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On the Japanese passive form Ogawa, Nobuo 1971

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ON THE JAPANESE PASSIVE FORM by NOBUO OGAWA B.A., Keio U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f LINGUISTICS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A b s t r a c t " The Japanese p a s s i v e v o i c e i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f E n g l i s h . T h i s t h e s i s i s an a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a s s i v e 1 f o r m i n Japanese i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e v o i c e and t o examine 1 t h e reasons, f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n i s , made o f t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e v o i c e , f o l l o w e d by a c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f Japanese t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . R e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n show t h a t t o some e x t e n t , t h e usage o f Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs: r e s e m b l e s t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e i n E n g l i s h . There a r e three; c h a p t e r s i n t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Eu r o p e a n p a s s i v e v o i c e , f r o m t h e n o t i o n s o f t h e Gre'ek grammarians t o the t h e o r i e s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s . Japanese t r a d i t i o n a l grammar i s t h e s u b j e c t o f the: second c h a p t e r . The g r a d u a l d e v e l -opment o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f v e r b s b y Japanese, grammarians i s , o u t l i n e d . A l s o , t h e n a t u r e o f t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s d e a l t w i t h and an. e x t e n s i v / e , though n o t e x h a u s t i v e , l i s t o f r o o t - r e l a t e d t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s ; p r e s e n t e d . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e p a s s i v e forms, b y v a r i o u s grammarians a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e a f t e r , t h e p a s s i v e f orms are. examined by d i v i d i n g them i n t o two m a j o r groups: t h e o r d i n a r y f o r m and t h e adverse 1 p a s s i v e form. E a c h form i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y examined and i l l u s t r a t i o n s f r o m l i t e r a r y sources; a r e i n c l u d e d . C o n c l u s i o n s show t h a t , s e m a n t i c a l l y , t h e o r d i n a r y p a s s i v e f o r m i s s i m i l a r t o t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e v o i c e , whereas, t h e a d v e r s e p a s s i v e f o r m i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g . The r o m a n i z a t i o n o f Japanese examples i s r e p r e s e n t e d by u s i n g K u n r e i -Shiki.1 except for the following? /shi/...gi, /sha/...sya, /shu/«.,syu, /sho/...syo, /chi/,. .ti> /tsu/...tu, /cha/., .tya,, /chu/.. .tyu, /cho/...tyo, / j i / . . . z i These latter symbols represent the verbal and adjectival-,conjugations much easier than the ordinary Kunrei-Shiki. Syllabic /n/ i s represented as N to avoid confusion between such morphemes /t a n i / (valley) and /t a n ' i / (cre-d i t ) , which are shown as tani and taNi, respectively* These symbols are only used for the examples in the text; Kunrei-Shiki i s used for references. English translations of Japanese quotations are mine. Romanization approved by the Japanese Ministry of Education. b l e o f Contents Chapter I Page I Passive Voice 1 I I T r a n s i t i v e Verbs 4 I I I The Greek Grammarians 9 IV The S t o i c s 11 V Dionysius Thrax 1/+ VI Transformational Grammar 17 Chapter I I I Western. Influence on T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese Grammar 23 I I E a r l y Stages of Grammatical A n a l y s i s 24 I I I N a r i a k i r a F u j i t a n i and Norinaga Motoori 26 IV Haruniwa Motoori 33 V The Influence of Western Grammar 38 VI The Nature o f Japanese T r a n s i t i v e and I n t r a n s i t i v e Verbs UU Chapter I I I I Passive Form 67 I I The Ordinary Passive Form 71 I I I The Adverse Pas s i v e Form 81 B i b l i o g r a p h y 93 CHAPTER I I. PASSIVE VOICE Henry Sweet defines, voice as "different grammatical ways of expres-sing the relation between a transitive' verb and i t s subject and objects. The two chief voices; are the active (he saw) and the passive, (he was seen) . The examples he gives here are rather misleading because the two sentences, he saw and he was seen, are' not, i n a passive-active relation in English. As there are; not more than two voices i n the English language, his phrase "thertwo chief voices" leads, us, to believe that Sweet has some other voice form ini mind!. Moreover, I disagree, with his treatment of the verb saw in "he saw" because this verb cannot, be transitive i n this situation. Perhap Sweet was trying to define voice for a language other than English or basin his conclusion on the grammar of Greek: or Latin.^ As Robert Hall, Jr. says i n his Introductory Linguistics; "Latin had only these two voices (active and passive), as i n /amat/ 'he loves' verses /ama:tur/ 'he i s loved'. Greek had. a three-way contrast between active (/iu:o:/'I loose'), passive (/lu:omai/ 'I am loosed") and medio-passive, in which the action f a l l s back on the subject i n a reflexive-like way (/erkhomai/ 'I go 1)."^ Henry Sweet, New English Grammar: Part I (Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1960), p.112. 2 Transitive, Intransitive verbs w i l l be dealt with further on. R^. H. Robins, A Short History of Linguistics (Bloomington: Indiana U. P., 1968), p.29-^Robert Hall,. Jr., Introductory Linguistics (Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1 9 6 U ), p.158. Here, Robert Hall, Jr. recognizes only two woices i n Latin. There was, hoitfever, the third type referred to as 'deponent' verbs. See p.19* 2 The last example of the medio-passive i s not clear, but perhaps this i s due to the translation into English. Leonard Bloomfield also illustrates this point with the Latin examples, cantat and cantatur, which are con-structions showing a passive-active contrast. Bloomfield does not employ the term passive-active but, instead, refers to the terms "goal-action" and "actor-action", respectively.5 In Latin and Greek, voice i s formed by the inflection of verbs and the same subject i s used to show a person who acts on somebody and a person who i s acted on by somebody. But, as Charles Hockett says, "... voice in English i s not an inflectional category hut i s determined by the structure of the verb phrase.'"3 Henry Sweet tried to explain the active and passive voices of English from an inflectional category using the examples "he saw" and "he was seen". He dealt with the verb forms "saw" and "was seen" as inflections, and assigned the same subject to both passive and active sentences. If we agree with Hockett and several other grammarians, the passive voice in English would be defined as "forms consisting of some form of the auxiliary 'be* with the past-part-iciple form of the transitive verb."7 The relationship between the passive voice and the active voice in English would be such that the subject in the passive i s equivalent to the object, or one of the objects, in a corresponding active voice.^ 5Leonard Bloomfield, Language (New YorkJ Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966), p. 173. ^Charles ?. Hockett, A Course in Modern Linguistics (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1967), p. 236. 7Ho ckett, VI. H. Francis, Zandvoort, and R. B. Long a l l have similar definitions on the passive. % o ckett, p. 205. 3 The process of changing the active into the passive i s as follows: In a sentence irith a f u l l y expressed t r a n s i t i v e verb such as 'the dog k i l l e d the r a t 1 , although there i s only one subject, namely, 'dog', yet from a l o g i c a l point of view the statement about k i l l i n g applies to the object-word 'rat' as well as to the subject-word 'dog'; and i t may happen that we wish to state the k i l l i n g rather with reference to the rat than the dog. I t may also happen that a l l ve know i s that the rat was k i l l e d , without knowing how i t was k i l l e d . In short, we may wish to make the object-word 'rat' into the subject-word of the sentence. This we do by changing the active form ' k i l l e d 1 into the cor-responding passive form 'was k i l l e d ' : 'the r s t was k i l l e d ' . The o r i g i n a l subject i s added i f necessary, by means of the preposition by: 'the rat was k i l l e d by the dog'. In t h i s sen-tence 'rat' i s the inverted object and 'by the dog' i s the inverted subject.9 Henry Sweet concludes his explanation on the passive form by saying that "the passive voice i s a grammatical device for (A) bringing the object of a t r p n s i t i v e verb into prominence by making i t the subject of the sentence, and (B) getting r i d of the necessity of naming the subject of a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . A s expressed by Nelson Francis, \jhen making a passive form from an active form, the meaning i s "to be preserved with-out a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . T h e passive form i s most frequently used in sentences in which " . . . i t i s unnecessary or undesirable to mention the agent"12 flnd, thus, whenever a speaker wishes to avoid mentioning the agent i n h i s speech or w r i t i n g , he can do so by using the passive voice. 9Sweet, p. 113. 1 0 I b i d . l^W. N. Francis, Structure of American English (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1953), p. 344-1 2R. V/. Zandvoort, A Handbook of English Grammar (London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., 1966), p. 53. 4 In f a c t , "over 70 per cent o f the passive sentences found i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . . . " ^ 3 have no mention o f an a c t i v e subject o r agent. I I . TRANSITIVE VERBS When d e a l i n g with the r e l a t i o n o f the p a s s i v e - a c t i v e i n E n g l i s h , i t i s necessary to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs because passive sentences are p o s s i b l e o n l y with t r a n s i t i v e verbs. The d e f i n i t i o n given by t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians f o r t r a n s i t i v e verbs i s that which expresses "an a c t i o n which passes over to an o b j e c t , " ! while an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s described as "expressing a c t i o n which does not pass over to an o b j e c t ; not ta k i n g a d i r e c t object."2 Most t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians give s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t r a n s i t i v e -i n t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s o f the E n g l i s h verb. For example, Henry Sweet says that t r a n s i t i v e verbs " r e q u i r e a noun-word o r noun-equivalent i n the d i r e c t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n to serve as complement to them,"3 and verbs which do not take "a d i r e c t - o b j e c t noun-word a f t e r them are c a l l e d i n -t r a n s i t i v e . "4 On o b j e c t s , Zandvoort s t a t e s : "A noun o r pronoun denoting a person o r t h i n g a f f e c t e d by the a c t i o n expressed by the verb i s c a l l e d object,"5 and he then s t a t e s that "a verb that does not take an obje c t i s c a l l e d 130tto Jespersen, E s s e n t i a l s o f E n g l i s h Grammar (U. o f Alabama Press, 1966), p. 121. 1The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (London: 1933). 2 l b i d . 3Sweet, pp. 89-90. 4 l b i d . ^Zandvoort, p. 199-5 i n t r a n s i t i v e . Although i t has been the p r a c t i c e to c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, there i s a good d e a l o f overlapping between the two c l a s s e s . Regarding t h i s p o i n t , Otto Jespersen c i t e s s e v e r a l examples: Jespersen suggests that "we should r a t h e r speak o f a t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e use o f v e r b s . M . A. Pink agrees w i t h Jespersen's idea and says that " i t would bs more i n accordance wit h the f a c t s to speak o f verbs as being "used t r a n s i t i v e l y 1 o r 'used i n t r a n s i t i v e l y ' f o r a great many The a c t u a l o b j e c t i n these examples o f i n t r a n s i t i v e usage given by Jespersen are not i l l u s t r a t e d but i t should be p o s s i b l e f o r every n a t i v e speaker to i n t e r p r e t these sentences as i f they contain an obje c t estab-l i s h e d through time. On the other hand, i f these sentences are used i n a " l i v e " s i t u a t i o n , i t should be apparent \,?hat the object f o r each sentence i s , and i t may then be p o s s i b l e to i n s i s t that an object e x i s t s f o r each sentence i n the n a t i v e speaker's i n t u i t i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n we have seen, 6 I b i d . 7 Jespersen, E s s e n t i a l s , p. 116. % t t o Jespersen, A Modem E n g l i s h Grammar: Part I I I (London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1928), p. 319. 9M. A. Pink, An O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h Grammar (London: MacMillan & Co. L t d . , I960), p. 59. T r a n s i t i v e : He play s the v i o l i n . He l e f t London. He lends money. Smoke c i g a r s . I n t r a n s i t i v e : He p l a y s extremely w e l l . He l e f t yesterday. I n e i t h e r lend nor borrow. She does not smoke.7 verbs can be used i n e i t h e r way. 6 though, says, syntactically, that those verbs which do not have an object in a sentence are intransitive verbs. Moreover, a transitive verb has been defined as a verb which can be changed into the passive voice,10 and an intransitive as that which has no passive form.ll Therefore, none of the examples of intransitive usage cited by Jespersen qualify to be transitive because, since none of them contains an object, none can be changed to a passive form. In English, i t i s impossible to make a strict classification of verbs in traditional terms. It can only be said that i f a verb i s used with an object, or two objects, i t i s transitively used and, i f a verb i s used without an object, i t i s used intransitively. Here arises a problem. That i s , how do we explain the passive forms which are constructed from intransitive verbs, such as (A) The doctor was  sent for, (B) The baby was looked after by the nurse? What happens when these examples are compared with those which are formulated from transitive verbs in sentences such as (C) This apple pie was made by his mother, or (D) That book was written by him? The former examples (A) and (B) have the construction of a form of the verb "to be" plus a past participle followed by a preposition. It i s this preposition which i s the constituent absent in the passive forms created from transitive verbs. Thus, this preposition must have the function of changing an intransitive verb into the passive voice. One cannot have a sentence like *The nurse looked the baby. Therefore, a preposition follot-ring an intransitive verb has the l°Francis P. Dinneen, An Introduction to General Linguistics (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1967), p. 66. Pink, p. 59-Hw. N. Francis, p. 3 4 - 4 - . 7 f u n c t i o n o f c o n j o i n i n g an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb w i t h a f o l l o w i n g noun phrase; and a word group w i t h an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb and a p r e p o s i t i o n has a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n when a sentence formulated around a t r a n s i t i v e verb i s changed to the passive v o i c e . Grammarians o f t e n consider the word group—an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb ^dth a p r e p o s i t i o n — a s a t r a n s i t i v e verb. To support t h i s statement, M. A. Pink says that "an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s sometimes so c l o s e l y connected x^ith a f o l l o w i n g p r e p o s i t i o n . . . t h a t the two words may be regarded as forming a compound verb which i s t r a n s i t i v e . " 1 2 Most grammarians, hoxrever, hold a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n than Pink does. Zandvoort d e f i n e s t h i s group as "a u n i t e q uivalent to a t r a n s i t i v e verb,"13 and Henry Sweet describes the combination as "a group verb corresponding to a t r a n s i t i v e verb."!^ Otto Jespersen l a b e l s i t "a t r a n s i t i v e verb-phrase"1§ and says: In such a sentence as Everybody laughed at Jim, laughed, o f course, i s i n t r a n s i t i v e ; Jim i s 'governed by' o r , as i t may a l s o be termed 'the object o f the p r e p o s i t i o n at. But the whole may a l s o be analysed i n another way, laughed at may be c a l l e d a t r a n s i t i v e verb-phrase having Jim as i t s o b j e c t . In t h i s way we come to understand how i t i s p o s s i b l e to turn the sentence i n t o the p a s s i v e : Jim was laughed at by everybody.16 Vie conclude that the E n g l i s h passive i s constructed using t r a n s i t i v e o r t r a n s i t i v e - e q u i v a l e n t verb-phrases and that i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs do not occur i n E n g l i s h passive forms. X 2M. A. Pink, p. 60. •^Zandvoort, p. 53. li+H. Sweet, p. 91. 15Jespersen, E s s e n t i a l s , p. 123. 1 6 I b i d . 8 In Japanese, the situation i s different from that of English. The passive form can he constructed from transitive verbs, as well as from intransitive verbs. For example: (A) kare wa hi to ni siNyoosareta, he people by trust—pass, past "He was trusted by people." (B) wets si wa tomodati ni korareta, I friend by come--pass. past "I was adversely affected by my friend's coming." The verb in sentence ( A ) , siHyoosuru, i s transitive and converted to the passive by adding -areta to the stem siNyoos- which i s taken from—Hito  ga kare o siHyoosita (people him trusted). The verb in sentence ( B ) , kuru, i s intransitive and transformed into the passive by adding -areta to the stem kur- from the sen ten ce—Tomoda t i ga kita (friend came). In both of the above cases, the subject of the non-passive sentence becomes the object, and the a f f i x -areta i s added to the verb stem. The syntactic structures of the sentences (A) and (B) are the same, but sen-tence (B) has a meaning which may be expressed as "...being adversely affected..." which sentence (A) does not carry. In some cases, however, a passive sentence constructed from a tran-sitive may express the same emotion. For instance: (C) watasi wa kare ni butareta. I he by hit—pass, past "I was adversely affected by his hitting me." (D) ano ko wa seNsei n i homerareta. 9 That child teacher by praise—pass, past "That child was favorably affected by his teacher ' 3 praising him." Up to this point, two types of the passive voice in Japanese which are not found in English have been discussed: 1) the passive form constructed from an intransitive verb. 2) the passive form which expresses the values of the speaker, such as "adversely affected..." or "favorably affected...". The ensuing dis-cussion w i l l analyze how the terms "transitive" and "intransitive" have been interpreted by both Western and Japanese grammarians. III. THE GREEK GRAMMARIANS In a book on transformational grammar, the f i r s t step of sentence analysis i s formulated as NP + VP.l This i s the starting point of trans-formational grammar. Owen Thomas says that "the most elementary description of a basic sentence divides the sentence into two parts: a subject and a predicate." 