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The development of the perception of emotion from vocal cues Pennington, Helen Rosemary 1972

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERCEPTION OF EMOTION FROM VOCAL CUES  by  HELEN ROSEMARY PENNINGTON B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i c e s t e r , 1969  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  as conforming  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1972  to the  In  presenting  this  an advanced degree the I  Library  further  for  agree  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  partial  freely  permission for  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  gain  Department  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  of  of  Columbia,  British for  extensive by the  B r i t i s h Columb  shall  not  the  requirements  reference copying o f  Head o f  i s u n d e r s t o o d that  written permission.  Vancouver 8, Canada  fulfilment  available  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  by h i s of  shall  thesis  I  agree  and this  that  study. thesis  my Department  copying or  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  i i  ABSTRACT  The  present study investigates  c e p t i o n o f emotions  from v o c a l cues.  developmental trends i n the perS u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 20  children  f r o m e a c h o f G r a d e s 3, 5, a n d 7, a n d 20 c o l l e g e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s , e q u a l numbers o f males and f e m a l e s a t each t a p e c o n t a i n i n g 16 b r i e f s p e e c h  age l e v e l .  samples, s e l e c t e d  with  They h e a r d a  from  dramatic  r e c o r d i n g s o f b o t h male and female v o i c e s , t o r e p r e s e n t h a p p i n e s s , sadness, anger, o r f e a r . b y means o f r a n d o m i z e d  The s a m p l e s h a d b e e n r e n d e r e d  splicing.  Subjects i d e n t i f i e d t h e emotion  p o r t r a y e d i n each sample, from a l i s t emotions.  unintelligible  Results indicated that  containing the four  r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y was  by age o f j u d g e s , w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d o i n g b e t t e r t h a n children.  possible affected  school-  S i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y were a l s o  found  f o r t y p e o f e m o t i o n , and s e x o f s p e a k e r .  The S e x o f J u d g e s X S e x o f  Speaker  female judges performing  i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h  b e t t e r t h a n m a l e j u d g e s when t h e s p e a k e r was f e m a l e , a n d m a l e  judges  p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r t h a n f e m a l e j u d g e s when t h e s p e a k e r was m a l e . Type o f E m o t i o n X Sex o f S p e a k e r  i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o  w i t h h a p p i n e s s b e i n g more o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d speaker than w i t h a male speaker. The  relative  significantly differential  The  significant,  correctly with  a  female  E v i d e n c e o f r e s p o n s e b i a s was  found.  f r e q u e n c i e s o f s p e c i f i c types o f e r r o r were found t o d i f f e r from t h o s e p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e b i a s and response a c c u r a c y f o r each emotion.  varied significantly with  age.  The p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s  Grade 7 j u d g e s d e v i a t e d most from  their  i i i  p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n , and c o l l e g e students also  affected the pattern of e r r o r s , with  cluding stimulus speakers, being  deviated  1  including stimulus  m o r e common w i t h m a l e s p e a k e r s .  the present  s e v e r a l types  'sadness'-response ' f e a r , being  and o t h e r s  used.  Sex o f s p e a k e r of error, i n -  m o r e common w i t h  'happiness'-response  as r e g a r d s  female  'anger',  The l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t u d i e s  one were d i s c u s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y  the speech samples  least.  like  the nature o f  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT L I S T OF TABLES INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS DISCUSSION REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C  V  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE 1  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s o f Type o f E m o t i o n , Age a n d S e x o f J u d g e s , a n d S e x o f S p e a k e r , o n Number o f C o r r e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  15  TABLE 2  Means f o r Number o f C o r r e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f each S t i m u l u s C o m b i n a t i o n (Type o f E m o t i o n x S e x o f S p e a k e r ) , f o r e a c h Age a n d S e x o f J u d g e s  16  TABLE 3  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s o f Type o f E m o t i o n as R e s p o n s e , A g e a n d S e x o f J u d g e s , a n d S e x o f S p e a k e r , on P e r c e n t o f Responses C o r r e c t  19  TABLE 4  Means f o r P e r c e n t o f R e s p o n s e s C o r r e c t , f o r e a c h T y p e o f E m o t i o n g i v e n a s R e s p o n s e , w i t h e a c h Age and S e x o f J u d g e s , and S e x o f S p e a k e r  20  TABLE A l  Frequency  40  TABLE B l  T o t a l Frequencies o f S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response Combinations  44  TABLE B2  T o t a l Chi-squared Scores f o r P a r t i c u l a r of Error  45  TABLE B3  E f f e c t s o f Age o f J u d g e s o n F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response Combinations  46  TABLE B4  C h i - s q u a r e d Scores f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r a t Each Age L e v e l  47  T A B L E B5  E f f e c t s o f S p e a k e r S e x on F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response Combinations  48  T A B L E B6  C h i - s q u a r e d Scores f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r , w i t h Each Sex o f Speaker  49  TABLE B7  E f f e c t s o f Sex o f Judges on F r e q u e n c i e s o f S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response Combinations  50  o f Each Type o f Response  Types  INTRODUCTION The  study  reported i n this  i n the p e r c e p t i o n of a speaker's  field  of s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n  area s t i l l with  facial  continues.  The  latter  i n recent years  t e m p o , and  the present  V e t t e r (1969).  w i l l be  put  into  Before  context through  earliest  experiments  were mainly  concerned  accurately  identified  relative difficulty  Starkweather  Research Duncan  g o a l s , methodology,  emotion  Thompson and  I n t h e 1 9 6 0 s , t h e r e was  channel  f o r the  as D a v i t z  communication of a f f e c t  (e.g.,  the s p e c i f i c  1954). vocal  1935;  1941).  aspect  i n the area.  o f s p e e c h was  and  Argyle  By  this  recognised  communication of emotion.  (1964),  the  Pfaff,  (e.g., Skinner,  renewed i n t e r e s t  time, the v o c a l , or p a r a l i n g u i s t i c ,  emotions  Bradway, 1950;  with determining  and H o a g l i n ,  be  investigating  of recognising various s p e c i f i c  a l s o concerned  in  i s described, i t  d e a l i n g w i t h v o c a l cues t o  f r o m v o c a l cues a l o n e , and  Fairbanks  r e s e a r c h e r s , such  non-linguistic  research.  cues i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f emotion  important  been  (1967),  study  the  concerned  w i t h f i n d i n g out whether emotions can  D u s e n b e r r y and K n o w e r , 1939;  as a n  research i n  t h e r e has  d i s c u s s i o n of the  f i n d i n g s of relevant e x i s t i n g  Knower, 1941;  investigated i n  amplitude.  by  E a r l y r e s e a r c h was  t o be  trends  cues.  m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s have been  a r e a has been r e v i e w e d  and  The  area  ( T a g i u r i , 1 9 6 8 ) , and  as p i t c h ,  (1969),  and  first  vocal  i n v o c a l cues', t h a t i s , c u e s c a r r i e d b y  f e a t u r e s of speech such this  the  cues to e m o t i o n , but  increased interest  developmental  emotions through  P e r c e p t i o n o f e m o t i o n was the  paper concerns  Several  (1969), s u g g e s t e d  i s a f u n c t i o n of the v o c a l channel,  and  that  2  p r o b a b l y has u n l e a r n e d i n n a t e l y information i s carried Some r e c e n t o f t h e v o c a l cues  determined aspects, while  simultaneously  i n the separate verbal channel.  r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d  at precise  and p a t t e r n s o f cues i n v o l v e d -  identification  i n the perception of  s p e c i f i c emotions o r d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning 1964;  semantic  (e.g.,  Davitz,  C o s t a n z o , M a r k e l , and C o s t a n z o , 1969; S c h e r e r , 1971a).  r e s e a r c h has been a i d e d by developments s y n t h e s i s i n g speech sounds.  i n methods o f a n a l y s i n g and  Other s t u d i e s have looked f o r p e r s o n a l i t y  and o t h e r c o r r e l a t e s  of individual differences  o r decode  t o emotion  v o c a l cues  Mehrabian, 1969).  There  i n ability  t o encode  ( e . g . , D a v i t z , 1964; Z a i d e l and  i s a l s o a s m a l l b u t growing body o f d a t a  concerning the process by which a f f e c t i v e s u c h as v o c a l , v i s u a l ,  This  cues o f v a r i o u s  modalities,  and v e r b a l , a r e i n t e g r a t e d by t h e p e r c e i v e r  ( e . g . , Mehrabian and F e r r i s ,  1967; B u g e n t a l , Kaswan, and L o v e ,  1970a).  A t t e m p t s h a v e a l s o b e e n made a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n a n d e m p i r i c a l verification applicable  o f a s e t o f major d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l meaning  t o t h e v o c a l m o d a l i t y ( e . g . , D a v i t z , 1964; W i l l i a m s and  Sundene, 1965). The  methodology  of the studies  on v o c a l c u e s  t o emotion  requires  some m e n t i o n h e r e .  identify  o r r a t e t h e e m o t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by s p e a k e r s , f r o m v o c a l  alone.  Typically,  s e v e r a l emotions.  I n most s t u d i e s , j u d g e s a r e a s k e d t o  s e v e r a l speakers a r e used, each speaker The s p e e c h s a m p l e s  judges i n t h e form o f tape r e c o r d i n g s . choose  t h e ' c o r r e c t ' emotion  have t o r a t e  are usually  cues  expressing  presented t o the  G e n e r a l l y , judges have t o  from a given l i s t ;  t h e e x p r e s s e d emotions on v a r i o u s  i n some c a s e s  they  d i m e n s i o n s , such as  3  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s  (e.g.,  K o i v u m a k i , and R o s e n t h a l , 1 9 7 2 ) .  C o s t a n z o e t a l . , 1969;  The ' c o r r e c t '  Scherer,  emotion i s u s u a l l y  d e f i n e d as t h a t w h i c h the speaker was i n s t r u c t e d t o p o r t r a y .  I n some  cases the samples are s e l e c t e d by e x t e r n a l judges as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r emotions ( e . g . ,  Scherer et a l . , 1972).  