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UBC Theses and Dissertations

City and regional planning education : response of selected North American institutions to the needs… Rizvi, Amjad Ali Bahadur 1971

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.CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING EDUCATION: RESPONSE BY SELECTED NORTH AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS TO THE NEEDS OF UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES  by.  AMJAD A L I BAHADUR RIZVI M.A.  (Geog.)j M.A.  ( S o c ) , U n i v e r s i t y of K a r a c h i ,  1957, 1963 D.Ek., Athens T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1961 M.A. ( P l a n n i n g ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1971  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive  copying of t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n permission.  (Amjad A. B. R i z v i )  S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver 8, Canada J a n u a r y 1971.  ABSTRACT On t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n has been o f q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e f o r c o u n t r i e s , t h i s s t u d y examines two m a j o r q u e s t i o n s :  underdeveloped a) how has t h i s  e d u c a t i o n system responded t o t h e academic needs o f p l a n n i n g from underdeveloped  countries?  students  b ) what was t h e outcome o f t h i s  response.  Answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e a t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l interaction.  I n e s s e n c e , a s i m i l a r p r o b l e m i n many n a t i o n s t r i g g e r s  s e q u e n t i a l response  i n t h e form o f i n t e r e s t , involvement,  and i n f l u e n c e  among i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , n a t i o n a l governments and e d u c a t i o n a l institutions.  The e f f e c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l :  occur i n both i n t e r a c t i n g systems, i . e . i n t h e r e l e v a n t problem p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r underdeveloped  changes (here  c o u n t r i e s ) and i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  (here North American p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s ) .  Both t h e p e d a g o g i c changes and  t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s have been s t u d i e d w i t h t h e h e l p o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m a f i e l d s u r v e y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and agencies i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l The  education.  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  n a t i o n a l agencies l e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e d involvement p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s , i n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n programs o f countries.  of North American underdeveloped  E d u c a t i o n a l exchange programs i n c r e a s e d more r a p i d l y i n t h e  1960s compared w i t h t h e 1950s due m a i n l y t o t h e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n c e r t e d A c t i o n Program i n 1961, t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e o f P r o g r e s s C h a r t e r i n 1961, t h e i n c r e a s e d c o v e r a g e o f t h e C a n a d i a n T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Program s i n c e 1958 and t h e passage o f t h e F o r e i g n  ii E d u c a t i o n A c t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n  1966.  S t a r t i n g from t h e l a t e 1950s, many u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d planning schools w i t h the help of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and f o r e i g n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s .  agencies  These s c h o o l s were i n a d d i t i o n t o  ones e s t a b l i s h e d e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l means.  A comparative  the study  of  t h e s e two models shows t h a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - d e v e l o p e d s c h o o l s have programs more a t t u n e d t o t h e needs o f t h e r e c i p i e n t s .  These s c h o o l s  are  b u i l t on an image o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h has a r e g i o n a l and a d e v e l o p m e n t a l orientation. The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o l e d t o t h e changes i n  North American planning education.  Whereas no p l a n n i n g s c h o o l had  c o u r s e on t h e themes o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d economies twenty y e a r s ago,  a today  21 s c h o o l s o f f e r 39 such c o u r s e s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h were opened i n t h e l a t e 1960s.  These c o u r s e s were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e  r e l a t i v e l y s e n i o r s c h o o l s s u c h as H a r v a r d , M.I.T  and Y a l e .  few, From t h e s e  c e n t e r s , the i n t e r e s t spread to other schools through a " d i s s e m i n a t i o n process". C o u r s e s on u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s have been i n t r o d u c e d i n s c h o o l s w h i c h have a h i g h e n r o l l m e n t o f s t u d e n t s from t h o s e c o u n t r i e s , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - e x p e r i e n c e d f a c u l t y members, a h i g h s t a n d i n g as c e n t e r s o f e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h , and a l a r g e number o f u n i v e r s i t y - w i d e i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs s u p p o r t e d  by o u t s i d e  agencies.  These s c h o o l s a r e among t h e s e n i o r ones s i t u a t e d i n a r e g i o n w h i c h  has  t h e l a r g e s t segment o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , t h e h i g h e s t d e n s i t y o f academic a c t i v i t i e s and the l a r g e s t number  of agencies,  and p r o f e s s i o n a l * p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs.  institutions I n t e r e s t has  iii  now  reached a p o i n t a t which the f i e l d  of c o n c e n t r a t i o n on u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  c o u n t r i e s has a t t a i n e d a v a l i d i t y o f i t s own. The d i s c e r n i b l e t r e n d s s u g g e s t some g u i d e l i n e s .  The  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s e t t i n g f o r p l a n n i n g programs i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s must r e c o g n i z e t h e s h i f t i n g emphasis o f p l a n n i n g from p h y s i c a l to socio-economic  a s p e c t s , from l o c a l t o r e g i o n a l s c a l e  and f r o m r o u t i n e s k i l l s t o i n n o v a t i v e knowledge.  The  underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s can be b e t t e r s e r v e d i f N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g  schools  concentrate t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s i n selected planning r e s t r i c t a d m i s s i o n t o t h e m a t u r e and p o t e n t i a l l y c a p a b l e  schools,  students,  i m p r o v e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l b a s e o f t h e o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d and  increase international i n s t i t u t i o n a l  collaboration.  courses  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The s t u d y has l e f t t h e w r i t e r i n debt t o many p e r s o n s . F i r s t , he r e c o r d s h i s deep g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r H. P e t e r  Oberlander,  D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r t h e continuous  s u p e r v i s i o n o f h i s e n t i r e g r a d u a t e work s p r e a d o v e r  three  universities.  The changes i n t h e s u b s t a n c e  and s t y l e o f a n e a r l i e r  d r a f t suggested  by him and t h e c r i t i c a l r e v i e w made by P r o f e s s o r  L e o n a r d C. Marsh o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o w h a t e v e r s t a n d a r d o f completeness has been a c h i e v e d . The o c c a s i o n a l a d v i c e g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r s V. S e t t y Pendakur o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , G l e n n M. C h r o n i s t e r and W a l t e r J . H a r t r i c k , b o t h o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , have been v a l u a b l e i n completing the t h e s i s . The w r i t e r i s g r a t e f u l t o a l a r g e number o f p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s and o f f i c i a l s who gave t i m e and c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g h i s v i s i t to  t h e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and a g e n c i e s a c r o s s Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . *  S p e c i a l m e n t i o n s h o u l d be made o f P r o f e s s o r s A r t h u r L. Grey and Edgar J . Horwood o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n a t S e a t t l e , W i l l i a m L. C. Wheaton, R i c h a r d L. M e i e r , W i l l i a m A l o n s o and F r a n c i s V i o l i c h o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y , J o h n Friedmann o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los Angeles, B a r c l a y Jones o f C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , W i l l i a m A. D o e b e l e and R e g i n a l d I s a a c s o f H a r v a r d and L l o y d Rodwin o f t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s  I n s t i t u t e o f Technology.  agency o f f i c i a l s m e n t i o n s h o u l d be made o f M e s s r s .  University, Among  E r n e s t Weissmann,  R e g i o n a l Development A d v i s e r t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Gordon D.  Jacoby,  D i r e c t o r o f Manpower and E d u c a t i o n , t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , *  See A p p e n d i x 1.4.  V  and M i s s M a r j o r i e S. B e r g e r , A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r ( R e s e a r c h ) o f t h e American S o c i e t y of Planning The  Officials.  s t a f f of the planning  l i b r a r i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a  a t Berkeley, the  U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t Urbana and H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y d e s e r v e t h a n k s f o r making a v a i l a b l e some r a r e m a t e r i a l s on t h i s u n e x p l o r e d s u b j e c t . The  financial  U n i v e r s i t y of Engineering Columbia i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y Finally,  assistance provided  by t h e West P a k i s t a n  and T e c h n o l o g y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h acknowledged.  o n l y t h e a u t h o r ' s debt exceeds h i s g r a t i t u d e t o  h i s mother f o r h e r p a t i e n c e w i t h a s o n a f f l i c t e d w i t h s c h o l a r s h i p .  A.A.B.R.  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v i  TABLES  x  ILLUSTRATIONS  x i i  APPENDICES  xiv  ABBREVIATIONS  xvii CHAPTER I PLAN PREMISE AND METHODOLOGY  1.  THE PLAN  1  1.1  The Three S t a g e C o n s t r u c t  2  1.1.1 1.1.2  S t a g e One: Stage Two:  Interest Involvement  6 9  1.1.3  Stage Three:  Influence  10  1.2 2.  The Focus and t h e Need  THE PREMISE 2.1  2.2  12 *  15  D e f i n i t i o n o f Concepts  15  2.1.1 Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s 2.1.2 P l a n n i n g 2.1.3 C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g P a r a m e t e r s o f C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n t h e C o n t e x t o f Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s  15 16 18  2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3  21 23 25  G o a l s o f Development P l a n n i n g N a t u r e o f Urban and R e g i o n a l Problems A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - I n f o r m a t i o n Framework  20  vii  2.3  N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n : Main Phases o f I t s Development 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3  3.  4.  C i t y B e a u t i f u l and C i t y P r a c t i c a l Movements P o s t - D e p r e s s i o n Phase Contemporary Developments  27  28 31 33  METHODOLOGY  36  3.1  Measurement  36  3.2  Data C o l l e c t i o n  38  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  41  CHAPTER I I THE ROLE OF AGENCIES IN PLANNING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1.  TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS  51  2.  INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES  55  2.1  United Nations  55  2.1.1 2.1.2  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Meetings Expert Missions  57 61  2.1.3  Students  62  2.2 3.  and T r a i n e e s  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American States  NATIONAL AGENCIES 3.1  70  U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  3.2  66  70  Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l  4.  PRIVATE AGENCIES  5.  THE ROLE AGENCIES:  Development Agency  77 83  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  90  CHAPTER I I I PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: INVOLVEMENT OF NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS INTRODUCTION THE THREE ALTERNATIVES PLANNING SCHOOLS IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: A TOTAL PICTURE PLANNING EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: NEW EXPERIMENTS 4.1  I n d o n e s i a : Department o f R e g i o n a l and C i t y P l a n n i n g , Bandung I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, Bandung  4.2  Chile: I n t e r - D i s c i p l i n a r y C e n t e r f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l Development (CIDU), The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of C h i l e , Santiago  4.3  Ghana: I n s t i t u t e o f Community P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y , Kumasi  4.4  Turkey: Department o f C i t y and R e g i o n a l Planning, Middle East Technical U n i v e r s i t y , Ankara  4.5  P u e r t o R i c o : S c h o o l o f C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f P u e r t o R i c o , San Juan  4.6  Other Programs  THE PHASE OF INVOLVEMENT:  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  CHAPTER I V PATTERN AND DETERMINANTS OF COURSES ON UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS SETTING UDC INTEREST IN PLANNING AND RELATED SOCIAL SCIENCE FIELDS  ix  3.  UDC INTEREST IN PLANNING SCHOOLS  168  3.1 ' F i r s t I n n o v a t i o n : The C h i c a g o P l a n n i n g S c h o o l  170  3.2  4.  5.  A f t e r m a t h o f t h e Chicago Program: i n E x i s t i n g P l a n n i n g Schools  UDC Courses 173  PATTERN, PARAMETERS AND DETERMINANTS OF UDC COURSES IN PLANNING SCHOOLS  184  4.1  S t u d e n t s from Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s  188  4.2  F a c u l t y Involvement i n Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s  197  4.3  I n t e r n a t i o n a l and F o r e i g n A r e a Study Programs  204  4.4  UDC-Oriented  208  4.5  E v e n t s and I n d i v i d u a l s  R e s e a r c h and P r o f e s s i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  222 228  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND PROGNOSTICATION 1.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  237  2.  PROGNOSTICATION  243  2.1  UDC P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n System  243  2.2  N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n System  249  2.3  Agenda f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  255  BIBLIOGRAPHY  260  APPENDICES  282  1.  BACKGROUND INFORMATION  282  2.  TABULAR INFORMATION  313  3.  ILLUSTRATIVE CURRICULA OF SELECTED UDC PLANNING SCHOOLS  339  UDC COURSES AND TEACHERS IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS  353  4.  x Page 5.  369  IMPLIED ASSUMPTIONS TABLES  I  II  Courses and Teachers i n C i t y P l a n n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (1910-1930)  30  Departments O f f e r i n g C i t y P l a n n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (1910-1930)  30  Instructions  III  North American P l a n n i n g Schools  IV  Agencies Involved i n the Planning Aspects o f T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programs A d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e USAID: Y e a r o f T h e i r E s t a b l i s h m e n t  72  United States Expenditure i n Technical Assistance Programs, From F.Y. 1949 t o 1969  74  U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r a c t s F i n a n c e d by The U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l . D e v e l o p m e n t  76  N o r t h A m e r i c a n Non-Governmental P r i v a t e Agencies Operating i n the Area of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  84  V  VI VII  Surveyed  35  VIII  P o p u l a t i o n vs. P l a n n i n g Schools  106  IX  UDC Courses and S e n i o r i t y o f P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s  174  X  Growth o f UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s  176  XI  Growth o f UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g (Cumulative T o t a l s )  181  XII XIII XIV  XV  Schools  UDC Courses and S e n i o r i t y o f A I P R e c o g n i z e d Planning Schools  181  UDC S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t i n P l a n n i n g W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  Schools 191  P e r c e n t o f UDC S t u d e n t s by P l a n n i n g W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  Schools  UDC S t u d e n t s i n U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s H a v i n g P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  191  193  XVI  UDC-Experienced F a c u l t y Members i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XVII  UDC Courses and UDC-Experienced i n Planning Schools  XVIII  F a c u l t y Members i n UDCs f r o m U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s H a v i n g P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XIX  UDC F a c u l t y Members i n U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s H a v i n g P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XX  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r a c t u a l Programs Undertaken by U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s  XXI  I n s t i t u t e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies i n U n i v e r s i t i e s H a v i n g P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XXII  Ford Foundation Grants f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies t o U.S. U n i v e r s i t i e s H a v i n g P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XXIII  Growth o f L i t e r a t u r e on UDC U r b a n i z a t i o n and Planning  XXIV  B i b l i o g r a p h i e s P u b l i s h e d on UDC U r b a n i z a t i o n  XXV  A r t i c l e s o n UDC Theme i n t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners  XXVI  Ph.D. Programs i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  XXVII  P r o f e s s i o n a l Status o f Planning Schools W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  F a c u l t y Members  X X V I I I " L e a d i n g " U n i v e r s i t i e s i n R e l a t i o n t o UDC Courses i n Planning Schools  xii  ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1.  Response P a t t e r n  5  2.  Order o f Response  7  3.  Environmental  4.  Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s  5.  N o r t h A m e r i c a n Graduate P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s : S t a t u s and S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n  Accredition  U n i t e d N a t i o n s E x p e r t s on H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g P l a n n i n g Sent t o Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s  and  6.  7.  Context  13 17  40  63  United Nations F e l l o w s h i p s i n Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g  65  F o r e i g n Urban Development A n a l y s i s System (FUDA): Dissemination Process  78  9.  E x p e r t s and S t u d e n t s  80  10.  U.S. P r i v a t e F o u n d a t i o n s E x p e n d i t u r e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s  8.  11. 12.  Sponsored Under CIDA Programs i n the  Field 87  Trend o f E d u c a t i o n Exchange i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : a. S t u d e n t Exchange b. S c h o l a r Exchange F o r e i g n Students  93  i n the United States i n the  F i e l d s of Environmental  Design  95  13.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of P l a n n i n g Schools  115  14.  N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s O f f e r i n g UDC  179  15.  P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC  16.  Sequence o f Response  186  17.  UDC  189  18.  Planning Schools:  19.  UDC S t u d e n t s o f a l l F i e l d s v s . UDC P l a n n i n g Schools  Students  Courses  Courses  i n North American P l a n n i n g Schools UDC  Courses v s . UDC  Students  183  194  Courses i n 196  xiii  20.  21.  22.  23.  P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s : UDC-Experienced F a c u l t y Members: a. S c h o o l s W i t h UDC Courses b. S c h o o l s W i t h o u t UDC Courses  201  Growth o f Urban and R e g i o n a l Researches i n N o r t h A m e r i c a : a. Non-UDC Theme b. UDC Theme  212  a. M a s t e r s Theses on Non-UDC Theme Theses on UDC Theme  216  b. M a s t e r s  M a s t e r s Theses i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s : a. Theses on Non-UDC Theme b. Theses on UDC Theme  218  D o c t o r a l Graduates and Theses i n P l a n n i n g : a. Non-UDC Theme b. UDC Theme  221  I l l u s t r a t i v e Courses on Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s i n North American P l a n n i n g Schools  226  26.  UDC P l a n n i n g I n t e r e s t :  229  27.  P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s : E x p e c t e d Trends and R e q u i r e d Emphases: a. S c h o o l s b. T r a i n i n g c. P h y s i c a l t o Socio-economic d. L o c a l t o R e g i o n a l - D e v e l o p m e n t a l e. R o u t i n e to I n n o v a t i v e f . T e a c h i n g and R e s e a r c h  247  UDC Components i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n : E x p e c t e d Trends and R e q u i r e d Emphases: a. UDC I n t e r e s t b . UDC S t u d e n t s c. UDC R e s e a r c h d. UDC Courses e. UDC C o n c e n t r a t i o n f . UDC-NA Collaboration  254  24.  25.  28.  Dissemination Process  xiv  APPENDICES Page 1. 1.1  BACKGROUND INFORMATION  N o r t h A m e r i c a n Graduate P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s :  Seniority  and A c c r e d i t i o n S t a t u s  282  1.2  I n f o r m a t i o n Schedule I  291  1.3  Information Schedule I I  294  1.4  I n t e r v i e w - I n f o r m a t i o n E x c e r p t s and I n f o r m a n t s  295  2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9  TABULAR INFORMATION  U n i t e d N a t i o n s E x p e r t s i n H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and U r b a n i z a t i o n Sent t o UDCs  313  United Nations F e l l o w s h i p Granted i n t h e Area of H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g  314  A d v i s e r s , Teachers and S t u d e n t s C a n a d i a n Government  316  Number o f P e r s o n s T r a i n e d i n Canada Through Technical Cooperation Service  317  G r a n t s Made by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F o u n d a t i o n s i n " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s " and Other F i e l d s  318  F o r d F o u n d a t i o n Grants t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s for International Studies  319  F o r e i g n S t u d e n t s and S c h o l a r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on E d u c a t i o n a l A s s i g n m e n t s  320  U n i t e d S t a t e s C i t i z e n s Abroad on E d u c a t i o n a l Assignments  321  F o r e i g n Students  i n the United States i n the  F i e l d s o f Environmental 2.10  Sponsored by t h e  UDC S t u d e n t s  Design  322  i n Graduate P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s  323  2.11  U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h More t h a n 330 UDC S t u d e n t s : . P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses 2.12 N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s : F u l l Time F a c u l t y Members W i t h UDC E x p e r i e n c e 2.13 2.14  325 327  U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h 18 o r More F a c u l t y Members i n UDCs: P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  328  U.S. I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h 47 o r More UDC F a c u l t y Members: P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  329  2.15  2.16 2.17  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r a c t u a l Programs U n d e r t a k e n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s U n i v e r s i t i e s Having P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses  330  Ford Foundation Grants f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s Having Planning Schools  331  Studies to  UDC Courses i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s and F o r d F o u n d a t i o n Grants to U n i v e r s i t i e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Studies Programs  2.18  333  Urban and R e g i o n a l Researches i n Canada and t h e United States  334  2.19  M a s t e r s Theses i n P l a n n i n g  335  2.20  M a s t e r s Theses on G e n e r a l and N o r t h A m e r i c a n Theme i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s W i t h / W i t h o u t UDC Courses Ph.D. Graduates and Theses i n P l a n n i n g ( C u m u l a t i v e Totals)  2.21 2.22  D o c t o r a t e Programs UDC Courses 3.  3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7  336 337  i n P l a n n i n g Schools With/Without 338  ILLUSTRATIVE CURRICULA OF SELECTED UDC PLANNING SCHOOLS R e g i o n a l and C i t y P l a n n i n g Program, Bandung I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , Bandung, I n d o n e s i a  339  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C u r r i c u l u m f o r Underdeveloped Countries  341  P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Program o f the U n i v e r s i t y S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y , Kumasi, Ghana  343  of  C h a r l e s Abrams and the M i d d l e E a s t T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , A n k a r a , Turkey  345  Department o f C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , M i d d l e East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , Ankara  348  I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing C e n t e r (CINVA), B o g o t a , Colombia •  350  I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Program i n Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (PIAPUR), N a t i o n a l E n g i n e e r i n g U n i v e r s i t y , Lima, Peru  352  4.  