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The development of the perception of emotion from vocal cues Pennington, Helen Rosemary 1972

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERCEPTION OF EMOTION FROM VOCAL CUES by HELEN ROSEMARY PENNINGTON B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i c e s t e r , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make it f r ee ly a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th is t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . The Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columb Vancouver 8, Canada Department i i ABSTRACT The p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n t h e p e r -c e p t i o n o f emotions from v o c a l c u e s . S u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 20 c h i l d r e n from each o f Grades 3, 5, and 7, and 20 c o l l e g e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s , w i t h e q u a l numbers o f males and fe m a l e s a t each age l e v e l . They h e a r d a tape c o n t a i n i n g 16 b r i e f s p e e c h s a m p l e s , s e l e c t e d from d r a m a t i c r e c o r d i n g s o f b o t h male and female v o i c e s , t o r e p r e s e n t h a p p i n e s s , s a d n e s s , a n g e r , o r f e a r . The samples had been r e n d e r e d u n i n t e l l i g i b l e by means o f randomized s p l i c i n g . S u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e emo t i o n p o r t r a y e d i n each s a m p l e , f r o m a l i s t c o n t a i n i n g t h e f o u r p o s s i b l e e m o t i o n s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y was a f f e c t e d by age o f j u d g e s , w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d o i n g b e t t e r t h a n s c h o o l -c h i l d r e n . S i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y were a l s o f o u n d f o r t y p e o f e m o t i o n , and s e x o f s p e a k e r . The Sex o f Judges X Sex o f Speaker i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h f e m a l e j u d g e s p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r t h a n male j u d g e s when t h e s p e a k e r was f e m a l e , and male j u d g e s p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r t h a n female j u d g e s when t h e s p e a k e r was male. The Type o f Emotion X Sex o f Speaker i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h h a p p i n e s s b e i n g more o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y w i t h a femal e s p e a k e r t h a n w i t h a male s p e a k e r . E v i d e n c e o f r e s p o n s e b i a s was fo u n d . The r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f e r r o r were found t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom t h o s e p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e b i a s and d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e a c c u r a c y f o r each e m o t i o n . The p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h age. Grade 7 j u d g e s d e v i a t e d most from t h e i r i i i p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n , and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d e v i a t e d l e a s t . Sex o f s p e a k e r a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s , w i t h s e v e r a l t y p e s o f e r r o r , i n -c l u d i n g s t i m u l u s ' s a d n e s s ' - r e s p o n s e ' f e a r 1 , b e i n g more common w i t h female s p e a k e r s , and o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g s t i m u l u s ' h a p p i n e s s ' - r e s p o n s e 'anger', b e i n g more common w i t h male s p e a k e r s . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t u d i e s l i k e t h e p r e s e n t one were d i s c u s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e g a r d s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e speech samples used. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS DISCUSSION REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C V LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s o f Type o f 15 E m o t i o n , Age and Sex o f J u d g e s , and Sex o f S p e a k e r , on Number o f C o r r e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s TABLE 2 Means f o r Number o f C o r r e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f 16 each S t i m u l u s C o m b i n a t i o n (Type o f E m o t i o n x Sex o f S p e a k e r ) , f o r each Age and Sex o f Judges TABLE 3 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s o f Type o f E m o t i o n 19 as Response, Age and Sex of J u d g e s , and Sex o f S p e a k e r , on P e r c e n t o f Responses C o r r e c t TABLE 4 Means f o r P e r c e n t o f Responses C o r r e c t , f o r each 20 Type o f E m o t i o n g i v e n as Response, w i t h each Age and Sex o f J u d g e s , and Sex o f S p e a k e r TABLE A l Fr e q u e n c y o f Each Type o f Response 40 TABLE B l T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e 44 C o m b i n a t i o n s TABLE B2 T o t a l C h i - s q u a r e d S c o r e s f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r 45 TABLE B3 E f f e c t s o f Age o f Judges on F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e C o m b i n a t i o n s TABLE B4 C h i - s q u a r e d S c o r e s f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r a t Each Age L e v e l TABLE B5 E f f e c t s o f S p e a k e r Sex on F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e C o m b i n a t i o n s TABLE B6 C h i - s q u a r e d S c o r e s f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r , w i t h Each Sex o f S p e a k e r TABLE B7 E f f e c t s o f Sex o f Judges on F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e C o m b i n a t i o n s 46 47 48 49 50 INTRODUCTION The s t u d y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s paper c o n c e r n s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a s p e a k e r ' s e m o t i o n s t h r o u g h v o c a l c u e s . P e r c e p t i o n o f e m o t i o n was t h e f i r s t a r e a t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n ( T a g i u r i , 1 9 6 8 ) , and r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a s t i l l c o n t i n u e s . The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a c i a l cues t o e m o t i o n , b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has b e e n i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n v o c a l cues', t h a t i s , cues c a r r i e d by n o n - l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f s p e e c h s u c h as p i t c h , tempo, and a m p l i t u d e . R e s e a r c h i n t h i s l a t t e r a r e a has been r e v i e w e d by S t a r k w e a t h e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Duncan ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and V e t t e r ( 1 9 6 9 ) . B e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s c r i b e d , i t w i l l be p u t i n t o c o n t e x t t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g o a l s , m e t h o d o l o g y , and f i n d i n g s o f r e l e v a n t e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h . The e a r l i e s t e x p e r i m e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h v o c a l cues t o e m o t i o n were m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i n d i n g out w h e t h e r emo t i o n s can be a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d f r o m v o c a l cues a l o n e , and i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c o g n i s i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c e motions ( e . g . , D u s e n b e r r y and Knower, 1939; Thompson and Bradway, 1950; P f a f f , 1 9 5 4 ) . E a r l y r e s e a r c h was a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c v o c a l cues i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f e m o t i o n ( e . g . , S k i n n e r , 1935; Knower, 1941; F a i r b a n k s and H o a g l i n , 1941). I n t h e 1960s, t h e r e was renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a . By t h i s t i m e , t h e v o c a l , o r p a r a l i n g u i s t i c , a s p e c t o f s p e e c h was r e c o g n i s e d as an i m p o r t a n t c h a n n e l f o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f e m o t i o n . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s , s u c h as D a v i t z ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and A r g y l e (1969), s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f a f f e c t i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e v o c a l c h a n n e l , and 2 p r o b a b l y has u n l e a r n e d i n n a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d a s p e c t s , w h i l e s e m a n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s c a r r i e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e s e p a r a t e v e r b a l c h a n n e l . Some r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d a t p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l cues and p a t t e r n s o f cues - i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s o r d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning ( e . g . , D a v i t z , 1964; C o s t a n z o , M a r k e l , and C o s t a n z o , 1969; S c h e r e r , 1 9 7 1 a ) . T h i s r e s e a r c h has been a i d e d by developments i n methods o f a n a l y s i n g and s y n t h e s i s i n g s p e e c h sounds. O t h e r s t u d i e s h a ve l o o k e d f o r p e r s o n a l i t y and o t h e r c o r r e l a t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y t o encode o r decode v o c a l cues t o e m o t i o n ( e . g . , D a v i t z , 1964; Z a i d e l and M e h r a b i a n , 1969). There i s a l s o a s m a l l b u t g r o w i n g body o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h a f f e c t i v e cues o f v a r i o u s m o d a l i t i e s , s u c h as v o c a l , v i s u a l , and v e r b a l , a r e i n t e g r a t e d by t h e p e r c e i v e r ( e . g . , M e h r a b i a n and F e r r i s , 1967; B u g e n t a l , Kaswan, and L o v e , 1 9 7 0 a ) . A t t e m p t s have a l s o been made a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f a s e t o f ma j o r d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e v o c a l m o d a l i t y ( e . g . , D a v i t z , 1964; W i l l i a m s and Sundene, 1965). The methodology o f t h e s t u d i e s on v o c a l cues t o e m o t i o n r e q u i r e s some m e n t i o n h e r e . I n most s t u d i e s , j u d g e s a r e a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y o r r a t e t h e e m o t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by s p e a k e r s , f r o m v o c a l cues a l o n e . T y p i c a l l y , s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s a r e u s e d , each s p e a k e r e x p r e s s i n g s e v e r a l e m o t i o n s . The speech samples a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e j u d g e s i n t h e form o f tape r e c o r d i n g s . G e n e r a l l y , j u d g e s have t o choose t h e ' c o r r e c t ' e m o t i o n f r o m a g i v e n l i s t ; i n some c a s e s they have t o r a t e t h e e x p r e s s e d e m o t i o n s on v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s , such as 3 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s ( e . g . , Costanzo et a l . , 1969; S c h e r e r , K o i v u m a k i , and R o s e n t h a l , 1972) . The ' c o r r e c t ' emotion i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as tha t which the speaker was i n s t r u c t e d to p o r t r a y . I n some cases the samples are s e l e c t e d by e x t e r n a l judges as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p a r t i c u l a r emotions ( e . g . , Scherer e t a l . , 1972) . I n a few s t u d i e s u s i n g spontaneous speech , b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s have been employed as e x -t e r n a l c r i t e r i a of v a l i d i t y : f o r i n s t a n c e , M i l m o e , Novey, Kagan, and R o s e n t h a l (1968) found tha t judgments of emotions i n mothers ' s p o n t a n -eous speech were r e l a t e d to