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Gambling music of the coast Salish Indians Stuart, Wendy Bross 1972

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GAMBLING MUSIC OF THE COAST SALISH INDIANS  by  WENDY BROSS STUART A.Mus., M c G i l l B.A., M c G i l l  University, University,  1966 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC  in  t h e Department of Music  We  accept  the  this  required  THE  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  April,  1972  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the require-  ments f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . extensive  available  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r  c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  thesis  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n mission.  per-  However, t h e tapes which accompany t h i s t h e s i s may  n o t , under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be c o p i e d o r reproduced w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Wendy B r o s s  Department o f Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  April  , 1972  Stuart  i  ABSTRACT  S l a h a l i s a gambling game p l a y e d by N o r t h American n a t i v e s on t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c c o a s t .  This a c t i v i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t t o t h e e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t because o f t h e l a r g e body o f songs which n o t o n l y accompanies with i t .  but also i s i n t i m a t e l y  linked  The t h e s i s which f o l l o w s i s a resume o f r e s e a r c h  done over t h e p a s t two and o n e - h a l f y e a r s and d e a l s w i t h t h e s l a h a l songs o f t h e Coast S a l i s h .  I b e g i n w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the game i t s e l f t h e o b j e c t o f which i s t o guess t h e l o c a t i o n o f two tokens c o n c e a l e d i n the hands o f t h e opponents.  We soon l e a r n t h a t gambling  m u s i c , as one may say about music i n g e n e r a l , has a c e r t a i n power -- t h e a b i l i t y t o e l e v a t e t h e e n t i r e game e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a d i f f e r e n t and more e x c i t i n g r e a l m than t h a t o f an o r d i n a r y game.  The main b u l k o f t h e t h e s i s i s i n t h e second p a r t where I have p r e s e n t e d 77 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e songs o u t o f 194, t r a n s c r i b e d from o v e r t w e l v e hours o f music.  A l o n g w i t h t h e songs a r e  a n a l y s e s and comments which a r e found i n summary form i n P a r t III.  The c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n touches upon t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  s l a h a l i n present-day Indian c u l t u r e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PART I :  A description  PART I I ; PART I I I : PART I V :  of slahal  Transcriptions  and a n a l y s e s  A resume o f song Concluding  Bibliography  remarks  and d i s c o g r a p h y  i'  characteristics  LIST OF TABLES  Page  Use o f s c a l e s  103  Frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n  109  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Page  1.  P o s i t i o n o f bones  2  2.  Hand g e s t u r e s  2  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  S e v e r a l warm summer evenings come t o mind and I see and hear Uncle L o u i e Miranda r e c o n s t r u c t i n g many events from t h e e a r l i e r days o f h i s l i f e .  Uncle L o u i e i s s e v e n t y - n i n e y e a r s  of age and has g i v e n f r e e l y o f h i s p a s t t o educate us i n many ways.  He has much t o t e a c h and we have l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l  about s l a h a l and about many o t h e r t h i n g s as w e l l .  My deepest  g r a t i t u d e t o Uncle L o u i e f o r b e i n g t h e person he i s and f o r spending so many hours w i t h u s .  My husband, Ronald, has expended much e f f o r t i n g u i d i n g me through t h e n o n - m u s i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s i d e o f t h i s  thesis.  He has shown g r e a t p a t i e n c e and u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t whenever I most needed i t .  I sincerely  a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t my t h e s i s  advisor,  E l l i o t W e i s g a r b e r , has always g i v e n o f h i s t i m e , and c e r t a i n l y has spent much o f i t w o r k i n g w i t h me.  F i e l d w o r k was s u p p o r t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, Ottawa i n 1970.  PART I  A d e s c r i p t i o n of s l a h a l  1  " S l a h a l , " o t h e r w i s e known as "the bone game", o f gambling  i s a form  o f p r a c t i c e d by N o r t h American n a t i v e s on  North P a c i f i c c o a s t .  the  This s i n g u l a r a c t i v i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t t o the e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t because o f the l a r g e body o f songs which n o t o n l y accompanies b u t a l s o i s i n t i m a t e l y with i t .  My r e s e a r c h d e a l s w i t h the s l a h a l songs o f  linked  those  n a t i v e s d e s i g n a t e d as Coast S a l i s h and t h e p r e s e n t e f f o r t i s a resume o f t h a t r e s e a r c h .  In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e o f the game, i t seems i m p o r t a n t t o b e g i n by d e s c r i b i n g t h e p h y s i c a l placement o f the p e r sons i n v o l v e d :  Two  s i d e s o r "teams" are f a c i n g  eachother.  Each team has l i n e d up, so t o speak, b e h i n d two p l a n k s o r l o g s which a r e p a r a l l e l t o one a n o t h e r and s e p a r a t e d by a d i s t a n c e of approximately ten f e e t .  As f o r the game i t s e l f , s l a h a l  r e q u i r e s two p a i r s o f c y l i n d r i c a l bones i n t e n d e d t o be  con-  c e a l e d i n the hands, thus o n l y a few i n c h e s i n l e n g t h and haps the d i a m e t e r o f a penny.  The  per-  i n d i v i d u a l p a i r o f bones  c o n s i s t s o f one marked and one unmarked bone, the marked i s the female bone o f /xw/f kt<*h/, and the unmarked i s the male bone or/t'amtdin/. ^  The  female bone i s e i t h e r s c u l p t u r e d , p a i n t -  ed, or d e s i g n a t e d by a c o l o r e d band around the m i d d l e , w i d t h wise.  D u r i n g the game the bones a r e h i d d e n i n t h e hands  w h i l e b e i n g mixed by two d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s from one each m a n i p u l a t i n g one p a i r .  A l s o known as  team,  The o b j e c t o f t h e game f o r the  "lehal".  Learned from Mr. mish d i a l e c t .  Louis Miranda,  the words are from the Sgua-  2  o p p o s i t e team t o guess t h e p o s i t i o n o f the unmarked bones. The g u e s s e r , t h e n , i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the l o c a t i o n o f two out o f f o u r bones.  (figure 1)  #1)  the unmarked bones a r e on the o u t s i d e  CD 2)  CD CJ  (LCD  CD  ODD  CD  CD  CD  O  they a r e t o t h e l e f t  CD 4)  CD  the unmarked bones a r e on the i n s i d e  CD 3)  I n o t h e r words t h e r e a r e f o u r p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s  CD  they a r e t o the r i g h t  d  (ED  The guess i s a n o n - v e r b a l one i n d i c a t e d by means o f the f o l l o w i n g hand g e s t u r e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the above p o s i t i o n s o f t h e bones: (figure  #2) 1)  3)  2)  4)  3  A f t e r the g u e s s e r r e v e a l s h i s c h o i c e , the two m i x e r s open t h e i r hands and expose the b o n e s .  1  The o b j e c t o f the game i s t o guess c o r r e c t l y as t o the l o c a t i o n of the bones w h i l e the opponents are s h i f t i n g each of  the two s e t s .  Each round has a w i n n e r and a l o s e r and  be  r e p r e s e n t e d as a completed a c t i v i t y .  ary  s l a h a l game l a s t s f o r many rounds.  may  However, the o r d i n The p l a y i n g c o n t i n u e s  u n t i l a d e c i s i v e number o f rounds has been won by one  side,  c a l c u l a t e d by a s e t o f e l e v e n wooden s t i c k s which p r o v i d e a t a l l y o f g a i n s and l o s s e s .  The teams b e g i n w i t h f i v e  sticks  each and the e l e v e n t h s t i c k , a l s o known as the k i n g s t i c k o r k i c k s t i c k , i s d e c i d e d by means o f s i m u l t a n e o u s m i x i n g and t h e n g u e s s i n g by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r each s i d e (the g u e s s e r or  pointer).  and sometimes stick.  The team whose p o i n t e r has guessed c o r r e c t l y , a f t e r s e v e r a l " t i e s " , wins p o s s e s s i o n o f the k i c k  Then the bones are thrown o v e r t o the l o s i n g s i d e and  two p e o p l e from t h i s s i d e b e g i n t o mix the bones.  I f the  team i s a b l e t o f o o l t h e i r opponents i n t o g u e s s i n g i n c o r r e c t l y , t h a t i s where the g u e s s e r has been t o t a l l y wrong, the m i x i n g s i d e i s then e n t i t l e d t o two s t i c k s .  They w i l l send the bones  over t o the o p p o s i t e s i d e who w i l l , i n t u r n , s t a r t m i x i n g a round w i l l have been completed.  However,if the guess  —  was  p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t , t h a t i s e.g. the p o i n t e r g e s t u r e d t o the r i g h t and the bones were on the o u t s i d e , he/she w i l l have  The g u e s s e r i s p e r m i t t e d t o make f a l s e guesses which do not count as the r e a l t h i n g . T h i s i s t o make the m i x e r s n e r v o u s , p o s s i b l y b e t r a y i n g the l o c a t i o n o f the bones. However,good mixers are a b l e t o remain s t o n e - f a c e d d u r i n g a l l the g u e s s e s , fake o r r e a l .  4  guessed c o r r e c t l y on one s e t o f bones.  T h i s means t h a t the  g u e s s i n g s i d e o n l y l o s e s one s t i c k i n s t e a d o f two, and t h e mixi n g s i d e must g i v e up one s e t o f bones.  The round then con-  t i n u e s u n t i l t h e p o i n t e r guesses c o r r e c t l y on t h e s e t o f bones which remains i n p l a y .  The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t the  guesser chooses c o r r e c t l y on the f i r s t t r y . l o s e s no s t i c k s and g a i n s t o mix and w i n s t i c k s .  Then, h i s team  t h e two s e t s o f bones and t h e r i g h t  The game i s over when one s i d e pos-  s e s s e s a l l t h e t a l l y s t i c k s , and t h a t may t a k e anywhere from about f i f t e e n minutes t o many, many h o u r s .  Wagers a r e p l a c e d b o t h on t h e outcome o f i n d i v i d u a l rounds and on t h e completed game.  Every b e t must be " c o v e r e d " , i . e .  a l i k e amount must be wagered by t h e o p p o s i t e winnings are provided ing a f f a i r . two  for.  s i d e so t h a t  A l l w a g e r i n g i s a double o r n o t h -  I f you b e t one d o l l a r , then you w i l l e i t h e r w i n  d o l l a r s (the one d o l l a r b e t p l u s t h e d o l l a r p u t up by an  opponent) o r the d o l l a r i s l o s t .  This wagering p a t t e r n i s  i d e n t i c a l f o r t h e "round b e t s " and the'game b e t s . "  However  "game b e t s " a r e o r d i n a r i l y l a r g e r and a r e p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e p l a y i n g b e g i n s and r e c o r d e d so t h a t the monies may be d i s t r i b u t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y when t h e e n t i r e game i s completed.  "Round  b e t s " a r e made i n f o r m a l l y be c a t c h i n g t h e eye o f a person on the o p p o s i t e wish to bet.  s i d e and moving a d o l l a r b i l l o r whatever you Both p a r t i e s , t h e n , u s u a l l y crumple up t h e  money and throw i t i n t o t h e c e n t e r .  The w i n n e r w i l l p i c k up  h i s money and t h a t o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n . mulated and p l a c e d  "Game b e t s " a r e accu-  i n a scarf or s i m i l a r receptacle  (sometimes  5  as much as a thousand d o l l a r s or more) which i s l e f t  conspicu-  o u s l y i n the p l a y i n g a r e a t h r o u g h o u t the game.  S l a h a l has been t r a c e d t o a b o r i g i n a l times when i t s e r v e d as a type o f i n t e r - v i l l a g e c o m p e t i t i o n using b l a n k e t s goods i n s t e a d of d o l l a r s . use of hand g e s t u r e s f o r groups who one  another.  and  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  the  i n s t e a d o f v e r b a l guesses made i t p o s s i b l e  c o u l d not o t h e r w i s e I t was  a l s o a way  communicate t o p l a y  against  t o enjoy o n e s e l f i n the com-  pany o f o t h e r s w h i l e t r y i n g ,to keep one's mind o f f the cold winter nights. o f one  other  long,  Nowadays, i t i s common f o r t h e members  l o c a l i t y t o oppose those from a n o t h e r .  For example, a t  C u l t u s Lake the Americans (Lummi, Nooksack, LaConner) were p l a y i n g the Canadians (Cowichan, Musqueam, Saanich)  although,  a t the Lummi Reserve i n Washington s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r , some of the p l a y e r s who opposite  one  had been on the same s i d e were now  another.  m y s e l f i n both 1970  (Kew,  and  whomever he chooses.  1970,  1971,  I observed t h i s  p r o v i n g t h a t anyone may  Mr.  examples o f t h i s s o r t :  s i d e , you may  L o u i s M i r a n d a has a t one  decide  luck.  She  served  t o be  to  "put  time a Yakima woman had  acquired skill  as the p o i n t e r f o r the Canadians on  o c c a s i o n , and many people changed s i d e s t o be w i t h h e r . enough, the Canadian s i d e won.  1  The  i n d i v i d u a l s who  T h i s i n c i d e n t took p l a c e about 45-50 y e a r s  a  r e c o u n t e d many  an e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n as a p o i n t e r b o t h i n terms o f and  play with  For i n s t a n c e , i f someone r e p u t e d  good p o i n t e r i s p l a y i n g f o r one y o u r money on him."  303-4)  playing  ago.  one Sure  are known  6  t o have a c e r t a i n amount o f l u c k and power and/or e x p e r t i s e seem t o be a good r i s k t o put one's money on. i t was  the Vancouver I s l a n d people who  been b e a t e n . " gamblers.  1  Even now  Many y e a r s  ago,  were s a i d t o have "never  the people from. Duncan are v e r y  active  There are many p l a y e r s known as p r o f e s s i o n a l s  who  t r a v e l the " c i r c u i t s " a l l y e a r round and e a r n a l i v i n g i n t h i s way.  The  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e n , may  a t t r a c t players to t h e i r  r e s p e c t i v e s i d e s w i t h t a c i t promises of v i c t o r y .  