UDC  COURSES AND TEACHERS IN NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS  4.1  Examples o f UDC  Courses i n N o n - P l a n n i n g F a c u l t i e s  4.2  Examples o f P l a n n i n g Courses w i t h UDC  ^Coverage  353 355  xvi  4.3  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago: Research i n Planning  4.4  UDC  4.5  S p e c i a l P r o g r a m f o r U r b a n and Developing Countries  4.6 4.7  4.8  Courses i n North  Program of Education  358  American Planning  M e m b e r s h i p , R e c o g n i t i o n and Planning Schools  and  Regional  Eligibility  360  Schools Studies  of 362  Criteria  of 364  I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g F a c u l t y Members E v e r A s s o c i a t e d w i t h UDC P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n Enterprises  365  I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n of Teachers Ever T a u g h t UDC C o u r s e s i n P l a n n i n g S c h o o l s  367  xvti ABBREVIATIONS USED  ACSP ADB AIP ASPO CENDES CEUR CIDA CIDU CINVA CLACSO FAO FUDA HUD IADP IBAM IBRD IDA IDB IDRC IFC IFHTP ILO METU MINVU OAS ODEPLAN PIAPUR SLAP SPURS STP UDC UN UNESCO URDAPIC USAID WHO  A s s o c i a t i o n o f the C o l l e g i a t e Schools of Planning A s i a n Development Bank American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s C e n t r a l f o r Development S t u d i e s , C e n t r a l U n i v e r s i t y o f V e n e z u e l a Center f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , Buenos A i r e s Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Center f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , C h i l e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing Center, Bogota, Colombia L a t i n American C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S c i e n c e s Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n F o r e i g n Urban Development A n a l y s i s System Housing and Urban Development I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank B r a z i l i a n I n s t i t u t e of Municipal Administration I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Bank I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development R e s e a r c h C e n t e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Finance Corporation I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f Housing and Town P l a n n i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n Middle East T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y M i n i s t r y o f Housing and Urbanism, C h i l e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American S t a t e s National Planning O f f i c e , C h i l e Inter-American I n s t i t u t e f o r Regional Planning Inter-American Planning Society S p e c i a l Program f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s o f D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s (MIT) S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g Program (OAS) Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s United Nations United Nations Urban and R e g i o n a l Development A d v i s o r y Program, C h i l e (Ford F o u n d a t i o n ) U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n  S i x t y s i x o t h e r a b b r e v i a t i o n s o f t h e names o f u n i v e r s i t i e s ( o r p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s ) a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix 1.1.  CHAPTER I  PLAN PREMISE AND METHODOLOGY 1.  THE PLAN  D u r i n g t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f European c o l o n i a l power w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e second w o r l d war w e l l o v e r a b i l l i o n p e o p l e were l i b e r a t e d from c o l o n i a l r u l e w i t h i n a s h o r t span o f about f i f t e e n y e a r s . As i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n s , t h e s e l i b e r a t e d p e o p l e f i n d t h e m s e l v e s c o n f r o n t e d with certain basic questions:  How c a n they r a i s e l o w l e v e l s o f l i v i n g ?  How c a n they m o b i l i z e untapped r e s o u r c e s ?  Whether f o r p o l i t i c a l  or humanitarian o b l i g a t i o n s the r i c h western nations are a c t i v e l y  reasons sharing  these concerns o f t h e i r poorer c o u n t e r p a r t s . The way i n w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e r n s a r e s h a r e d f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n . T h i s i s s e t o u t t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. g i v e n problem  I n essence, a  ( s t i m u l u s ) o f an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t y t r i g g e r s  response  i n t h e form o f i n t e r e s t , i n v o l v e m e n t and i n f l u e n c e among i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , n a t i o n a l governments and p r i v a t e b o d i e s . s e q u e n t i a l response i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l :  The e f f e c t o f t h i s  Changes o c c u r i n b o t h s y s t e m s ,  i . e . i n t h e r e l e v a n t problem a r e a and i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the problem a r e a .  interacting  T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on c e r t a i n h y p o t h e s i z e d  changes i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems p r o v i d i n g f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .  2  1.1  THE THREE STAGE CONSTRUCT The h i s t o r y o f t h e p a s t two decades o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y  and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h e h i s t o r y o f how i t has responded t o two major c h a l l e n g e s .  The f i r s t a r o s e from t h e need t o make u s e o f a  growing body o f knowledge a c c u m u l a t e d by t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s to  g r a p p l e w i t h t h e problems o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  The second  r e s u l t e d from t h e need t o s t u d y t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and p o l i c i e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f underdeveloped  a r e a s and c o u n t r i e s .  How has N o r t h  A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n responded t o t h e l a t t e r c h a l l e n g e ? t h e outcome o f t h i s response?  What i s  T h i s s t u d y examines t h e p r o c e s s i m p l i e d  i n t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n and t h e outcome posed i n t h e s e c o n d . The s u b j e c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , l i k e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f development planning,^" e l i c i t e d i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t f r o m N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and e d u c a t o r s a s a r e s u l t o f :  a) t h e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n and U n i t e d S t a t e s governments i n t h e development a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e " t h i r d w o r l d " and  b) the i n c r e a s e i n the l a s t  twenty  y e a r s o f s t u d e n t s coming from A f r i c a n , A s i a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s to  p u r s u e h i g h e r s t u d i e s i n Canada arid t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  In  p r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools alone, enrollment o f these students increased f r o m 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t i n 1950-1960 t o 10 p e r c e n t i n 1961-1968. In  response  t o t h e s e developments, p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g  s c h o o l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n a r e a d d i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n programs.  This i s expressed  to t h e i r  i n t h e form o f new c o u r s e s and i n c r e a s e d  /  3  r e s e a r c h on problems of u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . no such c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d i n any  F o r example, where  s c h o o l i n 1950,  o f f e r e d i n 21 p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s i n 1969.  39 c o u r s e s were  The p e r c e n t a g e  o f UDC  p u b l i s h e d i n t h e J o u r n a l o f American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s from l e s s than one  articles  increased  i n 1930-1940 to 11 i n t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s .  American p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and  their faculty participated  North  i n large scale  r e g i o n a l development p r o j e c t s i n B r a z i l , C h i l e , I n d i a and V e n e z u e l a i n the development of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s i n Ghana,  and  Indonesia,  2 P e r u and  Turkey. A review  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and concerning  o f the p a s t twenty y e a r s shows c e r t a i n changes b o t h  i n N o r t h America w h i c h p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g  the response  of N o r t h American p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n t o  p l a n n i n g problems o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s .  clues the  These changes have been  s t u d i e d w i t h the h e l p of c e r t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l "events".  Thus  r e l e v a n t r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e S o c i a l Commission o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Colombo P l a n and  the B r i t i s h Commonwealth on the s u b j e c t of  f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t  training  s e r i e s of e v e n t s .  f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n e r s and  the  The  educators with planning  e n t e r p r i s e s of u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e t h e second s e r i e s o f events.  The  r e l e v a n t changes i n c u r r i c u l a and  student composition  N o r t h American p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s f u r n i s h the t h i r d s e r i e s of  in  events.  S i n c e t h e s e t h r e e developments were more o r l e s s s e q u e n t i a l , t h e p e r i o d 1950-1969 has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s , each d i s t i n g u i s h e d by major events  and  p e r i o d as f o l l o w s :  each l a b e l l e d by  the main f e a t u r e o f the  particular  4  The  a)  t h e s t a g e o f " i n t e r e s t " i n t h e p e r i o d from 1950-1951 to 1956-1957  b)  the stage of "involvement" to 1961-1962  c)  t h e s t a g e o f " i n f l u e n c e " i n t h e p e r i o d from 1962-1963 to 1969-1970  i n t h e p e r i o d from 1957-1958  a c t i v a t o r s who responded t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  c o u n t r i e s have been d e f i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d  as f o l l o w s :  a)  agents,  i . e . planning educators  and t e a c h e r s ;  b)  a g e n c i e s , e.g. T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency and t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n e t c . ; and  c)  Academies, i . e . c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s .  From a s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e t h r e e p a r t i e s , a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e has been e s t a b l i s h e d .  Thus each o f t h e  above c a t a l y s t s a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y and o f t e n i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h each other produces t h e " f i e l d " o f response. combination  The f i e l d c o n s i s t s o f a  o f i d e a s and v i e w p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o development p l a n n i n g  and t h e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r i t .  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, t h e  outcome o f i n t e r a c t i o n among a g e n t s , a g e n c i e s and p l a n n i n g  schools  a p p e a r s i n t h e f o r m o f r e s u l t i n g changes i n " p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m " , i . e . i n c u r r i c u l a , f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t s , s t u d e n t body and r e s e a r c h etc.  activities  fig. 1  RESPONSE  PATTERN  AGENTS  AGENCIES  ( A - 1)  (A-2)  1  N  T  E  ACADEMIES (A-  1i  E  S  T  M  E  3)  (1-1)  i  r 1  N  1  J FACULTY  N  V  O  F  I  L  1  L  V  U  (1-3 )  STUDENTS  E  N  T  - 2  E  N  C  E  I  I  ACADEMIC CURRICULUM  -  PROFESSIONAL STATUS  6  W i t h r e g a r d to t h e p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d changes, each of the c a t a l y s t s , v i z . agents  (A-I), agencies  (A-2) and academies  f o l l o w e d s e q u e n t i a l stages of i n t e r e s t (1-1), involvement i n f l u e n c e (1-3). and A-3  S  preceded o r f o l l o w e d t h u s :  i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e ( 1 - 1 ) , A-2  i n t h e second s t a g e ( 1 - 2 ) , A - l preceded A-2  and i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e ( 1 - 3 ) , A - l and A-3  w h i l e A-2  and  W i t h i n each s t a g e , however, t h e impact o f A - l , A-2  preceded A - l and A-3; A-3  (1-2)  (A-3)  remained  constant.  and  operated simultaneously  A l t h o u g h t h e "outcome", t h a t i s , t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f development p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n by way c u r r i c u l a and f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t s e t c . i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n  o f changes i n professional  p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s r e s u l t e d from t h e combined p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  individual  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a g e n c i e s (A-2) p i o n e e r e d i n s t a g e one educators  ( A - l ) p i o n e e r e d i n s t a g e two  (1-1, i n t e r e s t ) ;  planning  (1-2, i n v o l v e m e n t ) and p l a n n i n g  s c h o o l s (A-3) p i o n e e r e d i n s t a g e t h r e e (1-3, i n f l u e n c e ) .  This i s  s i m p l i f i e d i n F i g u r e 2. Each o f t h e above s t a g e s i n c l u d e s p e c i a l e v e n t s and  circumstances  w h i c h pushed N o r t h A m e r i c a n p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n system i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l ( o r UDC)  1.1.1  Stage One  direction.  (1-1, I n t e r e s t )  The s t a g e o f i n t e r e s t l a s t e d f o r about seven y e a r s (1949-1950 t o 1956-1957), d u r i n g w h i c h t h e i d e a s , e v e n t s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,  institutions  and a g e n c i e s w h i c h were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e cause o f  ORDER  OF  ^  \CATAIYST \ ( A )  RESPONSE  NTS A  AGENCIES A-2  1  I ( p l a n n e r s , 1 (un, oas, STAGE  \.  1 educators 1 usaid, cida, 1 etc.)  (1)  INTEREST  1  (int'l seminars  1  conferences)  I  schools)  KssssSiSS^^S^ ^^^^^^^^^^  1-2  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  (curricula r changes)  (planning  ^^^^^^^  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  I N F L U E N C E  A-3  J ford fdn.etc.)  INVOLVEMENT  (int'l ad v i s i ng)  ACADEMIES  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  X^Z^WM^^wi ^^^^^^^^^^  Predominant*!* in relevant *A* RunningVln r e l e v a n t "A'  9  8  development p l a n n i n g emerged.  The a g e n c i e s s t a r t e d communication among  p e r s o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s by h o l d i n g c o n f e r e n c e s and s p o n s o r i n g educat i o n a l and c u l t u r a l exchange programs.  F o r example, f o u r m a j o r  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s , one each i n New D e l h i , San J u a n , Bangkok and  3 Tokyo were o r g a n i z e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t . significant signs  The f i r s t  o f mixed i n t e r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s appeared among t h e  p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t communities i n N o r t h A m e r i c a  campuses.  L o c a l students  f a c u l t y and i n s t i t u t i o n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s t r e n d . A few p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s became aware o f t h e new t a s k o f e d u c a t i n g and t r a i n i n g UDC s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p m e n t - o r i e n t e d was,  p r o f e s s i o n a l planning which  i n t h e o p i n i o n o f many, f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 4  preoccupations of North American p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . No c l e a r - c u t concept o f what c o n s t i t u t e s p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f underdevelopment appeared.  R a t h e r , i t was a p e r i o d o f  i n t e r e s t and awareness, a p e r i o d o f i n t e r a c t i n g v i e w p o i n t s o f a few p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s who went o v e r s e a s and g a i n e d f i r s t h a n d knowledge o f p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and problems t h e r e .  As a consequence, some  m a j o r q u e s t i o n s a r o s e i n t h e minds o f many:  What a r e t h e u n i q u e  of underdeveloped  countries?  What i s t h e n a t u r e , b a c k g r o u n d ,  m o t i v a t i o n s and needs o f s t u d e n t s coming from t h o s e c o u n t r i e s ? how s h o u l d t h e y be t a u g h t ?  What and  What a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r them? were r a i s e d ;  problems  I n t h i s stage, only questions  t h e y were n o t s u b j e c t e d t o r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n so t h a t  no answers c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d .  9 1.1.2  Stage Two (1-2, I n v o l v e m e n t ) I n t h e second s t a g e , t h e s t a g e o f i n v o l v e m e n t  (1957-1958 t o  1962-1963), t h e i n i t i a t i v e t a k e n and t h e forum p r e p a r e d by a g e n c i e s (A-2) i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e (1-1) c o n t i n u e d t o f u r t h e r t h e exchange o f i d e a s among a g e n t s , a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  One may i s o l a t e from academic and  p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s more t h a n a dozen persons who s t a r t e d t a k i n g v i g o r o u s i n t e r e s t i n development p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n .  Guidance of North American  p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s was sought by A s i a n , A f r i c a n and L a t i n A m e r i c a n governments a s w e l l a s by i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s w h i c h became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e g r o w t h and w e l f a r e o f underdeveloped  countries."*  Developments i n t h e second s t a g e l e d t o t h e a c t u a l o f some N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s  involvement  (A-3) i n p r o f e s s i o n a l  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i n some s p e c i f i c c o u n t r i e s .  Thus, f o r example, under  the aegis of the United Nations Technical Assistance A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e Bandung I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y e s t a b l i s h e d and s u p e r v i s e d a R e g i o n a l and C i t y P l a n n i n g ' 6 Department i n I n d o n e s i a ;  t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia helped develop  the I n s t i t u t e of  Community P l a n n i n g i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S c i e n c e o f T e c h n o l o g y a t Kumasi, Ghana'?  t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ' s Department o f C i t y and  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and development o f t h e Department o f P l a n n i n g i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y a t g A n k a r a , Turkey and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ( B e r k e l e y ) and Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y h e l p e d some L a t i n A m e r i c a n 9 c o u n t r i e s i n l i k e manner.  10 The d e b a t e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s l e d t o t h e emergence o f some c l e a r - c u t c o n c e p t s w h i c h command a f a i r l y w i d e consensus.  It  became c l e a r t h a t s t u d e n t s from u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s d i f f e r i n m o t i v a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l needs, and t h a t t h i s f a c t d e s e r v e s  special  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n from p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s w h i c h have been r e c e i v i n g a s i z e a b l e number o f UDC students. develop  I n t h i s p e r i o d , a t t e m p t s were made i n some p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s t o  academic means and p r o c e d u r e s ( i . e . c u r r i c u l u m changes and  admission p o l i c y e t c . ) f o r t h e mutual enrichment o f both c a t e g o r i e s o f s t u d e n t s , l o c a l and o v e r s e a s . " ^  1.1.3  Stage Three (1-3,  Influence)  I n t h e t h i r d p e r i o d , t h e p e r i o d o f i n f l u e n c e (1962-1963 onward), t h e v i s i b l e impact o f 10-15 y e a r s o f i n v o l v e m e n t and p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t i o n a l system.  of agents,  agencies  appeared i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g educa-  Development p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e began t o a p p e a r .  Books and a r t i c l e s s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e s c a t t e r e d knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f development p l a n n i n g were w r i t t e n by p l a n n e r s who r e p e a t e d l y s o j o u r n e d  i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r  11 planning process. began t o be r e s o l v e d .  The q u e s t i o n "what t o t e a c h t o o v e r s e a s  students?"  The e v o l u t i o n o f a b r o a d new a p p r o a c h t o t h e  p l a n n i n g o f r e g i o n s f u r n i s h e d some u s e f u l c l u e s as t o t h e t y p e o f planning education appropriate f o r countries trying growth.  I t became e v i d e n t a t t h i s s t a g e  to generate  economic  that p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  11  e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e s e c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d be b u i l t on f o u r elements: s t r o n g f o c u s on r e g i o n a l economic s t u d i e s ;  a)  b) study o f t h e o r y and  methodology o f p l a n n i n g drawn from t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ;  c) emphasis on  p o s i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l measures and treatment o f s t r a t e g i c a l l y  important  i s s u e s r a t h e r t h a n on n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f c o n t r o l and d) t r a i n i n g f o r  12 i n n o v a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s o r a g e n t s o f change. A spate of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l education studies i n t h i s  period  p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l make up o f s t u d e n t s from  under-  13 d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i n N o r t h American  campuses.  These s t u d i e s  enhanced t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f UDC s t u d e n t s and l e d to" t h e improvement i n t h e methods o f s o c i a l i z i n g and t e a c h i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g  these  students. On t h e s t r e n g t h o f i n c r e a s e d knowledge about UDC s t u d e n t s and t h e i r needs, s p e c i a l i z e d development p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were c r e a t e d ; e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s d i s p l a c e d changes i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f UDC-oriented education;  a d d i t i o n s were made i n c u r r i c u l a by way o f c o u r s e s d e a l i n g  w i t h t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n problems o f t h e underdeveloped qualified  world;  t o t e a c h new s u b j e c t s were added t o t h e f a c u l t y .  and p e r s o n s As a r e s u l t  of t h e s e developments as w e l l as f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s UDC s t u d e n t s have been growing  i n numbers i n N o r t h American  p r e s e n c e adds an i n v a l u a b l e element  campuses.  To many, t h e i r  o f v a r i e t y and b r e a d t h t o t h e  educational process. T h i s study i s i n t e n d e d t o document t h e changes mentioned and t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t l e d t o t h o s e  changes.  above  12  1.2  THE FOCUS AND  THE NEED  T h e o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y demonstrate  t h a t i n two  w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l s y s t e m s , t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e two  systems.  The c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s , i . e . t h e d i f f e r e n t ways o f p e r c e i v i n g knowledge depends on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r i g i n o f a) t h o s e who ( t r a n s m i t t e r s ) , b) t h o s e who or  t r a n s m i t knowledge  r e c e i v e knowledge ( r e c i p i e n t s ) , c) message  s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( c o n t e n t ) , a n d d) t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g  (locale).  As shown i n F i g u r e 3 i f t r a n s m i t t e r s ( T ) , message o r c o n t e n t (C) and l o c a l e ( L ) b e l o n g t o t h e environment A and r e c i p i e n t s o r s t u d e n t s (R) come f r o m t h e environment  B, t h e y w i l l make one  combination.  L i k e w i s e , i f t r a n s m i t t e r s (T) and l o c a l e C t ) b e l o n g t o t h e environment  A  and s t u d e n t s o r r e c i p i e n t s (R) and message o r c o n t e n t (C) b e l o n g t o t h e environment  B, they w i l l make a n o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n , and so on. E l a b o r a t i n g t h e s e models from s p e c i f i c examples, box  5  i n F i g u r e 3 suggests a s i t u a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1940s (Canada d i d n o t have any program then) when t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t m a t t e r and p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s were e n t i r e l y of American o r i g i n .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n changed i n t h e 1950s when  o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e s e programs and N o r t h A m e r i c a n f a c u l t y members s t a r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs.  These phenomena n e c e s s i t a t e a change  i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l message and t h e way  i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d (Box  F i g u r e 3) i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s .  7,  P r o f e s s i o n a l planning schools  Fig.  ENVIRONMENTAL  A  B  A  T  \)  B  A  B  T  T  C  R  R  R  C  C  L  L  A  ©  CONTEXT  Q  p  L  ©  B  A  T  T  T  R  R  R  C  C  C  L  L  L  A  ©  B  B  T R  R  C  C  L  A  ^  &  B:  T W O  E N V I R O N M E N T S  T.  T R A N S M I T T E R S  R."  R E C I P I E N T S  C  C O N T E N T  I".  L O C A L E  A  ©  B R  3  14  t h e r e f o r e , a i m n o t o n l y a t t r a n s m i t t i n g a r e l e v a n t message w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e n t b u t a l s o a t a d o p t i n g new methods o f exchange and communication t o enhance t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . Examination o f t h i s hypothesis i s the substance of t h i s study.  