b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The main problem encountered i n these experiments has been to f i n d ways of c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the semantic content of the speech samples . S e v e r a l methods have been t r i e d . I n some e x p e r i m e n t s , speakers (who may be p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s , u n t r a i n e d s t u d e n t s , or academic l i n g u i s t s ) , r e c i t e the a l p h a b e t , numbers, o r nonsense m a t e r i a l , t r y i n g to express a d i f f e r e n t emotion each t ime they r e c i t e the m a t e r i a l ( e . g . , P f a f f , 1954; D a v i t z and D a v i t z , 1959a ,b ) . In o ther e x p e r i m e n t s , speakers r e c i t e a s t a n d a r d , supposedly n e u t r a l , v e r b a l passage, ag a i n b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d to express a d i f f e r e n t emotion f o r each r e c i t a t i o n ( e . g . , P o l l a c k , R u b e n s t e i n , and H o r o w i t z , 1960; D i m i t r o v s k y , 1964) . I s o -l a t e d s t u d i e s have used tapes p l a y e d backwards (Knower, 1941) , w h i s p e r e d speech ( P o l l a c k et a l . , 1960) , and speech i n a f o r e i g n language (Kramer, 1964). Two r a t h e r more e l a b o r a t e techniques have been d e v e l o p e d , bo th of which permi t the use of speech samples i n -v o l v i n g e m o t i o n a l l y meaningful v e r b a l c o n t e n t . Such samples may be o b t a i n e d from r e c o r d i n g s of spontaneous speech ( e . g . , Milmoe e t a l . ) , or from r e a l i s t i c dramat ic p r o d u c t i o n s (Scherer e t a l . , 1972). One 4 o f t h e s e c o n t e n t - m a s k i n g t e c h n i q u e s i s e l e c t r o n i c f i l t e r i n g , i n w h i c h r e c o r d e d s p eech samples a r e p a s s e d t h r o u g h a bandpass f i l t e r t o f i l t e r o u t h i g h - f r e q u e n c y s o u n d s , t h e main c a r r i e r s o f s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t ( e . g . , Kramer, 1964). The o t h e r c o n t e n t - m a s k i n g t e c h n i q u e i s ran d o m i z e d s p l i c i n g . W i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e , t h e l e n g t h o f t a p e c o n t a i n -s i n g a sample o f a p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n i s chopped i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s ; t h e s e a r e t h e n s p l i c e d b a c k t o g e t h e r i n random o r d e r , r e n d e r i n g t h e speech u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . B o t h methods e n t a i l t h e l o s s o f some v o c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s p e e c h . E l e c t r o n i c f i l t e r i n g removes some o f t h e v o i c e s p e c t r u m . Randomized s p l i c i n g removes such s e q u e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f sp e e c h as s t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n , and t o some e x t e n t s p e e d , w h i l e r e t a i n -i n g l e v e l and amount of v a r i a t i o n o f p i t c h and a m p l i t u d e , as w e l l as r a t e and c l a r i t y o f a r t i c u l a t i o n on t h e phonemic l e v e l . L i t t l e i s known r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a l l t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n methodology d e s c r i b e d above. I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o make d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n s o f the r e s u l t s o f d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s , b e c a u s e t h e s t u d i e s v a r y on so many d i m e n s i o n s , s u c h as l e n g t h and s o u r c e o f s p e e c h s a m p l e s , t y p e o f j u d g e s and s p e a k e r s , and t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f e m o t i o n used as s t i m u l i and r e s p o n s e s . Only r a r e l y have a t t e m p t s been made to compare s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d under d i f f e r e n t methods. Kramer (1964) found t h a t judgments o f emo t i o n f r o m s t a n d a r d - c o n t e n t passages were about as a c c u r a t e as judgments f r o m f i l t e r e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e same p a s s a g e s , b u t t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among j u d g e s i n a c c u r a c y o f judgments d i f f e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method use d . T h i s l a t t e r f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l judgments under d i f f e r e n t methods may depend t o some e x t e n t on d i f f e r e n t 5 a b i l i t i e s . Scherer et a l . (1972) compared judgments under electronic f i l t e r i n g and randomized splicing conditions, using the same speech samples. They found greater inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y with randomized splicing, in rating speech samples on -the evaluation, potency, and activity dimensions of emotional meaning, and suggested that the cues retained after randomized splicing may be the least ambiguous and being fewer, less liable to cue discrepancy. Judges in the electronic f i l t e r i n g condition may have tried to identify words: the effect of electronic f i l t e r i n g i s supposed to be "a kind of mumble, as though heard through a wall" (Starkweather, 1956). Regardless of methodological differences, some consistencies can be found in the results of the studies concerning perception of emotion through vocal cues. It seems that a large number of emotions can be recognised with far more than chance accuracy from vocal cues alone. In some cases, judgments of emotion on the basis of vocal cues alone can be at least as accurate as judgments on the basis of vocal plus verbal cues (e.g., Starkweather, 1956). Some emotions are much easier to recognise than others. Davitz and Davitz (1959a) found anger and fear to be the most easily recognised from a l i s t of ten emotions, while love and pride were the most d i f f i c u l t . Kramer (1964) found the most easily recognised emotion to be anger, followed by grief, indifference, love, and contempt, in that order (only those five emotions were used). Zaidel and Mehrabian (1969) found that disliking was better recognised than l i k i n g . Wide individual differences have been found in the effectiveness of judges and speakers, but the reasons for these differences are 6 l a r g e l y unknown. P f a f f (1954) f o u n d t h a t a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i s e e m o t i o n s f r o m v o c a l cues was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . D a v i t z (1964) found t h a t t h e same a b i l i t y was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h l e v e l s o f v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , a b s t r a c t s y m b o l i c a c t i v i t y , a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y , and knowledge about t h e v o c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . R e p o r t s o f s e x d i f f e r -ences have been i n c o n s i s t e n t , i n d i c a t i n g sometimes t h a t women make b e t t e r j u d g e s ( P f a f f , 1954; Z a i d e l and M e h r a b i a n , 1 9 6 9 ) , and sometimes t h a t t h e r e i s no s e x d i f f e r e n c e ( D u s e n b e r r y and Knower, 1939; Fay and M i d d l e t o n , 1940; M i l l e r , 1 9 6 6 ) . Z a i d e l and M e h r a b i a n (1969) f o u n d t h a t men were b e t t e r a t e x p r e s s i n g l i k i n g t h a n women we r e , w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r d i s l i k i n g . R e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d a number o f v o c a l cues i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e m o t i o n . These cues i n c l u d e p i t c h l e v e l ( F a i r b a n k s and P r o n o v o s t , 1 9 3 9 ) , a m p l i t u d e l e v e l ( S k i n n e r , 1 9 3 5 ) , a m p l i t u d e and p i t c h v a r i a t i o n ( S c h e r e r , 1 9 7 1 a ) , r a t e o f sp e e c h ( F a i r b a n k s and H o a g l i n , 1 9 4 1 ) , and s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f s p e e c h (Knower, 1 9 4 1 ) . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s and d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning a r e communicated t h r o u g h p a r t i c u l a r cues and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f c u e s . C o s t a n z o e t a l . (1969) f o u n d t h a t judgments o f g r i e f were s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o p i t c h l e v e l , judgments o f anger and contempt t o a m p l i t u d e l e v e l . S c h e r e r (1971a) found r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a m p l i -tude l e v e l and p o t e n c y j u d g m e n t s , p i t c h l e v e l and v a r i a t i o n and e v a l u a t i v e j u d g m e n t s , p i t c h and a m p l i t u d e v a r i a t i o n , and tempo, and b o t h p o t e n c y and a c t i v i t y j u dgments. Many cues a r e p r o b a b l y i n t e r -c h a n g e a b l e : i t seems t h a t e m o t i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y f r o m 7 a very s m a l l set of cues (Scherer et a l . , 1972). W i l l i a m s and Sundene (1965) found three major dimensions of r e c o g n i t i o n f o r v o c a l cues, using f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of responses on Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s , to v o c a l expressions of emotion. They l a b e l l e d the dimensions e v a l u a t i v e , a c t i v i t y , and s o c i a l c o n t r o l (but suggested that t h i s l a s t may have been an experimental a r t i f a c t ) . In the same study, these dimensions were a l s o found a p p l i c a b l e to percep-t i o n of emotion through v i s u a l cues, and through v i s u a l and v o c a l cues combined. The dimensions were s i m i l a r to those reported by Osgood (1962), and o t h e r s , f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of emotion from f a c i a l cues. Developmental Research Almost a l l the research on p e r c e p t i o n of emotion through v o c a l cues has been done w i t h a d u l t s , both as speakers and as judges. One exc e p t i o n , only i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the present study, i s an e x p e r i -ment by Bugental et a l (1970b) on developmental changes i n the r e l a t i v e weightings given to cues from the v i s u a l , v o c a l , and v e r b a l m o d a l i t i e s , i n the p e r c e p t i o n of e v a l u a t i v e messages. The only age-trend found was f o r the v i s u a l channel, which had l e s s impact on young c h i l d r e n . Another exception i s an e a r l y study by Gates (1927) who t e s t e d c h i l d r e n i n grades 3 to 8 on the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y emotions expressed through r e c i t a t i o n of the alphabet by a d u l t s , and found that t h i s a b i l i t y was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age. Only a b r i e f summary of her research i s a v a i l a b l e today. P f a f f (1954), i n the study reported p r e v i o u s l y , found that c o l l e g e s tudents, and hig h S.E.S. J u n i o r High School students were b e t t e r judges than low S.E.S. J u n i o r High School students; d e t a i l s of the ages of h i s judges are not given. B l a u (1964) found 8 t h a t age was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b l i n d a d o l e s c e n t s as j u d g e s o f e m o t i o n f r o m v o c a l c u e s , b u t does n o t r e p o r t d e t a i l s o f ages. D i m i t r o v s k y (1964) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a g e - t r e n d s i n t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n s f r o m v o c a l c u e s . She used f o u r t e e n c h i l d r e n o f e i t h e r s e x a t each y e a r l e v e l f r o m f i v e t o t w e l v e , o f l o w e r S.E.S. The s p e a k e r s were men and women, w i t h t w e l v e s p e e c h i t e m s by e i t h e r s e x , t h r e e f o r each o f t h e e m o t i o n s : s a d , happy, a n g r y , and l o v i n g . The s t a n d a r d -p a r a g r a p h method was used. I n s t e a d o f c h e c k i n g o f f t h e c o r r e c t e m o t i o n f r o m a g i v e n l i s t , t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e w i t h a d u l t s , t h e c h i l d r e n were t r a i n e d t o a s s o c i a t e each o f f o u r p i c t u r e s o f a man, and eac h o f f o u r p i c t u r e s o f a woman, w i t h one o f t h e f o u r e m o t i o n s , t o a c r i t e r i o n o f two c o n s e c u t i v e c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f a l l t h e p i c -t u r e s . Judges t h e n r e s p o n d e d t o t h e v o i c e samples by c h o o s i n g one o f t h e p i c t u r e s . The g o a l o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e was t o e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e a d t h e names o f t h e e m o t i o n s . D i m i t r o v s k y ' s main f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y w i t h age. G i r l s were s u p e r i o r t o boys e x c e p t a t t h e f i v e - y e a r o l d l e v e l . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f e m o t i o n s : s a d n e s s was most o f t e n r e c o g n i s e d c o r r e c t l y , f o l l o w e d by a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , and l o v e , i n t h a t o r d e r . C h i l d r e n showed e v i d e n c e o f r e s p o n s e b i a s , i n t h a t t h e y gave t h e r e s p o n s e s s a d and ang r y more o f t e n t h a n happy and l o v i n g , and t h i s t e n d e n c y c o u l d l a r g e l y a c c o u n t f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c u r a c y i n r e c o g n i s i n g the f o u r e m o t i o n s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f e m i t t e d r e s p o n s e s o f each k i n d w h i c h were c o r r e c t was about t h e same. M i s t a k e s were s i m i l a r t o t h e 9 i n t e n d e d e m o t i o n i n terms o f t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n o f e m o t i o n a l mean-i n g (Osgood, 1 9 6 2 ) , i . e . , h a p p i n e s s and anger were o f t e n c o n f u s e d , as were sadness and l o v e . T h e r e were no c l e a r s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p a t t e r n o f c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s made by c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t ages. Male and female s p e a k e r s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r e f f e c t i v e -n e ss a t com m u n i c a t i n g s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s , men b e i n g b e t t e r a t communi-c a t i n g s a d n e s s and l o v e , women a t co m m u n i c a t i n g a n g e r . S e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s and comments can be made c o n c e r n i n g t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . F i r s t l y , t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f u s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d -p a r a g r a p h method, as i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , a r e unknown. S e c o n d l y , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n t e n d e d t o g i v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s may have been an e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i f a c t , i n one o f two ways. P o s s i b l y th e p i c t u r e s had u n e q u a l s u b j e c t i v e g e n e r a l i t y , so t h a t when c h i l d r e n -were u n s u r e o f t h e e m o t i o n b e i n g e x p r e s s e d , t h e y t e n d e d t o choose \± p i c t u r e w h i c h was s u b j e c t i v e l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a r e l a t i v e l y b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f e m o t i o n a l c u e s : p r e s u m a b l y the p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g s a d n e s s and anger f e l l i n t o t h a t c a t e g o r y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e v e r b a l m a t e r i a l may have had n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s . ( S p e a k e r s s a i d : "I'm g o i n g out now. I won't be ba c k a l l a f t e r n o o n . I f anyone c a l l s , j u s t t e l l them I'm n o t h e r e . " ) I f the. f i n d i n g i s n o t an a r t i f a c t , i t r a i s e s t h e i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e i n c l i n e d t o a t t r i b u t e n e g a t i v e emotions t o a d u l t s . No t e n d e n c y f o r a d u l t j u d g e s to g i v e a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s has been n o t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . (However, such r e s p o n s e b i a s c o u l d e x i s t i n a d u l t s : most o r a l l s t u d i e s f a i l t o r e p o r t t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f r e s p o n s e . ) D i m i t r o v s k y ' s s t u d y sheds no l i g h t on t h e q u e s t i o n o f 10 how l o n g s e n s i t i v i t y t o v o c a l cues f o r e m o t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p . The s t u d i e s by P f a f f (1954) and B l a u (1964) m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , s u g g e s t t h a t i t may d e v e l o p t h r o u g h o u t a d o l e s c e n c e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y l o o k s a t t h e development o f t h e use o f v o c a l cues i n p e r c e i v i n g a s p e a k e r ' s e m o t i o n . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e age and s e x o f j u d g e s , s e x o f s p e a k e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n s . I n a s e n s e , t h i s s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t t o r e p l i -c a t e and e x t e n d D i m i t r o v s k y ' s f i n d i n g s , u s i n g i m p r o v e d m e t h o d o l o g y , and i n c l u d i n g a d u l t as w e l l as c h i l d j u d g e s . C l e a r l y , e x i s t i n g d a t a do n o t p e r m i t many f i r m h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f d e v e l o p -m e n t a l t r e n d s i n t h i s a r e a . The o n l y h y p o t h e s i s made, t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t a c c u r a c y i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotion s f r o m v o c a l cues i n c r e a s e s t h r o u g h o u t c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s b a s e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y and, l e s s d i r e c t l y , on f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n . P e r c e p t i o n o f emo t i o n f r o m v i s u a l cues seems t o become more a c c u r a t e w i t h age ( T a g i u r i , 1 9 6 8 ) , and improvement i s shown i n a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( F l a v e l l , 1 9 6 8 ) . 11 METHOD SECTION S u b j e c t s C h i l d r e n i n Grades 3, 5, and 7, f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m , as w e l l as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , were used as j u d g e s . The c h i l d r e n were o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d . Ten male and t e n f e m a l e j u d g e s a t each a g e - l e v e l were u s e d . M a t e r i a l Each o f t h e e m o t i o n s , s a d n e s s , f e a r , h a p p i n e s s , and a n g e r , was e x p r e s s e d by two male and two f e m a l e a d u l t s p e a k e r s . Each s p e a k e r e x p r e s s e d o n l y one e m o t i o n , so t h a t t h e r e were s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s . The speech samples were t a p e d f r o m r e c o r d s o f modern N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a y s and d r a m a t i c r e a d i n g s ( s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n A p p e n d i x C ) . The two f e m a l e f e a r samples were t a p e d f r o m a l i v e r e a d i n g by an amateur a c t r e s s , as s u i t a b l e samples c o u l d n o t be f o u n d f r o m r e c o r d s . I f t h e e m o t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s a m p l e , i n i t s f i n a l f o r m , was n o t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h above chance a c c u r a c y by Grade 7 j u d g e s i n a p i l o t s t u d y , i t was r e p l a c e d by a n o t h e r . S e m a n t i c c o n t e n t was removed by means o f r a n d o m i z e d s p l i c i n g , f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h e t e c h n i q u e d e s c r i b e d by S c h e r e r ( 1 9 7 1 b ) . Samples were r e c o r d e d a t a speed o f 3-3/4 i n c h e s p e r s e c o n d , on a Sony 630 t a p e r e c o r d e r , and the l e n g t h o f t a p e on w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r sample was r e c o r d e d was c u t i n t o r o u g h l y o n e - i n c h p i e c e s , w h i c h were t h e n s p l i c e d back t o g e t h e r i n random o r d e r , t h e t r a n s f o r m e d m a t e r i a l b e i n g f i n a l l y r e c o r d e d o n t o a new t a p e . On t h e f i n a l t a p e , the samples a p p e a r e d i n random o r d e r , w i t h a f i f t e e n s e c o n d i n t e r v a l a f t e r each one. B e f o r e each sample appeared on t h e t a p e , i t s number was announced on t h e t a p e . The f i n a l 1 2 \ samples were about e i g h t e e n seconds l o n g . Because o f d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t o r i g i n a l samples o f t h i s l e n g t h , o r i g i n a l samples as s h o r t as t e n seconds were u s e d , t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g r e p e a t e d t o make up t h e f i n a l s a m p l e s . P r o c e d u r e P i l o t s t u d i e s had shown t h a t i t was p r a c t i c a l t o t e s t j u d g e s i n s m a l l g r o u p s , so groups o f t h r e e were used. Judges were s e a t e d around t h e t a p e - r e c o r d e r , p o s i t i o n e d so t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t see how t h e o t h e r two j u d g e s were r e s p o n d i n g . Each j u d g e was g i v e n a s m a l l b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n numbered p a g e s , w i t h t h e words s a d , happy, a f r a i d , and a n g r y , on each page, i n v a r y i n g o r d e r . The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n : " I am i n t e r e s t e d t o see how w e l l p e o p l e can guess what someone e l s e i s f e e l i n g , j u s t f r o m t h e sound o f t h a t p e r s o n ' s v o i c e . You a r e g o i n g t o h e a r some v o i c e s s p e a k i n g . They w i l l sound s t r a n g e , b e c a u s e I've mixed a l l t h e words up so t h e y don't make s e n s e . I want y o u t o t r y and guess what e a c h p e r s o n i s f e e l i n g , j u s t f r o m t h e sound o f t h e v o i c e . Don't t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e p e r s o n i s s a y i n g , j u s t l i s t e n t o t h e sound o f t h e v o i c e , and guess w h e t h e r the p e r s o n i s s a d , o r a n g r y , o r happy, o r a f r a i d . When you've d e c i d e d what t h e f i r s t p e r s o n i s f e e l i n g , p u t a mark by t h e word you've c h o s e n , on t h e f i r s t page o f t h e book. Then t u r n o v e r t o the s e c o n d page, and when you've h e a r d t h e second v o i c e , put a mark by t h e word you've chosen f o r t h e s e c o n d v o i c e , t h e n t u r n o v e r t o t h e t h i r d page ready f o r t h e t h i r d v o i c e , and so on. There a r e s i x t e e n v o i c e s , and s i x t e e n p a g e s , one f o r each v o i c e . Y o u ' l l h e a r t h e number o f e a c h v o i c e spoken on t h e tape b e f o r e you h e a r t h e v o i c e , so y o u ' l l know w h i c h page you s h o u l d be on. I f you f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o choose a w o r d , j u s t make a good guess. Don't w o r r y about b e i n g wrong, t h i s i s n ' t a t e s t , j u s t be s u r e t o choose one word f o r each v o i c e and t u r n to t h e n e x t page e v e r y t i m e a f t e r you've chosen a word. Does anyone have any q u e s t i o n s ? " 13 P i l o t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m Grade 3 upwards had no t r o u b l e f o l l o w i n g t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s . D a t a were a n a l y s e d t o see i f r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y was i n f l u e n c e d by age o f j u d g e s , s e x o f j u d g e s , s e x o f s p e a k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n s , o r i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . P a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f e r r o r s made by j u d g e s o f d i f -f e r e n t ages and sexes were examined, as were p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f e r r o r e l i c i t e d by s p e a k e r s o f e i t h e r s e x . Response b i a s , b o t h o v e r a l l and as a f u n c t i o n o f j u d g e and s p e a k e r v a r i a b l e s , was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . RESULTS Amount o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n An A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d , w i t h s e x o f j u d g e s and age o f j u d g e s (Grades 3, 5, 7, and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ) as between-S_ v a r i a b l e s , and s e x o f s p e a k e r and t y p e o f e m o t i o n ( s a d , happy, a f r a i d , and angry) as w i t h i n - S _ v a r i a b l e s . The dependent v a r i a b l e was t h e number o f c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s by each j u d g e . The summa r y f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found f o r t y p e o f e m o t i o n [F(3,216) = 44.78, p < . 