Some f r e -  quent p l a y e r s are even known f o r t h e i r s l e i g h t of hand s p e c i a l c a u t i o n may  and  accompany the g u e s s e r ' s c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n  of bones when these i n d i v i d u a l s are m i x i n g them.  S l a h a l p l a y i n g i s o f t e n a prominent a c t i v i t y of the population.  D u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  p l a y i n g a t the h o p - p i c k i n g the f i s h c a n n e r i e s working.  (Kew,  on weekends a t the Somenos 1970,  302-3) and  undoubtedly  on an e q u a l l y p r i v a t e b a s i s i n the warmer  months of the year.. S l a h a l i s almost always p l a y e d  a t the  i o u s p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s which are two days i n l e n g t h and a l l y c e n t e r around canoe r a c e s . n i g h t ; at Cultus we  The  Lake, June, 1971,  l e f t a f t e r 2:30a.m. and  var-  usu-  p l a y i n g o f t e n goes on a l l  they were s t i l l p l a y i n g when  J.E.M. Kew  r e p o r t s t h a t i n 1967  the Lumini Reserve, the game ended s h o r t l y b e f o r e Mass (p.  in  from d i f f e r e n t groups were  Today, s l a h a l i s p l a y e d  at other reserves  we have seen s l a h a l  camps i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y and  where I n d i a n s  r e s e r v e near Duncan, B.C.  native  at  the C a t h o l i c  302).  Mr. L o u i s M i r a n d a , s p e a k i n g of the s i t u a t i o n as he saw i t between a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1910-1930.  7  Slahal on  i s perhaps  the North P a c i f i c  t h e m o s t common t r a d i t i o n a l  Coast.  t y p e o f game, known as t h e all  Peacock  "hand  (1955, 1961,  "...most w i d e s p r e a d I n d i a n Plains cock by  —  game", i s p l a y e d  5)  states  by  81  California,  (1907)  tribes  28  find  Washington,  groups  Alberta,  Columbia, Alaska,  Arizona,  Colorado, Utah, Texas,  Nevada,  267-327).  ritories  and  popularity on  their  As North  We their  game  o f hand  styles  of the various  one  f r o m t h e other."'"  Even  two  distinct  one  another ington  styles:  o f hand  located  games  in  Montana,  Manitoba,  Ter-  Mexico  & Lurie, by  1966)  as w e l l  Tony and  Ida  diffused  a l lover  g r o u p s who  play we  are very collected  the Coast Salish  a Plateau  the  Isaacs,  the  a l t h o u g h i t seems s t r a n g e  sung by  as  (19 6 9 ) .  among t h e s o n g s  s u n g by' t h e Y a k i m a s ,  games  the Dogribs i n the Northwest  game s o n g s  and  study of  1907  (Helm  and  Pea-  (Culin,  game h a s  continent,  Kenneth  Idaho,  the Yukon,  game, d o c u m e n t e d  see, t h e hand  American  musical  hand  o f t h e hand  recording  we  known a b o u t  Canadian  descriptions  linguistic  instance  i t i s the  And  a much e a r l i e r  w h e r e we  from  Oregon,  with  Wyoming, B r i t i s h  pp.  the  this  extensively  For  that  g a m b l i n g game o n  i n agreement  Stewart Culin  played  p.  as w e l l .  i n d e e d on most o f t h e c o n t i n e n t . "  i s surely  played  I t i s important to note that  over the North American continent  Kenneth  game  group  the different there  groups  from eastern  State.  See " D i s c o g r a p h y " f o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f s t y l e s recording.  available  on  were  and Wash-  8  S l a h a l c o u l d n o t be p l a y e d w i t h o u t m u s i c , and t h e s l a h a l songs w i t h p e r c u s s i o n accompaniment p l a y an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n the  game:  even games w i t h a s m a l l number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s must  include music.  Only one s i d e w i l l  s i d e m i x i n g t h e bones. the  s i n g a t any one time -- t h e  C o n v e r s e l y , when t h e round i s o v e r and  bones a r e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t e team i t i s  t h e i r t u r n t o mix and t o s i n g .  One o b j e c t i v e o f t h e m i x i n g  and s i n g i n g s i d e i s t o c o n f u s e and perhaps r i l e t h e o p p o s i t e team —  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g u e s s e r who i s t r y i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e  on t h e whereabouts old at  o f t h e unmarked bones.  F o r example, one  woman would o c c a s i o n a l l y s t o p s i n g i n g t o shout t h e g u e s s e r on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e .  T h i s means "you're b l i n d "  and i s o b v i o u s l y an attempt t o annoy him/her. t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t a r e q u i t e common.  /j.£y.O$ /  V e r b a l exclama-  Another example:  Mr.  L o u i s Miranda r e c o u n t e d an i n c i d e n t which took p l a c e perhaps f i f t y y e a r s ago.  A p p a r e n t l y , a young woman named A n n i e , was  o f t e n chosen t o mix t h e bones because  ( 1 ) she bounced  around  a g r e a t d e a l when m i x i n g and s i n g i n g , and ( 2 ) she was a v e r y " w e l l - b u i l t " female.  The r e s u l t was always t h a t t h e g u e s s e r  on t h e o p p o s i t e team would l o s e t r a c k o f t h e bones and i n s t e a d , watch A n n i e .  L o u i s M i r a n d a once sung a s l a h a l song f o r us which I had never h e a r d , one which had a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v o c a b l e s and unders t a n d a b l e words.  The words, a g a i n , were meant t o r i l e and con-  fuse the opposite s i d e : "(approximate t r a n s l a t i o n ) p o s s i b l y w i n because we have B i l l on our s i d e  you cannot  ( B i l l being the  name o f a person r e p u t e d t o be a good s l a h a l p l a y e r ) "  But even  9  f i f t y y e a r s ago, songs w i t h words were a r a r i t y and t h i s c e r t a i n l y i s t h e case a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e : my c o l l e c t i o n , none have a c t u a l t e x t s . vocables  o f t h e 19 4 songs i n I n s t e a d they use  such as "hay ya ha ha" e t c .  Yet i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  t o note t h e remarkable c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which they a r e used. F o r i n s t a n c e , one song appears i n my sample t h i r t e e n times over t h e p e r i o d o f two y e a r s and t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e use o f vocables  i s almost n i l .  I n o t h e r words  each s p e c i f i c  slahal  song has q u i t e d e f i n i t e v o c a b l e s which go a l o n g w i t h i t . leads t o s p e c u l a t i o n :  This  perhaps t h e v o c a b l e s were once words  which l o s t t h e i r meaning through t h e course o f many y e a r s o f oral tradition. so.  Somehow, i n t h i s case I do n o t r e a l l y t h i n k  S l a h a l songs a r e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g , and q u i t e r a p i d l y  at that.  I t i s q u i t e common t o l e a r n songs from s t r a n g e r s  w h i l e p l a y i n g t h e game —  i n f a c t most n a t i v e s l e a r n s l a h a l  songs from l i s t e n i n g and r e p e a t i n g , d u r i n g t h e many times a song i s r e p e a t e d .  L o u i s M i r a n d a , who has n o t p l a y e d s l a h a l f o r  o v e r 44 y e a r s , r e c o g n i z e d  the songs I sung t o him because he  has been p r e s e n t a t games.  However, he made q u i t e c l e a r t h e (  f a c t t h a t my c o l l e c t i o n were "modern" songs and t h a t t h e r e were many d i f f e r e n t songs used when he was p l a y i n g a p p r o x i mately 44-70 y e a r s ago.  I n o t h e r words, i f t h e m u s i c a l  tra-  d i t i o n changes so r a p i d l y i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a song would l a s t f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e l e n g t h o f time f o r t h e t e x t t o e v o l v e vocables.  into  Even i n t h e course o f t h r e e seasons (1969, 1970,  1971), I have seen c e r t a i n changes — t i c u l a r song, a change i n m e l o d i c  an a f f i n i t y f o r a p a r -  rhythm l a r g e l y owing t o t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f one s t r o n g and r e s p e c t e d s i n g e r , and so f o r t h .  10  There are s e v e r a l t h e songs w h i c h w i l l planned e f f o r t ,  s i n g e r s who  be h e a r d .  sings  A song u s u a l l y  continues  the l o u d e s t until  t h e r e a r e many r e p e t i t i o n s  them.  transmitted  Now starts with no,  we  necessary.  slahal  In f a c t ,  the  run i n t o  a problem:  a new  The  mechanism f o r t h e  t o p e o p l e who  are not  tradition  quickly  enough;  it.  that  be c h a n g e d  someone  Are they The  several  times w i t h i n  obvious to the s i n g e r s  an u n l u c k y s o n g .  I t was  d i d n o t know i t and c o u l d  not  not l e a r n i t  be a s o u r c e o f b a d  Sometimes, i f t h e p o i n t i n g  s i d e has  guessed c o r r e c t l y  an e f f o r t  people r e f e r tained  to bring to t h i s  i n the s l a h a l  mentioned her  t h e m i x i n g and s i n g i n g  that  to b e l i e v e  or v i s i o n s .  "Lady Lady  side w i l l  songs.  F r a n c e s Densmore  Sengs  slahal learned  songs c o u l d be as s u c h m i g h t  (1943, one  gained lend  luck. on  one  songs  side.  power w h i c h  i n the c o u r s e o f h e r r e s e a r c h that  change  Luck" more o n t o t h e i r  Luck as s p i r i t  involved  spirited  i t would  in  stuck  answer i s  i n general  s e t of bones,  fami-  in slahal i s  l e t us s u p p o s e  do n o t l i k e  reason i s quite  enough, t h e p l a y e r s  indeed,  way.  a song w i l l  t h e s o n g c h o s e n was  confidence.  song,  t h a t song f o r the remainder o f the round? and o f t e n t i m e s  from the  t h e most  a built-in  musical  in this  the others  pre-  In t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e  to learn  songs  entirely  a s o n g and  the round. —  and w i t h  seem a l m o s t l i k e  purpose of t e a c h i n g with  i s not a conscious  t h e end o f t h e r o u n d , and t h u s  i t i s not d i f f i c u l t  the r e p e t i t i o n s  liar  This  than n o t , choose  but r a t h e r a spontaneous o u t b u r s t  i n d i v i d u a l who  repetitions  more o f t e n  Some  i s con64-67)  informant l e d i n dreams  spiritual  help  11  t o t h a t p l a y e r w h i l e he i s s i n g i n g and m i x i n g .  One  i n f o r m a n t s c o r r o b o r a t e d t h i s -- he had known people c l a i m e d such powers. " t r u t h " o f such  He, however, was  o f our who  s c e p t i c a l as t o the  statements.  Y e t , i f one b e l i e v e s i n the i n t r i n s i c power o f m u s i c , i t i s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d songs.  the s p i r i t power c o n t a i n e d i n s l a h a l  F u r t h e r , we have e x p e r i e n c e d , a f t e r many hours of  lis-  t e n i n g , o b s e r v i n g and s i n g i n g , a c e r t a i n t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e perhaps because of the p e r s i s t e n t drumbeats.  We  discussed  t h i s v e r y p o i n t w i t h Dr. Wolfgang J i l e k , p s y c h i a t r i s t  and  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , and he s t a t e d t h a t i t i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e a t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e when t h e r e are between t h r e e and seven p u l s e s p e r second.  Sure enough, s l a h a l songs are  accompanied by e i g h t h - n o t e drumbeats, the average b e i n g  252  p u l s e s per m i n u t e , o r p r e c i s e l y 4.2  In  p u l s e s per second.  o t h e r words, i t i s the music which takes s l a h a l out o f the realm o f the o r d i n a r y game and i n t o the " s u p e r - r e a l " or normal. i n g (Kew,  super-  These same songs are a p p a r e n t l y a l s o used f o r danc1970 , 294) .  I t i s i m p o r t a n t , a t t h i s p o i n t , t o c l a r i f y the use o f "drumming" and  "drumbeats".  The o e r c u s s i o n accompaniment f o r  s l a h a l songs i s p a r t l y w i t h drums h e l d a t the back w i t h hand and beaten w i t h a l e a t h e r - e n d e d s t i c k .  one  However, many  people cannot a f f o r d t o buy a drum and i n s t e a d use a s t i c k  and  12  b e a t on t h e l o g o r p l a n k i n f r o n t o f them.  There a r e many  o t h e r p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s d e v i s e d by t h e p l a y e r s :  two s t i c k s  t o g e t h e r , two r o c k s t o g e t h e r , a rock on a beer can, e t c . f a c t , t h e use o f drums i n s l a h a l p l a y i n g i s a f a i r l y arrival: was  In  recent  L o u i s Miranda mentioned t h a t i n Squamish t h e drum  n o t used i n s l a h a l u n t i l about 1910. The drums a r e c a r e -  f u l l y attended  t o and t h e p i t c h o f each drum i s i m p o r t a n t .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o watch how t h e p l a y e r s , one by one, approach the f i r e i n the c e n t e r t o tune t h e i r drums w i t h h e a t as the n i g h t wears on and t h e temperature  drops.  There i s , y e t , one o t h e r p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r .  Mrs. P e a r l  Warren, o f t h e S e a t t l e I n d i a n C e n t e r , i s q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t s l a h a l songs a r e owned by i n d i v i d u a l s .  She c l a i m s t h a t a l -  though anyone can j o i n i n , one must own t h e song i n o r d e r t o initiate it.  The younger I n d i a n s may n o t be aware t h a t owner-  s h i p c l a i m s a r e a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e case o f s l a h a l songs, b u t a c c o r d i n g t o Mrs. Warren i t i s s o . She was even a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h e f a m i l y which owned a s p e c i f i c song as we were tening to i t .  Frances  lis-  Densmore, i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n t o which  I have a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a man r e c e i v e d a s l a h a l song from a s p i r i t i n h i s dream. song was u n i q u e l y h i s .  In o t h e r words, t h a t  Ownership o f songs, w h i l e n o t uncommon  on t h e North P a c i f i c Coast, i m p l i e s t h a t t h e songs i n v o l v e d are o f a p r i v a t e o r s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e .  I t seems f a i r l y  obvious  t h a t i f these songs were t r u l y p r i v a t e , they would n o t be sung a t p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s where people t r a n s c r i b e and a n a l y s e them..  l i k e myself  could record,  A f t e r such t r e a t m e n t ,  any song  13  would c e r t a i n l y be d i v e s t e d o f power!  