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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Gambling music of the coast Salish Indians Stuart, Wendy Bross 1972

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GAMBLING MUSIC OF THE COAST SALISH INDIANS by WENDY BROSS STUART A.Mus., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department o f Music We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l , BRITISH COLUMBIA 1972 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e -ments f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n per-mission. However, the tapes which accompany t h i s t h e s i s may not, under any circumstances, be copied or reproduced without my w r i t t e n permission. Wendy Bross S t u a r t Department of Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l , 1972 i ABSTRACT S l a h a l i s a gambling game played by North American n a t i v e s on the North P a c i f i c coast. This a c t i v i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the ethnomusicologist because of the l a r g e body of songs which not only accompanies but a l s o i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h i t . The t h e s i s which f o l l o w s i s a resume of research done over the past two and one-half years and deals w i t h the s l a h a l songs of the Coast S a l i s h . I begin with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the game i t s e l f the obj e c t of which i s to guess the l o c a t i o n of two tokens concealed i n the hands of the opponents. We soon l e a r n t h a t gambling music, as one may say about music i n genera l , has a c e r t a i n power -- the a b i l i t y to eleva t e the e n t i r e game experience i n t o a d i f f e r e n t and more e x c i t i n g realm than t h a t of an ordinary game. The main bulk of the t h e s i s i s i n the second p a r t where I have presented 77 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e songs out of 194, t r a n s c r i b e d from over twelve hours of music. Along with the songs are analyses and comments which are found i n summary form i n Part I I I . The concluding s e c t i o n touches upon the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s l a h a l i n present-day Indian c u l t u r e . TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I: A d e s c r i p t i o n of s l a h a l PART I I ; T r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses PART I I I : A resume of song c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s PART IV: Concluding remarks B i b l i o g r a p h y and discography i' LIST OF TABLES Page Use of scales 103 Frequency of r e p e t i t i o n 109 i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1. P o s i t i o n of bones 2 2. Hand gestures 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Several warm summer evenings come to mind and I see and hear Uncle Louie Miranda r e c o n s t r u c t i n g many events from the e a r l i e r days of h i s l i f e . Uncle Louie i s seventy-nine years of age and has given f r e e l y of h i s past to educate us i n many ways. He has much to teach and we have learned a great deal about s l a h a l and about many other things as w e l l . My deepest g r a t i t u d e to Uncle Louie f o r being the person he i s and f o r spending so many hours with us. My husband, Ronald, has expended much e f f o r t i n guiding me through the non-musical,anthropological s i d e of t h i s t h e s i s . He has shown great patience and u n f a i l i n g support whenever I most needed i t . I s i n c e r e l y appreciate the f a c t t h a t my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , E l l i o t Weisgarber, has always given of h i s time, and c e r t a i n l y has spent much of i t working w i t h me. Fieldwork was supported by the Na t i o n a l Museum of Man, Ottawa i n 1970. PART I A d e s c r i p t i o n of s l a h a l 1 " S l a h a l , " otherwise known as "the bone game", i s a form of gambling of p r a c t i c e d by North American n a t i v e s on the North P a c i f i c coast. This s i n g u l a r a c t i v i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the ethnomusicologist because of the l a r g e body of songs which not only accompanies but a l s o i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w ith i t . My research deals w i t h the s l a h a l songs of those natives designated as Coast S a l i s h and the present e f f o r t i s a resume of that research. In order to provide a p i c t u r e of the game, i t seems import-ant to begin by d e s c r i b i n g the p h y s i c a l placement of the per-sons i n v o l v e d : Two sides or "teams" are f a c i n g eachother. Each team has l i n e d up, so to speak, behind two planks or logs which are p a r a l l e l to one another and separated by a d i s t a n c e of approximately ten f e e t . As f o r the game i t s e l f , s l a h a l r e q u i r e s two p a i r s of c y l i n d r i c a l bones intended to be con-cealed i n the hands, thus only a few inches i n length and per-haps the diameter of a penny. The i n d i v i d u a l p a i r of bones c o n s i s t s of one marked and one unmarked bone, the marked i s the female bone o f /xw/f kt<*h/, and the unmarked i s the male bone or/t'amtdin/. ^ The female bone i s e i t h e r s c u l p t u r e d , p a i n t -ed, or designated by a c o l o r e d band around the middle, width-wise. During the game the bones are hidden i n the hands whil e being mixed by two d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s from one team, each manipulating one p a i r . The o b j e c t of the game f o r the Also known as " l e h a l " . Learned from Mr. Louis Miranda, the words are from the Sgua-mish d i a l e c t . 2 opposite team to guess the p o s i t i o n of the unmarked bones. The guesser, then, i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the l o c a t i o n of two out of four bones. In other words there are four p o s s i b l e choices ( f i g u r e #1) 1) the unmarked bones are on the outside CD CD C D (LCD 2) the unmarked bones are on the i n s i d e CD C J CD ODD 3) they are to the l e f t CD CD 4) they are to the r i g h t (ED d CD CD CD O The guess i s a non-verbal one i n d i c a t e d by means of the follow-i n g hand gestures corresponding to the above p o s i t i o n s of the bones: ( f i g u r e #2) 1) 3) 2) 4) 3 A f t e r the guesser reveals h i s choice, the two mixers open t h e i r hands and expose the bones. 1 The object of the game i s to guess c o r r e c t l y as to the l o c a t i o n of the bones while the opponents are s h i f t i n g each of the two s e t s . Each round has a winner and a l o s e r and may be represented as a completed a c t i v i t y . However, the o r d i n -ary s l a h a l game l a s t s f o r many rounds. The p l a y i n g continues u n t i l a d e c i s i v e number of rounds has been won by one s i d e , c a l c u l a t e d by a s e t of eleven wooden s t i c k s which provide a t a l l y of gains and l o s s e s . The teams begin w i t h f i v e s t i c k s each and the eleventh s t i c k , a l s o known as the k i n g s t i c k or k i c k s t i c k , i s decided by means of simultaneous mixing and then guessing by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r each s i d e (the guesser or p o i n t e r ) . The team whose p o i n t e r has guessed c o r r e c t l y , and sometimes a f t e r s e v e r a l " t i e s " , wins possession of the k i c k s t i c k . Then the bones are thrown over to the l o s i n g s ide and two people from t h i s s ide begin to mix the bones. I f the team i s able to f o o l t h e i r opponents i n t o guessing i n c o r r e c t l y , that i s where the guesser has been t o t a l l y wrong, the mixing side i s then e n t i t l e d to two s t i c k s . They w i l l send the bones over to the opposite s i d e who w i l l , i n t u r n , s t a r t mixing — a round w i l l have been completed. However,if the guess was p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t , that i s e.g. the p o i n t e r gestured to the r i g h t and the bones were on the o u t s i d e , he/she w i l l have The guesser i s permitted to make f a l s e guesses which do not count as the r e a l t h i n g . This i s t o make the mixers nervous, p o s s i b l y b e t r a y i n g the l o c a t i o n of the bones. However,good mixers are able to remain stone-faced during a l l the guesses, fake or r e a l . 4 guessed c o r r e c t l y on one s e t of bones. This means tha t the guessing side only loses one s t i c k i n s t e a d of two, and the mix-ing side must give up one set of bones. The round then con-tinues u n t i l the p o i n t e r guesses c o r r e c t l y on the set of bones which remains i n pl a y . The other a l t e r n a t i v e i s tha t the guesser chooses c o r r e c t l y on the f i r s t t r y . Then, h i s team loses no s t i c k s and gains the two sets of bones and the r i g h t to mix and win s t i c k s . The game i s over when one si d e pos-sesses a l l the t a l l y s t i c k s , and that may take anywhere from about f i f t e e n minutes to many, many hours. Wagers are placed both on the outcome of i n d i v i d u a l rounds and on the completed game. Every bet must be "covered", i . e . a l i k e amount must be wagered by the opposite side so that winnings are provided f o r . A l l wagering i s a double or noth-i n g a f f a i r . I f you bet one d o l l a r , then you w i l l e i t h e r win two d o l l a r s (the one d o l l a r bet plus the d o l l a r put up by an opponent) or the d o l l a r i s l o s t . This wagering p a t t e r n i s i d e n t i c a l f o r the "round bets" and the'game bets." However "game bets" are o r d i n a r i l y l a r g e r and are placed before the p l a y i n g begins and recorded so tha t the monies may be d i s t r i -buted a p p r o p r i a t e l y when the e n t i r e game i s completed. "Round bets" are made i n f o r m a l l y be ca t c h i n g the eye of a person on the opposite side and moving a d o l l a r b i l l or whatever you wish to bet. Both p a r t i e s , then, u s u a l l y crumple up the money and throw i t i n t o the center. The winner w i l l p i c k up h i s money and that of the other person. "Game bets" are accu-mulated and placed i n a s c a r f or s i m i l a r r e c e p t a c l e (sometimes 5 as much as a thousand d o l l a r s or more) which i s l e f t conspicu-ously i n the p l a y i n g area throughout the game. S l a h a l has been traced to a b o r i g i n a l times when i t served as a type of i n t e r - v i l l a g e competition using blankets and other goods i n s t e a d of d o l l a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the use of hand gestures i n s t e a d of v e r b a l guesses made i t p o s s i b l e f o r groups who could not otherwise communicate to play against one another. I t was a l s o a way to enjoy oneself i n the com-pany of others w h i l e t r y i n g ,to keep one's mind o f f the long, c o l d w i n t er n i g h t s . Nowadays, i t i s common f o r the members of one l o c a l i t y to oppose those from another. For example, at Cultus Lake the Americans (Lummi, Nooksack, LaConner) were p l a y i n g the Canadians (Cowichan, Musqueam, Saanich) although, at the Lummi Reserve i n Washington s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r , some of the p l a y e r s who had been on the same side were now p l a y i n g opposite one another. (Kew, 1970, 303-4) I observed t h i s myself i n both 1970 and 1971, proving t h a t anyone may play w i t h whomever he chooses. For i n s t a n c e , i f someone reputed to be a good p o i n t e r i s p l a y i n g f o r one s i d e , you may decide to "put your money on him." Mr. Louis Miranda has recounted many examples of t h i s s o r t : at one time a Yakima woman had acquired an e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n as a p o i n t e r both i n terms of s k i l l and luck. She served as the p o i n t e r f o r the Canadians on one occasion, and many people changed sides to be with her. Sure enough, the Canadian side won. 1 The i n d i v i d u a l s who are known This i n c i d e n t took place about 45-50 years ago. 6 to have a c e r t a i n amount of luck and power and/or e x p e r t i s e seem to be a good r i s k to put one's money on. Many years ago, i t was the Vancouver I s l a n d people who were s a i d to have "never been beaten." 1 Even now the people from. Duncan are very a c t i v e gamblers. There are many playe r s known as p r o f e s s i o n a l s who t r a v e l the " c i r c u i t s " a l l year round and earn a l i v i n g i n t h i s way. The p r o f e s s i o n a l s , then, may a t t r a c t players to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s i d e s w i t h t a c i t promises of v i c t o r y . Some f r e -quent play e r s are even known f o r t h e i r s l e i g h t of hand and s p e c i a l c a u t i o n may accompany the guesser's choice of l o c a t i o n of bones when these i n d i v i d u a l s are mixing them. S l a h a l p l a y i n g i s o f t e n a prominent a c t i v i t y of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . During the twentieth century we have seen s l a h a l p l a y i n g at the hop-picking camps i n the Fraser V a l l e y and i n the f i s h canneries where Indians from d i f f e r e n t groups were working. Today, s l a h a l i s played on weekends at the Somenos reserve near Duncan, B.C. (Kew, 1970, 302-3) and undoubtedly at other reserves on an e q u a l l y p r i v a t e b a s i s i n the warmer months of the year.. S l a h a l i s almost always played at the var-ious p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s which are two days i n length and usu-a l l y center around canoe races. The p l a y i n g o f t e n goes on a l l n i g h t ; at Cultus Lake, June, 1971, they were s t i l l p l a y i n g when we l e f t a f t e r 2:30a.m. and J.E.M. Kew reports t h a t i n 1967 at the Lumini Reserve, the game ended s h o r t l y before the C a t h o l i c Mass (p. 302). Mr. Louis Miranda, speaking of the s i t u a t i o n as he saw i t between approximately 1910-1930. 