s o .  century.  The a r t i n the  The c o n t r o l and use o f what S t . I g n a t i u s  L o y o l a c a l l e d "the three powers o f the s o u l " •— the memory, the understanding,  and the w i l l —wereone o f the lowest  steps on the l a d d e r towards a t r u l y s p i r i t u a l l i f e .  They  44  were considered  to be a necessary p a r t of d a i l y  l e a d i n g towards the  second s t a g e — c o n t e m p l a t i o n .  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i s e d meditation, and  personal  i n t o poetry,  i t was,  living, As  o f course, a p r i v a t e  e x e r c i s e , but when m e d i t a t i o n  i s transformed  i t s p u b l i c v o i c e i s r e v e a l e d , not  only i n i t s  " a f f e c t i v e " i n t e n t i o n s , but a l s o i n the r h e t o r i c t h a t an i n t e g r a l p a r t of i t s e x p r e s s i o n , l i e s i t s persuasive  the  is  since i n i t s r h e t o r i c  power.  A v e r y good example o f on m e d i t a t i o n a l theory and  • seventeenth-century poems based p r a c t i c e s , i s Donne's A n n i v e r s a r i e s .  Each o f the A n n i v e r s a r i e s , the F i r s t and  the Second, i s  d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s e c t i o n s , j u s t as  Saint  I g n a t i u s L o y o l a l a y s down the f i v e stages of m e d i t a t i o n  in  36 his S p i r i t u a l Exercises; the se poems are  expression  s t r i k i n g f o r t h e i r d e l i b e r a t e and  exaggerated r h e t o r i c . as i n the  a l s o the tone and  We  of  often  know when Donne addresses h i s s o u l ,  f o l l o w i n g passage, that he  i s almost more  concerned w i t h the reader than with h i m s e l f : Thinke then, my s o u l e , t h a t death i s but a Groome, Which b r i n g s a Taper to the outward roome, Whence thou s p i e s t f i r s t a l i t t l e glimmering l i g h t , And a f t e r b r i n g s i t nearer to thy s i g h t . 37 The A n n i v e r s a r i e s are not an i s o l a t e d example of  this  r h e t o r i c a l p u b l i c n a r r a t o r i n Donne's r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y ;  the  H o l y Sonnets have much of the same r h e t o r i c a l f o r c e , and f o r many c r i t i c s are w i t h a poet l i k e H e r b e r t .  too " t h e a t r i c a l " i n comparison However, from the p o i n t of view  45  o f purpose and  tone, the A n n i v e r s a r i e s would make an  i n t e r e s t i n g comparison with H e r b e r t ' s Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum, f o r t h i s sequence o f poems r e v e a l s Herbert  i n a pose  completely  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t he assumes i n the sacred epigrams o r i n The  Temple.  Although Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum does not  show as  great  a dependence upon m e d i t a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s as does the A n n i v e r s a r i e s , Herbert The  does, i n many of the poems of  Temple, r e l y to a c e r t a i n extent upon the  tradition.  L o u i s Martz has  shown him  meditational  to be v e r y  similar  i n h i s r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e to S t . F r a n c o i s de S a l e s , seventeenth-century  French w r i t e r  La V i e Devote (1609)  the  whose I n t r o d u c t i o n a  p r o v i d e s a prose guide to  Herbert's  38 inner r e l i g i o u s l i f e .  Herbert  thus i s one o f the  best  examples o f the widespread e f f e c t s of r e l i g i o u s movements, that are the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  f e a t u r e s of the  background of the seventeenth century.  The  religious  meditational  manuals and handbooks stemmed m a i n l y from a Roman C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n c a r r i e d on a c t i v e l y by the J e s u i t s a f t e r Counter-Reformation, but r u l e s of h o l y l i v i n g  the  the t h e o r i e s o f m e d i t a t i o n and  were w e l l known to  the  Catholics,&  P r o t e s t a n t s , and P u r i t a n s a l i k e . The  i n f l u e n c e of the medieval t r a d i t i o n on the  religious  p o e t r y o f the seventeenth century, with i t s encouragement o f a p u b l i c and  r h e t o r i c a l v o i c e on the p a r t o f the n a r r a t o r ,  46  accounts had  l a r g e l y f o r the appeal  f o r r e l i g i o u s poets.  that the epigram as a form  But there was a l s o another  i n f l u e n c e i n the form o f the t h e o r i e s o f the J e s u i t w r i t i n g i n the s i x t e e n t h century.  poets  Their theories of  " a f f e c t i v e " p o e t r y a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o Renaissance  theories  of the epigram, i t s r h e t o r i c , and i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a single i d e a .  3 9  I t i s p o s s i b l y t h i s s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n between  the r h e t o r i c o f the epigram and the " a f f e c t i v e " and p e r s u a s i v e aims o f the r e l i g i o u s poets which has been l o s t s i g h t o f by t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r s . Donne's Holy Sonnets  The r h e t o r i c a l f o r c e o f  appears " t h e a t r i c a l " to some t w e n t i e t h -  c e n t u r y readers simply because they r e g a r d only the i n t e n s e l y p r i v a t e v o i c e as f i t t i n g f o r a r e l i g i o u s poem and cannot understand  how r h e t o r i c a l conventions can be used  to express r e l i g i o u s  sincerity.  I would l i k e to conclude  t h i s chapter by r e i n f o r c i n g the  argument i n f a v o u r o f the epigram as an eminently form f o r r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . the Renaissance  suitable  As the epigram developed  and seventeenth  through  century, i t s c o n c i s i o n and  wit were r e c o g n i z e d as p r o v i d i n g poets with q u a l i t i e s o f form which o t h e r c l a s s i c a l models d i d not o f f e r them. F o r the v e r n a c u l a r w r i t e r s the l o n g e p i c o r e p y l l i a p r o v i d e d scope and range f o r development and experimentation w i t h a new and growing language.  F o r the n e o - L a t i n w r i t e r i n  search o f the s i m p l i c i t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f M a r t i a l and  47  the r e f i n e d Augustan L a t i n which had been a l l but l o s t d u r i n g the Middle Ages, the epigram allowed him to d i s p l a y h i s w i t and h i s knowledge of a language  f l e x i b l e enough to express  adequately and b r i e f l y that wit with p e r f e c t of d i c t i o n .  refinement  F o r the r e l i g i o u s poet the epigram  provided  a form which, -through the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n g e n u i t y i t demanded, allowed him to express the e s s e n t i a l paradoxes upon which h i s b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n i t y was  founded!  In the f o l l o w i n g chapter I s h a l l compare Herbert w i t h o t h e r sacred epigrammatists demonstrate  o f the p e r i o d i n o r d e r t o  h i s s u p e r i o r i t y , not only i n the use of the  t r a d i t i o n a l epigrammatic  conventions d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  chapter, but a l s o i n h i s use o f those conventions to express h i s r e l i g i o u s s i n c e r i t y and arouse r e l i g i o u s emotions of h i s r e a d e r .  the  CHAPTER THREE—PREDECESSORS AND  CONTEMPORARIES  I n t h i s chapter I should l i k e to c o n s i d e r v e r y b r i e f l y the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of the sacred e a r l i e r than and  epigrammatists  contemporary with H e r b e r t , and  h i m s e l f as d i s p l a y e d i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and  of H e r b e r t  Lucus.  H e r b e r t ' s use o f the sacred epigram, as I hope t o show, i s undoubtedly  s u p e r i o r to that of any o f the s i x t e e n t h - o r  seventeenth-century  writers, either i n L a t i n or i n English.  The m a j o r i t y o f the sacred, or indeed s e c u l a r , epigrams w r i t t e n a t t h i s time were i n L a t i n r a t h e r than E n g l i s h ,  although  many of the w r i t e r s of L a t i n epigrams a l s o s u p p l i e d E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e i r own work. chapter I am  to be l a r g e l y concerned  Since i n t h i s  w i t h d i f f e r e n t uses of  the common epigrammatic techniques, I s h a l l use epigrams both i n E n g l i s h and L a t i n f o r the purposes  of comparison  with Herbert. I n t h i s chapter I have c l a s s e d as sacred  epigram  w r i t e r s o n l y those predecessors or contemporaries  of  H e r b e r t whose work with the epigrammatic form f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the o u t l i n e s suggested  i n Chapter Two.  Of the  w r i t e r s I have chosen to compare w i t h H e r b e r t — Timothe  49  K e n d a l l , Andrew W i l l e t t , Robert F a r l e y , F r a n c i s Thynne, John Saltmarsh, John Pyne, and F a r l e y are  Richard  Crashaw—Willett  i n c l u d e d o n l y to sharpen s l i g h t l y my  o f a sacred epigrammatist and  d i s t i n g u i s h him  and  definition  quite  clearly  from the emblem w r i t e r . None o f the other men  named here has as e s t a b l i s h e d a  r e p u t a t i o n as H e r b e r t , but each i s i n t e r e s t i n g as demonstrating a p a r t i c u l a r aspect  of the growth of  t r a d i t i o n o f the sacred epigram.  Kendall, f o r  was  a t r a n s l a t o r and  w r i t e r , hut had and  a n t h o l o g i s t r a t h e r than an  the  instance, original  a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n the epigram form,  Thynne i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r h i s c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between  the emblem and  epigram.  Saltmarsh demonstrates the  desire  o f the Renaissance w r i t e r s to draw the B i b l e i n t o E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , and  Crashaw serves as the most comparable  measure i n the p e r i o d o f H e r b e r t ' s s k i l l w i t h the The  works o f these w r i t e r s show the form o f the  g r a d u a l l y developing  form.  epigram  as a medium f o r the e x p r e s s i o n  sincere r e l g i o u s f e e l i n g i n a w r i t e r l i k e Herbert, a t h i s v e r y b e s t , Crashaw.  Saltmarsh was  of and,  too o f t e n concerned  with h i s witty r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a B i b l i c a l i n c i d e n t ; Pyne too o f t e n used h i s "epigrammata r e l i g i o s a " f o r thrusts at Catholicism.  satirical  Crashaw f r e q u e n t l y f o r g o t h i s  s i n c e r i t y i n the d e l i g h t o f h i s wordplay.  Herbert's  50  achievement was  to m a i n t a i n w i t h i n the form of the sacred  epigram h i s own  genuine r e l i g i o u s emotion and h i s own  narrative.  But H e r b e r t ' s achievement can o n l y be  distinctive  judged  by comparison w i t h the work o f p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s . As I Mentioned e a r l i e r i n Chapter Two, of  the  resurgence  i n t e r e s t i n the epigram as a form began a t the  b e g i n n i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h century, w i t h w r i t e r s l i k e More, Grocyn and L i n a c r e ; however, i t was i n the century, i n 1577, of  epigrams was  not u n t i l much l a t e r  t h a t the f i r s t  E n g l i s h anthology  p u b l i s h e d by Timothe K e n d a l l .  Kendall's  Flowers of Epigrammes, out o f sundrle the moste s i n g u l a r authours of  selected  . . .  i s composed of h i s own  translations  the epigrams o f a v a r i e t y of "the best w r i t e r s , as w e l l  antique as n e o t e r i q u e , of Epigrammes". w r i t e r s i n c l u d e men  1  The  l i k e M a r t i a l , Balbus, and  antique Ausonius,  while the neoterique are r e p r e s e n t e d by Buchanan, Haddon, P a r k h u r s t , More, Ascham, and K e n d a l l .  In f a c t the  author  most w i d e l y represented i n the volume i s K e n d a l l h i m s e l f . K e n d a l l ' s s e l e c t i o n o f epigrams does not provide many t h a t c o u l d be c l a s s e d as sacred i n s u b j e c t - m a t t e r or tone. Some o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of epigrams from The Greek Anthology approximate r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , but these poems show none of the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f the epigrammatic to  be found i n H e r b e r t .  conventions  What i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e  as l a c k i n g i s the s u b t l e s k i l l with which the climax o f  51  the  epigram i s e n g i n e e r e d .  I n an epigram such as the f o l l o w i n g  there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between the body o f the epigram and i t s ending. the  The moral purpose of the epigram r e n d e r s  thought continuous i n the f o u r l i n e s ; there i s no  "turn" or ingenuity involved: Nothyng H i d from God Thou C a i t i f f e though thou doe c o n c e a l e , thy crimes from men belowe: Yet them to God thou must r e v e a l e , whether thou w i l t or no. 2 A comparison o f t h i s poem w i t h H e r b e r t ' s "In Stephanum lapidatum" (On the s t o n i n g o f Stephen) r e v e a l s the d i f f e r e n c e between the two t y p e s .  S i n c e the Greek epigram i s ,  in  f a c t , v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the L a t i n epigram o f M a r t i a l o r l a t e r w r i t e r s i n i t s use o f the epigram form, i t i s 3 perhaps u n f a i r to compare i t w i t h H e r b e r t . even a comparison w i t h one o f K e n d a l l ' s own which c o u l d be c l a s s e d as " s a c r e d " s t i l l  However, epigrams  reveals either o  H e r b e r t ' s s u p e r i o r i t y , or the great develpment o f epigrammatic techniques between 1577 and  1620:  C h r i s t e speaketh. The a y r e , the e a r t h , the seas, the woods, and a l l s h a l l once awaie: Alone my worde s h a l l s t i l l remaine, and It  (standing stedfast) s t a l e . 4  i s hard not to be harsh to K e n d a l l on the score o f t h i s  epigram, but he does have an excuse i n the t i t l e o f the s e l e c t i o n o f h i s own poems:  " T r i f l e s by Timothe Kendal  52  d e u i s e d and w r i t t e n  ( f o r the moste p a r t ) a t sundrie  tymes i n h i s yong and tender age."° K e n d a l l ' s volume i s i n t e r e s t i n g a l s o because i t c o n t a i n s a number o f epigrams by a v a r i e t y o f l a t e r w r i t e r s concerned w i t h Rome and the Pope.  He s e l e c t s two from  George Buchanan, f o r i n s t a n c e , "Of Rome" and'Against Pope P i u s " , both of which a r e an improvement upon K e n d a l l ' s own poem ^A Comparison betweene C h r i s t and the Pope". The Pope and Rome seem to be common s u b j e c t s i n l a t e r epigram c o l l e c t i o n s , and t h i s prevalence may have i n f l u e n c e d H e r b e r t i n h i s s e r i e s o f poems on Pope Urban V I I I i n Lucus. Buchanan's poem "Of Rome" i s more heavy-handed than say H e r b e r t ' s "Roma. Anagr." (Rome. An anagram), but i t handles w i t t i l y the wordplay upon the b a s i c metaphor of the shepherd and the wolf, and the c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n to Romulus-and Remus who were suckled by the w o l f and founded Rome.  I t a l s o has an extremely c o l l o q u i a l and i n t e r e s t i n g  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , and, as i n many o f H e r b e r t ' s poems, the e f f i c a c y of the epigram i s due as much to the m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f the tone, as to what i s s a i d : Of Rome I nothyng muse a Shepheard doeth, i n Rome the s c e p t e r h o l d e : S i t h that a Shepheard b u i l t the same, (as sundrie bookes have t o l d e ) And s i t h the founder o f the same, w i t h Woulvishe milke was fedde: I m a r v e l l nothyng a t a l l , -though Rome o f Woulves be spedde.  53  But t h i s me t h i n k e t h wondrous straunge, that l a t e a f l o c k e should r e s t I n Rome of ravenyng murdryng woulves, and never he o p p r e s t . 7 Although i t was  K e n d a l l ' s anthology  not an o r i g i n a l volume.  s e l e c t i o n and  the f i r s t of i t s k i n d ,  K e n d a l l took on the task of  t r a n s l a t i o n from mainly L a t i n , or A n g l o - L a t i n  a u t h o r s , and was selection.  was  concerned with p r e s e n t i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  I t was  not u n t i l the t u r n o f the  century,  t h i r t y years l a t e r , t h a t c o l l e c t i o n s s o l e l y of sacred epigrams began to be Issued.  L e i c e s t e r Bradner, i n  Musae A n g l l c a n a e , mentions the simultaneous sacred epigram and  r i s e o f the  the emblem:  I n the r e l i g i o u s f i e l d the sacred epigram, based upon the B i b l e o r the f e a s t s and f a s t s of the C h r i s t i a n year a c q u i r e d a g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y , which however, i t was o b l i g e d to share w i t h the emblem-books c o n t a i n i n g s h o r t poems expounding the p i c t u r e s . 8 Bradner appears t o l i n k the epigram and  the emblem because  the w r i t e r s of both made use o f O v i d i a n s t y l e and  rhetoric:  The s a c r e d epigram, as we have noted a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n , was developed g r e a t l y at the end of the Renaissance by the J e s u i t w r i t e r s . T h e i r aim seems to have been to produce a body of r e l i g i o u s L a t i n verse i n O v i d i a n s t y l e to counteract the i n f l u e n c e of e r o t i c s e c u l a r L a t i n v e r s e . To t h i s end the J e s u i t poets on the Continent u t i l i z e d a l l the t r i c k s of O v i d i a n r h e t o r i c i n d e a l i n g w i t h r e l i g i o u s themes and s i t u a t i o n s . I n the same way the authors of r e l i g i o u s emblem-books a p p l i e d O v i d i a n s t y l e to drawing the moral i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r p i c t u r e s . 9 Thus s l i g h t l y l a t e r Bradner mentions Andrew W i l l e t t ' s volume of 1596  as the f i r s t E n g l i s h c o l l e c t i o n o f sacred  epigrams t o be  published:  54  . . . i t was not u n t i l 1596 that a volume appeared cont a i n ingv r e l i g i o u s epigrams. T h i s was the Sacrorum emblematum c e n t u r l a una o f the noted clergyman, Andrew W i l l e t t . W l l l e t t was not by nature a poet, and h i s emblem-verses, which he p r o v i d e s w i t h an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , are l i t t l e more than i m i t a t i o n s o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l type a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by C o n t i n e n t a l w r i t e r s . 10 Undoubtedly E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean usage o f the term "epigram* was v e r y l o o s e and the term covered a great many  different  k i n d s o f poems; however, the f i r s t E n g l i s h emblem book had appeared i n England i n 1586 w i t h Gecffrey Whitney's Choice o f Emblemes, and by 1596  the term emblem had been  w e l l d e f i n e d , even i f the word "epigram" had n o t .  fairly In  view o f the f a c t t h a t W i l l e t t a c t u a l l y d e s c r i b e s h i s hundred poems as "emblems", and a l s o t h a t i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases the  poems do not r e v e a l any of the i n t e n t i o n s or techniques  of  the epigram as i t was r a p i d l y b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d , I t h i n k  it  i s reasonable to accuse Bradner p f rashness i n e l e v a t i n g  W i l l e t t t o the h e i g h t o f f i r s t E l i z a b e t h a n sacred epigrammatist. Hoyt Hudson puts v e r y w e l l the argument f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two terms "emblem" and "epigram"; he admits t h a t "the emblem f a l l s w i t h i n the scope o f epigrammatic poetry, broadly c o n s i d e r e d " ,  1 1  then c o n t i n u e s :  the emblem i s easy to r e c o g n i z e , since i t accompanies an a l l e g o r i c a l pr a s y m b o l i c a l p i c t u r e ; and i t s purpose i s t o p o i n t out the " l e s s o n " o f the p i c t u r e . I t i s , to be sure, a k i n d o f i n s c r i p t i o n , but i t s a l l e g o r i c a l , s y m b o l i c a l , and h o m i l e t i c nature s e t i t apart from the t r u e epigram. In p r a c t i c e , the two are not o f t e n confused. F r a n c i s Queries wrote both emblems and epigrams, but he kept them f a i r l y d i s t i n c t ; and the same statement h o l d s f o r F r a n c i s Thynne and f o r Henry Peacham. Thynne had no p i c t u r e s prepared f o r h i s  55  emblems, and r e a l i z i n g the importance of the o m i s s i o n he a p o l o g i z e d f o r p r e s e n t i n g them "naked ( f o r soe I doe terme them, because they are not c l o t h e d w i t h engraven p i c t u r e s ) . " 12 L i k e Thynne and Peacham, W i l l e t t a l s o l e f t h i s emblems "naked".  That i s , they are not accompanied by p i c t u r e s ,  but s t i l l  t h e i r emblematic q u a l i t i e s , as a g a i n s t  epigrammatic,  can be p o i n t e d out, e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h an epigrammatist  l i k e Herbert.  Consider, f o r example,  this  poem of W i l l e t t * s on the same s u b j e c t as H e r b e r t ' s ? A u a r i t i a 5 i n Lucus; AVARTJS.  Emblema 36.  Vt  ventum unus captat & a l t e r i n igne l a b o r a t T e r t i u s atque lutum t r a c t a t i n e p t u s humi. H i perdunt operam, sed tentans omnia c u r a In n i h i l u m r e c i d i t , t a l i s avarus e r i t . S i c u t ventus opes f u g i u n t , ut i n igne l i q u e s c u u n t , I s t q u e a e r i s p r o r s u s s i c l u t u l e n t u s amor. The  Translation.  Here one the winde would c a t c h i n hand, another workes i n f i r e : The t h i r d doth digge f o r heauy sand, and s t i r r e s i n s t i n k i n g mire. A l l these doe but t h e i r l a b o u r l o o s e , i n vaine they take t h i s c a r e : So i s the man t h a t doth repose h i s t r u s t i n e a r t h l y ware. F o r r i c h e s f i l e as f a s t as winde, and melt even as with heate, And he that gaine w i t h g r e e d i e minde makes e a r t h h i s meate. 13 The poem c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f images  which a r e , i n f a c t ,  s i m i l e s , a l t h o u g h i n the poem they are not s t a t e d as such, l a r g e l y because they are a c t u a l v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f what would be v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p i c t o r i a l emblem.  56  The  u s u a l p a t t e r n of the emblem was  and  explanation,  description, application,  as can be seen i n the above poem of W i l l e t t * s .  In the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n , l i n e s 1 to 6 are d e s c r i p t i v e , l i n e s 6 to 9 a p p l y these v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s to the moral o b j e c t upon which the poem i s c e n t r i n g , and and  a m p l i f y the a p p l i c a t i o n .  three  The  l i n e s 10 to 13 expand  poem i s n e a t l y s p l i t  sentences to f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n e x a c t l y , and  three p a r t s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d and move forward towards the end The  the  logically  of the poem.  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s poem and  "Auaritia"  into  Herbert's  ( A v a r i c e ) p o i n t out v e r y o b v i o u s l y the d i f f e r e n c e s  between the epigram and  emblem:  Aurum nocte v i d e n s , v i d i s s e insomnia d i c i t : Aurum l u c e v i d e n s , n u l l a v i d e r e p u t a t . 0 f a l s o s homines'. T i g i l a t , qui somniat aurum, Plusque habet h i e l a e t u s , quam v e l Auarus habet. Gold seen a t n i g h t i s s a i d To be a dream, And i n the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . 0 v a i n Men, he i s awake who dreams Of g o l d : he's got more gold than even The a v a r i c i o u s man. (L, pp. 86-87) Herbert's  poem i s not a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f an  p i c t u r e ; h i s imagery i s f u n c t i o n a l and  does not  imaginary serve  the purpose o f a d e s c r i p t i v e , a l l e g o r i c a l meaning, but displays verbal wit.  A l s o , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s epigram  i s gained more f r e q u e n t l y by the d i s t i n c t c o n t r a s t between the  i d e a s w i t h i n i t . Whereas i n the emblem the p a r t s o f  the  57  poem move, l o g i c a l l y connected, toward the c o n c l u s i o n , the climax o f the epigram u s u a l l y takes the form o f a w i t t y o f thought o r r e v e r s a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . even i f i t i s n o t accompanied  turn  The aim o f the emblem,  by an a c t u a l p i c t u r e , i s t o  draw a t t e n t i o n to the a r t and meaning o f a work other than i t s e l f , where the aim o f the epigram i s t o draw a t t e n t i o n to the a r t , o r w i t , o f i t s own c o n s t r u c t i o n and i d e a . Rosemary Freeman has a r a t h e r h a r s h comment upon "the l a b o r i o u s and l e a r n e d Dr. W i l l e t " :  1 4  The C e n t u r i a demonstrates the e x t e n t t o which the emblem c o u l d become elementary, and though i t s author has a p l a c e among the emblem w r i t e r s f o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n o f o r i g i n a l i t y , a p l a c e among the poets he could s c a r c e l y c l a i m . 15 L i k e Andrew W i l l e t t , the S c o t t i s h poet Robert F a r l e y , whom L e i c e s t e r Bradner places i n the company o f the epigrammatists John Saltmarsh and R i c h a r d undoubtedly an enHematist.  Crashaw, i s a l s o  H i s Lychnocausla s i v e  moralia  emblemata (1638), h i s best known work, i s a s e r i e s o f L a t i n emblems, w i t h the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and h i s own E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s . L e s s e r known and more i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h i s paper Kalendarlum Humanae V l t a e  (1638).  is his  Lychnocausla i s comprised  o f poems t h a t a r e undoubtedly emblems, but the Kalendarlum, though i t a l s o makes use o f emblem i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  frequently  reaches out i n some o f i t s poems beyond the s u p e r f i c i a l meaning o f the p i c t u r e , and a t times F a r l e y u t i l i z e s the techniques and approaches the form o f the epigram; f o r  58  example, t h i s poem from the Kalendarlum i l l u s t r a t i n g an emblem w i t h the motto "Ecce novum gaudium" (Behold new J o y ) : 0 what a p l e a s u r e i s ' t to see My new-sprung bud, which w i l l be t r e e ! The g l i s t ' r i n g grasse w i t h Phoebus r a y Doth make me cheere f u l l l o o k e , and gay: But (ah!) i f these my Flowers should d i e , L o r d what would then become o f me. l i e / t e l l thee, t h i s thy brood w i l l w i t h e r , Doe not despare, you'le have another. 16 T h i s poem does u t i l i z e c e r t a i n o f the epigrammatic whieh H e r b e r t uses to such g r e a t e f f e c t .  techniques  F o r example, i n the  second h a l f o f the poem, the author completely changes the  thought and tone by t r a n s f o r m i n g h i s poem i n t o a d i a l o g u e  i n the l a s t two l i n e s .  H e r b e r t ' s more r e f i n e d use o f t h i s  technique i s e v i d e n t i n a poem such as "Martha: (Martha; Mary) from Lucus,  Maria"  but F a r l e y ' s poem does p a r t i a l l y  d i s p l a y the techniques and the e f f e c t o f the epigrammatic D i s c o u n t i n g W i l l e t t o r F a r l e y as the f i r s t  form.  English  w r i t e r s o f o r i g i n a l epigrams, whether i n L a t i n o f E n g l i s h , we are l e f t  w i t h F r a n c i s Thynne, whose manuscript  Emblernes  and Epigrames was prepared f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1600,  but  was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1876.  suggests,  Thynne, as h i s t i t l e  makes a v e r y c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n h i s volume between the emblems and epigrams.  Rosemary Freeman mentions  that h i s  emblems, f o r the most p a r t , were based upon C o n t i n e n t a l o r contemporary  models, but only b r i e f l y mentions h i s epigrams:  A l t h o u g h the emblems are naked ('for soe I doe terme them because they are c l o t h e d w i t h engraven p i c t u r e s ' ) , Thynne has them always v e r y c l e a r l y before h i s eye: . . . . I t i s t h i s f e a t u r e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s  59  the emblems from the epigrams that f o l l o w . Those r a r e l y have any p i c t o r i a l r e f e r e n c e and aim p u r e l y at v e r b a l w i t ; the emblems, however, a r e f i r m l y based on:«their imaginary p i c t u r e s . 17 Thynne's epigrams a r e by no means s o l e l y " s a c r e d " i n character.  The m a j o r i t y a r e s a t i r i c a l  o r t o p i c a l , some  are c a u t i o n a r y , but there a r e a few t h a t can be compared i n s u b j e c t and tecMique  w i t h those o f H e r b e r t ,  t h e i r q u a l i t y , on the whole, i s undoubtedly  although  inferior.  C o n s i d e r , f o r example, Thynne's twenty-fourth  epigram  "Fayth": Our S a v i o u r C h r i s t , w i t h words o f g r e i f e complayned, t h a t when he came to Iudge the world by f y e r , t h a t f a y t h should not be found t o h i s d e s i r e , soe g r e a t l i e should the C h r i s t i a n f a y t h be s t r a y n e d . but i f he nowe the same would come to f i n d e , he should see f a y t h e s more than stande w i t h h i s minde; f f o r g r e a t e r and more f a i t h s i n y e a r t h , w i t h menn d i d not abounde, Soe c o n t r a r i e , soe c o n f i d e n t , soe p l e a s a n t t o bee founde. 18 T h i s poem can be w e l l compared with H e r b e r t ' s epigram P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , " I n Arund. S p i n . Genuflex.  from  Purpur."  (On the reed, t h o r n s , bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) , which i s concerned, i n a d i f f e r e n t way, w i t h f a i t h : Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s , Gens improbal quam male cedunt Scommatal Pastorem semper Arundo d e c e t . Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s l cum qub magis angar acuto Munere, Rex tantb v e r i o r inde prober.  *  How v a i n your fun, you wicked brood1 How b a d l y ; jokes t u r n out I How v a i n your f u n l The reed W i l l always be the shepherd's. The more acute the g i f t o f p a i n , The t r u e r K i n g i t proves I am. (PD, pp. 66-67)  60  Thynne's epigram i s i n r e p o r t e d  speech, whereas H e r b e r t ' s i s  an address d i r e c t l y t o the " b a r b a r i  men" from C h r i s t  but both poems f o l l o w the form o f the medieval from the C r o s s . which i s used.  These  "Complaint"  two poems c o n t r a s t s t r o n g l y i n the tone  H e r b e r t ' s epigram  w i t h h i s speaker.  himself;  i s t r u l y serious, i n keeping  The w i t o f H e r b e r t ' s ending i s s e r i o u s ,  u n l i k e Thynne's which i s d i s t i n c t l y humorous, because, i n Herbert* s case, h i s '•witty" ending i s the r e s u l t o f the t u r n o f thought he uses, and h i s p l a y i n g with;.the C h r i s t i a n paradox o f l i f e  and death.  Much o f the e f f e c t o f H e r b e r t ' s  epigram f o l l o w s from h i s use o f an i n d i g n a n t , piqued n a r r a t i v e v o i c e  indeed almost  which, o f course, i s t h a t o f C h r i s t .  Where the normal e x p e c t a t i o n would, fe reinforcement, a t the end of the epigram, o f the B i b l i c a l  statement t h a t C h r i s t  d i e d that we might l i v e , here we do n o t r e c e i v e  that  r e i n f o r c e m e n t , but the assurance that those without in  faith,  t h i s case the Jews, are murderers, and C h r i s t w i l l  everlasting l i f e  receive  t o watch them d i e .  Thynne*s epigram does not have the complexity o f f e e l i n g o r thought t h a t H e r b e r t ' s epigram r e v e a l s , but i t gains i t s e f f e c t through s i m i l a r techniques, and i s by no means a poor example o f i t s k i n d .  I t s y w i t and humour stem from i t s c o l l o q u i a l  d i c t i o n and sentence s t r u c t u r e , and the f a c t that Thynne takes the idea o f the ''Complaint" so l i t e r a l l y . in  The w i t  the climax o f the epigram d e r i v e s from i t s complete  reversal  61  o f the r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s .  C h r i s t might be  expected  to condemn the f a i t h l e s s on e a r t h , but a l l the r e a d e r r e c e i v e s i s the impression of a m u l t i t u d e o f faiths and the l i l t i n g l i n e d e s c r i b i n g them. However, F r a n c i s Thynne cannot a s a c r e d epigrammatist.  be t r u l y regarded  H i s f l a i r was much more towards  humour than w i t , as can be seen from the epigram or  as  "Fayth"  some o f h i s more t o p i e a l poems such as "A Tench and  Wench", an amusing d i a l o g u e between a C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t who  a  a  are s i t t i n g a t d i n n e r , one e a t i n g f i s h ,  the o t h e r f l e s h : At l e n g t h the C a t h o l i k e complaind, our wantoun times t o bee disordered i n everie thinge, as d a i l i e hee d i d see: • f f o r nowe our P r o t e s t a n t s , ( s a i d hee,) which newe Rel-igion take, Twixt P i g g and BJke, t w i x t Carpe and Capon, not a n i e d i f f e r e n c e make.* To whome the o t h e r r e p l i e d : 'wee make such d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i r kinde As P a p i s t s doe t w i x t tench and wench, to serve t h e i r wantoun minde. 19 T h i s k i n d o f use of the epigrammatic techniques i s v e r y f a r removed from the wit and emotional f e e l i n g of H e r b e r t ' s poems on Urban V I I I , f o r i n s t a n c e . Another poet who  was  contemporary w i t h H e r b e r t ,  can be f a i r l y c l a s s e d as a sacred epigrammatist,  i s John  Saltmarsh, whose volume Poemata S a c r a , L a t i n e , a c s c r i p t a was  p u b l i s h e d a t Cambridge i n 1636.  and  Anglice  Saltmarsh  62  illustrates  v e r y w e l l the movement d u r i n g the l a t e  sixteenth  and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e B i b l i c a l material into l i t e r a t u r e .  A l l o f Saltmarsh's " s a c r e d poems"  are  on s u b j e c t s taken from the O l d Testament, and not o n l y  for  t h i s reason, b u t because  h i s poems a r e i n L a t i n w i t h  no E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , does he p r o v i d e a good c o n t r a s t with Herbert.  The t i t l e s o f Saltmarsh's poems a r e a l l  taken from the L a t i n v e r s i o n o f the O l d Testament; f o r example,  "De  l a p s u p r i m i hominis" (On the f a l l o f the  20 f i r s t man), " I n Adamum se abscondentem i n t e r a r b o r e s h o r t i a f a c i e D e l " (On Adam h i d i n g himself from the f a c e 21 o f God amongst the t r e e s o f the garden), 22 de Columba" (The Dove to Noah).  o r "Ad Noam  Saltmarsh's poems on  the whole a r e ^shorter than H e r b e r t ' s , but d i s p l a y , ..within limits,  the same techniques and c o n v e n t i o n s .  l i m i t a t i o n o f Saltmarsh's volume i n comparison  The one with  H e r b e r t ' s i s i t s very narrow range of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and reference.  I n a poem l i k e " A f f l i c t i o f - n i ( A f f l i c t i o n )  Lucus, H e r b e r t  5  i n the space o f f o u r l i n e s makes i m p l i c i t  r e f e r e n c e to s e v e r a l B i b l i c a l would u s u a l l y of  i n c i d e n t s , whereas Saltmarsh  concern h i m s e l f o n l y w i t h the w i t t y  the one he had chosen.  epigrams  from  interpretation  However, a few o f Saltmarsh's  i n v o l v e a t l e a s t one r e f e r e n c e o t h e r than t h a t a t  the b a s i s o f the poem;  f o r example, h i s "In gladium flammam  vibrantem, custodientem hortum Eden" (On the waving sword o f flame, guarding the garden o f E d e n ) :  2 3  63  QValis erat gladius? Mors i n rauerone l a t e b a t : Ardebat flammis saeva gehenna s u i s . What k i n d o f sword was i t ? Death l a r k e d a t i t s p o i n t : A savage Gehenna glowed i n i t s f l a m e s . 24 Here the p o i n t o f the epigram g a i n s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s by Saltmarsh's use o f .the r e f e r e n c e  t o Gehenna, the Hebrew word  f o r H e l l , but a l s o a name f o r the v a l l e y o f Hinnom where, 25 in Chronicles The  2, Ahaz s a c r i f i c e d h i s c h i l d r e n by f i r e .  w i t and s k i l l o f Saltmarsh's epigram l i e s  concise  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f a t e o f Adam and Eve a f t e r  they have been e x p e l l e d from P a r a d i s e , return  i n his  by the waving sword.  and warned not t o  I n Genesis, no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s put upon the sword, a l t h o u g h we a r e t o l d that  i t i s there  to prevent Adam o r Eve from r e t u r n i n g and e a t i n g o f the tree of l i f e .  Saltmarsh l i n k s the sword, an instrument  o f death, w i t h the e a r t h l y m o r t a l i t y that Adam and Eve are  subject  t o , and the flames o f the sword he l i n k s w i t h  the flames o f H e l l .  The r e f e r e n c e  to Gehenna here  would  a l s o undoubtedly b r i n g t o the seventeenth-century reader's mind the s a c r i f i c e o f innocent c h i l d r e n by f i r e  i n Hinnom. pet  A g a i n , i n " C o m i x & Columba" (The Crow and the Dove) Saltmarsh d i s p l a y s h i s v e r b a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t i n the epigram by u s i n g h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r Old Testament i n c i d e n t : E f f u s a i n pennam C o m i x i n g r a t a v o l a b a t : M i s s a Columba v o l a t , n u n t i a g r a t a r e d i t . D i s p a r p a r volucrum, mens l l l i s d i s c o l o r : Inde A l b a Columba f u i t , Corvus a t a t e r e r a t .  64  Spreading f o r t h i t s wings, the Crow u n g r a t e f u l l y s e t o f f : The Dove sent out, sped f o r t h , and, a g r a t e f u l messenger, returned. An unequal p a i r o f b i r d s , t h e i r h e a r t s were o f d i f f e r e n t colours: T h e n c e f o r t h the Dove was w h i t e , but black the Raven. 27 Saltmarsh*s technique here Raven  i s t o a t t r i b u t e t o the Dove and  human responses and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; one i s "ingrata**  ( u n g r a t e f u l ) , the o t h e r " g r a t a " ( g r a t e f u l ) .  Thus, he can  use as h i s w i t t y c l i m a x the comparison between each b i r d ' s "mental a t t i t u d e " and i t s p h y s i c a l appearance.  This  technique i s s i m i l a r t o that used by H e r b e r t i n "In pium Latronem"  (On the good t h i e f ) from P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a , where  the wordplay i s based upon mental a t t i t u d e and  appearance.  H e r b e r t , however, i n h i s epigram, takes the comparison one step f u r t h e r by r e g a r d i n g the goodness o f the t h i e f as merely another example o f h i s c r a f t . One more example from Saltmarsh should demonstrate  clearly  the k i n d o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w r i t e r s contemporary w i t h H e r b e r t regarded as n e c e s s a r y f o r and a p p r o p r i a t e to the epigrammatic form.  "In Arcum Pluvium" (On the Rainbow) shows Saltmarsh  once a g a i n r e i n t e r p r e t i n g a B i b l i c a l i n c i d e n t i n o r d e r to demonstrate h i s v e r b a l w i t and i n t e l l e c t u a l a g i l i t y : I m i c a t i n c o e l i s A r c u s , sed n u l l a S a g i t t a : Tempore D i l u v i i missa S a g i t t a f u i t . A bow f l a s h e s i n the sky, but no arrow: The arrow was shot a t the time o f the f l o o d .  28  65  As i n " I n gladium flammam vlbrantem", the p o e t ' s r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e s a s t r o n g sense o f the wrath o f God and the f a t e which man has brought upon h i m s e l f , r a t h e r than h o p e f u l and p r o m i s i n g a s p e c t s o f the appearance  o f the rainbow t o Noah.  The t u r n o f thought i n the epigram i s s i m p l e . i s s u r p r i s e d i n the f i r s t  The r e a d e r  l i n e by being t o l d t h a t the  arrow does n o t l o g i c a l l y folbw the appearance  o f the bow,  and s u r p r i s e d i n the second that the arrow has i n f a c t preceded the bow.  However, the s t u d i e d  understatement  and c o n c i s i o n o f the second l i n e , combined w i t h i t s tone of  f o r e b o d i n g and pessimism, make the poem more s u c c e s s f u l  than some o f Saltmarsh's a p p a r e n t l y more complex  epigrams.  F i n a l l y , a sacred epigrammatist who forms a good c o n t r a s t w i t h Saltmarsh and H e r b e r t , i s John Pyne  who  i s almost c e r t a i n l y the author o f a volume e n t i t l e d Eplgrammata r e l i g i o s a , o f f i c l o s a , p u b l i s h e d i n London i n 1627.  l o c o s a , which was  Pyne's epigrams a r e i n both  L a t i n and E n g l i s h , and, i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d  "Eplgrammata  r e l i g i o s a " , are on a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s some s a c r e d , some s e c u l a r and t o p i c a l .  Pyne had a c e r t a i n f l a i r f o r humour  as w e l l as v e r b a l w i t i n h i s epigrams; the  humour i n the epigram "De I t a l i a . 29  l o r instance, Ad Geographos."  (On I t a l y . To the Geographers.) compares v e r y w e l l w i t h H e r b e r t ' s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d humour i n h i s t h r e e poems on Pope Urban V I I I :  66  I t a l a cum c r u r i s i t f a c t a s i m i l l i m a T e r r a , Cur Romam Terrae v e n d i t a t esse Caput. Is  I t a l i e a Legge, and Rome confinde  T h e r e i n would he the Head; 0 haughtie mindel 30 It  i s Byne.ls E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n r a t h e r than h i s L a t i n  r e v e a l s the l a t e n t humour o f the epigram. epigram  speaks f o r i t s e l f .  p i c t u r e that it  I t h i n k that the  The a b s u r d i t y o f the mental  c o n j u r e s up i s the r e s u l t o f s l y good  humour r a t h e r than v e r b a l w i t o r wordplay;  Herbert,  on the other hand, uses a much more r e f i n e d and elegant i n an epigram  that  such as "Respons. ad V r b 7 I I I  n  tone  (Response to  Urban Y I I I ) : Non p l a c e t vrbanus n o s t e r de nomine l u s u s Romano, sed r e s s e r i a Roma t i b i e s t : Nempe Caput Romae e s , c u i u s m y s t e r i a v e l l e s Esse iocum s o l i , plebe stupente, t i b i : OQur urbane game about the Roman name Does not p l e a s e you, But Rome h e r s e l f concerns you very much. F o r sure you a r e the head o f Rome, The m y s t e r i e s o f whom you would L i k e to make a p r i v a t e joke o f , With cowlike commoners around. (L, pp# 104-105) The  d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s epigram by Herbert and Pyiie's  j u s t quoted  i s t h a t H e r b e r t ' s tone p l a c e s him i n a m o r a l l y  s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n t o the Pope he i s d e r i d i n g . of  Pyne's epigram  The n a r r a t o r  i s d e a l i n g w i t h a much s i m p l e r i d e a and  g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a man merely t r y i n g to make r i d i c u l o u s h i s t a r g e t r a t h e r than s u b t l y undermining i t with h i s wit.  67  Pyne's E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s can sink to a much more elementary l e v e l than the one quoted above; f o r example, the epigram e n t i t l e d simply ••Roma** (Rome): Roma Caput Mundi se i a c t i t a t esse, Monarchas P r o d i d i t , a b s c i n d i d e b u i t ergo Caput. Rome would as Head ouer the World be dreaded, But shee's a T r a y t o r , and should be beheaded. 31 Yet Pyne's E n g l i s h epigrams are i n t e r e s t i n g because i n many cases they u t i l i z e a d i s t i n c t l y emblematic approach and method, which Herbert r a r e l y or never d i d i n h i s L a t i n epigrams: Words. As Smoake which from the Chimney doth proceed, Doth argue some f i r e which Is b u r n i n g t h e r e : So Words a b r e a t h l i k e Smoake, which t M h e a r t doth breed, Should shew the ardent loue which t h * h e a r t doth beare. But as most Smoake doth from l e a s t f i r e s ascend, So they vse most Words who l e a s t Love i n t e n d . 32 Except f o r the f a c t that there a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t examples and s i m i l e s , t h i s might be a poem accompanying an emblem. So f a r the poets I have chosen to compare w i t h Herbert as w r i t e r s o f sacred epigrams have been r e l a t i v e l y obscure, and t h e i r p o e t r y i s , on the whole, on a much lower a e s t h e t i c l e v e l than H e r b e r t ' s .  R i c h a r d Crashaw  o n l y r e l i g i o u s poet o f the p e r i o d who  i s p r a c t i c a l l y the wrote s a c r e d epigrams  whose r e p u t a t i o n i s comparable to H e r b e r t ' s , and whose sacred epigrams are a t a l l  read and a p p r e c i a t e d .  Like  many o f the epigram w r i t e r s o f the p e r i o d , Crashaw wrote i n L a t i n as w e l l as i n E n g l i s h , and, l i k e those o f Saltmarsh,  68  his  epigrams are based v e r y c l o s e l y upon B i b l i c a l  and passages.  Saltmarsh based h i s work o n l y on the Old  Testament, Crashaw uses o n l y the New, the m a j o r i t y o f h i s epigrams.  as does Herbert f o r  Although  Crashaw i s g e n e r a l l y  regarded as a Roman C a t h o l i c poet, i t i s almost  certain  tha.t h i s L a t i n epigrams were w r i t t e n while he was between 1631 it  events  and  a t Cambridge  1634 when he graduated w i t h a B.A.,  although  i s p o s s i b l e that some of them were w r i t t e n while he  was  33 at  school.  i n 1634;  and  H i s Epigrammaturn Sacrorum L i b e r was  published  the D i v i n e Epigrams i n E n g l i s h were i n c l u d e d  i n Steps t o the Temple, p u b l i s h e d i n 1646,  before h i s t r i p  to Rome and e v e n t u a l c o n v e r s i o n to Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . However,-Crashaw's High A n g l i c a n i s m d u r i n g the 1630*s rendered h i s approach t o p o e t r y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from H e r b e r t ' s . Crashaw came much more under C o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s (mainly Marino and H e r b e r t , and  the J e s u i t epigrammatists)  the d i f f e r e n c e s to be found between h i s L a t i n  and E n g l i s h epigrams can l a r g e l y be accounted d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e r e n t i n Marino's Latin Jesuit The  than d i d  s t y l e and  f o r by the  t h a t of the  neo-  writers.  focus o f the J e s u i t writers* use of c e r t a i n o f  the epigrammatic techniques, not n e c e s s a r i l y i n epigrams, was  the attempt  first way  to arouse the emotions o f the reader, as the  step towards m e d i t a t i o n .  as the epigrammatist,  The J e s u i t poet, i n the same  attempted  t o s t i m u l a t e the  a f f e c t i o n s o f the reader by c o n j u r i n g up a metaphor which  69  would immediately draw a t t e n t i o n to the o b j e c t o f the poem. As Raspa s t a t e s i n h i s a r t i c l e t h e i r g o a l was  to e l i c i t  "Crashaw and  a t the beginning  the J e s u i t P o e t i c " ,  o f a l o n g poem  the emotional response which u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d the short standard  epigram, and  by t h e i r s k i l l and  s u b t l e t y i n h a n d l i n g and  basic metaphor,  Raspa  34  a t the end  of  to s u s t a i n i t throughout varying  the  concludes:  I t was to bear the reader 'on the wings o f meditation* that the epigrammatic s t y l e was developed. 35 Ruth W a l l e r s t e i n , u s i n g both her knowledge of l i t e r a c y i n f l u e n c e s upon Crashaw, and rhetoric  which he and  utilized,  g i v e s a good c r i t i c a l  the  the techniques  of  a l l other Renaissance epigrammatists  epigrams, both L a t i n and  a p p r e c i a t i o n of Crashaw*s  English:  They are h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l , f i r s t , i n t h e i r use of dramatic q u e s t i o n and answer, whether the f i g u r e s and o b j e c t s i n the epigram speak to each other, or the author addresses them int$he proud consciousness of h i s own s u p e r i o r i n s i g h t ; secondly, they are r h e t o r i c a l i n t h e i r e x c e s s i v e use of v i o l e n t c o n t r a s t and o f paradox; t h i r d l y i n the f r e q u e n t use o f v e r b a l t u r n or r e p e t i t i o n to emphasize the c o n t r a s t and the paradox, though the paradox i t s e l f i s not v e r b a l . 36 Undoubtedly the r h e t o r i c a l and  the v e r b a l i n g e n u i t y  much more s t r i k i n g i n Crashaw than i n Herbert,  and, as  W a l l e r s t e i n comments, Crashaw*s epigrams are "to modern t a s t e h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l and d i f f e r e n c e between the two  chill".  our  However, the  poets i s l a r g e l y one  A l t h o u g h I would agree with W a l l e r s t e i n on the  are  o f approach. question  o f Crashaw's r h e t o r i c as f a r as i t s r e c e p t i o n by  twentieth-  70  c e n t u r y r e a d e r s i s concerned, I would add t h a t i t i s more than l i k e l y Crashaw*s approach t o the m a t e r i a l , r a t h e r than h i s technique, that r e n d e r s h i s epigrams in their  "melodramatic  emotions".  H e r b e r t i s f r e q u e n t l y no l e s s r h e t o r i c a l than Crashaw, and e e r t a i i y no l e s s o r more s k i l l e d i n the h a n d l i n g o f epigrammatic  techniques, but h i s approach to h i s s a c r e d  subject-matter, e s p e c i a l l y i n Passio Discerpta, i s i n a much lower emotional key than i s Crashaw*s.  Cbmpare,  f o r example, Crashaw*s epigram from Steps to the Temple, "Why a r e yee a f r a i d , 0 yee o f l i t t l e "Tempestas C h r i s t o dormiente"  faith?"  and H e r b e r t ' s  (The Storm, while C h r i s t  s l e e p s ) , both o f which are concerned w i t h the storm on the Sea of G a l i l e e while C h r i s t s l e p t .  Crashaw's epigram  i s much l o n g e r than H e r b e r t ' s and much more complex i n i t s h a n d l i n g o f metaphor and imagery: As i f the storme meant him; Or, 'cause Heavens face i s dim, H i s needs a c l o u d . Was ever froward wind That could be so unkind, Or wave so proud? The Wind had need be angry, and the Water b l a c k That to the mighty Nepitune's s e l f dare t h r e a t e n wrack. There i s no storme but t h i s Of your owne Cowardise That braves you o u t ; You a r e the storme t h a t mocks Y o u r s e l v e s ; you a r e the Rocks Of your owne doubt: B e s i d e s t h i s f e a r e o f danger, t h e r e ' s no danger here And he that here f e a r e s Danger, does deserve h i s F e a r e . 3 9  71  Here Crashaw r e v e a l s a technique which o c c u r s o f t e n i n h i s epigrams;  that i s , o f e x p r e s s i n g i n v a r i o u s ways throughout  the poem the b a s i c wordplay  o f c o n t r a s t and i d e a which  i s to form the w i t t y climax o f h i s poem. i n t h i s epigram  For instance,  l i n e s 9-14 express the analogy  the storm i t s e l f and the s p i r i t u a l  between  state of the d i s c i p l e s .  These l i n e s p l a y w i t h the r e v e r s a l o f the a c t u a l metaphor and  the i d e a more s k i l f u l l y  than the f i n a l  l i n e s p l a y with  the a b s t r a c t i o n s danger and f e a r . The r h e t o r i c a l techniques o f Crashaw's epigram are much more obvious than i n H e r b e r t ' s poem: Cum dormis, s u r g i t pelagus: cum, C h r i s t e , r e s u r g i s , Dormitat p e l a g u s : Quam bene f r a e n a tenes! While you s l e e p the sea a r i s e s : When,Christ, you r i s e up a g a i n , The sea slumbers. How w e l l You master t h i n g s l (L, pp. 90-91) Herbert d i s p l a y s the same use o f b a l a n c i n g ideas and c l a u s e s i n the body o f the poem as Crashaw does i n h i s f i n a l c o u p l e t , but H e r b e r t ' s r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s a r e p a r t l y d i s g u i s e d by his  simple c o n c l u d i n g exclamation which, with i t s note o f  wonder and awe, expresses the n a t u r a l ease w i t h which C h r i s t can c o n t r o l the elements a t w i l l .  Crashaw, on  the o t h e r hand, has much more c o m p l e x i t y . i n h i s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e whichis a d d r e s s i n g the d i s c i p l e s and c h a s t i s i n g them for  t h e i r f e a r ; and t h i s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , i n s p i t e o f the  c o l l o q u i a l opening o f the epigram,  f u n c t i o n s to draw  72  a t t e n t i o n to the r h e t o r i c a l techniques: and  questions,  antitheses,  repeated sentence s t r u c t u r e s which Crashaw uses i n h i s  epigram t o heighten the e f f e c t upon h i s r e a d e r o f h i s w i t t y r e v e r s a l i n the l a s t  two l i n e s .  As I s h a l l demonstrate  i n Chapters Four and F i v e , Herbert was concerned to distance the reader, by means o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , from the m a t e r i a l he was u s i n g ,  i n the case o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a  the C r u c i f i x i o n .  the s t o r y o f  Crashaw, on the other hand, uses every  a v a i l a b l e epigrammatic technique t o draw the r e a d e r as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to "the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s o f the l i f e  of C h r i s t . "  T h i s i s e a s i l y demonstrated by comparing Crashaw s 1  "In v u l n e r a D e i p e n d e n t i s " (On the wounds o f the c r u c i f i e d Lord), in  and H e r b e r t ' s poem from P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ,  cruce"  ( C h r i s t on the c r o s s ) .  "Christus  W a l l e r s t e i n chooses  f o u r l i n e s from Crashaw's poem t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s Quisque c a p i l l u s i t exiguo tener a l v e u s Hoc quasi de rubro r i v u l u s oceano.  point:  amne,  0 nimium v i v a e p r e t i o s i s amnibus undae'. Fons v i t a e nunquam v e r i e r i l l e f u i t . Each h a i r goes w i t h a small stream ( o f Blood) as i f a r i v u l e t from t h i s purple ocean. Oh, too l i v i n g waters o f these p r e c i o u s rivers', never more t r u l y was he the f o u n t a i n o f l i f e . 41 Crashaw a l s o g i v e s h i s own t r a n l a t l o n of t h i s poem i n an expanded v e r s i o n : Not a h a l r e but payes h i s R i v e r To t h i s Red Sea o f t h y blood, T h e i r l i t t l e channels can d e l i v e r Something t o the general1 f l o o d . ^ e r e was't thou i n a sence so s a d l y t r u e , The w e l l o f l i v i n g Waters, Lord, t i l l now. 42  4 0  73  Crashaw*s s t y l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s examination of minute d e t a i l s , a l t h o u g h h i s f i g u r e o f C h r i s t on the c r o s s i s not "realistic"  i n the sense t h a t the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y uses  the  term.  H i s f i g u r e i s a t a b l e a u o r church s c u l p t u r e ,  but  nonetheless described i n f i n e d e t a i l .  the  same imagery o f water and r i v e r s , but f o c u s e s not  H e r b e r t uses  upon the f i g u r e on the c r o s s but upon the n a r r a t o r : Hie, v b i s a n a t i s t i l l a n t opobalsama mundij Aduoluor madidae l a e t u s hiansque C r u c i : Pro l a p s u s t i l l a r u m abeunt p e c c a t a ; nec a c r e s S a n g u i n i s i n s u l t u s exanimata f e r u n t . Here, where the h e a l e d world's Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I, joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am d r i v e n t o the drenched c r o s s : By the f a l l i n g o f t h a t d i s t i l l a t i o n , S i n s d e p a r t ; dead t h i n g s , they cannot bear That blood's r i g o r o u s a s s a u l t s . (PD, pp. 70-71) There i s the same c o n s c i o u s use o f r h e t o r i c s  i n both  p o e t s , but i t s use i s much more e f f e c t i v e and o r i g i n a l i n t h e c l i m a x o f H e r b e r t ' s epigram, than i t i s i n Crashaw's. Where Crashaw uses a common C h r i s t i a n metaphor f o r the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s epigram, which has l o g i c a l l y been prepared for  by the imagery throughout the epigram, H e r b e r t g i v e s  a more complex i d e a , which i s i i n t e l l e c t u a l l y because  stimulating  unexpected:  C h r i s t e , f l u a s semper; ne, s i t u a f l u m i n a c e s s e n t , Culpa redux iugem t e neget esse Deum. C h r i s t , keep w e l l i n g up, f o r i f your f l o o d i n g s t o p s , R e v l v i e d g u i l t w i l l say you're not e t e r n a l God. (PD, pp. 70-71)  74  H e r b e r t here extends the B i b l i c a l metaphor more than Crashaw to expand the meaning o f the poem beyond the a c t u a l o f C h r i s t on the c r o s s .  However, a p a r t from t h i s  figure  basic  d i f f e r e n c e i n approach between the two p o e t s , both show a similar s k i l l techniques.  i n t h e i r h a n d l i n g o f the epigrammatic Compare, f o r example, Crashaw's E n g l i s h  epigram  "Vpon the Thornes taken downe from our Lords head bloody" and H e r b e r t ' s " I n Goronam splneam" (On the crown o f t h o r n s ) . Both poets use the same immediacy and d i r e c t n e s s o f address, r h e t o r i c a l sentence s t r u c t u r e s and b a s i c metaphors, though Crashaw i s once a g a i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g much more c l o s e l y upon the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t o f the thorns being removed from the Lord* s head: Know'st thou t h i s , S o u l d i e r ?  ' t i s a much chang'd p l a n t , which y e t Thy s e l f e d i d ' s t s e t , * T i s chang'd indeed, d i d Autumn e're such b e a u t i e s b r i n g To shame h i s S p r i n g ? 01 who so hard an husbandman c o u l d ever f i n d A soyle so kind? I s not the s o i l e a k i n d one (thinke ye) t h a t r e t u r n e s Roses f o r Thornes? 43  I n H e r b e r t ' s poem a l s o the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s prominent, but i t s v e r b a l i n g e n u i t y i s not the poem's r a l s o n d ' e t r e , as i t sometimes has a tendency  t o become i n Crashaw's poems:  S p i c u l a mutemus: c a p i a s Tu s e r t a Rosarum, Qui Caput e s , spinas & tua Membra t u a s . L e t us trade our h u r t s : You, who a r e the head, take the rose f o r wreath, And we, your members, take up your t h o r n s . (PJD, pp. 66-67)  75  However, as both W a l l e r s t e i n and L e i c e s t e r Bradner agree, there i s a v e i n o f "passionate s e r i o u s n e s s " r u n n i n g  *  through  Crashaw*s epigrams which not a l l h i s r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s and ^melodramatic  emotions can c o n c e a l .  Herbert's r h e t o r i c  i s not so o b t r u s i v e as Crashaw* s which renders him  less  s u s c e p t i b l e to c r i t i c i s m . Crashaw i s undoubtedly of  the o n l y seventeenth-century  H e r b e r t as a w r i t e r of sacred epigrams.  equal  P r e v i o u s poets  l i k e Saltmarsh, Thynne, and Pyne were moving towards a use o f the form which would f u l l y express t h e i r  religious  f e e l i n g and convey the power of the B i b l i c a l s t o r y upon Renaissance minds.  F o r r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r s the epigram p r o v i d e d  a p e r f e c t means o f e x p r e s s i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n paradox. In  the epigram^  -  Paradox i s the dominant method, g i v i n g c o l o r to a l l the o t h e r d e v i c e s . The themes of Crashaw and o f the J e s u i t s d e a l wholly w i t h r e l i g i o u s s t o r y , and i t i s perhaps f o r t h i s reason, as w e l l as by the mere process o f s t y l i z a t l o n , t h a t they use paradox so f r e q u e n t l y ; f o r to them l i f e i s a constant paradox between the forms o f t h i n g s and t h e i r a l l e g o r i z e d meaning, the o b j e c t s of t h i s world b e i n g one extended a l l e g o r y of the s p i r i t u a l world; o r between the v a l u e s and vways of l i f e o f t h i s world as the man o f the world reads, and l i v e s i t , on the one s i d e , and on the o t h e r , the v a l u e s of the s p i r i t . 