0 0 1 ] . The mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 2, i n d i c a t e d t h a t s a d was c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d most f r e q u e n t l y , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , a f r a i d , and happy, i n t h a t o r d e r . A Newman-Keuls t e s t i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p < .01) between happy and a n g r y , happy and s a d , a f r a i d and a n g r y , and a f r a i d and s a d . Sex o f s p e a k e r was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t [ F ( l , 7 2 ) = 13.07, p = . 0 0 1 ] , w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r s e l i c i t i n g more c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s (mean 1.334) t h a n male s p e a k e r s (mean 1.159). T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r age o f j u d g e s [F(3,72) = 14.02, p < . 0 0 1 ] . The mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 2, r e v e a l e d t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , w i t h Grade 5 n e x t , and Grades 3 and 7 e q u a l . A Newman-Keuls t e s t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o n l y between c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and each o f the o t h e r groups (p < . 0 1 ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was a l s o f ound f o r Type o f Em o t i o n x Sex of S p e a k e r [F(3,216) = 21.72, p < .001]. As i n d i c a t e d by t h e mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 2, t h e h i g h e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n TABLE 1 Analysis of Variance: Effects of Type of Emotion, Age and Sex of Judges, and Sex of Speaker, on Number of Correct Identifications. SOURCE df MS F SEX OF JUDGES AGE OF JUDGES EMOTION (A) 3 16.544 44.78** SPEAKER ( B ) 1 4 > 9 ( ) 0 13.07** OLA AxB 3 9.029 21.72** (C) 1 0.625 1.83 AxC 3 0.179 0.48 BxC 1 1.056 2.82 AxBxC 3 0.452 1.09 (D) 3 4.790 14.02** AxD 9 0.060 0.16 BxD 3 0.692 1.84 AxBxD 9 0.576 1.39 CxD 3 0.050 0.15 AxCxD 9 0.415 1.12 BxCxD 3 0.740 1.97 AxBxCxD 9 0.258 0.62 ERROR (W-A) 216 0.369 ERROR (W-B) 72 0.375 ERROR (W-AxB) 216 0.416 ERROR (BETW.) 72 0.342 ** p < .01 TABLE 2 Means for Number of Correct Identifications for each Stimulus Combination (Type of Emotion x Sex of Speaker), for each Age and Sex of Judges COLLEGE M A L E S P E A K E R S F E M A L E S P E A K E R S HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY BOYS 0.700 1.800 0.900 1.700 1.800 1.700 1.500 1.700 GIRLS 0.700 2.000 1.200 1.900 1.600 1.700 1.600 1.600 MEANS FOR EACH AGE-LEVEL 1.506 GRADE 7 BOYS 0.500 1.600 0.800 1.300 1.200 1.300 0.900 1.300 GIRLS 0.300 1.700 0.700 1.200 1.400 1.500 1.100 1.700 1.156 GRADE 5 GRADE 3 BOYS 0.600 1.500 1.100 1.600 1.100 1.700 0.600 0.800 GIRLS 0.200 1.600 1.000 1.600 1.400 1.200 1.000 1.700 BOYS 0.400 1.400 1.100 1.700 1.000 1.400 1.100 1.100 GIRLS 0.600 1.400 0.700 1.600 1.300 1.500 1.000 1.200 0.500 1.625 0.938 1.575 1.350 1.500 1.100 1.387 COLUMN X Note. Chance score in each c e l l is 0.500. N = 80 MEANS FOR TYPE OF EMOTION: HAPPY 0.925 SAD 1.562 AFRAID 1.019 ANGRY 1.481 1.169 1.156 17 s c o r e w i t h male s p e a k e r s was f o r s a d , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , a f r a i d , and happy i n t h a t o r d e r ; w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r s t h e h i g h e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e was a g a i n f o r s a d , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , happy, and a f r a i d , i n t h a t o r d e r . A Newman-Keuls t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t s e x o f s p e a k e r was s i g n i f i -c a n t o n l y f o r happy (p < . 0 1 ) . F o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s , t h e o n l y s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were between a f r a i d and a l l o t h e r e m o t i o n s . F o r male s p e a k e r s , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between happy and a l l o t h e r e m o t i o n s , between a f r a i d and s a i d , and a f r a i d and a n g r y . Response B i a s The p r o b l e m o f r e s p o n s e b i a s a r i s e s when amount o f i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n i s u s e d as a measure o f r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y ; i f j u d g e s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n A more o f t e n t h a n e m o t i o n B, i t may s i m p l y be b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o g i v e the r e s p o n s e A more o f t e n t h a n the r e s p o n s e B. A C h i - s q u a r e d t e s t on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e s o f each t y p e o f e m o t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t (x 2 = 47.58, d f = 3, p < .001). The r e s p o n s e a n g r y was g i v e n most o f t e n , f o l l o w e d by s a d , a f r a i d , and happy, i n t h a t o r d e r . These f r e q u e n c i e s a r e shown i n T a b l e A l ( A p p e n d i x A ) . A n o t h e r C h i - s q u a r e d t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s p o n s e b i a s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by s e x o f s p e a k e r , o r by age o r s e x o f j u d g e s (x 2 = 39.91, d f = 45, p < .05). A t h i r d C h i - s q u a r e d t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s p o n s e b i a s c o u l d n o t c o m p l e t e l y a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r -ences i n the amount o f c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f each e m o t i o n . I n t h i s t e s t , o b t a i n e d t o t a l c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s f o r each e m o t i o n were compared w i t h t h o s e e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e b i a s (x 2 = 10.89, d f = 3, p < . 0 5 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , s a d had a much h i g h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e t h a n r e s p o n s e b i a s w o u l d have p r e d i c t e d . 18 P e r c e n t o f Each Type o f Response C o r r e c t A n o t h e r two-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d , w i t h s e x of j u d g e s and age o f j u d g e s (Grades 3, 5, 7, and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ) as between-S_ v a r i a b l e s , and s e x o f s p e a k e r and t y p e o f e m o t i o n ( s a d , happy, a f r a i d , and angry) as w i t h in-S_ v a r i a b l e s . (Type o f e m o t i o n i n t h i s case r e f e r s t o t y p e o f e m o t i o n g i v e n as r e s p o n s e , r a t h e r t h e n t y p e o f e m o t i o n p r e s e n t e d as s t i m u l u s . ) The dependent v a r i a b l e was t h e p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t . T h i s a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t measure o f r e c o g -n i t i o n a c c u r a c y t h a n d i d t h e p r e v i o u s one. The l a t t e r was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e n d e n c y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l u s t o e l i c i t y t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e , whereas t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f r e s p o n s e , i n terms o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f each t y p e o f r e s p o n s e c o r r e c t . The two measures o f r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y , amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t , may o r may n o t c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y , d e p e n d i n g on r e s p o n s e b i a s and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t y p e s o f e r r o r . The summary f o r t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 3. A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was f o u n d f o r t y p e o f e m o t i o n [F(3,216) = 16.07, p < .001]. I t can be seen f r o m t h e mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , , g i v e n i n T a b l e 4, t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s a d was most o f t e n c o r r e c t , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , happy, and a f r a i d , i n t h a t o r d e r . A Newman-Keuls t e s t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sad and each o f t h e o t h e r emotions (p < . 0 1 ) . Sex o f s p e a k e r was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t [ F ( l , 7 2 ) = 20.82, p < . 0 0 1 ] , w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r s e l i c i t i n g a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s 19 TABLE 3 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s of Type of Emotion g i v e n as Response, Age and Sex of Judges , and Sex of Speaker , on Percent of Responses C o r r e c t SOURCE EMOTION (A) SPEAKER SEX AxB SEX OF JUDGES AxC BxC AxBxC AGE OF JUDGES AxD BxD AxBxD CxD AxCxD BxCxD AxBxCxD (B) (C) (D) df 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 M S 15854.917 27825.757 17103.308 275.612 552.293 8800.938 1486.929 15010.882 735.567 3159.667 582.675 641.522 523.897 3628.897 471.772 16.07** 20.82** 19.06** 0.20 0.56 6.58* 1.66 10.69** 0.75 2.36 0.65 0.46 0.53 2.71 0.53 ERROR (W-A) ERROR (W-B) ERROR (W-AxB) ERROR (BETW.) * = p < .05 ** = p < .01 TABLE 4 Means for Percent of Responses Correct, for each Type of Emotion given as Response, with each Age and Sex of Judges, and Sex of Speaker M A L E S P E A K E R S F E M A L E S P E A K E R S T Y P E OF R E S P O N S E HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY MEANS FOR EACH AGE-LEVEL COLLEGE BOYS 34.999 79.998 63.333 64.998 93.332 93.333 78.332 83.332 GIRLS 36.666 93.332 81.665 69.996 91.666 89.998 73.332 88.332 76.040 GRADE 7 BOYS 40.000 73.332 46.666 43.166 76.666 71.666 39.165 49.997 GIRLS 30.000 76.666 33.332 39.165 86.666 71.664 65.832 76.666 57.541 GRADE 5 BOYS 48.333 71.664 69.999 65.664 48.332 68.330 37.000 40.000 GIRLS 15.000 68.332 46.666 56.332 81.666 71.666 41.666 66.664 56.082 GRADE 3 BOYS 30.000 74.164 61.666 59.998 58.333 78.332 46.666 57.499 GIRLS 32.500 61.664 37.333 51.664 78.332 68.332 44.999 62.499 C O L U M N X 33.437 74.894 55.082 56.373 76.874 76.665 53.374 65.624 56.499 o 21 (mean 68.134) t h a n male s p e a k e r s (mean 54 . 9 4 7 ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found f o r age o f j u d g e s [F(3,72) = 10.69, p < .001]. Mean s c o r e s , p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4, i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e d the h i g h e s t .percentage o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , f o l l o w e d by Grades 3, 5, and 7, i n t h a t o r d e r . A Newman-Keuls t e s t d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and each o f t h e o t h e r groups (p < . 