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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A planning strategy for water supply within vacation areas of the Gulf Islands : Hornby - a case study Lubkowski, Albert Otto 1972

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cf A P L A N N I N G S T R A T E G Y F O R W A T E R S U P P L Y W I T H I N V A C A T I O N A R E A S O F T H E G U L F I S L A N D S Hornby; A Case S t u d y by ALBERT OTTO LUBKOWSKI B . S c . , , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May, 1972 . In presenting,this.thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for -an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,'.I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my De-partment or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada. Date: May 3, 1972. A B S T R A C T This thesis was prepared i n response to growing pub-l i c concern over p o t e n t i a l problems of groundwater development within newly subdivided areas of the Gulf Islands. These "problems" stem from p r o v i n c i a l regulations which permit large scale subdivision of r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s over 18,000 square feet without reference to water supply. The Study s t r i v e s to resolve c o n f l i c t i n g opinions presented on behalf of the public, planners and other .govern-ment o f f i c i a l s as to what constitutes an appropriate p o l i c y for water servicing within vacation areas of the Gulf Islands. A chief problem i n t h i s regard i s the lack of o f f i c i a l posture defining objectives for vacation l o t subdivision. While the focus of t h i s investigation i s p r i m a r i l y groundwater supply and the question of standards for vacation areas, the writer was necessarily drawn into several r e l a t e d areas of concern; namely, -those environmental problems a r i s i n g from water use and waste water disposal; development plans of l o t owners and associated preferences for servicing; and i n -evitably, the legal-bureaucratic hoops and powers which com-prise the subdivision process-. ( i i ) Study f i n d i n g s support the t h e s i s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t "organized systems of water supply are an a p p r o p r i a t e r e -quirement f o r those lands which are b e i n g s u b d i v i d e d f o r vaca-t i o n use purposes". The sub-hypothesis t h a t "the s e r v i c i n g requirements f o r such systems should be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o p e rmit i f not encourage rudimentary systems i f water supply was v i n d i c a t e d a l s o — b u t o n l y on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t groundwater s u p p l i e s are r e l i e d upon and o n - s i t e d i s p o s a l systems are i n use. The u n d e r l y i n g concern w i t h "rudimentary" s e r v i c i n g i s based upon the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t such s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s can be most i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e s t r a i n i n g year around development and the urban t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s u a l l y i m p l i e d . The t h e s i s i s based on the b e l i e f t h a t the v a c a t i o n use f u n c t i o n and the l i f e s t y l e and environment i m p l i e d can o n l y be p r e s e r v e d i f d i s t i n c -t i v e s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s are i n t r o d u c e d by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s concerned. T h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e involvement would enable p e o p l e t o c o n t i n u e "to go t o a p l a c e which i s d i f f e r e n t from the p l a c e they l e f t " . ( i i i ) A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Thi s t h e s i s i s i n l a r g e p a r t a c o m p i l a t i o n of the work and o p i n i o n s of many people and agencies. I have attemp-ted to acknowledge a l l i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y . A number of persons to whom 1. would l i k e t o express s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n ares to B. WIESMftN and P. ROER of the School of Planning f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e comments. to J . S. HIEBERT, Secretary Treasurer o f the Regional d i s t r i c t of Comox S t ra thcona f o r the op p o r t u n i t y a f -forded me i n working on Hornby, Denman and Quadra I s l a n d s ; and t o the l o t owners on Hornby who respon-ded t o my q u e s t i o n n a i r e . t o ROBIN SHARPE, former D i r e c t o r of Pla n n i n g f o r the Area who encouraged me t o begin my t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s and c o r r e c t some of my " u p - t i g h t " ways. to my many c r e d i t o r s who so p a t i e n t l y await my work-i n g again. But above a l l I would l i k e to thank POLUI f o r her help i n the f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s Work and f o r her encouragement throughout. iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C H A P T E R P A G E A b s t r a c t ^ . . . i Acknowledgeraents i i i I . WlkTER SUPPLY WITHIN COTTAGE AREAS I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 The R e c r e a t i o n a l S u b d i v i s i o n and C o t t a g i n g Phenomena 2 B a s i c U n d e r l y i n g Reasons 3 R e c r e a t i o n a l F u l f i l l m e n t 4 Home Ownership and E q u i t y a p p r e c i a t i o n . . 5 The Problem i n P e r s p e c t i v e . . 6 An " I r r e v e r s i b l e " U r b a n i z a t i o n Process . . . . . 8 An Infringement Upon P u b l i c and P r i v a t e R i g h t s 9 C o n f l i c t i n g O b j e c t i v e s F r u s t r a t e P l a n n i n g C o n t r o l 10 Governmental Concern 12 The P l a n n i n g Problem 13 Thes i s Focus and Purposes 17 Study Hypothes is 18 R e l a t e d S tud ies 19 Scope o f Study and L i m i t a t i o n s 20 Methodology 22 Study A r e a and Emphasis on Groundwater 23 O r g a n i z a t i o n • 26 C H A P T E R P A G E F o o t n o t e s „ . . 27 I I . WATER AND SUBDIVISION CONTROL — A CENTRAL PLANNING FOCUS I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 The P l a n n i n g C o n c e p t and Approach . . 32 Scope o f P l a n n i n g and U l t i m a t e I m p l i c a -t i o n s 35 T r a d i t i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o n c e r n f o r Wate r S u p p l y 37 G o v e r n m e n t a l J u r i s d i c t i o n Over Wa te r S u p p l y . . . . 