Most people we have spoken w i t h n e i t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t t h e songs a r e owned n o r t h a t they a r e p r i v a t e c r s p i r i t u a l as a r e the c u l t u r a l o r s p i r i t songs which a r e o n l y sung a t p r i v a t e gatherings.  According  t o Mr. L o u i s M i r a n d a i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t o keep t h i n g s i n p e r s p e c t i v e as r e g a r d s  s l a h a l songs.  First  o f a l l " S l a h a l i s o n l y a game," and i t i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e songs be sung " p e r f e c t l y " as i t i s f o r t h e s p i r i t songs. man:  We l e a r n e d a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g l e s s o n from t h e same L o u i s M i r a n d a o c c a s i o n a l l y teaches c h i l d r e n i n t h e  North Vancouver p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and i n some o f h i s c l a s s e s he teaches them how t o p l a y s l a h a l . singing?  What does he do f o r t h e  I n o r d e r t o convey t h e f e e l i n g i n s l a h a l songs  which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what we n o r m a l l y do when i n s t r u c t e d t o s i n g , Uncle L o u i e  (as everyone c a l l s him) t e l l s them t o  make n o i s e , shout, scream, pound on t h e f l o o r , e t c .  A most con-  t r o v e r s i a l view o f music b u t q u i t e i n s i g h t f u l as r e g a r d s h a l songs.  sla-  PART I I  T r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s  14  T h i s s e c t i o n i s devoted t o t h e s l a h a l songs themselves which were t r a n s c r i b e d from r e c o r d i n g s made i n the f i e l d between  1969-1971.  The f i r s t s i x songs, l a b e l l e d M1-M6, were  taped a t C u l t u s Lake, B.C. i n 19 69 by Lynn Maranda; 18 8 were r e c o r d e d by my husband and m y s e l f .  the other  We d i d o u r t a p i n g  i n t h e summer months o f 1970 and 1971 w i t h a Sony TC 110 c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r , and succeeded i n c o l l e c t i n g o v e r t w e l v e hours o f music a t s e v e r a l I n d i a n f e s t i v a l s a l l o f which were l o c a t e d w i t h i n a 75-mile r a d i u s o f Vancouver:  June, 1970 - C u l t u s Lake F e s t i v a l — June, 1970 - Stommish F e s t i v a l —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  Lummi Reserve, Washington  June, 1971 - C u l t u s Lake F e s t i v a l —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  June, 1971 - Stommish F e s t i v a l —  Lummi R e s e r v e , Washington  Aug., 1971 - Songhees F e s t i v a l —  Songhees Reserve ( I s l a n d ) , B.C.  (Vancouver  There a r e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n need o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e embarking upon t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s . We betjin w i t h Ml-6 and c o n t i n u e , i n o r d e r o f t a p i n g , through #59.  That i s , I d i d no e d i t i n g and l e f t i n t a c t those songs and  how they f o l l o w one another.  From t h e r e on, I chose t o p u l l  c e r t a i n songs o u t o f c o n t e x t t o a v o i d e x c e s s i v e l e n g t h and t o complete t h e p i c t u r e by means o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e songs.  The  numbers g i v e n t o each song i n d i c a t e s where i t o c c u r s i n t h e sample and when a p a r t i c u l a r r e n d i t i o n was sung.  I also i n d i -  c a t e how f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e sample a song has o c c u r r e d -- some as o f t e n as f o u r t e e n  times.  15  One  c a t e g o r y I used i n the a n a l y s e s i s " p i t c h " , and i n  most songs, t h e r e i s a p i t c h r i s e .  The d e s c r i p t i o n s , however  do not i n d i c a t e the l e n g t h o f a song, t h a t i s , the number o f repetitions  i n v o l v e d -- a f a c t o r which  t o p i t c h change.  i s most d i r e c t l y  In o t h e r words a song which r e p e a t s  related  fifteen  times i s more l i k e l y t o e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t p i t c h change ( r i s e ) than the song which  i s o n l y sung t w i c e through.  The songs were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o the p r e c i s e t o n a l i t y i n which they were sung.  T h i s i s not t o assume t h a t a b s o l u t e  p i t c h has r e l e v a n c e i n the same way music.  i t does i n w e s t e r n a r t  Nor were the sharps and f l a t s used t o add c o m p l e x i t y  t o a body o f f a i r l y s i m p l e songs.  I n s t e a d , the songs were  t r a n s c r i b e d as they o c c u r r e d a l l o w i n g f o r l a t e r p i t c h  compari-  sons w i t h s i m i l a r v e r s i o n s o f the same p i e c e .  As f o r the tempo m a r k i n g s ,  one u s u a l l y f i n d s t h a t the song  b e g i n s a t a s l o w e r tempo which g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e s and stabilizes.  then  For most p i e c e s , t h e n , I have i n d i c a t e d the s t a -  b i l i z e d tempo r a t h e r than b o t h the s l o w e r and f a s t e r  tempi.  The use o f a f u l l bar l i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s t r o n g b e a t i s about t o o c c u r , and q u i t e o f t e n the number of b e a t s between accented notes i s i r r e g u l a r .  I do not mark each change w i t h  the f o r m a l i n d i c a t i o n o f meter as one does i n western a r t 3 music (e.g. ^ ) , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y o f the songs involved.  Sometimes, however, I do use a p a r t i a l b a r l i n e t o  s u b d i v i d e the b e a t s o f more c o m p l i c a t e d r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s , f o r  16  i n s t a n c e t h e Yakima songs  $ 1 6 , #46).  P l e a s e n o t e t h e meaning o f t h e f o l l o w i n g symbols which w i l l appear i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s :  = about bO c e n t s  * i  a f  h i g h e r than i n d i c a t e d  = about 50 c e n t s l o w e r than i n d i c a t e d = a s l i d e between notes  C u l t u s Lake, June, 1969  jfi.  Ml  I  3 ^  /•»  Ka  Ko  Wo  kyato  A . II J irrH=i-HH m i n i %  u^,  WA  MA  (to)  r:.,  to  */6  » Un  KA  \/4 Ko  1  UL. U1 11 tag  ha *)A  h a  ^  There a r e 100 c e n t s i n one semi-tone. quarter-tone.  F i f t y cents, then,is a  17  Pitch;  r i s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y a semi-tone  p l u s 50 c e n t s  f i r s t r e n d i t i o n t o the l a s t r e n d i t i o n .  Pitch rise  from occurs  i n s m a l l increments, p a r t i c u l a r l y w h i l e s u s t a i n i n g the first  Contour;  note.  descending.  M e l o d i c range:  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one o c t a v e , a l t h o u g h t h e main  interest i s within a f i f t h .  Scale:  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t -- s o l , l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  Form:  A/B/bridge/C/B/bridge  Song M l ( r e c o r d e d 1969) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y v e r s i o n s on f o u r o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #13 - June, 1970 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #52 - June, 1970 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #63 - June, 19 70 —  Lummi  #82 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake  Reserve  differing  18  Pitch:  b e g i n s approx. 50 c e n t s h i g h e r than i n d i c a t e d  tion.  No a p p r e c i a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n  i n nota-  i n the c o u r s e o f r e p e -  tition .  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A a+b/ The  octave  /A  '/B  a+b/c+c  / B 1  /c+c  / 1  /  "a" motive has a d e f i n i t e a n t i p h o n a l f l a v o r  and f o r the moment, the p i e c e i s i n two p a r t s .  The  'c  1  motives  demonstrate the use o f f a l l i n g sequences -- a v e r y common device.  19  Song M2 (recorded 1969) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on t h i r t e e n o t h e r o c c a s i o n s  M3  i n t h e sample:  Song #1 - June, 1970  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #2 - June, 1970  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #28a -June, 1970  —  C u l t u s Lake, B • C.  #28b -June, 1970  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #79 -June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #97 -June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #105 -June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake, B • C.  #122 -June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #153 -June, 1971  —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #158 -June, 1971  —  Lummi  #160 -June, 1971  —  Lummi  #163 -June, 1971  —  Lummi  #166 -June, 1971  —  Lummi  20  Pitch:  r i s e o f approx. a semi-tone d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e  repetitions.  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  a ninth  pentatonic  Form:  A a+b/c+b "a " 1  (from l o w e s t - r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi)  A  B  1  a+b/b  a +b /b /a +b 1  1  1  2  2  - wider i n t e r v a l - lower i n p i t c h  "b " - some i n t e r v a l - lower i n p i t c h 1  2  "a " - same i n t e r v a l as a - lower i n p i t c h  i  2  "b " - same rhythm - descending The  "b", " b " and " b " motives are e i t h e r i n d i c a t e d 1  2  as i-«N ^  21  or as i o j ^  .  A c e r t a i n amount o f f l u c t u a t i o n o c c u r s and t h e  two rhythms a r e o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e .  M3 o c c u r s once a g a i n i n t h i s sample: #32 - June, 1 9 7 0 — Lummi Reserve, Wash.  M4  Wo  Wo  boy Wo ho  tfrJ  CO  ho  Pitch:  wo  ho  ho  W(W/  hay  t h e p i e c e b e g i n s 50 c h i g h e r than i n d i c a t e d  tion.  i n t h e nota-  A 50 c e n t p i t c h r i s e o c c u r s , and t h e p i e c e ends  a p p r o x i m a t e l y where i t appears i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  Contour:  two d e s c e n d i n g  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  phrases  fifth  p e n t a t o n i c w i t h o u t " l a " (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , mi)  22  Form:  A  /  A  /  1  a+b/ b+c  M4  Each which are  /  (19 69)  on ten o t h e r  occurs  occasions i n  #15  - J u n e , 1970  -- C u l t u s  Lake,  B.C.  #20  - J u n e , 1970  — Cultus  Lake,  B.C.  #58  - J u n e , 1970  ~ Lummi R e s e r v e ,  #61  - J u n e , 1970  ~ Lummi  #96  - J u n e , 1971  — Cultus  Lake  #123  - J u n e , 1971  — Cultus  Lake  #128  - J u n e , 1971  -- C u l t u s  Lake  #132  - June 19, 1971 —  Lummi  #147  - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi  #150  -  Lummi  June  20,  1971 —  one o f these eleven v e r s i o n s have  are slightly  clearly  song.  Bridge  similar  distinctive enough  some  from the others  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  Wash.  characteristics although  basically  they  t h e same  Pitch:  r i s e o f approx.  Contour:  50 c e n t s  s t a t i o n a r y , e x c e p t f o r t h e ending where t h e l i n e  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  fifth  Use o f o n l y f o u r n o t e s , p e n t a t o n i c w i t h o u t "mi" (from  lowest - s o l , l a , do, r e )  Form:  c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l motives (a)  rising  fourth  (b)  repeating 'e .  (c)  f a l l i n g figure bridge  1  A a+b/a+b/b/b/b M6  falls  ira  (R)  IB c+ b r i d g e  ®  B c+ b r i d g e  24  Pitch;  b e g i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 c e n t s lower than t h e p i t c h  notated.  Contour:  R i s e o f a semi-tone.  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  s i x t h , m a i n l y w i t h i n t h e compass o f a t h i r d .  o n l y t h r e e tones - s o l , do, mi (from t h e l o w e s t ) .  What i s i n t e r e s t i n g interval  i s t h e use o f a n e u t r a l t h i r d , t h e  between a major and minor t h i r d .  I t actually  sounds l i k e a minor t h i r d s l i d i n g upward.  Form:  A/A  1  Song M6 ( r e c o r d e d i n 1969) o c c u r s on t h r e e more o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #17  - June, 1970 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #94  - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #145 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  CULTUS LAKE, 1970 1  V  o  la—wi—\ \\ ^ * Wo Kay  ^V K  -  s  uu-i.  J  -BtT  a  1 a—ui i - \ v  ho 1  4 m  ^  1— \-  K O  ./  I  25  *  Ko  Kay ya  he  Pitch:  Ka ya  fey  ya  b e g i n s 50 c h i g h e r than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , r i s e o f  Contour:  semi-tone.  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Form:  y*  Ko  about one  Scale:  ha  octave  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A/A/B/B  Here i s the f i r s t example o f a v a r i a t i o n on a song we have a l r e a d y e n c o u n t e r e d .  Compare w i t h  M2:  The A p h r a s e s phrases  are quite s i m i l a r ,  o f #1 a r e l o n g e r  number o f s e q u e n c e s #1  are s i m i l a r  same p i e c e at Cultus Cultus  (See  M2  than  those  i n a downward  enough  to consider  a n d n o t two d i f f e r e n t L a k e , B.C.  Lake,  l-.\ofc © ( , )  -  £ ^ E E E % E E g *  h<i  y<x  a larger Y e t #M2  and  them v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e songs.  c o n t a i n i n g frequency  la  •  with  #M2  was  recorded  i n 1970, a l s o a t  B.C.  f o r the l i s t  Q  o f M2  direction.  i n 1 9 6 9 , a n d #1  sample)  4  however the B  V»o  h o -  WA  of repetition  i n the  27  Pitch:  b e g i n s approx. 70 c e n t s lower than n o t a t i o n  indicates,  r i s e o f about one semi-tone, t o approx. 30 c e n t s above pitch  Contour:  indicated.  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  ninth  P e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - s o l , l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  Form:  Introduction/  A  /  /A  a/ b + c + c / b r i d g e / b^+c  Polyphony: the  a s m a l l number o f women a r e s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above  melody as i n d i c a t e d .  Song l a ( r e c o r d e d i n 1970) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y v e r s i o n s on t h r e e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample:  *  #34b - June, 19 70 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #100 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #114 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  Ko  y«  wo  Key*  Ko j«  different  28  (lasV  Pitch:  cHat-vgirvg  to:)  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  bars  fifth  pentatonic without  " s o l " (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , mi)  / A / A (A ) 1 , 1 , 1 2 , 1 , . a+b b ^ c / b + c / c + c (c +c ) 1  A  A  2  1  2  The f i n a l two b a r s were changed by t h e p l a y e r s a f t e r s e v e r a l ^petitions.  