45 But the epigram a l s o p r o v i d e s a t r a p f o r the r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r . Its  r e l i a n c e upon r h e t o r i c , dramatic q u e s t i o n , w i t , and  v e r b a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n g e n u i t y f o r i t s e f f e c t can b e t r a y the poet i n t o n e g l e c t i n g the meaning and  s i n c e r i t y of h i s  s u b j e c t f o r the sake of d i s p l a y .  one o f H e r b e r t ' s  I t was  76  greatest achievements that in his sacred epigrams he was able to maintain a balance between religious feeling and epigrammatic expression.  CHAPTER FOUR—A  The purpose  CRITICAL STUDY OF PASSIO DISCERPTA  o f the c r i t i c a l  study which I s h a l l p r e s e n t  i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g chapter i s t w o - f o l d . not o n l y t o demonstrate  I wish  the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e and l i t e r a r y  i n t e r e s t o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus, but a l s o to use t h i s demonstration to a s s e r t t h e i r importance f o r students o f The Temple. or  I w i l l t r y t o judge the a e s t h e t i c success  f a i l u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l poems from these two  sequences  i n the l i g h t o f the conventions o f the epigram, b a s i n g my d i s c u s s i o n on the p o i n t s suggested i n Chapter Two, g i v i n g a more d e t a i l e d study o f H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams was attempted  i n Chapter  than  Three.  The obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n c a r r y i n g out a complete, are  c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the two c o l l e c t i o n s o f poems  s l i g h t l y l e s s e n e d i n t h i s study by the f a c t that i t i s  based on t r a n s l a t i o n s , and d e a l s only w i t h those a s p e c t s of  p o e t r y which can be a c c u r a t e l y s t u d i e d  i n translation:  c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , the arrangment o f the poems, imagery,  and the narrative v o i c e .  However, even  though  l e s s e n e d , the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e s t i l l apparent, and, s i n c e a study o f each poem s e p a r a t e l y i s i m p r a c t i c a l , I have decided to d i v i d e each o f the f o l l o w i n g two chapters  78  i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s :  arrangement o f the poems w i t h i n each  c o l l e c t i o n ; the imagery used ( I s h a l l i n c l u d e such a s p e c t s as metaphor under t h i s h e a d i n g ) ; and, l a s t l y , t h e p o s i t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r i n the poems, the ^ v o i c e " he adopts.  79 I  The Arrangement o f the Poems i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a  C r i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y over the arrangement of the poems i n The Temple i s s t i l l r i f e ; however, the e s s e n t i a l o f H e r b e r t ' s masterpiece  rMinity"  i s u s u a l l y agreed on, i n t h a t a l l  the poems use s i m i l a r techniques and are t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k e d to p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t e p r o g r e s s i o n i n thought meaning.  and  T h i s v e r y important a s p e c t o f TKe Temple i s  a l s o e v i d e n t i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , and and u n i t y i n theme and  i t i s the arrangement  imagery of t h i s volume which I  wish t o d i s c u s s h e r e . I b e g i n w i t h P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a because i t comes before Lucus i n the W i l l i a m s Manuscript and because i t has a much more obviously schematised The  title,  arrangement than  Lucus.  "The Events o f the P a s s i o n " , n a t u r a l l y  suggests  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s through the v a r i o u s stages o f the C r u c i f i x i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the New  Testament.  Herbert,  o f course, does t h i s , but he i s n e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t i v e ;  and  the s e l e c t i v e aspect of h i s arrangement i s one o f the i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s o f the volume.  Herbert, i n h i s  twenty-one epigrams, has d e a l t w i t h a l l the major i n c i d e n t s which o c c u r r e d on Good F r i d a y .  However, there i s a v e r y  obvious grouping of the i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n the volume,  80  which might  suggest something about H e r b e r t ' s thematic  concerns and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n s t o r y .  Of  the twenty-one poems, only two are concerned w i t h the C r u c i f i x i o n p e r se;  "In Christum crucem ascensurum" (To  C h r i s t about t o ascend the c r o s s ) and " C h r i s t u s i n c r u c e " ( C h r i s t on the c r o s s ) .  Even the former of these two i s  not d i r e c t l y and completely about the C r u c i f i x i o n .  It  r e f e r s a n a l o g i c a l l y t o s m a l l Zacchaeus' attempt to see Jesus by c l i m b i n g up a sycamore t r e e , and t h i s event w i t h the C r u c i f i x i o n .  i t compares  Of the r e m a i n i n g  n i n e t e e n poems, only s i x a r e concerned, and then o n l y i n d i r e c t l y , with the a c t u a l image o f C h r i s t on the c r o s s . F o r whatever  reason, H e r b e r t was  not s o l e l y  w i t h the c e n t t a l t a b l e a u o f Good F r i d a y .  concerned  A Beading o f  any o f the Gospel accounts o f the C r u c i f i x i o n from the Testament  New  q u i c k l y b r i n g s to the a t t e n t i o n a number o f  i n c i d e n t s which might  seem s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r an  e f f e c t i v e sacred epigram i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y ; f o r example, the p r o g r e s s towards C a l v a r y , and Simon o f Cyrene's s a c r i f i c e i n c a r r y i n g J e s u s ' c r o s s .  Yet  H e r b e r t makes no mention o f these l i k e l y i n c i d e n t s , u n l e s s the second poem "In sudorem sanguineum" (0n the bloody sweat) r e f e r s o b l i q u e l y to t h i s event as w e l l as t o the Crucifixion i t s e l f .  He does not mention  the o f f e r i n g o f  a d r i n k o f wine mixed w i t h a b i t t e r drug, and J e s u s '  81  r e f u s a l t o d r i n k ; nor the p l a c a r d n a i l e d over h i s head with the charge a g a i n s t him:  •JThis i s J e s u s , the K i n g o f the  Jews"; n o r the taunts o f the crowd, d a r i n g C h r i s t to save h i m s e l f ; n o r Jesus*  c r y " E l l , E l l lama s a b a c h t h a n i ? "  (My God, my God, why d i d you f o r s a k e me?); nor the f i n a l o f f e r i n g o f v i n e g a r on a sponge.  On the other hand, he  does mention i n " I n Christum crucem ascensurum" an i n c i d e n t which o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o the C r u c i f i x i o n .  This l i s t  emphasizes, I b e l i e v e , the f a c t t h a t H e r b e r t ' s i n t e r e s t s and thematic concerns d i d not f o c u s d i r e c t l y and s o l e l y on the death o f C h r i s t as an event which r e q u i r e d , o r b e n e f i t t e d by, • ' r e a l i s t i c " , o r a c c u r a t e l y d e t a i l e d p o r t r a y a l . was concerned  Herbert  w i t h the wider s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the  C r u c i f i x i o n ; not w i t h the event as such, but w i t h i t s meaning f o r the average Rather  Christian.  than focus upon the f i g u r e o f C h r i s t on the  c r o s s , H e r b e r t s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s f o r h i s epigrams from the i n c i d e n t s l e a d i n g up to t h e C r u c i f i x i o n , and from the v a r i o u s phenomena which r e s u l t e d from the death o f C h r i s t .  The  i n c i d e n t s which o c c u r r e d d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the C r u c i f i x i o n were not p a r t of l e g a l o r c i v i l  punishment, but were the  e x p r e s s i o n of human p e t t i n e s s , m a l i c i o u s c r u e l t y , and  callous indifference.  greed,  " I n Sputum e t C o n u i c i a " (On  the s p i t t i n g and mocking), " I n Coronam spineam" (On the crown o f t h o r n s ) , " I n Arund. S p i n . Genuflex.  Purpur."  (On the reed, t h o r n s , bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) , " I n A l a p a s "  82  (On the s l a p s ) , " I n F l a g e l l u m " (On the whip), "In v e s t e s d i u i s a s " (On the p o r t i o n e d garments) a l l r e f e r to p e t t y a c t s o f c r u e l t y o f minor c h a r a c t e r s i n the drama of the Crucifixion. at  J u s t as the C r u c i f i x i o n o c c u r r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  mid-day, the two poems which are a c t u a l l y  concerned  w i t h C h r i s t on the c r o s s , and which f o l l o w the l i s t of poems g i v e n here, are almost e x a c t l y a t the mid-point of  the volume.  The e f f e c t of t h i s arrangement i s to take  the emphasis o f f the C r u c i f i x i o n and spread i t e q u a l l y to  i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r i t .  This distances  the event from the reader and a l l o w s him to see the picture i n perspective.  total  I t i s also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  H e r b e r t ' s technique throughout  the volume; t h a t , i s , to  mediate between the reader and the event.. The  last  s i x poems of the volume are concerned  with  the p h y s i c a l r e s u l t s on e a r t h of the death of C h r i s t . At the end o f the volume the events of the P a s s i o n are out of  the hands of human beings; Herbert i s concerned  emphasizing of  of  i t s meaning.  F o r example, i n the  group o f poems, H e r b e r t ' s anger i s d i r e c t e d towards  the Jews who for  to the reader the t i m e l e s s and u n i v e r s a l a s p e c t s  the C r u c i f i x i o n and  first  with  spat and mocked a t C h r i s t , and h i s p l e a i s  the G e n t i l e s to draw from the w e l l , which i s the body C h r i s t , the waters o f  life:  83  Parate s i t u l a s , E t h n i c ! , lagenasque, Graues lagenas, T e s t e r e s t Aquae-duetus. F e t c h you  G Gentiles, j a r s and b u c k e t s — b i g  In c o n t r a s t , i n the poem "Petrae  j a r s to your w e l l ! (PD, pp. 64-65)  scissae  n  (The  c l e f t rocks),  the n a r r a t o r reaches out away from the immediate  present,  which i s the time o f the C r u c i f i x i o n , which the volume c r e a t e s f o r the r e a d e r . and  The meaning o f the whole event widens  the c o n c l u s i o n o f the poem has a much more g e n e r a l  significance: corda . . . Quae e o n t r i t a tamen c a e t e r a damna l e u a n t . Hearts, However, when ground to powder l i g h t e n A l l o t h e r l o s s e s . (PD, pp. 78-79) Another i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t about H e r b e r t ' s s e l e c t i o n o f i n c i d e n t s i s r a i s e d when one  r e c a l l s that Herbert  does  not mention the B i b l i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s o f C h r i s t , who important New  were witnesses  m i n o r i t y who  a t the C r u c i f i x i o n , and  stand out v i v i d l y  Testament d e s c r i p t i o n s of the scene.  i n the  an  various  Herbert  does not  mention the female c h a r a c t e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , Mary, the mother o f C h r i s t , and Mary Magdalene, the two who  might be expected to convey much o f the  intensity.  The  characters emotional  only i n d i v i d u a l s to whom..he r e f e r s thoughout  the volume are the good t h i e f , Zacchaeus, P l a t o , C h r i s t , and h i m s e l f .  I t would be easy and p o s s i b l y mistaken to  over-  84  emphasize t h i s p o i n t , but complete  omission o f the mourning  f o l l o w e r s o f C h r i s t from the p i c t u r e H e r b e r t g i v e s does enable him to throw i n t o r e l i e f h i s sense o f awe and g r a t i t u d e f o r C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e , r a t h e r than c o n c e n t r a t i n g his  a t t e n t i o n on the emotions and sense o f l o s s o f the  witnesses o f the scene. H e r b e r t ' s technique t h r o u ^ i o u t t h e volume i s to move away from t h e - a c t u a l r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s o f the scene. uses t h e conventions o f the s a c r e d epigram,  He  t o move h i s  poem away from the image the t i t l e would n o r m a l l y c r e a t e in  the mind o f the r e a d e r towards  the w i t t y o r i n g e n i o u s t u r n  of  thought to which the r e s t o f the epigram i s intended  to  l e a d up.  A good example o f t h i s i s i n the very  first  poem o f the volume, "Ad Dominum morientem" (To the d y i n g Lord). in  The poem serves as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the volume  t h a t i t immediately f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on the c e n t r a l  Christ-  f i g u r e o f the event, and i t a l s o moves, as so many o f the f o l l o w i n g epigrams a r e to do, from one p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o f the C r u c i f i x i o n , b a c k to the n a r r a t o r .  I n s p i t e o f the immediacy  of  the present p a r t i c i p l e "morientem'' (dying) i n the t i t l e  of  the poem, and the sense o f an eye-witness account g i v e n  in  the f i r s t  l i n e , "Cum lacrymas oculosque duos t o t v u l n e r a  v l n c a n t " (Since so much wounding overcomes my eyes, my the  whole emphasis o f the  tears),  poem i s upon the n a r r a t o r ' s  response t o the meaning of the scene, and i s not d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h an image o f the d y i n g L o r d .  85  Although it  I s h a l l d e a l w i t h t h i s aspect more f u l l y  later,  i s obvious from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f the volume t h a t  H e r b e r t i s p l a c i n g h i s n a r r a t o r v e r y f i r m l y between the scene he i s d e s c r i b i n g and the r e a d e r .  I t i s this narrator's  d i s p l a y o f w i t and r h e t o r i c i n p r e s e n t i n g the epigram and c o n c l u d i n g i t w i t h a w i t t y o r ingenious t u r n o f thought which arouses at  the reader's emotions and sense o f awe  the paradox and i n g e n u i t y o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n . The  sweat),  second poem, " I n sudorem sanguineum" (On the bloody demonstrates even more c l e a r l y the immediacy which  Herbert can c r e a t e even while moving the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n away from the a c t u a l event.  The poem begins w i t h one o f  H e r b e r t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o l l o q u i a l openings: f u g l e s , sudor? realistic  (Sweat, where w i l l you go?).  "Quo  The o n l y  o r "gory" d e t a i l i n the whole poem i s the t i t l e ,  where the sweat i s bloody.  And, although Herbert  gives  no f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s , the image o f the bloody sweat d r i p p i n g down C h r i s t ' s body i s behind  the w i t t y  c o n c l u s i o n t o the epigram: Ni  me f o r t e p e t a s ; nam quanto i n d i g n i o r i p s e , Tu m i h i subueniens d i g n i o r esse p o t e s .  U n l e s s perhaps you seek me; f o r the more I am unworthy, the w o r t h i e r You  can be, coming t o h e l p me. (PD, pp. 62-63)  The poem moves p r o g r e s s i v e l y away from the c r o s s , out i n t o the crowd o f s p e c t a t o r s on C a l v a r y , and f i n a l l y to one i n d i v i d u a l , the n a r r a t o r .  86  T h i s movement from the g e n e r a l t o the s p e c i f i c and back a g a i n i s , I t h i n k , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the volume and can be used  to account  to some e x t e n t f o r the s e l e c t i o n and  arrangement o f the poems w i t h i n i t .  The poems o f t e n move  from the s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t , C h r i s t a t the time o f the C r u c i f i x i o n , f o r example, to a general meaning o f t h i s sacrifice fora l l Christians.  A good example o f t h i s  technique o c c u r s i n " I n A l a p a s " (On the s l a p s ) : Ahl quam c a e d e r i s h i n c & inde p a l m l s l S i c vngBnta s o l e n t manu f r i c a r i : S i c t o t i m e d i c a r i s i p s e mundo. Ah, how w i t h hands You a r e on each s i d e s l a p p e d ! I t ' s thus that ointments a r e Wont to be rubbed i n the hand: I t ' s thus you y o u r s e l f Make w e l l a l l s t h e world. (PD, pp.©6-67) Here the ingenious t u r n o f thought which l e a d s Herbert  from  the s p e c i f i c to the general i s the r e v e r s a l i n v o l v e d i n the metaphor of ointment,  a metaphor o f g e n t l e n e s s and h e a l i n g  i n c o n t r a s t t o the b r u t a l i t y o f C h r i s t ' s treatment  a t the  hands o f the Jews. >m&® Some of the poems, on the o t h e r hand, move d i r e c t l y  from  the s p e c i f i c address t o C h r i s t to the n a r r a t o r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the i n c i d e n t t o h i m s e l f as a f a i t h f u l and repentant Christian.  F o r example, the v e r y short epigram  "In latus  perfossum" (On the p i e r c e d s i d e ) demonstrates t h i s :  87  C h r i s t e , v b i tarn duro p a t e t i n te semita Spero meo c o r d i posse patere viam,  ferro,  C h r i s t , when remorseless s t e e l has opened up a path i n you, I hope there can be opened up a pathway f o r my h e a r t . (PD, pp. 64-65) Here the w i t d e r i v e s from the double a p p l i c a t i o n o f the word "path", and the v e r y simple a c c l a m a t i o which forms the l a s t l i n e of the epigram.  I t gains i t s simple  e f f e c t from the complete l a c k o f any emotional  assertive  overtones  w i t h regard t o the a c t u a l p i e r c i n g o f C h r i s t ' s s i d e by the spear.  The n a r r a t o r juxtaposes the two l i n e s w i t h a  s i m p l i c i t y and b l u n t n e s s which c r e a t e emotional  shock i n the reader, and i n t u r n l e a d  intellectual In  a c e r t a i n sense o f to  stimulation.  the volume as a whole these v a r i o u s movements a r e  subsumed i n an o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i o n towards a g e n e r a l and u n i v e r s a l meaning d e r i v e d from the event o f the C r u c i f i x i o n . T h i s can be best demonstrated by comparing the f i r s t and the l a s t poems o f the volume:  " I n Dominum morientem"  (On the d y i n g Lord) and " I n Mundi sympathiam cum C h r i s t o " (On the harmony o f the world w i t h C h r i s t ) .  As I remarked  e a r l i e r , the f i r s t poem i n the volume i s concerned w i t h the n a r r a t o r ' s response  primarily  t o the p e r s o n a l meaning o f the  C r u c i f i x i o n f o r h i m s e l f ; the more u n i v e r s a l C h r i s t i a n meaning o f every man's g u i l t f o r h i s s i n , and the redemption p f t h a t s i n through the C r u c i f i x i o n are o n l y i m p l i c i t here. I n the f i n a l poem o f the sequence, " I n Mundi  88  sympathiam cum G h r i s t o " , the u n i v e r s a l meaning i s made e x p l i c i t by the use o f the same metaphors o f e a r t h l y c o l l a p s e and catastrophe  t h a t H e r b e r t has been u s i n g throughout the  second h a l f o f the c o l l e c t i o n : Non m o r e r i s s o l u s : Mundus simul i n t e r i t Agnosoitque tuam Machina totaJCrucem.  i n te,  You do not d i e a l o n e : The world, a t the same Time, d i e s i n you, And the whole mechanism I s w i t h your c r o s s i n tune. (PD, pp. 78-79) Here, as i n the poem before  i t , "Petrae s e i s s a e " (The  c l e f t r o c k s ) , the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e a r t h i s used as the b a s i s o f a p o s i t i v e metaphor g i v i n g hope f o r C h r i s t i a n redemption.  I n "Petrae s c i s s a e " , h e a r t s  l i g h t e n a l l other  ground to powder  l o s s e s ; i n " I n Mundi sympathiam cum  C h r i s t o " , the world i s i n tune w i t h C h r i s t ' s c r o s s , a symbol o f d e s t r u c t i o n but a l s o o f redemption, j u s t as the s i g n s o f e a r t h l y d e s t r u c t i o n on Good F r i d a y  convinced  s p e c t a t o r s o f the s i n f u l n e s s o f the world.  From t h i s  general  meaning the poem r e t u r n s f i n a l l y and p o s i t i v e l y t o the narrator, with a s p e c i f i c  reference:  v e l t u a mundum Ne nimium vexet q u a e s t i o ,  pone meam.  Or, l e s t your i n q u i r y D i s t r e s s the world too much, Look f o r him i n me. (PD, pp. 78-79) Whereas  " I n Dominum morientem" ended w i t h i t s focus on  a s i n f u l and unworthy n a r r a t o r , the l a s t poem ends on a  89  p o s i t i v e note: The f i n a l  the s a c r i f i c e was not a f u t i l e one.  three o r f o u r poems of the sequence  conclude  i n such a way as t o r e i n f o r c e the c o n c l u d i n g note o f the l a s t poem.  F o r example, "Velum scissum" (The r i p p e d v e i l )  ends w i t h the i d e a t h a t God i s omnipresent: Vbique e s t Deus, Agnus, A r a , Flamen. And God i s e v e r y w h e r e — The Lamb, the P r i e s t , the A l t a r t o o . (PD, pp. 76-77) The arrangement  o f the poems suggests that  this  thematic p r o g r e s s i o n though the sequence was d e f i n i t e l y intended by H e r b e r t .  I have a l r e a d y mentioned  t h a t the  c o l l e c t i o n f a l l s f a i r l y d i s t i n c t l y i n t o three p a r t s : the  opening based on the i n c i d e n t s stemming from t h e  p e t t y b r u t a l i t y o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d ; the v e r y s h o r t s e c t i o n made up o f " I n C h r i s t u m crucem ascensurum" and " C h r i s t u s i n c r u c e " , the two poems a c t u a l l y concerned w i t h C h r i s t a s c e n d i n g o r hanging on the c r o s s ; and the final  s e c t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the s i g n s o f e a r t h l y  d e s t r u c t i o n subsequent  to the death o f C h r i s t .  However,  H e r b e r t could have a c h i e v e d a thematic purpose sueh as I have o u t l i n e d without c h o o s i n g the p a r t i c u l a r  Incidents  and arrangementfcwhich he d i d . It  i s p o s s i b l e that the sequence was based on o t h e r  works, p o s s i b l y p a r t s o f the C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s  services  such as the Improperia f o r Good F r i d a y on which he based his  poem from The Temple,  "The S a c r i f i c e " .  Such a  90  r e l a t i o n s h i p has not y e t been uncovered, but there a r e c e r t a i n o d d i t i e s about H e r b e r t ' s arrangement that would suggest a f i r m e r reason than mere whim.  For instance,  i n the opening of the sequence, as I w i l l be p o i n t i n g out i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , i t i s the imagery which provides  the connecting  l i n k s between the poems, r a t h e r  than the c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement o f i n c i d e n t s . poem o f the sequence i s obviously an e x p l a n a t o r y and serves  largely  the r e s t o f the volume  address,  i n the same way as the  o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n would have served stone whereon i t was engraved.  The f i r s t  the b u i l d i n g o r  However, the second,  t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h poems seem d e f i n i t e l y t o be out o f p l a c e  i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the poem " I n l a t u s perfossum'' which one might expect to f o l l o w the poems about C h r i s t a c t u a l l y on the c r o s s . T h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement, which H e r b e r t f o l l o w s f a i r l y c l o s e l y , does no harm t o the a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the volume because i t does have v e r y and a l s o thematic l i n k s as e x p l a i n e d i n t o which the poems f a l l .  strong  imagistic  by the three  categories  F o r i n s t a n c e , as I w i l l  show i n  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , although " I n l a t u s perfossum" seems to be m i s p l a c e d from the p o i n t o f view o f a c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement i n the volume,  i t s imagery l i n k s i t v e r y  s t r o n g l y w i t h the poems preceding  and f o l l o w i n g i t .  Thus  i t s p l a c i n g appears to be t h e r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t i o n r a t h e r than whim.  91  The major p o i n t s to be kept i n mind about H e r b e r t ' s arrangement o f poems i n t h i s sequence a r e the three major p a r t s i n t o which t h e y f a l l ,  t h e i r movement from g e n e r a l  to s p e c i f i c and back a g a i n , and the way the arrangement enhances the p o s i t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r as d i r e c t mediator and conveyer o f emotions between the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s and the r e a d e r .  The foil-owing s e c t i o n w i l l deal more s p e c i f i c a l l y  w i t h imagery and attempt to r e l a t e H e r b e r t ' s use o f imagery to h i s arrangement and s e l e c t i o n o f poems.  92  II  The  Imagery i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a  The  imagery i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a i s i n t e r e s t i n g not  o n l y f o r i t s own to the l a t e r  sake, but a l s o f o r i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s  imagery of The  Temple.  In Chapter  Two  commented upon the v a r i e t y and r i c h n e s s of imagery w i t h which Herbert  enhanced the s i n g l e i d e a which  u s u a l l y the centrum o f the epigram proper.  was  This i s true  o f many of the poems i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a as w e l l as " C h r i s t u s i n cruce",  the example I gave e a r l i e r .  w i t h t h i s v a r i e t y and grouping  of thematic  r i c h n e s s there goes a images which occurs  Along  patterned  i n the  case  o f c e r t a i n poems on s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s . One  o f the f i r s t  of these p a t t e r n e d  occurs at the beginning  o f the volume.  I have p o i n t e d out i n the p r e v i o u s o f subject-matter and  poems, and,  s e c t i o n , the  the imagery has obvious  which l i n k the poems.  i n t r o d u c e s an  Although, as choice  f o r the v a r i o u s poems might seem odd  out of context,  image i s o f f l u i d  image groupings  In the f i r s t  or running l i q u i d .  of these  groups the  "Ad Dominum morientem"  i n i t i a l image used more f u l l y  without  similarities  i n subsequent  u s i n g a c o l o u r image e x p l i c i t l y ,  i m p l i e s an u n d e r l y i n g c o l o u r scheme i n i t s imagery.  93  Students of Herbert The  are w e l l aware t h a t throughout  Temple runs a theme t h a t i n v o l v e s the concept o f  words, of w r i t i n g , and related  p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y as being  to r e l i g i o u s emotion and  does not use  i t s expression.  t h i s theme i n the same way  integrally Herbert  i n Passio Discerpta,  but s i g n i f i c a n t l y i t does occur i n the very f i r s t poem, the i n s c r i p t i o n a l address to the dying L o r d .  Here the image  connects two metaphors: ink i s the c o l o u r o f s i n , b l a c k , but  i t i s a l s o a means of e x p r e s s i n g repentance  g a i n i n g redemption.  and  I t i s worthwhile q u o t i n g the whole  poem: Gum lacrymas oculosque duos t o t v u l n e r a v i n c a n t , Impar, & l n f l e t u m v e l r e s o l u t u s , e r o ; S e p i a c o n c u r r a t , p e c c a t i s a p t i o r humor, Et mea iam lacrymet c u l p a c o l o r e suo. Since so much wounding overcomes my eyes, my t e a r s , I w i l l have no e f f e c t , though melted down i n weeping. L e t ink h e l p me out, A l i q u i d more a k i n to g u i l t ; L e t my s i n s , now t i n t e d r i g h t , pour f o r t h t h e i r t e a r s . (PD, pp. 62-63) The  c o l o u r imagery i m p l i c i t here i s t h r e e f o l d :  I  am  assuming t h a t the ink would be b l a c k , the "wounding*' of C h r i s t on the c r o s s n a t u r a l l y b r i n g s to mind red or s c a r l e t , and t r i p l e aspect  the n a r r a t o r ' s t e a r s a r e c o l o u r l e s s . of the imagery gains i t s f u l l  effect  as each subsequent poem b u i l d s on the i n i t i a l up.  The w i t t y t u r n of thought i n t h i s epigram  its  e f f e c t from the m i n g l i n g o f two metaphors;  This cumulatively  pattern set gains h i s words,  94  the b l a c k ink i n a p a r t i c u l a r form, come to stand f o r h i s s i n s and  h i s t e a r s of repentance.  a f t e r the f i r s t  The  l i n e , but the redness,  "wounding" i s f o r g o t t e n the b l o o d i n e s s o f  the s a c r i f i c e which makes these t e a r s necessary, i s not forgotten. The  f o l l o w i n g poem, "In sudorem sangiineum", uses  the imagery p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t The poem i s about the "bloody  epigram.  sweat", a combination  of  two o f the images mentioned above: Quo  f u g i e s , sudor? quamuls p a r s a l t e r a C h r i s t ! N e s c i a s i t metae; venule, c e l l a tua e s t .  Sweat, where w i l l you go? No matter How much the o t h e r s i d e o f C h r i s t Mayknow no l i m i t , the v e i n Is where you l i v e . (PD, pp. 62-63) Again  there i s no mention made of c o l o u r i n the imagery,  except  that the word " v e n u l a "  colour of blood.  ( v e i n ) b r i n g s to mind the  The w i t a t the end o f t h i s epigram  f u n c t i o n s on a number o f l e v e l s , but one o f these i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the metaphor i n i t i a t e d i n the f i r s t poem: Ni  me f o r t e p e t a s ; nam quanto i n d i g n l o r i p s e , Tu m i h i subueniens d i g n i o r esse p o t e s .  U n l e s s perhaps you seek me; f o r the more I am unworthy, the w o r t h i e r You  can be,  coming to h e l p me.  (PD, pp.  62-63)  Here the sweat becomes w o r t h i e r coming t o help a n a r r a t o r unworthy because of h i s black s i n s .  