UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The ordering of Book one of The Faerie Queene Main, William Alexander 1972

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cl THE ORDERING OF BOOK ONE OF THE FAERIE QUEENE by WILLIAM ALEXANDER MAIN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e -ments f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . , I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of £.fO§LlS f-f-The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT Book One o f The F a e r i e Queene i s a n e a t l y p a t t e r n e d , m o r a l a l l e g o r y based on a s e r i e s of t e s t s of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s . H o l i n e s s i s t r e a t e d as a v i r t u e compounded of f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y , and t h e t e s t s a r e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t r i p l e d i v i s i o n . I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r i p l e d i v i s i o n of H o l i n e s s i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme by w h i c h m o r a l b e h a v i o u r , and hence c h a r a c t e r , i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l e g e n d . Each of t h e p a r t s of H o l i n e s s i s a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h a p o r t i o n of t h e s o u l w h i c h i s d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e . N e o p l a t o n i c , t r i p a r t i t e c o n c e p t i o n . F a i t h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e l l e c -t i o n , hope w i t h r e a s o n , and c h a r i t y w i t h a p p e t i t e . The t e s t s o f t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y a r e t e s t s o f t h e m o r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , r a t i o n a l , and a p p e t i t i v e s o u l , and i n sum t h e t r i a l o f H o l i n e s s i s a t r i a l o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l . The k n i g h t f a c e s two s e r i e s of t e s t s , each c o m p r i s e d o f t e s t s o f f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y . The k n i g h t f a i l s t h e f i r s t s e t of t e s t s , c h i e f l y as a r e s u l t o f h i s i n n o c e n c e and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o b r i d l e t h e a p p e t i t e s of t h e f l e s h . I n t h e second s e t , h a v i n g been p e r f e c t e d i n H o l i n e s s i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s , he s u c c e e d s . I n t h e f i r s t s e t of t e s t s of t h e k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s , he f a c e s , i n o r d e r , a t e s t of f a i t h , a t e s t of c h a r i t y , and a t e s t of hope. The t e s t s , however, a r e n o t d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e , as each i s a t e s t o f t h e k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s w i t h a f o c u s on one o f i t s t h r e e p a r t s . I n t h e second s e t of t e s t s , t h e k n i g h t f a c e s , i n o r d e r , a t e s t of c h a r i t y , a i i i t e s t o f hope, and a t e s t o f f a i t h . The o r d e r of t h e f i r s t s e r i e s o f t e s t s i s b a s e d on t h e o r d e r of g e n e r a t i o n and i s emblemized i n t h e a n t a g o n i s t s o f t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f H o l i n e s s , t h e b r o t h e r s Sans f o y , Sans l o y , and Sans j o y . The k n i g h t ' s i n i t i a l l y i m p e r f e c t H o l i n e s s i s t r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e s e g r o s s i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f f a i t h , c h a r i t y , and hope were c r e a t e d by t h e i r s a t a n i c f a t h e r . I n t h e second s e t of t e s t s , t h e p e r f e c t e d k n i g h t i s t r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d e r of p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f H o l i n e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f l e s h and r e a s o n f i g u r e s p r o m i -n e n t l y i n t h e l e g e n d , w i t h P r i n c e A r t h u r as t h e c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r e a s o n and O r g o g l i o t h e c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f l e s h . As w e l l , t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y o f f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f c o n t r o l of f l e s h l y a p p e t i t e , and r a n k e d f r o m b e a s t t o r a t i o n a l man. The f i g u r e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Una, and t h e s e t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d s e r v e s t h e m o r a l a l l e g o r y by p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f c h a r i t y . R a t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e method o f c h o o s i n g p a r t s o f t h e t e x t t o i l l u s t r a t e g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e n a t u r e o f Book One, I have chosen t h e method of s e q u e n t i a l , t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . I have t r i e d t o be as c a r e f u l as p o s s i b l e i n my s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e l e g e n d , n o t i n g where my scheme s e p a r a t e s t e s t s w h i c h , i n t h e l e g e n d , a r e o v e r l a p p e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS S e c t i o n Page I . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1 I I . HOLINESS UNTESTED 20 I I I . THE TEST OF FAITH " 35 IV. THE TEST OF CHARITY 55 V. THE TEST OF HOPE 70 V I . HOLINESS PERFECTED 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY , 133 V ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e t o than k Marc Beach f o r h i s t e a c h i n g and h i s p a t i e n c e . THE ORDERING OF BOOK ONE OF THE FAERIE QUEENE I I n t r o d u c t i o n Commentary on t h e f i r s t book o f The F a e r i e Queene has s l o w e d t o a t r i c k l e o f l a t e , as o t h e r books have g a i n e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f c r i t i c s . 1 Y e t w h i l e t h i s s h i f t r e f l e c t s t h e p r e v i o u s l a c k o f c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g b o o k s , i t does n o t r e f l e c t a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f Book One. F u r t h e r , many a s p e c t s o f t h e poem as a whole s t i l l a r e n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d b e c a u s e of t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c r i t i c i s m o f Book One. Examples of r e m a i n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Book One a r e m a n i f o l d . There i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s Sans f o y , , S a n s l o y , and Sans j o y a r e p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e t h r e e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s i s t e r s F i d e l i a , S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a . So f a r , t hough, no c r i t i c has e x p l a i n e d why t h e o r d e r o f t h e s e p a r a l l e l s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r s d i f f e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n . As w e l l , no c r i t i c has e x p l a i n e d why two of t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s , Sans f o y and Sans j o y , a t t a c k t h e h e r o , Red C r o s s K n i g h t , w h i l e t h e t h i r d , Sans l o y , a t t a c k s t h e h e r o ' s companion, Una., There i s g e n e r a l agreement w i t h t h e argument t h a t t h e t h r e e b r o t h e r s a r e emblems o f decayed m o r a l s t a t e s w h i c h Red C r o s s K n i g h t s u f f e r s . But as w e l l , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e -ment t h a t Una i s a c h a r a c t e r who i s p r o o f a g a i n s t a l l t e m p t a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i s d i s t i n c t f r o m Red C r o s s . Y e t t h e t e x t d e s c r i b e s Sans l o y a t t a c k i n g Una. Any argument c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t h r e e 1 2 b r o t h e r s and c o n c e r n i n g Una must embrace t h e f a c t t h a t Una i s a t t a c k e d by Sans l o y , and f u r t h e r t h a t she i s u n a b l e t o overcome him w i t h o u t d i v i n e a s s i s t a n c e . ^ A f u r t h e r example of t h e f a i l u r e o f commentary on Book One t o ac c o u n t f o r t e x t u a l d e t a i l s c o n c e r n s t h e c h a r a c t e r and r o l e o f P r i n c e A r t h u r . . Because A r t h u r p a r t i c i p a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a l l o f t h e books of t h e poem, a f a i l u r e t o a c c o u n t . f o r h i s r o l e i s s e r i o u s as i t l e a d s 3 t o m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n about h i s p l a c e i n t h e poem as a w h o l e . C r i t i c s 4 have c a l l e d A r t h u r " h e a v e n l y g r a c e . " W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t by Spenser's own a d m i s s i o n A r t h u r i s t h e norm of m o r a l a c t i o n i n t h e poem,"' i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t he i s a supra-human c h a r a c t e r . I f he i s t h e exemplar o f m o r a l a c t i o n , t h e n t o t a g him as " h e a v e n l y g r a c e " i s t o play, f a s t and l o o s e w i t h t h e t r o p o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s r o l e i n Book One and i n t h e whole poem. . Anagogy ought t o be a t l e a s t s u s p e c t e d as a m i s l e a d i n g k i n d o f a l l e g o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r whose m o r a l meaning t h e a u t h o r p o i n t s t o as c e n t r a l t o t h e meaning of t h e poem. The v i e w t h a t A r t h u r ' s r o l e i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of h e a v e n l y g r a c e c r e a t e s problems i n comprehending d e t a i l s i n t h e a c t i o n of Book One. I f O r g o g l i o r e p r e s e n t s p r i d e o f some k i n d , t h e n must n o t A r t h u r ' s f a l l b e f o r e O r g o g l i o , b r i e f as i t i s , s u g g e s t a m o r a l f a l l ? T h i s i s a t odds w i t h t h e t a g " h e a v e n l y g r a c e . " A l s o , c r i t i c s p o i n t out t h a t t h e exchange of g i f t s between A r t h u r and Red C r o s s K n i g h t s u g g e s t s t h e d i v i n e a i d w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e k n i g h t can n o t s u r v i v e t h e t r i b u l a -t i o n s o f t h e f l e s h . As w e l l , i t s h o u l d be s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e g i f t 3 g i v e n A r t h u r by Red C r o s s K n i g h t has t h e same k i n d o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . . F i n a l l y , w h i l e A r t h u r i s a b l e t o t a k e t h e c o v e r o f f h i s s h i e l d , and w h i l e he knows i t s c a p a b i l i t y , he does n o t do t h i s d u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o . • R a t h e r , i t s l i p s o f f by chance. C o n t r a r y t o s u g g e s t i n g t h a t P r i n c e A r t h u r i s t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e h e a v e n l y g r a c e r e f l e c t e d by t h e s h i e l d , t h i s i n c i d e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t he i s i n need o f h e a v e n l y g r a c e . A f i n a l example o f t h e problems y e t t o be s o l v e d i n Book One i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f k i n d s o f d i v i n e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n Red C r o s s on t h e f i r s t and second days o f h i s b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon a t t h e end of h i s j o u r n e y w i t h Una t o h e r p a r e n t ' s c i t y . I t i s c l e a r t h a t b o t h t h e w e l l o f l i f e and t h e t r e e o f l i f e e n a b l e t h e k n i g h t t o s u r v i v e t h e b a t t l e o f t h e f i r s t two d a y s , b u t i t i s n o t made c l e a r by commentary on Book One why t h e y s h o u l d appear i n t h e o r d e r t h e y do.^ I t i s s u r e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t Spenser has randomly s c a t t e r e d t y p e s of m i r a c u l o u s a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h i s c r u c i a l b a t t l e . Even t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e b a t t l e s o f t h e two days d i f f e r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e k n i g h t ' s r e a c t i o n t o n e a r d e f e a t d i f f e r s on t h e two days. One common e x p l a n a -t i o n o f t h e b a t t l e r e s o r t s t o t y p o l o g y f o r e x p o s i t i o n — v i z . , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s a t y p e o f C h r i s t , and t h i s b a t t l e i s a t y p e o f C h r i s t ' s g h a r r o w i n g o f h e l l . •• T h i s , however, does n o t ac c o u n t f o r any of t h e d e t a i l s n o r f o r t h e m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e b a t t l e s . Added t o t h i s ' i s t h e tendency f o r s u c h an e x p l a n a t i o n t o i s o l a t e t h i s p e n u l t i m a t e t e s t o f t h e k n i g h t f r o m t h e f i n a l t e s t p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o u n t e r f e i t messenger Archimago on b e h a l f o f Duessa. • 4 One p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e c r i t i c i s m o f The F a e r i e Queene i s q u i t e s i m p l e : e i t h e r t h e poem, and hence i n d i v i d u a l b o o k s , i s o r i s n o t a c o n s i s t e n t a l l e g o r y . A l l c r i t i c s a r e a g r e e d t h a t a l l e g o r y i s i n -v o l v e d , b u t seldom has t h e r e been agreement about t h e k i n d o f a l l e g o r y t r a n s m i t t e d b y . t h e n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . James R. L o w e l l argued t h a t t h e a l l e g o r y was n a i v e and an u n w a r r a n t e d i n t r u s i o n on t h e p i c t u r e s q u e 9 q u a l i t i e s o f t h e poem., T h i s s h o t drew f i r e f r o m Edward Dowden. He c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e f o r m a l and h i s t o r i c a l argument t h a t t h e s k e l e t o n o f t h e poem was i t s m o r a l a l l e g o r y , and t h a t t h i s was i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f t h e age as S i d n e y e x p r e s s e d i t i n h i s A r i . A p o l o g i e f o r P o e t r y . B. E. C. D a v i e s , wading i n t o t h e f r a y a t a l a t e r d a t e , c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e b u r d e n o f an e x c r e m e n t i t i o u s a l l e g o r y . B o t h C. S. L e w i s and W. B. C. W a t k i n s have f i r e d s h o t s a t t h o s e who do n o t c o n s i d e r c o n s i s t e n t a l l e g o r y as t h e s o u l o f t h e poem. Contemporary c r i t i c i s m i s d i v i d e d on t h e i s s u e o f a l l e g o r y . On t h e one hand, P a u l J . A l p e r s and Roger S a l e , h y b r i d i z i n g l i n g u i s t i c s and r h e t o r i c , f o c u s on t h e s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e poem. A l p e r s a rgues t h a t t h e s t r i c t a l l e g o r i s t s , a crew he r e p r e s e n t s by John R u s k i n , t r e a t t h e poem w r o n g l y by t r a n s l a t i n g " n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . . -. i n t o a b s t r a c t t e r m s . " He c o m p l a i n s t h a t " [ t ] h e main i n i t i a l impediment t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f The F a e r i e Queene i s a f a l s e a s s u m p t i o n about t h e r e l a t i o n i n i t between n a r r a t i v e e v e n t s and p o e t i c meaning."''"^ T h i s c o m p l a i n t i s l o d g e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e r t t h e v i e w t h a t s c h e m a t i c f o r m i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t e x t u a l d e t a i l , and t h a t t h e u n f o l d i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l s of a poem i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t poem. S a l e ' s argument r e a l l y 5 amounts t o a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h a t o f f e r e d by A l p e r s . 1 1 The v i e w t h e s e c r i t i c s t a k e i s n o t u n a t t r a c t i v e , i t i s l i k e an a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f a r i v e r by i t s f l o w i n g w a t e r s r a t h e r t h a n by i t s b e d , and i t s p h i l o s o p h i c r o o t s a r e o l d e r t h a n P l a t o ' s i n s i s t e n c e on becoming. L i k e H e r a c l i t u s ' t h e o r y o f t b e f l u x w h i c h s e r v e s t o e x p l a i n e x i s t e n t i a l r e a l i t y , i t i s r e a l l y a t h e o r y o f p o e t i c r e a l i t y as dynamic, and as such i t i s a u s e f u l a n t i d o t e t o t h e a n a t o m i s t s who s c h e m a t i z e e v e r y a s p e c t o f a poem a c c o r d i n g t o some a b s t r a c t d e s i g n . However, as a s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n The F a e r i e Queene t h e argument f a l l s s h o r t o f b e i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t r e j e c t s , o ut of hand, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e poem i s an anatomy o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n t o some n o r m a t i v e v i e w o f t y p e s o f e t h i c a l a c t i o n . , That i t i s , i n f a c t , an a r g u m e n t a t i v e poem. Sp e n s e r ' s " L e t t e r " s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t h e scheme of t h e poem. W h i l e we m i g h t say w i t h Graham Hough 12 t h a t Spenser i s n o t t o b e . t r u s t e d as a c r i t i c o f h i s own poem, n e i t h e r t h i s n o r A l p e r s ' t h e o r y o f p o e t i c r e a l i t y o f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g a c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t S p e nser's commentary i s t h e b e s t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e poem. The o p p o s i n g camp of contemporary c r i t i c s i s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by W i l l i a m N e l s o n who argues t h a t " t h e g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e o f Spenser's poem i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e m a t i c r a t h e r t h a n n a r r a t i v e , d r a m a t i c , o r 13 s y m b o l i c . " N e l s o n i s a c a u t i o u s c r i t i c w i t h a knack f o r c i t i n g p a r a l l e l s . The p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r o f p a r a l l e l s means t h a t N e l s o n ' s com-mentary i g n o r e s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e poem u n f o l d s . H i s v i e w i s a k i n t o t h a t o f t h e e a r l i e r and e q u a l l y c a u t i o u s R i c h a r d 6 Hurd who c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e poem's o r d e r was one of d e s i g n and n o t o f 14 a c t i o n . T h i s f o r m o f c r i t i c i s m o f t h e poem i s r e s p o n s i v e t o S p e n s e r ' s d e c l a r e d i n t e n t i o n s and t o t h e l i t e r a r y t h e o r y o f Spenser's day. F u r t h e r , N e l s o n i s a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r much o f t h e d e t a i l i n each o f t h e books. The p r o b l e m l i e s n o t m e r e l y w i t h i n s t a n c e s o f s p e c i f i c d e t a i l w h i c h a r e n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r , b u t w i t h N e l s o n ' s d i s p u t e w i t h t h e need t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s o f t h e poem,unfold. I t i s p l a u s i b l e t o argue t h a t p r i n c i p l e s o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n a r e n o t e v i d e n t i n t h e poem, b u t somewhat i m p l a u s i b l e t o argue c a r e f u l , t h e m a t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n o f each e p i s o d e w i t h o u t p u r s u i n g t h i s w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f e p i s o d e s and o f t h e books t h e m s e l v e s . ^ I t seems t o me t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s o f A l p e r s and N e l s o n need t o be amalgamated by any c r i t i c who w i s h e s t o p u r s u e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e o r d e r i n g o f a l l o r p a r t s o f The F a e r i e Queene. A l p e r s ' tendency t o encourage r e a d e r s t o ap p r o a c h t h e poem as though i t were a c l a s s i c a l e p i c s t r a n g l e s much o f i t s meaning. N e l s o n ' s tendency t o encourage r e a d e r s t o ap p r o a c h t h e poem as though i t were an emblem o v e r l o o k s t h e s e r i a l mode i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d . B o t h , i n t h e i r way, p r o v i d e v e r y u s e f u l , though I t h i n k i n c o m p l e t e , t h e o r e t i c a l arguments about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e poem. There i s , however,.yet a n o t h e r a r e a o f . t h e o r e t i c a l d i s p u t e i m p o r t a n t t o any p r a c t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f The F a e r i e Queene, and i t i n -v o l v e s , again,, t h e q u e s t i o n o f a l l e g o r y . The p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n d e a l t w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f degree o f a l l e g o r y ; t h i s e x t e n d s t h e p r o v i n c e of t h a t d i s c u s s i o n t o comprehend t h e t h e o r y o f l e v e l s o f a l l e g o r i c a l 7 meaning. The i s s u e of a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l s i s s tandard to commentary on the poem,.and has occupied such c r i t i c s and e d i t o r s as U p t o n , Todd, 16 W i n s t a n l e y , and Greenlaw, and most r e c e n t l y Douglas Waters . U p t o n , . Todd, and Wins tan ley present the i d e a of The F a e r i e Queene as a h i s t o r -i c a l cum p o l i t i c a l roman k c l e f , w h i l e Greenlaw concludes that t h i s i s o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t l y the c h a r a c t e r of the p o e m . W a t e r s , on the other hand, a r g u e s . t h a t much of Book O n e . i s o n l y comprehensible on the l e v e l 18 of anagogy. A l l of t h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f u r t h e r problem f a c i n g the. c r i t i c of the poem: i n a s k i n g ques t ions about- the a l l e g o r y , should some t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t governing s i n g l e or m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of meaning be invoked at l e a s t as a companion to the s u s p i c i o n tha t the poem i s a n . a l l e g o r y organized s c h e m a t i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ? The most cogent d i s c u s s i o n of the . theory of a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l s a p p l i e d to The F a e r i e Queene i s d e l i v e r e d by Robert K e l l o g g and O l i v e r 19 S t e e l e . They argue tha t the .poem, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Book One, conforms to the commonplace convent ions of M e d i e v a l and Renaissance a l l e g o r y . T h i s s c h o l a s t i c t r a d i t i o n they d e r i v e from the convent ions of b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s . They d e s c r i b e f o u r ways , or l e v e l s , i n which the B i b l e was u n d e r s t o o d : the l i t e r a l or h i s t o r i c a l , the t y p o l o g i c a l , . t h e t r o p o l o g i c a l , and the a n a g o g i c a l . The f i r s t l e v e l of a l l e g o r y i s tha t at which the events d e s -c r i b e d are l i t e r a l l y t r u e , w i t h the sequence of t ime and the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e i n g accepted as r e a l to m a t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i s the l e v e l of p l o t , the l e v e l a t which August ine speaks when he d e s c r i b e s 20 the B i b l e as the h i s t o r y of man. Sidney d e s c r i b e s t h i s l e v e l as "a 8 n a r r a t i o n o f t h i n g s done w i t h b e g i n n i n g s , c a u s e s , and a p p e n d i c e s t h e r e o f . " 2 1 The o t h e r l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r f r o m t h e f i r s t l e v e l i n t h a t t h e l i t e r a l n a r r a t i v e i s t a k e n as e a r n e s t o f something e l s e i n each c a s e . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f A l p e r s and N e l s o n , w i t h A l p e r s f a v o u r i n g r e t e n t i o n o f as much o f t h e l i t e r a l n a r -r a t i v e as p o s s i b l e , and N e l s o n s e a r c h i n g f o r a b s t r a c t l e v e l s o f meaning. The second l e v e l o f a l l e g o r y i n b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s i s t h e t y p o l o g i c a l , t h e r e a d i n g o f an O l d Testament personage o r eve n t as a f o r e s h a d o w i n g of C h r i s t . I n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t h i s u s u a l l y means t h e s e a r c h f o r a s p e c i f i c model f o r a c h a r a c t e r , .whether i n t h e B i b l e , c l a s s i c a l e p i c s , or e l s e w h e r e . A l l e g o r y a t t h e t h i r d ; l e v e l i s t r o p o l o g y , i n b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s t h e f o r e s h a d o w i n g i n t h e O l d Testament, o f some p a r t o f t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t w i t h a s p e c i f i c d o c t r i n a l meaning w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o th e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l C h r i s t i a n . G e n e r a l l y , i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t h i s means t h e s e a r c h f o r a m o r a l p r e c e p t w h i c h w i l l a c c o u n t f o r an a c t , or s e t of a c t i o n s , i n a l i t e r a r y work. And f i n a l l y , anagogy, t h e f o u r t h l e v e l o f a l l e g o r i c a l meaning, o c c u r s i n b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s when an O l d Testament t y p e foreshadows " t h e u n i o n a t t h e end o f t i m e o f t h e r e s u r -22 r e c t e d membership of t h e c h u r c h and God." U s u a l l y i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t h i s means t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e w h i c h w i l l e x p l a i n an e p i s o d e o r a c t . T h i s f a i r l y complex t h e o r y o f meaning b e a r s t h e mark o f S t . P a u l ' s v i e w t h a t t h e O l d Testament v e i l e d t r u t h made o b v i o u s i n t h e New Te s t a m e n t , , a n d - A u g u s t i n e i s g r e a t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 23 t h e t h e o r y o f l e v e l s o f meaning. 9 Waters and V i r g i l W h i t a k e r a p p r o a c h Book One as an a l l e g o r y a t t h e l e v e l of anagogy, R u s k i n e x p l a i n s i t a c c o r d i n g t o t r o p o l o g y , and 24 N e l s o n t a c k l e s t h e book i n terms of t r o p o l o g y and t y p o l o g y . O n l y K e l l o g g and S t e e l e seek t o c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l y t h e t h e o r y of e x p o s i t i o n o f a l l e g o r y a t f o u r l e v e l s . T h i s means, of c o u r s e , t h a t f o r each element t h e y a n a l y s e i n Book One t h e y a r e bound t o seek f o u r e x p l a n a t i o n s . The t a s k i s burdensome a n d , , i n most c a s e s , t h e method u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . W h i l e i t . i s c e r t a i n l y p r o b a b l e t h a t a complex t h e o r y of e x e g e s i s e x i s t e d , t h e v a l u e of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o l i t e r a r y w o r k s , a t l e a s t of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , i s n o t j . I t h i n k , v e r y c e r t a i n . Over a g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y , t h e r e a r e comments c o n c e r n i n g meaning i n l i t e r a r y works germaine t o . a n y d i s c u s s i o n of R e n a i s s a n c e l i t e r a t u r e . S i d n e y , i n An A p o l o g y f o r P o e t r y , makes a c l e a r c a s e f o r t r o p -o l o g y b e i n g t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f meaning f o r t h e p o e t i n c o n -s t r u c t i n g h i s p o e t r y . He c o n s i s t e n t l y , a r g u e s t h a t a l l d e v i c e s , t e c h n i q u e s , b o r r o w i n g s , and uses of genre s h o u l d aim toward m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 25 t h e p u r p o s e o f moving men t o v i r t u o u s b e h a v i o u r . ' As w e l l , he d e s c r i b e s a l i t e r a l l e v e l o f meaning of c o n c r e t e e v e n t s and p e r s o n a g e s w h i c h 26 s e r v e s t o a t t r a c t t h e r e a d e r . S i d n e y ' s argument s u g g e s t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e t r o p o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f meaning i n c o n v e n t i o n a l b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s , and a c o n c e r n f o r . t h e l i t e r a l l e v e l of meaning. T a s s o , i n t h e p r e f a c e t o h i s e p i c , argues t h a t , H e r o i c a l P o e t r y (as a l i v i n g C r e a t u r e , w h e r e i n two N a t u r e s a r e c o n -j o y n e d ) i s compounded o f I m i t a t i o n and A l l e g o r y : w i t h t h e one she a l l u r e t h u n t o h e r t h e Minds and E a r s of Men, and m a r v e l l o u s l y de-l i g h t e t h them; w i t h t h e o t h e r , e i t h e r i n V e r t u e o r Knowledge, she i n s t r u c t e t h them.27 10 G o l d i n g , e x p l i c a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e M e t a m o r p h o s e s w r i t e s , Now when t h o u r e a d s t o f ,God o r man, i n s t o n e , i n b e a s t , o r t r e e I t i s a m i r r o u r f o r t h y s e l f e t h y n e owne e s t a t e t o o s e e . F o r under f e y n e d names of Goddes i t was t h e P o e t s guyse, The v i c e and f a i i l t e s o f a l l e s t a t e s too t a u n t i n c o v e r t wyse. And l i k e w y s e t o o e x t o l l w i t h p r a y s e s u c h t h i n g s as doo d e s e r v e . He d e s c r i b e s t h e Metamorphoses as an argument under f o u r h e a d i n g s : "To n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y e t h e f o r m e s t t h r e e p e r t e y n e , / The f o w r t h t o o m o r a l l . 29 . . . " T h i s f o u r t h head G o l d i n g d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l b o t h i n terms o f method and p u r p o s e . S i r John H a r i n g t o n ' s summary of t h e a l l e g o r y o f O r l a n d o F u r i o s o i s s i m i l a r t o G o l d i n g ' s p r e f a t o r y remarks t o t h e Metamorphoses. A l l o f t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o r e o f a l l e g o r y i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i s t r o p o l o g y . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t y p e s were d e f i n e d i n terms o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r , and i n t h e second p l a c e , anagogy, o r t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t f e a t u r e o f M e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e , i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t f e a t u r e o f R e n a i s -s a n c e , humanist l i t e r a t u r e . S p e n s e r , i n h i s " L e t t e r , " d e s c r i b e s h i s poem's a l l e g o r y i n t o -p o l o g i c a l t e r m s , and h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , l i k e Tasso and S i d n e y , he o p e r a t e s w i t h i n a p o e t i c o f two h e a d i n g s i The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e poem t e l l a s t o r y w h i c h e n t e r t a i n s (he c a l l s h i m s e l f a "Poet 30 h i s t o r i c a l " ) , and t h e second t h a t t h e w o r t h o f a poem l i e s w i t h i t s 31 m o r a l p u r p o s e . . T h i s does n o t mean e i t h e r t h e absence o f a n a g o g i c a l meaning i n t h e poem o r t h e absence o f d i s c e r n i b l e t y p e s i n t h e a c t i o n of t h e poem. R a t h e r , i t s u g g e s t s , s t r o n g l y , t h a t i f an argument f o r a c o n s i s t e n t a l l e g o r y can,be made, i t l i e s a t t h e l e v e l o f t r o p o l o g y . 11 C o n s i s t e n c y o f a l l e g o r y , as me n t i o n e d above, i s i t s e l f an i s s u e o v e r w h i c h c r i t i c s o f t h e poem d i v i d e . A r e c e n t c r i t i c , b e g i n n i n g w i t h S p e n s e r ' s own d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e poem as a " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y , " a rgues t h a t , . [o]ne must . . . make a d i s t i n c t i o n between " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y " as a c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l o f meaning o v e r and above t h e l i t e r a l one, and " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y " as an e p i s o d i c romance t a l e i n w h i c h one may c o n t i n u o u s l y o b s e r v e m o r a l o v e r t o n e s . The l a t t e r a p p r o a c h , r e s t r i c t e d o n l y by i n g e n u i t y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t o r , t e n d s t o fragment t h e u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e o f a work and d e n i e s t h a t t h e w r i t e r o f " c o n t i n u e d a l l e g o r y " i s a c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t . But t h e former a p p roach n o t o n l y a l l o w s one t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a r t s , b u t a l l o w s one to. see them i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p o e t i c whole.32 W i l l i a m N e l s o n h o l d s t h e v i e w t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem i s n o t s e r v e d by t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a " c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l of meaning o v e r and above t h e l i t e r a l one." He a r g u e s , i n d e f e n s e o f h i s v i e w , t h a t , R e n a i s s a n c e a l l e g o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e A e n e l d . . . depend i n d i f f e r e n t l y upon t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f " c o n t i n u e d " metaphors and t h e l e s s o n s to" be l e a r n e d . f r o m t h e example o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s t o r y . Spenser h i m s e l f makes no sh a r p d i v i s i o n between a l l e -g o r y and f i c t i o n a l example: a l t h o u g h a t one p o i n t he d e s c r i b e s . h i s work as " c l o w d i l y enwrapped i n A l l e g o r i c a l d e v i s e s , " a t a n o t h e r he d e c l a r e s t h e method o f t h e C y r o p a e d i a t o be d o c t r i n e "by ensample" and adds, "So have I l a b o u r e d t o doe i n t h e p e r s o n o f A r t h u r e . " 3 3 T a k i n g t h e second o f t h e s e arguments f i r s t , " d o c t r i n e 'by en-sample'" i s c a r e f u l l y a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e p e r s o n o f A r t h u r i n Sp e n s e r ' s " L e t t e r . " Spenser i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , l i k e Odysseus o r Aeneas, A r t h u r i s an i r r e d u c i b l e t y p e , b u t he i s n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t A r t h u r does n o t f i t i n t o an a l l e g o r i c a l p a t t e r n . H i s a c t i o n s i n t h e poem argue t h a t he . combines t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e h e r o s o f each o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g b o o k s . 