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City and regional planning education : response of selected North American institutions to the needs… Rizvi, Amjad Ali Bahadur 1971

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.CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING EDUCATION: RESPONSE BY SELECTED NORTH AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS TO THE NEEDS OF UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES by. AMJAD ALI BAHADUR RIZVI M.A. (Geog.)j M.A. ( S o c ) , U n i v e r s i t y of K a r a c h i , 1957, 1963 D.Ek., Athens T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1961 M.A. (Plan n i n g ) , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1971 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r ex t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . (Amjad A. B. R i z v i ) School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada January 1971. ABSTRACT On the assumption that the North American c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g education has been of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , t h i s study examines two major q u e s t i o n s : a) how has t h i s education system responded to the academic needs of planning students from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ? b) what was the outcome of t h i s response. Answers to these questions demonstrate a theory of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . I n essence, a s i m i l a r problem i n many n a t i o n s t r i g g e r s s e q u e n t i a l response i n the form of i n t e r e s t , involvement, and i n f l u e n c e among i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, n a t i o n a l governments and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The e f f e c t of t h i s process i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l : changes occur i n both i n t e r a c t i n g systems, i . e . i n the r e l e v a n t problem (here p l a n n i n g education f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ) and i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s (here North American pl a n n i n g s c h o o l s ) . Both the pedagogic changes and the u n d e r l y i n g processes have been s t u d i e d w i t h the help of data c o l l e c t e d from a f i e l d survey of North American planning schools and agencies i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l education. The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l agencies l e d to the inc r e a s e d involvement of North American pla n n i n g s c h o o l s , i n p l a n n i n g education programs of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . E d u c a t i o n a l exchange programs i n c r e a s e d more r a p i d l y i n the 1960s compared w i t h the 1950s due mainly to the launching of the United Nations Concerted A c t i o n Program i n 1961, the adoption of the A l l i a n c e of Progress Charter i n 1961, the i n c r e a s e d coverage of the Canadian T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Program s i n c e 1958 and the passage of the F o r e i g n i i Education Act of the United States i n 1966. S t a r t i n g from the l a t e 1950s, many underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d planning schools w i t h the help of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies and f o r e i g n planning s c h o o l s . These schools were i n a d d i t i o n to the ones e s t a b l i s h e d e n t i r e l y through n a t i o n a l means. A comparative study of these two models shows that the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - d e v e l o p e d schools have programs more attuned to the needs of the r e c i p i e n t s . These schools are b u i l t on an image of p l a n n i n g which has a r e g i o n a l and a developmental o r i e n t a t i o n . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o l e d to the changes i n North American planning education. Whereas no p l a n n i n g s c h o o l had a course on the themes of underdeveloped economies twenty years ago, today 21 schools o f f e r 39 such courses, the m a j o r i t y of which were opened i n the l a t e 1960s. These courses were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n the few, r e l a t i v e l y s e n i o r schools such as Harvard, M.I.T and Y a l e . From these c e n t e r s , the i n t e r e s t spread to other schools through a " d i s s e m i n a t i o n process". Courses on underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s have been intr o d u c e d i n schools which have a h i g h enrollment of students from those c o u n t r i e s , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - e x p e r i e n c e d f a c u l t y members, a h i g h standing as centers of education and r e s e a r c h , and a l a r g e number of u n i v e r s i t y - w i d e i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs supported by o u t s i d e agencies. These schools are among the s e n i o r ones s i t u a t e d i n a r e g i o n which has the l a r g e s t segment of f o r e i g n student p o p u l a t i o n , the h i g h e s t d e n s i t y of academic a c t i v i t i e s and the l a r g e s t number of agencies, i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l * p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs. I n t e r e s t has i i i now reached a p o i n t a t which the f i e l d of c o n c e n t r a t i o n on underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s has a t t a i n e d a v a l i d i t y of i t s own. The d i s c e r n i b l e trends suggest some g u i d e l i n e s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s e t t i n g f o r p l a n n i n g programs i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s must re c o g n i z e the s h i f t i n g emphasis of planning from p h y s i c a l to socio-economic a s p e c t s , from l o c a l to r e g i o n a l s c a l e and from r o u t i n e s k i l l s to i n n o v a t i v e knowledge. The underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s can be b e t t e r served i f North American pl a n n i n g schools concentrate t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s i n s e l e c t e d p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s , r e s t r i c t admission to the mature and p o t e n t i a l l y capable students, improve the t h e o r e t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l base of the o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d courses and i n c r e a s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The study has l e f t the w r i t e r i n debt to many persons. F i r s t , he records h i s deep g r a t i t u d e to P r o f e s s o r H. P e t e r Oberlander, D i r e c t o r of the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g f o r the continuous s u p e r v i s i o n of h i s e n t i r e graduate work spread over three u n i v e r s i t i e s . The changes i n the substance and s t y l e of an e a r l i e r d r a f t suggested by him and the c r i t i c a l review made by P r o f e s s o r Leonard C. Marsh of the F a c u l t y of Education c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to whatever standard of completeness has been achieved. The o c c a s i o n a l advice g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r s V. S e t t y Pendakur of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , Glenn M. C h r o n i s t e r and Walter J . H a r t r i c k , both of the F a c u l t y of Education, have been v a l u a b l e i n completing the t h e s i s . The w r i t e r i s g r a t e f u l to a l a r g e number of planning educators and o f f i c i a l s who gave time and coop e r a t i o n d u r i n g h i s v i s i t to the planning schools and agencies across Canada and the United S t a t e s . * S p e c i a l mention should be made of P r o f e s s o r s A r t h u r L. Grey and Edgar J . Horwood of the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington a t S e a t t l e , W i l l i a m L. C. Wheaton, Richard L. Meier, W i l l i a m Alonso and F r a n c i s V i o l i c h of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Berkeley, John Friedmann of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Los Angeles, B a r c l a y Jones of C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , W i l l i a m A. Doebele and Reginald Isaacs of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , and L l o y d Rodwin of the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology. Among agency o f f i c i a l s mention should be made of Messrs. Ernest Weissmann, Regional Development A d v i s e r to the United N a t i o n s , Gordon D. Jacoby, D i r e c t o r of Manpower and Education, the American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , * See Appendix 1.4. V and Miss M a r j o r i e S. Berger, A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r (Research) of the American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s . The s t a f f of the planning l i b r a r i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Berkeley, the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y deserve thanks f o r making a v a i l a b l e some r a r e m a t e r i a l s on t h i s unexplored s u b j e c t . The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e provided by the West P a k i s t a n U n i v e r s i t y of Engineering and Technology and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. F i n a l l y , o n l y the author's debt exceeds h i s g r a t i t u d e to h i s mother f o r her pa t i e n c e w i t h a son a f f l i c t e d w i t h s c h o l a r s h i p . A.A.B.R. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v i TABLES x ILLUSTRATIONS x i i APPENDICES x i v ABBREVIATIONS x v i i CHAPTER I PLAN PREMISE AND METHODOLOGY 1. THE PLAN 1 1.1 The Three Stage Construct 2 1.1.1 Stage One: I n t e r e s t 6 1.1.2 Stage Two: Involvement 9 1.1.3 Stage Three: I n f l u e n c e 10 1.2 The Focus and the Need 12 2. THE PREMISE * 15 2.1 D e f i n i t i o n of Concepts 15 2.1.1 Underdeveloped Countries 15 2.1.2 Pla n n i n g 16 2.1.3 C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g 18 2.2 Parameters of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g i n the Context of Underdeveloped Countries 20 2.2.1 Goals of Development Pl a n n i n g 21 2.2.2 Nature of Urban and Regional Problems 23 2.2.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - I n f o r m a t i o n Framework 25 v i i 2.3 North American C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g Education: Main Phases of I t s Development 27 2.3.1 C i t y B e a u t i f u l and C i t y P r a c t i c a l Movements 28 2.3.2 Post-Depression Phase 31 2.3.3 Contemporary Developments 33 3. METHODOLOGY 36 3.1 Measurement 36 3.2 Data C o l l e c t i o n 38 4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 41 CHAPTER I I THE ROLE OF AGENCIES IN PLANNING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 51 2. INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES 55 2.1 United Nations 55 2.1.1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Meetings 57 2.1.2 Expert Missions 61 2.1.3 Students and Trainees 62 2.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n of American States 66 3. NATIONAL AGENCIES 70 3.1 United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development 70 3.2 Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency 77 4. PRIVATE AGENCIES 83 5. THE ROLE AGENCIES: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 90 CHAPTER I I I PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: INVOLVEMENT OF NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS INTRODUCTION THE THREE ALTERNATIVES PLANNING SCHOOLS IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: A TOTAL PICTURE PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: NEW EXPERIMENTS 4.1 Indonesia: Department of Regional and C i t y P l a n n i n g , Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Bandung 4.2 C h i l e : I n t e r - D i s c i p l i n a r y Center f o r Urban and Regional Development (CIDU), The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of C h i l e , Santiago 4.3 Ghana: I n s t i t u t e of Community P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology, Kumasi 4.4 Turkey: Department of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g , Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , Ankara 4.5 Puerto R i c o : School of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto R i c o , San Juan 4.6 Other Programs THE PHASE OF INVOLVEMENT: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION CHAPTER IV PATTERN AND DETERMINANTS OF COURSES ON UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS SETTING UDC INTEREST IN PLANNING AND RELATED SOCIAL SCIENCE FIELDS i x 3. UDC INTEREST IN PLANNING SCHOOLS 168 3.1 ' F i r s t I nnovation: The Chicago Planning School 170 3.2 Aftermath of the Chicago Program: UDC Courses i n E x i s t i n g P lanning Schools 173 4. PATTERN, PARAMETERS AND DETERMINANTS OF UDC COURSES IN PLANNING SCHOOLS 184 4.1 Students from Underdeveloped Countries 188 4.2 F a c u l t y Involvement i n Underdeveloped Countries 197 4.3 I n t e r n a t i o n a l and F o r e i g n Area Study Programs 204 4.4 UDC-Oriented Research and P r o f e s s i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s 208 4.5 Events and I n d i v i d u a l s 222 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 228 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND PROGNOSTICATION 1. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 237 2. PROGNOSTICATION 243 2.1 UDC Pla n n i n g Education System 243 2.2 North American Planning Education System 249 2.3 Agenda f o r Further Research 255 BIBLIOGRAPHY 260 APPENDICES 282 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 282 2. TABULAR INFORMATION 313 3. ILLUSTRATIVE CURRICULA OF SELECTED UDC PLANNING SCHOOLS 339 4. UDC COURSES AND TEACHERS IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS 353 5 . IMPLIED ASSUMPTIONS x Page 369 TABLES I Courses and Teachers i n C i t y P l a n n i n g i n the United States (1910-1930) 30 I I Departments O f f e r i n g C i t y P lanning I n s t r u c t i o n s i n the United States (1910-1930) 30 I I I North American Pl a n n i n g Schools Surveyed 35 IV Agencies Involved i n the Pla n n i n g Aspects of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programs Administered by the USAID: Year of T h e i r Establishment 72 V United States Expenditure i n T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programs, From F.Y. 1949 to 1969 74 VI U n i v e r s i t y Contracts Financed by The United States Agency f o r International.Development 76 V I I North American Non-Governmental P r i v a t e Agencies Operating i n the Area of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development 84 V I I I P o p u l a t i o n vs. P l a n n i n g Schools 106 IX UDC Courses and S e n i o r i t y of Planning Schools 174 X Growth of UDC Courses i n Pl a n n i n g Schools 176 XI Growth of UDC Courses i n Planning Schools (Cumulative T o t a l s ) 181 X I I UDC Courses and S e n i o r i t y of AIP Recognized Planning Schools 181 X I I I UDC Students Enrollment i n Pl a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 191 XIV Percent o f UDC Students by Pla n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 191 XV UDC Students i n U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s Having Planning Schools With/Without UDC Courses 193 XVI UDC-Experienced F a c u l t y Members i n Planning Schools With/Without UDC Courses XVII UDC Courses and UDC-Experienced F a c u l t y Members i n P l a n n i n g Schools X V I I I F a c u l t y Members i n UDCs from U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s Having P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses XIX UDC F a c u l t y Members i n U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s Having P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses XX I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r a c t u a l Programs Undertaken by U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s XXI I n s t i t u t e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies i n U n i v e r s i t i e s Having P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses XXII Ford Foundation Grants f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies to U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s Having Planning Schools With/Without UDC Courses X X I I I Growth of L i t e r a t u r e on UDC U r b a n i z a t i o n and Pla n n i n g XXIV B i b l i o g r a p h i e s P u b l i s h e d on UDC U r b a n i z a t i o n XXV A r t i c l e s on UDC Theme i n the J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners XXVI Ph.D. Programs i n Pl a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses XXVII P r o f e s s i o n a l Status of Pl a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses XXVIII "Leading" U n i v e r s i t i e s i n R e l a t i o n to UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g Schools x i i ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1. Response P a t t e r n 5 2. Order of Response 7 3. Environmental Context 13 4. Underdeveloped Countries 17 5. North American Graduate P l a n n i n g Schools: A c c r e d i t i o n Status and S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n 40 6. United Nations Experts on Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g Sent to Underdeveloped Countries 63 7. United Nations F e l l o w s h i p s i n Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g 65 8. F o r e i g n Urban Development A n a l y s i s System (FUDA): Dissemination Process 78 9. Experts and Students Sponsored Under CIDA Programs 80 10. U.S. P r i v a t e Foundations Expenditures i n the F i e l d of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s 87 11. Trend of Education Exchange i n the United S t a t e s : a. Student Exchange b. Scholar Exchange 93 12. F o r e i g n Students i n the United States i n the F i e l d s o f Environmental Design 95 13. I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of P l a n n i n g Schools 115 14. North American Pl a n n i n g Schools O f f e r i n g UDC Courses 179 15. P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 183 16. Sequence of Response 186 17. UDC Students i n North American Pl a n n i n g Schools 189 18. P l a n n i n g Schools: UDC Courses vs. UDC Students 194 19. UDC Students of a l l F i e l d s vs. UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g Schools 196 x i i i 20. P l a n n i n g Schools: UDC-Experienced F a c u l t y Members: a. Schools With UDC Courses b. Schools Without UDC Courses 201 21. Growth of Urban and Regional Researches i n North America: a. Non-UDC Theme b. UDC Theme 212 22. a. Masters Theses on Non-UDC Theme b. Masters Theses on UDC Theme 216 23. Masters Theses i n Pla n n i n g Schools: a. Theses on Non-UDC Theme b. Theses on UDC Theme 218 24. D o c t o r a l Graduates and Theses i n P l a n n i n g : a. Non-UDC Theme b. UDC Theme 221 25. I l l u s t r a t i v e Courses on Underdeveloped Countries i n North American P l a n n i n g Schools 226 26. UDC Pla n n i n g I n t e r e s t : Dissemination Process 229 27. P l a n n i n g Education i n Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s : Expected Trends and Required Emphases: a. Schools b. T r a i n i n g c. P h y s i c a l to Socio-economic d. L o c a l to Regional-Developmental e. Routine to I n n o v a t i v e f . Teaching and Research 247 28. UDC Components i n North American Planning Education: Expected Trends and Required Emphases: a. UDC I n t e r e s t b. UDC Students c. UDC Research d. UDC Courses e. UDC Concentration f . UDC-NA C o l l a b o r a t i o n 254 x i v APPENDICES 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Page 1.1 North American Graduate Planning Schools: S e n i o r i t y and A c c r e d i t i o n Status 282 1.2 Information Schedule I 291 1.3 Information Schedule I I 294 1.4 Int e r v i e w - I n f o r m a t i o n Excerpts and Informants 295 2. TABULAR INFORMATION 2.1 United Nations Experts i n Housing B u i l d i n g and U r b a n i z a t i o n Sent to UDCs 313 2.2 United Nations F e l l o w s h i p Granted i n the Area of Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g 314 2.3 A d v i s e r s , Teachers and Students Sponsored by the Canadian Government 316 2.4 Number of Persons Trained i n Canada Through T e c h n i c a l Cooperation S e r v i c e 317 2.5 Grants Made by the United States Foundations i n " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s " and Other F i e l d s 318 2.6 Ford Foundation Grants to North American U n i v e r s i t i e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies 319 2.7 F o r e i g n Students and Scholars i n the United States on E d u c a t i o n a l Assignments 320 2.8 United States C i t i z e n s Abroad on E d u c a t i o n a l Assignments 321 2.9 For e i g n Students i n the United States i n the F i e l d s of Environmental Design 322 2.10 UDC Students i n Graduate P l a n n i n g Schools 323 2.11 U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h More than 330 UDC Students: . P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 325 2.12 North American Pl a n n i n g Schools: F u l l Time F a c u l t y Members With UDC Experience 327 2.13 U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h 18 or More F a c u l t y Members i n UDCs: Pl a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 328 2.14 U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h 47 or More UDC F a c u l t y Members: Pla n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 329 2.15 I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r a c t u a l Programs Undertaken by the United States U n i v e r s i t i e s Having P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 330 2.16 Ford Foundation Grants f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies to U n i v e r s i t i e s Having Planning Schools 331 2.17 UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g Schools and Ford Foundation Grants to U n i v e r s i t i e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies Programs 333 2.18 Urban and Regional Researches i n Canada and the United States 334 2.19 Masters Theses i n P l a n n i n g 335 2.20 Masters Theses on General and North American Theme i n P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 336 2.21 Ph.D. Graduates and Theses i n P l a n n i n g (Cumulative T o t a l s ) 337 2.22 Doctorate Programs i n P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without UDC Courses 338 3. ILLUSTRATIVE CURRICULA OF SELECTED UDC PLANNING SCHOOLS 3.1 Regional and C i t y P l a n n i n g Program, Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia 339 3.2 Regional P l a n n i n g Curriculum f o r Underdeveloped Countries 341 3.3 P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Program of the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana 343 3.4 Charles Abrams and the Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , Ankara, Turkey 345 3.5 Department of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g , Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , Ankara 348 3.6 Inter-American Housing Center (CINVA), Bogota, Colombia • 350 3.7 Inter-American Program i n Urban and Regional Pl a n n i n g (PIAPUR), N a t i o n a l Engineering U n i v e r s i t y , Lima, Peru 352 4. UDC COURSES AND TEACHERS IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS 4.1 Examples of UDC Courses i n Non-Planning F a c u l t i e s 353 4.2 Examples of P l a n n i n g Courses w i t h UDC ^Coverage 355 x v i 4.3 U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o : P r o g r a m o f E d u c a t i o n and R e s e a r c h i n P l a n n i n g 358 4.4 UDC C o u r s e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s 360 4.5 S p e c i a l Program f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s o f D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s 362 4.6 Membership, R e c o g n i t i o n and E l i g i b i l i t y C r i t e r i a o f P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s 364 4.7 I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g F a c u l t y Members E v e r A s s o c i a t e d w i t h UDC P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s 365 4.8 I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s E v e r Taught UDC C o u r s e s i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s 367 x v t i ABBREVIATIONS USED ACSP As s o c i a t i o n of the C o l l e g i a t e Schools of Planning ADB Asian Development Bank AIP American I n s t i t u t e of Planners ASPO American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s CENDES Central f o r Development Studies, Central U n i v e r s i t y of Venezuela CEUR Center f o r Urban and Regional Studies, Buenos A i r e s CIDA Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency CIDU I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Center f o r Urban and Regional Studies, C h i l e CINVA Inter-American Housing Center, Bogota, Colombia CLACSO L a t i n American Council of S o c i a l Sciences FAO Food and A g r i c u l t u r e Organization FUDA Foreign Urban Development An a l y s i s System HUD Housing and Urban Development IADP Inter-American Development Bank IBAM B r a z i l i a n I n s t i t u t e of Municipal Administration IBRD In t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development IDA In t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n IDB In t e r n a t i o n a l Development Bank IDRC In t e r n a t i o n a l Development Research Center IFC I n t e r n a t i o n a l Finance Corporation IFHTP In t e r n a t i o n a l Federation of Housing and Town Planning ILO In t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Organization METU Middle East Technical U n i v e r s i t y MINVU Mi n i s t r y of Housing and Urbanism, C h i l e OAS Organization of American States ODEPLAN National Planning O f f i c e , C h i l e PIAPUR Inter-American I n s t i t u t e f o r Regional Planning SLAP Inter-American Planning Society SPURS Special Program f o r Urban and Regional Studies of Developing Countries (MIT) STP Spe c i a l T r a i n i n g Program (OAS) UDC Underdeveloped Countries UN United Nations UNESCO United Nations URDAPIC Urban and Regional Development Advisory Program, C h i l e (Ford Foundation) USAID United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development WHO World Health Organization Sixty s i x other abbreviations of the names of u n i v e r s i t i e s (or planning schools) are l i s t e d i n Appendix 1.1. CHAPTER I PLAN PREMISE AND METHODOLOGY 1. THE PLAN During the l i q u i d a t i o n of European c o l o n i a l power which took p l a c e a f t e r the second world war w e l l over a b i l l i o n people were l i b e r a t e d from c o l o n i a l r u l e w i t h i n a s h o r t span of about f i f t e e n y ears. As independent n a t i o n s , these l i b e r a t e d people f i n d themselves confronted w i t h c e r t a i n b a s i c q u e s t i o n s : How can they r a i s e low l e v e l s of l i v i n g ? How can they m o b i l i z e untapped resources? Whether f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons or humanitarian o b l i g a t i o n s the r i c h western n a t i o n s are a c t i v e l y s h a r i n g these concerns of t h e i r poorer c o u n t e r p a r t s . The way i n which these concerns are shared f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n . This i s s e t out t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. I n essence, a gi v e n problem (s t i m u l u s ) of an underdeveloped s o c i e t y t r i g g e r s response i n the form of i n t e r e s t , involvement and i n f l u e n c e among i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, n a t i o n a l governments and p r i v a t e bodies. The e f f e c t of t h i s s e q u e n t i a l response i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l : Changes occur i n both systems, i . e . i n the r e l e v a n t problem area and i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n the problem area. This study focuses on c e r t a i n hypothesized changes i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems p r o v i d i n g formal i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning i n North America. 2 1.1 THE THREE STAGE CONSTRUCT The h i s t o r y of the past two decades of North American c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning education i s the h i s t o r y of how i t has responded to two major c h a l l e n g e s . The f i r s t arose from the need to make use of a growing body of knowledge accumulated by the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l sciences to g rapple w i t h the problems of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l environment. The second r e s u l t e d from the need to study the u r b a n i z a t i o n process and p o l i c i e s i n the context of underdeveloped areas and c o u n t r i e s . How has North American planning education responded to the l a t t e r challenge? What i s the outcome of t h i s response? This study examines the process i m p l i e d i n the f i r s t q u e s t i o n and the outcome posed i n the second. The s u b j e c t of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education, l i k e other aspects of development planning,^" e l i c i t e d i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t from North American planning schools and educators as a r e s u l t o f : a) the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Canadian and United States governments i n the development a c t i v i t i e s of the " t h i r d w o r l d " and b) the i n c r e a s e i n the l a s t twenty years of students coming from A f r i c a n , A s i a n and L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s to pursue higher s t u d i e s i n Canada arid the Un i t e d S t a t e s . In p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools alone, enrollment of these students i n c r e a s e d from 5 percent of the t o t a l enrollment i n 1950-1960 to 10 percent i n 1961-1968. In response to these developments, p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools i n North American a r e adding an i n t e r n a t i o n a l dimension to t h e i r programs. This i s expressed i n the form of new courses and in c r e a s e d / 3 research on problems of underdeveloped countries. For example, where no such courses were offered i n any school i n 1950, 39 courses were of f e r e d i n 21 planning schools i n 1969. The percentage of UDC a r t i c l e s published i n the Journal of American I n s t i t u t e of Planners increased from l e s s than one i n 1930-1940 to 11 i n the past twenty years. North American planning schools and t h e i r f a c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l a r g e s c a l e r e g i o n a l development pr o j e c t s i n B r a z i l , C h i l e , India and Venezuela and i n the development of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools i n Ghana, Indonesia, 2 Peru and Turkey. A review of the past twenty years shows c e r t a i n changes both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and i n North America which provide i n t e r e s t i n g clues concerning the response of North American planning education to the planning problems of underdeveloped countries. These changes have been studied with the help of c e r t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l "events". Thus relevant r e s o l u t i o n s of the S o c i a l Commission of the United Nations, the Colombo Plan and the B r i t i s h Commonwealth on the subject of t r a i n i n g f o r t e c h n i c a l expertise c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t s e r i e s of events. The formal a s s o c i a t i o n of North American planners and educators with planning enterprises of underdeveloped countries provide the second s e r i e s of events. The relevant changes i n c u r r i c u l a and student composition i n North American planning schools f u r n i s h the t h i r d s e r i e s of events. Since these three developments were more or l e s s sequential, the period 1950-1969 has been d i v i d e d into three stages, each d i s t i n g u i s h e d by major events and each l a b e l l e d by the main feature of the p a r t i c u l a r period as f o l l o w s : 4 a) the stage of " i n t e r e s t " i n the p e r i o d from 1950-1951 to 1956-1957 b) the stage of "involvement" i n the p e r i o d from 1957-1958 to 1961-1962 c) the stage of " i n f l u e n c e " i n the p e r i o d from 1962-1963 to 1969-1970 The a c t i v a t o r s who responded to the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s have been d e f i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : a) agents, i . e . planning educators and teachers; b) agencies, e.g. T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the U n i t e d Nations, United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency and the Ford Foundation e t c . ; and c) Academies, i . e . c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning s c h o o l s . From a study of i n t e r a c t i o n among the three p a r t i e s , a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n of response has been e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus each of the above c a t a l y s t s a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y and o f t e n i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h each other produces the " f i e l d " of response. The f i e l d c o n s i s t s of a combination of ideas and vie w p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g to development planning and the education and t r a i n i n g f o r i t . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, the outcome of i n t e r a c t i o n among agents, agencies and planning schools appears i n the form of r e s u l t i n g changes i n "planning education system", i . e . i n c u r r i c u l a , f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t s , student body and r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s e t c . f i g . 1 RESPONSE PATTERN A G E N T S ( A - 1) A G E N C I E S ( A - 2 ) A C A D E M I E S ( A - 3 ) 1 N T E 1 i E S T ( 1 - 1 ) r i 1 N V O L V E M E N T 1 - 2 1 N F L U E N C E ( 1 - 3 ) J F A C U L T Y I S T U D E N T S I CURR ICULUM I ACADEMIC -PROFESSIONAL S T A T U S 6 With regard to the processes u n d e r l y i n g the hypothesized changes, each of the c a t a l y s t s , v i z . agents ( A - I ) , agencies (A-2) and academies (A-3) f o l l o w e d s e q u e n t i a l stages of i n t e r e s t (1-1), involvement (1-2) and i n f l u e n c e (1-3). W i t h i n each stage, however, the impact of A - l , A-2 and A-3 preceded or f o l l o w e d thus: i n the f i r s t stage (1-1), A-2 preceded A - l and A-3; i n the second stage (1-2), A - l preceded A-2 and A-3 S and i n the t h i r d stage (1-3), A - l and A-3 operated simultaneously w h i l e A-2 remained constant. Although the "outcome", t h a t i s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of development planning education by way of changes i n c u r r i c u l a and f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t s e t c . i n North American p r o f e s s i o n a l p lanning schools r e s u l t e d from the combined p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g educators, n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , agencies (A-2) pioneered i n stage one (1-1, i n t e r e s t ) ; p lanning educators ( A - l ) pioneered i n stage two (1-2, involvement) and planning schools (A-3) pioneered i n stage three (1-3, i n f l u e n c e ) . This i s s i m p l i f i e d i n F i g u r e 2. Each of the above stages i n c l u d e s p e c i a l events and circumstances which pushed North American p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education system i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l (or UDC) d i r e c t i o n . 1.1.1 Stage One (1-1, I n t e r e s t ) The stage of i n t e r e s t l a s t e d f o r about seven years (1949-1950 to 1956-1957), during which the i d e a s , events, p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies which were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f u r t h e r i n g the cause of ORDER OF RESPONSE \ C A T A I Y S T ^ N T S A G E N C I E S \ ( A ) A 1 A - 2 I (p lanners, 1 (un, oas, S T A G E \. 1 educators 1 usaid, cida, (1) 1 etc.) J ford fdn.etc.) ACADEMIES A-3 (planning schools) I N T E R E S T 1 ^^^^^^^ (int'l seminars 1 KssssSiSS^^S^ conferences) I ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ I N V O L V E M E N T ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1-2 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (int'l ad v i s i ng) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ I N F L U E N C E ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ( c u r r i c u l a r X^Z^WM^^wi c h a n g e s ) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 9 Predominant*!* in relevant *A* RunningVln relevant "A' 8 development planning emerged. The agencies s t a r t e d communication among persons and i n s t i t u t i o n s by h o l d i n g conferences and sponsoring educa-t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l exchange programs. For example, f o u r major i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences, one each i n New D e l h i , San Juan, Bangkok and 3 Tokyo were organized by the United Nations on the s u b j e c t . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t s i g n s of mixed i n t e r n a t i o n a l groups appeared among the plann i n g student communities i n North America campuses. L o c a l students f a c u l t y and i n s t i t u t i o n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y conscious of t h i s t r end. A few planning schools became aware of the new task of educating and t r a i n i n g UDC students i n development-oriented p r o f e s s i o n a l planning which was, i n the o p i n i o n of many, fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l 4 preoccupations of North American p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . No c l e a r - c u t concept of what c o n s t i t u t e s p r o f e s s i o n a l planning i n the context of underdevelopment appeared. Rather, i t was a p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t and awareness, a p e r i o d of i n t e r a c t i n g v i ewpoints of a few p r o f e s s i o n a l planners who went overseas and gained f i r s t h a n d knowledge of p l a n n i n g operations and problems there. As a consequence, some major questions arose i n the minds of many: What are the unique problems of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ? What i s the nature, background, m o t i v a t i o n s and needs of students coming from those c o u n t r i e s ? What and how should they be taught? What a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t i n the approach to planning education and t r a i n i n g f o r them? I n t h i s stage, o n l y questions were r a i s e d ; they were not subjected to r i g o r o u s examination so that no answers c o u l d be formulated. 