The metaphor o f  95  w r i t i n g i n the f i r s t poem i s c a r r i e d over by a s s o c i a t i o n i n t o t h i s , where the help a f f o r d e d c o u l d , on one l e v e l , r e f e r t o the redemptive  powers o f the blood (and t h e r e f o r e  the sweat o f Christ), and on another help with w r i t i n g the epigrams and e x p r e s s i o n o f the n a r r a t o r ' s own s i n s . The  t h i r d poem i s e n t i t l e d " I n eundem" (On the same),  although,  i n fact,  i t i s n o t upon the same s u b j e c t as  the p r e v i o u s poem. epigram  The s p e c i f i c word used i n the t w o - l i n e  i s " b l o o d " n o t "bloody  sweat":  S i c tuus e f f u n d i g e s t i t pro; crimine s a n g u i s , Vt nequeat paulo se c o h i b e r e domi. Your blood j o y s t o be poured our f o r s i n so much, I t can't keep a drop o f i t a t home, (PD, pp. 64-65) The w i t t y ending here i s gained by the use o f the metaphor of C h r i s t ' s body as a "home", w i t h the concomitant C h r i s t i s shedding  idea that  I h i s blood w i l l i n g l y , which o f course  i n one sense he was.  However, underlyingfethe poem and  c o n t i n u a l l y i n the r e a d e r ' s mind i s the knowledge o f the p h y s i c a l agony and b r u t a l i t y that the C r u c i f i x i o n i n v o l v e d . T h i s i m p l i c i t a s s o c i a t i o n i s made e x p l i c i t  i n the f o l l o w i n g  poem, " I n l a t u s perfossum", where one aspect o f t h i s b r u t a l i t y i s brought  home to the r e a d e r :  C h r i s t e , v b i tarn duro p a t e t i n te semita Spero meo c o r d i posse patere viam.  ferro,  C h r i s t , when remorseless s t e e l has opened up a path i n you, I hope there can be opened up a pathway f o r my h e a r t , (PD, pp. 64-65)  96  A g a i n the w i t d e r i v e s from the n a r r a t o r ' s treatment o f the in  incident.  The  image o f r e m o r s e l e s s  the second l i n e by the g e n t l e and  repentanttand  tender image of  the  redeemed heart of the n a r r a t o r n e s t l i n g w i t h i n  the body o f C h r i s t . to  steel i s succeeded  (There are a number o f other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  which the poem i s s u s c e p t i b l e , however.)  1  But  the poem  a l s o has u n d e r l y i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s which l i n k i t w i t h previous three.  the  The whole p o i n t of the p i e r c e d s i d e i n the  B i b l e i s the f a c t t h a t the withdrawn spearhead brought o n l y water not b l o o d . i s p i c k e d up  I t i s t h i s image o f water which  i n the f i f t h  poem "In Sputum e t C o n u i c i a "  (On the s p i t t i n g and mocking).  The  narrator i s expressing  i n d i g n a t i o n a t the "Barbaros", the b a r b a r l o men  who  reviled  Jesus: 0 Barbarosl s i c os r e p e n d i t i s sanctum, Visum quod v n i praebet, omnibus vitam, . . . 0 b a r b a r i c ment I s t h i s how you pay back the h o l y f a c e , Which g i v e s s i g h t to one, and l i f e to a l l . . . . (PD, pp. But  the  64-65)  image which he uses i n the next sentence i s one  o f impure men p o l l u t i n g h o l y waters: s i c Aquas v i t a e Contaminatis alueosque c a e l e s t e s Sputando, blasphemando? Is t h i s how you d e f i l e , With s p i t and blasphemy, the waters < Of l i f e and the sacred c o n d u i t s ? (PD,  pp.  64-65)  97  And  the waters o f l i f e a r e , of course, i n one l i t e r a l  sense, the waters that flowed from C h r i s t ' s body.  The  t u r n o f thought a t the end o f the epigram i n v o l v e s a w i t t y use o f the Jew's own word f o r unclean " G e n t i l e " against  stranger,  the Jews themselves i n combination w i t h  the metaphor o f water which Herbert has a l r e a d y Since  initiated.  the Jews only r e v i l e C h r i s t and p o l l u t e h i s h o l y  waters, the n a r r a t o r e n j o i n s the G e n t i l e s , b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n s , t o c a r r y v e s s e l s t o the w e l l which i s C h r i s t ' s body o v e r f l o w i n g  w i t h the waters o f l i f e :  Parate s i t u l a s , E t h n i c ! , lagenasque, Graues lagenas, V e s t e r e s t Aquae-ductus. 0 Gentiles, F e t c h you j a r s and b u c k e t s - - b i g After  j a r s t o your w e l l !  the f i f t h poem i n the sequence, t h i s image grouping  g i v e s way t o another, s t i l l  centring on the p e t t i n e s s and  b r u t a l i t y o f C h r i s t ' s tormentors, but v i e w i n g the i n c i d e n t s from the impressions g i v e n by another image p a t t e r n .  This  p a t t e r n c e n t r e s upon the a c t u a l p a i n t h a t C h r i s t s u f f e r e d , and  the paradox that p r o v i d e s  the w i t t y m a t e r i a l f o r the  n a r r a t o r i n the f o l l o w i n g epigrams i s that what f o r C h r i s t was p a i n i s f o r us j o y and redemption.  The paradox i s  v e r y n e a t l y expressed i n the s i x t h poem "In Coronam spineam" (On the crown o f t h o r n s ) :  98  C h r i s t e , d o l o r t i b i s u p p l i c i o , mini blanda Tu spin& misere p u n g e r i s , ipse Rosa". C h r i s t , your punishment i s p a i n , Mine d e l i c i o u s ease; you a r e p r i c k e d w i t h I w i t h the r o s e . (PD, pp. 64-65) The  voluntas;  thorns,  n a r r a t o r has extended the metaphor o f the thorns to  i n c l u d e a l s o the rose underlying  i n order t o extend the a s s o c i a t i o n s  h i s paradox and to i n c r e a s e its-;wit and  intellectual  ingenuity.  The rose was the t r a d i t i o n a l  symbol  f o r Mary! i n the medieval L a t i n hymns she i s f r e q u e n t l y the n  rosa  sine s p i n i s "  (rose without  thorns),  and the  symbol i s sometimes a l s o a p p l i e d t o C h r i s t .  Here Herbert  i s a l s o c a l l i n g - u p o n a medieval i d e a , which was that the rose was a f l o w e r o f great m e d i c i n a l  efficacy.  The i m a g i s t i e  r i c h n e s s o f t h i s poem i s i n c r e a s e d by H e r b e r t ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the metaphor o f the head and the body: i s a t the t i p of the stem, C h r i s t should and  f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s should  branches, and wear the t h o r n s .  s i n c e the rose  wear the f l o w e r ,  serve as members, that i s The n a r r a t o r d i s p l a y s h i s  w i t a l s o by ending t h i s epigram w i t h a pun on "members". Not  o n l y are the f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n s r e f e r r e d t o , members  i n the p h y s i c a l sense o f arms o r l e g s , but they a r e a l s o "members" o f the body o f the Church i n C h r i s t . J u s t as the poem " I n l a t u s perfossum" (On the p i e r c e d s i d e ) was f o l l o w e d  by an i n d i g n a n t poem d e s c r i b i n g the  r e v i l i n g o f J e s u s , so t h i s poem on the crown o f thorns i s  99  f o l l o w e d by another angry epigram concerned g e n e r a l l y w i t h the  t a u n t i n g and the p a i n Jesus s u f f e r e d :  " I n Arund. S p i n .  G e n u f l e x . Purpur." (On the r e e d , t h o r n s , bowing down, and s c a r l e t ) .  T h i s i s an unusual poem f o r t h i s  i n t h a t i t i s spoken by C h r i s t h i m s e l f . the  "Reproaches"  sequence  I t i s s i m i l a r to  spoken by C h r i s t i n the medieval  services  4 for  Good F r i d a y , d i r e c t e d a t mankind.  instrument o f the p a i n b e i n g i n f l i c t e d  Once a g a i n the upon C h r i s t i s the  subject of a  pun: Pastorem semper Arundo d e c e t . Quam n i h i l i l l u d i s l cum quo magis angar acuto Munere, Rex t a n t o v e r i o r inde prober.  The reed W i l l always be the shepherd's. The more acute the g i f t of p a i n , The t r u e r K i n g i t proves I am. (PD, 66-67) Herbert i s p l a y i n g w i t h the p a s t o r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s that are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the B i b l i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f C h r i s t and h i s Church.  The  shepherd's r e e d , u s u a l l y an oaten pipe  i n the p a s t o r a l poems o f the Renaissance, here becomes an instrument of t o r t u r e f o r C h r i s t ; but the unquestioned l e a d e r o r K i n g o f the shepherds was  u s u a l l y he who  could  best p l a y h i s reed, and C h r i s t w i l l prove he i s k i n g by the r e j e c t i o n o f the p a i n which t h i s reed causes him.  The  t u r n of thought a t the end of the epigram i n v o l v e s the paradox b a s i c to C h r i s t i a n i t y o f l i f e and  death:  100  A t non l u s u s e r i t , s i quem t u l a e t a n e c a s t i V i u a t , & i n mortem v i t a s i t i l i a tuam. But i t won't be a game I f he whom you are glad to murder l i v e s , And t h a t l i f e t u r n s out To be your death. (PD, 66-67) The  s t r i k i n g t h i n g about t h i s poem which I s h a l l be d e a l i n g  w i t h more c l o s e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s the and  familarity  c o l l o q u i a l i t y o f the v o i c e o f C h r i s t the speaker, i n  comparison w i t h the v e r y s t y l i z e d q u a l i t y of "The  Sacrifice"  from The Temple. The  f o l l o w i n g two poems "In A l a p a s "  (On the s l a p s )  and *?In F l a g e l l u m " (On the whip) both make use o f the same k i n d o f paradox as was  apparent  i n "In Coronam spineam".  I have mentioned " I n A l a p a s " e a r l i e r , and noted c o n t r a s t i n g metaphors:  the b r u t a l i t y o f the s o l d i e r s  s l a p p i n g C h r i s t and the g e n t l e image o f ointment i n t o the hand.  i t s use o f  being rubbed  "In F l a g e l l u m " has a much more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  tone than the p r e v i o u s poem.  I t compares v e r y w e l l with  H e r b e r t ' s poem " D i s c i p l i n e " from The Temple i n i t s d e s i r e for  God's d i s c i p l i n e and  yet h i s l o v e .  metaphor o f the whip, which was his  C r u c i f i x i o n , becomes mingled  In t h i s poem, the  used afgainst C h r i s t  before  with the metaphor i n v o l v i n g  the " s t a f f " of C h r i s t which upholds weary p i l g r i m s on way.  There i s a l s o the s u g g e s t i o n i n the second and  l i n e s of the punishment t h a t f l e s h i t s e l f i s to the  the third  soul:  101  C r i m i n a cumeturgent, & mea poena prope e s t , S u a u i t e r admoueas notum t i b i came f l a g e l l u m , When a c c u s a t i o n s s w e l l And my punishment i s near, Make sweetly imminent the l a s h , Which i n the f l e s h you've known; (PD, pp, 68-69} Christ  s u f f e r e d the torments o f a l i t e r a l whip; the  o r d i n a r y C h r i s t i a n s u f f e r s the temptations o f the whiplash which i s the f l e s h .  T h i s i s p a r t l y expressed by the c o n c l u s i o n  o f the epigram: M i t i s agas: tenerae d u p l i c a n t s i b i v e r b e r a Ipsaque sunt f e r u l a e m o l l i a corda suae.  mentes,  Be g e n t l e : tender minds Compound t h e blows upon them And meek h e a r t s are whips Unto themselves. (PD, pp. 68-69) One more poem, I n C l a u o s " (On the n a i l s ) , f i t s w  easily  i n t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r image grouping, although i t i s a c t u a l l y placed  beyond the middle group o f poems concerning  on the c r o s s .  I n t h i s poem Herbert once a g a i n  the p a s t o r a l metaphor.  Christ  utilized  The whole tone o f t h i s poem i s one  of d e l i g h t , g r a t i t u d e and a l s o a k i n d o f g l o a t i n g possession.  By h i s tone the n a r r a t o r , who i m p l i e s  that  he has f o r g o t t e n the f i n a l r e a s s e r t i o n o f the " m e l i o r natura"  (the God-nature) o f C h r i s t , f o r c e s the r e a d e r to  remember i t . The paradox l i e s i n the f a c t that although we retained  the human s i d e o f C h r i s t by p i n n i n g him on the  c r o s s , that a c t i o n d i d i n f a c t bestow f o r a l l time the " m e l i o r n a t u r a " upon u s .  The n a r r a t o r , however, b r i n g s the  poem down to an i n t e n s e l y personal h i s use o f the p a s t o r a l metaphor:  and p o s s e s s i v e  l e v e l by  102  lam meus es: nunc Te teneo: Pastorque prehensus Hoc l i g n o , h i s c l a u i s e s t , quasi F a l c e sua. Now you are mine, I h o l d you now: By t h i s wood the Shepherd has been s e i z e d , And by these n a i l s — a s by h i s own P r u n i n g hook. (PD, pp. 72-73) Once a g a i n the w i t t y t u r n of thought a t the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s epigram depends f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s upon the between the gentleness  o f the shepherd and  contrast  h i s t o o l s and  the c r u e l t y w i t h which C h r i s t the shepherd i s t r e a t e d . Of the three the p r e v i o u s  c a t e g o r i e s of poems which I o u t l i n e d i n  s e c t i o n the l a s t group shows a p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n of images. it  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g because  i s a p a t t e r n i n g which dominates most of the poems i n and  a l s o the t o t a l  s t r u c t u r e o f The Temple i t s e l f ;  e s s e n t i a l l y what one  might c a l l  meta-hor i n H e r b e r t ' s  work.  i t is  t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l or a r c h i t e c t o n i c n  n  T h i s k i n d of image has  already  appeared i n the e a r l i e r poems of t h i s sequence, although I have not commented on i t . F o r example, i n the  third  poem "In eundem" (On the same), where C h r i s t cannot keep a drop of h i s blood  " a t home"; or i n "In sudorem sanguineum"  where the sweat " l i v e s " i n the v e i n . out much more c l e a r l y i n a l i t e r a l Latin: The  "venula,  T h i s metaphor comes  t r a n s l a t i o n of  the  c e l l a tua e s t " (the v e i n , t h a t i s your  word "celfe" could a l s o mean the sanctuary  cell).  of a temple.  5  103  The metaphor o f "house" or "home" f i r s t f i f t e e n t h poem Inclinato !W  head)  c a p i t e , J 0 H,  19"  occurs i n the (On the bowed  where the homes o f d i f f e r e n t c r e a t u r e s are  considered  i n comparison with the c r o s s as the home of C h r i s t : Y u l p i b u s a n t r a f e r i s , n l d i q u e v o l u c r i b u s adsunt, Quodque suum n o u i t str6ma, c u b i l e suum. Caves belong to wild f o x e s , and n e s t s to b i r d s ; Each t h i n g knows i t s nook. (PD, pp. 72-73) I n the f o l l o w i n g poem "Ad  Solem d e f i c i e n t e m " (On  sun i n e c l i p s e ) , the b a s i c metaphor r u n n i n g  the  throughout  the poem i s that o f the sun being, not the master o f a house, as one might expect, but merely the p o r t e r . r e a l Sun  i s , of course, the "Son  o f the house, of the  of God"  who  The  i s the master  world:  Quid hoc? & i p s e d e f i c i s , C a e l i g i g a s , Almi choragus l u m i h i s ? Tu promis Orbem mane, condis v e s p e r i , Mundi f l d e l i s c l a u i g e r : What's t h i s ? You too gone out, G i a n t o f heaven, master of l i g h t That f r u c t i f i e s ? You unwrap your c i r c l e In the morning, and i n the evening You cover i t , f a i t h f u l p o r t e r Of the world. (PD, pp. 72-73) Our  e x p e c t a t i o n s , however, i n the beginning  u n t i l we  reach the word'porter"are  master o f the u n i v e r s e .  The  of the poem  t h a t the sun i s the  darkness c o v e r i n g the l a n d  from the s i x t h to the n i n t h hour on Good F r i d a y i s caused, says the n a r r a t o r , by the f a c t that both the "sun" and "Son"  are i n e c l i p s e :  the  104  Nempe Dominus aedium P r o d e g i t integrum penu.„ . . F o r sure the Master of the house Has wasted everything From h i s store, ...(PD, pp. 72-73) The  tone o f t h i s poem i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of i t s t o t a l  optimism expressed  with g e n t l e n e s s and  hop%  completely  in  terms o f metaphors: Tunc i n s t r u e t u r l a u t i u s r a d i j s penu, T i b i supererunt & m i h i . Then w i t h the beams the s t o r e w i l l be (More l a v i s h than before) f i l l e d up;: F o r you and me there w i l l be More than enough. (PD, pp. 74-75) In "Monumenta a p e r t a " (The opened tombs), the metaphor of  house o r d w e l l i n g p l a c e i s used to foreshadow the p l a c i n g  o f C h r i s t ' s body i n the sepulchre and  the  subsequent  Resurrection: S c i l i c e t i n tumulis Crucifixum quaerite, v i u i t : Gonulncunt vnam multa s e p u l c r a Crucem. Yes, seek the C r u c i f i e d i n tombsl He l i v e s I Many s e p u l c h e r s Negate t h i s s i n g l e c r o s s . (PD, pp. 74-75) A l s o , e a r l y i n the poem, Herbert  i n t r o d u c e s the i d e a o f  C h r i s t as a p r i s o n e r : Proque vno v i n e t o turba s o l u t a f u i t . and by V i r t u e of a s i n g l e p r i s o n e r Many have been l o o s e d . (PD, pp. 74-75)  105  The end o f the epigram uses the metaphor o f the dead r i s i n g from t h e i r tombs l i k e men l e a v i n g t h e i r homes, to  a c c e n t u a t e the power o f God to perpetuate l i f e : S i c , p r o Maiestate, Deum, non perdere v i t a m Quam t r i b u i t , verum m u l t i p l i c a r e decet. x  Thus i t i s r i g h t For God, because he i s a k i n g , Not to waste the l i f e he gave, But make i t grow. (PD, pp. 74-75) The e i g h t e e n t h poem, "Terrae-motus" (The movement o f the  e a r t h ) , uses e f f e c t i v e l y the metaphor o f an a c t u a l  B i b l i c a l event, the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the house o f the P h i l i s t i n e s by the I s r a e l i t e , Samson, who though b l i n d had r e g a i n e d h i s s t r e n g t h w i t h the growth o f h i s h a i r . The n a r r a t o r compares C h r i s t to Samson by comparing the p a l a c e which Samson p u l l e d down to the e a r t h which moved and trembled a f t e r the C r u c i f i x i o n : Te f i x o v e l T e r r a mouet: nam, cum Cruce, totam C i r c u m f e r r e p o t e s ; Sampson v t ante f o r e s . With you n a i l e d up, even The e a r t h moves: f o r w i t h the c r o s s You move the whole t h i n g t o and f r o As Sampson moved the p i l l a r s l o n g ago. In the  "Velum scissum" (The r i p p e d v e i l ) ,  house or d w e l l i n g i s g r e a t l y expanded.  (PD, pp. 76-77)  the metaphor o f The n a r r a t o r  sees t h i s phenomenon o f the r i p p i n g o f the v e i l as a s i g n of  the omnipresence o f God.  keep him i n o r o u t :  A house o r temple cannot  106  F r u s t r a , Verpe, tumes, p r o p o l a c u l t u s , E t Templi p a r a s i t e ; namque velum D i f f i s s u m r e s e r a t Deum latentem, E t pomoeria terminosque sanctos Non vrbem f a c i t vnicam, sed Orbem. You, Jew, Huckster o f worship, sponger Of the Temple, you s t r u t i n v a i n , F o r the r i p p e d v e i l D i s c l o s e s the hidden God, And makes the outer w a l l s , and the sacred Inner Temple grounds themselves, Not one c i t y o n l y , but a world. (PD, pp. 76-77) The metaphor moves from an i n n e r sanctum to the o u t e r w a l l s , to the grounds, to a c i t y , t o the w o r l d .  The f o l l o w i n g  l i n e s show a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to the i d e a s i n some of the poems o f The Temple, f o r i n s t a n c e "The A l t a r " : Et pro pectoribus recenset aras, Dum c o r omne suum s i b i r e q u i r a t Structorem. . . , Instead o f l o o k i n g i n t o h e a r t s As h e a r t s , he looks f o r a l t a r s t h e r e , T i l l every h e a r t s h a l l seek i t s maker. lPD, pp. 76-77) t>  The  C h r i s t i a n h e a r t becomes, i n f a c t , the temple o f the  L o r d and a c c o r d i n g l y has w i t h i n i t an a l t a r to the L o r d . The  f i n a l l i n e s o f the epigram r e i n f o r c e the omnipresence  o f God: he  God i s everywhere; i n the heart o f the C h r i s t i a n  i s "Agnus, A r a , Flamen", the p r i e s t a t h i s own a l t a r . The penultimate  poem o f the sequence, "Petrae s c i s s a e " ,  uses the a r c h i t e c t u r a l metaphor i n a d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n . I t i s concerned with metaphors o f b u i l d i n g up and t e a r i n g down.  I t begins with the raw m a t e r i a l o f C h r i s t i a n i t y :  the c l a y o f Adam and Eve's c r e a t i o n :  107  Sanus Homo f a c t u s , v i t i o r u m purus v t e r q u e ; At s i b i c o l l i s i t f i c t i l e Daemon opus. Man was f a s h i o n e d whole, Adam And Eve u n s t a i n e d by v i c e . But the D e v i l f o r h i s own Sake broke the c l a y . (PD, pp. 78-79) Each o f the images i n the poem i s that o f a b u i l d i n g up and a subsequent breaking down: Post v b i Mosaicae r e p a r a r e n t fragmina Leges, I n f e c t a s t a h u l a s f a c t a iuuenca s c i d l t . When i n a f t e r times The Mosaic covenant F i x e d the p i e c e s , A brazen h e i f e r broke And wrecked the t a b l e t s . (PD, 78-79) Here H e r b e r t has a c h i e v e d a v e r y w i t t y pun on the a d j e c t i v e " M o s a i c a e a t l e a s t i n the E n g l i s h sense o f the word, t h a t i s as mosaic on a f l o o r o r w a l l , b u i l t up o f t i n y pieces o f p o t t e r y or other m a t e r i a l .  I n the L a t i n ,  however, the sense remains r e s t r i c t e d t o Moses and the Ten Commandments.  The comparison i s made with the death o f  C h r i s t when the " i n a e c e s s a s d i s s i l u i s s e p e t r a s " ( u n s c a l a b l e crags c o l l a p s e d ) .  The comparison between C h r i s t and Adam  i s a p t a t t h i s p o i n t , s i n c e Adam l o s t P a r a d i s e i n much the same way as man l o s t C h r i s t , when the P a s s i o n was f o l l o w e d by t e r r i f y i n g e a r t h l y phenomena. gained by the r e v e r s a l i n the l a s t  The w i t of the epigram i s image.  H e a r t s a r e not  broken by s i n and e r r o r , they a r e ground t o powder, reduced to  the l e a s t p o s s i b l e e a r t h l y substance  of  some v a l u e to C h r i s t :  and then they a r e  108  Omnia, p r a e t e r corda, s c e l u s c o n f r e g i t & e r r o r , Quae c o n t r i t a tamen c a e t e r a damna l e u a n t . Hearts, However, when ground to powder l i g h t e n A l l other l o s s e s . (PD, pp. 78-79) The cum  f i n a l poem i n the sequence, "In Mundi sympathiam  C h r i s t o " (On the harmony of  l i n k s the two and  the world w i t h  Christ),  i d e a s of the world as house or d w e l l i n g p l a c e  the i n d i v i d u a l h e a r t , once i t i s j o i n e d to C h r i s t ,  as b e i n g o r / h a v i n g  the world w i t h i n i t :  v e l tua mundum Ne nimium vexet q u a e s t i o , pone meam. Or, l e s t your i n q u i r y D i s t r e s s the world too much, Look f o r him (Christ] i n me. (PD, pp.  78-79)  I have attempted to show as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the major image groupings which p r e v a i l i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a . T h i s s e c t i o n can, at b e s t , o n l y stand as the v e r y o f i n t r o d u c t i o n s to the  imagery of the volume, but I hope  i t w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t f o u n d a t i o n  f o r the f i n a l s e c t i o n  i n t h i s chapter on the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e r e v e a l e d sequence.  briefest  i n the  109  III  The N a r r a t o r as Mediator:  the V o i c e  i n Passio Discerpta  As much as the imagery, i t i s the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n the sacred epigram which ensures the e f f e c t that the poem w i l l have on the r e a d e r .  I have d e a l t a t p r e v i o u s p o i n t s ,  both i n the f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s and i n Chapter Two, with f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n p a r t i c u l a r poems. s e c t i o n I s h a l l analyze  In t h i s  the e f f e c t o f the p o s i t i o n o f the  n a r r a t o r between the reader and the event  upon which the  poem i s based. A l t h o u g h I have a l r e a d y s a i d a g r e a t d e a l about the f i r s t poem i n the sequence, "Ad Dominum morientem" (On the dying L o r d ) , i t does p r o v i d e a v e r y good example of the f u n c t i o n o f mediator t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s to p l a y i n the f o l l o w i n g poems.  As mentioned i n S e c t i o n I I , the poem  q u i c k l y passes from i t s s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e to the C r u c i f i x i o n , i n the word "wounding", t o a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r ' s response by means o f the t r i p l e metaphor p a t t e r n o f water ( t e a r s , repentance), redemption), and i n k ( b l a c k , s i n ) . p r e s e n t s an a m e l i o r a t e d whole o f the volume:  blood  (wounding,  The n a r r a t i v e v o i c e  k i n d o f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  we a r e n o t immediately shown the  110  p i c t u r e o f the C r u c i f i x i o n i n a l l i t s p e r s o n a l h o r r o r . The  h o r r o r i s not presented  d i r e c t l y to the r e a d e r , but  i s transnltted through the n a r r a t o r who passes itto us by means of the metaphor which i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the epigrammatic technique.  The emotional  i n t e n s i t y with which we a r e presented  i s t h a t o f the n a r r a t o r , not o f the C h r i s t - f i g u r e h i m s e l f . Throughout t h i s volume the q u a l i t i e s o f the epigram as a medium f o r r e l i g i o u s themes and sacred stand out s h a r p l y .  subject-matter,  As a form, the epigram p r o v i d e s an  ambiguous medium, i n t h a t i t can both d i s t a n c e the reader from the m a t e r i a l , and a t the same time, b r i n g him i n t e n s e l y c l o s e t o the one, simple  s u b j e c t with which,  on the s u r f a c e , the epigram i s u s u a l l y concerned.  The  n a r r a t o r i n A d Dominum morientem" i s not only mediator n  between the reader and h i s m a t e r i a l , b u t , by h i s h a n d l i n g of t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the epigram, h e r a l d s the tenor o f the r e s t o f the volume.  F o r example, the l a s t l i n e o f  the p o e m — E t mea iam lacrymet n  culpa colore suo. (Let n  my s i n s , now t i n t e d r i g h t , pour forth?;their tears)•*c o n t a i n s the verb "lacrymet"  i n the s u b j u n c t i v e mood  ( i n the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i t i s i m p e r a t i v e ) , which t e l l s the reader a g r e a t d e a l about the r e s t o f the volume.  On one l e v e l , Herbert  o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d s the volume  o f epigrams to stand as an e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s own g u i l t  Ill  and  sense o f unworthiness,  and i n one way i t does; on  another, he i s b e w a i l i n g the s i n s o f mankind i n g e n e r a l f o r making necessary the events o f the P a s s i o n . The of  skilful  r h e t o r i c a l h a n d l i n g o f the c o n c l u s i o n  the epigram i s one o f the most important a s p e c t s o f  the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams. k i n d o f s k i l f u l and o f t e n unexpected r h e t o r i c  This  i s well  d i s p l a y e d i n the s h o r t poem " I n v e s t e s d i u i s a s " (On the p o r t i o n e d garments): S i , C h r i s t e , dum s u f f i g e r i s , tuae v e s t e s Sunt hostium l e g a t a , non amicorum, Y t p o s t u l a t mos; quid t u i s d a b i s ? Teipsum. I f , C h r i s t , while you a r e n a i l e d , Your garments a r e i n h e r i t a n c e To enemies and n o t to f r i e n d s As custom r u l e s , what W i l l you g i v e your f r i e n d s ? You y o u r s e l f . (PD, pp. 68-69) T h i s poem a t f i r s t  glance i s extremely  o n l y one, a t the most two, major i d e a s . skill set  i s apparent  simple, c o n t a i n i n g However, H e r b e r t ' s  i n the r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e which he has  up i n the poem, and which a l l o w s him t o make the simple  a c c l a m a t i o a t the end o f the poem:  "Teipsum" (You y o u r s e l f ) .  Once a g a i n t h e w i t i n the epigram i s gained from the b r u t a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f two i d e a s .  The metaphor o f  i n h e r i t a n c e i s a p p l i e d t o the p o r t i o n e d garments i n the middle  o f the poem and the body o f C h r i s t h i m s e l f i n the  a c c l a m a t i o a t the end.  The whole a s s o c i a t i v e aura around  112  the word " i n h e r i t a n c e " i s o f p e a c e f u l death,  mourning  f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , an atmosphere of p i t y , and  gentleness  sorrow; a l l these ideas come i n t o d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n  with the a c t u a l events  of the C r u c i f i x i o n , when s o l d i e r s  gambled f o r the c l o t h e s of the d y i n g C h r i s t .  The r h e t o r i c a l  d i a l o g u e s e t up w i t h i n the poem gains much o f i t s e f f e c t from the c o n f l i c t of i d e a s mentioned.  The r h e t o r i c a l  question  "quid t u i s d a b i s ? * (. . . what w i l l you gitre your f r i e n d s ? ) , i s asked by the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f ; the tone i n the r e s t o f the poem i s i n d i g n a n t , almost b i t t e r , but t h i s tone merely g i v e s the q u i e t r e v e r s a l o f the a n t i c l i m a c t i c more weight}  acclamatio  f o r the n a r r a t o r i s here r e p l y i n g t o h i s  own q u e s t i o n . I n the poem " I n Christum  crucem ascensurum" (To C h r i s t  about t o ascend the c r o s s ) , the ending o f the poem a l s o involves acclamatio,  but i t i s n o t a r e v e r s a l as i n the  p r e v i o u s poem so much as a r h e t o r i c a l climax, f o r and b u i l t up t o throughout the whole poem. explained  prepared As  i n S e c t i o n I I , t h i s poem r e l a t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  to the a c t u a l C r u c i f i x i o n an i n c i d e n t which occurred before Good F r i d a y . two  The n a r r a t i v e v o i c e r e l a t e s the  i n c i d e n t s and w i t t i l y draws a c o n c l u s i o n from the  comparison:  113  Zacchaeus, v t Te c e r n a t , arborem s c a n d i t : Nunc i p s e s c a n d i s , v t labore mutato Nobis f a c i l i t a s cedat & t i b i t s u d o r * Zacchaeus, that he Climbed a t r e e : now Climb up, so t h a t , Ease may be stored And sweat f o r you. The  might see you, you y o u r s e l f the work turned round, up f o r us, (PD, pp. 70-71)  f o u r poems which form t h i s c e n t r a l s e c t i o n on  the  C r u c i f i x i o n — " I n plum Latronem", "In Christum crueem ascensurum", "Christum i n cruce* , and 1  are a l l based on imagery o f r i s i n g and  "In C l a u o s " — falling.  