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UBC Theses and Dissertations

On the Japanese passive form Ogawa, Nobuo 1971

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ON THE JAPANESE PASSIVE FORM  by NOBUO OGAWA B.A., K e i o U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of LINGUISTICS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for financial  i s understood that gain shall  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed without my  Abstract"  The  Japanese p a s s i v e v o i c e i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f E n g l i s h .  This t h e s i s i s an attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e nature Japanese i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e v o i c e for the differences.  An examination  o f t h e passive  a n d t o examine  1  1  form i n  t h e reasons,  i s , made o f t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e  voice,  f o l l o w e d by a c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f Japanese t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e  verbs.  R e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n show t h a t t o some e x t e n t , t h e u s a g e o f J a p a n e s e i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs: resembles t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e i n E n g l i s h .  There a r e three; chapters  i n this thesis.  The f i r s t  chapter  deals  with  an h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e E u r o p e a n p a s s i v e v o i c e , f r o m t h e n o t i o n s o f t h e Gre'ek g r a m m a r i a n s t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s . t r a d i t i o n a l grammar i s t h e s u b j e c t o f the: s e c o n d c h a p t e r .  Japanese  The g r a d u a l  devel-  opment o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f v e r b s b y J a p a n e s e , g r a m m a r i a n s i s , o u t l i n e d . the  nature  o f t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s d e a l t w i t h a n d an. e x t e n s i v / e ,  though n o t e x h a u s t i v e , is;  Also,  list  of root-related transitive-intransitive  verbs  presented.  In the f i n a l  chapter,  grammarians are p r e s e n t e d .  discussions of the passive  forms, b y v a r i o u s  T h e r e a f t e r , t h e p a s s i v e f o r m s are. e x a m i n e d b y  d i v i d i n g them i n t o two m a j o r g r o u p s : t h e o r d i n a r y f o r m a n d t h e a d v e r s e passive  form.  Each form i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y examined and i l l u s t r a t i o n s  l i t e r a r y sources; a r e i n c l u d e d .  Conclusions  1  from  show t h a t , s e m a n t i c a l l y ,  the o r d i n a r y p a s s i v e form i s s i m i l a r t o the E n g l i s h p a s s i v e v o i c e , whereas, the  adverse passive  The  form i n d i c a t e s a strong emotional  romanization  feeling.  o f Japanese examples i s represented  by using  Kunrei-  Shiki.1 except f o r the following? /shi/...gi,  /sha/...sya, /shu/«.,syu,  / c h i / , . .ti>  /tsu/...tu,  /cho/...tyo,  /cha/., .tya,,  /sho/...syo, /chu/.. .tyu,  /ji/...zi  These l a t t e r symbols represent the verbal and adjectival-,conjugations much easier than the ordinary Kunrei-Shiki.  S y l l a b i c /n/ i s represented  as N  to avoid confusion between such morphemes / t a n i / (valley) and / t a n ' i / (cred i t ) , which are shown as tani and taNi, respectively*  These symbols are  only used f o r the examples i n the text; Kunrei-Shiki i s used f o r references. English translations of Japanese quotations are mine.  Romanization approved by the Japanese M i n i s t r y of Education.  ble o f Contents  Chapter I Page I II III IV V VI  Passive Voice  1  T r a n s i t i v e Verbs  4  The Greek Grammarians  9  The S t o i c s  11  D i o n y s i u s Thrax  1/+  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar  17  Chapter I I I II III IV V VI  Western. I n f l u e n c e on T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese Grammar 23 E a r l y S t a g e s o f Grammatical A n a l y s i s  24  N a r i a k i r a F u j i t a n i and N o r i n a g a M o t o o r i  26  Haruniwa M o t o o r i  33  The I n f l u e n c e o f Western Grammar  38  The N a t u r e o f Japanese T r a n s i t i v e and I n t r a n s i t i v e Verbs  UU  Chapter I I I I  P a s s i v e Form  67  II  The O r d i n a r y P a s s i v e Form  71  III  The Adverse P a s s i v e Form  81  Bibliography  93  CHAPTER I  I. PASSIVE VOICE  Henry Sweet defines, voice as " d i f f e r e n t grammatical ways of expressing the r e l a t i o n between a transitive' verb and i t s subject and objects. The two c h i e f voices; are the active (he saw)  and the passive, (he was  The examples he gives here are rather misleading because the two he saw and he was  seen) .  sentences,  seen, are' not, i n a passive-active r e l a t i o n i n English.  As there are; not more than two voices i n the English language, h i s phrase "thertwo chief voices" leads, us, to believe that Sweet has some other voice form ini mind!. "he saw"  Moreover, I disagree, with h i s treatment of the verb saw i n  because t h i s verb cannot, be t r a n s i t i v e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  Perhap  Sweet was t r y i n g to define voice f o r a language other than English or basin h i s conclusion on the grammar of Greek: or Latin.^  As Robert H a l l , J r .  says i n h i s Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s ; "Latin had only these two voices (active and passive), as i n /amat/ 'he loves' verses /ama:tur/ 'he i s loved'.  Greek had. a three-way contrast between active (/iu:o:/'I loose'),  passive (/lu:omai/ 'I am loosed") and medio-passive, i n which the action f a l l s back on the subject i n a r e f l e x i v e - l i k e way  (/erkhomai/ 'I g o ) . " ^ 1  Henry Sweet, New English Grammar: Part I (Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 0 ) , p.112. 2  Transitive, I n t r a n s i t i v e verbs w i l l be dealt with further on. ^R. H. Robins, A Short History of L i n g u i s t i c s (Bloomington: Indiana U.  P.,  1968),  p.29-  ^Robert Hall,. J r . , Introductory Linguistics (Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1 9 6 U ) , p.158.  Here, Robert H a l l , J r . recognizes only two woices i n Latin. There hoitfever, the t h i r d type referred to as 'deponent' verbs. See p.19*  was,  2  The last example o f the medio-passive i s not clear, but perhaps this i s due to the t r a n s l a t i o n into English.  Leonard Bloomfield also i l l u s t r a t e s  t h i s point with the Latin examples, cantat and cantatur, which are constructions showing a passive-active contrast.  Bloomfield does not employ  the term passive-active but, instead, refers to the terms "goal-action" and "actor-action", respectively.5 In Latin and Greek, voice i s formed by the i n f l e c t i o n o f verbs and the same subject i s used to show a person who acts on somebody and a person who i s acted on by somebody.  But, as Charles Hockett says, "...  voice i n English i s not an i n f l e c t i o n a l category hut i s determined by the structure o f the verb phrase.'"  3  Henry Sweet t r i e d to explain the active  and passive voices o f English from an i n f l e c t i o n a l category using the examples "he saw" and "he was seen".  He dealt with the verb forms "saw"  and "was seen" as i n f l e c t i o n s , and assigned the same subject to both passive and active sentences.  I f we agree with Hockett and several  other grammarians, the passive voice in English would be defined as "forms consisting o f some form o f the a u x i l i a r y 'be* with the past-parti c i p l e form o f the t r a n s i t i v e verb."7  The relationship between the passive  voice and the active voice i n English would be such that the subject in the passive i s equivalent to the object, o r one of the objects, i n a corresponding  active voice.^  5Leonard Bloomfield, Language (New YorkJ Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966), p. 173. ^Charles ?. Hockett, A Course in Modern L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1967), p. 236. Ho ckett, VI. H. Francis, Zandvoort, and R. B. Long a l l have similar d e f i n i t i o n s on the passive. 7  % o ckett, p. 205.  3  The process o f changing the a c t i v e into the passive i s as f o l l o w s : In a sentence irith a f u l l y expressed t r a n s i t i v e verb such as 'the dog k i l l e d the r a t , although there i s only one subject, namely, 'dog', yet from a l o g i c a l point o f view the statement about k i l l i n g a p p l i e s to the object-word 'rat' as w e l l as to the subject-word 'dog'; and i t may happen that we wish to state the k i l l i n g r a t h e r with reference to the r a t than the dog. I t may a l s o happen that a l l ve know i s that the r a t was k i l l e d , without knowing how i t was k i l l e d . In short, we may wish to make the object-word ' r a t ' into the subject-word o f the sentence. This we do by changing the a c t i v e form ' k i l l e d into the corresponding passive form 'was k i l l e d ' : 'the r s t was k i l l e d ' . The o r i g i n a l subject i s added i f necessary, by means o f the p r e p o s i t i o n by: 'the r a t was k i l l e d by the dog'. In t h i s sentence ' r a t ' i s the inverted object and 'by the dog' i s the inverted subject.9 1  1  Henry Sweet concludes h i s explanation on the passive form by saying that "the passive voice i s a grammatical device f o r (A) bringing the object o f a t r p n s i t i v e verb into prominence by making i t the subject o f the sentence, and (B) g e t t i n g r i d o f the necessity o f naming the subject of a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . A s  expressed by Nelson F r a n c i s , \jhen making a  passive form from an a c t i v e form, the meaning i s "to be preserved w i t h out a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . T h e passive form i s most frequently used in sentences i n which " . . . i t i s unnecessary o r undesirable to mention the agent"12  fln  d, thus, whenever a speaker wishes to avoid mentioning the  agent i n h i s speech or w r i t i n g , he can do so by using the passive v o i c e . 9  1 0  Sweet, p. 113.  Ibid.  l^W. N. F r a n c i s , Structure o f American E n g l i s h (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1953), p. 344R . V/. Zandvoort, A Handbook o f English Grammar (London: Longmans, Green & Co. L t d . , 1966), p. 53. 12  4  In f a c t , "over 70 p e r cent o f t h e p a s s i v e sentences found i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . . . " ^ 3 have no mention o f an a c t i v e s u b j e c t o r agent.  I I . TRANSITIVE VERBS When d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e p a s s i v e - a c t i v e i n E n g l i s h , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s because p a s s i v e sentences a r e p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians f o r t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s t h a t which e x p r e s s e s "an a c t i o n w h i c h p a s s e s o v e r t o an o b j e c t , " ! w h i l e an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b i s d e s c r i b e d as " e x p r e s s i n g a c t i o n w h i c h does not p a s s o v e r t o an o b j e c t ; not t a k i n g a d i r e c t o b j e c t . " 2 Most t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians g i v e s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n s o f t r a n s i t i v e intransitive relations  o f the E n g l i s h verb.  F o r example, Henry Sweet  says t h a t t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s " r e q u i r e a noun-word o r n o u n - e q u i v a l e n t i n the d i r e c t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n t o serve as complement t o them,"3 and v e r b s which do not take "a d i r e c t - o b j e c t noun-word a f t e r them a r e c a l l e d i n t r a n s i t i v e . "4 On o b j e c t s , Zandvoort s t a t e s : "A noun o r pronoun d e n o t i n g a person o r t h i n g a f f e c t e d by t h e a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e v e r b i s c a l l e d object,"5 and he then s t a t e s t h a t "a v e r b t h a t does n o t take an o b j e c t i s c a l l e d 130tto J e s p e r s e n , E s s e n t i a l s o f E n g l i s h Grammar (U. o f Alabama P r e s s , 1966), p. 121. 1  T h e Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (London: 1933).  2lbid. 3  S w e e t , pp. 89-90.  4lbid. ^Zandvoort, p. 199-  5  intransitive. A l t h o u g h i t has been t h e p r a c t i c e t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , t h e r e i s a good d e a l o f o v e r l a p p i n g between t h e two c l a s s e s .  Regarding  t h i s p o i n t , Otto J e s p e r s e n  cites  s e v e r a l examples:  Transitive: He p l a y s t h e v i o l i n . He l e f t London. He l e n d s money. Smoke c i g a r s .  Intransitive: He p l a y s e x t r e m e l y w e l l . He l e f t y e s t e r d a y . I n e i t h e r l e n d n o r borrow. She does n o t smoke.7  J e s p e r s e n suggests t h a t "we s h o u l d r a t h e r speak o f a t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e use o f v e r b s . M . A. P i n k agrees w i t h J e s p e r s e n ' s  i d e a and  says t h a t " i t would bs more i n accordance w i t h t h e f a c t s t o speak o f v e r b s as b e i n g  "used t r a n s i t i v e l y  1  o r 'used i n t r a n s i t i v e l y ' f o r a g r e a t many  v e r b s can be used i n e i t h e r way. The a c t u a l o b j e c t i n these examples o f i n t r a n s i t i v e usage g i v e n by J e s p e r s e n a r e n o t i l l u s t r a t e d b u t i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e f o r e v e r y n a t i v e speaker t o i n t e r p r e t these sentences as i f t h e y c o n t a i n an o b j e c t e s t a b l i s h e d through t i m e . a "live"  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f these sentences a r e used i n  s i t u a t i o n , i t s h o u l d be apparent \,?hat t h e o b j e c t f o r each  sentence  i s , and i t may then be p o s s i b l e t o i n s i s t t h a t an o b j e c t e x i s t s f o r each sentence  6  i n t h e n a t i v e speaker's  intuition.  The d e f i n i t i o n we have  seen,  Ibid.  7 J e s p e r s e n , E s s e n t i a l s , p. 116. A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1928), p. 319. % t t o J e s p e r s e n , A Modem E n g l i s h Grammar: P a r t I I I (London: George 9M. A. P i n k , An O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h Grammar (London: M a c M i l l a n & Co. L t d . , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 59.  6  though, says, s y n t a c t i c a l l y ,  that those verbs which do not have an object  in a sentence are i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  Moreover, a t r a n s i t i v e verb has  been defined as a verb which can be changed into the passive voice,10 and an i n t r a n s i t i v e as that which has no passive form.ll  Therefore, none  of the examples o f i n t r a n s i t i v e usage c i t e d by Jespersen q u a l i f y to be t r a n s i t i v e because, since none o f them contains an object, none can be changed to a passive form. In English, i t i s impossible to make a s t r i c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f verbs in t r a d i t i o n a l terms.  I t can only be said that i f a verb i s used with an  object, or two objects, i t i s t r a n s i t i v e l y used and, i f a verb i s used without an object, i t i s used i n t r a n s i t i v e l y . Here arises a problem.  That i s , how do we explain the passive forms  which are constructed from i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, such as (A) The doctor was sent f o r , (B) The baby was looked a f t e r by the nurse? What happens when these examples are compared with those which are formulated from t r a n s i t i v e verbs i n sentences such as (C) This apple pie was made by h i s mother, or (D) That book was written by him?  The former examples (A) and (B) have  the construction of a form o f the verb "to be" plus a past p a r t i c i p l e followed by a preposition.  I t i s this preposition which i s the constituent  absent i n the passive forms created from t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  Thus, this  preposition must have the function o f changing an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb into the passive voice. baby.  One cannot have a sentence l i k e *The nurse looked the  Therefore, a preposition follot-ring an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb has the  l°Francis P. Dinneen, An Introduction to General L i n g u i s t i c s Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1967), p. 66. Pink, p. 59Hw.  N. Francis, p. 3 4 - 4 - .  (New York:  7  f u n c t i o n o f c o n j o i n i n g an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b w i t h a f o l l o w i n g noun p h r a s e ; and a word group w i t h an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b and a p r e p o s i t i o n has a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n when a sentence f o r m u l a t e d around a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b i s changed to t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e . Grammarians o f t e n c o n s i d e r the word g r o u p — a n i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ^ d t h a p r e p o s i t i o n — a s a t r a n s i t i v e verb.  To support t h i s s t a t e m e n t , M. A. P i n k  says t h a t "an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b i s sometimes so c l o s e l y connected x^ith a f o l l o w i n g p r e p o s i t i o n . . . t h a t t h e two words may be r e g a r d e d as f o r m i n g a compound v e r b which i s t r a n s i t i v e . " 1 2  Most grammarians, hoxrever, h o l d  a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n than P i n k does.  Zandvoort d e f i n e s t h i s  group  as "a u n i t e q u i v a l e n t t o a t r a n s i t i v e verb,"13 and Henry Sweet d e s c r i b e s the c o m b i n a t i o n as "a group v e r b c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . " ! ^ O t t o J e s p e r s e n l a b e l s i t "a t r a n s i t i v e verb-phrase"1§ and s a y s :  In such a sentence as Everybody laughed a t J i m , l a u g h e d , o f c o u r s e , i s i n t r a n s i t i v e ; J i m i s 'governed b y ' o r , a s i t may a l s o be termed 'the o b j e c t o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n at. But the whole may a l s o be a n a l y s e d i n a n o t h e r way, laughed a t may be c a l l e d a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b - p h r a s e h a v i n g J i m as i t s o b j e c t . I n t h i s way we come t o u n d e r s t a n d how i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t u r n the sentence i n t o t h e p a s s i v e : J i m was laughed a t by everybody.16 Vie conclude t h a t t h e E n g l i s h p a s s i v e i s c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g t r a n s i t i v e o r t r a n s i t i v e - e q u i v a l e n t v e r b - p h r a s e s and t h a t i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s do n o t o c c u r i n E n g l i s h p a s s i v e forms.  X2  M . A. P i n k , p. 60.  •^Zandvoort, p. 53. +H. Sweet, p. 9 1 .  li  1 5 J e s p e r s e n , E s s e n t i a l s , p. 123. 1 6  Ibid.  8  In Japanese, the situation i s d i f f e r e n t from that o f English.  The  passive form can he constructed from t r a n s i t i v e verbs, as well as from i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. (A)  For example:  kare wa hi to n i siNyoosareta, he  people by  t r u s t — p a s s , past  "He was trusted by people." (B)  wets s i wa tomodati n i korareta, I  friend  by come--pass. past  "I was adversely affected by my friend's coming." The verb i n sentence ( A ) , siHyoosuru, i s t r a n s i t i v e and converted to the passive by adding -areta to the stem siNyoos- which i s taken from—Hito ga kare o siHyoosita (people him trusted).  The verb i n sentence ( B ) ,  kuru, i s i n t r a n s i t i v e and transformed into the passive by adding -areta to the stem kur- from the sen ten ce—Tomoda t i ga k i t a  (friend  came).  In both o f the above cases, the subject o f the non-passive sentence becomes the object, and the a f f i x -areta i s added to the verb stem. The syntactic structures o f the sentences ( A ) and (B) are the same, but sentence (B) has a meaning which may be expressed as "...being adversely affected..." which sentence (A) does not carry. In some cases, however, a passive sentence constructed from a trans i t i v e may express the same emotion. (C)  For instance:  watasi wa kare n i butareta. I  he  by  h i t — p a s s , past  "I was adversely affected by h i s h i t t i n g me." (D)  ano ko wa seNsei n i homerareta.  9 That c h i l d teacher by p r a i s e — p a s s , past "That c h i l d was favorably affected by h i s teacher'3 p r a i s i n g him." Up to t h i s point, two types of the passive voice i n Japanese which are not found i n English have been discussed: 1)  the passive form constructed from an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb.  2)  the passive form which expresses  the values o f the speaker, such  as "adversely affected..." or "favorably affected...". The ensuing  dis-  cussion w i l l analyze how the terms " t r a n s i t i v e " and " i n t r a n s i t i v e " have been interpreted by both Western and Japanese grammarians. I I I . THE GREEK GRAMMARIANS In a book on transformational grammar, the f i r s t step o f sentence analysis i s formulated as NP + VP.l formational grammar.  This i s the starting point o f trans-  Owen Thomas says that "the most elementary description  of a basic sentence divides the sentence into two parts: a subject and a predicate."  