UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

James Wilson Robertson : public servant and educator Pavey, Edwin John 1971

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1971_A4_7 P38.pdf [ 10.5MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0101774.json
JSON-LD: 1.0101774+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0101774.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0101774+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0101774+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0101774+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0101774 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0101774.txt
Citation
1.0101774.ris

Full Text

JAMES WILSON ROBERTSONi PUBLIC SERVANT AND EDUCATOR by EDWIN JOHN PAVEY B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION  i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s required  THE  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1971  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive  copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of ^bOCf)  T< O hj  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  lO  N bV4UjdejLr  Wl(  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I  EARLY YEARS IN ONTARIO (1875-1890) . . . . .  II  SERVICE WITH THE DOMINION GOVERNMENT  III  PARTNERSHIP IN THE MACDONALD MOVEMENT  (1890-1904)  1 2 3 4 5  Part 6  V  VI  14  (1900-1910)  Part Part Part Part Part  IV  1  The Manual T r a i n i n g Scheme . . . . The Seed Competition Rural School C o n s o l i d a t i o n . . . . Rural School Gardens Macdonald I n s t i t u t e , Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College Robertson as P r i n c i p a l o f Macdonald C o l l e g e  ROBERTSON'S ACTIVITIES WITH THE DOMINION EDUCATION ASSOCIATION AND THE COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION (1910-1919) THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION AND TECHNICAL TRAINING  37 58 63 77 83 93  I l l  (1910-1913)  119  WORLD WAR I PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DUTIES, POST-WAR CAREER, AND CONCLUSION  144  BIBLIOGRAPHY  171  The author wishes t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement g i v e n him by h i s a d v i s o r , N e i l  Sutherland,  Department o f Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  \ M E S WILSON ROBERTSON, C M C  IA.A)..  ABSTRACT As a r e s u l t of r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and immigration, Canada underwent g r e a t s o c i a l and economic  changes  i n the f i n a l years o f the n i n e t e e n t h and the e a r l y y e a r s of the  twentieth centuries.  These changes a f f e c t e d many dimen-  s i o n s o f Canadian l i f e i n c l u d i n g those o f a g r i c u l t u r e and education.  The h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s study i s t h a t no  Canadian  d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t e d more to. change i n these two areas than James Wilson Robertson,  1857-1930.  This t h e s i s , b i o g r a p h i c a l i n form and c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n development,  examines  and analyses Robertson's c a r e e r i n  a g r i c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n from the time he emigrated from S c o t l a n d at the age o f seventeen. job  as a cheesemaker  little  i n Western  He embarked on h i s f i r s t  Ontario at a time when too  Canadian cheese reached f i r s t  quality.  By t u r n i n g out  from h i s f a c t o r i e s a product which s o l d w e l l i n f o r e i g n mark e t s , Robertson demonstrated t h a t Canadians could f i n d a l a r g e market  f o r prime grades o f cheese.  The  consequent  i n t e r e s t i n h i s methods presented Robertson with the opport u n i t y to d i s p l a y and propagate those b e t t e r d a i r y i n g pract i c e s which, as they g r a d u a l l y overcame the c o n s e r v a t i s m of l o c a l dairymen, produced improvements q u a n t i t y o f Canadian cheese.  i n both the q u a l i t y and  His i n i t i a t i v e brought Robertson promotions,  a r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n of  from managing d a i r y c o o p e r a t i v e s , to P r o f e s s o r of  D a i r y i n g at Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l . C o l l e g e , and f i n a l l y , i n 1890,  to the newly c r e a t e d post of Dominion Commissioner of  D a i r y i n g which was  l a t e r extended to i n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r e .  During these years Robertson  taught s t u d e n t s ,  developed  t r a v e l l i n g d a i r i e s , i s s u e d i n f o r m a t i v e b u l l e t i n s , and  en-  couraged l e g i s l a t i o n governing  In  standards  of q u a l i t y .  d i s c u s s i o n and p r i n t he lauded the v i r t u e s of country preached of  the g o s p e l of e x c e l l e n c e and taught the  cooperation.  life,  principles  Through a wide v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h -  niques and d e v i c e s , and w i t h the a i d of a competent s t a f f , regenerated  Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e , showed farmers  change a s u b s i s t e n c e wage f o r . a decent about a dramatic ing  how  to  he  ex-  p r o f i t , and brought  i n c r e a s e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l exports.  In a c h i e v -  p r e s t i g e f o r Canada abroad, he a l s o gained a n a t i o n a l and  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n f o r h i m s e l f . Robertson  f i r m l y b e l i e v e d and c o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e d t h a t  a g r i c u l t u r e and education were the n a t i o n ' s most p r o f i t a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l forms of investment. t w e n t i e t h century, having proved education to a d u l t s , Robertson r u r a l young.  By the e a r l y years of; the  the v a l u e of a g r i c u l t u r a l  turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to the  At t h i s p o i n t i n h i s career, h i s ideas c o i n c i d e d  w i t h those of S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, m i l l i o n a i r e of led  higher education.  benefactor  A f o r t u i t o u s meeting between the  to a p l a n f o r the improvement of r u r a l l i f e  and  two  education  c a l l e d the Macdonald-Robertson Movement.  T h i s scheme combined  elements from two p r e v a i l i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s i which t r i e d t o apply  i n the. classroom  pedagogical  that  principles  deduced from r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d psychology and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , and the other which c a l l e d f o r a more p r a c t i c a l and less  "bookish"  for l i f e  c u r r i c u l u m i n order t o prepare  young Canadians  i n an i n t e n s e l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l and c o m p e t i t i v e age.  Sustained by S i r W i l l i a m ' s money and Robertson's e n t h u s i asm and d r i v e , the Macdonald-Robertson Movement  ( l a t e r known  as the Macdonald Movement) p r o v i d e d s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , and the p u b l i c w i t h p r a c t i c a l examples o f the new e d u c a t i o n a l They funded t h r e e - y e a r nature  study,  ideas.  demonstrations o f manual t r a i n i n g ,  s c h o o l gardens, and s c h o o l c o n s o l i d a t i o n .  In  a d d i t i o n , S i r W i l l i a m endowed two t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g e s t a b l i s h ments, the Macdonald I n s t i t u t e i n Guelph and Macdonald C o l l e g e o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y t o t r a i n the l e a d e r s needed f o r r u r a l regeneration. institution.  Robertson became the p r i n c i p a l o f the l a t t e r The successes  and f a i l u r e s ,  contemporary o p i n i o n .  and p r e s e n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the Macdonald Movement form a l a r g e p a r t o f the study. During h i s l i f e t i m e Robertson achieved wide p r o f e s s i o n a l recognition. i t s president.  The Dominion Education  A s s o c i a t i o n e l e c t e d him  The F e d e r a l Government appointed  Commission o f Conservation  him t o the  and made him chairman o f the Royal  Commission on I n d u s t r i a l Education  and T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g .  In 1913» t h i s Commission i s s u e d i t s remarkable report,, a l a n d mark i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , which formed the b a s i s  for  F e d e r a l Government involvement i n p r o v i n c i a l t e c h n i c a l  education. The t h e s i s concludes w i t h a summary, of contemporary impressions of Robertson, a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s war-time other p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s ,  an;, enumeration o f the  honours he gained and a survey of subsequent writing  i n which h i s work i s c i t e d .  and  historical  CHAPTER I EARLY YEARS IN ONTARIO (1875-1890)  -  James Wilson Robertson, born on 2 November 1857, v i l l a g e of Dunlop, i n A y r s h i r e , Scotland, ten c h i l d r e n .  While he was  older brother,  and  the f o u r t h of .  s t i l l young, h i s o l d e s t s i s t e r ,  h i s youngest b r o t h e r ,  f e v e r l e a v i n g James the  was  i n the  o l d e s t boy  i n the  an  a l l d i e d of s c a r l e t family—a  position  of some importance and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ^ James* e a r l y formal s c h o o l i n g , school  of Dunlop, ceased there  which he attended the being apprenticed  obtained at the  at the age  of fourteen,  to a l e a t h e r merchant i n t h a t c i t y . ^ Headmaster of the p a r i s h  shows James to have been an e x c e l l e n t s t u d e n t . signed  prophetically  after  Cunningham I n s t i t u t e , Glasgow,^ before  testimony w r i t t e n by the  1875i and  parish  by  A  school  Dated 27  John C. Lindsay, F.E.I.S., i t warmly  April and  stated:  Ishbel.Robertson C u r r i e r , B r i e f Biography of James Wilson Robertson, p. 1. (Mimeographed.) Box 1, Polder 2, Robertson Papers. Robertson Papers h e r e a f t e r * c i t e d * as R.P. w i t h the box number the f i r s t numeral, and f o l d e r number the second numeral. p  See Chapter S i x f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e Institute. ' . 3  C u r r i e r , Biography, p.  5«  to the  Cunningham  I have much p l e a s u r e i n c e r t i f y i n g to the c h a r a c t e r and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Mr. James Robertson, Hapland, i n this parish. He was p l a c e d under my t u i t i o n i n h i s e a r l y boyhood, and by h i s d i l i g e n c e and c l o s e a p p l i c a t i o n , he soon a c q u i r e d a thorough ( s i c ) good u s e f u l E d u c a t i o n . His attainments are c o n s i d e r a b l e , and h i s c h a r a c t e r and conduct deserve very s p e c i a l commendation. He has been engaged i n a business s i t u a t i o n i n Glasgow f o r s e v e r a l years and has always conducted h i m s e l f to the e n t i r e s a t i s f a c t i o n and high approbation o f h i s employers. A l t o g e t h e r , I c o n s i d e r him a s u p e r i o r young man, very u p r i g h t and t r u s t w o r t h y i n a l l h i s d e a l i n g s , and r e g a r d i n g whom, I have the h i g h e s t confidence i n h i s success where h i s l o t i n l i f e may be c a s t . According  to h i s daughter, I s h b e l , (Mrs.  Ishbel Robertson  C u r r i e r ) , James Robertson o f t e n mentioned to her how owed to the business  much he  t r a i n i n g he had r e c e i v e d w h i l s t w i t h  the  firm t He l e a r n e d to keep a c c u r a t e accounts and a l l the d e t a i l e d commercial records t h a t form the b a s i s of any business e n t e r p r i s e . A l l h i s l i f e he was meticulous i n . h i s r e c o r d s of f i n a n c i a l matters and he seemed to keep a s o r t of running balance i n h i s mind o f the s t a t i s t i c a l aspects of h i s v a r i o u s e n t e r p r i s e s . When James was Mrs.  seventeen, h i s f a m i l y emigrated to Canada.  C u r r i e r g i v e s the reasons f o r the move as p a r t l y  and p a r t l y economic.  The  r e l i g i o u s reason  religious  stemmed from a  s e c t a r i a n r i f t which occurred between James* f a t h e r and f a t h e r and  * R.P.,  i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d i n her B r i e f Biography.  1,  3.  5 C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 5»  grand-  The  economic reason was  that i  Canada was a d a i r y i n g country and the o c c u p a t i o n of James' g r a n d f a t h e r was t h a t . o f a cheese importer i n Dunlop. The f a m i l y thus had t h e i r own farm hackground f o r t r a i n i n g and a l s o a c o n t a c t w i t h an a v a i l a b l e export cheese market f o r t h e i r produce." The Robertson f a m i l y s e t t l e d on a farm, "Maple near London,  Ontario.  There James took a job as A s s i s t a n t  Manager o f a cheese f a c t o r y at nearby I n g e r s o l l . manager f e l l  ill,  Grove,"  When the  James accepted the whole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  the management o f the o p e r a t i o n .  His e f f o r t s Were so s u c c e s s -  f u l t h a t h i s products won p r i z e s at l o c a l e x h i b i t i o n s . next y e a r ,  I876, James  The  was made manager o f the North Branch  cheese f a c t o r y near London.? During the w i n t e r o f  1878-79>  he attended the c o l l e g e  at Woodstock, Ontario, "where he r e c e i v e d an i n e s t i m a b l e impulse a t the hands of t h a t born t e a c h e r , Prof. S. J . McKee." On r e t u r n i n g home he resumed  h i s former o c c u p a t i o n .  Leaving North Branch i n 1881,,he bought a cheese f a c t o r y at F u l l a r t o n .  Within a" few y e a r s he was managing e i g h t  fac-  t o r i e s i n Western O n t a r i o , which made cheese f o r the export market. A young man w i t h tremendous  d r i v e , James taught new  methods and t r i e d to encourage the l o c a l dairymen to improve  6  Ibid.  7 I b i d . , p.  6.  8 George l i e s , "Dr.. Robertson's. Work f o r the t r a i n i n g o f Canadian Farmers," The "American Review o f Reviews, (November,, pp. 576-84-. . .  1907),  t h e i r cheese p r o d u c t i o n .  Mrs. C u r r i e r w r i t e s :  With h i s e n e r g e t i c temperament and the deep seated s t r e n g t h of h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , James c o n t i n u a l l y urged the establishment o f more cheese f a c t o r i e s , the p r o d u c t i o n of more and b e t t e r milk f o r t h i s p r o f i t a b l e market, the s i d e l i n e of p i g r a i s i n g to make economic use of the whey and always i n s i s t e d on the h i g h e s t standards of q u a l i t y i n every f i e l d . 9 This matter of q u a l i t y m i l k f o r the manufacture of q u a l i t y 'cheese was, important to Robertson both i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a cheese producer and as a cheese  exporter.  Most of the exported  cheese went t o B r i t a i n where i t competed w i t h the exports of other countries.  Thus q u a l i t y was  o f h i s l i f e advocated  v i t a l , and James to the  end  a t a l l times the continued quest f o r  improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . There  i s no doubt that Robertson  "knew h i s cheese."  A  note o f commendation from Heath and Finnemore, London, O n t a r i o , Produce and Commission Merchants,  dated 22 February  1881,  declared» During t h i s past t h r e e years w h i l e you have been at the North Branch Cheese F a c t o r y , we have bought some thousands of your make and we have p l e a s u r e i n c e r t i f y i n g t o t h e i r uniform e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y , and t o the u n i v e r s a l s a t i s f a c t i o n they have g i v e n to our f r i e n d s i n Great B r i t a i n . . . .^^ Such e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d towards the development of cheese  f a c t o r i e s , and i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of standards of  q u a l i t y i n m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , gained f o r James a r e p u t a t i o n  C u r r i e r , Biography, p. R. P. , 1,  2.  6.  which d i d not go u n n o t i c e d 1886,  by l e a d e r s o f the i n d u s t r y .  In  h i s accomplishments l e d t o h i s appointment as P r o f e s s o r  of D a i r y i n g at t h e Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l College,  Guelph.  During h i s stay at Guelph, Robertson t r a v e l l e d , as d i d other  s t a f f members, the l e n g t h and breadth o f O n t a r i o ,  addressing  farmers' i n s t i t u t e s on h i s s p e c i a l t y , and making  p l a i n the n e c e s s i t y f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the p l a n n i n g sound, p r o g r e s s i v e  and expanding i n d u s t r y .  of a  In h i s annual  r e p o r t s Robertson g i v e s d e t a i l s o f these v i s i t s and o f h i s a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s as Superintendent o f D a i r y i n g f o r O n t a r i o . In the l a t t e r c a p a c i t y he was c l o s e l y connected w i t h the Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n s , and was a frequent conventions.  speaker a t t h e i r  At the Annual Convention o f Western  Ontario  Dairymen, 1888, Robertson spoke on t h e need f o r d a i r y i n g educ a t i o n , a theme he was t o repeat years. life  constantly  He b e l i e v e d t h i s k i n d o f education  i n succeeding t o be "a matter o f  t o the farmer" who r e q u i r e s t o "know more o f the p r i n c i -  p l e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e " i n a p e r i o d when "competition "I t h i n k , " he s a i d "dairymen should  i s keener."  have as p a r t i c u l a r and  thorough a t r a i n i n g as d o c t o r s j lawyers and clergymen.. men need i t e q u a l l y with them and may p r o f i t  as much by i t . "  Robertson concluded t h a t the primary aim o f education enable a man t o make a l i v i n g . . . , ' " l  2  Dairy-  " i s to  H i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the  -'' Annual Report o f t h e Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e cont a i n e d i n the Annual Report o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , O n t a r i o , f o r t h e years 1886, 188?, 1888, 1889. L 1  1  2  Ontario,  S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1888, no. 21, pp.  90-91.  purpose o f education was not t o change, and he r e i t e r a t e d i t i n v a r i o u s ways throughout the many pronouncements on the s u b j e c t which he made over t h e whole o f h i s c a r e e r . To  Ontario dairymen Robertson gave t a l k s on such s u b j e c t s  as "The Hog as an Adjunct  t o the D a i r y , " "The Useoof E n s i l a g e , "  "Notes on B u t t e r Making," "Experimental  Cheese M a k i n g . 3 h1  Speaking a t a Convention i n 1889, Robertson urged the use o f i n t e l l i g e n t o p e r a t i o n a l methods.  He s t a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y s  I would not have a cheese maker b l i n d l y g r i n d i n g out b l i n d r e s u l t s by r o u t i n e p r a c t i c e . I would have him so t h i n k out h i s business t h a t h i s thought w i l l go ahead o f h i s curd k n i f e or steam p i p e . ^ In h i s 1889 r e p o r t , Robertson expressed  his opinion  that s U n t i l r e c e n t l y there has been no g e n e r a l , s y s t e m a t i c or comprehensive e f f o r t put f o r t h the improvement o f the methods o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t u n d e r l i e those p r a c t i c e s t h a t i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o success and p r o f i t . . . . The t r u e aim o f a l l o p e r a t i o n s a r e threefold I) the p r o d u c t i o n o f food i n such a way as to l e a v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f i t t o the producer I I ) the p r e s e r v a t i o n and augmentation o f s o i l f e r t i l i t y I I I ) the p r o v i s i o n o f remunerative employment f o r t h e r u r a l popul a t i o n . 15 Of h i s s e r v i c e a t the C ° H g » e  e  Robertson r e c a l l e d t h a t  he l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l 1 The f i r s t year I was a member o f t h e s t a f f • . . I gave more than one h a l f o f my time t o a t t e n d i n g farmers"  Ontario, Annual Report! o f M i: n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  Pt. II, pp. 151-204.  ~  ^  i P i d . , • Pt. IV, p. 22.  5  I b i d . , P t . I I , pp.  X  151-52.  V  1889,  meetings. I f r a n k l y confess t h a t I l e a r n e d more from what the farmers s a i d , than they d i d from what I s a i d . ' A man w i t h an open mind cannot go to s i x t y farmers' meetings and l i s t e n to d i s c u s s i o n s and answer q u e s t i o n s , and hear of the hest methods of doing t h i n g s without , g e t t i n g a c o l l e g e education of a superb s o r t • • • • 1 &  With other members of the s t a f f of the C o l l e g e , he  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w r i t i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n s which were made a v a i l a b l e to Ontario farmers. wrote e n t i t l e d procedures  One  of the f i r s t  he  "Care of M i l k f o r Cheese Making," 7 d e s c r i b e d 1  f o r the b e t t e r h a n d l i n g of m i l k .  In the summer of  I887, Robertson  v i s i t e d Wisconsin,  a  l e a d i n g d a i r y s t a t e , where: While going about . . . I saw every s i l o I came near. I l e a r n t a l l I c o u l d from the p r a c t i c a l men who had been s u c c e s s f u l . When I r e t u r n e d I got one b u i l t a t the C o l l e g e . . . and proclaimed Indian corn and e n s i l a g e a l l over the p r o v i n c e . . . .1° In 1886,  the Ontario Government e n t r u s t e d Robertson  with  the t a s k of s u p e r v i s i n g the Province's cheese and b u t t e r d i s p l a y at the Indian E x h i b i t i o n i n London, England. r e t u r n he submitted to the Hon.  On h i s  a most comprehensive and d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t  A. M. Ross, Ontario Commissioner of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  concerning h i s experiences and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n that  country  ^ James Wilson Robertson, Address on Education f o r the Improvement of A g r i c u l t u r e , H a l i f a x , N.S., k March 1903. Ontario/* Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , Guelph, B u l l e t i n No. 28, 1 May 1888." . IP ±  0  Robertson,  Address.  ,3  1  and i n other p a r t s of Europe. him.  He  Denmark p a r t i c u l a r l y  impressed  stated:  For a s m a l l country Denmark deserves much p r a i s e f o r the l o n g and thorough a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to a g r i c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . . . the Government of the country has f i n a n c i a l l y and otherwise "borne most of the burdens i n s e p a r a b l e from the establishment and maintenance of e d u c a t i o n a l means and f a c i l i t i e s which have enabled the Danes . . . to g a i n the foremost p l a c e i n the world f o r q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y exported per acre . . . . The Government a l l along has maintained a f r i e n d l y and f o s t e r i n g a t t i t u d e towards the improvement o f a g r i c u l t u r a l methods . . . and has g i v e n l i b e r a l g r a n t s towards f u r t h e r i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of sound knowledge r e l a t i n g t o l a n d and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n , as w e l l as to stock and the manuf a c t u r e of t h e i r products.19 Danish governmental  p a t e r n a l i s m and l e a d e r s h i p appealed very  much to Robertson.  His c o n v i c t i o n t h a t governmental  was  necessary i n the development of the Canadian  i n d u s t r y was  influence  dairying  t o come to f r u i t i o n when l a t e r he became the  F e d e r a l o f f i c i a l who  was  to implement t h i s  principle.  During the course of '.his engagement i n London,  Robertson  wrote a number of newsy and d e s c r i p t i v e l e t t e r s to one. of h i s sisters.  In p a r t they form a s o c i a l commentary on events  c o n d i t i o n s of the time.  and  Also made obvious i n these l e t t e r s i s  h i s supreme s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  They were of course p r i v a t e  l e t t e r s and as such r e v e a l thoughts which i n p u b l i c l i f e  had  to be concealed w i t h a mask of modesty.  such  l e t t e r of a banquet he had  He wrote i n one  attended:  Ontario, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1897» no. 6, p.  204.  "Fancy my s u r p r i s e on opening the programme to f i n d t h a t I was down to r e p l y to the t o a s t of v i s i t o r s . . . . Then the Master of Ceremonies shouted. ' S i l e n c e f o r J . W. Robertson, E s q u i r e , I pray you.' I commenced, went on, got through and had the honour of b e i n g c o n g r a t u l a t e d on making the best speech of the evening. I observed on p a s s i n g t h a t I r e c e i v e d the best a t t e n t i o n and the most frequent applause . . . . He concluded  h i s l e t t e r w i t h , "I'm  am doing good work f o r my  o f t e n very t i r e d  Province and s e l f . " ^  but  A further  l e t t e r informed h i s s i s t e r t h a t he would be a d d r e s s i n g a D a i r y i n g conference  i n Scotland:  "Quite an o c c a s i o n f o r a  young f e l l o w . " Inside the month he had been at the  Exhibition:  "More a t t e n t i o n has been a t t r a c t e d to the Dairy e x h i b i t i o n than d u r i n g the whole season to any other department . . . . My l e t t e r s to the papers and i n t e r views w i t h j o u r n a l i s t s have so won t h e i r g o o d w i l l , that I have made myself f e l t thro'out the whole of •' England. " His penchant f o r s t a t i s t i c s ' l e d him to c l a i m : "The l e t t e r s and n o t i c e s have been copied i n t o so many papers ( l e a d i n g and l o c a l ) t h a t a l r e a d y between 3 and 4 m i l l i o n of copies have been p r i n t e d and the copying s t i l l goes on. I f i g u r e d the other night . . . . t h a t i f a l l the press n o t i c e s r e g a r d i n g cheese and b u t t e r which I have e i t h e r w r i t t e n or i n s p i r e d were cut out of s e v e r a l papers and j o i n e d i n t o one s t r i p , i t would mea'sure--how much?--over kOO m i l e s l o n g , and i t i s everyday growing." That  Robertson  was  becoming aware of h i s present  f u t u r e v a l u e i s c l e a r when he  explained:  Robertson R• P. , 1, 7•  (unnamed), 5 October  to h i s s i s t e r ,  and  1888,  Always the observer, James compares the " l u x u r y and misery, opulence  and a b j e c t p o v e r t y " which perhaps  e l s e meet i n such extreme c o n d i t i o n s . "  "nowhere  He went to church  and  heard Charles Haddon Spurgeon and Henry Ward Beecher evangelize.  He h i n t e d at the darker s i d e o f London l i f e .  "The  mental  and s p i r i t u a l advantages are o f f e r e d here at t h e i r b e s t , w h i l e moral and p h y s i c a l temptations a t t e n d t h e i r elbows."  He works  very hard, becomes very t i r e d but g i v e s i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he i s a just supervisor.  "You may  know I'm  good t o the f i v e  girls  21  I have working  for  Robertson's The  me."  term of duty at Guelph was  not  continuous.  P r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t f o r 1888 noted t h a t s E a r l y i n the year J . W. Robertson, P r o f e s s o r of D a i r y i n g , l e f t 'us to engage i n the produce business i n Montreal; but we are g l a d t o r e p o r t t h a t he has j u s t r e t u r n e d and w i l l h e n c e f o r t h devote h i s u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n t o the.work of the c o l l e g e and t o the d a i r y i n t e r e s t throughout the Province.22 During the p e r i o d of h i s absence Robertson went i n t o  b u s i n e s s as a produce i n Montreal.  broker i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r venture  failed  and expected p r o f i t s were d i s p l a c e d by debts which t h r e a t e n e d Robertson w i t h the prospect of a court a c t i o n .  Robertson t o h i s s i s t e r , 22 October 1888, O n t a r i o , S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1888,  In a l e t t e r  R.P.,  no.. 16, p. 7»  1,  7.  t o . h i s debtor, Robertson pleaded f o r a chance .to pay o f f the money t h a t was owed.  He s t a t e d s  "You w i l l s u f f e r no l o s s by w a i t i n g and g i v i n g me a chance t o pay my share without l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s . I w i l l g i v e you a w r i t t e n acknowledgement s e t t i n g f o r t h the amount. W i l l i n s u r e my l i f e i n your favour f o r a sum s u f f i c i e n t to p r o t e c t you i n case o f my death . . . ." Anxious to p r o t e c t his. r e p u t a t i o n , he c o n t i n u e d , " i t w i l l be v e r y hard on me, i f you i n s i s t on c a r r y i n g the matter t o c o u r t . I do not f e a r any r e f l e c t i o n s b e i n g c a s t upon, or l e f t on my i n t e g r i t y and honesty; but the p u b l i c i s s e n s i t i v e and the b r i n g i n g o f such a case i n t o c o u r t and the. press would damage my s t a n d i n g •among dairymen and might l e a d t o my b e i n g compelled t o g i v e up t h i s s i t u a t i o n . By sending the case t o c o u r t you g a i n n o t h i n g w h i l e I s u f f e r . . . I await your r e p l y w i t h a n x i e t y as t h i s matter b e i n g i n suspense i s p l a y i n g the m i s c h i e f w i t h my power f o r work. .,23 Since n o t h i n g a p p a r e n t l y came o f i t , the problem must have been r e s o l v e d but Robertson had been f r i g h t e n e d . of  He knew:  the m i s c h i e f , as w e l l as o f the good, the p r e s s c o u l d do t o  him.  As a r e s u l t , a l l through h i s l i f e he was c a r e f u l t o  court j o u r n a l i s t s .  Furthermore,  h i s future business specula-  t i o n s i n v o l v e d more secure investments i n mining s t o c k s and property. When v i s i t i n g Wisconsin over the y e a r s , Robertson became f r i e n d l y w i t h W. H. Hoard,' p u b l i s h e r o f Hoard's Dairyman, and . l a t e r Governor  of that state.*  Hoard was a frequent v i s i t o r .  and .speaker a t Ontario Dairymen's Conventions.  2  3  I t was,  Robertson t o W. H. C l a r k , 7 November 1888, R.P., 1, 4.  ^ Mining stock c e r t i f i c a t e s and d e t a i l s o f p r o p e r t y t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e among h i s papers, R.P., 1,.6. 2  t h e r e f o r e , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f Robertson's the' f i e l d  being an expert i n  o f d a i r y i n g t h a t Hoard t r i e d t o persuade him t o l i v e  and work i n the United S t a t e s and e s p e c i a l l y i n the d a i r y i n g s t a t e o f Wisconsin.  In r e p l y to a l e t t e r from Hoard r e q u e s t i n g  that he c o n s i d e r t h i s Robertson  replied;  "With the n a t i v e c a u t i o n o f a canny Scot added t o by t e n years o f t h i n k i n g experience, I have been slow to answer your d i r e c t enquiry as t o whether I c o u l d be induced t o s e t t l e i n t h e United S t a t e s . . . I c o u l d do my work . • . over t h e r e as here. The o t h e r s i d e i s . Our people need a man,like me . . . . ( s i c ) But as they have some.men almost ready t o do my work, i f t h e l a r g e r f i e l d on your s i d e would g i v e me enough o p p o r t u n i t y t o earn $3»000 a year I would go over and earn i t . I can get only $2,000 here. L a t e r i n l i f e i f not soon, I b e l i e v e I s h a l l go t o your s i d e o r back t o E n g l a n d . " 5 2  Robertson was beginning t o measure h i s worth i n terms o f d o l l a r s and cents and not f o r the f i r s t time, o r the l a s t , would the q u e s t i o n o f s a l a r y enter i n t o h i s thought. To g a i n more experience and t o augment h i s income, Robertson  l e c t u r e d i n v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s at C o r n e l l  University.  T h i s appointment he acknowledges as b e i n g due t o t h e good offices of H o a r d . H e to  wrote o f h i s experiences i n a l e t t e r  h i s sister« " C o r n e l l , w i t h a l l i t s grand equipment, good men and earnest students i s now a memory t o me as p l e a s a n t as the v i s i t was i n a n t i c i p a t i o n . From the f i r s t entrance w i t h i n i t s campus my experiences were only pleasurable. The a g r i c u l t u r a l students were very k i n d to me and v e r y a p p r e c i a t i v e . Of course I am l e a r n i n g to l e c t u r e as w e l l . . . . Today two students presented  2  5 Robertson  2 6  Robertson  t o Hoard, 15 September 1888, R.P., 1, 3 . to. Hoard, 26 November 1888, R.P., 1, 3.  me with a b e a u t i f u l cane and the A g r i c u l t u r a l c l a s s trudges . . . through some mud t o g i v e me a send o f f at the s t a t i o n . T'would have donevyou good t o see and hear these young men cheer . .' . . " ? 2  The  experience gained i n these y e a r s was t o form the  b a s i s o f Robertson's  future career.  He gained an e x c e l l e n t  grasp o f the d a i r y i n d u s t r y , much p r a c t i c a l experience i n p u b l i c speaking, i n w r i t i n g o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s , i n t e a c h i n g , .and i n o r g a n i z a t i o n .  In s h o r t , he had thoroughly prepared  h i m s e l f f o r what he had e a r l i e r t o l d h i s s i s t e r was "now e a s i l y w i t h i n reach."  2  7  Robertson t o h i s s i s t e r Ik A p r i l 1889, R.P., 1, 3.  CHAPTER I I SERVICE WITH THE DOMINION GOVERNMENT  By any standard  (1890-190^-)  o f measurement, Robertson was becoming,  by the l a t e 1880's, a-well-known man i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f Canada and i n areas  o f the United S t a t e s .  His work with the  Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n s o f Ontario was a p p r e c i a t e d and h i s advice a c t i v e l y sought by the dairymen o f t h a t p r o v i n c e .  Thus  i t was, while making a speech a t the annual meeting o f the Ontario  Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n a t Smith's F a l l s ,  the p r e s s i n g need f o r c o l d storage ing  facilities  i n 1889,  on  on s h i p s c a r r y -  Canadian produce to England, t h a t Robertson came t o t h e  n o t i c e o f the Prime M i n i s t e r , S i r John A. Macdonald, who shared  the p l a t f o r m with him.  Of t h i s o c c a s i o n  Mrs. C u r r i e r  writes » A f t e r the meeting S i r John asked him i f he c o u l d develop such c o l d storage f a c i l i t i e s i f there were a government subsidy arranged f o r the purpose. Without h e s i t a t i o n James s a i d yes, he c o u l d . This no doubt i n f l u e n c e d h i s appointment t o the p o s i t i o n o f Dairy Commissioner f o r Canada i n 1890.1 T h i s p o s i t i o n was c r e a t e d by the Dominion Government i n response t o the e f f o r t s o f W. H. Lynch, o f D a n v i l l e , Quebec,  C u r r i e r , B r i e f Biography, p. 7.  who  advocated the appointment o f an o f f i c i a l whose duty i t  would "be to promote t h e ' d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y o f the Dominion. Lynch wrote a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on the d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y and the Dominion Government, r e c o g n i z i n g Lynch's i n t e r e s t , bought 75.000 c o p i e s o f h i s pamphlet, S c i e n t i f i c Dairy P r a c t i c e , f o r $ 4 , 5 0 0 , and d i s t r i b u t e d them t o d a i r y f a r m e r s .  2  Lynch a l s o l e c t u r e d f r e q u e n t l y at Dairymen's meetings. At the E a s t e r n Ontario Dairymen's Convention, 1886, he p r e sented a m a s t e r l y s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s based on the exports and imports o f eighteen c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s  fifteen  y e a r s , and o f f e r e d a prognosis f o r f u t u r e developments' i n Canadian d a i r y i n g .  Furthermore, h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the  v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f dairymen should appoint delegates t o a g e n e r a l conference came t o f r u i t i o n i n 1889.^ On 9 . A p r i l 1889, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r i e s of. Ontario, Quebec, New  Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a ,  Manitoba and the North West T e r r i t o r i e s , met Commons, Ottawa, and formed "The Dairymen's  i n the House of A s s o c i a t i o n of the  Dominion o f Canada." A d e p u t a t i o n from the newly formed a s s o c i a t i o n waited upon the Prime M i n i s t e r , S i r John A. Macdonald, and other members o f t h e . C a b i n e t .  The d e p u t a t i o n made two  specific  For d e t a i l s o f the i n i t i a t o r y movement which l e d to the c r e a t i o n of the o f f i c e o f Dairy Commissioner see Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1891, no. 6D, pp. 1-8. 3 Annual Convention o f the Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n of E a s t e r n Canada, Proceedings, 1886, pp. 1 2 4 - 2 5 . •  requests*  first,  t h a t a grant o f $3,000 be made t o t h e new  A s s o c i a t i o n and, second, t h a t a Dairy Commissioner should be appointed.^  A spokesman f o r the d e l e g a t i o n was James Robert- .  son who l a t e r informed  his sisters  "As u s u a l your humble b r o t h e r was t h e main spokesman ... . . A dozen o r more members t o l d me afterwards t h a t mine was the best speech ever d e l i v e r e d before the committee. S i r John A. was v e r y k i n d and gave me (apparently) a most a p p r e c i a t i v e hearing-* . . . and asked me to submit i n w r i t i n g t o him a memorandum o f a l l t h a t I had urged.. I got o f f one good joke on the o l d man a t . which he laughed ^ h e a r t i l y . . . . The Government need and want a man q u i t e badly t o undertake t h e work o f , Commissioner o f D a i r y i n g f o r the Dominion.. I happen t o be t h e only man q u i t e b i g enough and o f t h e r i g h t shape to f i l l the p l a c e , b u t , I begin t o v a l u e my s e r v i c e s i n d o l l a r s v.ery h i g h l y . Whoever f i l l s the p l a c e . . . w i l l get a r e p u t a t i o n from Newfoundland t o Vancouver and the chance o f a t r i p t o Europe, Japan, South America e t c . . e t c . "5 . „. :  Both r e q u e s t s were granted, but as a p r e l i m i n a r y step the A s s o c i a t i o n was asked t o name a committee t o . c o n f e r w i t h the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the Honourable J o h n . C a r l i n g , r e s p e c t t o the s e l e c t i o n o f a Dairy Commissioner. tee s e l e c t e d Robertson t o f i l l  The commit-  the post on a t h r e e year b a s i s ,  w i t h J . C. Chapais as A s s i s t a n t Commissioner, with area o f s p e c i a l  with  Quebec h i s  responsibility.^  Robertson was the l o g i c a l c h o i c e f o r Commissioner; as- he had  e x p l a i n e d t o h i s s i s t e r , he was the only man "of the r i g h t  shape" t o f i l l  the-post.  H i s work i n Ontario, the l e a d i n g  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1891• no. 6D, pp. 1-8. 5 Robertson t o h i s s i s t e r Ik - A p r i l 1889, R.P., 1, 3. ^ Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1891, no. 6D, pp. 1-8.  province, t o l d i n h i s favour.  There he had proven h i m s e l f as  a cheese manufacturer, as manager,, as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , ; a n d as a p u b l i c i s t .  He was known both i n Canada and abroad.  He  had the common touch, was p o p u l a r , was f r i e n d l y w i t h the p r e s s , was a P r e s b y t e r i a n i n a day when such an a f f i l i a t i o n counted s o c i a l l y , and he was a Scot, a c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s e t among an e t h n i c group which p l a y e d a v e r y l a r g e p a r t i n the p o l i t i c a l , economic,  and s o c i a l l i f e  o f the Dominion.  On h i s r e s i g n a t i o n from Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , he was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a paper k n i f e and book, as tokens o f esteem from some members o f the s t a f f t h e r e .  In an  accompanying  l e t t e r they d e c l a r e d : "During the whole p e r i o d o f your term o f o f f i c e here we have observed w i t h much s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r i d e the success which you brought t o your own s p e c i a l departments and the p r e s t i g e ' w h i c h came along w i t h t h i s success t o the e n t i r e I n s t i t u t i o n . "In viewoof t h i s f a c t and o f the v e r y p l e a s a n t r e l a t i o n s t h a t have a l l along s u b s i s t e d between us, we f e e l t h a t we would be e r r a n t i n our duty and p r i v i l e g e i f we allowed you t o go t o another sphere o f l a b o u r without g i v i n g you a token o f the t r u e and deep r e g a r d t h a t we bear towards you .. . . a l s o of. our sense o f l o s s i n knowing t h a t so much o f manly, honest, s t e r l i n g worth i s g o i n g from us."7 Such was. the r e s p e c t i n which James Robertson was h e l d by h i s a s s o c i a t e s then, and i n the f u t u r e . In c o n g r a t u l a t i n g the M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e i n the House o f Commons, a member expressed h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the Government's i n i t i a t i o n o f the p o s t , s t a t i n g t h a t the s e l e c t i o n -  ? L e t t e r from members o f the S t a f f o f Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e on the o c c a s i o n o f Robertson's r e s i g n a t i o n from the College. R.P., 1, 3.  made f o r the p o s i t i o n was "the very best t h a t c o u l d be made i n s i d e o f Canada, and perhaps, o u t s i d e o f i t e i t h e r . " member r e f e r r e d t o the "important t e r e s t s o f t h e country"  rendered  s e r v i c e s t o the d a i r y i n by P r o f e s s o r Robertson.  was Robertson g i v e n a p o s i t i o n o f tremendous his  to i n i t i a t e ,  t o develop,  Another  So  responsibility—  t o o r g a n i z e , t o make known»  in  s h o r t , t o cause t o earn r e s p e c t i n terms o f u s e f u l n e s s and v a l u e t o a developing  Dominion.  He had performed w e l l i n  Ontario; c o u l d he do as w e l l f o r the Dominion? An O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l dated  10 February 1890, gave  official  r e c o g n i t i o n t o h i s appointment a t $3,000 p e r annum and s e t out h i s d u t i e s .  They were.formidable.  In view o f the great importance t o Canada o f the Dairy i n t e r e s t , and the f a c t o f the v e r y g r e a t extens i o n o f both p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d e found to a r i s e from improved methods o f manufacture, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n cheese, i n the Province of Ontario, i t i s a d v i s a b l e to appoint a D a i r y Commissioner, t o be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C e n t r a l Experimental Farm i n Ottawa, f o r the purpose o f d i f f u s i n g p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n among t h e farmers o f the Dominion by means o f B u l l e t i n s , Conferences, and Lectures on the most improved and economical methods o f manufacturing B u t t e r and Cheese and o f f e e d i n g C a t t l e t o produce t h e best r e s u l t s i n o b t a i n i n g milk,9 Robertson's f i r s t r e p o r t t o the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e * shoes t h a t he had f a i t h f u l l y out  a  performed h i s t a s k .  He p o i n t e d  thati  Canada, Debates, 1890, p. 2^00.  9 Copy o f O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , R« P. , 1, 3 •  Ottawa, 10 February 1890,  The time i n t e r v e n i n g between the date o f my appointment and October, was g i v e n almost e n t i r e l y to the d i s c h a r g e of the d u t i e s a r i s i n g from and pert a i n i n g to my p o s i t i o n as Dairy Commissioner . . . . I was r e l i e v e d of much of the superintendence o f farm work i n order to enable me to c a r r y out the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the Honourable the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , to the e f f e c t t h a t I s h o u l d v i s i t the s e v e r a l Provinces. . . . f o r the purpose o f d e l i v e r i n g a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s i n each on "Dairy Farming" and k i n d r e d t o p i c s . My journeys enabled me . . . to i n f o r m the farmers . .. . of t h e . n a t u r e , v a r i e t y and extent o f the s e r v i c e which i t i s the o b j e c t of the. Dominion Experimental Farms t o render. 