UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The ordering of Book one of The Faerie Queene Main, William Alexander 1972

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cl  THE ORDERING OF BOOK ONE OF THE F A E R I E QUEENE  by  W I L L I A M ALEXANDER MAIN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  the Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September, 1972  In presenting  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the require-  ments f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y agree that and this  study.,  the Library I further  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y agree that  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I  available f o r reference  permission f o rextensive  copying of  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . publication of this w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  I t i s understood that  thesis f o rfinancial permission.  £.fO§LlS  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  f-f-  Columbia  gain  copying or  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d  i i  ABSTRACT  B o o k One  o f The  F a e r i e Queene i s a n e a t l y p a t t e r n e d ,  a l l e g o r y b a s e d on a s e r i e s o f t e s t s o f Red  Cross Knight's  moral  Holiness.  H o l i n e s s i s t r e a t e d as a v i r t u e compounded o f f a i t h , h o p e , and and  the t e s t s are organized  according  to t h i s  triple  Intimately associated w i t h the t r i p l e  represented  i n the legend.  division.  d i v i s i o n of H o l i n e s s i s  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme b y w h i c h m o r a l b e h a v i o u r , is  and  hence c h a r a c t e r ,  Each of the p a r t s of H o l i n e s s i s  i a t e d w i t h a p o r t i o n of the s o u l which i s d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g Neoplatonic,  tripartite  t i o n , hope w i t h r e a s o n ,  conception. and  k n i g h t ' s f a i t h , h o p e , and the i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  The  a p p e t i t i v e s o u l , and  tests  The  in  soul.  knight f a i l s  the f i r s t  his inability  In the second s e t , having  s e t of  t e s t s , however, are not  knight's Holiness w i t h a focus  separate,  on one  the  been p e r f e c t e d i n  succeeds.  a t e s t o f c h a r i t y , and  distinctly  tests,  to b r i d l e  s e t o f t e s t s o f t h e k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s , he  o r d e r , a t e s t of f a i t h ,  second s e t of t e s t s ,  i n sum  of  s e r i e s of t e s t s , each comprised of  of the k n i g h t ' s  H o l i n e s s i n t h e H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s , he the f i r s t  the  trial  c h i e f l y a s a r e s u l t o f h i s i n n o c e n c e and  In  t e s t s of  the  charity.  a p p e t i t e s of the f l e s h .  intellec-  c h a r i t y are t e s t s of the moral c h a r a c t e r  k n i g h t f a c e s two  o f f a i t h , h o p e , and  The  assoc-  to the .  Faith i s associated with  charity with appetite.  r a t i o n a l , and  of Holiness i s a t r i a l  charity,  as  faces,  a t e s t of hope.  each i s a t e s t of  of i t s three p a r t s .  In  The the  the  the k n i g h t f a c e s , i n o r d e r , a t e s t of c h a r i t y ,  a  i i i  t e s t o f hope, and a t e s t o f f a i t h . t e s t s i s b a s e d on t h e o r d e r  The o r d e r  of the f i r s t  o f g e n e r a t i o n and i s emblemized i n t h e  antagonists of the three parts of H o l i n e s s , the brothers S a n s l o y , and S a n s j o y . tried faith,  according  s e r i e s of  The k n i g h t ' s i n i t i a l l y  to the order  i n which these  Sans f o y ,  imperfect Holiness i s  gross  imperfections of  c h a r i t y , and hope were c r e a t e d by t h e i r s a t a n i c f a t h e r .  second s e t of t e s t s , the p e r f e c t e d k n i g h t i s t r i e d a c c o r d i n g order  In the  to the  of p e r f e c t i o n of the three parts of H o l i n e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e f l e s h a n d r e a s o n  figures  promi-  n e n t l y i n t h e l e g e n d , w i t h P r i n c e A r t h u r as t h e c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of reason  and O r g o g l i o  the chief representative of the f l e s h .  As  well,  there i s a h i e r a r c h y of f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s s t a t e s of c o n t r o l of f l e s h l y  a p p e t i t e , and r a n k e d  from beast  t o r a t i o n a l man.  The  f i g u r e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h U n a , and t h e s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s involved serves v a r i o u s s t a t e s of Rather illustrate  the moral a l l e g o r y by  charity.  t h a n u s i n g t h e method o f c h o o s i n g  g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s about the nature  chosen t h e method  parts of the t e x t to o f B o o k One,  of s e q u e n t i a l , t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s .  b e a s c a r e f u l a s p o s s i b l e i n my w h e r e my  presenting  scheme s e p a r a t e s  I have  I have t r i e d  schematization of the legend,  tests which, i n the legend,  are  to  noting  overlapped.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Section I.  Page INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . .  II.  HOLINESS UNTESTED  III.  THE TEST OF F A I T H  IV.  V.  VI.  .  1  20  "  35  THE TEST OF CHARITY  55  THE TEST OF HOPE  70  HOLINESS PERFECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  114  ,  133  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I would l i k e t o thank Marc Beach f o r h i s t e a c h i n g and h i s p a t i e n c e .  THE ORDERING OF BOOK ONE OF THE F A E R I E QUEENE  I  Introduction  Commentary o n t h e f i r s t b o o k o f The F a e r i e Queene h a s s l o w e d t o a trickle  o f l a t e , as o t h e r books have g a i n e d  Yet w h i l e t h i s the remaining culties  shift  reflects  the previous  b o o k s , i t does n o t r e f l e c t  o f B o o k One.  critics.  a r e s o l u t i o n of the  diffi-  o f t h e poem a s a w h o l e  still  b e c a u s e o f t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c r i t i c i s m o f Book  One. Examples of remaining  difficulties  i n B o o k One a r e m a n i f o l d .  There i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s f o y , , S a n s l o y , and Sans j o y a r e p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e t h r e e v i r t u e s represented far,  by t h e s i s t e r s F i d e l i a ,  t h o u g h , no c r i t i c h a s e x p l a i n e d why  sets of characters d i f f e r s w i t h regard no c r i t i c h a s e x p l a i n e d why Sans j o y , a t t a c k t h e h e r o , attacks  Sans  theological  S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a .  the order  of these  So  parallel  to their generation.  As  well,  two o f t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s , S a n s f o y a n d Red C r o s s  Knight, while the t h i r d ,  Sans l o y ,  t h e h e r o ' s c o m p a n i o n , Una., T h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e  a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s a r e emblems o f d e c a y e d m o r a l s t a t e s w h i c h Red C r o s s  Knight  suffers.  m e n t t h a t Una i s a c h a r a c t e r who therefore i s distinct a t t a c k i n g Una.  But as w e l l , i s proof  f r o m Red C r o s s .  Any argument c o n c e r n i n g  1  1  l a c k of c l o s e a n a l y s i s of  F u r t h e r , many a s p e c t s  are not f u l l y understood  the a t t e n t i o n of  there i s general  agree-  against a l l temptation,  and  Y e t t h e t e x t d e s c r i b e s Sans l o y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the three  2  b r o t h e r s and c o n c e r n i n g by  Una must embrace t h e f a c t  t h a t Una i s a t t a c k e d  Sans l o y , and f u r t h e r t h a t s h e i s u n a b l e t o overcome h i m w i t h o u t  divine assistance.^ A f u r t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e f a i l u r e o f c o m m e n t a r y o n B o o k One t o account f o r t e x t u a l d e t a i l s concerns t h e c h a r a c t e r and r o l e o f P r i n c e A r t h u r . . Because A r t h u r p a r t i c i p a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y o f t h e poem, a f a i l u r e  i n a l l o f t h e books  t o a c c o u n t . f o r h i s r o l e i s s e r i o u s as i t leads  t o m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n a b o u t h i s p l a c e i n t h e poem a s a w h o l e .  3  4  have c a l l e d A r t h u r  "heavenly  S p e n s e r ' s own a d m i s s i o n  grace."  Arthur  Critics  While i t i s t r u e t h a t by  i s t h e n o r m o f m o r a l a c t i o n i n t h e poem,"'  it  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t he i s a supra-human c h a r a c t e r .  he  i s t h e exemplar o f moral a c t i o n , then  is  t o play, f a s t and l o o s e w i t h t h e t r o p o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s  t o t a g h i m as "heavenly  If  grace"  r o l e i n B o o k One a n d i n t h e w h o l e poem. . A n a g o g y o u g h t t o b e a t l e a s t suspected  as a m i s l e a d i n g k i n d o f a l l e g o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r  whose m o r a l meaning t h e a u t h o r the  p o i n t s t o as c e n t r a l t o t h e meaning o f  poem. The  heavenly  grace  o f B o o k One. Arthur's  view that Arthur's  r o l e i s t o be understood  c r e a t e s problems i n comprehending d e t a i l s I f Orgoglio  represents  f a l l before Orgoglio, b r i e f  i n terms o f i n the action  p r i d e o f some k i n d , t h e n m u s t n o t as i t i s , suggest a m o r a l  T h i s i s a t odds w i t h t h e t a g " h e a v e n l y  grace."  fall?  A l s o , c r i t i c s p o i n t out  t h a t t h e exchange o f g i f t s between A r t h u r and Red C r o s s  Knight  suggests  the d i v i n e a i d without which the k n i g h t can not s u r v i v e t h e t r i b u l a tions of the flesh.  As w e l l ,  i t s h o u l d be suspected  that the g i f t  3 g i v e n A r t h u r b y Red C r o s s F i n a l l y , while Arthur  K n i g h t h a s t h e same k i n d o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . .  i s able t o take t h e cover  o f f h i s s h i e l d , and  w h i l e h e knows i t s c a p a b i l i t y , h e d o e s n o t do t h i s d u r i n g h i s with Orgoglio.•  Rather,  i t slips  o f f by chance.  Contrary  t h a t P r i n c e A r t h u r i s t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e heavenly by  the shield,  t h i s i n c i d e n t suggests  battle  to suggesting grace  t h a t he i s i n need o f  reflected  heavenly  grace. A final is Red at  e x a m p l e o f t h e p r o b l e m s y e t t o b e s o l v e d i n B o o k One  the question of the ordering of kinds of divine assistance Cross  on t h e f i r s t  and second days o f h i s b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon  t h e end o f h i s j o u r n e y w i t h Una t o h e r p a r e n t ' s  that both  given  the w e l l of l i f e  and t h e t r e e o f l i f e  city.  enable  I t i s clear  the knight to  survive the battle of the f i r s t  two d a y s , b u t i t i s n o t made c l e a r b y  c o m m e n t a r y o n B o o k One why t h e y  should appear i n t h e order  It  i s surely unlikely  miraculous  t h a t Spenser has randomly s c a t t e r e d types of  assistance during this c r u c i a l b a t t l e .  Even t h e d e t a i l s o f  t h e b a t t l e s o f t h e two days d i f f e r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e a c t i o n t o near defeat d i f f e r s  on t h e two d a y s .  t i o n of the b a t t l e resorts to typology Knight  they do.^  the knight's  One common  explana-  f o r e x p o s i t i o n — v i z . , Red C r o s s  i s a type o f C h r i s t , and t h i s b a t t l e i s a type o f C h r i s t ' s g  harrowing  o f h e l l . •• T h i s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t a c c o u n t f o r a n y o f t h e  d e t a i l s nor f o r the moral s i g n i f i c a n c e of the b a t t l e s . is  t h e tendency f o r such an e x p l a n a t i o n t o i s o l a t e t h i s  t e s t of the knight from t h e f i n a l  t e s t presented  messenger A r c h i m a g o on b e h a l f o f D u e s s a . •  Added t o t h i s ' penultimate  by t h ec o u n t e r f e i t  4  One p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g quite simple: a consistent volved,  Queene i s  e i t h e r t h e poem, a n d h e n c e i n d i v i d u a l b o o k s , i s o r i s n o t allegory.  A l l critics  a r e agreed that a l l e g o r y i s i n -  b u t seldom has t h e r e been agreement about t h e k i n d o f a l l e g o r y  transmitted the  t h e c r i t i c i s m o f The F a e r i e  by.the n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s .  a l l e g o r y was n a i v e  James R. L o w e l l  argued  that  and an u n w a r r a n t e d i n t r u s i o n on t h e p i c t u r e s q u e 9  qualities  o f t h e poem.,  countered with  This  the formal  s h o t drew f i r e  f r o m E d w a r d Dowden.  and h i s t o r i c a l argument t h a t  the skeleton of  t h e poem was i t s m o r a l a l l e g o r y , a n d t h a t t h i s was i n a c c o r d spirit  He  o f t h e age as S i d n e y e x p r e s s e d i t i n h i s A r i . A p o l o g i e  with the f o r Poetry.  B. E. C. D a v i e s , w a d i n g i n t o t h e f r a y a t a l a t e r d a t e , c o m p l a i n e d the n a r r a t i v e s u f f e r e d from t h e burden o f an e x c r e m e n t i t i o u s B o t h C. S. L e w i s a n d W. B. C. W a t k i n s h a v e f i r e d not  consider  that  allegory.  s h o t s a t t h o s e who do  c o n s i s t e n t a l l e g o r y a s t h e s o u l o f t h e poem.  Contemporary c r i t i c i s m i s d i v i d e d on t h e i s s u e o f a l l e g o r y . On t h e o n e h a n d , P a u l J . A l p e r s and  r h e t o r i c , focus on t h e s t y l i s t i c  argues that t h e s t r i c t treat  qualities  o f t h e poem.  a l l e g o r i s t s , a crew he r e p r e s e n t s  terms."  He c o m p l a i n s t h a t  " [ t ] h e main i n i t i a l  linguistics Alpers  by John  t h e poem w r o n g l y b y t r a n s l a t i n g " n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s  abstract our  and Roger S a l e , h y b r i d i z i n g  . . -. i n t o  impediment t o  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T h e F a e r i e Queene i s a f a l s e a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t t h e  r e l a t i o n i n i t b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e e v e n t s a n d p o e t i c meaning."''"^ complaint i s lodged i n order an  Ruskin,  extension  to assert  of t e x t u a l d e t a i l ,  This  t h e view that schematic form i s  and t h a t  o f a poem i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t poem.  the unfolding Sale's  of the materials  argument  really  5 amounts t o a s i m p l i f i e d these c r i t i c s  v e r s i o n o f t h a t o f f e r e d by A l p e r s .  The v i e w  1 1  take i s not u n a t t r a c t i v e , i t i s l i k e  an attempt t o d e f i n e  the n a t u r e of a r i v e r by i t s f l o w i n g waters r a t h e r  t h a n by i t s b e d , and  its  philosophic  roots  are older  L i k e H e r a c l i t u s ' theory reality,  i ti s really  a theory  a s p e c t o f a poem a c c o r d i n g  being  effort  o f p o e t i c r e a l i t y as d y n a m i c , and as  t o t h e a n a t o m i s t s who s c h e m a t i z e  t o some a b s t r a c t  I t rejects,  design.  every  However, as a  types of moral behaviour i n r e l a t i o n  t o some n o r m a t i v e v i e w o f t y p e s o f e t h i c a l a n a r g u m e n t a t i v e poem.  short of  out of hand, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e  poem i s a n a n a t o m y o f p a r t i c u l a r  this  existential  t o e x p l a i n T h e F a e r i e Queene t h e a r g u m e n t f a l l s  satisfactory.  fact,  i n s i s t e n c e on b e c o m i n g .  of tbe f l u x which serves to explain  such i ti s a u s e f u l a n t i d o t e  serious  than P l a t o ' s  a c t i o n . , That i t i s , i n  Spenser's " L e t t e r " s t r o n g l y suggests  i s t h e scheme o f t h e poem.  that  W h i l e we m i g h t s a y w i t h G r a h a m Hough 12  that Spenser i s n o t t o b e . t r u s t e d neither strong  this nor Alpers' a critical  theory  as a c r i t i c  o f h i s own poem,  of poetic r e a l i t y offers  p o s i t i o n to dispense with  sufficiently  the p o s s i b i l i t y  that  S p e n s e r ' s c o m m e n t a r y i s t h e b e s t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e poem. The  o p p o s i n g camp o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s  b y W i l l i a m N e l s o n who a r g u e s t h a t  i s best  "the governing p r i n c i p l e  poem i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d t h e m a t i c r a t h e r  represented of Spenser's  than n a r r a t i v e , dramatic,  or  13 symbolic." parallels.  Nelson i s a cautious The p u l l i n g  mentary ignores  together  to a great  extent  c r i t i c with  of p a r a l l e l s  a knack f o r c i t i n g means t h a t N e l s o n ' s com-  t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e poem  His view i s akin t o that of the e a r l i e r  and e q u a l l y  cautious  unfolds.  Richard  6 H u r d who c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e poem's o r d e r was o n e o f d e s i g n a n d n o t o f 14 action.  T h i s f o r m o f c r i t i c i s m o f t h e poem i s r e s p o n s i v e t o S p e n s e r ' s  d e c l a r e d i n t e n t i o n s and t o t h e l i t e r a r y  theory of Spenser's day.  F u r t h e r , N e l s o n i s a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r much o f t h e d e t a i l the books.  i n each of  The p r o b l e m l i e s n o t m e r e l y w i t h i n s t a n c e s o f s p e c i f i c  d e t a i l which are not accounted f o r , but w i t h Nelson's dispute w i t h the need t o account f o r t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s o f t h e poem,unfold. It  i s p l a u s i b l e t o argue t h a t p r i n c i p l e s  of dramatic action are not  e v i d e n t i n t h e poem, b u t somewhat i m p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e c a r e f u l ,  thematic  c o n s t r u c t i o n of each episode w i t h o u t p u r s u i n g t h i s w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f e p i s o d e s and o f t h e books  themselves.^  I t seems t o me t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s o f A l p e r s a n d N e l s o n n e e d t o b e a m a l g a m a t e d b y a n y c r i t i c who w i s h e s t o p u r s u e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f a l l o r p a r t s o f The F a e r i e Queene. encourage  Alpers'  tendency t o  r e a d e r s t o a p p r o a c h t h e poem a s t h o u g h i t w e r e a  e p i c s t r a n g l e s much o f i t s m e a n i n g . readers to approach  Nelson's tendency  t o encourage  t h e poem a s t h o u g h i t w e r e a n emblem o v e r l o o k s t h e  s e r i a l mode i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d . provide very useful,  classical  though  B o t h , i n t h e i r way,  I think incomplete, theoretical  arguments  a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e poem. There  is,  however,.yet  another area o f . t h e o r e t i c a l  dispute  i m p o r t a n t t o a n y p r a c t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , a n d i t i n v o l v e s , again,, t h e q u e s t i o n o f a l l e g o r y .  The p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n  d e a l t w i t h t h e problem o f degree of a l l e g o r y ;  t h i s extends t h e p r o v i n c e  of t h a t d i s c u s s i o n t o comprehend t h e t h e o r y o f l e v e l s  of a l l e g o r i c a l  7 meaning.  The i s s u e of a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l s i s s t a n d a r d t o commentary on  the poem,.and has o c c u p i e d such c r i t i c s and e d i t o r s as U p t o n , T o d d , 16 W i n s t a n l e y , and G r e e n l a w , and most r e c e n t l y Douglas W a t e r s .  Upton,.  Todd, and W i n s t a n l e y p r e s e n t the i d e a of The F a e r i e Queene as a h i s t o r i c a l cum p o l i t i c a l roman k c l e f , w h i l e Greenlaw c o n c l u d e s  that t h i s  is  o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t l y the c h a r a c t e r of the p o e m . W a t e r s ,  on the  other  h a n d , a r g u e s . t h a t much of Book O n e . i s o n l y comprehensible  on the  level  18 of anagogy.  A l l of t h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f u r t h e r problem f a c i n g  the. c r i t i c of the poem: i n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s some t h e o r e t i c a l  construct  about- the a l l e g o r y ,  g o v e r n i n g s i n g l e or m u l t i p l e l e v e l s  should of  meaning be i n v o k e d a t l e a s t as a companion to the s u s p i c i o n t h a t poem i s a n . a l l e g o r y o r g a n i z e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y  and  the  intellectually?  The most cogent d i s c u s s i o n of the . t h e o r y of a l l e g o r i c a l  levels  a p p l i e d to The F a e r i e Queene i s d e l i v e r e d by Robert K e l l o g g and O l i v e r 19 Steele.  They argue t h a t the .poem, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Book One,  to the commonplace c o n v e n t i o n s This scholastic exegesis.  of M e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e a l l e g o r y .  t r a d i t i o n they d e r i v e from the c o n v e n t i o n s  They d e s c r i b e  four ways, or l e v e l s ,  of b i b l i c a l  i n w h i c h the B i b l e was  u n d e r s t o o d : the l i t e r a l or h i s t o r i c a l , the t y p o l o g i c a l , . t h e and the  conforms  tropological,  anagogical. The f i r s t  l e v e l of a l l e g o r y i s t h a t a t w h i c h the e v e n t s  c r i b e d a r e l i t e r a l l y t r u e , w i t h the sequence of time and the  spatial  r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e i n g a c c e p t e d as r e a l to m a t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e . the l e v e l of p l o t , the l e v e l a t w h i c h A u g u s t i n e speaks when he the B i b l e as the h i s t o r y of man.  20  Sidney d e s c r i b e s  des-  This  is  describes  t h i s l e v e l as  "a  8 n a r r a t i o n o f t h i n g s done w i t h b e g i n n i n g s , c a u s e s , and a p p e n d i c e s thereof."  2 1  The in  other l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r  from the f i r s t  t h a t t h e l i t e r a l n a r r a t i v e i s t a k e n as e a r n e s t o f something  each  case.  This d i v i s i o n i s reflected  level else i n  i n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f A l p e r s and  N e l s o n , w i t h A l p e r s f a v o u r i n g r e t e n t i o n o f a s much o f t h e l i t e r a l r a t i v e as p o s s i b l e , and N e l s o n s e a r c h i n g f o r a b s t r a c t l e v e l s The  second  l e v e l of allegory  i nbiblical  Christ.  In literary  criticism  o f meaning.  exegesis i s the typological,  t h e r e a d i n g o f an O l d Testament personage of  o r event as a  foreshadowing  t h i s u s u a l l y means t h e s e a r c h f o r a  s p e c i f i c m o d e l f o r a c h a r a c t e r , .whether i n t h e B i b l e , c l a s s i c a l or  elsewhere.  Allegory  i n t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , o f some p a r t o f t h e  of C h r i s t w i t h a s p e c i f i c d o c t r i n a l meaning which  the l i f e  epics,  at the third ;level i s tropology, i n b i b l i c a l  exegesis the foreshadowing life  nar-  of the individual Christian.  i s applicable to  Generally, i n literary  criticism  t h i s means t h e s e a r c h f o r a m o r a l p r e c e p t w h i c h w i l l  account  or  anagogy, t h e f o u r t h  s e t o f a c t i o n s , i n a l i t e r a r y work.  And f i n a l l y ,  l e v e l of a l l e g o r i c a l meaning, occurs i n b i b l i c a l Testament type foreshadows  f o r an a c t ,  e x e g e s i s when a n O l d  " t h e u n i o n a t t h e end o f t i m e o f t h e r e s u r -  22 r e c t e d membership o f t h e c h u r c h and God."  Usually i n literary  c r i t i c i s m t h i s means t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e w h i c h e x p l a i n an e p i s o d e o r a c t .  This f a i r l y  t h e mark o f S t . P a u l ' s v i e w  t h a t t h e O l d Testament v e i l e d  complex t h e o r y o f meaning  o b v i o u s i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t , , a n d - A u g u s t i n e the theory of l e v e l s of meaning.  23  will bears  t r u t h made  i s greatly responsible f o r  9 W a t e r s and V i r g i l W h i t a k e r the l e v e l of anagogy, R u s k i n  a p p r o a c h B o o k One  as an a l l e g o r y  explains i t according to tropology,  at  and  24 Nelson  t a c k l e s t h e b o o k i n t e r m s o f t r o p o l o g y and  K e l l o g g and  S t e e l e seek to c o n s i s t e n t l y apply  of a l l e g o r y at four l e v e l s . they analyse  i n B o o k One  typology.  the theory of e x p o s i t i o n  T h i s means, o f c o u r s e ,  they  Only  t h a t f o r each  element  a r e bound t o seek f o u r e x p l a n a t i o n s .  The  t a s k i s burdensome a n d , , i n most c a s e s , t h e method u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . it.is  c e r t a i n l y probable  t h a t a complex t h e o r y of e x e g e s i s  v a l u e of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o l i t e r a r y w o r k s , at l e a s t is notj.I think, very certain.  Over a g a i n s t t h i s  While  existed,  of the  the  Renaissance,  theory, there  are  comments c o n c e r n i n g m e a n i n g i n l i t e r a r y w o r k s g e r m a i n e t o . a n y d i s c u s s i o n of Renaissance  literature.  Sidney, ology being  i n An A p o l o g y f o r P o e t r y , makes a c l e a r  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  structing h i s poetry. borrowings,  and  He  case  for trop-  l e v e l of meaning f o r the poet i n  c o n s i s t e n t l y , argues that a l l d e v i c e s ,  uses of genre s h o u l d aim  con-  techniques,  toward  moral i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 25 t h e p u r p o s e o f m o v i n g men t o v i r t u o u s b e h a v i o u r . ' As w e l l , he d e s c r i b e s a l i t e r a l l e v e l o f m e a n i n g o f c o n c r e t e e v e n t s and p e r s o n a g e s w h i c h 26 serves to a t t r a c t on and  the reader.  Sidney's  argument s u g g e s t s  concentration  the t r o p o l o g i c a l l e v e l of meaning i n c o n v e n t i o n a l b i b l i c a l a concern  for. the l i t e r a l  exegesis,  l e v e l of meaning.  Tasso, i n the p r e f a c e to h i s e p i c , argues t h a t , H e r o i c a l P o e t r y ( a s a l i v i n g C r e a t u r e , w h e r e i n two N a t u r e s a r e c o n j o y n e d ) i s compounded o f I m i t a t i o n and A l l e g o r y : w i t h t h e one s h e a l l u r e t h u n t o h e r t h e M i n d s and E a r s o f Men, and m a r v e l l o u s l y d e l i g h t e t h them; w i t h t h e o t h e r , e i t h e r i n V e r t u e o r K n o w l e d g e , she i n s t r u c t e t h them.27  10  Golding, explicating  parts of the  Metamorphoseswrites,  Now when t h o u r e a d s t o f ,God o r man, I t i s a m i r r o u r f o r t h y s e l f e thyne F o r u n d e r f e y n e d names o f G o d d e s i t The v i c e a n d f a i i l t e s o f a l l e s t a t e s And l i k e w y s e t o o e x t o l l w i t h p r a y s e  i n stone, i n beast, or tree owne e s t a t e t o o s e e . was t h e P o e t s g u y s e , too taunt i n c o v e r t wyse. s u c h t h i n g s as doo d e s e r v e .  He d e s c r i b e s t h e M e t a m o r p h o s e s a s a n a r g u m e n t u n d e r f o u r h e a d i n g s : n a t u r a l philosophye the formest  "To  t h r e e p e r t e y n e , / The f o w r t h t o o m o r a l l .  29 ..."  T h i s f o u r t h head G o l d i n g d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l b o t h  i n terms o f  method and purpose. S i r J o h n H a r i n g t o n ' s summary o f t h e a l l e g o r y is  similar  this  of Orlando  Furioso  t o G o l d i n g ' s p r e f a t o r y remarks t o t h e Metamorphoses.  A l l of  suggests  In  the f i r s t  in  t h e second  that the core of allegory  i n the Renaissance  p l a c e , t y p e s were d e f i n e d i n terms o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r , and p l a c e , anagogy, o r t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t  feature of Medieval l i t e r a t u r e , sance, humanist Spenser, p o l o g i c a l terms,  i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t  feature of Renais-  literature. i n h i s " L e t t e r , " d e s c r i b e s h i s poem's a l l e g o r y and h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s u g g e s t s  a story which  entertains  i n t o -  t h a t , l i k e T a s s o and  S i d n e y , h e o p e r a t e s w i t h i n a p o e t i c o f two h e a d i n g s i t h e poem t e l l  i s tropology.  The f i r s t  (he c a l l s h i m s e l f a  i s that  "Poet  30 historical"),  and t h e second  that the worth  o f a poem l i e s w i t h i t s  31 moral  purpose. .  T h i s d o e s n o t mean e i t h e r  t h e absence o f a n a g o g i c a l  m e a n i n g i n t h e poem o r t h e a b s e n c e o f d i s c e r n i b l e of  t h e poem.  Rather, i tsuggests, s t r o n g l y ,  consistent allegory  types  i n the action  t h a t i f an argument f o r a  c a n , b e made, i t l i e s a t t h e l e v e l  of tropology.  11 Consistency over which c r i t i c s  o f a l l e g o r y , as mentioned above, i s i t s e l f o f t h e poem d i v i d e .  A recent c r i t i c ,  S p e n s e r ' s own d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e poem a s a " c o n t i n u e d  an i s s u e  beginning  with  allegory,"  argues t h a t , .  [ o ] n e m u s t . . . make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y " as a c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l o f m e a n i n g o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e l i t e r a l o n e , and " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y " a s a n e p i s o d i c r o m a n c e t a l e i n w h i c h one may c o n t i n u o u s l y o b s e r v e m o r a l o v e r t o n e s . The l a t t e r a p p r o a c h , r e s t r i c t e d o n l y by i n g e n u i t y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t o r , tends t o fragment t h e u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e o f a w o r k and d e n i e s t h a t t h e w r i t e r o f "continued a l l e g o r y " i s a conscious a r t i s t . But t h e former a p p r o a c h n o t o n l y a l l o w s one t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a r t s , b u t a l l o w s one to. s e e them i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p o e t i c w h o l e . 3 2  W i l l i a m Nelson by  holds  t h e v i e w t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem i s n o t s e r v e d  t h e assumption o f a " c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l of meaning over  literal  one."  He a r g u e s ,  i n defense  of h i sview,  and above t h e  that,  R e n a i s s a n c e a l l e g o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e A e n e l d . . . depend i n d i f f e r e n t l y upon t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f " c o n t i n u e d " metaphors and t h e l e s s o n s to" b e l e a r n e d . f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s t o r y . S p e n s e r h i m s e l f makes no s h a r p d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n a l l e g o r y and f i c t i o n a l example: a l t h o u g h a t one p o i n t he d e s c r i b e s . h i s work as " c l o w d i l y enwrapped i n A l l e g o r i c a l d e v i s e s , " a t a n o t h e r he d e c l a r e s t h e method o f t h e C y r o p a e d i a t o be d o c t r i n e "by e n s a m p l e " a n d a d d s , "So h a v e I l a b o u r e d t o d o e i n t h e p e r s o n of Arthure."33  Taking  t h e second o f these arguments f i r s t ,  sample'" i s c a r e f u l l y a p p l i e d only t o t h e person "Letter." is fit  Spenser i s suggesting  that, like  of Arthur i n Spenser's  Odysseus o r Aeneas, A r t h u r  an i r r e d u c i b l e t y p e , b u t he i s n o t s u g g e s t i n g i n t o an a l l e g o r i c a l p a t t e r n .  " d o c t r i n e 'by e n -  t h a t A r t h u r does n o t  H i s a c t i o n s i n t h e poem a r g u e t h a t h e .  combines t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e heros  of each of t h e succeeding  books.  12 He strides the poem as an i d e a l of moral behaviour applied to s p e c i f i c v i r t u e s , while each succeeding hero i s the centre of a legend about a specific virtue.  But t h i s does not mean that whatever a l l e g o r i c a l  scheme might be present  i n each book does not include Arthur,  that his function d i f f e r s from those of each of the heros. case, Spenser's "doctrine" i s elaborated  only  In Arthur's  "'by ensample'" rather than  by being "'clowdily enwrapped i n A l l e g o r i c a l devises.'" The argument for a "consistent l e v e l of meaning over and above the l i t e r a l one" does not mean that the poem need be b r u t a l l y s i m p l i f i e d to f i t an abstract scheme.  The point the c r i t i c opposing Nelson  makes i s that the assumption of conscious a r t i s t r y on Spenser's part should embrace consistency of allegory.  He does not add that the  relationship between the action of the poem and i t s allegory i s simple. It seems to me that missing from most of the c r i t i c i s m to date i s some mode of conceiving character, and hence moral behaviour, i n a systematic  fashion., In short, some scheme by which to bridge the gap  between whatever allegory might be involved and the action of the poem. It i s arguable, I think, that Spenser employed such a scheme, and that the scheme i s , at least i n part, one of faculty psychology. Faculty psychology has been applied i n some of the c r i t i c i s m of The Faerie Queene.  Harry Berger Jr..applied A r i s t o t l e ' s scheme to  Book Two, assuming that Spenser's confessed  debt to A r i s t o t l e ' s e t h i c a l  scheme meant a debt to the psychological scheme A r i s t o t l e used to 34 describe e t h i c a l behaviour.  Other c r i t i c s have offered blends of  Aristotelean, Platonic, and Neoplatonic  psychology to explain the poem.  13  Winstanley  a r g u e d t h a t i n B o o k Two S p e n s e r u s e d A r i s t o t l e ' s  but modified  i t t o f i t t h e i s s u e s t h e book d e a l s w i t h .  scheme,  In a recent  b o o k , M a u r i c e E v a n s a r g u e d t h a t i n B o o k One t h e "most i n s i s t e n t 37 i s the psychological level of allegory."  ...  p l a t o n i c scheme i n h i s a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h  of a l l  Evans a p p l i e s a Neo-  without  outlining the  s c i,h e m e . 38 O t h e r c r i t i c s who do n o t o v e r t l y a p p l y in  their  a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem, a p p l y  elements of t r a d i t i o n a l , f a c u l t y  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme  schemes c o m p a t i b l e  psychology.  with  t h e main  Nelson points to various  i n s t a n c e s o f p a r a d o x i n B o o k One a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e b o o k i s e s s e n tially  dualistic i n i t s patterning.  conventional dualism describes  of the s p i r i t  the centre of this  This dualism,  he a r g u e s , i s t h e  i n opposition to the f l e s h .  c o n f l i c t as " t h e c r i s i s  of soul  39  He  about  40 w h i c h t h e Legend o f H o l i n e s s the f i r s t book as ordered that of the f l e s h . ^ Two i s p a t t e r n e d  i s constructed."  John Ruskin  on t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i f e  Winstanley's  a l s o saw  o f t h e s o u l and  view, mentioned above, i s t h a t  on t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a c u l t i e s  s e n s e , and t h i s v i e w i s d e v e l o p e d , g e n e r a l l y , l i k e  Book  o f r e a s o n and those  o f N e l s o n and  Ruskin. T h e r e a r e many d e t a i l s theory  i n B o o k One t o w a r r a n t s u p p o r t  of d u a l i s t i c patterning.  