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Paternity and the quest for knowledge in the works of Joyce and Proust Mackenzie, Susan Jane 1972

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PATERNITY AND THE' QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE I N THE WORKS OP JOYCE AND PROUST by SUSAN JANE MACKENZIE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The general theme of this thesis i s Paternity and the  Search for Knowledge i n the works of James Joyce and Marcel Proust, specifically, i n A Portrait of the Artist as a Young  Man. Ulysses, and A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu. Two main sets of characters are compared i n the novels; the young ar t i s t s , or would-be artists,- Stephen and Marcel, and the older, ex-perienced men-of-the-world who become their mentors, Bloom and Swann. Both young ar t i s t s must overcome a fear of the physical world which tends to make them ineffectual dreamers, self-romanticizers. Stephen has been taught to deny the physical side of his nature by family and society. Marcel's fear of suffering and overdependence on others also has i t s origin i n his family l i f e . Neither young poet can create u n t i l he has been immersed i n the physical experience of l i f e , and has attained that knowledge of good and e v i l i n himself and others which i s the goal of his quest. Bloom and Swann are •father-figures* i n two senses; they 'educate' the young lads by i n i t i a t i n g them into l i f e , and they are themselves very much involved i n the cycles of physical creation. Their roles are discussed i n the light of various mythologies; specifically; Classical, Medieval, and Jewish. An intensive study of flower imagery i n the three novels helps to elucidate further their roles as 'Earth-Fathers.' T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r I : A P o r t r a i t of. t h e A r t i s t s as Young Hen 7 I The F a m i l y P i c t u r e 13 I I The S o c i a l Frame 36 I I I F a l s e A r t and T r u e 55 I V F a l s e N a t u r e 79 C h a p t e r I I : The C l a s s i c a l and M e d i e v a l F a t h e r F i g u r e s 101 C h a p t e r I I I : The J e w i s h P a t r i a r c h .173 C h a p t e r I V : The E a r t h F a t h e r s — T h e F l o w e r s o f t h e Garden 196 C o n c l u s i o n : 231 B i b l i o g r a p h y 242 INTRODUCTION One of the f i r s t c r i t i c s to compare Joyce and Proust was Edmund Wilson i n his 'study i n the imaginative literature of 1870-1930. '"*• Wilson's work i s invaluable to a scholar of comparative literature, i n that i t astutely points out a common 2 trend i n French and English literature at that time. However, i t also does a certain disservice to the two authors i n question for, i n order to compare a large group of writers with relative ease, Wilson tends to oversimplify, to emphasize one side of their works to the detriment of the other. Thus Proust and Joyce find themselves categorized with those writers of the turn-of-the-century and later who, i n a reaction against the s c i e n t i f i c positivism of the times,sought to create and to 3 l i v e i n worlds of their imaginations. Such an association i s especially uneasy i n terms of Joyce's Ulysses, since Joyce shows a marked sympathy for the character of Bloom, who 'repre-4 sents the s c i e n t i f i c temperament' i n that novel. Bloom moderate Stephen's exaggerated f l i g h t s of imagination with down-to-earth experience and common sense. His humility enables him to accept the ridiculous i n himself and others and offsets Stephen's 'hubris, 1 evidenced i n his chosen role as "priest of the eternal 5 imagination." Indeed, the wanderings shared by Bloom and Stephen do much to divert the latter from a 'tragic' to a 2 'comic' course, as we shall see. Those r e a l i s t i c details which Stephen, like Bloom, must face distinguish Joyce's work from those of his more fantasy-oriented compatriots. With Proust, the association i s more jus t i f i e d , yet i t leads too easily to the popular image of Proust locked away i n a cork-lined room, sleeping by day, and using his imagination as a form of nostalgic escape into the past. Actually, Proust was involved i n a task as arduous as that of his hero Marcel— a quest towards truth gained through introspection. The truths which Proust found were often unpleasant and demanded a discipline, an a b i l i t y for r e a l i s t i c analysis and an objectivity g which betray a certain a f f i n i t y for the s c i e n t i f i c . The objectivity especially was a hard earned t r a i t i n Proust. No author was more tempted than Proust by "that ravishing thing: 7 to enjoy a pleasure of the imagination." At an early age, he had indulged that taste i n Les P l a i s i r s et les Jours, and to some extent i n Pastiches et Melanges, subjective works of highly imaginative fantasy. Two characters i n the former anthology, for example, w i l l their own deaths i n a thinly veiled expression Q of Proust's feelings of guilt, and of his overwhelming need 9 for the affections of others. These works, along with the subjective Jean Santeuil, would have placed Proust i n the mainstream of 'the imaginative literature of 1870-1930,' i f Proust had not written A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu. In this 3 novel, Proust, like his hero, puts a great value on a sense of perspective and depth, a true aesthetic objectivity. Marcel, like Stephen, must face the hard lessons of l i f e . Eventually, i n his role as mature narrator, he prefers " l a pente abrupte de 1 *introspection" to " l a pente aisee de 1*imagination,""^ i n order to "penetrer l a verite . . . associer l a verite . . . restituer l a verite. Joyce and Proust both shared i n "the great psychological 1 2 discovery of [this] century . . the night world." They both appreciated the phenomena of the subconscious—hallucinations playing a major role i n Ulysses and dreams being very important i n A l a Recherche du Tenrps Perdu. Yet their fascination with the subconscious and the 'night' world did not lead to an exclusion of the 'waking* world, as i n some of the 'imaginative l i t e r a t u r e 1 of the time. Rather, they integrated the 'sleeping' and 'waking' sides of human experience, viewing them as part of a cycle. Bloom's hallucinations i n the Circe episode are seen as normal manifestations of an over-tired mind. Ulysses i s the story of a particular day i n Dublin, accented by sunrise and sunset. Finnegan's Wake, a later novel, completes the cycle i n that i t describes the 'night' segment of existence, and i t i s surmised that Joyce was intending to write another 'day' novel before he died. Proust describes dreams that are perfectly well 4 i n t e g r a t e d w i t h M a r c e l ' s and Swann 1 s ' w a k i n g ' l i v e s . He f r e q u e n t l y t a l k s of the r e s u r r e c t i o n and r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f the c o n s c i o u s s e l f a f t e r s l e e p , as a n a t u r a l phenomenon l i k e the r e t u r n o f s p r i n g o r the r i s i n g of the s u n . P r o u s t spends more t ime d e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s of M a r c e l ' s a w a k e n i n g s — a c t u a l and s y m b o l i c — t h a n he «does t r a n s c r i b i n g h i s dreams. Of the famous s l e e p i n g - w a k i n g p r o l o g u e , P r o u s t says "But a l l t h i s i s mere ly the stem o f the book, what i t s u p p o r t s i s r e a l , p a s s i o n a t e 13 . . . l i v i n g and t r u e . " F o r P r o u s t , l i k e J o y c e , i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s young a r t i s t - p r o t a g o n i s t ' s awakening t o l i f e and, s u b s e q u e n t l y , to a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . I n U l y s s e s and A i a  Recherche du Temns P e r d u , t h e r e are two main c h a r a c t e r s e a c h — the a r t i s t s Stephen and M a r c e l , and the l i f e - o r i e n t e d Bloom and Swann. The two l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r s h e l p i n i t i a t e the young a r t i s t s i n t o l i f e , and thus form a major p a r t of the f a s c i n a t i n g m y t h o l o g i c a l and symbol i c p a t t e r n s w h i c h ' w i l l be the s u b j e c t o f the r e s t of t h i s c r i t i c i s m . F i r s t , however, a s tudy o f the two would-be a r t i s t s shows t h e i r need f o r two such h e l p e r s . i 5 INTRODUCTION NOTES W i l s o n , Edmund, A x e l ' s C a s t l e , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r & Son, New Y o r k , 1931. French and E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e were g r e a t l y e n r i c h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d by an i n t e r c u l t u r a l exchange o f i d e a s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the E n g l i s h aes the tes adopted the P a r n a s s i a n concern f o r 1 a r t - f o r - a r t ' s sake ' and t h e i r concommitant l o v e o f t h i n g s a r t i f i c i a l . I n more g e n e r a l terms, as W i l s o n sugges ts , the F rench had much to l e a r n from the ' E n g l i s h use o f p a s s i o n and w i t , t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l themes, ' w h i l e the E n g l i s h b e n e f i t t e d from a knowledge o f the c l a s s i c a l F rench ' t r a d i t i o n o f l u c i d i t y , s o b r i e t y and p u r i t y . ' C e r t a i n l y P rous t was i n f l u e n c e d by such E n g l i s h au thors as George E l i o t , whose ' sense o f g r a v i t y ' he admired, and R u s k i n , whose works he t r a n s l a t e d . Joyce , on the o t h e r hand, v i s i t e d P a r i s t w i c e so t ha t he ' t o o k on,* a c c o r d i n g to W i l s o n , ' t h e complexion o f the F rench m i n d ' — c r i t i c a l , p h i l o -s o p h i c a l , much occup ied w i t h a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y . He a l s o saw i n P rous t and Joyce s y m b o l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — i n c l u d i n g the symbol i s t ' p r eoccupa t ion w i t h the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . Thus a comparison o f Joyce and P rous t i s j u s t i f i e d i n terms o f the l i t e r a r y c l i m a t e they sha red . ¥ i l s o n ' m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y Rimbaud's sea rch f o r an e x o t i c l i f e s t y l e which would f r ee him from the ' ennui* i n s p i r e d by the t imes i n which he l i v e d ; V a l e r y ' s w i thd rawa l i n t o the w o r l d o f the mind, symbol ized by the c h a r a c t e r o f M. T e s t e ; and Huysmann's ' d ea th w i s h , ' r ep resen ted i n the c h a r a c t e r o f A x e l , b u r i e d i n h i s R o s i c r u c i a n l o r e . I hope to show t h a t t h i s element of i m a g i n a t i v e ' e s c a p i s m ' i s not condoned i n J o y c e ' s and P r o u s t ' s l a t e r works . Joyce , James, U l y s s e s . V in t age Books, New Y o r k , 1966, p . 683-Joyce , James, A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, i 9 6 0 , p . 221.. 6 Proust had much of the ' l u c i d i t y and sobr ie ty 1 which i s associated wi th the French c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . He also del ighted i n ' s c i e n t i f i c progress ' ; he e spec i a l ly enjoyed the improvements i n modes of t ranspor ta t ion during h i s l i f e , and f e l t that the automobile and the aeroplane, which are important symbols i n A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, had added a new dimension to man's v i s i o n . He often used the sciences, botany, geology or chemistry, as a source of images and metaphors. Proust, Marcel , By Way of Sainte-Beuve. t rans . S y l v i a Townsend, Warner, Chatto & Windus, London, 1958, p. 60. c f . the heroine i n Confessions d'une Jeune F i l l e . c f . Baldassare Silvande i n La Mort de Baldassare Si lvande. 5 Proust, Marcel , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, B ib l io th lque de l a Ple iade , Ed i t ions Gallamard, Bruges, 1966, V o l . I l l , p . 465. " Aut re t , Jean, L 1 i n f luence de Ruskin sur La V i e , l e s I d l e s . et I 'oeuvre de Marcel Proust . Simon Era , P a r i s , 1926, p. 14. " Ellmann, Richard, James Joyce, Oxford Un ive r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 72. Proust, Marcel , Let ters of Marcel Proust . Trans. Mina C u r t i s s , Chatto & Windus, London, 1950, p . 213. 7 CHAPTER I A Portrait of Ar t i s t s as Young Men 8 Stephen and M a r c e l are engaged i n a v e r y r e a l s t r u g g l e t o c r e a t e . Joyce and P r o u s t have o b v i o u s l y drawn on t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s to some extent i n o r d e r to p o r t r a y , -with an e x a c t i -tude and o b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h set them a p a r t f rom t h e i r more ' i m a g i n a t i v e ' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , the o b s t a c l e s to c r e a t i v i t y p e c u l i a r t o the background shared by t h e i r p r o t a g o n i s t s . Young men at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , Stephen and M a r c e l grow up i n somewhat s i m i l a r m i d d l e - c l a s s Roman C a t h o l i c m i l i e u x . O s t e n s i b l y C h r i s t i a n , t h e i r c u l t u r e s s t i l l condone n a r r o w -mindedness, s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , and s p i r i t u a l h y p o c r i s y . Thus Stephen, i n order t o a t t a i n the o b j e c t i v e v i s i o n of the a r t i s t , must take care not t o i n d u l g e i n s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n , l i k e h i s f a t h e r ; more i m p o r t a n t , he must overcome a r e v u l s i o n of h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e w h i c h has been encouraged by h i s mother and by the p r e -d o m i n a t e l y Roman C a t h o l i c s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he l i v e s . He, l i k e M a r c e l , must cease t o use l i t e r a t u r e as a re fuge f rom u n p l e a s a n t r e a l i t i e s . M a r c e l , t o o , must become aware o f the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the v i e w p o i n t s h e l d by h i s f a m i l y ; the mother and grandmother o f t e n too i d e a l i s t i c , " ' ' the f a t h e r o f t e n too c y n i c a l . He a lone w i l l e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n a knowledge of e v i l as w e l l as a knowledge of good. Stephen i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o l i f e by Bloom, whose d o w n - t o -e a r t h exper ience and common sense ba lance the ' o v e r l y s p i r i t u a l 1 i n f l u e n c e s of mother, c h u r c h , and l i t e r a t u r e . Bloom thus f u l f i l l s one of the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s o f the r o l e of f a t h e r - t o guide and 9 educate the son . Swann, by i n t r o d u c i n g M a r c e l t o ' a l l the w o r l d l y m a t e r i a l 1 of h i s n o v e l , performs a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n . I n r e t u r n , M a r c e l , more f i l i a l i n t h i s t h a n Swann's t r u e c h i l d , p e r p e t u a t e s the name o f h i s b e n e f a c t o r t h r o u g h M s n o v e l . B o t h young a r t i s t s , t h e n , have much t o l e a r n f rom these two o l d e r men, who are p h y s i c a l l y immersed i n l i f e . The c u l t u r e s of the young a r t i s t s are o s t e n s i b l y p a t r i a r c h a l , but women are o f t e n the r u l i n g f i g u r e s . Stephen and M a r c e l are b o t h s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r mothers , and somewhat e s t r a n g e d from t h e i r f a t h e r s . I n S t e p h e n ' s case , the mother has the s t r e n g t h t o h o l d t o g e t h e r the ' d r o w n i n g ' f a m i l y , a s t r e n g t h w h i c h S t e p h e n ' s i r r e s p o n s i b l e f a t h e r l a c k s . I n M a r c e l ' s case , the mother—and to some ex tent the grandmother—have the a b i l i t y to judge f a i r l y and the reverence f o r c o n s i s t e n c y , s t r e n g t h , and w i l l - p o w e r w h i c h M a r c e l would r a t h e r a s s o c i a t e w i t h the f a t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n to f e e l i n g dominated by h i s own mother, Stephen l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o i a servant of 'Mother I r e l a n d — a c r u e l mother who ea ts h e r young, and of the 'Mother C h u r c h . 1 The l a t t e r i s headed, i t seems, not by God the F a t h e r , n o r by Jesus the S o n — s i n c e even s u p e r -n a t u r a l p a t e r n i t y can be q u e s t i o n e d — b u t by the V i r g i n Mary . M a r c e l spends much of h i s t ime i n s a l o n s c o n t r o l l e d by women. At one o f the V e r d u r i n s ' meet ings , a guest even asks i f t h e r e ever were a M. V e r d u r i n , so much does Mme. V e r d u r i n dominate the scene. I n the Duchess o f Guermantes' s a l o n , the Duke o f t e n seems 10 a f u m b l i n g b o o r . Only the P r i n c e of Guermantes seems t o r u l e w i t h d i g n i t y ; y e t he i s p a r t of the w o r l d of Sodome and G-omorrhe. H i s ' s u b j e c t s 1 are the f e m i n i n e men and m a s c u l i n e women o f the kingdom of h o m o s e x u a l i t y . W i t h i n such a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , i t i s no wonder that f l e s h and b l o o d f a t h e r s l i k e Bloom and Swann are such i m p o r t a n t examples to Stephen and M a r c e l . Ye t the p a t e r n i t y o f t h e i r daughters i s q u e s t i o n e d , they have been d e n i e d the male o f f s p r i n g so i m p o r t a n t i n a p a t r i l i n e a r l i n e , and they have b o t h been c u c k o l d e d by t h e i r w i v e s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e y can o f f e r no c e r t a i n t y t o the i n d i v i d u a l i n p h y s i c a l c r e a t i o n . However, t h e y i n t r o d u c e Stephen and M a r c e l t o a much g r e a t e r p a t t e r n — t h e superb b l o s s o m i n g o f f e r t i l e n a t u r e . Stephen e s p e c i a l l y needs t h i s p o s i t i v e message c o n c e r n i n g p a t e r n i t y i n the sense of p h y s i c a l c r e a t i o n ; he somehow f e e l s a l i n k between h i s p h y s i c a l i n f e r t i l i t y and h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t e r i l i t y . M a r c e l ' s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i v i t y has i t s r o o t s i n the ' i n v o l u n t a r y ' o r ' s u b c o n s c i o u s ' rea lms o f h i s mind w h i c h are s t i m u l a t e d by the s i g h t o f Swann's hawthorns . A f t e r he has garnered the ' u n c o n -s c i o u s ' message o f n a t u r e , t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h the hawthorns , however, he t ranscends the ' n a t u r a l , ' and, f rom l i f e ' s t r a v a i l , he f a s h i o n s a new, h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l , and s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n . He owes t o Swann, as Stephen owes t o Bloom, an awakening to p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s , the ' t e m p e r i n g ' which r e s u l t s from i t , and the b l o s s o m i n g i n t o c r e a t i v i t y w h i c h i s the f i n a l stage o f the ' m e t a m o r p h o s i s . ' 11 Thus, Bloom and Swann h e l p the two young a r t i s t s to r e a l i z e the s p e c i f i c problems caused by f a l s i t y and the e n e r v a t i n g d o m i n a t i o n found i n f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . As p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned, A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man, U l y s s e s and A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u owe a c e r t a i n s t r e n g t h and a u t h e n t i c i t y t o t h e i r a u t h o r s ' use of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . However, the r e a l g e n i u s of Joyce and P r o u s t c o n s i s t s of t h e i r a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e and y e t to t r a n s c e n d those s p e c i f i c r e a l i t i e s i n t o which they had so much i n s i g h t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a n a l o g i e s between Joyce and Stephen and P r o u s t and M a r c e l , a l t h o u g h sometimes a d d i n g t o o n e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g 2 of the t e x t s , are not as r e w a r d i n g as a s tudy of the u n i v e r s a l na ture of the works i n q u e s t i o n . When c e r t a i n c r i t i c s t a x e d Joyce w i t h S tephen 's e r r o r s i n A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a  Young Man, he r e p l i e d t h a t they had f o r g o t t e n the q u a l i f y i n g phrase ' a s a young man. ' Thus Joyce d i d not deny the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l element so much as emphasize the o v e r - a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s work. B o t h he and Stephen, p a r t i c u l a r examples o f " the a r t i s t " t a k e n i n i t s g e n e r i c sense, can be seen as u n i v e r s a l f i g u r e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g the problems of any immature a r t i s t s t r i v i n g to c r e a t e but b e i n g hampered by y o u t h and i n e x p e r i e n c e . I n these terms , Stephen becomes l e s s a "would-be a r t i s t i n modern s o c i e t y , " a " c a r i c a t u r e of [a] r e a l l y v i t a l and c r e a t i v e b e i n g , " and more a "young a r t i s t o f the modern e r a , " a "boy l u d i c r o u s , p a t h e t i c , and f u l l of 5 6 admirable p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . " As Budgen s u g g e s t s , even the use 1 2 of the word 'Portrait* i s symbolic. Stephen has a one-dimensional role, that of Simon Dedalus' son. He lacks the depths of insight into others which Bloom has reaped from his experiences as son, 7 father, lover and companion. Bloom i s "an a l l round character," 8 a sculptor's figure, and Stephen, unhappy i n his role as son, can but be attracted by the t o t a l i t y of Bloom's experience. Similarly, Marcel has frequently been compared with Proust, often with a disregard for certain basic differences between author q and character. Autobiographical criticism of Proust's novel can lead to uneasy over-simplifications. Swann i s sometimes seen as Proust's heterosexual persona, Charlus his homosexual one, the latte r usurping the former's position of importance after the death of Marcel's grandmother."'"^ The novel thus becomes an allegory of Proust's l i f e . Needless to say, the f u l l significance of A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu i s far deeper than this. Again, the book's t i t l e hints at i t s universal nature. The novel relates the history of a quest—'une recherche. 1 In keeping with the quest tradition, the hero must partake of l i f e , yet overcome i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , resist i t s worldly temptations, and, above a l l , question the true nature of the t r i a l s he undergoes. Swann, who lacks willpower, always f a i l s to find the. deeper meaning behind the surface of re a l i t y . The quest i s doubly rewarding i f the hero obtains his particular g o a l — i n Marcel's case an a r t i s t i c vocation realized i n a work of a r t — a s well as self-knowledge"'""'' and experience. 13 M a r c e l , l i k e Stephen, i s i n s e a r c h o f f a t h e r h o o d , or c r e a t i v i t y . T r u t h and w i l l - p o w e r , g a i n e d through t r i a l s , a r e , to h i m , the key to i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . I The F a m i l y P i c t u r e 12 As S u l t a n p o i n t s o u t , s e l f - d e c e p t i o n i s encouraged i n S tephen ' s f a m i l y . An o l d f r i e n d of S t e p h e n ' s f a t h e r , Mike F l y n n i s a l l o w e d t o p r e t e n d t h a t he , a f o o l i s h o l d man, i s an e x c e l l e n t t r a i n e r . No one d i s t u r b s the r o m a n t i c i z e d v i e w t h a t S t e p h e n ' s f a t h e r has of h i s y o u t h . One of Simon D e d a l u s ' f a v o u r i t e past imes i s to r e m i n i s c e over an i d e a l i z e d past w i t h a group of h i s c r o n i e s . I n the course o f one such d i s c u s s i o n , when Dedalus and f r i e n d s are d i s c u s s i n g S imon's former p h y s i c a l prowess , a t h l e t i c and amatory, Stephen i s made t o confess t o h i s r e l a t i v e i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h i s a r e a . The c r o n i e s , on b e i n g t o l d by Simon o f h i s s o n ' s 13 l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n g i r l s , remark t h a t Stephen i s "not h i s f a t h e r ' s son."" ' '^ A c t u a l l y , Stephen i s l o s t i n the "deda le [maze] 15 of l u s t y y o u t h , " confused by h i s s t r o n g s e x u a l d e s i r e s . Thus he i s deep ly a f f e c t e d by the remarks of h i s f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d s , which seem to emphasize h i s i n f e r i o r i t y t o h i s f a t h e r . .Always ready to exaggerate h i s own f a i l u r e s , Stephen conc ludes t h a t "an abyss of f o r t u n e o r of temperament sundered him from them . . . He had known n e i t h e r the p l e a s u r e of companionship w i t h o t h e r s , n o r the v i g o u r of rude male h e a l t h , n o r f i l i a l p i e t y . N o t h i n g 14 stirred within his soul but a cold and cruel and loveless lust. 1 If Mr. Dedalus were ever to admit to similar adolescent troubles, he would create a bond of sympathy with Stephen. However, he has completely forgotten any youthful anguish he experienced, i n his nostalgia for the past, and Stephen becomes more confirmed than ever i n his opinion that his role i n l i f e must be s p i r i t u a l and intellectual, rather than physical. Only Bloom's compassion, arising from his honest remembrance of similar past experiences, w i l l give Stephen confidence i n his physical nature, as we shall see. No matter how much Simon Dedalus may boast, as a 'celibate, 1 a bachelor, he i s as s t e r i l e as any man i n Dublin. In order to keep his carefree mode of l i f e , Simon does not concern himself too deeply with his family's problems, just as, during his wife's lifetime, he did not go out of his way to please and understand 17 her. Joyce's opinion of 'bachelors' seems almost as low as his opinion of virgins, as we shall see. In both cases, the individual denies the responsibility of his sexuality and the love and com-18 radeship which should accompany i t . Stephen's father tipples with his friends—likewise celibate—-in Byron's Inn, while his son tackles Lord Byron's poetry, his daughter spends food money on a French grammar, and the rest of the family suffer from various degrees of physical and intellectual poverty. Unlike his class i c a l prototype, he lets his family drown. The dri f t i n g , carefree 15 caznaradie. w h i c h Simon en joys i s the essence o f the S i r e n ' s song 19 which tempts , but does not conquer , Bloom. I f S tephen ' s f a t h e r i s somewhat weak and i n e f f e c t u a l , the female members of the f a m i l y are n o t . Stephen t a l k s of " t h e m i s r u l e and c o n f u s i o n of h i s f a t h e r ' s house and the s t a g n a t i o n 20 of v e g e t a b l e l i f e . " H i s mother and aunt are a t the o t h e r extreme; t h e i r r i g i d s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e s become almost a p a r t of S t e p h e n ' s n a t u r e , a source of added g u i l t i n h i s - o w n p h y s i c a l l y confused 21 l i f e . S t e p h e n ' s aunt Dante i s a " s p o i l e d n u n . " She s u p e r v i s e s the young S tephen ' s e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e he goes to s c h o o l . Even h e r I r i s h p a t r i o t i s m i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o an extreme Roman C a t h o l i c i s m which f o r c e s h e r to deny P a r n e l l when he i s exposed as an a d u l t e r e r . Her a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e r y forms a f o i l to B loom's much more 22 f o r g i v i n g one. She d i s l i k e s S t e p h e n ' s p l a y i n g w i t h E i l e e n , the p r o t e s t a n t g i r l next d o o r . From an i n c i d e n t i n S t e p h e n ' s c h i l d h o o d , we gather t h a t h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h E i l e e n i s censured f o r h i s p r e c o c i t y as w e l l as her d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l i g i o n . "When t h e y were grown up he [Stephen] was g o i n g t o marry E i l e e n . He h i d under the t a b l e . H i s mother s a i d : - 0 , Stephen w i l l a p o l o g i z e . Dante s a i d : 23 - 0 , i f n o t , the eag les w i l l come and p u l l out h i s eyes . . . " F o r the f i r s t t i m e , Stephen has been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a g i r l who i s u n a t t a i n a b l e . He t h i n k s of h e r i n terms of the l i t a n y o f the V i r g i n Mary. .."Tower of I v o r y , House of G o l d , " ^ o s t e n s i b l y because she has g o l d e n h a i r and w h i t e s k i n . A c t u a l l y , he i s c o n n e c t i n g 16 h e r w i t h the one symbol of i n n a c c e s s i b l e womanhood he k n o w s — the V i r g i n Mary. She, l i k e the V i r g i n , i s as h a r d t o r e a c h as a p r i n c e s s i n a tower , as pure as a g o l d e n - h a i r e d a n g e l , o r the w h i t e s t i v o r y . The dichotomy of the extremes of womanhood, ' p u r e ' and ' i m p u r e , ' which w i l l r e a c h a peak and become r e s o l v e d i n the C i r c e e p i s o d e , i s thus i n t r o d u c e d on the second page of A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man. F o r , S tephen 's emot ions , d e s i r e s , and i m a g i n a t i o n , much l i k e M a r c e l ' s ' c r o y a n c e s ' soon c r e a t e a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t concept o f woman as t e m p t r e s s . A p a t t e r n has been s t a r t e d i n h i s l i f e , a w a v e r i n g between ' s p i r i t u a l ' and ' p h y s i c a l ' extremes w h i c h a f f e c t s h i s a r t and p r e j u d i c e s h i s v iew of women. S t e p h e n ' s next sweethear t , Emma, i s the E - C - o f h i s v i l l a n e l l e . He wishes t o k i s s h e r a f t e r a C h r i s t m a s p a r t y , but i s r e p e l l e d by the n u n l i k e d e t a i l o f h e r 25 " s h a w l about h e r head l i k e a c o w l , " even a l t h o u g h her eyes are e n t i c i n g . T h i s m i x t u r e o f the f o r b i d d e n ( the cowl) and the t e m p t i n g 26 (Emma's e y e s ) , o n l y deepens S t e p h e n ' s c o n f u s i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he has no k i n d f r i e n d l i k e B l o c h , M a r c e l ' s p a l , to i n f o r m , o r m i s i n f o r m , him about women's a v i d i t y f o r l o v e ! Because o f h i s ambivalent f e e l i n g s , Stephen i s unable t o judge h i s f e e l i n g s f o r Emma, o r hers f o r h i m . At one p o i n t , he dreams of a heavenly marr iage w i t h h e r , condoned by the V i r g i n Mary h e r s e l f , and at another , he makes her i n t o the ' t e m p t r e s s ' o f h i s v i l l a n e l l e . The poem i s p e r f e c t i n f o r m , but marred by romant ic c l i c h e s , and 17 l a c k i n g the i n s i g h t which would make i t a t r u e work o f a r t . Only 27 i n S t e p h e n ' s mind does Emma have " a r d e n t w a y s , " as Stephen h i m s e l f h a l f r e a l i z e s . "And i f he had judged her too h a r s h l y ? I f h e r l i f e were as s imple as a r o s a r y of hours . . . s i m p l e and 28 29 s trange as a b i r d ' s l i f e . . . " Her o n l y ' s i n ' i s to f l i r t w i t h a p r i e s t . Bloom, i n U l y s s e s , remarks t h a t p r i e s t s are a t t r a c t i v e t o women because they are u n a t t a i n a b l e — " t h e t r e e o f f o r b i d d e n 30 p r i e s t . " Stephen t e l l s Emma t h a t he was ' b o r n t o be a monk, 1 u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r o j e c t i n g the image t h a t she , " g i v i n g h e r s e l f to 31 n o n e , " would f i n d most p l e a s i n g . However, he shows g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , f o r , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s exchange, he t h i n k s " A Monk! . . . no , i t was not h i s image. I t was l i k e the image of the young p r i e s t i n whose company he had seen h e r , l o o k i n g 32 at him out o f d o v e ' s e y e s . " The concern with , o n e ' s ' i m a g e , ' the p r o j e c t i o n of ' i m a g e s ' onto o t h e r s i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t types o f f a l s e h o o d t h a t M a r c e l , t o o , must overcome i n A l a Recherche  du Temps P e r d u . As ' r e l i g i o u s ' i n her own way as Dante , S t e p h e n ' s mother has the most i n f l u e n c e on h i s e a r l y l i f e . I n U l y s s e s e s p e c i a l l y , i t i s a v e r y n o n - c r e a t i v e i n f l u e n c e . A c t u a l l y , some of the r e l i g i o u s and s e x u a l over tones of S t e p h e n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother can but remind us of M a r c e l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s . The major c o n -f r o n t a t i o n between Stephen and h i s mother occurs when the former r e f u s e s h i s m o t h e r ' s death-bed request t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n E a s t e r 18 duty. One suspects, with Schutte, that the request i s p a r t i a l l y meant to be a test of Stephen's obedience and p a r t i a l l y an attempt to draw the young man hack to h i s childhood r e l i g i o n . Schutte further suggests that Stephen's mother i s ac t ing l i k e an o l d woman who does not want her young lover to escape; i n order to f o r e s t a l l the success of a younger r i v a l , s h e wishes Stephen to 33 become a p r i e s t , bound by an oath of ce l ibacy . Stephen, as h i s 34 analysis of the a f f a i r between Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway shows, i s very much aware of the emasculating influence of a dominating 'o lder woman.' His mother loves to hear Stephen s ing of "loves 35 b i t t e r mystery," the one phrase which impresses her i n a song which i s otherwise p o s i t i v e . When she c r i e s " i n her wretched bed 35 . . . for . . . l o v e ' s b i t t e r mystery," she i s , i n e f fec t , confessing to Stephen the unhappiness of a marriage symbolized •zc. by a 'wretched bed. ' She i s also t r y i n g to e n l i s t Stephen's 37 sympathy. Stephen himself i s acutely aware of h i s self-appointed task as a poet-pr iest "to shrive and o i l for the grave a l l there i s of her [gummy granny, h i s mother, or any woman, for that matter] 38 but her woman's unclean l o i n s . . . the serpent 's prey." He i s 39 fascinated by the "secrets" i n "her locked drawer," l i t e r a l l y , her souvenirs, but symbol ica l ly , her inaccess ib le womanhood. The Freudian symbolism becomes more obvious when we lea rn that Stephen and Bloom spend a great deal of time th ink ing about l o s t or s tolen keys; as Joyce says "an arruginated male key " i s needed for "an 19 unstable female l o c k . " ^ The 'ghost ' of Stephen's mother appears to him i n a v i s i o n . She i s dressed i n "a wreath of faded orange blossoms, and a torn 41 b r i d a l v e i l . " These are the trappings of the E te rna l Br ide , the one fa l se d e t a i l being the torn v e i l , that i s , the loss of v i r g i n i t y . Stephen's mother would have been capable of confronting him wi th such obviously sentimental symbols of faded mar i t a l dreams as the orange blossoms, but the v i s i o n , l i k e everything else that Stephen sees, i s coloured wi th h i s own fee l ings of g u i l t . This f i r s t novel , then, i s t r u l y ' a p o r t r a i t , ' since i t describes only Stephen's point of view; Ulysses becomes more of a ' sculptured work, since Bloom's viewpoint, amongst others, lends depth to the f i e l d of v i s i o n described i n i t . Stephen imagines h i s mother being received by a band of heavenly v i r g i n s , as b e f i t s her f i r s t name, Mary, and her b r i d a l costume. Af te r golden-haired E i l e e n ; 'cowled' Emma; Dante, the ' spo i l ed nun 1 ; and h i s mother, Mary; Mol ly Bloom can but be a welcome change for Stephen, a warm and receptive woman. Mrs. Dedalus empathizes wi th Mary the mother as w e l l as Mary the V i r g i n . In one of her l a s t conversations wi th her son, she champions the cause of Mary, the supreme symbol of motherhood. "To escape," Stephen "[holds] up the re la t ions between Jesus and Papa against those between Mary and her son. [Says] r e l i g i o n [ i s ] not a l y i n g -A O i n h o s p i t a l . " In other words, Stephen i s r e f e r r i ng to Jesus' 20 preoccupation wi th ' h i s Father ' s bus iness , ' and the Son's con-sequent rebuke of the ' i n t e r f e r i n g Mother. 1 The young Jesus thus asserts h i s independence and h i s readiness fo r manly tasks . Stephen, l i k e w i s e , must r i d himself of the deadening influence of h i s mother and her ins is tance on ' innocence' rather than 'exper ience , 1 ce l ibacy rather than f e r t i l i t y . Stephen's mother has her champions; they too seem to wish to enslave and emasculate Stephen. In Ulysses , there i s Buck Mul l igan , who fee ls that Stephen ought to have humoured h i s mother on her death-bed. In A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man, there i s Cranley, who i n s i s t s , much l i k e the young Marcel , "whatever else i s unsure i n t h i s s t i n k i n g dunghi l l of a world, a mother's love i s ..44 not." Cranley and Buck are both negative characters, extreme i n t h e i r viewpoints, overbearing and enervating comrades fo r Stephen. Cranley doubts the value of anything wor ld ly , Mul l igan of anything s p i r i t u a l . Both men have d i s to r ted views of pa te rn i ty . Cranley d e f i n i t e l y values maternity over pa te rn i ty . When Stephen again mentions C h r i s t ' s rebel l iousness against h i s mother, Cranley asks " . . . d id the idea ever occur to you that he [Jesus; Cranley denies His d i v i n i t y by using a small ' h ' ] was himself a "45 conscious hypocrite . . .? Cranley does not understand Stephen's need to g l o r i f y the ro le of son, even on a supernatural l e v e l . He misunderstands Stephen's shocked look. "And why were you shocked . . . i f you f e e l sure that our r e l i g i o n i s fa l se and that Jesus was not 21 the son of God?" "I am not at a l l sure of i t , Stephen [answers]. He i s more l i k e a son of God than a son of M a r y . " ^ Stephen i s further shocked when h i s f r i end , with whom he has shared so many ideas and ambitions, c a l l s them ' p l a y ' i n contrast to " . . . whatever she [the mother] f e e l s . Cranley "would s h i e l d them 48 [women] wi th a strong and resolute arm and bow h i s mind to them." As we s h a l l see, Stephen i s t r y i n g h i s best not to bow h i s mind to anyone. As we might imagine, v i r g i n i t y i s of far greater value to Cranley than to Stephen. 49 50 Cranley ' f e e l s what women f e e l , ' and has "womanish eyes." He resembles i n appearance the l a y p r i e s t , reminiscent of Swinburne's 51 'pale G a l i l e a n , 1 who has "pale loveless eyes," and who does 52 things wi th "womanish care ." Stephen sees i n Cranley the image 53 of a severed head or death mask; "a p r i e s t - l i k e face ," repre-senting i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l processes divorced from the body, or i n Freudian terms, the sexless man. There i s even a 54 hint of homosexual a t t r a c t i o n on Cranley ' s part , fo r Stephen. 55 An i n f e r t i l e f igure , "a c h i l d of exhausted l o i n s , " Cranley 56 becomes to Stephen something of a "ghostly fa ther ," or fa ther-confessor. The idea of 'ghost ly pa te rn i ty ' appeals to Stephen. Perhaps because of h i s mother's prompting, or pressure from h i s Jesui t school , Cranley 's example, or h i s own proud desire to 57 possess the "secret knowledge and secret power" of a p r i e s t , 22 Stephen s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r s t a k i n g o r d e r s . One s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n 58 i s t ha t he would then be even more powerfu l than the V i r g i n Mary, whose i n f l u e n c e pervades h i s l i f e . Stephen w i s e l y r e j e c t s t h i s s t ep , s i n c e h i s p h y s i c a l d e s i r e s would make i t i m p r a c t i c a l , and dreams i n s t e a d of "the word made f l e s h . . . i n the v i r g i n womb 59 60 of the i m a g i n a t i o n . " I n "the c l o i s t e r " o f h i s mind, he dec ides 61 to become " a p r i e s t o f the e t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . " Thus, i n the y o u t h f u l a r t i s t , the re are h i n t s o f the ' s p o i l e d p r i e s t , ' o f a r t b e i n g used as a compensation f o r r e l i g i o u s ' f a i l u r e . ' I f C r a n l e y r ep resen t s the mother ' s s p i r i t u a l c a s t r a t i n g powers, M u l l i g a n i s an even more fearsome r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the ea r t h -mo the r ' s f e r t i l i t y r i t e s , i n v o l v i n g symbol ic c a s t r a t i o n , which Stephen w i l l exper ience i n t h e C i r c e ep i sode . Indeed, M u l l i g a n i s a major f i g u r e i n S tephen ' s h a l l u c i n a t i o n d u r i n g t ha t ep i sode . M u l l i g a n i s f i r s t seen, l i k e a t rue m a t e r i a l i s t , mocking t h e - r o l e o f the Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s , pa rody ing the mass—"bear ing a bowl o f 62 l a t h e r on wh ich a m i r r o r and a r a z o r l a y c r o s s e d . " Y e t , as (~\ ^  Schut te p o i n t s ou t , he, t o o , can be regarded as a p r i e s t , one o f "the o rde r o f the venge fu l k n i g h t s o f the r a z o r , o r hangman. The hanged man, l i k e the Ta ro t symbol , r ep re sen t s death and r e b i r t h , 65 and reappears i n the ' f e r t i l i t y r i t e s ' o f the C i r c e ep i sode . M u l l i g a n seems to f e a r domina t ion by o t h e r s , and the l o s s o f m a s c u l i n i t y tha t t h i s would b r i n g ; he f i g h t s f o r supremacy as b i t t e r l y as any r i v a l f o r the e a r t h mothe r ' s f a v o u r . J u d g i n g 2 3 others by himself, he i s afraid of "the lancet of [Stephen's] a r t , " ^ and calls the young poet "Kinch" or 'knife-blade. 1 One of his favourite 'rags' was the mock "gilding" — t h a t i s , 'gelding' — o f a young student, a scene he describes i n these words, " . . . chased by Ades of Magdalen with the t a i l o r ' s shears. A scared calf's face gilded with marmalade. I don't want to be debagged! 68 Don't you play the giddy ox with mei" Symbolically, Mulligan has taken part i n a mock sacrifice of the bull , a f e r t i l i t y r i t e which can entail the castration of the bul l as well, a fate which Stephen, as 'bullock befriending bard' must avoid at Mulligan's hands. Mulligan takes away Stephen's key to the tower (very Freudian), and treats him like a servant. As though to prove his masculinity, Buck, like the animal for whom he i s named, sees 69 himself as a 'stud' on a "national f e r t i l i z i n g farm." If Cranley's concept of paternity i s too sp i r i t u a l , Buck's i s certainly too physical. Stephen himself sees a similarity between Cranley and Buck. When Buck takes Stephen's arm, the latte r thinks of a similar gesture on Cranley's part, "a Cranley 1s arm. His [Mulligan's] 70 arm." Both Buck and Cranley use this gesture to influence or manipulate Stephen. Only Bloom, the third person to offer Stephen his arm, wishes solely to give him some support; since • 71 Bloom i s "sinewless and wobbly" and Stephen "uncertain," one imagines they support each other, neither one dominating. 24 Bloom has an understanding of women that surpasses Cranley's. ". . . that's why I liked him" says his wife Molly "because I saw 72 he understood or f e l t what a woman i s . " Bloom i s neither weakly feminine, lik e Cranley, nor overbearingly masculine, like Mulligan; he integrates the female and male elements of his make-up. Actually he follows a traditional and ancient pattern; Jane Harrison, an author whom Joyce had very probably read, claims that "The rites of puberty . . . are, lik e a l l other primitive r i t e s , 'rites de passage' . . . When he passes to manhood, [man] ceases to be a 7' woman thing . . . The 'rite de passage' i s from one sex to another." ' Thus we are told that "From infancy to maturity [Bloom] had resembled his maternal procreatrix. From maturity to senil i t y he would 74 increasingly resemble his paternal creator." Since, as we shall see, Bloom guides Stephen through this ' r i t e , ' we can assume that he i s aiding Stephen to overcome the past, negative influences of his mother and to move towards paternity. Bloom alone asks Stephen why he l e f t his father's house, rather than why he dis-obeyed his mother. And, although he would like to see more of Stephen, Bloom does not discourage his bid for independence, his second ' f l i g h t . ' Marcel's family problems are remarkably similar to Stephen's. Again, s i f t i n g truth from falsehood i n the family situation i s an important task for the young a r t i s t . Marcel himself i s not always 75 able to see his relatives objectively. As Girard points out, 25 Proust's hero i n Jean Santeuil, which i s often considered the precursor of A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, i s prone to se l f -romanticization. Indeed, this f i r s t novel i s the work of an author who has not yet learned aesthetic objectivity i n dealing with a story which has much of i t s origin i n personal experience. Seen through the eyes of Jean Santeuil, the other members of his family seem impossibly good or unbelievably e v i l . In his later novel, the more mature Proust changes the emphasis from the hero to his task, or quest, as one can see on comparing the t i t l e s of the two novels. One of Marcel's greatest achievements w i l l be to overcome this very same tendency to romanticize himself and others, l e t t i n g his imagination and desires, i n short, his 'croyances', change those who are near him into godlike figures of good or e v i l . Marcel gradually conquers his 'egoisme,' for he realizes that our desires " [dedaignent] l a connaissance," so that we "[glissons] sur l a pente aisee de 1'imagination, plutSt [que remontant] l a pente abrupte de 1'introspection." 77 On one side i s the imagination, with i t s "lumiere d ' i r r e a l i t e , " 78 which appeals to the young Marcel's "paresse d'esprit." On the other side i s '1'introspection,' which demands a great deal of •volonti 1* by which Marcel means will-power, strength, and courage, and which leads to 'la connaissance.' Essentially, this'egoisme' i s the same kind of imaginative power which, as we shall see, leads Stephen to weave a wonderful story around 26 the g i r l at the beach. Proust's and,Joyce1s awareness of the dangers of excessive imagination i s yet another reason why these novels cannot really be termed 'imaginative literature.' In Marcel's family, as i n Stephen's, the young a r t i s t i s confronted with a wide range of values. Again, the father i s associated with a more practical, down-to-earth point of view, while the grandmother i s credited with a more abstract one. Marcel i s much more influenced by the opinions of others, as 79 Girard again points out, than Stephen, and thus he has a proportionately harder time overcoming his dependence on his parents, especially his mother. It i s i n relation to this struggle that we learn that Marcel, like Stephen, thinks of his mother i n religious terms, and that he, like his Joycean prototype, considers his mother much stronger than his father. Actually, like Stephen, Marcel i s estranged from his father because they are different i n so many ways. As Marcel says, "Mon pere avait pour mon genre d'intelligence un mepris suffisament corrige par l a tendresse, pour qu'au total, son 80 sentiment sur tout ce que je faisa i s fut une indulgence aveugle." It i s possible that the blindness i s mutual. Marcel realizes later that he did not completely understand his father, that " l a froideur, n'etait-elle qu'un aspect exterieur de sa sensibilite. The demonstrating of affection i s a great issue between Marcel and 27 his father; Marcel obviously considers such displays natural, but the father sees them as a sign of weakness—a very 'Victorian' middle, class reaction. Since his father i s "agace" by Marcel's 82 "sensibleries," Marcel does not dare to kiss his father, for fear he w i l l be thought foolish. However, Marcel also makes impossible demands on his father. In his daydreams and imaginings, Marcel gives his father an omnipotent role. "Si j'etais tomb! gravement malade, s i j'avais ete capture par les brigands, persuade que mon pere avait trop d'intelligences avec les puissances suprSmes, de trop i r r e s i s t i h l e s lettres de recommendation aupres du bon Dieu pour que ma maladie ou ma captivitS pussent §tre autre chose que de vains simulacres sans danger . . . " He even feels his father can make him the greatest writer of the century. As when he imagines Mme. de Guermantes helping him with his art, and giving him a l l knowledge, Marcel i s evading the responsibility of the hard work and effort needed to become a writer. When he finds 'a mirror of absolute truth' i n the works of Bergotte, the latt e r becomes his "plre retrouve." This i s the f i r s t hint that Marcel has 'lost' his father, that i s , lost f a i t h i n him, and dismissed him from his former role i n daydreams. Marcel likes Bergotte's vision of truth, i t must be admitted, because he finds i n i t ideas he had thought of also. His father, on the other hand, i s l i t t l e interested i n ideas, and i s intolerant of those with other viewpoints than his. Interested i n down-to-earth 28 concerns, lik e the workings of the weather, he dismisses as a fool a friend of Marcel's who-, i n an abstract mood, did not even notice that i t was raining. The father cannot abide lying or avoiding the truth. With hypocrites, lik e Legrandin, he i s "aussi impitoyable que 85 le c i e l . " Similarly, he has no sympathy for the imaginative exag-gerations of his son. Yet Marcel's father has a very limited vision of truth himself because he i s too practical and shallow, and i s lacking i n imagination. Marcel has embroidered a description of the stairway i n Swarm's house, i n order to convey to his parents a sense of Swann's majesty and worth, as displayed i n the latter's abode. Marcel's father impatiently contradicts him; yet the father's dry -objective 'truth' about the staircase t e l l s us far less about Swann, Marcel and the significance of the house to Marcel, than the latter's description does. The father, actually, knows much more about 'things' than about people. He does not understand his son, as we have seen, and he i s completely deceived by Norpois, a 'friend' he knows i n the government. Marcel, as we have seen, wishes to draw strength from his father. Actually, he inherits his father's weaknesses. During the famous incident of the goodnight kiss, (which we w i l l examine i n more detail i n Chapter III) we find that the father "avait des nevralgi He i s , then, the hereditary source of Marcel's constitutional nervous ailments, which are to blame, to a certain extent, for his 'manque de volonte.' In fact, because of his 'nervousness,' Marcel i s 29 exonerated of a l l responsibility for his weakness i n clinging to his mother. Hereditary weakness on the male side i s a common pattern i n A la -Recherche du Temps Perdu. Swann, also a "neuro-arthritique," . has, like his father, "une paresse d'esprit qui r 88 etait chez l u i congenitale." Charlus and St. Loup, uncle and nephew, inherit the tendency towards homosexuality which seems to run i n the Guermantes1 family. Marcel i s disappointed, i n his father as a disciplinarian; too.arbitrary i n his judgements, he i s , according to his son, too severe on small issues, too lenient on large ones. History repeats i t s e l f , for, according to Combray tradition, King Charles le Begue owed his f a i l i n g s — c r u e l t y , i n 89 this case—to a lack of parental discipline i n childhood. Indeed Marcel's grandmother and mother are the sources of strength i n his childhood. The grandmother, on deeper analysis, i s a somewhat ambiguous character. Even the mature Marcel describes with great sympathy this woman who has so much good i n her. The young Marcel feels that she does not wish to spare him suffering. " . . . ma mere et ma grand1mere . . . m'aimaient assez pour ne 90 pas consentir a m'epargner de l a souffrance." However, on the contrary, she tries at a l l costs to protect him from ugly truths, from unhappiness and discomforts. When she i s i l l , and a friend of Marcel's offers to take her picture, she spends a great deal • of time beforehand disguising her face so that Marcel wall not 30 recognize on i t the marks of the disease that i s going to k i l l her. At Balbec, she seems to overprotect him, from loneliness and a fear of strange rooms. In the next room to his, separated only hy a thin partition, she can hear him knock, like a mother feeling an infant move inside her. She gives him so much comfort, 91 he feels " l a tranquille avidite d'un enfant qui t§te." However, iron i c a l l y , she also gives Marcel his f i r s t confrontation with the ugly r e a l i t i e s of l i f e — o l d age and death. One cannot help but wonder i f the oversheltered boy owes his manhood terror of death to the shock of these unlooked-for confrontations. On one occasion, Marcel returns home early from a t r i p , because the telephone connection between himself and his grandmother has been severed (like an umbilical cord?). He has visions of her as a Eurydice lost. On entering the room where his grandmother i s sitting, unaware of his return, Marcel sees, her as she truly i s , 92 as i n a photograph. She has not made the usual effort to compose her features, and he no longer views her through the eyes of 'habit and tender i l l u s i o n . 