2  Thomas then compares this description o f new grammar with  that o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammar saying that the s i m i l a r i t y indicates "the close t i e between t r a d i t i o n a l and transformational grammar."3  The analysis o f  the sentence into two components, a subject and a predicate, brings us back to ancient Greece. It might be useful, as w e l l as interesting, to investigate the o r i g i n and development o f the grammatical terms which are used in l i n g u i s t i c s %oam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton, 1968), p. 26. 0uen Thomas, Transformational Grammar & the Teacher o f English (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1967J, p. 29. 2  3  Ibid.  10  today.  I t i s s a i d that the f i r s t  s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e Greek  sentence was made by P l a t o i n terms o f a s u b j e c t , onoma, and a p r e d i c a t e , rhema.4  Plato explains i n Sophistes  that:  There a r e tiro k i n d s o f i n t i m a t i o n s o f b e i n g w h i c h a r e g i v e n by v o i c e , one o f them c a l l e d onomata. and t h e o t h e r rhemata; t h a t which denotes a c t i o n we c a l l rhema: the a r t i c u l a t e s i g n s e t on those who do t h e a c t i o n s we c a l l onoma; a s u c c e s s i o n o f onomata o r rhema ta a l o n e i s not d i s c o u r s e ; i t i s o n l y when t h e y a r e m i n g l e d t o g e t h e r t h a t language i s formed.5  And y e t , i t i s n o t c e r t a i n what P l a t o meant by onoma and rhema.  In E n g l i s h ,  onoma may mean "name, noun, n o m i n a l , s u b j e c t , o r l o g i c a l s u b j e c t " ^ , and rhema can be " p h r a s e , s a y i n g , v e r b , v e r b a l , p r e d i c a t e , o r l o g i c a l p r e d icate."  7  I t i s s a i d t h a t P l a t o ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f language i s based on l o g i c  and n o t on grammar.&  i  n  o t h e r words, P l a t o took a m e t a p h y s i c a l  or philo-  s o p h i c a l approach t o language and t h e r e f o r e , c a r e s h o u l d be taken i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the words onoma and rhema.9 A l t h o u g h P l a t o f a i l e d t o d i v i d e a sentence ( l o g o s ) i n t o components s m a l l e r than onoma and rhema, t h i s g r a m m a t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a 4 R . H . R o b i n s , D i o n y s i u s T h r a x and t h e Western G r a m m a t i c a l T r a d i t i o n : T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the P h i l o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1957 ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l o c k w e l l , 1958), p. 7 1 . 5 j . E. Sandys, A H i s t o r y o f C l a s s i c a l S c h o l a r s h i p . I (London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 3 r d e d . , 1921), p. 9 0 . ^Dinneen, p. 78. 7  Ibid. 'Sandys, p. 90. R . H. R o b i n s , A n c i e n t  and M e d i e v a l G r a m m a t i c a l Theory i n Europe  J . T. Waterman, P e r s p e c t i v e s i n L i n g u i s t i c s (Chicago: P h o e n i x Books, U. o f Chicago P r e s s , 1963), p. 9. y  11 clear advance over the work of the Sophists,, who ifere said! to have d i s cussed sentences only i n terms of t h e i r phonological and l e x i c a l constituents J O  Plato holds the honor of being the f i r s t to introduce a notion  of dividing the sentence into parts of speech, even though his d e f i n i t i o n of each sentence component i s very naive, and has almost no grammatical meaning. The next grammarian to make a noticeable advance was Plato's p u p i l , Aristotle his  (38U-322  B. C.).  A r i s t o t l e adds one more part, syndesmos, to  master's binary d i v i s i o n of the sentence.  Moreover, he recognized  that various aspects of time are being expressed! by rhema, although he thought that only the present time i s the rhema, and a l l other times, are "cases" of rhema.^  Both f o r the rhema and the onoma, A r i s t o t l e used a term  "case", and for him "a case" was  something deviated from the o r i g i n a l  meaning of either rhema or onoma.^^ IV'. THE STOICS Grammar made> i t s f i r s t big advance after A r i s t o t l e with the Stoics, a group of philosophers and logicians founded i n 308 B. C. by ZenoJ  It  has been said that "grammar i n the modern sense only began with the Stoics:. " 1  They distinguished, four parts of speech—noun, verb, syndesmos (conjunction) ^Dinneen, p. 78. 1 1  Ibid. p. 80.  12  Sandys, p. 1 U7• 1  i. -  ,  Robins, Ancient, p. 25. Waterman, p. 7. 2 Robins, A Short History, p.  27.  12  and arthron ( a r t i c l e ) . 3 The Stoic's achievement in the grammatical f i e l d i s o f a very wide range and I would therefore l i k e to confine t h i s discussion to t h e i r study of the verb, which shows a strong s i m i l a r i t y to that o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammar.  In f a c t , "the S t o i c s . . . l e f t the l i n g u i s t i c description o f the  verb very much in the form in which i t remained almost to the present day."4  The Stoics considered the verb as the "part o f a sentence that  states something when not in construction,"5 and "an element of a sentence without case i n f l e c t i o n that i n constructions s i g n i f i e s something about one person or more, such as grapho  ("I write") or lego ("I speak")."  In the description o f the verb, the term "case" i s used.  0  A r i s t o t l e used  t h i s term f o r the f i r s t time r e f e r r i n g both to the verb and the noun, but f o r the Stoics, a "case" (ptosis--the same word as A r i s t o t l e employed) referred only to the noun.  To account f o r the verb, the Stoics formulated  four time aspects based on time reference and completion i n opposition to incorapletion or c o n t i n u i t y .  Present Present Past Past  continuing completed continuing completed  7  These four tenses are:  baino bebeda ebainon ebebekein  (I (I (I (I  am going) have gone) was going) had gone) 8  3Robins, Ancient, p. 27. Dinneen, p. 92. John P. Hughes, The Science of Language (New York: Random House, 1969)> p. 4-1. 4-Hughes, p. /U^Dinneen, p. 92. 6  7  IbM, Robins, A Short History, p. 29.  ^Dinneen, p. 93. Robins, Ancient, p. 35.  13  As can be seen in the above, these four tenses are distinguished in the Greek by t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n s rather than by t h e i r syntax.  They f a i l e d  to c l a s s i f y the future as a member of the time aspects but did distinguish three voices:  The active forms are those that construct with the oblique cases (that i s , other than the nominative) and according to the type of the verb, such as akouei (he hears)...J passives are those that construct with the p a r t i c l e o f p a s s i v i t y (hypo "by") and these are verbs l i k e akouomai (I am heard); the middle are those that do neither of these things, such as phronein, p e r i p a t e i n . 9  In h i s A Short History of L i n g u i s t i c s , R. H. Robins shows three kinds of verbs in Ancient Greek—those which require an oblique case noun are active t r a n s i t i v e verbs (rhemata ortha); those which do not require any oblique case noun are i n t r a n s i t i v e ("neutral"—oudetera); and passives (hyptia) require hypo and a genitive case.10 It appears that the Stoics employed both syntactic and morphological c r i t e r i a when they divided verbs into three categories.  By the existence  of a noun in a certain case; the existence o f the function word hypo; and judging from the phrase appearing in t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n quoted by Dinneen— "the type o f the verb"—and with t h e i r examples akouei and akouomai— which show a close l i n k between the active and passive, the Stoics employed morphological criteria:..The comparison o f the d e f i n i t i o n o f the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verb by the Stoics and the t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians of English, leads us to believe that the d e f i n i t i o n o f English has developed from Greek grammar.  "^Robins, The Development of the Word Class System: Foundation of Language, II (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Pub. Co., 196b), p. 12, (Diogenes, Vitae 7.6/J. 10  R o b i n s , A Short History, p. 29.  The only difference i s that Greek verbs contain passive forms in t h e i r paradigms of i n f l e c t i o n s , whereas the passive forms in English are expressed by means of i n f l e c t i o n and form.  syntactic transformation of the active  Passives in Greek and English are c l a s s i f i e d by these d i f f e r e n t  criteria.  V. DIONYSIUS THRAX The scholars of Alexandria advanced the work which had been developed by the S t o i c s , and i t was grammar was  in Alexandria that what i s now  called traditional  developed.!  The f i r s t study of Greek grammar—which i s also the e a r l i e s t written grammar in the Western world—was written by one o f the grammarians of Alexandria, Dionysius Thrax, who second century B. C.  l i v e d during the l a t t e r part o f the  Unlike h i s predecessors, Thrax devoted h i s full-  attention to grammar, avoiding a p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y oriented point of view.2 Dionysius Thrax recognized eight parts of speech i n Greek—noun, verb, conjunction, a r t i c l e , preposition, pronoun, p a r t i c l e , and adverb.3 defines each part of speech and, regarding the verb,  says:  A verb i s an indeclinable word, indicating time, person and number, and showing a c t i v i t y or p a s s i v i t y . The verb has eight accidents (categories), Moods, Dispositions (voices), Species, Forms, Numbers, Tenses, Persons, Conjugations,... ^-Sandys, p. 139. Dinneen, p. 95. Robins, A Short History, p.  31.  ^Robins, Ancient, p. 3b. 3Dionysius Thrax, trans. T. Davidson, The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy, VIII, 1874, p. 331.  He  15  t ^  There are three Voices: A c t i v i t y *s~f\)H 1~\>J (I s t r i k e ) , P a s s i v i t y as liriTKHiA I (I amj^track), Mediality, marking p a r t l y a c t i v i t y and p a s s i v i t y , asTj^jToi^Wl t r u s t ) , , . 4 Thrax's explanation on the parts o f speech i s c l e a r and concise but he does not explain how to combine them into a sentence.  Re t e l l s us that  the fornifUTTO^fAiiI am struck) i s in the passive voice, but does not t e l l how i t d i f f e r s from the other forms. are incomplete  The examples given i n h i s grammar  and there i s no way to discern how the passive voice i s  to be constructed.  The lack o f syntactic description i n Thrax's grammar  i s said to be supplemented by Apollonius Dyscolus, later.5  two and a h a l f centuries  Although most o f h i s work i s l o s t now, i t was passed on to the  Latin grammarian, P r i s c i a n . ^ Priscian wrote that he followed the work o f Apollonius Dyscolus,? and h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the verb i s almost i d e n t i c a l to that o f Dionysius Thrax.  Priscian defines a verb as "a part o f speech with tense and mood,  without  case-inflection, signifying action or being acted on."^ The  preceding d e f i n i t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the p r o b a b i l i t y that the grammar o f Thrax was passed on to Priscian through Dyscolus, although Priscian further developed h i s discussion on the verb.  He says, " a l l verbs that have a  complete and balanced i n f l e c t i o n end either i n -o or -or."9  Thus, Priscian  ^Dionysius Thrax, p. 331. ^Robins, Dionysius Thrax. p. 102. John Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical L i n g u i s t i c s (London: Cambridge U. P., 1968), p. 12. ^Robins, The Development, p. At 13. ^Sandys, p. 273. ^Robins, Ancient, p. 65. Dinneen, p. 116.  16  divides verbs into two sub-categories according to t h e i r endings.  Those  verbs v/hich end i n -o are e i t h e r active o r neutral, and active verbs "...always s i g n i f y an a c t i v i t y , and passives are formed from them."l° Neutral verbs have the same ending as active verbs but they comprise the group o f verbs from which "passives are not formed."H P r i s c i a n divides the verbs that end in -or into three kinds: (1) passive verbs, which are "formed d i r e c t l y from the active,"12 and which, have the meaning o f "being acted upon;"13  (2) common verbs which " s i g n i f y  both 'acting' and 'being acted upon' but have only -or endings;"!^ and (3) the 'deponent' verbs which end i n -or only."15  i  n  h i s book on syntax,  Priscian distinguishes four types o f sentence constructions dependent upon the r e l a t i o n between the subject and the verb i n a sentence.  These  four constructions are:  (1) i n t r a n s i t i v e , (2) t r a n s i t i v e , (3) r e c i p r o c a l , and (A) r e t r a n s i t i v e . The examples he gave are as follows: (1) p e r c u r r i t homo excelsus ("The exalted man ran"), which i s i n t r a n s i t i v e because i t i s the action o f a person not involving other persons; (2) Aristophanes Aristarchum docuit ("Aristophanes taught Aristarchus"), which i s t r a n s i t i v e because one person 'acts on another; (3) A.jax se i n t e r f e c i t ("Ajax k i l l e d himself"), \Aich i s r e c i p r o c a l because a person 'acts on ' himself; (£) J u s s i t ut tu ad se venias ("He ordered that you come to him"), which i s r e t r a n s i t i v e because a person i s 'acting on' another person and t h i s a c t i v i t y 'rebounds' upon the actor.16 1  l^Dinneen, p. l i b . Hlbid. 12  ijaM.  1 3  Ibid.  l 4  lbid.  15lbid. l 6  I b i d . . p. 117.  17  Priscian's d e f i n i t i o n s are not always accurate.  He distinguished  between active and passive verbs according to their endings -o and which appear frequently, but not exclusively. 1?  We can say, however,  that most of the grammatical terminology which i s now blished in the time of P r i s c i a n .  -or  in use was  esta-  To say the l e a s t , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and categorization o f the verb were completed at t h i s time.  VI. TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR In h i s Syntactic Structures, Noam Chomsky does not make a d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  His grammar, which appears in  Appendix 11^ of his Syntactic Structures, does not  'generate' the sentences  which contain i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs—those with no objects.  Chomsky begins  h i s grammar by d i v i d i n g the sentence into two parts—Noun Phrase (NP)  and  Verb Phrase (VP) which he i l l u s t r a t e s as follows: Sentence —> NP + VP VP —"> Verb + NP KP _>(NP sing\ • iNP p i / NP sing -> T + N + # NP p i —> T +- N 4 - S 2  Parsing VP, he o f f e r s only one possible analysis, "Verb +NP", as he does not give an?/ rule allowing f o r the deletion of NP,  3  and  a l l we  can  assume are sentences with two NP's—one for the subject and the other f o r  17  Dinneen, p.  120.  ^-Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, p. 2  111.  Ibid.  ^Chomsky gives the rule to delete an NP in his A Transformationa1 Approach to Syntax,'Third Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis i n English,' (The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1962). The deletion of an NP i s done according to the nature of the verb. See p. 22.  18  the object.  Thus, Chomsky assumes that a sentence automatically has an  object, and so h i s rule generates only sentences which have a verb with an o b j e c t — h i s term NP refers to the object.  His treatment of the verb i s  such that he does not define i t s function or give any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t , except Aux and  V.  Concerning passive sentences, Chomsky regards them as transformed forms of a basic active sentence.4  The rule of passivlzation given  by  Chomsky i s to be applied to the sentence which has a construction of NPj_ - Aux - V - NP2, and i f the rule i s applied to the construction, the form NP'2 - Aux + be + en - V + by+NPi r e s u l t s . This rule shows a strong s i m i l a r i t y to that of Henry Sweet.  I f words  are substituted into t h i s r u l e , i t w i l l be possible to formulate a defi n i t i o n f o r the construction of a passive sentence. (1) interchange  Substitute as follows!  the positions of NPi and N?2 ;  (?.) place by, in front of NP]_ • and •;(3)  change the sequence of Aux  - V into the appropriate  tense and  number of the verb be and a past p a r t i c i p l e . T r a d i t i o n a l and transformational grammatical theories seem to be very c l o s e l y related.  In Syntactic Structures, Chomsky reinforces the  v a l i d i t y of this statement by the fact that h i s transformational grammar seems to be based on that of t r a d i t i o n a l grammar and i t s terminology. Transformational a l grammar.  grammar, though, does have some advantages over t r a d i t i o n -  One of them xrould be that i t i s a successful way of represent-  ing the very complex r e a l i t y of a language in simple and c l e a r rules. h i s Syntactic Structures, however, Chomsky over-simplifies h i s grammar  ^Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, p. U3>  77.  In  19  by not giving an elaborate explanation on either verbs o r passives. In A Transformational Approach to Syntax, Chomsky treats the verb  ^1  in d e t a i l , and introduces the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e i l l u s t r a t e d as:  in  V  \becomeJ <| V i n env.— NP t  Vi  It may be interpreted  env.—Pred.  in env.  ?  f c  from the above rule that i f the verb appears i n  front o f the NP, i t i s t r a n s i t i v e ; i f the verb i s in f i n a l position  i n the  sentence, o r has only an adverb and no NP, then t h i s verb i s i n t r a n s i t i v e . Chomsky subdivides t r a n s i t i v e verbs i n t o :  V j_ V^g t  V-fc  in env, N in env.  h  LV7t32> By t h i s rule and the one previous to i t (V-> V^ i n env.—NP), i t becomes clear what i s the V^ f o r Chomsky.  For him, verbs are t r a n s i t i v e i f they  take one o r more NP a f t e r them, even i f they are followed by p a r t i c l e s such as out, i n , up_, away, e t c .  7  Regarding the passive sentence, Chomsky s p e c i f i e s verbs to be used i n  ->in: Tfce Third Texas Conference on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c Analysis in English, p. 133. ^Chomsky, A Transformational Approach, p i 139. 7  Ibid.  20  t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , and g i v e s a s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n to xjhich the p a s s i v e rule i s applied.  (Iff,  Aux,  This structural description i s :  V,  NP,^ ") d v  t  S  R e p l a c i n g a l l the elements i n the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n by  x^...Xtj,  the  s t r u c t u r a l change i s w r i t t e n a s : x  l ~ 2 x  " 3 x  " 4 x  ~ 5 ~* 4 x  x  " 2 + be x  -  e n  - by -f- * i - x^  9  Chomsky does not r e s t r i c t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change and, t h u s , i f a sentence meets the r e q u i r e m e n t s it  o f the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n ,  s h o u l d be a b l e to be changed i n t o the p a s s i v e form.  A v e r b group l i k e  l o o k a f t e r — w h i c h most o f the t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians c o n s i d e r to be a " t r a n s i t i v e verb p h r a s e "  1 0  —in  the sentence The n u r s e l o o k e d a f t e r the baby,  a p p e a r s i n Chomsky's grammar as V+  (from V  t  —> v  T  fCompI ) 1 1 \Prt /  can thus be changed i n t o the p a s s i v e f o r m — T h e baby was the  The  sentence  l o o k e d a f t e r by  nurse. It  i s p o s s i b l e , though, to c o n s t r u c t sentences  t h a t cannot be changed  i n t o the p a s s i v e form, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they may requirements  o f the above h y p o t h e s i s .  resembles B i l l ,  has a V t , two HP's,  f u l f i l l a l l o f the  F o r example, the sentence,  Bob  and y e t i t cannot be changed i n t o a  p a s s i v e sentence because the form', B i l l 8 8  i s resembled by Bob,  is  unacceptable  ^Chomsky, A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach, p. 1 4 . 0 . 9lbid; •'•Ojespersen, E s s e n t i a l s , p.  123.  •'••'•Owen Thomas a l s o t h i n k s o f t h i s group as t r a n s i t i v e . f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar, p. 125.  See h i s T r a n s -  21  in English. Owen Thomas says that i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs "cannot be followed by nominals or adjectives i n the t h i r d position,"12 but that t r a n s i t i v e verbs "can be followed by nominals i n the t h i r d position...Some  sentences  containing p a r t i c u l a r kinds o f t r a n s i t i v e verbs cannot be transformed to form a passive-voice sentence."I  3  Thomas c a l l s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r kind o f  t r a n s i t i v e verb "middle verbs,"14 and gives such examples as:  This book weighs f i v e pounds. The china costs eight d o l l a r s . Ed has a good l i b r a r y . The beard suits h i s personality.  He states that "there are no corresponding passives f o r these  sentences."15  Robert B. Lees gives an e x p l i c i t explanation o f middle verbs.  He  says that middle verbs are followed by objects just l i k e other t r a n s i t i v e verbs, but do not have passive transforms and cannot be followed by manner adverbials.  The verbs which belong in t h i s group are have, cost, weigh,  resemble, mean, etc.  Unlike other t r a n s i t i v e verbs, they are unable to  transform into action nominals with of.  I t i s possible to say Bob's  t e l l i n g o f the story delighted Pat, but not Bob's resembling o f h i s a  father delighted P a t .  l D  I f transformational grammar i s going to treat the "middle verb" as •^'Thomas, Transformational Grammar, p. 120. 