12 He strides the poem as an ideal of moral behaviour applied to specific virtues, while each succeeding hero i s the centre of a legend about a specific virtue. But this does not mean that whatever allegorical scheme might be present in each book does not include Arthur, only that his function differs from those of each of the heros. In Arthur's case, Spenser's "doctrine" is elaborated "'by ensample'" rather than by being "'clowdily enwrapped in Allegorical devises.'" The argument for a "consistent level of meaning over and above the l i t e r a l one" does not mean that the poem need be brutally simpli-fied to f i t an abstract scheme. The point the c r i t i c opposing Nelson makes is that the assumption of conscious artistry on Spenser's part should embrace consistency of allegory. He does not add that the relationship between the action of the poem and i t s allegory is simple. It seems to me that missing from most of the criticism to date is some mode of conceiving character, and hence moral behaviour, in a systematic fashion., In short, some scheme by which to bridge the gap between whatever allegory might be involved and the action of the poem. It is arguable, I think, that Spenser employed such a scheme, and that the scheme i s , at least in part, one of faculty psychology. Faculty psychology has been applied in some of the criticism of The Faerie Queene. Harry Berger Jr..applied Aristotle's scheme to Book Two, assuming that Spenser's confessed debt to Aristotle's ethical scheme meant a debt to the psychological scheme Aristotle used to 34 describe ethical behaviour. Other c r i t i c s have offered blends of Aristotelean, Platonic, and Neoplatonic psychology to explain the poem. 13 W i n s t a n l e y argued t h a t i n Book Two Spenser used A r i s t o t l e ' s scheme, b u t m o d i f i e d i t t o f i t t h e i s s u e s t h e book d e a l s w i t h . I n a r e c e n t book, M a u r i c e Evans argued t h a t i n Book One t h e "most i n s i s t e n t o f a l l 37 . . . i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f a l l e g o r y . " Evans a p p l i e s a Neo-p l a t o n i c scheme i n h i s a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t o u t l i n i n g t h e i , 38 scheme. Other c r i t i c s who do n o t o v e r t l y a p p l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f t h e poem, a p p l y schemes c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e main elements o f t r a d i t i o n a l , f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . N e l s o n p o i n t s t o v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s o f paradox i n Book One as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e book i s e s s e n -t i a l l y d u a l i s t i c i n i t s p a t t e r n i n g . T h i s d u a l i s m , he a r g u e s , i s t h e 39 c o n v e n t i o n a l d u a l i s m o f t h e s p i r i t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e f l e s h . He d e s c r i b e s t h e c e n t r e o f t h i s c o n f l i c t as " t h e c r i s i s o f s o u l about 40 w h i c h t h e Legend o f H o l i n e s s i s c o n s t r u c t e d . " John R u s k i n a l s o saw t h e f i r s t book as o r d e r e d on t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i f e o f t h e s o u l and t h a t o f t h e f l e s h . ^ W i n s t a n l e y ' s v i e w , mentioned above, i s t h a t Book Two i s p a t t e r n e d on t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a c u l t i e s o f r e a s o n and s e n s e , and t h i s v i e w i s d e v e l o p e d , g e n e r a l l y , l i k e t h o s e o f N e l s o n and R u s k i n . There a r e many d e t a i l s i n Book One t o w a r r a n t s u p p o r t f o r a t h e o r y o f d u a l i s t i c p a t t e r n i n g . To name a few w i t h t h e m a t i c s i g n i f i -c a n c e , n i g h t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h d a y , good w i t h e v i l , b e a u t y w i t h u g l i n e s s , b l i n d n e s s w i t h s i g h t , i g n o r a n c e w i t h knowledge, d e s p a i r w i t h j o y , and appearance w i t h r e a l i t y . C h a r a c t e r s a l s o have t h e i r o p p o s i t e s . The t h r e e b r o t h e r s Sans f o y , Sans j o y , and Sans l o y a r e p o l a r o p p o s i t e s 14 o f t h e t h r e e s i s t e r s F i d e l i a , S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a . Duessa i s opposed t o Una, A r t h u r t o O r g o g l i o , and Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n t u r n t o E r r o r , Sans f o y , Sans j o y , O r g o g l i o , D e s p a i r , t h e Dragon, and o t h e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d u a l i s t i c d e t a i l s o f Book One, t h e r e a r e many s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s f i t t i n g a t r i p a r t i t e p a t t e r n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e scape t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e b r o t h e r s Sans f o y , j o y and l o y a r e t h r e e i n number, t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l d i v i s i o n o f the House o f H o l i n e s s i s t r i p a t i t e , t h a t Red C r o s s K n i g h t meets and f a i l s , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h r e e t e s t s p r i o r t o h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t conforms t o a t r i p l e p a t t e r n . These t r i p a r t i t e d e t a i l s a r e n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e d u a l i s t i c d e t a i l s d e s c r i b e d above, however, b u t r a t h e r t h e two s e t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a scheme w i t h i n a scheme. Thematic d e t a i l s a r e o r g a n i z e d d u a l i s t i c a l l y , w h i l e c h a r a c t e r i s p a t t e r n e d a c c o r d i n g t o a t r i p a r t i t e scheme. N e l s o n ' s argument t h a t Spenser p r e s e n t s c h a r a c t e r i n a b a s i c -a l l y C h r i s t i a n f a s h i o n , i s , I t h i n k , a c c u r a t e , b u t t h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e b a s i c scheme o f r e p r e s e n t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s d u a l i s t i c . The o p p o s i t i o n o f s o u l t o body, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Book One, has added t o i t a s o p h i s t i c a t e d , t r i p a r t i t e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r t h e m o r a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e book's c h a r a c t e r s , and, i n p a r t , f o r t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e book. The scheme i s t h e N e o p l a t o n i c , t r i p a r t i t e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s o u l , t h a t p o r t i o n o f man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s and whose c o n d i -t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s b e h a v i o u r . P i c o D e l i a M i r a n d o l a ' s "Commenta c o p r a una canzona de amore da H. B e n i v i e n i " d e s c r i b e s t h i s scheme as f o l l o w s : 15 As d e s i r e g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s knowledge, so s e v e r a l l knowing a r e annexed t o s e v e r a l d e s i r i n g Powers. We d i s t i n g u i s h t h e knowing i n t o t h r e e d e g r e e s ; Sence, Reason, I n t e l l e c t ; a t t e n d e d by t h r e e de-s i d e r a t i v e V e r t u e s , A p p e t i t e , E l e c t i o n , W i l l . A p p e t i t e i s i s B r u i t s ; E l e c t i o n i n Men; W i l l i n A n g e l s . The Sense knows o n l y c o r p o r e a l t h i n g s , t h e A p p e t i t e o n e l y d e s i r e s s u c h ; t h e A n g e l i c k I n t e l l e c t i s w h o l l y i n t e n t on C o n t e m p l a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l Concep-t i o n s ; n o t i n c l i n i n g t o M a t e r i a l T h i n g s , b u t when d e v e s t e d o f M a t t e r , and s p i r i t u a l i z ' d , t h e i r W i l l i s o n e l y f e d w i t h i n t e m p o r a l s p i r i t u a l Good. R a t i o n a l l N a t u r e i s t h e Mean b e t w i x t t h e s e E x t r e a m s ; sometimes d e s c e n d i n g t o Sense, sometimes e l e v a t e d t o I n t e l l e c t ; by i t s own E l e c t i o n c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e d e s i r e s o f w h i c h she p l e a s e t h . Thus i t appears t h a t c o r p o r e a l O b j e c t s a r e d e s i r e d , e i t h e r by S e n s u a l A p p e t i t e , o r E l e c t i o n of Reason i n c l i n i n g t o Sense; I n c o r p o r e a l by A n g e l i c k W i l l , or t h e E l e c t i o n o f Reason e l e v a t e d t o I n t e l l e c t u a l H e i g h t . 4 2 The d u a l i s m i n Book One i s p r o v i d e d by o b j e c t s of t h e sense and o b j e c t s of t h e i n t e l l e c t , w i t h r e a s o n o p e r a t i n g as a mean. Hence, i t a p p e a rs t h a t t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n of t h e book i s d u a l i s t i c , b u t i n f a c t t h e o r d e r i s t r i p a r t i t e . Spenser d i f f e r s f rom M i r a n d o l a on t h e i s s u e o f t h e way by w h i c h " c o r p o r e a l O b j e c t s a r e d e s i r e d . " W h i l e M i r a n d o l a p r o v i d e s b o t h f o r t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l i s t v i e w o f t h e " E l e c t i o n o f Reason" and f o r t h e V o l u n t a r i s t v i e w o f t h e " S e n s u a l A p p e t i t e , " Spenser a r g u e s b a s i c a l l y f o r t h e V o l u n t a r i s t v i e w o f t h e d e t h r o n i n g of r e a s o n . I f s i n i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i r e f o r a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t , i t i s n o t t h e c a s e f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t t h a t r e a s o n i s p e r v e r t e d , commits an e r r o r i n 43 l o g i c , b u t r a t h e r t h a t r e a s o n i s d e t h r o n e d , t h a t i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . Spenser d e p a r t s from M i r a n d o l a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t r i p a r t i t e s o u l by h i s d i s t i n c t i o n o f two k i n d s of a p p e t i t i v e d e s i r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e e f f o r t s made by Archimago t o s e p a r a t e Red C r o s s K n i g h t f r o m Una. Spenser s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e of b o t h c o n c u p i s c i b l e and i r a s c i b l e a p p e t i t i v e i n c l i n a t i o n s , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e found i n P l a t o n i c p s y c h o l o g y . 16 A p a r t from t h i s , S p e n s e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r i s N e o p l a t o n i c . Spenser f o c u s e s h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme, f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f t h e book t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , on t h e i n h e r e n t a n t a g o n i s m of t h e body and t h e s o u l , and t h e f u s i o n of t h e two w i t h body t r i u m p h a n t . F o l l o w i n g t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s r e - t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e scheme o f t e s t s he f a c e d and f a i l e d e a r l i e r . I n t e m p o r a l t e r m s , t h e sequence p r e s e n t e d i s t h e sequence of t h e B i b l e . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a i l u r e i s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n terms of t h e covenant of t h e O l d Testament, h i s s u c c e s s , f i n a l l y , i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e New Testament. W h i l e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and m o r a l scheme of t h e book i s c o n s t a n t , t h e change i n t h e n a t u r e of man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o -g r e s s o f t h e B i b l e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e m i s s i o n g r a n t e d Red C r o s s K n i g h t . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme i n Book One i s p a r t n e r e d by t h e t r i -p a r t i t e m o r a l scheme of t h e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s . F a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y a r e v i r t u e s s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t a c h e d t o p o r t i o n s o f t h e Neo-p l a t o n i c s o u l i n t h e Legend o f H o l i n e s s , and Spenser e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a n z a s of t h e f i r s t c a n t o . I n r e l a t i n g t h e s o u l t o t h e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s , Spenser p a r a l l e l s A q u i n a s , as he does as w e l l i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e o r d e r o f absence o f t h e s e v i r t u e s i n terms of 45 Sans f o y , Sans l o y , and Sans j o y . 17 NOTES An e x c e p t i o n i s D. Douglas W a t e r s , Duessa as T h e o l o g i c a l  S a t i r e ( C o l u m b i a , 1970). A c h a p t e r on Book One appears i n M a u r i c e Evans' book, Spenser's Anatomy o f H e r o i s m (London,,1970). 2 W a t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , e x p l o r e s t h e meaning o f Sans f o y and Sans j o y , b u t i g n o r e s Sans l o y . 3 See above, s e c t i o n f o u r . . A r t h u r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e e x e m p l a ry " r a t i o n a l man" t h r o u g h o u t The F a e r i e Queene, w h i c h , f o r i n s t a n c e , , a c c o u n t s f o r h i s m i n o r r o l e i n Book T h r e e , w h e r e i n t h e n a t u r e of t h e v i r t u e o f C h a s t i t y i s e x p l o r e d . I n Spenser's scheme o f f a c u l t i e s , C h a s t i t y , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p e t i t i v e r a t h e r t h a n r a t i o n a l s o u l . 4 S e e F. M. P a d e l f o r d , "Spenser and t h e T h e o l o g y of C a l v i n , " MP, X I I ( 1 9 1 4 ) , 13; V i r g i l K. W h i t a k e r , The R e l i g i o u s B a s i s o f " S p e n s e r ' s  Thought, S t a n f o r d U n i v . Pubs, i n Lang, and L i t . , V I I , No. 3 ( S t a n f o r d , 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 42-43; A. S. P. Woodhouse, "Na t u r e and Grace i n The F a e r i e  Queene," ELH, XVI ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 202; and M e r r i t t Y. Hughes, "The A r t h u r s of The F a e r i e Queene£" EA, V I ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 193-213. "*"A L e t t e r of t h e A u t h o r s expounding h i s whole i n t e n t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e of t h i s work," The Works of Edmund S p e n s e r , ed. Edwin Greenlaw e t a l . ( B a l t i m o r e , 1932-49), I , 167-170.; T h i s e d i t i o n c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as Works. Ev a n s , p. 105; and Waters., p. 94. ^ S p e n s e r , Books I_ and I I o f "The F a e r i e Queene," ed. R o b e r t K e l l o g g and O l i v e r S t e e l e (New Y o r k , 1965),"pp.- 45-46; W i l l i a m N e l s o n , The P o e t r y of Edmund Spenser (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 166-67; and W a t e r s , pp. 115-119. 8 See N e l s o n , pp. 176-177. • 9 T h i s summary o f t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e a l l e g o r i c a l . c h a r a c t e r o f The F a e r i e Queene i s condensed f r o m J e w e l Wurtsbaugh, Two C e n t u r i e s of  S p e n s e r i a n S c h o l a r s h i p ( B a l t i m o r e , 1936). " ^ P a u l J . A l p e r s , The P o e t r y of "The F a e r i e Queene" ( P r i n c e t o n , 1967) , p. 4. ''""'"Roger S a l e , R e a d i n g Spenser: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 32. 12 Graham Hough, A P r e f a c e , t o "The F a e r i e Queene" (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 4. 18 N e l s o n , p. 1. 14 C i t e d i n Wurtsbaugh, p. 119. " ^ N e l s o n , p. 145, N e l s o n d i s m i s s e s t h e p r o b l e m by a r g u i n g t h a t , l i k e a t a p e s t r y , t h e e p i s o d e s a r e a r r a n g e d t o p r o v i d e c o n t r a s t and emphasis, and t h a t t h e r e i s no c a u s a l , n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n . 16 "The F a e r i e Queene," Book One, ed. L i l l i a n W i n s t a n l e y , 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. l x i i - l x x v i i i ; f o r Upton's v i e w s , see Wurtsbaugh, pp. 73-102, and Works, I , 320-24; f o r Todd's v i e w s , see Wurtsbaugh, pp. 139-157; Edwin G r e e n l a w , S t u d i e s i n S p e n s e r ' s H i s t o r i c a l  A l l e g o r y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1932); W a t e r s , pp. 1-3. "^Greenlaw, p. 93. 1 8 T T -W a t e r s , p. v i i . 19 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , pp. 6-10. 20 S t . A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, t r a n s . Marcus Dodd (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 0 ) , x v . 1 . 21 " L e t t e r t o R o b e r t S i d n e y , " S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , S e l e c t e d P r o s e  and P o e t r y , ed. R o b e r t Kimbrough (New Y o r k , 1969), p. 92. 22 John Gardner l i n k s anagogy w i t h t y p o l o g y , and d e s c r i b e s t r o p -o l o g y as the" most p r o f o u n d of t h e l e v e l s o f a l l e g o r y . F o r h i s v i e w s on b i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s see The Complete Works of the. Gawain-Poet, ed. John Gardner ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 6 5 ) , I n t r o d u c t i o n . , 23 2 C o r i n t h i a n s 3:14, and A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, x v i i . 3 , and 17-21. ' ' "; 24 W a t e r s , see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 1-20; V i r g i l K. W h i t a k e r , "The T h e o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e of The F a e r i e Queene, Book I , " i n That S o v e r a i n e  L i g h t , ed. W i l l i a m R. M u e l l e r and D. C. A l l e n ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 5 2 ) , pp." 11-84; John R u s k i n , Stones o f V e n i c e (London, 1 8 9 2 ) , I I I , 205-209, quoted i n Works, I , 422-425; N e l s o n , see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 129-130. 25 S i d n e y , pp. 117-131. 2 6 P p . 118 and 123-124. 27 T a s s o , G o d f r e y o f B u l l o i g n e , t r a n s . Edward F a i r f a x (London, 1 8 5 8 ) , p. x x x v i i . 28 O v i d , Metamorphoses, t r a n s . A r t h u r G o l d i n g (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 16. 19 29 y P . 2. 30 Works, I , p. 167. 31 P. 168. 32 V e r n T o r c z o n , "Spenser's O r g o g l i o and D e s p a i r e , " TSLL, I I I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 123. 33 N e l s o n , p. 130. 34 H a r r y B e r g e r J r . , The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper (New Haven, 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 7-16. 35 T. K. D u n s e a t h , Spenser's a l l e g o r y o f J u s t i c e i n book f i v e o f "The F a e r i e Queene" ( P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 142; L i l l i a n W i n s t a h l e y , "The F a e r i e Queene," B o o k , I I (Cambridge, 1 9 1 9 ) , pp. l i v - l x x i i ; and T o r c z o n , 125. 36 W i n s t a n l e y , Book I I , p. l i x . 37 Evans, p. 90. 38 See e s p e c i a l l y p. 94. 39 N e l s o n , p. 147. 40 Pp. 151-152. 4 1 W o r k s , I , 205-207. 42 Thomas S t a n l e y , Poems and T r a n s l a t i o n s , ed. G. M. Crump ( O x f o r d , 1962) , p. 206. 43 Evans, p. 92, a r g u e s , w r o n g l y I t h i n k , t h a t r e a s o n i s l a z y . 44 _ "The R e p u b l i c , " The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , t r a n s , and ed. B. J o w e t t (London, 1 8 7 1 ) , I I , 295. 45 The "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " of_ §t_. Thomas A q u i n a s , t r a n s . F a t h e r s of t h e E n g l i s h D o m i n i c a n P r o v i n c e (London, 1915), I I , 151-154. I I H o l i n e s s U n t e s t e d Spenser i n t r o d u c e s t h e Legend of H o l i n e s s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t , . f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of Una and o f h e r Dwarf. I n t h e method of t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e r e i s embedded a c e n t r a l c o n -c e p t w h i c h r e v e a l s , a t t h e o u t s e t , a g r e a t d e a l o f what Spenser i s p r e s e n t i n g i n t h i s l e g e n d . The d e s c r i p t i o n s b r o a d c a s t t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y . Terms l i k e "seemd" and " a s " a r e r i f e i n t h e f i r s t few s t a n z a s , and q u a l i f y i n g c o n j u n c t i o n s s u c h as "but".and " y e t " i n t r o d u c e f r e q u e n t d i s c l a i m i n g s t a t e m e n t s . The p o i n t Spenser makes by h i s d e s c r i p t i v e method i s o b v i o u s : . t h e l e g e n d o c c u r s i n t h e f a l l e n w o r l d w h e r e i n i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y a r e g e n e r a l l y a t odds. Red C r o s s K n i g h t f i r s t a p p e a rs b e f o r e us as a k n i g h t w i t h e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l e d by t h e b a t t e r e d n a t u r e of h i s armour w i t h i t s " c r u e l l markes of many a b l o u d y f i e l d e . " 1 An e x p l i c i t d i s c l a i m e r of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e e v i d e n c e i s e n t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y : "Yet armes t i l l t h a t t i m e d i d he n e v e r w i e l d " ( i . l ) . The m e t t l e s o m e b e h a v i o u r of t h e k n i g h t ' s h o r s e appears t o s u g g e s t d i s d a i n f o r t h e b r i d l e , and t h i s i s n o t e x p l i c i t l y r e f u t e d . Spenser e n t e r s t h e n o t i o n of d i s d a i n on t h e p a r t of t h e h o r s e w i t h o u t a t t a c h i n g any v a l u e t o i t . What v a l u e i t has l i e s i n t h e meaning of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h o r s e and r i d e r w h i c h i s l o d g e d i m p l i c i t l y i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n as i t c o n t i n u e s i n t h e . 20 21 second and t h i r d stanzas. The f i r s t stanza concludes with yet another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the appearance of the knight which includes the equivocal term, "seemd." This conclusion i s taken up i n the next stanza, and i n d i r e c t l y disclaimed by way of q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Red Cross Knight, we are t o l d at the end of the f i r s t stanza, seems l i k e a " j o l l y knight" who s i t s f a i r l y on h i s horse "[a]s one for knightly guists and f i e r c e encounters f i t t " ( i . l ) . Untrue whispers the second stanza, where i t i s pointed out that the badges sported on hi s armour are evidence that he i s not the usual c h i v a l r i c f i g u r e , nor, we have leaked to us, i s he as j o l l y as he seems. We are t o l d that he "of h i s cheere did seeme too solemne sad" ( i . 2 ) . The ambivalence securely lodged i n t h i s unfolding d e s c r i p t i o n , and the method of pre-senting i t by o f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which are refuted or confuted, represents one of the major issues explored i n the Legend of Holiness. The evidence of the senses i s not testimony of - t r u t h . On a s o l u t i o n to the problem t h i s r a i s e s rests the outcome of Red Cross Knight's soul,* to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree. We are t o l d that the hero of the legend bears on "his brest a bloudie Crosse" i n remembrance of h i s dying Lord ( i . 2 ) . The Lord i s c l e a r l y C h r i s t , and the breast plate an appropriate place for Red Cross Knight to bear an emblem of h i s love of C h r i s t . The s h i e l d i s also marked with the same emblem, but here i t s i g n i f i e s the "soveraine hope, which i n h i s helpe he had" ( i . 2 ) . This i s followed by a s t a t e -ment about the nature of Red Cross Knight's f a i t h ["Right f a i t h f u l l true he was i n deede and word" ( i . 2 ) ] . The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e k n i g h t i n t h e second s t a n z a p a r t i c u l a r -i z e s h i s n a t u r e . The u s u a l method o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s t o a r g u e , a f t e r i n v o k i n g S penser's own c o n f e s s i o n of s o u r c e , t h a t t h i s i s m e r e l y d e r i v a t i v e o f P a u l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e armour o f t h e 2 C h r i s t i a n . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e s h i e l d i s g l o s s e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g f a i t h , and t h e o t h e r e lements o f t h e armour g e n e r a l l y n o t t a k e n as s i g n i f i -3 c a n t . There a r e s e v e r a l problems incumbent on t h i s a p p r o a c h . F i r s t , H o l i n e s s i s a compound v i r t u e , and each o f f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y a r e r e q u i s i t e t o i t s e x i s t e n c e , as i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s p i r i t u a l c u r -r i c u l u m t h r o u g h w h i c h Red C r o s s K n i g h t p a s s e s i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s . Second, the commonplace a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e k n i g h t b e a r s t h e s h i e l d o f f a i t h argues t h a t Spenser p r e s e n t s f a i t h as a s h i e l d i n g v i r t u e , and as w i l l become e v i d e n t , t h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t t h e way i n w h i c h he p r e s e n t s i t . F i n a l l y , t o acknowledge t h i s commonplace of s c h o l a r s h i p i s t o o v e r l o o k t h e o b v i o u s d e t a i l t h a t Spenser does n o t d e s c r i b e t h e s h i e l d i n terms of f a i t h , b u t r a t h e r i n terms of hope. That Spenser does n o t d i r e c t l y f o l l o w t h e s o u r c e he i n d i c a t e s i s n o t e v i d e n c e of s l o p p i n e s s on h i s p a r t , b u t r a t h e r o f a s p e c i f i c p l a n by w h i c h he p r e s e n t s t h e compound v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s . F o l l o w i n g hope, Spenser c o m p l e t e s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t h e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e k n i g h t by m e n t i o n o f h i s f a i t h ["Right f a i t h f u l l t r u e he was i n deede and word" ( i . 2 ) ] . The o r d e r of d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r a c t e r i n t h e second s t a n z a i s l o v e , o r c h a r i t y , hope, and f a i t h . The e v i d e n c e of f a i t h i s n o t s c o r e d on Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s armour as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d 23 with intellection and evident by statement and act. 4 Hope, represented by the shield, is described as "soveraine" (i . 2 ) . Attaching special significance to this virtue suggests that i t w i l l be pivotal in the knight's quest, and the legend bears this out. Hope shields the knight against the blows of forces set to undermine his character. Given the state of man active in a fallen world the stress on the virtue of hope is not incomprehensible. Charity is f i t t i n g l y lodged on the breast-plate of the knight. Love is a passion associated with the heart by long tradition, and charity is a perfect form of love. Apparently, at the end of stanza two we have before us a knight of unimpeachable, Christian virtues. However, given the strong presence of ambivalence in Spenser's description of the knight in the f i r s t stanza, this assumption bears examination. The knight's state of charity i s described by the equivocal statement "and dead as living ever [Christ] ador'd" (i . 2 ) . Nelson argues that this suggests the mystery of l i f e and death in the person of Christ. He calls this "the Christian paradox which is the principal subject" of the legend, and adds: Christ dying i s the focus, dying and in torment, but about to pass by means of death into l i f e . The riddle "dead as l i v i n g " develops the theme. Superficially, the words mean only that the Knight loved his Lord both before and after His death. But beneath this meaning is the essential one, that Christ dead is Christ l i v i n g . About the reconciliation of death and l i f e cluster related ideas: the l i f e of the body, inevitably sinful and therefore damnable by God's law, is as a death, yet the sacrifice of the dying Christ i s God's g i f t of a true l i f e . 5 While Nelson detects a paradox central to the Legend of Holiness, he 24 m i s s e s t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t . By making a c o n v e n t i o n a l p a r a d o x o f i t , he m i s s e s Spenser's e l a b o r a t e method of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e t h e m a t i c a n t i t h e s i s o f i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y . The s t a t e m e n t "dead as l i v i n g " q u a l i f i e s t h e c h a r i t y o f t h e k n i g h t . I t i s j o i n e d by p a r a l l e l s t a t e m e n t s q u a l i f y i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s hope and f a i t h . The k n i g h t l o v e s C h r i s t as though He were l i v i n g , n o t w i t h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a dead C h r i s t i s a l i v i n g C h r i s t . L a t e r i n t h e Legend, w i t h h i s n e a r escape f r o m t h e c l u t c h e s o f E r r o r , and h i s f a l l i n g i n t o t h e c l u t c h e s o f F i d e s s a , h i s l a c k o f u n d e r -s t a n d i n g i s d e m o n s t r a t e d . F i d e s s a d e s c r i b e s h e r hunt f o r t h e body of C h r i s t ( i i . 2 4 ) , d e m o n s t r a t i n g h e r i g n o r a n c e and, i n d i r e c t l y , t h a t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t . "Dead as L i v i n g , " t o summon a c o n v e n t i o n a l d e s c r i p -t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s l o v e f o r C h r i s t i s b l i n d , t h a t h i s c h a r i t y i s f l a w e d by n o t b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by t h e knowledge o f f a i t h . Hope i s q u a l i f i e d by t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e k n i g h t i s "of h i s c h e e r e . . . too solemne s a d " ( i . 2 ) . The s t a t e o f hope i s a s t a t e o f j o y , as i s made e v i d e n t by t h e i n f e r n a l parody of hope i n t h e l e g e n d , Sans joy.. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y " j o l l y " k n i g h t who seems "t o o solemne s a d " i s i n f a c t a s t a t e m e n t o f f l a w e d hope. Ther e r e m a i n s f a i t h , and t h i s v i r t u e i s a l s o a q u a l i f i e d one as i t a p p l i e s t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e k n i g h t . . Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s d e s c r i b e d as " r i g h t f a i t h f u l t r u e • • . i n deede and word" ( i . 2 ) , and t h i s f u l f i l s t h e r e q u i s i t e b e h a v i o u r o f a f a i t h f u l c h a r a c t e r . ^ However, t h e i s s u e i s n o t m e r e l y one of b e h a v i o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Book of Common P r a y e r , f a i t h f u l n e s s must be l o d g e d i n 25 g " t h o u g h t , word and deed." The absence of t h e term " t h o u g h t " i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i t h a rgues a f l a w i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n of t h i s v i r t u e . H i s f a i t h i s n o t s u p p o r t e d by knowledge of t h e t r u t h , i t i s l o d g e d m e r e l y i n a ppearance. The t h i r d s t a n z a b e a r s t h i s o u t by d e s c r i b i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s d e s i r e " h i s knew f o r c e t o l e a r n e " ( i . 3 ) . Thus, the k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s i s q u a l i f i e d by t h e f l a w s p r e s e n t i n each o f t h e t h r e e v i r t u e s of f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y he p o s s e s s e s as a C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t . The second s t a n z a ends w i t h a d e n i a l o f t h e k n i g h t ' s l a c k o f c ourage ("Yet n o t h i n g d i d he d r e a d , b u t e v e r was y d r a d " ) . T h i s s t a t e -ment f o r e s t a l l s t h e p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s a p p a r e n t sadness as stemming f r o m a l a c k o f c o u r a g e . V i r t u e s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s o u l , a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l , e t h i c a l t h e o r y , and H o l i n e s s i s a s t a t e of t h e s o u l i n p o s s e s s i o n o f 9 t h e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s of f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y . A q u i n a s c o n s i g n s hope and c h a r i t y t o t h e a p p e t i t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e s o u l , and f a i t h t o i t s r a t i o n a l p a r t . C h a r i t y he a t t a c h e s t o t h e c o n c u p i s c i b l e s o u l , and hope t o t h e i r a s c i b l e s o u l . C h a r i t y i s t h e t h e o l o g i c a l p e r f e c t i o n of t h e c o n c u p i s c e n t s o u l , w h i l e hope i s t h e t h e o l o g i c a l p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i r a s c i b l e s o u l . F a i t h p e r f e c t s t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l . 1 ^ Spenser somewhat f o l l o w s t h i s scheme, a t t a c h i n g t h e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , t o a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t s o f t h e s o u l . However, w h i l e A q u i n a s a s s o c i a t e s hope w i t h t h e i r a s c i b l e s o u l , Spenser f o l l o w s P l a t o ' s famous a l i g n m e n t of t h e i r a s -c i b l e w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l . 1 1 Hence, a t t h e end of t h e second s t a n z a , Spenser p l a c e s a remark a l l u d i n g t o t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e hope a p p l i e d t o t h e k n i g h t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a remark d e s c r i b i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s 26 courage . And a l s o , l a t e r i n t h e l e g e n d , t h e k n i g h t f a c e s t h e t e s t o f L u c i f e r a and Sans j o y i n t h e company of t h e Dwarf who i s commonly 12 u n d e r s t o o d as an emblem of r e a s o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e scheme of R e n a i s -sance N e o p l a t o n i s t s , Spenser d i v i d e s t h e s o u l i n t o t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f i n t e l l e c t , r e a s o n , and a p p e t i t e , p l a c i n g f a i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f i n t e l l e c t , hope i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f r e a s o n , . a n d c h a r i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e 13 o f a p p e t i t e . On t h e k n i g h t ' s r e l e a s e f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , D e s p a i r a t t a c k s t h e k n i g h t ' s hope by p a r a l o g i c a l a p p e a l s t o h i s r e a s o n , n o t , as would be a p p r o p r i a t e t o A q u i n a s ' scheme, m e r e l y by a p p e a l s t o h i s a p p e t i t e ( i x , 3 8 - 4 7 ) . By p r e s e n t i n g t h e Red C r o s s . K n i g h t i n t h e second s t a n z a as a f l a w e d f i g u r e o f H o l i n e s s , Spenser r e v e a l s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l e g e n d i s p a t t e r n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l scheme by w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s t h e k n i g h t . As t h e e v i d e n c e of s t a n z a one s u g g e s t s , t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t i s t h r e a t e n e d by t h e p r e s e n c e of i l l u s i o n i n a p o s t l a p s a r i a n w o r l d , w h i c h , when added t o t h e f l a w e d c h a r a c t e r o f h i s s o u l makes h i s q u e s t p e r i l o u s i n d e e d . The q u e s t i t s e l f , q u i t e b a s i c a l l y , i s f o r u n i o n w i t h t r u t h , n e g a t i v e l y an o v e r t h r o w of th e powers of d e c e i t . T r u t h , o f c o u r s e , b o t h s e r v e s t o u n c o v e r i l l u s i o n and t o p e r f e c t t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , so t h a t t h e theme of i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y and t h a t o f t h e p e r f e c t i n g o f a s o u l a r e i n t i m a t e l y bound t o -g e t h e r i n t h e q u e s t u n d e r t a k e n by Red C r o s s K n i g h t . , The t h i r d s t a n z a o f c a n t o one e x p l a i n s t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t as i t appears a t t h e o u t s e t , and f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e s t h e o b s t a c l e s t o i t s s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n : 27 U p o n a g r e a t a d v e n t u r e h e w a s b o n d , T h a t g r e a t e s t G L o r i a n a t o h i m g a v e , T h a t g r e a t e s t G l o r i o u s Q u e e n e o f F a e r i e L o n d , T o w i n n e h i m w o r s h i p , a n d h e r g r a c e t o h a v e , W h i c h o f a l l e a r t h l y t h i n g s h e m o s t d i d c r a v e ; A n d e v e r a s h e r o d e , h i s h a r t d i d e a r n e T o p r o v e h i s p u i s s a n c e i n b a t t e l l b r a v e U p o n h i s f o e , a n d h i s n e w f o r c e t o l e a r n e ; U p o n h i s f o e , a D r a g o n h o r r i b l e a n d s t e a r n e . ( i , 3 ) R e d C r o s s K n i g h t h o l d s a t t h e o u t s e t o f h i s " a d v e n t u r e " a s e t o f d e -s i r e s w h i c h i m p e r i l s t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s q u e s t . H e d e s i r e s " w o r s h i p " a n d t o p o s s e s s t h e " g r a c e " o f t h e F a e r i e Q u e e n e . A l s o h e d e s i r e s t o p r o v e h i s o w n " p u i s s a n c e , " a n d t o l e a r n h i s o w n " n e w f o r c e . " P l a i n l y , t h e s e a r e p e r v e r s e d e s i r e s , e a c h m a r k e d b y p r i d e . H i s d e s i r e f o r w o r -s h i p i s m o c k e d i n t h e l e g e n d b y , a m o n g o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , t h e e a r t h l y c i t y o f L u c i f e r a . H i s d e s i r e t o p o s s e s s g r a c e i s m o c k e d b y t h e m i r a c u l o u s g i f t o f g r a c e w h i c h o c c u r s d u r i n g A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o t o f r e e R e d C r o s s K n i g h t . H i s d e s i r e t o p r o v e h i s " p u i s s a n c e " i s m o c k e d d u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h E r r o r a n d w i t h t h e D r a g o n , a n d h i s d e s i r e t o l e a r n o f h i s n e w f o r c e i s m o c k e d b y h i s c o m p l e t e l y l o s i n g w h a t f o r c e h e h a s p r i o r t o h i s a c q u i r i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e h e a c q u i r e s i n t h e H o u s e o f H o l i n e s s . E a c h o f t h e s e d e s i r e s a r e a n i m p e d i m e n t t o t h e p e r f e c t i n g o f h i s s o u l i n H o l i n e s s t h r o u g h f a i t h , h o p e , a n d c h a r i t y . H i s d e s i r e " h i s n e w f o r c e t o l e a r n e " i s p e r v e r s e g i v e n t h a t r e a s o n c a n n o t a c h i e v e t h e t r u t h o f r e v e l a t i o n b u t t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t c a n a p p r e -h e n d i t o n c e g i v e n . T h i s d e s i r e q u a l i f i e s t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i t h , a s d o e s t h e d e s i r e t o p o s s e s s g r a c e . T h e d e s i r e t o p r o v e " p u i s s a n c e " i s p e r v e r s e g i v e n t h a t r e a s o n d i c t a t e s t h a t w h a t s t r e n g t h i s m a n ' s i s 28 d e r i v e d f r o m God. T h i s d e s i r e q u a l i f i e s t h e k n i g h t ' s hope, by a r g u i n g a s e l f - r e l i a n c e w h i c h c u t s t h e k n i g h t o f f f r o m h i s s o u r c e of s t r e n g t h ( a t h i s most a b j e c t l e v e l , t h e k n i g h t i s sans p u i s s a n c e and h o p e l e s s i n t h e c l u t c h e s o f D e s p a i r ) . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s d e s i r e f o r w o r s h i p i s a l s o p e r v e r s e as i t i s a d e s i r e f o r " e a r t h l y t h i n g s . " T h i s d e s i r e q u a l i f i e s h i s c h a r i t y , w h i c h i s a l o v e marked n o t by t h e d e s i r e t o p o s s e s s b u t t o g i v e . Una i s n e x t p r e s e n t e d , and,, as w i t h t h e k n i g h t , she appears i n terms w h i c h s u g g e s t t h e d i f f i c u l t y of e v a l u a t i n g e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d by t h e s e n s e s : A l o v e l y L a d l e rode h i m f a i r e b e s i d e , Upon a l o w l y A s s e more w h i t e t h e n snow,, Y e t she much w h i t e r , b u t t h e same d i d h i d e Under a v e l e , t h a t wimpled was f u l l l o w , And o v e r a l l a b l a c k e s t o l e she d i d t h r o w , As. one t h a t i n l y mournd: so was she s a d , And h e a v i e s a t upon h e r p a l f r e y s l o w : Seemed i n h e a r t some h i d d e n c a r e she had. And by h e r i n a l i n e a m i l k e w h i t e lambe she l a d . ( i , 4 ) Y e t w h i l e Spenser m a i n t a i n s t h e ambiguous n a t u r e of t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r -a c t e r t h r o u g h o u t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , w i t h Una he s t r i k e s s o l i d ground i m m e d i a t e l y . Her appearance o f mourning i s r e a l e v i d e n c e o f mourning. She i s , i n f a c t w h i t e r t h a n h e r p a l f r e y , and,, So p u r e an i n n o c e n t , as t h a t same lambe, She was i n l i f e and e v e r y v e r t u o u s l o r e . ( i . 5 ) Even Una i s caught i n t h e v e i l o f a p p e a r a n c e , y e t h e r t r u t h i s a b s o -l u t e as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n r e v e a l s . Her v e i l i s a t e s t i m o n y t o t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f h e r p a r e n t s who once h e l d d o m i n i o n o v e r t h e w o r l d 29 before "that infernall feend with foule uprore forwasted a l l their land, and them expeld" (i.5). The parents, of course, are Adam and 14 Eve, and their present condition a result of the F a l l from Grace. That Una, the figure of truth, is caught in the web of il l u s i o n enforces the pervasiveness of i l l u s i o n in the legend, and indicates, once again, the d i f f i c u l t y facing Red Cross Knight in his quest. The f a l l from grace into a world ruled, to a significant degree, by falsehood, was corrosive of man's faculties. It beclouded his reason so that while reason s t i l l naturally inclined to truth i t was capable of clearly distinguishing between real and apparent t r u t h . ^ Red Cross Knight i s free to choose, has free w i l l , but his choices rely on the strength of his reason, leaving him vulnerable to error. That reason i s a toiling figure in a fallen world i s made evident by the description Spenser gives of the Dwarf who serves as Una's servant, and as Red Cross Knight's advisor. The Dwarf who completes the group introduced at the beginning 16 of the knight's quest represents reason. Spenser's description is informative: Behind [Una] farre away a Dwarfe did lag, That lasie seemd in being ever last, Or wearied with bearing of her bag Of needments at his back, (i.6) He appears either to be lazy or wearied by his task of carrying Una's "bag/ Of needments." Evan's, overlooking the ambiguity of the descrip-tion, argues that Spenser presents reason as l a z y . 