1 He sees the face of an old woman for the f i r s t time, a 'fantcme, ' a Eurydice lost because he has turned around and truly faced her. The second shock i s even worse. The 93 grandmother, so "ardemment idealiste," so unwilling to cause others sorrow, ends her l i f e i n agonies which make her look like 94 some strange beast. Perhaps her last act to save her family the sight of her altered person i s to try to commit suicide. 31 Perhaps , t o o , she i s t r y i n g t o a v o i d , f o r the l a s t t i m e , the u g l i n e s s i n the w o r l d , which has now become h e r b u r d e n . E v e n t u a l l y her f a c e i s t r a n s f i g u r e d i n t o a resemblance t o the Pates, o r F u r i e s , f o r the d o c t o r a p p l i e s l e e c h e s to h e r head, w h i c h , to the o v e r -wrought M a r c e l , t a k e s on the aspect o f a Medusa—"Quand, quelques heures a p r £ s , j ' e n t r a i chez ma grand 'mere , a t t a c h e s a sa nuque, a ses tempes, S ses o r e i l l e s , l e s p e t i t s s e r p e n t s n o i r s se t o r d a i e n t 95 dans sa c h e v e l u r e ensanglantee , comme c e l l e s de Meduse . " The grandmother ' s eyes a t t h i s p o i n t are s t i l l w i s e , but the o l d e a r t h goddesses o f l i f e and d e a t h have her i n t h e i r hands; the next t ime M a r c e l sees h e r , she i s " u n a u t r e § t r e que ma grand 'mere , 96 une espece de b S t e . " M a r c e l ' s grandmother i s d e f i n i t e l y the i d e a l i s t i n the f a m i l y , s t a n d i n g at the o p p o s i t e extreme t o the f a t h e r , and "h i s r e l a t i v e s , w i t h t h e i r p r a c t i c a l na ture and v u l g a r i t y . We l e a r n t h a t " [ l a grand'mere] a v a i t apporte dans l a f a m i l l e de mon p l r e un e s p r i t 97 s i ' d i f f e r e n t que t o u t l e monde l a p l a i s a n t a i t et l a t o u r m e n t a i t . " The f a t h e r , who c o n s i d e r s i n s a n e anyone who does not f i t i n t o h i s p a t t e r n , t r e a t s h e r l i k e a madwoman when she g i v e s M a r c e l books f a r beyond the l a t t e r ' s comprehension. Most u p s e t t i n g o f a l l , the great aunt (on the f a t h e r ' s s i d e ) " v o u l a i t d r e s s e r un r e q u i s i t o i r e no contre [ l a ] g r a n d ' m e r e , " c l a i m i n g t h a t she i s u n s t a b l e , no doubt , on the evidence o f the u s e l e s s , but i d e a l i s t i c , g i f t s she g i v e s 99 o t h e r s . A c t u a l l y , P r o u s t o f t e n p r e s e n t s the c o n f l i c t between 32 man and woman i n a v e r y i n d i r e c t manner. F o r example, when Swarm and Odette are m a r r i e d , t h e i r i n c o m p a t i b l e q u a l i t i e s choose G i l b e r t e ' s . sou l as t h e i r b a t t l e g r o u n d . " L e s deux n a t u r e s , de son pdre et de sa mere, ne f a i s a i e n t pas que se m§ler en e l l e ; e l l e s se l a d i s p u t a i e n t . . . "" ' "^ Thus, i n M a r c e l ' s f a m i l y , the g e n e r o s i t y and i d e a l i s m w h i c h the mother and grandmother share and the meanness and p r a c t i c a l i t y o f the f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t s , not between the mother and f a t h e r , but between the grandmother and the f a t h e r ' s r e l a t i v e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , a f t e r she d i e s , M a r c e l dreams t h a t h i s f a t h e r , w h i l e h a v i n g the power to do so , w i l l not l e t M a r c e l see h e r g h o s t . M a r c e l seems to f e e l t h a t the f a t h e r r e s e n t s the c l o s e n e s s of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s grandmother and h i s mother . Now l e t us examine the v i e w p o i n t which the grandmother r e p r e s e n t s . U n l i k e S t e p h e n ' s mother , she i s not r e l i g i o u s i n an or thodox manner. But she does have ex t remely h i g h i d e a l s . She chooses Georges 101 Sand's works f o r M a r c e l because t h i s author " r e s p i r e t o u j o u r s c e t t e bonte , c e t t e d i s t i n c t i o n morale que . . . ma grand'mere [ t e n a i t ] pour s u p e r i e u r e s & t o u t dans l a v i e , et que j e ne d e v a i s l u i apprendre que b i e n p l u s t a r d & ne pas t e n i r egalement pour s u p e r i e u r 102 a t o u t dans l e s l i v r e s . " However, t h e r e might be another reason why the grandmother chooses F r a n c o i s l e Cham-pi f o r M a r c e l . T h i s book t e l l s the s t o r y of a young man who, b e i n g i n l o v e , m a r r i e s h i s s tepmother . The book forms the symbol ic condonement f o r the 33 n i g h t M a r c e l spends w i t h h i s mother, s i n c e she reads i t to him t h e n . The grandmother ' s 'goodness ' enables h e r to r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of o t h e r s , s i n c e she i s n e v e r , l i k e M a r c e l ' s f a t h e r , b l i n d e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t o r ' s n o b i s m e . 1 However, h e r i n a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e e v i l , i s almost as grave a h i n d r a n c e t o h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o t h e r s as the f a t h e r ' s i n a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e good i s t o h i m . She t h i n k s J u p i e n , the t a i l o r , a b e t t e r person than the Guermantes; t o a l a r g e ex tent she i s r i g h t , but she c o u l d never c o m p l e t e l y unders tand J u p i e n because she c o u l d never become aware of h i s ' n i g h t ' s i d e , h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h Sodome and Gomorrhe. As we have seen, the grandmother ' s p r i n c i p l e s a f f e c t h e r c r i t i c a l judgement of a r t . On the o t h e r hand, h e r a e s t h e t i c l e a n i n g s g i v e M a r c e l a d i s t o r t e d v i e w of r e a l i t y , w h i c h he f i n d s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to overcome. She, i n d i r e c t l y , encourages i n him an i m a g i n a t i o n u n t r i e d by exper ience w h i c h , as the b a s i s of M a r c e l ' s ' c r o y a n c e s , ' w i l l l e a d t o many d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s . E s s e n t i a l l y , the grandmother would r a t h e r t h a t M a r c e l l e a r n f rom a r t ( ' g o o d 1 and b e a u t i f u l a r t ) than from r e a l i t y , which i s o f t e n e v i l o r u g l y . When she wishes to g i v e M a r c e l an i d e a of V e n i c e , she asks Swann to f i n d an e n g r a v i n g of t h a t c i t y . The mature M a r c e l confesses t h a t " I I f a u t d i r e l e s r e s u l t a t s de c e t t e maniere de comprendre 1 0 3 I 1 a r t ne f u r e n t pas t o u j o u r s t r e s b r i l l a n t s . " " L ' i d e e que j e p r i s de V e n i s e d ' a p r e s un d e s s i n de T i t i e n . . . e t a i t cer ta inement 34 beaucoup moins exacte que c e l l e q u i m'eussent donnees de s i m p l e s 104 p h o t o g r a p h i e s . " He r e a l i z e s t h a t works of a r t , g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n too young to a p p r e c i a t e them, are not always a good i n f l u e n c e . The grandmother ' s s i s t e r s are even more extreme t h a n h e r i n t h e i r judgement of the w o r t h o f a r t . " E l l e s p e n s a i e n t q u ' o n d o i t met t re devant l e s e n f a n t s , et q u ' i l s f o n t preuve de gout en aimant d ' a b o r d , l e s oeuvres que, parvenu a l a m a t u r i t y , on admire de'f i n i t i v e m e n t . C ' e s t sans doute qu" e l l e s se f i g u r a i e n t l e s m e r i t e s e s t h e t i q u e s comme des o b j e t s m a t e r i e l s , q u ' u n o e i l ouver t ne peut f a i r e autrement que de p e r c e v o i r , sans a v o i r eu b e s o i n d ' e n m u r i r lentement des e q u i v a l e n t s dans son propre c o e u r . These same s i s t e r s r e f u s e to v i s i t the grandmother when she i s d y i n g , because they have found an a r t i s t whose l o v e l y c o n c e r t s they do not want to m i s s . Even M a r c e l , at t h a t p o i n t i n h i s l i f e when a r t becomes most i m p o r t a n t , would c o n s i d e r t h i s a f a l s e p r i o r i t y of v a l u e s . M a r c e l ' s f a t h e r , t h e n , c o n t r i b u t e s to h i s s o n ' s make-up t h a t d o w n - t o - e a r t h element to which he owes h i s i n t e r e s t i n meteoro logy ; the grandmother, on the o t h e r hand, bequeaths her grandson h e r own l o v e of the Combray c h u r c h s p i r e , and a l l i t s y m b o l i z e s — a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s imple and pure a r t , a r e a c h i n g outward towards heaven. M a r c e l ' s mother r e p r e s e n t s a medium course between o p p o s i t e p o l e s of v a l u e s . She h a s , a c c o r d i n g to M a r c e l , " l a sagesse p r a t i q u e , r e a l i s t e , . . . [ tempSrant] en e l l e l a n a t u r e ardemment i d e a l i s t e 35 de [la] grand'mere. 106 S t i l l , she does avoid the truth on occasion. She always regards her husband with "un respect attendri, mais pas  trop fixeaent, pour ne pas chercher a percer le mystere de ses way superior to his mother. As a couple, they li v e together harmoniously because the mother does not wish to know anything about her husband which might destroy the supposedly patriarchal pattern of their household. Actually, Swann, as we shall see, chooses a similar solution with Odette. At another point, Marcel's mother misunderstands the import of the marriage between Jupien's niece and young Cambremer."'C'est l a recompense de l a vertu. C'est un mariage a l a f i n d'un roman de Mme. Sand," dit ma mSre. •C'est le prix du vice, c'est un mariage a l a f i n d'un roman de 108 Balzac,' pensai-je." Marcel's mother has gained from the grandmother that trust i n good which causes her to judge people as better than they really are. In this quotation, she also shows a marked preference, like the grandmother, for 'good' books. Marcel has a hard time convincing her that heavy morality i s not necessarily a desirable quality for a book; that books should deal with sinners as well as, i n fact more than, with saints. ¥hen she reads Marcel Francois le Champi, she carefully censors the love scenes so that the poor fellow i s total l y confused about the meaning of the book. However, perhaps this fact, too, has i t s symbolic significance, i n superiorites. II 107 If we can believe Marcel, his father i s i n no 36 that she alone i n the family does not condone Marcel's dependence 109 on her. She, like Marcel, expected him to be punished for staying up for her kiss. When the father, against the mother's wishes, condones this behaviour, Marcel's conviction of his mother's greater sense of justice and greater resources of strength i s confirmed. If the use of Francois le Chamni hints at sexual overtones i n the mother-son relationship, Marcel himself i s quite open about i t s 'religious' overtones. He describes her goodnight kiss i n this fashion "ce baiser de paix" "[elle] me 1'avait tendue comme une hostie pour une communion de paix oil mes levres puiseraient sa presence reelle et le pouvoir de m'endormir. His mother i s a calming influence on Marcel, but Marcel i s too prone to drifting, sleeping and dreaming; Swann w i l l i n i t i a t e him into a waking world where he w i l l gain the necessary material for his novel. Like Stephen, he must journey towards his own autonomous vision. II The Social Frame Stephen has been brought up i n a society which denies-man's physical nature, and g l o r i f i e s his s p i r i t u a l one. The result of such an extreme point of view i s either self-deception or guilt, on the part of the 'sinner.' The consequences are gravest when the characters confront sexual taboos. L i t t l e g i r l s are regarded 37 as s h y e r , p r e t t i e r , more p a s s i v e c r e a t u r e s — l e s s l i k e l y . to r e b e l a g a i n s t mora l codes. S t e p h e n ' s f a m i l y g u r g l e s over a p i c t u r e of 117 "The b e a u t i f u l Mabel Hunter . . . an e x q u i s i t e c r e a t u r e . " A c h i l d w i t h a ' r i n g l e t t e d head ' gazes demurely at the p i c t u r e ; i n h a r s h c o n t r a s t , " the boy who came i n f rom the s t r e e t " " [ m a u l s ] the edges of the paper w i t h h i s reddened and b l a c k e n e d hands 112 . . . " The i n f e r e n c e i s o b v i o u s . The l i t t l e g i r l i s a p o l i t e , ' c i v i l i z e d , ' d e c o r a t i v e b e i n g ; the boy i s a r u d e , rough w o r k e r . I n S t e p h e n ' s J e s u i t s c h o o l a c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t y o f sex seems to be condoned by the s t a f f . L i t t l e B e r t i e T a l l o n , dressed up as a g i r l f o r the s c h o o l p l a y , earns coy p r a i s e from masters and s t u d e n t s a l i k e . S tephen, however, i s whipped f o r a c c i d e n t a l l y b r e a k i n g h i s g l a s s e s l a r g e l y because the housemaster 'knows ' t h a t a l l l i t t l e boys are l a z y and d e c e i t f u l . The master seems t o enjoy the f l o g g i n g . Stephen h i m s e l f i s tormented by g u i l t about h i s ' l u s t f u l n e s s . ' At l e a s t he has the i n s i g h t t o r e c o g n i z e the workings of h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , i f not the m a t u r i t y t o accept them. I n U l y s s e s , M u l l i g a n assures Haines t h a t Stephen w i l l never f e e l " the j o y of c r e a t i o n , " s i n c e " h i s w i t s have been d r i v e n 113 a s t r a y by v i s i o n s of h e l l . " A l t h o u g h M u l l i g a n means t h a t Stephen cannot enjoy l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , Stephen, i n h i b i t e d as he i s by g u i l t , c e r t a i n l y cannot en joy the ac t of p h y s i c a l c r e a t i o n , e i t h e r ; h i s p h y s i c a l i n f e r t i l i t y seems l i n k e d to h i s 38 i n t e l l e c t u a l impotence . Haines f i n d s S t e p h e n ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h h e l l h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d , because t h e r e i s "no t r a c e of H e l l i n I r i s h myth. However, anyone r e a d i n g Chapter I I I o f A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man w i l l r e c o g n i z e i n the J e s u i t f a t h e r ' s h e l l - f i r e sermon the source b o t h of S t e p h e n ' s g u i l t , and of h i s l i t e r a r y images . I n the sermon, the e a r t h i s the home of man's ' l o w e r ' n a t u r e , the sky the re fuge of h i s ' h i g h e r ' n a t u r e . No wonder Stephen expresses h i s p o e t i c a m b i t i o n s as a w i s h to f l y ! T h i s i d e a of h e l l , t h e n , i s an a l i e n concept , s i n c e i t d e n i e s the p h y s i c a l s i d e of everyman, and e s p e c i a l l y c l a s h e s w i t h I r i s h t r a d i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Stephen i s v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by i t . H i s imagined h e l l i s crowded w i t h l e c h e r o u s goat f i e n d s , i n f i e l d s of excrement . Thus Stephen expresses h i s d i s l i k e o f a l l b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , s e x u a l o r e x c r e m e n t a l . I n f a c t , he a s s o c i a t e s the two. He a l s o f e e l s a r e v u l s i o n f o r f o o d when s e x u a l g u i l t overwhelms h i m , an obvious F r e u d i a n a s s o c i a t i o n . He d i s l i k e s washing h i m s e l f . Perhaps , s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , he wishes h i s body t o be as d i r t y p h y s i c a l l y as he t h i n k s i t i s m o r a l l y . He admits as 115 much when he says h i s mind breeds l i c e and v e r m i n . I n o t h e r words , the ' d i r t ' i s menta l r a t h e r , t h a n p h y s i c a l . G e r t y , i n the N a u s i c a a e p i s o d e , i l l u s t r a t e s a d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n t o the same prob lem. She, t o o , t h i n k s t h a t h e r body i s d i r t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , she i s f o r e v e r washing h e r d i r t y l i n e n , e s p e c i a l l y h e r u n d e r c l o t h e s . A n d , on a symbol ic l e v e l , she a l s o manages t o 39 'whitewash' her physical desires, by painting them as pangs of romantic love. After the h e l l - f i r e sermon, Stephen i s urged to choose Gerty's solution—self-deception through the "[etherealization of] his sexual feelings."" 1""^ In an anguish of "relentless gu±lt"^~^ for his lustfulness, Stephen confesses to a priest. The priest advises him to turn his thoughts to the Virgin Mary, and Stephen, projecting a l l his emotions onto this 'pure' figure, feels an 'ecstasy' which he interprets as 'Grace.' It i s not entirely Stephen's fault that he proceeds from one extreme to another, from 'lust' to 'ecstasy. 1 The Roman Catholic religion, as Stephen experiences i t , recognizes no middle road; one i s either sinning or one i s i n grace. The demands of perfection are so great on Stephen, who has not yet learned moderation and humility, that, lik e a person on too st r i c t a diet, he tends to gorge himself after famine, to go from church to brothel. However, Stephen does eventually mistrust his s p i r i t u a l exaltation, and finds that a severe discipline of the emotions leads only to a barrenness punctuated by t r i v i a l i r r i t a t i o n s , such as he has seen mirrored on the faces of some of his Jesuit masters. Stephen reacts i n a typical fashion when he sees a g i r l on the beach. As usual, she takes on the imaginative tinge of the mood he has been experiencing; i n this case, a sp i r i t u a l hope-fulness after much guilt and self-doubt. His Roman Catholic > 40 b a c k g r o u n d does n o t have a t i t s r o o t a d e s i r e t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e g r o u p , t o i n i t i a t e t h e y o u n g i n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , s u c h as we f i n d 118 i n C l a s s i c a l m y t h o l o g y ; r a t h e r , i t e n c o u r a g e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s w o r s h i p o f a n a b s t r a c t g o d , and t h e a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e h i s l a w s . Thus we see S t e p h e n r e l i s h i n g a s p i r i t u a l a l o n e n e s s , r e a c h i n g a s p i r i t u a l h e i g h t , and w e a v i n g daydreams o f ' i n n o c e n c e ' and p u r i t y a r o u n d a s t r a n g e g i r l . . He f e e l s a s ense o f h i s a r t i s t i c v o c a t i o n , a n d i s " c o m m i n g l e d w i t h t h e e l e m e n t o f t h e s p i r i t " i n 119 a n " e c s t a s y o f f l i g h t " He s e e s a v i s i o n o f a " h a w k l i k e man f l y i n g s u n w a r d s " ( i n o t h e r w o r d s , he t h i n k s , D e d a l u s e s c a p i n g 120 f r o m h i s m a z e ) . A s S u l t a n h a s p o i n t e d o u t , S t e p h e n m i s i n t e r p r e t s h i s v i s i o n e v e n a t t h i s p o i n t . I f t h e man, w i t h whom S t e p h e n a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f , i s f l y i n g s u n w a r d s , he i s f o l l o w i n g t h e example o f I c a r u s , who s o a r e d t o o h i g h , m e l t e d h i s w i n g s , and p l u n g e d i n t o t h e s e a , g o i n g , l i k e S t e p h e n , f r o m one e x t r e m e t o a n o t h e r . S t e p h e n , l i k e I c a r u s , i s f l y i n g t o o h i g h , and d e p e n d i n g t o o much u p o n h i s i n t e l l e c t , d e n y i n g t o o q u i c k l y " t h e d u l l g r o s s v o i c e o f t h e w o r l d 121 . o f d u t y a n d d e s p a i r . " The c o u r s e o f m o d e r a t i o n , b e t w e e n h e a v e n a n d e a r t h , o r s u n a n d s e a , i s t h e c r e a t i v e p a t h o f D e d a l u s t h e f a t h e r . The w o r d s o f t h e b o y s s p l a s h i n g i n t h e s ea , "Oh c r i p e s , 122 I ' m d rownded " r e m i n d u s o f I c a r u s ' f a t e . J o y c e was v e r y c a r e f u l i n h i s c h o i c e o f a c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l f o r h i s m o d e r n - d a y p r o t a g o n i s t , and he p r e f a c e d A P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t a s a Y o u n g  Man w i t h a q u o t a t i o n c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n f r o m O v i d ' s m e t a m o r p h o s e s . 41 " E t i g n a t u s animum d i m i t t e t i n a r t e s " — " s o [Dedalus] t u r n e d 123 h i s mind t o s u b t l e c r a f t . " Stephen has chosen t h i s l i n e f o r h i s mot to , but he must l e a r n t o read f u r t h e r , and to i n t e r p r e t 124 the nezt l i n e — " a n unknown a r t t h a t seemed to o u t w i t n a t u r e . " T h i s l i n e suggests t h a t the unknown a r t d i d not r e a l l y o u t w i t n a t u r e ; a c t u a l l y D e d a l u s ' i n g e n u i t y c o n s i s t s o f a d a p t i n g n a t u r e to h i s own ends , as O v i d ' s metaphors show. A r t and the a r t i s t must be i n harmony w i t h n a t u r e , o r nature w i l l c l a i m the v i c t o r y . L i k e H i l t o n 1 s ' S a t a n , Stephen has ' a s p i r e d ' too h i g h . He has always found i t d i f f i c u l t t o "merge h i s l i f e i n the common t i d e 125 of o t h e r ' s l i v e s , " t h a t i s , t o share w i t h them a common p h y s i c a l l o t s y m b o l i z e d by the s e a . H i s ' s p i r i t u a l ' c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s d i s t u r b e d by the s i g h t o f some boys b a t h i n g . "How c h a r a c t e r l e s s they l o o k e d ! . . . I t was a p a i n t o see them and a s w o r d - l i k e p a i n to see the s i g n s of adolescence t h a t made r e p e l l e n t t h e i r p i t i a b l e nakedness . Perhaps they had t a k e n re fuge i n number and n o i s e from the s e c r e t dread i n t h e i r s o u l s . But he , a p a r t from them, and i n s i l e n c e , remembered i n what dread h e . s t o o d o f 126 the mystery of h i s own b o d y . " Stephen d i s l i k e s i n h i s com-p a t r i o t s what he l o a t h e s i n h i m s e l f . T h e i r " p i t i a b l e " nakedness becomes, i n Stephen, a " m y s t e r y , " mystery of course b e i n g used i n i t s s p i r i t u a l sense . Now t h a t Stephen f e e l s he has c a s t o f f " the s l u g g i s h m a t t e r 127 o f the e a r t h , " he cannot h e l p but r e g a r d the young g i r l t h a t 42 he sees i n a way which w i l l s u i t h i s e x a l t e d mood. I n t h i s f a s h i o n , . she " [ e x e m p l i f i e s ] a wedding of h i s s e x u a l . . . r e l i g i o u s . . . 128 and a r t i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s " and i l l u s t r a t e s " S t e p h e n ' s f a m i l i a r 129 / c o n f u s i o n o f the s e x u a l , the r e l i g i o u s and the a r t i s t i c , " (which i s common t o M a r c e l a l s o , as we s h a l l s e e ) . Stephen l i k e n s the 130 g i r l t o " a s t range and b e a u t i f u l s e a - b i r d , " e m p h a s i z i n g the e t h e r e a l aspect of the image (he e l a b o r a t e s On the b i r d imagery) to the de t r iment of the more d o w n - t o - e a r t h aspect ( the sea a n g l e ) . "Her t h i g h s , f u l l e r and s o f t - h u e d as i v o r y were bared almost to the h i p s , where the whi te f r i n g e s o f h e r drawers were l i k e f e a t h e r i n g of s o f t w h i t e down. Her s l a t e - b l u e s k i r t s were k i l t e d b o l d l y about about her w a i s t and d o v e t a i l e d b e h i n d h e r . . . h e r l o n g f a i r h a i r was g i r l i s h . . . h e r eyes t u r n e d t o him i n q u i e t s u f f e r a n c e of h i s gaze , w i t h o u t shame o r wantonness. L o n g , l o n g she s u f f e r e d h i s gaze and then q u i e t l y withdrew her eyes f rom h i s and bent them towards the s t ream, g e n t l y s t i r r i n g the water w i t h her f o o t , h i t h e r 131 and t h i t h e r . . . a f a i n t f lame t rembled on her cheek . " The w r i t i n g i s b e a u t i f u l , l y r i c a l , r o m a n t i c . I t has much i n common w i t h S t e p h e n ' s v i l l a n e l l e . However, S tephen, by p r o j e c t i n g h i s emotions onto t h i s g i r l , has l i t e r a l l y imag in ed i n t o e x i s t e n c e a woman who, f o r a l l he knows, might i n a c t u a l i t y be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The i v o r y s k i n and go lden h a i r , as w e l l as the s l a t e - b l u e s k i r t s ( b l u e b e i n g the V i r g i n ' s c o l o u r ) must i m m e d i a t e l y remind Stephen of the V i r g i n Mary . However, i t i s Stephen who wants h e r t o be 43 " w i t h o u t shame or wantonness . " A c t u a l l y , i n many d e t a i l s , she reminds us of the N a u s i c a a C h a p t e r . T h i s g i r l , l i k e G e r t y , has chosen b l u e c l o t h e s and has immaculate w h i t e u n d e r c l o t h e s . When t h i s g i r l f e e l s S tephen ' s eyes upon h e r , ' w o r s h i p p i n g 1 h e r , she t u r n s to l o o k at h i m , j u s t as G e r t y s t a r e s a t Bloom. Perhaps she, l i k e G e r t y , i s e x u l t i n g i n the i d e a — t h a t he i s " l i t e r a l l y 132 w o r s h i p p i n g at her s h r i n e . " T h i s g i r l i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , as the nervous movement of h e r l e g s show, and y e t she does not u n f o l d her s k i r t . Remember t h a t G e r t y , l e a n i n g backwards , so t h a t Bloom can see as much o f her l e g s as p o s s i b l e , t h i n k s o f the t imes t h a t she has been wading , as though the m o t i v a t i o n were the same. T h i s g i r l b l u s h e s , and G e r t y i s adept a t b l u s h i n g ; the s l i g h t e s t ' n a u g h t y ' word' w i l l t u r n h e r c r imson w i t h modesty. The r e a d e r can never know i f S t e p h e n ' s v i s i o n a r y g i r l i s r e a l l y n a i v e and p u r e h e a r t e d , s i n c e we do not see i n t o h e r m i n d . I n any case , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t she c o u l d e v e r meet S t e p h e n ' s i d e a l s t a n d a r d s . The ' a l l - r o u n d ' p i c t u r e of the s i m i l a r scene i n U l y s s e s , when we see i n t o B l o o m ' s and G e r t y ' s minds , proves t h a t Bloom i s i n d e e d more o b j e c t i v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a n Stephen. A f t e r an a b o r t i v e ' f l i g h t ' to P a r i s , a l a D e d a l u s , Stephen r e t u r n s to D u b l i n , where he i s plunged even f u r t h e r i n t o the sea of m a t e r i a l f l u x . He had meant to s tudy and w r i t e i n P a r i s , but 133 i n s t e a d , s u f f e r i n g from "Hunger t o o t h a c h e , " has s u b s i s t e d on money o r d e r s from h i s mother, and the a f f e c t i o n o f v a r i o u s F r e n c h 44 p r o s t i t u t e s . Now t h a t he i s e m b r o i l e d i n a l l the m a t e r i a l problems of D u b l i n f a m i l y l i f e w i t h h i s mother dead, the c o n t r a r y young poet t u r n s once a g a i n to i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . He t r i e s t o become a member o f D u b l i n ' s l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y , a l t h o u g h he g r a d u a l l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h i s s o c i e t y i s l i k e an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r i s o n o r s t u f f y r e l i g i o n . M a r c e l l o c k e d up A l b e r t i n e i n h i s house, c o n f i n e d b o t h o f them by the i m a g i n i n g s of h i s m i n d . Stephen, t o o , has r e t u r n e d 134 to " h i s m i n d ' s bondage," the i n t e l l e c t u a l extreme w h i c h so e f f e c t i v e l y i s o l a t e s him from o t h e r s . Stephen f e e l s he i s " c o n -demned" t o e x p l a i n h i s own t h e o r i e s ; i n t h i s way, he i s c e r t a i n l y more of an ' a n c i e n t m a r i n e r 1 t h a n Bloom. Yet t h i s v e r y i n t e l l e c t u a l s o l i t u d e , Stephen f e e l s , s h o u l d s u r e l y be s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d by the D u b l i n l i t e r a r y e l i t e , e s p e c i a l l y E g l i n t o n , t h a t " s o l i t a r y 135 champion of the i n d i v i d u a l . " They s h o u l d at l e a s t be a change from the p r i e s t - l i k e C r a n l e y , and the m a t e r i a l i s t i c M u l l i g a n . Stephen soon becomes aware, however, t h a t he i s j u s t a s k i n g f o r a d m i s s i o n i n t o a l a r g e r p r i s o n , bounded by the l i b r a r y w a l l s . T w i c e , the l i b r a r y i s c a l l e d " a v a u l t e d c e l l . " T h i s ' c e l l ' 137 i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the " s h a t t e r i n g d a y l i g h t of no t h o u g h t s " o u t s i d e . L i t t l e does Stephen r e a l i z e t h a t he i s g o i n g t o l e a r n more f rom the s u n l i g h t , the n a t u r a l c y c l e s of which i t i s a p a r t , the p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l p a r t of l i f e , t h a n f rom the l i b r a r y . 138 The l i b r a r y seems to harbour "shadows, s o u l s of men." Indeed, 45 i t seems to be a modern v e r s i o n o f P l a t o ' s ' cave o f i l l u s i o n s , ' a p r o t e c t i v e s h e l l f o r those who cannot w i t h s t a n d the ' s h a t t e r i n g s u n l i g h t ' o f the ou t s i de w o r l d . Yet R u s s e l l b e l i e v e s t ha t " a r t has to r e v e a l to us . . . s p i r i t u a l essences . . . P l a t o ' s w o r l d 139 o f i d e a s . " H i s i l l u s i o n c o n s i s t s o f r o m a n t i c i z i n g the I r i s h ' p e a s a n t ' s h e a r t . ' ^ ^ " . . . the d e s i r a b l e i f e ," he says , " i s r e v e a l e d o n l y to the poor o f h e a r t , the l i f e of Homer's Phaecians ."" ' ' ' ^ However, we have seen tha t G e r t y , J o y c e ' s modern v e r s i o n o f N a u s i c a a , the Phaec ian p r i n c e s s , has no n o t i o n o f the ' d e s i r a b l e l i f e . 1 She has l i v e d i n a w o r l d o f i d e a s , o r , at l e a s t , imag in ings garnered from romant ic n o v e l s , r a t h e r than a t r u e , o b j e c t i v e , r e a l i s t i c w o r l d . As a r e s u l t , she i_s poor o f hear t—but not aware o f ' t he good l i f e . ' She i s n a r c i s s i s t i c , she r e fuses to g i v e l o v e to o t h e r s , he r pove r ty i s emot iona l as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l . E g l i n t o n , t o o , den ies h i s t i e s w i t h the e a r t h , symbol ized by h i s f a t h e r . Exper ience and a r t , emotions and i n t e l l e c t must work t oge the r to unders tand ' t he d e s i r a b l e l i f e . ' 142 E g l i n t o n i s a "dour r e c l u s e " r a t h e r than a ' s o l i t a r y champion o f the i n d i v i d u a l . ' H i s f a v o u r i t e l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r s are Don Quixote and F a l s t a f f ; the former pursued dreams and i l l u s i o n s ; the l a t t e r , j u s t as e n e r g e t i c a l l y , avo ided r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e a l i t y . T h i s c l i q u e , i n i t s b a s i c s t e r i l i t y , i t s c o n f i n i n g ways* and i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l , o r even s p i r i t u a l ' snobisme ' i s not u n l i k e 46 some o f the sa lons which M a r c e l f r equen t s , i n t ha t i t , t o o , c o u l d he l i k e n e d to an e l i t e r e l i g i o u s c u l t — a s t e r i l e one a t t h a t . R u s s e l l , one of i t s l e a d i n g members, g l o r i e s i n h i s " s p i r i t u a l 143 essences" and e s o t e r i c l o r e . The ' quake r ' l i b r a r i a n reminds Stephen o f the E g y p t i a n p r i e s t who at tempted to persuade the young Moses to "[bow] h i s w i l l " 1 4 4 to t h e i r s u p e r i o r c u l t u r e . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n shou ld be a warn ing to Stephen. Moreover , Stephen f e e l s the s p i r i t u a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l atmosphere deadening, as though he were i n an E g y p t i a n tomb. " C o f f i n e d thoughts around me, i n mummy cases , embalmed i n s p i c e o f words . . . an i t c h o f death i s i n 145 them, to . . . urge me t o ' w r e a k t h e i r w i l l . " Stephen must escape t h i s modern h i g h p r i e s t ' s "house o f bondage." H i s p l a c e i s bes ide " Ikey M o s e s " 1 4 7 B i o om, who w i l l l e a d him out o f the p r i s o n house o f h i s mind i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s o f l i f e . Here , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g ' c o f f i n e d , ' thoughts are " q u i c k [ a l i v e and f a s t -mov ing ] i n .148 the t r a i n s o f men, s i n c e they are needed i n o rde r t o s u r v i v e . Stephen a l s o l i k e n s the l i b r a r i a n to a Roman p r i e s t e s s t e n d i n g r i 149 "a v e s t a l ' s [a v i r g i n ' s j l amp." I n o rde r to be accepted by the c l i q u e , Stephen r e v e r t s to h i s ' p r i e s t l y ' ways. M u l l i g a n 1 5 0 n o t i c e s t h i s r i g h t away and c a l l s Stephen a " p r i e s t i f i e d K i n c h i t e l ' Stephen r e c a l l s C r a n l e y ' s ge s tu r e s , and cop i e s the s m i l e o f h i s 151 ' m i n i s t e r i a l ' f r i e n d . "Smi le C r a n l e y ' s s m i l e . " He p rays f o r success to I g n a t i u s L o y o l a , the founder o f the J e s u i t o r d e r , before he s t a r t s h i s ' sermon' on Shakespeare. As we s h a l l see, 47 he does not hesitate to use a sophistry—once known as a common tool of the Jesuits—which can only hurt his own inte l l e c t u a l integrity. Influenced by the monkish atmosphere of the library, Stephen i s willing to emphasize Shakespeare's supposed homosexuality. (Eglinton and Best are homosexuals.) He also twists the facts of Shakespeare's 152 l i f e i n order to justify his own. Having completely sided with Cranley's extreme, .'spiritual' paternity, creation from the mind alone, Stephen at this point qualifies as an aesthete. He expounds his theories to writers, at the library, who are primarily aesthetes. If the novel were to end here, i t would certainly belong to the 'literature of the imagination.' However, the Dublin intellectuals do not encourage Stephen to join them, and, instead, at this turning-point i n his l i f e , the young a r t i s t almost l i t e r a l l y humps into Bloom. In Marcel's society, too, i t i s common for people, blinded by s p i r i t u a l 'snobisme,1 to confound s p i r i t u a l and non-spiritual values, and to try to attain s p i r i t u a l or a r t i s t i c ends by worldly means. Marcel's susceptibility to these errors has been recognized by many Proust scholars. Barbara Buckness states that "most of Proust's characters seem to be a f f l i c t e d with a religious impulse 153 which finds i t s object anywhere but i n religion," and that Marcel himself, commits "the errors of excessive materialism and 154 excessive s p i r i t u a l i t y i n his search for truth. According to B. G-. Rogers, Marcel shows "marked confusion between sp i r i t u a l and 48 n o n - s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , " f o r , i n the young a r t i s t , " a r t and n a t u r a l beauty spontaneous ly g i v e b i r t h to a b e l i e f [ f o r example] i n 155 c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i m p l i c i t v a l u e s i n l o v e . " I n o t h e r words , M a r c e l , l i k e Stephen, i s a c r e a t u r e o f extremes, a v e r y confused young man f o r the good reason t h a t h i s s o c i e t y , t o o , i s extreme and c o n f u s e d . Rene G i r a r d adds t h a t M a r c e l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y open to i n f l u e n c e from o t h e r s ; M a r c e l wishes those t h i n g s which o t h e r s p r i z e ; t h i s ' t r i a n g u l a r d e s i r e ' depends on a media tor to p o r t r a y 156 the v a l u e of an o b j e c t and thus provoke j e a l o u s y — a n d d e s i r e . Even i n Combray, the s m a l l town o r g a n i z e d around a c h u r c h s p i r e , w h i c h M a r c e l comes t o r e g a r d as the s p i r i t u a l cent re of h i s c h i l d h o o d , one can see L e g r a n d i n f u r t h e r i n g h i s s o c i a l s t a t u s . at c h u r c h , w h i l e Mme. G o u p i l and Mme. P e r c e p i e d t a l k " a haute v o i x de s u j e t s t o u t t e m p o r e l s , comme s i nous e t i o n s d e j a s u r l a 157 p l a c e . " L a t e r , i n s o c i e t y , M a r c e l observes the V e r d u r i n s t r e a t i n g t h e i r s a l o n as though i t were an e l i t e r e l i g i o u s c u l t . Says . S t . Loup, w i t h a grea t d e a l o f i n s i g h t , "ce sont des m i l i e u x . . . ou on f a i t t r i b u , ou on f a i t c o n g r e g a t i o n et c h a p e l l e . . . [comme] une p e t i t e s e c t e ; on e s t t o u t m i e l pour l e s gens q u i en sont e t 158 on n ' a pas assez de dedain pour l e s gens q u i n ' e n sont p a s . " I n o t h e r words , the V e r d u r i n s , w i t h t h e i r u s u a l bad t a s t e , have chosen to emulate the n e g a t i v e aspect of o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n . At one g a t h e r i n g , we hear t h a t " l e s a l o n . . . p a s s a i t pour un Temple 159 de l a M u s i q u e . " Mme. V e r d u r i n i n s i s t s on c a l l i n g C o t t a r d " l e 49 Doc to r D i e u , " 1 ^ " ca r ce D i e u repare dans l a mesure du p o s s i b l e une p a r t i e des malheurs dont l 1 a u t r e es t r e s p o n s a b l e . " (Her preference f o r a m i n i s t e r o f the body, r a t h e r than a m i n i s t e r f o r the s p i r i t i s somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t o f M u l l i g a n ' s a t t i t u d e . ) I n the meantime, C h a r l u s , who i s i n f a t u a t e d by M o r e l , i n s i s t s t ha t the l a t t e r , ' ' joue comme un d i e u , and fur thermore , tha t he resembles S t . M i c h e l . 162 "Les f i d d l e s , " unable to f i n d the Norwegian p h i l o s o p h e r on the t r a i n , imagine tha t he has been "emporte dans une a s sompt ion , " f o r he has " d i s p a r u . . . comme un d ieu ."" ' "^ 4 and, o f cour se , at the v e r y end o f the p a r t y , M. de Cambremer, whose l a u g h i n g face manages t o resemble the e c s t a t i c v i s a g e o f a mar tyr seems to 165 imp lo re "du C i e l , sous son Monocle , l e s palmes du M a r t y r e . " Barbara B u c k n a l l has suggested t ha t P rous t had an ambiva lent a t t i -tude to r e l i g i o n and t ha t he "uses r e l i g i o u s language . . . to parody the s e r iousnes s w i t h wh ich people take each o the r and themse lves . P r o u s t , however, does not use r e l i g i o n as a v e h i c l e f o r parody because he saw i t as i n t r i n s i c a l l y absurd; r a t h e r he observes o the r s u s i n g r e l i g i o n f a l s e l y (which i s absu rd ) , a p p l y i n g i t to t h e i r s h a l l o w p u r s u i t s to g ive them the i l l u s i o n o f depth and impor t ance . P rous t the obse rve r e l a b o r a t e s on t h e i r use o f r e l i g i o n , then , u s u a l l y w i t h v e r y humourous r e s u l t s . As Rene G i r a r d remarks, "P rous t . . . . [does] not de f i ne our u n i v e r s e by an absence o f the s ac red , as do the p h i l o s o p h e r s , but by the p e r v e r s i o n and c o r r u p t i o n o f the s ac red , which g r a d u a l l y po i sons the source o f l i f e . " T h i s 50 q u o t a t i o n can be e q u a l l y w e l l a p p l i e d t o J o y c e ' s works, e s p e c i a l l y A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man and U l y s s e s . I f the V e r d u r i n s dece ive themselves as to the s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r s a l o n , so do they as t o i t s a e s t h e t i c r o l e . A c c o r d i n g t o M a r c e l , the re are some " a r t s auxquels l a Patronne (Mme. V e r d u r i n ) a t t a c h a i t une t e l l e impor tance , b i e n q u ' i l s ne fassen t que nuancer l ' i n e x i s t a n t , s c u l p t e r l e v i d e , et s o i e n t a proprement p a r l e r l e s A r t s du Neant : l ' a r t . . . de s a v o i r " r e u n i r , " 168 de s ' e t endre a grouper . . . " The p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m o f the s a lons i s o f t e n sought as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r those who have t a l e n t s , but not the depth to pursue them, the i n t e l l e c t u a l c e l i b a t e s o f a r t , l i k e S k i , the s c u l p t o r . As many c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l have " a e s t h e t i c impu l se s " as have " r e l i g i o u s i m p u l s e s . " Perhaps because o f M a r c e l ' s p r o p e n s i t y towards j u d g i n g people by t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y , 169 we f i n d t h a t C e l e s t e , a h o t e l s e rvan t , i s a n a t u r a l poetesse j 170 171 G i l b e r t e p a i n t s , as does A l b e r t i n e ; C h a r l u s has p a i n t e d 172 e x q u i s i t e f a n s , composed mus ic , and s t i l l p l a y s the p iano e x p e r t l y ; F r a n c o i s e i s an a r t i s t i n the k i t c h e n , and even L e g r a n d i n has w r i t t e n a n o v e l . B l o c k e v e n t u a l l y p u b l i s h e s , as does Swann, and Theodore, whom one would have thought devo id o f a n y t h i n g but v i c e , w r i t e s M a r c e l a l e t t e r f u l l o f a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s a r t i c l e i n the F i g a r o . I n f a c t , the re are v e r y few c h a r a c t e r s i n A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu who do not have a r t i s t i c l e a n i n g s , and v e r y few who do not b e t r a y them. 51 The Guermantes s a l o n , i n many ways, i s an even b e t t e r example of a p e r v e r s i o n o f a r t i s t i c i m p u l s e s . ¥ e l e a r n , to our s u r p r i s e , c o n s i d e r i n g the bad t a s t e t h a t the Duchess o f t e n shows i n a r t , t h a t " O r i a n e de Guermantes . . . f a i t des a q u a r e l l e s d ignes d ' u n \ 177 grand p e i n t r e et des v e r s comme en f o n t de grands p o e t e s . " ( T h i s o p i n i o n i s s u s p e c t , though, s i n c e i t comes from a f r i e n d of-the Duchess ! ) Or iane s a t i s f i e s h e r a r t i s t i c l e a n i n g s by i n v i t i n g poets to d i n n e r , then demanding t h a t they d i s c u s s n o t h i n g deeper than the d i s h e s s e r v e d . " . . . v i v a n t de c e t t e v i e Mondaine [avec 1 7ft son] desoeuvrement et [ sa] s t e r i l i t e , " she has " l a s o i f m a l s a i n e du r a i s o n n e u r , q u i pour e tancher son e s p r i t t r o p sec , v a c h e r c h e r 179 / n ' i m p o r t e q u e l paradoxe encore un peu f r a i s . " ( .Again, we f i n d the p h r a s e o l o g y o f the w a s t e l a n d - q u e s t m o t i f - the t h i r s t , the s t e r i l i t y . ) I f a n y t h i n g , the Duchess has t a k e n f r o m A r t o n l y a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s sense of the a r t i f i c i a l , the a r t f u l i l l u s i o n . I n a v e r y i m p o r t a n t passage, M a r c e l d e s c r i b e s the Duchess i n f r o n t of her m i r r o r : " . . . j e p o u v a i s l ' a p e r c e v o i r devant sa g l a c e , j o u a n t , avec une c o n v i c t i o n exempte de dedoublement e t d ' i r o n i e , avec p a s s i o n , avec mauvaise humeur, avec amour-propre , comme une r e i n e q u i a accepte de r e p r e -s e n t e r une s o u b r e t t e dans une comedie de c o u r , ce r8le, s i i n f e r i e u r & e l l e , de femme e l e g a n t e ; e t dans l ' o u b l i mythologique de sa grandeur n a t i v e , e l l e r e g a r d a i t s i sa v o i l e t t e e t a i t b i e n t i r S e 180 . . . " ~ A c t u a l l y , a l t h o u g h the Duchess i s not p l a y i n g the • s u p e r i o r ' r o l e t h a t M a r c e l would l i k e her t o , she i s p l a y i n g the 52 r o l e she choo ses ; '.•,'hen she regards h e r s e l f n a r c i s s i s t i c a l l y i n the 181 m i r r o r , she i s c h e c k i n g t h a t her ' image ' i s c o r r e c t , t h a t i s , t h a t she resembles the image t h a t she wants t o p r o j e c t , and w h i c h , as a Guermantes, she i s expected to p r o j e c t . When she i s o l d e r , she s t i l l l o o k s at h e r s e l f . c o m p l a c e n t l y i n the m i r r o r — " s e s yeux b l e u s se r e g a r d a i e n t eux-m£mes et r e g a r d a i e n t ses cheveux encore b londs . . . H . de Guermantes se d i s a i t : " O r i a n e es t vra iment encore 182 e t o m a n t e . " " The Duchess i s , above a l l , an a c t r e s s . "Quant aux a c t i o n s mondaines, c ' e t a i t encore un a u t r e p l a i s i r a r b i t r a i r e m e n t t h e a t r a l que Mme. de Guermantes e p r o u v a i t a emettre s u r e l l e s de ces jugements imprevus q u i f o u e t t a i e n t de s u r p r i s e s i n c e s s a n t e s e t 183 d e l i c i e u s e s l a P r i n c e s s e de Parme. " Her s a l o n i s b e t t e r t h a n the V e r d u r i n s 1 o n l y because her ' s p e c t a c l e s ' are r i c h e r . " M a i s i l es t i m p o s s i b l e de d e c r i r e i c i l a r i c h e s s e de c e t t e choreographie des Guermantes a cause de l ' e n t e n d u e mime de l e u r corps de b a l l e t , " says M a r c e l . The V e r d u r i n s , a l a s , never q u i t e manage to t r a n s c e n d 185 the l i m i t s o f low comedy or melodrama. B o t h h o s t e s s e s have a tendency t o manipula te o t h e r s i n t o a c t i n g out t h e i r l i t t l e ' d r a m a s , ' but Mme. V e r d u r i n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the scene between C h a r l u s and M o r e l , shows a f i n e r edge o f t h a t c r u e l t y which i s , t o P r o u s t , a n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t f o r melodrama. A t f i r s t , M a r c e l , t o o , f a l l s i n t o the t r a p of s e e k i n g ' s p i r i t u a l ' g o a l s i n w o r l d l y p l a c e s . He f e e l s sure t h a t the s a l o n of the Duchess of Guermantes i s a " t e m p l e . " " . . . dans l e s d i n e r s de douze personnes 53 . . . i l s etaient comme les statues d 'or des apStres de l a Sainte chapelle, p i l i e r s symboliques et consecrateurs devant l a Sainte 186 Table." Francoise, as we s h a l l see again l a t e r , brings Marcel back to ear th . She, too, bel ieves that there i s an i n s t i t u t i o n i n l i f e as Sacred as the Last Dinner—the servants ' evening meal. She plays her ro le accordingly. "Les derniers r i t e s acheves, Francoise, qui e t a i t a l a f o i s comme dans une eg l i se p r i m i t i v e , l e celebrant 187 et l ' u n des f i d e l e s , se servai t d'un dernier verre de v i n . . . " Prous t ' s marvellous use of jux tapos i t ion of d e t a i l s to emphasize an underlying absurdity i s very s i m i l a r to Joyce 's ; the bat f l o a t i n g through Ger ty ' s romantic t w i l i g h t scene i s a s i m i l a r touch. For Marcel , b e l i e f and imagination are i n t r i n s i c a l l y l i nked ; " I I n ' y a que 1'imagination et l a croyance qui peuvent d i f f e renc ie r des autres cer ta ins objets, cer ta ins etres, et creer une atmos-p h e r e . " 1 ^ So, l i k e Stephen, he projects ' s p i r i t u a l ' s ign i f icance onto worthless objects and beings, u n t i l he learns to look beyond the surface of things, and study them i n themselves. Here, Francoise, c rue l though she may be, i s invaluable to him. She n o t i f i e s him of the Duchess' true fee l ings towards him; she even admits that she, herse l f , does not l i k e him. Thus, she forces Marcel to question h i s 'croyances' and to sharpen h i s powers of ana lys i s , i n society e s p e c i a l l y . Francoise offered Marcel ' s grandmother a mirror during her i l l n e s s , when the family had done everything to spare the grandmother the sight of her ravaged body. Nov,7, symbol ical ly 54 speaking, she holds up the mirror to Marcel, who has avoided mirrors, ' 189 like a 'sick man' who does not wish to destroy the "image ideale" he has of himself. Gradually, Marcel learns to trust the objective truths that mirrors convey. He catches a glimpse of himself while he i s 'wasting' precious time with some friends, and i s shocked at the vacuous face that greets him i n the reflection. He moves farther away from trying to project a favourable impression of himself i n society and closer towards truthful introspection, which i s much like regarding oneself i n a mental mirror. Thus, eventually, Marcel i s one of the few characters i n the book who escapes the manipulations of society and becomes truly himself, rather than a puppet whose strings are pulled by the hostess of a salon. Like so many characters i n this novel, Marcel feels that he would like to possess the intangible. Of one g i r l he dreams "II me semblait que je venais de toucher sa personne avec des levres 190 i n v i s i b l e . " However, this "prise de force de son esprit, cette possession immaterielle" i s a contradiction i n terms impossible to accomplish. Just as invalid i s Marcel's hope to gain a r t i s t i c and intellectual profit from meeting ar t i s t s i n society; that i s , he i s trying to attain non-material value by material ends. In art, the material and non-material can be integrated, but, as we shall see, the young Marcel has a false attitude, at f i r s t , towards art, an attitude which w i l l be matured by experience. 