41 Reason f o r P l a n n i n g Emphas i s Upon S u b d i -v i s i o n C o n t r o l s 42 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d 43 E v o l v i n g S u b d i v i s i o n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . 44 Summary . 46 C o n c l u s i o n 47 F o o t n o t e s 43 I I I . WATER REQUIREMENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n 50 The P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commis s ion . . . . . . . . . . . 51 C o m m i s s i o n S t a n d a r d s f o r W a t e r S u p p l y . . 53 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g W a t e r C o n s u m p t i o n 58 S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g and A s s o c i a t e d Use o f W a t e r Consuming A p p l i a n c e s 59 N a t u r e o f Occupancy and Use o f P r o p e r t y 60 C H A P T E R P A G E II I . (Cont'd) Quali t y or Properties of Water ......... 61 Climate 62 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Private (Alternate) Water Supplies 63 Presence of Sewerage or Septic Systems 64 Extent of Metered Supply and Cost of Water 65 Nature of D i s t r i b u t i o n System 66 Normal Variations i n Demand 67 F i r e Demand 69 Outdoor Sprinkling A c t i v i t i e s and A i r Conditioning 71 Outdoor Sprinkling 71 A i r Conditioning 72 Estimated User Requirements 73 Estimated Requirements Within Vacation Areas . . 76 The "Rustic" Cottager 77 The "Comfort" (Economy-minded) Cottager .. 79 The "Luxury" Cottager or Year Around "Resident" 81 Potential Reductions i n Water Use ......... 83 Summary ................................... 84 Conclusion 85 Footnotes 86 IV. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION XintjTOcli3.eeion o « > © © o * © o < » © © « © © o © © o o « © * o © » » < » < > o © 39 A. General Concern for Environmental Health i n Cottage Areas Environmental Health Defined ......... 91 93 v i i C H A P T E R P A G E I V . (Cont 'd) H e a l t h Problems A r i s i n g from Water P o l l u t i o n 94 P u b l i c Awareness of the P o t e n t i a l H e a l t h Problems A r i s i n g 97 P o t e n t i a l P o l l u t i o n Problems—Hornby and A s s o c i a t e d G u l f I s l a n d s 99 B a c t e r i a l and V i r a l P o l l u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Lake E u t r o p h i c a t i o n 101 B. E v a l u a t i o n Waste Treatment Processes 104 Nature o f Domestic Wastes Discharged . . . . . . . . . 106 B a s i s o f Waste Treatment Processes 107 N a t u r a l D e s t r u c t i o n or Removal o f Pathogens . . 109 N a t u r a l M o r t a l i t y 109 N a t u r a l F i l t r a t i o n I l l N a t u r a l "Removal" o f Ino rgan ic Substances i n Suspension or S o l u t i o n . . . 113 S p e c i f i c Household Systems Desc r ibed 114 Cesspools and P i t P r i v i e s 116 S e p t i c Tank Systems 118 A e r o b i c Treatment Systems 123 E l e c t r i c / P r o p a n e T o i l e t s 126 C. P r o v i n c i a l C o n t r o l s f o r Household Waste D i s p o s a l 127 Minimum Lot S i z e 128 S p e c i a l Area Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 L o c a t i o n Requirements 133 L i m i t a t i o n s i n the Use o f "Minimum" Standards 135 Summary 137 C o n c l u s i o n 133 Footnotes 140 v i i i C H A P T E R P A G E V . GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n 146 13 cl S jL C JO ^ 5 "£ jL 3T1i-L t 3- X\ tD o o a o © « © o o © a o o o » o o o © o © B e © o 14' 7 Conceptual I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Groundwater Management 148 C o n f l i c t i n g Viewpo in t s U n d e r l y i n g Groundwater Management 149 P o t e n t i a l Environmenta l Repercuss ions A r i s i n g from Groundwater Withdrawal 152 "Rese rvo i r Problems" 152 P i p e l i n e Problems 153 "Watercourse" Problems 154 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Groundwater Supply and Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o e 154 P o r o s i t y . 155 P e r m e a b i l i t y 155 R e l a t i v e S u i t a b i l i t y o f Geo log ic M a t e r i a l s as A q u i f e r s and Surface A r e a Recharge 156 Developmental Problems o f W e l l I n t e r f e r e n c e , Sa l twa te r I n t r u s i o n and Land Subs i s tence Desc r ibed 158 W e l l I n t e r f e r ence Problems 159 S a l t Water I n t r u s i o n Problems 161 Problems o f Land Subs i s tence 162 Genera l Management. P r i n c i p l e s • 164 Groundwater C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C o n s t r a i n t s — Hornby I s l a n d 165 W e l l Y i e l d s and Problems 165 Wei C 3X* Q Ulol X i- "V © © © o © o © o © © © © © © © © © © © o © © o o © © © © © 167 E v a l u a t i o n o f I s l a n d A q u i f e r s 168 L i m i t e d Knowledge of Groundwater Po ten -t i a l s A Major Obs tac le 170 A l t e r n a t i v e Systems f o r Water Supply . . . . . . . . . 171 P r o v i n c i a l Water R i g h t s , O r g a n i s a t i o n and Management P o l i c i e s 174 Water R i g h t s 175 ix C H A P T E R P A G E V . ( C o n t ' d ) G e n e r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and Powers o f t h e W a t e r R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e 176 P o t e n t i a l "Management" R o l e o f t h e Wa te r R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e 178 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 C o n c l u s i o n 184 P O O L l l O l - O S o-o o o a o o « o . o o o » • • o « s o e o o o e o e o o » e o e o o o e 7 V I . WATER NEEDS AND PREFERENCES OF LOT OWNERS I n t r o d u c t i o n 190 C o m p u l s o r y O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r W a t e r S e r v i c i n g a t t h e S u b d i v i s i o n o f L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . . . . . . . . 190 L o t Owners ' C o n c e r n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 D e v e l o p e r s ' C o n c e r n 194 R u d i m e n t a r y S t a n d a r d s o f S e r v i c i n g 195 " U l t i m a t e " S e r v i c i n g P r e f e r e n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 E x p r e s s e d Demand f o r Wa te r S e r v i c i n g "Nov/" . . . 197 D e v e l o p e r s ' O p i n i o n s R e g a r d i n g L o t Use and Development 199 Surv-ey C o n f i r m a t i o n ( L o t Use and Deve lopment P o s s i b i l i t i e s ) 200 W i l l i n g n e s s t o Pay . . 