To name a f e w w i t h t h e m a t i c  c a n c e , n i g h t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h d a y , good w i t h e v i l , b e a u t y u g l i n e s s , blindness w i t h s i g h t , ignorance joy, The  and appearance w i t h r e a l i t y . three brothers  fora signifi-  with  w i t h knowledge, d e s p a i r  Characters  a l s o have t h e i r  Sans f o y , S a n s j o y , a n d S a n s l o y a r e p o l a r  with  opposites. opposites  14  of t h e three s i s t e r s F i d e l i a , opposed t o Una, A r t h u r  Speranza, and C h a r i s s a .  Duessa i s  t o O r g o g l i o , and Red C r o s s K n i g h t  E r r o r , Sans f o y , Sans j o y , O r g o g l i o , D e s p a i r ,  i n turn to  t h e D r a g o n , and o t h e r s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d u a l i s t i c d e t a i l s o f B o o k One, t h e r e a r e many s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s  fitting  to escape t h e observation three is  that the brothers  It i s difficult  Sans f o y , j o y and l o y a r e  i n number, t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s  tripatite,  three  a tripartite pattern.  t h a t Red C r o s s K n i g h t  tests prior  meets and f a i l s ,  conforms t o a t r i p l e  These t r i p a r t i t e d e t a i l s a r e n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h  pattern.  the d u a l i s t i c  a b o v e , h o w e v e r , b u t r a t h e r t h e two s e t s s u g g e s t  t h e r e i s a scheme w i t h i n a scheme. d u a l i s t i c a l l y , while character scheme.  degrees,  t o h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and t h a t  the i n t r o d u c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e knight  details described  to varying  Thematic d e t a i l s  i s patterned  according  N e l s o n ' s argument t h a t Spenser p r e s e n t s  that  are organized to a  character  tripartite i n a basic-  a l l y C h r i s t i a n f a s h i o n , i s , I t h i n k , a c c u r a t e , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e b a s i c scheme o f r e p r e s e n t i n g c h a r a c t e r  i sdualistic.  The  o p p o s i t i o n o f s o u l t o b o d y , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Book One, h a s a d d e d to i t a s o p h i s t i c a t e d , t r i p a r t i t e , f o r the moral behaviour  p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme w h i c h  accounts  of t h e book's c h a r a c t e r s , and, i n p a r t , f o r t h e  o r d e r i n g o f t h e book. The  scheme i s t h e N e o p l a t o n i c ,  tripartite  conception  of the  s o u l , t h a t p o r t i o n o f man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s a n d w h o s e tion i sreflected copra  i n h i s behaviour.  Pico D e l i a Mirandola's  u n a c a n z o n a d e amore d a H. B e n i v i e n i " d e s c r i b e s  follows:  condi-  "Commenta  t h i s scheme a s  15  As d e s i r e g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s k n o w l e d g e , so s e v e r a l l k n o w i n g a r e a n n e x e d t o s e v e r a l d e s i r i n g P o w e r s . We d i s t i n g u i s h t h e k n o w i n g i n t o t h r e e d e g r e e s ; S e n c e , R e a s o n , I n t e l l e c t ; a t t e n d e d by t h r e e desiderative Vertues, Appetite, E l e c t i o n , W i l l . Appetite i s i s B r u i t s ; E l e c t i o n i n Men; W i l l i n A n g e l s . The S e n s e knows o n l y c o r p o r e a l t h i n g s , the A p p e t i t e onely d e s i r e s such; the A n g e l i c k I n t e l l e c t i s w h o l l y i n t e n t on C o n t e m p l a t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l C o n c e p t i o n s ; n o t i n c l i n i n g t o M a t e r i a l T h i n g s , b u t when d e v e s t e d o f M a t t e r , and s p i r i t u a l i z ' d , t h e i r W i l l i s o n e l y f e d w i t h i n t e m p o r a l s p i r i t u a l G o o d . R a t i o n a l l N a t u r e i s t h e Mean b e t w i x t t h e s e Extreams; sometimes d e s c e n d i n g t o Sense, sometimes e l e v a t e d t o I n t e l l e c t ; by i t s own E l e c t i o n c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e d e s i r e s o f w h i c h she p l e a s e t h . Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t c o r p o r e a l O b j e c t s a r e d e s i r e d , e i t h e r by S e n s u a l A p p e t i t e , o r E l e c t i o n of Reason i n c l i n i n g t o Sense; I n c o r p o r e a l by A n g e l i c k W i l l , or t h e E l e c t i o n o f Reason elevated to I n t e l l e c t u a l Height.42  The and it  objects  of the  i n B o o k One  i s provided  by  objects  i n t e l l e c t , with reason operating  of the  as  sense  a mean.  Hence,  appears t h a t the b a s i c p a t t e r n of the book i s d u a l i s t i c , but  the order  is tripartite.  o f t h e way provides and  Spenser d i f f e r s  by w h i c h " c o r p o r e a l O b j e c t s  both f o r the  from Mirandola  are d e s i r e d . "  I n t e l l e c t u a l i s t view of the  f o r the V o l u n t a r i s t view of the  basically is  dualism  on  Reason"  "Sensual A p p e t i t e , " Spenser  that reason i s perverted,  issue  Mirandola  " E l e c t i o n of  f o r the V o l u n t a r i s t view of the dethroning  Cross Knight  the  While  argues  of reason.  i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i r e f o r a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t , i t i s not  f o r Red  in fact  c o m m i t s an  If sin  the  case  error  in 43  l o g i c , but  rather  that reason i s dethroned, that i t i s  Spenser departs s o u l by during Una.  from Mirandola's  h i s d i s t i n c t i o n of  two  kinds  d e s c r i p t i o n of  insufficient. the  of a p p e t i t i v e d e s i r e s ,  t h e e f f o r t s made by A r c h i m a g o t o s e p a r a t e  Red  particularly  Cross Knight  S p e n s e r s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t h c o n c u p i s c i b l e and  a p p e t i t i v e i n c l i n a t i o n s , both of which are  tripartite  from  irascible  found i n P l a t o n i c psychology.  16  Apart from t h i s ,  Spenser's  p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment of moral  behaviour  is Neoplatonic. Spenser t h e b o o k t o Red  f o c u s e s h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme, f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , on  the i n h e r e n t antagonism  o f t h e b o d y and  t h e two w i t h b o d y t r i u m p h a n t .  t h e s o u l , and  the f u s i o n  F o l l o w i n g t h e H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s , Red  C r o s s K n i g h t i s r e - t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e scheme o f t e s t s he and  failed  earlier.  terms  faced  I n temporal terms, the sequence p r e s e n t e d i s the  sequence of the B i b l e . in  of  of the covenant  Red  Cross Knight's f a i l u r e  comprehensible  of the O l d Testament, h i s s u c c e s s ,  i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e New p s y c h o l o g i c a l and m o r a l  is  Testament.  finally,  While  the  scheme o f t h e b o o k i s c o n s t a n t , t h e c h a n g e i n  t h e n a t u r e o f man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d b y t h e h i s t o r i c a l g r e s s o f t h e B i b l e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e m i s s i o n g r a n t e d Red  pro-  Cross  Knight. The  p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme i n Book One  i s p a r t n e r e d by  p a r t i t e m o r a l scheme o f t h e v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s .  the  F a i t h , hope,  tri-  and  c h a r i t y a r e v i r t u e s s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t a c h e d t o p o r t i o n s o f t h e Neoplatonic  s o u l i n t h e L e g e n d o f H o l i n e s s , and  in  the f i r s t  t h r e e stanzas of the f i r s t  to  the v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s , Spenser  Spenser  canto.  establishes  In r e l a t i n g  45 Sans j o y .  soul  p a r a l l e l s A q u i n a s , as he does  w e l l i n p r e s e n t i n g the order of absence of these v i r t u e s Sans f o y , S a n s l o y , and  the  this  i n terms  as of  17  NOTES  A n e x c e p t i o n i s D. D o u g l a s W a t e r s , D u e s s a a s T h e o l o g i c a l S a t i r e (Columbia, 1970). A c h a p t e r on B o o k One a p p e a r s i n M a u r i c e E v a n s ' b o o k , S p e n s e r ' s Anatomy o f H e r o i s m (London,,1970). 2 W a t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , e x p l o r e s t h e meaning o f Sans f o y and Sans j o y , b u t i g n o r e s Sans l o y . 3 See a b o v e , s e c t i o n f o u r . . A r t h u r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e e x e m p l a r y " r a t i o n a l man" t h r o u g h o u t The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , w h i c h , f o r i n s t a n c e , , a c c o u n t s f o r h i s m i n o r r o l e i n Book T h r e e , w h e r e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v i r t u e of C h a s t i t y i s explored. I n S p e n s e r ' s scheme o f f a c u l t i e s , C h a s t i t y , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a p p e t i t i v e r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l s o u l . S e e F. M. P a d e l f o r d , " S p e n s e r a n d t h e T h e o l o g y o f C a l v i n , " MP, X I I ( 1 9 1 4 ) , 1 3 ; V i r g i l K. W h i t a k e r , The R e l i g i o u s B a s i s o f " S p e n s e r ' s T h o u g h t , S t a n f o r d U n i v . P u b s , i n L a n g , a n d L i t . , V I I , No. 3 ( S t a n f o r d , 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 4 2 - 4 3 ; A. S. P. W o o d h o u s e , " N a t u r e a n d G r a c e i n The F a e r i e Queene," E L H , X V I ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 0 2 ; a n d M e r r i t t Y. H u g h e s , "The A r t h u r s o f The F a e r i e Queene£" EA, V I ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 1 9 3 - 2 1 3 . 4  "*"A L e t t e r o f t h e A u t h o r s e x p o u n d i n g h i s w h o l e i n t e n t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s w o r k , " The W o r k s o f Edmund S p e n s e r , e d . E d w i n G r e e n l a w e t a l . ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 3 2 - 4 9 ) , I , 167-170.; T h i s e d i t i o n c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as W o r k s . E v a n s , p. 1 0 5 ; a n d Waters., p .  94.  ^ S p e n s e r , B o o k s I_ a n d I I o f "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " e d . R o b e r t K e l l o g g a n d O l i v e r S t e e l e (New Y o r k , 1965),"pp.- 4 5 - 4 6 ; W i l l i a m N e l s o n , The P o e t r y o f Edmund S p e n s e r (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 1 6 6 - 6 7 ; a n d W a t e r s , pp. 115-119. 8  See N e l s o n , p p . 1 7 6 - 1 7 7 . •  9 T h i s summary o f t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e a l l e g o r i c a l . c h a r a c t e r o f The F a e r i e Queene i s c o n d e n s e d f r o m J e w e l W u r t s b a u g h , Two C e n t u r i e s o f Spenserian S c h o l a r s h i p ( B a l t i m o r e , 1936). "^Paul 1967) , p. 4.  J . A l p e r s , The P o e t r y  ''""'"Roger S a l e , R e a d i n g p.  S p e n s e r : An  F a e r i e Queene"  Introduction  (New  (Princeton,  York,  1968),  F a e r i e Queene" (London,  1962),  32. 12  p.  o f "The  4.  Graham H o u g h , A P r e f a c e , t o "The  18  N e l s o n , p. 14  1.  C i t e d i n Wurtsbaugh,  p.  119.  " ^ N e l s o n , p. 1 4 5 , N e l s o n d i s m i s s e s t h e p r o b l e m b y a r g u i n g t h a t , l i k e a t a p e s t r y , t h e e p i s o d e s a r e a r r a n g e d t o p r o v i d e c o n t r a s t and e m p h a s i s , a n d t h a t t h e r e i s no c a u s a l , n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n . 16 "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " B o o k One, e d . L i l l i a n W i n s t a n l e y , 2nd ed. ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. l x i i - l x x v i i i ; f o r Upton's v i e w s , see W u r t s b a u g h , p p . 7 3 - 1 0 2 , and W o r k s , I , 3 2 0 - 2 4 ; f o r T o d d ' s v i e w s , s e e Wurtsbaugh, pp. 139-157; Edwin G r e e n l a w , S t u d i e s i n S p e n s e r ' s H i s t o r i c a l A l l e g o r y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 3 2 ) ; W a t e r s , p p . 1-3. "^Greenlaw, 1  8  TT  19  p.  93.  -  W a t e r s , p. v i i . K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , pp.  6-10.  20 S t . A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, t r a n s . M a r c u s Dodd (New Y o r k , 1950), xv.1. 21 "Letter to Robert Sidney," S i r P h i l i p Sidney, Selected Prose a n d P o e t r y , e d . R o b e r t K i m b r o u g h (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 9 2 . 22 J o h n G a r d n e r l i n k s a n a g o g y w i t h t y p o l o g y , and d e s c r i b e s t r o p o l o g y a s the" m o s t p r o f o u n d o f t h e l e v e l s o f a l l e g o r y . F o r h i s v i e w s on b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s see The Complete Works o f the. Gawain-Poet, ed. J o h n Gardner (Chicago, 1965), I n t r o d u c t i o n . , 23 2 C o r i n t h i a n s 3:14, a n d A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, x v i i . 3 , and 17-21. ' '" 24 W a t e r s , s e e e s p e c i a l l y p p . 1-20; V i r g i l K. W h i t a k e r , "The T h e o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e o f The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , B o o k I , " i n T h a t S o v e r a i n e L i g h t , e d . W i l l i a m R. M u e l l e r a n d D. C. A l l e n ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 5 2 ) , pp." 11-84; John R u s k i n , Stones o f V e n i c e (London, 1 8 9 2 ) , I I I , 205-209, q u o t e d i n Works, I , 422-425; N e l s o n , see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 129-130. 25 S i d n e y , pp. 117-131. ;  2 6  Pp.  118 a n d  123-124.  27 1 8 5 8 ) , p. 28  p.  16.  T a s s o , G o d f r e y o f B u l l o i g n e , t r a n s . Edward F a i r f a x xxxvii. O v i d , M e t a m o r p h o s e s , t r a n s . A r t h u r G o l d i n g (New  (London,  York,  1966),  19 29 P. y  30 31  2.  W o r k s , I , p. 1 6 7 . P.  168.  32 V e r n T o r c z o n , " S p e n s e r ' s O r g o g l i o and D e s p a i r e , " TSLL, I I I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 123. 33 N e l s o n , p. 130. 34 pp.  7-16.  H a r r y B e r g e r J r . , The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper  (New H a v e n , 1 9 5 7 ) ,  35 T. K. D u n s e a t h , S p e n s e r ' s a l l e g o r y o f J u s t i c e i n b o o k f i v e o f "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e " ( P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 1 4 2 ; L i l l i a n W i n s t a h l e y , "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " B o o k , I I ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 1 9 ) , p p . l i v - l x x i i ; a n d T o r c z o n , 125. 36 W i n s t a n l e y , Book I I , p. l i x . 37 38 39 40 4 1  E v a n s , p. 90. See e s p e c i a l l y p. 94. N e l s o n , p. 1 4 7 . Pp. 151-152.  W o r k s , I , 205-207.  42 Thomas S t a n l e y , Poems a n d T r a n s l a t i o n s , ( O x f o r d , 1962) , p. 206. 43  e d . G. M.  Evans, p. 92, a r g u e s , w r o n g l y I t h i n k , t h a t 44  reason i s lazy.  _  "The R e p u b l i c , " The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , t r a n s , a n d e d . B. (London, 1871), I I , 295. 45 The "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " of_ §t_. Thomas A q u i n a s , t r a n s . F a t h e r s t h e E n g l i s h Dominican P r o v i n c e (London, 1915), I I , 151-154.  Jowett  of  Crump  II  Holiness  Spenser  Untested  i n t r o d u c e s the Legend of H o l i n e s s w i t h a  C r o s s K n i g h t , . f o l l o w e d b y a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Una  description  of  Red  In  t h e m e t h o d o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e r e i s embedded a c e n t r a l  cept which  i l l u s i o n and  legend.  The  descriptions broadcast  the  "seemd" and  "as" are r i f e i n the f i r s t  q u a l i f y i n g c o n j u n c t i o n s s u c h as  d i s c l a i m i n g statements.  The  "but".and  Red  reality  p o i n t Spenser  Cross Knight f i r s t  appears  few  stanzas,  makes b y h i s d e s c r i p t i v e wherein  b e f o r e us as a k n i g h t w i t h  fielde."  this  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e v i d e n c e  till  t h a t t i m e d i d he n e v e r w i e l d "  the k n i g h t ' s horse appears i s not e x p l i c i t l y r e f u t e d .  1  An  explicit  disclaimer  i s entered immediately: (i.l).  to suggest Spenser  The  "Yet  d i s d a i n f o r the b r i d l e ,  and  e n t e r s the n o t i o n of d i s d a i n  armes of this on  What v a l u e  l i e s i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h o r s e and i s lodged i m p l i c i t l y  of  mettlesome behaviour  t h e p a r t of t h e h o r s e w i t h o u t a t t a c h i n g any v a l u e t o i t .  which  antithesis  t h e b a t t e r e d n a t u r e of h i s armour w i t h i t s  " c r u e l l m a r k e s o f many a b l o u d y  has  is  a r e g e n e r a l l y a t odds.  e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l e d by  it  con-  "yet" introduce frequent  method i s o b v i o u s : . t h e l e g e n d o c c u r s i n t h e f a l l e n w o r l d i l l u s i o n and  Dwarf.  reality.  Terms l i k e and  of her  r e v e a l s , a t the o u t s e t , a g r e a t d e a l of what Spenser  presenting i n this of  and  rider  i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n as i t c o n t i n u e s i n t h e .  20  21  second and t h i r d s t a n z a s .  The f i r s t  s t a n z a concludes w i t h y e t  another  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the appearance of the k n i g h t which i n c l u d e s the e q u i v o c a l term, s t a n z a , and Red  "seemd."  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s taken up i n the next  i n d i r e c t l y d i s c l a i m e d by way Cross K n i g h t , we  the second his  qualification.  a r e t o l d at the end of the f i r s t  seems l i k e a " j o l l y k n i g h t " who k n i g h t l y g u i s t s and  of  sits fairly  f i e r c e encounters  fitt"  on h i s h o r s e " [ a ] s one f o r (i.l).  Untrue  whispers  s t a n z a , where i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t the badges s p o r t e d on  armour are evidence t h a t he i s not the u s u a l c h i v a l r i c f i g u r e , n o r ,  we have l e a k e d to us, i s he as j o l l y as he seems. "of  stanza,  h i s cheere d i d seeme too solemne s a d " ( i . 2 ) .  We  are t o l d that  The  he  ambivalence  s e c u r e l y lodged i n t h i s u n f o l d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n , and the method of p r e s e n t i n g i t by o f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which are r e f u t e d or c o n f u t e d , r e p r e s e n t s one of the major i s s u e s e x p l o r e d i n the Legend of H o l i n e s s . The evidence of the senses i s not testimony of - t r u t h . to  the problem  t h i s r a i s e s r e s t s the outcome of Red  soul,* to a s i g n i f i c a n t We  On a s o l u t i o n  Cross K n i g h t ' s  degree.  are t o l d t h a t the hero of the legend bears on " h i s b r e s t a  b l o u d i e C r o s s e " i n remembrance of h i s d y i n g L o r d  (i.2).  The L o r d i s  c l e a r l y C h r i s t , and the b r e a s t p l a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r Red Cross Knight to bear an emblem of h i s l o v e of C h r i s t .  The  shield i s  a l s o marked w i t h the same emblem, but here i t s i g n i f i e s the " s o v e r a i n e hope, which i n h i s h e l p e he had" ment about t r u e he was  the n a t u r e of Red  (i.2).  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a s t a t e -  Cross K n i g h t ' s f a i t h ["Right  i n deede and word"  (i.2)].  faithfull  The  d e s c r i p t i o n of the k n i g h t  izes h i s nature.  i n the second s t a n z a  particular-  The u s u a l m e t h o d o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s  t o a r g u e , a f t e r i n v o k i n g S p e n s e r ' s own i s merely d e r i v a t i v e of Paul's  c o n f e s s i o n of source,  that  this  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e armour o f t h e  2 Christian.  A c c o r d i n g l y , the s h i e l d i s glossed  as r e p r e s e n t i n g  and t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f t h e a r m o u r g e n e r a l l y n o t t a k e n a s  faith,  signifi-  3 cant.  There are s e v e r a l problems  Holiness  incumbent  r i c u l u m t h r o u g h w h i c h Red  Cross Knight  a s w i l l become e v i d e n t , presents  it.  cur-  p a s s e s i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  faith  as a s h i e l d i n g v i r t u e ,  t h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t t h e way  F i n a l l y , t o acknowledge  to overlook  shield  i n the s p i r i t u a l  t h e commonplace a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e k n i g h t b e a r s t h e s h i e l d  f a i t h argues t h a t Spenser presents  is  First,  i s a compound v i r t u e , and e a c h o f f a i t h , h o p e , a n d c h a r i t y  a r e r e q u i s i t e t o i t s e x i s t e n c e , as i s e v i d e n t  Second,  on t h i s a p p r o a c h .  the obvious d e t a i l  i n which  he  t h a t Spenser does n o t d e s c r i b e That  the  Spenser  f o l l o w t h e s o u r c e he i n d i c a t e s i s n o t e v i d e n c e o f  s l o p p i n e s s on h i s p a r t , b u t r a t h e r o f a s p e c i f i c p l a n b y w h i c h presents  and  t h i s commonplace o f s c h o l a r s h i p  i n terms of f a i t h , b u t r a t h e r i n terms of hope.  does n o t d i r e c t l y  t h e compound v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s .  F o l l o w i n g hope,  ["Right f a i t h f u l l  t r u e he was  he  Spenser  completes h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the t h e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the by mention of h i s f a i t h  i n deede  knight and  word" ( i . 2 ) ] . The  order  of d e s c r i p t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  second s t a n z a i s l o v e , o r c h a r i t y , hope, and f a i t h i s not scored  on Red  of  Cross Knight's  character  faith.  The  i n the  evidence of  armour as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d  23 with i n t e l l e c t i o n and evident by statement and a c t . by the s h i e l d , i s described as "soveraine" ( i . 2 ) .  4  Hope, represented  Attaching special  significance to this v i r t u e suggests that i t w i l l be p i v o t a l i n the knight's quest, and the legend bears this out.  Hope shields the  knight against the blows of forces set to undermine h i s character. Given the state of man active i n a f a l l e n world the stress on the virtue of hope i s not incomprehensible. on the breast-plate of the knight.  Charity i s f i t t i n g l y lodged  Love i s a passion associated with  the heart by long t r a d i t i o n , and charity i s a perfect form of love. Apparently, at the end of stanza two we have before us a knight of unimpeachable, Christian v i r t u e s .  However, given the strong  presence of ambivalence i n Spenser's description of the knight i n the f i r s t stanza, this assumption bears examination. of charity i s described by the equivocal statement ever [Christ] ador'd" ( i . 2 ) .  The knight's state "and dead as l i v i n g  Nelson argues that this suggests the  mystery of l i f e and death i n the person of Christ.  He c a l l s this "the  Christian paradox which i s the p r i n c i p a l subject" of the legend, and adds: Christ dying i s the focus, dying and i n torment, but about to pass by means of death into l i f e . The r i d d l e "dead as l i v i n g " develops the theme. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , the words mean only that the Knight loved h i s Lord both before and after His death. But beneath this meaning i s the essential one, that Christ dead i s Christ l i v i n g . About the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of death and l i f e cluster related ideas: the l i f e of the body, inevitably s i n f u l and therefore damnable by God's law, i s as a death, yet the s a c r i f i c e of the dying Christ i s God's g i f t of a true l i f e . 5 While Nelson detects a paradox central to the Legend of Holiness, he  24 misses the ambiguity  of t h i s statement.  By m a k i n g a  conventional  p a r a d o x o f i t , he m i s s e s Spenser's e l a b o r a t e method o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the  thematic The  knight.  a n t i t h e s i s of i l l u s i o n  s t a t e m e n t "dead a s l i v i n g "  The k n i g h t  the c h a r i t y of the  l o v e s C h r i s t a s t h o u g h He w e r e l i v i n g , n o t  the s o p h i s t i c a t e d understanding  Christ.  Later  standing Christ  Fidessa describes  h e r hunt f o r t h e body o f  demonstrating her ignorance and, i n d i r e c t l y ,  Cross Knight.  "Dead a s L i v i n g , " t o summon a c o n v e n t i o n a l  t i o n , suggests that the knight's c h a r i t y i s flawed  by n o t b e i n g  love for Christ i sblind,  joy,  . . . t o o solemne s a d " ( i . 2 ) .  a s i s made e v i d e n t  Sans joy.. "too  faith,  " j o l l y " k n i g h t who seems  i s i n f a c t a statement of flawed  Cross Knight  deede and w o r d "  According  i s "of h i s  hope.  There remains  one a s i t a p p l i e s t o t h e  of the knight. .  Red  faithful  that h i s  by t h e i n f e r n a l parody o f hope i n t h e l e g e n d ,  and t h i s v i r t u e i s a l s o a q u a l i f i e d  character  descrip-  The s t a t e o f hope i s a s t a t e o f  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y  solemne s a d "  that of  supported by t h e knowledge o f f a i t h .  Hope i s q u a l i f i e d b y t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e k n i g h t cheere  living  i n t o the clutches of F i d e s s a , h i sl a c k of under-  i s demonstrated.  (ii.24),  t h a t a dead C h r i s t i s a  i n the Legend, w i t h h i s near escape from t h e c l u t c h e s of  E r r o r , and h i s f a l l i n g  Red  qualifies  I t i s j o i n e d by p a r a l l e l statements q u a l i f y i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s  hope and f a i t h . with  and r e a l i t y .  i s described  ( i . 2 ) , and t h i s  character.^  as " r i g h t  fulfils  faithful  true  . i n  the r e q u i s i t e behaviour of a  However, t h e i s s u e i s n o t m e r e l y one o f  t o t h e B o o k o f Common P r a y e r ,  • •  behaviour.  f a i t h f u l n e s s must be l o d g e d i n  25 g  " t h o u g h t , w o r d and  deed."  description  k n i g h t ' s f a i t h argues a flaw  of  this virtue. is  His  faith  i s not  absence of  the  knight's desire  knight's Holiness  three v i r t u e s knight.  The  of  third  f a i t h , h o p e , and  the  possible  are  e t h i c a l t h e o r y , and  the  of  to  learne"  of  truth, i t by  (i.3).  Thus,  f l a w s p r e s e n t i n each of p o s s e s s e s as  e v e r was  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  a function  the  s t a n z a b e a r s t h i s out  a d e n i a l of  dread, but  the  i n his possession  knowledge of  c h a r i t y he  stemming from a l a c k of  Virtues  term "thought" i n  " h i s knew f o r c e  i s q u a l i f i e d by  n o t h i n g d i d he  ment f o r e s t a l l s s a d n e s s as  The  s e c o n d s t a n z a ends w i t h  c o u r a g e ("Yet  the  s u p p o r t e d by  lodged merely i n appearance.  describing the  the  The  the  a  Christian  knight's lack  ydrad"). the  the  This  knight's  of  state-  apparent  courage. the  s o u l , according to  Holiness i s a state  of  the  soul  traditional,  i n possession  of  9 the  theological virtues  h o p e and  charity  to the  i t s rational part. hope to the the  of  f a i t h , h o p e , and  appetitive  Charity  irascible soul.  he  follows parts  soul.  this  Charity  of  the  irascible cible with  Faith perfects  scheme, a t t a c h i n g soul.  the the  i s the  rational.  1 1  faith  concupiscible  to  soul,  theological perfection  1  Spenser  theological virtues,to  to the  consigns  theological perfection  end  of  condition  the  a remark d e s c r i b i n g  second  the  of the  somewhat  hope w i t h  of the  of  and  appropriate  famous a l i g n m e n t of  Hence, at the  knight i n conjunction with  Aquinas  s o u l , and  rational soul. ^  Plato's  Spenser p l a c e s a remark a l l u d i n g the  the  However, w h i l e A q u i n a s a s s o c i a t e s  s o u l , Spenser f o l l o w s the  of  a t t a c h e s to the  c o n c u p i s c e n t s o u l , w h i l e hope i s the  irascible  to  portion  charity.  the  the iras-  stanza,  hope  applied  knight's  26  courage.  And a l s o , l a t e r  i n the legend,  the knight faces the test of  L u c i f e r a a n d S a n s j o y i n t h e company o f t h e D w a r f who  i s commonly  12 understood  a s a n emblem o f r e a s o n .  F o l l o w i n g t h e scheme o f R e n a i s -  sance N e o p l a t o n i s t s , Spenser d i v i d e s t h e s o u l i n t o t h e three p a r t s of intellect,  reason,  and a p p e t i t e , p l a c i n g f a i t h  i n the province of  intellect,  hope i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f reason,.and c h a r i t y  i n the province  13 of a p p e t i t e .  On t h e k n i g h t ' s r e l e a s e f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s  a t t a c k s t h e k n i g h t ' s hope by p a r a l o g i c a l appeals as w o u l d b e a p p r o p r i a t e t o A q u i n a s ' appetite  to h i s reason, n o t ,  scheme, m e r e l y b y a p p e a l s  p r e s e n t i n g t h e Red C r o s s . K n i g h t  to h i s  i n t h e s e c o n d s t a n z a as a  f i g u r e of H o l i n e s s , Spenser r e v e a l s the c o n d i t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  s o u l , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l e g e n d  i s patterned  according  p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme b y w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e s t h e k n i g h t . o f s t a n z a one s u g g e s t s , of i l l u s i o n  the k n i g h t ' s quest i s threatened  to the  As t h e  quite basically,  by the presence  The q u e s t  Truth, of course, both  serves  to uncover  t o p e r f e c t t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , s o t h a t t h e theme o f i l l u s i o n  gether  itself,  i s f o r u n i o n w i t h t r u t h , n e g a t i v e l y an o v e r t h r o w o f  the powers o f d e c e i t .  reality  evidence  i n a p o s t l a p s a r i a n w o r l d , w h i c h , when a d d e d t o t h e f l a w e d  c h a r a c t e r o f h i s s o u l makes h i s q u e s t p e r i l o u s i n d e e d .  and  Despair  (ix,38-47) . By  flawed  castle,  illusion and  and t h a t o f t h e p e r f e c t i n g o f a s o u l a r e i n t i m a t e l y bound t o i n t h e q u e s t u n d e r t a k e n by Red C r o s s The t h i r d  stanza of canto  Knight.,  one e x p l a i n s t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t as i t  appears a t t h e o u t s e t , and f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e s t h e o b s t a c l e s t o i t s successful  completion:  27  Upon a great adventure he was bond, That greatest GLoriana to him gave, That greatest Glorious Queene of Faerie Lond, To winne him worship, and her grace to have, Which of all earthly things he most did crave; And ever as he rode, his hart did earne To prove his puissance in battell brave Upon his foe, and his new force to learne; Upon his foe, a Dragon horrible and stearne. (i,3) Red Cross Knight holds at the outset of his "adventure" a set of desires which imperils the success of his quest. He desires "worship" and to possess the "grace" of the Faerie Queene. Also he desires to prove his own "puissance," and to learn his own "new force." Plainly, these are perverse desires, each marked by pride. His desire for worship is mocked in the legend by, among other instances, the earthly city of Lucifera. His desire to possess grace is mocked by the miraculous gift of grace which occurs during Arthur's battle with Orgoglio to free Red Cross Knight. His desire to prove his "puissance" is mocked during his battle with Error and with the Dragon, and his desire to learn of his new force is mocked by his completely losing what force he has prior to his acquiring the knowledge he acquires in the House of Holiness. Each of these desires are an impediment to the perfecting of his soul in Holiness through faith, hope, and charity. His desire "his new force to learne" is perverse given that reason can not achieve the truth of revelation but that the intellect can apprehend it once given. This desire qualifies the knight's faith, as does the desire to possess grace. The desire to prove "puissance" is perverse given that reason dictates that what strength is man's is  28  d e r i v e d f r o m God.  This desire q u a l i f i e s  a s e l f - r e l i a n c e which (at in  t h e k n i g h t ' s hope, by  cuts the k n i g h t o f f from h i s source of s t r e n g t h  h i s most a b j e c t l e v e l ,  t h e k n i g h t i s s a n s p u i s s a n c e and  the c l u t c h e s of D e s p a i r ) .  Red  q u a l i f i e s h i s c h a r i t y , which  Una terms which the  things."  i s a l o v e marked n o t by  This  is  desire  the d e s i r e  to  give.  i s n e x t p r e s e n t e d , and,, a s w i t h t h e k n i g h t , s h e suggest  the d i f f i c u l t y  appears  of e v a l u a t i n g e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d  in by  senses:  A l o v e l y L a d l e rode him f a i r e b e s i d e , U p o n a l o w l y A s s e m o r e w h i t e t h e n snow,, Y e t s h e much w h i t e r , b u t t h e same d i d h i d e U n d e r a v e l e , t h a t w i m p l e d was f u l l l o w , And o v e r a l l a b l a c k e s t o l e s h e d i d t h r o w , As. one t h a t i n l y m o u r n d : so was s h e s a d , And h e a v i e s a t u p o n h e r p a l f r e y s l o w : Seemed i n h e a r t some h i d d e n c a r e s h e h a d . And b y h e r i n a l i n e a m i l k e w h i t e l a m b e s h e l a d .  Yet w h i l e Spenser acter throughout immediately. She  hopeless  Cross Knight's d e s i r e f o r worship  a l s o p e r v e r s e as i t i s a d e s i r e f o r " e a r t h l y  possess but to  arguing  m a i n t a i n s t h e ambiguous n a t u r e of t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , w i t h Una  Her  he s t r i k e s  solid  and,,  So p u r e a n i n n o c e n t , a s t h a t same l a m b e , She was i n l i f e a n d e v e r y v e r t u o u s l o r e .  i s caught  ground  appearance of mourning i s r e a l evidence of mourning.  is, i n f a c t w h i t e r than her p a l f r e y ,  E v e n Una  (i,4)  i n the v e i l  of appearance,  l u t e as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n r e v e a l s .  Her v e i l  p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f h e r p a r e n t s who  (i.5)  yet her t r u t h i s  i s a testimony to  once h e l d dominion  over  abso-  the the world  29 before "that i n f e r n a l l feend with foule uprore forwasted a l l their land, and them expeld" ( i . 5 ) .  The parents, of course, are Adam and 14  Eve, and their present condition a result of the F a l l from Grace. That Una, the figure of truth, i s caught i n the web of i l l u s i o n enforces the pervasiveness of i l l u s i o n i n the legend, and indicates, once again, the d i f f i c u l t y facing Red Cross Knight i n h i s quest. The f a l l from grace into a world ruled, to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree, by falsehood, was corrosive of man's f a c u l t i e s .  I t beclouded  his reason so that while reason s t i l l naturally i n c l i n e d to truth i t was capable of c l e a r l y distinguishing between r e a l and apparent  truth.