In  "In pium LatronemS (On the good t h i e f ) , the t h i e f i s going up  to C h r i s t , h a v i n g s t o l e n e t e r n a l l i f e .  in  t h i s poem the analogy which Herbert i s making between the  P u b l i c a n and  s i n n e r , Zacchaeus, and Jesus on the  depends on the  imagery o f r i s i n g , and  t r e e i n both cases: the  "man  of l i t t l e  the S a v i o u r , crucified. absolute round)  Similarly,  i n the  first,  cross  i s l i n k e d by  the  the "sycomore" which  s t a t u r e " ( S t . Luke) climbed to  see  i n the second,the t r e e on which C h r i s t  was  In the o r i g i n a l L a t i n , a simple a b l a t i v e  c o n s t r u c t i o n "labore mutato" (the work  turned  expresses the complex i d e a which the r h e t o r i c a l  ease of the poem somewhat d i s g u i s e s ; t h a t i s , that whereas Zacchaeus climbed a t r e e i n order Christ elevates himself  i n order  to see C h r i s t , i n t h i s case to be  seen.  The  wit i n  the c o n c l u s i o n o f the epigram i s based f i r m l y upon t h i s foundation  image:  114  S i c omnibus v i d e r i s ad modum v i s u s . F i d e s gigantem s o l a , v e l f a c l t nanum. And so t o each you seem A c c o r d i n g t o h i s way o f s e e i n g : Alone makes a g i a n t o r a dwarf, The  faith (PD, pp. 70-71)  n a r r a t o r s k i l f u l l y draws h i s a c c l a m a t i o  a s s o c i a t i o n s brought t o mind by the p r e v i o u s the poem,  l i n e s of  U n t i l t h e l a s t two l i n e s , the r e a d e r ' s  knowledge o f the B i b l e i s l e f t t o f i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Zacchaeus: and  from the  o f small s t a t u r e .  i n the important  the f a c t that he i s f a i t h f u l  Another  a s s o c i a t i o n upon which  the ending o f the epigram draws i s the r e f e r e n c e  i n the  Psalms to t h e g i a n t who r e j o i c e s to r u n h i s course and was f r e q u e n t l y g l o s s e d d u r i n g  the Renaissance as  symbolizing  fi Christ.  Of course, the very f a c t that C h r i s t was w i l l i n g  to accept the cup t h a t h i s f a t h e r gave him. i s s u f f i c i e n t to make him a g i a n t from the p o i n t o f view o f faith.  The  p o i n t o f the s t o r y o f Zaccaeus i n the Gospels i s to show C h r i s t " r a i s i n g up" Zacchaeus from the contemptible p o s i t i o n which he was considered o f the town.  t o h o l d by the people  The paradox upon which the a c c l a m a t i o i s  based a t the end o f the poem i s that although Zacchaeus was a small-man, he was a g i a n t by the standards o f f a i t h . The  imagery of r i s i n g and f a l l i n g i s a l s o very  i n "Christus i n cruce"  ( C h r i s t on the c r o s s ) .  distinct  I n t h i s poem,  115  the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e becomes s l i g h t l y  more prominent  because of the obvious f i r s t person n a r r a t i o n of the poem and  the emphasis upon the n a r r a t o r ' s response:  H i e , v b i s a n a t i s t l l l a n t opobalsama mundi, Aduoluor madidae l a e t u s hiansque C r u e l : Pro l a p s u s t i l l a r u m a b e u n t i p e c c a t a ; nec a c r e s S a n g u i n i s i n s u l t u s exanimata f e r u n t . Here, where the healed world's Smooth balm d i s t i l l e d , I i joyous, and my mouth wide open, Am d r i v e n to the drenched c r o s s : By the f a l l i n g of t h a t d i s t i l l a t i o n , S i n s depart; dead t h i n g s , they cannot That blood's r i g o r o u s a s s a u l t s . The  changes o f tone  bear  (PD, pp. 70-71)  i n t h i s poem p r o v i d e one of the most  i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e .  The  poem begins  f u l l of j o y , optimism, and y e a r n i n g , moves i n t o a more contemplative tone with a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the power of the blood of God ( t h i s middle  section i s slightly  less optimistic,  expecially  s i n c e i t comes a f t e r the word " h e a l e d " i n the f i r s t and f i n a l l y  ends w i t h a tone of f e a r , doubt, and  line),  self-  recrimination: C h r i s t e , f l u a s semper; ne, s i tua f l u m i n a c e s s e n t , Culpa redux iugem te neget esse Deum. C h r i s t , keep w e l l i n g up, f o r i f your f l o o d i n g s t o p s , Revived g u i l t w i l l say you're not e t e r n a l God. (PD, pp. 70-71) The  ending of t h i s epigram  does not present a c c l a m a t i o ,  r e v e r s a l or wordplay, but a k i n d o f rhetoric;: which expresses a p o s i t i v e hope by means of a n e g a t i v e statement and g i v e s the r e s u l t i n g r e v e r s a l i n tone, i f not i n content.  116  There are can  atnumber of o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s  be made i n p a s s i n g about the  Passlo Discerpta,  One  use  o f the  the  one  It i s curious  ending of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r epigram i s i n many  ways l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g i n the volume, but v a r i a t i o n on  the  i n which C h r i s t  than those of a number o f  the  poem does d i s p l a y  of a highly  services,  ''persona" i n t h i s volume i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as w e l l  emotionally intense spectator. common to the  h i s f a m i l i a r and  interesting  reproached mankind i n g e n e r a l .  s e n s i t i v e , and  which i s a l s o  an  others  "Reproaches" of the Good F r i d a y  Herbert's narrative  One  o f "In A l a p a s " (On  the  that  as  of h i s d i s t i n c t i v e  "persona" i n The  traits,  Temple, i s  c o l l o q u i a l tone, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  openings of the poems.  Ah!  voice i n  i s Herbert's i n c l u s i o n of j u s t  poem whose n a r r a t o r i s C h r i s t h i m s e l f . that  that  C o n s i d e r , f o r example, the  the opening  slaps):  quam e a e d e r i s h i n c & inde  AhJ  how  w i t h hands  You  are  on each s i d e  palmisi  slapped! (PD,  pp.  66-67)  Another good example i s the h i g h l y  c o l l o q u i a l opening of  "Ad  in eclipse):  Solem d e f i c i e n t e m " (On  the  sun  Quid hoc? & ipse d e f i c i s , C a e l i g i g a s , . , » What's t h i s ? You too gone out, G i a n t of heaven,, , (PD, pp. 72-73) fc  117  Such c o l l o q u i a l language  i s s t r i k i n g i n contrast with  the a p p a r e n t l y schematised form and techniques o f the epigram, and stands out much more c l e a r l y than i t does i n The Temple where H e r b e r t ' s aim i s l a r g e l y t o d i s g u i s e any schema that might appear  to c o n t r o l the poems.  The  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n t h i s volume p r o v i d e s a tone which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n d i v i d u a l to make the s u b j e c t s o f each poem i n t e r e s t i n g i n and f o r themselves, and yet c o n v i n c i n g enough to make the p o i n t o f view expressed that of any of h i s C h r i s t i a n readers.  The r h e t o r i c and d i s p l a y o f  w i t are s k i l f u l l y tempered  by the e x p r e s s i v e l y human  response o f H e r b e r t ' s n a r r a t o r .  CHAPTER F I V E — A CRITICAL STUDY OF LUCUS  In the f o l l o w i n g chapter  on Lucus I s h a l l  dealswith  the poems under the same c a t e g o r i e s that I used i n Chapter Four; that i s , the arrangement o f the poems w i t h i n the volume as a whole, the imagery o f the poems, and  the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e which Herbert  these  uses.  By m a i n t a i n i n g  c a t e g o r i e s f o r the second volume some o f the  d i f f e r e n c e s between i t and P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a a r e made more obvious;  f o r i n s t a n c e , the breadth  of s u b j e c t -  matter upon which Lucus draws, c o n t r a s t e d with the d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d range I hope a l s o by m a i n t a i n i n g demonstrate H e r b e r t ' s  skill  epigrammatic techniques subject-matter  1  of Passio D i s c e r p t a .  t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n to i n the use of v a r i o u s  a p p l i e d to a wide v a r i e t y o f  i n Lucus.  119  I  The Arrangement of the Poems i n Lucus  As i n the case o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , the arrangement o f the t h i r t y - f i v e poems o f Lucus i n the W i l l i a m s Manuscript has never been c h a l l e n g e d nor have the poems been r e o r d e r e d by any e d i t o r .  S i n c e the poems are i n H e r b e r t ' s  own h a n d w r i t i n g w i t h few c o r r e c t i o n s to the t e x t , we must assume t h a t t h i s was the order i n which H e r b e r t intended t o l e a v e the poems; he made no subsequent major r e v i s i o n s i n e i t h e r d i c t i o n o r arrangement.  In this section, therefore,  I am n o t defending one s t a t e d theory o f h i s arrangement a g a i n s t another, as much as p o i n t i n g out some o f - t h e p o e t i c advantages and disadvantages as i t stands i n the W i l l i a m s  o f the arrangement  Manuscript.  By g i v i n g h i s volume a t i t l e  as vague and y e t  s u g g e s t i v e as Lucus (The Sacred Grove), H e r b e r t  allowed  h i m s e l f a g r e a t d e a l more freedom than he had scope f o r in  the p r e v i o u s volume, P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a (The Events o f  the P a s s i o n ) , where, even i f he d i d n o t i n t e n d to f o l l o w c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the events as they are n a r r a t e d i n the B i b l e , h i s reader would n a t u r a l l y expect, from the title,  such an arrangement.  I n Lucus, as i n The Temple,  120  the grouping and arrangement are l e f t own  p a t t e r n as the reader  with no The  to emerge i n t h e i r  proceeds through the volume,  immediate s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s  of associations or  volume i s much more l o o s e l y grouped and  ideas.  arranged than  i s P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a , however. On a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g , any,  the poems seem t o have few, i f  l i n k i n g themes or images, and many o f the t i t l e s  the s u b j e c t s of the poems seem out of p l a c e the t i t l e , "The  Sacred Grove".  One  and  i n a volume with  group o f poems which  seems a l i e n to the r e s t o f the Volume as a whole i s t h a t concerned with v a r i o u s f o l l i e s  and v i c e s of mankind; such  poems as " A u a r i t i a " ( A v a r i c e ) , "In Superbum" (On man),  "In Tre/vc^oE^'oN" (On v a i n g l o r y ) , and  (On the g l u t t o n ) .  the^proud  "In Gulosum"  I t i s p o s s i b l y the mixture of  this  k i n d of poem with epigrams on more d i r e c t l y ; ! s a c r e d s u b j e c t s that prompted McCloskey and Murphy i n t h e i r b i l i n g u a l e d i t i o n to comment t h a t : . . . b o t h the P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and the Lucus are l a r g e l y d i d a c t i c r a t h e r than d e v o t i o n a l i n the sense o f many of h i s H e r b e r t ' s l a t e r E n g l i s h poems . . . . 1 I t must be admitted t h a t they do appear a t f i r s t to be  glance  s c a t t e r e d throughout the volume at random, but  I b e l i e v e t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s a reasonable case  can  be made f o r t h e i r d e l i b e r a t e and advantageous p o s i t i o n i n g in  the manuscript.  121  J u s t as In P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , the poems do tend to f a l l i n t o obvious groups.  The b e s t example o f t h i s i s the f o u r  poems towards the end o f the volume on Rome and Pope TJrban VIII  (who was h o l d i n g the papal t i t l e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  the same time as Herbert was w r i t i n g the volume).  A  s i m i l a r grouping occurs near the middle of the volume w i t h the poems on p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s .  However, the  arrangement on the whole i s not as systematic as i n Passio Discerpta.  F o r .example, when one begins r e a d i n g  the volume, the f i r s t f i v e poems appear t o be l i n k e d  both  t h e m a t i c a l l y and through t h e i r images, but the s i x t h poem "In  pacem B r i t a n n i c a m " (On the B r i t i s h peace), breaks the  sequence which i s n o t resumed.  T h i s b r e a k i n g o f an a p p a r e n t l y  c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d sequence occurs f r e q u e n t l y .  S:-v*  One f a c t o r , though, tends to keep the reader m e n t a l l y alert  to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d e l i b e r a t e and c a r e f u l l y  thought out s t r u c t u r e on H e r b e r t ' s p a r t , and t h a t i s the f a c t that the m a j o r i t y o f poems, i f they a r e not t o p i c a l , are based on incidents from the New Testament; f o r example, "Tempestas C h r i s t o dormiente" "In  Vmbram P e t r i "  (Martha, Mary).  (The storm, while C h r i s t  (On P e t e r ' s shadow), and "Martha:  sleeps),  Maria"  The i n c i d e n t s do not seem to be arranged  as they occur i n the Gospels except by the most tenuous o f links.  F o r example, i n S t . Luke, C h r i s t ' s meeting  with  122  Martha and Mary i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by h i s meeting a t d i n n e r w i t h the P h a r i s e e .  I t i s p o s s i b l e that Herbert  meant h i s poem I n Superbum" (On the proud man) t o r e f e r n  to  t h i s i n c i d e n t , and t o c o n t r a s t with both the p r e c e d i n g  poems, "Martha: but  Maria"  (Martha; Mary) and "Amor" (Love),  there i s no d e f i n i t e r e f e r e n c e i n " I n Superbum" to  the meeting with'the As  proud and s i n f u l  Pharisee.  i n P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a , the scheme behind  Herbert's  arrangement depends l a r g e l y upon h i s use o f imagery, which l i n k s the poems i n a way t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the opening o f the volume. poems "Homo, S t a t u a " and  The f i r s t  (Man the s t a t u e ) , " P a t r i a "  " I n Stephanum lapidatum"  contexts.  (Homeland),  (On the s t o n i n g o f Stephen),  i n t r o d u c e i n v a r i o u s ways two images, those f i r e , which Herbert  o f rock and  uses s e p a r a t e l y and together  I n "Homo, S t a t u a "  three  in different  (Man the s t a t u e ) , he uses  the image o f rock t o s i g n i f y s i n and " i m p r o b i t a s " ( i m p u r i t y ) i n the human h e a r t , which was so common as an emblem i n the seventeenth  century and was based on the  same image i n the B i b l e : Sum, q u i s n e s c i t , Imago D e i , sed saxea c e r t e : Hanc m i h i d u r i t i e m c o n t u l i t i m p r o b i t a s . I am, s t u p i d , the Image of God but Surely rock. Impurity Put t h i s hardness On me. (L, pp. 80-81)  123  The  image o f man as a statue l i n k s ,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , with the t i t l e ,  in i t s classical  f o r the Romans s c u l p t e d  s t a t u e s o f t h e i r Gods and Goddesses i n order to worship them i n temples o r even p o s s i b l y i n sacred groves.  Here,  H e r b e r t ' s n a r r a t o r i s i n the image o f God, but the statue does n o t denote beauty, and  sinfulness.  grace and worship,  but i m p u r i t y  He conveys these n e g a t i v e  connotations  by u s i n g n o t the word "marmor'* (marble), but the a d j e c t i v a l "saxea"  ( o f rock, r o c k y ) .  The beauty o f the  f o l l o w i n g l i n e s leads i n t o the f i n a l r e f e r e n c e to marble; it  does not harden l i k e  the s c a r l e t c o r a l s , but weeps.  H e r b e r t ' s h e a r t a l s o must weep i n order to prove i s not harder than The "Patria"  that i t  stone.  imagery o f f i r e  i s i n t r o d u c e d i n the next poem  (Homeland), and i s combined with the image of  rock, to comment upon the s p i r i t u a l s t a t e of the n a r r a t o r . A simile of f i r e  i s used to r e f e r to the d e v o t i o n a l s t a t e  o f the mind: TJt t e n u i s flammae s p e c i e s caelum vsque minatur, I g n i c u l o s legans, manserit i p s a l i c e t ; S i c mucronatam reddunt s u s p i r i a mentem, Yot&que s c i n t i l l a e sunt animosa meae. As the form o f r a r e f i e d flame Shooting o f f sparks l e a p s to the sky, though i t Stays back i t s e l f , so do s i g h s Make sharp the mind, and f i e r y p r a y e r s Are my sparks. (L, pp. 82-83)  124  The  image of rock  and  used to r e f e r to the body only a t the end o f  epigram.  i s juxtaposed,  subordinated  to  this,  the  In the p r e v i o u s poem, the h e a r t or the mind  o n l y glanced a t , s i n c e i t was was  hut  the n a r r a t o r ' s body.  but "Asslduo  imprisoned  i n the rock  was that  Here, the h e a r t cannot o n l y weep,  s t i m u l o carnem . . . l a c e s s i t "  (beat  the  2 f l e s h with nagging p a i n ) , ( t u n n e l through i t ) . through) The  3  and  "perterebrare ^potest"  The word " p e r t e r e b r a r e " (to bore  o b v i o u s l y b r i n g s with  i t the  image of  t h i r d poem, "In Stephanum lapidatum"  of Stephen), combines the two  rock.  (On the  images d i r e c t l y  lines: Qui s i l i c e m t u n d i t , (mirum tamen) e l i c i t A t Caelum e s a x i s e l i c u i t Stephanus.  in  stoning  two  ignem:  How marvelousI Who Pounds rock gets f i r e . But Stephen from Stones got heaven. (L, pp. 82-83) T h i s poem i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t r e f e r s i n p a r t to a very  common emblem i n the seventeenth century,  scintillans"  ( f l a s h i n g rock)  The  title  f o r h i s volume of  emblem u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d a  s t r i k i n g sparks from a rock from the h e a r t i s s u e one  "silex  as Vaughan chose to c a l l i t  when he used the phrase as the poems i n 1650.  the  thunderbolt  i n the shape of a h e a r t ,  or two  tears.  and  These t e a r s are  d e f i n i t e l y t e a r s o f repentance i n the f i r s t  poem.  But  125  here, Stephen does not gain t e a r s of repentance from stones,  but  the next stage, Heaven.  This point i s also  r e i n f o r c e d by the d i c t i o n of the poem. " s i l e x " f o r rock  "elielo"  Herbert  uses the word  j u s t as the emblem w r i t e r s , as w e l l  Vaughan, f r e q u e n t l y d i d , and (to draw out)  i n the f i n a l l i n e , and  t h i s verb God".  The  s t o n i n g of Stephen occurs  i n the A c t s of  Apostles  (Chapter V I I , 56-60), and  the  only a few v e r s e s  later.  f a i t h f u l martyr, i n whom the H o l y S p i r i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t he  could buy  the  i n c i d e n t w i t h Simon The  poems o b v i o u s l y make a good c o n t r a s t i n theme:  Simon who  as  a l s o he uses the verb  has a p a r t i c u l a r meaning of " c a l l i n g down a  the s o r c e r e r occurs  the  two  Stephen the  radiant,  and  f o r money the power  o f the H o l y Ghost: E c q u i d ernes Christum? pro n o b i s s c i l i c e t o l i m V e n d i t u s est Agnus, non tamen emptus e r i t . W i l l you buy C h r i s t ? No doubt l o n g ago The Lamb was s o l d f o r us; yet he Not be bought. (L, pp. 82-83) T h i s poem i n t r o d u c e s  will  the image of money which occurs  in  c e r t a i n of the f o l l o w i n g poems; i t a l s o r e f e r s back to the  "Imago D e i "  (Image of God)  poem "Homo, S t a t u a "  (Man  mentioned i n the  first  the s t a t u e ) :  V n i c u s e s t nummus, caelo Christoque p e t i t u s , Nempe i n quo clare" l u c e t Imago D e i .  126  There* s but one kind of c o i n Looked f o r by C h r i s t and heaven; T r u l y the one i n which God*s l i k e n e s s gleams C l e a r l y etched. (L, pp. 84-85} The f i f t h poem o f t h i s group, "In S. S c r i p t u r a s " (On the Sacred S c r i p t u r e ) , uses, i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , the f i r e  imagery used i n the e a r l i e r poems:  Heu, quis s p i r i t u s , igneous que turbo Regnat v i s c e r i b u s , melisque v e r s a t Imo p e c t o r e c o g i t a t i o n e s ? 0 what s p i r i t , what f i e r y w h i r l w i n d Takes my bones and s t i r s My deepest thoughts? (L, pp. 84-85) However, the g e n e r a l importance of t h i s poem i s not o f imagery as much as theme.  The Sacred S c r i p t u r e t o which  H e r b e r t i s r e f e r r i n g i s , of course, the New p a r t i c u l a r , the A c t s of the A p o s t l e s .  Testament, i n  The i m p l i c i t  i n the f i r s t l i n e w i t h the word " s p i r i t " would  reference  seem to be  to the Holy Ghost; the passage from A c t s , Chapter  Two,  reads: 2And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a r u s h i n g mighty wind, and i t f i l l e d a l l the house where they were s i t t i n g . 3And there appeared unto them c l o v e n tongues l i k e as of f i r e , and i t s a t upon each o f them. The repeated imagery of "house", " l o d g i n g " , " a l l e y s " , e t c . i s a l r e a d y suggested by the B i b l i c a l passage; H e r b e r t merely i n d i v i d u a l i z e s i t to r e f e r to h i m s e l f .  However,  s i n c e he cannot c l a i m to have r e c e i v e d the Holy S p i r i t  127  as such, i n h i s poem the " s p i r i t " becomes the power o f Sacred S c r i p t u r e upon the human s o u l . l i n k s and  T h i s f i f t h poem  summarises the p r e v i o u s f o u r v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y ;  but a t t h i s p o i n t , there i s a break i n the volume w i t h "In pacem B r i t a n n i c a m " . T h i s poem has f o r i t s w i t t y ending a r e f e r e n c e to the i n c i d e n t i n the Gospels o f C h r i s t ' s walking upon the of G a l i l e e .  Sea  I t a l s o has an i m p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to the  p a r t i n g o f the waters o f the Red Israel in their flight  Sea f o r the c h i l d r e n o f  from the E g y p t i a n s : •'Et quae  eorrumpit moenia, murus aqua e s t . " (And water which wrecks walls, i s I t s e l f a wall).  The epigram  i n g e n e r a l to the T h i r t y Years War was  fought over r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s .  possibly refers  (1618-1648) England,  which  because of  James I's p a c i f i c p o l i c i e s , d i d not become i n v o l v e d i n t h i s war: A n g l l a cur solum fuso s i n e sanguine s i c c a e s t , Gum n a t e t i n t a n t i s c a e t e r a t e r r a m a l l s ? Why i s England dry (Not h a v i n g poured her blood o u t ) , While a l l the e a r t h wades -..-'-v.-- = i ^ f Through t i d e s of e v i l ? (L, pp. 86-87) :  !  T h i s poem does c o n t r a s t w i t h the one before i t i n t h a t Herbert i s now  r e f e r r i n g to peace and enlightenment  on a  g e n e r a l , n a t i o n a l l e v e l , whereas i n ''In S. S c r i p t u r a s " he was  concerned  s o l e l y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , p e r s o n a l  o f the n a r r a t o r .  response  128  The seventh poem " A u a r i t i a " ( A v a r i c e ) , r e t u r n s to the image o f gold or t a i n t e d money introduced  i n " I n Simonem  Magum (On Simon Magus): Aurum nocte v i d e n s , v i d l e s e insomnia d i c i t : Aurum l u c e v i d e n s , n u l l a v i d e r e p u t a t . 0 f a l s o s homines*. V i g i l a t , q u i sbmniat aurum, Pltfsque habet h i e l a e t u s , quarn v e l Auarus habet. Gold seen a t n i g h t i s s a i d To be a dream, And i n the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . 0 vain Men, he Is awake who dreams Of g o l d : he's got more g o l d than even The a v a r i c i o u s man. (L, pp. 86-87) The  s u b j e c t o f t h i s poem i s s e c u l a r r a t h e r than  sacred,  but  the c o n c i s i o n and w i t t y t u r n o f thought a r e admirable  and completely t y p i c a l o f H e r b e r t a t h i s b e s t . The next group o f poems from number e i g h t to number twenty-four appears to be a heterogeneous and d i s p a r a t e group l i n k e d a s much by a s s o c i a t i o n s as by definite  themes o r images.  T h e i r one common l i n k i s t h a t o  they a r e l a r g e l y based upon i n c i d e n t s taken from the Gospels, a l t h o u g h w i t h i n t h i s group there i s the c o l l e c t i o n of c a u t i o n a r y poems mentioned  earlier,  such as "In Gulosum"  (On the g l u t t o n ) , " I n Improbum d i s e r t u m " (On the eloquence o f t h e wicked), e t c .  " I n Lotionem pedum Apostolorum"  (On the washing of the a p o s t l e s ' f e e t ) i s based upon a passage i n the Gospel o f S t . John:  129  A f t e r that he poureth water i n t o a b a s i n , and began t o wash the d i s c i p l e s * f e e t , and to wipe them w i t h the towel wherewith he was g i r d e d . (13: v) T h i s poem i s f o l l o w e d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y by"In D. Lucam** (On Luke the d o c t o r ) , s i n c e Luke was  one o f the w r i t e r s o f  the Gospel and f i l l e d w i t h the H o l y Ghost: Cur Deus e l e g i t Medicum, q u i numine plenus D i u i n a C h r i s t ! s c r i b e r e t a c t a manu? Why d i d God a d o c t o r p i c k , That he, f i l l e d up w i t h the Holy S p i r i t , Might w i t h h i s consecrated hand Record the a c t s of C h r i s t ? (L, pp. 88-89) **Papae t i t u l u s , Nec Deus Nec Homo** (The Pope's (not  God  title  or man] ) does not l i n k w i t h the poem p r e v i o u s  to i t ,  but  w i t h that f o l l o w i n g i t , " T r i b u t i  solutio"  (The payment of t r i b u t e ) .  Both Mark and Luke  r e c o r d the q u e s t i o n the P h a r i s e e s put to Jesus payment of T r i b u t e to Caesar.  concerning  H e r b e r t , by j u x t a p o s i n g  the two poems here, emphasizes the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the p o s i t i o n s of Caesar and  the Pope.  In the f i r s t  poem, the  Pope i s not even allowed the d i g n i t y of being regarded the A n t i c h r i s t , while i n the second, Quod-omnibus tute imperes,  as  the p o i n t i s made t h a t :  nemo t i b i .  F o r you of everyone Are uncontested k i n g , While no one  i s of you.  (L, pp. 88-87)  The power of C h r i s t i s r e f e r r e d to l n the f o l l o w i n g poem^"Tempestas C h r i s t o dormiente" (The storm, while C h r i s t ' s l e e p s ) , w h i l e h u m i l i t y i s the s u b j e c t of the  130  f o l l o w i n g poem "Bonus C i u i s " f i f t e e n t h and Mary) and The  (The good c i t i z e n ) .  s i x t e e n t h poems "Martha:  Maria"  The  (Martha;  "Amor" (Love), are o b v i o u s l y l i n k e d i n theme.  l o v e of Martha and Mary f o r C h r i s t as recorded  Luke, Chapter Ten, d i f f e r e n t ways, and l o v e i t s e l f and  i s expressed  bytthe  in St.  two women i n  i n the f o l l o w i n g poem Herbert  expresses  the s t a t e o f l o v e by means of v a r i o u s  metaphors and s i m i l e s . With "In Superbum" (On the proud man),  Herbert  a short group o f c a u t i o n a r y poems q u i t e u n l i k e the o f the epigrams i n s u b j e c t or emphasis. ( A f f l i c t i o n ) and  " C o n s o l a t i o " ( C o n s o l a t i o n ) , which are  "Afflictio"  C h r i s t ' s walking  rest  "Afflictio"  i n s e r t e d i n t h i s group, are more o b v i o u s l y on s u b j e c t s , and  begins  sacred  r e f e r s a g a i n to the i n c i d e n t o f  on the water.  The  l i n k s between the  other  poems, a p a r t from the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r s u b j e c t s , are a l s o f o r g e d by the imagery.  F o r example, at the  o f "In K t ^ o ^ o L ^ *», an image of food q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r and Morosus, oxygala  end  i s used to d e s c r i b e  temperament:  est: leuis,  coagulum.  Moroseness has a c u r d l i k e t h i c k n e s s , And g i d d i n e s s i s r e n n e t - t h i n . (L, pp.  96-97)  T h i s poem then l e a d s i n t o "In Gulosum" (On the g l u t t o n ) :  131  Dum prono r a p i s ore c i b o s , & f e r c u l a v e r r i s , I n t r a extraque g r a u i plenus es i l l u u i e . While youffshovel food In your swooping mouth And p i c k c l e a n whole t r a y s , You are weighted down w i t h i n And without with a f l o o d Of d i r t . (L, pp. 96-67) The  final  image o f "In Gulosum" (On the g l u t t o n ) , i s  t h a t of death and  interment:  Te p e t e t , ante diem q u i s q u i s o b i r e c u p i t . Who And  He w i l l v i s i t you wants to be i n t e r r e d b e f o r e h i s time. (L, pp.  the f o l l o w i n g poem "In Improbum disertum"  eloquence o f the wicked), i s a l s o concerned p h y s i c a l s i n , the p l e a s u r e s  (On  98  the  with  o f the f l e s h and  eventual  death: Aurea pro naulo l i n g u a C h a r o n t i s Your g i l d e d t a l k w i l l  be  Charon's passage money. "Consolatio"  (Consolation)  erit.  (L, pp.  98-99)  summarises t h i s  group by b r i n g i n g to the reader's  cautionary  a t t e n t i o n the C h r i s t i a n  c o n s o l a t i o n f o r the f a c t of death on a g e n e r a l l e v e l : Viuimus i n praesens: hesternam v i u e r e vitam Nemo p o t e s t : hodie v i t a s e p u l t a p r i o r . We l i v e F o r the p r e s e n t : The l i f e t h a t was  no one can l i v e the day b e f o r e .  (L, pp.  98-99)  132  This C h r i s t i a n consolation moves, i n the next poem, "In Angelos" (On angels), to an even higher sphere. WheraaSthe previous poem referred to the height that human beingscould reach i n death, t h i s poem compares the nature of angels with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and physical l i m i t a t i o n s of the human being upon earth.  This movement out of the  group of cautionary poems onto a more philosophical l e v e l i s not continued  further than "In Angelos".  The sequence  here appears to break o f f and lead into a group of highly t o p i c a l poems concerned with Pope Urban VIII. The twenty-fifth poem, "Roma. Anagr." (Rome:  an anagram)  serves as an introduction to three poems which are almost s a t i r i c rather than sacred epigrams, such i s their topicality.  