7 S l a h a l i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t common t r a d i t i o n a l game p l a y e d o n t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h i s t y p e o f game, known as t h e "hand game", i s p l a y e d e x t e n s i v e l y a l l o v e r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t as w e l l . F o r i n s t a n c e K e n n e t h P e a c o c k ( 1 9 5 5 , 1 9 6 1 , p. 5) s t a t e s t h a t i t i s t h e "...most w i d e s p r e a d I n d i a n g a m b l i n g game on t h e C a n a d i a n P l a i n s — i n d e e d o n m o s t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . " And K e n n e t h P e a -c o c k i s s u r e l y i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h a much e a r l i e r s t u d y o f games by S t e w a r t C u l i n (1907) w h e r e we f i n d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h a n d games p l a y e d b y 81 t r i b e s f r o m 28 l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s l o c a t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , O r e g o n , W a s h i n g t o n , A l b e r t a , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , Wyoming, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l a s k a , t h e Y u k o n , M a n i t o b a , A r i z o n a , N e v a d a , C o l o r a d o , U t a h , T e x a s , a n d M e x i c o ( C u l i n , 1907 pp. 2 6 7 - 3 2 7 ) . We known a b o u t t h e D o g r i b s i n t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r -r i t o r i e s a n d t h e i r h a n d game (Helm & L u r i e , 1966) a s w e l l a s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e h a n d game, d o c u m e n t e d b y Tony a n d I d a I s a a c s , on t h e i r r e c o r d i n g o f h a n d game s o n g s (19 6 9 ) . As we s e e , t h e h a n d game h a s d i f f u s e d a l l o v e r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , and a l t h o u g h i t seems s t r a n g e t h e m u s i c a l s t y l e s o f t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s who p l a y a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t one f r o m t h e other."'" E v e n among t h e s o n g s we c o l l e c t e d t h e r e w e r e two d i s t i n c t s t y l e s : one s u n g by t h e C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s and a n o t h e r s u n g by' t h e Y a k i m a s , a P l a t e a u g r o u p f r o m e a s t e r n Wash-i n g t o n S t a t e . See " D i s c o g r a p h y " f o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f s t y l e s a v a i l a b l e on r e c o r d i n g . 8 S l a h a l could not be played without music, and the s l a h a l songs w i t h percussion accompaniment play an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n the game: even games wit h a small number of p a r t i c i p a n t s must include music. Only one side w i l l s i n g at any one time -- the sid e mixing the bones. Conversely, when the round i s over and the bones are i n the possession of the opposite team i t i s t h e i r t u r n to mix and to s i n g . One o b j e c t i v e of the mixing and s i n g i n g side i s to confuse and perhaps r i l e the opposite team — p a r t i c u l a r l y the guesser who i s t r y i n g to concentrate on the whereabouts of the unmarked bones. For example, one ol d woman would o c c a s i o n a l l y stop s i n g i n g to shout / j . £ y . O $ / a t the guesser on the opposite s i d e . This means "you're b l i n d " and i s obviously an attempt t o annoy him/her. Verbal exclama-t i o n s of t h i s s o r t are q u i t e common. Another example: Mr. Louis Miranda recounted an i n c i d e n t which took place perhaps f i f t y years ago. Apparently, a young woman named Annie, was of t e n chosen to mix the bones because (1) she bounced around a great deal when mixing and s i n g i n g , and (2) she was a very " w e l l - b u i l t " female. The r e s u l t was always t h a t the guesser on the opposite team would lose t r a c k of the bones and i n s t e a d , watch Annie. Louis Miranda once sung a s l a h a l song f o r us which I had never heard, one which had a combination of vocables and under-standable words. The words, again, were meant to r i l e and con-fuse the opposite s i d e : "(approximate t r a n s l a t i o n ) you cannot p o s s i b l y win because we have B i l l on our si d e ( B i l l being the name of a person reputed to be a good s l a h a l p l a y e r ) " But even 9 f i f t y years ago, songs with words were a r a r i t y and t h i s c e r -t a i n l y i s the case at the present time: of the 19 4 songs i n my c o l l e c t i o n , none have a c t u a l t e x t s . Instead they use vocables such as "hay ya ha ha" e t c . Yet i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the remarkable consistency w i t h which they are used. For i n s t a n c e , one song appears i n my sample t h i r t e e n times over the p e r i o d of two years and the variance i n the use of vocables i s almost n i l . In other words each s p e c i f i c s l a h a l song has q u i t e d e f i n i t e vocables which go along w i t h i t . This leads to s p e c u l a t i o n : perhaps the vocables were once words which l o s t t h e i r meaning through the course of many years of o r a l t r a d i t i o n . Somehow, i n t h i s case I do not r e a l l y t h i n k so. S l a h a l songs are co n s t a n t l y changing, and q u i t e r a p i d l y at t h a t . I t i s q u i t e common to l e a r n songs from strangers while p l a y i n g the game — i n f a c t most n a t i v e s l e a r n s l a h a l songs from l i s t e n i n g and repe a t i n g , during the many times a song i s repeated. Louis Miranda, who has not played s l a h a l f o r over 44 years, recognized the songs I sung to him because he has been present a t games. However, he made q u i t e c l e a r the ( f a c t that my c o l l e c t i o n were "modern" songs and tha t there were many d i f f e r e n t songs used when he was p l a y i n g approxi-mately 44-70 years ago. In other words, i f the musical t r a -d i t i o n changes so r a p i d l y i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a song would l a s t f o r an appropriate length of time f o r the t e x t to evolve i n t o vocables. Even i n the course of three seasons (1969, 1970, 1971), I have seen c e r t a i n changes — an a f f i n i t y f o r a par-t i c u l a r song, a change i n melodic rhythm l a r g e l y owing to the in f l u e n c e of one strong and respected s i n g e r , and so f o r t h . 10 There are s e v e r a l s i n g e r s who more o f t e n than not, choose the songs which w i l l be heard. This i s not a conscious p r e -planned e f f o r t , but r a t h e r a spontaneous o u t b u r s t from the i n d i v i d u a l who s i n g s the l o u d e s t and with the most c o n f i d e n c e . A song u s u a l l y continues u n t i l the end of the round, and thus there are many r e p e t i t i o n s necessary. In the course of these r e p e t i t i o n s i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to l e a r n a new song, indeed, the r e p e t i t i o n s seem almost l i k e a b u i l t - i n mechanism f o r the purpose of t e a c h i n g s l a h a l songs to people who are not fami-l i a r with them. In f a c t , the mu s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n s l a h a l i s t r a n s m i t t e d e n t i r e l y i n t h i s way. Now we run i n t o a problem: l e t us suppose t h a t someone s t a r t s a song and the others do not l i k e i t . Are they stuck w i t h t h a t song f o r the remainder of the round? The answer i s no, and oftentimes a song w i l l be changed s e v e r a l times w i t h i n the round. The reason i s q u i t e obvious to the s i n g e r s i n v o l v e d — the song chosen was an unlucky song. I t was not s p i r i t e d enough, the p l a y e r s d i d not know i t and c o u l d not l e a r n i t q u i c k l y enough; i n general i t would be a source of bad l u c k . Sometimes, i f the p o i n t i n g s i d e has guessed c o r r e c t l y on one s e t of bones, the mixing and s i n g i n g s i d e w i l l change songs i n an e f f o r t to b r i n g "Lady Luck" more onto t h e i r s i d e . Some people r e f e r to t h i s Lady Luck as s p i r i t power which i s con-t a i n e d i n the s l a h a l songs. Frances Densmore (1943, 64-67) mentioned t h a t i n the course of her r e s e a r c h one informant l e d her to b e l i e v e t h a t s l a h a l songs c o u l d be gained i n dreams or v i s i o n s . Sengs lea r n e d as such might lend s p i r i t u a l h e l p 11 to that p l a y e r while he i s s i n g i n g and mixing. One of our informants corroborated t h i s -- he had known people who claimed such powers. He, however, was s c e p t i c a l as to the " t r u t h " of such statements. Yet, i f one b e l i e v e s i n the i n t r i n s i c power of music, i t i s easy to understand the s p i r i t power contained i n s l a h a l songs. Further, we have experienced, a f t e r many hours of l i s -t e n i n g , observing and s i n g i n g , a c e r t a i n t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e perhaps because of the p e r s i s t e n t drumbeats. We discussed t h i s very p o i n t w i t h Dr. Wolfgang J i l e k , p s y c h i a t r i s t and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , and he s t a t e d that i t i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e to achieve a t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e when there are between three and seven pulses per second. Sure enough, s l a h a l songs are accompanied by eighth-note drumbeats, the average being 252 pulses per minute, or p r e c i s e l y 4.2 pulses per second. In other words, i t i s the music which takes s l a h a l out of the realm of the ordinary game and i n t o the " s u p e r - r e a l " or super-normal. These same songs are apparently a l s o used f o r danc-ing (Kew, 1970 , 294) . I t i s important, at t h i s p o i n t , to c l a r i f y the use of "drumming" and "drumbeats". The oercussion accompaniment f o r s l a h a l songs i s p a r t l y w i t h drums held at the back with one hand and beaten with a leather-ended s t i c k . However, many people cannot a f f o r d to buy a drum and i n s t e a d use a s t i c k and 12 beat on the l o g or plank i n f r o n t of them. There are many other percussion instruments devised by the p l a y e r s : two s t i c k s together, two rocks together, a rock on a beer can, e t c . In f a c t , the use of drums i n s l a h a l p l a y i n g i s a f a i r l y recent a r r i v a l : Louis Miranda mentioned t h a t i n Squamish the drum was not used i n s l a h a l u n t i l about 1910. The drums are care-f u l l y attended to and the p i t c h of each drum i s important. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to watch how the p l a y e r s , one by one, approach the f i r e i n the center to tune t h e i r drums with heat as the nig h t wears on and the temperature drops. There i s , y e t , one other p o i n t to consider. Mrs. P e a r l Warren, of the S e a t t l e Indian Center, i s q u i t e c e r t a i n that s l a h a l songs are owned by i n d i v i d u a l s . She claims t h a t a l -though anyone can j o i n i n , one must own the song i n order to i n i t i a t e i t . The younger Indians may not be aware that owner-ship claims are a p p l i c a b l e i n the case of s l a h a l songs, but according to Mrs. Warren i t i s so. She was even able to i n d i -cate the family which owned a s p e c i f i c song as we were l i s -t e ning to i t . Frances Densmore, i n the p u b l i c a t i o n to which I have already r e f e r r e d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a man received a s l a h a l song from a s p i r i t i n h i s dream. In other words, th a t song was uniquely h i s . Ownership of songs, while not uncommon on the North P a c i f i c Coast, i m p l i e s that the songs i n v o l v e d are of a p r i v a t e or s p i r i t u a l nature. I t seems f a i r l y obvious that i f these songs were t r u l y p r i v a t e , they would not be sung at p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s where people l i k e myself could record, t r a n s c r i b e and analyse them.. A f t e r such treatment, any song 13 would c e r t a i n l y be d i v e s t e d of power! Most people we have spoken w i t h n e i t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t the songs are owned nor tha t they are p r i v a t e c r s p i r i t u a l as are the c u l t u r a l or s p i r i t songs which are only sung at p r i v a t e gatherings. According to Mr. Louis Miranda i t i s important to keep things i n p e r s p e c t i v e as regards s l a h a l songs. F i r s t of a l l " S l a h a l i s only a game," and i t i s not as important t h a t the songs be sung " p e r f e c t l y " as i t i s f o r the s p i r i t songs. We learned another i n t e r e s t i n g l e sson from the same man: Louis Miranda o c c a s