2 Thomas then compares this description of new grammar with that of traditional grammar saying that the similarity indicates "the close tie between traditional and transformational grammar."3 The analysis of the sentence into two components, a subject and a predicate, brings us back to ancient Greece. It might be useful, as well as interesting, to investigate the origin and development of the grammatical terms which are used in linguistics %oam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton, 1968), p. 26. 20uen Thomas, Transformational Grammar & the Teacher of English (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1967J, p. 29. 3 I b i d . 10 today. I t i s s a i d that the f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n o f the Greek sentence was made by P l a t o i n terms o f a subject, onoma, and a p r e d i -c a t e , rhema.4 P l a t o e x p l a i n s i n Sophistes t h a t : There are tiro k i n d s o f i n t i m a t i o n s o f being which are given by v o i c e , one o f them c a l l e d onomata. and the other rhemata; that which denotes a c t i o n we c a l l rhema: the a r t i c u l a t e sign set on those who do the a c t i o n s we c a l l onoma; a succession o f onomata o r rhema ta alone i s not d i s c o u r s e ; i t i s o n l y when they are mingled together that language i s formed.5 And y e t , i t i s not c e r t a i n what P l a t o meant by onoma and rhema. In E n g l i s h , onoma may mean "name, noun, nominal, sub j e c t , o r l o g i c a l s u b j e c t " ^ , and rhema can be "phrase, saying, verb, v e r b a l , p r e d i c a t e , o r l o g i c a l pred-i c a t e . " 7 I t i s s a i d that P l a t o ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f language i s based on l o g i c and not on grammar.& i n other words, P l a t o took a metaphysical o r p h i l o -s o p h i c a l approach to language and t h e r e f o r e , care should be taken i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the words onoma and rhema.9 Although P l a t o f a i l e d to d i v i d e a sentence (logos) i n t o components sma l l e r than onoma and rhema, t h i s grammatical d i s t i n c t i o n represents a 4 R . H . Robins, Dionysius Thrax and the Western Grammatical T r a d i t i o n : Transactions o f the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1957 (Oxford: B a s i l B l o c k w e l l , 1958), p. 71. 5 j . E. Sandys, A H i s t o r y o f C l a s s i c a l S c h o l a r s h i p . I (London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 3rd ed., 1921), p. 90. ^Dinneen, p. 78. 7 I b i d . 'Sandys, p. 90. R . H. Robins, Ancient and Medieval Grammatical Theory i n Europe y J . T. Waterman, Pe r s p e c t i v e s i n L i n g u i s t i c s (Chicago: Phoenix Books, U. o f Chicago P r e s s , 1963), p. 9. 11 clear advance over the work of the Sophists,, who ifere said! to have dis-cussed sentences only in terms of their phonological and l e x i c a l consti-tuents JO Plato holds the honor of being the f i r s t to introduce a notion of dividing the sentence into parts of speech, even though his definition of each sentence component is very naive, and has almost no grammatical meaning. The next grammarian to make a noticeable advance was Plato's pupil, Aristotle (38U-322 B. C.). Aristotle adds one more part, syndesmos, to his master's binary division of the sentence. Moreover, he recognized that various aspects of time are being expressed! by rhema, although he thought that only the present time i s the rhema, and a l l other times, are "cases" of rhema.^ Both for the rhema and the onoma, Aristotle used a term "case", and for him "a case" was something deviated from the original meaning of either rhema or onoma.^^ IV'. THE STOICS Grammar made> i t s f i r s t big advance after Aristotle with the Stoics, a group of philosophers and logicians founded i n 308 B. C. by ZenoJ It has been said that "grammar in the modern sense only began with the Stoics:.1" They distinguished, four parts of speech—noun, verb, syndesmos (conjunction) ^Dinneen, p. 78. 1 1 Ibid. p. 80. 1 2 Sandys, p. 1 U7• 1 i - . Robins, Ancient, p. 25. Waterman, p. 7. 2 , Robins, A Short History, p. 27. 12 and arthron (article).3 The Stoic's achievement in the grammatical f i e l d i s of a very wide range and I would therefore like to confine this discussion to their study of the verb, which shows a strong similarity to that of traditional grammar. In fact, "the Stoics...left the linguistic description of the verb very much in the form in which i t remained almost to the present day."4 The Stoics considered the verb as the "part of a sentence that states something when not in construction,"5 and "an element of a sentence without case inflection that in constructions signifies something about one person or more, such as grapho ("I write") or lego ("I speak")." 0 In the description of the verb, the term "case" is used. Aristotle used this term for the f i r s t time referring both to the verb and the noun, but for the Stoics, a "case" (ptosis--the same word as Aristotle employed) referred only to the noun. To account for the verb, the Stoics formulated four time aspects based on time reference and completion in opposition to incorapletion or continuity. 7 These four tenses are: Present continuing baino (I am going) Present completed bebeda (I have gone) Past continuing ebainon (I was going) Past completed ebebekein (I had gone) 8 3Robins, Ancient, p. 27. Dinneen, p. 92. John P. Hughes, The Science of Language (New York: Random House, 1969)> p. 4-1. 4-Hughes, p. /U-^Dinneen, p. 92. 6 I b M , 7Robins, A Short History, p. 29. ^Dinneen, p. 93. Robins, Ancient, p. 35. 13 As can be seen in the above, these four tenses are distinguished in the Greek by their inflections rather than by their syntax. They failed to classify the future as a member of the time aspects but did distinguish three voices: The active forms are those that construct with the oblique cases (that i s , other than the nominative) and according to the type of the verb, such as akouei (he hears)...J passives are those that construct with the particle of passivity (hypo "by") and these are verbs like akouomai (I am heard); the middle are those that do neither of these things, such as phronein, peripatein.9 In his A Short History of Linguistics, R. H. Robins shows three kinds of verbs in Ancient Greek—those which require an oblique case noun are active transitive verbs (rhemata ortha); those which do not require any oblique case noun are intransitive ("neutral"—oudetera); and passives (hyptia) require hypo and a genitive case.10 It appears that the Stoics employed both syntactic and morphological cr i t e r i a when they divided verbs into three categories. By the existence of a noun in a certain case; the existence of the function word hypo; and judging from the phrase appearing in their definition quoted by Dinneen— "the type of the verb"—and with their examples akouei and akouomai— which show a close link between the active and passive, the Stoics employed morphological criteria:..-The comparison of the definition of the transitive-intransitive verb by the Stoics and the traditional grammarians of English, leads us to believe that the definition of English has developed from Greek grammar. "^Robins, The Development of the Word Class System: Foundation of Lang-uage, II (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Pub. Co., 196b), p. 12, (Diogenes, Vitae 7.6/J. 1 0Robins, A Short History, p. 29. The only difference i s that Greek verbs contain passive forms in their paradigms of inflections, whereas the passive forms in English are ex-pressed by means of inflection and syntactic transformation of the active form. Passives in Greek and English are classified by these different c r i t e r i a . V. DIONYSIUS THRAX The scholars of Alexandria advanced the work which had been developed by the Stoics, and i t was in Alexandria that what i s now called traditional grammar was developed.! The f i r s t study of Greek grammar—which i s also the earliest written grammar in the Western world—was written by one of the grammarians of Alexandria, Dionysius Thrax, who lived during the latter part of the second century B. C. Unlike his predecessors, Thrax devoted his full-attention to grammar, avoiding a philosophically oriented point of view.2 Dionysius Thrax recognized eight parts of speech in Greek—noun, verb, conjunction, a r t i c l e , preposition, pronoun, particle, and adverb.3 He defines each part of speech and, regarding the verb, says: A verb i s an indeclinable word, indicating time, person and number, and showing activity or passivity. The verb has eight accidents (categories), Moods, Dispositions (voices), Species, Forms, Numbers, Tenses, Persons, Conjugations,... ^-Sandys, p. 139. Dinneen, p. 95. Robins, A Short History, p. 31. ^Robins, Ancient, p. 3b. 3Dionysius Thrax, trans. T. Davidson, The Journal of Speculative  Philosophy, VIII, 1874, p. 331. 15 t ^ There are three Voices: Activity *s~f\)H 1~\>J (I strike), Passivity as liriTKHiA I (I amj^track), Mediality, marking partly a c t i v i t y and passivity, asTj^jToi^Wl t r u s t ) , , . 4 -Thrax's explanation on the parts of speech i s clear and concise but he does not explain how to combine them into a sentence. Re t e l l s us that the fornifUTTO^fAiiI am struck) i s in the passive voice, but does not t e l l how i t differs from the other forms. The examples given in his grammar are incomplete and there i s no way to discern how the passive voice i s to be constructed. The lack of syntactic description in Thrax's grammar is said to be supplemented by Apollonius Dyscolus, two and a half centuries later.5 Although most of his work i s lost now, i t was passed on to the Latin grammarian, Priscian.^ Priscian wrote that he followed the work of Apollonius Dyscolus,? and his definition of the verb i s almost identical to that of Dionysius Thrax. Priscian defines a verb as "a part of speech with tense and mood, without case-inflection, signifying action or being acted on."^ The preceding definition illustrates the probability that the grammar of Thrax was passed on to Priscian through Dyscolus, although Priscian further developed his discussion on the verb. He says, " a l l verbs that have a complete and balanced inflection end either in -o or -or."9 Thus, Priscian ^Dionysius Thrax, p. 331. ^Robins, Dionysius Thrax. p. 102. John Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics (London: Cambridge U. P., 1968), p. 12. ^Robins, The Development, p. At 13. ^Sandys, p. 273. ^Robins, Ancient, p. 65. Dinneen, p. 116. 16 divides verbs into two sub-categories according to their endings. Those verbs v/hich end in -o are either active or neutral, and active verbs "...always signify an activity, and passives are formed from them."l° Neutral verbs have the same ending as active verbs but they comprise the group of verbs from which "passives are not formed."H Priscian divides the verbs that end in -or into three kinds: (1) passive verbs, which are "formed directly from the active,"12 and which, have the meaning of "being acted upon;"13 (2) common verbs which "signify both 'acting' and 'being acted upon' but have only -or endings;"!^ and (3) the 'deponent' verbs which end in -or only."15 i n his book on syntax, Priscian distinguishes four types of sentence constructions dependent upon the relation between the subject and the verb in a sentence. These four constructions are: (1) intransitive, (2) transitive, (3) reciprocal, and (A) retransi-tive. The examples he gave are as follows: (1) percurrit homo  excelsus ("The exalted man ran"), which i s intransitive because i t i s the action of a person not involving other persons; (2) Aristophanes Aristarchum docuit ("Aristophanes taught Aristarchus"), which i s transitive because one person 'acts on 1 another; (3) A.jax  se interfecit ("Ajax k i l l e d himself"), \Aich i s reciprocal because a person 'acts on ' himself; (£) Jussit ut tu ad se venias ("He ordered that you come to him"), which i s retransitive because a person i s 'acting on' another person and this activity 'rebounds' upon the actor.16 l^Dinneen, p. l i b . H l b i d . 1 2ijaM. 1 3 I b i d . l 4 l b i d . 15lbid. l 6 I b i d . . p. 117. 17 Priscian's definitions are not always accurate. He distinguished between active and passive verbs according to their endings -o and -or which appear frequently, but not exclusively. 1? We can say, however, that most of the grammatical terminology which i s now in use was esta-blished in the time of Priscian. To say the least, the classification and categorization of the verb were completed at this time. VI. TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR In his Syntactic Structures, Noam Chomsky does not make a distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. His grammar, which appears in Appendix 11^ of his Syntactic Structures, does not 'generate' the sentences which contain intransitive verbs—those with no objects. Chomsky begins his grammar by dividing the sentence into two parts—Noun Phrase (NP) and Verb Phrase (VP) which he illustrates as follows: Sentence —> NP + VP VP —"> Verb + NP KP _>(NP sing\ • iNP p i / NP sing -> T + N + # NP pi —> T +- N 4 - S 2 Parsing VP, he offers only one possible analysis, "Verb +NP", and as he does not give an?/ rule allowing for the deletion of NP,3 a l l we can assume are sentences with two NP's—one for the subject and the other for 1 7Dinneen, p. 120. -^Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, p. 111. 2 I b i d . ^Chomsky gives the rule to delete an NP in his A Transformationa1 Approach  to Syntax,'Third Texas Conference on Problems of Linguistic Analysis in English,' (The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1962). The deletion of an NP is done according to the nature of the verb. See p. 22. 18 the object. Thus, Chomsky assumes that a sentence automatically has an object, and so his rule generates only sentences which have a verb with an object—his term NP refers to the object. His treatment of the verb i s such that he does not define i t s function or give any classification of i t , except Aux and V. Concerning passive sentences, Chomsky regards them as transformed forms of a basic active sentence.4 The rule of passivlzation given by Chomsky i s to be applied to the sentence which has a construction of NPj_ - Aux - V - NP2, and i f the rule i s applied to the construction, the form NP'2 - Aux + be + en - V + by+NPi results. This rule shows a strong similarity to that of Henry Sweet. If words are substituted into this rule, i t w i l l be possible to formulate a def-inition for the construction of a passive sentence. Substitute as follows! (1) interchange the positions of NPi and N?2 ; (?.) place by, in front of NP]_ • and •;(3) change the sequence of Aux - V into the appropriate tense and number of the verb be and a past participle. Traditional and transformational grammatical theories seem to be very closely related. In Syntactic Structures, Chomsky reinforces the va l i d i t y of this statement by the fact that his transformational grammar seems to be based on that of traditional grammar and i t s terminology. Transformational grammar, though, does have some advantages over tradition-a l grammar. One of them xrould be that i t i s a successful way of represent-ing the very complex reality of a language in simple and clear rules. In his Syntactic Structures, however, Chomsky over-simplifies his grammar ^Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, p. U3> 77. 19 by not giving an elaborate explanation on either verbs or passives. In A Transformational Approach to Syntax, Chomsky treats the verb in detail, and introduces the transitive-intransitive illustrated as: ^ 1 \becomeJ in env.—Pred. V <| V t in env.— NP f Vi in env. ? c It may be interpreted from the above rule that i f the verb appears in front of the NP, i t i s transitive; i f the verb i s in fin a l position in the sentence, or has only an adverb and no NP, then this verb i s intransitive. Chomsky subdivides transitive verbs into: Vtj_ in env, N h V-fc V^g in env. LV7t32> By this rule and the one previous to i t (V-> V^ in env.—NP), i t becomes clear what i s the V^ for Chomsky. For him, verbs are transitive i f they take one or more NP after them, even i f they are followed by particles such as out, in, up_, away, etc. 7 Regarding the passive sentence, Chomsky specifies verbs to be used in ->in: Tfce Third Texas Conference on Problems of Linguistic Analysis in English, p. 133. ^Chomsky, A Transformational Approach, pi 139. 7 I b i d . 20 t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , and gives a s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n to xjhich the passive r u l e i s a p p l i e d . This s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s : (Iff, Aux, V t, N P , ^ d v " ) S Replacing a l l the elements i n the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n by x ^ . . . X t j , the s t r u c t u r a l change i s w r i t t e n as: xl ~ x 2 " x 3 " x 4 ~ x 5 ~* x 4 " x 2 + be e n - - by -f- * i - x^ 9 Chomsky does not r e s t r i c t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change and, thus, i f a sentence meets the requirements o f the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n , i t should be able to be changed i n t o the passive form. A verb group l i k e look a f t e r — w h i c h most o f the t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians consider to be a " t r a n s i t i v e verb p h r a s e " 1 0 — i n the sentence The nurse looked a f t e r the baby, appears i n Chomsky's grammar as V+ (from V t —> v T fCompI ) 1 1 The sentence \Prt / can thus be changed i n t o the p a s s i v e form—The baby was looked a f t e r by the nurse. I t i s p o s s i b l e , though, to construct sentences that cannot be changed i n t o the passive form, despite the f a c t that they may f u l f i l l a l l o f the requirements o f the above hypothesis. For example, the sentence, Bob  resembles B i l l , has a Vt, two HP's, and yet i t cannot be changed i n t o a passive sentence because the form', 8 8 B i l l i s resembled by Bob, i s unacceptable ^Chomsky, A Transformational Approach, p. 1 4 . 0 . 9 l b i d ; •'•Ojespersen, E s s e n t i a l s , p. 123. •'••'•Owen Thomas al s o t h i n k s o f t h i s group as t r a n s i t i v e . See h i s Trans-f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar, p. 125. 21 in English. Owen Thomas says that intransitive verbs "cannot be followed by nominals or adjectives in the third position,"12 but that transitive verbs "can be followed by nominals in the third position...Some sentences containing particular kinds of transitive verbs cannot be transformed to form a passive-voice sentence."I 3 Thomas calls this particular kind of transitive verb "middle verbs,"14 and gives such examples as: This book weighs five pounds. The china costs eight dollars. Ed has a good library. The beard suits his personality. He states that "there are no corresponding passives for these sentences."15 Robert B. Lees gives an explicit explanation of middle verbs. He says that middle verbs are followed by objects just like other transitive verbs, but do not have passive transforms and cannot be followed by manner adverbials. The verbs which belong in this group are have, cost, weigh, resemble, mean, etc. Unlike other transitive verbs, they are unable to transform into action nominals with of. It i s possible to say Bob's tell i n g of the story delighted Pat, but not aBob's resembling of his father delighted Pat. l D I f transformational grammar i s going to treat the "middle verb" as •^ 'Thomas, Transformational Grammar, p. 120. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 121. ^ I b i d . . p. 122. 15lbid. l bRobert B. Lees, The Grammar of English Nominaligations (Bloomington: Indiana University, I960), p. 8. 