The four poems form a l o g i c a l sequence,  seemingly complete i n i t s e l f . The  seven remaining poems of the volume form another  heterogeneous and disparate group.  T^^nk^Boirvc*." (Reasonable  s a c r i f i c e ) and "In Thomam Didymum" (On Thomas Didymus) return to C h r i s t i a n rather than t o p i c a l subjects, the l a t t e r r e f e r r i n g to the well-known incident of Thomas the Doubter i n the New Testament.  "In Solarium"  (On the  sundial) returns, however, to a general consideration of the human condition, the human being's p o s i t i o n upon earth, as a creature who "animaque & corpore constat" (hangs between body and a s p i r i t ) .  This i s followed by the  133  v e r y l o n g and p a r t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e poem "Triumphus M o r t i s " (The triumph o f Death), the ending o f which i s powerful but p e s s i m i s t i c . s h o r t e r epigram  I t i s f o l l o w e d v e r y f i t t i n g l y by a much "Triumphus C h r i s t i a n i :  (The C h r i s t i a n ' s triumph:  i n Mortem"  a g a i n s t Death), which, i n  i t s s i m p l i c i t y and assurance, c o n t r a s t s s k i l f u l l y with the f o r e g o i n g poem and prepares the way f o r " I n Johannem'i iH<?T^&"tf v'* 1  (To John, l e a n i n g on the Lord's b r e a s t ) . T h i s poem and "Ad Dominum" (To the L o r d ) , the l a s t i n the volume, r e i n t r o d u c e ' the personal and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d tone o f the n a r r a t o r i n t o the sequence.  The n a r r a t o r  w i t t i l y r e i n t e r p r e t s John's l e a n i n g on the Lord's b r e a s t as the a c t of a s u c k l i n g c h i l d .  T h i s metaphor o f a woman's  l i f e - g i v i n g b r e a s t f o r the open and wounded b r e a s t o f C h r i s t i s continued i n the opening o f the f o l l o w i n g poem: C h r i s t e , decus, dulcedo, & centum c i r c i t e r Hyblae, C o r d i s apex, animae pugneique paxque meae . . . . C h r i s t , b r i g h t one, sweet one, more l i k e A hundred f a b l e d honey-bearing towns, H e a r t ' s h i g h e s t seat, the war Of my s p i r i t , and i t s peace....(L, pp. 120-121) The C h r i s t i a n metaphor i s , o f course, o f C h r i s t as the l o v e r of the human s o u l , but the metaphor i s heightened by the s e c u l a r overtones o f the method o f a d d r e s s . poem, the l a s t of  i n t h e sequence,  This  expresses the f i n a l p l e a  the f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n to see C h r i s t :  )  134  Quin, s i n e , te cernam; q u o t i e s iam d i x e r o , cernam; Immoriarque o c u l i s , o mea v i t a , t u i s . 0 l e t me see;you! As o f t e n As I say i t , I w i l l see you. In your eyes, 0 my l i f e , I w i l l d i e .  (L, pp. 120-121)  T h i s emphasis a t the end o f the volume on the n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with C h r i s t c o n t r a s t s w i t h the c o n c l u d i n g poems o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ,  i n that the emphasis  there was on the more g e n e r a l and u n i v e r s a l meaning o f the C h r i s t i a n s t o r y r a t h e r than on the more p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l response of the n a r r a t o r as i t was a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the volume.  Lucus, l i k e P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ,  a l s o moves from the g e n e r a l but I or  to s p e c i f i c and v i c e v e r s a ,  b e l i e v e that the movement i s n o t as d e l i b e r a t e  as e f f e c t i v e as i t i s i n the l a t t e r volume.  t i t l e Lucus  The  (The Sacred Grove) gave Herbert much more  freedom than d i d the t i t l e  Passio Discerpta.  i n Lucus, as might be expected, v a r i e t y of t o p i c s .  The poems  a r e on a much g r e a t e r  T h e i r arrangement seems a t times  p e r f e c t l y understandable  and extremely  skilful,  o t h e r s merely p u z z l i n g .  I t i s obvious  t h a t the arrangement  and  choice o f subject-matter  and a t  f o r many of the poems i n  the volume i s d i c t a t e d by the i n c i d e n t s i n the Gospels, particularly  i n the A c t s of the A p o s t l e s ; but there a r e  a l s o many poems which appear t o havfe l i t t l e i n common with the o t h e r s i n the volume, o r even with the t i t l e "The Sacred  Grove".  135  I f the arrangement o f the poems i n the volume  cannot  be t o t a l l y j u s t i f i e d , the v a r i e t y and use o f the imagery which Herbert employed  c e r t a i n l y can. I s h a l l attempt  to show i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n a few o f the a s p e c t s o f h i s use o f imagery and some o f the major image p a t t e r n s which he employs  i n the volume.  136  II  The  One  Imagery i n Lucus  of Herbert's  a b i l i t y to use may  most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s k i l l s i s h i s  i n a new  and  s t a r t l i n g way  be common or overworked.  an image t h a t  Thus, although  the imagery  o f Lucus i s o f t e n s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to that o f P a s s i o Discerpta, Herbert's  use  of t h a t imagery and  i n which he p l a c e s i t are always v a r i e d .  the  contexts  Tfee imagery  o f L u c u s r i i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a not i n s i n g l e images but i n image groupings o r A number of these  groupings are  even on a cursory r e a d i n g .  immediately  only  clusters. recognizable  A good example i s the  c l u s t e r of images r i g h t at the b e g i n n i n g o f the volume i n v o l v i n g rock and f i r e .  In the v e r y f i r s t poem, H e r b e r t ' s  a b i l i t y to f i n d a s t r i k i n g and  b e a u t i f u l image Is  d i s p l a y e d by h i s l i n e on the red c o r a l s : Durescunt p r o p r i j s e u u l s a c o r a l l i a f u n d i s , Red c o r a l s , P u l l e d out Of t h e i r h a b i t a t Harden. (L, pp. 80-81) The  epigram moves i n a s k i l f u l p r o g r e s s i o n of ideas  and  r e f e r e n c e s to the a c t u a l substances which embody those  ideas.  The  n a r r a t o r begins  by drawing immediate  a t t e n t i o n to h i m s e l f , but as the poem moves on he moves  137  backward i n time.  The s t r i k i n g ,  i n s e r t e d image o f the  c o r a l s a m p l i f i e s not only the p r e v i o u s the n a r r a t o r ' s present  sentence d e s c r i b i n g  c o n d i t i o n , but a l s o the f o l l o w i n g  sentence u s i n g Adam's f a t e t o e x p l a i n the n a r r a t o r ' s rock-like The rock,  heart. poem moves through three substances:  the u n y i e l d i n g  the c o r a l s l o w l y hardening and f a d i n g , and the marble,  b e a u t i f u l and s o f t e r than the o t h e r two i n t h a t i t weeps. The  address to God (who has o n l y been mentioned o b l i q u e l y  so f a r ) , forms the climax o f this m e d i t a t i v e Herbert's  wit i s displayed  epigram and  i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a substance  which i s both b e a u t i f u l and s o f t e r than the substance o f h i s own h e a r t .  The ending o f t h i s poem i s an  acclamatio  of an unusual k i n d i n that i t i s a p l e a couched n e g a t i v e l y i n the form o f an imperative  or command:  Tu, q u i cuncta creans d o c u i s t i marmora f l e r e , Haud mihi c o r saxo d u r i u s esse s i n a s . You who C r e a t i n g a l l t h i n g s gave Marble the power t o weep, Do not l e t my heart Be harder than stone.  (E, pp. 80-81)  T h i s epigram a l s o g i v e s a k i n d o f parody o f the o r i g i n a l i n s c r i p t i o n a l form o f the epigram, e i t h e r engraved i n a stone o r b u i l d i n g , o r r e f e r r i n g to i t , when one remembers t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s r e f e r r i n g to h i m s e l f as a s t a t u e .  A l s o the  v o c a t i v e address reminds one o f the i n j u n c t i o n to the  138  passer-by i n many e p i t a p h s .  The concluding  t u r n o f thought  here depends p a r t l y upon s u r p r i s e , f o r u n t i l the l a s t  line  we a r e not t o l d e x p l i c i t l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the metaphors which Herbert  i s u s i n g , and the s p i r i t u a l  state  of the n a r r a t o r . The  imagery o f f i r e  i n " P a t r i a " (Homeland) i s much  more complex i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the i d e a which it  expresses than i s the imagery o f rock  poem.  i n the above  There i s a one to one c o r r e l a t i o n between the  p a r t s o f the image as a s i m i l e  and the i d e a i t i s  d e s c r i b i n g , t h a t i s the form o f the f i r e , the f i r e and  i t s sparks represent  r e s p e c t i v e l y the n a r r a t o r ' s  sighs;.his mind, and h i s p r a y e r s . and  fierce  itself,  But i t i s the complexity  i n t e n s i t y of the image t h a t make the s i m i l e  e x c i t i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g : Ut t e n u i s flammae s p e c i e s caelum vsque minatur, I g n i c u l o s legans, manserit i p s a l i c e t . ; S i c mucronatam reddunt s u s p i r i a mentem, Votaque s c i n t i l l a e sunt animosa meae. As the form of r a r e f i e d flame Shooting o f f sparks l e a p s t o the sky, though i t Stays back i t s e l f , so do sighs Make sharp the mind, and f i e r y prayers Are my sparks. (L, 82-83) The  complexity  o f the f i r e  imagery here d e r i v e s from i t s  a p p l i c a t i o n to the n a r r a t o r ' s mind a t a p e r i o d o f s p i r i t u a l striving.  The image o f " r a r e f i e d flame" i s used a s a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r ' s s i g h s , which i n t u r n sharpen h i s mind as they a r e expressed.  The r a r e f i e d  139  flame takes sparks up from the f i r e ,  j u s t as the n a r r a t o r ' s  s i g h s c a r r y up w i t h them h i s p r a y e r s .  The  image here  i s d e l i b e r a t e l y expanded i n the opening of the poem i n o r d e r that i t can be used  to g i v e g r e a t e r weight  to the  s t a r k n e s s o f the c o n c l u d i n g a c c l a m a t i o : Assiduo s t i m u l o carnem Mens v i t a l a c e s s i t , Sedula s i f u e r i t , p e r t e r e b r a r e p o t e s t . The mind beats the body a l l the t i m e — And i f i t p e r s e v e r e s , Can t u n n e l through i t . (L, pp. 82-83) In  c o n t r a s t t o the p r e v i o u s poem, the body here has become  rock although t h i s i s o n l y i m p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n the word " p e r t e r e b r a r e " (to t u n n e l ) . ambiguous; i t could r e f e r  The  t i t l e of the poem i s  e i t h e r to heaven, the homeland  t h a t the mind i s s t r i v i n g to r e a c h , or, i n an  ironic  sense, to the body, which i s home f o r the mind on e a r t h but which must be l e f t . of  fire  bare and  The  complexity of the  imagery  i n t h i s poem forms a good c o n t r a s t w i t h the simple statement  of ''In Stephanum lapidatum"  (On the s t o n i n g o f Stephen): Qui s i l i c e m t u n d i t , (mirum tamen) e l i c i t ignem: At Caelum e s a x l s e l i c u i t Stephanus. How marvelous'. Who Pounds rock gets f i r e . But Stephen from Stones got heaven. (L, pp. 82-83) Here, the w i t depends upon t h i s s t a r k n e s s o f statement  and  the reader has a l r e a d y been prepared by the p r e v i o u s poem  140  f o r the l i n k between f i r e , There i s no s u g g e s t i o n , and  sparks, and a s p i r i t u a l  state.  indeed no space, f o r an emotional  response on the p a r t of the n a r r a t o r to Stephen's martyrdom, the w i t i s d e r i v e d from the p l a y o f the i n t e l l e c t the bare f a c t s o f the i n c i d e n t .  around  The s i m p l i c i t y of the  imagery r e f l e c t s the thought i n the epigram. The use o f bare and unelaborated imagery i s much more p r e v a l e n t i n Lucus than i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ; f o r example, i t s use i n " A u a r i t i a "  (Avarice):  Aurum nocte v i d e n s , v i d i s s e insomnia d i c i t : Aurum l u c e v i d e n s , n u l l a v i d e r e p u t a t . Gold seen at n i g h t i s s a i d To be a dream, And i n the l i g h t i s thought To be r e a l . (L, 86-87) Here the image i s not expanded; i t i s there simply as a f a c t to p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r the t u r n o f thought a t the end of the poem.  The n a r r a t o r i s p l a y i n g with the  theme o f i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y , but i n the body of the poem one  i s no more e l a b o r a t e d on than the o t h e r .  balance each o t h e r p e r f e c t l y , and up w i t h w i t and  They  the c o n c l u s i o n sums both  i r o n y , e x p r e s s i n g the t u r n of thought  a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n terms of p o s s e s s i o n : Plusque habet h i e l a e t u s , quam v e l Auarus he's got more g o l d than even The a v a r i c i o u s man. (L, pp, 86-87)  habet.  141  Of course, the p o i n t o f the epigram i s that gold i s w o r t h l e s s ; the man w i t h gold has no more substance than the man  who dreams o f i t .  T h i s s h o r t poem i s i n p a r t an  e x p l a n a t i o n o f the theme o f "In Simonem Magum" (On Simon Magus), where the concept o f money and buying i s l i n k e d to C h r i s t ' s "buying back" mankind from s i n : Quin nos Ipse emit, p r e c i o s o faenora soluens Sanguine: nec precium merx emit v l l a suum. He bought  No, us, l i q u i d a t i n g  Our debt w i t h h i s R i c h b l o o d . (L, pp. 88-83) D u r i n g the middle ages r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s  frequently  employed the pun on the "redemption" which i s d e r i v e d the  " L a t i n "redimere", t o buy back.  from  F o r example, these  l i n e s from the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l y r i c "How C h r i s t  shall  Come": I  come vram the chepyng as a Riche chapman, t h e t Mankynde habbe i b o u z t . I come vram an vncouthe londe as a s e l y pylegryme, f e r r habbe i - s o u z t . 5 H e r b e r t i s o b v i o u s l y p l a y i n g w i t h the same pun i n the imagery o f ^ I n Simonem Magum": E c q u i d ernes Christum? pro nobis s c i l i c e t olim V e n d l t u s e s t Agnus, non tamen emptus e r i t . W i l l you buy C h r i s t ? No doubt l o n g ago The Lamb was s o l d f o r us; y e t he w i l l Not be bought. (L, pp. 82-83) Simon's money was t a i n t e d , and the image a t the end of the  poem becomes a metaphor i n v o l v i n g a c o n t r a s t between  " t r u e " and " t a i n t e d " money:  thet  142  V n i c u s e s t nummus, .caelo C h r i s t o q u e p e t i t u s , Nempe i n quo c l a r e l u c e t Imago D e i . There's but one kind of c o i n Looked by C h r i s t and heaven; T r u l y the one i n which God's l i k e n e s s gleams C l e a r l y etched. (L, pp. 84-85) Man  i s "forged"  i n the  image of God,  j u s t as the  forged  or minted, but  on the  ''coin", i t i s w o r t h l e s s , t a i n t e d ,  Thus, by  the end  rendered Simon as  i f God's l i k e n e s s i s not  to be  seen  counterfeit.  of the poem, the n a r r a t o r  t a i n t e d as h i s money.  coin i s  The  has  wittily  image o f  the  s t a r mentioned e a r l i e r i n the poem becomes a metaphor for Christ.  Simon cannot o f f e r enough money to buy  " s t a r " , whereas C h r i s t p a i d our  debt, and  buy  the  this  f u l l p r i c e to " l i q u i d a t e "  back mankind.  I have already  commented  on the reappearance i n t h i s poem o f the phrase "Imago D e i " . The  s t a r image a l s o r e c u r s  i n "In S.  Scripturas":  Nunquid pro f o r i b u s sedendo nuper S t e l l a m vespere suxerim volantem, Haec a^utem h o s p l t i o l a t e r e t u r p i P r o r s u s n e s c i a , c o g i t a t recessum? When I was r e s t i n g Near my door not l o n g ago, And i t was evening, d i d I Swallow a f a l l i n g s t a r ? And i s i t T r y i n g to escape, not knowing how In t h i s d i s g r a c e f u l l o d g i n g Again, the  to be-ihidden?  (L, pp#  " f a l l i n g s t a r " i s synonomous w i t h the  - f o r c e , C h r i s t o r the Holy Ghost.  divine  84-85)  143  T h i s recurrence apart,  of images o f t e n a number of poems  i s a c t u a l l y more frequent  than c l u s t e r s of s i m i l a r  images such as were to be found i n P a s s l o The  o v e r a l l theme of Lucus which the  express i s the appearance and Such i s the arrangjuent to lend  imagery i s used to  presence o f the H o l y Ghost.  of the poems t h a t the volume seems  i t s e l f more e a s i l y to the e f f e c t i v e use  which r e c u r linked  Discerpta.  i r r e g u l a r l y but p o w e r f u l l y ,  of images  r a t h e r than c l o s e l y  c l u s t e r s of images i n a number of poems.  there are two major image groups l i n k e d f a i r l y w i t h i n Lucus.  The  However,  closely  f i r s t of these, which o c c u r s d i r e c t l y  a f t e r " A u a r i t i a " ( A v a r i c e ) , i s that o f water, f o r defence, as f a symbol o f power and h u m i l i t y ;  p u r i f i c a t i o n , and  second i n v o l v e s a r c h i t e c t u a l images of h a b i t a t or In I n pacem B r i t a n n i c a m " n  the  (On the B r i t i s h peace),  with t h i s are l i n k e d f l u i d  " t i d e s of e v i l " .  o f the Red  Sea  and  In t h i s poem the war;  lodging.  image of the sea around an i s l a n d i s the b a s i s of  epigram, and and  the  The  images o f  poem a l s o r e f e r s to the  C h r i s t ' s w a l k i n g upon the  sea  blood crossing  waters.  i s a metaphor e i t h e r f o r peace or  f o r England i t means peace.  The  n a r r a t o r opens  the poem by p u t t i n g a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : A n g l i a cur solum fuso sine sanguine s i c c a e s t , Citm n a t e t i n t a n t i s c a e t e r a t e r r a m a l i s ? Why i s England dry (Not h a v i n g poured her blood o u t ) , While a l l the e a r t h wades Through t i d e s o f e v i l ? (L, pp. 86-87)  the  144  He then w i t t i l y uses the metaphor o f the sea's ebbing and f l o w i n g to answer h i s own q u e s t i o n : S i t l i e e t i n pelago semper, sine f l u c t i b u s i l i a e s t , Cum qui p l u s t e r r a e , p l u s habuere m a r i s . Though she i s always i n the sea, She has no waves; a t the same time, They who  have more l a n d more sea p o s s e s s .  (L, pp. 86-87)  F o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s not at peace, war means p o s s e s s i o n : N a u f r a g i j causa e s t a l i j s mare, r o b o r i s Anglo, The  sea i s the cause o f shipwreck to them;  To England, a source of s t r e n g t h — The  (L, pp. 86-87)  sea means shipwreck, the s h i p o f s t a t e i s l o s t i n war.  But B r i t a i n , because  she i s a t peace, i s defended by her  p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e waters, and peace means the f l o u r i s h i n g of R e l i g i o n : Nempe h i e R e l i g i o F f l o r e t , r e g i n a q u i e t i s , Tuque super n o s t r a s , C h r i s t e , moueris aquas. F o r sure R e l i g i o n f l o w e r s here, the Queen of Peace, And you, C h r i s t , move upon our waters. (L, pp. 86-87) In t h i s epigram a s e r i e s of metaphoric  images i s used to  b u i l d , w i t h a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t meanings, towards f i n a l statement.  the  L i k e a jigsaw p u z z l e a l l the v a r i o u s p i e c e s  o f the metaphor are f i t t e d t o g e t h e r — d r y n e s s , goodness,  peace,  s t i l l waters, weakness, p r o t e c t i o n , R e l i g i o n — u n t i l the f i n a l l o g i c a l step i s reached, the presence o f C h r i s t .  Herbert,  admirer of James I's p a c i f i c p o l i c i e s towards Europe, must have been aware i n t h i s poem o f the i r o n y o f the T h i r t y Years War.  Although the C a t h o l i c and  145  P r o t e s t a n t European c o u n t r i e s were s t r u g g l i n g over r e l i g i o u s beliefs, at  the only t r u e upholders o f r e l i g i o n were the c o u n t r i e s  peace and  f r e e to worship and p r a c t i s e t h e i r  R e l i g i o n i s the " r e g i n a q u i e t i s "  religion,  (the Queen of Peace).  Another i n t h i s group o f poems u s i n g imagery o f the sea i s "In Lotionem pedum Apostolorum" (On the washing of the apostles'- f e e t ) .  A g a i n the imagery i s extremely f u n c t i o n a l ;  there i s o n l y one  adjective, "gelidis"  describes "aquis".  The  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the myth w i t h  Gospel i n c i d e n t i s b l u n t and are not completely  ( i c e - c o l d ) which  at f i r s t  s i g h t the two  the  ideas  integrated:  Solem ex Oceano V e t e r e s exurgere f i n g u n t Postquam se g e l i d i s nocte r e f e c i t a q u i s : V e r i i i s hoc o l i m factum e s t , v b i , C h r i s t e , l a u a r e s I l l o s , q u i mundum c i r c u m i e r e , pedes. The a n c i e n t s b e l i e v e d the sun Heaved up out o f the sea A f t e r he'd r e f r e s h e d h i m s e l f At n i g h t i n i c e - c o l d water.. T h i s was t r u e r l o n g ago When you, C h r i s t , bathed those f e e t Which made t h e i r way However, i n t h i s case,  around the world. (L, pp. 86-87)  the w i t of the epigram d e r i v e s  e x a c t l y from t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n . i n f a c t , a s i m i l e , although such. at  The  The  i t i s not  initial  image i s ,  i m p l i c i t l y s t a t e d as  c o n t r a s t between the image and  the  explanation  the end:?6f the epigram appears sharp and p u z z l i n g u n t i l  the reader r e c o g n i z e s i d e a s , and  the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the i n i t i a l  two  image to the  146  following incident.  The pun, o r double entendre on the  word "sun" i s r e v e a l e d i n the t h i r d l i n e with mention o f C h r i s t . overnight.  direct  The sun renews h i m s e l f i n the sea  C h r i s t , on the other hand, renews o r r e f r e s h e s  h i m s e l f by u s i n g water t o p u r i f y the f e e t o f h i s a p o s t l e s who w i l l spread h i s word anew around the world.  The l a s t  l i n e with i t s i d e a o f t r a v e l l i n g l i n k s the images o f both the sun and the sea which the poem has used, f o r the sun t r a v e l s daily, r e t u r n i n g to the sea a t n i g h t when i t s e t s . The poem "Tempestas C h r i s t o dormiente" (The storm, w h i l e C h r i s t s l e e p s ) , i s a much s i m p l e r epigram than many o t h e r s i n the volume. although  The main image a g a i n  t h i s two-line poem depends on i m p l i c i t  to a t l e a s t three Gospel i n c i d e n t s : G a l i l e e while walking  i s o f t h e sea, references  the storm on  C h r i s t s l e p t , the R e s u r r e c t i o n , and C h r i s t ' s  upon the waters:  Gum dormis, s u r g i t pelagus: cum, C h r i s t e , r e s u r g i s , Dormitat pelagus: Quam bene fraena tenes'. While you s l e e p the sea a r i s e s : When, C h r i s t , you r i s e up a g a i n , The sea slumbers. How w e l l You master things'. (L, pp. 90-91) The poem works upon a simple i n "In pacem B r i t a n n i c a m "  c o n t r a s t and r e v e r s a l .  (On the B r i t i s h peace),  As  the sea  a g a i n r e p r e s e n t s a f o r c e both p e a c e f u l and d e s t r u c t i v e , which Herbert  sees e l o s e l y l i n k e d to C h r i s t ' s s t o r y .  The f i n a l phrase "Quam bene f r a e n a t e n e s l " (How w e l l you  147  master things*.) l i n k s hack to the p r e v i o u s poem " T r i b u t i s o l u t i o " (On the payment o f tribute), which a l s o uses i n d i r e c t l y the image of the sea, with C h r i s t * s i n j u n c t i o n to P e t e r to c a t c h a f i s h , f i n d money i n i t s mouth and it  for tribute  (Matthew 17; 27).  The  p o i n t of  offer  "Tributi  s o l u t i o " i s to prove t h a t C h r i s t i s "uncontested  king",  and  by h i s  i n the f o l l o w i n g poem h i s power i s expressed  command o f n a t u r a l f o r c e s , i n t h i s case the A f i n a l example of H e r b e r t s 1  imagery i s i n " A f f l i c t i o " . two  incidents.  walking  use  sea.  of sea and  water  Once again he i s r e f e r r i n g  to  E x p l i c i t l y , he i s r e f e r r i n g t o C h r i s t ' s  on the waves i n the New  c r o s s i n g of the Red  Testament, and  Sea by the c h i l d r e n of  to the  Israel:  Q,uos t u c a l c a s t i f l u c t u s , me, C h r i s t e , l a c e s s u n t , T r a n s i l i u n t q u e caput, qui s u b i e r e pedes. C h r i s t e , super f l u c t u s s i non d i s c u r r e r e d e t u r : Per f l u c t u s saltern, f a c , p r e c o r , i p s e vadem. Those waves you walked upon, My L o r d , and which come up to Your f e e t , pound and leap above My head. C h r i s t , i f I can't go On top of the water, l e t me a t l e a s t , I beg you, pass through the waves. (Lgpp.* 94-95) In t h i s poem the n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l v o i c e comes through v e r y c l e a r l y , and  the c o n c l u s i o n o f the epigram depends  upon t h i s p e r s o n a l v o i c e f o r the w i t t y e f f e c t of i t s p l e a . The  sharp and  w i t t y climax. walking  c o n c i s e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f ideas adds to The  the  n a r r a t o r i s comparing C h r i s t ' s a c t o f  on the water to the f l i g h t of the  Israelites,  and h i s s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n i s compared m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  148  t o the c o n d i t i o n o f a man  about to drown.  I f he cannot walk  upon the water as C h r i s t d i d , h i s p l e a i s to reach  the  Promised Land by p a s s i n g unharmed through the waves. The  sea  thus becomes a metaphor f o r the t r i a l s  temptations of e a r t h l y l i f e , which C h r i s t has  and transcended,  the I s r a e l i t e s passed through, and which the n a r r a t o r must struggle with  i n o r d e r to reach  s p i r i t u a l peace.  T h i s group of poems u s i n g sea or water imagery does form a p a t t e r n o f themes and poems are r a t h e r spread serves,  out and  r e f e r e n c e s , even, i f the  disparate.  i n the epigrams where i t appears, a l a r g e l y  f u n c t i o n a l purpose, i t s e f f e c t i s gained by the a s s o c i a t i o n s i t b r i n g s w i t h New  Since i t  Testament events.  The  to a l a r g e  extent  i t , mainly i n v o l v i n g  same statement i s t r u e of  the  second type of image which f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r s i n t h i s sequence and  i s even more n o t i c e a b l e i n the epigrams of  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ; t h i s image i n v o l v e s metaphors of housing or h a b i t a t . The  i d e a o f h a b i t a t or l o d g i n g i s h i n t e d a t i n the  v e r y f i r s t poem, "Homo, S t a t u a . n  Here the  image o f  the  hardening c o r a l s r e f e r s to the f a c t that they have been p u l l e d from t h e i r r i g h t f u l h a b i t a t , j u s t as Adam was from h i s home, P a r a d i s e , "Patria"  into e x i l e .  (Homeland), the t i t l e  itself  sent  In the next poem, p r o v i d e s an image  which r e f l e c t s on the r e s t of the poem.  Although i n t h i s  149  case the body Is the the  spirit  "home" or " l o d g i n g "  continually tries  c o r r e c t l o d g i n g o f the i s not  the s p i r i t ,  to leave the body.  The  the body o f C h r i s t ; f o r  the poem "In Thomam Didymum".(On Thomas  Didymus), where C h r i s t ' s body i t s e l f p r o v i d e s a and  and  s p i r i t , as Herbert emphasizes,  the human body of f l e s h , but  instance, I n  of  a lodging  in a spiritual  In "In S.  Scripturas"  image of " l o d g i n g "  shelter  sense.  (On Sacred S c r i p t u r e ) ,  the  i s used i n a v a r i e t y o f ways, and  a  series  o f images i s b u i l t up on which to found the r e a l i z a t i o n a t the end  of the epigram.  The  most concrete r e f e r e n c e  the poem i s to the n a r r a t o r ' s Nunquid pro Near my But  the  dwelling:  f o r i b u s sedendo nuper  When I was r e s t i n g door not l o n g ago . . .  "hospitio  . . . turpi"  . . . .  ,(L, pp.  the house but  the n a r r a t o r .  combined images o f the  the  a c t u a l body of  s t a r are p o s s i b l y meant to be a s s o c i a t e d mind w i t h the N a t i v i t y a t Bethlehem. C h r i s t h i m s e l f wao body, the  has  taken as h i s own  "disgraceful lodging",  the n a r r a t o r ' s .  In the  The  l o d g i n g and i n the  s t a r then becomes  dwelling  the human  which i s h i s as w e l l  whose "house" i s H o l y  i t s e l f , a k i n d of honey-comb from which the suck the  divine  influence:  the  reader's  second image the d i v i n e s p i r i t  the H o l y Writ becomes a bee  C h r i s t i a n can  84-85)  (disgraceful lodging)  r e f e r r e d to i s not The  in  as of  Scripture  thirsting  150  Nunquid mel comedens, apem comedi Ipsa cum doming domum vorando? Have I i n s i p p i n g honey Consumed the bee, i n e a t i n g up The house eaten up the m i s t r e s s o f the house? The  final  (L, pp. 84-85)  image i s o f the heart or body as a b u i l d i n g :  Ah, quam doeta p e r a m b u l a r e ^ c a l l e s Maeandr6sque p l i c a s q u e , quam p e r i t a e s i Quae v i s c o n d i d i t , i p s a n o u i t aedes. Ah, how wise and s k i l l e d you are To s l i p through these paths, windings, k n o t s . The s p i r i t t h a t has r e a r e d the b u i l d i n g Knows i t b e s t . (L, pp. 84-85) The . i d e n t i c a l image i s used "Martha: domestic  Maria"  (Martha; Mary).  i n the way  The Temple.  i n a d i f f e r e n t way  Here the imagery i s  so t y p i c a l of H e r b e r t ' s p o e t r y . i n  The f a m i l i a r and  c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n of t h i s  homely d i a l o g u e make t h i s poem stand out as unique the  in  in  collection: Christus adest: c r e b r i s aedes p e r c u r r i t e s c o p i s , E x c u t i t e a u l a e a , & l u e e a t igne f o c u s . " C h r i s t i s here. Sweep up the rooms, Shake out the c u r t a i n s , l e t a f i r e L i g h t the h e a r t h . (L, pp 92-93) Y  The  q u i e t tone o f Mary's r e j o i n d e r which makes up  emphatic ending o f the epigram metaphor.  