i o n a l l y teaches c h i l d r e n i n the North Vancouver p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and i n some of h i s c l a s s e s he teaches them how to play s l a h a l . What does he do f o r the sing i n g ? In order to convey the f e e l i n g i n s l a h a l songs which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what we normally do when i n s t r u c -ted to s i n g , Uncle Louie (as everyone c a l l s him) t e l l s them to make noise, shout, scream, pound on the f l o o r , e t c . A most con-t r o v e r s i a l view of music but q u i t e i n s i g h t f u l as regards s l a -h a l songs. PART I I T r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses 14 This s e c t i o n i s devoted to the s l a h a l songs themselves which were t r a n s c r i b e d from recordings made i n the f i e l d between 1969-1971. The f i r s t s i x songs, l a b e l l e d M1-M6, were taped at Cultus Lake, B.C. i n 19 69 by Lynn Maranda; the other 18 8 were recorded by my husband and myself. We d i d our taping i n the summer months of 1970 and 1971 wit h a Sony TC 110 cassette recorder, and succeeded i n c o l l e c t i n g over twelve hours of music at s e v e r a l Indian f e s t i v a l s a l l of which were loc a t e d w i t h i n a 75-mile radius of Vancouver: June, 1970 - Cultus Lake F e s t i v a l — Cultus Lake, B.C. June, 1970 - Stommish F e s t i v a l — Lummi Reserve, Washington June, 1971 - Cultus Lake F e s t i v a l — Cultus Lake, B.C. June, 1971 - Stommish F e s t i v a l — Lummi Reserve, Washington Aug., 1971 - Songhees F e s t i v a l — Songhees Reserve (Vancouver ( I s l a n d ) , B.C. There are s e v e r a l important points i n need of c l a r i f i c a -t i o n before embarking upon the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses. We betjin w i t h Ml-6 and continue, i n order of t a p i n g , through #59. That i s , I d i d no e d i t i n g and l e f t i n t a c t those songs and how they f o l l o w one another. From there on, I chose to p u l l c e r t a i n songs out of context to avoid excessive length and to complete the p i c t u r e by means of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e songs. The numbers given to each song i n d i c a t e s where i t occurs i n the sample and when a p a r t i c u l a r r e n d i t i o n was sung. I a l s o i n d i -cate how frequently i n the sample a song has occurred -- some as often as fourteen times. 15 One category I used i n the analyses i s " p i t c h " , and i n most songs, there i s a p i t c h r i s e . The d e s c r i p t i o n s , however do not i n d i c a t e the length of a song, that i s , the number of r e p e t i t i o n s i n v o l v e d -- a f a c t o r which i s most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p i t c h change. In other words a song which repeats f i f t e e n times i s more l i k e l y to e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h change (r i s e ) than the song which i s only sung twice through. The songs were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o the p r e c i s e t o n a l i t y i n which they were sung. This i s not to assume th a t absolute p i t c h has relevance i n the same way i t does i n western a r t music. Nor were the sharps and f l a t s used to add complexity to a body of f a i r l y simple songs. Instead, the songs were t r a n s c r i b e d as they occurred a l l o w i n g f o r l a t e r p i t c h compari-sons with s i m i l a r versions of the same pie c e . As f o r the tempo markings, one u s u a l l y f i n d s t h a t the song begins at a slower tempo which g r a d u a l l y increases and then s t a b i l i z e s . For most p i e c e s , then, I have i n d i c a t e d the s t a -b i l i z e d tempo ra t h e r than both the slower and f a s t e r tempi. The use of a f u l l bar l i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a strong beat i s about to occur, and q u i t e o f t e n the number of beats between accented notes i s i r r e g u l a r . I do not mark each change with the formal i n d i c a t i o n of meter as one does i n western a r t 3 music (e.g. ^ ) , i n conformity with the s i m p l i c i t y of the songs i n v o l v e d . Sometimes, however, I do use a p a r t i a l bar l i n e to subdivide the beats of more complicated rhythmic p a t t e r n s , f o r 16 instance the Yakima songs $ 1 6 , #46). Please note the meaning o f the f o l l o w i n g symbols which w i l l appear i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : * i a f = about bO cents higher than i n d i c a t e d = about 50 cents lower than i n d i c a t e d = a s l i d e between notes Cultus Lake, June, 1969 Ml jfi. 3 ^ /•» I Ka Ko Wo k y a t o A . II J irrH=i-HH m i n i % u^, WA MA r:., to */6 » Un KA \/4 Ko (to) 1 UL. U1 11 tag ha *)A h a ^ There are 100 cents i n one semi-tone. F i f t y cents, then,is a quarter-tone. 17 P i t c h ; r i s e of approximately a semi-tone plus 50 cents from f i r s t r e n d i t i o n to the l a s t r e n d i t i o n . P i t c h r i s e occurs i n small increments, p a r t i c u l a r l y w h i l e s u s t a i n i n g the f i r s t note. Contour; descending. Melodic range: approximately one octave, although the main i n t e r e s t i s w i t h i n a f i f t h . S cale: pentatonic (from lowest -- s o l , l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A/B/bridge/C/B/bridge Song Ml (recorded 1969) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g v ersions on four other occasions i n the sample: #13 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #52 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #63 - June, 19 70 — Lummi Reserve #82 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake 18 P i t c h : begins approx. 50 cents higher than i n d i c a t e d i n nota-t i o n . No appreciable f l u c t u a t i o n i n the course of repe-t i t i o n . Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A /A '/B / B / a+b/ a+b/c+c 1 /c+c 1 / The "a" motive has a d e f i n i t e antiphonal f l a v o r and f o r the moment, the piece i s i n two p a r t s . The 'c 1 motives demonstrate the use of f a l l i n g sequences -- a very common device. 19 Song M2 (recorded 1969) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r -sions on t h i r t e e n other occasions i n the sample: Song #1 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #2 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #28a -June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B • C. #28b -June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #79 -June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #97 -June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #105 -June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B • C. #122 -June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #153 -June, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #158 -June, 1971 — Lummi #160 -June, 1971 — Lummi #163 -June, 1971 — Lummi #166 -June, 1971 — Lummi M3 20 P i t c h : r i s e of approx. a semi-tone during the course of the r e p e t i t i o n s . Contour: descending Melodic range: a n i n t h Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A A 1 B a+b/c+b a+b/b a 1+b 1/b 1/a 2+b 2 " a 1 " - wider i n t e r v a l - lower i n p i t c h "b 1" - some i n t e r v a l - lower i n p i t c h 2 i "a " - same i n t e r v a l as a - lower i n p i t c h 2 "b " - same rhythm - descending The "b", "b 1" and "b 2" motives are e i t h e r i n d i c a t e d as i-«N ^ 21 or as i o j ^  . A c e r t a i n amount of f l u c t u a t i o n occurs and the two rhythms are o f t e n interchangeable. M3 occurs once again i n t h i s sample: #32 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. M4 Wo Wo wo boy Wo ho CO tfrJ ho ho ho W(W/ hay P i t c h : the piece begins 50 c higher than i n d i c a t e d i n the nota-t i o n . A 50 cent p i t c h r i s e occurs, and the piece ends approximately where i t appears i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Contour: two descending phrases Melodic range: f i f t h Scale: pentatonic without " l a " (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi) 22 Form: A / A 1 / B r i d g e a+b/ b+c / M4 (19 69) o c c u r s on t e n o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n #15 - J u n e , 1970 -- C u l t u s L a k e , B.C. #20 - J u n e , 1970 — C u l t u s L a k e , B.C. #58 - J u n e , 1970 ~ Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash. #61 - J u n e , 1970 ~ Lummi #96 - J u n e , 1971 — C u l t u s L a k e #123 - J u n e , 1971 — C u l t u s L a k e #128 - J u n e , 1971 -- C u l t u s L a k e #132 - J u n e 19, 1971 — Lummi #147 - J u n e 20, 1971 — Lummi #150 - J u n e 20, 1971 — Lummi E a c h one o f t h e s e e l e v e n v e r s i o n s h a v e some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e s l i g h t l y d i s t i n c t i v e f r o m t h e o t h e r s a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e c l e a r l y s i m i l a r e n o u g h t o be c o n s i d e r e d b a s i c a l l y t h e same s o n g . P i t c h : r i s e of approx. 50 cents Contour: s t a t i o n a r y , except f o r the ending where the l i n e f a l l s Melodic range: f i f t h Scale: Use of only four notes, pentatonic without "mi" (from lowest - s o l , l a , do, re) Form: c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l motives (a) r i s i n g f o u r t h (b) repeating 'e 1. (c) f a l l i n g f i g u r e bridge A I a+b/a+b/b/b/b B B c+ bridge c+ bridge M6 ira (R) ® 24 P i t c h ; begins approximately 30 cents lower than the p i t c h notated. Rise of a semi-tone. Contour: descending Melodic range: s i x t h , mainly w i t h i n the compass of a t h i r d . Scale: only three tones - s o l , do, mi (from the lowest). What i s i n t e r e s t i n g i s the use of a n e u t r a l t h i r d , the i n t e r v a l between a major and minor t h i r d . I t a c t u a l l y sounds l i k e a minor t h i r d s l i d i n g upward. Form: A/A 1 Song M6 (recorded i n 1969) occurs on three more occasions i n the sample: #17 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #94 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #145 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. CULTUS LAKE, 1970 1 V o l a — w i — \ a 1 a — u i 4 1 — \\ ^ * i - \ v m ^ \ -Wo Kay ho K O ^VK- -BtT 1 ./ I - s u u - i . J 25 * Ko Kay ya ha y* Ka ya fey ya he Ko P i t c h : begins 50 c higher than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , r i s e of about one semi-tone. Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A/A/B/B Here i s the f i r s t example of a v a r i a t i o n on a song we have already encountered. Compare with M2: The A p h r a s e s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r , h o w e v e r t h e B p h r a s e s o f #1 a r e l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e o f M2 w i t h a l a r g e r number o f s e q u e n c e s i n a downward d i r e c t i o n . Y e t #M2 and #1 a r e s i m i l a r enough t o c o n s i d e r t h e m v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e same p i e c e a nd n o t two d i f f e r e n t s o n g s . #M2 was r e c o r d e d a t C u l t u s L a k e , B.C. i n 1 9 6 9 , and #1 i n 1 9 7 0 , a l s o a t C u l t u s L a k e , B.C. (See M2 f o r t h e l i s t c o n t a i n i n g f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e s a m p l e ) l a l-.\ofc © ( , ) -4 Q £ ^ E E E % E E g • * h < i y<x V » o h o -WA 27 P i t c h : begins approx. 70 cents lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , r i s e of about one semi-tone, to approx. 30 cents above p i t c h i n d i c a t e d . Contour: descending Melodic range: n i n t h Scale: Pentatonic (from lowest - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: I n t r o d u c t i o n / A / / A a/ b + c + c / b r i d g e / b^+c Polyphony: a small number of women are s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above the melody as i n d i c a t e d . Song l a (recorded i n 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e rsions on three other occasions i n the sample: #34b - June, 19 70 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #100 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #114 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. * Ko y« wo Key* Ko j« 28 ( lasV bars cHat-vgirvg t o : ) P i t c h : no appreciable change Contour: descending Melodic range: f i f t h Scale: pentatonic without " s o l " (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A / A 1 / A 2 (A 2 ) The f i n a l two bars were changed 1 , 1 , 1 2 , 1 , . by the playe r s a f t e r s e v e r a l a+b b ^ c / b A+c/c 1+c (c +c ) ^ p e t i t i o n s . Song #2 (recorded 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r -sions on three other occasions i n the sample: #25 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #47 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #161 - June, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. 