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Pictorialism in English poetry and landscape in the eighteenth century Maclachlan, Douglas John 1972

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PICTORIALISM IN ENGLISH POETRY AND LANDSCAPE IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . by DOUGLAS J . MACLACHLAN B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE.UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June , 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted b y . t h e Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8,' Canada ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s p i c t o r i a l i s m i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poet ry and l a n d s c a p e . T h e - t r a d i t i o n of u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s i s presented i n terms of i t s o r i g i n s i n a n t i q u i t y , i t s background i n the thought of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the p o e t r y of the p e r i o d , and i t s r e l a t i o n s to the p i c t u r e s q u e i n landscape . A s k e t c h of the o r i g i n s and development of l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m i n Greece and.Rome, the medieval . , Renaissance , and pos t -Renaissance p e r i o d s , • o u t l i n e s i t s l e a d i n g f e a t u r e s and f u r n i s h e s a h i s t o r i c a l - p e r -s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t which e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r a c t i c e s can be v i e w e d . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the bond between the s i s t e r a r t s of p a i n t -i n g and poet ry and to the new standards of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e d e r i v i n g from I t a l i a n Renaissance and baroque p a i n t i n g . In e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t r y , passages from Pope and Thomson i l l u s t r a t e n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l p r a c t i c e w i t h respec t to' the a n c i e n t d o c t r i n e of enarge ia ( v i v i d , l i f e l i k e i m i t a t i o n ) , the means of i d e a l -i z i n g n a t u r e , and the i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n of i m i t a t i n g or d e s c r i b i n g o b j e c t s . o f a r t . These p r a c t i c e s are shown to serve a e s t h e t i c , s o c i a l , or moral purposes . F i n a l l y , the t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s Thomson's p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y as the product of t r a d i t i o n a l ut p i c t u r a p o e s i s and not as the .cause of p i c t u r e s q u e landscape v i s i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m and the landscape p i c t u r e s q u e i s c l a r i f i e d by r e l a t i n g Thomson's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c landscape form to Claude L o r r a i n e , S a l v a t o r i i Rosa, and Nicolas Poussin. And the landscape picturesque i t s e l f , dis-cussed largely in terms of i t s origins in the English natural garden and i t s formalization in the aesthetic theories of William Gilpin and Uvedale Price, is shown, like poetic pictorialism, to be a product of. the neo-classical doctrine of models, another form of neo-classical "imitation." As such i t rounds out the paper's study of pictorialism in the eighteenth century. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page INTRODUCTION 1 I . A BRIEF HISTORY OF UT PICTURA POESIS . 7 I I . THE SISTER ARTS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . . . . . 33 I I I . POETIC PICTORIALISM IN POPE AND THOMSON 64 I V . THE "RETURN TO NATURE,:' THOMSON, AND THE LANDSCAPE PICTURESQUE . 99 WORKS CONSULTED 145 INTRODUCTION Pope 's a d v i c e to the c r i t i c i n the Essay on C r i t i c i s m to "be sure your s e l f and your own Reach to know" ( 1 . 4 8 ) , to " l a u n c h not b e -yond your Depth , but be d i s c r e e t " ( 1 . 50),"'' might w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d by anyone propos ing to e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between one a r t and another . Exper ience has shown, w i t h respec t to the many complex ques t ions of s o u r c e , correspondence, and i n f l u e n c e tha t a r i s e whenever l i t e r a t u r e and the v i s u a l a r t s are looked at " i n r e l a t i o n to one another , t h a t d i s c r e t i o n i s a u s e f u l a s s e t . I f c r i t i c a l terms are not to t r a v e l w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from one work, a r t i s t , or even from o n e . a r t to another (paving the way f o r a c o n f u s i o n of g e n r e s ) ; i f the comparison of f a m i l y t r a i t s i n the a r t s of an epoch are not to end i n v a i n p u r s u i t of the " s p i r i t of the age" or the Z e i t g e i s t ; a n d . i f i n d i -v i d u a l a r t i s t i c uniqueness i n w r i t e r or a r t i s t i s not to be d i s t o r t e d or n e g l e c t e d through s u b o r d i n a t i o n to some s u p e r i o r theory imposed upon the a r t i s t i c t o t a l i t y of an epoch, then the i n v e s t i g a t o r of i n t e r -a r t p a r a l l e l s must d i s c r e e t l y a v o i d the temptat ion of l a u n c h i n g h i m s e l f f o r t h beyond h i s d e p t h , beyond h i s c a p a c i t y to order and c o n t r o l tenuous and s u b t l e s u b j e c t matter a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e s of s c h o l a r s h i p 2 and a c c o r d i n g to the e v i d e n c e . In the s p i r i t of Pope 's a d v i c e t h i s paper w i l l l i m i t i t s "Reach" to a compact examinat ion of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i n t i n g . and t h e . a r t s of p o e t r y and gardening i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , to a s tudy i n which the double a s s o c i a t i o n of p a i n t i n g — w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c a l 1 2 verse to produce p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m and w i t h gardening to produce the landscape p i c t u r e s q u e — y i e l d s n e i t h e r evidence of a " t i m e - s p i r i t " l y i n g behind f a m i l y t r a i t s i n the a r t s nor any s u p e r i o r theory e x p l a i n i n g developments w i t h i n them. In t h i s paper , which w i l l c o n s i d e r the . two i n t e r a r t a f f i n i t i e s from the s i d e of l i t e r a t u r e or from a l i t e r a r y p o i n t of v i e w , d i s c u s s i o n w i l l centre i n s t e a d on the t h e o r y , p r a c t i c e , and c h a r a c t e r of p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y and the p i c t u r e s q u e garden i n an . attempt•to.show t h a t , i n t h e i r common adopt ion of p a i n t i n g as model , they are merely p a r t i c u l a r forms or m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , of the f a m i l i a r neo-c l a s s i c a l phenomenon of " i m i t a t i o n . " The two forms of p i c t o r i a l i s m must n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , each i r i i t s t u r n , and more or l e s s independent ly of one another . The f i r s t , the p i c t o r i a l i n p o e t r y , be ing the more , important of the two, takes up three of the f o u r c h a p t e r s , much the g r e a t e r p a r t of the paper . The f i r s t c h a p t e r , which shows the development of i t s l e a d i n g f e a t u r e s and forms,, d i s c u s s e s l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m i n terms of i t s h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n from a n c i e n t t imes to the n e o - c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . T h i s s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l account leads i n t o the e x p l a n a t i o n i n the second chapter of how ut p i c t u r a p o e s i s , b u i l d i n g on i t s t r a d i -t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s , came to take i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from the a r t of the great I t a l i a n Renaissance and baroque masters and to f l o u r i s h as never b e f o r e . The i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s f l o w e r i n g of p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m i s the bus iness of the t h i r d chapter w h i c h , u s i n g examples from the poet ry of Pope and Thomson,.shows e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a p p l i c a t i o n s , of the a n c i e n t d o c t r i n e of er targeia , adapta t ions of the t r a d i t i o n of i c o n i c 3 d e s c r i p t i o n , techniques of i d e a l i z a t i o n , and methods of a c h i e v i n g t o t a l p i c t o r i a l form i n p o e t r y . In these chapters one or two t e c h n i c a l terms, such as e n a r g e i a , are e i t h e r d e f i n e d or t h e i r usage j u s t i f i e d as they appear . The word " p i c t u r e s q u e , " more r e l e v a n t to the l a s t c h a p t e r , i s t r e a t e d t h e r e . Only one term, " p i c t o r i a l , ' . ' r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n here because of i t s importance and f requent use i n the f i r s t three c h a p t e r s . Wi th respec t 3 to t h i s term f o u r p o i n t s at l e a s t should be n o t e d . 1) A p i c t o r i a l image or d e s c r i p t i o n i s one t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o p a i n t i n g . .Whether t h i s p a i n t i n g be a p a r t i c u l a r p a i n t i n g or a s c h o o l of p a i n t i n g or even an i m a g i n a r y . p a i n t i n g matters l i t t l e . 2) Though the p i c t o r i a l i s comprised of the v i s u a l , the v i s u a l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the p i c t o r i a l . The v i s u a l becomes' the p i c t o r i a l when i t s f e a t u r e s and d e t a i l s are ordered and presented p i c t u r -a b l y , so as to resemble a p a i n t i n g . 3) The p i c t o r i a l i n p o e t r y may r e l a t e to any s c h o o l or method of p a i n t i n g . I t may range anywhere between the n a t u r a l i s t i c and the a b s t r a c t , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and the s y m b o l i c , depending on the p o e t ' s knowledge and pre ference i n v i s u a l a r t . 4) P o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m must n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e r a b a s i c a l l y s t a t i c arrangement i n which m o t i o n , i f not e l i m i n a t e d a l t o g e t h e r , i s seen a g a i n s t the fundamental s t a s i s , the f i x i t y of.-the g e n e r a l arrangement. Thomson's p o e t r y , d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d c h a p t e r , r a i s e s ,the 4 q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m and the l a n d -scape p i c t u r e s q u e . T h i s q u e s t i o n i s taken up i n the f o u r t h and f i n a l chapter which attempts to p l a c e the p i c t o r i a l i s m and p o e t r y .of Thomson i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e by c o n s i d e r i n g i t i n r e l a t i o n to the renewed e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n w i l d and i r r e g u l a r nature and i n r e l a -t i o n to the i n f l u e n c e of seventeenth-century landscape p a i n t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y tha t of Claude L o r r a i n e , S a l v a t o r Rosa , and N i c o l a s P o u s s i n . The f i n a l chapter a l s o c o n s i d e r s the p i c t u r e s q u e movement which f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the second h a l f of the c e n t u r y . D i s c u s s i o n of t h i s landscape p i c t u r e s q u e complements and rounds Out t h e . g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p i c t o r i a l i s m presented i n the paper . N e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t i v e , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n l i m i t s i t s e l f to two important aspects of the p i c t u r e s q u e : i t s o r i g i n s i n the development of the E n g l i s h n a t u r a l garden, a development s t r o n g l y s t i m u l a t e d by the i n f l u e n c e of C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , . a n d P o u s s i n , and i t s f o r m a l i z a t i o n i n the a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s of the Reverend W i l l i a m G i l p i n and S i r Uvedale P r i c e . The p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e f o r garden and scenery d i s p l a y e d i n the n o v e l , p o e t r y , a r c h i -t e c t u r e , p a i n t i n g , and other a r t s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of S m o l l e t t ' s n o v e l , Humphry C l i n k e r ) ; the s a t i r e d i r e c t e d at the G i l p i n i a n vogue of seeking out and r e c o r d i n g what was p r e s c r i b e d as p i c t u r e s q u e i n scenery ; and the p e r s i s t i n g i n f l u e n c e of the p i c t u r e s q u e . i n the n i n e -teenth century are not c o n s i d e r e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , the r e v e l a t i o n of i t s o r i g i n s i n the n a t u r a l garden s u f f i c i e n t l y i l l u m i n a t e s the c h a r a c t e r and v a l u e s of p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e . And s i n c e i t s es tab l i shment as a t h i r d a e s t h e t i c category a d d i t i o n a l to the subl ime and the b e a u t i f u l marks the climax of the picturesque movement, the contributions of Gilpin and Price conclude the chapter as appropriately as the pictur-esque movement i t s e l f rounds out the.paper's account of pictorialism as a whole and brings i t to an end. 6 FOOTNOTES The Poems of Alexander Pope, e d . John B u t t (London: Methuen, 1965) , p . 145. 2 Rene W e l l e k and A u s t i n Warren (The Theory of L i t e r a t u r e , 3rd e d . , New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and W o r l d , 1956, p p . 119-122), i n s u r v e y i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and t y p o l o g i e s of a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , s c i e n c e , , and p h i l o s o p h y , r e f e r to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of the " s p i r i t of the t i m e " and attempts to e x p l a i n a l l f a c t s about a p e r i o d through the agency of the " t i m e - s p i r i t " as " e x e r c i s e s i n i n g e n u i t y " (p . 1 1 9 ) . ' "The p a r a l l e l -ism of the a r t s , " they s t a t e , "can be accepted o n l y w i t h l a r g e r e s e r -v a t i o n s " (p . 120) . (See a l s o p p . 125-135 f o r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the f i n e a r t s . ) Jean Hagstrum (The S i s t e r A r t s : The T r a d i t i o n of L i t e r a r y  P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P o e t r y from Dryden to Gray (Chicago : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1968, p p . x i v - x v ) comments on examples of i n t e r a r t s t u d i e s w h i c h , i n c o n f u s i n g genres and i n seek ing the Z e i t g e i s t , " se rve the purposes of c u l t u r a l m y s t i c i s m , ; n o t of sober i n v e s t i g a t i o n " (p . x i v ) . Wal ter H i p p i e (The B e a u t i f u l , the Subl ime, and the P i c t u r e s q u e i n E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y B r i t i s h A e s t h e t i c Theory, Carboridale : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1957, p p . 188-191) d i s c u s s e s the work of C h r i s t o p h e r Hussey and W y l i e Sypher to i l l u s t r a t e how a l i e n t h e o r i e s may be imposed upon an epoch. 3 Jean Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s , p p . x x i - x x i i . CHAPTER I A BRIEF HISTORY OF UT PICTURA POESIS . T h e . h i s t o r y of ut p i c t u r a poes i s i s too comprehensive and com-, p l e x a sub jec t to be t r e a t e d at l e n g t h i n t h i s s t u d y . Yet the h i s t o r y of the analogy between p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g i s so germane to a f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m tha t a s h o r t , s k e t c h o u t l i n i n g t h i s h i s t o r y i s a l o g i c a l p r e l i m i n a r y . " ' ' T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y o u t l i n e w i l l touch most ly on the p i c t o r i a l i s t c r i t i c i s m and l i t e r a t u r e of c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y and on the c e n t r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the conven-t i o n s and a r t of c r e a t i n g v e r b a l i cons tha t took p l a c e when the n a t u r a l i s t i c i c o n of a n t i q u i t y and the Renaissance was transformed by the i c o n of medieva l t imes and the baroque seventeenth c e n t u r y , a process which d i s s o c i a t e d the p i c t o r i a l from e x t e r n a l , v i s i b l e nature and turned i t inwards toward the s p i r i t u a l or upwards toward the s u p e r -n a t u r a l . The s k e t c h w i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e the k i n d s of p i c t o r i a l i s m i n l i t e r a t u r e , sugges t ing i n p a r t i c u l a r the r i c h n e s s of the r e c o r d of i c o n i c p o e t r y , poe t ry which v i v i d l y demonstrates the u n i o n of v e r b a l and v i s u a l a r t through d e s c r i p t i o n of r e a l or imaginary a r t o b j e c t s . P i c t o r i a l i s m i n Augustan v e r s e , viewed i n p e r s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t even such a min imal r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of i t s o r i g i n s , comes i n t o sharper focus and i s much more c l e a r l y seen as the unique e f f l o r e s c e n c e i n the . h i s t o r y of u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s that i t was. The great c r i t i c s of a n t i q u i t y , P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e , and Horace , 7 8 a s s o c i a t e d poet ry w i t h p a i n t i n g , a l though each c o n t r i b u t e d semina l s u g -g e s t i o n s , n o t i o n s , or p a r a l l e l s r a t h e r than t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s of the s i s t e r a r t s . Thus P l a t o , i n the t e n t h book of the R e p u b l i c , t h i n k i n g of the v i s u a l a r t s as d e c e p t i v e and dangerous, a s s o c i a t e s the mimet ic a r t of p a i n t i n g w i t h p o e t r y i n order to r e v e a l that p o e t r y , l i k e p a i n t i n g , i s t h r i c e removed from t r u e r e a l i t y , concerned w i t h appearances o n l y , and of l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . But even though i t was f o r the purpose of b a n i s h i n g the two" a r t s from h i s i d e a l commonwealth, P l a t o d i d compare them; and i n do ing so he gave to c r i t i c i s m the famous and endur ing metaphor of the m i r r o r which was to evidence i t s e l f so o f t e n when poet ry and p a i n t i n g were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one another . A r i s t o t l e . , r e j e c t i n g P l a t o ' s w o r l d of i d e a l form ( that i s , the concept ion of mimesis which he made the b a s i s f o r h i s d e n i g r a t i o n of poet ry and p a i n t i n g ) , i n d i c a t e s areas i n which the two a r t s can l e g i t i -mately be compared. He t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e s f a r more c l o s e l y than P l a t o to subsequent developments i n the h i s t o r y of p i c t o r i a l i s m . In s e c t i o n one of the P o e t i c s A r i s t o t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s p a i n t i n g from poet ry on the b a s i s of the d i f f e r e n t means employed by each i n i m i t a t i o n , moving on to show i n s e c t i o n two t h a t , w i t h respec t to t h e i r o b j e c t s of i m i t a t i o n , poe t ry and p a i n t i n g are analogous . When c l a s s i -f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the k i n d s of persons r e p r e s e n t e d , a p a i n t i n g by P o l y g n o t u s , whose personages are " b e t t e r than we are , " - i s more l i k e an e p i c poem than i s a comedy. S i m i l a r l y , a comedy i s c l o s e r to the p a i n t i n g s of Pauson, whose personages are "worse" than o u r s e l v e s , than . . . 2 i t xs to an e p i c poem. 9 More important i s the l a t e r passage i n the P o e t i c s i n which A r i s t o t l e says that as Tragedy i s an i m i t a t i o n of personages b e t t e r than the o r d i n a r y man,.we i n our way should f o l l o w the example of good p o r t r a i t -p a i n t e r s , who reproduce the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of a man, and at the same t i m e , w i t h o u t l o s i n g the l i k e n e s s , make him handsomer than he i s . 3 C r i t i c i s m advocat ing f i d e l i t y to nature but a l s o .recommending i t s i d e a l i z a t i o n r e c o n c i l e s i m i t a t i o n . w i t h improvement bes t by ana logy , most f r e q u e n t l y , the analogy w i t h p a i n t i n g , o f t e n p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g . A r i s t o t l e made t h i s a n a l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n a t t r a c t i v e to l a t e r c r i t i c s . The Roman c r i t i c , Horace, , who, l i k e A r i s t o t l e and P l a t o , o f f e r s no s y s t e m a t i c reasoning on the r e l a t i o n s between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y , i s of great importance as the o r i g i n a t o r of the phrase u_t p i c t u r a  p o e s i s . In the A r s p o e t i c a he w r i t e s tha t poet ry i s l i k e p a i n t i n g : one p i e c e takes your fancy i f you stand c l o s e to i t , another i f you keep at. some d i s t a n c e . One c o u r t s a dim l i g h t , another , c h a l l e n g i n g keen c r i t i c i s m , w i l l f a i n be seen i n the g l a r e ; t h i s charms but once, tha t w i l l p lease i f ten t imes repeated. 7 * In t h i s famous passage Horace i s merely s a y i n g tha t some poems, l i k e some p a i n t i n g s , p lease o n l y once, w h i l e o t h e r s , i n v i t i n g c r i t i c a l , s t u d y , can be re-examined many t i m e s . The phrase uiL p i c t u r a p o e s i s , " p o e t r y i s l i k e p a i n t i n g , " cons idered i n i t s c o n t e x t , does not warrant the l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : " A poem should be l i k e a p a i n t i n g . " Horace i s a l s o important f o r h i s opening statement i n the A r s  p o e t i c a g r a n t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e l i c e n s e to p a i n t e r s and poets but 10 i n s i s t i n g at the same time that t h i s freedom not exceed na ture and common sense : Suppose a p a i n t e r wished to couple a h o r s e ' s neck w i t h a man's head, and to l a y f e a t h e r s of every hue on l imbs gathered here and t h e r e , so tha t a woman, l o v e l y above, f o u l l y ended i n an u g l y f i s h be low; would you r e s t r a i n your l a u g h t e r , my f r i e n d s , i f admit ted to a p r i v a t e view? . . . a book w i l l appear uncommonly l i k e tha t p i c t u r e , i f i m p o s s i b l e f i g u r e s are wrought i n t o i t . . .5 T h i s r e j e c t i o n of the grotesque and u n n a t u r a l r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e t o -ward mimesis r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from P l a t o ' s or A r i s t o t l e ' s . For P l a t o the h i g h e s t form of i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t of i d e a l form; f o r A r i s t o t l e i t i s the achievement i n matter or media other than o r i g i n a l nature of an independent , u n i f i e d form obeying i t s own l a w s . But f o r Horace i m i t a t i o n means the d u p l i c a t i o n of a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , o b s e r v -ab le b e h a v i o u r , r e a l o b j e c t s . And s i n c e t h i s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l of f a i t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s more o b v i o u s l y e v i d e n t i n p a i n t i n g than i n p o e t r y , the q u e s t i o n of the " i m i t a t i o n of n a t u r e " i n l a t e r c r i t i c i s m often, evoked a s i m i l a r comparison w i t h p a i n t i n g . The H o r a t i o n concept ion of i m i t a t i o n became widespread i n l a t e Greek and Roman a n t i q u i t y , g e n e r a t i n g the enduring f a s h i o n o f ; u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s . P l u t a r c h , f o r example, v a l i d a t e s a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n terms of a c l o s e connec t ion between a r t and r e a l i t y , s a y i n g of the young poe t : We s h a l l s teady the young man s t i l l more i f , at h i s f i r s t entrance i n t o p o e t r y , we g i v e a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o e t i c a r t as an i m i t a t i v e a r t and f a c u l t y analogous to p a i n t i n g . And l e t him not merely be acquainted w i t h the o f t - r e p e a t e d s a y i n g tha t " p o e t r y i s a r t i c u l a t e p a i n t i n g , and p a i n t i n g i s i n a r t i c u l a t e p o e t r y , " but l e t 11 us teach him i n a d d i t i o n tha t when we see a l i z a r d or an ape or the face of T h e r s i t e s i n a p i c t u r e , we are p leased w i t h i t and admire i t , not as a b e a u t i f u l t h i n g , but as a l i k e n e s s . 6 P l u t a r c h i s the t r a n s m i t t e r of the enormously i n f l u e n t i a l r e -mark tha t p a i n t i n g i s mute p o e t r y , poe t ry a speaking p i c t u r e , a remark which he elsewhere a t t r i b u t e s to Simonides of Ceos ( c a . 556-467 B . C . ) . He a l s o extended the analogy w i t h p a i n t i n g to b i o g r a p h y , s a y i n g i n h i s l i f e of Alexander tha t . the n o b l e s t deeds do not always shew men's v e r t u e s and v i c e s , but o f tent imes a l i g h t o c c a s i o n , a w o r d , or some s p o r t makes men's n a t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s and manners appear more p l a i n , than the famous b a t t e l s won, where in are s l a i n ten thousand men, or the great a r m i e s , or c i t i e s won by s iege or a s s a u l t . For l i k e as p a i n t e r s or drawers of p i c t u r e s , which make no account of other p a r t s of the body, do take the resemblances of the face and favour of the countenance, i n the which c o n s i s t e t h the judgement of t h e i r manners and d i s p o s i t i o n : even so they must g i v e us l eave to seek out the s i g n s and tokens of the mind o n l y . 8 When the a r t i s t i c i m i t a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l da ta was g e n e r a l l y equated w i t h n a t u r a l i s t i c r e n d i t i o n , the term enarge ia entered l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . O r i g i n a t i n g i n r h e t o r i c , i t i n i t i a l l y s i g n i f i e d the v i v i d l y e v o c a t i v e c a p a c i t y of o r a t o r i c a l imagery, as opposed to the. c a p t i v a t i n g q u a l i t y of the p o e t i c a l image. "An image has one purpose w i t h the p o e t s , " says L o n g i n u s , "and . . . the d e s i g n of the p o e t i c a l image i s en thfa lment , of the r h e t o r i c a l — 9 v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n . " But Longinus a l s o shows the b l u r r i n g that took p l a c e i n t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the r h e t o r i c a l and the p o e t i c a l i m -age when he p r a i s e s the v i v i d n e s s or e n a r g e i a of a scene i n S imonides : M a g n i f i c e n t , t o o , i s the passage where the Greeks are on the p o i n t of s a i l i n g away and A c h i l l e s appears above, h i s tomb to those who 12 are putting out to sea—a scene which I doubt whether anyone has depicted more vividly than Simonides.10 Two. further developments in ancient criticism were important . in assisting the growth of ut pictura poesis. The f i r s t of these, the superior ranking given the sense of sight in the hierarchy of the senses, obviously reinforces the importance of poetical enargeia, the conception of vivid, l i k e l i k e evocation. Aristotle held imagination "impossible without sensation," as occurring only "in beings that are percipient." He wrote- that "the name.phantasia (imagination) has been formed from phaos (light) because i t is not possible to see without light," because percipience, sight, "is the most highly developed sense.""'""'" For Plato, Horace, and Cicero, sight is also the superior sense, and the widespread notion following from this, that metaphors are best directed to the eye, is given clear formulation by Cicero: Every metaphor, provided i t be a good one, has a direct appeal to the senses, especially the sense of sight which is the keenest: for while the rest of the senses supply such metaphors as 'the fragrance of good manners,' 'the softness of a humane s p i r i t , ' 'the roar of the waves,' 'a sweet style of speaking,' the meta-phors drawn from the sense of sight are much more vivid, v i r -tually placing within the range of our mental vision objects not actually visible to our sight.X^-The second,development was the spread of a conception of ideal beauty opposed to that of Platonism and Neoplatonism, both of which philosophies discouraged the imitation of nature in favour of the supernatural world, which lay behind visible form and in which alone ideal beauty could be found.- The alternative notion of ideal beauty, shared by Cicero, Seneca,.and many others, was much more congenial to 13 the a s s o c i a t i o n of p a i n t i n g and poetry s i n c e i t derived i t s i d e a l of the b e a u t i f u l , not by transcending nature, but by g e n e r a l i z i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g the i n g r e d i e n t s found i n nature. Such i d e a l beauty, a r i s i n g from observation and experience, was expressed as nature cor-rected or improved. The most important example i n c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y of how such i d e a l beauty could be achieved was the famous anecdote, repeated every-13 where, of how the famous p a i n t e r , Zeuxis, painted Helen of Troy. Attempting p e r f e c t beauty, Zeuxis chose f i v e of the most b e a u t i f u l v i r g i n s i n the c i t y , s e l e c t i n g from each the p a r t i a l p e r f e c t i o n s which he f i t t e d together i n t o a p e r f e c t whole f o r h i s p i c t u r e . Thus, though i m i t a t i n g nature, he a l s o methodized i t , making i t nobler than r e a l i t y through a process of s e l e c t i o n and combination. The i d e a l beauty sought by Zeuxis i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the A r i s t o t e l i a n i d e a l i z a t i o n of nature which saw p a i n t i n g as the example of how nature could be heightened without being destroyed. L a t e r , i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d , i t would be f a m i l i a r as la. b e l l e nature. I f the foregoing c r i t i c i s m c o n s t i t u t e s "the i n t e l l e c t u a l foun-14 d a t i o n of the n e o c l a s s i c a l " w i t h respect to ut p i c t u r a poesis,- the l i t e r a t u r e of ancient Greece and Rome c o n s t i t u t e s one of t h e . r i c h e s t and most v a r i e d expressions w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n that was to be.inher-i t e d by n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . The work of the great ancient p a i n t e r s , such as Polygnotus, Zeuxis, P a r r h a s i u s , and A p e l l e s , has been l o s t and cannot be discussed as source f o r the p i c t o r i a l i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . However, the . 14 association of verbal and graphic a r t , which antedates a l l written c r i t i c i s m , i s well shown by i c o n i c poetry. The f i r s t great example of t h i s kind of poetry, i n which the poet responds to r e a l or imaginary works of a r t , i s Homer's lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n i n the I l i a d of the s h i e l d constructed for A c h i l l e s by Hephaestus. "^ This d e s c r i p t i o n , an expression of Homer's p r e d i l e c t i o n for the u s e f u l , ornamented object; or, viewed i n terms of the poem's epic action, a celebration of a symbol of m i l i t a r y glory; and whose d e t a i l s , such as the c i t y at war and the c i t y at peace, r e l a t e to the meaning of the poem as a whole, i s at bottom and most importantly a d e s c r i p t i o n of a work of a r t . The miracle of the s h i e l d l i e s i n i t s metalled simulation of sound, rhythm, dance, colour, and moral q u a l i t i e s . It i s l i f e i t s e l f , and the wonder of the s h i e l d l i e s i n t h i s i m i t a t i o n of nature. The largest c o l l e c t i o n of i c o n i c poems i n ancient times, The Greek Anthology, i s made up of seven d i f f e r e n t kinds of epigram, of 16 which the art epigrams are prominent. The art epigram retained the marks of i t s o r i g i n as verse i n s c r i p t i o n on statue, tomb, or column, and was one of the oldest devices whereby the statue, urn, or monument could be made to speak to the beholder. It was to p e r s i s t for centuries, evidencing i t s e l f , for example, on the flagstone on Shakespeare's grave i n the Church of the Holy T r i n i t y , S t r a t f o r d , on the statuary and benches of eighteenth-century landscape gardens, and i n the epigram spoken by Keats' s i l e n t Grecian u r n . ^ Again and again the epigrams of the Anthology, i n the manner of the following examples dedicated to 15 Myron ' s h e i f e r , p r a i s e the decept ions of i l l u s i o n i s t i c a r t : 717. E i t h e r a complete h i d e of bronze c l o t h e s here a r e a l cow, or the bronze has a s o u l i n s i d e i t . 734. In v a i n , b u l l , thou rushes t up to t h i s h e i f e r , f o r i t i s l i f e -l e s s . The s c u l p t o r of cows, Myron , dece ived thee..18 H e l l e n i s t i c or A l e x a n d r i a n p i c t o r i a l i s m had behind i t not on ly the i c o n i c poet ry of Homer and the e a r l i e r a r t epigram but a l s o i c o n i c passages i n Greek drama, such as an admir ing c h o r i c d e s c r i p t i o n of temple b u i l d i n g s and s t a t u e s i n Eur ipedes Ion (11. 184-218) , and the p i c t o r i a l l y designed l y r i c s of Anacreon, who e s t a b l i s h e d the convent ion of the p o e t ' s summoning and i n s t r u c t i n g a craf tsman or p a i n t e r to c rea te an a r t ob jec t a c c o r d i n g to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s l a i d down i n the p o e m . 1 T h i s convent ion p r o v i d e d a means of o r d e r i n g v i s u a l d e t a i l i n p o e t r y and at the same time achieved the necessary q u a l i t y of e n a r g e i a . S i m i l a r convent ions and the t r a d i t i o n of m y t h o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n appear i n the great L a t i n p o e t s . V i r g i l , though i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s of a r t o b j e c t s r a t h e r than the o b j e c t s themselves , d e s c r i b e s i n the Aeneid the p a i n t i n g s of the Temple of Juno and the s h i e l d of Aeneas. P e t r o n i u s A r b i t e r i n the S a t y r i c o n v i s i t s an a r t g a l l e r y and d e s c r i b e s i l l u s i o n i s t i c p a i n t i n g s by Z e u x i s , . Protogenes , and A p e l l e s a f t e r the manner of the Greek a n t h o l o g i s t s . Ovid d e s c r i b e s i n the Metamorphoses the s o a r i n g Temple of S o l , i t s huge bronze and g o l d p i l l a r s , i t s doors and f i g u r e d p a n e l s , and the s tatuesque p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n s of the Seasons w i t h i n . In the same work he a l s o g i v e s us the l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t a p e s t r i e s woven d u r i n g the contes t between Arachne and M i n e r v a . ^ 16 The i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n was not c o n f i n e d to p o e t r y . S ince enarge ia was o r i g i n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r h e t o r i c , i t not unexpectedly appears promi nent l y i n such forms of prose e x p r e s s i o n as P l u t a r c h ' s L i v e s ; V a r r o ' s De i m a g i n i b u s , a " s o r t of i l l u s t r a t e d b i o g r a p h i c a l 21 d i c t i o n a r y " ; and the long prose d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e a l and imaginary p a i n t i n g s i n the Imagines of the w r i t e r s P h i l o s t r a t u s the E l d e r , P h i l o -s t r a t u s the Younger, and C a l l i s t r a t u s . P h i l o s t r a t u s t h e . E l d e r , bes ides p r o v i d i n g fulsome d e s c r i p t i o n s of the sensuous i n p a i n t i n g , a l s o s t r e s s e s the importance of the e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t of human character , and 22 e m o t i o n . . F i n a l l y , two other prose forms must be mentioned s i n c e they d i s p l a y very c l e a r l y the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i c t o r i a l i s m and t o t a l s t r u c t u r e . These are the Greek romance and moral a l l e g o r y . In Longus ' romance, Daphnis and C h l o e , a p i c t u r e i n s p i r e s the n a r r a t o r to compose a l i t e r a r y pendant u s i n g the h e l p of an i n t e r p r e t e r who p o i n t s out to him the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the scenes making up the p i c t u r e . The u n A r i s t o t e l i a n n a r r a t i v e form r e s u l t i n g from t h i s develops as a s e r i e s of t a b l e a u x , the r e a d i n g of which resembles a tour through a g a l l e r y of p a i n t i n g s and s t a t u e s , a movement from scene to scene. S i m i l a r l y , i n the once-popular mora l a l l e g o r y , the P a i n t i n g , . by Kebes of Thebes, the n a r r a t o r , s t a n d i n g b a f f l e d before , a l a r g e , a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g , i s g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n of i t s meaning by a s t ranger whose account , presented w i t h constant re ference to the p i c -t u r e , ranges over the whole moral l i f e of man. The t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of the P a i n t i n g i s more,dependent upon i t s p i c t o r i a l r e f e r e n c e than tha t 17 o f Daphnis and C h l o e o r t h a t o f o t h e r m o r a l a l l e g o r i e s i n p r o s e . ; A l l e g o r y , romance, and p r o s e d e s c r i p t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h b i o -g r a p h y , e p i c , drama, e p i g r a m , and l y r i c , d e m o n s t r a t e t h e range and t y p e s o f p i c t o r i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h paved t h e way f o r u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s i n f u t u r e l i t e r a t u r e . I n t h e m e d i e v a l c e n t u r i e s t h a t succeeded t h e p e r i o d o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y C h r i s t i a n a n t i - p a g a n i s m d i d n o t d e s t r o y t h e h e r i t a g e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l p a s t , though i t m o d i f i e d i t v e r y s e v e r e l y , i n c l u d i n g i t s l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m . C l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i s m , i n f a c t , p e r s i s t e d d u r i n g t h e m e d i e v a l p e r i o d a f a c t e a s i l y p e r c e i v a b l e i n t h e C a r o l i n g i a n and O t t o n i a n r e n a i s s a n c e s and i n t h e m e d i e v a l custom o f a l l e g o r i z i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f w a l l p i c t u r e s , t e m p l e s , p a l a c e s , and t h e i r ornamenta-t i o n . The n a r r a t i v e method i n such a l l e g o r y , " o r i g i n a l l y f o r c e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e by a p r o f o u n d m o r a l . r e v o l u t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e l a t t e r days of paganism," when " f o r r e a s o n s of w h i c h we know n o t h i n g a t a l l , " "men's 23 gaze was t u r n e d i n w a r d , " i s s i m i l a r t o t h e u n A r i s t o t e l i a n method of the Greek romance and p r o s e a l l e g o r y . The p a i n t e d w a l l s o f G u i l l a u m e de L o r r i s ' g a rden i n t h e Romance of t h e Rose, Chaucer's Temples of Venus, Ma r s , and D i a n a i n t h e " K n i g h t ' s T a l e , " and h i s House of Fame.stem, u l t i m a t e l y , from t h e p a l a c e s o f V i r g i l , O v i d , and o t h e r w r i t e r s o f a n t i q u i t y . . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y ( i n c l u d i n g i t s m e d i e v a l c o n t i n u a t i o n ) and C h r i s t i a n p i c t o r i a l i s m i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e 18 Ages the analogy between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y became i r r e l e v a n t . Works of a r t were no longer eva l ua t ed i n terms of t h e i r t r u t h to nature b e -cause a fundamental change had taken p l a c e i n the concept ion of na ture i t s e l f . Nature was no longer s imply the o b j e c t i v e , p h y s i c a l w o r l d but a huge symbol ic m a n i f e s t a t i o n u t t e r l y beyond the comprehension of the eye a l o n e . I t was no longer p o s s i b l e to v iew i t as a s a t i s f a c t o r y sub-j e c t f o r p a i n t i n g , n a t u r a l i s t i c or a l l e g o r i c a l , because, as i n P l a t o ' s p h i l o s o p h y , i t s t r u e meaning c o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e d by the mind a l o n e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the e q u i v a l e n c e of the m a t e r i a l and the i m m a t e r i a l i n a Kebes or a Chaucer and t h e i r equiva lence i n a Dante or a B e r n i n i has been expressed by C . S. Lewis as t h e . d i f f e r e n c e between a l l e g o r y and " s a c r a m e n t a l i s m " : On the one hand you can s t a r t w i t h an i m m a t e r i a l f a c t , such as the pass ions which you a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e , and can .then i n v e n t v i s i b i l i a to express them. . . . T h i s i s a l l e g o r y . . . . But there i s another way of u s i n g the e q u i v a l e n c e , . w h i c h i s almost the oppo-s i t e of a l l e g o r y , and which I would c a l l sacramenta l i sm or•symbol ism. I f our p a s s i o n s , be ing i m m a t e r i a l , can be copied by m a t e r i a l i n v e n -t i o n s , then i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t our m a t e r i a l w o r l d i n i t s t u r n i s the copy of an i n v i s i b l e w o r l d . As the god Amor and h i s f i g u r a t i v e garden are to the a c t u a l pass ions of men, so perhaps we o u r s e l v e s and our ' r e a l ' w o r l d are to . someth ing e l s e . The attempt to read tha t something e l s e through i t s s e n s i b l e i m i t a t i o n s , to see the archtype i n the copy, i s what I mean by symbolism or sacramenta l i sm.2 V e r i s i m i l i t u d e , t h e n , was understood i n the medieva l p e r i o d v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y from the way i t had been understood i n a n t i q u i t y and from the way i t would be understood aga in i n the Renaissance . S i m i l i t u d e was s t i l l i m p o r t a n t , but now i t occupied i t s e l f not on ly w i t h new s u b j e c t s — p a t r i a r c h , p r o p h e t , d i s c i p l e , s a i n t , m a r t y r , s i n n e r , and S a v i o u r — b u t • a l s o , and even more i m p o r t a n t , w i t h the new ends to be served by v i s u a l 19 a r t ; S a c r a m e n t a l p i c t o r i a l i s m sought t o embody and e x p r e s s s u p e r s e n -s o r y r e a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n s e n s o r y , t o evoke a sense o f awe, r e v e r e n c e , and m y s t e r y r a t h e r t h a n t o a c h i e v e e n a r g e i a . The m i r a c l e i s no l o n g e r t h a t of t h e , d i f f i c u l t e v a i n c u e o f H ephaestus' s h i e l d , where t h e l i k e -n e s s of l i v i n g r e a l i t y i s w r o u g h t i n i n o r g a n i c s t o n e . a n d m e t a l ; i t i s now t h e embodiment of i n v i s i b l e and s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l i t y .in t h e m a t e r i a l , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e v i s u a l a r t o f m e d i e v a l Western Europe and Byzantium.. One consequence of t h i s development i s t h e new freedom o f i m a g i n a t i o n f o r t h e a r t i s t w h i c h r e p l a c e s t h e H o r a t i a n p r i n c i p l e of s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o r e a l i t y : h e a v e n l y v i s i o n i s now more i m p o r t a n t t h a n e a r t h l y o b s e r v a t i o n . As t h e I t a l i a n and, l a t e r , t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e r e v i v e d t h e a n c i e n t t e x t s , t h e y a l s o r e v i v e d t h e . a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n o f u t p i c t u r a  p o e s i s . P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e , and Horace were everywhere quoted a p p r o v i n g l y , emerging i n R e n a i s s a n c e t h i n k i n g as t h e . f o u n d e r s of a d e f i n i t e t h e o r y o f p i c t o r i a l i s m r a t h e r t h a n w r i t e r s who had m e r e l y . f u r n i s h e d s u g g e s t i v e h i n t s and p a r a l l e l s . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a n c i e n t p i c t o r i a l i s t i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s R e n a i s s a n c e a t t i t u d e i s e p i t o m i z e d i n t h e changed meaning o f t h e H o r a t i a n p h r a s e u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s from " p o e t r y i s l i k e p a i n t i n g " o r "as t h e p a i n t i n g , so t h e poem" t o "a poem ought t o r e s e m b l e 25 a p a i n t i n g . " A c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a "form of 2 6 e s t h e t i c l e g i s l a t i o n " about t h e s i s t e r a r t s , and u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s , a s s o c i a t e d i n a n c i e n t t i m e s w i t h t h e n o t i o n of v i v i d , l i f e l i k e s i m u l a -t i o n o f n a t u r e , w i t h e n a r g e i a , once a g a i n , though i n a new i n t e n s i f i e d f o r m , comes t o s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e s of a r t i s t i c n a t u r a l i s m . 