1 7 However, none of the details in the story w i l l serve to support this interpretation. 30 Even t h e mundane examples of t h e D w a r f 1 s z e a l o u s e f f o r t s t o save Red C r o s s K n i g h t b o t h i n L u c e r f e r a ' s c i t y and a f t e r he i s c a p t u r e d by O r g o g l i o s u g g e s t t h a t l a z i n e s s i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Dwarf. What i s s u g g e s t e d by Spenser's i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Dwarf i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e a s o n ' s t a s k . Reason, i n s h o r t , i s n e v e r l a z y , i t i s m e r e l y i n s u f f i c i e n t . The t a s k t h e Dwarf i s ch a r g e d w i t h a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e q u e s t i s t h a t o f b e a r i n g Una's "bag of needments." T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e needs of t h e body, a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i s r e i n f o r c e d by h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e f r o m t h e s t o r y a t t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h Una l e a d s th e Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s "which i s governed by C a e l i a . C a e l i a ' s " j o y , " h e r t a s k , i s " t o r e l i e v e the' needes/ Of w r e t c h e d s o u l e s ... ." : ( x . 3 ) . The Dwarf and C a e l i a have a d j o i n i n g m i n i s t r i e s o v e r t h e body and t h e s o u l f j r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Dward p e r -forms h i s d u t i e s h i m s e l f , w h i l e C a e l i a , whose c h a r g e i s t r i p a r t i t e , p e r f o r m s h e r d u t i e s t h r o u g h t h e t h r e e g o v e r n e s s e s o f t h e s e t h r e e p a r t s , f a i t h . , hope, and c h a r i t y . . What i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p a i r i n g o f t h e Dwarf and C a e l i a i s a commonplace d i v i s i o n o f r e a s o n . The dwarf i s p r a c t i c a l reason,' what 18 A r i s t o t l e c a l l e d p h r o n e s i s . A q u i n a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d between r a t i o 19 i n f e r i o r and r a t i o s u p e r i o r , as d i d A u g u s t i n e b e f o r e him. The Neo-20 p l a t o n i s t s c a l l e d t h e s e two f a c u l t i e s r e a s o n and i n t e l l e c t . C a e l i a r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e a v e n l y wisdom t h a t g u i d e s t h e s o u l , o r d e r i n g i t s c i v i l h i e r a r c h y , w h i l e t h e Dwarf r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r a c t i c a l wisdom t h a t g u i d e s th e body t h r o u g h r e a s o n ' s r u l e o v e r t h e body. When she e n t e r s i n t o 31 the legend, Caelia takes over the Dwarf's task as her ministry embraces that of the Dwarf. The Dwarf's position far behind Una and the knight suggests the d i f f i c u l t y of his task. Reason's ministry of the body, as the legend bears out, is a d i f f i c u l t one. The Dwarf is barely able to extricate the knight from the perilous city of Lucifera, and is unable to prevent the knight's lust from gaining sway when enticed by Fidessa. At this later point, the Dwarf is separated from the knight, suggesting the overthrow of reason (vii,7 and 19). At the beginning, the association of Una and Red Cross Knight is an emblematic presentation of the relationship between native virtue 21 and the truth which is the f i t end for virtue. The knight, at the start, is courting truth. The metaphor of courtship serves the allegory well, providing as i t does for the exploration of a f a i r l y complex psychological relationship. In conjunction with the description of the Dwarf, Una's relationship with Red Cross Knight indicates what Castiglione exposes as the psychological character of man. According to Castiglione, man is by nature rational, placed as in the middle be-tween what the senses perceive and the " i n t e l l i g i b l e things" the intellect is able to contemplate. Man is able to "choose (by descend-ing to sense or rising to intellect) to turn his desires now in one 22 direction and now in another." The knight's courtship with Una indicates reason "rising to i n t e l l e c t . " The career of this courtship during the knight's quest charts the movement of reason descending to sense, then rising to intellect. The marriage of Una and the knight 32 at the end of his quest is clearly a proper conclusion to the court-ship. This marriage represents the ideal state of man's soul, but i t is a state which can not endure in a fallen world. Una and the knight separate, although the state of marriage continues. The point made fin a l l y is that while man can know this ideal, i t is actually beyond the limits imposed by the F a l l . With the abandonment of Una by the knight which occurs in the second canto, the Dwarf is promoted from lagging servant to the knight's companion. The change argues that the knight has moved back, figuratively descended, from his companionship with truth, and now must face his t r i a l s relying on reason no longer in the immediate presence of truth. 33 NOTES "*The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser, ed. J. C. Smith (Oxford, 1964), I, 5. Citations from Book Once in my text are from this edition. 2 See Works, I, p. 176. 3 P. 425, and 434. Evans, p. 91, and Kellogg and Steele, p. 16, are exceptions. They argue that the shield is an emblem of hope. Kellogg and Steele gloss the cross on Red Cross Knight's breast as the crucified Christ, and Evans glosses i t as faith. 4 Aquinas, 152. ^Nelson, p. 147. This description of the knight's love of Christ f i t s into the pattern of ambiguous statements which describe Red Cross Knight at the beginning of the legend. Nelson, by focusing on this one statement in the description, overlooks the contest. ^James 3:13. g For this formula see "The Order of Baptism for those of Riper Years." 9 See The Dialogues of Plato, II, 300; and Aquinas, 149-150. iO. • I C O Aquinas, 152. 1:L"Phaedrus," The Dialogues of Plato, III, 153. 12 Nelson, p. 157; Kellogg and Steele, p. 16. 13 A description of the soul remarkably similar to the one, quoted earlier, by Pico Delia Mirandola occurs in Castiglione, The Book  of the Courtier, trans. Charles Singleton (New York, 1959), p. 336. 14 Kellogg and Steele, p. 16. 1^E. M. W. Tillyard, The Elizabethan World Picture (London, 1966), pp. 91-92. "^Kitchin, Works, I, 178, glosses the Dwarf as "common sense," a description which, while not pointing to the psychological scheme of the legend, does indicate the lower form of reason the Dwarf represents. 34 1 7Evans, p. 92. 18 The Ethics of Aristotle, trans. J. A. K. Thomson (London, 1955), pp. 176-177. 19 St. Thomas Aquinas, Theological Texts, selected and trans. Thomas Gilby (London, 1955), pp. 306-309; Augustine, City of God, X.2. 20 Ficino uses the terms "intuition" and "reason." See, P. 0. Kristeller, The Philosophy of Marsilio Ficino (New York, 1943), p. 380. 21 Aristotle, p. 190, distinguishes between "natural" and "true" virtue. Spenser follows this division by having Red Cross Knight i n i t -i a l l y naturally suited to wear the armour of Holiness and later acquir-ing true Holiness, burnished armour, in the House of Holiness. 22 Castiglione, p. 336. I l l The Test of F a i t h The f i r s t t e s t Red Cross K n i g h t faces on h i s quest i s a t e s t of h i s f a i t h . The t e s t i s comprised of a s e r i e s of a s s a u l t s on the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of h i s s o u l , and i n v o l v e s a l s o the t e s t of the k n i g h t ' s c h a r i t y . However, w h i l e the t e s t of f a i t h occurs at the b e -g i n n i n g of the l e g e n d , the t e s t of c h a r i t y i s p r o t r a c t e d to the p o i n t of the k n i g h t ' s imprisonment i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , a n d . i s char ted p r i n c i p a l l y .by the events tha t b e f a l l Una f o l l o w i n g her abandonment by the k n i g h t . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the t e s t of c h a r i t y o v e r l a p s the t e s t of f a i t h , i t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h at a l a t e r p o i n t . The t e s t of f a i t h begins w i t h the k n i g h t and Una t a k i n g re fuge i n a f o r e s t from a v i o l e n t summer s torm. I t ends , by way. of r e c a p i t u -l a t i o n , w i t h the k n i g h t f i r m l y a t tached to F i d e s s a and the two t a k i n g re fuge from the summer's heat under the human t r e e s , Fradubio and F r a e l i s s a . . Between these two e v e n t s , , R e d Cross K n i g h t f a i l s , s i g n i f i -c a n t l y , h i s f i r s t t e s t . . By way of a l l u s i o n , Spenser announces tha t the storm the k n i g h t and Una are d r i v e n to re fuge by i s not a common one. The storm i s d e s c r i b e d as be ing the r e s u l t of an "angry J o v e " who, i n h i s anger , "an hideous storme of r a i n e / D i d poure i n t o h i s Lemans l a p " ( i . 6 ) . The Leman i s mother e a r t h , of c o u r s e , but the d e s c r i p t i o n a l l u d e s to O v i d ' s take of Jove and Danae, a t a l e Spenser u t i l i z e s a g a i n , l a t e r i n the 35 36 poem ( H I . x i . 3 1 ) . The a l l u s i o n r e v e a l s a d i s o r d e r i n n a t u r a l g o v e r n -ment, w i t h l u s t and anger c o m b i n i n g t o p r o d u c e v i o l e n t , i r r a t i o n a l , b e h a v i o u r . I n s h o r t , t h e s k i e s of r e a s o n a r e d a r k e n e d by t h e p a s s i o n s , and t h i s s e r v e s as a p r o p h e t i c emblem o f t h e f a t e i n s t o r e f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t d u r i n g t h i s t e s t o f h i s f a i t h . The p a i r a r e f o r c e d t o t a k e . s h e l t e r i n a f o r e s t l a d e n w i t h e mblematic s i g n i f i c a n c e : A s h a d i e g r o v e n o t f a r away t h e y s p i d e , . That p r o m i s t ayde t h e t e m p e s t ' t o w i t h s t a n d : Whose l o f t i e t r e e s y c l a d w i t h sommers p r i d e , , D i d s p r e d so b r o a d , t h a t heavens l i g h t d i d h i d e , : Not p e r c e a b l e w i t h power of a n y - s t a r r e : And a l l w i t h i n w ere.pathes and a l l e l e s w i d e , W i t h f o o t i n g worne, and l e a d i n g i n w a r d f a r r e : F a i r e h a r b o u r t h a t them seemes; so i n t h e y e n t r e d a r r e . ( i . 7 ) N e l s o n n o t e s t h e p a r a l l e l between t h i s f o r e s t and t h e s e l v a o s c u r a i n which. Dante f i n d s h i m s e l f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e I n f e r n o . 1 I t i s a l s o a k i n t o T a s s o ' s a l l e g o r i c a l f o r e s t , w h i c h he e x p l a i n s as s i g n i f y -i n g "no o t h e r t h i n g t h a n t h e F a l s i t y of t h e Reasons and t h e P e r s w a s i o n s w h i c h a r e i n g e n d r e d i n t h e Wood; t h a t i s , t h e v a r i e t y and 2 m u l t i t u d e of O p i n i o n s and D i s c o u r s e s of Men." Red C r o s s K n i g h t meets t h e f i g u r e of E r r o r , spawning o p i n i o n , a t t h e c e n t r e of t h e f o r e s t . S e r v i u s ' g l o s s of " s i l v a " i n t h e A e n e i d a l s o r e v e a l s t h e p e r i l o u s . c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f o r e s t : From t h i s wood,.which i s t h e b u s i n e s s of t h i s w o r l d , l e t us emerge i n t o t h e l i g h t ; t h e g o a l i s t h e g o l d e n bough, t h i s i s s a p i e n t a . ... . . Because t h e s t a r s draw us i n t o v a r i o u s p e r t u r b a t i o n s ^ i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o h o l d a l w a y s t o t h e r i g h t way; o r t h e woods, t h a t i s , t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e body, o b s t r u c t v i r t u e . 3 , 37 That the wood is the "business of this world" i n Spenser's scheme is evident from the catalogue of trees which follows upon the description of the knight and Una entering the forest. The catalogue i s no less than a l i s t of the earthly occupations of man. The pair are figured as praising these trees ["Much can they prayse . . . " ( i . 8 ) ] , and the allusion, albeit indirect, i s to the tree by which man f i r s t f e l l into error. The wide, worn path which leads into the forest suggests the road to destruction which St. Matthew warns against, and also the path 4 which Augustine describes as leading into the City of Man. The end, in both cases, i s worldliness, a turning away from faith and in t e l l e c -tion to the material and the bodily, and, consequently, the imperiling of the soul. The trees of the forest shut out "heavens li g h t , " and their foliage is described as "sommers pride." The forest i s a giant emblem of man's preoccupation with the things of this world. The Red Cross Knight is in danger of the sin of Pride of L i f e . He gives evi-dence of this when he erroneously refutes Una's plea to retreat from Error by arguing that "virtue gives her selfe l i g h t " (i.12), and conse-quently relying on his own strength rather than strength derived from God.5 Once in the forest, the couple are led forward "with delight" (i.10) un t i l they are unable to find their way out. In this state they follow the most obvious path, again an allusion to the b i b l i c a l advice of St. Matthew, but as well a foreshadowing of their coming meeting with Error. They follow the most common path as a resolution 38 to their "diverse doubt" (i.10), a path which suggests opinion. It seems anomolous that Una should be represented as being in a state of doubt along with the Red Cross Knight, and even that she should be engulfed by the forest. Yet the point Spenser makes i s f i r s t that Una represents truth active in the world, and not the kind of truth represented by the isolated figure of contemplation described in the House of Holiness later i n the Legend (x.48-67). Also Spenser implies that truth active in the world inevitably becomes ensnarled in the illusions of the fallen world, and is forever threatened by false-hood. Yet while she wanders in the wilderness both at this point with the knight, and later after he has abandoned her, she is never com-pletely lost. She recognizes Error when confronted by i t and realizes the forces required to overcome i t , and later, when she is imperiled by Sans loy, divine Providence intervenes to save truth for the world. The broad path chosen by the knight and Una leads to the den of Error, located, f i t t i n g l y , in the centre of the forest where the light is dimmest. At the mouth of this cave, Una pleads with the knight to be cautious, and the knight argues, imprudently, that this would be a sign of cowardice on his part. He bases his argument on the erroneous opinion that virtue provides i t s own light "through dark-enesse for to wade" (i.12). His argument, while laudable according to the classical conception of virtue, i s heretical in terms of the Christian view of virtue. Even his fear of demonstrating cowardice i s suspect when considered from the Christian view of courage with i t s insistence on prudence.0 That his insistence on virtue's own light i s 39 erroneous i s evident i n Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s l i g h t being "much l i k e a shade" (i.14), and the l a t e r descriptions of Arthur b l a z i n g with the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t of God (v i i . 2 9 and v i i i . 1 9 ) , and Red Cross Knight facing the Dragon with arms "that heaven with l i g h t d i d f i l l " ( x i . 4 ) . Before the cave of Error, Red Cross Knight i s i n er r o r , holding a c l a s s i c a l but erroneous opinion about the nature of v i r t u e . The Error Red Cross Knight forces out of the den to face him i s a composite f i g u r e , h a l f serpent, h a l f woman. This d e s c r i p t i o n of Error as a satanic Eve-figure alludes to the seduction of Adam in t o erro r . In the medieval glosses, Eve i s read as a figu r e who tempts Adam to act contrary to h i s reason, while she, h e r s e l f , i s figured as an archtype of the d e s i r i n g , a p p e t i t i v e soul perverted and seeking to pervert the governing, r a t i o n a l soul.^ She i s a ca r d i n a l example of the worldly body overthrowing reason. However, the ugliness of the figur e the knight here faces suggests i t i s not the error which Tasso, i n explaining the allegory of Gerusalemme Liberato c a l l e d "that temp-g t a t i o n which layeth siege to the Power of our Desires." Rather, by v i r t u e of the obvious satanic q u a l i t i e s displayed by the f i g u r e , t h i s f i r s t test of f a i t h i s made by way of erroneous reasoning, which the 9 knight has already demonstrated h i s propensity f o r . Error's f i r s t method of attack i s to face the knight d i r e c t l y , and when t h i s f a i l s she seeks to b a f f l e him by wrapping him with her t a i l so that he i s unable to move (i.17-18). E s s e n t i a l l y what i s des-cribed i s Error's method of argument: when r e f u t a t i o n f a i l s , confuta-t i o n i s resorted to. Spenser marks t h i s second method of attack with 40 the general statement, "God helpe the man so wrapt in Errours endlesse traine" (i.18). At this crucial point in the battle, Una counsels the addition of faith to the knight's forces ["Add faith unto your force, and be not faint" (i.19)]. The nature of the knight's opponent requires that faith, knowledge of truth, be enlisted in the battle, but the knight does not understand the advice ["he heard, in great perplexitie" (i.19)]. Instead, he summons his strength which frees him but does not defeat Error. Una, while giving the knight advice about the need for faith, also gives him advice about the tactic to employ ["Strangle her, else she sure w i l l strangle thee" (i.19)]. This the knight understands, and, with a l l his force, proceeds to the task. The effort succeeds in freeing him, but not in k i l l i n g Error. Following the advice of truth, but for suspect reasons ["His gall did grate for griefe and high disdaine" (i.19)], he i s in the position to resume battle with Error. The point Spenser makes is that with the truth of faith beside him, the knight can elude Error, despite his lack of comprehension. Truth comes to the aid of man whose propensity is naturally towards i t , and assists him with practical advice in his battle with Error. The effect, however, of the knight's efforts to strangle Error is Error's natural response of vomiting, suggesting that when threatened Error merely pours out erring doctrines to defend i t s e l f . The spawn Error vomits forth is blind, unapproachable by the light of truth which shines so very dimly in this worldly forest. The effect on the knight is an immediate diminishing of his forces. His pride, however r a l l i e s him: 41 Thus i l l b e s t e d d , and f e a r e f u l l more of shame, Then of t h e c e r t a i n e p e r i l l he s t o o d i n , H a l f e f u r i o u s u n t o h i s f o e he came, R e s o l v ' d i n minde a l l s u d d e n l y t o w i n , Or soone t o l o s e , b e f o r e he" once would l i r i ; And s t r o o k e a t h e r w i t h more t h a n manly f o r c e , That f r o m h e r body f u l l o f f i l t h i e s i n . He r a f t h e r h a t e f u l l head w i t h o u t remorse; A streame o f c o l e b l a c k b l o u d f o r t h gushed f r o m h e r c o r s e . ( i . 2 4 ) Once a g a i n , i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , Spenser, p o i n t s out t h e danger t h e k n i g h t i s i n , a n d . a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e power, w h i c h i s "more.then manly," t h a t s a v e s t h e k n i g h t . What Spenser p o i n t s t o i s t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s v e r y armour, t h e f a c t t h a t f l a w e d he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s C h r i s t i a n , i s enough t o save him. As w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o u n c o m p r e h e n d i n g l y • f o l l o w Una's a d v i c e , , h i s v i c t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e weakness of p r i d e does n o t , n e c e s s a r i l y , i n c a p a c i t a t e the' C h r i s t i a n i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h E r r o r . When E r r o r i s dead, she i s c a n n i b a l i z e d by h e r v o m i t e d spawn: They f l o c k e d a l l about h e r b l e e d i n g wound, And sucked up t h e i r d y i n g mothers b l o o d . M aking h e r d e a t h t h e i r l i f e , and eke h e r h u r t t h e i r good. ( i . 2 5 ) The k n i g h t w a t c h e s , a s , T h e i r b e l l i e s swolne he saw w i t h f u l n e s s e b u r s t , , And bowels g u s h i n g f o r t h : w e l l w o r t h y end Of s u c h as drunke h e r l i f e . . . . ( i . 2 6 ) T h i s c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e e p i s o d e w i t h E r r o r i n d i c a t e s the. d o c t r i n a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f i g u r e . I n d e a t h , she p r o v i d e s a f e a s t w h i c h d e s t r o y s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The a l l u s i o n i s t o t h e unreformed c h u r c h ' s d o c t r i n e o f r e a l p r e s e n c e , t h e v i e w t h a t c ommunication o f man w i t h God i s i n t h e 42 l i t e r a l body of C h r i s t . 1 ^ The p h r a s e , " [ m ] a k i r i g h e r d e a t h t h e i r , l i f e , " and t h e immediate d e a t h of t h e spawn s u g g e s t s t h a t b l i n d o p i n i o n h o l d -i n g t o t h e d o c t r i n e of r e a l p r e s e n c e r e s u l t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e body o f S a t a n , and i n d e a t h , n o t . l i f e . The w h ole of t h e e p i s o d e i n t h e f o r e s t d e a l s w i t h f a l s e v i e w s of t h e body, o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , and t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e k n i g h t i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s a b l e t o r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o abandon t r u t h , d e s p i t e h i s i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend i t , f o r t h e ways of t h e w o r l d . The e p i s o d e p o i n t s out t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i t h i s n o t grounded i n knowledge, and, as t h e l e g e n d soon d e m o n s t r a t e s , he i s , n o t : a l w a y s p r o o f a g a i n s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o abandon t r u t h . The n e x t t e s t of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a i t h i s p r o v i d e d by t h e c o u n t e r f e i t h o l y man, A r c h i m a g o . 1 1 The a r e a of shadowy t r u t h , . t h e woods, i s r e p l a c e d by t h e d a r k n e s s o f n i g h t , and by s l e e p w h i c h s e p a r a t e s t h e k n i g h t f r o m t r u t h . Archimago t r o u b l e s Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s l e e p w i t h p a s s i o n a t e dreams o f Una ["And made him dreame of l o v e s and l u s t f u l l p l a y " ( i . 4 7 ) ] . Archimago seeks t o a l t e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e k n i g h t and t r u t h by a l t e r i n g t h e n a t u r e of t r u t h , by e s s a y -i n g t o i n s i n u a t e t h e a ppearance of t r u t h f o r r e a l t r u t h , Una. The e f f o r t i s much more s u b t l e t h a n E r r o r ' s a t t a c k on t h e p e r p l e x e d companion of t r u t h . W h i l e t h e e p i s o d e w i t h E r r o r m e r e l y s u g g e s t e d t h e k n i g h t ' s dim comprehension o f f a i t h , Archimago's n o c t u r n a l t r i c k s i n d i c a t e t h e k n i g h t ' s t o t a l i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n of d e c e i t . Archimago makes use of t h e n a t u r a l weaknesses of t h e k n i g h t , s p e a k i n g t o h i s e a r t h l y d e s i r e s w h i l e he i s i n t h e s t a t e of s l e e p d u r i n g w h i c h r e a s o n i s a b s e n t 12 f r o m c o n t r o l of t h e body. 43 Archimago's f i r s t ploy f a i l s when the knight refuses to give in to the inclination to wrath, instead deciding to test the evidence of his senses with his reason: A l l cleane dismayd to see so uncouth sight, He thought have slaine her in his fierce despight: But hasty heat tempring with sufferance wise, He stayde his hand, and gan himselfe advise To prove his sense, and tempt her faigned truth. (i.50) The i l l u s i o n of Una speaks to him, and describes her case in such a way as to bait the knight's pride: . . . Ah Sir, my liege Lord and my love, Shall I accuse the hidden cruell fate, And mightie causes wrought in heaven above, Or the blind God, that doth me thus amate, For hoped love to winne me certaine hate? Yet thus perforce he bids me do, or die. Die is my dew: yet rew my wretched state You, whom my hard avenging destinie Hath made judge of my l i f e or death indifferently. (i.51) This false figure of Una pleads innocence on the grounds that she is motivated by forces beyond her ken and which she can not identify. The argument, in the mouth of this figure of truth, i s suspiciously incoherent, given that she likens fate, a power she should recognize as controlled by God, with blind Cupid, a power she should not acknow-ledge as equal to fate. As well, this figure of truth ought not put the power of l i f e and death into the hands of the mortal and flawed Red Cross Knight. This power belongs to God alone. The knight, while not fathoming the meaning of the counterfeit Una's words, notes that her words are not commensurate with his experience ["What frayes ye, that 44 were wont to comfort me affrayd? (i.52)]. The knight suspects the argument, but, as the text points out, he has not the resources to determine its flaws: Her doubtfull words made that redoubted knight Suspect her truth: yet since no'untruth he knew, Her fawning love with foule disdainefull spight He would not shend . . . . (i.52) Innocence ("no'untruth he knew") marks the knight, and suggests both his strength and weakness: while he has pride and is flawed, he knows neither. Earlier, the illusion of Una has argued that her inex-perience has led her to "[f]ly to [his] faith for succour and sure ayde" (i.51), and this is quite clearly an inversion of the case. The knight's faith, such as i t is, depends on his lack of worldliness rather than on the certainty of his knowledge. Yet he has both profited by his association with the truth by recognizing that the false Una's argument is not testimony of the truth, and has been able to check his in i t i a l impulse to passionate action. He, therefore, overcomes this temptation to abandon reason and violently abandon truth, and as well does not succumb to the blandishments of a fabricated truth. However, again, his near escape suggests his f a l l i b i l i t y . The third test of the knight's faith takes place near dawn: By this the Northerne wagoner had set His sevenfold teme behind the stedfast starre, That was in Ocean waves yet never wet, But firme is fixt, and sendeth light from farre To a l l , that in the wide deepe wandring arre: And chearefull Chaunticlere with his note shrill Had warned once, that Phoebus fiery carre In hast was climbing up the easterne h i l l , Full envious that night so long his roome did f i l l . ( i i . l ) 45 I n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , a p r e l u d e t o t h e t e s t , t h e r e a r e a l l u s i o n s t o t h e D e v i l ("the N o r t h e r n e w a g o n e r " ) , C h r i s t . ( " t h e s t e d f a s t s t a r r e , / That was i n Ocean waves y e t n e v e r w e t " ) , and t o t h e f l a w e d f a i t h o f P e t e r 13 whose d e n i a l of C h r i s t i s marked by t h e c r o w i n g of a c o c k . The d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o p h e t i c of t h e outcome of t h i s t h i r d t e s t , and as w e l l s e r v e s t o s o f t e n t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i l u r e by p l a c i n g i t i n t h e c o n t e x t of 14 P e t e r ' s f a i l u r e . I n t h i s l a s t d a r k n e s s o f t h e n i g h t , Archimago p r e s e n t s t h e k n i g h t w i t h t h e i l l u s i o n o f an u n f a i t h f u l Una, seduced by the l u s t s o f t h e f l e s h . Red C r o s s K n i g h t , h a v i n g b a r e l y . s e t t l e d h i s t r o u b l e d r e a s o n a f t e r t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t , , i s awakened and d i r e c t e d t o t h e s i g h t of Una i n amorous embrace w i t h t h e i l l u s i o n o f a l o v e r , Which, when he saw, he b u r n t w i t h g e a l o u s f i r e The e y e.of r e a s o n was w i t h r a g e . y b l e n t And w o u l d have s l a i n e them i n h i s f u r i o u s i r e . ( i i . 5 ) The k n i g h t , w i t h t h e Dwarf as company, abandons Una by l e a v i n g h e r be-h i n d a t t h e f i r s t l i g h t o f day. Thus, p e r v e r s e p a s s i o n ("gealous f i r e " and "rage") o v e r t h r o w s r e a s o n ' s tenuous c o u r t s h i p w i t h t r u t h , f o r c i n g a s i d e r e a s o n ' s embryonic movement t o i n t e l l e c t i o n by a c a p i t u l a t i o n t o t h e power of a p p e t i t i v e d e s i r e . That r e a s o n i t s e l f i s n o t abandoned, b u t r a t h e r s l i p p e d f r o m i t s upward s t a g e of i n t e l l e c t i o n t o a s t a g e of mere p r a c t i c a l l i t y , i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Dwarf as companion t o t h e k n i g h t f o l l o w i n g t h e abandonment of Una. Red C r o s s K n i g h t l e a v e s w i t h t h e Dwarf whose c h a r g e i s t h e h o r s e and armour, and Una's needments, t h e body, abandoning t r u t h f o r t h e body.. F a i t h , h a v i n g overcome, w i t h t h e 4 6 a s s i s t e n c e o f t r u t h , t h e t e s t o f e r r i n g o p i n i o n b a s e d o n a f a l s e v a l u -a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , a n d a t e s t o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t r u t h , a l b e i t s m a l l , f a i l s b e f o r e t h e o n s l a u g h t o f p e r v e r s e p a s s i o n . H i s r u l i n g p a s s i o n , w i l l , l e a d s h i m , w h e r e a s t h e w i l l s h o u l d s e e k t h a t w h i c h r e a s o n d i r e c t s , a n d b e g u i d e d b y t r u t h [ " W i l l w a s h i s g u i d e , a n d g r i e f e l e d h i m a s t r a y " ( i i . 1 2 ) ] . T h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i l u r e o f f a i t h i s s u g -g e s t e d i n h i s m e e t i n g w i t h S a n s f o y a n d F i d e s s a , t h e f i r s t i n c i d e n t w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e k n i g h t a f t e r h e l e a v e s U n a . A t t a c k e d b y S a n s f o y , R e d C r o s s K n i g h t m a k e s s h o r t w o r k o f t h e b a t t l e , d i s p a t c h i n g h i s o p p o n e n t e a s i l y ( i i . 1 5 - 1 9 ) . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s b a t t l e i s t h a t f a i t h l e s s n e s s ( S a n s f o y ) h a s n o t b e e n t h e k n i g h t ' s u n d o i n g i n h i s f a i l -u r e t o c o n t i n u e a s U n a ' s c h a m p i o n . H o w e v e r , F i d e s s a , S a n s f o y ' s c o m p a n i o n , e a s i l y i n s i n u a t e s h e r s e l f i n t o t h e k n i g h t ' s s y m p a t h y , a n d b e c o m e s h i s c o m p a n i o n ( i i . 2 1 - 2 7 ) . F i d e s s a , a s t h e t a l e s h e t e l l s t o R e d C r o s s K n i g h t r e v e a l s , i s f a l s e h o o d d i s g u i s e d a s t r u t h . A p p e a r i n g f a i t h f u l , s h e d o e s n o t k n o w e v e n t h e m o s t r u d i m e n t a r y a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h . A s a n i n s t a n c e , s h e r e v e a l s i g n o r a n c e o f t h e a s c e n s i o n o f C h r i s t : H i s b l e s s e d b o d y s p o i l d o f l i v e l y b r e a t h , W a s a f t e r w a r d , I k n o w n o t h o w , c o n v a i d A n d f r o m e h i d . . . . ( i i . 2 4 ) S h e s u g g e s t s , t h u s , t h e a b s e n c e o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t a n y t h i n g b u t t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , a n d t h u s t h e a b s e n c e o f f a i t h . A s w e l l , i n h e r d e s -c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t , s h e r e v e a l s h e r b e l i e f , i f s u c h i t m a y b e t e r m e d , 47 i n appearance,, and t h u s a g a i n i n the: m a t e r i a l w o r l d : Was n e v e r P r i n c e so f a i t h f u l l and so f a i r e , Was n e v e r P r i n c e so meeke and d e b o n a i r e . ( i i . 2 3 ) B a l a n c i n g " f a i r e " w i t h " f a i t h f u l l , " and " d e b o n a i r e " w i t h "meeke" unmasks F i d e s s a as c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h f u l . Y e t t h e k n i g h t n o t i c e s none of t h i s . I n a d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h r e c a p i t u l a t e s h i s f a i l u r e t o meet Archimago's f i n a l t e s t of h i s f a i t h , Spenser d e s c r i b e s him a s , More b u s y i n g h i s q u i c k e e y e s , h e r f a c e t o v i e w , Then h i s d u l l e a r e s , t o h e a r e what she d i d t e l l . ( i i . 2 6 ) H i s f a i l u r e t o f l u s h out t h i s f i g u r e of d e c e i t f u l f a i t h i s b o t h t h e r e -s u l t of h i s u n r u l y p a s s i o n s and of h i s l a c k of knowledge. Spenser does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t he i s unaware o f . h e r w o r d s , b u t r a t h e r t h a t he b a r e l y h e a r s them. Thus h i s f a i l u r e i s a t l e a s t i n p a r t t h e r e s u l t of h i s • l a c k o f t h e knowledge w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s f a i t h . T h i s i n c i d e n t w i t h A r c h i m a g o , Sans f o y , , a n d F i d e s s a a r g u e s f o r c e f u l l y t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i l u r e , l i k e P e t e r ' s , i s n o t e v i d e n c e of f a i t h l e s s b u t r a t h e r o f t h e awesome o b s t a c l e s between t h e k n i g h t , t h e n a t u r a l C h r i s t i a n , and f a i t h . S p e n s e r , however, does n o t s t o p a t t h i s p o i n t ; i n h i s r e c a p i t u -l a t i o n of p r e v i o u s e v e n t s . By l i n k i n g F i d e s s a w i t h t h e . f a i t h of t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church [she i s t h e d a u g h t e r o f an emperor who has " s e t , h i s t h r o n e , where T i b e r i s d o t h p a s s " ( i i . 2 2 ) ] , Spenser mocks, a g a i n , t h e C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e of e u c h a r e s t i a , s u g g e s t i n g a g a i n t h e d a n g e r ' t o f a i t h o f an i n s i s t e n c e on m a t e r i a l i s m . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e k n i g h t has succumbed t o e r r o r , by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h F i d e s s a . I t a l s o r e c a l l s 48 the phrase "dead as l i v i n g " used to describe the knight's love for Christ at the beginning of the legend (i.2). During Fidessa's tale of her career to the point of her meeting with Red Cross Knight, she explains to the knight that the opponent he has just slain i s one of three brothers: 1"' There lie s he now with foule dishonour dead, Who whiles he liv'de, was called proud Sans foy, The eldest of three brethren, a l l three bred Of one bad sire, whose youngest i s Sans joy, And twixt them both was borne the bloudy bold Sans loy. (ii.25) Fidessa's order of l i s t i n g the brothers corresponds to the b i b l i c a l order of the christian virtues of which these brothers are an infernal 16 parody. The three brothers, jointly, are the antithesis of the state of Holiness, which is comprised of faith, hope, and charity. Fidessa, l i s t i n g the brothers, describes an order of generation which differs from the order of her l i s t . In terms of generation, Sans foy is the f i r s t , Sans loy the second, and Sans joy the last of these sons of the "bad sire," Satan. Aquinas, explaining Paul's statement that charity is the last but greatest of the theological virtues, argues that there is both an order of perfection and an order of generation. 1^ In Fidessa's descrip-tion, generation is the key to comprehending the order, with the generation of the three theological virtues finding i t s parody in Fidessa's order. The point i s that one sire, Satan, caused the creation of these infernal virtues in a specific order which is neither identical with the order of perfection or the order of generation by which Paul 49 d e s c r i b e s t h e t h r e e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s . F a i t h l e s s n e s s and l a w l e s s n e s s e n t e r e d i n t o c r e a t i o n f i r s t , and w i t h t h e F a l l and t h e c r e a t i o n o f permanent damnation, j o y l e s s n e s s came i n t o e x i s t e n c e ("Abandon Hope a l l ye who e n t e r h e r e " ) . 1 L a t e r , d u r i n g t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s hope, h i s opponent, Sans j o y , i s n u r s e d back .to h e a l t h i n h i s p r o p e r domain, h o p e l e s s h e l l , by A e c a l a p i u s , t h e p h y s i c i a n who must f i r s t be c o n v i n c e d o f h i s own h o p e l e s s c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e m i n i s t e r i n g t o Sans j o y ( v . 3 6 - 4 4 ) . F a i t h l e s s n e s s , l a w l e s s n e s s , and h o p e l e s s n e s s a t t a c k Red C r o s s K n i g h t , a c c o r d i n g " to" t h e o r d e r /of " g e n e r a t i o n . W h i l e Sans l o y does n o t d i r e c t l y a t t a c k Red C r o s s K n i g h t , h i s a t t a c k on Una s u g g e s t s the l a w -l e s s n e s s t h a t i s t h e cause of t h e k n i g h t ' s abandonment of t h e t r u t h . L a w l e s s n e s s i s a permanent t h r e a t t o t h e k n i g h t , as p o s s e s s i n g t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e body he i s f o r e v e r t h r e a t e n e d " by them. The o n l y p r o o f a g a i n s t t h e t h r e a t o f l a w l e s s n e s s i s a n a t u r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f and 18 l o y a l t y t o t r u t h . The t e s t o f t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r i t y b e g i n s w i t h h i s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e f o r e s t a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e l e g e n d , . a n d c o n t i n u e s u n t i l f i n a l l y he abandons h i s armour and succumbs t o t a l l y t o t h e lewd charms o f F i d e s s a ( v i i . 2 and 7 ) . The f i n a l f a i l u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r i t y , t h e abandonment of h i s q u e s t on Una's b e h a l f and h i s lewd embrace o f F i d e s s a marks a l s o t h e f i n a l f a i l u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i t h s i g n a l e d by h i s s i n f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f a l s e f a i t h . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h F i d e s s a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e , i n f e r n a l b r o t h e r s , h o p e l e s s n e s s f o l l o w s f o r t h e k n i g h t . I n Or.goglio's c a s t l e he l o n g s f o r d e a t h , and i n t h e dave of D e s p a i r he succumbs t o d e s p a i r . 50 As a termination to this test of the knight's Holiness, Fidessa and Red Cross Knight are shown seeking sanctuary from the oppressive heat of mid-day in the shelter of two trees. Nelson notes the similar-ity between the woods of Error and these two trees which cast "a calme 19 shadow far in compasse round" (ii.28). By framing the test with these two, related, aboreal images, Spenser implies that Red Cross Knight's failure i s mitigated by virtue of his belonging to the family of Adam, represented by the living trees, Fradubio and Fraelissa. Tracing the names and situation of this pair, Nelson argues that this configuration is an emblem of fallen mankind, Adam and Eve. He points out that the names Fradubio, "in doubt," or "brother doubt," and Fraelissa, " f a i l t y , " both suggest the "f o l l y of Adam and the weakness 20 of Eve that brought about the F a l l . " Red Cross Knight echoes the notion of man as f r a i l when, after mastering his i n i t i a l fright over the cries of Fradubio, he asks, What voyce of damned Ghost from Limbo lake, Or g u i l e f u l l spright wandring in empty aire, Both which f r a i l e men do oftentimes mistake, Sends to my doubtfull eares these speaches rare? (ii.32) As well, Spenser indicates the knight's likeness to Fradubio by having him describe his ears as "doubtfull." Fradubio, i t turns out, abandoned Fraelissa for the apparently beautiful Duessa, and therefore Red Cross Knight shares his flaws. Finally, to complete the gloss of this emblem, Spenser presents the following exchange between Red Cross Knight and Fradubio: 51 But how l o n g t i m e , s a i d t h e n t h e E l f i n k n i g h t , A r e you i n t h i s m i s f o r m e d house t o d w e l l ? We may n o t chaunge (quoth-he) t h i s e v i l p l i g h t , T i l l we be b a t h e d i n l i v i n g w e l l ; That i s t h e term p r e s c r i b e d by t h e s p e l l . 0 how, s a i d h e , mote I t h a t w e l l o u t f i n d , That may r e s t o r e you t o y o u r wonted w e l l ? Time and s u f f i s e d f a t e s t o former kynd S h a l l us r e s t o r e , none e l s e f r o m hence may us unbynd. . ( i i . 4 3 ) The i r o n y o f t h e k n i g h t ' s second q u e s t i o n i s o b v i o u s , f o r he s t a n d s p r e c i s e l y i n need, a t t h i s p o i n t , o f t h e " l i v i n g w e l l . " The " l i v i n g w e l l , " an image t h a t o c c u r s a g a i n a t t h e end o f t h e l e g e n t ( x i . 2 9 ) , i s , of c o u r s e , b a p t i s m i n C h r i s t , e v i d e n c e o f God's l o v e f o r mankind. Through b a p t i s m o l d Adam becomes new man. A c c o r d i n g to, A u g u s t i n e , Adam and Eve h i d e e i t h e r i n s i d e a t r e e o r w i t h i n t h e shade of i t , 21 meaning t h a t t h e y h i d w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s , s h u n n i n g t h e l i g h t o f t r u t h . The s i m i l a r i t y - o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t o f F r a d u b i o c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t h i s s t a t e a t t h i s p o i n t i s l i k e t h a t o f Adam a f t e r d i s o b e d i e n c e . H i s h a v i n g been tempted t h r o u g h h i s s e n s e s and a p p e t i t e i n t o a d e n i a l o f t h e t r u t h i s r e p e a t e d i n t h e a l l e g o r y o f F r a d u b i o and F r a e l i s s a , and h i s f a l l m i t i g a t e d by t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t he has r e c a p i t u l a t e d Adam's f a l l . W i l f u l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m Una, and accompanying, l u s t f u l l y , h e r h e l l i s h c o u n t e r p a r t , F i d e s s a , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s . d i s p o s s e s s e d o f t r u e f a i t h and i n danger o f l o s i n g , c o m p l e t e l y , c h a r i t y . I n t h i s s t a t e , F i d e s s a , t h e f o u l w i t c h Duessa,.seeks t o overcome t h e k n i g h t ' s Hope, t h e l a s t , u n t e s t e d , b a s t i o n o f H o l i n e s s i n h i s s o u l . She l e a d s h im i n t o t h e e a r t h l y c i t y , r u l e d by L u c i f e r a , and t h e r e t h e a s s a u l t b e g i n s . However, a t t h i s p o i n t t h e l e g e n d t a k e s up t h e p l i g h t o f Una f o l l o w i n g h e r abandonment by t h e k n i g h t , and d e a l s w i t h t h e s e c o n d , i n f e r n a l v i r t u e , l a w l e s s n e s s . ' 53 NOTES "'"Nelson, p. 158. 2 Tasso, p. 40; quoted in Nelson, p. 158. 3 V i r g i l i s Opera, f o l . 124v; trans, in Nelson, p. 159. 4 Matthew 7:13; Augustine, City of Man, xv.21. 50n Pride of Life see John 2:16, Ruskin, Works, I, 130. Aquinas, 468. 7Gardner, pp. 79-80. g Tasso, p. 40. 9 The knight's view that virtue provides i t s own light i l l u s -trates erring reason. "^For a discussion of this see John Calvin, Institutes of The Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge (London, 1953), II, 555-605, and John Jewel, An Apology of the Church of England, ed. J. E. Parker (Ithaca, 1963), pp. 97-98. "'""'"In the scheme of the legend, Archimago's role i s to exploit the knight's weaknesses in order to separate him from truth, rendering him prey to falsehood, Duessa, and worldliness, thereby exposing the knight's soul to damnation. 12 On reason's absence during sleep see Ruth E l l i s Messenger, Ethical Teachings in the Latin Hymns of Medieval England (New York, 1930), p. 65. 1 3Mark 14:30. 1 4The allusion to Peter's doubt argues that the knight's coming failure is the result of the inevitable weakness of man. 1 5Fidessa's tale has i t s counterpart in Una's tale of her history later in the legend (vii.43-50). A comparison reveals the worldliness of Fidessa's tale. l o l Corinthians 13:13. 1 7Aquinas, 153-154. 54 18 The hunting Lion's spontaneous "love" for Una argues that order is natural, and, in the moral scheme of the legend, that Nature is good rather than neutral. 1 9Nelson, pp. 160-163. 2 0P. 162. 21 Augustine, "De Genesi contra Manicheos," Patrologia Latina, ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1877), xxxiv, 208, trans. Nelson, p. 163. IV The Test of Charity The story of Una's wandering search for the knight who has for-saken her for a counterfeit truth appears somewhat of a digression in the Legend of Holiness.- Yet, carefully woven as i t is into the legend from the point of Una's abandonment to the point at which Prince Arthur frees Red Cross Knight from Orgoglio's castle, i t has the qualities of a digression which comes to r i v a l the main story in importance. ' It is a digression which keeps pace with the knight's errant quest for truth. The link between the story of Una's experiences while searching for her champion,;and the knight's experiences while separate from truth l i e s in the pattern, developed in the story of Una's experiences, which describes the relationship between love of truth and the faculties of the soul. Una, "her due loves deriv'd to that v i l e witches share" ( i i i . 2 ) , strays "[i]n wildernesse and wastfull deserts . . . . , / To seeke her knight" ( i i i . 3 ) . During this search, and in a pointed comparison with the knight,,she alights from her "unhastie beast," and, weary, . ... on the grasse her daintie limbes did lay , In secret shadow, farre from a l l mens sight:, From her faire head her f i l l e t she undight,. And laid her stole aside.. Her angels face As the great eye of heaven shyned brightj And made a sunshine in the shadie place; Did never mortal! eye behold such heavenly grace. ( i i i . 4 ) 55 56 T h i s i s an image of t r u t h m a n i f e s t , sweeping away t h e shadows of e r r o r and i l l u s i o n , , s h a d o w s w h i c h have t r a p p e d Red C r o s s .Knight. Her " u n h a s t i e beast", s u g g e s t s o r d e r l y government of t h e body, u n l i k e t h e k n i g h t ' s , i n a b i l i t y t o curb t h e i m p u l s e s o f h i s "mettlesome" h o r s e ( i . l ) , h i s p a s s i o n s , w h i c h have b o r n e him away fr o m t h e t r u t h . I n t h i s s t a t e of r e p o s e , Una i s chanced upon by a l i o n f o r a g i n g f o r f o o d : I t f o r t u n e d out of t h e t h i c k e s t wood A ramping Lyon r u s h e d s u d d a i h l y , H u n t i n g f u l l g r e e d i e a f t e r s a l v a g e b l o o d ; . Soone as t h e r o y a l l v i r g i n he d i d ' s p y , W i t h g a p i n g mouth a t h e r r a n g r e e d i l y , To have a t t o n c e d e v o u r ' d h e r t e n d e r c o r s e : But t o t h e p r a y when ,as he drew more ny, H i s b l o u d i e r a g e asswaged w i t h remorse, And w i t h t h e s i g h t amazd, f o r g a t h i s f u r i o u s f o r s e . I n s t e a d t h e r e o f he ; k i s t h e r w e a r i e f e e t , And l i c k t h e r l i l l y hands w i t h f a w n i n g t p n g , As he h e r wronged i n n o c e n c e d i d weet. ( i i i . 5 - 6 ) The l o v e t h e l i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s f o r Una prompts h e r t o compare h i s be-h a v i o u r w i t h t h a t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t : The L y o n L o r d of e v e r i e b e a s t i n f i e l d , Quoth, s h e , h i s p r i n c e l y p u i s s a n c e d o t h a b a t e , And i n i g h t i e proud t o humble weake does y i e l d , F o r g e f f u l l o f t h e hungry r a g e , w h i c h l a t e Him p r i c k t , i n p i t t i e o f my sad e s t a t e : . But he my L y o n , and my n o b l e L o r d , How does he f i n d i n c r u e l l h a r t t o h a t e Her t h a t him l o v ' d , and e v e r most a d o r d , As t h e God of my l i f e ? why h a t h he me abhord? ( i i i . 7 ) The l i o n ' s b e h a v i o u r . i s h e r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms of r a g i n g appe-t i t e s checked by t h e v i s i o n o f t r u t h . , . The i m p l i c a t i o n of Una's q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t i f a savage b e a s t c a n d e m o n s t r a t e s u b m i s s i o n t o t r u t h , 57 t h e k n i g h t , who as a man i s l o r d o f a l l o f t h e b e a s t s o f t h e f i e l d , s h o u l d a l s o be a b l e t o l o v e t r u t h . 1 However, t h e a b i l i t y o f b e a s t l y a p p e t i t e t o submi t t o government i s a n a t u r a l a b i l i t y s u b v e r t e d i n man by .the F a l l . The a r c h example o f t h i s s u b v e r s i o n i s Sans loy,.whom Spenser d e s c r i b e s as " l a w l e s s l u s t " ( v i . g l o s s ) , and who seeks t o s a t i s f y h i s a p p e t i t e s d e s p i t e b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d by Una u n v e i l e d . The l o v e t h e l i o n shows f o r Una she d e s c r i b e s as c h a r i t a b l e ( " p r i c k t , i n p i t t i e o f my sad e s t a t e " ) . The l i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y accom-p a n i e s Una i n h e r s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t . The j o u r n e y o f Una and t h e l i o n , u n t i l t h e m e e t i n g w i t h Sans l o y , . i s p u n c t u a t e d by two e p i - ' • s o d e s , t h e . f i r s t i n v o l v i n g t h e . t r i o o f C o r c e c a , A b e s s a , and K i r k r a p i n e , and t h e second Archimago d i s g u i s e d as Red C r o s s K n i g h t . The f i r s t e p i s o d e p r e s e n t s U n a . i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , s e e k i n g s a n c -t u a r y i n t h e d w e l l i n g o f C o r c e c a ( " b l i n d n e s s " ) , A b e s s a ("ab esse,'" a n alogous w i t h "Duessa" and s u g g e s t i n g " a b b e s s " ) , and K i r k r a p i n e 2 ( " r a p a c i o u s c h u r c h " ) . The d w e l l i n g , "under t h e s t e e p e f o o t o f a moun-t a i n e h o r e " ( i i i . 1 0 ) w h i c h i s r e a c h e d by a w e l l t r o d d e n p a t h , i s a c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e House of H o l i n e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h Red C r o s s K n i g h t p a s s e s t o g a i n t h e p i n n a c l e o f t h e m o u n t a i n o f C o n t e m p l a t i o n . The b l i n d C o r c e c a t e l l i n g h e r beads ( i i i . 1 3 ) i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f C a e l i a , h e a v e n l y wisdom,,the b e a d - t e l l i n g g o v e r n e s s o f t h e House of H o l i n e s s ( x . 3 ) . C o r e c a , A b e s s a , and K i r k r a p i n e i n t h i s c l o i s t e r s u g g e s t t h e b l i n d u n h o l i n e s s o f -the Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . When Una begs s a n c t u a r y , t h e i n m a t e s , C o r e c a and Ab e s s a r e f u s e , f e a r i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f t r u t h and h e r n a t u r a l g u a r d i a n . T h e i r c h a r i t y i s n o n - e x i s t e n t , ; 58 The r a p a c i t y o f K i r k r a p i n e and t h e p e r v e r s e d e s i r e s of A b e s s a ( i i i . 1 8 ) i n t h e p r e s e n c e of C o r c e c a ' s b l i n d f a i t h a rgues d i s o r d e r of t h e s o u l . A p p e t i t e r u l e s , and d a r k n e s s marks t h e d w e l l i n g , w i t h c h a r i t y f o r g o t t e n and i n i t s p l a c e o n l y l u s t . The n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r u t h and a p p e t i t e , r e f l e c t e d by Una and the l i o n , e a s i l y overcomes t h e p e r v e r s e o r d e r of t h e d w e l l i n g , t h e w e l l - g o v e r n e d a p p e t i t e of t h e l i o n d e s t r o y i n g t h e p e r v e r s e K i r k r a p i n e . I n t h e m o r n i n g , Una and t h e l i o n l e a v e t h e d w e l l i n g , o n l y t o be p u r s u e d and c u r s e d a t by C o r c e c a and A b e s s a f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of K i r k r a p i n e . L i k e two f u r i e s of r e v e n g e , t h e y r a i l a g a i n s t t h e t r u t h i n t h e i r p a s s i o n f o r vengeance, . . . h e r a c c u s i n g o f d i s h o n e s t y , That was t h e f l o w r e o f f a i t h and c h a s t i t y . ( i i i . 2 3 ) I n t h e i r b l i n d n e s s , t h e y a p p e a l t o Archimago, who, c o u n t e r f e i t e d as Red C r o s s K n i g h t , chances t o pass by. The i r o n y o f t h e a p p e a l l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t Archimago appears t o be t h e p a t r o n o f H o l i n e s s , Red C r o s s K n i g h t , i n v o k e d by C o r c e c a and A b e s s a t o d e s t r o y Una, t h e f i g u r e o f 3 t r u t h . T h e i r a p p e a l , of c o u r s e , p r o v e s w e l l d i r e c t e d , and A r c h i m a g o , d i s g u i s e d , s e t s o f f t o f i n d Una. On m e e t i n g Una, Archimago's c o u n t e r f e i t b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e c h a r i t y of h e r l o v e f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t . Duped by A r c h i m a g o , she l i s t e n s w h i l e he d e f e n d s t h e b e h a v i o u r o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t towards Una w i t h an a p p e a l t o r e a s o n : 59 Farre be i t from your thought, and from my w i l l , To think that knighthood I so much should shame, As you to leave, that have me loved s t i l l , And chose in Faery court of meere goodwill, Where noblest knights were to be found on earth: The earth shall sooner leave her kindly s k i l l To bring forth f r u i t , and make eternall derth, Then I leave you, my l i e f e , yborne of heavenly berth. (iii.28) There is in this speech both error and cunning sophistry. Red Cross Knight was chosen for the quest not because "of mere goodwill," but rather, as Una explains later to Prince Arthur, as the result of his innocence and courage (vii.47). Archimago, overlooking innocence, assumes the choice was based on affection. In his analogy between Red Cross Knight's steadfastness and the perpetual creativity of the earth, sophistry i s evident: while i t is true that the earth is unlikely to abandon eternally her creative role, she does abandon i t annually. The statement carefully circumvents any reference to winter. Archimago, both by error and cunning avoids mention of either innocence or death as i t normally occurs in nature, thereby avoiding any allusion to the F a l l and his association with i t , and therefore not alerting Una to the danger she is in. What Archimago avoids mention of i s the occasion by which truth came to be veiled from man. Una is deceived, though, not by the lust that deceived Red Cross Knight, but by the charity that marks her love for the knight. Sans loy appears following the counterfeit Red Cross Knight's reconciliation with Una, and the knight is spurred to the defence of Una by her encouraging words. This parallels, in i t s irony, the encour-agement Red Cross Knight takes as meant for himself during the later 60 battle he has with Sans joy (v.11). The counterfeit Fidessa 1s words of encouragement to Sans joy proves to be Sans joy's undoing in his battle with Red Cross Knight. Here, Una's words breed ironic hope in the breast of Archimago, and he sallies forth to immediate' defeat before Sans loy. The parallel informs us, by reinforcement,.that deceit is liable to deceit, caught in i t s own web of i l l u s i o n , and that innocence, to some extent, proves an ally in confronting deceit. The description of Sans loy reveals the character of Una's enemy:.. Fu l l strongly armd, arid on a courser free, That through his fiercenesse fomed a l l with sweat, And the sharpe yron did for anger eat, When his hot ryder spurd his chauffed side; His looke was sterne, and seemed s t i l l to threat Cruell revenge, which he in hart did hyde, And on his shield Sans loy in bloudie lines was dyde. (iii.3 3 ) The mettlesome nature of the knight's horse, angered at the spur and "free," suggests that the horse has rein. This,.coupled with the des-cription of Sans loy's wrath, argues that, in his case, flesh controls s p i r i t , that the appetites control the faculty.of reason. Again, there is a parallel with Red Cross Knight, whose horse earlier was described as mettlesome, and whose misanthropy towards Una was the result of lust and wrath overcoming reason. The parallel i s an indication that Red Cross Knight's misanthropy is about to be reenacted, as proves immed-iately to be the case. But as well i t suggests that the Legend of Holiness w i l l here turn to deal with the behaviour of man towards truth, and i t s causes. 61 Sans l o y , unmasking h i s v i c t i m , A r c h i m a g o , p r i o r t o k i l l i n g h i m, r e c o g n i z e s h i s e r r o r i n a t t a c k i n g t h e c o u n t e r f e i t Red C r o s s K n i g h t . A b o r t i n g h i s e f f o r t , and a p o l o g i z i n g t o A r c h i m a g o , he t u r n s h i s b e a s t l y a p p e t i t e towards Una. The l i o n g u a r d i n g Una e s s a y s t o d e f e n d h e r , b u t Sans l o y p r o v e s t o o c u n n i n g and s l a y s Una's champion, l e a v i n g h e r a p p a r e n t l y d e f e n s e l e s s t o h i s advances. Sans l o y ' s conquest o f t h e l i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s " p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and t h e r e a s o n he commands:. 0 t h e n t o o weake and f e e b l e was t h e f o r c e Of s a l v a g e b e a s t , h i s p u i s s a n c e t o w i t h s t a n d : F o r he was s t r o n g , and o f so m i g h t i e c o r s e , As e v e r w i e l d e d speare•* i n w a r l i k e hand, Arid f e a t e s of armes d i d w i s e l y u n d e r s t o o d . ( i i i . 4 2 ) The p o i n t o f Sans l o y ' s v i c t o r y o v e r t h e l i o n i s t h a t i t i s the' t r i u m p h o f s u b v e r t e d r e a s o n , s e r v i n g a p p e t i t e , o v e r a p p e t i t e , o r d e r l y b u t u n a i d e d by r e a s o n . Reason s e t s man o v e r t h e b e a s t , g i v i n g h im d o m i n i o n , and Sans l o y ' s s u b v e r t e d r e a s o n i s more t h a n enough t o d e f e a t t h e l i o n . Una, a t t h i s p o i n t , i s i n s e r i o u s j e o p a r d y : Her f a i t h f u l l g a r d remov'd, h e r hope d i s m a i d , Her s e l f e a y e e l d e d p r a y t o save o r s p i l l . • • ^ He now L o r d of t h e f i e l d , h i s p r i d e t o f i l l , W i t h f o u i e r e p r o c h e s , and d i s d a i n f u l l s p i g h t Her v i l d l y e n t e r t a i n e s , and w i l l o r n i l l , B e a r e s h e r away upon h i s c o u r s e r l i g h t . ( i i i . 4 3 ) Sans l o y i s d e s c r i b e d i n a f a s h i o n w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t h e e a r l i e r d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e l i o n he has j u s t s l a i n . The l i o n was " l o r d o f e v e r i e b e a s t i n f i e l d , " and " m i g h t i e p r o u d " ( i i i . 7 ) . F aced w i t h t h e u n v e i l e d Una, t h e l i o n s u b m i t s t o c o n t r o l , d e m o n s t r a t i n g c h a r i t y . Sans l o y , upon 62 u n v e i l i n g Una, i s f u r t h e r k i n d l e d i n h i s l u s t , the opposite of c h a r i t y . The p r i d e he seeks "to f i l l " i s the p r i d e of the f l e s h which has su z e r a i n t y over h i s reason and which was i m p l i c i t i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s horse having c o n t r o l of the b i t . Marked by the p a r a l l e l w i t h 4 the. l i o n , h i s behaviour i s c l e a r l y unnatural and immoral. And f i n a l l y , Una's p a l f r e y i s described as "more m i l d i n b e a s t l y k i n d , then that her b e a s t l y f o e " ( i i i . 4 4 ) . Caxton provides an i l l u m i n a t i n g g l o s s of t h i s comparison: "And man that i s c a l l y d a beste resonable and doth, not h i s werke a f t e r reson and tr u t h e Is more b e s t y a l l than any beste brute . . . ."5 I t i s the ap p e t i t e ' s c o n t r o l of reason, a lawless s t a t e , which provides Sans l o y ' s p h y s i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y over the beasts and a l s o h i s moral i n f e r i o r i t y . Una, the t r u t h , i s q u i t e defenseless before the unnatural d i s o r d e r Sans l o y represents. Sans l o y ' s a t t a c k on Una resembles Red Cross Knight's abandon-ment of her. In the case of Red Cross Knight, Archimago k i n d l e d the knight's a p p e t i t e s to the poi n t where reason was overthrown by wrath sparked by l u s t . In a neat i n v e r s i o n of t h i s sequence, Sans l o y ' s " w r a t h f u l l f i r e " i s turned to " l u s t f u l l heat" as he views h i s v i c t i m ( v i . 3 ) . However, whereas Sans l o y i s a permanent embodiment of an e v i l , disordered s t a t e which threatens man, Red Cross Knight i s the v i c t i m of e v i l f o r c e s . , Buttressed by a l l u s i o n s to Peter's doubt, and to the knight's innocence, Red Cross Knight's behaviour i s st r e t c h e d against.the backdrop of human f a l l i b i l i t y r a ther than human e v i l . Sans l o y f i r s t seeks to win Una to h i s d e s i r e s by the employment of h i s reason, essaying to persuade her to y i e l d to him ( v i . 3 ) . Unable 63 t o g a i n h i s end by " d i v e r s e g u i l e , " he r e s o r t s t o v i o l e n c e ( v i . 3 ) . A t th e edge of d e s t r u c t i o n , Una i s r e s c u e d by t h e hand o f P r o v i d e n c e s e n d i n g a horde of S a t y r s t o t h e s c e n e . T h i s m i r a c l e i s a s i g n o f . God's i n t e n t t o p r e s e r v e t r u t h f o r man, and n o t t o abandon t r u t h t o chaos. ° Una comes t o r e s i d e w i t h t h e S a t y r s who a r e p a r t man, p a r t b e a s t , and i s w o r s h i p p e d by them i n an i d o l a t r o u s f a s h i o n . L i k e t h e l i o n , t h e y r e c o g n i z e "her h e a v e n l y g r a c e " ( v i . 9 ) , b u t when she attem p t s , t o t e a c h them t r u t h t h e y f a i l t o comprehend h e r t e a c h i n g . D e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g " f e e b l e e y e s " ( v i . l 9 ) , t h e S a t y r s embody a f e e b l e r e a s o n u n a b l e t o comprehend t r u t h . They a r e c a r n a l , more b e a s t t h a n man, and o n l y b a r e l y above t h e l e v e l o f t h e r a g i n g l i o n t u r n e d humble s e r v a n t w h i c h Una's r a d i a n t t r u t h conquered e a r l i e r . T h e i r l o v e o f t h e t r u t h i s n o t c h a r i t y b u t i n f a t u a t i o n , and w h i l e n o t e v i l , t h i s i n f a t u a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a h o p e l e s s l y l i m i t e d : k i n d o f l o v e : . . . [Una] l o n g t i m e w i t h t h a t s a l v a g e p e o p l e s t a i d , To g a t h e r b r e a t h i n many m i s e r i e s . D u r i n g w h i c h t i m e h e r g e n t l e w i t she p l y e s , To t e a c h them t r u t h , w h i c h w o r s h i p t h e r i n v a i n e , And made h e r t h ' Image of I d o l a t r y e s ; But when t h e i r b o p t l e s s e z e a l e she d i d r e s t r a i n e From h e r own w o r s h i p , t h e y h e r A s s e w o u l d w o r s h i p f a y n . ( y i . 1 9 ) U n a b l e t o s p r e a d t r u t h amongst t h e S a t y r s , and t r a p p e d by t h e i r i d o l a t r o u s w o r s h i p , Una meets S a t y r a n e , a f i g u r e who e v e n t u a l l y a s s i s t s h e r i n l e a v i n g t h e S a t y r s and t h e i r f o r e s t b e h i n d . S a t y r a n e i s h i m s e l f a S a t y r , as h i s name i m p l i e s , a l t h o u g h more man t h a n b e a s t . H i s b i r t h was t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p a s s i o n o f Thyamis f o r T h e r i o n w h i c h prompted h e r 64 to enter a wood i n search of him, only to k i n d l e "coles of l u s t i n [the] b r u t i s h eye" of a Satyr who chanced to come across her (vi.,22). The woods of course suggest b o d i l i n e s s and s e n s u a l i t y , and the b i r t h of Satyrane i s the r e s u l t of inflamed a p p e t i t e . Learning to "banish cowardize and bastard f e a r e " (vi.24),.Satyrane's growth to manhood i s defined as a time of h i s gaining l o r d s h i p over the beasts of f o r e s t and f i e l d . ^ Having a human mother and t h e r e f o r e being more man than h i s f a t h e r , he overgoes h i s f a t h e r i n conquering the beasts of the f o r e s t and f i e l d , and i s able to f o r c e them i n t o "yron yokes": And f o r to make h i s powre approved more, Wyld beasts i n yron yokes he would compell; The spotted Panther, and the tusked Bore, The Pardale s w i f t , and the T i g r e c r u e l l ; The Antelope, and Wolfe both f i e r c e and f e l l ; And them coristraine i n e q u a l l teme to. draw. Such joy he had, t h e i r stubborne h a r t s to q u e l l , And s t i i r d i e courage tame w i t h d r e a d f u l l aw, That h i s beheast they feared, as a tyrans law. (vi.26) The d e s c r i p t i o n of Satyrane's c h a r i o t i s intended to summon up comparison w i t h the i r o n c h a r i o t p u l l e d by s i x of the seven deadly s i n s and guided by the seventh, P r i d e , i n the.House of P r i d e ( i v . 1 8 ) . The bending of the w i l d beasts to "yron yokes" a l l u d e s to the c u r b i n g , by Satyrane, of h i s b e a s t l y appetites,- an act beyond the c a p a c i t y of h i s more b e a s t l y f a t h e r . His c h a r i o t ' s being drawn " i n equal teme" i s i n co n t r a s t w i t h P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t which i s drawn i n an unruly f a s h i o n . His mastery of the beasts i s not the unruly r e s u l t of overweening p r i d e , but r a t h e r of the n a t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y of reason ( i m p l i c i t i n t h i s des-c r i p t i o n of Satyrane's growth to manhood i s h i s i n e v i t a b l e c l a s h w i t h 65 Sans l o y ) . In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the disordered ranking of v i c e s 1 and complementary beasts p u l l i n g P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t , Satyrane's c h a r i o t g i s an emblem of the ordered s o u l . He has grown up "from lawes of men e x i l d e " ( v i . 2 3 ) , but i n accordance w i t h n a t u r a l law which marked the immediate response, of s e r v i t u d e i n the l i o n ' s meeting w i t h Una. Having s e t t l e d the government of the body under the banner of reason, and possessed, at the time of manhood, w i t h an ordered s o u l , he l e f t the • f o r e s t f o r the world of man and h i s "famous worth" spread throughout " a l l Faery l o n d " ( v i . 2 9 ) . His meeting w i t h Una occurs during a v i s i t to the home of h i s nurture to see h i s ancient s i r e , f o r , d e s p i t e h i s success, Satyrane i s not p r i d e f u l : Yet evermore i t was h i s manner f a i r e , A f t e r long labours and adventures spent,. Unto those n a t i v e woods f o r to r e p a i r e , To see h i s s i r e and o f s p r i n g a ncient. (vi.30) Satyrane q u i c k l y comes under Una's i n f l u e n c e : He wondred at her wisedome heavenly r a r e , Whose l i k e i n womens w i t he never knew; And when her curteous deeds he d i d compare, Gan her admire, and her sad sorrowes rew, Blaming of Fortune, which such troubles threw, And joyd to make proofe of her c r u e l t i e On gentle Dame, so h u r t l e s s e , and so trew: Thenceforth he kept her goodly company, And learnd her d i s c i p l i n e of f a i t h and v e r i t i e . (vi.31) R a t i o n a l by nature, and possessed of an o r d e r l y s o u l , Satyrane succeeds where the Satyrs f a i l e d . He comprehends the presence of t r u t h not as an object of p h y s i c a l worship, but as knowledge the r a t i o n a l mind can l e a r n . His response, l i k e that of the l i o n , i s n a t u r a l , but whereas 66 t h e b e a s t c o u l d o n l y dumbly s e r v e , t h e r a t i o n a l mind of S a t y r a n e can comprehend t h e f i g u r e s e r v e d . C h a r i t y l i g h t s h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n , f o r h i s a t t i t u d e i s t h a t of "rew" f o r Una's p l i g h t . I t a p p e ars t h a t S a t y r a n e w o u l d p r o v i d e an i d e a l companion f o r Una. He has t h e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e body t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t l a c k s , and i s a b l e t o t u r n h i s r e a s o n t o i n t e l l e c t i o n , , l e a r n i n g Una's " d i s c i p l i n e o f f a i t h and v e r i t i e . " Una, however, does n o t t a k e S a t y r a n e as h e r k n i g h t b e c a u s e she i s "vowd u n t o t h e R e d c r o s s e k n i g h t " ( v i . 3 2 ) . K e l l o g g and S t e e l e argue t h a t S a t y r a n e i s t h e emblem of r a t i o n a l pag-an i s m w h i c h t h e t r u t h p a s s e s beyond, coming, f i n a l l y , t o r e s t w i t h C h r i s t . T h e i r argument, w h i c h t r a c e s Una's hunt f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n terms of t h e t r u t h ' s abandoned s t a t e a f t e r t h e F a l l and u n t i l t h e 9 a r r i v a l o f C h r i s t , i s s t r a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h i s p o i n t . ' Una's hunt f o r h e r k n i g h t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l o n g d i g r e s s i o n i n t h e l e g e n d , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e v i r t u e of c h a r i t y , p e r f e c t l o v e . S a t y r a n e i s w e l l -n i g h a p e r f e c t companion f o r Una.: He b a t t l e s one of t r u t h ' s p r i n c i p l e enemies, Sans l o y (Duessa and Archimago a r e the' o t h e r e n e m i e s ) , t o a s t a n d s t i l l , t h u s d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i s power t o c o n f r o n t l a w l e s s a p p e t i t e . Una's de . f a c t o r e j e c t i o n of S a t y r a n e as a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s n o t , i n f a c t , a r e j e c t i o n a t a l l . I t a f f i r m s , by h e r e v e r -p r e s e n t c o n c e r n f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t , t h a t c a r d i n a l element i n p e r f e c t l o v e , l o y a l t y . She has vowed h e r s e l f u n t o t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t , and, H i s w a n d r i n g p e r i l l c l o s e l y d i d l a m e n t , Ne i n t h i s new a c q u a i n t a u n c e c o u l d d e l i g h t , But h e r d e a r e h e a r t w i t h a n g u i s h d i d t o r m e n t . ( v i . 3 2 ) 67 S a t y r a n e a s s i s t s Una i n h e r escape f r o m t h e S a t y r s , and, t h e f o r e s t c l e a r e d , t h e y a r r i v e "on a p l a i n e " ( v i . 3 3 ) where t h e y a r e a p p a r -e n t l y s a f e . However, t h e m a s t e r o f d e c e i t , A r c h i m a g o , a w a i t s them i n t h e g u i s e of a p i l g r i m , and a g a i n i l l u s i o n t h r e a t e n s t r u t h . He f a b r i -c a t e s a s t o r y o f t h e d e a t h o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ( v i . 3 8 - 3 9 ) , and manages t o engage Una's d e f e n d e r , S a t y r a n e , i n a b a t t l e w i t h Sans l o y . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e b a t t l e i s t h a t because of t h e d e c e i t f u l s t o r y of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s d e a t h , S a t y r a n e i s moved t o p o s s e s s Una as h i s and must b a t t l e a g a i n s t p e r v e r s e a p p e t i t e . Una's vow t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s e t e r n a l , and beyond t h e w o r l d of t h e body. Her l o v e i s n o t m a t e r i a l . S a t y r a n e i s t r i c k e d by Archimago i n t o a b a t t l e w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l d e s i r e s . As Sans l o y a r g u e s , d u r i n g t h e i r u n f i n i s h e d b a t t l e , Were i t n o t b e t t e r , I t h a t Lady had, Then t h a t t h o u h a d s t r e p e n t e d i t -too l a t e ? Most s e n c e l e s s e man he, t h a t h i m s e l f e d o t h h a t e , To l o v e a n o t h e r ( v i . 4 7 ) W h i l e t h e main t h r u s t of San l o y ' s argument i s f o r i n c o n s t a n c y i n l o v e , he i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y a r e f i g h t i n g f o r Una. The s u b s t a n c e of t h e b a t t l e i s a f i g h t between, p e r f e c t l o v e and l a w l e s s l u s t , S a t y r a n e ' s e a r l i e r c h a r i t y and h i s p r e s e n t d e s i r e . Y e t t h e mere f a c t of t h e b a t t l e does n o t q u a l i f y S a t y r a n e as a l e s s e r f i g u r e t h a n Red C r o s s K n i g h t , f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t h i m s e l f had been t r i c k e d by t h e same Archimago i n t o m i s a n -t h r o p i c b e h a v i o u r r e s u l t i n g f r o m p e r v e r s e d e s i r e f o r Una. W h i l e t h e b a t t l e between Sans l o y and S a t y r a n e i s u n f i n i s h e d , i t s i l l u s i o n a r y b a s i s i s soon unmasked f o r Una when she r e c e i v e s a r e -p o r t from t h e Dwarf t h a t Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s i m p r i s o n e d i n O r g o g l i o ' s 68 c a s t l e , and i n p e r i l . Satyrane himself appears again i n a l a t e r book of the poem, a f a c t that argues h i s moral v i c t o r y over Sans loy. The mere fac t of the i l l u s i o n a r y basis of h i s b a t t l e having been unmasked, suggests that apprised of the t r u t h he would revert at that point to charity even i f he i s unable to conquer Sans loy. At any rate, the argument i s moot, for Spenser does not f u l f i l h i s promise to t e l l of the b a t t l e ' s end i n "another place" (vi.48). Una, faced with the sight of Sans loy, f l e e s the scene of b a t t l e , and Spenser ends h i s d i g r e s s i o n on Charity, although the v i r t u e continues to play a c a r d i n a l part i n Red Cross Knight's quest. 69 NOTES "'"The a l l u s i o n i s t o G e n e s i s 1:26. 2 N e l s o n , pp. 175-176; and K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , pp. 23-24. 3 C o r c e c a ' s p a s s i o n a t e a p p e a l t o A r c h i m a g o , c o u n t e r f e i t e d as H o l i n e s s , s e r v e s a l s o t o emphasize t h a t she i s a c o u n t e r f e i t f o r m o f H o l i n e s s . 4 There a r e two n o d a l p o i n t s o f N a t u r e i n t h e Legend, t h e l i o n and t h e d o o r s o f O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e ( v i i i . 5 ) , dumb b e a s t and i n a n i m a t e N a t u r e . ^Caxton's Game and P l a y of. Chesse, 1474 (London, 1 8 8 3 ) , p. 104. °A11 o f t h e m i r a c l e s t h a t o c c u r i n t h e l e g e n d h a v e , fundamen-t a l l y , t h e same meaning; s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e y a l l s e r v e t o e n s u r e t h e u n i o n o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t w i t h Una, and, g e n e r a l l y , o f man w i t h t r u t h . 7 S a t y r a n e ' s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b e a s t s i s an emblem of t h e o r d e r e d s o u l . H i s c o n t r o l , however, I s t y r a n n i c a l , and t h i s f o r e c a s t s t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a p p e t i t i v e s o u l r e v e a l e d i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h Sans l o y . g See P l a t o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r i o t and c h a r i o t e e r , . " P h a e d r u s , " The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , I I I , 153. 9 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 29. A co m p a r i s o n o f S a t y r a n e ' s and Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s b e h a v i o u r towards Una does n o t r e v e a l Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s C h r i s t - l i k e s u p e r i o r i t y . V The Test of Hope Red Cross K n i g h t , companioned by c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h , F i d e s s a , s t r a y s f a r from the t r u t h , coming, e v e n t u a l l y , i n t o the s i n f u l House of P r i d e . P r i o r to the k n i g h t ' s entry, i n t o the House of P r i d e , Spenser g losses the behaviour which has l e d him to t h i s p o i n t : Young k n i g h t , what ever that ' dost armes p r o f e s s e , And through l o n g labours huntes t a f t e r fame, Beware of f r a u d , beware of f i c k l e n e s s e , In c h o i c e , and change of thy deare loved Dame, Lea s t thou of her be leeve too l i g h t l y blame, And r a s h misweening doe thy h a r t remove: For unto k n i g h t there i s no g r e a t e r shame, Then l i g h t n e s s e and i n c o n s t a n c i e i n l o v e ; Then doth t h i s Redcrosse k n i g h t ' s ensample p l a i n l y p r o v e . ( i v . l ) The g l o s s r e v e a l s the l awlessness which the k n i g h t has been t r i c k e d i n t o . He has been f i c k l e , i n c o n s t a n t , and the r e s u l t i n g u n f a i t h f u l n e s s has l e a d to h i s hav ing F i d e s s a a companion. T h i s l eads him to the type of w o r l d l i n e s s m a n i f e s t i n the House of P r i d e . I t i s the s o c i a l embodiment of the m a t e r i a l i s m of the wood of E r r o r from which he escaped i n Una ' s company. ' L i k e the wood of E r r o r , the House of P r i d e i s reached by a "broad h i g h way" ( i v . 