T h i s w i l l l e a d us t o a n a l y z e some o f t h e f r e q u e n t l y debated  p o l i c y issues pertaining to the education of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners f o r work i n t h e underdeveloped trained?  countries.  F o r what r o l e s h o u l d they be  How and i n what i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s h o u l d t h e t r a i n i n g b e  imparted.  What s h o u l d be t h e n a t u r e and w e i g h t o f t h e c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c  content i n planning curriculum?  How s h o u l d t h e r e f e r e n c e t o N o r t h  A m e r i c a n ( d e v e l o p e d ) s e t t i n g b e r e c o n c i l e d and b a l a n c e d w i t h development planning material?  How e f f e c t i v e a r e t h e v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s ( e . g .  o v e r s e a s e d u c a t i o n v s i n d i g e n e o u s o r n a t i o n a l and d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d v s s o c i a l science-based education) to planning education f o r  underdeveloped  countries? These problems have engaged t h e a t t e n t i o n o f p l a n n e r s and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s s i n c e 1956, t h e y e a r i n w h i c h p l a n n e r s from v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s drammatized t h e s e i s s u e s i n a U n i t e d N a t i o n s - s p o n s o r e d  inter-  14 n a t i o n a l conference i n Puerto Rico.  S i n c e t h e n , a p a r t from some  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d by N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n e r s who have s o j o u r n e d i n underdeveloped undertaken.  c o u n t r i e s , - no s u b s t a n t i v e s t u d y has heen  T h i s s t u d y aims t o f i l l  t h i s v o i d n o t o n l y by r e c o r d i n g  t h e happenings o f t h e p a s t two decades b u t a l s o by a t t e m p t i n g a comparat i v e r e v i e w o f v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s w i t h a v i e w toward p r o v i d i n g an i n f o r m e d b a s i s f o r  15  p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a g e n c i e s r e l e v a n c e o f t h e i r p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s on t h e s u b j e c t .  t o re-examine t h e The s t u d y may a l s o  a i d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f some b r o a d g u i d l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and UDC s t u d e n t s t o become u s e f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e development p l a n n i n g movement.  I t e x p l o r e s some c r u c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  I t d e s c r i b e s p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n events o b j e c t i v e l y and p r e s e n t s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered  t h r o u g h a f i e l d s u r v e y and f r o m s c a t t e r e d s o u r c e s ,  b o t h p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d , w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t  to the study of  N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n movement.  2.  THE PREMISE  The need f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y makes i t n e c e s s a r y t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e meanings o f m a j o r t e r m s , s t a t e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and to e x p l i c a t e the broader 2.1  framework o f t h e s t u d y :  DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS Three concepts  a r e d e f i n e d below: 'underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ' ,  ' p l a n n i n g ' and ' c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ' . 2.1.1  Underdeveloped  Countries  One o f t h e most common  y a r d s t i c k s t o measure a c o u n t r y ' s  r e l a t i v e development i s t h e a v e r a g e p e r c a p i t a income o f i t s c i t i z e n s . Though n o t an e n t i r e l y p e r f e c t measure, i t does i n d i c a t e , f o r example, t h a t a n a v e r a g e A s i a n i s t h i r t y times p o o r e r  t h a n an a v e r a g e A m e r i c a n . ^  Making u s e o f t h i s measure, t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s d e f i n e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s as " c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h p e r c a p i t a r e a l income i s l o w when  16  compared w i t h the p e r c a p i t a r e a l income o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada, Australia  and W e s t e r n E u r o p e " . ^  An a n n u a l p e r c a p i t a income e q u i v a l e n t  t o $500 i s commonly used t o demarcate " u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s " f r o m "developed figure  countries".  F o r r e a s o n s common t o a l l a v e r a g e f i g u r e s ,  i s n o t o f much v a l u e except f o r making a w o r k i n g  between t h e above c a t e g o r i e s .  this  distinction  This i s f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study.  shown i n F i g u r e 4, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n embraces t h e e n t i r e w o r l d  As  excluding  N o r t h A m e r i c a (minus M e x i c o ) , W e s t e r n Europe, t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , J a p a n , Australia  2.1.2  and New  Zealand.^  Planning P l a n n i n g s u i g e n e r i s i s an amorphous t e r m o f t e n shrouded i n  generalities  and s u b j e c t t o p r e t e n t i o u s c l a i m s .  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use o f the term, c o n f u s i o n p e r s i s t s  L a r g e l y b e c a u s e of as t o the e x t e n t t o  w h i c h p l a n n i n g i s i t s e l f a d i s t i n c t i v e a c t i v i t y o r m e r e l y an a s p e c t  of  18 every k i n d of a c t i v i t y . Based on c e r t a i n  concepts  f r e q u e n t l y used by p l a n n i n g  " p l a n n i n g " can be i d e n t i f i e d as an a c t i v i t y w h i c h i s c o n t i n u o u s , listic,  theorists, ration-  f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d , and as a method o f making r a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s  i m p l e m e n t i n g them t o a c h i e v e a p r e c o n c e i v e d never c a r r i e d significance  goal.  Since planning i s  on i n a vacuum t h i s g e n e r i c c o n c e p t has no o p e r a t i o n a l u n l e s s examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a d i s t i n c t a c t i v i t y o r  system s u c h as the c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y :  and  /  18  2.1.3  C i t y and R e g i o n a l The  Planning  c o n c e p t of " c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g " seems t o be  confused.  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n have f r e q u e n t l y appeared i n planning l i t e r a t u r e . a growing f i e l d ;  Some r a t i o n a l i z e t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e as a s i g n o f  o t h e r s t h i n k t h a t i t i s a s i c k p r o f e s s i o n , "an 19  advanced c a s e o f m u l t i p l e s c h i z o p h r e n i a " . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  c u l t u r a l changes have n o t been t h e o r i z e d as f a s t as they  occurred.  Lacking a s u f f i c i e n t t h e o r e t i c a l base, p r o f e s s i o n a l planning t h e r e f o r e , developed  i n a pragmatic  fashion.  has,  T h i s k i n d of l a g i s not  s p e c i f i c t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g a l o n e as M e i e r and Duke f o u n d : There i s a time i n the e v o l u t i o n of every d i s c i p l i n e when i t s m i l i e u and phenomena w i t h w h i c h i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s must d e a l , grow i n c o m p l e x i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and m u l t i p l y beyond t h e c a p a c i t y t o cope w i t h them. That t i m e i s a t hand w i t h p l a n n e r s . The p r o b l e m u n d e r s c o r e s  a need t o i n c r e a s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  knowledge o f human communities i n o r d e r t o deepen the f o u n d a t i o n s o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . r e g i o n a l development p r o c e s s e s  theoretical  In recent years, urban-  have been examined by M e i e r ,  Webber, F r i e d m a n n , I s a r d , Wingo, B a n f i e l d , L y n c h and Notwithstanding  Guttenberg, 21  others.  the u s e f u l n e s s of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t s , t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s  so segmented t h a t a c o m p o s i t e u r b a n - r e g i o n a l development t h e o r y i s n o n - e x i s t e n t and a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of c i t y and r e g i o n a l planning i s lacking. Recent i n t e r e s t seems t o be f o c u s s e d on a p p l i c a t i o n o f generic n o t i o n of  and  the  ' p l a n n i n g ' t o t h e c i t y and r e g i o n a l development.  are  19  This a p p l i c a t i o n raises the following questions: continuous process o r a non-continuous happenings?  Is planning a  forethought of d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e  Does a p l a n n e r d e f i n e g o a l s o r m e r e l y  What i s h i s r o l e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ?  t a k e them as g i v e n ? Does he seek t o  improve s o c i a l environment o r p h y s i c a l environment o r both? e x a c t l y i s h i s e x c l u s i v e a r e a o f concern? i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n today.  These a r e i s s u e s b e i n g  P r e s e n t l y i t seems t h a t  n i t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i s a statement  What debated  the general d e f i -  of i n t e n t i o n not of r e a l i t y .  Nor does t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s d e f i n e c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as such.  I t merely records i t s p o s i t i o n as f o l l o w s :  The p l a n n i n g w i t h w h i c h t h e I n s t i t u t e i s concerned i s t h a t o f t h e u n i f i e d development o f u r b a n communities and t h e i r e n v i r o n s and s t a t e s , r e g i o n s , and t h e n a t i o n , as e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e comprehensive arrangement o f t h e l a n d uses and l a n d occupancy and t h e i r regulation.22 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s narrow. t h e p r o f e s s i o n today. physical.  I t i g n o r e s what i s a c t u a l l y happening i n  I t s i n g l e s o u t t h e m a i n f o c u s o f t h e f i e l d as  Although t h i s i s an apparently s p e c i f i c f o c u s , i t s e a l s t h e  p r o f e s s i o n a g a i n s t emerging s o c i a l and economic c o n c e r n s .  The  I n s t i t u t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s b e i n g a t t a c k e d from many q u a r t e r s .  The i s s u e  is s t i l l  unresolved. A d e f i n i t i o n o f c i t y a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must t a k e  account  o f new t r e n d s and new p r o b l e m a r e a s t o w h i c h i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y exposed.  I n t h i s r e g a r d , H a r r i s observed  that the  t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n a l o n g a r e a l l i n e s a r e d i s a p p e a r i n g and d i r e c t  20  comprehensive  t r e a t m e n t o f p r o b l e m - c l u s t e r s ( e . g . smog, p o v e r t y , 23  unemployment, b l i g h t and c o n g e s t i o n ) i s becoming f a s h i o n a b l e . When a p r o f e s s i o n i s i n a s t a t e o f change what c r i t e r i a s h o u l d guide the choice of i t s d e f i n i t i o n f o r a time?  study spread over a p e r i o d of  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y demands t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t p r e v a i l e d  f o r most o f t h e p e r i o d under r e v i e w be adopted.  I n t h i s regard - except f o r  t h e l a t e 1960s w h i c h were marked by s o c i a l p o l i c y c o n c e r n s - t h e p r o f e s s i o n , a t l e a s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , has been o p e r a t i n g under t h e premise contained i n t h e statement of t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners quoted above.  F o r r e a s o n o f b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d under  s t u d y , t h i s p o s i t i o n - even i f n o t g e n e r a l l y s h a r e d i n academic w o r l d has been adopted i n t h i s s t u d y , as d i s t i n c t from t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r p o s i t i o n , namely p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c problem - c l u s t e r s per se I n t h i s s t u d y , " p l a n n i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g " a r e used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f " c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g " . 2.2  PARAMETERS OF CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING IN THE CONTEXT OF UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES What a r e t h e key f e a t u r e s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  system.  c o u n t r i e s a s one  How do t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cause approaches  p l a n n i n g t o d i f f e r from t h o s e o f N o r t h America?  to professional  Answers t o t h e s e  q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d e l u c i d a t e t h e m a i n parameters o f development p l a n n i n g , and thus c l a r i f y t h e p r e m i s e o f t h i s s t u d y .  21  2.2.1  G o a l s o f Development P l a n n i n g A growing  l i t e r a t u r e on development p l a n n i n g r e v e a l s t h a t most o f  t h e underdeveloped which developed  c o u n t r i e s have chosen an image o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n f o r  s o c i e t i e s s e r v e as models.  Gunnar M y r d a l ' s work on A s i a  p o i n t s to a g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n : They [ m o d e r n i z a t i o n i d e a l s ] have become the o f f i c i a l ' c r e e d ' , and almost a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n , and a r e one o f t h e p o w e r f u l s t r a n d s of t h e new n a t i o n a l i s m . 2 4 T h i s image i s not found i n d e v e l o p e d  s o c i e t i e s because they a r e a t t h e  "most" s i d e o f the " m o s t - l e a s t " s c a l e o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n . they go next? U n t i l a new  Where w i l l  I t i s not c l e a r from the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge.  v i s i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , perhaps  Dyckman's i n s i g h t s i n t o  the  trend i s h e l p f u l : R e s i d u a l i s s u e s o f the a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y a r e so c l e a r l y s o c i a l i s s u e s t h a t e a r l i e r concerns o f p h y s i c a l and economic p l a n n i n g have i n some cases g i v e n way t o p r i o r i t i e s f o r d i r e c t p l a n n i n g o f s o c i a l outcomes...The p r e s e n c e o f s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y a l o n g s i d e p l a n n i n g t h e n becomes an argument a g a i n s t an e x c e s s i v e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c view o f s o c i e t y . U n l e s s a p a t t e r n o f new  norms and v a l u e s becomes e v i d e n t i t may  be  i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e t h e e x p l i c i t g o a l o f an " u r b a n i z e d - m o d e r n i z e d " except life".  society  i n an a b s t r a c t form such as the " g r e a t s o c i e t y " o r t h e "good To underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s , modernization suggests the g o a l  as w e l l as the r o u t e , i n c l u d i n g  the a b i l i t y  to g e n e r a t e knowledge and  to use i t e f f e c t i v e l y f o r n a t i o n a l development. P l a n n i n g i s based a c t i o n the world w i l l w i l l produce s o c i a l system  on the premise  t h a t i n the absence o f c o n s c i o u s  c o n t i n u e t o change and  r e s u l t s not g e n e r a l l y d e s i r e d .  t h a t some o f t h e changes P l a n n i n g can h e l p a  to move towards p r e - c o n c e i v e d g o a l s .  22  Development,  on t h e o t h e r hand, means improvement o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  26 o f t h e s o c i a l system w h i c h have p e r p e t u a t e d underdevelopment. e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e common among a l m o s t a l l  To t h e  underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s , b r o a d approaches t o s o l v e them must a l s o be s i m i l a r .  According  t o Haque, f o r example: . . . i f one p i c k s up t h e p l a n s o f I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, Egypt, N e p a l o r C e y l o n a t random, what i s s u r p r i s i n g i s n o t t h e apparent d i f f e r e n c e s but t h e i r basic s i m i l a r i t i e s . This basic s i m i l a r i t y i n planning t e c h n i q u e s i s due t o t h e b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r problems o f p l a n n i n g . ^ T h i s s i m i l a r i t y i n t e c h n i q u e s and s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g r e s u l t s , i n p a r t , from t h e common i n t e r e s t o f a l l u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i n n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p ment, and i n p a r t , from t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s o f Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a . Seen i n t h i s framework,  development  planning addresses  t o e c o n o m i c a l l y poor s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h p l a n n i n g p r e c e d e s  itself  development  and t h u s d i f f e r s from p l a n n i n g i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s where a s M y r d a l  28 d i s c o v e r e d , i t f o l l o w e d development.  Development p l a n n i n g encompasses  economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l problems o f a s o c i a l system a s a t o t a l concern.  I t r e p r e s e n t s a c a l c u l a t e d a t t e m p t by a government t o improve  the l e v e l s of l i v i n g o f i t s c i t i z e n s . A comprehensive n a t i o n a l development a) economic  p l a n seeks t o develop  i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s u c h a s r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , i n d u s t r i e s and  i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s , b) i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s such as e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c ) s t r a t e g i c p o l i c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o u r b a n , i n d u s t r i a l o r r e g i o n a l development.  W i t h i n t h i s framework,  c i t y and  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s b u t a component o f t h e o v e r a l l development 'planning  23  process.  When u r b a n and r e g i o n a l developments a r e p l a n n e d w i t h i n t h e  framework of n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g , u r b a n i z a t i o n , b o t h i n i t s e c o l o g i c a l dimension  ( i . e . c l u s t e r of c i t i e s ) and c u l t u r a l  dimension  ( i . e . l i v i n g p a t t e r n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n ) , can be g u i d e d t o b r i n g development29 o r i e n t e d changes i n n a t i o n a l s o c i a l system.  T h i s view of p l a n n i n g  d i f f e r s from t h e one w h i c h d e a l s w i t h a s e t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  problems  ( i . e . c r i m e , p o v e r t y , smog and c o n g e s t i o n ) r e s u l t i n g from p a s t developments. 2.2.2  N a t u r e o f Urban and R e g i o n a l Problems A modernizing  s t a t e i s one w h i c h a l l o c a t e s i t s r i s i n g  to c r i t i c a l l y important areas. achieved i f , a r e devoted  A modern p a t t e r n o f l i v i n g may  f o r example, a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h amount o f  output  not  be  resources  t o h i g h - i n c o m e housing- i n a c o u n t r y w i t h a s h o r t a g e o f  housing  30 i n t h e poor and t r a d i t i o n a l segments o f t h e s o c i e t y .  Poor h o u s i n g  c o n d i t i o n s , l i k e any o t h e r measure o f l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s , i s s e e n as a 31 ' c r i s i s o f i n c l u s i o n ' r e s u l t i n g from r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s e s t i m a t e s a b a c k l o g of 109.7 underdeveloped  F o r example,  m i l l i o n dwelling units i n  T h i s w o u l d i n v o l v e b u i l d i n g a t a r a t e o f 11.1 32 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n . Seen i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , t h i s t a s k i s tremendous; no c o u n t r y even among 33 the developed  countries.  c o u n t r i e s , except S o v i e t U n i o n , has a t t a i n e d t h i s  rate.  T h i s example o f h o u s i n g i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n t h e f a c e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d a t a r a t e s u f f i c i e n t t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e key elements of m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  24  o n l y i n r a r e c a s e s has  t h e r a t e been s u f f i c i e n t so f a r .  The  hope l i e s  i n t h e w i d e l y p o p u l a r community development approaches t o s o l v i n g such problems.  E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s shows t h a t  34 h o u s i n g i n t h i s c o n t e x t has  a built-in  much as a t a r g e t f o r development. problem-solving s o c i a l welfare  solution;  i t can be a t o o l  as  T h i s s o c i a l development a p p r o a c h t o  i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s a d e p a r t u r e from the present approach.  Given the p a u c i t y of resources  i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ,  a t t e n t i o n w i l l have t o be p a i d t o t h o s e a s p e c t s of development w h i c h duce r a t h e r t h a n consume r e s o u r c e s .  A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d  pro-  on  the r e g i o n a l (resource-producing) r a t h e r than urban (resource-consuming) a s p e c t s o f t h e economy.  Thus, a d v o c a t i n g  the need f o r  imaginative  programs o f r e g i o n a l development, Adams a r g u e s : I n t h e c o u n t r i e s where t h e economy i s e x p a n d i n g , and where l a r g e a r e a s s t i l l r e m a i n t o be d e v e l o p e d , g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , and a l l c o u n t r i e s would b e n e f i t i f those i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage w o u l d p i o n e e r i n t h e e v o l u t i o n of a b r o a d new a p p r o a c h t o t h e p l a n n i n g of g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s . Many s t u d e n t s have f o u n d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n economic development.  and  Based on s t u d i e s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a , Friedmann  a d v o c a t e d a s t r a t e g y of d e l i b e r a t e u r b a n i z a t i o n as a c h a l l e n g i n g > y e t  a  36 s h o r t r o u t e t o development.  A l i k e strategy i s also required  to  change what H o s e l i t z termed as " p a r a s i t i c " c i t i e s w h i c h use more t h a n they produce, i n t o "generative"  c i t i e s w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t h e economic d e v e l o p -  37 ment of t h e r e g i o n i n w h i c h they a r e Both l o c a t i o n theory  and  located. c e n t r a l place theory  see on  the  25  r e g i o n a l s c a l e n o n - a r b i t r a r y rhythms and p a t t e r n s o f a c t i v i t i e s .  These  p a t t e r n s change w i t h s h i f t i n r e g i o n a l economy so t h a t f o r each l e v e l o f economic development t h e r e i s a g i v e n s e t t l e m e n t settlement  pattern.  I f the  p a t t e r n and economic development a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , each can  a f f e c t the other w i t h the help of a given s t r a t e g y a t r e g i o n a l s c a l e . P l a n n e d u r b a n i z a t i o n on r e g i o n a l s c a l e c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be an i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e f o r n a t i o n a l development.  2.2.3  Administrative-Informational To be e f f e c t i v e ,  Framework  p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g must be u n d e r t a k e n  w i t h i n a g o v e r n m e n t a l framework.  In underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s  governments a r e r e l a t i v e l y weak;  n a t i o n a l governments d e a l w i t h  projects.  This trend w i l l continue,  local local  as H e r b e r t p o i n t e d o u t :  O f t e n i n t h e immediate f u t u r e t h e s t a t e o r n a t i o n a l government w i l l be dominant, though i n a few c a s e s l o c a l governments a r e s t r o n g enough t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own p l a n n i n g and development f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y . - ^ The p a t t e r n o f government  e x p e n d i t u r e i n two s y s t e m s , i . e . N o r t h A m e r i c a n developed  and UDCs, c o n f i r m s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n .  The a v e r a g e computed  f o r n i n e under/  c o u n t r i e s shows t h a t t h e y spend 2.96 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i n l o c a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s compared 39 on t h e same s e r v i c e s .  t o 8.98 p e r c e n t by t h e U n i t e d  States  A l s o , F r o o m k i n showed from h i s s t u d i e s o f  L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s that the l e v e l of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i s higher where t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e s t s w i t h n a t i o n a l govern-  40 ments and low where m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r f u l . As m o d e r n i z a t i o n and economic developments p r o c e e d , manage  -  26  ment o f l o c a l developments becomes complex. d i s p e r s a l of n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and managing l o c a l p r o j e c t s .  This creates  the need f o r  the need f o r e x p e r t n e s s i n  The d i s p e r s a l may  g i v e r i s e t o what B o y l a n  warns a " t e n s i o n d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e degree o f d i s p e r s i o n o f 41 d e c i s i o n making". problems i n h e r e n t  In a t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t y t h i s h i g h l i g h t s the i n t h e dynamic n a t u r e of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l system i n  which p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  operates.  W i t h t h e emergence of n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s have r e c o g n i z e d p o p u l a t i o n and  economic d a t a , but  s t i l l limited.  