29 3 P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone plus 20-30 cents from o r i g i n a l p i t c h . Contour: descending Melodic range: tenth Scale: pentatonic 30 1 2 3 Form; A /A A A bridge a+b/a+c/a 1+c 1/a 2+b/a 3 another use of sequences i n a downward d i r e c t i o n , Polyphony: Some women are s i n g i n g the same melody a fourth above. Song #3 (recorded i n 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on f i v e other occasions i n the sample: #10 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #29 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #33 - June, 1970 — Lummi #44 - June, 1970 -- Lummi #70 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B .C. V) H 0 V \ \ \ * t = £ j M l±±=^=d h<f h e Kc K<\ ^ A ^ °^ ) X — , V I h a — 1 ^tl \ I 1 1 v 31 P i t c h : no appreciable p i t c h change, the i n t e r v a l i n bar #2, begins as a major 3rd and s e t t l e s . i n t o a minor t h i r d . Contour: descending Melodic range: tenth Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do) Form: A / A 1 / B a+b/ a^ "+b^ " / c+c^+c 2 (shortened) The 'c' motives are again, examples of the downward d i r e c t e d sequences. Song #4 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on two other occasions i n t h i s sample: #7 - June, 1970 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #30 - June, 19 70 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. We l a ha to* k* ta ha to* h<* ha WA We i t - ^ \ 32 P i t c h : begins approx. 70 cents higher than the n o t a t i o n i n d i -c a t e s , r i s e of about 20 c during the r e p e t i t i o n s 1 1 Contour: u n d u l a t i n g between d and b , then descending Melodic range: s i x t h S c a l e : pentatonic (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A B C B 1 A and B phrases d e f i n i t e l y complement one another, A i s the question and B i s the response. C i s a small development using two s e q u e n t i a l phrases, and B 1 ends the song i n a very s a t i s f y i n g , c a d e n t i a l way. 33 Song #5 occurs once again i n the sample: #57 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Washington 6 P i t c h : 60-70 cents lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s r i s e of approx. a semi-tone Contour: descending Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: only three tones which seem to o u t l i n e a major t r i a d (from lowest - do, mi, so) 1 2 Form: A A A Bridge 1^,1 2 a+b a +b a 34 Song #6 (recorded i n 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e rsions on s i x other occasions i n the sample: #31 - June, 1970 — Lummi Re s e rve, Wash. #59 -- June, 1970 — Lummi #74 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B .C. #91 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #95 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #107 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake 7 Song #7 i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to #4, excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . P i t c h ; begins on 'd', approximately a semi-tone higher than #4. Polyphony: In t h i s v e r s i o n , sung w i t h i n an hour of #4, we f i n d that the women, s i n g i n g a fo u r t h above the men, are pro-ducing the more prominent melody. (See #4 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n ) 8 35 K A ^ A KO H a ^ a k a y A K*y P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone Contour: three descending phrases Melodic range: s i x t h S cale: pentatonic (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l , la) From: A A 1 A 2 Bridge This song i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r m a l l y , because each phrase ends i n the same "ha ya hay" f i g u r e . The other i n t e r e s t -i n g feature i s the r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n between two and four-beat grouping. Song #8 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on four other 36 occasions i n the sample: #38 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #90 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #104 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #118 - June, 1971 -- Cultus Lake 9 P i t c h : approx. 80 cents lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , no s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h r i s e Contour: descending Melodie range: fourth Scale: mi, s o l and l a only (from lowest) Form: A B A plus two d i m i n i s h i n g echoes of "A" Polyphony: two parts of equal prominence. What appears i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s the men's v o i c e s ; the women are s i n g i n g a fourth higher. 37 A s i m i l a r v e r s i o n of #9 occurs i n June, 1970 at the Lummi Reserve, Wash. (Song #55). 10 Song #10 i s nea r l y i d e n t i c a l to #3 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : begins at the same p i t c h as #3, but i n t h i s case the p i t c h r i s e s a semi-tone plus about 40-50 c -- a small d i f -ference. Polyphony: none, i n c o n t r a s t to #3 (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n ) 11 w o m e n (a' \>6 • ho Ko V\0 K0 hftf oo wo ho Ko m 38 He Ko KAJ/ oo Wo k t K 0 ko =0* Ko % \ — - — \ 1 f l J V \ - J M :i tf¥ vO» 00 WO Ko — 1 r° N = r p v s ^ i i U \ =* iH L r \ . " F 1 . — - 1 1 f ^ 1 > kt Ko K^y 0« W B KO H t fc*y P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-t one Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, re) Form: A a+a B 1. 2 a +a B a +a Polyphony: The men began the song and the women proceeded to take over, a f o u r t h above. This i s probably because the song goes below a comfortable p i t c h f o r the men i n v o l v e d . Consequently, the women, a fou r t h above, predominate i n 2 the lowest s e c t i o n s ("a ") and are at l e a s t e q u a l l y strong throughout the r e s t of the pie c e . A s i m i l a r v e r s i o n of #11 occurs i n June, 1971 at Cultus Lake B.C. &7) . 40 P i t c h : A semi-tone r i s e had already occurred (to f#) when the s i t u a t i o n became confused. Apparently, a l e a d i n g s i n g e r f o r g o t t o repeat the "B" s e c t i o n and continued on to the beginning of the song. The r e s u l t was musical chaos f o r a few seconds u n t i l a new leader emerged and began t h i s same song again — t h i s time a whole-tone below where h i s pre-decessor had l e f t o f f — and we f i n d ourselves on "e". Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a ) Form: see M2 The d i f f e r e n c e , note-wise, between t h i s song and M2 i s the f i n a l bar — otherwise they are the same. (See M2 f o r the frequency of r e p e t i t i o n i n the e n t i r e sample.) 13 This song i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to Ml, excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : semi-tone r i s e M.M.: j =126 Polyphony: Several women were s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above the men. The d i f f i c u l t y arose when they augmented th a t i n t e r v a l to 41 a t r i t o n e . The men seemed perturbed about the clashes and s h o r t l y thereafter,, someone changed the song, the same side c o n t i n u i n g to mix the bones and s i n g . (See Ml f o r the frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 14 0 bo b) 0 H \ r IT \J \ \ If t r Ka io V\a ta ha lee ta l\c\ ia IfrL ffiffi ffff V »Ao.v bar ha lee la P i t c h : no appreciable change Contour: descending Melodic range: minor t h i r d Scale: only two tones - " s o l " and "mi," or "do" and " l a " Form: A P?~ a+b a"*"b Song #26 (Cultus Lake, June, 19 70) i s very s i m i l a r t o , although s u r e l y not to be considered the same as, t h i s song. 42 15 S o n g #15 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o M4 e x c e p t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : #15 b e g i n s on e - f l a t , a s e m i - t o n e l o w e r t h a n M4. A p i t c h r i s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one s e m i - t o n e p l u s 20 c e n t s h a s o c c u r r e d by t h e e n d o f t h e p i e c e . (See M4 f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n ^ 16 0= 1 3 1 ® 9 pM^fe^ ' tHf 1 if ' t i 1 $k hay t j * hay |/A taj y A 43 I* **yy< * 9 K<K K*y ya H<UJ MA P ^ 4 ^ H J = K f TV f l i* i >t_glF ua - * Vxwjya waj Kay s}a ® ^ a nay Kay ya k«h nay rt i n iiin.nj i p Kay #A k*y y* Kay *p 44 P i t c h ; a p i t c h - r i s e of approximately 20 cents Contour; descending Melodic range; octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) 1 1 2 Form: A B A B A — The A s e c t i o n s may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s t a t i o n a r y (pitch-wise) and syncopated, w h i l e the B s e c t i o n s leap and move downward, according to the pentatonic s c a l e . This song, most d e f i n i t e l y , does not conform to those we have seen thus f a r . The rhythm i s f a r more complicated and the v o c a l q u a l i t y i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . I brought the song to Mr. Louis Miranda who confirmed my s u s p i c i o n s . The song i s not a S a l i s h gambling song, but a song belonging to the Yakima group (Yakima,Washington) who were present at Cultus Lake, B.C. Uncle Louie was p o s i t i v e t h i s song was not sung by "our boys". A l s o , i n h i s o p i n i o n , the Yakimas do not know how to s i n g pro-p e r l y : "they use those s h r i e k y v o i c e s . " 45 This r e n d i t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g song in c l u d e s a v a r i e t y of v e r s i o n s . One i s i d e n t i c a l to #M6. The other two are notated above: Polyphony; Toward the end, s e v e r a l men begin s i n g i n g a t h i r d below the others. This e f f o r t at "harmony" d e f i n i t e l y f e e l s l i k e "dressing-up" a r a t h e r d u l l and u n i n t e r e s t i n g song. (See M6 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 18 (rt w Way **yjl<* n a K a Ha^f H a 0 *w - a Hay Ha Ha ^ ^ hft h a y Ka W* 0 Kay 46 P i t c h ; p i t c h r i s e of about 70 cents Contour; descending Melodic range: tenth Scale; pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do) Form: A A B B 1 1 2 1 2 a+b a+b c+c +c b+c+c +c Another i n t e r e s t i n g use of f a l l i n g melodic sequences. Polyphony: a few attempts were made by s e v e r a l women, s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above and then l a t e r , a t h i r d above the men. N e i -ther one was sustained f o r any length of time. Song #18 (recorded 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r -sions on twelve other occasions i n t h i s sample: #62 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #73 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #76 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #92 - June, 1971 -- Cultus Lake #115 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #121 - June, 1971 Cultus Lake #126 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #138 - June, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Washington #151 - June 20, 19 71 -- Lummi #177 - June 20, .1971 — Lummi 47 #181 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi #183 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi A comparison of these versions reveals that the same song has a d i f f e r e n t number of beats from v e r s i o n to version,each e q u a l l y acceptable. In other words, a d i f f e r e n t number of f a l l -i n g sequences are used and the melodic range i s acc o r d i n g l y wider or narrower. The missing l i n k , so to speak, i n t h i s c h a i n , i s t h a t there i s a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the s t a r t i n g p i t c h and the number of sequences .used: the higher the p i t c h the more sequences and the wider the range, conversely when the s t a r t -i n g p i t c h i s lower, there are fewer sequences and a narrower range. This phenomenon was corroborated by s e v e r a l informants and i s apparently q u i t e commonplace. 48 P i t c h : s m all p i t c h r i s e , perhaps 10-20 cents Contour; descending Melodic range: s i x t h S cale: pentatonic (from lowest - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A B AB C C 1 Bridge Polyphony: The women are s i n g i n g a fourth above the men and prove to be the stronger of the two groups. Song #19 (recorded i n 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on three other occasions: #75 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #83 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #134 - June, 1971 -- Lummi Reserve, Washington 20 This song i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to M4, excepting the f o l l o w -i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : sung a semi-tone plus f i f t y cents higher than M4 This v e r s i o n has a twenty cent r i s e i n p i t c h . (See M4 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 49 21 - <> S. 1 , . 1 l •« N |- , | | | , I — ! • * * *' * j 1 • * ^ KO to He KJ Ke i J ; Q . I ' i i | i 1 Wo ho He yoT J He A / tkL. 1 — Ho We 50 P i t c h ; sung approx. 50 c higher than i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n . P i t c h r i s e of about 50-60 cents. Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A A B a+b a+b c+b 1 Polyphony: The men begin t h i s song and the women add the upper f o u r t h . However, the 'B' s e c t i o n i s q u i t e overpowered by the women; the men (the lower fourth) are ha r d l y heard at a l l . The piece has gone too low and i s out of the men's comfortable range. At one p o i n t i n the rec o r d i n g a l l of the singers stop com-p l e t e l y . We may assume that the other side has made t h e i r guess. Then the same song continues only with a b i t more energy and enthusiasm. Several r e n d i t i o n s l a t e r , the song ends. 23 Wo WW Ud Wo h*y4a Wo Vwa*a ** *~ vw) y51 P i t c h : no appreciable change Contour: descending Melodic range: major t h i r d S cale: only three tones "do, r e , mi." Form: a a b bridge Song #22 (recorded i n 1970 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ver-sions on two other occasions i n t h i s sample: #125 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #149 - June, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Washington. 