20 T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e . Ben J o n s o n , f o r example, w r i t e s t h a t P o e t r y and p i c t u r e s a r e a r t s o f a l i k e n a t u r e , and b o t h a r e busy about i m i t a t i o n . I t was e x c e l l e n t l y s a i d o f P l u t a r c h , p o e t r y was a s p e a k i n g p i c t u r e , and p i c t u r e a mute poesy.. F o r t h e y b o t h i n -v e n t , f e i g n , and d e v i s e many t h i n g s , and accommodate a l l t h e y i n v e n t t o t h e use and s e r v i c e o f n a t u r e . ^ 7 He says f u r t h e r t h a t "whosoever l o v e s n o t p i c t u r e i s i n j u r i o u s t o t r u t h and a l l t h e wisdom o f p o e t r y . " F o r " p i c t u r e i s t h e i n v e n t i o n o f heaven, 28 t h e most a n c i e n t and most a k i n , t o n a t u r e . " S i d n e y i m p l i e s t h e p r i n c i p l e when he d e f i n e s p o e t r y as "an a r t of i m i t a t i o n , " " t h a t i s t o s a y , a r e p r e s e n t i n g , c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , o r f i g u r i n g f o r t h — : t o speak m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , a s p e a k i n g p i c t u r e . " . The same p i c t o r i a l i s t l a n g u a g e appears when he s a y s t h e " p e e r l e s s p o e t " g i v e s a " p e r f e c t p i c t u r e " o f w h a t . t h e h i s t o r i a n and p h i l o s o p h e r recommend, t h a t p h i l o s o p h y l i e s d a r k u n l e s s " i l l u m i n a t e d o r f i g u r e d f o r t h by t h e 29 s p e a k i n g p i c t u r e o f Poesy." Jonson's h i g h p r a i s e o f " p i c t u r e " r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t u t  p i c t u r a p o e s i s had r e c h a r g e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e a n c i e n t q u a l i t y o f e n a r g e i a . However, s i n c e t h e v i s u a l a r t s i n t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e were n o t comparable t o t h e I t a l i a n , E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l i s m r e -main s , l i k e C h a u c e r i a n p i c t o r i a l i s m , m a i n l y a l i t e r a r y phenomenon. I t e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n terms of t h e i d e a l s of c r i t i c s l i k e J o n s o n o r i n terms of t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n and p r e v i o u s p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m . None-t h e l e s s , a few examples w i l l show t h a t , though n o t i n s p i r e d d i r e c t l y by contemporary v i s u a l a r t , E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l i s m c o n t i n u e d t o f l o w s t r o n g l y . 21 Shakespeare 's d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a r g e h i s t o r i c a l t a p e s t r y or p a i n t i n g i n The Rape of Lucrepe (11. .1366-1582) - on t h e . ; F a l l of Troy goes back to the s h i e l d of A c h i l l e s i n the I l i a d and r e c a l l s the Temple of Venus i n the A e n e i d , the t a p e s t r i e s of Arachne and M i n e r v a i n the Metamorphoses, and the w a l l p a i n t i n g s of the " K n i g h t ' s T a l e " i n the Canterbury T a l e s . However, Shakespeare d r a m a t i c a l l y and o r i g i n a l l y e x p l o i t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i l l u s i o n and l i f e , between the s i l e n t l i f e l i k e n e s s of p a i n t i n g and the a r t i c u l a t e b e h o l d e r , by making the r a v i s h e d Lucrece t u r n to the p a i n t i n g i n her d i s t r e s s and search out among i t s lamentable o b j e c t s , w h i c h , " i n scorn of n a t u r e , a r t gave l i f e -l e s s l i f e , " the f i g u r e of " d e s p a i r i n g Hecuba" as a m i r r o r of her own 30 sorrows . The dramat ic r e l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between Lucrece and the p a i n t i n g goes beyond the mere d e s c r i p t i o n of a n c i e n t i c o n i c poet ry or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m o r a l i z i n g of medieva l i c o n i c p o e t r y . T e c h n i c a l advances i n p a i n t i n g , such as the d i s c o v e r y of p e r s p e c -t i v e , g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d the power of p a i n t i n g to c rea te i l l u s i o n i s t i c e f f e c t s , t h e r e b y . s t i m u l a t i n g the o l d f e a r tha t a r t , now more n a t u r a l than nature w i t h o u t be ing n a t u r e , was a dangerous d e c e p t i o n . How t h i s i c o n o c l a s t i c tendency a f f e c t e d p i c t o r i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the Renaissance can.be seen i n the e l a b o r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the.Bower of B l i s s i n the F a e r i e Queene, a d e s c r i p t i o n a l s o i n the t r a d i t i o n of A c h i l l e s ' s h i e l d . Spenser ' s a r t f u l , n a t u r a l - s e e m i n g , l i f e l i k e " B o w e r . i s c e r t a i n l y presented as dangerous and e v i l . But i t i s not so presented because i l l u s i o n i s t i c a r t i s dangerous i n i t s e l f . The Bower i s e v i l because i t accords a r t primacy over n a t u r e , because the work of a r t tha t i s the Bower has been 22 a l l o w e d to usurp the p l a c e of na ture f o r e v i l purposes . In B a s s a n i o ' s speech on P o r t i a ' s m i n i a t u r e i n The Merchant of V e n i c e , Shakespeare a l s o presents an a e s t h e t i c statement on the r e l a t i o n of a r t t o . n a t u r e . D i s c o v e r i n g the m i n i a t u r e i n s i d e the c a s k e t , Bassanip r e f e r s to i t , a s P o r t i a 1 s " c o u n t e r f e i t , " an i m i t a t i o n tha t comes "near c r e a t i o n . " I t t r i c k s the senses : "Move these eyes?. / Or whether , r i d i n g on the b a l l s of mine , / Seem'they i n m o t i o n ? " And ye t the m i n i a t u r e i s 31 merely a "shadow 1 " tha t "doth l imp behind the s u b s t a n c e . " B a s s a n i o ' s speech se t s f o r t h the theory dramat ized i n the a c t i o n of The W i n t e r ' s T a l e , where the i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n i s used not to e x a l t a r t , as i n Homer, but to c e l e b r a t e nature at the expense of a r t , as i n Spenser. P r a i s e of the imagined s t a t u e i n the l a s t ac t f o l l o w s the t r a d i t i o n going back to Homer tha t v a l u e s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e : i n a r t . -But Hermione i s n o t , i n f a c t , what she a p p e a r s ' t o b e . When she s teps down from her n i c h e as a l i v i n g woman the s i t u a t i o n customary i n the a r t epigram i s reversed and a r t i s shown not as d e f e a t i n g na ture but as i t s e l f defeated by l i f e . Here nature and a c t u a l i t y are g i v e n primacy over a r t . A f i n a l example of i n t e r a r t c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the E n g l i s h Renaissance i s the masque s p e c t a c u l a r . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d by i t s very nature to the p i c t o r i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n , t h i s marr iage of image and word became, i n the hands of Ben Jonson and I n i g o Jones, , a form of speaking p i c t u r e a k i n to the c l a s s i c a l column or monument w i t h i t s i n s c r i p t i o n i n v e r s e . The masque may have i n f l u e n c e d the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r e s e n - -t a t i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . In C o l l i n s ' p o e t r y , f o r example, . t h e i r 23 p r o c e s s i o n a l q u a l i t y i s p i c t o r i a l i n a m a s q u e - l i k e way. In the seventeenth century the most important development i n the c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n of ut_ p i c t u r a p o e s i s i s the t r a n s m u t a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l i c o n i n t o the baroque, the process whereby p o e t i c imagery comes to model i t s e l f a f t e r the baroque images of v i s u a l a r t . T h i s development i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the example of the emblem book.. J u s t as the masque j o i n e d the v i s u a l and the v e r b a l , so t o o , i n i t s d i f f e r e n t way, the emblem book j o i n e d image and word when i t a t tached the poem as pendant to the a l l e g o r i c a l scene or d e s i g n . The v e r s e i n s c r i p t i o n which had separated from the s t a t u e , u r n , or monument upon which i t had o r i g i n a l l y been engraved i s r e u n i t e d w i t h them, so to speak, when they appear together aga in on the p r i n t e d page, as the emblem poem.- The v e r s e , which i s o f t e n b r i e f , . w i t t y , or commemorative, i s , i n f a c t , r e m i n i s c e n t of the epigram. Emblem books , whether s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , . o r r e l i g i o u s , were a l i k e i n b r i n g i n g the v i s u a l and the v e r b a l t o g e t h e r , i n ' a s s o c i a t i n g the sensuous and the a b s t r a c t l y i n t e l -l e c t u a l . A u s t i n Warren comments on the consequence of t h i s form of p i c t o r i a l re inforcement of p o e t r y : The i n f l u e n c e on poet ry was not o n l y to encourage the m e t a p h o r i c a l h a b i t but to impart t o . t h e metaphors a hardness , a p a l p a b i l i t y w h i c h , merely c o n c e i v e d , they were u n l i k e l y to p o s s e s s . And ye t the metaphors o r d i n a r i l y a n a l o g i z e d i m p a l p a b i l i t i e s — r s t a t e s of the s o u l , concepts , a b s t r a c t i o n s . The e f f e c t was a s t range t e n s i o n between m a t e r i a l i t y and s p i r i t u a l i t y which almost d e f i n e s the . s p i r i t of the Counter -Reformat ion .32 J u s t as the epigram, once separated from the a r t o b j e c t , f r e -q u e n t l y remained i c o n i c i n i t s d e d i c a t i o n to an imagined s c u l p t u r e or • 24 monument, so too the emblem poem, detached from i t s g r a p h i c symbol , o f t e n remained i c o n i c i n i t s c e n t r a l concern w i t h an image or d e s i g n . The poems of F r a n c i s Q u a r l e s , f o r example, have o f t e n been p r i n t e d w i t h o u t t h e i r o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s . And some of H e r b e r t ' s poems, though never accompanied by v i s u a l emblems, v e r b a l l y imply images and des igns t a k i n g the p l a c e of the engraved scenes of emblem v e r s e and ^serving as g r a p h i c embodiments of the a b s t r a c t meaning of the poems. "The C o l l a r , " "The P u l l e y , " "The Windows," and "Church Monuments" are i n s t a n c e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t o o , i n " p a t t e r n " poems l i k e "The A l t a r " or " E a s t e r W i n g s , " Herber t l e s s s u b t l y focuses* a t t e n t i o n on the ob jec t i n the t i t l e by o u t l i n i n g i t s shape i n the p r i n t e d form of the ppem on the page. Such emblematic poet ry i s not d e s c r i p t i v e i n the manner of Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n of A c h i l l e s ' s h i e l d or Spenser ' s d e p i c t i o n of the Bower or B l i s s . Herbert n e i t h e r contemplates nor d e s c r i b e s the o b j e c t , a l l u d i n g to i t o n l y f o r the purpose of t r a d i n g i n s u b t l e correspondences or w i t t y comparison. Poe t ry of t h i s k i n d , by r e v e a l i n g a^closeness between the s i s t e r a r t s i n a p e r i o d of l i t t l e c r i t i c a l demand f o r v e r i -s i m i l i t u d e , i n v i t e s comment on the nature of baroque a r t . . Poe t ry and p a i n t i n g were s i s t e r a r t s i n a n t i q u i t y and the Renaissance because of t h e i r common f i d e l i t y to v i s i b l e n a t u r e . The very d i f f e r e n t reason f o r t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g the baroque p e r i o d i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t l y , baroque a r t , l i k e medieva l C h r i s t i a n a r t , was d i d a c t i c , u s i n g l i n e , c o l o u r , f o r m , and mass i n the same way tha t the emblem poem used i t s accompanying scene or d e s i g n , and f o r the same 25 ends. J u s t as t h e p i c t u r e i n t h e emblem poem was t h e b a i t f o r t h e i n -s t r u c t i o n a l hook i n t h e p o e t r y , so forms o f e x p r e s s i o n i n baroque a r t found t h e i r c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c o n -f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r s e n s o r y , w h i c h t h e y made p o s s i b l e f o r t h e b e h o l d e r . S e c o n d l y j baroque a r t was c o n g e n i a l t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g because by i t s v e r y n a t u r e i t tended t o b l u r d i s -t i n c t i o n s between a l l t h e v i s u a l a r t s . A u s t i n Warren w r i t e s o f t h e " e x u b e r a n t , r h e t o r i c a l , s e n s u a l , g r a n d i o s e " s t y l e o f t h e baroque t h a t t h e . r e p o s e and symmetry of R e n a i s s a n c e a r t have y i e l d e d t o a g i t a -t i o n , a s p i r a t i o n , a m b i t i o n , an i n t e n s e s t r i v i n g t o t r a n s c e n d t h e . l i m i t s o f each g e n r e . S c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e w o u l d e l i c i t t h e e f f e c t s o f p a i n t i n g ; p a i n t i n g — w e a r y o f e x a c t d r a f t s m a n s h i p , c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d m a s s e s , . g r o u p i n g w i t h i n t h e p l a n e , and t h e a r c h i -t e c t u r a l f i t t i n g o f t h e d e s i g n t o t h e sq u a r e o r c i r c l e o f t h e c a n v a s — w o u l d move upward o r backward, w o u l d a n t i c i p a t e t h e a g i l i t y o f t h e cinema, w o u l d f l o w , w o u l d d i s a p p e a r i n t o m o d u l a t e d glooms o r d i s s o l v e i n t o l u m i n o s i t y . I n a r c h i t e c t u r e , a l l i s s p l e n d o r and s u r p r i s e : polychrome m a r b l e , g o l d c o f f e r i n g , l i f e - s i z e and un-t r a n q u i l s t a t u e s , c e i l i n g s f r e s c o e d so as t o open t h e b a s i l i c a n h o r i z o n t a l i n t o a firmament o f f l o a t i n g a n g e l s , i n g e n i o u s p e r s p e c -t i v e s , f a c a d e s d e s i g n e d n o t t o r e v e a l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n .but t o be,, i n t h e m s e l v e s , impressive. , 3 3 A r t o f t h i s k i n d , s e e k i n g t o show t h e i n s u b s t a n t i a l t h r o u g h t h e s u b s t a n t i a l , g e n e r a t i n g t h e " s t r a n g e t e n s i o n between m a t e r i a l i t y and s p i r i t u a l i t y " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f emblem p o e t r y , -and d e d i c a t i n g i t s e l f t o t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e b e h o l d e r beyond i t s e l f t o o t h e r r e a l i t i e s , i n v i t e s a more t h a n p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e . I t c h a l l e n g e s and i n v o l v e s t h e whole mind and s o u l . T o w a r d . t h i s end a l l t h e v i s u a l a r t s c o n s p i r e , . and i n . t h i s c o n s p i r a c y l i e s much of t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c l o s e a s s o c -i a t i o n o f t h e s i s t e r a r t s . Ut p i c t u r a p o e s i s i n t h e E n g l i s h s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s more 2 6 e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n e mblematic p o e t r y t h a n i n m e t a p h y s i c a l . The sensuous d e s c r i p t i o n s of a r t o b j e c t s ' b y t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s a r e n o t matched i n t h e work of Donne and h i s s c h o o l . M e t a p h y s i c a l p o e t r y , i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l , d r a m a t i c , and w i t t y , b u t seldom d e s c r i p t i v e o r v i s u a l , and s t i l l l e s s p i c t o r i a l . N o n e t h e l e s s , as t h e i n d i r e c t l y emblematic p o e t r y o f H e r b e r t shows, m e t a p h y s i c a l p o e t r y d i d have i t s p i c t o r i a l moments. An e x c e l l e n t example i s M a r v e l l ' s "The G a l l e r y , " " a poem.which m e t a p h o r i c a l l y l o c a t e s a p i c t u r e g a l l e r y i n t h e s o u l o f t h e p o e t . Though f u n d a m e n t a l l y p s y c h o -l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s , t h e scenes d i s p l a y e d i n t h e p a i n t i n g s hung i n t h i s g a l l e r y r e t a i n t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f i c o n i c p o e t r y and a r e r e m i n i s c e n t of s i m i l a r s cenes i n I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y o r e a r l i e r . "The G a l l e r y " a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s t h e . " p i c t u r e - g a l l e r y " method of o r g a n i z i n g p o e t i c a l d e t a i l p r e v i o u s l y seen' i n Greek romance and Kebes' P a i n t i n g , a method w h i c h l e a d s t h e r e a d e r f r o m scene t o s c e n e , image t o image. I t w i l l appear a g a i n i n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . What "The G a l l e r y " i s t o t h e s e c u l a r mood of t h e E n g l i s h s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y (and t h e p o e t r y of H e r b e r t t o i t s d e v o t i o n a l mood), Crashaw's poem, "THE FLAMING HEART Upon t h e book and p i c t u r e o f t h e s e r a p h i c a l S a i n t T e r e s a , as she i s u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d w i t h a s e r a p h i m 34 b e s i d e h e r , " i s t o t h e r e l i g i o u s mood of t h e C o n t i n e n t a l b a r o q u e . The t i t l e i n d i c a t e s t h e i c o n i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s e m o t i o n a l l y c h a r g e d poem. I t n o t o n l y s h a r e s t h e emblematic q u a l i t y of H e r b e r t ' s and o t h e r p o e t r y of t h e p e r i o d b u t a l s o d i s p l a y s t h e A n a c r e o n t i c t e n d e n c y t o a d d r e s s and i n s t r u c t t h e a r t i s t , e n g a g i n g i n f i e r c e e x p o s t u l a t i o n w i t h 27 t h e p a i n t e r o v e r h i s method o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s a i n t . S i m i l a r l y , though w i t h o u t t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y of Crashaw and f o r a d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e , M a r y e l l , i n h i s " L a s t I n s t r u c t i o n s t o a P a i n t e r , " a d d r e s s e s a p a i n t e r engaged on a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f "Lady S t a t e . " I n t h i s poem t h e a n a l o g y w i t h p a i n t i n g i s u s e f u l s i n c e i t s u g g e s t s t h a t the,poem's s a t i r i c a l message, l i k e p a i n t i n g , m i r r o r s a c t u a l i t y , t h a t i t i s as b e l i e v a b l e and r e a l as p a i n t e d r e a l i t y . T h i s k i n d of p i c t o r i a l i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . The f i n a l s t r a i n t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d o c t r i n e of e x p r e s s i o n seen b e f o r e i n P l u t a r c h and P h i l o s t r a t u s , and i m p o r t a n t a d u r i n g t h e - R e n a i s s a n c e when t h e g r e a t power of p a i n t i n g was u n d e r s t o o d t o be t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l d a t a t o e x p r e s s c h a r a c t e r , i n t e n t i o n , o r m o r a l i t y . I n t h e c e n t u r y o f L e l y ' s and Van Dyck's p o r t r a i t s i t was a l s o w i d e l y f e l t t h a t p a i n t i n g , though l i m i t e d t o t h e v i s i b l e , c o u l d r e v e a l t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and t h e m o r a l , t h a t i t .demonstrated f o r t h e p o e t t h e r e v e l a t i o n of i n n e r r e a l i t y . L o v e l a c e , f o r example., found L e l y ' s a r t s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t a t e s of mind. I n t h e poem t o h i s f r i e n d L e l y on "That E x c e l l e n t P i c t u r e " of t h e K i n g and t h e Duke of Y o r k "Drawne By Him A t Hampton-Court," L o v e l a c e r e j e c t s t h e o l d , c r u d e " h i e r o g l y p h i c k s " of t h e n a i v e s y m b o l i s m i n w h i c h " o n l y a b l a c k b e a r d c r i e d v i l l a i n e " and e x t o l s L y l y ' s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e o u t e r " c o l o u r " w i t h t h e i n n e r " f l a m e " : Thou s o r r o w c a n s t d e s i g n e w i t h o u t a t e a r e , And w i t h t h e man h i s v e r y hope o r f e a r e ; So that th' amazed world shall henceforth finde None but my L i l l y ever drew a minde.35 Inspired by painters, poets thus seem "to have taken large strides to-ward rejecting the metaphysically hieroglyphic and recommending the 36 naturally symbolic." Lovelace anticipates the simple, naturalistic icon of the next century which was to express psychological and moral truth without violating natural resemblance. 29 FOOTNOTES T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y account i s l a r g e l y based on the abundant h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d i n Jean- Hagstrum's The S i s t e r A r t s : The  T r a d i t i o n of L i t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P o e t r y From Dryden to  Gray (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1968) , chaps. 1-4. Less comprehensive statements on the development of ut p i c t u r a p o e s i s i n c l u d e W. G. Howard, "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " PMLA, XXIV (1909) , 40-123; C i c e l y D a v i e s , "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " MLR, XXX (1935) , 159-169; and Rensse laer W. L e e , , " U t P i c t u r a P o e s i s : The Humanis t ic Theory of P a i n t i n g , " A r t B u l l e t i n , X X I I (1940), 197-269. 1448a-1448b, t r a n s . Ingram Bywater,- i n I n t r o d u c t i o n to  A r i s t o t l e , e d . R i c h a r d McKeon, The Modern L i b r a r y , ( N e w Y o r k : Random House, 1940), p . 626. 3 1 5 , 1454b-1455a, i b i d . , p . 644. 4 T r a n s . Edward Henry B lakeney , i n The Complete Works of Horace , e d . Caspar J . Kraemer, The Modern L i b r a r y (New Y o r k : Random House, 1936), p . 409. . 5 I b i d . , p . 397. M o r a l i a , 17 f -18a , t r a n s . Frank Cole B a b b i t t , i n P l u t a r c h ' s  M o r a l i a , Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y (London: Heinemann, 1960-69) , I , 91 , 93 . 7 M o r a l i a , 346f . g P l u t a r c h ' s L i v e s E n g l i s h e d by S i r Thomas N o r t h , e d . W. H . D. Rouse, The Temple P l u t a r c h (London: Dent , 1899), V I I , 2 - 3 . 9 On the Subl ime, x v , 2 , t r a n s . W. Rhys Rober t s , , i n Longinus on  the Sublime (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1899), p . 85 . Hagstrum ( S i s t e r A r t s , p . 12) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between A r i s t o t -e l i a n e n e r g e i a and P l u t a r c h a n e n a r g e i a : " P o e t r y possesses e n e r g e i a  w h e n . i t has achieved i t s f i n a l form and produces i t s proper p l e a s u r e , -when i t has achieved i t s own independent be ing q u i t e apar t from i t s a n a l o g i e s w i t h nature or another a r t , and when i t operates as an a u t o n -omous form w i t h an e f f e c t i v e working power of i t s own. But P l u t a r c h , Horace , and the l a t e r H e l l e n i s t i c and Roman c r i t i c s found p o e t r y e f f e c -t i v e when i t achieved v e r i s i m i l i t u d e — w h e n i t resembled na ture or a p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t u r e . For P l u t a r c h i a n e n a r g e i a , the analogy w i t h p a i n t i n g i s i m p o r t a n t ; f o r A r i s t o t e l i a n e n e r g e i a , i t i s n o t . " 30 ^ O n t h e S u b l i m e , x v , 7, R o b e r t s , p. 89. "^"4)e anima, 428b-429b, t r a n s . J . A. S m i t h , i n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  A r i s t o t l e , ed. R i c h a r d McKeon, pp. 216-217. 12 De o r a t o r e , I I I , 160-161, i n C i c e r o : De o r a t o r e , t r a n s . H. Rackham (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , I I , 125, 127. 13 P l i n y and C i c e r o , f o r example, f u r n i s h v e r s i o n s o f t h e t a l e . See The E l d e r P l i n y ' s C h a p t e r s on t h e H i s t o r y o f A r t , t r a n s . K. J e x - B l a k e (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1 8 9 6 ) , p. 109; and t h e "Second T r e a t i s e on R h e t o r i c a l I n v e n t i o n , " I I , 1., t r a n s . C. D. -Yonge, i n O r a t i o n s (London, 1 8 9 4 ) , . I V , 308. 14 Hagstrum, S i s t e r A r t s , p. 16. 1 5 X V I I I , 474-607. Hagstrum (p. 18, n. 34) j u s t i f i e s t h e a p p l i -c a t i o n o f t h e a d j e c t i v e " i c o n i c " t o v e r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e a l o r im a g i n e d a r t o b j e c t s by t h e p r e c e d e n t o f L u c i a n and P h i l o s t r a t u s , who r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r p r o s e works i n t h i s c a t e g o r y as e i k o n e s . 16 H. J . Rose (A Handbook of Greek L i t e r a t u r e From Homer t o t h e Age o f L u c i a n , New Y o r k : D u t t o n , .1960, pp. 347-350) b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A n t h o l o g y , i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s , t h e k i n d s and f a s h i o n s of i t s e p i g r a m s . "*"7The i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e s t o n e over Shakespeare's g r a v e u t t e r s t h e famous w a r n i n g : GOOD FREND FOR IESVS SAKE FORBEARE, TO DIGG THE DVST ENCLOASED HEARE! BLESTE BE YE MAN YT SPARES THES STONES, AND CURST BE.HE'YT MOVES MY BONES. The words on t h e t a b l e t c o n t a i n i n g h i s b u s t a l s o speak t o t h e p a s s e r b y : STAY PASSENGER, WHY GOEST THOV BY SO FAST? READ I F THOV CANST, WHOM ENVIOVS DEATH HATH PLAST, , WITH IN THIS M0NVMENT SHAKSPEARE . . . The i n s c r i p t i o n s b orne by t h e " f u r n i t u r e " , o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e gardens a r e d i s c u s s e d i n B. Sprague A l l e n ' s T i d e s i n E n g l i s h  T a s t e (1619-1800): A Background f o r t h e Study o f L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Rowman and L i t t l e f i e l d , 1 9 6 9 ) , I I , 160-169. 18 The Greek A n t h o l o g y , t r a n s . W. H. P a t o n (London: Heinemann, 1916-1925) , 111, 395, 399. 31 19 I n one example ( A n a c r e o n t i c s 28, t r a n s . Thomas S t a n l e y , i n The Greek P o e t s , ed. Moses Hadas, The Modern L i b r a r y , New Y o r k : Random House, 1953, pp. 191-192) t h e po e t r e q u e s t s t h e p a i n t e r t o "come, my a b s e n t m i s t r e s s t a k e , / As I s h a l l d e s c r i b e h e r , " t h e i c o n i c d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e d p a i n t i n g b e i n g a t t h e same ti m e a l y r i c a l t r i b u t e t o t h e b e a u t y of t h e m i s t r e s s . A good example of A n a c r e o n t i c i m i t a t i o n i s t h e E a r l o f R o c h e s t e r ' s poem, "Upon D r i n k i n g i n a B o w l " ( S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P r o s e  and P o e t r y , eds. A l e x a n d e r M. W i t h e r s p o o n and F r a n k J . Warnke, 2nd ed.. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and W o r l d , 1963, p. 1 0 4 9 ) , whose f i r s t s t a n z a r e a d s : V u l c a n , c o n t r i v e me such a cup As N e s t o r used of o l d : Show a l l t h y s k i l l t o t r i m i t up, Damask i t round w i t h g o l d . 20 A e n e i d , I , 446-493; V I I I , 626-731; S a t y r j c d n , 83, 88, 89; Metamorphoses, I I , 1-30; V I , 1-145. 21 H. J . Rose, A,Handbook o f L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e From t h e E a r l i e s t  Times t o t h e Death o f S t . A u g u s t i n e (New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 227. 22 F o r t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a r y w o r k s , i n c l u d i n g t h e "two c o l l e c t i o n s o f d e s c r i p t i o n s of p i c t u r e s , p r o b a b l y i m a g i n a r y , " among the f o u r men who b o r e t h e name " P h i l o s t r a t u s , " see H. J . Rose, A Hand- book^ of Greek L i t e r a t u r e , p. 403. Of t h e d o c t r i n e of e x p r e s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o P h i l o s t r a t u s , Hagstrum a s s e r t s ( p . 31) t h a t "none b e f o r e and few s i n c e have so s t r i k i n g l y e x p l o i t e d t h e d o c t r i n e of e x p r e s s i o n as a means of making . g r a p h i c v a l u e a v a i l a b l e t o l i t e r a r y a r t ; " P h i l o s t r a t u s " t r e a t e d v i s u a l a r t as_ l i t e r a t u r e ; and t h a t i s a f i r s t s t e p a b s o l u t e l y r e q u i s i t e t o . the s e c o n d , t h a t o f u s i n g g r a p h i c a r t i n l i t e r a t u r e . " 23 C. S. L e w i s , The A l l e g o r y o f Love: A Study i n M e d i e v a l  T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 113. 2 4 I b i d . , pp. 44-45. 25 Hagstrum (pp. 59-62) t r a c e s t h e c h a n g i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e p h r a s e u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s , "one.of t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d t e x t s o f a n c i e n t c r i t i c i s m , " f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d t o t h e t i m e of t h e "dogmatic i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n " ' o f t h e p h r a s e i n R e n a i s s a n c e c r i t i c a l t h e o r y . W i l l i a m G u i l d Howard, "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " PMLA, XXIV ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 43. 32 27 Timber:.Or D i s c o v e r i e s Made Upon Men and M a t t e r , i n S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P r o s e and P o e t r y , eds. W i t h e r s p o o n and Warnke, p. 121. I b i d . 29 An A p o l o g y f o r P o e t r y , i n C r i t i c i s m : The M a j o r T e x t s , ed. W a l t e r J a c k s o n B a t e (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace,.and W o r l d , 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 86, 89. 30 1374, 1447, i n Shakespeare: The Complete Works, ed. G. B. H a r r i s o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and W o r l d , 1952), pp. 1577, 1578. 3 1 I I I , 2, 116-119, 129-130, i b i d . , p. 599. 32 "Baroque A r t and t h e Emblem," W i t h e r s p o o n and Warnke, p.. 1081. 3 3 I b i d . , , p . 1078. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 929.• 35 L u c a s t a : The Poems o f R i c h a r d L o v e l a c e , I n t r o . W i l l i a m Lyon . P h e l p s ( C h i c a g o : Caxton. C l u b , . 1 9 2 1 ) , I , 123. 36 Hagstrum, p. 122. CHAPTER I I THE SISTER ARTS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The-genealogy o f u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s t r a c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r r e v e a l s t h a t l i t e r a r y p i c t o r i a l i s m i s n o t an i s o l a t e d phenomenon l i m i t e d t o one p e r i o d o r . l i t e r a r y g e n r e . A l o n g - f l o u r i s h i n g t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n t h e h i s t o r y of p o e t r y , i t had e x h i b i t e d from t h e t i m e o f i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n e a r l y a n t i q u i t y u n t i l t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y many changes i n t h e a r t o f c o n s t r u c t i n g p o e t i c i c o n s . Of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e among t h e s e numerous m o d i f i c a t i o n s were two a n t i t h e t i c a l v e r b a l i c o n s t h a t a r o s e i n r e s p o n s e t o g r e a t , a l t e r n a t i n g s h i f t s i n s o c i a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c h i s t o r y . These i c o n s , c e n t r a l t o t h e h i s t o r y of u t  p i c t u r a p o e s i s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c p r a c -t i c e o f a n t i q u i t y and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , whose p i c t o r i a l image was c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by t h e r h e t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l i d e a of e n a r g e i a , . o r v i v i d l i f e l i k e n e s s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; , a n d by the m e d i e v a l , and l a t e r t h e b a r o q u e , tendency t o d i s s o c i a t e t h e p i c t o r i a l f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l and n a t u r a l , i n o r d e r t o i n t e g r a t e i t w i t h t h e i m m a t e r i a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l . The imagery o f A u g u s t a n p o e t r y , v i e w e d a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , f a l l s i n t o t h e p i c t o r i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e t i m e s . The E n g l i s h e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , l i k e t h e I t a l i a n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c c o n t e m p l a t i o n of n a t u r e . Leonardo da V i n c i was t r a n s l a t e d and t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l m i r r o r a p p l i e d t o l i t e r a t u r e . I n i t s b a s i c r e a l i s m , i t s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f n a t u r e , and t h e 33 34 new degree of i n t i m a c y i t e s t a b l i s h e d between p a i n t e r and p o e t , t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o l l o w e d t h e t r a d i t i o n of H o r a c e , P l u t a r c h , and C i c e r o , o f I t a l i a n c r i t i c s l i k e Leon B a t t i s t i A l b e r t i y and I t a l i a n p a i n t e r s l i ke Leonardo."^ But A u g u s t a n p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m was n o t s i m p l y an e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y c o n t i n u a t i o n of R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l i s m . F o r a l t h o u g h neo-c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e and w i t h " c o r r e c t n e s s , " and was opposed t o t h e i n e l e g a n c e and u n n a t u r a l n e s s of s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y emblematic e x p r e s s i o n , i t s p i c t o r i a l imagery was n o n e t h e l e s s a f f e c t e d by t h e . c u l t u r e , of t h e baroque p e r i o d i n t e r v e n i n g between i t and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . D e s p i t e t h e h o s t i l i t y of t h e E n l i g h t e n -ment towards what C. S. L e w i s has termed " s a c r a m e n t a l i s m , " t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e baroque a r t of t h e , s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o d i f i e d t h e p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s of n e o - c l a s s i c a l imagery and p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t . i n s h a p i n g t h e i c o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e . How A u g u s t a n p i c t o r i a l i s m d e v e l o p e d upon t h e f o u n d a t i o n of p r e -c e d i n g t r a d i t i o n i s b e s t shown by o u t l i n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l developments t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p i c t o r i a l s t a n d a r d s and models of t h e p e r i o d , and by g l a n c i n g a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l b a ckground of n e o - c l a s s i c i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t two c e n t r a l meanings a t t a c h e d t o t h a t "most, p r e g n a n t word i n t h e 2 t e r m i n o l o g y of a l l t h e n o r m a t i v e p r o v i n c e s o f t h o u g h t i n t h e West," t h e word " n a t u r e . " ' These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e b a s i c t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i s m , and a d i s c u s s i o n of them, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t a s t e i n p a i n t i n g , w i l l l a r g e l y 3 c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u s i n e s s of t h i s c h a p t e r . 35 U n t i l t h e a c c e s s i o n o f C h a r l e s I t o t h e t h r o n e i n 1625 t h e . c o n -d i t i o n o f t h e g r a p h i c a r t s i n E n g l a n d remained c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n d e v e l o p e d . Under t h e p a t r o n a g e o f C h a r l e s , however, p a i n t i n g was encouraged and a r o y a l c o l l e c t i o n b u i l t up ( l a t e r s o l d t o pay o f f d e b t s ) . C h a r l e s de-l i g h t e d i n d i s p l a y i n g t o f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t h e m a s t e r p i e c e s h i s ag e n t s had p r o c u r e d f o r h i m i n Eur o p e ; i t has been s a i d o f him t h a t he "might 4 have made an e x c e l l e n t I t a l i a n Duke." He i n d u c e d Van Dyck t o come t o En g l a n d and i s th u s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e famous p o r t r a i t u r e t h a t a l m o s t merged w i t h t h e . n a t i v e B r i t i s h movement (some o f Van Dyck's most famous works " c r e a t i n g a model t h a t l a s t e d u n t i l t h e end o f t h e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n . of E n g l i s h p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g , t h r o u g h Dobson, L e l y , R e y n o l d s , . a n d G a i n s b o r o u g h t o Lawrence")."' And i n c o m m i s s i o n i n g Rubens' work i n t h e B a n q u e t i n g House i n W h i t e h a l l . (Rubens' o n l y s u r v i v i n g c e i l i n g ) , C h a r l e s i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o E n g l a n d o f t h e g r a n d i o s e s t y l e o f t h e C o n t i n e n t a l blaroque. D u r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l began t o i n c r e a s e and t h e r o u t e o f t h e Grand Tour e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f . The peace t r e a t y w i t h S p a i n . i n 1604 n o r m a l i z e d r e l a t i o n s and t h e r e a f t e r t h e E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r c o u l d v i s i t I t a l y s a f e l y and c o n t e m p l a t e i t s R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque wonders w i t h o u t f e a r . By m i d - c e n t u r y one o f ' t h e s e t r a v e l l e r s , J o h n E v e l y n , was a d m i r i n g and p r a i s i n g i n h i s D i a r y t h e work o f such I t a l i a n a r t i s t s as R a p h a e l , L e o n a r d o , M i c h e l a n g e l o , C o r r e g g i o , t h e C a r r a c c i , Guido R e n i , A r p i n o , C a r a v a g g i o , B e r n i n i , T i t i a n , T i n t o r e t t o , V e r o n e s e , and B e l l i n i . The i n f l u e n c e o f c l a s s i c a l p r e c e d e n t i n l i t e r a t u r e a l s o advanced 36 an awareness of p a i n t i n g and i t s a p p r e c i a t i o n i n c u l t i v a t e d s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y E n g l i s h m e n . P h i l o s t r a t u s was q u o t e d , and P l i n y ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e h i s t o r y of a r t showed t h e c l a s s i c a l r e a d e r t h a t a n c i e n t Rome had p o s s e s s e d and been c o n s c i o u s of an a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . I n f l u e n t i a l examples o f I t a l i a n p i c t o r i a l i s m were a l s o known i n t h e c e n t u r y ; M a r v e l l ' s poem, "The G a l l e r y , " was i n f l u e n c e d . I n t i t l e and form (a d e s -c r i p t i o n of p i c t u r e s hung i n a g a l l e r y ) by t h e G a l e r i a ^ o f t h e N e a p o l i t a n p o e t , G i a m b a t t i s t a M a r i n o , whose c o l l e c t i o n o f i c o n i c p o e t r y was l a r g e l y d e v o t e d t o d e s c r i p t i o n s of ; r e a l p a i n t i n g s . M a r i n o ' s work r e v e a l e d a new, baroque r e l a t i o n s h i p between poet and a r t o b j e c t i n w h i c h t h e i c o n r e p -r e s e n t e d a k i n d of o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r t h e e m o t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e poem. A l s o known was t h e L i v e s of t h e I t a l i a n N e o p l a t o n i s t c r i t i c , . G i o v a n n i P i e t r o ' B e l l o r i , - . a work w h i c h d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e 8 L i v e s of G i o r g i o V a s a r i . F o r V a s a r i , who was known i n t h e e a r l i e r s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h r o u g h I t a l i a n and F r e n c h v e r s i o n s and l a t e r i n an 9 a b b r e v i a t e d E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , v e r y seldom made use o f p o e t r y i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s of p a i n t i n g s and works of. a r t , w h i l e B e l l o r i (and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , o t h e r I t a l i a n c r i t i c s , , s u c h as C a r l o R i d o l f i and F e l i p p o B a l d i n u c c i ) looked, upon p a i n t i n g s as m o r a l o r l i t e r a r y t e x t s m a n i f e s t i n g s u p e r s e n s o r y o r r e l i g i o u s meaning. B e l l o r i , as i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e . l i m i t a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l a r t s as a baroque a r t i s t , , combined v e r b a l and g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n and saw a p r o f o u n d a s s o c i a t i o n between . poetry, and p a i n t i n g . N o n e t h e l e s s , , i t was t h e u n p i c t o r i a l i s t V a s a r i r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e o t h e r I t a l i a n c r i t i c s and h i s t o r i a n s , of a r t who was most i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n t r o d u c i n g t o E n g l a n d , as t h e g r e a t e s t . a c h i e v e m e n t 37 i n t h e h i s t o r y o f g r a p h i c a r t , t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e i n I t a l y . T hat p o e t s i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a i d t r i b u t e t o w e l l -known p a i n t e r s has a l r e a d y been shown i n t h e c i t a t i o n f r o m L o v e l a c e ' s poem t o L e l y . S i m i l a r t r i b u t e s and t h e f r i e n d s h i p s formed between p o e t and p a i n t e r h e l p e d t o e l e v a t e the" p r e s t i g e o f p a i n t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s t h a t would e x i s t between t h e s i s t e r a r t s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L e l y , was a d d i t i o n a l l y a c c o r d e d p r a i s e by h i s 11 12 f r i e n d C h a r l e s C o t t o n . W a l l e r w r o t e a poem e u l o g i z i n g Van Dyke; and H e r r i c k , i n l i n e s a d d r e s s e d t o h i s nephew, a p a i n t e r , l i s t e d a s e r i e s o f names w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h e emergence o f , a n a r t i s t i c h i e r a r c h y : On, as t h o u h a s t begunne, b r a v e y o u t h , and g e t The Palme f r o m U r b i n , T i t i a n , , T i n t a r r e t , B r u g e l and C o x i e , and t h e workes o u t - d o e , Of H o l b e n , -and t h a t m i g h t y Ruben t o o . So draw, and p a i n t , as none may do t h e l i k e , No, n o t t h e g l o r y o f t h e W o r l d , V a n d i k e . 