0  Dr. J . A. Ruddick, who Cold Storage Commissioner Robertson's  succeeded Robertson as Dairy and  f o r the Dominion,  f i r s t year i n h i s new  made r e f e r e n c e to  post, explaining  how,  he t r a v e l l e d throughout the l e n g t h and breadth o f Canada a d d r e s s i n g meetings, i n t e r v i e w i n g l e a d i n g dairymen and making a g e n e r a l survey of the whole situation. His f l u e n c y as a speaker, coupled w i t h h i s wide knowledge of the s u b j e c t , and h i s g e n e r a l optimism and enthusiasm made a g r e a t impression on the farmers of Canada and c r e a t e d much i n t e r e s t i n the d a i r y i n d u s t r y i n a s h o r t t i m e . H In  one such address d e l i v e r e d at Shoal Lake,  on 21 August 1890,  the D a i r y Commissioner  purpose o f h i s v i s i t  Manitoba,  announced t h a t the  wasi  to l e a r n the c o n d i t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f farming i n the West than a t present to teach a n y t h i n g new . . . I am more eager to observe than to a d v i s e , and more anxious t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n than to express o p i n i o n s . . . . When I r e t u r n t o the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the Dominion, I w i l l be f u r n i s h e d w i t h such a knowledge o f t h i s country as w i l l enable me t o answer the e n q u i r i e s  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1890,  p.  54.  11  J . A. Ruddick, "The O r i g i n s and Development, o f the Dominion Dairy and Cold Storage Branch," S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , VII (December 1926), pp. 131-4.  o f some young farmers and others who are bound t o come or "go west," even i f they have i n some r e s p e c t a good l a n d where they p r e s e n t l y r e s i d e . . . . Some farmers . . . i n e a s t e r n Canada, from not knowing . . . our own West, a r e induced t o go t o the S t a t e s , probably a f t e r wards t o lament the haste which l e d them t o accept, without f u r t h e r enquiry, the extravagant statements of* r a i l w a y - l a n d s a d v e r t i s i n g c i r c u l a r s and agents from the other s i d e . In the same address, Robertson*made a p l e a f o r d i v e r s i t y i n farming, h i s concern b e i n g over a r e l i a n c e o f the Western g r a i n grower on one c r o p i The r e p u t a t i o n o f Manitoba i s e x c e l l e n t , i t s s u p e r i o r wheat, has I t h i n k , t o l d a g a i n s t the p r o v i n c e , i n s t e a d o f i n i t s f a v o u r . The wheat growing o f Manitoba has been "cracked up" so much, t h a t many people have been l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s good f o r n o t h i n g e l s e . • . • The p l a c e t h a t has been the home o f c o u n t l e s s herds o f b u f f a l o , cannot f a i l t o support . . . c a t t l e i n h e a l t h  and comfort.12  His r e p o r t f o r 1891 i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on meetings and l e c t u r e s he had given» I attended and d e l i v e r e d addresses a t f o r t y - n i n e conventions or meeting o f farmers and dairymen . . . . They were d i s t r i b u t e d i n . . . O n t a r i o , 19; Quebec, 8; New Brunswick, 2; Nova S c o t i a , 4; P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , 3; Manitoba, 3; North-west T e r r i t o r i e s , 1; B r i t i s h Columbia, 9« % a s s i s t a n t s a l s o attended and gave addresses upon 242 o c c a s i o n s . . . . The number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s for'my presence a t conventions o f farmers has outgrown a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f compliance on my p a r t w i t h one q u a r t e r o f them. . . .13 The D a i r y Commissioner had c e r t a i n l y complied w i t h h i s original instructions.  H i s department was a r o u s i n g keen  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1891, no. 6D, pp. 55-67. I b i d . , 1891, no. 7t p. 24.  interest in scientific  farming and i n the Dominion Govern-  ment's s u p p o r t i v e and a d v i s o r y r o l e . the Canadian  p u b l i c knew about  And he made q u i t e sure  i t , s i n c e he enjoyed the con-  f i d e n c e of the newspaper world which cooperated exceedingly well i n reporting his  speeches.  Numerous b u l l e t i n s were i s s u e d o f f e r i n g advice on a l l aspects of the D a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y .  Robertson wrote many him-  s e l f w i t h expertness and w i t h an eye t o the type of reader he wanted t o i n t e r e s t , t o persuade, In November 1892,  and t o move t o a c t i o n .  Robertson a g a i n v i s i t e d B r i t a i n i n  order t o n e g o t i a t e the s a l e of d a i r y '.products from the e x p e r i mental d a i r y s t a t i o n s and at the same time» To c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the food producing r e s o u r c e s of Canada, the p u r i t y and wholesome e x c e l l e n c e of Canadian d a i r y products, and the nature and scope of some of the e d u c a t i o n a l work which i s being done by the Government i n connection w i t h d a i r y farming . . . . C r i t i c a l and a p p r e c i a t i v e a r t i c l e s on-the progress and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e appeared i n many of the l e a d i n g j o u r n a l s of Great B r i t a i n . . . .14 While  i n Great B r i t a i n , Robertson  addressed meetings on  a number of t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g "Canada and the Crisis";  Agricultural  "Remedies f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Depression";  Producing Resources  of Canada."  He was  "The  Food  a l s o r e p o r t e d i n The  Scotsman, The Grocer's Gazette, London, and the Free Press, Aberdeen.15  1^.  I b i d . , 1894,  no. 8B, p.  4.  15 Canadian Gazette (London), 15 December 1892; North B r i t i s h D a i l y M a i l , Glasgow, 17 December 1892; D a i l y Post, L i v e r p o o l , 21 December 1892; 24 December 1892; 14 January 1893.  A. unique f e a t u r e o f the Chicago World's  1893» was wrote  F a i r held i n  a mammoth cheese e x h i b i t e d by Canada.  Robertson  that, I was a u t h o r i z e d t o manufacture a mammoth cheese, which was intended as an a d v e r s * t i n g v e h i c l e which would c a r r y news-paragraphs about the Canadian d a i r y i n d u s t r y and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which t h i s country enjoys and a f f o r d s f o r s u c c e s s f u l d a i r y farming, i n t o a l l lands whence we might hope t o a t t r a c t d e s i r a b l e s e t t l e r s . The cheese, a c c o r d i n g t o a l e a f l e t d i s t r i b u t e d a t the f a i r , "weighed l b s . n e t , was twenty-eight f e e t i n diameter and s i x f e e t i n h e i g h t . The t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f m i l k used i n i t s manufacture was pounds. That q u a n t i t y i s equal t o the m i l k f o r one day i n September t o t e n thousand cows . . . . °'  22,000  207,200  .Towards the end o f h i s t h r e e y e a r appointment,  Robertson  wrote t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , i n order t o summarize what he had done.  By t h i s time, he was aware o f h i s v a l u e not  only i n terms o f s e r v i c e rendered t o t h e Dominion, terms o f what he was worth i n s a l a r y .  but a l s o i n  Surveying comprehensively  the work he had done and o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s and improvements he had brought about, Robertson p o i n t e d out i n unmistakable language t h a t h i s acceptance o f t h e post i n the f i r s t  instance  had been i n the nature o f a f i n a n c i a l s a c r i f i c e and t h a t i f the government wished t o take advantage  of his a b i l i t i e s i n  the f u t u r e , then i t would have t o pay f o r them. Since i t reviews Robertson's accomplishments  t o date,  and p r o v i d e s a t the same time both a r e c o r d and an a n a l y s i s o f h i s own a t t i t u d e s and sense, o f p e r s o n a l r e g a r d , t h e l e t t e r i s worth q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h .  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers,  189^, no. 8B.A, pp. 17^-75.  "Hon.  A. R. Angers, " M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e .  "Sir«"Permit me t o p r e s e n t the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s f o r your considerationi"1. When I was f i r s t i n v i t e d to become an a p p l i cant f o r the p o s i t i o n of D a i r y Commissioner f o r the Dominion, I r e p l i e d t h a t I would not accept such a p o s i t i o n a t a s a l a r y o f l e s s than $3,500 per annum to begin with. "2. At t h a t time, i t was w i t h i n my power to accept a s i t u a t i o n of a somewhat s i m i l a r nature i n the United S t a t e s , having g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l v a l u e t o me than the f i g u r e s I have mentioned w i t h an assured prospect o f increase. "3. These matters were l a i d b e f o r e the l a t e M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e at the time. In view of the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r good work and f o r winning a good name i n the Provinces'; o f Canada, i n which at t h a t time I was known only through the p r e s s , I consented to accept the s i t u a t i o n from the Dominion Government f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f three years. "The O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l by which I was appointed added the d u t i e s of A g r i c u l t u r i s t of the C e n t r a l E x p e r i mental Farm to my work. "4. In my communications w i t h the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , I assured him t h a t d u r i n g the three years I would endeavour t o demonstrate t o the Government.and to the country the v a l u e of the work which would be done and the wisdom of the Government i n c r e a t i n g the o f f i c e and i n a p p o i n t i n g me to d i s c h a r g e i t s d u t i e s . "5. I s t a t e d t h a t I would accept a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n s a l a r y at the end of the t h r e e year p e r i o d . I r e c e i v e d no assurance from the Hon. M i n i s t e r t h a t my e x p e c t a t i o n would be granted, beyond the impression l e f t on my mind t h a t , a f t e r the work was done, the Government would g i v e f a i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to my a p p l i cation. "6. I t i s not necessary t h a t I should make a c a t e g o r i c a l statement of what I have been p e r m i t t e d t o do and have'been a b l e t o do; but I venture without a f f e c t a t i o n to c l a i m t h a t e v e r y t h i n g which I p r e d i c t e d  should he done, and could he done by a Dairy Commissioner has been done, and t h a t much g r e a t e r success has a t tended my e f f o r t s - (always l i b e r a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r by the Government and ably seconded by the o f f i c e r s of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and my a s s i s t a n t s ) - than I had even dared to expect w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s . "7. From among the prominent f e a t u r e s of the work which has been undertaken and c a r r i e d out s u c c e s s f u l l y the f o l l o w i n g may be mentionedi. '"a) The a d d r e s s i n g o f hundreds of meetings i n a l l p a r t s of Canada by myself and a s s i s t a n t s ; (The estimate of v a l u e put upon such s e r v i c e s elsewhere may be apprec i a t e d by the f a c t t h a t d u r i n g the winter of 1892-93» I d e c l i n e d i n v i t a t i o n s from the a u t h o r i t i e s i n no l e s s than 7 d i f f e r e n t States o f the Union to a t t e n d one conv e n t i o n i n each at $100 per meeting besides t r a v e l l i n g expenses); !  "b) The improvement i n the q u a l i t y of the cheese mainly i n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o , the Province of Quebec and'-' the Maritime P r o v i n c e s , which has brought hundreds of thousands of d o l l a r s i n t o the country a n n u a l l y from the same q u a n t i t y o f milk; "c) The e x t e n s i o n of the cheesemaking business i n Ontario and Quebec and more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . "d) The improvement i n the q u a l i t y and the i n c r e a s e i n the .quantity of b u t t e r ; and the establishment of branch Experimental Dairy S t a t i o n s f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n • of w i n t e r b u t t e r making i n creameries; "e) The e x t e n s i o n of growing fodder corn and. the use of e n s i l a g e f o r f e e d i n g c a t t l e economically; and the managements of experiments i n the f e e d i n g of. swine r e s u l t i n g l i n demonstrating the g r e a t v a l u e of f r o z e n wheat as.a feed f o r swine and c a t t l e ; " f ) The d i s c o v e r y and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the "Robertson Combination f o r E n s i l a g e " (Indian Corn, Horse Beans and Sunflowers) which promises to save the country .several m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y i n the f e e d i n g of c a t t l e f o r beef and milk; visit  "g) The s e r v i c e I was a b l e to render Canada by'my to Great B r i t a i n d u r i n g the present w i n t e r .  "8. I do not d e s i r e to obtrude my p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s upon your n o t i c e ; but w h i l e I l i v e simply and f r u g a l l y , I may  s t a t e I need a h i g h e r s a l a r y than I now r e c e i v e . I have reason t o b e l i e v e I can o b t a i n one much h i g h e r i n the United States and I b e l i e v e I c o u l d get a h i g h e r one i n Great B r i t a i n . "In view^of these f a c t s I r e s p e c t f u l l y submit»"a) My d e f i n i t e engagement w i t h Government t e r m i nated at February 1 s t , 18931 "b) I venture to hope I have f u l f i l l e d p a r t i c u l a r my s i d e of the c o n t r a c t J  i n every  "c) The o p p o r t u n i t i e s of my p o s i t i o n have enabled me to do work which has r e s u l t e d and w i l l continue to r e s u l t i n g r e a t f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t to the Dominions "d) I am w i l l i n g to renew an agreement f o r t h r e e years at a s a l a r y o f $ 5 , 0 0 ° per annum; "e) In any case I s h a l l hope f o r p e r m i s s i o n to c a r r y on and f i n i s h the work immediately on hand at the branch Experimental Dairy S t a t i o n s and i n c o n n e c t i o n with the World's Columbian E x p o s i t i o n at Chicago u n t i l the autumn of the present year; "f) In case the Government do not see t h e i r way t o grant my r e q u e s t , i t i s my duty to myself to i n t i m a t e t h a t my s e r v i c e s w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e i n my present c a p a c i t y a f t e r t h a t time. "I have the honour t o be, Sir, "Your obediant s e r v a n t , "(sgn)' Jas. W.  Robertson" ? 1  Whether a s i m i l a r l e t t e r c o u l d be w r i t t e n today i s a matter f o r c o n j e c t u r e — o n e can suppose t h a t Robertson e x c e l l e n t grounds f o r w r i t i n g i n the way no doubt t h a t he was  he d i d .  There i s  worth every penny of h i s s a l a r y and  he c o u l d reasonably expect a r a i s e p r o v i d e d he was  1? Robertson 18. March 1893.  had  t o Hon. A. R. Angers, R.P., 1, 3.  that  re-engaged. .  M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  His l e t t e r suggests i n face of h i s v a s t accomplishments., t h a t h i s s e r v i c e s , i n h i s own department had had  e s t i m a t i o n , were i n d i s p e n s a b l e .  grown i n s i z e and  become a n a t i o n a l l y and  i n p r e s t i g e , w h i l e he  internationally-known  whatever Robertson d i d , he d i d w e l l . outstanding; and  the  he had  himself  figure.  His e d u c a t i o n a l work  And was  f o s t e r e d communication between producers  Government.  cheese, and  His  His e f f o r t s were r e s u l t i n g i n an  improved  i n consequence, an improved export market; happy  circumstances which appealed to the r u l i n g powers of a devel o p i n g Dominion.  '  Thus the Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and a t i o n of the House of Commons was  not  Coloniz-  slow i n recommending  the re-appointment of Robertsons . . . the Committee having l e a r n e d t h a t the t i f° which P r o f e s s o r Robertson was o r i g i n a l l y engaged has now e x p i r e d , and r e c o g n i z i n g as we do the i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s which he has rendered to the Dairy i n t e r e s t s of t h i s country, we would s t r o n g l y urge the Government the n e c e s s i t y of p l a c i n g the P r o f e s s o r upon the permanent s t a f f of the C e n t r a l Experimental Farm, and t h a t he be p a i d a l i b e r a l s a l a r y f o r h i s services.-'-" m  A r e p o r t .of a Committee of the Honourable, the C o u n c i l , was  approved by His E x c e l l e n c y ,  i n - C o u n c i l , on the 18  the  e  r  Privy  Governor-General-  A p r i l 1893«  . . . The M i n i s t e r f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t the s e r v i c e s of Mr. Robertson, by>placing h i m s e l f i n a c t i v e touch w i t h the farmers of the Dominion, have tended l a r g e l y to promote i n c r e a s e of the d a i r y products of Canada, and t h a t the prospect i s o f a f u r t h e r l a r g e extension of i n c r e a s e from the c o n t i n u a t i o n of h i s s e r v i c e s .  .. Canada.,.,.Standing...Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e a n d ' C o l o n i z a tion. Copy of"Recommendation, 24 March 1893, R.P.. 1, 3.  The M i n i s t e r t h e r e f o r e recommends t h a t the request o f Mr. Robertson be acceded t o and t h a t he be r e appointed w i t h a s a l a r y o f p e r annum, f o r three  $5,000  years.19  Having a m p l y . j u s t i f i e d t h e t r u s t p l a c e d who had been r e s p o n s i b l e  i n him by those  f o r h i s appointment, Robertson con-  t i n u e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the d a i r y i n g i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Dominion.  In an endeavour t o p r o t e c t Canada's good name he  was p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h e "Dairy  Products A c t s .  1893»"  which sought t o prevent the manufacture and s a l e o f a d u l t e r a t e d cheese, and p r o v i d e d i n Canada." ^ 2  and  He was a l s o l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e  21  His observations  on t h e application;>of  Federal  funds,  h i s a t t i t u d e towards P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such  a g r i c u l t u r a l education, the  f o r t h e opening,  sometime d i r e c t o r , o f a d a i r y s c h o o l a t S t . Hyacinthe,  P. Q. and  f o r t h e branding o f d a i r y products "Made  a r e recorded  i n h i s Evidence Before  S e l e c t Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n ,  .1903. However, s i n c e Robertson's involvement w i t h the d a i r y i n g .aspect  o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s occupied  Privy Council's  most o f h i s time, the  r e p o r t o f 31 December 18951  which extended  h i s appointment, a l s o allowed f o r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n from h i s p o s i t i o n as A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t at the Experimental Farm, and 1 9  R.P., 2 0  Copy o f Report o f P r i v y C o u n c i l No. 1129,  1, 3.  Canada, S t a t u t e s ,  pp. 131-34. 21  *• ~  56 V i c t o r i a , 1893.  18 A p r i l  V o l . 1 and 2,  - —  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1893.  no. 7. pp. 18-9.  1893,  designated  him " A g r i c u l t u r a l and Dairy Commissioner."  This  new appointment now enabled Robertson t o devote h i s whole 22 a t t e n t i o n to h i s s p e c i a l t y .  It was d u r i n g  1895i  t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t phase i n the  h i s t o r y o f Canadian farming t h a t year,  In the House o f Commons  concern was expressed t h a t something should be done  to develop c o l d storage export  began.  facilities  should be t r a n s p o r t e d  i n order t h a t b u t t e r f o r  i n good c o n d i t i o n and thus com-  pete on equal terms w i t h the product o f other c o u n t r i e s .  A  r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d i To enable the Dairy Commissioner t o promote the d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y of Canada by making p r o v i s i o n f o r the p l a c i n g o f fresh-made creamery b u t t e r on the B r i t i s h market i n r e g u l a r shipments without d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n q u a l i t y , and f o r s e c u r i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s q u a l i t y there. 3 In Canada p r i o r t o 1895.  there was no o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n r e s p e c t t o the c a r r i a g e o f b u t t e r i i n c o l d s t o r a g e .  No one  c o u l d get a r e f r i g e r a t o r c a r u n l e s s he had a c a r - l o a d t o s h i p . There was no c o l d storage had  any f a c i l i t i e s  support,  on ship-board  o f that kind.  and few creameries  Robertson, with government  arranged w i t h the r a i l w a y companies' t o run r e f r i g e r a t o r  cars once a week over s t a t e d routes the b u t t e r t r a d e .  f o r purposes o f developing  Under t h i s arrangement, the s m a l l b u t t e r  Report o f the Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l , no. 3885, 31 December 1895,  3  2  R.P., 1,  3.  Canada, House o f Commons, Debates,  1895,  pp.  4465-70.  producer c o u l d have h i s consignment c a r r i e d as s a f e l y as b i g g e r man.  The government guaranteed two-thirds  of the '  earnings of a minimum c a r - l o a d (20,000, l b s . ) and p a i d $4 car  for icing.  The  creameries  per  were encouraged to e r e c t c o l d  storage rooms by the payment of a bonus of $100 p r o v i d e d such equipment.  the  f o r those  who  Plans and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were f u r - ,  n i s h e d f r e e by the Commissioner.  By 1 8 9 7 , . t h e steamship com-  panies were p r o v i d i n g r e f r i g e r a t e d s h i p s and the government p a i d h a l f the c o s t of i n s t a l l i n g the machinery on a number of oh  trans-Atlantic vessels. During the same year, the L a u r i e r Government  introduced  Imperial p r e f e r e n c e and sent Robertson to Great B r i t a i n where the press r e a c t e d most f a v o u r a b l y towards both the economic p o l i c y and the Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The  L i v e r p o o l D a i l y Post, i n a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e s a i d of  the Dairy  Commissioner: P r o f e s s o r Robertson's i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l as a cheese and.butter maker has been demonstrated l o n g b e f o r e h i s appointment. But h i s resource as an o r g a n i z e r on the l a r g e r s c a l e had s t i l l to be proved, and the p r o o f i s found not only i n the number of establishments now s u c c e s s f u l l y at work, but s t i l l more f o r c i b l y , i n the steady annual i n c r e a s e of b u t t e r and cheese exports and the continuous improvement i n q u a l i t y . . . . 5 2  The  L i v e r p o o l C o u r i e r observed:  .  It stands to reason t h a t i f the c o l o n i e s can produce f o o d s t u f f s of as good a q u a l i t y as those which at  J. A. Ruddick, "An H i s t o r i c a l , and..Descriptive Account of the. D a i r y i n g .Industry of Canada," B u l l e t i n no. 28. (Canada: M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1 9 1 1 ) . ;  2 5  i o May  1897,  present we take from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , R u s s i a , Denmark, France, e t c . , i t i s the duty o f the mother country to g i v e p r e f e r e n c e to her c h i l d r e n across the seas. Of course i t l i e s w i t h the c o l o n i e s to show t h a t they can produce e x a c t l y what we want, and t h i s i s the e f f o r t which Canada i s now making . . . . i n her Commissioner of A g r i c u l t u r e and D a i r y i n g they have one o f the a b l e s t a g r i c u l t u r i s t s e i t h e r i n the Dominion or anywhere e l s e . . . . t o h i s s k i l l , energy and r e s o u r c e , not f o r g e t t i n g the h e a r t y support o f the Board o f A g r i c u l t u r e , are due the r a p i d s t r i d e s which Canada has made during r e c e n t y e a r s . ° A D a i l y C h r o n i c l e (London) S p e c i a l , s t a t e d J Canada i s p u r s u i n g w i t h s i n g u l a r boldness her p o l i c y of commercial a l l i a n c e w i t h the Mother Country under her new t a r i f f p r e f e r e n c e f o r B r i t i s h goods. Buying more from England, Canada means t o pay f o r her purchases i n produce and s e e i n g t h a t we must import two-thirds, o f our f o o d s t u f f s , we may watch i n sympathy these c o l o n i a l e f f o r t s to beat f o r e i g n r i v a l s i n B r i t i s h markets. Today Canada i s our b i g g e s t source o f supply of imported cheese . . . . In 1889, b e f o r e the new methods were a p p l i e d , she s o l d cheese t o B r i t i s h consumers to the v a l u e o f 8 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 d o l l a r s ? by 1894 the i n c r e a s e was n e a r l y f i f t y per c e n t . , and i n I896 the t o t a l was nearly 15,750,000 dollars. In the same^period the b u t t e r exports to Great B r i t a i n have i n c r e a s e d one and a t h i r d m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , making a t o t a l i n c r e a s e o f 8 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 d o l l a r s i n B r i t i s h d a i r y purchases s i n c e the i n i t i a t i o n o f the p o l i c y o f which P r o f e s s o r Robertson i s the exponent. ' Entitled  "Canadian  Trade with Great B r i t a i n , " the London  Times commentedt F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f B r i t i s h t r a d e methods and marketing i s at t h i s moment b e i n g c a r r i e d on by the Canadian D a i r y Commissioner i n t h i s country . . . . P r o f e s s o r Robertson has been engaged i n d e l i v e r i n g a course o f l e c t u r e s on Anglo-Canadian t r a d e i n the p r i n , ... c i p a l p r o v i n c i a l and manufacturing towns. ... . .. 13  J u l y .1897.,  4 August  1897.  The paper f u r t h e r n o t i c e d the improvement i n q u a l i t y and i n q u a n t i t y and i n the p l a c e taken by Canadian  dairy products,  which e f f e c t i i s no doubt t o be a t t r i b u t e d . . . to the development of demonstration as w e l l as t o the system of experiment and i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a r r i e d on by the Canadian Department of Agriculture. ° • 2  On h i s r e t u r n t o Canada, Robertson t o l d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Winnipeg  Free Press »  The outlook f o r Canadian a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n the markets of Great B r i t a i n i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t at the present time . . . g r e a t and continuous prominence has been g i v e n to Canadian matters i n B r i t i s h papers . . , They may l e a d to a decided advantage i n t h e demand f o r Canadian products . . . . The consuming p u b l i c o f Great B r i t a i n , have been made p e r s i s t e n t l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y aware o f the f a c t t h a t Canada i s the premier colony of the Empire . . . . I was a b l e to arrange f o r the s a l e i n Great B r i t a i n o f the t r i a l shipments o f peaches, pears and grapes, which are t o be sent from the Niagara district . . . . I saw the members o f many f i r m s and a l s o B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s and r e c e i v e d and g a v e , i n f o r m a t i o n i n Canadian products" which w i l l h e l p t o develop t r a d e along l i n e s c r e d i t a b l e to Canadians, . . . .^9 In 1899, i t was  Robertson  once more v i s i t e d Great B r i t a i n ,  at Dundee, S c o t l a n d , where h i s w i f e c h r i s t e n e d the  Minto, a m a i l steamer  i c e - b r e a k e r , t h a t he made a speech  e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of Canadian  a g r i c u l t u r a l produce.30  announcedt .  and  worth  Canada i n 1896 exported over 1 0 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 pounds o f farm ..produce, and i n I89.8,. the exports .had.  2  8  13  2  9  21 September 1 8 9 7 .  August  1897.  ^° He married. Jennie Mather, o f Ottawa, on 6 May C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 7.  I896.  He  r i s e n . t o 1 5 » 7 5 0 1 0 0 0 pounds, and t h e r e was every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they would keep at t h a t r a t e of i n c r e a s e f o r some years to come. . . And he went on to mentioni t h a t i n country d i s t r i c t s ( i n Canada), the d e p o s i t s i n the Savings Banks were a t h i r d more than a few years: ago, and t h a t there was room i n Canada f o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f 100 m i l l i o n s . R e f e r r i n g to the g r e a t advances being made i n mining, i n f i s h i n g and lumbering,  and w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g use of e l e c t r i c i t y ,  of the abundance of water power, Robertson  looked forward to  the time when, with the h a r n e s s i n g of t h i s power, Canada could "thus become a manufacturing  as w e l l as an a g r i c u l t u r a l  Mr. Wm..Thompson, shipowner, thanked P r o f e s s o r f o r h i s speech  and remarked how  Dairy Commissionert  from h i s own  country."  Robertson  experience of the  .  he knew he had done a v e r y g r e a t d e a l indeed f o r the development of the r e s o u r c e s of Canada. In connection w i t h the b u t t e r and cheese t r a d e he had been i n s t r u mental i n i n s t i t u t i n g a system o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n r i g h t from thepplace where i t was made, and now he had come to t h i s s i d e of the water to see what was the r i g h t k i n d of s t u f f f o r the makers on the other s i d e to send . . . .31 In the e a r l y years of the t w e n t i e t h century,  Robertson  c o u l d look back with s a t i s f a c t i o n on the changes he wrought w i t h i n the Canadian d a i r y i n d u s t r y .  From coast to  coast he had r a i s e d farming and d a i r y i n g to a new p e r s u a s i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e , by education and  had  height by  demonstration.  31 F r o m a n unnamed newspaper c l i p p i n g , • ( m o s t probably Dundee, S c o t l a n d , p u b l i c a t i o n ) , 13 J u l y I 8 9 9 .  a  Aided and supported throughout  by a sympathetic  Dominion  Treasury, d a i r y exports rose from $ 9 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1890, $25,000,000 in 1 9 0 0 . 3 2 steamship  to  Farmers, dairymen, r a i l r o a d managers,  owners and government co-operated  trade which grew v e r y r a p i d l y .  i n developing a  His constant v i s i t s to B r i t a i n ,  the main support of Canada's export t r a d e , and h i s observat i o n s w h i l s t t h e r e and on the Continent, p r o v i d e d the d a i r y i n d u s t r y w i t h an i n v a l u a b l e source of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n i t s task of b u i l d i n g f o r Canada a r e p u t a t i o n f o r dependable p r o d u c t s . By h i s middle  f o r t i e s Robertson  was  a well-regarded  Canadian p e r s o n a l i t y whose g i f t s as a speaker were i n g r e a t demand.  I t was  this gift,  enhanced by an a t t r a c t i v e  Scottish  brogue, t h a t enabled him to win the a t t e n t i o n of t h a t most c o n s e r v a t i v e of men,  the farmer.  Once the i n d i v i d u a l  c o u l d see t h a t by u s i n g the methods advocated  farmer  by the Dairy  Commissioner and h i s sta'ff he c o u l d improve h i s product h i s output and thus r a i s e h i s standard of l i v i n g , then f o r the whole d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y was The method he used was  farmer and b e t t e r , by demonstrating what was succeeded  By t e l l i n g  best and  encour-  In a l l t h i s ,  aided by the work of the Dominion Government E x p e r i -  mental Farms, t r a v e l l i n g d a i r i e s and by an e x c e l l e n t  32  Canada, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1901,  no. 15,  the  over the years  i n g a i n i n g the dairyman's t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e . he was  success  assured.  simple—education.  aging him to do h i s best, Robertson  and  pp.  staff.  19-20.  He p r o v i d e d  leadership  i n a time when the i n d u s t r y and a l l  t h a t i t meant f o r Canada, needed s t r o n g and wise d i r e c t i o n . That the farming i n t e r e s t s o f the country were, enjoying p r o s p e r i t y i s borne out by the 1902 r e p o r t o f the President of the Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l College.  He noted t h a t many  agencies i n which Robertson was i n v o l v e d c o n t r i b u t e d t o these results t . The c o n d i t i o n and prospects o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n t h i s country a r e improving. The farmers o f Ontario, not t o speak o f the other Provinces; o f the Dominion, are i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n now than they were i n f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n y e a r s ago » they are on a higher . plane o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; they dress b e t t e r and l i v e b e t t e r , - they a r e g e t t i n g a l a r g e r share o f the n e c e s s a r i e s and comforts o f l i f e f o r t h e i r labour; and as a c l a s s they stand higher s o c i a l l y than they d i d i n the years gone by. Many agencies have been c o n t r i b u t i n g to these g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s , - the P u b l i c and High Schools a l l over the Province, the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , the Dairy Schools, T r a v e l l i n g D a i r i e s , Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s , Women's I n s t i t u t e s , L i v e Stock, D a i r y , and P o u l t r y A s s o c i a t i o n s , Entomological S o c i e t y and F r u i t Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n , Winter F a i r s , other great f a i r s , p r o v i n c i a l s a l e s o f l i v e stock, and the annual d i s t r i b u t i o n by the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o a l l members o f Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s throughout the Province f r e e copies o f a l l r e p o r t s and b u l l e t i n s i s s u e d by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s , , and the v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s under the cont r o l o f the M i n i s t e r - many agencies and a great work.33 The  p r a c t i c a l i t y and p r o f i t a b i l i t y  of educational  methods  were noted by overseas v i s i t o r s t o Canada who wrote s The Dominion Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Governments have a p p l i e d themselves t o a s s i s t i n g the farmer i n conducting h i s i n d u s t r y i n the most s c i e n t i f i c and . p r o f i t a b l e manner p o s s i b l e . . . . Whether, i t i s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c e n t r a l department a t Ottawa  Ontario,  Sessional  Papers, 1902, no. 14, p. 6.  or i n the experimental farms . . . or i n the t e a c h i n g of s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e or i n the nature o f the . experiments conducted,, or i n the methods adopted f o r conveying the r e s u l t s to those who s h o u l d p r o f i t by them, we f i n d everywhere examples w e l l worthy o f i m i t a t i o n here /Great B r i t a i n / . 3 ^ As Robertson was was  learning.  u r g i n g , g u i d i n g and d i r e c t i n g , so he  F r e q u e n t l y he made r e f e r e n c e i n h i s r e p o r t s to  i n f o r m a t i o n he had gained from v i s i t s to p a r t s of Canada and abroad.  He had l e a r n e d to co-operate w i t h M i n i s t e r s and w i t h  the l e a d e r s of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o f the g e n e r a l dairying industry.  Above a l l , he had l e a r n e d t o achieve  c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the p r e s s , a most v a l u a b l e a l l y i n his  p r o j e c t f o r the p r o p a g a t i o n of the g o s p e l of e x c e l l e n c e .  B u i l d i n g up h i s department, from n o t h i n g , Robertson had c r e a t e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n which was  w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d and which formed  p a r t o f the Canadian n a t i o n a l development, w i t h i t s emphasis on immigration and  i t s concomitant  need f o r a s t a b l e and pro-  g r e s s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y t o a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s t o the West. In h i s t r a v e l s , i n h i s exposure speeches  i n the newspapers, i n h i s  and i n h i s every day c o n t a c t s w i t h other government  departments and l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n Canadian  life,  how  did  Robertson view h i m s e l f ? There i s no evidence among h i s documents t h a t he his  committed  p e r s o n a l thoughts to paper, but one can reasonably suspect  E, S. Montague and B. Herbert, Canada and the (London: 1904), p. 4-0.  Empire,  t h a t he began t o v i s u a l i z e h i m s e l f as a p u b l i c man, one cons t a n t l y i n the l i m e l i g h t and doing as a l l p u b l i c men are expected t o do, t o u t t e r some profound remark a t the drop o f a hat.  I f Robertson d i d see h i m s e l f i n t h i s r o l e then he was  s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r e c t , f o r he was t o become i n the f u t u r e e x a c t l y t h a t — t h e . genuine p u b l i c A graph," o f Robertson's  man.  l i f e to date would show a g r a d u a l  r i s e w i t h the advancing y e a r s .  From a poor farm boy, and  l a t e r c l e r k , he had become a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Canada, a f a c t o r y hand, a manager, a t e a c h e r , and l a t t e r l y an administrator.  From an unknown S c o t t i s h l a d w i t h no important  f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s , he had become the best known  Canadian  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , not only i n Canada, but a l s o abroad.  From  the management o f an i n s i g n i f i c a n t cheese f a c t o r y he had become the head o f an important and i n f l u e n t i a l Government department of  which e x e r c i s e d a benevolent i n f l u e n c e over s c o r e s  such f a c t o r i e s .  And as he p r o g r e s s e d through l i f e so he  gained i n m a t u r i t y — a m a t u r i t y which was to be r e c o g n i z e d i n the f u t u r e by l e a d i n g people i n Canada when they sought a man to  fill  important p o s i t i o n s i n Canadian  affairs.  CHAPTER I I I PARTNERSHIP IN THE MACDONALD MOVEMENT (1899-1910)  Part 1 The  One  Manual T r a i n i n g Scheme :  man who n o t i c e d with p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t the  i n c r e a s e i n bank d e p o s i t s i n areas where creameries had been l o c a t e d was S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, a Montreal manufacturer, a m i l l i o n a i r e b e n e f a c t o r i n e a s t e r n Canada, and a shareholder  of higher  tobacco education  o f the Bank o f Montreal.  Upon enquiry, he l e a r n e d t h a t the moving s p i r i t  i n the reform  of a g r i c u l t u r a l methods i n the east and p a r t i c u l a r l y own  native province,  in his  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , was the Dominion  Dairy Commissioner, James Wilson  Robertson.  In a r e m i n i s c e n t mood Robertson l a t e r r e c a l l e d how one day  i n 1897,  he »  r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald asking i f he c o u l d g i v e S i r W i l l i a m some time f o r a meeting at Ottawa . . . . In t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s a t Ottawa S i r • W i l l i a m s a i d t h a t one o f h i s dreams was t o g i v e t o  .... Herbert F r a n c i s Sherwood, " C h i l d r e n o f the Land," The Outlook, April p. Gazette, Montreal, 26 June 1922} f o r . a biography o f S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, see J . F. S n e l l , Macdonald C o l l e g e (Montreali M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Press,  (23  1963).  1910),  891;  the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g people of Quebec the means o f a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n . He had c r y s t a l l i z e d h i s thought i n the slogans " B u i l d up the country i n i t s boys and girls." S i r W i l l i a m sketched . . . h i s i d e a of an i n s t i t u t i o n which would take boys at seven years o l d and r e t a i n them u n t i l twenty one, then sending them out to become l e a d e r s . Robertson s a i d the p l a n would rtot work. "Mothers would not g i v e up t h e i r sons f o r f o u r t e e n y e a r s . During f o u r t e e n years these boys would be e n t i r e l y out of the l i f e of the country,.and at the end would not have the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to be leaders." 2  Robertson added t h a t i n p a r t i n g S i r W i l l i a m had t h a t i f he had any thoughts again.  requested  on e d u c a t i o n to impart, to come  L a t e r he took up the c h a l l e n g e , and going to S i r  W i l l i a m , s a i d t h a t he would l i k e t o see manual t r a i n i n g i n the s c h o o l s .  From t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f o r t known i n i t i a l l y  between the two men  grew the g r e a t  as' the Macdonald-Robertson Movement and  l a t e r as the Macdonald Movement.  Financed s o l e l y by S i r  W i l l i a m Macdonald and managed b r i l l i a n t l y by James it  developed  i n t o an unique  Robertson,  e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s h i p f o r the  reform of the r u r a l s c h o o l programme and f o r the improvement o f the s t a t u s o f the r u r a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  In basing t h e i r  programme on the r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to prepare most rural children for l i f e  i n the home, on the farm and  i n the  workshop, the p a r t n e r s were convinced t h a t the Canadian s c h o o l s were f a r too bookish, and denied the c h i l d the  Ottawa C i t i z e n , 15  July  1922.  rural  o p p o r t u n i t y to develop h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e to the f u l l by the promotion  of hand and eye s k i l l s , which he would l a t e r  require. Manual t r a i n i n g had been advocated i n Canada.  In 1868,  f o r a number of years  f o r example, Egerton Ryerson,  Superin-  tendent o f Education f o r O n t a r i o , f e l t t h a t "the tendency of the y o u t h f u l mind of our country i s too much i n the  direction  of what are c a l l e d the l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s and too l i t t l e  in  the d i r e c t i o n of what are termed i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s . " 3  in  1872,  Asso-  J . Howard Hunter, a d d r e s s i n g the Ontario Education  c i a t i o n , expressed the need f o r t e c h n i c a l education " f o r young o p e r a t i v e s and farmers both i n primary and i n secondary schools."^ for  In 1884-, James L. Hughes, P u b l i c School  Toronto, pleaded f o r "the r i g h t of every man  Inspector  to be g i v e n  an e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l f i t him f o r h i s sphere of l a b o u r , and as the a p p r e n t i c e system was  dying out i t became more and  more the duty of the s c h o o l to p r o v i d e the t r a i n i n g . " "broadest aspect of h i s s u b j e c t " he s a i d , "was  The  anything t h a t  w i l l tend to enable the hand to r e p r e s e n t more a c c u r a t e l y i n m a t e r i a l form the thoughts  of the mind."^  Thomas Shaw, of Guelph, addressed A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1888,  of  the Ontario Education  on " A g r i c u l t u r e i n our R u r a l Schools."  3 Edwin C. G u i l l e t , In the Cause of Education Toronto P r e s s ) , i 9 6 0 , p. 425. ^ I b i d . , p. 5  I b i d . , p.  6. 108.  (University  He found t h a t though some p r o v i s i o n was made f o r i t i n s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s , the f a c t t h a t i t was o p t i o n a l r e s u l t e d i n n e g l e c t . Out  o f a t o t a l attendance o f  only 1,489 327,  487,496 i n Ontario  public schools,  p u p i l s were s t u d y i n g are-h-it-ecture, o r one i n every  and the s u b j e c t was not taught  i n high schools.  What  was wanted i n schools was "a p l a i n , p r a c t i c a l , teachable on a g r i c u l t u r e , w i t h  i t s teaching obligatory i n a l l r u r a l  s c h o o l s and o p t i o n a l elsewhere." i n s o c i e t y y e t two-thirds land.  book  The farmer had a low p o s i t i o n  o f Canada's p o p u l a t i o n were on the  "The flower o f r u r a l communities d r i f t e d t o the c i t i e s  and denuded the farms."