^  Red Cross Knight i s free to choose, has free w i l l , but h i s choices rely on the strength of h i s reason, leaving him vulnerable to error. That reason i s a t o i l i n g figure i n a f a l l e n world i s made evident by the description Spenser gives of the Dwarf who serves as Una's servant, and as Red Cross Knight's advisor. The Dwarf who completes the group introduced at the beginning 16 of the knight's quest represents reason.  Spenser's description i s  informative: Behind [Una] f a r r e away a Dwarfe did l a g , That l a s i e seemd i n being ever l a s t , Or wearied with bearing of her bag Of needments at h i s back, (i.6) He appears either to be lazy or wearied by h i s task of carrying Una's "bag/ Of needments."  Evan's, overlooking the ambiguity of the descrip-  t i o n , argues that Spenser presents reason as l a z y .  1 7  However, none of  the details i n the story w i l l serve to support this interpretation.  30  E v e n t h e mundane e x a m p l e s o f t h e D w a r f s z e a l o u s e f f o r t s 1  t o save Red  C r o s s K n i g h t b o t h i n L u c e r f e r a ' s c i t y and a f t e r he i s c a p t u r e d by Orgoglio suggest that l a z i n e s s Dwarf.  i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  What i s s u g g e s t e d b y S p e n s e r ' s  Dwarf i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y l a z y , i ti s merely  initial  of reason's task.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  Reason, i n s h o r t , i s never  insufficient.  The t a s k t h e D w a r f i s c h a r g e d w i t h a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e q u e s t is  t h a t o f b e a r i n g Una's  "bag o f needments."  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t he i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e needs o f t h e body, a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i s r e i n f o r c e d by h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e f r o m t h e s t o r y a t t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h Una l e a d s the  Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n t o  t h e House o f H o l i n e s s "which i s g o v e r n e d  Caelia.  C a e l i a ' s " j o y , " h e r t a s k , i s " t o r e l i e v e t h e ' n e e d e s / Of  wretched  s o u l e s ... ."  ministries  :  (x.3).  The D w a r f a n d C a e l i a h a v e  o v e r t h e body and t h e soulfj  respectively.  by  adjoining  T h e Dward  per-  forms h i s d u t i e s h i m s e l f , w h i l e C a e l i a , whose c h a r g e i s t r i p a r t i t e , performs her d u t i e s through the three governesses  of these three parts,  f a i t h . , hope, and c h a r i t y . . What i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e p a i r i n g o f t h e D w a r f a n d C a e l i a i s a commonplace  d i v i s i o n of reason.  18 A r i s t o t l e called phronesis. inferior  and r a t i o  The dwarf  i s p r a c t i c a l reason,' what  Aquinas d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  19 s u p e r i o r , as d i d A u g u s t i n e b e f o r e him.  ratio The N e o -  20 p l a t o n i s t s c a l l e d t h e s e two f a c u l t i e s  r e a s o n and i n t e l l e c t .  Caelia  r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e a v e n l y wisdom t h a t g u i d e s t h e s o u l , o r d e r i n g i t s c i v i l h i e r a r c h y , w h i l e t h e Dwarf r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r a c t i c a l wisdom t h a t the  body t h r o u g h r e a s o n ' s r u l e o v e r t h e body.  guides  When s h e e n t e r s i n t o  31 the legend, Caelia takes over the Dwarf's task as  her ministry embraces  that of the Dwarf. The Dwarf's position far behind Una and the knight the d i f f i c u l t y of h i s task.  suggests  Reason's ministry of the body, as the  legend bears out, i s a d i f f i c u l t one.  The Dwarf i s barely able to  extricate the knight from the perilous c i t y of L u c i f e r a , and i s unable to prevent the knight's lust from gaining sway when enticed by Fidessa. At this l a t e r point, the Dwarf i s separated from the knight, suggesting the overthrow of reason  ( v i i , 7 and  19).  At the beginning, the association of Una and Red Cross Knight i s an emblematic presentation of the relationship between native v i r t u e 21 and the truth which i s the f i t end for v i r t u e . s t a r t , i s courting truth.  The knight, at the  The metaphor of courtship serves the allegory  w e l l , providing as i t does f o r the exploration of a f a i r l y complex psychological relationship.  In conjunction with the description of the  Dwarf, Una's relationship with Red Cross Knight indicates what Castiglione exposes as the psychological character of man. to Castiglione, man  According  i s by nature r a t i o n a l , placed as i n the middle be-  tween what the senses perceive and the " i n t e l l i g i b l e things" the i n t e l l e c t i s able to contemplate.  Man  i s able to "choose (by descend-  ing to sense or r i s i n g to i n t e l l e c t ) to turn h i s desires now  i n one  22 d i r e c t i o n and now  i n another."  The knight's courtship with  indicates reason " r i s i n g to i n t e l l e c t . "  Una  The career of this courtship  during the knight's quest charts the movement of reason descending sense, then r i s i n g to i n t e l l e c t .  to  The marriage of Una and the knight  32 at the end of h i s quest i s c l e a r l y a proper conclusion to the courtship.  This marriage represents the i d e a l state of man's soul, but i t  i s a state which can not endure i n a f a l l e n world. separate, although the state of marriage continues.  Una and the knight The point made  f i n a l l y i s that while man can know this i d e a l , i t i s actually beyond the l i m i t s imposed by the F a l l . With the abandonment of Una by the knight which occurs i n the second canto, the Dwarf i s promoted from lagging servant to the knight's companion.  The change argues that the knight has moved back,  f i g u r a t i v e l y descended, from h i s companionship with truth, and now must face h i s t r i a l s r e l y i n g on reason no longer i n the immediate presence of truth.  33  NOTES "*The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser, ed. J . C. Smith (Oxford, 1964), I, 5. Citations from Book Once i n my text are from this e d i t i o n . 2 See Works, I, p.  176.  3 P. 425, and 434. Evans, p. 91, and Kellogg and Steele, p. 16, are exceptions. They argue that the s h i e l d i s an emblem of hope. Kellogg and Steele gloss the cross on Red Cross Knight's breast as the c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t , and Evans glosses i t as f a i t h . 4 Aquinas, 152. ^Nelson, p.  147.  This description of the knight's love of Christ f i t s into the pattern of ambiguous statements which describe Red Cross Knight at the beginning of the legend. Nelson, by focusing on this one statement i n the description, overlooks the contest. ^James 3:13. g For this formula see "The Order of Baptism for those of Riper Years." 9 See The Dialogues of Plato, I I , 300; and Aquinas, 149-150. iO. • Aquinas, 1:L  ICO 152.  "Phaedrus," The Dialogues of Plato, I I I , 153.  12 Nelson, p. 157; Kellogg and Steele, p.  16.  13 A description of the soul remarkably similar to the one, quoted e a r l i e r , by Pico Delia Mirandola occurs i n Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier, trans. Charles Singleton (New York, 1959), p. 336. 14 Kellogg and Steele, p. 16. ^ E . M. W. T i l l y a r d , The Elizabethan World Picture (London, 1966), pp. 91-92. 1  "^Kitchin, Works, I, 178, glosses the Dwarf as "common sense," a description which, while not pointing to the psychological scheme of the legend, does indicate the lower form of reason the Dwarf represents.  34 17  E v a n s , p. 92.  18 The Ethics of A r i s t o t l e , trans. J . A. K. Thomson (London, 1955), pp. 176-177. 19 St. Thomas Aquinas, Theological Texts, selected and trans. Thomas Gilby (London, 1955), pp. 306-309; Augustine, City of God, X.2. 20 Ficino uses the terms " i n t u i t i o n " and "reason." See, P. 0. K r i s t e l l e r , The Philosophy of M a r s i l i o F i c i n o (New York, 1943), p. 380. 21 A r i s t o t l e , p. 190, distinguishes between "natural" and "true" v i r t u e . Spenser follows this d i v i s i o n by having Red Cross Knight i n i t i a l l y naturally suited to wear the armour of Holiness and l a t e r acquiring true Holiness, burnished armour, i n the House of Holiness. 22 Castiglione, p. 336.  Ill The T e s t of F a i t h The f i r s t t e s t Red Cross K n i g h t f a c e s on h i s quest i s a t e s t of h i s f a i t h .  The t e s t i s comprised of a s e r i e s of a s s a u l t s  on the  i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of h i s s o u l , and i n v o l v e s a l s o the t e s t of knight's charity.  the  However, w h i l e the t e s t of f a i t h o c c u r s at the  be-  g i n n i n g of the l e g e n d , the t e s t of c h a r i t y i s p r o t r a c t e d to the p o i n t of the k n i g h t ' s imprisonment i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e ,  and.is  charted  p r i n c i p a l l y .by the events t h a t b e f a l l Una f o l l o w i n g her abandonment by the k n i g h t .  T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the t e s t of c h a r i t y o v e r l a p s the t e s t of  f a i t h , i t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h at a l a t e r  point.  The t e s t of f a i t h b e g i n s w i t h the k n i g h t and Una t a k i n g in a forest  from a v i o l e n t summer s t o r m .  I t e n d s , by way. of  refuge  recapitu-  l a t i o n , w i t h the k n i g h t f i r m l y a t t a c h e d to F i d e s s a and the two t a k i n g r e f u g e from the summer's h e a t under the human t r e e s , F r a d u b i o and F r a e l i s s a . . Between t h e s e two e v e n t s , , R e d Cross K n i g h t f a i l s , s i g n i f i cantly, his f i r s t  test..  By way of a l l u s i o n , Spenser announces t h a t the s t o r m the k n i g h t and Una are d r i v e n to r e f u g e by i s not a common one.  The storm i s  d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g the r e s u l t of an "angry J o v e " who, i n h i s  anger,  " a n hideous storme of r a i n e / D i d poure i n t o h i s Lemans l a p " ( i . 6 ) .  The  Leman i s mother e a r t h , of c o u r s e , but the d e s c r i p t i o n a l l u d e s to O v i d ' s t a k e of Jove and Danae, a t a l e Spenser u t i l i z e s a g a i n , l a t e r i n the  35  36  poem ( H I . x i . 3 1 ) . ment, w i t h  l u s t and  behaviour. and  this  The  the  in natural  s k i e s of r e a s o n a r e d a r k e n e d by  a prophetic  Cross Knight during The  a disorder  govern-  anger combining to produce v i o l e n t , i r r a t i o n a l ,  In short,  s e r v e s as  a l l u s i o n reveals  this  p a i r are  emblem o f  t e s t of h i s  forced  the  the  passions,  fate i n store for  Red  faith.  to t a k e . s h e l t e r  i n a f o r e s t laden  with  emblematic s i g n i f i c a n c e :  A s h a d i e g r o v e n o t f a r away t h e y s p i d e , . That p r o m i s t ayde the tempest'to w i t h s t a n d : Whose l o f t i e t r e e s y c l a d w i t h sommers p r i d e , , D i d s p r e d so b r o a d , t h a t heavens l i g h t d i d h i d e , Not p e r c e a b l e w i t h power of a n y - s t a r r e : And a l l w i t h i n w e r e . p a t h e s and a l l e l e s w i d e , W i t h f o o t i n g w o r n e , and l e a d i n g i n w a r d f a r r e : F a i r e h a r b o u r t h a t them s e e m e s ; so i n t h e y e n t r e d a r r e . :  Nelson notes the  p a r a l l e l between t h i s  which. Dante f i n d s h i m s e l f  at the beginning  a l s o a k i n to Tasso's a l l e g o r i c a l i n g "no  other  the  selva oscura  of the  Inferno.  f o r e s t , w h i c h he  explains  t h i n g than the F a l s i t y  Perswasions which are  f o r e s t and  of  (i.7)  t h e R e a s o n s and  in  It is  1  as  signify-  the  i n g e n d r e d i n t h e Wood; t h a t i s , t h e v a r i e t y  and  2 multitude the  o f O p i n i o n s and  Discourses  o f Men."  f i g u r e of E r r o r , spawning o p i n i o n , a t  Servius' character  gloss  of  of the  "silva"  the  Red centre  i n the Aeneid a l s o r e v e a l s  C r o s s K n i g h t meets of the the  forest.  perilous .  forest:  F r o m t h i s w o o d , . w h i c h i s t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h i s w o r l d , l e t us e m e r g e i n t o the l i g h t ; the g o a l i s the golden bough, t h i s i s s a p i e n t a . ... . . B e c a u s e t h e s t a r s d r a w us i n t o v a r i o u s p e r t u r b a t i o n s ^ i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o h o l d a l w a y s t o t h e r i g h t way; o r t h e w o o d s , t h a t i s , the passions of the body, o b s t r u c t v i r t u e . , 3  37 That the wood i s the "business of t h i s world" i n Spenser's scheme i s evident from the catalogue of trees which follows upon the description of the knight and Una entering the forest.  The catalogue i s no less  than a l i s t of the earthly occupations of man.  The pair are figured  as praising these trees ["Much can they prayse . . . " ( i . 8 ) ] , and the a l l u s i o n , a l b e i t i n d i r e c t , i s to the tree by which man f i r s t f e l l into error. The wide, worn path which leads into the forest suggests the road to destruction which St. Matthew warns against, and also the path  4 which Augustine describes as leading into the City of Man.  The end,  i n both cases, i s worldliness, a turning away from f a i t h and i n t e l l e c tion to the material and the bodily, and, consequently, the imperiling of the soul.  The trees of the forest shut out "heavens l i g h t , " and  their f o l i a g e i s described as "sommers pride."  The forest i s a giant  emblem of man's preoccupation with the things of this world. Cross Knight i s i n danger of the s i n of Pride of L i f e .  The Red  He gives e v i -  dence of t h i s when he erroneously refutes Una's plea to retreat from Error by arguing that "virtue gives her s e l f e l i g h t " (i.12), and consequently relying on h i s own strength rather than strength derived from God.  5  Once i n the forest, the couple are led forward "with d e l i g h t " (i.10) u n t i l they are unable to find their way out. In this state they follow the most obvious path, again an a l l u s i o n to the b i b l i c a l advice of St. Matthew, but as well a foreshadowing of their coming meeting with Error.  They follow the most common path as a resolution  38 to their "diverse doubt" (i.10), a path which suggests opinion. It seems anomolous that Una should be represented as being i n a state of doubt along with the Red Cross Knight, and even that she should be engulfed by the forest.  Yet the point Spenser makes i s f i r s t  that Una represents truth active i n the world, and not the kind of truth represented by the isolated figure of contemplation described i n the House of Holiness l a t e r i n the Legend (x.48-67).  Also Spenser  implies that truth active i n the world inevitably becomes ensnarled i n the i l l u s i o n s of the f a l l e n world, and i s forever threatened by f a l s e hood.  Yet while she wanders i n the wilderness both at this point with  the knight, and l a t e r after he has abandoned her, she i s never completely lost.  She recognizes Error when confronted by i t and r e a l i z e s  the forces required to overcome i t , and l a t e r , when she i s imperiled by Sans loy, divine Providence intervenes to save truth f o r the world. The broad path chosen by the knight and Una leads to the den of Error, located, f i t t i n g l y , i n the centre of the forest where the l i g h t i s dimmest.  At the mouth of this cave, Una pleads with the  knight to be cautious, and the knight argues, imprudently, that this would be a sign of cowardice on h i s part.  He bases h i s argument on  the erroneous opinion that v i r t u e provides i t s own l i g h t "through enesse for to wade" (i.12).  dark-  His argument, while laudable according to  the c l a s s i c a l conception of v i r t u e , i s h e r e t i c a l i n terms of the Christian view of v i r t u e .  Even h i s fear of demonstrating  cowardice i s  suspect when considered from the C h r i s t i a n view of courage with i t s insistence on prudence.  0  That his insistence on virtue's own l i g h t i s  39  erroneous i s e v i d e n t  i n Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s l i g h t b e i n g  "much  l i k e a shade" ( i . 1 4 ) , and the l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of A r t h u r b l a z i n g w i t h the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t o f God ( v i i . 2 9 and v i i i . 1 9 ) , and Red Cross f a c i n g the Dragon w i t h arms " t h a t heaven w i t h l i g h t d i d f i l l " Before  the cave o f E r r o r , Red Cross Knight  E r r o r Red Cross Knight  (xi.4).  i s i n error, holding a  c l a s s i c a l but erroneous o p i n i o n about t h e nature The  Knight  of v i r t u e .  f o r c e s out o f the den t o f a c e him  i s a composite f i g u r e , h a l f s e r p e n t , h a l f woman.  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of  E r r o r as a s a t a n i c E v e - f i g u r e a l l u d e s to the s e d u c t i o n of Adam i n t o error.  I n t h e m e d i e v a l g l o s s e s , Eve i s read as a f i g u r e who tempts  Adam t o a c t c o n t r a r y t o h i s reason, w h i l e she, h e r s e l f , i s f i g u r e d as an archtype  of t h e d e s i r i n g , a p p e t i t i v e s o u l p e r v e r t e d  p e r v e r t the governing,  rational soul.^  the w o r l d l y body overthrowing  reason.  and s e e k i n g t o  She i s a c a r d i n a l example o f However, the u g l i n e s s of the  f i g u r e the k n i g h t here f a c e s suggests i t i s n o t the e r r o r which T a s s o , i n e x p l a i n i n g the a l l e g o r y of Gerusalemme L i b e r a t o c a l l e d  " t h a t temp-  g t a t i o n which l a y e t h s i e g e t o the Power of our D e s i r e s . "  Rather, by  v i r t u e of the obvious s a t a n i c q u a l i t i e s d i s p l a y e d by the f i g u r e , first  this  t e s t o f f a i t h i s made by way of erroneous r e a s o n i n g , which the 9  k n i g h t has a l r e a d y demonstrated h i s p r o p e n s i t y f o r . E r r o r ' s f i r s t method o f a t t a c k i s to f a c e the k n i g h t and when t h i s f a i l s  she seeks t o b a f f l e him by wrapping him w i t h h e r  t a i l so t h a t he i s unable to move ( i . 1 7 - 1 8 ) .  E s s e n t i a l l y what i s des-  c r i b e d i s E r r o r ' s method of argument: when r e f u t a t i o n f a i l s , tion i s resorted to.  directly,  confuta-  Spenser marks t h i s second method of a t t a c k w i t h  40 the general statement, "God helpe the man traine" (i.18).  so wrapt i n Errours endlesse  At this c r u c i a l point i n the b a t t l e , Una counsels the  addition of f a i t h to the knight's forces ["Add and be not f a i n t " (i.19)].  f a i t h unto your force,  The nature of the knight's opponent requires  that f a i t h , knowledge of truth, be enlisted i n the b a t t l e , but the knight does not understand (i.19)].  the advice ["he heard, i n great p e r p l e x i t i e "  Instead, he summons his strength which frees him but does not  defeat Error. Una, while giving the knight advice about the need for f a i t h , also gives him advice about the t a c t i c to employ ["Strangle her, else she sure w i l l strangle thee" ( i . 1 9 ) ] .  This the knight  and, with a l l his force, proceeds to the task. freeing him, but not i n k i l l i n g Error. but for suspect reasons  understands,  The e f f o r t succeeds i n  Following the advice of truth,  ["His g a l l did grate for g r i e f e and high  disdaine" ( i . 1 9 ) ] , he i s i n the position to resume b a t t l e with Error. The point Spenser makes i s that with the truth of f a i t h beside the knight can elude Error, despite his lack of comprehension.  him, Truth  comes to the aid of man whose propensity i s n a t u r a l l y towards i t ,  and  assists him with p r a c t i c a l advice i n h i s b a t t l e with Error. The e f f e c t , however, of the knight's e f f o r t s to strangle Error i s Error's natural response of vomiting, suggesting that when threatened Error merely pours out erring doctrines to defend i t s e l f .  The spawn  Error vomits forth i s b l i n d , unapproachable by the l i g h t of truth which shines so very dimly i n this worldly forest. i s an immediate diminishing of h i s forces. him:  The e f f e c t on the knight His pride, however r a l l i e s  41  T h u s i l l b e s t e d d , a n d f e a r e f u l l more o f shame, Then o f t h e c e r t a i n e p e r i l l he s t o o d i n , H a l f e f u r i o u s u n t o h i s f o e h e came, R e s o l v ' d i n minde a l l s u d d e n l y t o w i n , Or s o o n e t o l o s e , b e f o r e he" o n c e w o u l d l i r i ; And s t r o o k e a t h e r w i t h m o r e t h a n m a n l y f o r c e , That f r o m h e r body f u l l of f i l t h i e s i n . He r a f t h e r h a t e f u l l h e a d w i t h o u t r e m o r s e ; A streame o f c o l e b l a c k b l o u d f o r t h gushed from h e r c o r s e .  Once a g a i n , knight  i s i n , and.also i l l u s t r a t e s  manly," knight's is  i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , Spenser, p o i n t s o u t t h e d a n g e r  that saves the k n i g h t . very  armour,  t h e power, w h i c h i s  enough t o s a v e h i m .  the  "more.then  What S p e n s e r p o i n t s t o i s t h a t  the f a c t that flawed As w i t h h i s a b i l i t y  (i.24)  he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  the Christian,  to uncomprehendingly•  f o l l o w Una's a d v i c e , , h i s v i c t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e weakness  of  pride  d o e s n o t , n e c e s s a r i l y , i n c a p a c i t a t e the' C h r i s t i a n i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h Error. When E r r o r i s d e a d , s h e i s c a n n i b a l i z e d b y h e r v o m i t e d s p a w n :  They f l o c k e d a l l about h e r b l e e d i n g wound, A n d s u c k e d up t h e i r d y i n g m o t h e r s b l o o d . M a k i n g h e r d e a t h t h e i r l i f e , and eke h e r h u r t  t h e i r good.  (i.25)  The k n i g h t w a t c h e s , a s ,  T h e i r b e l l i e s s w o l n e h e saw w i t h f u l n e s s e b u r s t , , And b o w e l s g u s h i n g f o r t h : w e l l w o r t h y e n d Of s u c h as d r u n k e h e r l i f e . . . . (i.26)  This  conclusion  t o t h e e p i s o d e w i t h E r r o r i n d i c a t e s the. d o c t r i n a l s i g -  n i f i c a n c e of the f i g u r e . the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  I n d e a t h , she p r o v i d e s  a feast which  destroys  The a l l u s i o n i s t o t h e u n r e f o r m e d c h u r c h ' s d o c t r i n e  o f r e a l p r e s e n c e , t h e v i e w t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f man  w i t h God  i s i n the  42  l i t e r a l body of C h r i s t . ^  The  1  and  phrase, "[m]akirig her  death their,  t h e i m m e d i a t e d e a t h o f t h e spawn s u g g e s t s t h a t b l i n d  i n g to the d o c t r i n e of r e a l presence r e s u l t s body of Satan,  and  i n death,  not.life.  The  opinion  in participating  in  whole of the episode  the f o r e s t d e a l s w i t h f a l s e views of the body, of the m a t e r i a l and  the v i c t o r y of the k n i g h t  temptation  he  i s not  The  The  episode  against  n e x t t e s t o f Red  the  as  the  temptation  Cross Knight's  Archimago.  w o o d s , i s r e p l a c e d by  t h e d a r k n e s s o f n i g h t , and  the k n i g h t  from t r u t h .  sleep with passionate l u s t f u l l play"  and  t r u t h by  k n i g h t ' s dim  by  made h i m  altering  truth for real  While the episode  truth.  sleep  Cross  Knight's and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  t r u t h , by  t r u t h , Una. the  essayThe  perplexed  w i t h Error merely suggested  t o t a l incomprehension of d e c e i t .  of the n a t u r a l weaknesses of the k n i g h t , speaking  d e s i r e s w h i l e he  the  which  comprehension of f a i t h , Archimago's n o c t u r n a l  i n d i c a t e the k n i g h t ' s  by  dreame o f l o v e s  the nature  i s much more s u b t l e t h a n E r r o r ' s a t t a c k on  companion of t r u t h .  use  ["And  the  o f shadowy t r u t h , . t h e  Archimago seeks to a l t e r  i n g to i n s i n u a t e the appearance of effort  area  world,  knight's  i s provided  A r c h i m a g o t r o u b l e s Red  d r e a m s o f Una  (i.47)].  between the k n i g h t  The  1 1  in  soon demonstrates,  t o abandon  c o u n t e r f e i t h o l y man,  the  to r e s i s t  that the  legend  faith  hold-  t o comprehend i t ,  p o i n t s out  grounded i n knowledge, and,  is, not:always proof  separates  i s able  t o abandon t r u t h , d e s p i t e h i s i n a b i l i t y  f o r t h e ways of t h e w o r l d . faith  i n d i c a t e s t h a t he  life,"  the  tricks  A r c h i m a g o makes to h i s earthly  i s i n the s t a t e of s l e e p d u r i n g w h i c h r e a s o n i s absent  from c o n t r o l of the  body.  12  43 Archimago's f i r s t ploy f a i l s when the knight refuses to give in to the i n c l i n a t i o n to wrath, instead deciding to test the evidence of his senses with his reason:  A l l cleane dismayd to see so uncouth sight, He thought have slaine her i n his f i e r c e despight: But hasty heat tempring with sufferance wise, He stayde h i s hand, and gan himselfe advise To prove h i s sense, and tempt her faigned truth. (i.50)  The i l l u s i o n of Una speaks to him, and describes her case i n such a way as to b a i t the knight's pride: . . . Ah S i r , my l i e g e Lord and my love, Shall I accuse the hidden c r u e l l fate, And mightie causes wrought i n heaven above, Or the b l i n d God, that doth me thus amate, For hoped love to winne me certaine hate? Yet thus perforce he bids me do, or die. Die i s my dew: yet rew my wretched state You, whom my hard avenging destinie Hath made judge of my l i f e or death i n d i f f e r e n t l y .  (i.51)  This f a l s e figure of Una pleads innocence on the grounds that she i s motivated by forces beyond her ken and which she can not i d e n t i f y . The argument, i n the mouth of this figure of truth, i s suspiciously incoherent, given that she likens fate, a power she should recognize as controlled by God, with b l i n d Cupid, a power she should not acknowledge as equal to fate.  As w e l l , this figure of truth ought not put  the power of l i f e and death into the hands of the mortal and flawed Red Cross Knight.  This power belongs to God alone.  The knight, while not  fathoming the meaning of the counterfeit Una's words, notes that her words are not commensurate with h i s experience ["What frayes ye, that  44  were wont to comfort me affrayd? (i.52)].  The knight suspects the  argument, but, as the text points out, he has not the resources to determine i t s flaws: Her doubtfull words made that redoubted knight Suspect her truth: yet since no'untruth he knew, Her fawning love with foule disdainefull spight He would not shend . . . . (i.52) Innocence ("no'untruth he knew") marks the knight, and suggests both his strength and weakness: while he has pride and is flawed, he knows neither. Earlier, the illusion of Una has argued that her inexperience has led her to "[f]ly to [his] faith for succour and sure ayde" (i.51), and this is quite clearly an inversion of the case.  The  knight's faith, such as i t i s , depends on his lack of worldliness rather than on the certainty of his knowledge. Yet he has both profited by his association with the truth by recognizing that the false Una's argument is not testimony of the truth, and has been able to check his i n i t i a l impulse to passionate action. He, therefore, overcomes this temptation to abandon reason and violently abandon truth, and as well does not succumb to the blandishments of a fabricated truth. However, again, his near escape suggests his f a l l i b i l i t y . The third test of the knight's faith takes place near dawn: By this the Northerne wagoner had set His sevenfold teme behind the stedfast starre, That was in Ocean waves yet never wet, But firme i s f i x t , and sendeth light from farre To a l l , that in the wide deepe wandring arre: And chearefull Chaunticlere with his note s h r i l l Had warned once, that Phoebus fiery carre In hast was climbing up the easterne h i l l , Full envious that night so long his roome did f i l l .  (ii.l)  45  In t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , a prelude to the t e s t , Devil was  ("the N o r t h e r n e w a g o n e r " ) ,  there are a l l u s i o n s  Christ.("the stedfast starre,/  i n Ocean waves y e t n e v e r w e t " ) , and t o t h e f l a w e d f a i t h  whose d e n i a l of C h r i s t i s marked by  the crowing of a cock.  d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o p h e t i c of t h e outcome of t h i s  third  s e r v e s t o s o f t e n t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i l u r e by p l a c i n g  to the That  of P e t e r  13  The  t e s t , and as  well  i t i n the c o n t e x t of  14 Peter's f a i l u r e .  In this  l a s t darkness of the n i g h t ,  Archimago  p r e s e n t s t h e k n i g h t w i t h t h e i l l u s i o n o f an u n f a i t h f u l Una, the l u s t s of the f l e s h . troubled reason a f t e r t h e s i g h t o f Una  Red  seduced  Cross K n i g h t , having b a r e l y . s e t t l e d h i s  t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t , , i s awakened and d i r e c t e d  i n amorous e m b r a c e w i t h t h e i l l u s i o n o f a  k n i g h t , w i t h t h e D w a r f as company, a b a n d o n s Una  hind at the f i r s t  light  of  leaving her  fire"  and  "rage")  its  That r e a s o n i t s e l f  following  embryonic  appetitive  i s not abandoned, b u t r a t h e r s l i p p e d  upward s t a g e of i n t e l l e c t i o n  e v i d e n c e d by  be-  overthrows  courtship w i t h t r u t h , f o r c i n g aside reason's  movement t o i n t e l l e c t i o n b y a c a p i t u l a t i o n t o t h e p o w e r o f desire.  (ii.5)  day.  Thus, p e r v e r s e p a s s i o n ("gealous reason's tenuous  by  to  lover,  W h i c h , when h e saw, h e b u r n t w i t h g e a l o u s f i r e The e y e . o f r e a s o n was w i t h r a g e . y b l e n t And w o u l d h a v e s l a i n e them i n h i s f u r i o u s i r e .  The  by  from  t o a s t a g e o f mere p r a c t i c a l l i t y , i s  t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Dwarf as companion t o t h e k n i g h t  t h e abandonment o f Una.  Dwarf whose c h a r g e i s t h e h o r s e and body, abandoning  Red  Cross Knight leaves w i t h  the  armour, and Una's n e e d m e n t s , t h e  t r u t h f o r t h e body.. F a i t h , h a v i n g overcome, w i t h  the  46 assistence of truth, the test of erring opinion based on a false valuation of the material world, and a test of the knowledge of truth, albeit small, fails before the onslaught of perverse passion. His ruling passion, will, leads him, whereas the will should seek that which reason directs, and be guided by truth ["Will was his guide, and griefe led him astray" (ii.12)]. The precise nature of the knight's failure of faith is suggested in his meeting with Sans foy and Fidessa, the first incident which involves the knight after he leaves Una. Attacked by Sans foy, Red Cross Knight makes short work of the battle, dispatching his opponent easily (ii.15-19). The implication of this battle is that faithlessness (Sans foy) has not been the knight's undoing in his failure to continue as Una's champion. However, Fidessa, Sans foy's companion, easily insinuates herself into the knight's sympathy, and becomes his companion (ii.21-27). Fidessa, as the tale she tells to Red Cross Knight reveals, is falsehood disguised as truth. Appearing faithful, she does not know even the most rudimentary articles of faith. As an instance, she reveals ignorance of the ascension of Christ: His blessed body spoild of lively breath, Was afterward, I know not how, convaid And frome hid .... (ii.24) She suggests, thus, the absence of knowledge about anything but the material world, and thus the absence of faith. As well, in her description of Christ, she reveals her belief, if such it may be termed,  47  i n a p p e a r a n c e , , and  Was Was  Balancing  thus again  i n the: m a t e r i a l  n e v e r P r i n c e so f a i t h f u l l n e v e r P r i n c e s o meeke and  "faire" with " f a i t h f u l l , "  F i d e s s a as  counterfeit faithful.  and  Yet  world:  and s o f a i r e , debonaire. (ii.23)  "debonaire"  t e s t of h i s f a i t h ,  "meeke" u n m a s k s  the k n i g h t n o t i c e s none of  In a d e s c r i p t i o n which r e c a p i t u l a t e s h i s f a i l u r e final  with  Spenser d e s c r i b e s him  t o meet A r c h i m a g o ' s  as,  More b u s y i n g h i s q u i c k e e y e s , her f a c e to v i e w , Then h i s d u l l e a r e s , t o h e a r e what she d i d t e l l .  His f a i l u r e sult not  t o f l u s h out  this  of h i s u n r u l y p a s s i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t he  h e a r s them.  f i g u r e of d e c e i t f u l f a i t h  and  i s unaware o f . h e r w o r d s , but  r a t h e r t h a t he  This  A r c h i m a g o , Sans f o y , , a n d F i d e s s a a r g u e s f o r c e f u l l y l i k e P e t e r ' s , i s not  of h i s •  that the  knight's  r a t h e r of  awesome o b s t a c l e s b e t w e e n t h e k n i g h t , t h e n a t u r a l C h r i s t i a n ,  l a t i o n of p r e v i o u s  events.  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h his  By  stop  [ s h e i s t h e d a u g h t e r o f an (ii.22)],  has  i n s i s t e n c e on m a t e r i a l i s m .  succumbed t o e r r o r , by  This  t h e . f a i t h of  e m p e r o r who  has  Spenser mocks,  the C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e of e u c h a r e s t i a , s u g g e s t i n g f a i t h o f an  and  the faith.  at t h i s p o i n t ;in h i s r e c a p i t u -  linking Fidessa with  t h r o n e , where T i b e r i s doth pass"  barely  incident with  evidence of f a i t h l e s s but  S p e n s e r , however, does not  re-  Spenser does  i n p a r t the r e s u l t  l a c k of the knowledge which c o n s t i t u t e s f a i t h .  failure,  (ii.26)  i s both the  of h i s l a c k of knowledge.  Thus h i s f a i l u r e i s a t l e a s t  this.  again  the  "set ,  again,  danger'to  suggests t h a t the  association with Fidessa.  the  I t also  knight recalls  48 the phrase "dead as l i v i n g " used to describe the knight's love for Christ at the beginning of the legend  (i.2).  During Fidessa's tale of her career to the point of her meeting with Red Cross Knight, she explains to the knight that the opponent he has just s l a i n i s one of three brothers: "' 1  There l i e s he now with foule dishonour dead, Who whiles he l i v ' d e , was called proud Sans foy, The eldest of three brethren, a l l three bred Of one bad s i r e , whose youngest i s Sans joy, And twixt them both was borne the bloudy bold Sans loy. Fidessa's order of l i s t i n g the brothers corresponds  (ii.25)  to the b i b l i c a l  order of the c h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s of which these brothers are an i n f e r n a l 16 parody.  The three brothers, j o i n t l y , are the antithesis of the state  of Holiness, which i s comprised of f a i t h , hope, and charity.  Fidessa,  l i s t i n g the brothers, describes an order of generation which d i f f e r s from the order of her l i s t .  In terms of generation, Sans foy i s the  f i r s t , Sans loy the second, and Sans joy the l a s t of these sons of the "bad s i r e , "  Satan.  Aquinas, explaining Paul's statement that charity i s the l a s t but greatest of the theological v i r t u e s , argues that there i s both an order of perfection and an order of generation. ^ 1  In Fidessa's descrip-  tion, generation i s the key to comprehending the order, with the generation of the three theological v i r t u e s finding i t s parody i n Fidessa's order.  The point i s that one s i r e , Satan, caused the creation  of these i n f e r n a l v i r t u e s i n a s p e c i f i c order which i s neither i d e n t i c a l with the order of perfection or the order of generation by which Paul  49  describes entered  the three  theological virtues.  