9 1.1.2 Stage Two (1-2, Involvement) I n the second stage, the stage of involvement (1957-1958 to 1962-1963), the i n i t i a t i v e taken and the forum prepared by agencies (A-2) i n the f i r s t stage (1-1) continued to f u r t h e r the exchange of ideas among agents, agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s . One may i s o l a t e from academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s more than a dozen persons who s t a r t e d t a k i n g v i g o r o us i n t e r e s t i n development planning education. Guidance of North American pla n n i n g experts was sought by A s i a n , A f r i c a n and L a t i n American governments as w e l l as by i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies which became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the growth and w e l f a r e of underdeveloped countries."* Developments i n the second stage l e d to the a c t u a l involvement of some North American planning i n s t i t u t i o n s (A-3) i n p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education i n some s p e c i f i c c o u n t r i e s . Thus, f o r example, under the a e g i s of the United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology e s t a b l i s h e d and supervised a Regional and C i t y P l a n n i n g ' 6 Department i n Indonesia; the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia helped develop the I n s t i t u t e of Community Pla n n i n g i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Science of Technology a t Kumasi, Ghana'? the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania's Department of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the establishment and development of the Department of Planning i n the Mi d d l e East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y a t g Ankara, Turkey and the U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a (Berkeley) and Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y helped some L a t i n American 9 c o u n t r i e s i n l i k e manner. 10 The debates of the previous periods l e d to the emergence of some c l e a r - c u t concepts which command a f a i r l y wide consensus. I t became c l e a r t h a t students from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s d i f f e r i n m o t i -v a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l needs, and that t h i s f a c t deserves s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the approach to planning education from p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools which have been r e c e i v i n g a s i z e a b l e number of UDC students. In t h i s p e r i o d , attempts were made i n some planning schools to develop academic means and procedures ( i . e . c u r r i c u l u m changes and admission p o l i c y etc.) f o r the mutual enrichment of both c a t e g o r i e s of students, l o c a l and overseas."^ 1.1.3 Stage Three (1-3, Influence) In the t h i r d p e r i o d , the p e r i o d of i n f l u e n c e (1962-1963 onward), the v i s i b l e impact of 10-15 years of involvement of agents, agencies and planning i n s t i t u t i o n s appeared i n the North American planning educa-t i o n a l system. Development planning l i t e r a t u r e began to appear. Books and a r t i c l e s s y n t h e s i z i n g the s c a t t e r e d knowledge concerning the theory and p r a c t i c e of development planning were w r i t t e n by planners who re p e a t e d l y sojourned i n other c o u n t r i e s and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r 11 p l a n n i n g process. The q u e s t i o n "what to teach to overseas students?" began to be r e s o l v e d . The e v o l u t i o n of a broad new approach to the planning of regions f u r n i s h e d some u s e f u l c l u e s as to the type of planning education a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o u n t r i e s t r y i n g to generate economic growth. I t became evident at t h i s stage that p r o f e s s i o n a l planning 11 education f o r these countries should be b u i l t on four elements: a) strong focus on r e g i o n a l economic studies; b) study of theory and methodology of planning drawn from the s o c i a l sciences; c) emphasis on p o s i t i v e developmental measures and treatment of s t r a t e g i c a l l y important issues rather than on negative aspects of c o n t r o l and d) t r a i n i n g f o r 12 innovative planning experts or agents of change. A spate of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l education studies i n t h i s period provided i n s i g h t i n t o the psycho-social make up of students from under-13 developed countries i n North American campuses. These studies enhanced the understanding of UDC students and l e d to" the improvement i n the methods of s o c i a l i z i n g and teaching i n i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g these students. On the strength of increased knowledge about UDC students and t h e i r needs, s p e c i a l i z e d development planning i n s t i t u t i o n s were created; e x i s t i n g schools displaced changes i n the d i r e c t i o n of UDC-oriented education; additions were made i n c u r r i c u l a by way of courses dealing with the urbanization problems of the underdeveloped world; and persons q u a l i f i e d to teach new subjects were added to the f a c u l t y . As a r e s u l t of these developments as w e l l as f o r other reasons UDC students have been growing i n numbers i n North American campuses. To many, t h e i r presence adds an invaluable element of v a r i e t y and breadth to the educational process. This study i s intended to document the changes mentioned above and to i n v e s t i g a t e the circumstances that l e d to those changes. 12 1.2 THE FOCUS AND THE NEED Theories of e d u c a t i o n a l psychology demonstrate t h a t i n two w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t environmental systems, teaching and l e a r n i n g processes are c o n d i t i o n e d by the c o g n i t i v e processes p r e v a i l i n g i n the two systems. The c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s , i . e . the d i f f e r e n t ways of p e r c e i v i n g knowledge depends on the environmental o r i g i n of a) those who t r a n s m i t knowledge ( t r a n s m i t t e r s ) , b) those who r e c e i v e knowledge ( r e c i p i e n t s ) , c) message or s u b j e c t matter (content),and d) the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g ( l o c a l e ) . As shown i n F i g u r e 3 i f t r a n s m i t t e r s ( T ) , message or content (C) and l o c a l e (L) belong to the environment A and r e c i p i e n t s or students (R) come from the environment B, they w i l l make one combination. L i k e w i s e , i f t r a n s m i t t e r s (T) and l o c a l e C t ) belong to the environment A and students or r e c i p i e n t s (R) and message o r content (C) belong to the environment B, they w i l l make another combination, and so on. E l a b o r a t i n g these models from s p e c i f i c examples, box 5 i n F i g u r e 3 suggests a s i t u a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education i n the U n i t e d States i n the 1940s (Canada d i d not have any program then) when tea c h e r s , students, s u b j e c t matter and planning schools were e n t i r e l y of American o r i g i n . T his s i t u a t i o n changed i n the 1950s when overseas students s t a r t e d e n t e r i n g i n t o these programs and North American f a c u l t y members s t a r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. These phenomena n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n the e d u c a t i o n a l message and the way i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d (Box 7, F i g u r e 3) i n North American i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools F i g . 3 E N V I R O N M E N T A L C O N T E X T A B T C R L Q p A B T R C L © A B T R C L © A B T R C L © A B T R R C C L \) A B T R C L © A B T R R C L A & B : T W O E N V I R O N M E N T S T . T R A N S M I T T E R S ^ R." R E C I P I E N T S C C O N T E N T I". L O C A L E 14 t h e r e f o r e , aim not only a t t r a n s m i t t i n g a r e l e v a n t message w i t h an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l content but a l s o a t adopting new methods of exchange and communication to enhance the process of l e a r n i n g and teachi n g . Examination of t h i s hypothesis i s the substance of t h i s study. This w i l l l e a d us to analyze some of the f r e q u e n t l y debated p o l i c y i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to the education of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners f o r work i n the underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . For what r o l e should they be tr a i n e d ? How and i n what i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g should the t r a i n i n g be imparted. What should be the nature and weight of the c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c content i n planning curriculum? How should the refe r e n c e to North American (developed) s e t t i n g be r e c o n c i l e d and balanced w i t h development pl a n n i n g m a t e r i a l ? How e f f e c t i v e are the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s (e.g. overseas education vs indigeneous or n a t i o n a l and d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d vs s o c i a l science-based education) to planning education f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ? These problems have engaged the a t t e n t i o n of planners and pla n n i n g educators s i n c e 1956, the year i n which planners from v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s drammatized these i s s u e s i n a United Nations-sponsored i n t e r -14 n a t i o n a l conference i n Puerto R i c o . Since then, apart from some i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m a t e r i a l presented by North American planners who have sojourned i n underdeveloped countries,- no s u b s t a n t i v e study has heen undertaken. This study aims to f i l l t h i s v o i d not only by r e c o r d i n g the happenings of the past two decades but a l s o by attempting a compara-t i v e review of v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s to planning education f o r under-developed c o u n t r i e s w i t h a view toward p r o v i d i n g an informed b a s i s f o r 1 5 p l a n n i n g schools and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e agencies to re-examine the relevance of t h e i r present p o l i c i e s on the s u b j e c t . The study may a l s o a i d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of some broad g u i d l i n e s f o r planning schools and UDC students to become u s e f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the development planning movement. I t explores some c r u c i a l l y important areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I t d e s c r i b e s planning education events o b j e c t i v e l y and presents u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered through a f i e l d survey and from s c a t t e r e d sources, both p u b l i s h e d and unpublished, which are important to the study of North American planning education movement. 2 . THE PREMISE The need f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y makes i t necessary to s t a n d a r d i z e the meanings of major terms, s t a t e u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and to e x p l i c a t e the broader framework of the study: 2 . 1 DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS Three concepts are d e f i n e d below: 'underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ' , 'planning' and ' c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' . 2 . 1 . 1 Underdeveloped Countries One of the most common y a r d s t i c k s to measure a country's r e l a t i v e development i s the average per c a p i t a income of i t s c i t i z e n s . Though not an e n t i r e l y p e r f e c t measure, i t does i n d i c a t e , f o r example, t h a t an average A s i a n i s t h i r t y times poorer than an average A m e r i c a n . ^ Making use of t h i s measure, the United Nations d e f i n e underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s as " c o u n t r i e s i n which per c a p i t a r e a l income i s low when 16 compared w i t h the per c a p i t a r e a l income of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada, A u s t r a l i a and Western E u r o p e " . ^ An annual per c a p i t a income e q u i v a l e n t to $500 i s commonly used to demarcate "underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s " from "developed c o u n t r i e s " . For reasons common to a l l average f i g u r e s , t h i s f i g u r e i s not of much v a l u e except f o r making a working d i s t i n c t i o n between the above c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study. As shown i n F i g u r e 4, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n embraces the e n t i r e world excluding North America (minus Mexico), Western Europe, the S o v i e t Union, Japan, A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d . ^ 2.1.2 P l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g s u i g e n e r i s i s an amorphous term o f t e n shrouded i n g e n e r a l i t i e s and s u b j e c t to p r e t e n t i o u s c l a i m s . L a r g e l y because of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of the term, c o n f u s i o n p e r s i s t s as to the extent to which pl a n n i n g i s i t s e l f a d i s t i n c t i v e a c t i v i t y or merely an aspect of 18 every k i n d of a c t i v i t y . Based on c e r t a i n concepts f r e q u e n t l y used by planning t h e o r i s t s , " p l a n n i n g " can be i d e n t i f i e d as an a c t i v i t y which i s continuous, r a t i o n -l i s t i c , f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d , and as a method of making r a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and implementing them to achieve a preconceived g o a l . Since p l a n n i n g i s never c a r r i e d on i n a vacuum t h i s g e n e r i c concept has no o p e r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e unless examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a d i s t i n c t a c t i v i t y or system such as the c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y : / 18 2.1.3 C i t y and Regional Planning The concept of " c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g " seems to be confused. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the s t a t e of c o n f u s i o n have f r e q u e n t l y appeared i n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . Some r a t i o n a l i z e the present s t a t e as a s i g n of a growing f i e l d ; o thers t h i n k that i t i s a s i c k p r o f e s s i o n , "an 19 advanced case of m u l t i p l e s c h i z o p h r e n i a " . An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s i s t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l changes have not been t h e o r i z e d as f a s t as they occurred. Lacking a s u f f i c i e n t t h e o r e t i c a l base, p r o f e s s i o n a l planning has, t h e r e f o r e , developed i n a pragmatic f a s h i o n . T h i s k i n d of l a g i s not s p e c i f i c to p r o f e s s i o n a l planning alone as Meier and Duke found: There i s a time i n the e v o l u t i o n of every d i s c i p l i n e when i t s m i l i e u and phenomena w i t h which i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s must d e a l , grow i n complexity and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and m u l t i p l y beyond the c a p a c i t y to cope w i t h them. That time i s a t hand w i t h planners. The problem underscores a need to i n c r e a s e the understanding and knowledge of human communities i n order to deepen the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . In recent y e a r s , urban-r e g i o n a l development processes have been examined by Meier, Guttenberg, 21 Webber, Friedmann, I s a r d , Wingo, B a n f i e l d , Lynch and o t h e r s . Notwithstanding the u s e f u l n e s s of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t s , t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s are so segmented t h a t a composite u r b a n - r e g i o n a l development theory i s n o n - e x i s t e n t and a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s l a c k i n g . Recent i n t e r e s t seems to be focussed on a p p l i c a t i o n of the g e n e r i c n o t i o n of 'planning' to the c i t y and r e g i o n a l development. 19 This a p p l i c a t i o n r a i s e s the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : I s planning a continuous process or a non-continuous forethought of d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e happenings? Does a planner d e f i n e goals or merely take them as given? What i s h i s r o l e i n the decision-making process? Does he seek to improve s o c i a l environment or p h y s i c a l environment or both? What e x a c t l y i s h i s e x c l u s i v e area of concern? These are i s s u e s being debated i n the p r o f e s s i o n today. P r e s e n t l y i t seems t h a t the g e n e r a l d e f i -n i t i o n of pla n n i n g i s a statement of i n t e n t i o n not of r e a l i t y . Nor does the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners d e f i n e c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as such. I t merely records i t s p o s i t i o n as f o l l o w s : The planning w i t h which the I n s t i t u t e i s concerned i s th a t of the u n i f i e d development of urban communities and t h e i r environs and s t a t e s , r e g i o n s , and the n a t i o n , as expressed through d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the comprehensive arrangement of the l a n d uses and land occupancy and t h e i r regulation.2 2 This d e f i n i t i o n i s narrow. I t ignores what i s a c t u a l l y happening i n the p r o f e s s i o n today. I t s i n g l e s out the main focus of the f i e l d as p h y s i c a l . Although t h i s i s an apparently s p e c i f i c f o c u s , i t s e a l s the p r o f e s s i o n a g a i n s t emerging s o c i a l and economic concerns. The I n s t i t u t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s being a t t a c k e d from many q u a r t e r s . The i s s u e i s s t i l l unresolved. A d e f i n i t i o n of cityand r e g i o n a l planning must take account of new trends and new problem areas to which i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y exposed. I n t h i s r egard, H a r r i s observed that the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n along a r e a l l i n e s are disappearing and d i r e c t 20 comprehensive treatment of problem- c l u s t e r s (e.g. smog, poverty, 23 unemployment, b l i g h t and congestion) i s becoming f a s h i o n a b l e . When a p r o f e s s i o n i s i n a s t a t e of change what c r i t e r i a should guide the c h o i c e of i t s d e f i n i t i o n f o r a study spread over a p e r i o d of time? I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y demands th a t the p o s i t i o n t h a t p r e v a i l e d f o r most of the p e r i o d under review be adopted. In t h i s regard - except f o r the l a t e 1960s which were marked by s o c i a l p o l i c y concerns - the p r o f e s s i o n , at l e a s t i n North America, has been o p e r a t i n g under the premise contained i n the statement of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners quoted above. For reason of being c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n the p e r i o d under study, t h i s p o s i t i o n - even i f not g e n e r a l l y shared i n academic world -has been adopted i n t h i s study, as d i s t i n c t from the i n c r e a s i n g l y popular p o s i t i o n , namely planning f o r socio-economic problem - c l u s t e r s per se In t h i s study, " p l a n n i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g " are used i n the context of " c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g " . 2 . 2 PARAMETERS OF CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING IN THE CONTEXT OF UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES What are the key f e a t u r e s of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s as one system. How do these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cause approaches to p r o f e s s i o n a l p lanning to d i f f e r from those of North America? Answers to these questions should e l u c i d a t e the main parameters of development p l a n n i n g , and thus c l a r i f y the premise of t h i s study. 21 2.2.1 Goals of Development Planning A growing l i t e r a t u r e on development planning reveals that most of the underdeveloped countries have chosen an image of modernization f o r which developed s o c i e t i e s serve as models. Gunnar Myrdal's work on A s i a points to a general p o s i t i o n : They [modernization i d e a l s ] have become the o f f i c i a l 'creed', and almost a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n , and are one of the powerful strands of the new nationalism.24 This image i s not found i n developed s o c i e t i e s because they are at the "most" sid e of the "most-least" s c a l e of modernization. Where w i l l they go next? I t i s not c l e a r from the present s t a t e of knowledge. U n t i l a new v i s i o n i s established, perhaps Dyckman's i n s i g h t s into the trend i s h e l p f u l : Residual issues of the a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y are so c l e a r l y s o c i a l issues that e a r l i e r concerns of p h y s i c a l and economic planning have i n some cases given way to p r i o r i t i e s f o r d i r e c t planning of s o c i a l outcomes...The presence of s o c i a l pathology alongside planning then becomes an argument against an excessively m a t e r i a l i s t i c view of s o c i e t y . Unless a pattern of new norms and values becomes evident i t may be impossible to s t a t e the e x p l i c i t goal of an "urbanized-modernized" societ y except i n an abstract form such as the "great s o c i e t y " or the "good l i f e " . To underdeveloped countries, modernization suggests the goal as w e l l as the route, i n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y to generate knowledge and to use i t e f f e c t i v e l y f o r n a t i o n a l development. Planning i s based on the premise that i n the absence of conscious a c t i o n the world w i l l continue to change and that some of the changes w i l l produce r e s u l t s not generally desired. Planning can help a s o c i a l system to move towards pre-conceived goals. 22 Development, on the other hand, means improvement of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 26 of the s o c i a l system which have perpetuated underdevelopment. To the extent t h a t these f e a t u r e s are common among almost a l l underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , broad approaches to s o l v e them must a l s o be s i m i l a r . According to Haque, f o r example: . . . i f one p i c k s up the plans of I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, Egypt, Nepal or Ceylon a t random, what i s s u r p r i s i n g i s not the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s but t h e i r b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s . T his b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y i n planning techniques i s due to the b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r problems of p l a n n i n g . ^ This s i m i l a r i t y i n techniques and s t y l e of planning r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , from the common i n t e r e s t of a l l underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i n n a t i o n a l develop-ment, and i n p a r t , from the a p p l i c a t i o n of planning techniques developed i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and rese a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s of Europe and North America. Seen i n t h i s framework, development planning addresses i t s e l f to economically poor s o c i e t i e s i n which planning precedes development and thus d i f f e r s from planning i n western s o c i e t i e s where as Myrdal 28 d i s c o v e r e d , i t f o l l o w e d development. Development planning encompasses economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l problems of a s o c i a l system as a t o t a l concern. I t represents a c a l c u l a t e d attempt by a government to improve the l e v e l s of l i v i n g of i t s c i t i z e n s . A comprehensive n a t i o n a l development p l a n seeks to develop a) economic i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e such as roads, r a i l w a y s , i n d u s t r i e s and i r r i g a t i o n works, b) i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s such as education, h e a l t h and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c) s t r a t e g i c p o l i c i e s w i t h regard to urban, i n d u s t r i a l or r e g i o n a l development. W i t h i n t h i s framework, c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning i s but a component of the o v e r a l l development 'planning 23 process. When urban and r e g i o n a l developments are planned w i t h i n the framework of n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g , u r b a n i z a t i o n , both i n i t s e c o l o g i c a l dimension ( i . e . c l u s t e r of c i t i e s ) and c u l t u r a l dimension ( i . e . l i v i n g p a t t e r n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n ) , can be guided to b r i n g development-29 o r i e n t e d changes i n n a t i o n a l s o c i a l system. This view of planning d i f f e r s from the one which deals w i t h a set of environmental problems ( i . e . crime, poverty, smog and congestion) r e s u l t i n g from past developments. 2.2.2 Nature of Urban and Regional Problems A modernizing s t a t e i s one which a l l o c a t e s i t s r i s i n g output to c r i t i c a l l y important areas. A modern p a t t e r n of l i v i n g may not be achieved i f , f o r example, a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h amount of resources are devoted to high-income housing- i n a country w i t h a shortage of housing 30 i n the poor and t r a d i t i o n a l segments of the s o c i e t y . Poor housing c o n d i t i o n s , l i k e any other measure of l i v i n g standards, i s seen as a 31 ' c r i s i s of i n c l u s i o n ' r e s u l t i n g from r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . For example, the United Nations estimates a backlog of 109.7 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . This would i n v o l v e b u i l d i n g a t a r a t e of 11.1 32 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . Seen i n r e l a t i o n to the a v a i l a b l e resources, t h i s t a sk i s tremendous; no country even among 33 the developed c o u n t r i e s , except S o v i e t Union, has a t t a i n e d t h i s r a t e . T h i s example of housing i l l u s t r a t e s that i n the f a c e of u r b a n i z a t i o n a corresponding l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y should be increased at a r a t e s u f f i c i e n t to take care of the key elements of modernization. 24 only i n r a r e cases has the r a t e been s u f f i c i e n t so f a r . The hope l i e s i n the w i d e l y popular community development approaches to s o l v i n g such problems. E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s shows that 34 housing i n t h i s context has a b u i l t - i n s o l u t i o n ; i t can be a t o o l as much as a t a r g e t f o r development. This s o c i a l development approach to problem-solving i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s a departure from the present s o c i a l w e l f a r e approach. Given the p a u c i t y of resources i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , a t t e n t i o n w i l l have to be p a i d to those aspects of development which pro-duce r a t h e r than consume resour c e s . A t t e n t i o n should be focussed on the r e g i o n a l (resource-producing) r a t h e r than urban (resource-consuming) aspects of the economy. Thus, advocating the need f o r i m a g i n a t i v e programs of r e g i o n a l development, Adams argues: In the c o u n t r i e s where the economy i s expanding, and where l a r g e areas s t i l l remain to be developed, g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r experimentation, and a l l c o u n t r i e s would b e n e f i t i f those i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage would pioneer i n the e v o l u t i o n of a broad new approach to the planning of g e o g r a p h i c a l areas. Many students have found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n and economic development. Based on s t u d i e s of L a t i n America, Friedmann advocated a s t r a t e g y of d e l i b e r a t e u r b a n i z a t i o n as a challenging> yet a 36 short route to development. A l i k e s t r a t e g y i s a l s o r e q u i r e d to change what H o s e l i t z termed as " p a r a s i t i c " c i t i e s which use more than they produce, i n t o " g e n e r a t i v e " c i t i e s which account f o r the economic develop-37 ment of the r e g i o n i n which they are l o c a t e d . Both l o c a t i o n theory and c e n t r a l p l a c e theory see on the 25 r e g i o n a l s c a l e n o n - a r b i t r a r y rhythms and p a t t e r n s of a c t i v i t i e s . These p a t t e r n s change w i t h s h i f t i n r e g i o n a l economy so that f o r each l e v e l of economic development there i s a given settlement p a t t e r n . I f the settlement p a t t e r n and economic development are interdependent, each can a f f e c t the other w i t h the help of a g i v e n s t r a t e g y a t r e g i o n a l s c a l e . Planned u r b a n i z a t i o n on r e g i o n a l s c a l e can, t h e r e f o r e , be an important d e v i c e f o r n a t i o n a l development. 2.2.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - I n f o r m a t i o n a l Framework To be e f f e c t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l planning must be undertaken w i t h i n a governmental framework. In underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s l o c a l governments are r e l a t i v e l y weak; n a t i o n a l governments d e a l w i t h l o c a l p r o j e c t s . This trend w i l l continue, as Herbert p o i n t e d out: Often i n the immediate f u t u r e the s t a t e or n a t i o n a l government w i l l be dominant, though i n a few cases l o c a l governments are strong enough to c o n t r o l t h e i r own plan n i n g and development f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y . - ^ The p a t t e r n of government expenditure i n two systems, i . e . North American developed and UDCs, confirms t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . The average computed f o r n i n e under/ c o u n t r i e s shows that they spend 2.96 percent of gross n a t i o n a l product i n l o c a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s compared to 8.98 percent by the United States 39 on the same s e r v i c e s . A l s o , Froomkin showed from h i s s t u d i e s of L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s that the l e v e l of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i s higher where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e s t s w i t h n a t i o n a l govern-40 ments and low where m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e l a t i v e l y powerful. As modernization and economic developments proceed, manage -26 ment of l o c a l developments becomes complex. This creates the need f o r d i s p e r s a l of n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the need f o r expertness i n managing l o c a l p r o j e c t s . The d i s p e r s a l may g i v e r i s e to what Boylan warns a " t e n s i o n d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the degree of d i s p e r s i o n of 41 d e c i s i o n making". In a t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y t h i s h i g h l i g h t s the problems inherent i n the dynamic nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l system i n which p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g operates. With the emergence of n a t i o n a l development planning most underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s have recognized the need f o r c o l l e c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n and economic data, but the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n resources are s t i l l l i m i t e d . This i s a cause of much f r u s t r a t i o n to data-accustomed North American experts c a l l e d upon to serve i n those c o u n t r i e s . S t o p l e r , f o r example, goes so f a r as to imply that i f too much i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g planning cannot be c a r r i e d on because the f u t u r e cannot be d e f i n e d : The planner's d e c i s i o n s have to be made w i t h i n a framework of known f a c t s , l e g a l and s o c i a l surroundings and e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t i e s . I t i s i r r e l e v a n t to assume th a t the development planner has a f u l l a r r a y of a l t e r n a t i v e s before him and t h a t he can choose the one which w i l l get him most e f f i c i e n t l y to a f u t u r e g o a l t h a t has been ( c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I t i s inherent i n the s i t u a t i o n that no such a r r a y can e x i s t and the f u t u r e cannot be p r e c i s e l y defined.^2 The s t y l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners o p e r a t i n g i n the data-d e f i c i e n t w o rld d i f f e r s from the s t y l e of those accustomed to the ; 43 t r a d i t i o n of data-based "western s c i e n t i s m " . To be e f f e c t i v e i n the former environment, a p r o f e s s i o n a l planner must f i n d procedures that a r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n a c t i o n a f f a i r s , and are f l e x i b l e enough to be m o d i f i e d 27 as new i n f o r m a t i o n comes to l i g h t . Where a n a l y s i s of unknown f a c t s i s not p o s s i b l e , the need f o r a h i g h sense of judgement i s paramount, and the q u a l i t y of drawing from comparable s i t u a t i o n s elsewhere i s u s e f u l . 2.3 NORTH AMERICAN CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING EDUCATION: MAIN PHASES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT In the past f i f t e e n y e a r s , the s t a t u s and i s s u e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education has been surveyed and r e p o r t e d , notably by Adams and P e r l o f f f o r the Un i t e d S t a t e s , Parker and W i l l i s f o r Canada, V i o l i c h f o r L a t i n America, Vagale and Wood f o r I n d i a , Schuster Commission and T r a v i s f o r England, and by Dodi and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n 44 f o r Housing and Town Pla n n i n g f o r the e n t i r e w o r l d . A l a r g e number of j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s have d e a l t w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of the s u b j e c t . These works p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the many s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach to p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s , 45 and i n t o the many i s s u e s surrounding i t . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n based on a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l review i s d i f f i c u l t but may be sugg e s t i v e . Thus, i f the development of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education i s seen on the s c a l e of d i m i n i s h i n g emphasis on three-dimensional p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s , most of the world's p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education w i l l be on the l e f t s i d e of the s c a l e , w h i l e most of those i n North America w i l l be on the r i g h t s i d e of the r e s t - o f - t h e -world's programs. This may not mean that i n matters of socio-economic emphasis, North America i s p r o v i d i n g the l e a d . I t means th a t planning 28 education i s being i n c r e a s i n g l y a f f e c t e d i n v a r i o u s degrees by the need to b e t t e r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the s o c i e t y r a t h e r than by the improvement of p h y s i c a l environment alone. Everywhere p r o f e s s i o n a l planning i s a f f e c t e d by the l e v e l of u r b a n i z a t i o n , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l changes and major i s s u e s of a g i v e n p e r i o d . These f a c t o r s change i n time, and education c o n t i n u o u s l y adopts these changes i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g system. Through such adoptive processes education grows i n scope and changes i n s t y l e . This can be i l l u s t r a t e d by r e l a t i n g the development of North American p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g to the development of p l a n n i n g education i t s e l f . P e r l o f f has i d e n t i f i e d the key f e a t u r e s of v a r i o u s p e r i o d s which a f f e c t e d 46 the p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as the education f o r i t . 