55 Before we l e a v e t h i s comparison o f the h y p o c r i c i e s and f a l s e h o o d s to he found i n the s o c i e t i e s Joyce and P r o u s t d e s c r i b e , we must note t h a t s p i r i t u a l i n s i n c e r i t y i s r a r e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Church i t s e l f i n A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u . Only once do we see an i n s i n c e r e p r i e s t . A r e l a t i v e of M a r c e l ' s d y i n g grandmother, he f e i g n s sorrow w h i l e a c t u a l l y s p y i n g on M a r c e l . However, t h i s i s r a t h e r the a c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l t h a n the a c t i o n of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c h u r c h . The s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s which M a r c e l overemphasizes as a y o u t h come from h i s own i d e a l i s t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n from a r i g i d r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . I l l F a l s e A r t and True I n l i t e r a t u r e , Stephen f i n d s a l t e r n a t i v e s to the r i g i d v i e w p o i n t s of h i s f a m i l y , c h u r c h , and s c h o o l . Much l i k e M a r c e l w i t h h i s mother , Stephen does not judge l i t e r a t u r e on an or thodox ' m o r a l ' g r o u n d . 190 D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t B y r o n i s c o n s i d e r e d " a h e r e t i c and i m m o r a l " by masters and p u p i l s , he s t i l l remains S t e p h e n ' s f a v o u r i t e author as much f o r h i s a e s t h e t i c s k i l l s as h i s romant ic c o n t e n t . However, Stephen does not a lways use l i t e r a t u r e so w i s e l y . I t becomes a source of romant ic i l l u s i o n s f o r h i m , a re fuge f rom an unhappy y o u t h . Stephen, a t q u i t e an e a r l y age, imagines an i d e a l 191 l o v e " the u n s u b s t a n t i a l image which h i s s o u l so c o n s t a n t l y b e h e l d . " A g a i n , Stephen i s ' e t h e r e a l i z i n g ' h i s emotions and s e t t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e s tandards which r e a l i t y cannot hope to r e a c h . I n t h i s case , the 5 6 gap between i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y i s r a t h e r amusing. H i s i d e a l l o v e i s p a t t e r n e d on Mercedes i n The Count of Monte C r i s t o . Stephen would l o v e to p l a y the c o u n t ' s r o l e and r e f u s e the grapes she o f f e r s , s i n c e he abhors her i n f i d e l i t y . T h i s r e a c t i o n i s immature and d e l i g h t f u l l y i r o n i c , s i n c e no woman has ever o f f e r e d Stephen much, and he i s r e a l l y more i n the s i t u a t i o n o f the f o x and the ' s o u r ' g r a p e s . Romantic p o e t r y a l s o s u p p l i e s the c l i c h e s f o r S t e p h e n ' s v i l l a n e l l e , as we have seen . Indeed, i t seems to comfort h im a f t e r any f a i l u r e . When h i s f a t h e r so t a c t l e s s l y i n t i m a t e s S tephen ' s p h y s i c a l i n e p t i t u d e s , Stephen t u r n s to S h e l l e y ' s fragment about the moon "wander ing c o m p a n i o n l e s s , " l i k e h i m s e l f . Stephen f e e l s much more at home w i t h S h e l l e y ' s v i s i o n of " v a s t inhuman 192 c y c l e s of a c t i v i t y " t h a n B l o o m ' s joyous concept of n a t u r e ' s c y c l e . Then, t o o , Stephen has thought of the one a r e a i n which he p r o b a b l y b e t t e r s h i s f a t h e r — p o e t r y . I n U l y s s e s . Stephen beg ins t o r e a l i z e t h a t he cannot emprison h i m s e l f i n l i t e r a t u r e ; h i s mind t u r n s towards' more b a s i c , p h y s i c a l t h i n g s , and he i s haunted by r i d d l e s r a t h e r than poems. The r i d d l e of c h i e f importance to him i s t h a t of p a t e r n i t y — " R i d d l e me, r i d d l e me randy r o . My 193 f a t h e r gave me seeds t o sow . . . " Stephen i s becoming a s e r i o u s a r t i s t and has worked out a system of a e s t h e t i c s , w h i c h , a l t h o u g h somewhat extreme, and u n -n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e d > s t i l l conc ludes w i t h the concept of " the 57 a r t i s t , l i k e t h e God o f c r e a t i o n [ r e m a i n i n g ] w i t h i n o r b e h i n d o r beyond o r above h i s h a n d i w o r k , i n v i s i b l e , r e f i n e d o ut o f 194 e x i s t e n c e . " S t e p h e n i s r e a l i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c i n g , o f an o b j e c t i v i t y unmarred by p e r s o n a l hangups. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he i s n o t y e t r e a d y t o p u t i t i n t o p r a c t i c e . The r e s t o f h i s t h e o r y i s b i a s e d by h i s own p r o b l e m s . I n d i s c u s s i n g h i s s y s t e m o f a e s t h e t i c s , S t e p h e n m e n t i o n s t h e f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s a d m i r e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f e m a l e b e a u t y . " T h i s , " he s a y s , "seems t o be a maze o u t o f w h i c h we cann o t 195 e s c a p e . " A c t u a l l y , i t i s St e p h e n ' s own p e r s o n a l 'maze'; St e p h e n f e e l s e m b a r r a s s e d a t n o t b e i n g a b l e t o c o n t r o l h i s r e s p o n s e t o f e m a l e b e a u t y . To t h i s p r o b l e m , S t e p h e n a d m i t s two s o l u t i o n s . One i s " t h a t e v e r y p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y a d m i r e d by men i n women i s i n d i r e c t c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e m a n i f o l d f u n c t i o n s o f women f o r t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s [ a nd t h e n ] . . . t h e w o r l d i s e v e n d r e a r i e r t h a n . . . [we] i m a g i n e d . T h e o t h e r i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a d mire women beca u s e o f " a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , " b e a u t y b e i n g d e f i n e d s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f a r t , whose m a i n aim s h o u l d n o t be t o p r o v o k e h a t r e d o r d e s i r e . A s u s u a l , S t e p h e n a d m i t s no m i d d l e c o u r s e , no m i x t u r e o f t h e m o t i v e s f o r d e f i n i n g b e a u t y d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n . Bloom i s d e f i n i t e l y wrong i n e n j o y i n g a p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n t o a p i c t u r e o f a nymph, and t h e n n e g l e c t i n g h i s w i f e , b u t S t e p h e n , a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , i s wrong i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e a l i z e a l l t h e women he meets i n l i f e . 58 The young a r t i s t who dreams o f " ' u n s u b s t a n t i a l i m a g e s , 1 w h i l e f e a r i n g to k i s s the g i r l he l i k e s , runs the danger of d e n y i n g h i s h e a r t i n f a v o u r o f h i s head. I n t h i s , Stephen i s not a l o n e . James D u f f e y i n D u b l i n e r s (A P a i n f u l C a s e ) , f o r example, d e n i e s h i s 197 l o v e f o r M r s . S i n i c o . She i s u s e f u l to him o n l y i n so f a r as 198 she serves t o " [ e m o t i o n a l i z e ] h i s mental l i f e . " Bloom i s a mourner at M r s . S i n i c o ' s f u n e r a l . He t h i n k s of her d e a t h w h i l e 199 he i s r u m i n a t i n g on the h e a r t as the ' s e a t of the a f f e c t i o n s . 1 Bloom, t h e n , i s the person to h e l p Stephen " l e a r n i n [ h i s ] own l i f e . . . What the h e a r t i s and what i t f e e l s . " ^ ^ J u s t b e f o r e he meets Bloom, Stephen, as we have seen, has expounded y e t more a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s i n the l i b r a r y . Gone i s the i d e a of the o b j e c t i v e a r t i s t , but the i d e a of the a r t i s t - g o d r e m a i n s . Behind S tephen ' s t h e o r i e s o f ' g h o s t l y ' f a t h e r h o o d l i e s a resentment of m a t e r n a l , o r at l e a s t f e m i n i n e , d o m i n a t i o n . I n a g e n e r a l sense the young poet d i s l i k e s the i d e a t h a t p a t e r n i t y , i n the course of n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n , can always be q u e s t i o n e d . T h i s f a c t i s even r e c o g n i z e d on a s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l . I n I r i s h C a t h o -l i c i s m , as we have seen, the r o l e of main importance goes to the mother, the ' V i r g i n ' Mary , 'who almost seems an a t a v i s m of those women i n m a t r i l i n e a r myths s a i d to have been impregnated by the w i n d . A f t e r a l l , God i s " F a t h e r , Word and H o l y B r e a t h . " I n S tephen ' s mind there i s a great d e a l of doubt as to the p a t e r n i t y of the Son. " B o c c a c c i o ' s C a l e n d r i n o was the f i r s t and l a s t man 59 who f e l t h i m s e l f w i t h c h i l d . Fa therhood, ' i n the sense of consc ious b e g e t t i n g , i s unknown to man. I t i s a m y s t i c a l e s t a t e , an a p o s t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n , from o n l y bege t t e r to o n l y bego t t en . On tha t mystery and not on the madonna which the cunning I t a l i a n i n t e l l e c t f l u n g to the mob of Europe the church i s founded and founded i r r e m o v a b l y because founded, l i k e the w o r l d . . . upon the v o i d . Upon i n c e r t i t u d e , upon u n l i k e l i h o o d . Amor m a t r i s . . . may be the o n l y t rue t h i n g i n l i f e . P a t e r n i t y may be a l e g a l f i c t i o n . Who i s the f a t h e r o f any son tha t any son shou ld l o v e 202 him o r he any son?" Stephen then w r e s t l e s w i t h such terms 20^ as c o n s u b s t a n t i a l , t r a n s u b s t a n t i a l and s u b s u b s t a n t i a l " to de f ine the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f a t h e r and son . M u l l i g a n w i t t i l y punctures S tephen ' s p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s when he r e f e r s to S tephen ' s f a t h e r as "your u n s u b s t a n t i a l f a t h e r . " T h e remark i s apt on many l e v e l s ; Stephen i s , i n e f f e c t , denying h i s own f a t h e r on the b a s i s t ha t a l l b i o l o g i c a l o f f s p r i n g may doubt t h e i r p a t e r n i t y . A l s o , h i s f a t h e r i s ' u n s u b s t a n t i a l ' i n tha t he has no money, and he i s a weak man—a man of no subs tance . Stephen, i n the meantime has dec ided tha t he p r e f e r s the v e r s i o n o f the O f t C s u b s u b s t a n t i a l son—the "Fa the r [who] was h i m s e l f h i s own S o n . " Thus, the f a t h e r - s o n i s s e l f - c r e a t e d . Stephen f i n d s the exact v e r s i o n of p a t e r n i t y he wishes i n a r t i s t i c , c r e a t i o n . Here, c r e a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out wi thout the a i d 206 o f women. Stephen can remain "the e t e r n a l son and even v i r g i n . " 60 He i s , of course, borrowing the sexual taboos from the religion he despises; i n which there i s a virgin mother (Mary), a virgin son (Jesus), and, for a l l we know, a virgin 'father* (Joseph). Works of art are created i n a kind of intellectual parthenogenesis i n which "g l o r i f i e d man, an androgenous angel [is] a wife unto 207 himself." The 'glory* and purity of angels, then, as i n Stephen's v i l l a n e l l e which he has not yet outgrown, i s associated with this asexual creation. Mulligan again destroys Stephen's 208 theories with ridicule. He likens Stephen's parthenogenesis to masturbation—"Everyman His own Wife," says Buck, "or a 209 Honeymoon i n the Hand." He also gathers the further import of Stephen's argument. The a r t i s t replaces a matriarchal myth with a patriarchal one, just as the Greeks themselves did. In fact, to i l l u s t r a t e his point, Mulligan could not have chosen a better myth than the one he actual^-uses, the story of Athena's birth from Zeus'- head. "Himself his own father, Sonmulligan told himself - - - I have an unborn child i n my brain. Pallas Athena! 210 A play!" Stephen goes as far as his theory w i l l take him, even claiming that, as an a r t i s t , he creates himself; "so does 211 the a r t i s t weave and unweave his image." However, Stephen never quite manages to dispel the uneasiness he feels about, the connotations of 'weakliness' which often cling to the concept of 'ghostly fatherhood.' When he starts to discuss his own l i f e i n 61 terms of Shakespeare's., we find him expressing a much more personal fear of the maternal or feminine domination which can ruin a man's confidence i n his powers of physical creation, and turn him to intellectual creation instead. Anne Hathaway, as we shall see, i s every b i t as 'overbearing' as Stephen's mother. Stephen's main paradigm for a r t i s t i c creation i s Shakespeare. Surely such an excellent and p r o l i f i c writer has overcome a l l the uncertainty of paternity. Yet, as everyone knows, the 'paternity' of Shakespeare's plays are questioned more than that of any other 212 author's works. Stephen himself admits as much when he says " . . . Rutlandbaconsouthamptonshakespeare or another poet, of the 213 same name . . . wrote Hamlet." Eglinton teases Stephen about 214 'transcribing' Hamlet, thus introducing the fascinating concept of a world of ideas without any egocentric owners; ideas which are discovered, rather than created, by various individuals. A more important point, Stephen accuses Shakespeare of the personal bias of which he, himself, i s guilty i n his frequent attempts to draw parallels between himself and the bard. He assumes that Shakespeare, l i k e himself, i s so inextricably tangled i n his l i f e experiences, that he cannot transcend them and escape 215 himself i n his own creations. "We walk through ourselves . . . 216 always meeting ourselves." "[Shakespeare] passes on towards' eternity i n undiminished personality, untaught by the wisdom he 217 has written . . . " As usual, Stephen has gone from one extreme 62 to another; from the disembodied 'mental world' of his system of objective aesthetics to aesthetics inspired by personal problems and individual emotions. As Eglinton affirms, "The , . . , t(218 truth i s midway." Shakespeare i s weak, according to Stephen, i n other ways as well. He i s a 'ghost of a man,' "faded into impalpability through 219 death, through absence, through change of manners." Made i n -effectual by Anne's supposed i n f i d e l i t i e s , he can only redress his wrongs i n a play i n which he gives himself the role of the ghost of the murdered husband, and i n which he brings his dead son back to l i f e . (Shakespeare, perhaps, even blamed his son's death on his own lack of v i r i l i t y , as does Bloom.) Already Anne has destroyed his confidence "belief i n himself has been untimely 220 221 k i l l e d , " because she has "overborne [him] i n a cornfield." Like Venus i n Shakespeare's poem Venus and Adonis she has dominated and unsesed her younger lover. Because he does not want to accept this i n f e r i o r position, Shakespeare goes to London, and thus becomes 'a ghost by absence.' Here, also, he becomes a 'ghost, through change of manners' for he can never be completely effectual i n an environment where a court wanton v/ i l l spurn him just because 222 he i s not a lord. He i s so changed when he returns to Stratford that he i s a shadow of his former self, through change of manners. Stephen emphasizes Shakespeare's failures with women and terms 223 his successes "assumed don-giovannism," that i s , attempts to 63 w i n back the c o n f i d e n c e i n h i m s e l f t h a t Anne has f o r e v e r r u i n e d . Stephen says t h a t Shakespeare " l e f t [Anne] and g a i n e d the w o r l d o f men. But h i s women are the woman of a boy. T h e i r l i f e , 224 thought , speech are l e n t to them by m a l e s . " On the E l i z a b e t h a n s t a g e , a l l the r o l e s .were t a k e n by men; thus women are doubly ban ished from Shakespeare ' s p l a y s , the female c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g t w i c e over the c r e a t i o n o f males ( the p l a y w r i g h t g i v i n g them ' l i f e , thought" and the a c t o r s g i v i n g them " s p e e c h . " ) Stephen a l s o suggests t h a t " t u r n i n g to the w o r l d of men" meant t u r n i n g towards h o m o s e x u a l i t y h i n t e d at i n the Sonnets . He mentions 225 Shakespeare ' s " d e a r m y l o v e , " a l o r d , an example o f "Love t h a t dare not speak i t s name" ( W i l d e ' s phrase f o r homosexual l o v e . ) M u l l i g a n , o f c o u r s e , a n y t h i n g but s u b t l e , c h o r t l e s over " the charge of 226 p e d e r a s t y brought a g a i n s t the bard . . " Stephen f u r t h e r i n s i s t s on s e e i n g Shakespeare ' s voyage to London i n a n e g a t i v e l i g h t , a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a wise move by a b r i l l i a n t man who had outgrown h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . To Stephen, i t i s "banishment , banishment f rom the h e a r t , banishment 227 from the home," and the sub jec t of a l l the p l a y s t h a t Stephen has read from The Two Gentlemen of Verona to The Tempest. Shakespeare, s u p p o s e d l y , " d a l l i e d [ f o r twenty y e a r s ] between c o n j u g a l l o v e and i t s chaste d e l i g h t s [ t h i s i s s u r e l y a change of tune f o r Stephen!] 228 and s c o r t a r y l o v e and i t s f o u l p l e a s u r e s , " between v i r g i n S t r a t f o r d 64 and co r rup t London. Some o f the r i c h n e s s o f t h i s c o r r u p t i o n , 229 Stephen blames on E l i z a b e t h "the g ross v i r g i n . " Even Shake-spea r e ' s end (desp i t e the m a t e r i a l o f f e r e d i n the happ ie r p l a y s o f t h i s p e r i o d ) has i t s . n e g a t i v e aspec t s f o r Stephen. "Man d e l i g h t s him [Shakespeare] n o t . Nor woman n e i t h e r . . . He r e t u r n s a f t e r a l i f e o f absence to t ha t spot o f e a r t h where he was born . . . 230 then d i e s . " "Age has not w i t h e r e d " the sense o f Anne ' s " o r i g i n a l s i n " ( a d u l t e r y ) , which "weakened h i s w i l l . " "Beauty and peace have 231 not done away w i t h i t . " L i t t l e i s known about Shakespeare ' s l i f e and t he r e fo re Stephen can embroider as much as he wishes the sparse f a c t s and p o s s i b l e c l u e s i n the grea t p o e t ' s p l a y s . S tephen ' s a n a l y s i s i s o b v i o u s l y b i a s e d . I t soon becomes e v i d e n t , t ha t Stephen ( l i k e Hamlet) " [ l i t ] au l i v r e de soi-meme," " [ r eads ] the book o f h i m s e l f " (a f a v o u r i t e past ime o f M a r c e l , t o o , as we s h a l l s ee . ) Stephen s u f f e r s from the older-woman domina t ion tha t i n s p i r e d Shakespeare ' s Venus and A d o n i s . He, t o o , has been b e t r a y e d . M u l l i g a n , s i m i l a r i n 233 many ways to C l a u d i u s , the' usurper i n Hamlet , has s t o l e n from him t h i s r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n w i t h Mother I r e l a n d . When Stephen says " E l i z a b e t h a n London l a y as f a r from S t r a t f o r d as corrupt P a r i s l i e s 234 from V i r g i n D u b l i n , " he i s o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g o f h i s own t r i p to P a r i s , and the ' d e g r a d i n g love* he exper i ences t h e r e . P o r h im, the voyage was a "banishment from the home"—he was b a d l y homesick. I f Shakespeare has to bow down to the "gross v i r g i n , " E l i z a b e t h , 65 Stephen i s always being ordered to serve the Virgin Mary. Stephen . sees Othello as an allegory of Shakespeare's l i f e — " H i s unremitting i n t e l l e c t i s the hornmad Iago, ceaselessly will i n g the moor i n him 235 shall suffer." The moor i s the passion i n his nature. Most interesting of a l l i s the emphasis Stephen puts on Shakespeare's homosexuality and on the importance of his father's death (Stephen's quotation from Romeo and Juliet "deny thy kindred" ought to read "deny thy father and refuse thy name.") Stephen knows that Eglinton and Best are homosexuals. "The dour recluse . . . and the douce youngling, minion of pleasure, Phedo's toyable f a i r hair." (Stephen i s here referring to a lover of Socrates, (Phedo) Platonic or otherwise.) In.the tradition of the Greeks, and of the Esthetes (Best being "a blonde ephebe. Tame essence of Wilde,") the two intellectuals spend their time with knowledgeable male com-panions. This Platonic? love amongst men adds to the monkish atmosphere, even to the semi-religious idea of "a vestal's lamp" (a virgin's lamp), which seems to symbolize Lyster's way of l i f e . Does Stephen emphasize Shakespeare's denying of his role "as a family man," his choosing "a world of men," i n order to f l a t t e r the intellectuals? Certainly he i s not above flattery. He quotes Eglinton, with the result that Eglinton looks up at him with kindness ' . 240 so that Stephen says.to himself—"Flatter. Rarely. But f l a t t e r . " Of course, Buck Mulligan maliciously destroys whatever advantage Stephen may have gained through fla t t e r y by mentioning one of 66 Stephen's expeditions to the brothels. Perhaps even this aspect of Shakespeare's l i f e has some meaning i n terms of Stephen's. Stephen, because of his own guilts and inhibitions and his society's mores, must turn to men for friendship. Stephen i s " t h r i l l e d by [Cranley's] touch. During his walk on the beach he thinks; "Staunch friend, a brother soul: Wilde's love that dare not speak i t s name. He now v/ i l l 242 leave me. And the blame? As I am. As I am. A l l or not at a l l . " Stephen has been thinking of various friends; Mulligan, whom he "disloves" (yet whose boots he wears—a fact that Preud would find significant); a g i r l he knew i n Paris; and an unidentified friend, perhaps Kevin Egan, perhaps Cranly, for whom he does seem.to feel love. As we have seen, indeed, male camaraderie i s an accepted, an encouraged, social and intellectual fact i n Dublin, and one that can lead to avoidance of responsibilities (as with Stephen's father) and s t e r i l i t y (in the library.) As Stephen plunges deeper and deeper into his theories about the self-sufficient man, the int e l l e c t u a l creator who banishes from his personal myths the earthly father and the creative woman (wife or mother or virgin), he becomes less and less happy. Although his theories ought to appeal to Eglinton and company, they are greeted with scepticism, largely because Eglinton can recognize some of Stephen's exaggerations and because Mulligan has the capacity 67 243 t o render r i d i c u l o u s a n y t h i n g t h a t Stephen s a y s . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Stephen i s " b a t t l i n g a g a i n s t [ the] h o p e l e s s n e s s " o f h i s own l i f e , f i g h t i n g the unhappiness he f e e l s because h i s f a t h e r does not know h i m . The e v i d e n t l a c k of communicat ion w i t h the 244 l i b r a r y group makes him ask "what have I l earned? of them? o f me?" I s he (as E g l i n t o n says) " a d e l u s i o n , " ^ ^ a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n t o be d i s m i s s e d as a type of madness? I s the w o r l d of the l i b r a r y wor th e n t e r i n g ? "The l i f e e s o t e r i c i s not f o r o r d i n a r y p e r s o n , " but f o r " L o t u s l a d i e s , " "Buddh.under p l a n t a i n , i n o t h e r words , f o r those who withdraw from l i f e . Unwelcome i n the l i b r a r y , Stephen accepts M u l l i g a n ' s i n v i t a t i o n t o d r i n k — a t S t e p h e n ' s expense of c o u r s e . T h i s d e c i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s a double f a i l u r e on S tephen ' s p a r t . D r i n k i n g i s j u s t another way of a v o i d i n g l i f e , of ' e a t i n g the l o t u s f r u i t . ' Stephen, much l i k e M a r c e l , e x h i b i t s t h a t same' l a c k o f w i l l - p o w e r which he c l a i m e d made Shakespeare so unhappy. 247 Stephen t h i n k s "my w i l l : h i s w i l l t h a t f r o n t s me. Seas be tween . " Stephen has " cease [d] to s t r i v e . " As a young man, M a r c e l , t o o , i s something of an a e s t h e t e . Stephen t w i s t s the l i f e , and works of Shakespeare to i l l u s t r a t e the problems i n h i s own l i f e . M a r c e l , on the o t h e r hand, f r e q u e n t l y p r o j e c t s the form and content of a f a v o u r i t e work of a r t onto the i n c i d e n t s of h i s l i f e . He m i s i n t e r p r e t s these i n c i d e n t s f o r t h i s v e r y r e a s o n . A r t , a l s o , t r a n s f e r r e d t o l i f e , can become a form o f m a n i p u l a t i o n of o t h e r s . I n e i t h e r case , r e a l i t y i s changed. 68 We have seen how M a r c e l ' s grandmother encourages M a r c e l ' s f e e l i n g s f o r h i s mother on almost- a s e x u a l l e v e l when she buys him F r a n c o i s l e Chanrpi. M a r c e l , however, has a l r e a d y found the a e s t h e t i c p r o t o t y p e f o r h i s ' g u i l t y ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother-—the l o v e t r i a n g l e , i n the Golden Legend, of Genevieve de B r a b a n t , her husband and Golo the s e d u c e r . " . . . j ' a v a i s hSte de c o u r i r . . . et de tomber dans l e s b r a s de maman que l e s malheurs de Genevieve de Brabant me r e n d a i e n t p l u s c h £ r e , t a n d i s que l e s cr imes de Golo me f a i s a i e n t examiner ma propre 2 4 8 consc ience avec p l u s de s c r u p u l e s . " M a r c e l imagines t h i s ' t r i a n g l e ' i n terms of a lmost every a r t form—the "drame 'de son c o u c h e r ' — a h o s t i l e l i t t l e p l a y between M a r c e l and h i s f a t h e r , the p i c t u r e o f Abraham s e p a r a t i n g h i s son I s a a c f rom S a r a h ' s s i d e , the marr iage of mother and son i n the n o v e l F r a n c o i s l e  Champi. Most i m p o r t a n t of a l l , though, i s the l i t t l e f i l m he has of the s t o r y o f Genevieve and G o l o , w h i c h , w i t h the a i d of the magic l a n t e r n he can p r o j e c t onto any c o r n e r of the room and change i t u t t e r l y . T h i s l a t t e r example i s the bes t metaphor f o r the way i n which M a r c e l ' s i m a g i n a t i o n w o r k s . H i s i m a g i n a t i o n , l i k e the l a n t e r n , i s capable o f c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f o r m i n g the o b j e c t , p e r s o n , o r i n c i d e n t he i s v i e w i n g i n t o an i l l u s i o n more p l e a s i n g o r more t e r r i f y i n g than r e a l i t y . When M a r c e l b e g i n s t o v a l u e o b j e c t i v e t r u t h s , he s t a r t s to r e a l i z e t h a t these p i c t u r e s can be almost c o m p l e t e l y obscured by a shadow . 69 " q u i e st c e l l e de l a l a n t e r n e elle-meme, ou c e l l e de 1 1operateur." The v e h i c l e of the p r o j e c t i o n s , the i m a g i n a t i o n , and the 'egoisme' and broyances' of the operator can leave t h e i r owner ' i n the dark 1 i f they take over the c o n t r o l of h i s mind. One of the f i r s t f o c a l p o i n t s of Marcel's misuse of a r t i s the Duchess de Guermantes. She i s , l i k e the p r i n c e s s Genevieve 250 "une f i g u r e i d e a l e p r o j e t e e sur l e s tenebres." The f i r s t time t h a t Marcel sees the Duchess ( i n church, by the way, a f i t t i n g p lace f o r Marcel to i n d u l g e h i s 'croyances') he n o t i c e s a pimple near her nose. T h i s pimple " c e r t i f i a i t son a s u j e t t i s s e m e n t aux l o i s de l a v i e , comme dans une apotheose de theatre un. plissement de l a robe de l a fee . . . [denonce] l a presence m a t e r i e l l e 251 d'une a c t r i c e v i v a n t e . " Marcel would do w e l l to r e t a i n t h i s i n s i g h t , because, as we have seen, the Duchess* whole l i f e i s a s e r i e s of w e l l - s t a g e d ' s p e c t a c l e s . ' However, the remembrance of a song r e c o u n t i n g medieval legends of the Guermantes r e s t o r e s her to her former p l a c e i n Marcel's i m a g i -n a t i o n . Again, she i s p a r t of the romantic myth of the Middle Ages which, as we s h a l l see, so charms Marc e l . However, the most important drama which Marcel can weave around the Duchess i s one that i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as ' l e drarae de son coucher.' I n h i s mind, Marcel s e t s up a t r i a n g l e w i t h h i m s e l f as the r e j e c t e d young man, the Duchess as the a l o o f o l d e r woman, and the Duke somewhere i n the background, 70 to be 'perdu' like Marcel's father. Marcel's imagination has been especially stimulated by his fir-st t r i p to the theatre to see La Berma in Phldre. Phedre, of course, i s Marcel's kind of story; the love of a passionate woman for her stepson. He hopes that, i n La Berma's case, art and l i f e are one. ". . . car l a Berma devait ressentir effectivement pour bien des jeunes hommes ces desirs qu'elle avouait sous le convert du personnage 252 % de Phedre." The second time Marcel sees La Berma i n Phedre coincides with the second time he meets the Duchess. He immediately makes the connection, and starts to follow the Duchess 'as though she were some great actress' (in other words La Berma as Phedre.) He builds imaginary novels around her and thinks of her as 253 "tout un poeme d'elegance.' He i s very involved i n this poetic, courtly love for a highborn lady. However, Marcel cannot keep forever the i l l u s i o n that the Guermantes are creatures out of a Romance of the Middle A.ges— 254 with "l'aspect d'un tournoi et d'une f o r l t domaniale." Francois i s too much the Sancho Panza to his Don Quixote; she t e l l s him the Duchess dislikes him. Then, too, he i s beginning to realize that things are not always as they seem, that he l i e s to himself, that others l i e also, and that one must work hard to uncover truths. When Marcel f i n a l l y enters the Guermantes' salon he continues to romanticize himself, choosing the role of Parsi f a l . Yet the 71 idea behind the choice i s a good one—Marcel must overcome ' t r i a l s ' of enchantment, and find the truth beneath i l l u s i o n s . The young poet thinks of himself as "Parsifal au milieu des f i l l e s fleurs . . . enti element decolletees, [leur] chair 255 apparaissait des deux c3tes d'une sinueuse branche de Mimosa." Marcel truly i s a Knight Errant, an erring as well as an adventuring, knight. Marcel sees this encounter as a ' t r i a l by temptation.' The ' f i l l e s - f l e u r s ' are tempting him from something ' s p i r i t u a l ' — a l i f e of a r t i s t i c creation—to something essentially worldly—a l i f e i n society. But most of a l l , they are just one example of the ambiguous entities that Marcel, like a true knight, w i l l meet on his quest. He w i l l pass the test i f he digs beneath appearances to the true significance of his adversaries. In the version of the legend to which Marcel refers, that i s , Wagner's, Parsifal (or Percival) i s a more noble figure, but he s t i l l , i n i t i a l l y , i s uninterested i n the quest, and therefore more frivolous than his companions. Marcel, like his prototype, i s slow i n learning, and makes many errors on the way, before f i n a l l y reaching his goal. The scene with the 'fille-fleurs' occurs at the beginning of Marcel's f i r s t reception at the Guermantes. It i s contrasted, very amusingly, with a ' t r i a l ' and temptation set by Charlus • at the end of the reception. Charlus himself certainly regards the l i t t l e 'drama' that he stages to be an important event i n 72 M a r c e l ' s l i f e . "Je vous a i soumis a 1 ' epreuve que l e s e u l homme eminent de n o t r e monde a p p e l l e avec e s p r i t 1 ' epreuve de l a t r o p grande a m a b i l i t e et q u ' i l d e c l a r e a bon d r o i t l a p l u s t e r r i b l e 256 de t o u t e s l a seule q u i p u i s s e separer l e bon g r a i n de l a v r a i e . " C h a r l u s c l a i m s t h a t he can h e l p M a r c e l choose the r i g h t p a t h , and succeed i n s o c i e t y , i n r e t u r n , o f c o u r s e , f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of l o v e and companionship . Not o n l y i s C h a r l u s showing M a r c e l the wrong p a t h , but he i s a l s o , as we s h a l l see, l a t e r i n the n o v e l , b o a s t i n g a s o c i a l prowess w h i c h he does not r e a l l y have . C h a r l u s ' f a v o u r i t e a r t , m u s i c , a l s o p l a y s a r o l e i n t h i s charade , f o r , t o the s t r a i n s of Bee thoven ' s Symphonie P a s t o r a l e , C h a r l u s , a t f i r s t as tempestuous as the f i r s t movement, and then as tender 257 as the t h i r d movement, " l a j o i e apres f o r a g e , " m y s t i f i e s M a r c e l t o such a degree , t h a t he c o m p l e t e l y o v e r l o o k s C h a r l u s ' homosexual p r o p o s i t i o n . Not y e t aware of the underwor ld o f s o c i e t y , Sodome and Gomorrhe, M a r c e l i s q u i t e i n c a p a b l e of e x t r a c t i n g the r e a l i t y f rom the i l l u s i o n s C h a r l u s weaves, and, of c o u r s e , i s c o m p l e t e l y o b l i v i o u s to the absurd impact o f t h i s scene j u x t a -posed w i t h the t e m p t a t i o n o f the f i l l e s - f l e u r s . 1 I n l o v e , as we have seen, M a r c e l a lways p r o j e c t s h i s Romantic i m a g i n i n g s onto the b e l o v e d o b j e c t . A l b e r t i n e i s no e x c e p t i o n . 258 She i s d e s c r i b e d numerous t imes as a s i l h o u e t t e . She and • 259 the o t h e r g i r l s o f the l i t t l e band are d e s c r i b e d as a f r i e z e , t h a t i s , a s c u l p t u r e w i t h o u t d e p t h , and as a hedge of r o s e s , 73 silhouetted darkly against the sea. In other words, Albertine i s again only a dark shape, a screen for the light of the magic lantern. She i s a dark rose i n another sense as well. Marcel describes her i n terms, which make i t . evident that she i s very different from the Beatrice who led Dante to the pure white rose of heaven. "II arrivait que le teint de ses joues atteignft le rose violace du cyclamen, et parfois meme, quand elle etait congestionnee au fievreuse, et dormant alors l'idee d'une complexion maladive qui rabaissait mon desir si. quelque chose de plus sensuel et f a i s a i t exprimer si son regard quelque chose de plus pervers et de plus malsain, l a sombre poupre de certaines roses d'un rouge presque noir'.'^^1 Marcel feels a sudden surge of intimacy with her when their shadows fuse during 262 a moonlight walk. Moonlight i s always the light of deception or pathetic fallacy with Proust. ("We see i t adding an eerie atmosphere to the evening when Marcel waits for his mother's kiss and it . i s used by Mme. Verdurin to stimulate romantic feelings i n her guests.) Moreover, Marcel and Albertine seem to bring out the shadow side, the dark and brooding side, i n each other. Since we only see Albertine from Marcel's point of view, i t i s hard to say i f she really has the qualities Marcel attributes to her. In rea l i t y , she seems to be a rather weak character who w i l l go to inordinate lengths to please people and to keep from hurting them; this quality i s even the 74 source o f her mendaci ty . She becomes something of a "demon l o v e r " f o r M a r c e l , a Romant ic , dangerous woman who f i t s i n t o h i s p reconce ived p a t t e r n o f l o v e . M a r c e l has a s s o c i a t e d l o v e 264-w i t h danger ever s i n c e he f e l t " l a s o i f et l a peur du danger" w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r h i s mother on the s t a i r w a y , knowing tha t t h i s a c t i o n w o u l d ' d i s p l e a s e h i s p a r e n t s . L a t e r he says "sous tou te douceur c h a r n e l l e un peu profonde i l y a l a permanence d ' u n 265 danger" T h i s i s no l o n g e r the f e a r o f punishment so much as the Romantic e g o t i s t i c a l f e a r of s u r r e n d e r i n g one ' s l i f e to ano ther . Wi th A l b e r t i n e , M a r c e l does l o s e h i s freedom o f movement; more i m p o r t a n t , obsessed by h i s a f f a i r , he a l s o l o s e s ' h i s freedom o f thought . A l s o i n a Romantic v e i n , at the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r romance, M a r c e l t h i n k s , f a t a l i s t i c a l l y , o f u n r e q u i t e d l o v e (a l a Wer th e r ) . " . . . i l es t des i t r e s 266 pour q u i i l n ' e s t pas d'amour p a r t a g e . " S i n c e , up u n t i l A l b e r t i n e , he has always chosen u n a t t a i n a b l e women (so tha t he can not be blamed i f he f a i l s w i t h them) and s i n c e w i t h A l b e r t i n e and o the r g i r l s on the s t r e e t he has been a t t r a c t e d by t h e i r a i r o f a v a i l a b i l i t y , t h e i r s l y and sec re t o r p r o v o c a t i v e l o o k s (and t he r e fo re he can but succeed w i t h them), M a r c e l always has a be loved who i s e i t h e r f a r beyond o r f a r above what c o u l d be es t imated as h i s j u s t d e s s e r t s . A t t h i s low p o i n t •• o f h i s l i f e , he f e e l s t ha t " I I es t humaine de chercher l a 267 dou leur e t a u s s i t o t a. s ' e n d e l i v r e r . " (Stephen seems to 75 h a v e some o f t h i s f e e l i n g i n h i s make-up t o o , a s M u l l i g a n r e m a r k s . ) A l b e r t i n e , t h e r e f o r e , " " e t a i t c a p a b l e de [ l u i ] c a u s e r de l a 268 s o u f f r a n e e , n u l l e m e n t de l a j o i e . " S i n c e he i s p r o l o n g i n g h i s s u f f e r i n g , M a r c e l c a n n o t t r a n s c e n d i t and become a t r u e a r t i s t ; he c a n n o t e v e n a c c e p t t h e message o f j o y w h i c h V i n t e u i l e x p r e s s e s i n h i s g r e a t m a s t e r p i e c e , t h e s e p t u o r . Too much e n g r o s s e d i n s o r r o w , M a r c e l f i n d s t h e j o y o u s b e l l ( r e s u r r e c t i o n ) m o t i f somewhat v u l g a r . M a r c e l t h i n k s a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e l o v e - p o i s o n o f T r i s t a n a n d I s o l d e ( a n o t h e r l o v e a f f a i r , by t h e way, w h i c h g a i n e d i t s i m p e t u s f r o m i t s t r i a n g u l a r a s p e c t . ) S i n c e C h a t e a u b r i a n d was s u c h a f a v o u r i t e o f h i s , p e r h a p s he a l s o remembers t h e R o m a n t i c l o v e - d e a t h s i n A t t a l a ( A t t a l a f e e l s she c a n n o t m a r r y , h a v i n g p r o m i s e d h e r m o t h e r t o s t a y a v i r g i n ) and Rene ( R e n e ' s s i s t e r f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h h i m and e n t e r s a c o n v e n t t o e s c a p e f r o m t e m p t a t i o n — a n o t h e r " i l l i c i t " l o v e . ) B a l b e c w i l l b e , M a r c e l h o p e s , C h a t e a u b r i a n d ' s " royaume des t e m p l t e s " and w i l l , s u p p o s e d l y , i n s p i r e i n h i m s u i t a b l e t e m p e s t u o u s e m o t i o n s . A l b e r t i n e t a l k s 269 d r a m a t i c a l l y o f s u i c i d e s i n c e M a r c e l i s so c r u e l t o h e r , and when she l e a v e s , M a r c e l f e e l s t h a t " i l n ' y a v a i t p l u s q u ' a 270 me t u e r d e v a n t s a m a i s o n . " When A l b e r t i n e t e l l s h i m one f a c t a b o u t h e r s e l f t h a t M a r c e l c o u l d n e v e r have i m a g i n e d h i m s e l f , he f e e l s a s t h o u g h she i s e s c a p i n g f r o m t h e c a r e f u l l y w r o u g h t image he h a d o f h e r . "une f l a m b e e b r u l a i t d ' u n s e u l coup un roman que \ 271 j ' a v i s m i s des m i l l i o n s de m i n u t e s a e c r i r e . " M a r c e l , o f 76 course, acted similarly i n his i d e a l i s t i c relationship with Mme. de Guermantes, imagining page after page of exciting adventures in the novel i n his mind that he had constructed around her. (A novel which retards the writing of the real art form.) More and more, Marcel comes to realize that the Albertine that he saw was l i t t l e more than a Romantic creation of his imagination. "Et 9'avait peut-§tre ete mon tort de ne pas chercher davantage 272 connaitre Albertine en elle-m§me." Marcel's use of art i n l i f e becomes very eerie when he starts to manipulate Albertine and give her roles i n his own private dramas. In this, he i s just l i k e Tante Llonie, who imagined l i t t l e miass-en-scenes i n her mind u n t i l , f i n a l l y she had to create them i n real l i f e . She would t e l l l i e s to her servant and her friend so that she could bring about the conflict she wished to witness. Tante Leonie 1s machinations are rather amusing, but Marcel's verge on the horrifying, for this i s his technique exactly—to l i e to Albertine so that he can 'stage' his own imaginings. He seems to resent the fact that Albertine 273 i s a "grande actrice . . . dans ce theatre de nature," that she has a mind of her own, a "fleur pensante" reminiscent of Pascal's thinking reed. When he brings Albertine into his house, Marcel symbolically brings her into his mind and denies her any true reality outside of his imaginings. Marcel truly 77 seems to have r e p l a c e d the e x t e r i o r A l b e r t i n e w i t h a puppet, moved by the s t r i n g s o f h i s own i m a g i n a t i o n . I n f a c t , A l b e r t i n e seems to become pa r t of M a r c e l ' s f a v o u r i t e t r i a n g u l a r drama. She i s o f t e n l i k e n e d to M a r c e l ' s mother, he r k i s s to h i s mothe r ' s k i s s . She t akes the mother ' s p l a c e , f o r she i s o n l y a l l o w e d i n M a r c e l ' s house because the mother (who does not approve o f h i s m i s t r e s s , but who does not i n t e r f e r e ) i s away. To add to he r v a l u e , perhaps- to reenact t h a t f i r s t "drame de [son] couche r , " M ar ce l i s a lways i m a g i n i n g a t h i r d person who might take her away from him, as h i s f a t h e r used to take away h i s mother. M a r c e l ' s a f f a i r w i t h A l b e r t i n e i s not condoned by h i s mother o r by h i s s o c i e t y . When he p i c k s up a young g i r l to comfort h i m s e l f f o r the l o s s o f A l b e r t i n e , he i s charged w i t h c h i l d m o l e s t i n g , and wonders i f the cour t would c o n s i d e r h i s l i a i s o n w i t h A l b e r t i n e i n t h i s l i g h t t o o . Wot m a r r i e d to h im, she i s , i n a sense, an " i l l i c i t " l o v e which he savours w i t h a mix tu re o f ' f i l i a l ' and ' impure ' d e v o t i o n , f e a r and g u i l t , common to the p a t t e r n o f l o v e i n h i s l i f e . F i n a l l y , M a r c e l sees A l b e r t i n e s l e e p i n g and l i k e n s her to a medieva l s ta tue i n s tone , o f a dead woman a w a i t i n g the L a s t 274 Judgement. T h i s i s how he wishes to see h e r . He has s a i d before t ha t the o n l y way to t r u l y possess and know A l b e r t i n e would be to i m m o b i l i z e h e r , and so, l i k e a Pygmal ion i n r e v e r s e , he t u r n s A l b e r t i n e i n t o a s t a t u e . The image must be e s p e c i a l l y .78 s a t i s f y i n g f o r M a r c e l because she even approximates h i s " r t v e s 275 de jeune v i e r g e f e o d a l e " made p h y s i c a l l y u n a s s a i l a b l e by d e a t h . More i m p o r t a n t , she i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o matter (s tone) which can be possessed , a work of a r t seen i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , a c o m p l e t e l y i m m o b i l i z e d p e r s o n — a c o r p s e . Of ten-he has wished t h a t A l b e r t i n e would go away, but he has not the s t r e n g t h t o d i s m i s s h e r . When A l b e r t i n e does d i e , i t i s l i k e a macabre w i s h f u l -f i l l m e n t f o r M a r c e l . There i s even a h i n t t h a t A l b e r t i n e ' s death was s u i c i d e , as though M a r c e l ' s i m a g i n i n g s came t r u e and she p l a y e d h e r romant ic r o l e to i t s l o g i c a l end of L i e b e s t o d . — She i s k i l l e d when r i d i n g a horse t h a t M a r c e l g i v e s h e r (a f a c t which f i l l s him w i t h an unreasonable amount o f g u i l t . ) P r o u s t ' s e a r l i e r s t o r i e s c o n t a i n many i n c i d e n t s of death o r i n j u r y by h o r s e s , w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n the l i g h t of the G r e e k ' s u s i n g the d e s t r u c t i v e horse to symbol ize u n c o n t r o l l e d emotions (as i n Phedre o r P l a t o ' s Phaedo. ) On the same page t h a t M a r c e l expresses a w i s h to have known A l b e r t i n e i n h e r s e l f , he a l s o expresses a f e e l i n g o f g u i l t f o r h a v i n g k i l l e d h e r by h i s " t e n -276 dresse e g o i s t e . " I n o t h e r words , h i s e g o t i s t i c a l l o v e demanded too much of A l b e r t i n e . F i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , h i s romant ic l o v e never d i d l e t the t r u e A l b e r t i n e e x i s t ; i t d e s t r o y e d h e r ( k i l l e d her) t o r e p l a c e her w i t h M a r c e l ' s p r o - • j e c t i o n s . Any t r u t h w h i c h M a r c e l does hear about A l b e r t i n e he owes, as u s u a l , to F r a n c o i s e , who i s the person to announce 79 A l b e r t i n e ' s d e p a r t u r e , and who has not been d e c e i v e d by h e r , 277 as i s w i t n e s s e d by the i n c i d e n t o f the eagle r i n g s . As we s h a l l see i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , M a r c e l must l e a r n the l e s s o n o f Orpheus, the P o e t ; he must l o s e the e l u s i v e romant ic A l b e r t i n e by f a c i n g her memory w i t h t r u t h f u l o b s e r v a t i o n . IV F a l s e Nature The d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f f a l s e s p i r i t u a l i s m i n Stephen-' l i f e i s i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h f l o w e r i m a g e r y . ¥hen he i s o v e r -burdened w i t h remorse a f t e r the h e l l - f i r e sermon, Stephen f e e l s h i s h e a r t b e g i n to " s l o w l y f o l d and fade l i k e a w i t h e r i n g f l o w e r A f t e r c o n f e s s i n g , however, he f e e l s h i s p r a y e r s r i s e f rom him" 279 as f rom the h e a r t o f a w h i t e r o s e , " an image r e m i n i s c e n t of Dantes rose of p a r a d i s e . Soon a f t e r w a r d s , he s p o i l s t h i s image by v i s u a l i z i n g i t i n m a t e r i a l i s t i c t e r m s — " . . . he seemed to f i l l h i s s o u l i n d e v o t i o n p r e s s i n g the keyboard of a grea t cash r e g i s t e r and to see the amount of h i s purchase s t a r t f o r t h i m m e d i a t e l y i n heaven, not as a number, but as a f r a i l column 280 of i n c e n s e o r as a s l e n d e r f l o w e r . " T h i s ' m a t e r i a l i s t i c s p i r i t u a l i s m , ' r e m i n i s c e n t of the c o n f u s i o n r e i g n i n g i n M a r c e l ' s s o c i e t y as w e l l , i s a l s o the theme of a h i g h l y i r o n i c s h o r t s t o r y i n D u b l i n e r s , c a l l e d Gr ace , i n which the p r i e s t , l e a d i n g a r e t r e a t f o r b u s i n e s s men, c a l l s h i m s e l f t h e i r " s p i r i t u a l 281 a c c o u n t a n t , " and asks them t o - " s e t r i g h t [ t h e i r ] a c c o u n t s " 80 with. God. The flowers associated with Stephen's spi r i t u a l obsessions are often unnatural "the rosaries too which he said constantly transformed themselves into corronals of flowers of such vague unearthly texture that they seemed to him as hueless 282 and odourless as they were nameless." Cranley, that "guilty priest who heard confessions of those whom he had not the power 283 284-to absolve," i s linked with a'poisonous flower—the nightshade. Natural flowers Stephen rejects. A flower g i r l begs him to buy some blossoms from her, "[his] own g i r l , " and Stephen leaves her before her "intimacy" can turn to jibes, and before she "[offers] her ware to another." She i s associated i n his mind with a woman who offered herself to a fellow student. As usual, when a woman seems to be tempting him, Stephen thinks of women's 286 "bat-like soul(s)." In direct contrast to the dove symbolizing the 'pure' g i r l on the beach, the bat i s a night creature, associated with vampirism. Stephen accuses his mother of vampirism i n the Hades scene, that i s , of taking his l i f e from him, sapping his manhood. And, of course, the bat motif again occurs, i n grotesque contrast to Gerty's sentimental scene setting, i n the Nausicaa episode. Gerty i s quite at home with the 'sweet l i t t l e 1 bat. Bloom's 'sin' i s "their secret, only theirs, alone i n the hiding twilight, and there was none to know or t e l l save the l i t t l e bat that flew so softly through the evening . . . and l i t t l e bats don't t e l l . ,,287 81 G e r t y i s a v a m p i r e , s u c k s the j u i c e s f rom Bloom, h o p i n g t o " g i l d " h i s days (we have n o t i c e d be fore the c o n n e c t i o n between ' g i l d i n g ' and ' g e l d i n g ' ) by t r a n s f o r m i n g them i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n . F o r G e r t y 288 'knows' t h a t Bloom i s " a s t e r l i n g man," and, i f he t u r n s out t o be something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n r e a l i t y , she w i l l c e r t a i n l y whitewash him ( o r g o l d p l a t e him) i n h e r m i n d . G e r t y , who has confessed the 'corning on of h e r woman's n a t u r e ' to the p r i e s t ) i s the epitome o f S tephen ' s image of " a b a t - l i k e s o u l waking to the consc iousness of i t s e l f i n the darkness and s e c r e c y and l o n e l i n e s s , t a r r y i n g a w h i l e , l o v e l e s s and s i n l e s s , with h e r m i l d l o v e r [Bloom] and l e a v i n g him t o w h i s p e r of i n n o c e n t 289 t r a n s g r e s s i o n s i n the l a t t i c e d ear of a p r i e s t . " Q u i t e a d i f f e r e n c e from S tephen ' s d o v e - l i k e beach g i r l ! A t t h i s low p o i n t of h i s l i f e , Stephen f i n d s h i m s e l f t r a p p e d between " t h e m i s r u l e and c o n f u s i o n of h i s f a t h e r ' s house and 290 the s t a g n a t i o n o f v e g e t a b l e l i f e , " and the u n n a t u r a l ' s p i r i -t u a l i t y ' o f h i s mother . H i s a e s t h e t i c i s m and h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i s more i n f l u e n c e d by the l a t t e r example, s i n c e he has not y e t found an e f f e c t i v e way t o accept a l l the f a c e t s of h i s human n a t u r e , and i n t e g r a t e h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . I n U l y s s e s , he w i l l be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h B l o o m ' s e f f o r t s to be a whole , and as a r e s u l t , a c r e a t i v e p e r s o n . B l o o m ' s ' w a y , * a "mean" course i s shown h i m , and s p i r i t u a l i t y and m a t e r i a l i t y , m o d i f i e d , become more p o s i t i v e . 