23 , eft w (a1-) h&t| Ka tee v*y 9* $ft ^ 9* f f f T f t ya ndy 9 f t ha hay 9a 51 P i t c h : P i t c h r i s e of a semi-tone plus approx. 20-30 cents. This i s due, i n p a r t , to a gradual r i s e and i n p a r t , to s e v e r a l abrupt attempts on the p a r t of the men. I t seems that some women s t a r t e d t h i s song i n a v o c a l range which was too low f o r the men. Consequently, there were s e v e r a l attempts to r a i s e the p i t c h of t h i s song. Contour: descending Melodic range; n i n t h Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A / B / Bridge 1 / 1^ 2 .1. a a b c / a d a d / again, we see the use of f a l l i n g s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . Polyphony: The women (the higher part) are c l e a r l y the predom-in a n t v o i c e . As the sequences b r i n g the song lower and lower. The men e v e n t u a l l y drop out a l t o g e t h e r u n t i l the ret u r n to the beginning. Percussion: As a r e s u l t of the confusion caused by the men, t r y i n g to r a i s e the p i t c h , the song begins to break down. (5th + 6th r e p e t i t i o n ) . In an e f f o r t to u n i f y the singers (beginning of the 7th r e p e t i t i o n ) , one man stands up and leads the f o l l o w i n g drum p a t t e r n : 53 Song #23 (recorded 1970) occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r -sions on fo u r other o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #93 - June, 1971 - Cu l t u s Lake, B.C. #120 - June, 1971 .— Cu l t u s Lake, B.C. #135 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #164 - June 20, 1971 — fcummi Reserve, Wash. 24 J is |K>'6 ®, kT KA- ho ha v& V\o uo 00 y ho ho 54 P i t c h : sung approx. 70 cents lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s . At one p o i n t , the. song a c t u a l l y reaches 'd' (70 c r i s e ) but the group proceeds to b r i n g i t down again. The p i t c h , then, s l i g h t l y , approx. 30 cents. Contour: descending Melodic range: tenth B Form: A/ 0 , / /a+a+b+a+b1/+c+b"+c +d use of f a l l i n g s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n . I n t e r e s t i n g use of over -lapping phrases. Scale: This song, s t r a n g e l y enough,appears to be i n two d i f f e r -ent s c a l e s . Phrase "A" uses "do," "re" and "mi," or the f i r s t three s c a l e degrees of e i t h e r a major s c a l e or a pen-t a t o n i c s c a l e . The "B" phrase begins where "A" has j u s t cadenced and the "d" or "do" i s transformed i n t o the "re" of a pentatonic s c a l e . (from lowest - r e , mi, s o l , l a , do,re,mi! 55 Song #24 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on two other occasions i n t h i s sample: #68 - June, 1971 ~ Cultus Lake, B.C. #81 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. 25 Cb) Cb') Ct) H * 1* fl* to H * y » V # jo h e y « to* j f * h a y ~7(A (y) © * H A t j a toy to We J)a w * Hw) M ( | This song i s very s i m i l a r to #2. Note the f o l l o w i n g d i f -ferences : P i t c h ; A T-ajor t h i r d higher. P i t c h r i s e of approx. 30 cents, 56 M.M.: s l i g h t l y f a s t e r than #2. Form; 1) #25 i s three bars longer than #2. 2) #25 uses the "second v a r i a t i o n " found at the end of #2. The form, then, i s : A / A 1 / A 2 / A 3 / Bridge a+b, b 1+c/ b+c / bc+c / a1+h1/ Note the use of the s l i g h t l y augmented major second i n 2 the A phrase, as i n d i c a t e d by the arrow ( f ) . > ft - rnw<-+tt r — L — ^ (+U?) ^ k r—f Wa leefet * — ^ ... it- VP"] 1 ' - ' ' * This song i s s i m i l a r to #14 i n c e r t a i n r e s pects: 1) same length 2) constructed of very s i m i l a r rhythmic patterns and var-i a t i o n s w i t h i n those p a t t e r n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s are as f o l l o w s : P i t c h : r i s e of approx. 50 cents and then a "mutiny" of s o r t s 57 occurs. The p i t c h is p u l l e d down by a semitone plus 50 cents -- the s t a r t i n g note i s now 'c'. Between t h i s p o i n t and when the song i s d i s c o n t i n u e d , there i s another p i t c h r i s e , a semitone. Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: Three tones — "do," "mi1,' and " s o l " , However, the song begins w i t h the "mi-do" i n t e r v a l being l e s s than a major t h i r d , i n other words, a n e u t r a l t h i r d . This i n t e r v a l widens, however, and a f t e r s e v e r a l r e n d i t i o n s begins to sound l i k e a major t h i r d . Form:This piece i s a good example of what you might c a l l 'the s e l f - v a r i a t i o n technique." This phenomenon occurs i n the case of a d u l l , u n i n t e r e s t i n g piece which r e q u i r e s constant i n t e r n a l v a r i a t i o n i n order to remain energetic and s p i r i t e d , and serve i t s f u n c t i o n . This piece p a r t i c u l a r l y demonstrates constant rhythmic change, but. of course, w i t h i n a recogniz-able framework. STOMMISH GAMES, LUMMI RESERVE, Gooseberry Point,Wash., June, 1970 58 P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone Contour: undulating Melodic range: s i x t h S c a l e : pentatonic (from lowest - s o l , l a , do,' r e , mi) Form: A, B, C The piece begins and each phrase ends with the same motive, c e r t a i n l y a u n i f y i n g feature of the pi e c e . Polyphony: One lone female voice sings a f i f t h above the other s i n g e r s , and, with o c c a s i o n a l lapses. Song #27 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on s i x other 59 occasions i n t h i s sample: #39 - June, 19 70 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #53 - June, 1970 — L u m m i #6 5 - June, 1970 — Lummi #106 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #162 - June, 1971 — Lummi #168 - June, 1971 — Lummi 28a As t h i s song begins one can i d e n t i f y i t as being very simi-l a r to #M2 and #12. A f t e r three r e p e t i t i o n s , however, another i n d i v i d u a l takes over, r a i s e s the p i t c h and begins to lead the others i n what i s obviously a v a r i a t i o n cn what has come before. 28b i 60 ''Q t J] M>> Q.i fri. ^ l\VSg 1 . & _ The v a r i a t i o n i s s h o r t - l i v e d , hov/ever, because the leader confuses the "B" s e c t i o n v;ith the "B 1" s e c t i o n . The other p l a y e r s sense the confusion and another i n d i v i d u a l comes f o r t h to begin a new song. P i t c h : 20 cents below the p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n . No appreciable change. Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic - (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A, A, B, B 1, Bridge Both 28a and 28b bear resemblance to M2, 1 and 12. However, 61 28a i s c l o s e r to M2 and 12, and 28b, from a melodic p o i n t of view, i s much c l o s e r to #1, although the l a t t e r , f o r m a l l y i s t i e d to 28a, M2 and 12 (form: A A BB1 B r i d g e ) . Perhaps i t i s e a s i e r , now, to understand and compare the v a r i a t i o n s which occur within the framework of one pie c e . And each of the fourteen versions l i s t e d under M2 have something new to o f f e r although something q u i t e f a m i l i a r as w e l l . Song #29 i s nea r l y i d e n t i c a l to #3 and #10, excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : The other d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the f i n a l note. Of the seven r e p e t i t i o n s , f i v e times we f i n d a h a l f - n o t e , as i n #3 and #10, and on two occasions a whole-note. (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) Song #30 i s nea r l y i d e n t i c a l to Song #4 excepting the f o l l o w -i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : 29 30 6or*1 62 P i t c h : begins 50 cents higher than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s and r i s e s approx. one semi-tone. This song continues f o r q u i t e a w h i l e , and f o r t h i s rea-son a l s o makes use of the " s e l f - v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e . " For exam-p l e , s e v e r a l rhythms change upon each r e p e t i t i o n , thus making p r e c i s e t r a n s c r i p t i o n n e a r l y impossible. 31 Song #31 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #6 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : s t a r t s a semi-tone higher than #6, and then r i s e s a whole tone plus 50 cents. M.M.: i d e n t i c a l (between 126-132) Polyphony: Someone attempts to s i n g a t h i r d below the others and f a i l s d i s m a l l y . (See #6 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 32 Song #32 i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to #M3 excepting the f o l l o w -ing d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : a semi-tone plus 50 cents lower than M3 (recorded one year p r i o r to t h i s v e r s i o n ) . Rises approx. 50 cents. 63 M.M.: i d e n t i c a l ( =126) M3 c o n s i s t s of twelve four-beat bars whereas #32 i s t h i r -teen bars long. Compare the "B" phrase ( l a s t f i v e bars) of M3 with the l a s t s i x bars of #32 which appear below: (See M3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n ) 33 Song #33 i s ne a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #3, #10, #29 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : _ \*Wo P i t c h r i s e of about 50 cents. The l a s t note of t h i s r e n d i t i o n i s a h a l f - n o t e . (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 64 o — i — f — p — n \ \ ~ - J M ^ - H 1 V ^ 0 " \ l V Ha i«e 19 Ha ho — - / 1 — , A _ l — v * -h\ tee lo ho m ' \ — \ ^, — P i t c h : s t a r t s about 30 cents below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n . Rise of 20-30 cents. Contour: descending. Melodic Range; t w e l f t h Scale. : pentatonic (from lowest - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do) Form: No s i g n i f i c a n t r e t u r n of motives or phrases. Song #34 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on two other occasions i n t h i s sample: #86 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #88 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. 65 34b Interrupted An o l d man makes an attempt to s t a r t a song ( s i m i l a r to #la) at J =96. A f t e r a few seconds, he i s ov e r r u l e d by the others. 35 Song #3 5, although q u i t e simple, i s put together i n a rat h e r strange and seemingly a r b i t r a r y way: J*\oo t*tra$iK4 +t tie ha tja v\a We «ja ha hi ia ka |Ja hd Ha Wa Vee *ja Ka via ^  ha 6 6 I n t r o d u c t i o n A - e i g h t times through B - once through A - f i v e times through C - once through B - once through A - seven times through B - once A - twice 67 D - (unmeasured section) once A - on the seventh repeat, an i n t e r r u p t i o n to B - once A - four times e t c . The "d" or unmeasured s e c t i o n piece comes to i t s c o n c l u s i o n k i n d of rondo form. P i t c h : no appreciable change. Contour: undulating Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: only three tones (from lowest - do, mi, and sol) 36 comes back two more times, and the at "a". Thus, i t works out to a Song #36 i s ne a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #26 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : 68 P i t c h : The r i s e of a semi-tone occurs. Then the group brings down the p i t c h a b r u p t l y , by a semi-tone. The most i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e between number 26 and 36 i s that the l a t t e r has s e v e r a l r e n d i t i o n s i n which the percussion under-l i n e s the melody as f o l l o w s : I t i s q u i t e curious that t h i s phenomenon occurs here j u s t a f t e r #35 - a song f u l l of the same device - whereas i t d i d not occur i n #26. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between #36 and #26 are s t r i k i n g e s p e c i a l l y perhaps, the use of the n e u t r a l t h i r d at the same p o i n t f o r each one. I might a l s o suggest a comparison on t h i s song with num-bers 6 and 31, #14, and #35. 37 69 K 0 kC€ <p » No. 37 i s , again, a f a m i l i a r song although we have not yet come across another i d e n t i c a l to i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however, to compare #37 wit h Nos. 26 and 36, 6 and 31, 14, and 35. P i t c h ; no appreciable change Contour: undulating Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: pentatonic without the " l a " Form: a, b, a 1 , b^ Song #37 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e rsions on three other occasions i n t h i s sample: #67 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #80 - June, 1971 - Cultus Lake, B.C. #101 - June, 19 71 — Cultus Lake, B.C. 38 Song #38 i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to #8 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : 70 P i t c h : 50-60 cents lower than #8 at the outset. P i t c h r i s e of a semi-tone plus 50 cents. M.M.: J =120. This p a r t i c u l a r r e c o r d i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g to hear because of the " f l a v o r " i t imparts. There were many comments made from the s i d e l i n e s which are perhaps more audible than the s i n g i n g i t s e l f . Some of what you hear i s the f o l l o w i n g : Man: "Ten bucks!" or Man: "You wanna 1 bet?" Woman: "I don't have any money". You can a l s o hear two men, r a t h e r drunk, s i n g i n g "hee ya ho" (etc.) at the top of t h e i r lungs even though no one e l s e i s s i n g -i n g what they are. (See #8 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) #39 Song #39 i s i d e n t i c a l to #27, i n c l u d i n g the p i t c h and the amount of p i t c h r i s e . The only d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the metronome markings: the tempo of #39 i s J =126-132. (See #27 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 71 40 P i t c h : r i s e o f a s e m i - t o n e . C o n t o u r : d e s c e n d i n g and u n d u l a t i n g B r i d g e (end) M e l o d i c r a n g e : s e v e n t h S c a l e : p e n t a t o n i c ( f r o m l o w e s t - l a , d o , r e , m i , s o l ) Form: A A 1 B r i d g e a+b a+c P o l y p h o n y : A few a b o r t i v e a t t e m p t s a t harmony a t h i r d b e l o w . Song #40 i s v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e b e c a u s e i t i s one o f t h e few s l a h a l s o n g s i n t r i p l e m e t e r . A s i n i l a r v e r s i o n o f t h i s p i e c e was s u n g a t C u l t u s L a k e , B . C . i n J u n e , 1971 — # 8 4 d e s c r i b e d and s u n g b e l o w . 