2.3.1 C i t y B e a u t i f u l and C i t y P r a c t i c a l Movements I n the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t world war, d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n appeared on the American scene. The u g l y p h y s i c a l environment i n the form of poor housing and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and u n s i g h t l y i n d u s t r i a l areas became major concerns of c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The focus was on appearance, the b e a u t i f y i n g of the c i t y . I n response to these problems, zoning ordinances and s u b d i v i s i o n laws were enacted i n the 1920s. C i v i c c e n t e r s , parks and r e c r e a t i o n areas were developed. Adoption of the Howard's garden c i t y concept (from Great B r i t a i n ) i n the Radburn community h i g h l i g h t e d the i n t e r e s t of c i v i c bodies i n the v i s u a l a e s t h e t i c s of the c i t y . The c r e a t i o n of the American C i t y 29 P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e (now American I n s t i t u t e of Planners) i n 1917 r e f l e c t e d the c l a i m of c i t y planning as an independent p r o f e s s i o n . In the l a t e 1920s, heavy demand was placed on p u b l i c s e r -v i c e s and on the economic base of the c i t y . The burgeoning business community saw the need f o r an e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g of the c i t y . The c i t y p lanning p r o f e s s i o n was»however, dominated by a r c h i t e c t s , c i v i l engineers and landscape a r c h i t e c t s . They provided the i n i t i a l guidance and developed c i t y p lanning i n t o a new f i e l d . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l response to the problems during the " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " and c i t y p r a c t i c a l phases was dramatic. I n the p e r i o d 1910-1930, 33 u n i v e r s i t i e s introduced 55 courses which were taught by 48 48 teachers. The l a r g e s t a d d i t i o n of these courses took p l a c e i n the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d 1910-1915 (Table I ) . This development r e f l e c t e d the impact of the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Conference on c i t y planning (1908) which was the f o c a l p o i n t of the organized c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning movement. These courses were in t r o d u c e d as p a r t of the programs i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and c i v i l engineering (Table I I ) . The assumption was th a t i f an a r c h i t e c t o r a c i v i l engineer i s exposed to one planning course he can operate afterwards as a p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y planner. Harvard pioneered i n d i s p e l l i n g t h i s extremely l i m i t e d premise; i t was the f i r s t s c h o o l to or g a n i z e an independent program i n c i t y p lanning i n 1923, r e c o g n i z i n g a l s o the v a l u e of the s u b j e c t matter of other f i e l d s f o r the enrichment of the f i e l d of p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y p l a n n i n g . 30 TABLE I COURSES AND TEACHERS IN CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES (1910-1930) YEAR NUMBER OF UNIVERSITIES 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 3 11 14 25 33 NUMBER OF COURSES NUMBER OF TEACHERS 4 23 28 40 55 5 20 21 40 48 Source: F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and Gerald Hodge, " C i t y P l a n n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n i n the United S t a t e s : .The Pi o n e e r i n g Years 1900-1930", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n e r s . XXXI:1 February 1965, P« 47. TABLE I I DEPARTMENTS OFFERING CITY PLANNING INSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES (1910-1930) DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 A r c h i t e c t u r e - - - 2 3 Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e 2 8 10 12 12 C i v i l Engineering 1 3 4 8 11 Others - - 3 7 A l l Departments 3 11 14 25 33 Source: F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and Gerald Hodge, " C i t y P lanning I n s t r u c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : The Pi o n e e r i n g Years 1900-1930", J o u r n a l of  the American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , XXX:1 February 1965, p. 48. 31 The p e r i o d 1900-1930 was a p i o n e e r i n g one i n view of i t s impact on the p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as on the p r o f e s s i o n a l planning educa-t i o n . Such planning educators as Thomas Adams of MIT, Charles M. Robinson of I l l i n o i s (Urbana), and James S t u r g i s Pray, Henry Vincent Hubbard and F r e d e r i c k Law Olmsted J r . a l l three of Harvard, brought the 49 emerging concepts of c i t y p lanning i n t o the classrooms. The concepts developed from p r a c t i c e as w e l l as from such r e s e a r c h - o r i e n t e d works as the Regional P l a n of New York and i t s Environs proved to be of major importance i n i n f l u e n c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education i n the United S t a t e s and to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent i n Canada. 2.3.2 Post-Depression Phase The depression of e a r l y 1930s s h i f t e d the i n t e r e s t of c i v i c bodies from v i s u a l aspects of the c i t y to economic i s s u e s . L o c a l governments s t a r t e d p l a n n i n g and managing the c i t y . L o c a l planning agencies were, t h e r e f o r e , created i n l a r g e numbers. I n the three-year p e r i o d (1933-1936) alone, t h e i r number increased from 85 to 506. The c i t y now came to be looked upon i n broader r e g i o n a l context. S p e c i a l encouragement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n came from the N a t i o n a l Resources Pla n n i n g Board created i n 1933. The i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f e d e r a l agencies i n l o c a l a f f a i r s brought the need f o r i n t e g r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l planning agencies more c l e a r l y w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l governments. The i d e a was turned i n t o a slogan f o r the newly-formed (1934) American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s : " P r i v a t e e f f i c i e n c y of p u b l i c adminis-t r a t i o n i n land and community p l a n n i n g " . ^ 32 During and a f t e r the second world war, l o c a l redevelopment agencies were created and a u t h o r i z e d to p l a n and develop lands and b u i l d i n g s i n b l i g h t e d areas as f e d e r a l l y - f i n a n c e d p r o j e c t s . Both the Canadian and the United States Housing Acts of 1944 l e d to massive house-b u i l d i n g programs.^ C a p i t a l improvement programming and c a p i t a l budgeting were i n c r e a s i n g l y undertaken by m u n i c i p a l planning agencies. T h e i r s t a f f handled a mass of socio-economic data, and prepared h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e documents. From these a c t i v i t i e s emerged the s c i e n t i f i c surveys and a n a l y t i c a l techniques which increased the scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning and l e d to independent e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Nine years a f t e r the founding of Harvard's program, f o u r more were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the ten-year p e r i o d 1930-1940, one (MIT) i n 1932, two (Columbia and C o r n e l l ) i n 1935 and one ( I I T ) i n 1939. The second world war had a s l a c k e n i n g e f f e c t : o n l y two (Washington and Wisconsin) were opened between 1940 and 1944, as a g a i n s t e i g h t (Berkeley, I l l i n o i s , Iowa, Michigan, Michigan S t a t e , North C a r o l i n a , Oklahoma and Rutgers) opened i n the f i v e years a f t e r 1944. Depression and war not o n l y provided reasons f o r the opening of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools but they a l s o c r e a t e d new s u b j e c t areas l e a d i n g to the r e v i s i o n of the e x i s t i n g programs. New i n t e r e s t was given to r e g i o n a l and p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s . Thus from a survey of planning schools conducted i n 1945 John M. Gaus re p o r t e d t h a t : ...developments of our problems, changes i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s and environment, and the response to the depression and the war are probably the b a s i c causes. The same f a c t o r s have been at work throughout the ^ world and so f o r e i g n experience i s a f u r t h e r s t i m u l a n t . 33 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , however, w h i l e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s were taken as granted i n t h i s p e r i o d s o c i a l planning was h a r d l y a u n i v e r s i t y s u b j e c t u n t i l the opening i n 1948 of the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago p l a n n i n g program which l a i d heavy emphasis on theory, p r i n c i p l e s and methods of planning drawn 53 from the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 2.3.3 Contemporary Developments R e a l i z i n g t h a t the programs of p u b l i c housing and c a p i t a l improvements of 1940s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y attuned to the t o t a l i t y of urban problems, the Canadian and the United States governments encoura-ged the adoption of comprehensive planning. Thus the United States N a t i o n a l Housing Act of 1949 o f f e r e d f e d e r a l funds to those p r o j e c t s which conformed to a planned program f o r the e n t i r e community. The previous "redevelopment" concept was rep l a c e d by a broad concept of "urban renewal" which i n c l u d e s redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and conser-v a t i o n . For example, the U n i t e d States N a t i o n a l Housing Act of 1954 made a "comprehensive" community p l a n mandatory f o r an urban area to q u a l i f y f o r f e d e r a l support of t h e i r urban renewal schemes. An almost i d e n t i c a l development took p l a c e i n Canada i n the 1956 amendments to i t s 54 N a t i o n a l Housing Act of 1954. These i n t e g r a t e d development plans were backed by s o c i o -economic surveys. This was i n response to the growing need f e l t i n the p r o f e s s i o n f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g the programs of v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e agencies - the s c h o o l board, the parks boards and the 34 highway departments - w i t h i n a developmental framework. I t i s toward t h i s research-based knowledge of i n t e g r a t e d development t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education has d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n i n the l a s t f i f t e e n y ears. The p r o f e s s i o n i s beset w i t h c e r t a i n problems: How should the socio-economic f o r c e s be u s e f u l l y maneuvered through a r e a l i s t i c model of development? Should c u r r e n t i s s u e s of poverty, b l i g h t and ecology be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n a systems framework, or a t o t a l framework be devised under which these i s s u e s are viewed i n a comprehensive or s o c i e t a l framework? What i s the r o l e of c i t y and r e g i o n a l planners i n t h i s changing scene? These questions are being debated i n the p r o f e s s i o n today. Meanwhile, common a n a l y t i c a l techniques, such as systems a n a l y s i s and operations r e s e a r c h have emerged and are being a p p l i e d along f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s , thus b l u r r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning along a r e a l l i n e s . I t i s the k i n d of controversy that i s making North American p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g schools centers of l i v e l y debates and p e n e t r a t i n g r e s e a r c h i n the present time. These developments show that p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s i n a s t a t e of change. Yet the need f o r planning and planners contirues to be h i g h . The American S o c i e t y of Pla n n i n g O f f i c i a l s r e p o r t s a p e r s i s t e n t l a g between the demand f o r , and supply o f , pro-f e s s i o n a l p lanners. As shown i n Table I I I , the number of planning schools increased more than f i v e times s i n c e 1950. From 15 i n the 1940s,they increased to 37 i n the 1950s and 83 i n the 1960s, an i n c r e a s e a t the end of each decade, of 10, 27 and 46 r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE I I I NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS SURVEYED YEAR OF GRADUATE SCHOOLS GRADUATE SCHOOLS NOT ALL GRADUATE SCHOOLS* UNDERGRADUATE ALL ESTABLISHMENT RECOGNIZED by A I P RECOGNIZED by A I P SCHOOLS** SCHOOLS OF SCHOOLS ALL SURVEYED %(3/2) ALL SURVEYED % (6/5) ALL SURVEYED % (9/8) ALL (8 + 11) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 i : Before 1940 4 4 100 1 1 100 5 5 100 - 5 1940-1944 2 2 100 - - - 2 2 100 - 2 1945-1949 6 4 67 2 0 - 8 4 50 - 8 1950-1954 4 3 75 3 0 - 7 3 43 2 9 1955-1959 8 4 50 3 0 - 11 4 36 2 13 1960-1964 5 2 40 9 0 - 14 2 14 5 19 1965-1969 _ _ _ 19 3 16 19 3 16 8 27 A l l Years 29 19 66 37 4 11 66 23 35 17 83 *Includes s i x Canadian s c h o o l s , three e s t a b l i s h e d f u r i n g 1950-1954, and one each e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1959, 1961 and 1966. Only one (UBC) e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1953 i s recognized by the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. **Undergraduate schools i n c l u d e those which o f f e r p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l or bachelor's degree programs. Source: See Appendix 1.1 36 A f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t movement of the l a s t twenty years stems from the i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l dimension being added to the e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n many p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s . This i s i n response to the concern of both Canada and the United States w i t h the development of underdeveloped economies around the w o r l d . B o t h c o u n t r i e s have committed c a p i t a l and experts to the task. P r o f e s s i o n a l planners have been going to these c o u n t r i e s and r e t u r n i n g w i t h experience and knowledge of other lands and peoples. Students from these c o u n t r i e s have a l s o been coming i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers to North American i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i n U.S.; 25,000 i n 1954 to 100,000 i n 1969) i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s . Because of these phenomena the scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l p lanning education i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y broadened and even i n t e r n a -t i o n a l i z e d . _3_i. METHODOLOGY The present study attempts to e x p l a i n what has happened to p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education i n the U n i t e d States and Canada as a r e s u l t of planning f o r induced socio-economic changes i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . The study i s d i r e c t e d towards understanding the extent to which North American planning education i s i d e n t i f i e d by the e x i g e n c i e s of the time and by the c o n d i t i o n s of the present i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment. 3.1 MEASUREMENT This understanding has been developed i n the process of answering two major q u e s t i o n s . 37 The f i r s t : a) What changes have taken p l a c e i n "North American planning education system as a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n ? For the purpose of t h i s study, "North American planning education system" i n c l u d e s : i ) i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h a t i s c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning schools and programs; i i ) c u r r i c u l u m , i n c l u d i n g planning core and background courses o f f e r e d by pla n n i n g s c h o o l s ; i i i ) students who come from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s to study i n North American planning s c h o o l s ; i v ) f a c u l t y members ( f u l l time) of pla n n i n g s c h o o l s , and v) academic- p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t i s r e s e a r c h and a d v i s o r y work f o r UDCs. The e f f e c t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvement has been measured by the above elements undergoing the f o l l o w i n g changes: i ) Subject matter d e a l i n g w i t h aspects of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s introduced i n the plann i n g c u r r i c u l u m of planning s c h o o l s ; i i ) F a c u l t y members g a i n experience i n working f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ; i i i ) P r o p o r t i o n of students from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s grows i n North American pl a n n i n g s c h o o l s ; i v ) P r o f e s s i o n a l and re s e a r c h work devoted to problems of under-developed c o u n t r i e s i n c r e a s e s i n planning s c h o o l s . The second q u e s t i o n i s : b) What f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the above changes i n North American pl a n n i n g schools? The model of i n t e r a c t i o n sketched i n F i g u r e 1 suggests that the causes u n d e r l y i n g the above changes l a y i n c e r t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l developments that l e d to increased i n t e r a c t i o n among agents ( A - l ) , agencies (A-2) and academies (A-3) i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s . These 38 hypothesized causes have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d and supported i n the f o l l o w i n g 'chapters by studying the developments i n the three stages of i n t e r a c t i o n d i s c u ssed i n 1.1 above. 3.2 DATA COLLECTION The data p e r t a i n i n g to changes r e f e r r e d to were gathered from North American "graduate" planning s c h o o l s , i . e . those which have master's degree programs. Information was c o l l e c t e d from s y l l a b i and a v a i l a b l e records of pla n n i n g schools as s u p p l i e d by the Head or other knowledgeable f a c u l t y members of the sc h o o l s . F a c u l t y members who were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g about the r e l e v a n t changes were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a view to probing i n t o the reasons and f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g the changes.(Appendix 1.4) V i s i t s to the planning s c h o o l s f o r the purpose of the survey and i n t e r v i e w were planned w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a i n mind: a) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on those schools which have e x i s t e d f o r twenty years or more; b) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on those schools which were known to have i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvement and which have f a c u l t y members w i t h overseas experience; c) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on those schools which were recognized by the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners and the A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g i a t e Schools of Planning;and d) l o c a t i o n of young schools which were e s t a b l i s h e d or organized by people w i t h wide experience i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and w i t h c o n t r i b u t i o n s made on the su b j e c t of development pl a n n i n g . F o l l o w i n g these c r i t e r i a , 23 or 35 percent of a t o t a l of 66 graduate planning schools were v i s i t e d f o r the purpose of s u r v e y . T h e 3 9 23 schools i n c l u d e d 19 or 65.5 percent of a t o t a l of 29 schools recog-n i z e d by the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. Out of the 15 graduate schools which were at l e a s t 20-years o l d , 11 were v i s i t e d . This i n c l u d e d a l l the seven schools which were more than 30-years o l d . Out of 11 twenty-years-or-older schools recognized by the American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , only one was not v i s i t e d . Only one s c h o o l (UCLA) q u a l i f i e d 57 under c r i t e r i a "d" and was covered. As shown i n Table I I I there i s a p r o g r e s s i v e l y p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between the s e l e c t e d schools and t h e i r s e n i o r i t y and AIP a c c r e d i t i o n . I n order to make the study comprehensive w i t h r e s p e c t to the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n regarding courses, an i n f o r m a t i o n schedule was sent to each of the remaining 43 (66 minus 23) schools not v i s i t e d . Out of these, 28 or over t w o - t h i r d s were at l e a s t ten-years o l d . F i f t e e n or about o n e - t h i r d of the remaining schools r e p l i e d to the i n f o r m a t i o n schedule but o n l y two s a i d t h a t they had courses r e l a t e d to the problem areas of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s thus v e r i f y i n g the v a l i d i t y of c r i t e r i a "a" and "d" above. With regard to b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the planning c u r r i c u l a , t h i s i s almost a census study. S u l l a b i of 60 out of a t o t a l of 66 graduate planning schools were c o n s u l t e d . Of those schools which were not v i s i t e d and which d i d not respond to the i n f o r m a t i o n schedule, two were found to have UDC courses. They were requested a second time to g i v e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n regarding these courses and they d i d . ( F i g u r e 5) Besides the p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g schools surveyed and the - 4 0 • 'AlP-ACSP MEMBERS SCHOOLS VISITED! • ACSP MEMBERS ONLY 3 4 5 6 8 9 12 14 15 17 18 26 T AIP MEMBERS ONLY 30 33 41 34 44 50 56 60 63 65 66 O NON-MEMBERS For reference see appendix 1.1 Source: AIP- A SPO- ACSP Offices 41 persons i n t e r v i e w e d , r e l e v a n t o f f i c e s such as the United N a t i o n s , the Pan American Union, the United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, the I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency and the Ford Foundation e t c . were v i s i t e d f o r data r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . From the data gathered from these agencies, i n s i g h t was gained i n t o the f l o w of UDC students to North American i n s t i t u t i o n s , as w e l l as the v a r i o u s governmental and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s which l e d to the involvement of plan n i n g schools and planning educators i n overseas p l a n n i n g education e n t e r p r i s e s . The study drew h e a v i l y from an e x t e n s i v e survey of secondary source m a t e r i a l s such as j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , conference proceedings and annual r e p o r t s and n e w s l e t t e r s of v a r i o u s agencies and sch o o l s . T h i s r e s e a r c h served two u s e f u l purposes: i t allowed the planning education events r e l a t e d to UDC aspects to be s e t down f r e e from d i s c u r s i v e p e r s o n a l views; i t a f f o r d e d a chance to c o l l e c t and c o l l a t e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l which i s i t s e l f a p a r t of the planning and planning education movement. 4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Mode r n i z a t i o n , a w i d e l y c h e r i s e d g o a l of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , i s a process of development of which higher p h y s i c a l output and improved l e v e l s of l i v i n g are the main o b j e c t i v e s . Because by d e f i n i t i o n the word "modernization" suggests a conscious movement from 42 the o l d s t a t e to the new, the modernizing s o c i e t y i s one which, b e l i e v i n g t h a t spontaneous change may not l e a d to a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e , plans i t s development. Underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s on the road to development aim at an educated and prosperous populace which i n t u r n , produces a d d i t i o n a l goods and s e r v i c e s as increments to the gross n a t i o n a l product. Thus, increments i n the economy and improvements i n the l e v e l s of l i v i n g a l t e r n a t e as means and ends during the course of planned development. Pla n n i n g f o r development and modernization represents a convergence of the concerns of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies h e l p i n g them. The r o l e of c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning i s b a s i c a l l y a q u e s t i o n of improving the e f f i c i e n c y of the process of u r b a n i -z a t i o n as an impetus to economic development and modernization. Looking a t the magnitude of the u r b a n i z a t i o n problems, both i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t , i n r e l a t i o n to deployable r e s o u r c e s , the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ought to be much more i n n o v a t i v e than ever b e f o r e i n the western w o r l d . T h i s demands a new approach to t h e i r t r a i n i n g which recognizes the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners as innovators and agents of change i n the t o t a l environment of underdevelopment. What has been the response of North American c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g education and of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l agencies to the p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of students coming from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s to North America f o r advanced education i n p r o f e s s i o n a l planning? This study addresses i t s e l f to t h i s q u e s t i o n under the assumptions d e s c r i b e d above 43 w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t which i n essence i s as f o l l o w s : a g i v e n problem ( s t i m u l u s ) t r i g g e r s a s e q u e n t i a l response i n the form of i n t e r e s t , involvement and i n f l u e n c e among i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, n a t i o n a l governments and education i n s t i t u t i o n s . The cumulative e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l : changes occur i n both systems, i . e . the r e l e v a n t problem area (here c i t y and r e g i o n a l p lanning-education f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ) as w e l l as the i n s t i t u t i o n s (here North American pla n n i n g s c h o o l s ) . This study focusses on changes i n the North American planning education, the p o s t u l a t e d changes being an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l content i n the c u r r i c u l a of p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s . Both the i n t e r a c t i o n (explanatory v a r i a b l e s ) and the changes (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) a r e analyzed w i t h the a i d of data gathered from a f i e l d survey of North American c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g schools and from agencies i n v o l v e d i n the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l education and t r a i n i n g . / 44 FOOTNOTES 1. I n f r a , S e c t i o n 2.2.1 of Chapter I . 2. I n f r a , S e c t i o n 4 of Chapter I I I . 3. D e t a i l s of the conferences appeared i n : United Nations, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n A s i a and the Far East", Housing B u i l d i n g  and Planning B u l l e t i n No. 9; Report of the D i r e c t o r General i n the  UNESCO Seminar on U r b a n i z a t i o n , 1956; " T r a i n i n g f o r Town and Country P l a n n i n g " , Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning B u l l e t i n No.11, 1957; "Regional P l a n n i n g " , Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning B u l l e t i n s  Nos. 12 & 13, 1959, A l l New York: U n i t e d Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s of the g i v e n year. 4. For a ge n e r a l commentary on fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , see H. Peter Oberlander, "Planning Education f o r Newly Independent C o u n t r i e s " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n e r s , XXVIII:2, May 1962. 5. Passim, Chapter I I . 6. W i l l i a m A. Doebele J r . , "Education f o r P l a n n i n g i n Developing C o u n t r i e s " , The Town Pla n n i n g Review, XXXIII:2, J u l y 1962, pp. 95-114. 7. Oberlander, l o c . c i t . 8 . G. Holmes P e r k i n s , e t . a l . , Report on the Establishment of a School  f o r T r a i n i n g of A r c h i t e c t s and C i t y Planners i n Turkey, New York: Un i t e d Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955, 28 pp. (mimeo). 9. John A. Park e r , Post-Graduate P l a n n i n g Education i n C h i l e , Santiago: The U n i t e d Nations A i d M i s s i o n to C h i l e , 1962, 46 pp. (Mimeo); F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , T r a i n i n g of L a t i n Americans i n Urban and Regional  P l a n n i n g i n the U.S., October 14, 1962, (mimeo); Walter D. H a r r i s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and Housing Programs i n Housing and P l a n n i n g " , Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, 88th Congress, 1st Sess i o n , Washington D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963, pp. 348-54. 10. Passim, Chapter IV. 11. Notable among others are: R i c h a r d L. Meier, Development P l a n n i n g , New York: McGraw H i l l , 1965, 420pp., A l b e r t Waterston, Development  P l a n n i n g : Lessons of Experience, B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1965, 706 pp. and John Friedmann, Urban and Regional Development i n C h i l e : A Case Study of Innov a t i v e P l a n n i n g , Santiago: 1969, 251 pp. 45 12. See Harvey S. P e r l o f f , Education f o r P l a n n i n g : C i t y S t a t e and  R e g i o n a l , B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1957, pp. 104-20, and John Friedmann, " I n t e n t i o n and R e a l i t y : The American Planner Overseas," J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXV:3 May 1969, pp. 187-94. 13. The s t u d i e s are annotated i n M. L. Cormack, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Through E d u c a t i o n a l Exchange," Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, XXXVIII: 3, June 1968, p. 298. 14. United Nations, Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning B u l l e t i n No. 11, op. c i t . , 119 pp. 15. D e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of underdevelopment have been systema-t i c a l l y organized and d i s c u s s e d i n : Benjamin H i g g i n s , Economic  Development: P r i n c i p l e s , Problems and P o l i c i e s , New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1959, pp. 5-7; H. L e i b e n s t e i n , Economic Backwardness  and Economic Growth, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1957, pp. 40-41; J . Bhagwati, The Economics of Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s , New York: McGraw H i l l , 1966, 254 pp. 16. United N a t i o n s , Measures of Economic Development of Underdeveloped  C o u n t r i e s , New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1951, p. 3. 17. This study has adopted the above d e f i n i t i o n but has made two exceptions: the e x c l u s i o n of the Peoples Republic of China and the i n c l u s i o n of the Commonwealth of Puerto R i c o . The 700 m i l l i o n Chinese have remained i n s u l a t e d from i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r - • n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and the e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from i t . Puerto Rico's per c a p i t a income i s above the $500 l i m i t but many of i t s developments are a t t r i b u t e d to i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t has, t h e r e f o r e , served as a meaningful exemplary model f o r t h i s study. 18. The J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners i n one of i t s e d i t o r i a l s p o i nted out the ambiguity r e s u l t i n g from the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of the word "p l a n n i n g " and appealed to i t s members and patrons to d e f i n e the word and use i t i n context warning t h a t " i f we are not c l e a r , the very v a l u e and purpose of o u ^ t r a i n i n g w i l l become confused". J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. X V I I I : 1 , Winter 1952, pp. 2-3. 19. John F. K a i n , "Rampant Schizop h r e n i a : A Case of C i t y and Regional P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXXII: 1, January 1966, p. 3. 46 20. Richard L. Meier and Richard D. Duke, "Gaming S i m u l a t i o n f o r Urban P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n e r s , XXXII: 1, January 1966, p. 3. 21. E. C. B a n f i e l d , "The D e c i s i o n Making Scheme", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Review, 4, Autumn 1957, pp. 278-85; John Friedmann, "Regional P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d of Study", Regional Development and Planning (Ed.: Same author and W i l l i a m A l o n s o ) , Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1965, pp. 59-72; A l b e r t G.Guttenburg, "Urban S t r u c t u r e and Urban Form", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , XXVI: 2, May 1960, pp. 104-10; Walter I s a r d , L o c a t i o n and Space Economy, New York: John Wiley, 1956, 350 pp{ Devin Lynch and L l o y d Rodwin, "A Theory of Urban Form", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n e r s , XXIV: 4, 1958, pp. 201-14; Ric h a r d L. Meier, A Communication Theory of Urban Growth, Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1962, 184 pp; M e l v i n M. Webber, "The Urban P l a c e and the Non-Place Urban Realm" i n : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o Urban S t r u c t u r e (Ed. by the same a u t h o r ) , P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania P r e s s , 1964, pp. 79-153; Lowdon Wingo, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Urban Land, Washington D.C: Resources f o r the Future I nc., 1961, 132 pp. 22. This statement appears i n the back cover of each i s s u e of the J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. 23. B r i t t o n H a r r i s , "Some Problems i n the Theory of Intra-Urban L o c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of Operation Research IX, September-October 1961, pp. 695-721. 24. Gunnar Myrdal, A s i a n Drama, V o l I , New York: Pantheon, 1968, p. 54. 25. John W. Dyckman, " S o c i a l Planning S o c i a l Planners and Planned S o c i e t i e s " , J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n e r s , XXXII: 2, March 1966, p. 66. 26. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of underdevelopment are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y elaborated i n L e i b e n s t e i n , l o c . c i t . A l s o see Footnote 17 above. 27. Mahbubul Haq, Strategy of P l a n n i n g , Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963, p. 1. 28. Myrdal, op. c i t . , p. 867 ( V o l . I I ) . 47 29. Many have expressed t h i s view but i n recent years Meier, Friedmann and Lerner have demonstrated from e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n A s i a , L a t i n America and A f r i c a r e s p e c t i v e l y that u r b a n i z a t i o n i s an important v a r i a b l e that animates economic development. See Richard L. Meier and Ikumi Hoshino, "Adjustment to M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth i n an Inner Tokyo Ward", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXIV: 4, J u l y 1968, pp. 210-22; John Friedmann, Strategy of D e l i b e r a t e U r b a n i z a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. XXXIV: 6, November 1968, pp. 364-73; David Lerner, "Comprehensive A n a l y s i s of the Process of M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , The C i t y of Modern A f r i c a (Ed.: Horace M i n e r ) , New York: F r e d e r i c k A. Praeger, 1967, p. 26. 30. The case i n p o i n t i s P a k i s t a n where a housing expert was dismayed to f i n d a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n of resources on high-income housing to the almost complete n e g l e c t of low-cost housing f o r low-income people. I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m L. C. Wheaton, Dean of the C o l l e g e of Environment Design, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , November 11, 1969. 31. The " c r i s i s of i n c l u s i o n " concept advanced i n Friedmann, l o c . c i t . 32. Continent-wise breakdown of shortage of " d w e l l i n g u n i t s " i s 11.4 m i l l i o n f o r A f r i c a , 26.2 m i l l i o n f o r L a t i n America and 72.1 m i l l i o n f o r A s i a . United Nations. World Housing C o n d i t i o n s and  Estimated Housing Requirements, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965, Table 1 and pp. 3-5. 33. Output of d w e l l i n g u n i t s per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n i n s e l e c t e d "developed" c o u n t r i e s were i n 1960: S o v i e t Union: 14.0, West Germany: 10.3, Sweden: 9.1, Romania: 7.3, F i n l a n d : 7.1, The United S t a t e s : 7.1 and France 7.0. Annual B u l l e t i n of Housing and  B u i l d i n g S t a t i s t i c s f o r Europe, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961, Table 5, p. 5. 34. R e s u l t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s on s e l f - h e l p housing reviewed i n : Amjad A. B. R i z v i , S e l f - H e l p Housing: An E v a l u a t i o n of the  E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s P o l i c y i n S e l e c t e d Developing C o u n t r i e s , Master Thesis i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966, 193 pp. See a l s o : Leland 5, Burns and B. Khing Thioe, "Housing and Human Resource Development", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXIV: 6, pp. 396-401. 35. F r e d e r i c k J . Adams, "Status of P l a n n i n g and Planning Education", Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning B u l l e t i n No. 11, op. c i t . , p. 43. 48 36. Friedmann, l o c . c i t . 37. Bert F. H o s e l i t z , "Generative and P a r a s i t i c C i t i e s " , Economic  Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 3, A p r i l 1955, p. 279. 