22 a member of the transitive verbs, the grammar should state the rule to exclude this "middle verb" in the rule of passivization. Basically, the transformational rule of changing an active sentence into a passive sentence i s the same as the one traditional grammarians u t i l i z e . In transformational grammar there i s no explanation why the active to the passive transformation takes place, except in terms of syntax — t h e grammar gives the structural description to which the rule can be applied. However, due to the mechanical operation of transformational grammar, the rule of passivization does not seem to be able to describe the change of a subtle, emotional or s t y l i s t i c nuance which l i e s behind active and passive transformations. CHAPTER I I WESTERN INFLUENCE ON TRADITIONAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Today's Japanese grammar i s based on both t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar and the Western grammar introduced by the Dutch and the E n g l i s h to Japan i n the 19th century. T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar has i t s o r i g i n i n the study o f p o e t r y — t o appreciate the x^orks o f the great poets, and to create good poetry, students were taught the usage o f tenioha ( s u f f i x e s ) and s h i (words other than s u f f i x e s ) . When Western c u l t u r e was brought i n t o Japan i n the e a r l y 19th century, Western grammar was als o introduced. There subsequently appeared a Japanese grammar which was a copy o f t h i s Western grammar. In the l a t e 19th century, many grammarians n o t i c e d that Japanese could not be f i t t e d i n t o the s t r u c t u r a l frame o f European languages. Therefore they t r i e d to determine the true nature o f Japanese by adapting the terminology and method o f Western grammar. The grammar we noxj have has thus been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by that o f Europe but has, as i t s foundation, t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar. In t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar, we f i n d that grammarians d i v i d e d verbs i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s — t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e . The c r i t e r i a which they used to d i s t i n g u i s h between these c a t e g o r i e s were, however, d i f f e r e n t from that used by Western grammarians. The Japanese had to employ t h e i r own c r i t e r i a because the s o - c a l l e d i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs i n Japanese can a l s o be used i n generating a passive sentence. L a t e r gram-marians thought that i t was not necessary to d i v i d e Japanese verbs i n t o the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e on the grounds that p a s s i v i z a t i o n does 2U occur for intransitive? verbs. 1 There exists, however, such contrasts as between oriru (get off) and orosu (bring down) and between narabu (line up) and naraberu (place, lay) irhich have the same roots but different endings to indicate transitiveness or intransitiveness. 2 In addition to the above contrast, the transitive-intransitive dis-tinction may be observed when verbs are used to express the completion of an action—to express the state that "something has been done"— -te aru i s used for transitive verbs and -te i r u for intransitive verbs. For example: Isu ga niretu ni narabete aru. The chairs are placed in two rows. Isu ga niretu ni narande i r u . The chairs are placed in two rows. In this chapter, I would f i r s t like to discuss the verb diachronically from i t s early stages to the present time, and, secondly, the nature of transitive-intransitive verbs in modern Japanese. II. EARLY STAGES OF GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS (8th - 18th century) During this period of nearly a thousand years, there was l i t e r a l l y no discussion concerning the grammar of Japanese. There i s evidence, however, of some discussion having been done on the usage of particles in poetry. It i s a well-known fact that no writing system existed in ancient Japan and that characters were borrowed from Chinese. As the sound system 3-Yoshio Yarns da, Nihon Bunpogaku Gairon (Tokyo: Hobunkan, 1935), p. 24.0. 2This contrast w i l l be discussed further on. 2 5 and grammatical structure of Chinese and Japanese are very different, there arose the d i f f i c u l t y of how to read Japanese, which was not only written in Chinese characters, but which was also written in Chinese word order. The Japanese adopted the meaning of the individual Chinese characters, but assigned their ovm pronunciation to these kan.ii (Chinese characters). The Japanese next developed a method of attaching particles to this borrowed writing system, to show the function of each word. These particles were f i r s t shown by putting a dot at a certain point surrounding a k a n j i , 3 and were called okoto-ten by the scholars of classical Chinese. This point was later replaced by a kan.ii, which was written smaller than the rest in the text, to show that i t had only phonetic value and that the original meaning should be disregarded. The small kan.ii i^as then replaced by either hiragana or katakana, which are simplified forms of kan.ii possessing only phonetic value. The name tenioha or teniha-ten was given to these particles by poets. The tenioha received special attention from poets and reference to this word group can be found in the "ManySshu" which was compiled in the 8th century. In this collection of poems, some c r i t i c s remarked that a certain "poem lacks three particles (called jjL), mo, no and ha."-4 4 1 . x + o; 2 . x -j- koto; 3 . x 4 ha; 4 . x 4 te; 5 . x 4 n i A particle following a certain kan.ii was f i r s t illustrated as in the example above. Reading the corners clockwise from # 4 , the term te-ni-o-ha results. The term o-koto-ten refers to numbers 1 and 2 — o 4 koto—and the term ten or point. X stands for any one kan.ii or character, as explained in Kokugo  Gakushi by Masao Tanabe (Tokyo: Ofusha, 1969), pp. 5-6. ^Manyoshu, XIX, Mo. 4 1 7 5 . These p o e t s d i d n o t t r e a t t h e p a r t i c l e g r a m m a t i c a l l y but f r o m a v i e w -p o i n t o f r h e t o r i c — t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e j i _ t o be t h e k e y word t o a p p r e c i a t e , t o u n d e r s t a n d , and t o p r o d u c e a good poem. I n t h e book " T e n i h a T a i g a i  Sho", w h i c h g i v e s ; i n s t r u c t i o n s ; f o r w r i t i n g a good poem, t h e a u t h o r (who i s unknown b u t s a i d t o have been an e x p e r t on p o e t r y i n t h e l i r t h c e n t u r y ) , c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d t h e t e n i o h a f r o m t h e s h i . D i v i d i n g words i n t o two c l a s s e s , he e x p l a i n e d t e n i o h a and s h i . m e t a p h o r i c a l l y : S h i i s l i k e a temple o r s h r i n e and t e n i o h a i s l i k e i t s shogon, o r o r n a m e n t a t i o n . We c a n t e l l t h e r a n k o f a t e mple b y i t s d e c o r a t i o n and, t h u s , can a l s o judge the v a l u e o f s h i i f we examine t h e usage o f t e n i o h a c l o s e l y . T h e • s h i are' l i m i t e d i n number, but t h e t e n i o h a c a n g i v e t h e s h i new and f r e e e x p r e s s i o n because o f i t s v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . ^ We c a n e x p r e s s i n f i n i t e i d e a s by c o m b i n i n g t h e s h i and t e n i o h a . - 3 I n t h e "Anega K o j i S h i k i " , a c o l l e c t i o n and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p o e t r y handed down w i t h i n t h e "Anega K o j i " f a m i l y and w h i c h was c o m p i l e d i n t h e late> 15th c e n t u r y , an unknown a u t h o r t r i e d t o e t y m o l o g i z e the term t e n i o h a and s a i d : " T e n i o h a was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n as £ft ^ ( a s p r o u t ) . We can t e l l t h e names, o f t r e e s by t h e i r l e a v e s . The same i s t r u e f o r s e n t e n c e s — we can t e l l t he meaning and the n a t u r e o f a s e n t e n c e by i t s t e n i o h a . These works on t e n i o h a g i v e f u l l d e t a i l s and examples o f i t s usage, but do n o t c l a s s i f y t e n i o h a a c c o r d i n g t o the- d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s t h e y p o s s e s s . I n t h e s e works, t h e term t e n i o h a i s used t o c o v e r p a r t i c l e s , and t h e i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s o f v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s . , adverbs and pronouns. 7 T e n i h a T a i g a i Sho, q t d . i n Kokugogaku,. ed. B a i y u S a e k i (Tokyo: S a n s e i d o 1965), pp. 627-629. ^Anega K o j i S h i k i , q t d . i n Kokugogaku, p. 293. I I I . NARIAHRA FUJITANI (1738-1 779) AND NORINAGA MDTOORI (1730-1801) The f i r s t g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Japanese b y a Japanese appeared i n 1773«^ I n h i s " A y u i Sho,"8 N a r i a k i r a F u j i t a n i d i v i d e d words i n t o f o u r groups a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p l a c e and r e l a t i o n i n a s e n t e n c e . He named t h e s e groups a c c o r d i n g t o the human image, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f na: 1. na: (name o r t h i n g ) , i t e x p r e s s e s , s p e c i f i e s t h e t h i n g — N o u n . 2. y o s o i : ( c l o t h or d r e s s ) , p l a c e d ! i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e word group and s t a t e s t h e t h i n g — V e r b and A d j e c t i v e . ; 3. kaza-shi: (head or' an o r n a m e n t a l h a i r p i n ) , p l a c e d b e f o r e a n o t h e r word, a s s i s t s the f o l l o w i n g w o r d — P r e f i x and A d v e r b . I4. a y u i : ( l e g s o r f e e t ) , p l a c e d a f t e r t h e word and a s s i s t s t h e p r e c e d i n g w o r d — P a r t i c l e and A u x i l i a r y . The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e r i v e d from h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e way words a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h e s e n t e n c e . T h i s i n t e r e s t i s a p p a r e n t i n h i s c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e o f v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s . F u j i t a n i i s s a i d t o be t h e f i r s t t o work but such a c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e . H i s o r i g i n a l work on y o s o i ( v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s ) i s not i n e x i s t e n c e t o d a y e x c e p t i n t h e form o f a c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e c a l l e d Y o s o i n o K a t a g a k i . 7 F u j i t a n i d i v i d e d y o s o i (words w h i c h c o n j u g a t e ) i n t o two s u b - c l a s s e s — k o t o ( v e r b ) and sama ( a d j e c t i v e ) . He f u r t h e r d i v i d e d ; k o t o i n t o two sub-c l a s s e s — k o t o and a r i n a — a n d sama i n t o three- s u b - c l a s s e s — a r i s a m a , : - : s h i s a m a and s h i k i s a m a . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d from t h e t y p e o f e n d i n g a s p e c i f i c word h a s , eg., v e r b s end i n - u , a d j e c t i v e s i n - i , and t h e k i n d o f There do e x i s t some grammar books on Japanese w r i t t e n by Europeans who engaged i n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e e a r l y 1 7 t h c e n t u r y . These w o r k s , however, d i d n o t have any i n f l u e n c e on Japanese a t t h a t t i m e . See S e c t i o n V o f t h i s c h a p t e r . §Ayui Sho, q t d . i n Kokugogaku, pp.677-688. ^See page 28 o f t h i s p a p e r . 28 ending a word shows when combined w i t h c e r t a i n p a r t i c l e s , eg., when com-bined w i t h the p a r t i c l e - t a r i , some words end i n - i and others i n -e, as shown i n i k i - t a r i (went) and t a b e - t a r i ( a t e ) . He used the f o l l o w i n g nine f e a t u r e s to set up the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : 1. moto: The bas i c form o f a o n e - s y l l a b l e word o r a stem f o r a m u l t i - s y l l a b l e word. 2 . sue: The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f a m u l t i - s y l l a b l e word i n i t s b a s i c form. 3. h i k i n a b i k i : The l a s t s y l l a b l e to be f o l l o w e d by a noun. 4. k i s h i k a t a : The l a s t s y l l a b l e to be combined with a s u f f i x o f the past tense. 5. menomae: The l a s t s y l l a b l e to express the imperative o r to be combined w i t h the c o n d i t i o n a l s u f f i x . 6. aramashi: The l a s t s y l l a b l e to be combined w i t h the future tense s u f f i x . 7. n a b i k i f u s h i : The c o n d i t i o n a l s u f f i x f o r a verb. 8. fushimenomae: The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f an a d j e c t i v e to express the c o n d i t i o n a l . 9. tachimoto: The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f an a d j e c t i v e to express a d e c i s i o n . The conjugation t a b l e Yosoino Katagaki i s as f o l l o w s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ku r u k i ko ko re to come su r u s i se se re to do nu r u ne ne re to sleep mi r u mi mi mi re to see koto u t u t i te ta to h i t omo f u h i he to t h i n k y o s o i koto su t u r u te te te re to abandon o t u r u t i t i re to f a l l ura mu r u mi mi mi re to blame ko yu r u e e re to cross a n n a a r i r u r i re ra to e x i s t arisama harukana r i r u r i re ra i s f a r sama shizama hay a s i k i ku .ke : ka i s quick shikizama k o h i s i k i ku .•ke ka i s dear 10 lOqtd. i n Tokieda, motoki, Kokugogakushi (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1969)> p. 1 2 4 -29 Fujitani classified koto into three groups depending on whether a verb has features numbered 2 and 3 above or not. Arina and arisama show exactly the same forms, but they are classified in different classes because, as he explains in Ayui Sho, arisama can be followed by the part-i c l e -ni but arina can not. In the conjugation table shown on the previous page, there is not a clear distinction between roots and suffixes--those underlined ru and re are suffixes, but k i , ko, s i , se, ne, etc., are a combination of a root and a suffix. For example, in the verb ku (to come), the root is k-, and -u, - i , -o are suffixes; in sutu, the root i s sut- and -u, -e are suffixes. The reason why Fujitani could not separate the root from the suffix could be that he tried to parse the words using syllabic letters, and not phonemic representations. He treated the CV form as a basic or an inseparable unit. At the end of his Ayui Sho, Fujitani made some notes on the nature of the verb. He pointed out that when we choose a verb, we should pay attention to the subject of the sentence—if the subject i s animate, we should use i r u to express the existence of the subject, and i f the subject i s inanimate, we should use aru. Fujitani refers to something animate as uchi (inside or within) meaning something which has emotion within, and to the inanimate as soto (outside or without), meaning a thing which does not have emotion. Next, Fujitani goes into the characteristics of verbs, using the words ura (the inside) and omote (the outside)—ura refers to the action which affects the subject i t s e l f , or refers to the inside of the mind of the subject; omote refers to the action which involves somebody or something other than the subject. Thus, Fujitani stated that ura concerns only the subject, whereas omote has an influence on other parts 30 of the sentence. This classification of ura and omote i s close to the intransitive-transitive contrast—ura being the intransitive and omote the transitive. Fujitani does not elaborate on this point any further nor does he give any examples. Around 1782, unaware of the existence of Fu j i t a n i ' 3 Yosoi no Katagaki, Norinaga Motoori constructed a conjugation table of verbs and adjectives entitled Mikuni Kotoba Katsuyosho. K. Motoori \-ras chiefly interested in how to appreciate poetry—how to write a good poem. He thus tried to cl a r i f y the sequential dependence rule, which existed between certain particles and a verb-ending form, from the point of view of rhetoric. Here he i s referring to the fact that i f a sentence contains the particle koso, the verb should end in a form different from the regular suffix. For example, the verb omofu (to think) should end in -he i f the sentence has koso. mono o koso omohe. I only think of that matter. mono o omofu. I think of that matter. He expressed his idea in Kotoba no Tamanoo, (A Thread of Words), that "particles are like the thread of a necklace, as jewels alone cannot be a necklace however beautiful they might be. Kotoba (a word other than a particle) i s something like a beautiful jewel, because kotoba alone can not be used to express a complete idea without the aid of one or more p a r t i c l e s . " 1 1 n N o r i n aga Motoori, Kotoba no Tamanoo, 1785, qtd. in Motoki Tokieda, Kokugo Gakushi, pp. 114.-115. 31 In his Mikuni Kotoba Katsuyosho, (A Conjugation Table of Japanese), N. Motoori prescribed what the conjugation of words should be, and l i s t e d the conjugation forms of verbs and adjectives with a l l possible particles attached. He divided over 2,200 verbs into 27 kinds according to the kinds of conjugation types, using the Gojuonzu, the table of f i f t y syllables of Japanese. 1 2 For example, the verb aku (to open) conjugates in the follox-;-ing manner: aka-zu (it) does not open aki-t a r i (it) did open aku-toki when (it) opens ake-yo Open (it), 1 N. Motoori grouped those verbs which have -ka, - k i , -ku, -ke forms into one category, but put yomu (to read) and wakatu (to divide) in different groups despite the fact that they conjugate like aku. wakatu: wakata-zu wakati-tari vakatu-toki wakate-yo It appears that Motoori, like Fujitani, considered the CV verb-ending as an inseparable unit because he did not recognize the fact that, when conjugating the verbs like aku, yomu and wakatu, only the f i n a l vowel /-u#/ i s inflected, i e . , the consonant remained constant. N. Motoori gave four conjugation forms to account for the types illustrated above, and for others, he gave two or three forms. For 1 2Gojuonzu: N wa ra ya ma ha na ta sa ka a i r i i mi hi n i t i s i k i i u ru yu mu fu nu tu su ku u e re e me he ne te se ke e o ro yo mo ho no to so ko o •omu: yoma-piu yomi-tari yomu-toki yome-yo 32 example, kiru (to wear) has two conjugation forms, k i - and kjLru-, and various particles are attached to either of the two. The conjugation tables of Fujitani and N. Motoori were combined by Akira Suzuki (1764-1837), a pupil of the latter. In 1803, Suzuki con-structed a conjugation table, Katsugo Kiretsuzuki no Fu,13 (A Table of Conjugating Words), and, like Motoori, classified verbs into 27 categories, giving eight conjugation forms to each, thus also following Fujitani's method. To each conjugation form, he assigned a function, and also l i s t -ed several particles which might follow the form. Verb Form Function Particle to Follow 1. aku Infinitive -to, -ya, -kasi 2. aku Can be followed by -hu, -mo, -ga, -yo, -ka, -zo, -koso, another verb -o, -ni 3. aku -besi, -ran, -nari, - r a s i , -meri 4"* aki Can be used as a - a r i , -te, -tu, -nu, -ne noun 5. ake Preceded by -koso -ba, -do 6. ake Imperative -yo 7. aka Futurity -ba, -mu, -masi, -zu, -nu, -naku 8. aka Causative -simu, -su Regarding forms 7 and 8 above, Suzuki remarked that " i t would not be necessary to divide them into two—they could be classed as one form."-^ Number 8 i s the causative form, which is now considered to be a derivative constructed by adding the suffixes -simu or -su which are further capable of conjugating. Suzuki does not include other suffixes which also form derivatives, such as the passive suffix -raru or the desiderative suffix - t a s i . l^Katsugo Kiretsuzuki no Fu, qtd. in Miki & Fukunaga, Kokugo Gakushi (Tokyo: Kazama shobo", 1966), pp. 147-1-49. 1 % b i d . , p. 148. 