I n a few s t u d i e s  u s i n g spontaneous s p e e c h , b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s have been employed as t e r n a l c r i t e r i a of v a l i d i t y :  of  ex-  f o r i n s t a n c e , M i l m o e , Novey, K a g a n , and  R o s e n t h a l (1968) found t h a t judgments o f emotions i n m o t h e r s ' s p o n t a n eous speech were r e l a t e d to b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s i n t h e i r  children.  The main p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s has been to f i n d ways o f c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t of t h e speech s a m p l e s . S e v e r a l methods have been t r i e d .  I n some e x p e r i m e n t s , s p e a k e r s (who  may be p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s , u n t r a i n e d s t u d e n t s , o r academic l i n g u i s t s ) , r e c i t e t h e a l p h a b e t , numbers, o r nonsense m a t e r i a l , t r y i n g to  express  a d i f f e r e n t emotion each t i m e they r e c i t e t h e m a t e r i a l ( e . g . ,  Pfaff,  1954;  D a v i t z and D a v i t z , 1 9 5 9 a , b ) .  In other experiments,  r e c i t e a s t a n d a r d , supposedly n e u t r a l , v e r b a l passage,  speakers  again being  i n s t r u c t e d t o e x p r e s s a d i f f e r e n t emotion f o r each r e c i t a t i o n  (e.g.,  P o l l a c k , R u b e n s t e i n , and H o r o w i t z , 1960;  Iso-  D i m i t r o v s k y , 1964).  l a t e d s t u d i e s have used t a p e s p l a y e d backwards (Knower, 1941) , w h i s p e r e d speech ( P o l l a c k e t a l . , 1 9 6 0 ) , and speech i n a f o r e i g n language (Kramer, 1 9 6 4 ) .  Two r a t h e r more e l a b o r a t e t e c h n i q u e s have  been d e v e l o p e d , b o t h o f w h i c h p e r m i t the use of speech samples i n v o l v i n g emotionally meaningful v e r b a l content.  Such samples may be  o b t a i n e d from r e c o r d i n g s of spontaneous speech ( e . g . ,  Milmoe e t  o r from r e a l i s t i c d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s ( S c h e r e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) .  al.), One  4  of these content-masking techniques i s e l e c t r o n i c recorded speech filter  ( e . g . , Kramer, 1964).  randomized ing  a r e passed  out high-frequency sounds,  content  s  samples  splicing.  With  these are then s p l i c e d back speech  unintelligible.  p r o p e r t i e s o f speech. spectrum. speech  ing level  the main c a r r i e r s  Little  technique i s  i s chopped i n t o s m a l l  contain-  pieces;  t o g e t h e r i n random o r d e r , r e n d e r i n g t h e  B o t h methods e n t a i l Electronic  the loss  filtering  o f some v o c a l  r e m o v e s some o f t h e v o i c e  removes such s e q u e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f  i n t o n a t i o n , a n d t o some e x t e n t s p e e d , w h i l e  a n d amount o f v a r i a t i o n o f p i t c h  r a t e and c l a r i t y  of semantic  technique, the length o f tape  emotion  Randomized s p l i c i n g  as s t r e s s ,  i n which  through a bandpass f i l t e r t o  The o t h e r c o n t e n t - m a s k i n g  this  a sample o f a p a r t i c u l a r  filtering,  and a m p l i t u d e , as w e l l a s  o f a r t i c u l a t i o n on t h e phonemic  i s known r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s  methodology  d e s c r i b e d above.  comparisons  o f the r e s u l t s  level.  of a l lthe variations i n  I t i s not possible  of different  retain-  t o make  s t u d i e s , because  detailed the studies  v a r y o n s o many d i m e n s i o n s , s u c h a s l e n g t h a n d s o u r c e o f s p e e c h samples, used  type o f judges  as s t i m u l i  and s p e a k e r s , and t h e c a t e g o r i e s  and r e s p o n s e s .  to compare s y s t e m a t i c a l l y Kramer  (1964)  Only  results  found t h a t judgments  passages were about  r a r e l y h a v e a t t e m p t s b e e n made  o b t a i n e d under o f emotion  as a c c u r a t e a s j u d g m e n t s  different  method u s e d . under  i n a c c u r a c y o f judgments This l a t t e r  methods.  from standard-content from f i l t e r e d  o f t h e same p a s s a g e s , b u t t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d i v i d u a l among j u d g e s  o f emotion  differed  versions  differences  according to the  f i n d i n g suggests that successful  judgments  d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s may d e p e n d t o some e x t e n t o n d i f f e r e n t  5  abilities.  Scherer et a l . (1972) compared judgments under e l e c t r o n i c  f i l t e r i n g and randomized s p l i c i n g conditions, using the same speech samples.  They found greater inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y with randomized  s p l i c i n g , i n r a t i n g speech samples on -the evaluation, potency, and a c t i v i t y dimensions of emotional meaning, and suggested that the cues retained a f t e r randomized s p l i c i n g may  be the l e a s t ambiguous and  being fewer, less l i a b l e to cue discrepancy. f i l t e r i n g condition may  Judges i n the e l e c t r o n i c  have t r i e d to i d e n t i f y words:  the e f f e c t of  e l e c t r o n i c f i l t e r i n g i s supposed to be "a kind of mumble, as though heard through a w a l l " (Starkweather, 1956). Regardless of methodological differences, some consistencies can be found i n the results of the studies concerning emotion through vocal cues.  perception  of  It seems that a large number of emotions  can be recognised with far more than chance accuracy from vocal cues alone.  In some cases, judgments of emotion on the basis of vocal  cues alone can be at l e a s t as accurate  as judgments on the basis of  vocal plus verbal cues (e.g., Starkweather, 1956). much easier to recognise than others.  Some emotions are  Davitz and Davitz  found anger and fear to be the most e a s i l y recognised  (1959a)  from a l i s t of  ten emotions, while love and pride were the most d i f f i c u l t . (1964) found the most e a s i l y recognised  emotion to be anger, followed  by g r i e f , i n d i f f e r e n c e , love, and contempt, i n that order f i v e emotions were used). d i s l i k i n g was  Kramer  (only those  Z a i d e l and Mehrabian (1969) found that  better recognised  than l i k i n g .  Wide i n d i v i d u a l differences have been found i n the effectiveness of judges and speakers, but the reasons for these differences are  6  largely  unknown.  from v o c a l status  P f a f f (1954)  c u e s was p o s i t i v e l y  i nhigh  school  vocal  Davitz  related to high  symbolic a c t i v i t y ,  ability  to recognise  correlated with high  students.  a b i l i t y was p o s i t i v e l y abstract  found that  auditory  (1964)  emotions  socio-economic  found that  t h e same  levels of verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  ability,  and knowledge  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f emotional expression.  about t h e  Reports o f sex d i f f e r -  e n c e s h a v e b e e n i n c o n s i s t e n t , i n d i c a t i n g s o m e t i m e s t h a t women make b e t t e r judges that  there  (Pfaff,  1954; Z a i d e l and M e h r a b i a n , 1969), and sometimes  i s no s e x d i f f e r e n c e  Middleton,  1940;M i l l e r ,  (Dusenberry and Knower, 1939; Fay and  1966).  Z a i d e l and Mehrabian  t h a t men w e r e b e t t e r a t e x p r e s s i n g reverse  was t r u e  liking  r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotion.  t h a n women w e r e , w h i l e t h e  a number o f v o c a l  p i t c h v a r i a t i o n (Scherer,  cues i n v o l v e d  These cues i n c l u d e p i t c h l e v e l  and P r o n o v o s t , 1 9 3 9 ) , a m p l i t u d e l e v e l  Studies  found  for disliking.  Research has revealed  Hoaglin,  (1969)  (Skinner,  1971a), r a t e o f speech  1941), and s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n  o f speech  i n d i c a t e that s p e c i f i c emotions  i n the  (Fairbanks  1935), a m p l i t u d e and (Fairbanks (Knower,  and 1941).  and dimensions o f e m o t i o n a l  meaning a r e communicated t h r o u g h p a r t i c u l a r cues and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of  cues.  C o s t a n z o e t a l . (1969)  strongly related to pitch level, amplitude l e v e l .  S c h e r e r (1971a)  tude l e v e l  and p o t e n c y judgments,  evaluative  judgments,  judgments  judgments  o f g r i e f were  o f anger and contempt t o  found r e l a t i o n s h i p s between pitch level  ampli-  and v a r i a t i o n and  p i t c h and a m p l i t u d e v a r i a t i o n , and tempo, and  both potency and a c t i v i t y changeable:  found that  judgments.  i t seems t h a t e m o t i o n s  Many c u e s  are probably  can be i d e n t i f i e d  inter-  c o r r e c t l y from  7  a v e r y s m a l l s e t o f cues ( S c h e r e r e t a l . ,  1972).  W i l l i a m s and Sundene (1965) found t h r e e major dimensions o f r e c o g n i t i o n f o r v o c a l c u e s , u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f responses on Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s , t o v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f emotion.  They  l a b e l l e d t h e dimensions e v a l u a t i v e , a c t i v i t y , and s o c i a l c o n t r o l ( b u t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s l a s t may have been an e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i f a c t ) .  In  the same s t u d y , t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s were a l s o found a p p l i c a b l e t o p e r c e p t i o n o f emotion t h r o u g h v i s u a l c u e s , and t h r o u g h v i s u a l and v o c a l cues combined.  The dimensions were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by Osgood  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , and o t h e r s , f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotion from f a c i a l cues.  Developmental  Research  Almost a l l the r e s e a r c h on p e r c e p t i o n o f emotion t h r o u g h v o c a l cues has been done w i t h a d u l t s , b o t h as s p e a k e r s and as j u d g e s .  One  e x c e p t i o n , o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i s an e x p e r i ment by B u g e n t a l e t a l (1970b) on d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n g s g i v e n t o cues from t h e v i s u a l , v o c a l , and v e r b a l m o d a l i t i e s , i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f e v a l u a t i v e messages.  The o n l y a g e - t r e n d found  was f o r t h e v i s u a l c h a n n e l , w h i c h had l e s s impact on young c h i l d r e n . Another e x c e p t i o n i s an e a r l y s t u d y by Gates (1927) who t e s t e d  children  i n grades 3 t o 8 on the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y emotions e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h r e c i t a t i o n o f the a l p h a b e t by a d u l t s , and found t h a t t h i s a b i l i t y was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o age. a v a i l a b l e today.  Only a b r i e f summary o f h e r r e s e a r c h i s  P f a f f (1954), i n the study r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y ,  found t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and h i g h S.E.S. J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s were b e t t e r judges than low S.E.S. J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s ; d e t a i l s of t h e ages o f h i s judges a r e n o t g i v e n .  