Song #2 ( r e c o r d e d 1970) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on t h r e e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #25  - June, 1970 — C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #47  - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #161 - June, 1971 — Lummi Reserve, Wash.  29  3  Pitch:  r i s e o f a semi-tone p l u s 20-30 c e n t s from o r i g i n a l  pitch.  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  tenth  pentatonic  30  Form;  A  1 2 /A A  3 A bridge  a+b/a+c/a +c /a +b/a 1  1  2  3  a n o t h e r use o f sequences i n a downward d i r e c t i o n , Polyphony:  Some women a r e s i n g i n g t h e same melody a f o u r t h  above.  Song #3 ( r e c o r d e d i n 1970) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on f i v e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #10 - June, 1970 —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #29 - June, 1970 —  Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash.  #33 - June, 1970 —  Lummi  #44 - June, 1970 -- Lummi #70 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  V)  0  V  \ \ \  h<f  he  ) X —  1  ^tl  Kc —  \  l±±=^=d  * t = £ j M  K<\  ^  ^  A  ^°  H V I ha  , I  1  1  v  31  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e p i t c h change, t h e i n t e r v a l i n b a r #2,  b e g i n s as a major 3 r d and s e t t l e s . i n t o a minor t h i r d .  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  tenth  Scale:  pentatonic  Form:  A  /  a+b/  The  A  1  (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a , do)  /  B  a^"+b^" / c+c^+c (shortened)  2  'c' m o t i v e s a r e a g a i n , examples o f t h e downward d i r e c t e d  sequences.  Song #4 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #7  - June, 1970 —  #30 - June, 19 70 —  h<* We l a  C u l t u s Lake, B.C. Lummi Reserve, Wash.  ha to* ha k* WA We  ta  ha to* it-  ^  \  32  Pitch:  b e g i n s approx. 70 c e n t s h i g h e r than the n o t a t i o n  indi-  c a t e s , r i s e o f about 20 c d u r i n g the r e p e t i t i o n s 1  Contour:  u n d u l a t i n g between d  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  1  and b , then d e s c e n d i n g  sixth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A B C  B  1  A and B phrases d e f i n i t e l y complement one a n o t h e r , A i s the q u e s t i o n and B i s the response. two s e q u e n t i a l p h r a s e s , and B cadential  way.  1  C i s a s m a l l development u s i n g ends the song i n a v e r y  satisfying,  33  Song #5 o c c u r s once a g a i n i n t h e sample: #57 - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Washington  6  Pitch:  60-70 c e n t s lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s r i s e o f approx.  a semi-tone  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  fifth  o n l y t h r e e tones which seem t o o u t l i n e a major  (from l o w e s t - do, m i , so) 1 Form:  A a+b  A 1^,1 a +b  2 A a2  Bridge  triad  34  Song #6 ( r e c o r d e d i n 1970) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y  different  v e r s i o n s on s i x o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n the sample: #31  - June, 1970  — Lummi Re s e r v e , Wash.  #59  -- June, 1970  — Lummi  #74  - June, 1971  — C u l t u s Lake, B .C.  #91  - June, 1971  — C u l t u s Lake  #95  - June, 1971  — C u l t u s Lake  #107 - June, 1971  — C u l t u s Lake  7 Song #7 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #4, e x c e p t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g differences.  Pitch;  b e g i n s on 'd', a p p r o x i m a t e l y a semi-tone h i g h e r than #4.  Polyphony:  I n t h i s v e r s i o n , sung w i t h i n an hour o f #4, we f i n d  t h a t t h e women, s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above t h e men, a r e p r o d u c i n g the more prominent melody.  (See #4 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n )  8  35  KA^A  Pitch:  H a  KO  a  kay  A  K*y  r i s e o f a semi-tone  Contour:  three descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  From:  ^  phrases  sixth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - do, r e , mi, s o l , l a )  A  A  1  A  2  Bridge  T h i s song i s e s p e c i a l l y  i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r m a l l y , because each  phrase ends i n the same "ha ya hay"  figure.  The o t h e r  interest-  i n g f e a t u r e i s the r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n between two and  four-beat  grouping.  Song #8 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on f o u r o t h e r  36  o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #38  - June, 1970 —  #90  - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #104 - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake #118 - June, 1971 -- C u l t u s Lake  9  Pitch:  approx.  80 c e n t s lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , no  significant pitch  Contour:  rise  descending  M e l o d i e range:  fourth  Scale:  m i , s o l and l a o n l y  Form:  ABA  Polyphony:  (from lowest)  p l u s two d i m i n i s h i n g echoes o f "A"  two p a r t s o f e q u a l prominence.  What appears i n t h e  t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s t h e men's v o i c e s ; t h e women a r e s i n g i n g a fourth higher.  37  A s i m i l a r v e r s i o n o f #9 o c c u r s i n June, 1970 a t t h e Lummi Reserve, Wash. (Song #55).  10 Song #10 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #3 e x c e p t i n g  the f o l l o w i n g  differences:  Pitch:  b e g i n s a t t h e same p i t c h as #3, b u t i n t h i s case t h e  p i t c h r i s e s a semi-tone p l u s about 40-50 c -- a s m a l l ference.  Polyphony:  none, i n c o n t r a s t t o #3  (See #3 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n )  11  women  (a'  \>6 • ho  Ko  V\0  m  K0  hftf  oo  wo ho  Ko  dif-  38  =0* He  Ko  -J tf¥ 00  L  r \ . " kt  Pitch:  M WO  Wo  K  ko  0  %  :i vO»  — - — \  \  1  F  Ko  1  .—K^y  descending  M e l o d i c range:  f l  Ko  J  V  \  Ko  1 0«  r i s e o f a s e m i - t one  Contour:  kt  r° N = r p v s ^ i i  —1  iH  oo  KAJ/  octave  1 f W B  KO  ^  U \  1  H t  fc*y  >  =*  Scale:  Form:  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e )  A a+a  Polyphony:  B  a 1.+a2  B a +a  The men began t h e song and t h e women proceeded t o  take o v e r , a f o u r t h above.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y because t h e  song goes below a c o m f o r t a b l e p i t c h f o r t h e men i n v o l v e d . Consequently,  t h e women, a f o u r t h above, predominate i n 2  the l o w e s t s e c t i o n s ("a ") and a r e a t l e a s t e q u a l l y s t r o n g throughout  the r e s t of the piece.  A s i m i l a r v e r s i o n o f #11 o c c u r s i n June, 1971 a t C u l t u s Lake B.C.  &7) .  40  Pitch:  A semi-tone  r i s e had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d ( t o f#) when t h e  s i t u a t i o n became c o n f u s e d .  Apparently, a leading singer  f o r g o t t o r e p e a t t h e "B" s e c t i o n and c o n t i n u e d on t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e song.  The r e s u l t was m u s i c a l chaos f o r a  few seconds u n t i l a new l e a d e r emerged and began t h i s same song a g a i n —  t h i s time a whole-tone below where h i s p r e -  d e c e s s o r had l e f t o f f —  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale: Form:  and we f i n d o u r s e l v e s on "e".  octave  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a ) see M2  The d i f f e r e n c e , n o t e - w i s e , between t h i s song and M2 i s the f i n a l bar —  o t h e r w i s e they a r e t h e same.  frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n  (See M2 f o r t h e  i n t h e e n t i r e sample.)  13 T h i s song i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o M l , e x c e p t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g differences:  Pitch:  semi-tone  M.M.:  j  Polyphony:  rise  =126  S e v e r a l women were s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above t h e men.  The d i f f i c u l t y arose when they augmented t h a t i n t e r v a l t o  41  a tritone.  The men seemed p e r t u r b e d about the c l a s h e s  and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , , someone changed t h e song, t h e same s i d e c o n t i n u i n g t o mix t h e bones and s i n g .  (See Ml f o r t h e frequency  of repetition.)  14  0  b) H \ r IT \J \ \ If t r 0  bo  Ka  io  V\a ta ha lee ta  l\c\  ia  IfrLffiffiffff V »Ao.v bar  ha lee la Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  minor t h i r d  o n l y two tones - " s o l " and "mi," o r "do" and " l a "  A a+b  P?~ a"*"b  Song #26 ( C u l t u s Lake, June, 19 70)  i s very s i m i l a r t o , although  s u r e l y n o t t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e same a s , t h i s song.  42  15 S o n g #15  i s nearly  identical  t o M4  excepting the  following  differences:  Pitch:  #15  begins  pitch rise of occurred  (See  M4  by  f o r the  on  e-flat,  a semi-tone  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one the end  frequency  of  of  lower  semi-tone  than  p l u s 20  M4.  A  cents  the p i e c e .  repetition^  16  9  0=131®  p M ^ f e ^ ' tHf  $k hay  tj*  hay |/A  1  if  taj  'ti  yA  1  has  43  **yy< * 9  I*  K<K K*y  ya  H<UJ MA  P ^ 4 ^ H J = K f TV f l i* i >t_glF  ua - *  Vxwjya  Kay s}a  waj  ® ^a  r  t  p  nay  Kay ya  k«h  i n iiin.nj i Kay #  A  k*y y*  Kay *p  nay  44  Pitch;  a p i t c h - r i s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 c e n t s  Contour;  descending  M e l o d i c range;  Scale:  octave  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a ) 1  Form:  1  A B A  2  B  A  as s t a t i o n a r y  —  The A s e c t i o n s may  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  ( p i t c h - w i s e ) and s y n c o p a t e d , w h i l e the B  s e c t i o n s l e a p and move downward, a c c o r d i n g t o the p e n t a t o n i c scale. T h i s song, most d e f i n i t e l y , does not conform t o those have seen thus f a r .  The rhythm i s f a r more c o m p l i c a t e d and  vocal quality i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . L o u i s Miranda who S a l i s h gambling  The song i s not a  song, but a song b e l o n g i n g t o the Yakima group were p r e s e n t a t C u l t u s Lake,  p o s i t i v e t h i s song was  not sung by  A l s o , i n h i s o p i n i o n , the Yakimas do not know how perly:  the  I brought the song t o Mr.  c o n f i r m e d my s u s p i c i o n s .  (Yakima,Washington) who Uncle L o u i e was  we  "they use those s h r i e k y v o i c e s . "  B.C.  "our  boys".  to s i n g pro-  45  T h i s r e n d i t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g song i n c l u d e s versions.  One i s i d e n t i c a l t o #M6.  a variety of  The o t h e r two a r e n o t a t e d  above:  Polyphony;  Toward the end, s e v e r a l men b e g i n s i n g i n g a t h i r d  below the o t h e r s .  T h i s e f f o r t a t "harmony" d e f i n i t e l y  feels  l i k e " d r e s s i n g - u p " a r a t h e r d u l l and u n i n t e r e s t i n g song.  (See M6 f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  18  (rt  w  Way  Ka  **yjl<* n a  Ha^f  Ha  0 Hay  *w Ha  Ha  a  ^  ^  hft  hay  Ka W*  0 Kay  46  Pitch;  pitch  Contour;  r i s e o f about 70 c e n t s  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale;  Form:  tenth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a , do)  A  A  B  a+b  a+b  1 2 c+c +c  Another i n t e r e s t i n g  Polyphony:  B  1  1 2 b+c+c +c use o f f a l l i n g m e l o d i c sequences.  a few attempts were made by s e v e r a l women, s i n g i n g  a f o u r t h above and then l a t e r , a t h i r d above t h e men.  Nei-  t h e r one was s u s t a i n e d f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e .  Song #18 (recorded 1970) o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s i o n s on t w e l v e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s  sample:  #62  - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #73  - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake  #76  - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake  #92  - June, 1971  #115 - June, 1971  -—  #121 - June, 1971  C u l t u s Lake C u l t u s Lake C u l t u s Lake  #126 - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake  #138 - June, 1971  —  Lummi Reserve, Washington  #151 - June 20, 19 71 -- Lummi #177 - June 20, .1971 —  Lummi  ver-  47  #181 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi  #183 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi  A comparison o f these v e r s i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e same song has a d i f f e r e n t number o f b e a t s from v e r s i o n t o v e r s i o n , e a c h equally acceptable.  I n o t h e r words, a d i f f e r e n t number o f f a l l -  i n g sequences a r e used and t h e m e l o d i c range i s a c c o r d i n g l y w i d e r o r narrower.  The m i s s i n g l i n k , so t o speak, i n t h i s c h a i n ,  i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the s t a r t i n g p i t c h and the number o f sequences .used:  the h i g h e r the p i t c h t h e more  sequences and the w i d e r the range, c o n v e r s e l y when the s t a r t i n g p i t c h i s l o w e r , t h e r e a r e fewer sequences and a narrower range.  T h i s phenomenon was c o r r o b o r a t e d by s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s  and i s a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e commonplace.  48  Pitch:  s m a l l p i t c h r i s e , perhaps 10-20  Contour;  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  cents  sixth  pentatonic  A  B  Polyphony:  AB  C  (from l o w e s t - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi)  C  1  Bridge  The women are s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above the men  prove t o be the s t r o n g e r o f the two  Song #19  ( r e c o r d e d i n 1970)  and  groups.  occurs i n s l i g h t l y  different  v e r s i o n s on t h r e e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s : #75  - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake,  B.C.  #83  - June, 1971  —  C u l t u s Lake,  B.C.  #134  - June, 1971  -- Lummi R e s e r v e , Washington  20 T h i s song i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o M4,  e x c e p t i n g the f o l l o w -  ing differences:  Pitch:  sung a semi-tone p l u s f i f t y cents h i g h e r than  This v e r s i o n has  (See M4  f o r frequency  a twenty c e n t r i s e i n p i t c h .  of r e p e t i t i o n . )  M4  49  21  -  <>  S.  1  l  •« N |I — ! • * * *' * KO to He  , . 1  i  J ; Q . I  Wo ho He yoT  A  Ho We  , | | | j 1 • * KJ Ke  J  ' i He  , ^  1  | i  i  /  tkL.  1—  50  Pitch;  sung approx. 