^ Manual t r a i n i n g was a l s o the s u b j e c t o f a paper by W. H. Huston.  At the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s 1890  approval  o f shopwork's "wonderful u p l i f t i n g i n f l u e n c e on ne-  g l e c t e d boys i n t h a t grandest t h i s Province  meeting, he expressed h i s  of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n  the I n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l at Mimico."  people" he s a i d , "who r i d i c u l e d bread-and-butter  "There were education,  but s u r e l y the f i r s t  duty o f a s c h o o l i s t o put the c h i l d i n  the way o f a l i v i n g .  I f i t was i n the i n t e r e s t o f the State  to have w e l l - t r a i n e d d o c t o r s , teachers a p p l i e d i n a l l occupations  and lawyers,  the same  and there can be no t u r n i n g back."  Nor was i t only the l e a r n i n g o f trades t h a t r e s u l t e d , f o r shop-work " d i s c i p l i n e d the mind and t r a i n e d the student i n  I b i d . , p.  .130.  order and  method."  He  foresaw "an  t r a i n i n g from k i n d e r g a r t e n A committee of the paper e n t i t l e d  to u n i v e r s i t y .  A s s o c i a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h Mr. - Bryant 's  " A g r i c u l t u r e , " i n the  t h a t the  subject  riculum,  t h a t i t should  to s c h o o l s  and  "be  given  same year recommended  prominence with others  be p u b l i s h e d  I897, James  brought b e f o r e  Hughes noted t h a t manual t r a i n i n g  because of the r e c o g n i t i o n that; i t was  educational  and  was  too,  "a great  r e s t l e s s n e s s and  irritability  lies  He b e l i e v e d that  i n t h e i r not  i t was  "really It  having enough  " r e a l t h i n g s were of i n t e r e s t  o u t l i n e d f u r t h e r to the  A s s o c i a t i o n the  advan-  of the youth f o r  9  The only  was  not n a t u r a l f o r most  tages of manual t r a i n i n g " i n the p r e p a r a t i o n life."  the  merely economic i n i t s advantages."  c h i l d r e n to l o v e books, but He  sent  a i d i n d i s c i p l i n e , f o r much of a l l c h i l d r e n ' s  to keep them busy."  to them."  cur-  Education."^  progressing  not  on the  i n pamphlet form,  Farmer's I n s t i t u t e s and  M i n i s t e r s of A g r i c u l t u r e and In  i n t e g r a t e d system of manual  theory that  from books "but  i t was  t h a t he must work w i t h t h i n g s  through h i s senses and educational  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was  philosophies  7  I b i d . , p.  146.  8  I b i d . , p.  136.  9  I b i d . , p.  179.  not n a t u r a l f o r a c h i l d to l e a r n and  inherent  of Rousseau, P e s t a l o z z i and  learn i n the Froebel."  ^° F. Henry Johnson, A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Canadian Education (TorontoJ McGraw-Hill, 1968), p. 86. -  1  Johann Heinrich P e s t a l o z z i and h i s d i s c i p l e s had  s t r e s s e d the  importance of a g r i c u l t u r a l and manual t r a i n i n g and study  i n education,  ideas which b e l a t e d l y permeated North  American education l a r g e l y through t h e i r adoption navian  countries.  nature  i n Scandi-  Thus the P e s t a l o z z i a n "head, hand  h e a r t " so w e l l expressed  i n . t h e t w e n t i e t h century  e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f the P r o g r e s s i v e s and  i n the i n the  p r i s e method of Canada's Donalda D i c k i e , were b e i n g at  least  i n Ontario, by the end  In the United  and  of the n i n e t e e n t h  discussed,  century.  S t a t e s , these methods became an  educational  i s s u e when John D. Runkle, P r e s i d e n t o f Massachusetts of Technology, was V i c t o r D e l i a Vos, of which.he was Centennial  and students  Director.  Exposition,  The  of the Moscow I m p e r i a l  key theme of the P h i l a d e l p h i a  I876, had and  School,  been the r e l a t i o n of educa-  the Russians had  developed a  system at l e a s t as o l d as Comenius, whereby  mastery of any  a r t ...  "the  . i s r e a d i l y a t t a i n e d only when the  f i r s t attempts are s u b j e c t to a law  of g r a d a t i o n , the p u p i l  f o l l o w i n g a d e f i n i t e method- . . . and little  Institute  i n f l u e n c e d by an e x h i b i t i o n of the work of  t i o n to n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s , pedagogical  enter-  surmounting l i t t l e  and by c e r t a i n degree's, the d i f f i c u l t i e s  by  encountered.  Runkle became an e n t h u s i a s t i c promoter of manual t r a i n i n g and l a t e r e l a b o r a t e d a more g e n e r a l theory  of education  on the manual t r a i n i n g i d e a i n which l a y the key to "a  (New  Lawrence A. Cremin, The Yorkj Vintage Books,  Transformation  of the  1961), pp. 24-25.  based new  School  ~~  "  balanced  s c h o o l i n g " t h a t would again marry the mental to the  manual, thereby  p r e p a r i n g people r e a l i s t i c a l l y " f o r l i f e i n  an i n d u s t r i a l society."- 1  His i d e a was new  philosophy  2  promoted by  of i t .  C a l v i n C. Woodward, who  Woodward began t e a c h i n g t o o l work w i t h  no. immediate v o c a t i o n a l g o a l . criticized to  During  the 1870's, Woodward  the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , charging them with  an outmoded i d e a l of gentlemanliness  s t y l e o f education was a man  and  adherence  culture.  committed to a broad and  A broadminded man,  liberal  education, he was  c r i t i c a l of the e x i s t i n g  education which concentrated f e s s i o n s " to the  The  fits  less  ungoal  schooling."  Sharply  educate him  old  sincerely  w i l l i n g to make a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c trade the  remedy was  The  u s e l e s s ; " i t o f t e n e r u n f i t s than  f o r earning h i s l i v i n g . "  of g e n e r a l  made a  "detriment  manual t r a i n i n g .  on the  " l o p s i d e d and i m p r a c t i c a l  "so-called learned  of t r u e e d u c a t i o n , " "Put  the whole boy  e q u a l l y f o r a l l spheres of  Woodward's i n school  and  usefulness."^  s u b j e c t of Manual T r a i n i n g formed p a r t of the  Report of the M i n i s t e r of Education  pro-  I898  f o r Ontario.  For many years past the educators of America and the c o n t i n e n t have g i v e n a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n to . . . manual t r a i n i n g , by which i s meant a knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l value. As a s u b j e c t of s c h o o l work, Manual T r a i n i n g i s s a i d to possess s p e c i a l v a l u e . . I t g i v e s v a r i e t y to the e x e r c i s e s i n the schoolroom and has  I b i d . , pp.  26-28.  I b i d . , pp.  26-28.  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t f o r p u p i l s of a mechanical t u r n of mind who otherwise might g i v e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m . . . . It promotes the development of manual d e x t e r i t y ... . . accuracy o f form, dimension, c o l o u r , proportion, etc. In any p u r s u i t of l i f e , these are i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e s of g r e a t v a l u e , but more p a r t i c u l a r l y to the a r t i s a n and l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s . Knowledge gained from Manual T r a i n i n g . . . is a great s t i m u l u s to the mental a c t i v i t y of the c h i l d and can be made to m i n i s t e r to h i s u s e f u l n e s s i n a f t e r l i f e . Among the sources  of Robertson's i n s p i r a t i o n f o r manual  t r a i n i n g were r e p o r t s from Boston, U.S.A., and t r a c t s from both being Sloyd School  Fund."^  of Boston, f o r 1892,  Ireland,  included i n his booklet, The  The  ex-  Macdonald  Annual Report of the School  Committee  showed some of the e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s from  manual i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s c h o o l t h e r e .  It stated*  ... Manual t r a i n i n g i n the form of wood-work combined with drawing has now been a p a r t of every p u p i l ' s education i n the upper grades of the Agassiz s c h o o l f o r t h r e e y e a r s t I t was claimed "that there was a g a i n i n accuracy, t h a t p u p i l s became more t h o u g h t f u l , more a t t e n t i v e , more observant, c r e a t e d more i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l , and made f o r improvements i n drawing and i n arithmetic." •• • The set  up  in  Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Education  I896, to  determine how  f a r , and  i n Ireland,  i n what form, manual  12,  21.  O n t a r i o , S e s s i o n a l Papers,.1899, no. p. For an account o f the swing towards nature study, r u r a l gardens and manual t r a i n i n g i n Ontario, see J . M. McCutcheon, P u b l i c Education i n Ontario (Toronto» Chap. 5«  1941),  5 J . W. Robertson, The Macdonald Sloyd School Fund> Manual Training; i n the P u b l i c Schools (Ottawa» Sloyd i s a Swedish word meaning handwork. The system was o r i g i n a t e d by Cygnoeus (1801-1888), a F i n n , i n and i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Sweden i n 18?2. 1  1899).  I858,  and p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n should he i n c l u d e d i n the System of the Primary 1899,  Schools of t h a t country, r e p o r t e d i n  t h a t they were convinced  thati  manual and p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . . . i n t o a l l s c h o o l s where i t e x i s t , and t h a t i n those s c h o o l s i t ought to he l a r g e l y developed The  Education  Commission f e l t t h a t i t was  ought t o he i n t r o d u c e d does not at present where i t does e x i s t , and extended.  important t h a t c h i l d r e n :  should be taught not merely to take i n knowledge from books, but to observe w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e the m a t e r i a l world around them, t h a t they should a c q u i r e some s k i l l i n the use of hand and eye to execute the conceptions of the b r a i n - such t r a i n i n g was v a l u a b l e to a l l , but e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e t o those whose l i v e s are to be mainly devoted to i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and o c c u p a t i o n s . Since the g r e a t b u l k of the p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g such s c h o o l s would have t o earn t h e i r bread by the work of t h e i r hands, i t was important t h a t they should be t r a i n e d from the b e g i n n i n g t o use t h e i r hands w i t h . d e x t e r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e . Robertson  quoted  f r e e l y from the l a t t e r r e p o r t con-  sidering i t : p e e r l e s s . . . f o r the thoroughness of i t s i n f o r m a t i o n . Its statements are c l e a r as sunshine, s t r o n g as the words o f wisdom, and c o n v i n c i n g as t r u t h i t s e l f . Why  was  such a g r e a t i n t e r e s t being taken i n manual  t r a i n i n g at t h i s time i n Canada?  Perhaps the M i n i s t e r of  Education f o r Ontario e x p l a i n s i t as w e l l as anyone i n h i s 1899  report.  The t r a n s i t i o n from theory t o p r a c t i c e ,  modern apartment of e d u c a t i o n a l work," has been brought by  "this about  "the progress of s c i e n c e i n t h i s l a t t e r p a r t of the n i n e -  t e e n t h c e n t u r y , " which "has r e v o l u t i o n i z e d a l l our and i t i s s a f e to p r e d i c t t h a t i n the approaching many changes may  industries century  be expected r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of  d i f f e r e n t branches of study." S t a t e s , Germany and England,  In r e f e r r i n g to the  United  he p o i n t e d out t h a t i n those  c o u n t r i e s "manual t r a i n i n g had become a w e l l r e c o g n i z e d department of elementary  and secondary  education must" he urged,  education."  " i n i t s more elementary  "Technical forms such  as manual t r a i n i n g , be taken up i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , i f we are to have w e l l - t r a i n e d mechanics, farmers He warned, "The day,  and merchants."  c u r r i c u l u m of f i f t y years ago w i l l not do t o -  and u n l e s s the Province r e a l i z e s the important  i n the world's p r o g r e s s , i t would be unreasonable  changes  to  expect  the l a u d a b l e p o s i t i o n which our s c h o o l s have h e l d i n the p a s t , to be r e t a i n e d . " ^ ..By. 1900,  the M i n i s t e r was  a b l e to announce t h a t . " t h e  a d d i t i o n of Domestic Science to the s c h o o l programme, marks another  epoch i n the development of education i n O n t a r i o . "  To the Normal School of Domestic Science i n Hamilton  had been  added a s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t e at T o r o n t o — T h e L i l l i a n Massey Normal of  T r a i n i n g School of Household S c i e n c e — t h r o u g h Mrs.  the  liberality  Massey-Treble.  Other p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the t e a c h i n g of Domestic Science had a l s o developed b e i n g taught  i n Toronto,  and the s u b j e c t  i n a number of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  was  i n the Province.-'-''  7  Ontario, S e s s i o n a l Papers,  1899,  no. 12,  p..21.  Ontario, S e s s i o n a l Papers,  1900,  no. 12, p.  34.  Thus i n f l u e n c e s were a t work t o prepare  the way f o r the  i n s t i t u t i o n o f manual education i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f T O  Canada, and the "strongest support  f o r manual t r a i n i n g " °  came from S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, who in'1900, .'.donated $40,000 on Robertson's recommendation, t o s t a r t a manual t r a i n i n g gramme i n s e l e c t e d Canadian s c h o o l s . d i r e c t o r o f t h e programme.^  9  Robertson  pro-  was t o be  S i r William's p h i l a n t h r o p i c  g e s t u r e i n s u p p o r t i n g Manual T r a i n i n g was s i m i l a r i n concept to t h a t o f an e a r l i e r experiment which took p l a c e at Menomonie, Wisconsin, when i n 1889,.James Ruff Stout i n i t i a t e d a p r o j e c t of manual t r a i n i n g f o r which he s u p p l i e d a b u i l d i n g and equipment, and p a i d the teachers and a l l expenses f o r a p e r i o d o f three  terms.^ In The Macdonald Sloyd School Fund, Robertson  explained  what he meant by manual t r a i n i n g and what the Macdonald p l a n •intended to.do.  He p o i n t e d out i n ' h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t i f  Manual T r a i n i n g "were i n any sense one o f the 'Gods' which every now and then are pushed t o the f r o n t as a s o v e r e i g n remedy f o r the i l l s moment advocate •I  Q  o f humanity . . . I would not f o r one .  or promote i t . "  Instead o f t h a t , he s a i d T  Johnson, B r i e f H i s t o r y , p. 86.  19 s i r W i l l i a m Macdonald wrote a memorandum, 14 Oct. 1899. i n which he had c o p i e d , from a l i s t s u p p l i e d by Robertson, the estimated c o s t s f o r manual t r a i n i n g equipment, teacher's t r a v e l l i n g expenses e t c . , t o the amount o f $37,770. On 11 J u l y 1900, S i r W i l l i a m d e p o s i t e d i n the Bank o f Montreal the sum o f $40,000 t o the c r e d i t o f the Macdonald Sloyd account. R.P., 4, 2. 20 ...Cremin, Transformation, pp. 143-46; Morang's Annual R e g i s t e r (Toronto» 1901), p. 318.  i t i s the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n a l movement, which, d u r i n g the l a s t t e n years p a r t i c u l a r l y , has won an ever-widening p l a c e i n the s c h o o l system o f the foremost c o u n t r i e s i n Europe and a l s o i n the United States. I t i s a l r e a d y c o r r e c t i n g some o f the s c h o o l i n f l u e n c e s which have been complained o f a l i k e by parents and t e a c h e r s . I t has been s a i d t h a t the s c h o o l s , where book s t u d i e s are the only or c h i e f ones, t u r n the c h i l d r e n from contentment with occupations i n which b o d i l y l a b o u r p l a y s an important p a r t , and a l s o i n c l i n e them t o l e a v e r u r a l homes f o r c i t i e s and c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s . While much has been s a i d and w r i t t e n about the danger o f over-educating the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and thereby l e a d i n g them t o leave the farms, I do not b e l i e v e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o over-educate anybody. Perhaps one o f the many causes which have helped to b r i n g about a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c l e r i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c h o l a s t i c occupations i n those who have no n a t u r a l f i t ness f o r them, and a corresponding d i s t a s t e f o r manual and b o d i l y l a b o u r , has been the too e x c l u s i v e l y book and language s t u d i e s o f the common s c h o o l . But when s c h o l a r s h i p and p r a c t i c a l and manual i n s t r u c t i o n , j o i n hands i n the s c h o o l s to t r a i n the whole c h i l d , and not merely the language and language f a c u l t i e s , the c h i l d r e n w i l l leave s c h o o l f a c i n g a r i g h t , capable and happy i n making the r i g h t t h i n g s come t o pass, cat;, the r i g h t time and i n the r i g h t way.  r  As Commissioner o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Robertson  proclaimed:  I f i n d t h a t the e f f o r t s o f the Department t o help farmers a r e c h i e f l y intended to i n c r e a s e i n t e l l i g e n c e , to develop s k i l l and to promote.cooperation. These are a l l e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t s . . . . . Education begins w i t h a c h i l d ' s l i f e and should continue . ... throughout. It seems unnecessary and wholly u n d e s i r a b l e t h a t the s c h o o l p e r i o d should be d i f f e r e n t from the years which go. before and f o l l o w i t . . . . Before a c h i l d goes to s c h o o l , i t i s r e c e i v i n g most o f i t s education, by i t s senses b r i n g i n g i t i n t o conscious r e l a t i o n s h i p with the m a t e r i a l world around i t , and by doing t h i n g s with i t s hands . . . . Manual t r a i n i n g i s a means o f devel o p i n g mental power. These, - s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g o f the senses, o f the hands and eyes, and o f the mind, are some o f the o b j e c t s o f p r a c t i c a l and manual i n s t r u c t i o n . Robertson b e l i e v e d t h a t manual and p r a c t i c a l  instruction  was "not a s h o r t cut or a l o n g step towards l e a r n i n g a t r a d e , " but was an " e d u c a t i o n a l means f o r developing  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  moral q u a l i t i e s o f high v a l u e , i n a l l c h i l d r e n , without  par-  t i c u l a r r e g a r d t o the occupation they a r e to f o l l o w a f t e r wards . . .  ^  From t h i s i t can be deduced t h a t he was  o b v i o u s l y abreast o f contemporary p e d a g o g i c a l  In  1899» Robertson  v i s i t e d some London, England,  s c h o o l s t o see manual i n s t r u c t i o n i n a c t i o n . was begun i n London about 188.6. n i z e d by the Board o f Education  p u b l i c monies t o maintain  it.  primary  This t r a i n i n g  Since, woodwork was not r e c o g as a s u b j e c t t o be taught i n  Elementary Schools, the London School  obtained  advances.  Board was unable t o use  However a grant o f money was  from the Draper's Company t o s t a r t woodwork i n s c h o o l s  u n t i l 1890,  when the s u b j e c t was r e c o g n i z e d by the Board as a  school subject.  By 1889, t h e r e were i n London about  manual t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s i n s t r u c t i n g about  50,000  150  boys from  age nine t o f o u r t e e n . Robertson went on to d e s c r i b e the p h y s i c a l p l a n t o f a t y p i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l area, the models which were made and the s p i r i t verance"  o f "earnestness,  s e l f r e l i a n c e and c a r e f u l  which seemed t o "pervade the whole s c h o o l . " • He ex-  p l a i n e d the system was c a l l e d  "English Sloyd,"  work was "a s e r i e s o f e x e r c i s e s so arranged cational  perse-  This k i n d o f  as t o have edu-  results."  Manual t r a i n i n g develops i n c h i l d r e n h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y and l e a d s them t o t h o u g h t f u l l y a d j u s t t h e i r  Robertson, Macdonald Sloyd School  Fund, pp.  1-2,  a c t s to d e s i r e d ends. That of i t s e l f i s of great educational value. I t helps to keep out of l a t e r l i f e whimsical and c a p r i c i o u s conduct. I t prevents the d u l l boy from b e i n g discouraged w i t h s c h o o l l i f e , and from any sense of i n f e r i o r i t y to the quick children. I t g i v e s them s e l f - r e l i a n c e , hopefulness and courage, a l l of which r e a c t on t h e i r mental and physical faculties. I t a l s o i s a soothing and s t r e n g t h e n i n g c o r r e c t i v e to the quick and e x c i t a b l e c h i l d r e n who become over-anxious about examinations on book s t u d i e s . 2 2  Statements about the e d u c a t i o n a l aim of manual i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n l e d to misunderstanding, both i n Canada and United S t a t e s , on the p a r t of the t r a d e unions.  The  i n the  fact  t h a t i n i t i a l advances, i n t h i s k i n d of e n t e r p r i s e were advocated and a c t i v e l y supported  by business  by American u n i o n i s t s who to  their The  men  was  not l o s t s i g h t of  f e l t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e was  inimical  interests. ^ 2  Trades and  Labour C o u n c i l of Toronto on h e a r i n g  an  address by James L. Hughes on the s u b j e c t of manual t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l s to be sponsored by the Macdonald p l a n , opposed i t on the grounds t h a t " i t p r a c t i c a l l y trades side."  i n schools to the detriment  i n v o l v e d the t e a c h i n g of the f r e e mechanics  The members, as a whole., "appeared h o s t i l e to  p r i n c i p l e of i n t r o d u c i n g any manual t r a i n i n g i n the Mr.  John Seath, Inspector  the M a i l and  2 2  Empire on 11  I b i d . , pp.  of Schools January 1901,  out-  the  schools."  i n Ontario w r i t i n g i n t r i e d to p o i n t  30-31.  23 36-4-1. 316-17  Cremin, Transformation, pp. Morang's Annual R e g i s t e r , pp.  of  out  the d i f f e r e n c e "between three terms often'-used  synonymously.  Manual t r a i n i n g was, he d e c l a r e d , any i n s t r u c t i o n i n hand-work designed t o improve the powers o f the mind and i n c l u d e d domestic s c i e n c e and art. T e c h n i c a l education meant the same as the other phrase. I n d u s t r i a l education, and i t s u s u a l and l i m i t e d sense i n v o l v e d the t e a c h i n g o f those who were t o "be engaged i n the i n d u s t r i e s or commercial p r o d u c t i o n i n general. 5 2  Claims both education  and economic, were made on b e h a l f  o f manual t r a i n i n g as a s u b j e c t s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e public school curriculum.  Robertson h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d  that  both these v i r t u e s were i n h e r e n t i n the a c t i v i t y : It i s now generally, admitted t h a t manual t r a i n i n g work should have a r e c o g n i z e d p l a c e i n the course o f study from the Kindergarten u n t i l about the 11th or 12th year o f age, f o r c u l t u r a l or s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n purposes. A f t e r t h a t the "Manual T r a i n i n g " (the term i s used t o r e p r e s e n t a l l the others') might be d i r e c t e d more d e f i n i t e l y towards d i s c o v e r i n g a p t i t u d e s and t a s t e s and d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l and a b i l i t y f o r some occupation.26 This c o n v i c t i o n a t once enabled by educators at  t h i s stage  The The  h i s ideas to be accepted  and businessmen a l i k e — a most happy  circumstance  of his career.  Macdonald scheme was begun i n a modest way i n 1900.  first  p l a n was t o open one good c e n t r e i n Ottawa.  A later  e x t e n s i o n o f the p l a n a u t h o r i z e d Robertson t o make a s i m i l a r  2  5  ibid.  26 ""  ;  ... Report o f t h e Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education, 1 9 1 3 i V o l . 1, p. 11.  o f f e r to the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s of B r o c k v i l l e , Ontario; Charlottetowri and the  Province  Suramerside,. P.E.I.; and  o f Quebec; i n Truro,  i n Winnipeg, Man.;  i n Calgary,  N.S.}  to some p l a c e  in  i n Fredericton,  N.W.T.; and  in Victoria  N.B.; and  Vancouver, B.C. ?  •  2  The  r a t i o n a l e of t h i s p l a n bore the hallmark of Robertson's  genius.  By a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of l o c a l i t y he hoped t o make  each centre a f o c a l p o i n t of i n t e r e s t and' one the a t t e n t i o n of a l l s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . . ence and  l o n g p r a c t i c e of "seeing  that would c l a i m  His b a s i c  i s b e l i e v i n g " would  experiserve  to. a l l a y the c r i t i c i s m s of p o t e n t i a l "Doubting Thomases." was  out to persuade t r u s t e e s , t e a c h e r s ,  departments, business men  and  To  hoped the  education  anyone e l s e , t h a t here was  t h i n g s a t i s f y i n g f o r everybody. i t was  parents,  From these f i r s t o b j e c t  i d e a would spread throughout the  He  somelessons  provinces.  implement the programme, t o b e g i n i t on r i g h t educa-  t i o n a l l i n e s , thoroughly t r a i n e d and brought from B r i t a i n and  experienced teachers  appointed to these c e n t r e s ,  there.was at t h a t time, "hardly- any Sir- W i l l i a m o f f e r e d to pay  f o r the  were  since  manual t r a i n i n g i n Canada." equipment r e q u i r e d f o r edu-  c a t i o n a l manual t r a i n i n g , to meet the s a l a r i e s o f q u a l i f i e d 28 teachers,  and  to pay  a l l maintenance expenses f o r three  years.  ? For a. d e s c r i p t i v e account o f the Macdonald Manual T r a i n i n g Schools i n Canada see J . W. Robertson and A l b e r t H. Leake, /'Manual T r a i n i n g , " Canadian Magazine, A p r i l 1901, pp. 5 2 1 - 3 9 . 2  oo  .. ° J . W. Robertson, Evidence b e f o r e the S e l e c t Standing Comm i t t e e on A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n , 1903. Canada, House o f Commons, pp. 1 9 - 2 0 . P r i n t e d copy, R.P., 3 , 7.  Robertson, a p u b l i c s e r v a n t , was  g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n by  the  F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e to c a r r y on the work of p u b l i c i s i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the manual t r a i n i n g scheme w h i l e undertaking  h i s normal d u t i e s .  Recognition.by  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f i t s regard.not the Dairy Commissioner who  was  the Government  only f o r the scheme, but f o r to manage i t . This f u r t h e r  example of " p a t e r n a l i s m " i s d e s c r i b e d by Robertson who  stated,  "I have the happiness o f working i n the f u l l e s t harmony and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the department of education of every so I am not  province  i n any sense t r e s p a s s i n g on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  e d u c a t i o n a l matters by p r o v i n c i a l The scheme was  authorities."  r e p o r t e d widely  2 9  i n the newspapers on  o c c a s i o n of opening of the Ottawa Manual T r a i n i n g centre the Governor-General, Lord Minto.. The Winnipeg Free quoted His E x c e l l e n c y as  the by  Press  saying,  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f manual t r a i n i n g should not be i n the nature of adding a new s u b j e c t to the already overburdened s c h o o l course. The aim should not be a formal l i t e r a r y education, p l u s manual education but education of which manual t r a i n i n g i s an i n t e g r a l and highly valuable part.3° The  Calgary Herald made r e f e r e n c e to a speech g i v e n by  Prof. Robertson b e f o r e the c i t y board o f s c h o o l t r u s t e e s , c i t i z e n s and t e a c h e r s , i n which the speaker p r a i s e d Calgary which was  considered  headquarters 2 9  3°  i n the E a s t as b e i n g  of the west."  I b i d . , p.  5.  14/November  1900.  "the  educational  The r e p o r t assured t h a t P r o f e s s o r Robertson's f o l l o w e d w i t h the keenest  speech  was  i n t e r e s t and t h a t a l l expressed  t h e i r " u n q u a l i f i e d approval of the e n t i r e scheme."  Consequently,  the hoard passed a r e s o l u t i o n adopting the p l a n and hoped t h a t manual t r a i n i n g c o u l d he s t a r t e d i n the New In the Canadian  Magazine, of A p r i l 1901,  t h a t p r o v i s i o n had been made f o r "about  Year.^  1  Robertson d e c l a r e d  6 , 0 0 0 boys i n the  p u b l i c s c h o o l s and teachers a t t e n d i n g Normal s c h o o l s t o r e c e i v e Manual T r a i n i n g . . • ."  On Saturdays, c l a s s e s were arranged  f o r t e a c h e r s , "from whose s c h o o l s the boys go t o the Manual Training centres." vinces.  Centres had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n a l l pro-  The o r i g i n a l twenty-four B r i t i s h t e a c h e r s were aug-  mented by two  from the United States and one from Sweden,  w h i l e other t e a c h e r s were forthcoming from Canadian During November 1901,  sources.32  Robertson r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s from  h i s v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l d i r e c t o r s of Manual T r a i n i n g Schools. From Fre'dericton, N.B.,  E. E. MacCready wrote »  The Macdonald Manual T r a i n i n g School f o r New /Brunswick i s s i t u a t e d i n the Normal School and occup i e s two rooms on the upper f l o o r each equipped f o r . • c l a s s e s o f twenty,, thus accommodation i s p r o v i d e d .•• f o r f o u r hundred students per week. During the summer v a c a t i o n of 1900, the f i r s t Summer School of Manual T r a i n i n g was conducted . . . and continued f o u r weeks. During t h i s v a c a t i o n the second room was opened . . . so t h a t when the s c h o o l reopened i n Sept. we were a b l e to g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n to a l l of the students  19 ^  2  November  Canadian  1900.  Magazine, A p r i l 1901,  pp.  521-39.  at the Normal School, the young women as w e l l as the young men . . . . The Saturday c l a s s f o r teachers was a l s o continued . . . . From B r i t i s h Columbia, Harry Dunnell r e p o r t e d on the four centres i n h i s care: Victoria;  C e n t r a l School, North Ward,  Old B u r r a r d School and Strathcona School, Vancouver;  a l l o f which had been opened a matter o f months. l i e v e r , l i k e Robertson,  A f i r m be-  i n p u b l i c i t y , Dunnell opened h i s  centres f o r p u b l i c i n s p e c t i o n . These i n s p e c t i o n s and the l a t e P u b l i c E x h i b i t i o n have done much good i n b r i n g i n g b e f o r e the p u b l i c t h e . work executed by the boys, and the value o f the t r a i n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . The treatment and encouragement we have r e c e i v e d from the E d u c a t i o n a l A u t h o r i t i e s o f V i c t o r i a and Vancouver are g r a t i f y i n g t o us. ' But Dunnell and h i s men were a p p a r e n t l y not completely s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r s a l a r i e s ,  " i f our f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n i s  put on a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s , we s h a l l not r e g r e t having our homes i n England  t o become p i o n e e r s o f Manual T r a i n i n g . .  The c o s t o f l i v i n g i n B.C. caused c e r t a i n l y have f e l t  left  t h i s cri-de-coeur.  "We  c o n s i d e r a b l y damped i n our work t h i s  last  two months s i n c e you wrote and gave us no hope of our s a l a r i e s being r e a d j u s t e d f o r the e x t r a cost o f l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h  Co-  lumbia." Both r e p o r t s contained fulsome p r a i s e f o r the work o f manual t r a i n i n g , and Dunnell r e p o r t e d how of are;  "the mother of one  the boys, who wishes to see what the m e r i t s of our work and the b r o t h e r of one o f the l a d y teachers who had some  way  to go home," were allowed to a t t e n d the In h i s 1901  class.  r e p o r t , Thomas B. Kidner, D i r e c t o r of Manual  T r a i n i n g f o r Nova S c o t i a , noted  that*  With the i d e a o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as to the aims and methods of Manual T r a i n i n g Schools and the best means of s t a r t i n g them, I attended meetings of:. . . s c h o o l boards and gave p a r t i c u l a r s of c o s t and p l a n o f working . . . a l s o of the p r i n c i p l e . . . . The m a j o r i t y of these- boards sent deputations to v i s i t and r e p o r t on our s c h o o l . . . h a l f a dozenoof these towns have d e f i n i t e l y decided to e s t a b l i s h Manual T r a i n i n g Departments ..... That they have been able to do so i s l a r g e l y due to the way i n which the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n of the Nova S c o t i a Government has taken the matter up . . . . In the s e s s i o n of 1900, the C o u n c i l determined to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e to s c h o o l s e c t i o n s d e s i r o u s of p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r Manual T r a i n i n g and a c c o r d i n g l y a Short Act was passed a u t h o r i z i n g the payment of the l i b e r a l amount of 15 cents per head per l e s s o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n "Mechanics or Domestic A r t s . . . . " 3 3 Robertson had good reason to be p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s m a t i o n — t h e scheme showed r e a l s u c c e s s — a t saw  f i t to implement manual t r a i n i n g and  l e a s t one  support  i t s acceptance by,  province  i t financially.  Robertson's advocacy of manual t r a i n i n g , the t i o n of and  infor-  implementa-  the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s was  con-  t i n u o u s w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l work he had been doing l o n g before his  a s s o c i a t i o n with S i r W i l l i a m .  Dominion, Robertson met r e g a r d him as a man was  In h i s t r a v e l s across  many i n f l u e n t i a l people who  of i n t e g r i t y .  4,  2.  came to  Thus the Macdonald scheme  merely an extension of h i s previous  O r i g i n a l c o p i e s , R.P.,  the  endeavours.  By the end of 1903, training  over f o r t y s c h o o l s had been equipped,  c e n t r e s f o r teachers had been e s t a b l i s h e d , w h i l e  a c t u a l expenditure  had  $40,000 to $180,000.-^  r i s e n from the o r i g i n a l estimate  t h e i r l o c a l s c h o o l boards.  By 1909,  and  over 20,000 boys and  i n Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l s were r e c e i v i n g the b e n e f i t s  of manual t r a i n i n g as a r e s u l t and  of  A f t e r t h i s time the manual t r a i n i n g  programme became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c e s  girls  the  of S i r W i l l i a m ' s  benefactions.  James Robertson's i n i t i a t i v e and d r i v e . ^ 5  ...2.4 .Macdonald Manual T r a i n i n g . Fund,. Receipts and D i s b u r s e ments~from 31st. Oct. 1899 to 30th A p r i l 1909. Macintosh and Hyde,, C. A., Montreal. R.P. , 4, 7.  35 Robertson, Macdonald C o l l e g e Movement, p. 93»  R.P.»  4,  6.  Part 2 The Seed Competition  What might be c a l l e d t h e second p a r t o f the Macdonald Movement was i n i t i a t e d by Robertson.  He o f f e r e d  incentives  to farmers' c h i l d r e n who, he f e l t , were more p l i a b l e and t e a c h a b l e than t h e i r e l d e r s .  Having seen the p r o f i t a b i l i t y  of the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e t o d a i r y farming,  Robertson  d e s i r e d t h e same success f o r t h e g r a i n grower. As Commissioner f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , he was v i t a l l y i n the sound s e l e c t i o n o f seed.  interested  In 1899r he gave evidence  b e f o r e t h e S e l e c t Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and Coloni z a t i o n i n which he p o i n t e d out some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t e d Canadian  farmers a t that time.  that  In h i s s e c t i o n on  seed g r a i n , he spoke o f t h e s t r i k i n g r e s u l t s o f seed s e l e c t i o n he had seen.  " I f t h e farmers o f Canada can be encouraged t o  s e l e c t out o f t h e i r crops o f each c l a s s o f g r a i n t h i s year, enough heads from the v i g o r o u s p l a n t s , enough b i g heads from the l a r g e s t p l a n t s , t o y i e l d two bushels o f c l e a n g r a i n o f each, they w i l l have taken a g r e a t s t e p i n advance."l  J . W. Robertson, Evidence b e f o r e the S e l e c t Standing Comm i t t e e on A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n , Canada, House o f Commons, 5 May 1899. p.. 2. R. P., 2, 6.  .During h i s t r a v e l s i n Europe he had become i n t e r e s t e d i n the system o f s o - c a l l e d mass s e l e c t i o n which was b e i n g p r a c t i s e d t h e r e t o q u i t e an extent..  "That t h i s system was  marked c o n t r a s t to the system p r a c t i s e d by h i s former Dr. Saunders  Chief,  at the C e n t r a l Experimental farm, Ottawa, d i d  not appear to worry On 30  in  him."  December 1899,  2  the Charlottetown D a i l y  Examiner  observed! The g o s p e l of b i g heads g r a i n f o r seed and c l o v e r crops f o r manure as w e l l as fodder, taught by P r o f e s s o r Robertson when he v i s i t e d the Province l a s t winter.ought to be adopted i n the p r a c t i c e o f our farmers. Robertson f e l t t h a t good seed was.the b a s i s o f good crops and ample h a r v e s t s .  Since, the c h i l d r e n of farmers would have  to do b a t t l e w i t h the elements on the raw p r a i r i e and  bush-  l a n d when they became a d u l t s , t h e i r s t r u g g l e would be made e a s i e r i f good seed was  a v a i l a b l e and they were educated t o  use i t . Thus, i n 189.9, Robertson put a s i d e $100,  h i s own money,  not p u b l i c funds, t o o f f e r i n p r i z e s t o Canadian farm c h i l d r e n f o r s u b m i t t i n g the " l a r g e s t heads from the most v i g o r o u s p l a n t s of wheat and oats from t h e i r f a t h e r ' s farm, p a r t l y t o l e a r n whether the country c o u l d be got ready t o accept the p r i n c i p l e and adopt the p r a c t i c e and p a r t l y t o i n t e r e s t  and  • L. H. Newman, "My Forty Years w i t h the Canadian Seed Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , " Canadian Seed Grower's Annual Report, Ottawa, 19^3-44, pp. 28-44.  educate the hoys and g i r l s . "  Encouraged  by l e t t e r s and  suggestions r e c e i v e d , Robertson approached i n substance s a i d ,  S i r W i l l i a m and  "here i s a g r e a t chance to do some educa-  t i o n a l work i n p r o g r e s s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e  . . . ." and suggested  t h a t $10,000 f o r p r i z e s "would s e t and keep t h i s t h i n g going f o r three years. Robertson r e c a l l e d how he was s i t t i n g Wilbrod S t r e e t  i n h i s study at  " t o a s t i n g my f e e t b e f o r e t h e f i r e at Christmas,  t a l k i n g over these t h i n g s , - and t h i n k i n g of them w i t h some c a r e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t I decided t o go t o Montreal the next day and ask S i r W i l l i a m C. Macdonald  f o r $10,000, which  was a reasonable and modest a p p l i c a t i o n f o r one Scotsman t o make to another." g o o d w i l l . . . ."4  S i r W i l l i a m p r o v i d e d the money w i t h - " a l l Thus with a view t o s t i m u l a t i n g  interest  i n t h e growing and s y s t e m a t i c s e l e c t i o n o f seed g r a i n , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n among the boys and g i r l s l i v i n g on Canadian  farms  was enlarged i n the s p r i n g o f 1900, by Robertson and S i r W i l l i a m .  On 12 January 1900, t h e Chariottetown D a i l y Examiner announced the p r i z e winners i n t h i s i n i t i a l round o f t h e competitions. In t h e Tenth Annual Report o f the C.S.G.A., 1913, Robertson, i n h i s P r e s i d e n t i a l Address, r e l a t e d what a wonderf u l response was forthcoming. " I remember the bags c o n t a i n i n g those s e l e c t e d heads coming i n almost l i k e a deluge upon u s . And a l l the boys and g i r l s got out o f i t was $100 i n p r i z e s , p l u s much enjoyable e d u c a t i o n , e n l i g h t e n i n g enthusiasm and i n t e l l i g e n t encouragement t o go on w i t h growing b e t t e r crops through b e t t e r seed . . . ." ^ H. G. L. Strange, "The S p i r i t o f Dr. Robertson," address at the F o r t i e t h A n n i v e r s a r y meeting o f the C.S.G.A., Saskatoon, June 19W. ' :  The Toronto  M a i l and Empire announced the "Regulations  f o r t h e Se.ed G r a i n S e l e c t i o n Competition, p r i z e s , " on 4 January  1900,  $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n cash  and went on t o inform i t s readers  that i By t h e kindness o f a generous f r i e n d , Commissioner Robertson i s able t o o f f e r $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n cash p r i z e s f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f seed g r a i n on a l l farms i n a l l p r o v i n c e s on a p l a n t h a t should l e a d t o a great improvement i n the crop throughout the whole country • • • the c o m p e t i t i o n w i l l he open t o a l l boys and g i r l s who have not passed t h e i r e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y b e f o r e 1 s t January, 1900 . . . . The generous f r i e n d was S i r William. Macdonald. s u l t o f the c o m p e t i t i o n t h e r e were over 1 , 5 0 0 450  completing  As a r e -  entries with  the t h r e e y e a r s ' work. " The experimental  were i n s p e c t e d by departmental  plots  o f f i c i a l s , p r i z e s were d i s t r i -  buted by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and i t was l e a r n e d from them t h a t the p l a n t s contained i n these p l o t s and grown from hand s e l e c t e d seeds were "heavier and b e t t e r . . . more vigorous  . . . ."  Robertson  concluded  t h a t , "when r e s u l t s so  n o t a b l e as those can be gained by t h r e e years o f i n t e l l i g e n t l a b o u r , what do you t h i n k i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i r t y years  . . . ?"5  The work o f the boys and g i r l s t a k i n g p a r t i n the MacdonaldRobertson  c o m p e t i t i o n p r o v i d e d t a n g i b l e evidence  o f the enorm-  ous p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the improvement o f crops by the systema t i c s e l e c t i o n o f seed.  The r e s u l t s were so s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t  i t was decided t o form an a s s o c i a t i o n i n order t o g i v e the  .5 J.. W. Robertson, Evidence b e f o r e the S e l e c t Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e ' a n d C o l o n i z a t i o n , 1 9 0 6 - 0 7 , pp. 1 9 1 - 1 9 2 . R.P., 3 , 7.  s e l e c t i o n o f seed by farmers o f f i c i a l  r e c o g n i t i o n by  intro-  ducing a system o f r e g i s t r a t i o n of the seed produced.  As a  r e s u l t o f t h i s d e c i s i o n by Robertson's department, a l e t t e r was  sent i n 1902,  to the competitors who  had stuck t o the work  throughout.the c o m p e t i t i o n , i n v i t i n g them, or t h e i r p a r e n t s , to form themselves i n t o an a s s o c i a t i o n o f seed growers. March 1903, the  a B u l l e t i n was  Macdonald-Robertson  i s s u e d announcing the f o r m a t i o n o f  Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n .  annual meeting o f the a s s o c i a t i o n w a s . c a l l e d f o r l i n when i t s name was  In  The  first  June'1904,  changed to the Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i -  a t i o n w i t h Robertson as i t s f i r s t  President.^  This amalgam of p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e , p r i v a t e  funding,  and government support, w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s the e s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s o f Robertson as a v i s i o n a r y who  could t r a n s l a t e h i s dreams  into action.  Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r y , (Ottawa, 1926). "~~ ~~ :  1900-1925i  Part 3 Rural School C o n s o l i d a t i o n  E a r l y i n 1902, S i r W i l l i a m and Robertson  announced t h e i r  proposed p l a n f o r the improvement o f education i n r u r a l s c h o o l s . In a memorandum o f a Plan r e Rural Schools p u b l i s h e d i n Ottawa, 6 January  1902, Robertson  several, p a r t s .  s e t out t h e i r j o i n t p r o p o s a l s i n  Part 1 o f the p l a n wasi  intended t o g i v e o b j e c t l e s s o n s o f improvement i n education from the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f f i v e , s i x or more s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s i n t o one c e n t r a l graded s c h o o l , with a School Garden, and a Manual T r a i n i n g room as p a r t o f i t s equipment. It was f u r t h e r proposed t h a t one l o c a l i t y dm Ontario, and one l o c a l i t y  i n each o f the Provinces o f Quebec, New  Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d should be o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o induce.the people t o undertake' and c a r r y on these improvements i n e d u c a t i o n . Robertson  i n s i s t e d t h a t compared with c i t y c h i l d r e n the  education o f r u r a l c h i l d r e n l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d . l a c k o f money, the i s o l a t i o n and lack".of q u a l i f i e d l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which education was both and weak.  The  teachers  inefficient  In the United States "the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f r u r a l  s c h o o l s has been c a r r i e d out t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent w i t h a very g r e a t g a i n i n the q u a l i t y o f the education g i v e n i n the  l o c a l i t y , and rate-payers."  i n most cases with no i n c r e a s e i n cost to the I f milk or cream c o u l d be brought to  c e n t r a l p l a c e , " i t would not be more d i f f i c u l t to  one  arrange  f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n on v a r i o u s r o u t e s to  one  central school." Part 2 of the p l a n was  f o r the purpose o f g i v i n g o b j e c t  •lessons of the v a l u e of s c h o o l gardens and nature study, at i n d i v i d u a l r u r a l s c h o o l s , as p a r t of g e n e r a l education, to be begun by means o f a t r a v e l l i n g . i n s t r u c t o r , who  would v i s i t  and spend one-half day per week w i t h the c h i l d r e n and  teacher  at each s c h o o l of a group f o r a term of t h r e e y e a r s , or u n t i l a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of s u i t a b l y t r a i n e d and q u a l i f i e d t e a chers would be a v a i l a b l e to c a r r y on.'such work themselves at r u r a l schools. Part 3 of the p l a n had f o r i t s o b j e c t to a s s i s t  i n pro-  v i d i n g s h o r t courses of i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r teachers i n r u r a l s c h o o l s , who  d e s i r e to q u a l i f y themselves i n these  newer s u b j e c t s and methods of e d u c a t i o n .  To t h a t end  proposed to o f f e r to the Province o f Ontario at the  i t was  Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , a g i f t of a b u i l d i n g , i n c l u d i n g a Nature Study p l a n t growing house, and such equipment as may sired  de-  . . . f o r the accommodation of t e a c h e r s w h i l e t a k i n g  these c o u r s e s .  In order to ease the d i f f i c u l t i e s  to the c o l l e g e a mileage  allowance,  satisfactorily.  of t r a v e l  p l u s a boarding  would be p r o v i d e d to approved teachers who course  be  allowance,  had taken a  full  F i n a l l y , Part 4 o f the p l a n was intended t o a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g courses o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n Domestic Economy o r Household Science f o r young women from country homes, i n order "that they may have o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l and advanced education not l e s s  suitable  and h e l p f u l t o them, than t h e present courses a t the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e are b e n e f i c i a l t o young men . . . ." There i t was proposed t o o f f e r a r e s i d e n c e t o accommodate not l e s s than 100 female students and t e a c h e r s — s t u d e n t s , of farmers  and o t h e r s , and classrooms,  other equipment necessary  daughters  k i t c h e n l a b o r a t o r i e s and-  f o r courses o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n -  i n g i n Domestic Science o r Household S c i e n c e .  T h i s p l a n en-  v i s a g e d t h a t the p u p i l s "might know the r e l a t i o n o f those t h i n g s t o h e a l t h and comfort,  and might observe  and p r a c t i c e s which make f o r good l i v i n g  those methods  i n simple, c l e a n  w e l l - k e p t and b e a u t i f u l homes i n t h e country."^  For the Toronto  Globe o f 16 December 1902, Robertson  analysed the b e n e f i t s claimed f o r t h e scheme o f r u r a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s . i n f o r m a t i o n he had gained from a v i s i t to study the experiment, Robertson  Armed w i t h  t o the United S t a t e s  believed that t h i s  g r a t e d system t  Plan r e R u r a l Schools, Ottawa, 1902.  schools  R.P., 4-,  3.  inte-  1.  R e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r attendance p a r t i c u l a r l y o f those .under e i g h t years and those over f i f t e e n years.  2.  Ensured the engagement and r e t e n t i o n of more q u a l i f i e d teachers.  3.  Created c o n d i t i o n s f o r a proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u p i l s and placement i n which they can work to t h e i r best advantage.  4.  Permitted a t i m e t a b l e which enables t e a c h e r s to b e t t e r s u p e r v i s e and help i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s .  5.  Enabled an enrichment  6.  Enabled students to o b t a i n a high s c h o o l education without having to l e a v e home.  7.  Led t o b e t t e r b u i l d i n g s and  8.  S t i m u l a t e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and p r i d e .  9.  Might  Robertson's  programme t o be  instituted.  equipment.  l e a d to an improvement i n r u r a l  roads.  c o n v i c t i o n of the v a l u e of c o n s o l i d a t i o n  grew a f t e r h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s i n Iowa and  Ohio.  He d e s c r i b e d the unanimity  of o p i n i o n which e x i s t e d  among the rate-payers- r e s p e c t i n g the marked success and p e r i o r advantages of the system.  The  " k i c k e r s , " those r a t e - p a y e r s without  su-  few exceptions were the children.  Robertson  pre-  sented some f a c t s and f i g u r e s p e r t a i n i n g to the Ohio township of Gustavus, a p i o n e e r community, i n the d i r e c t i o n of c o n s o l i d a t i o n , and gave a d e s c r i p t i o n of the type of van used c o l l e c t the s t u d e n t s , the c o n t r a c t i n g f o r such v e h i c l e s their cost.  to and  He gave a break-down on o v e r - a l l c o s t s under  c o n s o l i d a t i o n as compared w i t h p r e - c o n s o l i d a t i o n c o s t s — t h e former showing d i s t i n c t r e d u c t i o n over the l a t t e r .  Always  the i d e a l i s t , Robertson  went so f a r as compare the  consoli-  d a t i o n he saw w i t h the m a g n i f i c e n t L i b r a r y of Congress, which reminded him of a d e s c r i p t i o n of the New s o l i d a t i o n was  But  i n h i s o p i n i o n a f a r " g r e a t e r t r i b u t e and  to the enlightenment the people  Jerusalem.  concredit  and advancement and h i g h c i v i l i z a t i o n  of  o f the United States than the splendour o f the home  of books at. the  Capitol."  2  The newer methods of education such as Nature Study, Manual T r a i n i n g and Domestic Economy, would be made e a s i l y p o s s i b l e at c o n s o l i d a t e d r u r a l s c h o o l s . s c h o o l s , Robertson  suggested,  C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  would p r o v i d e f o r fewer t e a c h e r s ,  but b e t t e r teachers of more experience. At the p r e s e n t time t h e r e are comparatively few, i f any, p r i z e p l a c e s i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n r u r a l s c h o o l s . The coveted posts are i n the towns and c i t i e s ; they draw the teachers of approved a b i l i t y , from the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Teachers would s t a y i n cons o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s l o n g e r than i n the one room s c h o o l s i n country.mparts•3 In a speech g i v e n at H a l i f a x , N.S.,  Robertson  dwelled at  l e n g t h on the s u b j e c t of s c h o o l c o n s o l i d a t i o n , and the bilities  of a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i t c o u l d promote.  r u r a l schoolhouse  he  3  Evidence, Ibid.  1903,  The  said:  i s r a r e l y a t h i n g of beauty, a p l a c e of d i s c o m f o r t s and a development of robust bodies mental v i g o u r and a c t i v i t y .  2  possi-  pp.  30-31.  indeed i t was sometimes hindrance to the n a t u r a l and to the growth of Many a s c h o o l l a c k e d  s u i t a b l e desks w i t h comfortable s e a t s . Lighting, h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n were o f t e n inadequate. Everybody admits the h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of a w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , w e l l - a r r a n g e d , well-equipped schoolroom, w i t h windows and f l o o r s s h i n i n g l y c l e a n , and w a l l s decorated w i t h p i c t u r e s . Day by d a y v b e a u t i f u l , comfortable surroundings w i l l have t h e i r e t h i c a l i n f l u e n c e upon h i s development u n t i l he comes t o abhor a n y t h i n g ' t h a t i s not b e a u t i f u l , w e l l - o r d e r e d and c l e a n . It i s not to be expected t h a t simple c o n s o l i d a t i o n of. s c h o o l s w i l l c r e a t e at once, a l l the d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s which have been r e f e r r e d t o . I f the c e n t r a l i z i n g p l a n enables communities and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s t o do b e t t e r f o r education than they can do at one-room s c h o o l s , i t i s so f a r a h e l p f u l one.4 Robertson wanted something b e t t e r than mere c o n s o l i d a t i o n . We want not simply c o n s o l i d a t i o n , but c o n s o l i d a t i o n where c o n d i t i o n s are s u i t a b l e f o r i t , as a means towards an improved t i m e - t a b l e and methods of study s u f f i c i e n t f o r present day needs. The Macdonald R u r a l Schools Fund would meet f o r a p e r i o d of three years the a d d i t i o n a l expense of the c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s over the c o s t of s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s , w i t h the Fund a c t i n g as a r a t e p a y e r to be assessed a c c o r d ingly, The s c h o o l s would be, a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l authorities. These c o n d i t i o n s would apply f o r t h r e e years.5  C o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d a t p l a c e s chosen or approved  by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n .  .case a new  b u i l d i n g was  e r e c t e d and each equipped  In each  with  class-  rooms and an assembly h a l l and a l s o f o r manual t r a i n i n g , household  s c i e n c e and nature study w i t h a s c h o o l garden.  A  ...4 J.. W. Robertson, A d d r e s s on Education f o r the Improvement of Agriculture,'-' H a l i f a x , N.S., 1903, R.P., 3 , 7. w  5 Evidence, 1903,  pp.  36-37  c o n s o l i d a t e d , s c h o o l board was  e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g . t o the  school  law of the p r o v i n c e concerned, and  i t was  the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l system.  s c h o o l i n Nova S c o t i a , at  'Middleton, was  opened i n September  'Kingston, .in September 1904;  1904$ and  ember  The  i n the summer of  managed as p a r t o f  1903? i n  New  Brunswick, at  i n Ontario, at Guelph, i n Nov-  i n Prince Edward I s l a n d , at H i l l s b o r o ' , e a r l y 1905.  On the o c c a s i o n of the opening of Middleton, s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l , the Maritime  Farmer and  N.S.,  Cooperative  conDairyman  declared: The Macdonald School system i s an experiment i n r u r a l education improvement . . . . I t p l a c e s w i t h i n the reach o f sparse r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n the advantages .of town or v i l l a g e h i g h s c h o o l w i t h the a d d i t i o n of some new f e a t u r e s h i t h e r t o : attempted to only a l i m i t e d extent even i n the most p r o g r e s s i v e ' c i t y institutions.7 The  P r e s i d e n t of Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e noted  in  1904« The p i e c e of l a n d l y i n g between Macdonald I n s t i t u t e and the Brock Road was purchased some time ago by P r o f e s s o r Robertson f o r the purpose of e r e c t i n g a c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l and f o r the l a y i n g out o f p l a y grounds and s c h o o l gardens. During the year a s p l e n d i d t h r e e - s t o r y b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d and s i x teachers were engaged f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of the c h i l d r e n of the s e v e r a l adjacent s c h o o l s e c t i o n s which had decided to u n i t e and sent the c h i l d r e n to a c e n t r a l s c h o o l . As the l a n d comprising the s c h o o l grounds j o i n s our C o l l e g e campus, we have, at the request of the t r u s t e e s , assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c a r i n g f o r the same; so t h a t the. .school may. be s a i d to be s i t u a t e d on our C o l l e g e campus.>  J . W. 20  Robertson, Evidence,  December  1906-07,  pp.'  197-98.  1904.  Ontario, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1904,  no. 14, pp.  4-5.  In p r e s e n t i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l  t a b l e p e r t a i n i n g to  consoli-  d a t i o n , Robertson p o i n t e d out t h a t the i n c r e a s e d c o s t of them over the r u r a l s c h o o l was p a i d to the t e a c h e r s .  caused l a r g e l y by the b e t t e r s a l a r i e s  He a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t when the  s c h o o l s began to t u r n out teachers  Normal  q u a l i f i e d to conduct s c h o o l  gardens, some household s c i e n c e work and manual t r a i n i n g  as  w e l l as the o r d i n a r y book s u b j e c t s , they need not be p a i d so much.  The  c o s t of conveyance, a l a r g e item of expense,  was  showing a r e d u c t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a as between the 1903-4 f i g u r e and  the 1905-6 f i g u r e .  He f e l t t h a t when s c h o o l boards  undertook to meet the whole expense themselves, " s t i l l more economical methods of management would p r e v a i l . "  9  Robertson, i n 1903» s t a t e d , I t h i n k I am w i t h i n the mark when I say t h a t i n t e n years a f t e r the Macdonald o b j e c t l e s s o n s have been g i v e n , we w i l l have over 1,000 c o n s o l i d a t e d r u r a l s c h o o l s i n Canada . . . . Even i f we get only 400 or 500 i n t e n y e a r s , then the boys., and. g i r l s who. come from these schools . . . w i l l become teachers i n r u r a l schools which cannot be c o n s o l i d a t e d . 1 0  In the same year,  Robertson announced t h a t the  Govern-  mentrof Nova S c o t i a would b u i l d an A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e at Truro and  coordinate  i t s work w i t h the Normal School.  L e g i s l a t u r e of t h a t same p r o v i n c e voted the sum p r o v i d e and  9  assist in consolidation.  Robertson, Evidence,  1 1  The  of money to  By 1907» Dr. Mackay,  1906-07. p.p. 197-98.  J . W. Robertson, Evidence.11903. p. 38.- (.See-MacKay.,. A. H.., " C o n s o l i d a t i o n of. Schools i n Canada," Dominion Educat i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Proceedings, Toronto, 1905. pp. 134-141.) 1 0  1 1  Ibid..  Superintendent  of Education, r e p o r t e d t h a t i n Nova S c o t i a , 53  s c h o o l s had been c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o 22 e f f e c t i v e ones. • p r o v i n c e o f New schools.  In the  Brunswick there were f o u r l a r g e c o n s o l i d a t e d  1 2  C o n s o l i d a t i o n of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  i n the present time i s  g e n e r a l l y accepted by the p u b l i c as being b e n e f i c i a l to education.  But at the beginning of the century t h i s was  sarily  so.  not  Hence the a n x i e t y of both S i r W i l l i a m and  t h a t the experiment should succeed.  Robertson  Even i n Nova S c o t i a , a  p r o v i n c e i n the van of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s , a note of can be d e t e c t e d i n the General and  neces-  F i n a n c i a l Report  Middleton C o n s o l i d a t e d School, 24 June  concern  from.  1905.  The f i n a l year of the experimental stage of the s c h o o l i s before us. The n e c e s s i t y f o r sympathetic a c t i o n . o n the p a r t of a l l concerned i s apparent, and w i l l have an important b e a r i n g on the f u t u r e of the school. The s c h o o l board e a r n e s t l y hope t h a t the r a t e - p a y e r s of c o n s o l i d a t e d d i s t r i c t w i l l more f r e quently v i s i t the s c h o o l and become acquainted with the working of the d i f f e r e n t departments and thus become able to judge more f u l l y the worth of the . . . s c h o o l to our boys and g i r l s . Robertson, Evidence, 1 9 0 6 - 0 7 , p. 199. For contemporary d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Macdonald C o n s o l i d a t e d Schools see E. A. Howes,. .".Macdonald C o n s o l i d a t e d School, Guelph, O n t a r i o , " The Teacher's World, 1 (Toronto, December 1906), pp. 1 2 3 - 2 7 ; I b i d . , pp. 145-47; T. B. Kidner, " M u n i c i p a l C o n s o l i d a t e d School i n New Brunswick; I b i d . , pp. 133-140; D. W. Hamilton, "Macdonald C o n s o l i d a t e d School, Kingston, N.B."; I b i d . , pp.. 12'8'-3.2; A..JH.,MacKay, " C o n s o l i d a t e d Rural Schools in-.Nova ' Sc otla,."... Ibid...,- .pp... 141-44. (MacKay a l s o wrote an a r t i c l e i n The Farmer's Advocate, 1 December 1904, i n which he e x p l a i n e d the c o n t r a c t u a l arrangements f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n at Middleton and presented s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g to i t ) ; J . W. Jones, "The Macdonald Consolidated. School, H i l l s b o r o ' , P r i n c e Edward • I s l a n d , " The School T r u s t e e , (Toronto, January 1907), PP* 162-66. x c  T h i s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t Robertson, a c c o r d i n g to the same r e p o r t , had  i n s t i t u t e d t w o • i n t e r e s t i n g experiments,  the p r o v i s i o n of» warm dinners at the average cost of two and one h a l f cents f o r 353 c h i l d r e n by the domestic s c i e n c e department, and arrangements f o r the s c h o o l to be kept open during the summer v a c a t i o n i n order t h a t each c h i l d may attend one day a week, the time to be spent i n c a r i n g f o r the garden and i n nature study, w i t h d r i v e s to p l a c e s i n the d i s t r i c t where p l a n t and animal l i f e can be s t u d i e d to best advantage. 3 There was  t o be no expense to the  tax-payer.  When H i l l s b o r o ' C o n s o l i d a t e d School was opened on 3 August 1905i the Charlottetown  officially  Guardian pro-  claimed} A New Era f o r the Province. Never i n the h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l progress i n Prince Edward I s l a n d has a l a r g e r or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g a t h e r i n g been h e l d than t h a t of yesterday afternoon at an epoch marking.period i n the Province--the formal opening of H i l l s b o r o ' C o n s o l i d a t e d School. There were present many prominent men from a l l walks of l i f e ; l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n s of both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , business men, p h y s i c i a n s and many of the r e p r e s e n t a , t i v e farmers of the Southern s i d e of H i l l s b o r o . . . . In an address,  Robertson s t a t e d the purpose of the  school  was t to help i n the progress from the h e l p l e s s n e s s and s e l f i s h n e s s of babyhood t o the i n t e l l i g e n c e and a b i l i t y and u n s e l f i s h n e s s of the grown man. Consolid a t i o n i s only a.means to t h a t e n d — a n attempt to get c h i l d r e n together .in s u f f i c i e n t numbers to make an o b j e c t lessonv- For i t s success the s c h o o l depends upon the parents and the people of the l o c a l i t y f o r  R.P. , >, L  August  3. 1905.  t h e i r perseverance and p a t i e n c e to the s c h o o l and teachers. In no country i n the world do the people pay l e s s f o r education than i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . A r e p o r t by  J . Walter Jones, P r i n c i p a l o f H i l l s b o r o ' ,  showed that s i x d i s t r i c t s were c o n s o l i d a t e d ,  that s i x  teachers  were employed i n c l u d i n g a manual t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r and domestic s c i e n c e  $3,300.  teacher,  t h a t the t o t a l s a l a r y h i l l  C h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d were 161  attendance of 119»  from s c h o o l at an average d a i l y cost of  cost of $1,190 and ance from 140  $1.67.  up,  but  89.  and  These f i g u r e s  c o n s o l i d a t i o n at a s a l a r y  a p r e - c o n s o l i d a t i o n average d a i l y  c h i l d r e n of  Attendance was  before  was  w i t h an average d a i l y  Six vans conveyed'the c h i l d r e n to  compared with s i x teachers  a  attend-  1 6  so were c o s t s .  Of the c l o s i n g e x e r c i s e s  i n 1908  of the Macdonald School  at H i l l s b o r o ' , the D a i l y P a t r i o t remarked: This was a year memorable i n the h i s t o r y of our e d u c a t i o n a l progress, f o r i t marked the p a r t i n g o f the ways, the end of the three-year p e r i o d . when the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e of S i r W i l l i a m Mac-, donald would i n a l a r g e measure be withdrawn, and the people g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y of s a y i n g whether ' t h e y wished the s c h o o l r e t a i n e d or the o l d order of t h i n g s resumed. The Mr.  D a i l y P a t r i o t a l s o quoted the p r i n c i p a l speakers.  MacLean, now  P r i n c i p a l , gave a review of the  school's  work»  1 5  Ibid. .  •^•^J. Waiter Jones to Robertson, 13 R.P.,  4, 3.  January  1906,  The s c h o o l was w e l l - o r g a n i z e d i n t o e i g h t grades, and had f i v e t e a c h e r s . They not only d i d the grade work presented by the Board of Education, but a l s o taught the s p e c i a l branches o f s c h o o l gardens, Manual T r a i n i n g , Household Science, and Music. A number of these branches are s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . From the s c h o o l gardens . . . a s a l e of the p l a n t s b r i n g s i n a snug revenue . . . . , The  Premier of the Province  "had  would be c a r r i e d on by the people .". that  no.doubt t h a t the . ."  He p o i n t e d  out  " t a x a t i o n f f o r s c h o o l purposes i s f a r lower here than i n  other p r o v i n c e s , " and urged.upon the people to r e a l i z e responsibilities The  i n the grand work of educating  C h i e f Superintendent  made an eloquent and  school  appeal  of Education  their  their children.  f o r the  f o r the c a r r y i n g on o f the  Province school,  f o r the c o n f i r m a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , of the p r o g r e s s i v e move-  ment i n The  education. Rev.  Dr. Morrison  threw i n the weight of the  church.  He s a i d t h a t the manner i n which t h i s s c h o o l was  established  was5tin l i n e w i t h the n a t u r a l development of. such  educational  institutions.  He b e l i e v e d c o n s o l i d a t i o n to be the s o l u t i o n  of the s c h o o l q u e s t i o n on Prince Edward I s l a n d . "made to r e t a r d the progress  Dr. Robertson, as always, had He  i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . "  some p r a c t i c a l  estimated  be r e q u i r e d to f i n a n c e i t s o p e r a t i o n , and o f 40 cents on every of property  $100  steps  made i n c o n s o l i d a t i o n would be  d i s a s t r o u s to the cause of education  f o r c a r r y i n g on the s c h o o l .  Any  that  suggestions  $4,369 would  proposed t h a t a tax  be l e v i e d on the present v a l u a t i o n  i n the d i s t r i c t .  T h i s would r a i s e  $876.  The  $1,015.and  government would supply Fund $2,  $1,400 would be a v a i l a b l e . w h i l e $100  outside  the d i s t r i c t .  $2  from h i s own  $4,491, l e a v i n g  i n the  $800 a l t o g e t h e r . a s u r p l u s of $122.  the D a i l y P a t r i o t ,  d i s t r i c t s under c o n s o l i d a t i o n  meetings were h e l d and  f o l l o w i n g day dated d i s t r i c t  that  no  taxation."  the  P a t r i o t reported  " f o u r out of s i x schools  of H i l l s b o r o * had  the c o n s o l i d a t i o n . " had  pocket or  f e e s , Robertson  i f they would remain i n c o n s o l i d a t i o n or n o t .  The  who  r a i s e d by  c l o s e of the meeting, r e p o r t e d  other meetings were h e l d to see  Each c h i l d would be l e v i e d  For every $1  t o t a l r e c e i p t s would be At the  Rural  would.be a v a i l a b l e from parents of c h i l d r e n  s a i d he would g i v e The  from the Macdonald  The  c h i l d r e n attending,  remaining i n  "came c h i e f l y from those  and who  feared  (These people of course were the  Robertson had  the  i n the c o n s o l i -  voted a g a i n s t  opposition  1 7  the  increased  " k i c k e r s , " as  e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d to them.)  Robertson, on being asked what the r e s u l t of the on these f o u r d i s t r i c t s would be,  gave out the  decision  following  statement. The f i v e teachers . . . are as competent as any t h a t .can be o b t a i n e d . They are w i l l i n g to continue . . . . The assessment on the d i s t r i c t s which have decided to continue w i l l be at the r a t e of 40 cents per $100; the fee charged to p u p i l s from other d i s t r i c t s w i l l be f i x e d at $5 per p u p i l per annum. The government grant w i l l be at the r e g u l a r e n t i t l e ment. The Macdonald, Rural Fund w i l l c o n t r i b u t e at  3 July  1908.  $1,200  the r a t e o f f o r t h r e e y e a r s , and any balance r e q u i r e d , . . w i l l be p r o v i d e d by Dr. Robertson f o r three y e a r s . 1 8  H i l l s b o r o ' C o n s o l i d a t e d School c a r r i e d on u n t i l The  1  school f i n a l l y closed i n  0  1 9  k July  1912.  19  1908.  J . F. S n e l l , Macdonald C o l l e g e , p.  231.  1910-1911.  Part k Rural School Gardens  Robertson,  a f e r v e n t advocate  r e c o g n i z e d the importance  o f the s c i e n t i f i c method,  o f the r u r a l s c h o o l garden  as a  p l a c e where a knowledge o f modern-oprinciples o f a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y taught.  Despite the g r e a t progress  made i n a g r i c u l t u r e , there were s t i l l development.  areas i n need o f  From t h i s t e a c h i n g he hoped would emerge an  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the value and importance  of s c i e n t i f i c  farming  which i n t u r n would a c t as a stimulus to l o c a l e f f o r t i n education generally.  The e f f e c t o f the r u r a l s c h o o l garden  would be to b e a u t i f y the country school-houses, and to t r a i n the students t o observe, i n v e s t i g a t e , conclude a n d . f i n a l l y do f o r themselves.  He wrotes  when a c h i l d does a n y t h i n g with i t s own hands, such as p l a n t i n g a seed, p u l l i n g up a p l a n t , making an examination o f the changes which have taken p l a c e d u r i n g i t s . growth, making a drawing o f i t , mounting i t and p u t t i n g i t s name on i t , he r e c e i v e s impressions by the sense o f touch, he sees, he hears the n o i s e o f the movement he makes, and he s m e l l s the p a r t o f the s o i l and the p a r t o f the p l a n t w i t h which he i s d e a l i n g . These impressions are d e f i n i t e and l a s t i n g ; they add to the sum o f sensuous knowledge; they prepare f o r the p e r c e p t i o n o f l o g i c a l knowledge, i n a common sense way.  1  R.P.,  Memorandum o f a Plan r e Rural Schools, Ottawa, 1902. 4, 6. ' \ ~ •  time.  However, the authors  of one such t e x t were not  c o n f i d e n t o f the r e c e p t i o n t h e i r book might r e c e i v e as  fully the  f o l l o w i n g p r e f a c e shows. In p l a c i n g t h i s manual b e f o r e Canadian teachers the authors do not f e e l t h a t i t i s necessary to advance any p l e a f o r Nature Study. It finds i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the c o n d i t i o n s of modern s o c i e t y , and r e s t s upon the same p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a s i s as Manual T r a i n i n g and Domestic Science. The n e c e s s i t y f o r nature study has been r e c o g n i z e d by the most advanced educators both i n Canada and the United S t a t e s , and i t i s only a matter of time t i l l i t w i l l f i n d a permanent p l a c e among the s u b j e c t s of study. ) 2  In an address 1909» Robertson  to the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , i n  spoke on the Macdonald Movement i n g e n e r a l  and  on s c h o o l gardens i n p a r t i c u l a r . The s c h o o l garden was an e f f o r t to g i v e c h i l d r e n t r a i n i n g i n t h r e e important matters i n connection w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e 1 the s e l e c t i o n of seed; the r o t a t i o n of crops; and the p r o t e c t i o n of crops a g a i n s t weeds, d i s e a s e and i n s e c t s . C h i l d r e n f i n d something by doing, o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g r e s u l t s themselves, and I say i t over again t h a t a l l worthy progress i n matters t h a t are worth t h i n k i n g about, s p r i n g from l e a r n i n g the l e s s o n s of consequences. As soon as a c h i l d understands that,, and governs h i s l i f e accordi n g l y , he becomes a b e t t e r p u p i l and the promise of a b e t t e r c i t i z e n i n every, sense.3 To t r a i n teachers f o r t h i s new i n 1903.  venture,  Robertson  recruited  a c l a s s of Canadian p r a c t i s i n g teachers which was  S. S i l c o x and  0.  sent  J . Stevenson, Morang's Modern Nature  1902).  Study, (Torontoj Morang, 3 J . W, Robertson, "The Macdonald C o l l e g e Movement," address to the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Denver, Colo., 7 J u l y N.E.A. Proceedings, R.P. ,  I909.  1909.  4, 6.  for  courses to the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Chicago  Teacher's  and C o r n e l l , to  C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , and C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y ,  with a f i n a l course at Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e . ^ In T e a c h e r - B u i l d e r , the biography  of John Wesley  Gibson,  the author t e l l s of her husband's s e l e c t i o n as one o f the Canad i a n teachers to be t r a i n e d by the Macdonald Fund to r u r a l s c h o o l gardens.  organize  She w r i t e s of h i s experience at C o r n e l l  under Professor' L i b e r t y Hyde B a i l e y who  " i n s p i r e d everyone  with h i s f r e s h approach to l a b o r a t o r y methods .•....*• must remember t h a t Robertson was, e q u a l l y impressed  We  with that  institution. _ On h i s r e t u r n to Canada, Gibson was  engaged t o s u p e r v i s e  the f i v e centres i n C a r l e t o n County, Ontario, t h a t had been establishedt each o f two  at Carp, G a l e t t a , B o w e s v i l l e and  North Gower,  a c r e s , and at Richmond a garden of three a c r e s .  His s a l a r y was  $800 per annum f o r three y e a r s .  P r o v i s i o n was  made to meet the expenses o f a horse and buggy.5 Robertson sent a "Memorandum to Teachers" Macdonald School.Gardens i n 1905.  i n charge of  o f f e r i n g guidance i n con-  n e c t i o n with s c h o o l garden-work. I t h i n k each t r a v e l l i n g i n s t r u c t o r should r e quest the teacher at every s c h o o l to devote some time every day, when the weather i s s u i t a b l e , to  4  Evidence,  1903,.pp. 36-37.  .5 B e l l e C. Gibson, Teacher B u i l d e r , ( V i c t o r i a s 1961),. pp. 39-44. See a l s o Gibson, "The E d u c a t i o n a l Value of A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n i n Elementary and Secondary Schools," The Phi D e l t a Kappan, V I I I , 1926, pp. 14-18.  work, w i t h the p u p i l s i n the s c h o o l grounds and s c h o o l garden. I would suggest t h a t l e a d e r s be appointed each w i t h a committee formed o f the p u p i l s o f the s c h o o l . He reminded the i n s t r u c t o r s t h a t the garden was s p r i m a r i l y t o be used as a means o f e d u c a t i o n o f the ..children. I n c i d e n t a l l y and afterwards i t should be used to i n t e r e s t the parents and to l e t the people of the l o c a l i t y see that the garden has a l s o a p r a c t i c a l use, i n p r e p a r i n g the c h i l d r e n t o have a g r e a t e r l o v e f o r b e a u t i f u l premises at t h e i r own homes . . . . School gardens were s e t up i n C a r l e t o n County, under J...W. Gibson;  i n Quebec, under Mr. George  Brunswick, under Mr. John B r i t t a i n , B.A.;  Fuller;  i n New  i n Nova S c o t i a ,  under Mr. Percy Shaw; and i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , under Theodore Ross.?  W r i t i n g i n the Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , R.  Cowley sketched the advantages o f the s c h o o l  Mr.  H.  garden»  Speaking b r o a d l y , the s c h o o l garden has an e d u c a t i o n a l , and economic, and a n a t i o n a l aim. E d u c a t i o n a l l y , i t a f f o r d s a h e a l t h f u l r e l e a s e , i n •' the f r e s h a i r and the s u n l i g h t , from the present h u r t f u l i n a c t i v i t y of the schoolroom. It provides a c o n t r o l s u i t a b l y complementary t o the otherwise bookish programme o f the s c h o o l . . . . I t lends i t s e l f to the development o f l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n . . . e n a b l i n g the c h i l d "to catch, the imagery . of our best n a t u r a l poems." The good i n f l u e n c e o f the s c h o o l garden "on the d i s c i p l i n e and moral tone of the s c h o o l i s remarked on by a l l , t h e t e a c h e r s . " On the economic  side j  the s c h o o l garden teaches the c o n s t i t u e n t s . o f the s o i l , the c o n d i t i o n s of p l a n t l i f e , the v a l u e o f f e r t i l i z e r s , seed s e l e c t i o n , d r a i n a g e , t i l l a g e .  ^ J.. W. Robertson Memorandum t o Teachers, (Ottawa, 31 1905), R.P., 4, 6. ... Z.R.- ,H.„ Cowley, "The Macdonald School Gardens," Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . X I I , (March 1905), pp. 391-418.  March  Queen's  In i t s n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , the s c h o o l gardens develop a wide i n t e r e s t i n the fundamental i n d u s t r y of the country . . . . The tendency of young people to r u s h to the c i t i e s . . . i s l i k e l y to d e t e r i o r a t e the n a t i o n a l l i f e of Canada . . . . The s c h o o l garden w i l l t r a i n the urban p o p u l a t i o n t o look to the country. I t w i l l t r a i n the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n t o remain i n the country. I t w i l l convince the young mind t h a t the work o f the farmer g i v e s scope f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and scholarship. 8  A l o v e r of beauty and good order, Robertson f e l t pleasant  and w e l l - a r r a n g e d  surroundings  were s i l e n t  that  potent  educational forces. The c h i l d n a t u r a l l y t r i e s t o put h i m s e l f i n t o harmony w i t h what surrounds him. That e f f o r t , o f t e n unconscious t o h i m s e l f i s p a r t of h i s e d u c a t i o n . What a charge t h a t sentence b r i n g s a g a i n s t the u n t i d y , uncomfortable, u n l o v e l y i n t e r i o r s of many schoolhouses i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , and a g a i n s t t h e i r f e n c e l e s s , uncared f o r and h a r d l y decent surroundings. In comparing the over 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 European s c h o o l gardens w i t h the l a c k of the same i n Canada, Robertson urgedt why should not the s c h o o l house and s c h o o l premises be the most b e a u t i f u l and a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e i n the locality? I f u n s i g h t l y and r e p e l l e n t premises are not i n themselves degrading, they have a tendency to d u l l the t a s t e and judgement of young persons as to what should be esteemed . . . . C h i l d r e n who observed b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s . . . would a l s o be more l i k e l y t o observe g r a c e f u l speech, good manners and u n f l a g g i n g t r u t h f u l n e s s , and t o become r e s p e c t f u l and r e v e r e n t towards the b e a u t i f u l and the good.9  o  .  .. -  ...  ..  •.-  - -  Ibid. For an account of Cowley's work w i t h the Macdonald School Gardens scheme and..his a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Robertson, see Robert S t o t h e r s , R. H. Cowley, (Torontot Nelson, 1935)» PP»  112-35.  9 Robertson, Evidence,  1903,  p.  31.  The was  Macdonald plan f o r the improvement o f r u r a l  schools  but a component o f the "New Education"—-an e f f o r t made t o  " l e a d the c h i l d onment."  i n t o a more sympathetic r e l a t i o n t o h i s e n v i r ^  J . W. Hotson, M.A. , P r i n c i p a l o f the Macdonald Con-  s o l i d a t e d School a t Guelph, Ontario, f e l t t h a t t h i s  "New Edu-  c a t i o n " would endure because i t r e s t e d on " n a t u r a l , fundamental p r i n c i p l e s , " and quoted P r o f e s s o r L i b e r t y Hyde B a i l e y as  saying, much t h a t i s c a l l e d nature-study i s only d i l u t e d and sugar-coated s c i e n c e . T h i s w i l l pass. Some o f i t i s mere s e n t i m e n t a l i s m . This w i l l a l s o pass. With . the changes the term Nature-Study may f a l l , i n t o d i s u s e ; but the name matters l i t t l e so l o n g as we h o l d on t o the essence.1°  ...M-.J...'W. Hotson, "Macdonald Rural Schools," Monthly, (June 1904), p.9. 9  Brandon C o l l e g e  Part 5 Macdonald I n s t i t u t e , Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e  The "building o f the Macdonald I n s t i t u t e as an organic p a r t o f the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , cost S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald  $182,500.  1  The p r o v i s i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e and i t s  i n c l u s i o n i n the Memorandum, was i n p a r t the outcome o f a movement i n i t i a t e d by Mrs. John Hoodless o f Hamilton, who founded the Women's I n s t i t u t e s o f Ontario.  I89I, Mrs. Hoodless  had taken an i n t e r e s t  Ontario,  As e a r l y as  i n the e f f o r t s o f  the l o c a l Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n t o i n s t r u c t girls  i n i n t e l l i g e n t household work.  With the c o o p e r a t i o n o f  the Hamilton School Board and the Ontario Department o f Educat i o n , p u b l i c s c h o o l c l a s s e s had been a f f o r d e d the f a c i l i t i e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n , and i n 1900, a normal s c h o o l o o f Science and A r t had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Hamilton. time,  Domestic About t h i s  Mrs. Hoodless met S i r W i l l i a m and Robertson, and en-  l i s t e d their interest  i n her p r o j e c t s .  On v i s i t i n g the Ontario  A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , she decided t h a t i t would be o f advantage  "The Macdonald R u r a l Schools Fund" c o s t S i r W i l l i a m .Mac- ... donald..more t h a n .$26.0.., .000.. a c c o r d i n g t o Macdonald R u r a l Schools Fund, Receipts and'Disbursements from 1899 t o 1909$ Macintosh and Hyde, C.A., Montreal. R.P., 4, 7. 1  to t r a n s f e r the Normal School  to the grounds of t h a t  insti-  tution. Dr.  James M i l l s ,  P r e s i d e n t of the C o l l e g e , agreed ;to the  i d e a , and n e g o t i a t i o n s were conducted by Robertson between S i r W i l l i a m , the  Ontario Government, and the C o l l e g e .  A sample  of the correspondence which passed between the p a r t i e s f o l l o w s . Dr. M i l l s wrote to Robertsons "You are aware t h a t Mrs. Hoodless has been t r y i n g to i n t e r e s t S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald i n Domestic Science and A r t . She i s anxious to have him do something, here or elsewhere f o r the promotion of education i n that important departments and knowing your r e l a t i o n s with S i r W i l l i a m , I am w r i t i n g to s o l i c i t your i n f l u e n c e f o r something handsome at Guelph. "We. have.the equipment and s t a f f f o r a g r e a t p o r t i o n of the work, and I w i l l do anything i n my power to meet S i r W i l l i a m ' s wishes; i n case he f e e l s i n c l i n e d to a s s i s t us towards the e r e c t i o n and equipment of a b u i l d i n g f o r a general,, course and a course of normal t r a i n i n g f o r teachers."3 In answer to M i l l s , Robertson said« "I s h a l l be g l a d to do anything I can to h e l p you and the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e to do what might be done f o r the improvement of education i n r u r a l s c h o o l s , and to p r o v i d e a course of i n s t r u c t i o n i n domestic s c i e n c e p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the daughters o f farmers and f o r young women who w i l l teach i n the r u r a l schools . . . . I s h a l l be g l a d to take as e a r l y an o p p o r t u n i t y as I can make of d i s c u s s i n g w i t h you how we can j o i n f o r c e s f o r the improvement of r u r a l schools i n Ontario. "But you w i l l p l e a s e not t h i n k t h a t I haye any r i g h t at a l l to be c o n s i d e r e d as the a d v i s o r of S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald who could i n f l u e n c e him i n the  S n e l l , Macdonald C o l l e g e , pp. Dr.  35-41.  James M i l l s to Robertson 31  October 1901,  R.P.,  4,  1.  matter o f donating a b u i l d i n g o r equipment f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l College a t Guelph.'"'4 Robertson r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from Richard M i n i s t e r f o r Education f o r Ontario  Harcourt,  i n which he stated» .  "The Premier (of Ontario) d i s c u s s e d w i t h me y e s t e r d a y your ideas as t o Guelph. I t h i n k one f e a t u r e o f your scheme should be a Summer School f o r Nature Study and S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e . . . diplomas t o be g i v e n , e t c . " 5 S i r W i l l i a m , however, whose canny s c o t t i s h n e s s was not far' below the s u r f a c e , wrote t o Robertson and quoted from a l e t t e r he had r e c e i v e d from the Premier o f Ontario,  G. W. Ross.  "Allow me t o say t h a t the government accept w i t h much a p p r e c i a t i o n a. grant .of -$125,00.0 from Sir.. .William-.Macdonald t o be applied, .for.-.the - t r a i n i n g of -teachers i n . the elements o f a g r i c u l t u r e and o f young women i n domestic science, on the terms s e t f o r t h i n the s a i d memorandum." / T h a t i s the memorandum o f 1902 p r e v i o u s l y mentioned./ Sir William.reiterated  thati  "The grant was not intended t o be a p p l i e d as above e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d by the words which I have u n d e r l i n e d . . . . The terms s e t f o r t h i n the memorandum . . .. s t a t e d that the $125*000 was f o r the erection of b u i l d i n g s . " He addedi "Mr. Ross i s a busy man and I have no doubt he means t h e terms.to be as s e t f o r t h i n the memorandum, but as we are d e a l i n g with a government which i s s u b j e c t t o change the wording o f the agreement should be c o r r e c t . " 0  5 Horn Richard R.P., 4 , 1 .  Harcourt t o Robertson 11 December 1 9 0 1 ,  ^ S i r William R.P., 4 , 1 .  Macdonald t o Robertson 13 February 1 9 0 2 ,  S i r W i l l i a m was  not " p u t t i n g h i s t r u s t i n p r i n c e s . "  Robertson, as c o o r d i n a t o r of the Guelph scheme was quent  correspondence w i t h the government.  