202 C o s t o f Wa te r S e r v i c i n g 203 Summary 205 C o n c l u s i o n 207 F o o t n o t e s 208 C H A P T E R P A G E VII. LEGAL PLANNING CONSTRAINTS . . I n t r o d u c t i o n 211 B a s i c A c t s H a v i n g - J u r i s d i c t i o n 211 S u b d i v i s i o n R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e - 213 S t a t u t o r y A u t h o r i t y f o r Wa te r S e r v i c i n g R e g u l a t i o n s ' 215 1. G e n e r a l E n a b l i n g L e g i s l a t i o n 216 B y l a w W o r d i n g 217 P r o v i n c i a l S i t e A r e a R e q u i r e m e n t s 217 L a n d Use C o n t r a c t s 220 2 . S p e c i a l E n a b l i n g L e g i s l a t i o n f o r A r e a s O r g a n i s e d f o r P u r p o s e s o f P u b l i c W a t e r S u p p l y . ' 224 P r o v i s i o n s Under t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . . . . . . . 224 P r o v i s i o n s Under t h e Wa te r A c t 225 3 . G e n e r a l D i s c r e t i o n a r y Powers o f L o c a l A p p r o v i n g O f f i c e r s and M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c i a l s 226 Use I n t e n d e d 227 E x c e s s i v e C o s t s 228 A m e n i t i e s and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t 229 D i s c r e t i o n a r y Powers o f t h e M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r 233 Summary 235 C o n c l u s i o n 237 F o o t n o t e s 238 V I I I . STUDY FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS INTRODUCTION 24© C H A P T E R xi P A G E V I I I . ( C o n t ' d ) The U n d e r l y i n g C o n c e p t o f V a c a t i o n A r e a s . . 242 G e n e r a l P r o p o s a l 243 Wate r S u p p l y 244 B y l a w s Recommended f o r Hornby I s l a n d . . . 245 S u g g e s t e d Amendments t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n 246 P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s C o m m i s s i o n Recom-m e n d a t i o n 247 W a t e r R i g h t s B r a n c h o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l W a t e r R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e Recommendat ion . 247 Was te D i s p o s a l 247 D e c r e a s e t h e D e n s i t y o f Deve lopment t h r o u g h L a r g e L o t R e s t r i c t i o n s 248 E n c o u r a g e t h e Use o f More E f f i c i e n t Waste Trea tmen t Sys tems 248 Encourage t h e Depar tment o f H e a l t h t o I m -p r o v e C u r r e n t P r o c e d u r e s f o r P e r c o l a t i o n T e s t i n g and S i t e E v a l u a t i o n f o r S u b s u r f a c e Waste D i s p o s a l Sys tems 250 Wat e r Management < 252 P o l i c y Recommendat ions (Water . R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e ) 252 G r o u n d w a t e r s t o be L i c e n c e d 253 C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Land Use P l a n n i n g and W a t e r Management S t r e s s e d 253 BIBLIOGRAPHY 256 APPENDICES 269 T A B L E S x i i N U M B E R P A G E I. PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION POLICY STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY .. . . . . . 53 2i RESIDENTIAL WATER CONSUMPTION IN 39 STUDY AREAS.„ 74 3. "SPRINKLING" AS A PROPORTION OF OVERALL SUB-URBAN WATER CONSUMPTION 75 4. "BASIC" WATER /REQUIREMENTS ..... 78 5. "INTERMEDIATE" SUMMER WATER REQUIREMENTS 80 6. WATER CONSUMPTION IN METERED AREAS OF THE COMOX VALLEY - 1969 82 7. RECOMMENDED SERVICING STANDARDS FOR COMOX VALLEY RESIDENTS 82 8. COMPARATIVE SUMMER DAILY WATER NEEDS ' • A83 9. NATURE OF CONSTITUENTS IN DOMESTIC SEWAGE 107 10. GROUND ABSORPTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SEPTIC TANKS.. 124 I I . SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOTS EXPERIENCING "UNUSUAL" CONDITIONS OF SOIL PERCOLATION OR LOT SLOPE 131 12. LOCATIONAL CRITERIA FOR SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS 134 13. REPRESENTATIVE POROSITIES AND PERMEABILITIES OF GEOLOGIC MATERIAL AND THEIR OVERALL SUITABILITY AS AQUIFERS 157 14. WELL RECORDS — HORNBY ISLAND (TO 1971) 166 15. ESTIMATED RAINWATER CATCHMENT FOR HORNBY ISLAND ..... 173 16. RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER SUPPLY 192 17. DESIRE FOR FULL INDOOR PLUMBING WITHIN COTTAGES.. 196 18. NATURE OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ULTIMATELY DESIRED • I 9 6 x i i i N U M B E R P A G E 1 9 . REASONS FOR AND AGAINST THE SUPPORT OF A PIPED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM "NOW" 198 20 . LOT OCCUPANCY CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 201 2 1 . tJILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SERVICING (COTTAGE V . HOME) . . . . . . . . . . 203 F I G U R E S 1. HORNBY ISLAND ><24 2 . CYCLE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION . . . . 108 3 . DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SALT AND FRESH WATER I N A COASTAL AQUIFER 161 4 . SUBDIVISION APPROVAL FLOW CHART Between 213-14 "A communal authority i s best 'judged by the care i t devotes to i t s water supply". A r i s t o t l e C H A P T E R O N E W A T E R S U P P L Y W I T H I N C O T T A G E A R E A S INTRODUCTION At a P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B . C . Conference at H a r r i -son Hot Spr ings i n November 1971 at which the sub jec t o f r e c r e -a t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s was be ing d i s c u s s e d , s e v e r a l members v o i c e d t h e i r impat ience w i t h what they cons ide red to be " i r re levent"* t ime spent on problems o f subsurface waste d i s p o s a l and water supp ly . Th i s emphasis upon s e r v i c e s i t was contended, was not o f fundamental concern w i t h i n new r e s o r t a reas . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n tha t t h i s v i ew, commonly h e l d by p lanners who have had l i t t l e exper ience w i t h r u r a l p r o -blems, i s an a l t o g e t h e r u n r e a l i s t i c one: Th i s apparent l a c k o f unders tanding or a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the " s u b t l e t i e s " o f s e r v i c i n g both from an environmental h e a l t h p o i n t o f v iew as w e l l as a l and use p o i n t o f v iew i s unfor tuna te . As w i l l foe shown, i t does he lp to e x p l a i n why many s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s i n areas such as the G u l f I s l ands are p o o r l y s u i t e d to the at tainment o f those r e c r e a t i o n a l l and use o b j e c t i v e s o f c o t t a g e r s . In l i g h t o f the f o r e g o i n g , i t i s the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s to g i v e weight to the argument tha t water s e r v i c i n g con -t r o l s are a most important face t o f l and s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n