82 U l y s s e s r e c o u n t s the events of one day, and t h e r e f o r e cannot show complete c h a r a c t e r development on S t e p h e n ' s p a r t , i n the way t h a t A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu does f o r M a r c e l . However, s y m b o l i c a l l y , i t does show a f u l l c y c l e o f human e x p e r i e n c e , f o r i f Stephen i s a Telemachus, s t a r t i n g out on a voyage of l i f e , Bloom i s a U l y s s e s , " r e t u r n i n g , " t h a t i s , r e c a l l i n g i n h i s mind h i s pas t l i f e , as o b j e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . Only then can Bloom f i n d the p e r s p e c t i v e as i m p o r t a n t to him as i t w i l l be to M a r c e l . E s s e n t i a l l y , Stephen and M a r c e l have s i m i l a r t a s k s ; to f r e e themselves f rom the adverse i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r s , and from t h e i r own s e l f - d e c e p t i o n . T h i s theme i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f l o w e r imagery i n P r o u s t ' s works as w e l l as J o y c e ' s . The symbol of M a r c e l ' s p a s s i v e , romant ic c h i l d h o o d i m a g i n a t i o n i s the w a t e r l i l y — w h i c h i s an i m p o r t a n t image i n U l y s s e s as w e l l . These w a t e r l i l i e s , d r i f t i n g a i m l e s s l y , remind him of c e r t a i n n e u r a s t h e n i c s , l i k e h i s Tante L e o n i e , caught i n a webb of h a b i t s , which d u l l the t r u t h and make l i f e c o m f o r t a b l e . The w a t e r l i l i e s are l i k e the damned whom Dante saw engaged i n r e p e t i t i v e , w o r t h l e s s t a s k s i n H e l l . I n h i s c h i l d h o o d , M a r c e l l o v e s the thought of such a d r i f t i n g e x i s t e n c e . "Que de f o i s j 1 a i v u , j ' a i d e s i r e i m i t e r quand je s e r a i s l i b r e de v i v r e a • ma g u i s e , un rameur, q u i , ayant lSche l ' a v i r o n , s ' e t a i t couche a p l a t s u r l e dos . . . au f o n d de sa barque , et l a l a i s s a n t 83 f l o t t e r a l a d e r i v e . . . " 2 9 1 r p ^ g i m a g e o f the d r i f t i n g boat was v e r y dear to the F rench Romant ics . Rousseau ' s Confess ions c o n t a i n a b e a u t i f u l passage i n which he d e l i v e r s h i m s e l f up to Na tu re , d r i f t i n g on a l a k e . Rimbaud's Bateau I v r e i s a v e s s e l s y m b o l i z i n g a mind g i v e n over to u n c o n t r o l l e d , t u r b u l e n t emot ions . I n o the r words, M a r c e l i s tempted to g i v e up the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s l i f e and to d r i f t r o m a n t i c a l l y th rough i t . J u s t as Stephen p r o j e c t e d h i s emotions onto the s ea - s i de g i r l , M a r c e l , when he sees a woman "[au] v i s a g e p e n s i f " ^ 2 g a z i n g at the w a t e r l i l i e s , immedia te ly imagines t ha t she has had an unhappy l o v e a f f a i r , and tha t she i s b u r y i n g h e r s e l f i n Combray to escape her u n f a i t h f u l l o v e r . A l l the elements o f romant ic l o v e — s o r r o w , i n f i d e l i t y , r e t r e a t from l i f e — w h i c h w i l l l a t e r r e t u r n i n M a r c e l ' s a f f a i r w i t h A l b e r t i n e , are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s paragraph, showing tha t M a r c e l has a l r e a d y c r ea t ed the p a t t e r n which he t h i n k s l o v e shou ld f o l l o w . The w a t e r l i l i e s , by the end o f M a r c e l ' s ques t , b e g i n to take on a d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e , as we s h a l l see . A t t h i s p o i n t , he f i n a l l y l e a r n s t ha t the source o f the Vivonne " q u i 293 [ a v a i t ] pour [ l u i ] une e x i s t a n c e s i a b s t r a i t e , s i i d e a l e , " i s n o t h i n g but an u g l y pudd le . Romantic d r i f t i n g no l o n g e r seems so b e a u t i f u l on the unromantic l i t t l e stream the Vivonne has become ( s i n c e M a r c e l i s not s e e i n g i t through the eyes o f c h i l d h o o d ) , and M a r c e l i s w e l l on the way to r e p l a c i n g h i s d r i f t i n g ways w i t h a sense o f v o c a t i o n . 84 CHAPTER I NOTES At f i r s t , the mother seems a happy medium between .grandmother and f a t h e r ; however, l a t e r i n the book, she misjudges the marr iage of G i l b e r t e and S t . Loup. 2 Fo r example, p a r a l l e l s between Joyce and Stephen c o n f i r m the p o s i t i v e ending o f U l y s s e s . We f e e l tha t Stephen, l i k e the young Joyce , w i l l use the exper ience he has ga ined to become a w r i t e r . 3 Quoted by Goldberg , S . L . , i n The C l a s s i c a l Temper, Chat to & Windus, London, 1961, p . 25. ^ S u l t a n , S t a n l e y , The Argument of U l y s s e s , Ohio S ta t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1964, pp. 466-7 . 5 I b i d . , p . 7 1 . ^ Budgen, Frank , James Joyce and the Making of U l y s s e s , H a r r i s o n Smith & Robert Haas, New Y o r k , 1934, pp. 4, 60. 7 I b i d . , p . 17. ^ Op. c i t . 9 M ar ce l d i f f e r s from Prous t i n be ing h e t e r o s e x u a l r a t h e r than homosexual, and o f C a t h o l i c , r a t h e r than Jewi sh e x t r a c t i o n on. h i s mothe r ' s s i d e . We s h a l l see the impact o f the l a t t e r a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I o f t h i s t h e s i s . Cor responding i n r e a l l i f e to the death of P r o u s t ' s mother. A c c o r d i n g to a theory which sees the g r a i l as a symbol o f s e l f -knowledge, such i n s i g h t i_s the g o a l . 12 S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , p . 74 . 85 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Simon takes t h i s remark as a compliment to h i s s u p e r i o r success w i t h women. A c t u a l l y , he i s h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h h i s son, c l a i m i n g to be "a b e t t e r man than he [Stephen] i s any day of the week." (A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young  Man, p . 95 . ) Simon boas ts s u p e r i o r i t y i n s i n g i n g , r unn ing , and jumping, as w e l l as i n l o v e . Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Han, p . 94. I b i d . , p . 171. I b i d . , p . 96. A c c o r d i n g to the mothe r ' s own grumbles . Thus we see H u l l i g a n advoca t i ng human s tud farms (a joke which s t i l l i n d i c a t e s some i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on h i s p a r t . ) B l a z e s B o y l a n , t o o , as h i s name sugges ts , does not c o n t r o l h i s p a s s i o n s . He i s l i k e n e d to the d e s t r u c t i v e sun wh ich , w i thou t the water which Bloom and Stephen w i l l b r i n g , parches the was te land o f I r e l a n d . Then, t o o , B o y l a n ' s immatu r i t y i s u n d e r l i n e d i n h i s name. Stephen, t o o , i s a ' l u s t y bachelor* i n tha t he i s not sure whether he has f a the red a c h i l d o r no t ; s t i l l , he at l e a s t acknowledges the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the ac t i n the Oxen of the Sun ep i sode . S u l t a n , The Argument of U l y s s e s , p . 229. Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 162. I b i d . , p . 35-A d u l t e r y i s a f a v o u r i t e theme of J o y c e ' s and i s t r e a t e d at i t s s e r i o u s extreme i n The E x i l e s and i t s comic one i n F i n n e g a n ' s Wake. Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Han, p . 8 . I b i d . , p . 43 . I b i d . , p . 83-86 2fi As S u l t a n p o i n t s out i n The Argument o f U l y s s e s , eyes are a v e r y impor tan t symbol i n J o y c e ' s works; i n U l y s s e s , the eyes o f S tephen ' s mother draw Stephen ' s a t t e n t i o n , j u s t as Emma's eyes do i n A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man. 2 7 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 217. 28 As we s h a l l see, b i r d s , i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to escape the ea r th , symbol ize s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y and freedom to Stephen. 2 9 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 216. 30 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 375-31 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 219. 32 Op. c i t . Schu t t e , W i l l i a m M . , Joyce and Shakespeare, New Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957, p . 108. 34 T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the Chap te r . 35 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 9 . , Stephen makes a grea t fuss over Shakespeare ' s l e a v i n g Anne Hathaway h i s second-best bed as, Stephen c l a i m s , a symbol o f t h e i r second-ra te mar r i age . 37 • A s i m i l a r death-bed scene occurs i n the shor t s t o r y E v e l i n e , i n which the he ro ine remembers her mother ' s death as a r e l e a s e from the f u t i l i t y o f ' t h a t l i f e o f commonplace s a c r i f i c e ' f o r c e d on her by an unsympathet ic husband. TO' Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 14. 3 9 I b i d . , p . 579. 4 0 I b i d . , p . 703 . 87 4 1 I b i d . , p . 579. 4 2 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 242. 4 5 Luke 2 . ve r se 49 . Jesus v i s i t s the temple and rebukes h i s mother vrhen she s c o l d s him f o r s t a y i n g so l o n g . 44 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 241. 4 5 I b i d . , p . 242. 4 6 I b i d . , p . 243. 4 7 I b i d . , p . 242. 4 8 I b i d . , p . 245-49 ^ Op. c i t . 5 0 I b i d . , p . 178. 5 1 I b i d . , p . 186. 5 2 I b i d . , p . 178. 5 3 I b i d . , pp. 177-78 5 4 I b i d . , p . 247. 5 5 I b i d . , p . 248. 5 6 I b i d . , p . 90. 5 7 I b i d . , p . 159. 5 8 I b i d . , p . 158. 88 5 9 I b i d . , p . 221. 6 0 I b i d . , p . 192. ^ I b i d . , p . 221. ^ Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 1. 63 Schu t t e , Joyce and Shakespeare, p . 112. Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 304. A n a l y s e d i n Chapter I I . ^ J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 7 . Op. e x t . 68 n . . Op. e x t . 6 9 I b i d . , p . 402. 7 0 I b i d . , p . 7 . 7 1 I b i d . , p . 660. 72 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 782 . 7 5 H a r r i s o n , Jane, Themis, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1912, p . 407. 7 4 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 708. 7 ^ G i r a r d , Rene, D e c e i t . D e s i r e , and the N o v e l , John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1965, p . 38 . 76 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , V o l . I l l , p . 465. 7 7 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 857. 89 7 8 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 465-7 9 G i r a rd , Rene, Decei t , Desire and the Novel, p . 37. 8 0 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, V o l . I , p. 455. 8 1 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 109. 8 2 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 36. 8 5 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 173- The gentle mockery of Marcel- the-mature-narrator shows that the older Marcel has a less r i view of the f a i l u r e s of h i s youth than h i s father had. 84 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, V o l . I , p. 36. 8 5 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 455-8 6 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 36. 8 7 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 527. 8 8 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 268. 8 9 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 105. 9 0 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 39. 9 1 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 668. 9 2 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 140. 9 5 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 38. 9 4 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 336. 9 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 334. 90 96 7 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 336. 9 7 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 11. 98 • Ibid., Vol. I, p. 41. 99 Marcel mentions this ugly incident i n a very low-key manner, as though he found i t hard to accept that bad things did happen within his family during his childhood. 1 0 0 Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 565-6. The grandmother i s too prodigal of her love, represented i n these non-tangible g i f t s of ideals and culture; the father, as we have seen, i s unable to give his love outright, to Marcel. 102 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 42. 103 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 40. 104 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 41. We shall discuss Marcel's attitude towards photographs as a vehicle for objective truth later i n this chapter. 1 0 5 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 146. 1 0 6 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 38. 107 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 11. The underlining i s mine. 1 0 8 Ibid., Vol. I l l , p. 658. 109 Remember that Francois marries his mother. 110 Tl_., ' Ibid., p. 13. 1 1 1 She i s evidently a pantomime star. 91 112 J o y c e , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 67 . 113 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 249. 114 Op. c i t . 115 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 234. 116 S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , P- 72. 117 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 153. 118 T h i s i s the main theme o f Jane H a r r i s o n ' s Themis . 119 J o y c e , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 169. 120 S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , P- 79 . 121 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 170. 122 I b i d . , p . 169. 123 O v i d , The Metamorphoses, T r a n s l a t o r Horace Gregory , p . 220. 124 Op. c i t . 125 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 151. 1 2 6 I b i d . , pp . 168-69. 127 ' Op. c i t . 1 2 8 S u l t a n , The Argument of U l y s s e s , pp . 73-4. 1 2 9 I b i d . , p . 8 3 . 1 5 0 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 171. 92 1 3 1 Joyce, I b i d . , P- I 7 2 1 5 2 Joyce, TTlvsses, p. 3 6 1 -1 5 3 I b i d . , p. 42. 1 3 4 I b i d . , p. 2 1 2 . 155 schutte, J^vce_ J indJ»^^ P- 4 4 ' 1 3 6 j o y c e > uiysses, pp. 2 1 5 , 193-1 3 7 I b i d . , p. 2 1 5 . 1 3 8 I b i d . , P. 217. 1 3 9 I b i d . , P- 185. 1 4 0 I b i d . , P- 186. 1 4 1 I b i d . , P. 187. 1 4 2 I b i d . , p. 215-1 4 3 I b i d . , p. 185-1 4 4 I b i d . , p. 1 4 2 . 1 4 5 I b i d . , p. 195. 1 4 6 I b i d . , P- 1 4 3 . 1 4 7 I b i d . , p. 2 0 1 . 1 4 8 I b i d . , p. 1 9 5 -U 9 Op. c i t . 1 5 0 I b i d . , P. 199. 93 . Ibid., p. We shall study this 'sophistry1 and Stephen's theories of spiritual paternity in detail later in the chapter. 1 5 5 Bucknall, Barbara, The Religion of Art in Marcel Proust. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago and London, 1969, p. H. 1 5 4 Ibid., p. 36. Rogers, B. C, Proust's Narrative Techniques, Librairie Droz, Geneve, 1965, p. 1 5 6 Girard, Rene, Deceit, Desire and the Novel, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965, p. 38. Proust, A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. Vol. I, p. 124. 1 5 8 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 1022. 1 5 9 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 870. 1 6 0 Ibid., Vol. I l l , p. 963. 1 6 1 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 964. 1 6 2 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 188. 1 6 5 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 976. , 164 n . + Op. c i t . 1 6 5 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 979. Bucknall, The Religion of Art in Marcel Proust, p. 140. Girard, Rene, Deceit, Desire and the Novel, p. 2 0 3 . 3 94 168 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, V o l . I , p. 601. 1 6 9 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 849. 1 7 0 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 693. 1 7 1 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 885. 1 7 2 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 379. 1 7 3 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 729. 1 7 4 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 154. 1 7 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 591. 1 7 6 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 591. 1 7 7 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 447. 1 7 8 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 470. 179 n . . Op. ext . 1 8 0 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 24. 1 8 1 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 579. -i o p I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 473. 1 8 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 446. 1 8 4 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 309. 1 8 5 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 117. 1 8 6 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 31. 95 1 8 7 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 17. 1 8 8 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 31. 1 8 9 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 141. 1 9 0 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 234. 191 T , . , rr, I b x d . , p . 65 . 1 9 2 I b i d . , p . 96 . 193 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 264. 1 9 4 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 215. 1 9 5 I b i d . , p . 208. 196 Op. c i t . Perhaps • D u f f e y ' s a t t i t u d e towards h e r . J o y c e , James, D u b l i n e r s , A I Harmondsworth, 1956, p . 109. On the o the r extremes, M u l l i g a n the g e n i t a l s . 1 9 7 the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of he r name i s r e l e v a n t to 198 J o y c e , James, D u b l i n e r s , A P a i n f u l Case, Penguin Books, 199 On the o the r extremes, Stephen would g ive the head t ha t t i t l e , 2 ^ Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Han, p . 25.3• 201 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 185. 202 I b i d . , p . 208. 96 203 J . S c h o e f i e l d ' s essay Fa the r s and Sons i n S c y l l a and Charybd i s d i s c u s s e s these terms at l e n g t h . E s s e n t i a l l y , c o n s u b s t a n t i a l means o f the same substance, but not i d e n t i c a l ; t r a n s u b s t a n t i a l means o f changed substance; and s u b s u b s t a n t i a l means i d e n t i c a l . Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 199. 2 0 5 I b i d . , p . 208. 2 0 6 I b i d . , p . 391. 207 T . . , 0 , _ I b x d . , p . 213. 208 A c t u a l l y , as we s h a l l see i n the C i r c i a n B l a c k Mass, Joyce i s fond of d i a l e c t i c a l p a t t e r n s , where one extreme i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t the oppos i t e extreme. 209 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 216. 210 I b i d . , p . 208. 211 ± x I b i d . , p . 194. 212 W i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f Homer 's works . 213 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 208. 214 Presumably by ' a u t o m a t i c ' w r i t i n g . 215 T h i s must s u r e l y remind us o f the young P rous t and h i s e a r l i e r , v e r y s u b j e c t i v e n o v e l s , such as Jean S a n t e u i l . 216 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 213. 217 ' I b i d . , p . 197. 2 ^ 8 I b i d . , p . 212 219 I b i d . , p . 188. 97 2 2 ^ Joyce, Ulysses, p. 196. 221 Op. c i t . 222 Ibid., p. 202. 2 2 3 Ibid., p. 196 224. * Ibid., p. 191. 225 3 Ibid., p. 202. 2 2 6 Ibid., p. 204. 227 ' Ibid., p. 212. 2 2 8 Ibid., p. 201. 229 3 Ibid., p. 205. 230 Ibid., p. 213. 231 J Ibid., p. 212. 232 J Ibid., p. 187. 233 Schutte, Joyce and Shakespeare, p. 26. 234 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 188. 235 J J Ibid., p. 212. 2 3 6 Ibid., p. 206. 237 Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene II, 238 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 215. 98 2 5 9 I b i d . , p . 185. 2 4 0 I b i d . , p . 208. 241 J o y c e j a P o r t r a i t o f A r t i s t as a Young. Man, p . 247. 2 4 2 U l y s s e s , p . 49 . 2 4 5 U l y s s e s , p . 207. 2 4 4 I b i d . , p . 215-2 4 5 I b i d . , p . 208. 2 4 6 I b i d . , p . 211 . 2 4 7 I b i d . , p . 217. . • ' • 2 4 8 P r o u s t , A 1 a R e c h e r ^ A» ^ P S Pe rdu , V o l . I , p . 10 . 2 4 9 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , P . 539. 2 5 0 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 4 1 . 2 5 1 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 175. 2 5 2 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 487. 2 5 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , . p. 59 . 2 5 4 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p . 31. 2 5 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , P . 423. 256 P r o u s t , A. i.a Racherche du Temps Perdu , V o l . I I , P- 556. 2 5 7 I b i d . , V o l . I I , P- 562. 258 99 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 1012, V o l . I l l , p. 69. 2 5 9 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 69. 2 6 0 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 998. 2 6 1 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 947. 2 6 2 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 175. 2 ^ 3 As i n C o l e r i d g e ' s K u b l a K h a n . 2 6 4 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , V o l . I , p. 32. 2 6 5 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 8 1 . 2 6 6 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 835. 2 6 7 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 833. 2 6 8 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , V o l . I l l , p. 28. 2 6 9 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 801. 2 7 0 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 457. 2 7 1 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 350. 2 7 2 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 495. 2 7 5 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p.68. 2 7 4 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , V o l . I l l , p. 359. 2 7 5 I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 393. 2 7 6 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , V o l . I l l , p. 496. 100 277 Ib id . , Vo l . I l l , P. 462. I b id . , p. 145. 2 8 0 I b id . , p. 148. 2 8 1 Joyce, Dubliners, Grace, p. 172. 282 J o y c e , - A ^ g r t r a a i J ^ ^ 283 284 285 286 I b i d . , p. 178. Op. c i t . I b id . , p. 183. I b i d . , p. 220. 2 8 7 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 367. 288 Ib id . , p. 365-I b i d . , p. 162 291 P r o u s t , & i P . ftecher^ Perdu, V o l . I 2 9 2 I b id . , V o l . I , P- 171-2 9 5 Op. c i t . 101 CHAPTER I I The Classical and Medieval Father Figure 102 Stephen o b v i o u s l y needs a mentor to , i n i t i a t e him i n t o l i f e , a k i n d l y f a t h e r - f i g u r e who w i l l h e l p him to overcome h i s f e a r of h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . L i k e M a r c e l ' s p r e c u r s o r , Swann, Bloom i s , h i m s e l f , immersed i n the p h y s i c a l aspec ts o f l i f e , and, f o r t h i s r e a s o n , has committed i n the past the same e r r o r s as his p r o t e g e , a f a c t which c r e a t e s a sympathet i c bond btween them. B l o o m ' s c l a s s i c a l p r o t o t y p e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , Dedalus and U l y s s e s , are r e s o u r c e f u l , p o s i t i v e f a t h e r f i g u r e s . " ' ' L i k e D e d a l u s , Bloom g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s a p a t h of m o d e r a t i o n , a ' g o l d e n mean' between extremes— : an achievement not always easy to a t t a i n , even f o r the e x p e r i e n c e d Bloom. L i k e U l y s s e s , he a l s o must n a v i g a t e between d e s t r u c t i v e extremes; he must i n t e g r a t e h i s c h a r a c t e r i n o r d e r 2 to become the ' a l l - r o u n d ' man; f a t h e r , son , l o v e r , and companion. S ince n e i t h e r Dedalus nor U l y s s e s were p e r f e c t , we are not s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n t h a t Bloom i s i m p e r f e c t t o o . H i s sense of h i s own f a u l t s e v e n t u a l l y enables him to demand n e i t h e r too much nor too l i t t l e from an i m p e r f e c t w o r l d ; he r e a l i z e s t h a t a m b i t i o n s and daydreams, i f they exceed one ' s l i m i t a t i o n s , are dangerous and t h a t , d e s p i t e t h i s one must s t i l l s t r i v e t o do o n e ' s b e s t . When S t e p h e n ' s w i l l i s at i t s l o w e s t ebb, j u s t as he i s 3 l e a v i n g the l i b r a r y w i t h M u l l i g a n , a man passes between them.. Buck r e c o g n i z e s Bloom, whom he d i s l i k e s . H i s sharp tongue b u s i l y d i s s e c t s the reasons f o r B l o o m ' s r e s t l e s s n e s s and h i s k i n d g l a n c e s 4 at Stephen. Bloom, he suggests i s l i k e the "wander ing Jew" 103 5 o r the " a n c i e n t m a r i n e r , " condemned t o t r a v e l u n t i l they e x p i a t e t h e i r c r i m e s . H i s s m i l e s i g n i f i e s t h a t he ' l u s t s a f t e r ' S tephen. "0 K i n c h , " he s a y s , " t h o u a r t i n p e r i l . Get thee a b r e e c h p a d . " ^ B loom's t r a v e l s are not the g u i l t y wanderings of wandering Jew o r a n c i e n t m a r i n e r , but a j o u r n e y f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d h i m , f u l l - c i r c l e , t o home. As S u l t a n s u g g e s t s , 7 Bloom wants t o " b r e e c h " Stephen as a f a t h e r would h i s own s o n . Indeed, Bloom here i s U l y s s e s , s t e e r i n g between two dangerous extremes, S c y l l a a n d C h a r y b d i s , s y m b o l i z e d by M u l l i g a n ( the r o c k of m a t e r i a l i s m ) and Stephen (the w h i r l p o o l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m ) . And, t o c o n t i n u e J o y c e ' s use o f the Dedalus myth, Bloom i s the f a t h e r f i g u r e to whom Stephen has u n c o n s c i o u s l y addressed the words " P a t e r , a i t " ( f a t h e r , h e l p ) . Stephen now r e a l i z e s t h a t he resembles I c a r u s the son , r a t h e r t h a n D e d a l u s , the f a t h e r . " F a b u l o u s a r t i f i c e r , h a w k l i k e man. You f l e w . Where to? Newhaven-Dieppe, s teerage p a s s a g e r . P a r i s and back . Lapwing I c a r u s . P a t e r , a i t . 8 Seabedabbled, f a l l e n , w e l t e r i n g . " T h i s myth f i t s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l i n t o the ' d i a l e c t i c a l ' form and p h i l o s o p h i c a l content o f the c h a p t e r . Stephen p r e f e r s A r i s t o t l e to P l a t o , f o r P l a t o b a n i s h e d poets from h i s r e p u b l i c ( j u s t as Stephen i s d i s c o u r a g e d from j o i n i n g the l i b r a r y c l i q u e ) . A r i s t o t l e ' s e t h i c of the ' g o l d e n mean' i s e x a c t l y t h a t course which a Dedalus s h o u l d take to a v o i d the dangerous extremes of heaven and e a r t h , ( o r which a U l y s s e s s h o u l d take t o a v o i d oppos ing dangers ) . A r i s t o t l e says t h a t " i f the young 104 commit a fault i t i s always on the side of excess and exaggeration." Moreover, "The great d i f f i c u l t y of youth (and of many of youth's elders) i s to get out of one extreme without f a l l i n g into the 9 opposite." This 'middle way1 depends "on clear judgement, self-control, symmetry of desire, a r t i s t r y of means; i t i s not the possession of a simple man . . . hut the achievement of experience i n the f u l l y developed man.""''^  In other words the mean depends on similar attributes to that of Bloom's "s p i r i t u a l Moly"—-"presence of mind, power of recuperation etc.""'""'' (Moly, of course, was the herb that saved Ulysses from enchantment.) In many ways, Bloom shows himself to be very much of a Dedalus. He i s intelligent, yet down to earth. Occasionally too in t e l l e c t u a l , he can i r r i t a t e the uncouth Citizen with "the why and the wherefore 12 and a l l the codology of the business" (not a serious mark against him), but he can also be blinded by his erudition (as when he thinks Molly i s only interested i n his discussion of the stars) or use i t to avoid problems (as when he explains anything and everything i n order not to have to discuss his wife's lover). Most of the time, though, his intelligence earns him respect. "He's a cultured allroundman, Bloom i s , " says an acquantance of 13 14 Bloom's. "There's a touch of the a r t i s t about old Bloom." Indeed, although Bloom might never experience the heights of which Stephen i s capable and although his talents for poetical expression are in f e r i o r to Stephen's, Bloom's comments on literature 105 show a lack of self-deception, an a b i l i t y to see things i n themselves which Stephen would do well to study. Bloom sees some seagulls (which Stephen would probably have regarded as birds of augury, symbols of his poetic destiny). His doggerel about them (although badly expressed) s t i l l lacks the ego-centricity of Stephen's v i l l a n e l l e . Bloom i s touched with pity for "the hungry famished gull,""'"'' and throws the "poor birds''"'"^ something to eat, for he i s a friend of nature and i t s creatures on a very basic level. After he sees Geo. Russell and a friend—"Dreamy, cloudy, symbolist Esthetes they are," Bloom describes the gull from their point 17 of view "The dreamy cloudy g u l l . " Of course, Bloom's 'poem' i s not well expressed, but i t i s now completely false, for the gull i s actually (as Bloom knows) a scavenger, forever hungry. In a similar fashion Stephen, i n his v i l l a n e l l e , can imagine his beloved as a temptress and himself as an angel; he can misinterpret the sea-bird g i r l (whose message should bring him closer to the earth); he can misread the symbol of the birds on the colonnade. As we have seen before, both individuals can add something to the other. Bloom has earlier been impressed by a magazine a r t i c l e (solely because of i t s economic worth to him, i f he had been the author.) However, he subsconsciously exercises his c r i t i c a l powers when he uses i t as t o i l e t paper. (He has been reading i t i n the outhouse.) Bloom i s self-educated, and has his own cliches, but i t i s s t i l l 106 true (as he says) that the "University of l i f e " has taught him 18 much about what i s and what i s not "bad art." In the past, he has fal l e n into Stephen's errors of judging Shakespeare's works i n terms of his own l i f e j "he himself had applied to the works of William Shakespeare more than once for the solution of problems 19 i n imaginary or real l i f e . " Although Bloom's approach may seem even more simplistic than Stephen's, i t . i s basically similar, both wishing to reduce the playwright's works to a specific message. Bloom rejects this method immediately and shows, i n the Hades episode a more intelligent regard for the universal nature of Hamlet. Bloom, at. an interment, i s wondering over the way i n which people joke about death, i n order to relieve the tension of their emotions, but never joke about the dead person. "You must laugh sometimes so better do i t that way. Gravediggers i n Hamlet. Shows the profound knowledge of the human heart. Daren't joke 20 about the dead for two years at least . . . " Bloom himself has been cogitating the 'comic' elements of death; that i s the way i n which death eventually leads to l i f e . "It's the blood sinking 21 into the earth gives new l i f e . " Surely these insights of Bloom's should refute Schutte's contention that Bloom, badly 22 educated, misquotes Shakespeare i n a series of semi-cliches. Shakespeare has lost none of his meaning for Bloom. Actually, Bloom i s much like the 'bard.' He, too, has an overpowering wife. He has been absent from her (sexually) for 107 many years, and she has taken a lover. He has lost a son and only has a daughter. He lacks the 'willpower1 to f i n i s h various tasks he sets himself—a muscle building course, and a magazine art i c l e ; and he tends to avoid displeasing truths, and even to give i n to others. (How similar he seems, i n nearly a l l these particulars, to Swann.) He, also has been accused of homosexuality. And, lik e Shakespeare, he eventually desires nothing better than to return to his home land,"cultiver son jardin," plant his mulberry 2 3 tree. (Actually, Bloom seems to prefer the thought of f i r t r e e s , evergreens.) He i s Jewish, and, therefore, could be supposed to have the Jewish t r a i t s which Stephen accuses Shakespeare of having. However, as we shall see, none of these qualities, none of these situations i n which Bloom finds himself, need be judged as negatively as Stephen does. In other chapters, we shall discuss more f u l l y Bloom's Jewishness and his return to the earth, but, in the context of Aristotle's 'mean,1 l e t us now look at Bloom's temptation to give i n , to surrender to extremes. Like Stephen, he has considered "[ceasing] to strive." The episode of the lotus eaters enumerates various 'opiates' which keep people from struggling, opiates symbolized by lethargy and idleness, the waterlily. "Too hot to quarrel. Influence of the climate. Lethargy. Flowers of idleness . . . waterlilies. Petals too tired to. 108 24 r Sleeping sickness i n the a i r . Walk on roseleaves . . . " (In fact, the waterlilies have an almost identical symbolic role i n Ulysses and i n A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, even to the extent of suggesting the element of isolation, of neurasthenic imprisonment i n one's own world.) Bloom mentions the very same opiates as those to which Stephen has succumbed. Religion, to Bloom, i s a narcotic. "Blind f a i t h . Safe i n the arms of kingdom come. Lulls a l l pain. 25 Wake this time next year." And, indeed, we have seen Stephen 26 choose a 'spiritual f l i g h t ' from physical r e a l i t i e s — " a roseway 27 . . . to heaven." (i.e. to "walk on roseleaves.") Of course, Bloom, through experience, knows that there are "no roses without 28 thorns." Bloom also mentions liquor, "a swirl of liquor bearing 29 along wideleaved flowers of i t s froth," a physical opiate which Stephen i s going to buy for himself and Mulligan. Since Bloom himself 'ceases to strive' i n this chapter ("no more wandering 30 about. Just l o l l there: quiet dusk: l e t everything r i p . Forget."\ he can scarcely c r i t i c i z e the avoidance techniques of others. He . sees a boy smoking and thinks " T e l l him i f he smokes he won't grow. 31 0 let him! His l i f e isn't such a bed of roses!" The 'opiates' which most appeal to Bloom are the i d e a l i s t i c or voyeuristic 'affairs' which enable him to avoid the responsibilities of a complete relationship with Molly, and the womb-like bath which dulls and relaxes his body. In this chapter, Bloom receives a certain amount of sexual gratification from watching a woman enter 109 a carriage (the same kind of voyeurisur to which Gerty appeals when she l i f t s her skirt dreaming a l l the time of how she w i l l 'gild' Bloom's days.) Bloom i s also corresponding, under the name of Henry Flower, with a typist who encloses a yellow ('gilded') flower i n one of her letters to him. Joyce i s obviously implying that Bloom i s being gilded/gelded by his pseudo-affairs. The symbolism i s further emphasized i n Bloom's attitude towards some cart-horses. "He [Bloom] came nearer and heard a crunching of gilded oats . . . Their f u l l buck (? Buck) eyes regarded him as he went by . . . Their Eldorado, [city of gold] Poor juginses! Damn a l l they know or care about anything with their long noses stuck i n nosebags . . . Gelded too: a stump of black guttapercha wagging limp between their haunches. Might be happy a l l the same that way [ i l ] " The typist reduces Bloom to "a naughty boy" 34 and, indeed, (as does Gerty), to "naught." Like Ulysses, he has become "noman," that i s no man. (Ulysses told the Cyclops that his name was Noman.) Bloom puns on the word Rip, thinking of how he and Molly, at a charade, acted out the tale of Rip Van Winkle. However, Bloom i_s "let[ting] everything ri p . ' Like Rip Van Winkle he has not been aroused by his wife for many years, and i f he i s not careful, "His gun [will become] rusty from the 35 dew." Actually, Bloom i s denying his sexuality much as Stephen denies his. (The parallel should not surprise us, for, i f Stephen saw Shakespeare's l i f e as being similar to his, and i f Bloom's 110 i s s i m i l a r to Shakespeare ' s , then , o b v i o u s l y , B loom's must be s i m i l a r to S t e p h e n ' s . ) A l l t ha t i s needed to make the p a r a l l e l complete i s f o r Bloom to s p i r i t u a l i z e h i s concept o f l o v e , and t h i s he does i n the C y c l o p s ep i sode . Bloom advocates " l o v e " as the b a s i s o f a l l l i f e , and becomes " a new a p o s t l e to the g e n t i l e s , " exper t i n " u n i v e r s a l l o v e , " a new r e l i g i o n . I f Bloom had not den ied h i s .wife the l o v e she c r aves , we c o u l d b e t t e r accept him i n t h i s r o l e . However, " i t . i l l becomes him to preach tha t g o s p e l " as the n a r r a t o r says "Has he not nea re r home a seed f i e l d t ha t 37 l i e s f a l l o w f o r want o f a p loughshare?" Bloom seems to have f o l l o w e d an o l d custom, and " b u r i e d i n the one c o f f i n " mother 38 and deadborn c h i l d , s i n c e he has not made l o v e to h i s w i f e s i n c e h i s l i t t l e son d i e d . Bloom enjoys h i s r o l e o f p l a y i n g the mar ty r -Mess i ah , f o r , we are t o l d i n J o y c e ' s most i r o n i c tone tha t " . . . l o , the re came about them a l l a g rea t b r i g h t n e s s and they behe ld the c h a r i o t where in He s tood ascend to heaven. And they behe ld him i n the c h a r i o t , c l o t h e d upon i n the g l o r y o f the b r i g h t n e s s , h a v i n g ra iment as o f the sun, f a i r as the moon . . . and they behe ld Him even Him, ben Bloom E l i j a h , amid c louds o f g l o r y ascend to the g l o r y o f the b r i g h t n e s s a t an angle o f f o r t y -f i v e degrees over Donohoe's i n L i t t l e G-reen S t r e e t l i k e a shot o f f 39 r a s h o v e l . " (.Indeed, t h i s scene i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Swann 1 s e j e c t i o n from the ' l i t t l e c l a n ' and h i s subsequent mock-hero ic ' t i r a d e . ' ) Bloom, t hen , as w e l l as Stephen, i s tempted by the h e i g h t s , and I l l the concommitant avoidance o f e a r t h l y problems. Whenever he wishes to d i s t r a c t h i m s e l f from t h i n k i n g of h i s w i f e ' s i n f i d e l i t y , 40 / he b u s i l y examines h i s f i n g e r n a i l s (.just as Swann alw rays passes h i s hand over h i s e y e s ) . T h i s ges ture i r o n i c a l l y reminds us o f S tephen ' s " a r t i s t , l i k e the God o f c r e a t i o n . . . r e f i n e d out o f 41 e x i s t e n c e . . . p a r i n g h i s f i n g e r n a i l s . " And, i n the episode o f the Lo tus E a t e r s , Bloom does come to t h i n k o f h i s body i n s p i r i t u a l 42 terms. W h i l e he i s l u x u r i a t i n g i n h i s b a t h "womb o f warmth," the u l t i m a t e r e t r e a t from r e a l i t y , he says to h i m s e l f " T h i s i s 43 my body , " o b v i o u s l y remembering the words t ha t Jesus spoke when he d i s t r i b u t e d the bread amongst the a p o s t l e s at the l a s t supper . H i s r e p r o d u c t i v e organs , i n s t e a d of b e i n g used f o r c r e a t i o n , become the ob jec t of s e l f - c o n t e m p l a t i o n . T h i s s p i r i t u a l m e d i t a t i o n , b e i n g n a r c i s s i s t i c (remember t ha t Bloom has bought a s t a tue o f N a r c i s s u s ) p rec ludes a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a shared l o v e . " . . . h i s n a v e l , bud of f l e s h : and [he] saw the dark t a n g l e d c u r l s o f h i s bush f l o a t i n g , f l o a t i n g h a i r of the stream around the l i m p f a t h e r o f 44 r thousands, a l a n g u i d f l o a t i n g f l o w e r . " (.That i s , B loom ' s body has become a l o t u s f l o w e r , a symbol o f s e l f - c o n t e m p l a t i o n , a source of u n t h i n k i n g p l easu re and f o r g e t f u l n e s s . ) The o the r extreme which tempts Bloom i s the sea, o r , at l e a s t , the waters o f the L i f f e y . He has been musing on the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f m a t e r i a l s u r v i v a l and l o o k i n g over a b r i d g e he t h i n k s " I f I 112 4 5 threw myself down?" However, this manner of avoiding his problems does not appeal to Bloom for long, and he only tosses a piece of paper over, as though rejecting such a "throwaway."^ S t i l l , i t i s interesting to note that throughout the Lestrygonian section Bloom resents the exigencies of his body, and having escaped one extreme, goes to the other. He dreams of a goddess offering him the immortality which Calypso offered Ulysses. "Lovely forms of women sculpted Junonian. Immortal lovely. And we stuffing food i n one hole and out behind . . . 1 , 4 7 Definitely, Bloom-Dedalus experiences d i f f i c u l t i e s similar to Stephen's i n keeping to 'the golden mean.' These shared d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, help Bloom to understand Stephen better than Stephen's own father can (especially since Stephen's father claims to have had a very successful youth). Bloom, too, rebelled against his parent's religion (actually his father's Judaism). Bloom, too, had unfortunate sexual experiences ."Bridie! Bridie Kelly! He w i l l never forget the name, ever remember the night, f i r s t night, the bridenight. They are entwined . . . and i n an instant (fiat!) light shall flood the world . . . In terror the poor g i r l flees away through the murk. She i s the bride of darkness, a daughter of night. She dare not bear the sunny golden babe of day. No, Leopold . . . 4 8 No son of thy loins i s by thee." 113 Indeed, Bloom's experiences i n l i f e have, as Aristotle stated, a positive effect on his actions and his understanding of others. Like Ulysses, he has been son, lover, companion, and father. As a son, a companion, and a father he can understand Stephen, and, as a lover, he can understand Gerty. We have already mentioned the similarity between the beach scene i n which Stephen watches the g i r l bathing and the scene i n the Nausicaa episode. However, Bloom, unlike Stephen, has no inclination to etherealize the g i r l he i s watching. He realizes, from observing Molly, that Gerty has been 49 enticing him because she i s "near her monthlies." " . . . they 50 want i t themselves. Their natural cravings." Gerty i s obviously narc i s s i s t i c ; smiling at herself i n the mirror i s one of her favourite occupations, and Bloom, flattered by her attention, almost f a l l s into a similar error, gazing at himself, afterwards, i n a dark pool. He even imagines writing, a story about himself as Gerty sees him called The Mystery Man at the Beach. However, Bloom 51 i s spared the error of 'reading the book of himself,' regarding himself as the main figure of a f l a t t e r i n g a r t i f i c e , by his own self-knowledge. He knows that the newsboys who taunted him saw him i n an entirely different l i g h t — " S t i l l you learn something. 52 See ourselves as others see us." He knows that he i s aging, and thus i s not as handsome as he was. And he knows that the entire episode with Gerty could only take place i n a rather nauseating 114 daydream context. His comment on Gerty's vi rgini ty , , i n conflict with her "natural cravings" is—"Virgins go mad i n the end I 53 / suppose." (.A remark which reminds us of Stephen's overhearing the nun i n the convent madhouse ca l l ing out for Christ , Christ being the ' idea l husband,' as Gerty ca l l s Bloom.) Joyce's comment on v i rg in i t y i s also derogatory. At the same time that Gerty i s 54 teasing Bloom, hoping that he i s "worshipping at her shrine," a mass i s i n progress i n the nearby church. Gerty can imagine 55 "the blue banners of the Blessed Vi rg in ' s sodali ty," and can see i n her mind sinners praying to the "comfortress of the a f f l i c ted . Gerty has obviously garnered her idea, of pure womanhood and the 'worship* i t deserves from the church. Her high opinon of herself reminds us of the character called Maria (an ironic name) i n Joyce's short story Clay. Gerty's a f f in i ty with the bat makes us feel that she, l i ke Maria, i s a witch. The greatest test of Bloom's experience occurs i n the Circe episode, when he must save himself and Stephen from the t o i l s of the Dublin version of the witch who enchanted Ulysses' men. The Dublin Circe i s the madam of the brothel which Stephen has decided to v i s i t . Thus, the main extreme which Bloom must avoid i s the material one, since the witch/whore turns men into lus t fu l animals (pigs) . Bel lo , the madam, says to Bloom, "You w i l l f a l l . You.are 57 f a l l i n g . On the hands down." Bloom has been emasculated by the 115 madam, (unmanned). According to certain historians, witches were followers of the Old f e r t i l i t y r i t e s , forced to practice these ri t e s clandestinely when they were banned. Thus, Bello i s only acting the role of the ancient priestesses when she castrates Bloom/Adonis. Bloom, before this powerful woman "sinks on a l l fours, grunting, 58 snuffling, rooting at his feet." This, indeed, i s the depth to which Dedalus and Icarus can f a l l . However, Bloom i s also tempted by the heights, for Circe's enchantment takes the form of an hallucination i n which Bloom i s allowed to play out a l l the super-59 human roles of his daydreams. He becomes "Lord Mayor of Dublin" so that he can carry out his Utopian reforms and eventually found 60 the "new Bloomusalem." (The new Jerusalem symbolized the perfect c i t y on earth, which would come into existance after the ev i l of the world had been destroyed by the Apocalypse.) In a •fairy tale' solution to the world's problems, Bloom changes 61 "new worlds for old." (At least i n the story of Aladdin, the merchant only promised to exchange new lamps for old!) He becomes 62 the "hero god" of the Sybil (a point which w i l l be discussed later i n further detail), and the Messiah. In a parody of Stephen's idea of the androgynous angel, sufficient unto i t s e l f , CA Bloom, as "the new womanly man" gives birth to some children. (Their paternity at least cannot be questioned) The paternity of Bloom's children i n real l i f e , of course, has been questioned 116 by the malicious c i t i z e n . ) ^ 3 Resurrected from "phoenix flames, "Bloom Christ" listens to the Daughters of Erin praying for his intercession on their behalf "Kidney of Bloom, pray for us. Flower of the Bath, pray for us . . ." Bloom, however, manages to keep his sense of justice and proportion even i n the midst of the 'enchantment.1 At one point, for example, he in s i s t s that the accusations against him are unfair, that he i s not as lovely as he i s made out to be. "There's a medium 68 i n a l l things," he says,"Play cricket." Perhaps most of a l l he i s saved by his a b i l i t y to recognize the 'spell' for what i t i s . He knows i t i s "the witching hour of n i g h t . H e takes exception to a story about a laughing witch." 7^ And yet, as Bloom realizes, the "laughing witch" i s "the hand that T l rocks the cradle" (and rules the world). In other words, Bloom's society has exalted womanhood so much that a strange dichotomy results. Woman as virgin or mother (preferably v i r g i n mother) rules, i f not the world, at least that portion of i t with which Stephen i s familiar. And yet, under the pressure of perfection, women, i n one way or another, are turned into witches. Gerty, although 72 she feels herself an "immaculate virgin," i s really a teasing 7 ^ witch (or bitch), a " l i t t l e limping devil," who knows exactly what effect her exhibitionism has on Bloom. "Her woman's instinct 74 / told her that she had raised the devil i n him." Maria (.another form of Mary), a frustrated 'old maid,' who, like Gerty, enjoys 117 regarding herself i n the mirror, even looks lik e a witch. Moreover, she seems to cause uncomfortable problems wherever she goes. Perhaps "Bridie" Kelly, Bloom's f i r s t love, shows the dichotomy best. She ought to have been his "Bride," but since she was a prostitute, a 'creature of the night,' she cannot bear his child. Being neither mother nor bride (wife, but s t i l l maiden, as i n Stephen's hallucination of his mother), she must be a witch. "With 75 a squeak she flaps her bat shawl." Bloom's own common sense and experience f i n a l l y do break the "spell" and enable him to reject the temptation to. deny his manhood i n a bid for immortality. In his hallucination, the nymph who has fascinated him for so long, the main figure i n a picture which has hung over his bed, comes to l i f e . She wishes to give Bloom immortality i n return for his love. (Bloom has been satisfying himself with erotic fantasies about this nymph, and thus the nymph, like Calypso with Ulysses, has been keeping him from his wife.) The nymph, of course, i s disgusted with the mortal manifestations of love which she has seen from her vantage point above Bloom's bed. Like Gerty, she has been shocked by soiled linen and by the orange chamber-pot, which, as Bloom has verified by studying the anatomy of the statues of Greek goddesses i n the Dublin museum, she could 76 never use. The nymph i s "Eyeless, i n nun's white habit." That i s , she chooses not to see the problems of mortality, she shuts 118 h e r s e l f away from w o r l d l y t r o u b l e s . She den ies sex—"no more d e s i r e , " and, i n reward, ga ins "the e t h e r e a l . Where dreamy creamy 77 g u l l waves o ' e r the waters d u l l . " I t i s s y m b o l i c a l l y v e r y impor tan t t ha t she repea t s Bloom's poem i n an even more e t h e r e a l form. The g u l l s become b i r d s o f dreams, whi te ("creamy") and pure , f l y i n g above the d u l l waters o f l i f e . 