Ross i n v i t e d him  in fre-  One l e t t e r  from  "to c a l l on the Premier" at the Parliament  B u i l d i n g s ' s o t h a t I might  d i s c u s s w i t h you some f e a t u r e s of  the Macdonald bequest  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  Agricultural  C o l l e g e at Guelph."7  P r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g proceeded  well,  claimed Dr. Mills« By the help of S i r W. C. Macdonald of Montreal, the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n f o r O n t a r i o , P r o f . J . W. Robertson of Ottawa, Mrs. John Hoodless of Hamilton, •- ;.: and; other l e s s prominent workers, a d i s t i n c t step i n . advance has been taken along the l i n e of adapting our primary and secondary education t o what are l i k e l y to be the f u n c t i o n s and environment (the l i f e work and s u r r o u n d i n g s ) f o r the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of our young people - manual t r a i n i n g f o r . b o y s , household s c i e n c e f o r g i r l s , and nature'study f o r both. Manual t r a i n i n g and household, or domestic s c i e n c e departments are i n s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n a t a number of our High and P u b l i c Schools} household s c i e n c e i s taught i n t h e Ontario Normal School of Domestic Science and A r t , Hamilton, and i n the P r o v i n c i a l Normal Schools and . Normal C o l l e g e ; and we hope soon t o o f f e r at the Macdonald I n s t i t u t e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e a v a l u a b l e course i n nature study and a broader, l o n g e r , and more thorough course i n househ o l d s c i e n c e than can be g i v e n at the Normal Schools or Normal C o l l e g e . T h i s course, i t i s expected, w i l l b e g i n about the middle of September next; and as s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n w i l l be made f o r farmer's daughters i n Macdonald H a l l (or the Women's Residence) along s i d e o f the I n s t i t u t e , i t i s hoped t h a t much w i l l be done towards improving the management, i n c r e a s i n g the comfort, and m u l t i p l y i n g the happiness of Canadian farm homes. I f t h i s i s done, the standard of work and c i t i z e n s h i p throughout the Province and Dominion w i l l r i s e from y e a r to y e a r . " -  Ross t o Robertson 29  August  1902,  Ontario, Sessional Papers, 1902,  R.P.,  4,  no. 14, p.  1. 6.  The gift  Ontario Government was  most g r a t e f u l f o r the generous  of S i r W i l l i a m and the M i n i s t e r of Education wrote to  Robertson« "I n o t i c e . . . t h a t S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald has g i v e n another grant t o the School of Domestic Science which has been e r e c t e d a t Guelph . . . I assume t h a t ." we owe t h i s to your k i n d l y i n t e r c e s s i o n . . . ."° Robertson  repliedt  "There i s nothing due to my i n t e r c e s s i o n with S i r W i l l i a m . The d e s i r e and a n x i e t y t o h e l p i n the improvement of education at r u r a l s c h o o l s are S i r William's . . . . " 1 0  However, t h e r e were.some misunderstandings James M i l l s , and the Hon.  R i c h a r d Harcourt, M i n i s t e r of Edu-  c a t i o n , as t o the purpose of the new Dr. M i l l s appealed t o Robertson e a r l y date t h a t we may  between Dr.  Macdonald  Institute.  to "come to Toronto at an  have a c l e a r understanding w i t h  Mr.  Harcourt and others i n r e g a r d t o the p o s i t i o n and work o f Macdonald  Institute."  Apparently, the Normal Schools, Supported f e l t t h a t the Macdonald I n s t i t u t e should merely  by the  Minister,  conduct  short  summer courses, and t h a t they, the Normal Schools, should continue w i t h the type of t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g f o r which the I n s t i t u t e was  erected.  new  In h i s l e t t e r to Harcourt, M i l l s i n -  d i g n a n t l y asked t  -,  " I f now the i n t e n t i o n i s t o arrange matters so t h a t t h i s work i s a l l to be done elsewhere, what use w i l l .there, be i n .maintaining, the.. .Macdonald. .Institute.,.. „.... Harcourt t o Robertson, Robertson  28 November 1902,  R.P.,  4,  1.  to Harcourt 29 November 1902,  R.P.,  4,  1.  at the expense o f the government and what i s the need o f g o i n g f u r t h e r w i t h the b u i l d i n g s ? " M i l l s o u t l i n e d h i s c l e a r c o n v i c t i o n that» "we should have two y e a r ' s course i n Guelph f o r those without Normal t r a i n i n g , a c c e p t i n g the one yearns t r a i n i n g i n t h e Normal School pro tanto as an e q u i v a l e n t t o our f i r s t y e a r ' s work.. , . ."H That Dr. M i l l s * cated i n h i s 1903  view appears  t o have p r e v a i l e d i s i n d i -  r e p o r t , i n which he a l s o d e s c r i b e s the  f a b r i c o f the I n s t i t u t e ! E a r l y i n the s p r i n g o f 19031 t h e c o n t r a c t o r commenced work on what are.known as t h e Macdonald Building,,Macdonald I n s t i t u t e j and Macdonald H a l l . . The former i s t o f u r n i s h l o n g and s h o r t courses i n . Home Economics (or Domestic S c i e n c e ) , Nature Study, and Manual T r a i n i n g , - a l l three f o r . t e a c h e r s , male and female, and the Home Economics f o r farmers' daughters and o t h e r young women who d e s i r e t o l e a r n the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f cooking, v e n t i l a t i o n , g e n e r a l housekeeping, l a u n d r y work, sewing, d r e s s making, m i l l i n e r y , home d e c o r a t i o n , e t c . The l a t t e r i s a women's r e s i d e n c e , o r a l a r g e and well-equipped b u i l d i n g i n which the young women who come t o take any o f the course's can have good hoard, l o d g i n g , e t c . on easy terms, and under proper o v e r s i g h t , during t h e i r stay i n College. The I n s t i t u t e i s a f i n e b u i l d i n g o f r e d pressed b r i c k , w i t h t e r r a - c o t t a trimmings, - l a r g e and imp o s i n g i n i t s g e n e r a l o u t l i n e , commodious i n i t s i n t e r n a l arrangement, and elegant as regards the q u a l i t y and f i n i s h o f the i n s i d e woodwork. The H a l l (which w i l l be ready f o r use i n September next) w i l l a l s o be a l a r g e and imposing b r i c k b u i l d i n g , with stone trimmings and o f the E l i z a b e t h a n s t y l e o f architecture. I t w i l l be w e l l f u r n i s h e d , and w i l l p r o v i d e a v e r y comfortable home f o r 107 young women, some i n s i n g l e rooms and others i n double rooms, ........ . w i t h s i n g l e i r o n beds. :.. _ _„.. „ M i l l s t o Robertson, e n c l o s u r e M i l l s t o Harcourt, 1 A p r i l 1903. R.P., 4, 1. 1  1  2  O n t a r i o , S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1903, no. 14, pp.  7-8.  Robertson was a n c i a l favours  f i r s t approached by those r e q u i r i n g f i n -  from S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald.  Dr.  Mills  Mrs-. Hoodless sought s c h o l a r s h i p s from Lord Strathcona students  at Guelph:  and for  Dr. M i l l s wrote to Robertson:  "We f i r s t thought of a p p l y i n g to Lord Strathcona f o r a number of s c h o l a r s h i p s , as he had promised to a s s i s t Mrs. Hoodless i n her' Domestic Science work and I sent Mrs. Hoodless to Montreal to i n t e r v i e w him w i t h t h a t o b j e c t i n view; but b e f o r e she l e f t , I dec i d e d t h a t i t would not be f a i r to S i r W i l l i a m to take steps i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n without c o n s u l t i n g him ... I s h a l l esteem i t a great favour i f you w i l l d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , use some i n f l u e n c e to secure the o b j e c t i n v i e w . 3 M l  From the above correspondence i t can be seen t h a t people imagined Robertson was Sir  the intermediary  through whom '  W i l l i a m could be reached, Robertson h i m s e l f was  p o i n t out t h a t the m i l l i o n a i r e had any  help forthcoming  a mind o f h i s own,  from S i r W i l l i a m was  v i c t i o n t h a t the need was  genuine and  although  quick to and  that  because of a con-  beneficial.  Lord Grey, the'Governor-General o f Canada, v i s i t e d Macdonald  Institute.  In a l e t t e r to Robertson His  Excellency  said i "I must w r i t e a ' l i n e to t e l l you what an immense p l e a s u r e I d e r i v e d from my v i s i t to the C o l l e g e . . . . You have c o l l e c t e d around you an admirable body of h e l p e r s and the s p i r i t which pervades the whole p l a c e l e a v e s nothing to be d e s i r e d . . . . "I am w r i t i n g to S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald t e l l i n g him how much I-envy him the s a t i s f a c t i o n he must experience when he t h i n k s of a l l the good h i s h e a r t , b r a i n s and money have accomplished,. with your a s s i s t ance. You c a l l y o u r s e l f a "back number" but l o n g may  1  3  M i l l s to Robertson 5 January 1904,  R.P.,  4,  1.  you remain a v a i l a b l e f o r the new annuals to r e f e r . to. I hope to see the Robertson s p i r i t go r i g h t through Canada and spread i t s i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l l y i n t o matters m u n i c i p a l , p o l i t i c a l and commercial . . . ." Heady s t u f f indeed, but i n d i c a t i v e of t h i n g s to come.  Although meeting w i t h g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l the "New t i o n " was  not without  at l e a s t one  critic.  Educa-  P r o f e s s o r James  Cappon, i n an a r t i c l e i n the Queen's Q u a r t e r l y of January f e l t t h a t Robertson, extreme  l i k e most reformers, was  1905*  apt to take  views.  Is i t r e a l l y necessary i n order to promote the cause of a g r i c u l t u r e t r a i n i n g t h a t he should d i s p u t e the p l a c e which the more g e n e r a l and l i t e r a r y elements of education have i n our present system, and a t t a c k e v e r y t h i n g from grammar . . . to the study of a r i t h m e t i c and l i t e r a t u r e ? Cappon went on to q u e s t i o n Robertson's g e n e r a l theory of e d u c a t i o n . As f a r as I have been able to f o l l o w , i n h i s u t t e r a n c e s to the d a i l y press and i n p e r s o n a l r e p o r t s which have reached me, he seems to be s t i l l under the i n f l u e n c e of f a l l a c i e s , some of which belong to the o l d t h e o r i e s of the u t i l i t a r i a n s c h o o l o f Bain and Spencer about education, while others r e p r e s e n t the new p e d a g o g i c a l tendency to set up " c o n c r e t e " methods and the o b j e c t l e s s o n i n o p p o s i t i o n to l i t e r a r y and a b s t r a c t methods i n i n t e l l e c t u a l training. Cappon concluded f o r Robertson  h i s a r t i c l e by i n d i c a t i n g h i s r e s p e c t  " i n h i s own  sphere  Lord Grey t o Robertson  16  as an o r g a n i z e r of p r a c t i c a l  December 1905,  R.P.,  4,  1.  or t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n "  hut was  sorry  "to see him i d e n t i f y i n g  a cause which i s so good w i t h t h e o r i e s which were so In h i s r e p l y to P r o f e s s o r t h a t f o r a comparatively  fessional l i f e ,  and  Cappon, Robertson suggested  s m a l l number of c h i l d r e n the  of the c l a s s i c a l languages was f o r a few  doubtful.  study  necessary f o r a l a t e r proof t h a t few,  as b e n e f i c i a l as  a means o f c u l t u r e . But, nptoeven P r o f e s s o r Cappon w i l l c l a i m t h a t the study o f these languages, to the extent p r a c t i c a b l e to boys and g i r l s i n the elementary or even i n the secondary s c h o o l s , can compare f o r a moment ( i n c u l t u r e v a l u e , or i n forming and s t r e n g t h e n i n g the c h a r a c t e r and developing the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the c h i l d r e n * or i n f i t t i n g them f o r the work of l i f e ) w i t h the t r a i n i n g o f t h e i r f a c u l t i e s by means of Nature Study work, Manual T r a i n i n g and Household Science. I take i t t h a t the c h i l d i n i t s body, mind and s p i r i t i s one and i n d i v i s i b l e , and t h a t "the t r a i n i n g of f a c u l t y " i n c l u d e s the development of whatever c a p a c i t y he may have t o wards b o d i l y a b i l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e and f i n e s p i r i t of s e r v i c e of h i s f e l l o w s and of t r u t h . Robertson d i s c l a i m e d  any  a t t a c k on the l i t e r a r y  tradition  On the c o n t r a r y I have been doing my best to commend, to encourage and to b r i n g about more e f f e c t i v e methods of study i n a r i t h m e t i c , i n language both spoken and written*' and i n l i t e r a t u r e . The methods and s u b j e c t matter o f the elementary s c h o o l s i n the p a s t , through t h e i r bookishness, have hindered the t u r n i n g out of p u p i l s with a b i l i t y to read and w r i t e w e l l , to speak c o r r e c t l y and to compute a c c u r a t e l y and q u i c k l y . It i s my b e l i e f and hope t h a t Nature Study, Manual T r a i n i n g and Household Science as methods of education w i l l supplement books i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to express themselves i n c l e a r , c o r r e c t and b e a u t i f u l language, as w e l l as i n a c t i o n s .  ? James Cappon, " S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald and Rural Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , X I I , (January 1 9 0 5 ) , 3 1 5 - 2 2 .  Education,  Some knowledge of the needs of r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and o f the a r t o f a g r i c u l t u r e has taught me more u s e f u l and c o n g e n i a l employment f o r the " l i t e r a r y f a c u l t y and i n s t i n c t " than the mental e x e r c i s e which t h a t s o r t of thing affords.lo  James W. Robertson, " P r o f e s s o r Cappon's A r t i c l e i n the Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y X I I , ( A p r i l 1905)i pp. 4-20-24. ' . 1 ( 5  Part Robertson as  6  P r i n c i p a l o f Macdonald  College  On 1 January 1905» Robertson r e s i g n e d  the p o s i t i o n  Commissioner of A g r i c u l t u r e to devote h i s e n t i r e time energy to the  c a r r y i n g out  of y e t another scheme of  f o r the betterment of r u r a l l i f e , v i z . , an and  Teachers' T r a i n i n g School s i t u a t e d  of which he was College,  the  to become P r i n c i p a l .  i n s t i t u t i o n grew out  to h e l p the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n the most of i t and  and  education  Agriculture  College  i n Quebec Province To be known as  and  Macdonald  of the d e s i r e by S i r  b u i l d up  of  William  the country and make  themselves.  Announcing to the House of Commons the news of the m i s s i o n e r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n to take up t h i s new M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e  position,  Comr-  the  declared*  I need h a r d l y dwell upon the r e g r e t which I p e r s o n a l l y f e e l at the l o s s of so eminent and s u c c e s s f u l , and p a i n s t a k i n g a p u b l i c s e r v a n t . My only r e l i e f ... i s the knowledge t h a t . . . P r o f e s s o r Robertson s t i l l s e r v e s . t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of Canada, having taken a p o s i t i o n i n the c o n t r o l and management of a great . . . c o l l e g e . 1  A l e t t e r to Robertson from J . A. N i c h o l s o n , R e g i s t r a r McGill University,  Montreal, expressed the  f e e l i n g s of  M c G i l l Normal School Committee to.which,  Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1905* p. 6932.  the  of  "the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b r i n g i n g the Normal School i n t o c l o s e touch with the new A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e t o be e r e c t e d a t S a i n t Anne was presented. And I was . i n s t r u c t e d t o inform you t h a t great d e l i g h t was expressed a t the i n t e r e s t S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald has taken i n the matter o f r u r a l education i n the Province of Quebec, and t h a t the Normal School Committee i s w i l l i n g to cooperate w i t h him i n t h i s good work . . . . "  2  On 13 March 1905#.a s p e c i a l meeting o f t h e , P r o t e s t a n t Committee o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the Province o f Quebec, was h e l d at M c G i l l Normal School,  The Secre-  t a r y , George Parmelee, announced t h a t P r o f e s s o r James had been appointed  Robertson  a member by order o f t h e Lieutenant  i n - C o u n c i l , and a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, was  p l e a s e d t o confirm t h a t S i r William.Macdonald  GovernorHe  through the  Macdonald R u r a l School Fund would provide f o u r t e e n s c h o l a r s h i p s o f $50 f o r each female and $75 f o r each male t e a c h e r t o . enable t e a c h e r s from t h i s Province t o take a three months course  i n Nature Study work at Macdonald I n s t i t u t e a t Guelph.  An i n c r e a s e o f $ 2 . 5 0 would be made t o the s c h o l a r s h i p o f those who completed t h e course s u c c e s s f u l l y , and an allowance of f i v e cents a mile one way would be made f o r t r a v e l l i n g  expenses.  The meeting f u r t h e r heard from P r o f e s s o r Robertson o f S i r William's i n t e n t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a Teacher's  C o l l e g e and  C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e at Ste. Anne-be-Bellevue with a r e s i d ence f o r female t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g , a r e s i d e n c e f o r male t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g , and courses  i n Nature Study, Household  Science, and Manual T r a i n i n g .  Nicholson to Robertson  3 March 1 9 0 5 ,  R.P., 4 ,  8,  It was  moved and seconded t h a t "Whereas the p r o p o s a l s  made to t h i s committee by S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald . . . o p i n i o n of. t h i s committee i t i s expedient  i n the  t h a t a l l normal  t r a i n i n g of teachers be done at Ste. Anne . . . ." But S i r W i l l i a m was  anxious  t h a t any b e n e f a c t i o n he made  should not be the means "of r e l i e v i n g the government or t a x payers  from the duty of p r o v i d i n g funds" t h e r e f o r e ,  I t i s proposed t h a t such a c t i o n taken by the P r o t e s t a n t Committee w i l l ensure t h a t i f , and when, the government may be r e l i e v e d from the n e c e s s i t y of meeting the whole (or p a r t ) of the annual expenditure i n c u r r e d at the present time f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the Normal School i n the c i t y of Montreal, the amount t o be saved . .. . s h a l l be p l a c e d at the d i s p o s a l as f o l l o w s t a.) Not l e s s than one h a l f the amount to a s s i s t P r o t e s t a n t s c h o o l s , b) The remainder to promote, education g e n e r a l l y i n P r o t e s t a n t Schools. Mr.  Parmelee's r e p o r t of the meeting concluded w i t h a  l e t t e r to be sent to S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald thanking him f o r h i s generous p r o p o s a l s and a s s u r i n g him t h a t a s m a l l committee had been appointed  to c o n s i d e r t h e i r  details.^  Quebec, u n l i k e s e v e r a l other p r o v i n c e s , d i d  not.possess  an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e supported by p u b l i c funds. William supplied.this d e f i c i e n c y . 1904,  Robertson  purchased  the Province of Quebec.  Sir  As e a r l y as the autumn of  l a n d at Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue i n The s i t e was  a b e a u t i f u l one,  l o o k i n g the Ottawa River at Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue.  over-  The main  Minutes of ;.a Meeting of t h e P r o t e s t a n t Committee of the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the Province of Quebec, h e l d at M c G i l l Normal School, Montreal, 13 March 1905, R.P., .4, 8.  l i n e s o f t h e Grand Trunk and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railways passed through the p r o p e r t y , and the s t a t i o n s o f both r a i l w a y s were s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the boundaries. The purpose o f the i n s t i t u t i o n was o u t l i n e d by Robertson i n a speech to the Bedford Dairymen's convention i n 1906. The i n s t i t u t e would comprise a department o f farms, a department o f r e s e a r c h and a department o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  The depart-  ment o f farms would c o n s i s t o f demonstration or i l l u s t r a t i o n farms, each f u l l y equipped and s e l f c o n t a i n e d .  The department  o f r e s e a r c h was t o be equipped w i t h a competent s t a f f and commodious and s u i t a b l e l a b o r a t o r i e s .  One l a b o r a t o r y b u i l d i n g  would c o n t a i n departments o f b i o l o g y , b a c t e r i o l o g y and entomology.  O r i g i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be undertaken f o r the  b e n e f i t o f the Dominion a t l a r g e .  In the department o f i n -  s t r u c t i o n , p r o v i s i o n would be made f o r s h o r t courses f o r farmers, t h e i r sons and daughters, i n such s u b j e c t s as l i v e s t o c k , improvement  o f seeds and s o i l s ,  p o u l t r y keeping, farm machinery e t c .  fruit  culture,  dairying,  Women's courses would  i n c l u d e sewing, cooking, dressmaking, m i l l i n e r y , housekeeping and so on. In p l a n n i n g f o r an e x t e n s i o n o f the a s s i s t a n c e which he had been g i v i n g towards the improvement  of r u r a l s c h o o l s , S i r  W i l l i a m wished t o implement a course o f teacher t r a i n i n g s u i t a b l e f o r the needs o f r u r a l education e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s own p r o v i n c e o f Quebec.  Teachers i n r u r a l s c h o o l s would be-  come competent not only i n " o r d i n a r y s u b j e c t s as accepted h i t h e r t o , , but w i l l be q u a l i f i e d t o use these newest means o f  education known as nature study work, household manual t r a i n i n g . " to take any  Teachers  courses  undergoing  s c i e n c e and  t r a i n i n g d i d . n o t need  i n the departmentoof A g r i c u l t u r e , hut  would have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o do so i f they d e s i r e d .  In  a d d i t i o n to the f u l l term courses, s h o r t courses were o f f e r e d f o r the p r a c t i s i n g  teachers.  S i r W i l l i a m was  anxious  to p r o v i d e the best k i n d of  b u i l d i n g for" the money expended.  Residences  f o r men  and  women t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o l l e g e b u i l d i n g s made "a handsome group . . . s t a n d i n g on a s i x t y acre f i e l d , s l o p i n g towards the r i v e r , w i t h a f i n e southern  and  eastern, exposure."^  A P r o v i s i o n a l Announcement d e s c r i b e d Macdonald C o l l e g e as i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y .  I t s t a t e d t h a t the  c o l l e g e would open on 17 September 1907.. I t s purposes were 1) For the advancement of education; f o r the c a r r y i n g on of r e s e a r c h work and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of  knowledge; a l l with p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d to the i n t e r e s t s needs of the p o p u l a t i o n i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s .  2) To  s u i t a b l e and e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s and  and  provide  especially  f o r those whose work w i l l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the education i n schools i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s .  Both men's and women's accommoda-  t i o n s had gymnasiums and swimming p o o l s .  The b u i l d i n g s were  of f i r e p r o o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h r o o f of s t e e l and r e i n f o r c e d concrete.  A l l areas were a i r - c o n d i t i o n e d .  Addressr.at the Bedford Dairymen's Convention, C o w a n s v i l l e , Quebec, 31 January and 1 February 1906, R.P., 4-, 6.  Admission  to the School f o r Teachers was  admission to the M c G i l l Normal School. r e s i d e n t s of the Province of Quebec.  to be as f o r  T u i t i o n was  free to  "Board, room and  washing of a s p e c i f i e d number of p i e c e s w i l l be f u r n i s h e d for  $ 3 . 2 5 per week each where two  students occupy one room:  and $3»50 f o r s i n g l e occupancy."5 In a front-page spread, the Family Herald Weekly S t a r , Montreal, proclaimed the v i r t u e s of the new  establishment.  With such t r a i n i n g as i s soon p o s s i b l e . . . the teachers w i l l be a b l e to a r t i c u l a t e the country s c h o o l c l o s e l y and smoothly w i t h the country home, the neighbourhood and the country at l a r g e . . . they should be a b l e to u t i l i z e the l o c a l community l i f e i t s occupations, r e s o u r c e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t r a d i t i o n s and customs f o r the r u r a l s c h o o l . The a r t i c l e concluded with some s t a t i s t i c s to the t h a t the whole p l a n t would exceed  effect  one and a h a l f m i l l i o n  d o l l a r s and t h a t S i r W i l l i a m had put a s i d e an endowment of two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s "so as to make the C o l l e g e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g for  a l l time."  S i r W i l l i a m b e l i e v e d t h a t the new  institution:  w i l l be the main f a c t o r l i n the c r e a t i o n of a new a g r i c u l t u r e f o r Quebec, whereby farmers w i l l make more o f themselves and t h e i r farms. He b e l i e v e s , moreover, t h a t r u r a l s c h o o l s can be r e v i v e d and r e d i r e c t e d through the C o l l e g e . . . so t h a t they can be r e a l u p l i f t i n g f o r c e s i n the r u r a l l i f e of Quebec. Robertson was i n a l e t t e r from W.  4,  f o r m a l l y appointed  Vaughan,, S e c r e t a r y of M c G i l l University:.  ^ P r o v i s i o n a l Prospectus  8.  6  17  April  1907.  P r i n c i p a l of the C o l l e g e  of Macdonald C o l l e g e , 1907»  R.P.»  "I have p l e a s u r e i n i n f o r m i n g you that at t h e i r meeting h e l d y e s t e r d a y the Board o f Governors passed the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n . "'.Resolved t h a t Jas. W. Robertson L.. L. D., C.M.G., be and he i s hereby appointed s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f the C h a r t e r , P r i n c i p a l o f Macdonald C o l l e g e , . a t a s a l a r y o f $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 per annum w i t h f r e e r e s i d e n c e , l i g h t and water..' "?  P r i n c i p a l Robertson  at a l l times emphasized the need f o r  good t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g , and o f the importance o f a p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f the worth o f the t e a c h e r .  At Charlottetown he  asked, "what h i n d e r s those who might be teachers from going i n t o t h i s p r o f e s s i o n , p e e r l e s s i n i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r good? Want o f p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . " p l a i n e d o f the s m a l l remuneration  He com-  offered teachersi  people say, "Oh, w e l l , s c h o o l s c o s t a great d e a l even w i t h the s m a l l s a l a r i e s p a i d t o teachers now." What o f t h a t ? I n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n youth are the means of b r i n g i n g an abundant harvest of n a t i o n a l . wealth . . . . I f the people w i l l s t a r v e the s c h o o l s the s c h o o l s may r e t a l i a t e by l e t t i n g people s t a r v e , m e n t a l l y , then m o r a l l y , and i n a measure m a t e r i a l l y also. S a l a r i e s f o r teachers must go up or the people w i l l go down. In the same speech Robertson  p e r m i t t e d h i m s e l f a look  i n t o the s c h o o l o f the f u t u r e .and o u t l i n e d a programme o f study p r o v i d i n g f o r the development@of the mind, body and spirit  s y m m e t r i c a l l y , and t h e r e f o r e s u i t e d to the ages and  powers o f c h i l d r e n .  7 Vaughan t o Robertson,  2 0 A p r i l 1 9 0 7 , R.P., 4 , 8 .  Probably one q u a r t e r o f the time w i l l be devoted to doing t h i n g s w i t h the hands w i t h t a n g i b l e t h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g a l l forms of manual t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s , games and p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e ; one q u a r t e r to languages, p a r t i c u l a r l y one's mother tongue, h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , songs and p i c t u r e s ; another q u a r t e r to a r i t h m e t i c and mathematics and the remainder of the time t o s c i e n c e . To be e f f e c t i v e , the whole course must n e c e s s a r i l y be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n such a way as t o develop a f i n e sense o f p r o p o r t i o n and a keen sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . , He dwelt  on the i n t e g r i t y of the.programme,  insisting  that« Manual t r a i n i n g , household s c i e n c e and s c h o o l gardens were not put i n the s c h o o l courses to s a t i s f y women's c l u b s or c o u n c i l s , but t o improve the s c h o o l s fundamentally f o r the c h i l d r e n and to p r o v i d e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s w i t h new q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . During the course of a l e c t u r e e n t i t l e d  "Education  l a t i o n to the N a t i o n a l H e r i t a g e , " d e l i v e r e d to the[May Club i n I 9 0 8 , Robertson and  enlarged on the importance'of  i n ReCourt  education  attempted a d e f i n i t i o n of i t 1 Education i s a word of many meanings - an e l u s i v e term, d i f f i c u l t of d e f i n i t i o n , because used to r e p r e s e n t experiences u n l i k e i n t h e i r n a t u r e . I t i s not a somet h i n g or a s u b j e c t detachable from l i f e . I t may be h e l d to be, or t o r e s u l t from, a s e r i e s of experiences arranged t o l e a d to the i n c r e a s e of (a) knowledge, (b) power, a b i l i t y and s k i l l and (c) good w i l l s i n the i n d i v i d u a l s and i n the community. Of the "newer educat i o n " no matter how new i t may be i t must s t i l l stand for culture. But i t must promote c u l t u r e and knowledge as means and not ends i n themselves.^ Education, Robertson  f e l t , wast  f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u p i l as an i n d i v i d u a l , as a coming c i t i z e n , and as one l i n k i n the c h a i n of. l i f e .  J. W. Robertson, "Education f o r the'Improvementoof Rural C o n d i t i o n s , " Address at Charlottetown, P.E.I., 20 J u l y 1907. R-R  *+,7  The powers r e s u l t i n g from i t may improvement of (1) The home and safeguards.  i t s comforts,  be a p p l i e d to the  conveniences  and  (2) The occupation and the s e c u r i t y of i t s opport u n i t i e s , s a t i s f a c t i o n s and remunerations; and (3) The s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n order t h a t t h e r e may be an i n c r e a s e of g o o d - w i l l and c o o p e r a t i o n s . Such a p p l i c a t i o n s o f education would b r i n g about what has been c a l l e d the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of r u r a l l i f e . 9  In s u r v e y i n g the Macdonald Movement as helped by S i r W i l l i a m , Robertson  hoped t h a t i t w o u l d —  a s s i s t i n b u i l d i n g up something b e t t e r than i s now known and done, and thereby d i s p l a c e what i s poor. It aims at h e l p i n g the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n to understand b e t t e r what education i s and what i t aims at f o r them and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . . I t plans to h e l p n i n p r o v i d i n g more competent l e a d e r s f o r the h o r t i c u l t u r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Robertson teacher.,  envisaged a wide and important  r o l e f o r the  He claimed t h a t i  i n the Macdonald Movement, the aim.has been to a i d the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , to h e l p the t e a c h e r s thems e l v e s to q u a l i f y f o r the,new needs of t h e i r c a l l i n g , to help the public' to o b t a i n such teachers and to encourage them to a p p r e c i a t e them more h i g h l y . I f our f u t u r e as a n a t i o n i s to be s a t i s f y i n g , i t must needs be t h a t the t e a c h e r s h a l l be r e c o g n i z e d as a l e a d e r and not merely as a t e a c h e r of l e t t e r s . For l e a d e r s h i p , he'must have powers of sympathy, i n s i g h t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and to secure a f o l l o w i n g of the people, as w e l l as of the c h i l d r e n , he must be possessed of s k i l l , s c h o l a r s h i p and energy, and w i t h a l l these, have c h a r a c t e r animated by enthusiasm, u n s e l f i s h n e s s and purpose to s e r v e . •  C e n t r a l Canada C i t i z e n ,  Ottawa, 31 March 1908,  pp.  1-6.  Robertson f i n a l l y warned, " N a t i o n a l s u i c i d e l i e s d i r e c t i o n of b e l i t t l i n g  i n the  teachers." ^ 1  Macdonald C o l l e g e i n the words of h i s daughter,  Mrs.  I s h b e l Robertson C u r r i e r i was t r u l y the c r e a t i o n of James W. Robertson, working, w i t h S i r W i l l i a m ' s money. The whole p r o j e c t e n t a i l e d an enormous amount of work of a l l k i n d s , t r a v e l to see other a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s a l l over the country, l a b o u r d i s p u t e s i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , h i r i n g s t a f f , arguments about housing s t a f f , e r r o r s i n drainage plans f o r the farm l a n d , constant v i s i t o r s and p u b l i c i t y plans., speaking engagements here, there and everywhere. 1  S a t i s f y i n g as h i s accomplishments must have been as Commissioner  f o r D a i r y i n g and  spread a l l over Canada.  A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e i r r e s u l t s were  The  C o l l e g e on the other hand,  "was  a s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n to Canadian education and must have g i v e n him  a s o l i d sense of achievement."^  2  An example of the k i n d of problem w i t h which Robertson as P r i n c i p a l had to d e a l i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a l e t t e r he r e c e i v e d from a member of h i s s t a f f . the same s i d e of a duplex.  Apparently One  two  p r o f e s s o r s wanted  of them, H. S. A r k e l l , com-  plained t "Dr. S n e l l and I have had c o n v e r s a t i o n ... but he d e f i n i t e l y r e f u s e s to accept the p r o p o s i t i o n of drawing l o t s . I had thought over the matter caref u l l y and c o u l d f i n d n e i t h e r j u s t i c e nor s a t i s f a c t i o n  1 0  1 1  1  2  Ibid. C u r r i e r , B r i e f Biography, Ibid.  p.11.  i n agreeing to go i n t o the n o r t h s i d e . . . . Under the circumstances I wish to withdraw my p r o p o s i t i o n to c a s t l o t s and d e f i n i t e l y make a request f o r the south s i d e of the house on the s t r e n g t h of my s e n i o r p o s i t i o n on the F a c u l t y . Herbert  F r a n c i s Sherwood, i n an a r t i c l e  i n The  Outlook,  i l l u s t r a t e d contemporary o p i n i o n of the.College« Intended f o r t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e , homemaking and t e a c h i n g , i t i s probably the best equipped and most advanced i n s t i t u t i o n o f i t s type i n the world. I t stands f o r the advancement of education, the p r o s e c u t i o n of r e s e a r c h work, and the disseminat i o n o f knowledge, allvcwith p a r t i c u l a r regard to the i n t e r e s t s and needs of the p o p u l a t i o n i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . It i s S i r William's g r e a t e s t yeast cake. I t i s the supreme i l l u s t r a t i o n of Dr. Robertson's methods of leavening. The mere f a c t of i t s e x i s t e n c e i s an educ a t i o n a l f o r c e , f o r i t a d v e r t i s e s the u n d e r l y i n g i d e a of the Macdonald movement and s e t s people t h i n k i n g about i t  Thus i t came as a great shock to many people when the r e s i g n a t i o n of Robertson from the post of P r i n c i p a l of Macdonald  C o l l e g e was  h i n t e d at i n the  Ottawa C i t i z e n .  There are v a r i o u s rumours a f l o a t t h a t Dr. Robertson's occupancy of the P r i n c i p a l s h i p has l o n g been something l e s s than a bed of r o s e s . It i s rep o r t e d t h a t he d i f f e r e d on many p o i n t s concerning the management of the s c h o o l from S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald . . . . I t i s a l s o s a i d t h a t some of those i n Montreal who had the ear of S i r W i l l i a m were not f r i e n d l y to Dr. Robertson and t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e f r i c t i o n has been engendered thereby. 15  1  3  A r k e l l to Robertson, 22  September 1909,  R.P.,  4,  Herbert F r a n c i s Sherwood, " C h i l d r e n of the Land," Outlook, A p r i l 1910, p. 901. 1  5  5 January  1910.  5. The  wrote a c o n f i d e n t i a l l e t t e r to W i l l i a m Vaughan, s e c r e t a r y of McGill  University.  "I enclose herewith my a p p l i c a t i o n f o r l e a v e of absence f o r a p e r i o d of two months. T h i s i s the f i r s t step i n the course which, you a l r e a d y know from our conference, I c o n s i d e r i t d e s i r a b l e to take i n the i n t e r e s t o f Macdonald C o l l e g e . I s h a l l . f o l l o w t h i s up by a s k i n g the board t o accept my r e s i g n a t i o n as P r i n c i p a l at the end of February, 1910."1° But t h e r e had been even e a r l i e r rumours o f problems. Maclean  On 24 February 1909,. J . B. Maclean,  Robertson's P r e s i d e n t of  Newspapers, wrote i n the s t r i c t e s t o c o n f i d e n c e t o  Robertson: "I was t o l d the other day t h a t you had completed your work at the Macdonald C o l l e g e and might s h o r t l y g i v e i t up t o a younger man . . . . At that time I made a s u g g e s t i o n f o r your employment by another government but s i n c e then, I have been t h i n k i n g about i t , and i f the statement i s t r u e , I would l i k e t o d i s c u s s . t h e f u t u r e w i t h you b e f o r e you decide upon o t h e r plans."1? • W. 1909,  D. Hoard, of Hoard's Dairyman, w r i t i n g on 11 December  requested Robertson to 1 " T e l l me i f the s i t u a t i o n i s improved any conc e r n i n g S i r W i l l i a m , and do you f i n d y o u r s e l f strengthened? I do not f e e l , t h a t you need.consider your l i f e work as being wrapped up i n Macdonald College e n t i r e l y . Heaven knows that I wish we had you i n the United S t a t e s . " -  l  b  Robertson to Vaughan, 17 December 1909,  R.P.,  4,  9.  1  7  Maclean t o Robertson, 24 February 1909,  R.P.,  4,  9.  1  8  Hoard to Robertson, 11 December 1909,  R.P.,4, 9.®  W i l l i a m Vaughan f o r h i s " p r i v a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . "  It revealed  that a r e s o l u t i o n had been passed by the Board o f Macdonald C o l l e g e t o the e f f e c t t h a t s The Board expresses great r e g r e t t h a t the circumstances a t t e n d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the • b u i l d i n g s and r e s i d e n c e s o f Macdonald C o l l e g e should have c a l l e d f o r such a communication from the founder . . . . I t was recommended t h a t a s t a n d i n g committee should be approved: to d i s c u s s w i t h Dr. Robertson the f i n a n c e s o f the c o l l e g e , and t o a u t h o r i z e such expenditure as they may approve . . . . That without the approval o f such committee, P r i n c i p a l Robertson should be i n s t r u c t e d n o t t o a u t h o r i z e or i n c u r any new expendit u r e o f any amount exceeding say $ 1 0 0 . 1 9 What had happened, was t h a t Robertson had been spending money which had been a p p r o p r i a t e d  f o r other purposes on h i s  own C o l l e g e p r o j e c t , an a c t i o n which must have i r r i t a t e d the meticulous The  m i l l i o n a i r e , and a l s o Mr. Vaughan, o f M c G i l l .  l a t t e r s e t out a l o n g l i s t  Committee had considered  o f complaints  which the  and s t a t e d t h a t " P r i n c i p a l Robertson  f r e e l y admits t h a t h i s a c t i o n i n i n c u r r i n g the expenditure without  r e f e r e n c e t o and approval by . . . the Board was a  mistake on h i s p a r t  . . . . "  2  0  Robertson's problem was t o f i n d accommodation f o r about forty extra teachers-in-training.  1 9  2 0  Since most o f the Governors  Vaughan t o Robertson, 15 December 1909,. R.P., , L  Ibid.  .  '  9.  were out of. the c i t y , he was i n s t r u c t e d t o c o n s u l t a Mr. Greens h i e l d s , the T r e a s u r e r o f M c G i l l .  He appears n o t to have done  so, hut he d i d c o n s u l t w i t h members o f Macdonald C o l l e g e Comm i t t e e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l  alterations  were made a t Macdonald C o l l e g e i n order t o provide  and•furnish  a d d i t i o n a l bedrooms. , Mrs. C u r r i e r s a i d o f h e r f a t h e r t h a t the $100 l i m i t . m u s t have been "a severe blow t o h i s p r i d e as w e l l as a f r u s t r a t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n t o h i s plans f o r t h e f u t u r e o f the C o l l e g e . r e s i g n i n g , he t o l d no one o f h i s reasons,  In  and t h e c o n d i t i o n s  22 which l e d up t o i t were never made p u b l i c . " Consequently, on 27 December 1909t  Robertson made h i s  decision.  To Vaughan he wrote i "I hereby r e s p e c t f u l l y request the Board t o accept my r e s i g n a t i o n as P r i n c i p a l o f Macdonald . C o l l e g e as from 31st December, 1 9 0 9 . " ^ . The Winnipeg Free Press devoted t h r e e columns on 6 January  1910  to P r i n c i p a l Robertson's impending r e t i r e m e n t from the  College.  It saidj  When P r i n c i p a l Robertson requested leave o f absence . . . i t was remarked t h a t i t might be a f i r s t step towards a wider f i e l d o f s e r v i c e for.Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e , and.the betterment o f c o n d i t i o n s o f r u r a l l i f e g e n e r a l l y . Dr. Robertson now confirms t h a t expect a t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t he w i l l leave . . . f o r Switzerl a n d , France and Denmark, t o study a t f i r s t hand the r u r a l economy o f these o l d e r c o u n t r i e s where n o t a b l e  21 Ibid. C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 1 3 . 2  3  Robertson t o Vaughan, 27 December 1 9 0 9 .  R.P., 4 ,  9.  progress has been made through a g r i c u l t u r a l education . . . Dr. Robertson w i l l take o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f g i v i n g . . , i n f o r m a t i o n on the enormously e x t e n s i v e and v a l u a b l e resources o f Canada, and a l s o on the wonderf u l developments o f i t s people. His l o n g experience as Commissioner o f A g r i c u l t u r e . . . gave him an • i n t i m a t e and comprehensive knowledge o f Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e , such as i s possessed by few other c i t i z e n s . . . . The reasons f o r h i s a c t i o n can only be surmised as y e t but t h e r e has been almost from the beginning, s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r o f . Robertson and t h e governing powers o f M c G i l l . The l a t t e r view w i t h i l l concealed j e a l o u s y t h e p o u r i n g o f m i l l i o n s by S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, who has l o n g been M c G i l l ' s c h i e f b e n e f a c t o r , i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e s which they r e g a r d as o f l e s s importance than the c l a s s i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c and medical i n s t i t u t i o n s maintained by the university. It i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e Free Press was somewhere near the mark by i t s assumption o f academic arrogance  o r snobbish-  ness on t h e p a r t of academia, i n i t s a n a l y s i s o f the s i t u a t i o n . Robertson  h i m s e l f was a h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and i n t e n s e l y p r a c -  t i c a l man and w h i l s t he might i n s i s t t h a t there was a p l a c e i n a u n i v e r s i t y programme f o r h i s k i n d o f t r a i n i n g , were many who f e l t  there  i t ' had no p l a c e on a u n i v e r s i t y campus.  