0 1 ) . Emotion x Sex o f Speaker was s i g n i f i c a n t [F(3,216) = 19.06, p < .001]. As shown by t h e mean s c o r e s , i n T a b l e 4, f o r male s p e a k e r s t h e r e s p o n s e s a d was most o f t e n c o r r e c t , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , a f r a i d , and happy, i n t h a t o r d e r , w h i l e f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s t h e r e s p o n s e happy was most o f t e n c o r r e c t , f o l l o w e d by s a d , a n g r y , and a f r a i d , i n t h a t o r d e r . The r e s p o n s e s happy, s a d , and a n g r y , were more o f t e n c o r r e c t f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s t h a n f o r male s p e a k e r s , w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s e a f r a i d was more o f t e n c o r r e c t f o r male s p e a k e r s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s . A Newman-Keuls t e s t i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between happy f o r male s p e a k e r s and happy f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s (p < . 0 1 ) , between happy and each of t h e o t h e r e m o t i o n s f o r male s p e a k e r s (p < . 0 1 ) , between angry and s a d f o r male s p e a k e r s (p < . 0 1 ) , between a f r a i d and each o f t h e o t h e r e m o t i o n s f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s (p < . 0 1 ) , and between an g r y f o r male s p e a k e r s and angry f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s (p < . 0 5 ) . Sex o f Judges x Sex of Speaker was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t [ F ( l , 7 2 ) = 6.58, p = .012], Mean s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 4, i n d i c a t e d t h a t f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r p r o d u c e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t , f o l l o w e d by male j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r , male j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r , and femal e j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r , i n t h a t o r d e r . 22 A Newman-Keuls t e s t l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between fema l e j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r and f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r (p < . 0 1 ) , between fema l e j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r and male j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r (p < .05) , and between fema l e j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r and male j u d g e s w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r (p < . 0 5 ) . No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were f o u n d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . Types o f E r r o r The a n a l y s e s so f a r d e s c r i b e d g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y i n r e c o g n i s i n g p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n s , b u t n o t about t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f s p e c i f i c e r r o r s , i . e . , s p e c i f i c i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l u s -r e s p o n s e c o m b i n a t i o n s . A d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a n a l y s i s was needed t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n : 1. When r e s p o n s e b i a s and d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y f o r p a r t i c u l a r emotions a r e c o n t r o l l e d , do any s p e c i f i c i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s remain? I n o t h e r w o r d s , i s a p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l u s more l i k e l y t o e l i c i t one k i n d o f wrong r e s p o n s e r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r ( e . g . , i s s t i m u l u s happy more l i k e l y t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e a n g r y t h a n r e s p o n s e s a d o r a f r a i d ) ? C o n v e r s e l y , i s a p a r t i c u l a r wrong r e s p o n s e more l i k e l y t o f o l l o w one s t i m u l u s r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r ( e . g . , i s r e s p o n s e angry more l i k e l y t o f o l l o w s t i m u l u s happy t h a n s t i m u l u s s a d o r a f r a i d ) ? 2. I f S-R r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e k i n d j u s t m e n t i o n e d do e x i s t , does t h e i r form v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o age and/or s e x o f j u d g e s , o r s e x o f s p e a k e r ? F o r example, i s t h e ten d e n c y f o r s t i m u l u s happy t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e a n g r y g r e a t e r w i t h male s p e a k e r t h a n w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r ? 23 Analysis of these types of error was done by using Chi-squared tests. Details of the method used are given in Appendix B. Overall pattern of errors. As shown in Table Bl (Appendix B), the overall Chi-squared was significant (x 2 = 109.27, df = 4, p < .001), meaning that the overall pattern of errors differed significantly from that predicted on the basis of response bias and response accuracy for each emotion. In other words, the particular type of wrong response produced was partly a function of the particular emotion presented as stimulus. Chi-squared scores for particular stimulus-response combina-tions can be considered measures of some kind of specific linkage between two emotions. The strongest linkages, measured in this way, were between stimulus sad and response afraid, and between stimulus angry and response happy (see Table B2, Appendix B). Effects of age of judges on pattern of errors. As shown in Table B3 (Appendix B), Chi-squared was significant (x2 = 16.39, df = 4, p < .01) , meaning that age of judges significantly affected the pattern of errors. Among the differences found, the pattern of errors was most different from the expected pattern for Grade 7, then for Grade 3, Grade 5, and college students, in that order. The difference between the obtained and expected patterns was significant at a l l age levels (at college level, x2 = 16.53, df = 4, p < .01; at Grade 7, x 2 = 48.27, df = 4, p < .001; at Grade 5, x 2 = 27.08, df = 4, p < .001; at Grade 3, X2 = 33.78, df = 4, p < .001). At a l l age levels, the combination of stimulus sad - response afraid had the highest Chi-squared score where 0 < E. For a l l age-levels except Grade 3, the next highest 24 s c o r e was f o r s t i m u l u s angry - r e s p o n s e happy ; f o r Grade 3, t h e n e x t h i g h e s t s c o r e was f o r s t i m u l u s h a p p y - r e s p o n s e angry ( s e e T a b l e B4, A p p e n d i x B). E f f e c t s o f s e x o f s p e a k e r on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s . C h i - s q u a r e d was s i g n i f i c a n t as shown i n T a b l e B5 ( A p p e n d i x B). (x 2 = 73.25, d f = 4, p < .001), meaning t h a t s e x o f s p e a k e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s . Among t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d , t h e t e n d e n c i e s t o make s t i m u l u s s a d - r e s p o n s e a f r a i d , s t i m u l u s a n g r y - r e s p o n s e happy, and s t i m u l u s a f r a i d - r e s p o n s e angry e r r o r s were s t r o n g e r w i t h f e m a l e s p e a k e r s t h a n w i t h male s p e a k e r s , w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e o f s t i m u l u s a f r a i d - r e s p o n s e s a d , and s t i m u l u s h a p p y - r e s p o n s e angry e r r o r s ( s e e T a b l e B6, A p p e n d i x B). T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r s e x o f j u d g e s . DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were p r e s e n t e d . As r e p o r t e d , amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was a f f e c t e d by t y p e o f e m o t i o n , age o f j u d g e s , s e x o f s p e a k e r , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t y p e o f emoti o n and s e x o f s p e a k e r . Of t h e f o u r em o t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , sadness was most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y , f o l l o w e d by a n g e r , f e a r , and h a p p i n e s s , i n t h a t o r d e r . Comparison o f t h i s o r d e r w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s i s h i n d e r e d by a number o f f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , none o f t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s emo-t i o n s has used e x a c t l y t h e same s e t o f em o t i o n s as t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . When t h e same f o u r emotions were u s e d , as by D a v i t z and D a v i t z ( 1 9 5 9 a ) , t h e y were embedded i n a l o n g e r l i s t o f e m o t i o n s . The ease o f i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r e m o t i o n i s pr e s u m a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s a v a i l a b l e , and by t h e number o f s t i m u l i p r e s e n t e d , and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o each o t h e r . A d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s t h e f i n d i n g by D a v i t z and D a v i t z (1959b) t h a t s u b j e c t i v e s i m i l a r i t y o f emotion s a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r -t i o n o f e r r o r s : f o r i n s t a n c e , when f e a r and n e r v o u s n e s s were used as s t i m u l i and as r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e y were f r e q u e n t l y c o n f u s e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . Comparison o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t y p e o f e m o t i o n found i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s i s h i n d e r e d by o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s t u d i e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e t he methods used t o c o n t r o l v e r b a l c o n t e n t , o r t o d e t e r m i n e the v a l i d i t y o f t h e sp e e c h s a m p l e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s w o r t h l o o k i n g 26 a t any c o n s i s t e n c i e s w h i c h seem t o have s u r v i v e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . D a v i t z and D a v i t z (1959a) found t h a t , o f the f o u r emo-t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , anger was most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y , f o l l o w e d by s a d n e s s , h a p p i n e s s , and a n g e r , i n t h a t o r d e r . Kramer (1964) found anger t o be b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h a n g r i e f , w h i c h was b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h a n l o v e . D i m i t r o v s k y (1964) f o u n d s a d n e s s t o be most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y , f o l l o w e d by a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , and l o v e . T h e r e seems t o be a t e n d e n c y f o r anger and s a d n e s s t o be b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h a n h a p p i n e s s , f e a r , o r l o v e . S e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s t r e n d a r e p o s s i b l e . The v o c a l cues f o r sadness and anger may be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t . S i n c e a l l t h e s t u d i e s c i t e d have used a c t e d e m o t i o n s , i t c o u l d be t h a t a nger and s a d n e s s have more c l e a r l y r e c o g -n i s a b l e d r a m a t i c s t e r e o t y p e s , o r a r e more e a s i l y a c t e d , r a t h e r t h a n n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e s p e c i a l l y d i s t i n c t v o c a l cues i n spontaneous s p e e c h . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t no p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s u s i n g spontaneous s p e e c h have l o o k e d a t t h e r e l a t i v e ease o f i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s , o r a t t h e v o c a l cues a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each e m o t i o n . I f s a d n e s s and anger do i n f a c t have p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r v o c a l c o n c o m i t a n t s i n spontaneous as w e l l as a c t e d s p e e c h , a h y p o t h e s i s p u t f o r w a r d by Z a i d e l and M e h r a b i a n (1969) may h e l p t o e x p l a i n why t h i s i s s o . These a u t h o r s f o u n d d i s l i k i n g t o be b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h a n l i k i n g , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e , i n p r e s e n t s o c i e t y , t h e e x p r e s -s i o n o f n e g a t i v e emotions v e r b a l l y i s d i s c o u r a g e d , the n o n - v e r b a l c h a n n e l s have become p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c i a l i s e d a t c o m m u n i c a t i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s t h a t a n g e r , f e a r , and s a d n e s s , were b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h a n 27 h a p p i n e s s , and f o r t h e s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s . However, i t must be n o t e d t h a t the low i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e f o r h a p p i n e s s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t one o f t h e h a p p i n e s s samples f o r a male s p e a k e r was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l e s s t h a n chance a c c u -r a c y by yo u n g e r j u d g e s . (Judges i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y had o v e r a l l h i g h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s a t a l l ages; s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s may have a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . ) C l e a r l y , any a t t e m p t t o g e n e r a l i s e f r o m the f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s s u c h as t h e p r e s e n t one t o r e a l - l i f e b e h a v i o r must be made w i t h c a u t i o n , and i s p r o b a b l y o f l i m i t e d v a l u e . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e s e s t u d i e s r e l y on samples o f a c t e d s p e e c h ; t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e samples r e p r e s e n t t h e modal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f spontaneous v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r emotions i s unknown. They may w e l l r a t h e r be e x p r e s s i o n s o f s h a r e d d r a m a t i c s t e r e o t y p e s . T y p i c a l l y , o n l y s m a l l numbers o f e m o t i o n a l s t i m u l i a r e u s e d ; f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y used o n l y two samples o f each e m o t i o n f o r e i t h e r s e x o f s p e a k e r . B r u n s w i k (1947) l o n g ago a r g u e d t h a t s t u d i e s on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e m o t i o n v i o l a t e e c o l o g i c a l s a m p l i n g p r i n c i p l e s by making no a t t e m p t t o p r o c u r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f s a m p l e s . T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s , i f , i n r e a l l i f e , s p e c i f i c emotions can be conveyed by a w i d e v a r i e t y o f v o c a l c u e s , as seems l i k e l y . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n t o e x t r a p o l a t i o n t o r e a l l i f e f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s l i e s i n t h e u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h judgments i n t h e s t u d i e s a r e made. Judges a r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y w i t h v o c a l c u e s , o f t e n a l i m i t e d r a n g e , w i t h o u t b e i n g g i v e n any b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o r v e r b a l c o n t e n t , and have t o choose f r o m a l i m i t e d range o f p o s s i b l e 28 r e s p o n s e s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e q u i t e a r t i f i c i a l , and t h e a b s o l u t e amounts o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f ound i n t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e n o t v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e about r e a l - l i f e b e h a v i o r . Because o f a l l t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e s p e e c h samples used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f e m o t i o n and s p e a k e r s e x p e r se p r o b a b l y do n o t d e s e r v e t o o much d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . F i n d i n g s r e -g a r d i n g b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s , o r between-S x w i t h i n - S _ i n t e r a c t i o n s may be o f more i n t e r e s t , though t h e y t o o w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n t o some e x t e n t ambiguous. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f age on amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was between c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and each o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . The l a c k o f an a g e - t r e n d among t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s open t o s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . C l e a r l y , t h e c h i l d r e n had n o t r e a c h e d a c e i l i n g i n p e r f o r m a n c e : when i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t a g e s , Grade 3 j u d g e s had 57.8 p e r c e n t c o r r e c t , as d i d Grade 7, w h i l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s had 75.3 p e r c e n t c o r r e c t . The f i g u r e s f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e c o m p a r a b l e w i t h D i m i t r o v s k y ' s : h e r n i n e - y e a r o l d s had 59.1 p e r ' c e n t c o r r e c t , and h e r t w e l v e - y e a r o l d s 65.3 p e r c e n t . I n D i m i t r o v s k y * s s t u d y , improvement w i t h age d i d l e v e l o f f : t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s i x - and n i n e - y e a r o l d s i n amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was 17.4 p e r c e n t , w h i l e between n i n e - and t w e l v e - y e a r o l d s , i t was o n l y 6.2 p e r c e n t . P e r h a p s D i m i t r o v s k y ' s f i n d i n g s were r e l a t e d t o t h e l o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s o f h e r j u d g e s : t h e r e may be an e a r l i e r l e v e l l i n g o f f o f p e r f o r m a n c e a t t a s k s l i k e t h e p r e s e n t one, i n m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r improvement may be shown on s u c h t a s k s i n l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e , m a i n l y as a f u n c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes 29 do c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t c h i l d h o o d i n t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n s t h r o u g h v o c a l c u e s , b u t t h a t the t a s k i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d n o t t a p them. The two s t u d i e s w h i c h f o u n d improvement t h r o u g h o u t a d o l e s c e n c e ( P f a f f , 1954; B l a u , 1964) b o t h used a - l a r g e r range o f s t i m u l u s and r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s t h a n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ( n i n e and t e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Such a range may be n e c e s s a r y i f age changes a r e t o show up. P o s s i b l y Grade 7 j u d g e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y f a i l e d t o show improvement o v e r y ounger c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d e d t o i n t r o d u c e i n a p p r o p r i a t e h y p o t h -eses i n t o t h e t a s k . Such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e d a t a c o n -c e r n i n g f r e q u e n c i e s o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f e r r o r s , t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . Grade 7 j u d g e s , more t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , showed s t r o n g t e n d -e n c i e s t o make c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f e r r o r . The s t r e n g t h o f s u c h t e n d e n c i e s was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y , b o t h f o r age o f j u d g e s and s e x o f s p e a k e r . O l d e r c h i l d r e n may have s u f f e r e d f r o m b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f emotio n s t o have had t o c o n s i d e r more t h a n one p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s t i m u l u s , w i t h o u t h a v i n g the c o m p e n s a t i n g w i d e e x p e r i e n c e and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s were p r o b a b l y more f a m i l i a r w i t h a range o f d r a m a t i c s t e r e o t y p e s , and w i t h a d u l t e x p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n . They were a l s o p r o b a b l y more i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; as n o t e d e a r l i e r , D a v i t z (1964) f o u n d i n t e l l i g e n c e t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a b i l i t y a t i d e n t i f y i n g v o c a l cues t o e m o t i o n . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f s e x o f s p e a k e r on amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was w i t h happy as t h e s t i m u l u s . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , p o o r h a p p i n e s s samples w i t h male s p e a k e r s were i m p l i c a t e d i n t h i s 30 r e s u l t . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s do n o t show c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s f o r s e x o f s p e a k e r , o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e x o f s p e a k e r and e m o t i o n . No e f f e c t s o f s e x o f j u d g e s were found i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . D i m i t r o v s k y found t h a t g i r l s were b e t t e r t h a n b o y s . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y may be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l c l a s s o f t h e j u d g e s i n t h e two s t u d i e s . S t r o n g e r s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n l o w e r c l a s s c h i l d r e n , i n d i c a t e d by r e s e a r c h (Mussen, 1969) c o u l d l e a d t o l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t e n t i o n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t i m u l i , s i n c e s u c h b e h a v i o r i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e s e x - r o l e . As n o t e d i n t h e R e s u l t s s e c t i o n , t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p o n s e b i a s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e a nger b e i n g g i v e n most o f t e n , f o l l o w e d by s a d n e s s , f e a r , and h a p p i n e s s , i n t h a t o r d e r . I n D i m i t r o v s k y ' s s t u d y , t h e e q u i v a l e n t o r d e r was s a d n e s s , a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , and l o v e . S i n c e t h e a d u l t s t u d i e s do n o t d e a l w i t h r e s p o n s e b i a s , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y w h e t h e r r e s p o n s e b i a s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g ,in c h i l d r e n , o r c h i l d r e n j u d g i n g t h e s p e e c h o f a d u l t s . However, t h e * p r e s e n t s t u d y f o u n d r e s p o n s e b i a s i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a l s o . P e r h a p s , i f t h e v o c a l c h a n n e l does t r a n s m i t more n e g a t i v e t h a n p o s i t i v e messages, p e o p l e have a s e t towards h e a r i n g n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n s . The s e t may be augmented, i n c h i l d r e n l i s t e n i n g t o a d u l t s , by a d e f e n s i v e v i g i l a n c e a g a i n s t n e g a t i v e t o n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f a n g e r , l i k e l y t o bode i l l f o r t h e c h i l d . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o do a s t u d y i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n had t o i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n s i n the s p e e c h of o t h e r c h i l d r e n , t o see w h e t h e r such f a c t o r s as r e s p o n s e b i a s a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s p e a k e r . The f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t a r e f a i r l y 31 s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y i s r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , g i v e n t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e two measures. A l t h o u g h t h e o r d e r o f r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y f o r t h e f o u r e m o t i o n s was n o t q u i t e the same, i n t h i s c a s e b e i n g s a d n e s s , a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , and f e a r , t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was between sadness and a l l t h e o t h e r e m o t i o n s . A p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e a c c u -r a c y w i t h s a d n e s s i n v o l v e s t h e c o n c e p t o f d i m e n s i o n s of e m o t i o n a l meaning. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t s a d n e s s , a l o n e o f t h e f o u r e m o t i o n s used i n t h i s s t u d y , f a l l s a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n , a d i m e n s i o n w h i c h seems t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e m o t i o n s , and t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e f i n i t e v o c a l c u e s . D a v i t z (1964) f o u n d t h a t s p e e ch samples r a t e d as h a p p i n e s s , a n g e r , o r f e a r , by one s e t o f j u d g e s , were r a t e d h i g h on t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n by a n o t h e r s e t o f j u d g e s , w h i l e samples r a t e d as d e s p a i r were r a t e d low on t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n . I n t h e same s t u d y , i t was found t h a t samples r a t e d h i g h on t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n t e n d e d t o be l o u n d and f a s t , w h i l e samples r a t e d low on t h i s d i m e n s i o n were q u i e t and s l o w . C o n f u s i o n s t e n d e d t o o c c u r between emotio n s w i t h s i m i l a r r a t i n g s on t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n , r a t h e r . t h a n between emotions w i t h s i m i l a r r a t i n g s on o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s , and o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s were l e s s c l e a r l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c v o c a l c u e s . S c h e r e r (1971) a l s o f o und t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n had d e f i n i t e v o c a l c o r r e l a t e s ; h i g h r a t i n g s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n b e i n g r e l a t e d t o h i g h a m p l i t u d e and s p e e d , and a l o t o f p i t c h and a m p l i t u d e v a r i a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s o f age, s e x o f s p e a k e r , and s 32 s e x o f j u d g e s were a l l s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o r amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o u n d w i t h p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s c o r r e c t and n o t w i t h amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was f o r t h e s e x o f s p e a k e r and s e x o f j u d g e s i n t e r a c t i o n . - I n D i m i t r o v s k y ' s s t u d y , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n j u s t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . The a d u l t s t u d i e s have n o t l o o k e d f o r t h i s e f f e c t , w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n ( H e i n b e r g , 1962). That s t u d y f o u n d , as d i d t h e p r e s e n t one, t h a t j u d g e s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r w i t h s p e a k e r s o f t h e i r own s e x , b u t i n t h a t s t u d y the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was between f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h a f e m a l e s p e a k e r , and each o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t seems most l i k e l y t o be a f u n c t i o n o f j u d g e s ' s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and consequent p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v o i c e s o f same-sex s p e a k e r s ( a d u l t s ) as p a r t o f t h e s e x - r o l e m o d e l l i n g p r o c e s s . The f i n a l s e t o f r e s u l t s t o be d i s c u s s e d i s t h a t c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f e r r o r . As n o t e d i n t h e R e s u l t s s e c t i o n , t h e two t y p e s o f e r r o r whose f r e q u e n c i e s most exceeded t h o s e p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e b i a s and r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y f o r each e m o t i o n were s t i m u l u s s a d n e s s -r e s p o n s e f e a r , and s t i m u l u s a n g e r - r e s p o n s e h a p p i n e s s . The n e x t most common t y p e s were s t i m u l u s f e a r - r e s p o n s e s a d n e s s , and s t i m u l u s h a p p i n e s s - r e s p o n s e a n g e r . A l l o t h e r t y p e s o f e r r o r were l e s s f r e q u e n t t h a n p r e d i c t e d . When D i m i t r o v s k y ' s d a t a a r e r e - a n a l y s e d so t h a t e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e r r o r a r e c a l c u l a t e d by the method used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e two most common e r r o r s a r e s t i m u l u s l o v e - r e s p o n s e s a d n e s s , and s t i m u l u s a n g e r - r e s p o n s e h a p p i n e s s . C l e a r l y , t h e two s e t s o f r e s u l t s c a n n o t be t o o c l o s e l y compared, s i n c e 33 t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y used f e a r i n s t e a d o f l o v e , b u t t h e r e seems t o be c o n s i s t e n c y i n the low f r e q u e n c y o f s a d n e s s - a n g e r and s a d n e s s - h a p p i n e s s c o n f u s i o n s , and i n t h e h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f h a p p i n e s s - a n g e r c o n f u s i o n s . D a v i t z and D a v i t z (1959a) found t h a t s a d n e s s - f e a r c o n f u s i o n s were common, and Kramer (1963) n o t e d t h a t a n g e r - s a d n e s s c o n f u s i o n s were r a r e . B o t h s t u d i e s used o n l y a b s o l u t e numbers o f each t y p e o f e r r o r , w i t h o u t c o n t r o l l i n g f o r r e s p o n s e b i a s o r d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y . Few a t t e m p t s have been made t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t f r e -q u e n c i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f e r r o r . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , D a v i t z and D a v i t z (1959b) found t h a t s u b j e c t i v e s i m i l a r i t y o f emotio n s a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e r r o r s , and D a v i t z (1964) f o u n d t h a t e r r o r s t e n d e d t o be more s i m i l a r t o t h e f e e l i n g i n t e n d e d on t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n o f e m o t i o n a l meaning t h a n on t h e v a l e n c e o r s t r e n g t h d i m e n s i o n s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a c t i v i t y i s t h e s a l i e n t d i m e n s i o n f o r making e m o t i o n judgments f r o m v o c a l c u e s . I n t h a t s t u d y , t h e s t i m u l i were r a t e d on d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning; i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s was n o t done, so any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f e r r o r s on t h e b a s i s o f d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning must be t e n t a t i v e . I t i s a l s o i m p o s s i b l e t o be s u r e p r e c i s e l y w h i c h v o c a l cues were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n f u s i o n s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s i n c e t h e p a t t e r n s o f v o c a l cues p r e s e n t i n t h e v a r i o u s s p e e c h samples were n o t a n a l y s e d . I n t u i t i v e l y , however, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e j u d g e s were c o n f u s e d by the h i g h p i t c h - h i g h a m p l i t u d e q u a l i t i e s of t h e h a p p i n e s s s a m p l e s , and by t h e o p p o s i t e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e sad n e s s and f e a r s a m p l e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e samples r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f o u r emotions f e l l on a con-34 tinuum of amplitude and pitch, such that anger was highest in both qualities, followed by happiness, fear, and sadness, in that order. If the above hypothesis is correct, i t can help to account for the patterning of errors already described, and f i t s with the finding that anger and sadness were better recognised than happiness and fear (since anger and fear, f a l l i n g at either end of the continuum, might plausibly have been particularly distinctive). The hypothesis also f i t s in with the idea that sadness is lower on the activity dimension than the other emotions, since loudness seems to have a definite relationship with ratings on this dimension; the relationship between pitch and activity seems to be less clear (Scherer, 1971a). It should be men-tioned that the fear samples in this study may not have been representa-tive of the most typical expressions of fear in everyday l i f e ; thejf represented, rather, a sort of "controlled" fear, that i s , the speakers were trying to recount fearful events without being overwhelmed by %.t them. For this reason, the fear samples may have been atypically low on the activity dimension, which involves aspects such as excitedness. It is possible that confusions between stimuli were affected by other cues, such as rate of articulation, but as yet nothing much is known about the relationship between this cue and judgments of emotion. There are no studies dealing with the vocal cues associated with judgments of happiness, anger, sadness, and fear from randomly-spliced speech. Scherer (1971a) l i s t e d a variety of cues and cue combinations which were found to correlate with judgments of synthesised speech as sadness, happiness, anger, and fear. No clear predictions concerning lik e l y types of error could have been made from his findings. 