1 3  I b i d . , p. 121.  ^ I b i d . . p. 122. 15lbid. R o b e r t B. Lees, The Grammar o f English Nominaligations (Bloomington: Indiana University, I960), p. 8. lb  22  a member o f the t r a n s i t i v e verbs, the grammar should state the rule to exclude t h i s "middle verb" i n the rule o f p a s s i v i z a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , the transformational rule o f changing an active sentence into a passive sentence i s the same as the one t r a d i t i o n a l grammarians utilize.  In transformational grammar there i s no explanation why the  active to the passive transformation takes place, except in terms o f syntax — t h e grammar gives the structural description to which the rule can be applied.  However, due to the mechanical operation o f transformational  grammar, the rule o f passivization does not seem to be able to describe the change o f a subtle, emotional or s t y l i s t i c nuance which l i e s behind active and passive  transformations.  CHAPTER I I  WESTERN INFLUENCE ON TRADITIONAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR  Today's Japanese grammar i s based on both t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar and t h e Western grammar i n t r o d u c e d by t h e D u t c h and t h e E n g l i s h to Japan i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y .  T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar has i t s o r i g i n  i n t h e study o f p o e t r y — t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e x^orks o f t h e g r e a t p o e t s , and to c r e a t e good p o e t r y , s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t t h e usage o f t e n i o h a and s h i (words o t h e r than s u f f i x e s ) .  (suffixes)  When Western c u l t u r e was brought  i n t o Japan i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , Western grammar was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d . There s u b s e q u e n t l y appeared a Japanese grammar w h i c h was a copy o f t h i s Western grammar. In t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , many grammarians n o t i c e d t h a t Japanese c o u l d n o t be f i t t e d i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l frame o f European l a n g u a g e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e y t r i e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f Japanese by a d a p t i n g the  t e r m i n o l o g y and method o f Western grammar.  The grammar we noxj have  has t h u s been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h a t o f Europe b u t h a s , as i t s f o u n d a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar. In  t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese grammar, we f i n d t h a t grammarians d i v i d e d  v e r b s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s — t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e .  The c r i t e r i a  w h i c h t h e y used t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were, however, d i f f e r e n t from t h a t used b y Western grammarians.  The Japanese had t o  employ t h e i r own c r i t e r i a because t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i n Japanese can a l s o be used i n g e n e r a t i n g a p a s s i v e s e n t e n c e .  L a t e r gram-  marians thought t h a t i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o d i v i d e Japanese v e r b s i n t o the  t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e on t h e grounds t h a t p a s s i v i z a t i o n  does  2U  occur f o r intransitive? verbs.  1  There e x i s t s , however, such contrasts as  between o r i r u (get o f f ) and orosu (bring down) and between narabu  (line  up) and naraberu (place, lay) irhich have the same roots but d i f f e r e n t endings to indicate transitiveness or i n t r a n s i t i v e n e s s .  2  In addition to the above contrast, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n may be observed when verbs are used to express the completion o f an a c t i o n — t o express the state that "something has been done"— -te aru i s used f o r t r a n s i t i v e verbs and -te i r u f o r i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  For  example:  Isu ga n i r e t u n i narabete aru. The chairs are placed in two rows. Isu ga n i r e t u n i narande i r u . The chairs are placed in two rows. In t h i s chapter, I would f i r s t l i k e to discuss the verb d i a c h r o n i c a l l y from i t s early stages to the present time, and, secondly, the nature o f t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs in modern Japanese. I I . EARLY STAGES OF GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS  (8th - 18th century)  During t h i s period o f nearly a thousand years, there was l i t e r a l l y no discussion concerning the grammar o f Japanese.  There i s evidence, however,  of some discussion having been done on the usage of p a r t i c l e s i n poetry. It i s a well-known fact that no writing system existed in ancient Japan and that characters were borrowed from Chinese.  As the sound system  3-Yoshio Yarns da, Nihon Bunpogaku Gairon (Tokyo: Hobunkan, 1935), p. 24.0. 2  T h i s contrast w i l l be discussed further on.  25  and grammatical structure of Chinese and Japanese are very d i f f e r e n t , there arose the d i f f i c u l t y of how  to read Japanese, which was not only written  in Chinese characters, but which was also written i n Chinese word order. The Japanese adopted the meaning of the i n d i v i d u a l Chinese characters, but assigned t h e i r ovm pronunciation to these kan.ii (Chinese characters).  The  Japanese next developed a method of attaching p a r t i c l e s to t h i s borrowed writing system, to show the function of each word.  These p a r t i c l e s were  f i r s t shown by putting a dot at a certain point surrounding a k a n j i , were c a l l e d okoto-ten  by the scholars of c l a s s i c a l Chinese.  3  and  This point  was l a t e r replaced by a kan.ii, which was written smaller than the rest in the text, to show that i t had only phonetic value and that the o r i g i n a l meaning should be disregarded.  The small kan.ii i^as then replaced by  either hiragana or katakana, which are simplified forms of kan.ii possessing only phonetic value. The name tenioha or teniha-ten was given to these p a r t i c l e s by poets. The tenioha received special attention from poets and reference to t h i s word group can be found in the "ManySshu" which was compiled century.  In t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of poems, some c r i t i c s remarked that a certain  "poem lacks three p a r t i c l e s (called jjL), mo,  4 1 . x + o;  in the 8th  2 . x -j- koto;  3 . x 4 ha;  no and ha."-4  4 . x 4 te;  5 . x 4 ni  A p a r t i c l e following a certain kan.ii was f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e d as in the example above. Reading the corners clockwise from # 4 , the term te-ni-o-ha r e s u l t s . The term o-koto-ten refers to numbers 1 and 2 — o 4 koto—and the term ten or point. X stands f o r any one kan.ii or character, as explained in Kokugo Gakushi by Masao Tanabe (Tokyo: Ofusha, 1969), pp. 5-6. ^Manyoshu, XIX, Mo. 4 1 7 5 .  These p o e t s  d i d not t r e a t the p a r t i c l e  p o i n t of r h e t o r i c — t h e y considered the to  understand,  Sho",  and  ji_to  t o p r o d u c e a g o o d poem.  which gives; i n s t r u c t i o n s ; f o r w r i t i n g  unknown b u t  I n t h e book " T e n i h a  Taigai  a g o o d poem, t h e a u t h o r  the tenioha from the s h i .  e x p l a i n e d t e n i o h a and  view-  be t h e k e y w o r d t o a p p r e c i a t e ,  s a i d t o h a v e b e e n an e x p e r t on p o e t r y i n t h e  c l e a r l y separated he  g r a m m a t i c a l l y but from a  (who  is  lirth century),  D i v i d i n g w o r d s i n t o two  classes,  shi.m e t a p h o r i c a l l y :  S h i i s l i k e a t e m p l e o r s h r i n e and t e n i o h a i s l i k e i t s s h o g o n , or ornamentation. We c a n t e l l t h e r a n k o f a t e m p l e b y i t s d e c o r a t i o n a n d , t h u s , c a n a l s o j u d g e t h e v a l u e o f s h i i f we examine t h e usage o f t e n i o h a c l o s e l y . T h e • s h i are' l i m i t e d i n n u m b e r , b u t t h e t e n i o h a c a n g i v e t h e s h i new and f r e e e x p r e s s i o n b e c a u s e o f i t s v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . ^ We c a n e x p r e s s i n f i n i t e i d e a s b y c o m b i n i n g t h e s h i and t e n i o h a . 3  In  t h e "Anega K o j i S h i k i " , a c o l l e c t i o n and  p o e t r y h a n d e d down w i t h i n t h e i n t h e late> 1 5 t h t e n i o h a and can t e l l —  we  said:  c e n t u r y , a n unknown a u t h o r " T e n i o h a was  t h e m e a n i n g and  These w o r k s on not  possess.  tenioha give f u l l  I n these works, the  Teniha  1965), pp.  The  to etymologize  and  term  T a i g a i Sho,  the  term  (a sprout).  same i s t r u e f o r  of a sentence  details  compiled  sentences  examples o f i t s usage, they  t e n i o h a i s used t o cover p a r t i c l e s , a d j e c t i v e s . , adverbs and  q t d . i n Kokugogaku,. e d . B a i y u S a e k i  627-629.  ^Anega K o j i S h i k i , q t d . i n Kokugogaku, p.  We  by i t s t e n i o h a .  c l a s s i f y t e n i o h a a c c o r d i n g t o the- d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s  t h e i n f l e c t i o n a l s u f f i x e s o f v e r b s and  7  tried  o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n a s £ft ^  the nature  a n a l y s i s of  f a m i l y and w h i c h was  t h e names, o f t r e e s b y t h e i r l e a v e s .  can t e l l  b u t do  "Anega K o j i "  critical  293.  and  pronouns.  (Tokyo:  Sanseido  III.  N A R I A H R A F U J I T A N I (1738-1 779)  The 1773«^  first  grammatical  NORINAGA MDTOORI (1730-1801)  a n a l y s i s o f Japanese by a Japanese appeared i n  I n h i s " A y u i Sho,"8 N a r i a k i r a F u j i t a n i d i v i d e d w o r d s i n t o  groups according to t h e i r these  AND  p l a c e and  groups a c c o r d i n g t o the  r e l a t i o n i n a sentence.  He  four  named  human i m a g e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  na:  1.  na:  2.  yosoi: ( c l o t h or d r e s s ) , placed! i n t h e m i d d l e o f the word a n d s t a t e s t h e t h i n g — V e r b and A d j e c t i v e .  (name o r t h i n g ) ,  i t expresses,  s p e c i f i e s the  thing—Noun. group  ;  3.  kaza-shi: ( h e a d or' a n o r n a m e n t a l h a i r p i n ) , p l a c e d b e f o r e a n o t h e r w o r d , a s s i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d — P r e f i x and A d v e r b .  I4.  ayui:  The way  ( l e g s o r f e e t ) , p l a c e d a f t e r t h e word and p r e c e d i n g w o r d — P a r t i c l e and A u x i l i a r y .  a b o v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  words are  arranged  i n the  conjugation t a b l e of verbs first  t o work but  ( v e r b s and  This i n t e r e s t i s apparent i n h i s  adjectives.  such a c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e .  a d j e c t i v e s ) i s not  F u j i t a n i i s s a i d t o be  the  H i s o r i g i n a l work on  yosoi  i n existence today  conjugation t a b l e c a l l e d Yosoino  Katagaki.  except  (verb)  and  sama ( a d j e c t i v e ) .  classes—koto  and  arina—and  and  shikisama.  This  s p e c i f i c word has,  He  i n t o two  f u r t h e r divided; koto  sama i n t o t h r e e -  verbs  end  i n -u,  form of  a  sub-classes into  two  sub-  sub-classes—arisama,:-:shisama  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the  eg.,  i n the  7  F u j i t a n i d i v i d e d y o s o i (words w h i c h conjugate) —koto  the  d e r i v e d from h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the  sentence.  and  assists  type  of ending  a d j e c t i v e s i n - i , and  a  the k i n d  of  T h e r e do e x i s t some grammar b o o k s o n J a p a n e s e w r i t t e n b y E u r o p e a n s who e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e e a r l y 1 7 t h c e n t u r y . These w o r k s , however, d i d n o t have any i n f l u e n c e on J a p a n e s e a t t h a t time. See S e c t i o n V o f t h i s c h a p t e r . §Ayui Sho, ^See  q t d . i n Kokugogaku,  p a g e 28  of t h i s  paper.  pp.677-688.  28  ending a word shows when combined w i t h c e r t a i n bined w i t h the p a r t i c l e - t a r i , shown i n i k i - t a r i  p a r t i c l e s , e g . , when com-  some words end i n - i and o t h e r s i n - e , a s  (went) and t a b e - t a r i  (ate).  He used t h e f o l l o w i n g  nine  f e a t u r e s t o s e t up the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n :  1.  moto:  The b a s i c form o f a o n e - s y l l a b l e word o r a stem f o r a multi-syllable  word.  2.  s u e : The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f a m u l t i - s y l l a b l e  3.  hikinabiki:  4.  kishikata: The l a s t s y l l a b l e t o be combined w i t h a s u f f i x o f the past tense. menomae: The l a s t s y l l a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i m p e r a t i v e o r t o be combined w i t h the c o n d i t i o n a l s u f f i x .  5. 6.  aramashi:  word i n i t s b a s i c form.  The l a s t s y l l a b l e t o be f o l l o w e d by a noun.  The l a s t s y l l a b l e t o be combined w i t h the f u t u r e tense  suffix. 7.  nabikifushi:  The c o n d i t i o n a l  s u f f i x f o r a verb.  8.  fushimenomae: The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f an a d j e c t i v e t o e x p r e s s t h e conditional.  9.  tachimoto:  The l a s t s y l l a b l e o f an a d j e c t i v e t o e x p r e s s a d e c i s i o n .  The c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e Y o s o i n o K a t a g a k i i s a s  koto yosoi  koto  anna arisama sama shizama shikizama  1 ku su nu mi u omo su o ura ko a harukana haya kohi  2  tu fu tu tu mu yu ri ri si si  3 ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ki ki  4  ki si ne mi ti hi te ti mi e ri ri ku ku  5 ko se ne mi te he te ti mi e re re  6 7 ko r e se re re mi re ta te re re mi re re ra ra  follows: 8  9  to to to to to to to to to to to is .ke : ka i s .•ke ka i s  come do sleep see hit think abandon fall blame cross exist far quick 10 dear  l O q t d . i n T o k i e d a , m o t o k i , Kokugogakushi (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1969)>  p.124-  29  F u j i t a n i c l a s s i f i e d koto into three groups depending on whether a verb has features numbered 2 and 3 above or not.  Arina and arisama show  exactly the same forms, but they are c l a s s i f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t classes because, as he explains in Ayui Sho, arisama can be followed by the parti c l e - n i but arina can not. In the conjugation  table shown on the previous page, there i s not a  clear d i s t i n c t i o n between roots and suffixes--those underlined ru and re are s u f f i x e s , but k i , ko, s i , se, ne, etc., are a combination of a root and a s u f f i x . -u, - i ,  For example, in the verb ku (to come), the root i s k-,  and  -o are suffixes; in sutu, the root i s sut- and -u, -e are s u f f i x e s .  The reason why  F u j i t a n i could not separate the root from the s u f f i x could  be that he t r i e d to parse the words using s y l l a b i c l e t t e r s , and not phonemic representations.  He treated the CV form as a basic or an inseparable u n i t .  At the end of h i s Ayui Sho, F u j i t a n i made some notes on the nature o f the verb.  He pointed out that when we choose a verb, we should  pay  attention to the subject of the s e n t e n c e — i f the subject i s animate, we should use i r u to express the existence of the subject, and i f the subject i s inanimate, we  should use aru.  F u j i t a n i r e f e r s to something animate as  uchi (inside or within) meaning something which has emotion within, and to the inanimate as soto not have emotion. using the words ura  (outside or without), meaning a thing which does  Next, F u j i t a n i goes into the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of verbs, (the inside) and omote (the o u t s i d e ) — u r a refers to  the action which a f f e c t s the subject i t s e l f , or r e f e r s to the inside of the mind of the subject; omote r e f e r s to the action which involves somebody or something other than the subject.  Thus, F u j i t a n i stated that ura  concerns only the subject, whereas omote has an influence on other parts  30  of the sentence.  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ura and omote i s close to the  i n t r a n s i t i v e - t r a n s i t i v e c o n t r a s t — u r a being the i n t r a n s i t i v e and omote the transitive.  F u j i t a n i does not elaborate on t h i s point any further nor  does he give any examples. Around 1782, unaware o f the existence o f F u j i t a n i ' 3 Yosoi no Katagaki, Norinaga Motoori constructed a conjugation table o f verbs and adjectives e n t i t l e d Mikuni Kotoba Katsuyosho.  K. Motoori \-ras c h i e f l y interested i n  how to appreciate poetry—how to write a good poem.  He thus t r i e d to  c l a r i f y the sequential dependence rule, which existed between certain p a r t i c l e s and a verb-ending form, from the point o f view o f r h e t o r i c . Here he i s r e f e r r i n g to the fact that i f a sentence contains the p a r t i c l e koso, the verb should end in a form d i f f e r e n t from the regular s u f f i x . For example, the verb omofu (to think) should end i n -he i f the sentence has koso.  mono o koso omohe. I only think of that matter. mono o omofu. I think o f that matter. He expressed h i s idea in Kotoba no Tamanoo, (A Thread of Words), that " p a r t i c l e s are l i k e the thread o f a necklace, as jewels alone cannot be a necklace however beautiful they might be.  Kotoba  (a word other than a  p a r t i c l e ) i s something l i k e a b e a u t i f u l jewel, because kotoba alone can not be used to express a complete idea without the a i d o f one o r more particles."  1 1  N o r i n aga Motoori, Kotoba no Tamanoo, 1785, qtd. i n Motoki Tokieda, Kokugo Gakushi, pp. 114.-115. n  31  In h i s Mikuni Kotoba Katsuyosho, (A Conjugation Table o f Japanese), N. Motoori prescribed what the conjugation of words should be, and l i s t e d the conjugation forms of verbs and adjectives with a l l possible p a r t i c l e s attached.  He divided over 2,200 verbs into 27 kinds according to the kinds  of conjugation types, using the Gojuonzu, the table of f i f t y s y l l a b l e s of Japanese.  For example, the verb aku (to open) conjugates in the follox-;-  12  ing manner:  aka-zu aki-tari aku-toki ake-yo  ( i t ) does not open ( i t ) did open when ( i t ) opens Open ( i t ) , 1  N. Motoori grouped those verbs which have -ka, - k i , -ku, -ke forms into one category, but put yomu (to read) and wakatu (to divide) in d i f f e r e n t groups despite the fact that they conjugate l i k e aku.  •omu: yoma-piu yomi-tari yomu-toki yome-yo  wakatu:  wakata-zu wakati-tari vakatu-toki wakate-yo  It appears that Motoori, l i k e F u j i t a n i , considered the CV verbending as an inseparable unit because he d i d not recognize the fact that, when conjugating the verbs l i k e aku, yomu and wakatu, only the f i n a l vowel /-u#/  i s i n f l e c t e d , i e . , the consonant remained constant.  N. Motoori gave four conjugation forms to account f o r the types i l l u s t r a t e d above, and f o r others, he gave two or three forms.  12  Gojuonzu:  N  wa i u e o  ra ya ri i ru yu re e ro yo  ma mi mu me mo  ha hi fu he ho  na ni nu ne no  ta ti tu te to  sa si su se so  ka ki ku ke ko  a i u e o  For  32  example, k i r u (to wear) has two conjugation various p a r t i c l e s are attached The conjugation  forms, k i - and kjLru-, and  to e i t h e r of the  two.  tables of F u j i t a n i and N. Motoori were combined by  Akira Suzuki (1764-1837), a p u p i l of the l a t t e r . structed a conjugation  In 1803,  Suzuki con-  table, Katsugo Kiretsuzuki no Fu,13  (A Table of  Conjugating Words), and,  l i k e Motoori, c l a s s i f i e d verbs into 27  giving eight conjugation  forms to each, thus also following F u j i t a n i ' s  method.  To each conjugation  categories,  form, he assigned a function, and also l i s t -  ed several p a r t i c l e s which might follow the form.  Verb Form 1. 2.  aku aku  3.  4"*  aku aki  5. 6. 7. 8.  ake ake aka aka  Function Infinitive Can be followed another verb  P a r t i c l e to Follow by  Can be used as a noun Preceded by -koso Imperative Futurity Causative  -to, -ya, - k a s i -hu, -mo, -ga, -yo, -ka, -zo, -koso, -o, - n i -besi, -ran, - n a r i , - r a s i , -meri - a r i , -te, -tu, -nu, -ne -ba, -do -yo -ba, -mu, -masi, -zu, -nu, -naku -simu, -su  Regarding forms 7 and 8 above, Suzuki remarked that " i t would not necessary to divide them into two—they could be classed as one Number 8 i s the causative form, which i s now  considered  be  form."-^  to be a derivative  constructed by adding the suffixes -simu or -su which are further capable o f conjugating.  Suzuki does not include other suffixes which also form  derivatives, such as the passive  s u f f i x -raru or the desiderative  suffix  -tasi. l^Katsugo Kiretsuzuki no Fu, qtd. in Miki & Fukunaga, Kokugo Gakushi (Tokyo: Kazama shobo", 1966), pp. 147-1-49. 1  % b i d . , p.  148.  33  IV. HARUNIWA MOTOORI (1763-1828)  Suzuki c l a r i f i e d the theory of conjugation forms by assigning seven (or eight) forms to each verb, but he s t i l l d i d not reduce the number o f conjugation types.  