78 Bloom " h a l f r i s e s " from h i s b e s t i a l p o s i t i o n to accept t h i s i n v i t a t i o n to the h e i g h t s . However, a t t h i s moment, the back b u t t o n o f h i s t r o u s e r s f a l l s o f f , r emind ing Bloom t h a t he has a g rea t d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g a n y t h i n g up; h i s t r o u s e r s , h i s ' p e c k e r , ' the s p i r i t u a l o r e t h e r e a l l e v e l of a l i f e o f m o r t a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s . T h i s sharp dose o f t r u t h r e v e a l s the enchantment f o r what i t i s . "You have broken the s p e l l , " says Bloom, " I f there were o n l y e t h e r e a l , where would you a l l be, p o s t u l a n t s and 79 n o v i c e s ? " The nymph, l i k e a l l the o the r ' w i t c h e s , ' t r i e s to c a s t r a t e Bloom, but Bloom i s now ab l e to evade h e r . " . . . u n v e i l e d , 80 her p l a s t e r c r a c k ( s ) , " f o r the immor ta l goddess, the b e a u t i f u l s ta tue crumbles under the f o r c e of B loom's t r u t h . I n s t e a d o f becoming h i m s e l f ' e t h e r e a l , ' Bloom, l i k e Pygmal ion the t r ue a r t i s t , has tu rned h i s ' i d o l ' i n t o a r e a l woman, w i t h a l l he r f a u l t s (and, we hope, v i r t u e s . ) (As we s h a l l see, M a r c e l , t o o , must overcome h i s ' i d o l a t r y ' o f women i n o rder to see them as they t r u l y a r e . ) 119 The ' t e m p t a t i o n ' i s not y e t o v e r , f o r Bloom a g a i n f a l l s under t h e . s p e l l o f the h a l l u c i n a t i o n . However, i t s h o l d on him i s not as s t r o n g , and he i s saved, e s s e n t i a l l y , by h i s sense of duty towards S tephen. "When Stephen s t a r t s g e s t i c u l a t i n g w i l d l y , Bloom si has one i m p o r t a n t p i e c e o f a d v i c e to g i v e — " L o o k . " I n o t h e r words, S tephen, a l s o caught up i n the n i g h t m a r e , must l e a r n t o r e g a r d t h i n g s as they a r e . A t f i r s t he r e f u s e s . " N o , I f l e w , " he s a y s . "My f o e s beneath me. And ever s h a l l be . W o r l d w i t h o u t end. [He c r i e s ] Pater1 F ree i" Bloom can o n l y r e i t e r a t e " I say , l o o k . . . " As we know, t h i s a d v i c e i s e x c e l l e n t , s i n c e Stephen has not succeeded i n v a n q u i s h i n g h i s enemies, i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l . And h i s f i r s t f l i g h t ' was i n no way a s u c c e s s . The f a t h e r who does r e p l y t o S tephen ' s c r y i s h i s c o n s u b s t a n t i a l f a t h e r , Simon D e d a l u s , who "swoops u n c e r t a i n l y t h r o u g h the a i r . . . on b u z z a r d OA w i n g s . " Simon i s one of the ' d e a d , ' one o f the D u b l i n e r ' s who f e a s t , l i k e b u z z a r d s , on the corpse of an i d e a l i z e d p a s t . S tephen, '85 i n f a l s i f y i n g h i s own p a s t , becomes a " v u l t u r e " a l s o . What a l e t - d o w n f o r a poet who has thought of the s p i r i t i n terms o f dove and creamy s e a g u l l i m a g e r y ! S tephen, much more a f f e c t e d by h i s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s ( s i n c e he has been d r i n k i n g a b s i n t h e ) t h a n Bloom,has become c o m p l e t e l y p o l a r i z e d towards the extremes. T h i s b r o t h e l i n n i g h t t o w n which he i s v i s i t i n g i n the company of h i s most m a t e r i a l i s t i c f r i e n d s can be seen as the lowest p o i n t of h i s da^s j o u r n e y . Stephen i s , as u s u a l , unable to o b t a i n 120 h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c a ims. The g i r l he wants i s 'dead and m a r r i e d . 1 H i s f r i e n d s deser t h im. when he runs out o f funds . He cannot handle h i s money. And, most o f a l l , he o v e r - r e a c t s and moves from one extreme to ano ther . "The i n t e l l e c t u a l i m a g i n a t i o n , " he says " w i t h 86 me a l l o r n o t h i n g a t a l l . " As a r e s u l t , Stephen becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the ' B l a c k M a s s , ' t ha t s t range ceremony where 8T 88 "extremes meet ," not u n l i k e the Apoca lypse i n i t s d i s a s t r o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s . The Reverend Mr . Haines Love l e a d s the B l a c k Mass. ( H i s name r ep resen t s a meet ing o f extremes, s i n c e "ha ine" i s the Trench f o r " h a t r e d . " ) Then t o o , M r s . Mina Purefoy 89 (Pure f a i t h ) "goddess o f unreason , " a l i v i n g symbol o f p h y s i c a l r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i v i t y con f ron t s Stephen, who c o n -s i d e r s the whole s p e c t a c l e a " feas t o f pure r e a s o n , " s ince- i t 90 resembles " d i a l e c t i c , the u n i v e r s a l l anguage ." D i a l e c t i c , o f course , i s c r i t i c i s m d e a l i n g w i t h m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s . A l l o f S tephen ' s enemies t ake on a w i t c h -l i k e o r demonic appearance. " O l d Gummy Granny i n s u g a r l o a f hat 91 / appears , seated on a t o a d s t o o l . " (Gummy Granny, as you w i l l remember, i s S tephen ' s symbol f o r I r e l a n d . ) She i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y 92 c a l l e d "The o l d sow tha t ea t s her f a r r o w , " f o r , a f t e r a l l , we are concerned w i t h J o y c e ' s v e r s i o n o f the C i r c e episode i n which the Homeric heroes were tu rned i n t o p i g s (and then presumably devoured \ 93 by C i r c e . ) "Rumbold the Demon Barber" r ep re sen t s E n g l a n d . And, 121 t o c o m p l e t e t h e u n h o l y " T r i n i t y , " F a t h e r M a l a c h i O ' F l y n n , " t h e 94 r e v e r e n d C a r r i o n Crow," o f f i c i a t e s i n t h e B l a c k Mass f o r t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . S t e p h e n ' s " i n t e l l e c t u a l i m a g i n a t i o n " o n l y i n s u r e s t h a t he i s c o m p l e t e l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d . I n f a c t , by n o t s u i t i n g h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l t o t h a t o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , S t e p h e n c a u s e s h i s f a l l . S t e p h e n ' s h i g h f l o w n l a n g u a g e , i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o P r i v a t e Compton. Bloom t r i e s , a g a i n t o a c t as a m e d i a t o r between e x t r e m e s , between t h e I r i s h and t h e E n g l i s h , t h e man o f words and t h e man o f a c t i o n . He even s u p p o r t s S t e p h e n when he t o t t e r s . However, t h e P r i v a t e t a k e s o f f e n c e a t S t e p h e n ' s ( i n n o c e n t ) r e m a r k s and, d e s p i t e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Bloom, s t r i k e s S t e p h e n i n t h e f a c e . " S t e p h e n t o t t e r s , c o l l a p s e s , f a l l s s t u n n e d . He l i e s p r o n e , h i s f a c e t o t h e s k y , h i s h a t r o l l i n g t o t h e w a l l . Bloom f o l l o w s and p i c k s i t up." Bloom d i d a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e f o r P a r n e l l , a h e r o who a l s o ' f e l l ' b e c a u s e o f 'moral f a i l i n g s . ' T h i s ' j o u r n e y t o t h e u n d e r g r o u n d , ' however, has n o t been e n t i r e l y u n p r o f i t a b l e t o S t e p h e n . The aim o f t h e whole e p i s o d e , i s o b v i o u s l y , t o f o r c e S t e p h e n and Bloom t o l o o k a t t h e m s e l v e s t r u t h f u l l y . S t e p h e n , e s p e c i a l l y , has a v o i d e d t h i s f r o m t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r o f t h e book. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e theme o f t h e ' m i r r o r ' i s as i m p o r t a n t i n J o y c e ' s book as i t i s i n P r o u s t ' s . M u l l i g a n , f o r a l l h i s c r u e l t y and b o o r i s h n e s s , h a s , l i k e F r a n c o i s e i n A l a R e c h e r c h e du Terms P e r d u , a r e m a r k a b l e a b i l i t y t o d i s c o v e r 122 t h e f a u l t s o f o t h e r s and t a u n t them w i t h i t . He h o l d s a m i r r o r 95 up t o S t e p h e n and s a y s " L o o k a t y o u r s e l f . . . y o u d r e a d f u l b a r d . " Of c o u r s e , s i n c e M u l l i g a n i s m a l i c i o u s , he u s e s t h e m i r r o r , a s he w o u l d t h e r a z o r , t o h u r t S t e p h e n . He c o n t i n u a l l y e m p h a s i z e s 96 S t e p h e n ' s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e i n p e j o r a t i v e t e r m s , . c a l l i n g h i m " P o o r d o g s b o d y " arid " C a l i b a n . " S t e p h e n , l i k e B l o o m , c a n l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t h i m s e l f b y r e g a r d i n g h i m s e l f " a s he and' o t h e r s see m e . " " T h i s d o g s b o d y t o r i d o f v e r m i n s , " S t e p h e n c a l l s h i m s e l f . A c t u a l l y , S t e p h e n i s v e r y much a f r a i d o f d o g s , a s we have s e e n i n t h e P r o t e u s e p i s o d e , t h a t i s , S t e p h e n i s a f r a i d o f h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . I n t h e C i r c e c h a p t e r , t h e c e l e b r a n t s o f t h e B l a c k Mass 97 r i n v o k e b o t h " Dooooooooooog" and " G o o o o o o o o o o o d " (."Dog" and " G o d " b e i n g t h e r e v e r s e , o r c o n t r a r y o f one a n o t h e r , m a n ' s p h y s i c a l a n d h i s s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e . ) T h e r e i s no doub t t h a t S t e p h e n i n t h i s s e c t i o n 98 i s d o g - l i k e r a t h e r t h a n g o d - l i k e . I n d e e d , a t one p o i n t , he i s c o n f u s e d w i t h a r e t r i e v e r . The S o l d i e r a s k s "who owns t h i s 99 b l e e d i n g t y k e , " m e a n i n g t h e r e t r i e v e r , b u t C i s s y t h i n k s t h a t he i s t a l k i n g a b o u t S t e p h e n , who h a s j u s t b e e n k n o c k e d down. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e p i s o d e , B l o o m b e f r i e n d s a d o g , j u s t a s , a f t e r w a r d s , he b e f r i e n d s S t e p h e n . M o s t o f a l l , he does wha t he c a n a b o u t S t e p h e n ' s - p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . He f e e d s h i m ( a s he p r e v i o u s l y f e d t h e d o g ) . He k e e p s h i m f r o m b e i n g a r r e s t e d and t h r o w n i n j a i l ( a p h y s i c a l bondage t o m a t c h S t e p h e n ' s m e n t a l b o n d a g e ) . And he g i v e s S t e p h e n a d v i c e a b o u t c h o o s i n g a g i r l , 123 r i g h t l y d i a g n o s i n g t h a t "some g i r l " might be "Best t h i n g c o u l d . . . ,,100 happen to h i m . How much s e l f - k n o w l e d g e does Stephen g a i n f rom the C i r c e episode? B o t h he and Bloom are f o r c e d to r e c o g n i z e the i n f i d e l i t y of t h e i r women (a f a c t w h i c h Bloom has been a v o i d i n g a l l d a y ) . T h i s t i m e , Lynch p o i n t s out the m i r r o r to S tephen. L y n c h , whose name can mean ' t o hang' has much i n common w i t h M u l l i g a n , the 'hangman p r i e s t ' o r ' k n i g h t of the r a z o r 1 i n t h a t he , t o o , i s a m a t e r i a l i s t i c p e r s o n , more a t t u n e d t o S t e p h e n ' s errors_ t h a n h i s v i r t u e s . Bloom and Stephen see t h e i r f a c e s merged i n the m i r r o r to resemble "The face of W i l l i a m Shakespeare , b e a r d l e s s . . . [ p a r a l y z e d ] . . . crowned by the r e f l e c t i o n of the r e i n d e e r a n t l e r e d hat r a c k . ,'"'"^~'" I n o t h e r words , t h i s composite f a c e r e f l e c t s e x a c t l y S t e p h e n ' s a n a l y s i s o f Shakespeare ' s l i f e , as w e l l as the resemblances t h a t Stephen sees t h e r e i n to h i s l i f e (and t h a t the r e a d e r s see t o B l o o m ' s ) . Because the b a r d (and Stephen and Bloom) have been 102 c u c k o l d e d ( g i v e n t h e i r horns) they can choose t o " b r o o d " over the m a t t e r . a s Stephen does , never r e a l l y f o r g i v i n g t h e i r wives and f o r e v e r t o r t u r e d by a sense of s e x u a l i n f e r i o r i t y ( s y m b o l i z e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Stephen, i n the j e a l o u s c h a r a c t e r of I a g o ) . As a 103 r e s u l t , they w i l l s u f f e r from a " p a r a l y t i c rage" which r e n d e r s them i m p o t e n t , unable to have f u r t h e r j o y i n l o v e o r to t r a n s c e n d the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r l i f e i n a r t . ( S u r e l y M a r c e l i s p a r a l y z e d by a s i m i l a r thought when he reads the G o n c o u r t s ' d i a r y , and 124. decides that i f art can only describe the finicky, limited details of l i f e , i t i s not worthwhile writing.) Fortunately, however, when Bloom gazes into the mirror, after having said the magic words "Lapses are condoned,""'"^4 we see another version of Shakespeare, a more humane and possibly a more truthful one. "The face of Martin Cunningham, bearded, refeature[d] Shakespeare's 105 beardless face." Now, we have already learned i n the Hades episode that Martin Cunningham,' too, has much i n common with Shakespeare, including a wife who i s forever betraying him (although not i n the sense i n which Stephen and Bloom are betrayed.) 106 Bloom thinks of Martin i n these terms; "Sympathetic human man he i s . Intelligent. Like Shakespeare's face. Always a good word to say . . . And that awful drunkard of a wife of his. Setting up house for her time after time and then pawning the furniture 102 on him every Saturday almost . . . " Since Martin continues to forgive his wife, the version of Shakespeare that he represents i s a v i r i l e one, bearded instead of beardless; no "paralytic rage" 1^ 8 stops up his compassion. (This image of Shakespeare corresponds, on a l i t e r a l level, with the commonly known engraving, which shows him with a beard.) Such an analysis better suits Bloom, as we shall see,- for understanding leads to forgiving with Bloom, and his conception of 'what i s natural' helps him to forgive Molly (without .surrendering to her) just as, 125 p r e v i o u s l y , i t h e l p e d him not to judge G e r t y . A Shakespeare •with B l o o m ' s o r M a r t i n ' s g i f t o f compassion would not n e c e s s a r i l y have to e r r , and c e r t a i n l y not c o n t i n u o u s l y , to open " the p o r t a l s 109 of d i s c o v e r y " s i n c e he c o u l d p r o f i t f rom h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o t h e r s ' e r r o r s . I n o r d e r t o p r o f i t f rom h i s own, he c o u l d not use h i s c r e a t i o n s t o " h i d e him from himself""'""'"^ s i n c e e r r o r s which are a v o i d e d o r denied are seldom u n d e r s t o o d , at l e a s t not i n the depth needed to c r e a t e a cohes ive work of a r t . R a t h e r , capable of f o r g i v i n g h i m s e l f as he f o r g i v e s o t h e r s , Shakespeare c o u l d f r e e h i m s e l f of the p e r s o n a l b i a s which might o t h e r w i s e prevent him from a t t a i n i n g t h a t l e v e l of o b j e c t i v i t y which Stephen p r e v i o u s l y saw as the h i g h e s t a e s t h e t i c p l a n e . Stephen h i m s e l f , o f c o u r s e , i s p lagued m a i n l y by h i s sense of g u i l t " a g e n b i t e o f i n i v i t , " a d e s t r u c t i v e emot ion, whose n e g a t i v e impact on the young p o e t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s we have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . A l t h o u g h he may not f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a l l the ' s i g n s ' i n t h i s j ourney t o the u n d e r w o r l d , Stephen at l e a s t g a t h e r s the energy to f i g h t t h i s sense of remorse , s y m b o l i z e d by the phantom of h i s mother . He has overcome the " h o p e l e s s n e s s " o f the episode i n the l i b r a r y , and no l o n g e r " cease [s ] to s t r i v e , " s i n c e he and Bloom have b o t h d e c i d e d to f a c e and t a c k l e t h e i r problems . Other i n s i g h t s do come to h i m . A t one p o i n t he says "Great success of l a u g h i n g . A n g e l s much p r o s t i t u e s like""'""'"''" (which I 112 take to mean ' a n g e l s are much l i k e p r o s t i t u t e s . ' I n t h i s 126 s e c t i o n , i n f a c t , a l l the r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s who have bothered Stephen are brought down t o the l e v e l of the b r o t h e l . Mary becomes "Mary 113 S h o r t a l l , " a p r o s t i t u t e made pregnant by "Jimmy P i d g e o n " (God.) I n d i r e c t l y , Mary, o r at l e a s t , the r i g i d mora l code, the s t r i c t i d e a l s of p e r f e c t i o n t h a t she s y m b o l i z e s (woman as v i r g i n o r mother , but not l o v e r ) causes the e x i s t a n c e of the b r o t h e l , and the dichotomy of woman as c o m p l e t e l y mora l o r a b s o l u t e l y i m m o r a l . S t u a r t G i l b e r t comments on the same i d e a i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the C i r c e e p i s o d e . " B r o t h e l s are b u i l t w i t h the b r i c k s o f r e l i g i o n . " B l a k e ' s paradox may a f f o r d some e x p l a n a t i o n o f the c u r i o u s f a c t tha t D u b l i n , the grea t C a t h o l i c c i t y o f n o r t h e r n Europe , s h o u l d have had a r e c o g n i z e d " r e d l i g h t q u a r t e r . " The C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n , u p h o l d i n g the i n v i o l a b l e s a n c t i t y of the m a r r i a g e , accepts no compromise . . . r e f u s e [ s ] r e c o g n i t i o n of the weakness o f the f l e s h . . . [has] none o f the c a l l o w p i t y w h i c h condones f o r n i c a t i o n o r a d u l t e r y . . . [so t h a t ] the p r o s t i t u t e d i s a p p e a r s . . . the C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n . . . s e t s . . . v i r t u e on the one 114 s i d e , v i c e on the o t h e r . " Stephen, however, t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , and, perhaps through B l o o m ' s i n f l u e n c e i s l e a r n i n g the "Grea t success of l a u g h i n g , " of not s e e i n g t h i n g s i n such s e r i o u s and uncompromising te rms . Once b e f o r e , "He laughed to f r e e h i s mind 115 / f rom h i s m i n d ' s bondage." ( S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s thought o c c u r r e d t o him j u s t as E g l i n t o n " a f f i r m e d " tha t "The t r u t h i s m i d w a y . " ) 1 1 ^ 127 Bloom, would be the f i r s t to advocate l a u g h i n g , f o r he says of D u b l i n e r s as a whole " [ t h e y ] ought to go home and l a u g h a t themselves." ' '"" ' ' 7 -By now, i t must be obvious t h a t Stephen i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a " t r i a l " i n a quest much l i k e M a r c e l ' s . Bloom, s a v i n g him from p r i s o n , g i v i n g him a d v i c e , p a y i n g f o r the damage he has done,, and g e n e r a l l y t a k i n g him i n hand, h e l p s Stephen, i f not to pass the t e s t , a t l e a s t to escape from i t w i t h o u t s e r i o u s consequences. M a r c e l had to overcome h i s i m a g i n i n g s , h i s s e a r c h f o r the i d e a l or ' r o m a n t i c ' r a t h e r t h a n the r e a l i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the complex c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s s o c i a l w o r l d . Stephen, t o o , has to modi fy an " i n t e l l e c t u a l i m a g i n a t i o n " which i n an extreme f o r m , c o u l d t e n d to be h i s p r i s o n c h a i n s r a t h e r t h a n h i s wings . ' Bloom shows us t h a t the weapons to use a g a i n s t "enchantments" are a sense o f compassion f o r o t h e r s , an a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e d e s t r u c t i v e extremes, a r e f u s a l of those t h i n g s w h i c h warp o r a v o i d the t r u t h ( such as the mental avoidance t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h he uses or the a l c o h o l which Stephen does ) . The C i r c e episode f i t s the ' q u e s t ' framework, not o n l y because i t d e a l s w i t h the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h deeply b u r i e d t r u t h s , but a l s o because i t c o n t a i n s the images l" l 8 and i m p o r t of the ' F i s h e r K i n g ' or ' G r a i l ' l e g e n d . ~ B o t h t r a d i t i o n s d e a l w i t h i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s .of young b o y s . A c c o r d i n g t o Jane H a r r i s o n , whose book Joyce p r o b a b l y r e a d , young boys 128 had to be t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e i r m o t h e r ' s care to t h e i r f a t h e r ' s so t h a t they c o u l d l e a r n 'men's ways' f rom h i m . (The young boy l"i 9 had to d i e s y m b o l i c a l l y , and be r e b o r n as a young man) ~ The whole ceremony was l i n k e d to the death and r e s u r r e c t i o n of the y e a r god, as a sun or v e g e t a t i o n f i g u r e . To the g r a i l l egend was added a s p e c i a l emphasis on s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l knowledge t o 120 be g a i n e d from the ' m o t h e r ' s u n c l e , ' o r F i s h e r K i n g . O b v i o u s l y , Bloom i s g u i d i n g Stephen t h r o u g h an i n i t i a t i o n r i t e . Stephen i s s t y l e d "Bous Stephanoumenos," a t i t l e used f o r a young man engaged i n the s l a u g h t e r of the b u l l w h i c h o f t e n 121 a t t e n d e d these r i t e s . The c a t t l e s l a u g h t e r i n g i n D u b l i n w i l l 122 occur on the next day . But t h i s day, as every day, " b u l l y b o y [ s ] " are b e i n g b o r n i n the D u b l i n h o s p i t a l . Death and l i f e f o r men and c a t t l e c o n t i n u e s i n a n e v e r - e n d i n g c y c l e . The e a r t h w i l l r e c e i v e , and then g i v e back , the l i f e t h a t i s i n the o x e n ' s b l o o d . Bloom, i n h i s j ourney t o the underground, i s 'unmanned, ' 123 l i k e a " t h i n g under y o k e . " I n o t h e r words , l i k e a s l a u g h t e r e d ox, he has g i v e n h i s l i f e to the e a r t h . The whore i n t h i s 124 s e c t i o n c a l l s Bloom "Dead c o d , " which sounds v e r y much l i k e 'dead g o d . ' F i s h , t o o , are known as good f e r t i l i z e r . Bloom, i n the g r a v e y a r d scene, f e e l s t h a t he p r e f e r s "warm 125 beds : warm f u l f i l l e d l i f e " to the c o l d rDed' of the e a r t h ; 126 y e t he i s used to the i d e a of " corpse manure" f e r t i l i z i n g the f l o w e r beds of the B o t a n i c a l Gardens next to the cemetery. 129 127 "It's the blood sinking in the earth gives new l i f e . " He 128 even talks of "planting" corpses as though they v/ere flowers. During the Circe episode, a vision of the Jew, Dodd, "with the 129 drowned corpse of liis son" over his shoulder appears to Bloom and Stephen. But Dodd's son (God's son) is not really dead. The son/sun v/ill return in a l l i ts strength after Its winter journey to the underground. On another levelj Bloom who has been illustrating the role of the vegetation god, v/ill protect Stephen, his symbolic son. As an initiate, Stephen must pass through symbolic death to attain his new identity as a man. The 130 thunder is the voice of the death-dealing elements of nature. Stephen i s extremely afraid of death during the Circe episode, and we learn during the episode of the oxen of the sun, that he is just as afraid of thunder. However, just as Bloom v/ill again 'arise,' Stephen v/ill survive to take on his creative role as a man. Joyce has made f u l l use of the symbols of the Grail legend. 131 On the belly of Mina Purefay, the woman who bears a "bully boy," Stephen sees a chalice (or Grail). He himself has a lance, or ashplant. Through these 'visions,' Stephen is learning the biological role of a man, for the sexual symbolism is very obvious. As we have seen, Bloom's aid in this chapter is invaluable to Stephen. Bloom is his guide and protector, the Fisher King v/ho gladly relinquishes his knowledge and experience to youth. No 130 one c o u l d be b e t t e r s u i t e d to the r o l e , f o r Bloom i s a " s ec r e t 132 master" o f the Masonic o rde r , which owes i t s o r i g i n to the mystery r i t e s . He i s a ' r o i pecheur ' i n the sense of a s i n n i n g k i n g . As we have seen, h i s ' s i n s ' c r ea t e a bond between him and Stephen and g i v e him knowledge tha t he can impar t to the young 133 man. We are a l s o t o l d tha t Bloom i s a f i s h — a " m a c k e r a l , " a " sa rd ine . " " ' " 3 4 He has a " c o d ' s eye.""'" 3^ Indeed, Joyce o b v i o u s l y enjoys p l a y i n g on the word ' c o d . ' Bloom i s good at ' c o d d i n g ' o r j o k i n g ; he v iews l i f e as a comedy r a t h e r than a t r agedy . Bloom a l s o connects the cod w i t h C h r i s t and the r e s u r r e c t i o n — " t h e luminous c r u c i f i x ? Our S a v i o r . . . Phosphorus i t must be done w i t h . I f you leave a b i t of cod f i s h f o r i n s t a n c e . I c o u l d see 137 the b luey s i l v e r over i t . " A ' c o d ' i n Shakespear ian t imes was the r e c o g n i z e d s l a n g f o r a p e n i s . Thus, on a l l l e v e l s , the ' c o d ' as Joyce uses i t , i s a " D i v i n e L i f e Symbol , " as i t has 138 been s i n c e "immemorial a n t i q u i t y " because o f man's b e l i e f tha t a l l l i f e s t a r t s i n wa te r . We have a l r e a d y seen t ha t 139 Bloom i s c a l l e d a "dead cod" i n the C i r c e ep i sode . Bloom has another s i m i l a r i t y to the F i s h e r K i n g . He has been s t e r i l e f o r many y e a r s . H i s "waterworks [are] out o f o r d e r . H e "wastes h i s seed on ba r r en ground,""'"4''" l i t e r a l l y when he e j e c u l a t e s onto the sand i n the Wausicaa ep i sode , and s y m b o l i c a l l y when he pa r takes o f the s t e r i l e r o u t i n e o f the Wasteland o f I r e l a n d . 131 However, like the Fisher King, Bloom can hope to regain his v i r i l i t y i f Stephen, the young questor, passes the test. 142 F i r s t Bloom imparts to Stephen the idea that "dirty cleans," that he should not "be ashamed of his bodily functions. Mulch of dung i s , after a l l , the best cleaner of lady's gloves. Like 143 Bloom, Stephen ought to love "the inner organs of beasts," his own 'beastly' organs included. And he ought to respect manure as a f e r t i l i z e r . Bloom also teaches Stephen that he cannot 'own' the stream of l i f e . He must rejoice, as Bloom does, i n a son even although that son may not really, physically, belong to him. "How can you ovm v/ater-really? Its always flowing i n a stream, never the same -. . . Because l i f e i s the stream r -\ 144 [like rain or semenj." Stephen on returning to Bloom's home with him, feels 'at 145 one' with the older man. "Silent, each contemplating the other in.both mirrors of the reciprocal flesh of theirhisnothis fellowfaces." In the 'mirror' of his truths, Bloom, the "profound ancient male" has passed on to Stephen, the "quick 147 young male," much of his wisdom. The test has been passed; 148 f e r t i l i t y returns to the Wasteland. Rain f a l l s on Dublin, 149 Mrs. Purefoy has a son, and Bloom, as the Fisher King, finds 150 his key again. His wife Molly, during the period of his impotence, used to dominate him, but now, he orders her to make 151 him breakfast, instead of the other way around. Molly grumbles 132 ¥ 152 at the thought of him " s i t t i n g up like the king of the country." 153 But she gives in, and plans to get him a piece of cod. The 154 cycle i s complete. Her period starts; a new cycle i s i n i t i a t e d . She, too, i s s t i l l f e r t i l e . Bloom, then, i s a very positive father-figure i n terms of Classical and Medieval myths. Since he affirms the continuing cycle of. nature, he i s pleased to share his role with the new / 155 son/sun on the horizon. Actually, Bloom has f u l f i l l e d his desire to travel the path of the sun, from morning to evening. "Somewhere i n the east: early morning: set off at dawn, travel round i n front of the sun." He has "[ridden] the middle of 157 the road" No Phaeton's excess for him. He i s reaching the 'sunset' of his l i f e , and looks forward to this period of tranquility when he can 'cultiver son jardin' at a l i t t l e cottage he dreams of owning. " . . . sowing hayseed . . . without excessive 158 fatigue at sunset." Quite the contrary to Stephen's concept 159 of jealousy between father and son i s Bloom's joy i n the new 160 son/sunrise, which he watches, "with deep inspiration." An 'earthy' teacher as Fisher King, Ulysses, or Dedalus, Bloom i s very different, from Stephen's ghostly fathers. 1-33 'Swarm' and 'Bloom*—even the names suggest a common origin i n Nature. Indeed, Proust emphasized e x p l i c i t l y , as well as imp l i c i t l y , that we are to give the name 'Swann1 i t s English meaning. One of Gilherte's worst betrayals of her father occurs when she pronounces his name as 'Svan,' as i f i t were of German origin, thus depriving of a l l the connotations of a lovely bird 161 this "nom d'origine anglaise." As we shal l see, although Swann i s far less successful i n his own terms than i s Bloom, he i s s t i l l an integral part of a pattern planned by Nature,'into which he must introduce Marcel. He i s , l i ke Ski , one of those "premiers essais de l a nature qui veut creer 1 'artiste, aussi informes, aussi peu viables que ces premiers animaux qui precederent les espdces actuelles et qui n'etaient pas constitues pour durer. Ces amateurs ve l le i ta i res et s ter i les doivent nous toucher comme ces premiers appareils qui ne purent quitter l a terre mais ou residai t , non encore le moyen secret et qui restait a decouvrir, 162 mais le desir du v o l . " As i n the f i r s t metaphor, Marcel i s Nature's more successful form of Swann, a Swann evolved beyond the level of the amateur. (Marcel himself frequently comments on the resemblances between him and Swann, although he surpasses Swann.). As i n the second metaphor, Marcel learns how to f l y , that i s how to create, from Swann's errors, much as the f i r s t airplane manufacturers learned from their fai lures, or as 'nature' 163 presumably learns i n the process of evolution. I t i s interesting 134 to note that the a r t i s t i s an integral part of nature's pattern, according to Proust, although he eventually transcends i t s limitations, hence the metaphor of f l i g h t . Swarm i s censured, not so much for his total involvement i n Nature's cycle, nor even for his experiences i n society, of which, after a l l , Marcel makes such valuable use. Rather he i s judged for avoiding what l i e s below the surface of things, for refusing to question. In blindly worshipping the surface or 'form' of an object, Swann commi ts the error that Proust c a l l s idolatry. Swann augments this 'blind 164 f a i t h ' every time he wipes his monocle, symbolically wiping his mind free of a serious thought which might lead to a truth, albeit an unpleasant one. Even at that, Swann does once go beyond the surface of things, does journey much farther i n know-ledge than his friends at Combray or i n Society. He eventually succumbs to the temptation of Bloom and Stephen of 'ceasing to strive,' but he i n i t i a t e s the young Marcel into l i f e , and the latter w i l l truly search i t s depths. Marcel himself admits that he owes a l l the material of his novel to Swann, material which i s a necessary ingredient, along with effort and s p i r i t , for a work of art. "En somme," says Marcel,"si j'y reflechissais, l a matiere de mon experience, laquelle serait l a matiere de 165 mon l i v r e , me venait de Swann." Thus, although Swann performs the same valuable function as Bloom, the former as a Classical figure and as the Fisher 1 3 5 K i n g l a c k s the p o s i t i v e emphasis found i n the l a t t e r . He i s not an ' i n t e g r a t e d f i g u r e ' l i k e B l o o m - U l y s s e s , s i n c e he has ba lanc ed h i s l i f e i m p e r f e c t l y i n f a v o u r of i t s s o c i a l s i d e , at the expense of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e . Bloom i s " a n a l l -round man, "^^^"as i n t e g r a l as a f l o w e r . " " ^ 7 But Swann always e x p e r i e n c e s a c o n f l i c t o f r o l e s . I n f a c t , w i t h each r o l e — s o n , l o v e r , husband, f a t h e r — h e seems to take on a new p e r s o n a l i t y at the expense of h i s own b a s i c c h a r a c t e r . M a r c e l d e s c r i b e s one o f Swann's metamorphoses i n these t e r m s — " . . . i l e t a i t a r r i v e q u ' a u ' f i l s Swann1 et a u s s i au Swann du J o c k e y , l ' a n c i e n ami de mes p a r e n t s a v a i t a j o u t e une p e r s o n a l i t y n o u v e l l e (e t q u i ne d e v a i t pas Stre l a d e r n i e r e ) , c e l l e de mar i d ' O d e t t e . . . 168 o r i l s ' y m o n t r a i t un a u t r e homme." The e legant Swann o f the h i g h e s t c i r c l e s has been r e p l a c e d by a Swann who c o u r t s the f r i e n d s h i p of h i s i n f e r i o r s f o r h i s ' w i f e ' s s a k e . P r o u s t p o i n t s out the element of g e n e r o s i t y i n these a c t i o n s , but a l s o h i n t s a t the ex tent to which Swann i s n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s to l e a d a double o r t r i p l e l i f e . When Swann v i s i t s M a r c e l ' s f a m i l y i n Combray, they have no knowledge o f h i s ' o t h e r l i f e 1 i n a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . "A cet e g a r d , c e t t e p e r s o n a l i t y que l u i a t t r i b u a i t ma g r a n d ' t a n t e , de ' f i l s Swann, ' d i s t i n c t e de sa n e r s o n n a l i t e p l u s i n d i v i d u e l l e de C h a r l e s Swann, e t a i t c e l l e 169 ou i l se p l a i s a i t maintenant l e m i e u x . " A c t u a l l y , Swann has a lways become s u c c e s s f u l by a c c e p t i n g the r o l e s t h a t o t h e r s have 136 given him, and, because of this, he has never really develped an autonomous l i f e i n which he can realize himself as an a r t i s t . Thus, i n society he i s forever " f i l s Swann," accepted i n Combray society for his sober bourgeois parentage, and i n the Prince de 17i Guermantes' salon as the mythical " p e t i t - f i l s du Due de Berry." Once he i s admitted, his personal charm becomes a factor i n his continued worldly success. But only i f he accepts the 'parts' offered him by the Guermantes. Mme. Verdurin, of course, takes control of the lives of a l l the members of her salon, and expels those members who do not. conform. On a larger scale, Society has on Swann the same destructive effect that Marcel's father has on Marcel. Both society and family are authoritarian structures which hinder the would-be ar t i s t s from l i v i n g their . own l i v e s . Marcel f i n a l l y rejects Swann's 'weakness' when he turns away from Society. His struggle for autonomy i s much like Stephen's. He, however, tends to internalize his conflicts, blaming his failures on his own lack of w i l l power, whereas Stephen externalizes his, visualizing his conscience, or super-ego, as the 'phantom' of his mother. Since Swann lacks the 'classical balance' of Bloom-Ulysses, Proust could scarcely portray him as a Greek hero. Instead, he alludes to Swann, as well as Charlus and the Duke, as Greek gods. The choice i s apt on many levels. Since the gods were immortal, the Greeks, i n the Homeric tradition, seldom invested them with 137 the n o b i l i t y which human be ings c o u l d o b t a i n i n c o n f r o n t i n g t h e i r m o r t a l i t y . Ra the r , the gods v/ere t r e a t e d i n mock-hero ic terms, o r even used as comic r e l i e f . As w i t h the gods, the problem o f m o r t a l i t y i s v e r y low on the Guermantes' and V e r d u r i n s ' s c a l e o f p r i o r i t i e s , s i n c e the most t r i v i a l s o c i a l event i s o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e to them than the dea th o f a f r i e n d . As shown i n U l y s s e s , the attempt to deny o r a v o i d one ' s m o r t a l i t y makes one inhuman o r r i d i c u l o u s . The V e r d u r i n s c a l l o u s l y i n s i s t t ha t the dea th o f a former member o f t h e i r g roup—Pr incess S h e r b a t o f f or t h e i r p i a n i s t , f o r example—ought not to s p o i l an e v e n i n g ' s en te r t a inmen t . Most t e l l i n g o f a l l , though, i s the way i n wh ich the Duke and Duchess re fuse to b e l i e v e Swann's statement about h i s imminent dea th because the ' d u t y ' o f c o m f o r t i n g him would c o n f l i c t w i t h the ' d u t y ' o f go ing to a masquerade p a r t y . The c o n f l i c t i s i n t e n s i f i e d f o r the Duchess because " e l l e ne v o y a i t r i e n dans l e code des convenances q u i i n d i q u S t l a j u r i s p r u d e n c e 171 & s u i v r e . " However, she and the Duke choose the masquerade p a r t y ; t ha t i s , they choose appearance over r e a l i t y , g a i e t y over s e r i o u s n e s s , r o l e - p l a y i n g over s i n c e r i t y , avoidance o f t r u t h over c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h i t — i n o the r words, a l l those q u a l i t i e s which a c t u a l l y make up the "code des convenances" o f t h e i r S o c i e t y . And Swann h i m s e l f , ve r sed i n the ways o f S o c i e t y , q u i t e accep t s i t s s c a l e o f v a l u e s , " . . . i l s a v a i t que, pour l e s a u t r e s , l e u r s propres o b l i g a t i o n s mondaines priment l a mort 138 d ' u n ami . A ' snobisme ' p e c u l i a r to the Guermantes prevents C h a r l u s from s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g the q u e s t i o n o f h i s m o r t a l i t y . As an a r i s t o c r a t , , he f e e l s h i m s e l f as a ssured of an eminent p o s i t i o n 173 i n heaven as he i s on e a r t h . However, t h i s assumption i s ^ i r o n i c a l l y undermined when he begins to l o s e h i s s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e . He i s v e r y i r r i t a t e d tha t M a r c e l has not en te red S o c i e t y w i t h h i s 174 h e l p , by " l a v o i e h i e r a r c h i q u e . " H i s i r r i t a t i o n i s aggravated by the f a c t t ha t he knows he i s l o s i n g h i s powers, and i s becoming 175 a somewhat r i d i c u l o u s f i g u r e , an impotent Zeus whose thunder -b o l t s can no l o n g e r harm anyone. " M . de C h a r l u s s a v a i t b i e n que l e s t o n n e r r e s q u ' i l b r a n d i s s a i t cont re ceux que ne se p l i a i e n t pas a ses o rd res . . . commencaient a passe r . . . pour des t c n n e r r e s en c a r t o n . " And thus C h a r l u s becomes as good a symbol as any f o r the Gotterdammerung which M a r c e l obse rves , F o r , even ' gods ' have t h e i r set r e i g n and are then supp lan t ed . The b e a u t i f u l , g l i t t e r i n g c r e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g the duchess and p r i n c e s s o f Guermantes, whom M a r c e l r i g h t l y d e s c r i b e s as " l e s 177 b lanches d e i t e s " o f some "royaume mythologique des nymphes -i n Q des eaux" w i l l be superseded by the v igourous m i d d l e - c l a s s . As Bloom says , ' t h e stream o f l i f e cannot be owned, 1 the f l u x o f a l l t h i n g s w o r l d l y cannot be c o n t r o l l e d . Even at t h i s p o i n t , the a r i s t o c r a c y i s th rea tened by " l e f l o t montant de l a democra t ie , and M a r c e l , by the end o f the book, has wi tnes sed Mme. V e r d u r i n ' s 139 metamorphosis , thanks to her w e a l t h and w i l l - p o w e r , f rom a s e c o n d - r a t e , m i d d l e - c l a s s h o s t e s s to the P r i n c e s s of Guermantes. Of c o u r s e , she, t o o , w i l l one day be s u p p l a n t e d by o t h e r ' g o d s . ' Another youngs ter w i l l w o r s h i p her s u c c e s s o r s w i t h the awe t h a t M a r c e l r e s e r v e d f o r the f i r s t P r i n c e s s of Guermantes and h e r ' c o t e r i e . . O n l y M a r c e l t r u l y escapes the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p a t t e r n , " l a v o i e h i e r a r c h i q u e . Exper ience ' * ' 8 ^ a n a l y s e d and the t r u t h i t b r i n g s , f r e e s M a r c e l f rom h i s w o r s h i p of o t h e r s whom he had 1 8 2 f e l t s u p e r i o r to h i m s e l f . A n d , by c h a n n e l i n g Mme. V e r d u r i n ' s b o u r g e o i s v i r t u e o f sheer h a r d w o r k — a k i n t o S tephen ' s ' s t r i v i n g 1 — i n t o more c r e a t i v e o u t l e t s , he e v e n t u a l l y produces a w o r k . o f a r t which p l a c e s him above m a t e r i a l and tempora l f l u x . H i s earnes t s e a r c h f o r something l a s t i n g f u r t h e r emphasizes the s u p e r f i c i a l f r i v o l i t y of S o c i e t y ; h i s i s the g r e a t e r n o b i l i t y of e f f o r t o f the " g u e r r i e r grec " r a t h e r than the m a n i p u l a t i v e powers o f the "Divinities] i n v i s i b l e [ s ] . " 1 8 5 The c o n t r a s t i s f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d i n the manner i n which t h e Guermantes—and Swann, at f i r s t — e n v i s a g e p a t e r n i t y and l o v e . Here , a g a i n , C h a r l u s i s the more absurd f i g u r e , a t h w a r t e d f a t h e r i n d e e d . He t r i e s t o ' a d o p t ' M o r e l , h i s l o v e r , and g i v e him a Guermantes t i t l e . M o r e l , however, i s an e x c e l l e n t v i o l i n i s t , and would r a t h e r keep h i s name, a l o n g w i t h the a r t i s t i c r e p u t a t i o n i t has e a r n e d . How d i f f e r e n t f rom B l o o m ' s a t t i t u d e to Stephen i s C h a r l u s ' a t t i t u d e to M o r e l ! " G r i s e par son amour, ou p a r son 140 amour-propre" C h a r l u s c l a i m s t h a t l e Pere aupres duquel i l [More l ] a l l a i t desormais v i v r e [ e t a i t ] . . . Son pere s p i r i t u e l , c ' e s t - a - d i r e M o i . " Yet C h a r l u s i s s c a r c e l y a G o d l i k e f a t h e r , and M o r e l r e j e c t s him almost r i g h t a f t e r t h i s speech . C h a r l u s l a t e r , f rom more d i s i n t e r e s t e d m o t i v a t i o n , adopts J u p i e n ' s n i e c e . A g a i n , however, the adopted o f f s p r i n g does not a p p r e c i a t e the g e s t u r e ; i n her s c a l e of v a l u e s , the new s o c i a l s t a t u s means l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o her compared w i t h the recent l o s s of h e r l o v e r . D e s p i t e h i s compassionate mot ives i n t h i s case , C h a r l u s 1 s u n -s u c c e s s f u l ' p a t e r n i t y ' can hut u n d e r l i n e h i s own s t e r i l i t y , and, to an even g r e a t e r e x t e n t , t h a t of the S o c i e t y he r e p r e s e n t s . Swarm f a r e s l i t t l e b e t t e r w i t h h i s f l e s h - a n d - b l o o d daughter . • I n M a r c e l ' s eyes , Swann a t t a i n s g o d - l i k e s t a t u r e , as the f a t h e r of G i l b e r t e , s i n c e , i n t h i s r o l e , he has an almost g o d-like 185 -c a p a c i t y to i n f l u e n c e M a r c e l ' s h a p p i n e s s . " . . . des p a r e n t s et g r a n d s - p a r e n t s de M i l e . Swann . . . me sembla ient grands comme des d i e u x . Ce nom, devenu pour moi presque mythologique de Swann, 186 . . . j e n ' o s a i s pas l e prononcer moi-mSme." Y e t , i f we c o n s i d e r Swann's name i n i t s f u l l m y t h o l o g i c a l meaning, i t can but s p e l l sorrow f o r Swann. Zeus made l o v e to Leda w h i l e he was i n the-shape o f a swan; the c h i l d of t h i s u n i o n was H e l e n . H e l e n i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a symbol o f the d e s t r u c t i v e power of l o v e , h e r beauty c a u s i n g j e a l o u s y and war . C e r t a i n l y G i l b e r t e was the 141 focal point, as we have seen, of many arguments between Odette and Swann before they married. Afterwards the hereditary t r a i t s from each parent seemed to struggle for control of her personality. But most of a l l , Gilberte, like Helen, i s fickle and betrays the f i l i a l love by which Swann sets such store. She changes her name, when she accepts another father, that i s , when she agrees to being adopted by de Forcheville. "Swann, en mettant ainsi pour aprds sa mort un c r a i n t i f et anxieux espoir de survivance dans sa f i l l e , se trompait autant que le vieux banquier qui, ayant f a i t un testament pour une petite danseuse qu'il entretient et qui a tre*s bonne tenue, se dit qu'il n'est pour elle qu'un grand ami, 187 mais qu'elle restera fiddle & son souvenir." "We shall see i n a later chapter that Swann i s mistaken i n this view of his daughter for other reasons as well as for his errors i n judging her 'f a i t h f u l . ' The resemblances between the leaders of society and Greek d i v i n i t i e s i s perhaps best seen i n the matter of love. The Duke 188 i s likened.to "Jupiter Olympien." Now, Jupiter was the Roman name for Zeus, the chief of the gods, known for his amorous escapades, and his jealous wife. How closely this description parallels the Duke's own domestic arrangements! The Duke runs through a whole series of mistresses—like Zeus—who, at the height of his love, control his opinions as well as his actions., and who. are abandoned to the tender mercies of his wife after he has tired of them. In his mind, they form a succession "des 142 marbres beaux," l ike the statues of Greek goddesses. Actually, the duchess i s not usually jealous of her husband's mistresses, who sometimes become valuable a l l i e s against him; rather, she i s envious of those who are i n love. With a l l the pettiness of 190 Hera, she enjoys thwarting her footman's love affair , denying him a free day to spend' with his sweetheart. Swann, at f i r s t , shares this easy attitude towards love. His friends dread his le t ters , at one point i n his career, because they know that the let ters w i l l contain nothing more than a request to be introduced—however indirectly—to some woman. At the Prince de Guermantes' reception, Swann, although he i s dying, puts aside a l l serious thoughts i n his profound contem-plation of Mme. de Surgis' bosom. Actually, Swann favours rosy servant g i r l s whose love, easily gained, easily forgotten, teaches him nothing about himself, the g i r l s , or the nature of love. These loves without depth are simply enactments of some of Swann's romantic daydreams. "La -orofondeur. l a melancolie de 1'expression,- glacaient ses sens, que suff isai t , au contraire, a eve i l le r une chair saine, plantureuse et rose. Swann, however, i s different from his ar is tocrat ic , Olympian friends, safely established on their ' soc ia l peaks.' He goes much farther i n his experience of love than they do, for, when he meets Odette, he begins to explore beneath the surface of a relationship. This 'journey to the underground' eventually 143 c o s t s hira h i s s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . However, i t b r i n g s him something more p r e c i o u s , the sympathy of M a r c e l , who w i l l g i v e him t h r o u g h a r t the i m m o r t a l i t y h i s daughter can not and w i l l n o t . T h i s sympathy, M a r c e l c l a i m s , would c e r t a i n l y be s h a r e d , f o r the bond of common e x p e r i e n c e i s as s t r o n g between M a r c e l and Swann as i t . i s between Stephen and Bloom. F o r example, i n s t e a d of s h a r i n g the contempt of M a r c e l ' s f a t h e r , as M a r c e l expects a t the t i m e , Swann c o u l d o n l y f e e l compassion f o r M a r c e l ' s attachment t o h i s mother . " L ' a n g o i s s e q u i j e v e n a i s d ' e p r o u v e r , je p e n s a i s que Swann s ' e n s e r a i t b i e n moque s ' i l a v a i t l u ma l e t t r e e t en a v a i t devine l e b u t ; o r , au c o n t r a i r e , comme je l ' a i a p p r i s 192 p l u s t a r d , une angoisse semblable f u t l e tourment de sa v i e . " A t t i m e s , M a r c e l c u r s e s the knowledge t h a t he g a i n s , second-hand, f rom Swann, " . . . quand j ' a v a i s complaisamment ecoute l e r e c i t des amours de Swann, - j ' a v i s dangeurajsement l a i s s e s ' e l a r g i r x 1' en moi l a v o i e f u n e s t e et d e s t i n e e a § t r e douloureuse du S a v o i r . " T h i s i s the e a r l y M a r c e l s p e a k i n g , as l i t t l e w i l l i n g to r e l i n q u i s h h i s ' i n n o c e n c e ' as Stephen i s to r e l i n q u i s h h i s ' g r a c e ' ; as unready, a t f i r s t , to accept e v i l , as he i s l a t e r , to accept j o y . But h i s achievement w i l l be to t r a v e l f a r t h e r t h a n Swann, h i s p r e c u r s o r , towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r o f u n d i t i e s of l i f e and r e c r e a t i n g them i n a r t . I t i s Odette who i n t r o d u c e s Swann to the ' u n d e r w o r l d , ' the depths of a n g u i s h , j e a l o u s y , l o v e . A f t e r m i s s i n g her at t h e i r 144 u s u a l meet ing p l a c e , Swann searches f o r he r i n v a r i o u s r e s t a u r a n t s . " I I f r o i a i t anxieusement tous ces corps obscurs comme s i , parmi i e s fantomes des mor ts , dans l e royaume sombre, i l eftt cherche 194 E u r y d i c e . " Orpheus, o f course , was the most famous m u s i c i a n and poet i n Greek l e g e n d . He was .to have r ega ined h i s w i f e , E u r y d i c e , from the Kingdom of the Dead o n l y i f he d i d not l o o k back at h e r . I n P r o u s t , the myth seems to have taken an i n t e r e s t i n g t w i s t . "While the l o v e r s t i l l l o v e s h i s m i s t r e s s , he i s q u i t e b l i n d to he r r e a l q u a l i t i e s , i n v e s t i n g h e r , i n s t e a d , w i t h imagined a t t r i b u t e s , o r l o v i n g her as the embodiment o f something e l s e . When he ' l o o k s back ' at h i s be loved , o r ana lyses 196 he r , e s p e c i a l l y he r pas t , she d i e s f o r h im. I n o the r words, the r o m a n t i c i z e d image o f the m i s t r e s s , v iewed as o b j e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e , and thus s t r i p p e d o f i t s power to cause angu i sh , i s d e s t r o y e d . The exper ience o f l o v e i s u s e f u l to the P r o u s t i a n a r t i s t , but the e f f o r t o f ' l o o k i n g backwards ' at r e a l i t y i s 197 i n d i s p e n s a b l e . T h i s o b j e c t i v i t y , t h i s i n t r o s p e c t i o n mellowed by t ime , has much i n common w i t h S tephen ' s i d e a l s of d i s t a n c e d a e s t h e t i c emotions i n a work of a r t unmarred by p e r s o n a l b i a s . Of course , t h i s l a s t s tep i s the measure of•Swann 1 s f a i l u r e and M a r c e l ' s succes s . Swann does f i n d Odette and does e v e n t u a l l y keep he r , at the p r i c e o f a v o i d i n g to t h i n k of he r t r u e na tu re , and o f l i v i n g 145 a falsehood which prevents him from becoming an a r t i s t . Af ter h i s i n i t i a l d i s l i k e of Odette, there are three main stages to h i s r e l a t ionsh ip wi th her. In the f i r s t stage, corresponding to h i s search for Odette-Eurydice i n the underworld, he completely misunderstands her true nature. At the second stage, he discovers more t ruths about her than he would even wish, to know, and decides that " . . . j ' a i eu mon plus grand amour, pour