c o t -tage areas ; p a r t i c u l a r l y those dependent upon groundwater sup-2 p l i e s , and tha t area l and use o b j e c t i v e s can best be achieved through r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s may have i n conse rv ing n a t u r a l resources and m a i n t a i n i n g the d i s -t i n c t i v e cha rac t e r o f these r u r a l a reas . In essence t h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt to p r o v i d e a more f i r m b a s i s fo r the es tab l i shment o f water supply c o n t r o l s i n areas where water i s cons idered a c r i t i c a l developmental f a c t o r and l and i s c o n s i -dered to have p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c " r e so r t " use. THE RECREATIONAL SUBDIVISION AND COTTAGING PHENOMENA I n the years f o l l o w i n g World War I I there has been an a c c e l e r a t i n g t r end towards the ownership and development o f r e c r e a t i o n a l lands throughout Nor th Amer ica . Jus t as the se -cond car and T . V . set has-become a v i r t u a l " n e c e s s i t y " to many f a m i l i e s ; so a l s o has the cot tage and second home i n the "coun-1,2 t r y " been s i m i l a r l y regarded by many urban d w e l l e r s : A r e -cent study i n the U . S . has es t imated f o r example tha t from 10 -3 15% of a l l new housing s t a r t s are v a c a t i o n homes. Whi l e t h i s s t a t i s t i c may be g r e a t l y m i s l e a d i n g i n tha t apartment u n i t s and mobi le homes now represent a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share o f the hous-i n g market, i t i s neve r the le s s a s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e i n e s t ima -t i n g the magnitude o f t h i s demand. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so b e -cause cot tage development o f the type commonly wi tnessed today i s u s u a l l y concent ra ted on those lands which have the g rea tes t 3 p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l use and because p r i v a t e deve-lopment i s o f t en preceded by a s p e c u l a t i v e p rocess o f l a n d sub-d i v i s i o n which i n v o l v e s f a r more land than i s r e q u i r e d f o r i m -mediate use. Resu l t an t l and use p a t t e r n s as w i l l be subsequent-l y d i scussed moreover, may c rea te s e r ious problems f o r c o t t a g i n g and p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . BASIC UNDERLYING REASONS The reasons u n d e r l y i n g t h i s unprecedented i n t e r e s t i n the ownership and development o f r e c r e a t i o n a l lands and the l i f e 4 s t y l e s or exper iences they represent have been w e l l documented. In b r i e f , such p r o p e r t y i s p e r c e i v e d to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , s e c u r i t y i n home p rope r ty owner-ship—as ep i tomized by the American i d e a l o f a s i n g l e f a m i l y detached house, and the d e s i r e f o r investment: In a recent s u r -vey o f l o t p u r c h a s e r ' s m o t i v a t i o n s on Hornby I s l a n d f o r example, t w o / t h i r d s o f the respondents gave r e c r e a t i o n a l uses (summer co t tage or camping s i t e s ) as reasons fo r buying t h e i r l o t . One h a l f mentioned cot tage development and re t i r ement and j u s t over 5 20% mentioned investment as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e reasons . T h i s response i s cons ide red by the w r i t e r to be t y p i c a l o f most o f 6 the nor thern G u l f I s l a n d s . 4 RECREATIONAL FULFILLMENT The d e s i r e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i s perhaps most fundamental . The c o t t a g i n g phenomena i n t h i s r e spec t , i s but one m a n i f e s t a t i o n - o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l demand s p i r a l w i t h which the whole count ry i s c u r r e n t l y f aced . S i g n i f i c a n t i n -creases i n p e r s o n a l l e i s u r e , d i s p o s a b l e income and m o b i l i t y w i t h -i n the l a s t 20 years are the b a s i c f a c t o r s which are cons idered 7 t o e x p l a i n t h i s dramat ic i n c r e a s e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l demand. But most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e spec t , i s the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t by r e c r e a t i o n i s t s f o r those n a t u r a l environments which p r o v i d e op-p o r t u n i t y f o r swimming, f i s h i n g , b o a t i n g , s k i i n g , camping and 8 h i k i n g . ' A fundamental concern i n n e a r l y a l l a c t i v i t i e s i s a d e s i r e f o r i n t i m a t e contac t w i t h na tu re . One o f the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i nc rease i n demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n (and p o t e n t i a l demand f o r accommodation w i t h i n areas where such r e c r e a t i o n a l demand may be s a t i s f i e d ) i s p r o v i d e d by P r o v i n c i a l Park attendance f i g u r e s which show tha t both annual v i s i t s and "camper n i g h t s " i n the p e r i o d between 1959 and 1968 i nc r ea sed by 160%—a r a t e g rea te r than s i x t imes the p o p u l a t i o n growth 9 d u r i n g t h i s ' same p e r i o d i T h i s i nc r ea se i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s t r e n d . W h i l e co t tages p r o v i d e an important " s t a g i n g " area f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , they are o f course a l s o an 5 important source o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i n themselves . In f a c t , t o an i n c r e a s i n g number o f urban d w e l l e r s , co t tages p r o -v i d e a p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a change o f scene and pace— from the i n c r e a s i n g conges t i on , p o l l u t i o n and s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f c i t i e s and the l i f e r o u t i n e s and work p ressures they r ep resen t . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , c o t t a g i n g i s p e r c e i v e d by most people as an o p p o r t u n i t y to engage i n " r u s t i c " l i f e s t y l e s through l i v i n g w i t h i n more n a t u r a l sur roundings . To t h i s end many persons p u r -chas ing r e c r e a t i o n a l l o t s u l t i m a t e l y seek to develop them f o r re t i r ement purposes or at l e a s t , seasonal r e s i d e n c e . HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY APPRECIATION The ownership o f a home or a p i e c e o f l and to p l a c e i t on cont inues to be regarded as a most d e s i r a b l e and proper form of s e c u r i t y a f a m i l y man can have. Whereas the spec t ac l e o f suburban development was prompted i n l a r g e p a r t by the d e s i r e f o r home ownership and escape to more n a t u r a l sur roundings ; so can the c o t t a g i n g phenomenon i n many areas be regarded i n a s i -m i l a r l i g h t . For an i n c r e a s i n g segment o f the p u b l i c , the r e l a -t i v e l y low p r i c e o f l a n d and taxes i n o u t l y i n g areas p r o v i d e s a most c o m p e l l i n g argument i n favour o f r u r a l l o c a t i o n a l s o — 1 0 tha t i s , before improvements are demanded. The investment p o t e n t i a l o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l ands and po-t e n t i a l savings a c c r u i n g from co t tage use are o f t en the major 6 i f not u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r l o t s a l e s and home ownership a l s o . W i t h i n the G u l f I s l ands many prime areas ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the wa-t e r f r o n t lands) have apprec ia t ed an average o f 20% per year over 11 the l a s t 10 y e a r s . I t i s no co inc idence the re fo re tha t the p romot iona l e f f o r t o f r e a l e s t a t e agents has been d i r e c t e d at i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y h i g h l i g h t i n g t h i s aspect o f l and ownership. For the many persons today who have e x t r a cash w i t h which to specu la te but have inde te rmina te development p l ans f o r G u l f I s -l and p r o p e r t y , the s p e c u l a t i v e s a l e s p i t c h "buy d e s i r a b l e l and 12 —they- a r e n ' t making i t any more" i s o f t en hard to r e s i s t . Should a co t tage be developed on the s i t e , r e n t i n g i s a l s o r ecogn ized as an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e which may def ray cos t s o f h o l d i n g p r o p e r t y . On areas such as Hornby—where ex-c e l l e n t beaches and o ther n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n are i n c l o s e p r o x -i m i t y to necessary s e r v i c e s , r e n t i n g i s not on ly a f e a s i b l e a l -13 t e r n a t i v e , but a popu la r one. The use o f the l o t d u r i n g v a c a -t i o n s moreover i s o f t e n ' r a t i o n a l i z e d to save the f a m i l y money which would o therwise be spent on mote l s , campsi tes or o ther 14 • . s i m i l a r expenses. THE PROBLEM IN PERSPECTIVE W h i l e c o t t a g i n g and r e a l e s ta te s p e c u l a t i o n i n Nor th American S o c i e t y i s cons ide red to be a renumerat ive as w e l l as r e spec t ab l e a c t i v i t y , the most important m o t i v a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g 7 t h i s phenomenon i s s t i l l r e c r e a t i o n and u l t i m a t e "escape" from the c i t i e s . T h i s l a t t e r urge i s a r e f l e c t i o n i n p a r t o f the f a i l u r e o f urban environments to p r o v i d e an i n c r e a s i n g number o f persons w i t h d e s i r e d ameneties and l i f e - s t y l e s p e r c e i v e d a t -t a i n a b l e w i t h i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a reas . T h i s s u b d i v i s i o n t r end and growth o f seasonal as w e l l as year around communities i n the G u l f I s l ands as elsewhere, i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the fo rces or u r b a n i z a t i o n which have been such an accepted and c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c fea tu re o f pos t war development i n Canada. T h i s r u r a l "exodus" has i n t roduced i n i t s ' wake a number o f unique, i f not i n s c r u t a b l e problems. These are p a r t i -c u l a r l y ev ident on Hornby and s i m i l a r l y a f f ec t ed G u l f I s l a n d s . In sho r t , c o t t a g i n g development as g e n e r a l l y wi tnessed c rea te s a profound change i n the l o c a l ecology o f an area and i s asso-c i a t e d w i t h the removal o f pr ime r e c r e a t i o n a l l ands and open space from p u b l i c use. Most p e r p l e x i n g however, i s the p o l i t i -c a l f ac t t ha t i t i s most d i f f i c u l t t o i n t roduce e f f e c t i v e l and use p l a n n i n g f o r these I s l a n d s — p a r t i c u l a r l y from a r e g i o n a l s t andpoin t , s ince s t a t ed o b j e c t i v e s by l o t purchasers and r e s i -dents tend t o be at va r i ance w i t h those o f the " r e g i o n a l " com-munity (p.222 ) . Fur thermore, even the o b j e c t i v e s o f l o c a l p r o -p e r t y owners are not o n l y extremely d i v e r s e but o f t en c o n t r a -d i c t o r y i n themselves (p . 11) . T h i s makes i t ext remely d i f f i -c u l t t o achieve agreement on s e r v i c i n g l and use c o n t r o l s . AN "IRREVERSIBLE"' URBANIZATION PROCESS The r e c r e a t i o n a l development "process" i s u s u a l l y an i r r e v e r s i b l e p rocess of, u r b a n i z a t i o n which i n e v i t a b l y des t roys the very r e c r e a t i o n a l va lues which are. o f t en g iven as the i n i -t i a l reasons f o r cot tage development. Urban standards o f sub-d i v i s i o n des ign and s e r v i c i n g are o f t en unavoidable aspects o f year around occupancy and r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e . i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s -t i c a t i o n o f co t t age r s ' - expec ta t ions f o r comfor table home s u r -roundings: I n t h i s l a t t e r respec t i t i s becoming r a the r obvious tha t the n o t i o n o f "roughing i t i s not q u i t e what i t used to be . Cot tagers who used- to be q u i t e happy to use a r a t h e r p r i -m i t i v e bathroom now r e q u i r e not o n l y bathrooms w i t h hot and-c o l d running water but dishwashers and washing machines as 15 w e l l " . These i nc rea sed expec ta t ions as w i l l be shown (Chap-t e r 4) pose a d i s t i n c t t h r ea t to the water resources o f an area as w e l l as the maintenance o f a d i s t i n c t n a t u r a l 'environment. Whi l e i t i s accepted tha t the c l e a r i n g , development and subsequent r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f lands by r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r pe t s w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y change the l o c a l ecology and cha rac t e r 16 of