B l a u (1964) found  8  t h a t a g e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  variable  a d o l e s c e n t s as judges o f emotion d e t a i l s o f ages.  i n the effectiveness  f r o m v o c a l c u e s , b u t does n o t r e p o r t  D i m i t r o v s k y (1964) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y  aimed a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a g e - t r e n d s i n t h e a b i l i t y emotions  from v o c a l cues.  at each y e a r l e v e l  She used  from f i v e  w e r e men a n d women, w i t h each o f t h e emotions:  emotion  c h i l d r e n were t r a i n e d  to identify  t o t w e l v e , o f l o w e r S.E.S.  The s p e a k e r s  items by e i t h e r s e x , t h r e e f o r  s a d , happy, angry, and l o v i n g .  from a g i v e n l i s t ,  specifically  fourteen children o f either sex  twelve speech  p a r a g r a p h m e t h o d was u s e d .  of blind  The s t a n d a r d -  Instead of checking o f f the correct the usual procedure with a d u l t s , the  t o a s s o c i a t e each o f four p i c t u r e s  o f a man, a n d  e a c h o f f o u r p i c t u r e s o f a woman, w i t h one o f t h e f o u r e m o t i o n s , t o a c r i t e r i o n o f two c o n s e c u t i v e c o r r e c t tures.  Judges then responded  the p i c t u r e s .  identifications  of a l lthe pic-  t o t h e v o i c e samples by c h o o s i n g one o f  The g o a l o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e  was t o e l i m i n a t e  t h e need  f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e a d t h e names o f t h e e m o t i o n s . D i m i t r o v s k y ' s main f i n d i n g s to i d e n t i f y  emotions  included the following:  i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y w i t h age.  to boys except a t t h e f i v e - y e a r o l d l e v e l . effect  of emotions:  G i r l s were  s a d n e s s was m o s t o f t e n r e c o g n i s e d c o r r e c t l y ,  showed e v i d e n c e o f r e s p o n s e b i a s ,  i n that  account  four emotions.  f o rthe d i f f e r e n t i a l  Children  t h e y gave t h e r e s p o n s e s  s a d a n d a n g r y more o f t e n t h a n h a p p y a n d l o v i n g , a n d t h i s  the  superior  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  f o l l o w e d b y anger, h a p p i n e s s , and l o v e , i n t h a t o r d e r .  could largely  ability  tendency  accuracy i n recognising  The p e r c e n t a g e o f e m i t t e d r e s p o n s e s o f e a c h  w h i c h w e r e c o r r e c t was a b o u t  t h e same.  M i s t a k e s were s i m i l a r  kind  tothe  9  i n t e n d e d emotion i n terms o f t h e a c t i v i t y ing  (Osgood,  1962), i . e . , h a p p i n e s s and anger were o f t e n c o n f u s e d , as  were sadness and l o v e . the  T h e r e were no c l e a r s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n  pattern of correct or incorrect  different  d i m e n s i o n o f e m o t i o n a l mean-  ages.  Male  ness a t communicating  r e s p o n s e s made b y c h i l d r e n o f  and female s p e a k e r s d i f f e r e d specific  experiment.  Firstly,  anger.  a n d comments c a n b e made c o n c e r n i n g t h i s  the specific  effects  of using thestandard-  p a r a g r a p h m e t h o d , a s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , a r e unknown. finding  effective-  e m o t i o n s , men b e i n g b e t t e r a t c o m m u n i -  c a t i n g s a d n e s s a n d l o v e , women a t c o m m u n i c a t i n g Several criticisms  i n their  Secondly, the  that c h i l d r e n tended to give predominantly n e g a t i v e responses  may h a v e b e e n a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i f a c t , i n one o f two w a y s . the  p i c t u r e s had unequal s u b j e c t i v e  Possibly  g e n e r a l i t y , s o t h a t when c h i l d r e n -  w e r e u n s u r e o f t h e e m o t i o n b e i n g e x p r e s s e d , t h e y t e n d e d t o c h o o s e \± p i c t u r e w h i c h was s u b j e c t i v e l y spectrum o f emotional cues: sadness and anger  fell  into  appropriate f o r a r e l a t i v e l y  presumably that  the pictures  category.  g o i n g o u t now. tell  I won't be b a c k a l l  t h e m I'm n o t h e r e . " )  raises  the interesting p o s s i b i l i t y  a t t r i b u t e n e g a t i v e emotions to  the verbal  (Speakers s a i d :  "I'm  I f anyone c a l l s ,  just  i s n o t an a r t i f a c t , i t  that children are inclined to  to adults.  No t e n d e n c y  f o radult  judges  g i v e a preponderance o f n e g a t i v e responses has been n o t e d i n t h e  literature. most o r a l l of  afternoon.  I f the. f i n d i n g  representing  Alternatively,  m a t e r i a l may h a v e h a d n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s .  broad  (However, such r e s p o n s e b i a s studies  response.)  fail  could exist  i n adults:  to report the frequencies of s p e c i f i c  D i m i t r o v s k y ' s s t u d y s h e d s no l i g h t  kinds  on t h e q u e s t i o n o f  10  how l o n g s e n s i t i v i t y  t o v o c a l cues f o r emotion  The s t u d i e s b y P f a f f  (1954) and B l a u  that  i t may d e v e l o p  throughout  continues to develop.  (1964) mentioned  earlier,  suggest  adolescence.  The p r e s e n t s t u d y l o o k s a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u s e o f vocal  cues i n p e r c e i v i n g a speaker's  emotion.  The i n d e p e n d e n t  variables  t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e age and s e x o f j u d g e s , s e x o f s p e a k e r s , a n d particular  emotions.  I n a sense,  this  s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t  to repli-  c a t e and extend D i m i t r o v s k y ' s f i n d i n g s , u s i n g improved  methodology,  and  existing  i n c l u d i n g a d u l t as w e l l  as c h i l d  do n o t p e r m i t many f i r m h y p o t h e s e s mental  trends i n this  area.  judges.  T h e o n l y h y p o t h e s i s made, t h e r e f o r e , i s  c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e .  developmental findings  s t u d i e s mentioned  from v o c a l cues i n c r e a s e s  T h i s hypothesis i s based  previously  concerning developmental  perception.  data  concerning the nature of develop-  t h a t accuracy i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotions throughout  Clearly,  P e r c e p t i o n o f emotion  on t h e  a n d , l e s s d i r e c t l y , on  trends i n other aspects of s o c i a l from v i s u a l  more a c c u r a t e w i t h a g e ( T a g i u r i , 1 9 6 8 ) ,  c u e s seems t o b e c o m e  a n d i m p r o v e m e n t i s shown i n  a variety of other s o c i a l perception a c t i v i t i e s  (Flavell,  1968).  11  METHOD SECTION Subjects C h i l d r e n i n Grades s y s t e m , as w e l l  3, 5, a n d 7, f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r  school  a s c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , w e r e u s e d as j u d g e s .  were o f m i d d l e - c l a s s background.  T e n m a l e and  The  children  ten female judges at  each a g e - l e v e l were used.  Material E a c h o f t h e e m o t i o n s , s a d n e s s , f e a r , h a p p i n e s s , and a n g e r , e x p r e s s e d by  two m a l e a n d  two  female a d u l t speakers.  e x p r e s s e d o n l y one e m o t i o n , so t h a t speakers.  The  there were s i x t e e n  The  r e a d i n g by an amateur from records. f o r m , was in  two  different  sources are  reported  female f e a r samples were taped from a  a c t r e s s , as s u i t a b l e s a m p l e s  c o u l d n o t be  s t u d y , i t was  r e p l a c e d by  a c c u r a c y by Grade  another.  Semantic content  following essentially  t e c h n i q u e d e s c r i b e d by S c h e r e r ( 1 9 7 1 b ) .  Samples  s p e e d o f 3-3/4  i n c h e s p e r s e c o n d , on a S o n y 630  the  l e n g t h o f t a p e on w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r  cut  into  sample  with  was the  were r e c o r d e d at a tape recorder, was  and  r e c o r d e d was  r o u g h l y one-inch p i e c e s , which were then s p l i c e d back t o g e t h e r  random o r d e r , t h e t r a n s f o r m e d m a t e r i a l b e i n g f i n a l l y  a new  found  7 judges  r e m o v e d b y means o f r a n d o m i z e d s p l i c i n g ,  in  live  I f the emotion i n a p a r t i c u l a r sample, i n i t s f i n a l  n o t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h above chance  a pilot  speaker  speech samples were t a p e d f r o m r e c o r d s o f modern N o r t h  A m e r i c a n p l a y s and d r a m a t i c r e a d i n g s ( s p e c i f i c i n Appendix C).  Each  was  tape.  On  the f i n a l  t a p e , the samples  appeared  a f i f t e e n s e c o n d i n t e r v a l a f t e r each one.  a p p e a r e d on  t h e t a p e , i t s n u m b e r was  announced  recorded onto  i n random  Before each on t h e t a p e .  order,  sample The  final  1 2  samples were about e i g h t e e n seconds obtaining sufficient samples  long.  o r i g i n a l samples  Because  of t h i s  of d i f f i c u l t y  length,  in  original  as s h o r t as t e n s e c o n d s w e r e u s e d , t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g r e p e a t e d  t o make up  the f i n a l  samples.  Procedure Pilot  s t u d i e s had  shown t h a t  i t was  p r a c t i c a l to test  i n s m a l l g r o u p s , so groups o f t h r e e were used. around the t a p e - r e c o r d e r , p o s i t i o n e d  Judges were s e a t e d  so t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t s e e  t h e o t h e r two j u d g e s w e r e r e s p o n d i n g .  E a c h j u d g e was  booklet  c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n numbered p a g e s , w i t h  afraid,  and a n g r y , on e a c h page, The  judges  i n varying  f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were  given a  how  small  the words s a d ,  order.  given:  " I am i n t e r e s t e d t o s e e how w e l l p e o p l e c a n g u e s s w h a t someone e l s e i s f e e l i n g , j u s t f r o m t h e s o u n d of that person's v o i c e . You a r e g o i n g t o h e a r some v o i c e s s p e a k i n g . T h e y w i l l s o u n d s t r a n g e , b e c a u s e I ' v e m i x e d a l l t h e w o r d s up s o t h e y d o n ' t make s e n s e . I w a n t y o u t o t r y and guess w h a t e a c h p e r s o n i s f e e l i n g , j u s t from t h e sound o f t h e voice. Don't t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d what the p e r s o n i s s a y i n g , j u s t l i s t e n t o t h e sound o f t h e v o i c e , and guess whether the p e r s o n i s s a d , o r a n g r y , o r happy, or a f r a i d . When y o u ' v e d e c i d e d w h a t t h e f i r s t p e r s o n i s f e e l i n g , p u t a mark by t h e w o r d y o u ' v e c h o s e n , on t h e f i r s t p a g e o f t h e b o o k . T h e n t u r n o v e r t o t h e s e c o n d p a g e , a n d when y o u ' v e h e a r d t h e s e c o n d v o i c e , put a mark by t h e word you've chosen f o r the second v o i c e , then t u r n o v e r t o t h e t h i r d page r e a d y f o r t h e t h i r d v o i c e , and so on. T h e r e a r e s i x t e e n v o i c e s , and s i x t e e n p a g e s , one f o r e a c h v o i c e . Y o u ' l l h e a r t h e number o f e a c h v o i c e s p o k e n on t h e t a p e b e f o r e y o u h e a r t h e v o i c e , s o y o u ' l l know w h i c h p a g e y o u s h o u l d b e o n . I f you f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c h o o s e a w o r d , j u s t make a good g u e s s . Don't w o r r y about b e i n g wrong, t h i s i s n ' t a t e s t , j u s t be s u r e t o c h o o s e one w o r d f o r e a c h v o i c e and t u r n t o t h e n e x t p a g e e v e r y t i m e a f t e r you've chosen a word. Does a n y o n e h a v e any questions?"  