50 c h i g h e r than i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n .  P i t c h r i s e o f about 50-60 c e n t s .  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  octave  pentatonic  (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A  A  B  a+b  a+b  c+b  Polyphony:  1  The men b e g i n t h i s song and t h e women add t h e upper  fourth.  However, t h e 'B' s e c t i o n i s q u i t e overpowered by  the women; t h e men  (the lower  fourth) are h a r d l y heard  a t a l l . The p i e c e has gone t o o low and i s o u t o f the men's comfortable  range.  A t one p o i n t i n the r e c o r d i n g a l l o f t h e s i n g e r s s t o p completely.  We may assume t h a t t h e o t h e r s i d e has made t h e i r guess.  Then the same song c o n t i n u e s enthusiasm.  o n l y w i t h a b i t more energy and  S e v e r a l r e n d i t i o n s l a t e r , the song ends.  23  Wo  WW yd Ud vw)  Wo  h*y4a  Wo  Vwa*a **  *~  51  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range: Scale: Form:  major t h i r d  o n l y t h r e e tones "do, r e , mi." a  a  Song #22  b  bridge  ( r e c o r d e d i n 1970 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ver-  s i o n s on two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s  sample:  #125  - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake,  B.C.  #149  - June, 1971 —  Lummi R e s e r v e ,  Washington.  23  ,  eft  h&t|  w  (a-) 1  Ka tee  v*y  fffTft ya  ndy 9  ft  ha  hay 9a  9*  $  ft  ^  9*  51  Pitch:  P i t c h r i s e o f a semi-tone p l u s approx. 20-30 c e n t s .  T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o a g r a d u a l r i s e and i n p a r t , t o s e v e r a l a b r u p t attempts  on t h e p a r t o f t h e men.  I t seems  t h a t some women s t a r t e d t h i s song i n a v o c a l range which was t o o low f o r t h e men. attempts  Contour:  Form:  t h e r e were s e v e r a l  t o r a i s e t h e p i t c h o f t h i s song.  descending  M e l o d i c range;  Scale:  Consequently,  ninth  pentatonic  a a 1  A  (from l o w e s t - r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi)  / B / Bridge / 1^ . 1 . b c / a d a d / 2  a g a i n , we see t h e use o f f a l l i n g s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s .  Polyphony:  The women (the h i g h e r p a r t ) a r e c l e a r l y t h e predom-  inant voice. lower.  As t h e sequences b r i n g t h e song lower and  The men e v e n t u a l l y drop o u t a l t o g e t h e r u n t i l t h e  return t o the beginning.  Percussion:  As a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n f u s i o n caused by the men,  t r y i n g t o r a i s e t h e p i t c h , t h e song b e g i n s (5th + 6 t h r e p e t i t i o n ) .  t o break down.  I n an e f f o r t t o u n i f y the s i n g e r s  ( b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 7 t h r e p e t i t i o n ) , one man stands up and l e a d s t h e f o l l o w i n g drum p a t t e r n :  53  Song #23 sions  1970) o c c u r s  on f o u r o t h e r o c c a s i o n s #93  24  (recorded  - June,  i n this  1971 -  i n slightly different sample:  Cultus  L a k e , B.C.  #120 - J u n e , 1971 . — C u l t u s  L a k e , B.C.  #135 - June  19, 1971 —  #164 - June  20, 1971 —  Jis |K>'6 ®, kT  Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash. fcummi  R e s e r v e , Wash.  00 KA-  ho  ha ha y& v& ho V\o  uo ho  ver-  54  Pitch:  sung approx. 70 c e n t s lower than n o t a t i o n  At one p o i n t , the. song a c t u a l l y reaches  indicates.  'd' (70 c r i s e ) b u t  the group proceeds t o b r i n g i t down a g a i n .  The p i t c h ,  t h e n , s l i g h t l y , approx. 30 c e n t s .  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  tenth  B A/ , / /a+a+b+a+b /+c+b"+c +d  Form:  0  1  use o f f a l l i n g s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n .  I n t e r e s t i n g use o f over -  lapping phrases.  Scale:  T h i s song, s t r a n g e l y enough,appears t o be i n two d i f f e r -  ent s c a l e s .  Phrase "A" uses "do," " r e " and "mi," o r t h e  f i r s t t h r e e s c a l e degrees o f e i t h e r a major s c a l e o r a pentatonic scale. cadenced of  The "B" phrase b e g i n s where "A" has j u s t  and t h e "d" o r "do" i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e " r e "  a pentatonic scale.  (from l o w e s t - r e , m i , s o l , l a , do,re,mi!  55  Song #24 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t occasions i n this  v e r s i o n s on two o t h e r  sample:  #68 - June, 1971 ~  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #81 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  25  Cb')  Cb)  H*  1*  fl*  to  H*y»  H A tja  toy  to  We J)a  T h i s song i s v e r y s i m i l a r  w  h e y «  to*  jf*  hay  ©  (y)  ~7(A *  V # jo  Ct)  *  Hw)  t o #2.  M(|  Note t h e f o l l o w i n g  dif-  ferences :  P  i  t  c  h  ;  A  T-ajor t h i r d higher.  Pitch  r i s e o f approx. 30 cents,  56  M.M.:  s l i g h t l y f a s t e r than #2.  Form;  1)  #25 i s t h r e e b a r s l o n g e r than #2.  2)  #25 uses the "second v a r i a t i o n " found a t t h e end o f #2.  The form, t h e n , i s : A / A / A /A / Bridge a+b, b + c / b+c / bc+c / a +h / 1  2  3  1  1  1  Note t h e use o f t h e s l i g h t l y augmented major second i n 2 the A p h r a s e , as i n d i c a t e d by the arrow (f).  rnw<-+tt  > ft -  r  —  L  — ^  k 1 ' VP"]  it-  (+U?)  ^  Wa leefet *  r—f  ' '  —  ^  ...  *  T h i s song i s s i m i l a r t o #14 i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s : 1)  same l e n g t h  2)  c o n s t r u c t e d o f v e r y s i m i l a r r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s and v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n those p a t t e r n s .  The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e as f o l l o w s :  Pitch:  r i s e o f approx.  50 c e n t s and then a "mutiny" o f s o r t s  57  occurs.  The p i t c h is p u l l e d down by a semitone p l u s 50  -- the s t a r t i n g note i s now  'c'.  cents  Between t h i s p o i n t and  when the song i s d i s c o n t i n u e d , t h e r e i s another p i t c h  rise,  a semitone.  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  fifth  Three tones —  "do,"  "mi ,' and 1  "sol",  However, the song  b e g i n s w i t h the "mi-do" i n t e r v a l b e i n g l e s s than a major t h i r d , i n o t h e r words, a n e u t r a l t h i r d .  This  interval  w i d e n s , however, and a f t e r s e v e r a l r e n d i t i o n s b e g i n s  to  sound l i k e a major t h i r d .  Form:This  p i e c e i s a good example o f what you might c a l l 'the  s e l f - v a r i a t i o n technique."  T h i s phenomenon o c c u r s i n the  case o f a d u l l , u n i n t e r e s t i n g p i e c e which r e q u i r e s i n t e r n a l v a r i a t i o n i n o r d e r t o remain e n e r g e t i c and and s e r v e i t s f u n c t i o n . constant rhythmic  constant spirited,  T h i s p i e c e p a r t i c u l a r l y demonstrates  change, but. o f c o u r s e , w i t h i n a r e c o g n i z -  a b l e framework.  STOMMISH GAMES, LUMMI RESERVE, Gooseberry Point,Wash., June,  1970  58  Pitch:  r i s e o f a semi-tone  Contour:  undulating  M e l o d i c range:  Scale  Form:  :  sixth  pentatonic  A,  B,  (from l o w e s t - s o l , l a , do,' r e , mi)  C  The p i e c e b e g i n s  and each phrase ends w i t h the same  m o t i v e , c e r t a i n l y a u n i f y i n g f e a t u r e o f the p i e c e .  Polyphony:  One lone female v o i c e s i n g s a f i f t h above the o t h e r  s i n g e r s , and, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l l a p s e s .  Song #27 occurs  i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on s i x o t h e r  59  o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #39  - June, 19 70 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #53  - June, 1970 — L u m m i  #6 5  - June, 1970 —  Lummi  #106 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #162 - June, 1971 —  Lummi  #168 - June, 1971 —  Lummi  28a  As t h i s song b e g i n s one can i d e n t i f y i t as b e i n g v e r y s i m i l a r t o #M2 and #12.  A f t e r t h r e e r e p e t i t i o n s , however, a n o t h e r  i n d i v i d u a l t a k e s o v e r , r a i s e s t h e p i t c h and b e g i n s t o l e a d the  o t h e r s i n what i s o b v i o u s l y a v a r i a t i o n cn what has come  before. 28b  i  60  ''Q t J] M>> Q.i fri. ^ l\VSg 1  .  &  _  The v a r i a t i o n i s s h o r t - l i v e d , hov/ever, because the l e a d e r confuses the "B" s e c t i o n v;ith t h e "B " s e c t i o n . 1  The o t h e r p l a y e r s  sense t h e c o n f u s i o n and another i n d i v i d u a l comes f o r t h t o b e g i n a new song.  Pitch:  20 c e n t s below t h e p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n .  No  a p p r e c i a b l e change.  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  octave  p e n t a t o n i c - (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A, A,  B,  B , 1  Bridge  Both 28a and 28b bear resemblance t o M2, 1 and 12.  However,  61  28a  i s c l o s e r t o M2 and 12, and 28b, from a m e l o d i c p o i n t o f  v i e w , i s much c l o s e r t o #1, a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r , f o r m a l l y i s t i e d t o 28a, M2 and 12 (form:  A A BB B r i d g e ) . 1  Perhaps i t i s  e a s i e r , now, t o u n d e r s t a n d and compare t h e v a r i a t i o n s which o c c u r within  the framework o f one p i e c e .  versions  And each o f the f o u r t e e n  l i s t e d under M2 have something new t o o f f e r a l t h o u g h  something q u i t e f a m i l i a r as w e l l .  29 Song #29 i s n e a r l y following  The  i d e n t i c a l t o #3 and #10, e x c e p t i n g the  differences:  o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the f i n a l n o t e .  r e p e t i t i o n s , f i v e times we f i n d a h a l f - n o t e , and  (See  Of t h e seven  as i n #3 and #10,  on two o c c a s i o n s a w h o l e - n o t e .  #3 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  30 Song #30 i s n e a r l y ing  differences:  6or*1  i d e n t i c a l t o Song #4 e x c e p t i n g the f o l l o w -  62  Pitch:  begins  50 cents h i g h e r than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s and r i s e s  approx. one semi-tone.  T h i s song c o n t i n u e s  f o r q u i t e a w h i l e , and f o r t h i s r e a -  son a l s o makes use o f the " s e l f - v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e . "  F o r exam-  p l e , s e v e r a l rhythms change upon each r e p e t i t i o n , thus making precise transcription  nearly impossible.  31 Song #31 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #6 e x c e p t i n g the f o l l o w i n g differences:  Pitch:  s t a r t s a semi-tone h i g h e r than #6, and then r i s e s a  whole tone p l u s 50 c e n t s .  M.M.:  identical  Polyphony: and  (between 126-132)  Someone attempts  t o s i n g a t h i r d below t h e o t h e r s  f a i l s dismally.  (See #6 f o r frequency  of r e p e t i t i o n . )  32 Song #32 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #M3  excepting the f o l l o w -  ing d i f f e r e n c e s :  Pitch:  a semi-tone p l u s 50 c e n t s lower than M3 ( r e c o r d e d one  year p r i o r t o t h i s v e r s i o n ) .  R i s e s approx. 50 c e n t s .  63  M.M.:  identical  (  =126)  M3 c o n s i s t s o f twelve f o u r - b e a t bars whereas #32 teen b a r s l o n g . with  Compare the "B" phrase  is thir-  ( l a s t f i v e b a r s ) o f M3  the l a s t s i x b a r s o f #32 which appear  below:  (See M3 f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n )  33 Song #33 following  Pitch:  Pitch  i s nearly  identical  t o #3, #10,  #29 e x c e p t i n g the  differences:  _  \*Wo  r i s e o f about 50 c e n t s .  The l a s t note o f t h i s r e n d i t i o n i s a (See #3 f o r frequency of r e p e t i t i o n . )  half-note.  64  o — i — f — p — n V  1  Ha  \ \ ^ 0 i«e 19  — m  Pitch:  ~ - J M ^ - H " \ l V _ l — v Ha ho h\ tee  -/  1  '  \  —,  *lo  ho  A  — \  ^,  —  s t a r t s about 30 c e n t s below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n .  R i s e o f 20-30 c e n t s .  Contour:  descending.  M e l o d i c Range;  Scale.  Form:  :  twelfth  p e n t a t o n i c (from lowest - s o l , l a , do, r e , mi, s o l , l a , do)  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e t u r n o f motives o r p h r a s e s .  Song #34 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #86 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #88 - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  65  34b  Interrupted  An o l d man makes an attempt t o s t a r t a song ( s i m i l a r t o #la) at J  =96. A f t e r a few seconds, he i s o v e r r u l e d by t h e o t h e r s .  35 Song #3 5, a l t h o u g h q u i t e s i m p l e , i s p u t t o g e t h e r i n a r a t h e r s t r a n g e and seemingly  J*\oo t*tra$iK4 ha tja  Wa Vee  Ka via ^ ha  +t  tie  v\a We «ja  *ja  a r b i t r a r y way:  ha h i ia ka |Ja  hd Ha  66  Introduction A - e i g h t times through B - once through A - f i v e times through C - once through B - once through A - seven times through B - once A - twice  67  D - (unmeasured s e c t i o n ) once A - on the seventh  r e p e a t , an i n t e r r u p t i o n t o  B - once A - four  times  etc.  The "d" o r unmeasured  s e c t i o n comes back two more t i m e s , and t h e  p i e c e comes t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n a t " a " . Thus, i t works o u t t o a k i n d o f rondo form.  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change.  Contour: u n d u l a t i n g  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  fifth  o n l y t h r e e tones  (from l o w e s t - do, m i , and s o l )  36  Song #36 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #26 e x c e p t i n g the f o l l o w i n g differences:  68  Pitch:  The r i s e o f a semi-tone o c c u r s .  Then the group  brings  down the p i t c h a b r u p t l y , by a semi-tone.  The most i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e between number 26 and 36 i s t h a t the l a t t e r has s e v e r a l r e n d i t i o n s i n which the p e r c u s s i o n  under-  l i n e s the melody as f o l l o w s :  I t i s q u i t e c u r i o u s t h a t t h i s phenomenon o c c u r s here j u s t a f t e r #35 - a song f u l l o f the same d e v i c e in  - whereas  i t d i d not o c c u r  #26.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s between  #36 and #26 are s t r i k i n g e s p e c i a l l y  p e r h a p s , the use o f the n e u t r a l t h i r d a t the same p o i n t f o r each one.  I might a l s o suggest a comparison on t h i s song w i t h num-  b e r s 6 and 31, #14, and  37  #35.  69  K  <p  kC€  0  »  No. 37 i s , a g a i n , a f a m i l i a r song a l t h o u g h we have n o t y e t come a c r o s s another  identical to i t .  