r e i n f o r c e s the wit o f the  Martha i s more concerned  house than i n her h e a r t :  the  with the dust i n her  151  0 cessatrices'. eccum p u l u i s c u l u s i l l i c l Corde tuo f o r s a n , c a e t e r a munda, SOROR. Oh, slowpokes! Look, there's s t i l l Some f i n e dust h e r e ! " "Perhaps i n your h e a r t , S i s t e r . A l l else i s clean," (L, pp. 98-93) -The  image o f the body as a b u i l d i n g or l o d g i n g i s  a l s o used i n "In Gulosum" (On  the g l u t t o n ) .  Here the  o f the g l u t t o n ' s body i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y ugly  image  and  cautionary: . . . verum spelunca v o c e t u r I l i a cauerna, i n qua t o t c o i e r e f e r a e . Ipse f r u a r e , l i c e t , s o l u s graueolente s e p u l c r o ; Te p e t e t , ante diem q u i s q u i s o b i r e c u p i t . Don't j u s t c a l l i t b e l l y now, But cavern, i n which so many F i e r c e beasts have been packed together. You alone can take pleasure In a tomb's stench. He w i l l v i s i t you Who The  wants to be  i n t e r r e d before  h i s time. (L, pp.  98-99)  body here, however, i s a l o d g i n g of a d i f f e r e n t k i n d ;  i t becomes a cavern and  f i n a l l y a tomb.  epigram warns o f f those who as the  The  end o f  the  do not wish to go the same  way  glutton.  The  l a s t two  are T V a ^ v ^ Q o i n a - "  poems making use  of t h i s k i n d of image  (Reasonable s a c r i f i c e ) and  Dldymum" (On Thomas Didymus).  "In Thomam  I n "/\cyiiro^feutri4»! (Reasonable  s a c r i f i c e ) the body becomes " v i v a . . . Ara D e i " l i v i n g a l t a r of God), w i t h the  (the  a l i n e which has obvious a s s o c i a t i o n s  idea of Church, Temple, or p l a c e  of worship.  152  Man  becomes a body w h i c h - C h r i s t  can i n h a b i t .  Didymum" (On Thomas Didymus) takes  the  Thomas the Doubter from S t . 'John 20:  sweet r e s t ) .  epigram t h i s s h e l t e r and  I n Thomam  incident of 24-29, and  a metaphor of C h r i s t ' s body as a "hospitium dulcem" (a s h e l t e r and  n  uses  torumque  At the end  sweet r e s t becomes a  of  the  "fida  s t a t i o n e & area c e r t a " (a good i n n and a s t r o n g f o r t ) , a much s t r o n g e r image which i n t u r n emphasizes the dangers o f a " s p i s s a e f i d e i breuique f a i t h and  a narrow mind).  epigram i s turned The  The  grudging  c o n c l u s i o n of the  into a miniature  good i n n or s t r o n g f o r t  m e n t i " (a  P i l g r i m ' s Progress.  i s a powerful  image c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Herbert  yet homely  a t h i s best  i n the  epigram form. Herbert's  s k i l l with h i s imagery could be  demonstrated  a t much g r e a t e r l e n g t h ; the i n c r e d i b l e a r r a y of imagery used i n Triumphus M o r t i s " (The example, or h i s b r i l l i a n t  use  triumph of  Death),for  o f v a r i o u s images to  c o n s t r u c t the ingenious anagram/epigram "Roma, Anagr. ' 5  (Oram, Maro, Ramo, Armo, Mora,  Amor).  However, the main f u n c t i o n of h i s imagery i n these epigrams i s to g i v e the concise epigrammatic form a  foundation  o f i d e a s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e s , upon which to b u i l d towards the f i n a l e f f e c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n .  The  imagery, as  153  I have p o i n t e d out, does f a l l groups,  i n t o d i s t i n c t and r e c o g n i z a b l e  but i n each separate poem i t s use i s determined  by the k i n d o f e f f e c t i v e  climax H e r b e r t wished the  n a r r a t o r to reach and the v o i c e i n which he intended him to convey t h i s c l i m a c t i c s e c t i o n I s h a l l attempt  thought.  I n the f o l l o w i n g  b r i e f l y to i d e n t i f y some o f  the d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s H e r b e r t ' s n a r r a t o r u t i l i z e s .  154  III  The N a r r a t o r as Informant:  The V o i c e  i n Lucus  The much g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f subject-matter  i n Lucus  than i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a n a t u r a l l y a l l o w s the n a r r a t i v e voice revealed  i n the v a r i o u s poems much g r e a t e r freedom i n  the matter o f tone, and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f c l i m a c t i c e f f e c t . Where the n a r r a t o r i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a mediated between the events o f Good F r i d a y and the reader's p e r c e p t i o n o f them i n the sequence, the n a r r a t o r i n Lucus i s f r e e r t o s t i m u l a t e the reader  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y through the epigrammatic form by  j u x t a p o s i n g i d e a s , images, and metaphors i n order t o c r e a t e a new p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i n the poem. where the n a r r a t o r i n " I n A l a p a s "  F o r example,  (On the s l a p s ) from  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , w i l l l e a d the metaphor o f t h e h e a l i n g ointment to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n by making e x p l i c i t , i n a simple  acclamatio,  the comparison with C h r i s t , the  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n "In Stephanum lapidatum" will  s h a r p l y juxtapose  from Lucus,  two images, and r e v e a l not only h i s  w i t i n the comparison, but a l s o the u n d e r l y i n g meaning of the i n c i d e n t as he has r e l a t e d i t . I t would be a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of Herbert's  skill  and v e r s a t i l i t y to attempt t o draw t h e above d i s t i n c t i o n too "finely.  The epigrams i n Lucus d i s p l a y a d i f f e r e n c e  155  In n a r r a t i v e v o i c e m a i n l y because t h e i r  subject-matter  i s wider than t h a t of P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ; but s t u d y i n g d i f f e r e n t types of n a r r a t i v e v o i c e r e v e a l e d does show the n a r r a t o r s e r v i n g a s l i g h t l y purpose from t h a t i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a :  the  i n Lucus  different  he serves l e s s  as a mediator and more as a s t i m u l a t o r , to s u r p r i s e and f r e q u e n t l y to shock the One  reader.  o f the most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n Lucus i s i t s v a r i e t y .  the  Once a g a i n ,  the  range of subjiect-matter i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e .  The  range from s t r i c t l y r e l i g i o u s subject-matter  devotional  expression, sequence, A d n  and  poems  such as i s found i n the f i n a l poem of the Dominum" (To the L o r d ) ,  to v e r y  s» ;:•  topical,  s e c u l a r s u b j e c t s , the treatment of which verges upon the s a t i r i c ; f o r example, the s e r i e s of poems on Rome and Pope Urban V I I I .  The  v a r i e t y of subject-matter  allows  the  n a r r a t o r a v a r i e t y of images which i n t u r n a l l o w him v a r i e t y of tones. n  Consider,  f o r example, the poem  I n D. Lucam" (On Luke the doctor) and  the poem which  f o l l o w s i t , "Papae t i t u l u s , Nec  Deus Nec  Pope's t i t l e not God  The  or man  a  ).  uses a technique common i n Herbert's answered by the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f  Homo'?  (The  n a r r a t o r i n the  former  epigrams, the  question  i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e :  156  Cur Deus e l e g i t Medicum, q u i numine plenus D i u i n a C h r i s t ! s e r i b e r e t a c t a manu? T t d l s c a t s i b i quisque, quid v t i l e : nempe nocebat Crudum o l i m pomum, t r i s t i s Adame, t i b i . Why d i d God a d o c t o r p i c k , That he, f i l l e d up w i t h the H o l y S p i r i t , Might w i t h h i s consecrated hand Record the a c t s of C h r i s t ? I t was i n order that each man Might l e a r n what's good f o r him. S u r e l y the unripened f r u i t o f o l d Was agony f o r you, unlucky Adam. (L, pp. 88-89) The  three separate sentences which form the poem are l i n k e d  by the o v e r a l l metaphor o f Luke's d u a l p r o f e s s i o n . I n C o l o s s i a n s , Chapter 4, v e r s e 14, he i s "Luke, the beloved p h y s i c i a n " , a d o c t o r o f p h y s i c a l i l l s ;  here  Herbert sees him as a s p i r i t u a l d o c t o r , and the w i t o f the metaphor i s enhanced by the unexpected r e f e r e n c e to Adam. A f t e r the q u e s t i o n from the n a r r a t o r , and h i s own answer w i t h i t s tone o f assurance and subdued w i t i n the double meaning, both s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l , o f the word "good", the tone o f the f i n a l statement, which i s phrased almost as a q u e s t i o n , comes with abruptness and a c e r t a i n wry humour.  The d i r e c t address to " t r i s t i s Adame" (unlucky  Adam) who has not yet been mentioned,  combined with the  immediacy and homeliness o f the image, i t s p l a y on the domestic q u a l i t i e s o f Adam's situation, g i v e a c o l l o q u i a l tone and y e t u n d e r l y i n g i r o n y which*, make the reader immediately r e f l e c t upon h i s own s i t u a t i o n : f o r the apple he was tempted knowledgeable  i f Adam s u f f e r e d so g r e a t l y  i n t o t a k i n g , what o f us who a r e  and d e l i b e r a t e i n our s i n ?  157  The s u b t l e t y o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n "In D. Lucam" (On Luke the doctor) "Papae t i t u l u s "  i s e q u a l l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g poem  (The Pope's t i t l e ) .  Here H e r b e r t ' s  sense  of epigrammatic c o n c i s i o n g i v e s i n only two l i n e s one o f his  best short poems.  The tone of the poem i s not the  wry h e a r t i n e s s r e v e a l e d i n the p r e v i o u s poem, r a t h e r i t i s the tone o f a man d e c r y i n g a s s e r t i v e l y but not a r r o g a n t l y , and  s u p p l y i n g i n f u l l c o n f i d e n c e , h i s own i n d u b i t a b l y  r i g h t answer; Quisnam A n t i c h r i s t u s cessemus quaerere; Papa Nec Deus e s t nec Homo: C h r i s t u s vterque f u i t . Let us not continue a s k i n g Who i s the A n t i c h r i s t . The Pope i s not God or man: C h r i s t was b o t h . (L, pp. 88-89) In i t s t o t a l d i m i n u t i o n and v i r t u a l a n n i h i l a t i o n o f i t s s u b j e c t the poem verges upon s a t i r e . i s completely of the f i n a l  without  bitterness.  However, the tone  The calm a s s e r t i o n  sentence c r e a t e s f o r the reader the u l t i m a t e  sense of b e i n g completely  above, i n the sense o f  s u p e r i o r t o , what i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d .  Even the t i t l e  o f the poem i s not concerned with the Pope h i m s e l f , but with h i s t i t l e .  By the end of the poem he i s not even allowed  the d i g n i t y of b e i n g regarded he i s not the opposite to  that t i t l e .  as the A n t i c h r i s t ;  since  o f C h r i s t he cannot l a y c l a i m  The v e r y word "Pope" r a i s e s him above  man but does not p l a c e him as high as God.  C h r i s t was  158  both God and man, t h e r e f o r e the Pope cannot be h i s d i r e c t opposite.  The extreme  c o n c i s i o n o f the idea and the  s i m p l i c i t y of i t s e x p r e s s i o n appear t o give the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e only an e x p l a n a t o r y f u n c t i o n , but the s t r u c t u r e o f the n e g a t i v e imperative which opens the poem g i v e s the n a r r a t o r the combined  tone o f a r e l i g i o u s  c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s t and f a i t h f u l , assured C h r i s t i a n . One o f the best examples  o f the use o f homely imagery  and v a r i e t y o f tone i n the sequence i s i n "Martha: M a r i a " (Martha; Mary).  The poem i s i n the form o f a v e r y unequal  d i a l o g u e ; the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the end o f the epigram depends upon the f a c t t h a t Mary's p a r t i n the d i a l o g u e i s minute but p e n e t r a t i n g .  The tone o f Martha's  speech  b e a u t i f u l l y conveys her c h a r a c t e r as H e r b e r t has c r e a t e d it,  f o r he f i l l s  i n the personalinsight i n t o  Martha's  c h a r a c t e r which the B i b l i c a l account,, i n S t . Luke, Chapter 10J does n o t attempt t o do: 40But Martha was cumbered about much s e r v i n g , and came to him, and s a i d , L o r d , dost thou not care that my s i s t e r hath l e f t me to serve a l o n e ? b i d h e r t h e r e f o r e that she h e l p me. 41Ahd Jesus answered^and s a i d unto her, Martha, Martha, thou a r t c a r e f u l and t r o u b l e d about many things: 42But one t h i n g i s n e e d f u l : and Mary hath chosen t h a t good p a r t , which s h a l l not be taken away from her. I n H e r b e r t ' s epigram we see behind the scenes i n the household.  Martha's g e n e r a l speech to her s e r v a n t s i s a  masterpiece o f c o l l o q u i a l i t y and s e n s i t i v e  characterisation.  159  In  Martha's world, though C h r i s t i s important, and  appears i n the f i r s t  he  l i n e o f her speech, h i s importance  i s o n l y t h a t o f the guest who  i s subordinated to her  s u p e r f i c i a l concerns w i t h appearance.  The s h o r t  speech  of Mary p r o v i d e s a c o n t r a s t i n tone, which not o n l y h a l t s the flow o f Martha's its  d i a l o g u e , hut r e a s s e r t s w i t h  calm i r o n y the r e a l importance o f C h r i s t which  been f o r g o t t e n by her s i s t e r .  T h i s type of r e v e r s a l o f  tone ends the epigram i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e because  i t s understatement  has  way,  r e i n f o r c e s the power of what  it  represents.  T h i s technique i s r e a l l y a v a r i a t i o n  of  the r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e , a c c l a m a t i o ,  or  r e v e l a t i o n a t the end o f an epigram, r a t h e r than punning  or  word p l a y .  Herbert was  and wording h i s f i n a l  a simple a s s e r t i o n  extremely s k i l f u l l  i n placing  a c c l a m a t i o , so t h a t the tone o f the  n a r r a t i v e v o i c e became as s t r i k i n g i n i t s c o n t r a s t as what was a c t u a l l y  said.  A good example o f aocteaatio used w i t h a s t r i k i n g of  tone i s found i n the t h i r t y - t h i r d poem o f Lucus  "Triumphus C h r i s t i a n i : triumph:  i n Mortem"  (The C h r i s t i a n ' s  a g a i n s t Death):  G l a d l o s u e , Catapultasue teneam, quin neque Alapas nec A r i e t e s ? Quid ergo? Agnum & Crucem. . . . no swords Or cannons, indeed No f i s t s o r b a t t e r i n g rams? What can I use a g a i n s t you? The Lamb, the c r o s s . (L, pp. 118-119)  contrast  160  I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem the n a r r a t o r serves the f u n c t i o n s o f both mediator, i n a sense, and informant.  The c o n c l u d i n g  a c c l a m a t i o gains i t s e f f e c t and r e v e r s a l o f tone from the prominence  o f the n a r r a t o r i n the poem who i s brought t o  the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n by the f a c t t h a t he i s s t a n d i n g so o b v i o u s l y between the C h r i s t i a n S a l v a t i o n and the f o r c e o f Death.  The mention by the n a r r a t o r o f the one  instrument-he has w i t h which t o d e f e a t death, "Agnum•> & Crucem" (The Lamb, the c r o s s ) ,  i s the r e v e l a t i o n which the  whole o f the epigram l e a d s up t o , and which  reinforces  the r e a d e r ' s i m p l i c i t knowledge throughout that i s the only method o f defence a g a i n s t death.  Christ  However,  the d e s c r i p t i o n a t the opening o f the poem o f the power and n o t o r i e t y o f the p e r s o n i f i e d f i g u r e of death (who i s never named as such), and the catalogue o f p h y s i c a l weapons which a r e u s e l e s s a g a i n s t him, l e a d the reader to expect a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n ' s means of triumphing over death.  The simple a c c l a m a t i o o f two  words i s both an e x p l a n a t i o n , a c r y o f a p p r o v a l , and a l s o a complete  r e v e r s a l o f the r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s throughout  the poem i n t h a t C h r i s t ' s power i s underplayed i n the q u i e t tone and s i m p l i c i t y o f the c o n c l u d i n g two words. Because the tone a t the end o f epigram o n l y sounds l i k e an a n t i c l i m a x , i t g i v e s a sense of i r o n y :  the power o f fThe  Lamb, the c r o s s " does not need to be vaunted.  161  The v o i c e i n many o f the poems i n Lucus n o t on o v e r t l y r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s can range from the e x p l a n a t o r y t o the i r o n i c and even s a r c a s t i c ,  H e r b e r t can i n v e s t the  a p p a r e n t l y simple a c c l a m a t i o w i t h an a s t o n i s h i n g range o f tone.  C o n s i d e r , i n c o n t r a s t to "Triumphus  Christiani"  d i s c u s s e d above, the poem "In Superbum" (On the proud man).  Throughout  i t s semi-satiric  t h i s poem the tone i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r contempt:  Magnas e s ; e s t o . B u l l a s i v o c a b e r i s , Largiar & istud: s c i l i c e t Magnatibus D i f f i c i l i s esse haud s o l e b : nam, p o l , s i forem, I p s i s i b i sunt n e q u i t e r f a e i l l i m i . You're a personage: so l e t i t be. I f by "bubble" y o u ' l l be c a l l e d , I ' l l - f l a t t e r you w i t h t h a t . To be sure, w i t h personages I'm not accustomed to be saucy. Indeed, i f I should be so, They'd s t i l l be w i t h themselves Most v i l e l y l e n i e n t . (L, pp. 9 4 - 9 5 ) The f i n a l a c c l a m a t i o o r r e v e l a t i o n shows the n a r r a t o r as s a t i r i c  informant; h i s f i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n completely  d i m i n i s h e s and degrades the s u b j e c t o f the epigram: Quin, m i t t e nugas; teque carnem & sanguinem Communem habere crede cum Cerdonibus: I l i u m v o l o , q u i c a l c e a t l i x a m tuum. Rather, l e t ' s Quit t h i s nonsense: b e l i e v e you're B l o o d - r e l a t i v e to c o b b l e r s - I mean the k i n d who f i t Shoes on your s e r v a n t s . (L, pp. 9 4 - 9 5 )  162  H e r b e r t i s a l s o v e r y s k i l f u l with e f f e c t i v e and w i t t y word p l a y and punning a t the end o f the epigram.  In  c o n t r a s t to the above example o f s a t i r i c a c c l a m a t i o , the ending o f "Vrbani V I I I Pont. Respons." (The response o f Pope Urban V I I I ) g i v e s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f H e r b e r t ' s f a c i l i t y w i t h the w i t t y o r ingenious ending f o r an epigram. H o s t i b u s haec etiam parcens i m i t a t u r Iesum. I n u e r t i s nomen. Quid t i b i d i c i t ? AMOR. A l s o , i n f o r g i v i n g h e r enemies, she i m i t a t e s J e s u s . I n v e r t the name. What does i t t e l l you? "I am l o v e d . " (L, pp. 104-105) Once again, the s i m p l i c i t y o f the sentence the c o n c l u s i o n o f the epigram  structure a t  g i v e s a tone o f calm  a s s e r t i o n combined w i t h w i t t y e x p l a n a t i o n ; and the s i m p l i c i t y o f the anagram, changing  the word "Rome"  i n t o "Love" e f f e c t i v e l y supports the t o t a l which forms the epigram.  assertion  Herbert, i n t h i s poem, has  transformed h i s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n t o t h a t o f t h e Pope, but Herbert i n e v i t a b l y has the l a s t word i n t h i s of poems.  In "Respons. ad Vrb. V I I I "  series  (Response to  Urban V I I I ) , the pun o f the Pope's name, Urban, and the L a t i n meaning o f the a d j e c t i v e "urbanus" ( w i t t y ) , i s r e f e r r e d to throughout  the poem:  163  Non  p l a c e t vrbanus n o s t e r de nomine l u s u s Romano, sed r e s s e r i a Roma t i b i e s t :  Our urbane game about the Roman name Does not please you, But Rome h e r s e l f concerns you v e r y much. (B, pp. 104-105) The  tone i n t h i s poem i s p l a y f u l and the l a t e n t i r o n y  i s not e x p l o i t e d as f u l l y as i t might be; t h i s i s p a r t l y due  to the form o f the poem's address,  i n that i t i s  d i r e c t e d to the Pope h i m s e l f and extremely in  colloquial  expression: Attamen VRBANI d e l e c t o nomine, c o n s t a t Quam s a t u r & suauis s i t t i b i Roma i o c u s . S t i l l , w i t h Urban your chosen name, to you f o r sure How r i c h and sweet a j e s t i s Rome. (L, pp. 104-105) The v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s and moods i n the  poems o f Lucus ensures t h a t the epigrams never become boring or-repetitive  i n t h e i r s t r u c t u r e ; t h e i r w i t and  i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a y f u l n e s s , t h e i r moving p l e a s and e x p r e s s i o n s of  s p i r i t u a l f a i t h and unrest never become overwhelmed  by the formulas  o f epigrammatic e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  Herbert's  f a c i l i t y with d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s and tones a l l o w s him t o convey a much wider range o f subject-matter and emotion than was p o s s i b l e i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a . of  The e f f i c a c y  h i s epigrams depend upon the w i t t y and i n f o r m i n g  v o i c e of h i s n a r r a t o r .  CHAPTER SIX--CONCLUSIONS  The  b a s i c premise upon which t h i s study i s founded  i s t h a t P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus are sacred epigrams and must be s t u d i e d i n t h a t l i g h t value  i f t h e i r true a e s t h e t i c  i s to be a p p r e c i a t e d , and  canon r e c o g n i z e d Herbert's  as necessary  t h e i r place i n Herbert's  f o r an understanding  e n t i r e l i t e r a r y c a r e e r and  g i v e s us of the p e r i o d i n which he The  of  the r e f l e c t i o n i t  lived.  c u r r e n t c r i t i c a l n e g l e c t of Herbert's  Anglo-  L a t i n p o e t r y i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the general n e g l e c t o f E n g l i s h neo-Latin  t r a d i t i o n as a whole, and has  the  stemmed  l a r g e l y from the l a c k of adequate, a c c e s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n s , and a c e r t a i n f e a r on the p a r t of E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s t h a t by s t u d y i n g n e o - L a t i n p o e t r y of any p e r i o d they were t r e s p a s s i n g beyond acknowledged boundaries. appearance of a c c u r a t e ,  gradual  s c h o l a r l y t r a n s l a t i o n s has made  p o s s i b l e the study of a l i t t l e neo-Latin poetry.  The  Herbert  o f the extant  Renaissance  i s among the f i r s t to have  r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of t r a n s l a t o r s , but as yet there i s little  c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n based on these t r a n s l a t i o n s .  165  In o r d e r to conclude that P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and can be r i g h t l y d e s c r i b e d  as sacred  epigrams  Lucus  i n both form  and content, i t was necessary f o r t h i s study to o u t l i n e the  important a s p e c t s o f the epigrammatic  undoubtedly formed  t r a d i t i o n which  the b a s i s o f H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n epigrams.  The two b a s i c uses o f the epigram are to be found i n the L a t i n epigrams o f M a r t i a l and those l a t e r w r i t e r s used h i s epigrams as t h e i r model, and the Greek which are to be found i n The Greek Anthology. epigram was  epigrams The  Greek  o f t e n c l o s e i n form to the o r i g i n a l  i n s c r i p t i o n from which i t g r a d u a l l y developed. marked by s i m p l i c i t y o f tone and e x p r e s s i o n  upon i t s c o n c l u s i o n ,  I t was  which  verged on l y r i c i s m , and, a l t h o u g h i t s emphasis  not  who  often  was  usually  the w r i t e r o f the Greek epigram  was  concerned w i t h d i s p l a y i n g h i s w i t o r s u r p r i s i n g the  reader w i t h a t u r n o f thought.  M a r t i a l ' s use o f the  epigram form, on the o t h e r hand, was  characterised  by  h i s s a t i r i c i n t e n t i o n , wordplay, w i t , and h i s concern to emphasize  h i s conclusion  s t r o n g l y by the use of a  r e v e r s a l o r a t u r n o f thought. From the p o i n t of view o f form, P a s s l o and Lucus demonstrate  Discerpta  t h a t Herbert had absorbed the  conventions o f the L a t i n and the Greek epigram, both o f which were w e l l known and p r a c t i s e d d u r i n g and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s .  the s i x t e e n t h  In these two volumes H e r b e r t  166  uses bo$h the witty or ingenious conclusion of the L a t i n  epigram, and the f l a t t e r , more assertive acclamatio or acclamation of a point already made i n the epigram, which frequently concluded the Greek type. The content*of Herbert's Passio Discerpta and Lucus undoubtedly proclaims them as sacred epigrams, although Herbert did not s p e c i f i c a l l y claim them as such i n his t i t l e s as did many of his contemporaries.  John Saltmarsh's  Poemata Sacra, John Pyne's Epigrammata Religiosa, and Richard Crashaw's Eplgrammata Sacra, f o r example, are t i t l e s which reveal that the poets of the period were concerned with the new use to which they were putting the epigrammatic form.  The desire to incorporate B i b l i c a l material into  l i t e r a t u r e i n order to oppose the growing interest of Renaissance writers i n secular and often e r o t i c subjectmatter is evident throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and in men l i k e Saltmarsh and Pyne the early stages of the integration of sacred  subject-matter  and secular l i t e r a r y forms are clearly demonstrated. Although Herbert did not himself assert that the poems of Passio Discerpta and Lucus were sacred epigrams, a comparison -of his work with that of his contemporaries c l e a r l y reveals his relationship to the sacred epigram tradition.  167  We can also gain a clearer view of the aims and achievements of the sacred epigram writer i n general, and Herbert i n p a r t i c u l a r , by recognizing the differences between the epigrammatist and the emblem writer.  The  moral purpose of the emblem writers, men l i k e Andrew W i l l e t t or Robert Farley, i s much more i n evidence than i t i s in the work of the epigrammatists.  Although some modern  c r i t i c s have regarded the emblem as merely another type of epigram, the two forms have marked differences, the most obvious of which i s the fact that the written emblem i s meant to accompany a picture and i s not complete i n i t s e l f , whereas the epigram i s a t o t a l unit, meant to draw attention to i t s own a r t i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l  skill  rather than i l l u s t r a t e that of another a r t i s t i c work. A comparison of Herbert with a writer such as John Pyne, who had a tendency to mingle some of the techniques of the emblem with those of the epigram, reveals the stage of refinement that the epigram reached i n the hands of Herbert, and the high degree of poetic s k i l l he achieved while using i t . The b r i e f c r i t i c a l study given i n Chapter Three of some of the seventeenth-century writers who played a part in the development for  of the sacred epigram t r a d i t i o n revealed  the most part t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n f e r i o r i t y i n comparison  with Herbert.  However, a study of these poets i n f a r  168  g r e a t e r d e t a i l i s v i t a l to our understanding of the sacred epigrara>  t r a d i t i o n , not o n l y i n i t s c u l m i n a t i o n i n Herbert  and Crashaw, but i n w r i t e r s such as James Duport carried  who  on the t r a d i t i o n i n the seventeenth century as l a t e  as the R e s t o r a t i o n .  1  With the poets quoted comparison  i n Chapter Three as a b a s i s f o r  w i t h H e r b e r t , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t  to conclude,  even from the b r i e f study i n Chapters Four and  Five,  that H e r b e r t ' s sacred epigrams i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus d i s p l a y c o n s i d e r a b l e p o e t i c s k i l l , and knowledge of the epigrammatic  a e s t h e t i c value  conventions as they were  p r a c t i s e d d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and  seventeenth  H e r b e r t ' s success w i t h the sacred epigram dependent not s o l e l y upon h i s s k i l l  centuries.  is finally  i n the h a n d l i n g of the  conventions, the r h e t o r i c a l v o i c e , the v e r b a l w i t and wordplay,  but upon the use of these conventions to express  s i n c e r e r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g and o f the r e a d e r .  to arouse  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n as to H e r b e r t ' s success i s  supported by the comparison Crashaw with H e r b e r t .  of w r i t e r s l i k e Saltmarsh  Saltmarsh was  concerned  about h i s use of B i b l i c a l m a t e r i a l and interpretation  the r e l i g i o u s emotions  directly  the w i t t y  o f that m a t e r i a l which u s u a l l y formed  the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s epigram.  The reader g a i n s  or no sense of Saltmarsh's own  p e r s o n a l reBgious  in  and  the substance o f the  epigram.  little involvement  169  Crashaw, on involved  the other hand, i s much more p e r s o n a l l y  i n h i s m a t e r i a l , but h i s obvious r e l i g i o u s  s i n c e r i t y l o s e s much of i t s e f f e c t when he up  i n the wit and  s k i l l o f h i s own  stands i d e a l l y between the two,  becomes caught  wordplay.  balancing  Herbert  h i s use  the  conventions w i t h h i s own  r e l i g i o u s emotion,  the  conventions to gain t h e i r e f f e c t by e x p r e s s i n g  paradoxes b a s i c to C h r i s t i a n i t y which he as a p a r t of h i s own The  poetry  of any  but p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g century, must not and s t u d i e s are  allowing the  f e e l s deeply  life.  basic conclusion  Anglo-Latin  of  of t h i s t h e s i s i s that period  the  in English  literature,  the Renaissance and  seventeenth  cannot be  ignored  to a c h i e v e t h e i r aim  i f English  of understanding  literary and  a p p r e c i a t i n g f u l l y the l i t e r a t u r e o f p a r t i c u l a r men p a r t i c u l a r periods. large majority are now English.  