Norinaga Motoori's son, Haruniwa, however, contributed  greatly to the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the conjugation types. Yachimata  In h i s Kotoba no  (The Many Uses of Words),!5 written i n 1806, Haruniwa reduced  the 27 conjugation types of h i s father to seven verbal types by disregarding  the difference o f consonants i n the f i n a l CV cluster,  Haruniwa grouped  aku (to open), yomu (to read), hossu (to want), etc., into one type, as these verbs have -a,, - i ,  -u, -e conjugations i n common.  ak-a ak-i ak-u ak-e  yom-a yom-i yom-u yom-e  hoss-a hoss-i hoss-u hoss-e  Haruniwa then named each conjugation type according to the Gojuonzu. These names are as follows: 1.  Yokida no hataraki: A verb xjhich conjugates according to the four columns of the Gojuonzu (-a, - i , -u, - e ) . &* osu (to push) 6s-a-, o s - i - , os-u-, os-e-. e  2.  Hitokida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using only one column o f the Gojuonzu (-i). eg. k i r u (to wear) k - i - , k - i - r u , k - i - r e - .  3.  Naka-futakida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using two middle columns o f the Gojuonzu ( - i , - u ) . eg. otu (to f a l l ) o t - i - , ot-u, ot-u-ru, ot-u-re-.  4.  Shimo-futakida no hataraki: A verb which conjugates using two o f the l a t t e r columns .of the "Go juonz.u '(-u, - -e).. eg. uku (to receive) uk-e-, uk-u-, uk-u-ru-, uk-u-re-.  •^qtd. i n Tokieda, Kokugo Gakushi, pp. 131-137.  34-  5.  Kagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o n l y o f t h e v e r b k u ( t o come) which c o n j u g a t e s u s i n g t h r e e columns o f t h e k- s e r i e s , k i , k u , k o . eg. k u (to come) k-o-, k - i - , k-u-, k - u - r u - , k - u - r e - .  6.  Sagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o n l y o f t h e v e r b s u ( t o do) w h i c h c o n j u g a t e s u s i n g t h r e e columns o f t h e s- s e r i e s , s e , s i , s u . eg. su ( t o do) s-e-, s - i - , s~u-, s-u-ru-, s - u - r e - .  7.  Nagyo henkaku no h a t a r a k i : C o n s i s t s o f t h e two v e r b s i n u ( t o go) and s i n u ( t o d i e ) w h i c h c o n j u g a t e u s i n g t h e f o u r colums o f t h e n s e r i e s , n a , n i , n u , ne. eg. i n u ( t o go) i n - a - , i n - i - , i n - u - , i n - u - r u - , i n - u - r e - , i n - e . ° Haruniwa d i d a good j o b o f c o v e r i n g t h e t y p e s o f c o n j u g a t i o n , but he  d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e idea o f c o n j u g a t i o n form made by S u z u k i , and he shows i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e c o n j u g a t i o n forms l i s t e d above. l i k e h i s f a t h e r Norinaga,  H i s i n t e r e s t was,  t o s t a t e t h e s e q u e n t i a l dependence r u l e o f a  c o n j u g a t i o n form and i t s p a r t i c l e s .  He thus d i v i d e d the c o n j u g a t i o n  forms  a c c o r d i n g t o a v e r b ' s f i n a l v o w e l , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s f u n c t i o n . For', example, S u z u k i ' s groups 5 and 6, ake (preceded by koso) and ake (Imperat i v e ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were combined because they end w i t h the same sound. In Kotoba no K a y o i . j i , ! ^ w r i t t e n i n 1828, Haruniwa d i s c u s s e d the n a t u r e of verbs.  He f i r s t mentioned t h a t t h e r e a r e some v e r b s which a r e r o o t -  r e l a t e d but which conjugate  i n d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s o f t h e Gojuonzu.  For  example, odoroku ( t o be f r i g h t e n e d ) and odorokasu ( t o s u r p r i s e ) a r e r o o t r e l a t e d , but odoroku conjugates  i n t h e k- s e r i e s a s - k a - , - k i - , -ku-, - k e - ,  and odorokasu c o n j u g a t e s i n t h e s- s e r i e s a s - s a - , - s i - , - s u - , - s e - . Haruniwa n o t i c e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning and thus d i v i d e d v e r b s i n t o tvo groups:  1 6  q t d . i n T o k i e d a , Kokugo G a k u s h i , pp. 131-137.  Kotoba no K a y o i j i , q t d . by S a e k i , Kokugogaku, (Tolcyo: Sanseido, pp. 325-6.  1965),  35  1.  j i : A verb expressing an action taking place automatically or without aid from another party.  2.  t a : A verb expressing an action taking place with the intention of the actor.18  Group one above r e f e r s to the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, group two to the t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  In fact, i n present-day grammar Haruniwa's terminology  i s s t i l l being used—.jidoshi (intransitive) and tadoshi ( t r a n s i t i v e ) . Among the verbs of the second group, he further distinguished five d i f f e r ent groups.  Dividing a l l the verbs into s i x groups, he explained the meaning  of each as:  1.  Onozukara shikaru: " i t happens to be that way," "without forcing i t to become that way, i t becomes so." eg. kikoyuru—sounds come from somewhere to one's ears no matter whether one wants to hear them or not.  2.  Mono o shikasuru: "one uses one's intention and achieves some action, thing, etc." eg. k i k u — t o hear.  3.  Ta n i shikasuru: "one makes somebody to become so and so," or "one does some action f o r somebody." eg. kikasuru—one makes (performs) sound (music,etc.) for someone.  4-.  Ta n i shikasasuru: "one makes somebody do some action," or "one forces somebody to do some action." eg. kikoesasuru--one permits another to perceive a certain sound or utterance.  5.  Onozukara shikaseraruru: "one i s in some situation by allowing oneself to become so." eg. kika r u m — i t i s possible f o r one to hear sound.  6.  Ta n i shikaseraruru: "action i s done to someone by someone else." eg. kikaruru—sound i s produced by one person and perceived by a second person. As can be seen from the above l i s t , the root form k i k - i s common to  l Ibid. 8  36  the example given in each group.  The example in number one, kikoyuru.  i s an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb while kiku, in number two, i s a t r a n s i t i v e verb. The examples in numbers three through six are t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s — k i k a sum, in number three, and kikoesasuru, in number four, are causatives derived from kiku and kikoyuru, respectively; kikaruru, i n number f i v e , i s a potential and kikaruru. in number six, i s a passive, and both are derived from kiku. Haruniwa treated these s i x forms as independent verbs, not as derivatives.  He explained that the difference o f meaning a r i s e s from the d i f f e r -  ent conjugation types x/hich they belong to, not from the functions of the suffixes attached to the root.  According to Haruniwa, the verbs o f numbers  one and two may be any kind of conjugation types, but those in numbers three and four, should conjugate as the s- series of shimo futakida no hataraki (-se-, -su-, -suru-, -sure-), and those in numbers f i v e and s i x as the r - series o f shimo futakida no hataraki (-re-, -ru-, -ruru-, -rure-). Haruniwa recognized three main ways of distinguishing between t r a n s i tive and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs which share the same root, from the types o f conjugation which they belong to, based on the s y l l a b a r i e s . 1.  Bet\jeen two verbs which conjugate in the same consonant series, a present form which ends in -ru i s t r a n s i t i v e and i t s counterpart, which does not end in -ru, i s i n t r a n s i t i v e : nokuru (t.v. to remove) tuzukuru (t.v. to continue) taturu (t.v. to build)  noku ( i . v . to move aside) tuzuku ( i . v . to continue) tatu ( i . v . to build)  The conjugation o f nokuru i s noke-, noku-, nokuru-, nokure- and that o f noku i s noka-, noki-, noku-, noke-. 2.  Transitive verbs conjugate in the s- series but i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs do not: okosu  (t.v. to start)  okoru  ( i . v . to start)  37  odorokasu otosu oyobosu akasu  (t.v. (t.v. (t.v. (t.v.  to to to to  surprise) drop) affect) open)  odoroku oturu oyobu akuru  (i.v. (i.v. (i.v. (i.v.  to to to to  surprise) drop) affect) open)  The c o n j u g a t i o n o f okosu i s o k o s a - , o k o s i - , okosu-, okosethat o f okoru i s okora-, o k o r i - , okoru-, okore-. 3.  and  I n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s c o n j u g a t e i n the r - s e r i e s , but t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s do n o t : azamuku kakotu uzumu yatohu  ( t . v . to ( t . v , to ( t . v . to ( t . v . to  deceive) complain) bury) hire)  azamukaru kakotaru uzumoru yatoharuru  (i.v. (i.v. (i.v. (i.v.  be d e c e i v e d ) be complained be b u r i e d ) be h i r e d )  to)  The c o n j u g a t i o n o f azamuku i s azamuka-, azamuki-, azamuku-, azamukeand t h a t o f azamukaru i s azamukare-, azamukaru-, azamukare-. Haruniwa t r i e d to account f o r the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e  relation  from a semantic and m o r p h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , and not from a s y n t a c t i c one. K y o g e n j i Gimon, 1786-1853, a B u d d h i s t p r i e s t , completed the c o n j u g a tion table of verbs.  In h i s Wagosetsu no Ryakuzu,19 (A S y m p l i f i e d C o n j u -  g a t i o n T a b l e ) , w r i t t e n i n 1833, Gimon gave s i x c o n j u g a t i o n forms f o r e v e r y v e r b and c l a s s i f i e d a l l the v e r b s i n t o seven t y p e s .  Gimon used the same  names f o r the t y p e s o f c o n j u g a t i o n as Haruniwa, but he f i r s t named each c o n j u g a t i o n form a c c o r d i n g t o i t s f u n c t i o n and meaning.  The names he  used a r e i d e n t i c a l to the ones used today. The f o l l o w i n g i s Gimon's c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e and the numerals through e i g h t s t a n d f o r : henkaku; 4. and 8.  1.  Kagyohenkakuj 2.  S h i m o - f u t a k i d a ; 5.  SagyShenkakuj 3-  N a k a - f u t a k i d a ; 6.  H i t o k i d a j 7.  Particle.  q t d . i n M i k i & Fukunaga, Kokugo G a k u s h i , p.  171.  one Nagyolokida;  38  .1 ko  '2 se  3 ina  e  A  5 oki  6 mi  '7 utusa  Conjunctive Renjrogen  ki  si  ini  e  oki  mi  utusi  Conclusive Saidangen  ku  su  inu  u  oku  miru  utusu  meri, ran, beki  Attributive Ren ta i g e n  kuru  suru  inuru  uru  okuru  miru  utusu  kana, made, ni  Provisional Izengen  kure  sure  inure  ure  okure  mire  utuse  ba, domo, do  Imperative Kekugen  ko  seyo  ine  eyo  okiyo  miyo  sutse  to come  to do to go  to get  to g e t 'to up see  Presumptive Shozengen  8 zu, z i , de, ne, nu, n, me, masi k e r i , ken  . to copy  T h i s t a b l e was w r i t t e n i n Japanese u s i n g s y l l a b i c CV c l u s t e r s ,  so t h e  v e r b a l r o o t and the s u f f i x a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d i f t h e r o o t ends i n a consonant.  T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t each form except kekugen ( i m p e r a t i v e ) i s  f o l l o w e d by one o f the p a r t i c l e s l i s t e d a t the end o f each row. The c o n j u g a t i o n o f v e r b s had been s e t t l e d by Gimon, b u t the n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s had n o t been f u l l y d i s c u s s e d u n t i l t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Western grammar. V. THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN GRAMMAR The f i r s t g r a m m a t i c a l work on Japanese made by a European  i s the  Nihon D a i b u n t e n , ("Arte da L i n g o a de Iapam"), by R o d r i g u e z i n 1604.. In 1620, R o d r i g u e z s i m p l i f i e d h i s p r e v i o u s book and p u b l i s h e d N i h o n Sho Bunten, ("Arte Breve da Lingoa I a p o a " ) .  Diego C o l l a d o wrote " A r s Grammaticae  J a p o n i c a e L i n g u a e " i n Rome i n 1632, and M e l c h o r Oyanguren wrote " A r t e de l a Lengua Japona" i n 1738, which was p u b l i s h e d i n M e x i c o .  39  These works were a l l based on L a t i n grammar and were w r i t t e n i n e i t h e r Latin or Spanish.  The main purpose o f these grammar books  to h e l p the p r o p a g a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Japan.  was  The reason t h a t t h e y  d i d n o t have any i n f l u e n c e on the Japanese grammarians o f t h a t time was p a r t l y due t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f the Tokugawa Shogunate vrtiich p r o h i b i t e d European l i t e r a t u r e from 1630.  Upon r e c e i v i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o import west-  ern books i n 1720, many J a p a n e s e . s t a r t e d s t u d y i n g D u t c h , because H o l l a n d was the o n l y c o u n t r y w i t h which Japan was i n c o n t a c t .  Many Dutch grammar  books were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Japanese, and t h i s a i d e d the l a t t e r i n l e a r n i n g about Western c u l t u r e .  In 1833, when Western grammar had become somewhat  f a m i l i a r t o the Japanese, Shigenobu Tsurumine wrote a grammar book, Gogaku S h i n s h o , (A New Grammar Book), based on Dutch grammar.  No v a l u e can  r e a l l y be found i n t h i s book e x c e p t t h a t Tsurumine i n t r o d u c e d , and to u t i l i z e , European  tried  linguistics.  In 1868, J . J . Hoffmann wrote "Japansche S p r a a k l e e r " which was publ i s h e d i n Leiden. 1876.  H i s second e d i t i o n , ! w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h , appeared i n  In t h i s e d i t i o n , Hoffmann wrote t h a t Japanese grammarians  o f o l d d i s t r i b u t e d the words o f t h e i r language i n t h r e e c l a s s e s , " g i v e s 1. noun "na", 2, v e r b " k o t o b a " , and 3. p a r t i c l e s " t e n i o h a " . mann e x p r e s s e d the inadequacy o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  "...have 2  and Hoff-  stated:  ...we, t o be a b l e t o f i x the l o g i c a l and g r a m m a t i c a l v a l u e o f the words p r o p e r l y , must a p p l y o u r g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , o u r d i s t i n c t i o n o f the p a r t s o f speech t o the Japanese language. C o n s e q u e n t l y we d i s t i n g u i s h 1. Nouns, (under which a r e i n c l u d e d 2. P r o n o u n s ) , 3« A d j e c t i v e s , 4- Numerals, 5. A d v e r b s , 6. V e r b s ,  J . Hoffmann, A Japanese Grammar (2nd e d . , E. J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1876). 2  I b i d . , p. 42.  40  7. Suffixes (postpositions) simple, answering to our termi n a t i o n a l i n f l e c t i o n s , and such as answer to our prepositions and conjunctions, 8. Interjections.3  On h i s chapter on the verb, Hoffmann asked the question, "...how are the conjugational forms o f the Western languages expressed in the Japanese,"4 and c l a s s i f i e d verbs as:  The Voices o f the Japanese verb are Intransitive. Transitive, Factive o r Causative. Passive, but i n the form o f an a c t i v e . Negative, since the verbal terminations themselves a negative element, n . 5  contain i n  Here, I s h a l l not question whether h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f "the voices of the Japanese verb" i s correct or not, but would l i k e to confine discussion to that o f the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n .  this  I t seems  that Hoffmann took i t f o r granted that verbs should be divided into the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e , that the t r a n s i t i v e should take an object, and that the i n t r a n s i t i v e should not.  His thoughts concerning t h i s matter  are only apparent in h i s section on the causative.  He said that "...the  causative verbs derived from i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs have the object, which i s made active in the accusative before them" and he indicated that 0  t h i s type o f verb i s t r a n s i t i v e kayeru ugoku  (to return) i . v . (to move) i . v .  3Ibid., p. 4-3-  4 l b i d . , p. 197.  5lbid. °Ibid., p. 237.  (t.v.) as: kayesu ugokasu  (to make turn back) t.v. (to move, to make move) t.v.  yasumu  (to r e s t ) i . v .  yasumasu  (to r e s t ) t.v.?  Mo o t h e r comment on the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , o r t h e o b j e c t , a r e g i v e n i n h i s book.  An E n g l i s h grammarian, ¥. G. A s t o n , compiled and p u b l i s h e d a Japanese grammar book, A Grammar o f the Japanese Spoken Language, i n 1867. I n h i s f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f t h i s book^ p u b l i s h e d i n 1888 i n Tokyo, A s t o n  discussed  the Tokyo d i a l e c t o f t h a t time and c o n f i n e d h i m s e l f c h i e f l y t o the spoken language.  He d i v i d e d v e r b s i n t o t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e , but d i d n o t  s t a t e any c r i t e r i a used i n making t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  He n o t i c e d t h a t  the Japanese v e r b s a r e capable o f e x p r e s s i n g both i d e a s o f t r a n s i t i v i t y and o f i n t r a n s i t i v i t y by u s i n g the same r o o t .  Some o f the examples A s t o n  ga ve a re :  Intransitive tatu to susumu t o yamu to iru to kireru ureru miyeru ikeru Aston  to to to to  stand advance cease enter be be be be  discontinuous saleable a b l e t o see a b l e t o go  Transitive tateru susumeru yameru ireru kiru uru miru iku  to to to to  s e t up encourage cease put i n  to to to to  cut sell see go  9  remarked t h a t the s u f f i x - e r u may appear e i t h e r w i t h t h e  t r a n s i t i v e o r i n t r a n s i t i v e , but no r u l e f o r forming t r a n s i t i v e o r i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s from t h e same r o o t i s g i v e n .  The v e r b i k u ( t o g o ) , which i s  7 I b i d . , pp. 235-236. % . G. A s t o n , A Grammar o f t h e Japanese Spoken Language (Tokyo: Hakubunsha, 1888). 9 l b i d . , pp. 78-79.  42  i n the above s e t o f examples,  i s now  c o n s i d e r e d to be i n t r a n s i t i v e .  reason why A s t o n c l a s s i f i e d i k u as t r a n s i t i v e  i s not c l e a r .  The  My guess i s  t h a t he assumed t h a t a l l t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s r e q u i r e an o b j e c t denoted  by  the  p a r t i c l e o, and i n t r a n s i t i v e do n o t , but i k u does demand the p a r t i c l e  o.  Thus, A s t o n might have c o n c l u d e d i k u t o be transitive.1°  B a s i l K a i l C h a m b e r l a i n , who U n i v e r s i t y i n 1886, vrote fourth edition  the course o f p h i l o l o g y a t Tokyo  A Handbook o f C o l l o q u i a l  Japanese i n 1890.  The  o f the b o o k , H which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1907, shows t h a t  Chamberlain c l o s e l y \1. G. A s t o n .  started  f o l l o w e d A Grammar o f the Japanese Spoken Language by  On the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , Chamberlain  stated:  In E n g l i s h , the same vrord commonly does d u t y both a s a t r a n s i t i v e and as an i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b , the c o n t e x t a l o n e d e t e r m i n i n g i n w h i c h o f these a c c e p t i o n s i t i s to be u n d e r s t o o d . Sometimes the p a s s i v e does d u t y f o r the i n t r a n s i t i v e , sometimes a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t words a r e employed. In Japanese the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e meaning are a l m o s t always e x p r e s s e d by d i f f e r e n t v e r b s d e r i v e d from t h e same r o o t . . . 1 2  Chamberlain then gave some examples o f the t r a n s i t i v e and  intransitive  v e r b s d e r i v e d from the same r o o t s , most o f which p r e v i o u s l y appeared i n the  examples g i v e n by A s t o n .  In 1889, Fumihiko O o t s u k i p u b l i s h e d a d i c t i o n a r y this dictionary,  c a l l e d Genkai.  O o t s u k i i n c l u d e d a grammar o f Japanese  In  e n t i t l e d Goho  S h i n a n l ^ i n which he t r i e d t o combine European grammar w i t h t h a t o f  l^On the d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a r t i c l e o and v e r b s s i m i l a r t o i k u , see Section VI o f t h i s chapter. H B . H. C h a m b e r l a i n , A Handbook o f C o l l o q u i a l & Walsh, L t d . , 1907).  Japanese  1 2  Ibid.,  1 3  F u m i h i k o O o t s u k i , Goho S h i n a n , q t d . i n Genkai  (Yokohama: K e l l y  pp. 208-209. (Tokyo: Fuzanbo, 1889).  43  t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese.  On the p a r t s o f speech, O o t s u k i r e c o g n i z e d the  Noun, V e r b , A d j e c t i v e , A u x i l i a r y v e r b , Adverb, C o n j u n c t i o n , P a r t i c l e , and I n t e r j e c t i o n , t h u s i l l u s t r a t i n g a tendency t o conform t o European grammar.  H i s c o n j u g a t i o n t a b l e o f the v e r b i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f Gimon,  except f o r a s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the t e r m i n o l o g y . O o t s u k i d i v i d e d v e r b s i n t o two g r o u p s — t h e t r a n s i t i v e ( t a d o s h i ) and the i n t r a n s i t i v e  ( j i d o s h i ) — a c c o r d i n g to the n a t u r e o f the v e r b s .  His  e x p l a n a t i o n and the examples o f each group a r e as f o l l o w s : The i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s : i n d i c a t e the a c t i o n o f the s u b j e c t and do not a f f e c t o t h e r s . • eg. hana t o b u - F l o w e r s f l y away. tyoo odoroku - A b u t t e r f l y s u r p r i s e s . The t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s : a f f e c t o t h e r s . eg. mayu wa i t o o haku - S i l k w o r m s produce s i l k . h a t i wa m i t u o kamosu - Bees make honey. I f we s i m p l y say mayu wa haku ( s i l k w o r m s produce) o r h a t i wa kamosu (bees make), we would be asked n a n i o (What?). The v e r b s o f t h i s group s h o u l d accompany something b e s i d e the a c t o r . ^ 1  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r b s i s e n t i r e l y based on whether a v e r b demands an o b j e c t o r not,15  a n  d  the o t h e r c r i t e r i o n used by European  g r a m m a r i a n s — i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s can n o t be made p a s s i v e — i s n o t employed because he says t h a t " . . . i n Japanese, p a s s i v e forms can be made from b o t h the i n t r a n s i t i v e and t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . " ^ In 1908, l o s h i o Yamada p u b l i s h e d a v e r y d e t a i l e d , grammar book, Nihon Bjraporon,1^(Japanese Grammar), u s i n g the t e r m i n o l o g y e s t a b l i s h e d by O o t s u k i .  