2 ) . " The beauty of the House of P r i d e i s i l l u s i o n a r y , as i s i t s apparent s t r e n g t h . I t s h i g h w a l l s are " n o t h i n g s t r o n g , nor t h i c k " ( i v.4), and i t s " h i n d e r p a r t s " are " r u i n o u s and o l d , but p a i n t e d c u n n i n g l y " ( i v.5). As K e l l o g g and S t e e l e have n o t e d , i t resembles A u g u s t i n e ' s 70 C i t y o f Man. I t i s b u i l t on s a n d , a p o i n t e d a l l u s i o n t o Matthew's 2 f o o l who b u i l d s h i s house upon s a n d , and i t s r u l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s a p a s s i o n t o dominate. Marked by a f o u n d a t i o n o f r o c k . a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e s i r e t o s e r v e , t h e House o f H o l i n e s s i s t h e House of P r i d e ' s o p p o s i t e i n t h e l e g e n d . L i k e A u g u s t i n e ' s d ichotomy o f t h e C i t y o f Man and t h e C i t y o f God, Spenser's two houses d e s c r i b e , o p p o s i t e ways of l i f e , one l e a d i n g t o God, t h e o t h e r t o S a t a n . The paramount p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e o f t h e House o f P r i d e i s i t s c l o c k , emblematic o f t h e m o r t a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o w h i c h t h e House o f P r i d e i s d e d i c a t e d . L u c i f e r a , whose name p o i n t e d l y a l l u d e s t o L u c i f e r , t h e p r i d e f u l a n g e l who sought t o o v e r t h r o w God, i s r u l e r o f t h e House of P r i d e . ' She i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s , L o o k i n g t o heaven, f o r e a r t h she d i d d i s d a y n e , And s i t t i n g h i g h ; for' l o w l y she d i d h a t e . ( i v . 1 0 ) A dragon l i e s under h e r f e e t , s u g g e s t i n g t h e S a t a n i c r o o t of h e r c h a r -a c t e r and t h e e r r o r o f h e r m a t e r i a l i s m . E n s h r i n e d i n L u c i f e r a i s t h e p e r v e r s i o n o f o r d e r , r u l e b a s e d on u s u r p a t i o n a n d . t y r a n n y r a t h e r t h a n law: And p r o ud L u c i f e r a men d i d h e r c a l l , T hat made h e r s e l f e a Queene, and crownd t o b e , Ye t r i g h t f u l l kingdome she had none a t a l l , Ne h e r i t a g e o f n a t i v e s o v e r a i n t i e , But d i d u s u r p e , w h i c h she now d i d h o l d : Ne r u l d h e r Realmes w i t h l a w e s , b u t p o l l i c i e , And s t r o n g advizement of s i x w i s a r d s o l d , That w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l s bad h e r kingdome d i d u p h o l d . ( i v . ] _ 2 ) L u c i f e r a i s compared t o P h a e t o n , A p o l l o ' s presumptuous son ( i v . 9 ) , and she r i d e s a c h a r i o t drawn by s i x f i g u r e s mounted on b e a s t s and r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x of t h e s e v e n d e a d l y s i n s , w i t h L u c i f e r a . h e r s e l f t h e s e v e n t h and g r e a t e s t s i n o f P r i d e . The c h a r i o t i s a metaphor f o r t h e s o u l , and L u c i f e r a ' s c h a r i o t i s a parody of t h e c h a r i o t s of t h e 3 Gods P l a t o d e s c r i b e s i n t h e P h a e d r u s . The Gods' c h a r i o t s , t h e i r s o u l s , roam t h e heavens w i t h e a s e , w h i l e man's c h a r i o t s a r e e a r t h bound b e c a u s e of t h e d i s h a r m o n i o u s n e s s t h a t e x i s t s between th e h o r s e s and t h e c h a r i o t e e r . Man's s o u l , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s metaphor, i s an i m p e r f e c t u n i o n of t h e b e a s t l y and t h e r a t i o n a l , a c h a r i o t d i f f i c u l t t o d r i v e . L u c i f e r a , whose c h a r i o t i s compared n o t o n l y t o Phaeton's b u t a l s o t o Juno's ( i v . 1 7 ) , makes s l o w headway. Led by t h e i n t r a c t a b l e f i g u r e o f I d l e n e s s , and whipped on by S a t a n , L u c i f e r a mounts h e r c h a r i o t a t t h e t i m e when . . . f a i r e A u r o r a i n h e r p u r p l e p a l l , Out of t h e E a s t t h e dawning d a y . d o t h c a l l . ( i v . 1 6 ) The a l l u s i o n , , l o d g e d i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , i s a g a i n t o t h e c h a r i o t of A p o l l o , f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e harmonious s o u l of t h e Gods d e s c r i b e d by P l a t o and t h e d i s o r d e r e d s o u l r e p r e s e n t e d by L u c i f e r a ' s c h a r i o t . The s i n s a r e r a n k e d i n a team, w i t h I d l e n e s s as t h e l e a d e r of t h e team: . . . [ t h e c h a r i o t ] was drawne of s i x u n e q u a l l b e a s t s , On w h i c h [ L u c i f e r a ' s ] s i x sage C o u n s e l l o u r s d i d r y e d , Taught t o obay t h e i r b e s t i a l l b e h e a s t s , W i t h l i k e c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e i r k i n d s a p p l y d e : . Of w h i c h t h e f i r s t , t h a t a l l t h e r e s t d i d guyde," Was s l u g g i s h I d l e r i e s s e t h e n o u r s e of s i n . . ( i v . 1 8 ) S l o t h i s d e s c r i b e d as a f i g u r e s h u n n i n g "manly e x e r c i s e , " and l e a d i n g a l i f e o f , . . . l a w l e s s e r i o t e s e ; By w h i c h he grew t o g r i e v o u s malady; F o r i n h i s l u s t l e s s e l i m b s t h r o u g h e v i l l g u i s e A s h a k i n g f e v e r r a i g n d c o n t i n u a l l y . ( i v . 2 0 ) I d l e n e s s i s a p e r v e r s i o n o f t h e i r a s c i b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e appe-t i t e ; t h e f i g u r e l a c k s s p i r i t , and s u f f e r s a s t r e n g t h - s a p p i n g f e v e r t h r o u g h o u t h i s " l u s t l e s s e l i m b s . " As l e a d e r o f P r i d e ' s c h a r i o t , I d l e n e s s r e p r e s e n t s one of t h e c h i e f t h r e a t s t o t h e s o u l . I d l e n e s s i s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f r e c e p t i v i t y t o t h e r e m a i n i n g d e a d l y s i n s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n p r i d e . As s u c h , i t i s one of t h e c h i e f a n t a g o n i s t s o f hope, t h e v i r t u e w h i c h s h i e l d s t h e s o u l , g i v i n g man t h e s t r e n g t h t o a b j u r e t h e 4 p r e s e n t , m a t e r i a l w o r l d f o r t h e f u t u r e , s p i r i t u a l w o r l d . Red C r o s s K n i g h t , . a t t h e p o i n t o f h i s s u r r e n d e r t o t h e body, i s d e s c r i b e d , l i k e I d l e n e s s , as b e i n g shaken by F e v e r and b a d l y weakened ( v i i . 6 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s t h a t hope, t h e s t r e n g t h t o deny t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d , has been overcome. I n t h i s n e g a t i v e s t a t e , t h e k n i g h t c a p i t u l a t e s t o l u s t ( v i i . 7 ) . E n t e r i n g L u c i f e r a ' s domain, c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h , t h e d i s g u i s e d D u e s sa, i s welcomed as an o l d f a m i l i a r ( i v . 1 5 ) . Red C r o s s K n i g h t , " g o o d l y " e n t e r t a i n e d , Thought a l l t h e i r g l o r i e v a i n e . i n k n i g h t l y vew, And t h a t g r e a t P r i n c e s s e t o o e x c e e d i n g prowd, That t o s t r a n g e k n i g h t no b e t t e r countenance a l l o w d . ( i v . 1 5 ) The k n i g h t , welcomed by L u c i f e r a who was " h a l f e l o t h t o l o o k e so l o w " 74 ( i v . 1 4 ) , i s peaked by t h e r e c e p t i o n . There i s , i n h i s v i e w of t h e welcome, t h e b a r e s t h i n t o f p r i d e . There i s , i n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n o f a c o u r t l y welcome, v a n i t y , w h i c h w i l l p r o v e a s o u r c e o f h i s d o w n f a l l . However, a t t h i s p o i n t t h e k n i g h t i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f f r o m t h e e n t e r t a i n -ment of t h e House of P r i d e ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . : Him s e l f e e s t r a u n g i n g f r o m t h e i r j o y a u n c e v a i n e , Whose f e l l o w s h i p seemd f a r u n f i t f o r w a r l i k e s w a i n e . ( i v . 3 7 ) A t t h e p o i n t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e j o y s o f the.House o f P r i d e , he i s a t t a c k e d by Sans j o y . Sans j o y r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t a t e of j o y l e s s n e s s w h i c h marks t h e absence, o f hope, and h i s a t t a c k on Red C r o s s K n i g h t a r g u e s t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s hope i s i n p e r i l . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s r e s p o n s e t o the House o f P r i d e , w h i l e a p p a r e n t l y prompted by a h e a l t h y d i s r e g a r d o f i t s v a i n i n h a b i t a n t s , i s r e v e a l e d by Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k as r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s own v a n i t y . E n t e r i n g t h e House of P r i d e , t h e s t a t e of w o r l d l i n e s s i t r e p r e s e n t s i m p e r i l s Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s o u l . ,, Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k on Red C r o s s K n i g h t o f f e n d s L u c i f e r a , who v i e w s i t as a b r e a c h o f c o u r t l y decOrun ( i v . 4 0 ) . She i n s i s t s t h a t t h e b a t t l e t a k e p l a c e w i t h due pomp and ceremony, t h a t i t be a p r i d e f u l d i s p l a y a c c o r d i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r e of t h e House o f P r i d e . . C hastened by th e r e b u k e . Sans j o y e x p l a i n s h i s b r e a c h o f decorum by p o i n t i n g out t h a t Red C r o s s K n i g h t has s l a i n h i s b r o t h e r , Sans f o y , and he v i l i f i e s Red C r o s s K n i g h t d u r i n g t h e e x p l a n a t i o n : Ah d e a r e s t Dame, ( q u o t h t h e n t h e Paynim b o l d , ) P a r don t h e e r r o u r o f enraged w i g h t , 75 Whom great g r i e f e made forget the raines to hold Of reasons r u l e , to see t h i s recreant knight, No knight, but treachour f u l l of f a l s e despight And shamefull treason, who through g u i l e hath slayn The prowest knight, that ever f i e l d did f i g h t , Even stout Sans foy (0 who can then refrayn?) Whose s h i e l d he beares reverst, the more to heape disdayn. And to augment the g l o r i e of h i s g u i l e , His dearest love the f a i r e Fidessa loe Is there possessed of the traytour v i l e , Who reapes the harvest sowen by his foe, Sowen i n bloudy f i e l d , and bought with woe: That brothers hand s h a l l dearely w e l l requight So be, 0 Queene, you equall favour showe. (iv.41-42) Red Cross Knight does not reply to Sans joy's charges: Him l i t l e answerd th'angry E l f i n knight; He never meant with words, but swords to plead h i s r i g h t . (iv.42) Sans joy's i n i t i a l apology to L u c i f e r a alludes to the metaphor of the soul and body as horse and horseman, pleading a b r i e f usurpation of reason's control by bodily passion. The implication of the apology i s that, rebuked, he has returned to the ordered state of reason governing the appetites. However, given the disordered soul of h i s audience., L u c i f e r a , Sans joy's implied assertion appears at once to be suspect. His v i l i f i c a t i o n of Red Cross Knight bears but the suspicion that an ordered, r a t i o n a l state i s beyond his capacity. Sans joy's explanation of h i s behaviour abuses reason. Red Cross Knight i s not a "treachour f u l l of f a l s e despight/ And shamefull treason," nor was his*conquest of Sans foy accomplished "through g u i l e . " The irony of Sans joy's argument 'is that i t i s Red Cross Knight, him-s e l f , who has been conquered "through g u i l e . " Yet the angered knight's 76 decision not to confront the accuser with reason but with the body ("He never meant with words, but swords to plead his right") i s an error. It marks, once again, an elevation of passion over reason, and signals Red Cross Knight's involvement with the House of Pride. Once his combat with Sans joy is arranged for the following day, he passes the night in "joy and j o l l i t y , " stewarded by Gluttony, and then is chamber-lained to rest by Sloth (iv.43). The real test of the House of Pride for the Christian Knight of the Redcross is the test i t presents to hope. Citizenship in Lucifera's kingdom undermines hope, putting the desire for the glories of the material world in the place of the desire for Heavenly reward. Sans joy represents this test, as the state of joylessness which attends hope-lessness. He stands as an emblem of Red Cross Knight's growing attach-ment to the material world, and the consequent jeopardy this represents to the knight's entry into heaven. Hopelessness confronts Red Cross Knight as a result of his separation from truth, Una, and his present association with Fidessa, the apparent faith deceit, Duessa, is cloaked in. During the night before the battle, she v i s i t s Sans joy and delivers her support: Ah deare Sans joy, next dearest to Sans foy, Cause of my new griefe, cause of my new joy, Joyous, to see his ymage in mine eye, And greev'd, to thinke how foe did him destroy, That was the flowre of grace and chevalrye; Lo his Fidessa to thy secret faith I flye.5 (iv.45) The battle with Sans joy goes badly for Red Cross Knight near i t s end [". . . twise he reeled, readie twise to f a l l " (v.11)]. At t h i s p o i n t , D u e ssa, s e e k i n g t o sp u r on Sans j o y , c r i e s out t h a t he w i l l w i n Sans f o y ' s s h i e l d , h e r s e l f , and a l l e l s e by d e f e a t i n g Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' [ " T h i n e t h e s h i e l d , and I,,and a l l " ( v . 1 1 ) ] . The c h e e r , i r o n i c -a l l y , wakens Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s " f a i t h " ( v . 1 2 ) , a s , of c o u r s e , i g n o r a n t of Duessa's a l i g n m e n t w i t h Sans joy,' he assumes h i s l a d y ' s c h e e r i s meant f o r him. W i t h t h e r e t u r n - o f " f a i t h , " t h e k n i g h t p r e v e n t s San j o y ' s v i c t o r y . The p o i n t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s i r o n i c a l p r e v e n t i o n of Sans j o y ' s t r i u m p h i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Archimago's u n h o r s i n g a t t h e hands of Sans l o y : d e c e i t i s l i a b l e t o d e c e i t . As w e l l , , however, t h e outcome i s p r o o f t h a t P r o v i d e n c e i s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e powers o f H e l l . [ E a r l i e r , i n h e r c l a n d e s t i n e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Sans j o y j Duessa v o i c e d h e r f e a r of " f o r t u n e f a l s e " ( i v . 5 0 ) ] . T h i s same p o i n t i s made by t h e p r o v i d e n -t i a l r e s c u e o f Una f r o m t h e hands o f Sans l o y ( v i . 7 ) . That t h e outcome i s n o t t h e r e s u l t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s own, t r u e f a i t h i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f a i t h t h a t i s awakened. He i s "mov'd w i t h ' 6 w r a t h , and shame, and L a d i e s s a k e " ( v . 1 2 ) . T h i s f a i t h i s t h e f a i t h t h a t marked h i s e a r l i e r b a t t l e w i t h E r r o r ( i . 1 2 and 1 9 ) . Sans j o y i s n o t d e s t r o y e d by Red C r o s s K n i g h t . Duessa manages t o p r e v e n t t h i s by s h r o u d i n g him i n a c l o u d . L a t e r , i n t h e company of h e r a n c e s t o r , N i g h t , she t a k e s t h e wounded Sans j o y t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h o s p i t a l , H e l l . H e r e , N i g h t t a k e s him t o A e s c y l a p i u s , t h e p h y s i c i a n who m e r i t e d h e l l f o r h i s u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e Gods' power o v e r l i f e and d e a t h ( v . 4 0 ) . A e s c y l a p i u s ' s i n i s one o f P r i d e , and i m p l i c i t l y he i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e House of P r i d e , s u f f e r i n g t h e h o p e l e s s n e s s consequent 78 on h i s f o r m e r c i t i z e n s h i p . However, N i g h t must f i r s t c o n v i n c e him of h i s own h o p e l e s s c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e he agrees t o m i n i s t e r t o Sans j o y . She p r e v a i l s by an argument t h a t s o p h i s t i c a l l y a p p e a l s t o h i s r e a s o n , arid f l a t t e r i n g l y a p p e a l s t o h i s p r i d e : . ., . s i t h t h a t heavens k i n g From hope of heaven h a t h t h e e e x c l u d e d q u i g h t , Why f e a r e s t t h o u , t h a t c a n s t n o t hope f o r t h i n g , And f e a r e s t n o t , , t h a t more t h e e h u r t e n m i g h t , Now i n t h e powre of e v e r l a s t i n g N i g h t ? Goe t o t h e n , 0 t h o u f a r r e renpwmed sonne Of g r e a t A p o l l o , shew t h y famous might I n m e d i c i n e , t h a t e l s e h a t h t o t h e e wonne G r e a t p a i n e s , and g r e a t e r p r a i s e , b o t h n e v e r t o be donne. (v.43) N i g h t e x c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o n t r i t i o n m i ght e a r n A e s c y l a p i u s r e m i s s i o n f r o m t o r m e n t , and t h a t "heavens k i n g " has a t h i s d i s p o s a l g r e a t e r t o r m e n t s . H a v i n g e x e r c i s e d h e r p e r v e r s e r e a s o n , she t u r n s t o f l a t t e r y and a p p e a l s t o A e s c y l a p i u s ' p r i d e . The argument r e -f l e c t s t h e p e r v e r s i t y o f t h e House o f P r i d e , and A e s c y l a p i u s ' c o n d i t i o n p o i n t s c l e a r l y t o t h e h o p e l e s s s t a t e w h i c h a w a i t s t h e unwary who become i t s c i t i z e n s . That Red C r o s s K n i g h t does n o t d e s t r o y Sans j o y bodes i l l f o r him. The h o p e l e s s n e s s t h a t Sans j o y r e p r e s e n t s r e m a i n s a t h r e a t w h i c h r e t u r n s l a t e r i n the l e g e n d t o t e s t and n e a r l y conquer t h e k n i g h t . H a v i n g a p p a r e n t l y conquered Sans j o y , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s a c c o r d e d a v i c t o r ' s p l a c e i n t h e House o f P r i d e . H i s s e r v i c e i s a c c e p t e d " w i t h t h a n k s , and g o o d l y g r e e , " by L u c i f e r a , and she " [ g ] r e a t l y a d v a n c [ e s ] h i s gay c h e v a l r e e " ( v . 1 6 ) . H i s wounds a r e c a r e f u l l y t ended by " s k i l f u l l l e a c h e s , " -79 And a l l t h e w h i l e , most h e a v e n l y melody About t h e bed sweet m u s i c k e d i d d i v i d e , Him t o b e g u i l e o f g r i e f and agony: And a l l t h e w h i l e Duessa wept f u l l b i t t e r l y . (v.17) Duessa's t e a r s , o f c o u r s e , a r e o n l y a p p a r e n t l y t h e r e s u l t of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s wounds, h e r b i t t e r n e s s stems f r o m t h e f a i l u r e of Sans j o y t o t r i u m p h o v e r t h e k n i g h t . A l l seems w e l l f o r t h e k n i g h t , e x c e p t t h a t he i s now s e t t l e d c o m f o r t a b l y i n t o t h e House of P r i d e . What t h e d i r e c t a t t a c k of Sans j o y f a i l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e House of P r i d e w i l l i n d i r e c t l y a c c o m p l i s h . R e s i d e n c e i n t h e House o f P r i d e r e s u l t s i n h o p e l e s s r e s i d e n c e i n H e l l . . The Dwarf saves Red C r o s s K n i g h t f r o m permanent r e s i d e n c e i n t h e House of P r i d e by r e v e a l i n g t o him t h e u g l y t h r e a t i t r e p r e s e n t s . W a r i l y t a k i n g t h e measure of L u c i f e r a ' s h o u s e , t h e Dwarf d i s c o v e r s t h e h e l l o v e r w h i c h i t i s b u i l t , and l e a r n s from . i t s i n h a b i t a n t s " [ t ] h e h i d d e n cause o f t h e i r c a p t i v i t i e " ( v . 4 6 ) . The l i s t o f i n h a b i t a n t s i s a l i t a n y of g r e a t n e s s u n h o r s e d by p r i d e , and a c horus of t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l damnation o f man o v e r t h r o w n by p r i d e . Red C r o s s K n i g h t , warned by t h e Dwarf, . ... no l e n g e r w o u l d There d w e l l i n p e r i l l o f l i k e p a i n e f u l l p l i g h t , But e a r l y r o s e , and e r e t h a t dawning l i g h t D i s c o v e r e d had t h e w o r l d t o heaven wyde, He by a p r i v i e P o s t e r n e t o o k e h i s f l i g h t . (v.52) The Dwarf's r e v e l a t i o n o f danger r e f l e c t s r e a s o n ' s r o l e i n up-h o l d i n g hope. By w a r n i n g Red C r o s s K n i g h t o f t h e danger o f damnation h i d d e n i n t h e House of P r i d e , t h e Dwarf r e s c u e s t h e k n i g h t f r o m t h e w o r l d l i n e s s w h i c h t h r e a t e n s hope. Reason's a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d , though. 80 The Dwarf can o n l y warn t h e k n i g h t of t h e t h r e a t o f p r i d e , d i v o r c e d f rom t h e t r u t h i t i s beyond h i s c a p a c i t y t o c o u n t e r w o r l d l i n e s s w i t h a v i s i o n of t h e New J e r u s a l e m w h i c h a w a i t s t h e H o l y . The t r u t h of . r e v e l a t i o n l i e s beyond t h e command o f r e a s o n . Y e t r e a s o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o see t h e dangers i n h e r e n t i n w o r l d l i n e s s , i f t h e r eward f o r s h u n n i n g th e s e d u c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d be beyond i t s c a p a c i t y t o s e e . . The Dwarf l e a d s Red C r o s s K n i g h t out of t h e House of P r i d e , b u t t h e k n i g h t i s n o t h e a l t h y . Sans j o y ' s a t t a c k has l e f t him weak and v u l n e r a b l e , i f n o t t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n of p r i d e , i n t h e form of l u s t f o r d o m i n i o n , t h e n t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n p r i d e i n t h e f l e s h . Weakened b y h i s wounds, a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e House o f P r i d e Red C r o s s K n i g h t comes t o r e s t b e s i d e a f o u n t a i n i n a wood. He d i s a r m s and f i n d s s o l a c e i n c o o l i n g shade. Duessa, who has d i s c o v e r e d h i s r e m o v a l from t h e House o f P r i d e upon h e r r e t u r n f r o m H e l l , comes upon him i n t h i s s t a t e . T o g e t h e r t h e y "bathe i n p l e a s a u n c e of t h e j o y o u s shade" ( v i i . 4 ) , . a n d t h e k n i g h t d r i n k s from t h e s t r e a m f l o w i n g from t h e f o u n t a i n ( v i i . 6 ) . T h e r e a f t e r he c o u r t s D u e ssa, Pourd put i n l o o s n e s s e on t h e g r a s s y grownd, B o t h c a r e l e s s e of h i s h e a l t h , and of h i s fame. ( v i i . 7 ) The k n i g h t ' s a r m o u r l e s s s t a t e s i g n a l s h i s d e f e a t . Shorn of t h e d e f e n s e s of hope and c h a r i t y , and i n t h e lewd embrace of c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h , h i s s o u l i s d e f e n s e l e s s b e f o r e t h e powers of e v i l l u r k i n g i n t h e w o r l d . The wood he i s i n , w i t h i t s shade, r e c a l l s t h e emblematic wood o f E r r o r , . a n d t h e m a t e r i a l i s m i t s t o o d f o r . H e r e , w i t h o u t Una, t h e r e i s no escape f o r t h e k n i g h t . The f o u n t a i n he d r i n k s from has t h e power 81 to render " f a i n t and feeble" ( v i i . 5 ) those who taste i t s waters. The cause of the power, . . . was t h i s : one day when Phoebe fayre With a l l her band was following the chace, [A] Nymph, quite tyr'd with heat of scorching ayre Sat downe to rest i n middest of the race: The goddesse wroth gan fowly her disgrace, And bad the waters, which from her did flow, Be such as she her s e l f e was then i n place, ( v i i . 5 ) Like the "creeping deadly c o l d " (v.12) that attacks Red Cross Knight during h i s b a t t l e with Sans joy, the fountain undermines the strength and determination which sustains hope. It i s an emblem of sl o t h ("rest i n middest of the race"), the s i n which leads Lucifera's chariot i n the House of Pride. Drinking of the fountain brings on the symptoms of s l o t h i n the knight: He chaunged powres at f i r s t them selves not f e l t , T i l l crudled cold h i s corage gan a s s a i l e , And c h e a r e f u l l bloud i n faintnesse c h i l l d i d melt, Which l i k e a fever f i t through a l l his body swelt.? ( v i i . 6 ) The knight, of course, disarms himself. His overthrow i s the r e s u l t of h i s own weakness, reason's i n a b i l i t y to ascend to i n t e l l e c -t i o n to comprehend f a i t h , and h i s perverse appetite's unbridled state which leads him to uncharitableness and a state of hopelessness. The descr i p t i o n of Red Cross Knight "[p]ourd out i n loosenesse" as he entertains Duessa alludes to Jacob's comparison of Ruben's behaviour to s p i l l e d water. A gloss of t h i s text, provided by Spenser's contem-porary, St. John of the Cross, reveals i t s meaning: 82 . . . t h e p a r t r i a r c h Jacob compared h i s son Ruben, who had g i v e n r e i n t o h i s a p p e t i t e s i n a c e r t a i n s i n , t o s p i l l e d w a t e r . . . . T h i s was l i k e s a y i n g : Because a c c o r d i n g t o a p p e t i t e you a r e . p o u r e d . out l i k e w a t e r , you grow n o t i n v i r t u e . 9 H a v i n g abandoned t h e q u e s t f o r s a l v a t i o n " i n m i d d e s t of t h e r a c e " by d i s a r m i n g , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s a t t a c k e d and overcome by O r g o g l i o , a g i a n t emblem o f t h e f l e s h w h i c h has b r o u g h t t h e k n i g h t t o t h i s s o r r y s t a t e . A t t e m p t i n g t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f , t h e k n i g h t i s s c a r c e l y a b l e t o w i e l d " h i s b o o t l e s s e s i n g l e b l a d e . " T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s e f f o r t s a l l u d e s t o t h e two swords of C h r i s t , one s p i r i t u a l t h e o t h e r o f t h i s w o r l d , by w h i c h he conquered w o r l d l i n e s s , s i n , and t h e D e v i l . ^ Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s sword i s of t h i s . w o r l d , and h i s f l e s h i s - w e a k t o t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h he i s u n a b l e t o w i e l d even t h i s . The conquest o f w o r l d l i n e s s i s beyond h i s powers. 1"'' P r i d e o f f l e s h marks O r g o g l i o , and t h i s w o r l d l i n e s s Duessa t r u m p e t s : "0 g r e a t O r g o g l i o , g r e a t e s t under s k y e " ( v i i . 1 3 ) . H i s r e a l m l i e s "under s k y e , " i n t h i s w o r l d . Y e t Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f e e b l e a t t e m p t , t o b a t t l e O r g o g l i o r e p -r e s e n t s a . y e t r e m a i n i n g d e s i r e t o conquer w o r l d l i r i e s s , and, as a r e s u l t , , Duessa p r e v e n t s O r g o g l i o f r o m k i l l i n g him. The s o u l s t i l l s t r u g g l e s f o r d o m i n i o n over t h e k n i g h t ' s body, d e s p i t e i t s i n a b i l i t y t o g a i n r u l e , and hence Red C r o s s K n i g h t has n o t . c h o s e n t o abandon Heaven, b u t r a t h e r i s t h e . v i c t i m o f h i s own weakness. The body's t r i u m p h a t t h i s p o i n t would n o t mean t h e s o u l ' s damnation,,and a v i c t o r y f o r t h e f o r c e s of e v i l . Thus Duessa's p l e a t o O r g o g l i o t o i m p r i s o n r a t h e r t h a n k i l l Red C r o s s K n i g h t : , 83 0 h o l d t h y m o r t a l l hand f o r L a d i e s s a k e , H o l d f o r my s a k e , and do him n o t t o d y e , But v a n q u i s h t t h i n e e t e r n a l l b o n d s l a v e make. ( v i i . 1 4 ) C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e k n i g h t i s i m p r i s o n e d i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e where t h e k e e p e r i s i g n o r a n c e , I g n a r o , t h e f a t h e r who f o s t e r e d O r g o g l i o . The r e s c u e o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t from i g n o r a n t bondage t o t h e f l e s h b e g i n s w i t h Una's m e e t i n g w i t h t h e Dwarf. B e a r i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s armour, t h e Dwarf has s e t o u t t o " t e l l o f h i s g r e a t d i s t r e s s e " ( v i i . 2 9 ) . H a v i n g n o t t r a v e l l e d f a r , he meets t h e " w o f u l l Una" who i s f l e e i n g f r o m Sans l o y " [ w ] h i l e s t S a t y r a n e him f r o m p u r s u i t d i d l e t " ( v i i . 2 0 ) . E m b l e m a t i c a l l y , t h e m e e t i n g r e v e a l s r e a s o n as s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e 12 t r u t h t h a t s e t s t h e s o u l f r e e of i t s s u b s e r v i e n c e t o t h e body. F u r t h e r i t i n t r o d u c e s t h e main theme of t h e r e s c u e o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t : r e a s o n ' s c a p a c i t y and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . The Dwarf's o f f i c e a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e l e g e n d i s s i m i l a r t o 13 t h e one Spenser d e s c r i b e s i n h i s " L e t t e r " t o R a l e i g h . A t t h e t i m e of Una's a r r i v a l a t t h e c o u r t o f t h e F a e r i e Queene, t h e Dwarf l e d t h e h o r s e and c a r r i e d t h e armour w h i c h was t o become t h e e q u i p a g e o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t . L i k e h i s b e a r i n g of Una's needments a t t h e s t a r t of t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t , t h e o f f i c e Spenser d e s c r i b e s i n h i s " L e t t e r " i s c a r e of t h e body. The h o r s e i s an image o f t h e body, and t h e m a g i c a l , C h r i s t i a n arms s e r v e t o p r o t e c t t h e body a g a i n s t i t s own w eaknesses, w h i c h , i f n o t guarded a g a i n s t l e a d t o t h e enslavement of t h e s o u l . The m e e t i n g between t h e Dwarf and Una j o i n s t h e two main e l e m e n t s of t h e n a r r a t i v e t o g e t h e r , l i n k i n g t h e m a j o r d i g r e s s i o n on c h a r i t y , Una's w a n d e r i n g s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t , and t h e s t o r y of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c a r e e r 84 w h i l e d i v o r c e d f r o m t r u t h . . Una, a t t h e end of t h e d i g r e s s i o n , , i s f l e e i n g f r o m t h e l a w l e s s l u s t , Sans l o y t h a t t h r e a t e n s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t r u t h . The k n i g h t i s i n bondage t o the" f l e s h . The Dwarf's m e e t i n g w i t h Una argues t h e means o f combating t h e f l e s h and i t s l a w l e s s l u s t w h i c h i m p e r i l s t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e s o u l . I t i s r e a s o n i n t h e company of t r u t h t h a t can come t o t h e k n i g h t ' s a i d . However, unadorned r e a s o n i s bound t o t h e body, d e s p i t e i t s c a p a c i t y t o comprehend t r u t h , and t h e b a t t l e w i t h t h e weakness o f t h e f l e s h , . t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e f o r c e s o f e v i l work, r e q u i r e s p r o v i d e n t i a l a s s i s t e n c e f o r v i c t o r y . The Dwarf i s r e p l a c e d as t h e image o f r e a s o n by P r i n c e A r t h u r , t h e f i g u r e of paramount r a t i o n a l i t y i n t h e legend,,who i s a l s o t h e b e a r e r of a s h i e l d t h r o u g h w h i c h God's P r o v i d e n c e o p e r a t e s . A r t h u r ' s f i r s t t a s k , upon m e e t i n g U n a , . i s t o c o n v i n c e h e r t h a t r e a s o n i s a p o w e r f u l f o r c e , and t h a t t h e r e f o r e she need n o t d e s p a i r of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s bondage t o t h e f l e s h ( v i i . 4 1 ) . Una meets P r i n c e A r t h u r as she j o u r n e y s t o O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e . The e x p o s i t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s begun by t h e same d e v i c e used a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e l e g e n d t o d e s c r i b e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c h a r a c t e r . He i s d e s c r i b e d from a f a r , b u t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of Red C r o s s K n i g h t o n l y one e q u i v o c a l term e n t e r s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . The c o n t r a s t a rgues t h a t A r t h u r i s as he a p p ears t o b e , a g o o d l y k n i g h t of g r e a t prowess. H i s c o n t r o l of h i s h o r s e goes unmentioned, a l t h o u g h one assumes i t t o be w e l l - n i g h p e r f e c t g i v e n t h a t h i s s q u i r e " c o u l d menage f a i r e / H i s s t u b b o r n e s t e e d w i t h c u r b e d canon b i t " ( v i i . 3 7 ) . P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s c h i e f s t r e n g t h , h i s s h i e l d , has t h e a b i l i t y t o c u t t h r o u g h 85 d e c e i t ; t o r e d u c e appearance t o r e a l i t y : . . • a l l t h a t was n o t s u c h , as seemd i n s i g h t , B e f o r e t h a t s h i e l d d i d f a d e , and s u d d e i n e f a l l . ( v i i . 3 5 ) P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i n t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e l e g e n d i s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e a b i l i t y o f r e a s o n t o , c o p e w i t h t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h . D u r i n g h i s e f f o r t s t o c o n s o l e a d i s c o n s o l a t e Una, he a r g u e s t h a t " [ f ] . l e s h may empaire . ... b u t r e a s o n can r e p a i r e " ( v i i . 4 1 ) . R e a s o n , . A r t h u r ' s a r m o u r , , s h i n e s f r o m " f a r r e away" ( v i i . 2 9 ) , u n l i k e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s armour of H o l i n e s s w h i c h g i v e s l i t t l e l i g h t a t t h e o u t -s e t o f t h e l e g e n d ( i . 1 4 ) . A r t h u r ' s armour appears c o m p l e t e "From t o p t o t o e no p l a c e appeared b a r e " . ( v i i . 2 9 ) . . L a t e r i n t h e l e g e n d , A r t h u r r e v e a l s t o Una t h e l o v e he b e a r s t h e F a e r i e Queene ( i x . 8 - 1 5 ) , and h i s t a l e r e v e a l s . t h e c h i n k s i n h i s armour, c h i n k s w h i c h he i s aware o f . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o n s e t o f l o v e teems w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e a n t a g -onism o f t h e f l e s h and r e a s o n . T i m o r i , , A r t h u r ' s w i s e , o l d t u t o r had warned him " [ t ] h o s e c r e e p i n g f l a m e s [ o f p a s s i o n ] by r e a s o n t o subdew" ( i x . 9 ) . A r t h u r had warded o f f C u p i d ' s d a r t s " w i t h wary government" ( i x . 1 0 ) . H i s e f f o r t s were i n . v a i n , and p a s s i o n p r e v a i l e d . I n a m i n o r , b u t i m p o r t a n t , d i g r e s s i o n , he o b s e r v e s t h a t , . . . no f o r t can be so s t r o n g , Ne f l e s h l y b r e s t can armed be so sound,. But w i l l a t l a s t be-wonne w i t h b a t t r i e l o n g , Or unawares a t d i s a v a n t a g e f o u n d ; N o t h i n g i s s u r e , t h a t growes on e a r t h l y ground: And who most t r u s t e s i n arme o f f l e s h l y might,-And b o a s t s , i n b e a u t i e s c h a i n e n o t t o be bound, Doth s o o n e s t f a l l i n d i s a v e n t r o u s f i g h t , And y e e l d e s h i s c a y t i v e neck t o v f c t o u r s most d e s p i g h t . . 86 Ensample make o f him y o u r h a p l e s s e j o y , And.of my s e l f e now mated, as ye s e e . ( i x . 1 1 - 1 2 ) B o t h Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s and A r t h u r ' s c a s e a r e p a r t i c u l a r examples o f t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h . . A r t h u r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n i s s i m p l y a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n drawn f r o m h i s own c a s e and t h a t o f t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t . As w e l l , however, i t c o n t a i n s an argument t h a t b i n d s t h e c o n -c l u s i o n t o t h e examples. The argument c o n c e r n s i n n o c e n c e , . o r , put l e s s f a v o u r a b l y , i g n o r a n c e . To t r u s t " i n arme of f l e s h l y m i g h t " w i t h -out a c k n o w l e d g i n g d e s i r e ( b o a s t i n g " i n b e a u t i e s c h a i n e n o t t o be bound") i s a s u r e r o u t e t o d i s a s t e r . . ' The k n i g h t who d o e s , " [ d ] o t h s o o n e s t f a l l i n d i s a v e n t r o u s f i g h t . " As c o n c u p i s c e n c e t w i n s i n r a s c i b i l i t y , ,so d e s i r e p a r t n e r s c o u r a g e , and t h e man of a c t i o n who r e l i e s on t h e body to s e r v e h i s c o u r a g e can n o t escape t h e body's d e s i r e s . T h i s s i m p l e e q u a t i o n i s d e n i e d i n i g n o r a n c e . The a l t e r n a t i v e t o b e i n g bound " i n b e a u t i e s c h a i n e " i s n o t t o t r u s t " i n arme o f f l e s h l y m i g h t , " t o renounce t h e f l e s h by r e n o u n c i n g t h e w o r l d and a l l a c t i o n i n i t . C o n t e m p l a t i o n , a f i g u r e who appears a t t h e end of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s o j o u r n i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s , has renounced t h e w o r l d , h i s e a r t h l y eyes a r e " b o t h b l u n t and b a d " ( x . 4 7 ) . But b o t h A r t h u r and t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t have chosen t h e a c t i v e as a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e , and a r e s u b j e c t . 14 t o t h e w o r l d and t h e f l e s h . . T h e r e f o r e f o r them i g n o r a n c e o f t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h i s a paramount danger. Y e t , as A r t h u r ' s c o n c l u -s i o n i m p l i e s , even knowledge o f t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h i s i n s u f -f i c i e n t as a d e f e n s e . A r t h u r has succumbed t o d e s i r e t h r o u g h a dream v i s i o n of t h e 87 F a e r i e Queene, as he r e v e a l s t o Una ( i x . 1 3 - 1 5 ) . U n l i k e t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s v i s i o n o f Una ( i . 4 7 - 5 5 ) , A r t h u r ' s v i s i o n i s n o t t h e r e s u l t o f e v i l f o r c e s s e e k i n g h i s o v e r t h r o w . . The v i s i o n does n o t l e a d t o l a w -l e s s l u s t , b u t r a t h e r t o a l o v e whose r e a l i z a t i o n must w a i t . u n t i l " j u s t t i m e [has] e x p i r e d " ( i x . 1 4 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e l o v e i s a t r i u m p h o v e r "wary government, 1, 1 g a i n s sway w h i l e r e a s o n i s a b s e n t d u r i n g s l e e p , , and i s a s i g n o f t h e weakness o f t h e f l e s h . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e example of A r t h u r "mated" and t h e example o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t i m p r i s o n e d i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e i s n o t one of k i n d b u t o f d e g r e e . The weakness b o t h k n i g h t s s h a r e h a s , i n Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c a s e , been t h e p a t h by w h i c h e v i l powers have succeeded i n j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e s a l v a t i o n of t h e s o u l . A r t h u r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e p a r a l l e l i s i m p l i c i t i n h i s p a i r i n g o f h i s own c a s e w i t h t h a t o f t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t . When Una and P r i n c e A r t h u r meet, t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n t a k e s t h e f o r m o f d e b a t e . A r t h u r a r g u e s t h e . s t r e n g t h of r e a s o n , w h i l e Una, i n d e s p a i r over t h e f a t e o f Red Cross. K n i g h t , t a k e s t h e v i e w t h a t r e a s o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t : , . . . w o f u l l L a d i e l e t me you i n t r e t e , F o r t o u n f o l d t h e a n g u i s h of y o u r h a r t ; M i s h a p s a r e m a i s t r e d by a d v i c e d i s c r e t e , And c o u n s e l l m i t t i g a t e s t h e g r e a t e s t s m a r t ; Found n e v e r h e l p e , who n e v e r w o u l d h i s h u r t s i m p a r t . 0 b u t ( q u o t h she) g r e a t g r i e f e w i l l n o t be t o u l d , And can more e a s i l y be t h o u g h t , t h e n s a i d . R i g h t s o ; ( q u o t h he) b u t he, t h a t n e v e r " w o u l d , C o u l d n e v e r : w i l l t o m i g h t g i v e s g r e a t e s t a i d . But g r i e f e ( q uoth she) does g r e a t e r grow d i s p l a i d , I f t h e n i t f i n d n o t h e l p e , and b r e e d e s d e s p a i r e . D e s p a i r e breedes" n o t * ( q u o t t T h e ) where f a i t h i s s t a i d . No f a i t h so f a s t • ( q u o t h she) b u t f l e s h does p a i r e , F l e s h may empaire ( q u o t h he) b u t r e a s o n can r e p a i r e . ' ( v i i . 4 0 - 4 1 ) 88 A r t h u r p r e v a i l s w i t h h i s argument: H i s g o o d l y r e a s o n , and w e l l g u i d e d speach So deepe d i d s e t t l e i n h e r g r a t i o u s t h o u g h t , That h e r perswaded t o d i s c l o s e t h e b r e a c h , Which l o v e and f o r t u n e i n h e r h e a r t had w r o u g h t , ( v i i . 4 2 ) Una's p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e e v e n t s t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e p r i o r t o h e r m e e t i n g w i t h P r i n c e A r t h u r . Her s o r r o w i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e f a t e t h a t has b e f a l l e n Red C r o s s K n i g h t , and h e r p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w towards " c o u n s e l l " i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n c l u s i o n drawn f r o m h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e a s o n . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s " f a i t h " has been " p a i r e [ d ] " by t h e f l e s h , r e a s o n has p r o v e n t o be weak. On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s e v i d e n c e , t o r e l y on r e a s o n t o c o n t a i n and e a se t h e p a s s i o n of " g r i e f e " i s t o i n v i t e t h e g r e a t e r p a s s i o n o f M [ d ] e s p a i r e . " Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s own g r i e f " d i s p l a i d " overwhelms r e a s o n and l e a d s h i m t o d e s p a i r f o l l o w i n g h i s r e l e a s e f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e ( i x . 3 7 - 5 1 ) . The M [ d ] e s p a i r e " t h a t Una argues t o be t h e consequence of g r i e f exposed, r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g c o n t a i n e d , and n o t r e l i e v e d by r e a s o n i s an a n t a g o n i s t of hope. 1"' E s s e n t i a l l y , i t p a r a l l e l s t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e of j o y l e s s n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d by Sans j o y . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s b a t t l e w i t h Sans j o y was t h e r e s u l t of h i s " [ u n ] s t a i d " f a i t h , h i s abandonment of Una and h i s c ompanionship w i t h F i d e s s a . T h i s " [ u n ] s t a i d " f a i t h , t h e r e s u l t of r e a s o n ' s o v e r t h r o w by t h e f l e s h , l e d t o t h e e x p o s u r e of hope i n t h e House of P r i d e . And a g a i n , when th e f i g u r e o f D e s p a i r c o n f r o n t s Red C r o s s K n i g h t f o l l o w i n g h i s r e s c u e f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e i t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of i n s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n and " [ u n ] s t a i d " f a i t h w h i c h t h r e a t e n s t h e k n i g h t ' s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n . 89 A r t h u r ' s r e b u t t a l o f Una's argument a s s e r t s man's a b i l i t y and means t o a l l e v i a t e h i s e a r t h l y l o t . He argues self.-moving ( " w i l l t o mi g h t g i v e s g r e a t e s t a i d " ) , and r e a s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e f l e s h ("reason can r e p a i r e " ) . That he p r e v a i l s on b e h a l f o f r e a s o n i s made a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r i n Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n o f Una's p e r s u a s i o n ; b u t as w e l l , he p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h r e a s o n , s e r v i n g as t h e example of t h e f a c u l t y he d e f e n d s :• H i s i . i g o o d l y y r e a s o n , and w e l l g u i d e d s p e a c h So deepe d i d s e t t l e i n h e r g r a t i o u s t h o u g h t , That h e r perswaded t o d i s c l o s e : t h e b r e a c h , Which l o v e and f o r t u n e i n h e r h e a r t had wrought. ( v i i . 4 2 ) B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g A r t h u r ' s a s s e r t i o n o f f r e e - w i l l - and h i s championing o f r e a s o n as t h e s e r e l a t e t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Red C r o s s K n i g h t f o l l o w i n g t h e b a t t l e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t a k e n o t e o f h i s p l a c e amoungst t h e companions Una has d u r i n g h e r s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s Knight.- As t h e l a s t o f Una's d e f e n d e r s i n h e r s e a r c h f o r Red C r o s s Knight,- A r t h u r l i e s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n t h a t r a n g e s from t h e b e a s t l y a p p e t i t e o f t h e l i o n , t o t h e 16 r a t i o n a l man aware of t h e weakness o f t h e f l e s h . A r t h u r ' s government of t h e f l e s h , u n l i k e t h a t o f S a t y r a n e , i s c i v i l r a t h e r t h a n t y r a n n i c a l , he c o u n s e l s r a t h e r t h a n commands. D u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o , he i s " w i s e and w a r i e " ( v i i i . 7 ) w h i l e S a t y r a n e matches " f o r c e " w i t h Sans l o y ( v i . 4 3 ) . A r t h u r ' s knowledge of t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h . ( " F l e s h may empaire") p l a c e s h im h i g h e r i n t h e h i e r a r c h y f r o m b e a s t t o man t h a n S a t y r a n e . F u r t h e r , i t i s a t r u t h he r e c o g n i z e s b u t w h i c h S a t y r a n e does n o t , and t h e r e f o r e p l a c e s h im n e a r e r t o Una, t h e f i g u r e o f t r u t h . 90 I n A r t h u r i s f o u n d t h e p e r f e c t i o n of t h e f a c u l t y of r e a s o n , t h e r e c o g -n i t i o n o f j u s t o r d e r , t r u e government. A r t h u r ' s , q u e s t i s f o r u n i o n w i t h the' F a e r i e Queene, w h i c h , as she has r e v e a l e d t o h i m , l i e s i n h i s f u t u r e . One consequence o f t h i s f u t u r e u n i o n i s , of c o u r s e , t h a t A r t h u r w i l l be k i n g o f F a e r i e L a n d , t h e .supreme f i g u r e o f r e a s o n i n t h e s t a t e . ^ Thus h i s d e b a t e w i t h Una arid h i s q u e s t a r e c o n g r u e n t . A r t h u r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U n a , i s p u r e l y , o n e of c h a r i t y , p u r e l o v e . H i s p a s s i o n i s d i r e c t e d towards t h e F a e r i e Queene, he s e eks o n l y t o s e r v e Una, and, a f t e r c o n v i n c i n g h e r of r e a s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o s e r v e t r u t h by r e p a i r i n g f a i t h , she a c c e p t s . She a l l o w s hope t o r e t u r n : . . . F a i r e S i r e , I hope good hap h a t h b r o u g h t You t o i n q u i r e the' s e c r e t s o f my g r i e f e , Or t h a t y o u r wisedome w i l l d i r e c t my t h o u g h t , Or t h a t y o u r prowesse can me y i e l d r e l i e f e . ( v i i . 4 2 ) To r e t u r n t o A r t h u r ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t " w i l l t o m i ght g i v e s . g r e a t e s t ' a i d , " t h e r e i s i n A r t h u r ' s argument a marked absence of any r e f e r e n c e t o God's p a r t i n t h e s u p p o r t of man a g a i n s t h i s own weak-n e s s e s . He a s s e r t s t h e r o l e o f r e a s o n and f r e e - w i l l i n c o mbating t h e f l e s h . W h i l e q u i t e c l e a r l y A r t h u r i s n o t p r i d e f u l l y a r g u i n g s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y ,. i t i s c l e a r t h a t he i n s i s t s on t h e a b i l i t y o f man's f a c u l t y o f r e a s o r i and w i l l . H i s argument s t r e s s e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ("he, t h a t n e v e r w o u l d , / C o u l d n e v e r " ) . A c q u a i n t e d w i t h m i r a c l e s [ h i s g i f t t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s a m i r a c u l o u s b a l m ( i x , 1 9 ) ] , h e n e v e r t h e l e s s j u x t a p o s e s f l e s h w i t h r e a s o n r a t h e r t h a n P r o v i d e n c e . Asked l a t e r by Una t o t e l l what b r o u g h t h i m t o F a e r i e L a n d , he c o m p l a i n s : F u l l h a r d i t i s . . . t o r e a d a r i g h t The c o u r s e of h e a v e n l y c a u s e , or u n d e r s t a n d The s e c r e t meaning o f t h ' e t e r n a l l m i g h t , That r u l e s mens wayes, and r u l e s t h e t h o u g h t s of l i v i n g w i g h t . ( i x . 7 ) And y e t l a t e r , he exchanges g i f t s w i t h Red C r o s s K n i g h t , r e c e i v i n g t h e New Testament f r o m t h e k n i g h t . A r t h u r ' s c o m p l a i n t about t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e a d i n g " [ t ] h e c o u r s e of h e a v e n l y c a u s e , " and o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g " [ t ] h e s e c r e t meaning o f -t h ' e t e r n a l l m i g h t " i s an a d m i s s i o n t h a t God's w i l l i s u n a v a i l a b l e t o r e a s o n . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s g i f t o f t h e New Testament t o A r t h u r argues 18 t h a t A r t h u r s t a n d s i n need o f t h e r e v e l a t i o n of God's w i l l i t c ontains-. F u r t h e r , h i s r e s c u e by m i r a c l e f r o m O r g o g l i o when he f a l l s i n b a t t l e ( v i i i . 1 9 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y r e a s o n a l o n e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o combat t h e f l e s h . A r t h u r ' s f a i t h , a term he r e f e r s t o i n h i s d e b a t e w i t h Una ( v i i . 4 1 ) , i s r o o t e d i n t h e O l d Testament. H i s i n s i s t e n c e on r e a s o n and w i l l i n combating t h e weakness o f t h e f l e s h i s b a s e d i n t h e Adamic r a t h e r t h a n t h e new covenant of C h r i s t . That man's r e a s o n and w i l l f a i l e d t o combat f l e s h l i n e s s i s e v i d e n t i n b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y i n t h e appearance of C h r i s t , and t h a t A r t h u r f a i l s t o d e f e a t t h e f l e s h by r e a s o n and w i l l i s e v i d e n t i n t h e m i r a c l e he needs t o overcome O r g o g l i o . Una's h i s t o r i c a l summary o f t h e e v e n t s w h i c h have l e d t o h e r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y t a k e n as an a l l u s i o n t o e i t h e r t h e E d e n i c and Adamic p e r i o d s o f b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y , o r t o t h e term s p e n t i n t h e 19 w i l d e r n e s s by t h e woman d e s c r i b e d i n R e v e l a t i o n s 12:6. The t a l e she t e l l s A r t h u r seems t o s u p p o r t t h e f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , g i v e n t h e d i r e c t a l l u s i o n t o Eden by m e n t i o n o f t h e r i v e r s P h i s o n , , E u p h r a t e s , and 92 Gehon, and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r p a r e n t s p a s t f e l i c i t y and p r e s e n t bondage ( v i i . 4 3 ) . F u r t h e r , t h e t e r m o f bondage w h i c h Una g i v e s as f o u r y e a r s ( v i i . 4 4 ) i s more, o b v i o u s l y an a l l u s i o n t o t h e term of t h e Adamic c o v e n a n t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o u r thousand y e a r s , t h a n t o t h e t w e l v e hundred and s i x t y days term g i v e n f o r t h e w a n d e r i n g s o f t h e woman i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s . 2 0 Y e t d e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s a l l u s i o n s t o t h e E d e n i c s t a t e of man, and t h e l e s s o b v i o u s a l l u s i o n s t o t h e Adamic p e r i o d , Una's t a l e d e p a r t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m O l d Testament h i s t o r y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n b o t h h e r d e s c r i p t i o n of h e r p a r e n t ' s f a l l . f r o m f e l i c i t y and t h e p a r a l l e l f a l l o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t i n t o t h e c l u t c h e s of D u essa, Una does n o t a s s i g n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e i t h e r h e r p a r e n t s o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t . I n s t e a d , she blames e x t e r n a l f o r c e s f o r b r i n g i n g about t h e i r f a l l s . Una's p a r e n t s a r e i m p r i s o n e d by " t h e i r c r u e l c u r s e d enemy" ( v i i . 4 4 ) , t h e Dragon, and Red C r o s s K n i g h t has had " [ h ] i s s ense abusd" by "an E n c h a u n t e r b a d " ( v i i . 4 9 ) , and t h r o u g h w i t c h c r a f t Duessa has " [ i ] n v e i g l e d h im t o f o l l o w h e r d e s i r e s unmeete" ( v i i . 5 0 ) . I n Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c a s e , h i s abandonment o f Una i s t h e r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i s own a p p e t i t e s ( i i . 5 ) and t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s of "an E n c h a u n t e r b a d . " H i s f o l l o w i n g of Duessa's " d e s i r e s unmeete" i s n o t m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f "her w i t c h c r a f t , " b u t as w e l l of h i s a p p e t i t e s ( i i . 2 6 ) . I n t h e c a s e of Una's p a r e n t s , t h e a l l u s i o n t o Eden argues t h a t t h e b i b l i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f Adam's and Eve's d i s o b e d i e n c e s h o u l d a p p l y t o them. Una's d e p a r t u r e f r o m b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w of t h e f a l l o f 93 Adam and Eve and the legend's description of Red Cross Knight's f a l l argues what many other details in the legend point to: that Una's roots are i n the New Testament, and that her actions are governed by charity. She f i r s t appears accompanied by a lamb, emblematically figuring the love of Christ (i.4). When Red Cross Knight i s driven to the point of suicide by Despair (ix.51), Una counters the argument of Despair by arguing mercy and God's grace (ix.53). While Despair's argument is marked by sophistry ["is not his law, let every sinner die:/ Die shall a l l flesh?" (ix.47)], in the main i t is based in Old Testament faith. He argues the view of God as vengeful, and of man's responsi-b i l i t y for his own actions. Before Una's intercession, the effect of Despair's argument on Red Cross Knight i s , That nought but death before his eyes he saw, And ever burning wrath before him l a i d , By righteous sentence of th'Almighties law. (ix.47) The justice that Despair argues applies to the knight is the law of the Old Testament. The effect of the argument, Red Cross Knight's decision to commit suicide, signals the complete errosion of the knight's hope for salvation. Una triumphs over Despair by countering Old Testament law with New Testament grace: Where justice growes, there grows eke greater grace, The which doth quench the brond of hellish smart, And that accurst hand-writing doth deface. (ix.53) Una's tale of her history i s a veiled example of her teaching of the truth. While accepting Arthur's argument on behalf of reason 94 and f r e e w i l l , she goes beyond i t by p u t t i n g b e f o r e him an example of c h a r i t y . Her s t o r y f o r e c a s t s the".two g i f t s A r t h u r r e c e i v e s : Red Cross K n i g h t ' s present of the New Testament,' and the g i f t of God's prov idence he r e c e i v e s d u r i n g h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o . F u r t h e r , , i t foreshadows A r t h u r ' s own c o n c l u s i o n to h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o : T h i s dayes ensample h a t h t h i s l e s s o n deare Deepe w r i t t e n i n my hear t w i t h y r o n p e n , ^ That b l i s s e may not abide i n s t a t e of m o r t a l l men. ( v i i i . 4 4 ) F i n a l l y , Una 's t a l e j o i n s Spenser ' s g l o s s on the a c t i o n up u n t i l the e n t r y of Red Cross K n i g h t i n t o the House of H o l i n e s s . The g l o s s makes t h e . p o i n t tha t man i s u l t i m a t e l y . d e f e n c e l e s s w i t h o u t God's c h a r i t y : What -manr i s he', t h a t ° b o a s t s t o f of l e s h l y l m i g h t ' , . And v a i n e assurance of m o r t a l i t y , Which a l l so soone, as i t doth come to f i g h t , A g a i n s t s p i r i t u a l l f o e s , y e e l d s by and b y , Or from the f i e l d most cowardly doth f l y ? Ne l e t the man a s c r i b e i t to h i s s k i l l , That through grace h a t h gained v i c t o r y . I f any s t r e n g t h we h a v e , , i t i s to i l l , But a l l the good i s Gods, bo th power and eke w i l l . ' ( x . l ) That the b a t t l e between A r t h u r and O r g o g l i o i s a t e s t of reason i s made e v i d e n t by the forward p o s i t i o n of the Dwarf i n l e a d i n g Una and 22 A r t h u r to O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e ( v i i . 5 2 ) . Yet w h i l e the vanguard i s r e a s o n , i t i s reason i n the.company of t r u t h . Una guides A r t h u r to seek the d e l i v e r a n c e of Red Cross K n i g h t . The a c t i o n , , a c c o r d i n g to Spenser ' s g l o s s ; s i g n i f i e s the f o r c e s which serve to a i d " [ t ] h e r i g h t e o u s man" whose weaknesses of p r i d e and of the f l e s h t h r e a t e n him w i t h a " d a i l y f a l l " : 95 Ay me, how many p e r i l s doe e n f o l d The r i g h t e o u s man,.to make him d a i l y f a l l ? Were n o t , t h a t h e a v e n l y g r a c e d o t h him u p h o l d , And s t e d f a s t t r u t h a c q u i t e h im out o f a l l . Her l o v e i s f i r m e , h e r c a r e c o n t i n u a l l , So o f t as he t h r o u g h h i s owne f o o l i s h p r i d e , Or weaknesse i s t o s i n f u l l bands made t h r a l l : E l s e s h o u l d t h i s R edCrosse k n i g h t i n bands have dyde, 23 F o r w h o s e ; d e l i v e r a n c e she t h i s P r i n c e d o t h t h i t h e r g u i d e . ( v i i i . l ) Upon a r r i v i n g a t O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , T i m i a s blows h i s enchanted h o r n t o open t h e c a s t l e g a t e s ( v i i i . 5 ) . T i m i a s , as A r t h u r ' s s q u i r e , i s an a p p r e n t i c e t o A r t h u r ' s c h a r a c t e r , and, as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s q u i r e and h i s h o r s e i m p l i e s , n o t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f paramount r a t i o n a l i t y t h a t h i s ma s t e r i s ( v i i . 3 7 ) . H i s h o r n i s l i k e 24 t h e h o r n L o g i s t e l l a p r e s e n t s t o A s t o l f o . Upton argues t h a t L o g i s t e l l a r e p r e s e n t s r e a s o n , t h e h o r n , j u s t i c e . He e x t e n d s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f T i m i a s ' h o r n beyond t h a t o f L o g i s t e l l a ' s h o r n by a r g u i n g t h a t n o t o n l y i s i t d e r i v e d f r o m O r l a n d o F u r i O s o , b u t as w e l l t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s an a l l u s i o n t o Romans 10:18 (The h o r n i s " [ t ] h e word of t r u t h , t h e word of God, whose sound g o e t h i n t o a l l t h e e a r t h " ) . Upton c o n c l u d e s t h a t 25 T i m i a s blows t h e "horn o f s a l v a t i o n . " L i k e A r t h u r ' s s h i e l d , T i m i a s ' h o r n overpowers d e c e i t : No f a l s e enchauntment, nor d e c e i p t f u l l t r a i n e M i g h t once a b i d e t h e t e r r o r o f t h a t b l a s t . ( v i i i . 4 ) I t s e f f e c t b e f o r e t h e c a s t l e o f O r g o g l i o i s t h a t t h e c a s t l e d o o r s open of t h e i r f r e e w i l l ["every d o r e o f f r e e w i l l open f l e w " ( v i i i . 5 ) ] . I n a r g u i n g t h a t T i m i a s blows t h e "h o r n o f s a l v a t i o n , " Upton goes beyond t h e mark. W h i l e i t may s i g n a l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s 96 s a l v a t i o n , t h e k n i g h t ' s r e l e a s e from O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e i s n o t s i g n i f i -c a n t o f h i s s a l v a t i o n b u t o f h i s r e j o i n i n g Una, t h e t r u t h . ' He succumbs t o D e s p a i r a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e , m a r k i n g t h e l o s s of h i s hope f o r s a l v a -t i o n . T i m i a s ' h o r n t r u m p e t s God's o r d e r , H i s j u s t i c e . L i k e L o g i s t e l l a ' s h o r n i t i s a symbol of j u s t i c e , b u t u n l i k e L o g i s t e l l a ' s h o r n , i t s y m b o l i z e s d i v i n e j u s t i c e . The b l a s t o f Timias.' h o r n r e s u l t s i n t h e d o o r s o p e n i n g of t h e i r " f r e e w i l l . " They accede t o t h e h o r n ' s a u t h o r i t y f r e e l y . The second r e s u l t o f t h e h o r n ' s b l a s t i s t h a t O r g o g l i o and Duessa r u s h t o a t t a c k A r t h u r and h i s s q u i r e . U n l i k e t h e d o o r ' s r e s p o n s e , t h e i r r e s p o n s e i s a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e a u t h o r i t y of T i m i a s ' h o r n . I n t h e b r o a d e s t M e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e s e n s e , j u s t i c e s i g n i -f i e s o r d e r and d e g r e e , t h e f r e e l y w i l l e d p o s i t i o n i n g o f a l l of c r e a t i o n 26 a c c o r d i n g t o God's w i l l . The d o o r s o f O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , i n a n i m a t e n a t u r e , f r e e l y a c q u i e s c e t o t h e s t a t e m e n t of God's j u s t i c e T i m i a s ' h o r n 27 makes. B o t h Duessa and O r g o g l i o d e f y God's j u s t i c e , H i s o r d e r . O r g o g l i o , g i a n t symbol of t h e supremacy of t h e f l e s h , and D u essa, e v i l d e c e i t , r u s h t o d e f e n d t h e i r u s u r p a t i o n of God's o r d e r . The b a t t l e between A r t h u r and O r g o g l i o i s a b a t t l e between f l e s h and r e a s o n , w i t h e v i l , D u e s sa, u r g i n g on O r g o g l i o . The i s s u e , f i n a l l y , i s o r d e r , and w h e t h e r man's r e a s o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p r e s e r v e i t by o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e f l e s h . As t h e b a t t l e d e v e l o p s , A r t h u r c o n t e s t s w i t h O r g o g l i o and T i m i a s s e e ks t o c o n t a i n D u essa, mounted on h e r many-headed b e a s t , and t h u s 97 p r e v e n t h e r from coming t o O r g o g l i o ' s a i d . T i m i a s i s n o t e q u a l t o t h e t a s k . Duessa overcomes him t h r o u g h w i t c h c r a f t . From h e r " g o l d e n cup" she t a k e s a " s e c r e t p o i s o n " and s p r i n k l e s i t on T i m i a s ' "weaker p a r t s " ( v i i i . 1 4 ) . Of t h e " g o l d e n cup," Spenser t e l l s us t h a t " [ d ] e a t h and d e s p e y r e d i d many t h e r e o f s u p " ( v i i i . 1 4 ) . The e f f e c t on T i m i a s o f t h i s w i t c h c r a f t i s t h a t , . . . h i s s t u r d i e c o u r a g e soone was quayd, And a l l h i s s e n s e s were w i t h s u d d e i n e d r e a d d i smayd. ( v i i i . 1 4 ) A r t h u r comes t o t h e a i d of h i s s q u i r e , and d r i v e s o f f t h e many-headed b e a s t w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g T i m i a s ' u n d o i n g by w i t c h c r a f t , i s on t h e p o i n t o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e s q u i r e ' s l i f e . T i m i a s ' b a t t l e w i t h Duessa and h e r b e a s t i s a m i n o r b u t i m p o r -t a n t d i g r e s s i o n on t h e main b a t t l e between A r t h u r and O r g o g l i o . I t r e v e a l s hope undermined by t h e weakness of f a i t h ( T i m i a s ' "weaker p a r t s " ) . Duessa's " g o l d e n cup" f r o m w h i c h she d i s p e n s e s " [ d ] e a t h and d e s p e y r e " i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f F i d e l i a ' s "cup of g o l d " w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e "wine and w a t e r " o f l i f e ( x . 1 3 ) . To sup o f F i d e l i a ' s cup means l i f e and hope. T i m i a s i s A r t h u r ' s s q u i r e , n o t h i s e q u a l , he i s n o t a f i g u r e of paramount r a t i o n a l i t y . He i s a b l e t o c o n t a i n t h e b e a s t Duessa r i d e s , as he i s a b l e t o manage h i s own s p i r i t e d h o r s e , h i s 28 a p p e t i t e s ( v i i . 3 7 ) . H i s f a i t h , t h o u g h t , i s i m p e r f e c t . Reason, w h i c h i n h i s c a s e e x e r c i s e s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f l e s h , does n o t r e a c h up t o embrace f a i t h . Duessa s p r i n k l e s f a l s e f a i t h o v e r him and he w i t h e r s b e f o r e t h e a t t a c k of t h e b e a s t . F i g u r a t i v e l y h a v i n g t a s t e d of t h e cup of f a l s e f a i t h h i s hope e v a p o r a t e s , and l i k e o t h e r s b e f o r e him he knows " [ d ] e a t h and d e s p e y r e . " I n many r e s p e c t s , T i m i a s ' f a l l b e f o r e Duessa t e l e s c o p e s t h e f a l l o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t . I n t h e g u i s e o f f a l s e f a i t h , F i d e s s a , Duessa i n v e i g l e d h e r way i n t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s company, t a k i n g a dvantage o f t h e k n i g h t ' s weakness of f l e s h . Her company l e d t h e k n i g h t i n t o t h e House of P r i d e and t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h Sans j o y . And f i n a l l y h e r company l e d t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a l l b e f o r e t h e g i a n t emblem o f t h e f l e s h , O r g o g l i o . A r t h u r ' s r e s c u e o f T i m i a s f r o m t h e c l a w s o f Duessa's b e a s t p a r a l l e l s h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o f o r t h e r e l e a s e o f Red Cross" K n i g h t . Y e t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between T i m i a s ' f a l l b e f o r e D u e s s a , and Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a l l a r e a t t e n d e d by d i f f e r e n c e s . W h i l e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a l l was a r e s u l t of b o t h t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h and t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f r e a s o n , T i m i a s ' f a l l i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e i n s u f f i c -i e n c y o f r e a s o n f a c e d w i t h d e c e i t . A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o r e p r e s e n t s t h e m a j o r a s p e c t o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a l l , t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h w h i c h r e a s o n i s u n a b l e t o conquer. The two b a t t l e s d r a m a t i s e t h e quandry o f r e a s o n . I t i s f a c e d b o t h by f o r c e s w h i c h a t t a c k t r u t h and by t h e f l e s h t o w h i c h i t i s bound.. The major b a t t l e i s w i t h t h e weakness of t h e f l e s h , f o r , as the l e g e n d r e v e a l s , i t i s t h r o u g h t h i s weakness t h a t e v i l c h i e f l y w o r k s . A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o p i t s p r i d e of f l e s h a g a i n s t r e a s o n . A r t h u r i s " w i s e and w a r i e " ( v i i i . 7 ) i n t h e b a t t l e ; he i s . " t h e c a r e f u l l k n i g h t " who n o t i c e s T i m i a s ' p l i g h t and goes t o h i s a i d . Y e t O r g o g l i o ' s f o r c e r e s u l t s i n A r t h u r ' s f a l l . A r t h u r , who does n o t u n c o v e r h i s magic s h i e l d d u r i n g t h e b a t t l e , i s saved by i t s chance 99 u n c o v e r i n g w h i c h s i g n a l s O r g o g l i o ' s d e f e a t : And i n h i s f a l l h i s s h i e l d , t h a t c o v e r e d was, D i d l o o s e h i s v e l e by chaunce, and open f l e w : The l i g h t w h e r e o f , t h a t heavens l i g h t d i d p a s , Such b l a z i n g b r i g h t n e s s e t h r o u g h t h e a i e r t h r e w , That, eye mote n o t t h e same endure t o vew. Which when t h e Gyaunt spyde w i t h s t a r i n g e y e , He downe l e t f a l l h i s arme, and s o f t w i t h d r e w H i s weapon huge, t h a t heaved was on hye F o r t° have s l a i n e t h e man, t h a t on the" ground d i d l y e . And eke t h e f r u i t f u l l - h e a d e d b e a s t , amaz'd A t f l a s h i n g beames of t h a t s u n s h i n y s h i e l d , Became s t a r k e b l i n d , and a l l h i s senses d a z ' d , That downe he tumbled on t h e d u r t i e f i e l d , And seem'd h i m s e l f e as conquered t o y i e l d . Whom when h i s m a i s t r e s s e p r o ud p e r c e i v ' d t o f a l l , W h i l e s y e t h i s f e e b l e f e e t f o r f a i n t n e s s e r e e l d , Unto t h e Cyant l o u d l y , she gan c a l l , 0 h e l p e O r g o g l i o , h e l p e , o r e l s e we p e r i s h a l l . A t h e r so p i t t e o u s c r y was much amoov'd Her champion s t o u t , . a n d f o r t o ayde h i s f r i e n d , A g a i n e h i s wonted angry weapon p r o o v ' d : But a l l i n v a i n e : f o r he has r e a d h i s end I n t h a t b r i g h t s h i e l d , and a l l t h e i r f o r c e s spend, Themselves i n v a i n e : f o r s i n c e t h a t g l a u n c i n g s i g h t , He h a t h no powre t o h u r t , n o r t o d e f e n d ; As where t h ' A l m i g h t i e s l i g h t n i n g b r o n d does l i g h t , I t dimmes t h e dazed e y e n , and daunts, t h e . s e n s e s q u i g h t . ( v i i i . 1 9 - 2 1 ) A r t h u r i s saved by h e a v e n l y g r a c e w h i c h s h i e l d s man a g a i n s t t h e f l e s h . L i k e T i m i a s ' h o r n b l a s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e b a t t l e , A r t h u r ' s " s h i e l d r e f l e c t s God's w i l l , a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e f l e s h u l t i m a t e l y i s p o w e r l e s s ; a r i U . m u s t , f i n a l l y , obey. B o t h symbols of t h e f l e s h a r e undone by t h e u n v e i l e d s h i e l d . O r g o g l i o i s p o w e r l e s s and Duessa's b e a s t c o l l a p s e s . Duessa as w e l l i s r e n d e r e d p o w e r l e s s , i n d i r e c t l y , f o r t h e d e f e a t of t h e f l e s h has s t r i p p e d e v i l o f i t s a l l y , i t s c h i e f means of g a i n i n g power. She i s i n d e c o r o u s l y s t r i p p e d of h e r d i s g u i s e by Una 100 and, r e v e a l e d as a loathsome o l d h a g , she f l e e s " f r o m heavens h a t e d f a c e " i n t o " t h e w a s t f u l l w i l d e r n e s s a p a c e " ( v i i i . 5 0 ) . A r t h u r ' s v i c t o r y i s f i n a l when he c u t s t h e head f r o m O r g o g l i o ' s s h o u l d e r s . Once dead, O r g o g l i o ' s "huge g r e a t body" v a n i s h e s , and of t h e g r e a t b u l k a l l t h a t i s l e f t " l i k e an e m p t i e b l a d d e r was" ( v i i i . 2 4 ) . The v a n i s h i n g o f O r g o g l i o ' s body i s emblematic o f t h e m o r t a l i t y o f t h e f l e s h . The s o u r c e o f h i s s t r e n g t h was an i l l u s i o n grounded i n p r i d e and i t crumbles b e f o r e God's w i l l . D u e s s a , though, i s n o t i l l u s -i o n a r y , a l t h o u g h she g a i n s c o n t r o l , , i n p a r t , t h r o u g h i l l u s i o n . She i s a r e a l p r i n c i p l e o f m a l i g n a n t i n t e l l i g e n c e r e f u s i n g t o be g o v e r n e d , and p i t t i n g h e r p e r v e r s e o r d e r ( f a l s e h o o d o v e r t r u t h , and f l e s h o v e r r e a s o n ) a g a i n s t God's o r d e r . The d i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e w h i c h r e s c u e s A r t h u r does n o t d e s t r o y D u essa, b u t r a t h e r unmasks h e r by s t r i p p i n g h e r o f h e r a l l y , t h e f l e s h . She r e t u r n s t o a t t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e Red C r o s s K n i g h t f r o m t r u t h a t t h e end of t h e l e g e n d ( x i i . 2 6 - 2 8 ) , and i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e k n i g h t ' s a d m i s s i o n o f h i s weakness t h a t she f a i l s ( x i i . 3 2 ) . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f O r g o g l i o , A r t h u r s e a r c h e s t h e g i a n t ' s c a s t l e f o r Red C r o s s K n i g h t . He meets, i n h i s s e a r c h , I g n a r o , O r g o g l i o ' s f o s t e r - f a t h e r , and t h e k e e p e r o f t h e k e y s t o t h e c a s t l e ( v i i i . 3 1 ) . I g n a r o , as h i s name s u g g e s t s , r e p r e s e n t s i g n o r a n c e . When . asked by A r t h u r t o d i r e c t h im t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t , I g n a r o i s n o t a b l e t o a s s i s t him. A r t h u r , r a t i o n a l l y o b s e r v i n g I g n a r o , i s a b l e t o r e a d h i s c h a r a c t e r d e s p i t e I g n a r o ' s appearance o f o l d age and t h e r e f o r e o f wisdom ( v i i i . 3 4 ) . 101 The appearance o f I g n a r o a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e l e g e n d marks, f i r m l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i d e , of f l e s h r e p r e s e n t e d b y O r g o g l i o , and i g n o r a n c e , r e p r e s e n t e d by I g n a r o . I g n a r o i s n o t O r g o g l i o ' s f a t h e r , b u t r a t h e r h i s f o s t e r - f a t h e r . The p o i n t made by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t w h i l e i g n o r a n c e f o s t e r s t h e p r i d e o f f l e s h r e p r e s e n t e d by O r g o g l i o , . i t i s n o t i t s c a u s e . R a t h e r , man's i n h e r e n t weakness of t h e f l e s h draws him away f r o m t h e t r u t h t o t h e company o f i g n o r a n c e . The r e l a t i o n -s h i p between I g n a r o and O r g o g l i o i s a p a r t i a l anatomy of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s i t u a t i o n . The k n i g h t ' s abandonment of t h e t r u t h has, r e s u l t e d i n h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , o f w h i c h I g n a r o i s . k e e p e r . Y e t h i s i n i t i a l abandonment was t h e r e s u l t o f h i s own f l e s h l i n e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e f i g u r e o f e v i l , A rchimago, e x e r c i s e d h i s s o r c e r y t o b r i n g about t h e s e p a r a t i o n . Weakness o f t h e f l e s h i s p r i o r t o i g n o r a n c e i n t h e c o u r s e o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f a l l . F o s t e r e d by i g n o r a n c e , t h e absence o f t r u t h , t h e k n i g h t e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e s a t t h e s t a t e of g i a n t f l e s h l i n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d by O r g o g l i o ' s c o n q u e s t over him. A r t h u r , g u i d e d t o h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o . by Una, t h e t r u t h , i s a b l e t o see t h r o u g h t h e appearance o f I g n a r o by v i r t u e o f h i s powers of r e a s o n . Spenser e s t a b l i s h e s , by a n t i t h e s i s , t h a t knowledge i s an a t t r i -b u t e o f H o l i n e s s . As i g n o r a n c e f o s t e r s t h e growth of f l e s h l i n e s s , so knowledge f o s t e r s t h e growth o f H o l i n e s s . I n d e s c r i b i n g Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e House of H o l i n e s s l a t e r i n t h e l e g e n d , Spenser d e s c r i b e s a s p i r i t u a l c u r r i c u l u m l e a d i n g t o H o l i n e s s . Y e t , q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , knowledge i s n o t t h e cause o f H o l i n e s s , f o r t h e k n i g h t donned t h e armour of t h e C h r i s t i a n p r i o r t o h i s a c q u i r i n g knowledge. 102 The d i v i s i o n a p p r o x i m a t e s one t h a t A r i s t o t l e a r g u e s a p p l i e s t o any v i r t u e : t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s both- a p r o p e n s i t y towards v i r t u e and a l s o 29 t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v i r t u e . -Once p a s t I g n a r o , A r t h u r s u c c e e d s i n r e s c u i n g Red C r o s s K n i g h t f r o m h i s b o t t o m l e s s c e l l o v e r H e l l . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , t h e two k n i g h t s exchange g i f t s , Red C r o s s K n i g h t g i v i n g t h e New Testament, and A r t h u r g i v i n g a few d r o p s of a m i r a c u l o u s h e a l i n g balm: P r i n c e A r t h u r gave a boxe of Diamond s u r e , Embowd w i t h g o l d and gorgeous, ornament, w h e r e i n were c l o s d few d r o p s o f . l i q u o r p u r e , Of wondrous w o r t h , and v e r t u e e x c e l l e n t , That any wound c o u l d h e a l e i n c o n t i n e n t : Which t o r e q u i t e , t h e R e d c r o s s e k n i g h t him gave. A booke, w h e r e i n h i s Saveours t e s t a m e n t Was w r i t w i t h g o l d e n l e t t e r s r i c h and b r a v e ; A worke of wondrous g r a c e , and a b l e s o u l e s t o s a v e . ( i x . 1 9 ) W i l l i a m N e l s o n i n t e r p r e t s A r t h u r ' s g i f t as t h e o i l o f mercy 30 d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Book of S e t h . O t h e r c r i t i c s a r gue t h a t t h e g i f t 31 d e r i v e s from t h e w e l l o f l i f e . N e l s o n ' s v i e w , I t h i n k , i s a c c u r a t e . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e two g i f t s a r e complementary, and s u i t e d b o t h t o g i v e r and r e c e i v e r . M e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n l i n k s t h e g i f t s , a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e o i l o f mercy f l o w e d f r o m t h e t r e e t h a t was t o b e a r C h r i s t , and t h a t 32 t h e t r e e was t h e t r e e o f l i f e . The o i l of mercy i s a p r o m i s e of t h e mercy o f C h r i s t , w h i l e t h e "Saveours t e s t a m e n t " i s a r e c o r d of C h r i s t ' s mercy. E l i z a b e t h a n B i s h o p J o h n J e w e l w r i t e s t h a t C h r i s t was b o r n " t h a t 33 he might d e c l a r e t o t h e w o r l d t h e s e c r e t and h i d w i l l o f h i s F a t h e r . " Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s g i f t t o A r t h u r matches t h e need A r t h u r has f o r t h e r e v e l a t i o n of t h i s " s e c r e t and h i d w i l l . " The t e s t a m e n t s e r v e s t o 103 a s s i s t r e a s o n a g a i n s t t h e f l e s h by r e v e a l i n g God's w i l l . I t i s m e r c i -f u l f o r , as t h e t e x t makes p l a i n , i t i s c a p a b l e o f s a v i n g s o u l s . A r t h u r ' s g i f t t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t d e r i v e s f r o m t h e O l d T e s t a -ment; The o i l o f mercy was God's g i f t t o f a l l e n man, and t h e g i f t was th e p r o m i s e o f mercy. The p r o m i s e was. t h e c h i e f s u p p o r t o f hope f o r man, and A r t h u r ' s g i f t matches Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s i t u a t i o n . The k n i g h t , w h i l e r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e bondage of f l e s h , s t i l l f a c e s t h e f a c t o f h i s f a l l . H i s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n i s s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d by t h i s f a c t , and t h e t e s t o f hope w h i c h he f a c e s , a t e s t w h i c h r e a c h e s i t s c l i m a x i n t h e k n i g h t ' s m e e t i n g w i t h D e s p a i r , i s met by t h e p r o m i s e o f mercy. Una overcomes D e s p a i r by c a s t i n g t h e o i l of mercy, f i g u r a t i v e l y , upon t h e k n i g h t by r e v e a l i n g God's mercy. Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h D e s p a i r i s p r e f a c e d by an i n s e t t a l e t o l d by S i r T r e v i s a n , a k n i g h t f l e e i n g . D e s p a i r . S i r T r e v i s a n ' s t a l e d e s c r i b e s how he and h i s f r i e n d , S i r T e r w i n , became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h D e s p a i r , and how t h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e c u l m i n a t e d i n S i r T e r w i n ' s s u i c i d e and S i r T r e v i s a n ' s n e a r - s u i c i d e . S i r T e r w i n l o v e d a l a d y , who l o v e d him " i n t h e l e a s t d e g r e e " ( i x . 2 7 ) . A l t h o u g h we a r e n o t d i r e c t l y t o l d , S i r T r e v i s a n , we can assume, was i n s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e same s i t u a t i o n . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n o c c a s i o n e d g r i e f , and D e s p a i r , a s a t a n i c f i g u r e ["Snake i n h i d d e n weedes" ( i x . 2 8 ) ] , i n s i n u a t e d h i m s e l f i n t o t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s and caused t h e s u i c i d e o f S i r T e r w i n . H i s method s t r u c k a t hope, and was f o l l o w e d by t h e o f f e r o f s u i c i d e as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o . d e s p a i r ; S i r T r e v i s a n t e l l s Red C r o s s K n i g h t t h a t , 104 He p l u c k t f r o m us a l l hope of due r e l i e f e , That e a r s t us h e l d i n l o v e of l i n g r i n g l i f e ; Then h o p e l e s s e h a r t l e s s e , gan t h e c u n n i n g t h i e f e Perswade us d i e , t o s t i n t a l l f u r t h e r s t r i f e . ( i x . 2 9 ) S i r T r e v i s a n ' s t a l e prompts. Red C r o s s K n i g h t t o : c h a l l e n g e D e s p a i r . The p o i n t of s i m i l a r i t y between T r e v i s a n ' s t a l e and Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s bout w i t h D e s p a i r l i e s i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f hope w h i c h o c c u r s i n b o t h c a s e s . The d e s p a i r w h i c h l e d t o S i r T e r w i n ' s s u i c i d e was t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l d e s p a i r o f t h e s p urned s u i t o r , t h e d e s p a i r w h i c h l e a d s t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s n e a r - s u i c i d e i s t h e d e s p a i r f o r s a l v a t i o n h i s f a l l o c c a s i o n s . But i n b o t h c a s e s , D e s p a i r i s c a s t as hope's' a n t a g o n i s t . The f i g u r e of D e s p a i r Red C r o s s K n i g h t e n c o u n t e r s i s j o y l e s s ( i x . 3 3 ) . He r e c a l l s t h e k n i g h t ' s p a r t i a l l y v a n q u i s h e d a n t a g o n i s t , Sans 34 j o y . The p a r a l l e l i s b o t h o b v i o u s and s i g n i f i c a n t . Sans j o y and D e s p a i r a r e consequences of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s w o r l d l i n e s s , and b o t h f i g u r e h o p e l e s s n e s s . They frame t h i s f i n a l t e s t o f t h e k n i g h t p r i o r t o h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House of H o l i n e s s . B o t h a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n i g n o r a n c e . The k n i g h t engages Sans j o y w h i l e i g n o r a n t of t h e w o r l d l i -ness o f t h e House o f P r i d e w h i c h t h r e a t e n s h i s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n . As w e l l , he engages D e s p a i r w h i l e i g n o r a n t of t h e r e a l danger i n w h i c h D e s p a i r p l a c e s hope. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m e e t i n g w i t h Sans j o y and t h e m e e t i n g w i t h D e s p a i r d e r i v e s from t h e k n i g h t ' s awakened c o n -s c i e n c e and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g b u r d e n o f g u i l t D e s p a i r p l a y s on i n h i s argument w i t h t h e k n i g h t . N e l s o n i s o b v i o u s l y c o r r e c t i n d e s c r i b i n g D e s p a i r ' s p r i n c i p a l 105 35 weapons as " O l d Testament t e x t s and t h e K n i g h t ' s own c o n s c i e n c e . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , D e s p a i r u t i l i z e s t h e c o n c e p t o f j u s t i c e embedded i n t h e O l d Testament. I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s Red C r o s s K n i g h t , h i m s e l f , who i n t r o -duces t h i s c o n c e p t when, f i r s t e n c o u n t e r i n g D e s p a i r , he demands, What j u s t i c e can b u t j u d g e a g a i n s t t h e e r i g h t , W i t h t h i n e owne b l o u d t o p r i c e h i s b l o u d , h e r e shed i n s i g h t ? ( i x . 3 7 ) D e s p a i r draws the' k n i g h t i n t o a d e b a t e on j u s t i c e , w h i c h t u r n s , f i n a l l y , t o f o c u s on t h e j u s t i c e due'Red C r o s s K n i g h t f o r h i s p a s t a c t i o n s . The d e b a t e s h i f t s f r o m t h e j u s t i c e due D e s p a i r , t o t h a t due t h e k n i g h t , and i t i s l e d by t h e f a i n t l y , and- sometimes s t a r k l y , i r r a t i o n a l argument o f n - 3 6 D e s p a i r . D e s p a i r ' s r e j o i n d e r t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n i s t h e f a i n t l y i r r a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n , . What j u s t i c e e v e r o t h e r judgement t a u g h t , But he s h o u l d d i e , who m e r i t e s n o t t o l i v e ? ( i x . 3 8 ) W h i l e D e s p a i r ' s q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s some t r u t h , i t a l s o begs t h e k n i g h t ' s q u e s t i o n by p l a c i n g D e s p a i r h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n of j u d g e , and r e -duces t h e c o n c e p t of j u s t i c e t o t h e vague term " m e r i t e s . " As w e l l , D e s p a i r i l l u s t r a t e s h i s r e j o i n d e r w i t h an ambiguous example o f a s s i s -t a n c e r e n d e r e d t o a man who l o n g s f o r d e a t h : , Who t r a v e l s by t h e w e a r i e w a n d r i n g way, To come un t o h i s w i s h e d home i n h a s t e , And meetes a f l o o d , t h a t d o t h h i s passage s t a y , I s n o t g r e a t g r a c e t o h e l p e him o v e r p a s t , Or f r e e h i s f e e t , t h a t i n t h e myre s t i c k e f a s t ? 106 Most e n v i o u s man, t h a t g r i e v e s a t n e i g h t b o u r s good, And f o n d , t h a t j o y e s t i n t h e woe t h o u h a s t , Why w i l t n o t l e t h im p a s s e , t h a t l o n g h a t h s t o o d Upon t h e banke, y e t w i l t t h y s e l f e n o t p a s s e t h e f l o o d ? ( i x . 3 9 ) I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , D e s p a i r ' s example s h i f t s t h e d i s c u s s i o n com-p l e t e l y away f r o m murder, as t h e k n i g h t i n t r o d u c e d i t , t o mercy k i l l i n g , and away f r o m t h e n o t i o n o f m e r i t i n g l i f e t o m e r i t i n g d e a t h . A s i d e f r o m t h e i l l o g i c a l i t y o f t h e argument,,the example f a i n t l y a l l u d e s t o the c r o s s i n g o f t h e r i v e r J o r d a n ("flood,',' and " b a n k e " ) , and c o n c e a l s an a l l u s i o n t o t h e r i v e r S t y x . T h i s ambiguous a l l u s i o n evokes t h e . damnation t h a t i s t h e r e a l c o n c l u s i o n t o D e s p a i r ' s argument. Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t of r e c i p r o c i t y , i s g a r n e r e d from t h e n o t i o n o f r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e . D e s p a i r ' s r e p l y d e r i v e s f r o m 37 ; t h e n o t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s r e s p o n s e i s an o b j e c t i o n t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t o r i s God and n o t man i n D e s p a i r ' s example: . . . The terme of l i f e i s l i m i t e d , Ne may a man p r o l o n g , n o r s h o r t e n i t ; The s o u l d i e r may n o t move fr o m w a t c h f u l ! s t e d , Nor l e a v e h i s s t a n d , u n t i l ! h i s C a p t a i n e bed. ( i x . 4 1 ) D e s p a i r ' s r e j o i n d e r i s n o t a d i r e c t r e p l y t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s , o b j e c -t i o n . D e s p a i r o b s e r v e s t h a t God's ways a r e m y s t e r i o u s , b u t t h a t d e a t h f o r man was c e r t a i n l y o r d a i n e d by God, and t h a t man's l i f e was a l i c e n s e f o r h i s d e a t h : Who l i f e d i d l i m i t by a l m i g h t i e doome, (Quoth he) knowes b e s t t h e termes e s t a b l i s h e d ; And h e , t h a t p o i n t s t h e C e n t o n e l l h i s roome, Doth l i c e n s e h im d e p a r t a t sound o f mo r n i n g droome. 107 I s n o t h i s deed, what e v e r t h i n g i s donne, I n heaven and e a r t h ? d i d n o t he a l l c r e a t e To d i e a g a i n e ? and ends t h a t was begonne. T h e i r t i m e s i n h i s e t e r n a l l booke o f f a t e A r e w r i t t e n s u r e , and have t h e i r c e r t a i n e d a t e . Who t h e n can s t r i v e w i t h s t r o n g n e c e s s i t i e , That h o l d s t h e w o r l d i n h i s s t i l l c h a u n ging s t a t e , Or shunne t h e d e a t h ordaynd by d e s t i n i e ? When ho u r e o f d e a t h i s come, l e t none a s k e whence, n o r why. ( i x . 4 1 - 4 2 ) D e s p a i r ' s argument i s s o p h i s t i c a l , t w i s t i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s o b j e c -t i o n s t o s e r v e as p r o o f f o r h i s own, o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n , w i t h o u t d i s -p r o v i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s argument. He a r g u e s , h e r e , t h a t man can n o t know God's w i l l e x c e p t i n s o f a r as t o know t h a t man's d e a t h i s a c c o r d i n g t o God's w i l l . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t o a s s i s t i n man's d e a t h may l i k e l y f u r t h e r God's w i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y when, i n g e n e r a l , man's d e a t h i s d e m o n s t r a b l y God's w i l l . The r e d h e r r i n g i n D e s p a i r ' s argument i s h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t God c r e a t e d a l l t o d i e ("did n o t he a l l c r e a t e / To d i e a g a i n e ? " ) . The s o u l i s t h e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e D e s p a i r i n v o k e s , and i t i s t h e s o u l w h i c h i s t h e o b j e c t , a l t h o u g h v e i l e d , of t h e d e b a t e . F o r t h e s u i c i d e D e s p a i r u r g e s on t h e k n i g h t means c e r t a i n 38 damnation f o r t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l . D e s p a i r f o l l o w s t h e argument about d e a t h as God's w i l l w i t h an argument about l i f e and s i n . He a r g u e s t h a t , The l o n g e r l i f e , . . . t h e g r e a t e r s i n , The g r e a t e r s i n , t h e g r e a t e r punishment. ( i x . 4 3 ) U s u r p i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t o f r e t r i b u t i o n , he a r g u e s t h a t ". . . l i f e must l i f e , and b l o u d must b l o u d r e p a y , " and c o n c l u d e s t h a t once t h e s t r a i g h t and n a r r o w p a t h t o s a l v a t i o n i s m i s s e d , i t i s m i s s e d 108 f o r e v e r : F o r he, t h a t once h a t h m i s s e d t h e r i g h t way, The f u r t h e r he d o t h goe, t h e f u r t h e r he d o t h s t r a y . ( i x . 4 3 ) Added t o t h i s , D e s p a i r a g a i n i n v o k e s d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , Thou w r e t c h e d man, of d e a t h h a s t g r e a t e s t need, I f i n t r u e b a l l a n c e t h o u w i l t w e i g h t h y s t a t e ; ( i x . 4 5 ) And a f t e r s t r i k i n g home w i t h p o i n t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s i n f i d e l i t y and h i s c a l l i n g o u t f o r d e a t h w h i l e s h u t i n O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , D e s p a i r t u r n s t o i n v o k e t h e n o t i o n of j u s t i c e as i t i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e O l d Testament: I s n o t he j u s t , t h a t a l l t h i s d o t h b e h o l d From h i g h t e s t heaven, and b e a r e s an e q u a l l eye? S h a l l he t h y s i n s up i n h i s knowledge f o l d , And g u i l t i e be of t h i n e i m p i e t i e ? I s n o t h i s l a w , L e t e v e r y s i n n e r d i e : D i e s h a l l a l l f l e s h ? what t h e n must needs be donne, I s i t n o t b e t t e r t o doe w i l l i n g l i e , Then l i n g e r , t i l l t h e g l a s s e be a l l o u t ronne? D e a t h i s t h e end of woes: d i e soone, 0 f a e r i e s sonne. ( i x . 4 7 ) The r e s u l t o f t h i s s e r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s asked by D e s p a i r i s t h e o v e r t h r o w of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s hope f o r s a l v a t i o n . D e s p a i r shows t h e k n i g h t t h e h e l l t h a t a w a i t s h i m , and t h e k n i g h t i s d i s -mayed by t h e s i g h t : . . . nought b u t d e a t h b e f o r e h i s eyes he saw, And e v e r b u r n i n g w r a t h b e f o r e him l a i d , By r i g h t e o u s s e n t e n c e of t h ' A l m i g h t i e s law: ( i x . 5 0 ) D e s p a i r ' s argument i s i l l o g i c a l . On t h e one hand i t u p h o l d s God's 109 command of d e s t i n y ( i x . 4 2 ) , and on t h e o t h e r i t u r g e s t h e k n i g h t t o d i e b e f o r e t h e " g l a s s e be a l l out r o n n e . " F u r t h e r , t h e answer t o t h e s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s put t o t h e k n i g h t a t t h e end of t h e argument i s n o t s u i c i d e . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e c a s e t h a t God w i l l man's " s i n s up i n h i s k n o w l e d g e . f o l d , " f o r t h a t i s t h e meaning o f C h r i s t . As w e l l , i t i s not h i s l a w " L e t e v e r y s i n n e r d i e : / D i e s h a l l a l l f l e s h . " A g a i n , C h r i s t i s meant t o save t h e s i n n e r . F u r t h e r , w h i l e t h e f l e s h may be doomed,., t h e s o u l i s n o t , and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f l e s h does n o t . p r o v e e v i d e n c e o f a law whereby t h e s i n n e r d i e s . F i n a l l y , D e s p a i r c l o a k s , s u i c i d e i n t h e garb o f an a c t of p i e t y , i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t t o s h o r t e n what must be a s i n f u l l i f e i s "to a v o i d t h e consequences o f s i n . The a c t , o f c o u r s e , i s i t s e l f a c h i e f s i n , f o r i t i s a u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e power of God, and t h e r e f o r e an a c t of p r i d e . D e s p a i r ' s argument l e a d s t o t h e damnation o f t h e s o u l . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s r a t i o n a l powers a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o unmask the s o p h i s t r y i n D e s p a i r ' s argument. Burdened by g u i l t , he f a l l s sway t o D e s p a i r ' s p e r s u a s i o n s . O l d Testament j u s t i c e looms, h o r r i b l e b e f o r e t h e k n i g h t , and he chooses s u i c i d e i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h D e s p a i r ' s a r g u -ment. The p o i n t o f t h e d e b a t e , and of i t s outcome p r i o r t o Una's i n t e r c e s s i o n , i s t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s r e a s o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s u s t a i n hope, s u r r e n d e r i n g t o D e s p a i r ' s i r r a t i o n a l argument. A l s o , t h e d e b a t e r e c a l l s P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o , and t h e f a i l u r e o f r e a s o n to o v e r t h r o w t h e f l e s h . B o t h A r t h u r ' s f a i l u r e , and t h e k n i g h t ' s f a i l -u r e b e f o r e D e s p a i r . suggests, t h a t t h e O l d Testament o f f e r s no s o l u t i o n t o t h e dilemma o f f a l l e n man. 110 Una's i n t e r c e s s i o n , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f what i t r e -v e a l s about Una's c h a r a c t e r , sweeps a s i d e D e s p a i r ' s argument arid r e a s o n ' s i n s u f f i c i e n c y by i n v o k i n g C h r i s t ' s t e s t a m e n t : Come, come away, f r a i l e , f e e b l e , f l e s h l y w i g h t , Ne l e t v a i n e words b e w i t c h t h y manyly h a r t , Ne d i v e l i s h t h o u g h t s dismay t h y c o n s t a n t s p r i g h t . I n h e a v e n l y m e r c i e s h a s t t h o u n o t a p a r t ? Why s h o u l d s t "thou t h e n d e s p e i r e , t h a t chosen art?-Where j u s t i c e growes, t h e r e grows eke g r e a t e r g r a c e , The w h i c h d o t h quench t h e b r o n d o f h e l l i s h s m a r t , And t h a t a c c u r s t h a n d - w r i t i n g d o t h d e f a c e . A r i s e , S i r k n i g h t a r i s e , and l e a v e t h i s c u r s e d p l a c e . (ix.53) Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s f l e s h l i n e s s w h i c h has l e d him t o accede t o D e s p a i r ' s argument, i s o v e r t u r n e d by t h e p r o m i s e o f God's mercy. The "hand-w r i t i n g " o f t h e O l d Testament i s r e p l a c e d by j u s t i c e tempered w i t h mercy. The " l e t t e r " w h i c h k i l l s i s r e p l a c e d by " t h e s p i r i t [ which] 39 g i v e t h l i f e . " I n n e i t h e r f a i t h n o r c h a r i t y n o r hope has Red C r o s s K n i g h t p r o v e n s u f f i c i e n t , as n e i t h e r t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , a p p e t i t i v e , n o r r a t i o n a l p a r t s o f t h e s o u l have been s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f a g a i n s t b o t h e v i l and t h e f l e s h . Y e t , w h i l e t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l has been compromised by t h e f l e s h , h i s f a l l has been p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f i g n o r a n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e f a l l i s i n e v i t a b l e as t h e knowing P r i n c e A r t h u r ' s f a l l p r o v e s . The k n i g h t s t i l l r e t a i n s h i s n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o H o l i n e s s , and a i d e d by God's mercy h e . i s a b l e t o add t o t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n t h e knowledge o f f e r e d h im i n . t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . Una, whose l o v e c o n s t a n t l y r e c a l l s t h e l o v e of C h r i s t f o r man, d i r e c t s t h e k n i g h t t o t h e House of H o l i n e s s , and t h e r e t h e k n i g h t i s l e d t o t r u e H o l i n e s s . I l l NOTES "'"Kellogg and S t e e l e , p. 26. 2 Matthew 7:26. 3 D i a l o g u e s of P l a t o , I I I , 153. The d i s o r d e r l i n e s s o f L u c i f e r a ' s c h a r i o t mocks h e r p r e t e n s i o n s t o G o d - l i k e power. 4 A u g u s t i n e , C i t y o f God, x i x . 4 . ^ F i d e s s a , as a parody of f a i t h , speaks t o Sans j o y , t h e parody o f hope, i n p a r o d i c t e r m s , f i n d i n g "new j o y " i n Sans j o y . The p a r o d i c i n t e r p l a y f l o w e r s i n t o i r o n i c d i s a s t e r f o r F i d e s s a and Sans j o y when Red C r o s s K n i g h t m i s t a k e s h e r a p p e a l t o Sans j o y as a c h e e r d i r e c t e d a t him. S p e n s e r ' s e d i t o r s use "tho mov'd w i t h . . . ." The c o n t e x t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t Spenser i n t e n d e d "So" r a t h e r t h a n "Tho." 7 S l o t h i s p o r t r a y e d as wracked w i t h f e v e r ( i v . 2 0 ) . g G e n e s i s 49:4. 9 The C o l l e c t e d Works of S t . John of t h e C r o s s , t r a n s . Kavannaugh and R o d r i g u e z (London, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 94v 1 0 L u k e 22:38... 1 1 0 n e i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s i n a b i l i t y t o w i e l d t h e sword i s t h a t i n a h e a l t h y s t a t e he w o u l d have been a b l e t o engage O r g o g l i o i n combat. However, i n t h e l i g h t o f A r t h u r ' s f a l l , t h e outcome wou l d have been d e f e a t . The s i n g l e - b l a d e d k n i g h t , w i t h o u t God's a s s i s t a n c e , i s u n a b l e t o t r i u m p h o v e r t h e f l e s h . L i k e t h e e a r l i e r a l l u s i o n t o P e t e r ' s d o u b t , t h i s a l l u s i o n t o C h r i s t ' s c o n q u e s t f o r e s t a l l s a m e r e l y n e g a t i v e , m o r a l judgement o f t h e k n i g h t . 1 2 J o h n 8:32. 1 3 W o r k s , I , 169. 14 A r t h u r i s b r o u g h t up t o t h e a c t i v e l i f e by Timon and M e r l i n , and t h e " c l o w n i s h p e r s o n " who became Red C r o s s K n i g h t , a c c o r d i n g t o S p enser's " L e t t e r " (Works, I , 1 6 9 ) , d e s i r e d t h e a d v e n t u r e of t h e q u e s t . 1 5 0 n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of D e s p a i r w i t h t h e absence o f hope, s e e , Works, I , 271. 112 16 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 29, argue t h a t by t h i s " h i e r a r c h y o f c r e a t i o n " Spenser r e p r e s e n t s t h e " p r o g r e s s o f t r u e r e l i g i o n . " I a g r e e w i t h t h e i r n o t i o n o f h e r a r c h y , b u t can n o t agre e w i t h t h e i r argument of h i s t o r i c a l p r o g r e s s as t h e b a s i c meaning o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . 1 7 S e e T i l l y a r d , p. 115. 18 E v ans, pp. 103-104, argues t h a t " A r t h u r s u g g e s t s b o t h t h e Ol d Law and t h e New." E m b l e m a t i c a l l y , t h e dragon on A r t h u r ' s h e l m e t . r e p r e s e n t s t h e O l d Law, and t h e Almond t r e e on h i s c r e s t , an a l l u s i o n t o Aaron's r o d , r e p r e s e n t s t h e New Law. Evans r u n s a f o u l i n h i s a r g u -ment when he p o i n t s out t h a t A a r o n's r o d i s "a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol o f th e O l d Testament f o r s h a d o w i n g t h e New." 256, 19 N e l s o n , p. 157; K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 23; and Works, I , 20 See P e r c i v a l ' s r e a d i n g , Works, I , 256. 21 A r t h u r ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t a permanent h a p p i n e s s ( " b l i s s e may n o t a b i d e " ) i s beyond man's own c a p a c i t y . 22 The Dwarf's new p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n f o l l o w s t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n by A r t h u r i n h i s d e b a t e w i t h Una. 23 I t seems q u i t e c l e a r f r o m t h i s g l o s s t h a t Una i s n o t t h e woman i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s d e s c r i b e d i n R e v e l a t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r " s t e d f a s t t r u t h " w h i c h does n o t d e s e r t man i n h i s weakness. 24 A r i o s t o , O r l a n d o f u r i o s o , t r a n s . W. S. Rose, ed. S t e w a r t B a ker and B a r t l e t t G i a m e t t i ( I n d i a n a p o l i s , 1 9 6 8 ) , xv.14. 2 5 W o r k s , I , 257. 2 6 S e e T i l l y a r d , p. 114. 27 The number t h r e e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h o r n ( v i i i . 4 ) a l l u d e s t o t h e t r i u n a l God fr o m whom a l l o r d e r comes. 28 T i m i a s c o n f r o n t s F i d e s s a ' s b e a s t " w i t h s i n g l e sword i n hand" ( v i i i . 1 2 ) - . I t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , l i k e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s i n g l e b l a d e , when f a c e d w i t h t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f F i d e s s a ' s f a l s e h o o d and t h e f l e s h l i n e s s o f t h e b e a s t . 29 A r i s t o t l e , pp. 190-191. 30 N e l s o n , . p . 167. 31 See J o s e p h i n e Waters B e n n e t t , The E v o l u t i o n . o f "The F a e r i e  Queene" ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 94. See "The T r e e of L i f e , " J o u r n a l o f S a c r e d L i t e r a t u r e , XXXVI ( J a n u a r y , 1 8 6 4 ) , 30-36. 3 3 J e w e l , p. 22. 3 A N e l s o n , p. 154. 35 P. 152. 3 6 W o r k s , I , 277. 3 7 0 n d i s t r i b u t i v e and r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , s e e , A r i s t o t l e , pp. 145-47, and 151-53. " ^ N e l s o n , p. 152. 39 2 C o r i n t h i a n s 3:6. VI H o l i n e s s P e r f e c t e d The Red C r o s s K n i g h t e n t e r s t h e House of H o l i n e s s h a v i n g f a i l e d t h r o u g h h i s own f l e s h l i n e s s t o w i t h s t a n d t h e a s s a u l t o f e v i l . N a t u r a l p r o p e n s i t y t o t h e t r i p a r t i t e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s has p r o v e n i n s u f f i c i e n t as a consequence of r e a s o n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o g o v e r n t h e f l e s h and of e v i l ' s employ of t h e f l e s h t o seek t h e k n i g h t ' s damnation. To r e c t i f y t h i s weakness, Una l e a d s t h e k n i g h t i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . H i s e d u c a t i o n i n H o l i n e s s w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e t h e r e p r e p a r e s him f o r t h e main o b j e c t of h i s q u e s t , t h e b a t t l e w i t h t h e s a t a n i c ;Dragon who t y r a n -n i z e s t h e kingdom of Una's p a r e n t s , t h e kingdom of man. The House of H o l i n e s s , and H o l i n e s s i t s e l f , i s under t h e g o v e r n -ment o f C a e l i a , h e a v e n l y w i sdom. 1 She i s t h e mother o f F i d e l i a , S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a , F a i t h , Hope, and C h a r i t y ( x . 4 ) . She m i n i s t e r s t o t h e needs o f s o u l and body: . . . [ h e r ] o n l y j o y was t o r e l i e v e t h e needes Of w r e t c h e d s o u l e s , and h e l p e t h e h e l p e l e s s e p o r e . (x.3) B o t h P r i n c e A r t h u r and t h e Dwarf pass out of t h e l e g e n d w i t h t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s under C a e l i a ' s government. Her m i n i s t r y embraces r e a s o n , f o r t h r o u g h h e r daughter,. F i d e l i a , she d i s p e n s e s t h e t r u t h o f r e v e l a t i o n w h i c h reason,, t h r o u g h i n t e l l e c t i o n , embraces (X.18T19). Through S p e r a n z a and P a t i e n c e , C a e l i a t e a c h e s t h e k n i g h t t o check h i s p a s s i o n , , t e a c h i n g t h e r a t i o n a l 114 115 s o u l t o g o v e r n t h e f l e s h ( x . 2 2 - 2 4 ) . C a e l i a ' s House o f H o l i n e s s i s s e t a g a i n s t t h e House of P r i d e . U n l i k e t h e House o f P r i d e , t h e p a t h i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s i s " s t r e i g h t and n a r r o w " ( x . 5 ) , and t h e e n t r a n c e i s guarded by H u m i l i t a . And whereas t h e House o f P r i d e dooms i t s i n h a b i t a n t s t o H e l l , t h e House o f H o l i n e s s p r e p a r e s t h o s e who pass t h r o u g h i t f o r Heaven. The m a t e r i a l i s m o f t h e House of P r i d e i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e s p i r i t u a l i t y o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , and C a e l i a ' s humble s e r v i c e t o t h e needs of t h e poor t h e o p p o s i t e o f L u c i f e r a ' s p r i d e f u l d i s d a i n o f a l l about h e r . B e s i d e s s t a n d i n g as ah a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e House of P r i d e , t h e House of H o l i n e s s i s a l s o t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e c o t t a g e i n h a b i t e d by C o r c e c a , A b e s s a , arid K i r k r a p i r i e . C o r c e c a ' s c o t t a g e and t h e House of H o l i n e s s b o t h l i e below a h i g h m o u n t a i n ( i i i . 1 0 and x . 4 6 ) . However, where t h e r e i s a p a t h t h r o u g h t h e House of H o l i n e s s t o t h e t o p of t h e mo u n t a i n , t h e r e i s no p a t h t h r o u g h t h e c o t t a g e . The c o m p a r i s o n r e v e a l s t h e e s s e n t i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f the . t w o . C o r c e c a ' s c o t t a g e i s marked by a p e r v e r s e r e l i g i o s i t y , an u n c h a r i t a b l e m a t e r i a l i s m t h a t i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t r u e H o l i n e s s . From t h i s b a s e , t h e r e i s no p a t h t o t h e h e a v e n l y v i s i o n s y m b o l i z e d by an a s c e n t t o t h e t o p of t h e mo u n t a i n . The House o f H o l i n e s s a c c o r d s t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t t h e h e a v e n l y v i s i o n w h i c h l i e s a t t h e end o f . t h e p a t h up t h e m o u n t a i n . C a e l i a ' s h e a v e n l y wisdom,.the s u b s t a n c e o f t h e h e a v e n l y v i s i o n , i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e m o r t a l b l i n d n e s s o f h e r b e a d - t e l l i n g c o u n t e r p a r t , C o r c e c a . The House o f H o l i n e s s a l s o s t a n d s i n a n t i t h e s i s ; t o t h e Wood of E r r o r and O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e . The m o r t a l m a t e r i a l i s m o f t h e Wood of 116 E r r o r i s a marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e s p i r i t u a l i s m o f t h e House of H o l i n e s s , and t h e w i d e , worn p a t h s o f t h e Wood ( i . 7 ) t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e " s t r e i g h t and n a r r o w " way i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s ( x . 5 ) . O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , where f a l s e f a i t h , F i d e s s a , i s queen, i s a monument d e d i c a t e d t o t h e f l e s h . C a e l i a ' s h e a v e n l y wisdom i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f e r r a n t m a t e r i a l i s m o f E r r o r and t h e m o r t a l i g n o r a n c e of I g n a r o . D e s p a i r ' s c a v e , i n w h i c h h o p e l e s s n e s s i s b r e d , as w e l l f i n d s i t s a n t i t h e s i s i n t h e House o f H o l i -n e s s . Where D e s p a i r a r g u e s t h e u l t i m a t e t r i u m p h of t h e f l e s h and t h e damnation a t t e n d a n t on t h e t r i u m p h , t h e House o f H o l i n e s s p r o v i d e s t h e means t o r e d u c e t h e f l e s h t o n e a r i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h e r e b y t o gen-e r a t e hope. The a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e House of H o l i n e s s t o t h e House o f P r i d e , C o r c e c a ' s c o t t a g e , the Wood of E r r o r , O r g o g l i o ' s c a s t l e , and D e s p a i r ' s cave r e f l e c t s i t s p l a c e i n t h e Legend of H o l i n e s s . The House of H o l i n e s s p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h e s o u l i n i t s s t r u g g l e w i t h e v i l , t h e f l e s h , and m a t e r i a l i s m . C a e l i a ' s h e a v e n l y wisdom, d i s p e n s e d t h r o u g h h e r d a u g h t e r s , F i d e l i a , S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a , and o t h e r f i g u r e s r e l a t e d t o t h e d a u g h t e r s , i s t h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e s u p p o r t . The f i g u r e s she s t a n d s i n a n t i t h e s i s t o i n t h e l e g e n d a r e a l l v a r i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l e s h , m a t e r i a l i s m , and e v i l . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e f i g u r e s , e x c e p t i n g Corceca,. i n d i c a t e s t h e g r o w i n g c o r r u p t i o n of h i s s o u l , measured by h i s d e s c e n t t o f l e s h l i n e s s , h i s e v e n t u a l embrace of F i d e s s a , , a n d h i s c a p i t u l a t i o n t o D e s p a i r . Una's c o n t a c t w i t h C o r c e c a i n d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e s t h e c o r r u p t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , f o r h e r m e e t i n g w i t h C o r c e c a i s t h e r e s u l t o f h e r h a v i n g been abandoned 117 by t h e k n i g h t . M e e t i n g C o r c e c a , Una has d i s p l a y e d t o h e r t h e e l e m e n t s of c o r r u p t i o n w h i c h l e d t h e k n i g h t t o abandon h e r . I n C o r c e c a ' s b l i n d -n e ss i s r e v e a l e d t h e k n i g h t ' s i g n o r a n c e w h i c h l e d t o h i s b e i n g t r i c k e d by A r chimago, i n t h e u n c h a r i t a b l e welcome a c c o r d e d Una i s r e v e a l e d t h e k n i g h t ' s l a c k of c h a r i t y , and i n C o r c e c a ' s p e r v e r s e r e l i g i o s i t y i s r e v e a l e d t h e k n i g h t ' s i g n o r a n c e of f a i t h . The k n i g h t ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s s i g n a l s t h e be- . g i n n i n g o f t h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s s o u l . Under C a e l i a ' s g u i d a n c e , t h e s o u l ' i s purged o f i t s c o r r u p t i o n and r e g a i n s i t s r i g h t f u l government of t h e body.' The p r o c e s s of r e c t i f i c a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by a h i e r a r c h y of c h a r a c t e r s who d i s p e n s e a i d t o t h e , s o u l i n t h e form o f a s p e c t s o f t h e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s . Ranked under C a e l i a a r e h e r d a u g h t e r s , F i d e l i a , S p e r a n z a , and C h a r i s s a . Around t h e s e a r e v a r i o u s s a t e l l i t e f i g u r e s . Obedience i s a t t a c h e d t o F i d e l i a , P a t i e n c e , Amendment, Penance,, Remorse, and Repentance a r e a t t a c h e d t o S p e r a n z a , and M e r c y , and t h e seven Bead-men^are a t t a c h e d t o C h a r i s s a . Three c o n d i t i o n s a r e met by t h e k n i g h t on h i s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . Each . i s ' r e p r e s e n t e d by f i g u r e s t h e k n i g h t meets p r i o r t o h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a e l i a , and each a r e p r e - r e q u i s i t e s t o t h e e d u c a t i o n i n H o l i n e s s he r e c e i v e s under C a e l i a ' s g u i d a n c e . I n i t i a l l y , he meets H u m i l i t a , t h e g a t e - k e e p e r o f t h e House o f H o l i n e s s ( x . 5 ) . He t h e n meets Z e l e ( x . 6 ) , and f i n a l l y he meets Reverence (x.7).. The m e e t i n g s argue t h a t t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s marked, a t t h i s p o i n t , by h u m i l i t y , z e a l , and r e v e r e n c e . The t h r e e f i g u r e s a r e p r e -s e n t e d i n terms w h i c h r e c a l l t h e i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Red C r o s s 118 K n i g h t . A l l o f them appear t o be what t h e y a r e . H u m i l i t a c a s t s h i s l o o k " f u l l l o w l y " ( x . 5 ) , Z e l e l a b o u r s " l i v e l y t o e x p r e s s e t h e same" ( x . 6 ) , and Reverence's b e h a v i o u r i s "no c o u r t i n g n i c e t i e , / b u t s i m p l e t r u e " ( x . 7 ) . I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e a m b i g u i t y o f t h e i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t , t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a way w h i c h i n s i s t s on t h e l a c k . o f a m b i g u i t y . I n t h e House of H o l i n e s s , a p p e a r -ance and r e a l i t y a r e one and t h e same. The k n i g h t ' s c h a r a c t e r , d e s c r i b e d by h i s m e e t i n g w i t h t h e s e t h r e e f i g u r e s , i s commensurate w i t h t h i s q u a l i t y o f t h e House of H o l i n e s s . Whereas i n i t i a l l y he appeared t o be what he was n o t , a t r i e d and t r u e H o l y k n i g h t , he now appears t o be what he i s , humble, z e a l o u s , r e v e r e n t , and p r e p a r e d t o be g u i d e d t o t r u e H o l i n e s s . H u m i l i t y , z e a l , and r e v e r e n c e a r e n o t , however, m o r a l v i r t u e s . R a t h e r , t h e y s p e c i f y t h e n a t u r a l v i r t u e w h i c h 2 i s a n t e c e d e n t t o t h e t r i p a r t i t e m o r a l v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s . H u m i l i t a , Z e l e , and Reverence a r e commoners i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s . H u m i l i t a i s t h e g a t e - k e e p e r , Z e l e a F r a n c k l i n ( x . 6 ) , and Rev e r e n c e a s q u i r e ( x . 7 ) . They a r e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t i v e p r o p e n s i t y t o H o l i n e s s , and, a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e y a r e met by t h e k n i g h t p r i o r t o h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a e l i a . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n i n H o l i n e s s b e g i n s under t h e t u t e l a g e o f F i d e l i a , C a e l i a ' s e l d e s t d a u g h t e r ( x . 1 2 ) . P r i o r t o t h i s , t h e k n i g h t i s tended by Obedience ( x . 1 7 ) . Obedience d i s a r m s t h e k n i g h t , i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s r e - a r m i n g i n f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y . But p r i n c i p a l l y , Obedience p r e p a r e s t h e k n i g h t f o r h i s i n s t r u c t i o n by F i d e l i a . Obedience i s a s a t e l l i t e o f F i d e l i a , h e r t e a c h i n g cannot be 119 commanded b u t o n l y obeyed. The t r u t h F i d e l i a r e v e a l s t o t h e Red Cross. K n i g h t i s beyond t h e "weaker w i t of man" ( x . 1 9 ) . F i d e l i a m i n i s t e r s t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s o u l , t h a t p a r t o f r e a s o n w h i c h r e a c h e s t o i n t e l l e c t i o n t o 3 comprehend t h e m y s t e r i e s o f God. From h e r " h e a v e n l y documents" she t e a c h e s t h e k n i g h t " [ o ] f God, of g r a c e , of j u s t i c e , [and] of f r e e 4 w i l l " ( x . 1 9 ) . F i d e l i a ' s " s a c r e d Booke" (x.19) i s t h e New Testament. The k n i g h t , under F i d e l i a ' s t u t e l a g e grown p e r f e c t i n f a i t h , comes t o l o a t h " m o r t a l l l i f e " ( x . 