33 IV. HARUNIWA MOTOORI (1763-1828) Suzuki c l a r i f i e d the theory of conjugation forms by assigning seven (or eight) forms to each verb, but he s t i l l did not reduce the number of conjugation types. Norinaga Motoori's son, Haruniwa, however, contributed greatly to the simplification of the conjugation types. In his Kotoba no  Yachimata (The Many Uses of Words),!5 written in 1806, Haruniwa reduced the 27 conjugation types of his father to seven verbal types by disregard-ing the difference of consonants in the f i n a l CV cluster, Haruniwa grouped aku (to open), yomu (to read), hossu (to want), etc., into one type, as these verbs have -a,, - i , -u, -e conjugations in common. ak-a yom-a hoss-a ak-i yom-i hoss-i ak-u yom-u hoss-u ak-e yom-e hoss-e Haruniwa then named each conjugation type according to the Gojuonzu. These names are as follows: 1. Yokida no hataraki: A verb xjhich conjugates according to the four columns of the Gojuonzu (-a, - i , -u, -e). e&* osu (to push) 6s-a-, os-i-, os-u-, os-e-. 2. Hitokida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using only one column of the Gojuonzu (-i). eg. kiru (to wear) k - i - , k-i-ru, k-i-re-. 3. Naka-futakida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using two middle columns of the Gojuonzu (-i, -u). eg. otu (to f a l l ) o t - i - , ot-u, ot-u-ru, ot-u-re-. 4. Shimo-futakida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using two of the latter columns .of the "Go juonz.u '(-u, - -e).. eg. uku (to receive) uk-e-, uk-u-, uk-u-ru-, uk-u-re-. •^qtd. in Tokieda, Kokugo Gakushi, pp. 131-137. 34-5. Kagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o n l y o f the verb ku (to come) which conjugates using three columns o f the k- s e r i e s , k i , ku, ko. eg. ku (to come) k-o-, k - i - , k-u-, k-u-ru-, k-u-re-. 6. Sagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o n l y o f the verb su (to do) which conjugates using three columns o f the s- s e r i e s , se, s i , su. eg. su (to do) s-e-, s - i - , s~u-, s-u-ru-, s-u-re-. 7. Nagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o f the two verbs i n u (to go) and s i n u (to die) which conjugate using the f o u r colums o f the n-s e r i e s , na, n i , nu, ne. eg. i n u (to go) i n - a - , i n - i - , i n - u - , i n - u - r u - , i n - u - r e - , i n - e . ° Haruniwa d i d a good job o f covering the types o f conjugation, but he d i d not f o l l o w the idea o f conjugation form made by Suzuki, and he shows i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the conjugation forms l i s t e d above. H i s i n t e r e s t was, l i k e h i s f a t h e r Norinaga, to s t a t e the s e q u e n t i a l dependence r u l e o f a conjugation form and i t s p a r t i c l e s . He thus d i v i d e d the conjugation forms according to a verb's f i n a l vowel, regardless of i t s f u n c t i o n . For', example, Suzuki's groups 5 and 6, ake (preceded by koso) and ake (Impera-t i v e ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were combined because they end with the same sound. In Kotoba no K a y o i . j i , ! ^ w r i t t e n i n 1828, Haruniwa discussed the nature o f verbs. He f i r s t mentioned that there are some verbs which are r o o t -r e l a t e d but which conjugate i n d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s o f the Gojuonzu. For example, odoroku (to be frightened) and odorokasu (to s u r p r i s e ) are r o o t -r e l a t e d , but odoroku conjugates i n the k- s e r i e s as -ka-, - k i - , -ku-, -ke-, and odorokasu conjugates i n the s- s e r i e s as -sa-, - s i - , -su-, -se-. Haruniwa n o t i c e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning and thus d i v i d e d verbs i n t o tvo groups: 1 6 q t d . i n Tokieda, Kokugo Gakushi, pp. 131-137. Kotoba no K a y o i j i , q t d . by Saeki, Kokugogaku, (Tolcyo: Sanseido, 1965), pp. 325-6. 35 1. j i : A verb expressing an action taking place automatically or without aid from another party. 2. ta: A verb expressing an action taking place with the intention of the actor.18 Group one above refers to the intransitive verbs, group two to the transitive verbs. In fact, in present-day grammar Haruniwa's terminology i s s t i l l being used—.jidoshi (intransitive) and tadoshi (transitive). Among the verbs of the second group, he further distinguished five d i f f e r -ent groups. Dividing a l l the verbs into six groups, he explained the meaning of each as: 1. Onozukara shikaru: " i t happens to be that way," "without forcing i t to become that way, i t becomes so." eg. kikoyuru—sounds come from somewhere to one's ears no matter whether one wants to hear them or not. 2. Mono o shikasuru: "one uses one's intention and achieves some action, thing, etc." eg. kiku—to hear. 3. Ta ni shikasuru: "one makes somebody to become so and so," or "one does some action for somebody." eg. kikasuru—one makes (performs) sound (music,etc.) for someone. 4-. Ta ni shikasasuru: "one makes somebody do some action," or "one forces somebody to do some action." eg. kikoesasuru--one permits another to perceive a certain sound or utterance. 5. Onozukara shikaseraruru: "one i s in some situation by allowing oneself to become so." eg. kika r u m — i t i s possible for one to hear sound. 6. Ta ni shikaseraruru: "action i s done to someone by someone else." eg. kikaruru—sound i s produced by one person and perceived by a second person. As can be seen from the above l i s t , the root form kik- i s common to l 8 I b i d . 36 the example given in each group. The example in number one, kikoyuru. is an intransitive verb while kiku, in number two, i s a transitive verb. The examples in numbers three through six are their derivatives—kika sum, in number three, and kikoesasuru, in number four, are causatives derived from kiku and kikoyuru, respectively; kikaruru, in number five, i s a potential and kikaruru. in number six, i s a passive, and both are derived from kiku. Haruniwa treated these six forms as independent verbs, not as deriva-tives. He explained that the difference of meaning arises from the d i f f e r -ent conjugation types x/hich they belong to, not from the functions of the suffixes attached to the root. According to Haruniwa, the verbs of numbers one and two may be any kind of conjugation types, but those in numbers three and four, should conjugate as the s- series of shimo futakida no  hataraki (-se-, -su-, -suru-, -sure-), and those in numbers five and six as the r- series of shimo futakida no hataraki (-re-, -ru-, -ruru-, -rure-). Haruniwa recognized three main ways of distinguishing between transi-tive and intransitive verbs which share the same root, from the types of conjugation which they belong to, based on the syllabaries. 1. Bet\jeen two verbs which conjugate in the same consonant series, a present form which ends in -ru i s transitive and i t s counterpart, which does not end in -ru, is intransitive: nokuru (t.v. to remove) noku (i.v. to move aside) tuzukuru (t.v. to continue) tuzuku (i.v. to continue) taturu (t.v. to build) tatu (i.v. to build) The conjugation of nokuru is noke-, noku-, nokuru-, nokure- and that of noku i s noka-, noki-, noku-, noke-. 2. Transitive verbs conjugate in the s- series but intransitive verbs do not: okosu (t.v. to start) okoru (i.v. to start) 37 odorokasu ( t . v . to s u r p r i s e ) odoroku ( i . v . to s u r p r i s e ) otosu ( t . v . to drop) o t u r u ( i . v . to drop) oyobosu ( t . v . to a f f e c t ) oyobu ( i . v . to a f f e c t ) akasu ( t . v . to open) akuru ( i . v . to open) The conjugation o f okosu i s okosa-, o k o s i - , okosu-, okose- and that o f okoru i s okora-, o k o r i - , okoru-, okore-. 3. I n t r a n s i t i v e verbs conjugate i n the r - s e r i e s , but t r a n s i t i v e verbs do not: azamuku ( t . v . to deceive) azamukaru ( i . v . be deceived) kakotu ( t . v , to complain) kakotaru ( i . v . be complained to) uzumu ( t . v . to bury) uzumoru ( i . v . be buried) yatohu ( t . v . to h i r e ) yatoharuru ( i . v . be hired) The conjugation o f azamuku i s azamuka-, azamuki-, azamuku-, azamuke-and that o f azamukaru i s azamukare-, azamukaru-, azamukare-. Haruniwa t r i e d to account f o r the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n from a semantic and morphological p o i n t o f view, and not from a s y n t a c t i c one. Kyogenji Gimon, 1786-1853, a Buddhist p r i e s t , completed the conjuga-t i o n t a b l e o f verbs. In h i s Wagosetsu no Ryakuzu,19 (A S y m p l i f i e d Conju-gation T a b l e ) , w r i t t e n i n 1833, Gimon gave s i x conjugation forms f o r every verb and c l a s s i f i e d a l l the verbs i n t o seven types. Gimon used the same names f o r the types o f conjugation as Haruniwa, but he f i r s t named each conjugation form according to i t s f u n c t i o n and meaning. The names he used are i d e n t i c a l to the ones used today. The f o l l o w i n g i s Gimon's conjugation t a b l e and the numerals one through e i g h t stand f o r : 1. Kagyohenkakuj 2. SagyShenkakuj 3- Nagyo-henkaku; 4. Shimo-futakida; 5. Naka-futakida; 6. H i t o k i d a j 7. l o k i d a ; and 8. P a r t i c l e . q t d . i n M i k i & Fukunaga, Kokugo Gakushi, p. 171. 38 . 1 '2 3 A 5 6 '7 8 Presumptive Shozengen ko se ina e o k i mi utusa zu, z i , de, ne, nu, n, me, masi Conjunctive Renjrogen k i s i i n i e o k i mi u t u s i k e r i , ken Conclusive Saidangen ku su i n u u oku miru utusu meri, ran, be k i A t t r i b u t i v e Ren ta igen kuru suru i n u r u uru okuru miru utusu kana, made, n i P r o v i s i o n a l Izengen kure sure inure ure okure mire utuse ba, domo, do Imperative Kekugen ko seyo ine eyo okiyo miyo sutse to come to do to go to get to get up 'to see . to copy This t a b l e was w r i t t e n i n Japanese using s y l l a b i c CV c l u s t e r s , so the v e r b a l root and the s u f f i x are not separated i f the root ends i n a conson-ant. T h i s t a b l e shows that each form except kekugen (imperative) i s followed by one o f the p a r t i c l e s l i s t e d a t the end o f each row. The conjugation o f verbs had been s e t t l e d by Gimon, but the nature o f the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs had not been f u l l y discussed u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Western grammar. V. THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN GRAMMAR The f i r s t grammatical work on Japanese made by a European i s the Nihon Daibunten, ("Arte da Lingoa de Iapam"), by Rodriguez i n 1604.. In 1620, Rodriguez s i m p l i f i e d h i s previous book and pub l i s h e d Nihon Sho Bunten, ("Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa"). Diego Collado wrote "Ars Grammaticae Japonicae Linguae" i n Rome i n 1632, and Melchor Oyanguren wrote "Arte de l a Lengua Japona" i n 1738, which was p u b l i s h e d i n Mexico. 39 These works were a l l based on L a t i n grammar and were w r i t t e n i n e i t h e r L a t i n o r Spanish. The main purpose o f these grammar books was to help the propagation o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Japan. The reason that they d i d not have any i n f l u e n c e on the Japanese grammarians o f that time was p a r t l y due to the d e c i s i o n o f the Tokugawa Shogunate vrtiich p r o h i b i t e d European l i t e r a t u r e from 1630. Upon r e c e i v i n g permission to import west-ern books i n 1720, many Japanese.started studying Dutch, because Holland was the o n l y country with which Japan was i n contact. Many Dutch grammar books were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Japanese, and t h i s aided the l a t t e r i n l e a r n i n g about Western c u l t u r e . In 1833, when Western grammar had become somewhat f a m i l i a r to the Japanese, Shigenobu Tsurumine wrote a grammar book, Gogaku  Shinsho, (A New Grammar Book), based on Dutch grammar. No value can r e a l l y be found i n t h i s book except that Tsurumine introduced, and t r i e d to u t i l i z e , European l i n g u i s t i c s . In 1868, J . J . Hoffmann wrote "Japansche Spraakleer" which was pub-l i s h e d i n Leiden. His second e d i t i o n , ! w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h , appeared i n 1876. In t h i s e d i t i o n , Hoffmann wrote that Japanese grammarians "...have o f o l d d i s t r i b u t e d the words o f t h e i r language i n three c l a s s e s , " 2 and gives 1. noun "na", 2, verb "kotoba", and 3. p a r t i c l e s "tenioha". Hoff-mann expressed the inadequacy o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s t a t e d : ...we, to be able to f i x the l o g i c a l and grammatical value o f the words p r o p e r l y , must apply our grammatical c a t e g o r i e s , our d i s t i n c t i o n o f the p a r t s o f speech to the Japanese language. Consequently we d i s t i n g u i s h 1. Nouns, (under which are i n c l u d e d 2. Pronouns), 3« A d j e c t i v e s , 4- Numerals, 5. Adverbs, 6. Verbs, J . Hoffmann, A Japanese Grammar (2nd ed., E. J . B r i l l , Leiden, 1876). 2 I b i d . , p. 42. 40 7. Suffixes (postpositions) simple, answering to our term-inational inflections, and such as answer to our prepositions and conjunctions, 8. Interjections.3 On his chapter on the verb, Hoffmann asked the question, "...how are the conjugational forms of the Western languages expressed in the Japanese,"4 and classified verbs as: The Voices of the Japanese verb are Intransitive. Transitive, Factive or Causative. Passive, but in the form of an active. Negative, since the verbal terminations contain in themselves a negative element, n . 5 Here, I shall not question whether his classification of "the voices of the Japanese verb" i s correct or not, but would like to confine this discussion to that of the transitive-intransitive distinction. It seems that Hoffmann took i t for granted that verbs should be divided into the transitive and intransitive, that the transitive should take an object, and that the intransitive should not. His thoughts concerning this matter are only apparent in his section on the causative. He said that "...the causative verbs derived from intransitive verbs have the object, which i s made active in the accusative before them"0 and he indicated that this type of verb i s transitive (t.v.) as: kayeru (to return) i.v. kayesu (to make turn back) t.v. ugoku (to move) i . v . ugokasu (to move, to make move) t.v. 3Ibid., p. 4-3-4 l b i d . , p. 197. 5lbid. °Ibid., p. 237. yasumu (to r e s t ) i . v . yasumasu (to r e s t ) t.v.? Mo other comment on the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, o r the o b j e c t , are given i n h i s book. An E n g l i s h grammarian, ¥. G. Aston, compiled and pub l i s h e d a Japanese grammar book, A Grammar o f the Japanese Spoken Language, i n 1867. In h i s f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f t h i s book^ published i n 1888 i n Tokyo, Aston discussed the Tokyo d i a l e c t o f that time and confined h i m s e l f c h i e f l y to the spoken language. He d i v i d e d verbs i n t o t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e , but d i d not s t a t e any c r i t e r i a used i n making t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . He n o t i c e d that the Japanese verbs are capable o f expressing both ideas o f t r a n s i t i v i t y and o f i n t r a n s i t i v i t y by using the same r o o t . Some o f the examples Aston ga ve a re : I n t r a n s i t i v e t a t u to stand susumu to advance yamu to cease i r u to enter k i r e r u to be discontinuous u r e r u to be sa l e a b l e miyeru to be able to see i k e r u to be able to go T r a n s i t i v e t a t e r u to set up susumeru to encourage yameru to cease i r e r u to put i n k i r u to cut uru to s e l l miru to see i k u to go 9 Aston remarked that the s u f f i x -eru may appear e i t h e r w i t h the t r a n s i t i v e or i n t r a n s i t i v e , but no r u l e f o r forming t r a n s i t i v e o r i n t r a n s -i t i v e verbs from the same root i s given. The verb i k u (to go), which i s 7 I b i d . , pp. 235-236. % . G. Aston, A Grammar o f the Japanese Spoken Language (Tokyo: Haku-bunsha, 1888). 9 l b i d . , pp. 78-79. 42 i n the above set o f examples, i s now considered to be i n t r a n s i t i v e . The reason why Aston c l a s s i f i e d i k u as t r a n s i t i v e i s not c l e a r . My guess i s that he assumed that a l l t r a n s i t i v e verbs r e q u i r e an o b j e c t denoted by the p a r t i c l e o, and i n t r a n s i t i v e do not, but i k u does demand the p a r t i c l e o. Thus, Aston might have concluded i k u to be transitive.1° B a s i l K a i l Chamberlain, who s t a r t e d the course o f p h i l o l o g y at Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y i n 1886, vrote A Handbook o f C o l l o q u i a l Japanese i n 1890. The f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f the book,H which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1907, shows that Chamberlain c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d A Grammar o f the Japanese Spoken Language by \1. G. Aston. On the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, Chamberlain s t a t e d : In E n g l i s h , the same vrord commonly does duty both as a t r a n s i t i v e and as an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb, the context alone determining i n which of these acceptions i t i s to be understood. Sometimes the passive does duty f o r the i n t r a n s i t i v e , sometimes a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t words are employed. In Japanese the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e meaning are almost always expressed by d i f f e r e n t verbs d e r i v e d from the same root...12 Chamberlain then gave some examples of the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs derived from the same r o o t s , most o f which p r e v i o u s l y appeared i n the examples given by Aston. In 1889, Fumihiko Ootsuki published a d i c t i o n a r y c a l l e d Genkai. In t h i s d i c t i o n a r y , Ootsuki i n c l u d e d a grammar o f Japanese e n t i t l e d Goho  S h i n a n l ^ i n which he t r i e d to combine European grammar w i t h that o f l^On the d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a r t i c l e o and verbs s i m i l a r to i k u , see Sect i o n VI o f t h i s chapter. H B . H. Chamberlain, A Handbook o f C o l l o q u i a l Japanese (Yokohama: K e l l y & Walsh, L t d . , 1907). 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 208-209. 1 3 F u m i h i k o Ootsuki, Goho Shinan, q t d . i n Genkai (Tokyo: Fuzanbo, 1889). 43 t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese. On the p a r t s o f speech, Ootsuki recognized the Noun, Verb, A d j e c t i v e , A u x i l i a r y verb, Adverb, Conjunction, P a r t i c l e , and I n t e r j e c t i o n , thus i l l u s t r a t i n g a tendency to conform to European grammar. His conjugation t a b l e o f the verb i s i d e n t i c a l to that o f Gimon, except f o r a s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the terminology. Ootsuki d i v i d e d verbs i n t o two g r o u p s — t h e t r a n s i t i v e (tadoshi) and the i n t r a n s i t i v e ( j i d o s h i ) — a c c o r d i n g to the nature of the verbs. His explanation and the examples o f each group are as f o l l o w s : The i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs: i n d i c a t e the a c t i o n o f the subject and do not a f f e c t others. • eg. hana tobu - Flowers f l y away. tyoo odoroku - A b u t t e r f l y s u r p r i s e s . The t r a n s i t i v e v e rbs: a f f e c t o t h e r s . eg. mayu wa i t o o haku - Silkworms produce s i l k . h a t i wa m i t u o kamosu - Bees make honey. I f we simply say mayu wa haku (silkworms produce) o r h a t i wa  kamosu (bees make), we would be asked nani o (What?). The verbs o f t h i s group should accompany something beside the a c t o r . 