U n t i l the e i g h t e e n t h  the  of the f i g u r e s i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e which  most c l o s e l y s t u d i e d wrote both i n L a t i n and In H e r b e r t ' s c&se^a  knowledge o f h i s L a t i n  as w e l l as of h i s E n g l i s h works may to t r a c e the his  century,  in  Influences  w r i t i n g , and  by s t u d y i n g  p o s s i b l y allow  in poetry  us  o f a v a r i e t y o f t r a d i t i o n s upon  i n t u r n to i l l u m i n a t e these t r a d i t i o n s  h i s work w i t h i n  them.  170  F u r t h e r , a study o f H e r b e r t ' s c a r e e r i n c l u d i n g h i s L a t works can r a i s e a number of i n t e r e s t i n g and as yet unanswered q u e s t i o n s .  F o r i n s t a n c e , why  should a  man  l i k e H e r b e r t , s k i l l e d , competent i n and o b v i o u s l y a t ease w r i t i n g L a t i n p o e t r y begin w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n E n g l i s h ? S i n c e the v e r n a c u l a r had been e s t a b l i s h e d a hundred y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y as the language of the L i t u r g y i n the A n g l i c a n church, one  of the answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n might be  i n H e r b e r t ' s chosen c a r e e r , that of A n g l i c a n I t was  found  clergyman.  n a t u r a l and n e c e s s a r y t h a t Herbert should employ  E n g l i s h r a t h e r than L a t i n i n The Temple which he p r o f e s s e s to be b a s i c a l l y concerned w i t h the church, the of the C h r i s t i a n year, and s t r u g g l e s with h i s own  the average  soul.  festivals  Christian's  I t i s necessary  to have  some knowledge o f H e r b e r t ' s r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y w r i t t e n i n L a t i n before the c o n n e c t i o n between the language o f The Temple and  i t s purpose can be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  Even to be aware that the sacred epigram  had i t s own  d e v e l o p i n g t r a d i t i o n d u r i n g the l a s t few years o f the s i x t e e n t h and f i r s t h a l f of the seven teenth century a l l o w s the s c h o l a r to l i n k the use of the form with c e r t a i n o t h e r movements of the time both l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l .  For  example, as was mentioned e a r l i e r , the d e s i r e among w r i t e r s to incorporate B i b l i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n t o v a r i o u s s e c u l a r l i t e r a r y forms was  an important  l i t e r a r y aspect  171  of the period, and was echoed by Anglican writers l i k e Herbert, i n the attempt to express by the actual form of t h e i r poetry, the Anglican sense of harmony, order, and r i t u a l as the basis of r e l i g i o u s l i f e .  The very d e f i n i t e  conventions of the epigram imposed a form upon the writer, the necessary concision of which was eminently suited to the expression of the paradoxes which were the basis of C h r i s t i a n i t y . An awareness of the t r a d i t i o n of the sacred epigram allows us to appreciate the poems i n Passio Discerpta and Lucus separately as sacred epigrams and, by comparison with the volumes of other contemporary writers, as a r t i s t i c units i n which the subject-matter for each poem has been c a r e f u l l y selected and the poems themselves c a r e f u l l y arranged to express a p a r t i c u l a r theme or concept. On the question of the arrangement of the poems i n each volume, Herbert i s very far i n advance of h i s contemporaries, who aiemore concerned with each epigram as a single unit rather than with l i n k i n g various groups of epigrams together by means of imagery and theme. The arrangement of the epigrams i n Passio Discerpta, f o r example, i l l u s t r a t e s Herbert's concern to describe the events of the C r u c i f i x i o n i n such a way as to reinforce the general C h r i s t i a n meaning of Good Friday.  172  Both the imagery and the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a supplement the movement, as expressed by the arrangement of  the poems, away from the a c t u a l d e t a i l s o f the  Crucifixion.  Herbert's s k i l f u l  use o f r e c u r r i n g  images i s the r e s u l t o f h i s d e s i r e t o weld each i n t o the t o t a l scheme of the volume. particularly  epigram  The n a r r a t i v e v o i c e ,  i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , i s a l s o a p a r t o f the  thematic u n i t y o f the volume, s i n c e i t i s through the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e that Herbert l e a d s the reader's a t t e n t i o n away from  the a c t u a l d e t a i l s o f the C r u c i f i x i o n and towards  the more g e n e r a l meaning of the event f o r a l l C h r i s t i a n s , and a t the same time, w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l epigram, r e v e a l s to  the reader Herbert i B w i t t y p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  the sacred s u b j e c t he has chosen t o w r i t e on. Finally, a critical  study o f H e r b e r t ' s  religious  p o e t r y a l l o w s us not o n l y to reach some c o n c l u s i o n s about his  mastery o f the form he had chosen to use, but a l s o  to  p o i n t forward to some d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t might be made  i n the f u t u r e concerning H e r b e r t ' s E n g l i s h works, based upon the techniques and ?sj;yle he used  i n h i s L a t i n poetry.  It  i s impossible f o r a reader with p r i o r knowledge o f  The  Temple to read P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus without  b e i n g reminded a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f the l a t e r E n g l i s h work.  The argument i n favour o f knowing as much as  p o s s i b l e o f a w r i t e r ' s l i t e r a r y output before  pronouncing  173  a judgement upon him i s obvious and sound, hut i t becomes even sounder when the l e s s e r known works o f an author appear t o r e v e a l such s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p o e t i c technique and f e e l i n g with the major and r e c o g n i z e d of p o e t r y .  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus  s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h The Temple.  body  d i s p l a y such  A comparison o f the three  volumes under the three headings which were used to comment upon the two L a t i n volumes, arrangement, imagery, and n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , i l l u s t r a t e s c l e a r l y some of the most important o f these s i m i l a r i t i e s . The Temple r e v e a l s a v e r y s t r o n g thematic arrangement of i t s poems j u s t as does P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a (and to a l e s s e r extent Lucus).  The Temple  i s divided  i n t o three  p a r t s , "The Church-porch", "The Church" and "The Church M i l i t a n t " , and H e r b e r t , as an A n g l i c a n poet, i s concerned w i t h the .function o f the A n g l i c a n Church, as a b u i l d i n g , as a body o f C h r i s t i a n s , and as an i n s t i t u t i o n which uses c e r t a i n forms o f worship to which he c o n t i n u a l l y  refers.  H e r b e r t uses the f e s t i v a l s o f the C h r i s t i a n year and v a r i o u s r i t e s of the A n g l i c a n church s e r v i c e , such a s Baptism and Communion, -to p l o t the d i f f e r e n t stages o f h i s thematic and s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s through the volume. He begins w i t h "the S a c r i f i c e " , which embodies  the c e n t r a l  i d e a upon which P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a i s based, and ends the  174  volume w i t h "Love" ail' a l l e g o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f Communion 1  and i t s c e n t r a l meaning,  P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a a l s o ends on  the same u n i v e r s a l l e v e l w i t h " I n Mundi sympathiam cum Christo"  (On the harmony o f the world w i t h  Christ).  A l s o many of the images or image c l u s t e r s found i n P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus r e c u r f r e q u e n t l y and i n s i m i l a r c o n t e x t s i n The Temple.  F o r example, the image o f the  sea used i n a number o f poems i n Lucus i s a l s o found i n the poem from The Temple  "The Storm", where Herbert uses,  i n the same way as he d i d i n Lucus, the metaphor o f the stormy sea to d e s c r i b e h i s own mind, t o r n by g u i l t , s i n , and temptation, s t i l l peace.  I  s t r i v i n g to reach a s t a t e o f  One o f the most s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n imagery  between the three volumes i s H e r b e r t ' s use o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l metaphors o f b u i l d i n g or a c t u a l d w e l l i n g s and the images o f r o c k , stone and dust which u s u a l l y accompany  them.  F o r example, the poem"Homo, S t a t u a " fMan the statue) from Lucus uses imagery o f stone as a metaphor f o r the s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r , i n the same way as the image: o f the stone a l t a r i s u s e d ' i n "The A l t a r " from The Temple. As F.E. Hutchinson p o i n t s out i n the commentary on the text o f the L a t i n poems given i n h i s e d i t i o n ,  2  many  o f the phrases and images from P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus r e c u r i n p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l form and i n very c o n t e x t s i n The Temple.  similar  A good example i s the r e f e r e n c e  175  t o Samson i n the e i g h t e e n t h poem of P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a , "Sampson v t ante f o r e s . " (. . . Sampson moved the p i l l a r s l o n g ago) which i s repeated almost e x a c t l y i n the seventh stanza o f "Sunday" from The Temple.  More important from  the p o i n t o f view o f t r a c i n g the c o n t i n u i t y i n H e r b e r t ' s style,  i s h i s d e l i g h t i n the L a t i n poems i n the same k i n d  of homely and domestic images which he uses i n The Temple and which are one o f the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s p e c t s o f h i s imagery.  F o r i n s t a n c e , the j a r s and buckets o f  "In Sputum et C o n u i c i a " (On the s p i t t i n g and mocking), the ointment rubbed i n the hand i n "In A l a p a s " (On the s l a p s ) , and the houseboy of "Ad Solem  deficientem"  (On the sun i n e c l i p s e ) are t y p i c a l o f H e r b e r t ' s use o f imagery i n The Temple, where he uses the f a m i l i a r i t y o f common household t h i n g s to convey h i s s p i r i t u a l analogy. The f a m i l i a r i t y and homeliness o f h i s imagery are echoed by the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e he uses f o r h i s poems, which although i t v a r i e s c o n t i n u a l l y , i s marked i n both the L a t i n and the E n g l i s h p o e t r y by c o l l o q u i a l and immediacy  diction  of a d d r e s s as i f the r e a d e r had broken  i n on a c o n v e r s a t i o n .  L i k e Donne, H e r b e r t i s fond o f the  abrupt, s t a t t l i n g , and o f t e n v e r y c o l l o q u i a l opening f o r h i s poems.  But the techniques he used i n The Temple  and which we a s s o c i a t e only w i t h h i s E n g l i s h poems can a l s o be v e r y w e l l I l l u s t r a t e d from P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus.  1 7 6  - He f r e q u e n t l y  opens an epigram w i t h a q u e s t i o n ; f o r  i n " I n sudorem sanguineum" "Ad Solem d e f i c i e n t e m  n  (On t h e b l o o d y s w e a t )  These  to demonstrate  i n my c r i t i c a l  P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s , H e r b e r t ' s use o f i n h i s sacred  conventions  of  the e p i g r a m f o r m and i t s  u s e d by t h e w r i t e r .  and L u c u s a r e  from the o t h e r  Discerpta  s a c r e d e p i g r a m s and  n o t o n l y some o f  the  -—-illuminate  three  also  narrative  volumes.  The m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s t o be d r a w n f r o m a s t u d y P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and L u c u s a r e  first,  that the  t o be u n d e r s t o o d f u l l y , m u s t be j u d g e d b y t h e and s t a n d a r d s o f  the  of  poems, conventions  s a c r e d e p i g r a m and i t s t r a d i t i o n i n  s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ,  and second,  once the s a c r e d e p i g r a m t r a d i t i o n has been and granted  each  similarities  the p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s o f h i s  in a l l  the  religious  between H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n and E n g l i s h w o r k s , but  the  the  a study of the v a r i o u s n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s w i t h i n  volume m i g h t r e v e a l  voice  the  poetic  Although Passio  r i g h t l y described as  of  narrative  function in  poems o f The T e m p l e a r e u s u a l l y a g r e e d t o be lyrics,  the  study  e p i g r a m s m u s t be s e e n a s p a r t o f  e p i g r a m c a n n o t be d i s s o c i a t e d techniques  "The  o r "The W i n d o w s " i n The T e m p l e .  As I attempted  voice  and  (On t h e s u n i n e c l i p s e ) .  poems c a n be compared w i t h t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f Church-floore"  instance,  recognized  i t s own i m p o r t a n c e , H e r b e r t ' s w o r k c a n be  that  177  measured against i t and c l e a r l y seen as one of the aesthetic landmarks of that t r a d i t i o n *  The excellence of Herbert's  sacred epigrams by comparison with those of h i s contemporaries points towards a new area of study involving not only Herbert's English works as has been the case up to now,  but also h i s L a t i n poetry; a study of which might,  by c a r e f u l l y assessing a l l -of Herbert's L a t i n poetry, bring new  insights to bear on h i s l i t e r a r y career i n p a r t i c u l a r  and seventeenth-century studies i n general.  FOOTNOTES  Chapter  One  1 Edmund Blunden, "George H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n Poems," E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , XIX (1934), 29. 2 Blunden,  29.  Blunden,  29.  3 4  S i s t e r Mary E. Mason, "A Study of the L a t i n Poems of George H e r b e r t , P a s s l o D i s c e r p t a , Lucus, Memoriae M a t r i s Sacrum, With a Prose T r a n s l a t i o n , " unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n from L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y , Chicago, 1966. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y , Chicago, does not s u b s c r i b e to D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I was unable to o b t a i n a copy o f t h i s t h e s i s or even i t s a b s t r a c t . As f a r as I have been a b l e to d i s c o v e r , i t i s the o n l y major p i e c e o f work on H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n p o e t r y thus f a r attempted. 5 A r n o l d S t e i n , George H e r b e r t ' s L y r i c s  ( B a l t i m o r e , 1968).  6 L e i c e s t e r Bradner, Musae A n g l i c a n a e : A H i s t o r y o f A n g l o - L a t i n P o e t r y , 1500-1925 (New York, 1940). 7  The Works o f George H e r b e r t , ed. F.E. (Oxford, 1941). 8  Hutchinson  , The o n l y d e t a i l e d study of Crashaw's L a t i n poems i s an unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n by S i s t e r M a r i s S t e l l a M i l h a u p t , 0.P., "The L a t i n Epigrams of R i c h a r d Crashaw: With I n t r o d u c t i o n , E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n and Notes," DA, XXIII, 4687 (Michigan U n i v e r s i t y , 1963).  179  9 Don Cameron A l l e n , " L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e , " Language Q u a r t e r l y , I I (1941), 403-420.  Modern  10 A l l e n , 403. 11 A l l e n , 414. 12 N e o - L a t i n P o e t r y of the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s , i n t r o d u c t i o n by W i l l i a m Mathews (Los Angeles, 1965), p. 2. (See b i b . under A l l e n and P h i l l i p s ) . 13 Mathews, p. 3. 14 A l l e n , 418. 15 A l l e n , 416. 16  John M i l t o n : Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes (New York, 1957). 17 Mark McCloskey and P a u l R. Murphy, t r a n s . The L a t i n P o e t r y o f George H e r b e r t : A B i l i n g u a l E d i t i o n (Athens, Ohio, 1965). T h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be used both f o r L a t i n and E n g l i s h throughout t h i s t h e s i s , and i s the source, u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d , o f a l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a and Lucus. The L a t i n t e x t i n t h i s e d i t i o n i s from Hutchinson's The Works o f George H e r b e r t . 18 Hutchinson, p. x x i v . 19 McCloskey and Murphy, p. v . 20 . McCloskeyaand  Murphy, p. v .  21 McCloskey and Murphy, p. v .  180  22  Blunden, p. 3 1 .  23  A l l o f H e r b e r t ' s correspondence w i t h and h i s a d u l a t o r y poems d e d i c a t e d to Bacon a r e i n L a t i n . Blunden s p e c u l a t e s u s e f u l l y on t h i s p o i n t : "The b i o g r a p h e r of F r a n c i s Bacon . . . might with advantage glance a t the f r i e n d s h i p between him and H e r b e r t , evidences o f which H e r b e r t ' s L a t i n l e t t e r s and c o p i e s o f v e r s e s both provide** (Blunden, p. 3 5 ) . 24 McCloskey and Murphy, pp. v - v i , 25 McCloskey and Murphy, : p. v i . 26 Bradner, Musae A n g l l c a n a e , p. 9 6 . 27 Bradner, p. 9 1 . 28 Bradner, p. 9 7 .  Chapter Two  JGeorge Puttenham], The A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s l e (London, 1 5 8 9 ) . T h i s passage i s from Book I , Chapter XXVII, and i s quoted i n Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, The Epigram i n the E n g l i s h Renaissance ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 1 5 . 2 G o t t h o l d L e s s i n g , Samtliche S c h r i f t e n , ed. Lachmann ( S t u t t g a r t , 1 8 9 5 ) , X I , p. 2 1 7 . The t r a n s l a t i o n g i v e n here i s by Hudson, pp. 9-10. 3 Puttenham, Book I , Chapter XXVIII, quoted by Hudson, p. 1 5 . ,  181  4  P a u l Nixon, M a r t i a l and the Modern Epigram 1963), p. 29.  (New York,  5 Quoted hy Hudson, p. 17. 6 Quoted by Nixon, p. 6. 7 J.W. M a c k a i l ed., S e l e c t Epigrams from the Greek Anthology (London, 1890), p. 2. 8 Hudson, pp. 18-19. 9 Quoted by Hudson, p. 19. The epigram i s I I , 77 and the t r a n s l a t i o n i s by W.C.S. Ker i n M a r t i a l , Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London, 1969). 10  T h i s i s the meaning t h a t T.K. Whipple uses i n h i s study o f the epigram i n " M a r t i a l and the E n g l i s h Epigram," U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Modern P h i l o l o g y , X (Berkeley, 1925), 279-414. 11 Quoted by Hudson, p. 12. 12 Hudson, p. 4. 13 Quoted and t r a n s l a t e d by Hudson, p. 5. 14 The Poems E n g l i s h , L a t i n , and Greek o f R i c h a r d Crashaw, ed. L.C. M a r t i n (Oxford, 1927), p. 87. 15 Puttenham, 16  quoted by Hudson, p. 5.  Quoted by Hudson, p. 5.  182  17  Quoted  by Nixon, p. 9.  18 M a r t i n , p. 89. 19 Quoted by Hudson, pp. 6-7 from Lord Neaves i n t r o d u c t i o n to The Greek Anthology (London, 1874). 20 Quoted by Nixon, p. 15. 21 Quoted  by Nixon, p. 15.  Quoted  by Nixon, p. 15.  22 23  Don Cameron A l l e n , " L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e , " Language Q u a r t e r l y , I I (1941), 403-420.  Modern  24 Allen,  403,  25 S i r Thomas More, Eplgrammata ( B a s l e ,  1518).  26  L i l y B. Campbell, D i v i n e P o e t r y and Drama i n S i x t e e n t h Century England (Cambridge, 1959). 27 Campbell, p. v i i . 28  John M i l t o n : Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes (EFew York, 1957), pp'. 294-295. 29 A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from McCloskey and Murphy w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an a b b r e v i a t e d form o f the t i t l e from which the poem i s taken, e.g. MR (Musae R e s p o n s o r i a e ) , PD,, ( P a s s i o D i s c e r p t a ) , L (Lucus), and the page numbers upon which both L a t i n and E n g l i s h verses occur. 30 See Hudson, p. 33.  See a l s o Chapter Three, p. 54f.  183  31  T h i s passage occurs i n a l e t t e r t r a n s l a t e d byWoodward, D e s i d e r i u s Erasmus Concerning the Aim and Method o f E d u c a t i o n (Cambridge, 1904), p. 124. The passage i s quoted by Hudson, p. 16. 32 Hudson, p. 17. 33  P a r t o f H e r b e r t ' s l a s t message from h i s deathbed to h i s f r i e n d N i c h o l a s F e r r a r . See Marohette Chute, Two G e n t l e Men (New York, 1959), p. 148, and Hutchinson, p. x x x v i i . 34  Helen Gardner ed., John Donne: (Oxford, 1952), p. x v i . 35  The D i v i n e Poems  L o u i s Martz, The P o e t r y of Meditation and London, 1962).  (New Haven  36 See Martz, pp. 25-34. 37 John Donne: P o e t i c a l Works, ed. S i r H e r b e r t G r i e r s o n (London, 1966), p. 229. 38 See Martz, Chapter V I I . 39 See Anthony Raspa, "Crashaw and the J e s u i t P o e t i c , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Q u a r t e r l y . XXXVI (1966), 37.  Chapter Three  1  Timothe K e n d a l l , Flowers o f Epjgrammes out o f Sundrie the Most S i n g u l a r Authors S e l e c t e d ~ '. I (London, 1577). The q u o t a t i o n i s from K e n d a l l ' s d e d i c a t i o n "To the r i g h t honourable, the Lorde Robert Dudley . . . " and i s on page 4 o f the r e p r i n t o f the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n made f o r the Spenser S o c i e t y , 1874.  184  2 K e n d a l l , p.  139.  3 See Chapter Two, p. 23f. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Greek and L a t i n epigram. 4 K e n d a l l , p,  255.  5 K e n d a l l , p.  241.  6 Compare H e r b e r t ' s "De Lupa l u s t r i V a t i c a n i " (On the she-wolf o f the V a t i c a n b r o t h e l ) from Musae Responsoriae which uses the same metaphor. 7 K e n d a l l , p.  189.  8 Bradner, Musae A n g l i c a n a e , p. 78. 9 Bradner, p. 91. 10 Bradner, p. 91. 11 Hudson, The Epigram i n the E n g l i s h Renaissance, pp. 32-33. 12 Hudson, p . 33. 13  Andrew W i l l e t t , Sacrorum Emblematum C e n t u r l a Una (Cambridge, 1596). Ann A r b o r , Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 553. 14  p.  Rosemary Freeman, E n g l i s h Emblem Books (London, 64.  . . .  1967),  15 Freeman, p. 65. 16  Robert F a r l e y , Kalendarium Humanae V i t a e (London, 1638), Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 790.  185  17 Freeman, p. 67. 18  F r a n c i s Thynne, Emblemes and Epigrames, ed. F . J . F u r n i v a l l , p u b l i s h e d f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y (London, 1876), p. 63. 19 Thynne, p. 64. 20 My  translation.  My  translation.  My  translation.  My  translation.  21 22 23 24 My t r a n s l a t i o n . The poem i s from John Saltmarsh, Poemata S a c r a , L a t i n e a c A n g l i c e S c r i p t a (Cambridge, 1636). Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 1079. 25 C h r o n i c l e s I I , Chapter 2, v .  1-4.  26 My  translation.  27 John Saltmarsh, Poemata S a c r a .  My  translation.  28 Saltmarsh, my  translation.  29 My  translation.  30 John Pyne, Epiarammata R e l i g i o s a . O f f l c l o s a , Iocosa (London, 1627). Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 785.  186  31  Pyne.  32 Pyne. 33 See A u s t i n Warren, "Crashaw's Eplgrammata S a c r a , " J o u r n a l o f E n g l i s h and Germanic P h i l o l o g y , XXXIII (1954), 233-239. 34 Anthony Raspa, "Crashaw and the J e s u i t P o e t i c , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , XXXVT (1966), 37-54. 55  Raspa, p . 52. The i n t e r n a l q u o t a t i o n i s from "The P r e f a c e to the Reader" before Crashaw's Steps t o the Temple, p. 75 i n L.C. M a r t i n ed., Crashaw* s P o e t i c a l Works (Oxford, 1927). 56  Ruth W a l l e r s t e i n , R i c h a r d Crashaw: A Study i n S t y l e and P o e t i c Development (Madison. 1959). p. 60. 57 W a l l e r s t e i n , p. 65. 58 W a l l e r s t e i n , p. 60. 59 M a r t i n , p. 88. 40  W a l l e r s t e i n , p . 62. A good example o f the k i n d of Roman C a t h o l i c sacred prose with which Crashaw would p r o b a b l y have been f a m i l i a r i s F a s c i c u l u s Myrrhae; o r a T r e a t i s e o f Our S a v i o u r s P a s s i o n ( S t . Omer, 1655) by John F a l c o n e r , S . J . F a l c o n e r was c e r t a i n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s o f C h r i s t ' s l i f e , but l i k e Crashaw h i s concern was not f o r a l i t e r a l n a r r a t i v e but a h i g h l y m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n which would "affectW the reader and arouse h i s emotions: H i s hands, bored through the tender palmes t h e r o f , were l i k e two b o l e s o f warme bloud, s a c r i f i c e s by our h i g h P r i e s t , & g r a c i o u s l y prepared to c l e a n s e , and s a n c t i f y f a y t h f u l l s o u l e s a f t e r w a r d s with i t . T h i s q u o t a t i o n occurs on p. 76 o f the work on the U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m from Ann Arbor, Michigan, no. 476, r e e l 790.  187  41 T h i s i s W a l l e r s t e i n ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Crashaw's L a t i n , p. 62 o f R i c h a r d Crashaw: A Study l n S t y l e and P o e t i c Development. F o r " I n V u l n e r a Dei P e n d e n t i s " see Crashaw, ed. M a r t i n , p. 27. 42 Crashaw, ed. M a r t i n , p . 102. 43 Martin,  pp. 96-97.  44 • See W a l l e r s t e i n , p. 63, and Bradner, p. 93. 45 W a l l e r s t e i n , p. 61.  Chapter Four  1 The most obvious a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the one given here i s t o read "pathway" i n the second l i n e as r e f e r r i n g not t o the pathway a c t u a l l y made i n C h r i s t ' s s i d e by the spear, but t o a more vague s p i r i t u a l journey upon which the heart must t r a v e l . 2 See Rosemary Woolf, The E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s L y r i c l n the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1968), pp. 287-289 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the V i r g i n Mary's connection w i t h f l o w e r imagery, i n p a r t i c u l a r the r o s e . A l s o Sarah A p p l e t o n Weber, Theology and P o e t r y l n the M i d d l e E n g l i s h L y r i c : A Study o f Sacred H i s t o r y and A e s t h e t i c Form (Ohio, 1969), pp. 53-54. 3 Stephen Manning, Wisdom and Number: Toward a C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l o f the Middle E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s L y r i c ( L i n c o l n , 1962), pp. 156-157. 4 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the medieval "Reproaches" o r Improperla see Rosemary Woolf, The E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s L y r i c i n the Middle Ages, pp. 40-42.  188  5  My  t r a n s l a t i o n from the L a t i n .  6 T h i s i s noted by Helen Gardner and G.M. S t o r y i n t h e i r e d i t i o n o f The Sonnets o f W i l l i a m A l a b a s t e r (Oxford, 1959), p. 46.  Chapter F i v e  1 McCloskey  and Murphy, p.  179.  2 My  translation.  My  translation.  3 4  P r o f e s s o r de Bruyn has suggested a p o s s i b l e a l l u s i o n t o the myth of Prometheus. Prometheus brought f i r e down to man, H e r b e r t sends f i r e up to God. 5  C a r l e ton Brown, Religious L y r i c s of the F o u r t e e n t h Century (Oxford, 1924), p.  Chapter S i x  1  James ^ u p o r t , Epigrammata S a c r a (London, 1662). H e r b e r t ' s Musae Responsoriae f i r s t appeared i n Duport's E c c l e s i a s t e s Solomonis (1662). 2 See Hutchinson, pp. 590-594.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Primary  Sources  Crashaw, R i c h a r d . The Poems E n g l i s h , L a t i n , and Greek of R i c h a r d Crashaw, ed. L.C. M a r t i n . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1927. Donne, John. John Donne: P o e t i c a l Works, ed. S i r Herbert G r i e r s o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. Duport, -  James.  Eplgrammata S a c r a .  E c c l e s i a s t e s Solomonis.  London,  London,  1662.  1662.  F a l c o n e r , John. F a s c i c u l u s Myrrhae; o r a T r e a t i s e o f Our S a v i o u r s P a s s i o n . S t . Omer, 1633. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 790.) F a r l e y , Robert. Kalendarlum Humanae V i t a e : The Kalendar Of Man* s LlfeT London, 1638. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 790.) Lychnocausla S l v e M o r a l i a Facum Emblemata: L i g h t s M o r a i l Emblems^ London, 1638. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 790.) Herbert George. The Works o f George H e r b e r t : A B i l i n g u a l E d i t i o n , t r a n s . Mark McCloskey and P a u l R. Murphy. Athens, Ohio: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. K e n d a l l , Timothe. Flowers o f Epigrames. Manchester: P r i n t e d f o r the Spenser S o c i e t y , 1874. (Reprinted from the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n of 1577.) More, S i r Thomas.  Epigrammata.  Basle,  1518.  {Pynej, JohnT) Epigrammata R e l i g i o s a , O f f i c l o s a , I o c o s a . London, 1627. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 1079.) Saltmarsh, John. Poemata Sacra, L a t l n e , ac A n g l i c e Scripta. Cambridge, 1636. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 1079.)  190  S e l e c t Epigrams from the Greek Anthology, ed. J.W. M a c k a i l . London, New York: Longmans Green and Co., 1890. Thynne, F r a n c i s . Emblemes and Epjgrames, ed. F . J . F u r n i v a l l . London: N. Trubner and Co., 1876. (Published f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y . ) W i l l e t t , Andrew. Sacrorum Emblematum C e n t u r l a Una. Cambridge, 1596. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , no. 476, r e e l 553.)  191  Secondary Sources  A l l e n , Don Cameron. "Latin L i t e r a t u r e , " Modern Language Quarterly, II (Sept. 1941), 403-420. "Milton as a L a t i n Poet," i n Neo-Latln Poetry of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, i n t r o . 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