happy,  \  13  Pilot  studies  no  trouble  following  if  recognition  indicated  that  children  these i n s t r u c t i o n s .  a c c u r a c y was  influenced  by  Data were a n a l y s e d to age  judges, sex of speakers, p a r t i c u l a r emotions, these v a r i a b l e s . ferent  a g e s and  from Grade 3 upwards  P a r t i c u l a r k i n d s of e r r o r s  of judges, sex  judges  of  s e x e s w e r e e x a m i n e d , as w e r e p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s  e r r o r e l i c i t e d by  speakers  of e i t h e r sex.  and  of judge  and  as a f u n c t i o n  speaker  Response b i a s , both  v a r i a b l e s , was  also  see  of  or i n t e r a c t i o n s made b y  had  among difof overall  investigated.  RESULTS Amount o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n An A n a l y s i s age  o f judges  o f V a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d , w i t h s e x o f j u d g e s a n d  (Grades  3, 5, 7, a n d c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ) a s between-S_  v a r i a b l e s , and s e x o f s p e a k e r and t y p e o f e m o t i o n and  angry)  as w i t h i n - S _ v a r i a b l e s .  number o f c o r r e c t analysis  A significant 44.78, p < .001]. indicated by  effect  was f o u n d  f o r type o f emotion  i d e n t i f i e d most f r e q u e n t l y ,  indicated significant  differences  happy and s a d , a f r a i d  and a n g r y , and a f r a i d  (mean  that  effect  c o l l e g e students produced  .001],  (mean 1.334)  [F(3,72) =  s t u d e n t s and each  o f t h e o t h e r groups  A significant [F(3,216)  effect  was a l s o  2,  t h e g r e a t e s t number o f c o r r e c t  Grade 5 n e x t , and Grades  revealed significant  identification  identifications  f o r age o f j u d g e s  Newman-Keuls t e s t  Speaker  ands a d .  The mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e  identifications, with  of  test  1.159).  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  revealed  A Newman-Keuls  followed  [ F ( l , 7 2 ) = 13.07, p =  f e m a l e s p e a k e r s e l i c i t i n g more c o r r e c t  14.02, p < .001].  =  ( p < .01) b e t w e e n h a p p y a n d a n g r y ,  o f s p e a k e r was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t  than male speakers  [F(3,216)  T h e mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 2,  angry, a f r a i d , and happy, i n t h a t o r d e r .  with  The summa r y f o r t h i s  1.  t h a t s a d was c o r r e c t l y  Sex  afraid,  The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s by each j u d g e .  i s presented i n Table  (sad, happy,  3 and 7 e q u a l .  differences  o n l y between  A college  (p < . 0 1 ) . found f o r Type o f Emotion  = 21.72, p < .001].  x Sex  As i n d i c a t e d b y t h e mean  s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 2, t h e h i g h e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  TABLE  1  Analysis of Variance: Effects of Type of Emotion, Age and Sex of Judges, and Sex of Speaker, on Number of Correct I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . SOURCE  df  EMOTION (A) SPEAKER  (  B  )  3 1  MS 16.544 4 > 9 ( ) 0  F 44.78** 13.07**  OLA  AxB  3  9.029  1  0.625  1.83  AxC  3  0.179  0.48  BxC  1  1.056  2.82  AxBxC  3  0.452  1.09  3  4.790  AxD  9  0.060  0.16  BxD  3  0.692  1.84  AxBxD  9  0.576  1.39  CxD  3  0.050  0.15  AxCxD  9  0.415  1.12  BxCxD  3  0.740  1.97  AxBxCxD  9  0.258  0.62  ERROR (W-A)  216  0.369  ERROR (W-B)  72  0.375  ERROR (W-AxB)  216  0.416  ERROR (BETW.)  72  0.342  SEX OF JUDGES  AGE OF JUDGES  (C)  (D)  21.72**  14.02**  ** p < .01  TABLE  2  Means for Number of Correct Identifications for each Stimulus Combination (Type of Emotion x Sex of Speaker), for each Age and Sex of Judges  MALE  S P E A K E R S  HAPPY  SAD  BOYS  0.700  GIRLS  F E M A L E  S P E A K E R S AFRAID  ANGRY  AFRAID  ANGRY  HAPPY  SAD  1.800  0.900  1.700  1.800  1.700  1.500  1.700  0.700  2.000  1.200  1.900  1.600  1.700  1.600  1.600  BOYS  0.500  1.600  0.800  1.300  1.200  1.300  0.900  1.300  GIRLS  0.300  1.700  0.700  1.200  1.400  1.500  1.100  1.700  BOYS  0.600  1.500  1.100  1.600  1.100  1.700  0.600  0.800  GIRLS  0.200  1.600  1.000  1.600  1.400  1.200  1.000  1.700  BOYS  0.400  1.400  1.100  1.700  1.000  1.400  1.100  1.100  GIRLS  0.600  1.400  0.700  1.600  1.300  1.500  1.000  1.200  COLUMN X  0.500  1.625  0.938  1.575  1.350  1.500  1.100  1.387  1.506  COLLEGE  1.156  GRADE 7  GRADE 5  1.169  1.156  GRADE 3  Note.  MEANS FOR EACH AGE-LEVEL  Chance score i n each c e l l i s 0.500.  MEANS FOR TYPE OF EMOTION:  HAPPY 0.925  N = 80  SAD 1.562  AFRAID 1.019  ANGRY 1.481  17  s c o r e w i t h m a l e s p e a k e r s was happy  i n that order; with  s c o r e was order.  female speakers  cant o n l y f o r happy  r e v e a l e d t h a t s e x o f s p e a k e r was  (p < . 0 1 ) .  i n that  signifi-  For female s p e a k e r s , the o n l y s i g -  d i f f e r e n c e s were between a f r a i d  male s p e a k e r s , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t all  and  the highest i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  a g a i n f o r s a d , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , h a p p y , and a f r a i d ,  A Newman-Keuls t e s t  nificant  f o r s a d , f o l l o w e d by a n g r y , a f r a i d ,  o t h e r emotions, between a f r a i d  and a l l o t h e r e m o t i o n s .  For  d i f f e r e n c e s between happy  and s a i d ,  and a f r a i d  and  and  angry.  Response B i a s The p r o b l e m o f r e s p o n s e b i a s a r i s e s when amount o f i d e n t i f i c a tion  i s u s e d as a m e a s u r e o f r e c o g n i t i o n a c c u r a c y ;  identify  i f judges  e m o t i o n A more o f t e n t h a n e m o t i o n B , i t may  s i m p l y be b e c a u s e  t h e y t e n d t o g i v e t h e r e s p o n s e A more o f t e n t h a n t h e r e s p o n s e A Chi-squared test of  e m o t i o n was  significant  r e s p o n s e a n g r y was  (x  = 4 7 . 5 8 , d f = 3, p < . 0 0 1 ) .  2  T h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s a r e shown i n T a b l e A l  (Appendix A ) .  Chi-squared test  of  indicated  type  The  happy, i n t h a t o r d e r .  was  B.  on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e s o f e a c h  g i v e n most o f t e n , f o l l o w e d b y s a d , a f r a i d ,  Another  correctly  and  that response  bias  n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d b y s e x o f s p e a k e r , o r b y age o r s e x (x  judges  indicated  2  that  = 39.91, df = 45, p < .05). response b i a s  could not completely account  e n c e s i n t h e amount o f c o r r e c t this  test,  bias  (x  2  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each  obtained t o t a l correct  emotion were compared w i t h  A t h i r d Chi-squared  test  for differ-  emotion.  In  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s f o r each  t h o s e e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s  = 1 0 . 8 9 , d f = 3, p < . 0 5 ) .  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  of  response  s a d h a d a much  h i g h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e than response b i a s would have  predicted.  18  P e r c e n t o f Each Another of  Type o f R e s p o n s e C o r r e c t two-way A n a l y s i s  j u d g e s a n d age  of judges  o f V a r i a n c e was  (Grades  3, 5,  between-S_ v a r i a b l e s , a n d s e x o f s p e a k e r h a p p y , a f r a i d , and this  case r e f e r s  type of emotion the  angry)  as w i t h in-S_  to type of emotion  This analysis  7, a n d  and  type of emotion  the tendency  each  for a particular  The  l a t t e r was  stimulus to e l i c i t y deals with  types of response, i n terms  type of response  correct.  The  the  the  relative  of the  two m e a s u r e s o f  correct  percentage  recognition  and p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n s e s  may  depending  not correspond c l o s e l y ,  d i s t r i b u t i o n of types of The  16.07, p  < .001].  g i v e n i n T a b l e 4, f o l l o w e d by test  e f f e c t was  I t can be  (p <  and  i s given i n Table  3.  [F(3,216)  =  f r o m t h e mean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , , most o f t e n  a f r a i d , i n that order.  correct, A Newman-Keuls  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s a d and e a c h  of  the  .01).  S e x o f s p e a k e r was with  seen  a n g r y , h a p p y , and  o t h e r emotions  on r e s p o n s e b i a s  found f o r type of emotion  t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s a d was  revealed significant  correct,  error.  summary f o r t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s  A significant  was  concerned  a c c u r a c y , amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r may  then  a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t measure o f r e c o g -  response, whereas the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s  of  in  correct.  deals with  accuracy of p a r t i c u l a r  of emotion  dependent v a r i a b l e  n i t i o n a c c u r a c y t h a n d i d the p r e v i o u s one. with  (Type  (sad,  g i v e n as r e s p o n s e , r a t h e r The  sex  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ) as  variables.  p r e s e n t e d as s t i m u l u s . )  percent of responses  performed, w i t h  also  female speakers e l i c i t i n g  significant  [ F ( l , 7 2 ) = 20.82, p <  a g r e a t e r percentage of c o r r e c t  .001],  responses  19 TABLE  3  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s of Type of Emotion g i v e n as Response, Age and Sex of J u d g e s , and Sex o f S p e a k e r , on P e r c e n t o f Responses C o r r e c t SOURCE  df  M S  EMOTION (A)  3  15854.917  16.07**  SPEAKER (B) SEX  1  27825.757  20.82**  3  17103.308  19.06**  1  275.612  0.20  AxC  3  552.293  0.56  BxC  1  8800.938  6.58*  AxBxC  3  1486.929  1.66  AxB SEX OF JUDGES  AGE OF JUDGES  (C)  15010.882  (D)  10.69**  AxD  9  735.567  0.75  BxD  3  3159.667  2.36  AxBxD  9  582.675  0.65  CxD  3  641.522  0.46  AxCxD  9  523.897  0.53  BxCxD  3  3628.897  2.71  AxBxCxD  9  471.772  0.53  ERROR (W-A) ERROR (W-B) ERROR (W-AxB) ERROR (BETW.)  * = p < .05 ** = p < .01  TABLE  4  Means for Percent of Responses Correct, for each Type of Emotion given as Response, with each Age and Sex of Judges, and Sex of Speaker  MALE  S P E A K E R S T Y P E  HAPPY  COLLEGE  GRADE 7  GRADE 5  GRADE 3  SAD  OF  F E M A L E  S P E A K E R S  R E S P O N S E  AFRAID  ANGRY  HAPPY  SAD  FOR EACH  AFRAID  ANGRY  BOYS  34.999  79.998  63.333  64.998  93.332  93.333  78.332  83.332  GIRLS  36.666  93.332  81.665  69.996  91.666  89.998  73.332  88.332  BOYS  40.000  73.332  46.666  43.166  76.666  71.666  39.165  49.997  GIRLS  30.000  76.666  33.332  39.165  86.666  71.664  65.832  76.666  BOYS  48.333  71.664  69.999  65.664  48.332  68.330  37.000  40.000  GIRLS  15.000  68.332  46.666  56.332  81.666  71.666  41.666  66.664  BOYS  30.000  74.164  61.666  59.998  58.333  78.332  46.666  57.499  GIRLS  32.500  61.664  37.333  51.664  78.332  68.332  44.999  62.499  COLUMN X  MEANS  AGE-LEVEL  76.040  57.541  56.082  56.499 o  33.437  74.894  55.082  56.373  76.874  76.665  53.374  65.624  21  (mean 6 8 . 1 3 4 )  than male s p e a k e r s  A significant 10.69, p < .001].  effect  was  (mean found  54.947). f o r age o f j u d g e s  Mean s c o r e s , p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4, i n d i c a t e d  c o l l e g e students produced  the h i g h e s t .percentage o f c o r r e c t  f o l l o w e d b y G r a d e s 3, 5, a n d 7, i n t h a t o r d e r . demonstrated  significant  each o f t h e o t h e r groups  the  A Newman-Keuls  significant  most o f t e n c o r r e c t ,  most o f t e n c o r r e c t ,  that order. correct  The  [F(3,216)  19.06,  f o l l o w e d by a n g r y ,  speakers  afraid,  the response  f o l l o w e d by s a d , a n g r y , and a f r a i d , i n often  f o r female speakers than f o r male s p e a k e r s , w h i l e the response more o f t e n c o r r e c t  speakers.  A Newman-Keuls t e s t  f o r male speakers than f o r female indicated significant  between happy  f o r male speakers  between happy  and each  between angry  and s a d f o r male s p e a k e r s  and happy  .012],  judges w i t h correct,  also  (p < . 0 5 ) .  significant  Mean s c o r e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 4, i n d i c a t e d the highest percent of  f o l l o w e d by male judges w i t h  female  and  (p < . 0 1 ) , a n d b e t w e e n  f o r female speakers  female speaker produced  (p < . 0 1 ) ,  (p < . 0 1 ) , b e t w e e n a f r a i d  S e x o f J u d g e s x S e x o f S p e a k e r was p =  (p < . 0 1 ) ,  f o r male s p e a k e r s  f o r female speakers  f o r male s p e a k e r s and a n g r y  differences  f o r female speakers  of the o t h e r emotions  each o f t h e o t h e r emotions  6.58,  =  r e s p o n s e s h a p p y , s a d , a n d a n g r y , w e r e more  a f r a i d was  angry  test  (p < . 0 1 ) .  and h a p p y , i n t h a t o r d e r , w h i l e f o r f e m a l e s p e a k e r s h a p p y was  that  responses,  As s h o w n b y t h e mean s c o r e s , i n T a b l e 4, f o r m a l e  r e s p o n s e s a d was  =  d i f f e r e n c e s between c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and  E m o t i o n x S e x o f S p e a k e r was p < .001].  [F(3,72)  s p e a k e r , male  [F(l,72) that  =  female  responses judges  w i t h male s p e a k e r , and f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r , i n t h a t  order.  22  A Newman-Keuls t e s t judges w i t h  l e d to s i g n i f i c a n t  female  female s p e a k e r and f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h male s p e a k e r  between female judges w i t h speaker  d i f f e r e n c e s between  female s p e a k e r and male j u d g e s w i t h  (p < . 0 1 ) , female  (p < .05) , a n d b e t w e e n f e m a l e j u d g e s w i t h m a l e s p e a k e r a n d  male judges w i t h No o t h e r  female speaker significant  (p < . 0 5 ) .  e f f e c t s were found i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  Types o f E r r o r The  analyses  so f a r d e s c r i b e d  accuracy i n recognising p a r t i c u l a r frequencies  of specific  response combinations.  g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about  relative  emotions, b u t n o t about t h e r e l a t i v e  e r r o r s , i . e . ,s p e c i f i c inappropriate  stimulus-  A d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a n a l y s i s was n e e d e d t o  answer t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n : 1. for  When r e s p o n s e b i a s  particular  emotions  and d i f f e r e n t i a l  a r e c o n t r o l l e d , do a n y s p e c i f i c  s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s remain? s t i m u l u s more l i k e l y another  (e.g.,  angry  to e l i c i t  i s stimulus  than response  recognition accuracy  or  I n other words, i s a p a r t i c u l a r  one k i n d o f w r o n g r e s p o n s e r a t h e r  happy  sad  more l i k e l y  afraid  )?  to e l i c i t  t o f o l l o w one s t i m u l u s  (e.g., i s response  more l i k e l y  stimulus 2. does t h e i r  sad  or  than  response  Conversely, i s a particular  w r o n g r e s p o n s e more l i k e l y angry  inappropriate  rather than another  to follow stimulus  happy  than  afraid )?  I f S-R r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e k i n d j u s t m e n t i o n e d form vary  according  do  exist,  t o age a n d / o r s e x o f j u d g e s , o r s e x o f  speaker?  F o r example, i s the tendency  response  angry  f o r stimulus  g r e a t e r w i t h male s p e a k e r t h a n w i t h  happy  to  elicit  female  speaker?  23  Analysis of these types of error was done by using Chi-squared tests.  Details of the method used are given in Appendix B. Overall pattern of errors.  As shown in Table Bl (Appendix B),  the overall Chi-squared was significant (x  2  = 109.27, df = 4, p < .001),  meaning that the overall pattern of errors differed significantly from that predicted on the basis of response bias and response accuracy for each emotion.  In other words, the particular type of wrong response  produced was partly a function of the particular emotion presented as stimulus.  Chi-squared scores for particular stimulus-response combina-  tions can be considered measures of some kind of specific linkage between two emotions.  The strongest linkages, measured in this way,  were between stimulus sad and response afraid, and between stimulus angry and response happy (see Table B2, Appendix B). Effects of age of judges on pattern of errors. Table B3 (Appendix B), Chi-squared was significant (x  2  As shown i n = 16.39, df = 4,  p < .01) , meaning that age of judges significantly affected the pattern of errors.  Among the differences found, the pattern of errors was  most different from the expected pattern for Grade 7, then for Grade 3, Grade 5, and college students, in that order.  The difference between  the obtained and expected patterns was significant at a l l age levels (at college level, x  2  = 16.53, df = 4, p < .01; at Grade 7, x  df = 4, p < .001; at Grade 5, x X  2  = 33.78, df = 4, p < .001).  stimulus  sad - response  where 0 < E.  afraid  2  2  = 48.27,  = 27.08, df = 4, p < .001; at Grade 3, At a l l age levels, the combination of had the highest Chi-squared score  For a l l age-levels except Grade 3, the next highest  24  s c o r e was f o r s t i m u l u s next highest T a b l e B4,  s c o r e was f o r s t i m u l u s  Appendix  Effects was  ; f o r G r a d e 3, t h e  happy- response  angry  (see  B).  a s shown i n T a b l e  B5 ( A p p e n d i x B).  Chi-squared  (x = 73.25, 2  .001), m e a n i n g t h a t s e x o f s p e a k e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d  the p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s . t o make s t i m u l u s and s t i m u l u s  happy  o f s e x o f s p e a k e r on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s .  significant  d f = 4, p <  angry - response  Among t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d , t h e t e n d e n c i e s  sad-response a f r a i d ,  afraid-response  stimulus  angry-response  angry e r r o r s were s t r o n g e r w i t h  happy, female  s p e a k e r s t h a n w i t h male s p e a k e r s , w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e o f stimulus  a f r a i d - r e s p o n s e s a d , and s t i m u l u s happy-response angry  ( s e e T a b l e B6,  Appendix  B).  T h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t  effect  f o rsex of judges.  errors  DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h  they were  presented. As r e p o r t e d , amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was a f f e c t e d b y t y p e o f emotion, emotion  age o f j u d g e s , s e x o f s p e a k e r , and s e x o f s p e a k e r .  Of t h e f o u r e m o t i o n s most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d in  and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t y p e o f  that order.  used  correctly,  i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , sadness f o l l o w e d by anger,  Comparison o f t h i s  order w i t h those  studies  i s h i n d e r e d b y a number o f f a c t o r s .  studies  reporting relative  t i o n s has used  exactly  and  were used,  i n a longer l i s t  these v a r i a b l e s  stimuli  t o each  other.  (1959a),  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c h o i c e  A demonstration  presented,  of the e f f e c t s of  accounted  for a significant  Comparison o f t h e e f f e c t s  t h e methods used  propor-  w e r e u s e d as  c a t e g o r i e s , they were f r e q u e n t l y confused  found  other methodological differences  the v a l i d i t y  study.  The ease o f i d e n t i -  f o r i n s t a n c e , when f e a r and n e r v o u s n e s s  the present study w i t h those  include  o f emotions.  a n d b y t h e number o f s t i m u l i  o f emotions  and as r e s p o n s e  one a n o t h e r .  as t h e present  i s t h e f i n d i n g by D a v i t z and D a v i t z (1959b) t h a t  subjective similarity tion of errors:  i n other  as by D a v i t z and D a v i t z  i s presumably  categories available,  their similarity  found  F i r s t l y , none o f t h e o t h e r  t h e same s e t o f e m o t i o n s  f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r emotion of response  f e a r , and h a p p i n e s s ,  a c c u r a c y o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s emo-  When t h e same f o u r e m o t i o n s t h e y w e r e embedded  was  o f type o f emotion  with  found i n  i n o t h e r s t u d i e s i s h i n d e r e d by  among s t u d i e s .  These  differences  t o c o n t r o l v e r b a l content, or t o determine  o f t h e speech  samples.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s worth  looking  26  a t any  consistencies  differences. tions  w h i c h seem t o h a v e s u r v i v e d  D a v i t z and D a v i t z  (1959a)  better  identified  than love.  b e most o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d love.  identified  Dimitrovsky  correctly,  order.  than g r i e f ,  which  (1964) found sadness  particularly  distinct.  The  v o c a l cues  Since a l l  to  f o l l o w e d by a n g e r , h a p p i n e s s , and  than happiness, fear, or love.  trend are possible.  emo-  identified  T h e r e seems t o b e a t e n d e n c y f o r a n g e r a n d s a d n e s s t o b e  identified this  most o f t e n  f o l l o w e d by s a d n e s s , h a p p i n e s s , a n d a n g e r , i n t h a t  Kramer (1964) found anger t o be b e t t e r was  found t h a t , of the f o u r  u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a n g e r was  correctly,  methodological  better  Several interpretations  of  f o r s a d n e s s a n d a n g e r may  be  the studies  c i t e d have used  acted  e m o t i o n s , i t c o u l d b e t h a t a n g e r a n d s a d n e s s h a v e more c l e a r l y  recog-  n i s a b l e d r a m a t i c s t e r e o t y p e s , o r a r e more e a s i l y  than  necessarily being associated with especially spontaneous speech.  