I t i s interesting,  however,  to compare #37 w i t h Nos. 26 and 36, 6 and 31, 14, and 35.  Pitch;  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  undulating  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  fifth  pentatonic without the " l a "  a, b, a , b^ 1  Song #37 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t  v e r s i o n s on t h r e e  other  o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #67  - June, 1970 — Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #80  - June, 1971 - C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #101 - June, 19 71 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  38 Song #38 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #8 e x c e p t i n g t h e di fferences:  following  70  Pitch:  50-60 c e n t s lower than #8 a t t h e o u t s e t .  Pitch rise of  a semi-tone p l u s 50 c e n t s .  J =120.  M.M.:  This p a r t i c u l a r recording of the " f l a v o r " i t imparts.  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o hear because  There were many comments made from  the s i d e l i n e s which a r e perhaps more a u d i b l e itself.  Man:  than t h e s i n g i n g  Some o f what you h e a r i s t h e f o l l o w i n g :  "Ten bucks!" or  Man:  "You wanna  Woman:  You  1  bet?"  " I don't have any money".  can a l s o h e a r two men, r a t h e r drunk, s i n g i n g  "hee y a ho"  (etc.) a t t h e t o p o f t h e i r lungs even though no one e l s e i s s i n g i n g what they a r e .  (See  #8 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  #39 Song #39 i s i d e n t i c a l t o #27, i n c l u d i n g t h e p i t c h and t h e amount o f p i t c h r i s e . markings:  (See  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e  t h e tempo o f #39 i s J =126-132.  #27 f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  i s i n t h e metronome  71  40  Pitch:  rise  Contour:  of  a  descending  Melodic  range:  Scale:  pentatonic  Form:  A a+b  1  Song  was sung  A  #40  songs  sung  at  below.  and  undulating Bridge  (end)  seventh  A a+c  Polyphony:  slahal  semi-tone.  few  (from  -  l a , do,  r e , mi,  sol)  Bridge  a b o r t i v e attempts  i s very in triple  Cultus  lowest  distinctive meter.  Lake,B.C.  a t harmony  because  A sinilar i n June,  a third  i t i s one version of  1971  —#84  of  below.  the  this  few  piece  described  and  72  41  n t t  i.. iLf r r o  Ko  hty  »  *  ho o  hay  ;/  J / J  bo-o - o  •—ir  Uo - 0 " o - o  hay  Pitch:  «  Ko * 0  loll • °  ^ fly hat)  b e g i n s 70-80 c e n t s lower than n o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s  Contour:  four phrases:  a - descending b - descending c - a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g d - descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  sixth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A a+b  B c+d  Bridge  73  Each o f the two major phrases can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o quest i o n and answer p h r a s e s .  42  V«>- o-o y*  ho  Ha  h»  IA  ya  ya  he- o ha.  la  Wo  v\a HA ija-a Way Pitch:  b e g i n s approx.  50 c e n t s below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n .  R i s e o f a semi-tone p l u s 50 c e n t s .  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c ranqe:  fifth  Scale:  o n l y do, m i , and s o l (from  Form:  lowest)  A, B, B r i d g e  The rhythms and t h e " s c a l e " o f t h i s p i e c e a r e r e m i n i s c e n t of #37 and t h e songs suggested  i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f #37.  How-  e v e r , #42 i s c l e a r l y n e i t h e r the same song as #37 n o r a v a r i a t i o n thereof.  43  Pitch:  Begins  approx. 20 c e n t s below p i t c h i n d i c a t e d i n n o t a t i o n .  P i t c h r i s e o f a few c e n t s . the song by a whole-tone. f o r a s h o r t time.  Then p a r t o f t h e group  lowers  The e f f e c t i s p a r a l l e l seconds  75  Contour:  descending —  M e l o d i c range:  undulating  fifth  Scale:  p e n t a t o n i c minus " s o l " ( l a , do, r e , mi)  Form:  A/B  The two-beat measures are a c t u a l l y a n a c r u s e s , and the l a s t p a r t i c u l a r l y , s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as s u c h , r a t h e r t h a n as a b r i d g e .  44 Song #44  i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #3, 10, 29 and 33, i n c l u d -  i n g the h a l f - n o t e a t the end.  The s t a r t i n g p i t c h i s the  follow-  ing :  (See #3 f o r frequency o f  repetition)  45 In between Nos.  44 and 45, many p e o p l e t r y t o s t a r t a s u c -  c e s s f u l song and f a i l d i s m a l l y . i s #45, n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #17  One  of the u n s u c c e s s f u l songs  and M6 b u t sung a semi-tone  Not even one r e n d i t i o n reaches c o m p l e t i o n .  lower.  76  46  Kay 9*  ya  ha y4  l**y  fcjr  Kay y*  yfc  Ka yd  ft*. xiM  *  Ka  ^  y£  ha y&  •  Kay  77  Pitch:  r i s e o f a semi-tone  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  octave  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  Four p h r a s e s which a r e r e l a t e d  t o one a n o t h e r by t h e use o f  s i m i l a r rhythms and s i m i l a r i n t e r v a l jumps. A  A1  ?  K'  AV J  A and A 1 a r e q u e s t i o n and answer phrases as a r e A 2 and A 3. The r i s i n g minor t h i r d a t t h e end s e r v e s as a b r i d g e .  T h i s i s a Yakima song, t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g i s the h i g h l y unusual t i m i n g . is arbitrary  and changes  f e a t u r e o f which  A t f i r s t , one t h i n k s perhaps i t  a t each r e p e t i t i o n , b u t upon  s c r u t i n i z a t i o n i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t each r e p e t i t i o n t i c a l and t h a t t h e end o f each phrase i s t h i r t e e n  closer i s iden-  drumbeats i n  length.  Similar in this  v e r s i o n s o f t h i s song o c c u r on two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s  sample: #54 - June, 197C -- Lummi Reserve, Wash. #66 - June, 19 70 —  Lummi  78  Song #47 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #25 and q u i t e s i m i l a r t o #2.  The one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s song and #25 i s  the:  Pitch:  sung n e a r l y a minor t h i r d l o w e r .  P i t c h r i s e o f a semi-  tone p l u s 50 c e n t s .  No. 47 a l s o makes use o f t h e s l i g h t l y augmented major second i n 2 the A  p h r a s e (see a r r o w ) , and i n g e n e r a l i s much c l o s e r t o the  #25 r e n d i t i o n o f t h e song than t o t h e #2 r e n d i t i o n .  There i s no  doubt, however, t h a t they a r e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e same song. (See #2 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  79  Pitch:  r i s e of a  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  49  semi-tone  (fourth)  fifth  p e n t a t o n i c w i t h o u t "do"  A  E  Bridge  (from l o w e s t p i t c h - r e , mi, s o l , l a )  80  0  Pitch:  rise  Contour:  of  nearly  range:  Scale:  Pentatonic with  re,  mi)  A  B  A who  50  semi-tone  (80-100  cents)  descending  Melodic  Form:  a  child  i s busy  ninth  A  B  a brief  the  ( f a ) , s o l , l a , do,  Bridge  i s heasl t h r o u g h o u t playing  " f a " ( r e , mi,  game:  this  song,  "Mommy,  nagging  I want  a  his  poo."  mother  81  Pitch:  r i s e o f a semi-tone  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  tenth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - do, r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi) 1  Form:  2  A, B r i d g e , A , A', B r i d g e A g a i n the r e g u l a r use o f c e r t a i n r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s makes foolish  the use o f d i f f e r e n t  phrase names (A,B,C) w i t h such  o b v i o u s phrase s i m i l a r i t i e s .  Polyphony:  The most s t r i k i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s p i e c e i s the r e g u l a r  use o f o c t a v e s b e g i n n i n g a t Bar 9 and c o n t i n u i n g t o the end.  82 The women l e a p up t o t h e h i g h e r o c t a v e w h i l e t h e men s i n g the  lower.  To f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e m a t t e r s , a f t e r s e v e r a l  r e p e t i t i o n s t h e men choose t o s i n g a f o u r t h below t h e women which g r a d u a l l y f l u c t u a t e s between a t h i r d and a f o u r t h . T h i s i s q u i t e u n u s u a l because t h e women n o r m a l l y b r e a k away from t h e p i t c h chosen by t h e men.  And an a d d i t i o n a l com-  p l i c a t i o n o c c u r s when we combine a l l o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n o t i c e t h a t t h e men, e i t h e r a f o u r t h o r a t h i r d below t h e women, jump back t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l o w e r o c t a v e commencing a t B a r 9.  Then when t h e p l a y e r s a r e  back a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e song, t h e men a r e , once a g a i n , either a fourth or a t h i r d  ( o r somewhere i n between)  below t h e women. Vio)  © f e w  Women  • • to • •  • b».« .  .  •. 'f  Song #50 o c c u r s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s on f i v e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h i s sample: #89  - June, 1971 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #110 - June, 19 71 - C u l t u s Lake #133 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash. #143 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi #154 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi  51 Song #51 i s t h e same song as Nos. 3, 10, 29, 33 and 44. What  83  i s d i s t i n c t i v e about t h i s r e n d i t i o n  a)  i s the  following:  Pitch:  ftr\3: r i s e o f a tone and a h a l f .  b)  In c o n t r a s t t o most o f the o t h e r r e n d i t i o n s  the f i n a l note  was most f r e q u e n t l y a whole-note.  c)  At Bar 6, one woman jumped t o the upper o c t a v e and s t a y e d through the remainder o f each  (See #3 f o r f r e q u e n c y o f  repetition.  repetition.)  52 Song #52 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #M1 following  Pitch:  and #13 e x c e p t i n g the  differences:  s t a r t s a semi-tone above t h e o t h e r two r e n d i t i o n s .  A short  break o c c u r s and the s i n g e r s resume, a b r u p t l y r a i s i n g the p i t c h by a semi-tone.  c e r t a i n notes are s l i g h t l y  different:  84  t  0  r—i  P*"l  1 to"  — i — —  Bars  I  L  b« i  ir-l-H  09—^2 l_w^r ?  6ar$ | l - i 3  —  (final  (See M l f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n )  53 Song #53 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o Nos. 27 and 39 e x c e p t i n g t h e following  pitch  difference:  p i t c h r i s e o f a semi-tone. (See #27 f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n . )  54 Song #54 i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o #46, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  being  as  follows:  a)  Pitch:  b)  Timing: The i r r e g u l a r number o f drumbeats (13) i s g e n e r a l l y  b e g i n s 50 c e n t s l o w e r .  P i t c h r i s e o f 50 c e n t s .  adhered t o , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a number o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s .  55 Song #55 i s s i m i l a r t o #9 i n many ways. Bar 3, t h e two songs a r e q u i t e  However, beyond  d i f f e r e n t even though they both  85  T~  hi  Pitch:  w  cents.  undulating  M e l o d i c range:  Form:  ^  r i s e o f a semi-tone p l u s 4 5-50  Contour:  Scale:  ^  ninth  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t p i t c h - s o l , l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A, A . "A " c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l motives which are i n the lower p a r t o f the range b u t which are u n m i s t a k e a b l y l i n k e d t o t h o s e o f "A".  Polyphony:  S e v e r a l women a r e s i n g i n g a f o u r t h above t h e men,  weakly and s p o r a d i c a l l y .  86  Percussion;  At one p o i n t the f i r s t b a r o f the song i s accom-  p a n i e d as f o l l o w s :  T h i s i s f o r added s t r e n g t h and group s o l i d a r i t y .  56 U114-31  *  toy  *aj/  ^  ^  ^  tf  87  fa^EEE^ $ Pitch:  way  b e g i n s 50 c e n t s lower than the n o t a t i o n  indicates.  P i t c h r i s e of a whole-tone.  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  tenth  p e n t a t o n i c (do, r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi)  A  A  A  1  A  2  3  Another example o f f a l l i n g sequences.  Each phrase has  approx-  i m a t e l y the same r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c f e a t u r e s b u t o c c u r s lower i n p i t c h than the p r e c e d i n g p h r a s e . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the t i m i n g : w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a 5+2.  4 + 2, 4+2  The p h r a s e s , however, a r e  d i v i d e d i n t o 2+4+2+4, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the 2, o r  the a n a c r u s i s .  57 Song #57  i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o #5 e x c e p t i n g the f o l l o w i n g  differences: a)  Pitch:  b e g i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 c e n t s lower than No. r i s e s 50-70 c e n t s .  b  )  T e i r  'P°  :  No.  No.  5  -  57 -  J  =  J  =  116  132  5, and  88  58 Song #58 i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o Kos. M4,  15 and 20.  It  b e g i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 c e n t s lower than e' and r i s e s a semi-tone p l u s 50 c e n t s .  The tempo, l i k e M4,  15 and 20, i s t\ =126-32.  An i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n one c o u l d make about t h i s p i e c e i s t h a t i t demonstrates ple.  In o t h e r words J~~3  the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s e l f - v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i w i l l change i n t o  to keep the p i e c e l i v e l y a f t e r many r e p e t i t i o n s .  for variety  This i n t e r n a l  v a r i a t i o n becomes n e c e s s a r y when the song i s l o s i n g energy; d o t t e d f i g u r e , f o r example, adds a c e r t a i n spark and an o t h e r w i s e d y i n g song.  and  the  revives  And the n e c e s s i t y i s because  o f the  l i n k between the s p i r i t o f the song and the " l u c k " needed t o mix the bones w e l l .  (See M4 f o r frequency o f r e p e t i t i o n  59 Song #59  i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o Kos. 6 and 31 e x c e p t i n g the  following differences:  a)  Pitch:  b e g i n s 50 c e n t s below e ' and r i s e s by a semi-tone.  b)  Tempo:  settles into  J =126-32 but l a t e r on, slows down t o  J=116-20.  (See #6 f o r frequency o f  repetition.)  89  Thus f a r , we have seen a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the few hours o f s l a h a l songs u n e d i t e d , and d i r e c t l y from my i n g s o f 1969 and 1970.  first record-  The t o t a l number o f songs c o l l e c t e d i s  19 4, and f o r reasons o f l e n g t h , here a r e s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i e c e s from the r e s t o f t h a t c o l l e c t i o n .  77 09  90  Pitch:  a p p r o x i m a t e l y an 80 c e n t p i t c h  Contour:  d e s c e n d i n g , b u t i n an u n d u l a t i n g manner  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  rise.  eleventh  p e n t a t o n i c (from l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, re)  Form:  A  A a+a+b  a +a +b 1  Bridge  1  1  a+a  1  Song #77 i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g because o f t h e f i v e - b e a t groupings  ("a") a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h t h e seven-beat  groupings  ("b").  For t h i s reason one can a l s o look a t t h e p i e c e as a r a t h e r neat rondo  form: a  a/ b / a  1  a  1  / b / a a  The performance o f song #77 took p l a c e d u r i n g a game i n June 1971 a t C u l t u s Lake, B.C. i n t h e sample:  I t o c c u r s upon one o t h e r o c c a s i o n  #152 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  Both times A b e l Joe (Duncan, B.C.), i s both the l e a d e r and the  91  He has a p r o p e n s i t y f o r t u r n i n g c o i n t o  predominant v o i c e .  • o- .  i {  Q  t  »f  [  i—1  —rr  Wo 1*0 1  ho  f t /  X-— 1n X ^—^|—  ft^/ ^pw'Vu.  r -{—i—» 7  bo  -t—* Ho Ko  ho  A ^ X X X— x — — v iX4=tt X  (0  o  UAII V\OA)  V\o\y  Song #84  Won \i% hay y&  MA ^  ho  W»y  ^°  W O  WQ  ( C u l t u s Lake, June, 1971) makes an i n t e r e s t i n g con-  t r a s t t o #40 (Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash., June, 1970). Pitch:  KOA) tyft hAyy*  r i s e , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 c e n t s .  92 Form:  A a+b  A a+c  A a +c  Bridge  I t c o n s i s t s o f three twelve-beat bridge.  phrases p l u s a s i x - b e a t  The same l e n g t h as #40, b u t w i t h a s h o r t e r b r i d g e , and  thereby one e x t r a phrase.  Song #40 i s i n "3" whereas #84 i s i n  "6", the main d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g that, t h e tempo o f t h e l a t t e r i s much s l o w e r ; each drumbeat must be counted as a q u a r t e r note r a t h e r than an e i g h t h - n o t e and t h e measure e l o n g a t e d beats.  from 3 t o 6  Thus, i f we compare tempi, #40 has 192 drumbeats p e r  minute whereas #84 has only. 152.  98  I  0 ±9Z  m hup  w££ up ^  wee up  WM  p  u  wee«p  hup  v*ee up  my up  «P "9 "f w«e up  Song #98 ( C u l t u s Lake, B.C., June, 1971) o n l y o c c u r s once i n t h e sample. and  this  I t i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n t h a t a l o n g s i d e #40  #84, we have t h e o n l y S a l i s h s l a h a l songs i n t r i p l e meter  92«,  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  undulating  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  fifth  o n l y t h r e e notes - do, m i , s o l  A  A  A"  The phrases a r e r h y t h m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . there i s only a choice of three notes.  137  And m e l o d i c a l l y ,  93  Song #137 (Lummi Reserve, Wash.,  June 19, 1971) o c c u r s on  f o u r o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #78 - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake,  B.C.  #10 3- June, 1971 -- C u l t u s Lake #117- June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake #155- June 20, 1971 — Lummi Reserve,  Wash.  There i s a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i e t y i n t h e c h o i c e o f p i t c h , f o r example #117 i s sung a f i f t h t h i r d lower.  Pitch:  The t e m p i , however, a r e f a i r l y  uniform.  r i s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y a semi-tone.  Contour:  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  lower than #137, and #78 i s a major  ninth  pentaton-ic (from l o w e s t - r e , m i , s o l , l a , do, r e , mi)  A The  .B  C  C phrase  pletion  includes  of that  one  phrase.  false  start  and  t h e n t h e com-  94  At t h e end o f t h e "B" and "C" p h r a s e s , of a f o u r t h only occurs  i n this version.  the melodic  drop  The o t h e r f o u r remain  on t h e upper note f o r t h e same number o f b e a t s .  I t seems q u i t e  l i k e l y t h a t the r e a s o n has a g r e a t d e a l t o do w i t h t h e p i t c h . I n o t h e r words, t h e o t h e r v e r s i o n s a r e a l r e a d y t o o low i n t h e s i n g e r ' s range t o accommodate any lower p i t c h e s whereas Song #137 i s s t i l l h i g h enough a t t h e end t o a l l o w f o r a d d i t i o n a l w i d e n i n g o f range. occurs  T h i s i s a s i m i l a r phenomenon as t h a t which  i n Song #18 as compared w i t h i t s twelve o t h e r v e r s i o n s .  #142  hay yd  K(XN) y<* Hoy yd  Way  Vvxsj ua  Hcujcjd  My $  Wau  Way yjd  Way yd  u?  WOA) yd  kau  Wo^qb  ha^  tay  ya  way  tjd  Nyy*  95  ^  hay yd  Song #142 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June 20, 1971)  occurs  on t h r e e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n t h e sample: #136 - June 19, 1971 —  Lummi  #141 -- June 19, 1971 -- Lummi #14 8 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi  A v e r y s t r a n g e c o i n c i d e n c e happened as r e g a r d s t h i s song. On S a t u r d a y , June 19, 1971, my husband and I l e f t t h e r e s e r v e around 7 p.m. j u s t a f t e r song #141. ing afternoon a t approximately recorder. —  We a r r i v e d back t h e f o l l o w -  2 p.m. and t u r n e d on t h e tape  Song #14 2, s t r a n g e l y enough, was e x a c t l y t h e same song  same "key", same tempo —  as #141.  So we began where we had  left off.  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change.  Contour:  u n d u l a t i n g i n a descending  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  direction  octave  p e n t a t o n i c (from t h e l o w e s t - l a , do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  A  1 A  Bridge.  96  Each b a r i s a s e p a r a t e m o t i v e , a l l e n d i n g w i t h q u a r t e r notes but g o i n g i n d i f f e r e n t  directions.  A l s o note the a l t e r n a t i v e f o r Bar 1  6ar t  156  oh ho  ha  hay  i x 64t,  1IV.  ^  Kg y£ ho  1  ho  a  hay  two  97  Song #156 (Lummi Reserve, Wash., June 20, 1971) appears on seven o t h e r o c c a s i o n s i n the. sample: #69  - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #108 - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake #113 - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake #119 - June, 1971 — C u l t u s Lake #130 - June 19, 1971 — Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash. #171 - June 20, 1971 —  Lummi Reserve, Wash.  #17 4 - June 20, 1971 — Lummi  The m e l o d i c and r h y t h m i c a s p e c t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t are v e r y s i m i l a r . see,  Tempo, however,  i s not s o l  i s J =120, t h e o t h e r s f a l l e i t h e r  range o r i n t o t h e «i =100 t o 108 range —  Following i s a description  versions  Song #156, as you  i n t o t h e 120 t o 132 quite a different  feeling.  o f t h e s e songs u s i n g #156 as t h e  model:  Pitch:  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  d e s c e n d i n g (each motive i n d i v i d u a l l y moves i n descend-  ing d i r e c t i o n  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  as w e l l )  fifth  p e n t a t o n i c w i t h o u t " l a " (from l o w e s t - do, r e , m i , s o l )  Intro. Both  " A "  A and  A ' ' / i  1  "  b e g i n w i t h a f a l s e s t a r t so t o speak, and  98  then c o n t i n u e by d e v e l o p i n g t h e o p e n i n g m o t i v e o r f a l s e  Polyphony:  start.  Song #156 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because we  d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e women s i n g i n g a t h i r d above a r e n o t s e r v i n g has a harmonic accoutrement t o t h e men.  I n s t e a d , what  we have i s a p o l y t o n a l p i e c e o f m u s i c , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e c r o s s - r e l a t i o n s we see i n t h e n o t a t i o n j u s t above.  I f the  women were t r u l y s i n g i n g i n harmony, t h e minor t h i r d would be amended t o a major t h i r d where n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n the mode o r key a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d ,  I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o add, a t t h i s p o i n t , t h a t t h e i n t e r v a l we h e a r i s between a minor t h i r d and a n e u t r a l t h i r d a l t h o u g h i t has been t r a n s c r i b e d as a minor t h i r d f o r convenience.  Nos. 176, 177, 17 8 and 179, as the numbers i n d i c a t e , were sung i n s u c c e s s i o n (Lummi, June 20, 1971).  There a r e some v e r y  i n t e r e s t i n g common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o observe h e r e .  S e v e r a l gen-  e r a l p r i n c i p l e s as r e g a r d s s l a h a l songs may w e l l be d e r i v e d from a comparison o f these f o u r .  F i r s t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each.  99  176 fa)  * f \». * -r% he yo  Ko  ^  •Ae  c  y* Wo K> <stc.  Ko Pitch;  177  ho  KAj|  descending  M e l o d i c range:  Form:  ho  no a p p r e c i a b l e change  Contour:  Scale:  ho  major seventh  d i a t o n i c , w i t h o u t f a (from l o w e s t - do, r e , me,  A a+b  A a+b  B c  J - t y fACV^Uti tP TT  WOAj  ya  w*y  ya  ha  sol, l a ,t i )  100  Song #177 i s one o f the t h i r t e e n v e r s i o n s r e l a t e d t o #18 which o c c u r i n t h i s sample.  Here we see o n l y the f i r s t two  p h r a s e s , as a reminder o f the p i e c e . —  much s l o w e r than t h a t o f #18.  A l s o p l e a s e note t h e tempo  Perhaps o n e - t h i r d .of a l l the  r e n d i t i o n s a r e sung i n a s i m i l a r l y slow tempo.  Pitch:  Contour:  sung  about  30  cents  lower  than  i s indicated  i n notation  descending  Melodic  range;  octave  Scale:  pentatonic  (from l o w e s t - do, r e , ni,  s o l , l a , do)  101  Form:  A a+b  A a+b  B c  In s i m p l i f i e d #176  + #177  of #176,  form, what we have seen here i s t h i s e q u a t i o n :  = #178.  That i s , the form, and the r h y t h m i c motives  p l u s the i n t e r v a l s of #177  N o t i c e a l s o how  e q u a l s the new p i e c e ,  they are a l l i n a r a t h e r slow tempo -- more a  f u n c t i o n o f i n e r t i a at. t h i s t i m e .  In o t h e r words, a s l o w e r  p u l s e has been s e t up and i s d i f f i c u l t t o break out o f .  #179 Song #179  Contour:  #178.  i s a l s o i n a s l o w e r tempo.  descending  102  M e l o d i c range:  Scale:  Form:  sixth  pentatonic  (from l o w e s t - do, r e , m i , s o l , l a )  ( u s i n g l e t t e r s t o mean t h e same m o t i v e s as i n #176 and #178.) b  b  c  Here we see f a m i l i a r m o t i v e s ; but  "b" used w i t h o u t  " c " , a g a i n , as a c l o s i n g  "a" t o a l t e r n a t e w i t h i t .  phrase,  In any c a s e ,  these f o u r songs g i v e us a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o c o m p o s i t i o n a l techniques: Nos.  176, 177, 178, 179 taken t o g e t h e r r e v e a l t h e importance  of e x t e m p o r i z a t i o n i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l and performance p r a c t i c e s o f s l a h a l songs.  PART I I I  A resume of song  characteristics  102 Os  Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s l a h a l song have become apparent w i t h t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s .  To b e g i n , we f i n d  that  most songs a r e i n d u p l e meter, w i t h o n l y t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s i n the e n t i r e sample, Mos. 40, 04 and 98, i n t r i p l e meter. songs a r e monophonic  Most  a l t h o u g h you f r e q u e n t l y hear what appears  t o be p a r a l l e l f o u r t h s o r p a r a l l e l , f i f t h s .  T h i s second v o i c e  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l women s i n g i n g above t h e men i n a range more c o m f o r t a b l e f o r t h e i r v o i c e s .  And a l t h o u g h i t appears  t h a t t h e upper p a r t has a harmonic f u n c t i o n , i n r e a l i t y t h e women are s i m p l y higher  s i n g i n g the i d e n t i c a l piece a fourth or a f i f t h  than t h e men.  Frequently  t h i s produces some most i n t e r -  e s t i n g c r o s s - r e l a t i o n s as i n #156 where t h e women a r e a t h i r d above the men.  Most o f t h e s l a h a l songs a r e p e n t a t o n i c .  However, a l l o f  the p o s s i b l e i n v e r s i o n s o f t h a t s c a l e a r e used w i t h g r e a t quency.  fre-  In the f o l l o w i n g chart n o t i c e the occurrence of the  various permutations.  I use t h e moveable  i n which no f i x e d p i t c h i s i m p l i e d .  "do" s o l f e g e system  A l s o , p l e a s e keep i n mind  t h a t "do" does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s e r v e as t h e t o n i c ; my use o f s o l f e g e i s t o suggest s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Notice  a l s o the number o f songs which c o n s i s t , o n l y o f the  o u t l i n e o f a major t r i a d .  10 3  Table  #1 USE OF SCALES  Song no. Ml M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 1 la 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16* 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24+ 25 26 27 28a 28b 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  Scale pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (irodi f.) pentatonic (modif.) major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (modif.) pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (modif.) pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic two-tones pentatonic (modif.) pentatonic major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (modif) pentatonic 3 tones pentatonic (two scales i n the same ) song. One i s pentatonic) pentatonic (nodi f.) major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic major triad major t r i a d pentatonic (modif.)  