U l b i d . , p. 8. !5By ' o b j e c t ' , O o t s u k i seems t o mean a word group accompanied by a p a r t i c l e o. He does n o t , however, d e f i n e the term o b j e c t . l6  Goh5 S h i n a n , p.  23.  l 7  Y o s h i o Yamada, Nihon Bunporon,  (Tokyo: Hobunkan, 1 9 0 8 ) .  In t h i s book, and likewise i n h i s next book, Nihon Bunpogaku Gairon, (An Introduction to the Study o f Japanese Grammar), Yamada d i d not agree with the necessity o f d i v i d i n g Japanese verbs into t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e . His opinion, however, i s not generally accepted by other grammarians.1^ VI. THE NATURE OF JAPANESE TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS In Japanese, t r a n s i t i v e verbs require an object marked by the p a r t i c l e o, and i n t r a n s i t i v e do not.  There are always exceptions to the rule and  some i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs do require the p a r t i c l e o.  However, these verbs  have a common semantic feature, that i s , they a l l indicate a movement o f the subject within a certain spaces kodomo ga m i t i o aruku. A c h i l d walks along the street. hikooki ga sora o tobu. An airplane f l i e s i n the sky. t i t i ga asa u t i o deru. My father leaves home i n the morning. fune ga kaikyoo o susumu. A ship s a i l s i n the s t r a i t . fune ga gaNpeki o hanareru. A ship leaves from the quay. The verbs i n the above examples have no effect on the underlined word groups.  Instead, they indicate some action o r movement o f the sub-  j e c t s performed at o r i n a certain place. the place where some action occurs.  Hence, the p a r t i c l e o indicates  The p a r t i c l e o which appears with the  l%amada's argument i s apparent i n h i s Nihon Bunporon, pp. 271-311, that passivization i s possible for the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, and also that the p a r t i c l e o can be used with them.  U5  t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , hcrwever,  has a d i f f e r e n t  function:  kodomo ga ame o t a b e r u . C h i l d r e n eat candy. h i k o o k i ga zoo o hakobu. I n a i r p l a n e c a r r i e s an e l e p h a n t . fune ga k i t e k i o n a r a s u : The s h i p blows i t s w h i s t l e .  In the above examples, the v e r b s i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m some a c t i o n and t h a t the a c t i o n a f f e c t s the u n d e r l i n e d p a r t s , which a r e o b j e c t s o f the v e r b s .  Each f u n c t i o n o f the p a r t i c l e o may  be examined  more c l e a r l y i n the f o l l o w i n g sentences, which have r o o t - r e l a t e d v e r b s :  k a r e wa s e k i o ugokasu He moves the c h a i r .  (t.v.)  k a r e wa s e k i o ugoku ( i . v . ) He moves from the c h a i r .  In the f i r s t  sentence, the v e r b ugokasu (to move) i n d i c a t e s the a c t i o n  the s u b j e c t done to the o b j e c t s e k i by the s u b j e c t kare carried  (he).  of  ( c h a i r ) which i s c a r r i e d somewhere  While i n the second  sentence, s e k i i s not  somewhere, but the v e r b ugoku (to move from) i n d i c a t e s the move-  ment o f the s u b j e c t d e p a r t i n g from the c h a i r . The e x i s t e n c e o f the r o o t - r e l a t e d v e r b s has been d i s c u s s e d from the e a r l y stages o f Japanese  grammar by both Japanese  and Western grammarians.  Bernard B l o c h says i n h i s S t u d i e s i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese,*  that he  distin-  g u i s h e d the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s on the b a s i s o f "...morphol o g i c a l and  syntactic c r i t e r i a . "  2  I t seems, however, t h a t B l o c h f e l t  •'-Bernard B l o c h , S t u d i e s i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese, q t d . by R. M i l l e r , B e r n a r d B l o c h on Japanese (Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970). 2  I b i d . , p.  96.  the  ed.,  46  n e c e s s i t y o f the d i s t i n c t i o n — t r a n s i t i v e  and i n t r a n s i t i v e — s o l e l y  o f the existence o f ' r o o t - r e l a t e d formations'.  because  He s t a t e d :  Of two v e r b s , one i s i n t r a n s i t i v e and t h e o t h e r t r a n s i t i v e , i f ( l ) t h e y a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y connected a s u n d e r l y i n g word and d e r i v a t i v e o r a s r o o t - r e l a t e d f o r m a t i o n s ; and i f (2) t h e y d i f f e r s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n t h a t one o f them ( d e s i g n a t e d t h e t r a n s i t i v e member o f t h e p a i r ) i s sometimes preceded by a d i r e c t o b j e c t , whereas t h e o t h e r ( d e s i g n a t e d the i n t r a n s i t i v e member) i s n e v e r so preceded.3  B l o c h d e f i n e s t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t i n Japanese as "...a noun o r o t h e r s u b s t a n t i v e expression f o l l o w e d by the p a r t i c l e  o.,."4  Consequently,  B l o c h h a s t o admit t h a t t h e i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s a l s o take a d i r e c t i n sentences  object  like:  koen o t o r u (He) p a s s e s through  the park.  u t i o deru (He) l e a v e s t h e house.5  He, however, p u t s t h e p r i o r i t y on t h e c r i t e r i o n numbered ( l ) i n t h e above q u o t e , and t h i n k s t o r u (to pass through) and d e r u tive, i n relation  (to leave) are i n t r a n s i -  t o t h e i r r o o t - r e l a t e d counterparts tosu (to pass)  and dasu ( t o push o u t ) , t h u s d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e d i r e c t object.  6  3Ibid. 4-Ibid. 5  I b i d . , p. 101.  6  Ibid.  The f o l l o w i n g examples r e p r e s e n t some o f t h e r o o t - r e l a t e d  transitive-  i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s o f modern c o l l o q u i a l Japanese.  I.  Transitive-intransitive and t h e i r v a r i a n t s . (1)  c o n t r a s t i n d i c a t e d by t h e s u f f i x e s - s u ,  -su (t.v.)  vs.  -rru ( i . v . )  1.  ama-su -ru  kane o ama-su kane ga ama-ru  one saves some money the money i s l e f t  2.  kae-su -ru  tomodati o kae-su t o m o d a t i ga k a e - r u  one l e t s a f r i e n d go back a f r i e n d goes back  3-  kuda-su -ru  haNketu o kuda-su haNketu ga k u d a - r u  one hands down a d e c i s i o n a decision i s given  4-  mawa-su -ru  koma o mawa-su koma ga mawa-ru  one s p i n s a t o p a top spins  5.  modo-su -ru  hoN o modo-su hofl ga modo-ru  one r e t u r n s a book a book i s r e t u r n e d  6.  nakuna-su -ru  kane o nakuna-su kane ga n a k u n a - r u  one l o s e s money money i s spent  7.  nao-su -ru  byoki o nao-3U b y o k i ga n a o - r u  one c u r e s an i l l n e s s one r e c o v e r s from an i l l n e s s  S.  noko-su -ru  a s i a t o o noko-su a s i a t o ga n o k o - r u  one l e a v e s f o o t p r i n t s f o o t p r i n t s remain  9,  sime-su -ru  gaze o sime-su gaze ga s i m e - r u  one m o i s t e n s t h e gauze the gauze becomes damp  10.  tiraka-su -ru  heya o t i r a k a - s u heya ga t i r a k a - r u  one p u t s t h e room i n d i s o r d e r the room i s u n t i d y  11.  tomo-su -ru  r o s o k u o tomo-su r o s o k u ga tomo-ru  one l i g h t s a c a n d l e a candle i s l i g h t e d  12.  to-su -ru  kaze o t o - s u kaze ga t o - r u  one l e t s i n some f r e s h a i r the breeze p a s s e s t h r o u g h  13-  utu-su -ru  syasiN o utu-su s y a s i N ga u t u - r u  one t a k e s a p i c t u r e a p i c t u r e i s taken  H.  utu-su -ru  basyo o u t u - s u basyo ga u t u - r u  one changes one's p l a c e the p l a c e i s changed  4 - 8  (  2  )  -su (t.v.)  vs.  -reru (i.v.)  arawa-su -reru  hoNsyo o arawa-su hoNsyo ga arav/a-reru  one reveals one's true character one's true character i s revealed  2 .  hana-su -reru  horu o hana-su boru ga nana-reru  one l e t s the b a l l go the b a l l i s l e t go  3.  ha zu-su -reru  botaN o hazu-su botaN ga hazu-reru  one unfastens a button a button comes o f f  4 .  kaku-su -reru  kao o kaku-su kao ga kaku-reru  one hides one's face a face i s hidden  5 .  kona-su -reru  tabemono o kona-su one digests food tabemono ga kona-reru food i s digested  kobo-su -reru  miruku o kobo-su miruku ga kobo-reru  kowa-su -reru  tatemono o kowa-su one destroys the building tatemono ga kowa-reru the building i s wrecked  8 .  kuzu-su -reru  yama o kuzu-su yama ga kuzu-reru  one l e v e l s the mountain the mountain i s leveled  9 .  mida-su -reru  kami o mida-su kami ga mida-reru  one dishevels one's h a i r one's h a i r i s disheveled  1 0 .  mu-su -reru  gohaN o mu-su gohaN ga mu-reru  one steams the r i c e the r i c e i s steamed  1 1 .  naga-su -reru  ikada o naga-su ikada ga naga-reru  one d r i f t s a r a f t a raft d r i f t s  1 2 .  tao-su -reru  k i o tao-su k i ga tao-reru  one brings down a tree a tree i s brought dovm  13.  tuhu-su -reru  bo s i o tubu-su bosi ga tubu-reru  one smashes a hat a hat i s battered  1 4 .  yogo-su -reru  uwagi o yogo-su uxiragi ga yogo-reru  one s o i l s a coat a coat becomes d i r t y  (3)  2 .  -asu (t.v.)  one s p i l l s the milk the milk i s s p i l t  vs.  -eru  (i.v.)  ak~a su -eru  yo o ak-asu yo ga ak-eru  one s i t s up a l l night the day dawned  ar-asu -eru  ha take o ar-asu ha take ga ar-eru  one lays waste the f i e l d the f i e l d i s l a i d waste  49  3.  bak-asu -eru  h i t o o bak-asu h i t o ga b a k - e r u  one b e w i t c h e s a man a man d i s g u i s e s h i m s e l f  4-  bar-asu -eru  h i m i t u o bar-asu h i m i t u ga b a r - e r u  one r e v e a l s a s e c r e t a secret i s revealed  5-  bok-a su -eru  iro iro  o bok-asu ga bok-eru  one l i g h t e n s t h e c o l o r the c o l o r becomes dim  6.  d-asu -eru  s a i f u o d-asu s a i f u ga d-eru  one t a k e s o u t a w a l l e t a w a l l e t f a l l s out  7.  fuk-a su -eru  imo o f u k - a s u imo ga f u k - e r u  one steams sweet p o t a t o e s sweet p o t a t o e s a r e steamed  8,  fuk-a s u -eru  yo o f u k - a s u yo ga f u k - e r u  one s i t s up t i l l l a t e a t n i g h t the n i g h t goes on  9.  fuyak-a su -eru  kome o f u y a k - a s u kome ga f u y a k - e r u  one soaks t h e r i c e the r i c e s w e l l s up  10.  ha r-a su -eru  me o h a r - a s u me ga h a r - e r u  one s w e l l s one's eyes one's eyes a r e s w o l l e n  11.  ha r-a su -eru  kibuN o har-asu k i b u N ga h a r - e r u  one d i s p e l s t h e gloom the gloom i s d i s p e l l e d  12.  hat-asu -eru  nozomi o h a t - a s u i n o t i ga h a t - e r u  one m a t e r i a l i z e s one's w i s h e s one's l i f e t e r m i n a t e s  13.  zya r-a su -eru  koneko o z y a r - a s u koneko ga z y a r - e r u  one p l a y s w i t h a k i t t e n a k i t t e n plays with i t  14.  zir-asu -eru  kodomo o z i r - a s u kodomo ga z i r - e r u  one i r r i t a t e s a c h i l d a c h i l d sulks  15.  kak-a su -eru  o r e K z i o kak-asu o r e N z i ga k a k - e r u  one l a c k s oranges oranges a r e l a c k i n g  16.  kar-asu -eru  hana o k a r - a s u hana ga k a r - e r u  one l e t s t h e f l o w e r w i t h e r a flower withers  17.  k i r - a su -eru  sake o k i r - a s u sake ga k i r - e r u  one r u n s o u t o f 'sake' 'sake' i s out o f s t o c k  18.  kog-a su -eru  m o t i o kog-asu m o t i ga k o g - e r u  one burns a r i c e - c a k e a r i c e - c a k e i s burned  19.  korog-asu -eru  boru o korog-asu boru ga k o r o g - e r u  one r o l l s the b a l l the b a l l r o l l s  20.  k u r - a su -eru  i t i n i t i o kur-asu i t i n i t i ga k u r - e r u  one l i v e s one day the day ends  50  2X * mak-a su -eru  t e k i o mak-asu t e k i ga mak-eru  one destroys the enemy the enemy i s defeated  22.  mor-asu -eru  himitu o mor-asu himitu ga mor-eru  one l e t s out a secret a secret leaks out  23.  mur-a su -eru  gohaN o mur-asu gohaN ga mur-eru  one steams b o i l e d r i c e r i c e i s steamed  24.  nar-asu -eru  karada o nar-asu karada ga nar-eru  one accustoms one's body to. one's body gets used t o . . .  25.  nig-asu -eru  dorobo o nig-asu dorobo ga nig-eru  one l e t s a thielf escape a t h i e f escapes  26.  nuk-asu -eru  k o s i o nuk-asu k o s i ga nuk-eru  my legs gave way when.., one i s p e t r i f i e d  27.  nur-a su -eru  te o nur-asu te ga nur-eru  one wets one's hand one's hand gets wet  28.  sam-a su -eru  otya o sam-asu otya ga sam-eru  one cools the tea the tea becomes c o o l  29.  sam-asu -eru  me o sam-asu me ga sam-eru  one opens one's eyes one awakens  30.  sor-asu -eru  nanasi o sor-asu hanasi ga sor-eru  one turns- the t a l k away the t a l k deviates from  31.  tar-asu -eru  kaminoke o tar-asu kaminoke ga t a r - e r u  one hangs one's h a i r down one's h a i r hangs down  32.  tok-asu -eru  sato o tok-asu sato ga tok-eru  one d i s s o l v e s the sugar the sugar d i s s o l v e s  33.  torok-asu -eru  kokoro o torok-asu kokoro ga torok-eru  one fascinates one's mind one's mind i s fascinated  34.  zur-asu -eru  y o t e i o zur-asu y o t e i ga zur-eru  one s h i f t s the schedule the schedule i s s h i f t e d  (4)  -yasu (t.v-)  vs.  -eru ( i . v . )  1.  fu-ya su -eru  kaiiW o fu-yasu k a i i N ga fu-eru  one increases the number of members members increase  2,  ha-yasu -eru  hige o ha-yasu hige ga ha-eru  one grows a beard a beard grows  51  3.  hi-yasu -eru  atama o hi-yasu atama ga hi-eru  one cools one's head one's head becomes cool  4.  ko-yasu -eru  k u t i o ko-yasu k u t i ga ko-eru  one pampers one's taste one's taste i s pampered  5.  mo-yasu -eru  maki o mo-yasu maki ga mo-eru  one burns kindling the kindling bums  6.  ta-yasu -eru  h i o ta-yasu h i ga ta-eru  one l e t s the f i r e go out the f i r e goes out  (5)  -osu (t.v.)  vs.  - i r u (i.v.)  1.  horob-osu -iru  kuni o horob-osu kuni ga horob-iru  one ruins a nation a nation i s ruined  2.  ok-osu -iru  akaNbo o ok-osu akaNbo ga o k - i r u  one wakes the baby the baby wakes up  3.  or-osu -iru  zyokyaku o or-osu zyokyaku ga o r - i r u  one l e t s the passengers o f f the passengers get o f f  4.  ot-osu -iru  riNgo o ot-osu riNgo ga o t - i r u  one drops an apple an apple f a l l s  5-  sug-osu -iru  i t i n i t i o sug-osu i t i n i t i ga sug-iru  one spends a day a day passes by  (6)  -asu (t.v.)  vs.  - i r u (i.v.)  1.  ik-a su -iru  keikeN o ik-asu keikeN ga i k - i r u  2.  kor-asu -iru  naraakemono o kor-asu one gives an i d l e r a lesson namakemono ga k o r - i r u an i d l e r learns a lesson  3.  mit-asu -iru  taru o mit-asu taru ga m i t - i r u  one f i l l s the jug the jug i s f u l l  A.  nob-asu -iru  zikaN o nob-asu zikaN ga nob-iru  one extends the time the time i s extended  5.  toz-asu -iru  tobira o toz-asu tobira ga t o z - i r u  one shuts the door the door i s (automatically) shut  (7)  -usu (t.v.)  one makes use of experience the experience i s apparent  vs.  -iru  (i.v.)  5 2  1 .  (8) 1  syudaN o tuk-u.su syudaN ga tuk-iru  tuk-usu -iru  -esu (t.v.)  . k-esu -ieru  one t r i e s every means one's resources come to an end  -ieru  vs.  rosoku o k-esu rosoku ga k-ieru  (i.v.)  one puts the candle out the candle goes out  Each p a i r of verbs l i s t e d above has the same root,' and the t r a n s i t i v e i n t r a n s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n has been indicated by the following s u f f i x contrasts:  (l) s u — r u ; ( (6) asu—iru;  osu— iru;  2  ) su—reru; (  3  ) asu—eru; (  4  -  ) yasu—eru; (  ( 7 ) u s u — i r u ; and ( 8 ) e s u — i e r u .  Every p a i r o f verbs shows a s u — r u c o n t r a s t — s u indicating t r a n s i t i v i t y and ru, i n t r a n s i t i v i t y .  I f the root of a verb ends in a vowel, / s / or / r /  are d i r e c t l y attached to i t , with the exception of type ( 4 - ) , or some vowel i s inserted between the root and / s / or / r / .  However, type ( 4 )  could be included i n type ( 3 ) because the phoneme /y/ does not appear before /e, i / ,  i t i s possible to say that the root of the verbs in t h i s  category end in /y/. In each type of group I verbs, the phoneme d i r e c t l y preceding the suffix i s :  ( 1 ) (  (3)  2  /a, e, o, u/ /a, o, u/ / t , d, k, g, m, r /  )  U) ( 5 ) (6)  /y/ / t , k, g, b, r / / t , k, b, 2 , r /  There i s no morphophonemic rule governing the combination of a root and  'The term 'root' refers to the d e f i n i t i o n s o f Bloomfield (Language p. 2 4 . 0 ) and Hockett (A Course in Modern L i n g u i s t i c s , p. 2 4 - 1 ) . In the verb kaesu, the root i s kae- and the stem i s kaes-, as kae- underlies kae-su and kae-ru. Kaes- underlies the paradigm of the verb kaes-u as kaesanai, kaesita, kaeseba, kaesu, and kaeso. Kaer- underlies the paradigm o f the verb kaer-u as kaeranai, kaetta, kaereba, kaeru and kaero.  53  i t s suffixes.  II.  In the following group, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s indicated by -asu or -osu and -u. (8)  -asu (t.y.)  vs.  -u (i.v.)  1.  aruk-asu -u  akaNbo o aruk-asu akaNbo ga arulc-u  one l e t s the baby walk the baby walks  2.  fuk-a su -u  tabako o fuk-asu kaze ga fuk-u  one smokes a cigarette the wind blows  3-  fukuram-asu fuseN o fukuram-asu -u fuseN ga fukuram-u  one i n f l a t e s a toy balloon a toy balloon i s i n f l a t e d  A.  hasir-asu -u  inu o hasir-asu inu ga hasir-u  one makes a dog run a dog runs  5.  her-a su -u  taizyu o her-asu taizyu ga her-u .  one reduces one's ireight one's \reight i s reduced  6.  kai./ak-asu -u  kimono o kawak-asu kimono ga kawak-u  one dries the clothes the clothes have dried  7.  kor-a su -u  mizu o kor-asu mizu ga kor-u  one freezes some water the water i s frozen  8.  kor-asu -u  kata o kor-asu kata ga kor-u  one s t i f f e n s one's shoulders one's shoulders grow s t i f f  9.  kuram-a su -u  me o kuram-asu me ga kuram-u  one covers one's traces one i s dazzled  IG.  nabik-asu -u  hata o nabik-asu hata ga nabik-u  one l e t s the f l a g wave the f l a g waves  11.  nak-asu -u  kodomo o nak-asu kodomo ga nak-u  one makes a c h i l d cry a child cries  12.  nar-asu -u  taiho o nar-asu taiho ga nar-u  one f i r e s the cannon the cannon booms  13.  nemur-asu -u  byoniN o nemur-asu byoniN ga nemur-u  one l e t s the sick sleep the sick person sleeps  14-  oyog-a su -u  neko o oyog-asu neko ga oyog-u  one l e t s the cat swim the cat swims  5A  15.  sek-a su -u  gakusei o sek-asu gakusei ga sek-u  one urges a student to hurry up a student h u r r i e s  16.  suk-a su -u  onaka o suk-a su onaka ga suk-u  i t makes one hungry one's stomach i s empty  17.  sum-a su -u  sigoto o sum-ssu sigoto ga sura-u  one f i n i s h e s the j o b the job comes to an end  18.  ter-a su -u  heya o ter-asu t u k i ga t e r - u  one l i g h t e n s the room the moon shines  19.  tir-asu -u  hana o t i r - a s u hana ga t i r - u  one s c a t t e r s flowers the blossoms are scattered  20.  tob-a su -u  h i k o k i o tob-asu h i k o k i ga tob-u  one f l i e s an airplane an a i r p l a n e f l i e s  21.  ugok-a su -u  kuruma o ugok-asu kuruma ga ugok-u  one d r i v e s a c a r a c a r moves  22.  uk-a su -u  kanu o uk-asu kanu ga uk-u  one f l o a t s a canoe a canoe f l o a t s  23.  wak-a su -u  furo o wak-asu furo ga wak-u  one heats the bath the bath i s ready  (9)  -wa su (t.v.)  vs.  -u ( i . v . )  1.  kayo-wa su -u  deNki o kayo-wasu deNki ga kayo-u  one turns on the e l e c t r i c i t y the e l e c t r i c i t y i s turned on  2.  mayo-wa su -u  kokoro o mayo-wasu kokoro ga mayo-u  one leads one's mind astray one i s l e d astray  (10)  -osu (t.v.)  vs.  -u ( i . v . )  1.  horob-osu -ru  t e k i o horob-osu t e k i ga horob-u  one destroys the enemy the enemy i s defeated  2.  oyob-osu -u  eikyo o oyob-osu eikyo ga oyob-u  one extends influence influence i s extended  The t r a n s i t i v e verbs i n the above groups have the s u f f i x e s -asu o r -osu, the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs have -u. Types (8) a s u — u and (9) wa s u — u  55  could be combined because the phoneme /w/ in the t r a n s i t i v e s u f f i x o f type (9) only appears before /a/, and i s dropped before /e, i , o, u/. The fact that t h i s /w/ also appears i n the paradigm of the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs might support t h i s assumption.  The paradigm o f the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs of  t h i s type i s :  kayo-u: mayo-u:  kayowanai", kayou, kayotta, kayoeba, kayoo mayowanai, mayou, mayotta, mayoeba, mayoo  Some o f the t r a n s i t i v e verbs in Group II may be used as causative verbs, r e s u l t i n g from the contraction o f the regular causative forms. Some examples o f these verbs a r e :  Regular Causative aruk-aseru fuk-aseru hasir-aseru  Contracted aruk-asu fuk-asu hasir-asu  There are, however, among the above l i s t o f verbs, some which cannot be considered as contracted forms o f the regular causative because they are opposed in meaning. hana o t i r - a s u hana o t i r - a s e r u  For example, one scatters flowers one forces somebody to scatter flowers  The phonemes /k, g, b, m, r / precede the suffixes i n type (8), /v/ precedes the suffixes i n type (9), and /b/ precedes the suffixes i n type (10).  III.  In the following group, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s indicated by -u and -eru or -aru. (11)  -u (t.v.)  vs.  -eru (i.v.)  56  1.  hag-u -eru  kawa o hag-u kawa ga hag-eru  one takes o f f the skin the skin comes o f f  2.  