T h i s argument as between l i b e r a l s t u d i e s and s o - c a l l e d  voca-  t i o n a l t r a i n i n g remains i n f o r c e today. On 10 January  1910, Vaughan informed  Robertson  that the  Board o f Governors o f M c G i l l had accepted h i s r e s i g n a t i o n ands takes the o p p o r t u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i n g t o him i t s h i g h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the energy and v i g o r o u s i n i t i a t i v e which he threw i n t o a l l the p r e l i m i n a r y work of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and establishment o f t h e College,, as w e l l as i t s great a d m i r a t i o n f o r the f o r c e f u l q u a l i t i e s which have made him one o f the pioneers o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e i n Canada. They r e c o g n i z e t h a t these q u a l i t i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the g i f t o f l u c i d  e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i v e argument, have made Dr. Robertson, i n the matters w i t h which he undertakes to d e a l , a power i n the l a n d . . . .24  From h i s many f r i e n d s and and  affection.  The  his  relationshipi  students came l e t t e r s of  c l a s s of 1911  i n Agriculture,Ihoped  regard, that  "to us as our Honorary Class P r e s i d e n t may not be a f f e c t e d i n anyway. Many t i e s a l r e a d y b i n d us t o you, and we appreciate. . . . the f a c t t h a t you were always to us a wise and p a t i e n t f r i e n d and c o u n s e l l o r as w e l l as a beloved p r i n c i p a l . . . your s p i r i t and p e r s o n a l i t y under the present circumstances so s t r o n g l y appeal to us and so win our admiration t h a t i n our • "Doctor" the t r u l y h e r o i c s p i r i t p r e v a i l s . . . ."^5 R.  W.  Cowley, Inspector  of Continuation  Schools,  Toronto,  was s " p a i n f u l l y s u r p r i s e d at the news thatyyou have severed your connection.with the Macdonald E d u c a t i o n a l Movement . . . . The Macdonald Schemes, i n c l u d i n g cons o l i d a t i o n , have a l l been p l a n t e d p r o s p e r o u s l y and have taken permanent r o o t i n Ontario . . . . Any f a i l u r e s t h a t c r i t i c s p o i n t to are p u r e l y l o c a l and merely temporary . . . a l r e a d y the C o n t i n u a t i o n Schools r e p r e s e n t the C o n s o l i d a t i o n of the advanced c l a s s e s o f n e a r l y a thousand s c h o o l s e c t i o n s s c a t t e r e d a l l the way from the doors of Montreal to the p o r t a l s of D e t r o i t , and from the suburbs of Toronto to New L i s k e a r d and from Ottawa to Winnipeg . . . . I am i n the p o s i t i o n to know t h a t the Macdonald Movement has helped most m a t e r i a l l y , to improve v a s t l y our people's view p o i n t of education . . . »" ° 2  24 Vaughan to Robertson, 10 5 C l a s s of 1911, Robertson, R.P., 4, 2  2  ^  January 1910,  R.P.,  4,  A g r i c u l t u r e , Macdonald C o l l e g e , 9.  Cowley to Robertson, 17  January 1910,  R.P.,  4,  9. to 9.  A. H. MacKay, wrote to Robertson. "The students at Macdonald, I understand, are p r o f o u n d l y depressed by the news o f your r e s i g n a t i o n . • I .look upon i t as merely the c a r r y i n g out of. the p l a n s you have been f o r some time forming . . . I hope t h e r e w i l l be' n o t h i n g to i n t e r f e r e w i t h your f u n c t i o n i n g as P r e s i d e n t of the Dominion E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . . . ."27 From Washington D.C.  came a l e t t e r from G i f f o r d Pinchot,  He d e c l a r e d » "I am more s o r r y than I can at a l l say t h a t you are going t o leave Macdonald College,, I t i s wrong f o r every reason "that t h i s n e c e s s i t y s h o u l d have been f o r c e d upon you--a n e c e s s i t y which you r e c o g n i z e by . your g e n e r o s i t y and which many another man would not see i n that l i g h t . . . ,"28 One v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g l e t t e r was a member o f Macdonald  sent by J . van der  C o l l e g e s t a f f , on 23  j u s t b e f o r e Robertson's  December  -  Leek,  1909,  resignation.  "When you l e f t us l a s t n i g h t , I had the c r u s h i n g f e e l i n g t h a t I was unable t o show you how much I . . . r e s p e c t and admire you. Many of us have s i n c e passed a s l e e p l e s s n i g h t , w i t h the f a c t b e f o r e our eyes t h a t we were g o i n g to l o s e you . . . . I e s p e c i a l l y want to show you my profound r e s p e c t and c o n f i d e n c e , because t h e r e was a time, t h a t I hated you, t h a t I c o n s i d e r e d you my worst enemy, t h a t I would have r e j o i c e d i n the® thought, t h a t you were going to l e a v e us. I misjudged you, I d i d not see, .could not comprehend, your broadminded p l a n s and mistook them for. p e t t y e g o t i s t i c scheming. I am ashamed t h a t I have ever nursed such thought and can at present only admire you as a g r e a t man. There was a time Dr. Robertson, t h a t I c a l l e d you the i d o l of the farmers, t h a t I thought your i n f l u e n c e l i m i t e d to the more simple minded people. I  27  Mackay t o Robertson, 15  January 1910,  R.P.,  4,  9.  28 Pinchot to Robertson, 5 January 1910,  R.P.,  4,  9.  know b e t t e r now, I know how you i n s p i r e everyone, from the man who cannot read h i s name to the s c h o l a r w i t h twenty y e a r s o f U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . I t w i l l be my p r i d e t o t e l l the world, i n l a t e r years t h a t James Robertson was my p r i n c i p a l 1907-1910, the years that the c o l l e g e was the e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e o f Canada . . . t h a t i t was you who formed us . . . . 1 , 2 9  It must have been w i t h the g r e a t e s t r e g r e t . t h a t resigned  from Macdonald C o l l e g e  w i t h p r i d e on a task w e l l done.  although he c o u l d look back Of a l l the d e c i s i o n s he ever  had  t o make, t h i s was probably the most d i f f i c u l t .  big  d e c i s i o n he made was when he j o i n e d Ontario  College  Robertson  The f i r s t  Agricultural .  i n 1886, the second was when he became Dairy  Commissioner  f o r t h e Dominion, the t h i r d was when he accepted the P r i n c i p a l s h i p o f Macdonald C o l l e g e .  As a man o f l a r g e ideas he c o u l d  not be f e t t e r e d by the p e t t y r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed upon him. Now o l d e r , h i s f u t u r e was u n c e r t a i n .  29  J. van der Leek t o Robertson, 2 3 December 1909, R.P., 4, 9.  CHAPTER IV ROBERTSON'S ACTIVITIES WITH THE DOMINION EDUCATION ASSOCIATION AND THE COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION  (1910-1919)  The l e t t e r s from Dr. MacKay and G i f f o r d Pinchot  reveal  two other i n t e r e s t s t o which Robertson gave h i s a t t e n t i o n ? the Dominion E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , o f which he was p r e s i d ent from 1909 t o 1917, and the Commission o f Conservation, o f which he was Chairman o f the Committee  on Lands.  Robertson  f i r s t addressed a Convention o f the D.E.A. as e a r l y as 1901, when he pleaded f o r the appointment o f a Committee  o f the  A s s o c i a t i o n t o take up the matter o f the improvement  of r u r a l  s c h o o l s on the l i n e s b e i n g developed by the Macdonald movement.  Such a committee "could approach the Departments o f  Education o f the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s with suggestions and recommendations and o f f e r s o f c o o p e r a t i o n which would doubtless be welcomed . . . ." This committee was c o n s t i t u t e d , Dr. Goggin moving, Dr. Sinclair  seconding— That i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o t e s t under proper c o n d i t i o n s , the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e and  Robertson  a l s o spoke a t the 1 9 0 ? convention o f the  D.E.A., h e l d i n Toronto, on, "Education f o r the Improvement of R u r a l C o n d i t i o n s . "  He warned h i s audience  o f some o f the.  problems p e c u l i a r t o Canada due t o i our youth, our s i z e : t o the c h a r a c t e r , vastness and p o t e n t i a l v a l u e s o f our undeveloped r e s o u r c e s ; and t o the l a r g e amount o f f o r e i g n blood p o u r i n g i n t o our c i t i z e n s h i p . The l a r g e i n f l o w o f f o r e i g n e r s who come to. mix w i t h our people adds d i f f i c u l t i e s t o the o r d i n a r y problems o f a g r i c u l t u r e and o f education. These people b r i n g i n not merely d i f f e r e n t methods o f doing t h i n g s , but d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l standards and i d e a l s . . . . For our s a f e t y and t h e i r w e l f a r e i t i s necessary t h a t these people should be so educated, so l e d and so guided by Competent l e a d e r s t h a t they w i l l be i n c l i n e d t o l i v e on the l a n d , and not herd i n t o the c i t i e s . . . . As P r e s i d e n t o f the D.E.A.*s convention i n Ottawa, 1 9 1 ? , Robertson .1901  reminded h i s l i s t e n e r s o f the request he made i n  f o r t h e appointment o f a committee t o examine the "new  e d u c a t i o n " as supported by the Macdonald Movement. The r e s u l t s o f t h a t Movement, have passed from memoranda and r e p o r t s i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n , administ r a t i o n , and methods o f education i n every Province i n Canada . . . i t i s not too much t o say t h a t , i n  Dominion- Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Proceedings (Ottawa, 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. 2 2 - 2 3 ; 9 9 - 1 0 3 . For a h i s t o r y o f the D.E.A., see F. K. Stewart, The Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n — I t s H i s t o r y and Role. (M. Ed. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1 9 5 6 ) . For the e a r l y formation o f the D.E.A. which c o n s i s t e d o f Superintendents o f Education, P r e s i d e n t s o f U n i v e r s i t i e s , P r i n c i p a l s o f Normal Schools and P r e s i d e n t s o f Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n s , see Dominion Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Addresses and Proceedings (Montreal, 1 8 9 2 ) , p u b l i s h e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n , Montreal, 1 8 9 3 « . D.E.A. Proceedings,  (Toronto, 1 9 0 7 ) ,  p. 62.  consequence elementary education i n 'every Province i n Canada has been immensely advanced, p a r t i c u l a r l y in r u r a l schools.3  The  Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n ^ was a d i r e c t outcome o f  the appointment, by the P r e s i d e n t o f t h e United S t a t e s , o f an Inland Waterways Commission.  On 3 October 1 9 0 7 , t h a t Com-,  .mission addressed t o the P r e s i d e n t a memorandum t h a t the time had a r r i v e d f o r the adoption  suggesting  of a national  p o l i c y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n , and u r g i n g t h a t a conference o f Governors o f States o f the Union should be h e l d at the White House t o c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n .  Such a conference  was duly  c a l l e d a t t h e White House i n . May 1 9 0 8 , ' with a c o n s i d e r a b l y broadened base o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Leading  p u b l i c i s t s i n the  United S t a t e s d e c l a r e d t h a t no more important ever taken p l a c e on the c o n t i n e n t .  g a t h e r i n g had  A declaration of prin-  c i p l e s was adopted and steps taken t o promote j o i n t a c t i o n between F e d e r a l and State Governments. Commission was appointed, the f i r s t  which proceeded t o make perhaps  and only attempt t o formulate  n a t i o n a l resources  Later a n a t i o n a l  an i n v e n t o r y o f the  of a n a t i o n .  3 D.E.A. Proceedings,  (Ottawa, 1 9 1 7 ) . p. 3 8 .  ^ Act E s t a b l i s h i n g the Commission o f Conservation, 8 - 9 Edward VII, 1 9 0 9 . D e t a i l s of. .this. .Act and the.subsequent appointment o f members o f The Commission o f Conservation,. Canada, see Commission o f Conservation, Canada, F i r s t Annual Report, (Ottawa, Mortimer, 1 9 1 0 ) .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s a c t i o n , P r e s i d e n t Theodore  Roosevelt,  r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s of c o n s e r v a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s have no  i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries,  of Mexico and  i n v i t e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Canada to meet at Washington i n a j o i n t  American conference.  Upon the r e p o r t of the Canadian  North delega-  t i o n , the Canadian Government determined to c o n s t i t u t e a permanent Commission The  of'Conservation.^  Canadian Government, aware of the s e n s i t i v i t i e s  of  the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s , framed the P r o v i s i o n s of the Act i n I909,  i n such a way  as to preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  ground f o r j e a l o u s y over s o v e r e i g n t y . f o r e secured  The  any  Commission t h e r e -  the most e f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the views of  each p r o v i n c e and was  reckoned "probably  t i o n a l i n i t s composition  the most t r u l y  of any body t h a t has  na-  ever been con-  s t i t u t e d i n Canada."^ There were v a r i o u s committees of the Game and  Fur-Bearing  Animals; F o r e s t s ; M i n e r a l s ; P u b l i c Health;  Water and Water-Power; Press and and  Lands.  cooperating  In h i s i n a u g u r a l address  o c c a s i o n of the f i r s t  Commission--Fisheries,  Organizations;  to the Commission on the  annual meeting, the Chairman, the  C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , p o i n t e d out t h a t under the terms of the of 1 9 0 9 »  the Commission was  t r a t i v e body."  0  Hon.  not  Its c o n s t i t u t i o n  "an executive nor an  Hon. Act  adminis-  "gives i t power to take  into  Inaugural address of the Chairman of the Commission, the C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , I b i d . , pp. 4-5.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n every s u b j e c t which may members as' r e l a t e d to the c o n s e r v a t i o n  be regarded ,by i t s :  of n a t u r a l  resources,"  but  the r e s u l t s of t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n were "advisory  and  i t was  such  f o r the Governments concerned to accept  only"  or r e j e c t  advice.^ S i f t o n , surveying  the l a n d s i t u a t i o n i n Canada, proposed  t h a t Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e was  i n a b e t t e r s t a t e of treatment  than, other branches o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  He p r a i s e d  the  development o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e and  expressed h i s  p r e c i a t i o n o f men  have done a work  l i k e Dr.  Robertson "who  ap-  o  the  importance of which i t i s impossible  to over  In Robertson's f i r s t r e p o r t , e n t i t l e d  "The  estimate." Conservation  of A g r i c u l t u r a l Resources," the chairman of the Committee Lands,, gave a masterly  review o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s  on and  p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Canada and askedi Can anything more be done to a t t r a c t our own people to stay on the l a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y to keep the young men and young women s a t i s f i e d on the l a n d ? What are other peoples doing, and w i t h what.success? Let us f i n d o u t . 9  Thus i n the same r e p o r t , the Commission was Dr. It  Robertson would be v i s i t i n g abroad i n the s p r i n g of 1 9 1 0 . felt  t h a t he should  be g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y of the  "to make i n q u i r y on our b e h a l f  7  I b i d . , p.  8  I b i d * • PP'  9  informed t h a t  3. 25-26.  I b i d . , p. 5 8 .  Commission  as to methods t h a t p r e v a i l i n  other c o u n t r i e s r e s p e c t i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n was  passed t o t h a t  effect.  . . . ."  A resolution  1 0  . I n a speech to the Conference on Conservation F e r t i l i t y and  S o i l F i b r e , Winnipeg,  of  Soil  (1919), Robertson reviewed  some o f the work t h a t the Committee on Lands had  done.  The Committee began by a s c e r t a i n i n g as f u l l y . as p o s s i b l e the c o n d i t i o n o f lands under c u l t i v a t i o n and whether the system and methods o f farming were r e s u l t i n g i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n of f e r t i l i t y and productivity. For s e v e r a l years i t conducted surveys o f c o n d i t i o n s on groups of farms i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i s t r i c t s i n every p r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t of i t s f i n d i n g s the Committee s e l e c t e d some farms which "stood out c o n s p i c u o u s l y as examples o f tion."  Such farms were chosen by neighbouring  conserva-  farmers  in  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Commission as " i l l u s t r a t i o n farms," to become examples o f what c o u l d be achieved.  From t h i s  initial  development arose the s e l e c t i o n of an I l l u s t r a t i o n County. The essence of the scheme i s to d i s c o v e r , develops and c a l l i n t o use the a b i l i t y and c h a r a c t e r of the best men and women of each community f o r l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p ; and to supplement that by h e l p i n g to b r i n g i n t o each community the best t h i n g s of any community, i n proper r e l a t i o n s h i p to a l l of the other best community s e r v i c e s and c o n d i t i o n s . H The  B r i t i s h Government became i n t e r e s t e d i n the  of i l l u s t r a t i o n farms d u r i n g World War  I when a g r i c u l t u r e ,  so badly n e g l e c t e d b e f o r e the c o n f l i c t , was  I b i d . , pp.  197-98.  R.P.,3,3.'  concept  given high  priority  in  administrative planning.  A l e t t e r from the Board o f A g r i -  c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s , London, dated addressed to Robertson, requests  24 J a n u a r y 1 9 1 7 , and  i n f o r m a t i o n from him'on the  work o f i l l u s t r a t i o n farms and c o u n t i e s . Robertson's f r i e n d s h i p with of P r e s i d e n t Roosevelt's  Gifford P i n c h o t , a  government, began i n 1907.  m  e  m  D  e  r  when S i r  Horace P l u n k e t t , ^ a l e a d i n g advocate of c o n s e r v a t i o n 1  i n Great  B r i t a i n , wrote a l e t t e r t o Mr. P i n c h o t . i n which he s t a t e d : "I am very anxious t h a t you should meet, and .have.a good t a l k w i t h , Dr. Robertson o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n (Macdonald C o l l e g e ) . He has, as you know, e l a b o r a t e d the whole scheme out o f h i s b r a i n , S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald f i n d i n g a l l the money . . . . I t i s not y e t i n a c t i v e o p e r a t i o n , but t o my mind the scheme as thought out i s so comprehensive and so e x a c t l y what i s r e q u i r e d f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g p u b l i c thought on the problem o f r u r a l l i f e t h a t i t w i l l s h o r t l y take the l e a d o f a l l s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , e i t h e r i n the Old World or the New . . . . I am u r g i n g Dr. Robertson t o come to Washington . . . . I t h i n k you w i l l f i n d him the same out-standing p e r s o n a l i t y i n Canada t h a t B a i l e y appeared to me to be i n the United States."- ^ 1  In the same l e t t e r , Plunkett hoped f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y . of a convention  i n Washington d u r i n g the Presidency o f  P r e s i d e n t Roosevelt,  to discuss r u r a l l i f e ,  an i n t e r e s t which  "the P r e s i d e n t has made h i s own, d u r i n g h i s term o f o f f i c e . "  ^  R.P., 3 , 3 .  V? F o r a b r i e f biography o f Pinchot, see E n c y c l o p e d i a Americana, Canadian E d i t i o n , 1970, XXII, 9 3 . . For a b r i e f biography o f P l u n k e t t , see E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 11th E d i t i o n , 1 9 1 0 - 1 1 , XXI, p. 857. 1 4  5 P l u n k e t t t o Pinchot, 14 October 1907. R« P«» 3» 3• 1  Copy t o Robertson.  I f such a convention were c a l l e d the. E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world,  "I should l i k e i t t o embrace  or i f r e s t r i c t e d to the United  S t a t e s , I should l i k e t o have Dr. Robertson guest  from Canada  i n v i t e d as a  CHAPTER V THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION AND TECHNICAL TRAINING (1910-1913)  Although  Robertson was no l o n g e r P r i n c i p a l o f Macdonald  C o l l e g e , he was f a r from unemployed.  During the next f o u r .  years he not o n l y occupied h i m s e l f with the Dominion Education A s s o c i a t i o n and the Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , but s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s departure from S t e . Anne-de-Bellevue  was appointed  chairman o f t h e Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and Technical Education.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  Commission r e s u l t e d i n important  changes i n Canadian Education.  Upon r e s i g n i n g from the c o l l e g e , Robertson  informed Dr.  McKay t h a t he intended t o spend s i x months i n Europe w i t h h i s w i f e and t h a t he would v i s i t the United Kingdom.  S w i t z e r l a n d , Denmark, Sweden and  He hoped "to gether a good d e a l which I  s h a l l be a b l e t o t u r n over t o the Dominion Education A s s o c i ation." six  He would then r e t u r n t o Newfoundland and Canada f o r  t o e i g h t weeks and s a i l  from Vancouver t o Japan, then go  on t o A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and South A f r i c a . t o u r "a post p r i n c i p a l ' s  Robertson  course.  1,1  He c a l l e d  "  t o MacKay, 20 January "1910, R.P. , 4, 9.  this  A l e t t e r t o the Hon. Sidney F i s h e r t o l d o f h i s attendance at the B r i t i s h House o f Commons where he had l i s t e n e d t o speeches by Winston C h u r c h i l l , A. J . B a l f o u r , Austen. Chamberlain. and  Bonar Law and  " I am i n t e r e s t e d i n comparing the methods  s t y l e o f p u b l i c speaking w i t h those which I know i n Canada."  He added» " i f I am wanted f o r anything i n connection w i t h the work o f the proposed Commission on T e c h n i c a l Educat i o n , I t h i n k I would decide t o go (to r e t u r n t o Canada)." 2  By t h i s time, Robertson was " p o s s i b l y the most widely known a u t h o r i t y on education i n Canada," a c c o r d i n g daughter, Mrs. C u r r i e r . 3  to h i s  Thus, when t h e Canadian Government  d i d appoint a Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and Technical  Education i n 1910^ Robertson, i n view o f h i s educa-  t i o n a l work, and the r e p u t a t i o n Chairman.  he had made, was named i t s  A p r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l l e t t e r from Mackenzie  King, M i n i s t e r o f Labour i n S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r ' s L i b e r a l Government, reached him w h i l s t he was i n t h e United The  Kingdom.  M i n i s t e r informed Robertsons  Robertson t o Hon. Sidney F i s h e r , 4- A p r i l 1910,  R.P., 5 , 3 .  3 C u r r i e r , B r i e f Biography, p. 1 3 . ^ "For enquiry i n t o the needs and present equipment o f our Dominion o f Canada r e s p e c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n t o the systems and methods o f t e c h n i c a l - i n s t r u c t i o n . o b t a i n i n g i n . other countries..." . Report o f the Royal Comm i s s i o n on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education, 1 9 1 3 » V o l . 1 , Parts 1 & 2 , p. 5 .  "The Government has had under c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p e r s o n n e l o f the Royal Commission about t o be app o i n t e d , whose f u n c t i o n was t o enquire i n t o the needs and present equipment o f the Dominion as r e s p e c t s i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and i n t o the system and methods o f t e c h n i c a l education o b t a i n i n g i n other c o u n t r i e s . . . . I have been pleased t o mention your name as t h a t o f one p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o f i l l the p o s i t i o n o f chairman o f t h i s important Commission . . . . You are so f u l l y s e i z e d of t h e n a t i o n a l importance o f the proposed work t h a t I do not f e e l i t i s necessary t o add any words as t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s u b j e c t or o f the u l t i m a t e ' importance t o the Dominion o f the s e r v i c e s which the Commission's work i f p r o p e r l y performed, may be expected t o render . . . . While I do not.want to b i n d my c o l l e a g u e s (Cabinet) i n any way, I would, were you prepared t o accept t h e chairmanship . . . press v e r y s t r o n g l y f o r your appointment.5  The enactment o f l e g i s l a t i o n by the Dominion  Government  to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e towards i n d u s t r i a l education had been •advocated by* the Dominion Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , and by v a r i o u s Boards o f Trade, i n a j o i n t memorial presented t o the Government  a t Ottawa i n March 1901.  I t p o i n t e d out t h a t p e r  c a p i t a i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the U.S. was $1^3, while t h a t of Canada was only $ 9 8 . 5 0 .  A Royal Commission and a M i n i s t e r  of I n d u s t r i a l - Education were asked f o r .  Again i n 1 9 0 5 , the  Annual Convention o f the Dominion Trades and Labour C o u n c i l passed a s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n t o the e f f e c t t h a t an appeal be made t o t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments t o enact "such l e g i s l a t i o n and make such a p p r o p r i a t i o n s as w i l l permit the  5 W. L. Mackenzie King to Robertson, 12 May 1910, ^ Morang's  Annual R e g i s t e r , 1901,  p. 3 1 ? .  R.P., 5 ,  3.  mechanic and a r t i s a n o f Canada the p r i v i l e g e o f education on l i n e s o f E l e c t r i c and C i v i l • E n g i n e e r i n g , Chemistry, carving, Modelling e t c . "  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these  Wood-  importunings  were turned a s i d e by r e f e r e n c e t o p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B.N.A. Act which s t i p u l a t e d t h a t education was the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the provinces.''  7  The need o f i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n i c a l education was recogn i z e d by l e a d e r s i n education and i n d u s t r y i n Ontario p r i o r to these demands f o r a c t i o n .  Dr. Ryerson made s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e  to the f u n c t i o n and v a l u e o f such t r a i n i n g i n h i s Report f o r i.871.  The Toronto  evening  C i t y C o u n c i l made p r o v i s i o n i n 1900 f o r  c l a s s e s i n t e c h n i c a l education, while other  munici-  p a l i t i e s , g i v e n impetus by the p h i l a n t h r o p y o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , as f o r example, Mr. L i l l i a n Massey-Treble and through the e f f o r t s of Mrs..Adelaide classes f o r workers. In 19091  Hoodless,  alsoestablished'similar  0  Dr. John Seath was commissioned by the Ontario  Government t o r e p o r t upon a d e s i r a b l e and p r a c t i c a b l e system o f t e c h n i c a l education f o r O n t a r i o , f o r which purpose he examined i n d u s t r i a l education systems i n Europe.  His r e p o r t ,  c o n s i d e r e d by J . M. McCutcheon as perhaps " u n e x c e l l e d as a t r e a t i s e on t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n " l e d t o l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1911, which gave e f f e c t t o h i s recommendations.  7  9  Canada, House o f Commons Debates, 1907-8, p. 2877.  ^ McCutcheon, P u b l i c Education i n O n t a r i o , Chap. V I I I . 9  Ibid.  That the Government d i d e v e n t u a l l y appoint such a comm i s s i o n i n 1910,  was  i n p a r t due  to the u r g i n g of the member  f o r South W e l l i n g t o n , Hugh G u t h r i e , who  d u r i n g the 1907-08  s e s s i o n o f the House o f Commons movedt That i n the o p i n i o n of t h i s House i t i s des i r a b l e t h a t a commission of i n q u i r y be f o r t h w i t h appointed to i n v e s t i g a t e the needs o f Canada i n r e s p e c t to t e c h n i c a l education, and to r e p o r t on ways and means by which these needs may best be met. In h i s preamble, Guthrie informed  the House t h a t h i s  r e s o l u t i o n had been brought at the j o i n t request of the Trades and  Labour C° gress of Canada and n  Association.  Further support  of the Canadian  Manufacturer's  came from l e a d i n g Canadian edu-  c a t i o n i s t s , U n i v e r s i t y [-presidents and boards of t r a d e commerce.  Guthrie suggested  t h a t the demand, t h e r e f o r e ,  by ho means " l o c a l or s e c t i o n a l , but character."  Great  United States..  and was  entirely national in i t s  changes had taken p l a c e i n Europe and  These c o u n t r i e s were no longer  contents  w i t h the o l d s c h o l a s t i c r o u t i n e but they are a n n u a l l y spending v a s t sums . . . upon t e c h n i c a l training. They are p u t t i n g f o r t h e f f o r t s to r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r methods and systems of education w i t h a view to the immediate heeds of the people i n the hope t h a t i t may a s s i s t the people i n g a i n i n g a l i v e l i h o o d and a s s i s t the n a t i o n i n m a i n t a i n i n g i t s p l a c e i n the markets of the world. The manufacturer's demand f o r t e c h n i c a l educations a r i s e s l a r g e l y from the f a c t t h a t . . . he has f e l t h i m s e l f handicapped i n p r o c u r i n g h i g h l y s k i l l e d labour i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s f o r h i s purpose w h i l e the demand from the workman a r i s e s from the. very l a u d a b l e ambition which he has to p e r f e c t h i m s e l f i n r e g a r d to h i s own t r a d e ... i n order t h a t h i s work may become l e s s l a b o r i o u s and more remunerative and t h a t he may be a b l e to f i i i a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n than t h a t which he now occupies.  the  Guthrie expounded at l e n g t h on the system of t e c h n i c a l education a p p l y i n g i n Germany—a n a t i o n which was enormous s t r i d e s forward  making  i n an i n d u s t r i a l c a p a c i t y .  He went  on t o review s i m i l a r schemes i n o p e r a t i o n i n B r i t a i n  and  S w i t z e r l a n d , and reminded the House o f the f u n c t i o n s of the M o r r i l l Act of 1862, s t a t e which agreed mechanical  i n the United S t a t e s , by which every  t o e s t a b l i s h a c o l l e g e of a g r i c u l t u r e or  a r t s should r e c e i v e a F e d e r a l Land  He admitted  Grant.  that thet  most f o r m i d a b l e q u e s t i o n i n regard to the matter i s to a s c e r t a i n i n p r e c i s e l y what way the Parliament of Canada, can take a c t i o n i n r e f e r e n c e to i t , having regard t o the somewhat p o s i t i v e language which i s used i n s e c t i o n 93 of the B.N.A. Act, which p r o v i d e s "In and f o r each p r o v i n c e the l e g i s l a t u r e may e x c l u s i v e l y make laws i n r e l a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n . " To circumvent  t h i s o b s t a c l e Guthrie suggested  n i c a l education " i s a matter scholarship.  that tech-  of economics r a t h e r than  of  It i s a matter which w i l l y i e l d a monetary  r e t u r n r a t h e r than a r e t u r n i n c u l t u r e and  refinement."  L o g i c a l l y then, s i n c e i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g was  so " i n t i m a t e l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l t r a d e and commerce of t h i s subjects^ over which t h i s parliament has a u t h o r i t y . . . f a i r l y say t h a t i t comes w i t h i n the a u t h o r i t y and of  this  we  may  jurisdiction  parliament."  During the debate,  some members were concerned  ernment a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was of  country,  y e t another  t h a t Govexample  p a t e r n a l i s m , and as such should be l i m i t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r  aspects o f ' i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n .  Others f e l t t h a t such  a s s i s t a n c e should encompass a l l o f i n d u s t r i a l  endeavour.  10  Mr, G u t h r i e , unable t o impress the Government w i t h the soundness o f h i s argument  during that session, introduced a  s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n i n 1909,' and presented arguments as b e f o r e . Throughout t h e ensuing debate, supporters of the motion hammered home the theme o f n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l ,  o f the need f o r  expanding markets; i n substance, the economics o f t h e s i t u a t i o n overcame  considerations of p r o v i n c i a l  jurisdiction..  Consequently, the Government gave i t s consent t o the i n s t i t u t i o n o f a Commission  o f Enquiry on the l i n e s suggested  i n G u t h r i e ' s r e s o l u t i o n and wasted no time i n composing i t s membership.  11  Robertson accepted the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f e r , and the 31 May 1910,  r e c e i v e d a cablegram from Mackenzie King, i n f o r m i n g him t  that he had been appointed Chairman o f t h e Commission and that the  government  early  July.  hoped that the Commission  c o u l d s t a r t work i n  1 2  A f u r t h e r l e t t e r t o Robertson from. King o u t l i n e d the personnel o f the Commission.  There were the Hon. John Armstrong,  M.L.C., r e p r e s e n t i n g the Maritimes; Mr. Gaspard De S e r r a s , L'Ecole Technique, Montreal, r e p r e s e n t i n g Quebec; Dr. George  1  0  Canada, House o f Commons,' Debates, 190?-08, pp. 2856-2881.  1  1  Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1 9 0 9 - 1 0 ,  12  R.P. , 5 ,  ..  12.  pp. 1023-1098.  Bryce, o f Winnipeg; Mr. G i l b e r t Murray, S e c r e t a r y o f the Canad i a n Manufacturer's  A s s o c i a t i o n ; Mr. James Simpson, Toronto,  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Labour; of  and Dr. David F o r s y t h , P r i n c i p a l  B e r l i n C o l l e g i a t e and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l .  was  t o be s e c r e t a r y and r e p o r t e r .  .Mr. Thomas Bengough  Mackenzie King concluded h i s  l e t t e r by s a y i n g , " I am p l e a s e d a t your acceptance Chairmanship  o f the Commission, and t h a t under  of the  your.guidance  I l o o k forward to- i t s . work being, of r e a l and enduring to  t h i s country. "-^  .  service  '  Speaking b e f o r e t h e Ontario Club, Toronto, King p r o c l a i m e d t The Commission . . . w i l l meet w i t h the Boards o f Trade, the working men. I t t h e i r needs and seek t o understand them. look f o r p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b e t t e r conditions.  employers, w i l l study It w i l l industrial  D e a l i n g w i t h the Commission's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s abroad t h e Commission would i  "see and study i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s . " ^ 1  What w a s . f u r t h e r wanted, was as complete  an overview o f  a l l aspects o f i n d u s t r y , commerce, and e d u c a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to. the Canadian  scene as i t was p o s s i b l e t o g e t .  King, M i n i s t e r  of  Labour-, and i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s expert, was a l s o  anxious  to  r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the working man's s i t u a t i o n ,  hence h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e committ.ee t o look t o ways and means o f b e t t e r i n g working  conditions.  King's hand can a l s o  be...seen i n , the.,Government• s. . i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t a . l i t t l e , i n d u s t r i a l 3 King t o Robertson,, 1 June 1910, R.P., 5 , 3 . The B i o g r a p h i e s of the. members .of .the Commission can be found i n . H . J . Morgan, Canadian Men and Women o f the Time, (Toronto: B r i g g s , 1 9 1 2 ) , Parts 1 & 2 . 1  Canadian  Annual  Review, 1910, p. 3 2 5 .  "snooping" should be undertaken w h i l e the commission  was  abroad. Thus the Government envisaged a very wide r o l e f o r the Commission. The Government's s e l e c t i o n o f Robertson to c h a i r i t s Commission was indeed f o r t u n a t e , and i n d i c a t e d the r e g a r d i n which he was h e l d .  He was the obvious c h o i c e .  t r a t o r he had proved h i s a b i l i t y ; Government department  As an adminis-  as permanent head o f a  which he h i m s e l f had s t a r t e d from n o t h i n g  h a d . d i r e c t e d w i s e l y , and had l e f t  a t h r i v i n g concern, he was  a success; as manager o f the Macdonald Fund, and o f the Macdonald Seed G r a i n Competition, and l a t e r as the P r i n c i p a l o f a c o l l e g e he had performed w e l l . communicate w i t h p r a c t i c a l men. o p i n i o n s c a r r i e d weight.  As a p r a c t i c a l man he c o u l d As l e a d i n g educator h i s  Furthermore, he had achieved d i s -  t i n c t i o n both i n Canada and abroad.  His p r i v a t e  background  was i m p e c c a b l e — a s t r o n g P r e s b y t e r i a n , i n the time when such a f f i l i a t i o n s counted f o r something, good c i t i z e n s h i p and p a t r i o t i s m .  he had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r  As a speaker h i s g i f t s were  a p p r e c i a t e d , w h i l e h i s w r i t t e n r e p o r t s and evidence b e f o r e v a r i o u s P a r l i a m e n t a r y committees were models o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c l a r i t y .  F i n a l l y , he knew how t o handle the p r e s s i n  order to propagate such i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he f e l t was i n support o f schemes i n hand.  Mackenzie King estimated the time allowed by the  govern-  ment f o r the Commission'to do i t s work as one y e a r . ^ . (The 1  Commission i n f a c t commenced i t s work at H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , on 18 J u l y 1910,  and brought  out i t s f i n a l r e p o r t on 3 1  May  1913-)  During t h i s time, the Commissioners i n v e s t i g a t e d the s t a t e of I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education i n every p r o v i n c e i n Canada, c r o s s e d to Europe to continue i n England,  Scotland,  I r e l a n d , Denmark, France, Germany, S w i t z e r l a n d , and r e t u r n e d to the United States t o complete t h e i r  Great i n t e r e s t was  enquiry.  aroused throughout  Canada by the news  of the appointment of the Commission and i t s purpose.  The  Morning C h r o n i c l e , H a l i f a x , announced: The Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l Education w i l l assemble i n H a l i f a x today, to inaugurate what promises to be a g r e a t forward movement f o r a n a t i o n a l system of t e c h n i c a l education and ^ i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g . Never has a Commission appointed by the Government undertaken a more important work and never has a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y been presented i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s work. Under the B r i t i s h North America Act, education i s one of the s u b j e c t s assigned t o the P r o v i n c e s , but i n the present i n s t a n c e t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n of c o n f l i c t of j u r i s d i c t i o n , f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Premiers and Governments are h e a r t i l y c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the F e d e r a l Adminis t r a t i o n , and i n f a c t , have asked f o r the appointment o f the commission . . . . The personnel o f the Royal Commission i n s p i r e s c o n f i d e n c e , and i s f o r t u n a t e i n having as i t s chairman Dr. W. J . Robertson, who has , been d e s c r i b e d as a g r e a t p i o n e e r i n education . . . . °  *5 King to Robertson.,  12 May .1905, R.P.,  Morning C h r o n i c l e , H a l i f a x , 18 J u l y  5, 1910.  3.  The  same newspaper a l s o p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e from the  London '(England) D a i l y M a i l , w r i t t e n by W.  Beach Thomas,  who  i n t e r v i e w e d Robertson i n London p r i o r to h i s r e t u r n to Canada to  take up h i s chairmanship  of the  Commission.  Robertson i s one of the l e a d e r s of the world's thought today. His p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald has helped to f r u c t i f y the ideas beyond a l l . precedent. The d i s p e r s a l . a n d the germinationnof the seeds of t h e i r philosophy have g i v e n l i f e to h a l f a great continent. Of s c h o o l gardens, Robertson s a i d , "In Canada the s c h o o l garden i s becoming the f o u n d a t i o n of the whole e d u c a t i o n a l system. I t i s the c e n t r e o f s c h o o l l i f e '. . . ." Of the Royal Commission, which he was to head, Robertson observed, "The Commission w i l l survey the whole of Canada to d i s c o v e r and r e g i s t e r i t s mental resources o f the f i t n e s s of the growing genera t i o n to understand and develop the country . . . . Have the c h i l d r e n manual s k i l l and mental i n s i g h t worthy of a g r e a t Dominion at the c r i s i s of i t s development?"17  To u t i l i z e to the f u l l s e n t a t i v e group and Commission was  the v a r i o u s t a l e n t s of t h i s  repre-  i n order to f a c i l i t a t e i t s work, the  d i v i d e d i n t o compartments of study.  Murray  took charge of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s and  office  management as h i s s p e c i a l t y ;  relations  of  C o l l e g e work to T e c h n i c a l Education;  C o l l e g i a t e and to  Bryce organized the  F o r s y t h had  Secondary T e c h n i c a l Schools and t h e i r  manual t r a i n i n g ;  the relations  Simpson looked a f t e r the hours of l a b o u r ,  f a c t o r y v e n t i l a t i o n and l i g h t , r a t e s of wages e t c . ; Armstrong s t u d i e d e s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g to legislation;  De Serras looked a f t e r the a r t i s t i c  element i n  i n d u s t r i a l problems.  The Commission furthermore d i v i d e d  i t s e l f i n t o two s e c t i o n s - — t h e Western o f which Bryce was Chairman, and the Eastern o f which Armstrong was Chairman. Robertson, o f course, was o v e r a l l Chairman. Reviewing the work so f a r done i n the Toronto Globe o f 29  August 1910,  Secretary  Bengough  explained!  There i s everywhere a b s o l u t e unanimity o f o p i n i o n as t o the g r e a t need f o r more e f f e c t i v e measures f o r i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l education. To the V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , 2 December 1910,  Robertson  confidedt In Canada the g e n e r a l n e g l e c t .or abandonment of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n l a r g e measure f o r the l a c k o f s k i l l e d labour i n t h e . d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s and t r a d e s . . . . Prom every q u a r t e r we have heard t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g need f o r d i f f e r e n t and b e t t e r education for. those who work i n the trades and i n d u s t r i e s o f the Dominion. At t h e beginning mission's  o f .1911. Robertson r e v e a l e d the Com-  preliminary findings.  To the Canadian Club of  Ottawa he e x p l a i n e d i We began our work o f e n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e present equipment o f Canada f o r I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education, our need i n r e s p e c t t h e r e t o , and how our f o l k s thought t h e i r needs could be met. We v i s i t e d one hundred c i t i e s , towns and important localities. Our course'was u s u a l l y f i r s t t o v i s i t i n d u s t r i a l establishments and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , then t o h o l d a s e s s i o n t o r e c e i v e testimony under oath. We h e l d 173 such s e s s i o n s . We have . . . t h e testimony o f over 1500 o f t h e l e a d i n g men and women o f Canada . . . . E d u c a t i o n a l i s t s , '  Canadian Annual Review,' 1910,  p. 327.  c a p i t a l i s t s and employers and workmen gave t h e i r evidence. Women t e s t i f i e d i n regard t° the needs of women i n T e c h n i c a l Education . . . . I t i s a l l important t h a t our f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g should be b e t t e r than they a r e . . . . There was i n Canada, a g e n e r a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the product o f the schools. _ P e r s o n a l l y , and not as chairman o f the Commission, Robertson f e l t t h i s was due t o the emphasis i n s c h o o l on the three "R'"s.  