into creation f i r s t ,  F a i t h l e s s n e s s and  and w i t h t h e F a l l  and t h e c r e a t i o n o f  p e r m a n e n t d a m n a t i o n , j o y l e s s n e s s came i n t o e x i s t e n c e y e who  enter here").  1  Later, during  lawlessness  the temptation  ("Abandon Hope a l l  o f Red C r o s s  Knight's  h o p e , h i s o p p o n e n t , Sans j o y , i s n u r s e d b a c k .to h e a l t h i n h i s p r o p e r domain, hopeless convinced  h e l l , by A e c a l a p i u s ,  o f h i s own h o p e l e s s  t h e p h y s i c i a n who m u s t f i r s t  condition before  be  m i n i s t e r i n g t o Sans j o y  (v.36-44). Faithlessness, lawlessness,  and h o p e l e s s n e s s  K n i g h t , a c c o r d i n g " t o " t h e o r d e r /of " g e n e r a t i o n . d i r e c t l y a t t a c k Red C r o s s K n i g h t , lessness  a t t a c k Red  W h i l e Sans l o y does n o t  h i s a t t a c k o n Una s u g g e s t s t h e l a w -  t h a t i s t h e c a u s e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s abandonment  of the t r u t h .  L a w l e s s n e s s i s a p e r m a n e n t t h r e a t t o t h e k n i g h t , as p o s s e s s i n g passions against  o f t h e b o d y h e i s f o r e v e r t h r e a t e n e d " b y them. the threat of lawlessness  Cross  the  The o n l y  proof  i s a n a t u r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f and  18 loyalty entrance  to truth.  The t e s t o f t h e k n i g h t ' s  c h a r i t y begins  i n t o the f o r e s t a t the s t a r t of the legend,.and  u n t i l f i n a l l y he abandons h i s armour and succumbs charms o f F i d e s s a  ( v i i . 2 and 7 ) .  c h a r i t y , t h e abandonment  The f i n a l  and h i s l e w d  f a i l u r e of the knight's  d e s c r i p t i o n of the generation  brothers, hopelessness longs  f o r death,  t o the lewd  f a i l u r e of the knight's  s i g n a l e d by h i s s i n f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f a l s e f a i t h . with Fidessa's  continues  totally  o f h i s q u e s t on Una's b e h a l f  embrace o f F i d e s s a marks a l s o t h e f i n a l  with his  and i n t h e dave o f D e s p a i r  In accordance  of the three,  follows f o r the knight.  infernal  I n Or.goglio's  he succumbs  faith  c a s t l e he  to despair.  50 As a termination to this test of the knight's Holiness, Fidessa and Red Cross Knight are shown seeking sanctuary from the oppressive heat of mid-day i n the shelter of two trees.  Nelson notes the s i m i l a r -  i t y between the woods of Error and these two trees which cast "a calme 19 shadow f a r i n compasse round" ( i i . 2 8 ) .  By framing the test with  these two, related, aboreal images, Spenser implies that Red Cross Knight's f a i l u r e i s mitigated by v i r t u e of his belonging to the family of Adam, represented by the l i v i n g trees, Fradubio and F r a e l i s s a . Tracing the names and s i t u a t i o n of this p a i r , Nelson argues that this configuration i s an emblem of f a l l e n mankind, Adam and Eve.  He points  out that the names Fradubio, " i n doubt," or "brother doubt," and F r a e l i s s a , " f a i l t y , " both suggest the " f o l l y of Adam and the weakness  20 of Eve that brought about the F a l l . "  Red Cross Knight echoes the  notion of man as f r a i l when, after mastering h i s i n i t i a l f r i g h t over the cries of Fradubio, he asks, What voyce of damned Ghost from Limbo lake, Or g u i l e f u l l spright wandring i n empty a i r e , Both which f r a i l e men do oftentimes mistake, Sends to my doubtfull eares these speaches rare?  (ii.32)  As w e l l , Spenser indicates the knight's likeness to Fradubio by having him describe h i s ears as "doubtfull."  Fradubio, i t turns out, abandoned  F r a e l i s s a for the apparently b e a u t i f u l Duessa, and therefore Red Cross Knight shares his flaws. F i n a l l y , to complete the gloss of this emblem, Spenser presents the following exchange between Red Cross Knight and Fradubio:  51  B u t how l o n g t i m e , s a i d t h e n t h e E l f i n k n i g h t , Are you i n t h i s misformed house t o d w e l l ? We may n o t c h a u n g e ( q u o t h - h e ) t h i s e v i l p l i g h t , T i l l we b e b a t h e d i n l i v i n g w e l l ; That i s t h e term p r e s c r i b e d by t h e s p e l l . 0 how, s a i d h e , m o t e I t h a t w e l l o u t f i n d , T h a t may r e s t o r e y o u t o y o u r w o n t e d w e l l ? Time and s u f f i s e d f a t e s t o former kynd S h a l l u s r e s t o r e , n o n e e l s e f r o m h e n c e may u s u n b y n d . . ( i i . 4 3 )  The  i r o n y o f t h e k n i g h t ' s second  precisely  q u e s t i o n i s o b v i o u s , f o r he stands  i n need, a t t h i s p o i n t , of t h e " l i v i n g w e l l . "  The  w e l l , " a n image t h a t o c c u r s a g a i n a t t h e end o f t h e l e g e n t of  course, baptism  Through baptism  i n C h r i s t , evidence  (xi.29), i s ,  o f God's l o v e f o r m a n k i n d .  o l d Adam b e c o m e s new man.  Adam a n d E v e h i d e e i t h e r  "living  A c c o r d i n g to, A u g u s t i n e ,  i n s i d e a t r e e o r w i t h i n t h e shade o f i t , 21  meaning t h a t they h i d w i t h i n themselves, The  shunning  the light  of truth.  s i m i l a r i t y - o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t o f F r a d u b i o  clearly  implies that h i s state at this point i s l i k e  after disobedience.  H i s h a v i n g been tempted through h i s senses and  appetite into a d e n i a l of the t r u t h i s repeated Fradubio  and F r a e l i s s a ,  and h i s f a l l  h e h a s r e c a p i t u l a t e d Adam's Wilfully hellish  t h a t o f Adam  i n the allegory of  m i t i g a t e d by t h e i m p l i c a t i o n  that  fall.  s e p a r a t e d from Una, and accompanying, l u s t f u l l y , h e r  c o u n t e r p a r t , F i d e s s a , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s . d i s p o s s e s s e d o f t r u e  f a i t h and i n danger o f l o s i n g ,  completely, charity.  In this  state,  F i d e s s a , t h e f o u l w i t c h D u e s s a , . s e e k s t o overcome t h e k n i g h t ' s Hope, the l a s t , untested, b a s t i o n of H o l i n e s s i n h i s s o u l . into  She l e a d s h i m  t h e e a r t h l y c i t y , r u l e d b y L u c i f e r a , and t h e r e t h e a s s a u l t b e g i n s .  H o w e v e r , a t t h i s p o i n t t h e l e g e n d t a k e s up t h e p l i g h t o f U n a f o l l o w i n g  her  abandonment b y t h e k n i g h t , and d e a l s w i t h t h e s e c o n d ,  virtue,  lawlessness.'  infernal  53  NOTES "'"Nelson, p. 158. 2 Tasso, p. 40; quoted i n Nelson, p. 158.  3 V i r g i l i s Opera, f o l . 124v; trans, i n Nelson, p. 159.  4 Matthew 7:13; Augustine, City of Man, xv.21. 5  0 n Pride of L i f e see John 2:16, Ruskin, Works, I, 130. Aquinas, 468.  Gardner, pp. 79-80. g Tasso, p. 40. 9 The knight's view that v i r t u e provides i t s own l i g h t trates erring reason. 7  illus-  "^For a discussion of this see John Calvin, Institutes of The Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge (London, 1953), I I , 555-605, and John Jewel, An Apology of the Church of England, ed. J . E. Parker (Ithaca, 1963), pp. 97-98. "'""'"In the scheme of the legend, Archimago's r o l e i s to exploit the knight's weaknesses i n order to separate him from truth, rendering him prey to falsehood, Duessa, and worldliness, thereby exposing the knight's soul to damnation. 12 On reason's absence during sleep see Ruth E l l i s Messenger, E t h i c a l Teachings i n the L a t i n Hymns of Medieval England (New York, 1930), p. 65. Mark 14:30.  13  T h e a l l u s i o n to Peter's doubt argues that the knight's coming f a i l u r e i s the result of the inevitable weakness of man. 14  F i d e s s a ' s tale has i t s counterpart i n Una's tale of her history l a t e r i n the legend (vii.43-50). A comparison reveals the worldliness of Fidessa's t a l e . 15  l  Corinthians 13:13.  l  o  17  Aquinas, 153-154.  54 18  The hunting Lion's spontaneous "love" for Una argues that order i s natural, and, i n the moral scheme of the legend, that Nature i s good rather than neutral. 19  N e l s o n , pp. 160-163.  20  P.  162.  21 Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manicheos," Patrologia Latina, ed. J . P. Migne (Paris, 1877), xxxiv, 208, trans. Nelson, p. 163.  IV  The Test of Charity  The story of Una's wandering search for the knight who has f o r saken her for a counterfeit truth appears somewhat of a digression i n the Legend of Holiness.-  Yet, c a r e f u l l y woven as i t i s into the legend  from the point of Una's abandonment to the point at which Prince Arthur frees Red Cross Knight from Orgoglio's c a s t l e , i t has the q u a l i t i e s of a digression which comes to r i v a l the main story i n importance. ' I t i s a digression which keeps pace with the knight's errant quest for truth. The l i n k between the story of Una's experiences while searching for her champion, and the knight's experiences while separate from truth l i e s ;  i n the pattern, developed i n the story of Una's experiences, which describes the relationship between love of truth and the f a c u l t i e s of the soul. Una,  "her due loves deriv'd to that v i l e witches share"  (iii.2),  strays " [ i ] n wildernesse and w a s t f u l l deserts . . . . , / To seeke her knight" ( i i i . 3 ) .  During this search, and i n a pointed comparison with  the knight,,she alights from her "unhastie beast," and, weary,  . ... on the grasse her daintie limbes did lay , In secret shadow, farre from a l l mens sight:, From her f a i r e head her f i l l e t she undight,. And l a i d her stole aside.. Her angels face As the great eye of heaven shyned b r i g h t j And made a sunshine i n the shadie place; Did never mortal! eye behold such heavenly grace. (iii.4)  55  56  T h i s i s an image o f t r u t h m a n i f e s t , sweeping  away t h e s h a d o w s o f  and  Cross .Knight.  i l l u s i o n , , s h a d o w s w h i c h h a v e t r a p p e d Red  Her  " u n h a s t i e beast", s u g g e s t s o r d e r l y government of the body, u n l i k e knight's, i n a b i l i t y his of  to curb the impulses of h i s "mettlesome"  p a s s i o n s , w h i c h h a v e b o r n e h i m away f r o m t h e t r u t h . r e p o s e , Una  i s chanced  error  horse  In this  the (i.l), state  upon by a l i o n f o r a g i n g f o r f o o d :  It  f o r t u n e d o u t o f t h e t h i c k e s t wood A ramping Lyon rushed s u d d a i h l y , Hunting f u l l greedie a f t e r salvage blood; . Soone as t h e r o y a l l v i r g i n h e d i d ' s p y , W i t h g a p i n g mouth a t h e r r a n g r e e d i l y , To h a v e a t t o n c e d e v o u r ' d h e r t e n d e r c o r s e : B u t t o t h e p r a y when ,as he d r e w m o r e n y , His b l o u d i e rage asswaged w i t h remorse, And w i t h t h e s i g h t a m a z d , f o r g a t h i s f u r i o u s f o r s e . In  The  s t e a d t h e r e o f he ; k i s t h e r w e a r i e f e e t , And l i c k t h e r l i l l y h a n d s w i t h f a w n i n g t p n g , As h e h e r w r o n g e d i n n o c e n c e d i d w e e t . (iii.5-6)  l o v e the l i o n demonstrates  h a v i o u r w i t h t h a t o f Red  f o r Una  prompts h e r t o compare h i s b e -  Cross Knight:  The L y o n L o r d o f e v e r i e b e a s t i n f i e l d , Quoth, s h e , h i s p r i n c e l y p u i s s a n c e d o t h a b a t e , And i n i g h t i e p r o u d t o h u m b l e w e a k e d o e s y i e l d , F o r g e f f u l l of the hungry rage, which l a t e Him p r i c k t , i n p i t t i e o f my s a d e s t a t e : . B u t h e my L y o n , and my n o b l e L o r d , How d o e s h e f i n d i n c r u e l l h a r t t o h a t e H e r t h a t h i m l o v ' d , and e v e r m o s t a d o r d , As t h e God o f my l i f e ? why h a t h he me a b h o r d ? (iii.7)  The tites  l i o n ' s b e h a v i o u r .is h e r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms  checked  by  t h e v i s i o n o f t r u t h . , . The  q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t i f a savage  of r a g i n g appe-  i m p l i c a t i o n of Una's  beast can demonstrate  submission to  truth,  57  t h e k n i g h t , who a s a man i s l o r d should  of a l l of the beasts  a l s o be able t o love t r u t h .  However, t h e a b i l i t y  1  a p p e t i t e t o submit t o government i s a n a t u r a l a b i l i t y b y .the F a l l .  of the f i e l d ,  The a r c h example o f t h i s s u b v e r s i o n  of beastly  subverted  i n man  i s Sans loy,.whom  Spenser d e s c r i b e s as " l a w l e s s l u s t "  ( v i . g l o s s ) , a n d who s e e k s t o  s a t i s f y h i s appetites despite being  confronted  The  love the l i o n  ("prickt, i n p i t t i e panies  the l i o n , u n t i l  The l i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y accom-  f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t .  The j o u r n e y  i n v o l v i n g t h e . t r i o of Corceca,  A b e s s a , and K i r k r a p i n e ,  t h e second Archimago d i s g u i s e d as Red C r o s s The  first  episode  presents  tuary i n the dwelling of Corceca analogous w i t h  o f Una and  t h e m e e t i n g w i t h S a n s l o y , . i s p u n c t u a t e d b y two e p i - ' •  sodes, t h e. f i r s t and  shows f o r U n a s h e d e s c r i b e s a s c h a r i t a b l e  o f my s a d e s t a t e " ) .  Una i n h e r s e a r c h  b y Una u n v e i l e d .  Knight.  Una.in the wilderness,  ("blindness"), Abessa  "Duessa" and s u g g e s t i n g  "abbess"),  seeking  ("ab  sanc-  esse,'"  and K i r k r a p i n e  2 ("rapacious  church").  T h e d w e l l i n g , " u n d e r t h e s t e e p e f o o t o f a moun-  taine hore"  ( i i i . 1 0 ) which i s reached by a w e l l trodden  counterpart  o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s  path,  t h r o u g h w h i c h Red C r o s s  passes t o gain the pinnacle of t h e mountain of Contemplation. blind  Corceca t e l l i n g h e r beads  (iii.13)  i s the opposite  i sa Knight The  of C a e l i a ,  h e a v e n l y wisdom,,the b e a d - t e l l i n g g o v e r n e s s o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s (x.3).  C o r e c a , A b e s s a , and K i r k r a p i n e i n t h i s c l o i s t e r  b l i n d unholiness  o f -the Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h .  suggest t h e  When U n a b e g s  sanctuary,  the  i n m a t e s , C o r e c a and A b e s s a r e f u s e , f e a r i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f t r u t h  and  her n a t u r a l guardian.  Their  charity i s non-existent,  ;  58  The (iii.18) the  r a p a c i t y o f K i r k r a p i n e and  the perverse d e s i r e s  Abessa  i n the p r e s e n c e of C o r c e c a ' s b l i n d f a i t h argues d i s o r d e r  soul.  Appetite  f o r g o t t e n and t r u t h and  r u l e s , and  i n i t s place  darkness marks the d w e l l i n g , w i t h  only  lust.  a p p e t i t e , r e f l e c t e d b y Una  perverse order destroying  of  p u r s u e d and  the perverse  cursed  Kirkrapine.  and  charity  n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the  lion,  e a s i l y overcomes of the  and  the  lion  C o r c e c a and  leave  the d w e l l i n g , only  Abessa f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n  f u r i e s of revenge, they r a i l  against  the  the  lion  to  be  of truth in  f o r vengeance,  . . . her accusing of dishonesty, T h a t was t h e f l o w r e o f f a i t h and c h a s t i t y .  In t h e i r b l i n d n e s s , Cross Knight,  of  Kirkrapine.  at by  L i k e two  their passion  The  the d w e l l i n g , the w e l l - g o v e r n e d a p p e t i t e  I n t h e m o r n i n g , Una  t h e y a p p e a l t o A r c h i m a g o , who,  chances t o pass by.  f a c t t h a t A r c h i m a g o a p p e a r s t o be Knight,  of  i n v o k e d by  C o r c e c a and  The  i r o n y of  the patron  c o u n t e r f e i t e d as  the  appeal l i e s  of H o l i n e s s ,  Abessa to destroy  (iii.23)  Una,  the  Red  in  Red the  Cross  f i g u r e of  3 truth.  Their  appeal,  of  c o u r s e , p r o v e s w e l l d i r e c t e d , and  d i s g u i s e d , sets o f f to f i n d On  m e e t i n g Una,  c h a r i t y of her  with  an  appeal to  Una.  Archimago's c o u n t e r f e i t b e n e f i t s from  l o v e f o r Red  l i s t e n s w h i l e he  Archimago,  Cross Knight.  D u p e d by A r c h i m a g o ,  d e f e n d s t h e b e h a v i o u r o f Red reason:  the she  Cross Knight towards  Una  59 Farre be i t from your thought, and from my w i l l , To think that knighthood I so much should shame, As you to leave, that have me loved s t i l l , And chose i n Faery court of meere goodwill, Where noblest knights were to be found on earth: The earth s h a l l sooner leave her kindly s k i l l To bring forth f r u i t , and make e t e r n a l l derth, Then I leave you, my l i e f e , yborne of heavenly berth.  There i s i n this speech both error and cunning sophistry. Knight was  (iii.28)  Red  Cross  chosen for the quest not because "of mere goodwill," but  rather, as Una explains l a t e r to Prince Arthur, as the r e s u l t of his innocence and courage ( v i i . 4 7 ) .  Archimago, overlooking innocence,  assumes the choice was based on a f f e c t i o n .  In h i s analogy between Red  Cross Knight's steadfastness and the perpetual c r e a t i v i t y of the earth, sophistry i s evident: while i t i s true that the earth i s u n l i k e l y to abandon eternally her creative r o l e , she does abandon i t annually. The statement c a r e f u l l y circumvents any reference to winter.  Archimago,  both by error and cunning avoids mention of either innocence or death as i t normally occurs i n nature, thereby avoiding any a l l u s i o n to the F a l l and his association with i t , and therefore not a l e r t i n g Una to the danger she i s i n . What Archimago avoids mention of i s the occasion by which truth came to be v e i l e d from man.  Una i s deceived, though,  not by the lust that deceived Red Cross Knight, but by the charity that marks her love for the knight. Sans loy appears following the counterfeit Red Cross r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with Una,  Knight's  and the knight i s spurred to the defence of  Una by her encouraging words.  This p a r a l l e l s , i n i t s irony, the encour-  agement Red Cross Knight takes as meant for himself during the l a t e r  60 b a t t l e he has with Sans joy ( v . 1 1 ) .  The counterfeit Fidessa s words 1  of encouragement to Sans joy proves to be Sans joy's undoing i n his b a t t l e with Red Cross Knight.  Here, Una's words breed i r o n i c hope i n  the breast of Archimago, and he s a l l i e s forth to immediate' defeat before Sans loy.  The p a r a l l e l informs us, by reinforcement,.that  deceit i s l i a b l e to deceit, caught i n i t s own web of i l l u s i o n , and that innocence, to some extent, proves an a l l y i n confronting deceit. The description of Sans loy reveals the character of Una's enemy:.. F u l l strongly armd, arid on a courser free, That through h i s fiercenesse fomed a l l with sweat, And the sharpe yron did for anger eat, When h i s hot ryder spurd his chauffed side; His looke was sterne, and seemed s t i l l to threat C r u e l l revenge, which he i n hart did hyde, And on his shield Sans loy i n bloudie l i n e s was dyde.  (iii.33)  The mettlesome nature of the knight's horse, angered at the spur and "free," suggests that the horse has r e i n .  This,.coupled with the des-  c r i p t i o n of Sans loy's wrath, argues that, i n his case, f l e s h controls s p i r i t , that the appetites control the faculty.of reason.  Again, there  i s a p a r a l l e l with Red Cross Knight, whose horse e a r l i e r was described as mettlesome, and whose misanthropy and wrath overcoming reason. Cross Knight's misanthropy i a t e l y to be the case.  towards Una was the result of l u s t  The p a r a l l e l i s an indication that Red  i s about to be reenacted, as proves immed-  But as w e l l i t suggests that the Legend of  Holiness w i l l here turn to deal with the behaviour of man and i t s causes.  towards truth,  61  Sans l o y , u n m a s k i n g h i s v i c t i m , A r c h i m a g o , p r i o r him,  r e c o g n i z e s h i s e r r o r i n a t t a c k i n g t h e c o u n t e r f e i t Red  A b o r t i n g h i s e f f o r t , and  a p o l o g i z i n g t o A r c h i m a g o , he  b e a s t l y a p p e t i t e t o w a r d s Una. her,  to  b u t Sans l o y p r o v e s  The  lion  t o o c u n n i n g and  g u a r d i n g Una  i s attributed  Cross Knight.  turns h i s essays to  s l a y s Una's c h a m p i o n ,  her a p p a r e n t l y d e f e n s e l e s s to h i s advances. the l i o n  killing  defend leaving  Sans l o y ' s c o n q u e s t  t o h i s " p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and  the reason  of  he  commands:.  0 t h e n t o o w e a k e and f e e b l e was t h e f o r c e Of s a l v a g e b e a s t , h i s p u i s s a n c e t o w i t h s t a n d : F o r he was s t r o n g , and o f s o m i g h t i e c o r s e , A s e v e r w i e l d e d speare•* i n w a r l i k e h a n d , Arid f e a t e s o f armes d i d w i s e l y u n d e r s t o o d . (iii.42)  The the'  p o i n t o f Sans l o y ' s v i c t o r y o v e r t h e l i o n  i s that i t i s  triumph of subverted reason, s e r v i n g a p p e t i t e , over  o r d e r l y b u t u n a i d e d by r e a s o n . him dominion,  and  defeat the l i o n .  R e a s o n s e t s man  over the b e a s t ,  giving  Sans l o y ' s s u b v e r t e d r e a s o n i s more t h a n enough t o Una,  at t h i s p o i n t , i s i n serious  jeopardy:  Her f a i t h f u l l g a r d remov'd, h e r hope d i s m a i d , Her s e l f e a y e e l d e d p r a y t o save o r s p i l l . He now L o r d o f t h e f i e l d , h i s p r i d e t o f i l l , W i t h f o u i e r e p r o c h e s , and d i s d a i n f u l l s p i g h t H e r v i l d l y e n t e r t a i n e s , and w i l l o r n i l l , B e a r e s h e r away u p o n h i s c o u r s e r l i g h t . (iii.43)  • • ^  Sans l o y i s d e s c r i b e d i n a f a s h i o n w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t i o n o f t h e l i o n he has in field," the l i o n  appetite,  and  just  slain.  "mightie proud"  submits  The  (iii.7).  l i o n was  the e a r l i e r "lord  descrip-  of e v e r i e  Faced w i t h the u n v e i l e d  to c o n t r o l , demonstrating c h a r i t y .  beast Una,  Sans l o y , upon  62  u n v e i l i n g Una, i s f u r t h e r k i n d l e d i n h i s l u s t , t h e o p p o s i t e of c h a r i t y . The p r i d e he seeks " t o f i l l "  i s t h e p r i d e o f t h e f l e s h w h i c h has  s u z e r a i n t y over h i s r e a s o n and w h i c h was i m p l i c i t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of  h i s horse having c o n t r o l of the b i t .  Marked by t h e p a r a l l e l w i t h  4 the.  l i o n , h i s b e h a v i o u r i s c l e a r l y u n n a t u r a l and immoral.  And f i n a l l y ,  Una's p a l f r e y i s d e s c r i b e d as "more m i l d i n b e a s t l y k i n d , t h e n t h a t h e r beastly foe" (iii.44).  Caxton p r o v i d e s an i l l u m i n a t i n g g l o s s o f t h i s  comparison: "And man t h a t i s c a l l y d a b e s t e r e s o n a b l e and doth, n o t h i s werke a f t e r r e s o n and t r u t h e I s more b e s t y a l l t h a n any b e s t e b r u t e . . . ."  5  I t i s the a p p e t i t e ' s c o n t r o l of reason, a l a w l e s s s t a t e ,  w h i c h p r o v i d e s Sans l o y ' s p h y s i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y over t h e b e a s t s and a l s o his  moral i n f e r i o r i t y .  Una, t h e t r u t h , i s q u i t e d e f e n s e l e s s b e f o r e t h e  u n n a t u r a l d i s o r d e r Sans l o y r e p r e s e n t s . Sans l o y ' s a t t a c k on Una resembles Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s abandonment o f h e r .  I n t h e case of Red C r o s s K n i g h t , Archimago k i n d l e d t h e  k n i g h t ' s a p p e t i t e s t o t h e p o i n t where r e a s o n was overthrown by w r a t h sparked by l u s t .  I n a neat i n v e r s i o n o f t h i s sequence, Sans l o y ' s  " w r a t h f u l l f i r e " i s t u r n e d t o " l u s t f u l l h e a t " as he v i e w s h i s v i c t i m (vi.3).  However, whereas Sans l o y i s a permanent embodiment o f an  e v i l , d i s o r d e r e d s t a t e w h i c h t h r e a t e n s man, Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s t h e v i c t i m o f e v i l f o r c e s . , B u t t r e s s e d by a l l u s i o n s t o P e t e r ' s doubt, and to  t h e k n i g h t ' s i n n o c e n c e , Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s b e h a v i o u r i s s t r e t c h e d  a g a i n s t . t h e backdrop o f human f a l l i b i l i t y  r a t h e r t h a n human e v i l .  Sans l o y f i r s t seeks t o w i n Una t o h i s d e s i r e s by t h e employment of  h i s r e a s o n , e s s a y i n g t o persuade h e r t o y i e l d t o h i m ( v i . 3 ) .  Unable  63  t o g a i n h i s end by " d i v e r s e g u i l e , " he r e s o r t s t o v i o l e n c e t h e edge o f d e s t r u c t i o n , Una i s r e s c u e d sending God's  a horde of Satyrs  intent to preserve  At  by t h e hand o f  Providence  This miracle  i s a s i g n of .  to the scene. t r u t h f o r man,  (vi.3).  and n o t t o abandon t r u t h t o  chaos. ° U n a comes t o r e s i d e w i t h t h e S a t y r s who beast, lion,  a r e p a r t man,  a n d i s w o r s h i p p e d b y them i n a n i d o l a t r o u s f a s h i o n . they  to teach  recognize  "her heavenly grace"  them t r u t h t h e y  as h a v i n g  fail  u n a b l e t o comprehend t r u t h .  They a r e c a r n a l , more b e a s t lion  w h i c h Una's r a d i a n t t r u t h c o n q u e r e d e a r l i e r .  turned Their  i s n o t c h a r i t y b u t i n f a t u a t i o n , and w h i l e n o t e v i l , clearly a hopelessly  reason  t h a n man,  humble  idolatrous worship, her  love of the truth this infatuation  l i m i t e d : k i n d of love:  t r u t h amongst t h e S a t y r s , and t r a p p e d  Una meets S a t y r a n e ,  i n l e a v i n g t h e S a t y r s and t h e i r  the r e s u l t of the passion  a f i g u r e who  f o r e s t behind.  a S a t y r , a s h i s name i m p l i e s , a l t h o u g h was  and  servant  . . . [Una] l o n g t i m e w i t h t h a t s a l v a g e p e o p l e s t a i d , To g a t h e r b r e a t h i n many m i s e r i e s . During which time h e r g e n t l e w i t she p l y e s , To t e a c h them t r u t h , w h i c h w o r s h i p t h e r i n v a i n e , And made h e r t h ' Image o f I d o l a t r y e s ; B u t when t h e i r b o p t l e s s e z e a l e s h e d i d r e s t r a i n e F r o m h e r own w o r s h i p , t h e y h e r A s s e w o u l d w o r s h i p f a y n .  Unable t o spread  attempts,  Described  t h e S a t y r s embody a f e e b l e  o n l y b a r e l y above t h e l e v e l o f t h e r a g i n g  is  L i k e the  ( v i . 9 ) , b u t when s h e  t o comprehend h e r t e a c h i n g .  "feeble eyes" ( v i . l 9 ) ,  part  m o r e man  eventually  (yi.19)  by  their  assists  Satyrane i s himself  than beast.  His birth  of Thyamis f o r T h e r i o n w h i c h prompted h e r  64  to e n t e r a wood i n s e a r c h of him, o n l y to k i n d l e " c o l e s of l u s t i n [the]  b r u t i s h eye" of a S a t y r who  chanced  to come a c r o s s her  (vi.,22).  The woods of c o u r s e suggest b o d i l i n e s s and s e n s u a l i t y , and the b i r t h of  S a t y r a n e i s the r e s u l t of i n f l a m e d a p p e t i t e .  Learning to "banish  c o w a r d i z e and b a s t a r d f e a r e " ( v i . 2 4 ) , . S a t y r a n e ' s growth t o manhood i s d e f i n e d as a time of h i s g a i n i n g l o r d s h i p over the b e a s t s of f o r e s t and f i e l d . ^ his  Having a human mother and t h e r e f o r e b e i n g more man  than  f a t h e r , he overgoes h i s f a t h e r i n c o n q u e r i n g the b e a s t s of the  f o r e s t and f i e l d , and i s a b l e t o f o r c e them i n t o "yron yokes": And f o r t o make h i s powre approved more, Wyld b e a s t s i n y r o n yokes he would c o m p e l l ; The s p o t t e d P a n t h e r , and the t u s k e d B o r e , The P a r d a l e s w i f t , and the T i g r e c r u e l l ; The A n t e l o p e , and Wolfe b o t h f i e r c e and f e l l ; And them c o r i s t r a i n e i n e q u a l l teme to. draw. Such j o y he had, t h e i r stubborne h a r t s to q u e l l , And s t i i r d i e courage tame w i t h d r e a d f u l l aw, That h i s beheast they f e a r e d , as a t y r a n s law. ( v i . 2 6 ) The d e s c r i p t i o n of S a t y r a n e ' s c h a r i o t i s i n t e n d e d t o summon up comparison w i t h t h e i r o n c h a r i o t p u l l e d by s i x of the seven d e a d l y s i n s and guided by the s e v e n t h , P r i d e , i n the.House of P r i d e ( i v . 1 8 ) .  The  bending of t h e w i l d b e a s t s t o " y r o n y o k e s " a l l u d e s to t h e c u r b i n g , by S a t y r a n e , of h i s b e a s t l y appetites,- an a c t beyond t h e c a p a c i t y of h i s more b e a s t l y f a t h e r .  H i s c h a r i o t ' s b e i n g drawn " i n e q u a l teme" i s i n  c o n t r a s t w i t h P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t w h i c h i s drawn i n an u n r u l y f a s h i o n . mastery of the b e a s t s i s not the u n r u l y r e s u l t of overweening  His  pride,  but r a t h e r of t h e n a t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y of r e a s o n ( i m p l i c i t i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of S a t y r a n e ' s growth t o manhood i s h i s i n e v i t a b l e c l a s h w i t h  65 Sans l o y ) . I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the d i s o r d e r e d r a n k i n g of v i c e s  1  and complementary b e a s t s p u l l i n g P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t , S a t y r a n e ' s c h a r i o t g  i s an emblem of the o r d e r e d s o u l .  He has grown up "from lawes of  men  e x i l d e " ( v i . 2 3 ) , but i n accordance w i t h n a t u r a l law w h i c h marked the immediate  response, of s e r v i t u d e i n the l i o n ' s meeting w i t h Una.  Having  s e t t l e d the government of t h e body under the banner of r e a s o n , and p o s s e s s e d , a t t h e time of manhood, w i t h an o r d e r e d s o u l , he l e f t the • f o r e s t f o r the w o r l d of man " a l l Faery l o n d " ( v i . 2 9 ) .  and h i s "famous w o r t h " spread  throughout  H i s meeting w i t h Una o c c u r s d u r i n g a v i s i t  t o the home of h i s n u r t u r e t o see h i s a n c i e n t s i r e , f o r , d e s p i t e h i s s u c c e s s , S a t y r a n e i s not p r i d e f u l : Y e t evermore i t was h i s manner f a i r e , A f t e r l o n g l a b o u r s and adventures s p e n t , . Unto those n a t i v e woods f o r t o r e p a i r e , To see h i s s i r e and o f s p r i n g a n c i e n t . ( v i . 3 0 ) S a t y r a n e q u i c k l y comes under Una's i n f l u e n c e : He wondred a t h e r wisedome h e a v e n l y r a r e , Whose l i k e i n womens w i t he never knew; And when her c u r t e o u s deeds he d i d compare, Gan h e r admire, and h e r sad sorrowes rew, Blaming of F o r t u n e , w h i c h such t r o u b l e s threw, And j o y d t o make p r o o f e of h e r c r u e l t i e On g e n t l e Dame, so h u r t l e s s e , and so trew: T h e n c e f o r t h he k e p t her goodly company, And l e a r n d her d i s c i p l i n e of f a i t h and v e r i t i e . (vi.31) R a t i o n a l by n a t u r e , and p o s s e s s e d of an o r d e r l y s o u l , S a t y r a n e where the S a t y r s f a i l e d .  succeeds  He comprehends the presence of t r u t h not as  an o b j e c t of p h y s i c a l w o r s h i p , but as knowledge the r a t i o n a l mind can learn.  H i s r e s p o n s e , l i k e t h a t of the l i o n , i s n a t u r a l , but whereas  66  the b e a s t c o u l d o n l y dumbly s e r v e , t h e r a t i o n a l mind of S a t y r a n e comprehend t h e f i g u r e s e r v e d . hisattitude  i s t h a t o f "rew"  I t appears Una.  He h a s  l a c k s , and  C h a r i t y l i g h t s h i s comprehension, f o r Una's  that Satyrane would  for  plight. p r o v i d e an i d e a l companion f o r  t h e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b o d y t h e Red  Cross  Knight  i s able to turn h i s reason to i n t e l l e c t i o n , , l e a r n i n g  " d i s c i p l i n e o f f a i t h and v e r i t i e . "  Una,  as h e r k n i g h t b e c a u s e s h e i s "vowd u n t o  can  Una's  however, does not t a k e the Redcrosse  K e l l o g g and  S t e e l e argue  anism which  the t r u t h passes beyond, coming, f i n a l l y ,  Satyrane  knight" (vi.32).  t h a t S a t y r a n e i s t h e emblem o f r a t i o n a l  Christ.  T h e i r argument, which  t r a c e s Una's h u n t  i n terms  of t h e t r u t h ' s abandoned s t a t e a f t e r  to rest w i t h  f o r Red  the F a l l  pag-  Cross  Knight  and u n t i l  the  9 a r r i v a l of C h r i s t , i s s t r a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y hunt  f o r her k n i g h t i s e s s e n t i a l l y  at t h i s point.'  Una's  a long d i g r e s s i o n i n the  legend,  d e a l i n g w i t h the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y , p e r f e c t l o v e . nigh a perfect enemies,  c o m p a n i o n f o r Una.:  Sans l o y (Duessa  standstill,  He b a t t l e s one  Satyrane i s w e l l of t r u t h ' s  principle  and A r c h i m a g o a r e t h e ' o t h e r e n e m i e s ) ,  to a  t h u s d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i s power t o c o n f r o n t l a w l e s s a p p e t i t e .  U n a ' s de . f a c t o r e j e c t i o n o f S a t y r a n e a s a r e p l a c e m e n t Knight i s not, i n f a c t , a r e j e c t i o n at a l l . p r e s e n t c o n c e r n f o r Red love, loyalty.  f o r Red  I t a f f i r m s , by h e r  Cross K n i g h t , t h a t c a r d i n a l element  She h a s v o w e d h e r s e l f u n t o  Cross  t h e Red  i n perfect  Cross K n i g h t ,  His wandring p e r i l l c l o s e l y d i d lament, Ne i n t h i s new a c q u a i n t a u n c e c o u l d d e l i g h t , But her deare h e a r t w i t h a n g u i s h d i d torment.  ever-  and,  (vi.32)  67  S a t y r a n e a s s i s t s Una f o r e s t c l e a r e d , they a r r i v e ently safe.  i n her escape from t h e S a t y r s , and, "on a p l a i n e "  the  ( v i . 3 3 ) where they are  appar-  H o w e v e r , t h e m a s t e r o f d e c e i t , A r c h i m a g o , a w a i t s them i n  t h e g u i s e o f a p i l g r i m , and a g a i n i l l u s i o n c a t e s a s t o r y o f t h e d e a t h o f Red  threatens truth.  Cross Knight  He  ( v i . 3 8 - 3 9 ) , and  fabrimanages  t o engage Una's d e f e n d e r , S a t y r a n e , i n a b a t t l e w i t h Sans l o y .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n of the b a t t l e i s t h a t because of the d e c e i t f u l s t o r y Red  C r o s s K n i g h t ' s d e a t h , S a t y r a n e i s moved t o p o s s e s s Una  must b a t t l e a g a i n s t p e r v e r s e a p p e t i t e . is  U n a ' s vow  e t e r n a l , and b e y o n d t h e w o r l d o f t h e b o d y .  t o Red  Her  as h i s  Cross  l o v e i s not  and  Knight material.  Satyrane i s  t r i c k e d by Archimago i n t o a b a t t l e w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l  desires.  Sans l o y a r g u e s , d u r i n g t h e i r u n f i n i s h e d  As  of  battle,  Were i t n o t b e t t e r , I t h a t L a d y h a d , T h e n t h a t t h o u h a d s t r e p e n t e d i t -too l a t e ? M o s t s e n c e l e s s e man h e , t h a t h i m s e l f e d o t h h a t e , To l o v e a n o t h e r (vi.47)  W h i l e t h e m a i n t h r u s t o f San  l o y ' s argument i s f o r i n c o n s t a n c y i n l o v e ,  he  i m p l i e s that they are f i g h t i n g  is  a f i g h t between, p e r f e c t  f o r Una.  l o v e and  The  substance of the  lawless lust,  Satyrane's  earlier  c h a r i t y and h i s p r e s e n t d e s i r e .  