the t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n resources  are  c a l l e d upon t o s e r v e i n t h o s e c o u n t r i e s .  example, goes so f a r as t o i m p l y  lacking planning  the need f o r c o l l e c t i n g  T h i s i s a c a u s e of much f r u s t r a t i o n t o data-accustomed  North American experts for  most  Stopler,  t h a t i f too much i n f o r m a t i o n i s  cannot be c a r r i e d on b e c a u s e t h e f u t u r e cannot  be  defined:  (  The p l a n n e r ' s d e c i s i o n s have t o be made w i t h i n a framework of known f a c t s , l e g a l and s o c i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t i e s . I t i s i r r e l e v a n t t o assume t h a t t h e development p l a n n e r has a f u l l a r r a y of a l t e r n a t i v e s b e f o r e him and t h a t he can choose t h e one w h i c h w i l l g e t him most e f f i c i e n t l y t o a f u t u r e g o a l t h a t has been c l e a r l y defined. I t i s inherent i n the s i t u a t i o n that no s u c h a r r a y can e x i s t and t h e f u t u r e cannot be p r e c i s e l y defined.^2 The  s t y l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s o p e r a t i n g  i n the  d e f i c i e n t w o r l d d i f f e r s from t h e s t y l e of t h o s e accustomed t o ;  t r a d i t i o n of d a t a - b a s e d " w e s t e r n s c i e n t i s m " .  the  43 To be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e  e n v i r o n m e n t , a p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r must f i n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t o p e r a t i o n a l i n a c t i o n a f f a i r s , and  data-  a r e f l e x i b l e enough t o be  are modified  former  27  as new i n f o r m a t i o n comes t o l i g h t .  Where a n a l y s i s o f unknown f a c t s i s  not p o s s i b l e , t h e need f o r a h i g h s e n s e o f judgement i s paramount, and the q u a l i t y o f d r a w i n g from comparable s i t u a t i o n s e l s e w h e r e i s u s e f u l .  2.3  NORTH AMERICAN CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING EDUCATION: MAIN PHASES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT I n t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s , t h e s t a t u s and i s s u e s o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  education  has been s u r v e y e d and r e p o r t e d ,  by Adams and P e r l o f f f o r t h e U n i t e d Violich and  States, Parker  notably  and W i l l i s f o r Canada,  f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a , V a g a l e and Wood f o r I n d i a , S c h u s t e r Commission  T r a v i s f o r E n g l a n d , and by D o d i and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Federation  44  f o r H o u s i n g and Town P l a n n i n g  f o r the e n t i r e world.  A l a r g e number  o f j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s have d e a l t w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e s u b j e c t . These works p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e many s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach t o p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  education  i n various  countries,  45  and  i n t o t h e many i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n based on a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l r e v i e w i s  d i f f i c u l t b u t may be s u g g e s t i v e . planning  education  three-dimensional planning  education  Thus, i f t h e development o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  i s seen o n t h e s c a l e o f d i m i n i s h i n g emphasis on p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s , most o f t h e w o r l d ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l w i l l be on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e s c a l e , w h i l e most o f  t h o s e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w i l l be on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e r e s t - o f - t h e w o r l d ' s programs.  T h i s may n o t mean t h a t i n m a t t e r s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  emphasis, N o r t h A m e r i c a i s p r o v i d i n g t h e l e a d .  I t means t h a t  planning  28  e d u c a t i o n i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y a f f e c t e d i n v a r i o u s d e g r e e s by t h e need t o b e t t e r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n by t h e improvement of p h y s i c a l environment a l o n e . Everywhere p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g of u r b a n i z a t i o n , given period.  t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  i s a f f e c t e d by t h e  s o c i a l changes and major i s s u e s o f  These f a c t o r s change i n t i m e , and  a d o p t s t h e s e changes i n t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g  a  continuously  Through such  changes i n s t y l e .  This  i l l u s t r a t e d by r e l a t i n g t h e development of N o r t h A m e r i c a n  professional planning P e r l o f f has  t o t h e development o f p l a n n i n g  i d e n t i f i e d t h e key  C i t y B e a u t i f u l and  education  itself.  f e a t u r e s of v a r i o u s p e r i o d s w h i c h a f f e c t e d  t h e p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as t h e e d u c a t i o n f o r i t .  2.3.1  education  system.  a d o p t i v e p r o c e s s e s e d u c a t i o n grows i n scope and can be  level  46  C i t y P r a c t i c a l Movements  In the period immediately f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t world  war,  d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n appeared on t h e A m e r i c a n s c e n e . The  u g l y p h y s i c a l environment i n t h e f o r m o f poor h o u s i n g and  f a c i l i t i e s and organizations.  u n s i g h t l y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s became m a j o r c o n c e r n s of The  f o c u s was  were e n a c t e d i n t h e 1920s.  civic  on a p p e a r a n c e , t h e b e a u t i f y i n g of t h e  I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s , z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s and  were d e v e l o p e d .  public  C i v i c c e n t e r s , p a r k s and  city.  s u b d i v i s i o n laws r e c r e a t i o n areas  A d o p t i o n of t h e Howard's g a r d e n c i t y concept (from G r e a t  B r i t a i n ) i n t h e Radburn community h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i n t e r e s t of c i v i c b o d i e s i n t h e v i s u a l a e s t h e t i c s of t h e c i t y .  The  c r e a t i o n of t h e A m e r i c a n C i t y  29  P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e (now A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s ) i n 1917 r e f l e c t e d t h e c l a i m o f c i t y p l a n n i n g a s an i n d e p e n d e n t p r o f e s s i o n . I n t h e l a t e 1920s, heavy demand was p l a c e d on p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and on t h e economic b a s e o f t h e c i t y .  The b u r g e o n i n g  business  community saw t h e need f o r an e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c i t y . c i t y p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n was»however, dominated by a r c h i t e c t s , engineers  and l a n d s c a p e  and d e v e l o p e d  architects.  The civil  They p r o v i d e d t h e i n i t i a l  guidance  c i t y p l a n n i n g i n t o a new f i e l d . The  institutional  r e s p o n s e t o t h e problems d u r i n g t h e  " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " and c i t y p r a c t i c a l phases was d r a m a t i c .  I n the period  1910-1930, 33 u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t r o d u c e d 55 c o u r s e s w h i c h were t a u g h t by 48 48 t e a c h e r s .  The l a r g e s t a d d i t i o n o f t h e s e c o u r s e s  t h e f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d 1910-1915 ( T a b l e I ) .  took p l a c e i n  T h i s development r e f l e c t e d  t h e i m p a c t o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on c i t y p l a n n i n g  (1908)  w h i c h was t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e o r g a n i z e d c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g movement. These c o u r s e s were i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t o f t h e programs i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g i f an a r c h i t e c t o r a c i v i l engineer  (Table I I ) .  The a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t  i s exposed t o one p l a n n i n g c o u r s e he  can o p e r a t e a f t e r w a r d s a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y p l a n n e r . pioneered  i n d i s p e l l i n g t h i s extremely  l i m i t e d premise;  Harvard i t was t h e  f i r s t s c h o o l t o o r g a n i z e an i n d e p e n d e n t program i n c i t y p l a n n i n g i n 1923, for  r e c o g n i z i n g a l s o the value of the s u b j e c t matter  the enrichment o f the f i e l d of p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y  of other  planning.  fields  30  TABLE I COURSES AND TEACHERS IN CITY PLANNING I N THE UNITED STATES (1910-1930)  YEAR  NUMBER OF UNIVERSITIES  NUMBER OF COURSES  NUMBER OF TEACHERS  1910  3  4  5  1915  11  23  20  1920  14  28  21  1925  25  40  40  1930  33  55  48  Source: F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and G e r a l d Hodge, " C i t y P l a n n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : .The P i o n e e r i n g Y e a r s 1900-1930", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . XXXI:1 F e b r u a r y 1965, P« 47.  TABLE I I DEPARTMENTS OFFERING CITY PLANNING INSTRUCTION I N THE UNITED STATES (1910-1930)  DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY  1910  1915  1920  1925  1930  Architecture  -  -  -  2  3  Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e  2  8  10  12  12  C i v i l Engineering  1  3  4  8  11  Others  -  -  3  7  A l l Departments  3  14  25  33  11  S o u r c e : F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and G e r a l d Hodge, " C i t y P l a n n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : The P i o n e e r i n g Y e a r s 1900-1930", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXX:1 F e b r u a r y 1965, p. 48.  31  The p e r i o d 1900-1930 was  a p i o n e e r i n g one i n v i e w o f i t s  impact on t h e p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as on t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education.  Such p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s  Robinson of I l l i n o i s  as Thomas Adams o f MIT,  Charles  M.  (Urbana), and James S t u r g i s P r a y , Henry V i n c e n t  Hubbard and F r e d e r i c k Law  Olmsted J r . a l l t h r e e o f H a r v a r d , b r o u g h t  the  49 emerging c o n c e p t s developed  of c i t y p l a n n i n g i n t o the classrooms.  The  concepts  f r o m p r a c t i c e as w e l l as f r o m such r e s e a r c h - o r i e n t e d works as  t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n o f New  Y o r k and  i t s E n v i r o n s proved t o be o f m a j o r  importance i n i n f l u e n c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l planning education i n the United S t a t e s and 2.3.2  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t i n Canada.  Post-Depression  Phase  The d e p r e s s i o n o f e a r l y 1930s s h i f t e d t h e i n t e r e s t o f b o d i e s f r o m v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c i t y t o economic i s s u e s .  civic  Local  governments s t a r t e d p l a n n i n g and managing t h e c i t y .  Local planning  a g e n c i e s were, t h e r e f o r e , c r e a t e d i n l a r g e numbers.  I n the  period  three-year  (1933-1936) a l o n e , t h e i r number i n c r e a s e d f r o m 85 t o 506.  c i t y now  came t o be l o o k e d upon i n b r o a d e r  regional context.  The  Special  encouragement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n came from t h e N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s P l a n n i n g Board c r e a t e d i n 1933. agencies  The  i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f e d e r a l  i n l o c a l a f f a i r s b r o u g h t t h e need f o r i n t e g r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l  p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s more c l e a r l y w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f l o c a l governments. The  i d e a was  t u r n e d i n t o a s l o g a n f o r t h e newly-formed (1934) A m e r i c a n  S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s :  " P r i v a t e e f f i c i e n c y of p u b l i c a d m i n i s -  t r a t i o n i n l a n d and community p l a n n i n g " . ^  32  D u r i n g and a f t e r t h e second w o r l d war, l o c a l  redevelopment  a g e n c i e s were c r e a t e d and a u t h o r i z e d t o p l a n and d e v e l o p l a n d s and b u i l d i n g s i n b l i g h t e d a r e a s as f e d e r a l l y - f i n a n c e d p r o j e c t s . C a n a d i a n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing A c t s o f 1944 building programs.^  Both the  l e d to massive  C a p i t a l improvement programming and  house-  capital  b u d g e t i n g were i n c r e a s i n g l y u n d e r t a k e n by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . T h e i r s t a f f h a n d l e d a mass o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a , and p r e p a r e d h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e documents. From t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s emerged t h e s c i e n t i f i c s u r v e y s  and  a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h i n c r e a s e d t h e scope o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g and l e d to independent  e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  Nine years a f t e r  the  f o u n d i n g o f H a r v a r d ' s program, f o u r more were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e t e n - y e a r p e r i o d 1930-1940, one and one o n l y two  (MIT) i n 1932,  ( I I T ) i n 1939. (Washington  two  (Columbia and C o r n e l l ) i n 1935  The second w o r l d war had a s l a c k e n i n g e f f e c t :  and W i s c o n s i n ) were opened between 1940 and  1944,  as a g a i n s t e i g h t ( B e r k e l e y , I l l i n o i s , Iowa, M i c h i g a n , M i c h i g a n S t a t e , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , Oklahoma and R u t g e r s ) opened i n t h e f i v e y e a r s a f t e r  1944.  D e p r e s s i o n and war n o t o n l y p r o v i d e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e opening o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s b u t they a l s o c r e a t e d s u b j e c t a r e a s l e a d i n g t o t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g programs. i n t e r e s t was  g i v e n t o r e g i o n a l and p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s .  s u r v e y o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s conducted  new New  Thus from a  i n 1945 John M. Gaus r e p o r t e d t h a t :  ...developments o f our problems, changes i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s and environment, and t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e d e p r e s s i o n and t h e war a r e p r o b a b l y t h e b a s i c c a u s e s . The same f a c t o r s have been a t work t h r o u g h o u t t h e ^ w o r l d and so f o r e i g n e x p e r i e n c e i s a f u r t h e r s t i m u l a n t .  33  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , however, w h i l e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s were t a k e n as g r a n t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g was h a r d l y a u n i v e r s i t y s u b j e c t u n t i l t h e o p e n i n g i n 1948 o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago p l a n n i n g program  which  l a i d heavy emphasis on t h e o r y , p r i n c i p l e s and methods o f p l a n n i n g drawn 53 from t h e s o c i a l  2.3.3  sciences.  Contemporary  Developments  R e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e programs o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g and improvements  capital  o f 1940s were n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t u n e d t o t h e t o t a l i t y o f  u r b a n p r o b l e m s , t h e Canadian and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s governments ged t h e a d o p t i o n o f comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  encoura-  Thus t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  N a t i o n a l Housing A c t o f 1949 o f f e r e d f e d e r a l f u n d s t o t h o s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h conformed t o a p l a n n e d program f o r t h e e n t i r e community.  The  p r e v i o u s " r e d e v e l o p m e n t " c o n c e p t was r e p l a c e d by a b r o a d c o n c e p t of "urban r e n e w a l " w h i c h i n c l u d e s r e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r vation.  F o r example, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t o f  made a "comprehensive" community p l a n mandatory  f o r an u r b a n a r e a t o  q u a l i f y f o r f e d e r a l s u p p o r t o f t h e i r u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes. i d e n t i c a l development  1954  An a l m o s t  t o o k p l a c e i n Canada i n t h e 1956 amendments t o i t s 54  N a t i o n a l Housing A c t o f  1954.  These i n t e g r a t e d development economic  surveys.  T h i s was  p l a n s were backed by  socio-  i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e g r o w i n g need f e l t i n the  p r o f e s s i o n f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e programs of v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s - t h e s c h o o l b o a r d , t h e p a r k s b o a r d s and t h e  34  highway d e p a r t m e n t s - w i t h i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l framework. I t i s toward t h i s r e s e a r c h - b a s e d  knowledge o f i n t e g r a t e d  development t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n has d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n i n the l a s t f i f t e e n years.  The p r o f e s s i o n i s b e s e t  c e r t a i n problems:  How s h o u l d t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  maneuvered t h r o u g h  a r e a l i s t i c model o f development?  with  f o r c e s be u s e f u l l y Should  current  i s s u e s o f p o v e r t y , b l i g h t and e c o l o g y be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n a systems framework, o r a t o t a l framework be d e v i s e d under w h i c h i s s u e s a r e v i e w e d i n a comprehensive o r s o c i e t a l framework?  these What i s  t h e r o l e o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s i n t h i s c h a n g i n g scene? q u e s t i o n s a r e b e i n g debated i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n today.  These  Meanwhile,  common a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h as systems a n a l y s i s and o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h have emerged and a r e b e i n g a p p l i e d a l o n g f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s , b l u r r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning areal lines.  I t i s t h e k i n d o f c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t i s making  thus  along  North  A m e r i c a n p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s c e n t e r s o f l i v e l y d e b a t e s and penetrating research i n the present  time.  These developments show t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s i n a s t a t e o f change. p l a n n e r s c o n t i r u e s t o be h i g h .  Y e t t h e need f o r p l a n n i n g and  The A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g  Officials  r e p o r t s a p e r s i s t e n t l a g between t h e demand f o r , and s u p p l y o f , p r o f e s s i o n a l planners.  As shown i n T a b l e I I I , t h e number o f p l a n n i n g  s c h o o l s i n c r e a s e d more t h a n f i v e t i m e s s i n c e 1950.  From 15 i n t h e  1 9 4 0 s , t h e y i n c r e a s e d t o 37 i n t h e 1950s and 83 i n t h e 1960s, an i n c r e a s e a t t h e end o f each decade, o f 10, 27 and 46 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  TABLE I I I NORTH AMERICAN PLANNING SCHOOLS SURVEYED  YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT OF SCHOOLS 1  GRADUATE SCHOOLS GRADUATE SCHOOLS NOT ALL GRADUATE SCHOOLS* UNDERGRADUATE RECOGNIZED by A I P RECOGNIZED by A I P SCHOOLS** ALL SURVEYED %(3/2) ALL SURVEYED % (6/5) ALL SURVEYED % (9/8) ALL 2 3 6 7 4 8 11 5 9 10  50  -  8  3  43  2  9  11  4  36  2  13  14  2  14  5  19  16  19  3  16  8  27  11  66  23  35  17  83  B e f o r e 1940  4  4  100  1  1  100  1940-1944  2  2  100  -  -  1945-1949  6  4  67  2  0  1950-1954  4  3  75  3  0  1955-1959  8  4  50  3  0  1960-1964  5  2  40  9  0  -  1965-1969  _  _  _  19  3  A l l Years  29  19  66  37  4  5  5  100  2  2  100  8  4  7  * I n c l u d e s s i x Canadian s c h o o l s , t h r e e e s t a b l i s h e d f u r i n g 1950-1954, and one each e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1959, 1961 and 1966. Only one (UBC) e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1953 i s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of Planners. **Undergraduate s c h o o l s Source:  i n c l u d e those which o f f e r p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l o r bachelor's  See Appendix 1.1  ALL SCHOOLS (8 + 11) i:  degree programs.  5 2  36  A f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t movement o f t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s stems from t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n b e i n g added t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n many p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s .  This i s i n  r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n c e r n o f b o t h Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h t h e development o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s have committed  economies around t h e  w o r l d . B o t h  c a p i t a l and e x p e r t s t o t h e t a s k .  Professional  p l a n n e r s have been g o i n g t o t h e s e c o u n t r i e s and r e t u r n i n g w i t h e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge o f o t h e r l a n d s and p e o p l e s .  S t u d e n t s from t h e s e c o u n t r i e s  have a l s o been coming i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n ( i n U.S.;  25,000 i n 1954 t o 100,000 i n 1969) i n c l u d i n g  planning schools.  institutions  professional  Because o f t h e s e phenomena t h e scope o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y broadened and even i n t e r n a tionalized.  _3_i. METHODOLOGY The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n what has happened t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada as a r e s u l t of p l a n n i n g f o r induced socio-economic countries.  changes i n  underdeveloped  The s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e t i m e and by t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e p r e s e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l  3.1  environment.  MEASUREMENT T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g has been d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f  answering  two major q u e s t i o n s .  37  The  first: a) What changes have t a k e n p l a c e i n " N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n system a s a r e s u l t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n ? For t h e purpose of t h i s study, "North American p l a n n i n g  education system" i n c l u d e s :  i ) i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h a t i s c i t y and r e g i o n a l  p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and programs;  i i ) curriculum, including planning  and background c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s ;  core  i i i ) s t u d e n t s who come  from underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s t o study i n North American p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s ; iv)  f a c u l t y members ( f u l l t i m e ) o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s , and  v ) academic-  p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t i s r e s e a r c h and a d v i s o r y work f o r UDCs. The  e f f e c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvement  t h e above elements u n d e r g o i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g changes:  has been measured by i ) Subject  matter  d e a l i n g w i t h aspects of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i s introduced i n t h e planning curriculum of planning schools; experience  i n working  i i ) F a c u l t y members g a i n  f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s ;  i i i ) Proportion of  s t u d e n t s f r o m u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s grows i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g schools;  i v ) P r o f e s s i o n a l and r e s e a r c h work d e v o t e d t o problems o f u n d e r -  developed  countries increases i n planning schools. The second q u e s t i o n i s : b) What f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e above changes i n North American p l a n n i n g schools? The model o f i n t e r a c t i o n s k e t c h e d  i n F i g u r e 1 suggests  that  t h e causes u n d e r l y i n g t h e above changes l a y i n c e r t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l developments t h a t l e d t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n among a g e n t s agencies  (A-2) and academies (A-3) i n t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s .  (A-l), These  38  hypothesized  causes have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d and s u p p o r t e d  i n the following  ' c h a p t e r s by s t u d y i n g t h e developments i n t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n 1.1 above.  3.2  DATA COLLECTION The d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o changes r e f e r r e d t o were g a t h e r e d  North American "graduate" d e g r e e programs.  from  p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s , i . e . t h o s e w h i c h have m a s t e r ' s  I n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d f r o m s y l l a b i and a v a i l a b l e  r e c o r d s o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s as s u p p l i e d by t h e Head o r o t h e r k n o w l e d g e a b l e f a c u l t y members o f t h e s c h o o l s .  