1 ^ T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f verbs i s e n t i r e l y based on whether a verb demands an object o r not,15 a n d the other c r i t e r i o n used by European g r a m m a r i a n s — i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs can not be made p a s s i v e — i s not employed because he says that " . . . i n Japanese, passive forms can be made from both the i n t r a n s i t i v e and t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . " ^ In 1908, l o s h i o Yamada published a v ery detailed, grammar book, Nihon Bjraporon,1^(Japanese Grammar), using the terminology e s t a b l i s h e d by Ootsuki. U l b i d . , p. 8. !5By 'object', Ootsuki seems to mean a word group accompanied by a p a r t -i c l e o. He does not, however, define the term o b j e c t . l6Goh5 Shinan, p. 23. l 7 Y o s h i o Yamada, Nihon Bunporon, (Tokyo: Hobunkan, 1908). In this book, and likewise in his next book, Nihon Bunpogaku Gairon, (An Introduction to the Study of Japanese Grammar), Yamada did not agree with the necessity of dividing Japanese verbs into transitive and intransitive. His opinion, however, i s not generally accepted by other grammarians.1^ VI. THE NATURE OF JAPANESE TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS In Japanese, transitive verbs require an object marked by the particle o, and intransitive do not. There are always exceptions to the rule and some intransitive verbs do require the particle o. However, these verbs have a common semantic feature, that i s , they a l l indicate a movement of the subject within a certain spaces kodomo ga miti o aruku. A child walks along the street. hikooki ga sora o tobu. An airplane f l i e s in the sky. t i t i ga asa u t i o deru. My father leaves home in the morning. fune ga kaikyoo o susumu. A ship sails in the str a i t . fune ga gaNpeki o hanareru. A ship leaves from the quay. The verbs in the above examples have no effect on the underlined word groups. Instead, they indicate some action or movement of the sub-jects performed at or in a certain place. Hence, the particle o indicates the place where some action occurs. The particle o which appears with the l%amada's argument i s apparent in his Nihon Bunporon, pp. 271-311, that passivization i s possible for the intransitive verbs, and also that the particle o can be used with them. U5 t r a n s i t i v e verbs, hcrwever, has a d i f f e r e n t function: kodomo ga ame o taberu. Children eat candy. hikooki ga zoo o hakobu. In airplane c a r r i e s an elephant. fune ga k i t e k i o narasu: The ship blows i t s whistle. In the above examples, the verbs indicate that the subjects perform some action and that the action a f f e c t s the underlined parts, which are objects o f the verbs. Each function o f the p a r t i c l e o may be examined more c l e a r l y in the following sentences, which have ro o t - r e l a t e d verbs: kare wa seki o ugokasu (t.v.) He moves the c h a i r . kare wa seki o ugoku (i . v . ) He moves from the c h a i r . In the f i r s t sentence, the verb ugokasu (to move) indicates the action of the subject done to the object seki (chair) which i s c a r r i e d somewhere by the subject kare (he). While in the second sentence, seki i s not c a r r i e d somewhere, but the verb ugoku (to move from) indicates the move-ment of the subject departing from the c h a i r . The existence o f the root-related verbs has been discussed from the e a r l y stages of Japanese grammar by both Japanese and Western grammarians. Bernard Bloch says in h i s Studies in C o l l o q u i a l Japanese,* that he d i s t i n -guished the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs on the basis of "...morpho-l o g i c a l and syntactic c r i t e r i a . " 2 I t seems, however, that Bloch f e l t the •'-Bernard Bloch, Studies i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese, qtd. by R. M i l l e r , ed., Bernard Bloch on Japanese (Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970). 2 I b i d . , p. 96. 4 6 n e c e s s i t y o f the d i s t i n c t i o n — t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e — s o l e l y because o f the existence o f ' r o o t - r e l a t e d formations'. He s t a t e d : Of two verbs, one i s i n t r a n s i t i v e and the other t r a n s i t i v e , i f ( l ) they are m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y connected as und e r l y i n g word and d e r i v a t i v e or as r o o t - r e l a t e d formations; and i f (2) they d i f f e r s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n that one of them (designated the t r a n s i t i v e member o f the p a i r ) i s sometimes preceded by a d i r e c t o b j e c t , whereas the other (designated the i n t r a n s i t i v e member) i s never so preceded.3 Bloch d e f i n e s the d i r e c t object i n Japanese as "...a noun o r other substantive expression f o l l o w e d by the p a r t i c l e o.,."4 Consequently, Bloch has to admit that the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs a l s o take a d i r e c t object i n sentences l i k e : koen o t o r u (He) passes through the park. u t i o deru (He) leaves the house.5 He, however, puts the p r i o r i t y on the c r i t e r i o n numbered ( l ) i n the above quote, and t h i n k s t o r u (to pass through) and deru (to leave) are i n t r a n s i -t i v e , i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r r o o t - r e l a t e d counterparts tosu (to pass) and dasu (to push o u t ) , thus d i s r e g a r d i n g the existence o f the d i r e c t o b j e c t . 6 3 I b i d . 4-Ibid. 5 I b i d . , p. 101. 6 I b i d . The f o l l o w i n g examples represent some o f the r o o t - r e l a t e d t r a n s i t i v e -i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs o f modern c o l l o q u i a l Japanese. I . T r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e c o n t r a s t and t h e i r v a r i a n t s . i n d i c a t e d by the s u f f i x e s -su, (1) -su (t.v.) vs. -rru ( i . v . ) 1. ama-su - r u kane o ama-su kane ga ama-ru one saves some money the money i s l e f t 2. kae-su -ru tomodati o kae-su tomodati ga kae-ru one l e t s a f r i e n d go back a f r i e n d goes back 3- kuda-su - r u haNketu o kuda-su haNketu ga kuda-ru one hands down a d e c i s i o n a d e c i s i o n i s given 4- mawa-su -r u koma o mawa-su koma ga mawa-ru one spins a top a top spins 5. modo-su -r u hoN o modo-su hofl ga modo-ru one r e t u r n s a book a book i s returned 6. nakuna-su - r u kane o nakuna-su kane ga nakuna-ru one l o s e s money money i s spent 7. nao-su - r u byoki o nao -3U b y o k i ga nao-ru one cures an i l l n e s s one recovers from an i l l n e s s S. noko-su - r u a s i a t o o noko-su a s i a t o ga noko-ru one leaves f o o t p r i n t s f o o t p r i n t s remain 9, sime-su - r u gaze o sime-su gaze ga sime-ru one moistens the gauze the gauze becomes damp 10. t i r a k a - s u - r u heya o t i r a k a - s u heya ga t i r a k a - r u one puts the room i n d i s o r d e r the room i s u n t i d y 11. tomo-su - r u rosoku o tomo-su rosoku ga tomo-ru one l i g h t s a candle a candle i s l i g h t e d 12. to-su - r u kaze o to-su kaze ga t o - r u one l e t s i n some f r e s h a i r the breeze passes through 13- utu-su - r u syasiN o utu-su syasiN ga utu-ru one takes a p i c t u r e a p i c t u r e i s taken H . utu-su - r u basyo o utu-su basyo ga utu - r u one changes one's pl a c e the place i s changed 4 - 8 ( 2 ) -su (t.v.) vs. -reru (i.v.) arawa-su hoNsyo o arawa-su one reveals one's true character -reru hoNsyo ga arav/a-reru one's true character i s revealed 2 . 3. 4 . 5 . 8 . 9 . 1 0 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 13. 1 4 . hana-su -reru ha zu-su -reru kaku-su -reru kona-su -reru kobo-su -reru kowa-su -reru kuzu-su -reru mida-su -reru mu-su -reru naga-su -reru tao-su -reru tuhu-su -reru yogo-su -reru horu o hana-su boru ga nana-reru botaN o hazu-su botaN ga hazu-reru kao o kaku-su kao ga kaku-reru one lets the ba l l go the ball i s let go one unfastens a button a button comes off one hides one's face a face i s hidden tabemono o kona-su one digests food tabemono ga kona-reru food i s digested miruku o kobo-su one s p i l l s the milk miruku ga kobo-reru the milk i s spilt tatemono o kowa-su one destroys the building tatemono ga kowa-reru the building i s wrecked yama o kuzu-su yama ga kuzu-reru kami o mida-su kami ga mida-reru gohaN o mu-su gohaN ga mu-reru ikada o naga-su ikada ga naga-reru k i o tao-su k i ga tao-reru bo s i o tubu-su bosi ga tubu-reru uwagi o yogo-su uxiragi ga yogo-reru one levels the mountain the mountain is leveled one dishevels one's hair one's hair is disheveled one steams the rice the rice i s steamed one dr i f t s a raft a raft d r i f t s one brings down a tree a tree is brought dovm one smashes a hat a hat i s battered one soils a coat a coat becomes dirty (3) -asu (t.v.) vs. -eru (i.v.) ak~a su -eru yo o ak-asu yo ga ak-eru one sits up a l l night the day dawned 2 . ar-asu ha take o ar-asu -eru ha take ga ar-eru one lays waste the f i e l d the f i e l d i s l a i d waste 49 3. bak-asu -eru h i t o o bak-asu h i t o ga bak-eru one bewitches a man a man d i s g u i s e s h i m s e l f 4- bar-asu -eru h i m i t u o bar-asu h i m i t u ga bar-eru one r e v e a l s a secret a secret i s revealed 5- bok-a su -eru i r o o bok-asu i r o ga bok-eru one l i g h t e n s the c o l o r the c o l o r becomes dim 6. d-asu -eru s a i f u o d-asu s a i f u ga d-eru one takes out a w a l l e t a w a l l e t f a l l s out 7. fuk-a su -eru imo o fuk-asu imo ga fuk-eru one steams sweet potatoes sweet potatoes are steamed 8, fuk-a su -eru yo o fuk-asu yo ga fuk-eru one s i t s up t i l l l a t e at night the night goes on 9. fuyak-a su -eru kome o fuyak-asu kome ga fuyak-eru one soaks the r i c e the r i c e s w e l l s up 10. ha r-a su -eru me o har-asu me ga har-eru one s w e l l s one's eyes one's eyes are swollen 11. ha r-a su -eru kibuN o har-asu kibuN ga har-eru one d i s p e l s the gloom the gloom i s d i s p e l l e d 12. hat-asu -eru nozomi o hat-asu i n o t i ga hat-eru one m a t e r i a l i z e s one's wishes one's l i f e terminates 13. zya r-a su -eru koneko o zyar-asu koneko ga zyar-eru one p l a y s w i t h a k i t t e n a k i t t e n p l a y s with i t 14. z i r - a s u -eru kodomo o z i r - a s u kodomo ga z i r - e r u one i r r i t a t e s a c h i l d a c h i l d s u l k s 15. kak-a su -eru o r e K z i o kak-asu oreNzi ga kak-eru one l a c k s oranges oranges are l a c k i n g 16. kar-asu -eru hana o kar-asu hana ga k a r - e r u one l e t s the fl o w e r w i t h e r a f l o w e r w i t h e r s 17. k i r - a su -eru sake o k i r - a s u sake ga k i r - e r u one runs out o f 'sake' 'sake' i s out of stock 18. kog-a su -eru moti o kog-asu moti ga kog-eru one burns a r i c e - c a k e a r i c e - c a k e i s burned 19. korog-asu -eru boru o korog-asu boru ga korog-eru one r o l l s the b a l l the b a l l r o l l s 20. kur-a su -eru i t i n i t i o kur-asu i t i n i t i ga ku r - e r u one l i v e s one day the day ends 50 2X * 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. mak-a su -eru mor-asu -eru mur-a su -eru nar-asu -eru nig-asu -eru nuk-asu -eru nur-a su -eru sam-a su -eru sam-asu -eru sor-asu -eru tar-asu -eru tok-asu -eru torok-asu -eru zur-asu -eru t e k i o mak-asu t e k i ga mak-eru himitu o mor-asu himitu ga mor-eru gohaN o mur-asu gohaN ga mur-eru karada o nar-asu karada ga nar-eru dorobo o nig-asu dorobo ga nig-eru kosi o nuk-asu kosi ga nuk-eru te o nur-asu te ga nur-eru otya o sam-asu otya ga sam-eru me o sam-asu me ga sam-eru nanasi o sor-asu hanasi ga sor-eru kaminoke o tar-asu kaminoke ga tar-eru sato o tok-asu sato ga tok-eru kokoro o torok-asu kokoro ga torok-eru y o t e i o zur-asu yotei ga zur-eru one destroys the enemy the enemy i s defeated one l e t s out a secret a secret leaks out one steams boiled r i c e r i c e i s steamed one accustoms one's body to. one's body gets used to... one l e t s a thielf escape a t h i e f escapes my legs gave way when.., one i s p e t r i f i e d one wets one's hand one's hand gets wet one cools the tea the tea becomes cool one opens one's eyes one awakens one turns- the talk away the t a l k deviates from one hangs one's hair down one's hair hangs down one dissolves the sugar the sugar dissolves one fascinates one's mind one's mind i s fascinated one s h i f t s the schedule the schedule i s shifted (4) -yasu (t.v-) vs. -eru (i.v.) 1. 2, fu-ya su -eru ha-yasu -eru kaiiW o fu-yasu k a i i N ga fu-eru hige o ha-yasu hige ga ha-eru one increases the number of members members increase one grows a beard a beard grows 51 3. hi-yasu -eru atama o hi-yasu atama ga hi-eru one cools one's head one's head becomes cool 4. ko-yasu -eru kuti o ko-yasu kuti ga ko-eru one pampers one's taste one's taste i s pampered 5. mo-yasu -eru maki o mo-yasu maki ga mo-eru one burns kindling the kindling bums 6. ta-yasu -eru hi o ta-yasu hi ga ta-eru one lets the fire go out the f i r e goes out (5) -osu (t.v.) vs. - i r u (i.v.) 1. horob-osu - i r u kuni o horob-osu kuni ga horob-iru one ruins a nation a nation is ruined 2. ok-osu - i r u akaNbo o ok-osu akaNbo ga ok-iru one wakes the baby the baby wakes up 3. or-osu - i r u zyokyaku o or-osu zyokyaku ga or-iru one lets the passengers off the passengers get off 4. ot-osu - i r u riNgo o ot-osu riNgo ga ot-iru one drops an apple an apple f a l l s 5- sug-osu - i r u i t i n i t i o sug-osu i t i n i t i ga sug-iru one spends a day a day passes by (6) -asu (t.v.) vs. - i r u (i.v.) 1. ik-a su - i r u keikeN o ik-asu keikeN ga i k - i r u one makes use of experience the experience i s apparent 2. kor-asu - i r u naraakemono o kor-asu one gives an idl e r a lesson namakemono ga kor-iru an idl e r learns a lesson 3. mit-asu - i r u taru o mit-asu taru ga mit-iru one f i l l s the jug the jug i s f u l l A. nob-asu - i r u zikaN o nob-asu zikaN ga nob-iru one extends the time the time i s extended 5. toz-asu - i r u tobira o toz-asu tobira ga toz-iru one shuts the door the door i s (automatically) shut (7) -usu (t.v.) vs. - i r u (i.v.) 5 2 1 . tuk-usu - i r u syudaN o tuk-u.su syudaN ga tuk-iru one tries every means one's resources come to an end (8) -esu (t.v.) vs. -ieru (i.v.) 1 . k-esu -ieru rosoku o k-esu rosoku ga k-ieru one puts the candle out the candle goes out Each pair of verbs l i s t e d above has the same root,' and the transitive-intransitive distinction has been indicated by the following suffix contrasts: (l) su—ru; ( 2 ) su—reru; ( 3 ) asu—eru; ( 4 - ) yasu—eru; ( 5 ) o su— iru; ( 6 ) a s u — i r u ; ( 7 ) usu—iru; and ( 8 ) esu—ieru. Every pair of verbs shows a su—ru contrast—su indicating transitivity and ru, intransitivity. If the root of a verb ends in a vowel, / s / or / r / are directly attached to i t , with the exception of type ( 4 - ) , or some vowel i s inserted between the root and / s / or / r / . However, type ( 4 ) could be included in type ( 3 ) because the phoneme /y/ does not appear before /e, i / , i t i s possible to say that the root of the verbs in this category end in /y/. In each type of group I verbs, the phoneme directly preceding the suffix i s : There i s no morphophonemic rule governing the combination of a root and 'The term 'root' refers to the definitions of Bloomfield (Language p. 2 4 . 0 ) and Hockett (A Course in Modern Linguistics, p. 2 4 - 1 ) . In the verb kaesu, the root i s kae- and the stem i s kaes-, as kae- underlies kae-su and kae-ru. Kaes- underlies the paradigm of the verb kaes-u as kaesanai, kaesita, kaeseba, kaesu, and kaeso. Kaer- underlies the paradigm of the verb kaer-u as kaeranai, kaetta, kaereba, kaeru and ( 1 ) /a, e, o, u/ ( 2 ) /a, o, u/ (3) / t , d, k, g, m, r / U ) /y/ ( 5 ) / t , k, g, b, r / ( 6 ) / t , k, b, 2 , r / kaero. 53 i t s suffixes. II. In the following group, the transitive-intransitive contrast i s indicated by -asu or -osu and -u. (8) -asu (t.y.) vs. -u (i.v.) 1. aruk-asu -u akaNbo o aruk-asu akaNbo ga arulc-u one lets the baby walk the baby walks 2. fuk-a su -u tabako o fuk-asu kaze ga fuk-u one smokes a cigarette the wind blows 3- fukuram-asu fuseN o fukuram-asu -u fuseN ga fukuram-u one inflates a toy balloon a toy balloon i s inflated A. hasir-asu -u inu o hasir-asu inu ga hasir-u one makes a dog run a dog runs 5. her-a su -u taizyu o her-asu taizyu ga her-u . one reduces one's ireight one's \reight i s reduced 6. kai./ak-asu -u kimono o kawak-asu kimono ga kawak-u one dries the clothes the clothes have dried 7. kor-a su -u mizu o kor-asu mizu ga kor-u one freezes some water the water i s frozen 8. kor-asu -u kata o kor-asu kata ga kor-u one stiffens one's shoulders one's shoulders grow s t i f f 9. kuram-a su -u me o kuram-asu me ga kuram-u one covers one's traces one i s dazzled IG. nabik-asu -u hata o nabik-asu hata ga nabik-u one lets the flag wave the flag waves 11. nak-asu -u kodomo o nak-asu kodomo ga nak-u one makes a child cry a child cries 12. nar-asu -u taiho o nar-asu taiho ga nar-u one fir e s the cannon the cannon booms 13. nemur-asu -u byoniN o nemur-asu byoniN ga nemur-u one lets the sick sleep the sick person sleeps 14- oyog-a su -u neko o oyog-asu neko ga oyog-u one lets the cat swim the cat swims 5A 15. sek-a su -u gakusei o sek-asu gakusei ga sek-u one urges a student to hurry up a student hurries 16. suk-a su -u onaka o suk-a su onaka ga suk-u i t makes one hungry one's stomach i s empty 17. sum-a su -u sigoto o sum-ssu sigoto ga sura-u one finishes the job the job comes to an end 18. ter-a su -u heya o ter-asu t u k i ga ter-u one lightens the room the moon shines 19. t i r - a s u -u hana o t i r - a s u hana ga t i r - u one scatters flowers the blossoms are scattered 20. tob-a su -u hikoki o tob-asu hikoki ga tob-u one f l i e s an airplane an airplane f l i e s 21. ugok-a su -u kuruma o ugok-asu kuruma ga ugok-u one drives a car a car moves 22. uk-a su -u kanu o uk-asu kanu ga uk-u one f l o a t s a canoe a canoe f l o a t s 23. wak-a su -u furo o wak-asu furo ga wak-u one heats the bath the bath i s ready (9) -wa su (t.v.) vs. -u (i.v.) 1. kayo-wa su -u deNki o kayo-wasu deNki ga kayo-u one turns on the e l e c t r i c i t y the e l e c t r i c i t y i s turned on 2. mayo-wa su -u kokoro o mayo-wasu kokoro ga mayo-u one leads one's mind astray one i s led astray (10) -osu (t.v.) vs. -u (i.v.) 1. horob-osu -ru t e k i o horob-osu t e k i ga horob-u one destroys the enemy the enemy i s defeated 2. oyob-osu -u eikyo o oyob-osu eikyo ga oyob-u one extends influence influence i s extended The t r a n s i t i v e verbs in the above groups have the suffixes -asu or -osu, the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs have -u. Types (8) asu—u and (9) wa s u — u 55 could be combined because the phoneme /w/ in the transitive suffix of type (9) only appears before /a/, and i s dropped before /e, i , o, u/. The fact that this /w/ also appears in the paradigm of the intransitive verbs might support this assumption. The paradigm of the intransitive verbs of this type i s : kayo-u: kayowanai", kayou, kayotta, kayoeba, kayoo mayo-u: mayowanai, mayou, mayotta, mayoeba, mayoo Some of the transitive verbs in Group II may be used as causative verbs, resulting from the contraction of the regular causative forms. Some examples of these verbs are: Regular Causative Contracted aruk-aseru aruk-asu fuk-aseru fuk-asu hasir-aseru hasir-asu There are, however, among the above l i s t of verbs, some which cannot be considered as contracted forms of the regular causative because they are opposed in meaning. For example, hana o tir-asu one scatters flowers hana o tir-aseru one forces somebody to scatter flowers The phonemes /k, g, b, m, r / precede the suffixes in type (8), /v/ precedes the suffixes in type (9), and /b/ precedes the suffixes in type (10). III. In the following group, the transitive-intransitive contrast i s indicated by -u and -eru or -aru. (11) -u (t.v.) vs. -eru (i.v.) 56 1. hag-u -eru 2. hazik-u -eru 3. hinekur-u -eru 4. hirak-u -eru 5. hodok-u -eru 6. kak-u -eru 7. kak-u -eru 8. k i r - u -eru 9. kuzik-u -eru 10. mekur-u -eru 11. mog-u -eru 12. muk-u -eru 13• nezir-u -eru 