1 3 D u r i n g t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e r o y a l c o l l e c t i o n s , i n a u g u r a t e d d u r -i n g t h e r e i g n o f C h a r l e s I , c o n t i n u e d t o grow, and t h e s c a l e o f p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i n g e n l a r g e d i t s e l f . a s , i n c r e a s i n g l y , p i c t u r e s were a c q u i r e d by-a r i s t o c r a t s l i k e t h e Dukes of Buckingham, D e v o n s h i r e , G r a f t o n , and L a u d e r d a l e , and t h e E a r l s o f E s s e x , A r l i n g t o n , R u t l a n d , and S u n d e r l a n d ; by commoners l i k e W i l l i a m C a r t w r i g h t , - D r . W a l t e r C h a r l e t o n , S i r F r a n c i s C h i l d , S i r W i l l i a m C o v e n t r y , Roger N o r t h , and S i r W i l l i a m Temple; and 14 by p a i n t e r s s u c h as S i r P e t e r L e l y and P r o s p e r Henry L a n k r i n c k . Toward t h e end of t h e c e n t u r y C h a r l e s A l p h o n s e D u f r e s n o y ' s 1637 L a t i n poem, De_ a r t e g r a p h i c a , h a v i n g been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h p r o s e 38 and p r o v i d e d w i t h n o t e s by Roger de P i l e s , was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o E n g l a n d by Dryden. Dryden's 1695 t r a n s l a t i o n was p r e f a c e d by h i s own " P a r a l l e l o f P o e t r y and P a i n t i n g , " w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f D u f r e s n o y and t h e n o t e s of t h e i n f l u e n t i a l Roger de P i l e s , "forms f o r us E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e t h e h a n d i e s t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h a t l o n g - l i v e d e s t h e t i c t h e o r y founded upon t h e p r o p o s i t i o n U t p i c t u r a p o e s i s . " 1 " ' The s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y developments w h i c h were l e a d i n g t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c r i t e r i o n o f a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e a l s o paved t h e way f o r t h e c o n g e n i a l r e c e p t i o n g i v e n D u f r e s n o y ' s poem, a work w h i c h t r a n s -m i t t e d t o E n g l i s h m e n a knowledge o f I t a l i a n a r t t h r o u g h t h e medium o f F r e n c h c r i t i c i s m . I n h i s o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h D u f r e s n o y quotes Simonides and H o r a c e , s a y i n g , i n Dryden's t r a n s l a t i o n , . t h a t P a i n t i n g and Poesy a r e two s i s t e r s , w h i c h a r e so l i k e i n a l l t h i n g s , t h a t t h e y m u t u a l l y l e n d t o each o t h e r b o t h t h e i r name and o f f i c e . . One i s c a l l e d a dumb p o e s y , and t h e o t h e r a s p e a k i n g p i c t u r e . . . . t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h t h e p o e t s have thought unworthy of t h e i r p e n s , t h e p a i n t e r s have j u d g e d t o be unworthy of t h e i r p e n c i l s . I n j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r t h e two most famous a n c i e n t t e x t s on t h e r e l a t i o n s between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y and a t t r i b u t i n g t o b o t h a r t s a commonness o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , D u f r e s n o y r e v e a l s an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e meaning o f u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s e x c e e d i n g even t h a t a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . A l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e f i r s t l i n e o f h i s poem, whose dogmatic q u a l i t y i s s o f t e n e d by Dryden's a b o v e - c i t e d t r a n s l a t i o n , r e a d s : "As a p i c t u r e , so a poem w i l l be; l i k e w i s e l e t a p a i n t i n g be s i m i l a r t o n l 7 p o e t r y . Dryden's " P a r a l l e l o f P o e t r y a n d ' P a i n t i n g " r e f l e c t s t h e e x i s t e n c e 39 o f a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n a l t a s t e i n p a i n t i n g by r e f e r r i n g t o H o l b e i n , Rubens, Van Dyck, M i c h e l a n g e l o , R a p h a e l , T i t i a n , P o u s s i n , and C o r r e g g i o . B e s i d e s d r a w i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l a n a l o g y between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y , t h e " P a r a l l e l " a l s o e l a b o r a t e s m e c h a n i c a l l y c e r t a i n a r t i f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between t h e two a r t s . E lements o f p a i n t i n g s u c h as i n v e n t i o n , - d i s p o s i t i o n , d e s i g n , and c o l o u r , a r e made ana l o g o u s t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g e l e m e n t s i n p o e t r y . T hus,.to D r y d e n , e x p r e s s i o n i n p o e t r y ( d i c t i o n , v e r s i f i c a t i o n , metaphor, s i m i l e , and " a l l t h e o t h e r e l e g a n c i e s of sound") e x e c u t e s e x a c t l y t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t c o l o u r does i n p a i n t i n g . E x p r e s s i o n i n p o e t r y , l i k e c o l o u r on d e s i g n , i s a p p l i e d a f t e r m o r a l , 19 f a b l e , o r p l o t have been p l a n n e d . S i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n of an i d e a l of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e meant t h a t t h e r e was now a model f o r p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y t o f o l l o w , t h e renewed demand t h a t p o e t r y f o l l o w p a i n t i n g made more sense t o E n g l i s h m e n t h a n e v e r be-f o r e . K n owledgeable i n t e r e s t i n D u f r e s n o y ' s poem became a s i g n " b e t r a y -i n g t h e presence, o f p i c t o r i a l i s t t h e o r y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a p e r i o d i n w h i c h " t h e c u r v e of D u f r e s n o y ' s p o p u l a r i t y c o r r e s - " 20 ponded t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y of t h e ;views h i s o p e n i n g l i n e s e x p r e s s . " Dryden's t r a n s l a t i o n was f o l l o w e d by Defoe's i n 1720; W r i g h t ' s i n 1728; James W e l l s ' i n 1765; and W i l l i a m Mason's i n 1783, w i t h n o t e s by J o s h u a R e y n o l d s . The poem was a l s o admired by S h a f t e s b u r y , Pope, G r a y , and Johnson (who used i t o f t e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f p a i n t i n g i n h i s D i c t i o n a r y ) . The s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a c t i v i t i e s and t e n d e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t a s t e i n p a i n t i n g s h a r e d by D r y d e n , Pope, and Thomson, t h e i r 40 c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and f o l l o w e r s , " i n t e n s i f i e d d u r i n g t h e A u g u s t a n age. F o r e i g n t r a v e l expanded g r e a t l y , t ogether, w i t h t h e o u t p u t o f a s s o c i a t e d g u i d e b o o k s and d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t s ; t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e t o u r s t a k e n by A d d i s o n , Thomson, and Gray i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . C o l l e c t i n g became w i d e -s p r e a d ; p o e t s were l i k e l y t o p o s s e s s p r i n t s , e n g r a v i n g s , perhaps even some o r i g i n a l o i l s . The a r t c o l l e c t i o n s of P r i o r , B u r k e , and Thomson, f o r example, c o n t r i b u t e t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r t a s t e and t h a t of t h e age. The r i s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of t r e a t i s e s on t h e a r t s h e l p e d s p r e a d t h e knowledge of p a i n t i n g abroad and p r o p a g a t e d more and more w i d e l y 21 t h e b e l i e f t h a t p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g were s i s t e r - a r t s . E i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y p o e t s were f r e q u e n t l y on t h e b e s t o f terms w i t h p a i n t e r s , numbering them sometimes among t h e i r c l o s e s t f r i e n d s . On o c c a s i o n , l i k e Pope, t h e y even p a i n t e d , canvases t h e m s e l v e s , t r y i n g t h e i r own hand a t t h e s i s t e r a r t . They were l i k e l y t o have seen some o f t h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e o r baroque p a i n t i n g s and s t a t u a r y of I t a l y , and t o be con-v e r s a n t w i t h t h e h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m of a r t , o r a t l e a s t w i t h i t s l e a d i n g m a s t e r s and s c h o o l s , and w i t h i t s t e r m i n o l o g y . P a r t i c i p a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p o f t h e age, t h e y t o o k f o r g r a n t e d a s i m i l a r degree of a r t i s t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e i r r e a d e r s , assuming on t h e i r b e h a l f a knowledge of g r a p h i c a r t beyond what p o e t s c o u l d have e x p e c t e d i n any p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . The new degree of knowledge, a p p r e c i a t i o n , and l o v e o f p a i n t i n g shown by a l l t h e s e developments r e -f l e c t e d i t s e l f most c l e a r l y i n t h e p e r v a s i v e custom o f e m p l o y i n g t h e terms o f p a i n t i n g i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , r e f e r r i n g t o p o e t s as p a i n t e r s , and s e e i n g p o e t r y as a f o r m o f p a i n t i n g . T h i s h a b i t became more 41 w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . The p r a c t i c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g p o e t r y i n terms o f p a i n t i n g was n o t unknown i n c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e c r i t i c i s m , b u t now i t was common whereve r p o e t r y was d i s c u s s e d . L o r d C h e s t e r f i e l d recommended A r i o s t o t o h i s son because " h i s p a i n t i n g i s e x c e l l e n t , " and Gray s a i d 22 of Shakespeare t h a t " e v e r y word i n him i s a p i c t u r e . " ' The c r i t i c s echoed t h e t h i n k i n g of Dryden's e a r l i e r comment t h a t " i m a g i n g i s . . -. t h e v e r y h e i g h t and l i f e o f p o e t r y " s i n c e i t "makes i t seem t o us t h a t 23 we b e h o l d t h o s e t h i n g s which, t h e p o e t p a i n t s . " They i l l u s t r a t e d t h e tendency t o a c t upon t h e i d e a o f u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s as though i t were a l a w , c o n s t a n t l y d r a w i n g o r i m p l y i n g t h e a n a l o g y between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y . J o s e p h Warton, d i s c u s s i n g Thomson's Seasons, p r a i s e s him f o r scenes t h a t a r e " f r e q u e n t l y as w i l d and r o m a n t i c as t h o s e o f S a l v a t o r . R o s a," s i n c e t h e y a r e " p l e a s i n g l y v a r i e d w i t h p r e c i p i c e s and t o r r e n t s , and ' c a s t l e d c l i f f s , ' and deep v a l l i e s , w i t h p i n y m o u n t a i n s , and t h e g l o o m i e s t c a v e r n s . " He l a u d s a Thomsonian "assemblage of c i r c u m s t a n c e s " as " f u l l , p a r t i c u l a r and p i c t u r e s q u e , " and i s p l e a s e d by a "groupe" so " m i n u t e l y d e l i n e a t e d " as t o be "worthy t h e . p e n c i l of Giacomo da B assano," 24 who "might have worked from t h i s s k e t c h . " Warton's E s s a y i s crowded w i t h s i m i l a r examples. Thomas Warton f e l t " t h a t M i l t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of M i c h a e l as an armed a n g e l must have d e r i v e d from, an I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g "and p a r t i c u l a r l y one by R a p h a e l , where M i c h a e l , ;.clad i n c e l e s t i a l p a n o p l y , t r i u m p h s o v e r S a t a n c h a i n e d . " N i c h o l s remarked of F i e l d i n g t h a t " h i s works e x h i b i t , a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s drawn w i t h a l l t h e d e s c r i p -t i v e f i d e l i t y o f a H o g a r t h . " G o l d s m i t h compared t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f 42 A d d i s o n ' s Cato w i t h t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f P o u s s i n , s e e i n g b o t h as drawn f a u l t l e s s l y f r o m t h e a n t i q u e . And Webb, a f t e r q u o t i n g a passage f r o m t h e A e n e i d . ( I , 590) ,'• w h i c h e x p r e s s e d t h e " f i n e s t e f f e c t o f c l e a r o b s c u r e t h a t perhaps e v e r e n t e r e d i n t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f e i t h e r p o e t o r p a i n t e r added t h a t " t h e poet must have had i n h i s eye 25 some c e l e b r a t e d p i c t u r e i n t h i s s t y l e . " J u s t as f u r t h e r examples beyond D u f r e s n o y and Dryden m i g h t be, c i t e d t o show d e t a i l e d p a r a l l e l s a t t r i b u t i n g t o p o e t r y t h e same p r i n -c i p l e s o f d e s i g n as p a i n t i n g , so a h o s t o f i n s t a n c e s m i g h t a d d i t i o n a l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e custom i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m o f r e g a r d i n g poems as p i c t u r e s i n words. Of t h e s e , one o r two i n d i c a t i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y c a p a c i t y t o evoke f u l l - b l o w n p i c t o r i a l scenes from t h e b a r e s t of v i s u a l h i n t s m i g h t u s e f u l l y be c i t e d . J o s e p h Warton p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example. D i s c u s s i n g Dryden's "Song f o r S t . C e c i l i a ' s Day" ( 1 8 6 7 ) , he quotes t h e one s t a n z a i n t h e poem c o n t a i n i n g a degree o f p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i v e n e s s : What P a s s i o n cannot MUSICK r a i s e and q u e l l ! When J u b a l s t r u c k t h e co r d e d S h e l l , H i s l i s t ' n i n g B r e t h r e n s t o o d around And w o n d ' r i n g , on t h e i r f a c e s f e l l To w o r s h i p t h a t C e l e s t i a l Sound.26 Warton's r e s p o n s e t o t h i s s l i g h t p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i o n i s s u r p r i s i n g l y i n v e n t i v e : T h i s i s so complete and e n g a g i n g a h i s t o r y - p i e c e , t h a t I knew a p e r s o n o f t a s t e who was r e s o l v e d t o have i t e x e c u t e d , i f an a r t i s t c o u l d have been f o u n d , on one s i d e o f h i s s a l l . o o n . I n w h i c h c a s e , s a i d h e , t h e p a i n t e r has n o t h i n g t o do, b u t t o s u b s t i t u t e c o l o u r s f o r w o r d s , t h e d e s i g n b e i n g f i n i s h e d t o h i s h a n d s . ^ 43 The J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n s e x h i b i t t h e same r e m a r k a b l e r e s p o n s e t o s l i g h t v i s u a l h i n t s . The younger R i c h a r d s o n , who f e l t t h a t t h e p l e a s u r e s o f p o e t r y l a y i n " t h e g e t t i n g a f i n e c o l l e c t i o n o f m e n t a l p i c t u r e s , " i n " f u r n i s h i n g t h e mind w i t h p l e a s i n g images," quotes p a ssages o f p o e t r y f e l t by him t o y i e l d c l e a r and complete '.'mental p i c t u r e s " i n " t h e 28 Parmeggiano and i n t h e R a f a e l l e t a s t e . " These p a s s a g e s , however, drawn from t h e p o e t r y o f M i l t o n , who c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y combines, v i s u a l e l e ments w i t h u n p i c t o r i a l s e n s a t i o n s o f l i g h t , s p a c e , and t h e m a r v e l l o u s , m e r e l y d e m o n s t r a t e R i c h a r d s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e d u c e t h e r i c h n e s s of . M i l t o n ' s c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n g r e d i e n t s , v i s u a l and n o n - v i s u a l , t o s i m p l e p i c t u r e s . I n t h e i r E x p l a n a t o r y Notes and Remarks on M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t t h e two R i c h a r d s o n s s i m i l a r l y d e c l a r e t h a t t h e p r o p e r r e s p o n s e t o M i l t o n ' s p o e t r y l e a d s t o "a W e l l - C h o s e n C o l l e c t i o n o f P o e t i c a l P i c t u r e s , " and t h e y comment i n t h e same s p i r i t on passages f r o m h i s work: "a W o n d e r f u l p i c t u r e , " "Here i s an amazing P i c t u r e , " " I w i s h R a f a e l l e had 29 a t t e m p t e d t h i s . " The f o r e g o i n g examples o f p o e t r y c o n s i d e r e d as p a i n t i n g i n d i -c a t e t h e i n t i m a c y e x i s t i n g between t h e s i s t e r a r t s , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e H o r a t i a n phrase. u± p i c t u r a p o e s i s s e r v e d as v i r t u a l command t o c r i t i c and p o e t , and t h e e l e v a t e d s t a t u s g a i n e d by p a i n t i n g i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . They c o n f i r m the. w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n o f an i d e a l s t a n d a r d o f performance and accomplishment i n t h e g r a p h i c a r t s , showing t h e r e b y t h a t p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y i n t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d , as opposed t o E n g l i s h m e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y , was n o t s u s t a i n e d by a n t e c e d e n t l i t e r a t u r e a l o n e o r p r i m a r i l y . F i n a l l y , t h e 44 examples c i t e d above s u g g e s t t h a t , t h e t a s t e f o r European p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e w h i c h now n o u r i s h e d p i c t o r i a l i s m i n p o e t r y was based s o l i d l y on an u n q u e s t i o n i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , as one of t h e g r e a t ages i n t h e h i s t o r y o f man. J o s e p h Warton d e s c r i b e d t h e p e r i o d o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e as t h e f o u r t h o f f i v e ages i n t h e w o r l d " i n w h i c h t h e human mind has e x e r t e d i t s e l f i n a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y manner; and i n w h i c h i t s p r o d u c t i o n s i n l i t e r a t u r e and t h e f i n e a r t s 30 have a r r i v e d a t a p e r f e c t i o n , n o t e q u a l l e d i n o t h e r p e r i o d s . " And Pope, i n a c o m p a c t l y e n t h u s i a s t i c p a s s a g e , e x t o l l e d t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e as an awakening o f t h e a r t s , o f a n t i q u i t y f r o m t h e i r m e d i e v a l slumber t o g r e a t and " g o l d e n " days: But s e e ! each Muse, i n Leo's G o l d e n Days, S t a r t s from h e r T r a n c e , and t r i m s h e r w i t h e r ' d Bays! Rome's a n c i e n t G e n i u s , o ' e r i t s R u i n s s p r e a d , Shakes o f f t h e D u s t , and r e a r s h i s r e v ' r e n d Head! Then S c u l p t u r e and h e r S j s t e r - A r t s r e v i v e ; Stones l e a p ' d to' Form, and Rocks began t o l i v e ; , W i t h s w e e t e r Notes each r i s i n g Temple r u n g ; A R a p h a e l p a i n t e d , and a V i d a sung!31 E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h t a s t e d i d n o t s e r i o u s l y c o n c e r n i t -s e l f w i t h e a r l y f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l i a n a r t i s t s l i k e M a s a c c i o and Do n a t e l l o . . These a r t i s t s were of i n t e r e s t , i f a t a l l , only, as t h e p r e d e c e s s o r s o f t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e , who,, i n t h e s t a n d a r d t a s t e , c o m p l e t e l y e c l i p s e d e a r l i e r R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r s and s c u l p t o r s . The most h i g h l y admired and a c c l a i m e d o f H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r s was R a p h a e l , t h e " d i v i n e p a i n t e r . " J o s e p h Warton speaks o f t h e "beauty and s u b l i m i t y o f h i s g e n i u s , " s a y i n g o f h i s V a t i c a n 45 f r e s c o e s t h a t t h e y a r e "worthy t h e g r e a t name he a t p r e s e n t so d e s e r -32 v e d l y p o s s e s s e s . " J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n p r a i s e s him as " t h e g r e a t model o f p e r f e c t i o n " and makes th e c l a i m t h a t , i f a l l t h e p a i n t e r s were g r o u p e d - i n t h r e e c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o m e r i t , R a p h a e l "must be a l l o w e d 33 t o p o s s e s s t h e f i r s t a l o n e . " T h i s homage, which, was n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l i n E n g l a n d , does n o t r e f l e c t i t s e l f i n t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e p a i n t i n g o f R a p h a e l and p i c t o r i a l i s m i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y . R a p h a e l ' s d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e i s l e s s t h a n t h a t of p a i n t e r s c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r t o him. H i s c l a s s i c i s m , h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n of f orm, and h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c s y m b o l i s m , though h i g h l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e l i t e r a r y v a l u e s of neo-c l a s s i c i s m , i n f l u e n c e d p o e t r y o n l y i n d i r e c t l y — t h r o u g h R aphaelesque p a i n t e r s l i k e C o r r e g g i o , G i u l i o Romano, and Guido R e n i . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s r e p u t a t i o n d e c l i n e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when i t was o f t e n f e l t t h a t h i s s t y l e was s t r a i n e d and h i s n a t u r a l i s m sometimes c r u d e , f l o r i d , o r g r o t e s q u e . L a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , however, h i s r e p u t a t i o n r e v i v e d . R e y n o l d s spoke of h i s "grandeur and s e v e r i t y " and r e g a r d e d him as t h e g r e a t e s t of a l l 34 a r t i s t s . B u r k e ' s protege", James B a r r y , a p a i n t e r o f t h e S u b l i m e , 35 became i n 1769 "a f u r i o u s e n t h u s i a s t f o r M i c h a e l A n g e l o , " a f a c t w h i c h c o n n e c t s M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s r i s e i n fame w i t h t h e growth of t h e B u r k e i a n S u b l i m e . • Leonardo was known and admired more f o r t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f h i s c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a n f o r h i s p a i n t i n g . Thanks t o h i s w r i t i n g , w h i c h was known i n t r a n s l a t i o n , he was r e g a r d e d as a "most > s i n g u l a r 36 I n s t a n c e of an U n i v e r s a l G e n i u s . " 46 T i t i a n , s t a n d i n g a t t h e head of t h e V e n e t i a n s c h o o l , - a p p e a l e d s t r o n g l y t o c o n n o i s s e u r s , c r i t i c s , and p o e t s , as d i d t h e V e n e t i a n s r a n k i n g a f t e r him. The a p p e a l o f T i t i a n , V e r o n e s e , T i n t o r e t t o , and t h e whole of t h e V e n e t i a n s c h o o l l a y i n t h e i r a l l u r i n g e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t i e s demanded by c r i t i c i s m , i n t h e i r v i v a c i o u s , s e n s u o u s , n a t u r a l -i s t i c r e n d e r i n g o f r e a l i t y . R e y n o l d s , . i t i s t r u e , found o n l y " f l o r i d e l o q u e n c e " i n t h e i r " s p l e n d i d o r - o r n a m e n t a l " s t y l e , t o w h i c h he opposed t h e i d e a l o f t h e " g r e a t " o r " g r a n d " s t y l e . But even he made an ex c e p -t i o n o f T i t i a n , who,."though h i s s t y l e i s n o t as pur e as t h a t o f many o t h e r o f t h e I t a l i a n s c h o o l s , " was exempted from condemnation by a " s o r t 37 of s e n a t o r i a l d i g n i t y " w h i c h "seems t o become him handsomely." The h i g h r e g a r d f o r t h e F l e m i s h a r t i s t Rubens, s i g n i f i e s a f u r t h e r , and e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t , a s p e c t o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t a s t e i n p a i n t i n g : t h e g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e baroque m a s t e r s o f t h e B o l o g n e s e school.. The g e n e r a l esteem f o r t h e C a r r a c c i , D o m e n i c h i n o , Guido R e n i , as w e l l as f o r o t h e r baroque a r t i s t s s u c h as C a r a v a g g i o , Rubens, and N i c o l a s P o u s s i n , n e a r l y r i v a l l e d t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e g r e a t p a i n t e r s o f t h e Renaissance'. E n g l i s h p o e t s , i n f a c t , were more l i k e l y t o be d i r e c t l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e B o l o g n e s e and o t h e r baroque . a r t i s t s t h a n t o R a p h a e l , -Leonardo, M i c h e l a n g e l o , o r T i t i a n . . Though E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c i s m was f u n d a m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d toward t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m e t a p h y s i c a l w i t i n p o e t r y and " s a c r a m e n t a l i s m " . i n a r t , i t s p o e t r y was n o n e t h e l e s s c l o s e r t o and s t r o n g l y , i n f l u e n c e d by t h e B o l o g n e s e " e c l e c t i c s " and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , who j o i n e d t h e c l a s s i c i s m o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e w i t h t h e 47 e x p r e s s i v e and h i g h l y c h a r g e d movement and energy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b a r o q u e . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a l u e s i n . t h e B o l o g n a o f t h e C a r r a c c i i s p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e London of Dryden and Pope. The c l a s s i c i s m o f P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e was accompanied by t h e baroque c h o i r s t a l l s c a r v e d i n S t . P a u l ' s by G r i n l i n g Gibbons and by t h e m a s s i v e , d r a m a t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e " B r i t i s h B e r n i n i , " Vanbrugh. N e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y r e f l e c t e d t h e s e opposed t e n d e n c i e s a s ' w e l l : t h e c l a s s i c a l Dryden w r o t e odes w i t h R u b e n s i a n v i s u a l i m a g e r y ; t h e a d m i r e r of R a p h a e l , Pope, was o f t e n r e m i n i s c e n t of A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i ; Thomson, who r e g a r d e d t h e R e n a i s s a n c e h i g h l y , depended on Guido R e n i r a t h e r t h a n R a p h a e l ; and Gray s e t h i s b o r r o w i n g s . f r o m R a p h a e l i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s of n a t u r e o r h e r o i c t a l e . ' " ^ The e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i d e a l of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e , t h e n , emphasized t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and c l a s s i c a l Rome, f e r t i l i z i n g t h e a n c i e n t c r i t i c a l d o c t r i n e o f u_t p i c t u r a  p o e s i s n o t o n l y w i t h i m p u l s e s f r o m R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t i n g b u t w i t h s u g -g e s t i v e i n f l u e n c e s from t h e p a i n t i n g o f p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e Europe as w e l l . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t o f f e r e d models, f o r p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m n o t ; o n l y i n a c t u a l p a i n t i n g s , p a i n t e r s , and s c h o o l s o f p a i n t i n g b u t a l s o i n t h e v e r y a r t "which i t r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e a r t of p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . The p i c t o r i a l image i n p o e t r y c o u l d r e s e m b l e p a i n t i n g , p a i n t e r , o r s c h o o l ; t h e p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e , t h e a r t of p a i n t i n g . P o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m as a t e c h n i q u e r e s e m b l i n g t h e a r t of p a i n t i n g can be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e l i g h t of what c r i t i c s and a e s t h e t i c i a n s f e l t t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g : i t s 48 a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e i t s e f f e c t s u d d e n l y , i n one r e v e a l i n g i n s t a n t . L e o n a r d o , a r g u i n g t h e s u p e r i o r i t y of p a i n t e r o v e r p o e t , a d d r e s s e d t h e s e words t o t h e p o e t : ,. The p a i n t e r w i l l s u r p a s s you because y o u r pen w i l l be worn out be-f o r e you d e s c r i b e f u l l y what t h e p a i n t e r w i t h h i s medium can r e p r e s e n t a t once. Your tongue w i l l be p a r a l y z e d w i t h t h i r s t and y o u r body w i t h s l e e p and h unger, b e f o r e you d e p i c t w i t h words what, t h e p a i n t e r w i l l show you i n a moment .-39 Dryden a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was t o " t h e advantage o f p a i n t i n g , even above t r a g e d y , t h a t what t h i s l a s t r e p r e s e n t s i n t h e space of many h o u r s , t h e f o r m e r shews us i n one moment." J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n s a i d t h a t " p a i n t i n g p o u r s i d e a s i n t o our m i n d s , words o n l y drop them"; w i t h p a i n t i n g " t h e whole scene opens a t one v i e w , whereas t h e o t h e r way l i f t s up t h e c u r t a i n by l i t t l e and l i t t l e . " And R e y n o l d s w r o t e t h a t t h e p a i n t e r " c a n n o t , l i k e t h e p o e t or h i s t o r i a n , e x p a t i a t e , and i m p r e s s t h e mind w i t h g r e a t v e n e r a t i o n f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h e r o o r s a i n t he r e p r e s e n t s " ; he 40 has "but one s e n t e n c e t o u t t e r , b u t one moment t o e x h i b i t . " T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of a s i m u l t a n e i t y of d e t a i l i n p a i n t i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n n a t u r e i m p l i e s t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e imagery e m u l a t i n g p a i n t i n g . And much of t h e p i c t o r i a l imagery i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y does seem t o d u p l i c a t e t h i s q u a l i t y i n p a i n t i n g . N e o - c l a s s i c a l images o f t e n s u g g e s t , b r i e f l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , p h y s i c a l d e t a i l ; t h e y f r e q u e n t l y r e d u c e m o t i o n o r encompass i t w i t h i n a framework of s t a s i s , h i n t a t s p a t i a l s i m u l t a n e i t y of d e t a i l , and evoke i d e a s . I n d o i n g t h i s as v i s u a l images, they, r e s e m b l e t h e a r t of p a i n t i n g . F i n a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o s u p p o r t i n g u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s , a c c e n t i n g 49 t h e o r i e n t a t i o n t o R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y and c l a s s i c a l Rome, and o f f e r i n g t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g as model i n a d d i t i o n t o a c t u a l p a i n t i n g s and p a i n t e r s , t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r t i s t i c pantheon s e r v e d y e t a n o t h e r p u r p o s e . I t h e l p e d t o d e f i n e n e o - c l a s s i c a l n a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i s m . Thus T i t i a n and t h e V e n e t i a n s , as w e l l as s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d - . s c a p i s t s , o f t e n e x h i b i t e d t h e q u a l i t i e s of e n a r g e i a i n t h e i r n a t u r a l -i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w h i l e R a p h a e l , A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i , and N i c o l a s P o u s s i n f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d t h e s t a t u e s q u e i d e a l i z a t i o n t y p i c a l o f A u g u s t a n p o e t i c images. N e o - c l a s s i c a l n a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i s m r e p r e s e n t and e x p r e s s t h e two k i n d s of " n a t u r e " whose c l a r i f i c a t i o n was e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d as i m p o r t a n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r -i a l i s m . D i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e two i d e a s w i l l c o m p r i s e t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r . . E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c n a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i s m a r e e x p r e s s i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y o f v i s i b l e , c o n c r e t e , p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e and t y p i c a l , g e n e r i c , a r c h e t y p a l n a t u r e . J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n makes a common d i s t i n c t i o n when he c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p a i n t i n g of N o r t h and South Europe i n terms of n a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i s m : There i s some degree of m e r i t i n a p i c t u r e where n a t u r e . i s e x a c t l y c o p i e d , though i n a low s u b j e c t ; s u c h as d r o l l s , c o u n t r y - w a k e s , f l o w e r s , l a n d s c a p e s , e t c . and more, i n p r o p o r t i o n as t h e s u b j e c t r i s e s , o r t h e end of t h e p i c t u r e , i s t h i s e x a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . H e r e i n t h e D u t c h , and F l e m i s h m a s t e r s have been e q u a l t o t h e I t a l i a n s , i f n o t s u p e r i o r t o them i n g e n e r a l . What g i v e s t h e I t a l i a n s , and t h e i r m a s t e r s t h e a n c i e n t s t h e p r e f e r e n c e , i s , t h a t t h e y have n o t s e r v i l e l y f o l l o w e d common n a t u r e , b u t r a i s e d , and i m p r o v e d , o r a t l e a s t have always made th e b e s t c h o i c e of i t . 4 1 N a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i s m a r e a l s o i m p l i e d c l e a r l y i n Johnson's d o u b l e 50 d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word " m i r r o r , " a word p r o m i n e n t i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m s i n c e t h e t i m e of P l a t o . Johnson d e f i n e s t h e word as a " l o o k i n g - g l a s s ; a n y t h i n g w h i c h e x h i b i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of o b j e c t s by r e f l e c t i o n , " and as a " p a t t e r n . . . on w h i c h t h e eye ought t o be f i x e d " ; an "exemplar; 42 an a r c h e t y p e . " The l i t e r a r y o r a r t i s t i c work of a r t w h i c h e x a c t l y c o p i e s n a t u r e , r e f l e c t i n g i t s d e t a i l s l i k e a l o o k i n g - g l a s s , w i l l e x p r e s s t h e v a l u e s of e n a r g e i a , . t h e v i v i d , v i g o r o u s , p a l p a b l e , l i f e l i k e i m i t a -t i o n of o b s e r v a b l e n a t u r e . The work s e l e c t i n g f r o m , r a i s i n g , and i m p r o v i n g n a t u r e w i l l o f f e r , w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g t h e t r u t h of i t s s u b j e c t , . , a g e n e r a l i z e d o r s y n t h e s i z e d i d e a l i z a t i o n of n a t u r e . J o s e p h Warton c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r v e r b a l e n a r g e i a . D e s c r i b i n g t h e r o l e of p a r t i c u l a r i t y i n a t t a i n i n g p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e , he a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e u s e , t h e f o r c e , and t h e e x c e l l e n c e of l a n g u a g e , c e r t a i n l y c o n s i s t s i n r a i s i n g c l e a r , c o m p l e t e , and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l images, and i n t u r n i n g r e a d e r s i n t o s p e c t a t o r s , " and he warns t h a t " I t h i n k I can p e r c e i v e many symptoms, even among w r i t e r s of eminence, of d e p a r t i n g f r o m t h e s e t r u e , l i v e l y , and m i n u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of N a t u r e , and o f d w e l l i n g i n g e n e r a l i t i e s . " Warton j u s t i f i e s h i s p r o m u l g a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y e n a r g e i a by c i t i n g c l a s s i c a l p r e c e d e n t : Among t h e o t h e r f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t a t t e n d e d Homer, i t was n o t one o f t h e l e a s t , t h a t he w r o t e b e f o r e g e n e r a l and a b s t r a c t terms were i n v e n t e d . Hence h i s . Muse ( l i k e h i s own H e l e n s t a n d i n g on t h e w a l l s o f T r o y ) p o i n t s out e v e r y p e r s o n , and t h i n g , a c c u r a t e l y and f o r c i b l y . A l l t h e v i e w s and p r o s p e c t s he l a y s b e f o r e u s , appear . . . f u l l y and p e r f e c t l y , t o t h e eye.43 Warton's emphasis upon t h e sense of s i g h t l i n k s him t o A d d i s o n , 51 t h e c r i t i c whose S p e c t a t o r p a p e r s on t h e " P l e a s u r e s of t h e I m a g i n a t i o n " b e s t i l l u s t r a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f n a t u r a l i s m i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a e s t h e t i c t h o u g h t . A d d i s o n r e i t e r a t e s t h e n o t i o n found i n a n t i q u i t y and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and i m p l i e d by Warton, t h a t s i g h t i s " t h e most p e r -44 f e e t and most d e l i g h t f u l o f a l l our s e n s e s . " To him the, p l e a s u r e s o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n a r e "such P l e a s u r e s as a r i s e o r i g i n a l l y f rom S i g h t " ( 4 1 1 ) . But though we "cannot i n d e e d have a s i n g l e Image i n t h e Fancy t h a t d i d n o t make i t s f i r s t E n t r a n c e t h r o u g h t h e S i g h t , " , t h e s e images, once r e c e i v e d , may be a l t e r e d and compounded " i n t o a l l t h e V a r i e t i e s of P i c t u r e and V i s i o n t h a t a r e most a g r e e a b l e t o t h e I m a g i n -a t i o n " ' (411) . The p l e a s u r e s o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n may t h u s a r i s e f r o m v i s i b l e o b j e c t s i n two ways: " e i t h e r when we have them a c t u a l l y i n our View, or when we c a l l up t h e i r I d eas i n t o our Minds by P a i n t i n g s , S t a t u e s , D e s c r i p t i o n s , o r any t h e l i k e O c c a s i o n " ( 4 1 1 ) . Hence t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e p r i m a r y p l e a s u r e s of t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , w h i c h . " e n t i r e l y p r o c e e d from s u c h O b j e c t s as a r e .before o u r , E y e s , " and t h e s e c o n d a r y p l e a s u r e s , w h i c h " f l o w f r o m t h e I d e a s of v i s i b l e O b j e c t s , when th e O b j e c t s a r e n o t a c t u a l l y b e f o r e the' Eye," b e i n g " c a l l e d up i n t o b u r Memories, o r formed i n t o a g r e e a b l e V i s i o n s of T h i n g s t h a t a r e e i t h e r A b s e n t o r F i c t i t i o u s " ( 4 1 1 ) . A d d i s o n f i n d s t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s f o r p r i m a r y p l e a s u r e s i n t h e g r e a t , t h e uncommon, and t h e b e a u t i f u l ( 4 1 2 ) , w h i l e , i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n between t h e i d e a s , " a r i s i n g f r o m t h e O r i g i n a l O b j e c t s " and t h e "Ideas we r e c e i v e from t h e S t a t u e , P i c t u r e , D e s c r i p t i o n , o r Sound t h a t r e p r e s e n t s them," he f i n d s t h e s e c o n d a r y p l e a s u r e s t h a t g i v e us our " r e l i s h o f S t a t u a r y j P a i n t i n g , and 52 D e s c r i p t i o n " ' ( 4 1 6 ) . He o r d e r s , t h e m i m e t i c a r t s ( e x c e p t f o r g a r d e n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e ) a f t e r t h e degree of t h e i r r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e i r o r i g , -i n a l s : s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and m u s i c ( 4 1 6 ) . T h i s p o s i t i o n emphasizes o r i g i n a l n a t u r e , and s u p p o r t s t h e w a r t o n i a n i d e a t h a t e x c e l l e n c e i s a c h i e v e d i n . a r t and p o e t r y t h r o u g h t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c r e p r o d u c t i o n o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . E n a r g e i a i s a t t a i n e d when " a r t i f i c i a l Works" b e n e f i t from " t h e i r Resemblance o f such as a r e n a t u r a l " ( 4 1 4 ) , when s t a t u a r y and p a i n t i n g s i m u l a t e p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y and p o e t r y e m u l a t e s them.by r e c a l l i n g v i s i b l e n a t u r e and p l a c i n g i t w i t h i n m e n t a l , v i e w . I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e p l e a s u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t u r e a r e p r i m a r y , t h o s e w i t h a r t and p o e t r y , s e c o n d a r y . A d d i s o n ' s system, however, comprehends more t h a n a s i m p l e , d i r e c t n a t u r a l i s m . F o r h i s n a t u r a l i s m , "an e x t e n s i o n of L o c k e ' s on t h e 45 s o u r c e s o f i d e a s , " - though based on v i s i b l e , o b j e c t i v e nature,- i s com-p l i c a t e d by . t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a p p e a l e x e r t e d by t h e . g r e a t , t h e uncommon, and t h e b e a u t i f u l i n n a t u r e exceeds t h e p u r e l y v i s u a l , s t i m u l a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s and r e a c t i o n s whose wholesome m o r a l , e m o t i o n a l , and o t h e r v a l u e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e . , "Unbounded V i e w s " of m o u n t a i n , d e s e r t , o r ocean f l i n g us i n t o "a p l e a s i n g A s t o n i s h m e n t " i n w h i c h we f e e l "a d e l i g h t f u l S t i l n e s s and Amazement i n t h e S o u l . " "A s p a c i o u s H o r i z o n " , becomes "an Image of L i b e r t y . " The new o r uncommon " f i l l s t h e S o u l w i t h an a g r e e a b l e S u r p r i s e , g r a t i f i e s i t s C u r i o s i t y , and g i v e s . i t an I d e a of w h i c h i t was n o t b e f o r e p o s s e s t " ( 4 1 2 ) . And " d e l i g h t -f u l s c e n e s , whether i n N a t u r e , P a i n t i n g , o r P o e t r y , have a k i n d l y I n f l u e n c e on t h e Body, as w e l l as t h e M i n d . " They n o t o n l y " s e r v e t o 53 c l e a r and b r i g h t e n t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , " b u t t h e y a l s o " d i s p e r s e G r i e f and M e l a n c h o l y " and " s e t t h e A n i m a l S p i r i t s i n p l e a s i n g and a g r e e a b l e M o t i o n s " ( 4 1 1 ) . P o e t r y adds t o our v i s u a l p l e a s u r e of o b j e c t s t h a t of t h e "Aptness o f t h e D e s c r i p t i o n " w h i c h e x c i t e s them. Thus t h e p l e a s u r e of comparing t h e o r i g i n a l w i t h i t s p o e t i c r e f l e c t i o n p e r m i t s enjoyment of even t h e d i s a g r e e a b l e o r r e p e l l e n t : "The D e s c r i p t i o n of a D u n g h i l l i s p l e a s i n g t o t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , i f t h e Image be r e p r e s e n t e d t o our. Minds by s u i t a b l e E x p r e s s i o n s " ( 4 1 8 ) . A d d i s o n ' s n a t u r a l i s m i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y p l e a s u r e s i s n o t t h e d i s -t i n c t i o n between n a t u r e and a r t . N a t u r e , f o r example, can y i e l d s e c o n -d a r y p l e a s u r e s . F o r a l t h o u g h i t a l o n e i s t r u l y v a s t and w i l d , and a l t h o u g h " w i l d S cenes" a r e "more d e l i g h t f u l t h a n any a r t i f i c i a l Shows," t h e works of n a t u r e a r e " s t i l l more p l e a s a n t , t h e more t h e y r e s e m b l e t h o s e of a r t " : F o r i n t h i s c a s e our P l e a s u r e r i s e s f r o m a d o u b l e P r i n c i p l e ; f r o m t h e A g r e e a b l e n e s s . o f t h e O b j e c t s t o t h e Eye, and f r o m t h e i r S i m i l i -tude t o o t h e r O b j e c t s : We a r e p l e a s e d as w e l l w i t h comparing t h e i r B e a u t i e s , as w i t h s u r v e y i n g them, and can r e p r e s e n t them t o our M i n d s , e i t h e r as C o p i e s o r O r i g i n a l s ; (414) : Here n a t u r e p r o d uces a s e c o n d a r y p l e a s u r e by s u g g e s t i n g t h e a r t works i t r e s e m b l e s . A d d i s o n t h u s b r i n g s t o mind t h e p i c t u r e s q u e of W i l l i a m G i l p i n , t h e l a n d s c a p e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on canvas because composed l i k e a p i c t u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, he sees a r c h i t e c t u r e y i e l d i n g p r i m a r y p l e a s u r e s . The "immediate Tendency" of a r c h i t e c t u r e t o p roduce s e c o n d a r y p l e a s u r e s stems from i t s " g r e a t n e s s , " an 54 e x c e l l e n c e w h i c h m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f n o t o n l y i n s i z e b u t i n "manner." "Manner" has "such f o r c e upon t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , t h a t a s m a l l B u i l d i n g , where i t a p p e a r s , s h a l l g i v e t h e Mind n o b l e r Ideas t h a n one of twenty t i m e s t h e B u l k , where t h e Manner i s o r d i n a r y o r l i t t l e " ( 4 1 5 ) . These m a t t e r s c o m p l i c a t e t h e n a t u r a l i s m o f A d d i s o n ' s a e s t h e t i c s ystem b u t a t t h e same t i m e t h e y show t h a t f o r him a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s t o be found i n . t h e human mind as w e l l as i n n a t u r e . H i s system embraces t h e a n c i e n t d o c t r i n e o f e n a r g e i a , t h e achievement of f o r c e and v i v i d n e s s i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f v i s i b l e n a t u r e , t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y v i e w t h a t t h e power of a r t l a y i n d e a l i n g w i t h r e a l n a t u r e . But i t a l s o l o c a t e s t h i s e n a r g e i a n o t i n t h e o b s e r v e d o b j e c t o r scene o r i n t h e i r r e n d e r i n g b u t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e e i n g , i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e human i m a g i n a t i o n . I n h i s " P r e f a c e t o S h a k e s p e a r e " Johnson makes t h e same d i s t i n c t i o n between " o b j e c t i v e " and " m e n t a l " . e n a r g e i a when he s a y s t h a t i m i t a t i o n s p roduce p a i n o r p l e a s u r e , n o t because t h e y a r e m i s t a k e n f o r r e a l i t i e s , b u t because t h e y b r i n g r e a l i t i e s t o mind. When th e i m a g i n a t i o n i s r e c r e a t e d by a p a i n t e d l a n d s c a p e , t h e t r e e s a r e n o t supposed c a p a b l e t o g i v e us shade, o r t h e f o u n t a i n s c o o l n e s s ; b u t we c o n s i d e r , how we s h o u l d be p l e a s e d w i t h s u c h f o u n t a i n s , p l a y i n g b e s i d e u s , and s u c h woods waving o v e r u s . ^6. S i m i l a r l y , R e y n o l d s says t h a t t h e " g r e a t end" o f t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g i s " t o s t r i k e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . " The p a i n t e r i s " t o make no o s t e n t a t i o n o f t h e means by w h i c h t h i s i s done;.the s p e c t a t o r i s o n l y t o f e e l t h e 47 r e s u l t i n h i s bosom." To t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d o c t r i n e of t h e i m i t a t i o n of n a t u r e , t h e n , A d d i s o n added " t h e s a n c t i o n s of Newtonian p h y s i c s and L o c k e a n 55 e p i s t e m o l o g y , " p r o d u c i n g thereby, a " c o m b i n a t i o n o f a n c i e n t a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e and modern s c i e n t i f i c p s y c h o l o g y t h a t was e x c i t i n g t o t h e 48 e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " L a t e r p o e t s , l i k e Thomson,.learned many t h i n g s f r o m him, "but perhaps none more i m p o r t a n t t h e n t h e n e c e s s i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e i m a g i n a t i o n by l o o k i n g a t and s e e i n g t h o s e o b j e c t s i n 49 t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d t h a t most s t i m u l a t e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . " The s h i f t o f f o c u s d e m o n s t r a t e d by A d d i s o n from o b j e c t , c a n v a s , o r page t o mind o r i m a g i n a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c e n t u r y by a t t i t u d e s h o s t i l e t o t h e a n c i e n t and R e n a i s s a n c e v i e w of a r t as i l l u s -i o n i s t i c d e c e p t i o n . Johnson's words quoted above a r e t a k e n from t h e s e c t i o n o f h i s " P r e f a c e " a t t a c k i n g t h e need f o r s l a v i s h adherence t o t h e u n i t i e s i n drama, t h e "supposed n e c e s s i t y o f making t h e drama c r e d i b l e " by making i t a p p r o x i m a t e o r i m i t a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s of r e a l t i m e and p l a c e . S i m i l a r l y , R e y n o l d s ' above-quoted remark on t h e p u r p o s e of p a i n t i n g comes from t h e a t t a c k i n h i s f o u r t h D i s c o u r s e on t h e sensuous n a t u r a l i s m of V e r o n e s e , T i n t o r e t t o , and Rubens. R e y n o l d s d e c r i e s e l s e w h e r e t h e "mere c o p i e r o f n a t u r e , " t h e a r t i s t who seeks p r a i s e by " d e c e i v i n g t h e s u p e r f i c i a l sense of t h e s p e c t a t o r " i n s t e a d o f fame t h r o u g h " c a p t i v a t i n g t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . " A r t s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d n o t w i t h "a n a t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a . g i v e n o b j e c t " b u t w i t h "what i t i s n a t u r a l f o r t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t o be d e l i g h t e d w i t h . " And as f o r t h e a n a l o g y o f t h e m i r r o r : When s u c h a man as P l a t o speaks o f P a i n t i n g as o n l y an i m i t a t i v e a r t , and t h a t our p l e a s u r e p r o c e e d s from o b s e r v i n g and a cknowledg-i n g t h e t r u t h of t h e i m i t a t i o n , I t h i n k he m i s l e a d s us by a p a r t i a l t h e o r y . I t i s t h i s p o o r , p a r t i a l , and so f a r , f a l s e , v i e w of t h e . 