hazik-u -eru  geN o hazik-u saya ga hazik-eru  one touches the s t r i n g a pod s p l i t s open  3.  hinekur-u moNdai o hinekur-u one plays with the question -eru moKdai ga hinekur-eru the question i s d i s t o r t e d  4.  hirak-u -eru  mori o h i r a k - u mori ga h i r a k - e r u  one c l e a r s the f o r e s t the forest i s cleared  5.  hodok-u -eru  seta o hodok-u seta ga hodok-eru  one unravels the sweater the sxreater i s unravelled  6. kak-u -eru  z i N z a i o kak-u z i N z a i ga kak-eru  one lacks a man o f t a l e n t a man o f talent i s l a c k i n g  7. kak-u -eru  hetanazi o kak-u hetanazi ga kak-eru  one x^rites poorly poor l e t t e r s are w r i t t e n  8.  kir-u -eru  deNwa o k i r - u deNwa ga k i r - e r u  one hangs up the phone the phone i s disconnected  9.  kuzik-u -eru  a s i o kuzik-u a s i ga kuzik-eru  one s t r a i n s one's l e g one's l e g i s s t r a i n e d  10.  mekur-u -eru  p e z i o mekur-u p e z i ga mekur-eru  one turns the pages the pages are turned  11.  mog-u -eru  t o t t e o mog-u t o t t e ga mog-eru  one wrenchs o f f the handle the handle i s wrenched o f f  12.  muk-u -eru  riNgo o muk-u TiNgo ga muk-eru  one peels an apple an apple i s peeled  13•  nezir-u -eru  te o n e z i r - u te ga n e z i r - e r u  one t w i s t s one's arm one's arm i s twisted  14.  nug-u -eru  kutu o nug-u kutu ga nug-eru  one takes o f f one's shoes one's shoes come o f f  15.  nuk-u -eru  ha o nuk-u ha ga nuk-eru  one p u l l s out a tooth a tooth f a l l s out  16. o r - u -eru  eda o or-u eda ga or-eru  one breaks a branch a branch snaps  17.  sabak-u -eru  one s e l l s goods sinamono o sabak-u sinamono ga sabak-eru goods s e l l  18.  sak-u -eru  k i o sak-u k i ga sak-eru  one s p l i t s the tree the tree i s s p l i t  57  19.  sir-u -eru  siNso o s i r - u siWso ga s i r - e r u  one knows the truth the truth comes to l i g h t  20.  suk-u -eru  kami o suk-u kami ga suk-eru  one combs one 's h a i r one's h a i r i s combed  21.  sur-u -eru  sumi o sur-u sumi ga sur-eru  one prepares the ink the ink i s prepared  22.  sur-u -eru  meisi o sur-u meisi ga sur-eru  one p r i n t s one's name card one's name card i s printed  23.  tak-u -eru  gohaN o tak-u gohaN ga tak-eru  one b o i l s the r i c e the r i c e i s ready  24.  tok-u -eru  moNdai o tok-u moNdai ga tok-eru  one solves the problem the problem i s solved  25.  tor-u -eru  maNteN o tor-u maNteN ga tor-eru  one gets a perfect mark a perfect mark i s attained  26.  ur-u -eru  ie o ur-u ie ga ur-eru  one s e l l s the house the house i s sold  27.  wa r-u -eru  tyawaN o war-u tyawaN ga war-eru  one breaks a teacup a teacup i s broken  28.  ya k-u -eru  moti o yak-u moti ga yak-eru  one bakes a rice-cake a rice-cake i s baked  29.  yabuk~u -eru  syozi o yabuk-u syozi ga yabuk-eru  one tears a s l i d i n g paper door a s l i d i n g paper door i s torn  30.  yabur-u -eru  syozi o yabur-u syozi ga yabur-eru  one tears a s l i d i n g paper door a s l i d i n g paper door i s torn  31.  yozir-u -eru  ude o y o z i r - u ude ga yozir-eru  one twist one's arm one's arm i s twisted  (12)  -u (t.v.)  vs.  -aru (i.v.)  1.  fusag-u -aru  m i t i o fusag-u m i t i ga fusag-aru  one blocks the way the way i s blocked  2.  karam-u -aru  i t o o karam-u i t o ga karam-aru.  one c o i l s the thread the thread becomes entangled  3.  kurum-u -aru  akatyan o kurum-u akatyan ga kurum-aru  one tucks a baby i n a baby i s tucked i n  58  4.  mabus-u -aru  nukamiso o mabus-u one s p r i n k l e s rice-bran paste nukamiso ga mabus-aru rice-bran paste i s sprinkled  5.  matag-u -aru  mizo o matag-u kawa ga matag-aru  one steps over a d i t c h a r i v e r extends over...  6.  sas-u -aru  h a r i o sas-u h a r i ga sas-aru  one s t i c k s a needle i n t o . . . a needle s t i c k s i n . . .  7.  tatam-u -aru  futoN o tatam-u futoN ga tatam-aru  one f o l d s up the bedding the bedding i s folded up  8.  tukam-u -aru  sakana o tukam-u sakana ga tukam-aru  one catches f i s h f i s h are caught  9.  tunag-u -aru  deNwa o tunag-u deNwa ga tunag-aru  one connects the phone the phone i s connected  (13) 1.  -u (t.v.)  kik-u -oeru  oNgaku o k i k - u oNgaku ga k i k - o e r u  vs.  -oeru ( i . v . )  one l i s t e n s to music music i s heard  In Group I I I , the t r a n s i t i v e verbs take only the -u s u f f i x , but the i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs take e i t h e r -aru o r -eru. The consonants /g, k, r / occur d i r e c t l y before the s u f f i x -eru. and /g, m, s/ occur before -aru. 17.  In the following group, the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s i n d i c a t e d by -eru and -aru. (14.) -eru (t.v.)  vs.  -aru ( i . v . )  ag-eru -aru  nedaN o ag-eru nedaN ga ag-aru  one r a i s e s the p r i c e the p r i c e goes up  aratam-eru -aru  taido o aratam-eru taido ga aratam-aru  one reforms one's a t t i t u d e one's a t t i t u d e i s reformed  3.  at-eru -aru  syohiN o a t - e r u syohiN ga a t - a r u  one wins the p r i z e the p r i z e i s won  4.  atatam-eru -aru  heya o atatam-eru heya ga atatam-aru  one warms up the room the room i s warmed  1.  59  5.  atum-eru -aru  h i t o o atum-eru h i t o ga atum-aru  one gathers people together people swarm  6.  awas-eru -aru  kami o awas-eru lea mi ga awas-aru  one puts sheets of paper together sheets o f paper are put together  7.  fukam-eru  t i s i k i o fukam-eru  one deepens one's knowledge one's knowledge i s deepened  -aru  t i s i k i ga fukam-aru  suso ga hadak-aru  one opens the lower s k i r t o f one's kimono the lower s k i r t o f one's kimono r i s e s (in the wind)  ham-eru -aru  kuruma o ham-eru kuruma ga ham-aru  one puts the car i n t o . . . the car i s mired i n . . .  10.  hazim-eru -aru  zyugyo o hazim-eru zyugyo- ga hazim-aru  one s t a r t s the c l a s s the class begins  11.  hirog-eru -aru  syobai o hirog-eru syobai ga h i r o g - a r u  one widens one's business one's business i s spread  12.  hirom-eru -aru  uwasa o hirom-eru uwasa ga hirom-aru  one spreads rumors rumors are c i r c u l a t e d  13.  kabus-eru -aru  t u t i o kabus-eru t u t i ga kabus-aru  one covers... with earth earth covers...  14-  kak-eru -aru  deNwa o kak-eru deNwa ga kak-aru  one makes a phone c a l l the telephone rings  15.  kasan-eru -aru  hoN o kasan-eru hoW ga kasan-aru  one p i l e s the books the books are p i l e d  16.  ka tam-eru -aru  t u t i o ka tam-eru t u t i ga katam-aru  one hardens the earththe s o i l s e t t l e s  17.  kim-eru -aru  t o k i o kim-eru t o k i ga kim-aru  one f i x e s a time the time i s decided  18.  kiwam-eru -aru  siNso o kiwam-eru uNmei ga kiwam-aru  one reaches the truth fate i s sealed  19.  mag-eru -aru  seN o mag-eru seN ga mag-aru  one curves a l i n e a l i n e i s crooked  20.  ma z-eru -aru  mizu o. raaz-eru mizu ga maz-aru  one mixes...with water water i s mixed w i t h . . .  21.  mituk-eru -aru  kotae o mituk-eru kotae ga mituk-aru  one finds the answer the answer i s found  8.  hakak-eru -aru  9.  suso o hadak-eru  60  22.  mok-eru -aru  kane o mok-eru kane ga mok-aru  one makes money . . . i s profitable  23.  sadam-eru -aru  daiziN o sodom-eru daiziN ga sadom-aru  one appoints the minister the minister i s appointed  24.  sag-eru -aru  nedaN o sag-eru nedaN ga sag-aru  one reduces the price the price i s reduced  25.. sebam-eru -aru  haNi o sebam-eru haNi ga sebam-aru  one r e s t r i c t s the l i m i t s the l i m i t s are r e s t r i c t e d  26.  sem-eru -aru  t e k i o sem-eru t e k i ga sem-aru  one attacks the enemy the enemy approaches  27.  sim-eru -aru  mado 0 sim-eru mado ga sim-aru  one closes the x-rindow the windov/ i s closed  28.  sizum-eru -aru  k i o sizum-eru k i ga sizum-aru  one calms one's mind one's mind i s calmed  29.  som-eru -aru  kami 0 som-eru kami ga som-aru  one dyes one's h a i r one's h a i r i s dyed  30.  takam-eru -aru  kiNtyo o takam-eru kiNtyo ga takam-aru  one increases the tension the tension i s increased  31.  tam-eru -aru  kane o tam-eru kane ga tam-aru  one saves money money i s saved  32.  tasuk-eru -aru  tomodati o tasuk-eru one rescues a f r i e n d tomodati ga tasuk-aru a f r i e n d i s rescued  33.  tizim-eru -aru  i n o t i 0 tizim-eru i n o t i ga tizim-aru  34..  todom-eru -aru  tomodati o todom-eru one detains one's friend tomodati ga todom-aru one's f r i e n d i s detained  35.  tom-eru -aru  zidosya o tom-eru zidosya ga tom-aru  one stops the car the car stops  36.  tom-eru -aru  kyaku o tom-eru kyaku ga tom-aru  one gives a guest lodging a guest stays overnight  37.  tuk-eru -aru  hakusai o tuk-eru hakusai ga tuk-aru  one p i c k l e s Chinese cabbages Chinese cabbages are .seasoned  38.  tum-eru -aru  paipu o tum-eru paipu ga tum-aru  one f i l l s a pipe a pipe i s clogged  39.  tutom-eru -aru  sityo o tutom-eru sityo ga tutom-aru  one serves as mayor one i s f i t to be mayor  one shortens one's l i f e one's l i f e i s shortened  61  40.  uk-eru -aru  sikeN o uk-eru sikeN ga uk-aru  one writes an examination one passes an examination  41.  um-eru -aru  kawa o um-eru kawa ga um-aru  one f i l l s up the stream the stream i s f i l l e d up  42-  uzum-eru -aru  kao o uzum-eru kao ga uzum-aru  one hides one's face i n . . , one's face i s buried i n . . .  43-  yud-eru -aru  zyagaimo o yud-eru zyagaimo ga yud-aru  one b o i l s the potatoes the potatoes are boiled  (15)  -eru (t.v.)  vs.  -waru (i.v.)  1.  ka-eru -waru  zyuKbaN o ka-eru zyuNbaN ga ka-waru  2.  kuwa-eru -waru  seiryoku o kuwa-eru one increases the power seiryoku ga kuwa-varu the power i s increased  3.  o-eru -vjaru  sigoto o o-eru sigoto ga o-waru  4-  sona-eru -waru  hituyohiN o sona-eru one provides necessities hituyohiN ga sona-waru n e c e s s i t i e s are furnished  5.  su-eru -wa ru  me o su-eru me ga su-waru  one stares a t . . . one's eyes are glassy  6.  tuta-eru -waru  zyoho o tuta-eru zyoho ga tuta-waru  one gives information information i s passed down  7.  u-eru -aru  kyukoN o u-eru kyukoN ga u-waru  one plants bulbs bulbs are planted  one changes an order an order i s altered  one f i n i s h e s the job the job i s completed  Sections (14) and (15) could be classed together according to the statement made f o r the verbs in sections (8) and (9), p r e v i o u s l y .  8  There are some verbs which take both -eru and -aru endings, and yet do not f i t into the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast, because both verbs take the p a r t i c l e o.  1.  azuk-eru  The following are some examples:  kane o azuk-eru  one deposits money  The phoneme /w/ i s included i n the root.  62  azuk-aru  kane o azuk-aru  one keeps money  2. i i t u k - e r u -aru  sigoto o i i t u k - e r u sigoto o i i t u k - a r u  one orders one to do a job one i s ordered to do a job  3. kotozuk-eru -aru  tegami o kotozuk-eru tegami o kotozuk-aru  one asks one to d e l i v e r a l e t t e r one i s asked to d e l i v e r a l e t t e r  4.  syogo o sazuk-eru syogo o sazuk-aru  one confers a t i t l e one has a t i t l e bestowed  sazuk-eru -aru  In the above examples, a l l of the verbs ending i n -eru i n d i c a t e that the a c t i o n s are done by the r e a l subjects, whereas the -aru ending verbs i n d i c a t e that the actions are done to the subjects by somebody, or,  i n other words, the verbs do not i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t action of the  subject, but i n d i c a t e i t s condition or s t a t e .  This f a c t i s j u s t i f i e d by  the existence o f verbs w i t h -aru endings—these verbs c l o s e l y resemble i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs despite the f a c t that they require the p a r t i c l e o. V.  In the f o l l o w i n g , the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e contrast i s i n d i c a t e d by -eru and -u. (16)  -eru (t.v.)  vs.  -u ( i . v . )  1.  ak-eru -u  to o ak-eru to ga ak-u  one opens the door the door i s open  2.  dok-eru -u  kuruma o dok-eru kuruma ga dok-u  one moves the c a r the car moves aside  3.  hikkom-eru -u  k u b i o hikkom-eru kubi ga hikkom-u  one p u l l s i n one's head one's head i s withdrawn  4.  itam-eru -u  te o itam-eru te ga itam-u  one hurts one's hand one 's hand aches  5.  katamuk-eru fune o katamuk-eru -u fune ga katamuk-u  one t i l t s the ship the ship l i s t s  6.  katazuk-eru heya o katazuk-eru -u heya ga katazuk-u  one straightens up the room the room i s i n order  63  7.  8.  9. 10.  kurusim-eru gakusei o kurusim-eru one harasses the students the students s u f f e r -u gakusei ga kurusim-u one makes a mistake i n w r i t i n g matiga-eru kaNzi o matiga-eru Chinese characters the Chinese character i s wrong -u kaNzi ga m a t i g a - U one arranges the books narab~eru hoN o narab-eru the books are i n a row -u hoN ga narab-u one calms one's mind o t i t u k - e r u kokoro o o t i t u k - e r u one f e e l s at home -u kokoro ga o t i t u k - u  11.  sizum-eru -u  fune o sizum-eru fune ga sizum-u  one sinks a v e s s e l a v e s s e l i s sunk  12.  sodat-eru -u  kodomo o sodat-eru kodomo ga sodat-u  one brings up a c h i l d a c h i l d grows up  13.  soro-eru -u  kazu o soro-eru kazu ga soro-u  one completes the number the number i s complete  14..  susum-eru -u  t o k e i o susum-eru t o k e i ga susum-u  one puts a clock ahead the clock i s f a s t  15.  tat-eru -u  i e o tat-eru i e ga t a t - u  one b u i l d s a house a house i s b u i l t  16.  tiga-eru -u  basyo o t i g a - e r u basyo ga t i g a - u  one changes the place the place i s d i f f e r e n t  17.  t i k a z u k - e r u kuruma o t i k a z u k - e r u -u kuruma ga tikazuk-u  one d r i v e s a car close t o . . . the car approaches...  18.  tizira-eru -u  fuku o t i z i m - e r u fuku ga t i z i m - u  one shortens one's clothes one's clothes shrink  19.  todok-eru -u  okurimono o todok-eru one sends a g i f t okuri.mono ga todok-u a g i f t i s received  20.  tuzuk-eru -u  hanasi o tuzuk-eru hanasi ga tuzuk-u  one keeps t a l k i n g the speech continues  21.  ukab-eru -u  y o t t o o ukab-eru yotto ga ukab-u  one launches the yacht the yacht f l o a t s  22.  yam-eru -u  hakusyu o yam-eru hakusyu ga yam-u  one stops hand-clapping the hand-clapping stops  23.  yurum-eru -u  baNdo o yurum-eru baNdo ga yurum-u  one loosens the b e l t the b e l t comes loose  6  4  I f we compare the suffixes which appeared i n the above l i s t s (group I through group V), i t becomes evident that the suffixes -u and -eru appear with both t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  On the other hand,  the s u f f i x -su and i t s variants (-asu, -osu, -usu, -esu) are used only with t r a n s i t i v e verbs, and the suffixes -ru, -reru, - i r u , and -aru are used only with i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, A t r a n s i t i v e verb indicates that the action i s performed according to the intention of the subject and the action a f f e c t s the object denoted by the p a r t i c l e o.  An i n t r a n s i t i v e verb, however, does not carry t h i s  meaning but indicates that the action happens without the intention of the subject without questioning whether or not the subject has any intention.  For example:  1.  tomodati o kae-su (He) l e t h i s friend go back.  2.  hoN o kae-su (He) returns the book.  3.  tomodati ga kae-ru A f r i e n d goes back.  4.  hoN ga kae-ru A book i s returned.  Sentence (1) indicates that  'his f r i e n d ' goes back according to the  intention or desire of the subject; and (2) indicates that 'he' wants to return a book; while (3) does not indicate whether or not 'a f r i e n d ' wants to go back or not, i t simply indicates the state of h i s going back. In (4), the state that  'a book' comes back to i t s owner i s expressed—  the owner might have wanted to have i t back, or he might have allowed somebody to keep i t longer, but 'a book' i s now i n the owner's hand.  65  I w i l l c i t e a personal experience which might help to c l a r i f y the d i s t i n c t i o n between the transitiveness and intransitiveness of rootrelated verbs.  When I noticed my four year o l d nephew s p i l l h i s milk,  I said to him:  5.  miruku o kobosita na (You) s p i l t  (your) milk, didn 't you?  He replied using a t r a n s i t i v e verb f i r s t and then an i n t r a n s i t i v e one: 6.  kobosita N zya nai no yo, koboretyatta no yo  (i) didn't s p i l l i t , i t s p i l t i t s e l f . (5) and (6) could be rephrased a s : 5'  You s p i l t your milk on purpose, didn't you?  6'  No, I didn't s p i l l i t purposely, (the glass f e l l over and) the milk spread n a t u r a l l y .  The speaker's selection o f the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verb would be: 1.  One uses the t r a n s i t i v e verb i f one wants to make a d i r e c t reference to the intention o f the performer in relation to the action taking place.  2.  One uses the i n t r a n s i t i v e verb, i f one does not want to make the above d i s t i n c t i o n , and i f one simply wants to state the result o f the action.  This d i s t i n c t i o n might be similar to the English speaker's selection of the active or passive voice.  In f a c t , the transformation o f the t r a n s i t i v e  verb sentence to the i n t r a n s i t i v e verb sentence i n Japanese i s i d e n t i c a l with the transformation o f the active voice to the passive voice i n English.  That i s , the i n t r a n s i t i v e verb sentence can be obtained by changing  the object i n the t r a n s i t i v e verb sentence into the subject in the intran-  66  s i t i v e verb sentence, and the t r a n s i t i v e verb i n t o the corresponding i n t r a n s i t i v e verb. This r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the t r a n s i t i v e - i n t r a n s i t i v e verb could account f o r the meaning " . . . i s adversely a f f e c t e d by someone's a c t i o n , " which i s apparent i n some o f the so-called passive forms i n Japanese. The f o l l o w i n g three sentences might exemplify the above d i s t i n c t i o n s . 7.  kodomo ga miruku o kobosita The c h i l d s p i l t a glass o f m i l k .  8. miruku ga koboreta (My) m i l k s p i l t . 9.  OkasaN wa kodomo n i miruku o kobosareta The mother was adversely a f f e c t e d by her c h i l d s p i l l i n g a glass o f milk.  Sentence (7) i n d i c a t e s the a c t o r and h i s a c t i o n , r e f e r i n g to the i n t e n t i o n of the actor i n r e l a t i o n to the action taking place; sentence (8) expresses the condition or state o f the glass o f milk without reference to the a c t o r ; and sentence (9) i n d i c a t e s the actor, denoted by the p a r t i c l e n i , h i s a c t i o n , and also h i s a c t i o n r e f l e c t s onto the subject, eg. wasted a glass o f milk o r ruined the rug.  CHAPTER I I I  I. PASSIVE FORM  I t has been suggested by many grammarians that the Japanese passive voice i s not exactly the same as that of European languages.  In h i s book,  Bernard Saint-Jacques d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided using the term 'passive voice' but  instead used 'passive form' i n reference to Japanese expressions  s i m i l a r to the passive voice i n many European languages.^  B. H. Chamber-  l a i n also said that "properly speaking, the so-called passive i s not a passive at a l l , but an active i n d i s g u i s e . "  2  This assertion seems to be  based on the etymological reason that the passive s u f f i x -rareru i s derived from - a r i (to be) and -eru (to g e t ) . For instance, f o r the verb utareru. Chamberlain parsed i t into u t i - a r i - e r u , 'to get beaten'.  'to shoot-being-get', consequently,  Synchronically however, we do not analyze the passive  form as above, but interpret i t as a combination of a verb and i t s s u f f i x which expresses the idea that an action f a l l s on or a f f e c t s the subject of a sentence.  Some o f the examples Chamberlain l i s t e d as passives are:  ottotsan n i okorareru yo. Oh.' You w i l l have papa angry x^ith you. aNna kyaku n i koraretya meiwaku simasu. A man doesn't know what to do, when he has such guests as those come to h i s house. kubi o hanerareta. He got h i s head cut o f f . 3 ^Bernard Saint-Jacques, Structural Analysis of Modem Japanese UBC Publication Cent-re, 1971), p. 15. 2  B . H. Chamberlain, A Handbook of C o l l o q u i a l Japanese, p. 199.  3  I b i d . . pp. 199-200.  (Vancouver:  68  The examples he gave i n h i s book are of one type of passive o n l y — t h e  so-  c a l l e d adverse passive form, which has no equivalent among any European language.  Subsequently, Chamberlain seemed to have f e l t that he  should  use an a c t i v e form to express t h i s type o f idea i n languages other than Japanese. Chamberlain d i d not mention other types o f the passive form, nor d i d he give any explanation on  syntax.^-  G. B. Sansom d i v i d e d the passive forms i n t o Wo, and an ' i n t r a n s i t i v e passive'.  