14. nug-u -eru 15. nuk-u -eru 16. or-u -eru 17. sabak-u -eru 18. sak-u -eru kawa o hag-u kawa ga hag-eru geN o hazik-u saya ga hazik-eru moNdai o hinekur-u moKdai ga hinekur-eru mori o hirak-u mori ga hirak-eru seta o hodok-u seta ga hodok-eru ziNzai o kak-u ziNzai ga kak-eru hetanazi o kak-u hetanazi ga kak-eru deNwa o k i r - u deNwa ga k i r - e r u a s i o kuzik-u a s i ga kuzik-eru pezi o mekur-u pezi ga mekur-eru totte o mog-u totte ga mog-eru riNgo o muk-u TiNgo ga muk-eru te o nezir-u te ga nezir-eru kutu o nug-u kutu ga nug-eru ha o nuk-u ha ga nuk-eru eda o or-u eda ga or-eru sinamono o sabak-u sinamono ga sabak-eru k i o sak-u k i ga sak-eru one takes o f f the skin the skin comes o f f one touches the s t r i n g a pod s p l i t s open one plays with the question the question i s distorted one clears the forest the forest i s cleared one unravels the sweater the sxreater i s unravelled one lacks a man of talent a man of talent i s lacking one x^rites poorly poor l e t t e r s are written one hangs up the phone the phone i s disconnected one strains one's leg one's leg i s strained one turns the pages the pages are turned one wrenchs o f f the handle the handle i s wrenched o f f one peels an apple an apple i s peeled one twists one's arm one's arm i s twisted one takes o f f one's shoes one's shoes come o f f one p u l l s out a tooth a tooth f a l l s out one breaks a branch a branch snaps one s e l l s goods goods s e l l one s p l i t s the tree the tree i s s p l i t 57 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. sir-u -eru suk-u -eru sur-u -eru sur-u -eru tak-u -eru tok-u -eru tor-u -eru ur-u -eru wa r-u -eru ya k-u -eru yabuk~u -eru yabur-u -eru yozir-u -eru siNso o sir-u siWso ga sir-eru kami o suk-u kami ga suk-eru sumi o sur-u sumi ga sur-eru meisi o sur-u meisi ga sur-eru gohaN o tak-u gohaN ga tak-eru moNdai o tok-u moNdai ga tok-eru maNteN o tor-u maNteN ga tor-eru ie o ur-u ie ga ur-eru tyawaN o war-u tyawaN ga war-eru moti o yak-u moti ga yak-eru syozi o yabuk-u syozi ga yabuk-eru syozi o yabur-u syozi ga yabur-eru ude o yozir-u ude ga yozir-eru one knows the truth the truth comes to light one combs one 's hair one's hair i s combed one prepares the ink the ink is prepared one prints one's name card one's name card i s printed one boils the rice the rice i s ready one solves the problem the problem i s solved one gets a perfect mark a perfect mark i s attained one sells the house the house i s sold one breaks a teacup a teacup i s broken one bakes a rice-cake a rice-cake i s baked one tears a sliding paper door a sliding paper door i s torn one tears a sliding paper door a sliding paper door is torn one twist one's arm one's arm is twisted (12) -u (t.v.) vs. -aru (i.v.) 1. fusag-u miti o fusag-u one blocks the way -aru miti ga fusag-aru the way i s blocked 2. karam-u ito o karam-u one coils the thread -aru ito ga karam-aru. the thread becomes entangled 3. kurum-u -aru akatyan o kurum-u akatyan ga kurum-aru one tucks a baby in a baby i s tucked in 58 4. mabus-u -aru 5. matag-u -aru 6. sas-u -aru 7. tatam-u -aru 8. tukam-u -aru 9. tunag-u -aru nukamiso o mabus-u nukamiso ga mabus-aru mizo o matag-u kawa ga matag-aru hari o sas-u hari ga sas-aru futoN o tatam-u futoN ga tatam-aru sakana o tukam-u sakana ga tukam-aru deNwa o tunag-u deNwa ga tunag-aru one sprinkles rice-bran paste rice-bran paste i s sprinkled one steps over a ditch a r i v e r extends over... one s t i c k s a needle i n t o . . . a needle s t i c k s i n . . . one folds up the bedding the bedding i s folded up one catches f i s h f i s h are caught one connects the phone the phone i s connected (13) -u (t.v.) vs. -oeru (i.v.) 1. kik-u oNgaku o kik-u one l i s t e n s to music -oeru oNgaku ga kik-oeru music i s heard In Group I I I , the t r a n s i t i v e verbs take only the -u s u f f i x , but the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs take either -aru or -eru. The consonants /g, k, r / occur d i r e c t l y before the s u f f i x -eru. and /g, m, s/ occur before -aru. 17. In the following group, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s indicated by -eru and -aru. (14.) -eru (t.v.) vs. -aru (i.v.) 1. ag-eru -aru nedaN o ag-eru nedaN ga ag-aru one raises the price the price goes up aratam-eru taido o aratam-eru one reforms one's attitude -aru taido ga aratam-aru one's attitude i s reformed 3. at-eru -aru syohiN o at-eru syohiN ga at-aru 4. atatam-eru heya o atatam-eru -aru heya ga atatam-aru one wins the prize the prize i s won one warms up the room the room i s warmed 59 5. atum-eru -aru 6. awas-eru -aru hito o atum-eru hito ga atum-aru kami o awas-eru lea mi ga awas-aru 7. fukam-eru t i s i k i o fukam-eru -aru t i s i k i ga fukam-aru 8. hakak-eru suso o hadak-eru -aru suso ga hadak-aru 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14-15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. ham-eru -aru hazim-eru -aru hirog-eru -aru hirom-eru -aru kabus-eru -aru kak-eru -aru kasan-eru -aru ka tam-eru -aru kim-eru -aru kiwam-eru -aru mag-eru -aru ma z-eru -aru mituk-eru -aru kuruma o ham-eru kuruma ga ham-aru zyugyo o hazim-eru zyugyo- ga hazim-aru syobai o hirog-eru syobai ga hirog-aru uwasa o hirom-eru uwasa ga hirom-aru t u t i o kabus-eru t u t i ga kabus-aru deNwa o kak-eru deNwa ga kak-aru hoN o kasan-eru hoW ga kasan-aru t u t i o ka tam-eru t u t i ga katam-aru t o k i o kim-eru t o k i ga kim-aru siNso o kiwam-eru uNmei ga kiwam-aru seN o mag-eru seN ga mag-aru mizu o. raaz-eru mizu ga maz-aru kotae o mituk-eru kotae ga mituk-aru one gathers people together people swarm one puts sheets of paper together sheets of paper are put together one deepens one's knowledge one's knowledge i s deepened one opens the lower s k i r t of one's kimono the lower s k i r t of one's kimono ri s e s (in the wind) one puts the car i n t o . . . the car i s mired i n . . . one starts the class the class begins one widens one's business one's business i s spread one spreads rumors rumors are circulated one covers... with earth earth covers... one makes a phone c a l l the telephone rings one p i l e s the books the books are p i l e d one hardens the earth-the s o i l settles one fixes a time the time i s decided one reaches the truth fate i s sealed one curves a l i n e a l i n e i s crooked one mixes...with water water i s mixed with... one finds the answer the answer i s found 60 22. mok-eru kane o mok-eru -aru kane ga mok-aru 23. sadam-eru daiziN o sodom-eru -aru daiziN ga sadom-aru 24. sag-eru nedaN o sag-eru -aru nedaN ga sag-aru 25.. sebam-eru haNi o sebam-eru -aru haNi ga sebam-aru 26. sem-eru teki o sem-eru -aru teki ga sem-aru 27. sim-eru mado 0 sim-eru -aru mado ga sim-aru 28. sizum-eru k i o sizum-eru -aru k i ga sizum-aru 29. som-eru kami 0 som-eru -aru kami ga som-aru 30. takam-eru kiNtyo o takam-eru -aru kiNtyo ga takam-aru 31. tam-eru kane o tam-eru -aru kane ga tam-aru 32. tasuk-eru tomodati o tasuk-eru -aru tomodati ga tasuk-aru 33. tizim-eru inoti 0 tizim-eru -aru inoti ga tizim-aru 34.. todom-eru tomodati o todom-eru -aru tomodati ga todom-aru 35. tom-eru zidosya o tom-eru -aru zidosya ga tom-aru 36. tom-eru kyaku o tom-eru -aru kyaku ga tom-aru 37. tuk-eru hakusai o tuk-eru -aru hakusai ga tuk-aru 38. tum-eru paipu o tum-eru -aru paipu ga tum-aru one makes money . . . i s profitable one appoints the minister the minister i s appointed one reduces the price the price i s reduced one restricts the limits the limits are restricted one attacks the enemy the enemy approaches one closes the x-rindow the windov/ i s closed one calms one's mind one's mind i s calmed one dyes one's hair one's hair i s dyed one increases the tension the tension i s increased one saves money money i s saved one rescues a friend a friend i s rescued one shortens one's l i f e one's l i f e i s shortened one detains one's friend one's friend i s detained one stops the car the car stops one gives a guest lodging a guest stays overnight one pickles Chinese cabbages Chinese cabbages are .seasoned one f i l l s a pipe a pipe i s clogged 39. tutom-eru -aru sityo o tutom-eru one serves as mayor sityo ga tutom-aru one i s f i t to be mayor 61 40. uk-eru sikeN o uk-eru -aru sikeN ga uk-aru 41. um-eru kawa o um-eru -aru kawa ga um-aru 42- uzum-eru kao o uzum-eru -aru kao ga uzum-aru 43- yud-eru zyagaimo o yud-eru -aru zyagaimo ga yud-aru one writes an examination one passes an examination one f i l l s up the stream the stream i s f i l l e d up one hides one's face in.., one's face i s buried in... one boils the potatoes the potatoes are boiled (15) -eru (t.v.) vs. -waru (i.v.) 1. ka-eru -waru 2. kuwa-eru -waru 3. o-eru -vjaru 4- sona-eru -waru 5. su-eru -wa ru 6. 7. tuta-eru -waru u-eru -aru zyuKbaN o ka-eru zyuNbaN ga ka-waru one changes an order an order i s altered seiryoku o kuwa-eru one increases the power seiryoku ga kuwa-varu the power i s increased sigoto o o-eru sigoto ga o-waru one finishes the job the job i s completed hituyohiN o sona-eru one provides necessities hituyohiN ga sona-waru necessities are furnished me o su-eru me ga su-waru zyoho o tuta-eru zyoho ga tuta-waru kyukoN o u-eru kyukoN ga u-waru one stares at... one's eyes are glassy one gives information information i s passed down one plants bulbs bulbs are planted Sections (14) and (15) could be classed together according to the statement made for the verbs in sections (8) and (9), previously. 8 There are some verbs which take both -eru and -aru endings, and yet do not f i t into the transitive-intransitive contrast, because both verbs take the particle o. The following are some examples: 1. azuk-eru kane o azuk-eru one deposits money The phoneme /w/ i s included in the root. 62 azuk-aru kane o azuk-aru one keeps money 2. i i t u k - e r u sigoto o i i t u k - e r u one orders one to do a job -aru sigoto o i i t u k - a r u one i s ordered to do a job 3. kotozuk-eru tegami o kotozuk-eru one asks one to d e l i v e r a l e t t e r -aru tegami o kotozuk-aru one i s asked to deliver a l e t t e r 4. sazuk-eru syogo o sazuk-eru one confers a t i t l e -aru syogo o sazuk-aru one has a t i t l e bestowed In the above examples, a l l of the verbs ending in -eru indicate that the actions are done by the r e a l subjects, whereas the -aru ending verbs indicate that the actions are done to the subjects by somebody, or, in other words, the verbs do not indicate the direct action of the subject, but indicate i t s condition or state. This fact i s j u s t i f i e d by the existence of verbs with -aru endings—these verbs closely resemble i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs despite the fact that they require the p a r t i c l e o. V. In the following, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s indicated by -eru and -u. (16) -eru (t.v.) vs. -u (i.v.) 1. ak-eru -u 2. dok-eru -u to o ak-eru to ga ak-u kuruma o dok-eru kuruma ga dok-u 3. hikkom-eru kubi o hikkom-eru -u kubi ga hikkom-u 4. itam-eru te o itam-eru -u te ga itam-u 5. katamuk-eru fune o katamuk-eru -u fune ga katamuk-u 6. katazuk-eru heya o katazuk-eru -u heya ga katazuk-u one opens the door the door i s open one moves the car the car moves aside one p u l l s i n one's head one's head i s withdrawn one hurts one's hand one 's hand aches one t i l t s the ship the ship l i s t s one straightens up the room the room i s in order 7. kurusim-eru gakusei o kurusim-eru -u gakusei ga kurusim-u 8. matiga-eru kaNzi o matiga-eru -u kaNzi ga matiga - U 9. narab~eru hoN o narab-eru -u hoN ga narab-u 10. otituk-eru kokoro o otituk-eru -u kokoro ga otituk-u 11. sizum-eru fune o sizum-eru -u fune ga sizum-u 12. sodat-eru kodomo o sodat-eru -u kodomo ga sodat-u 13. soro-eru kazu o soro-eru -u kazu ga soro-u 14.. susum-eru tokei o susum-eru -u tokei ga susum-u 15. tat-eru i e o tat-eru -u ie ga tat-u 16. tiga-eru basyo o tiga-eru -u basyo ga tiga-u 17. tikazuk-eru kuruma o tikazuk-eru -u kuruma ga tikazuk-u 18. tizira-eru fuku o tizim-eru -u fuku ga tizim-u 19. todok-eru okurimono o todok-eru -u okuri.mono ga todok-u 20. tuzuk-eru hanasi o tuzuk-eru -u hanasi ga tuzuk-u 21. ukab-eru yotto o ukab-eru -u yotto ga ukab-u 22. yam-eru hakusyu o yam-eru -u hakusyu ga yam-u 23. yurum-eru baNdo o yurum-eru -u baNdo ga yurum-u 63 one harasses the students the students suffer one makes a mistake i n writing Chinese characters the Chinese character i s wrong one arranges the books the books are in a row one calms one's mind one feels at home one sinks a vessel a vessel i s sunk one brings up a c h i l d a c h i l d grows up one completes the number the number i s complete one puts a clock ahead the clock i s fast one builds a house a house i s b u i l t one changes the place the place i s different one drives a car close to... the car approaches... one shortens one's clothes one's clothes shrink one sends a g i f t a g i f t i s received one keeps talking the speech continues one launches the yacht the yacht f l o a t s one stops hand-clapping the hand-clapping stops one loosens the belt the belt comes loose 64 If we compare the suffixes which appeared in the above l i s t s (group I through group V), i t becomes evident that the suffixes -u and -eru appear with both transitive and intransitive verbs. On the other hand, the suffix -su and i t s variants (-asu, -osu, -usu, -esu) are used only with transitive verbs, and the suffixes -ru, -reru, - i r u , and -aru are used only with intransitive verbs, A transitive verb indicates that the action i s performed according to the intention of the subject and the action affects the object denoted by the particle o. An intransitive verb, however, does not carry this meaning but indicates that the action happens without the intention of the subject without questioning whether or not the subject has any inten-tion. For example: 1. tomodati o kae-su (He) let his friend go back. 2. hoN o kae-su (He) returns the book. 3. tomodati ga kae-ru A friend goes back. 4. hoN ga kae-ru A book i s returned. Sentence (1) indicates that 'his friend' goes back according to the intention or desire of the subject; and (2) indicates that 'he' wants to return a book; while (3) does not indicate whether or not 'a friend' wants to go back or not, i t simply indicates the state of his going back. In (4), the state that 'a book' comes back to i t s owner i s expressed— the owner might have wanted to have i t back, or he might have allowed somebody to keep i t longer, but 'a book' is now in the owner's hand. 65 I w i l l cite a personal experience which might help to c l a r i f y the distinction between the transitiveness and intransitiveness of root-related verbs. When I noticed my four year old nephew s p i l l his milk, I said to him: 5. miruku o kobosita na (You) spilt (your) milk, didn 't you? He replied using a transitive verb f i r s t and then an intransitive one: 6. kobosita N zya nai no yo, koboretyatta no yo (i) didn't s p i l l i t , i t spilt i t s e l f . (5) and (6) could be rephrased as: 5' You spi l t your milk on purpose, didn't you? 6' No, I didn't s p i l l i t purposely, (the glass f e l l over and) the milk spread naturally. The speaker's selection of the transitive-intransitive verb would be: 1 . One uses the transitive verb i f one wants to make a direct reference to the intention of the performer in relation to the action taking place. 2. One uses the intransitive verb, i f one does not want to make the above distinction, and i f one simply wants to state the result of the action. This distinction might be similar to the English speaker's selection of the active or passive voice. In fact, the transformation of the transitive verb sentence to the intransitive verb sentence in Japanese i s identical with the transformation of the active voice to the passive voice in Eng-l i s h . That i s , the intransitive verb sentence can be obtained by changing the object in the transitive verb sentence into the subject in the intran-66 s i t i v e verb sentence, and the t r a n s i t i v e verb into the corresponding i n -t r a n s i t i v e verb. This relationship of the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verb could account for the meaning " . . . i s adversely affected by someone's action," which i s apparent in some of the so-called passive forms i n Japanese. The following three sentences might exemplify the above d i s t i n c t i o n s . 7. kodomo ga miruku o kobosita The c h i l d s p i l t a glass of milk. 8. miruku ga koboreta (My) milk s p i l t . 9. OkasaN wa kodomo n i miruku o kobosareta The mother was adversely affected by her c h i l d s p i l l i n g a glass of milk. Sentence (7) indicates the actor and his action, refering to the intention of the actor i n rela t i o n to the action taking place; sentence (8) expresses the condition or state of the glass of milk without reference to the actor; and sentence (9) indicates the actor, denoted by the p a r t i c l e n i , h i s action, and also his action r e f l e c t s onto the subject, eg. wasted a glass of milk or ruined the rug. CHAPTER III I. PASSIVE FORM It has been suggested by many grammarians that the Japanese passive voice i s not exactly the same as that of European languages. In his book, Bernard Saint-Jacques deliberately avoided using the term 'passive voice' but instead used 'passive form' in reference to Japanese expressions similar to the passive voice in many European languages.^ B. H. Chamber-lain also said that "properly speaking, the so-called passive i s not a passive at a l l , but an active in disguise." 2 This assertion seems to be based on the etymological reason that the passive suffix -rareru i s derived from - a r i (to be) and -eru (to get). For instance, for the verb utareru. Chamberlain parsed i t into uti-ari-eru, 'to shoot-being-get', consequently, 'to get beaten'. Synchronically however, we do not analyze the passive form as above, but interpret i t as a combination of a verb and i t s suffix which expresses the idea that an action f a l l s on or affects the subject of a sentence. Some of the examples Chamberlain l i s t e d as passives are: ottotsan ni okorareru yo. Oh.' You w i l l have papa angry x^ith you. aNna kyaku ni koraretya meiwaku simasu. A man doesn't know what to do, when he has such guests as those come to his house. kubi o hanerareta. He got his head cut off.3 ^Bernard Saint-Jacques, Structural Analysis of Modem Japanese (Vancouver: UBC Publication Cent-re, 1971), p. 15. 2B. H. Chamberlain, A Handbook of Colloquial Japanese, p. 199. 3 I b i d . . pp. 199-200. 68 The examples he gave i n his book are of one type of passive o n l y — t h e so-cal l e d adverse passive form, which has no equivalent among any European language. Subsequently, Chamberlain seemed to have f e l t that he should use an active form to express t h i s type of idea i n languages other than Japanese. Chamberlain did not mention other types of the passive form, nor did he give any explanation on syntax.^-G. B. Sansom divided the passive forms into Wo, an 'ordinary passive and an ' i n t r a n s i t i v e passive'. Sansom said: The passive voice i n English may be regarded as a purely grammatical device f o r describing an action without mentioning the agent. Passive verbs in Japanese, while they can perform t h i s function, can have various additional significance. Thus i n : uta-ruru to be struck tabe-raruru to be eaten we have an ordinary passive. But, while in English only trans-i t i v e verbs can be turned into the passive, i n Japanese a l l verbs, without exception, can form a compound conjugation with the suffixes -ru or -raru. Thus taking an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb l i k e shinu, 'to die', we can construct a sentence haha ko n i shin aru ^Ch'amberlain treats the potential form as a kind of passive. He remarked that "the passive often passes into a potential sense." Ibid., p. 201. I s h a l l confine my discussion to the passive form and exclude the potential as well as the honorific forms. In most cases, i t i s easy to distinguish each form from the context, despite the fact that a l l three verb forms are constructed by using the s u f f i x (r)areru. When "this s u f f i x i s used f o r the p o t e n t i a l , i t i s usually contracted to (r)eru, f o r example, we w i l l get kak-eru from kaku (to write) instead of i t s regular form kak-areru. _ Some grammarians l i k e Susumu Ono assume that the passive, potential and honorific forms are derived from one form. He thinks that during the early stages of Japanese, the s u f f i x (r)areru (which was pronounced d i f f e r e n t l y ) was used to express 'something becomes so and so naturally', and t h i s meaning was used to cover the passive, potential and honorific expressions. These expressions have, according to the Japanese way of thinking, several l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s among themselves. Susumu Ono, "Nihonjin no Shiko to Gengo"(The Japanese Way of Thinking and the Language), Bungaku, (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1967, Vol. 35), pp. 1283-1285. 