Y e t t h e mere f a c t o f t h e b a t t l e  n o t q u a l i f y S a t y r a n e as a l e s s e r  f i g u r e t h a n Red  C r o s s K n i g h t h i m s e l f had been t r i c k e d by  t h e same A r c h i m a g o i n t o  its  t h e b a t t l e between Sans l o y and  does  C r o s s K n i g h t , f o r Red  t h r o p i c behaviour r e s u l t i n g from perverse d e s i r e f o r While  battle  misan-  Una.  Satyrane i s u n f i n i s h e d ,  i l l u s i o n a r y b a s i s i s s o o n u n m a s k e d f o r Una when s h e r e c e i v e s a r e -  p o r t f r o m t h e D w a r f t h a t Red  Cross Knight i s imprisoned i n Orgoglio's  68 c a s t l e , and  in peril.  Satyrane h i m s e l f  appears a g a i n  i n a l a t e r book  of the poem, a f a c t t h a t argues h i s moral v i c t o r y over Sans l o y .  The  mere f a c t of the i l l u s i o n a r y b a s i s of h i s b a t t l e h a v i n g been unmasked, suggests t h a t a p p r i s e d  of the t r u t h he would r e v e r t at t h a t p o i n t  c h a r i t y even i f he i s unable to conquer Sans l o y . argument i s moot, f o r Spenser does not the b a t t l e ' s end  i n "another p l a c e "  (vi.48).  on C h a r i t y , a l t h o u g h the v i r t u e continues Cross K n i g h t ' s quest.  rate,  the  f u l f i l h i s promise to t e l l  of Sans l o y , f l e e s the scene of b a t t l e , and  Red  At any  Una,  to  f a c e d w i t h the  of sight  Spenser ends h i s d i g r e s s i o n  to p l a y a c a r d i n a l p a r t i n  69  NOTES  "'"The a l l u s i o n i s t o G e n e s i s 1:26. 2 N e l s o n , pp. 175-176; and K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , pp. 23-24. 3 Corceca's p a s s i o n a t e a p p e a l t o Archimago, c o u n t e r f e i t e d as H o l i n e s s , serves a l s o t o emphasize t h a t she i s a c o u n t e r f e i t form o f Holiness. 4 T h e r e a r e two n o d a l p o i n t s o f N a t u r e i n t h e L e g e n d , t h e l i o n and t h e d o o r s o f O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e ( v i i i . 5 ) , dumb b e a s t a n d i n a n i m a t e Nature. ^Caxton's  Game a n d P l a y  of. C h e s s e ,  1474 ( L o n d o n ,  1883),  p. 104.  °A11 o f t h e m i r a c l e s t h a t o c c u r i n t h e l e g e n d h a v e , f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e same m e a n i n g ; s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e y a l l s e r v e t o e n s u r e t h e u n i o n o f R e d C r o s s K n i g h t w i t h U n a , a n d , g e n e r a l l y , o f man w i t h t r u t h . S a t y r a n e ' s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b e a s t s i s a n emblem o f t h e o r d e r e d soul. H i s c o n t r o l , however, I s t y r a n n i c a l , and t h i s f o r e c a s t s t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a p p e t i t i v e s o u l r e v e a l e d i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h Sans l o y . g See P l a t o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r i o t a n d c h a r i o t e e r , . " P h a e d r u s , " The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , I I I , 153. 7  9  K e l l o g g a n d S t e e l e , p . 2 9 . A c o m p a r i s o n o f S a t y r a n e ' s a n d Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s b e h a v i o u r towards Una does n o t r e v e a l Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s Christ-like superiority.  V The T e s t of Hope Red C r o s s K n i g h t , companioned by c o u n t e r f e i t strays  f a r from the t r u t h , coming, e v e n t u a l l y ,  of P r i d e .  faith,  Fidessa,  i n t o the s i n f u l House  P r i o r to the k n i g h t ' s entry, i n t o the House of P r i d e , Spenser  g l o s s e s the b e h a v i o u r w h i c h has l e d h i m to t h i s  point:  Young k n i g h t , what ever t h a t ' d o s t armes p r o f e s s e , And t h r o u g h l o n g l a b o u r s h u n t e s t a f t e r fame, Beware of f r a u d , beware of f i c k l e n e s s e , I n c h o i c e , and change of t h y deare l o v e d Dame, L e a s t thou of h e r b e l e e v e too l i g h t l y b l a m e , And r a s h misweening doe t h y h a r t remove: F o r unto k n i g h t t h e r e i s no g r e a t e r shame, Then l i g h t n e s s e and i n c o n s t a n c i e i n l o v e ; Then d o t h t h i s R e d c r o s s e k n i g h t ' s ensample p l a i n l y p r o v e . The g l o s s r e v e a l s into.  the l a w l e s s n e s s  w h i c h the k n i g h t has been t r i c k e d  He has been f i c k l e , i n c o n s t a n t ,  and the r e s u l t i n g  has l e a d t o h i s h a v i n g F i d e s s a a companion. type of w o r l d l i n e s s m a n i f e s t  (iv.l)  unfaithfulness  T h i s l e a d s him t o  i n the House of P r i d e .  It  i s the  the social  embodiment of the m a t e r i a l i s m of the wood of E r r o r from w h i c h he escaped i n U n a ' s company.' L i k e the wood of E r r o r , the House of P r i d e i s reached by a " b r o a d h i g h way" ( i v . 2 ) . " The beauty of the House of P r i d e i s i l l u s i o n a r y , as i s apparent  strength.  its  I t s h i g h w a l l s a r e " n o t h i n g s t r o n g , nor t h i c k "  (iv.4),  and i t s  " h i n d e r p a r t s " are " r u i n o u s and o l d , b u t p a i n t e d c u n n i n g l y "  (iv.5).  As K e l l o g g and S t e e l e have n o t e d , i t resembles A u g u s t i n e ' s  70  City  o f Man.  I t i sbuilt  on sand, a p o i n t e d  a l l u s i o n t o Matthew's  2 f o o l who b u i l d s h i s h o u s e u p o n s a n d , passion  t o dominate.  the d e s i r e t o serve, opposite  and i t s r u l i n g  Marked by a f o u n d a t i o n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s  i n the legend.  L i k e Augustine's  character  of rock.and  i sa  representing  i s t h e House o f P r i d e ' s dichotomy o f t h e C i t y o f  Man a n d t h e C i t y o f G o d , S p e n s e r ' s two h o u s e s d e s c r i b e , o p p o s i t e of l i f e ,  one l e a d i n g t o G o d , t h e o t h e r The  ways  t o Satan.  paramount p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e o f t h e House o f P r i d e i s i t s  c l o c k , e m b l e m a t i c o f t h e m o r t a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o w h i c h t h e House o f Pride i s dedicated.  L u c i f e r a , w h o s e name p o i n t e d l y a l l u d e s t o L u c i f e r ,  t h e p r i d e f u l a n g e l who s o u g h t t o o v e r t h r o w G o d , i s r u l e r  o f t h e House  o f P r i d e . ' She i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s , Looking t o heaven, f o re a r t h she d i d disdayne, And s i t t i n g h i g h ; f o r ' l o w l y s h e d i d h a t e . (iv.10)  A dragon l i e s under h e r f e e t , suggesting  the Satanic root  a c t e r and t h e e r r o r o f h e r m a t e r i a l i s m .  Enshrined  of her char-  i n Lucifera i s the  p e r v e r s i o n o f o r d e r , r u l e based on u s u r p a t i o n a n d . t y r a n n y r a t h e r  than  law:  And p r o u d L u c i f e r a men d i d h e r c a l l , T h a t made h e r s e l f e a Q u e e n e , a n d c r o w n d t o b e , Y e t r i g h t f u l l kingdome s h e had none a t a l l , Ne h e r i t a g e o f n a t i v e s o v e r a i n t i e , B u t d i d u s u r p e , w h i c h s h e now d i d h o l d : Ne r u l d h e r R e a l m e s w i t h l a w e s , b u t p o l l i c i e , And s t r o n g a d v i z e m e n t o f s i x w i s a r d s o l d , That w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l s b a d h e r kingdome d i d uphold.  (iv.]_2)  L u c i f e r a i s compared t o P h a e t o n , A p o l l o ' s presumptuous s o n  (iv.9),  and  she  r i d e s a c h a r i o t drawn by  and  representing  s i x of  the  s e v e n t h and  greatest  the  s o u l , and  the  seven deadly s i n s , w i t h  s i n of P r i d e .  Lucifera's  s i x f i g u r e s m o u n t e d on  The  beasts  Lucifera.herself  c h a r i o t i s a metaphor  c h a r i o t i s a parody of  the  c h a r i o t s of  for  the  3  Gods P l a t o d e s c r i b e s  i n the Phaedrus.  s o u l s , roam t h e heavens w i t h bound b e c a u s e of and  the  ease, while  their  man's c h a r i o t s a r e  earth  Man's s o u l , a c c o r d i n g  u n i o n of the b e a s t l y  to d r i v e .  Gods' c h a r i o t s ,  disharmoniousness t h a t e x i s t s between the  charioteer.  imperfect  but  the  The  and  the  to t h i s metaphor, i s  rational, a chariot  L u c i f e r a , whose c h a r i o t i s compared n o t  a l s o to Juno's  f i g u r e of  ( i v . 1 7 ) , makes s l o w h e a d w a y .  Idleness,  c h a r i o t at the  and  w h i p p e d on b y  only  Led  of  t h e Gods d e s c r i b e d  Lucifera's  chariot.  the  of  .  Phaeton's  the  intractable her  the  (iv.16)  i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , i s a g a i n to the  f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the  leader  to  t i m e when  allusion,,lodged  Apollo,  by  an  difficult  S a t a n , L u c i f e r a mounts  . . . f a i r e Aurora i n her purple p a l l , Out o f t h e E a s t t h e d a w n i n g d a y . d o t h c a l l .  The  horses  by The  contrast  P l a t o and s i n s are  chariot  between the harmonious  the d i s o r d e r e d  of soul  soul represented  r a n k e d i n a team, w i t h  Idleness  team:  . . [ t h e c h a r i o t ] was d r a w n e o f s i x u n e q u a l l beasts, On w h i c h [ L u c i f e r a ' s ] s i x s a g e C o u n s e l l o u r s d i d r y e d , Taught t o obay t h e i r b e s t i a l l b e h e a s t s , With l i k e conditions to t h e i r kinds applyde:. Of w h i c h t h e f i r s t , t h a t a l l t h e r e s t d i d g u y d e , " Was s l u g g i s h I d l e r i e s s e t h e n o u r s e o f s i n . . ( i v . 1 8 )  by as  Sloth i s described  a s a f i g u r e s h u n n i n g " m a n l y e x e r c i s e , " and l e a d i n g  a l i f e of,  . . . lawlesse riotese; By w h i c h h e g r e w t o g r i e v o u s m a l a d y ; For i n h i s l u s t l e s s e limbs through e v i l l guise A shaking fever raignd c o n t i n u a l l y . (iv.20)  Idleness tite;  i s a p e r v e r s i o n of the i r a s c i b l e p o r t i o n of the appe-  the f i g u r e lacks s p i r i t ,  and s u f f e r s a s t r e n g t h - s a p p i n g  throughout h i s " l u s t l e s s e limbs." Idleness  represents  in  pride.  As l e a d e r o f P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t ,  one o f t h e c h i e f t h r e a t s t o t h e s o u l .  the c o n d i t i o n of r e c e p t i v i t y  fever  to the remaining  deadly  sins,  As s u c h , i t i s one o f t h e c h i e f a n t a g o n i s t s  v i r t u e w h i c h s h i e l d s t h e s o u l , g i v i n g man  Idleness i s culminating  of hope, t h e  the strength to abjure  the  4 present, material world Knight,.at  f o r the future, s p i r i t u a l world.  the point of h i s surrender  I d l e n e s s , as b e i n g  Red  Cross  to the body, i s d e s c r i b e d ,  s h a k e n by F e v e r and b a d l y weakened  (vii.6).  like The  i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s t h a t hope, t h e s t r e n g t h t o deny t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , has been overcome. capitulates  to lust  In this negative  s t a t e , the knight  (vii.7).  E n t e r i n g L u c i f e r a ' s domain, c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h , D u e s s a , i s welcomed "goodly"  as an o l d f a m i l i a r  (iv.15).  the disguised  Red C r o s s  Knight,  entertained, T h o u g h t a l l t h e i r g l o r i e v a i n e . i n k n i g h t l y vew, And t h a t g r e a t P r i n c e s s e t o o e x c e e d i n g prowd, T h a t t o s t r a n g e k n i g h t no b e t t e r c o u n t e n a n c e a l l o w d .  The k n i g h t , w e l c o m e d b y L u c i f e r a who was  "halfe loth  to looke  (iv.15)  so low"  74 ( i v . 1 4 ) , i s peaked by t h e r e c e p t i o n .  There i s , i n h i s view of t h e  welcome, t h e b a r e s t h i n t o f p r i d e .  There i s , i n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n  c o u r t l y welcome, v a n i t y , w h i c h w i l l  prove a source  However, a t t h i s p o i n t t h e k n i g h t  of his  isolates himself  of a  downfall.  from t h e e n t e r t a i n -  ment o f t h e H o u s e o f P r i d e ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . :  Him s e l f e e s t r a u n g i n g f r o m t h e i r j o y a u n c e v a i n e , Whose f e l l o w s h i p seemd f a r u n f i t f o r w a r l i k e s w a i n e .  At  t h e p o i n t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s  withdrawal  the.House o f P r i d e , h e i s a t t a c k e d b y Sans j o y .  (iv.37)  from t h e j o y s of  Sans j o y r e p r e s e n t s  t h e s t a t e o f j o y l e s s n e s s w h i c h marks t h e absence, o f hope, and h i s a t t a c k on Red C r o s s K n i g h t Red  Cross Knight's  r e s p o n s e t o t h e House o f P r i d e , w h i l e  prompted by a h e a l t h y by  a r g u e s t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s hope i s i n p e r i l .  disregard of i t s vain inhabitants, i s revealed  Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k as r e s u l t i n g  f r o m h i s own v a n i t y .  House o f P r i d e , t h e s t a t e o f w o r l d l i n e s s i t r e p r e s e n t s Cross Knight's  apparently  Entering the i m p e r i l s Red  s o u l . ,,  Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k on Red C r o s s K n i g h t views i t as a b r e a c h o f c o u r t l y decOrun  offends  (iv.40).  L u c i f e r a , who  She i n s i s t s  that the  b a t t l e t a k e p l a c e w i t h d u e pomp a n d c e r e m o n y , t h a t i t b e a p r i d e f u l display according with  the nature  o f t h e House o f P r i d e . .  Chastened by  t h e r e b u k e . Sans j o y e x p l a i n s h i s b r e a c h o f decorum b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t Red C r o s s K n i g h t Cross Knight  Ah  during  has s l a i n h i s b r o t h e r ,  Sans f o y , and he v i l i f i e s Red  the explanation:  d e a r e s t Dame, ( q u o t h t h e n t h e P a y n i m Pardon t h e e r r o u r o f enraged wight,  bold,)  75 Whom great g r i e f e made f o r g e t the r a i n e s t o h o l d Of reasons r u l e , t o see t h i s r e c r e a n t k n i g h t , No k n i g h t , b u t t r e a c h o u r f u l l o f f a l s e d e s p i g h t And s h a m e f u l l t r e a s o n , who through g u i l e h a t h s l a y n The prowest k n i g h t , t h a t ever f i e l d d i d f i g h t , Even s t o u t Sans f o y (0 who can then r e f r a y n ? ) Whose s h i e l d he beares r e v e r s t , t h e more t o heape d i s d a y n . And t o augment t h e g l o r i e o f h i s g u i l e , H i s d e a r e s t l o v e the f a i r e F i d e s s a l o e Is t h e r e possessed o f t h e t r a y t o u r v i l e , Who reapes the h a r v e s t sowen by h i s f o e , Sowen i n bloudy f i e l d , and bought w i t h woe: That b r o t h e r s hand s h a l l d e a r e l y w e l l r e q u i g h t So be, 0 Queene, you e q u a l l favour showe. (iv.41-42)  Red Cross Knight does not r e p l y to Sans j o y ' s  charges:  Him l i t l e answerd th'angry E l f i n k n i g h t ; He never meant w i t h words, b u t swords to p l e a d h i s r i g h t .  Sans j o y ' s i n i t i a l  apology  (iv.42)  to L u c i f e r a a l l u d e s to the metaphor  of  the s o u l and body as horse and horseman, p l e a d i n g a b r i e f  of  reason's  c o n t r o l by b o d i l y p a s s i o n .  usurpation  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f the apology  i s t h a t , rebuked, he has r e t u r n e d t o the ordered s t a t e of reason governing  the a p p e t i t e s .  However, g i v e n the d i s o r d e r e d s o u l o f h i s  audience., L u c i f e r a , Sans j o y ' s i m p l i e d a s s e r t i o n appears a t once t o be suspect.  H i s v i l i f i c a t i o n o f Red Cross Knight bears but t h e s u s p i c i o n  t h a t an o r d e r e d , r a t i o n a l s t a t e i s beyond h i s c a p a c i t y . Sans j o y ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s behaviour  abuses r e a s o n .  Red  Cross Knight i s n o t a " t r e a c h o u r f u l l of f a l s e d e s p i g h t / And s h a m e f u l l t r e a s o n , " nor was h i s * c o n q u e s t  o f Sans f o y accomplished  "through  guile."  The i r o n y o f Sans j o y ' s argument 'is t h a t i t i s Red Cross K n i g h t , hims e l f , who has been conquered "through  guile."  Yet the angered k n i g h t ' s  76 decision not to confront the accuser with reason but with the body  ("He  never meant with words, but swords to plead h i s right") i s an error. It marks, once again, an elevation of passion over reason, and signals Red Cross Knight's involvement with the House of Pride.  Once h i s  combat with Sans joy i s arranged for the following day, he passes the night i n "joy and j o l l i t y , " stewarded by Gluttony, and then i s chamberlained to rest by Sloth (iv.43). The r e a l test of the House of Pride for the Christian Knight of the Redcross i s the test i t presents to hope.  Citizenship i n Lucifera's  kingdom undermines hope, putting the desire for the glories of the material world i n the place of the desire for Heavenly reward.  Sans joy  represents this test, as the state of joylessness which attends hopelessness.  He stands as an emblem of Red Cross Knight's growing attach-  ment to the material world, and the consequent to the knight's entry into heaven.  jeopardy t h i s represents  Hopelessness confronts Red Cross  Knight as a result of h i s separation from truth, Una, and h i s present association with Fidessa, the apparent f a i t h deceit, Duessa, i s cloaked in.  During the night before the b a t t l e , she v i s i t s Sans joy and  delivers her support:  Ah deare Sans joy, next dearest to Sans foy, Cause of my new g r i e f e , cause of my new joy, Joyous, to see h i s ymage i n mine eye, And greev'd, to thinke how foe did him destroy, That was the flowre of grace and chevalrye; Lo his Fidessa to thy secret f a i t h I flye.5 (iv.45) The b a t t l e with Sans joy goes badly for Red Cross Knight near i t s end [". . . twise he reeled, readie twise to f a l l " (v.11)].  At  t h i s p o i n t , Duessa, seeking win  t o spur  on Sans j o y , c r i e s o u t t h a t he  Sans f o y ' s s h i e l d , h e r s e l f , and a l l e l s e b y d e f e a t i n g Red  Knight'["Thine  t h e s h i e l d , and I,,and a l l "  a l l y , wakens Red C r o s s of Duessa's alignment meant  f o r him.  joy's  victory.  Knight's  The c h e e r ,  (v.12), as, of course,  With the return-of " f a i t h , "  i s similar  ironicignorant  that Providence  Knight's  the knight prevents  to deceit.  i s stronger  San  i r o n i c a l p r e v e n t i o n o f Sans  t o that of Archimago's unhorsing  of Sans l o y : d e c e i t i s l i a b l e i s proof  Cross  w i t h Sans joy,' he assumes h i s l a d y ' s c h e e r i s  T h e p o i n t o f Red C r o s s joy's triumph  "faith"  (v.11)].  will  a t t h e hands  As w e l l , , however, t h e outcome  than  t h e powers o f H e l l .  [Earlier,  i n h e r c l a n d e s t i n e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Sans j o y j D u e s s a v o i c e d h e r f e a r of " f o r t u n e f a l s e " tial  rescue  (iv.50)].  T h i s same p o i n t i s made b y t h e p r o v i d e n -  o f Una f r o m t h e hands o f Sans l o y ( v i . 7 ) .  i s n o t t h e r e s u l t o f Red C r o s s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a i t h  Knight's  T h a t t h e outcome  own, t r u e f a i t h  t h a t i s awakened.  i s revealed i n  He i s "mov'd w i t h  '6 wrath,  a n d shame, a n d L a d i e s  sake"  (v.12).  t h a t marked h i s e a r l i e r b a t t l e w i t h E r r o r Sans j o y i s n o t d e s t r o y e d to prevent her  t h i s by s h r o u d i n g  This f a i t h ( i . 1 2 and 1 9 ) .  by Red C r o s s  him i n a cloud.  a n c e s t o r , N i g h t , she takes  t h e wounded  i s the f a i t h  Knight.  D u e s s a manages  L a t e r , i n t h e company  Sans j o y t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  hospital, Hell.  Here, Night  who m e r i t e d  f o r h i s u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e G o d s ' power o v e r  death  hell  (v.40).  of  takes him to A e s c y l a p i u s , the p h y s i c i a n life  and  A e s c y l a p i u s ' s i n i s one o f P r i d e , a n d i m p l i c i t l y h e i s  l i n k e d w i t h t h e House o f P r i d e , s u f f e r i n g  the hopelessness  consequent  78  on h i s f o r m e r  citizenship.  However, N i g h t must f i r s t  h o p e l e s s c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e he  agrees  convince him  to m i n i s t e r  of  his  own  t o Sans j o y .  She  p r e v a i l s by an argument t h a t s o p h i s t i c a l l y a p p e a l s t o h i s r e a s o n ,  arid f l a t t e r i n g l y a p p e a l s t o h i s p r i d e :  . ., . s i t h t h a t h e a v e n s k i n g From hope of heaven h a t h t h e e e x c l u d e d q u i g h t , Why f e a r e s t t h o u , t h a t c a n s t n o t h o p e f o r t h i n g , And f e a r e s t n o t , , t h a t more t h e e h u r t e n m i g h t , Now i n t h e p o w r e o f e v e r l a s t i n g N i g h t ? Goe t o t h e n , 0 t h o u f a r r e renpwmed s o n n e Of g r e a t A p o l l o , shew t h y f a m o u s m i g h t I n m e d i c i n e , t h a t e l s e h a t h t o t h e e wonne G r e a t p a i n e s , and g r e a t e r p r a i s e , b o t h n e v e r t o b e d o n n e .  Night excludes the p o s s i b i l i t y A e s c y l a p i u s r e m i s s i o n f r o m t o r m e n t , and d i s p o s a l greater torments. turns to f l a t t e r y flects  Having  that c o n t r i t i o n might  (v.43)  earn  t h a t "heavens k i n g " has  at h i s  exercised her perverse reason,  and a p p e a l s t o A e s c y l a p i u s ' p r i d e .  The  she  argument r e -  t h e p e r v e r s i t y o f t h e H o u s e o f P r i d e , and A e s c y l a p i u s ' c o n d i t i o n  points clearly  to the hopeless s t a t e which  its  citizens.  T h a t Red  i l l  f o r him.  The  a w a i t s t h e u n w a r y who  become  C r o s s K n i g h t does n o t d e s t r o y Sans j o y bodes  hopelessness  threat which returns l a t e r  t h a t Sans j o y r e p r e s e n t s r e m a i n s  a  i n t h e l e g e n d t o t e s t and n e a r l y c o n q u e r  the  knight. Having  a p p a r e n t l y conquered  S a n s j o y , Red  a c c o r d e d a v i c t o r ' s p l a c e i n t h e House o f P r i d e . accepted  " w i t h t h a n k s , and  advanc[es] by  h i s gay  "skilfull  His service i s  g o o d l y g r e e , " b y L u c i f e r a , and  chevalree" (v.16).  leaches,"-  Cross Knight i s  she  "[g]reatly  H i s wounds a r e c a r e f u l l y  tended  79 And a l l t h e w h i l e , m o s t h e a v e n l y m e l o d y About t h e bed sweet m u s i c k e d i d d i v i d e , Him t o b e g u i l e o f g r i e f and a g o n y : And a l l t h e w h i l e D u e s s a w e p t f u l l b i t t e r l y .  Duessa's t e a r s , of c o u r s e , are Knight's  wounds, her  i s now  will  i n d i r e c t l y accomplish.  permanent r e s i d e n c e threat  the Dwarf d i s c o v e r s its list  inhabitants  D w a r f s a v e s Red  Warily  is a litany  their  captivitie"  of g r e a t n e s s u n h o r s e d by  chorus of the  consequential  d a m n a t i o n o f man  Cross Knight,  warned by  Dwarf,  that  Pride results  Cross Knight  and  to  the  r e v e a l i n g t o him  the h e l l over which i t i s b u i l t ,  the  What  from  the  t a k i n g the measure of L u c i f e r a ' s  " [ t ] h e hidden cause of  of i n h a b i t a n t s  except  R e s i d e n c e i n t h e House of P r i d e  i n the House of P r i d e by  Cross  f a i l u r e of Sans j o y  t o a c c o m p l i s h the House of  i n H e l l . . The  i t represents.  r e s u l t o f Red  i n t o t h e House of P r i d e .  Sans j o y f a i l e d  in hopeless residence  the  A l l seems w e l l f o r t h e k n i g h t ,  s e t t l e d comfortably  d i r e c t a t t a c k of  apparently  b i t t e r n e s s stems f r o m t h e  triumph over the k n i g h t . he  only  (v.17)  ugly  house,  learns  from .  (v.46).  The  p r i d e , and  o v e r t h r o w n by  pride.  a Red  . ... no l e n g e r w o u l d There d w e l l i n p e r i l l of l i k e p a i n e f u l l p l i g h t , B u t e a r l y r o s e , and e r e t h a t d a w n i n g l i g h t D i s c o v e r e d had t h e w o r l d t o h e a v e n wyde, He by a p r i v i e P o s t e r n e t o o k e h i s f l i g h t . (v.52)  The holding  Dwarf's r e v e l a t i o n of danger r e f l e c t s  hope.  By w a r n i n g Red  reason's r o l e i n  Cross Knight of the danger of  h i d d e n i n t h e House of P r i d e , t h e Dwarf r e s c u e s the k n i g h t worldliness which threatens  hope.  Reason's a b i l i t y  up-  damnation from  is limited,  the though.  80  The  Dwarf can  only warn the k n i g h t  of the  t h r e a t of p r i d e ,  divorced  from the t r u t h i t i s beyond h i s c a p a c i t y to counter w o r l d l i n e s s w i t h v i s i o n o f t h e New  Jerusalem which awaits  r e v e l a t i o n l i e s beyond the to see the  l e a d s Red  Cross Knight  not h e a l t h y . not  to the  to the  of the world out  temptation  Yet  The  t r u t h of .  reason i s  sufficient  i n w o r l d l i n e s s , i f the reward f o r shunning be beyond i t s c a p a c i t y t o s e e . of t h e House of P r i d e , but  Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k has  temptation  Holy.  command o f r e a s o n .  the dangers inherent  seduction  the  l e f t him  of p r i d e , i n the  p r i d e i n the  weak and  form of l u s t  . The  Dwarf  the k n i g h t  is  vulnerable, i f  f o r dominion,  Cross Knight  comes t o r e s t b e s i d e  finds solace  i n c o o l i n g shade.  fountain  a f o u n t a i n i n a wood.  D u e s s a , who  f r o m t h e House o f P r i d e upon h e r  has  He  discovered  r e t u r n from H e l l ,  (vii.6).  he  courts  knight's  d e f e n s e s o f h o p e and  f a i t h , h i s soul i s defenseless world.  The  wood he  of Error,.and i s no  i s i n , with  the m a t e r i a l i s m  escape f o r the k n i g h t .  i n t h e lewd embrace of  before  t h e powers of e v i l  i t s shade, r e c a l l s  i t stood The  in  shade"  the  Duessa,  (vii.7)  armourless s t a t e s i g n a l s h i s defeat. c h a r i t y , and  and  removal  comes u p o n h i m  P o u r d p u t i n l o o s n e s s e on t h e g r a s s y g r o w n d , B o t h c a r e l e s s e o f h i s h e a l t h , and o f h i s f a m e .  The  his  d r i n k s from the stream f l o w i n g from  Thereafter  Red  disarms  Together they "bathe i n pleasaunce of the joyous  ( v i i . 4 ) , . a n d the knight  then  flesh.  Weakened b y h i s w o u n d s , a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e H o u s e o f P r i d e  this state.  a  for.  f o u n t a i n he  Shorn of  the  counterfeit lurking  in  the  t h e e m b l e m a t i c wood  Here, without  Una,  d r i n k s f r o m has  there the  power  81  to render " f a i n t and f e e b l e " ( v i i . 5 ) those who t a s t e i t s w a t e r s .  The  cause of t h e power,  . . . was t h i s : one day when Phoebe f a y r e With a l l her band was f o l l o w i n g the chace, [A] Nymph, q u i t e t y r ' d w i t h heat of s c o r c h i n g a y r e Sat downe t o r e s t i n middest o f the r a c e : The goddesse wroth gan fowly h e r d i s g r a c e , And bad the w a t e r s , which from her d i d f l o w , Be such as she h e r s e l f e was then i n p l a c e , (vii.5)  L i k e t h e " c r e e p i n g d e a d l y c o l d " (v.12) t h a t a t t a c k s Red Cross Knight  d u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h Sans j o y , the f o u n t a i n undermines the  s t r e n g t h and d e t e r m i n a t i o n sloth  which s u s t a i n s hope.  I t i s an emblem o f  ("rest i n middest of t h e r a c e " ) , t h e s i n which l e a d s L u c i f e r a ' s  c h a r i o t i n t h e House o f P r i d e .  Drinking  of t h e f o u n t a i n b r i n g s on the  symptoms of s l o t h i n t h e k n i g h t :  He chaunged powres a t f i r s t them s e l v e s n o t f e l t , T i l l c r u d l e d c o l d h i s corage gan a s s a i l e , And c h e a r e f u l l b l o u d i n f a i n t n e s s e c h i l l d i d m e l t , Which l i k e a f e v e r f i t through a l l h i s body swelt.? (vii.6)  The  k n i g h t , of course,  disarms h i m s e l f .  r e s u l t of h i s own weakness, reason's i n a b i l i t y t i o n t o comprehend f a i t h , and h i s p e r v e r s e which leads him t o u n c h a r i t a b l e n e s s d e s c r i p t i o n of Red Cross Knight  H i s overthrow i s t h e to ascend t o i n t e l l e c -  appetite's unbridled  state  and a s t a t e of h o p e l e s s n e s s .  "[p]ourd  out i n l o o s e n e s s e "  The  as he  e n t e r t a i n s Duessa a l l u d e s t o Jacob's comparison of Ruben's behaviour to s p i l l e d water. porary,  A g l o s s o f t h i s t e x t , p r o v i d e d by Spenser's contem-  S t . John o f t h e C r o s s , r e v e a l s i t s meaning:  82 ... t h e p a r t r i a r c h J a c o b c o m p a r e d h i s s o n R u b e n , who h a d g i v e n r e i n to h i s a p p e t i t e s i n a c e r t a i n s i n , to s p i l l e d water .... T h i s was l i k e s a y i n g : B e c a u s e a c c o r d i n g t o a p p e t i t e y o u a r e . p o u r e d . out l i k e w a t e r , you grow n o t i n v i r t u e . 9  H a v i n g abandoned the q u e s t f o r s a l v a t i o n " i n m i d d e s t of r a c e " by  disarming,  Red  Cross Knight  i s attacked  O r g o g l i o , a g i a n t emblem o f t h e f l e s h w h i c h h a s this sorry state.  Attempting  able to w i e l d " h i s b o o t l e s s e knight's  efforts  the other  single blade."  a l l u d e s to the  Red  two  Cross Knight's  i s - w e a k t o t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h he  s w o r d s o f C h r i s t , one  Red  (vii.13).  world.  Yet  Cross Knight's  resents  a.yet remaining  r e s u l t , , Duessa prevents  spiritual  s w o r d i s o f t h i s . w o r l d , and  his  flesh  i s unable to w i e l d even t h i s .  His realm  lies  great  marks  Orgoglio, in  this  battle Orgoglio  d e s i r e t o conquer w o r l d l i r i e s s , and, from k i l l i n g  The  P r i d e of f l e s h  "under s k y e , "  feeble attempt,to  Orgoglio  the  c o n q u e r e d w o r l d l i n e s s , s i n , and  t h i s w o r l d l i n e s s D u e s s a t r u m p e t s : "0  g r e a t e s t under skye"  to  i s scarcely  This d e s c r i p t i o n of  1  and  by  brought the knight  c o n q u e s t o f w o r l d l i n e s s i s b e y o n d h i s powers. "'' Orgoglio,  overcome  to defend h i m s e l f , the k n i g h t  o f t h i s w o r l d , by w h i c h he  the D e v i l . ^  and  the  him.  The  as  soul  rep-  a still  s t r u g g l e s f o r dominion over the k n i g h t ' s body, d e s p i t e i t s i n a b i l i t y g a i n r u l e , and but  h e n c e Red  Cross Knight  r a t h e r i s t h e . v i c t i m o f h i s own  t h i s p o i n t w o u l d n o t mean t h e f o r c e s of e v i l . kill  Red  Cross  has  n o t . c h o s e n t o abandon Heaven,  weakness.  The  body's triumph  s o u l ' s damnation,,and a v i c t o r y  Thus Duessa's p l e a t o O r g o g l i o Knight:,  to  to imprison  for  rather  at the than  83  0 h o l d t h y m o r t a l l hand f o r L a d i e s s a k e , H o l d f o r my s a k e , and do h i m n o t t o d y e , B u t v a n q u i s h t t h i n e e t e r n a l l b o n d s l a v e make.  Consequently,  the knight i s imprisoned  keeper i s ignorance, The  rescue  Ignaro,  o f Red  i n Orgoglio's  t h e f a t h e r who  Cross  Knight  Having not  travelled  s e t out  from i g n o r a n t bondage t o Bearing  him  the  the  the  knight's  of h i s great d i s t r e s s e "  f a r , he meets t h e " w o f u l l Una"  Sans l o y " [ w ] h i l e s t S a t y r a n e Emblematically,  to " t e l l  c a s t l e where  fostered Orgoglio.  f l e s h b e g i n s w i t h Una's m e e t i n g w i t h t h e D w a r f . armour, t h e Dwarf has  (vii.14)  who  (vii.29).  i s fleeing  from  from p u r s u i t d i d l e t " ( v i i . 2 0 ) .  the meeting r e v e a l s reason  as  still  searching for  the  12 truth  t h a t s e t s the s o u l f r e e of i t s s u b s e r v i e n c e  F u r t h e r i t i n t r o d u c e s t h e m a i n theme o f t h e r e s c u e r e a s o n ' s c a p a c i t y and The  t h e one  to the body. o f Red  Cross  Knight:  i t s limitations.  Dwarf's o f f i c e at t h i s p o i n t i n the legend i s s i m i l a r 13  Spenser d e s c r i b e s i n h i s " L e t t e r " to R a l e i g h .  At  the time  Una's a r r i v a l a t t h e c o u r t o f t h e F a e r i e Q u e e n e , t h e D w a r f l e d horse  and  carried  Cross  Knight.  knight's quest,  t h e a r m o u r w h i c h was  L i k e h i s b e a r i n g o f Una's n e e d m e n t s a t t h e s t a r t  arms s e r v e  t o p r o t e c t t h e b o d y a g a i n s t i t s own  horse  i s an  i m a g e o f t h e b o d y , and  the magical,  of  the  b e t w e e n t h e D w a r f and together, l i n k i n g  Una  j o i n s t h e two  of  Christian  weaknesses, which, i f  guarded a g a i n s t l e a d to the enslavement of the s o u l .  s e a r c h f o r Red  Red  the o f f i c e Spenser d e s c r i b e s i n h i s " L e t t e r " i s care  The  of  the  t o become t h e e q u i p a g e o f  the body.  not  to  The  meeting  main elements of the n a r r a t i v e  t h e m a j o r d i g r e s s i o n on c h a r i t y , Una's w a n d e r i n g  Cross  K n i g h t , and  t h e s t o r y o f Red  Cross  Knight's  career  84 while divorced  from truth..  f l e e i n g from the of t r u t h . w i t h Una  The  Una,  a t t h e end  of the d i g r e s s i o n , , i s  l a w l e s s l u s t , Sans l o y t h a t t h r e a t e n s  knight  i s i n b o n d a g e t o the" f l e s h .  The  a r g u e s t h e means o f c o m b a t i n g t h e f l e s h and  which i m p e r i l s the s a l v a t i o n of the s o u l . of t r u t h t h a t can  the  existence  Dwarf's meeting  i t s lawless  I t i s reason i n the  come t o t h e k n i g h t ' s a i d .  company  However, unadorned  i s bound t o t h e body, d e s p i t e i t s c a p a c i t y t o comprehend t r u t h , the b a t t l e w i t h the weakness of the f l e s h , . t h r o u g h w h i c h the e v i l work, r e q u i r e s p r o v i d e n t i a l a s s i s t e n c e f o r v i c t o r y . i s replaced  as  the  image o f r e a s o n by  paramount r a t i o n a l i t y  operates.  meeting Una,.is to convince  her  t h a t t h e r e f o r e she  despair  meets P r i n c e A r t h u r  e x p o s i t i o n of h i s c h a r a c t e r  the outset of the legend is described Knight  first  of a  shield  force,  and  bondage  to  i s as h e  the  to Orgoglio's same d e v i c e  Cross Knight's  castle.  used  this description.  appears to be,  The  a goodly knight  He Cross  contrast  of  c o n t r o l of h i s h o r s e goes unmentioned, a l t h o u g h  great one  t h a t h i s s q u i r e " c o u l d menage  f a i r e / H i s s t u b b o r n e s t e e d w i t h curbed canon b i t " ( v i i . 3 7 ) . c h i e f s t r e n g t h , h i s s h i e l d , has  at  character.  i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Red  assumes i t t o be w e l l - n i g h p e r f e c t g i v e n  Arthur's  Dwarf  t a s k , upon  Cross Knight's  journeys  i s begun by  e q u i v o c a l term enters  argues that Arthur His  as s h e  t o d e s c r i b e Red  from a f a r , but  o n l y one  prowess.  of  the f i g u r e of  that reason i s a powerful o f Red  and  (vii.41).  Una The  need not  Arthur's  reason  forces  The  i n the legend,,who i s a l s o the b e a r e r  t h r o u g h w h i c h God's P r o v i d e n c e  the f l e s h  Prince Arthur,  lust  the a b i l i t y  tocut  Prince through  85  d e c e i t ; to reduce appearance to  reality:  . . • a l l t h a t was n o t s u c h , a s seemd i n s i g h t , B e f o r e t h a t s h i e l d d i d f a d e , and s u d d e i n e f a l l .  Prince Arthur's primary is  to represent  flesh.  During  the a b i l i t y his efforts  t h a t " [ f ] . l e s h may  empaire  f u n c t i o n i n the p a t t e r n of the  of reason to console  . ...  (vii.35)  but  legend  to,cope w i t h the weakness of a d i s c o n s o l a t e Una,  reason  can r e p a i r e "  he  the  argues  (vii.41).  R e a s o n , . A r t h u r ' s a r m o u r , , s h i n e s f r o m " f a r r e away" ( v i i . 2 9 ) , u n l i k e Cross set to  Knight's  armour of H o l i n e s s w h i c h g i v e s l i t t l e  of the legend t o e no  (i.14).  