F a c u l t y members who were i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n b r i n g i n g about t h e r e l e v a n t changes were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a v i e w t o p r o b i n g i n t o t h e r e a s o n s and f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e c h a n g e s . ( A p p e n d i x 1.4) V i s i t s t o t h e planning s c h o o l s f o r t h e purpose of the survey and  i n t e r v i e w were p l a n n e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a i n mind: a) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h o s e s c h o o l s w h i c h have e x i s t e d f o r twenty y e a r s o r more; b) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h o s e s c h o o l s w h i c h were known t o have i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and w h i c h have f a c u l t y members w i t h overseas experience; c ) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h o s e s c h o o l s w h i c h were r e c o g n i z e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g i a t e Schools of Planning;and d) l o c a t i o n o f young s c h o o l s w h i c h were e s t a b l i s h e d o r o r g a n i z e d by p e o p l e w i t h w i d e e x p e r i e n c e i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s and w i t h c o n t r i b u t i o n s made on t h e s u b j e c t o f development p l a n n i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a , 23 o r 35 p e r c e n t  o f a t o t a l o f 66  g r a d u a t e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s were v i s i t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s u r v e y . T h e  39  23 s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d 19 o r 65.5 p e r c e n t o f a t o t a l o f 29 s c h o o l s n i z e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s .  Out o f t h e 15 g r a d u a t e  s c h o o l s w h i c h were a t l e a s t 20-years o l d , 11 were v i s i t e d . a l l t h e s e v e n s c h o o l s w h i c h were more t h a n 30-years o l d . twenty-years-or-older  recog-  This included Out o f 11  s c h o o l s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f  P l a n n e r s , o n l y one was n o t v i s i t e d .  O n l y one s c h o o l (UCLA) q u a l i f i e d 57  under c r i t e r i a " d " and was c o v e r e d .  As shown i n T a b l e I I I t h e r e i s a  p r o g r e s s i v e l y p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between t h e s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s and t h e i r s e n i o r i t y and A I P  accredition.  I n o r d e r t o make t h e s t u d y comprehensive w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o u r s e s , an i n f o r m a t i o n s c h e d u l e was t o each o f t h e r e m a i n i n g  43 (66 minus 23) s c h o o l s n o t v i s i t e d .  t h e s e , 28 o r o v e r t w o - t h i r d s were a t l e a s t t e n - y e a r s o l d . about o n e - t h i r d o f t h e r e m a i n i n g  schools replied  Out o f  F i f t e e n or  to the information  s c h e d u l e b u t o n l y two s a i d t h a t they had c o u r s e s r e l a t e d a r e a s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s thus v e r i f y i n g  sent  t o t h e problem  the v a l i d i t y of  c r i t e r i a " a " and " d " above. W i t h r e g a r d t o b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p l a n n i n g t h i s i s a l m o s t a census s t u d y .  curricula,  S u l l a b i o f 60 out o f a t o t a l o f 66  g r a d u a t e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s were c o n s u l t e d .  Of t h o s e s c h o o l s w h i c h were  n o t v i s i t e d and w h i c h d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s c h e d u l e , were found t o have UDC c o u r s e s .  They were r e q u e s t e d  two  a second t i m e t o  g i v e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s and they d i d . ( F i g u r e 5) Besides t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g schools surveyed  and t h e  -40  •  'AlP-ACSP MEMBERS  SCHOOLS  •  ACSP MEMBERS ONLY  3 4  T  AIP MEMBERS ONLY  30  O  NON-MEMBERS  5 6 8 9  33  For reference see appendix 1.1 Source:  VISITED!  AIP- A SPO- ACSP Offices  12  14  15  17  41 34 44 50 56 60 63  18  26  65 66  41  persons  i n t e r v i e w e d , r e l e v a n t o f f i c e s such a s t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t h e  Pan A m e r i c a n U n i o n ,  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development,  the I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency and t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n e t c . were v i s i t e d f o r d a t a regarding t h e i r r o l e i n international technical assistance.  From t h e  d a t a g a t h e r e d from t h e s e a g e n c i e s , i n s i g h t was g a i n e d i n t o t h e f l o w o f UDC s t u d e n t s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s w e l l a s t h e v a r i o u s governmental  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f  p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s i n o v e r s e a s p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n enterprises. The s t u d y drew h e a v i l y f r o m an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f secondary s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s such a s j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s and a n n u a l r e p o r t s and n e w s l e t t e r s o f v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and s c h o o l s . r e s e a r c h s e r v e d two u s e f u l p u r p o s e s :  i t allowed the planning education  e v e n t s r e l a t e d t o UDC a s p e c t s t o be s e t down f r e e from personal views;  This  discursive  i t a f f o r d e d a chance t o c o l l e c t and c o l l a t e r e l e v a n t  m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s i t s e l f a p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n movement.  4.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  Modernization, a w i d e l y c h e r i s e d goal of  underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s , i s a p r o c e s s o f development o f w h i c h h i g h e r p h y s i c a l and improved  l e v e l s of l i v i n g a r e the main o b j e c t i v e s .  output  Because by  d e f i n i t i o n t h e word " m o d e r n i z a t i o n " s u g g e s t s a c o n s c i o u s movement from  42  t h e o l d s t a t e t o t h e new, t h e m o d e r n i z i n g s o c i e t y i s one w h i c h ,  believing  t h a t spontaneous change may n o t l e a d t o a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e , p l a n s i t s development. Underdeveloped  s o c i e t i e s on t h e r o a d t o development a i m a t an  educated and p r o s p e r o u s p o p u l a c e w h i c h i n t u r n , produces a d d i t i o n a l goods and s e r v i c e s as i n c r e m e n t s t o t h e g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t .  Thus,  i n c r e m e n t s i n t h e economy and improvements i n t h e l e v e l s o f l i v i n g a l t e r n a t e as means and ends d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f p l a n n e d development. P l a n n i n g f o r development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a convergence  of t h e concerns o f underdeveloped  a g e n c i e s h e l p i n g them.  c o u n t r i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  The r o l e o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s  b a s i c a l l y a q u e s t i o n of improving the e f f i c i e n c y of the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n as an impetus at  t o economic development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  Looking  t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o b l e m s , b o t h i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l  context, i n r e l a t i o n to deployable resources, the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s i n underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s ought t o be much more i n n o v a t i v e t h a n  ever b e f o r e i n t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d .  T h i s demands a new a p p r o a c h  to their  t r a i n i n g w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e r o l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s as i n n o v a t o r s and a g e n t s o f change i n t h e t o t a l environment  o f underdevelopment.  What has been t h e r e s p o n s e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n  c i t y and r e g i o n a l  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n and o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l needs o f s t u d e n t s coming from u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  countries to  N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r advanced e d u c a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g ? a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o t h i s q u e s t i o n under t h e assumptions  T h i s study  d e s c r i b e d above  43 w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t w h i c h i n essence follows:  a g i v e n problem  i s as  ( s t i m u l u s ) t r i g g e r s a s e q u e n t i a l response  i n the  form of i n t e r e s t , i n v o l v e m e n t and i n f l u e n c e among i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , n a t i o n a l governments and e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s . of the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l : t h e r e l e v a n t problem underdeveloped  The c u m u l a t i v e  effect  changes o c c u r i n b o t h systems, i . e .  a r e a ( h e r e c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g - e d u c a t i o n f o r  c o u n t r i e s ) as w e l l as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  (here North American  planning schools). T h i s s t u d y f o c u s s e s on changes i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , t h e p o s t u l a t e d changes b e i n g an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n the c u r r i c u l a of p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s .  content  Both the i n t e r a c t i o n (explanatory  v a r i a b l e s ) and t h e changes (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e a i d o f d a t a g a t h e r e d from a f i e l d s u r v e y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y  and  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s and from a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e development o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and  training.  /  44  FOOTNOTES  1.  I n f r a , S e c t i o n 2.2.1 o f Chapter I .  2.  I n f r a , S e c t i o n 4 of Chapter I I I .  3.  D e t a i l s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e s appeared i n : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n A s i a and t h e F a r E a s t " , H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No. 9; R e p o r t o f t h e D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l i n t h e UNESCO Seminar on U r b a n i z a t i o n , 1956; " T r a i n i n g f o r Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g " , Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No.11, 1957; " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n s Nos. 12 & 13, 1959, A l l New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the given year.  4.  F o r a g e n e r a l commentary on f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , see H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , " P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Newly Independent C o u n t r i e s " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners, XXVIII:2, May 1962.  5.  Passim, Chapter I I .  6.  W i l l i a m A. D o e b e l e J r . , " E d u c a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " , The Town P l a n n i n g Review, X X X I I I : 2 , J u l y 1962, pp. 95-114.  7.  Oberlander,  8.  G. Holmes P e r k i n s , e t . a l . , R e p o r t on t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S c h o o l f o r T r a i n i n g o f A r c h i t e c t s and C i t y P l a n n e r s i n T u r k e y , New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955, 28 pp. (mimeo).  9.  J o h n A. P a r k e r , P o s t - G r a d u a t e P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n i n C h i l e , S a n t i a g o : The U n i t e d N a t i o n s A i d M i s s i o n t o C h i l e , 1962, 46 pp. (Mimeo); F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , T r a i n i n g o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n s i n Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n t h e U.S., O c t o b e r 14, 1962, (mimeo); W a l t e r D. H a r r i s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and H o u s i n g Programs i n H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g " , Study o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o u s i n g , 8 8 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t S e s s i o n , W a s h i n g t o n D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963, pp. 348-54.  loc.cit.  10.  Passim, Chapter IV.  11.  N o t a b l e among o t h e r s a r e : R i c h a r d L. M e i e r , Development P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l , 1965, 420pp., A l b e r t W a t e r s t o n , Development P l a n n i n g : L e s s o n s o f E x p e r i e n c e , B a l t i m o r e : Johns H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1965, 706 pp. and J o h n Friedmann, Urban and R e g i o n a l Development i n C h i l e : A Case Study o f I n n o v a t i v e P l a n n i n g , S a n t i a g o : 1969, 251 pp.  45  12.  See Harvey S. P e r l o f f , E d u c a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g : C i t y S t a t e and Regional, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1957, pp. 104-20, and J o h n Friedmann, " I n t e n t i o n and R e a l i t y : The A m e r i c a n P l a n n e r O v e r s e a s , " J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXV:3 May 1969, pp. 187-94.  13.  The s t u d i e s a r e a n n o t a t e d i n M. L. Cormack, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Through E d u c a t i o n a l Exchange," Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , X X X V I I I : 3, J u n e 1968, p. 298.  14.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No. op. c i t . , 119 pp.  15.  D e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f underdevelopment have been systemat i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d and d i s c u s s e d i n : B e n j a m i n H i g g i n s , Economic Development: P r i n c i p l e s , Problems and P o l i c i e s , New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n & Co., 1959, pp. 5-7; H. L e i b e n s t e i n , Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth, New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 1957, pp. 40-41; J . B h a g w a t i , The Economics o f Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s , New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l , 1966, 254 pp.  16.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Measures o f Economic Development o f U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s , New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1951, p. 3.  17.  T h i s s t u d y has adopted t h e above d e f i n i t i o n but has made two e x c e p t i o n s : t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e Commonwealth o f P u e r t o R i c o . The 700 m i l l i o n C h i n e s e have remained i n s u l a t e d from i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r - • n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and the e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m i t . P u e r t o R i c o ' s p e r c a p i t a income i s above t h e $500 l i m i t b u t many o f i t s developments a r e a t t r i b u t e d to i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t has, t h e r e f o r e , s e r v e d as a m e a n i n g f u l exemplary model f o r t h i s study.  18.  The J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s i n one o f i t s e d i t o r i a l s p o i n t e d out t h e a m b i g u i t y r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use o f t h e word " p l a n n i n g " and appealed t o i t s members and p a t r o n s to d e f i n e t h e word and use i t i n c o n t e x t w a r n i n g t h a t " i f we a r e not c l e a r , the v e r y v a l u e and p u r p o s e o f o u ^ t r a i n i n g w i l l become c o n f u s e d " . J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . X V I I I : 1 , W i n t e r 1952, pp. 2-3.  19.  J o h n F. K a i n , "Rampant S c h i z o p h r e n i a : A Case o f C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X X I I : 1, J a n u a r y 1966, p. 3.  11,  46  20.  R i c h a r d L. M e i e r and R i c h a r d D. Duke, "Gaming S i m u l a t i o n f o r Urban P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X X I I : 1, J a n u a r y 1966, p. 3.  21.  E. C. B a n f i e l d , "The D e c i s i o n Making Scheme", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, 4, Autumn 1957, pp. 278-85; J o h n F r i e d m a n n , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d o f S t u d y " , R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g (Ed.: Same a u t h o r and W i l l i a m A l o n s o ) , Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1965, pp. 59-72; A l b e r t G.Guttenburg, "Urban S t r u c t u r e and Urban Form", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXVI: 2, May 1960, pp. 104-10; W a l t e r I s a r d , L o c a t i o n and Space Economy, New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y , 1956, 350 pp{ D e v i n L y n c h and L l o y d Rodwin, "A Theory of Urban Form", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXIV: 4, 1958, pp. 201-14; R i c h a r d L. M e i e r , A Communication Theory of U r b a n Growth, Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1962, 184 pp; M e l v i n M. Webber, "The Urban P l a c e and t h e N o n - P l a c e Urban Realm" i n : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o Urban S t r u c t u r e (Ed. by t h e same a u t h o r ) , P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1964, pp. 79-153; Lowdon Wingo, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Urban Land, Washington D.C: R e s o u r c e s f o r the F u t u r e I n c . , 1961, 132 pp.  22.  T h i s s t a t e m e n t a p p e a r s i n t h e b a c k c o v e r o f each i s s u e o f t h e J o u r n a l of t h e American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s .  23.  B r i t t o n H a r r i s , "Some Problems i n t h e Theory o f I n t r a - U r b a n L o c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f O p e r a t i o n R e s e a r c h I X , September-October 1 9 6 1 , pp. 695-721.  24.  Gunnar M y r d a l , A s i a n Drama, V o l I , New Y o r k :  25.  John W. Dyckman, " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S o c i a l P l a n n e r s and P l a n n e d S o c i e t i e s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X X I I : 2, March 1966, p. 66.  26.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f underdevelopment a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d i n L e i b e n s t e i n , l o c . c i t . A l s o s e e F o o t n o t e 17 above.  27.  Mahbubul Haq, S t r a t e g y o f P l a n n i n g , O x f o r d : 1963, p. 1.  28.  M y r d a l , op. c i t . , p. 867 ( V o l . I I ) .  P a n t h e o n , 1968, p. 54.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  47  29.  Many have e x p r e s s e d t h i s v i e w b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s M e i e r , Friedmann and L e r n e r have d e m o n s t r a t e d from e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n A s i a , L a t i n A m e r i c a and A f r i c a r e s p e c t i v e l y t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e t h a t animates economic development. See R i c h a r d L. M e i e r and I k u m i H o s h i n o , "Adjustment t o M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth i n an I n n e r Tokyo Ward", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXIV: 4, J u l y 1968, pp. 210-22; John Friedmann, S t r a t e g y of D e l i b e r a t e U r b a n i z a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . XXXIV: 6, November 1968, pp. 364-73; D a v i d L e r n e r , "Comprehensive A n a l y s i s o f t h e P r o c e s s o f M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , The C i t y of Modern A f r i c a (Ed.: Horace M i n e r ) , New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1967, p. 26.  30.  The c a s e i n p o i n t i s P a k i s t a n where a h o u s i n g e x p e r t was dismayed t o f i n d a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s on h i g h - i n c o m e h o u s i n g t o t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e n e g l e c t o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g f o r low-income people. I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m L. C. Wheaton, Dean of t h e C o l l e g e o f Environment D e s i g n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , November 11, 1969.  31.  The " c r i s i s o f i n c l u s i o n " c o n c e p t advanced i n Friedmann, l o c . c i t .  32.  C o n t i n e n t - w i s e breakdown o f s h o r t a g e of " d w e l l i n g u n i t s " i s 11.4 m i l l i o n f o r A f r i c a , 26.2 m i l l i o n f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a and 72.1 m i l l i o n f o r A s i a . U n i t e d N a t i o n s . World Housing C o n d i t i o n s and E s t i m a t e d Housing R e q u i r e m e n t s , New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965, T a b l e 1 and pp. 3-5.  33.  Output o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n i n s e l e c t e d " d e v e l o p e d " c o u n t r i e s were i n 1960: S o v i e t U n i o n : 14.0, West Germany: 10.3, Sweden: 9.1, Romania: 7.3, F i n l a n d : 7.1, The U n i t e d S t a t e s : 7.1 and F r a n c e 7.0. A n n u a l B u l l e t i n of Housing and B u i l d i n g S t a t i s t i c s f o r Europe, New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961, T a b l e 5, p. 5.  34.  R e s u l t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s on s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g r e v i e w e d i n : Amjad A. B. R i z v i , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g : An E v a l u a t i o n of t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s P o l i c y i n S e l e c t e d D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , M a s t e r T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, 1966, 193 pp. See a l s o : L e l a n d 5, Burns and B. K h i n g T h i o e , "Housing and Human R e s o u r c e Development", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXXIV: 6, pp. 396-401.  35.  F r e d e r i c k J . Adams, " S t a t u s o f P l a n n i n g and P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n " , Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No. 11, op. c i t . , p. 43.  48  36.  Friedmann, l o c . c i t .  37.  B e r t F. H o s e l i t z , " G e n e r a t i v e and P a r a s i t i c C i t i e s " , Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 3, A p r i l 1955, p. 279.  38.  J o h n D. H e r b e r t , "An Approach t o M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g i n t h e D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " , i n : J o h n D. H e r b e r t and A l f r e d Van Yayck (eds.) Urban P l a n n i n g i n t h e D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k P r a e g e r , 1968, p. 32.  39.  A l i s o n M a r t i n and W. A r t h u r L e w i s , " P a t t e r n o f P u b l i c Revenue and E x p e n d i t u r e " , i n R i c h a r d B i r d and O l i v e r Oldman ( e d s . ) , R e a d i n g s i n T a x a t i o n i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1964, p. 113.  40.  J o s e p h F r o o m k i n , " F i s c a l Management o f M u n i c i p a l and Economic Development", Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 3, J u l y 1955, p. 313.  41.  R i c h a r d B o y l a n , "Emerging V i e w s o f P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . X X X I I I , J u l y 1967, p. 244.  42.  Wolfgang S t o p l e r , P l a n n i n g W i t h o u t F a c t s , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, p. 11.  43.  F r i e d m a n n , " I n t e n t i o n and R e a l i t y . . . " l o c c i t .  44.  F r e d e r i c k J . Adams, Urban P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , C i n c i n n a t i : A l f r e d Bettman F o u n d a t i o n , 1954, 54 pp.; L u i d g i D o d i , S u l l ' Insegnamento D e l l ' U r b a n i s t i c a , M i l a n o : 1957, 249 pp.; I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n f o r H o u s i n g and Town P l a n n i n g , E d u c a t i o n i n Town P l a n n i n g : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l S u r v e y , Hague: 1952, 139 pp.; J o h n A. P a r k e r , P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1950, 41 pp. (mimeo); Harvey S. P e r l o f f , E d u c a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g : C i t y S t a t e and R e g i o n a l , B a l t i m o r e : Johns H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1957, 189 pp.; L. R. V a g a l e , "Thoughts on Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n I n d i a " , Urban and R u r a l P l a n n i n g Thought, J a n u a r y - A p r i l 1966, pp. 33-39; F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , " P l a n n i n g i n S o u t h A m e r i c a : S t a t u s and E d u c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X I I I : 3, 1957, pp. 112-25; J o h n W i l l i s , " E d u c a t i o n f o r Town P l a n n i n g i n Canada", P l a n , A p r i l 1964, 41 pp.; J a c k Wood, "Town P l a n n i n g I n d i a : S t a t u s and E d u c a t i o n " , Urban and R u r a l P l a n n i n g Thought, V o l . 4, O c t o b e r 1958, pp. 223-43.  45.  S e c t i o n s 3 and 4 i n C h a p t e r I I I .  Cambridge:  Harvard  49  46.  P e r l o f f , op. c i t . pp.  1-34.  47.  F r e d e r i c k J . Adams and G e r a l d Hodge, " C i t y P l a n n i n g I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : The P i o n e e r i n g Y e a r s 1900-1930), J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , XXXI: 1, F e b r u a r y 1965, pp. 43-51. A l s o Adams, l o c . c i t .  48.  I b i d , p.  49.  I b i d , pp.  50.  P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , p.  51.  C a n a d i a n a p p r o a c h to c i t y p l a n n i n g and h o u s i n g development came c l o s e r t o A m e r i c a n a p p r o a c h a f t e r t h e second w o r l d war. This i s e x e m p l i f i e d by p o l i c y s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g a c t s d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e war i n t h e two c o u n t r i e s . Despite i t s r o o t s i n B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e d u c a t i o n a l system, Canada's p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a r e l o o k i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y towards i t s s o u t h e r n n e i g h b o u t f o r g u i d a n c e . U n t i l the o p e n i n g o f t h e f i r s t p l a n n i n g s c h o o l (UBC) i n Canada i n 1953 a l m o s t a l l t h e p l a n n e r s were t r a i n e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s a r e p a t t e r n e d around Chicago and H a r v a r d models ( w i t h l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n s ) and not around L i v e r p o o l and Birmingham s c h o o l s . This general observation i s based on t h e s t u d y of e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t , f a c u l t y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s and t h e i r p l a c e of s t u d y , a s c o n t a i n e d i n the c a t o l o g of v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . The a s s u m p t i o n of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y contained i n the statement "North American p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m " w h i c h i n c l u d e s Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i s c h a l l e n g e d by P r o f e s s o r Leonard C. Marsh. I t i s the author's c o n t e n t i o n , however, t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e more pronounced t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s a t l e a s t i n t h e p a s t two decades, t h e p e r i o d to w h i c h t h i s study p e r t a i n s .  