56 a r t . . . t h a t i s adopted by Pope i n h i s E p i t a p h on S i r G o d f r e y K n e l l e r . . . he t u r n s t h e p a n e g y r i c k s o l e l y on i m i t a t i o n as i t i s a s o r t of d e c e p t i o n . 5 0 F o r Cowper, t o o , , t h e m i r r o r i s no l o n g e r t h e poem b u t t h e mind. I n The .Task he w r i t e s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p o e t t o " a r r e s t t h e f l e e t i n g images," t o " h o l d them f a s t " i n "the m i r r o r o f t h e m i n d " u n t i l he has "p e n c i l ' d o f f " a " f a i t h f u l l i k e n e s s of t h e forms he v i e w s . " The s h i f t o f focus, from work o f a r t t o b e h o l d e r e n a b l e d t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , p o e t t o r e a l i z e u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e common i n c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y . I n s t e a d o f s e n s u o u s l y " p a i n t i n g " s t a t i c v e r b a l d u p l i c a t e s of a r t o b j e c t s , d e s c r i p t i v e l y e n u m e r a t i n g t h e i r d e t a i l s one a f t e r a n o t h e r , as i n Homer, V i r g i l , O v i d , Spenser and S h a k e s p e a r e , t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t s u g g e s t e d p i c t u r e s b r i e f l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , e v o k i n g them i n t h e minds o f h i s r e a d e r s by h i n t s of p a i n t e r l y t e c h n i q u e o r c o m p o s i t i o n o r by p i c t o r i a l d e t a i l s e l e c t e d f r o m f a m i l i a r p a i n t i n g s , p a i n t e r s , o r s c h o o l s of p a i n t i n g . The poet c o u l d s a f e l y depend on t h e v i s u a l i m a g i n a t i o n of h i s audience,, on i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and a p p r e c i a t e h i s i c o n i c r e f e r e n c e s . . Not o n l y c o u l d he a p p e a l t o t h i s i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y , as shown by t h e l i v e l y and i n v e n t i v e r e a c t i o n s of J o s e p h Warton and t h e J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n s , b u t a l s o he c o u l d c o n t r o l i t t h r o u g h h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of e x c e l l e n c e i n p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . But i f p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i v e n e s s i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y i s . d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e i m i t a t i v e p i c t o r i a l i s m of c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e t i m e s , i t i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r so w i t h r e s p e c t , t o t h e p i c t o r i a l i s m o f t h e 57 m e t a p h y s i c a l and baroque century preceding i t . T h i s p i c t o r i a l i s m t o o , as has been shown, i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e . However, p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i o n i n the emblematic and " s a c r a m e n t a l " poe t ry of the seventeenth century i s o r i e n t e d to the i n v i s i b l e , e t e r n a l w o r l d of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , w h i l e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y sugges t ive n e o - c l a s s i c a l i c o n , i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter by the example, of L o v e l a c e , i s o r i e n t e d to the o r d i n a r y w o r l d of v i s i b l e n a t u r e , human e x p e r i e n c e , and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Though the n e o - c l a s s i c a l m i r r o r , as A d d i s o n shows, i s h e l d up to the i m a g i n a -t i o n , the i m a g i n a t i o n i t s e l f , as he f u r t h e r shows, i s h e l d up i n i t s t u r n to n a t u r e . A d d i s o n ' s n a t u r a l i s m shows how u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s depended on v i s i b l e , o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e , how i t r e l a t e d t o the t r a d i t i o n of E n g l i s h e m p i r i c i s m . H i s n a t u r a l i s m a l s o shows that e n a r g e i a , though s t i l l the unweakened product of man's l i v i n g contac t w i t h e x t e r n a l n a t u r e , was now more s u b j e c t i v e a phenomenon than ever b e f o r e i n i t s h i s t o r y . P o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m , however, was not l i m i t e d to l i t e r a r y n a t u r a l i s m and r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t . : The e a r l i e r - q u o t e d remarks of Jonathon R i c h a r d s o n on the "common" and " r a i s e d " na ture of Dutch and I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g and Johnson's d e f i n i t i o n of the word " m i r r o r " as " p a t t e r n " or "exemplar" i n t r o d u c e not o n l y t h e . c o n c r e t e , c i r c u m s t a n t i a l na ture expressed by l i t e r a r y n a t u r a l i s m but a l s o the u n i f o r m , g e n e r i c nature expressed by the a r t i s t i c i d e a l i s m that sought essence and permanence by h e i g h t e n i n g and u n i v e r s a l i z i n g r e a l i t y w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g i t s form or meaning. P i c t o r i a l i s m was as c l o s e l y bound up w i t h t h i s i d e a l i s m as i t was w i t h n a t u r a l i s m and helped to serve i t s purposes no l e s s . 58 The theory of i d e a l nature i n art,and poetry, i s t y p i f i e d by the c r i t i c i s m of Samuel Johnson and h i s f r i e n d Joshua Reynolds. Johnson, through Imlac, made the famous statement that the poet's aim i s "to examine,.not the i n d i v i d u a l , but the sp e c i e s ; to remark general proper-t i e s and l a r g e appearances." For "nothing can please many, and please 52 long,,but j u s t r epresentations of general nature." This idea i s echoed and elaborated by Reynolds' pronouncement that there i s but one p r e s i d i n g p r i n c i p l e which r e g u l a t e s , and gives s t a b i l i t y to every a r t . The works, whether of poets, p a i n t e r s , m o r a l i s t s , or h i s t o r i a n s , which are, b u i l t upon general nature, l i v e f o r ever; w h i l e those which depend f o r t h e i r e xistence on p a r t i c u l a r customs and h a b i t s , a p a r t i a l view of nature, or the f l u c t u a t i o n of f a s h i o n , can only be coeval w i t h that which f i r s t r a i s e d them from o b s c u r i t y . I d e a l nature was a l s o achieved and i s symbolized by the s o - c a l l e d "Claude g l a s s , " the plano-convex m i r r o r c a r r i e d by t o u r i s t s l i k e Gray because the s l i g h t convexity of the g l a s s , mounted on i t s b l a c k f o i l , reduced colours to a lower r a t i o , and accented t o n a l v a l u e s . The gl a s s gathered each scene r e f l e c t e d i n i t i n t o a t i n y i d e a l i z e d p i c t u r e , r e -54 producing a nature " c o r r e c t e d " and "improved" but yet nature s t i l l . I t s f u n c t i o n e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l s and demonstrates that of the metaphorical m i r r o r which " r e f i n e d " nature by r e f l e c t i n g q u a l i t i e s , tendencies, and forms w i t h i n or behind the a c t u a l rather, than gross and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e r e a l i t y i t s e l f . The i d e a l i z e d nature of the eighteenth century had l i t t l e or nothing i n common w i t h the" transcendental Ideas or Forms of Neoplatonism which were " u l t i m a t e l y t r a n s - e m p i r i c a l , maintaining an independent 59 e x i s t e n c e i n t h e i r own i d e a l s p a c e , and a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o t h e . e y e o f the mind.""'"' R e y n o l d s e x p r e s s e d t h e g e n e r a l v i e w when he s t a t e d t h a t i d e a l p e r f e c t i o n and b e a u t y " a r e n o t t o be sought i n t h e heavens, b u t 5 6 upon t h e e a r t h , " s i n c e " t h e y a r e about us and upon e v e r y s i d e o f u s . " S i n c e , d i k e a l m o s t e v e r y o t h e r w r i t e r , he " p s y c h o l o g i z e d t h e P l a t o n i c I d e a , and e m p i r i c i z e d t h e method of a c h i e v i n g i t , " R e y n o l d s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l v e r s i o n o f t h e i d e a l i n a r t was " a l i e n t o t h e t h i s - w o r l d l y and e m p i r i c a l - m i n d e d t h e o r i s t s o f E n g l i s h n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n b r i n g i n g t h e i d e a l , s o l i d l y down t o e a r t h , R e y n o l d s i m p l i e d t h e d u a l i t y o f t h o u g h t i n w h i c h t h e demand f o r t h e t y p i c a l , g e n e r a l , and f a m i l i a r i n a r t was so o f t e n accompanied by t h e recommenda-t i o n o f t h e " l e a v e n i n g " q u a l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y , u n i q u e n e s s , and n o v e l t y as w e l l . J o h n s o n , f o r example, may be s a i d " t o l o c a t e t h e h i g h e s t and r a r e s t e x c e l l e n c e " i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d 58 t y p e , t h e c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y g e n e r a l , and t h e n o v e l - f a m i l i a r . " T h i s , t h e n , i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f u t  p i c t u r a p o e s i s i n t h e E n g l i s h e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The d o c t r i n e was en-couraged by t h e growth and development o f a h i g h degree o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s w h i c h f a m i l i a r i z e d t h e p o e t ' w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e o f R e n a i s s a n c e and p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e Europe. How i t s e r v e d t h e l i t e r a r y n a t u r a l i s m w h i c h s h i f t e d t h e a n c i e n t v a l u e s o f e n a r g e i a from work t o b e h o l d e r and t h e u n P l a t o n i c i d e a l i z a t i o n o f n a t u r e i n p o e t r y w i l l be seen when t h e p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y o f Pope and Thomson i s examined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 60 FOOTNOTES ''"A u s e f u l r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e Ideas i n A l b e r t i ' s and L e o n a r d o ' s t r e a t i s e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y D e l i a P i t t u r a (1436) and L i b r o d i P l t t u r a ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 6 5 1 ) , i s g i v e n i n W. G. Howard's "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " PMLA, XXIV ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 45-51. 2 A r t h u r 0. L o v e j o y , • " ' N a t u r e ' as A e s t h e t i c Norm," E s s a y s i n t h e  H i s t o r y o f Ideas (New Y o r k : Putnam, 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 69. Of t h e dozens o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y meanings c h a r t e d by L o v e j o y f o r t h e word " n a t u r e " (pp. 6 9 - 7 7 ) , t h i s c h a p t e r . i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h o s e l i s t e d under " D e s i d e r a t a i n Works o f A r t " as " a " (sense 1) and " d , " "e," and " f " ( s e n s e s 2, 3, and 4 ) . 3 An e s s e n t i a l g e n e r a l g u i d e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e complex m a t t e r s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s chapter, i s J e a n Hagstrum's The S i s t e r A r t s : The  T r a d i t i o n of L i t e r a r y P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P o e t r y f r o m Dryden t o  Gray ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1968). A l s o u s e f u l i n c h a r t -i n g a c o u r s e t h r o u g h t h e s e m a t e r i a l s i s C i c e l y D a v i e s ' "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " MLR, XXX ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 159-169. 4 M a u r i c e A s h l e y , E n g l a n d i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: P e n g u i n , 1965), p. 56. ~*Peter and L i n d a M u r r a y . A D i c t i o n a r y of A r t and A r t i s t s (London: P e n g u i n , 1964), p. 96. The D i a r y o f John E v e l y n , ed. W i l l i a m B r a y , Everyman's L i b r a r y (London: Dent, 1 9 2 0 ) , I , 93, 94, 95, 102, 105, 107, 109, 123, 132, 207, 222, 223. 7 L a g a l e r i a d e l C a v a l i e r M a r i n o : D i s t i n t a i n p i t t u r e 6^  s c u l t u r e ( V e n i c e , 1 6 2 0 ) . The main s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on I t a l i a n p i c t o r i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e i s J e a n Hagstrum's The S i s t e r A r t s : The T r a d i t i o n of L i t e r a r y  P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P o e t r y f r o m Dryden t o Gray ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f -Chicago P r e s s , 1 968), pp. 102-104, 106-108.. g R e s p e c t i v e l y , Le_ v i t e de' p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i e t a r c h i t e t t i  m o derni (Rome, 1 6 7 2 ) , and Le v i t e de' p i u ; e c c e l l e n t i a r c h i t e t t i , p i t t o r i , e t s c u l t o r i i t a l i a n i (1550 and 1568). 9 W i l l i a m A g l i o n b y , P a i n t i n g I l l u s t r a t e d i n Three D i a l o g u e s . . . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e L i v e s of t h e Most Eminent P a i n t e r s . •• (London: 1685), " ^ P e t e r and L i n d a M u r r a y ( D i c t i o n a r y o f A r t and A r t i s t s , p. 330) term V a s a r i ' s L i v e s " t h e most i m p o r t a n t book on t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t e v e r w r i t t e n . " 61 ± 1 M T O my F r i e n d Mr. L e l y , on h i s P i c t u r e of t h e E x c e l l e n t l y V i r t u o u s " L a d y ; • t h e Lady I s a b e l l a ' Thynn," Poems of C h a r l e s C o t t o n : 1630-1687, ed. J o h n B e r e s f o r d (London: S a n d e r s o n , 1 9 2 3 ) , pp. 275-276. 12 "To Vandyck," The 7Poems o f Edmund W a l l e r , ed. G. Thorn D r u r y (London: B u l l e n , 1 9 01), I , .44-45. 13 "To h i s Nephew, t o be p r o s p e r o u s i n h i s a r t of P a i n t i n g , " The Poems o f R o b e r t H e r r i c k , ed. L. C. M a r t i n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 965), p. 150.; 14 Henry V. S. Ogden and M a r g a r e t S. Ogden, E n g l i s h T a s t e i n  t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 86. 15W. G. Howard, "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " PMLA, XXIV ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 40. 16 The Works of John D r y d e n , e d s . S i r W a l t e r S c o t t and George S a i n t s b u r y ( E d i n b u r g h : M o r r i s o n and G i b b , 1 8 9 2 ) , X V I I , 343. x 7 J e a n Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s , p. 174, n.. 5. 18 Works, S c o t t and S a i n t s b u r y , X V I I , 290, 311. 1 9 I b i d . , . p . 328. ^ H a g s t r u m , , p. 175. 21 The t r e a t i s e s l i s t e d by J o n a t h b h R i c h a r d s o n (The Works o f  J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n , S t r a w b e r r y H i l l , 1/92, p. 207) i n c l u d e t h o s e of R i d o l f i , B e l l o r i , B a l d i n u c c i , F e l i b i e n , S a n d r a r t , de P i l e s , and D u f r e s n o y . . 22 L e t t e r s W r i t t e n by L o r d C h e s t e r f i e l d t o H i s Son, ed. C h a r l e s . S t o k e s Carey (London: Reeves, n . d . ) , I , 394; Gray t o West, A p r i l 8, , 1742, Correspondence of Thomas G r a y , e d s . P a g e t Toynbee and L e o n a r d W h i b l e y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , , 1 9 3 5 ) , I , 193. F o r examples o f t h i s p r a c t i c e i n a n c i e n t and R e n a i s s a n c e t i m e s see Hagstrum (pp., 57-58) and W. G. Howard (pp. 45-46). 23 L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m o f John D r y d e n , ed. A r t h u r C. K i r s c h ( L i n c o l n : . U n i v e r s i t y of N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 110. 24 An E s s a y on t h e G e n i u s and W r i t i n g s , of Pope (London, 1782) , I , 42, 44, 45. 25 These examples come fr o m C i c e l y D a v i e s ' "Ut. P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " MLR, XXX ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 163-165. 62 ' 2 6 The Poems and F a b l e s o f Joh n D r y d e n , ed. James K i n s l e y (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 422. 27 Essay, 1 I , 51-52. 28 Works of J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n , , p . 241. 29 C i t e d by Hagstrum, p. 132. J o s e p h Warton ; ( E s s a y , I I , 229) a l s o f i n d s t h a t t h e u n p i c t o r i a l : M i l t o n has "drawn.his f i g u r e s , and e x p r e s s e d h i s images, w i t h energy and d i s t i n c t n e s s . " . 3°Essay, I , 184-186. 31 E s s a y on C r i t i c i s m , 697-704, The Poems of A l e x a n d e r Pope, ed. John B u t t (London: Methuen, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 166. 3 2 E s s a y , I , 101. 33 Works, p. 72. 34 D i s c o u r s e I V , D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , ed. R o b e r t R. Wark (San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a : H u n t i n g d o n L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 72. 35 James T. B o u l t o h , , e d . Edmund Bu r k e : A P h i l o s o p h i c a l E n q u i r y  i n t o t h e O r i g i n o f our Ideas on t h e Subl i m e and B e a u t i f u l ( N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. c x i . 36 S p e c t a t o r ,554, A d d i s o n and S t e e l e and O t h e r s : The S p e c t a t o r , ed. G r e g o r y S m i t h , Everyman's L i b r a r y (London: D e n t , 1967). 37 D i s c o u r s e I V , D i s c o u r s e s , ed. R o b e r t Wark, pp. 67, 71. 38 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t -i n g on E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s based on Hagstrum, pp. 162-170. Hagstrum s u g -g e s t s (pp. 166-167) t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t o f v a l u e s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o p p o s i t i o n '.'between c l a s s i c , and r o m a n t i c , Horace and L o n g i n u s , F r e n c h i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y and E n g l i s h e m o t i o n " i s b e t t e r e x-p l a i n e d " i f we l o o k back t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y r a t h e r t h a n f o r w a r d t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h o r a l l t h e way.back t o Rome and Gr e e c e . I f we do t h a t , we o b s e r v e t h a t t h i s d i c h o t o m y was a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y g r a p h i c a r t . N i c o l a s P o u s s i n had b o t h h i s c l a s s i c and baroque s i d e s , as d i d h i s m a s t e r s , t h e C a r r a c c i . " 39 T r e a t i s e on P a i n t i n g , t r a n s . A. P h i l i p McMahon ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , I , 24. 40 Works o f John D r y d e n , eds. S c o t t and S a i n t s b u r y , X V I I , 307; Works of J o n a t h o n R i c h a r d s o n , , p. 6; D i s c o u r s e I V , Wark, p. 60. 63 4''"Works, p. 72. A D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i s h . Language., 5 t h ed. (London: S t r a h a n , 1784). 4 3 E s s a y , I I , 223, 230. 44 1 S p e c t a t o r 411, The S p e c t a t o r , ed. G r e g o r y S m i t h . Subsequent p a r e n t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 4 5 C i c e l y D a v i e s , "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " MLR, XXX ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 160. 46 Samuel Johnson: R a s s e l a s , Poems, and S e l e c t e d Pr.ose, ed. B e r t r a n d H. B r o n s o n (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 256. 47 D i s c o u r s e I V , Wark, p. 59. 4 ^ H a g s t r u m , p. 136. 49 M a r j o r i e Hope N i c o l s o n , - M o u n t a i n Gloom and M o u n t a i n G l o r y : The Development of t h e A e s t h e t i c s of t h e I n f i n i t e (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1963), p. 309. " ^ D i s c o u r s e s I I I , X I I I , Wark, pp. 41, 42, 234. 5 1 I I , 285-293, The L i f e and Works of W i l l i a m Cowper, ed. R o b e r t Southey ( L o n d o n : . B a l d w i n and C r a d o c k , 1835-37), IX ( 1 8 3 6 ) , 107-108. 52 " R a s s e l a s " and " P r e f a c e t o S h a k e s p e a r e , " Samuel J o h n s o n , ed. B e r t r a n d B r o n s o n , pp. 527, 241. 53 D i s c o u r s e I V , Wark, p. 73. 54 C h r i s t o p h e r Hussey, The P i c t u r e s q u e : S t u d i e s i n ji P o i n t of  View (London: Putnam,.1927), p. 107. ^^M. H. Abrams, The M i r r o r and t h e Lamp: Romantic Theory and  th e C r i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n (New York:, N o r t o n , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 36. 56 D i s c o u r s e I I I , Wark, p. 44. "^Abrams, p. 4 5 . 58 I b i d . , pp. 39-41. The v i e w s e n t e r t a i n e d by c r i t i c s l i k e J o hnson and R e y n o l d s were n o t , o f c o u r s e , o r i g i n a l . The i d e a of n a t u r e as a s y n t h e s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l e x c e l l e n c i e s , an a b s t r a c t i o n o f . c e n t r a l f orm and s p e c i e s f r o m p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s , goes back t o t h e a n c i e n t s who e n d l e s s l y p r o m u l g a t e d t h e s t o r y of t h e p a i n t e r . Z e u x i s and h i s f i v e models t o e x e m p l i f y i d e a l i z a t i o n i n a r t . CHAPTER III POETIC PICTORIALISM IN POPE AND THOMSON A comprehensive survey of the widespread and varied expression of pictorialism in neo-classical poetry would require a ful l volume in itself and lies beyond the scope of this paper. However, through the study of a few poems exemplifying important aspects of ut pictura  poesis, much can be revealed of eighteenth-century poetic pictorialism. The following discussion, utilizing examples from the work of Pope and Thomson, is intended to illuminate the .iconic tradition in neo-classical verse, the antipi'ctorialr's.t' position and values of Edmund Burke, and subjects introduced, in the preceding chapter; verbal naturalism and enargeia, the pictorialist idealization of nature, the suggestiveness of neo-classical pictorialism, and the relationship between pictorialism and painting, considered either as technique or as finished expression of painter or school. This demonstration will not only make up the business of this chapter but at the same time lay the basis for the next. It will set the stage for a consideration of neo-classical pictor-ialism in a new and different light from that in which i t has so far been viewed, a consideration which will extend the significance of the term "picturesque" by examining its meanings and applications, in arts and activities additional to poetry, notably those associated with landscape and scenery. The present chapter and the next, then, taken together, will complete and round out the picture to be presented in 64 65 t h i s paper of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p i c t o r i a l i s m . S u g g e s t i v e o f t h e f a c t t h a t u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s i s nowhere more r i c h l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n A u g u s t a n p o e t r y t h a n i n t h e work of Pope i s h i s own " E p i s t l e t o Mr. J e r v a s , " a poem i n p r a i s e o f h i s a r t i s t - f r i e n d w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t h e t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by L o v e l a c e , D r y d e n , and o t h e r s . The poem s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r e s s e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e s i s t e r a r t s and a r t i s t s : S m i t . w i t h t h e l o v e o f S i s t e r - a r t s we came, . And met c o n g e n i a l , m i n g l i n g f l a m e . w i t h f l a m e ; L i k e f r i e n d l y c o l o u r s f ound them b o t h u n i t e , ^ And each f r o m each c o n t r a c t new s t r e n g t h and l i g h t . I t f u r t h e r emphasizes t h e t r a d i t i o n o f u_t p i c t u r a p o e s i s by c o u n s e l l i n g J e r v a s t o r e a d t h e " i n s t r u c t i v e l e a v e s " of Dryden's t r a n s l a t i o n o f D u f r e s n o y ' s De a r t e g r a p h i c a , i n w h i c h " c o n s p i r e " " F r e s n o y ' s c l o s e a r t , and Dryden's n a t i v e f i r e " ( 1 1 . 7-8). And, i n p r o j e c t i n g an i m a g i n a r y t r i p o v er t h e A l p s t o I t a l y , t h e poem makes c l e a r Pope's a l l e g i a n c e t o the r u l i n g t a s t e of h i s age i n m a t t e r s o f a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . Pope sees h i m s e l f and J e r v a s c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e work of t h e g r e a t I t a l i a n s t h e y m u t u a l l y a dmire:; Here t h y w e l l - s t u d y ' d M a r b l e s f i x our eye; A f a d i n g F r e s c o h e r e demands a s i g h : Each h e a y ' n l y p i e c e unweary'd we compare, Match R a p h a e l ' s g r a c e , w i t h t h y l o v ' d G u i d o ' s a i r , C a r a c c i ' s s t r e n g t h , C o r r e g g i o ' s s o f t e r l i n e , P a u l o ' s f r e e s t r o k e , and T i t i a n ' s warmth d i v i n e . ( 1 1 . 33-38) The r e v e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d i n t h e s e l i n e s f o r s t a t u a r y and 66 R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t i n g t r a n s l a t e s i t s e l f i n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t forms o f p i c t o r i a l i s t p r a c t i c e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e Pope's p o e t r y , o f w h i c h an e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t o r y example can be found i n t h e s t y l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f f o r e s t and p a r k l a n d i n "Windsor F o r e s t " : Here H i l l s and V a l e s , t h e Woodland and t h e P l a i n , H ere E a r t h and Water seem to' s t r i v e a g a i n , Not C h a o s - l i k e t o g e t h e r c r u s h ' d and b r u i s ' - d , But a s . t h e W o r l d , h a r m o n i o u s l y c o n f u s ' d : Where Order i n V a r i e t y we s e e , And where, t h o ' a l l t h i n g s d i f f e r , a l l a g r e e . Here w a v i n g Groves a ch e c q u e r ' d Scene d i s p l a y , And p a r t admit and p a r t e x c l u d e t h e Day; As some coy Nymph h e r L o v e r ' s warm A d d r e s s Not q u i t e i n d u l g e s , n o r can q u i t e r e p r e s s . T h e r e , i n t e r s p e r s ' d i n Lawns and o p e n i n g G l a d e s , T h i n T r e e s a r i s e t h a t shun each o t h e r s Shades. Here i n f u l l L i g h t t h e r u s s e t P l a i n s e x t e n d ; There w r a p t i n C l o u d s t h e b l u i s h H i l l s a s c e n d . (11. 11-24) T h i s passage shows Pope d i r e c t i n g t h e m e n t a l eye o f t h e r e a d e r o v e r t h e ;landscape as though he were d e s c r i b i n g t h e el e m e n t s o f an o r d e r e d c o m p o s i t i o n . The g u i d i n g words " h e r e " and " t h e r e " i n t r o d u c e d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e s e elements and c o n t r a s t them w i t h one a n o t h e r . H i l l s and v a l e s a r e opposed t o woodland and p l a i n , e a r t h t o w a t e r ; w a v i n g g r o v e s a r e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h i n t r e e s , and p l a i n s w i t h h i l l s . T h i s s e r i e s o f a n t i t h e t i c a l c o n t r a s t s does n o t , i t i s t r u e , produce a c o h e r e n t , . u n i f i e d s c e n e ; no sense o f t o t a l " O r d e r " emerges from t h e " V a r i e t y " o f opposed e l e m e n t s . But a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them a r e d i f f i c u l t t o v i s u a l i z e i n terms o f t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s p a c e , i n terms o f f o r e g r o u n d , m i d d l e d i s t a n c e , and background,.and. though t h e scene i s n o t i r i t h i s sense p a i n t a b l e , t h e c o n t r a s t e d o b j e c t s n o n e t h e l e s s show, i n t h e m s e l v e s , a p a i n t e r l y i n t e r e s t i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f v a l u e s : t h e " f u l l L i g h t " of t h e f l a t r u s s e t p l a i n a g a i n s t t h e c l o u d -d a rkened b l u e of t h e a s c e n d i n g h i l l s , t h e w a v i n g g r o v e s w i t h t h e i r h a l f l i g h t and m o t t l e d appearance a g a i n s t t h i n , s i n g l e t r e e s s t a n d i n g a l o n e i n s u n l i t i s o l a t i o n . These c o n t r a s t s between h i g h and l o w , l i g h t and d a r k , i n d i v i d u a l and g roup, between masses and c o l o u r s , show a n a t u r e s t y l i z e d a f t e r t h e manner of p a i n t i n g . By d i r e c t i n g t h e eye t o t h e s e o p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e scene Pope d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e a n t i -t h e t i c a l method so f u n d a m e n t a l t o h i s p o e t i c a r t can become a-means to. e l i c i t p a i n t e r l y e f f e c t s ; he shows how h i s method becomes p i c t o r i a l . The coy nymph, whose i n d e c i s i v e r e s p o n s e t o h e r l o v e r ' s advances i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e q u a l i t y of t h e g r o v e s ' v a r i a b l e l i g h t , h i n t s a t t h e h a b i t of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n so w i d e s p r e a d i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y . Pope, whose work i s crowded w i t h examples, was p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s p i c t o r i a l l y c o n c e i v e d o r , i n Warton's w o r d s , " p a r t i c -u l a r and p i c t u r e s q u e . " Such p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , v i v i d , c a p a b l e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n , and p a i n t a b l e , a r e n o t t o be m i s t a k e n f o r t h e f i g u r e s so commonly found i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y (not. e x c l u d i n g Pope's) who, m e r e l y named o r a p o s t r o p h i z e d , emerge as l i t t l e more t h a n c o l o u r -l e s s , l i f e l e s s a b s t r a c t i o n s : p a l e t e r r o r , gloomy c a r e , h o a r y age, c r u e l h a t e , v a i n b e a u t y , m i g h t y wisdom, s p r i g h t l y j o y . Warton, a f t e r p r a i s -i n g a "groupe of a l l e g o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e s " i n "Windsor F o r e s t " as "worthy t h e p e n c i l of Rubens o r J u l i o Romano," went on t o s t a t e h i s c o m p l a i n i n g w i s h t h a t t h e e p i t h e t s b a r b a r o u s ( d i s c o r d ) , mad ( a m b i t i o n ) , h a t e f u l ( e n v y ) , had been p a r t i c u l a r and p i c t u r e s q u e , i n s t e a d of g e n e r a l 68 and i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ; though i t may p o s s i b l y be u r g e d , t h a t i n d e s - . c r i b i n g t h e d r e a d f u l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e p o r t a l o f H e l l , V i r g i l has n o t always used s u c h a d j u n c t s and e p i t h e t s as a p a i n t e r o r s t a t u a r y m i g ht work a f t e r . 2 "Windsor F o r e s t " e x e m p l i f i e s t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h " p a r t i c u l a r and p i c t u r e s q u e " f i g u r e s may f a l l . They may b e , . l i k e t h e nymph i n t h e s i m i l e , m y t h o l o g i c a l : . See Pan w i t h F l o c k s , w i t h F r u i t s Pomona crown'd, Here b l u s h i n g F l o r a p a i n t s th'enamel'd Ground. ( 1 1 . 37-38) Or t h e y may be m o r a l : There h a t e f u l Envy.her own Snakes s h a l l f e e l , And P e r s e c u t i o n mourn h e r b r o k e n Wheel: There F a c t i o n r o a r , R e b e l l i o n b i t e h e r C h a i n , And g a s p i n g F u r i e s t h i r s t f o r B l o o d i n v a i n . (11. 419-422) Of " t h e s e l i v i n g f i g u r e s , p a i n t e d by Pope," J o s e p h W a r t o n , , a g a i n r e f l e c t -i n g t h e c r i t i c a l tendency t o encourage p i c t o r i a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , s a i d 3 t h a t " V i r g i l has e x h i b i t e d no images s o , l i v e l y and d i s t i n c t . " Pope's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s may a l s o be n a t u r a l , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the f i g u r e o f F a t h e r Thames, who emerges i n "Windsor F o r e s t " as a com-p l e t e a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : I n t h a t b l e s t Moment, f r o m h i s Oozy Bed O l d F a t h e r Thames advanc'd h i s r e v ' r e n d Head. H i s t r e s s e s d r i p t w i t h Dews,, and o'er t h e Stream H i s s h i n i n g Horns d i f f u s ' d a g o l d e n Gleam: Grav'd on h i s U r n appear'd t h e Moon,.that g u i d e s H i s s w e l l i n g W a t e r s , and a l t e r n a t e Tydes; The f i g u r ' d Streams i n Waves of S i l v e r r o l l ' d , And on t h e i r Banks A u g u s t a r o s e i n G o l d . 69 Around h i s Throne t h e Sea-born B r o t h e r s s t o o d , Who s w e l l w i t h T r i b u t a r y Urns h i s F l o o d . (11. 329-338) The a n c i e n t r i v e r god who. l i f t s h i s v e n e r a b l e head f r o m t h e w a t e r , l o c k s d r i p p i n g and g o l d e n h o r n s r a d i a t i n g l i g h t , i s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n a scene encompassing m o t i o n w i t h i n a s t a t i c p i c t o r i a l a r r a n g e -ment. The scene engraved on h i s u r n , p o r t r a y i n g t h e moon, t h e a c t i o n . of t h e t i d e s , and t h e r i s e o f t h e c i t y o f London, a l s o f r e e z e s t h e move-ment i t d e p i c t s i n t o s t a s i s , becoming a scene w i t h i n a s c e n e , and e x e m p l i f y i n g a t the.same t i m e t h e k i n d of i c o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n seen b e f o r e i n Homer's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t u r e and t h e l i f e of man i n t h e s h i e l d of A c h i l l e s . F u r t h e r i n d i c a t i n g t h e p i c t o r i a l c o n c e p t i o n of t h e e n t i r e t a b l e a u i s t h e g r o u p i n g o f t h e "Sea-born B r o t h e r s ' round t h e t h r o n e of F a t h e r Thames and t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o h i s solemn f i g u r e , made even more i m p r e s s i v e l y c e n t r a l by t h e gleam o f s i l v e r and g o l d . The d i g n i f i e d f i g u r e , on whose engraved u r n we see A u g u s t a , t h e c i t y o f London, r i s i n g i n g o l d , h a i l s " S a c r e d Peace", and speaks o f f u t u r e days w h i c h "Thames's G l o r y t o t h e S t a r s s h a l l r a i s e " ( 1 1 . 355-356). H i s r e g a l appearance and h i s s t a t e l y p r e d i c t i o n s of London's g r e a t m e r c a n t i l e f u t u r e and E n g l a n d ' s g l o r i o u s i m p e r i a l p r o s p e c t s r e v e a l him . as a p i c t o r i a l symbol used n o t o n l y t o p e r s o n i f y the Thames b u t a l s o t o i d e a l i z e r e a l i t y . As an a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e w i t h i n a p i c t o r i a l scene F a t h e r Thames t h u s r e s e m b l e s t h e f i g u r e s seen i n i n n u m e r a b l e I t a l i a n m y t h o l o g i c a l p a i n t i n g s . As a p i c t o r i a l l y - c o n c e i v e d n a t u r a l p e r s o n i f i -c a t i o n , he i s t h e p o e t i c c o u n t e r p a r t , f o r example, of t h e f i g u r e s d e p i c t e d i n Guido R e n i ' s A u r o r a o r N i c o l a s P o u s s i n ' s The Kingdom o f 70 4 F l o r a . Guido p i c t u r e s A p o l l o s u r r o u n d e d i n h i s c h a r i o t by t h e d a n c i n g maidens who p e r s o n i f y t h e h o u r s and p r e c e d e d by Aurora.who f l i e s on b e f o r e t o b r i n g t h e f i r s t l i g h t and s c a t t e r f l o w e r s on t h e e a r t h below. P o u s s i n r e p r e s e n t s t h e s m i l i n g f i g u r e o f F l o r a , i n a garden d i s t r i b u t i n g h e r p e t a l s among t h e group who s u r r o u n d h e r w h i l e o v erhead A p o l l o g u i d e s h i s h o r s e s a c r o s s t h e sky.. .Pope's v i s u a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f F a t h e r Thames r e f l e c t s more t h a n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e c r i t i c a l demand t h a t s u c h f i g u r e s be " p a r t i c u l a r , and p i c t u r e s q u e , " t h a t t h e g e n e r a l be made c o n c r e t e and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and a l l e g o r y r e s c u e d from a b s t r a c t l i f e l e s s n e s s , I t s u g g e s t s more t o o t h a n t h e s t r o n g g e n e r a l i n f l u e n c e o f I t a l i a n mytho-l o g i c a l p a i n t i n g . I t a l s o comments on t h e h a b i t o f a l l e g o r i z i n g m y t h o l o g y . F o r , as a consequence of t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e d e i t i e s of Greece and Rome l o n g b e f o r e i n t o n a t u r a l and m o r a l a b s t r a c t i o n s , t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y n a t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d t h e e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e d f i g u r e s of a n c i e n t gods o r h e r o e s w i t h t h e m o r a l o r n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s a p p r op-r i a t e t o them. To Pope, f o r example, Juno was an "element o f a i r , " J u p i t e r , t h e " e t h e r , " and Neptune,.the s e a . Mars he saw as "mere m a r t i a l Courage w i t h o u t Conduct," Venus as t h e " P a s s i o n of L o v e , " and M i n e r v a as " m a r t i a l Courage w i t h Wisdom" o r "Wisdom.""' T h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n of v i s u a l l y p a r t i c u l a r i z e d m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s w i t h a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s , o r t h e h a b i t o f a l l e g o r i z i n g m y t h o l o g y , was g r e a t l y r e i n -f o r c e d by t h e many books o f e n g r a v i n g s w h i c h formed p a r t o f t h e e i g h t -t e e n t h - e e n t u r y i n h e r i t a n c e from t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and i t s a f t e r m a t h . Of t h e s e books t h e most i m p o r t a n t and i n f l u e n t i a l was C e s a r e R i p a ' s 71 I c o n o l o g i a (1593) w h i c h r e n d e r e d hundreds o f a b s t r a c t i o n s v i s u a l , r e - . p r e s e n t i n g v i r t u e s and v i c e s , e m o t i o n s , i d e a s , a r t s , n a t u r a l phenomena, c i t i e s , and c o u n t r i e s each as s i n g l e f i g u r e s b e a r i n g t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e i n s i g n i a . R i p a ' s book was w i d e l y known t h r o u g h o u t Europe i n Pope's day, and t h e c r e a t i o n of images i n l i t e r a t u r e a f t e r i t s manner was commonplace.. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f F a t h e r Thames, t h e n , though h i s p o r t r a y a l cannot c o n c l u s i v e l y be s a i d t o be t h e d i r e c t consequence of I t a l i a n a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g , t h e h a b i t of a l l e g o r i z i n g m y t h o l o g y , o r R i p a ' s i c o n s , l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t he b r i n g s a l l of t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s t o mind, t h a t he f a i r l y t y p i f i e s t h e p e r s o n i f i e d o r a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s t h e y tended t o p r o d u c e . U n d e r s t o o d i n t h e s e t e r m s , t h e f i g u r e of F a t h e r Thames makes an i n s t r u c t i v e c o n t r a s t t o a n o t h e r of Pope's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , t h e f i g u r e of M e l a n c h o l y i n h i s " E l o i s a t o A b e l a r d " : But o'er t h e t w i l i g h t g r o v e s , and dusky caves,. L o n g - s o u n d i n g i s l e s , and i n t e r m i n g l e d g r a v e s , B l a c k M e l a n c h o l y , s i t s , and round h e r throws A d e a t h - l i k e s i l e n c e , and a d r e a d r e p o s e : Her gloomy p r e s e n c e "saddens a l l t h e s c e n e , Shades e v ' f y f l o w e r , and d a r k e n s e v ' r y g r e e n , . Deepens t h e murmur o f t h e f a l l i n g f l o o d s , And b r e a t h e s a browner h o r r o r on t h e woods. (11. 163-170) Here a g a i n one sees Pope's r e l i a n c e upon a p e r s o n i f i e d f i g u r e t o h e l p s e t f o r t h and comment on h i s s c e n e . . The f i g u r e of M e l a n c h o l y , who, as a p a i n t e r l y d e v i c e , c o u l d be an a c t u a l f i g u r e r a t h e r , t h a n a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , s e r v e s to" a c c o u n t ' f o r t h e atmosphere of the' scene and t o e x p l a i n i t s deployment o f l i g h t , and' shade. J o s e p h Warton a p p r e c i a t e d 72 tha t the a c t u a l scene was not enough i n i t s e l f , that " the e f f e c t and i n f l u e n c e of MELANCHOLY," a f i g u r e " b e a u t i f u l l y p e r s o n i f i e d , " was shown "on every ob jec t tha t o c c u r s , and on every, p a r t of the convent" because " t h a t temper of mind cas t s a gloom on a l l t h i n g s . " 7 The dark and obscure presence of Melancholy c reates i t s e f f e c t . w i t h o u t e x h i b i t i n g those sharp v i s u a l d e t a i l s that d i s t i n g u i s h the. f i g u r e of Fa ther Thames and b r i n g him c l e a r l y b e f o r e the eye . Her e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a d a r k , u n c l e a r presence , out of f o c u s , and not c i r c u m - . s t a n t i a l l y presented to us i n the l i g h t of day, seems to c o n t r a d i c t the p r i n c i p l e s of p i c t o r i a l i s m and to c o r r o b o r a t e the a n t i p i c t o r i a l i s t arguments and v a l u e s of L e s s i n g ' s most important predecessor , Edmund Burke , who d i r e c t l y cha l l enged the t h e o r y , p r a c t i c e , and v a l u e s of neo-c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i s m . For t h i s r e a s o n , and because q u a l i t i e s p r i z e d by Burke appear i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y , a b r i e f examinat ion of h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l be u s e f u l h e r e . Burke mainta ined tha t o b s c u r i t y i s of g r e a t e r a e s t h e t i c i m p o r -tance than c l a r i t y and tha t words r a t h e r than images or v i s u a l d e t a i l s are the means whereby emotions are s t i r r e d and pass ions a f f e c t e d . The s e c r e t of " h e i g h t e n i n g , " or of s e t t i n g t h i n g s " i n t h e i r s t r o n g e s t l i g h t " g i s "by the f o r c e of a j u d i c i o u s o b s c u r i t y . " In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g to B u r k e , so f a r i s a c l e a r n e s s of imagery from be ing a b s o l u t e l y necessary to an i n f l u e n c e upon the p a s s i o n s , , that they may be c o n s i d e r a b l y o p e r -ated upon w i t h o u t p r e s e n t i n g any image at a l l , by c e r t a i n sounds adapted to t h a t purpose ; of which we have a s u f f i c i e n t proof i n the acknowledged and p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s of i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c . (p . 60) 7 3 P a i n t i n g t o Burke i s n e c e s s a r i l y an i m i t a t i v e a r t c o n f i n e d t o t h e r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of n a t u r a l scenes and o b j e c t s ; i t c a n n o t , t h e r e -f o r e , s u c c e s s f u l l y d e p i c t t h e s u b l i m e . P o e t r y , on t h e o t h e r hand, f i n d s one o f i t s g r e a t e s t t r i u m p h s i n t h e s u b l i m e ; " i t s a p p a r i t i o n s , i t s c h i m e r a s , i t s h a r p i e s , i t s a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s , a r e g rand and a f f e c t i n g " ( p . 