2 1 ) . F i d e l i a ' s l o r e wakens t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s s o u l t o " h e a v e n l y l e a r n i n g " ( x . 1 8 ) , b u t t h e c o n t i n g e n t e f f e c t o f t h e l i g h t o f t r u t h i s t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s s i n s . The p e r f e c t i o n of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l m a g n i f i e s the c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s o u l , r e n d e r i n g t h e k n i g h t s u s c e p t i b l e t o d e s p a i r . S p e r a n z a f o l l o w s F i d e l i a i n m i n i s t e r i n g t o t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l . S peranza's s e r v i c e d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a i t h and hope. C a l v i n w r i t e s t h a t " f a i t h e x i s t s n o t w i t h o u t hope . . . ," and S t . P a u l t h a t ". . . f a i t h i s t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h i n g s hoped f o r . . . . S p e r a n z a ' s r o l e , a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e Legend, i s t o p r o v i d e t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l w i t h the, means t o s u p p o r t h i s newly r e v e a l e d f a i t h ( x . 2 2 ) . The r o l e , as t h e , d e s c r i p t i o n s by S t * P a u l and C a l v i n s u g g e s t , i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of Hope. Yet,; t h e Legend o f H o l i n e s s a r g u e s a f u r t h e r and more e x t e n s i v e r o l e f o r Hope. The k n i g h t i s m i n i s t e r e d t o by S p e r a n z a ' s s a t e l l i t e f i g u r e s who work t o e r a d i c a t e t h e cause of t h e k n i g h t ' s d e s p a i r . 120 The cause o f t h e k n i g h t ' s " d i s t r e s s e d d o u b t f u l l a g o n i e " (x.22) i s [ i ] n w a r d c o r r u p t i o n , and i n f e c t e d s i n " ( x . 2 5 ) . The k n i g h t i s " s o u l e -d i s e a s e d " ( x . 2 4 ) , and t h e consequence i s t h e t h r e a t of h o p e l e s s n e s s . He i s c u r e d by t h e m i n i s t e r i n g e f f o r t s of P a t i e n c e , Amendment, Penance, Remorse,.and Repentance ( x . 2 3 - 2 9 ) . T h e i r c u r e i s t o t e a c h t h e k n i g h t t o . c h e c k h i s " p a s s i o n " ( x . 2 4 ) . P a t i e n c e s e e ks out t h e d i s e a s e t h a t l i e s between t h e body and t h e s o u l , t h e "marrow and t h e s k i n " ( x . 2 5 ) , and Amendment t r i m s t h e " s u p e r f l u o u s f l e s h " (x.26) t h a t r o t s away under P a t i e n c e ' treatment." Penance, Remorse, and R e p e n t a n c e ; t r e a t t h e c o r r o s i o n of t h e f l e s h by c a s t i g a t i n g t h e k n i g h t , " w h i p [ i n g ] M and " p r i c k [ i n g ] " him onward i n t h e c o u r s e of h i s c u r e , and s t i n g i n g h i s d i s e a s e d body by b a t h i n g him i n " s a l t w a t e r " ( x . 2 7 ) . ; The e f f e c t of t h e i r t r e a t m e n t i s t h a t , , . . . t h e y d i d t o h e a l t h r e s t o r e The man t h a t would n o t l i v e , b u t e a r s t l a y a t d e a t h e s d o r e . (x.27) Hope i s r e s t o r e d by Patience,.,Amendment, Penance, Remorse, and 6 Repentance. T h e i r t r e a t m e n t c h e c k s t h e k n i g h t ' s p a s s i o n , c l e a r s t h e d i s e a s e of t h e f l e s h t h a t i n f e c t s t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , and r e t u r n s t h e k n i g h t t o a s t a t e o f r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l over, h i s body. T h i s , t h e second s t a g e i n t h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , i s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n , o f t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l t o a s t a t e o f h e a l t h . The m o r a l e f f e c t o f t h e c u r e i s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s hope. , I n t h i s s t a t e , t h e k n i g h t i s a b l e t o meet C h a r i s s a and t o c o n t i n u e h i s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s . 121 C h a r i s s a appears a t t h i s s t a g e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s c a r e e r i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s h a v i n g waxed s t r o n g a f t e r b e i n g " l a t e i n c h i l d - b e d b r o u g h t " ( x . 2 9 ) . P r i o r t o t h i s , t h e k n i g h t has n o t met, C h a r i s s a f o r , , a s F i d e l i a and S p e r a n z a e a r l i e r t o l d Una, . . . .she o f l a t e i s l i g h t n e d o f h e r wombe, And h a t h e n c r e a s t t h e w o r l d w i t h one sonne more. (x.16) The son t h a t C h a r i s s a , c h a r i t y , has b r o u g h t f o r t h i n t o t h e w o r l d i s , f i g u r a t i v e l y , t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t . I t has been t h r o u g h c h a r i t y - t h a t t h e k n i g h t has s u r v i v e d t h e t r i a l s o f t h e f l e s h t o come t o l e a r n . t h e v i r t u e o f H o l i n e s s i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . God's c h a r i t y t h r o u g h H i s p r o v i d e n c e u p h e l d P r i n c e A r t h u r i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h O r g o g l i o o v e r t h e f a t e o f t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t , and Una's i n v o c a t i o n o f God's mercy p r e - . v e n t e d t h e k n i g h t from abandoning hope i n t h e cave o f D e s p a i r ; C h a r i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e n t r y o f t h e k n i g h t i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s , a l t h o u g h h i s e d u c a t i o n p r o c e e d s f r o m f a i t h , t h r o u g h hope, t o c h a r i t y . The o r d e r o f t h e k n i g h t ' s e d u c a t i o n has t h e a u t h o r i t y o f S t . P a u l , and c o r r e s p o n d s t o A q u i n a s ' o r d e r o f g e n e r a t i o n . 7 But t h e . c h i l d -b e a r i n g C h a r i s s a , and t h e r o l e o f c h a r i t y i n u p h o l d i n g t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t p r i o r t o h i s e n t r y i n t o t h e House o f H o l i n e s s s u g g e s t s t h a t A q u i n a s ' argument f o r an o r d e r o f p e r f e c t i o n f o r t h e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s a p p l i e s t o t h e House of H o l i n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o A q u i n a s ' o r d e r 8 of p e r f e c t i o n , , " c h a r i t y i s t h e mother' and r o o t o f a l l t h e v i r t u e s . " I n t h i s o r d e r i c h a r i t y p r e c e d e s f a i t h and hope. '.' The d o u b l e o r d e r o f g e n e r a t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n p o i n t s out t h e • s p e c i a l p l a c e c h a r i t y has b o t h i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s and i n t h e 122 l e g e n d . The k n i g h t , f o l l o w i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n by C h a r i s s a and h e r s a t e l l i t e , M e r c y , . i s l e d t o C o n t e m p l a t i o n t o c o m p l e t e h i s e d u c a t i o n i n H o l i n e s s , t h e achievement of h e a v e n l y v i s i o n ' ( x . 5 0 ) . C o n t e m p l a t i o n i s a s a t e l l i t e o f F i d e l i a ( x . 5 0 ) . However, C o n t e m p l a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t M ercy, C h a r i s s a ' s s a t e l l i t e , can e q u a l l y w e l l l e a d t h e k n i g h t t o heaven ( x . 5 1 ) . That C o n t e m p l a t i o n , F i d e l i a ' s s a t e l l i t e , does l e a d t h e k n i g h t up t h e m o u n t a i n t o a c h i e v e h e a v e n l y v i s i o n p r o v i d e s a c i r c u -l a r i t y t o t h e v i r t u e s of f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y , h a r m o n i z i n g b o t h t h e o r d e r of g e n e r a t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n , and d e s c r i b e s t h e t r i p a r t i t e b u t i n d i v i s i b l e n a t u r e of t h e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s . The l o v e t h a t C h a r i s s a r e p r e s e n t s i s d e s c r i b e d as t h e o p p o s i t e o f l u s t . She h a t e s "Cupids wanton s n a r e , " and i s " c h a s t i n worke and w i l l " ( x . 3 0 ) . Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s l o v e f o r Una has been r e v e a l e d as c o r r u p t e d by l u s t , and h i s abandonment of h e r as an a c t of u n c h a r i t a b l e -n e s s . C h a r i s s a i n s t r u c t s him i n " l o v e , and r i g h t e o u s n e s s e , " and t e a c h e s him " w r a t h , and h a t r e d w a r e l y t o shonne" ( x . 3 3 ) . F u r t h e r , she t e a c h e s him t h a t God w i t h d r a w s H i s c h a r i t y ' w h e n man a c t s u n c h a r i t a b l y . F i n a l l y she p l a c e s him i n t h e c a r e of Mercy who c o m p l e t e s h i s e d u c a t i o n i n c h a r i t y by l e a d i n g him t o a h o l y h o s p i t a l w h e r e i n he l e a r n s t h e seven c o r p o r a l works of mercy.^ C h a r i s s a m i n i s t e r s t o t h e k n i g h t ' s a p p e t i t i v e s o u l , t e a c h i n g him p r o p e r d e s i r e . Her e d u c a t i o n of t h e k n i g h t b e g i n s w i t h l e s s o n s on c h e c k i n g t h e p e r v e r s e p a s s i o n s of w r a t h and h a t r e d , and l e s s o n s engen-d e r i n g l o v e and r i g h t e o u s n e s s ( x . 3 3 ) . Under Mercy he i s i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c o r p o r a l ways t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p a s s i o n o f C h a r i t y . 123 Mercy i s t h e p a t r o n e s s o f t h e h o l y h o s p i t a l i n w h i c h t h e k n i g h t l e a r n s t o d e m o n s t r a t e c h a r i t y , and C h a r i s s a i s i t s f o u n d e r ( x . 3 4 ) • The s e v e n works o f mercy t h e k n i g h t l e a r n s o f i n t h e h o l y h o s p i t a l p r o v i d e s "an o b l i q u e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e s e v e n d e a d l y s i n s i n t h e House o f P r i d e . B o t h s e t s r e l a t e t o man's w o r l d l y l i f e , b u t whereas t h e s e v e n d e a d l y s i n s r e s u l t " i n d a m n a t i o n , t h e s e v e n c o r p o r a l works o f mercy, as C o n t e m p l a t i o n r e v e a l s ( x . 5 1 ) , l e a d s t o heaven. Mercy t e a c h e s t h e k n i g h t , . H i s m o r t a l l i f e . . . t o frame I n h o l y r i g h t e o u s n e s s e , w i t h o u t r e b u k e o r blame. (x.45) A t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e k n i g h t ' s passage t h r o u g h t h e House of H o l i n e s s , h i s s o u l i s p e r f e c t e d . The i n t e l l e c t u a l , r a t i o n a l , and appe-t i t i v e p a r t s a r e purged o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s c o r r u p t i o n , and f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y have been a c q u i r e d . Mercy l e a d s t h e k n i g h t t o t h e h e r m i -t a g e of C o n t e m p l a t i o n , t h e l a s t s t a g e i n h i s c a r e e r t h r o u g h t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . C o n t e m p l a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u l , and i s a t t a c h e d t o F i d e l i a ( x . 5 0 ) . 1 ^ P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t h e r e t u r n t o a s a t e l l i t e o f F i d e l i a i n d i c a t e s t h e harmoriiousness of t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l , and as w e l l i t i n d i c a t e s t h e c l o s i n g of t h e t h r e e t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s o f f a i t h , hope, and c h a r i t y i n t o t h e s i n g l e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s . Y e t . t h e k n i g h t ' s s o j o u r n w i t h C o n t e m p l a t i o n r e v e a l s more t h a n t h i s . Through C o n t e m p l a t i o n , t h e k n i g h t a c h i e v e s h e a v e n l y v i s i o n , and has r e v e a l e d t o him h i s d e s t i n y . The f u t u r e g l o r y t h e Red C r o s s K n i g h t has shown t o him r e s u l t s i n h i s d e s i r e t o r e m a i n i n a s t a t e o f C o n t e m p l a t i o n o r t o be r e l e a s e d from m o r t a l l i f e . He f e a r s t h a t 124 f u r t h e r , a c t i v e l i f e m i g h t j e o p a r d i z e h i s p r o m i s e d r e w a r d ( x . 6 3 ) . H i s hope s t a n d s i n danger, he a r g u e s , i f f u r t h e r a c t i v e l i f e i s n e c e s s a r y ( x . 6 3 ) . C o n t e m p l a t i o n reminds t h e k n i g h t o f h i s a p p o i n t e d t a s k t o a i d Una by m e e t i n g t h e s a t a n i c Dragon t h a t t y r a n n i z e s h e r p a r e n t 1 s kingdom and o f h i s vow o f s e r v i c e t o t h e F a e r i e Queene. The k n i g h t a c q u i e s c e s . H i s r e q u e s t t o re m a i n i n a s t a t e o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n o r t o be r e l e a s e d f r o m m o r t a l l i f e f a i n t l y echoes h i s h a p l e s s s t a t e f o l l o w i n g h i s i n s t r u c -t i o n by F i d e l i a . The f a i n t n e s s o f t h e echo i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l has g a i n e d s t r e n g t h i n t h e House o f H o l i n e s s . F i n a l l y , C o n t e m p l a t i o n d i s c o v e r s t o t h e k n i g h t h i s name and o r i g i n s . The Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s name i s Georgos, and he s p r i n g s "from a n c i e n t r a c e / Of Saxon k i n g s " ( x . 6 5 ) . ' He was b r o u g h t i n t o F a e r y l a n d by a F a e r y who h i d him i n a "heaped f u r r o w , " where he was found by a " P l o u g h -man" who named him ( x . 6 6 ) . N e l s o n n o t e s an etymology f o r S t . George's name, t h e name t h e k n i g h t w i l l a c q u i r e i n heaven ( x . 6 1 ) , o c c u r r i n g i n The G o l d e n Legend: "George i s sayd o f geos/ Which i s a muche t o saye as t i l y e n g e t h e e r t h e / t h a t i s h i s f l e s h e . E a r l i e r , C o n t e m p l a t i o n has c a l l e d t h e k n i g h t a "man of e a r t h " ( x . 5 2 ) . The p o i n t o f t h i s d i s c o v e r y i s t h a t t h r o u g h C o n t e m p l a t i o n t h e k n i g h t d i s c o v e r s t h a t he i s t i e d t o t h e f l e s h , and t h a t h i s d e s t i n y i s bound w i t h t h e a c t i v e l i f e . He must descend from the m o u n t a i n o f C o n t e m p l a t i o n , f o r m o r t a l l i f e w i t h a l l i t s h a z a r d s i s man's l o t . C o n f i r m e d i n t h e v i r t u e of H o l i n e s s , Red C r o s s K n i g h t e n t e r s t h e l a s t s t a g e o f h i s q u e s t . T h i s f i n a l s t a g e c o n s i s t s o f h i s b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon, h i s overcoming Duessa and Archimago i n t h e i r f i n a l 125 12 e f f o r t t o s e p a r a t e him from t r u t h , and h i s m a r r i a g e t o Una. H i s b u r n i s h e d armour o f H o l i n e s s " g l i s t r i n g " w i t h heaven's l i g h t ( x i . 4 ) , he e n t e r s i n t o b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon. The c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e b a t t e r e d and d u l l arms o f H o l i n e s s w i t h w h i c h he i s armed a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e l e g e n d i s , marked. Red C r o s s . t K n i g h t ' s s o j o u r n i n t h e House of H o l i n e s s b u r n i s h e d h i s n a t u r a l H o l i n e s s t o an a c c o m p l i s h e d v i r t u e , and p r e p a r e d him f o r t h i s l a s t s t a g e i n h i s quest.. The b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon l a s t s t h r e e days and c o n v e n t i o n a l l y i s r e g a r d e d as "a t y p e o f C h r i s t ' s conquest o f h e l l d u r i n g t h e t h r e e 13 days between the, C r u c i f i x i o n and t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n " . . . ." Y e t w h i l e t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s p a r a l l e l s between t h e k n i g h t ' s b a t t l e and C h r i s t ' s h a r r o w i n g o f H e l l , t h i s t y p o l o g i c a l e x e g e s i s i s m i s l e a d i n g . I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t tends t o d e f l e c t a t t e n t i o n from t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p t h e d e t a i l s of t h e b a t t l e have w i t h t h e s h e m a t i c d e t a i l s o f t h e l e g e n d . As w e l l , I t i s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n w h i c h o v e r l o o k s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e b a t t l e s w h i c h t a k e p l a c e on each of t h e t h r e e d a y s . F i n a l l y , t h i s t y p o l o g i c a l e x e g e s i s f a i l s t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e p o s s i b l e l i n k s t h a t m ight e x i s t between t h i s b a t t l e , Duessa's l a s t e f f o r t t o s e p a r a t e t h e k n i g h t f r o m t r u t h , and h i s m a r r i a g e w i t h Una, a l l o f w h i c h o c c u r s a f t e r h i s emergence from t h e House of H o l i n e s s . A l l o f Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s a n t a g o n i s t s d i s p l a y q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o e v i l . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e Dragon, of D u e s s a , and of Archimago. Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s b a t t l e w i t h e v i l i s n o t o v e r i n t h e l e g e n d u n t i l a f t e r he s t a n d s b e f o r e Una's p a r e n t s .to answer t h e c h arges b r o u g h t a g a i n s t him by Duessa t h r o u g h Archimago ( x i i . 2 5 - 3 2 ) . 126 These charges are h u r l e d as proof tha t the k n i g h t i s unholy and t h e r e -f o r e unable to marry Una. H i s answer to the charges i s the necessary f i n a l proof of the Holy character , promised at the outse t of the l e g e n d , and w h i c h , hav ing p e r f e c t e d t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n the House of H o l i n e s s , has q u a l i f i e d him to b a t t l e the Dragon. H i s a b i l i t y to answer the charges g i v e s f i n a l proof of h i s f i t n e s s to marry Una. In shor t the three episodes of t h i s f i n a l s tage of the quest are l i n k e d , w i t h the marr iage a reward f o r the proof of Holy c h a r a c t e r . Both the Dragon and Duessa , w i t h Archimago, s tand i n the way of a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n to the c o u r t s h i p . The t e s t s they present f o r the k n i g h t are l i n k e d . The b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon and the e f f o r t by Duessa and Archimago to separate the k n i g h t from Una c o n s t i t u t e s , a r e - t e s t i n g of H o l i n e s s f o l l o w i n g the' k n i g h t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the t r i p a r t i t e v i r t u e i n the House of H o l i n e s s . The b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon represents the t e s t i n g of c h a r i t y and hope, w h i l e Duessa 's charges represent the t e s t i n g of f a i t h . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , the b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon r e p r e -sents the t e s t of a p p e t i t i v e and r a t i o n a l p o r t i o n s of the k n i g h t ' s s o u l , and Duessa 's charges the t e s t i n g of the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o r t i o n of the k n i g h t ' s s o u l . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e . b a t t l e w i t h the Dragon occupies two d a y s , w i t h v i c t o r y coming e a s i l y f o r the k n i g h t a t the s t a r t of the t h i r d day. The f i r s t day f i n d s the k n i g h t s o r e l y pressed by the Dragon. Thrown from h i s h o r s e , he b a t t l e s on u n t i l the Dragon scorches h i s armour w i t h f l a m e . The k n i g h t , n e a r l y overcome, d e s i r e s to d i sarm ( x i . 2 6 ) . He i s , 127 F a i n t , w e a r i e , s o r e , emboyled, g r i e v e d , b r e n t . W i t h h e a t , t o y l e , wounds, arm.es, s m a r t , and i n w a r d , f i r e . ( x i . 2 8 ) I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , he l o n g s f o r d e a t h ( x i . 2 8 ) . He i s saved by b e i n g knocked backward i n t o "The w e l l o f l i f e " ( x i . 2 9 ) . The f l a m e s e a r s t h e f l e s h , p l a c i n g t h e k n i g h t i n danger o f i t s weakness.- His- d e s i r e t o abandon h i s armour r e c a l l s h i s e a r l i e r aban-donment of h i s armour when he succumbed t o f l e s h l i n e s s . The k n i g h t ' s f a l l f r o m h i s h o r s e s u g g e s t s n o t r e a s o n ' s o v e r t h r o w , b u t t h e i n s u f -f i c i e n c y of t h e f l e s h , i t s i n a b i l i t y n o t t o become e n t a n g l e d w i t h e v i l : . . . h i s f r o t h - f o m y s t e e d , whose courage s t o u t S t r i v i n g t o l o o s e t h e k n o t , t h a t " f a s t him t y e s , H i m s e l f e i s s t r e i g h t e r bandes t o o r a s h i m p l y e s , That t o t h e ground he i s p e r f o r c e c o n s t r a y n d To throw h i s r i d e r . . . . ( x i . 2 5 ) The aim of t h e k n i g h t ' s b a t t l e w i t h t h e Dragon i s t o s e c u r e t h e r e l e a s e from bondage of t h e kingdom o f Una's p a r e n t s . L i k e C h r i s t ' s h a r r o w i n g of H e l l , t h e k n i g h t ' s a c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f l e s s , an a c t of c h a r i t y . P u t s t a r k l y , t h e k n i g h t ' s d e s i r e t o abandon h i s armour,,and h i s l o n g i n g f o r d e a t h r e v e a l s t h a t h i s c h a r i t y i s l i m i t e d . The weakness of t h e f l e s h i s an i n s u p p e r a b l e b a r r i e r t o l i m i t l e s s c h a r i t y . Spenser removes any blame f o r t h e k n i g h t ' s d e s i r e t o c e a s e b a t t l e by comparing h i s s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h a t of H e r c u l e s d r e s s e d i n h i s "poysoned garment" and d e s c r i b i n g t h e k n i g h t ' s d i s t r e s s as g r e a t e r ( x i . 2 7 ) . I n c h a r i t y , Red C r o s s K n i g h t i s as p e r f e c t as man's e a r t h l y l o t a l l o w s . Where t h e k n i g h t ' s c h a r i t y ends, God's b e g i n s , and the. k n i g h t i s s u p p o r t e d by God's c h a r i t y . 128 The " s p r i n g i n g w e l l " w h i c h r e s t o r e s Red C r o s s K n i g h t " t r i c k l [ e s ] , f o r t h a s i l v e r f l o o d " ( x i . 2 9 ) . I t i s t h e w e l l of l i f e o f t h e New 14 Testament. N e l s o n p o i n t s out t h a t t h e Geneva g l o s s on t h e B i b l e i n -t e r p r e t s t h e f l o o d f r o m t h e w e l l as " t h e e v e r l a s t i n g grace, of God." As w e l l , he compares t h e w e l l of l i f e i n t o w h i c h t h e k n i g h t f a l l s w i t h t h e "water o f l i f e C h r i s t o f f e r s t o t h e woman o f S a m a r i a , " p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h i s i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e Geneva e d i t i o n t h u s l y : " T h i s e v e r -l a s t i n g w a t e r , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e e x c e e d i n g l o v e of G o d , , i s c a l l e d l i v i n g , o r of l i f e , t o make a d i f f e r e n c e between i t , and t h e w a t e r t h a t s h o u l d be drawne out of a w e l l . T h e w a t e r i n t o w h i c h t h e k n i g h t f a l l s s p r i n g s f r o m t h e w e l l , s u g g e s t i n g t h e f r e e l y g i v e n n a t u r e of t h e g i f t o f c h a r i t y w h i c h r e s t o r e s t h e k n i g h t . The t e s t o f t h i s f i r s t day's b a t t l e i s a l s o a t e s t of t h e appe-t i t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o u l . The d e s i r e t h e k n i g h t has t o abandon t h e b a t t l e r e f l e c t s t h e l i m i t e d s t r e n g t h ,of t h e a p p e t i t i v e p a r t of t h e s o u l , and, m o r a l l y , t h e l i m i t o f h i s c h a r i t y . The second day's b a t t l e c o n s t i t u t e s a t e s t of t h e k n i g h t ' s hope, t h e v i r t u e w h i c h s h i e l d s t h e s o u l from t h e D r a g o n , . e v i l , w o r l d l i n e s s , and t h e f l e s h . D u r i n g t h e b a t t l e , t h e Dragon p i e r c e s t h e k n i g h t ' s , s h i e l d ( x i . 3 8 ) , and t h e n a t t e m p t s t o t e a r t h e s h i e l d f r o m t h e k n i g h t ' s g r a s p ( x i . 4 0 - 4 1 ) . U n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e a t t e m p t , t h e Dragon r e s o r t s t o f l a m e . The e f f e c t i s t h a t t h e k n i g h t i s , . . . f o r s t . . . t o r e t i r e A l i t t l e b a c k w a r d : f o r h i s - b e s t d e f e n c e , To s a v e h i s b o d i e f r o m t h e s c h o r c h i n g , f i r e , Which he f r o m h e l l i s h e n t r a i l e s d i d e x p i r e . ( x i . 4 5 ) 129 The p i e r c i n g o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s h i e l d and t h e wound t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s ( x i . 3 8 ) argues t h e l i m i t e d n a t u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s hope. H i s r e t r e a t b e f o r e t h e f o r c e o f t h e Dragon suggests, t h e e v e n t u a l t r i u m p h o f w o r l d l i n e s s , e v i l , and t h e f l e s h . However, u n l i k e .the f i r s t day's . b a t t l e , t h e k n i g h t does n o t d e s i r e t o abandon t h e f i g h t , and h i s r e t r e a t . i s an e f f o r t t o d e f e n d h i s body from t h e f l a m e s . Though w h i l e t h e e f f e c t i s n o t d e s p a i r o r t h e abandonment o f r e a s o n , t h e k n i g h t ' s r e t i r i n g p o s t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h e weakness o f t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l and t h e . i n a b i l i t y o f hope t o s h i e l d t h e k n i g h t f r o m t h e Dragon's f o r c e . The weakness o f t h e f l e s h draws t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l ' t o i t s c a r e , f o r c i n g a r e t r e a t f r o m t h e b a t t l e w i t h e v i l , a r e t r e a t w h i c h marks an advance f o r t h e Dragon and a s i g n of h i s impending c o n q u e s t of hope. God's p r o v i d e n c e i n t e r v e n e s a t t h i s p o i n t i n the 1 b a t t l e , and t h e k n i g h t f a l l s under t h e t r e e o f l i f e ( x i . 4 5 ) . The b a l m w h i c h f l o w s f r o m t h e t r e e of l i f e and r e s t o r e s t h e 16 k n i g h t i s the o i l o f mercy. .'While t h e balm i s a t o k e n o f God's C h a r i t y , t h e t r e e o f l i f e s e r v e s t o s u s t a i n Hope. A u g u s t i n e p o i n t s out t h a t " C h r i s t h i m s e l f i s p r o p h e t i c a l l y c a l l e d t h e T r e e o f L i f e . " " ' " 7 The p r o m i s e o f h i s r e t u r n , the p r o m i s e o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e t r e e of l i f e t o God's chosen p e o p l e a t t h e l a s t judgement u p h o l d s hope. , I t i s l i k e t h e g i f t g i v e n Red C r o s s K n i g h t by A r t h u r ( i x . 1 9 ) . . W i t h God's a i d , t h e k n i g h t w i t h s t a n d s t h e s e t e s t s o f c h a r i t y and hope, t e s t s of t h e a p p e t i t i v e and r a t i o n a l s o u l ' s c o n t r o l o f t h e f l e s h . On t h e t h i r d day of t h e b a t t l e , t h e k n i g h t d i s p a t c h e s t h e Dragon w i t h ease ( x i . 5 3 - 5 4 ) . The t e s t of Red C r o s s K n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s i s c o m p l e t e d when 130 Archimago p r e s e n t s Duessa's c h a r g e s a g a i n s t t h e k n i g h t i n t h e c o u r t o f Una's p a r e n t s . F a i t h i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e , . a f u n c t i o n of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u l , and i n . i t s t e s t t h e k n i g h t i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h d u p l i c i t y and d e c e i t . The m i s s i v e Archimago d e l i v e r s i s s i g n e d F i d e s s a , c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h ( x i i . 2 8 ) . I t c o n t a i n s F i d e s s a ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e k n i g h t i s f a i t h l e s s : To me sad mayd, o r r a t h e r widow sad,. He was a f f i a u n c e d . l o n g t i m e b e f o r e , And s a c r e d p l e d g e s he b o t h gave, and had, .-. F a l s e e r r a u n t k n i g h t , i n f a m o u s , and f o r s w o r e : W i t n e s s e t h e b u r n i n g A l t a r s , w h i c h he swore, And g u i l t i e heavens of h i s b o l d p e r i u r y , Which though he h a t h p o l l u t e d o f t of y o r e , Y e t I t o them f o r judgement j u s t do f l y , And them c o n j u r e t'avenge t h i s s h a m e f u l l i n j u r y . ( x i i . 2 7 ) The i r o n y o f F i d e s s a ' s c l a i m i s t h a t i f t h e k n i g h t i s g u i l t y , as she c h a r g e s , t h e n i t does appear t h a t he b e l o n g s t o c o u n t e r f e i t f a i t h , F i d e s s a . The k n i g h t w i s e l y p l e a d s i n n o c e n c e and human weakness as t h e causes o f h i s companionship w i t h F i d e s s a : . . . unwares I s t r a y d Out of my way, t h r o u g h p e r i l s s t r a u n g e and h a r d ; That day s h o u l d f a i l e me, ere- I had them a l l d e c l a r d . There d i d I f i n d , o r r a t h e r I was found Of t h i s f a l s e woman, t h a t F i d e s s a h i g h t , F i d e s s a h i g h t t h e f a l s e s t Dame on g r o u n d , Most f a l s e D u e ssa, r o y a l l r i c h l y d i g h t , That e a s i e was t ' i n v e g l e weaker s i g h t : Who by h e r w i c k e d a r t s , and w y l i e s k i l l , Too f a l s e and s t r o n g f o r e a r t h l y s k i l l o r m i g h t , Unwares me wrought u n t o h e r w i c k e d w i l l , And t o my f o e b e t r a y d , when l e a s t I f e a r e d i l l . ( x i i . 3 1 - 3 2 ) The k n i g h t , by h i s t e s t i m o n y , d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s knowledge o f t h e weakness 131 of man and of t h e w o r k i n g s o f e v i l , t h e r e b y s u r m o u n t i n g t h i s f i n a l t e s t o f h i s H o l i n e s s . F a l s e f a i t h , F i d e s s a , i s unmasked as d e c e i t , D u e s s a , and t h e t h r e a t t o f a i t h d i s p e l l e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , Una comes f o r w a r d t o w i t n e s s t h e k n i g h t ' s t e s t i m o n y , b u t t h e w i t n e s s i s a f o r m a l i t y ( x i i . 3 3 - 3 4 ) , t h e k n i g h t , on h i s own, has r e c o g n i z e d t h e t r u t h . T h i s l a s t s e r i e s o f t e s t s i s a t r i a l of t h e k n i g h t ' s p e r f e c t e d H o l i n e s s , and i t has f o l l o w e d t h e o r d e r o f p e r f e c t i o n o f i t s p a r t s , c h a r i t y f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by hope and f a i t h . The k n i g h t ' s s u c c e s s p r o v e s t h e p e r f e c t i o n of h i s m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , and hence of h i s s o u l . M a r r i a g e t o Una and t e m p o r a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h e r f o l l o w , b u t t h e qu e s t and c o u r t s h i p a r e c o n c l u d e d . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book Two o f The F a e r i e Queene, t h e k n i g h t i s t o o wary t o succumb t o t h e t r i c k e r y o f Archimago ( I I . i . 4 ) . 132 NOTES R u s k i n i d e n t i f i e s h e r as "Heavenly G r a c e " (Works, I , 4 2 4 ) . The n a t u r e o f t h e k n i g h t ' s s o j o u r n i n C a e l i a ' s House o f H o l i n e s s i s b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d , I t h i n k , by i d e n t i f y i n g h e r as h e a v e n l y wisdom. The k n i g h t a c q u i r e s t h e knowledge o f H o l i n e s s under C a e l i a ' s g e n e r a l d i r -e c t i o n . 2 A g a i n , Spenser i s f o l l o w i n g A r i s t o t l e ' s g e n e r a l d i v i s i o n b e -tween n a t u r a l v i r t u e and t r u e v i r t u e . , . ' 3 C a s t i g l i o n e , p. 336. 4 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 41. ^ I n s t i t u t e s , I I I , 653, and Hebrews 11:1. B o t h a r e c i t e d i n K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , pp. 40-41. Romans 8:24-25 a s s o c i a t e s p a t i e n c e w i t h hope. ^1 C o r i n t h i a n s 13:13, and A q u i n a s , 151-54. ^ A q u i n a s , 153. 9 On t h e seven c o r p o r a l works of mercy see Messenger., pp. 18-19. 1 0 0 n C o n t e m p l a t i o n s e e , T e r e n c e Hawkes, Shakespeare and t h e  Reason (London, 1964) , pp. 30-31. ''""''Nelson, p. 151. 12 E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s l a s t s t a g e of t h e q u e s t i s a r e - t e s t i n g of t h e k n i g h t ' s H o l i n e s s , w i t h s u c c e s s p r o o f of h i s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t r u t h and t h e m a r r i a g e a f o r m a l t e s t i m o n y t o h i s H o l y c h a r a c t e r . 13 K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 45; see a l s o , Works, I , 295. 14 R e v e l a t i o n s 2:10. 1 5 N e l s o n , p. 167; see a l s o T y n d a l e , T h e ^ W o r k n o f ^ W i l l i a m T y n d a l e , edtfnGb.iEg Duf f i e M n ( E h i l a d e i p h i a ' j . ' ; ! 9 6 5 ) -'hp. f 4 Tyson- b a p t i s m as a quenching' and d r o w n i n g of t h e l u s t s o f t h e f l e s h . ' ^ ^ g / . u g u s t i r . z C i L y of Cod_5 .'x.2C. A u g u s t i n e , C i t y of God, xx.26. BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 134 BIBLIOGRAPHY T e x t s of The F a e r i e Queene Sp e n s e r , Edmund. The Works o f Edmund Spenser : A V a r i o r u m E d i t i o n , - ed. Edwin G r e e n l a w , C.G. Osgood, F. M. P a d e l f o r d , e t a l . 10 V o l s . B a l t i m o r e , 1932-1949. . The P o e t i c a l Works of Edmund Spenser,. ed. J . C. S m i t h . 3 V o l s . O x f o r d , 1964. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Books I and I I of "The F a e r i e Queene," ed. R o b e r t K e l l o g g and O l i v e r S t e e l e . New Y o r k , 1965, . "The F a e r i e Queene," Book One, ed. L i l l i a n W i n s t a n l e y . 2nd e d i t i o n . London, 1955. . "The F a e r i e Queene," Book Two, ed. L i l l i a n W i n s t a n l e y . Cambridge, 1919. C r i t i c a l Books and A r t i c l e s on The F a e r i e Queene A l p e r s , P a u l J . The P o e t r y o f "The F a e r i e Queene." P r i n c e t o n , 1967. B e n n e t t , J o s e p h i n e W a t e r s . The E v o l u t i o n o f "The F a e r i e Queene." C h i c a g o , 1942. B e r g e r , H a r r y J r . The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper. New Haven, 1957. Du n s e a t h , T. K. • Spenser's a l l e g o r y of J u s t i c e i n book f i v e o f "The  F a e r i e Queene." P r i n c e t o n , 1968. Evans, M a u r i c e . Spenser's Anatomy of Heroism. London, 1970. G r e e n l a w , Edwin. S t u d i e s i n S p e n s e r ' s H i s t o r i c a l A l l e g o r y . B a l t i m o r e , 1932. Hough, Graham. A P r e f a c e t o "The F a e r i e Queene." London, 1962. Hughes, M e r r i t t Y. "The A r t h u r s o f The F a e r i e Queene," EA, V I ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 193-213. 135 N e l s o n , W i l l i a m . The P o e t r y of Edmund Spenser. New Y o r k , 1963. P a d e l f o r d , F. M. "Spenser and t h e T h e o l o g y of C a l v i n , " MP, X I I ( 1 9 1 4 ) , 1-18. R u s k i n , J o h n . Stones of V e n i c e . 3 V o l s . London, 1892. S a l e , Roger. R e a d i n g Spenser: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New Y o r k . 1968. T o r c z o n , V e r n . "Spenser's O r g o g l i o and D e s p a i r e , " TSLL, I I I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 123-128. W a t e r s , D. D o u g l a s . Duessa as T h e o l o g i c a l S a t i r e . C o l u m b i a , 1970. W h i t a k e r , V i r g i l K. The R e l i g i o u s B a s i s of Spenser's Thought, S t a n f o r d U n i v . Pubs, i n Lang, and L i t . , V I I , No. 3. S t a n f o r d , 1950. . "The T h e o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e of The F a e r i e Queene, Book I , " That S o v e r a i n e L i g h t , ed. W i l l i a m R. M u e l l e r and D. C. A l l e n . B a l t i m o r e , 1952, 11-84. Woodhouse, A. S. P. " N a t u r e and Grace i n The F a e r i e Queene," ELH, XVI ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 194-228. , Wurtsbaugh, J e w e l * Two C e n t u r i e s o f S p e n s e r i a n S c h o l a r s h i p . B a l t i m o r e , 1936. Background M a t e r i a l Anon.. "The T r e e of L i f e , " J o u r n a l of S a c r e d L i t e r a t u r e , X X X V I - ( J a n u a r y , 1 8 6 4 ) , 27-50. A q u i n a s , S t . Thomas. The "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " o f St.,Thomas A q u i n a s , t r a n s . F a t h e r s of t h e E n g l i s h D o m i n i c a n P r o v i n c e . 2 V o l s . London, 1915. . S_t. Thomas A q u i n a s , T h e o l o g i c a l T e x t s , s e l e c t e d and ed. Thomas G i l b y . London, 1955. A r i o s t o . O r l a n d o f u r i o s o , t r a n s . W. S. Rose,.ed. S t e w a r t Baker and B a r t l e t t G i a m e t t i . I n d i a n a p o l i s , 1968. A r i s t o t l e . The E t h i c s of A r i s t o t l e , t r a n s . J . A. K. Thomson. London, 1955. 136 A u g u s t i n e , S t . C i t y o f God, t r a n s . Marcus Dodd. New Y o r k , 1950. . "De G e n e s i c o n t f a ' M a n i c h e o s , " P a t r i l o g i a L a t i n a , XXXIV, ed. J . P. Migne. P a r i s , 1877. C a l v i n , J o h n . I n s t i t u t e s o f The C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n , t r a n s . Henry B e v e r i d g e . 2 V o l s . London, 1953. C a s t i g l i o n e . The Book of t h e C o u r t i e r , t r a n s . C h a r l e s S i n g l e t o n . New Y o r k , 1959. C a x t o n , W i l l i a m . Caxton's Game and P l a y of Chesse, 1474. London, 1883. Gawain-Poet. The Complete Works of t h e Gawain-Poet, t r a n s . John G a r d n e r . C h i c a g o , 1965. J e w e l , J o h n . An A p o l o g y o f t h e Church of E n g l a n d , ed. J . E. P a r k e r . I t h a c a , 1963. K r i s t e l l e r , P. 0. The P h i l o s o p h y of M a r s i l i o F i c i n o . New Y o r k , 19.43. Messenger, R u t h E l l i s . E t h i c a l T e a c h i n g s i n t h e L a t i n Hymns of M e d i e v a l  E n g l a n d . New Y o r k , 1930. O v i d . Shakespeare's O v i d : The Metamorphoses, t r a n s . A r t h u r G o l d i n g , ed. W. H. D. Rouse. New Y o r k , 1966. P l a t o . The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , t r a n s . . a n d ed. B. J o w e t t . 4 V o l s . London, 1871. S t . J o h n of t h e C r o s s . ' The C o l l e c t e d Works o f S t . J o h n , o f t h e C r o s s , t r a n s . Kavannaugh and R o d r i g u e z . London, 1966. S i d n e y , S i r P h i l i p . S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , S e l e c t e d P r o s e and P o e t r y , ed. R o b e r t Kimbrough. New Y o r k , 1969. S t a n l e y , Thomas. Poems and T r a n s l a t i o n s , ed. G. M. Crump. O x f o r d , 1962. T a s s o . G o d f r e y of B u l l o i g n e , t r a n s . . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . London, 1858. T i l l y a r d , E. M. W. The E l i z a b e t h a n W o r l d P i c t u r e . London, 1966. T y n d a l e , W i l l i a m . The Work o f W i l l i a m T y n d a l e , ed. G. E. D u f f i e l d . P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1965. 

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