52.  J o h n M. Gaus, " E d u c a t i o n o f P l a n n e r s : A Commentary on Some C u r r e n t P r o j e c t s " , J o u r n a l o f Land P u b l i c U t i l i t y Economics, X X I : 4, November 1945, p. 307.  53.  For d e t a i l s of t h e C h i c a g o Program see; P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , pp. 133-73: The Program i s a l s o r e v i e w e d i n : I n f r a , 3.1 o f S e c t i o n D.  54.  The P r o g r e s s of Urban Renewal i n Canada: A C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n , A Study o f G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , Canada, December 1965, pp. 12-13. (See a l s o F o o t n o t e 51)  47. 43-51. 58.  50  55.  C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency a d m i n i s t e r s Canada's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t e c h n i c a l a i d w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e Commonwealth, Colombo P l a n and o t h e r economic c o o p e r a t i o n a r r a n g e arrangements o f a group o f c o u n t r i e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development a d m i n i s t e r s t h e U.S. t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs w i t h i n t h e framework o f U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y objectives. Depending on t h e g r o s s n a t i o n a l income and f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s o f two c o u n t r i e s t h e m a g n i t u d e and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e would v a r y .  56.  F o r l i s t o f p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s see A p p e n d i x  57.  The b a s i c r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s o t h e r w i s e u n q u a l i f i e d s c h o o l (on t h e b a s i s o f s e n i o r i t y and AIP a c c r e d i t i o n ) was t h e p r e s e n c e o f two p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s , Harvey S. P e r l o f f and John Friedmann. P e r l o f f was p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e C h i c a g o Program and has s i n c e been r e f l e c t i n g and w r i t i n g on t h e t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y o f p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n . Friedmann's r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and e d u c a t i o n have drawn h e a v i l y from h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . B o t h have d i s p l a y e d s t r o n g commitments t o development p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g education f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . I t was e s s e n t i a l t o see how t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e UCLA's p l a n n i n g program.  1.1.  CHAPTER I I THE ROLE OF AGENCIES IN PLANNING EDUCATION PROGRAMS  1.  TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS  The u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s a r e s t r i v i n g t o d e v e l o p p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r to p r o g r e s s toward s e l f s u s t a i n i n g modern s t a t e s , as p o i n t e d o u t i n Chapter I . t i m e , t h e y f a c e a dilemma:  A t t h e same  a v a i l a b l e c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s and  technical  knowhow do not have the power t o do the j o b ; b o t h a r e i n s c a r c e s u p p l y . The r a t e o f s a v i n g i s too meagre t o e n s u r e an adequate s u p p l y o f capital.  No u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y can save a t a r a t e e q u i v a l e n t t o 16  p e r c e n t o f n a t i o n a l income w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d t o d o u b l e t h e s t a n d a r d 1 of l i v i n g i n l e s s than a century. Nor can u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s d e v e l o p s k i l l e d manpower i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e o f need; they l a c k funds t o do s o .  The p r o b l e m c a n be a l l e v i a t e d i f some compensating i n c r e m e n t s  o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e form of e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e .  T h i s has been t h e p r e m i s e b e h i n d most  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e programs. As s u p p l i e r s o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e s o u r c e s t o u n d e r d e v e l o p e d economies, i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e programs have p l a y e d a c a t a l y t i c r o l e e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r a c t i o n among e x p e r t s , a g e n c i e s and  institutions  w h i c h have been w o r k i n g , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , f o r the m o d e r n i z a t i o n  52  and development o f t h e s e economies. of  An awareness o f form and f u n c t i o n s  r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the nature of t h i s  interaction.  Two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f a g e n c i e s h a n d l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t a n c e programs.  assis-  The f i r s t c a t e g o r y d e a l s m a i n l y w i t h t h e f i n a n c i n g  of  p r o j e c t s f o r c a p i t a l improvement, w h i l e t h e second a d d r e s s e s  to  t h e improvement o f human r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  F i n a n c i n g o f development i s t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h r e e m u l t i l a t e r a l n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t form t h e World Bank Group:  itself  inter-  International  Bank o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (IBRD), I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n (IFC) and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n ( I D A ) . IBRD made i t s f i r s t ing  l o a n s i n 1947 and has s i n c e been h e l p -  an i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o u n t r i e s (now 110) i n t h e f i n a n c i n g o f  major development p r o j e c t s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I F C , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1956, has been a s s i s t i n g p r i v a t e s e c t o r s o f 90 member c o u n t r i e s through c a p i t a l l o a n s and i n v e s t m e n t s o t h e r w i s e n o t s e c u r e d by t h e i r own governments.  I t has i n v e s t e d m a i n l y i n m i n i n g ,  m a n u f a c t u r i n g , f o o d - p r o c e s s i n g and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The t h i r d f i n a n c i n g agency (IDA) was s e t up i n 1960 w i t h a membership o f 102 c o u n t r i e s .  I t has been s u p p l y i n g c a p i t a l t o t h e  l e a s t p r o s p e r o u s UDCs on easy terms.  Over t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , t h e  t h r e e f i n a n c i n g a g e n c i e s have i n v e s t e d some 1,000 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a 2 y e a r i n underdeveloped w o r l d .  53  While f i n a n c i n g i n p u t s a v a i l a b l e through these agencies can be b e n e f i c i a l i n p r o d u c i n g p h y s i c a l o u t p u t t h e m a r g i n a l a d d i t i o n t o g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t (growth) r e s u l t i n g t h e r e b y , may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o "development"; f o r i n a d d i t i o n t o i n c l u d i n g t h e concept o f "economic g r o w t h " , "development" a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t improvement i n the s t a t e o f h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n i s e q u a l l y e s s e n t i a l .  Investment  i n the " q u a l i t y " of population  productivity  i s r e f l e c t e d i n increased  o f t h o s e employed i n c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t p r o j e c t s , and i n c r e a s e d d u c t i v i t y insures higher i f a proportionate  and b e t t e r p h y s i c a l o u t p u t .  pro-  This i s p o s s i b l e  amount o f c a p i t a l i s used t o improve human r e s o u r c e s  i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d economies. technical assistance  T h i s has been t h e a s s u m p t i o n b e h i n d most  programs.  A h o s t o f a g e n c i e s , b o t h n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , manage t h e s e programs.  Among i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , t h e U n i t e d  Nations i n -  c l u d i n g i t s r e g i o n a l commissions and s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s , t h e Colombo P l a n , t h e Commonwealth and t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n have been o p e r a t i n g United  f o r two decades.  o f American States  (OAS)  Among n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , t h e  S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAID) and C a n a d i a n  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) (and t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s ) have been managing t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs f o r t h e two governments s i n c e t h e end o f W o r l d War I I .  A host of p r i v a t e philanthropic  agencies,  such as F o r d F o u n d a t i o n and R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n have a l s o been giving assistance  t o UDCs i n t h e a r e a o f h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g .  3  54  Some a i d f o r h o u s i n g and u r b a n development has been f o r t h coming from t h e s e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s s i n c e e a r l y 1950s b u t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e s u b j e c t has r e c e i v e d low p r i o r i t y . I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank (IADB) and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n (IDA) a r e n o t a b l e among t h e c a p i t a l - i n v e s t i n g a g e n c i e s i n u r b a n development p r o j e c t s i n UDCs.  A s s i s t a n c e from a l l o t h e r  takes the form of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  sources  activities:  h o u s i n g s u r v e y s , development p o l i c i e s , z o n i n g and l e g i s l a t i o n , admini s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c i n g f a c i l i t i e s , b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r i e s , e d u c a t i o n and 4 t r a i n i n g , and r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the area of p l a n n i n g t a k e s b a s i c a l l y t h r e e forms: seminars  education  F i r s t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and  a r e o r g a n i z e d t o develop  i n t e r e s t and promote exchange o f i d e a s  r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r UDCs.  Second, p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s a r e  s e n t f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s t o make o n - t h e - s p o t  studies of a given pro-  blem, implement p r e - c o n c e i v e d p o l i c i e s , e s t a b l i s h an i n s t i t u t i o n o r t o t e a c h i n an e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . for  T h i r d , UDC s t u d e n t s a r e s p o n s o r e d  study i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g schools o f developed  as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  c o u n t r i e s such  The r o l e o f v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s  i n fur-  t h e r i n g t h e t h r e e forms o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages.  55  2.  2.1  INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES  UNITED NATIONS In I n i t i a l  s t a g e s t h e r o l e o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s was  con-  f i n e d t o the h o l d i n g of a s e r i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e m i n a r s and i n q u i r i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e scope of work r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h z a t i o n problems i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s .  urbani-  I n t h e e a r l y 1950s,  e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y s o f u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s were c a r r i e d o u t .  Later,  some a t t e m p t s were made t o s t u d y r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n , a s p e c t s o f h e a l t h and h o u s i n g , and 5 growth. studying  On  a h o s t o f o t h e r problems caused by r a p i d u r b a n  t h e w h o l e , however, e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s were o r i e n t e d  t h e problems o f i n d u s t r i a l development and  i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e ; r e l a t i v e l y m a r g i n a l a t t e n t i o n was  to  urban p h y s i c a l p a i d to the  insti-  t u t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e s o f u r b a n and r e g i o n a l development. The for  i n t e n t of t h e s e s t u d i e s was  to provide  some g u i d e l i n e s  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a n t o be adopted by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s .  a p p e a r e d i n 1961  This  i n t h e form o f " C o n c e r t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n  the F i e l d of U r b a n i z a t i o n " , a program w h i c h recommended a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s and assistance i n : c i t y and  cooperative  e f f o r t s , and  a ) b a s i c r e s e a r c h and  regional planning;  s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r  s t u d i e s on u r b a n i z a t i o n ;  c) p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e  b) context  6 o f u r b a n i z a t i o n ; and  d) community s e r v i c e s and  civic  participation.  F i v e s p e c i f i c t a s k s formed a c o n t i n u i n g p a r t of the C o n c e r t e d Action:  a) o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e g i o n a l s t u d y m i s s i o n s  and  seminars  con-  c e r n i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n ; b) conduct o f s p e c i f i c i n q u i r i e s and  i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s r e l a t i n g t o development p l a n n i n g  l e v e l s ; c) s u p p o r t o f a d v i s o r y gional planning;  at a l l  s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a of u r b a n and  re-  d) award o f f e l l o w s h i p s f o r t r a i n i n g i n a s p e c t s o f  u r b a n i z a t i o n ; and 7  e) c o o r d i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs on  urban  development. Technical assistance i n a l l f i e l d s increased both i n pers o n n e l and  funds  certed Action.  e v e r s i n c e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of the program o f ConThe  number o f UN-sponsored e x p e r t s  and  students i n -  c r e a s e d f r o m a few hundred i n e a r l y 1950s t o a t o t a l o f 12,400 (6,900 experts  and  5,500 s t u d e n t s ) i n 1966.  Grants a l s o increased  through  l a r g e - s c a l e p r e - i n v e s t m e n t a l l o c a t i o n s under the S p e c i a l Fund of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Program f r o m $550,900 i n 1960 to $8,348,300 8 in  1966. The  planning  need f o r t r a i n i n g i n t h e f i e l d o f c i t y and  as a f o r m of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has been f e l t e v e r s i n c e  t h e s t a r t o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs.  I t has, however, r e c e i v e d  low p r i o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a i n i n g i n o t h e r f i e l d s . due  regional  T h i s has  p a r t l y t o ' t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g about the n a t u r e and  p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  been  scope of  and p a r t l y t o the urgency o f m e e t i n g the  acute  shortage of other h i g h - p r i o r i t y s k i l l s required f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i a l development programs.  I t was  and  not u n t i l t h e m i d d l e 1950s  t h a t s e r i o u s e f f o r t s were made i n the UN-sponsored m e e t i n g s and  studies  57  to u n d e r s t a n d  the b r o a d scope of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g and  t r a i n i n g i n the  2.1.1  field.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Meetings Although  the s u b j e c t of planning education r e c e i v e d passing  mention i n almost a l l housing was  the need f o r  i n 1951  way.  and p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s o f UN m i s s i o n s , i t  t h a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d  i t s i n t e r e s t i n a formal  Thus i n r e s p o n s e t o the g e n e r a l c o n c e r n about h o u s i n g  and  development p r o b l e m s , the S o c i a l Commission a t i t s 7th S e s s i o n  urban (E/1982)  a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n making t h r e e recommendations, one o f w h i c h s t a t e d that: T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o b u i l d i n g , h o u s i n g and town and c o u n t r y p l a n n i n g and a l s o to i n c l u d e corresponding t r a i n i n g of personnel f o r v a r i o u s phases o f h o u s i n g , p r o d u c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e s e fields. 9  A p a r t f r o m i n c r e a s i n g the number o f f e l l o w s h i p s i n t h e f i e l d , much was was  done i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s .  vague; t h e r e was  For one  not  t h i n g the recommendation  a need t o c l a r i f y the " v a r i o u s phases o f p l a n n i n g ,  p r o d u c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , a need t o d e f i n e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l , t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scope o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g education. to  A s e r i e s of conferences  o f e x p e r t s were o r g a n i z e d w i t h a v i e w  d i f f e r e n t i a t e and i n t e r p r e t t h e s e  concepts.  F o r many y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the S o c i a l C o u n c i l ' s r e s o l u t i o n ,  the  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Bureau o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s w h i c h d e a l s w i t h the s u b j e c t o f  58  h o u s i n g , b u i l d i n g and p l a n n i n g , has been s t r i v i n g t o d e v e l o p seminate understanding e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e UDCs.  o f t h e n a t u r e and scope o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g I t has assembled l e a d i n g p l a n n e r s and educa-  t o r s i n t h e UN-sponsored c o n f e r e n c e s even i n c o n f e r e n c e s  and d i s -  and s e m i n a r s h e l d i n t h e f i f t i e s ;  n o t d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , t h e  s u b j e c t appeared f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e agenda. The h e l d i n 1954.  f i r s t f o r m a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l debate on t h e s u b j e c t was In that year, the United Nations, i n cooperation with  t h e Government o f I n d i a , s p o n s o r e d a s e m i n a r i n New D e l h i on h o u s i n g and community improvement i n A s i a and t h e F a r E a s t . was  one o f t h e t h r e e problems d i s c u s s e d .  Planning  education  P a r t i c i p a n t s to the seminar  i n c l u d e d 111 p l a n n e r s f r o m 17 u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s and 22 p a r t i c i p a n t s from seven developed  c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e f r o m 11 i n t e r 10  n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as t h e FAO, IFHTP, I L 0 , UNESCO and WHO. The New D e l h i Seminar made some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s .  It  took t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t " p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g " i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d i n i t s own r i g h t , and s u g g e s t e d  that:  a) a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of r e l a t e d  d i s c i p l i n e s and competence i n t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l ; b) p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n must r e c o g n i z e t h e complementary r o l e o f g e n e r a l i s t s as w e l l as s p e c i a l i s t s ; c) academic e d u c a t i o n must be supplemented w i t h i n t e r n s h i p o r on-the-job  t r a i n i n g ; d) t e c h n i c a l a s s i s -  t a n c e s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d f o r p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n ; and e) p l a n n i n g  schools  s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s w o r l d - r e g i o n s w i t h a v i e w t o economize 11 resources from d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s .  59  These c o n c l u s i o n s were n o t f i n a l answers t o a l l  questions;  many i s s u e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f o r m and c o n t e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g are s t i l l b e i n g debated.  The e s s e n t i a l m e r i t o f t h e s e m i n a r was t h a t  i t r a i s e d problems f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and e s t a b l i s h e d a few c r i t e r i a f o r more j u d i c i o u s use o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e r e s o u r c e s f o r urban and regional  development. These i s s u e s were debated a g a i n i n a n o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l  s e m i n a r o r g a n i z e d two y e a r s a f t e r t h e New D e l h i s e m i n a r .  This time  t h e s e m i n a r was j o i n t l y s p o n s o r e d by two i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , two n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and one u n i v e r s i t y .  I t was e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e sub-  j e c t o f " t r a i n i n g f o r town and c o u n t r y p l a n n i n g " .  One hundred and  t w e l v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p l a n n i n g e d u c a t o r s f r o m 16 c o u n t r i e s  assembled  a t San J u a n , P u e r t o R i c o i n March 1956 t o : . . . e x p l o r e s o l u t i o n t o one o f t h e most p r e s s i n g p r o blems i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o f t h e Western Hemisp h e r e w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o L a t i n A m e r i c a , namely, t h e t r a i n i n g o f q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t branches and phases o f comprehensive and i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g and development.^2 Guided by t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e seminar took a b r o a d v i e w o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h aims a t b a l a n c e d economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l development.  I t c o n s i d e r e d r e g i o n as a s u i t a b l e s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n  f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s .  With regard t o planning schools, i t  made, among o t h e r s , one recommendation made i n t h e New D e l h i s e m i n a r :  w h i c h was s i m i l a r t o t h e one  60  Each major r e g i o n i n L a t i n America should e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p a t l e a s t one w e l l - r o u n d e d p o s t - g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m m e i n order to achieve a type of t r a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s needs„^ Following schools  and  c e n t r e s were opened i n L a t i n A m e r i c a .  the Inter-American ombia), i n order  t i c e s and  t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , many h o u s i n g  techniques  The  organization,  formed i n Bogota  of comprehensive p l a n n i n g " .  growing  i n t e r e s t sparked  an u r b a n i z a t i o n seminar o r g a n i z e d w i t h UNESCO a t B a n g k o k i n May the r e q u i r e d personnel  lines  as  i n a r was  the  two  f r o m 16  stitutions  i t noted  1958. 17  by  For  Attended  meetings. the example,  of on  training the  Also, a regional planning  by  98  and  s c h o l a r s and  trained personnel  same  sem-  t h e Government  of  professionals  i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and of  of  i n conjunction  r e a f f i r m e d the c r i t e r i a  the United Nations  the shortage  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s and  regional planning.  the United Nations  seminars.  organized j o i n t l y  c o u n t r i e s and  1956,  sem-  schools.  a s e r i e s of subsequent  f o r comprehensive p h y s i c a l planning 15  previous  Japan i n July-August  by  prac-  i n the context  s u b j e c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n became p a r t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and  (Col-  The  p r o v i d e d many g u i d e l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g  agenda o f m e e t i n g s on  for  ( S L A P ) , was  the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l planning  u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and The  Society  planning  to "promote the development of the p r i n c i p l e s , 14  teaching  inar clarified  Planning  An  and  planning i n -  for regional  recommended t h e o p e n i n g o f t r a i n i n g 16 various l e v e l s of e x p e r t i s e .  facilities  61  These i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the United Nations educators  of  the  appropriate planning  2.1.2  Expert  Economic and by  the  roles  t o a s s e m b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  o f p l a n n i n g and  education  important  to promote d i s c u s s i o n of to seek  the  hith-  suggestions  f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s .  t h e UN  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e program  g i v e n t o t h e UDCs o n h o u s i n g  This policy  requests  field  of  Missions  Another part of of advice  1 9 5 0 s was  f r o m v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s and  e r t o vague aspects for  i n the  show t h a t o n e  took  e f f e c t f r o m t h e 1951  and  urban planning  r e s o l u t i o n 434  S o c i a l Council which considered  the  I  matters.  (XIV)  demonstration  " t h a t T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Board develop  of  the  "growing volume  governments f o r d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e i n the expert  t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and  comprises  p r o j e c t s " , and  of  advice,  recommended  further i t s activities  per-  17 taining  to housing,  t i o n manifests  itself  c o n s i s t i n g o f one reference agencies  community p l a n n i n g  i n one  i n many f o r m s .  