6 4 ) . Thus, s a y s B u r k e , who m i ght have added Pope's M e l a n c h o l y t o t h e l i s t , "though V i r g i l ' s Fame, and Homer's D i s c o r d a r e o b s c u r e , t h e y a r e m a g n i f i c e n t f i g u r e s " (p. 6 4 ) . C l e a r l y , t h e n , p o e t r y , ; " t a k e n i n i t s most g e n e r a l s e n s e , cannot w i t h s t r i c t p r o p r i e t y be c a l l e d an a r t of i m i t a t i o n " (p. 1 7 2 ) . F o r though d r a m a t i c p o e t r y may be s a i d t o i m i t a t e i n d e s c r i b i n g manners and p a s s i o n s , " d e s c r i p t i v e p o e t r y o p e r a t e s c h i e f l y by s u b s t i t u t i o n ; by t h e means of sounds, w h i c h by custom have t h e e f f e c t of r e a l i t i e s " (p. 1 7 3 ) . M u s i c and p o e t r y t h u s l o g i c a l l y emerge as t h e s i s t e r a r t s . B urke a l s o a t t a c k s t h e "common n o t i o n " t h a t words have t h e power t o " a f f e c t t h e mind by r a i s i n g i n i t i d e a s of t h o s e t h i n g s f o r w h i c h custom has a p p o i n t e d , t h e m t o s t a n d " (p. 1 6 3 ) . Language p e r f o r m s a s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n i m a g i s t i c f u n c t i o n ; words a r e n o t p r o d u c t i v e o f images b u t e v o c a t i v e of emotions and i d e a s : The t r u t h i s , a l l v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n , m e r e l y as naked d e s c r i p t i o n , though n e v e r so e x a c t , conveys so poor and i n s u f f i c i e n t an i d e a o f t h e t h i n g d e s c r i b e d , t h a t i t c o u l d s c a r c e l y have t h e s m a l l e s t e f f e c t , i f t h e s p e a k e r d i d n o t c a l l i n t o h i s a i d t h o s e modes o f speech t h a t mark a s t r o n g and l i v e l y f e e l i n g i n h i m s e l f . (p. 175) The v i e w o f v e r b a l e n a r g e i a t h a t had endured from P l u t a r c h t o A d d i s o n was e x p r e s s e d by Warton: "The u s e , the. f o r c e , , and t h e e x c e l l e n c e 74 o f l a n g u a g e , c e r t a i n l y c o n s i s t s i n r a i s i n g c l e a r , c o m p l e t e , and c i r c u m -9 s t a n t i a l images, and i n t u r n i n g r e a d e r s i n t o s p e c t a t o r s . " B u r k e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n t i p i c t o r i a l i s m , s e p a r a t i n g words from images, i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed: "So l i t t l e does p o e t r y depend f o r i t s e f f e c t on t h e power o f r a i s i n g s e n s i b l e images, t h a t I am c o n v i n c e d i t w o u l d l o s e a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f i t s e n e r g y , i f t h i s were t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n " (p. 1 7 0 ) . C l e a r l y B u r k e ' s t h e o r y , e s p o u s i n g t h e v a l u e s of d a r k n e s s and shadowy o b s c u r i t y , s e e i n g words as e v o c a t i v e n o t of v i s u a l images b u t o f i d e a s and p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t s , , and r e g a r d i n g p o e t r y as an a r t i n w h i c h " t h e p i c t u r e s q u e c o n n e c t i o n i s n o t demanded; because no r e a l p i c t u r e i s formed" (p. 1 7 1 ) , i s h o s t i l e t o u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s . Burke's a t t a c k , , however j u s t i f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o p i c t o r i a l p o etry, e x c e s s i v e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , m e r e l y e n u m e r a t i v e , o r empty of e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l v a l u e s , d i d n o t weaken o r d e s t r o y p i c t o r i a l i s m . T h i s i s a t t e s t e d by t h e r i s e o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e movement, th e s u b j e c t of. t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w h i c h f l o u r i s h e d l a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y . I n f a c t , as Pope's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of M e l a n c h o l y shows, t h e q u a l i t i e s recommended by Burke sometimes appeared t o good e f f e c t i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y . B e s i d e s t h e f i g u r e of M e l a n c h o l y , Pope a l s o g i v e s us t h e amorphous b u t c o n t r o l l i n g images of t h e D u n c i a d : t h e " c l o u d - c o m p e l l i n g Queen", of D u l l n e s s , "Daughter of Chaos and e t e r n a l N i g h t , " who, w i t h "her mighty-wings o u t - s p r e a d , " p e e r s " t h r o ' f o g s t h a t m a g n i f y t h e s c e n e " u n t i l , a t t h e end o f t h e poem, accompanied by h e r p a r e n t s , " N i g h t . P r i m a e v a l " and "Chaos O l d , " she causes t h e l i g h t t o d i e ( I , 79, 12, 27, 80; I V , 6 3 0 ) . 75 And so t h e c u r t a i n f a l l s , "and U n i v e r s a l D a r k n e s s b u r i e s A l l " ( I V , 655-656). The B u r k e i a n v a l u e s o f o b s c u r i t y and d a r k n e s s had been seen b e f o r e i n a r t . Rembrandt, C a r a v a g g i o , and S a l v a t o r Rosa, f o r example, o f t e n embodied them i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . I n d o i n g so t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t , t h e c o n t r a s t between c l e a r , d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s s u c h as F a t h e r Thames and s i m p l i f i e d , shadowy, d i m l y - s e e n f i g u r e s l i k e M e l a n c h o l y does n o t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p i c t o r i a l f r o m t h e n o n - p i c t o r i a l b u t m e r e l y e x p r e s s e s t h e d i f f e r i n g c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h s u c h f i g u r e s appear and t h e d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s each i s i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . They make t h i s c l e a r by showing t h a t t h e absence of c l e a r , s h a r p , b r i g h t l y - l i t d e t a i l i n p a i n t i n g does n o t mean t h a t t h e v i e w e r no l o n g e r sees b u t m e r e l y t h a t , more d i m l y and d i f f e r e n t l y , he sees l e s s . I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t Pope's b l a c k , amorphous image o f M e l a n c h o l y d i f f e r s p i c t o r i a l l y from t h e more e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e d f i g u r e s of h i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d F a t h e r Thames. A n o t h e r o f Pope's poems, "The Temple o f r F a m e , " u s e f u l l y i l l u s -t r a t e s f u r t h e r a s p e c t s o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i s m , n o t a b l y i t s u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n and t h e i n f l u e n c e of c l a s s i c a l and baroque s c u l p t u r e . The poem opens w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n seen i n "Windsor F o r e s t " : Here naked R o c k s , and empty Wastes were s e e n , There Tow'ry C i t i e s , and t h e F o r e s t s green.: Here s a i l i n g S h i p s d e l i g h t t h e w a n d ' r i n g E y e s ; There T r e e s , and i n t e r m i n g l ' d Temples r i s e : Now a c l e a r Sun t h e s h i n i n g Scene d i s p l a y s , The t r a n s i e n t Landscape now i n C l o u d s decays." ( 1 1 . 15-20) 76 Here a g a i n we see Pope d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o a n t i t h e t i c a l l y p l a c e d e l e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e scene. Some of t h e s e — t h e s h i p s , t r e e s , t h e " t r a n s i e n t " l a n d s c a p e , and t h e " i n t e r m i n g l ' d T e m p l e s " — r e c a l l t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f C l a u d e and P o u s s i n , and, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e gloomy S a l v a t o r i a n scene o v e r w h i c h t h e f i g u r e o f M e l a n c h o l y p r e s i d e s , r e v e a l t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of C l a u d e , P o u s s i n , and Rosa was n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o Thomson and t h e l a t e r p i c t u r e s q u e movement.. More i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h i s , however, i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a g n i f i c e n t domed Temple of F a m e , . f r o n t e d by i t s " f o u r b r a z e n G a t e s , on Columns l i f t e d h i g h " ( 1 . 6 7 ) , and adorned w i t h i n and w i t h o u t by s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s i m a g i n a r y e d i f i c e and i t s s c u l p t u r a l a c c o u t r e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s an e x t e n d e d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e . A good, i n i t i a l example of t h e dozens o f s p e c i f i c i c o n s making up t h e poem i s t h e p i c t u r e of t h e temple g a t e s , a d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i c o n i c e x p r e s s i o n of n e o - c l a s s i c a l v a l u e s . I n t h e same way t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f A c h i l l e s ' s h i e l d , t h e Bower o f B l i s s , and t h e t a p e s t r y v i e w e d by L u c r e c e t r a n s c e n d e d mere e n u m e r a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t e d m o r a l , a r t i s t i c , o r e m o t i o n a l v a l u e s , Pope's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e n o r t h e r n " F r o n t i s p i e c e " o f t h e Temple embodies an e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s t a s t e f o r t h e G o t h i c . T h i s g a t e i s "o'er-wrought w i t h Ornaments of b a r b ' r o u s P r i d e " ( 1 . 120) among w h i c h " h o r r i d Forms" s t a n d "on rude I r o n Columns smear'd w i t h B l o o d " (11. 125-126). The w e s t e r n g a t e , however, e x p r e s s e s t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l a d m i r a t i o n f o r a n c i e n t Greek a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e : Westward, a sumptuous F r o n t i s p i e c e a p p e a r ' d , On D o r i c p i l l a r s o f w h i t e M a r b l e r e a r ' d , Crown'd w i t h an A r c h i t r a v e of a n t i q u e M o l d , And S c u l p t u r e r i s i n g on t h e roughen'd G o l d . (11. 75-78) These i c o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n s s u g g e s t t h e theme of t h e poem. F o r j u s t as Homer's s h i e l d e x p r e s s e d i n m e t a l many of t h e themes o f t h e I l i a d , so Pope's m a g n i f i c e n t , s c u l p t u r a l l y - d e c o r a t e d Temple v i s u a l i z e s i n p o e t r y t h e c u l t u r a l and e t h i c a l h i s t o r y of man. The s c u l p t u r e s q u e p o r t r a i t s w i t h i n t h i s p i c t o r i a l i s t p r o j e c t i o n o f human h i s t o r y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f r e q u e n t l y i l l u s t r a t i n g f u r t h e r a s p e c t s of n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i s m . F o r example, t h e f i g u r e s g r a c i n g t h e w a l l s of t h e Temple a r e seen as "Heroes" who " i n animated M a r b l e f r o w n " o r as " L e g i s l a t o r s " who "seem t o t h i n k i n s t o n e " (11. 73-74). Such f i g u r e s e x e m p l i f y t h e d o c t r i n e of e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and seen b e f o r e i n P l u t a r c h , P h i l o s t r a t u s , and L o v e l a c e . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e i s t h a t o f H e r c u l e s who, t o g e t h e r , w i t h t h e h e r o s Theseus and P e r s e u s , s t a n d s on t h e westward w a l l : There g r e a t A l c i d e s , s t o o p i n g w i t h h i s T o i l , R e s t s on h i s C l u b , and h o l d s t h e H e s p e r i a n S p o i l . ( 1 1 . 81-82) That t h i s b r i e f i c o n i c p o r t r a i t i s meant t o r e c a l l t h e famous a n c i e n t s t a t u e known as t h e Farnese- H e r c u l e s , ^ a c o l o s s a l m a r b l e f i g u r e l e a n -i n g s ideways on h i s c l u b , i s shown by Pope's s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t h i s  F i g u r e o f H e r c u l e s i s _ drawn w i t h an eye t o t h e P o s i t i o n of t h e famous  S t a t u e o f F a r n e s e " (p. 1 7 5 ) . The i c o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e poem i s 78 t h u s a p e r f e c t example of p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i v e n e s s , showing a neo-c l a s s i c a l p o e t e v o k i n g a p i c t u r e i n t h e minds of h i s r e a d e r s by making e c o n o m i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o a famous work of a r t , c o n f i d e n t o f h i s r e a d e r s ' a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and a p p r e c i a t e i t . The s c u l p t u r e s q u e p o r t r a i t o f H e r c u l e s a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s a n o t h e r form o f p i c t o r i a l i s t i d e a l i z a t i o n . J u s t as F a t h e r Thames, so l i k e R e n i ' s and P o u s s i n ' s i d e a l i z e d n a t u r a l i c o n s , i s a p i c t o r i a l means o f a c h i e v i n g i d e a l i z a t i o n , so t h e p o r t r a i t of H e r c u l e s p e r m i t s i d e a l i z a -t i o n t h r o u g h t h e e v o c a t i o n of t h e i d e a l b e a u t y of a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e . R e y n o l d s saw t h e b e a u t y and n o b i l i t y o f c l a s s o r s p e c i e s as s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n i t s g e n e r a l i t y , c e n t r a l f o r m , and i n v a r i a b i l i t y . He r e j e c t e d t h e " p i c t u r e s q u e " s c u l p t u r e of a r t i s t s l i k e B e r n i n i and r e l a t e d i d e a l b e a u t y t o t h e s c u l p t u r e d form r e p r e s e n t e d by s t a t u e s l i k e t h e F a r n e s e H e r c u l e s . Pope's i c o n i c r e f e r e n c e , c l e a r l y e v o k i n g such s c u l p t u r a l f o r m , a c h i e v e s p i c t o r i a l l y t h e same i d e a l i z e d b e a u t y sought by. R e y n o l d s . I n c o n t r a s t t o i c o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n s e v o k i n g t h e s e v e r i t y , n o b i l i t y , and g r a n d e u r t h a t R e y n o l d s saw i n a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e a r e o t h e r s w h i c h r e c a l l t h e d r a m a t i c e x c i t e m e n t of h i g h baroque s c u l p t u r e . Pope's s c u l p t u r e s q u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f P i n d a r i n h i s " C a r r of S i l v e r b r i g h t " s u s t a i n e d by f o u r swans " w i t h Heads advanc'd, and P i n i o n s s t r e t c h ' d f o r F l i g h t " (11. 210-211) i s a v e r y good example. The d r a m a t i z a t i o n i n s t o n e of t h e a e r i a l passage o f P i n d a r who r i d e s " l i k e some f u r i o u s P r o p h e t " ( 1 . 212) , h i s swans' heads e l o n g a t e d i n f l i g h t and t h e i r w i ngs o u t s p r e a d , r e s e m b l e s t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s e s of I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g , 79 s u c h as t h o s e d e p i c t e d i n t h e A u r o r a f r e s c o e s of Guido. R e h i and G u e r c i n o . ^ B o t h o f t h e s e c e i l i n g p a i n t i n g s i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y p o r t r a y A p o l l o h i g h i n h i s c a r sweeping p a s t drawn by f l y i n g s t e e d s . An even b e t t e r baroque i c o n i n t h e poem i s t h e group of s c u l p -t u r e d f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g an a n c i e n t Greek c h a r i o t r a c e : Neptune and J o v e s u r v e y t h e r a p i d Race: The Y o u t hs hang o'er t h e i r C h a r i o t s as t h e y r u n ; The f i e r y S t eeds seem s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e S t o n e ; The Champions i n d i s t o r t e d P o s t u r e s t h r e a t , And a l l appear'd I r r e g u l a r l y g r e a t . (11. 217-220) I f Pope's i c o n i c r e f e r e n c e t o H e r c u l e s shows him c o n s c i o u s l y r e -c a p t u r i n g t h e a u s t e r e , f o r m a l , r e g u l a r i z e d s t a b i l i t y and r e p o s e of a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e i n w h i c h R e y n o l d s saw i d e a l b e a u t y , t h i s i c o n i c d e p i c -t i o n shows him e x c i t i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l i s m , t h e f l o w i n g i l l u s i o n i s m , and t h e a g i t a t e d , d r a m a t i c movement of t h e e q u a l l y w e l l - k n o w n s c u l p t u r e of t h e I t a l i a n h i g h baroque. I t would n o t be d i f f i c u l t f o r Pope's r e a d e r s t o v i s u a l i z e t h e f l o w i n g d r a p e r i e s and t h e e x c i t e d .'faces of t h e young men h a n g i n g o v e r t h e i r c h a r i o t s ; t h e s t r a i n o f t h e i r champions, d i s p l a y i n g i t s e l f i n " d i s t o r t e d P o s t u r e s " ; and t h e h e r o i c p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n of a l l t h e c o m p e t i t o r s who, c o n s c i o u s of t h e " s u r v e y " o f t h e gods, appear n o t as c a l m l y a u s t e r e , b a l a n c e d f i g u r e s b u t as f i g u r e s " I r r e g u l a r l y g r e a t . " The n o v e l e f f e c t s o f t h i s baroque d i s t o r t i o n and i r r e g u l a r i t y , as w e l l as t h e i l l u s i o n i s m i n w h i c h t h e h o r s e s "seem s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e S t o n e , " were condemned i n t h e s c u l p t u r e o f B e r n i n i by R e y n o l d s . He saw them as e x p r e s s i o n s o f " f a n c y " and " c a p r i c e , " m e r e l y " p i c t u r e s q u e e f f e c t s , c o n t r a s t s , o r p e t t y e x c e l l e n c i e s , " and t h e r e f o r e " i n c o m p a t i b l e 80 w i t h t h a t s o b r i e t y and g r a v i t y w h i c h i s p e c u l i a r l y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c k o f t h i s a r t . " He w o u l d n o t have approved Pope's s c u l p t u r e s q u e i c o n b ecause i t p e r m i t s t h e u n c l a s s i c a l detachment of d r a p e r y f r o m t h e f i g u r e , " i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e appearance of f l y i n g i n t h e a i r , " b e c a u s e i t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e baroque " f o l l y o f a t t e m p t i n g t o make s t o n e s p o r t 12 and f l u t t e r i n t h e a i r . " But t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t R e y n o l d s ' c r i t i c i s m o f B e r n i n i i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o Pope's i c o n . s e r v e s t o measure how w e l l t h i s i c o n e x e m p l i f i e s t h e baroque i n Pope's p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y . The scene o f t h e competing c h a r i o t e e r s b e i n g watched by t h e gods b i n d s gods and m o r t a l s t o g e t h e r i n a pagan form o f t h e C h r i s t i a n baroque t r a d i t i o n o f j o i n i n g Heaven and E a r t h . A n o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s baroque h a b i t i n t h e p o e t r y of Pope, t h i s t i m e s e r v i n g t h e p u r p o s e s of s a t i r e , i s t h e c l i m a x o f t h e D u n c i a d , where t h e g r e a t Goddess a p p e a r s , causes t h e l i g h t t o d i e , and b r i n g s u n i v e r s a l d a r k n e s s t o a l l t h e e a r t h . And a f u r t h e r example, more i n t h e manner o f t h e C h r i s t i a n b a r o q u e , can be found i n E l o i s a ' s p r o j e c t i o n of t h e d e a t h of A b e l a r d : I n t r a n c e e x t a t i c may t h y pangs be drown'd, B r i g h t c l o u d s d e s c e n d , and A n g e l s watch t h e e r o u n d , From o p e n i n g s k i e s may s t r e a m i n g g l o r i e s s h i n e , And S a i n t s embrace t h e e w i t h a l o v e l i k e mine. ( 1 1 . 339 -342) I n t h e s e l i n e s we see Heaven and e a r t h j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n baroque t r a d i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by s u c h p a i n t i n g s as Domenichino's Communion of S t . Jerome and su c h s c u l p t u r e as B e r n i n i ' s 13 E c s t a s y of S t . T h e r e s a i n t h e C o r n a r o C h a p e l . 81 Y e t , though s u c h pagan, s a t i r i c a l , o r C h r i s t i a n baroque moments de m o n s t r a t e Pope's v e r s a t i l i t y , t h e y do n o t dominate t h e poems i n w h i c h t h e y appear and r e n d e r t h e s e poems baroque. Thus i n "The Temple of Fame" t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e group o f c h a r i o t e e r s , and, f o r t h a t m a t t e r , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l t h e g r e a t l i t e r a r y , h i s t o r i c a l , . a n d m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s o f t h e p a s t , a r e d e d i c a t e d n o t t o t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f Heaven and i t s a n g e l s i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n baroque b u t , i n l i n e w i t h t h e b a s i c r e a l i s m o f t h e c e n t u r y , t o t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s of man on e a r t h . The D u n c i a d , t o o , makes use of i t s g r e a t goddess and i t s d a r k s i n i s t e r movements i n o r d e r t o more e f f e c t i v e l y s a t i r i z e and condemn t h e l i t e r a r y h a cks a n d . v i c e s of Grub S t r e e t . And " E l o i s a t o A b e l a r d , " w h i c h seems c l o s e s t t o C h r i s t i a n baroque v a l u e s , i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s o l v i n g E l o i s a ' s i n t e r n a l debate between e a r t h l y l o v e and r e l i g i o u s d u t y r a t h e r t h a n r e v e a l i n g t h e g l o r y of Heaven and i t s a n g e l s t o t h e eyes of men. B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p o e t r y of Thomson, a few f i n a l o b s e r v a -t i o n s s h o u l d be made c o n c e r n i n g p i c t o r i a l i s m i n Pope's t r a n s l a t i o n s and s a t i r i c a l p o e t r y . W i t h r e s p e c t t o Homer's I l i a d , w h i c h Pope found h i g h l y p i c t o r i a l and l e f t even more so i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t Pope f o u n d t h e " p r i n c i p a l B e a u t y " o f Book X t o be t h e " L i v e l i n e s s o f i t s P a i n t i n g s . " T h i s " d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t among a l l t h e o t h e r s . " The d e t a i l s o f t h e scene i n w h i c h D o l o n meets h i s . d e a t h , t h e "marshy Spot of Ground" w i t h t h e " T a m a r i s k , o r a q u a t i c P l a n t s upon w h i c h t h e y hang h i s S p o i l s and t h e Reeds t h a t a r e heap'd t o g e t h e r t o mark t h e p l a c e , " a r e d e t a i l s "the.most P i c t u r e s q u e i m a g i n a b l e . " But 82 t h e c h i e f b e a u t y of t h e book l i e s " i n t h e P r o s p e c t , a f i n e r t h a n w h i c h 14 was n e v e r drawn by any P e n c i l . " Here Pope shows t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f . l i t e r a r y : l a n d s c a p e t h a t i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d o n l y w i t h Thomson and t h e p i c t u r e s q u e movement t h a t came l a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y . The r i c h n e s s of Pope's p i c t o r i a l i s t p r a c t i c e i s f u r t h e r d i s -p l a y e d i n h i s s a t i r i c a l p o e t r y . The p r o g r e s s i o n of h i g h l y p i c t o r i a l s c e nes i n "The Rape of t h e L o c k , " f o r example, o f t e n i n t h e m s e l v e s r e m i n i s c e n t of I t a l i a n m y t h o l o g i c a l p a i n t i n g , c o n s t i t u t e s a good neo-c l a s s i c a l example of t h e " p i c t u r e - g a l l e r y " method o f a c h i e v i n g t o t a l form i n a poem, t h e method used e a r l i e r by Longus, Kebes, and M a r v e l l . The movement fr o m scene t o s c e n e , a s s i s t e d by a u t h o r i a l comment and n a r r a t i v e l i n k s , i s the r e v e r s e o f t h e u s u a l A r i s t o t e l i a n n a r r a t i v e f orm whose s u p p o r t i n g p i c t u r e s , i f any, a r e m e r e l y i n c i d e n t a l . The same p i c t o r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n governs t h e form o f E p i s t l e I I of t h e " M o r a l E s s a y s , " "Of t h e C h a r a c t e r s o f Women," i n w h i c h t h e movement, l i k e t h e s c e n i c p r o g r e s s i o n i n "The Rape of t h e L o c k , " i s f r o m one s a t i r i c l i t e r a r y p o r t r a i t t o a n o t h e r . The n e o - c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l scene i s an enormously v a r i e d one, e n r i c h e d by a m u l t i t u d e of i n f l u e n c e s from t h e l a r g e t r a d i t i o n of I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t . The passages f r o m Pope c i t e d t o t h i s p o i n t have been i n t e n d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e some of t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s : p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g , and R i p a i n "Windsor F o r e s t " ; c l a s s i c a l m a r b l e s and baroque s c u l p t u r e i n ''The Temple o f Fame"; s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g i n " E l o i s a t o A b e l a r d " arid "The Temple of Fame"; and t h e C h r i s t i a n baroque i n 83 " E l o i s a t o A b e l a r d . " A t t h e same t i m e t h e s e p a s s a ges u s e f u l l y , i l l u s t r a t e t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y , t h e t e c h n i q u e of p i c t o r i a l s u g g e s t i o n , t h e methods of i d e a l i z a t i o n , and t h e " p i c t u r e -g a l l e r y " t e c h n i q u e of a c h i e v i n g t o t a l p o e t i c form. A l m o s t e v e r y n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t d i s p l a y s t o some e x t e n t t h e i n f l u e n c e s from I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t and t h e p i c t o r i a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t have been, d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o Pope. Of t h e s e p o e t s none i s more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n James Thomson. F o r Thomson can be seen as a p o e t l o o k i n g b a c k , as d i d Pope, t o a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e and t h e a r t of t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and i t s a f t e r m a t h , and as a p o e t l o o k i n g f o r w a r d , a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e r i s e o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e s c h o o l . ^ H i s p i c t o r i a l scene can be v i e w e d i n a.double p e r s p e c t i v e : as a p r o d u c t o f i t s c r e a t o r ' s a l l e g i a n c e t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e i n a r t o r , more t r a d i t i o n a l l y , as an o r i g i n a l i n f l u e n c e p a v i n g t h e way f o r t h e l a n d s c a p e - o r i e n t e d work of p i c t u r e s q u e p o e t s , p a i n t e r s , and g a r d e n e r s . The l a t t e r and more common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Thomson t e n d s t o v i e w him as a p r e - r o m a n t i c t o d i s s o c i a t e him from o t h e r neo-c l a s s i c a l p o e t s l i k e Pope and t o i n t e r p r e t h i s p i c t o r i a l i s m o n l y i n terms of i t s e v o c a t i o n s o f C l a u d i a n and S a l v a t o r i a n s c e n e s . Because t h e p i c t u r e s q u e movement i s t h e s u b j e c t : o f t h e n e x t c h a p t e r y t h e i l l u s t r a -t i o n of Thomson's p i c t o r i a l scene w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n t h e same terms as Pope!s, i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s r e l a t i o n s t o t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n , c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e , and I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t . D e s p i t e i t s i n f l u e n c e upon l a t e r p i c t u r e s q u e a t t i t u d e s towards s c e n e r y and though h i s b l a n k v e r s e d i f f e r s f rom Pope's c o u p l e t s , 84 Thomson b e l o n g s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y t o t h e same neo-c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l as Pope and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . H i s p i c t o r i a l i s m shows t h a t h e , no l e s s t h a n t h e y , l o o k e d t o a n t i q u i t y and t o t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t o f I t a l y . He r e a d t h e same c r i t i c a l t r e a t i s e s , c o l l e c t e d t h e same k i n d of p r i n t s and e n g r a v i n g s , and made h i s j o u r n e y t o I t a l y . And f i n a l l y , i n t h e s p i r i t o f Pope's " E p i s t l e t o Mr. J e r v a s , " Thomson, i n h i s poem "On t h e D e ath of Mr. W i l l i a m Aikman, t h e P a i n t e r , " d i s p l a y e d t h e t y p i c a l n e o - c l a s s i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of p a i n t e r s and p a i n t i n g : Oh, c o u l d I draw, my f r i e n d , t h y g e n u i n e mind J u s t as t h e l i v i n g forms by t hee d e s i g n e d , . Of R a p h a e l ' s f i g u r e s none s h o u l d f a i r e r s h i n e , Nor " T i t i a n ' s c o l o u r s l o n g e r l a s t t h e n mine.16 However, s i n c e Thomson has been p l a c e d by some c r i t i c s " a t the head of a s c h o o l of r u r a l and n a t u r a l p o e t r y as opposed t o t h e u r b a n and a r t i f i c i a l s c h o o l o f P o p e " ± 7 and h i s l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e r e f i n e m e n t s of .a p o e t r y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h men, manners, and town, i t i s w o r t h p o i n t i n g o u t , t h a t Thomson, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h i s c h i e f d i s t i n c t i o n as p o e t i s p r o p e r l y r e c o g -n i z e d t o be h i s n a t u r a l s c e n e , was n o t e x c l u s i v e l y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t u r a l s cenes and o b j e c t s . F o r example, h i s n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e n move fr o m o b j e c t o r scene t o n a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d as a w h o l e . H i s d e i s t i c v i s i o n f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t s phenomena as t h e compon-e n t p a r t s of a g r e a t e r o r g a n i c e n t i t y , a u n i v e r s e o r d e r e d p e r f e c t l y by n a t u r a l law b u t a t t h e same t i m e d i v i n e . Thus h i s theme i s n o t s i m p l y 85 t h e b e a u t y and a p p e a l of l a n d s c a p e b u t t h e l a r g e r d e s i g n and p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e cosmic scheme, t h e d i v i n e work of a r t w h i c h i s " t h e f i n i s h e d u n i v e r s i t y o f t h i n g s " r e v e a l e d " i n a l l i t s o r d e r , m a g n i t u d e , .and p a r t s . " The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s g r a n d s y s t e m l e a d s t o a d o r a t i o n o f t h a t "Power" who " f i l l s , s u s t a i n s , and a c t u a t e s t h e w h o l e " (11. 140-144). F u r t h e r m o r e , j u s t as h i s s t y l i z e d l a n g u a g e , h i s M i l t o n i c p h r a s e s , and h i s L a t i n a t e d i c t i o n mark him s t y l i s t i c a l l y , as a n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t , so h i s p o e t i c c o n c e r n w i t h a r t , i n d u s t r y , and c i v i l i z a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e s o c i a l , e t h i c a l , . a n d c u l t u r a l themes t y p i c a l o f A u g u s t a n v e r s e . A good example i l l u s t r a t i n g Thomson's b a s i c n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o s i t i o n can be found i n t h e poem L i b e r t y where he e x p r e s s e s h i s v i e w o f a r t , p r e s e n t i n g i t as t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e e v i d e n c e o f man's a c h i e v e m e n t s , as t h e r e c o r d w i t h o u t w h i c h c i v i l i z a t i o n w o u l d be f u t i l e and empty: However p u f f e d w i t h power and gorged w i t h w e a l t h A n a t i o n be; l e t t r a d e enormous r i s e , L e t E a s t and South t h e i r m i n g l e d t r e a s u r e pour T i l l , s w e l l e d i m p e t u o u s , t h e c o r r u p t i n g f l o o d B u r s t o'er t h e c i t y and devour t h e l a n d — r Y e t , t h e s e n e g l e c t e d , t h e s e r e c o r d i n g a r t s , W e a l t h r o t s , a n u i s a n c e ; . a n d , o b l i v i o u s sunk, That n a t i o n must a n o t h e r C a r t h a g e l i e . I f n o t by them, on monumental b r a s s , On s c u l p t u r e d m a r b l e , on t h e d e a t h l e s s page Im p r e s s e d , renown had l e f t no t r a c e b e h i n d : I n . v a i n , t o f u t u r e t i m e s , t h e . s a g e had t h o u g h t , The l e g i s l a t o r p l a n n e d , t h e h e r o found A beauteous d e a t h , t h e p a t r i o t t o i l e d i n v a i n . The awarders t h e y o f fame's i m m o r t a l w r e a t h ! They r o u s e a m b i t i o n , t h e y t h e mind e x a l t , G i v e g r e a t i d e a s , l o v e l y forms i n f u s e , D e l i g h t t h e g e n e r a l e y e , and, d r e s s e d by them, The m o r a l Venus glows w i t h d o u b l e charms". (V, 381-399) Thomson's poem p r e s e n t s a " v i s i o n " o f L i b e r t y from a n c i e n t 86 t i m e s t o ^ the E n g l i s h p r e s e n t , f o l l o w i n g h e r s t o r y from age t o age, c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y , and c i v i l i z a t i o n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . . I t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e c u l t u r a l and e t h i c a l h i s t o r y v i s u a l i z e d by Pope i n h i s "Temple of Fame" i n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n t o p o l i t i c a l and c i v i c t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s and works of a r t . N o n e t h e l e s s , as t h e passage above makes c l e a r , t h e poem a t t a c h e s g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o a r t , s e e i n g i t as v i t a l t o t h e c i v i c t r a d i t i o n s , and v i r t u e s w h i c h i t s e r v e s . T h i s v i e w o f t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f a r t and t h e emphasis upon i t s impor-t a n c e , s c a r c e l y a t t r i b u t e s o f a r u r a l p o e t d e d i c a t e d o n l y t o f r e s h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l a n d s c a p e s c e n e r y , l e a d Thomson i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Greek a r t w h i c h p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l g u i d e t o h i s a t t i t u d e towards p i c t o r i a l i s m . He b e g i n s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e o r i g i n o f t h e a r t s i n Greece: F i r s t , e l d e r S c u l p t u r e t a u g h t h e r s i s t e r a r t C o r r e c t d e s i g n ; where g r e a t i d e a s shone, And i n t h e s e c r e t t r a c e e x p r e s s i o n spoke; Taught h e r t h e g r a c e f u l a t t i t u d e , t h e t u r n And beauteous a i r s o f head; t h e n a t i v e a c t , Or b o l d o r e a s y ; and, c a s t f r e e b e h i n d , The s w e l l i n g m a n t l e ' s w e l l a d j u s t e d f l o w . ( I I , 324-330) S c u l p t u r e comes f i r s t and, r e m i n d i n g us of R e y n o l d s , t e a c h e s p a i n t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n and how t o convey i d e a s . , The p r i m a c y o f s c u l p t u r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s r o l e i n neo-c l a s s i c a l p i c t o r i a l i d e a l i z a t i o n , a r o l e d e m o n s t r a t e d by Pope's F a r n e s e H e r c u l e s i n . " T h e Temple of Fame." S c u l p t u r e a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s two q u a l i t i e s r e g a r d e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y as t h e h a l l m a r k s o f t h e b e s t p a i n t i n g : g r a c e f u l n e s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e v e l a t i o n . 87 The accompanying d e s c r i p t i o n s i n L i b e r t y o f t h e p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e of a n c i e n t Greece emphasize t h e q u a l i t y of e n a r g e i a w h i c h t h i s a r t d i s p l a y s and f u r t h e r r e v e a l Thomson's n e o - c l a s s i c a l o r i e n t a -t i o n towards t h e v a l u e s o f c l a s s i c a l and R e n a i s s a n c e p i c t o r i a l i s m . The " f a i r i d e a s " and " d e l i g h t f u l f o r m s " of G r e e c e , f o r example, though i d e a l i z e d , a r e n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n l i f e l i k e terms by t h o s e famous s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s i n which. S e l e c t i n g b e a u t y ' s c h o i c e , and t h a t a g a i n E x a l t i n g , b l e n d i n g i n t o a p e r f e c t w h o l e , Thy workmen l e f t even n a t u r e ' s s e l f b e h i n d . ( I I , 230, 234-236) Thomson sees t h e g e n i u s o f Greece e x p r e s s e d i n " t h e l i v e f e a t u r e s . . . of b r e a t h i n g s t o n e " ( I I , 3 0 2 ) , i n t h e v e r i s i m i l i t u d e o f i t s s c u l p t u r e d f o r m s . H i s l a u d a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i m i t a t i v e l i f e l i k e n e s s o f a n c i e n t Greek s t a t u a r y i s e n t i r e l y i n t h e s p i r i t o f P l u t a r c h and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : M i n u t e l y p e r f e c t a l l ! Each d i m p l e sunk, And e v e r y m u s c l e s w e l l e d , as n a t u r e t a u g h t . I n t r e s s e s , b r a i d e d gay, t h e m a r b l e waved; Flowed i n l o o s e r o b e s , o r t h i n t r a n s p a r e n t v e i l s ; Sprun'g i n t o m o t i o n ; s o f t e n e d i n t o f l e s h ; Was f i r e d t o p a s s i o n , o r r e f i n e d i n t o s o u l . : ( I I , 307-312) S i m i l a r l y , t h e p a i n t i n g o f G r e e c e , though i t t o o i d e a l i z e s i t s s u b j e c t , i s seen by Thomson as i m i t a t i n g l i f e : Nor l e s s t h y p e n c i l w i t h c r e a t i v e t o u c h Shed mimic l i f e , when a l l thy. b r i g h t e s t "dames Assembled Z e u x i s i n h i s H e l e n mixed. ( I I , 313-315) 88 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s Thomson p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i c o n i c p o r t r a i t s o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l a n c i e n t m a r b l e s seen i n Pope's "Temple o f Fame" and admired so w i d e l y i n t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . H i s s c u l p t u r e s q u e image of t h e F a r n e s e H e r c u l e s , f o r example, though i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h Pope's b r i e f i c o n i c r e f e r e n c e , . i m p l i e s t h e same a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i d e a l b e a u t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c h f i g u r e s : I n l e a n i n g s i t e , r e s p i r i n g f r o m h i s t o i l s , The w e l l known h e r o who d e l i v e r e d Greece,. H i s ample c h e s t a l l tempested w i t h f o r c e , U n c o n q u e r a b l e r e a r e d . She saw t h e head, B r e a t h i n g t h e h e r o , s m a l l , o f G r e c i a n s i z e , S c a r c e more e x t e n s i v e t h a n t h e sinewy neck; The s p r e a d i n g s h o u l d e r s , m u s c u l a r and b r o a d ; The w h ole a mass of s w e l l i n g s i n e w s j . t o u c h e d I n t o harmonious shape. ( I V , 140-148) T h i s d e t a i l e d i c o n i c p a s s a g e , so d i f f e r e n t f r o m Pope's s u g g e s t i v e c o u p l e t i n i t s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c n a t u r a l i s m , r e f l e c t s t h e same sense of harmony and u n P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m , t h e same f e e l i n g f o r t h e i d e a l b e a u t y of c l a s s i c a l l y s c u l p t u r e d m a r b l e s t y p i c a l o f Pope, R e y n o l d s , and t h e age.' The i m p o r t a n c e , t h e n , o f t h e c i v i c v i r t u e s and t r a d i t i o n s and t h e a r t s w h i c h s e r v e d them, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i c o n i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l i s m and i d e a l i z e d b e a u t y of a n c i e n t Greek a r t de m o n s t r a t e Thomson's i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f Pope and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . H i s vague p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n L i b e r t y o f t h e f i g u r e o f P a i n t i n g , , t h e P a i n t i n g o f I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y , shows h i s a t t i t u d e towards t h e a r t w h i c h shaped E n g l i s h t a s t e s i n t h e p e r i o d and i s c o n f i r m a t o r y o f t h i s a f f i l -i a t i o n : 89 I n e l e g a n t d e s i g n , I m p r o v i n g n a t u r e : i n i d e a s , f a i r Or g r e a t , e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e . f i n e a n t i q u e ; I n a t t i t u d e , e x p r e s s i o n , a i r s d i v i n e — Her sons of Rome and F l o r e n c e b o r e t h e p r i z e . To t h o s e of V e n i c e she t h e magic a r t Of c o l o u r s m e l t i n g i n t o c o l o u r s gave. T h e i r s too i t was by one e mbracing mass Of l i g h t and shade, that- s e t t l e s round t h e w h o l e , Or v a r i e s t r e m u l o u s from p a r t t o p a r t , O'er a l l a b i n d i n g harmony t o throw, . To r a i s e t h e p i c t u r e , and r e p o s e t h e s i g h t . ( I V , 232-243) Thomson's r e n d i t i o n s o f n a t u r a l s c e n e s , upon w h i c h h i s r e p u t a -t i o n as p o e t l a r g e l y r e s t s ' , a l s o r e v e a l h i s r e l a t i o n t o p r e c e d i n g example and t r a d i t i o n . Thus The Seasons, t h e l a s t of h i s poems t o be c o n s i d e r e d , n o t o n l y f a l l s w i t h i n t h e l o n g l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t h a t embraces t h e I d y l l s of T h e o c r i t u s , t h e E c l o g u e s of V i r g i l , and t h e Shepheards C a l e n d e r o f Spenser b u t a l s o b r i n g s t o mind t h e scenes o f 18 c y c l i c a l a c t i v i t y common i n m e d i e v a l a r t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s e a s o n p i e c e s i n s u c h Books o f Hours as Les T r e s R i c h e s Heures du Due de B e r r y , books produced i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h 19 c e n t u r i e s . Thomson's Seasons i s a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t of N i c o l a s P o u s s i n ' s f o u r p a i n t i n g s of t h e d i f f e r e n t seasons as w e l l as t h o s e i n t h e same 20 genre p a i n t e d by Rubens, Bassano, and o t h e r s . Then, t o o , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of e x t e r n a l n a t u r e i n Thomson's poem a c c o r d w i t h t h e t a s t e i n . l a n d s c a p e c r e a t e d by s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g : f o r e s t and f a r m , p a r k l a n d , w a t e r f a l l s , 21 -r i v e r s , h a r b o u r s , m o u n t a i n s , h i l l s , and r u i n s . Arid i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t of t h e many s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h s c e n e s , p r o s p e c t s , 90 and v i s t a s d e p i c t i n g t h i s k i n d o f s c e n e r y "season p i c t u r e s were c e r t a i n l y 22 one o f t h e most p o p u l a r . " Thus w i t h r e s p e c t t o models f o r p i c t u r e s q u e v i s i o n t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y man of t a s t e found t h e s e , f i r s t l y i n h i s own n a t i v e l a n d s c a p e t r a d i t i o n , h e a v i l y i n d e b t e d as i t was t o p a i n t e r s s u c h as S w a n e v e l t , Van E v e r d i n g e n , Berchem, and Van D i e s t , and s e c o n d l y i n t h e works of S a l v a t o r R o sa, Gaspar P o u s s i n , and C l a u d e L o r r a i n , p a i n t e r s f o r whom he d e v e l o p e d a p a r t i c u l a r e nthusiasm.23 There i s no doubt t h a t , l o n g b e f o r e t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , " a t a s t e f o r l a n d s c a p e had been formed t h a t . i n c l u d e d f e a t u r e s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s " r e t u r n " and f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Thomson. I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s t a s t e i t can be p e r c e i v e d t h a t " t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f Thomson's v i s u a l scene l a y i n b r i n g i n g t o p o e t r y t h e 24 v e r y themes most p r o m i n e n t i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e . " T h i s s i m p l i f i e d a c c o u n t of t h e g e n e r a l v i s u a l b a c k g r o u n d o f Thomson's n a t u r a l s cenes can be made complete by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t e r s of Europe e x e r c i s e d an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e upon s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e t a s t e i n E n g l a n d , t h e t a s t e i n n a t u r a l s c e n e r y d i s p l a y e d i n Thomson's.Seasons. And, as w i l l be s e e n , t h e y were even more i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g Thomson's method of p r e s e n t i n g t h i s n a t u r a l s c e n e r y . Because l a n d s c a p e i n Thomson's Seasons i s r e l a t e d t o t h e g e n e r -a l i z e d o r i d e a l i z e d n a t u r e n o t o n l y of C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r R o sa, and G aspard Dughet b u t a l s o of L e o n a r d o , G i o r g i o n e , . T i t i a n , A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i , Rubens, Guido R e n i , G u e r c i n o , and N i c o l a s P o u s s i n , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t Thomson, l i k e a l l t h e s e p a i n t e r s , f r e q u e n t l y 91 i d e a l i z e s h i s s u b j e c t , p r e s e n t i n g scenes as more th a n p u r e l y , p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e . P a i n t i n g s s u c h as N i c o l a s P o u s s i n ' s Landscape w i t h t h e B u r i a l of P h o c i o n , i n w h i c h " t h e l a n d s c a p e becomes i t s e l f a m e m o r i a l t o S t o i c v i r t u e " ; C l a u d e L o r r a i n e ' s A P a s t o r a l , w h i c h , as a n o s t a l g i c v i s t a , , e v o k e s " t h e p o e t i c e s s e n c e o f a c o u n t r y s i d e f i l l e d w i t h echoes of a n t i q u i t y " ; and A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i ' s s e m i n a l Landscape w i t h t he F l i g h t i n t o E g y p t , i n w h i c h t h e f i g u r e s f o r m a n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f t h e c i v i l i z e d and d o m e s t i c a t e d n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , d e p i c t scenes 25 of n a t u r e e x p r e s s i n g h e r o i c , p a s t o r a l , . o r s o c i a l i d e a l s . Thomson a l s o humanizes l a n d s c a p e , p r e s e n t i n g i t i n t h e manner of t h e p a i n t e r s enumerated above i n o r d e r t o g i v e i t meaning, beyond t h a t which, i t p o s s e s s e s i n i t s e l f . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , f o r example, t a k e n f r o m " S p r i n g , " v i s u a l i z e a p a s t o r a l scene e x p r e s s i y e o f s o c i a l - n a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a l s , a.scene w h i c h i d e a l i z e s Thomson's B r i t a i n t h r o u g h i t s e v o c a t i o n of f o r m e r b a r b a r i t i e s and i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f p r e s e n t - d a y c o n d i t i o n s . The p o e t d e s c r i b e s a "mountain-brow" Where s i t s t h e shepherd on t h e g r a s s y t u r f , . I n h a l i n g h e a l t h f u l t h e d e s c e n d i n g s un. Around h im f e e d s h i s m a n y - b l e a t i n g f l o c k , Of v a r i o u s cadence;.and h i s s p o r t i v e lambs, T h i s way and t h a t c o n v o l v e d i n . f r i s k f u l g l e e , T h e i r f r o l i c s p l a y . And now t h e s p r i g h t l y r a c e I n v i t e s them f o r t h ; when s w i f t , t h e s i g n a l g i v e n , They s t a r t away,.and sweep t h e massy mound That r u n s around t h e h i l l — t h e r a m p art once Of i r o n war, i n a n c i e n t b a r b a r o u s t i m e s , . When d i s u n i t e d B r i t a i n e v e r b l e d , L o s t i n e t e r n a l b r o i l , e r e y e t she grew To t h i s d e e p - l a i d i n d i s s o l u b l e s t a t e Where w e a l t h and commerce l i f t t h e g o l d e n head, And o'er our l a b o u r s l i b e r t y and law I m p a r t i a l w a t c h , t h e wonder o f a w o r l d ! (11. 832-848) I 92 T h i s i d y l l i c scene o f f r o l i c s o m e lambs d i s p o r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r e e l y on a g r a s s y h i l l s i d e under t h e eye of t h e i r , s hepherd s u g g e s t s what i s made e x p l i c i t by Thomson l a t e r i n t h e p a s s a g e : t h e p e a c e f u l c o n d i t i o n o f an E n g l a n d whose l a b o u r s and c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a r r i e d on under t h e i m p a r t i a l eye of l i b e r t y and law. The "massy mound" o f t h e a n c i e n t rampart i s s i m i l a r l y e v o c a t i v e o f t h e wars and " e t e r n a l b r o i l " o f t h e d i s u n i t e d B r i t i s h p a s t . The d e s c r i p t i o n thus p r e s e n t s more t h a n a s i m p l e p a s t o r a l s c e n e . I t embodies and c o n t r a s t s p r e s e n t and p a s t , e x p r e s s i n g t h e same i d e a l s o f p eace, p r o g r e s s , l i b e r t y , and law t h a t were p r o m u l g a t e d by Pope t h r o u g h t h e f i g u r e o f h i s F a t h e r Thames. Thomson u t i l i z e d o t h e r methods of i d e a l i z i n g t h e n a t u r a l s c e n e , r e n d e r i n g i t c l a s s i c a l , f o r example, by i n c l u d i n g s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s or a r c h i t e c t u r e . Of t h e s e methods, however, none i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i s p r a c t i c e of p e r s o n i f y i n g n a t u r a l phenomena, a p r a c t i c e seen a l r e a d y i n Pope, found i n G r a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o m i n e n t i n C o l l i n s , and w i d e -s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e age. Thomson's n a t u r a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , " d e l i b e r a t e l y competing w i t h t h e a l l e g o r i c p o r t r a i t s o f p o p u l a r I t a l i a n 26 p a i n t e r s , " show him h u m a n i z i n g and m y t h o l o g i z i n g t h e phenomena of n a t u r e as d i d Pope w i t h t h e - p e r s o n i f i e d Thames, t h a t i s , a f t e r t h e manner of t h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t e r s of I t a l y . A few examples i l l u s t r a t i n g how. s u c h p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n e n a b l e d Thomson t o a c h i e v e h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e f o r m w i l l serve, t o b r i n g t h i s c h a p t e r t o a c l o s e . I n h i s i n v o c a t i o n to. S p r i n g , i n v i t i n g h e r d e s c e n t t o e a r t h , , he 93 p r e s e n t s t h e sea s o n as a n e a r - d i v i n e p r e s e n c e : Come g e n t l e S p r i n g , e t h e r e a l m i l d n e s s , come; And f r o m t h e bosom.of yon d r o p p i n g c l o u d , W h i l e music wakes r o u n d , v e i l e d i n a shower Of shadowing r o s e s , on our p l a i n s d e s c e nd. ( 1 1 , 1-4) T h i s p e r s o n i f i e d f i g u r e o f S p r i n g i s t y p i c a l o f t h e f i g u r e s used t o i n t r o d u c e t h e o t h e r three, poems o f t h e Seasons. I t t h u s t y p i f i e s Thomson's b a r o q u e - a l l e g o r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s s u b j e c t , h i s v i e w of t h e f o u r seasons as n o b l e , c e l e s t i a l b e i n g s whose p e r i o d i c v i s i -t a t i o n s from above t r a n s f o r m t h e e a r t h l y r e a l m o f n a t u r e and man. I t i s t r u e t h a t " g e n t l e , S p r i n g " i s n o t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d , t h a t h e r f i g u r e i s n o t e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e d , and t h a t , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , she r e s e m b l e s o t h e r n a t u r a l and m o r a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e poem. How-e v e r , many o t h e r f i g u r e s a r e s h a r p l y v i s u a l i z e d and i t i s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p o r t r a i t s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e t h e k i n d o f s c e n i c p i c t o r i a l -i s m , t h e p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e f o r m , t h a t i s found a t i t s b e s t i n t h e p o e t r y o f Thomson. The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e sun as t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n a p i c t o r i a l scene w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f I t a l i a n a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g , i s t a k e n f r o m "Summer" and w i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s Thomsonian p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n of l a n d s c a p e : P a r e n t o f Seasons! who t h e pomp p r e c e d e That w a i t s t h y t h r o n e , as t h r o u g h t h y v a s t , domain, A n n u a l , a l o n g t h e b r i g h t e c l i p t i c r o a d I n w o r l d - r e j o i c i n g s t a t e i t moves s u b l i m e . Meantime t h e e x p e c t i n g n a t i o n s , c i r c l e d gay W i t h a l l t h e v a r i o u s t r i b e s o f f o o d f u l e a r t h , I m p l o r e t h y b o u n t y , o r send g r a t e f u l up 94 A common hymn: w h i l e , round t h y beaming car-, H i g h - s e e n , t h e Seasons l e a d , i n s p r i g h t l y dance Harmonious k n i t , t h e r o s y - f i n g e r e d h o u r s , The z e p h y r s f l o a t i n g l o o s e , t h e t i m e l y r a i n s , Of bloom e t h e r e a l t h e l i g h t - f o o t e d dews, And, s o f t e n e d i n t o j o y , t h e s u r l y s t o r m s . These, i n s u c c e s s i v e t u r n , w i t h l a v i s h hand Shower e v e r y b e a u t y , e v e r y f r a g r a n c e shower, H e r b s , f l o w e r s , and f r u i t s ; t i l l , k i n d l i n g a t t h y t o u c h , From l a n d t o l a n d i s f l u s h e d t h e v e r n a l year." (11.. 113-129) J u s t as t h e f i g u r e of Pope's M e l a n c h o l y e x p l a i n s t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f l i g h t and shade i n t h e S a l y a t o r i a n scene o v e r w h i c h she p r e s i d e s and a c c o u n t s f o r i t s gloomy atmosphere, so h e r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e a p p r o a c h i n g summer season—r-the " t i m e l y r a i n s , " t h e storms " s o f t e n e d i n t o j o y , " and t h e v e g e t a t i o n of h e r b , f l o w e r , and f r u i t — a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e sun's p r o g r e s s a l o n g t h e " b r i g h t e c l i p t i c r o a d " i n h i s "beaming" c a r , " h i g h - s e e n . " The c a r i s s u r r o u n d e d by t h e Seasons who,."harmonious k n i t , " l e a d t h e " r o s y - f i n g e r e d h o u r s " i n " s p r i g h t l y dance" u n t i l , t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r d a n c i n g f i g u r e s — t h e , " f l o a t i n g " z e p h y r s , " l i g h t - f o o t e d " dews, and " s u r l y " s t o r m s — t h e y l a v i s h t h e b e a u t y and f r a g r a n c e , t h e h e r b s , f l o w e r s , and f r u i t s o f s p r i n g and summer o v e r t h e f a c e o f t h e e a r t h below. The a l l e g o r i c a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e m i g h t y " P a r e n t o f Seasons" and t h e groups o f s u b o r d i n a t e f i g u r e s d a n c i n g round h i s c a r i s c o n c e i v e d as a co m p l e t e scene encompassing w i t h i n s p a t i a l bounds t h e movement' and t h e f i g u r e s i t d e p i c t s . T h i s p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e -t u r n i n g sun k i n d l i n g t h e l a n d t o new b e a u t y , f r a g r a n c e , and growth s u g g e s t s t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f I t a l i a n m y t h o l o g i c a l p a i n t i n g , i n 95 p a r t i c u l a r t h e s p e c i f i c p a i n t i n g r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Pope's r i v e r god i n "Windsor F o r e s t " and h i s s c u l p t u r e s q u e image o f P i n d a r ' s a e r i a l f l i g h t i n "The Temple of Fame," namely t h e A u r o r a f r e s c o of Guido R e n i . I n t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s , as we saw, A p o l l o , r i d i n g i n h i s c a r , i s shown s u r r o u n d e d by t h e d a n c i n g h o u r s w h i l e A u r o r a p r e p a r e s t o s c a t t e r f l o w e r s upon t h e l a n d below. R e n i ' s p a i n t i n g , t h u s a l l e g o r i c a l l y d e p i c t i n g t h e day dawning upon t h e l a n d , c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o and p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e method of Thomson's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e warmth, g r o w t h , and change d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e n a t u r a l scene as i t s phenomena r e s p o n d t o t h e r e t u r n of sun and summer.. H i s A u r o r a t y p i f i e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f baroque I t a l y on t h e Thomsonian d e s c r i p t i o n and p o r t r a y a l of i d e a l l a n d s c a p e . I n f u l f i l l i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n , R e n i ' s p a i n t i n g a l s o c l e a r l y demon-s t r a t e s t h a t Thomsonjs d e p i c t i o n o f t h e . n a t u r a l scene cannot be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d o r a p p r e c i a t e d i f i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y i n terms of C l a u d i a n and S a l v a t o r i a n p r o s p e c t s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r a r e f a c t o r s i n Thomson's l a n d s c a p e a r t w i l l be shown i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r ; h e r e we a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e b a s i c i n f l u e n c e r e p r e s e n t e d by p a i n t e r s l i k e R e n i "and work such as h i s A u r o r a , w i t h showing t h a t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . F o r Thomson's imagery i s n o t p i c t o r i a l i n a m e r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o r e n u m e r a t i v e s e n s e a l o n e . A t i t s b e s t h i s p i c t o r i a l i s m becomes an i n s t r u m e n t s e r v i n g l a r g e r a e s t h e t i c , e m o t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , o r m o r a l p u r p o s e s and v a l u e s . And i t f u l f i l s t h i s i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n b ecause Thomson's p o e t r y i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e l a t e d , as t h i s c h a p t e r has t r i e d t o make c l e a r , ; t o t h a t w i d e and i n f l u e n t i a l frame of r e f e r e n c e w h i c h he s h a r e d w i t h Pope and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t o t h o s e s t a n d a r d s of e x c e l l e n c e w h i c h d e r i v e d f r o m a n t i q u i t y and t h e p a i n t i n g and s c u l p -t u r e of t h e g r e a t a r t i s t s o f R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque I t a l y . 97 FOOTNOTES 13-16. P a r e n t h e t i c a l l i n e o r page r e f e r e n c e s f o r Pope r e f e r t o t h e one-volume e d i t i o n o f t h e Twickenham t e x t , The Poems o f A l e x a n d e r -Pope, ed. J o h n B u t t (London: Methuen, 1965). 2 An E s s a y on t h e Genius and W r i t i n g s of Pope (London: 1782), I , 28. 3 l b i d . , p. 29. 4 A u r o r a , c e i l i n g f r e s c o , 1613, C a s i n o R o s p i g l i o s i , Rome; The  Kingdom o f F l o r a , S t a a t l i c h e Kunstsammlungen, D r e s d e n . "*"A P o e t i c a l Index t o Homer's I l i a d , - 1 1 The Poems of A l e x a n d e r  Pope, ed. John B u t t , The Twickenham e d i t i o n (London: Methuen, 1939-1 9 6 7 ) , V I I I , 592-595. J e a n Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s : The T r a d i t i o n o f L i t e r a r y  P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P o e t r y from Dryden t o Gray ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 148-149. 7 E s s a y , I , 317. g Edmund B u r k e , A P h i l o s o p h i c a l E n q u i r y i n t o t h e O r i g i n o f our  Ideas of t h e S u b l i m e and B e a u t i f u l , ed. James T. B o u l t o n ( N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 59. C i t a t i o n s f r o m Burke quote t h i s e d i t i o n . 9 E s s a y , I I , 223. " ^ N a t i o n a l Museum, N a p l e s . An a d a p t a t i o n o f a t y p e of s t a t u e t r a d i t i o n a l f r o m t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C. The o r i g i n a l has been imputed, t o L y s i p p u s . X ± G u e r c i n o , A u r o r a , c e i l i n g f r e s c o , 1621-23, V i l l a L u d o v i s i , . Rome. 12 D i s c o u r s e X, D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , ed. R o b e r t R. Wark (San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a : H u n t i n g d o n L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 176-183. 13 The Communion of S t . Jerome,, V a t i c a n ; The E c s t a s y , of S t . T h e r e s a , 1645-52, S t a . M a r i a d e l l a V i t t o r i a , Rome. 14 Poems o f A l e x a n d e r Pope, ed. John B u t t (London: Methuen, 1939-1967), V I I I , 32. 98 J e a n Hagstrum (The S i s t e r A r t s ) i s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c v i e w i n g Thomson's p i c t o r i a l i s m as an e f f e c t , w h i l e E l i z a b e t h Manwaring ( I t a l i a n Landscape i n E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : A Study  C h i e f l y o f t h e I n f l u e n c e o f C l a u d e L o r r a i n and S a l v a t o r Rosa on E n g l i s h  T a s t e 1700-1800, London: C a s s , 1965) and C h r i s t o p h e r Hussey (The  P i c t u r e s q u e : S t u d i e s i n a P o i n t o f V i e w , London: Putnam,.1927) a r e t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l among t h o s e who v i e w i t a s / a c a u s e . 16 1-4. P a s s a g e s f r o m Thomson a r e quoted from James Thomson: P o e t i c a l Works, ed. J . L o g i e R o b e r t s o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). ^ E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y P o e t r y and P r o s e , eds . L o u i s I . . B r e d v o l d , A l a n D. M c K i l l o p , and L o i s W h i t n e y , 2nd ed. (New Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 448. : 18 See, f o r example, H. W. J a n s o n , H i s t o r y o f A r t : a. Survey of  t h e M a j o r V i s u a l A r t s f r o m t h e Dawn of H i s t o r y t o t h e P r e s e n t Day (New Y o r k : Abrams, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 253 and f i g . 403. 19 -Henry V. S. Ogden and M a r g a r e t S. 'Ogden ( E n g l i s h T a s t e i n Land- scape i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y , Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1955, p. 48) p o i n t out t h a t " t h e p i c t u r e s of t h e months i n some o f t h e books o f h o u r s of t h e f i f t e e n t h arid e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s a l m o s t r e a c h e d t h e s t a t u s of p u r e l a n d s c a p e . " 20 I b i d . , pp. 48-49; Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s , p. 251. 21 Ogden and Ogden, E n g l i s h T a s t e i n L a n d s c a p e , pp. 40-49. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 49. 23 C a r l P a u l B a r b i e r , W i l l i a m G i l p i n : H i s D r a w i n g s , T e a c h i n g , and Theory o f t h e P i c t u r e s q u e (Oxford:, C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 1-2. 24 Hagstrum, S i s t e r A r t s , pp. 251^252. 25 H. W. J a n s o n , H i s t o r y o f A r t , pp. 401,.408. Landscape w i t h  t h e B u r i a l o f P h o c i o n , 1648, The L o u v r e , P a r i s ; A P a s t o r a l , c. 1650, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y , New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t ; Landscape w i t h t h e  F l i g h t i n t o E g y p t , c. 1603, D o r i a G a l l e r y , Rome. 26 F. W. B a t e s o n , A G u i d e to. E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Doubleday, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 99. CHAPTER IV THE "RETURN TO NATURE," THOMSON, AND THE LANDSCAPE PICTURESQUE S m o l l e t t ' s n o v e l , The E x p e d i t i o n o f Humphry C l i n k e r , p u b l i s h e d i n 1771, d r a m a t i z e s two uses o f t h e term " p i c t u r e s q u e " w h i c h s e r v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m so f a r d i s c u s s e d from t h e c o e x i s -t e n t t a s t e f o r d o m e s t i c a t e d and w i l d s c e n e r y , t h e t a s t e f o r p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e . Thus f a r " p i c t o r i a l i s m " has s e r v e d as a g e n e r a l l i t e r a r y t e rm embracing t h e a n c i e n t r h e t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l d o c t r i n e o f e n a r g e i a , t h e t r a d i t i o n o f i c o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n , t e c h n i q u e s o f p o e t i c i d e a l i z a t i o n , s p e c i f i c v i s u a l images, t o t a l p o e t i c f o r m , and a l l i e d m a t t e r s . Humphry, C l i n k e r r e f l e c t s t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l , p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m and a t t h e same t i m e s u g g e s t s t h e p i c t u r e s q u e o r i e n t a t i o n towards l a n d s c a p e and s c e n e r y . Jeremy M e l f o r d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Humphry h a r a n g u i n g h i s f e l l o w inmates i n t h e c h a p e l o f C l e r k e n w e l l P r i s o n , l i k e h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Lismahago's escape from t h e f i r e a t S i r Thomas B u l l f o r d ' s h ouse, demon-s t r a t e s t h e p i c t o r i a l i s t mode of th o u g h t so f a r d i s c u s s e d . Jeremy, j o i n i n g Humphry's p r i s o n a u d i e n c e , v i e w s t h e s t r a n g e scene b e f o r e h im as a p a i n t e d scene: I n e v e r saw a n y t h i n g so s t r o n g l y p i c t u r e s q u e as t h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n o f f e l o n s c l a n k i n g t h e i r c h a i n s , i n t h e m i d s t o f whom s t o o d o r a t o r C l i n k e r , e x p a t i a t i n g i n a t r a n s p o r t o f f e r v o r , on t h e to r m e n t s o f h e l l , denounced i n s c r i p t u r e a g a i n s t e v i l - d o e r s , comprehending 99 100 m u r d e r e r s , r o b b e r s , t h i e v e s , and whore-mongers. The v a r i e t y o f a t t e n t i o n e x h i b i t e d i n t h e f a c e s o f t h o s e r a g a m u f f i n s , formed a group t h a t would n o t have d i s g r a c e d t h e p e n c i l o f a R a p h a e l . x T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , p r e s e n t i n g Humphry as t h e c e n t r a l o b j e c t of a t t e n t i o n i n an arrangement o f f i g u r e s r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r c o n s i d e r e d g e n e r a l l y t o be t h e g r e a t e s t , d i s p l a y s e x a c t l y t h e language and h a b i t of t h o u g h t seen b e f o r e i n W a r t o n i a n d e s c r i p t i o n s of p i c t o r i a l s c enes i n Pope and Thomson. I n t h i s sense i t r e s e m b l e s Jeremy's l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f Lismahago's c l i m b down t h e l a d d e r d u r i n g t h e f i r e a t S i r Thomas B u l l f o r d ' s , a scene w h i c h i s s i m i l a r l y p r e s e n t e d i n p i c t o r i a l t e r m s : The r u e f u l a s p e c t o f t h e l i e u t e n a n t i n h i s s h i r t , w i t h a q u i l t e d n i g h t - c a p f a s t e n e d under h i s c h i n , and h i s l o n g l a n k l i m b s and p o s t e r i o r s exposed t o t h e w i n d , made a v e r y p i c t u r e s q u e a p p e a r a n c e , when i l l u m i n e d by t h e l i n k s and t o r c h e s w h i c h t h e s e r v a n t s h e l d up t o l i g h t him i n h i s d e s c e n t . (p. 351) The a c t i o n and l i g h t i n g o f t h i s mock-baroque drama i s made even more e m p h a t i c a l l y p i c t o r i a l when S i r Thomas e x p r e s s e s h i s d e l i g h t a t t h e s u c c e s s of h i s p r a nk: 0, che r o b a ! - — 0 , what a s u b j e c t ! — 0 , w h a t , c a r i c a t u r a ! — 0 , f o r a Rosa, a Rembrandt, a S c h a l k e n ! — Z o o k s , I ' l l g i v e a hundred g u i n e a s t o have i t p a i n t e d ! — w h a t a f i n e d e s c e n t from t h e c r o s s , o r a s c e n t t o t h e g a l l o w s ! what l i g h t s and s hadows!—what a groupe b e l o w ! — what e x p r e s s i o n a b o v e ! — w h a t an a s p e c t ! — d i d you mind t h e a s p e c t ? (p. 351) S i r Thomas may d i s p l a y a q u e s t i o n a b l e sense o f humour b u t h i s f e e l i n g f o r t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i s s o u n d l y r o o t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m . H i s s p e e c h , l i k e Jeremy's 101 d e s c r i p t i o n s , though d e v o t e d t o a comic scene and s u b j e c t , uses t h e same l a n g u a g e , adopts t h e same a p p r o a c h , and depends on t h e same frame o f r e f e r e n c e ' as does n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m and i t s c r i t i c i s m . Speech and d e s c r i p t i o n s t h u s e x e m p l i f y one means whereby t h e p i c t o r i a l -i s m o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e appear i n t h e p r o s e f i c t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d . The n o v e l , however, a l s o r e f l e c t s a p i c t u r e s q u e v i s i o n n o t so much c e n t r e d on t h e h e r o i c , m y t h o l o g i c a l , o r h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s , o f t h e g r e a t a r t i s t s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e arid baroque p e r i o d s as upon t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . Thus we see S m o l l e t t p r e s e n t i n g Matthew Bramble as an a r t i c u l a t e c r i t i c o f l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g and of s c e n e r y . A t B a t h , w r i t i n g o f Mr. T — , a "gentleman who p a i n t s l a n d s c a p e s f o r h i s amuse-, ment," Bramble f o r c e f u l l y d i s p l a y s t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s : T h i s young gentleman o f B a t h i s t h e b e s t l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r now l i v i n g : I was s t r u c k w i t h h i s p e r f o r m a n c e s i n such a manner, as I h a d n e v e r been by p a i n t i n g b e f o r e . H i s t r e e s n o t o n l y have a r i c h -n e ss o f f o l i a g e and warmth of c o l o u r i n g , w h i c h d e l i g h t s t h e v i e w ; b u t a l s o a c e r t a i n m a g n i f i c e n c e i n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n and s p i r i t i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n , w h i c h I cannot d e s c r i b e . H i s management of t h e c h i a r o o s c u r o , o r l i g h t and shadow, e s p e c i a l l y gleams of s u n s h i n e , i s a l t o g e t h e r w o n d e r f u l , b o t h i n t h e c o n t r i v a n c y and e x e c u t i o n ; and he i s so happy i n h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , and m a r k i n g h i s d i s t a n c e s a t s e a , by a p r o g r e s s i v e s e r i e s o f s h i p s , v e s s e l s , c a p e s , and p r o m o n t o r i e s , t h a t I could, n o t h e l p t h i n k i n g , I had a d i s t a n t v i e w of t h i r t y l e a g u e s upon t h e back-ground o f t h e p i c t u r e . I f t h e r e i s any t a s t e f o r i n g e n u i t y l e f t i n a d e g e n e r a t e ,agej f a s t . s i n k i n g i n t o b a r b a r i s m , . t h i s a r t i s t , I apprehend, w i l l make a c a p i t a l f i g u r e , as soon as h i s works a r e known. (pp. 85-86) T h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p a i n t e d l a n d s c a p e and t h e q u a l i f i e d assump-t i o n t h a t a good l a n d s c a p e a r t i s t can a c h i e v e fame complement Bramble's a t t i t u d e towards r e a l l a n d s c a p e i t s e l f . When he l e a d s h i s p a r t y t h r o u g h t h e S c o t t i s h H i g h l a n d s h i s f e e l i n g s f o r t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and t h e 102-d e s c r i p t i v e p r a i s e s he l a v i s h e s upon i t s u g g e s t t h e G i l p i n i a n t o u r i s t i n s e a r c h of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . F o r though Bramble does n o t c o n s c i o u s l y a n a l y z e v i e w s and p r o s p e c t s as s u b j e c t s more o r l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e c a n v a s , he n o n e t h e l e s s d e l i g h t s - i n t h e p i c t o r i a l v a r i e t y of t h e i r b e a u t i f u l , s u b l i m e , o r r o m a n t i c q u a l i t i e s . F o r example, s p e a k i n g o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r L o c h Lomond, he says t h a t i t i s a p r e f e r e n c e w h i c h i s c e r t a i n l y owing t o t h e v e r d a n t i s l a n d s t h a t seem t o f l o a t upon i t s s u r f a c e , a f f o r d i n g the,most i n c h a n t i n g o b j e c t s o f r e p o s e t o t h e e x c u r s i v e v i e w . Nor a r e t h e banks d e s t i -t u t e o f b e a u t i e s w h i c h even p a r t a k e of t h e s u b l i m e . On t h i s s i d e t h e y d i s p l a y a sweet v a r i e t y o f woodland, c o r n f i e l d , and p a s t u r e , w i t h s e v e r a l a g r e e a b l e v i l l a s emerging as i t were out of t h e l a k e , t i l l , a t some d i s t a n c e , t h e p r o s p e c t t e r m i n a t e s , i n huge mountains c o v e r e d w i t h h e a t h , w h i c h b e i n g i n t h e bloom, a f f o r d s a v e r y r i c h c o v e r i n g o f p u r p l e . E v e r y t h i n g h e r e i s r o m a n t i c beyond i m a g i n a -t i o n . T h i s c o u n t r y i s j u s t l y s t i l e d t h e A r c a d i a of S c o t l a n d , (p. 289) T h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of d o m e s t i c and n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e , of t h e r o m a n t i c p r o s p e c t o v e r t h e l a k e w h i c h t e r m i n a t e s l i k e a p i c t u r e i n t h e empurpled m o u n t a i n s , . c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s p i r i t o f Bramble's poem t o t h e L e v e n , t h e s t r e a m f l o w i n g out o f L o c h Lomond:. D e v o l v i n g f r o m t h y p a r e n t l a k e , A charming maze t h y w a t e r s make, By bow'rs o f b i r c h , and g r o v e s of p i n e , And hedges f l o w ' r ' d w i t h e g l a n t i n e . ( 1 1. 17-20; p. 291) I f t h i s poem "has no o t h e r m e r i t , " s a y s Bramble, who m ight have b e e n , s p e a k i n g as w e l l of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of L o c h Lomond and o t h e r S c o t t i s h s c e n e s , " i t i s a t l e a s t p i c t u r e s q u e and a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i p t i v e " ( p . 2 8 9 ) . The p l e a s u r e w h i c h he t a k e s i n h i s " a g r e e a b l e l a n d s c a p e t a k e n 103 from n a t u r e " (p. 290) i s e x a c t l y t h a t d i s p l a y e d by l a t e r p i c t u r e s q u e p o e t s and p a i n t e r s . Humphry C l i n k e r , t h e n , r e f l e c t s t h e c o n t i n u i n g awareness of t h e h e r o i c , m y t h o l o g i c a l , and h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s o f R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t i n g i n t h e p e r i o d w h i c h gave r i s e t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e movement. I t f u r t h e r i m p l i e s t h e p r e s t i g e of contemporary " h i s t o r y " p a i n t i n g , a genre w h i c h n o t o n l y p o r t r a y e d e p i s o d e s i n t h e l i v e s of n a t i o n a l h e r o e s b u t a l s o t h e "borrowed a t t i t u d e s " o f contemporary f i g u r e s who were f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d i n h e r o i c , m y t h i c , or. h i s t o r i c a l g u i s e and p o s t u r e . Humphry C l i n k e r , R aphaelesque i n C l e r k e n w e l l , o r Lismahago making h i s baroque " d e s c e n t from t h e c r o s s " e x e m p l i f y , a l b e i t i n comic t e r m s , n o t o n l y t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e o f C o n t i n e n t a l R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t b u t a l s o t h e "borrowed a t t i t u d e s " o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h " h i s t o r y . " T h i s comic use of t h e p i c t o r i a l models s e r v i n g neo-c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e s e r i o u s t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e l a n d s c a p e p i c t u r e s q u e and perhaps c o n s t i t u t e s an i n d i r e c t comment on t h e f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e one and t h e r e l a t i v e n o v e l t y of t h e o t h e r i n t h e 1770's. I n any ev e n t Bramble's knowledge of l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g , h i s t o u r t h r o u g h t h e H i g h l a n d s , and h i s l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p t i o n s and " p i c t u r -esque" poem a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e s of comedy. P r e s e n t e d s e r i o u s l y , t h e y r e f l e c t t h e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e a r t , t h e g r o w i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b o t h w i l d and c i v i l i z e d s c e n e r y , and t h e p r a c t i c e o f t o u r i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n o r d e r t o c a p t u r e i t s p i c t u r -esque b e a u t i e s i n p r o s e , v e r s e , w a t e r c o l o u r , o r p a i n t i n g . Bramble's l o v e o f n a t u r a l v i e w s and p r o s p e c t s , h i s d e l i g h t i n 104 w oodland, , f i e l d , p a s t u r e , l a k e , m o u n t a i n , as w e l l as a r c h i t e c t u r e i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i n t r o d u c e s t h e s u b j e c t of t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e . " The q u e s t i o n of t h i s " r e t u r n , " r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Thomson, r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r emphasis and c l a r i f i c a -t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n of i t w i l l n o t o n l y p l a c e t h e p o e t r y and p i c t o r i a l -i s m o f Pope and Thomson i n p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e b u t a l s o e s t a b l i s h t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n t e x t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l garden and t h e p i c t u r e s q u e movement. The p o e t i c t a s t e f o r l a n d s c a p e f o s t e r e d by t h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t i s t s and v i g o r o u s l y d e v e l o p e d by s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r s i n E n g l a n d and on t h e C o n t i n e n t was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . T h i s t a s t e was p o w e r f u l l y a s s i s t e d by a n o t h e r i n f l u e n c e f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e r e n e w a l o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e , one w h i c h was p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a r t i s t i c . I t stemmed from c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d by A u g u s t a n d e i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s i n t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . ' Headed by S h a f t e s b u r y t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s , b u i l d i n g on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by Cambridge P l a t o n i s m and u t i l i z i n g t h e knowledge expounded by t h e new . s c i e n c e , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i d e a of n a t u r e as a u n i f i e d , h a r m o n i o u s , and b e a u t i f u l w h o l e , as a u n i v e r s a l s y s t e m whose phenomena, p r o c e s s e s , and laws c o u l d o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e system comprehending them and c o m p r i s e d o f them. T h i s g r e a t c o s mic o r d e r , though r e g u l a t e d p e r f e c t l y by n a t u r a l l a w , was c o n s i d e r e d ' t o be of d i v i n e o r i g i n and, as t h e h a n d i w o r k of t h e C r e a t o r , a r e l i a b l e r e c o r d and s o u r c e o f r e v e l a -t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r , p u r p o s e s , and b e n e f i c e n c e of God. The B i b l e of 105 Deism, of t h e R e l i g i o n of N a t u r e , was t h e Book of N a t u r e . The n o t i o n o f n a t u r e as s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f t o m a n i f e s t God's power and goodness c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e " s u p e r n a t u r a l " r e v e l a t i o n of o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f , w i t h t h e presumed need and w o r t h of t h e " r e v e a l e d " Word o f God. D e i s t h e r e s y a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e degree o f i t s abandonment of " s u p e r n a t u r a l " r e v e l a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f " n a t u r a l . " To S h a f t e s b u r y , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g passage f r o m The M o r a l i s t s , t h e w o r s h i p of n a t u r e " r e p l a c e s , t h e n e c e s s i t y of f o r m a l c r e e d and i s i n v e s t e d w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e i n v o l v i n g t h e supreme m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l 2 needs o f man. To f o l l o w N a t u r e was l i t e r a l l y t o f o l l o w God": Ye f i e l d s and woods, my r e f u g e from t h e t o i l s o m e w o r l d of b u s i n e s s , r e c e i v e me i n y o u r q u i e t s a n c t u a r i e s , and f a v o u r my r e t r e a t and t h o u g h t f u l s o l i t u d e . Ye v e r d a n t p l a i n s , how g l a d l y I s a l u t e y e ! H a i l a l l ye b l i s s f u l m ansions! known s e a t s ! d e l i g h t f u l p r o s p e c t s ! m a j e s t i c b e a u t i e s of t h i s e a r t h , and a l l ye r u r a l powers and g r a c e s . . . . 0 g l o r i o u s n a t u r e ! supremely f a i r and s o v e r e i g n l y good! a l l - l o v i n g and a l l - l o v e l y , a l l - d i y i n e ! whole l o o k s a r e so becoming and o f s u c h i n f i n i t e g r a c e ; whose s t u d y b r i n g s such wisdom, and whose c o n t e m p l a t i o n s u c h d e l i g h t . . . . 0 m i g h t y N a t u r e ! w i s e s u b s t i t u t e o f P r o v i d e n c e ! impowered c r e a t r e s s ! 3 O b v i o u s l y d i v i n e n a t u r e , t h e v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of God's grandeu r and p e r f e c t i o n , and a p o w e r f u l f o r c e f o r good i n i t s c o n s t a n t a p p e a l t o man's i n t e l l e c t , , s p i r i t , and m o r a l f a c u l t i e s , c o u l d n o t embody e r r o r o r e x h i b i t f l a w s . Hence S h a f t e s b u r y ' s i m p o r t a n t p i o n e e r p r a i s e of what had h i t h e r t o been r e g a r d e d as i m p e r f e c t i o n s o r b l e m i s h e s i n t h e c r e a t i o n : t h o s e w i l d , h a r s h , i r r e g u l a r a s p e c t s of n a t u r e s u c h as t h e f r o z e n N o r t h , m o u n t a i n s , d e s e r t s , and t h e s e v e r i t i e s of c l i m a t e o r s e a s o n . Hence, t o o , h i s e q u a l l y n o v e l and s i g n i f i c a n t d e f e n c e of t h e u g l y , r e p e l l e n t , and u s e l e s s i n n a t u r e : s e r p e n t s , i n s e c t s , and a l l t h e 106 l o w e r a n i m a l s r e g a r d e d as n u i s a n c e s o r p e s t s . F o r S h a f t e s b u r y a l l p h y s i c a l phenomena, i n o r g a n i c and o r g a n i c ; e v e r y form of l i f e , h i g h o r l o w ; . a l l n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f whatever, k i n d had t h e i r n e c e s s a r y p l a c e and f u n c t i o n w i t h i n God's g r e a t scheme and were, as h i s c r e a t i o n s , b e a u t i f u l . N o t h i n g i n n a t u r e was i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r e n t i r e l y u s e l e s s and u n a t t r a c t i v e . S h a f t e s b u r y and t h e movement he r e p r e s e n t e d e x e r t e d a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y thought.' By making t h e d i v i n e o r d e r of n a t u r e t h e b a s i s o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m embracing t h e o l o g y , e t h i c s , and a e s t h e t i c s , by r o o t i n g w i t h i n i t t h e t r u e , t h e good, and t h e beau-t i f u l , A u g u s t a n r a t i o n a l i s m g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e a d o r a t i o n of n a t u r e . Thanks t o i t s i n f l u e n c e " a l l forms of n a t u r e . . . were g i v e n a more 4 h o n o r a b l e p l a c e i n European t h o u g h t . " I n p a r t i c u l a r , d e i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y . I t can be s a i d of t h e A u g u s t a n p h i l o s o p h e r s t h a t " i t was t h r o u g h p o e t i c a l i m i t a t o r s . o f t h e s e t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y a c q u i r e d t h e v a r i o u s forms of d e f e n s e and p r a i s e o f t h e i r r e g u l a r and grand a s p e c t s of n a t u r e " and l i k e w i s e " t h e a p o t h e o s i s of n a t u r e i n g e n e r a l . " " ' A few examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e d e i s t i c i n f l u e n c e , i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e . . Mark A k e n s i d e , who " u n d e r t o o k t o v e r s i f y a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e . c o r p u s o f S h a f t e s b u r y ' s s p e c u l a t i o n , " saw n a t u r e as r e v e l a t o r y of God i n h i s P l e a s u r e s o f I m a g i n a t i o n : Thus t h e men Whom N a t u r e ' s works can charm, w i t h God h i m s e l f H o l d c o n v e r s e ; grow f a m i l i a r , day by day, 107 W i t h h i s c o n c e p t i o n s , a c t upon h i s p l a n ; . ^ And f o r m t o h i s , t h e r e l i s h o f t h e i r s o u l s . Pope's E s s a y on Man, a,poem " i n l a r g e p a r t p u r e S h a f t e s b u r y g f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h B o l i n g b r o k e , " p r e s e n t s t h e phenomena of n a t u r e i n p a n t h e i s t i c t e r m s , as embodying t h e C r e a t o r : A l l a r e but p a r t s of one stupendous w h o l e , Whose body, N a t u r e i s , and God t h e s o u l ; T h a t , chang'd t h r o ' a l l , and.yet i n a l l t h e same, G r e a t i n t h e e a r t h , as i n . t h ' a e t h e r e a l f r a m e , Warms i n t h e sun', r e f r e s h e s i n t h e b r e e z e , Glows i n t h e s t a r s , and blossoms i n t h e t r e e s , L i v e s t h r o ' a l l l i f e , e x t e n d s t h r o ' a l l e x t e n t , Spreads u n d i v i d e d , o p e r a t e s u n s p e n t . ( I I , 267-274) And f i n a l l y . , " i f any p o e t e v e r m o r a l i z e d h i s song and made a l l 9 t h i n g s s u b s e r v i e n t t o ' D i v i n e P h i l o s o p h y , ' i t was Thomson." T h i s passage from " S p r i n g , " a l m o s t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e C r e a t o r w i t h H i s work, i s t y p i c a l : I n s p i r i n g God! who, b o u n d l e s s s p i r i t a l l And u n r e m i t t i n g e n e r g y , p e r v a d e s , A d j u s t s , s u s t a i n s , and a g i t a t e s t h e w h o l e . He c e a s e l e s s works a l o n e , and y e t a l o n e Seems n o t t o work; w i t h such p e r f e c t i o n framed I s t h i s complex, stupendous scheme of t h i n g s . B u t , though c o n c e a l e d , t o e v e r y p u r e r eye. The i n f o r m i n g A u t h o r i n h i s works a p p e a r s . (11. 853-860) S h a f t e s b u r y ' s n o v e l a t t i t u d e towards mountains i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n Thomson.• M o u n t a i n g r a n d e u r , f o r . e x a m p l e , o f t e n a p p e a r s . i n The  Seasons, as when i n "Summer" The d r i p p i n g r o c k , t h e mountain's m i s t y t o p S w e l l on t h e s i g h t and b r i g h t e n w i t h t h e dawn. (11. 54-55) 108 Thomson a l s o p r e s e n t s m o u n t a i n s o l i t u d e and t h e remoteness of l o n e l y p l a c e s i n S h a f t e s b u r i a n t e r m s , as s a c r e d t o t h e ' h i g h e s t and most w o r t h y t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s o f man.. Thus i n "Summer" he speaks o f s i l e n t , m e l a n c h o l y p l a c e s as "haunts o f m e d i t a t i o n " ( 1 . 522) where he f e e l s "a s a c r e d t e r r o r , a s e v e r e d e l i g h t " ( 1 . 5 4 1 ) . I n t h e s e o b s c u r e h a u n t s he can i m a g i n e h e a r i n g a v o i c e " t h a n human more": Be n o t of us a f r a i d , P oor k i n d r e d man! t h y f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s , we From t h e same Parent-Power our b e i n g s drew, The same our L o r d and laws and g r e a t p u r s u i t . Once some of u s , l i k e t h e e , t h r o u g h stormy l i f e T o i l e d t e m p e s t - b e a t e n ere,we c o u l d a t t a i n T h i s h o l y c a l m , t h i s harmony of mind, Where p u r i t y and peace i n m i n g l e charms. Then f e a r n o t u s ; b u t w i t h r e s p o n s i v e s o n g , Amid t h e s e dim r e c e s s e s , u n d i s t u r b e d By n o i s y f o l l y and d i s c o r d a n t v i c e , Of N a t u r e s i n g w i t h u s , and N a t u r e ' s God. (11. 544-555) These passages from The Seasons i n d i c a t e t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n i n f l u e n c e everywhere t o be found i n Thomson's p o e t r y , and s u p p o r t t h e st a t e m e n t t h a t " t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e two w r i t e r s a r e i d e n t i c a l , each e n d e a v o u r i n g t o i n t e r p r e t t h e 'harmonious w h o l e ' r e c o r d e d i n t h e Book of N a t u r e . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e q u o t a t i o n s from A k e n s i d e and Pope t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p o e t i c t r a n s m i s s i o n and d i f f u s i o n of S h a f t e s b u r i a n t h o u g h t , a p o p u l a r i z a t i o n w h i c h p o w e r f u l l y , s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r e d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n terms of t h e i n f l u e n c e o f R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t and t h e s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r s ; C l e a r l y i t was n o t s i m p l y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and 109 t h e P o u s s i n s t h a t b r o u g h t about t h e renewed e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e and l a n d s c a p e r e f l e c t e d i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e p a i n t e r s d i d i n . f a c t i n f l u e n c e t h e l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p -t i o n s o f Pope and Thomson was p o i n t e d out i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . F o r example, w i t h r e s p e c t t o Pope, S a l v a t o r i a n and C l a u d i a n s u g g e s t i o n s were seen r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e gloomy scene i n " E l o i s a t o A b e l a r d " domi-n a t e d by t h e f i g u r e of M e l a n c h o l y and i n t h e l a n d s c a p e d e p i c t e d by t h e s e l i n e s f r o m "The Temple of Fame": Here s a i l i n g S h i p s d e l i g h t t h e w a n d r ' i n g E y e s ; There Trees., and i n t ' e r m i n g l ' d Temples r i s e : Now a c l e a r Sun t h e s h i n i n g Scene d i s p l a y s , The t r a n s i e n t l a n d s c a p e now i n C l o u d s d e c a y s . (11. 