an 'ordinary passive  Sansom s a i d :  The passive voice i n E n g l i s h may be regarded as a p u r e l y grammatical device f o r d e s c r i b i n g an a c t i o n without mentioning the agent. Passive verbs i n Japanese, while they can perform t h i s f u n c t i o n , can have various a d d i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus in: uta-ruru to be struck tabe-raruru to be eaten we have an ordinary passive. But, while i n E n g l i s h only transi t i v e verbs can be turned i n t o the passive, i n Japanese a l l verbs, without exception, can form a compound conjugation with the s u f f i x e s - r u o r - r a r u . Thus taking an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb l i k e shinu, 'to d i e ' , we can construct a sentence haha ko n i shin aru ^Ch'amberlain t r e a t s the p o t e n t i a l form as a k i n d o f passive. He remarked that "the passive often passes into a p o t e n t i a l sense." I b i d . , p. 201. I s h a l l confine my discussion to the passive form and exclude the p o t e n t i a l as w e l l as the h o n o r i f i c forms. In most cases, i t i s easy to d i s t i n g u i s h each form from the context, despite the f a c t that a l l three verb forms are constructed by using the s u f f i x ( r ) a r e r u . When "this s u f f i x i s used f o r the p o t e n t i a l , i t i s u s u a l l y contracted to (r)eru, f o r example, we w i l l get kak-eru from kaku (to w r i t e ) instead of i t s r e g u l a r form kak-areru. _ Some grammarians l i k e Susumu Ono assume that the passive, p o t e n t i a l and h o n o r i f i c forms are derived from one form. He thinks that during the e a r l y stages of Japanese, the s u f f i x ( r ) a r e r u (which was pronounced d i f f e r e n t l y ) was used to express 'something becomes so and so n a t u r a l l y ' , and t h i s meaning was used to cover the passive, p o t e n t i a l and h o n o r i f i c expressions. These expressions have, according to the Japanese way o f t h i n k i n g , s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s among themselves. Susumu Ono, "Nihonjin no Shiko to Gengo"(The Japanese Way of Thinking and the Language), Bungaku, (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1967, V o l . 35), pp. 1283-1285.  69  meaning 'the mother suffers the death of the c h i l d ' . rendering of t h i s in English i s , perhaps, 'the mother has her c h i l d d i e . '5  The above comment by Sansom i s misleading in two ways.  The nearest  F i r s t , he said  that uta-ruru or tabe-raruru (-ruru and -raruru are o l d forms o f -rareru 6 and -reru) are ordinary passive verbs.  These verbs, however, can have  'additional s i g n i f i c a n c e ' depending on the context.  For example,  boku wa oka s i o tabe-rare-ta I candy e a t — p a s s , past 'I had my candy eaten', or 'I was adversely affected by someone's eating my candy.'  Secondly, he said that " . . . i n Japanese a l l verbs, without exception, can form a compound conjugation..," but t h i s i s not true.  We cannot form the  passive form from aru (to be), heru (to decrease), sigeru (to grow t h i c k ) , kageru (to darken), ovosreru (to be able to swim), mieru (to be v i s i b l e ) , and so on.  The d e f i n i t i o n Sansom gave i s ambiguous because he d i d not  specify whether a l l t r a n s i t i v e verbs have an a d d i t i o n a l significance or not, and whether i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs always have t h i s additional significance or i f they can have the ordinary meaning as w e l l .  These points were  c l a r i f i e d by Bernard Bloch. Refining the d e f i n i t i o n of the passive, Bernard Bloch stated that the class meaning of the passive i s approximately defined as: . . . ' i s affected by someone else's action', including the meanings 'is acted upon* (in the sense of the Latin or' English passive) and ' i s adversely affected by someone else's action'. The passive of a t r a n s i t i v e verb may have e i t h e r of these two subsidiary  -'G. B. Sansom, An H i s t o r i c a l Grammar of Japanese (London: Oxford University Press, 1928), p. 160. ^The passive s u f f i x w i l l be treated further on.  70  meanings; the passive o f an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb has only the second meaning.7 I would l i k e to add one more s u b s i d i a r y meaning to the Japanese p a s s i v e : that i s , ' . . . i s favorably a f f e c t e d by someone e l s e ' s a c t i o n . ' This meaning can be observed i n the sentence: seKsei n i home-rare-ta teacher p r a i s e — p a s s , past (a) '(I) was favorably a f f e c t e d by my teacher's p r a i s i n g (me).  1  The above E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n (a) i s rendered to the s i t u a t i o n where the subject receives a favorable e f f e c t from the a c t i o n the agent has performed. The above Japanese sentence can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n at l e a s t three more d i f f e r e n t ways.  These a r e :  (b) '(I) was adversely a f f e c t e d by my teacher's p r a i s i n g (me).  1  (c) '(I) was adversely a f f e c t e d by my teacher's p r a i s i n g (him).  1  (d) *(I) was favorably a f f e c t e d by my teacher's p r a i s i n g (him).' The s i t u a t i o n s where these expressions w i l l be made a r e : (b) The subject xjas expecting to be scolded by the teacher, but, on the contrary, was p r a i s e d . (c) The person who was p r a i s e d by the teacher i s not the subject, and the subject received some adverse e f f e c t from the teacher p r a i s i n g someone e l s e . (d) The person who was p r a i s e d by the teacher was not the subject, and the subject received some favorable e f f e c t from the teacher's p r a i s i n g of someone e l s e . 7  B l o c h , Studies i n C o l l o q u i a l Japanese, pp. 102-103.  71  The ambiguity o f the sentence 'seNsei n i homerareta' i s the r e s u l t o f the omission of the pronouns, and the interpretation w i l l depend on the context. In any case, the sentence c a r r i e s a strong emotional f e e l i n g which i s p e c u l i a r to the Japanese passive form.  I I . THE ORDINARY PASSIVE FORM  In this section, I would l i k e to discuss the passive form which I c a l l the 'ordinary passive form', that i s , the form which has an ordinary meaning. The ..'ordinary passive form' i s constructed from the active sentence in the same way as English.  That i s , the object o f the active sentence  i s changed into the subject in the passive, and the active verb i s converted to the passive verb by adding the passive s u f f i x (r)areru. The passive s u f f i x has two forms:  1) -areru, when the stem ends i n a consonant, and  2) -rareru, when the stem o f the verb ends i n a vowel.  Therefore, -areru  and - r a r e r u are in complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . tabe-ru kak-u  to eat to write  tabe-rareru kak-areru  to be eaten to be written  The subject o f the active sentence may occur i n the passive sentence to express the agent of the action followed by the p a r t i c l e - n i , which i s s i m i l a r to by. in English.  This phrase, however, i s frequently omitted.  The above statement can be formalized as:  Active:  N]_ - wa +• N  Passive:  N  2  - wa, + %  2  - o -f V - Tense - n i + V -(r)are-Tense  8  This rule contains only those elements which w i l l be affected by the  72  The a c t i v e sentence and i t s corresponding passive sentence are as f o l l o w s : 1-1  Active:  ane ga setuko o ture-te k i - t a elder sister  accompany come—past  "Her elder s i s t e r came, accompanying Setsuko." 1- 2  Passive:  setuko ga ane n i ture-rare-te k i - t a Setsuko  o l d e r s i s t e r accompany—pass,  come—past  "Setsuko came, accompanied by her elder s i s t e r . " 2- 1  Active:  okina odoroki ga kare o osot-ta big  surprise  him  attack—past  "A b i g surprise s t a r t l e d him." 2- 2  Passive:  kare wa okina odoroki n i osow-are-ta he  big  surprise  a t t a c k — p a s s , past  "He was s t a r t l e d by a b i g s u r p r i s e . " 3- 1  Active:  kare ga i e o t a t e - t a he  house b u i l d — p a s t  "He b u i l t a house." 3- 2  Passive:  i e ga t a t e - r a r e - t a house b u i l d — p a s s , past "A house was b u i l t . "  4- 1  Active:  asahi ga koke o t e r a s i - t a r i s i n g sun moss shine o n — p a s t  "The r i s i n g sun shone on the moss." transformation. Other elements, such as modifiers o f subjects, objects 4.-2 Passive: wa asahiare n il eteras-are-ta and verbs, o r a d v e r b koke i a l clauses f t out. moss r i s i n g — p a s s , The pastunderlined words N stands f o r a noun, and V f o r asun t r a nshine s i t i v eo nverb. "The moss was shone on by the r i s i n g (wa, o, n i ) are the f u n c t i o n a l p a r t i c l e s . I used wa to i sun."9 n d i c a t e the nominative case, but other p a r t i c l e s (ga, mo, no, o r others) can be used. The p a r t i c l e n i i s sometimes replaced by n i y o r i , n i y o t t e , o r notameni, e t c . to i n d i c a t e the agent o f the a c t i o n . ^ A l l passive forms are from the novel S h i n s e i (The Newly Reborn), by TSson Shimazaki, 1918. The a c t i v e forms are mine.  73  The above four passive forms do not carry any strong emotional feelings and therefore can be c l a s s i f i e d into four types depending A)  on:  A person who does an action, or a thing which a f f e c t s something  or somebody, hence the subject of an a c t i v e . B)  A person who i s affected by the action, or a thing which receives  action, hence the subject of a pas sive. Type 1.  Type 2.  Type 3.  Type 4.  A)  ane  'an elder s i s t e r '  B)  setuko  A)  odoroki 'surprise'  - inanimate  B)  kare  'he'  - animate  A)  kare  'he'  - animate  B)  ie 'house'  A)  asahi 'rising sun  B)  koke 'moss'  'Setsuko'  - animate - animate  - inanimate 1  - inanimate - inanimate  types 3 and 4-, the subject of the passive form (B) i s inanimate.  This  type has been said to be foreign to Japanese as the subject of the passive was presumed as being animate.^-  0  Akira Matsumura said i n h i s Kin da i no  Bunpo that there were not many passive forms used before the M e i j i period (starting from 1867), and, ...the passive form o f that time expressed the adverse meaning, and the subject of the passive sentence was animate. In modern Japanese, the usage o f the passive sentence i s not l i m i t e d to the adverse meaning o n l y , but i s used i n a wider range. This seems to be the i n f l u e n c e o f the European languages introduced to Japan i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y . H  Tadao Doi, Nihongo no Rekishi (A History of Japanese), (Tokyo: S h i bundo, 1959), p. 2 1 4 . Daisaburo Matsushita, Hyg.iun Nihon Kogoho (A Standard Colloquial Japanese), (Tokyo: Hakuteisha, 1961), p. 160. 10  ^^Akira Matsumura, "Kindai no Bunpo" (A Modern Grammar), Nihon BunpoKoaa 2, (Tokyo: M e i j i Shoin, 1959), p. 3 2 2 .  This assumption, however, was p a r t l y denied by Koichi M i y a j i i n h i s Hijo no Ukemi Ko (On the Inanimate P a s s i v e ) .  1 2  M i y a j i l i s t e d over one hundred  examples from c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e dating from the early 10th century, and proved that the inanimate subject was used i n the passive sentence before the introduction o f European  languages.  Miyaji's discussion i s limited to the inanimate passive sentence, x>rhich expresses an ordinary passive meaning. would l i k e to demonstrate  In addition to t h i s , I  that the animate passive sentence was also used  to express the ordinary meaning i n c l a s s i c a l  Japanese.  The following examples, which I obtained from some c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a ture pieces, i l l u s t r a t e passive forms which do not carry any strong emot i o n a l f e e l i n g s as c l a s s i f i e d i n types 1 to 4 above. Type 1. A) animate, 1.  B) animate  kono otoko...iya masari n i nomi obo-e-tutu... t h i s man more and more only f e e l — p a s s . "The lady was considered more and more by t h i s man..."  2.  (ise)  1 3  k o i s i k u nomi obo-e-kere-ba... l o v e l y only f e e l — p a s s , past as "As she vras f e l t to be just l o v e l y to him..." (Ise)  3.  hito niwa konoha no yoni omow-aruru-yo. people by s p l i n t e r l i k e reckon—pass. "I am thought o f as good f o r nothing."  4.  (Tsurezure) ^. 1  aruhito n i sasow-are-tatematurite... certain man i n v i t e — p a s s , honorific "I was i n v i t e d by a certain person..."  (Tsurezure)  K o i c h i M i y a j i , "Hijo no Ukemi Ko", Kindaigo Kenkyu Dai Kishu, Sumio Yoshida, ed.,' (Tokyo; Musashino Shoin, 1968), pp. 280-296. 1 2  13  a u t h o r unknown, Ise Monogatari, 905-  ^Kenko Yoshida, Tsurezuregusa, 1330.  75  5.  i r o aru musume wa..„hana wa mi-zu n i mi-rare-ni i k u lovely g i r l s cherry blossoms see not watch—pass, go "Lovely g i r l s go out not to see cherry blossoms, but to be watched by men." (Koshoku)15  6.  ware ga tanom-aruru wa sono buW niwa arazu I ask—pass. that reason not "The reason why I was asked to do i t , i s not that."  7.  kano okeya that cooper  n i tanom-are-si itazura kaka... by ask—pass, past wicked woman  "That wicked woman \iho was asked by the cooper..." 8.  (Koshoku)  kokoroyasuku tanom-are-te... intimately ask—pass. "She was asked in an intimate manner..." Type 2. A) inanimate,  9.  (Koshoku)  (Koshoku)  B) animate  mimakuhosisa n i izanaw-are-tutu... the desire to see tempt—pass. "I was tempted by the desire to see (you)..." (Ise)  10.  oHna no kamisuzi o yoreru tuna niwa ozo mo yoku tunag-are... woman hair braid rope by big elephant well t e t h e r — p a s s . ;  "A big elephant i s w e l l tethered by a rope which i s made o f woman's h a i r . . . " (Tsurezure) 11.  kore niwa riNkibukaki oHna mo tunag-aru... t h i s by jealous woman even t i e — p a s s . "Even a jealous woman i s t i e d by t h i s . . . " Type 3.  12.  A) animate,  (Koshoku)  B) inanimate  aukoto wa tamanoo bakari omoho-e-te... meeting short time only think-pass. " I t was thought that our meeting i s only f o r a short time..." (Ise)  13.  turaki kokoro no nagaku painful feeling long time  mi-yu-ramu see—pass.  •^Monzaeraon Chikamatsu, Koshoku Gonin Onna, 1685.  76  " I t seems that a p a i n f u l f e e l i n g l i n g e r s f o r a long time." (ise) 1/. +  mekaru to mo being separated  omoho-e-nakuni... t h i n k — p a s s , never  " I t was never thought as separation..." (Ise) 15.  kuni no sokonaw-aruru omo sirazu... country r u i n — p a s s . even not r e a l i z i n g "Not r e a l i z i n g that the country i s ruined..."  16.  kano tamesi omoiide-rare haberisi n i . . . that incident r e c o l l e c t — p a s s , humble "As that incident was recollected..."  17.  (Tsurezure)  (Tsurezure)  sayo no tokoro nite koso yorozu n i kokorozukai se-raru-re that point at very i n general care take—pass. "At that point, care should be taken i n general."  18.  i n i s i e no koto mo t a t i k a e r i old days incident come back  (Tsurezure)  koisyu omoiide-raruru affectionately recollect—pass.  "Incidents from long ago come back and are a f f e c t i o n a t e l y recollected." (Tsurezure) 19•  waga okotari omoisi-rare-te... my negligence r e a l i z e — p a s s . "My negligence was r e a l i z e d . . . "  20.  sukosi wa mukasi no a l i t t l e o l d times  (Tsurezure)  omow-are... thinkof—pass.  "My old days are thought o f a l i t t l e . . . " 21.  (Koshoku)  konokoto kinikake-rare-si o r i kara... t h i s matter weigh on one's mind time from "From the time when t h i s matter was f e l t uneasily..." Type U» ^) inanimate,  22.  (Koshoku)  B) inanimate  sono i e no menokodomo idete ukimiru no nami n i yose-rare-taru that house girls go out seaweed wave by bring near—pass, past hiroite... pick up " G i r l s o f that house went out and gathered the seaweed which was brought  77  in by the waves..." 23.  (ise)  (narihisago ga) kaze n i fuk-are-te.., bottle gourd wind by blow—pass. "Bottle gourds are blown by the wind..."  24.  yosamu no kaze n i sasow-are cold night wind by c a r r y — p a s s ,  (Tsurezure)  kuru karadakimono no n i h o i . . . come incense fragrance  "On a cold night, the fragrance of incense was 25.  sore wa yoku n i hik-aruru that avarice by draw—pass.  k o i zokasi love I t e l l you  "I t e l l you that love i s based on avarice." In some of the above sentences, cases of adverse meaning.  carried by the wind..." (Tsurezure)  (Koshoku)  such as i n 3 and 5, one can f i n d  However, in general, I believe that they can  be interpreted as ordinary passives. The three novels I refered to are of uneven length, and, thus we not compare the number of such occurences, were written. sified:  can  according to the time when they  The subject matters dealt with i n these novels are d i v e r -  Ise Monogatari contains many poems and t e l l s us the s i t u a t i o n s  surrounding  them; Tsurezuregusa i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f essays the author wrote  about the changes of seasons and of the world; KSshoku Gonin Onna i s a story of the a f f a i r s between men  and women.  What we can assume from these examples i s that the ordinary passive form—the form which has been said to be foreign to c l a s s i c a l Japanese— was used before the introduction of European languages to Japan, and that the inanimate subject, as well as the animate, was passive form.  employed in the ordinary  I do not deny, however, that European languages strongly  influenced the Japanese on t h e i r usage of the ordinary passive form. The next table indicates the increase o f the ordinary passive forms  78  since the 19th century.  I limited the length of each source (D to K )  1 6  to one hundred pages (which contain approximately 70,000 characters).  Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Total  A A  1 3 1 9  B 2 1 5 2 10  C A  D 6  E  F  3  8  2 12 2 19  2  1  0  2  24  1  4  8  34  4 3  G 12 6 65 11  17  94  H 22 5  I 5 0  J 27 10  40  38  201  10 77  12 55  292  34  K 15 12.. 50 12 89  The occurences of Type 3 (inanimate as a subject and animate as an agent) in the sources D to K are f a r more frequent than the other types. In Type 3, there are many examples which could be termed as a t y p i c a l 'translation s t y l e ' , that i s influenced by Western syntax.  Some examples  are; 26.  b i i r u no akibiN n i ire-rare-ta mugiyu ga...ido n i hosoi beer empty bottle put i n — p a s s , past barley tea w e l l in f i n e tuna de turusite hiyas-are-te atta s t r i n g by hang c o o l — p a s s , existed "Barley tea which was put in an empty beer b o t t l e was lowered into the well by a fine s t r i n g and thus was cooled." (From G)  16, The nature of each type i s as follovfs: Type 1: Subject - animate Agent Type 2: Subject - animate Agent Type 3' Subject - inanimate Agent Type A' Subject - inanimate Agent  animate inanimate animate inanimate  The headings A to K indicate the following works written by the authors in the year shown below. A) Ise Monogatari, author unknown, 905. B) Tsurezuregusa. Eenko Yoshida, 1330. C) Koshoku Gonin Onna, Monzaemon Chikamatsu, 1685. D) Gakumon no Susume, Yukichi Fukuzawa, 1871. E) Ukigumo. Shimei Futabatei, 1890. F) Hototogisu, Roka Tokutomi, 1899. G) Inaka Kyoshi, Katai Tayama, 1909. H) Shinsei, Toson Shimazaki, 1918. I) BokutS Kitan, Kafu Nagai, 1937. J) Kamen no Kokuhaku, Yukio Mishinia, 1949. K) Dokutoru Manbo Kokaiki, Morio K i t a , I960.  79  27.  ...tukue no ue n i wa myoozyoo buNgeikurabu nado ga...ok-are-te a r u desk o f top on 'Myojo' 'Bungeikurabu' so on place—pass, exist "On top o f the desk, Myojo, Bungeikurabu, and others are placed." (From G)  28.  aizyoo wa osanai kare no kokoro n i fukaku kizamituke-rare-ta affection childish his mind i n deeply i n g r a i n — p a s s , past " A f f e c t i o n was deeply ingrained i n h i s c h i l d i s h mind."  29.  (From H)  watakushi no ayumi wa...roziguti n i muke-rare-ru node a r u my step a l l e y mouth to d i r e c t — p a s s , present "My steps are d i r e c t e d towards the mouth o f the a l l e y . "  (From I)  These sentences are Japanese, and every native Japanese speaker w i l l have no d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding them.  And y e t , they are d i f f e r e n t from  ordinary Japanese. In sentence 26, I would expect non-passive i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs h a i t t a (...was i n ) and h i e t e i t a (...was cool) f o r i r e r a r e t a (...was confined) and hiyasareteatta (...was cooled) to be used.  The reason f o r t h i s way of t h i n k -  ing i s that the passive verbs used i n these sentences lead the reader t o i n t e r p r e t i n g these as adverse passives,because,upon reading these examples the reader experiences a strong emotional f e e l i n g .  Irerareta i s usually  used to mean 'somebody was confined i n someplace by f o r c e ' , and hiyasareta as 'someone (or one's body) was compelled to be cooled'. On the other hand, the verbs h a i t t a and h i e t e i t a can state a f a c t o r r e s u l t without causing the reader to consider the performer o f the a c t i o n , as discussed i n Chapter I I . The s e l e c t i o n o f the passive verbs i n sentence 26 s t r i k e s the reader as strange i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  The rewritten sentence would be:  b i i r u no a k i b i N n i h a i t t a mugiyu g a . . . h i e t e i t a . "The barley tea which was i n the beer bottle...was c o l d . " In the examples taken from c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e (sentences 1-25), the passive verbs are not used i n c o n f l i c t with t h e i r corresponding a c t i v e verb types  80  which express s i m i l a r meaning, so that there i s not any confusion when s t a t i n g the r e s u l t o r condition o f the subject without i n d i c a t i n g the i n t e n t i o n o f a performer.  These passive verbs state the r e s u l t o f a n a t u r a l  phenomenon, o r an i n e v i t a b l e consequence, o f a c e r t a i n subject. For sentence 27, I would expect o i t e a r u (...is placed), thus e l i m i nating the occurrence o f an adverse meaning.  The verb o i t e a r u i s a d e r i v a -  t i o n o f the t r a n s i t i v e verb oku (to put, to p l a c e ) , and can express the r e s u l t o f a subject without r e f e r r i n g to the performer.  However, i n sentences  2.8 and 29, I f e e l these sentences are foreign not because o f t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of verbs, but because of the combination of words; the r e l a t i o n s of aizyoo ( a f f e c t i o n ) — k i z a m i t u k e r a r e t a (was ingrained) and ayumi (one's s t e p ) — mukerareta (was directed) are a r t i f i c i a l and clumsy.  