une femme qui 198 ne me p l a i s a i t pas, qui n ' e t a i t pas mon genre 1" At the t h i r d stage, he w i l f u l l y deceives himself about Odette. In-the ' f i r s t s tage, ' M. Verdurin i s astonished at the way Swann t rea ts Odette, p l ac ing her on a pedestal and expla in ing 199 aesthet ic theories to her. For Verdurin knows that Odette i s nei ther ' v i r t uous ' nor ' i n t e l l i g e n t . ' Swann, however,, has gone even a step fa r ther . He has invested her with a l l the beauty of an "oeuvre f l o r e n t i n e " 2 ^ and t h i s " l u i permit . . . de f a i r e p lne t rer 1'image d'Odette dans un monde de reves ou. e l l e n ' ava i t \ t 201 pas eu acces j u s q u ' i c i et ou e l l e s'impregna de noblesse." This ruse of regarding Odette as a work of ar t not only enables Swann to give his imagination f u l l r e ign , i t also forms the basis for a p e c u l i a r - r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n on h i s par t . "Et quand i l e t a i t t en t ! de regre t ter que depuis des mois i l ne f i t plus que v o i r Odette, i l se d i s a i t q u ' i l e t a i t raisonnable de donner beaucoup de son temps a un chef d'oeuvre . . . q u ' i l contemplait tant3t 146 avec 1'humilite, l a sp i r i tua l i ty , et le dlsinteressement d'un ar t is te , tantot avec l ' o rgeu i l 1'egoisme et l a sensualite 202 d'un collectionneur." The dichotomy which Swann sets up between ar t i s t and lover t e l l s us much about him. This same quality of 'disinterestedness' or objectivity which we have seen as an asset of primary importance i n the a r t i s t , i s a strange, characteristic i n the lover; yet i t forms a useful function to Swann. I t reduces his mistress to something physical, something that can be possessed—for as a lover, Swann i s a 'collectionneur, ' sensual, egot is t ica l . Marcel shatters this myth; for he learns i n his affair with Albertine that one can never own another. This a r t i s t i c viewpoint also distances Swann from his beloved at the very moment that he i s most i n love with her; the impact of this ' love ' would be too great i f he were conscious of how completely she i_s another. Usually for example, i n the case of the Duke, who mentally reviews his past mistresses as a f i l e of statues after he has fa l len out of love with them. But Swann i s a neuropath, far more sensitive than the Duke, far more complex i n his defenses against emotions which torture him. The dichotomy points out most of a l l the immense contrast between ar t i s t and lover, the former humble, the la t ter proud, the ar t i s t ' s p i r i t u a l ' the lover 'sensual. ' Por Swann, the roles are mutually exclusive; one cannot be at one and the 147 same time a r t i s t and lover. He does not find the solution, as Marcel does, i n Time and the introspective insights that Time brings, since his love a f f a i r i s not terminated as i s Marcel's. Odette often complains that Swann i s a different person entirely 203 when he i s writing, and that she cannot fathom the thoughts that occur i n Swann's head. The observations are acute, because Swann, the most complex of men, i s forever playing a role to suit another, and only i n his writing can he escape the direct influences of others and become himself, that f i n a l and neg-204 lected persona, Charles Swann. Odette, more' than any other person, causes Swann's a r t i s t i c i n f e r t i l i t y . However, Swann himself accepts the forms that others give him. When he has settled down with Odette, he i s described as an "obscur et incertain personnage qui se detachait . . . sur un fond de tenebres. It i s as though Swann-Orpheus can only keep Odette by remaining i n that dark underworld which shuns the sunlight of truth, and by becoming one of the shades there. The danger signals are obvious the f i r s t time Swann meets Odette i n this 'underground.' She i s wearing black, 206 the colour of death. She i s carrying some orchidsi a symbol 207 of "indecence," unnaturalness, parasitism, which we w i l l study later. And, most important, she sports "une aigrette 208 en plumes de cygnes." It i s as though to decorate herself Odette would pluck from the bird whose name Swann bears the means 148 o f f l i g h t . To the S y m b o l i s t s and P a r n a s s i e n s , the swan was a symbol of p o e t i c b e a u t y , of the s p i r i t c a p t u r e d and kept 210 from i t s t r u e s u r r o u n d i n g s , and, most of a l l , of the p o e t , who, i m p r i s o n e d i n h i s own s t e r i l i t y cannot r e a c h 1 1 1 A z u r e ' — t h e 211 h e i g h t s o f c r e a t i v i t y . . M a r c e l mentions to A l b e r t i n e the poem c o n t a i n i n g the l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the swan symbol at the n a d i r of h i s l i f e - j o u r n e y ; i n o t h e r words , P r o u s t was w e l l , 212 aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of "ce nom d ' o r i g i n e a n g l a i s e . " The comparison w i t h A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Han and U l y s s e s i s o b v i o u s , s i n c e Stephen, a l s o , w e l l - v e r s e d i n the S y m b o l i s t p o e t r y , c o n s i d e r e d f l i g h t a metaphor f o r a r t i s t i c freedom; he , l i k e M a r c e l , has to l e a r n t h a t r e a c h i n g the h e i g h t s i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k — r e m i n i s c e n t o f t o i l i n g up a dusty-s t a i r c a s e to the top of a tower ( P r o u s t ' s own metaphor . ) The 213 journey i t s e l f g i v e s the p e r s p e c t i v e t o the v i e w from the t o p . Thus the ' h e i g h t s ' o f compassionate o b j e c t i v i t y can c o n t a i n the ' d e p t h s ' o f exper ience i n a moment out of T ime. The name 'Swann 1 s u i t s C h a r l e s ' a s p i r a t i o n s e x t r e m e l y w e l l . Throughout h i s l i f e , he at tempts t o w r i t e . Yet t h i s " p l u s beau des Swann . . . " 2 ^ 4 i s r e d u c e d , by two women, to a c h i c k e n . Odette provokes i n him the somewhat obtuse p o s s e s s i v e n e s s which Mme. V e r d u r i n f i n d s so o d i o u s . T h i s v e r y t r a i t weakens the l a t t e r ' s h o l d on Swann and prompts her t o c a l l him " C e t t e s a l e 215 be*te." T h i s i s the same e p i t h e t t h a t F r a n c o i s e used f o r a 149 chicken which refused to die under her butcher's knife, as Proust himself points out. ¥hen the cooked chicken i s described 2l6 as "une chasuble et son jus prlcieux egoutte d'un ciboire," one i s tempted to add a further interpretation onto the pa r a l l e l . The chicken seems the sacred sacrifice of a r i t u a l , perhaps even a ' f e r t i l i t y r i t u a l , ' i f we accept Bloom's interpretation of Christ's history (see Chapter III). This idea may seem far-fetched. However, i t i s not i n the least far-fetched to see Odette i n the role of the distructive priestess. Her black dress, her icy salon with i t s winter garden, her carriage pulled by horses resembling those of Dioinede, which used to eat men, a l l seem to back this interpretation. After a l l , according to one version of the myth, Orpheus was torn apart by the Bacchantes for having dedicated his l i f e to ideas and poetry. And a more 217 modern version of the myth states that Orpheus actually had to make a choice between Eurydice or poetry, involvement or a measure of emotional detachment, from l i f e . Odette, as we have seen, i s not the only cause of Swann's emprisonment. The truth could, and at one point does, free SwTann. Swann has a dream, the subject of which i s the almost masculine domination of Mme. Verdurin, whose nose growrs longer 218 (very Freudian) and who sprouts a moustache. The dream also concerns Odette's i n f i d e l i t y with de Forcheville. The symbolism of the burning house, which occurred to Bloom, i s also present 150 i n Swarm's dream. True enl ightenment o c c u r s when Swrann awakes from h i s - d r e a m and r e c o n s i d e r s i t . I n o t h e r words, Swann has been a s l e e p , has sought o b l i v i o n i n the same drowsy manner as Bloom l u x u r i a t i n g i n h i s bath-womb. Yet Swann's d e p t h s , h i s s u b c o n s c i o u s , are capable o f showing him t r u t h s i f o n l y he w i l l j ourney deeply enough i n t o h i m s e l f . The dream i s an i n v o l u n t a r y phenomenon; Swarm's a n a l y s i s of i t r e s u l t s i n h i s awakening to the t r u t h — t h e f a c t t h a t he has wasted h i m s e l f on a woman t h a t i s not h i s t y p e . P r o u s t uses the same symbolism t o d e s c r i b e M a r c e l ' s avoidance o f the t r u t h and of any c r e a t i v e e f f o r t . W h i l e M a r c e l i s l i v i n g w i t h A l b e r t i n e , he spends a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the day i n bed, i n a d e l i c i o u s , s e m i - c o n s c i o u s s t a t e t h a t enables him to c o n c e n t r a t e on s m a l l , s e n s u a l d e t a i l s , such as the c r i e s of s t r e e t v e n d o r s , the drowsiness o f h i s l i m b s w h i c h sometimes provoke e r o t i c daydreams, and the s i g h t o f a f u g i t i v e sunbeam. F o r M a r c e l has ' ceased t o s t r i v e ' ; he l i e s , " l a 219 t l t e encore c o n t r e l e mur" i n an a t t i t u d e of s u r r e n d e r . Indeed, 220 he has become " u n barometre v i v a n t , " s e n s i t i v e . , l i k e a dormant p l a n t , to the s l i g h t e s t change i n the weather . L i k e the v e g e -t a t i o n o r sun gods of the f e r t i l i t y r i t e s , l i k e Orpheus, M a r c e l has descended i n t o a s p i r i t u a l w i n t e r , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s as " l e s o i r premature de ma v i e , q u i s e m b l a i t d e v o i r § t r e a u s s i 221 breve q u ' u n j o u r d ' h i v e r . " He s u r r e n d e r s h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y 151 to a rhythm reminiscent of his old ideal of floating i n a rowboat according to nature's w i l l , "remontant paresseusement de 222 jour en jour comme sur une barque." Albertine, like Eurydice, i s the cause of Marcel's journey to the underworld. Marcel worships i n her the embodiment of Health and Youth. She i s l i k e 2 2 5 a priestess of the l i f e - f o r c e — a "bacchante a bicyclette." The bicycle i s her "roue mythologique," that i s , the 'wheel of l i f e ' i n the Buddhist sense, or the cycle of the seasons and of 225 mortality. Although Marcel thinks of her as an imprisoned bird, she, imprisons him as much as he does her. Glimpsing the destructive aspect of her bacchic role, Marcel wonders " s i [elle a l l a i t ] 226 apporter a l a maison l a vie ou l a mort." She prevents him from travelling to Venice, land of spring and sunshine for Marcel. But most of a l l , she prevents him from that special travelling which i s Marcel's best source of knowledge and i n s i g h t s — i n t r o -spection. He claims that she forces him to "vivre a. l a surface de [soi-mSme]."227 Marcel and Albertine were i n a country so far away that he could not possibly 'know' her way of l i f e . Significantly, Marcel 'wakes up' one morning to find Albertine gone. Marcel's period i n the underworld has reached i t s end. With absence and reminiscence, he begins to see Albertine as she really was "une f i l l e deja fort grosse, horamasse, dans le-visage fane de laquelle s a i l l a i t dej£, comme une graine, le 229 p r o f i l de Mme. Bontemps." The adjective "hommasse" 152 ins inuates the dominating influence of A lbe r t i ne ; the adjective "fane," her own l i m i t a t i o n s caused by her imprisonment to the 'wheel of l i f e ' the ' cyc l e of m o r t a l i t y ' ; the image of the "graine" i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . I t suggests that i n Alber t ine there i s the seed of her ugly o ld aunt Mme. Bontemps, but i t also refers to the B i b l i c a l idea that i f the seed does not d ie , the plant w i l l not be able to develop, us ing i t s nourishment. Marcel seems, then, almost to nourish himself on an experience of love which he helps to destroy. His image of A lbe r t i ne becomes quite as c lear and objective as the photograph of her which surprised S t . Loup so. Marcel has been made wary by 230 Swarm's, example i n love, a fact which no doubt helps him to r e t a in h i s i l l u s i o n - f r e e pic ture of A l b e r t i n e . However, he i s enabled to d i spe l both h i s romantic i l l u s i o n s about Alber t ine and the i.mprisonning inf luence of h i s love by the death of h i s mis t ress . .Yet, as we have seen, t h i s death seems but the 231 external manifestation of a psychological f ac t . Marcel has chosen to search out the ' t r ue ' Alber t ine as far as he.can, and to destroy the romantic paramour. I t i s almost as though, mentally, he has ca r r i ed out Swann's dream. "Et Swann sentai t bien prds de son coeur ce Mahomut I I . . . qu i , ayant sen t i q u ' i l I t a i t devenu amoureux fou d'une de ses femmes, l a poignarda, a f i n . . . de retrouver sa l i b e r t e d ' e s p r i t . When Marce l ' s ' e s p r i t ' i s freed of the Bacchic turmoi l of emotions which 153 A l b e r t i n e i n s p i r e d , M a r c e l f i n d s h i m s e l f capable of t r a v e l l i n g . He makes a t r i p to V e n i c e , t r u l y a r e t u r n to sunsh ine . Here he exper iences a r e b i r t h or r e s u r r e c t i o n b e f i t t i n g an Orph ic hero o r a sun god. Ven ice i s a c i t y of the Renaissance and 233 M a r c e l t a l k s of a p i c t u r e of. the bap t i sm o f C h r i s t , o f the 234 eau v i e r g e et b leue" around V e n i c e , and of a go lden ange l tha t he can see from h i s window, so t ha t we are sure tha t M a r c e l h i m s e l f i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e b i r t h , a bap t i sm, a f t e r h i s own 'Dark A g e s . ' The b i r d s wh ich symbol ize V e n i c e are the phoenix— " l e s o i seaux q u i s i g n i f i e n t a l a f o i s l a mort et l a r e s u r r e c t i o n . " M a r c e l has been through the f i r e o f p a s s i o n , which he has a s s o c i a t e d o f t e n w i t h the c i t i e s o f the p l a i n , and has now been tempered and p u r i f i e d . He can t r u l y f l y , l i k e the phoenix , r e c r e a t i n g h i m s e l f and c r e a t i n g a work o f a r t . How more p o s i t i v e the phoenix i s as a symbol than " 1 ' o i s e a u f l e s c h e " of Combray. The sunshine o f Ven ice c a r r i e s the conno ta t ions o f f e r t i l i t y and 237 t r u t h . M a r c e l f e e l s t ha t he i s " e v e i l l e comme un jeune Adam" to a new w o r l d ; but he i s an Adam wi thou t Eve . S t i l l , no mat ter how much s u f f e r i n g M a r c e l ' s l o v e s may have provoked, h i s ' j o u r n e y s ' to the underwor ld have g i v e n him a g l impse o f l e s "Champs E l y s e e s " as w e l l , some j o y and some h i n t o f an i m m o r t a l i t y t ha t comes from e x p e r i e n c i n g the dark n i g h t o f the s o u l . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t ha t he always meets G i l b e r t e on the Champs E l y s e e s i n P a r i s . The c o n t r a s t o f a happy memory w i t h 154 the present of a l i f e with Albertine makes Marcel fe e l like "Orphee" drinking " l ' a i r subtil, inconnu sur cette terre, 258 des Champs Elysees." While Marcel frees himself as much as possible from i l l u s i o n and can therefore travel and write, Swann denys his 'moment of truth' and returns to his dreams of Odette. "Swann [est] du reste 239 aveugle, en ce qui concernait Odette." Swann keeps a photo-240 graph of Odette which, although now scarcely recognisable, gives her the a i r of Botticellian grace which her husband uses to enoble her image i n his mind. "II aimait encore, en effet, a. voir en sa femme un Bott i c e l l i . " 2 4 " ' " He even tr i e s to 'make Odette over' into a figure from B o t t i c e l l i ' s painting l a Primavera. He buys her a dress identical to those worn by the women i n the picture. Odette grudgingly .wears i t , but refuses to wear a scarf which would make her look lik e the vir g i n i n the Magnificat. Hot unreasonably, she dislikes attempts to change her own character and person into an a r t i f i c e . Swann must be satisfied with the outward semblance of the Virgin i n a woman who could scarcely be more dissimilar to the Virgin Mary. He must also content himself with a synthetic Primavera, or Spring. As we shall see, Swann misses his garden, the thought of which gives him some consolation for l i v i n g i n Odette's 'winter garden' whose flowers mimic the colours of the setting sun. 242 155 Swann, i n d e e d , i s the k n i g h t of the P e r l e v a u s who does not ask the r i g h t q u e s t i o n s , o r , i n terms of h i s r o l e as guide to M a r c e l , ' the F i s h e r K i n g who, by example at l e a s t , t e l l s him 243 not to q u e s t i o n . Swann's " p e t i t s a l o n d ' a t t e n t e s t r i k e s M a r c e l as b e i n g s i m i l a r to the l a b o r a t o r y of K l i n g s o r , the e v i l m a g i c i a n i n Wagner 's v e r s i o n of the P e r c i v a l myth. Swarm has been t r a p p e d by the enchantments of o r d i n a r y l i f e and o f a t e m p t i n g O d e t t e . Wow " s o n e s p r i t d e s i r e u x d ' a d m i r e r l a r i c h e s s e d ' i n v e n t i o n de l a v i e [ e s t ] i n c a p a b l e de se poser longtemps une 244 q u e s t i o n d i f f i c i l e . " Swann used to be an ' a v e n t u r i e r ' i n the p o s i t i v e sense of the word, as h i s "manteau a. p e l e r i n e " s i g n i f i e s and h i s a t tempts a t w r i t i n g . However, a f t e r he has devoted h i m s e l f t o t empora l t h i n g s , i n d e e d a f t e r he has d i e d , he i s r e f e r r e d to 245 as an ' a v e n t u r i e r ' i n the n e g a t i v e sense , as a s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i s t . To emphasize h i s s t e r i l i t y , he has l o s t h i s h a i r . H i s l i f e , l i k e the W a s t e l a n d , s u f f e r s f rom "une s e c h e r e s s e . " 2 4 ^ L i k e the F i s h e r K i n g , he has committed a s i n of the f l e s h i n succumbing t o the enchantment of O d e t t e , and he has d e n i e d h i s knowledge - o f h e r i n f a v o u r of i l l u s i o n s . The l a t t e r f a u l t , i n d e e d , i s a lmost synony-mous w i t h s t e r i l i t y , . f o r , as we s h a l l see , w i t h o u t knowledge the a r t i s t cannot c r e a t e . Perhaps the most e v i d e n t c o n t r a s t between Swann and M a r c e l i n terms of the G r a i l l egend i s i l l u s t r a t e d through the symbolism of t e a . The most famous passage i n A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu-156 i s the description of Marcel's use of a cup of tea as a sensory tool to reach hack into the past i n that internal pilgrimmage which he finds so f r u i t f u l . This very same drink i s to Swann a weak ju s t i f i c a t i o n of his relationship with Odette. At least at Odette's he thinks, I can be sure of finding a good cup of 247 tea. Interestingly enough, Joyce, as we have seen, also uses tea as an important symbol i n his Wasteland imagery. Marcel, i f you w i l l remember, has also been subjected to 'temptations' and 'enchantments.' However, the necessity to voyage, to plunge deeper into an understanding of himself and his surroundings urges him much farther along the path that Swann started. The incident of the 'tea' i s given further significance when we remember that the petit madeleines which went with the tea are i n the form of "coquilles de St. Jacques," an age-old symbol of pilgrims. This 'voyage' has a great s p i r i t u a l significance for Marcel. In l i f e , i t i s similar to 'un chemin 249 250 de l a croix'; within oneself, i t leads to a 'vision. 1 The l a t t e r voyage i s f a c i l i t a t e d by music (especially the music ol Farsi f a l ) . The e v i l effect of 'enchantment,' however, i s not dispelled for Marcel u n t i l he hears Vinteuil's septuor. In this beautiful work, there i s a motif "comme un mystique 251 chant du coq" announcing that the morning sun i s at hand to 252 dispel the i l l u s i o n s of the night. And Marcel does find his chalice, or g r a i l . He and Gilberte descend into "une vallSe 157 parfaite et profonde" during a moonlight walk. Marcel does not realize i t , being disappointed by the discrepancy between his memory of Combray and the reality, but he has reached a point where a l l the threads of his l i f e suddenly become joined and united into a cohesive pattern. Gilberte i s showing him a path.which, unites the two 'ways' of.Meseglise and of Swann. Thus art and l i f e , aristocrat and bourgeois, river and garden—all the qualities which Marcel polarized and separated i n his child's mind and symbolized i n the two'ways'—come together. He and Gilberte "ArrltSmes un instant, comme deux insectes qui vont 254 s'enfoncer au coeur d'un calice bleu&tre." Gilberte, Swarm's daughter, has drawn together for Marcel the knowledge to which Swann introduced him. How positive, and how suitable i n terms of Swarm's garden—as we shall s e e — i s this calyx/chalice! And, of course, since insects i n Proust are often the only means of the f e r t i l i z a t i o n of certain flowers, we feel sure that creativity i s returning, to the flowers and to the Wasteland. 158 CHAPTER II NOTES I The test devised to prove Ulysses 1 sanity was to see i f he • would protect his son from harm. Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses, p. 16. Joyce, Ulysses, pp. 216-17 4 I b id . , p. 215. 5 Ib id . , p. 217. ^ Op. c i t . 7 Sultan, The' Argument of Ulysses, p. 179. Q Joyce, Ulysses, p. 10. 9 Ar is to t le , Ethics I , 7 1° A -4-Op. c i t . I I Budgen, The Making of Ulysses, p. 230. 12 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 306. 1 3 This acquaintance i s a sponger, but since Bloom i s not buying, there i s no reason to consider the remark insincere i n this particular instance. 1 4 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 235. 1 5 Ulysses, p. 153-159 1 6 I b i d . , p . 152. 1 7 I b i d . , p . 166. 1 8 I b i d . , p . 159. 1 9 I b i d . , p . 677. ^ U l y s s e s , p . 109. 21 A • + Op. e x t . op Schu t t e , Joyce and Shakespeare, p . 123. 2 5 U l y s s e s , p . 7 1 4 . • 2 4 U l y s s e s , p . 7 2 . 2 5 I b i d . , p . 8 1 . S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , p . 74. 2 7 A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p.. 221. 28 U l y s s e s , p . 78 . 2 9 I b i d . , p . 79. 3 0 Op. c i t . 3 1 I b i d . , p . 7 1 . 32 U l y s s e s , p . 77. 3 3 Op. c i t . 3 4 I b i d . , p . 279. 160 3 5 I b i d . , p . 377. 3 6 I b i d . , p . 333. 3 7 I b i d . , p . 409. 3 8 I b i d . , p . 110. 39 U l y s s e s , p . 345. 4 0 I b i d . , p . 92 . 4 1 A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man, p . 215. 4 2 U l y s s e s , p . 86 . 4-3 ^ J Op. c i t . 4 4 Op. c i t . 4 3 U l y s s e s , p . 152. 4 6 I b i d . , p . 151. 4 7 U l y s s e s , p . 176. 4 8 I b i d . , p . 414. 4 9 I b i d . , p . 368. 50 n . . Op. c i t . 3 1 Schu t t e , Joyce and Shakespeare, p . 132. 52 U l y s s e s , p . 376. 53 i b i d . , p. 368. 5 4 Ibid., p. 361. 5 5 Ibid., p. 358. Op. c i t . 5 7 Ibid., p. 531-5 8 Ulysses, p. 531. 5 9 Ibid., p. 478. 6 0 Ibid., p. 484 6 1 Ibid., p. 489. 6 2 Ibid., p. 492. 6 5 Ibid., p. 495. 6 4 Ibid., p. 493. 6 5 Ibid., p. 338. 6 6 , I b i d . , p. 498. 6 7 Ibid., p. 507. 6 8 Ibid., p. 461. 6 9 Ibid., p. 445 7 0 Ulysses, p. 459. 7 1 Ibid., p. 500. 72 I b i d . , p . 8 2 . 7 3 I b i d . , p . 370. 7 4 I b i d . , p . 360. 7 5 I b i d . , p . 441 . 7 ^ U l y s s e s , p . 552 77 Op. c i t . . Op. e x t . 79 Op. c i t . 8 0 I b i d . , p . 553. 8 1 I b i d . , p . 571. 8 2 U l y s s e s , p . 572. Op. e x t . Op. e x t . 8 5 n • + Op. e x t . 8 6 I b i d . , p . 582. 8 7 I b i d . , p . 502. 88 I b i d . , p . 520. 89 v I b i d . , p . 599. 90 U l y s s e s , p . 600. 163 91 92 93 94 95 96 I b i d . , p . 595. Op. c i t . I b i d . , p . 594. I b i d . , p . 595. C a l i b a n of course was the u g l y monster i n Shakespeare ' s p l a y The Tempest, denied the i s l a n d which was h i s b i r t h r i g h t by P r o s p e r o . C a l i b a n has o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d a symbol of man's p h y s c i a l n a t u r e , unable to c o n t a i n i t s l u s t , t h i r s t i n g a f t e r the beauty of P r o s p e r o ' s s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , but c o n t r o l l e d by the m a g i c i a n , who s y m b o l i z e s man's i n t e l l e c t . Prospero the p a t r i a r c h , took the i s l a n d from C a l i b a n ' s w i t c h mother . The a l l e g o r y f i t s Stephen w e l l . H i s i n t e l l e c t (which h e , h i m s e l f , c o n s i d e r s a mascul ine e n t i t y ) t r i e s to subdue h i s body, a chaos of emotions aggravated by ' t e m p t r e s s e s . ' 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 U l y s s s e s . p . 600. S u l t a n , The Argument of U l y s s e s , p . 33-U l y s s e s , p . 602. I b i d . , p . 609. I b i d . , p . 567. A c c o r d i n g to an o l d t r a d i t i o n , a c u c k o l d was made to wear h o r n s . U l y s s e s , p . 568. Op. c i t . Op. c i t . 164 S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , p . 206. 1 0 7 I b i d . , p . 98. I b i d . , p . 568. U l y s s e s , p . 190. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p . 197. I b i d . , p . ' 570. 108 109 111 112 The phrase c o u l d a l s o mean ' A n g e l s l i k e p r o s t i t u t e s a grea t d e a l . ' T h i s t o o , would show a mix ture of o p p o s i t e s ; appos i t e s a t t r a c t i n g r a t h e r than r e p e l l i n g . G i l b e r t , James J o y c e ' s U l y s s e s , p . 316. 115 U l y s s e s , p . 212. 116 117 118 119 Op. c i t . I b i d . , p . 380. A c t u a l l y , J e s s i e ¥ e s t o n draws the c l a s s i c a l myths and g r a i l legends toge the r i n he r e x c e l l e n t book From R i t u a l to Romance. The mystery r i t e s o f c l a s s i c a l t imes asked tha t the i n i t i a t e pass c e r t a i n t e s t s . The p roo f of h i s success was the r e v i v a l of the god, a v e g e t a t i o n o r sun god, hence the symbol ic journey underground. Orpheus, then , mimicked the death and r e b i r t h o f the god, o r , as Jane H a r r i s o n suggests i n Themis, he i s the messenger sent , i n the p a t r i a r c h a l v e r s i o n , to arouse the e a r t h goddess who-has been s lumber ing , deep below the s u r f a c e , d u r i n g the w i n t e r . A c t u a l l y , i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s the re would be many f a t h e r s to take on t h e . t a s k , s i n c e the youngs te r was b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n t o the group o r t r i b e . H a r r i s o n , Jane, Themis, Chapter I I . B u l l i n c h e s Mythology, p . 155. 165 121 Weston Jessie, a ^ ^ M a n c e , Do.oleday Anchor Boo,, New York, 1957, p. 145- . 1 2 2 Joyce, Ulvsses, p. 397. 1 2 5 I b id . , p. 535 1 2 4 I b id . , p. 554. 1 2 5 I b i d . , p. 115-1 2 6 I b id . , p. 108. 1 2 7 Op. c i t . 1 2 8 I b id . , p. 113. 1 2 9 I b i d . , p. 497. 1 3 0 Harrison, Jane, Themis., Chapter I I I . 1 3 1 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 397• 1 3 2 I b id . , p. 609. 1 3 3 I b id . , p. 548. 1 3 4 I b id . , p. 289. 1 3 5 I b id . , p. 315-136 S u l t a n > ^ p A.rmment. of Ulysses, p. 137. 1 3 7 Joyce, Ulvsses, p. 151. 1 3 8 Weston, T_2Z_™+"»1 *" Romance, p. 127-166 1 5 9 Joyce, Ulvsses, p. 554. 1 4 0 I b i d . , p. 361. 1 4 1 I b i d . , p. 369. 1 4 2 I b i d . , p. 68. 1 4 5 I b i d . , p. 55. 1 4 4 I b i d . , p. 153. 145 T h i s i S the son's atonement with the father. 1 4 6 Joyce, Ulvsses, p. 702. 1 4 7 I b i d . , p. 689. 1 4 8 I b i d . , p. 422. 1 4 9 I b i d . , p. 383. 1 5 0 I b i d . , p. 703. 1 5 1 I b i d . , p. 762. 1 5 2 I b i d . , p. 764. i 5 5 Op. c i t . 1 5 4 Sultan, ^ Argument of Ulysses, p. 329. 1 5 5 Joyce, Ulvsses, p. 703-1 3 6 I b i d . 167 157 O v i d , Metamorphoses, p. 60 . 158 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 715 . 159 T h i s s h a l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I . 1 6 0 I b i d . , p . 705. 161 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 585, V o l . . I I I . 1 6 2 I b i d . , p . 892, V o l . I I I . Here, P rous t uses a ' v e r t i c a l ' p a t t e r n i n Na tu re , one t h a t denotes p rog re s s , r a t h e r than the ' c y c l i c a l ' p a t t e r n s which Joyce p r e f e r r e d . 164 H i s f a t h e r used to wipe h i s l o r g n o n s . 165 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 915, V o l . I I I . 166 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 235. 167 E l l m a n n , R i c h a r d , James Joyce , p . 372. 168 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 431, V o l . I . 1 6 9 I b i d . , p . 309, V o l . I . 170 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 578, V o l . I I I . 171 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 595, V o l . I I . 1 7 2 I b i d . , p . 596, V o l . I I . 173 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 1040, V o l . I I . 1 7 4 I b i d . , p . 640, V o l . I I . 168 175 One need not even search this deeply to find an example of the way i n which Society's values make i t s members r idiculous. In the scene at the opera, when Marcel i s worshipping these current d iv in i t i e s , we are told that Mme. de Cambremer, too, i s regarding them with awe. Her mortality means nothing to her compared to her social ambitions. She has a fatal disease, but her one fear i s that she w i l l die before she can be accepted i n society. ] 7 6 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 640, Vo l . I I . 1 7 7 I b id . , p. 40, V o l . I I . 1 7 8 I b id . , p. 38, V o l . I I . 1 7 9 Ib id . , p. 15, Vol . I I . 180 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 640, V o l . I I . 181 Of course, to experience must be added those keen analytical powers which help Marcel to understand the laws of psychology and to interpret the 'signs' of l i f e i n general. 182 This idea i s one of the main themes of Girard's Deceit, Desire  and the Novel. 18^5 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 38, V o l . I I . 1 8 4 Ib id . , p. 1075, V o l . I I . 185 Girard, Deceit. Desire and the Novel, p. 79. 186 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 144, V o l . I . 1 87 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 591, Vo l . I I I . 1 8 8 I b id . , p. 284, V o l . I I . 1 8 9 I b id . , p. 482, V o l . I I . 190 _ , ._ Zeus' wife. 169 1 91 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du T emps Pe rdu , p . 192, V o l . I . 192 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du T e a p s Perdu , p . 30, V o l . I . 1 9 5 I b i d . , p . 1115, V o l . I . 1 9 4 I b i d . , p . 230, V o l . I . 195 As u s u a l , Swann i n a new r o l e becomes a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n . Swann h i m s e l f f e e l s t h a t , now a l o v e r , " I I [ n ' e s t ] p l u s l e meme." 196 A n o u i l h a l s o used t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ' l o o k i n g back ' i n h i s p l a y E u r y d i c e . 197 Such ' o b j e c t i v e l o v e 1 used as a t o o l f o r a r t reaches an extreme i n B e r g o t t e who uses h i s l o v e a f f a i r s to g i v e him the exper ience and energy to w r i t e . 198 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 382, V o l . I . 1 9 9 I b i d . , p . 228, V o l . I . 2 0 0 I b i d . , p . 224, V o l . I . Op. c i t . 202 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 224, V o l . I . 203 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 469, V o l . I . 2 0 4 I b i d . , p . 309, V o l . I . 2 0 5 I b i d . , p . 19, V o l . I . 206 P rous t i s s a i d to have seen a v i s i o n o f Death dressed i n t h i s manner. 2 0 7 I b i d . , p . 221, V o l . I . 170 2 0 8 I b i d . , p. 232, V o l . I . 209 As i n Le Cygne by S u l l y Prudhomrae. 210 As i n Le Cygne by Baudelaire . 211 As i n Le Vierge, l e Vivace . . . by MallarmS, a poem i n which a swan i s imprisoned i n the i c e of a lake for not having sung before the winter of impotence descended. 212 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p . 585, V o l . I I I . 213 This idea i s basic to the theme of Roger Shattuck's excel lent c r i t i c i s m of Proust, Prous t ' s Binocula rs . Chatto and ¥ i n d u s , London, 1963. The idea i s a un iversa l one which must remind us of Yea t ' s Lapis L a z u l i and E l i o t ' s Four Quartets. 2 1 4 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 227, V o l . I . 2 1 5 I b i d . , p . 285. 216 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 122, V o l . I . 217 Cocteau's Orphee. 218 She i s , as previously mentioned, a very domineering woman, who represents the emasculating influence of Socie ty . 219 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 9, V o l . I I I . 2 2 0 I b i d . , p. 79, V o l . I I I . 2 2 1 I b i d . , p . 112, V o l . I I I . 2 2 2 I b i d . , p. 84, V o l . I I I . 2 2 3 ' I b i d . , p. 873, V o l . I . 2 2 4 I b i d . , p. 488, V o l . I . 171 225 J I b i d . , p . 7 1 , V o l . I I I . 2 2 6 I b i d . , p . 13, V o l . I I I . 2 2 7 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 70, V o l . I I I . 2 2 8 I b i d . , p . 30, V o l . I I I . 2 2 9 I b i d . , p . 643, V o l . I I I . 2 3 0 I b i d . , p . 834, V o l . I I . 2 3 1 The p a t t e r n o f M a r c e l ' s l o v e ho lds t r ue almost every t i m e . "When M a r c e l becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d about the Duchess, he f e e l s tha t the f a i r y M e l u s i n e , whose symbol she was, i s , m e t a p h o r i c a l l y speak ing , d y i n g . 2 3 2 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Pe rdu , p . 355, V o l . I . 2 3 3 I b i d . , p . 646, V o l . I I I . 2 3 4 I b i d . , p . 412, V o l . I I I . 2 3 5 I b i d . , p . 368, V o l . I I I . 2 3 ^ T h i s i s a road i n Combray mentioned on p . 67. V o l . I . 2 3 7 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Pe rdu , p . 404, V o l . I I I . 2 3 8 I b i d . , p . 30, V o l . I I I . 2 3 9 I b i d . , p . 519, V o l . I I . 2 4 0 Remember tha t P rous t always uses photographs as a symbol o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . 2 4 1 P r o u s t , p . 617, V o l . I . 172 242 T h i s i s j u s t another example o f t ha t p e c u l i a r type o f f a l s ehood common to many o f P r o u s t ' s c h a r a c t e r s ; the m a n i p u l a t i n g and mold ing o f another person i n t o a more p l e a s i n g form. T h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n des t roys the o the r p e r s o n ' s e s s e n t i a l s e l f . 243 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu , p . 527, V o l . I . 244 I b i d . , p . 381, V o l . I . T h i s must remind us of the myth which blames the barrenness o f the was te land on the q u e s t i n g k n i g h t ' s not a s k i n g the c o r r e c t q u e s t i o n s . 2 4 5 I b i d . , p . 958, V o l . I I I . 2 4 6 I b i d . , p . 237, V o l . I . 247 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu , p . 222, V o l . I . 2 4 8 I b i d . , p . 45, V o l . I . 2 4 9 I b i d . , p . 159, V o l . I I I . 2 5 0 I b i d . , p . 752, V o l . I I . 2 5 1 I b i d . , p . 250, V o l . I I I . 252 T h i s v e r y symbol i s used by E l i o t i n The Was te l and . 253 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu , p . 693, V o l . I I I . 254 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temns Perdu , p . 693, V o l . I I I . 173 CHAPTER I I I The Jewish Patriarch 174 In no other tradition i s the relationship between paternity and the search for knowledge more important than i n that of the Jewish mythology. The Old Testament God i s a s t r i c t Creator who denies knowledge and free w i l l , or independence, to his children. His paternal role, then, i s very different to that of the helpful father of the classical tradition or the guiding 'uncle'^ of the Fisher King legend. Stephen, who already feels his independence threatened by his mother, expects a similar paternal domination from Bloom. Marcel actually does rely heavily on his own father, whom he expects to be s t r i c t . He also expects his father to be jealous of the mother-son relationship and to punish him for even the most indirect sexual awareness. The father does not always conform to Marcel's patriarchal concepts, but he does deny his son knowledge i n various forms, using as an excuse those weaknesses which prevent Marcel from becoming independent from his family. In the New Testament, the Son becomes a more important figure; from the f i r s t childrens' taste of knowledge has come procreation and Mary and Jesus are the f r u i t of the 'fortunate f a l l . 1 The New Testament God seems a more loving Father; he freely offers knowledge to his Son. Only to Stephen does the sacrifice of the Son carry the Freudian implication of Father-Son jealousy. Bloom himself i s relatively free of this t r a i t , offering knowledge to Stephen, his 'adopted son' and autonomy to his own child, Milly. Then, far less grudgingly than the Old Testament God, he attempts to promote sexual knowledge and creativity between his two 'children.' For Stephen, the experience he learns from Bloom w i l l be, we imagine, the basis for 175 f u t u r e i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i v i t y . The l i n k between knowledge, ' v o l o n t e ' and p a t e r n i t y i s even s t r o n g e r i n A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u . Swann i s unable to c r e a t e works of a r t because he l a c k s the ' w i l l ' to s e a r c h f o r knowledge. As a p e r m i s s i v e and sympathet ic f a t h e r - f i g u r e , however, he o f f e r s to M a r c e l a l l the l e s s o n s s y m b o l i z e d i n the f l o w e r s of h i s . garden, i f M a r c e l can o n l y i n t e r p r e t t h e i r s i g n s . A much more l o v i n g f a t h e r t h a n M a r c e l ' s own, Swann i s more sympathet ic t h a n h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e 2 neighbours towards f i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h , t o them, seem unhappy. 3 M a r c e l can r e a c h an 'atonement ' w i t h Swann w h i c h y e t l e a v e s him f r e e ; s i m i l a r l y , Stephen, j u s t a f t e r a t t a i n i n g a r a p p o r t w i t h Bloom, f i n d s h i m s e l f at l a s t a b l e t o a s s e r t h i s independence i n ' f l i g h t . ' Knowledge and f r e e w i l l , as w i t h Adam and E v e , l e a d t o c r e a t i v i t y , and, e v e n t u a l l y , t o a more l o v i n g concept o f P a t e r n i t y . Now l e t us examine i n d e t a i l S tephen ' s i d e a of the f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . He e x p l o r e s i t i n depth i n the S c y l l a and C h a r y b d i s e p i s o d e , w h i c h c o n t a i n s one o t h e r h o s t i l e son , John E g l i n t o n . E g l i n t o n i m p l i e s t h a t a f a t h e r and a w i f e can be man's worst enemies. He, l i k e Stephen, i s not a f a m i l y man and he f o l l o w s S t e p h e n ' s s o l u t i o n i n d e n y i n g 5 w i f e and f a t h e r . Stephen a l s o sees h i s t h e o r i e s a c t e d out on a s u p e r -n a t u r a l p l a n e . The H o l y F a m i l y seems t o h i m , on a h i g h e r l e v e l , t o i l l u s t r a t e the problems of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The C a t h o l i c v e r s i o n of i t seems to condone c e l e s t i a l c u c k o l d r y . Poor Joseph remains unsure of the p a t e r n i t y o f the c h i l d , and Mary i s c a l l e d 'Our Lady o f the C h e r r i e s ' a f t e r a l egend w h i c h emphasizes J o s e p h ' s c h a g r i n and j e a l o u s y . ^ 176 S t e p h e n h a s a l w a y s b e e n t h e p e r s o n ' b e t r a y e d * i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , so t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n m o c k i n g b i t t e r n e s s i n h i s comment " G r e a t e r l o v e t h a n t h i s . . . no man h a t h t h a t a man l a y down h i s w i f e f o r 7 h i s f r i e n d . " He w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be o n t h e o t h e r s i d e f o r o n c e , s i n c e B l o o m , s y m b o l i c a l l y a t l e a s t , o f f e r s h i m h i s w i f e . A g a i n , a ' s u p e r n a t u r a l d r ama ' h a s b e e n b r o u g h t down t o e a r t h . S t e p h e n d e c i d e s t h a t " P a t e r n i t y may be a l e g a l f i c t i o n . "Who 8 i s t h e f a t h e r o f any s o n t h a t any s o n s h o u l d l o v e h i m o r he any s o n ? " He e l a b o r a t e s o n t h i s t h e m e . " T h e y [ f a t h e r and s o n ] a r e s u n d e r e d b y a b o d i l y shame so s t e a d f a s t t h a t t h e c r i m i n a l a n n a l s o f t h e w o r l d , s t a i n e d w i t h a l l o t h e r i n c e s t s and b e s t i a l i t i e s , h a r d l y r e c o r d i t s b r e a c h . Sons w i t h m o t h e r s . . . l o v e s t h a t d a r e n o t s p e a k t h e i r name . . . queens w i t h p r i z e b u l l s . The s u n [ s i c ] u n b o r n mars b e a u t y : b o r n , he b r i n g s p a i n , d i v i d e s a f f e c t i o n , i n c r e a s e s c a r e . He i s a m a l e : h i s g r o w t h i s h i s f a t h e r ' s d e c l i n e , h i s y o u t h h i s f a t h e r ' s e n v y , h i s 9 f r i e n d h i s f a t h e r ' s enemy. I n r u e M o n s i e u r - l e - P r i n c e I t h o u g h t i t . " S t e p h e n c o u l d s c a r c e l y be more F r e u d i a n i f he t r i e d . A s we know, he seems t o h a v e h a d a somewhat i n t e n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s m o t h e r ; she t r i e d t o e n l i s t h i s sympa thy a g a i n s t t h e f a t h e r and t o k e e p S t e p h e n ' s l o v e f o r h e r s e l f a l o n e . (See C h a p t e r I . ) T h u s , S t e p h e n ' s f a t h e r , must have f e l t some j e a l o u s y a t t h i s ' d i v i d i n g ' o f a f f e c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , S i m o n D e d a l u s p r o b a b l y b o a s t s so much a b o u t h i s own y o u t h . i n o r d e r t o a s s u a g e h i s j e a l o u s y o f h i s s o n ' s y o u t h f u l n e s s . A n d M u l l i g a n , S t e p h e n ' s ' f r i e n d , ' i s S i m o n ' s enemy; " t h a t M u l l i g a n cad"" 1"^ 177 Simon calls him. The son i s ever, according to Stephen, an un-pleasant reminder to the father that he i s declining, like the sun at the end of a day. The thought occurs to Stephen, s i g n i f i -cantly i n "Rue Monsieur-le-Prince," that i s , the street of the prince who w i l l supplant the king. How do these theories affect Stephen's mythology? We find Trim reaching back to a concept of a jealous God, a particularly Jewish God. This God of the old testament i s scarcely a comfortable family god. His 'Trinity' i s a self-contained one—"Father, word, and Holy Breath,"1"'" reminding us of Stephen's "Father, [that] was 12 Himself His .own Son," and i l l u s t r a t i n g to i t s furthest extreme the supposedly Jewish t r a i t of "incest"—"avarice of the emotions . . . love . . . given to one near i n blood . . . [and thus] 13 withheld from some stranger, who, i t may be, hungers for i t . " "Who could be closer to oneself than oneself? This Patriarchal God i s not necessarily a pleasant one. He i s "the Lord of things as they a r e , " 1 4 a "hangman god" or a 15 "Nobodaddy" whose jealousy leads Him to strange extremes. He seems to condone earthly fathers' envy of their sons. Referred 16 to by Mulligan and Stephen as "the collector of prepuces," he seems to instigate circumcision as a symbolic castration which would certainly put an end to a l l father-son riv a l r y . As the "hangman god," he needs the services (Stephen thinks) of such 'knights of the razor' as Mulligan. "God wants blood victim," preferably the "Blood of the Lamb." Now, i n the old Testament, 178 the sacrifice of a lamb was a substitution for the sacrifice of a son. God asks Abraham (who was the f i r s t Jew to circumcise his son) to sacrifice to Him his son Isaac. Abraham had already sent one son with his mother, into the wilderness. Abraham binds Isaac and lays him on the altar. At the very last minute, a ram i s sub-stituted for Isaac. A similar substitution occurs during the plagues i n Egypt. God k i l l s the firstborn of every family who has not sacrificed a male lamb to him. Thus, the jump to the new Testament Christ as the sacrificed son or lamb i s not hard to make. If these analogies seem too far-fetched, just remember how often circumcision i s mentioned i n Ulysses, how often the Blood of the Lamb i s mentioned, and how even Bloom feels personal guilt over the loss of his son. 17 "If i t ' s healthy i t ' s from the mother. I f not the man." And Molly knits the son a jacket of lambswool. Then, too, the paral l e l w i l l have a great deal of meaning, as we shall see, i n terms of Marcel's relationship to his mother and father. Stephen has certain preconceptions about Jews. How well does Bloom a converted Jew i l l u s t r a t e the 'avarice of emotions' which i s supposedly their main characteristic? He does have some idea of egocentric paternity. "Last of his name and race," Bloom thinks of the Croppy Boy (the 'hanged man'.) "I too, last my race . . . 18 well, my fault perhaps. No son . . . " And once before he thinks "If l i t t l e Rudy had lived . . . My son. Me i n his eyes . . . Prom me. 19 Just a chance." The last phrase puts paternity into the perspective 1 7 9 t h a t Bloom u s u a l l y has of i t , o r d i n a r i l y , B l o o m i s not p o s e s s i v e of h i s o f f s p r i n g . Here he pays homage to t h a t element of chance which i s the essence of comedy and the enemy of e g o c e n t r i c p a t e r n i t y . F o r i t i s ' j u s t chance' t h a t M o l l y saw two dogs who happened t o he making l o v e , ' j u s t chance' t h a t the c h i l d of the c o u p l i n g she i n s t i g a t e d s h o u l d be a boy. Perhaps there was even an element of chance, g i v e n M o l l y ' s supposed i n f i d e l i t y , t h a t the c h i l d was Bloomfe. The c h i l d was a phenomenal of l i f e i t s e l f , o f the same p r o c r e a t i v e c y c l e w h i c h a n i m a l s share , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , w i t h human b e i n g s , o r , t o use an even more b a s i c symbol , t h a t f l o w e r s , t o o , i l l u s t r a t e . The f i n a l p r o o f o f B l o o m ' s l a c k of ' a v a r i c e ' i s h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to share h i s l o v e w i t h a s t r a n g e r . H i s ' adopted s o n , ' S tephen, i s o b v i o u s l y of grea t importance t o h i m . No m a t t e r what m o t i v a t e d h i s a s s i s t a n c e , Bloom has taught Stephen t h a t he ought to m i s t r u s t h i s p r e j u d i c e s . A s t range m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g occurs between Stephen and Bloom over a song w h i c h Stephen c o n s i d e r s to s y m b o l i z e the p a r t i c u l a r l y p a t r i a r c h a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a t h e r and s o n . Stephen chants a l egend of a boy whose head i s cut o f f by a J e w ' s d a u g h t e r . (The head i s supposed to be a common p h a l l i c symbol . ) Stephen f e e l s h i m s e l f to be i n " a s t range h a b i t a t i o n . . . a s e c r e t i n f i d e l 2 0 a p a r t m e n t , " and cannot overcome h i s f e a r of f a t h e r - s o n r i v a l r y , 2 1 which would cause Bloom, as a p a t r i a r c h to " immolate h i m . " Bloom, however, sees t h i n g s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . He has been p r a i s i n g M o l l y , 180 the E a r t h Mother , ( " G e a - T e l l u s " ) w i t h a vague p l a n i n mind t o i n v i t e Stephen to s t ay at h i s house. From t h i s he would g a i n " v i c a r i o u s 23 s a t i s f a c t i o n , " and h i s wi fe , " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f obses s ion" (about B o y l a n . ) I n o t h e r words, he thought o f o f f e r i n g Stephen the chance t o s l eep w i t h h i s wi fe i n her symbol ic r o l e as E a r t h Mother . I n p r a c t i c a l terms, t h i s i d e a would not be c a r r i e d out , but r a t h e r , Bloom t h i n k s o f " a permanent . . . r e c o n c i l i a t o r y u n i o n between a s c h o o l f e l l o w (Stephen) and a Jew's daughter ( M i l l y ) . . " 2 4 I t would come to the same t h i n g "Because the way to the daughter l e d through 25 mother, the way to mother through daughter . " F a r from b e i n g a . j e a l o u s P a t r i a r c h , Bloom i s q u i t e w i l l i n g to forego male r i v a l r y and share h i s females w i t h Stephen. The phrase "the way to the daughter l e d through mother" i s a B l o o m - o r i e n t e d v e r s i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n s a y i n g tha t the way to the f a t h e r i s th rough the son . Bloom has a l r e a d y t o l d u s , i n the Hades s e c t i o n , o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s legend (which seems a g e n e r a l l y known one, f o r P rous t mentions i t a l s o ) " I t s the b lood s i n k i n g i n the e a r t h g i v e s new l i f e , " says 26 Bloom "Same i d e a those jews they s a i d k i l l e d the c h r i s t i a n b o y . " The k i l l i n g o f the c h r i s t i a n boy, whether i t i s the ' s c h o o l f e l l o w ' -o r C h r i s t h i m s e l f , i s j u s t another aspect of the f e r t i l i t y r i t e s . 27 The " r i t u a l murder" at l e a s t produces l i f e from death and i s not prompted by male j e a l o u s y . As M u l l i g a n - s a y s , t a l k i n g of Bloom i n s p e c t i n g the s t a tues of Greek goddesses, "Jehovah, the c o l l e c t o r o f prepuces , i s no more. I found him over i n the museum when I went to h a i l 181 28 the foamborn A p h r o d i t e . " I n o the r words, Bloom i s a conver ted Jew, conver ted to a c l a s s i c a l and comic v iew o f the e a r t h ' s ' c y c l e s . One c o u l d imagine him as P r a z e r ' s p r i e s t of the sac red 28 grove , f e a r i n g Stephen because he f e e l s he would be the " v i c t i m 30 p r edes t i ned" of the t r a d i t i o n a l f i g h t to remain the supreme male i n the E a r t h Goddess ' s f a v o u r . However, Bloom has no w i s h to compete with. Stephen; u n l i k e S tephen ' s f a t h e r he g l o r i e s i n the young p o e t ' s y o u t h . Stephen may p l a y as s u c c e s s f u l l y as he 31 wishes the r o l e o f the " q u i c k young male" wi thou t any o p p o s i t i o n from Bloom, who i s q u i t e p l ea sed to accept the q u i e t , ease, and wisdom o f the sunset o f h i s l i f e . Bloom, a c t u a l l y , has a more r e a l i s t i c v i ew o f the past than has Simon Deda lus . He admits t ha t the e a r l y yea r s o f h i s marr iage were perhaps not as happy i n f a c t as they seem i n r e t r o s p e c t . And he r e a l i z e s tha t y o u t h 32 i s not n e c e s s a r i l y "such a bed o f r o s e s , " s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s a l l the p a i n o f growing up, o f s t r u g g l i n g to g a i n independence. 