15-20) Such S a l v a t o r i a n and C l a u d i a n s u g g e s t i o n s i n Pope's l a n d s c a p e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t by co m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e p i c t o r i a l and s c u l p t u r -esque images from a n c i e n t , R e n a i s s a n c e , and baroque a r t t h a t shaped h i s p i c t o r i a l i s m i n g e n e r a l . The same i s t r u e o f Thomson, a l t h o u g h h e r e t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e i n f l u e n c e of C l a u d e , , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h . These p a i n t e r s have been seen as t h e models f o r Thomson's i d e a l l a n d s c a p e s w h i l e t h e a l l e g o r i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l p a i n t e r s o f t h e h i g h R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ^ who gave him h i s i d e a l l a n d s c a p e f o r m , have been o v e r l o o k e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p i c t o r i a l i n f l u e n c e o f C l a u d e , , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s on Thomson's scenes of' r e a l o r a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e has u s u a l l y been o v e r e m p h a s i z e d . X i The g e n e r a l sense i n w h i c h C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s 110 I n f l u e n c e d Thomson's i d e a l l a n d s c a p e was e a r l i e r i m p l i e d when i t was shown t h a t t h e C l a u d i a n l a n d s c a p e evoked by t h e above-quoted l i n e s f r o m "The Temple of Fame," by scenes n o s t a l g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n t i q u e g r a n d e u r and s u f f u s e d w i t h p a s t o r a l s e r e n i t y , i s t h e k i n d o f g e n e r a l -i z e d , h e r o i c , o r i d e a l i z e d l a n d s c a p e w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , d e s p i t e i t s v a r i e t y o f f o r m s , of h i g h R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque p a i n t i n g . . Such l a n d s c a p e j w h i c h i n c l u d e d much o f t h e work of C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , was, we saw, u s u a l l y c o n c e r n e d n o t s o l e l y o r p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l forms o f n a t u r e b u t w i t h n a t u r e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of h e r o i c , p a s t o r a l , . o r o t h e r i d e a l s ; And, as we a l s o saw, i t was t h e v i s u a l i z e d n a t u r a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , Thomson's b a s i c f o r m a l element i n r e n d e r i n g h i s s c e n e , t h a t became h i s c h i e f means of r a i s i n g n a t u r a l f o r m t o t h e i d e a l f o r m m o d e l l e d i n t h e work of s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r s s u c h as Guido R e n i ; A n n i b a l e C a r r a c c i , and N i c o l a s P o u s s i n , t h e c h i e f means whereby he a t t a i n e d h i s d e v e l o p e d and c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e form. The i d e a l i z e d l a n d s c a p e s o f C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , as p a r t of t h e g e n e r a l s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t r a d i t i o n c o n d i t i o n i n g Thomson's l i t e r a r y l a n d s c a p e , c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y as s u c h t o t h e i d e a l f o r m o f h i s mature and f u l l y c o n t r i v e d l a n d s c a p e s c e n e . Examples i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t a l i n f l u e n c e w i l l be c i t e d i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n .-That t h e i n f l u e n c e of s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g has b e e n , o v e r l o o k e d and Thomson's i d e a l l a n d s c a p e made synonymous w i t h C l a u d i a n o r S a l v a t o r i a n p r o s p e c t s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n "Summer" of t h e dawning day as a I l l p o w e r f u l k i n g a p p r o a c h i n g t h e e a r t h i n b o u n d l e s s m a j e s t y : But yonder comes t h e p o w e r f u l k i n g o f day R e j o i c i n g i n t h e e a s t . The l e s s e n i n g c l o u d , : The k i n d l i n g a z u r e , and t h e mountain's brow I l l u m e d w i t h f l u i d g o l d , h i s n e a r a p p r o a c h B e t o k e n g l a d . L o ! now,.apparent a l l , A s l a n t t h e d e w - b r i g h t e a r t h and c o l o u r e d a i r , . He l o o k s i n b o u n d l e s s m a j e s t y a b r o a d , And sheds t h e s h i n i n g day, t h a t b u r n i s h e d p l a y s On r o c k s , and h i l l s , arid t o w e r s , and w a n d e r i n g s t r e a m s . (11. 81-90) T h i s r o y a l p r o g r e s s , so l i k e t h a t o f t h e sun seen as t h e g r e a t " P a r e n t o f Seasons" i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r and e q u a l l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f such i s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m y t h o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s e s as G u i d o ' s and G u e r c i r i o ' s A u r o r a f r e s c o e s o r P o u s s i n ' s Kingdom o f F l o r a , becomes i n t r a d i t i o n a l terms a mere C l a u d i a n s u n r i s e , a scene " i n s t i n c t w i t h i l r i p o s o d i 12 C l a u d i o . " Such a v i e w , t y p i c a l l y o v e r l o o k i n g t h e f u n c t i o n of Thom-s o n i a n n a t u r a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , i g n o r e s t h e r o l e of t h e p e r s o n i f i e d sun i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e elements o f t h e s c e n e , i t s r o l e i n r e n d e r i n g i t p i c t o r i a l a f t e r t h e manner of I t a l i a n m y t h o l o g i c a l p a i n t i n g . Thomson's i d e a l l a n d s c a p e i s r e d u c e d t o p i c t u r e s q u e a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f C l a u d e . The i n f l u e n c e o f C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s i s a l s o emphasized w i t h r e s p e c t t o Thomson's r e a l o r a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p -t i o n s . The p r o s p e c t f r o m H a g l e y P a r k d e p i c t e d i n " S p r i n g , " f o r example, has been p r e s e n t e d as a . c l a s s i c a l i n s t a n c e o f I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , a p r o s p e c t r e v e a l i n g " r e a l C l a u d i a r i 13 d i s t a n c e s : Mean t i m e you g a i n t h e h e i g h t , f r o m whose f a i r brow The b u r s t i n g p r o s p e c t s p r e a d s immense a r o u n d ; 112 And, s n a t c h e d o'er h i l l and d a l e , and wood, and l a w n , And v e r d a n t f i e l d , and d a r k e n i n g h e a t h between, And v i l l a g e s embosomed s o f t i n t r e e s , -And s p i r y towns by s u r g i n g columns marked Of h o u s e h o l d smoke, y o u r eye d i s c u r s i v e r o a m s — . W i d e - s t r e t c h i n g f r o m t h e H a l l i n whose k i n d haunt • The h o s p i t a b l e g e n i u s l i n g e r s s t i l l , To where t h e b r o k e n l a n d s c a p e , by d e g r e e s A s c e n d i n g , roughens i n t o r i g i d h i l l s O'er w h i c h t h e Cambrian m o u n t a i n s , l i k e f a r c l o u d s That s k i r t t h e b l u e h o r i z o n , dusky r i s e . . (11. 950-962) The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s s c e n e r y , however, i s t o p o g r a p h i c a l , t h a t i s , "as d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m i d e a l , " a " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c t u a l s c e n e r y and of s p e c i f i c p l a c e s — u s u a l l y named" i n w h i c h " t h e a r t i s t i n -14 tends t h e s p e c t a t o r t o r e c o g n i z e t h e p l a c e he d e p i c t s . 1 ' The p r o s p e c t from H a g l e y P a r k i s a s p e c i f i c E n g l i s h scene n a t u r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o r e g r o u n d , m i d d l e d i s t a n c e , and background w h i c h r e f l e c t s , as a p r o s -p e c t o f f i e l d , v i l l a g e , h i l l , and m o u n t a i n , some of t h e themes e a r l i e r m entioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g i n E n g l a n d and on t h e C o n t i n e n t . The dusky Cambrian background a l s o r e c a l l s S h a f t e s b u r y ' s p i o n e e r p r a i s e of m o u n t a i n s . T h i s p r o s p e c t , t h e n , i s n o t an i d e a l l y composed I t a l i a n a t e scene a f t e r t h e manner of C l a u d e . I n f a c t t h e I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e so be-l o v e d of C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , . a n d t h e i r E n g l i s h a d m i r e r s was a d i s a p p o i n t -ment t o Thomson d u r i n g h i s t r a v e l s i n I t a l y . What en c h a n t e d Thomson t h e r e was.not so much t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b u t t h e a n c i e n t s t a t u e s and t h e p a i n t i n g s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque m a s t e r s w h i c h shaped h i s p i c t o r i a l v i s i o n . The p a i n t i n g s of I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e by t h e s e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a r t i s t s were t h e m s e l v e s " ' v a s t l y S u p e r i o u r t o 113 t h e p a i n t i n g of a l l o t h e r N a t i o n s ' n o t c h i e f l y because t h e p a i n t e r s l i v e d amid C l a u d i a n and S a l v a t o r i a n n a t u r a l s c e n e r y " b u t "because t h e y were c o n s t a n t l y exposed t o t h e remains of Greece, and Rome." 1^ D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , however, i t would n o t be t r u e t o say t h a t Thomson n e v e r d e p i c t e d C l a u d i a n o r S a l v a t o r i a n s c e n e s . The s c e n i c e l e ments i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage from L i b e r t y , f o r example, r e c a l l n o t o n l y t h e w i l d , f i e r c e d e s o l a t i o n of S a l v a t o r i a n p r e c i p i c e s , t o r r e n t s . , s t o r m s , and b l a s t e d t r e e s b u t a l s o t h e s o f t ; d i f f u s e d l i g h t , t h e p e ace-f u l atmosphere, and t h e s e r e n e and t r a n q u i l s p i r i t o f C l a u d e ' s • p a s t o r a l i s m : T here g a i l y b r o k e t h e s u n - i l l u m i n e d c l o u d ; The l e s s e n i n g p r o s p e c t , and t h e m ountain b l u e V a n i s h e d i n a i r ; t h e p r e c i p i c e frowned d i r e ; . W h i t e down t h e r o c k t h e r u s h i n g t o r r e n t dashed; The sun shone t r e m b l i n g o'er t h e d i s t a n t main; The tempest foamed immense; t h e d r i v i n g s t o r m Saddened t h e . s k i e s , and, f r o m t h e d o u b l i n g gloom, On t h e s c a t h e d oak t h e ragged l i g h t n i n g f e l l ; I n c l o s i n g s h a d e s , and where th e c u r r e n t s t r a y s , W i t h peace and l o v e and i n n o c e n c e a r o u n d , P i p e d t h e l o n e shepherd t o h i s f e e d i n g f l o c k . ( I I , 352-362) The l a n d s c a p e o f The C a s t l e o f I n d o l e n c e , t o o , i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r . Here a r e " s l e e p - s o o t h i n g g r o v e s , and q u i e t lawns between," where g e n t l e streams " b i c k e r " t h r o u g h a "sunny g l a d e " ( I , i i i ) i n w h i c h J o i n e d t o t h e p r a t t l e of t h e p u r l i n g r i l l s . Were h e a r d t h e l o w i n g h e r d s a l o n g t h e v a l e , Arid f l o c k s l o u d - b l e a t i n g from t h e d i s t a n t h i l l s , And v a c a n t shepherds p i p i n g i n t h e d a l e . ( I , i v ) 114 T h i s p e a c e f u l s e t t i n g i s made even more C l a u d i a n by t h e f a c t t h a t h e r e I n d o l e n c e " c l o s e - h i d h i s c a s t l e mid embowering t r e e s " ( I , v i i ) . How-e v e r , t o w e r i n g above t h e s i d e s o f t h i s p a s t o r a l v a l l e y and s h a r p l y opposed t o i t s mood of s e r e n e t r a n q u i l l i t y , a " s a b l e , s i l e n t , . s o l e m n f o r e s t s t o o d , " a S a l v a t o r i a n "wood o f b l a c k e n i n g p i n e s , " w h i c h , , " w a v i n g t o and, f r o , " " s e n t f o r t h a s l e e p y h o r r o r t h r o u g h t h e b l o o d " ( I , v ) . And when the. K n i g h t o f A r t s and I n d u s t r y l a t e r waves h i s wand we a r e g i v e n scenes o f w i l d d e s o l a t i o n f i l l e d w i t h r u i n , " g l o o m y ' f l o o d , " and " t r e e s by l i g h t n i n g s c a t h e d " ( I I , l x v i i i ) ; . These examples show t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r i s n o t t o be d e n i e d a l t o g e t h e r i n Thomson's v e r s e . , D e s p i t e t h i s , how-e v e r , and d e s p i t e t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n made by t h e s e p a i n t e r s t o t h e l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n , t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e , as t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n of Thomson's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r . has t r i e d t o show, cannot be' l i m i t e d t o C l a u d i a n and S a l v a t o r i a n p r o s p e c t s . To do so i s t o d i s t o r t t h e p i c t o r i a l i s m o f Pope and Thomson, t o c o n f u s e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m and t h e p i c t u r -esque of t h e n a t u r a l garden,.and t o o b s c u r e t h e o r i g i n s of t h e renewed e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a p p r e c i a t i o n of n a t u r e . I f i t i s a c c e p t e d , f o r example, t h a t " t h e e f f e c t on p o e t r y o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e p o i n t of v i e w i s t o be t r a c e d i n t h e g r a d u a l a p p r o x i m a -t i o n o f d e s c r i b e d l a n d s c a p e to.' t h e l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e d by C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r Rosa," and i f s u c h l a n d s c a p e i s found nowhere i n Pope and everywhere i n Thomson, t h e n , i n o p p o s i t i o n to' a l l t h a t has been s a i d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , Pope d i s p l a y s " l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n of p i c t u r e s q u e 115 l a n d s c a p e " because " f o r t h e most p a r t h i s l a n d s c a p e s a r e crowds o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , " b ecause " t h e r e i s no a n a l o g y i n h i s l a n d s c a p e s t o 16 t h o s e o f C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r . " Thomson, on t h e o t h e r hand, becomes "par e x c e l l e n c e , t h e poet of p i c t o r i a l l a n d s c a p e , " whose e v e r y scene i s " c o r r e c t l y composed and f i l l e d i n w i t h s u f f i c i e n t v i v i d n e s s t o e n a b l e t h e r e a d e r t o v i s u a l i z e a p i c t u r e a f t e r t h e manner of S a l v a t o r and C l a u d e . " ^ 7 He emerges as t h e " f i r s t o f t h e g r e a t l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e r s i n p o e t r y " o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e p i o n e e r o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e : I t remained b u t t o d i r e c t t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r a r t towards t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r e . To g e t men .to l o o k a t r e a l l a n d s c a p e w i t h a p a i n t e r ' s g u s t o . That done and t h e p i c t u r e s q u e p o i n t o f v i e w would be d e l i v e r e d i n t o t h e l a n d . T h i s was t h e achievement of James Thomson and John D y e r , t h e P i c t u r e s q u e p o e t s . 1 8 Such a v i e w o f t h e p o e t r y and p i c t o r i a l i s m o f Pope and Thomson e n t i r e l y o v e r l o o k s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e l a s t c h a p t e r : t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e p o e t s t o t h e i c o n i c t r a d i t i o n and t o t h e a r t of h i g h - R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y and t h e baroque s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , v i e w i n g Thomson as " t h e . f i r s t i n a l i n e o f C l a u d i a n l a n d s c a p i s t s , i m p o r t a n t because of h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e 19 ' p i c t u r e s q u e ' o f l a t e r p o e t s and g a r d e n e r s , " o b s c u r e s t h e S h a f t e s -b u r i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e renewed e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e . Thomson and Dyer may, i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w , see n a t u r e "as a composed w h o l e , " b u t s i n c e " f o r Thomson t h e r e a l i t y o f n a t u r e was a p i c t u r e , " t h i s becomes "a p i c t o r i a l , n o t an o r g a n i c o r s p i r i t u a l 20 w h o l e . " And p r i m a c y i s g i v e n t o C l a u d e and S a l v a t o r r a t h e r t h a n S h a f t e s b u r y when t h e l a n d s c a p e s o f t h e s e p a i n t e r s , " a b u n d a n t l y . 116 m u l t i p l i e d i n p a i n t i n g and p r i n t , " a r e seen as t h e "new e l e m e n t — t h e p i c t u r e s q u e — w h i c h h e l p e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e d i s t a s t e f o r mountains as t h i n g s u n c o u t h i n t o a f e a r f u l j o y a t t h e i r p r e c i p i c e s , c r a g s , and 21 h a n g i n g woods." Thus, i n " e x p l a i n i n g complex phenomena by s i m p l e c a u s e s " and making i t appear "as i f t h e p a i n t e r s were s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s t a s t e i n n a t u r e , " t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f Thomson's r e l a t i o n t o t h e " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e " i g n o r e s " t h e v e r y p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f S h a f t e s b u r y i n m o l d i n g e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h o u g h t , " f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t Thomson "would have had a sympathy w i t h n a t u r e even i f he had 22 n e v e r h e a r d o f C l a u d e L o r r a i n e o r P o u s s i n . " F i n a l l y , i n d o i n g a l l t h i s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f Thomson a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y o b s c u r e s t h e o r i g i n s o f p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e v i s i o n i n t h e n a t u r a l g a r d e n . The whole complex q u e s t i o n of t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e new f e e l i n g f o r n a t u r e i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s w e l l summed up as f o l l o w s : I t a p p e ars t h a t i t was t h e i n f l u e n c e of S h a f t e s b u r y , Thomson, A k e n s i d e , and h o s t of mi n o r p o e t i c a l f o l l o w e r s w h i c h , combined w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f F r e n c h and I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r s , made n a t u r a l b e a u t y v i s i b l e where i t ' h a d n o t been p e r c e i v e d b e f o r e . A l l t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s coming f r o m p h i l o s o p h y , p o e t r y , and p a i n t i n g i n t e r m i n g l e d , r e i n f o r c e d one a n o t h e r , and b r o u g h t about what t h e t e x t - b o o k s d e s c r i b e as t h e " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e . " Of t h i s " r e t u r n " t h e l a n d s c a p e garden was m e r e l y one m a n i f e s t a t i o n . 2 3 The q u e s t i o n o f t h i s " m a n i f e s t a t i o n " and t h e a s s o c i a t e d ques-t i o n o f p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e w i l l t a k e up t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c h a p t e r and a t t h e same t i m e c o n c l u d e t h i s t h e s i s . The h i s t o r y o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n a t u r a l g a r d e n , however, i s a l a r g e and complex s u b j e c t , and s i n c e t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t and m a n i f e s t e d v a r i o u s l y i n p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , p o e t r y , t h e n o v e l , t r a v e l , and a e s t h e t i c 117 s p e c u l a t i o n i s an even l a r g e r and more complex s u b j e c t , , t h e t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d h e r e t o garden and p i c t u r e s q u e must n e c e s s a r i l y be b r i e f and s e l e c t i v e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s e d b r i e f l y on o n l y two a s p e c t s o f t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t e d m a t t e r s : t h e e a r l y o r i g i n s of t h e n a t u r a l g arden and t h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e t h a t grew out of i t i n t h e t h e o r y of W i l l i a m G i l p i n . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , i n v o l v i n g f i g u r e s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m — P o p e , A d d i s o n , , a n d S h a f t e s b u r y — w i l l complement p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n n o t o n l y o f t h a t s u b j e c t but t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e " as w e l l . The s e c o n d , w h i c h w i l l i n v o l v e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of Claude,. S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , has a l r e a d y been a n t i c i p a t e d i n . i m p o r t a n t ways by t h e d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r o f Matthew Bramble's t o u r , l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p t i o n s , and p i c t u r e s q u e p o e t r y . The E n g l i s h n a t u r a l garden a r o s e from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e f i x i t y o f c l a s s i c d e s i g n , from a d e s i r e t o f r e e t h e garden p l a n from t h e s y m m e t r i c a l geometry o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g , a x i a l l y - d e s i g n e d f o r m a l 24 g a r d e n . F o r E n g l a n d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and f o r a l l E u r o p e , t h e a r c h e t y p a l f o r m a l garden was t h e v a s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e d by Le N o t r e f o r L o u i s XIV a t V e r s a i l l e s . C h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f V e r s a i l l e s and t h e gardens p a t t e r n e d a f t e r i t were t h e p r o j e c t i o n of t h e house d e s i g n , and t h e development of p e r s p e c t i v e s a l o n g t h e main a x i s , t h e use of w a t e r i n l o n g , s t r a i g h t , narrow c a n a l s o r i n f o u n t a i n s j e t t i n g v e r t i c a l s t r e a m s , . t h e avenues f o r m i n g s e c o n d a r y axes and c o n t r i b u t i n g a d d i t i o n a l v i s t a s , - and t h e s y m m e t r i c a l a r r a n g e -ments o f s t a t u e s , s h r u b b e r y , and e l a b o r a t e l y f o l i a t e d o r " e m b r o i d e r e d " 118 p a r t e r r e s . I t was i n r e a c t i o n t o t h i s k i n d o f g a r d e n t h a t E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r s , w r i t e r s , and w e a l t h y amateur l a n d s c a p i s t s c o n c e i v e d of and d e v e l o p e d t h e E n g l i s h n a t u r a l g arden. The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e f o r m a l g a r d e n , o f a b e a u t y o r i g i n a t i n g n o t i n u n i f o r m i t y and symmetry b u t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y of a d e s i g n whose d i s p o s i t i o n of p a r t s i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t , i s c o n t a i n e d i n S i r W i l l i a m Temple's e s s a y Upon t h e Gardens of  E p i c u r u s ( 1 6 9 0 ) . T y p i c a l i n h i s a d m i r a t i o n of f o r m a l g a r d e n s , Temple, i n a s i g n i f i c a n t passage w o r t h q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h , n o n e t h e l e s s p o i n t s out t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r d e s i g n s of t h e " b e s t forms o f . g a r d e n s , " t h e r e may be o t h e r forms w h o l l y i r r e g u l a r , t h a t may, f o r ought I know, have more b e a u t y t h a n any of t h e o t h e r s ; b u t t h e y must,owe i t t o some e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s p o s i t i o n s of n a t u r e i n t h e s e a t , o r some g r e a t r a c e of f a n c y o r judgment i n t h e c o n t r i v a n c e , w h i c h may p roduce many d i s a g r e e i n g p a r t s i n t o some f i g u r e , w h i c h s h a l l y e t upon t h e w h o l e , be v e r y a g r e e a b l e . Something o f t h i s I have seen i n some p l a c e s , b u t h e a r d more of i t from o t h e r s , who have l i v e d much among t h e C h i n e s e ; a p e o p l e whose way of t h i n k i n g seems t o l i e as w i d e of o u r s i n E u r o p e , as t h e i r c o u n t r y does. Among u s , t h e b e a u t y . o f b u i l d i n g and p l a n t i n g i s p l a c e d c h i e f l y i n some c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n s , s y m m e t r i e s , o r u n i f o r m i t i e s ; our w a l k and our t r e e s ranged s o , as t o answer one a n o t h e r , and a t e x a c t d i s t a n c e s . The C h i n e s e s c o r n t h i s way o f p l a n t i n g , and say a boy t h a t can t e l l an h u n d r e d , may p l a n t w a l k s o f t r e e s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s , and o v e r a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r , and t o what l e n g t h and e x t e n t he p l e a s e s . But t h e i r g r e a t e s t r e a c h of i m a g i n a t i o n , i s employed i n c o n t r i v i n g f i g u r e s where t h e b e a u t y s h a l l be g r e a t , ..and s t r i k e t h e eye, b u t w i t h o u t any o r d e r o r d i s p o s i t i o n of p a r t s , t h a t s h a l l be commonly o r e a s i l y o b s e r v e d . And though we have h a r d l y any n o t i o n of t h i s s o r t of b e a u t y , y e t t h e y have a p a r t i c u l a r word t o e x p r e s s i t ; and where t h e y f i n d i t h i t t h e i r eye a t f i r s t s i g h t , t h e y say t h e Sharawaggi i s f i n e o r i s a d m i r a b l e . And whoever o b s e r v e s t h e work upon t h e b e s t I n d i a n gowris, o r t h e p a i n t i n g upon t h e i r b e s t s c r e e n s o r p u r c e l l a n s , w i l l f i n d t h e i r b e a u t y i s a l l of t h i s k i n d ( t h a t i s ) w i t h o u t o r d e r . 2 5 119 Temple, " l i t t l e r e a l i z i n g t h a t he was l a y i n g down the p r i n c i p l e s 26 of t h e f u t u r e j a r d i n a n g l a i s , " f e l t t h a t t h i s i r r e g u l a r b e a u t y was beyond t h e g r a s p o f h i s countrymen: I s h o u l d h a r d l y a d v i s e any of t h e s e a t t e m p t s i n t h e f i g u r e of gardens among u s ; t h e y a r e a d v e n t u r e s of t o o h a r d achievement f o r any common hands; and though t h e r e may be more honour i f t h e y s u c c e e d w e l l , y e t t h e r e i s more d i s h o n o u r i f t h e y f a i l , and ' t i s twenty t o one. t h e y w i l l ; whereas i n r e g u l a r f i g u r e s , ' t i s , h a r d t o make any g r e a t and r e m a r k a b l e f a u l t s . 2 7 ' S h a f t e s b u r y i n The M o r a l i s t s (1709) made t h e f i r s t open d e c l a r a -t i o n o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f w i l d , untrammeled n a t u r e over t h e u n i f o r m i t y and symmetry o f t h e f o r m a l g a r d e n . H i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e works of God i n n a t u r e o v e r t h o s e of man was s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y : I s h a l l no l o n g e r r e s i s t t h e p a s s i o n g r o w i n g i n me f o r t h i n g s of a n a t u r a l k i n d , where n e i t h e r a r t n o r .the c o n c e i t o r c a p r i c e of man has s p o i l e d t h e i r g e n u i n e o r d e r by b r e a k i n g i n upon t h a t p r i m i t i v e s t a t e . Even t h e rude r o c k s , t h e mossy c a v e r n s , t h e i r r e g u l a r un-wrought g r o t t o s and b r o k e n f a l l s o f w a t e r s j w i t h a l l t h e h o r r i d g r a c e s of t h e w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f , as r e p r e s e n t i n g N a t u r e more, w i l l be t h e more e n g a g i n g , and appear w i t h a m a g n i f i c e n c e beyond t h e f o r m a l mockery of p r i n c e l y gardens.28 However, S h a f t e s b u r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e v i e w t h a t t h e formal-garden was l e s s b e a u t i f u l t h e more i t d e p a r t e d f r o m n a t u r e m a i n l y stemmed fr o m h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e j e c t i o n of p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d , t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d by L u c r e t i u s , f o r example, o r • by Thomas B u r n e t and h i s Sacred. Theory of t h e E a r t h (1681-9) . A c c o r d -i n g , t o L u c r e t i u s two t h i r d s o f t h e w o r l d was " w i t h h e l d f r o m mankind by t o r r i d h e a t and p e r e n n i a l d e p o s i t s of f r o s t " w h i l e most o f t h e r e -mainder was " g r e e d i l y s e i z e d by mountains and t h e woodland h a u n t s of 120 w i l d b e a s t s , " by " c r a g s and d e s o l a t e bogs and t h e s e a t h a t h o l d s f a r asunder t h e s h o r e s of t h e l a n d s . " Such a w o r l d , " f u l l o f i m p e r f e c t i o n s , " was p r o o f t h a t " t h e u n i v e r s e was c e r t a i n l y n o t c r e a t e d f o r us by d i v i n e 29 power." Thomas B u r n e t argued t h a t the' "whole E x t e r i o u r R e g i o n " o f t h e e a r t h i s a " b roken and c o n f u s ' d heap of b o d i e s , p l a c ' d i n no o r d e r t o one a n o t h e r , n o r w i t h any c o r r e s p o n d e n c y o r r e g u l a r i t y of p a r t s . " As t h e "image o r p i c t u r e of a g r e a t R u i n e " r e f l e c t i n g " t h e t r u e a s p e c t of a W o r l d l y i n g i n i t s r u b b i s h , " t h e d i s o r d e r e d c o n d i t i o n of t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d c o n s t i t u t e d p r o o f of God's anger a t "the degeneracy o f mankind." The p r e s e n t , badly-damaged e a r t h r e s u l t e d from God's d e s t r u c t i o n by F l o o d o f " t h e f i r s t W o r l d , " t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r o f c r e a t i o n p e r f e c t i n i t s d e s i g n and harmony. 3^ I n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s S h a f t e s b u r y advanced t h e . c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d : n a t u r e as a d i v i n e o r d e r , as a s p i r i t u a l r e v e l a t i o n e x a l t i n g t h e w i l d and i r r e g u l a r , and b r i n g i n g d e l i g h t , wisdom, and a sense of awe and r e v e r e n c e t o man. T h i s i n f l u e n -t i a l v i e w of t h e u n i v e r s e and of o r i g i n a l , untouched n a t u r e "tended i n e v i t a b l y t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c o n s c i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n of t r e e s , r o c k s , and w a t e r i n t h e f o r m a l garden o f t h e p e r i o d . " N a t u r e , i t seemed, "was b e t t e r and more b e a u t i f u l t h a n she had been t h o u g h t t o b e , and need n o t be t w i s t e d , t o r t u r e d , o r 'methodized' by man i n an e f f o r t t o improve 31 o r r e s t r a i n h e r . " S h a f t e s b u r i a n i n f l u e n c e ' c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e " n o t o n l y i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l v e r s e b u t i n t h e development o f t h e E n g l i s h n a t u r a l garden as w e l l . I t has a l r e a d y been shown t h a t , l i k e S h a f t e s b u r y ' s p h i l o s o p h y , 121 A d d i s o n ' s n a t u r a l i s m emphasized o r i g i n a l n a t u r e . I t d i d so n o t o n l y by l o c a t i n g t h e g r e a t , t h e uncommon, and t h e b e a u t i f u l w i t h i n n a t u r e as t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e p r i m a r y p l e a s u r e s o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n b u t a l s o by comparing n a t u r e ' s v a r i e t y , g r a n d e u r , and v a s t n e s s t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t "Touches and E m b e l l i s h m e n t s o f A r t " : I f we c o n s i d e r t h e Works of N a t u r e and A r t , as t h e y a r e q u a l i f i e d t o e n t e r t a i n t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , . w e s h a l l f i n d t h e l a s t v e r y d e f e c t i v e , i n Comparison o f t h e f o r m e r ; f o r though t h e y may sometimes appear as B e a u t i f u l o r S t r a n g e , t h e y can have n o t h i n g i n them o f t h e V a s t n e s s and Immensity, w h i c h a f f o r d so g r e a t an E n t e r t a i n m e n t t o t h e M i n d o f t h e B e h o l d e r . The one may be a s , P o l i t e and D e l i c a t e as the o t h e r , b u t can n e v e r shew h e r s e l f as so August and M a g n i f i c e n t i n t h e D e s i g n . - There i s some t h i n g more b o l d and m a s t e r l y i n t h e rough c a r e l e s s S t r o k e s o f Nature,' t h a n i n t h e n i c e Touches and E m b e l l i s h m e n t s o f A r t . 3 2 T h i s emphasis upon o r i g i n a l n a t u r e and t h e p r a i s e o f i t s rough m a g n i f i c e n c e o v e r , the " C u r i o s i t i e s o f A r t " (414) i n f l u e n t i a l l y r e i n -f o r c e d t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of n a t u r e . S h a f t e s b u r y , how-ever., was p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w i l d , u n i n h a b i t e d n a t u r e . w h i l e A d d i s o n , as h i s e s s a y s on g a r d e n i n g show, was a l o v e r o f d o m e s t i c s c e n e r y , o f t h e c i v i l i z e d , humanized l a n d s c a p e o f t h e E n g l i s h c o u n t r y -s i d e . . H i s e l e v a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l l y i r r e g u l a r o v e r t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f d e s i g n and a r t appears most., p r o m i n e n t l y i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f " t h e s e v e r a l A c r e s about my House, w h i c h I c a l l my Garden," a garden f a r fro m f o r m a l i n i t s C o n f u s i o n o f K i t c h i n and P a r t e r r e , O r c h a r d and F l o w e r Garden, w h i c h l i e so m i x t and i n t e r w o v e n w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h a t i f a F o r e i g n e r who had seen n o t h i n g o f o u r C o u n t r y s h o u l d be conveyed i n t o my Garden a t h i s f i r s t l a n d i n g , he would l o o k upon i t as a n a t u r a l W i l d e r n e s s , and one of t h e u n c u l t i v a t e d P a r t s o f our C o u n t r y . (477) 122 I n t h i s g a rden A d d i s o n t a k e s " p a r t i c u l a r c a r e " t o e n s u r e t h a t a " l i t t l e w a n d r i n g R i l l " s h o u l d r u n " i n t h e same Manner as i t w o u l d do i n an open F i e l d , " t h a t i t s h o u l d pass " t h r o u g h Banks of V i o l e t s and P r i m r o s e s , P l a t s of W i l l o w , or o t h e r P l a n t s , t h a t seem t o be of i t s own p r o d u c i n g " ( 4 7 7 ) . The whole d e s c r i p t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t "my C o m p o s i t i o n s i n G a r d e n i n g a r e a l t o g e t h e r a f t e r t h e P i n d a r i c k Manner, and r u n i n t o t h e b e a u t i f u l W i l d n e s s of N a t u r e , w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g t h e n i c e r E l e g a n c i e s of A r t " ( 4 7 7 ) . B e s i d e s u n d e r m i n i n g t h e p r e s t i g e of t h e f o r m a l garden i n t h i s way, A d d i s o n a l s o e x p l i c i t l y a t t a c k s i t s a r t i f i c i a l i t y . A f t e r o b l i q u e l y r e f e r r i n g t o Temple's " s h a r a w a g g i " and C h i n e s e g a r d e n e r s who " c o n c e a l t h e a r t by w h i c h t h e y d i r e c t t h e m s e l v e s , " he speaks of " o u r . B r i t i s h g a r d e n e r s " who, i n s t e a d of "humouring N a t u r e " l i k e t h e C h i n e s e , l o v e t o d e v i a t e f r o m i t as much as p o s s i b l e . Our T r e e s r i s e i n Cones, G l o b e s , and P y r a m i d s . We see t h e Marks of t h e S c i s s a r s upon e v e r y P l a n t , and Bush. I do n o t know whether I am s i n g u l a r i n my O p i n i o n , but,, f o r my own p a r t , I w o u l d r a t h e r l o o k upon a Tree i n a l l i t s L u x u r i a n c y and D i f f u s i o n o f Boughs and B r a n c h e s , t h a n when i t i s thus c u t and trimmed i n t o a M a t h e m a t i c a l F i g u r e ; and cannot but f a n c y t h a t an O r c h a r d i n F l o w e r l o o k s i n f i n i t e l y more d e l i g h t f u l t h a n a l l t h e l i t t l e L a b y r i n t h s of t h e most f i n i s h e d P a r t e r r e . (414) However, A d d i s o n ' s most i m p o r t a n t c r i t i c i s m o f f o r m a l gardens i s p r o b a b l y h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t one of t h e g r e a t p r i m a r y p l e a s u r e s of th e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e sense of a s t o n i s h m e n t and freedom evoked by s p a c i o u s p r o s p e c t s , by u n c o n f i n e d v i e w s o f d i s t a n t h o r i z o n s , i s f r u s -t r a t e d by s u c h g a r d e n s : The B e a u t i e s of t h e most s t a t e l y Garden o r P a l a c e l i e i n a narrow Compass, t h e I m a g i n a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y r u n s them o v e r , and r e q u i r e s 123 something e l s e t o g r a t i f y h e r ; b u t , i n t h e w i d e F i e l d s o f N a t u r e , t h e S i g h t wanders up and down w i t h o u t . C o n f i n e m e n t , and i s f e d w i t h an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y o f Images, w i t h o u t any c e r t a i n S t i n t o r Number. (414) Hence t h e famous q u e s t i o n w h i c h i m p l i e s t h e i d e a o f t h e garden as a l a n d s c a p e embracing t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y s i d e o r a p p e a r i n g t o do s o : "Why may n o t a whole E s t a t e be thrown i n t o a k i n d o f Garden?" ( 4 1 4 ) . T h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h o u g h t d e p a r t s from t h e c o n c e p t i o n e n t e r t a i n e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s o f t h e garden as a s e p a r a t e , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e n c l o s u r e . I n p r a c t i c a l terms t h e i d e a t h a t a man might thus "make a p r e t t y L a n d s k i p . o f h i s own P o s s e s s i o n s " (414) l e d t o t h e r e m o v a l of w a l l s and f e n c e s and t o t h e concealment o f . e s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s and l i m i t s w h i c h gave gardens t h e . s p a c i o u s appearance and a p p e a l o f n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s . 33 A d d i s o n ' s i d e a r e p r e s e n t s " t h e s t a r t o f E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p i n g . " F i n a l l y , as we saw i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , A d d i s o n ' s o p i n i o n t h a t n a t u r e c o u l d y i e l d s e c o n d a r y i m a g i n a t i v e p l e a s u r e t h r o u g h a c c i d e n t a l r e s e m b lance t o a work o f a r t a n t i c i p a t e s t h e p i c t u r e s q u e o f W i l l i a m G i l p i n . When we f i n d t h e " d e l i g h t f u l " works o f n a t u r e " s t i l l more p l e a s a n t ; t h e more th e y r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f a r t , " when our p l e a s u r e a r i s e s n o t o n l y f r o m t h e " A g r e e a b l e n e s s o f t h e O b j e c t s t o t h e Eye," b u t from t h e i r " S i m i l i t u d e t o other. O b j e c t s " so t h a t we c a n " r e p r e s e n t them t o our M i n d s , e i t h e r as C o p i e s o r O r i g i n a l s " ( 4 1 4 ) , t h e n we a r e b u t a s t e p f r o m t h e p i c t u r e s q u e o f G i l p i n , f rom c o n s i d e r i n g n a t u r a l scenes a p p r o p -r i a t e f o r p a i n t i n g because composed l i k e p i c t u r e s . We a r e a l s o c l o s e t o t h e a l l i e d n o t i o n t h a t n a t u r a l scenes t h e m s e l v e s a c t u a l l y be composed l i k e p i c t u r e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t t h e y be p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e l a n d s c a p e 124 i d e a l s o f C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , t h a t i s , made p i c t u r e s q u e . Pope echoed and i n t e n s i f i e d A d d i s o n ' s c r i t i c i s m o f f o r m a l g a r d e n s . I n The G u a r d i a n (173) he d e c l a r e s t h a t "we. seem t o make i t our s t u d y t o r e c e d e from N a t u r e " n o t o n l y " i n t h e v a r i o u s t o n s u r e o f gree n s i n t o t h e most r e g u l a r and f o r m a l s h a p e s " b u t "even i n monstrous a t t e m p t s beyond t h e r e a c h of t h e a r t , " s u c h as "Adam and Eve i n yew; Adam a l i t t l e s h a t t e r e d by. t h e f a l l o f t h e t r e e o f knowledge i n t h e 34 g r e a t s t o r m : Eve and t h e s e r p e n t . v e r y f l o u r i s h i n g . " And i n E p i s t l e IV o f t h e " M o r a l E s s a y s , " t h e E p i s t l e t o B u r l i n g t o n , Pope s a t i r i c a l l y a t t a c k s t h e e n c l o s e d " i n v e r t e d N a t u r e " and d u l l symmetry of Timon's huge f o r m a l g a r d e n : On e v ' f y s i d e you l o o k , b e h o l d t h e W a l l ! No p l e a s i n g I n t r i c a c i e s i n t e r v e n e , No a r t f u l w i l d n e s s t o p e r p l e x t h e s c e n e ; Grove nods a t g r o v e , . e a c h A l l e y has a b r o t h e r , And h a l f t h e . p l a t f o r m j u s t r e f l e c t s t h e o t h e r . The s u f f ' r i n g , eye i n v e r t e d N a t u r e s e e s , T r e e s c u t t o S t a t u e s , , S t a t u e s t h i c k as t r e e s , . W i t h h e r e a F o u n t a i n , n e v e r t o be p l a y ' d , And t h e r e a Summer-house,; t h a t knows no shade. ,v (11. 114-122) A g a i n s t t h e f o r m a l i t y o f t h i s e n c l o s e d , u n i f o r m , r e g u l a r i z e d n a t u r e , Pope recommends,.in terms a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g a r d e n -i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e c o m p o s i t i o n s o f C l a u d e , . S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , t h e n a t u r a l i s m o f t h e v a r i e d , i r r e g u l a r , and s p a c i o u s g arden o f A d d i s o n . S i n c e He g a i n s a l l points,,,who p l e a s i n g l y confounds j S u r p r i z e s , v a r i e s , and c o n c e a l s t h e bounds, (11. 55-56) 125 t h e l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n e r s h o u l d always C o n s u l t t h e G e n i u s o f t h e P l a c e i n a l l ; That t e l l s t h e Waters o r t o r i s e , o r f a l l , Or h e l p s t h ' a m b i t i o u s H i l l t h e . h eav'n t o s c a l e , Or scoops i n c i r c l i n g t h e a t r e s t h e V a l e , C a l l s i n t h e C o u n t r y , c a t c h e s o p e n i n g g l a d e s , J o i n s w i l l i n g woods,,and v a r i e s shades f r o m . s h a d e s , Now b r e a k s o r now d i r e c t s t h ' i n t e n d i n g L i n e s ; P a i n t s as you p l a n t , and, as you work,, d e s i g n s . (11. 