Our i n t u i t i o n w i l l  balk at the u n f a m i l i a r , unnatural and novel expressions. This t r a n s l a t i o n s t y l e appeared i n the l a t e 19th century when European c u l t u r e was introduced into J a p a n . ^  Ever since, n o v e l i s t s have created  new expressions and adopted t h i s s t y l e to a i d t h e i r r h e t o r i c a l purposes. The compulsory E n g l i s h lesson at school might be added as a supporting f a c t o r f o r the prevalence o f the new s t y l e — s t u d e n t s t r a n s l a t e E n g l i s h sentences l i t e r a l l y i n t o Japanese.^  Some o f these t r a n s l a t i o n s t y l e s ,  however, are accepted by many people, e s p e c i a l l y by the young, and are assimilated i n t o everyday Japanese.  Today's newspapers are f u l l o f such  •^On the influence o f E n g l i s h to Japanese: Minoru Umegaki, Nihon Gairaigo no Kenkyu (Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1963). Ryoichi I n u i , Kokugo no Hyogen n i Oyoboshita Eigo no Eikyo (Tokyo: Kofu Shuppan, 1958). l^On the influence o f E n g l i s h to Japanese, Bernard Saint-Jacques discusses i n h i s S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f Modern Japanese, the fact that "numerous t r a n s l a t i o n s o f foreign p l a y s , novels and movies into Japanese have a greater i n f l u e n c e " on the Japanese than t h e i r study o f E n g l i s h . The p o p u l a r i t y o f  81  sentences: okina hamoN ga o k i r u koto ga yosos-are-ru big uproar occur thing predict—pass. " I t i s p r e d i c t e d that there w i l l be a b i g uproar." t o r i a t u k a i ga tyumokus-are-ru treatment pay a t t e n t i o n — p a s s , present "The treatment (of the government) a t t r a c t s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . " keturon ga maNzyoitti de das-are-ta conclusion w i t h one concent draw—pass, past "The conclusion was decided  unanimously."  t e t u z u k i ga tor-are-ta procedure t a k e — p a s s , past "The procedure was taken."  19  These passive forms used by the press show no sign of emotional f e e l i n g s , as the reporters t r y to r e f r a i n as much as p o s s i b l e from expressing t h e i r personal opinions. These emotionally n e u t r a l passive forms are best s u i t e d f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h i s purpose. I I I . THE ADVERSE PASSIVE FORM I have selected the expression 'adverse passive form' to cover the passives o f the second section.  However, i t should be noted that these  'adverse passive forms' a l s o include a few cases where the meaning i s not adverse to the subject, but i s favorable to i t .  The 'adverse passive forms'  are f a r more frequent than the 'favorable ones' and therefore I have included both o f them i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  This form can be c l a s s i f i e d into the f o l l o w i n g  the American TV. f i l m s dubbed i n Japanese might be added to the above. Bernard Saint-Jacques, S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s , p. 102. ^From the Asahi Shin bun A p r i l 7,  197lT7  ('The Morning Sun'), (Tokyo: Asahi  Shinbunsha,  82  four categories:  (1)  This group i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the ordinary passive forms.  That i s , the subject of an active sentence becomes an agent i n the passive form with the p a r t i c l e n i , the object of an active sentence becomes a subject i n the passive form followed by a nominative p a r t i c l e , and the t r a n s i t i v e verb i s changed to the passive verb by adding the s u f f i x (r)areru. Active:  N-j_ - wa -f Np_ - o + V - Tense  Passive:  N  2  - wa + N]_ - n i +  V - (r)are: - Tense  Some of the examples which belong to this class are: 1 - a.  A c t i v e : t i t i wa kare o heya n i yuheisi-ta father him room i n confine--past "His father confined him i n the room."  1-1.  Passive: kare wa t i t i n i heya n i yuheis-are-ta he father room confine—pass. "He was confined in the room by h i s father." Or, "He was adversely affected by h i s father's confining him i n the room."20 (From K)21  2 - a.  A c t i v e : zyuNsa policeman  x^a watakusi o yobitome-ta me  "A policeman summoned  summon—past me."  2 - 1.  Passive: watasi wa zyuNsa n i yobitome-rare-ta I policeman.summon—pa s s. pa s t "I was summoned by a policeman." Or, "I was adversely affected by a policeman's summoning me." (From I)  3 - a.  A c t i v e : razio ga soko o samatage-ta radio draft prevent—past "The  (noise of the) radio prevented me from w r i t i n g my  notes."  ^ I n the English translation, the expression 'adversely' i s used to convey the meaning of the Japanese passive form. The sentence means, 'He was confined i n the room by h i s father and he suffered from i t . ' 2  2^-The sources from which examples are obtained are l i s t e d on p. 78.  83  3 -  1.  Passive: soke- wa razio n i samatage-rare-ta draft radio by prevent—pass, past "(I) was adversely affected by the.noise o f the radio which prevented me from w r i t i n g my notes." (From I)  The existence of this class creates the ambiguity i n deciding whether a passive form i s an ordinary one or an adverse one, as there i s no syntactic difference between them.  Therefore, the judgement would be made according  to the context i n which a passive form i s to be used.  (?.)  The following c l a s s presents;:a syntactic p e c u l i a r i t y which w i l l indicate  an adverse meaning i n the passive form.  The object o f the active form (a  noun with the p a r t i c l e o) remains i n the passive form instead o f being changed to the subjective.  The subject o f the passive form i s the possessor  of an object, or a person (or a thing) who has some r e l a t i o n to the object. The converted  subject may or may not be present i n the active form.  If i t  i s present, i t usually appears with the possessive p a r t i c l e no. The subject of an active form i s changed to an agent i n the passive form, and i s denoted by the p a r t i c l e n i . - wa + (Kg - no) -J- N3 - o + V - Tense  Active: Passive:  N? - wa + Hi - ni+- N-3 - o +• V - (r)are - Tense  4 - a. A c t i v e : kanozyo wa kao o mitume-ta she "She 4-  2.  face  stare a t — p a s t  stared at (my) face."  Passive: watasi wa kanozyo n i kao 0 mitume-rare-ta I  she  face  stare a t — p a s s ,  past  "I was adversely affected by her staring at my face." 5 - a. A c t i v e : zyuNsa ga namae o k i i - t a policeman name ask—past "A policeman asked (my) name."  (From I)  84  5-2.  Passive: watasi wa zyuNsa n i namae o kik-are-ta I policeman name ask—pass, past "I was adversely affected by a policeman's asking my name." (From I)  6 - a. A c t i v e : teNiN ga  tukoniN no bosi o ubat-ta  store c l e r k passer-by  hat  "A store clerk stole a passer-by's 6 - 2.  steal—past hat."  Passive: tukoniN ga teNiN n i bosi o ubaw-are-ta passer-by store clerk hat s t e a l — p a s s , past "A passer-by was adversely affected by a store clerk's stealing his hat." (From I)  7 - a. A c t i v e : seNsei ga kodomo o sikat-ta teacher  child  scold—past  "The teacher scolded the c h i l d . " 7 - 2.  Passive: kare wa seNsei n i kodomo o sikar-are-ta he  teacher  child  s c o l d — p a s s , past  "Pie was adversely affected by the teacher's scolding h i s c h i l d . " 8 - a. A c t i v e : doryo ga t i t i o y a o mi-ta colleague father  see—past  "His colleague saw (his) father." 8 - 2.  Passive: kare wa t i t i o y a o doryo n i mi-rare-ta he father colleague see—pass, past "He was adversely affected by h i s colleague's seeing h i s father." (From G)  As can be seen i n the above examples, the passive forms o f t h i s class express the idea that the action o f the agent performed on a person adversely a f f e c t s the other person  (or a thing)  (who i s the subject of the passive sen-  tence), because of the subject's r e l a t i o n to the receiver of the action. The difference of t h i s class (2) and the previous one(l) i s that i n the l a t t e r , the^subject himself i s the receiver of an action of the agent and this same person  (or thing) suffers from i t .  In class (2), the action  85  of the agent i s not directed towards the subject, but to somebody or something else, and  the subject  f e e l s the adverse e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g from the  action of the agent. It  i s possible to construct  a passive form of class (l) from the  active  forms i n class (2), or class (2) passive forms from the active forms in class (l).  Using example 1-a, we  can construct  a passive form of the class  type, in which tuma (one's wife) i s used as a 1 - a.  (2)  subject.  t i t i wa kare o heya n i yuheisi~ta "His father confined him in the room."  1-1.  1 - 2,  kare wa t i t i n i heya n i yuheis-are-ta "He was room."  adversely affected by his father's confining him in the  tuma wa  t i t i n i kare o heya n i yuheis-are-ta  "His wife was adversely affected by h i s father's confining in the room." If we compare sentences 1-1  and 1-2,  and class (2) w i l l become c l e a r .  him  the difference which exists i n class (l)  In 1-1,  the action of the father i s directed  to his son, and the action a f f e c t s only h i s son, whereas in 1-2,  the action  of the father done to h i s son r e f l e c t s onto the wife and a f f e c t s her,  as  she suffers from her husband's being confined in the room. Using the example 7-a  in class (2), we w i l l get a passive form of class  (1) by eliminating kare (he—a father of the 7-a.  seNsei.ga" kodomo^o s i k a t ^ t a "The  7 - 1.  teacher scolded the c h i l d . "  kodomo wa "The  7-2.  child).  seNsei n i sikar-are-ta  c h i l d was  kare wa  adversely affected by the teacher's scolding  seNsei n i kodomo o sikar-are-ta  him."  86  "He (the father) was adversely affected by the teacher's scolding his child." In sentence 7-1,  the person who i s affected by the teacher's action i s only  the c h i l d , but i n 7-2,  both the father and h i s son are affected by the tea-  cher's a c t i o n , and the sentence emphasizes the miserable condition o f the father. (3)  The passive form o f c l a s s (3) i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the one i n  c l a s s (2).  The d i f f e r e n c e between (2) and (3) e x i s t s i n the nature o f the  phrase followed by o. That i s , i n c l a s s (2), the phrase N-o i s connected to a person who i s affected by an a c t i o n , whereas i n c l a s s (3), N-o has a connection with a person who performs an a c t i o n . ent i n the a c t i v e form o f each class.22  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s appar-  The a c t i v e and passive forms o f  c l a s s (3) a r e : Active:  N^ - wa + (N2 - n i ) + N3 - o +• V - Tense  Passive:  N - wa f  - ni-f- N3 - 0 + V - (r)are - Tense  2  Some o f the examples belonging to t h i s c l a s s are: 9 - a. eNtaku ga (watasi n i ) koe o kake-ta taxi "The 9-3-  me  voice c a l l — p a s t  t a x i (driver) called, out (to me)."  (watasi wa) eNtaku n i koe o kake-rare-ta I taxi by voice c a l l — p a s s , past " ( I ) was adversely affected by the t a x i (driver's) c a l l i n g out to me." (From G)  10 - a. kumo spider  doku no s i r u o t a i t y u e sasikoN-da poisonous v i r u s i n s i d e one's body i n s e r t — p a s t  "A spider transmitted a v i r u s to him." 22The a c t i v e form o f c l a s s (2) i s : A c t i v e : N i - wa + (N2 - no) + N3 - 0 -J- V - Tense  87  10 - 3. kare wa kumo n i doku no s i r u o he spider poisonous v i r u s  taityu e sasikom- re-ta i n one's body i n s e r t — p a s s , past ?  "He was adversely affected by a spider's t r a n s m i t t i n g a v i r u s to him." (From H) 11 - a. kare wa watasi n i k i t t e o kawase-ta he  me  to stamp  force to b u y — p a s t  "He forced me to buy a stamp." 11 - 3. watasi wa k i t t e o kawas-are-ta I stamp force to buy—pass, past "I was adversely a f f e c t e d by (his) f o r c i n g me to buy a stamp." (From I) 12 - a. karera ga x^ratasi n i h i g e k i t e k i n a seikatu o kaNzyu-sase-ta they me to t r a g i c a l life force to receive an impression o f — p a s t "They forced me to see a t r a g i c side o f l i f e . " 12 - 3. h i g e k i t e k i n a seikatu o karera n i kaNzyu-sase-rare-ta tragic life them by force to receive an impression of — p a s s , past "I was adversely affected by t h e i r f o r c i n g me to see a t r a g i c side o f l i f e . " (From H) 13 - a. otona wa watasi n i k i t a i n a omotya o ategat-ta grown-up me  t o strange toy  give—past  "A grown-up gave me a strange toy." 13 - 3. watasi wa otona n i k i t a i n a omotya o ategaw-are-ta I  grown-up strange toy  give—pass,  past  "I was adversely affected by a grown-up's g i v i n g me a strange toy." The t r a n s i t i v e verbs o f t h i s c l a s s have one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e — t h e y i n d i c a t e that something moves from one person to the other, by taking two o b j e c t i v e c a s e s — t h e s o - c a l l e d d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t objects.  A noun used as  a d i r e c t object (indicated by the p a r t i c l e o) i s a property o f , o r has some r e l a t i o n w i t h , a person who performs the a c t i o n .  For example, i n the sentence  9-3, koe (voice) i s the property o f the t a x i d r i v e r , i n 10-3, doku no s i r u (virus) i s a possession o f the spider, and i n 11-3, k i t t e (stamp) belonged  S8  to the person who wanted to s e l l i t . Therefore, the passive forms o f c l a s s (3) express an adverse f e e l i n g d i r e c t l y connected uxth a person, who lias no r e l a t i o n to the r e c e i v e r o f the a c t i o n .  This c l a s s has a s i m i l a r meaning  to c l a s s ( l ) , despite i t s s y n t a c t i c resemblence w i t h c l a s s (2), (4)  The passive form o f the f o u r t h c l a s s i s expressed by an i n t r a n s i t i v e  verb.  The nature o f an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s , as i s discussed i n Chapter I I ,  one which states the subject—what i t does o r i t s c o n d i t i o n — a n d does not state an influence o f one on the other. When an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s converted into the passive form, i t a f f e c t s someone who i s not the o r i g i n a l subject o f the verb.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a non-passive and a passive  form i s ! Non-passives  N-j - wa -f- V± - T e n s e  Passive:  Ng - wa -f- N^ - n i +  23  - (r)are-Tense  The i n t r a n s i t i v e verb with the passive s u f f i x (r)arena expresses the f a c t that somebody or something (N2) i s adversely o r favorably a f f e c t e d by a person o r a thing ( N i ) . Although Ng i s not d i r e c t l y affected by N i , i t experiences some inconvenience (or convenience) as a r e s u l t o f what Nj does. The f o l l o w i n g examples o f i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms which appeared i n the c l a s s i c a l and modern works on page 78 w i l l demonstrate the nature o f the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive form. 14. - a. mune ga sawag-u mind be d i s t u r b e d — p r e s e n t "My mind i s d i s t u r b e d . " 4 2  2  3Here,  stands f o r an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb.  ^ I n the t r a n s l a t i o n o f Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, I found i t d i f f i c u l t to use E n g l i s h i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. This i s without doubt, due to the very s p e c i a l nature o f Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. See pp. 72-75 f o r a d i s c u s sion o f Japanese i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. B. H. Chamberlain said i n h i s Handbook 2  89  14 - 4-  iwaneba mune n i sawag-are-te.,. do not say mind by be d i s t u r b e d — p a s s . " I f I do not say i t , I am adversely affected by my mind's being disturbed." Or, " I f I do not say i t , I f e e l uneasy." (From A)  15 - a. myori ga  tuka-u  fame & wealth be haunted—present "Fame and wealth are haunting." 15 - 4. myori n i tukaw-are-te... fame & wealth by be haunted—pass. "One i s adversely affected by a d e s i r e f o r fame and wealth." (From B) 16 - a, o s e i ga n i k k o r i wara-u Osei  sweetly s m i l e — p r e s e n t  "Osei smiles sweetly." 16 - 4-  o s e i n i n i k k o r i waraw-are-te... Osei by sweetly s m i l e — p a s s . "(He) i s favorably a f f e c t e d by Osei's smiling sweetly."  17 - a. aNta ga so i t - t a you  so s a y — p a s t  "You said so." 17 - 4«  aNta n i so iw-are-ta you  by so s a y — p a s s , past  " I was adversely a f f e c t e d by your saying so," 18 - a. k i m i ga yubeNtoto you  (From E)  makusikake-ru  eloquently t a l k v o l u b l y — p r e s e n t  "You go on and on very eloquently." 18 - 4. k i m i n i yubeNtoto makusikake-rare-ru of C o l l o q u i you a l Japanese by eloquently that "many t a l k (English) v o l u b l y — ppassive a s s , present verbs must be rendered by Japanese " Ii n am t r a adversely n s i t i v e s . affected This happens when the on ideaand i son one does not by your going sowhich eloquently," n e c e s s a r i l y imply the action o f an outer agent." (p. 204)  90  Or, " I am t i r e d o f your incessant t a l k i n g . "  (From F)  19 - a. hebi ga r i s u n i matuwar-u snake  s q u i r r e l dangle about—present  "A snake dangles about a s q u i r r e l . " 19 - 4.  r i s u ga hebi n i matuuar-aru-ru s q u i r r e l snake dangle about—pass, present "The s q u i r r e l i s adversely affected by the snake's dangling about it." (From F)  20 - a. namiko ga haha no ryobuN n i fumikom-u Namiko  mother  domain  break i n t o — p r e s e n t  "Namiko infringes on her mother's domain." 20 - 4.  haha wa namiko n i z i s i N no ryobuN n i fumikom-are-ru mother Namiko by one's oxjn domain i n break i n t o — p a s s , present "Mother i s adversely affected by Namiko's i n f r i n g i n g on her domain." (From F)  21 - a .  kodomo ga setuko n i matoituk-u child  Setsuko  dangle around—present  "The c h i l d hangs around Setsuko." 21 - 4«  setuko wa kodomo n i matoituk-are-ru Setsuko child by dangle around—pass, present "Setsuko i s adversely affected by the child's hanging around." (From G)  22 - a. yoniN no kodomo ga nakidasi-ta four  child  start c r y i n g — p a s t  "Four children started crying." 22 - 4.  yoniN no kodomo n i nakidas-are-ta four child by start c r y i n g — p a s s , past "(We) were adversely affected by four children's having started crying." (From G)  23 - a.  tegami o kaku letter  hituyo ga semat-ta  to write necessity be urgent—past  " I t was urgent to write a l e t t e r . " 23 - 4.  kare wa tegami o kaku hituyo n i semar-are-ta he letter to write necessity d r i v e — p a s s , past  91  "He was adversely affected by the pressure on hira to w r i t e a l e t t e r . " (From G) 24 - a.  miroku kara ame ga f u t - t a Miroku from r a i n  fall—past  "Rain f e l l from Miroku." 24 - 4«  miroku kara ame n i f u r - a r e - t a Miroku from r a i n f a l l — p a s s , past "(He) was adversely affected by the r a i n ' s f a l l i n g from Miroku." (From H)  25 - a.  koinyobo ga  taneda n i sakidat-ta  one's beloved wife Taneda  die before—-past  "His beloved wife d i e d before Mr. Taneda." 25 - 4«  taneda wa koinyobo n i sakidat-are-ta Taneda one's beloved wife hj d i e b e f o r e — p a s s , past "Mr. Taneda was adversely a f f e c t e d by h i s beloved wife's death." (From I)  26 - a.  kyodaina tyo huge  ga nige-ta  butterfly  f l y away—past  "A huge b u t t e r f l y flew away." 26 - 4.  kare wa kyodaina tyo n i nige-are-ta he huge butterfly f l y away—pass, past "He was adversely affected by a huge b u t t e r f l y ' s f l y i n g away." (From K)  27 - a.  y u k i ga kusa no ue n i f u r - u snow  plant  on  fall—present  "Snow f a l l s on the p l a n t . " 27 - 4.  kusa wa y u k i n i f u r - a r e - r u plant snow by f a l l — p a s s , present "The plant i s adversely affected by the snow's f a l l i n g . " "The plant i s damaged by the snow." (From F)  Or,  A l l the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms l i s t e d above express an adverse or a favorable meaning perceived by the subject. The subject of these sentences has to f e e l the adverse o r favorable e f f e c t from what has happened, so the  92  subject i s animate. plant).  In 27-h, however, we have an inanimate subject, kusa (a  The case'-here i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n — t h e , speaker of the sentence  presuming that the plant i s able to f e e l x-fhat i s done to i t . There are not very many i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms used i n the t e x t s quoted on page 78. In f a c t , twenty sentences are considered to have i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs, o f which fourteen examples are l i s t e d above, and the others make use o f the same verbs. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the adverse passive forms of both t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs i s that they express the emotional f e e l i n g of the subject.  Therefore, most o f the subjects are animate, o r inanimate  as the r e s u l t o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g chart i n d i c a t e s the number  of the adverse passives and t h e i r nature o f subjects used i n the c l a s s i c a l and modern works (A to K, p. 78). P E C D ik .B Type ' 8 22 25.' 53+ 2 53 + 5 1 4 11 + 1 1 + 1 1+ 1 2 5 A 12 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 67+6 T o t a l 5 +1 12+1 2.6 37 59+-2  H G 36+ 2 21'+ 1 16 + 1 12 +1 1 2 0 0 54+-3 34+2  Type 1: Subject—animate  Agent—animate  Type 2:  Agent—inanimate  Subject—animate  Type 3: S u b j e c t — i n a n i m a t e  Agent—animate  Type 4? S u b j e c t — i n a n i m a t e  Agent—inanimate  I 35+2 2 2 1 39 + 3  J K 37+1 63 17 8 12 +1 0 0 0 92 + 1 45+1  The numbers a f t e r •+ sign i n d i c a t e the occurances o f the i n t r a n s i t i v e passive forms.  93  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ando, Masatsugu. 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