33 I f Bloom has any Jewi sh p r o t o t y p e s , they are E l i j a h and the generous f a t h e r o f the P r o d i g a l Son. Bloom, h i m s e l f , i s r emorse fu l because o f the way he ' d e n i e d h i s f a t h e r , ' by t u r n i n g away from h i s f a t h e r ' s r e l i g i o n (as i n S tephen ' s case , the. l a t t e r t r i e s to t u r n away from h i s mother ' s r e l i g i o n ) . Indeed, the spec t re o f h i s f a t h e r haunted him i n the C i r c e ' s episode j u s t as the spec t r e of S tephen ' s mother haunted h i m . Because o f t h i s remorse, Bloom wishes t o " r e c o n c i l e Stephen and h i s f a t h e r . T h i s i s the r o l e 182 of E l i j a h who w i l l " t u r n the hear t of the. f a t h e r s to the c h i l d r e n n 34 and the c h i l d r e n to t h e i r f a t h e r s . Stephen h i m s e l f has r e a l i z e d t h a t he i s something of a p r o d i g a l s o n . " F i l l i n g my b e l l y w i t h 35 husks of s w i n e . Too much o f t h i s . I w i l l a r i s e and go to my. " Stephen does not f i n i s h the sentence , but the l a s t word i s o b v i o u s l y • f a t h e r . 1 Thus, as a Jew ( o r a c o n v e r t e d o n e ) , Bloom i s an e x c e l l e n t guide f o r Stephen. He a f f i r m s S tephen 's r i g h t to enjoy the f r u i t of h i s s u c c e s s f u l p a s s i n g - o f the i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s . He i s ready t o s u p p l y Stephen w i t h a mate, so t h a t he may become a f a t h e r . Stephen moves from t h i n k i n g of Bloom as a t h r e a t e n i n g f i g u r e t o r e g a r d i n g him as a " f e l l o w f a c e , " a m i r r o r o f . e x p e r i e n c e f rom whom he can g a i n some i n s i g h t . Stephen l e a v e s to t r y a g a i n , but w i t h more knowledge t h i s t i m e , the f l i g h t from the deadening i n f l u e n c e s of h i s home l i f e . He i s not y e t r e a d y , l i k e Bloom, t o r e t u r n t o Mother E a r t h , f o r i f Bloom i s a U l y s s e s r e t u r n i n g , Stephen i s a T elemachus j u s t s t a r t i n g h i s voyage. The o l d testament t r a d i t i o n of the J e w i s h p a t r i a r c h h a s , i f a n y t h i n g , more r e l e v a n c e to M a r c e l ' s c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a n to 5^7 S t e p h e n ' s , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of " l e drame de [son] c o u c h e r . " M a r c e l w o r s h i p s h i s mother; he d e s c r i b e s h e r k i s s as "une h o s t i e pour une communion de p a i x ou mes l e v r e s p u i s e r a i e n t sa presence r e e l l e et l e p o u v o i r de m ' e n d o r m i r . " M a r c e l has gone even a s tep f a r t h e r than Stephen. Stephen, i n h i s s e m i - r e l i g i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother has r e t a i n e d a sense of autonomy and 183 importance by th ink ing of himself as a ' p r i e s t ' whose "secret 39 knowledge and secret power" could surpass even those of the 40 V i r g i n Mary, and ce r t a in ly those of h i s mother. Marcel , on the other hand, seeks dependence, although that i s not h i s mother's wish. Marcel emphasizes the 'peace' h i s mother gives him, the a b i l i t y to s l eep-qua l i t i e s which denote an avoidance of experience and knowledge, or , as Marcel puts i t , an avoidance of su f fe r ing . Marce l ' s father c a l l s t h i s goodnight k i s s and comforting "ces r i t e s a b s u r d e s . Y e t he does not object to them, as the mother does, on the basis that Marcel i s being overprotected. Rather, 42 he fee ls that demonstrations of a f fec t ion are r i d i c u l o u s , ' 43 and he has a l i v e l y d i s l i k e for appearing r i d i c u l o u s , or having h i s son appear r i d i cu lous i n the eyes of others. Marce l ' s father shows himself h ighly susceptible to the ' s o c i a l b lackmai l ' of good appearances which warps the l i v e s of so many of Prous t ' s characters. Indeed, Marce l ' s father permits Marcel to attend the theatre only af ter t h i s step i s f i r s t approved by Norpois; he becomes inured to the idea of Marce l ' s going in to Society when he r ea l i z e s that h i s own reputat ion may be enhanced by h i s son's success. In other words, h i s judgement, being so based on others ' opinions i s often e r r a t i c , and f a l l s dreadful ly short of the Pa t r i a r cha l Ideal more c lo se ly approached by Marcel ' s mother and grandmother, and by Francoise. The former deal out d i s in te res ted 44 Jus t i ce , whereas Francoise acts according to a "code imperieux," 45 which, though c rue l , at leas t has the advantage of a consistency 184 46 s i m i l a r t o t h e J e w i s h " l o i s a n t i q u e s . " O s t e n s i b l y , t h i s v e r y embarrassment o f M a r c e l ' s f a t h e r 47 f o r . s h o w i n g a f f e c t i o n i n p u b l i c , c a u s e s h i m t o send M a r c e l t o bed, one e v e n i n g when Swann v i s i t s , w i t h o u t a g o o d n i g h t k i s s f r o m h i s mother. However, i n M a r c e l ' s mind a t l e a s t , t h e whole e x p e r i e n c e t a k e s on a f a r dee p e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . M a r c e l a l r e a d y f e e l s g u i l t y f o r t h e ' t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p ' between h i m s e l f , h i s f a t h e r , and h i s mother, as we have s e e n on h i s comment on t h e l e g e n d o f G o l o — " j ' a v a i s h a t e . . . de tomber dans l e s b r a s de maman que l e s m a l h e u r s de G e n e v i e v e de B r a b a n t me r e n d a i e n t p l u s 48 c h e r e , t a n d i s que l e s c r i m e s de G o l o me f a i s a i e n t e x a m i n e r ma p r o p r e "49 c o n s c i e n c e avec p l u s de s c r u p u l e s . And t h u s , when he b r a v e s h i s ' f a t h e r ' s e d i c t t o w a i t up f o r h i s m o t h e r ' s k i s s , and i s caught i n t h e p r o c e s s , he i n v e s t s t h e whole scene w i t h , a b i b l i c a l s ense o f f a t h e r - s o n r i v a l r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h we saw i n J o y c e . The f a t h e r a l l o w s M a r c e l t o spend t h e n i g h t w i t h h i s m other, y e t M a r c e l c a n o n l y t h i n k o f t h e t a b l e a u i n t e r m s o f a p i c t u r e he has s e e n "d'Abraham .. . . d i s a n t a S a r a h q u ' e l l e a a se d e p a r t i r 50 du cSte d ' I s a a c . " T h a t i s , M a r c e l ' s sense o f g u i l t e x p e c t s t h e f a t h e r t o s a c r i f i c e t h e s o n o f w h i c h he i s j e a l o u s , as i n t h e o l d l e g e n d o f Abraham and I s a a c . I n f a c t , M a r c e l s e e s as a s i g n o f "weakness, p e r h a p s even o f l a c k o f v i r i l i t y , the f a c t . t h a t h i s f a t h e r does n o t p u n i s h him. P o i g n a n t l y , he d e s c r i b e s h i s f a t h e r i n n i g h t a t t i r e as t a l l , w i t h a s t a t e l y p r e s e n c e enhanced by a t u r b a n w h i c h , i r o n i c a l l y , d e n o t e s a weakness; f o r t h e f a t h e r 185 51 wears the turban to"assuage des neura lg ies ," that all-encompassing disease i n Proust which lu rks behind a l l l az iness , lack of wil lpower and mental agonies. This a rb i t r a ry dec is ion of mercy for Marcel doubly confuses the young boy, for he has associated 'Dieu l e Pdre' wi th the idea of a chas t i s ing power, e spec i a l ly i n sexual matters. The "donjon de R o u s s a i n v i l l e - l e P i n , " which can be seen from the bathroom, 52 the 'cabinet sentant l ' i r i s , ' becomes the foca l point fo r Marce l ' s 53 immature forms of sexua l i ty . Masturbation, daydreams of i d e a l 54 women both become l i nked wi th t h i s image. Strangely enough, r - i 55 Marcel l a t e r learns that " [ l e s j souterrains de Roussa inv i l l e " were indeed used by Gi lbe r te and her fr iends for childhood sensual experimentation. Marcel himself passes judgement on a l l these forms of sex and on h i s concept of fatherhood when he t a lk s of Roussa inv i l l e i n B i b l i c a l terms and of God the Father as the d iv ine punisher. "Devant nous . . . terre promise ou maudite, Roussa inv i l i e , dans l e s murs duquel je n ' a i jamais penetre, Roussa inv i l l e , tant8t , quand l a p lu i e avai t deja cesse pour nous, cont inuai t a i t r e chatie comme un v i l l a g e de l a B ib l e par toutes les lances de l 'o rage qui f l a g e l l a i e n t obliquement l e s demeures de ses habitants , ou bien e t a i t deja pardonne par Dieu le Pdre qui f a i s a i t descendre vers l u i , inegalement longues, comme les rayons d'un ostensoir 56 d ' au te l , l e s t iges d 'o r effrangees de son s o l e i l reparu." Does Marcel have any reason to think of Fatherhood i n these / terms because of h i s personal experience? Stephen feared father-son 186 r i v a l r y on a more p h y s i c a l b a s i s ; ' c i r c u m c i s i o n ' and p h y s i c a l c r e a t i o n were h i s c o n c e r n . But M a r c e l i s concerned always and foremost w i t h the a r t i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y . And h i s f a t h e r t r i e s to prevent him from g a i n i n g the knowledge and exper ience n e c e s s a r y to an a r t i s t , i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l knowledge. 57 He c o n s i d e r s M a r c e l ' t o o young ' to go i n t o S o c i e t y . He c o n -58 s i d e r s M a r c e l too s i c k l y to go to the t h e a t r e . And when he f i n a l l y g i v e s M a r c e l p e r m i s s i o n to v i s i t the t h e a t r e and to become a 'man of l e t t e r s , ' M a r c e l f e e l s almost overwhelmed w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " . . . j e m ' e t a i s s e n t i t o u t d coup une 59 r e s p o n s a b i l i t e t r o p grande, l a peur de l e p e i n e r . . . " N o t i c e t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s not concerned w i t h a m o r a l c h o i c e , the r i g h t n e s s o r wrongness o f g o i n g to the t h e a t r e , but r a t h e r w i t h o b e y i n g the f a t h e r i n such a way as not t o h u r t h i m , and thus keep h i s l o v e . M a r c e l i s somewhat i n the p o s i t i o n of Adam b e f o r e the f a l l , f o r h i s f a t h e r , i n p r o m u l g a t i n g the i d e a t h a t M a r c e l ' s s t range b e h a v i o u r over the k i s s was caused by h i s b e i n g i l l , has t a k e n from h i m - h i s sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f a t h e r ' s l o v e must a lways be h e l d as an u n c e r t a i n and h a r d -earned p r i z e , made v a l u a b l e by reminders t h a t i t can be l o s t . As M a r c e l says " J ' a v a i s sans doute h e r i t e de mon pere ce brusque d e s i r a r b i t r a i r e de menacer l e s i t r e s que j ' a i m a i s l e p l u s dans l e s esperances dont i l s se b e r c a i e n t avec une s e c u r i t e que j e 60 v o u l a i s l e u r montrer t rompeuse . " A l t o g e t h e r one i s f o r c e d to 187 think of the immense punishments which the Old Testament God carried out to remind His children of His existence. Again, Marcel's father—and his grandfather—are more opposed to Odette and the 'loose ways' or sexual knowledge which she symbolizes than i s the mother. When Marcel meets Odette by chance at his uncle's, the father and grandfather, on learning about the encounter, have violent words with the uncle. The mother, on the other hand, i s more ready to forgive and forget Odette's reputation when she becomes Mme. Swann; she talks about Odette to Swann i n order to make him happy.- The father and grandfather, however, w i l l only take Marcel around past Swann's garden when they are assured that neither Odette nor Gilberte w i l l be there. Fortunately or unfortunately they are misinformed, and so Marcel i s treated to a tableau of Gilberte, Odette and Charlus i n the garden. The scene quickly acquires a mythological stature. Gilberte i s the f i r s t flesh-and-blood g i r l to arouse love i n Marcel. He wishes to touch her, but i s afraid of his father and grandfather 61 who "le fissent eloigner," for, as we have already seen, they consider Gilberte 'forbidden f r u i t ' even for friendship with Marcel. Later i n the book, Marcel talks of Gilberte and Gilbert 62 le Mauvais i n the same breath, so that one cannot help but notice the similarity i n their names. It seems obvious that, at this point, Gilberte, as i l l u s t r a t e d by her obscene gesture, 188 i s offering an ' e v i l ' that Marcel's father and grandfather would spare him. Indeed, i n the garden are represented a l l shades of sexual knowledge, a l l of which have been kept from Marcel i n his childhood. Odette has cuckolded Swann, with women as well as men; Charlus i s a homosexual; Gilberte, as we have seen, i s Marcel's f i r s t love. Moreover, i n the garden, are numerous symbols of knowledge. The flowers we shal l study i n the next chapter. There i s also a pond "rSvant sans doute de quelque Maelstrom imaginaire." The image i l lus t ra tes exactly Marcel's present state. He dreams of romantic storms at the seaside—and finds that which they symbolize—the knowledge of passion—in his affair with Albertine, in i t i a ted at Balbec. He watches Gilberte fishing—and the reader i s i r res is tably reminded of his dreams of the Duchess of Guermantes and their relevance to the Cel t ic myths of knowledge. He w i l l become "l 'ami de l a 64. ~~ duchesse de Guermantes" and w i l l "p§cher l a t ru i te ." Now i n Cel t ic myth, the poet-hero could gain a l l knowledge by eating a magic f i s h . I t i s questionnable i f Proust knew the legend. However the myth does f i t the context of the book at this point. For the Duchess herself i s , to Marcel, a marvellous, fa i ry- ta le 65 salmon-woman; a Melusine who w i l l teach him a l l the names of the flowers and w i l l help him to write. Her magical powers, however, are overwhelmed by the powers Marcel imagines i n his father. The la t ter , Marcel hopes, w i l l simply 'arrange' for 189 his son to become a writer. However, true knowledge w i l l come only from the Fisher or Sinner King, Swann. He i s absent from his Garden, like God giving Adam and Eve the choice to ingest knowledge and take on responsibility. Marcel does not at f i r s t regard him as a sympathetic source of knowledge. Rather, i n their f i r s t important encounter, the incident of the kiss, he imagines that Swann, as a father, can only f e e l contempt for a boy's overindulged love for his mother. But Swann i s actually a potential source of knowledge and compassion,since he has gone through similar experiences and i s , i f anything, a lenient and loving father. When he suggests that Gilberte not go to the theatre, i n a paral l e l to the incident about Phedre between Marcel and his father, Gilberte s t i l l feels free to oppose him. Obviously, she i s not so concerned with her father's love, but then she has not been threatened so often with i t s loss. Swann's too, i s the one non-magical way to creativity for Marcel. A l l Swann offers are the symbols .of suffering, effort and knowledge. He cannot help Marcel su'peraaturally—he cannot even help himself. He can only introduce Marcel sympathetically, to "toute l a matiere de [son] l i v r e . " But this i s g i f t enough. Such aid Marcel repays by f u l f i l l i n g , for Swann, the most impor-tant function of a son-carrying on his name, giving him a taste of immortality, resurrecting him i n his novel.- For i f Swann i s closer to a loving New Testament father, Marcel i s certainly closer to the New Testament Son. As we shall see i n the imagery 190 o f the f l o w e r s of the garden , h i s p i l g r i m a g e i s ' u n chemin de l a c r o i x ' ; he has h i s p a s s i o n , h i s C a l g a r y and G o l g o t h a , ^ 8 and, of c o u r s e , h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n i n a r t . 191 CHAPTER III NOTES Bullfinch mentions that the Fisher King i s Percival's maternal uncle, whose job i t i s to train the young knight. Perhaps i t i s important i n the light of this version of the legend, that anthropological studies have often shown the maternal uncle assuming the 'training' role of the father. 2 cf. the relationship of Vinteuil and his daughter. 3 Marcel f i n a l l y admits Swann*s worth i n his novel. 4 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 206. 5 Stephen claims that this was Shakespeare's solution as well. ^ As i n The Cherry Tree Carol. 7 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 393. 8 Ibid., p. 207. 9 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 208. 1 0 Ibid., p. 88. 1 1 Ibid., p. 185. 1 2 Ibid., p. 208. 1 5 Ibid., p. 205. 192 1 4 I b i d . , p . 213. 1 5 I b i d . , p . 205. 1 6 I b i d . , p . 13-1 7 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 96 . 1 8 I b i d . , p . 285 . 1 9 I b i d . , p . 89 . 2 0 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 692. pi Op. c i t . 2 2 I b i d . , p . 737. 2 3 I b i d . , p . 695. 24 ^ Op. e x t . 2 5 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 695-2 6 I b i d . , p . 108. ' , 2 7 I b i d . , p . 692. 2 8 I b i d . , p . 201 . 2 9 F r a s e r i n ^ go lden Bough d i s c u s s e s the p r i e s t o f the sac red grove as one v e r s i o n o f the myths o f the v e g e t a t i o n o r sun gods. 5 0 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 692. 193 3 1 I b id . , p. 689. 32 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 71. 33 Sultan, The Argument of Ulysses, p. 136. 3 4 Ib id . , p. 269. 35 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 517. 3 6 I b id . , p. 702. 37 • Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 13, V o l . I . Op. ext. 59 Joyce, A Portrait of the Ar t i s t as a Young Man, p. 159. 40 * Ib id . , p. 158. 41 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 15, V o l . I . 4 2 I b id . , p. 27, V o l . I . 45 In Chapter I we saw that Marcel blamed his father for discouraging him from showing his affection. Also, the father chides the mother for her ' r id iculous ' advice of showing some sympathy towards Swann1s .wife and daughter; Swann himself i s f u l l of sympathy for Vin teu i l and his daughter. Who can blame Marcel for sym-pathizing with Swann rather than his own father? 44 Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 28, V o l . I . 45 In i l l u s t r a t i n g his para l le l to the 'ancient laws,' Marcel uses the example of ordering the death of children at breast; actually, i n hindering Marcel from communicating with his mother, Francoise i s committing a similar crime, Marcel thinks. 194 46 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p . 29, V o l . I . 4 7 I b i d . , p. 27, V o l . I . 4 8 G o l o , o f c o u r s e , t r i e d to w i n Genevieve away f r o m . h e r husband. 4 9 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p. 10, V o l . I . 5 0 I b i d . , pp. 36-37, V o l . I . 51 n • 4-0p. e x t . ^ 2 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p. 697, V o l . I I I . 5 3 I b i d . , p. 12, V o l . I . 5 4 I h i d . , p. 152, V o l . I . 5 5 I b i d . , p. 696, V o l . I I I . 5 6 I b i d . , p. 152, V o l . I . 5 7 I b i d . , p. 33, V o l . I I . 58 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p. 926, V o l . I I . 5 9 I b i d . , p. 927, V o l . I I . 6 0 I b i d . , p. 91, V o l . I I I . 61 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p. 141, V o l . I . I b i d . , p. 839, V o l . I l l , 6 3 I b i d . , p. 137, V o l . I . 64 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p. 182, V o l . I . 195 65 I b i d . , p. 173, V o l . I . I b i d . , p. 927, V o l . I I I . 66 Cn Proust, A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 915, V o l . I I I . 6 8 I b i d . , p. 543, V o l . I I I . 196 CHAPTER IV The E a r t h F a t h e r s -The Flowers of the Garden 197 A s we have a l r e a d y s e e n , f l o w e r s a r e t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l s i n t h e w o r k s o f J o y c e and P r o u s t . I n A P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t a s  a Young; Man, S t e p h e n e q u a t e s r e j e c t i n g c o l o u r f u l f l o w e r s f r o m a f l o w e r g i r l w i t h r e s i s t i n g a p h y s i c a l t e m p t a t i o n . H i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t h i s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , s y m b o l i z e d i n t h e b r i g h t f l o w e r s , i s a mark of. h i s i m m a t u r i t y . B y d e n y i n g t h e d e p t h s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , S t e p h e n makes h i m s e l f i n t o a o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l f i g u r e — a p o r t r a i t . r a t h e r t h a n a s c u l p t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , P r o u s t ' s more s u c c e s s f u l c h a r a c t e r s must l e a r n t o e x p l o r e b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f a p p e a r a n c e s , and t o t r a v e l i n t o t h e r e c e s s e s o f t h e i r m i n d s . M a r c e l , t o o , t e n d s t o a v o i d t h e ' p a s s i o n ' o f l i f e , s y m b o l i z e d f o r h i m by t h e r e d h a w t h o r n s . To P r o u s t ' s y o u n g a r t i s t , h o w e v e r , ' p a s s i o n ' t a k e s on a s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r t h a n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e . M a r c e l ' s ' p a s s i o n ' c o n s i s t s o f t h e s u f f e r i n g c a u s e d by a g r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r l d , s e x u a l k n o w -l e d g e b e i n g o n l y one o f l i f e ' s l e s s o n s . I n d e e d , a s we s h a l l s e e , t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r , t h a n t h e p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e ' f l o w e r s o f e x p e r i e n c e ' i n P r o u s t ' s w o r k , i n d i c a t e s one o f t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two a u t h o r s . M a r c e l ' s g r o w i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n f l o w e r i m a g e r y ; he comes t o p r e f e r t h e h a w t h o r n , 'which i n s i s t s t h a t he a c c e p t t h e b u r d e n s and t h e t h o r n s o f l i f e , t o t h e p u r e w h i t e w a t e r l i l i e s on t h e V i v o n n e , w h i c h evoke t h e p l e a s a n t dreams o f a l i f e f l o w i n g p a s s i v e l y f r o m b i r t h t o d e a t h . B o t h S t e p h e n and M a r c e l must e x c h a n g e t h e f l o w e r s o f i n n o c e n c e f o r t h e f l o w e r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . 198 P o r t r a y e d i n f l o w e r i m a g e r y , Bloom's and Swann's p a t e r n a l r o l e s c o u l d s c a r c e l y be more p o s i t i v e . As we have se e n , Bloom's a c c e p t a n c e o f f l o w e r s and t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e n a b l e s h i m t o g u i d e h i s 'adopted son' t h r o u g h t h e u n d e r w o r l d . Swann's g a r d e n i s t h e main s o u r c e o f M a r c e l ' s knowledge. Then, t o o , f l o w e r s a r e p e r h a p s t h e most b e a u t i f u l example o f n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y . Bloom f r e e l y s u r r e n d e r s h i s c r e a t i v e r o l e t o S t e p h e n , t h e new 'sun/son,' w h i l e M a r c e l f i n i s h e s t h e c r e a t i v e j o u r n e y w h i c h Swann s t a r t e d . Bloom, t h e n , as b e f i t s h i s name, t r i e s t o a t t u n e S t e p h e n t o N a t u r e ' s p o s i t i v e and c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s and t o c o n v i n c e h im t h a t he must go t h r o u g h l i f e ' s s t r e n g t h e n i n g p r o c e s s e s . S t e p h e n h i m s e l f , as we have s e e n , t e n d s t o p u r s u e i d e a l s , s y m b o l i z e d by Dantean w h i t e • r o s e s and p a l e 'roseways t o heaven.'"'" Red f l o w e r s i m p r e s s him a s b e i n g t o o ' o v e r b l o w n , ' t o o ' a r d e n t . ' He has a s s o c i a t e d them w i t h p a s s i o n e v e r s i n c e h i s f i r s t daydreams o f an unknown woman. When he f e e l s t h a t he h a s a c h i e v e d t h e 'pure w h i t e r o s e ' o f g r a c e , he becomes d o u b l y a f r a i d o f t h i s " a r d e n t r o s e - l i k e glow," " l u r e o f 2 t h e f a l l e n s e r a p h i m , " w h i c h he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e " t e m p t r e s s 3 4 o f t h e v i l l a n e l l e . " To Bloom, however, e a r t h l y f l o w e r s a r e f a r more v a l u a b l e . " R u s t y w r e a t h s . . . g a r l a n d s o f b r o n z e f o i l . B e t t e r v a l u e t h a t f o r t h e money," he t h i n k s a t Dignam's i n t e r r m e n t . " S t i l l t h e f l o w e r s a r e more p o e t i c a l . The o t h e r g e t s r a t h e r t i r e s o m e , 5 n e v e r w i t h e r i n g . E x p r e s s e s n o t h i n g . I m m o r t e l l e s . " F o r i t i s t h e l i f e - c y c l e t h a t b r i n g s v a r i e t y i n t o t h e w o r l d . Thus, Mary, 199 the "honourable vessel," mystical rose"^ becomes to Bloom just part of the opiate that i s religion, symbolized by Father Coffey "holding 7 sleepily a staff of twisted poppies." Real roses, to Bloom,suggest earthy r e a l i t i e s . They represent the thorny aspect of relationships with women, which are, however, s t i l l beautiful. "Queer the number of pins they [women] have" thinks Bloom."No roses without thorns." He also uses 'roses' as a euphemism for Martha's period. "Has her roses 9 probably," a phrase which succinctly expresses Bloom's acceptance of natural cycles as something both creative and aesthetically pleasing. This viewpoint i s just what Stephen w i l l need to sustain him, for the world cannot remain an idealized heaven for him. He has already been advised to seek out "sweet Rosie 0'G-rady,""^ or, at least, the simple love that she represents. And, i n Ulysses, he i s forced to confront the red roses of experience, such as the "Yorkshire rose""''"'" (the whore) of the Circe scene. "Primrose" vested Mulligan by his "gay a t t i r e " makes Stephen's drab costume and 'Jesuit' thoughts seem "cheap and 12 13 dusty." Actually, Mulligan's 'primrose way of dalliance' i s just the opposite of Stephen's roseway to heaven. Neither extreme i s particularly viable. The one person who does eventually attain the rose, i s Bloom, for Molly, who "love[s] flowers'," decides to order roses i n order to bring Bloom back to her. "Id love to have the whole place swimming i n roses God of heaven theres nothing lik e 14 ' nature . . ." She wonders whether to wear a white rose, which would be symbollically suitable, since she i s the "indispensable 15 countersign to Bloom's passport to eternity," that i s , his Beatrice. 200 However, f i n a l l y she decides to wear a red rose, the flower of passion and experience, which Bloom has gained only through struggle. The way that Bloom points out to Stephen i s a type of metamorphosis through t r i a l s . In Bloom's metamorphosis, flower "foliated f o s s i l i s e d 16 decidua of primeval forests" becomes coal, becomes diamonds, i f subjected to enough pressure and heat. This heat, as i n purgatory, also purifies. Bloom heats coal i n his grate after coming home, having finished his journey. His last thoughts before sleep are 17 of a "roc auks egg" and of Sinbad the Sailor, who found a fabulous valley of diamonds. The 'rock' egg thus symbolizes the beginning (egg. or seed) and end (rock) of the cycle. By being a traveller (a sailor, a commercial traveller) and a sinning one at that (Sinbad), Bloom has immersed himself i n the experience needed to make of him something tough and valuable.-The journey has not been an easy one. Bloom (as we know from our study of the Fisher King analogies) has been i n f e r t i l e for some time. He has been tempted by the l i l y , or lotus, the symbol of oblivion (Flower of the lotus eaters ). At one point of the hallucination 18 scene, Bloom holds "a fullblown waterlily." The 'unintelligible speech' that he makes i s actually very i n t e l l i g i b l e i n terms of the symbolism of the flower he i s holding. Bloom i s answering charges against him for 'approaching with lewd intent' a servant g i r l called, significantly, Mary. Bloom protests that he was not guilty, that 19 20 everything was done i n a "purely sisterly way." The l i l y , like the l i l y of the annunciation, i s a symbol of the supposed 'purity' of 201 his affection for the servant g i r l . The l i l y i s also "the flower that bloometh," i n the words of the song, i n "the memory of the 21 past." Since Bloom did want Mary, he has f a l l e n into the trap of idealizing the past by denying his lust. The flower i s the false flower of a sentimental, idealized past, very close i n symbolism to. i t s Eastern cousin, the lotus. Bloom has also been carrying on a t i t i l l a t i n g 'ideal romance1 with a typist. He signs himself, i n his correspondence with her, as Henry Flower. This pseudonym has somehow lost the richer, riper connotations of 'Bloom,' which means "prime perfection" as a noun and 22 "come into . . . f u l l beauty, culminate" as a verb. But, then, Bloom has lost some of his v i r i l i t y i n this rather hypocritical encounter. However, the name s t i l l has not lost i t s 'sympathetic magic,' since the typist sends Bloom a yellow flower, which has reminded her of his 23 name. One i s tempted to see i n this yellow flower the "golden bough" symbol, especially since i t becomes a prominent motif i n the Circe episode, or journey to the underworld. Definitely, Bloom i s saved by a magical plant i n this episode. The plant, which has been much discussed, i s Moly, a g i f t from Mercury to Ulysses, i n the original version of the legend, to save him from Circe's enchantment. Some c r i t i c s see Moly 24 / as the potato talisman which Bloom carries with him. (.The potato i s a root and i s black with white flowers, which matches the ancients' description of Moly.) Certainly the Moly that saves Bloom i s also a mixture of spiritual qualities "chastity, chan e, experience, beauty, iter „26 25 laughter . . . " or "a g i l i t y , presence of mind, power of recuperation But, again, one i s tempted to see i n Molly some of the saving 202 power o f H o l y . M o l l y ' s name c o n t a i n s the name o f the magic he rb . She has b l a c k h a i r and a whi te s k i n . And Bloom's knowledge o f women, ga ined through h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M o l l y , has been h i s best p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t temptresses throughout the book.' A c t u a l l y , the whole s t o r y o f U l y s s e s h inges on the q u a l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s ' h e a l i n g h e r b s . ' When Bloom r e t u r n s home, he f i n d s t ha t the ca t has l e f t , j u s t as h i s daughter a l s o l e f t . The ca t i s s e e k i n g "a h e a l i n g herb ( v a l e r i a n ) , " w h i l e the daughter i s i n "quest o f a new male ( M u l l i n g a r s tudent) o r a h e a l i n g h e r b . " L a t e r i n the ep i sode , the cat r e t u r n s , presumably h a v i n g found the h e r b . By ana logy , one expects M i l l y to r e t u r n a l s o (perhaps p regnan t . ) Bloom h i m s e l f has r e t u r n e d , h e a l e d , a f t e r overcoming the e v i l f l o w e r s o f the C i r c e 28 episode " a whi te f l e s h f l o w e r of v a c c i n a t i o n " ( c o u n t e r i n g p o s s i b l e \ 29 i l l n e s s ) and "the dea thf lower o f the pota to b l i g h t . " "The c i r c u m c i s e d " 30 have even "cas t dead sea f r u i t upon h im, no f l o w e r s . " The images o f B loom' s r e t u r n to M o l l y are v e r y p o s i t i v e . He and Stephen regard "The heaventree -of s t a r s hung w i t h humid n i g h t b l u e 31 f r u i t . " Bloom dreams of a co t tage c a l l e d " F l o w e r v i l l e " where he w i l l grow " t u l i p s , b lue s c i l l a s , c rocuses , po lyan thus , sweet W i l l i a m [ i n t e r e s t i n g ! ] sweet pea . . . " Most o f a l l , he i s r e t u r n i n g to a woman who, " b i g w i t h seed" i s l i k e the " G e a - T e l l u s ( E a r t h mother ) , 33 f u l f i l l e d , recumbent." How d i f f e r e n t from Stephen ' s concept o f 34 " t h e . d a r k wormy e a r t h . " M o l l y i s l i k e a r i p e f r u i t , and Joyce d e s c r i b e s he r i n p o e t i c a l terms t ha t make S tephen ' s poe t ry seem • s t i l t e d and immature. "He k i s s e d the plump mellow y e l l o w smellow 20J 35 melons o f h e r rump, on e a c h plump melonous h e m i s p h e r e . . . " T h i s i s t h e c r e a m - f r u i t melon w h i c h Bloom o f f e r e d t o S t e p h e n i n t h e l a t t e r ' s dream. We have d i s c u s s e d S t e p h en's and Bloom's m y t h o l o g i e s ; M o l l y ' s i s no l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g . She r e s e m b l e s t h e e a r t h goddess n o t o n l y i n b e i n g ' e a r t h y ' b u t a l s o i n w i s h i n g a new l o v e r e v e r y s p r i n g . Of c o u r s e , i n t h e o r i g i n a l myth t h e v e g e t a t i o n god d i e d e a c h w i n t e r and was r e p l a c e d i n t h e s p r i n g . As M o l l y p u t s i t , "I'm a l w a y s l i k e t h a t i n s p r i n g , I d l i k e a new f e l l o w e v e r y y e a r . . . " S t e p h e n p l a c e s 'the Son 1 a t t h e head o f h i s m y t h o l o g y and f e a r s t h e c o n c e p t s b o t h o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a t h e r and d o m i n e e r i n g m o t h e r - w i f e . Bloom r e p l a c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f a F a t h e r - S o n P a t r i a r c h a l M y t h o l o g y w i t h a M a t r i a r c h y i n w h i c h t h e Mother i s most i m p o r t a n t and t h e s o n a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as t h e f a t h e r . M o l l y , on t h e o t h e r hand, f i r m l y p l a c e s a god a t t h e t o p o f h e r m y t h o l o g i c a l h i e r a r c h y , a god who c r e a t e s f l o w e r s and who 37 i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e sun's r i s i n g e v e r y day. " . . . and c o l o u r s s p r i n g i n g up even out o f t h e d i t c h e s p r i m r o s e s and v i o l e t s n a t u r e i t i s as f o r them s a y i n g t h e r e s no God I w o u l d n t g i v e a snap o f my f i n g e r s f o r a l l t h e i r l e a r n i n g why dont t h e y go and c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g I o f t e n a s k him a t h e i s t s o r w h a t e v e r . . . ah y e s I know them w e l l who was t h e f i r s t p e r s o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e b e f o r e t h e r e was anybody t h a t made i t a l l who ah t h a t t h e y dont know n e i t h e r do I so t h e r e y o u a r e t h e y m ight as w e l l t r y t o s t o p t h e sun f r o m r i s i n g tomorrow t h e sun s h i n e s f o r y o u he s a i d t h e day we were l y i n g among t h e r h o d o d e n d r o n s 204 on Eovrth h e a d . . ." The r e s p e c t i v e m y t h o l o g i e s o f Bloom and M o l l y seem t o be one o f t h e b e s t c o m p l i m e n t s t h a t t h e y c o u l d g i v e e a c h o t h e r . Bloom, i n d e e d , becomes a f l o w e r . He h a s been V i r a g ( H u n g a r i a n f o r f l o w e r ) and Henry F l o w e r , and t o M o l l y he i s "Don M i g u e l de 39 l a F l o r a . " Bloom i s a r a r e f l o w e r . "He's n o t one o f y o u r common o r g a r d e n . . . You know" 4^ s a y s an a c q u a i n t a n c e . He i s a " c u l t u r e d a l l - r o u n d man," "as i n t e g r a l as a f l o w e r . " 4 1 The l e s s o n he has t o t e a c h S t e p h e n i s t h e knowledge o f n a t u r e , t h e knowledge t o be g a i n e d f r o m g a r d e n s . The f i r s t t i m e S t e p h e n e v e r meets him, i n f a c t , i s i n " t h e l i l a c g a r d e n o f Matthew D i l l o n ' s h o u s e . " 4 2 S t r a n g e l y enough, t h e s e images a r e p a r a l l e l e d i n A L a R e c h e r c h e du Temps P e r d u , f o r we have a l r e a d y s e e n some o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f 'the g a r d e n . ' E v e n more i m p o r t a n t , c a r r y i n g a message s i m i l a r t o J o y c e ' s , a r e t h e f l o w e r s o f t h e g a r d e n and e l s e w h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e d and t h e w h i t e . Swann, by v i r t u e o f h i s g a r d e n , becomes as e l e m e n t a l a f i g u r e as Bloom i n U l y s s e s . The f l o w e r s i n h i s g a r d e n a r e as s y m b o l i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n M a r c e l ' s and o t h e r s ' . l i v e s as a l l t h e f l o w e r s i n J o y c e ' s b o o k s a r e t o S t e p h e n . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e " a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e human t o t h e v e g e t a b l e . . . s y m b o l i z e s a p a s s i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l i f e " 4 3 i n P r o u s t ' s work. And y e t we s h a l l see t h a t t h i s s t a t e m e n t o n l y h o l d s t r u e f o r some f i g u r e s , w h i l e o t h e r s , M a r c e l e s p e c i a l l y , draw f r o m t h e f l o w e r s an a c u t e sense 205 of the passion of l i f e . As i n Ulysses, the red flowers of experience become more important than the white flowers of innocence. Tante Leonie can certainly be said to 'vegetate,' lying passively i n her room a l l day. In fact, Marcel links her, i n his mind, with the d r i f t i n g waterlilies which so resemble "neu-44 rastheniques" caught i n the current of their own "malaises." Perhaps an even better symbol of Tante Leonie's way of l i f e i s the " t i l l e u l , " or herb tea, that i s her trademark. What fascinates Marcel most about the tea i s that i n i t are "des tiges de vrais t i l l e u l s , comme ceux [qu'il voyait],avenue de l a Gare, modifiees, justement parce que c'etaient non des doubles, mais elles-m§mes et qu'elles avaient v i e i l l i . . . [ i l reconnaissait] les boutons verts qui ne sont pas venus a terme . . . Cette flamme rose de cierge, c'etait leur couleur encore, mais a demi eteinte et assoupi dans cette vie diminuee qu'etait l a leur et qui est comme le crepuscule 45 des fleurs." How better to describe Tante Leonie than as a flower which never quite bloomed and i s now half-dried i n the twilight of her l i f e ! And, as the wish to l i v e drains from Tante Leonie, she, l i k e the flowers, loses the red warm colour of l i f e . " . . . c'est ce grand renoncement de l a v i e i l l e s s e qui se prepare a l a Mort ^ t qui] . . . cessent de faire le voyage ou l a s o r t i e . " 4 ^ Voyaging, with a l l i t s connotations of questing for experience, Tante Leonie avoids. She i s furious that the priest should even suggest that she climb the church tower, an art that becomes the symbol for Marcel of the arduous ascent of the a r t i s t towards a 206 c o m p a s s i o n a t e v i e w o f l i f e . M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , T a n t e L e o n i e ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n o f l i f e i s e q u a t e d w i t h r e n u n c i a t i o n o f Swann and An " ^ e s ] S p i n e s r o s e " t h a t she u s e d t o l o v e . One m i g h t s a y , e v e n , t h a t Swann and h i s r e d h a w t h o r n s a r e l i f e ; Swann, w i t h h i s g r e e n e y e s and h i s r e d d i s h h a i r r e s e m b l e s i n c o l o u r a t i o n h i s b e l o v e d h a w t h o r n s . And h e , l i k e h i s f a t h e r , p l a c e s so much v a l u e o n l i f e t h a t he a l m o s t comes t o r e p r e s e n t t h e w i l l t o l i v e . The s i g h t o f h i s " a u b e p i n e s e t [ s o n ] e t a n g " 4 8 makes S w a n n ' s f a t h e r f o r g e t h i s w i f e ' s r e c e n t d e a t h i n t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e s u n l i g h t a n d a l l t h a t i s g o o d i n l i f e . S i n c e M a r c e l does l i s t e n t o t h e m e s s a g e . o f t h e a u b e p i n e s , d o e s , a s we s h a l l s e e , u s e h i s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , he i s a b l e t o u t i l i z e T a n t e L e o n i e ' s t e a t o c a r r y o u t t h e p i l g r i m a g e i n t o l i f e w h i c h she a v o i d e d . I m m e d i a t e l y , t h e s t r o n g e s t image w h i c h o c c u r s t o h i m i s t h e memory o f " t o u t e s l e s f l e u r s de n o t r e j a r d i n 49 e t c e l l e s d u p a r e de M . S w a n n . " Swann, b e i n g s u c h an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f n a t u r e , c a n n o t h i m s e l f p lumb n a t u r e ' s d e p t h s . T h a t i s , l i k e n a t u r e , he r e m a i n s o n a n u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l much o f t h e t i m e w i t h h i m s e l f and o t h e r s . I t i s h i s r o l e t o i l l u s t r a t e r a t h e r t h a n t o a c t . E v e n i n S o c i e t y he i s remembered a s a b o t a n i s t . As t h e D u c h e s s s a y s " . . . c ' e s t Swann q u i m ' a t o u j o u r s beaucoup p a r l e de b o t a n i q u e . . . e t i l me 50 m o n t r a i t des m a r i a g e s e x t r a o r d i n a i r e des f l e u r s . " Swann p o i n t s o u t N a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y , y e t i s n o t h i m s e l f c r e a t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y when c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t i s f i r s t n e e d e d . A g a i n , he p e r s u a d e s t h e 207 Duchess to buy p a i n t i n g s of f l o w e r s and E l s t i r ' s p a i n t i n g o f a s p a r a g u s e s . . a v e g e t a b l e w h i c h can o n l y remind a P r o u s t r e a d e r of the Combray servant g i r l ' s arduous pregnancy. To M a r c e l , he 51 becomes " l ' a u t e u r i n c o n s c i e n t de mes t r i s t e s s e s , " those sorrows which w i l l g i v e depth to M a r c e l and l a t e r to h i s a r t . Then M a r c e l , becoming s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , goes one s tep beyond Swann, to b e i n g a 52 " b o t a n i s t e m o r a l " ; i n t e r p r e t i n g , as Stephen would say, the s i g n s of na ture as they r e l a t e to Man. A l l o f the f l o w e r s o f Swann*s garden have meaning f o r M a r c e l . The f i r s t f l o w e r s he n o t i c e s are the l i l a c s " j eunes h o u r i s q u i g a r d a i e n t dans ce j a r d i n f r a n c a i s l e s t o n s v i f s e t p u r s des 53 m i n i a t u r e s de P e r s e . " They add the v a r i e t y , the mystery, and the f r e s h n e s s to t h i s garden t h a t Swann; as a Jew, o r , at l e a s t 54 a c o n v e r t e d Jew; adds to an i n b r e d S o c i e t y . W i t h t h i s E a s t e r n e x o t i c i s m , M a r c e l a s s o c i a t e s the a d v e n t u r e , exc i tement and know-ledge of new and s t range l a n d s which he f i n d s i n the A r a b i a n N i g h t s . 56 Some of t h i s knowledge, w h i c h he g a i n s i n d i r e c t l y from Swann, i s d i f f e r e n t i n d e e d ; over the h o m o s e x u a l i t y of the Sodom and G-omorrhe s e c t i o n s h i n e s the l u r i d glow of those two O r i e n t a l c i t i e s . But t h i s knowledge of the ' n i g h t - c o u n t r y ' of C h a r l u s and h i s f r i e n d s w i l l go i n t o the work o f a r t which w i l l keep M a r c e l a l i v e i n h i s r e a d e r s ' minds as Scheherezade, t o o , was saved from death by h e r s t o r y - t e l l i n g . Swann's ' J e w i s h n e s s , ' as we can see, has s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s to t h a t of Bloom. Bloom i s a f r e s h person - i n D u b l i n 55 208 society. Bloom f i r s t meets young Stephen i n a l i l a c garden. He leads his charge through exotic adventures i n Circe 's region which i s called, at different times, night town1 and the Jewish section. Bloom's last thoughts before going to . sleep are of Sinbad; by undertaking the voyage of experience, which necessarily involves sinning, Bloom has become a f i r e -purified soul, as enduring as the diamonds Sinbad found i n the val ley. Other flowers i n Swann1s park exude a particular v i r i l i t y ; " . . . le gla ieul , laissant f lechi r ses glaives avec un abandon royal. etendait sur I'eupatoire et l a grenouillette au pied mouille "57 les fleurs de l i s en lambeaux . . . de son sceptre lacustre. There i s nothing furtive about the masculinity of these emblems of Swann's kingdom. They offer proud symbols of c rea t iv i ty . What a contrast to Marcel's cabinetsentant 1' i r i s I Near these flowers grows a poppy. I ts "flamme rouge, au-dessus de sa bouee graisseuse et noire [ lu i ] fa isa i t battre le coeur, comme au voyageur qui apercoit sur une terre basse une premidre barque echouee que repare un calf at, et s* eerie, avant de l ' avo i r encore vue: [La Mer] j"5® J J 0 f ] _ o w e r could be more symbolic of Marcel's quest, unconscious and conscious, internal and external. Since the poppy i s the flower of sleep, i t i s a sign of the r i ch source of subconscious knowledge that Marcel w i l l . t a p . On the other hand, red, as we shal l see, i s the colour 209 o f ' e a r t h l y 1 exper ience i n P r o u s t ' s work; the p u r g a t o r i a l f l a m e , the r i c h e a r t h y loam, and the imagery o f the sea a l l combine i n t h i s poppy to i n c l u d e the t h r e e elements of M a r c e l ' s l i f e voyage . Of c o u r s e , the s e a - s i d e , B a l b e c , - w i l l open many doors of exper ience t o M a r c e l — h i s l o v e f o r A l b e r t i n e , h i s f u r t h e r v i s i t i n g i n S o c i e t y , h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h a r l u s , h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h E l s t i r , the p a i n t e r . • The poppy appears t o M a r c e l j u s t .as he i s t r y i n g to a n a l y s e the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f some w h i t e hawthorns . These hawthorns are the most i m p o r t a n t f l o w e r s i n the n o v e l ; we have a l r e a d y seen t h a t the p i n k hawthorns have the s i g n i f i c a n c e of l i f e i t s e l f to Tante L e o n i e . M a r c e l , l i k e h e r , l i n k s them i n e x t r i c a b l y with . Swann. Q u i t e a m u s i n g l y , he pre tends o t h e r w i s e , so t h a t h i s f a t h e r w i l l have to c o n t r a d i c t him and t e l l h i m , " M a i s non, c e t t e c h a r g e -l a e t a i t au pere de Swann, c e t t e haie f a i t p a r t i e du pare de S w a n n . " 5 9 Why are these blossoms so i m p o r t a n t t h a t they g i v e Swann m y t h o l o g i c a l s t a t u r e i n M a r c e l ' s eyes , and how can the young M a r c e l i n t e r p r e t t h e i r message? At f i r s t , M a r c e l gazes at some. whi te hawthorns , t r y i n g c o n s c i o u s l y to a n a l y s e t h e i r essence . " M a i s j ' a v a i s beau r e s t e r devant l e s a u b e p i n e s , " he says "avec [ l e u r ] a l l e g r e s s e j u v e n i l e . . . e l l e s m ' e f f r a i e n t i n d e f i n i m e n t l e m§me charme avec une p r o f u s i o n i n e p u i s a b l e , mais sans me l a i s s e r a p p r o f o n d i r davantage, comme ces melodies q u ' o n r e j o u e cent f o i s 210 de s u i t e sans descendre p l u s avant dans l e u r s e c r e t e . " 0 The f a u l t l i e s i n the f l o w e r s themse lves , whose y o u t h f u l ' a l l e g r e s s e ' has not enough depth f o r M a r c e l , and i n h i s way of s t u d y i n g them. He t u r n s away from them " p o u r l e s aborder e n s u i t e avec des f o r c e s p l u s f r a i c h e s " 0 ^ and sees , at t h a t v e r y moment the poppy which s i g n i f i e s the r o l e h i s subconsc ious and h i s Ba lbec e x p e r i e n c e must p l a y i n g i v i n g him the ' f r e s h s t r e n g t h ' to i n t e r p r e t n a t u r e i n a r t . T h i s s m a l l g e s t u r e i s an a c c u r a t e prophesy o f the p a t t e r n of M a r c e l ' s l i f e ; M a r c e l w i l l ' t u r n away' -from a r t a t B a l b e c , b u t , f rom t h i s v e r y ac t he w i l l g a i n a l l the e x p e r i e n c e which w i l l be the s t r e n g t h of h i s novel . . . J u s t a f t e r s e e i n g the poppy, M a r c e l a t t a i n s the symbol of h i s v i s i o n , o r ep iphany , as Stephen might c a l l i t . . F o r the f i r s t t i m e , he sees the r e d hawthorn . " A l o r s , me dormant c e t t e . joie que nous eprouvons quand nous voyons de n o t r e p e i n t r e p r e f e r e une oeuvre q u i d i f f e r e de c e l l e s que nous c o n n a i s s i o n s , ou b i e n s i l ' o n nous mene devant un t a b l e a u dont nous n ' a v i o n s v u j u s q u e - l a . q u ' une e s q u i s s e au c r a y o n , s i un morceau entendu seulement au piano nous a p p a r a f t 62 e n s u i t e r e v l t u des c o u l e u r s de l ' o r c h e s t r e , mon grandpdre m'appelant et me des ignant l a h a i e de T a n s o n v i l l e , me d i t : ' T o i , q u i aime l e s aubepines , regarde un peu c e t t e Spine r o s e ; e s t - e l l e j o l i e ' I En e f f e t c'Stait une Spine, mais r o s e , p l u s b e l l e encore l e s b l a n c h e s . E l l e a u s s i a v a i t une parure de fS*te-de ces s e u l e s v r a i e s fStes que sont l e s f l t e s r e l i g i e u s e s . 211 M a r c e l ' s a l l u s i o n t o m u s i c i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a c c i d e n t a l ; i t f o r e s h a d o w s h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h V i n t e u i l ' s ' s e p t u o r . ' The *Sonate ' a n d ' t h e ' S e p t u o r ' f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e t h e s y m b o l i c d i f f e r e n c e ' s b e t w e e n t h e w h i t e and t h e r e d f l o w e r s . The ' S o n a t e ' i s , l i k e t h e w h i t e h a w t h o r n , o r a u b e p i n e , a n e x p r e s s i o n o f i n n o c e n c e a n d v i r g i n i t y . ^ 4 " . . . l a S o n a t e s ' o u v r a i t s u r une aube l i l i a l e " 65 " u n monde . . . v i r g i n a l e t meuble de v e g e t a u x . " B u t , l i k e B l o o m a n d S t e p h e n , M a r c e l l e a r n s t o l o o k b e y o n d t h e u n s p o t t e d b e a u t y o f t h e w h i t e l i l y , o r t h e w h i t e h a w t h o r n . T h i s "aube l i l i a l e " c o u l d w e l l . b e h i s own y o u t h f u l i n n o c e n c e , w h i c h , w i t h e x p e r i e n c e , he l e a v e s f a r b e h i n d . Y e t , t h e ' S o n a t e ' i s i n c o m p l e t e ; i t , and o t h e r e a r l y w o r k s by V i n t e u i l a r e "de t i m i d e s e s s a i s , d e l i c i e u x m a i s b i e n f r i l e s a u p r e s du c h e f - d ' o e u v r e t r i o m p h a l e t c o m p l e t " ^ . w h i c h i s t h e ' S e p t u o r . ' Swann, o f c o u r s e , o n l y knew t h e ' S o n a t e , ' t h e p i e c e w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f i t s u n f i n i s h e d a i r b e a r s a s y m b o l i c r e s e m b l a n c e t o h i s own u n f u l f i l l e d l i f e . Swann e v e n u s e s t h e ' S o n a t e ' a s t h e theme s o n g f o r h i s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h O d e t t e . The c h o i c e i s , i r o n i c a l l y , q u i t e a p t , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h i s a f f a i r . F o r Swann r e j e c t s t h e l e s s o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e , r e f u s e s t o s e a r c h b e n e a t h a p p e a r a n c e s , a v o i d s s u f f e r i n g , a n d t h u s becomes e n t r a p p e d i n a ' w h i t e ' w o r l d p r e s i d e d o v e r by time. Swann . T h i s w o r l d , l i k e G e r t y ' s , i s , r a t h e r , more ' w h i t e w a s h e d ' t h a n ' w h i t e . 