57-64) Pope's garden a t Twickenham, a x i a l l y - d e s i g n e d , a n d "Rococo more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e " i n i t s " w i g g l y p a t h s , i t s m i n u t e mount, i t s c o c k l e 35 s h e l l s and m i n e r a l s , and i t s e f f e c t ' s o f v a r i e t y on a s m a l l s c a l e , " d i d n o t a c c o r d w i t h h i s own r u l e s o f n a t u r a l i s t i c d e s i g n . A d d i s o n ' s g a r d e n i n g , t o o , . a t B i l t o n , was " r a t h e r o f t h e h e r o i c s t y l e t h a n t h e 36 P i n d a r i c . " But d e s p i t e t h i s , and d e s p i t e t h e f u r t h e r i r o n y t h a t b o t h w r i t e r s were symbols of t h e "age o f c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r i t y i n i t s ' more b r i l l i a n t moments," i t was t h e y who were " c h i e f l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d i s l o d g i n g f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n i n p u b l i c esteem t h e garden of a x i a l 37 d e s i g n , w h i c h i m p r e s s i v e l y embodied t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i d e a l of o r d e r . " The r e v o l u t i o n i n g a r d e n i n g . t a s t e s and p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h t h e y and S h a f t e s b u r y . p r e c i p i t a t e d l e d t o t h e , c r e a t i o n o f t h e g arden t h a t " t r i e s s e r i o u s l y t o l o o k l i k e N a t u r e Unadorned," t h e l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n t h a t "has d e c e i v e d us a l l a t some s t a g e i n t o b e l i e v i n g i t t o be E n g l a n d ' s 38 n a t u r a l s c e n e r y . " ' And s i n c e t h i s g a rden c o n s t i t u t e s one a s p e c t o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , " Pope and A d d i s o n must be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t as w e l l . The s t o r y of t h e a c t u a l emergence and development o f t h e 126 landscape garden i n England cannot be t o l d h e r e . Such complex and h i g h l y d e t a i l e d matters as the r e a l i z a t i o n , a d a p t a t i o n , and v a r i a t i o n of the ideas of A d d i s o n , Pope, and others i n famous gardens l i k e Shenstone 's Leasowes,. H a m i l t o n ' s P a i n ' s H i l l , Southcote ' s Wooburn Farm, Temple's Stowe, L y t t l e t o n ' s H a g l e y , L e i c e s t e r ' s Holkham, or H o a r e ' s Stourhead; the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of landscape gardeners l i k e S w i t z e r , Bridgeman, K e n t , Brown, and Repton; the endless d i s c u s s i o n conducted by w r i t e r s , c r i t i c s , a e s t h e t i c i a n s , amateurs, and weal thy men of f a s h i o n on the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of landscape g a r d e n i n g ; and the r e f l e c t i o n o f , a l l these matters i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the century are beyond the scope of t h i s paper , r e q u i r i n g as they do f u l l volumes to themselves . Treatment of these s u b j e c t s , however, i s not necessary to an unders tanding of the q u e s t i o n whose b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l end t h i s p a p e r : . the p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e f o r landscape engendered by the n a t u r a l garden and f o r m a l i z e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y b y - G i l p i n . We have seen that the r e l a t i o n s between the s i s t e r , a r t s of p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g achieved a h i g h degree of i n t i m a c y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . However, that a n a l o g i e s between the a r t s were by no means c o n f i n e d to these two, that f u r t h e r examples " c o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d almost 39 i n d e f i n i t e l y , " i s i n d i c a t e d by the p a r a l l e l s between the n o v e l and the e n g r a v i n g , s t a g e - a c t i n g and p a i n t i n g , music and p o e t r y , a r c h i t e c t u r e and l a n d s c a p i n g , as w e l l as by the important a s s o c i a t i o n between p a i n t -i n g and gardening w i t h which we are concerned. Of a l l t h e s e , the a f f i n i t y between p a i n t i n g and gardening was of p a r t i c u l a r importance . I t not o n l y helped make the landscape garden " the great E n g l i s h 127 c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a r t of g a r d e n i n g , even t o a r t i t s e l f , " t o c r e a t e 40 t h e " o n l y a r t f o r m t o be p e r f e c t e d i n B r i t a i n , " b u t , i n d o i n g s o , i t a l s o made p o s s i b l e and o r i g i n a t e d t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e f o r l a n d s c a p e h e r a l d e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e t r a v e l s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , and p o e t r y o f S m o l l e t t ' s Matthew Bramble. . The a s s o c i a t i o n between p a i n t i n g and g a r d e n i n g i s l i n k e d t o t h a t between p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y n o t o n l y b ecause b o t h p a r a l l e l s i n v o l v e p a i n t i n g and p roduce forms of p i c t o r i a l i s m b u t a l s o b ecause each stems from and t y p i f i e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d e f e r e n c e t o a u t h o r i t i e s , p r e c e d e n t s , and models t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g and h a b i t s of t h o u g h t . A l t h o u g h s u c h t r a i n -i n g and t h i n k i n g p r i n c i p a l l y a f f e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e , as i n t h e dependence of p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y upon t h e s a n c t i o n s of a n c i e n t , R e n a i s s a n c e , and baroque a r t , - i t a l s o encouraged t h e v i e w of t h e g a r d e n e r as an a r t i s t composing l a n d s c a p e s a f t e r t h e manner of p a i n t e r s . Thus Pope s a i d t h a t " a l l g a r d e n i n g i s l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g " ; Shenstone remarked " i n p u r s u a n c e of our p r e s e n t t a s t e ' i n g a r d e n i n g " t h a t " e v e r y good p a i n t e r of l a n d s c a p e seems t o me t h e most p r o p e r d e s i g n e r " ; and R i c h a r d Jago m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " t o p l a n t h e r u r a l s e a t " was t o i m i t a t e " t h e w e l l -41 f o n n ' d p i c t u r e and c o r r e c t d e s i g n . " As w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n between p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g , . a h o s t o f f u r t h e r examples c o u l d be c i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e the contemporary o p i n i o n t h a t g a r d e n i n g c o u l d "now j o i n i t s e l f " t o p o e t r y , m u s i c , and p a i n t i n g , ; t h a t i t was n o t o n l y " n e a r l y a l l i e d " t o p a i n t i n g b u t a l s o " f a r s u p e r i o r t o i t " s i n c e i t i n v o l v e d 42 " c r e a t i n g a r e a l l a n d s c a p e , i n s t e a d of p a i n t i n g an i m a g i n a r y one." 128 Thus the d o c t r i n e of models, coupled w i t h the new knowledge and love of p a i n t i n g discussed e a r l i e r , l e d n a t u r a l l y to the gardener's r e l i a n c e upon t h e . c r i t e r i a f o r beauty i n landscape s u p p l i e d by seventeenth-century landscape p a i n t e r s . When the c u l t i v a t e d man "was c e r t a i n that a garden scheme made up of temples, wooded h i l l s i d e s , and winding streams embodied the Claudian s p i r i t , " then " h i s t a s t e was v i n d i c a t e d , 43 h i s mind was at rest,- and he took a pinch of snuff, complacently,." The statement that "the c r e a t i n g a r e a l landscape" i s more d i f f i c u l t than " p a i n t i n g an imaginary one" i s supported by other opinion suggesting the a r t of gardening as no l e s s d i f f i c u l t to master than the a r t of p a i n t i n g . Richard Graves f e l t that the planning of the n a t u r a l garden required mental a t t r i b u t e s as. great "as those which we admire i n the d e s c r i p t i v e poems of Thomson or i n the noble landscapes of S a l v a t o r Rosa or the Poussins." And another, w r i t e r .commented that "there i s at l e a s t as much room f o r e x e r c i s i n g the great a r t s of design and composition i n l a y i n g out a garden as i n executing a good p a i n t i n g . " Such, remarks c l e a r l y s i g n i f y that the garden, d e s p i t e i t s abandonment of the u n i f o r m i t y of Renaissance design,, could never d i s p l a y a nature f r e e from human planning and c o n t r o l , could never r e a l l y be n a t u r a l . Less obvious i n i t s design and c o n s t r u c t i o n than the formal garden, indeed apparently a r t l e s s , the n a t u r a l garden was a s - h i g h l y . - a r t i f i c i a l as a n y o t h e r a r t form. . Seventeenth-century landscape p a i n t i n g , though an important stimulus arid i n s p i r a t i o n to the picturesque a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the n a t u r a l garden, cannot be accounted the s o l e f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 129 i t s c r e a t i o n . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l need t o escape f r o m t h e u b i q u i t o u s u n i f o r m i t y of c l a s s i c d e s i g n , mentioned e a r l i e r as t h e cause of t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of r e g u l a r i t y and symmetry from t h e g a r d e n , c o n t i n u e d t o r e f l e c t i t s e l f i n t h e vogues f o r c h i n o i s e r i e and m e d i e v a l i s m , as w e l l as i n f i e l d s h a v i n g n o t h i n g t o do w i t h p a i n t i n g o r g a r d e n i n g : r o c o c o i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s and b l a n k v e r s e and t h e S p e n s e r i a n s t a n z a i n p o e t r y . These t e n d e n c i e s complement t h e development of t h e n a t u r a l garden and s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a n t i p a t h y r e g i s t e r e d by Thomson i n L i b e r t y f o r t h o s e d i s g r a c e f u l p i l e s of wood and s t o n e ; Those p a r k s and g a r d e n s , where, h i s h a u n t s betrimmed,. And n a t u r e by presumptuous a r t o p p r e s s e d , . The woodland g e n i u s mourns,. (V, 163-166) and h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h o s e l e s s f o r m a l s y l v a n s c e n e s , where a r t a l o n e p r e t e n d s To d r e s s h e r m i s t r e s s and d i s c l o s e h e r charms, (V, 696-697) a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e f a c t t h a t "the f o r m u l a s o f c l a s s i c i s m had gone t o s e e d " and t h a t "a r e j u v e n a t i n g c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e was a s p i r i t u a l need.. N o n e t h e l e s s , s t i m u l a t i n g t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l need and s t i m u -l a t e d by i t and by o t h e r f o r c e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e renewed i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e , a w i d e s p r e a d and s y m p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t i n I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c e n t u r y j p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r C l a u d e , S a l v a t o r , and t h e P o u s s i n s , who were deemed t o e p i t o m i z e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n . 130 and the criteria for beauty necessary and most appropriate to the land-scape garden. In this sense the scenery of the.natural garden differs from the literary landscape of Pope and Thomson,.which, as we saw, was more importantly shaped by the mythological and allegorical landscapes of the masters of the high Renaissance and baroque periods. Reynolds said that Claude, "was convinced that taking nature as he found i t seldom produced beauty," that his pictures were "a composi-tion of the various draughts which he had previously made from various beautiful scenes and prospects." His feeling that Claude's practice 46 led to the attainment of "perfect form" in landscape was shared by landscape gardeners., who, accepting that original nature in itself "seldom produced beauty," followed and adapted pictorial methods in composing real landscape scenes, scenes whose foregrounds, middle, dis-tances, backgrounds, disposition of objects, and effects of variety, contrast, and light and shade were after the manner of landscape painting, usually Claude's, Salvator's, and Poussin's. If Shenstorie summed up this strategy in gardening by saying that "objects should be less calculated to strike, the immediate eye, than the judgment, or well-formed imagination, as in painting," Pope's comment that gardeners "may distance things by darkening them, and by narrowing . . . towards the end, in the same manner as they do in 47 painting," typifies tactical advice based upon this strategy. That this strategy of landscape pictorialism was commonly identified with Claude, Salvator, and Nicolas Poussin scarcely requires illustration. Reflected in Richard Graves' earlier comment on the mental requirements 131 of t h e l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n e r and i n dozens o f s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s , s u c h as t h e c r i t i c a l remarks made by D a i n e s B a r r i n g t o n , t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t , about Browns's p l a n s , i n w h i c h " I see r a t h e r t r a c e s of t h e gardens of O l d Stowe t h a n of P o u s s i n o r C l a u d e L o r r a i n e , " o r t h e recommendations by Samuel Ward of S a l v a t o r f o r " t e r r i b l e and n o b l e n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s " and P o u s s i n as " t h e b e s t i n s t r u c t o r w h i c h a g a r d e n e r of g e n i u s and 48 t a s t e can f o l l o w , " , -the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b e t w e e n t h e s e p a i n t e r s and t h e s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s o f l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n i n g became a commonplace. Because of t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h e p i c t u r e s q u e garden i n e v i t a b l y came t o be r e g a r d e d as an embodiment and r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p i c t o r i a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a t had shaped i t . I f p a i n t i n g had s e r v e d as a model f o r t h e g a r d e n e r , h i s work i n t u r n s e r v e d as a p o t e n t i a l model f o r t h e p a i n t e r . . The " t r u e t e s t of p e r f e c t i o n i n a modern g a r d e n , " s a i d D a i n e s B a r r i n g t o n , " i s t h a t a l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r would choose i t f o r a c o m p o s i -49 t i o n . " T h i s v i e w of t h e l a n d s c a p e garden i n terms o f . i t s p i c t u r e s q u e -n e s s , i t s f i t n e s s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on c a n v a s , extended i t s e l f beyond th e garden when, i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of t h e g e n e r a l " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , " i t came t o i n c l u d e t h e rugged s c e n e r y of w i l d , u ntouched n a t u r e . T h i s e x t e n s i o n of p i c t u r e s q u e v i s i o n f r o m t h e garden t o a l l of n a t u r e was l a r g e l y , t h e consequence of t h e v a r i o u s Tours and E s s a y s of t h e " v e n e r a b l e f o u n d e r and m a s t e r o f t h e P i c t u r e s q u e School,""' W i l l i a m G i l p i n , whose example, a d v i c e , and t h e o r y b r o u g h t , a b o u t t h e vogue f o r p i c t u r e s q u e t r a v e l . F o l l o w i n g i n h i s f o o t s t e p s , t h e p i c t u r -esque t o u r i s t e x p l o r e d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e remote m o u n t a i n and l a k e c o u n t r y o f W a l e s , t h e N o r t h o f E n g l a n d , and S c o t l a n d , 132 i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r , d e s c r i b e - , a n a l y z e , and r e p r o d u c e t h e s c e n e s t h a t a c c o r d e d w i t h t h e - G i l p i n i a n f o r m u l a of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . B r i e f ^ d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s f o r m u l a and a g l a n c e a t i t s f u r t h e r -e l a b o r a t i o n by S i r U v e d a l e P r i c e w i l l n o t o n l y sum up t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e w h i c h c l i m a x e d i n t h e t h e o r i e s of t h e s e men b u t a l s o l o g i c a l l y b r i n g t h i s paper t o an end. G i l p i n ' s p i c t u r e s q u e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e can be c o n v e n i e n t l y summarized by c o n s i d e r i n g i t s e a r l y e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e anonymous. 1748 p u b l i c a t i o n , A D i a l o g u e Upon .the Gardens o f t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e t h e L o r d V i s c o u n t Cobham, a t Stow i n .Buckinghamshire-;. va work a t t r i b u t e d t o 51 G i l p i n and " e x p r e s s l y p i c t u r e s q u e i n i t s g e n e r a l p o i n t of v i e w . " I n t h i s work two f r i e n d s , P o l y p t h p n and C a l l o p h i l u s , d i s c u s s t h e famous show-place gardens of Stowe i n terms of t h e s t a n d a r d s of p a i n t i n g . They t a k e p l e a s u r e i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e garden l a n d s c a p e , t h e e x c e l l e n t d i s p o s i t i o n of i t s e l e m e n t s , t h e p r o p e r t e r m i n a t i o n s of i t s v i e w s , and e s p e c i a l l y i t s f i n e v a r i e t y of o b j e c t s . F o r them, r e g u l a r i t y and e x a c t n e s s c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e t o b e a u t y i n a g a r d e n . Thus a r e g u l a r B u i l d i n g p erhaps g i v e s us v e r y l i t t l e P l e a s u r e ; and y e t a f i n e R o c k , . o r a ragged R u i n , b e a u t i f u l l y s e t o f f w i t h L i g h t and Shade, and g a r n i s h e d w i t h f l o u r i s h i n g b u s h e s , I v y , and dead Branches may a f f o r d us a g r e a t d e a l . — Y o n o l d H e r m i t a g e g i v e s us t h i s S o r t of P l e a s u r e : i t i s o f t h e r o m a n t i c k K i n d ; and s u c h B e a u t i e s , where a p r o b a b l e N a t u r e i s n o t e x c e e d e d , a r e g e n e r a l l y p l e a s i n g . 5 2 T h i s passage s e t s f o r t h t h e n o t i o n of o b j e c t s , s u c h as r u i n s , h a v i n g p i c t u r e s q u e v a l u e b e c a u s e of t h e p l e a s u r e t h e y a f f o r d t h e eye. They p l e a s e b e c a u s e t h e i r r o u g h n e s s , i n c o m p l e t e n e s s , and i r r e g u l a r i t y 133 a r e more n e a r l y a l l i e d t o n a t u r e t h a n i s smoothness, r e g u l a r i t y , and e x a c t n e s s . The p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s o f b r o k e n o u t l i n e s , r o u g h n e s s , i r r e g u -l a r i t y , and v a r i e d e f f e c t s p r o v i d e s p l e a s u r e " o f t h e r o m a n t i c k K i n d . " The word " p i c t u r e s q u e " i s used when P o l y p t h o n a g r e e s w i t h h i s companion t h a t s u c h r u i n s make "a g r e a t A d d i t i o n t o t h e Beauty o f t h e . L a k e . " "There i s , " he s a y s , "something so v a s t l y p i c t u r e s q u e and p l e a s i n g t o t h e I m a g i n a t i o n i n such O b j e c t s , t h a t t h e y a r e a g r e a t -A d d i t i o n t o any L a n d s k i p " ( p . 1 2 0 ) . The f r i e n d s d i s c u s s t h e garden as a s e r i e s o f p l e a s i n g p i c t u r e s . P o l y p t h o n , . f o r example, i n r e s p o n s e t o a p i c t u r e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n by C a l l o p h i l u s , says I t h i n k t h i s o t h e r View n o t i n f e r i o r t o i t . That v a r i e t y o f d i f -f e r e n t Shades amongst t h e T r e e s ; t h e Lake s p r e a d s o e l e g a n t l y amongst them, and g l i t t e r i n g h e r e and t h e r e t h r o ' t h e Bushes, w i t h t h e Temple of Venus as a t e r m i n a t i o n t o t h e View, make up a beau-t i f u l L a n d s k i p . ( p . 122) Such scenes prompt h i s remembrance o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t i e s i n t h e "rough N a t u r e " o f t h e N o r t h o f E n g l a n d . I n t h i s p a r t of t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h "abounds" w i t h " e l e g a n t n a t u r a l V i e w s , " he had once s p e n t some time i n h u n t i n g a f t e r b e a u t i f u l O b j e c t s . Sometimes I found m y s e l f hemmed w i t h i n an A m p h i t h e a t r e o f M o u n t a i n s , w h i c h were v a r i o u s l y ornamented, some w i t h s c a t t e r e d T r e e s , some w i t h t u f t e d Wood, some w i t h g r a z i n g C a t t l e , and some w i t h smoaking C o t t a g e s . Here and t h e r e an e l e g a n t View was opened i n t o t h e C o u n t r y . — A M i l e ' s r i d i n g , . p e r h a p s , would have c a r r i e d me t o t h e F o o t o f a s t e e p P r e c i p i c e , down w h i c h t h u n d e r e d t h e Weight of some v a s t R i v e r , w h i c h was dashed i n t o Foam a t t h e Bottom, by t h e c r a g g y P o i n t s o f s e v e r a l r i s i n g R ocks: A deep Gloom o v e r s p r e a d t h e P r o s p e c t , o c c a s i o n e d by t h e c l o s e Wood t h a t hung round i t on e v e r y s i d e . — 134 I c o u l d d e s c r i b e a V a r i e t y o f o t h e r Views I met w i t h t h e r e , i f we h e r e wanted E n t e r t a i n m e n t i n t h e way o f L a n d s k i p . (pp. 122-123) P o l y p t h o n adds t h a t i f L o r d Cobham "had s u c h M a t e r i a l s t o work w i t h " he would d o u b t l e s s c o n s t r u c t "a n o b l e P i c t u r e " w i t h them i n h i s garden (p. 1 2 3 ) . H i s p r a i s e o f t h e " r o u g h " b e a u t y o f t h e N o r t h , l i k e Bramble's o f t h e S c o t t i s h H i g h l a n d s , . i s p r a i s e o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . L i k e Bramble, P o l y p t h o n had s p e n t h i s t i m e " h u n t i n g a f t e r b e a u t i f u l O b j e c t s , " o r , as would be s a i d l a t e r , " i n s e a r c h o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . " The whole a c c o u n t o f h i s s e a r c h f o r p i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t y i n t h e r u g g e d , i r r e g u l a r s c e n e r y o f t h e N o r t h , b e a u t y t h a t c o u l d be v i e w e d o r i m a g i n e d as "a n o b l e P i c t u r e , " g i v e s u s , as e a r l y as 1748, " t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f 53 t h e p i c t u r e s q u e p o i n t o f v i e w . " These e a r l y examples of p i c t u r e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t • beyond t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n t h a t t h e a n a l y t i c a l and d e t a i l e d c r i t i c i s m o f r e a l l a n d s c a p e f r o m a d i s t i n c t i v e l y p i c t u r e s q u e p o i n t o f v i e w "was 54 a c t u a l l y i n p r i n t , and i n f l u e n t i a l l y so-," b e f o r e 1750. T o g e t h e r w i t h C a l l o p h i l u s ' hope t h a t Stowe "may work some R e f o r m a t i o n " i n o t h e r gardens " l a i d o ut i n so f o r m a l , awkward, and w r e t c h e d a Manner" t h a t t h e y a r e "a s c a n d a l t o t h e v e r y G e n i u s o f t h e N a t i o n " ( p . 1 2 6 ) , -they . a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y marks t h e . s h i f t , f r o m f o r m a l i s m t o n a t u r a l i s m , t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i n w h i c h " t h e s t y l e i n l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n i n g , , a r i d i n g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e , began t o depend p r i m a r i l y on r e a l n a t u r e , i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e a r l i e r i n s i s t e n c e upon o b v i o u s a r t . " ^ F i n a l l y , t h e use. o f t h e word " p i c t u r -esque" i n t h e D i a l o g u e , l i k e t h e r e f e r e n c e i n G i l p i n ' s 1752 L i f e o f . 135 5 6 B e r n a r d G i l p i n t o a " v e r y p i c t u r e s q u e d e s c r i p t i o n " o f " w i l d c o u n t r y , " i s s ymptomatic o f t h e c h a n g i n g - u s e o f t h e word d u r i n g t h e c e n t u r y . W i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l o r e t h e f u l l range o f meanings "which" makes a h i s t o r y o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e — t h e term o r c h a r a c t e r — d i f f i c u l t of a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , " ^ 7 t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s change i s w o r t h w h i l e s i n c e i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s h i f t i n emphasis f r o m t h e p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m w h i c h m o d e l l e d i t s e l f on p a i n t i n g t o t h e s c e n i c p i c t o r i a l i s m w h i c h t o o k l a n d s c a p e as a model f o r p a i n t i n g . A few i n s t a n c e s w i l l h i g h l i g h t t h i s change i n t h e meaning of t h e word " p i c t u r e s q u e " and i t s usage. S t e e l e ' s use of t h e word i n h i s p l a y , The Tender Husband ( 1 7 0 5 ) , p r o b a b l y marks i t s f i r s t a ppearance i n E n g l i s h . A c t I V , Scene i , o f t h e p l a y p r e s e n t s C a p t a i n C l e r i m o n t , t h e l o v e r d i s g u i s e d as p a i n t e r , a d v i s i n g h i s b e l o v e d t o pose f o r h e r p o r t r a i t as a p e n s i v e b e a u t y i n a p a s t o r a l s c e n e . She d i s a g r e e s : Niece." N o — s i n c e t h e r e i s room f o r Fancy i n a P i c t u r e , I wou'd be drawn l i k e the Amazon T h a l e s t r i s , w i t h a Spear i n my Hand, and an Helmet on a T a b l e b e f o r e m e — A t a d i s t a n c e b e h i n d l e t t h e r e be a Dwarf, h o l d i n g by t h e B r i d l e a M i l k - w h i t e P a l f r e y , — C a p t a i n . Madam, th e Thought i s f u l l of S p i r i t j and i f you p l e a s e , t h e r e s h a l l be a C u p i d , s t e a l i n g away y o u r Helmetj t o show t h a t Love shou'd have a P a r t i n a l l g a l l a n t A c t i o n s . N i e c e . That C i r c u m s t a n c e may be v e r y P i c t u r e s q u e . 5 8 The meaning o f " p i c t u r e s q u e " h e r e i s " s u i t a b l e f o r a p i c t u r e " o r " p r o p e r f o r a p a i n t i n g . " I t r e c a l l s t h e " h i s t o r i e s ' ' i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i s g i v e n a m y t h o l o g i c a l s t a n c e and s u r r o u n d e d by t h e p a r a p h e r -n a l i a of nymphs, c u p i d s ^ and i n s i g n i a t y p i c a l of I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and baroque a l l e g o r i c a l p a i n t i n g . T h i s i s t h e p i c t u r e s q u e we have 136 seen i n t h e p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y of Pope and Thomson. A t m i d - c e n t u r y , as we have s e e n , G i l p i n ' s D i a l o g u e uses " p i c t u r e s q u e " as a term f o r a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m o f l a n d s c a p e b e a u t y ; and twenty y e a r s l a t e r , as we have a l s o s e e n , S m o l l e t t ' s Humphry  C j i n k e r d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p o p u l a r use of t h e word: s e r i o u s i n i t s G i l p i n i a n s ense and comic i n i t s p o e t i c p i c t o r i a l s e n s e . F i n a l l y , a t t h e end of",the c e n t u r y , i n h i s Supplement t o  Johnson's E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . ( 1 8 0 1 ) , George Mason l i s t s no l e s s t h a n s i x meanings f o r t h e term: what p l e a s e s t h e eye; r e m a r k a b l e f o r s i n g u -l a r i t y ; s t r i k i n g t h e i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h t h e f o r c e of p a i n t i n g ; t o be e x p r e s s e d i n p a i n t i n g ; a f f o r d i n g a good s u b j e c t f o r a l a n d s c a p e ; p r o p e r 59 t o t a k e a l a n d s c a p e from. A l l t h e s e s e n s e s of " p i c t u r e s q u e " a r e i m p l i e d i n G i l p i n ' s D i a l o g u e ; " w i t h a l l t h e s e G i l p i n w o u l d have a g r e e d . " I n f a c t t h i s v a r i e t y o f meanings r e f l e c t s t h e p o p u l a r i t y and s u c c e s s of t h e word once G i l p i n "made i t a v a i l a b l e as an i n s t r u m e n t — a d m i t t e d l y a p i c t o r i a l i n s t r u m e n t — f o r t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , and f i n a l l y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f n a t u r a l s c e n e r y . T h e y a l s o u n d e r s c o r e t h e s h i f t i n t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n of' t h e term s i n c e S t e e l e ' s d a y j t h e development of , i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l a n d s c a p e . The examples of p i c t u r e s q u e usage i n t h e D i a l o g u e , t h e n , a r e a t r i p l e m i l e s t o n e I n t h e h i s t o r y of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . They s i g n a l t h e . t r a n s i t i o n f r o m f o r m a l i s m t o n a t u r a l i s m i n t h e l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n , mark t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a n a l y s i s of n a t u r a l s c e n e r y f r o m a c o n s c i o u s l y p i c t u r e s q u e p o i n t o f v i e w , and h e r a l d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e p i c t u r -e s q u e — a s t e r m and c o n c e p t — w i t h r e a l l a n d s c a p e . 137 I f t h e D i a l o g u e r e v e a l s " t h e most i m p o r t a n t components of t h e 61 p i c t u r e s q u e i n l a n d s c a p e a l r e a d y a n a l y z e d , " G i l p i n ' s T h r e e E s s a y s : on P i c t u r e s q u e B e a u t y , on P i c t u r e s q u e T r a v e l , and on S k e t c h i n g L a nd- s c a p e , t o w h i c h i s added a Poem on Landscape P a i n t i n g (1792) g i v e s us h i s f u l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . B a s i n g h i s s p e c u l a t i o n on Burke's o b j e c t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s u b l i m e ( o b s c u r i t y , power, p r i v a t i o n , v a s t n e s s , i n f i n i t y , m a g n i f i c e n c e ) and t h e b e a u t i f u l (smoothness, s o f t n e s s , s m a l l n e s s , g r a d u a l v a r i a t i o n , r e g u l a r i t y , d e l i c a c y ) i n t h e o b j e c t , G i l p i n a t t e m p t e d t o d e f i n e t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i n o r d e r t o s e t up a t h i r d c a t e g o r y . The p r i n c i p l e s of h i s t h e o r y have been summarized by W i l l i a m D. Templeman, one of h i s b e s t c r i t i c s , as f o l l o w s : 1. P i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t y i s t h a t s p e c i e s of b e a u t y w h i c h a p p e a l s t o t h e eye of a p a i n t e r as s u i t e d . f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a p i c t u r e . 2. P i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e q u a l i t y of r o u g h n e s s . 3. Roughness i s e s s e n t i a l t o p i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t y b e c a u s e when c e r -t a i n e l e m e n t s ( e x e c u t i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n , v a r i e t y , c o n t r a s t , e f f e c t o f l i g h t and shade, and c o l o r i n g ) a r e p r o p e r l y p l e a s i n g i n a p i c -t u r e t h e y of n e c e s s i t y make use of rough o b j e c t s . 6 2 D e s p i t e i t s o p p o s i n g roughness t o smoothness i n o r d e r t o d i f f e r -e n t i a t e p i c t u r e s q u e f r o m b e a u t i f u l , G i l p i n ' s t h e o r y shows a b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n i t s " c o n f u s i n g and h y b r i d " e x p r e s s i o n , " p i c t u r e s q u e b e a u t y , " a p h r a s e w h i c h s i g n a l i z e s h i s f a i l u r e " t o a n a l y z e and s u b s t a n -t i a t e a c l a i m f o r t h e P i c t u r e s q u e as a s u b s p e c i e s o f t h e B e a u t i f u l o r 63 as a d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y f r o m t h e B e a u t i f u l . " Thus, a l t h o u g h G i l p i n l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p i c t u r e s q u e , i t was l e f t t o o t h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h i t s t h e o r y on more c o n s i s t e n t p r i n c i p l e s t h a n h i s and t o -138 g i v e i t more s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n . , C h i e f among t h e s e was S i r U v e d a l e P r i c e , "champion and t h e o r i s t 64 o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e , " who, t a k i n g up t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t h e o r y G i l p i n had l e f t i n p a r a d o x , sought t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e assemblage o f q u a l i t i e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p i c t u r e s q u e f r o m b e a u t i f u l and a t t h e same ti m e t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , ' as G i l p i n had n o t , fr o m t h e s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s a r t . I n h i s E s s a y on  t h e P i c t u r e s q u e as Compared w i t h t h e Sub l i m e and B e a u t i f u l (1794) P r i c e , f o l l o w i n g B u r k e w i t h g r e a t f i d e l i t y , e s t a b l i s h e s p i c t u r e s q u e . q u a l i t i e s as o b j e c t i v e , i n h e r e n t i n t h e o b j e c t , and c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from t h e q u a l i t i e s t h a t p l e a s e i n p a i n t i n g . T h e . d i s c u s s i o n , i n h i s Essa y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p i c t u r e s q u e and b e a u t i f u l , .of what i t i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f p i c t u r e s q u e o b j e c t s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s them, i n d e p e n d e n t o f : a l l r e f e r e n c e t o p a i n t i n g , f r o m b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s , has been s u c c i n c t l y r e p o r t e d as f o l l o w s : Beauty i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by smoothness and' g r a d u a l v a r i a t i o n , q u a l i t i e s w h i c h n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t t h e v a r i e t y and i n t r i c a c y e s s e n -t i a l t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . Roughness and sudden v a r i a t i o n , j o i n e d t o i r r e g u l a r i t y , a r e t h e most e f f i c i e n t c a uses o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a r i c h and v a r i o u s c a t a l o g o f p i c t u r e s q u e o b j e c t s — G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l s and o l d m i l l s , g n a r l e d oaks and shaggy g o a t s , decayed c a r t h o r s e s and w a n d e r i n g g y p s i e s , t h e p a i n t i n g s o f Mola- and S a l v a t o r . Beauty and p i c t u r e s q u e a r e f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h a t symmetry, w h i c h a c c o r d s w i t h b e a u t y w e l l enough, i s a d v e r s e t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e . And t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r s i s b r o u g h t under t h e a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s p e c u l i a r t o P r i c e , f i n a l l y , by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "one depends on i d e a s of y o u t h and f r e s h n e s s , t h e o t h e r on t h o s e o f age, and even of dec a y . " S t r i k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e g i v e n . o f t h e g r a d u a l a l t e r a t i o n o f b e a u t y i n t o p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s as ti m e o p e r a t e s upon a t e m p l e , a t r e e , a man.65 These summary d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f 139 G i l p i n , t h e " v e n e r a b l e f o u n d e r " of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e , and of P r i c e , whose works on t h e s u b j e c t " r e m a i n t h e p r i n c i p a l monument of p i c t u r e s q u e 66 d o c t r i n e , " r e v e a l t h e e s s e n t i a l i d e a s and t h i n k i n g t h a t f o r m a l i z e d t h e p i c t u r e s q u e and j o i n e d i t t o t h e s u b l i m e and t h e b e a u t i f u l as a t h i r d a e s t h e t i c g e n r e . I n d o i n g so t h e y a l s o round o u t and b r i n g t o an end t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e movement. Succeed-i n g developments such as. R i c h a r d Payne K n i g h t ' s arguments f o r t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y of s u b l i m e , b e a u t i f u l , and p i c t u r e s q u e ; h i s . a s s o c i a t i o n a l t h e o r y w h i c h l o c a t e d t h e s o u r c e of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i n i d e a - a s s o c i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n o b j e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e o b j e c t ; t h e s a t i r e p r o v o k e d by. t h e p i c t u r e s q u e vogue i n works l i k e W i l l i a m Combe's Tour of Dr.. S y n t a x , i n Search, o f t h e P i c t u r e s q u e (1812) and t h e n o v e l s o f P e a c ock and A u s t e n ; and t h e g e n e r a l i n f l u e n c e of t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i n p o e t r y , t h e n o v e l , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and o t h e r a r t s cannot be t a k e n up i n t h i s p a p e r . L i k e t h e s u b j e c t of t h e a c t u a l emergence and development' o f t h e l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n , t h e s e m a t t e r s r e q u i r e much more space t h a n i s h e r e a v a i l a b l e . D i s c u s s i o n of t h e l a n d s c a p e p i c t u r e s q u e c o m p l e t e s t h e e a r l i e r c e n t r a l d i s c u s s i o n of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t i c . p i c t o r i a l i s m ; i t s t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h G i l p i n and P r i c e t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s t h e paper as a w h ole. S i n c e t h e r e i s no need t o r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e h i s t o r y of u t p i c t u r a p o e s i s , t o r e - e m p h a s i z e i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o A u g u s t a n p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y Pope's and Thomson's, o r t o r e d e f i n e i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e movement; b e c a u s e , t o o , no r e v e l a t i o n s , s p e c i a l emphases, o r i n t e r p r e t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s have been r e s e r v e d f o r f i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o 140 e i t h e r o r b o t h p i c t o r i a l i s m s , t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e " r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , " t o one a n o t h e r , o r t o t h e means whereby i n p o e t r y and g a r d e n each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y sought t o t r a n s c e n d n a t u r e w i t h o u t d e s e r t i n g o r v i o l a t i n g h e r , t h i s t h e s i s i s done w i t h i t s t a s k . I t can c o n c l u d e by s t a t i n g t h e hope t h a t i t s . a t t e m p t t o do j u s t i c e t o t h e t h e o r y , p r a c t i c e , and'value's of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p i c t o r i a l p o e t r y and l a n d -scape has shown t h a t t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e , r e l e v a n c e , and v i t a l i t y can s t i l l be f e l t t o d a y whenever E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e , l i t e r a r y ; p a i n t e d , o r r e a l , i s e n c o u n t e r e d o r a book o f n e o - c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y opened. 141 FOOTNOTES Pp. 173-174 of t h e e d i t i o n by R o b e r t Gorham D a v i s (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1966). A l l page r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e n o v e l a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 2 C e c i l A. Moore, "The R e t u r n t o N a t u r e i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y of th e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " Backgrounds o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 1700-1760 ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 70. Moore's a c c o u n t o f S h a f t e s b u r y and Deism i s f o l l o w e d h e r e . 3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Men., Manners, O p i n i o n s , Times, e t c . , ed. John M. R o b e r t s o n (London: R i c h a r d s , 1 9 0 0 ) , I I , 97-98. 4 Moore, Backgrounds of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , p. 76. 5 l b i d . , p. 59.-6 I b i d . , p. 8,4. 7 I I I , 629-633, The- P o e t i c a l Works of Mark A k e n s i d e , ed. George G i l f i l l a n ( E d i n b u r g h : B a l l a n t y n e , 1857), p. 64. S u c c e e d i n g c i t a t i o n s from Pope and Thomson, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , a r e t a k e n r e s p e c t i v e l y f rom The Poems of A l e x a n d e r Pope,, ed. John B u t t (London: Methuen, 1965), and James Thomson: P o e t i c a l Works, ed. J . L o g i e R o b e r t s o n (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). \ 8 J . M. R o b e r t s o n , c i t e d by Moore, p. 84. 9 Moore, p. 92. ^ I b i d . , p. 83. 1 X T h e o v e r e m p h a s i z e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p a i n t e r s was e s t a b -l i s h e d as a t r a d i t i o n l a r g e l y by C h r i s t o p h e r Hussey (The P i c t u r e s q u e : S t u d i e s i n a P o i n t of V i e w , London: Putnam, 1927) and E l i z a b e t h Manwaring ( I t a l i a n Landscape i n E i g h t e e n t h Century. E n g l a n d : A Study  C h i e f l y o f t h e I n f l u e n c e of C l a u d e L o r r a i n and S a l v a t o r Rosa on E n g l i s h  T a s t e 1700-1800, London: Cass,. 1 9 6 5 ) , t h e c r i t i c s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r as most p r o m i n e n t i n v i e w i n g Thomson's p o e t r y as cause r a t h e r t h a n e f f e c t . 12 Manwaring, I t a l i a n Landscape i n E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , p. 102; Hussey; The P i c t u r e s q u e , p. 41. 13 Manwaring, p. 104. 142 14 Henry V. S. Ogden and M a r g a r e t S. Ogden, . E n g l i s h T a s t e i n Land- scape i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1955) , p. 57. "*"^Jean Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s : The T r a d i t i o n o f L i t e r a r y  P i c t o r i a l i s m and E n g l i s h P d e t r y f r o m Dryden t o Gray ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r -s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 968), p. 245. 16 Hussey, pp. 19, 30. •^Manwaring, p. 101; Hussey, p. 18. 18 Manwaring, p. 96; Hussey, p. 31. 19 Hagstrum, The S i s t e r A r t s , p. 243. Hussey, p. 18. 2 ^ M a n w a r i n g , p. 4. 22 B. Sprague A l l e n , T i d e s i n E n g l i s h T a s t e (1619-1800): A Back- ground f o r t h e Study of L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Rowman and L i t t l e f i e l d , 1 9 6 9 ) , I I , 147-148. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 148. 24 M a t e r i a l on t h e o r i g i n s of t h e n a t u r a l g arden comes l a r g e l y f rom B. Sprague A l l e n ( T i d e s i n E n g l i s h T a s t e , I I , 115-148) and N i k o l a u s P e v s n e r ("The G e n e s i s o f t h e P i c t u r e s q u e , " The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XCVI, November 1 9 4 4 , 1 3 9 - 1 4 6 ) . 25 C i t e d by P e v s n e r , p. 140. 26 A r t h u r 0. L o v e j o y , "The C h i n e s e O r i g i n of a R o m a n t i c i s m , " E s s a y s i n t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s (New Y o r k : Putnam, 1960), p. 111. 27 C i t e d by P e v s n e r , p. 140. 28 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ed. John M. R o b e r t s o n , I I , 125. 29 L u c r e t i u s : On t h e N a t u r e of t h e U n i v e r s e , t r a n s . R o n a l d Latham (London: P e n g u i n , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 177. 30 C i t e d by B a s i l W i l l e y , The E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y Background: S t u d i e s on t h e I d e a of N a t u r e i n t h e Thought of t h e P e r i o d . ( B o s t o n : Beacon, 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 29. " 31 A l l e n , T i d e s i n E n g l i s h T a s t e , I I , 123. 143 32 S p e c t a t o r 414. Q u o t a t i o n s f r o m A d d i s o n , a r e f r o m A d d i s o n and  S t e e l e and Others,: The S p e c t a t o r , ed. G r e g o r y S m i t h , Everyman's L i b r a r y (London: Dent, 1967). 33 • P e v s n e r , "The G e n e s i s of t h e P i c t u r e s q u e , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XCVI (November 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 142.. 3 4 E d . R. Lynam (London: 1826), I I , 291-292.-35 P e v s n e r , p. 144. "^Manwaring, p. 125. 3 7 A l l e n , I I , 125. 3 ^ P e v s n e r , p. 146. 39 Hagstrum, p. 133; see a l s o C i c e l y D a v i e s , "Ut P i c t u r a P o e s i s , " MLR, XXX.(1935), p. 159. 40 P e t e r C o a t s , G r e a t Gardens of B r i t a i n (London: Hamlyn, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 11. 41 These examples come fr o m Manwaring, pp. 127, 135, 138. 42 The o p i n i o n of W i l l i a m Combe i n 1784, c i t e d b y . A l a n D u g a l d M c K i l l o p , E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . f r o m Dryden t o Burns (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y - C f o f t s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 250. 4 3 A l l e n , I I , 147. 44 I b i d . , p. 144. 4 5 I b i d . , p. 145. 46 D i s c o u r s e TV, D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , ed. R o b e r t R. Wark (San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a : H u n t i n g d o n L i b r a r y , 1959), pp. 69-70. 47 . . C i t e d i n Manwaring, pp. 135, 127. 48 _ C i t e d i b i d . , p. 153. 49 I b i d . " ^ C i t e d f r o m t h e M o n t h l y Review . (1759) by W i l l i a m D. Templeman, The L i f e and Work, of W i l l i a m G i l p i n (1724^-1804) : M a s t e r of t h e P i c t u r - esque and V i c a r , of B o l d r e , I l l i n o i s S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e , XXIV, Nos. 3 and 4 (Urbana: The U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 225. Templeman's book i s a main s o u r c e f o r what f o l l o w s on G i l p i n . ' 144 "^Templeman, L i f e and Work of . G i l p i n , p. 128. 52 C i t e d i n Templeman, p. 120. F u r t h e r D i a l o g u e c i t a t i o n s p a r e n -t h e t i c a l l y r e f e r t o t h e 5 3 I b i d . , p. 123. 54 T, ., I b i d . , p. 130. 5 5 I b i d . , p. 126. I b i d . , p. 129. 5 7 T 7 H-W a l t e r H i p p i e , esque i n E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y B r i t i s h A e s t h e t i c Theory ( C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 188. 58 Quoted i n Templeman, p. 114. 59 C i t e d i n C a r l P a u l B a r b i e r , W i l l i a m G i l p i n : H i s D r a w i n g s , T e a c h i n g s , and Theory of t h e P i c t u r e s q u e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 98. " 6 0 I b i d . , pp. 98-99. 61 P a u l F r a n k l , The G o t h i c : L i t e r a r y Sources and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  Through E i g h t C e n t u r i e s ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 433. 6 2 L i f e , p. 140. 63 B a r b i e r , . W i l l i a m G i l p i n , p. 98. p. 202. 64 H i p p i e , The B e a u t i f u l , t h e S u b l i m e , and t h e P i c t u r e s q u e , 6 5 I b i d . , p. 210. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 202. SOURCES CONSULTED 145 146 SOURCES CONSULTED Abrams, M. H. The M i r r o r and t h e Lamp: Romantic Theory'and t h e C r i t i - c a l T r a d i t i o n . . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1958. A d d i s o n , J o s e p h . A d d i s o n and S t e e l e and O t h e r s : The S p e c t a t o r , ed. Gr e g o r y S m i t h . 4 v o l s . Everyman's L i b r a r y ; London: D e n t , 1967. A k e n s i d e , Mark. The P o e t i c a l Works of Mark A k e n s i d e , ed. George G i l f i l l a n . 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