an area , even the p rocess o f mere s u b d i v i s i o n — w h i c h i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d - w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f 66 foot r i g h t o f ways, roads, and c u l v e r t s , s idewalks and sometimes sewer, water and power systems, may be d i s r u p t i v e and c o s t l y t o v t h e community 9 should expected development f a i l to m a t e r i a l i z e . T h i s i s l a r g e -l y because i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t i f not expensive to r e t u r n s e r v i c e d l a n d to i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e aga in , o r c o r r e c t l and use 17 problems a r i s i n g from sprawl development. Al though the p r o -blem of tax s a l e s and r e s u l t a n t abandonment o f s e r v i c e d lands 18 does not appear eminent on many o f the G u l f I s l a n d s , i t i s neve r the l e s s a p o s s i b i l i t y which should not be d i s m i s s e d . t Q u i t e apar t from fu ture u n c e r t a i n t i e s i s the f a c t t ha t l a r g e s u r p l u -ses o f l o t s have been b u i l t up d u r i n g p r e v i o u s years when i t was expected tha t the moratoreum on s u b d i v i s i o n imposed by the 19 Government would remain i n e f f e c t f o r many y e a r s . AN INFRINGEMENT UPON PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RIGHTS Unregula ted v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n i s most e f f i c i e n t i n p re-empt ing pr ime r e c r e a t i o n a l lands from p u b l i c use and enjoyment: Th i s i s most ev ident on Hornby I s l a n d , where much o f the cho ice wa te r f ron t has a l r eady been subd iv ided f o r c o t t a g i n g purposes . S t e a d i l y r i s i n g l a n d va lues and r e s u l t a n t deve lop-ment o f t en makes fu ture p u b l i c a c q u i s i t i o n or e x p r o p r i a t i o n a most expensive unde r t ak ing . But most apparent i n the i n t e r i m , i s the profound e f f e c t r a p i d l y a p p r e c i a t i n g l a n d va lues have i n i n d u c i n g the premature s u b d i v i s i o n o f adjacent farmlands , l a r g e 20 es ta tes and commercial r e s o r t l ands f o r sma l l l o t co t tage purposes or s p e c u l a t i v e h o l d i n g s . Where l and owners f a i l t o be e n t i c e d by the r e s u l t a n t " w i n d f a l l " a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o -10 p e r t y , r i s i n g taxes may g ive them no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o s u b d i -v i d e . (Th i s i s a l r eady observed by the w r i t e r to i n f l u e n c e l and owners ' d e c i s i o n s to cont inue w i t h "marg ina l" farming a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g ex tens ive acreages o f l and on Hornby and Denman I s -lands) Should these f i s c a l and r e a l e s t a t e fo rces be a l lowed to proceed to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n wi thou t p l a n n i n g i n t e r -fe rence , i t i s feared tha t Hornby and o ther a t t r a c t i v e G u l f I s -l a n d s , w i l l at bes t become the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l p rese rve o f the fo r tuna te few who are ab le to a f f o r d a spacious l o t , or at wors t , another t r a n s p l a n t o f suburb ia congested w i t h d i s i l -l u s i o n e d r e s i d e n t s who must look i n c r e a s i n g l y beyond t h e i r I s -l and home f o r the v e r y r e c r e a t i o n a l ameni t ies which a t t r a c t e d them i n the f i r s t p l a c e . N e i t h e r can be cons ide red a d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r these r e g i o n s . CONFLICTING OBJECTIVES FRUSTRATE PLANNING CONTROL A f i n a l problem concerns p l a n n i n g fo r co t tage areas: Jus t as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l involvement have i n c r e a s -ed and the scope o f a c t i v i t i e s been broadened, so a l s o has the market for , r e c r e a t i o n a l lands been i nc r ea sed and broadened. Whi l e some lands are in tended to be used i n an undeveloped f a s -h i o n f o r temporary summer l i v i n g , many consumers now are beco-ming i n t e r e s t e d i n deve lop ing t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s f o r more comfor t -21 able year around use o r f o r r e t i r ement purposes . T h i s was confirmed by the Urban Land I n s t i t u t e which i n d i c a t e d tha t there was now a d e f i n i t e t r end toward the b u i l d i n g o f "second home" and r e t i r emen t communities which d e s i r e a l l the ameni t ies o f 22 t h e i r urban counte rpar t s back home. As a consequence, p l a n -ners are i n c r e a s i n g l y faced w i t h a v a r i e t y o f l o t uses, from campsites and r u s t i c co t tages w i t h minimal s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e -ments to f u l l y s e r v i c e d year around homes. I n sho r t , i t ' may w e l l be s a i d tha t " co t t ag ing i n the a f f l u e n t e ra i s not the r e -23 t r e a t from urban l i f e i t used to be" . The problem w i t h which the p lanner i s i n v a r i a b l y con -f ron ted i n such s i t u a t i o n s i s tha t o f s a t i s f y i n g the expec ta -t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who w i s h to improve t h e i r p r o p e r t y as op-posed to those who do no t . The es tab l i shment o f b u i l d i n g den-s i t i e s or de t e rmina t ion o f open space, requirements and the p r o -v i s i o n o f necessary s e r v i c e s are o f course f r u s t r a t e d by the l a c k o f agreement upon developmental o b j e c t i v e s . On Hornby f o r example, we have d i s p e r s e d groups o f " env i ronmen ta l i s t " who would d iscourage f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and p o p u l a t i o n i n -c rease , the a s p h a l t i n g o f roads , improved f e r r y access , sewers and the p r o v i s i o n o f p i p e d water s e r v i c e s . Others by c o n t r a s t do not regard v i s i t o r s to the I s l a n d and development as i n h e -r e n t l y bad i n themselves but would encourage the i n t r o d u c t i o n of necessary c o n t r o l s so tha t h ighe r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s which are necessary to support the usua l assortment o f ameni t ies and 12 s e r v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban l i v i n g can be i n t r o d u c e d . A l l i r o n i c a l l y , p r o f e s s a concern f o r the maintenance o f a d i s t i n c t n a t u r a l environment which would a l l o w f o r the wides t range o f 24 r e c r e a t i o n a l express ion f o r both r e s i d e n t and v i s i t o r a l i k e . GOVERNMENTAL CONCERN ' Because a great dea l o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n and cot tage development has been focused on the G u l f I s l a n d s , the re i s growing concern by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and government a l i k e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f some form of l a n d use p l a n s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o curb and guide development i n order tha t these I s l a n d s w i l l not l o s e many o f the n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s which make them so d i s -t i n c t i v e and appea l ing to r e s i d e n t s and the p u b l i c today . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e s t r o y i n g these ameni t ies and the need to p r e -vent such an occurance i s most c l e a r l y dramat ized by the grow-i n g demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n which i t i s es t imated the r e g i o n w i l l be faced : To b r i n g t h i s p o t e n t i a l demand i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e i t must be r ecogn ized tha t these I s l a n d s are p r e s e n t l y w i t h i n a h a l f days ' commuting d i s t a n c e from major p o p u l a t i o n cen t res o f V i c t o r i a , the lower Main land area and the S e a t t l e - B e l l i n g h a m c o r r i d o r : W i t h i n 30 years moreover, the Greater Vancouver r e -g ion alone i s expected to grow to over 2.4 m i l l i o n . - I f s i m i l a r p r o j e c t i o n s are made f o r the Puget Sound area , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e tha t the combined p o p u l a t i o n f o r the Georg ia S t r a i t B a s i n and 25 Puget Sound areas w i l l reach 7 m i l l i o n by the end o f the century,! 13 I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n c r e a s i n g importance r e c r e a -t i o n a l l ands w i l l p l a y i n the r e g i o n ' s fu tu re and i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the r a p i d s u b d i v i s i o n and development p r e s e n t l y observed a c -c u r i n g w i t h i n the G u l f I s l a n d s , the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n October o f 1969 saw f i t to impose a "moratorium" on l o t s u b d i -v i s i o n under 10 ac re s . The i n t e n t o f t h i s f reeze was e s s e n t i -a l l y two f o l d : (1) to encourage a f f ec t ed r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o i n i -t i a t e p l a n n i n g s tud i e s which would r e s u l t i n more r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s than those p r e s e n t -l y imposed by the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . (2) t o buy t ime so tha t whatever p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s are needed might be in t roduced before too many u n d e s i -r a b l e and i r r e v e r s i b l e changes o c c u r . A most s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l move i n recent years a l -so was the d e l e g a t i o n o f approving powers f o r the southern G u l f I s l ands to the p l a n n i n g department of the C a p i t a l Reg iona l D i s -t r i c t . T h i s move, a precedent f o r unorganized areas , i s p e r -haps the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l concern f o r the adop-t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s more s u i t e d to the s p e c i a l i z e d p l a n n i n g needs o f G u l f I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s . THE PLANNING PROBLEM What the fo rego ing has attempted to show i s tha t the problems in t roduced by s u b d i v i s i o n s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l ands i n the G u l f I s l ands are indeed important a f f e c t i n g as they do not o n l y the i n t e r e s t s o f a r a p i d l y growing. I s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n but 14 those o f the v i s i t i n g p u b l i c as w e l l . But perhaps most r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s , i s the growing c o n v i c t i o n tha t many o f the com-p l e x problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o t t a g i n g phenomena stem b a -s i c a l l y from the f a c t there i s p r e s e n t l y no accepted nor e s t a -b l i s h e d method, i n terms o f p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n to d i s t i n g u i s h  vacat i on l o t development from permanent r e s i d e n t i a l development (much l e s s , between v a r i o u s forms o f v a c a t i o n l o t development) . I n a recent study o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s i n the nor the rn G u l f I s l a n d s f o r example, i t was concluded tha t : "whi le the c r e a t i o n o f such a d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d i n v o l v e -some d i f f i c u l t y , the l a c k o f i t can l e a d to o ther p r o -blems. Problems i n term o f l o t s e r v i c e s , should any s i g n i f i c a n t development occur , can be expected. ' On the one hand, s c a t t e r e d permanent development cou ld l e a d to i n e f f i c i e n c y , w h i l e on the other hand, should a v a -c a t i o n l o t area evolve i n t o a year around se t t l ement , acute and c o s t l y problems o f a d i f f e r e n t nature can a r i s e . There are ( f o r example) a number o f areas which are i d e a l l y s u i t e d to v a c a t i o n l o t development but l a c k the v/ater and/or dra inage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o support p e r -manent development. _ A r e l a t e d ques t ion i s tha t d i f f e r e n t s tandards are ap-p r o p r i a t e fo r v a c a t i o n l o t development than f o r perma-nent r e s i d e n t i a l development. For example, roads c o u l d be narrower and b u i l t to lower s tandards . Smal le r capa-c i t y v/ater systems would be p r a c t i c a l . More f l e x i b i l i t y i n road and l o t arrangements c o u l d be reasonably a l l o w -ed. And s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n to p rese rve the l o c a l eco-l o g y , not p r a c t i c a l i n permanent r e s i d e n t i a l areas , c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . The cos t o f deve lop ing and hope-f u l l y , the p r i c e o f v a c a t i o n l o t s c o u l d be reduced. But w i t h no r e g u l a t o r y method of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a c a -t i o n l o t development, t h e r e ^ i s no way to make appro-p r i a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r i t " . 