38. John D. Herbert, "An Approach to M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning i n the Developing C o u n t r i e s " , i n : John D. Herbert and A l f r e d Van Yayck (eds.) Urban Planning i n the Developing C o u n t r i e s , New York: F r e d e r i c k Praeger, 1968, p. 32. 39. A l i s o n M a r t i n and W. A r t h u r Lewis, " P a t t e r n of P u b l i c Revenue and Expenditure", i n Richard B i r d and O l i v e r Oldman (e d s . ) , Readings  i n T a x a t i o n i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1964, p. 113. 40. Joseph Froomkin, " F i s c a l Management of M u n i c i p a l and Economic Development", Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 3, J u l y 1955, p. 313. 41. R i c h a r d Boylan, "Emerging Views of P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , V o l . XXXI I I , J u l y 1967, p. 244. 42. Wolfgang S t o p l e r , P l a n n i n g Without F a c t s , Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, p. 11. 43. Friedmann, " I n t e n t i o n and R e a l i t y . . . " l o c c i t . 44. F r e d e r i c k J . Adams, Urban Planning Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , C i n c i n n a t i : A l f r e d Bettman Foundation, 1954, 54 pp.; L u i d g i Dodi, S u l l ' Insegnamento D e l l ' U r b a n i s t i c a , Milano: 1957, 249 pp.; I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n f o r Housing and Town Pl a n n i n g , Education  i n Town P l a n n i n g : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey, Hague: 1952, 139 pp.; John A. Parker, Planning Education i n Canada, Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , 1950, 41 pp. (mimeo); Harvey S. P e r l o f f , Education f o r P l a n n i n g : C i t y S t a t e and R e g i o n a l , B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1957, 189 pp.; L. R. Vagale, "Thoughts on Urban and Regional Planning i n I n d i a " , Urban and R u r a l P l a n n i n g  Thought, J a n u a r y - A p r i l 1966, pp. 33-39; F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , "Planning i n South America: Status and Education", J o u r n a l of the American  I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , X X I I I : 3, 1957, pp. 112-25; John W i l l i s , "Education f o r Town Planning i n Canada", P l a n , A p r i l 1964, 41 pp.; Jack Wood, "Town Pla n n i n g I n d i a : Status and Education", Urban and  R u r a l Planning Thought, V o l . 4, October 1958, pp. 223-43. 45. Sect i o n s 3 and 4 i n Chapter I I I . 49 46. P e r l o f f , op. c i t . pp. 1-34. 47. F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and Gerald Hodge, " C i t y Planning I n s t r u c t i o n i n the United S t a t e s : The P i o n e e r i n g Years 1900-1930), J o u r n a l  of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXI: 1, February 1965, pp. 43-51. A l s o Adams, l o c . c i t . 48. I b i d , p. 47. 49. I b i d , pp. 43-51. 50. P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , p. 58. 51. Canadian approach to c i t y p lanning and housing development came c l o s e r to American approach a f t e r the second world war. This i s e x e m p l i f i e d by p o l i c y s i m i l a r i t i e s of the n a t i o n a l housing a c t s d u r i n g and a f t e r the war i n the two c o u n t r i e s . Despite i t s r o o t s i n B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e d u c a t i o n a l system, Canada's planning p r a c t i c e and p l a n n i n g education are l o o k i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y towards i t s southern neighbout f o r guidance. U n t i l the opening of the f i r s t p l anning s c h o o l (UBC) i n Canada i n 1953 almost a l l the planners were t r a i n e d i n the United S t a t e s . The e x i s t i n g planning schools themselves are patterned around Chicago and Harvard models (w i t h l o c a l a d aptations) and not around L i v e r p o o l and Birmingham sc h o o l s . T h i s g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s based on the study of e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , c u r r i c u l u m content, f a c u l t y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s and t h e i r p l a c e of study,as contained i n the c a t o l o g of v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . The assumption of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y contained i n the statement "North American planning education system" which i n c l u d e s Canada and the United S t a t e s , i s c h a l lenged by P r o f e s s o r Leonard C. Marsh. I t i s the author's c o n t e n t i o n , however, that s i m i l a r i t i e s are more pronounced than d i f f e r e n c e s at l e a s t i n the past two decades, the p e r i o d to which t h i s study p e r t a i n s . 52. John M. Gaus, "Education of Planners: A Commentary on Some Current P r o j e c t s " , J o u r n a l of Land P u b l i c U t i l i t y Economics, XXI: 4, November 1945, p. 307. 53. For d e t a i l s of the Chicago Program see; P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , pp. 133-73: The Program i s a l s o reviewed i n : I n f r a , 3.1 of S e c t i o n D. 54. The Progress of Urban Renewal i n Canada: A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n , A Study of Graduate Students i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, December 1965, pp. 12-13. (See a l s o Footnote 51) 50 55. Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency a d m i n i s t e r s Canada's c o n t r i b u t i o n to t e c h n i c a l a i d w i t h i n the framework of the Commonwealth, Colombo P l a n and other economic coo p e r a t i o n arrange-arrangements of a group of c o u n t r i e s . The United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development a d m i n i s t e r s the U.S. t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs w i t h i n the framework of U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . Depending on the gross n a t i o n a l income and f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s of two c o u n t r i e s the magnitude and o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e would vary. 56. For l i s t of planning schools see Appendix 1.1. 57. The b a s i c reason behind the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s otherwise u n q u a l i -f i e d s c h o o l (on the b a s i s of s e n i o r i t y and AIP a c c r e d i t i o n ) was the presence of two planning educators, Harvey S. P e r l o f f and John Friedmann. P e r l o f f was p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Chicago Program and has s i n c e been r e f l e c t i n g and w r i t i n g on the theory and philosophy of planning and planning education. Friedmann's recent c o n t r i b u t i o n s to planning theory and education have drawn h e a v i l y from h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Both have d i s p l a y e d strong commitments to development planning and planning education f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . I t was e s s e n t i a l to see how t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were r e f l e c t e d i n the UCLA's planning program. CHAPTER I I THE ROLE OF AGENCIES IN PLANNING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS The underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s are s t r i v i n g to develop p h y s i -c a l and s o c i a l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e i n order to progress toward s e l f -s u s t a i n i n g modern s t a t e s , as p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I . At the same time, they face a dilemma: a v a i l a b l e c a p i t a l resources and t e c h n i c a l knowhow do not have the power to do the j o b ; both are i n s c a r c e supply. The r a t e of savi n g i s too meagre to ensure an adequate supply of cap-i t a l . No underdeveloped country can save at a r a t e e q u i v a l e n t to 16 per cent of n a t i o n a l income which i s r e q u i r e d to double the standard 1 of l i v i n g i n l e s s than a century. Nor can underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s develop s k i l l e d manpower i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers at the present time of need; they l a c k funds to do so. The problem can be a l l e v i a t e d i f some compensating increments of c a p i t a l and t e c h n i c a l advice are made a v a i l a b l e to them i n the form of e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e . This has been the premise behind most i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. As s u p p l i e r s of supplementary resources to underdeveloped economies, i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e programs have played a c a t a l y t i c r o l e encouraging i n t e r a c t i o n among ex p e r t s , agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s which have been working, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , f o r the modernization 52 and development of these economies. An awareness of form and f u n c t i o n s of r e l e v a n t agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l to understanding the nature of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . Two broad c a t e g o r i e s of agencies handle i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s -tance programs. The f i r s t category deals mainly w i t h the f i n a n c i n g of p r o j e c t s f o r c a p i t a l improvement, w h i l e the second addresses i t s e l f to the improvement of human resources through t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a n c i n g of development i s the business of three m u l t i l a t e r a l i n t e r -n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s that form the World Bank Group: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (IBRD), I n t e r n a t i o n a l Finance C o r p o r a t i o n (IFC) and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n (IDA). IBRD made i t s f i r s t loans i n 1947 and has s i n c e been h e l p -i n g an i n c r e a s i n g number of c o u n t r i e s (now 110) i n the f i n a n c i n g of major development p r o j e c t s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . IFC, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1956, has been a s s i s t i n g p r i v a t e s e c t o r s of 90 member c o u n t r i e s through c a p i t a l loans and investments otherwise not secured by t h e i r own governments. I t has i n v e s t e d mainly i n mining, manufacturing, food-processing and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The t h i r d f i n a n c i n g agency (IDA) was s e t up i n 1960 w i t h a membership of 102 c o u n t r i e s . I t has been s u p p l y i n g c a p i t a l to the l e a s t prosperous UDCs on easy terms. Over the past t e n y e a r s , the three f i n a n c i n g agencies have i n v e s t e d some 1,000 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a 2 year i n underdeveloped w o r l d . 53 While f i n a n c i n g i n p u t s a v a i l a b l e through these agencies can be b e n e f i c i a l i n producing p h y s i c a l output the marginal a d d i t i o n to gross n a t i o n a l product (growth) r e s u l t i n g thereby, may not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d to "development"; f o r i n a d d i t i o n to i n c l u d i n g the concept of "economic growth", "development" a l s o i m p l i e s that improvement i n the s t a t e of h e a l t h and education i s e q u a l l y e s s e n t i a l . Investment i n the " q u a l i t y " of p o p u l a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n inc r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y of those employed i n c a p i t a l investment p r o j e c t s , and in c r e a s e d pro-d u c t i v i t y i n s u r e s higher and b e t t e r p h y s i c a l output. This i s p o s s i b l e i f a p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of c a p i t a l i s used to improve human resources i n underdeveloped economies. This has been the assumption behind most t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. A host of agencies, both n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , manage these programs. Among i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, the United Nations i n -c l u d i n g i t s r e g i o n a l commissions and s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, the Colombo P l a n , the Commonwealth and the O r g a n i z a t i o n of American States (OAS) have been o p e r a t i n g f o r two decades. Among n a t i o n a l agencies, the United States Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAID) and Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) (and t h e i r predecessors) have been managing t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs f o r the two governments s i n c e the end of World War I I . A host of p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c agencies, such as Ford Foundation and R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation have a l s o been 3 g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e to UDCs i n the area of h e a l t h education and t r a i n i n g . 54 Some a i d f o r housing and urban development has been f o r t h -coming from these n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies s i n c e e a r l y 1950s but, i n g e n e r a l , the s u b j e c t has r e c e i v e d low p r i o r i t y . Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n (IDA) are notable among the c a p i t a l - i n v e s t i n g agencies i n urban development p r o j e c t s i n UDCs. A s s i s t a n c e from a l l o t h e r sources takes the form of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : housing surveys, development p o l i c i e s , zoning and l e g i s l a t i o n , admin-i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c i n g f a c i l i t i e s , b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r i e s , education and 4 t r a i n i n g , and rese a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the area of pla n n i n g education takes b a s i c a l l y three forms: F i r s t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences and seminars are organized to develop i n t e r e s t and promote exchange of ideas r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g education f o r UDCs. Second, planning experts are sent f o r v a r y i n g periods to make on-the-spot s t u d i e s of a gi v e n pro-blem, implement pre-conceived p o l i c i e s , e s t a b l i s h an i n s t i t u t i o n or to teach i n an e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i r d , UDC students are sponsored f o r study i n p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools of developed c o u n t r i e s such as the United States and Canada. The r o l e of v a r i o u s agencies i n f u r -t h e r i n g the three forms of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. 55 2. INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES 2.1 UNITED NATIONS In I n i t i a l stages the r o l e of the United Nations was con-f i n e d to the h o l d i n g of a s e r i e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l seminars and i n -q u i r i e s to determine the scope of work r e q u i r e d to deal w i t h u r b a n i -z a t i o n problems i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . I n the e a r l y 1950s, e x p l o r a t o r y surveys of urban c o n d i t i o n s were c a r r i e d out. L a t e r , some attempts were made to study r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n , aspects of h e a l t h and housing, and a host of other problems caused by r a p i d urban 5 growth. On the whole, however, e a r l i e r attempts were o r i e n t e d to s t u d y i n g the problems of i n d u s t r i a l development and urban p h y s i c a l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e ; r e l a t i v e l y marginal a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the i n s t i -t u t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e s of urban and r e g i o n a l development. The i n t e n t of these s t u d i e s was to provide some g u i d e l i n e s f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a n to be adopted by the United Nations. This appeared i n 1961 i n the form of "Concerted I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n the F i e l d of U r b a n i z a t i o n " , a program which recommended a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s and cooperative e f f o r t s , and s t r e s s e d the need f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n : a ) b a s i c r e s e a r c h and s t u d i e s on u r b a n i z a t i o n ; b) c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ; c) p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the context 6 of u r b a n i z a t i o n ; and d) community s e r v i c e s and c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i v e s p e c i f i c tasks formed a c o n t i n u i n g p a r t of the Concerted A c t i o n : a) o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e g i o n a l study missions and seminars con-c e r n i n g v a r i o u s aspects of u r b a n i z a t i o n ; b) conduct of s p e c i f i c i n q u i r -i e s and i n t e n s i v e surveys r e l a t i n g to development p l a n n i n g at a l l l e v e l s ; c) support of a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s i n the area of urban and r e -g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ; d) award of f e l l o w s h i p s f o r t r a i n i n g i n aspects of u r b a n i z a t i o n ; and e) c o o r d i n a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs on urban 7 development. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n a l l f i e l d s i n c r e a s e d both i n per-sonnel and funds ever s i n c e the f o r m u l a t i o n of the program of Con-c e r t e d A c t i o n . The number of UN-sponsored experts and students i n -creased from a few hundred i n e a r l y 1950s to a t o t a l of 12,400 (6,900 experts and 5,500 students) i n 1966. Grants a l s o i n c r e a s e d through l a r g e - s c a l e pre-investment a l l o c a t i o n s under the S p e c i a l Fund of the United Nations Development Program from $550,900 i n 1960 to $8,348,300 8 i n 1966. The need f o r t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as a form of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has been f e l t ever s i n c e the s t a r t of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. I t has, however, r e c e i v e d low p r i o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n to t r a i n i n g i n other f i e l d s . This has been due p a r t l y to'the l a c k of understanding about the nature and scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning and p a r t l y to the urgency of meeting the acute shortage of other h i g h - p r i o r i t y s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l development programs. I t was not u n t i l the middle 1950s tha t s e r i o u s e f f o r t s were made i n the UN-sponsored meetings and s t u d i e s 57 to understand the broad scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g and the need f o r t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d . 2.1.1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Meetings Although the s u b j e c t of planning education r e c e i v e d passing mention i n almost a l l housing and planning r e p o r t s of UN m i s s i o n s , i t was i n 1951 t h a t the United Nations expressed i t s i n t e r e s t i n a formal way. Thus i n response to the general concern about housing and urban development problems, the S o c i a l Commission at i t s 7th Session (E/1982) adopted a r e s o l u t i o n making three recommendations, one of which s t a t e d t h a t : T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes of the United Nations and s p e c i a l i z e d agencies i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g to b u i l d i n g , housing and town and country p l a n n i n g and a l s o to i n c l u d e corresponding t r a i n i n g of personnel f o r v a r i o u s phases of housing, p r o d u c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n these f i e l d s . 9 Apart from i n c r e a s i n g the number of f e l l o w s h i p s i n the f i e l d , not much was done i n the f o l l o w i n g years. For one t h i n g the recommendation was vague; there was a need to c l a r i f y the "various phases of p l a n n i n g , p r o d u c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , a need to d e f i n e the p h i l o s o p h i c a l , t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scope of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g educa-t i o n . A s e r i e s of conferences of experts were organized w i t h a view to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and i n t e r p r e t these concepts. For many years f o l l o w i n g the S o c i a l C o u n c i l ' s r e s o l u t i o n , the United Nations Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s which deals w i t h the s u b j e c t of 58 housing, b u i l d i n g and p l a n n i n g , has been s t r i v i n g to develop and d i s -seminate understanding of the nature and scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education f o r the UDCs. I t has assembled l e a d i n g planners and educa-t o r s i n the UN-sponsored conferences and seminars h e l d i n the f i f t i e s ; even i n conferences not d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h planning education, the su b j e c t appeared f r e q u e n t l y i n the agenda. The f i r s t formal i n t e r n a t i o n a l debate on the s u b j e c t was h e l d i n 1954. In th a t year, the United N a t i o n s , i n coop e r a t i o n w i t h the Government of I n d i a , sponsored a seminar i n New D e l h i on housing and community improvement i n A s i a and the Far East. P l a n n i n g education was one of the three problems d i s c u s s e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s to the seminar i n c l u d e d 111 planners from 17 underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and 22 p a r t i -c i p a n t s from seven developed c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g those from 11 i n t e r -10 n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the FAO, IFHTP, IL0, UNESCO and WHO. The New D e l h i Seminar made some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . I t took the p o s i t i o n that " p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g " i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d i n i t s own r i g h t , and suggested t h a t : a) an understanding of r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s and competence i n t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l ; b) pro-f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education must recog n i z e the complementary r o l e of g e n e r a l i s t s as w e l l as s p e c i a l i s t s ; c) academic education must be sup-plemented w i t h i n t e r n s h i p or on-the-job t r a i n i n g ; d) t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -tance should be i n c r e a s e d f o r planning education; and e) pl a n n i n g schools should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s world-regions w i t h a view to economize 11 resources from d u p l i c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s . 59 These conclusions were not f i n a l answers to a l l q u e s t i o n s ; many i s s u e s d e a l i n g w i t h the form and content of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g are s t i l l being debated. The e s s e n t i a l m e r i t of the seminar was that i t r a i s e d problems f o r f u r t h e r study and e s t a b l i s h e d a few c r i t e r i a f o r more j u d i c i o u s use of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e resources f o r urban and r e g i o n a l development. These i s s u e s were debated a g a i n i n another i n t e r n a t i o n a l seminar organized two years a f t e r the New D e l h i seminar. This time the seminar was j o i n t l y sponsored by two i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, two n a t i o n a l agencies and one u n i v e r s i t y . I t was e x c l u s i v e l y on the sub-j e c t of " t r a i n i n g f o r town and country p l a n n i n g " . One hundred and twelve p r o f e s s i o n a l s and pla n n i n g educators from 16 c o u n t r i e s assembled at San Juan, Puerto Rico i n March 1956 t o : ...explore s o l u t i o n to one of the most p r e s s i n g p ro-blems i n the developing c o u n t r i e s of the Western Hemis-phere w i t h s p e c i a l r eference to L a t i n America, namely, the t r a i n i n g of q u a l i f i e d personnel f o r the d i f f e r e n t branches and phases of comprehensive and i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g and development.^2 Guided by t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e , the seminar took a broad view of p l a n n i n g which aims a t balanced economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l development. I t considered r e g i o n as a s u i t a b l e s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . With regard to planning s c h o o l s , i t made, among o t h e r s , one recommendation which was s i m i l a r to the one made i n the New D e l h i seminar: 60 Each m a j o r r e g i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a s h o u l d e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p a t l e a s t one w e l l - r o u n d e d p o s t - g r a d u a t e programme i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a t y p e o f t r a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o i t s n e e d s „ ^ F o l l o w i n g t h i s r ecommendation, many h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and c e n t r e s were opened i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . An o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S o c i e t y ( S L A P ) , was formed i n B o g o t a ( C o l -o m b i a ) , i n o r d e r t o "promote t h e development o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s , p r a c -14 t i c e s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g " . The sem-i n a r c l a r i f i e d t h e r o l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o v i d e d many g u i d e l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s . The g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t s p a r k e d a s e r i e s o f s u b s e q u e n t m e e t i n g s . The s u b j e c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n became p a r t o f t h e agenda o f m e e t i n g s on u r b a n i z a t i o n and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . F o r example, an u r b a n i z a t i o n s e m i n a r o r g a n i z e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h UNESCO a t Bangkok i n May 1956, r e a f f i r m e d t h e c r i t e r i a o f t r a i n i n g t h e r e q u i r e d p e r s o n n e l f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g on t h e same 15 l i n e s as t h e two p r e v i o u s s e m i n a r s . A l s o , a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g sem-i n a r was o r g a n i z e d j o i n t l y by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and t h e Government o f J a p a n i n J u l y - A u g u s t 1958. A t t e n d e d by 98 s c h o l a r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s f r o m 16 c o u n t r i e s and 17 i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p l a n n i n g i n -s t i t u t i o n s i t n o t e d t h e s h o r t a g e o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g programs and recommended t h e o p e n i n g o f t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s 16 f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e . 61 These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show t h a t one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n t h e 1950s was t o a s s e m b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and e d u c a t o r s f r o m v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s and t o promote d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h i t h -e r t o vague a s p e c t s o f t h e f i e l d o f p l a n n i n g and t o seek s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . 2.1.2 E x p e r t M i s s i o n s A n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e UN t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e program c o m p r i s e s o f a d v i c e g i v e n t o t h e UDCs on h o u s i n g and u r b a n p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s . T h i s p o l i c y t o o k e f f e c t f r o m t h e 1951 r e s o l u t i o n 434 I (XIV) o f t h e Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d t h e " g r o w i n g volume o f r e q u e s t s by governments f o r d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e e x p e r t a d v i c e , t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s " , and recommended " t h a t T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e B o a r d d e v e l o p f u r t h e r i t s a c t i v i t i e s p e r -17 t a i n i n g t o h o u s i n g , community p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g " . T h i s r e s o l u -t i o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n many f o r m s . H o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g m i s s i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f one o r more e x p e r t s a r e s e n t w i t h s p e c i f i c terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n one o r more c o u n t r i e s . O t h e r s a r e a s s i g n e d w i t h p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s as a d v i s e r s o r members o f t h e i r t e c h -n i c a l s t a f f . I n most c a s e s t h e i r j o b i s a l s o t o t r a i n l o c a l p e r s o n n e l . A l m o s t a l l e x p e r t m i s s i o n s s e n t o u t w i t h h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g a s s i g n m e n t s make recommendations w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e need and p r o v i s i o n s f o r t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . An example o f how recommendations r e g a r d i n g 62 t r a i n i n g f o r planning t e c h n i c i a n s f r e q u e n t l y becomes pa r t of the broa-der recommendations regarding urban developments i s provided by Charles Abrams: A f t e r s t u d y i n g and r e p o r t i n g on the housing problems of f o u r t e e n nations i n fo u r c o n t i n e n t s , I have i d e n t i f i e d no panaceas f o r the housing problems i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . Often not even a s t a r t can be made without es-t a b l i s h i n g the t r a i n i n g f o r the many i n t e r r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t touch upon the development process.18 Many r e p o r t s of UN missions c o n t a i n such views. The number of these r e p o r t s have m u l t i p l i e d as the number of experts sent to UDCs have i n c r e a s e d over the past twenty y e a r s . As e x e m p l i f i e d i n F i g u r e 6, the number of housing and pla n n i n g experts sent, doubled i n the p e r i o d between 1953 and 1960 and t r e b l e d i n the p e r i o d between 1961 and 1966. The number of c o u n t r i e s b e n e f i t t i n g from t h e i r a d v i c e a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n about the same r a t e : from 12 i n 1953 to 23 i n 1960 to 57 i n 1966. These s t u d i e s and advice enabled the United Nations to dev-elop g r e a t e r knowledge of housing and urban problems of the underdev-eloped c o u n t r i e s . In the su b j e c t of housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y low-cost housing, i t i n i t i a t e d many p r o j e c t s , and p u b l i s h e d some u s e f u l r e p o r t s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l use. 2.1.3 Students and Trainees R e a l i z i n g the s e r i o u s gap i n education and t r a i n i n g f o r pro-f e s s i o n a l planners i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , the General Assembly Fig . 6 UN EXPERTS IN HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING SENT TO UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES (1953 -66) 604 / ' "1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1953 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 1966 i I I i 1 'i E i A I" I I 1 1 I i 12 13 24 10 20 23 22 23 23 33 40 46 51 57 NO- OF UDCs SERVED EACH YEAR Source: Yearbooks of the United Not ions for each year from 1953 to 1966. (see app. 2.1 ) 64 i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n 537(VI) of 1951 requested the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l : ...to make grants w i t h i n the framework of the Techni-c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme and i n accord w i t h the s p e c i a l i s e d agencies and the s e r v i c e s of the United Nations, of f e l l o w -s h i p s f o r study and t r a i n i n g to experts from c o u n t r i e s a f -f e c t e d by the housing shortage p a r t i c u l a r l y c o u n t r i e s where the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l on the pu r e l y a r t i s a n stage.19 The p o l i c y w i t h regard to f e l l o w s h i p s was to enable persons a l r e a d y working i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s to study i n an e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l or to undertake on-the-job t r a i n i n g i n r e l e v a n t o f f i c e s i n a Western country. I n the post-war p e r i o d of European r e c o n s t r u c t i o n (1947-51), f e l l o w s h i p s were almost e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and European c o u n t r i e s . But a f t e r the adoption of the above r e s o l u t i o n , the newly emerging c o u n t r i e s s t a r t e d r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of f e l l o w s h i p s . The t o t a l number of awarded f e l l o w s h i p s a l s o i n c r e a s e d over the ye a r s . F i g u r e 7 demonstrates t h a t i n the s i x years preceding 1960, the two-yearly t o t a l s of awarded f e l l o w s h i p s ranged from 40 to 60, but i n the ei g h t years a f t e r 1960, the number of these f e l l o w s h i p s i n c r e a s e d t h r e e - f o l d . This i s ex p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t i n the e a r l y 1960s, the United Nations s h i f t e d i t s emphasis from sponsoring f o r e i g n experts f o r work i n the UDCs to sponsoring UDC 20 n a t i o n a l s f o r t r a i n i n g i n Europe and North America. UN f e l l o w s have a g r e a t e r tendency to go to Europe than to North America. Since most underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i n h e r i t e d educa-NO-OF FELLOWSHIPS AWARDED „ 140-UNITED NATIONS FELLOWSHIPS IN HOUSING, BUILDING & PLANNING ( 1947 - 68 ) Fig. 7 120-100-80-60 40 20-PLACE OF STUDY IN U DCs CANADA - UNITED-STATES EUROPE 1947-51 1953-54 1957-58 1941-62 1965-66 1952 1955-56 1959-60 1963-64 1967-68 Y E A R S Source: The fellowship sect ion of the United Nat ions Sec re ta r i a t , New York- (see a p p - 2 . 2 ; 66 t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e systems from European c o u n t r i e s which ad-m i n i s t e r e d them before independence, they p r e f e r to send students to Europe. A l s o , most of the f e l l o w s h i p s are awarded to the s t a f f mem-bers of UN-supported e n t e r p r i s e s overseas. Thus i n 1955-56, f e l l o w -s h i p s were awarded to T u r k i s h students who were to man the pla n n i n g schools of Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , and to L a t i n American students who were to study i n the Inter-American Housing Centre (CINVA). From 1958 to 1960, Indonesian students r e c e i v e d f e l l o w s h i p s to study i n the United States so th a t they could q u a l i f y themselves to teach c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a t the Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology. I n the past few y e a r s , f e l l o w s h i p s have been awarded to the s t a f f em-ployed i n such p r o j e c t s as the K a r a c h i Master P l a n ( P a k i s t a n ) , Devel-opment P l a n of South A d r i a t i c Region (Greece) and A g r i c u l t u r a l Devel-21 opment P l a n ( A f g h a n i s t a n ) . The United Nations i s p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i -c a l a s s i s t a n c e to these p r o j e c t s through the S p e c i a l Fund of i t s Development Program. 