1 Swann i s c o n t e n t t o r e g a r d h i s w i f e a s a good t e a - m a k e r and an a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t , i n s t e a d o f f a c i n g a l l h i s u n p l e a s a n t k n o w l e d g e 212 o f h e r t r u e n a t u r e . T h u s , t h e ' w h i t e n e s s ' w h i c h d o m i n a t e s h i s w o r l d i s u n l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l p u r i t y a n d i n n o c e n c e o f t h e ' S o n a t e ' o r t h e w h i t e h a w t h o r n s . No man c a n r e t u r n t o t h e "aube l i l i a l e , " and no a r t i s t s h o u l d w i s h t o a t t h e expense o f t h e r i c h n e s s s u f f e r i n g b r i n g s t o a r t . N o , Swann i s i m m e r s e d i n t h e w h i t e n e s s o f d e a t h , o f a w i n t e r snow w h i c h a n a e s t h e t i s e s h i s s e n s e s , time. Swann cn c u l t i v a t e s a ' w i n t e r g a r d e n , ' w h i c h , a l t h o u g h b e a u t i f u l , h a s a l l t h e h i d d e n t h r e a t o f t h e " s y m p h o n i e en b l a n c m a j e u r " w h i c h she t r i e s t o evoke i n h e r f u r n i s h i n g s and d r e s s . ^ A s i n t h e poem b y G a u t i e r , t h e ' o v e r w h e l m i n g e f f e c t i s one o f c o l d n e s s t o t h e p o i n t o f s t e r i l i t y o r e v e n d e a t h . When S p r i n g t i m e a p p r o a c h e s , "Mme. Swann [ t r o u v e ] q u ' on [ g d l e ] c h e z e l l e , " and she w e a r s w h i t e f u r s w h i c h r e m i n d M a r c e l o f "des d e r n i e r s c a r r e s des n e i g e s de • 69 1 ' h i v e r p l u s p e r s i s t a n t s que l e s a u t r e s . " . I t i s a s t h o u g h she w i s h e s t o p r o l o n g t h e w i n t e r and t h e a s c e n d a n c y i t g i v e s h e r o v e r Swann, a s a s u n - o r - v e g e t a t i o n f i g u r e . H e r f l o w e r s — t h e c h r y s a n -themum and o r c h i d ( C a t t e l y a ) — a r e t h e f l o w e r s o f d e a t h and i n -f e r t i l i t y . The c h r y s a n t h e m u m s , e s p e c i a l l y , m i m i c t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e d y i n g s u n w h i c h o f t e n g l e a m s i n t o h e r November s a l o n s — r - " l a r o u g e c o m b u s t i o n , l a f lamme r o s e e t b l a n c e des c h r y s a n t h e m e s 70 dans l e c r e p u s c u l e de n o v e m b r e . " Y e t Swann p r i z e s above a l l 7 t h e f l o w e r s i n h i s g a r d e n , e v e n t h e h a w t h o r n s , " u n d e r n i e r c h r y s a n t h ^ m e " w h i c h she g i v e s h i m . The f l o w e r q u i c k l y d i e s . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g t h e goad o r t h o r n o f e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h G i l b e r t e , t h e h a w t h o r n g i r l , o r A l b e r t i n e , t h e b l a c k r o s e , a r e t o M a r c e l ; Mme. Swann l i v e s o n , 2 1 3 II une r o s e s t e r i l i s e e , it 72 l o n g a f t e r Swann d i e s . She i s a l s o l i n k e d w i t h a n o t h e r s t e r i l e f l o w e r , the- o r c h i d . Swann a r r a n g e s t h e s e o r c h i d s p i n n e d t o h e r d r e s s , a s a n e x c u s e t o t o u c h h e r — b u t he i s c a r e f u l t o b r u s h away any ' p o l l e n ' t h a t l a n d s i n h e r l a p ' 73 T h e i r u n i o n , a l t h o u g h G i l b e r t e i s s u p p o s e d l y i t s p r o d u c t , 74 i s a s s p i r i t u a l l y b a r r e n , a s t h e u n i o n b e t w e e n C h a r l u s and J u p i e n , a l s o s y m b o l i z e d b y a n o r c h i d , i s p h y s i c a l l y b a r r e n . M a r c e l h i m s e l f f a l l s p a r t i a l l y u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f t h i s " s p h i n x 75 b l a n c , " t h i s "femme . . . cygne . . . " — o r s i r e n — t h a t i s I-ime. Swann . 7fi She i s t h e ' W h i t e G o d d e s s ' who r u l e s " l e J a r d i n e l y s e e n de l a 77 Femme," t h a t i s , t h e w i n t e r w o r l d d o m i n a t e d b y t h e e a r t h - g o d d e s s w h i l e t h e s u n o r v e g e t a t i o n god t r a v e l s t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d ( h e n c e " e l y s e e n . " ) The " B o i s " becomes a " d r u i d i q u e " f o r e s t , w i t h i t s " g r a n d s c h i n e s " i n w h i c h t h e M a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e s l e e p s . M a r c e l remembers Mme. Swann b e s t d u r i n g h e r w i n t e r w a l k s , when she u s e d t h e i c e a n d snow a s a " c a d r e " f o r h e r b e a u t y . A n d h e , t o o , l i k e Swann, i s t e m p t e d t o t a k e t h a t e m a s c u l a t i n g j o u r n e y b a c k t o t h e t i m e o f h i s dependence o n o t h e r s , h i s "aube l i l i a l e , " " l e temps 79 h e u r e u x de [ s a ] c r o y a n t e j e u n e s s e . " Y e t , t h i s r e t r o g r e s s i v e j o u r n e y r e t u r n s t o a l l t h e f a u l t s o f t h e y o u n g M a r c e l w h i c h k e p t h i m f r o m k n o w l e d g e and c r e a t i v i t y . A g a i n , he s e e s t h e g a r d e n and t h e women i n i t a s s o m e t h i n g a r t i f i c i a l ; a g a i n , he t h i n k s o f t h o s e " c r o y a n c e s " w h i c h were so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i d o l a t r y and w h i c h l e a v e t h e s l i g h t l y b i t t e r and i r r a t i o n a l t a s t e o f " u n 8 0 a t t a c h e m e n t f e t i c h i s t e " ; a g a i n , he i s t o r m e n t e d by " l ' i d e e 214 81 de per fec t ion ," and longs for that which used to be above him i n rank and i s now beyond him i n time. Narrowly, he avoids "ces chevaux furieux et lSgers comme des guSpes, l e s yeux in jec tSs de sang comme les cruels chevaux de Diomdde" that p u l l time. Swann1s carr iage . Diomede's horses were man-eaters; Mme. Swann i s waspish, l i k e Francoise . But for Marcel , the oaks of t h i s 82 garden 11 [continue] a v iv re de l eur v i e propre" and the mis t le toe , g l i s t e n i n g b r igh t ly , s t i l l ca r r i e s the soul of the masculine c r e a t i v i t y which w i l l a r i se i n the spr ing . For Marcel , unl ike Swann, has learned the lesson of the beaut i fu l red Septuor. Like the red hawthorn, i t goes beyond 83 innocence, " v i r g i n a l et meuble de vSgStaux." In fac t , i t sur-passes the peaceful, ' vege ta l ' : s e t t i ng of the 'Sonate, ' evoking, ins tead, a far more dramatic scene which teaches Marcel the f u l l s igni f icance of the aube Spine or dawn thorn. The 'Septuor' i s the 'triumphant' expression of V i n t e u i l ' s confrontation wi th suffer ing, h i s own journey to the underworld. I t , too, depicts a dawn, but a turbulent , red dawn dominated by "l 'esperance mystique OA de l 'Ange ecarlate du Mat in . " This angel i s surely the angel of the resurrec t ion who brings the promise of no ordinary morning, OCT but " l ' e t e r n e l matin," to those who have worn the thorns (Spines) of suf fer ing . Like the Angel of the Appocalypse, she reigns af ter the o ld world, the o ld b e l i e f s have been destroyed, and, l i k e that angel, she heralds the advent of a bet ter world, more stable for 215 h a v i n g b e e n t e s t e d . The s y m b o l s o f e x p e r i e n c e p u l s e t h r o u g h V i n t e u i l ' s w o r k — t h e " s u r f a c e s u n i e s e t p l a n e s comme c e l l e s de l a a e r , p a r un m a t i n d ' o r a g e . " " l a p romesse . . . de l ' A u r o r e " 86 " e m p o u r p r e e " as t h o u g h b y the- b l o o d o f C h r i s t o r t h e m a r t y r s . The p a s t o r a l I d y l l o f t h e ' S o n a t e , ' c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e ' m o r n i n g ' o f M a r c e l ' s Combray c h i l d h o o d , h a s b e e n r e p l a c e d b y t h e ' P a s s i o n ' 87 o f h i s 1 c h e m i n de l a c r o i x , ' h i s ' G o l g o t h a ' and ' C a l v u s M o n s . ' P o r V i n t e u i l , t o o , t h e j o u r n e y h a s b e e n a r d u o u s . H i s s u f f e r i n g , a s we s h a l l s e e , h a s b e e n c a u s e d b y h i s k n o w l e d g e o f h i s d a u g h t e r ' v i c e s . Y e t , he i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by i t , t e m p e r e d by s o r r o w , a n d h i s m u s i c t e l l s o f a r e n e w e d c r e a t i v i t y . I n t h e ' S e p t u o r ' t h e r e 88 i s " u n c h a n t de s e p t n o t e s , " "comme u n m y s t i q u e c h a n t du c o q , " w h i c h w o u l d , i n t h e g r a i l l e g e n d s , n o t i f y t h e q u e s t i n g k n i g h t t h a t he h a d p a s s e d t h e t e s t and t h a t t h e d a r k f o r c e s o f e n c h a n t -ment h a d b e e n c o n q u e r e d by t h e dawn. The ' s t o r m ' l e a v e s " l ' a t m o -89 s p h e r e f r o i d e - , l a v e e de p l u i e " a s i n T . S . E l i o t ' s poem The  W a s t e l a n d , and the s e v e n n o t e s , r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e s e v e n d a y s o f c r e a t i o n , e m p h a s i z e s t h e b i r t h o f a new w o r l d . A m o t i f l i k e t h e p e a l i n g o f b e l l s a t n o o n c o m p l e t e s t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e s u n . " A m i d i , p o u r t a n t , 1' e n s o l e i l l e m e n t b r u l a n t e t p a s s a g e r , o e l l e s e m b l a i t s ' a c c o m p l i r en u n b o n h e u r - l o u r d , v i l l a g e o i s e t p r e s q u e r u s t i q u e , o u l a t i t u l a t i o n de c l o c h e s r e t e n t i s s a n t e s 90 e t d e c h a J n e e s . . . s e m b l a i t m a t e r i a l i s e r l a p l u s e p a i s s e j o i e . " The a d j e c t i v e s ' v i l l a g e o i s e t r u s t i q u e ' M a r c e l h a s a l r e a d y a p p l i e d 216. t o the r e d hawthorns. As a c h i l d , M a r c e l i s q u i t e ready to accept t h i s spontaneous g a i e t y on the pa r t o f na tu r e , " I 1 i n t e n t i o n de f e s t i v i t e dans l e s f l e u r s . . . spontanement . . . emprimee 91 avec l a n a i v e t e d 'une cornraercante de v i l l a g e . " As a romant ic y o u t h , i n the middle o f h i s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h A l b e r t i n e , however, he i s f a s c i n a t e d more by the f l o w e r ' s resemblance to "une coupe de marbre rose" w i t h buds "de rouges sanguines" which " t r a h i s s a i e n t p l u s encore que l e s f l e u r s 1 'essence p a r t i c u l i e r , i r r e s i s t i b l e , 92 de l ' e p i n e . " That i s , . M a r c e l p r e f e r s the symbol o f s u f f e r i n g , the t h o r n , to tha t o f j o y f u l r e s u r r e c t i o n , the dawn. But the s u f f e r i n g i s j u s t the bud from which the mature f l o w e r w i l l deve lop . M a r c e l i s much l i k e Stephen i n h i s r e j e c t i o n o f j o y . T h i s m o t i f o f the b e l l s , ' r u s t i q u e ' as i t i s , M a r c e l a t f i r s t f i n d s "presque l a i d , l e rythme s ' e n t r a i n a i t s ipen ib lemen t a 93 t e r r e . . . " E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s r emind ing a young poet who shares S tephen ' s r ead ines s to ascend to the h e i g h t s w h i l e b e l i t t l i n g the depths , of h i s debt to the e a r t h and to the Wisdom of Swann's garden. E v e n t u a l l y , M a r c e l , n e a r i n g the end o f h i s journey towards c r e a t i v i t y , comes to r ega rd t h i s m o t i f as the most b e a u t i f u l pa r t of V i n t e u i l ' s work. The hawthorns have a grea t d e a l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms o f the c h a r a c t e r s of the book. V i n t e u i l ' s daughter i s one o f the best examples of P r o u s t ' s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of f l o w e r s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and a l l e g o r y . Marce l f i r s t t h i n k s o f V i n t e u i l ' s daughter i n terms 217 o f t h e w h i t e h a w t h o r n s o f i n n o c e n c e s p r e a d on t h e a l t e r o f t h e V i r g i n M a r y . H o w e v e r , e v e n t h e s e h a w t h o r n s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y p u r e . "Quand , a u moment de q u i t t e r l ' e g l i s e , j e m ' a g e n o u i l l a i d e v a n t 1 ' a u t e l , j e . s e h t i s t o u t d ' u n c o u p , e n me r e l e v a n t , s ' S c h a p p e r des a u b e p i n e s une o d e u r amdre e t douce d ' a m a n d e s , e t j e r e m a r q u a i a l o r s s u r l e s f l e u r s de p e t i t e s p l a c e s p l u s b l o n d e s s o u s l e s q u e l l e s j e me f i g u r a i que d e v a i t etre c a c h e e c e t t e o d e u r , comme, s o u s l e s p a r t i e s g r a t i n l e s , l e g o u t d ' u n e f r a n g i p a n e o u , s o u s l e u r s t a c h e s de r o u s s e u r , c e l u i des j o u e s 94 de M l j e . V i n t e u i l . " M i l e . V i n t e u i l i s a l e s b i a n — " s o u s l a f i g u r e hormnasse du ' b o n d i a b l e ' [ e l l e a ] l e s t r a i t s p l u s f i n s 95 d ' u n e j e u n e f i l l e e p l o r e e . " T h u s , t o w a r d s h e r f a t h e r she p l a y s t h e r o l e o f t h e ' g o o d d e v i l ' as i n t h e l e g e n d o f t h e ' f o r t u n a t e f a l l . ' T h r o u g h h e r , he ' e a t s o f t h e t r e e o f k n o w -l e d g e ' — b e c o m e s aware o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f good, and e v i l . H e r l o v e a f f a i r w i t h h e r f r i e n d . h a s i t s - g o o d and b a d , s i d e s ; a s a s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e i t , l i k e a l l e x a m p l e s o f l o v e , h a s t h e b i t t e r a n d t h e s w e e t , t h e p l e a s a n t t a s t e and t h e h i n t o f p o i s o n t h a t t h e a l m o n d c a r r i e s . She h a s much o f t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f h e a r t o f an i n n o c e n t , a w h i t e f l o w e r , and some s t a i n s o f c o r r u p t i o n o r 96 s o r r o w o f a r e d f l o w e r . T h i s " r o u s s e u r " i s e c h o e d i n t h e R o u s s a i n v i l l e , where G i l b e r t e p l a y e d h e r s e n s u a l games w i t h o t h e r y o u n g s t e r s , j u s t a s G i l b e r t e , t o o , opened M a r c e l ' s e y e s t o s e x u a l k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h he l a t e r l i k e n e d t o t h e ' l o v e - p o i s o n ' 218 of T r i s t an and Isolde . Through h is daughter's g i r l f r i end , . V i n t e u i l f i n a l l y achieves h i s resur rec t ion , fo r i t i s she who gathers together a l l the notes of h i s 'Septuor' and arranges i t in to a f in i shed piece. Thus the ' fortunate f a l l * of h i s daughter, and h i s knowledge of i t , leads to the deepening of h i s work, and h i s f i n a l transcendance i n a r t . Vice, and art often 97 f l o u r i s h together; a s p i r i t u a l g i f t i s often l inked to a 98 physica l blemish. The second most important time that Marcel encounters the hawthorns i s at Balbec. ' Marcel has been neglect ing h i s a r t i s t -f r iend and spending a l l h i s time with a band of g i r l s , of which Alber t ine i s an example. During a walk.he sees "un buisson d*aubepines d e f l e u r i s . " These " f leurs de l 'aubepine [sont] % 99 p a r e i l l e s a de gaies j e u n e s - f i l l e s I tourdies , coquettes . . . " A l l the despair l u r k i n g behind the hedonist ic philosophy "carpe. diem" overwhelms him. "Cet a i n s i l ' e s p o i r du p l a i s i r que je t rouverais avec une jeune f i l l e nouvelle venant d'une autre jeune f i l l e par qui je l ' a v a i s connu, l a plus recente e t a i t a lors comme une de ces var ie tes de rose qu'on obtient grace a. une rose d'une autre espece. Cet remontant de co ro l l e en co ro l l e dans cette chaine de f l e u r s , l e p l a i s i r d'en connaitre une differente me f a i s a i t retourner vers ce l l e s a qui je l a devais . . . Helas! dans l a f l e u r l a plus fraiche ou pent d is t inguer l e s points imperceptible qui pour 1 'espr i t ave r t i dessinent deja ce qui 219 s e r a , par l a d e s s i c a t i o n ou l a f r u c t i f i c a t i o n des c h a i r s "100 a u j o u r d . ' h u i en f l e u r , l a forme immuahle . . . de l a g r a i n e "ces dures g r a i n e s • . . que mes amies s e r a i e n t un j o u r . " 1 ^ 1 Thus, M a r c e l l e a r n s t h a t one o f the worst t h o r n s of l i f e i s o l d age and d e a t h . F l o w e r s worshipped f o r t h e i r b e a u t y , young g i r l s i d o l i z e d f o r t h e i r y o u t h b r i n g no l a s t i n g j o y . The bad must be t a s t e d w i t h the good; n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y must be t r a n s c e n d e d . T h i s knowledge of d e a t h I s not the o n l y knowledge w h i c h comes to M a r c e l i n terms of f l o w e r imagery . He remembers h i s mother i n dresses t h a t are the b l u e o f the sent imenta l f o r g e t - m e - n o t 102 and the w h i t e of the chaste V i r g i n ' s l i l y . A t f i r s t , t o o , the Duchess appears on the s c e n e " w i t h h e r s t r i k i n g b l u e eyes and a mauve s c a r f . However, soon she shows M a r c e l her t r u e c o l o u r s . The d r e s s she wears to the masquerade p a r t y , when she r e f u s e s to i n c o n v e n i e n c e h e r s e l f by b e l i e v i n g i n Swann's imminent d e a t h , 103 i s r e d . M a r c e l d e s c r i b e s i t as "une espece de grande f l e u r de sang" at a p o i n t l o n g a f t e r h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the Duchess i s complete . . F i n a l l y , the m o t i f o f the w i n t e r f o r e s t r e t u r n s when M a r c e l makes h i s l a s t v i s i t i n t o S o c i e t y . , The a r t i s t s who have-succumbed t o the t e m p t a t i o n s M a r c e l f e l t i n Mme. Swann's s a l o n — " i l s m ' i n v i t a i e n t ces chrysanthSmes . . . a gouter pendant c e t t e heure du the l e s p l a i s i r s s i c o u r t s de n o v e m b r e " 1 ^ 4 have now become, each , l i k e "une f l e u r ou un f r u i t q u i a s e c h e . " " L a 220 v i e i l l e s s e ne l e s a v a i t pas m u r i s . 1 0 3 H e r e , M a r c e l a g a i n i s reminded ? on s e e i n g the Duchess^of the m i s t l e t o e w h i c h hears the c r e a t i v e p r i n c i p l e . He i s l u c k i e r than Swann on h i s f i r s t f o r a y i n t o s o c i e t y , l i k e M a r c e l , a f t e r a l o n g absence; t h i s ' m a t i n e e ' f o r Swann i s l i k e a day of judgement. He even hears a g a i n the ' s o n a t e , 1 but i t reminds him o n l y of Odette and " l e s p e t a l e s ne igeux et f r i s e du C h r y s a n t h e m e . T h e Duchess, who was to t e a c h M a r c e l the language of the f l o w e r s , passes a judgement on h i m , s y m b o l i c a l l y . Her headdress c o n t a i n s some hawthorn f r u i t s — b u t they are f r o z e n . Swann, unable to answer the c a l l o f a r t , i s l i k e a d r i e d f r u i t o f h i s own hawthorns . 107 The best he can be i s " m i - a r t i s t e , m i - g a l a n t . " M a r c e l , on the o t h e r hand, at h i s l a s t ' s a l o n , ' f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s i n a l l i t s depth the t r u e message of the r e d and the w h i t e f l o w e r s . D u r i n g the ' m a t i n e e ' a t the P r i n c e s s de Guermantes M a r c e l meets two women, symbols of the two ' d a w n s . ' One i s the daughter o f G i l b e r t e and S t . Loup. She, l i k e the w h i t e hawthorn , i s a symbol o f i n n o c e n c e . M a r c e l says "Je l a t r o u v a i s b i e n b e l l e : p l e i n e encore d ' e s p e r a n c e s , r i a n t e , formee des annees m§mes que j ' a v a i s perdues , e l l e r e s s e m b l a i t a ma J e u n e s s e . m 1 ^ 8 A l t h o u g h he had f e l t a " c e r t a i n sent iment d ' i d o l S t r i e pour l e s f u t u r e s G i l b e r t f o r once, M a r c e l has a v o i d e d the t e m p t a t i o n to i d o l i z e Y o u t h . M i l e . S t . L o u p and the y o u t h , innocence , s p r i n g t i m e , i n e x p e r i e n c e which she r e p r e s e n t s i s o n l y one p a r t of a l a r g e r p a t t e r n . She i s 221 however, an important part ; i n her are united the threads of Swann's way and the Guermantes' way, the two "c8tes" Marcel thought so d i f fe ren t . Her name St (saint) Loup (w rolf) reminds the reader of the mixture of good and had q u a l i t i e s i n her father, and, indeed, i n a l l Prous t ' s characters. Most of a l l , Marcel fee ls that "Le temps incolore et i n sa i s i s s ab l e s 1 e t a i t . . . mater ia l i se en e l l e . ' ^ She i s one part of that double perspec-t i v e , i n present and past, which enables Marcel to experience that 'moment out of time' which transcends mortal contingencies. This i s Swann's l a s t g i f t to Marcel , fo r she i s h i s granddaughter. Marcel has already met the woman who represents the red flower of experience. Dressed i n "une so ie r i e nacarat devant l aque l l e l e s plus rouges fuchsias eussent p a l i , 1 1 "'""'•^  her h a i r a dark brown, t h i s woman makes a s t r i k i n g contrast to M i l e . S t . Loup. Cer ta in ly no v i r g i n , she res ts as though from "un accouche-112 ment prochain, recent ou manque." To. Marcel , she i s a symbol of f e r t i l i t y . "C'est l e Temps q u ' e l l e bercai t dans cette nace l l e , " he says, "ou f l eu r i s s a i en t l e nom de Saint-Euverte et l e s ty le 113 Empire en soies de fuchsias rouge." She i s r e c l i n i n g on "une chaise longue . . . a l ' i n t e r i e u r incurvee comme un berceau" which i s placed next to "une psyche support! par une Minnerve. Now, although 'psyche' here means a k ind of mirror , Psyche was also the c l a s s i c a l pe rson i f i ca t ion of the Soul . Minnerva was the quick-wit ted goddess who 'supported' Ulysses on h i s voyage. Marcel , 222 116 a§me] . . . q u i ne l a i s s e pas au re.but l e s f i l s a r r a c h l s . " l i k e U l y s s e s , has ' f a i t un l o n g v o y a g e ' ; he - has escaped the 115 t r a p s o f h i s ovm sea-bound C a l y p s o , w i t h her t e m p t a t i o n s of the f l e s h , and has r e t u r n e d t o a Penelope t h a t i s p a r t of h i s ovm s p i r i t , an " o u v r i e r e inconnue . . . dans 1'ombre de [ l u i -m.% I n o t h e r words , the woman i n r e d i n s p i r e s him t o p u l l t o g e t h e r a l l the t h r e a d s of the past and the p r e s e n t s - " . . . e n t r e l e moindre p o i n t de n o t r e passe et tous l e s a u t r e s un r i c h e r e s e a u 117 de s o u v e n i r s ne l a i s s e que l e c h o i x des communicat ions" M a r c e l has c l i m b e d the d i f f i c u l t s t a i r c a s e to the top of the c h u r c h tower i n Combray w h i c h s y m b o l i z e d the bes t p o s s i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e on l i f e . He f e e l s "comme un p e i n t r e montant un chemin . . . [ou] [ l e s a r b r e s ] l u i cache l a v u e . P a r une breche i l l ' a p e r c o i t , 118 i l l ' a t o u t e n t i e r devant l u i , i l prend l e s p inceaux . . . " P o r M a r c e l has d e c i d e d to w r i t e i n o r d e r to preserve a tenuous h o l d on i m m o r t a l i t y and the 'moment out of t i m e . ' He- has l e a r n e d v e r y w e l l the l e s s o n o f the hawthorns , perhaps e s p e c i a l l y o f the hawthorn, b e r e f t o f f l o w e r s , on the c l i f f a t B a l b e c . " M o i je d i s que l a l o i c r u e l l e de l ' a r t e s t que l e s § t r e s meurent et que nous-m§mes mourions en e p u i s a n t t o u t e s l e s s o u f f r a n c e s , pour que pousse l ' h e r b e non de l - ' o u b l i mais de l a v i e e t e r n e l l e , l ' h e r b e drue des oeuvres f econdes , sur l a q u e l l e l e s g e n e r a t i o n s v i e n d r o u t f a i r garment, sans s o u i c i de ceux q u i dorment en dessous , l e u r ' d e j e u n e r sur l ' h e r b e . ' M a r c e l has found a 223 t r u t h , a " v e r i t e soupconnee p a r c h a c u n , " and "can "but r e j o i c e on t h i s , the summi t o f h i s q u e s t . Thus , Stephen and M a r c e l bo th l e a r n i m p o r t a n t , p o s i t i v e l e s s o n s from f l o w e r s . ' F l o w e r s o f i d l e n e s s ' f o r b o t h are r e p l a c e d by ' f l o w e r s of p a s s i o n . ' B o t h can expect t o see some of the ' t h o r n y ' s i d e of l o v e ; b o t h v / i l l be tempered by s u f f e r i n g . Bloom i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s f o r Stephen i n the metaphor of f l o w e r s t u r n i n g , i n t o c o a l and then diamonds through heat and p r e s s u r e . Swann 1s hawthorns by t h e i r b l o o d - r e d c o l o u r and t h e i r t h o r n s foreshadow a C h r i s t - l i k e p a s s i o n f o r M a r c e l . Thus, t o b o t h p r o t a g o n i s t s , the process and change o f l i f e l e a d s to something p r e c i o u s . As w e • s h a l l see , t h i s v i s i o n of l i f e i s e s s e n t i a l l y comic . 224 CHAPTER IV NOTES 1 Sul tan, The Argument of Ulysses , p. 84. 2 j o y c e , A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Han, p. 217. 3 I b i d . , p. 223. 4 This pos i t ive use of the symbolism of flowers i n assoc ia t ion wi th death i s an advance on the way i n which the Dubliners used flowers so l e ly i n order to mask the smell of the decaying corpse, 3 Joyce, Ulysses , p . 113. 6 I b i d . , p . 356. 7 I b i d . , p. 473. 8 I b i d . , p . 78. 9 I b i d . , p . 79. 1 0 Joyce, A P o r t r a i t ofthe A r t i s t as a Young Han, p. 244-4. 1 1 Joyce, Ulysses, p. 575-1 2 I b i d . , p . 18. 1 5 Shakespeare, W i l l i a m , Hamlet, Act I , Scene I I I . 1 4 I b i d . , p. 781. 1 3 F . i l T T i a n n . James Joyce, p . 516. ^ Joyce, Ulysses, p . 673. I b i d . , p . 7 3 7 . 225 18 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 4 6 1 . Op . c i t . 20 A c t u a l l y , l i l i e s do n o t r e m a i n p u r e i n U l y s s e s . A g i r l c a l l e d L i l y i s f o u n d ' s p o o n i n g * w i t h h e r boy f r i e n d ( p . 2 2 ) . I n t h e C i r c e e p i s o d e one f i n d s t h e ' l i l i e s o f t h e v a l l e y , ' ( p . 512) a l l 1 i m p u r e . 1 21 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 4 6 1 . 22 O x f o r d C o n c i s e D i c t i o n a r y 23 A e n e a s c o u l d o n l y s a f e l y e n t e r t h e u n d e r w o r l d when he was a rmed w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r g o l d e n b o u g h . F r a z e r s t u d i e d t h e s y m b o l o f t h e g o l d e n b o u g h i n h i s b o o k o f t h e same name. He c l a i m e d t h a t i t was t h e p r i n c i p a l f e r t i l i t y s y m b o l o f t h e D r u i d s and o t h e r n a t u r e c u l t i s t s . The bough was t h e m i s t l e t o e , w h i c h l i v e d o n when t h e oak d i e d i n w i n t e r . The s o u l o f t h e o a k , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s u n o r v e g e t a t i o n g o d , l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r i n t h e m i s t l e t o e u n t i l l i f e r e t u r n e d t o t h e o a k t r e e i n t h e s p r i n g . 24 S u l t a n , The Argument o f U l y s s e s , p . 3 2 9 . 25 E l l m a n n , James J o y c e , p . 5 1 1 . 26 B u d g e n , The M a k i n g o f U l y s s e s , p . 2 3 0 - 1 . 27 J o y c e , U l y s s e s , p . 6 9 3 . 2 8 I b i d . , p . 5 7 5 . 29 * I b i d . , p . 5 9 5 . 30 I o i d . , p . 5 4 4 . 5 1 I b i d . , p . 6 9 8 . 226 32 I b i d . , p . 714. 3 3 I b i d . , p . 737. 34 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 241 . 3 5 I b i d . , p . 734. 3 6 I b i d . , p . 760. 37 One suspects Joyce o f u s i n g the same pun on the verb as Lavrrence d i d i n The Man Who D i e d . 3 8 I b i d . , p . 782. 39 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 759 . 4 0 I b i d . , p . 235. 41 E l l m a n n , James Joyce , p . 372. 42 Joyce , U l y s s e s , p . 680. 43 P . W. P a r d w e l l , Landscape i n the ¥ o r k s o f Marce l P r o u s t , p . 161. '44 P r o u s t , A L a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 169, V o l . I . 4 5 I b i d . , p . 52, V o l . I . 4 6 I b i d . , p . 143, V o l . I . 47 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 143, V o l . I . 4 8 I b i d . , p . 15, V o l . I . 4 9 I b i d . , p . 47, V o l . I . 3 0 I b i d . , p . 517, V o l . I I . 227 5 1 I b i d . , p . 43, V o l . I . 52 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu, p . 628, V o l . I I . 5 3 I b i d . , p . 135, V o l . I . 5 4 I b i d . , p . 191, V o l . I I . 5 5 I b i d . , pp . 52, 57, V o l . I . 56 Swann arouses M a r c e l ' s c u r i o s i t y about Ba lbec by men t ion ing a church there which has an almost P e r s i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . At B a l b e c , M a r c e l i s i n t r o d u c e d to the w o r l d o f Sodome and Gomorrhe. 57 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 136-7, V o l . I . 5 8 I b i d . , p . 138-9, V o l . I . 59 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 144,. V o l . I . 6 0 I b i d . , p . 138, V o l . I . Op. e x t . The u n d e r l i n i n g i s mine . P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 139, V o l . I . 64 Remember t ha t M a r c e l , before the whi te hawthorns, f e l t as though he were "devant l ' a u t e l de l a v i e r g e . " 65 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 250, V o l . I I I . ^ P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 252, V o l . I I I . 6 7 I b i d . , p . 592, V o l . I . 6 8 I b i d . , p . 635, V o l . I . 228 69 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 634, V o l . I . 7 0 I b i d . , p . 426, V o l . I . 7 1 I b i d . , p . 219, V o l . I . 7 2 I b i d . , p . 950, V o l . . I I I . 7 3 I b i d . , p . 232, V o l . I . 74 At one p o i n t , he r parentage i s q u e r i e d , as we have seen. 75 G a u t i e r , T h e o p h i l e , Symphone en b lanc ma.jeur; l i n e s 60 and 37 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 76 Robert Graves 'book The White Goddess i s concerned w i t h an E a r t h -Goddess who sees her l o v e r d i e every w i n t e r a l o n g w i t h the v e g e t a t i o n and the sun, and who p i c k s a new l o v e r the next y e a r . Sometimes the l o v e r r e p r e s e n t i n g the sun and v e g e t a t i o n god i s k i l l e d and emasculated by the godess ' s p r i e s t e s s e s . 77 P r o u s t , .A L a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 427, V o l . I . 78 Op. c i t . 79 Proust. , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 424, V o l . I . 8 0 I b i d . , p . 425, V o l . I . Op. c i t . 8 2 n • + Op. c i t . 8 5 I b i d . , p . 250, V o l . I I I . P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 2 6 3 , V o l . I I I . 8 5 I b i d . , p . 250, V o l . I I I . 229 86 . . . Op. e x t . 8 7 I b i d . , p . 543, V o l . I l l , 8 8 I b i d . , p . 250, V o l . I I I . 89 On. c i t . P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , , p . 250, V o l . I l l , 90 9 1 I b i d . , p . 140, V o l . I . 92 Op. c i t . 9 3 I b i d . , p . 250, V o l . I I I . 94 P r o u s t , ' A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 113, V o l . I . 95 J Op. c i t . 96 P r o u s t , A L a Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 113, V o l . I . 9 7 I b i d . , p . 264, V o l . I I I . 9 8 I b i d . , p . 953, V o l . I I . 9 9 I b i d . , p . 922, V o l . I . 100 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Pe rdu , p . 891 , V o l . I . 1 0 1 I b i d . , p . 892, V o l . I . 102 Even M a r c e l ' s mother i s a s s o c i a t e d , i n d i r e c t l y , w i t h the f a t a l r e d o f the hawthorns on the n i g h t t ha t she s t ays w i t h him and reads to him o f mother-son l o v e i n F r a n c o i s l e Champi, w i t h i t s cover " r o u g e a t r e . " 103 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 37, V o l . I I I . 230 104 P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p . 596, V o l . I , 105 106 107 108 109 HQ 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 I b i d . , p. 936, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 345, V o l . I . I b i d . , p. 340, V o l . I . P r o u s t , A L a Recherche du Temps Perdu, p. 1032, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 988, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1031, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1024, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1025, V o l . I I I . Op. c i t . P r o u s t , A La Recherche du Temps Perdu , p. 1024, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 949, V o l . I . I b i d . , p. 411, V o l . I . I b i d . , p. 1030, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1035, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1038, V o l . I I I . I b i d . , p. 1046, V o l . I I I . 231 CONCLUSION Man c r e a t e s the human w o r l d , c r e a t e s i t by t r a n s f o r m i n g h i m s e l f i n t o the f a c t s of s o c i e t y : by t h i n k i n g i f he r e - c r e a t e s h i s ovm c r e a t i o n s , t r a v e r s e s over a g a i n the paths he has a l r e a d y t r a v e r s e d , r e c o n s t r u c t s the whole i d e a l l y , and t h u s , knows i t w i t h f u l l and t r u e knowledge - Croce i n E s t e t i c a V 232 Bloom and Swann at f i r s t glance may seem to be too ineffectual and unsuccessful as individuals to be useful mentors for Stephen and Marcel. Neither have succeeded i n any particularly exalted aim; both have domestic d i f f i c u l t i e s which often make them seem foolish. Yet both are deep sources of the 'Comic' i n the positive sense of the Ancient Greeks. Their very ridiculousness i s an asset. Bloom knows well that man i s a f r a i l creature; that he ought not to take himself too seriously. His advice to the Dubliners i s that they ought to have a good laugh at themselves occasionally. When Bloom finds himself i n embarrassing situations, he often salvages his dignity by accepting the fool's cap graciously— or the cuckold's horns. Young Marcel has always been bothered by a certain 'muflerie' on Swann's part, which,abetted by laziness, makes Swann prize Life over Art. However, Swarm's 'muflerie' leavens the attitude of an overly serious young a r t i s t , and the older Marcel can accept with a twinkle Swarm's 'tirade,' expressing his pretensions to being a classical lover, when, actually, he has just been vanquished by as insignificant a foe as Mme. Verdurin. Bloom, with his understanding of others, opens Stephen's eyes to a different perspective i n l i f e — a 'sculptor's, rather than a painter's vision. Self-knowledge, too, as i n any comedy, i s important to Bloom. Swann, on the other hand, alerts Marcel to the dangers of misunderstanding oneself and one's role i n l i f e , as he did. Drawn to Swann because of "des ressemblances" 1 i n 233 t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s , M a r c e l draws, f rom Swarm's e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s own, s i m i l a r , a d v e n t u r e s , a p e r s p e c t i v e which adds to h i s work the r i c h , i r o n i c a l wisdom of the mature p o e t . B loom's ' m i d d l e w a y , 1 of c o u r s e , i s a s i m i l a r i n j u n c t i o n t o Stephen to a v o i d an o v e r l y exaggerated s e l f - i m a g e i n an ambiance which o f t e n can but make i t seem r i d i c u l o u s . A n d , as we have seen w i t h M a r c e l and Swann, s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and knowledge of o t h e r s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d ; M a r c e l even l e a r n s to modify h i s ' i d e a l of p e r f e c t i o n ' about d i s c o v e r i n g the ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a w s ' which govern i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y ; o m n i s c i e n c e , much l i k e h u b r i s , i s denied i n a ' comic v i s i o n ' where much can be s a i d t o occur by chance . Bloom has a c l e a r sense of the work ings of chance, even i n such an i m p o r t a n t event as the p a t e r n i t y o f a c h i l d . He meets— and at f i r s t misses—Stephen because o f chance . U n l i k e Bloom, Stephen i s overwhelmed w i t h a sense of. p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y — and t h e r e f o r e g u i l t — f o r a c t i o n s of h i s body q u i t e beyond h i s c o n t r o l . He t a l k s o f a r o u s a l i n these terms "But does t h a t p a r t . o f the body unders tand o r what? The s e r p e n t , the most s u b t l e beast of the f i e l d . I t must unders tand when i t d e s i r e s i n one i n s t a n t and then p r o l o n g s i t s own d e s i r e i n s t a n t a f t e r i n s t a n t , s i n f u l l y . . . Who made i t to be l i k e t h a t , a b e s t i a l p a r t o f the body . . . H i s s o u l s i c k e n e d at the thought of a t o r p i d snaky l i f e f e e d i n g i t s e l f out of the t ender marrow of h i s l i f e and 2 f a t t e n i n g i t s e l f on the s l i m e of l u s t . " O b v i o u s l y , Stephen 234 needs some of the equanimi ty t h a t Bloom d i s p l a y s when he i n v e s t s a s i m i l a r c i rcumstance w i t h the aura of the comic Greek p h a l l u s . M o l l y , h i s w i f e , i s aroused by the s i g h t of a couple of dogs c o p u l a t i n g — a scene which c e r t a i n l y l a c k s the t r a g i c ' s e r p e n t * over tones of S tephen ' s ovm e x p e r i e n c e . And t h e n , dog i s god s p e l l e d backwards—the a c t of l o v e , as the Greeks b e l i e v e d , was i n s p i r e d , f o r b e t t e r o r f o r worse , by a q u i c k - m o v i n g , i m p u l s i v e god. P o r M a r c e l , chance does not always wear so happy a mask. He speaks of "quelque c r u e l l e ruse de h a s a r d " k e e p i n g one from s e e i n g the t r u e f a c e of a b e l o v e d p e r s o n . L a t e r , once he has more power to see beneath appearances h i m s e l f , he tends to expect the worst r a t h e r than the b e s t . However, he conc ludes ' t h a t "nous sommes f i n a l e m e n t e n c l i n s a t r o u v e r que dans 1 'ensemble 4 p r i s en b l o c , l e h a s a r d nous a , somme t o u t e , p l u t o t f a v o r i s e s . " Swann, who h a s , by M a r c e l ' s a d m i s s i o n , so much e f f e c t on h i s l i f e and work, was a l s o a s s i g n e d to him by chance. Y e t , he i s s t i l l the "pedoncule" o f the ' f l o w e r ' o f M a r c e l ' s l i f e , and q u i t e a good and s u i t a b l e one at t h a t . " . . . b i e n souvent 1 ' aute'uf des aspec t s de n o t r e v i e es t q u e l q u ' u n de b i e n i n f e r i e u r a Swann . . . M a r c e l , t o o , works out some k i n d of ba lance between a c c e p t i n g ' c h a n c e ' which he cannot change,and e f f e c t i n g , t h r o u g h e f f o r t , as Swann, v i c t i m of 'hasard,* c o u l d n o t , the course o f h i s l i f e . 235 That 1 chance 1 s h o u l d be l i n k e d w i t h the a c t of l o v e i n B l o o m ' s case , and t h a t i t s h o u l d form the ' s t e m ' of a . l i f e w h i c h , f o r . M a r c e l , w i l l become a b lossom, e x p h a s i s e s the aspect of c r e a t i v i t y . a n d f e r t i l i t y which is b a s i c to comedy. As we have seen, Bloom and Stephen and Swann and M a r c e l , take p a r t i n symbol ic p a t t e r n s which r e j o i c e i n the r e b i r t h o f the sun a f t e r w i n t e r , the oak t r e e a f t e r the snows, the r e j u v e n a t i o n of the human s p i r i t and body a f t e r t e s t i n g and s u f f e r i n g . Stephen i s i n t r o d u c e d , perhaps , t o a more e a r t h l y j o y than M a r c e l . Y e t , 7 t o M a r c e l , the t r u e j o y — " c e t a p p e l v e r s une j o i e s u p r a - t e r r e s t r e " — i s s t i l l r o o t e d i n " l a p l u s e p a i s s e j o i e , " [dont ] l e rythme s ' e n t r a l n a i t s i peniblement a t e r r e . . . " t h a t M a r c e l at f i r s t r e j e c t s  i t . The 'happy e n d i n g ' t r a d i t i o n a l t o comedy t a k e s on a l l the deep s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h a t of Dantes D i v i n e Comedy i n A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u . I n S t e p h e n ' s case , p h y s i c a l c r e a t i v i t y , or f e r t i l i t y , seems as i m p o r t a n t as i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i v i t y . I n M a r c e l ' s , the journey t h r o u g h l i f e i s not as i m p o r t a n t i n i t s e l f as the f i n a l , s p i r i t u a l i z e d r e s u l t . F e r t i l i t y and the f l o w e r s t h a t r e p r e s e n t . i t are c e l e b r a t e d i n b o t h n o v e l s ; but Bloom, who i n t r o d u c e s Stephen t o the f l o w e r s of l i f e as Swann does w i t h M a r c e l , i s p o r t r a y e d more s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y as a f u l f i l l e d man than h i s P r o u s t i a n c o u n t e r p a r t . There i s a l s o a sense o f ' r e t u r n i n g , ' o f c o m p l e t i o n of a c y c l e 236 i n b o t h n o v e l s . U l y s s e s i s more o b v i o u s l y ' c y c l i c ' i n p a t t e r n than. A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u . The son/sun r e t u r n s ; Bloom the t r a v e l l e r comes hack t o M o l l y - P e n e l o p e — t h e womb. Bloom s y n t h e s i s e s what he can o f h i s ovm c h a r a c t e r ; b r i n g s h i s body and mind as much i n a c c o r d w i t h each o t h e r as p o s s i b l e by f o l l o w i n g a middle c o u r s e , l i k e t h a t of O v i d ' s s u n . ' W i t h deep i n s p i r a t i o n , ' he s t a r t s another son/sun on i t s way, a g a i n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , on a m i d d l e course which w i l l enable the y o u n g s t e r to be more a c c e p t i n g of h i m s e l f , l e s s s p l i t between mind and body. A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu a l s o sees M a r c e l r e t u r n i n g t o h i s p a s t , l i v i n g and r e l i v i n g , w i t h double i n s i g h t , the journey o f h i s l i f e . H i s morning-bed becomes the womb of i n f a n c y f rom which h i s l i f e i s born and the womb o f thought from w h i c h h i s n o v e l i s b o r n . But P r o u s t emphasizes , f a r more t h a n J o y c e , a v e r t i c a l p a t t e r n , t o o . Swann> u n f u l f i l l e d , never i n t e g r a t e d , y e t g i v e s M a r c e l t h a t v e r t i c a l impulse which, a t l e a s t g a i n s him the fame of b e i n g the ' s t e m ' to a n o t h e r ' s ' b l o s s o m i n g . ' S t i l l , h i s name emphasizes h i s p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e to r i s e above m a t e r i a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s , j u s t as B l o o m ' s emphasizes h i s ovm f u l f i l l m e n t . The v e r t i c a l i m p u l s e , o f c o u r s e , e p i t o m i z e d i n M a r c e l ' s ' chemin de l a c r o i x ' adds to the ' D i v i n e Comedy' aspect o f A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u . A l l i n a l l , the works of the two authors d i v e r g e on t h e i r f i n a l c h o i c e of r e l i g i o u s p a t t e r n . Joyce chooses- to emphasize 237 the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n and p h y s i c a l c r e a t i v i t y , as we have seen, g i v i n g more sympathy to h i s ' e a r t h y ' p r o t a g o n i s t , B loom. A t the end, the ear th-mother looms l a r g e r than any o t h e r m y t h i c a l f i g u r e . She makes S t e p h e n ' s e g o c e n t r i c grumbles about p a t e r n i t y sound p e t t y . As i n a l l na ture r i t e s , and the c l a s s i c a l comedies which r e f l e c t e d them, Stephen i s urged t o g i v e up h i s s o l i t u d e , and j o i n the group, the t r i b e — t h e human r a c e . To do t h i s , he must not a s p i r e too h i g h ; ' f l y i n g , ' s y m b o l i c a l l y , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a good t h i n g . H i s mentor , Bloom, i s as warm and immediate a person as the o l d t r i b a l p r i e s t s and headmen. Stephen i s one 9 of the young ' K o u r e t e s , ' o r mature i n i t i a t e whose c r e a t i v i t y has a b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l consequence as w e l l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l one. The F i s h e r K i n g and the quest become more i m p o r t a n t i n h i s f u t u r e p a t h t h a n the c h i l d h o o d f i g u r e of the J e w i s h P a t r i a r c h , the j e a l o u s f a t h e r . P r o u s t on t h e o t h e r hand, chooses a v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a p i lgr immage and a g o a l w h i c h t r a n s c e n d n a t u r e . The ' i m m o r t a l g r a s s ' o f l i t e r a t u r e i s a h a r v e s t f o r M a r c e l which w i l l l o n g o u t l a s t n a t u r e ' s p e r i s h a b l e b l a d e s . M a r c e l s t r u g g l e s to a t t a i n h i m s e l f a ' p a t e r n i t y ' which c o n t a i n s the bes t elements of the J e w i s h P a t r i a r c h a l system; he wishes f o r , and a t t a i n s , w i l l power, a sense of j u s t i c e , the s t r e n g t h to c r e a t e , and a s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n ga ined through t o i l . Swann, who has a t t a i n e d none of these., 238 must seem a r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e . M a r c e l ' s i s the more a b s t r a c t , i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d v i s i o n which e v e n t u a l l y superceded the c l a s s i c a l , e a r t h y one. We are not s u r p r i s e d to l e a r n , t h e n , t h a t M a r c e l ' s quest w i l l be f a r more i n d i v i d u a l t h a n S t e p h e n ' s . Swarm f i t s remarkably w e l l i n t o t h i s . p a t t e r n . As M a r c e l ' s mentor , he i s a f a r more a b s t r a c t f i g u r e than Bloom i s to Stephen. Indeed, M a r c e l i s gu ided more by h i s ' s p i r i t ' and h i s 'memory' t h a n by h i s r e a l p r e s e n c e . The guide of M a r c e l ' s p r i l g r i m m a g e , t h e n , the past w h i c h Swann r e p r e s e n t s , i s a f a r l e s s immediate t h i n g than Bloom's robust example. M a r c e l ' s saga, l i k e S t e p h e n ' s , i s a success s t o r y . The g o a l s are h i g h e r ' and fewer people a t t a i n them, but ' t h e v i e w i s superb f rom the t o p . ' Bloom c e r t a i n l y does much t o r e c o n c i l e Stephen to h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; we have seen t h a t h i s r o l e i s t h a t of E l i j a h b r i n g i n g the sons back to the f a t h e r s . I r o n i c a l l y , the exper ience of a more s y m p a t h e t i c , p e r m i s s i v e f a t h e r - f i g u r e g i v e s Stephen the s t r e n g t h t o ' f l y away' towards independence . Yet the b a s i c comic p a t t e r n i s t h e r e . Son. w a r r i n g w i t h f a t h e r f o r independence, upon g a i n i n g i t i s r e c o n c i l e d , on an a d u l t b a s i s , to h i m . Stephen comes to see Bloom, i f not as h i s own f a t h e r , as a sympathet ic ' f e l l o w f a c e , 1 more of a comrade t h a n an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . S i m i l a r l y , M a r c e l i s impressed when G i l b e r t e d i s o b e y s Swann, her f a t h e r , w i t h i m p u n i t y . M a r c e l g a t h e r s a great d e a l more s t r e n g t h f rom h i s knowledge of Swann's f a i l u r e s 239 t h a n from the demanding a t t i t u d e of h i s f a t h e r . Swann does much to r e c o n c i l e M a r c e l to l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e s which he f i n d s a g o n i z i n g ; a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r a lways l i g h t e n s s o r r o w . Then t o o , the f l o w e r s of Swann 1s garden, t h e i r message of r e s u r r e c t i o n and j o y , do much to h e a r t e n M a r c e l , as does the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l of l i f e , a l e g a c y from Swann, can be put t o i n t e l l e c t u a l , o r s p i r i t u a l u s e . Swann reminds M a r c e l of the b e a u t i e s of N a t u r e ; he a l s o reminds him of c o u n t l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r common e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h M a r c e l i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f f rom o t h e r s i n o r d e r to w r i t e h i s book, the r e a d e r f e e l s t h a t M a r c e l i s never c l o s e r to o l d f r i e n d s , a c q u a i n t a n c e s , and l o v e r s t h a n when he i s w r i t i n g , and t h a t he i s c l o s e r t o no one than t o Swann. Thus, a l t h o u g h the e n d i n g o f U l y s s e s may seem r a t h e r ambiguous to some r e a d e r s , and a l t h o u g h M a r c e l ' s newfound j o y i n a v o c a t i o n i s marred by a f e a r of death on one hand and some p a i n f rom past e m o t i o n a l wounds on the o t h e r , the f i n a l v i s i o n of b o t h n o v e l s i s a comic one. Stephen g i v e s a g r u d g i n g a d m i r a t i o n to Bloom, who r e c a p t u r e s , thanks t o h i s sense of b a l a n c e , much o f what was l o s t to h i m . M a r c e l draws c l o s e r to Swann, more g r a t e f u l to him f o r the events he has caused . Both n o v e l s end at dawn—a p h y s i c a l dawn f o r Stephen, a s p i r i t u a l one f o r M a r c e l . I n both works , f l o w e r s bloom i n t o s i g n i f i c a n c e . 240 Supported by t h e i r more e x p e r i e n c e d comrades, b o t h poets r e a c h towards j o y . F o r b o t h , j o y w i l l be expressed i n a form o f c r e a t i v i t y , a r i s i n g from s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . " ^ Comedy has always been the c e l e b r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i o n combined. A u n i v e r s a l p a t t e r n has been f u l f i l l e d i n two great w rorks of a r t . 241 CONCLUSION NOTES I P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Perdu , V o l . I , p . 193. 2 Joyce , A P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Han, pp.139-140. 3 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps P e r d u , p . 141, V o l . I I . 4 P r o u s t , A l a Recherche du Temps Pe rdu , V o l . I , p . 369. 5 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 915-Op. c i t . 7 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 261. 8 I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 251. 9 H a r r i s o n , Jane, Themis, p . 26. Al though the reader does not l e a r n o f S tephen ' s subsequent f a t e , w i t h i n the symbol ic r e b i r t h p a t t e r n o f the n o v e l h i s fu tu re seems b r i g h t . I f he i s more at home w i t h h i m s e l f as a 'young man, ' he has a much b e t t e r chance o f becoming ' t he a r t i s t . ' I I Comedy was t r a d i t i o n a l l y presented i n honour o f the na ture god Dionysus, and i t s main theme, o f t e n , was f e r t i l i t y o r c r e a t i v i t y . The p l a y s , f o r example, o f t en ended w i t h a mar r i age . 242 BIBLIOGRAPHY C r i t i c a l Works A) On Joyce Budgen, Prank, James Joyce and the Making o f U l y s s e s . H a r r i s o n Smith and Robert Haas, New Y o r k , 1934. 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