o r more e x p e r t s  are  o r more c o u n t r i e s .  and  building".  H o u s i n g and  planning  sent w i t h s p e c i f i c  I n most c a s e s  Almost a l l expert  t h e i r job missions  missions  terms  Others are assigned w i t h  i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a s a d v i s e r s o r members o f  nical staff.  This r e s o l u -  sent  planning  their  i s also to t r a i n l o c a l out w i t h housing  of  techpersonnel.  and  planning  a s s i g n m e n t s make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e n e e d a n d  provisions  for  regarding  training  facilities.  An  e x a m p l e o f how  recommendations  62  t r a i n i n g f o r p l a n n i n g t e c h n i c i a n s f r e q u e n t l y becomes p a r t o f t h e b r o a der recommendations r e g a r d i n g urban developments i s p r o v i d e d by C h a r l e s Abrams: A f t e r s t u d y i n g and r e p o r t i n g on t h e h o u s i n g problems o f f o u r t e e n n a t i o n s i n f o u r c o n t i n e n t s , I have i d e n t i f i e d no panaceas f o r t h e h o u s i n g problems i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . O f t e n n o t even a s t a r t c a n be made w i t h o u t e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e t r a i n i n g f o r the many i n t e r r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t t o u c h upon t h e development p r o c e s s . 1 8 Many r e p o r t s o f UN m i s s i o n s c o n t a i n such v i e w s .  The number  o f t h e s e r e p o r t s have m u l t i p l i e d as t h e number o f e x p e r t s s e n t t o UDCs have i n c r e a s e d o v e r t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s . 6, t h e number o f h o u s i n g  As e x e m p l i f i e d i n F i g u r e  and p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s s e n t , doubled  i n the  p e r i o d between 1953 and 1960 and t r e b l e d i n t h e p e r i o d between 1961 and 1966.  The number o f c o u n t r i e s b e n e f i t t i n g f r o m t h e i r a d v i c e a l s o  i n c r e a s e d i n about t h e same r a t e :  from 12 i n 1953 t o 23 i n 1960 t o  57 i n 1966. These s t u d i e s and a d v i c e e n a b l e d  the United Nations  t o dev-  e l o p g r e a t e r knowledge o f h o u s i n g and u r b a n problems o f t h e underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s .  I n the subject of housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y  low-cost  h o u s i n g , i t i n i t i a t e d many p r o j e c t s , and p u b l i s h e d some u s e f u l r e p o r t s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l use.  2.1.3  Students  and T r a i n e e s  R e a l i z i n g t h e s e r i o u s gap i n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , t h e G e n e r a l Assembly  Fig. 6  UN EXPERTS IN HOUSING, BUILDING AND PLANNING SENT TO UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES (1953 - 6 6 )  / 604  ' "1 1 1953 54  1  1  1  1  55  56  57  58  24  10  20  23  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  59  60  61  62  63  64  65 1966  22  23  23  33  40  46  51  i I I i 1 'i i I" I I 1 1 I i  12  13  NO- OF UDCs  Source:  Yearbooks from  1953  of  the to  E  A  SERVED  United  1966.  (see  EACH  YEAR  Notions  for  app. 2.1 )  each  year  57  64  i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n 5 3 7 ( V I ) o f 1951 r e q u e s t e d t h e Economic and S o c i a l Council: . . . t o make g r a n t s w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programme and i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e s p e c i a l i s e d a g e n c i e s and t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , o f f e l l o w s h i p s f o r s t u d y and t r a i n i n g t o e x p e r t s from c o u n t r i e s a f f e c t e d by t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e p a r t i c u l a r l y c o u n t r i e s where the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l on t h e p u r e l y a r t i s a n s t a g e . 1 9 The  p o l i c y with regard  t o f e l l o w s h i p s was t o e n a b l e p e r s o n s  already  w o r k i n g i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s t o s t u d y i n an e s t a b l i s h e d  school  o r t o u n d e r t a k e o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g i n r e l e v a n t o f f i c e s i n a Western country. I n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d o f European r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  (1947-51),  f e l l o w s h i p s were a l m o s t e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s and European c o u n t r i e s .  But a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e above  r e s o l u t i o n , t h e newly emerging c o u n t r i e s s t a r t e d r e c e i v i n g proportion of fellowships. also increased  The t o t a l number o f awarded f e l l o w s h i p s  over the years.  y e a r s p r e c e d i n g 1960,  Figure  7 demonstrates t h a t i n t h e s i x  t h e t w o - y e a r l y t o t a l s o f awarded  r a n g e d f r o m 40 t o 60, b u t i n t h e e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r 1960, these f e l l o w s h i p s increased  greater  three-fold.  f a c t t h a t i n t h e e a r l y 1960s, t h e U n i t e d  fellowships t h e number o f  This i s explained  by t h e  N a t i o n s s h i f t e d i t s emphasis  f r o m s p o n s o r i n g f o r e i g n e x p e r t s f o r work i n t h e UDCs t o s p o n s o r i n g UDC 20 n a t i o n a l s f o r t r a i n i n g i n Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a . UN f e l l o w s have a g r e a t e r North America.  tendency t o go t o Europe t h a n t o  S i n c e most u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s  i n h e r i t e d educa-  Fig. 7  UNITED NATIONS FELLOWSHIPS IN HOUSING, BUILDING & P L A N N I N G ( 1947 - 68 )  NO-OF FELLOWSHIPS AWARDED „ 140-  PLACE  OF STUDY  IN  U DCs 120CANADA - U N I T E D - S T A T E S  EUROPE 100-  80-  60  40  20-  1947-51  Source:  1952  1953-54  1955-56  1957-58  1959-60  1941-62  Y E A R S  The fellowship s e c t i o n of the New York- (see app-2.2;  United  1963-64  Nations  1965-66  1967-68  Secretariat,  66  t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e systems from European c o u n t r i e s w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r e d them b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , they p r e f e r t o send s t u d e n t s t o Europe.  A l s o , most o f t h e f e l l o w s h i p s a r e awarded t o t h e s t a f f mem-  b e r s o f UN-supported e n t e r p r i s e s o v e r s e a s .  Thus i n 1955-56, f e l l o w -  s h i p s were awarded t o T u r k i s h s t u d e n t s who were t o man t h e p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s o f M i d d l e E a s t T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i t y , and t o L a t i n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s who were t o s t u d y i n t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g  Centre  (CINVA).  From 1958 t o 1960, I n d o n e s i a n s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d f e l l o w s h i p s t o s t u d y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s so t h a t they c o u l d q u a l i f y themselves  to teach  c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a t t h e Bandung I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . t h e p a s t few y e a r s , f e l l o w s h i p s have been awarded t o t h e s t a f f  In  em-  p l o y e d i n such p r o j e c t s as t h e K a r a c h i M a s t e r P l a n ( P a k i s t a n ) , D e v e l opment P l a n o f South A d r i a t i c Region 21 opment P l a n ( A f g h a n i s t a n ) .  (Greece) and A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l -  The U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i -  c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e s e p r o j e c t s t h r o u g h t h e S p e c i a l Fund o f i t s Development Program.  2.2  ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES The C h a r t e r o f the O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n S t a t e s was adop-  t e d i n 1948 a t a meeting  o f t h e N i n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f A m e r i -  can S t a t e s a t Bogota, C o l o m b i a .  S i n c e t h e n , i t has concerned  w i t h t h e development a s p e c t s o f i t s 23 member s t a t e s o f L a t i n  itself America.  One o f i t s o r g a n s , t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank (IADB) g i v e s  67  c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e t o OAS members.  C a p i t a l funds f o rhousing  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s come f r o m t h e S o c i a l P r o g r e s s This  F u n d makes l o a n s  T r u s t Fund o f t h e Bank.  f o r p r o j e c t s o r programs designed  ments i n l a n d s e t t l e m e n t s , l a n d u s e , low-income h o u s i n g , water supply  and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .  supplementary f i n a n c i n g of f a c i l i t i e s training  related  and  t o make  improve-  community  The Fund a l s o u n d e r t a k e s  "such  f o r advanced e d u c a t i o n and  t o e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s may b e a g r e e d 22 :  upon b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e Bank". In important  the area  programs:  o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , OAS c a r r i e s  out f i v e  a) the program o f t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n ; b) t h e  f e l l o w s h i p p r o g r a m ; c ) t h e e x t r a - c o n t i n e n t a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ; a n d d) the program o f t o u r i s t  technical assistance.  p r o g r a m s , OAS h a s t r a i n e d 1 3 , 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s 23 spread has  over  long been recognized  efforts. the b e l i e f  ^  13 c o u n t r i e s .  According  Under t h e f i r s t  i n 26 e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s  T r a i n i n g f o r c i t y and r e g i o n a l as an important  three  p a r t o f t h e OAS's  to i t s Secretary General,  planners educational  t h e emphasis r e s t s on  that:  . . . t h e l o n g r a n g e s u c c e s s o f a l l programmes depends o n the p r e p a r a t i o n of.human element - i n t h e c a s e o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , the. t r a i n i n g o f c o m p e t e n t c i t y p l a n n e r s a t a l l levels. This concept i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t e c h n i c a l cooperat i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e OAS s p o n s o r e d b y t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , which p l a c e s major emphasis on e d u c a t i o n a l a n d r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m m e s , a n d w h i c h among i t s p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e s t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing Centre and t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g of advanced r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n urban p l a n n i n g . ^  68  In  order to understand  a c t i v i t i e s to be u n d e r t a k e n ,  t h e scope o f e d u c a t i o n a l and  the OAS  a l s o sponsors  research  i n t e r n a t i o n a l meet-  i n g s and sends e x p e r t m i s s i o n s t o s u r v e y e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and a s s e s s the needs o f L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . meetings,  f o r example, were:  sponsored  by the UN,  t h e OAS  a) the 1956  Among the  to  important  P u e r t o R i c o Seminar j o i n t l y  and P u e r t o R i c o ; b) t h e F i r s t and Second  I n t e r - A m e r i c a n T e c h n i c a l M e e t i n g s on H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g a t B o g o t a , C o l o m b i a i n 1956  and a t Huampani, P e r u i n 1958;  b a n i z a t i o n a t S a n t i a g o , C h i l e i n 1959; A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g S o c i e t y s i n c e 1956;  c) a s e m i n a r on u r -  d) f o u r m e e t i n g s o f t h e I n t e r and e) a h o s t o f o t h e r  inter25  n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s o r g a n i z e d by v a r i o u s OAS  organs o v e r t h e y e a r s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m e e t i n g s o r g a n i z e d by the OAS affiliated  and i t s  a g e n c i e s , a r e t h o s e o r g a n i z e d by o t h e r r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s of L a t i n America, and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  such as t h o s e o f a r c h i t e c t s ,  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t a b l y t h e  engineers  Inter-American  M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n and the Pan A m e r i c a n Congress o f A r c h i t e c t s , have c o n s i s t e n t l y d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g education.  The  l a t e r body, f o r i n s t a n c e , h e l d a c o n f e r e n c e i n C a r a c a s i n  1955 w h i c h approved a r e s o l u t i o n on t h e v a l u e o f " s u p p l e m e n t i n g s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f p l a n n i n g on t h e n a t i o n a l and American l e v e l s through 26  Studies i n Planning".  profesinter-  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C e n t e r s f o r Advanced  69  A h o s t of t e c h n i c a l m i s s i o n s were sent the past 1960 UN  by  and  had  f i f t e e n years. the  Of  Inter-American  g r e a t i n t e r e s t was  t h e one  organized  over in  Planning Society i n collaboration with  the Ford Foundation.  planning education  to L a t i n America  The  mission surveyed  facilities,  and  some 50  the  centers  made a r e p o r t s u g g e s t i n g  which  the  n e e d f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r a i n i n g w i t h e m p h a s i s on n a t i o n a l - r e g i o n a l and  urban-regional planning.  m i s s i o n a l s o suggested s h o u l d be  To  implement t h i s  that the a c t i v i t i e s  i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h programs o f :  of a)  recommendation,  teaching  organizations;  n a t i o n a l ; and This for  developing  c) p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o d a t i o n s b o t h  d)  foundations  and  and  be  research f a c i l i t i e s  o f n a t i o n a l and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies  funds  and  Most o f the important  programs i n underdeveloped  such  international The  f r o m t h e UN  OAS  the  inter27  for planning,  both  assis-  i s e s s e n t i a l i n terms e d u c a t i o n a l and  of  training from  cooperation. F e l l o w s h i p Program has  F e l l o w s h i p Program.  Inter-American  Inter-American  n a t i o n a l and  c o u n t r i e s have b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y 28  courage L a t i n American students as  international  deemed e s s e n t i a l b e c a u s e  tance  expertise.  future plan-  other private associations.  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p may education  institutions  e x i s t i n g and  n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t s ; b)  the  Center  OAS  f o r U r b a n and  a different  orientation  f e l l o w s h i p s were o f f e r e d to  to study  Housing Center  had  i n OAS-supported centers  (CINVA) a t B o g o t a , C o l o m b i a Regional Planning  (PIAPUR) a t  ensuch and  Lima, Peru.  Since the s i g n i n g o f the A l l i a n c e f o r Progress  Charter  i n August 1961, t h e OAS has i n t e n s i f i e d i t s f e l l o w s h i p program w i t h t h e a i d o f e x t r a f i n a n c e s a v a i l a b l e from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government.  Thus i n t h e same y e a r i t adopted two r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h recom-  mended t h a t : 1. The exchange o f s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p r o f e s s o r s , r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s and o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s be i n t e n s i f i e d . . . 2 . The OAS w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank and t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a , p r e p a r e a program o f p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n . . . w i t h i n t h e s p i r i t o f O p e r a t i o n Pan A m e r i c a and o f A l l i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s , p r o m o t i n g exchange o f p e r s o n s a t a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s , s p e c i a l l y o f s t u d e n t s and u r b a n and r u r a l w o r k e r s . ^ 9 F o l l o w i n g t h i s recommendation, t h e number o f f e l l o w s h i p s awarded t o L a t i n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s i n urban and r e g i o n a l f i e l d i n 1960s r e l a t i v e t o 1950s.  I n t h e p e r i o d 1961-68, 70 s t u d e n t s  increased stu-  d i e d i n u r b a n - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c e n t e r s and 135 s t u d i e d i n CINVA on 30 OAS g r a n t s .  Some f e l l o w s h i p s were a l s o awarded t o s t u d e n t s f o r ad-  vanced p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s n o t a b l y a t t h e University of California  ( B e r k e l e y ) , Harvard  U n i v e r s i t y and t h e Columbia  University.  3. 3.1  NATIONAL AGENCIES  UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Because o f t h e complex w o r l d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d  States  Government, i t s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (AID) g i v e s c o n -  71  tracts  to other agencies  assistance policies.  $47  million  and  For  institutions  example, i n f i s c a l  to other agencies  e n t i r e a d v i s o r y and  to implement i t s t e c h n i c a l  t o do  year 31  the job.  c o n s u l t a t i v e resources  1967-68, i t p a i d  I t draws almost  the  from other agencies.  In  t h e a r e a o f n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g as w e l l as t o r a l and  p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , i t has As  regional,  u s e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f some  agencies  as o f 1967.  shown i n T a b l e  agencies  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a s t  IV,  three-fourths of  sec140  these  twenty y e a r s , i . e . d u r i n g 32 of the U n i t e d S t a t e s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs.  life  The  U S A I D a l s o makes v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  lateral organizations. ceived  $100  million  The  United Nations  the  multi-  a l o n e , f o r example, r e -  f o r i t s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs of  1969-  33 1970.  These agencies  c o o r d i n a t e w i t h each o t h e r i n matters  of  spe-  cific projects. The and  t o a d v i s e UDC  missions and  USAID m a i n t a i n s  Over the past  staff  to s u p e r v i s e i t s programs  g o v e r n m e n t s r e c e i v i n g U.S.  ( 3 8 i n 1968)  sponsors  field  training  and  e x p e r t s drawn m o s t l y  f o r overseas  students  twenty y e a r s , more t h a n  education.  (See  d e g r e e p r o g r a m s as w e l l as private  agencies.  f r o m U.S.  i n the United  I t sends universities, States.  100,000 s t u d e n t s h a v e s t u d i e d i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s under i t s g r a n t s , mostly h e a l t h and  assistance.  F i g u r e 11a)  i n the f i e l d s  of  T h e y h a v e come b o t h  f o r non-degree t r a i n i n g  agriculture, for  i n government  formal and  /  72  TABLE I V AGENCIES INVOLVED I N THE PLANNING A S P E C T S OF T E C H N I C A L A S S I S T A N C E PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE U S A I D : YEAR OF T H E I R ESTABLISHMENT^ 3  YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT  NUMBER OF A G E N C I E S  PERCENTAGE  B e f o r e 1900  7  5.9  1900-1909  2  1.7  1910-1919  6  5.0  1920-1929  9  7.6  1930-1939  8  6.7  1940-1949  15  12.6  1950-1959  32  26.9  1960-October 1967  40  33.6  119  100.0  TOTAL  a.  'Planning aspects' i) ii)  iii)  b.  cover  the following:  Four elements o f N a t i o n a l Development P l a n n i n g : n a t i o n a l , s e c t o r a l , p r o j e c t and i f t r a - n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . Four s e t s o f t o o l s o f development p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n c e : development p l a n n i n g a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c i p a n t t r a i n i n g i n development p l a n n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r development. Two m a i n c o m p o n e n t s o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g : p r e p a r a t i o n and p l a n implementation.  plan  I n 23 c a s e s , d a t e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t w e r e n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e d i r e c tory. Out o f t h i s seven were n o t accounted f o r here; f o r t h e r e s t dates were checked from o t h e r sources.  Source:  D i r e c t o r y o f Planning Resources, Washington, D.C: U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, O c t o b e r 1967, 263 p p .  73  I n the p e r i o d from 1949  to December 1968,  the USAID has  spent  $3,470,324,000 i n the t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n component o f i t s t o t a l  for-  e i g n a i d program amounting  ma-  t o $43,771,027,000.  T a b l e V shows t h a t  j o r i n c r e a s e s i n expenditures occurred a f t e r the adoption of the Fore i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t 1961.  F o r example, the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c r e a s e d from 8.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l f o r e i g n a i d d u r i n g 1953-62 to more t h a n 14 p e r c e n t d u r i n g 1963-68. A p o r t i o n o f t h e s e funds a r e used f o r s p o n s o r i n g U.S.  ex-  p e r t s to u n d e r t a k e o v e r s e a s assignments and f o r o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s to study i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  I n t h e p e r i o d from 1954  to 1969,  the  USAID has s p o n s o r e d 119,688 s t u d e n t s and t r a i n e e s ; 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e come from u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  countries.  However, o n l y a v e r y s m a l l  p o r t i o n o f t h e USAID funds i s a l l o c a t e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n h o u s i n g u r b a n development.  and  F o r example, t h e 605 p e r s o n s t r a i n e d by the O f f i c e  of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o u s i n g o f t h e Housing and H o u s i n g F i n a n c e Agency (now H o u s i n g and Urban Development) f r o m 1957  t o 1962 made up o n l y 34  one p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l o v e r s e a s t r a i n e e s i n t h e same p e r i o d . The USAID awards o v e r s e a s c o n t r a c t s t o U.S.  universities  and f i n a n c e s e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h programs d i r e c t e d t o UDC F o r example, as o f December 31, 1966, 124 U.S.  problems.  u n i v e r s i t i e s have p e r -  formed t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t a s k s under 292 s e p a r a t e UDC c o n t r a c t s amounting  t o $221,676,698, more t h a n h a l f o f the c o n t r a c t s b e l o n g i n g  t o t r a i n i n g and r e s e a r c h .  ( T a b l e VI)  I n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s i n g and  74  TABLE V UNITED STATES EXPENDITURES I N TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FROM F.Y 1949 TO 1969 IN THOUSAND US DOLLARS  TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ONLY  YEAR  ALL FOREIGN ASSISTANCE  PERCENTAGE OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO ALL FOREIGN ASSISTANCE  1949-1952  45,430  13,117,489  1953-1957  448,313  8,865,507  5.8  1958-1962  986,833  8,221,185  12.0  1963-1967  1,535,657  10,513,484  454,091  3,053,362  14.8  3,470,324  43,771,027  8.0  1969 Dec.  thru' 31, 1968  TOTAL  .34  14.3  The p e r i o d 1949-1952 comes under t h e Marshal? P l a n P e r i o d : t h e p e r i o d 1953-1961 comes under t h e M u t u a l S e c u r i t y A c t P e r i o d , and t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1961 f a l l under t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t P e r i o d . Source:  Condensed from: O p e r a t i o n R e p o r t F.Y. 1969, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, 1969, p. 32.  7 5  u r b a n p l a n n i n g , however, fewer c o n t r a c t s a r e awarded — mostly  and they a r e  f o r L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . In  recent years  elopment i n t h e n a t i o n ' s  t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t h a s e n c o u r a g e d t h e d e v universities,  o f non-western s t u d i e s which  have h i t h e r t o r e c e i v e d the almost e n t i r e monetary b a c k i n g foundations.  The new s u r g e o f i n t e r e s t  International Education ted  i n the area  from p r i v a t e  i s p r o v i d e d by t h e  A c t o f 1966, whereby the Congress o f t h e U n i -  States authorized the Secretary o f Health, Education  and  Welfare  to: ...arrange through grants t o i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r edu c a t i o n , o r combinations of such i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , s t r e n g t h e n i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n b y them o f g r a d u a t e c e n t e r s w h i c h w i l l have n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and o t h e r f i e l d s of study.3^ The to  USAID s e e k s t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l  implement housing  assistance.  and urban development a s p e c t s  signed  of i t s technical  The H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n Development Agency  the placement o f overseas t o UDCs.  " t r a i n e e s " and b r i e f s  I t sponsors  conferences  agencies  (HUD)  arranges  U.S. p e r s o n n e l a s -  o n UDC p r o b l e m s :  i n May  for  e x a m p l e i t a s s e m b l e d more t h a n  120 d e l e g a t e s  and  three  Conference on Urban Growth h e l d a t  Honolulu,  territories  countries  Hawaii. The  ambitious  i n a Pacific  from A s i a n  1967  HUD's D i v i s i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n l A f f a i r s h a s l a u n c h e d  program, t h e F o r e i g n Urban Development A n a l y s i s  program w i l l  collect  (FUDA).  an The  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l from  76  TABLE V I UNIVERSITY CONTRACTS FINANCED BY THE UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (As o f Dec. 31, 1966) NUMBER OF US UNIVERSITIES  NUMBER OF CONTRACTS  DOLLAR VALUE OF CONTRACTS  16  39  55  38,351,368  7  20  29  68,357,632  13  32  44  71,191,093  East  4  8  9  20,994,059  Sub-Total  40  99  137  198,894,152  86  97  4,081,353  24  24  12,726,572  21  34  5,974,621  230  292  221,676,698  TYPE OF SERVICE  NUMBER OF COUNTRIES  Technical Assistance to Host C o u n t r i e s L a t i n America N.E. & S. A s i a Africa Far  Training Research  0  Technical Service t o USAID C  40  TOTAL  a.  