I t i s worth noting  acted, rather  distinct  v o c a l cues i n  t h a t no p u b l i s h e d  u s i n g spontaneous speech have looked at the r e l a t i v e  studies  ease o f  identifi-  c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c e m o t i o n s , o r a t t h e v o c a l cues a s s o c i a t e d w i t h emotion.  I f s a d n e s s a n d a n g e r do i n f a c t h a v e p a r t i c u l a r l y  v o c a l concomitants i n spontaneous  as w e l l  i s so.  than l i k i n g ,  These authors found d i s l i k i n g and s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e ,  s i o n of negative emotions v e r b a l l y c h a n n e l s h a v e become p a r t i c u l a r l y attitudes. findings  This explanation  clear  as a c t e d s p e e c h , a h y p o t h e s i s  p u t f o r w a r d b y Z a i d e l a n d M e h r a b i a n ( 1 9 6 9 ) may this  each  help  to explain  t o be b e t t e r  why  identified  i n present s o c i e t y , the expres-  i s d i s c o u r a g e d , the n o n - v e r b a l specialised  at communicating  negative  could account f o r the present study's  t h a t a n g e r , f e a r , and s a d n e s s , were b e t t e r  identified  than  27  happiness, it  and f o r t h e s i m i l a r  must b e n o t e d  findings  from other s t u d i e s .  that the low i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was p a r t l y  score f o r happiness i n  due t o t h e f a c t  t h a t one o f t h e h a p p i n e s s  s a m p l e s f o r a m a l e s p e a k e r was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l e s s r a c y by younger judges. identification accounted  (Judges  forthis  and  as t h e p r e s e n t one t o r e a l - l i f e  on s a m p l e s o f a c t e d s p e e c h ;  represent  class  p a r t i c u l a r emotions  of  shared dramatic stereotypes.  emotional s t i m u l i  d i f f e r e n c e s may h a v e  the findings o f studies  b e h a v i o r m u s t b e made w i t h c a u t i o n ,  As m e n t i o n e d  b e f o r e , these s t u d i e s  the extent t o which  l o n g ago a r g u e d  i s unknown.  are used;  samples o f each  emotion  T h e y may w e l l  these  samples  Typically,  r a t h e r be e x p r e s s i o n s  o n l y s m a l l numbers o f  f o rinstance, the present  serious, i f , i n real  life,  specific  of v o c a l cues,  Another  limitation  a s seems  (1947)  violate  to procure  a  This c r i t i c i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y emotions  can be conveyed by a  likely.  to extrapolation to real  i n the unusual  only  Brunswik  t h a t s t u d i e s on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotion  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f samples.  wide v a r i e t y  study used  f o re i t h e r sex of speaker.  e c o l o g i c a l s a m p l i n g p r i n c i p l e s b y m a k i n g no a t t e m p t  studies  lies  studies  a r e made.  limited  r a n g e , w i t h o u t b e i n g g i v e n any b a c k g r o u n d  verbal  higher  t h e modal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f spontaneous v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n s  of  two  accu-  study had o v e r a l l  t o g e n e r a l i s e from  i s probably of l i m i t e d value.  rely  social  than chance  discrepancy.)  C l e a r l y , any a t t e m p t such  i n the p i l o t  scores a t a l l ages;  However,  life  circumstances under which  from  these  judgments i n t h e  Judges a r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y w i t h v o c a l cues, o f t e n a  c o n t e n t , and have t o choose from a l i m i t e d  information or range  of possible  28  responses.  Obviously, these  c o n d i t i o n s are q u i t e a r t i f i c i a l ,  a b s o l u t e amounts o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  found  i n f o r m a t i v e about r e a l - l i f e b e h a v i o r . raised  r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s  probably  do n o t  deserve  garding between-subject may  be  The was  o f e m o t i o n and  though they  effect  b e t w e e n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and  performance:  se  Findings re-  too w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y  remain  s t u d e n t s had  o f age  to  identification  Clearly,  had  t h e c h i l d r e n had  57.8 per  scores  and h e r  not  cent  correct.  twelve-year  s t u d y , i m p r o v e m e n t w i t h age  reached  are converted  p e r c e n t c o r r e c t , as  are comparable w i t h D i m i t r o v s k y ' s :  w h i l e b e t w e e n n i n e - and Perhaps Dimitrovsky's  at t a s k s l i k e  The  to  d i d G r a d e 7, w h i l e c o l l e g e  figures  o l d s 65.3  did level  off:  for school  per  cent.  be  an e a r l i e r  one,  a f u n c t i o n of experience.  tasks i n l a t e  per  '  o f f of  between  17.4  o n l y 6.2  to the lower  levelling  It i s plausible  59.1  In Dimitrovsky*s  i n middle-class children.  shown on s u c h  children  the d i f f e r e n c e  i t was  f i n d i n g s were r e l a t e d  the present be  olds,  in  percentages,  h e r n i n e - y e a r o l d s had  twelve-year  t h e r e may  i m p r o v e m e n t may  lack  a ceiling  n i n e - y e a r o l d s i n amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was  of her judges:  The  among t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s o p e n t o s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e  75.3  correct,  on amount o f  each of the o t h e r groups.  when i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Grade 3 judges  and  sex per  the  v a r i a b l e s , o r between-S x w i t h i n - S _ i n t e r a c t i o n s  only s i g n i f i c a n t  interpretations.  six-  speaker  study,  ambiguous.  o f an a g e - t r e n d  cent  very  Because o f a l l the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  t o o much d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n .  o f more i n t e r e s t ,  some e x t e n t  the  i n these s t u d i e s are not  concerning the speech samples used i n the present  findings  and  per  per  cent,  cent.  social  class  performance Further  adolescence,  mainly  that developmental  as  changes  29  do  continue throughout  childhood i n the a b i l i t y  to identify  emotions  through v o c a l cues, but that  the task i n the present study d i d not tap  them.  found improvement throughout  T h e two s t u d i e s w h i c h  (Pfaff,  1954; B l a u , 1964) b o t h used  response  a -larger range  c a t e g o r i e s than the present study  Such a range  i n the present study f a i l e d  younger c h i l d r e n because they tended into  o f s t i m u l u s and  ( n i n e and t e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  may b e n e c e s s a r y i f a g e c h a n g e s a r e t o show u p .  Grade 7 judges  eses  adolescence  the task.  t o show i m p r o v e m e n t  over  to introduce inappropriate  Such a p o s s i b i l i t y  cerning frequencies of specific  Possibly  hypoth-  i s suggested by t h e d a t a  types of e r r o r s ,  con-  t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  G r a d e 7 j u d g e s , more t h a n a n y o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , s h o w e d s t r o n g t e n d encies  t o make c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c  t e n d e n c i e s was n e g a t i v e l y age  o f judges  types o f e r r o r .  related  to recognition accuracy, both f o r  and s e x o f s p e a k e r .  from b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p r e s s i o n o f emotions  The s t r e n g t h o f s u c h  O l d e r c h i l d r e n may h a v e  aware o f p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s  suffered  i n the vocal  t o h a v e h a d t o c o n s i d e r more t h a n o n e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a s t i m u l u s , w i t h o u t having the compensating e x p e r i e n c e and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n  of college students.  w e r e p r o b a b l y more f a m i l i a r w i t h a r a n g e w i t h a d u l t e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion. intelligent  found i n t e l l i g e n c e v o c a l cues The  t o be p o s i t i v e l y  wide  College students  o f d r a m a t i c s t e r e o t y p e s , and  They were a l s o  than the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ;  possible  as n o t e d related  p r o b a b l y more  earlier,  to a b i l i t y  Davitz  (1964)  at identifying  to emotion. only significant  effect  of sex of speaker  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was w i t h h a p p y a s t h e s t i m u l u s . poor happiness  on amount o f  As a l r e a d y n o t e d ,  samples w i t h male s p e a k e r s were i m p l i c a t e d  i n this  30  result.  E a r l i e r s t u d i e s do n o t  speaker,  or the i n t e r a c t i o n of sex of speaker  No  e f f e c t s of sex of judges  Dimitrovsky may  be  due  studies.  show c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s  found  that g i r l s  were found  to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l  in  to i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t i m u l i ,  attention  the t r a d i t i o n a l As  noted  love.  class  t h e e q u i v a l e n t o r d e r was  S i n c e t h e a d u l t s t u d i e s do n o t  if  found  the v o c a l channel  people  response  anger b e i n g  sadness,  f o r the c h i l d .  c h i l d r e n had  to i d e n t i f y  see whether such of  the  I t w o u l d be  factors  anger,  adults, those  interesting  by  bias, i t s t r o n g ,in  However, the also.  The  likely  a study  messages,  s e t may  a defensive  t o do  *  Perhaps,  than p o s i t i v e  of anger,  In  happiness,  bias i s particularly  have a s e t towards h e a r i n g n e g a t i v e emotions.  against negative tones, p a r t i c u l a r l y  g i v e n most  d e a l w i t h response  d o e s t r a n s m i t more n e g a t i v e  to  response  i n that order.  bias i n college students  augmented, i n c h i l d r e n l i s t e n i n g  i l l  is linked  significant  c h i l d r e n , or c h i l d r e n j u d g i n g the speech of a d u l t s . study  two  children,  s i n c e such behavior  f e a r , and h a p p i n e s s ,  i s not p o s s i b l e t o say whether response  present  i n the  feminine s e x - r o l e .  sadness,  Dimitrovsky's study, and  The i n c o n s i s t e n c y  of the judges  i n t h e R e s u l t s s e c t i o n , t h e r e was  f o l l o w e d by  study.  could lead to l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the present study, w i t h the response  often,  i n the present  Stronger s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n lower r e s e a r c h ( M u s s e n , 1969)  bias  class  of  emotion.  