Arthur's  t h e l o v e he b e a r s  tale reveals.the chinks  o n i s m o f t h e f l e s h and warned him (ix.9). (ix.10). but  t h e F a e r i e Queene ( i x . 8 - 1 5 ) , and  Timori,,Arthur's wise,  flames  [of passion]  d i g r e s s i o n , he  top  his  i s aware o f .  old tutor  reason  warded o f f Cupid's d a r t s " w i t h wary  H i s e f f o r t s w e r e i n . v a i n , and  important,  by  out-  Arthur  o f l o v e teems w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e  reason.  "[t]hose creeping  A r t h u r had  Later i n the legend,  i n h i s a r m o u r , c h i n k s w h i c h he  His d e s c r i p t i o n of the onset  at the  a r m o u r a p p e a r s c o m p l e t e "From  p l a c e appeared bare" .(vii.29)..  r e v e a l s t o Una  light  Red  antag-  had  t o subdew"  government"  passion prevailed.  In a minor,  observes t h a t ,  ... no f o r t c a n b e s o s t r o n g , Ne f l e s h l y b r e s t c a n a r m e d b e so sound,. B u t w i l l a t l a s t be-wonne w i t h b a t t r i e l o n g , Or u n a w a r e s a t d i s a v a n t a g e found; N o t h i n g i s s u r e , t h a t growes on e a r t h l y g r o u n d : And who m o s t t r u s t e s i n arme o f f l e s h l y m i g h t , And b o a s t s , i n b e a u t i e s c h a i n e n o t t o b e b o u n d , Doth soonest f a l l i n disaventrous f i g h t , And y e e l d e s h i s c a y t i v e n e c k t o v f c t o u r s m o s t d e s p i g h t . .  86 E n s a m p l e make o f h i m y o u r h a p l e s s e A n d . o f my s e l f e now m a t e d , a s y e  Both  Red  Cross  K n i g h t ' s and  joy, see.  (ix.11-12)  A r t h u r ' s case are  particular  examples of the weakness of the f l e s h . .  Arthur's observation i s simply  a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n d r a w n f r o m h i s own  c a s e and  Knight.  As w e l l , h o w e v e r , i t c o n t a i n s an a r g u m e n t t h a t b i n d s  c l u s i o n to the examples.  The  less favourably, ignorance. out acknowledging is  argument concerns To  trust  a s u r e r o u t e t o d i s a s t e r . . ' The As  d e s i r e p a r t n e r s courage,  and  concupiscence  s e r v e h i s courage can not  equation  i s denied  to t r u s t  t h e f l e s h by  renouncing  the world  a f i g u r e who  a p p e a r s a t t h e end  House of H o l i n e s s , has b l u n t and  bad"  (x.47).  twins  t o be  relies  alternative  on  the  This  o f Red  Knight's  renounce  Contemplation,  sojourn i n the  renounced the w o r l d , h i s e a r t h l y eyes a r e B u t b o t h A r t h u r and  t h e Red  c h o s e n t h e a c t i v e as a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e  body  t o b e i n g bound " i n  a l l action in i t . Cross  fall  simple  " i n arme o f f l e s h l y m i g h t , " t o and  bound")  i n r a s c i b i l i t y , ,so  o f a c t i o n who  The  beauties chaine" i s not  put  does, "[d]oth soonest  escape the body's d e s i r e s .  i n ignorance.  con-  " i n arme o f f l e s h l y m i g h t " w i t h -  k n i g h t who  t h e man  Cross  the  innocence,.or,  d e s i r e ( b o a s t i n g " i n b e a u t i e s chaine not  in disaventrous f i g h t . "  to  t h a t o f t h e Red  life,  Cross and  Knight  "both have  are subject .  14 to  t h e w o r l d and  the flesh..  Therefore  f o r them i g n o r a n c e  weakness of the f l e s h i s a paramount danger.  of  Y e t , as A r t h u r ' s  the conclu-  s i o n i m p l i e s , even knowledge of the weakness of the f l e s h i s i n s u f ficient  as a  defense.  A r t h u r has  succumbed t o d e s i r e t h r o u g h  a dream v i s i o n of  the  87  F a e r i e Queene, as he r e v e a l s K n i g h t ' s v i s i o n o f Una evil  t o Una  (ix.13-15).  U n l i k e t h e Red  Cross  (i.47-55), A r t h u r ' s v i s i o n i s not the r e s u l t  f o r c e s s e e k i n g h i s o v e r t h r o w . . The v i s i o n d o e s n o t l e a d t o  law-  l e s s l u s t , b u t r a t h e r t o a l o v e whose r e a l i z a t i o n must w a i t . u n t i l time  [has] e x p i r e d " ( i x . 1 4 ) .  " w a r y government, , 1  and  1  Nevertheless the l o v e i s a triumph  g a i n s sway w h i l e r e a s o n i s a b s e n t  i s a s i g n of the weakness of t h e f l e s h .  e x a m p l e o f A r t h u r " m a t e d " and in  t h e e x a m p l e o f Red  O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e i s n o t one  b o t h k n i g h t s s h a r e h a s , i n Red which soul. of  evil  c a s e w i t h t h a t o f t h e Red  When Una form of debate.  the  Cross Knight imprisoned The  weakness  the s a l v a t i o n of  is implicit  by the  i n his pairing  Cross Knight.  and P r i n c e A r t h u r m e e t , t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n t a k e s  the  A r t h u r argues  in  d e s p a i r o v e r t h e f a t e o f Red is  i n jeopardizing  over  d i f f e r e n c e between  Cross Knight's case, been the path  powers have succeeded  "just  during sleep,,  of k i n d but of degree.  A r t h u r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of the p a r a l l e l  h i s own  The  of  t h e . s t r e n g t h of r e a s o n , w h i l e Una,  Cross. K n i g h t , t a k e s the v i e w  that  reason  insufficient:,  . . . w o f u l l L a d i e l e t me y o u i n t r e t e , For t o u n f o l d the anguish of your h a r t ; M i s h a p s a r e m a i s t r e d by a d v i c e d i s c r e t e , And c o u n s e l l m i t t i g a t e s t h e g r e a t e s t s m a r t ; F o u n d n e v e r h e l p e , who n e v e r w o u l d h i s h u r t s i m p a r t . 0 b u t (quoth she) g r e a t g r i e f e w i l l n o t be t o u l d , And c a n m o r e e a s i l y b e t h o u g h t , t h e n s a i d . R i g h t s o ; ( q u o t h he) b u t h e , t h a t n e v e r " w o u l d , Could never: w i l l to might gives g r e a t e s t a i d . But g r i e f e (quoth she) does g r e a t e r grow d i s p l a i d , I f t h e n i t f i n d n o t h e l p e , and b r e e d e s d e s p a i r e . D e s p a i r e breedes" not * (quottThe) where f a i t h i s s t a i d . No f a i t h s o f a s t •• ( q u o t h s h e ) b u t f l e s h d o e s p a i r e , F l e s h may e m p a i r e ( q u o t h h e ) b u t r e a s o n c a n r e p a i r e . ' ( v i i . 4 0 - 4 1 )  88 A r t h u r p r e v a i l s w i t h h i s argument:  H i s g o o d l y r e a s o n , and w e l l g u i d e d s p e a c h So d e e p e d i d s e t t l e i n h e r g r a t i o u s t h o u g h t , That her perswaded to d i s c l o s e the b r e a c h , W h i c h l o v e and f o r t u n e i n h e r h e a r t had w r o u g h t ,  Una's p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s  the events t h a t have taken  to her meeting w i t h P r i n c e A r t h u r . f a t e t h a t has  b e f a l l e n Red  Her  Red  r e a s o n has  Cross Knight's  Cross Knight,  p r o v e n t o be weak.  on r e a s o n t o c o n t a i n a n d greater passion  of  M  The  On  and  her  leads him  M  [ d ] e s p a i r e " t h a t Una  antagonist  o f hope. "' 1  w i t h S a n s j o y was and  to despair  to  rely  own  grief  the  "displaid"  following his release  argues to be contained,  by  Cross Knight  the consequence  and  not  from  Red  of  r e l i e v e d by  i t parallels  Sans j o y .  h i s companionship w i t h F i d e s s a .  i n t h e House of P r i d e .  combination  flesh,  the  reason  emotional  Cross Knight's  battle  t h e r e s u l t of h i s " [ u n ] s t a i d " f a i t h , h i s abandonment  r e s u l t o f r e a s o n ' s o v e r t h r o w by  Red  with  of " g r i e f e " i s to i n v i t e  Cross Knight's  Essentially,  s t a t e of j o y l e s s n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d  o f Una  the  towards  c a s t l e (ix.37-51).  g r i e f exposed, r a t h e r than being i s an  the  experience  the b a s i s of t h i s evidence,  Red  prior  p e s s i m i s t i c view  been " p a i r e [ d ] " by  ease the passion  [d]espaire."  o v e r w h e l m s r e a s o n and Orgoglio's  " f a i t h " has  place  sorrow i s the r e s u l t of  " c o u n s e l l " i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n c l u s i o n drawn from her reason.  (vii.42)  And  This  "[un]staid" faith,  the f l e s h , l e d t o the exposure of hope  a g a i n , when t h e f i g u r e o f D e s p a i r  f o l l o w i n g h i s rescue  o f i n s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n and  the k n i g h t ' s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n .  the  from Orgoglio's  confronts  castle i t is a  " [ u n ] s t a i d " f a i t h which  threatens  89 A r t h u r ' s r e b u t t a l o f U n a ' s a r g u m e n t a s s e r t s man's a b i l i t y a n d means t o a l l e v i a t e h i s e a r t h l y l o t .  He a r g u e s s e l f . - m o v i n g  m i g h t g i v e s g r e a t e s t a i d " ) , and r e a s o n ' s flesh  ("reason can r e p a i r e " ) .  i s made a b u n d a n t l y but  ability  ("will to  to counteract the  That he p r e v a i l s on b e h a l f o f r e a s o n  c l e a r i n S p e n s e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Una's  as w e l l , he p r e v a i l s  through  reason,  persuasion;  s e r v i n g as t h e example o f t h e  f a c u l t y h e d e f e n d s :•  H i s i . i g o o d l y y r e a s o n , and w e l l g u i d e d speach So d e e p e d i d s e t t l e i n h e r g r a t i o u s t h o u g h t , That h e r perswaded t o d i s c l o s e : t h e b r e a c h , Which l o v e and f o r t u n e i n h e r h e a r t had wrought.  Before d i s c u s s i n g Arthur's a s s e r t i o n of free-willchampioning of reason his  t o take note  and h i s  as t h e s e r e l a t e t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o and  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Red C r o s s K n i g h t  important  (vii.42)  following the b a t t l e ,  i t is  o f h i s p l a c e amoungst t h e companions Una h a s  d u r i n g h e r s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s  Knight.-  As t h e l a s t o f Una's  i n h e r s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s Knight,- A r t h u r l i e s  defenders  i n a hierarchical  p a t t e r n t h a t ranges from t h e b e a s t l y a p p e t i t e of t h e l i o n ,  to the  16 r a t i o n a l man a w a r e o f t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e f l e s h . of t h e f l e s h , u n l i k e t h a t of Satyrane, he  counsels  is  "wise  loy  r a t h e r t h a n commands.  and w a r i e "  (vi.43).  is civil  Arthur's r a t h e r than  tyrannical,  D u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o , he  ( v i i i . 7 ) w h i l e Satyrane  matches " f o r c e " w i t h  Sans  A r t h u r ' s knowledge o f t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h .("Flesh  may e m p a i r e " ) p l a c e s h i m h i g h e r i n t h e h i e r a r c h y f r o m b e a s t than Satyrane.  government  t o man  F u r t h e r , i t i s a t r u t h he r e c o g n i z e s b u t w h i c h  does n o t , and t h e r e f o r e p l a c e s h i m n e a r e r  Satyrane  t o Una, t h e f i g u r e o f t r u t h .  90  In Arthur  i s found the p e r f e c t i o n of the f a c u l t y  n i t i o n of j u s t  o r d e r , t r u e government.  One  consequence of t h i s  the  Arthur's, quest i s f o r  w i t h the' F a e r i e Q u e e n e , w h i c h , a s s h e h a s future.  of reason,  r e v e a l e d to him,  future union  union  lies  i s , of course,  recog-  in his  that  A r t h u r w i l l b e k i n g o f F a e r i e L a n d , t h e .supreme f i g u r e o f r e a s o n the s t a t e . ^  T h u s h i s d e b a t e w i t h Una  arid h i s q u e s t a r e  Arthur's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Una,is purely,one love.  serve  congruent.  of c h a r i t y ,  H i s p a s s i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e F a e r i e Queene, he  o n l y t o s e r v e Una, t r u t h by  and,  repairing  after  convincing her  faith,  she  She  pure  seeks  of reason's a b i l i t y  accepts.  in  to  a l l o w s hope t o r e t u r n :  . . . F a i r e S i r e , I h o p e g o o d hap h a t h b r o u g h t Y o u t o i n q u i r e the' s e c r e t s o f my g r i e f e , Or t h a t y o u r w i s e d o m e w i l l d i r e c t my thought, Or t h a t y o u r p r o w e s s e c a n me y i e l d r e l i e f e . (vii.42)  To  r e t u r n to Arthur's a s s e r t i o n that " w i l l  to might gives .  g r e a t e s t ' a i d , " t h e r e i s i n A r t h u r ' s argument a marked absence of r e f e r e n c e t o God's p a r t i n t h e s u p p o r t  o f man  nesses.  and  flesh.  He  a s s e r t s the r o l e of reason  While quite c l e a r l y Arthur  s u f f i c i e n c y ,. i t  i s clear  t h a t he  f a c u l t y o f r e a s o r i and w i l l . that never would,/ Could t o Red  Cross  juxtaposes Una  Knight  on  weak-  i n combating arguing  the a b i l i t y  the  self-  o f man's  H i s argument s t r e s s e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i s a miraculous  t o t e l l what b r o u g h t him  free-will  i s not p r i d e f u l l y  insists  never").  f l e s h w i t h reason  a g a i n s t h i s own  any  Acquainted  with miracles  balm ( i x , 1 9 ) ] , h e  r a t h e r than Providence. t o F a e r i e L a n d , he  [his  ("he, gift  nevertheless Asked l a t e r  complains:  by  F u l l hard i t i s . . . to read aright The c o u r s e o f h e a v e n l y c a u s e , o r u n d e r s t a n d The s e c r e t m e a n i n g o f t h ' e t e r n a l l m i g h t , T h a t r u l e s mens w a y e s , and r u l e s t h e t h o u g h t s o f l i v i n g w i g h t .  And  y e t l a t e r , he e x c h a n g e s g i f t s w i t h Red  New  Testament from the k n i g h t . A r t h u r ' s complaint about  of  h e a v e n l y c a u s e , " and  t h ' e t e r n a l l might" reason.  Red  (ix.7)  Cross K n i g h t , r e c e i v i n g  the d i f f i c u l t y  of r e a d i n g " [ t ] h e  the  course  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g " [ t ] h e s e c r e t meaning o f -  i s a n a d m i s s i o n t h a t God's w i l l  Cross Knight's g i f t  o f t h e New  i s u n a v a i l a b l e to  Testament to A r t h u r  argues 18  t h a t A r t h u r s t a n d s i n n e e d o f t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f God's w i l l  i t contains-.  F u r t h e r , h i s r e s c u e b y m i r a c l e f r o m O r g o g l i o when he  in battle  falls  ( v i i i . 1 9 ) suggests that u l t i m a t e l y reason alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t the f l e s h . (vii.41), will  Arthur's f a i t h ,  i s r o o t e d i n the Old Testament.  i n combating  covenant  t o combat f l e s h l i n e s s  appearance  o f C h r i s t , and  r e a s o n and w i l l  of C h r i s t .  to i n h i s debate w i t h  Una  H i s i n s i s t e n c e on r e a s o n  the weakness of the f l e s h  r a t h e r t h a n t h e new failed  a t e r m he r e f e r s  t o combat  i s based  i n the Adamic  T h a t man's r e a s o n and  i s evident i n b i b l i c a l history  that Arthur f a i l s  and  will  i n the  to defeat the f l e s h  by  i s e v i d e n t i n t h e m i r a c l e he needs t o overcome O r g o g l i o .  Una's h i s t o r i c a l  summary o f t h e e v e n t s w h i c h h a v e l e d t o h e r  present s i t u a t i o n i s usually  t a k e n as an a l l u s i o n t o e i t h e r  the  Edenic  and A d a m i c p e r i o d s o f b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y , o r t o t h e t e r m s p e n t i n t h e 19 w i l d e r n e s s by tells  t h e woman d e s c r i b e d i n R e v e l a t i o n s 1 2 : 6 .  A r t h u r seems t o s u p p o r t t h e f i r s t  d i r e c t a l l u s i o n t o Eden by m e n t i o n  The  tale  she  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , given the  of the r i v e r s Phison,,Euphrates,  and  92  Gehon, and  the d e s c r i p t i o n of her parents past f e l i c i t y  bondage ( v i i . 4 3 ) . four years  hundred  F u r t h e r , t h e t e r m o f b o n d a g e w h i c h Una  ( v i i . 4 4 ) i s more, o b v i o u s l y a n a l l u s i o n  Adamic covenant, and  traditionally  f o u r thousand  the less obvious a l l u s i o n s  significantly  y e a r s , than to the  Red  t o e i t h e r h e r p a r e n t s o r Red  p a r e n t s a r e i m p r i s o n e d by  "their  the p a r a l l e l  C r o s s K n i g h t has had  Enchaunter  ( v i i . 4 9 ) , and  Red  "an E n c h a u n t e r  not merely (ii.26).  their f a l l s .  bad."  fall  Una's  sense abusd" by  the  "an "[i]nveigled  (vii.50).  C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c a s e , h i s a b a n d o n m e n t o f Una  r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i s own  her  Instead,  t h r o u g h w i t c h c r a f t Duessa has  t o f o l l o w her d e s i r e s unmeete" In  "[h]is  departs  does n o t a s s i g n  c r u e l c u r s e d enemy" ( v i i . 4 4 ) ,  D r a g o n , and Red  of  and  man,  i n both  Cross Knight.  she blames e x t e r n a l f o r c e s f o r b r i n g i n g about  him  o f t h e woman i n  Specifically,  C r o s s K n i g h t i n t o t h e c l u t c h e s o f D u e s s a , Una  bad"  twelve  t o t h e Adamic p e r i o d , Una's t a l e  from Old Testament h i s t o r y .  responsibility  the  to the Edenic s t a t e of  d e s c r i p t i o n of her parent's f a l l . f r o m f e l i c i t y of  g i v e s as  2 0  Yet d e s p i t e the obvious a l l u s i o n s and  present  to the term of  s i x t y days term g i v e n f o r the wanderings  the w i l d e r n e s s .  and  appetites (ii.5)  and  i s the  the  machinations  H i s f o l l o w i n g of Duessa's " d e s i r e s unmeete" i s  t h e r e s u l t o f " h e r w i t c h c r a f t , " b u t as w e l l o f h i s a p p e t i t e s I n t h e c a s e of Una's p a r e n t s , t h e a l l u s i o n t o Eden  t h a t t h e b i b l i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f Adam's and  argues  Eve's d i s o b e d i e n c e s h o u l d  a p p l y t o them. Una's d e p a r t u r e f r o m b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f t h e f a l l  of  93 Adam and Eve and the legend's description of Red Cross Knight's f a l l argues what many other d e t a i l s i n the legend point to: that Una's roots are i n the New Testament, and that her actions are governed by charity.  She f i r s t appears accompanied by a lamb, emblematically  figuring the love of Christ ( i . 4 ) .  When Red Cross Knight i s driven to  the point of suicide by Despair (ix.51), Una counters the argument of Despair by arguing mercy and God's grace (ix.53).  While Despair's  argument i s marked by sophistry ["is not his law, l e t every sinner die:/ Die s h a l l a l l f l e s h ? " (ix.47)], i n the main i t i s based i n Old Testament faith.  He argues the view of God as vengeful, and of man's responsi-  b i l i t y for h i s own actions. Before Una's intercession, the effect of Despair's argument on Red Cross Knight i s ,  That nought but death before h i s eyes he saw, And ever burning wrath before him l a i d , By righteous sentence of th'Almighties law. (ix.47) The j u s t i c e that Despair argues applies to the knight i s the law of the Old Testament.  The e f f e c t of the argument, Red Cross Knight's  decision to commit suicide, signals the complete errosion of the knight's hope for salvation. Old  Una triumphs over Despair by countering  Testament law with New Testament grace: Where j u s t i c e growes, there grows eke greater grace, The which doth quench the brond of h e l l i s h smart, And that accurst hand-writing doth deface. (ix.53) Una's tale of her history i s a v e i l e d example of her teaching  of the truth.  While accepting Arthur's argument on behalf of reason  94 and  free w i l l ,  charity.  she goes beyond i t by p u t t i n g b e f o r e him an example of  Her s t o r y f o r e c a s t s  the".two g i f t s A r t h u r r e c e i v e s :  K n i g h t ' s p r e s e n t o f the New Testament,'  Red C r o s s  and the g i f t of G o d ' s p r o v i d e n c e  he r e c e i v e s d u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o .  Further,, i t  foreshadows  A r t h u r ' s own c o n c l u s i o n t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o : T h i s dayes ensample h a t h t h i s l e s s o n deare Deepe w r i t t e n i n my h e a r t w i t h y r o n p e n , ^ That b l i s s e may not a b i d e i n s t a t e of m o r t a l l men. F i n a l l y , Una's t a l e j o i n s Spenser's  (viii.44)  g l o s s on the a c t i o n up u n t i l  e n t r y of Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n t o the House of H o l i n e s s .  the  The g l o s s makes  t h e . p o i n t t h a t man i s u l t i m a t e l y . d e f e n c e l e s s w i t h o u t G o d ' s c h a r i t y : What -manr i s he', t h a t ° b o a s t s t o f of l e s h l y l m i g h t ' , . And v a i n e a s s u r a n c e of m o r t a l i t y , Which a l l so soone, as i t d o t h come t o f i g h t , A g a i n s t s p i r i t u a l l f o e s , y e e l d s by and b y , Or from the f i e l d most c o w a r d l y d o t h f l y ? Ne l e t the man a s c r i b e i t to h i s s k i l l , That t h r o u g h g r a c e h a t h g a i n e d v i c t o r y . I f any s t r e n g t h we h a v e , , i t i s t o i l l , But a l l the good i s Gods, b o t h power and eke w i l l . '  (x.l)  That the b a t t l e between A r t h u r and O r g o g l i o i s a t e s t of r e a s o n i s made e v i d e n t by the f o r w a r d p o s i t i o n of the Dwarf i n l e a d i n g Una and 22 A r t h u r to O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e  (vii.52).  Y e t w h i l e the vanguard i s  r e a s o n , i t i s r e a s o n i n the.company of t r u t h . seek the d e l i v e r a n c e of Red Spenser's  Cross K n i g h t .  Una g u i d e s A r t h u r  to  The a c t i o n , , a c c o r d i n g t o  g l o s s ; s i g n i f i e s the f o r c e s w h i c h s e r v e t o a i d " [ t ] h e  r i g h t e o u s man" whose weaknesses of p r i d e and of the f l e s h t h r e a t e n him with a "daily  fall":  95  Ay me, how many p e r i l s d o e e n f o l d The r i g h t e o u s m a n , . t o make h i m d a i l y f a l l ? Were n o t , t h a t h e a v e n l y g r a c e d o t h h i m u p h o l d , And s t e d f a s t t r u t h a c q u i t e h i m o u t o f a l l . Her l o v e i s f i r m e , h e r c a r e c o n t i n u a l l , So o f t a s h e t h r o u g h h i s owne f o o l i s h p r i d e , Or w e a k n e s s e i s t o s i n f u l l b a n d s made t h r a l l : E l s e s h o u l d t h i s RedCrosse k n i g h t i n bands have dyde, 23 For whose deliverance she t h i s P r i n c e doth t h i t h e r guide. (viii.l) ;  Upon a r r i v i n g  a t O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , Timias blows  h o r n t o open t h e c a s t l e g a t e s  (viii.5).  h i s enchanted  T i m i a s , as A r t h u r ' s s q u i r e , i s  an a p p r e n t i c e t o A r t h u r ' s c h a r a c t e r , a n d , as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s q u i r e and h i s h o r s e i m p l i e s , n o t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f paramount r a t i o n a l i t y  that h i s master  i s (vii.37).  H i s horn i s l i k e  24 the horn L o g i s t e l l a presents t o A s t o l f o . represents reason, the horn, j u s t i c e .  Upton argues  He e x t e n d s  that  Logistella  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  T i m i a s ' horn beyond t h a t o f L o g i s t e l l a ' s horn by a r g u i n g t h a t n o t o n l y is  i t d e r i v e d from Orlando F u r i O s o , b u t as w e l l  allusion  that  i t r e p r e s e n t s an  t o Romans 10:18 ( T h e h o r n i s " [ t ] h e w o r d o f t r u t h ,  t h e word o f  God,  whose sound g o e t h i n t o a l l t h e e a r t h " ) . Upton concludes 25 Timias blows t h e "horn o f s a l v a t i o n . " L i k e A r t h u r ' s s h i e l d , T i m i a s ' horn overpowers d e c e i t :  that  No f a l s e e n c h a u n t m e n t , n o r d e c e i p t f u l l t r a i n e M i g h t once a b i d e t h e t e r r o r o f t h a t b l a s t . (viii.4)  Its  e f f e c t b e f o r e the c a s t l e of O r g o g l i o i s that the c a s t l e doors  of t h e i r  freewill  ["every  arguing t h a t Timias blows t h e mark.  While  dore of f r e e w i l l  open f l e w "  (viii.5)].  open In  t h e " h o r n o f s a l v a t i o n , " U p t o n goes beyond  i t may s i g n a l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f R e d C r o s s K n i g h t ' s  96  salvation,  the k n i g h t ' s r e l e a s e from O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e i s not  cant of h i s s a l v a t i o n but to Despair  o f h i s r e j o i n i n g Una,  the t r u t h . '  signifi-  He  succumbs  a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e , m a r k i n g t h e l o s s of h i s hope f o r  salva-  tion. T i m i a s ' h o r n t r u m p e t s God's o r d e r , H i s j u s t i c e . L o g i s t e l l a ' s horn i t i s a symbol of j u s t i c e , but horn, in  i t symbolizes  divine justice.  the doors opening  authority freely. O r g o g l i o and  The  They a c c e d e t o t h e  second r e s u l t of the horn's b l a s t  t h e i r response  results horn's  i s that  his squire.  Unlike  the  i s a c h a l l e n g e to the a u t h o r i t y of  horn. In the broadest  fies  "freewill."  unlike Logistella's  b l a s t o f Timias.' h o r n  D u e s s a r u s h t o a t t a c k A r t h u r and  door's response, Timias'  of t h e i r  The  Like  o r d e r and  Medieval  and  Renaissance  degree, the f r e e l y w i l l e d  a c c o r d i n g t o God's w i l l .  26  nature, f r e e l y acquiesce  The  sense,  justice  p o s i t i o n i n g of a l l of c r e a t i o n  doors of Orgoglio's c a s t l e ,  to the statement  signi-  inanimate  o f God's j u s t i c e T i m i a s '  horn  27 makes.  B o t h D u e s s a and  O r g o g l i o d e f y God's j u s t i c e , H i s  O r g o g l i o , g i a n t symbol of the supremacy of the f l e s h , d e c e i t , rush to defend b e t w e e n A r t h u r and  and  t h e i r u s u r p a t i o n o f God's o r d e r .  Duessa, The  O r g o g l i o i s a b a t t l e b e t w e e n f l e s h and  e v i l , D u e s s a , u r g i n g on O r g o g l i o .  The  w h e t h e r man's r e a s o n  to preserve  is sufficient  issue, finally, i t by  order. evil  battle  reason,  i s order,  overthrowing  with and the  flesh. As  t h e b a t t l e d e v e l o p s , A r t h u r c o n t e s t s w i t h O r g o g l i o and  s e e k s t o c o n t a i n D u e s s a , m o u n t e d on h e r m a n y - h e a d e d b e a s t ,  and  Timias  thus  97  prevent task. she  her  from coming t o O r g o g l i o ' s a i d .  Duessa overcomes him  takes  through w i t c h c r a f t .  a " s e c r e t p o i s o n " and  (viii.14).  Of  the "golden  i s not  From her  s p r i n k l e s i t on T i m i a s '  cup,"  d e s p e y r e d i d many t h e r e o f s u p " witchcraft  Timias  Spenser t e l l s  (viii.14).  The  us  equal  "weaker p a r t s "  that "[d]eath  e f f e c t on T i m i a s  and of  this  of e x t i n g u i s h i n g the s q u i r e ' s  her beast  r e v e a l s hope undermined by  the weakness of f a i t h  parts").  cup"  "cup  t h e "wine and w a t e r " o f l i f e  sup  Timias  (x.13).  i s Arthur's  f i g u r e of paramount r a t i o n a l i t y . D u e s s a r i d e s , as he  point  To  (Timias'  "[d]eath  of g o l d " which of F i d e l i a ' s  and  contains  cup  i s able to c o n t a i n the  i s a b l e t o manage h i s own  It  "weaker  means  s q u i r e , n o t h i s e q u a l , he He  impor-  Orgoglio.  f r o m w h i c h she d i s p e n s e s  despeyre" i s the a n t i t h e s i s of F i d e l i a ' s  hope.  i s a minor but  t h e m a i n b a t t l e b e t w e e n A r t h u r and  Duessa's "golden  the  life.  T i m i a s ' b a t t l e w i t h D u e s s a and t a n t d i g r e s s i o n on  (viii.14)  d r i v e s o f f t h e many-headed  w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g T i m i a s ' u n d o i n g b y w i t c h c r a f t , i s on  and  cup"  i s that,  A r t h u r comes t o t h e a i d o f h i s s q u i r e , and  life  the  "golden  . . . h i s s t u r d i e c o u r a g e s o o n e was q u a y d , And a l l h i s s e n s e s w e r e w i t h s u d d e i n e d r e a d d i s m a y d .  beast  to  i s not  a  beast  s p i r i t e d horse,  his  28 appetites  (vii.37).  His f a i t h ,  thought,  which i n h i s case e x e r c i s e s c o n t r o l over to  embrace f a i t h .  before  i s imperfect.  the f l e s h , does not  Duessa s p r i n k l e s f a l s e f a i t h over  the a t t a c k of the b e a s t .  F i g u r a t i v e l y having  of f a l s e f a i t h h i s hope e v a p o r a t e s ,  and  Reason,  him  and  reach he  withers  t a s t e d of the  l i k e o t h e r s b e f o r e him  up  he  cup knows  " [ d ] e a t h and  despeyre."  t e l e s c o p e s the f a l l  I n many r e s p e c t s , T i m i a s '  o f Red  F i d e s s a , Duessa i n v e i g l e d  Cross  Knight.  h e r way  f a l l before  In the guise of f a l s e  i n t o Red  Cross  Knight's  t a k i n g advantage of the k n i g h t ' s weakness of f l e s h . the k n i g h t i n t o  t h e House o f P r i d e and  And  company l e d t o Red  finally  her  the claws  of Duessa's beast  r e l e a s e o f Red Yet Red  Cross  Knight's  f a l l was  fall  a result  of both  before of Timias  from  fall  and b y  i s the r e s u l t  Cross  i s unable  the f l e s h  While  of the  Arthur's battle with  o f Red  the quandry of reason.  f a l l before Duessa,  by d i f f e r e n c e s .  Knight's  to conquer.  fall, The  I t i s f a c e d b o t h by  t o w h i c h i t i s bound..  i s w i t h the weakness of the f l e s h , f o r , as  the  t h i s weakness t h a t e v i l  A r t h u r i s "wise  " t h e c a r e f u l l k n i g h t " who  chiefly  and w a r i e "  the legend  uncover h i s magic s h i e l d  Cross the  insuffic-  the weakness  two  battles  forces which The  major  battle  reveals, i t i s  works.  (viii.7)  i n Arthur's f a l l .  during the b a t t l e ,  against  i n the b a t t l e ;  notices Timias' plight  Yet Orgoglio's f o r c e r e s u l t s  Red  and  Orgoglio  A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o p i t s p r i d e of f l e s h reason.  the  t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e f l e s h and  faced with deceit.  of the f l e s h which reason  through  fall  Arthur's rescue  are attended  the major aspect  attack truth  company l e d  p a r a l l e l s his battle with Orgoglio for  of reason, Timias'  iency of reason  dramatise  company,  Cross" K n i g h t .  Knight's  represents  Knight's  the s i m i l a r i t i e s between T i m i a s '  insufficiency  Her  faith,  t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h Sans j o y .  Cross  g i a n t emblem o f t h e f l e s h , O r g o g l i o .  Duessa  and  is .  goes to h i s a i d .  A r t h u r , who  i s saved  he  by  does  not  i t s chance  99  uncovering  which s i g n a l s Orgoglio's  defeat:  And i n h i s f a l l h i s s h i e l d , t h a t c o v e r e d w a s , D i d l o o s e h i s v e l e b y c h a u n c e , and o p e n f l e w : The l i g h t w h e r e o f , t h a t h e a v e n s l i g h t d i d p a s , Such b l a z i n g b r i g h t n e s s e t h r o u g h the a i e r threw, That, e y e m o t e n o t t h e same e n d u r e t o vew. W h i c h when t h e G y a u n t s p y d e w i t h s t a r i n g e y e , He downe l e t f a l l h i s a r m e , and s o f t w i t h d r e w H i s w e a p o n h u g e , t h a t h e a v e d was on h y e F o r t° h a v e s l a i n e t h e man, t h a t on the" g r o u n d d i d l y e . And e k e t h e f r u i t f u l l - h e a d e d b e a s t , amaz'd A t f l a s h i n g beames o f t h a t s u n s h i n y s h i e l d , Became s t a r k e b l i n d , and a l l h i s s e n s e s d a z ' d , T h a t downe he t u m b l e d on t h e d u r t i e f i e l d , And seem'd h i m s e l f e a s c o n q u e r e d t o y i e l d . Whom when h i s m a i s t r e s s e p r o u d p e r c e i v ' d t o f a l l , Whiles yet h i s feeble feet f o r faintnesse r e e l d , U n t o t h e C y a n t l o u d l y , s h e gan c a l l , 0 h e l p e O r g o g l i o , h e l p e , o r e l s e we p e r i s h a l l . A t h e r s o p i t t e o u s c r y was much amoov'd Her champion s t o u t , . a n d f o r t o ayde h i s f r i e n d , A g a i n e h i s w o n t e d a n g r y weapon p r o o v ' d : B u t a l l i n v a i n e : f o r h e h a s r e a d h i s end I n t h a t b r i g h t s h i e l d , and a l l t h e i r f o r c e s s p e n d , Themselves i n v a i n e : f o r s i n c e t h a t g l a u n c i n g s i g h t , He h a t h no p o w r e t o h u r t , n o r t o d e f e n d ; As w h e r e t h ' A l m i g h t i e s l i g h t n i n g b r o n d d o e s l i g h t , I t dimmes t h e d a z e d e y e n , and d a u n t s , t h e . s e n s e s q u i g h t . (viii.19-21)  Arthur the f l e s h . Arthur's is  i s s a v e d by  L i k e Timias'  h e a v e n l y g r a c e w h i c h s h i e l d s man  horn b l a s t at the beginning  " s h i e l d r e f l e c t s God's w i l l ,  powerless ariU.must, f i n a l l y ,  undone by  ;  the u n v e i l e d  shield.  of  against which the  obey.  the  battle,  flesh ultimately  Both symbols of the  Orgoglio  against  i s p o w e r l e s s and  flesh  are  Duessa's  beast collapses.  D u e s s a as w e l l i s r e n d e r e d p o w e r l e s s , i n d i r e c t l y ,  the defeat  f l e s h has  of the  of g a i n i n g power.  She  stripped evil  i s indecorously  of i t s a l l y ,  s t r i p p e d of her  for  i t s c h i e f means d i s g u i s e by  Una  100  and,  r e v e a l e d as a l o a t h s o m e o l d h a g , s h e f l e e s  face" into is  apace" ( v i i i . 5 0 ) .  f i n a l when h e c u t s t h e h e a d f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s  Orgoglio's is  "the w a s t f u l l w i l d e r n e s s  left  "huge g r e a t b o d y " v a n i s h e s ,  "like The  hated  Arthur's  shoulders.  victory  Once d e a d ,  and o f t h e g r e a t b u l k a l l t h a t  an emptie bladder was" ( v i i i . 2 4 ) .  v a n i s h i n g o f O r g o g l i o ' s body i s emblematic o f t h e m o r t a l i t y  of t h e f l e s h .  The s o u r c e  o f h i s s t r e n g t h was a n i l l u s i o n  p r i d e a n d i t c r u m b l e s b e f o r e God's w i l l . ionary, although  she gains  p i t t i n g her perverse  grounded i n  Duessa, though, i s n o t i l l u s -  c o n t r o l , , i n p a r t , through  a r e a l p r i n c i p l e of malignant and  "from heavens  illusion.  She i s  i n t e l l i g e n c e r e f u s i n g t o be governed,  order  r e a s o n ) a g a i n s t God's o r d e r .  ( f a l s e h o o d over  t r u t h , and f l e s h  The d i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e  which  over  rescues  A r t h u r d o e s n o t d e s t r o y D u e s s a , b u t r a t h e r unmasks h e r b y s t r i p p i n g her  of her a l l y ,  Cross  Knight  only through  the flesh.  She r e t u r n s t o a t t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e Red  from t r u t h a t t h e end o f t h e legend the knight's admission  (xii.26-28),  and i t i s  o f h i s weakness t h a t she f a i l s  (xii.32). Following the destruction of Orgoglio, Arthur g i a n t ' s c a s t l e f o r Red C r o s s Orgoglio's (viii.31).  foster-father, Ignaro,  Knight.  He m e e t s , i n h i s s e a r c h ,  a s h i s name s u g g e s t s ,  represents  t o d i r e c t h i m t o Red Cross  to a s s i s t him.  Arthur, r a t i o n a l l y observing  character d e s p i t e Ignaro's  wisdom  (viii.34).  Ignaro,  and t h e keeper o f t h e keys t o t h e c a s t l e  asked by A r t h u r  his  searches the  Knight,  ignorance.  Ignaro  Ignaro,  When .  i s not able  i s able to read  appearance o f o l d age and t h e r e f o r e o f  101  The firmly,  appearance of Ignaro  marks,  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i d e , of f l e s h r e p r e s e n t e d  and  ignorance,  but  rather h i sfoster-father.  represented  that while ignorance it  a t t h i s point i n the legend  i s n o t i t s cause.  by Ignaro.  Ignaro  i s not Orgoglio's  by O r g o g l i o , .  man's i n h e r e n t w e a k n e s s o f t h e f l e s h  d r a w s h i m away f r o m t h e t r u t h t o t h e company o f i g n o r a n c e . s h i p between Ignaro Knight's  situation.  and O r g o g l i o  i sa partial  anatomy o f Red  c a s t l e , of which Ignaro  Y e t h i s i n i t i a l a b a n d o n m e n t was t h e r e s u l t o f h i s own which the figure of e v i l ,  b r i n g about t h e s e p a r a t i o n . in  the course  o f Red C r o s s  absence of t r u t h ,  Cross  is. keeper.  