69 meaning 'the mother suffers the death of the child'. The nearest rendering of this in English i s , perhaps, 'the mother has her child die. '5 The above comment by Sansom is misleading in two ways. Fi r s t , he said that uta-ruru or tabe-raruru (-ruru and -raruru are old forms of -rareru 6 and -reru) are ordinary passive verbs. These verbs, however, can have 'additional significance' depending on the context. For example, boku wa oka s i o tabe-rare-ta I candy eat—pass, past 'I had my candy eaten', or 'I was adversely affected by someone's eating my candy.' Secondly, he said that "...in Japanese a l l verbs, without exception, can form a compound conjugation..," but this i s not true. We cannot form the passive form from aru (to be), heru (to decrease), sigeru (to grow thick), kageru (to darken), ovosreru (to be able to swim), mieru (to be vi s i b l e ) , and so on. The definition Sansom gave is ambiguous because he did not specify whether a l l transitive verbs have an additional significance or not, and whether intransitive verbs always have this additional significance or i f they can have the ordinary meaning as well. These points were c l a r i f i e d by Bernard Bloch. Refining the definition of the passive, Bernard Bloch stated that the class meaning of the passive is approximately defined as: . . . ' i s affected by someone else's action', including the meanings 'is acted upon* (in the sense of the Latin or' English passive) and 'is adversely affected by someone else's action'. The passive of a transitive verb may have either of these two subsidiary -'G. B. Sansom, An Historical Grammar of Japanese (London: Oxford University Press, 1928), p. 160. ^The passive suffix w i l l be treated further on. 70 meanings; the passive of an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb has only the second meaning.7 I would l i k e to add one more subsidiary meaning to the Japanese passive: that i s , ' . . . i s favorably affected by someone else's action.' This mean-ing can be observed i n the sentence: seKsei n i home-rare-ta teacher praise—pass, past (a) '(I) was favorably affected by my teacher's praising (me).1 The above English translation (a) i s rendered to the situation where the subject receives a favorable effect from the action the agent has performed. The above Japanese sentence can be interpreted in at least three more different ways. These are: (b) '(I) was adversely affected by my teacher's praising (me).1 (c) '(I) was adversely affected by my teacher's praising (him). 1 (d) *(I) was favorably affected by my teacher's praising (him).' The situations where these expressions w i l l be made are: (b) The subject xjas expecting to be scolded by the teacher, but, on the contrary, was praised. (c) The person who was praised by the teacher i s not the subject, and the subject received some adverse effect from the teacher praising someone else. (d) The person who was praised by the teacher was not the subject, and the subject received some favorable effect from the teacher's praising of someone else. 7Bloch, Studies i n Colloquial Japanese, pp. 102-103. 71 The ambiguity of the sentence 'seNsei n i homerareta' i s the result of the omission of the pronouns, and the interpretation w i l l depend on the context. In any case, the sentence carries a strong emotional feeling which i s peculiar to the Japanese passive form. II. THE ORDINARY PASSIVE FORM In this section, I would like to discuss the passive form which I c a l l the 'ordinary passive form', that i s , the form which has an ordinary meaning. The ..'ordinary passive form' i s constructed from the active sentence in the same way as English. That i s , the object of the active sentence is changed into the subject in the passive, and the active verb i s converted to the passive verb by adding the passive suffix (r)areru. The passive suffix has two forms: 1) -areru, when the stem ends in a consonant, and 2) -rareru, when the stem of the verb ends in a vowel. Therefore, -areru and -rareru are in complementary distribution. tabe-ru to eat tabe-rareru to be eaten kak-u to write kak-areru to be written The subject of the active sentence may occur in the passive sentence to express the agent of the action followed by the particle - n i , which i s similar to by. in English. This phrase, however, i s frequently omitted. The above statement can be formalized as: Active: N]_ - wa +• N 2 - o -f V - Tense Passive: N 2 - wa, + % - n i +V -(r)are-Tense 8 This rule contains only those elements which w i l l be affected by the 72 The active sentence and i t s corresponding passive sentence are as follows: 1-1 Active: ane ga setuko o ture-te k i - t a elder s i s t e r accompany come—past "Her elder s i s t e r came, accompanying Setsuko." 1- 2 Passive: setuko ga ane n i ture-rare-te k i - t a Setsuko older s i s t e r accompany—pass, come—past "Setsuko came, accompanied by her elder s i s t e r . " 2- 1 Active: okina odoroki ga kare o osot-ta big surprise him attack—past "A big surprise s t a r t l e d him." 2- 2 Passive: kare wa okina odoroki n i osow-are-ta he big surprise attack—pass, past "He was st a r t l e d by a big surprise." 3- 1 Active: kare ga i e o tate-ta he house b u i l d — p a s t "He b u i l t a house." 3- 2 Passive: i e ga tate-rare-ta house b u i l d — p a s s , past "A house was b u i l t . " 4- 1 Active: asahi ga koke o terasi-ta r i s i n g sun moss shine on—past "The r i s i n g sun shone on the moss." 4.-2 Passive: koke wa asahi n i teras-are-ta moss r i s i n g sun shine on—pass, past "The moss was shone on by the r i s i n g sun."9 transformation. Other elements, such as modifiers of subjects, objects and verbs, or adverbial clauses are l e f t out. N stands f o r a noun, and V for a t r a n s i t i v e verb. The underlined words (wa, o, ni) are the functional p a r t i c l e s . I used wa to indicate the nomi-native case, but other p a r t i c l e s (ga, mo, no, or others) can be used. The p a r t i c l e n i i s sometimes replaced by n i y o r i , niyotte,or notameni, etc. to indicate the agent of the action. ^ A l l passive forms are from the novel Shinsei (The Newly Reborn), by TSson Shimazaki, 1918. The active forms are mine. 73 The above four passive forms do not carry any strong emotional feelings and therefore can be classified into four types depending on: A) A person who does an action, or a thing which affects something or somebody, hence the subject of an active. B) A person who i s affected by the action, or a thing which receives action, hence the subject of a pas sive. Type 1. A) ane 'an elder sister ' - animate B) setuko 'Setsuko' - animate Type 2. A) odoroki 'surprise' - inanimate B) kare 'he' - animate Type 3. A) kare 'he' - animate B) ie 'house' - inanimate Type 4. A) asahi 'rising sun 1 - inanimate B) koke 'moss' - inanimate types 3 and 4-, the subject of the passive form (B) i s inanimate. This type has been said to be foreign to Japanese as the subject of the passive was presumed as being animate.^-0 Akira Matsumura said in his Kin da i no  Bunpo that there were not many passive forms used before the Meiji period (starting from 1867), and, ...the passive form of that time expressed the adverse meaning, and the subject of the passive sentence was animate. In modern Japanese, the usage of the passive sentence i s not l i m i t e d to the adverse meaning only, but i s used in a wider range. This seems to be the influence of the European languages introduced to Japan in the late 19th century.H 1 0Tadao Doi, Nihongo no Rekishi (A History of Japanese), (Tokyo: Shi-bundo, 1959), p. 214. Daisaburo Matsushita, Hyg.iun Nihon Kogoho (A Standard Colloquial Japanese), (Tokyo: Hakuteisha, 1961), p. 160. ^^Akira Matsumura, "Kindai no Bunpo" (A Modern Grammar), Nihon Bunpo-Koaa 2, (Tokyo: Meiji Shoin, 1959), p. 322. This assumption, however, was partly denied by Koichi Miyaji in his Hijo no Ukemi Ko (On the Inanimate Passive). 1 2 Miyaji lis t e d over one hundred examples from classical literature dating from the early 10th century, and proved that the inanimate subject was used in the passive sentence before the introduction of European languages. Miyaji's discussion i s limited to the inanimate passive sentence, x>rhich expresses an ordinary passive meaning. In addition to this, I would like to demonstrate that the animate passive sentence was also used to express the ordinary meaning in classical Japanese. The following examples, which I obtained from some classical l i t e r a -ture pieces, illustrate passive forms which do not carry any strong emo-tional feelings as classified in types 1 to 4 above. Type 1. A) animate, B) animate 1. kono otoko...iya masari ni nomi obo-e-tutu... this man more and more only feel—pass. "The lady was considered more and more by this man..." ( i s e ) 1 3 2. koisiku nomi obo-e-kere-ba... lovely only feel—pass, past as "As she vras f e l t to be just lovely to him..." (Ise) 3. hito niwa konoha no yoni omow-aruru-yo. people by splinter like reckon—pass. "I am thought of as good for nothing." (Tsurezure) 1^. 4. aruhito n i sasow-are-tatematurite... certain man invite—pass, honorific "I was invited by a certain person..." (Tsurezure) 1 2 K o i c h i Miyaji, "Hijo no Ukemi Ko", Kindaigo Kenkyu Dai Kishu, Sumio Yoshida, ed.,' (Tokyo; Musashino Shoin, 1968), pp. 280-296. 1 3author unknown, Ise Monogatari, 905-^Kenko Yoshida, Tsurezuregusa, 1330. 75 5. iro aru musume wa..„hana wa mi-zu ni mi-rare-ni iku lovely g i r l s cherry blossoms see not watch—pass, go "Lovely g i r l s go out not to see cherry blossoms, but to be watched by men." (Koshoku)15 6. ware ga tanom-aruru wa sono buW niwa arazu I ask—pass. that reason not "The reason why I was asked to do i t , i s not that." (Koshoku) 7. kano okeya ni tanom-are-si itazura kaka... that cooper by ask—pass, past wicked woman "That wicked woman \iho was asked by the cooper..." (Koshoku) 8. kokoroyasuku tanom-are-te... intimately ask—pass. "She was asked in an intimate manner..." (Koshoku) Type 2. A) inanimate, B) animate 9. mimakuhosisa n i izanaw-are-tutu... the desire to see tempt—pass. "I was tempted by the desire to see (you)..." (Ise) 10. oHna no kamisuzi o yoreru tuna niwa ozo mo yoku tunag-are...; woman hair braid rope by big elephant well tether—pass. "A big elephant is well tethered by a rope which is made of woman's hair..." (Tsurezure) 11. kore niwa riNkibukaki oHna mo tunag-aru... this by jealous woman even tie—pas s . "Even a jealous woman is tied by this..." (Koshoku) Type 3. A) animate, B) inanimate 12. aukoto wa tamanoo bakari omoho-e-te... meeting short time only think-pass. "It was thought that our meeting is only for a short time..." (Ise) 13. turaki kokoro no nagaku mi-yu-ramu painful feeling long time see—pass. •^Monzaeraon Chikamatsu, Koshoku Gonin Onna, 1685. 76 "It seems that a painful feeling lingers for a long time." (ise) 1/+. mekaru to mo omoho-e-nakuni... being separated think—pass, never "It was never thought as separation..." (Ise) 15. kuni no sokonaw-aruru omo sirazu... country ruin—pass. even not realizing "Not realizing that the country i s ruined..." (Tsurezure) 16. kano tamesi omoiide-rare haberisi n i . . . that incident recollect—pass, humble "As that incident was recollected..." (Tsurezure) 17. sayo no tokoro nite koso yorozu ni kokorozukai se-raru-re that point at very in general care take—pass. "At that point, care should be taken in general." (Tsurezure) 18. in i s i e no koto mo tatikaeri koisyu omoiide-raruru old days incident come back affectionately recollect—pass. "Incidents from long ago come back and are affectionately recollected." (Tsurezure) 19• waga okotari omoisi-rare-te... my negligence realize—pass. "My negligence was realized..." (Tsurezure) 20. sukosi wa mukasi no omow-are... a l i t t l e old times thinkof—pass. "My old days are thought of a l i t t l e . . . " (Koshoku) 21. konokoto kinikake-rare-si o r i kara... this matter weigh on one's mind time from "From the time when this matter was f e l t uneasily..." (Koshoku) Type U» ^) inanimate, B) inanimate 22. sono ie no menokodomo idete ukimiru no nami n i yose-rare-taru that house g i r l s go out seaweed wave by bring near—pass, past hiroite... pick up "Girls of that house went out and gathered the seaweed which was brought 77 in by the waves..." (ise) 23. (narihisago ga) kaze n i fuk-are-te.., bottle gourd wind by blow—pass. "Bottle gourds are blown by the wind..." (Tsurezure) 24. yosamu no kaze n i sasow-are kuru karadakimono no nihoi... cold night wind by carry—pass, come incense fragrance "On a cold night, the fragrance of incense was carried by the wind..." (Tsurezure) 25. sore wa yoku n i hik-aruru koi zokasi that avarice by draw—pass. love I t e l l you "I t e l l you that love is based on avarice." (Koshoku) In some of the above sentences, such as in 3 and 5, one can find cases of adverse meaning. However, in general, I believe that they can be interpreted as ordinary passives. The three novels I refered to are of uneven length, and, thus we can not compare the number of such occurences, according to the time when they were written. The subject matters dealt with in these novels are diver-s i f i e d : Ise Monogatari contains many poems and t e l l s us the situations surrounding them; Tsurezuregusa i s a collection of essays the author wrote about the changes of seasons and of the world; KSshoku Gonin Onna i s a story of the affairs between men and women. What we can assume from these examples is that the ordinary passive form—the form which has been said to be foreign to classical Japanese— was used before the introduction of European languages to Japan, and that the inanimate subject, as well as the animate, was employed in the ordinary passive form. I do not deny, however, that European languages strongly influenced the Japanese on their usage of the ordinary passive form. The next table indicates the increase of the ordinary passive forms 78 since the 19th century. I limited the length of each source (D to K ) 1 6 to one hundred pages (which contain approximately 70,000 characters). A B C D E F G H I J K Type 1 A 2 A 6 3 8 12 22 5 27 15 Type 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 6 5 0 10 12.. Type 3 3 5 2 24 12 4 65 40 38 201 50 Type 4 1 2 1 4 2 3 11 10 12 34 12 Total 9 10 8 34 19 17 94 77 55 292 89 The occurences of Type 3 (inanimate as a subject and animate as an agent) in the sources D to K are far more frequent than the other types. In Type 3, there are many examples which could be termed as a typical 'translation style', that i s influenced by Western syntax. Some examples are; 26. b i i r u no akibiN ni ire-rare-ta mugiyu ga...ido ni hosoi beer empty bottle put in—pass, past barley tea well in fine tuna de turusite hiyas-are-te atta string by hang cool—pass, existed "Barley tea which was put in an empty beer bottle was lowered into the well by a fine string and thus was cooled." (From G) 16, The nature of each type is as follovfs: Type 1: Subject - animate Agent Type 2: Subject - animate Agent Type 3' Subject - inanimate Agent Type A' Subject - inanimate Agent animate inanimate animate inanimate The headings A to K indicate the following works written by the authors in the year shown below. A) Ise Monogatari, author unknown, 905. B) Tsurezuregusa. Eenko Yoshida, 1330. C) Koshoku Gonin Onna, Monzaemon Chikamatsu, 1685. D) Gakumon no Susume, Yukichi Fukuzawa, 1871. E) Ukigumo. Shimei Futabatei, 1890. F) Hototogisu, Roka Tokutomi, 1899. G) Inaka Kyoshi, Katai Tayama, 1909. H) Shinsei, Toson Shimazaki, 1918. I) BokutS Kitan, Kafu Nagai, 1937. J) Kamen no Kokuhaku, Yukio Mishinia, 1949. K) Dokutoru Manbo Kokaiki, Morio Kita, I960. 79 27. ...tukue no ue n i wa myoozyoo buNgeikurabu nado ga...ok-are-te aru desk of top on 'Myojo' 'Bungeikurabu' so on place—pass, exist "On top of the desk, Myojo, Bungeikurabu, and others are placed." (From G) 28. aizyoo wa osanai kare no kokoro n i fukaku kizamituke-rare-ta affection c h i l d i s h h i s mind in deeply ingrain—pass, past "Affection was deeply ingrained in his c h i l d i s h mind." (From H) 29. watakushi no ayumi wa...roziguti n i muke-rare-ru node aru my step a l l e y mouth to d i r e c t — p a s s , present "My steps are directed towards the mouth of the a l l e y . " (From I) These sentences are Japanese, and every native Japanese speaker w i l l have no d i f f i c u l t y in understanding them. And yet, they are different from ordinary Japanese. In sentence 26, I would expect non-passive i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs haitta (...was in) and h i e t e i t a (...was cool) for irerareta (...was confined) and hiyasareteatta (...was cooled) to be used. The reason f o r t h i s way of think-ing i s that the passive verbs used in these sentences lead the reader to interpreting these as adverse passives,because,upon reading these examples the reader experiences a strong emotional f e e l i n g . Irerareta i s usually used to mean 'somebody was confined in someplace by force', and hiyasareta as 'someone (or one's body) was compelled to be cooled'. On the other hand, the verbs haitta and h i e t e i t a can state a fact or result without causing the reader to consider the performer of the action, as discussed in Chapter I I . The selection of the passive verbs i n sentence 26 s t r i k e s the reader as strange i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The rewritten sentence would be: b i i r u no akibiN n i haitta mugiyu ga...hieteita. "The barley tea which was in the beer bottle...was cold." In the examples taken from c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e (sentences 1-25), the passive verbs are not used in c o n f l i c t with t h e i r corresponding active verb types 80 which express similar meaning, so that there i s not any confusion when stating the result or condition of the subject without indicating the intention of a performer. These passive verbs state the result of a natural phenomenon, or an inevitable consequence, of a certain subject. For sentence 27, I would expect oitearu (...is placed), thus e l i m i -nating the occurrence of an adverse meaning. The verb oitearu i s a deriva-tion of the t r a n s i t i v e verb oku (to put, to place), and can express the result of a subject without r e f e r r i n g to the performer. However, in sentences 2.8 and 29, I f e e l these sentences are foreign not because of t h e i r selection of verbs, but because of the combination of words; the relations of aizyoo (affection)—kizamitukerareta (was ingrained) and ayumi (one's s t e p ) — -mukerareta (was directed) are a r t i f i c i a l and clumsy. Our i n t u i t i o n w i l l balk at the unfamiliar, unnatural and novel expressions. This translation style appeared in the late 19th century when European culture was introduced into Japan.^ Ever since, novelists have created new expressions and adopted t h i s style to aid t h e i r r h e t o r i c a l purposes. The compulsory English lesson at school might be added as a supporting factor f o r the prevalence of the new style—students translate English sentences l i t e r a l l y into Japanese.