What was needed i n s c h o o l s :  was some o p p o r t u n i t y when they a r e past twelve, . whereby the hoy w i l l r e v e a l to, h i m s e l f and h i s teachers and:parents the bent o f h i s a b i l i t y i n some experience i n handwork, as w e l l as book work, b e f o r e the boy leaves the. common school,, t h a t w i l l • g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f how he should prepare f o r h i s l i f e ' s work. Another i s the need, i n the case o f a boy from f o u r t e e n t o s i x t e e n who intends t o go i n t o some s k i l l e d t r a d e , t o get a chance t o l e a r n i n s c h o o l the meaning and use o f common t o o l s and the q u a l i t i e s o f common m a t e r i a l s . Another i s t h e need of s c h o o l s w i t h an e q u i v a l e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l content and t r a i n i n g o f our high s c h o o l s , f o r the boys who are going i n t o i n d u s t r i a l l i f e . . . . There i s need of. some o p p o r t u n i t y o f secondary education t o make up to the boy f o r what he does not now get, through l a c k of an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system. We need some forenoon, a f t e r n o o n or evening s c h o o l t o g i v e him the p r i n c i p l e s as w e l l as the s k i l l s . . . we need evening schools f o r workmen, t o f i t them f o r advancement and promotion . . . we need i n t i m a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l management and the managers o f s c h o o l s and c l a s s e s where workers are t r a i n e d . . . . We need t r a i n i n g f o r women and g i r l s t o g i v e them fundamental concepts of s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s making f o r the s a f e t y o f the home, h y g i e n i c n u t r i t i o n making f o r the economical maintenance o f the f a m i l y , and domestic a r t t h a t w i l l enable them t o f u r t h e r enjoy t h e i r l o v e o f the beaut i f u l by a b i l i t y t o make b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s f o r the house . . . . 1 9  ., 9 Ottawa Citiz.en.,. .28 February . 1 9 1 1 - . .- Interim .Statement.,. Report. ,o,f Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education, V o l . 1 , p a r t s 1 and 2 , pp. 5 8 - 6 5 .  On the a r r i v a l o f the Commission i n England, the London Times r e p o r t e d a communication from i t s chairman which s i m i l a r i n content i n Canada. appointed  to the views he had  was  expounded s h o r t l y b e f o r e  Both the Canadian employer and worker were d i s w i t h the product  of the Canadian common s c h o o l s ,  t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m d i d not allow f o r the development "of c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n " or b r i n g out  "any  power o f management," t h a t  young people, when they came to the f a c t o r i e s l a c k e d  the  initiative  and were "wanting i n the q u a l i t i e s which make a good e f f e c t i v e workman."  Robertson p o i n t e d out how  the r a p i d development of  Canada.had l e d to employment, which had y i e l d e d high wages f o r a .time "so t h a t a boy  of eighteen  f o r the job f o r which he was  f i n d s h i m s e l f too b i g  engaged and without  any k i n d o f  t r a i n i n g to enable him to i n c r e a s e h i s earning power, or to h e l p h i s l o c a l i t y by becoming a good p r o d u c t i v e member of society." train  Employers s t a t e d t h a t "they c o u l d not be bothered  apprentices."  to  2 0  A f t e r spending s i x months i n Europe, Robertson and h i s c o l l e a g u e s r e t u r n e d t o Canada. at  The  Ottawa C i t i z e n quoted  length. The weather was c o n s t a n t l y agreeable; and t r a v e l l i n g accommodation i n Europe, by r a i l w a y steamer and by road.was i n v a r i a b l y more than comfortable. The c r e d e n t i a l s o f the Commission, the h e l p f u l n e s s of Lord Strathcona, the c o o p e r a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n England, S c o t l a n d and I r e l a n d , and the generous a s s i s t a n c e of the B r i t i s h Embassies i n the f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , opened every d e s i r a b l e door . . . .  The  Times (London), 14 A p r i l  1911.  him  seen and done, Robertson  statedJ  perhaps from no other country were we able to l e a r n as much concerning e f f i c i e n c y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n c a r r y i n g out of methods f o r the t r a i n i n g of the workers as i n I r e l a n d and S c o t l a n d r e s p e c t i v e l y . He concluded by saying» one comes back to Canada, not only without any abatement of a f f e c t i o n and admiration f o r her people and her i n s t i t u t i o n s , but with a renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f i n e outlook here f o r a l l who are a b l e and w i l l i n g to work h o n e s t l y and w i t h good w i l l . Our systems of education have r a i s e d the g e n e r a l i n t e l l i gence o f the people to a l e v e l which compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t o f the other c o u n t r i e s . That determines the k i n d and extent of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l education which can be a c q u i r e d . . . . 1  On 4 June 1913»  the Report  of the Commission was  i n t h r e e volumes to Parliament through the Hon. M i n i s t e r of Labour.  T. W.  presented Crothers,  I t i n c l u d e d a comprehensive survey of the  Commission's f i n d i n g s and o p i n i o n s ; i t s study and a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s kinds of education and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to the T e c h n i c a l branch;  the experiences d u r i n g t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  abroad.  (The r e p o r t o f what had been done or should be done i n the Canadian p r o v i n c e s was correspondence Robertson  was  not ready at the c l o s e of 1913».and  p u b l i s h e d i n November of t h a t year between  and the M i n i s t e r of Labour which i n d i c a t e d a f e e l i n g  on the l a t t e r * s p a r t t h a t the Report was should be completed  at once.)  Ottawa C i t i z e n , 7  October  1911.  l o n g overdue and  The  Commissioners were c o n s t r a i n e d to r e c o r d t h e i r  to the c h a r a c t e r of the men  and women who  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of education and who  worked at the classroom  visited  level.  In a l l the  by/ the Commission educators  tribute  of  those  countries  discussed f u l l y  and  f r a n k l y not only the systems and methods which p r e v a i l e d i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , but a l s o the problems which faced the c e n t r a l and l o c a l . a u t h o r i t i e s , and the plans and  e f f o r t s which were  b e i n g made t o meeting e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . In c o m p i l i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained the Commissioners were guided  i n other c o u n t r i e s ,  to a l a r g e extent by what they  had l e a r n e d as t o the needs of Canadian Workers and occupations  and  industries.  i n f o r m a t i o n from each country  Consequently they arranged i n such a way  r e l a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and  r e p o r t e d with g r e a t d e t a i l on those and  the  as to show the  T e c h n i c a l Education  g e n e r a l system or systems of education  i n s t i t u t i o n s , courses  Canadian  i n t h a t country  systems and  to a and  methods,  c l a s s e s which seemed most l i k e l y  to  f u r n i s h examples of u s e f u l n e s s to Canada. The  Commission f e l t t h a t Canada was  behind  the times with  regard to i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y and t h a t u n t i l r e c e n t l y she was  only an i n t e r e s t e d and debating  i n that d i r e c t i o n .  The  country's  s p e c t a t o r of movements,  growing wealth was  ample  f o r the c o s t o f p r e p a r i n g the young f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s but t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l system had  few p o i n t s of c o n t a c t  r e l a t i o n to ' i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , or housekeeping  with  life.  In an e f f o r t t o r e c t i f y t h e s i t u a t i o n the Commission recommended a system which should aim a t p r e s e r v i n g p r o v i n c i a l control,- encouraging  l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and developing  l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y while b a s i n g i t s o p e r a t i o n s upon a generous measure o f Dominion a i d .  Many changes were suggested  for  urban and r u r a l communities.  The types o f work proposed f o r  those who were t o continue a t s c h o o l v a r i e d a s i i n t e r m e d i a t e i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s , coordinated t e c h n i c a l classes, t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l s , a p p r e n t i c e ' s s c h o o l s , i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n i c a l ' i n s t i t u t e s , home economics, and f i n e a r t s c o l l e g e s .  The pro-  p o s a l was made f o r those a t work t h a t c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a s s e s , c o o r d i n a t e d t e c h n i c a l c l a s s e s , middle  technical classes,  a p p r e n t i c e c l a s s e s i n work shops, i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s and correspondence  study courses be e s t a b l i s h e d .  To implement these recommendations i t was proposed t h a t the sum o f $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 should be p r o v i d e d a n n u a l l y f o r a p e r i o d of t e n years by t h e Parliament  o f Canada and p a i d a n n u a l l y  i n t o a Dominion Development Fund, 75 p e r cent; o f t h i s t o go to the Provinces d i r e c t , on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s and the remaining 25 p e r cent, t o be r e t a i n e d f o r expenses through Dominion Board.  A l l phases o f i n d u s t r i a l work s h o u l d be pro-  v i d e d f o r i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , manufacturing, science, etc.  household  In order t o encourage handiwork, drawing, do-  mestic s c i e n c e , e t c . , i n elementary suggested  a central  s c h o o l s the Commission  a fund o f not l e s s than $350,000 a year from which  payments should be made t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Governments d u r i n g a period of ten years.  F o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the g r a n t s  and o f the system i n g e n e r a l the Commission recommended the establishment  o f a Dominion Development Commission.  t h i s body would be a Dominion Development Conference t h i s again P r o v i n c i a l Development Conferences  Under and under  and C o u n c i l s  would operate and a f f o r d advice and a s s i s t a n c e t o L o c a l Development Boards, urban and r u r a l .  The o b j e c t s t o be served by  the l a r g e expenditure were t o be, i n p a r t , t h e . s e c u r i n g o f an adequate supply o f p r o p e r l y - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i n elementary s c h o o l s , a supply o f s u i t a b l e a p p l i a n c e s , e x c l u s i v e o f b u i l d i n g s and f u r n i t u r e , the i n s t i t u t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p s , the p r o v i s i o n of s k i l l e d  expert a d v i s e r s , the establishment  of central  t u t i o n s , and the promotion o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h .  insti-  The Com-  m i s s i o n e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s more g e n e r a l prov i s i o n should be made f o r the t e a c h i n g o f drawing, manual t r a i n i n g , nature study and experimental f o r the t r a i n i n g o f the senses  s c i e n c e , as w e l l as  and muscles--the  l a t t e r by means  of organized and s u p e r v i s e d p l a y and games. ^ The r e p o r t occasioned the V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times t o compliment the Commission on i t s work and support and recommendations.  i t s conclusions  "The Commission," i t s a i d on 1 0 June 1913»  Deals w i t h a v i t a l requirement i n our e d u c a t i o n a l system, and if.we are t o h o l d our own i n the race o f n a t i o n s steps should be taken a t once t o c a r r y out the  Report o f t h e Royal Commission,. V o l . 1 , pp. 1 - 5 ? . V o c a t i o n a l Education, B u l l e t i n , No. 28, Department.*:of Labour, Canada, (King'.s P r i n t e r , 1928), p.. . 2 0 . John E a r l Sager, H i s t o r y o f Manual .Training and T e c h n i c a l Education i n the Dominion o f Canada, (M.A. Thesis i n Education, State C o l l e g e of Washington, 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 2 0 - 2 1 . Canadian Annual Review, 2 2  1913,  PP.  328^329.  recommendations of the r e p o r t . There i s no doubt that Canada's system r e q u i r e s o v e r h a u l i n g . . . . It compared Canada's c o n d i t i o n w i t h that of Germany's: The time i s r i p e f o r the adoption of some of the German methods of t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The a r t i c l e continued In the the s c h o o l s inculcation instructive be promptly  with:  words of the report,, the experience of should tend, more d i r e c t l y towards the and c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e l o v e of p r o d u c t i v e , and c o n s e r v i n g l a b o u r . This advice should acted upon.  V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g commanded the a t t e n t i o n of the  Toronto  Globe which came out s t r o n g l y i n favour o f : The v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g of a l l the people to be c o n t r i b u t i n g earners, good c i t i z e n s and worthy members o f the race i s r e a l l y the world's g r e a t e s t movement at the present time. 3  The interest and  Commission's a c t i v i t i e s  c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l of  i n that people began to q u e s t i o n Canadian education  i t s purpose.  P r o t e s t a n t Schools  J . C. Sutherland,  Inspector-General  of  i n the Province of Quebec, suggested  that:  We.have not y e t a supreme n a t i o n a l purpose i n Canadian education, urban or r u r a l . . . we l a c k the p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h a t supreme n a t i o n a l purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y which marks the educ a t i o n a l h i s t o r y of t h r e e c o u n t r i e s , namely Germany, Denmark and Japan . . . . We want a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n education. The l a r g e measure of l o c a l s e l f government . . . has many b e n e f i t s but it.'.has tended to . . . obscure the v i s i o n o f l a r g e r n a t i o n a l purpose.  2  ^  Globe. 3 February  1914.  The w r i t e r complained t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y men mended the "grand  of the l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s , of.  t e a c h e r s , i n r u r a l areas and recom-  remedy of c o n s o l i d a t i o n . "  The e f f o r t s of S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald to i n augurate the. movement . . . a few years ago, have not e n t i r e l y f a i l e d . They served at l e a s t to b r i n g the q u e s t i o n b e f o r e the p u b l i c . . . . Some of the experiments . . . f a i l e d . But there are now s i g n s of a f a r more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards the principle . . . . In Manitoba alone, however, i s the p l a n f u l l y a l i v e at the present moment. Progress w i l l be the more c e r t a i n , and the r e s u l t s the more e f f e c t i v e i f p u b l i c p o l i c y w i t h regard to education i s s t e a d i l y i l l u m i n a t e d by the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the s c h o o l s should e x i s t l a r g e l y f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g the i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y of the r i s i n g generations.24 A l b e r t H. Leake, a former;'director of the Macdonaid Manual T r a i n i n g Schools  i n Ontario i n 1900,  l a t e r Manual  T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Inspector f o r the Province of O n t a r i o , wrotei In view of the i n t e r e s t t h a t i s b e i n g manif e s t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and i t s p l a c e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system, i t becomes p e r t i n e n t at t h i s time to i n q u i r e i n t o the p a r t manual t r a i n i n g has p l a y e d i n the past and i s to p l a y i n the f u t u r e . . . . Household Science . . . was i n t r o d u c e d l a r g e l y f o r i t s c u l t u r a l v a l u e . . . now i t i s being r e c o g n i z e d t h a t house-keeping and home-making are j u s t as much a t r a d e and need as c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g as any other i n d u s t r y , both the c u l t u r a l and p r a c t i c a l v a l u e s , i f these can be separated, are r e c e i v i n g due a t t e n t i o n . The arguments urged .for the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Manual T r a i n i n g were d e l i b e r a t e l y designed to s a t i s f y l a b o u r organizations. I t was l o u d l y proclaimed t h a t the • subject'Vhad n o t h i n g to do with t e a c h i n g a trade . . . .  ^ J . C.. S u t h e r l a n d , "A N a t i o n a l Purpose i n E d u c a t i o n , " Canadian Magazine, May 1913. pp. 57-61.  With the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t manual t r a i n i n g does not, cannot, and should not. attempt to teach a t r a d e we can a l l h e a r t i l y agree, hut the i d e a t h a t i t has no connection w i t h i n d u s t r y w i l l not today f i n d such ready acceptance. "Our  industrial training  . . . should begin i n our P u b l i c  Schools," he d e c l a r e d and p o i n t e d out the d i v i s i o n which e x i s t e d between grade t e a c h e r s and the manual t r a i n i n g teachers s There are now throughout the Province of Ontario seventy-two manual t r a i n i n g centres artd f i f t y - e i g h t household s c i e n c e c e n t r e s , but even i n these p l a c e s where the s u b j e c t s have been i n t r o d u c e d i t i s a d i f f i c u l t matter to b r i n g them to a p o i n t where they , are looked upon as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the course of study. They have simply been regarded as a d d i t i o n a l subjects . . . . The grade teacher has h e l d a l o o f , and the manual t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r has . . . r e f u s e d to have any connection with other s c h o o l s u b j e c t s or industry. But f o r t u n a t e l y , a change i s coming over the s p i r i t o f the dream. The grade t e a c h e r is. coming to b e l i e v e t h a t manual t r a i n i n g and household s c i e n c e may be made to help her work . . . . The manual t r a i n i n g . . . i s u s i n g more and more mathematical and s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n , and i s e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e a l connection w i t h i n d u s t r y . 2 5  Members o f the House of Commons were anxious  to know  whether the Government intended to implement the recommendat i o n s of the Commission.  On 10  June 1914,  almost  a year  after  i t s i n i t i a l appearance, the Member f o r Cape Breton, North, D a n i e l McKenzie, asked the M i n i s t e r of Labour, i f he g i v e n any  had  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the r e p o r t of the Commission.  McKenzie p o i n t e d out t h a t the mining  engineers  5 A l b e r t H. Leake, "Manual T r a i n i n g i n The School, (March 1 9 1 4 ) , 4 3 5 - 4 3 8 . 2  Mr.  of Nova S c o t i a  School,"  The  had adopted  a r e s o l u t i o n u r g i n g that something he done i n the  d i r e c t i o n o f c a r r y i n g out the recommendations made by the Commission.  "We look forward  i n a l l p a r t s o f Canada" he s a i d ,  "to something being done t o implement t h a t r e p o r t . " The  Minister replied:  T h i s matter has been under t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Cabinet . . . . . P e r s o n a l l y , I am very much'* i n favour o f doing anything w i t h i n reason f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l education and i n d u s t r i a l training. I t h i n k the Parliament o f Canada w i l l be w i l l i n g t o m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n p r o v i d i n g f o r t e c h n i c a l education and manual training. I r e g a r d i t as o f v e r y g r e a t importance t o t h e people o f Canada. The  Commission had gone beyond i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n  p r o p o s i n g recommendations.  Mr. C a r r o l l , Member f o r Cape Breton,  South, s t a t e d : I understand t h a t the p r o v i n c e s made some r e s e r v a t i o n s as t o the powers t h a t were g i v e n t o t h e Commission. But, however they made a recommendation and t h a t recommendation commends i t s e l f t o i n d u s t r i a l Canada and t o Canada as a whole. There i s n o t h i n g . . . t h a t goes so f a r i n keeping t h e p o p u l a t i o n which we have w i t h i n our c o n f i n e s , and also, encouraging a good c l a s s o f immigration from abroad, as an e f f i c i e n t system o f t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 2 0  In 1 9 1 5 * Robertson  addressed the Ontario Education A s s o c i -  a t i o n on "Education f o r Occupations." count  I t was a d e t a i l e d ac-  o f t h e advances beyond t h e t h r e e ' R's,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1 9 1 0 , pp. 5 2 0 6 - 5 2 0 8 .  those occasioned by the developments i n manual, t e c h n i c a l vocational  and  education, ? 2  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the involvement  of Canada i n World War  p r e c l u d e d the adoption of the r e p o r t i n any p a r t i c u l a r . ever, Robertson was  I  How-  not prepared t o l e t Canadian o f f i c i a l d o m  f o r g e t the work and recommendations of the Commission.  At a  morning s e s s i o n of the Dominion E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , on Thursday 1 February 191?» McKay, Superintendent conded by Mr. Toronto, and  a r e s o l u t i o n was  moved by Dr.- H.  of Education f o r Nova S c o t i a , and  R. H. Cowley, C h i e f Inspector o f P u b l i c  H.  se-  Schools,  resolvedi  That a Committee be appointed to c o n s i d e r the s i t u a t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o any means whereby the Government of the Dominion of Canada and the Governments of the s e v e r a l Provinces may a r r i v e at a mutual unders t a n d i n g as to how a s s i s t a n c e .for the e x t e n s i o n and maintenance of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be granted by the Dominion and r e c e i v e d by the P r o v i n c e s . That the Committee be i n s t r u c t e d to take up the matter w i t h the Government of each Province and the Government of the Dominion . . . . The  Proposer and Seconder, be i t n o t i c e d , were two  Robertson's  closest friends.  Both men  appeared  members of the Committee, w h i l s t Robertson's the  list.  2  sent a l e t t e r t o the Premiers  i n which he asked t h a t he might be  ?  l a t e r as  name headed  8  Robertson  2  of the Provinces  "granted the favour of an  G u i l l e t , Cause of Education, p.  269.  Dominion Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Proceedings, 1917), copy of r e s o l u t i o n , R.P., 3, 9. 2 8  of  (Ottawa,  i n f o r m a l and c o n f i d e n t i a l conference w i t h you" i n order t o procure  " p r a c t i c a b l e extensions o f i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and  t e c h n i c a l education  . . . and what f u r t h e r a c t i o n may be  p r a c t i c a b l e and d e s i r a b l e f o r the attainment The  Ottawa J o u r n a l r e p o r t i n g the opening  of that object." o f the Dominion  E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s meeting, made a p o i n t o f r e v i e w i n g the Chairman's address  ,  i n a leading a r t i c l e .  It said:  E d u c a t i o n a l reform such as engaged the a t t e n t i o n of the Canadian Government s e v e r a l years ago i s r e q u i r e d now, prosecuted under n a t i o n a l a u s p i c e s , as an adjustment i n t h e country's l i f e t o meet changed cond i t i o n s due t o the war. I t was evident from t h e address o f the former Chairman of the Commission that the preparatory-work i n Canada had been done, and t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the methods f o r improving the s c h o o l system suggested by past i n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e s e a r c h had been made w i t h conspicuous success The recommendations o f the Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l  T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education were f i n a l l y p a r t l y mented i n 1919 by the T e c h n i c a l Education Act,-' for  the promotion  imple-  "a measure  o f T e c h n i c a l Education i n Canada."  $10,000,000 were p r o v i d e d over ten years t o a s s i s t the prov,r  i n c e s i n d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l education and facilities.  T h i s measure was probably hastened by the  experience o f war-time expansion  o f Canadian i n d u s t r y when  the shortage o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s was keenly f e l t .  J o u r n a l (Ottawa)* 3 1 January 191?. See Robertson's "Message t o our Returning S o l d i e r s Regarding t h e i r Education for. Farming," i n which he r e f e r s t o the Khaki U n i v e r s i t y i n The.Beaver, 14 December 1918, p. 7. 3 0 An Act f o r the Promotion o f T e c h n i c a l Education i n Canada, Canada, S t a t u t e s , 1919, 9-10 George V, V o l . 1, pp. 665-67.  In g r a n t i n g  the $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 subsidy, Ottawa  the precedent of. the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n  followed  Act o f 1 9 1 3 , 3 1  when a s i m i l a r sum was d i s t r i b u t e d to the p r o v i n c e s f o r "the purpose o f a i d i n g and advancing the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y by instruction i n agriculture."32 Agricultural  Instruction  I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y that the  Act r e s u l t e d  i n part  from Robertson's  report.  . 31 An Act f o r the Granting o f A i d f o r the Advancement of. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e s , Canada, S t a t u t e s , 1913, 3 - 4 , George V, V o l . 1 , pp. 1 3 5 - 3 7 . 32  Johnson, B r i e f H i s t o r y ,  p. 8 9 .  CHAPTER VI WORLD WAR  I PUBLIC AND  POST-WAR'CAREER, AND  "The f a c t of the war was  PRIVATE DUTIES, CONCLUSION  a t e r r i b l e shock to James W.  R."  wrote h i s daughter t A l l h i s l i f e h i s e n e r g i e s and schemes and dreams had been bound up w i t h the progress o f the common man towards a more prosperous and h a p p i e r f u t u r e and i n such a context, war i s d e s t r u c t i o n , t e a r i n g down i n days what took y e a r s to b u i l d up. I t may have brought a s u p e r f i c i a l p r o s p e r i t y to the country but to James W. R., the t e r r i b l e waste o f l i f e , the r u i n of l i t t l e towns i n the b a t t l e zone and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f farm lands was constant u n d e r l y i n g sorrow.1 Within a s h o r t time of the outbreak of, the war, was  Robertson  a c t i v e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Red Cross S o c i e t y of  which he became chairman of the Canadian E x e c u t i v e Committee. In  i t s s e r v i c e he toured Canada and England and France, s e e i n g  Red Cross a c t i v i t i e s at f i r s t  hand.  I t was  manship t h a t the J u n i o r Red Cross, which was Quebec i n September 1914,  was  during his chairfirst  formed i n  g i v e n the impetus to become the  Canada-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i t has, o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n our p s c h o o l s today. C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 1 3 . A l e t t e r headed "The Canadian Red Cross S o c i e t y " and dated 4 February 1 9 2 7 , shows Robertson as Chairman o f C o u n c i l and Executive. R.P., 7 , 6 » C u r r i e r , Biography, pp. 1 3 - 1 6 . 2  formation o f a number of p a t r i o t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some o f which a n t i c i p a t e d the end o f h o s t i l i t i e s . a n d a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e f o r the Dominion.  Among these was.the C i v i c  of Canada, sponsored  Improvement  League  by.the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , Town  Planning Branch, Ottawa.  A pamphlet i s s u e d by the sponsors  o u t l i n e d the g e n e r a l o b j e c t o f the league as b e i n g i To promote the study and advancement o f the best p r i n c i p l e s and methods of c i v i c improvement and development, to encourage and t o organize i n each community those s o c i a l f o r c e s which make f o r e f f i c i e n t Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and to secure a g e n e r a l and e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n a l l m u n i c i p a l affairs.3 A l a r g e number o f c i v i c at a conference  o r g a n i z a t i o n s were  represented  h e l d a t Ottawa, on 19 November 1915» f o r the  purpose o f forming the League.  The outcome o f the conference  was the formation o f a p r o v i s i o n a l committee to prepare  a  d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and to take steps to promote a N a t i o n a l Conference  t o be h e l d i n January  Sir Clifford  1916.  S i f t o n i n a d d r e s s i n g members, s a i d the  f u n c t i o n of the Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n was t h i n g s r a t h e r than t o do t h i n g s . . . ."  "to s t a r t  "Canada," he ob-  servedt s u f f e r e d from haphazard methods and l a c k of e f f i ciency. Nothing had done so much harm to Canada as the system o f education. Young men were  3 The Commission of Conservation c a l l e d a p r e l i m i n a r y conference i n Ottawa i n November, 1915» t o c o n s i d e r the format i o n , .of., a. C i v i c . ..Improvement League f o r Canada. See Pamphlet, C i v i c Improvement League o f Canada, R.P., 3 » 2 .  r e c e i v i n g education which f i t t e d them f o r lawyers or p r o f e s s i o n a l men and nothing e l s e . I t had a f f e c t e d t h e whole development o f Canada. Some improvement ought t o be made . . . As a member o f the Commission o f Conservation, t h i s new o r g a n i z a t i o n was consonant w i t h Robertson's own philosophy of p u b l i c involvement  i n the l i f e  o f Canada.  It i s therefore  no s u r p r i s e to f i n d t h a t he became a member o f t h a t  Provisional  Committee, along w i t h l u m i n a r i e s of government, b u s i n e s s , the church, p u b l i c w e l f a r e , t r a d e s and l a b o u r , arid e d u c a t i o n . At the Conference  h e l d i n the House o f Commons i n January  1916, and g r a c i o u s l y ' opened by the Governor-General a number o f eminent speakers Robertson  addressed  o f Canada,  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  was s l a t e d t o take p a r t i n a d i s c u s s i o n on Immigra-  t i o n and C i v i c Development a f t e r the War.5 The C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-Laws o f t h e C i v i c League o f Ottawa f o r the year 1916-1917, a member o f i t s c o u n c i l .  listed  Improvement Robertson  as •  Among the g e n e r a l o b j e c t s o f t h i s  group was "the study o f the p r i n c i p l e s and methods o f civi'c improvement and development arid a l s o t o secure a g e n e r a l and effective interest of the c i t i z e n s . " "  i n a l l a f f a i r s .pertaining to the welfare This statement  been w r i t t e n by Robertson  c o u l d q u i t e e a s i l y have  himself.  Ibid. -5 c i v i c Improvement League o f Canada > Programme o f Conf e r e n c e , House o f Commons, Ottawa, 2 0 January 1916. R.P., 3 , 2 . • ^ C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-Laws o f the C i v i c Improvement of Ottawa, 1916. R.P., 3 , 2 . \ ' ' '  League  ,  In 1916,  the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e l i e f f o r the A l l i e s Com-  m i t t e e , approached  Robertson  branch o f t h a t body.  and asked him t o form a Dominion  After a v i s i t  t o the war zone t o a s c e r -  t a i n the needs o f the A l l i e d farmers, he t o u r e d Canada organi z i n g groups t o c o l l e c t funds t o p r o v i d e a g r i c u l t u r e  tools  and equipment f o r use i n the devastated areas,? In 1917»  Robertson's  g r e a t a b i l i t y was r e c o g n i z e d when  he was appointed Chairman o f t h e Advisory C o u n c i l o f t h e Food C o n t r o l l e r f o r Canada, e x h o r t i n g Canadians  In t h i s c a p a c i t y ' h e was a c t i v e i n  t o rearrange t h e i r f e e d i n g h a b i t s i n order  that more f l o u r , wheat and beef c o u l d be sent While a t Rome, i n 1918,  abroad.  i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h e d i s c u s s i o n  of o v e r a l l plans f o r food p r o d u c t i o n and c o n t r o l , was  Robertson  r e c e i v e d i n audience by Her Majesty the Queen Mother, and  a l s o had d i n n e r w i t h the King o f I t a l y . a most i n t e r e s t i n g account Royalty.  In h i s d i a r y he gave  o f h i s meetings w i t h  Italian  8  The Canadian duty f o r Robertson Food S u p p l i e s .  Government had y e t one f u r t h e r p a t r i o t i c to perform—that  o f Canadian  Director of  The supreme.Economic C o u n c i l o f t h e A l l i e d  Governments had requested a s s i s t a n c e from C a n a d a — a great food producing n a t i o n , i n "order t o underpin European reconstruction.  As such, Robertson was a member o f the Canadian  C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 14. I b i d . ,;-pp. 1 4 - 1 5 .  d e l e g a t i o n to Paris.when the s i g n i n g of the Peace Treaty i n 1919  took p l a c e .  His l e t t e r s t o h i s w i f e and daughter des-  c r i b e v i v i d l y the P a r i s , and the statesmen, o f t h a t occasion.  historic  Q 7  One o f Robertson's i n t e r e s t s was  the P r o p o r t i o n a l  Repre-  s e n t a t i o n S o c i e t y o f Canada, whose f i r s t . A n n u a l Report, i s s u e d i n February 191?1 showed Robertson t o be i t s P r e s i d e n t . the same y e a r h i s concern f o r the l e s s f o r t u n a t e  In  1 0  involved  him  i n t h e . f o r m a t i o n o f the f i r s t p u b l i c r e l i e f committee i n Ottawa.  11  He was  a c t i v e i n the Aberdeen  Association,  founded  i n Winnipeg i n . 18.99 and named a f t e r Lady Aberdeen, which provided, books and magazines  to s e t t l e r s ' f a m i l i e s i n Western  12 Canada.. As f a r back as 1897,. the V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nurses i n Canada had h e l d h i s e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and he became s e c r e t a r y , and l a t e r Governor, o f that  organization. -^ 1  Always deeply i n t e r e s t e d i n the w e l f a r e o f boys and i n boys' work, Robertson was  appointed C h i e f Commissioner  Scouts f o r Canada, i n 1919.  o f Boy  A c t i v e as always i n any p o s i t i o n  R.P., 1, 4 . Robertson gave an e x c e l l e n t survey o f h i s work and review.ed,.the. part..Canada p l a y e d d u r i n g the Peace t a l k s i n the Ottawa C i t i z e n , 9 August 1919. 9  .The P r o p o r t i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S o c i e t y o f Canada. Report of the F i r s t Annual General Meeting, 1917« Report of speeches A l b e r t an, 17:; October 1917 • 1  0  1  1  C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 17.  1  2  Ibid.  See a l s o correspondence R.P.,  2, 1.  Ibid.  See a l s o correspondence R.P.,  4 , 18.  t h a t he accepted, he devoted much energy and time i n developing an improved c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h a t tution. ^ 1  Robertson was  range, of a c t i v i t i e s .  cognizant of h i s a s t o n i s h i n g l y wide  "Chore-boy of Canada i s h i s self-bestowed  t i t l e , " s a i d the Vancouver D a i l y Province, 29 June In 1905,  1921.  however, one scheme w i t h which Robertson  i d e n t i f i e d came to naught. suggested  to Robertson  insti-  The Governor-General  was  of Canada  t h a t a R o l l of Honor be c r e a t e d , " i n  which might be i n s c r i b e d the names of youths gether w i t h a r e c o r d of deeds performed  and maidens ( t o -  or of a course, of  a c t i o n f o l l o w e d by them) c o n s i d e r e d worthy of such r e c o g n i t i o n . " The p r o p o s a l , c o n t a i n i n g a number of c o n d i t i o n s concerning ages and q u a l i t i e s to be c o n s i d e r e d , was  sent out by Robertson  p r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l to p r o v i n c i a l superintendents  as  of  education f o r t h e i r suggestions and p o s s i b l e a p p r o v e l . ^ 1  Prom P.E.I, came a r e p l y which stated« "I have read the memorandum on the.GovernorGeneral* s ' R o l l of Honor w i t h i n t e r e s t and a p p r o v a l . The only s u g g e s t i o n which I would o f f e r i s t h a t I would l i k e to see a s i m i l a r r e c o g n i t i o n secured, f o r s u c c e s s f u l work performed by d e s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s . As the t e a c h e r i s so i s the s c h o o l . . . ."1° Other r e p l i e s tended t o present the d i f f i c u l t i e s of sel e c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n such a scheme.  !4  Ibid.  See a l s o correspondence  R.P.,  2,  5«  R.P..,. 4, 15. See Harold Begbie, A l b e r t 4 t h . E a r l Grey 1 a Last Word (London 1 Hodder and Stoughton, 191?), pp. 128-^29. 1 6  Anderson to Robertson  21 September 1923,  R.P.,5,  1.  C o u n c i l O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , dated him  22  September 1 9 2 3 »  Chairman of a Commission to i n q u i r e i n t o  Unrest  "The  appointed Industrial  among the S t e e l Workers at Sydney, Nova S c o t i a . "  In a  s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l l e t t e r , the Prime M i n i s t e r , Mackenzie King, thanked Robertson f o r a c c e p t i n g the Chairmanship of the Commission and matter.  o u t l i n e d some of h i s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s on  the  S a i d King, no doubt w i t h the l e s s o n s of the Winnipeg  s t r i k e i n mind s "I have come to f e e l t h a t the law as i t stands governing the c a l l i n g out of troops i n a i d of the c i v i l power at times of i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t needs to be amended so as to prevent c o r p o r a t i o n s from t a k i n g advantage o f the powers which can be e x e r c i s e d through any judge to whom appeal may be made, where the c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s themselves are u n w i l l i n g to take the i n i t i a t i v e required . . . . My impression i s t h a t t h e r e has been a good d e a l of B o l s h e v i s t propaganda at Sydney, and a c o n c e r t e d • B o l s h e v i s t movement t h e r e . Indeed, the statement i s s u e d by Lewis of the United Mine Workers, demanding the r e t u r n o o f the c o a l miners to work i s a l l - s u f f i c i e n t evidence of t h i s . . . . I am i n c l i n e d to t h i n k t h a t the Company has not apprec i a t e d i n the past . . . the need of the adoption of a proper l a b o u r p o l i c y i n connection w i t h i t s r e l a t i o n s with i t s employees . . . . I t might be w e l l f o r you^.to see h i s E x c e l l e n c y the Governor-General, and a s c e r t a i n h i s views on the s i t u a t i o n . . . I s h a l l mentipn to His E x c e l l e n c y t h a t I have asked you to see him . . . . Please r e g a r d t h i s l e t t e r as s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l and confidential . . . I should not care f o r you to d i s c l o s e i t s contents even to your c o l l e a g u e s on the Commission. I have f e l t t h a t i t might be of s e r v i c e to you as w e l l as to the Government if-.you were to know my p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e i n the matter. What I am h o p e f u l may be accomplished i s t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r the Commission to i n d i c a t e wherein a change of r e l a t i o n s may be e f f e c t e d which w i l l g i v e to the employees g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r g r i e v a n c e , and j u s t treatment i n the matter of wages and hours . . . . From what I saw l a s t year of the telegrams sent to the Department of M i l i t i a and Defence by the Commanding O f f i c e r o f the  D i s t r i c t the e f f o r t then made not only t o c a l l out the M i l i t i a , "but t o b r i n g i n t o p l a y the n a v a l s e r v i c e and t h e a i r f o r c e as w e l l , — h a s l e d me to, see how dangerous i t i s t o the whole n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n that a power o f t h i s k i n d should be g i v e n t o a few men without due r e s t r a i n t s i n . t h e way o f c o n t r o l from a r e s p o n s i b l e source . . . .. By a l l means t r y t o secure a unanimous r e p o r t , " ? 1  The  Commissioners were unanimous i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s and  although they f e l t  t h a t the c a l l i n g out o f the troops was  j u s t i f i e d , they considered  t h a t the company had brought about  the t r o u b l e by i t s d i s r e g a r d o f i t s employees' j u s t and r e a sonable demands.  18  Robertson r e c e i v e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f o f f i c e from a number of groups w i t h which he was connected.  Among h i s awards i s  a two-volume l e a t h e r covered B i b l e of awesome p r o p o r t i o n s sented t o him by the Venus' Sunday s c h o o l s ,  i n 1880.  19  pre-  An  i n t e n s e l y r e l i g i o u s man, Robertson was an e l d e r o f St. Andrew's Presbyterian  Church, Ottawa, f o r many y e a r s .  In 1905. he was  c r e a t e d a Commander o f t h e Order o f S t . Michael and S t . George, having e a r l i e r turned a knighthood.  1 7  •I  down an o f f e r t h a t he be recommended f o r  O A u  King t o Robertson, 21 September 1923, R.P., 5» 1.  o  "Report o f the Royal Commission t o Inquire;. I n t o I n d u s t r i a l Unrest o f S t e e l Workers at Sydney, N.S."" Supplement t o the Labour Gazette, (Canada, M i n i s t r y o f Labour, February 1924). 1 9  R.P., Box 11.  .  .  C u r r i e r , Biography, pp. 16-17.  Robertson f e l t t h a t h i s work and the r u r a l people of Canada and to plain.James W.  made, but  "again  that they would l i s t e n  Robertson, than to a man  In 1916,  his.name."  h i s i n t e r e s t lay with  the suggestion  d e c l i n e d , and  better  w i t h "a handle to  of a knighthood was  he was  again  admitted i n s t e a d as  a  Knight o f Grace o f the H o s p i t a l of St. John of Jerusalem i n England."  2 1  In the f i e l d  of a g r i c u l t u r e he was.elected a f e l l o w o f  the Canadian S o c i e t y of T e c h n i c a l while i n 1928, of the Province was  he was  g i v e n the  of Quebec.  Agriculturists in  1923,  Order of A g r i c u l t u r a l Merit  For h i s wartime work i n Europe he  awarded the Commemorative medal of the N a t i o n a l  Committee  22  of Help, and  Food of Belgium i n 1919..  For ten years he was No.  177,  i n Ottawa, of. the  month of h i s l i f e ,  he was  a member i n the B u i l d e r ' s Lodge Masons.  In 1930,  d u r i n g the  presented w i t h a watch chain  Masonic emblem i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s continued  last and  i n t e r e s t , by  the Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n . ^ 2  To perpetuate the memory of t h e i r founder, the  Canadian  Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a p r e f e r r e d c l a s s of membership i n the a s s o c i a t i o n the members of which would be known as Robertson A s s o c i a t e s .  "Before a member can  enter  t h i s p r e f e r r e d c l a s s he must show t h a t he' has made great 2 1  Ibid.  2 2  Ibid".  2  3  •  Ibid.  sacrifices  i n t h e . i n t e r e s t of the p r o d u c t i o n of t e t t e r seed.  Ten Robertson A s s o c i a t e s were s e l e c t e d as a b e g i n n i n g , and 24 not more.than  two members w i l l be e l e c t e d each y e a r . "  Mrs. C u r r i e r says of her f a t h e r : Pew men have crowded so much study of d e t a i l , such e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g , so much p h y s i c a l t r a v e l l i n g and speech making i n t o seventy t h r e e years o f l i v i n g . His one s e r i o u s i l l n e s s was the nervous exhaustion which f o r c e d him t o a long complete r e s t on the I s l e of Wight, i n 1902.