fleshliness  Archimago, e x e r c i s e d h i s s o r c e r y t o  Weakness o f t h e f l e s h i s p r i o r Knight's  fall.  to ignorance  Fostered by ignorance, t h e  the knight e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e s a t the s t a t e of g i a n t  f l e s h l i n e s s represented to  The r e l a t i o n -  T h e k n i g h t ' s a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e t r u t h has, r e s u l t e d  in his incarceration i n Orgoglio's  through  father,  T h e p o i n t made b y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  fosters the pride of f l e s h represented Rather,  by Orgoglio,  by Orgoglio's  conquest over him.  Arthur,  guided  h i s b a t t l e w i t h Orgoglio. by Una, t h e t r u t h , i s a b l e t o see through  the appearance of Ignaro  b y v i r t u e o f h i s powers o f r e a s o n .  Spenser e s t a b l i s h e s , by a n t i t h e s i s , bute of Holiness.  As i g n o r a n c e  progression through  attri-  f o s t e r s t h e growth of f l e s h l i n e s s , so  knowledge f o s t e r s t h e growth o f H o l i n e s s . Knight's  t h a t knowledge i s an  I n d e s c r i b i n g Red  t h e House o f H o l i n e s s l a t e r  Cross  i n the legend,  Spenser d e s c r i b e s a s p i r i t u a l c u r r i c u l u m l e a d i n g t o H o l i n e s s .  Yet,  q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , knowledge i s n o t t h e cause o f H o l i n e s s , f o r t h e k n i g h t donned t h e armour o f t h e C h r i s t i a n p r i o r  t o h i s a c q u i r i n g knowledge.  102  The  d i v i s i o n approximates  virtue:  one  that A r i s t o t l e argues a p p l i e s to  any  t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s b o t h - a p r o p e n s i t y t o w a r d s v i r t u e and  also  29 the  a c q u i s i t i o n of  virtue.-  Once p a s t I g n a r o , A r t h u r s u c c e e d s from h i s bottomless c e l l over H e l l . k n i g h t s exchange g i f t s ,  Red  i n r e s c u i n g Red  Shortly thereafter,  C r o s s K n i g h t g i v i n g t h e New  A r t h u r g i v i n g a few d r o p s o f a m i r a c u l o u s h e a l i n g  Cross Knight the  two  Testament,  balm:  P r i n c e A r t h u r gave a boxe o f Diamond s u r e , Embowd w i t h g o l d a n d g o r g e o u s , o r n a m e n t , w h e r e i n were c l o s d few drops o f . l i q u o r p u r e , Of w o n d r o u s w o r t h , and v e r t u e e x c e l l e n t , T h a t any wound c o u l d h e a l e i n c o n t i n e n t : W h i c h t o r e q u i t e , t h e R e d c r o s s e k n i g h t h i m gave. A booke, w h e r e i n h i s Saveours testament Was w r i t w i t h g o l d e n l e t t e r s r i c h and b r a v e ; A w o r k e o f wondrous g r a c e , and a b l e s o u l e s t o s a v e .  William Nelson interprets Arthur's g i f t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Book o f S e t h .  30  and  (ix.19)  as t h e o i l o f mercy  Other c r i t i c s  argue  that the  gift  31 d e r i v e s from the w e l l of l i f e . Essentially  t h e two  and r e c e i v e r .  gifts  Nelson's view, I think,  a r e complementary,  Medieval tradition links  o f m e r c y f l o w e d f r o m t h e t r e e t h a t was 32  the  t r e e was  The  mercy of C h r i s t , w h i l e t h e "Saveours mercy.  he m i g h t Red  suited both to  the g i f t s ,  oil  the tree of l i f e .  and  i s accurate.  asserting  that  t o b e a r C h r i s t , and  testament" i s a r e c o r d of t h a t C h r i s t was  the  that  o i l of mercy i s a promise  E l i z a b e t h a n Bishop John Jewel w r i t e s  giver  of  the  Christ's  born  "that 33  d e c l a r e t o t h e w o r l d t h e s e c r e t and h i d w i l l o f h i s F a t h e r . "  Cross Knight's g i f t  r e v e l a t i o n of t h i s  t o A r t h u r matches the need A r t h u r has  " s e c r e t and h i d w i l l . "  The  f o r the  testament serves to  103  a s s i s t reason against ful  t h e f l e s h b y r e v e a l i n g God's w i l l .  f o r , a s t h e t e x t makes p l a i n , Arthur's  ment;  gift  t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t  The o i l o f m e r c y was God's g i f t  the promise o f mercy. man,  i t i s capable  and A r t h u r ' s  of saving  souls.  d e r i v e s from the Old Testa-  t o f a l l e n man,  and t h e g i f t  The p r o m i s e was. t h e c h i e f s u p p o r t  g i f t m a t c h e s Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s  was  o f hope f o r  situation.  k n i g h t , w h i l e r e l e a s e d from t h e bondage of f l e s h , s t i l l of h i s f a l l .  I t i s merci-  The  faces  H i s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n i s s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d  the fact by  this  f a c t , and t h e t e s t o f hope w h i c h he f a c e s , a t e s t w h i c h r e a c h e s i t s climax  i n the knight's meeting w i t h Despair,  mercy.  Una overcomes D e s p a i r  i s met b y t h e p r o m i s e o f  by c a s t i n g the o i l of mercy,  figuratively,  u p o n t h e k n i g h t b y r e v e a l i n g God's m e r c y . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s inset  tale  encounter w i t h Despair  t o l d by S i r T r e v i s a n , a k n i g h t  fleeing. Despair.  Trevisan's  t a l e d e s c r i b e s how h e a n d h i s f r i e n d ,  acquainted  with Despair,  a n d how  directly  near-suicide.  loved him " i n the l e a s t degree" ( i x . 2 7 ) . told,  same s i t u a t i o n .  S i r T r e v i s a n , we c a n a s s u m e , was Their s i t u a t i o n occasioned  by an  Sir  S i r T e r w i n , became  t h i s acquaintance  T e r w i n ' s s u i c i d e and S i r T r e v i s a n ' s l a d y , who  i s prefaced  culminated  in Sir  S i r Terwin loved Although  we a r e n o t  i n something l i k e the  g r i e f , and D e s p a i r ,  s a t a n i c f i g u r e ["Snake i n h i d d e n w e e d e s " ( i x . 2 8 ) ] , i n s i n u a t e d into  their  consciousness  a  a  himself  and caused t h e s u i c i d e o f S i r T e r w i n .  His  m e t h o d s t r u c k a t h o p e , a n d was f o l l o w e d b y t h e o f f e r o f s u i c i d e a s a n alternative to.despair;  S i r Trevisan  t e l l s Red C r o s s K n i g h t  that,  104  He p l u c k t f r o m u s a l l h o p e o f That e a r s t us h e l d i n l o v e of T h e n h o p e l e s s e h a r t l e s s e , gan P e r s w a d e us d i e , t o s t i n t a l l  Sir Despair.  Trevisan's  The  was  his  bout w i t h Despair  i n both cases.  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  leads  t o Red  fall  Cross Knight  to  p o i n t of s i m i l a r i t y between T r e v i s a n ' s  Cross Knight's occurs  t a l e p r o m p t s . Red  due r e l i e f e , lingring life; the cunning t h i e f e further strife. (ix.29)  The  t a l e and  Red  i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of hope w h i c h  d e s p a i r of the spurned s u i t o r ,  But  challenge  despair which l e d to S i r Terwin's  Cross Knight's  occasions.  lies  :  the d e s p a i r  n e a r - s u i c i d e i s the d e s p a i r  i n both cases, Despair  suicide  for  i s c a s t as  which  salvation hope's'  antagonist. The (ix.33).  f i g u r e of D e s p a i r  He  recalls  Red  Cross Knight  encounters i s j o y l e s s  the k n i g h t ' s p a r t i a l l y vanquished a n t a g o n i s t ,  Sans  34 joy.  The  parallel  i s b o t h o b v i o u s and  Despair  are  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Red  f i g u r e hopelessness. to  h i s entry  ignorance.  significant.  Cross Knight's  They frame t h i s  final  i n t o t h e House of H o l i n e s s . The  knight  w e l l , he Despair and  p l a c e s hope.  The  while  the  argument w i t h  corresponding  the  ignorant  ignorant  of the  and both prior  encountered  in worldli-  h i s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n .  As  of the r e a l danger i n w h i c h  d i f f e r e n c e between the meeting w i t h  the meeting w i t h Despair  s c i e n c e and  t e s t of the k n i g h t  engages Sans j o y w h i l e  engages D e s p a i r  w o r l d l i n e s s , and  Both are  ness o f t h e House o f P r i d e w h i c h t h r e a t e n s  Sans j o y  d e r i v e s from the k n i g h t ' s burden of g u i l t Despair  Sans j o y  awakened p l a y s on  conin his  knight.  Nelson i s obviously correct i n describing Despair's  principal  105  weapons as  " O l d T e s t a m e n t t e x t s and  S p e c i f i c a l l y , Despair u t i l i z e s Old Testament.  Ironically,  duces t h i s concept  t h e K n i g h t ' s own  the concept  i t i s Red  when, f i r s t  conscience."  35  o f j u s t i c e embedded i n t h e  C r o s s K n i g h t , h i m s e l f , who  e n c o u n t e r i n g D e s p a i r , he  intro-  demands,  What j u s t i c e c a n b u t j u d g e a g a i n s t t h e e r i g h t , W i t h t h i n e owne b l o u d t o p r i c e h i s b l o u d , h e r e s h e d i n s i g h t ? (ix.37)  D e s p a i r d r a w s the' k n i g h t i n t o a d e b a t e o n j u s t i c e , w h i c h  turns, finally,  t o f o c u s on t h e j u s t i c e d u e ' R e d C r o s s K n i g h t f o r h i s p a s t a c t i o n s . debate s h i f t s it  i s l e d by  from  t h e j u s t i c e due  the f a i n t l y ,  D e s p a i r , t o t h a t due  and- s o m e t i m e s s t a r k l y ,  The  the k n i g h t ,  irrational  and  argument of  - 3 6  n  Despair. D e s p a i r ' s r e j o i n d e r t o Red the f a i n t l y  irrational  Cross Knight's i n i t i a l  question i s  question,.  What j u s t i c e e v e r o t h e r j u d g e m e n t t a u g h t , B u t he s h o u l d d i e , who m e r i t e s n o t t o l i v e ?  (ix.38)  W h i l e D e s p a i r ' s q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s some t r u t h , i t a l s o b e g s t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t i o n b y p l a c i n g D e s p a i r h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f j u d g e , and duces the concept  of j u s t i c e to the vague term  "merites."  As  D e s p a i r i l l u s t r a t e s h i s r e j o i n d e r w i t h an a m b i g u o u s e x a m p l e o f tance rendered  t o a man  who  longs f o r  death:,  Who t r a v e l s b y t h e w e a r i e w a n d r i n g way, To come u n t o h i s w i s h e d home i n h a s t e , And m e e t e s a f l o o d , t h a t d o t h h i s p a s s a g e s t a y , Is not g r e a t grace to h e l p e him over p a s t , Or f r e e h i s f e e t , t h a t i n t h e m y r e s t i c k e f a s t ?  re-  well, assis-  106  M o s t e n v i o u s man, t h a t g r i e v e s a t n e i g h t b o u r s good, And f o n d , t h a t j o y e s t i n t h e woe t h o u h a s t , Why w i l t n o t l e t h i m p a s s e , t h a t l o n g h a t h s t o o d Upon t h e b a n k e , y e t w i l t t h y s e l f e n o t p a s s e t h e f l o o d ?  In the f i r s t pletely and  instance, Despair's  example s h i f t s t h e d i s c u s s i o n  away f r o m m u r d e r , a s t h e k n i g h t  an a l l u s i o n  to the r i v e r  Styx.  ambiguous a l l u s i o n  damnation t h a t i s the r e a l c o n c l u s i o n Red  to m e r i t i n g death.  Cross Knight's  initial  from the n o t i o n of r e t r i b u t i v e  to Despair's  Aside  conceals  evokes t h e .  argument.  statement of r e c i p r o c i t y , i s garnered  justice. 37  the n o t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e . objection that the d i s t r i b u t o r  killing,  alludes to  ("flood,',' a n d " b a n k e " ) , a n d This  com-  i t , t o mercy  o f t h e argument,,the example f a i n t l y  the c r o s s i n g of t h e r i v e r Jordan  an  introduced  away f r o m t h e n o t i o n o f m e r i t i n g l i f e  from the i l l o g i c a l i t y  (ix.39)  Despair's  reply derives  from  ;  Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s  i s God a n d n o t man  response i s  i n Despair's  example: . . . The t e r m e o f l i f e i s l i m i t e d , Ne may a man p r o l o n g , n o r s h o r t e n i t ; The s o u l d i e r may n o t move f r o m w a t c h f u l ! s t e d , Nor l e a v e h i s s t a n d , u n t i l ! h i s C a p t a i n e b e d .  Despair's tion.  rejoinder i s not a direct  Despair  r e p l y t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s ,  o b s e r v e s t h a t God's w a y s a r e m y s t e r i o u s ,  f o r man was c e r t a i n l y  ordained  (ix.41)  but that  b y G o d , a n d t h a t man's l i f e was a  l i c e n s e f o r h i s death:  Who l i f e d i d l i m i t b y a l m i g h t i e doome, (Quoth he) knowes b e s t t h e termes e s t a b l i s h e d ; And h e , t h a t p o i n t s t h e C e n t o n e l l h i s r o o m e , D o t h l i c e n s e h i m d e p a r t a t sound o f m o r n i n g droome.  objecdeath  107  Is  n o t h i s deed, what ever t h i n g i s donne, I n h e a v e n and e a r t h ? d i d n o t h e a l l c r e a t e To d i e a g a i n e ? and e n d s t h a t was b e g o n n e . T h e i r times i n h i s e t e r n a l l booke of f a t e A r e w r i t t e n s u r e , and h a v e t h e i r c e r t a i n e d a t e . Who t h e n c a n s t r i v e w i t h s t r o n g n e c e s s i t i e , That holds the world i n h i s s t i l l chaunging s t a t e , Or s h u n n e t h e d e a t h o r d a y n d b y d e s t i n i e ? When h o u r e o f d e a t h i s come, l e t n o n e a s k e w h e n c e , n o r why. (ix.41-42)  Despair's tions  argument i s s o p h i s t i c a l ,  t o s e r v e as p r o o f  f o r h i s own,  p r o v i n g the k n i g h t ' s argument. God's w i l l  except  God's w i l l . likely is  The  i n s o f a r as  He  twisting  opposite p o s i t i o n , without  argues,  here,  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t God  die  againe?").  The  The  can n o t  i n man's d e a t h  s o u l i s the exception  ("did not  he  may death  argument i s  to t h i s p r i n c i p l e  i t i s the s o u l which i s the o b j e c t , although  the debate.  For  u r g e s on  to  a l l create/  i n v o k e s , and  the s u i c i d e Despair  know  i s according  red herring i n Despair's  created a l l to d i e  objecdis-  p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n , i n g e n e r a l , man's  d e m o n s t r a b l y God's w i l l .  his  t h a t man  t o know t h a t man's d e a t h  implication i s that to a s s i s t  f u r t h e r God's w i l l ,  the k n i g h t ' s  To  Despair  veiled,  t h e k n i g h t means  of  certain  38 damnation f o r the k n i g h t ' s Despair  soul.  f o l l o w s the argument about death  argument about l i f e  and  sin.  He  as God's w i l l  ".  the knight's i n i t i a l  . . l i f e m u s t l i f e , and  o n c e t h e s t r a i g h t and  (ix.43)  s t a t e m e n t o f r e t r i b u t i o n , he  b l o u d must b l o u d  narrow path  an  argues t h a t ,  The l o n g e r l i f e , . . . t h e g r e a t e r s i n , The g r e a t e r s i n , t h e g r e a t e r p u n i s h m e n t .  Usurping  with  repay,"  and  argues  concludes  that that  to s a l v a t i o n i s missed, i t i s missed  108  forever:  F o r h e , t h a t o n c e h a t h m i s s e d t h e r i g h t way, The f u r t h e r he d o t h g o e , t h e f u r t h e r he d o t h s t r a y .  Added t o t h i s , D e s p a i r a g a i n i n v o k e s d i s t r i b u t i v e  justice,  T h o u w r e t c h e d man, o f d e a t h h a s t g r e a t e s t n e e d , I f i n t r u e b a l l a n c e thou w i l t weigh thy s t a t e ;  And  a f t e r s t r i k i n g home w i t h p o i n t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o Red  infidelity  and h i s c a l l i n g o u t  castle, Despair in  the Old  (ix.43)  f o r death w h i l e shut  Cross  (ix.45)  Knight's  i n Orgoglio's  t u r n s t o i n v o k e t h e n o t i o n o f j u s t i c e as  i t i s revealed  Testament:  I s n o t he j u s t , t h a t a l l t h i s d o t h b e h o l d F r o m h i g h t e s t h e a v e n , and b e a r e s a n e q u a l l e y e ? S h a l l h e t h y s i n s up i n h i s k n o w l e d g e f o l d , And g u i l t i e b e o f t h i n e i m p i e t i e ? Is not h i s law, Let every s i n n e r d i e : D i e s h a l l a l l f l e s h ? what t h e n must needs be donne, I s i t n o t b e t t e r t o doe w i l l i n g l i e , Then l i n g e r , t i l l t h e g l a s s e be a l l o u t ronne? D e a t h i s t h e end o f w o e s : d i e s o o n e , 0 f a e r i e s s o n n e .  The  r e s u l t of t h i s s e r i e s of r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s asked  Despair i s the overthrow Despair mayed b y  o f Red  by  C r o s s K n i g h t ' s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n .  shows t h e k n i g h t t h e h e l l the  (ix.47)  t h a t awaits him,  and  the k n i g h t i s d i s -  sight:  . . . n o u g h t b u t d e a t h b e f o r e h i s e y e s h e saw, And e v e r b u r n i n g w r a t h b e f o r e h i m l a i d , By r i g h t e o u s s e n t e n c e o f t h ' A l m i g h t i e s l a w : (ix.50)  D e s p a i r ' s argument i s i l l o g i c a l .  On  t h e one  hand i t upholds  God's  109  command o f d e s t i n y die  before  ( i x . 4 2 ) , and on t h e o t h e r  t h e " g l a s s e be a l l out ronne."  series of questions  i t urges t h e knight to  F u r t h e r , t h e answer t o t h e  p u t t o t h e k n i g h t a t t h e end o f t h e argument i s  not  suicide.  I t i sprecisely  his  knowledge.fold,"for  not h i s l a w " L e t every  t h e c a s e t h a t God w i l l man's " s i n s up i n  t h a t i s t h e meaning o f C h r i s t .  As w e l l ,  sinner die:/ Die shall a l l flesh."  C h r i s t i s meant t o s a v e t h e s i n n e r .  i t i s  Again,  F u r t h e r , w h i l e t h e f l e s h may b e  doomed,., t h e s o u l i s n o t , a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f l e s h d o e s n o t . prove evidence  o f a law whereby t h e s i n n e r d i e s .  Finally,  Despair  cloaks, s u i c i d e i n t h e garb o f an a c t o f p i e t y , i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t t o s h o r t e n what must be a s i n f u l  life  The  a chief s i n , f o ri ti s a usurpation of  act, of course,  i s itself  i s "to a v o i d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s i n .  t h e power o f God, and t h e r e f o r e a n a c t o f p r i d e . leads  Despair's  argument  t o t h e damnation of t h e s o u l . Red  Cross  Knight's  r a t i o n a l powers a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t  t o unmask  the s o p h i s t r y i n Despair's  argument.  to  O l d T e s t a m e n t j u s t i c e looms, h o r r i b l e  Despair's  persuasions.  Burdened by g u i l t , he f a l l s  the k n i g h t , and he chooses s u i c i d e i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h D e s p a i r ' s ment.  The p o i n t o f t h e d e b a t e , and o f i t s outcome p r i o r  intercession,  i s that the knight's reason  hope, s u r r e n d e r i n g t o D e s p a i r ' s  i s insufficient  i r r a t i o n a l argument.  sway  before argu-  t o Una's to sustain  A l s o , the debate  r e c a l l s P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o , and t h e f a i l u r e o f r e a s o n to  overthrow the f l e s h .  Both Arthur's  failure,  and t h e k n i g h t ' s  u r e b e f o r e D e s p a i r . s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t o f f e r s no to  t h e dilemma o f f a l l e n  man.  fail-  solution  110  Una's i n t e r c e s s i o n , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f what i t r e v e a l s about Una's c h a r a c t e r , sweeps a s i d e D e s p a i r ' s reason's i n s u f f i c i e n c y by invoking C h r i s t ' s  a r g u m e n t arid  testament:  Come, come away, f r a i l e , f e e b l e , f l e s h l y w i g h t , Ne l e t v a i n e w o r d s b e w i t c h t h y m a n y l y h a r t , Ne d i v e l i s h t h o u g h t s d i s m a y t h y c o n s t a n t s p r i g h t . In h e a v e n l y m e r c i e s h a s t thou n o t a p a r t ? Why s h o u l d s t "thou t h e n d e s p e i r e , t h a t c h o s e n a r t ? Where j u s t i c e g r o w e s , t h e r e g r o w s e k e g r e a t e r g r a c e , The w h i c h d o t h q u e n c h t h e b r o n d o f h e l l i s h s m a r t , And t h a t a c c u r s t h a n d - w r i t i n g d o t h d e f a c e . A r i s e , S i r k n i g h t a r i s e , and l e a v e t h i s cursed p l a c e . (ix.53)  Red  Cross  Knight's  f l e s h l i n e s s which has l e dhim t o accede t o Despair's  argument, i s o v e r t u r n e d  b y t h e p r o m i s e o f God's m e r c y .  w r i t i n g " o f t h e O l d Testament i s r e p l a c e d by j u s t i c e mercy.  The " l e t t e r " w h i c h k i l l s  The "handtempered w i t h  i s r e p l a c e d by " t h e s p i r i t  [which]  39 giveth  life." In  n e i t h e r f a i t h n o r c h a r i t y n o r hope h a s Red C r o s s  proven s u f f i c i e n t , as n e i t h e r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , p a r t s o f t h e s o u l have been s u f f i c i e n t proof flesh. his is  appetitive, nor rational  against both  e v i l and t h e  Y e t , w h i l e t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l has been compromised by t h e f l e s h ,  fall  has been p r i m a r i l y  the r e s u l t of ignorance,  i n e v i t a b l e as t h e knowing P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s  still  Knight  fall  although  proves.  the f a l l  The k n i g h t  r e t a i n s h i s n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o H o l i n e s s , a n d a i d e d b y God's  mercy h e . i s a b l e t o add t o t h i s  i n c l i n a t i o n t h e knowledge o f f e r e d him  i n . t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  Una, whose l o v e c o n s t a n t l y r e c a l l s  o f C h r i s t f o r man, d i r e c t s  t h e k n i g h t t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and  there the knight i s l e d to true Holiness.  the love  Ill  NOTES  "'"Kellogg and  S t e e l e , p.  26.  2 3  Matthew  7:26.  D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , I I I , 153. The d i s o r d e r l i n e s s o f L u c i f e r a ' s c h a r i o t mocks h e r p r e t e n s i o n s t o G o d - l i k e power. 4  Augustine,  C i t y o f God,  xix.4.  ^ F i d e s s a , as a p a r o d y o f f a i t h , s p e a k s t o S a n s j o y , t h e p a r o d y o f h o p e , i n p a r o d i c t e r m s , f i n d i n g "new j o y " i n S a n s j o y . The p a r o d i c i n t e r p l a y f l o w e r s i n t o i r o n i c d i s a s t e r f o r F i d e s s a and S a n s j o y when Red C r o s s K n i g h t m i s t a k e s h e r a p p e a l t o S a n s j o y as a c h e e r d i r e c t e d a t him. S p e n s e r ' s e d i t o r s u s e " t h o mov'd w i t h . . . ." The o f t h e s t a t e m e n t seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t S p e n s e r i n t e n d e d "So" t h a n "Tho." 7  Sloth  i s portrayed  as w r a c k e d w i t h f e v e r  context rather  (iv.20).  g Genesis  49:4.  9 and  The C o l l e c t e d W o r k s o f S t . J o h n o f t h e C r o s s , R o d r i g u e z ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 9 4 v 1 0  t r a n s . Kavannaugh  L u k e 22:38...  0 n e i m p l i c a t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s i n a b i l i t y to w i e l d the sword i s t h a t i n a h e a l t h y s t a t e he w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o e n g a g e O r g o g l i o i n combat. However, i n the l i g h t of A r t h u r ' s f a l l , t h e outcome w o u l d have been d e f e a t . The s i n g l e - b l a d e d k n i g h t , w i t h o u t God's a s s i s t a n c e , i s unable to triumph over the f l e s h . L i k e the e a r l i e r a l l u s i o n to Peter's doubt, t h i s a l l u s i o n to C h r i s t ' s conquest f o r e s t a l l s a merely n e g a t i v e , m o r a l judgement of the k n i g h t . 1 1  1 2  John  8:32.  1 3  Works, I,  169.  14 A r t h u r i s b r o u g h t up t o t h e a c t i v e l i f e b y T i m o n and M e r l i n , and t h e " c l o w n i s h p e r s o n " who became Red C r o s s K n i g h t , a c c o r d i n g t o Spenser's " L e t t e r " (Works, I , 169), d e s i r e d the a d v e n t u r e of the q u e s t . 0 n the t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of D e s p a i r w i t h the o f hope, s e e , Works, I , 271. 1 5  absence  112 16  K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 29, argue t h a t by t h i s " h i e r a r c h y o f c r e a t i o n " Spenser r e p r e s e n t s t h e "progress o f t r u e r e l i g i o n . " I agree w i t h t h e i r n o t i o n o f h e r a r c h y , b u t c a n n o t agree w i t h t h e i r argument of h i s t o r i c a l progress as t h e b a s i c meaning o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . 1 7  See Tillyard,  p. 1 1 5 .  18 Evans, pp. 103-104, argues t h a t " A r t h u r s u g g e s t s b o t h t h e O l d Law a n d t h e New." E m b l e m a t i c a l l y , t h e d r a g o n o n A r t h u r ' s h e l m e t . r e p r e s e n t s t h e O l d Law, and t h e Almond t r e e on h i s c r e s t , a n a l l u s i o n t o A a r o n ' s r o d , r e p r e s e n t s t h e New Law. E v a n s r u n s a f o u l i n h i s a r g u ment when h e p o i n t s o u t t h a t A a r o n ' s r o d i s " a t r a d i t i o n a l s y m b o l o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t f o r s h a d o w i n g t h e New." 19 256,  N e l s o n , p. 157; K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 23; and Works, I , 20 21  See  P e r c i v a l ' s r e a d i n g , Works, I , 256.  A r t h u r ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t a permanent h a p p i n e s s ( " b l i s s e n o t a b i d e " ) i s b e y o n d man's own c a p a c i t y . 22 The D w a r f ' s new p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n f o l l o w s the p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y A r t h u r i n h i s debate w i t h Una. 23 I t seems q u i t e c l e a r f r o m t h i s g l o s s t h a t U n a i s n o t t h e woman i n thewilderness described i nRevelations, but rather "stedfast t r u t h " w h i c h d o e s n o t d e s e r t man i n h i s w e a k n e s s . 24 A r i o s t o , O r l a n d o f u r i o s o , t r a n s . W. S. R o s e , e d . S t e w a r t Baker and B a r t l e t t G i a m e t t i ( I n d i a n a p o l i s , 1 9 6 8 ) , xv.14. W o r k s , I , 257. may  2 5  2 6  S e e T i l l y a r d , p. 114.  27 The number t h r e e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h o r n ( v i i i . 4 ) a l l u d e s t o t h e t r i u n a l God f r o m whom a l l o r d e r comes. 28 T i m i a s c o n f r o n t s F i d e s s a ' s b e a s t " w i t h s i n g l e sword i n hand" (viii.12)-. I t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , l i k e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s i n g l e b l a d e , when f a c e d w i t h t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f F i d e s s a ' s f a l s e h o o d a n d t h e f l e s h l i n e s s of the beast. 29 A r i s t o t l e , pp. 190-191. 30  Nelson,.p. 167.  31 See J o s e p h i n e W a t e r s B e n n e t t , T h e E v o l u t i o n . o f Queene" ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 9 4 .  "The F a e r i e  S e e "The T r e e o f L i f e , " J o u r n a l o f S a c r e d L i t e r a t u r e , (January, 3 3  1864),  30-36.  Jewel,  p. 22.  XXXVI  3A N e l s o n , p. 154. 35 P. 3 6  3 7  152.  Works, 0n  I,  277.  distributive  and r e t r i b u t i v e  1 4 5 - 4 7 , and 1 5 1 - 5 3 . " ^ N e l s o n , p. 152. 39 2 Corinthians  3:6.  j u s t i c e , see, A r i s t o t l e ,  pp.  VI Holiness  The  Red  Cross Knight  t h r o u g h h i s own propensity as  fleshliness  to the  enters  the House of H o l i n e s s h a v i n g  to withstand  the a s s a u l t of e v i l .  t r i p a r t i t e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s has  a consequence of reason's i n a b i l i t y to govern the  evil's  employ of t h e  t h i s w e a k n e s s , Una education  flesh  leads  nizes  i n Holiness which takes  ment o f C a e l i a , h e a v e n l y w i s d o m .  1  the  Holiness  him  insufficient  To  for  Cross Knight's  and  entrance  government.  Her  Fidelia,  dispenses  she  intellection,  itself,  Charity  His the tyran-  man. i s under the  (x.4).  govern-  Fidelia, She  ministers  body:  the Dwarf pass out into  the  legend  with  f o r through her  the  Red  daughter,.  t r u t h of r e v e l a t i o n w h i c h reason,,  (X.18T19).  C a e l i a teaches the k n i g h t  of the  (x.3)  the House of H o l i n e s s under C a e l i a ' s  m i n i s t r y embraces r e a s o n ,  embraces  rectify  ;  . . . [ h e r ] o n l y j o y was t o r e l i e v e t h e n e e d e s Of w r e t c h e d s o u l e s , a n d h e l p e t h e h e l p e l e s s e p o r e .  Both P r i n c e Arthur  of  s a t a n i c D r a g o n who  i s the mother of  C h a r i s s a , F a i t h , H o p e , and  t h e n e e d s o f s o u l and  Natural  f l e s h and  there prepares  the kingdom of  She  failed  the House of H o l i n e s s .  the b a t t l e w i t h  H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s , and  S p e r a n z a , and  into  place  t h e k i n g d o m of Una's p a r e n t s , The  proven  to seek the k n i g h t ' s damnation.  the k n i g h t  main o b j e c t of h i s quest,  to  Perfected  T h r o u g h S p e r a n z a and  to check h i s p a s s i o n , , t e a c h i n g  114  through  Patience, the  rational  115  s o u l t o govern  the flesh  (x.22-24).  C a e l i a ' s House o f H o l i n e s s i s s e t a g a i n s t t h e House o f P r i d e . U n l i k e t h e House o f P r i d e , " s t r e i g h t and narrow"  t h e p a t h i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s i s  ( x . 5 ) , and t h e e n t r a n c e i s guarded  by H u m i l i t a .  A n d w h e r e a s t h e H o u s e o f P r i d e dooms i t s i n h a b i t a n t s t o H e l l , t h e H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s p r e p a r e s t h o s e who p a s s  t h r o u g h i t f o r Heaven.  The  m a t e r i a l i s m o f t h e House o f P r i d e i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e s p i r i t u a l i t y o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and C a e l i a ' s humble s e r v i c e t o t h e needs o f the poor  t h e o p p o s i t e o f L u c i f e r a ' s p r i d e f u l d i s d a i n o f a l l about h e r . B e s i d e s s t a n d i n g as ah a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e House o f P r i d e , t h e  House o f H o l i n e s s i s a l s o t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e c o t t a g e i n h a b i t e d b y Corceca, Abessa,  arid K i r k r a p i r i e .  Corceca's  H o l i n e s s both l i e below a h i g h mountain  c o t t a g e and t h e House o f  ( i i i . 1 0 and x . 4 6 ) .  However,  where t h e r e i s a p a t h t h r o u g h t h e House o f H o l i n e s s t o t h e t o p o f t h e mountain,  t h e r e i s no p a t h t h r o u g h t h e c o t t a g e .  the e s s e n t i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y by a p e r v e r s e r e l i g i o s i t y ,  o f the.two.  The c o m p a r i s o n  Corceca's  reveals  c o t t a g e i s marked  an u n c h a r i t a b l e m a t e r i a l i s m t h a t i s t h e  opposite of true Holiness.  From t h i s b a s e ,  t h e r e i s no p a t h t o t h e  heavenly v i s i o n s y m b o l i z e d by an ascent t o t h e t o p o f t h e mountain. The H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s a c c o r d s t h e R e d C r o s s K n i g h t t h e h e a v e n l y which  lies  a t t h e e n d o f . t h e p a t h up t h e m o u n t a i n .  wisdom,.the substance o f t h e heavenly v i s i o n , mortal blindness of her b e a d - t e l l i n g  Caelia's  heavenly  i s the opposite of the  counterpart, Corceca.  The H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s a l s o s t a n d s i n a n t i t h e s i s ; t o E r r o r and O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e .  vision  t h e Wood o f  T h e m o r t a l m a t e r i a l i s m o f t h e Wood o f  116  E r r o r i s a marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e s p i r i t u a l i s m o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and  t h e w i d e , w o r n p a t h s o f t h e Wood ( i . 7 ) t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e " s t r e i g h t  and n a r r o w " way  into  t h e House o f H o l i n e s s ( x . 5 ) .  Orgoglio's  castle,  w h e r e f a l s e f a i t h , F i d e s s a , i s q u e e n , i s a monument d e d i c a t e d t o t h e flesh. of  C a e l i a ' s h e a v e n l y wisdom i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f e r r a n t m a t e r i a l i s m  E r r o r and t h e m o r t a l i g n o r a n c e o f I g n a r o .  hopelessness ness.  i s b r e d , as w e l l f i n d s  Where D e s p a i r a r g u e s  Despair's cave, i n which  i t s a n t i t h e s i s i n t h e House o f H o l i -  t h e u l t i m a t e t r i u m p h o f t h e f l e s h and t h e  d a m n a t i o n a t t e n d a n t on t h e t r i u m p h , t h e House o f H o l i n e s s p r o v i d e s t h e means t o r e d u c e  the f l e s h  to near  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h e r e b y t o gen-  e r a t e hope. The a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s t o t h e House o f P r i d e , Corceca's  c o t t a g e , t h e Wood o f E r r o r , O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , a n d D e s p a i r ' s  cave r e f l e c t s  i t s p l a c e i n the Legend of H o l i n e s s .  The H o u s e o f  Holiness provides support f o r the soul i n i t s s t r u g g l e w i t h e v i l , f l e s h , and m a t e r i a l i s m . her daughters, F i d e l i a , related  C a e l i a ' s h e a v e n l y wisdom, d i s p e n s e d Speranza,  to the daughters,  she s t a n d s i n a n t i t h e s i s  and C h a r i s s a , and o t h e r  i s the substance  h i s s o u l , measured by h i s descent  for  her meeting  The  figures  Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c o n t a c t the growing c o r r u p t i o n  to f l e s h l i n e s s , h i s eventual  embrace o f F i d e s s a , , a n d h i s c a p i t u l a t i o n t o D e s p a i r . indirectly  figures  of the support.  w i t h t h e s e f i g u r e s , e x c e p t i n g Corceca,. i n d i c a t e s  w i t h Corceca  through  to i n the legend are a l lv a r i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h t h e f l e s h , m a t e r i a l i s m , and e v i l .  of  the  Una's  contact  i n d i c a t e s the c o r r u p t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  w i t h Corceca  i s the r e s u l t  soul,  o f h e r h a v i n g been abandoned  117  by  the k n i g h t .  Meeting Corceca,  Una  of c o r r u p t i o n which l e d the k n i g h t ness i s revealed  the knight's  has  d i s p l a y e d to her  to abandon h e r .  ignorance  l a c k o f c h a r i t y , and  revealed  the knight's  which l e d to h i s being  The  i n Corceca's perverse  ignorance  of  knight's entry into  g i n n i n g of the r e c t i f i c a t i o n  process  o f c h a r a c t e r s who  of h i s s o u l .  regains  Around these  R e m o r s e , and  to  meets p r i o r to  daughters,  t o S p e r a n z a , and  The  He  by  the knight  Each . i s ' represented  i n H o l i n e s s he  then meets Z e l e  on h i s e n t r a n c e  by  f i g u r e s the  ( x . 6 ) , and  sented  h u m i l i t y , z e a l , and  i n terms w h i c h r e c a l l  the  into  knight  each are p r e - r e q u i s i t e s  r e c e i v e s under C a e l i a ' s  meetings argue that the k n i g h t ' s  p o i n t , by  Fidelia,  M e r c y , and  guidance.  I n i t i a l l y , he m e e t s H u m i l i t a , t h e g a t e - k e e p e r o f t h e House o f (x.5).  of  are various s a t e l l i t e f i g u r e s .  t o h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a e l i a , and  the education  hierarchy  Charissa.  T h r e e c o n d i t i o n s a r e met t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  of  P a t i e n c e , Amendment, P e n a n c e , ,  Repentance are attached  s e v e n Bead-men^are a t t a c h e d  a  form of aspects  S p e r a n z a , and  the  government  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by  a i d to t h e , s o u l i n the  to F i d e l i a ,  the  s i g n a l s the be- .  