^ Some of these translation s t y l e s , however, are accepted by many people, especially by the young, and are assimilated into everyday Japanese. Today's newspapers are f u l l of such •^ On the influence of English to Japanese: Minoru Umegaki, Nihon Gairaigo no Kenkyu (Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1963). Ryoichi Inui, Kokugo no Hyogen n i Oyoboshita Eigo no Eikyo (Tokyo: Kofu Shuppan, 1958). l^On the influence of English to Japanese, Bernard Saint-Jacques discusses i n his Structural Analysis of Modern Japanese, the fact that "numerous translations of foreign plays, novels and movies into Japanese have a greater influence" on the Japanese than t h e i r study of English. The popularity of 81 sentences: okina hamoN ga okiru koto ga yosos-are-ru big uproar occur thing p r e d i c t — p a s s . " I t i s predicted that there w i l l be a big uproar." t o r i a t u k a i ga tyumokus-are-ru treatment pay attention—pass, present "The treatment (of the government) attracts t h e i r attention." keturon ga maNzyoitti de das-are-ta conclusion with one concent draw—pass, past "The conclusion was decided unanimously." tetuzuki ga tor-are-ta procedure take—pass, past "The procedure was taken." 19 These passive forms used by the press show no sign of emotional feelings, as the reporters t r y to ref r a i n as much as possible from expressing t h e i r personal opinions. These emotionally neutral passive forms are best suited f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h i s purpose. I I I . THE ADVERSE PASSIVE FORM I have selected the expression 'adverse passive form' to cover the passives of the second section. However, i t should be noted that these 'adverse passive forms' also include a few cases where the meaning i s not adverse to the subject, but i s favorable to i t . The 'adverse passive forms' are f a r more frequent than the 'favorable ones' and therefore I have included both of them i n t h i s section. This form can be c l a s s i f i e d into the following the American TV. film s dubbed in Japanese might be added to the above. Bernard Saint-Jacques, Structural Analysis, p. 102. ^From the Asahi Shin bun ('The Morning Sun'), (Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, A p r i l 7, 197lT7 82 four categories: (1) This group i s syntactically similar to the ordinary passive forms. That i s , the subject of an active sentence becomes an agent in the passive form with the particle n i , the object of an active sentence becomes a subject in the passive form followed by a nominative particle, and the transitive verb i s changed to the passive verb by adding the suffix (r)areru. Active: N-j_ - wa -f Np_ - o + V - Tense Passive: N 2 - wa + N]_ - n i + V - (r)are: - Tense Some of the examples which belong to this class are: 1 - a. Active: t i t i wa kare o heya ni yuheisi-ta father him room in confine--past "His father confined him in the room." 1 - 1 . Passive: kare wa t i t i n i heya ni yuheis-are-ta he father room confine—pass. "He was confined in the room by his father." Or, "He was adversely affected by his father's confining him in the room."20 (From K)21 2 - a. Active: zyuNsa x^ a watakusi o yobitome-ta policeman me summon—past "A policeman summoned me." 2 - 1. Passive: watasi wa zyuNsa ni yobitome-rare-ta I policeman.summon—pa s s. pa s t "I was summoned by a policeman." Or, "I was adversely affected by a policeman's summoning me." (From I) 3 - a. Active: razio ga soko o samatage-ta radio draft prevent—past "The (noise of the) radio prevented me from writing my notes." 2^In the English translation, the expression 'adversely' i s used to convey the meaning of the Japanese passive form. The sentence means, 'He was confined in the room by his father and he suffered from i t . ' 2^ -The sources from which examples are obtained are listed on p. 78. 83 3 - 1. Passive: soke- wa razio ni samatage-rare-ta draft radio by prevent—pass, past "(I) was adversely affected by the.noise of the radio which prevented me from writing my notes." (From I) The existence of this class creates the ambiguity in deciding whether a passive form i s an ordinary one or an adverse one, as there i s no syntactic difference between them. Therefore, the judgement would be made according to the context in which a passive form i s to be used. (?.) The following class presents;:a syntactic peculiarity which w i l l indicate an adverse meaning in the passive form. The object of the active form (a noun with the particle o) remains in the passive form instead of being changed to the subjective. The subject of the passive form i s the possessor of an object, or a person (or a thing) who has some relation to the object. The converted subject may or may not be present in the active form. If i t i s present, i t usually appears with the possessive particle no. The subject of an active form i s changed to an agent in the passive form, and i s denoted by the particle n i . Active: - wa + (Kg - no) -J- N3 - o + V - Tense Passive: N? - wa + Hi - ni+- N-3 - o +• V - (r)are - Tense 4 - a. Active: kanozyo wa kao o mitume-ta she face stare at—past "She stared at (my) face." 4 - 2. Passive: watasi wa kanozyo ni kao 0 mitume-rare-ta I she face stare at—pass, past "I was adversely affected by her staring at my face." (From I) 5 - a. Active: zyuNsa ga namae o k i i - t a policeman name ask—past "A policeman asked (my) name." 84 5-2. Passive: watasi wa zyuNsa ni namae o kik-are-ta I policeman name ask—pass, past "I was adversely affected by a policeman's asking my name." (From I) 6 - a. Active: teNiN ga tukoniN no bosi o ubat-ta store clerk passer-by hat steal—past "A store clerk stole a passer-by's hat." 6 - 2. Passive: tukoniN ga teNiN n i bosi o ubaw-are-ta passer-by store clerk hat steal—pass, past "A passer-by was adversely affected by a store clerk's stealing his hat." (From I) 7 - a. Active: seNsei ga kodomo o sikat-ta teacher child scold—past "The teacher scolded the child." 7 - 2. Passive: kare wa seNsei n i kodomo o sikar-are-ta he teacher child scold—pass, past "Pie was adversely affected by the teacher's scolding his child." 8 - a. Active: doryo ga titioya o mi-ta colleague father see—past "His colleague saw (his) father." 8- 2. Passive: kare wa titioya o doryo ni mi-rare-ta he father colleague see—pass, past "He was adversely affected by his colleague's seeing his father." (From G) As can be seen in the above examples, the passive forms of this class express the idea that the action of the agent performed on a person (or a thing) adversely affects the other person (who i s the subject of the passive sen-tence), because of the subject's relation to the receiver of the action. The difference of this class (2) and the previous one(l) i s that in the latter, the^subject himself i s the receiver of an action of the agent and this same person (or thing) suffers from i t . In class (2), the action 85 of the agent i s not directed towards the subject, but to somebody or some-thing else, and the subject feels the adverse effect resulting from the action of the agent. It i s possible to construct a passive form of class (l) from the active forms in class (2), or class (2) passive forms from the active forms in class ( l ) . Using example 1-a, we can construct a passive form of the class (2) type, in which tuma (one's wife) i s used as a subject. 1 - a. t i t i wa kare o heya n i yuheisi~ta "His father confined him in the room." 1 - 1 . kare wa t i t i ni heya ni yuheis-are-ta "He was adversely affected by his father's confining him in the room." 1 - 2, tuma wa t i t i ni kare o heya ni yuheis-are-ta "His wife was adversely affected by his father's confining him in the room." If we compare sentences 1-1 and 1-2, the difference which exists in class (l) and class (2) w i l l become clear. In 1-1, the action of the father i s directed to his son, and the action affects only his son, whereas in 1-2, the action of the father done to his son reflects onto the wife and affects her, as she suffers from her husband's being confined in the room. Using the example 7-a in class (2), we w i l l get a passive form of class (1) by eliminating kare (he—a father of the child). 7 - a . seNsei.ga" kodomo^o sikat^ta "The teacher scolded the child." 7 - 1. kodomo wa seNsei ni sikar-are-ta "The child was adversely affected by the teacher's scolding him." 7 - 2 . kare wa seNsei ni kodomo o sikar-are-ta 86 "He (the father) was adversely affected by the teacher's scolding his c h i l d . " In sentence 7-1, the person who i s affected by the teacher's action i s only the c h i l d , but in 7-2, both the father and his son are affected by the tea-cher's action, and the sentence emphasizes the miserable condition of the father. (3) The passive form of class (3) i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the one i n class (2). The difference between (2) and (3) exists i n the nature of the phrase followed by o. That i s , i n class (2), the phrase N-o i s connected to a person who i s affected by an action, whereas i n class (3), N-o has a connection with a person who performs an action. This d i s t i n c t i o n i s appar-ent i n the active form of each class.22 The active and passive forms of class (3) are: Active: N^ - wa + (N2 - ni) + N3 - o +• V - Tense Passive: N 2 - wa f - ni-f- N3 - 0 + V - (r)are - Tense Some of the examples belonging to t h i s class are: 9 - a. eNtaku ga (watasi ni) koe o kake-ta t a x i me voice c a l l — p a s t "The t a x i (driver) called, out (to me)." 9 - 3 - (watasi wa) eNtaku n i koe o kake-rare-ta I t a x i by voice c a l l — p a s s , past "(I) was adversely affected by the t a x i (driver's) c a l l i n g out to me." (From G) 10 - a. kumo doku no s i r u o t a i t y u e sasikoN-da spider poisonous virus inside one's body i n s e r t — p a s t "A spider transmitted a virus to him." 22The active form of class (2) i s : Active: Ni - wa + (N2 - no) + N3 - 0 -J- V - Tense 87 10 - 3. kare wa kumo n i doku no s i r u o t a i t y u e sasikom- ?re-ta he spider poisonous virus i n one's body i n s e r t — p a s s , past "He was adversely affected by a spider's transmitting a virus to him." (From H) 11 - a. kare wa watasi n i k i t t e o kawase-ta he me to stamp force to buy—past "He forced me to buy a stamp." 11 - 3. watasi wa k i t t e o kawas-are-ta I stamp force to buy—pass, past "I was adversely affected by (his) forcing me to buy a stamp." (From I) 12 - a. karera ga x^ratasi n i higekitekina seikatu o kaNzyu-sase-ta they me to t r a g i c a l l i f e force to receive an impression o f — p a s t "They forced me to see a tragic side of l i f e . " 12 - 3. higekitekina seikatu o karera n i kaNzyu-sase-rare-ta tragic l i f e them by force to receive an impression of —pa s s , past "I was adversely affected by t h e i r forcing me to see a tragic side of l i f e . " (From H) 13 - a. otona wa watasi n i kit a i n a omotya o ategat-ta grown-up me to strange toy give—past "A grown-up gave me a strange toy." 13 - 3. watasi wa otona n i kit a i n a omotya o ategaw-are-ta I grown-up strange toy give—pass, past "I was adversely affected by a grown-up's giving me a strange toy." The t r a n s i t i v e verbs of t h i s class have one characteristic feature—they indicate that something moves from one person to the other, by taking two objective cases—the so-called direct and ind i r e c t objects. A noun used as a direct object (indicated by the p a r t i c l e o) i s a property of, or has some relat i o n with, a person who performs the action. For example, i n the sentence 9-3, koe (voice) i s the property of the t a x i d r i v e r , i n 10-3, doku no s i r u (virus) i s a possession of the spider, and i n 11-3, k i t t e (stamp) belonged S8 to the person who wanted to s e l l i t . Therefore, the passive forms of class (3) express an adverse fee l i n g d i r e c t l y connected uxth a person, who lias no rel a t i o n to the receiver of the action. This class has a si m i l a r meaning to class ( l ) , despite i t s syntactic resemblence with class (2), (4) The passive form of the fourth class i s expressed by an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb. The nature of an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s , as i s discussed in Chapter I I , one which states the subject—what i t does or i t s condition—and does not state an influence of one on the other. When an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s con-verted into the passive form, i t affects someone who i s not the o r i g i n a l subject of the verb. The relationship between a non-passive and a passive form i s ! Non-passives N-j - wa -f- V± - Tense 2 3 Passive: Ng - wa -f- N^ - n i + - (r)are-Tense The i n t r a n s i t i v e verb with the passive s u f f i x (r)arena expresses the fact that somebody or something (N2) i s adversely or favorably affected by a person or a thing (Ni). Although Ng i s not d i r e c t l y affected by N i , i t experiences some inconvenience (or convenience) as a result of what Nj does. The following examples of i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms which appeared in the c l a s s i c a l and modern works on page 78 w i l l demonstrate the nature of the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive form. 14. - a. mune ga sawag-u mind be disturbed—present "My mind i s disturbed. " 2 4 23Here, stands for an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb. 2 ^ I n the translation of Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, I found i t d i f f i c u l t to use English i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. This i s without doubt, due to the very special nature of Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. See pp. 72-75 for a discus-sion of Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. B. H. Chamberlain said in his Handbook 89 14 - 4- iwaneba mune n i sawag-are-te.,. do not say mind by be disturbed—pass. " I f I do not say i t , I am adversely affected by my mind's being disturbed." Or, " I f I do not say i t , I f e e l uneasy." (From A) 15 - a. myori ga tuka-u fame & wealth be haunted—present "Fame and wealth are haunting." 15 - 4. myori n i tukaw-are-te... fame & wealth by be haunted—pass. "One i s adversely affected by a desire for fame and wealth." (From B) 16 - a, osei ga nikkor i wara-u Osei sweetly smile—present "Osei smiles sweetly." 16 - 4- osei n i nikkor i waraw-are-te... Osei by sweetly smile—pass. "(He) i s favorably affected by Osei's smiling sweetly." 17 - a. aNta ga so i t - t a you so say—past "You said so." 17 - 4« aNta n i so iw-are-ta you by so say—pass, past " I was adversely affected by your saying so," (From E) 18 - a. kimi ga yubeNtoto makusikake-ru you eloquently talk volubly—present "You go on and on very eloquently." 18 - 4. kimi n i yubeNtoto makusikake-rare-ru you by eloquently t a l k volubly—pass, present " I am adversely affected by your going on and on so eloquently," of Colloquial Japan se tha  "many (English) ive verbs must be rendered by Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v s . This happens when the ide  i s one which does not necessarily imply the action of an outer agent." (p. 204) 90 Or, "I am tired of your incessant talking." (From F) 19 - a. hebi ga ri s u n i matuwar-u snake squirrel dangle about—present "A snake dangles about a squirrel." 19 - 4. ri s u ga hebi ni matuuar-aru-ru squirrel snake dangle about—pass, present "The squirrel i s adversely affected by the snake's dangling about i t . " (From F) 20 - a. namiko ga haha no ryobuN ni fumikom-u Namiko mother domain break into—present "Namiko infringes on her mother's domain." 20 - 4. haha wa namiko ni zisiN no ryobuN ni fumikom-are-ru mother Namiko by one's oxjn domain in break into—pass, present "Mother i s adversely affected by Namiko's infringing on her domain." (From F) 21 - a . kodomo ga setuko ni matoituk-u child Setsuko dangle around—present "The child hangs around Setsuko." 21 - 4« setuko wa kodomo ni matoituk-are-ru Setsuko child by dangle around—pass, present "Setsuko i s adversely affected by the child's hanging around." (From G) 22 - a. yoniN no kodomo ga nakidasi-ta four child start crying—past "Four children started crying." 22 - 4. yoniN no kodomo ni nakidas-are-ta four child by start crying—pass, past "(We) were adversely affected by four children's having started crying." (From G) 23 - a. tegami o kaku hituyo ga semat-ta letter to write necessity be urgent—past "It was urgent to write a letter." 23 - 4. kare wa tegami o kaku hituyo ni semar-are-ta he letter to write necessity drive—pass, past 91 "He was adversely affected by the pressure on hira to write a l e t t e r . " (From G) 24 - a. miroku kara ame ga fut-ta Miroku from rain f a l l — p a s t "Rain f e l l from Miroku." 24 - 4« miroku kara ame n i fur-are-ta Miroku from rain f a l l — p a s s , past "(He) was adversely affected by the rain's f a l l i n g from Miroku." (From H) 25 - a. koinyobo ga taneda n i sakidat-ta one's beloved wife Taneda die before—-past "His beloved wife died before Mr. Taneda." 25 - 4« taneda wa koinyobo n i sakidat-are-ta Taneda one's beloved wife hj die before—pass, past "Mr. Taneda was adversely affected by his beloved wife's death." (From I) 26 - a. kyodaina tyo ga nige-ta huge b u t t e r f l y f l y away—past "A huge b u t t e r f l y flew away." 26 - 4. kare wa kyodaina tyo n i nige-are-ta he huge b u t t e r f l y f l y away—pass, past "He was adversely affected by a huge butterfly's f l y i n g away." (From K) 27 - a. yuki ga kusa no ue n i fur-u snow plant on f a l l — p r e s e n t "Snow f a l l s on the plant." 27 - 4. kusa wa yuki n i fur-are-ru plant snow by f a l l — p a s s , present "The plant i s adversely affected by the snow's f a l l i n g . " Or, "The plant i s damaged by the snow." (From F) A l l the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms l i s t e d above express an adverse or a favorable meaning perceived by the subject. The subject of these sentences has to f e e l the adverse or favorable effect from what has happened, so the 92 subject i s animate. In 27-h, however, we have an inanimate subject, kusa (a plant). The case'-here i s personification—the, speaker of the sentence presuming that the plant i s able to f e e l x-fhat i s done to i t . There are not very many i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms used i n the texts quoted on page 78. In fa c t , twenty sentences are considered to have i n t r a n s i -t i v e verbs, of which fourteen examples are l i s t e d above, and the others make use of the same verbs. The characteristic feature of the adverse passive forms of both tran-s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs i s that they express the emotional feeling of the subject. Therefore, most of the subjects are animate, or inanimate as the resul t of personification. The following chart indicates the number of the adverse passives and th e i r nature of subjects used i n the c l a s s i c a l and modern works (A to K, p. 78). Type ik . B C D E P G H I J K 1 4 ' 8 22 25.' 53+ 2 53 + 5 36+ 2 21'+ 1 35+2 63 37+1 2 1 + 1 1+ 1 A 12 5 11 + 1 16 + 1 12 +1 2 17 8 3 0 3 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 12 +1 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Total 5 +1 12+1 2.6 37 59+-2 67+6 54+-3 34+2 39 + 3 92 + 1 45+1 Type 1: Subject—animate Agent—animate Type 2: Subject—animate Agent—inanimate Type 3: Subject—inanimate Agent—animate Type 4? Subject—inanimate Agent—inanimate The numbers af t e r •+ sign indicate the occurances of the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms. 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ando, Masatsugu. Kodai Kokugo no Kenkyu, (Tokyo: Naigai Shobo, 1923) Anega K o j i S h i k i , qtd. i n Kokugo Gaku, Saeki, Baiyu, ed., (Tokyo: Sanseido, 1965) Asayaroa, Nobuya. 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