72 41 n t t i.. iLf r r l o l l • ° Ko o hty Ko * 0 ho o hay bo-o - o ;/ J / J * hay » « • — i r Uo - 0 " o - o ^ fly hat) P i t c h : begins 70-80 cents lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s Contour: four phrases: a - descending b - descending c - ascending and descending d - descending Melodic range: s i x t h S cale: pentatonic (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A B Bridge a+b c+d 73 Each of the two major phrases can be subdivided i n t o ques-t i o n and answer phrases. 42 V«>- o-o y* h» ya he- o ha. la ho Ha I A ya Wo v\a HA ija-a Way P i t c h : begins approx. 50 cents below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n . Rise of a semi-tone plus 50 cents. Contour: descending Melodic ranqe: f i f t h Scale: only do, mi, and s o l (from lowest) Form: A, B, Bridge The rhythms and the " s c a l e " of t h i s piece are reminiscent of #37 and the songs suggested i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of #37. How-ever, #42 i s c l e a r l y n e i t h e r the same song as #37 nor a v a r i a t i o n thereof. P i t c h : Begins approx. 20 cents below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n . P i t c h r i s e of a few cents. Then p a r t of the group lowers the song by a whole-tone. The e f f e c t i s p a r a l l e l seconds for a short time. 43 75 Contour: descending — u n d u l a t i n g Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: pentatonic minus " s o l " ( l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A/B The two-beat measures are a c t u a l l y anacruses, and the l a s t p a r t i c u l a r l y , should be considered as such, r a t h e r than as a b r i d g e . Song #44 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #3, 10, 29 and 33, i n c l u d -i n g the h a l f - n o t e at the end. The s t a r t i n g p i t c h i s the f o l l o w -i n g : In between Nos. 44 and 45, many people t r y to s t a r t a suc-c e s s f u l song and f a i l d i s m a l l y . One of the unsuccessful songs i s #45, n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #17 and M6 but sung a semi-tone lower. Not even one r e n d i t i o n reaches completion. 44 (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n ) 45 76 46 ya Kay 9* ha y4 l**y fcjr • yfc Kay y* Ka yd Kay ft*. xiM * Ka ^ y£ ha y& 77 P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone Contour: descending Melodic range: octave Sca l e : pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: Four phrases which are r e l a t e d to one another by the use of s i m i l a r rhythms and s i m i l a r i n t e r v a l jumps. 1 ? V A A K' A J 1 2 3 A and A are question and answer phrases as are A and A . The r i s i n g minor t h i r d at the end serves as a b r i d g e . This i s a Yakima song, the most i n t e r e s t i n g feature of which i s the h i g h l y unusual t i m i n g . At f i r s t , one thinks perhaps i t i s a r b i t r a r y and changes at each r e p e t i t i o n , but upon c l o s e r s c r u t i n i z a t i o n i t becomes apparent that each r e p e t i t i o n i s iden-t i c a l and tha t the end of each phrase i s t h i r t e e n drumbeats i n length. S i m i l a r v e rsions of t h i s song occur on two other occasions i n t h i s sample: #54 - June, 197C -- Lummi Reserve, Wash. #66 - June, 19 70 — Lummi 78 Song #47 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #25 and q u i t e s i m i l a r to #2. The one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s song and #25 i s the: P i t c h : sung nearly a minor t h i r d lower. P i t c h r i s e of a semi-tone plus 50 cents. No. 47 a l s o makes use of the s l i g h t l y augmented major second i n 2 the A phrase (see arrow), and i n general i s much c l o s e r to the #25 r e n d i t i o n of the song than to the #2 r e n d i t i o n . There i s no doubt, however, that they are instances of the same song. (See #2 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 79 P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone Contour: descending (fourth) Melodic range: f i f t h S c ale: pentatonic without "do" (from lowest p i t c h - r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A E Bridge 49 80 0 P i t c h : r i s e o f n e a r l y a s e m i - t o n e (80-100 c e n t s ) C o n t o u r : d e s c e n d i n g M e l o d i c r a n g e : n i n t h S c a l e : P e n t a t o n i c w i t h a b r i e f " f a " ( r e , mi, ( f a ) , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A B A B B r i d g e A c h i l d i s heasl t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s o n g , n a g g i n g h i s mother who i s b u s y p l a y i n g t h e game: "Mommy, I want a poo." 50 81 P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone Contour: descending Melodic range: tenth Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) 1 2 Form: A, Bridge, A , A', Bridge Again the r e g u l a r use of c e r t a i n rhythmic patterns makes f o o l i s h the use of d i f f e r e n t phrase names (A,B,C) with such obvious phrase s i m i l a r i t i e s . Polyphony: The most s t r i k i n g aspect of t h i s piece i s the r e g u l a r use of octaves beginning at Bar 9 and c o n t i n u i n g to the end. 82 The women leap up to the higher octave wh i l e the men s i n g the lower. To f u r t h e r complicate matters, a f t e r s e v e r a l r e p e t i t i o n s the men choose to s i n g a fourth below the women which g r a d u a l l y f l u c t u a t e s between a t h i r d and a f o u r t h . This i s q u i t e unusual because the women normally break away from the p i t c h chosen by the men. And an a d d i t i o n a l com-p l i c a t i o n occurs when we combine a l l of these c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s and n o t i c e that the men, e i t h e r a fo u r t h or a t h i r d below the women, jump back to the p o s i t i o n of the lower octave commencing at Bar 9. Then when the pl a y e r s are back at the beginning of the song, the men are, once again, e i t h e r a fo u r t h or a t h i r d (or somewhere i n between) below the women. Women © f e w Vio) • • to • • • b».« . . • . ' f Song #50 occurs i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t versions on f i v e other occasions i n t h i s sample: #89 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #110 - June, 19 71 - Cultus Lake #133 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #143 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi #154 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi 51 Song #51 i s the same song as Nos. 3, 10, 29, 33 and 44. What 83 i s d i s t i n c t i v e about t h i s r e n d i t i o n i s the f o l l o w i n g : a) P i t c h : ftr\3: r i s e of a tone and a h a l f . b) In c o n t r a s t to most of the other r e n d i t i o n s the f i n a l note was most fre q u e n t l y a whole-note. c) At Bar 6, one woman jumped to the upper octave and stayed through the remainder of each r e p e t i t i o n . Song #52 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #M1 and #13 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : P i t c h : s t a r t s a semi-tone above the other two r e n d i t i o n s . A short break occurs and the singers resume, abru p t l y r a i s i n g the p i t c h by a semi-tone. c e r t a i n notes are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t : (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 52 84 t 0 P*"l r—i 1 to" — i — L b« ? i i r - l - H Bars — I 09—^2 l_w^  6ar$ | l - i 3 r — (final (See Ml f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n ) 53 Song #53 i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to Nos. 27 and 39 excepting the f o l l o w i n g p i t c h d i f f e r e n c e : p i t c h r i s e of a semi-tone. (See #27 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 54 Song #54 i s almost i d e n t i c a l to #46, the d i f f e r e n c e s being as f o l l o w s : a) P i t c h : begins 50 cents lower. P i t c h r i s e of 50 cents. b) Timing: The i r r e g u l a r number of drumbeats (13) i s g e n e r a l l y adhered t o , although there are a number of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . 5 5 Song #55 i s s i m i l a r to #9 i n many ways. However, beyond Bar 3, the two songs are qu i t e d i f f e r e n t even though they both 85 T ~ h i w ^ ^ P i t c h : r i s e of a semi-tone plus 4 5-50 cents. Contour: undulating Melodic range: n i n t h Scale: pentatonic (from lowest p i t c h - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: A, A . "A " c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l motives which are i n the lower p a r t of the range but which are unmistakeably l i n k e d to those of "A". Polyphony: Several women are s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above the men, weakly and s p o r a d i c a l l y . 86 Percussion; At one p o i n t the f i r s t bar of the song i s accom-panied as f o l l o w s : This i s f o r added strength and group s o l i d a r i t y . 56 U114-31 * toy *aj/ ^ ^ ^ tf 87 fa^EEE^ $ way P i t c h : begins 50 cents lower than the n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s . P i t c h r i s e of a whole-tone. Contour: descending Melodic range: tenth Scale: pentatonic (do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A A 1 A 2 A 3 Another example of f a l l i n g sequences. Each phrase has approx-imately the same rhythmic and melodic features but occurs lower i n p i t c h than the preceding phrase. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note the t i m i n g : 4 + 2, 4+2 with the exception of a 5+2. The phrases, however, are d i v i d e d i n t o 2+4+2+4, beginning with the 2, or the a n a c r u s i s . 57 Song #57 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to #5 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : a) P i t c h : begins approximately 30 cents lower than No. 5, and r i s e s 50-70 cents. b ) T e i r ' P ° : No. 5 - J = 116 No. 57 - J = 132 88 58 Song #58 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to Kos. M4, 15 and 20. I t begins approximately 40 cents lower than e' and r i s e s a semi-tone plus 50 cents. The tempo, l i k e M4, 15 and 20, i s t\ =126-32. An i n t e r e s t i n g observation one could make about t h i s piece i s that i t demonstrates the aforementioned s e l f - v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i -p l e . In other words J~~3 w i l l change i n t o f o r v a r i e t y and to keep the piece l i v e l y a f t e r many r e p e t i t i o n s . This i n t e r n a l v a r i a t i o n becomes necessary when the song i s l o s i n g energy; the dotted f i g u r e , f o r example, adds a c e r t a i n spark and r e v i v e s an otherwise dying song. And the n e c e s s i t y i s because of the l i n k between the s p i r i t of the song and the "luck" needed to mix the bones w e l l . (See M4 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n 59 Song #59 i s almost i d e n t i c a l to Kos. 6 and 31 excepting the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s : a) P i t c h : begins 50 cents below e ' and r i s e s by a semi-tone. b) Tempo: s e t t l e s i n t o J =126-32 but l a t e r on, slows down to J=116-20. (See #6 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . ) 89 Thus f a r , we have seen a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t few hours of s l a h a l songs unedited, and d i r e c t l y from my record-ings of 1969 and 1970. The t o t a l number of songs c o l l e c t e d i s 19 4, and f o r reasons of l e n g t h , here are s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e pieces from the r e s t of that c o l l e c t i o n . 77 09 90 P i t c h : approximately an 80 cent p i t c h r i s e . Contour: descending, but i n an undulating manner Melodic range: eleventh Scale: pentatonic (from lowest - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, re) Form: A A 1 Bridge a+a+b a 1+a 1+b 1 a+a Song #77 i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g because of the f i v e - b e a t groupings ("a") a l t e r n a t i n g with the seven-beat groupings ("b"). For t h i s reason one can a l s o look at the piece as a r a t h e r neat rondo form: a a/ b / a 1 a 1 / b / a a The performance of song #77 took place during a game i n June 1971 at Cultus Lake, B.C. I t occurs upon one other occasion i n the sample: #152 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. Both times Abel Joe (Duncan, B.C.), i s both the leader and the 91 predominant v o i c e . He has a propensity f o r t u r n i n g c o i n t o • o- . { [ i t Q » f —rr i—1 b o - t — * 7 r Wo 1*0 1 f t / -{—i—» ho ho Ho Ko ft^/ X-— 1 X A X X^XXX —x—— p^w'Vu. ^—^|— n v i 4=tt (0 o UAII MA Won \i% V\OA) ^ hay y& W»y ^° W O KOA) tyft hAyy* V\o\y ho WQ Song #84 (Cultus Lake, June, 1971) makes an i n t e r e s t i n g con-t r a s t to #40 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June, 1970). P i t c h : rise, of approximately 60 cents. 