were b e t t e r than boys.  i n d i c a t e d by  with  and  f o r sex  be  vigilance t o bode  in  which  emotions i n the speech of o t h e r c h i l d r e n , as  response  b i a s a r e a f f e c t e d by  the  to  nature  speaker. The  findings  concerning percent  of responses  c o r r e c t are  fairly  31  similar is  t o t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  readily  The  similarity  understandable, g i v e n the interdependent n a t u r e of the  two  measures. Although the order of r e c o g n i t i o n accuracy f o r the four was  not quite  and  fear,  t h e same, i n t h i s  the only s i g n i f i c a n t  the other emotions. racy w i t h sadness meaning.  There  used i n t h i s  t o be  involves  study, f a l l s  the concept of dimensions  a t t h e l o w e r end  definite vocal  and s l o w .  dimension, emotions,  s a m p l e s r a t e d as h a p p i n e s s ,  s e t o f j u d g e s , were r a t e d h i g h on t h e  the a c t i v i t y  dimension.  activity  I n t h e same s t u d y , i t was  f a s t , w h i l e samples r a t e d Confusions tended  ratings  clearly  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c v o c a l cues.  on t h i s  d i m e n s i o n had  findings  amplitude  be  quiet  similar  o t h e r dimensions were S c h e r e r (1971)  with less  also  definite vocal correlates;  dimension being r e l a t e d and  with  to  dimension, r a t h e r . t h a n between emotions  on o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s , a n d  and a l o t o f p i t c h  dimension were  to occur between emotions  similar  found that the a c t i v i t y  dimension tended  l o w on t h i s  on t h e a c t i v i t y  The  emotions  cues.  ratings  ratings  of e m o t i o n a l  of the a c t i v i t y  t h a t samples r a t e d h i g h on t h e a c t i v i t y  l o u n d and  accu-  a n o t h e r s e t o f j u d g e s , w h i l e s a m p l e s r a t e d as d e s p a i r  were r a t e d low on found  and a l l  important i n the r e c o g n i t i o n o f  (1964) found t h a t speech  a n g e r , o r f e a r , b y one dimension by  between sadness  i s evidence that sadness, alone of the four  associated with  Davitz  d i f f e r e n c e was  happiness,  A p o s s i b l e reason f o r the g r e a t e r response  a d i m e n s i o n w h i c h seems t o be and  case b e i n g sadness, anger,  emotions  t o h i g h a m p l i t u d e and  high  speed,  variation.  c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s  of age,  sex of speaker,  and  s  32  sex o f judges were a l l s i m i l a r The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  t o those  effect  f o r amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  found w i t h percent o f responses  correct  a n d n o t w i t h amount o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was f o r t h e s e x o f  speaker  and s e x o f j u d g e s  effects  of this  adult  interaction.-  interaction just  In Dimitrovsky' s study, the  failed  s t u d i e s have n o t looked f o rt h i s  (Heinberg, 1962). judges  performed  That study found,  t o reach s i g n i f i c a n c e .  e f f e c t , w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n  as d i d t h e p r e s e n t  b e t t e r w i t h speakers  one, that  o f t h e i r own s e x , b u t i n t h a t  study the only s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was b e t w e e n f e m a l e  a female speaker,  and each  o f t h e other groups.  seems most l i k e l y  t o be a f u n c t i o n o f j u d g e s '  and  consequent  (adults)  set of results  The i n t e r a c t i o n  sex-role identification,  types of e r r o r . whose  most e x c e e d e d t h o s e p r e d i c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f r e s p o n s e f o r each  emotion  f e a r , and s t i m u l u s anger-response  were s t i m u l u s  happiness.  common t y p e s w e r e s t i m u l u s f e a r - r e s p o n s e s a d n e s s , happiness-response than p r e d i c t e d .  anger.  sadness-  The n e x t  most  and s t i m u l u s  A l l o t h e r types o f e r r o r were l e s s  frequent  When D i m i t r o v s k y ' s d a t a a r e r e - a n a l y s e d s o t h a t  frequencies f o rd i f f e r e n t  the method used stimulus  speakers  i n t h e R e s u l t s s e c t i o n , t h e two t y p e s o f e r r o r  and r e c o g n i t i o n accuracy  expected  effect  t o be d i s c u s s e d i s that concerning t h e  frequencies of particular  frequencies  response  with  as p a r t o f t h e s e x - r o l e m o d e l l i n g p r o c e s s .  As n o t e d  bias  judges  p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v o i c e s o f same-sex  The f i n a l relative  The  i n the present  types o f e r r o r a r e c a l c u l a t e d by  s t u d y , t h e two most common e r r o r s a r e  love-response sadness,  C l e a r l y , t h e two s e t s o f r e s u l t s  and s t i m u l u s anger-response cannot  be t o o c l o s e l y  happiness.  compared, s i n c e  33  the present  study  consistency  i n t h e l o w f r e q u e n c y o f s a d n e s s - a n g e r and s a d n e s s - h a p p i n e s s  confusions,  and i n t h e h i g h  Davitz  and D a v i t z  used f e a r i n s t e a d o f l o v e , b u t there  frequency  (1959a) found t h a t  seems t o b e  of happiness-anger sadness-fear  confusions.  confusions  were  common, a n d K r a m e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) n o t e d t h a t a n g e r - s a d n e s s c o n f u s i o n s rare.  Both studies  without  controlling  used o n l y  absolute  f o rresponse b i a s  were  numbers o f each t y p e o f e r r o r , or differential  recognition  accuracy. Few  a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t  quencies o f p a r t i c u l a r Davitz for  types o f e r r o r .  As n o t e d e a r l i e r , D a v i t z a n d  (1959b) found t h a t s u b j e c t i v e s i m i l a r i t y  a significant proportion  o f emotions  o f t h e e r r o r s , and D a v i t z  t h a t e r r o r s t e n d e d t o b e more s i m i l a r t o t h e f e e l i n g activity  dimension of emotional  dimensions, suggesting  i s the salient  making emotion judgments from v o c a l cues. were r a t e d on d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l  accounted  (1964)  intended  meaning than on t h e v a l e n c e  that activity  fre-  found on the  or strength  dimension f o r  I n that study,  the s t i m u l i  meaning; i n t h e present  study,  t h i s was n o t done, so any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f e r r o r s on  the basis  It  i s also  responsible of vocal  of dimensions o f emotional  impossible  t o be sure  f o rthe confusions  cues present  p r e c i s e l y which vocal  i n the present  i n the various  I n t u i t i v e l y , h o w e v e r , i t seems l i k e l y the h i g h by  that  qualities  study,  tentative. cues were  since the patterns  speech samples were n o t that  pitch-high amplitude q u a l i t i e s  the opposite  likely  meaning must b e  t h e judges were c o n f u s e d by  of t h e h a p p i n e s s samples, and  o f t h e sadness and f e a r samples.  t h e samples r e p r e s e n t i n g  analysed.  the four emotions f e l l  It i s on a c o n -  34  tinuum of amplitude and p i t c h , such that anger was highest i n both q u a l i t i e s , followed by happiness, fear, and sadness, i n that order. If the above hypothesis i s correct, i t can help to account for the patterning of errors already described, and f i t s with the finding that anger and sadness were better recognised than happiness and fear (since anger and fear, f a l l i n g at either end of the continuum, might plausibly have been p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t i v e ) . the  The hypothesis also f i t s i n with  idea that sadness i s lower on the a c t i v i t y dimension than the  other emotions, since loudness seems to have a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p with ratings on this dimension; the relationship between p i t c h and a c t i v i t y seems to be less clear (Scherer, 1971a). tioned that the fear samples  It should be men-  i n this study may not have been representa-  t i v e of the most t y p i c a l expressions of fear i n everyday l i f e ; thejf represented, rather, a sort of "controlled" fear, that i s , the speakers were t r y i n g to recount f e a r f u l events without being overwhelmed by %. t  them.  For this reason, the fear samples may have been a t y p i c a l l y low  on the a c t i v i t y dimension, which involves aspects such as excitedness. It i s possible that confusions between s t i m u l i were affected by other cues, such as rate of a r t i c u l a t i o n , but as yet nothing much i s known about the relationship between this cue and judgments of emotion. There are no studies dealing with the vocal cues associated with judgments of happiness, anger, sadness, and fear from randomly-spliced speech.  Scherer (1971a) l i s t e d a variety of cues and cue combinations  which were found to correlate with judgments of synthesised speech as sadness, happiness, anger, and fear.  No clear predictions concerning  l i k e l y types of error could have been made from his findings.  35  Age  of judges  Grade 7 judges and  a significant  producing  racy.  types of e r r o r , like  response  A p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these  f i n d i n g s was  mentioned  i . e . , t h a t Grade 7 judges  their  accuracy.  on  these  tried  of s p e c i f i c  often mistaken,  emotions,  p o i n t e d out  while college students,  that the  and  more  generalisability  f i n d i n g s beyond t h e i r s p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t e x t i s quesThe  influenced  the p a t t e r n of  The  same comment a p p l i e s t o t h e  present study  finding  that sex of  offers  a few  p r o v o c a t i v e f i n d i n g s , and  Some o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n  t i o n of the r e s u l t s  study w i t h i n  of t h i s  the experimental  t h a t i s , as a f u n c t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . questions concern  o u t s i d e t h e l a b o r a t o r y , a n d how  reflected  i n the present  cannot  confidently  latter  findings.  given u n t i l  the speech samples,  how  t y p e o f e m o t i o n and  unknown f a c t o r s  this  interpreta-  context, broader  the narrower  answered.  of the v o c a l cues p r e s e n t  p a t t e r n of e r r o r s , different  i n c l u d e the d i f f e r e n c e  questions  q u e s t i o n s are  these i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s  i n t e r p r e t e d by  vocal  development i s  Answers t o the b r o a d e r  i n c l u d e the p r e c i s e nature  differentially  Other,  leaves  the development of p e r c e p t i o n of emotion from  i n the w o r l d  be  speaker  errors.  many q u e s t i o n s u n a n s w e r e d .  of  stimuli  hypotheses  g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e , s h o w e d b o t h more f l e x i b i l i t y Once more, i t c a n be  pre-  accu-  t o cope w i t h ambiguous  the b a s i s of r e s t r i c t e d ,  tionable.  The  that  differential  responding  cues,  with  that predicted,  a p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s most l i k e  the b a s i s of response  about the v o c a l c o r r e l a t e s  of  on  b i a s and  earlier,  with  effect  a pattern of errors least  c o l l e g e students producing  d i c t e d , on  by  had  and  in  concerning  effects  i n what manner t h e y  groups of j u d g e s .  