Excludes  Puerto  b.  A c t u a l t o t a l i s 72; some u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d e a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s t o more t h a n one c o u n t r y .  c.  USAID c o n t r a c t s whereby t h e US u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l s , o r p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t t o t h e AID i n the U n i t e d States o r abroad.  d.  A c t u a l t o t a l i s 124; many u n i v e r s i t i e s o p e r a t e country. Source:  Rico.  i n more t h a n one  A i d F i n a n c e d U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r a c t s as o f December 31, 1966, Washington D.C.: Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, 1967, p. 1.  77  i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o u r c e s and make them a v a i l a b l e t o u n i v e r s i t i e s and r e search agencies  (Figure 8).  The Program i s d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n base o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h urban and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n and r e 36 search.  I t i s an example o f how  Government a g e n c i e s have responded  t o t h e need f o r i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e n t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h and i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  3.2  CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs o f Canada s t a r t e d i n 1950  when  s i x members o f the B r i t i s h Commonwealth j o i n t l y c r e a t e d the Colombo Plan.  Over t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s , i t s membership has i n c r e a s e d to  24, i n c l u d i n g a l s o some non-Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s . members come from " d e v e l o p e d "  countries.  S i x of i t s  They p r o v i d e major a s s i s t a n c e  t o member c o u n t r i e s w h i c h a r e a l l f r o m South and S o u t h e a s t Canada s u p p o r t s m u l t i - l a t e r a l a g e n c i e s concerned  Asia. with  inter-  n a t i o n a l development, and makes c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the World Bank Group, the A s i a n Development Bank (ADB)  and o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d w o r l d  agencies.  Independent o f these arrangements, Canada has r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d  into  A f r i c a n , L a t i n A m e r i c a n and the C a r i b b e a n a s s i s t a n c e areas i n the 1960s. A l l t h e s e programs have been c a r r i e d out by one agency whose name changed t h r i c e o v e r t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s , the l a t e s t one b e i n g the Canad i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) through w h i c h t e c h n i c a l a i d funds a r e d i s b u r s e d .  78 FOREIGN URBAN DEVELOPMENT DISSEMINATION  A N A L Y S I S SYSTEM ( F U D A ) PROCESS  I N F O R M A T I O N  INTERNATIONAL A G E N C I E S  FO R E I G N  F O R E I G N INSTI  G O V E R N M E N T S  Fig. 8  T U T I O N S  S O U R C E S  F O R E I G N PER S O N N  U S  A G E N C I E S A B R O A D  EL  T H O U S I N G  A N D URBAN  D E V E L O P ME N T ' DIV.OF INTERNATIONAL  H U D  O MEMBER  LIBRARY  C L E A R I N G  AFFAIRS  A N D  H O U S E  LIBRARIES T E A C H I N G D I S S E M I N A T I O N  I ! lI  I  IO  tQ  L O C A L  Itu I  G O V E R N M E N T S  I* 'o  '.5 \  F U D A  o  M  G O V E R N M E N T A G E  US  URBAN  D E V E L O P  NCIES  E M B E R S  79  These funds have i n c r e a s e d f r o m a modest amount o f m i l l i o n i n 1950  to as much as $338 m i l l i o n i n 1969-70.  $12.5  Of t h e  total  n e t a s s i s t a n c e of $1,847.5 m i l l i o n i n the p e r i o d 1951-68, more t h a n 37 t h r e e - f o u r t h s was  g i v e n i n the l a s t e i g h t  years:  1951-60  $ 420.5 m i l l i o n  1961-68  $1427.0 m i l l i o n  Total  $1847.5 m i l l i o n  Most of t h e s e funds were i n the form o f c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r major p r o j e c t s i n underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . to education  and  A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n was  allocated  i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g component o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  Under t h e s e programs a d v i s e r s a r e s e n t t o u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . T e a c h e r s and  p r o f e s s o r s a r e exchanged and s t u d e n t s  to a t t e n d Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The  and  t r a i n e e s come  number o f a d v i s e r s and  students  s p o n s o r e d under a l l r e g i o n a l programs have been i n c r e a s i n g f o r t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s ; As d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 9,  the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e  has  been g r e a t e r i n the l a s t h a l f o f 1960s t h a n i n comparable span o f previous  decade. F i g u r e 9 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the number o f s p o n s o r e d s t u -  dents and  t r a i n e e s has  3,038 i n 1967  f a l l e n s i n c e 1967;  to 2,750 i n 1968.  t h e i r number d e c r e a s e d f r o m  T h i s happened f o r the f i r s t  time  s i n c e the s t a r t o f t h e Canadian t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e program. f l e c t s a change i n Government's p o l i c y f r o m the t r a i n i n g of UDC dents i n Canada t o the o p e n i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l and i n the UDCs t h e m s e l v e s .  According  training  to the CIDA's P r e s i d e n t :  It restu-  facilities  Fig.9 NO. O F  GRANTEES 3.200  EXPERTS AND STUDENTS SPONSORED UNDER CIDA° PROGRAMS  2.800  1  STUDENTS & TRAINEES -ADVISERS  2  TEACHERS & PROFESSORS  3  2.400  2.000  1.600  1,200  3  y  800  / 400  1931  52  53  54  55  56  57  58  59  60  61  62  63  64  65  66  67  1968  Y E A R  Source: Canadian International Development Agency? Annual Reviews of 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 a n d 1 9 6 9 (See App.  80  81  We a r e l o o k i n g h a r d a t the t r a i n i n g we p r o v i d e i n Canada to p e r s o n n e l from the l e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l . We a r e c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n t h e development o f e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n these c o u n t r i e s themselves.38 CIDA p u t s b i g g e s t emphasis on t h e t r a i n i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n policy-oriented fields.  Out o f the 10,907 UDC  s t u d e n t s who  studied  i n C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n the p e r i o d 1950-68, o n e - t h i r d (3,391) were e n r o l l e d i n what the CIDA has c a t e g o r i z e d as " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g " (Appendix 2.4)  w h i c h i n c l u d e s , among  o t h e r s , p u b l i c and b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , economics and c i t y regional planning.  and  However, a l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s a r e t r a i n e d i n t h e  b r o a d f i e l d o f development p l a n n i n g , those who  came t o s t u d y i n t h e  C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s o f c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , o r to get  on-the-job  t r a i n i n g i n p u b l i c p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s do n o t c o n s t i t u t e more t h a n 10 per c e n t o f a l l s t u d e n t s o f " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and These i n c l u d e m o s t l y however, CIDA a l s o sponsors  i n d i v i d u a l students.  r e q u e s t o f CIDA's p r e d e c e s s o r  A s i a through  Occasionally,  groups o f s t u d e n t s w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e  d e s i g n i n g o f s p e c i a l t a i l o r - m a d e programs.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has  planning".  Thus, f o r example, on  the  agency (^External A i d ) the U n i v e r s i t y o f  t r a i n e d such groups o f s t u d e n t s f r o m S o u t h - E a s t  s p e c i a l programs i n c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g .  These  k i n d o f programs p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u s e f u l i n t e r a c t i o n between C a n a d i a n t e a c h e r s and o v e r s e a s l e d many  planning educators  students.  The  r e s u l t i n g experience  has  b o t h i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s to  q u e s t i o n the p r e m i s e t h a t N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i 39 a t e t o the r e a l needs o f s t u d e n t s from u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s .  82  The  v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e organs o f the C a n a d i a n Gov-  ernment have s e r v e d as c a t a l y s t s i n the exchange of i n t e r n a t i o n a l experience.  They have o r g a n i z e d  a s e r i e s o f r e g i o n a l s e m i n a r s and  col-  loquiums d e a l i n g w i t h the manpower needs o f development p l a n n i n g . These c o l l o q u i u m s  are h e l d e v e r y two y e a r s i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s ;  l a t e s t ones were h e l d i n P a k i s t a n and S i n g a p o r e under the  the  auspices  40 o f t h e Colombo P l a n B u r e a u . CIDA a l s o aims a t t a p p i n g m u n i t y and  the r e s o u r c e s  p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t s programs.  t h e program, i t has  o f the academic comSince the s t a r t  of  drawn h e a v i l y from C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h , i n  t u r n , have b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l and i n g programs f o r UDCs.  train-  F o r example, i n a r e c e n t s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by  the A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and  C o l l e g e s o f Canada (AUCC), i t i s  f o u n d t h a t i 3 u n i v e r s i t i e s o f Canada have e s t a b l i s h e d i n d e p e n d e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d y programs o v e r t h e p a s t few y e a r s , and  that i n t e r n a -  t i o n a l s t u d i e s have become a v i t a l p a r t o f l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n  in  41 this  country. W h i l e C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s have been t a k i n g t h e i r own  t i a t i v e i n o p e n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs, a b o l d new r e c e n t l y f r o m the Canadian government i t s e l f . r e a d y f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t Centre.of  move has  ini-  come  I t has made a l l p l a n s  o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development R e s e a r c h  Canada (IDRCC) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p u r p o s e :  83 The C e n t r e w i l l i d e n t i f y , i n i t i a t e and encourage supp o r t and u n d e r t a k e r e s e a r c h i n t o the problems i n v o l v e d i n t h e development of e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r i v e d r e g i o n s o f t h e world. I t w i l l seek t o d e v e l o p the most e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o the needs of the p e o p l e o f t h o s e r e g i o n s . I t w i l l g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y to programmes t h a t a s s i s t the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o b u i l d t h e i r own s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s so t h a t they w i l l not be mere w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s but c o n t r i b u t o r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t t o the s o l u t i o n of t h e i r own p r o blems. 42 The  C e n t r e w i l l be a t h i n k - t a n k d r a w i n g r e s o u r c e s  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and g o v e r n m e n t a l  from u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  agencies.  These examples d e m o n s t r a t e the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t o f C a n a d i a n Government i n e d u c a t i o n a l and  t r a i n i n g component o f t e c h n i c a l  a s s i s t a n c e programs and i n f o s t e r i n g s t u d i e s and to UDCs.  Judging  research of b e n e f i t  from the number o f a d v i s o r s and s t u d e n t s  i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , the b r o a d f i e l d of development p l a n n i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r i o r i t y i n CIDA's programs. p l a n n i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t  the  sponsored receives  S i n c e c i t y and r e g i o n a l  p a r t o f t h i s b r o a d f i e l d , i t i s l i k e l y t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e Government and  the u n i v e r s i t i e s o f Canada.  4.  PRIVATE AGENCIES  Non-governmental p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s  i n Canada and  the  S t a t e s p l a y a prominent r o l e i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs.  United Their  number as w e l l as m a t e r i a l h e l p have been i n c r e a s i n g o v e r the p a s t decades. 3.2  two  As d e m o n s t r a t e d i n T a b l e V I I , they grew from an a v e r a g e of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s per y e a r i n the f i v e decades 1900-1949 to 7.3  the 13-year p e r i o d 1950-62.  in  84  TABLE V I I NORTH AMERICAN NON-GOVERNMENTAL PRIVATE AGENCIES OPERATING IN THE AREA OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  PERIOD OF ESTABLISHMENT  NUMBER OF AGENCIES IN CANADA  NUMBER OF AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES*  TOTAL  AGENCIES PER YEAR  Pre-1899  20  25  45  1900-1949  28  130  158  • 3.2  1950-1962  22  73  95  7.3  (8)  (8)  228**  298  Not Known ALL YEARS *  70  0.5  2.9  FIRST TEN FOUNDATIONS WITH ASSETS EXCEEDING $200,000,000 Ford Foundation R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation Duke Endowment K e l l o g g Foundation Molf Foundation Hartford Foundation L i l y Endowment Sloan Foundation Carnegie Corporation Penn M e m o r i a l T r u s t  **  E x c l u d e s e i g h t a g e n c i e s f o r w h i c h y e a r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t was n o t mentioned. Sources:  a)  F o r column two: Canadian Non-Governmental Agenc i e s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i d and Development, 196667, Ottawa: E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e , 1967, 113 pp.  b)  F o r column t h r e e : M a r i a n n a 0. Lewis The F o u n d a t i o n D i r e c t o r y , New Y o r k : Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1967, 1198 pp.  (ed.), Russell  85  Most o f t h e p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e have s m a l l a s s e t s and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  Worth-  w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i s made i n t h i s a r e a by some t e n l a r g e , m u l t i purpose f o u n d a t i o n s w i t h a s s e t s o f o v e r $200 m i l l i o n each. these ten, three —  Out o f  the R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation, the Carnegie Corpor-  a t i o n and t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n —  play decisive roles  (Table V I I ) .  They  f i n a n c e d e v e l o p m e n t a l and e d u c a t i o n a l u n d e r t a k i n g s and s p o n s o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n e x p e r t s f o r work i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  countries.  They h e l p a  l a r g e number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o d e v e l o p understanding o f underdeveloped t h e i r problems.  c o u n t r i e s and competence i n s o l v i n g  They s p o n s o r f e l l o w s h i p s f o r UDC s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y  i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and f o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c h o l a r s t o s t u d y and t e a c h i n underdeveloped  countries.  R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n w h i c h has been o p e r a t i n g f o r o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y was t h e f i r s t t o s u p p o r t t h e development o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n North American i n s t i t u t i o n s .  I n 1945, i t g r a n t e d a n amount  o f $250,000 t o t h e newly c r e a t e d S c h o o l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s a t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y .  I n t h e y e a r s 1946 and 1947, i t gave $1,000,000  t o t h e A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l o f L e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s t o s p o n s o r and s u p e r v i s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n i v e r s i t i e s .  Likewise,  C a r n e g i e C o r p o r a t i o n made g r a n t s amounting t o $2,500,000 i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1947-1951 t o H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y and t o S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs and g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g i n f o r e i g n 43 area studies.  86  I n 1951, F o r d F o u n d a t i o n e n t e r e d i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d i n a m a s s i v e way.  I n the 12-year p e r i o d , 1952-1963, i t a l l o c a t e d  $138,000,000 i n g r a n t s t o improve A m e r i c a n competence i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l field.  D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n and  Carnegie  C o r p o r a t i o n t o g e t h e r spent o n l y n i n e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r t h e same p u r pose.  I n r e c e n t y e a r s , R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n has a l l o c a t e d most o f  i t s e d u c a t i o n funds f o r s u p p o r t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e UDCs.  Carnegie  C o r p o r a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, has s t a r t e d s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s and 44 t r a i n i n g i n p o l i t i c s and d i p l o m a c y Ford Foundation's  f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace.  support f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  r e s e a r c h has been phenomenal i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s .  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n  F i g u r e 10, i t s g r a n t s i n c r e a s e d from $26,000,000 i n 1961 i n 1966,  a two-fold increase.  and  to $52,000,000  A c c o r d i n g to Beckman, h a l f o f  these  g r a n t s were d e s i g n e d t o improve A m e r i c a n competence t o d e a l w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems by n a r r o w i n g  the gap between t h e demand f o r , and 45  t h e s u p p l y o f , t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and knowledge. Among A m e r i c a n f o u n d a t i o n s , F o r d F o u n d a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o l e a d i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s e v e r s i n c e i t s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1951.  I n f a c t o v e r the p a s t y e a r s , i t has made g r a n t s  e q u a l t o o n e - t h i r d of t o t a l funds spent by a l l f o u n d a t i o n s making g r a n t s of  $10,000 and o v e r i n t h e f i e l d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and r e -  search.  ( F i g u r e 10, A p p e n d i x From t h e i r own  priority  2.5)  i n i t i a t i v e , private foundations give high  t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l academic a c t i v i t i e s .  Although the per-  U.S MILLIONS $  0 -I 1957  PRIVATE F O U N D A T I O N S EXPENDITURES IN THE FIELD OF " I N T E R N A T O N A L ACTIVITIES" b  ,  ,  58  59  |  |  60  61  | 62 Y  ,  |  |  |  63  64  65  66  I 1967  EAR  a- I n c l u d e s grants of over $10,000 be Includes ' e d u c a t i o n  and  research'  Sources: a) All Foundations; Foundation News for relevant years, b) Ford Foundations: F.F's Annual Reports for relevant Xears. (see app. 2.5 )  88  centage o f annual grants i n the f i e l d o f " i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s " to t h e t o t a l a n n u a l g r a n t s i n a l l f i e l d s kept changing  over the years,  f o r most o f t h e y e a r t h i s f i e l d has r a n k e d second among t h e s e v e n c l a i mants o f g r a n t s ( e d u c a t i o n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , s c i e n c e , r e l i g i o n and h u m a n i t i e s ) .  Thus t h e non-governmental  agencies  a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r needs o f underdeveloped an o u t s t a n d i n g  countries.  Among them t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n has p l a y e d  role.  The p a t t e r n o f F o r d F o u n d a t i o n  grants i n the f i e l d of i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h appears t o be changing I t i s encouraging  i n recent years.  major A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s t o t a k e an i n s t i t u t i o n -  w i d e a p p r o a c h t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems and t o i n c o r p o r a t e non-western o r UDC s t u d i e s as a permanent f e a t u r e o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n programs. I n t h e s i x - y e a r p e r i o d , 1961-1966, i t has made g r a n t s o f o v e r  $70,000,000  to 30 u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r o p e n i n g o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g UDC s t u d y programs (Appendix  2.6); i n t h e 1950s, o n l y t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s have had t h e  b e n e f i t o f such g r a n t s amounting o n l y t o $17,000,000. O v e r s e a s f e l l o w s h i p programs o f F o r d F o u n d a t i o n h i g h l e v e l graduate  provide  t r a i n i n g t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s a s w e l l as t o  students from overseas  a t v a r i o u s stages of t h e i r c a r e e r .  I n the 11-  y e a r p e r i o d 1952-62, i t has made g r a n t s o f about $10,000,000 t o 1,214 i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada under i t s F o r e i g n A r e a F e l l o w s h i p Program. years.  T h e i r p e r i o d o f s t u d i e s ranged from two t o t h r e e  T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e s e f e l l o w s h i p s were awarded t o t h o s e  c i a l i z i n g i n UDC a r e a s .  Of t h e 984 former  spe-  f e l l o w s , 550 h o l d f a c u l t y  89  p o s i t i o n s i n 181 North American  institutions  i n 38 s t a t e s and p r o v i n c e s .  In t h a t p o s i t i o n they a r e p l a y i n g a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z i n g u n i v e r s i t y programs and i n t e n s i f y i n g academic i n t e r e s t s i n UDC studies.  F o r example, i n a s u r v e y o f t h e p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f former  F o r d F o u n d a t i o n f e l l o w s , Beckman f o u n d : The f e l l o w s h i p program has h e l p e d to p r o v i d e p e r s o n n e l f o r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s which have become i n t e r e s t e d i n non-Western s t u d i e s . They have e n a b l e d d i s c i p l i n e departments t o expand t h e i r c o u r s e o f f e r i n g . . . t h e r e has been some c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f former f e l l o w s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h e r e by a d d i n g s t r e n g t h to e x i s t i n g programs w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a b r o a d e r base f o r new ones. Some twenty-nine u n i v e r s i t i e s have employed f i v e o r more f e l l o w s , and t e n u n i v e r s i t i e s have employed t e n o r m o r e . . . A l t o g e t h e r they have p u b l i s h e d some 373 books and o v e r 3,000 a r t i c l e s and s h o r t monographs; moreover, they have e d i t e d o r c o n t r i b u t e d t o a n o t h e r 516 volumes.46 Most o f t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t s a r e made t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s program.  S i n c e t h e s e programs a r e b a s i c a l l y  undertakings, i t i s d i f f i c u l t p l i n e receives, but f a i r benefit  t o measure t h e b e n e f i t  inter-disciplinary t h a t each  to expect t h a t i n v a r y i n g degrees  disci-  each does  from t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y u n d e r t a k i n g s o f F o r d F o u n d a t i o n -  sponsored  i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n North American  universities.  At  t i m e s , however, t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s funds f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l u n d e r t a k i n g s such as s u p p o r t to the S p e c i a l Program f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s o f D e v e l o p i n g Areas bridge  (SPURS) a t M.I.T., Cam-  (Appendix 4.5). I n d i v i d u a l s u p p o r t f o r c i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e a  s t a r t e d a few y e a r s a f t e r a F o r d F o u n d a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e was h e l d i n  90  O c t o b e r 1956.  A t t e n d e d b y o v e r 100 p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g t h e f o r m e r  Foundation grant  holders  ted a l o t of i n t e r e s t  i n city  and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g ,  i n various universities  Ford  i t"stimula-  to introduce  courses  47 on p r o b l e m s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s " . Ford institutes early  F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t s , b o t h t o n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  of city  1960s.  and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g have been i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e  F o r many y e a r s  C e n t e r f o r Urban and R e g i o n a l  i t has been g r a n t i n g funds t o t h e J o i n t Studies  a t Cambridge f o r t h e study o f  Guyana r e g i o n o f V e n e z u e l a , and t o t h e C h i l e a n Government f o r a d v i c e in  the opening o f c i t y  I t has granted  and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  $400,000 t o t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Urban E n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e  C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y f o r UDC r e s e a r c h the U n i t e d Nations paying  programs i n S a n t i a g o .  i n similar  and s t u d i e s , and f o r h e l p i n g  undertakings  overseas.  f o r the services of p r o f e s s i o n a l planners  Metropolitan Planning  Organization  I t has been  to the Calcutta  (CMPO) f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f B a s i c  Development P l a n o f C a l c u t t a M e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , and t o t h e C h i l e a n Government f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f a n a t i o n a l com-  48 munity f a c i l i t i e s  program.  L a t i n American planning  I t has a l s o been s u p p o r t i n g  a host of  e d u c a t i o n a l p r