^5 This i l l n e s s was  brought about i n p a r t by the Boer  and the s t r a i n i t put upon Robertson, who employee,  War,  as a government  had to cope w i t h p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o f unscrupulous  d e a l e r s i n horses, and fodder which were b e i n g s u p p l i e d to the Imperial f o r c e s i n South A f r i c a , e d u c a t i o n a l developments  and a l s o w i t h the e x t e n s i v e  of the Macdonald  Movement.  He  s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from g a s t r i c d i s t u r b a n c e s and spent some time at the B a t t l e Creek Sanatorium i n 1920. d i t i o n was  His con-  somewhat improved a f t e r t h a t , but on 19 March 1930»  he d i e d o f a r u p t u r e d stomach u l c e r . ? 2  He was b u r i e d i n  4 Globe., (.Toronto.)..,.. 22..June-.1931. Canadian Seed Grower's Associationx Annual Report 1943-1944, pp. 6, 64. 2  2  5 C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 9.  ^ Copy o f l e t t e r from Robertson t o Lord S t r a t h c o n a , High Commissioner, .for. Canada,- .London, England-,-..,8,.....May-..1902,. en- ,... c l o s i n g Memorandum Regarding some Shipments, o f Supplies. Made . by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f Canada t o South A f r i c a on Account of the Imperial War O f f i c e , R.P., 3, 8. Copy of l e t t e r from Robertson t o the Hon. W.'S. F i e l d i n g , A c t i n g . Minister, of. . A g r i c u l t u r e , 2 A p r i l 1903, Statement r e Shipments o f Hay, Oats e t c . from Canada to South A f r i c a . R.P., 3» 7* 2  2  ?  C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 18.  Ottawa, h i s f u n e r a l being attended by the In r e p o r t i n g Robertson's death, on 20  Prime M i n i s t e r . March 193°»  the  Ottawa C i t i z e n s a i d o f - h i m i He was a b r i l l i a n t l e c t u r e r and h e l d h i s audiences under h i s magnetic sway by h i s c l o s e r e a s o n i n g , c l e v e r appeal and u n f a i l i n g power of speech . . . . ° The  Ottawa J o u r n a l  of 21  March 1930,  declaredj  The term eminent can be a p p l i e d to the l a t e Dr.. J . W. Robertson. Throughout h i s working l i f e he earned t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n by h i s c o n t i n u o u s l y a c t i v e concern f o r the w e l f a r e of h i s f e l l o w citizens . . . . Dr. Robertson was b l e s s e d w i t h a v e r y k i n d l y nature and the widest sympathies and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the l a t t e r p a r t - o f h i s l i f e was devoted to b i g schemes of p u b l i c w e l f a r e . . . . The  Journal,  i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s f u n e r a l on 22  March 193°»  observed t Widespread g r i e f was occasioned by the death of Dr. Robertson . . . . There was no more popular man i n Canada than Dr. Robertson, who by h i s ardent work i n c o n n e c t i o n with e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e , the Boy. Scout Movement, the Red Cross S o c i e t y and the V.O.N, had become an outstanding f i g u r e throughout Canada. . " I t was dian l i f e Journal  a f a r reaching  t h a t Dr.  on 22  i n f l u e n c e on many phases of Cana-  Robertson exerted"  March 1930.  declared  the  Edmonton  In t h a t same newspaper was  a  t r i b u t e to Robertson from an e a r l i e r a s s o c i a t e . Dean E. Howes, of the. C o l l e g e  his 2 9  of A g r i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f  A.  Alberta,  The Prime. Minister., Mr..'W. L. Mackenzie King, attended f u n e r a l , M a i l and Empire, 21 March 1930. C i t i z e n (Ottawa), 20  August  1913*  who  began h i s work w i t h Robertson i n 1903,  as one of the  group o f Canadian t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d f o r s p e c i a l  training.  The Dean r e c a l l e d what he had s a i d about Robertson i n in  an address on the o c c a s i o n o f the r e u n i o n of the  C o l l e g e Alumni  1925.  Macdonald  Association:-  Back o f a l l g r e a t adventures towards making t h i n g s b e t t e r f o r the race,we f i n d sometimes one g r e a t mind, never more than a few, to p o i n t the way and t o b'laze the t r a i l . And i t i s a grand o p p o r t u n i t y today to speak a few words, o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f one who i s s t i l l w i t h us, and whose name i s always honored where a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s gather . . . . Howes r e v e a l e d Robertson's 1) 2)  "Gospel o f A g r i c u l t u r e " :  Give the best t r a i n i n g to the c h i l d r e n who are to make the men and women o f the next g e n e r a t i o n . Give the best t r a i n i n g to the t e a c h e r who t r a i n s these C h i l d r e n , and pay these t e a c h e r s s a l a r i e s b e f i t t i n g the t r u s t e e o f the n a t i o n ' s ' i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral l i f e .  3)  Give the best t r a i n i n g to the g i r l s who be the homemakers o f tomorrow.  4)  Give the best t r a i n i n g to the farmers and •farmers' sons who are to develop our a g r i c u l t u r a l resources.  are to  These t e s t i m o n i e s were but an echo of s i m i l a r a p p r e c i a t i o n s he had earned i n e a r l i e r y y e a r s . August the  1913»  As f a r . b a c k as  20  the Ottawa C i t i z e n r e p o r t e d a speech g i v e n by  Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada at the G o l f Club t o v i s i t i n g  educationalists.  The paper  declared:  when the Prime M i n i s t e r . . . r e f e r r e d t o the good f o r t u n e o f Canada i n h a v i n g i i n a p o s i t i o n o f high, a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e an i d e a l i s t l i k e Dr. James" W. Robertson, the ready response . . . amply t e s t i f i e d t o the r e c o g n i z e d r e a l i t y o f the statement. Those who have come i n t o touch w i t h him have i n v a r i ably been urged t o h i g h e r endeavour and broader view.  He i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i d e a l i s t v i s i o n i n g l i f e as i t ought to be, then v i t a l i z i n g others t h a t they might be a b l e .to do something to make the dream come t r u e . . . . He r e p u d i a t e s education as a mere machining of the i n t e l l e c t and makes i t the development o f the noblest s e l f . . . . He b e l i e v e s i n man with a c a p i t a l M. He i s e s s e n t i a l l y a man of the modern s p i r i t , whose f i n e i n f l u e n c e has a l r e a d y done much and w i l l do much to shape to a l o f t i e r d e s t i n y the f u t u r e of the country he serves so w e l l . Premier Borden was r i g h t . Canada i s to be c o n g r a t u l a t e d upon having as a l e a d e r i n . e d u c a t i o n an i d e a l i s t l i k e Dr. Robertson. A eulogy  i n the. Ottawa J o u r n a l , 31 December 1924,  f u r t h e r the sentiments  contained i n the  preceding-  expresses  paragraph}  I doubt whether any other man has been of more v a l u e to modern Canada. The money he has f o r c e d i n t o the farmer's pocket by h i s p e r s i s t e n t and p e r s u a s i v e advocacy can only.be reckoned by scores of m i l l i o n s . B e t t e r s t i l l h i s r a r e and t r u e v i s i o n of education as t r a i n i n g and development f o r r i g h t and v i g o r o u s a c t i o n , not a mere f i l l i n g of b r a i n c e l l s with i n f o r m a t i o n , and h i s i n s i s t e n c e of the supreme value of c h a r a c t e r i n farming and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , l i f t him head and shoulders above those who s e t up the d o l l a r as the c h i e f aim of man. Perhaps the most extravagant o c c u r r e d at the D.E.A. 1909  panegyric  for  i n t r o d u c i n g him s t a t e d t h a t "he  Although  (Robertson)  has done more Premier  since  done."3°  Robertson  was  addressed  and Doctor, he never r e c e i v e d any his  the  P r e s i d e n t Robinson  the advancement of t h i s Dominion than any  C o n f e d e r a t i o n has  Robertson  convention, when he addressed  members on •"The Future of R u r a l Schools." in  offered  p a p e r s i i s correspondence  D.E.A., Proceedings,  v a r i o u s l y as P r o f e s s o r  U n i v e r s i t y education.  Among  which took p l a c e between h i m s e l f ,  1909,  p.  100.  and the R e g i s t r a r o f Toronto U n i v e r s i t y , w h i l e he was at Ontario A g r i c u l t u r e  College.  In 1888, Robertson wrote t o the Senate o f the U n i v e r s i t y of  Toronto r e q u e s t i n g t h a t  '-'he be allowed to proceed t o the  degree o f B.A. by an Examination i n such s u b j e c t s as under the  circumstances the U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l see f i t to p r e s c r i b e  and f o r t h i s purpose he ventures r e s p e c t f u l l y t o suggest the following."  Robertson then s e t down, a course o f s t u d i e s and  f u r t h e r requested "that he be granted d i s p e n s a t i o n from " 3 1 a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e s at U n i v e r s i t y College., A f t e r l e a v i n g h i s v i l l a g e s c h o o l , James pursued s t u d i e s at the Cunningham'Institute, Glasgow. asked f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about  James' academic  further  The U n i v e r s i t y  attainments, t o  which he r e p l i e d :  .":  "I d i d not t r y the m a t r i c u l a t i o n exam o f the Glasgow U n i v e r s i t y though I was thoroughly prepared to do so when I l e f t the I n s t i t u t e , t o be a p p r e n t i c e d to a commercial o c c u p a t i o n . At the time o f my l e a v i n g I stood f i r s t i n the h i g h e s t c l a s s , and had o b t a i n e d the f i r s t p l a c e a t the t h r e e p r e v i o u s examinations. I mention these l a t t e r f a c t s t o show t h a t I d i d f a i r l y good work as f a r as I went.-"32 A statement o f the Course o f S t u d i e s he had taken at  Cunningham I n s t i t u t e  included:  L a t i n - Grammar; Caesar, Commentaries; V i r g i l , Aenid. Greek - Grammar; T r a n s l a t i o n o f simple f a b l e s , Dialogues of the Gods e t c . ; French - Grammar; Fables; New T e s t a ment; V o l t a i r e , H i s t o r y o f Charles X I I . Mathematics,, English,. .History.,... Geography, .and,.Drawing, ^ Robertson t o Senate o f the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 9 J u l y 1888, R.P., 1, 3. 32 Robertson to the R e g i s t r a r , U n i v e r s i t y o f . T o r o n t o , 11 October 1888, R.P., 1, 3.  Robertson concluded h i s p e t i t i o n by a s k i n g i f there was any reason "why  a l l the examinations should be taken next  year" as "I have promised t o d e l i v e r a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s at C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , t h i s w i n t e r , and t r u s t t h a t Senate not  limit  will  the time c l o s e r than 1890."33  However, h i s e f f o r t s toward the o b t a i n i n g of a degree did  not bear f r u i t s i n c e t h e r e was  some d i f f i c u l t y over  exami-.  n a t i o n t i m i n g which was not r e c o n c i l e d . 3 ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s merit was  r e c o g n i z e d by h i s b e i n g  awarded a number of honorary d o c t o r a t e s .  He was  given. LL.D.  degrees by Toronto U n i v e r s i t y i n 1903» "by Queen's U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of New U n i v e r s i t y i n 1909.  Brunswick  A D.C.L. was  i n 1904,  and by M c G i l l  forthcoming from Bishop's  College, i n 1909, w h i l e I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n came w i t h a D.Sc.  from Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e i n the same year.35  i n 1917,  was  e l e c t e d Rector of Queen's U n i v e r s i t y .  was  hung i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l H a l l of Fame i n Toronto, on the  In 1963, h i s p o r t r a i t  recommendation of the Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n .  One man who  was  he  i n f l u e n c e d by Robertson was  H. B.  36  Maclean,  f i r s t v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , then p r i n c i p a l of H i l l s b o r o ' C o n s o l i d a t e d  33  ibid.  34 C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 16. 35  i b i d . , R.P.  Box  11.  36 C u r r i e r , Biography, p. 16.  School, P.E.I., and l a t e r a member of the f a c u l t i e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver Normal Schools. his  f i r s t meeting  Mr. MacLean, now was  and subsequent  acquaintance w i t h  "He  The o r i g i n a t o r o f the famous Maclean  of w r i t i n g remembered a v i s i t  B e l l e v u e , around  Robertson,  e i g h t y seven years of age, s a i d of him,  a l o v e l y man."  system  Looking back over the years to  he. p a i d to Ste.-Anne-de-  1907» when Robertson was  s u p e r v i s i n g the  con-  s t r u c t i o n of Macdonald C o l l e g e . He spoke k i n d l y t o the workmen and encouraged them to do a good job. His enthusiasm, h i s v i s i o n of what the C o l l e g e should mean was c o n t a g i o u s . He was a man ahead of h i s time, and a f i n e o r a t o r whose Scotch accent was most a t t r a c t i v e . His audiences l i s t e n e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o what he had to say. But H i l l s b o r o ' C o n s o l i d a t e d School f a i l e d , some t r u s t e e s Of the c o n t r i b u t i n g areas were not w i l l i n g to continue the experiment. Mr.  MacLean remembered the f i n e speech Robertson made at  the end of the t h r e e year experimental p e r i o d and to His  just  prior  the vote i n f a v o u r of e i t h e r i t s continuance or d i s s o l u t i o n . s p l e n d i d appeal was  c a s t , but he s a i d ,  r e p u d i a t e d and Mr.  "Dr. Robertson was  MacLean f e l t down-  most encouraging to  me  and to the r e s t of the s t a f f of the school."3? Dr.  John Ferguson  S n e l l , Emeritus  P r o f e s s o r of Chemistry  and Honorary H i s t o r i a n of Macdonald C o l l e g e , c o n t r a s t e d S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald's reticence«with Dr.  Robertson's:  F  l o v e of p u b l i c i t y and h i s b e l i e v * i n i t s v a l u e . Doubtless Dr. Robertson's l o n g experience i n the Government s e r v i c e , where i n f o r m i n g of the p u b l i c  3? Mr. H. B. Maclean, 28 November 1969.  p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Vancouver,  B.C.,  was a duty had developed t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . . . . It was probably not merely from h a b i t and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , but a l s o from an apprehension o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n v i n c i n g the r u r a l people of the b e n e f i t s o f s c h o o l c o n s o l i d a t i o n and, a f t e r w a r d s , the need t o r e c r u i t students . . . that Robertson chose through newspapers, p e r i o d i c a l s and p u b l i c addresses t o c l a i m so much p u b l i c n o t i c e f o r the "Macdonald-Robertson Movement," S n e l l remembered d u r i n g the p e r i o d of c o l l e g e  construction  how s Dr, Robertson l a b o u r e d d i l i g e n t l y i n l i n e s t h a t were u n f a m i l i a r to him, w h i l e at the same time keeping up a stream of a r t i c l e s and p u b l i c addresses that the p u b l i c i t y demanded. He would read and w r i t e l a t e i n t o the n i g h t and be up at f i v e i n the morning to make a t o u r o f the p r o p e r t y . His energy was boundless but the s t r a i n t o l d on him and, though he was only f i f t y years o l d i n the year of c o l l e g e opening, he had the appearance o f a man of sixty.3° The Toronto Globe and M a i l d e s c r i b e d Robertson as s T a l l and s l i g h t l y stooped, face l e a n and angular, jaw prominent and f i r m , eyes o f the c l e a r e s t blue deep-set i n h i s head, a high forehead, grey h a i r , and moustache grey and g r i z z l e d , the man b e t r a y s h i s n a t i o n a l i t y by h i s speech.39 The breach which o c c u r r e d between Dr. Robertson and S i r W i l l i a m and which l e d to the former's r e s i g n a t i o n from Macdonald C o l l e g e was  never h e a l e d .  Dr. S n e l l p o i n t s out t h a t  Robertson's v i s i t s to the C o l l e g e w i t h the Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n "though d i s t a s t e f u l to S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald  were welcomed by the members o f the s t a f f ,  38 S n e l l , Macdonald  C o l l e g e , pp. 60-61.  39 Globe and M a i l , Toronto, 1J  June  1908  especially  those who  it  had served under  him.  can he determined t h a t Robertson e x c e l l e d as a speaker, a  g i f t apparent i n h i s e a r l y days.  His daughter observes:  He must have been a great a t t r a c t i o n as an entertainment f a c t o r . . . l u c i d i n argument and f u l l o f v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n and funny s t o r i e s . . . . Farmers drove f o r m i l e s around to a t t e n d h i s meetings. 1 A member o f the Vancouver  '  Club, expressed h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  one speech Robertson made t  of  "Your address today moved me more than any address or sermon I ever heard or any book I ever read. It c o n v i c t e d me I f r e e l y confess to you, o f l i v i n g on a v e r y low plane and i t made me wish herea f t e r to do a whole l o t b e t t e r . I doubt not i t had the same e f f e c t on o t h e r s . . . I v a l u e so much every word o f your address . . . . "Permit me t o add t h a t I am f i l l e d w i t h admirat i o n o f your g i f t of e x p r e s s i n g y o u r s e l f . The words . h o l d the l i s t e n e r and y e t the thought never dominates, and what economy of words! , I t was indeed a t r e a t . " ^ 2  There must have been a n ' e v a n g e l i s t i c q u a l i t y both i n Robertson's d e l i v e r y and presence. . . . shone a broad-minded  "Through h i s u t t e r a n c e s  and e n l i g h t e n e d Canadianism  . . . .  He s t i r r e d a f e e l i n g o f reverence i n h i s a u d i e n c e s . " ^  One o f  the  f i r s t d i r e c t o r s o f the Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n  remembered t ^° S n e l l , Macdonald  C o l l e g e , p.  62.  in C u r r i e r , Biography, p. ^ 4  2 3  6.  J . Goodwin Gibson to Robertson, 29 June 1 9 2 1 , R.P., S e n t i n e l Review (Woodstock), 6 February 1 9 1 4 .  1,.4.  I best r e c a l l Dr. Robertson's e f f o r t s t o educate the hand, the head and the h e a r t , through the medium o f c o n s o l i d a t e d r u r a l s c h o o l s . Never s h a l l I f o r g e t an o r a t i o n I heard him d e l i v e r a t the Kingston C o n s o l i d a t e d School i n New Brunswick, where, he seemed t o be groping f o r the s t a r s . . One way and another, he l e f t a great impression on Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e and Canadian thought.44 Another member o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n  recorded:  Dr. Robertson was an o p t i m i s t and had t h e f a c u l t y o f imparting optimism t o others . . . .45 A business  man s a i d o f him:  Dr. Robertson was a man b l e s s e d with a most k i n d l y nature and the widest sympathies; he was q u i e t , unassuming and g e n i a l . He made, as the years went by an i n c r e a s i n g number o f f r i e n d s i n many walks o f l i f e . . . . These a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by Dr. Robertson and the acknowledgement o f the v a l u e o f these a c t i v i t i e s as r e v e a l e d by the many honours showered upon, him, show t h a t he was a man o f high I d e a l s , o f l o f t y and e l e v a t e d thought, and t h a t he was supremely g i f t e d with a v i s i o n f o r the f u t u r e which was f a r i n advance o f h i s times. It may be s a i d , I t h i n k , t h a t the outstanding t a l e n t s , the v i s i o n , the s p i r i t and breadth o f view, possessed by Dr. Robertson merit us i n a p p l y i n g t o him the r a r e a p p e l l a t i o n o f genius, f o r i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f men o f genius t h a t they are endowed with q u a l i t i e s which a r e not u s u a l l y present i n o r d i n a r y mortals . . . . He was p r a c t i c a l t o the extent t h a t he r e a l i z e d t h a t man's f i r s t concern i n t h i s world was with h i s own r e l e n t i n g s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e , the attainment of s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l reward so that he c o u l d survive. ... ..... . .46 44 w. D. A l b r i g h t , Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Report: 1943-44, pp. 11-12. 45  i b i d . , p. 16.  4  i b i d . , pp.  6  19-27,  Robertson's  speeches tended to be r e p e t i t i o u s as may  well  be expected when so much d i s t a n c e had to be covered i n an e r a l a c k i n g radio' or t e l e v i s i o n . he was  But, wherever he found h i m s e l f ,  a b l e to a l l y h i s s u b j e c t w i t h the l o c a l i t y and thus  p r o v i d e a focus of i n t e r e s t f o r h i s audience. accounts of h i s t a l k s t h e r e i s frequent mention l a u g h t e r " and  In newspaper of "loud  "prolonged applause."'  He wrote many b u l l e t i n s and a r t i c l e s w h i l e Commissioner f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , each a model of c l a r i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e to the a b i l i t i e s of h i s farmer r e a d e r s .  His speeches, of which  he kept c o p i e s , are l o g i c a l l y developed, i n f o r m a t i v e , persuasi v e , and i n c l u d e j u s t the r i g h t amount o f o r a t o r i c a l e m b e l l i s h ment f o r the o c c a s i o n .  The evidence he gave b e f o r e the Standing  Committee f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n drew the warmest a p p r e c i a t i o n from members of t h a t body. . In h i s day w r i t i n g was  used much more f o r  communication.  Among h i s papers are copies o f many l e t t e r s addressed to h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , Cabinet M i n i s t e r s , Prime M i n i s t e r s , Governors-General and E n g l i s h Robertson's  nobility.  f a v o u r i t e s p o r t s were g o l f and  There i s no evidence t h a t he took any music.  fly-fishing.^  7  i n t e r e s t i n a r t or  But t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t he found an a e s t h e t i c  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the imposing of man's d e s i g n on n a t u r e .  He  c o u l d e x e r c i s e h i s i m a g i n a t i o n i n c r e a t i n g waving wheat f i e l d s  ^  7  C u r r i e r , Biography, p.  18.  out of the p r a i r i e ;  see beauty i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f a f i n e  cheese; and hear music i n the sound of a r e a p e r .  One  expects  he c o u l d see a grace i n the s e t t l e r s ' : homesteads with gardens and a i r of prosperous  their  solidity.  His consuming passions were a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l education.  Enough has been s t a t e d of h i s e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d  a g r i c u l t u r e , a f a c t widely r e c o g n i z e d .  What was  of  recognized  e q u a l l y w i d e l y d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , but which i s not q u i t e so at p r e s e n t , i s h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to Canadian e d u c a t i o n . n e g l e c t i s obvious  i n t e x t s on Canadian  In h i s lengthy volume, The  This  Education.  Development o f ' E d u c a t i o n i n  Canada, Charles E. P h i l l i p s presents a t a b l e d e p i c t i n g the changes which took p l a c e i n the elementary from 1825  to 1950.  For the p e r i o d 1900  school curriculum,  to 1925,  three  s u b j e c t s are i n c l u d e d , nature study, manual t r a i n i n g household  science.  0  new  and  A l l these s u b j e c t s were g i v e n impetus  by the Macdonald Movement, y e t P h i l l i p s says n o t h i n g about Robertson,  and r e f e r s only i n p a s s i n g , to S i r W i l l i a m and  h i s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to s c h o o l c o n s o l i d a t i o n . ^ 9 S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, P h i l l i p s omits r e f e r e n c e to the Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l Education, an important  land-  mark i n the h i s t o r y o f Canadian e d u c a t i o n .  ho  _ Charles E. P h i l l i p s , The Development of Education i n Canada, (Toronto 1 Gage 1 9 5 7 ) . p. 433. ^  9  Ibid.» p.  271.  F. Henry Johnson,  i n A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Canadian  Education,  devotes a s e c t i o n of h i s book to the broadening c u r r i c u l u m i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s at the t u r n of the century, and to manual t r a i n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Dr. Johnson d e s c r i b e s  the p a r t n e r s h i p of Macdonald and Robertson and t h e i r ment i n the Manual T r a i n i n g scheme and i n Domestic  involve-  Science  i n s t r u c t i o n as championed by Mrs. Adelaide Hoodless.  Due  r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n by the author of the importance  of the  Royal Commission on T e c h n i c a l Education. From i t s recommendations two important F e d e r a l measures f o l l o w e d . The f i r s t was the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act of.1913, which a l l o t t e d $10,000,000 of F e d e r a l Funds t o be spent i n encouraging a g r i c u l t u r a l education i n the p r o v i n c e s as they might see f i t . The second a c t delayed by. World War I, was the T e c h n i c a l Education Act of 1919, a u t h o r i z i n g an equal sum to be spent i n ten years t o enable p r o v i n c e s to i n i t i a t e or expand t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t e c h n i c a l education.50 A r e c e n t book has r a t h e r more to say.  In Canadian  Educa-  t i o n t A H i s t o r y , Robert M. Stamp s t a t e s t Although p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s gave t e n t a t i v e v e r b a l support t o manual t r a i n i n g , t h e i r a c t u a l response d u r i n g the 1890's was very c a u t i o u s . Without money and without t e a c h e r s , the department h e s i t a t e d to commit themselves to such a c o s t l y and c o n t r o v e r s i a l departure i n e d u c a t i o n . I t was the g e n e r o s i t y of S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald t h a t made both• money and t e a c h e r s a v a i l a b l e James Robertson . ... persuaded Macdonald o f the v a l u e o f p r a c t i c a l work i n the elementary s c h o o l , and saw t h a t the Fund's monies were w i s e l y spent.51 D  Johnson,  B r i e f H i s t o r y , Chap. 9«  51 Robert M. Stamp, "Education and the Economic and S o c i a l M i l i e u : The English-Canadian Scene from the 1870's t o 1914," i n Canadian E d u c a t i o n ; A H i s t o r y , ed. by J.. Donald Wilson, Robert M. Stamp, L o u i s - P h i l i p p e Audet P r e n t i c e , (Scarborough,  P r e n t i c e - H a l l ) , pp. 298-299.  W r i t i n g on the r u r a l s c h o o l Stamp c o n s i d e r s t h a t , of the main concerns  of Canadian education at the  of the t w e n t i e t h century was  "One  beginning  the s o - c a l l e d r u r a l s c h o o l  problem," brought about by a d e c l i n i n g r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , uns a t i s f a c t o r y attendance,  a c u r r i c u l u m u n s u i t e d to r u r a l needs  and taught by p o o r l y - q u a l i f i e d teachers who to those needs.  c o u l d not a d j u s t  "Perhaps the best organized and b e s t f i n a n c e d  approach to problems of r u r a l education Macdonald Education Movement . . . . " 5  , . .came from the  2  Of the campaign f o r T e c h n i c a l Education Stamp a s s e r t s : Educators and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s were d e l i g h t e d when Ottawa appointed a Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education i n 1910, w i t h James Robertson . . . as chairman. The Commission's Report i n c l u d e d a. comprehensive survey o f t e c h n i c a l education abroad, a condemnation o f the l a c k of such o p p o r t u n i t i e s at home and a recommendation t h a t the f e d e r a l government g i v e massive a s s i s t a n c e to the Provinces to h e l p expand t e c h n i c a l education. The r e p o r t was g r e e t e d w i t h d e l i g h t by management, l a b o u r , and educators i n E n g l i s h . speaking Canada . . . .53 . In 1958,  Dr. J . F. K. E n g l i s h s t a t e d , "Probably  the most  s i g n i f i c a n t development i n Canadian education d u r i n g the past twenty y e a r s has been the establishment of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " ^ was  of l a r g e r l o c a l u n i t s  C o n s o l i d a t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e  an a r e a i n which the Macdonald Movement q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  5 2  I o i d . , p..297.  5 3  I i d . , p. p  297.  54 J...F. K. E n g l i s h , "The Reorganized System of L o c a l School A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Education, 11 (Toronto: W. J . Gage, 1956-58), p. 41.  but only t e m p o r a r i l y  failed.  There were a number of reasons  f o r t h i s , among them being the r e l u c t a n c e of the l o c a l payer to provide  f o r the e x t r a costs o f student  tax-  transportation  by an i n c r e a s e i n the m i l l r a t e , and p a r t l y from t h e ' i n a b i l i t y of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n to acknowledge education, of b e n e f i t g e n e r a l l y . by Macdonald and  per se,  C o n s o l i d a t i o n , as envisaged  Robertson, was  promoted  i n h i b i t e d i n p a r t by the poor  c o n d i t i o n g e n e r a l l y o f r u r a l Canadian roads, which tended to p r e c l u d e  and  as  a f a c t of  life  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p u p i l s over a •  distance. '(That r u r a l s c h o o l c o n s o l i d a t i o n d i d not e n t i r e l y cease can be a s c e r t a i n e d from an a r t i c l e ' i n the Farmer's Advocate of 13  J u l y 1916,  which maintained  p r o v i n c e where a study i t was  t h a t , "Manitoba Was  the  only  of c o n s o l i d a t i o n could be made s i n c e  the most advanced  numerically.")55  With-;;the improvement i n a t t i t u d e toward education,  (albeit  p r e c a r i o u s ) , and w i t h the development of motor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b e t t e r roads,  the p r i n c i p l e of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has  since  been accepted' by the Canadian p u b l i c . Nature study time, but  and the s c h o o l garden f l o u r i s h e d f o r some  e v e n t u a l l y the former was  absorbed by the  elementary  55 For a comparison between the number of c o n s o l i d a t e d d i s t r i c t s i n Ontario and Manitoba which presents the l a t t e r p r o v i n c e i n a most f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t , see McCutcheon, P u b l i c Education i n O n t a r i o , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 3 . T h i s d i s p a r i t y between the two p r o v i n c e s may r e f l e c t the p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e of the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e i n regard t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l system and the more c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e of Eastern Canada.  s c h o o l g e n e r a l s c i e n c e programme, while the l a t t e r faded away by the l a t e 1930's.  P h i l l i p s ' s t a b l e of elementary  school  s u b j e c t s f o r the p e r i o d 1925-1950 shows manual t r a i n i n g t r a n s formed i n t o i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , and household s c i e n c e i n t o home  56 economics.  J  Robertson's e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy e a r l i e r e d u c a t i o n a l reformers, to have acknowledged t h i s A l e r t man  t h a t he was,  although  i n any  owes much to the he does not  appear  of h i s speeches or pamphlets.  he c o u l d not have avoided  being  influ-  enced by h i s e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t a c t s d u r i n g h i s v i s i t i n g pro- . f e s s o r s h i p i n the 1880*s, and by h i s attendance at meetings of v a r i o u s k i n d s . p a r t i c u l a r l y on r u r a l and  Furthermore, he was  reader,  L i b e r t y Hyde B a i l e y  other p r o g r e s s i v e American W r i t e r s , shows. saw  an a v i d  a g r i c u l t u r a l education as h i s  c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s , a number by  t u r n of the century  educational  Above a l l ,  the development of the  and the  progressive  movement, t h a t response of concerned people to u r b a n i z a t i o n with a l l i t s s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  Robertson, occupying  he d i d , a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n Government, and of the Macdonald Movement, was  as  as d i r e c t o r  not u n a f f e c t e d by the t u r m o i l .  It i s c l e a r t h a t Robertson's sympathies, shared by S i r W i l l i a m , l a y i n the d i r e c t i o n of a p r a c t i c a l education which a g e n e r a l education  should  -•56 P h i l l i p s , Development, p.  revolve.  4-33.  around  He b e l i e v e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d be made more p r o f i t a b l e by t h e t e a c h i n g scientific  o f s c i e n t i f i c methods, a s c r i b i n g t o i t a  i n t e r e s t which would e l e v a t e farmers t o the l e v e l  of the p r o f e s s i o n s . young men and women.  Thus would farming be made a t t r a c t i v e t o Robertson was a reformer whose  mission,  encouraged and supported by S i r W i l l i a m , was t o spread the gospel  o f the value  education  of p r a c t i c a l and c o n s t r u c t i v e work i n the  o f Canadian, c h i l d r e n .  Both men r e a l i z e d t h a t the  impact o f t h e o b j e c t l e s s o n would have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t upon the  farmer and h i s f a m i l y than the w r i t t e n word.  I t must be  remembered t h a t both he and Macdonald were p r a c t i c a l men even if one  idealists.  Both had been denied h i g h e r  becoming a cheese maker, the other  facturer.  a merchant and manu-  Perhaps Robertson, d e s p i t e h i s honorary  r e g r e t t e d h i s l a c k o f education advocating  education, the  doctorates,  and sought t o compensate by  t h e k i n d o f "hon b o o k i s h " programme t h a t he d i d .  However, they were i n good company. g r e s s i v e educators leaned  towards t h e P e s t a l o z z i a n , F r o e b e l l i a n ,  Spencerian, type o f s e n s u a l , practical learning.  Contemporary pro-  s e l f - e x p l o r a t o r y , s c i e n t i f i c and  Thus t o g e t h e r ,  the two men b o l d l y  to pave the way and i n doing so, s e t an example f o r to  acted  others  follow. Robertson was a r o m a n t i c i s t .  Nature," and f e l t  He spoke o f "Old Mother  t h a t t h e country  s u p e r i o r t o t h e town d w e l l e r . 5 7  man was somehow m o r a l l y  T h i s again was an e x p r e s s i o n  57 j . w. Robertson, Conservation o f L i f e i n Rural (New York i A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1 9 H ) .  Districts  of  h i s p e r i o d , and one can t r a c e c e r t a i n Rousseauean  tones  i n this attitude.  over-  He t r i e d , as d i d B a i l e y , Knapp and  other American educators, to stem the m i g r a t i o n from the country to the town, a development which was a l r e a d y i n f u l l f l o o d by 1900 i n the United S t a t e s , and which was in  Canada by the f i r s t  decade of the t w e n t i e t h  beginning  century.  Accompanying h i s a t t i t u d e on r u r a l education f o r boys, were h i s ideas on the r u r a l education of women.  One can  estimate from h i s pronouncements, t h a t Robertson  was not i n  sympathy w i t h an education which f i t t e d women f o r anything other than t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , f o r a woman's p l a c e , above a l l , was  i n the home, feeding'her f a m i l y a c c o r d i n g t o  s c i e n t i f i c methods w h i l e i n c u l c a t i n g at the same time a good moral tone. The growth o f i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of the 19th century, brought w i t h i t a demand f o r a h i g h l y s k i l l e d force.  labour  The country t h a t c o u l d . o r g a n i z e the k i n d o f education  t h a t c o u l d produce t h i s f o r c e i n what was then becoming a v e r y n a t i o n a l i s t i c p e r i o d , was sure o f economic growth and economic s u p e r i o r i t y .  Canada as a young n a t i o n , s t i l l  agri-  c u l t u r a l , but by 1910, f a s t becoming i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , had need of  the k i n d o f t r a i n i n g which was w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n the very  powerful  United States t o the South.  Thus, w i t h the example o f Europe, and o f the United States always b e f o r e her, Canada f o l l o w e d s u i t $ , the T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g Act of 1919, b e i n g an e x p r e s s i o n o f r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i f Canada was to t h r i v e or h o l d her own  i n company with the g i a n t s , then  there must "be a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m i n Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools and post-Secondary  institutions.  This r e o r g a n i z a t i o n has come about. It may be s a i d t h a t Robertson  grew up w i t h Canada.  He  a r r i v e d i n the country only e i g h t years a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and l i v e d under no fewer than eleven Prime M i n i s t e r s , S i r John A. Macdonald t o W. L. MacKenzie King.  from  He appears t o  have expressed no p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l sentiments, but served l o y a l l y L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e Governments a l i k e , as Comm i s s i o n e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and D a i r y i n g . member o f t h e establishment o f h i s time.  Robertson was a He b e l i e v e d i n t h e  e t h i c o f hard work and i n the d i g n i t y o f l a b o u r . servant he p r e f e r r e d order t o chaos.  As a c i v i l  As an e d u c a t i o n a l ad-  m i n i s t r a t o r he h e l d t h e o p t i m i s t i c view t h a t Canadian n a t i o n a l progress depended on a s c i e n t i f i c  education.  As a p u b l i c  f i g u r e he was a l i v i n g example o f what i s now c a l l e d c i p a t o r y democracy."  He was i n t e n s e l y p a t r i o t i c  Canada and Great B r i t a i n .  "parti-  towards  For Canada he wanted s t a b l e  c u l t u r e counterbalanced by a d e v e l o p i n g  agri-  industrialisation.  With B r i t a i n and t h e United States he wanted s t r o n g t i e s . James Wilson Robertson  i s d e s e r v i n g of a f a r wider  r e c o g n i t i o n than he has r e c e i v e d . of t h i s paper t o t r y t o r e c t i f y  I t has been t h e purpose this.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary  Sources  The James Wilson Robertson Papers, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. These papers, c o n t a i n e d i n eleven f e e t o f boxes, were purchased from Robertson's daughter, Mrs. Ishbel Robertson C u r r i e r , through Mr. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d of the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n d u r i n g 1966-67. They r e p r e s e n t the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y wide range o f Robertson's a c t i v i t i e s , p r i m a r i l y through h i s correspondence, addresses, newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s , r e p o r t s , pamphlets and photographs. Personal i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Harry MacLean, 16 May 1970.  Government  Vancouver,  Publications  Ontario, S e s s i o n a l Papers, Report o f the Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , 1886-89. Canada.  House o f Commons Debates, 1890-1904, 1908-1914, 1919, 1923.  Canada.  House o f Commons, Standing Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and C o l o n i z a t i o n . Evidence g i v e n by James Wilson Robertson, 1899, 1903, 1906-07.  Report o f the Royal- Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l -Education,, 1913. Report o f the Royal. Commission ...to. I n q u i r e I n t o I n d u s t r i a l Unrest o f S t e e l Workers a t Sydney, Nova S c o t i a , Supplement t o the Labour Gazette, (Canada, Labour, February 1924).  Ministry of  Articles Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Report,  1943-44.  Cappon, James. " S i r William.-Macdonald and A g r i c u l t u r a l Education." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XII (January 1905),  315-322.  Cowley, Currier,  R...H. ."The Macdonald School Gardens of Canada." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XII ( A p r i l 1905). 391-420. I s h b e l .Robertson. Robertson. R.P.,  B r i e f Biography of James Wilson 1, 2.  E n g l i s h , J.. F. K. "The Reorganized System of L o c a l School A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia." E d u c a t i o n , II (Toronto« W. J . Gage, 1956-58), 41. Hotson, J..W. ."Macdonald Rural S c h o o l s . " Monthly, (July 1904), 9. lies, .  Brandon  College  George. "Dr. Robertson's Work f o r the T r a i n i n g of Canadian Farmers." The American Review o f Reviews, November 190?, 576-5W. '  Gibson, J. W. "The E d u c a t i o n a l Value of . A g r i c u l t u r a l . Instr.uat.ion-..in-Elementary and Secondary S c h o o l s . " The Phi D e l t a Kappan, V o l . 8, 1926, 14-18. Leake, A l b e r t H. "Manual T r a i n i n g . " A p r i l 1901, 537-39.  Canadian  Magazine,  Leake, A l b e r t H. "Manual T r a i n i n g i n the S c h o o l . " School. March 1914, 435-438. Robertson, J . W. "Manual T r a i n i n g . " A p r i l 1901, 521-37.  Canadian  The  Magazine,  Robertson, J . W. " P r o f e s s o r Cappon's A r t i c l e i n Queen's Quarterly." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , XII ( A p r i l 1905), 420-424. Robertson, J . W. "The Macdonald C o l l e g e Movement." Reprinted from the N a t i o n a l - E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of the United S t a t e s , Proceedings. 1909, 92-100. Robertson,. J... .W... "Message to our Returning S o l d i e r s . " The Beaver, 14 December 1918,7. Ruddick, J . A. "The O r i g i n s and Development of the.. .Dominion Dairy, and Cold Storage Branch." S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , VII (December 1926).  Sherwood, Herbert Frances. " C h i l d r e n of the Land." Outlook, 2 3 r A p r i l 1910, 891-901.  The  Sutherland, J . C. "A N a t i o n a l Purpose i n E d u c a t i o n . " Canadian Magazine, May 1913, 57-61.  Books Begbie, H a r o l d . A l b e r t , Fourth E a r l Grey; A Last Word. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917. Canadian Annual Review, 1905,  1909,  1910,  1913.  Canadian Seed Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r y , 1900-1925, Ottawa: 1925. Cremin., Lawrence A. New York:  The Transformation of the A. A. Knopf, 1961.  C u r r i e r , Ishbel. Robertson.B r i e f Biography Robertson. Robertson Papers. Dominion Education A s s o c i a t i o n . . 1907, 1913, 1917..  of James Wilson  Proceedings, 1892,  F i r e s t o n e , 0. J . Industry and E d u c a t i o n . of Ottawa Press, 1969. Gibson, Bette C.  Teacher-Builder.  Ottawa:  Victoria:  G u i l l e t , Edwin C. In the Cause of Education. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, I960. I n n i s , Mary Q. An Economic H i s t o r y of Canada. Ryerson, 1935• Johnson, F. Henry. Toronto-: McCutcheon, J . M.  School.  1901, University  1961. Toronto: Toronto:  A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Canadian Education. McGraw-Hill, 1968. P u b l i c Education i n Ontario.  Toronto:  1941.  Phillips,  Charles E.. The Development of Education i n Canada. Toronto: W. J . Gage, 1957.  Robertson,  James Wilson. Districts. New  Conservation of L i f e i n Rural York: A s s o c i a t e d Press, 1911.  S n e l l , J . F. Macdonald Press, 1963.  College.  Montreal:  McGill  University  Wilson, J . D., Stamp, R. M..,. Audet, L o u i s - P h i l i p p e . Canadian Education: A History. Scarborough: PrenticeHall, 1970.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Germany 62 53
Canada 16 0
United Kingdom 14 0
China 9 2
United States 8 2
France 2 0
Unknown 2 0
Nigeria 1 0
Sri Lanka 1 0
New Zealand 1 0
Netherlands 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 73 47
London 16 0
Beijing 5 0
Ashburn 4 0
Berlin 4 6
Guangzhou 3 0
Seattle 2 0
Belleville 2 0
Toronto 2 0
Phoenix 1 0
Nashville 1 0
Montreal 1 0
Shenzhen 1 2

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101774/manifest

Comment

Related Items