i t s rightful  Ranked under C a e l i a a r e her  Obedience i s attached  i s revealed  Under C a e l i a ' s g u i d a n c e ,  the v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s . Charissa.  tricked  religiosity is  the House of H o l i n e s s  of r e c t i f i c a t i o n  dispense  blind-  faith.  s o u l ' i s p u r g e d o f i t s c o r r u p t i o n and t h e b o d y . ' The  elements  In Corceca's  b y A r c h i m a g o , i n t h e u n c h a r i t a b l e w e l c o m e a c c o r d e d Una knight's  the  f i n a l l y he meets R e v e r e n c e (x.7).. character  reverence. the  Holiness  initial  The  i s marked, at  this  three f i g u r e s are  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Red  preCross  118  Knight. look  A l l o f them a p p e a r t o b e w h a t t h e y a r e .  "full  lowly"  (x.5), Zele  labours  "lively  Humilita casts h i s  t o e x p r e s s e t h e same"  ( x . 6 ) , a n d R e v e r e n c e ' s b e h a v i o u r i s "no c o u r t i n g n i c e t i e , / b u t true"  (x.7).  In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the ambiguity  d e s c r i p t i o n of the knight,  ance and r e a l i t y  a r e one a n d t h e same.  The k n i g h t ' s  by h i s meeting w i t h  with  q u a l i t y o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  these three  a p p e a r e d t o b e w h a t h e was n o t , a t r i e d  however, m o r a l v i r t u e s .  which  appear-  character,  f i g u r e s , i s commensurate Whereas i n i t i a l l y  he  and t r u e H o l y k n i g h t , he  appears t o be what he i s , humble, z e a l o u s , be guided t o t r u e H o l i n e s s .  i n a way  I n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s ,  described this  of the i n i t i a l  these f i g u r e s are described  i n s i s t s on t h e l a c k . o f a m b i g u i t y .  simple  reverent,  now  and p r e p a r e d t o  H u m i l i t y , z e a l , and r e v e r e n c e a r e n o t ,  Rather, they s p e c i f y the n a t u r a l v i r t u e which 2  is  antecedent to the t r i p a r t i t e moral v i r t u e of Holiness.  Z e l e , a n d R e v e r e n c e a r e commoners is  i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  t h e g a t e - k e e p e r , Z e l e a F r a n c k l i n ( x . 6 ) , and R e v e r e n c e a  (x.7). and,  They a r e t h r e e  accordingly,  aspects  Humilita,  of the native propensity  t h e y a r e met b y t h e k n i g h t  prior  Humilita squire  to Holiness,  to h i s introduction  to C a e l i a . Red  Cross Knight's  i n s t r u c t i o n i n H o l i n e s s b e g i n s under t h e  tutelage of F i d e l i a , C a e l i a ' s e l d e s t daughter the knight in  i s tended by Obedience (x.17).  preparation  Prior  to t h i s ,  Obedience disarms the k n i g h t ,  f o r h i s r e - a r m i n g i n f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y .  p r i n c i p a l l y , Obedience prepares the knight Fidelia.  (x.12).  Obedience i s a s a t e l l i t e  But  f o r h i s i n s t r u c t i o n by  of F i d e l i a , her teaching  cannot be  119  commanded b u t Knight  o n l y obeyed.  i s beyond the  The  t r u t h F i d e l i a r e v e a l s t o t h e Red  " w e a k e r w i t o f man"  (x.19).  F i d e l i a m i n i s t e r s t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n o f Red Knight's  Cross.  Cross  s o u l , that p a r t of reason which reaches to i n t e l l e c t i o n  to  3  comprehend t h e m y s t e r i e s teaches the knight  o f God.  " [ o ] f God,  From h e r  of g r a c e ,  "heavenly documents"  of j u s t i c e ,  [and]  of  she  free 4  will" The  (x.19).  Fidelia's  "sacred  k n i g h t , under F i d e l i a ' s  loath  "mortall l i f e "  Knight's of the  B o o k e " ( x . 1 9 ) i s t h e New  t u t e l a g e grown p e r f e c t i n f a i t h ,  (x.21).  Fidelia's  l o r e w a k e n s t h e Red  s o u l to "heavenly l e a r n i n g " (x.18), but  light  of t r u t h i s the  p e r f e c t i o n of  i l l u m i n a t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  the c o r r u p t i o n of the remainder of the s o u l , r e n d e r i n g  Speranza's s e r v i c e d e s c r i b e s Calvin writes that " f a i t h t h a t ".  Cross  sins.  soul the  The  . . faith  soul with  r o l e , as  knight  i n m i n i s t e r i n g to the k n i g h t ' s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a i t h  e x i s t s not without  i s the substance of  the, means t o s u p p o r t  t h e , d e s c r i p t i o n s by  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f Hope. and  Speranza's s a t e l l i t e despair.  f i g u r e s who  hope. St.  t h i n g s hoped f o r . . . .  h i s newly r e v e a l e d  S t * P a u l and  The  soul.  and  h o p e . . . ," and  knight  the faith  C a l v i n suggest,  Yet,; t h e Legend o f H o l i n e s s  m o r e e x t e n s i v e r o l e f o r Hope.  knight's  The  magnifies  Speranza's r o l e , at t h i s p o i n t i n the Legend, i s to provide knight's  effect  despair.  Speranza f o l l o w s F i d e l i a  Paul  comes t o  the contingent  the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  s u s c e p t i b l e to  Testament.  (x.22).  is  the  argues a f u r t h e r  i s ministered  to  work to e r a d i c a t e the cause of  by the  120  The is  [i]nward  diseased" He  cause of the k n i g h t ' s c o r r u p t i o n , and  ( x . 2 4 ) , and  i s cured  by  " d i s t r e s s e d d o u b t f u l l agonie"  i n f e c t e d s i n " (x.25).  the consequence i s the  the m i n i s t e r i n g e f f o r t s  Remorse,.and Repentance (x.23-29). to.check h i s "passion"  (x.24).  l i e s b e t w e e n t h e b o d y and and  Amendment t r i m s t h e  under P a t i e n c e '  Patience  " p r i c k [ i n g ] " him  onward i n t h e c o u r s e  diseased their  The  man  the  skin"  knight that (x.25),  ( x . 2 6 ) t h a t r o t s away Repentance t r e a t  o f h i s c u r e , and  i n "salt water"  the  ;  c a s t i g a t i n g the k n i g h t , " w h i p [ i n g ]  b o d y by b a t h i n g h i m  treatment  the  the d i s e a s e  "marrow and  P e n a n c e , R e m o r s e , and  f l e s h by  "soule-  hopelessness.  i s to teach  seeks out  flesh"  c o r r o s i o n of the  is  o f P a t i e n c e , Amendment, P e n a n c e ,  the s o u l , the  treatment."  knight  t h r e a t of  Their cure  "superfluous  The  (x.22)  M  and  stinging his  ( x . 2 7 ) . ; The  effect  of  i s that,,  . . . they d i d to h e a l t h r e s t o r e that would not l i v e , but e a r s t l a y at deathes  Hope i s r e s t o r e d b y  dore. (x.27)  Patience,.,Amendment, P e n a n c e , Remorse,  and  6 Repentance. disease knight stage  of  Their the f l e s h  treatment  checks the k n i g h t ' s p a s s i o n ,  that infects  the k n i g h t ' s  t o a s t a t e o f r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l over, h i s b o d y . i n the r e c t i f i c a t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s  of the r a t i o n a l s o u l to a s t a t e of h e a l t h . cure  s o u l , and  i s a b l e t o m e e t C h a r i s s a and  v i r t u e of  Holiness.  returns  T h i s , the  the the  second  s o u l , i s the r e s t o r a t i o n , The  moral e f f e c t of  i s the r e s t o r a t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s hope. , I n t h i s  knight  clears  to continue  state,  h i s education  the  the in  the  121  C h a r i s s a appears a t t h i s stage  i n the course  of the knight's  c a r e e r i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s h a v i n g waxed s t r o n g a f t e r b e i n g i n child-bed brought"  (x.29).  Prior  to this,  C h a r i s s a f o r , , a s F i d e l i a and S p e r a n z a e a r l i e r  t h e k n i g h t h a s n o t met, told  Una,  . . . .she o f l a t e i s l i g h t n e d o f h e r wombe, And h a t h e n c r e a s t t h e w o r l d w i t h one s o n n e m o r e .  The s o n t h a t C h a r i s s a , c h a r i t y , h a s b r o u g h t f o r t h i n t o figuratively,  t h e Red C r o s s  Knight.  the k n i g h t has s u r v i v e d t h e t r i a l s  upheld  Prince Arthur  f a t e o f t h e Red C r o s s vented  the knight  Knight,  God's c h a r i t y  and  i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o over  proceeds from f a i t h ,  to Aquinas'  prior  Aquinas'  the  order  to h i s entry into  argument f o r an o r d e r  Charity  t h e House o f H o l i n e s s ,  through  hope, t o c h a r i t y .  has t h e a u t h o r i t y of S t . P a u l ,  of g e n e r a t i o n .  b e a r i n g C h a r i s s a , and t h e r o l e o f c h a r i t y Knight  His  a n d U n a ' s i n v o c a t i o n o f God's m e r c y p r e - .  of the knight's education  corresponds  through  from abandoning hope i n t h e cave o f D e s p a i r ;  h i s education  The o r d e r  charity- that  o f t h e f l e s h t o come t o l e a r n . t h e  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the entry of the knight i n t o although  (x.16)  the world i s ,  I t has been through  v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . providence  "late  7  But  i n upholding  the.childt h e Red  t h e House o f H o l i n e s s s u g g e s t s  Cross that  of p e r f e c t i o n f o r the t h e o l o g i c a l  v i r t u e s a p p l i e s t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  According  to Aquinas'  order  8 o f p e r f e c t i o n , , " c h a r i t y i s t h e mother' a n d r o o t o f a l l t h e v i r t u e s . " I n t h i s o r d e r i c h a r i t y p r e c e d e s f a i t h a n d h o p e . '.' The d o u b l e o r d e r  o f g e n e r a t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n p o i n t s o u t t h e •  s p e c i a l p l a c e c h a r i t y has b o t h  i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s and i n t h e  122  legend.  The  k n i g h t , f o l l o w i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n by  s a t e l l i t e , Mercy,.is  C h a r i s s a and  l e d to Contemplation to complete h i s education  H o l i n e s s , the achievement of heavenly v i s i o n ' (x.50). a s a t e l l i t e of F i d e l i a Mercy, Charissa's heaven  (x.51).  k n i g h t up larity  but  (x.50).  satellite,  e q u a l l y w e l l lead the knight  That Contemplation,  the mountain to achieve  of g e n e r a t i o n  i n d i v i s i b l e nature The  of l u s t . will"  can  Fidelia's  p e r f e c t i o n , and  the v i r t u e of  by  Red lust,  Cross Knight's and  teaches him  " w r a t h , and  t e a c h e s him  t h a t God  Finally  p l a c e s him  i n c h a r i t y by  l e a d i n g him  checking  Her  the perverse  d e r i n g l o v e and  has  the  circuboth  tripartite  as  the  i n worke  an a c t o f  man  and as  uncharitable-  righteousnesse,"  charity'when  opposite  been r e v e a l e d  to shonne" (x.33).  and  Further,  she  acts uncharitably.  completes h i s  t o a h o l y h o s p i t a l w h e r e i n he  learns  education the  mercy.^  C h a r i s s a m i n i s t e r s to the k n i g h t ' s proper d e s i r e .  a  as  i s "chast  i n t h e c a r e o f M e r c y who  seven c o r p o r a l works of  him  and  l o v e f o r Una  hatred warely  the  i s described  i n " l o v e , and  withdraws His  does l e a d  Holiness.  h i s abandonment of h e r  C h a r i s s a i n s t r u c t s him  she  describes  that to  charity, harmonizing  hates "Cupids wanton s n a r e , "  (x.30).  ness.  of  satellite,  heavenly v i s i o n provides  love that Charissa represents  She  corrupted  and  in  Contemplation i s  However, C o n t e m p l a t i o n r e v e a l s  t o t h e v i r t u e s o f f a i t h , h o p e , and  the order  her  education  passions  righteousness  appetitive soul,  of the k n i g h t begins  o f w r a t h and (x.33).  hatred,  with lessons  and  Under M e r c y he  t h e v a r i o u s c o r p o r a l ways t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p a s s i o n  teaching  lessons  on  engen-  i s instructed i n of  Charity.  123  Mercy i s the patroness to  of the h o l y h o s p i t a l i n which the k n i g h t  d e m o n s t r a t e c h a r i t y , and  works of mercy the k n i g h t  C h a r i s s a i s i t s founder  (x.34)•  The  seven  l e a r n s of i n the h o l y h o s p i t a l p r o v i d e s  oblique c o n t r a s t w i t h the seven deadly  but whereas the seven  s i n s r e s u l t " i n damnation, the seven c o r p o r a l works of mercy, (x.51), leads  "an  s i n s i n t h e House of P r i d e .  B o t h s e t s r e l a t e t o man's w o r l d l y l i f e ,  Contemplation reveals  learns  to heaven.  deadly as  Mercy teaches  the  knight,.  His mortal l i f e . . . to frame In holy righteousnesse, without  At  The  i n t e l l e c t u a l , r a t i o n a l , and  t i t i v e p a r t s are purged of t h e i r previous c h a r i t y have been a c q u i r e d .  tage of Contemplation, of Holiness. is  attached  satellite and  c o r r u p t i o n , and  Mercy leads  the l a s t  stage  to F i d e l i a  (x.50). ^ 1  the k n i g h t  i n h i s career  C o n t e m p l a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of  the k n i g h t ' s  Knight  revealed has  t o him  shown t o h i m  C o n t e m p l a t i o n o r t o be  House  of the k n i g h t ' s  the k n i g h t The  achieves  and  a soul,  theological virtues  the s i n g l e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s .  his destiny. results  hermi-  through the  s o j o u r n w i t h C o n t e m p l a t i o n r e v e a l s more t h a n  Through Contemplation, has  to the  hope,  P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , the r e t u r n to  as w e l l i t i n d i c a t e s t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e t h r e e charity into  faith,  appe-  the i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u l ,  of F i d e l i a i n d i c a t e s the harmoriiousness  o f f a i t h , h o p e , and  and  (x.45)  t h i s p o i n t i n the k n i g h t ' s p a s s a g e t h r o u g h the House of  Holiness, his soul i s perfected.  and  rebuke or blame.  Yet .  this.  heavenly  vision,  f u t u r e g l o r y t h e Red  Cross  i n h i s d e s i r e to remain i n a s t a t e of  r e l e a s e d from m o r t a l  life.  He  fears  that  124  f u r t h e r , a c t i v e l i f e might j e o p a r d i z e h i s promised reward  (x.63).  hope s t a n d s i n d a n g e r , he a r g u e s , i f f u r t h e r a c t i v e l i f e  i s necessary  (x.63).  Contemplation reminds t h e k n i g h t  of h i s appointed  task to a i d  Una  by meeting t h e s a t a n i c Dragon t h a t t y r a n n i z e s h e r p a r e n t s  and  o f h i s vow o f s e r v i c e t o t h e F a e r i e Queene.  The k n i g h t  t o remain i n a s t a t e o f contemplation  from mortal  life  f a i n t l y echoes h i s hapless  t i o n by F i d e l i a . which the knight's Finally, The  s o u l has gained  Contemplation discovers  Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s  o r t o be r e l e a s e d  state following his  instruc-  s t r e n g t h i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s .  to the knight  h i s name a n d o r i g i n s .  name i s G e o r g o s , a n d h e s p r i n g s  "from  ( x . 6 5 ) . ' He was b r o u g h t i n t o F a e r y l a n d  F a e r y who h i d h i m i n a " h e a p e d f u r r o w , " man" who named h i m ( x . 6 6 ) .  ancient by a  w h e r e h e was f o u n d b y a " P l o u g h -  N e l s o n notes an etymology f o r S t . George's  name, t h e name t h e k n i g h t w i l l a c q u i r e The  acquiesces.  The f a i n t n e s s o f t h e echo i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o  r a c e / Of S a x o n k i n g s "  as  kingdom  1  His request  His  i n heaven (x.61), o c c u r r i n g i n  G o l d e n L e g e n d : " G e o r g e i s s a y d o f g e o s / W h i c h i s a muche t o s a y e tilyenge the erthe/  has  called  discovery tied  the knight  that i s h i s f l e s h e . E a r l i e r , a "man o f e a r t h "  (x.52).  The p o i n t o f t h i s  i s that through Contemplation the knight  to the flesh,  and t h a t h i s d e s t i n y  Contemplation  discovers  i s bound w i t h  t h a t he i s  the active  He m u s t d e s c e n d f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n o f C o n t e m p l a t i o n , f o r m o r t a l  life.  life  w i t h a l l i t s h a z a r d s i s man's l o t . C o n f i r m e d i n t h e v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s , Red C r o s s K n i g h t the l a s t with  stage of h i s quest.  This  final  stage consists of h i s  t h e Dragon, h i s overcoming Duessa and Archimago i n t h e i r  enters battle final  125  effort  to separate  him  f r o m t r u t h , and  h i s marriage  burnished  armour o f H o l i n e s s  he  enters  i n t o b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon.  dull  arms o f H o l i n e s s w i t h w h i c h he  and  legend  i s , marked.  burnished him  Red  The  last  Cross. Knight's t  stage  The  in his  as  His (xi.4),  c o n t r a s t w i t h the  battered  i s armed a t t h e o u t s e t o f  s o j o u r n i n the House of virtue,  the  Holiness  and  prepared  quest..  b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon l a s t s  i s regarded  12  " g l i s t r i n g " w i t h heaven's l i g h t  h i s n a t u r a l H o l i n e s s t o an a c c o m p l i s h e d  for this  t o Una.  t h r e e d a y s and  conventionally  "a t y p e o f C h r i s t ' s c o n q u e s t o f h e l l d u r i n g t h e  three  13 d a y s b e t w e e n t h e , C r u c i f i x i o n and w h i l e there are obvious C h r i s t ' s harrowing In the f i r s t ship  of H e l l ,  t h i s t y p o l o g i c a l exegesis  possible links effort all  of Red  until  the  the d i f f e r e n c e s  three  days.  a t t e n t i o n on  h i s marriage  the last  with  Una,  a f t e r h i s emergence f r o m t h e House of H o l i n e s s . Cross  to e v i l .  of Archimago.  the legend  to focus  t h e k n i g h t f r o m t r u t h , and  of which occurs  are r e l a t e d  fails  relation-  d e t a i l s of  t h a t might e x i s t between t h i s b a t t l e , Duessa's  to separate  All  and  t y p o l o g i c a l exegesis  and  i s misleading.  I t i s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which overlooks  b e t w e e n t h e b a t t l e s w h i c h t a k e p l a c e on e a c h o f t h e this  Yet  a t t e n t i o n from the  of the b a t t l e have w i t h the shematic  As w e l l ,  Finally,  . . ."  p a r a l l e l s between the k n i g h t ' s b a t t l e  i n s t a n c e , i t tends to d e f l e c t  the d e t a i l s  legend.  the R e s u r r e c t i o n " .  Red  Knight's  This  i s especially  Cross  a f t e r he  antagonists display qualities t r u e of the Dragon, of  Knight's b a t t l e with e v i l  stands  i s not  Archimago  Duessa,  over  b e f o r e U n a ' s p a r e n t s .to a n s w e r  c h a r g e s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t him by Duessa t h r o u g h  which  in  the  (xii.25-32).  126 These charges a r e h u r l e d as p r o o f t h a t the k n i g h t i s u n h o l y and t h e r e f o r e u n a b l e to marry U n a .  H i s answer to the charges i s the n e c e s s a r y  f i n a l p r o o f of the H o l y c h a r a c t e r , promised at the o u t s e t of the and w h i c h , h a v i n g p e r f e c t e d  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n the House of H o l i n e s s ,  has q u a l i f i e d him to b a t t l e the Dragon.  H i s a b i l i t y to answer  charges g i v e s f i n a l p r o o f of h i s f i t n e s s  to marry Una.  three episodes  legend,  the  In short  the  of t h i s f i n a l s t a g e of the quest a r e l i n k e d , w i t h  the  m a r r i a g e a reward f o r the p r o o f of H o l y c h a r a c t e r .  Both the Dragon  and D u e s s a , w i t h A r c h i m a g o , s t a n d i n the way of a s u c c e s s f u l to the c o u r t s h i p .  conclusion  The t e s t s they p r e s e n t f o r the k n i g h t are l i n k e d .  The b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon and the e f f o r t by Duessa and Archimago to s e p a r a t e the k n i g h t from Una c o n s t i t u t e s , a r e - t e s t i n g H o l i n e s s f o l l o w i n g the' k n i g h t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the t r i p a r t i t e i n the House of H o l i n e s s .  t e s t i n g of f a i t h .  charges r e p r e s e n t  the k n i g h t ' s  the  the  P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , the b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon r e p r e -  s e n t s the t e s t of a p p e t i t i v e and r a t i o n a l p o r t i o n s of the s o u l , and D u e s s a ' s  virtue  The b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon r e p r e s e n t s  t e s t i n g of c h a r i t y and hope, w h i l e D u e s s a ' s  of  knight's  charges the t e s t i n g of the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of  soul.  Essentially,  t h e . b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon o c c u p i e s  two d a y s ,  w i t h v i c t o r y coming e a s i l y f o r the k n i g h t a t the s t a r t of the t h i r d day.  The f i r s t day f i n d s the k n i g h t s o r e l y p r e s s e d by the D r a g o n .  Thrown from h i s h o r s e , armour w i t h f l a m e . (xi.26).  He i s ,  he b a t t l e s on u n t i l the Dragon s c o r c h e s h i s  The k n i g h t , n e a r l y overcome, d e s i r e s  to d i s a r m  127  F a i n t , w e a r i e , s o r e , emboyled, g r i e v e d , brent . W i t h h e a t , t o y l e , w o u n d s , arm.es, s m a r t , and i n w a r d , f i r e . (xi.28)  I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , he  longs  k n o c k e d b a c k w a r d i n t o "The The  flame sears  the  f o r death  (xi.28).  w e l l of l i f e "  He  i s s a v e d by  being  (xi.29).  f l e s h , p l a c i n g the k n i g h t  i n danger of i t s  w e a k n e s s . - His- d e s i r e t o a b a n d o n h i s a r m o u r r e c a l l s h i s e a r l i e r donment o f h i s a r m o u r when h e fall  succumbed t o f l e s h l i n e s s .  from h i s horse suggests not  f i c i e n c y of the  flesh,  reason's overthrow, but  i t s i n a b i l i t y not  The  aban-  knight's  the i n s u f -  t o become e n t a n g l e d  with  evil:  . . . h i s f r o t h - f o m y s t e e d , whose c o u r a g e s t o u t S t r i v i n g to l o o s e the k n o t , t h a t "fast him t y e s , H i m s e l f e i s s t r e i g h t e r bandes too r a s h i m p l y e s , T h a t t o t h e g r o u n d he i s p e r f o r c e c o n s t r a y n d To t h r o w h i s r i d e r . . . . (xi.25)  The  aim  of the k n i g h t ' s b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon i s to secure  f r o m bondage of t h e kingdom o f Una's p a r e n t s . of H e l l ,  the k n i g h t ' s  act i s e s s e n t i a l l y  selfless,  Put  starkly,  for  death reveals that h i s c h a r i t y i s l i m i t e d .  f l e s h i s an any  Like Christ's  barrier  s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h a t of Hercules  to l i m i t l e s s  dressed  The  weakness of  charity.  God's c h a r i t y .  and  the  Spenser removes  comparing h i s  (xi.27).  the. k n i g h t  and  I n c h a r i t y , Red  i s as p e r f e c t as man's e a r t h l y l o t a l l o w s .  c h a r i t y e n d s , God's b e g i n s ,  longing  i n h i s "poysoned garment"  d e s c r i b i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s d i s t r e s s as g r e a t e r  knight's  harrowing  the k n i g h t ' s d e s i r e t o abandon h i s armour,,and h i s  insupperable  release  an a c t o f c h a r i t y .  blame f o r t h e k n i g h t ' s d e s i r e t o c e a s e b a t t l e by  Cross Knight  the  Where  i s supported  the by  128  The  " s p r i n g i n g w e l l " w h i c h r e s t o r e s Red  forth a silver  flood" (xi.29).  Cross Knight  I t i s the w e l l of l i f e  "trickl[es],  of the  New  14 Testament. terprets  N e l s o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e G e n e v a g l o s s on t h e B i b l e i n -  t h e f l o o d f r o m t h e w e l l as " t h e e v e r l a s t i n g grace, o f  As w e l l , he the  compares t h e w e l l of l i f e  "water of l i f e  out t h a t t h i s  i n t o which the knight  falls  i s explained  should falls gift  or of l i f e ,  i n t h e Geneva e d i t i o n t h u s l y : " T h i s  t o make a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i t , a n d  be drawne out o f a w e l l . T h e springs  from the w e l l ,  suggesting  of c h a r i t y which r e s t o r e s the The  t e s t of t h i s  first  t i t i v e p o r t i o n of the knight's abandon the b a t t l e r e f l e c t s of the s o u l , and, m o r a l l y ,  that  knight  the f r e e l y given n a t u r e of  the  day's b a t t l e i s a l s o a t e s t of the appesoul.  The  the l i m i t e d the l i m i t  the Dragon p i e r c e s  then attempts to tear the s h i e l d  is  the water  knight.  d e s i r e the knight  has  to  s t r e n g t h ,of t h e a p p e t i t i v e p a r t  of h i s c h a r i t y .  s h i e l d s the s o u l from the D r a g o n , . e v i l ,  Unsuccessful  ever-  called  water i n t o which the  b a t t l e c o n s t i t u t e s a t e s t of the k n i g h t ' s  During the b a t t l e ,  with  C h r i s t o f f e r s t o t h e woman o f S a m a r i a , " p o i n t i n g  l a s t i n g water, that i s to say, the exceeding l o v e of God,,is living,  God."  The  second  day's  hope, the v i r t u e which  w o r l d l i n e s s , and  the  the knight's, s h i e l d  from the knight's  grasp  i n the attempt, the Dragon r e s o r t s to flame.  flesh.  ( x i . 3 8 ) , and (xi.40-41). The  that the knight i s , . . . f o r s t . . . to r e t i r e A l i t t l e backward:for his-best defence, To s a v e h i s b o d i e f r o m t h e s c h o r c h i n g , f i r e , W h i c h he f r o m h e l l i s h e n t r a i l e s d i d e x p i r e .  (xi.45)  effect  129  The from t h i s  p i e r c i n g of the k n i g h t ' s s h i e l d  (xi.38) argues the l i m i t e d nature  retreat before  t h e wound t h a t  and  the f l e s h .  t h e k n i g h t does not  i s not  d e s i r e t o a b a n d o n t h e f i g h t , and  r e t i r i n g posture inability  d e s p a i r o r t h e abandonment o f r e a s o n ,  day's  Though w h i l e the k n i g h t ' s the .  the k n i g h t from the Dragon's f o r c e .  The  weakness of the f l e s h draws the r a t i o n a l soul' to i t s c a r e , f o r c i n g r e t r e a t from the b a t t l e w i t h e v i l , for  t h e D r a g o n and  providence  1  a  advance  a s i g n of h i s impending conquest of hope.  under the t r e e of l i f e The  a r e t r e a t w h i c h marks an  i n t e r v e n e s a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e b a t t l e , and  .  his  i n d i c a t e s t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l and  o f hope t o s h i e l d  His  triumph  H o w e v e r , u n l i k e .the f i r s t  r e t r e a t . i s an e f f o r t t o d e f e n d h i s body f r o m t h e f l a m e s . the e f f e c t  results  of the k n i g h t ' s hope.  the f o r c e of the Dragon suggests, the e v e n t u a l  of w o r l d l i n e s s , e v i l , battle,  and  God's  the k n i g h t  falls  (xi.45).  balm which flows from the t r e e of l i f e  and  restores  the  16 k n i g h t i s the o i l of mercy. C h a r i t y , the t r e e of l i f e  .'While the b a l m i s a t o k e n  serves  t o s u s t a i n Hope.  o f God's  Augustine  out  that "Christ himself i s p r o p h e t i c a l l y called  The  promise of h i s r e t u r n , the promise of the r e s t o r a t i o n of the  of l i f e  t o God's c h o s e n p e o p l e  is  the g i f t  aid,  like  the Tree of  points  Cross  K n i g h t by A r t h u r  the k n i g h t withstands  these  t e s t s o f c h a r i t y and  hope, t e s t s  r a t i o n a l s o u l ' s c o n t r o l of the f l e s h .  day  the k n i g h t dispatches  t e s t o f Red  Cross  tree  ( i x . 1 9 ) . . W i t h God's  t h e a p p e t i t i v e and  The  7  a t the l a s t judgement upholds hope. , I t  g i v e n Red  of the b a t t l e ,  Life.""'"  Knight's  On  the Dragon w i t h ease  Holiness  the  of third  (xi.53-54).  i s c o m p l e t e d when  130  Archimago presents Una's p a r e n t s . intellectual duplicity  the knight  s o u l , and i n . i t s  and d e c e i t .  test the knight  i s confronted  (xii.28).  I t contains  Fidessa's  Fidessa,  claim that the  i s faithless:  The  irony of Fidessa's  (xii.27)  claim i s that i f the knight  i s guilty,  she c h a r g e s , then i t does appear t h a t he b e l o n g s t o c o u n t e r f e i t  f a i t h , Fidessa. as  with  The m i s s i v e A r c h i m a g o d e l i v e r s i s s i g n e d  To me s a d m a y d , o r r a t h e r w i d o w s a d , . He w a s a f f i a u n c e d . l o n g t i m e b e f o r e , And s a c r e d p l e d g e s h e b o t h g a v e , a n d h a d , .-. F a l s e e r r a u n t k n i g h t , i n f a m o u s , and f o r s w o r e : W i t n e s s e t h e b u r n i n g A l t a r s , w h i c h he swore, And g u i l t i e h e a v e n s o f h i s b o l d p e r i u r y , Which though he h a t h p o l l u t e d o f t o f y o r e , Y e t I t o them f o r j u d g e m e n t j u s t do f l y , And them c o n j u r e t ' a v e n g e t h i s s h a m e f u l l i n j u r y .  as  i n the court of  F a i t h i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e , . a f u n c t i o n of t h e  counterfeit faith knight  Duessa's charges a g a i n s t  The k n i g h t w i s e l y p l e a d s  the causes o f h i s companionship w i t h  i n n o c e n c e a n d human w e a k n e s s Fidessa:  . . . unwares I s t r a y d Out o f my w a y , t h r o u g h p e r i l s s t r a u n g e a n d h a r d ; T h a t d a y s h o u l d f a i l e me, ere- I h a d them a l l d e c l a r d . T h e r e d i d I f i n d , o r r a t h e r I was f o u n d Of t h i s f a l s e woman, t h a t F i d e s s a h i g h t , F i d e s s a h i g h t t h e f a l s e s t Dame o n g r o u n d , Most f a l s e Duessa, r o y a l l r i c h l y d i g h t , T h a t e a s i e was t ' i n v e g l e w e a k e r s i g h t : Who b y h e r w i c k e d a r t s , a n d w y l i e s k i l l , Too f a l s e a n d s t r o n g f o r e a r t h l y s k i l l o r m i g h t , U n w a r e s me w r o u g h t u n t o h e r w i c k e d w i l l , And t o my f o e b e t r a y d , w h e n l e a s t I f e a r e d i l l . (xii.31-32)  The  k n i g h t , by h i s testimony,  demonstrates h i s knowledge o f t h e weakness  131  o f man  and o f t h e w o r k i n g s o f e v i l ,  t e s t of h i s Holiness.  thereby  surmounting t h i s  False faith, Fidessa,  D u e s s a , and t h e t h r e a t t o f a i t h d i s p e l l e d . forward  to witness  formality truth.  the knight's  testimony,  i s unmasked as d e c e i t , A t t h i s p o i n t , Una  but the witness  l a s t series of t e s t s i s a t r i a l  H o l i n e s s , and i t has f o l l o w e d charity f i r s t ,  the order  of the k n i g h t ' s  The k n i g h t ' s  proves the p e r f e c t i o n of h i s moral c h a r a c t e r ,  q u e s t and c o u r t s h i p a r e c o n c l u d e d . The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , t h e k n i g h t of Archimago  (II.i.4).  the perfected  of p e r f e c t i o n of i t s p a r t s ,  f o l l o w e d by hope and f a i t h .  M a r r i a g e t o Una and t e m p o r a l s e p a r a t i o n  comes  is a  ( x i i . 3 3 - 3 4 ) , t h e k n i g h t , o n h i s own, h a s r e c o g n i z e d  This  final  success  and hence o f h i s s o u l .  from her f o l l o w , but the  At the beginning  o f B o o k Two o f  i s t o o w a r y t o succumb t o t h e t r i c k e r y  132  NOTES  R u s k i n i d e n t i f i e s h e r as " H e a v e n l y G r a c e " ( W o r k s , I , 4 2 4 ) . The n a t u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o j o u r n i n C a e l i a ' s H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s i s b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d , I t h i n k , b y i d e n t i f y i n g h e r as h e a v e n l y w i s d o m . The k n i g h t a c q u i r e s the knowledge of H o l i n e s s under C a e l i a ' s g e n e r a l d i r ection. 2 A g a i n , Spenser i s f o l l o w i n g A r i s t o t l e ' s t w e e n n a t u r a l v i r t u e and t r u e v i r t u e . , . ' 3 C a s t i g l i o n e , p. 336.  general  division  be-  4 Kellogg  and  S t e e l e , p.  41.  ^ I n s t i t u t e s , I I I , 653, and K e l l o g g a n d S t e e l e , pp. 4 0 - 4 1 .  Hebrews 11:1.  Romans 8:24-25 a s s o c i a t e s p a t i e n c e ^1  Corinthians  ^Aquinas,  1 3 : 1 3 , and  Aquinas,  with  Both are  cited  in  hope.  151-54.  153.  9 On  the  s e v e n c o r p o r a l w o r k s o f m e r c y s e e Messenger., p p .  0 n C o n t e m p l a t i o n s e e , T e r e n c e H a w k e s , S h a k e s p e a r e and ( L o n d o n , 1964) , pp. 3 0 - 3 1 . 1 0  Reason  ''""''Nelson, p.  18-19. the  151.  12 E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s l a s t s t a g e of the q u e s t i s a r e - t e s t i n g of the k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s , w i t h success proof of h i s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t r u t h and t h e m a r r i a g e a f o r m a l t e s t i m o n y t o h i s H o l y c h a r a c t e r . 13 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 4 5 ; s e e a l s o , W o r k s , I , 2 9 5 . 14 Revelations  2:10.  N e l s o n , p. 1 6 7 ; s e e a l s o T y n d a l e , T h e ^ W o r k n o f ^ W i l l i a m T y n d a l e , edtfnGb.iEg Duf f i e M n ( E h i l a d e i p h i a ' j . ' ; ! 9 6 5 ) -'hp. f 4 Tyson- b a p t i s m as a q u e n c h i n g ' and d r o w n i n g o f t h e l u s t s o f t h e f l e s h . ' ^ ^ g / . u g u s t i r . z C i L y of Cod_5 .'x.2C. A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, x x . 2 6 . 1 5  BIBLIOGRAPHY  133  134  BIBLIOGRAPHY  T e x t s o f The F a e r i e  Queene  S p e n s e r , Edmund. The W o r k s o f Edmund S p e n s e r : A V a r i o r u m E d i t i o n , - e d . E d w i n G r e e n l a w , C . G . O s g o o d , F. M. P a d e l f o r d , e t a l . 10 V o l s . B a l t i m o r e , 1932-1949. . Vols.  T h e P o e t i c a l W o r k s o f Edmund S p e n s e r , . e d . J . C. S m i t h . O x f o r d , 1964.  _______ B o o k s I a n d I I o f "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " e d . R o b e r t and O l i v e r S t e e l e . New Y o r k , 1 9 6 5 ,  3  Kellogg  . "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " B o o k One, e d . L i l l i a n edition. London, 1955.  Winstanley.  . "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " B o o k Two, e d . L i l l i a n Cambridge, 1919.  Winstanley.  2nd  C r i t i c a l Books and A r t i c l e s on The F a e r i e Queene  Alpers, Paul J .  T h e P o e t r y o f "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e . "  Bennett, Josephine Waters. C h i c a g o , 1942. Berger, Harry J r .  P r i n c e t o n , 1967.  The E v o l u t i o n o f "The F a e r i e  The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper.  Queene."  New H a v e n , 1 9 5 7 .  D u n s e a t h , T. K. • S p e n s e r ' s a l l e g o r y o f J u s t i c e i n b o o k f i v e o f "The F a e r i e Queene." P r i n c e t o n , 1968. Evans, Maurice.  S p e n s e r ' s Anatomy o f H e r o i s m .  Greenlaw, Edwin. 1932. H o u g h , Graham.  Studies  London, 1970.  i n Spenser's H i s t o r i c a l A l l e g o r y .  A P r e f a c e t o "The F a e r i e Q u e e n e . "  H u g h e s , M e r r i t t Y. 193-213.  "The A r t h u r s  Baltimore,  London, 1962.  o f The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , " EA, V I  (1953),  135  Nelson, William.  The  P a d e l f o r d , F. M. 1-18.  "Spenser  Ruskin,  John.  S a l e , Roger.  o f Edmund S p e n s e r .  Reading  Spenser : An  3 Vols.  Duessa  London,  Introduction.  "Spenser's Orgoglio  Douglas.  New  York,  a n d t h e T h e o l o g y o f C a l v i n , " MP,  Stones of V e n i c e .  Torczon, Vern. 123-128. W a t e r s , D.  Poetry  1963. X I I (1914),  1892.  New  York.  1968.  and D e s p a i r e , " T S L L , I I I ( 1 9 6 1 ) ,  as T h e o l o g i c a l S a t i r e .  Columbia,  1970.  W h i t a k e r , V i r g i l K. The R e l i g i o u s B a s i s o f S p e n s e r ' s T h o u g h t , S t a n f o r d U n i v . P u b s , i n L a n g , a n d L i t . , V I I , No. 3. S t a n f o r d , 1950. . "The T h e o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e o f The F a e r i e Q u e e n e , B o o k I , " T h a t S o v e r a i n e L i g h t , e d . W i l l i a m R. 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