Other  i n i n t e l l i g e n c e between  the  were  36  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and a f f e c t e d the  the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y , and how  results.  Broader questions  which remain unanswered  include  that of whether m i d d l e - c l a s s  judging  emotions from v o c a l cues i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , where  c h i l d r e n show improvement i n  range o f s t i m u l i and  p o s s i b l e responses i s f a r w i d e r than i n  present  Another problem to be  experiment.  it  the the  investigated further i s  t h a t o f whether c h i l d r e n show a tendency to a t t r i b u t e n e g a t i v e to o t h e r  p e o p l e under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , and  i f s o , whether  emotions this  tendency i s r e s t r i c t e d to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a d u l t , r a t h e r than speech. as  The  this last  present one  study has  and  sex  age  trends  representative  avenues which might  f u r t h e r study of the observed sex o f  i n types of e r r o r .  might do w e l l t o c o n c e n t r a t e  one.  other  of judges i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , and  concerning  the  been u s e f u l i n o f f e r i n g q u e s t i o n s  for further research;  worth e x p l o r i n g i n c l u d e  extension  of the  ambiguities  inherent  i n studies  be  speaker  However, f u t u r e s t u d i e s  on f i n d i n g ways of o b t a i n i n g  such  findings \  adequate,*  samples o f spontaneous speech, thus r e d u c i n g  l i m i t a t i o n s and  child,  some of*  like this  present  REFERENCES Argyle,  M.  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T h e a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e a n d i n f e r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s f a c i a l l y and v o c a l l y . Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1 9 6 9 , 3, 2 3 3 - 2 4 1 .  40  APPENDIX A  TABLE A l  F r e q u e n c y o f Each Type o f Response  MALE S P E A K E R HAPPY  SAD  AFRAID  FEMALE SPEAKER ANGRY  HAPPY  SAD  AFRAID  ANGRY  BOYS  17  21  15  27  20  19  20  21  GIRLS  13 .  22  17  28  19  20  23  1-i  COLLEGE ?.  BOYS  12  25  14  29  17  16  23  24 ,  GIRLS  13  25  16  26  17  21  19  23  BOYS  11  24  18  27  19  26  16  19  6  25  17  32  16  14  23  27  BOYS  12  22  16  30  18  19  21  22  GIRLS  16  19  14  31  16  23  18  23  TOTALS  100  183  127  230  141  158  163  177  GRADE 7  GRADE 5 GIRLS  GRADE 3  TOTALS FOR EACH T Y P E OF EMOTION: HAPPY  SAD  241  341  AFRAID 290  ANGRY 408  ,  APPENDIX B Analysis  o f t y p e s o f e r r o r b y means o f C h i - s q u a r e d  tests  Overall pattern of errors A s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d , c o l l a p s i n g o v e r s e x of  speaker,  each  cell  a n d age a n d s e x o f j u d g e s  (see Table B l ) .  of the matrix represent the t o t a l  particular  type e l i c i t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r  The f o r m u l a u s e d  to calculate f 0-(n-d  x  2  =  I  -  (n-d ) s total  number o f r e s p o n s e s  ds  total  number o f c o r r e c t  nent dr  =  total  of a particular  total  S-R  total  number o f r e s p o n s e s  number o f r e s p o n s e s  component o f a p a r t i c u l a r  The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e controls emotion. these  f o r response Four  factors:  to a particular  degrees four  m  and  combination  S-R  S-R  combination  S-R  d  forming the stimulus  combination  of the type  o f freedom were used remained  of the response  o f the type  b i a s and d i f f e r e n t i a l  df  type o f s t i m u l u s  t o t h e s t i m u l u s compo-  number o f c o r r e c t e l i c i t a t i o n s  component o f a p a r t i c u l a r m  type o f s t i m u l u s .  responses  component o f a p a r t i c u l a r m  of a  the o v e r a l l c h i - s q u a r e d was:  n  where  number o f r e s p o n s e s  m -d r r ( E -E ) - ( m - d ) m d s s m -d r r (E - E , ) - ( m - d ) m d s s  ) s  The s c o r e s i n  forming the response  combination.  factors  into  response  the formula  accuracy  f o r each  up i n i n t r o d u c i n g e a c h o f  f o r the o v e r a l l  chi-squared.  42  The m a t r i x i n T a b l e  E f f e c t s o f s e x of judges In order errors,  two  B2  (0-E) E  gives  2  f o r each  combination.  on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s  t o see whether sex of judges  S-R  S-R  a f f e c t e d the pattern of  m a t r i c e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , one f o r e a c h s e x o f j u d g e s .  The m a t r i c e s were s i m i l a r  to the o v e r a l l matrix previously described  B7).  (see Table  Chi-squared t h e same f o r m u l a  scores  f o r both  m a t r i c e s were c a l c u l a t e d ,  as u s e d f o r t h e o v e r a l l m a t r i x .  s c o r e s w e r e summed, a n d t h e o v e r a l l  chi-squared  f r o m t h e sum o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e s  f o rsignificance of the effect  chi-square  s c o r e was s u b t r a c t e d  f o r each s e x .  was t r e a t e d a s a c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e w i t h f o u r used t o t e s t  The two  using  The d i f f e r e n c e  df_ , a n d was t h e m e a s u r e of s e x o f judges  on t h e  pattern of errors.  Effects  o f age o f j u d g e s  on p a t t e r n o f e r r o r s  T h e m e t h o d u s e d was t h e same a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , except of judges  t h a t f o u r m a t r i c e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , one f o r e a c h a g e  (see Table  B3).  scores combination,  Effects  f o r each  S-R  f o r e a c h age o f j u d g e s .  of sex of speakers  on p a t t e r n of e r r o r s  The m e t h o d u s e d was t h e same a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s sections. Table  B5).  One m a t r i x was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r e a c h s e x o f s p e a k e r ( s e e  43  The (0-E) the  -—~r—  final  c h i - s q u a r e d s c o r e had  four  d_f .  T a b l e B6  gives  2  f o r each  S-R  combination,  f o r each sex of  speaker.  44  APPENDIX B  TABLE B l  T o t a l Frequencies o f S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response  Combinations  R E S P O N S E  SAD  o  HAPPY  AFRAID  ANGRY  ROW  TOTALS  251  11  52  6  320  §j a  22  150  50  98  320  §  57  35  160  67  320  § o  11  45  27  237  320  341  241  290  408  CO CO  s=> j  :=>  »  >"  o  H «  COLUMN TOTALS  X  2  = 109.27, d f = 4, p < .001  45  APPENDIX B  TABLE  Total  Chi-squared Scores  B2  f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r  R E S P O N S E SAD  3  HAPPY  1.59  AFRAID  ANGRY  37.56  19.36  0.69  7.39  co O  M H  CO  P-i  7.56  5j  s  <§ g  +  6.59  0.91  >-i 7.12  17.49  +  1.36 1.65  + = 0 > E  = 0 < E  46  APPENDIX B TABLE B3 Effects of Age of Judges on Frequencies of Specific Stimulus-Response Combinations GRADE 3 RESPONSE ROW SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRYTO TALS .57 15 3 80  3  GRADE 5 RESPONSE OW SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRYTOR TALS 61 14 2 80  ><  33 15 11  32 80 39  13 83 62  15 -80 56 80  69  33 16  5! ss m  17 B o  COLUMN TOTALS  106  36 11  89  52  24 80 22 80 57 80  74 105  X = 33.78, df = 4, p < 0.001  X = 27.08, df = 4, p < 0.001  GRADE 7 RESPONSE ROW SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRYTO TALS 61 17 0 80  COLLEGE RESPONSE ROW SAD HAPPY AFRAID ANGRYTO TALS 72 1 80  2  36 18 14  2  11  26 80  48  15  34  21 80  12  52  10  55 80  16 80 80 69 80  COLUMN TOTALS  87 59  72 102 X = 48.27, df = 4, p < 0.001 2  82 68  75  95  „2 _16.53, df = 4, p < 0.01  X GRADE 3 + x GRADE 5 + x GRADE . 7 + x COLLEGE) - x TOTAL = 16.39, df = 4, p < 0.01 2  2  2  2  2  APPENDIX B  TABLE B4  Chi-squared Scores f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types of Error at Each Age Level  STIMULUS  SAD  HAPPY  RESPONSE  HAP.  AFR. ANG.  COLLEGE  0.75  + 4.16  GRADE 7  + 1.03 15.93 8.26  GRADE 5  0.06  GRADE 3  + 0.20 11.88 5.40  + 7.37  SAD  1.35 3.77  5.15  A F R A I D  AFR. ANG.  SAD  ANGRY  HAP.  ANG.  SAD  HAP. AFR.  + + 0.80 0.40  1.23  0.00  + + 1.96 1.61  + 0.35  + 0.15  1.06  + 1.10  - + 2.91 2.47  _ _ _ 1.46 0.10 5.60  + _ 8.27 0.08  1.79  + 0.01  + 0.90  + 1.26  _ 1.64  _ _ 0.02 1.69  + _ 6.68 10.28  _ _ 1.78 2.11  + 4.36  + 2.32  0.01  + 1.51  2.83 0.25  1.05  + = 0 >E - = 0 <E  APPENDIX B  TABLE B5 Effects of Speaker Sex on Frequencies of Specific Stimulus-Response Combinations MALE SPEAKERS  FEMALE SPEAKERS  R E S P O N S E SAD  3  131  R E S P O N S E  HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY  11  ROW TOTALS  3  160  15  CO  SAD  HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY  ROW TOTALS  120  37  160  CO  5! 45  48  27  79  160  27  72  16  160  20  13  126  160  106  127  224  H  16  102  23  19  160  12  8  89  51  160  10  25  14  111  160  COLUMN 158 TOTALS  135  163  184  'a H  CO  CO  3 COLUMN 183 TOTALS  FOR MALE SPEAKERS: X = 101.11, df = 4, p < 0.001 2  (X  2  FOR MALE SPEAKERS + x  2  FOR FEMALE SPEAKERS)- x  FOR FEMALE SPEAKERS: X = 81.42, df - 4, p < 0.001 2  2  TOTAL = 73.25, df = 4, p < 0.001  APPENDIX B. TABLE B6  Chi-squared  STIMULUS  Scores  f o r P a r t i c u l a r Types o f E r r o r , w i t h Each Sex o f Speaker  S A D  RESPONSE  HAP.  MALE SPEAKERS  1.15  FEMALE SPEAKERS  7.33 25.70 10.77  +  -  AFR.  H A P P Y  +  7.33 +  ANG.  SAD  -  -  8.14 -  +  AFR. -  17.67  0.31  1.40  0.00  A F R A I D  ANG.  SAD  +  +  12.11 24.04 -  0.66  -  2.42  HAP.  A N G R Y  ANG.  +  -  0.25 15.63 -  4.20  +  6.26  -  SAD -  8.81  HAP. AFR. +  5.42 +  0.63 17.21  + =0  > E  - =0  < E  -  0.25 -  4.84  APPENDIX B  TABLE B7 Effects of Sex of Judges on Frequencies of S p e c i f i c Stimulus-Response Combinations  SAD  3 CO  CO  BOYS  G I R L S  R E S P O N S E  R E S P O N S E ROW TOTALS  HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY  126  8  24  12  73  26  49  160  28  16  80  36  160  29  13  112  160  126  143  199  SAD  160  9  >-l  CO  >1 Pi  _  125  ROW TOTALS 160  3  28  10  77  24  49  1.60  29  19  81  31  160  16  14  125  160  115  147  209  >-t  p->  5!  H  to  HAPPY AFRAID ANGRY  P=5 O  o 5  COLUMN TOTALS  172 X  2  COLUMN TOTALS  (  = 57.23, df = 4, p < 0.001 (X  2  BOYS + x  2  169  GIRLS) - x  2  2  = 54.26, df = 4, p < 0.001  TOTAL = 2.22, df = 4, p < 0.05  APPENDIX C  Records from w h i c h Speech  Samples were Male  Happy  Angry  Strange  Sad  Speaker  Interlude  TRS 310  Scratch  Caedmon  TRS 347  Zoo  Story  Spoken A r t s I n c .  S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Edgar A l l a n Poe - Volume 7 CMS  Afraid  Sad  630  Spoon R i v e r A n t h o l o g y  C o l u m b i a OS 2 4 1 0  Death of a Salesman  Caedmon  TRS 310  Caedmon  TRS 326  After  Speaker  the F a l l  Strange Angry  688  Caedmon  Female Happy  C o l u m b i a DOS  Death o f a Salesman  The Afraid  Taken.  Interlude  C o l u m b i a DOS  688  Who's A f r a i d o f V i r g i n i a W o o l f  C o l u m b i a DOS  687  Death o f - a Salesman  Caedmon  S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Edgar A l l a n Poe - Volume 7 CMS Spoon R i v e r A n t h o l o g y The  Journals  o f Susannah  TRS 310  630  C o l u m b i a OS 2 4 1 0 Moodie  CBC  (1969)  

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