2.2 ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES The Charter of the O r g a n i z a t i o n of American States was adop-ted i n 1948 at a meeting of the Ninth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Ameri-can States a t Bogota, Colombia. Since then, i t has concerned i t s e l f w i t h the development aspects of i t s 23 member s t a t e s of L a t i n America. One of i t s organs, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) gives 67 c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e t o OAS members. C a p i t a l f u n d s f o r h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g programs come f r o m t h e S o c i a l P r o g r e s s T r u s t Fund o f t h e Bank. T h i s Fund makes l o a n s f o r p r o j e c t s o r programs d e s i g n e d t o make i m p r o v e -ments i n l a n d s e t t l e m e n t s , l a n d u s e , low-income h o u s i n g , community w a t e r s u p p l y and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The Fund a l s o u n d e r t a k e s " s u c h s u p p l e m e n t a r y f i n a n c i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r advanced e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d t o economic and s o c i a l development as may be a g r e e d 22 : upon between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e Bank". I n t h e a r e a o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , OAS c a r r i e s o u t f i v e i m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m s : a) the program o f t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n ; b) t h e f e l l o w s h i p program; c) t h e e x t r a - c o n t i n e n t a l t r a i n i n g p rogram; and d) t h e program o f t o u r i s t t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . Under t h e f i r s t t h r e e p r o g r a m s , OAS has t r a i n e d 13,000 s t u d e n t s i n 26 e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s 23 s p r e a d o v e r 13 c o u n t r i e s . T r a i n i n g f o r c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e OAS's e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s . A c c o r d i n g t o i t s S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l , t h e emphasis r e s t s o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t : . . . t h e l o n g r a n g e s u c c e s s o f a l l programmes depends on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of.human e l e m e n t - i n t h e c a s e o f u r b a n dev-^ e l o p m e n t , the. t r a i n i n g o f competent c i t y p l a n n e r s a t a l l l e v e l s . T h i s c o n c e p t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a -t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e OAS s p o n s o r e d by t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , w h i c h p l a c e s major emphasis on e d u c a t i o n a l and r e s e a r c h programmes, and w h i c h among i t s p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e s t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g C e n t r e and t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f advanced r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g . ^ 68 In order to understand the scope of e d u c a t i o n a l and research a c t i v i t i e s to be undertaken, the OAS a l s o sponsors i n t e r n a t i o n a l meet-ings and sends expert missions to survey e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and to assess the needs of L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . Among the important meetings, f o r example, were: a) the 1956 Puerto Rico Seminar j o i n t l y sponsored by the UN, the OAS and Puerto R i c o ; b) the F i r s t and Second Inter-American T e c h n i c a l Meetings on Housing and P l a n n i n g at Bogota, Colombia i n 1956 and at Huampani, Peru i n 1958; c) a seminar on ur-b a n i z a t i o n at Santiago, C h i l e i n 1959; d) f o u r meetings of the I n t e r American P l a n n i n g S o c i e t y s i n c e 1956; and e) a host of other i n t e r -25 n a t i o n a l conferences organized by v a r i o u s OAS organs over the years. In a d d i t i o n to the meetings organized by the OAS and i t s a f f i l i a t e d agencies, are those organized by other r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of L a t i n America, such as those of a r c h i t e c t s , engineers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s , notably the Inter-American M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n and the Pan American Congress of A r c h i t e c t s , have c o n s i s t e n t l y d e a l t w i t h the s u b j e c t of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g edu-c a t i o n . The l a t e r body, f o r i n s t a n c e , h e l d a conference i n Caracas i n 1955 which approved a r e s o l u t i o n on the v a l u e of "supplementing p r o f e s -s i o n a l education i n the f i e l d of p l a n n i n g on the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r -American l e v e l s through the establishment of Centers f o r Advanced 26 Studies i n P l a n n i n g " . 69 A h o s t o f t e c h n i c a l m i s s i o n s were s e n t t o L a t i n A m e r i c a o v e r t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . Of g r e a t i n t e r e s t was t h e one o r g a n i z e d i n 1960 by t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S o c i e t y i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e UN and t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n . The m i s s i o n s u r v e y e d some 50 c e n t e r s w h i c h had p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and made a r e p o r t s u g g e s t i n g t h e need f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r a i n i n g w i t h emphasis on n a t i o n a l - r e g i o n a l and u r b a n - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . To implement t h i s r ecommendation, t h e m i s s i o n a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d be i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h programs o f : a) e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e p l a n -n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f governments; b) i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; c) p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o d a t i o n s b o t h n a t i o n a l and i n t e r -27 n a t i o n a l ; and d) f o u n d a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p may be deemed e s s e n t i a l b e c a u s e b o t h f o r d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g , a s s i s -t a n c e o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n terms o f f u n d s and e x p e r t i s e . Most o f t h e i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programs i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s have b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m 28 s u c h i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The OAS F e l l o w s h i p Program has had a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e UN F e l l o w s h i p Program. OAS f e l l o w s h i p s were o f f e r e d t o en-c o u r a g e L a t i n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y i n O A S - s u p p o r t e d c e n t e r s s u c h as t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g C e n t e r (CINVA) a t B o g o t a , C o l o m b i a and I n t e r - A m e r i c a n C e n t e r f o r U r b a n and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (PIAPUR) a t Lima, Peru. Since the s i g n i n g of the A l l i a n c e f o r Progress Charter i n August 1961, the OAS has i n t e n s i f i e d i t s f e l l o w s h i p program w i t h the a i d of e x t r a finances a v a i l a b l e from the United States Govern-ment. Thus i n the same year i t adopted two r e s o l u t i o n s which recom-mended t h a t : 1. The exchange of st u d e n t s , teachers, p r o f e s s o r s , research workers and other s p e c i a l i s t s be i n t e n s i f i e d . . . 2 . The OAS w i t h the cooperation of Inter-American Development Bank and the United Nations Economic Commission f o r L a t i n America, prepare a program of p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n . . . w i t h i n the s p i r i t of Operation Pan America and of A l l i a n c e f o r Progress, pro-moting exchange of persons a t a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s , s p e c i a l l y of students and urban and r u r a l workers.^9 F o l l o w i n g t h i s recommendation, the number of f e l l o w s h i p s awarded to L a t i n American students i n urban and r e g i o n a l f i e l d i n c r e a s e d i n 1960s r e l a t i v e to 1950s. I n the p e r i o d 1961-68, 70 students s t u -d i e d i n ur b a n - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g centers and 135 s t u d i e d i n CINVA on 30 OAS g r a n t s . Some f e l l o w s h i p s were a l s o awarded to students f o r ad-vanced p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s notably a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ( B e r k e l e y ) , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . 3. NATIONAL AGENCIES 3.1 UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Because of the complex world o p e r a t i o n of the United States Government, i t s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (AID) g i v e s con-71 t r a c t s t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o implement i t s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c i e s . F o r example, i n f i s c a l y e a r 1967-68, i t p a i d 31 $47 m i l l i o n t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s t o do t h e j o b . I t draws a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e a d v i s o r y and c o n s u l t a t i v e r e s o u r c e s f r o m o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I n t h e a r e a o f n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g as w e l l as r e g i o n a l , s e c -t o r a l and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , i t has used t h e s e r v i c e s o f some 140 a g e n c i e s as o f 1967. As shown i n T a b l e I V , t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , i . e . d u r i n g t h e 32 l i f e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. The USAID a l s o makes v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o m u l t i -l a t e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s a l o n e , f o r example, r e -c e i v e d $100 m i l l i o n f o r i t s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs o f 1969-33 1970. These a g e n c i e s c o o r d i n a t e w i t h each o t h e r i n m a t t e r s o f s p e -c i f i c p r o j e c t s . The USAID m a i n t a i n s f i e l d s t a f f t o s u p e r v i s e i t s programs and t o a d v i s e UDC governments r e c e i v i n g U.S. a s s i s t a n c e . I t sends m i s s i o n s (38 i n 1968) and e x p e r t s drawn m o s t l y f r o m U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s , and s p o n s o r s t r a i n i n g f o r o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Over t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , more t h a n 100,000 s t u d e n t s have s t u d i e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s under i t s g r a n t s , m o s t l y i n t h e f i e l d s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n . (See F i g u r e 11a) They have come b o t h f o r f o r m a l d e g r e e programs as w e l l as f o r non-degree t r a i n i n g i n government and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . / 72 TABLE I V AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING ASPECTS 3 OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE USAID: YEAR OF THEIR ESTABLISHMENT^ YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT NUMBER OF AGENCIES PERCENTAGE Before 1900 7 5.9 1900-1909 2 1.7 1910-1919 6 5.0 1920-1929 9 7.6 1930-1939 8 6.7 1940-1949 15 12.6 1950-1959 32 26.9 1960-October 1967 40 33.6 TOTAL 119 100.0 a. ' P l a n n i n g a s p e c t s ' c o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g : i ) Four e l e m e n t s o f N a t i o n a l Development P l a n n i n g : n a t i o n a l , s e c t o r a l , p r o j e c t and i f t r a - n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . i i ) F o u r s e t s o f t o o l s o f development p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n c e : dev-elopment p l a n n i n g a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c i p a n t t r a i n i n g i n development p l a n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r d evelopment. i i i ) Two main components o f n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g : p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n and p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . b. I n 23 c a s e s , d a t e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t were n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e d i r e c -t o r y . Out o f t h i s s e v e n were n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r h e r e ; f o r t h e r e s t d a t e s were c h e c k e d f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s . S o u r c e : D i r e c t o r y o f P l a n n i n g R e s o u r c e s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, O c t o b e r 1967, 263 pp. 73 I n the p e r i o d from 1949 to December 1968, the USAID has spent $3,470,324,000 i n the t e c h n i c a l cooperation component of i t s t o t a l f o r -e i gn a i d program amounting to $43,771,027,000. Table V shows that ma-j o r i n c r e a s e s i n expenditures occurred a f t e r the adoption of the For-eign A s s i s t a n c e Act 1961. For example, the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e expenditures i n c r e a s e d from 8.5 per cent of the t o t a l f o r e i g n a i d dur-i n g 1953-62 to more than 14 per cent during 1963-68. A p o r t i o n of these funds are used f o r sponsoring U.S. ex-p e r t s to undertake overseas assignments and f o r overseas students to study i n the United S t a t e s . I n the p e r i o d from 1954 to 1969, the USAID has sponsored 119,688 students and t r a i n e e s ; 90 per cent of these come from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . However, only a very s m a l l p o r t i o n of the USAID funds i s a l l o c a t e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n housing and urban development. For example, the 605 persons t r a i n e d by the O f f i c e of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing of the Housing and Housing Finance Agency (now Housing and Urban Development) from 1957 to 1962 made up only 34 one per cent of the t o t a l overseas t r a i n e e s i n the same p e r i o d . The USAID awards overseas c o n t r a c t s to U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s and f i n a n c e s e d u c a t i o n a l research programs d i r e c t e d to UDC problems. For example, as of December 31, 1966, 124 U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s have per-formed t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e tasks under 292 separate UDC c o n t r a c t s amounting to $221,676,698, more than h a l f of the c o n t r a c t s belonging to t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h . (Table VI) In the f i e l d of housing and 74 TABLE V UNITED STATES EXPENDITURES IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FROM F.Y 1949 TO 1969 IN THOUSAND US DOLLARS TECHNICAL ALL FOREIGN PERCENTAGE OF ASSISTANCE ASSISTANCE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE YEAR ONLY TO ALL FOREIGN ASSISTANCE 1949-1952 45,430 13,117,489 .34 1953-1957 448,313 8,865,507 5.8 1958-1962 986,833 8,221,185 12.0 1963-1967 1,535,657 10,513,484 14.3 1969 t h r u ' Dec. 31, 1968 454,091 3,053,362 14.8 TOTAL 3,470,324 43,771,027 8.0 The p e r i o d 1949-1952 comes under the Marshal? P l a n P e r i o d : the p e r i o d 1953-1961 comes under the Mutual S e c u r i t y Act P e r i o d , and the years f o l l o w i n g 1961 f a l l under the For e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act P e r i o d . Source: Condensed from: Operation Report F.Y. 1969, Washington, D.C.: Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, 1969, p. 32. 7 5 u r b a n p l a n n i n g , however, f e w e r c o n t r a c t s a r e awarded — and t h e y a r e m o s t l y f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e U.S. government has e n c o u r a g e d t h e dev-elopment i n t h e n a t i o n ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s , o f n o n - w e s t e r n s t u d i e s w h i c h have h i t h e r t o r e c e i v e d t h e a l m o s t e n t i r e monetary b a c k i n g f r o m p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s . The new s u r g e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a i s p r o v i d e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1966, whereby t h e Con g r e s s o f t h e U n i -t e d S t a t e s a u t h o r i z e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e t o : . . . a r r a n g e t h r o u g h g r a n t s t o i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d -u c a t i o n , o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , s t r e n g t h e n i n g and o p e r a t i o n by them o f g r a d u a t e c e n t e r s w h i c h w i l l have n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and o t h e r f i e l d s o f s t u d y . 3 ^ The USAID s e e k s t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s t o implement h o u s i n g and u r b a n development a s p e c t s o f i t s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The H o u s i n g and Urban Development Agency (HUD) a r r a n g e s t h e p l a c e m e n t o f o v e r s e a s " t r a i n e e s " and b r i e f s U.S. p e r s o n n e l a s -s i g n e d t o UDCs. I t s p o n s o r s c o n f e r e n c e s on UDC p r o b l e m s : i n May 1967 f o r example i t a s s e m b l e d more t h a n 120 d e l e g a t e s f r o m A s i a n c o u n t r i e s and t h r e e t e r r i t o r i e s i n a P a c i f i c C o n f e r e n c e on Urban Growth h e l d a t H o n o l u l u , H a w a i i . The HUD's D i v i s i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n l A f f a i r s has l a u n c h e d an a m b i t i o u s program, t h e F o r e i g n Urban Development A n a l y s i s (FUDA). The pr o g r a m w i l l c o l l e c t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l f r o m 76 TABLE VI UNIVERSITY CONTRACTS FINANCED BY THE UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (As o f Dec. 31, 1966) TYPE OF SERVICE NUMBER OF COUNTRIES NUMBER OF US UNIVERSITIES NUMBER OF CONTRACTS DOLLAR VALUE OF CONTRACTS T e c h n i c a l  A s s i s t a n c e to  Host Countries L a t i n America N.E. & S. A s i a A f r i c a Far East 16 7 13 4 39 20 32 8 55 29 44 9 38,351,368 68,357,632 71,191,093 20,994,059 Sub-Total 40 99 137 198,894,152 T r a i n i n g R e search 0 T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e to USAID C 86 24 21 97 24 34 4,081,353 12,726,572 5,974,621 TOTAL 40 230 292 221,676,698 a. Excludes Puerto R i c o . b. A c t u a l t o t a l i s 72; some u n i v e r s i t i e s provide a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s to more than one country. c. USAID c o n t r a c t s whereby the US u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l s , or provide t e c h n i c a l support to the AID i n the United States or abroad. d. A c t u a l t o t a l i s 124; many u n i v e r s i t i e s operate i n more than one country. Source: A i d Financed U n i v e r s i t y Contracts as of December 31, 1966, Washington D.C.: Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dev-elopment, 1967, p. 1. 77 i n t e r n a t i o n a l sources and make them a v a i l a b l e to u n i v e r s i t i e s and r e -search agencies (Figure 8). The Program i s designed to strengthen the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n base of the United States agencies and i n -s t i t u t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h urban and r e g i o n a l planning education and r e -36 search. I t i s an example of how Government agencies have responded to the need f o r i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l content i n the education, r e -search and i n f o r m a t i o n resources of the United S t a t e s . 3.2 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY Te c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of Canada s t a r t e d i n 1950 when s i x members of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth j o i n t l y created the Colombo P l a n . Over the past f i f t e e n y e a r s , i t s membership has i n c r e a s e d to 24, i n c l u d i n g a l s o some non-Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s . S i x of i t s members come from "developed" c o u n t r i e s . They provide major a s s i s t a n c e to member co u n t r i e s which are a l l from South and Southeast A s i a . Canada supports m u l t i - l a t e r a l agencies concerned w i t h i n t e r -n a t i o n a l development, and makes c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the World Bank Group, the A s i a n Development Bank (ADB) and other s p e c i a l i z e d world agencies. Independent of these arrangements, Canada has r e c e n t l y entered i n t o A f r i c a n , L a t i n American and the Caribbean a s s i s t a n c e areas i n the 1960s. A l l these programs have been c a r r i e d out by one agency whose name changed t h r i c e over the past 20 y e a r s , the l a t e s t one being the Cana-dian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) through which t e c h n i c a l a i d funds are disbursed. 78 F O R E I G N U R B A N D E V E L O P M E N T ANALYSIS SYSTEM (FUDA) DISSEMINATION PROCESS Fig. 8 I N F O R M A T I O N S O U R C E S I N T E R N A T I O N A L A G E N C I E S F O R E I G N G O V E R N M E N T S F O R E I G N I N S T I T U T I O N S F O R E I G N P E R S O N N E L T U S A G E N C I E S A B R O A D M E M B E R L I B R A R I E S I I l IO tQ Itu I I* 'o '.5 \ O H O U S I N G A N D U R B A N D E V E L O P M E N T ' D I V . O F I N T E R N A T I O N A L A F F A I R S H U D L I B R A R Y A N D C L E A R I N G H O U S E D I S S E M I N A T I O N I ! U S U R B A N D E V E L O P L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T S T E A C H I N G o G O V E R N M E N T A G E N C I E S F U D A M E M B E R S 79 These funds have in c r e a s e d from a modest amount of $12.5 m i l l i o n i n 1950 to as much as $338 m i l l i o n i n 1969-70. Of the t o t a l net a s s i s t a n c e of $1,847.5 m i l l i o n i n the p e r i o d 1951-68, more than 37 t h r e e - f o u r t h s was given i n the l a s t e i g h t years: 1951-60 $ 420.5 m i l l i o n 1961-68 $1427.0 m i l l i o n T o t a l $1847.5 m i l l i o n Most of these funds were i n the form of c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r major p r o j e c t s i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n was a l l o c a t e d to education and i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g component of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . Under these programs a d v i s e r s are sent to underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . Teachers and p r o f e s s o r s are exchanged and students and t r a i n e e s come to a t t e n d Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . The number of a d v i s e r s and students sponsored under a l l r e g i o n a l programs have been i n c r e a s i n g f o r the past twenty y e a r s ; As d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 9, the r a t e of i n c r e a s e has been g r e a t e r i n the l a s t h a l f of 1960s than i n comparable span of previous decade. F i g u r e 9 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the number of sponsored s t u -dents and t r a i n e e s has f a l l e n s i n c e 1967; t h e i r number decreased from 3,038 i n 1967 to 2,750 i n 1968. This happened f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e the s t a r t of the Canadian t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e program. I t r e -f l e c t s a change i n Government's p o l i c y from the t r a i n i n g of UDC s t u -dents i n Canada to the opening of e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the UDCs themselves. According to the CIDA's P r e s i d e n t : Fig.9 80 NO. OF G R A N T E E S 3.200 EXPERTS AND STUDENTS SPONSORED UNDER CIDA° PROGRAMS 2.800 2.400 2 . 0 0 0 1.600 1,200 8 0 0 4 0 0 1 STUDENTS & TRAINEES 2 -ADVISERS 3 TEACHERS & PROFESSORS 3 y / 1931 52 5 3 54 5 5 5 6 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 6 7 1968 Y E A R Source: Canadian International Development Agency? Annual Reviews of 1 9 6 7-68 a n d 1 9 6 9 (See App. 81 We are l o o k i n g hard at the t r a i n i n g we p rovide i n Can-ada to personnel from the l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s — p a r t i -c u l a r l y a t the undergraduate l e v e l . We are c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n the development of e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n these c o u n t r i e s themselves.38 CIDA puts b i g g e s t emphasis on the t r a i n i n g of students i n p o l i c y - o r i e n t e d f i e l d s . Out of the 10,907 UDC students who s t u d i e d i n Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher l e a r n i n g i n the p e r i o d 1950-68, o n e - t h i r d (3,391) were e n r o l l e d i n what the CIDA has c a t e g o r i z e d as " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g " (Appendix 2.4) which i n c l u d e s , among o t h e r s , p u b l i c and business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , economics and c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . However, although students are t r a i n e d i n the broad f i e l d of development p l a n n i n g , those who came to study i n the Canadian schools of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , or to get on-the-job t r a i n i n g i n p u b l i c planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s do not c o n s t i t u t e more than 10 per cent of a l l students of " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g " . These i n c l u d e mostly i n d i v i d u a l students. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, CIDA a l s o sponsors groups of students which n e c e s s i t a t e s the d e s i g n i n g of s p e c i a l tailor-made programs. Thus, f o r example, on the request of CIDA's predecessor agency (^External Aid) the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has t r a i n e d such groups of students from South-East A s i a through s p e c i a l programs i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . These k i n d of programs provide an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u s e f u l i n t e r a c t i o n between Canadian teachers and overseas students. The r e s u l t i n g experience has l e d many plan n i n g educators both i n Canada and the United States to q u e s t i o n the premise that North American pl a n n i n g education i s a p p r o p r i -39 a t e to the r e a l needs of students from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . 82 The v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e organs of the Canadian Gov-ernment have served as c a t a l y s t s i n the exchange of i n t e r n a t i o n a l ex-p e r i e n c e . They have organized a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l seminars and c o l -loquiums d e a l i n g w i t h the manpower needs of development p l a n n i n g . These colloquiums are h e l d every two years i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s ; the l a t e s t ones were h e l d i n P a k i s t a n and Singapore under the auspices 40 of the Colombo P l a n Bureau. CIDA a l s o aims at tapping the resources of the academic com-munity and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t s programs. Since the s t a r t of the program, i t has drawn h e a v i l y from Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s which, i n t u r n , have b e n e f i t t e d from t h e i r involvement i n e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n -i n g programs f o r UDCs. For example, i n a recent survey conducted by the A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada (AUCC), i t i s found that i 3 u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada have e s t a b l i s h e d independent i n -t e r n a t i o n a l study programs over the past few y e a r s , and that i n t e r n a -t i o n a l s t u d i e s have become a v i t a l p a r t of l i b e r a l a r t s education i n 41 t h i s country. While Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s have been t a k i n g t h e i r own i n i -t i a t i v e i n opening i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs, a b o l d new move has come r e c e n t l y from the Canadian government i t s e l f . I t has made a l l plans ready f o r the establishment of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Research Centre.of Canada (IDRCC) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g purpose: 83 The Centre w i l l i d e n t i f y , i n i t i a t e and encourage sup-po r t and undertake research i n t o the problems i n v o l v e d i n the development of economically deprived regions of the world. I t w i l l seek to develop the most e f f e c t i v e a p p l i -c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of t h i s research to the needs of the people of those r e g i o n s . I t w i l l g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y to programmes th a t a s s i s t the developing c o u n t r i e s to b u i l d t h e i r own s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s so that they w i l l not be mere w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s but c o n t r i b u -t o r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t to the s o l u t i o n of t h e i r own pro-blems. 42 The Centre w i l l be a t h i n k - t a n k drawing resources from u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and governmental agencies. These examples demonstrate the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t of the Canadian Government i n e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g component of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs and i n f o s t e r i n g s t u d i e s and research of b e n e f i t to UDCs. Judging from the number of a d v i s o r s and students sponsored i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , the broad f i e l d of development pla n n i n g r e c e i v e s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r i o r i t y i n CIDA's programs. Since c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an important p a r t of t h i s broad f i e l d , i t i s l i k e l y to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t of the Government and the u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada. 4. PRIVATE AGENCIES Non-governmental p r i v a t e agencies i n Canada and the U n i t e d States p l a y a prominent r o l e i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. Th e i r number as w e l l as m a t e r i a l help have been i n c r e a s i n g over the past two decades. As demonstrated i n Table V I I , they grew from an average of 3.2 o r g a n i z a t i o n s per year i n the f i v e decades 1900-1949 to 7.3 i n the 13-year p e r i o d 1950-62. 84 TABLE V I I NORTH AMERICAN NON-GOVERNMENTAL PRIVATE AGENCIES OPERATING IN THE AREA OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PERIOD OF ESTABLISHMENT NUMBER OF AGENCIES IN CANADA NUMBER OF AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES* TOTAL AGENCIES PER YEAR Pre-1899 20 25 45 0.5 1900-1949 28 130 158 • 3.2 1950-1962 22 73 95 7.3 Not Known (8) (8) ALL YEARS 70 228** 298 2.9 * FIRST TEN FOUNDATIONS WITH ASSETS EXCEEDING $200,000,000 Ford Foundation R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation Duke Endowment K e l l o g g Foundation Molf Foundation H a r t f o r d Foundation L i l y Endowment Sloan Foundation Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n Penn Memorial Trust ** Excludes e i g h t agencies f o r which year of establishment was not mentioned. Sources: a) For column two: Canadian Non-Governmental Agen- c i e s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i d and Development, 1966-67, Ottawa: E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e , 1967, 113 pp. b) For column three: Marianna 0. Lewis (ed.), The Foundation D i r e c t o r y , New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1967, 1198 pp. 85 Most of the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -tance have s m a l l a s s e t s and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n hi g h e r education. Worth-w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i s made i n t h i s area by some ten l a r g e , m u l t i -purpose foundations w i t h a s s e t s of over $200 m i l l i o n each. Out of these t e n , three — the R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation, the Carnegie Corpor-a t i o n and the Ford Foundation — p l a y d e c i s i v e r o l e s (Table V I I ) . They f i n a n c e developmental and e d u c a t i o n a l undertakings and sponsor North American experts f o r work i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . They help a l a r g e number of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada and the United States to develop understanding of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and competence i n s o l v i n g t h e i r problems. They sponsor f e l l o w s h i p s f o r UDC students to study i n North America, and f o r North American s c h o l a r s to study and teach i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation which has been o p e r a t i n g f o r over h a l f a century was the f i r s t to support the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n North American i n s t i t u t i o n s . In 1945, i t granted an amount of $250,000 to the newly created School of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s a t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . In the years 1946 and 1947, i t gave $1,000,000 to the American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s to sponsor and s u p e r v i s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n the United States u n i v e r s i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n made grants amounting to $2,500,000 i n the p e r i o d from 1947-1951 to Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and to S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs and graduate t r a i n i n g i n f o r e i g n 43 area s t u d i e s . 86 In 1951, Ford Foundation entered i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d i n a massive way. In the 12-year p e r i o d , 1952-1963, i t a l l o c a t e d $138,000,000 i n grants to improve American competence i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d . During the same p e r i o d , R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation and Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n together spent only nine m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r the same pur-pose. In recent y e a r s , R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation has a l l o c a t e d most of i t s e ducation funds f o r s u p p o r t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the UDCs. Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n , on the other hand, has s t a r t e d s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s and 44 t r a i n i n g i n p o l i t i c s and diplomacy f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace. Ford Foundation's support f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and research has been phenomenal i n the past few y e a r s . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 10, i t s grants i n c r e a s e d from $26,000,000 i n 1961 to $52,000,000 i n 1966, a t w o - f o l d i n c r e a s e . According to Beckman, h a l f of these grants were designed to improve American competence to d e a l w i t h i n -t e r n a t i o n a l problems by narrowing the gap between the demand f o r , and 45 the supply o f , t r a i n e d personnel and knowledge. Among American foundations, Ford Foundation continued to l e a d i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l education a c t i v i t i e s ever s i n c e i t s r e o r -g a n i z a t i o n i n 1951. In f a c t over the past y e a r s , i t has made grants equal to o n e - t h i r d of t o t a l funds spent by a l l foundations making grants of $10,000 and over i n the f i e l d of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e ducation and r e -search. ( F i g u r e 10, Appendix 2.5) From t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , p r i v a t e foundations g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l academic a c t i v i t i e s . Although the per-U.S PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS EXPENDITURES IN THE FIELD OF MILLIONS $ " INTERNATONAL ACTIVITIES" b 0 -I , , | | | , | | | I 1957 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 1967 Y E A R a- Includes grants of over $10,000 be Includes 'education and re sea rch ' Sources: a) All Foundations; Foundation News for relevant years, b) Ford Foundations: F.F's Annual Reports for relevant Xears. (see app. 2.5 ) 88 centage of annual grants i n the f i e l d of " i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s " to the t o t a l annual grants i n a l l f i e l d s kept changing over the ye a r s , f o r most of the year t h i s f i e l d has ranked second among the seven c l a i -mants of grants (education, i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , s c i e n c e , r e l i g i o n and hum a n i t i e s ) . Thus the non-governmental agencies are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y responsive to the e d u c a t i o n a l and other needs of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . Among them the Ford Foundation has played an o u t s t a n d i n g r o l e . The p a t t e r n of Ford Foundation grants i n the f i e l d of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l education and research appears to be changing i n recent y e a r s . I t i s encouraging major American u n i v e r s i t i e s to take an i n s t i t u t i o n -wide approach to i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems and to i n c o r p o r a t e non-western or UDC s t u d i e s as a permanent f e a t u r e of hi g h e r education programs. I n the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d , 1961-1966, i t has made grants of over $70,000,000 to 30 u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r opening o r str e n g t h e n i n g UDC study programs (Appendix 2.6); i n the 1950s, only three u n i v e r s i t i e s have had the b e n e f i t of such grants amounting only to $17,000,000. Overseas f e l l o w s h i p programs of Ford Foundation provide h i g h l e v e l graduate t r a i n i n g to North American students as w e l l as to students from overseas a t v a r i o u s stages of t h e i r c a r e e r . In the 11-year p e r i o d 1952-62, i t has made grants of about $10,000,000 to 1,214 i n d i v i d u a l s from the United States and Canada under i t s F o r e i g n Area F e l l o w s h i p Program. T h e i r p e r i o d of s t u d i e s ranged from two to three y e a r s . Three-fourths of these f e l l o w s h i p s were awarded to those spe-c i a l i z i n g i n UDC areas. Of the 984 former f e l l o w s , 550 h o l d f a c u l t y 89 p o s i t i o n s i n 181 North American i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 38 states and provinces. In that p o s i t i o n they are playing a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i -zing u n i v e r s i t y programs and i n t e n s i f y i n g academic i n t e r e s t s i n UDC studies. For example, i n a survey of the present a c t i v i t i e s of former Ford Foundation f e l l o w s , Beckman found: The fellowship program has helped to provide personnel for colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s which have become i n t e r e s t e d i n non-Western studies. They have enabled d i s c i p l i n e de-partments to expand t h e i r course o f f e r i n g . . . t h e r e has been some concentration of former fellows at u n i v e r s i t i e s , there-by adding strength to e x i s t i n g programs while providing a broader base f o r new ones. Some twenty-nine u n i v e r s i t i e s have employed f i v e or more fell o w s , and ten u n i v e r s i t i e s have employed ten or more...Altogether they have published some 373 books and over 3,000 a r t i c l e s and short monographs; moreover, they have edited or contributed to another 516 volumes.46 Most of the Ford Foundation grants are made to i n t e r n a t i o n a l studies program. Since these programs are b a s i c a l l y i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y undertakings, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure the b e n e f i t that each d i s c i -p l i n e r e c eives, but f a i r to expect that i n varying degrees each does b e n e f i t from the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y undertakings of Ford Foundation-sponsored i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s . At times, however, the Ford Foundation also provides funds f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l undertakings such as support to the Sp e c i a l Program f o r Urban and Regional Studies of Developing Areas (SPURS) at M.I.T., Cam-bridge (Appendix 4.5). In d i v i d u a l support f o r c i t y and reg i o n a l planning area s t a r t e d a few years a f t e r a Ford Foundation conference was held i n 90 O c t o b e r 1956. A t t e n d e d by o v e r 100 p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g t h e f o r m e r F o r d F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t h o l d e r s i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , i t " s t i m u l a -t e d a l o t o f i n t e r e s t i n v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s t o i n t r o d u c e c o u r s e s 47 on p r o b l e m s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s " . F o r d F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t s , b o t h t o n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g have b e e n i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e e a r l y 1960s. F o r many y e a r s i t has been g r a n t i n g f u n d s t o t h e J o i n t C e n t e r f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s a t Cambridge f o r t h e s t u d y o f Guyana r e g i o n o f V e n e z u e l a , and t o t h e C h i l e a n Government f o r a d v i c e i n t h e o p e n i n g o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g programs i n S a n t i a g o . I t has g r a n t e d $400,000 t o t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Urban E n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y f o r UDC r e s e a r c h and s t u d i e s , and f o r h e l p i n g t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n s i m i l a r u n d e r t a k i n g s o v e r s e a s . I t has been p a y i n g f o r t h e s e r v i c e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s t o t h e C a l c u t t a M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n (CMPO) f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f B a s i c Development P l a n o f C a l c u t t a M e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , and t o t h e C h i l e a n Government f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l com-48 m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s program. I t has a l s o b e e n s u p p o r t i n g a h o s t o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs s u c h as t h e CENDES, CLACSO, CIDU, IBAM, and CEUR. . JK_ ROLE OF AGENCIES: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e h e l p i n g i n t h e development o f A s i a n , A f r i c a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1950s; 91 They have g i v e n i n c r e a s i n g amount o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s s u c h as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n S t a t e s , and p r i v a t e p h i l -a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n , have g i v e n s i m -i l a r a s s i s t a n c e . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e programs o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e b a s e d on one p r e m i s e : t h e need t o p r o v i d e c o m p e n s a t i n g i n c r e m e n t s o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n i c a l knowhow w h i c h a r e i n s c a r c e s u p p l y i n t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , and a r e b a s i c t o t h e i r d evelopment. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , w h e t h e r i n t h e a r e a o f c i t y and r e -g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o r any o t h e r f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y , has t a k e n t h r e e f o r m s J F i r s t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and: s e m i n a r s were o r g a n i z e d t o dev-e l o p i n t e r e s t and promote exchange o f i d e a s among p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s and e d u c a t o r s as t o t h e s c o p e and f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n f o r u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . Second, e x p e r t s and e d u c a t o r s were s e n t f r o m N o r t h A m e r i c a t o A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s , t o make o n - t h e -s p o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , implement e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y , t e a c h i n e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o r t o e s t a b l i s h new i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i r d , s t u d e n t s f r o m UDCs were s p o n s o r e d f o r s t u d y i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . F i n a l l y , funds were g i v e n t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n u n i -v e r s i t i e s t o open and s t r e n g t h e n non-Western i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y programs w i t h a v i e w t o i m p r o v i n g t h e competence o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r e a o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l development as w e l l as t o p r o v i d i n g a k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g more r e l e v a n t and m e a n i n g f u l t o UDC s t u -d e n t s . 92 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a r e a o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g edu-c a t i o n , o u t s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e 1950s were t h e t e n i n t e r n a t i o n -a l c o n f e r e n c e s h e l d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n of A m e r i c a n S t a t e s and r e l e -v a n t n a t i o n a l governments. The UN and t h e OAS have been more a c t i v e t h a n o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n p r o v i d i n g avenues f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p r o -f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s . I n t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e n a t u r e o f p l a n n i n g c u r r e n t i n UDCs and e x p l o r e d v a r i o u s a c a d e m i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l means o f p r o v i d i n g m e a n i n g f u l edu-c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g t o UDC s t u d e n t s . One m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n emanated f r o m t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s : p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r UDCs must emphasize t h e i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and t h e n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f w h i c h t h e f o r m e r i s a n i n t e -g r a l p a r t . T h i s and o t h e r r e l a t e d recommendations f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e m i n a r s have p r o v i d e d g u i d e l i n e s t o p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s w h i c h have been r e c e i v i n g o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s , and t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n e r s who have b e e n g o i n g o v e r s e a s on s h o r t and l o n g - t e r m a d v i s o r y a s s i g n m e n t s . The number o f a d v i s e r s , e x p e r t s and t e a c h e r s s p o n s o r e d by v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s f o r o v e r s e a s a s s i g n m e n t s has been i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e 1950, t h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e b e i n g more r a p i d i n t h e 1960s t h a n i n t h e e a r l i e r decade. An i d e n t i c a l t r e n d i s o b s e r v e d f o r o v e r s e a s s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s coming on e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i g n m e n t s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n -s t i t u t i o n s . ( F i g u r e 11 a and b) T h i s was due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d a t -t e n t i o n g i v e n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n exchange programs under t h e T R E N D S IN E D U C A T I O N A L E X C H A N G E IN 9 ' T H O U S A N D S THE U N I T E D STATES 1 2 ° 1 • —l \ a ) S T U D E N T E X C H A N G E 93 1 0 5 • 9 0 7 5 6 0 • 4 5 • 3 0 I 5 ALL FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE US UDC STUDENTS IN THE U.S STUDENTS ABROAD. i i i i i i i i • • i i i 1 9 5 4 4 5 56 -57 5 8 - 5 9 60-61 6 2 - 6 3 64 -65 66-67 1968-69 55-56 57-58 5 9 - 6 0 61-62 63-64 65-66 6 U 8 H U N D R E D S Y E A R 12,0 10,5 • 9.0 -7 . 5 • 6.0 4 . 5 3.0-i.o-FCREIGN SCHOLARS IN THE U.S US SCHOLARS ABROAD i i i b)SCHOLAR E X C H A N G E 1 9 5 4 4 5 5 6 4 7 5 8 4 9 60-61 6 2 - 6 3 6 4 4 5 6 6 - 6 7 1968-69 5 5 4 6 57 -58 5 9 - 6 0 6>-62 63 -64 65-66 4 * 6 8 Source: Office of the Instt. of International Education, New York, (a pp. 2.7-2JB) 94 U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f 1961, and t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new C a n a d i a n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs f o r F r e n c h - S p e a k i n g A f r i -c a n S t a t e s i n 1961, as w e l l as f o r t h e Commonwealth A f r i c a n S t a t e s and t h e C a r i b b e a n s i n 1958. A l s o , t h e s c o p e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s w i d e n e d under t h e C o n c e r t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n P r o g r a m s t a r t e d i n 1961, and t h e l e v e l o f t h e OAS a s s i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e o f P r o g r e s s C h a r t e r i n 1961. I n t h e f i e l d o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , how-e v e r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e i g n E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1966 has had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t t h a n t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f 1961. F o r example, t h e number o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ( i n c l u d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e ) s t u d e n t s coming t o s t u d y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d e c r e a s e d i n t h e two y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1961. But a f t e r 1965-66 t h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e r o s e most s h a r p l y s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1950s ( F i g u r e 1 2 ) . T h e r e a r e some o t h e r p e r t i n e n t r e a s o n s f o r t h i s phenomena. F i r s t , many p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s were opened i n l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s i n A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a . They have a t t r a c t e d some o f t h e s t u d e n t s who w o u l d have gone t o s t u d y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s . The r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f UDC s t u d e n t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s s i n c e 1965-66 i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e f i r s t g r a d u a t e s o f t h e s e newly opened o v e r s e a s s c h o o l s d e c i d i n g t o p u r s u e advanced s t u d i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n t h e e a r l y 1960s, a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t e v e n t o c c u r r e d i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f g r a n t s were Fig.12 FOREIGN STUDENTS INTHE UNITED STATES IN N O . O F THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN0 S T U D E N T S 2.100 (1953-68) 1.800 . 1,500 . 1,200 900 600 300 .. 0 I — ~ 1953-54 55-56 57-58 59-60 61-62 63-64 65-66 67-68 5*55 56-57 58-59 60-61 62-63 64-65 66-67 1968-69 Y E A R S cc Includes architecture, planning, housing, urban design, urban-regional studies, b: Includes stateless, unknown and from Oceana Sources: Data upto I960 from Education For One World- For 1961-1968 from Open Doors, both yearly reports of the Instt. of International Education, New York. Also from HE archives, (see app. 2.9) 96 awarded to v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s to open or strengthen i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s programs. '• Ford Foundation has been the l e a d i n g c o n t r i b u -t o r i n t h i s regard. As a r e s u l t , many North American u n i v e r s i t i e s added an i n t e r n a t i o n a l dimension to t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l programs. This a l s o e x p l a i n s the sharp i n c r e a s e of UDC students s i n c e 1965 i n North American campuses. In c o n c l u s i o n , through the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, n a t i o n a l governments and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n has occurred between the North American p r o f e s s i o n a l planning educators and the planning students from UDCs. As i n t e r n a t i o n a l knowledge i s gained through academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l exchange, changes occur i n the UDC planning education system as w e l l as i n the North American pl a n n i n g education system. Students, t e a -chers, i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies a c t as media through which changes take p l a c e . Thus, the many planning schools opened i n UDCs through i n t e r n a t i o n a l h elp have deviated c o n s i d e r a b l y from the co n v e n t i o n a l education approach. A l s o , l e a d i n g planning schools i n North America 49 have i n t r o d u c e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l content i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m s . Through t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs, v a r i o u s agencies have provided avenues of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n l e a d i n g to the changes i n the two systems which w i l l be analyzed i n the chapters t h a t f o l l o w . 97 FOOTNOTES 1. K a r o l J . K r o t k i , "A F i r s t Glance at P a k i s t a n ' s Age D i s t r i b u t i o n " , The P a k i s t a n Development Review, 1:1, Summer 1961, p. 75. 2. L e s t e r B. Pearson, "A New Strategy f o r G l o b a l Development", The UNESCO C o u r i e r , February 1970, p. 12. 3. There are a host of other n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies which h i r e c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s of Canadian and the United States u n i -v e r s i t i e s . The agencies r e f e r r e d to here are only the major ones. 4. United N a t i o n s , Report of the Ad-Hoc Group of Experts on Housing  and Urban Development, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962, pp. 48-49. 5. United N a t i o n s , Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Urban- i z a t i o n : Development P o l i c i e s and P l a n n i n g , New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1968, p. 3. 6. United N a t i o n s , P r o p o s a l f o r Concerted I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n the F i e l d of U r b a n i z a t i o n , New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n , 1961, pp. 6-7. 7. I b i d . 8. United N a t i o n s , F i n a n c i n g of Housing and Community F a c i l i t i e s i n  Developing C o u n t r i e s , New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957, p. 45. 9. United N a t i o n s , Yearbook of the United Nations 1951, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952, pp. 542-43. 10. " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n A s i a and the Far East", Housing B u i l d i n g  and P l a n n i n g No. 9, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955, 131 pp. 11. I b i d . , pp. 84-85. 12. A.C. Kayanan, "Seminar on T r a i n i n g f o r Town and Country Planning Held i n Puerto Rico from 11 to 16 March 1956", Housing B u i l d i n g  and P l a n n i n g No. 11, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957, p. 8. 13. I b i d . , p. 16. 14. I b i d . , p. 8. 98 15. Report by the D i r e c t o r General on the J o i n t UN/UNESCO Seminar on  U r b a n i z a t i o n , P a r i s : UNESCO, 1956, pp. 50-51. 16. United Nations, Regional P l a n n i n g , Report of a Seminar Held i n Tokyo 28 J u l y - 8 August 1958, Housing BuiHing and P l a n n i n g , Nos.  12 and 13, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1959, 220 pp. 17. United N a t i o n s , Yearbook of the United Nations 1952, New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1953, pp. 513-14. 18. Charles Abrams, Man's St r u g g l e f o r S h e l t e r i n an U r b a n i z i n g World, Cambridge: The M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964, p. v i i . 19. Yearbook of the United Nations 1951, op. c i t . , pp. 543-44. 20. Charles Abrams, "What Forms of A s s i s t a n c e are A v a i l a b l e . . . ? " Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, 88th Congress, 1st S e s s i o n , Wash-i n g t o n , D.C: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963, p. 64. 21. Information obtained from the o l d f i l e s of the F e l l o w s h i p S e c t i o n of the United Nations S e c r e t a r i a t , New York. 22. E r i c C a r l s o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l and T r a i n i n g Programmes", Study of  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, op. c i t . , pp. 311-12. 23. The OAS: What i t i s and How i t Works? Washington, D.C: Pan American Union, 1968, p. 17. 24. United N a t i o n s , Housing B u i l d i n g and Pl a n n i n g No. 11, op. c i t . , p. 3. 25. C a r l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 316. 26. Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g No. 11, op. c i t . , p. 78. 27. C a r l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 338. 28. I n f r a , S e c t i o n 4 of Chapter I I I . 29. Pan American Union, Exchange of Persons (Inter-Cambio de Personas), December 5, 1961, p. 1. 30. O r g a n i z a t i o n of American S t a t e s , Annual Report of the Secr e t a r y  General, Washington, D.C: Pan American Union 1968, pp. 58-59. 31. Cabmbo P l a n C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee f o r Cooperative Development i n South and South East A s i a , 20th Meeting, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1959, Country Report 71, p. 9. 99 32. Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, D i r e c t o r y of Pla n n i n g Re- sources , Washington, D.C: October 1967, 263 pp. 33. Colombo P l a n . . . , op. c i t . , p. 18. 34. C a r l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 319. 35. " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education Act of 1966", Education and World A f f a i r s , New York: 1966, p. 8. 36. Information s u p p l i e d by Mr. Z.K. Szczepanski, Research A d v i s o r i n A r c h i t e c t u r e and P l a n n i n g , D i v i s i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , Hous-i n g and Urban Development, Washington D.C, Dated December 18, 1969. 37. Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, Annual Review 1967-1968, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1968, p. 6. 38. Canadian A s s i s t a n c e to the Developing Nations, Speech D e l i v e r e d to the Development I n s t i t u t e Vienna, December 1, 1969 by Mr. Maurice F. Strong, P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, p. 6. 39. See, H. Pete r Oberlander, "Planning Education f o r Newly Indepen-dent C o u n t r i e s " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Ebnners, XXVIII: 2, May 1962, pp. 116-23. 40. Colombo P l a n Bureau, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cooperation Under Colombo P l a n , Ceylon: Department of Government P r i n t i n g , 1969, pp. 27-28. 41. See A r t h u r R. K i l g o u r , Resources f o r the Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Resources i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i -v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1970, 350 pp. 42. Establishment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Research Centre, Speech D e l i v e r e d i n the House of Commons by Hon. M i t c h e l l Sharp, Secretary of S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Ottawa: Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dev-elopment Agency, 1969, p. 5. 43. George M. Beckman, "The Role o f the Foundations i n Non-Western S t u d i e s " , Annals, No. 356, November 1964, p. 14. 44. I b i d . , p. 15. 45. I b i d . / 100 46. I b i d . , p. 17. 47. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Ernest Weissmann, Regional Development A d v i s o r to the United Nations, who read a major paper i n the Ford Foun-d a t i o n Conference (January 5, 1970). 48. See B a s i c Development P l a n of C a l c u t t a , C a l c u t t a : C a l c u t t a Met-r o p o l i t a n Planning O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1966, 176 pp. and John Friedmann, Urban and Regional Development i n C h i l e : A Case Study of Innova- t i v e P l a n n i n g , Santiago: 1969, 251 pp. 49. I n f r a , Chapter IV. CHAPTER I I I PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: INVOLVEMENT OF NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS 1. INTRODUCTION N a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies as w e l l as p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies of education and re s e a r c h i n North America have responded to the c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g needs of underdeveloped n a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s ways, as shown i n the preceding chapter. The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of these agencies opened many avenues of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences, pro-f e s s i o n a l planners and educators explored v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s to pla n n i n g education. As c o n s u l t a n t s and a d v i s e r s they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l a r g e number of the UDC's planning programs. UDC students came to study i n North American planning schools and North American s c h o l a r s went to the UDCs on extra-academic assignments. Through e d u c a t i o n a l exchange programs, pl a n n e r s , educators and i n s t i t u t i o n s accumulated u s e f u l knowledge regarding the uniqueness of planning problems i n the UDCs. This was examined i n Chapter I I . I t i s necessary now to demonstrate how i n t e r n a t i o n a l experience and knowledge have been used to b r i n g about i n n o v a t i v e changes i n the planning education system of the underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and how, through t h i s process, i n t e r n a t i o n a l knowledge has been f u r t h e r strengthened and has i n t u r n a f f e c t e d the planning / 102 education of North America i t s e l f . 2. THE THREE ALTERNATIVES About a dozen i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences h e l d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the world under the auspices of the Un i t e d Nations, the O r g a n i z a t i o n of American S t a t e s , the Caribbean Commission, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Housing and Town Pla n n i n g and v a r i o u s UDC governments have underscored the need f o r development planning experts. Besides c l a r i f y i n g the r o l e of planners and a l t e r n a t i v e methods of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , these meetings generated i n t e r e s t among many UDC governments on the s u b j e c t . T h e i r p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s became conscious of the acute shortage of p r o f e s s i o n a l s who cou l d make, or help them make, such p o l i c i e s as would maximize b e n e f i t s from the use of sc a r c e resources i n the context of urban and r e g i o n a l development. To a l l e v i a t e the shortage, UDCs are f o l l o w i n g t h r e e courses of a c t i o n i n v a r y i n g degrees: a) engaging pl a n n i n g a d v i s o r s from developed n a t i o n s ; b) sending n a t i o n a l students f o r t r a i n i n g i n those developed c o u n t r i e s which have advanced f a c i l i t i e s and c) e s t a b l i s h i n g indigenous planning schools to t r a i n t h e i r own pla n n e r s . The f i r s t o p t i o n , t h a t of importing f o r e i g n e x p e r t s , i s the only o p t i o n so long as n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s are not a v a i l a b l e or the l o c a l schools a r e not cre a t e d . This has been the case i n many UDCs u n t i l the e a r l y 1960s, and i n some, u n t i l now. This o p t i o n has some inherent drawbacks. A plan n i n g expert i s assigned to a / 103 UDC f o r p e r i o d s ranging from a few months to a few years f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s . I n most cases, the p e r i o d i s too sh o r t to permit him to l e a r n the u n f a m i l i a r system.and to make an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . According to a US planner w i t h an ext e n s i v e experience i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d v i s i n g , " t e c h n i c a l knowledge must be transformed i n t o p r a c t i c a l knowledge adapted to the c o n d i t i o n s under which i t i s to be used. Th i s i n v o l v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l l e a r n i n g of the s k i l l and the a r t of t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e . Experts assigned to UDCs are not taught t h i s a r t . They have to l e a r n i t from the environment i n which they operate. Because the sh o r t d u r a t i o n of t h e i r assignment may not be conducive to p r o f i c u o u s l e a r n i n g , t h e i r a d v i c e may not be e f f e c t i v e . Thus Alonso and Ledgar observed: The d i f f i c u l t y i s that o f t e n the f o r e i g n expert l a c k s not only data but a l s o the important and e l u s i v e bone knowledge of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and produces a f a c i l e p l a n which i s g r a t e f u l l y accepted and promptly f i l e d away — or worse m i s c a r r i e d by m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and emphasis on the monumental.-^ In s p i t e of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , new i n f o r m a t i o n and ideas do f l o w from the f o r e i g n a d v i s e r to the l o c a l s t a f f and v i c e v e r s a . During t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n - t r a n s m i s s i o n process, e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s accrue to both. Yet i n view of the high o p p o r t u n i t y cost i n v o l v e d , the UDCs would be i l l - a d v i s e d to depend on f o r e i g n a d v i s e r s f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d . The second o p t i o n , t h a t of having UDC n a t i o n a l s t r a i n e d i n developed c o u n t r i e s which have advanced e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s assures a few permanent p r o f e s s i o n a l s . But i t i s not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r many reasons. F i r s t , the r e s u l t of such t r a i n i n g i s slow because a country has to w a i t f o r i t s n a t i o n a l s to r e t u r n . Second, unl e s s f i n a n c e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l funds, the t r a i n i n g proves to be too expensive. T h i r d , the number of planners that can thus be t r a i n e d abroad i s few compared to the many that are r e q u i r e d i n the f i r s t c r u c i a l stage of a country's development. Fo u r t h , many UDC students sent abroad may choose not to r e t u r n home. F i n a l l y - and more important - s i n c e the planning education i n developed c o u n t r i e s i s attuned to the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e a l i t i e s of the p o s t - I n d u s t r i a l urban environment, the t r a i n i n g t h a t UDC students r e c e i v e there i s u n r e l a t e d to the r e a l i t i e s of t h e i r own environment. Hence the UDC students r e t u r n i n g from abroad f i n d i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to apply t h e i r knowledge 4 to n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . In s h o r t , the c o s t and s i d e - e f f e c t s of t h i s method i s too h i g h to make i t acceptable except i n the s h o r t run. A long-term s o l u t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e . This i s p o s s i b l e i n the t h i r d o p t i o n : e s t a b l i s h i n g indigenous planning schools i n the UDCs. This i s more economical method than the other two d i s c u s s e d . For example, from the savings of f o r e g o i n g the s e r v i c e s of one f o r e i g n expert f o r two y e a r s , the government of an average underdeveloped country (annual per c a p i t a income of about $100.00) can p r o v i d e f u l l f i n a n c i a l support of $25,000 to more than 30 students during a two-year t r a i n i n g program.^ F u r t h e r , i t would be p o s s i b l e to produce a g r e a t e r number of p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose t r a i n i n g i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to n a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, according to a strong advocate of t h i s o p t i o n , the method would "make a v i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the establishment of a f u l l y o p e r a t i v e and indigenous planning process and a s s u r i n g i t s c o n t i n u i t y and growth".** 105 In view of the economic advantages and long-term b e n e f i t s from e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own planning s c h o o l s , many UDCs have taken a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . The t i m i n g of e s t a b l i s h i n g new schools has some r e l a t i o n w i t h the ti m i n g of f o u r major i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences on the sub j e c t of planning education. Most of these schools were opened i n the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s f o l l o w i n g these conferences.^ These schools were created under two types of arrangements: n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l . Under n a t i o n a l arrangement, a country develops i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s independent of f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e . Under i n t e r n a t i o n a l arrangement, a European or North American s c h o o l a s s o c i a t e s i t s e l f w i t h a UDC i n s t i t u t i o n of higher l e a r n i n g and helps i t develop a planning s c h o o l . An i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency provides necessary funds f o r the s e r v i c e s of experts and the development of f a c u l t y . This k i n d of arrangement i s reviewed f o l l o w i n g a summary of e x i s t i n g planning g education arrangements i n the UDCs . Since schools e s t a b l i s h e d through i n t e r n a t i o n a l arrangements are mostly of r e g i o n a l nature w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r many neighbouring c o u n t r i e s , a t o t a l p i c t u r e should put the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - e s t a b l i s h e d r e g i o n a l schools i n p e r s p e c t i v e . 3. PLANNING SCHOOLS IN'UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: A TOTAL PICTURE The newly e s t a b l i s h e d planning schools i n A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America f o l l o w a p a t t e r n i n time. Most of them were created i n the l a t e 1950s, and e a r l y 1960s. The 22 UDCs have a t o t a l of 41 independent schools -, about 60 c o u n t r i e s do not have any. With 22 schools 106 l n 11 c o u n t r i e s , L a t i n America leads among the three underdeveloped c o n t i n e n t s . A s i a has 13 schools i n eig h t c o u n t r i e s and A f r i c a has s i x schools i n f i v e c o u n t r i e s . P l a n n i n g education f a c i l i t i e s are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l and r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table V I I I and F i g u r e 13, L a t i n America w i t h a hi g h e s t r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n among the three underdeveloped c o n t i n e n t s , has the l a r g e s t number of planning schools although i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s one-eighth t h a t of the three c o n t i n e n t s . On the whole planning education f a c i l i t i e s i n UDCs are very s c a r c e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r s i z e and compared to tha t i n the western c o u n t r i e s . For example, A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America whose combined p o p u l a t i o n i s more than seven times that of North America, have o n l y 41 plann i n g s c h o o l s , i . e . h a l f the number of those i n North America. TABLE V I I I POPULATION VS PLANNING SCHOOLS CONTINENTS ANNUAL POPULA-TION GROWTH 1960-1965 URBAN POPULA-TION GROWTH 1960-1965 NO. OF PLANNING PLANNING SCHOOLS SCHOOLS PER 100 MILLION 1970 POPULATION 1970 A s i a A f r i c a L a t i n America North America Europe A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand 1.9 2.4 2.9 1.3 0.8 1.9 3.8 4.6 5.8 2.6 2.0 2.3 13 6 22 83 80 # 1.3 2.4 11.0 38.0 20.0 33.0 # Source f o r p o p u l a t i o n data: United N a t i o n s , Demographic Yearbook 1967, New York: U n i t e d Nations P u b l i c a t i o n , 1968, p. 97. Other sources: AIP, ASPO, IFHTP, L u i d g i Dodi, F r a n c i s V i o l i c h and Walter H a r r i s (See ref e r e n c e s i n b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . 107 Amongst the e i g h t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s which have e s t a b l i s h e d planning s c h o o l s , I n d i a leads w i t h f o u r . The o l d e s t , the Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e and Town and Country Planning of the Bengal I n s t i t u t e of Technology a t Howrah o f f e r s a two-year graduate program. The second, the Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e and Regional Planning was e s t a b l i s e d i n 1955 i n the Ind i a n I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Kharagpur. Admission to t h i s program i s l i m i t e d to the engineering and a r c h i t e c t u r e graduates who r e c e i v e a graduate diploma i n town and country p l a n n i n g . The t h i r d , the New D e l h i School of Town and Country P l a n n i n g was a l s o founded i n 1955. I t has a two-year graduate program f o r r e g u l a r students and a three-year program f o r i n - s e r v i c e personnel. I t i s open to a r c h i t e c t u r e and engineering graduates, and to a l i m i t e d e x tent, s o c i a l s c i e n c e graduates. The f o u r t h s c h o o l w i t h one graduate program was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1961 i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Madras. ' In a d d i t i o n to these o p e r a t i n g planning s c h o o l s , new schools were being planned i n 1966 i n the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s : Roorkie U n i v e r s i t y ( R o o r k i e ) , U n i v e r s i t y of Punjab (Chandigarh), U n i v e r s i t y of Rajasthan (Ahmadabad), Regional Engineering C o l l e g e (Bhopal), I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e of Technology (Bombay), U n i v e r s i t y of Poona (Poona) and the 9 U n i v e r s i t y of Bangalore (Bangalore). Among these, the U n i v e r s i t y of Punjab a t Chandigarh was planning to s t a r t a four year-undergraduate program. T h i s would be the f i r s t undergraduate program i n I n d i a and the t h i r d i n A s i a . I n d i a ' s neighbour, P a k i s t a n , opened two planning schools i n 108 1962, one i n the West P a k i s t a n U n i v e r s i t y of Engineering and Technology a t Lahore and the other i n the East P a k i s t a n U n i v e r s i t y of Engineering and Technology at Dacca. In 1959, a Ford Foundation grant enabled the Government to have two batches of students t r a i n e d i n the Graduate School of E k i s t i c s a t Athens and i n the P a k i s t a n E k i s t i c s T r a i n i n g Centre, which the former s c h o o l helped e s t a b l i s h at K a r a c h i i n 1960. This Centre was c l o s e d a f t e r two years when the above u n i v e r s i t i e s opened r e g u l a r schools f o l l o w i n g a Ford foundation-sponsored e x p l o r a t o r y r e p o r t by David Crane of the U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a . ^ While the Dacca School went smooth^ the Lahore School under-went major changes i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n . In 1962, a two-year graduate program was organized. I t was d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r two years having been repla c e d by a four-year undergraduate program. This program a l s o ceased to e x i s t a f t e r a few y e a r s . The graduate program would be r e - i n s t i t u t e d i n the near f u t u r e . E s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of p l a n n i n g education programs both i n I n d i a and P a k i s t a n are s i m i l a r . T h e i r c u r r i c u l a f o l l o w the demands of B r i t i s h town planning p r a c t i c e w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by l o c a l circumstances. Education i n the t r a d i t i o n of B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e makes i t easy f o r graduates to o b t a i n membership of the Town Planning I n s t i t u t e of England which i s s t i l l considered the hallmark of q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n these c o u n t r i e s . ^ Indonesia s t a r t e d a f i v e - y e a r undergraduate program of "Regional and C i t y P l a n n i n g " i n the Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology i n 109 1959 w i t h the help of the United Nations and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Two hundred students are p r e s e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n the program. The present f u l l -time f a c u l t y c o n s i s t s of e i g h t members a l l t r a i n e d i n the Un i t e d States and England."