Placement of intervals (from low to high)  re mi  do' re mi do mi do re mi mi re mi mi  do re re do re re  mi mi mi mi  do  mi  do  mi re mi  do mi do mi do re mi  sol l a la sol la la sol l a sol la sol l a la la la sol l a sol la sol l a sol l a la sol l a la sol l a sol la la sol la. sol l a la la  do do do do do do do do do do do  re re re re re  mi mi mi mi  sol l a  do re mi  sol l a la sol sol l a la. la la la sol so]. l a la sol la sol sol sol  do re mi do re mi  sol l a sol l a  do do  mi mi mi mi mi mi  sol l a sol l a  do do  do re mi  sol l a  do  do do do do  re mi re re mi re mi  sol l a  do  do do do do do do do  re mi re mi mi re mi re mi re rrd re mi  do do do do do  re re re re re  re re re re re  mi mi mi mi mi  do re mi do re mi do re mi  sol l a sol l a  sol l a sol l a sol l a sol l a  do  sol l a  sol sol sol sol  la la la la  do do  sol l a sol l a  do do  Yakima, song the pitch that was "do" changes into "re" for the second part of the song  USE OF SCALES (oont.) Song  no. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46* 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54* 55 56 57 58 59 77 84 98 137 142 156 176 177 178 179  Scale pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic major t r i a d pentatonic (modi f.) pentatonic major t r i a d pentatonic pentatonic (modif.) pentatonic (modi f.) pentatonic (modif.) pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (modif.) major t r i a d .pentatonic pentatonic major triad pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic (modi f.) diatonic pentatonic pentatonic pentatonic  Placement of intervals (from low to high) do re mi do re do  re .re do re  do re do re do do  re  do re do re do re dC re  sol l a sol l a la mi sol l a mi sol la la sol la la mi sol l a mi (fa) s o l l a mi sol l a la sol l a sol l a la sol l a mi sol l a mi sol l a la mi sol la la mi sol mi. sol la la mi sol mi sol l a t i la mi sol l a mi. sol l a  do re mi do re mi do do do do do  re mi re mi mi re mi re mi  do do do do do do do do  re re re re re re re re  *Yakima song  sol l a  sol l a sol l a sol l a sol l a  do re mi do re mi  sol l a sol  do re mi do re mi  sol l a  do re mi do  sol l a  are f u l l y pentatonic are pentatonic, nanus one tone i s pentatonic, minus two tones i s pentatonic, with a passing "fa" i.s diatonic consist cf three tones forming a major t r i a d consists of three tones — do, re, mi consists of two tones — mi, s c l  77  sol l a  do re mi  Of the 77 songs represented here: 49 12 1 1 1 11 1 .1  mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi  sol  105  The p e r c u s s i o n accompaniment, as we have s e e n , i s b a s i c a l l y in regular eighth-note  pulses.  The  only exceptions  to t h i s r u l e  i s i n cases where the power and s t r e n g t h of a song i s waning and c e r t a i n p l a y e r s w i s h t o r e c a p t u r e  t h a t power by emphasiz-  i n g c e r t a i n notes and t e m p o r a r i l y s l o w i n g down the accompaniment as i n Nos. Miranda q u i c k l y  35, 36 and  55.  When asked, L o u i s  acknowledged t h i s phenomenon and,  in fact, told  us t h a t t h e r e are s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c d e s i g n a t i o n s of p e r c u s s i o n  accompaniment.  percussion  f o r each type  For example, ^ ^ ^ ^  is called  n the Squami'sh d i a l e c t .  In the song sample we have seen t h a t w h i l e some s l a h a l songs have an u n d u l a t i n g c o n t o u r ,  most are d e s c e n d i n g i n shape.  A t the same t i m e , a v a s t m a j o r i t y of songs demonstrate a s i g n i f icant pitch rise. r e p e t i t i o n s do we  P a r t i c u l a r l y i f the song has undergone many find a larger rise i n pitch.  occurs q u i t e o f t e n i n n a t i v e musics.  T h i s phenomenon  Edward S a p i r has  stated that  r i s i n g p i t c h v/as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Nootka language  and  Helen H. Roberts and M o r r i s Swadesh (1955) use t h i s t o e x p l a i n the f a c t t h a t n e a r l y o n e - h a l f demonstrate a p i t c h r i s e .  of the songs S a p i r  collected,  Ida H a l p e r n e x p l a i n s the p i t c h r i s e  phenomenon i n K w a k i u t l music as b e i n g p a r t o f "a d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e " w i t h i n the songs which c o n s i s t s of a p e r s i s t e n t upward movement of p i t c h  ( H a l p e r n , 1967,  would agree t h a t the p i t c h r i s e i s due by the game and has  In s l a h a l , I  to the e x c i t e m e n t provoked  the q u i c k tempo a l t h o u g h  t o do w i t h song v a r i a t i o n .  p. 7 ) .  not n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t i t  106  Certain  slahal  s o n g s h a v e o c c u r r e d i n the. s a m p l e w i t h  frequency  than  others, yet i t i s interesting  identical  versions of  a song  are q u i t e  are  t h e m o s t common d i f f e r e n c e s  the  same  1)  The  tempi  The  13  4)  are  and  songs  higher  3)  are  or  often  lower  than  the  is  close  t o the  as  i n the  The  song  enough case  may  of  use  affecting  absolute singers while  the  two  versions of  ¥.2,  a certain  i t s length,  of  has  of  one  1,  a  i n the  familiar  t o be  case  2 8a  and  of  one  and  i t s melodic  either  which such  28b.  number o f d e s c e n d i n g  the s t a r t i n g  remaining  melody  r e c o g n i z e d as  sequences  range.  been expanded  phenomenon i s d i r e c t l y  can . c o n t i n u e t o add  s t i l l  as  other.  first  Nos.  for this  pitch  note.  Often, or  related  decreased. to  the  If i t i s higher,  sequences,  singing  in a comfortable vocal  lower  range  the  and  (see  lower #18  #137.)  O f t e n , we in  following  i n different, tonalities,  a variation  t h e number o f sequences reason  different  "performed"  see  thus  5)  two  17 7.  occasionally  and  The  when c o m p a r i n g  sometimes q u i t e  We  The  rare.  that  song:  Nos.  2)  to note  more  find  that  the. song g r a d u a l l y  i t s rhythmic aspects.  This occurs  song i s r a t h e r u n i n t e r e s t i n g .  changes  larqely  The  "lead"  —  Particularly  i n the  case  singers  are  where  107  aware o f t h i s f a c t and i n o r d e r t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e s i n g i n g and r e c a p t u r e some s p i r i t o r power, t h e y change a f i g u r e and i n j e c t some l i f e i n t o t h e i r team.  like  Such  i s t h e case i n Nos. 26, 30, 31, and many more.  Another i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s l a h a l songs i s t h e o c c a s i o n a l use o f n e u t r a l t h i r d s and o t h e r q u a r t e r - t o n e s .  See  Nos. 25, 47, 26 and 36.  I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned how s l a h a l songs a r e i n i t i a t e d by a p e r s o n who s i n g s t h e l o y d e s t and w i t h t h e most c o n f i d e n c e . I have l o n g been s c e p t i c a l as t o whether o r n o t an e n t i r e  song  i s i n t h e mind o f t h e l e a d e r a t t h e time he i n i t i a t e s t h e song. One reason f o r doubt i s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l  starting  the song might h o l d a s i n g l e n o t e f o r a few seconds b e f o r e p r o ceeding.  A v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n came  b e f o r e our eyes when l o o k i n g a t Nos. 176, 177 and 17 8 and how #176 p l u s #177 l o g i c a l l y l e d t o #178 thus p r o v i n g t h a t o f t e n we have " i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o m p o s i t i o n " .  Perhaps t h i s i s t h e manner  i n which new songs a c c r u e t o t h e r e p e r t o i r e .  Among t h e 194 songs I found t h a t s i x o f them were sung by the Yakima I n d i a n s i n t h e i r s t y l e which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h and w h i c h t h e S a l i s h w i l l n o t i m i t a t e . The Yakimas a r e from e a s t e r n Washington and a r e a P l a t e a u group. F o r examples see Mos. 16, 46 and 54.  The o t h e r Yakima songs  o c c u r r e d a t Nos. 60 and 66 (Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash., 1970) and No. 146 (Lummi, 1971).  108  F i n a l l y , I have p r e p a r e d a t a b l e t o see the f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n f o r t h e s l a h a l songs d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s work  including  those between nos. 60 and 185 which a r e s i m i l a r t o those a l r e a d y transcribed  and a n a l y s e d i n P a r t I I :  109  Table #2 FREQUENCY OF REPETITION  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l be h e l p f u l i n s p e c i f y i n g where and when a p a r t i c u l a r song o c c u r r e d :  Ml-6 #1-26  June 7, 19 69 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  June 6, 1970 -- C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #27-67  June 20, 1970-- Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash.  #68-129:  June 5, 19 71 —  C u l t u s Lake, B.C.  #130-141:  June 19, 1971--Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash.  #142-185:  June 20, 1971—Lummi R e s e r v e , Wash.  Song no. Ml M2 M3 M.4 M5 M6 1 la 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  When e l s e i t o c c u r s i n the s ample (by song number) #13, 52, 63, 82 1, 12, 28a, 28b , 79, 97, 105, 122, 153 , 158, 160, 163, 166 32 15, 20, 58, 61, 96, 123, 128 132, 147 , 150 17, 94, 145 34b, 100 , H 4 25, 47, 161 10, 29, 33, 44, 70 7, 30 57 31, 59, 74, 91, 15, 107 See #4 38, 90, 104, 11 0 55 See #3 87 See M2 See M l  T o t a l number of r e p e t i t i o n s 5 14 2 11 1 4 See M2 4 4 6 3 2 7 See #4 5 2 See #3 2 Pee M2 See Ml 1  110  FREQUENCY OF REPETITION Song no. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2 8a&b 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  Where e l s e i t o c c u r s i n t h e sample (by song number) See #M4 --(Yakima song) See M6 62, 73, 76, 92, 115, 121, 126, 138, 151, 177, 181, 183 75, 83, 134 See M4 -125, 149 93, 120, 135, 164 68, 81 See #2 — ' 39, 53, 65, 106, 162, 168 See M2 See #3 See #4 See #6 See M3 See #3 86, 83 — 26 67, 80, 101 See #8 See #27 „ 84 — — See # 3 See M6 54, 66 (yakima) See #2 — 89, See See See See See -See See See  110, 133, 143, 154 #3 Ml #27 #46 (Yakima) #9 #5 M4 #6  (cont.) T o t a l number of r e p e t i t i o n s See #M4 1 See M6 13 4 See M4 1 3 5 3 See #2 1 7 See M2 See #3 See #4 See #6 See M3 See #3 3 1 2 4 See #8 See #27 2 1 1 1 See #3 See M6 3 See #2 1 1 6  See #3 See Ml See #27 See #46 See #9 1 See #5 See M4 See #6  Ill  F R E Q U E N C Y OF  Song no.  77 84 98 — 137 142 .156 176 177 178 179  REPETITIONS  Where e l s e i t o c c u r s i n t h e s a m p l e (by s o n g number)  (cont.)  T o t a l number of repetitions  152  2  S e e #40  78, 103, 117, 155 136, 141, 148 69, 108 , 113, 119 , 130 , 171, — S e e #18 — —  See  1 5 4 8 1  174 See  1 1  #40  #18  PART IV C o n c l u d i n g remarks  112  It linked, w i t h not  has b e e n w e l l  established  t h a t music i s i n t i m a t e l y  slahal playing  and i n f a c t  that  proceed without music.  a more b a s i c p o i n t  —  a s l a h a l game w o u l d  Y e t we h a v e n o t y e t t o u c h e d  why i s s l a h a l p l a y e d  as f r e q u e n t l y  is?  The game i s a t t r a c t i v e f o r many r e a s o n s :  deal  of interest i n betting;  if  f u n - m a k i n g and j o k i n g excitement aesthetic  inherent  sing is  along.  Indiarfess.  their reward  underdogs  by I n d i a n s ,  Slahal plays life  and w h i c h  positive  life  activities  This  —  helping  i n t h e monetary  i s particularly  of being  i d e n t i t y to live  of  (Kew, 1970, 305-309).  i n what e x i s t s t o d a y  on t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c  cultural  stands f o r  t i m e and who have b e e n d e p r i v e d  a part  i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n  may  I n d i a n s who have s u r e l y b e e n t h e  these p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s i n r e a l  cultural  any s p e c t a t o r  f e e l i n g a sense o f achievement  a long  and t h e  find, a g r o u p o f p e o p l e o f a common  f o r North American  for  i s the  t h a n any o f t h e above s l a h a l  and i n s u c c e s s f u l g r o u p a c t i o n .  significant  that  that  as t h e  there  the l i s t e n e r  i d e n t i t y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n common teammates,  i s a good  involving  as w e l l  And s u r e l y  f o r both  of the fact  game, p l a y e d I n s l a h a l we  with playing  a game.  B u t more i m p o r t a n t  an I n d i a n  ethnic  i n winning  t o say nothing  as i t  T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount o f  associated  appeal o f the music  performer,  there  t h e game becomes q u i t e  y o u have some money down.  upon  Coast. Indian with.  as  Indian  I t i s important i n and a s p e c i f i c and  113  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Culin, Stewart. 1907  Games o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s . 24th annual r e p o r t , Bureau o f American Ethnology, 1902-3. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.  Densmore, F r a n c e s . 19 4 3 Music of the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , B u l l e t i n #136. Washington: Smithsonian Institute. Helm, June 1966  and Nancy O e s t r e i c h L u r i e . T h e D o g r i b H a n d Game. N a t i o n a l Museum o f C a n a d a , B u l l e t i n #205. Ottawa.  Herzog, George. 1969  Kew,  J.E.M. 19 70  Randle, Martha 1953  "Salish Music." Indians o f t h e Urban Northwest. M a r i o n S m i t h , e d . , #3fi, C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A n t h r o p o l o g y . New Y o r k : AMS Press, 93-109. Coast S a l i s h Ceremonial L i f e : S t a t u s and I d e n t i t y i n a M o d e r n V i l l a g e , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. Champion. "A S h o s h o n e H a n d Game G a m b l i n g S o n g , " Journal o f A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e . V o l . 66, 155-159.  R o b e r t s , H e l e n H. a n d H e r m a n K. H a e b e r l i n . 1918 "Some s o n q s o f t h e P u g e t S o u n d S a l i s h , " o f American F o l k l o r e . V o l . 3 1 , 496-520.  Journal  R o b e r t s , H e l e n H. a n d . M o r r i s S w a d e s h . 196 6 "Songs o f t h e Mootka I n d i a n s o f V a n c o u v e r Island." ( b a s e d on n o t e s a n d p h o n o g r a p h records o f Edward S a p i r ) Transactions o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , New S e r i e s , V o l . X L V , P a r t 3. Philadelphia: The A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o phical Society, 199-327.  114  DISCOGRAPHY Halpern, Ida. 19 6 7 The  Kwakiutl  Indian Music o f the P a c i f i c Mew Y o r k : E t h n i c Folkways, gambling  songs  Northwest FE4523.  a r e l o c a t e d on S i d e  Coast.  4 Band 7.  I s a a c s , Tony and I d a . 19 6 9 Handqa ne o f t h e Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, and Comanche. T a o s , New M e x i c o : I n d i a n House, IH2501.  Peacock, Kenneth. 19 55, 1961 Indian Music o f the Canadian E t h n i c F o l k w a y s , FE4464. The  C r e e handgame songs  Plains.  a r e l o c a t e d on S i d e  New  1 Band 5.  York:  

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