92 Form: A A A Bridge a+b a+c a +c I t c o n s i s t s of three twelve-beat phrases plus a s i x - b e a t b r i d g e . The same length as #40, but with a s h o r t e r b r i d g e , and thereby one e x t r a phrase. Song #40 i s i n "3" whereas #84 i s i n "6", the main d i f f e r e n c e being that, the tempo of the l a t t e r i s much slower; each drumbeat must be counted as a quarter note rather than an eighth-note and the measure elongated from 3 to 6 beats. Thus, i f we compare tempi, #40 has 192 drumbeats per minute whereas #84 has only. 152. 98 I m ±9Z 0 hup w££ up ^ up wee«p hup v*ee up my up wee up W M «P "9 "f w«e up Song #98 (Cultus Lake, B.C., June, 1971) only occurs t h i s once i n the sample. I t i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n that alongside #40 and #84, we have the only S a l i s h s l a h a l songs i n t r i p l e meter 92«, P i t c h : no appreciable change Contour: undulating Melodic range: f i f t h S cale: only three notes - do, mi, s o l Form: A A A" The phrases are r h y t h m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . And m e l o d i c a l l y , there i s only a choice of three notes. 137 93 Song #137 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June 19, 1971) occurs on four other occasions i n the sample: #78 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #10 3- June, 1971 -- Cultus Lake #117- June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #155- June 20, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. There i s a great deal of v a r i e t y i n the choice of p i t c h , f o r example #117 i s sung a f i f t h lower than #137, and #78 i s a major t h i r d lower. The tempi, however, are f a i r l y uniform. P i t c h : r i s e of approximately a semi-tone. Contour: descending Melodic range: n i n t h Scale: pentaton-ic (from lowest - r e , mi, s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) Form: A .B C The C phrase i n c l u d e s one f a l s e s t a r t and then the com-p l e t i o n of t h a t phrase. 94 At the end of the "B" and "C" phrases, the melodic drop of a fo u r t h only occurs i n t h i s v e r s i o n . The other four remain on the upper note f o r the same number of beats. I t seems q u i t e l i k e l y that the reason has a great deal to do with the p i t c h . In other words, the other versions are already too low i n the sing e r ' s range to accommodate any lower p i t c h e s whereas Song #137 i s s t i l l high enough at the end to allow f o r a d d i t i o n a l widening of range. This i s a s i m i l a r phenomenon as tha t which occurs i n Song #18 as compared w i t h i t s twelve other v e r s i o n s . #142 K(XN) y<* Hoy yd hay yd Way yd kau tay ya Way Hcujcjd Wau u? Wo^qb way Vvxsj ua M y $ Way yjd WOA) yd ha^ tjd N y y * 95 ^ hay yd Song #142 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June 20, 1971) occurs on three other occasions i n the sample: A very strange coincidence happened as regards t h i s song. On Saturday, June 19, 1971, my husband and I l e f t the reserve around 7 p.m. j u s t a f t e r song #141. We a r r i v e d back the f o l l o w -i n g afternoon at approximately 2 p.m. and turned on the tape recorder. Song #14 2, s t r a n g e l y enough, was e x a c t l y the same song — same "key", same tempo — as #141. So we began where we had l e f t o f f . P i t c h : no appreciable change. Contour: undulating i n a descending d i r e c t i o n Melodic range: octave Scale: pentatonic (from the lowest - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , la) 1 Form: A A Bridge. #136 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi #141 -- June 19, 1971 -- Lummi #14 8 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi 96 Each bar i s a separate motive, a l l ending w i t h two quarter notes but going i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . Also note the a l t e r n a t i v e f o r Bar 1 6ar t 156 oh ho ha i x hay 64t, 1IV. ^ 1 a Kg y£ ho ho hay 97 Song #156 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June 20, 1971) appears on seven other occasions i n the. sample: #69 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake, B.C. #108 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #113 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #119 - June, 1971 — Cultus Lake #130 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #171 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash. #17 4 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi The melodic and rhythmic aspect of the d i f f e r e n t versions are very s i m i l a r . Tempo, however, i s not s o l Song #156, as you see, i s J =120, the others f a l l e i t h e r i n t o the 120 to 132 range or i n t o the «i =100 to 108 range — q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g . F o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of these songs using #156 as the model: P i t c h : no appreciable change Contour: descending (each motive i n d i v i d u a l l y moves i n descend-ing d i r e c t i o n as w e l l ) Melodic range: f i f t h Scale: pentatonic without " l a " (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l ) Form: I n t r o . A A Both " A " and ' ' / i 1 " begin with a f a l s e s t a r t so to speak, and 98 then continue by developing the opening motive or f a l s e s t a r t . Polyphony: Song #156 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because we discover t h a t the women s i n g i n g a t h i r d above are not serv-i n g has a harmonic accoutrement to the men. Instead, what we have i s a p o l y t o n a l piece of music, as evidenced by the c r o s s - r e l a t i o n s we see i n the n o t a t i o n j u s t above. I f the women were t r u l y s i n g i n g i n harmony, the minor t h i r d would be amended to a major t h i r d where necessary to maintain the mode or key already e s t a b l i s h e d , I t i s a l s o important to add, at t h i s p o i n t , that the i n t e r v a l we hear i s between a minor t h i r d and a n e u t r a l t h i r d although i t has been t r a n s c r i b e d as a minor t h i r d f o r convenience. Nos. 176, 177, 17 8 and 179, as the numbers i n d i c a t e , were sung i n succession (Lummi, June 20, 1971). There are some very i n t e r e s t i n g common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to observe here. Several gen-e r a l p r i n c i p l e s as regards s l a h a l songs may w e l l be derived from a comparison of these four. F i r s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of each. 99 176 * f \». * -r% fa) he yo Ko ^ c •Ae y* Wo K> <stc. Ko ho ho ho KAj| P i t c h ; no appreciable change Contour: descending Melodic range: major seventh Scale: d i a t o n i c , without f a (from lowest - do, r e , me, s o l , l a , t i ) Form: A A B a+b a+b c 177 J - t y fACV^Uti tP T T WOAj y a w*y ya ha 100 Song #177 i s one of the t h i r t e e n v ersions r e l a t e d to #18 which occur i n t h i s sample. Here we see only the f i r s t two phrases, as a reminder of the pie c e . Also please note the tempo — much slower than that of #18. Perhaps o n e - t h i r d .of a l l the r e n d i t i o n s are sung i n a s i m i l a r l y slow tempo. P i t c h : sung about 30 cents lower than i s i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n Contour: descending Melodic range; octave S c a l e : p e n t a t o n i c (from lowest - do, r e , ni, s o l , l a , do) 101 Form: A A B a+b a+b c In s i m p l i f i e d form, what we have seen here i s t h i s equation: #176 + #177 = #178. That i s , the form, and the rhythmic motives of #176, plus the i n t e r v a l s of #177 equals the new p i e c e , #178. Notice a l s o how they are a l l i n a r a t h e r slow tempo -- more a f u n c t i o n of i n e r t i a at. t h i s time. In other words, a slower pulse has been set up and i s d i f f i c u l t to break out o f . #179 Song #179 i s a l s o i n a slower tempo. Contour: descending 102 Melodic range: s i x t h S cale: pentatonic (from lowest - do, r e , mi, s o l , la) Form: (using l e t t e r s to mean the same motives as i n #176 and #178.) b b c Here we see f a m i l i a r motives; "c", again, as a c l o s i n g phrase, but "b" used without "a" to a l t e r n a t e w i t h i t . In any case, these four songs give us a valuable i n s i g h t i n t o compositional techniques: Nos. 176, 177, 178, 179 taken together r e v e a l the importance of extemporization i n the compositional and performance p r a c t i c e s of s l a h a l songs. PART I I I A resume of song c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 102 Os Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s l a h a l song have become apparent wit h the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and analyses. To begin, we f i n d that most songs are i n duple meter, wi t h only three exceptions i n the e n t i r e sample, Mos. 40, 04 and 98, i n t r i p l e meter. Most songs are monophonic although you fr e q u e n t l y hear what appears to be p a r a l l e l fourths or p a r a l l e l , f i f t h s . This second voic e u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l women s i n g i n g above the men i n a range more comfortable f o r t h e i r v o i c e s . And although i t appears that the upper p a r t has a harmonic f u n c t i o n , i n r e a l i t y the women are simply s i n g i n g the i d e n t i c a l piece a fo u r t h or a f i f t h higher than the men. Frequently t h i s produces some most i n t e r -e s t i n g c r o s s - r e l a t i o n s as i n #156 where the women are a t h i r d above the men. Most of the s l a h a l songs are pentatonic. However, a l l of the p o s s i b l e i n v e r s i o n s of that s c a l e are used with great f r e -quency. In the f o l l o w i n g chart n o t i c e the occurrence of the various permutations. I use the moveable "do" solfege system i n which no f i x e d p i t c h i s i m p l i e d . Also, please keep i n mind that "do" does not n e c e s s a r i l y serve as the t o n i c ; my use of solfege i s to suggest s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Notice also the number of songs which consist, only o f the o u t l i n e of a major t r i a d . 10 3 Table #1 USE OF SCALES Song no. Scale Placement of intervals (from low to high) Ml pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a do M2 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a do M3 pentatonic re mi sol l a do re mi M4 pentatonic (irodi f.) l a do re mi M5 pentatonic (modif.) sol l a do re M6 major triad sol do mi 1 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a l a pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a 2 pentatonic (modif.) l a do re mi 3 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a do 4 pentatonic la do re mi sol l a do 5 pentatonic do' re mi sol l a 6 major triad do mi sol 7 8 pentatonic pentatonic do re mi sol l a l a do re mi sol l a do 9 pentatonic (modif.) mi sol l a 10 pentatonic la do re mi sol l a do 11 pentatonic re mi sol l a do re 12 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 13 pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a 14 two-tones mi sol 15 pentatonic (modif.) l a do re mi 16* pentatonic la do re mi sol l a 17 major triad sol do mi 18 pentatonic la. do re mi sol l a do 19 pentatonic sol l a do re mi 20 pentatonic (modif) la do re rrd 21 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 22 3 tones do re mi 23 pentatonic re mi sol l a do re mi 24+ (two scales i n the same ) do re mi song. One i s pentatonic) re mi sol l a do re mi 25 pentatonic (nodi f.) l a do re mi 26 major triad do mi sol 27 pentatonic sol l a do re mi 28a pentatonic la. do re mi sol l a 28b pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 29 pentatonic l a do re mi sol la do 30 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a do 31 major triad do mi sol 32 pentatonic re mi so]. l a do re mi 33 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a do 34 pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a do 35 major triad do mi sol 36 major triad do mi sol 37 pentatonic (modif.) do re mi sol Yakima, song the pitch that was "do" changes into "re" for the second part of the song USE OF SCALES (oont.) Song no. Scale Placement of intervals (from low to high) 38 pentatonic do re mi sol l a 39 pentatonic sol l a do re mi 40 pentatonic l a do re mi sol 41 pentatonic do re mi sol l a 42 major triad do mi sol 43 pentatonic (modi f.) la do re mi 44 pentatonic la do re mi sol l a 45 major triad sol do mi 46* pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 47 pentatonic (modif.) l a do re mi 48 pentatonic (modi f.) re mi sol l a 49 pentatonic (modif.) .re mi (fa) sol l a do re mi 50 pentatonic do re mi sol l a do re mi 51 pentatonic la do re mi sol l a 52 pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a 53 pentatonic sol l a do re mi 54* pentatonic la do re mi sol l a 55 pentatonic sol l a do re mi sol l a 56 pentatonic do re mi sol l a do re mi 57 pentatonic do re mi sol l a 58 pentatonic (modif.) l a do re mi 59 major triad do mi sol 77 .pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 