35 Age of j u d g e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t y p e s o f e r r o r , w i t h Grade 7 j u d g e s p r o d u c i n g a p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s l e a s t l i k e t h a t p r e d i c t e d , and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s p r o d u c i n g a p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s most l i k e t h a t p r e -d i c t e d , on t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e b i a s and d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e a c c u -r a c y . A p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s was m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i . e . , t h a t Grade 7 j u d g e s t r i e d t o cope w i t h ambiguous s t i m u l i by r e s p o n d i n g on t h e b a s i s o f r e s t r i c t e d , o f t e n m i s t a k e n , h y p o t h e s e s about t h e v o c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s , w h i l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , w i t h t h e i r g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e , showed b o t h more f l e x i b i l i t y and more a c c u r a c y . Once more, i t can be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e g e n e r a l i s a b i l i t y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s beyond t h e i r s p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t e x t i s ques-t i o n a b l e . The same comment a p p l i e s t o t h e f i n d i n g t h a t s e x o f s p e a k e r i n f l u e n c e d t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y o f f e r s a few p r o v o c a t i v e f i n d i n g s , and l e a v e s many q u e s t i o n s unanswered. Some of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , as a f u n c t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . O t h e r , b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n t h e development o f p e r c e p t i o n of e m o t i o n f r o m v o c a l c u e s , i n the w o r l d o u t s i d e t h e l a b o r a t o r y , and how t h i s development i s r e f l e c t e d i n the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . Answers t o t h e b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n s cannot be c o n f i d e n t l y g i v e n u n t i l t h e n a r r o w e r q u e s t i o n s a r e answered. The l a t t e r i n c l u d e t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e of t h e v o c a l cues p r e s e n t i n t h e s p e e c h s a m p l e s , how t h e s e i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g e f f e c t s o f t y p e o f e m o t i o n and p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s , and i n what manner t h e y were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d by d i f f e r e n t groups of j u d g e s . O t h e r unknown f a c t o r s i n c l u d e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e between the 36 college students and the schoolchildren i n t h i s study, and how i t affected the r e s u l t s . Broader questions which remain unanswered include that of whether middle-class c h i l d r e n show improvement i n judging emotions from vocal cues i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , where the range of s t i m u l i and possible responses i s f a r wider than i n the present experiment. Another problem to be i n v e s t i g a t e d further i s that of whether c h i l d r e n show a tendency to a t t r i b u t e negative emotions to other people under n a t u r a l conditions, and i f so, whether t h i s tendency i s r e s t r i c t e d to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of adult, rather than c h i l d , speech. The present study has been useful i n o f f e r i n g questions such as this l a s t one for further research; other avenues which might be worth exploring include further study of the observed sex of speaker and sex of judges i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , and extension of the findings concerning age trends i n types of e r r o r . However, future studies \ might do w e l l to concentrate on f i n d i n g ways of obtaining adequate,* representative samples of spontaneous speech, thus reducing some of* the l i m i t a t i o n s and ambiguities inherent i n studies l i k e t h i s present one. REFERENCES A r g y l e , M. Social interaction. 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Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1969, 3, 233-241. 40 APPENDIX A TABLE A l Frequency o f Each Type o f Response MALE SPEAKER FEMALE SPEAKER HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY BOYS 17 21 15 COLLEGE GIRLS 13 . 22 17 BOYS GRADE 7 GRADE 5 GRADE 3 12 25 14 GIRLS 13 25 16 BOYS 11 24 18 GIRLS 6 25 17 BOYS 12 22 16 GIRLS 16 19 14 27 28 29 26 27 32 30 31 20 19 17 17 18 16 19 20 16 21 19 26 16 14 19 23 20 23 23 19 16 23 21 18 TOTALS 100 183 127 230 141 158 163 21 1-i ?. 24 , 23 19 27 , 22 23 177 TOTALS FOR EACH TYPE OF EMOTION: HAPPY SAD AFRAID ANGRY 241 341 290 408 APPENDIX B A n a l y s i s o f t y p e s o f e r r o r by means o f C h i - s q u a r e d t e s t s O v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s A s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d , c o l l a p s i n g o v e r s e x of s p e a k e r , and age and s e x o f j u d g e s ( s ee T a b l e B l ) . The s c o r e s i n each c e l l o f t h e m a t r i x r e p r e s e n t t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e e l i c i t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f s t i m u l u s . The f o r m u l a used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e o v e r a l l c h i - s q u a r e d was: f where n ds m m 0-(n-d ) x 2 = I s -m -d r r (E -E )-(m -d ) m d s s (n-d ) s m - d r r (E -E,)-(m -d ) m d s s d r = t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f s t i m u l u s t o t a l number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t i m u l u s compo-ne n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r S-R c o m b i n a t i o n t o t a l number o f c o r r e c t e l i c i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n s e component o f a p a r t i c u l a r S-R c o m b i n a t i o n t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s o f t h e t y p e f o r m i n g t h e s t i m u l u s component o f a p a r t i c u l a r S-R c o m b i n a t i o n t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s o f t h e t y p e f o r m i n g t h e r e s p o n s e component o f a p a r t i c u l a r S-R c o m b i n a t i o n . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e m and d f a c t o r s i n t o t h e f o r m u l a c o n t r o l s f o r r e s p o n s e b i a s and d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e a c c u r a c y f o r each e m o t i o n . Four degrees o f freedom were used up i n i n t r o d u c i n g each o f t h e s e f a c t o r s : f o u r d f rem a i n e d f o r t h e o v e r a l l c h i - s q u a r e d . 42 The m a t r i x i n T a b l e B2 g i v e s ( 0 - E )2 f o r each S-R c o m b i n a t i o n . E E f f e c t s o f s e x o f j u d g e s on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s I n o r d e r t o see whether s e x of j u d g e s a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s , two S-R m a t r i c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , one f o r each s e x o f j u d g e s . The m a t r i c e s were s i m i l a r t o t h e o v e r a l l m a t r i x p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ( s e e T a b l e B7). t h e same f o r m u l a as used f o r t h e o v e r a l l m a t r i x . The two c h i - s q u a r e s c o r e s were summed, and t h e o v e r a l l c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e was s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e sum o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e s f o r each s e x . The d i f f e r e n c e was t r e a t e d as a c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e w i t h f o u r df_ , and was t h e measure used t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o f s e x o f j u d g e s on t h e p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s . E f f e c t s o f age o f j u d g e s on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s The method used was the same as t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , e x c e p t t h a t f o u r m a t r i c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , one f o r each age o f j u d g e s ( s e e T a b l e B3). c o m b i n a t i o n , f o r each age o f j u d g e s . E f f e c t s o f s e x o f s p e a k e r s on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s The method used was t h e same as t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s . One m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each s e x o f s p e a k e r ( s e e T a b l e B5). C h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e s f o r b o t h m a t r i c e s were c a l c u l a t e d , u s i n g s c o r e s f o r each S-R 43 The f i n a l c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e had f o u r d_f . T a b l e B6 g i v e s ( 0 - E ) 2 t h e -—~r— f o r each S-R c o m b i n a t i o n , f o r each s e x o f s p e a k e r . 44 APPENDIX B TABLE B l T o t a l F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e C o m b i n a t i o n s R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW TOTALS o 251 11 52 6 320 CO CO >" s=> §j 22 150 50 98 320 j a :=> o » § 57 35 160 67 320 o H « § 11 45 27 237 320 COLUMN TOTALS 341 241 290 408 X 2 = 109.27, df = 4, p < .001 45 APPENDIX B TABLE B2 T o t a l C h i - s q u a r e d S c o r e s f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY 3 1.59 37.56 19.36 co O P-i M H CO >-i 5j 7.56 0.69 7.39 s + <§ 6.59 0.91 1.36 + g 7.12 17.49 1.65 + = 0 > E = 0 < E 46 APPENDIX B TABLE B3 Effects of Age of Judges on Frequencies of Specific Stimulus-Response Combinations GRADE 3 RESPONSE SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW .57 15 TOTALS 3 80 3 GRADE 5 RESPONSE SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW 61 14 TOTALS 2 80 33 15 11 39 32 80 15 -80 ss >< 5! 17 33 16 36 24 80 22 80 13 56 80 m B o 11 57 80 83 62 69 106 COLUMN TOTALS 89 52 74 105 X 2 = 33.78, df = 4, p < 0.001 X 2 = 27.08, df = 4, p < 0.001 GRADE 7 RESPONSE SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW 61 17 TOTALS 0 80 COLLEGE RESPONSE SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW 72 TOTALS 1 80 36 18 11 34 26 80 21 80 48 12 15 52 16 80 80 14 87 59 10 72 55 80 102 COLUMN TOTALS 82 68 75 69 80 95 X 2 = 48.27, df = 4, p < 0.001 „2 _ 16.53, df = 4, p < 0.01 X 2 GRADE 3 + x 2 GRADE 5 + x 2 GRADE .7 + x 2 COLLEGE) - x 2 TOTAL = 16.39, df = 4, p < 0.01 APPENDIX B TABLE B4 Chi-squared Scores for Particular Types of Error at Each Age Level STIMULUS S A D H A P P Y A F R A I D A N G R Y RESPONSE HAP. AFR. ANG. SAD AFR. ANG. SAD HAP. ANG. SAD HAP. AFR. - + - - + + + + - + + COLLEGE 0.75 4.16 1.35 3.77 0.35 0.15 0.80 0.40 1.23 0.00 1.96 1.61 - + - - + - + _ _ _ + _ GRADE 7 1.03 15.93 8.26 1.06 1.10 2.91 2.47 1.46 0.10 5.60 8.27 0.08 - + - - + + + _ _ _ + _ GRADE 5 0.06 7.37 5.15 1.79 0.01 0.90 1.26 1.64 0.02 1.69 6.68 10.28 - + - _ _ + + + -GRADE 3 0.20 11.88 5.40 1.78 2.11 4.36 2.32 0.01 1.05 1.51 2.83 0.25 + = 0 > E - = 0 < E APPENDIX B TABLE B5 Effects of Speaker Sex on Frequencies of Specific Stimulus-Response Combinations MALE SPEAKERS R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW TOTALS FEMALE SPEAKERS R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW TOTALS 3 131 11 15 160 3 120 37 160 CO 5! 48 27 79 160 45 27 72 16 160 CO 'a 16 102 23 19 12 160 8 89 51 160 H CO 3 COLUMN TOTALS 20 13 126 183 106 127 224 160 H CO COLUMN TOTALS 10 25 14 111 158 135 163 184 160 FOR MALE SPEAKERS: X2 = 101.11, df = 4, p < 0.001 FOR FEMALE SPEAKERS: X2 = 81.42, df - 4, p < 0.001 (X2 FOR MALE SPEAKERS + x2 FOR FEMALE SPEAKERS)- x2 TOTAL = 73.25, df = 4, p < 0.001 APPENDIX B. TABLE B6 C h i - s q u a r e d S c o r e s f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r , w i t h Each Sex o f Speaker STIMULUS S A D H A P P Y A F R A I D A N G R Y RESPONSE HAP. AFR. ANG. SAD AFR. ANG. SAD HAP. ANG. SAD HAP. AFR. MALE + + - - - + + + - - + -SPEAKERS 1.15 7.33 8.14 17.67 0.31 12.11 24.04 0.25 15.63 8.81 5.42 0.25 FEMALE - + - + - - - + - + -SPEAKERS 7.33 25.70 10.77 1.40 0.00 0.66 2.42 4.20 6.26 0.63 17.21 4.84 + = 0 > E - = 0 < E APPENDIX B TABLE B7 Effects of Sex of Judges on Frequencies of Specific Stimulus-Response Combinations B O Y S R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW TOTALS G I R L S R E S P O N S E SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY ROW TOTALS 3 126 CO >-l 8 24 160 12 73 26 49 160 28 16 80 36 160 9 125 3 28 CO >-t _ p-> 5! 10 77 24 49 29 19 81 31 160 1.60 160 >1 CO Pi o 5 COLUMN TOTALS 29 13 112 160 172 126 143 199 H to P=5 O COLUMN TOTALS 16 14 125 160 169 115 147 209 X 2 = 57.23, df = 4, p < 0.001 ( 2 = 54.26, df = 4, p < 0.001 ( X 2 BOYS + x2 GIRLS) - x2 TOTAL = 2.22, df = 4, p < 0.05 APPENDIX C Records f r o m w h i c h Speech Samples were Taken. Happy Male S p e a k e r S t r a n g e I n t e r l u d e Death o f a Salesman C o l u m b i a DOS 688 Caedmon TRS 310 Angry S c r a t c h The Zoo S t o r y Caedmon TRS 347 Spoken A r t s I n c . A f r a i d S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Edgar A l l a n Poe - Volume 7 CMS 630 Sad Spoon R i v e r A n t h o l o g y Death o f a Salesman C o l u m b i a OS 2410 Caedmon TRS 310 Happy Female S p e a k e r A f t e r t h e F a l l S t r a n g e I n t e r l u d e Caedmon TRS 326 C o l u m b i a DOS 688 Angry Who's A f r a i d o f V i r g i n i a W o o l f C o l u m b i a DOS 687 Death o f - a Salesman Caedmon TRS 310 A f r a i d S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Edgar A l l a n Poe - Volume 7 CMS 630 Sad Spoon R i v e r A n t h o l o g y C o l u m b i a OS 2410 The J o u r n a l s o f Susannah Moodie CBC (1969) 

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