^ M a l a y s i a has two planning s c h o o l s , one i n the C o l l e g e of Technology and the other i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya. According to a 1967 survey, the Nara I n s t i t u t e of Technology, the U n i v e r s i t y of Penang and the U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya have plans to open graduate schools i n the near f u t u r e . The l a s t u n i v e r s i t y i s a l s o opening an I n s t i t u t e of Urban Studies w i t h a d v i s o r y help from the U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g and a 13 f i n a n c i a l grant from the Ford Foundation. Singapore i s a l s o planning to s t a r t a graduate program i n the Department of Urban Planning a t the Singapore P o l y t e c h n i c i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of Singapore. T h i s program would be open to a r c h i t e c t s and engineers who have t a l e n t s f o r d e s i g n i n g l a r g e s c a l e complexes, as w e l l as to students of other 14 f i e l d s who do not wish to pursue career i n urban p l a n n i n g . I n P h i l i p p i n e s , the U n i v e r s i t y of P h i l i p p i n e s a t Quezon C i t y opened an I n s t i t u t e of Pla n n i n g which s t a r t e d a two-year graduate program i n 1967. The program has a strong b i a s i n favour of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects of pl a n n i n g . I t has had the backing of the Un i t e d Nations which has provided a d v i s e r s and i n i t i a l funds f o r the purpose. The Colombo P l a n helped t r a i n two of i t s f a c u l t y members at the Canada's U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. The P h i l i p p i n e s program i s open to those w i t h an undergraduate degree i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s a 15 r e g i o n a l arrangemen  i n that t i s open to students from other c o u n t r i e s . 110 Turkey has two s c h o o l s , one I n In s t a n b u l and the other i n Ankara. The one at Ankara i s p a r t of the Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y which s t a r t e d i n 1957 w i t h the a d v i s o r y help of the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania. The Ankara school has one undergraduate and two . . 16 graduate programs. Besides these formal independent schools i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , courses are o f f e r e d i n many A s i a n c o u n t r i e s as p a r t of courses i n engineering and a r c h i t e c t u r e . I n I r a q , f o r example, the Royal C o l l e g e of Engineering o f f e r s a planning course f o r those working i n m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e s . In I s r a e l , p l a n n i n g courses are o f f e r e d to a r c h i t e c t u r e students at the Hebrew T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e , H a i f a . The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong ad m i n i s t e r s evening courses f o r e x t e r n a l students to prepare them f o r membership examination of the B r i t i s h Town Pla n n i n g I n s t i t u t e . In Th a i l a n d , planning i s taught as p a r t of courses i n a r c h i t e c t u r e to f i n a l year students of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Chulalongkorn U n i v e r s i t y a t Bangkok.^ In A f r i c a , o n ly few c o u n t r i e s have independent planning s c h o o l s . The not a b l e ones are Ghana, N i g e r i a , Egypt and South A f r i c a . Ghana's U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology a t Kumasi o f f e r s two p r o f e s s i o n a l and one p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l programs. The f i r s t , an 18 undergraduate program, was s t a r t e d i n 1957. In N i g e r i a , a p r e -p r o f e s s i o n a l program was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1965 i n the Department of C i v i l 19 and B u i l d i n g Engineering at Ibadan. Both the Ghanaian and the N i g e r i a n programs were s t a r t e d w i t h the help of the United Nations. In Arab c o u n t r i e s of North A f r i c a , p l a n n i n g courses are o f f e r e d as p a r t of the I l l programs i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g . L a t i n A m e r i c a has more numerous p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s t h a n A s i a and A f r i c a . F r a n c i s V i o l i c h i n h i s 1956 s u r v e y f o u n d i n e x i s t e n c e t e n s c h o o l s i n s i x c o u n t r i e s : A r g e n t i n a , B r a z i l , C h i l e , Panama, P e r u and Uruguay. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e i n A r g e n t i n a , a l l were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r 1950. Of t h e t e n p r o grams, B r a z i l a l o n e c l a i m e d f o u r . However, due t o l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s and c l e a r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e s e programs were f o u n d t o be a t t h e p i o n e e r i n g s t a g e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e 20 s u r v e y . S i x y e a r s a f t e r t h e 1956 s u r v e y , t e n L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s w ere r e p o r t e d t o h ave 15 p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s . S i x were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g 1961-62. F o u r new s c h o o l s were p r o p o s e d , one each i n B r a z i l , C h i l e , 21 C o l o m b i a and P u e r t o R i c o . L a t i n A m e r i c a has a t l e a s t 22 i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o o l s a t p r e s e n t . Some o f them,such as t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e f o r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (PIAPUR) i n L i m a , P e r u and t h e I n t e r - D i s c i p l i n a r y C e n t e r o n U r b a n and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s (CIDU) i n S a n t i a g o , C h i l e were o r g a n i z e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and t h e U n i t e d 22 S t a t e s p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A l s o , most o f t h e n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d some a d v i s o r y h e l p f r o m A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s c o p e and l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e n t o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n programs a r e o f t e n b r o a d , p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n l a y s heavy emphasis on p h y s i c a l d e s i g n . F r a n c i s V i o l i c h n o t i c e d t h e o m i s s i o n o f p u b l i c a d m i n s t r a t i o n , s o c i o l o g y and r e g i o n a l - e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g a s 23 a s e r i o u s gap. T h e r e a r e s i g n s t h a t t h e s e o m i s s i o n s a r e b e i n g 24 r e c t i f i e d . 112 Review Some common f e a t u r e s of the planning schools described above can be g e n e r a l i z e d . They were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences, notably the ones of New D e l h i (1954) and Puerto Rico (1956), g a l v a n i z e d the i n t e r e s t of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the UDC's planning education. Ten out of 13 schools i n South and Southeast A s i a were opened a f t e r these conferences. Many of them were created f o l l o w i n g the recommendations of the United Nations and other agency missions who went to UDCs and s t u d i e d housing and planning problems. The schools i n Ghana, N i g e r i a , Turkey, P a k i s t a n , B r a z i l and C h i l e exemplify t h i s p o i n t . I n most cases, a t l e a s t one European or North American planner manned the planning f a c u l t y a t i n i t i a l stages. Where f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s were not p o s s i b l e , o u t s i d e planners working i n government department or as p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s h i r e d as p a r t - t i m e teachers or honorary a d v i s e r s . Schools of planning i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s are g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d i n engineering c o l l e g e s or t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , or are p a r t of the a r c h i t e c t u r e s c h o o l s . T h e i r c u r r i c u l a are s t r o n g l y o r i e n t e d to aspects of p h y s i c a l environment and design. T h i s i s shown by the study of s e l e c t e d c u r r i c u l a and the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , 25 r n o t a b l y of T y r w h i t t , V i o l i c h , Vagale and Wood. As i s o f t e n the case, the study of s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s looked upon as an e v i l t o l e r a t e d because i t i s r e q u i r e d and abused because i t s importance i s not always 113 u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e new s c h o o l s d e v e l o p e d w i t h l o c a l e f f o r t s a r e p a t t e r n e d , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , a f t e r t h e European models whose p h y s i c a l - d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n s h a ve b e e n a d o p t e d by UDC g r a d u a t e s o f E u r o p e a n i n s t i t u t i o n s who o r g a n i z e d t h e s e s c h o o l s . T h e r e a r e s i g n s o f c h a n g i n g s c e n e . The UDCs a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a l i z i n g t h a t c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g , and t h a t t r a i n i n g i n t h i s f i e l d s h o u l d s h i f t f r o m i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l l e a n i n g s t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i r e c t i o n . T h i s t r e n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e g r o w i n g number o f p l a n n e r s t r a i n e d i n b r o a d - b a s e d N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s i s c a u s i n g a f e r m e n t i n t h i n k i n g . A r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n programs toward s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s e v i d e n t i f n o t c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t e d i n UDCs. P l a n n i n g s c h o o l s i n t h e UDCs t e n d t o o f f e r p o s t - g r a d u a t e p rograms. I n most p l a c e s t h e y a r e o f tw o - y e a r d u r a t i o n . U n d e r g r a d u a t e programs a r e few b u t a r e i n c r e a s i n g i n numbers. P r e v a i l i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s c a t e r t o t h e t r a i n i n g needs o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s ; s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n o n l y two c o u n t r i e s . The m a i n a c t i v i t y o f t h e s c h o o l s i s t e a c h i n g ; r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . B ecause s t r o n g a cademic and r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n s a r e m i s s i n g , heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d o n European and N o r t h A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , s y l l a b i and l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h a r e n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l needs o f UDCs. P l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s h ave been r e p e a t e d l y reminded o f t h i s l i m i t a t i o n : / 114 There has al r e a d y been too great a tendency i n the r a p i d l y developing c o u n t r i e s to adopt r a t h e r than adapt the s p e c i f i c techniques and procedures which c o u n t r i e s w i t h h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s and a long h i s t o r y of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n found a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r needs.26 4_. PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED  COUNTRIES: NEW EXPERIMENTS The adaptive process mentioned above has been t a k i n g p l a c e i n the l a s t t e n years i n the newly created r e g i o n a l schools and centers i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the world. ( F i g u r e 13) With the e x p l i c i t purpose of c r e a t i n g r e l e v a n t e d u c a t i o n a l system i n a group of UDCs, these schools were planned and e s t a b l i s h e d i n cooperation w i t h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Ford Foundation, North American planning i n s t i t u t i o n s and some UDC governments. They made important i n n o v a t i o n s . They brought the North American planning schools and educators i n c l o s e contact w i t h UDC problems and promoted a two-way l e a r n i n g process: from the UDC environment to the North American i n s t i t u t i o n and v i c e v e r s a . The development of these s e l e c t e d planning schools i s examined i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i t h a view to s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h i s two-way l e a r n i n g -d i s s e m i n a t i o n process r e f e r r e d t o . 4.1. INDONESIA: DEPARTMENT OF REGIONAL AND CITY PLANNING, BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY The h i s t o r y of the Indonesian school r e v e a l s how the combined e f f o r t s of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency, a U.S. pla n n i n g s c h o o l and •0 • ( • Fig. 13 INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANNING SCHOOLS 2 0 0 • one planning school • case study planning schools bars denote number of planning schools per 100 million population Sources: a ip. a spo - i fh tp • loidgi dodi: sull'inseqnamento dell urbanistico. milano, 1967, and others. 116 a UDC i n s t i t u t i o n have l e d t o t h e development o f " t h e l a r g e s t e x p e r i m e n t i n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e x i s t i n g anywhere i n 27 t h e w o r l d " . I t was f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t a program s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r a w o r l d r e g i o n , t h e S o u t h e a s t A s i a was f o r m u l a t e d . The g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s f o r s p e c i f i c needs o f m a j o r w o r l d r e g i o n s o r i g i n a t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s . The c o n c e p t , f o r example, became p a r t o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e New D e l h i i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e m i n a r o f 1954. The Seminar recommended t h a t f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s be u t i l i z e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n : The needs o f s t u d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n a r e somewhat s i m i l a r , and t h i s f a c t s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e c u r r i c u l a f o r t h o s e s c h o o l s w h i c h a r e f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d , as t h e s e w i l l have t o s e r v e as ' r e g i o n a l ' s c h o o l s f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . I n s u c h programme f u l l a d v a n t a g e s h o u l d be t a k e n o f t h e f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e 2 g a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e New D e l h i and P u e r t o R i c a n s e m i n a r s , t h e H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g S e c i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s was t h i n k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s i n s e l e c t e d w o r l d a r e a s . The i d e a was t h a t t h i s method o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s more e c o n o m i c a l and, i n t h e l o n g r u n , more u s e f u l t h a n t h e o t h e r two, t h a t i s , s p o n s o r i n g f o r e i g n e x p e r t s t o work i n UDCs and UDC s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y 29 a b r o a d . The m a i n p r o b l e m was t o f i n d a h o s t c o u n t r y e q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . The i d e a was r a i s e d once more i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r u m , 117 the i n t e r n a t i o n a l seminar on r e g i o n a l planning h e l d at Tokyo i n 1958 under the sponsorship of the United Nations and the Government of Japan. This time the concept was c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o a s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l a r i s i n g out of a d i s c u s s i o n i n Tokyo between a U.S. planning educator, a UN o f f i c i a l and an Indonesian planner. Mr. Ernest Weissmann, then A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the United Nations S o c i a l A f f a i r s D i v i s i o n and i n charge of the Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning Branch, explored the p o s s i b i l i t y of necessary funds from the United Nations t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. P r o f e s s o r M a r t i n Meyerson of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y agreed to provide a d v i s o r y help from the Harvard School of Design. P r o f e s s o r Kusudianto Hadinoto, then D i r e c t o r of the Indonesian Regional Housing Centre and Mr. Kenneth Watts, a B r i t i s h town planner and United Nations a d v i s e r w i t h the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D j a k a r t a obtained o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s from the Indonesian Government and the l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n of which the proposed sc h o o l was to become a p a r t F o l l o w i n g these e x p l o r a t o r y works, a " t v i n n i n g " arrangement was f o r m a l i z e d between Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and the Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology. Under the arrangement, Harvard's Graduate School of Design was to supply a d v i s e r s , p r o v i d e academic and padogogic a s s i s t a n c e and to exchange students and f a c u l t y . I n 1958, P r o f e s s o r M a r t i n Meyerson and W i l l i a m A. Doebele J r . of Harvard went to Indonesia to o r g a n i z e the b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the new s c h o o l . In September 1959, the s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s e d as a department of the Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology and 42 students were admitted i n the f i r s t year of the f i v e - y e a r program 31 l e a d i n g to a Bachelor's degree i n "planning engineering". 118 From t h e many o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , t h e f i v e - y e a r u n d e r g r a d u a t e program was c h o s e n as a b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e f o r maximum e f f e c t i n t h e l o n g r u n . F o r one t h i n g t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t 'program s h o u l d be c a s t i n t o t h e i n d i g e n o u s s y s t e m o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ' s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t be o f f i v e - y e a r s d u r a t i o n , t h e same p e r i o d as f o r o t h e r programs o f t h e I n s t i t u t e and o f o t h e r I n d o n e s i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . Second, s i n c e t h e t r a i n i n g was d i r e c t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n Government, t h e c h o s e n l e n g t h o f s t u d y was c o n s i d e r e d t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t knowledge f o r t h i s r o l e . T h i r d , b e c a u s e t h e s c h o o l was t o s e r v e t h e needs o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a , t h e p e r i o d was t h o u g h t t o be a d a p t a b l e t o t h e v a r y i n g needs o f c o u n t r i e s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t ; i t c o u l d be a d j u s t e d upward 32 and downward a c c o r d i n g t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o n d i t i o n s . The b r o a d n a t u r e o f t h e program and t h e need t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s made i t n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e p r o p o s e d s c h o o l a p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e . T h i s a rrangement a l l o w s t h e p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y r e l e v a n t c o u r s e s i n e n g i n e e r i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , and t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y p e r t i n e n t c o u r s e s i n p l a n n i n g . Thus t h e Bandung I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y became t h e mother i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e I n d o n e s i a n e x p e r i m e n t was t h a t i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h one o f t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s l e n t c r e d i b i l i t y and l e d t o a m a j o r i n n o v a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m d evelopment. I t l a i d p r i m e emphasis on c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g . The s c h o o l ' s f i r s t 1 1 9 c a t a l o g i s e m p h a t i c on t h i s p o i n t : The Department o f R e g i o n a l and C i t y P l a n n i n g w i l l o f f e r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f l o n g r a n g e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g f o r t h e p h y s i c a l d evelopment o f n a t u r a l r e g i o n s and o f u r b a n and v i l l a g e c e n t e r s . Emphasis t h r o u g h o u t w i l l be on t h o s e a s p e c t s o f p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e development o f I n d o n e s i a and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a . 3 3 T h i s p o l i c y was d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e t h r e e a r e a s o f e mphasis: r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , p u b l i c f i n a n c e and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Emphasis on r e g i o n grew f r o m t h e w i d e l y - h e l d b e l i e f t h a t n a t i o n s whose g o a l i s t o a t t a i n s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g g r o w t h must d e v e l o p t h e e c o n o m y - g e n e r a t i n g r e s o u r c e s 34 as a f i r s t p r i o r i t y and c o o r d i n a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s a t r e g i o n a l l e v e l . T h i s has b e e n t h e m a j o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a t a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s on p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n . P u e r t o R i c a n c o n f e r e n c e o f 1956, f o r example, s t a t e d : R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c a n p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e framework w i t h i n w h i c h development p r o j e c t s o f n a t i o n a l a s w e l l as l o c a l i m p o r t a n c e c a n f i n d t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e ... The d evelopment a r e a o r r e g i o n , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s a l i n k between t h e community and n a t i o n a l g o a l s and p e r m i t s an e a s i e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l g o a l s w i t h l o c a l a c t i o n . 3 5 Thus emphasis on r e g i o n as t h e b a s i c u n i t o f s t u d y meant t h a t one c a n go upward f r o m t h i s b a s e t o s t u d y n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and downward t o s p e c i a l i z e i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g . S i n c e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g b a s i c a l l y aims a t o p t i m i z i n g s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s , knowledge o f economic and p u b l i c f i n a n c e i s e s s e n t i a l . The c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e s c h o o l a t t e m p t e d t o f u r t h e r t h i s knowledge by way o f c o u r s e s on r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , i n d u s t r i a l 120 l o c a t i o n and r e g i o n a l surveys,etc.To assure coverage of these f i e l d s two f a c u l t y members were sent to the United S t a t e s , one to study r e g i o n a l s c i e n c e and the other to study development economics and p u b l i c f i n a n c e . Implementation, the t h i r d area of emphasis r e c e i v e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e weight through such courses as law and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and p o l i c i e s of implementation. (Appendix 3.1) These f i e l d s have not yet been e n t i r e l y p e r f e c t e d , and no s u f f i c i e n t w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e on them. To f i l l t h i s gap, the Bandung sch o o l took measures to b u i l d a strong base of r e s e a r c h and s c h o l a r s h i p . I n 1962, i t was hoped t h a t : . . . w i t h i n the next few years there w i l l be assembling i n Bandung a group of some twenty young people as w e l l equipped as any comparable company i n the world to push i n t o these c h a l l e n g i n g areas.^6 While the United Nations and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y were the two non-Indonesian agencies d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , many other i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies helped i n the development of teaching and r e s e a r c h s t a f f . Thus three f e l l o w s h i p s came from the U n i t e d States I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cooperation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (now Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development), two from the United N a t i o n s , two from the Colombo P l a n , two from the Government of Denmark and one each from the Ford Foundation and the I n s t i t u t e of 37 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education. A l s o , s e v e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies and o u t s i d e a d v i s e r s pooled t h e i r resources f o r b u i l d i n g and l i b r a r y equipment. For example, the United States Operation M i s s i o n i n Indonesia r e l e a s e d i t s l o c a l currency funds f o r the b u i l d i n g . A number of f o r e i g n embassies, the United Nations and the P o p u l a t i o n C o u n c i l of New York helped b u i l d 121 l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s . Two f o r e i g n a d v i s e r s d o n a t e d 2 , 0 0 0 s l i d e s . The U n i t e d N a t i o n a R e g i o n a l H o u s i n g C e n t r e f o r Humid T r o p i c s i n I n d o n e s i a made i t s l i b r a r y and equipment a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y . W i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s and w i t h a v i e w t o m e e t i n g t h e p a u c i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e on S o u t h e a s t A s i a , s e v e r a l b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s and a r t i c l e s have b e e n p u b l i s h e d b o t h by t h e l o c a l and f o r e i g n f a c u l t y members. The s c h o o l u n d e r t a k e s combined r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s w i t h t h e c l o s e l y - a l l i e d C e n t r e f o r R e g i o n a l and U r b a n S t u d i e s . R eviews How s u c c e s s f u l i s t h e I n d o n e s i a n e x p e r i m e n t i n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n ? F o r one t h i n g , t h e s c h o o l has n o t l i v e d up t o t h e o r i g i n a l c l a i m t h a t i t w o u l d be a s c h o o l f o r t h e m a j o r w o r l d r e g i o n , t h e S o u t h e a s t A s i a . I n terms o f f a c u l t y , s t u d e n t body and g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t i s s t i l l a p u r e l y I n d o n e s i a n a f f a i r - and s u c c e s s f u l a t t h a t . F o r a r e g i o n a l s c h o o l , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e g i o n be homogeneous and t h a t a l l UDCs i n t h e r e g i o n s h a r e a common e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e . T h i s s p i r i t c o u l d be engendered by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s so t h a t a l l n a t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e development o f t h e s c h o o l . Thus, t h e 3 m i l l i o n - s i z e c i t y s t a t e o f S i n g a p o r e w o u l d be m o t i v a t e d t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g s c h o o l i n Bandung r a t h e r t h a n open i t s own as i t i s d o i n g a t p r e s e n t . T h i s i s a n i l l - a d v i s e d c o s t l y d u p l i c a t i o n . The Bandung s c h o o l has a r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e f o c u s f o r a c o u n t r y c o m m i t t e d t o economic development and 122 d i v i d e d i n t o t h o u s a n d s o f i s l a n d s , e a c h a g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t i n i t s e l f . B e c a u s e some o f t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p l a n n e r s and e d u c a t o r s worked on i t s f a c u l t y , and b e c a u s e t h e I n d o n e s i a n f a c u l t y was t r a i n e d i n t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s , t h e s c h o o l i s l i k e l y t o have a h i g h a c a d e m i c s t a n d a r d . T h i s c a n be measured by t h e p o s i t i o n i t s g r a d u a t e s a r e h o l d i n g . I n t h i s r e s p e c t T y r w h i t t ' s r e c e n t d a t a a r e r e v e a l i n g : Over h a l f o f t h e t h i r t e e n g r a d u a t e s a r e w o r k i n g i n t h e r e g i o n a l f i e l d : f o u r w i t h t h e c e n t r a l Department o f P u b l i c Works ( t h r e e on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and one on w a t e r r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t ) ; one i s head o f t h e t r a n s - S u m a t r a n Highway m a s t e r p l a n ; two head o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n o f a l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t company (owned by P u b l i c Works b u t p r i v a t e l y o p e r a t e d ) . Most o f t h e r e m a i n i n g a l u m n i head c i t y p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s and one i s a j u n i o r member o f f a c u l t y . J o b s f o r s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t no p r o b l e m . Most o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s s t u d e n t s have more t h a n one p o s i t i o n t o c h o o s e f r o m and a l m o s t a q u a r t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t body a r e o n ^ g c h o l a r s h i p f r o m c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government. L e d g a r r e p o r t e d i n 1964 t h a t j o b s were n o t c r e a t e d a s f a s t a s t h e o u t p u t 39 of p l a n n e r s . T h i s p o s i t i o n was r e v e r s e d t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r a s t h e above d a t a show; t h e r e were more j o b s t h a n t h e g r a d u a t i n g members; t h e y a r e c r e a t i n g t h e i r own j o b s . E d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s a l s o a c c r u e d t o t h e H a r v a r d S c h o o l o f D e s i g n and o t h e r s c h o o l s w h i c h had s e n t t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o work w i t h t h e I n d o n e s i a n s c h o o l . They w r o t e books and monographs on l o c a l p r o b l e m s . Many o f them g a i n e d u n i q u e knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e UDC e n v i r o n -ment n o t a v a i l a b l e a t home. C o n s e q u e n t l y , new c o u r s e s were s t a r t e d and new r e s e a r c h e s were u n d e r t a k e n on UDC p r o b l e m s a t t h e H a r v a r d ' s Department of C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ; an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n has been added 123 to i t s own program. 4.2 CHILE: INTER-DISCIPLINARY CENTER FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CIDU), THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY, SANTIAGO. The I n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y Center f o r Urban and Regional Development (CIDU) i n C h i l e i s an example of the i n n o v a t i o n introduced almost e n t i r e l y through the i n i t i a t i v e of a p r i v a t e agency i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h American planners and educators. A c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n was a l s o a v a i l a b l e from the USAID, the OAS o f f i c e s and the C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of C h i l e . T h e o r e t i c a l i n s i g h t s gained i n the world of a c t i o n added to the knowledge of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and c l a r i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l 41 s t r a t e g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the UDCs. The involvement of North American agencies i n C h i l e a n pl a n n i n g e n t e r p r i s e s t a r t e d i n March 1964, when the USAID sought the coop e r a t i o n of the Ford Foundation i n planning the community f a c i l i t i e s component of the C h i l e a n housing program. Under t h i s arrangement, the programs of housing and community f a c i l i t i e s were to be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h each other and w i t h other n a t i o n a l programs. The purpose of the t o t a l endeavour was t o : a) c r e a t e a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among people to improve t h e i r communities and the n a t i o n ; b) guide u r b a n i z a t i o n and n a t i o n a l economic development; c) e s t a b l i s h "a permanent i n s t i t u t i o n ( s ) i n C h i l e which w i l l p r o v i d e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y t r a i n i n g f o r persons 42 working i n a l l aspects r e l a t e d to community improvements." A host of agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s became i n v o l v e d i n 124 the v a r i o u s aspects of the C h i l e a n e n t e r p r i s e : Ford Foundation i n program c o o r d i n a t i o n ; C a n d i l l Rowlett & Scott of Houston, Texas i n programming and design; R i c e U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas i n t r a i n i n g ; a group of p r o f e s s o r s from MIT and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y i n urban planning and re s e a r c h ; the I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education i n f e l l o w s h i p programs; and l o c a l government departments i n implementation. Such wide-ranging arrangements demanded a strong c o o r d i n a t i n g team. In 1964, John Friedmann of MIT a r r i v e d i n C h i l e as a co o r d i n a t o r - i n - c h a r g e of the whole program. The program i t s e l f took a new name, the Urban and Regional Development A d v i s o r y Program i n C h i l e (URDAPIC) to suggest the broad context of the community f a c i l i t i e s program. The URDAPIC's purpose was formulated i n broad terms: "Strengthen C h i l e ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h her problems of urban and r e g i o n a l development w i t h i n the context of n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r expanding p r o d u c t i o n , a c h i e v i n g monetary s t a b i l i t y and improving the 43 s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the people". The phrase "strengthen C h i l e ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s " does not r e f l e c t URDAPIC's r o l e as that of merely d e a l i n g w i t h the complex urban problems t h a t beset C h i l e ; i t s r o l e was that of b u i l d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n the area of urban and r e g i o n a l development. This was to be pursued from the vantage p o i n t of f i v e o p e r a t i o n s : a) e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g i o n a l development planning f u n c t i o n ; b) developing programs to i n t e g r a t e "marginal p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the n a t i o n ' s mainstream; 125 c) making p o l i c i e s to blend community f a c i l i t i e s program w i t h t o t a l c i t y and m e t r o p o l i t a n development programs; d) developing i n f o r m a t i o n resources; and e) o r g a n i z i n g programs of t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h i n urban and r e g i o n a l planning and development.^ The l a s t a c t i v i t y , the development of planning education and re s e a r c h , was the " k i n g - p i n " i n the whole conception of the program. Arrangements were made to s t a r t an ambitious e f f o r t i n planning education. The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of C h i l e was chosen as a host i n s t i t u t i o n . I t has broad-based f a c i l i t i e s which i n c l u d e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , so tha t some b a s i c raw m a t e r i a l f o r an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y program was a l r e a d y present. The l o c a t i o n of the planning s c h o o l i n Santiago was advan-tageous because a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l and C h i l e a n p l a n n i n g agencies were based there . Thus i t was p o s s i b l e to r e c e i v e the cooperation from other p l a n n i n g agencies d e a l i n g w i t h the development i s s u e s of C h i l e . The Ford Foundation remained a major c o n t r i b u t o r of funds f o r the CIDU p r o j e c t . The h i g h e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n was made i n the i n i t i a l stages. From 1966 to 1969, f o r example, i t s share d e c l i n e d from a peak of 80 percent to 49 percent of the t o t a l expenditure, and was p r o j e c t e d to d e c l i n e to zero i n 1973. But the share, i n terms of funds a l l o c a t e d d i r e c t to CIDU, understate the Ford Foundation c o n t r i b u t i o n to p l a n n i n g education. Out of a grant of $2,105,000 during 1964-70, a l i t t l e l e s s than h a l f went to CIDU and i t s education and r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s . The other h a l f was paid as remuneration to r e s i d e n t 45 a d v i s e r s and short term c o n s u l t a n t s f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . 126 The c o n s u l t a n t ' s s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l a d v i c e on v a r i o u s components o f URDAPIC and CIDU a c t i v i t i e s . A p a r t f r o m t h e URDAPIC's s t a f f d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d , some o f t h e l e a d i n g US s c h o l a r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s became i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e C h i l e a n e n t e r p r i s e . They i n c l u d e d , f o r example, Edward Ackerman, a r e s o u r c e s c i e n t i s t ; O r r i s H e r f i n d a h l , a n e c o n o m i s t ; J o h n Osman, an u r b a n e x t e n s i o n e x p e r t ; D a v i d B r a m h a l l , a r e g i o n a l s c i e n t i s t ; J o h n H e r b e r t , V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f a l e a d i n g u r b a n and r e g i o n a l development f i r m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; W i l l i a m A l o n s o , a r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r ; C h a r l e s Abrams, a h o u s i n g e x p e r t ; E r n e s t Weissmann, a U n i t e d N a t i o n s h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l ; and B r i a n B e r r y , a w o r l d - r e n o w n e d g e o g r a p h e r . ^ B e c a u s e C h i l e a n f a c u l t y members were y e t t o be t r a i n e d , URDAPIC s t a f f members were t h e o n l y ones t o u n d e r t a k e r e s e a r c h work f o r CIDU. 1969, t h e y had c o m p l e t e d n i n e m a j o r s t u d i e s and p u b l i s h e d o v e r 50 47 p a p e r s on C h i l e a n p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s . L a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e , CIDU has been p u b l i s h i n g a q u a r t e r l y j o u r n a l s i n c e 1966. E f f o r t s w ere a l s o made t o d e v e l o p l i a i s o n , and exchange knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r p l a n n i n g programs i n S o u t h A m e r i c a . CIDU i s a f o u n d e r member o f t h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (CLACSO) w h i c h c o o r d i n a t e s t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h programs o f n i n e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . I t has s p e c i a l academic r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c e n t e r s , s u c h as t h e C e n t e r f o r U r b a n and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s (CE R) i n Buenos A i r e s , f o r t h e exchange o f s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s . 127 I t now s e l l s s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s to the newly created M i n i s t r y of Housing and Urbanism (MINVU) and the N a t i o n a l Planning O f f i c e (ODEPLAN) i n the form of i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g to t h e i r s t a f f and i n the conduct of r e s e a r c h . The v i t a l p a r t of CIDU's a c t i v i t i e s i s the one-year graduate program. I t s c u r r i c u l u m l a y s heavy emphasis on r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s and p u b l i c p o l i c y . This i s a novel approach i n that i t departs from the t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis of L a t i n American planning education on c i v i c d e s i g n . Admission to the program i s granted p r e f e r a b l y to those students who have s u c c e s s f u l l y passed a t l e a s t f o u r of the.compulsory i n t r o d u c t i o n courses o f f e r e d to C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y students majoring i n a g i v e n f i e l d . There i s no pretence to t u r n out comprehensive planners as a separate p r o f e s s i o n a l category. According to the author of the program: The b a s i c purpose of the course i s to add some knowledge of development and p l a n n i n g problems r e l a t i n g to c i t i e s and r egions to students whose main p r o f e s s i o n i s i n one of the e s t a b l i s h e d f i e l d s . P a r t i c u l a r emphases i s g i v e n to students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p p l i e d research. URDAPIC encouraged a planned e f f o r t to have competent Chile a n s t r a i n e d i n North American pl a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The idea was to provide an a b l e teaching and r e s e a r c h team who could run CIDU a f t e r the f o r e i g n a d v i s e r s l e a v e C h i l e . Out of seven persons, who went to the U n i t e d States f o r advanced s t u d i e s , s i x have retu r n e d . They were a l l t r a i n e d i n l e a d i n g s c h o o l s , two i n Harvard, two i n P i t t s b u r g , one i n M.I.T. and one i n Washington U n i v e r s i t y , St. L o u i s . 129 Review A major e v a l u a t i o n of the C h i l e a n program has been made by the a u t h o r - c o o r d i n a t o r of the program h i m s e l f . This i s i n the form of a r e p o r t w r i t t e n f o r the Ford Foundation. Although the r e p o r t c l a i m s to t r e a t i s s u e s w i t h "frankness and h o p e f u l l y w i t h o b j e c t i v i t y " i t i s o p t i m i s t i c , and the reader gets a rosy p i c t u r e of the whole endeavour. Two experts who evaluated the program during the course of i t s development s a i d : "Our only r e s e r v a t i o n s are t h a t there are gaps i n the Program which, i f f i l l e d , would make the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Program even more c o n s t r u c t i v e . " ^ However, some a v a i l a b l e f a c t s warrant the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the Ford Foundation's e d u c a t i o n a l program has been a major i n n o v a t i o n i n more than one way. F i r s t , an academic program i n v o l v i n g both t r a i n i n g and rese a r c h was developed as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of an o p e r a t i o n a l urban and r e g i o n a l development a c t i v i t y . By r e l a t i n g CIDU's programs to other components of the URDAPIC i n t e r e s t s (e.g. MINVU, ODEPLAN) the Ford Foundation team encouraged interdependent a c t i o n s and thus enhanced the i n t e g r a t e d performance of the whole i n s t i t u t i o n a l system. The spontaneous development of the method whereby MINVU, ODEPLAN and C h i l e a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s make payments to CIDU f o r i t s s e r v i c e s i s a major i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n . Through t h i s arrangement CIDU enriches i t s teaching and research c a p a b i l i t i e s , and i n t u r n , helps meet manpower and rese a r c h needs of development agencies. Second, the C h i l e a n program has provided one of the most important avenues f o r North American planners and academicians to 129 operate i n l i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l environment. Drawing from t h i s experience they r e f l e c t e d , t h e o r i z e d and taught i n CIDU. More than 50 p u b l i c a t i o n s of these members on C h i l e a n problems i s a testimony to t h e i r own education as a r e s u l t of t h i s involvement. They have j o i n e d the U n i t e d States Planning i n s t i t u t i o n s a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from C h i l e . Paul Kennon j o i n e d the R i c e U n i v e r s i t y ; Walter Stohr went to McMaster; Ralph Gakenheimer j o i n e d the M.I.T. and would l a t e r go to h i s parent i n s t i t u t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a at Chapel H i l l ; Lawrence Mann and John Friedmann went to head the planning schools of Rutgers and the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles r e s p e c t i v e l y . They would pass on t h e i r knowledge and experience to the classrooms by way of new courses and to the p r o f e s s i o n i n the form of r e s e a r c h and 52 w r i t i n g s . T h i r d , there are s i g n s that the involvement has l e d to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent, to the enrichment of the f i e l d of c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . On the t e s t i n g ground of C h i l e a n development, not only have new concepts and t h e o r i e s emerged, but a l s o CIDU's e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have pushed some of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l urban and r e g i o n a l development models beyond the l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n s . These s t u d i e s have added an a c t i o n dimension to the study of p l a n n i n g , and i n the process, intr o d u c e d the concepts of " i n n o v a t i v e p l a n n i n g " , " s o c i e t a l a c t i o n " , " p o l a r i z e d development","concentrated d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " and "hyperurbani-53 z a t i o n " . A CIDU a d v i s e r a l s o produced a standardized r e g i o n a l planning c u r r i c u l u m which has been w i d e l y adopted i n a number of c o u n t r i e s 130 i n c l u d i n g H o l l a n d , I s r a e l and the United S t a t e s . (Appendix 3.2) A course on i n n o v a t i v e planning has been introduced i n the planning s c h o o l of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and UDC-oriented changes are t a k i n g p l a c e 55 i n t h r ee schools where former CIDU a d v i s e r s are p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g . In s h o r t , c o n s i d e r a b l e advance has occurred i n the knowledge of urban and r e g i o n a l development as a r e s u l t of the involvement of North American planners and educators i n the URDAPIC and CIDU programs of C h i l e . 4.3 GHANA: SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KUMASI Development planning i s not a new i n n o v a t i o n . Although i t has a t t a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n post-war ye a r s , i t was p r a c t i c e d i n what i s now Ghana (formerly Gold Coast) as e a r l y as 1920s.5^ Thus, i n the post-independence p e r i o d , adoption and implementation of the three development plans i n Ghana was i n l i n e w i t h the past t r a d i t i o n . The three plans gave c o n s i d e r a b l e weight to the development of human resources by b u i l d i n g t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l and managerial s k i l l s . Developing f a c i l i t i e s f o r c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning education formed p a r t of the g e n e r a l p o l i c y of human resource development. Since the country had no experts of i t s own, from the beginning almost the e n t i r e guidance w i t h regard to planning education came from experts and a d v i s e r s from developed c o u n t r i e s n o t a b l y Great B r i t a i n , Canada and the United States under the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of the United 131 N a t i o n s and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . The f i r s t i n v o l v e m e n t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n e r s i n Ghana's p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n s t a r t e d i n 1954. I n t h a t y e a r , t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s s e n t a three-man H o u s i n g M i s s i o n t o s u r v e y t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s o f Ghana and t o make a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations. The M i s s i o n made a d e t a i l e d t o u r o f t h e c o u n t r y and a f t e r t h r e e months s t u d y made, among o t h e r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h was t o t r i g g e r t h e p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e : The b e s t h o u s i n g p o l i c y and t h e most c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d c o n s t r u c t i o n programme cann o t be p u t i n t o e f f e c t u n l e s s t h e c o u n t r y has t h e n e c e s s a r y t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l . Recommendations f o r a h o u s i n g p o l i c y must be c o u p l e d w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e p e r s o n n e l s i t u a t i o n and t h g ^ f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e c h n i c a l h a n d s . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t r a t e g y t o a t t a c k t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m was t o make two t a c t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s one on f i s c a l - t e c h n i c a l a r e a and t h e o t h e r on e d u c a t i o n - t r a i n i n g a r e a . The p l a n n e d i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e s e complementary and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t a r e a s was aimed a t m a x i m i z i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g s e c t o r o f t h e economy. The M i s s i o n recommended t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s be c r e a t e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f a r t i s a n s , d r a f t s m e n , c o n t r a c t o r s , b u i l d e r s and community p l a n n e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e l a s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , i t recommended t h e : F o u n d a t i o n o f a "SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY PLANNERS" f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l men r e q u i r e d t o h a n d l e t h e h o u s i n g programme o f t h e c o u n t r y , and t o w a r d t h a t end, t h e f o r w a r d i n g o f a r e q u e s t t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r an i m m e d i a t e F o l l o w - U p - M i s s i o n t o w ork o u t t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e scheme and e n s u r e i t s r e a l i z a t i o n ; / 132 A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d S c h o o l o f Community P l a n n e r s w i t h a p a r e n t S c h o o l o f E n g l a n d and w i t h t h e develpment programmes o f t h e G o l d C o a s t . ^ These recommendations were drawn f r o m t h e p r e m i s e t h a t community p l a n n i n g i s a n i n d e p e n d e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d and, i n c o n t e x t o f t h e UDCs, has so u n i q u e a f e a t u r e t h a t "a ' f o r e i g n t r a i n i n g ' i s o n l y 59 o f v e r y l i m i t e d v a l u e " . Community p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a " g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s " competence i n p e r s o n s c a l l e d upon t o g u i d e t h e d evelopment o f an u r b a n o r r u r a l community. To do s o , he has t o know s o m e t h i n g o f a l o t o f t h i n g s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e H o u s i n g M i s s i o n : The g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s " must be men who know enough o f p l a n n i n g t o choose s i t e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , s u r v e y them and p r e p a r e s i m p l e p l a n s f o r town e x t e n s i o n s o r v i l l a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ; men who know enough o f a r c h i t e c t u r e t o d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s e s , s c h o o l s and s i m p l e p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ; men who know enough o f q u a n t i t y s u r v e y i n g and a c c o u n t i n g t o p r e p a r e e s t i m a t e s and v a l u e p r o p e r t i e s ; men who know enough o f m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r i n g t o cope w i t h v i l l a g e r o a d s , w e l l s , d r a i n s and o t h e r t a s k s o f t h i s n a t u r e and enough o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l g w t o be a b l e t o p u t t h e i r own p r o j e c t s i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h i s g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' a p p r o a c h t o community p l a n n i n g was new i n t h e UDCs. I t showed a r e c o g n i t i o n on p a r t o f t h e M i s s i o n t h a t t h e r o l e o f p l a n n e r s goes beyond t h e t r e a t m e n t o f b r i c k s and m o r t a r s . I t e n v i s i o n e d a p r o f e s s i o n a l , who c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e h o u s i n g and community p r o b l e m s i n t o t a l i t y and c a n t a k e measures t o s o l v e them w i t h i n t h e framework o f g e n e r a l d evelopment p o l i c i e s o f t h e government. As p a r t o f g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s , t h e M i s s i o n a l s o s u g g e s t e d 133 t h a t community p l a n n e r s ought t o be t r a i n e d i n a s c h o o l w h i c h i s p a r t o f a G h a n a i a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and t h e p r o p o s e d s c h o o l s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a r e p u t e d s c h o o l o f town p l a n n i n g i n E n g l a n d . S i n c e t h e s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s were e x p e c t e d t o work i n l o c a l and r e g i o n a l development a g e n c i e s , c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n between t h e s c h o o l and t h o s e a g e n c i e s was deemed e s s e n t i a l . Not o n l y w o u l d t h i s e n s u r e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l program, i t s g r a d u a t e s w o u l d a l s o h e l p implement p o l i c i e s o f government a g e n c i e s w h i c h w o u l d employ them. The Government o f Ghana a c c e p t e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e H o u s i n g M i s s i o n t h a t t h e s c h o o l be c r e a t e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e C o l l e g e o f S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y a t Kumasi o f w h i c h t h e s c h o o l was t o be a p a r t i n v i t e d a two-man E x p e r t Team f r o m t h e two B r i t i s h town p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s f o r s u b s t a n t i v e a d v i c e on t h e f o r m a t o f t h e s c h o o l . The Team d e p a r t e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l i s t a p p r o a c h o f t h e M i s s i o n . I n s t e a d i t p r e p a r e d a f o u r - y e a r program f o r a r c h i t e c t s , town p l a n n e r s and b u i l d i n g s u r v e y o r s i n a s c h o o l w h i c h t h e y e n t i t l e d a s t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e Town P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g . From t h i s program, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Team: S u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s w i l l , a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e i r f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n , r e c e i v e a n a t i o n a l d i p l o m a i n b u i l d i n g and w i l l be a b l e t o s i t f o r t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f e i t h e r t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , t h e Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , o r t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f C h a r t e r e d S u r v e y o r s . ^ The g e n e r a l i s t a p p r o a c h o f t h e M i s s i o n was changed i n t o t h e s p e c i a l i s t a p p r o a c h by t h e Team. The G h a n a i a n p l a n n e r s were t o p r o v e t h e i r competence t o t h e B r i t i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o g e t a stamp o f 134' p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . The UN M i s s i o n had s a i d that a f o r e i g n approach to t r a i n i n g was i l l - s u i t e d to the Ghanaian s i t u a t i o n ; the B r i t i s h Expert Team, on the other hand, used the c r i t e r i a of B r i t i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e to t e s t the p r o f i c i e n c y of Ghanaian graduates. The Team's recommendations were accepted by the C o u n c i l of the Kumasi C o l l e g e of Science and Technology. I n 1956, a School of A r c h i t e c t u r e Town Plan n i n g and B u i l d i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d . The sc h o o l had a composite four-year program. I t was obvious t h a t t h i s arrangement was i l l - s u i t e d f o r the t r a i n i n g of i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l planners as envisioned i n the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l of the UN M i s s i o n . The case f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l community planners was f i r s t presented by C. A. Do x i a d i s of Athens i n the New D e l h i i n t e r n a t i o n a l seminar of 1954: We need to put out as many f a i r l y w e l l - t r a i n e d people as p o s s i b l e , who can i n t e r p r e t the ge n e r a l l i n e s of a p l a n and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o l o c a l a c t i o n programmes.62 The i d e a was in c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n s of the subsequent i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences on planning education. I t was v i g o r o u s l y f o l l o w e d by Ernest Weissmann, i n charge of the Housing B u i l d i n g and Plann i n g S e c t i o n of the United Nations. I t was f i n a l l y i n t e r n a l i z e d as a permanent f e a t u r e i n the Ghana's higher education by H. Peter Oberlander of Canada's U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the help of the United Nations and the Government of Ghana as the f o l l o w i n g would show. In 1959, the United Nations engaged the services of Peter 135 O b e r l a n d e r t o Implement t h e above i d e a and p r e p a r e a p l a n o f a c t i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n s t i t u t e o f community p l a n n i n g w i t h due r e g a r d t o t h e manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r Ghana's development p l a n n i n g . He p r o d u c e d a r e p o r t i n w h i c h he c l a r i f i e d and i n t e r p r e t e d t h e g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' c o n c e p t o f D o x i a d i s , Weissmann and t h e H o u s i n g M i s s i o n . He a d v o c a t e d s t r o n g l y t h e t r a i n i n g f o r a k i n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l who w o u l d t h i n k and r e n d e r an i n f o r m e d judgement c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g o a l s o f n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g . I n h i s own w o rds: T h i s a p p r o a c h e n v i s a g e s q u a l i f i e d p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s a s t h e eyes and e a r s o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r and a s t e c h n i c a l a i d s t o v i l l a g e d evelopment c o m m i t t e e s i n t h e i r a s s i g n e d d i s t r i c t s . . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h e y s h o u l d be a b l e , upon v i s i t i n g a s i t e , t o s k e t c h , and r e p o r t i t s f e a t u r e s c o r r e c t l y t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r i o r s and a t t h e same t i m e be a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t t o t h e v i l l a g e r s on t h a t s i t e what changes a r e l i k e l y t o be i n t h e i r own l o n g -t e r m i n t e r e s t s o r i n r e s p o n s e t o w i d e r n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l needs. To e n s u r e a c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l p l a n n e r s , he recommended a p l a n o f a c t i o n . The p l a n c o n t a i n e d a t w o - y e a r d i p l o m a program i n community p l a n n i n g t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by an autonomous s e l f - g o v e r n i n g body i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y a t Kumasi. He p r e f e r r e d t o i n s u l a t e t h e program f r o m t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Town P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g b e c a u s e t h i s s c h o o l was o r i e n t e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f B r i t i s h Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e and "would n o t be o f g r e a t v a l u e i n p r e p a r i n g j u n i o r s t a f f t o a c t as l o c a l 64 p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s i n Ghana ..." The Government o f Ghana a c c e p t e d O b e r l a n d e r ' s recommendation. / 136 They made necessary budgetary p r o v i s i o n to implement i t . The United Nations help was assured and a "t w i n n i n g " arrangement was f i n a l i z e d between the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology at Kumasi and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia at Vancouver. In the summer of 1961, P r o f e s s o r A l a n Armstrong, a Canadian, went to Ghana as the f i r s t d i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e . The I n s t i t u t e s t a r t e d c l a s s e s f o r the f i r s t group of students i n September 1961, Oberlander had estimated that Ghana would be able to absorb 90-100 of the I n s t i t u t e ' s graduates i n i t s c i v i l s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e . The I n s t i t u t e developed a two-year p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l program f o r students w i t h a West A f r i c a n s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e . The h i g h l i g h t s of the c u r r i c u l u m were: a) e a r l y courses would focus on the teaching of b a s i c s k i l l s and the b u i l d i n g of b a s i c knowledge of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment of Ghana; b) i n subsequent terms, emphasis would s h i f t from the 'given data' of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment toward the d e v i s i n g of proposals f o r planned changes i n p h y s i c a l surroundings c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i a l ends; and c) i n the l a s t stage, f o r m a l teaching would d e c l i n e i n favour of l i v e problem treatment i n s t u d i o s e t t i n g , and t h i s would be done i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the Ghana's planning and development agencies.65 (Appendix 3.3) The I n s t i t u t e continued unchanged f o r two yea r s . I n 1962, the Government of Ghana accepted the recommendation of another Un i t e d Nations M i s s i o n which found the urgent need f o r planners a t r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and suggested the opening of a two-year 137 graduate program "patterned more to the American f l e x i b l e system than to the B r i t i s h formal s y s t e m " . ^ F o l l o w i n g the acceptance of t h i s recommendation, three a c t i o n s became necessary. F i r s t , the F a c u l t y of A r c h i t e c t u r e of the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology introduced a graduate program. Second, the I n s t i t u t e of Community P l a n n i n g , having gained i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h as an independent u n i t , became p a r t of the F a c u l t y of A r c h i t e c t u r e . T h i r d , the I n s t i t u t e increased the l e n g t h pf i t s pre-p r o f e s s i o n a l program from two years to three years. And f i n a l l y , as a g a i n s t the previous p r a c t i c e of s e l e c t i n g from those a p p l i c a n t s who had a minimum of a West A f r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e , the I n s t i t u t e set i t s minimum admission requirement as the same c e r t i f i c a t e but w i t h at l e a s t one "A" l e v e l grades. The l a s t two changes were considered e s s e n t i a l f o r two reasons: (a) the p e r i o d of two years was too short to enable the I n s t i t u t e to b u i l d adequate competence, and (b) due to other c o m p e t i t i v e programs the c i v i l s e r v i c e s a l a r y schedule would work unfavourably on the job prospects of the I n s t i t u t e ' s g r a d u a t e s . ^ One of the reasons behind the United Nations i n t e r e s t i n Ghana's planning a s s i s t a n t s ' program was to encourage the development of a r e g i o n a l s c h o o l to which other c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a would send t h e i r s t udents. According to a f a c u l t y member of the I n s t i t u t e , t h ere has been a continuous i n c r e a s e i n the number of a p p l i c a t i o n s from 68 neighbouring c o u n t r i e s . Up to the end of the 1967-68 s e s s i o n , 45 p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n t s had graduated from the I n s t i t u t e , i n c l u d i n g 40 Ghanaians, two N i g e r i a n s , one Tanzanian and two Ugandans. Of the 50 138 students e n r o l l e d i n the 1967-68 s e s s i o n , a dozen came from other 69 c o u n t r i e s • The planning a s s i s t a n t s program has now been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f u l l - f l e d g e d Department of Planning at the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology, Kumasi. The Department o f f e r s f i v e programs r e l a t e d to three areas of competence recognized by Ghana's c i v i l s e r v i c e establishment. L e v e l of Competence Sub-prof ess i o n a l L e v e l General P r o f e s s i o n a l L e v e l P r o f e s s i o n a l -S p e c i a l i s t L e v e l Categories of Competence L e v e l Planning A s s i s t a n t Graduate Planner Graduate Planner Graduate Regional P l a n n i n g S p e c i a l i s t Graduate Urban Planning M.Sc. i n Urban Pl a n n i n g S p e c i a l i s t Diplomas & Degrees Diploma i n Planning B.Sc. i n P l a n n i n g Graduate Diploma i n Planning M.Sc. i n Regional Planning Review In a p e r i o d of 15 years s i n c e the i d e a of a s c h o o l of community pla n n i n g was conceived, Ghana has developed a composite pla n n i n g education program w i t h the help of the United Nations, the B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s of L i v e r p o o l and Manchester, and Canada's U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h p lanning educators prepared a four-year d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d program drawn from the t r a d i t i o n of B r i t i s h town planning p r a c t i c e . The American planning educators helped develop a graduate program patterned around the American f l e x i b l e system. The Canadian pla n n i n g educators developed a s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l program f o r the t r a i n i n g 139 of planning a s s i s t a n t s . Ghana's planning a s s i s t a n t s program was an experiment the l i k e of which d i d not e x i s t anywhere i n the world a t that time. N e i t h e r the B r i t i s h nor the North American t r a d i t i o n of planning education were to serve as models f o r the experiment. Guidance came from an understanding of the unique nature of Ghana's development problems and from the g e n e r a l n o t i o n as to the importance of i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l planners i n the UDCs. For the f i r s t time i n a UDC, a pla n n i n g education program e n t i r e l y i n s u l a t e d from f o r e i g n t r a d i t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h f u l l cognizance of the manpower needs f o r development p l a n n i n g . Using Oberlander's c r i t e r i a to measure the success of the t o t a l P l a n n i n g education program of the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology a t Kumasi, c e r t a i n i n f e r e n c e s can be made from the f a c t s d i s c u s s e d . ^ The planning program has been b u i l t i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of a major u n i v e r s i t y ; the program and the system of higher education are i n a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s y l l a b i of the composite program emphasizes i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of planning w i t h other d i s c i p l i n e s and i s b u i l t on u n i v e r s a l and gene r a l knowledge. Both the admission requirements and the type of courses r e f l e c t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The program recognizes a h i e r a r c h y of competence. I t y i e l d s , f o r example, f i v e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s at three l e v e l s o f 1 competence as des c r i b e d above. The program f a l l s s h o r t of meeting other c r i t e r i a . For example, i t i s yet to i n t r o d u c e planning r e s e a r c h and teaching a i d s e t c . which are e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s of an e d u c a t i o n a l program. 140 I t i s not p o s s i b l e to use the e m p l o y a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a i n the absence of data. At present, the Department of P l a n n i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology at Kumasi i s conducting a survey of i t s alumni. A f a c u l t y member of t h i s Department who had formulated the study and processed the f i r s t group of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s o p t i m i s t i c of the success of the I n s t i t u t e ' s program: "none of the planning graduates a r e without j o b s " . ^ Students admitted to the I n s t i t u t e r e c e i v e government s c h o l a r s h i p s and make commitments to serve the government. Almost a l l graduates of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning programs are absorbed i n government agencies. Attempts are made to i n t e g r a t e the school's o b j e c t i v e s w i t h the country's manpower requirements. Therefore, there i s no apparent l a g between the demand f o r , and the supply o f , planners i n Ghana. This i s an achievement f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l country of e i g h t m i l l i o n . P a k i s t a n , 15 times the s i z e of Ghana, had to c l o s e i t s two programs because graduates could not be employed. Using the e m p l o y a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a , t h e r e f o r e , one may be s k e p t i c a l of V i l o r i a ' s t h e s i s that Ghana's f u l l - f l e d g e d program i s " t o o ambitious and, t h e r e f o r e , too 72 premature". There i s no evidence to show th a t Ghana's program i s i n e f f e c t i v e or that i t s graduates are without j o b s . I f the e v a l u a t i o n of Ghana's f u l l - f l e d g e d program c u r r e n t l y underway s u b s t a n t i a t e s the above c o n c l u s i o n , Ghana's experiment i n planning education would serve as an i n t e r e s t i n g model.It i s an example of how the United N a t i o n s , the Government of Ghana and the North American 141 p l a n n i n g schools and educators have pooled t h e i r resources and e x p e r t i s e to f u r t h e r an important i n s t i t u t i o n a l development i n an underdeveloped country. 4.4. TURKEY: DEPARTMENT OF CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING, THE MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, ANKARA The i d e a of an indigenous c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning education program i n Turkey was sparked during a housing and urban development survey undertaken by a United Nations M i s s i o n sent to t h a t country i n 1954. The one-man M i s s i o n c o n s i s t e d of Charles Abrams who, immediately a f t e r h i s T u r k i s h assignment, went to Ghana as head of the Housing M i s s i o n which recommended the establishment of the I n s t i t u t e f o r Community Planners ther e . Studying the T u r k i s h urban and r u r a l scene, Charles Abrams became s k e p t i c a l about the s o l u t i o n of Turkey's immense problem without i t s own experts. On October 2, 1954 he wrote a l e t t e r to Ernest Weissman, i n charge of the Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the United Nations recommending t h a t the United Nations approve a school of a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g . A p a r t of the l e t t e r reads: A f t e r f i v e weeks i n Turkey, i t became apparent to me t h a t any t e c h n i c a l recommendations I might make would make no more dent than a mosquito's b i l l on the h u l l of a b a t t l e ship...There i s no a r c h i t e c t u r a l teaching as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d d i s c i p l i n e and none i n s i g h t . B u i l d i n g s are borrowing the very worst monumentality from Germany, and c i t y p lanning i s no more than an emotion, a l b e i t a strong one... a f t e r r e a l i s i n g t h i s , I made up my mind th a t Ankara must have a school of a r c h i t e c t u r e and c i t y planning.73 This f u l l document i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of the e f f o r t of an expert to p o o l the resources of the United Nations, the Food and 142 A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the Government of Turkey and the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania f o r the development of an e d u c a t i o n a l program. (Appendix 3.4) F o l l o w i n g Abram's recommendations, the T u r k i s h Government and the U n i t e d Nations a r r i v e d at a mutual understanding on the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : a) there was a shortage of a r c h i t e c t s and planners r e q u i r e d to develop the country; b) Turkey's r a p i d growth would have l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e on the f u t u r e p a t t e r n of the country; c) f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of f o r e i g n experts would be e s s e n t i a l to the c r e a t i o n of a s c h o o l of a r c h i t e c t u r e and p l a n n i n g ; d) T u r k i s h Government would provide q u a r t e r s f o r the s c h o o l ; e) a d v i s o r y help of the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania through i t s School of A r c h i t e c t u r e and C i t y P lanning would be s o l i c i t e d f o r the p r o j e c t ; f ) the a i d of the United Nations, the United States and p r i v a t e foundations would be sought to implement the project.7 4 A c t i o n on the l a s t two p o i n t s was taken immediately. A three-man Panel of Experts was drawn from the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e and C i t y P lanning of the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania. Headed by Dean G. Holmes P e r k i n s , the Panel was commissioned to e l u c i d a t e the format of the program. The Panel accepted the above premises but made a most ambitious recommendation: the c r e a t i o n of a f u l l - f l e