84 pentatonic l a do re mi sol 98 major triad do mi sol 137 pentatonic re mi. sol la do re mi 142 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 156 pentatonic (modi f.) do re mi sol 176 diatonic do re mi sol l a t i 177 pentatonic l a do re mi sol l a 178 pentatonic do re mi sol l a do 179 pentatonic dC re mi. sol l a Of the 77 songs represented here: 49 are f u l l y pentatonic 12 are pentatonic, nanus one tone 1 i s pentatonic, minus two tones 1 i s pentatonic, with a passing "fa" 1 i.s diatonic 11 consist cf three tones forming a major triad 1 consists of three tones — do, re, mi .1 consists of two tones — mi, s c l 77 *Yakima song 105 The percussion accompaniment, as we have seen,is b a s i c a l l y i n r e g u l a r eighth-note pulses. The only exceptions to t h i s r u l e i s i n cases where the power and strength of a song i s waning and c e r t a i n p l a y e r s wish to recapture t h a t power by emphasiz-in g c e r t a i n notes and temporarily slowing down the percussion accompaniment as i n Nos. 35, 36 and 55. When asked, Louis Miranda q u i c k l y acknowledged t h i s phenomenon and, i n f a c t , t o l d us that there are s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c designations f o r each type of percussion accompaniment. For example, ^ ^ ^ ^ i s c a l l e d n the Squami'sh d i a l e c t . In the song sample we have seen that w h i l e some s l a h a l songs have an undulating contour, most are descending i n shape. At the same time, a vast m a j o r i t y of songs demonstrate a s i g n i f -i c a n t p i t c h r i s e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i f the song has undergone many r e p e t i t i o n s do we f i n d a l a r g e r r i s e i n p i t c h . This phenomenon occurs q u i t e o f t e n i n n a t i v e musics. Edward Sapi r has stated that r i s i n g p i t c h v/as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Nootka language and Helen H. Roberts and Morris Swadesh (1955) use t h i s to e x p l a i n the f a c t t h a t nearly one-half of the songs Sapi r c o l l e c t e d , demonstrate a p i t c h r i s e . Ida Halpern e x p l a i n s the p i t c h r i s e phenomenon i n Kwakiutl music as being p a r t of "a d i s t i n c t var-i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e " w i t h i n the songs which c o n s i s t s of a p e r s i s t e n t upward movement of p i t c h (Halpern, 1967, p. 7). In s l a h a l , I would agree that the p i t c h r i s e i s due to the excitement provoked by the game and the quick tempo although not n e c e s s a r i l y that i t has to do with song v a r i a t i o n . 106 C e r t a i n s l a h a l s o n g s h a v e o c c u r r e d i n the. s a m p l e w i t h more f r e q u e n c y t h a n o t h e r s , y e t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t two i d e n t i c a l v e r s i o n s o f a s o n g a r e q u i t e r a r e . The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e m o s t common d i f f e r e n c e s when c o m p a r i n g two v e r s i o n s o f t h e same s o n g : 1) The t e m p i a r e s o m e t i m e s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t as i n t h e c a s e o f Nos. 13 and 17 7. 2) The s o n g s a r e o f t e n " p e r f o r m e d " i n d i f f e r e n t , t o n a l i t i e s , one h i g h e r o r l o w e r t h a n t h e o t h e r . 3) We o c c a s i o n a l l y s e e a v a r i a t i o n o f a f a m i l i a r m e l o d y w h i c h i s c l o s e enough t o t h e f i r s t one t o be r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h as i n t h e c a s e o f Nos. ¥.2, 1, 2 8a and 28b. 4) The s o n g may u s e a c e r t a i n number o f d e s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s t h u s a f f e c t i n g i t s l e n g t h , and i t s m e l o d i c r a n g e . O f t e n , t h e number o f s e q u e n c e s h a s e i t h e r b e e n e x p a n d e d o r d e c r e a s e d . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s phenomenon i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a b s o l u t e p i t c h o f t h e s t a r t i n g n o t e . I f i t i s h i g h e r , t h e s i n g e r s c a n . c o n t i n u e t o add s e q u e n c e s , s i n g i n g l o w e r and l o w e r w h i l e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g i n a c o m f o r t a b l e v o c a l r a n g e ( s e e #18 and #137.) 5) O f t e n , we f i n d t h a t the. song g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e s — P a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s r h y t h m i c a s p e c t s . T h i s o c c u r s l a r q e l y i n t h e c a s e w h e r e t h e song i s r a t h e r u n i n t e r e s t i n g . The " l e a d " s i n g e r s a r e 107 aware of t h i s f a c t and i n order to r e v i t a l i z e the s i n g i n g and recapture some s p i r i t or power, they change a f i g u r e l i k e i s the case i n Nos. 26, 30, 31, and many more. Another i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s l a h a l songs i s the oc c a s i o n a l use of n e u t r a l t h i r d s and other quarter-tones. See Nos. 25, 47, 26 and 36. I t has already been mentioned how s l a h a l songs are i n i t i a t e d by a person who sings the loydest and with the most confidence. I have long been s c e p t i c a l as to whether or not an e n t i r e song i s i n the mind of the leader at the time he i n i t i a t e s the song. One reason f o r doubt i s that f r e q u e n t l y the i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t i n g the song might hold a s i n g l e note f o r a few seconds before pro-ceeding. A very i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s question came before our eyes when l o o k i n g at Nos. 176, 177 and 17 8 and how #176 plus #177 l o g i c a l l y l e d to #178 thus proving t h a t often we have "instantaneous composition". Perhaps t h i s i s the manner i n which new songs accrue to the r e p e r t o i r e . Among the 194 songs I found t h a t s i x of them were sung by the Yakima Indians i n t h e i r s t y l e which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the Coast S a l i s h and which the S a l i s h w i l l not i m i t a t e . The Yakimas are from eastern Washington and are a Pla t e a u group. For examples see Mos. 16, 46 and 54. The other Yakima songs occurred at Nos. 60 and 66 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., 1970) and No. 146 (Lummi, 1971). and i n j e c t some l i f e i n t o t h e i r team. Such 108 F i n a l l y , I have prepared a t a b l e to see the frequency of r e p e t i t i o n f o r the s l a h a l songs discussed i n t h i s work i n c l u d i n g those between nos. 60 and 185 which are s i m i l a r to those already t r a n s c r i b e d and analysed i n Par t I I : 109 Table #2 FREQUENCY OF REPETITION The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l be h e l p f u l i n s p e c i f y i n g where and when a p a r t i c u l a r song occurred: Ml-6 #1-26 #27-67 #68-129: #130-141: #142-185: June 7, 19 69 — Cultus Lake, B.C. June 6, 1970 -- Cultus Lake, B.C. June 20, 1970-- Lummi Reserve, Wash. June 5, 19 71 — Cultus Lake, B.C. June 19, 1971--Lummi Reserve, Wash. June 20, 1971—Lummi Reserve, Wash. Song When e l s e i t occurs i n the T o t a l number no. s ample (by song number) of r e p e t i t i o n s Ml #13, 52, 63, 82 5 M2 1, 12, 28a, 28b , 79, 97, 105, 122, 153 , 158, 160, 163, 166 14 M3 32 2 M.4 15, 20, 132, 147 58, 61, , 150 96, 123, 128 11 M5 1 M6 17, 94, 145 4 1 See M2 l a 34b, 100 , H4 4 2 25, 47, 161 4 3 10, 29, 33, 44, 70 6 4 7, 30 3 5 57 2 6 31, 59, 74, 91, 15, 107 7 7 See #4 See #4 8 38, 90, 104, 11 0 5 9 55 2 10 See #3 See #3 11 87 2 12 See M2 Pee M2 13 See Ml See Ml 14 1 110 FREQUENCY OF REPETITION (cont.) Song Where e l s e i t occurs i n the T o t a l number no. sample (by song number) of r e p e t i t i o n s 15 See #M4 See #M4 16 --(Yakima song) 1 17 See M6 See M6 18 62, 73, 76, 92, 115, 121, 126, 138, 151, 177, 181, 183 13 19 75, 83, 134 4 20 See M4 See M4 21 -- 1 22 125, 149 3 23 93, 120, 135, 164 5 24 68, 81 3 25 See #2 See #2 26 — ' 1 27 39, 53, 65, 106, 162, 168 7 2 8a&b See M2 See M2 29 See #3 See #3 30 See #4 See #4 31 See #6 See #6 32 See M3 See M3 33 See #3 See #3 34 86, 83 3 35 — 1 36 2 6 2 37 67, 80, 101 4 38 See #8 See #8 39 See #27 „ See #27 4 0 8 4 2 41 — 1 42 — 1 43 1 4 4 See #3 See #3 4 5 See M6 See M6 46 54, 66 (yakima) 3 47 See #2 See #2 48 1 49 — 1 50 89, 110, 133, 143, 154 6 51 See #3 See #3 52 See Ml See Ml 53 See #27 See #27 54 See #46 (Yakima) See #46 5 5 See #9 See #9 56 -- 1 57 See #5 See #5 58 See M4 See M4 59 See #6 See #6 I l l FREQUENCY OF REPETITIONS ( c o n t . ) Song Where e l s e i t o c c u r s i n t h e T o t a l number no . s a m p l e (by s o n g number) o f r e p e t i t i o n s 77 152 2 84 See #40 See #40 98 — 1 137 78, 103, 117, 155 5 142 136, 141, 148 4 .156 69, 108 , 113, 119 , 130 , 171, 174 8 176 — 1 177 See #18 See #18 178 — 1 179 — 1 PART IV Concluding remarks 112 I t has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t music i s i n t i m a t e l y linked, with s l a h a l p l a y i n g and i n f a c t t h a t a s l a h a l game would not proceed without music. Yet we have not y e t touched upon a more b a s i c p o i n t — why i s s l a h a l p l a y e d as f r e q u e n t l y as i t i s ? The game i s a t t r a c t i v e f o r many reasons: there i s a good d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n b e t t i n g ; the game becomes q u i t e i n v o l v i n g i f you have some money down. There i s a c e r t a i n amount of fun-making and j o k i n g a s s o c i a t e d with p l a y i n g as w e l l as the excitement i n h e r e n t i n winning a game. And s u r e l y there i s the a e s t h e t i c appeal o f the music f o r both the l i s t e n e r and the performer, to say nothin g o f the f a c t t h a t any s p e c t a t o r may s i n g along. But more important than any o f the above s l a h a l i s an Indian game, play e d by Indians, and which stands f o r Indiarfess. In s l a h a l we find, a group o f people o f a common e t h n i c i d e n t i t y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n common a c t i v i t i e s — h e l p i n g t h e i r teammates, f e e l i n g a sense o f achievement i n the monetary reward and i n s u c c e s s f u l group a c t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r North American Indians who have s u r e l y been the underdogs f o r a long time and who have been d e p r i v e d of these p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s i n r e a l l i f e (Kew, 1970, 305-309). S l a h a l p l a y s a p a r t i n what e x i s t s today as Indian c u l t u r a l l i f e on the North P a c i f i c Coast. I t i s important i n t h a t i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f be i n g Indian and a s p e c i f i c and p o s i t i v e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y to l i v e with. 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY C u l i n , S t e w a r t . 1907 Games o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s . 2 4 t h a n n u a l r e p o r t , B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , 1902-3. W a s h i n g t o n : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e . Densmore, F r a n c e s . 19 4 3 M u s i c o f t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , B u l l e t i n #136. W a s h i n g t o n : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e . H elm, J u n e a n d Nancy O e s t r e i c h L u r i e . 1966 The D o g r i b Hand Game. N a t i o n a l Museum o f Ca n a d a , B u l l e t i n #205. O t t a w a . H e r z o g , G e o r g e . 1969 " S a l i s h M u s i c . " I n d i a n s o f t h e U r b a n N o r t h w e s t . M a r i o n S m i t h , e d . , #3fi, C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A n t h r o p o l o g y . New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , 9 3 - 1 0 9 . Kew, J.E.M. 19 70 C o a s t S a l i s h C e r e m o n i a l L i f e : S t a t u s and I d e n t i t y i n a Modern V i l l a g e , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n . R a n d l e , M a r t h a C h a m p i o n . 1953 "A S h o s h o n e Hand Game G a m b l i n g S o n g , " J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e . V o l . 66, 155-159. R o b e r t s , H e l e n H. and Herman K. H a e b e r l i n . 1918 "Some s o n q s o f t h e P u g e t Sound S a l i s h , " J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e . V o l . 3 1 , 49 6 - 5 2 0 . R o b e r t s , H e l e n H. and .M o r r i s Swadesh. 196 6 "Songs o f t h e M o o t k a I n d i a n s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . " ( b a s e d on n o t e s and p h o n o g r a p h r e c o r d s o f E d w a r d S a p i r ) T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , New S e r i e s , V o l . XLV, P a r t 3. P h i l a d e l p h i a : The A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o -p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1 9 9 - 3 2 7 . 114 DISCOGRAPHY Halpern, Ida. 19 6 7 Indian Music of the P a c i f i c Northwest Coast. Mew York: E t h n i c Folkways, FE4523. The Kwakiutl gambling songs are l o c a t e d on Side 4 Band 7. Isaacs, Tony and Ida. 19 6 9 Handqa ne of the Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, and Comanche. Taos, New Mexico: Indian House, IH2501. Peacock, Kenneth. 19 55, 1961 Indian Music of the Canadian P l a i n s . New York: E t h n i c Folkways, FE4464. The Cree handgame songs are l o c a t e d on Side 1 Band 5. 

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