2 D Perhaps one o f the most s u b t l e i f not compe l l i ng r e a -sons f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g cot tage development from more permanent types o f development l i e s i n the f a c t t ha t co t tages p r o v i d e a 15 v a l u a b l e r e s o r t f u n c t i o n s ince most are ren ted out or shared 27 s e v e r a l t imes d u r i n g the course o f a yea r . T h i s " turnover" o f p rope r ty p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n view o f the g radua l disappearance o f commercial r e s o r t s p r e v i o u s l y a l l u d e d to (p. 9) and the growing need fo r p u b l i c accommodation on these I s l a n d s . . Whi l e most p l anne r s agree tha t co t tage areas are a l e g i t i m a t e form o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l and use but warrant s p e c i a l t reatment i n s o f a r as s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n , s e r v i c i n g and bu i l d ing -r e g u l a t i o n s are concerned; and tha t summer r e s idences should be r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i a l r e s o r t d i s t r i c t s o r to comprehensively planned developments .wherever p o s s i b l e , many are p e r p l e x e d by the k i n d s o f des ign i nnova t ions and s e r v i c i n g r e s t r a i n t s which can be in t roduced to prevent unwanted changes from o c c u r i n g . W i t h respect the need f o r s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s f o r example, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s has s a i d : " . . . the most frequent ques t ion we r e c e i v e concern ing summer homes i s 'How do you keep them from becoming permanent r e s i d e n c e s ? ' One s o l u t i o n i s to have s t and-ards f o r these areas as h i g h as new r e s i d e n t i a l areas on the theory tha t i n 10 or 20 years they would be used fo r year - round occupancy anyway. Another approach i s to l i m i t occupancy e i t h e r through the i ssuance o f occupancy pe rmi t s which s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a te the dates o f the year d u r i n g which occupancy i s p e r m i t t e d , or to def ine a summer res idence i n such a way tha t i t would be imposs ib l e to occupy i n the w i n t e r because o f a l a c k o f h e a t i n g p l a n t . F r a n k l y , we can see a great dea l o f t r o u b l e i n t r y i n g to enforce and admin i s t e r such r e g u l a t i o n s . We are i n c l i n e d to t h i n k tha t summer co t tages s c a t t e r e d throughout normal r e s i d e n t i a l areas as con -d i t i o n a l uses and w i t h lower s tandards w i l l have an . adverse e f f e c t on adjacent p r o p e r t y va lues and l e a d to a l l k i n d s o f l e g a l problems. We f e e l t ha t summer res idences should be r e s t r i c t e d to mapped r e s o r t d i s -t r i c t s or to l a r g e - s c a l e p lanned developments. The s u b d i v i s i o n and zoning standards may be lower than those o f normal r e s i d e n t i a l a reas , but should be h i g h enough to permi t year - round occupancy under safe and s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . The s u b d i v i s i o n standards should r ecogn ize t h a t - - p o p u l a t i o n p re s su res be ing what they are—many summer co t tages may some day i n the fu ture be r e p l a c e d by permanent h o u s i n g " . ^ ° At the roo t of t h i s problem i s the unshakeable b e l i e f h e l d by most government o f f i c i a l s and p lanners (as e x e m p l i f i e d above) tha t summer co t tages w i l l under most c i rcumstances even-t u a l l y be r ep l aced by permanent hous ing and tha t i t i s bo th shor t s i g h t e d and u n e t h i c a l t o f r u s t r a t e t h i s p rocess o f deve-lopment. Such a p l a n n i n g s t r a t egy i t i s suggested, i s r espon-s i b l e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o"f an urban s tandard o f s e r v i c i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n des ign which not. o n l y hastens the u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , but makes i t a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy i n i t s e l f . Perhaps most important i n t h i s r e spec t ; the i m p o s i t i o n o f urban standards or "organized space 1 ' upon co t t age r s w i l l tend to des-t r o y the most important reason g iven f o r the c o t t a g i n g "exper-i e n c e " , the o p p o r t u n i t y to l i v e and r ec r ea t e w i t h i n n a t u r a l surroundings (sometimes expressed as a d e s i r e f o r a p l a c e to _g_o which i s " d i f f e r e n t " from the p l a c e one l e f t ) . The argument f o r rudimentary s e r v i c i n g f o r v a c a t i o n l o t areas i s a l s o based upon the growing r e a l i z a t i o n by p lanne r 17 t ha t v a c a t i o n l o t use or development may i n c l u d e a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s — f r o m p i c n i c i n g to co t tage l i v i n g ; each a l e g i t i -mate r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f l a n d i f not e x e r c i s e o f p r i v a t e r i g h t s . T h i s view i s c o n s i s t a n t w i t h the "phi losophy" tha t j u s t as year around development i s not a necessary nor d e s i r a b l e o u t -come o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l l and s u b d i v i s i o n p r o c e s s , so a l s o can the concept o f co t tage development on r e c r e a t i o n a l lands be s i m i l a r l y regarded. THESIS FOCUS AND PURPOSE Among the more important f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the na -tu re o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use and i t s subsequent development are the type o f s e r v i c e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y water supply , which are to be p r o v i d e d as a c o n d i t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n . Th i s appears to be es -p e c i a l l y t rue on Hornby and o ther G u l f I s l a n d s where water has always been i n c r i t i c a l supply and where sha l low groundwater sources (which are r e l i e d upon) are susceptable to development, (see p . 99 ) . On these I s l ands moreover, i t has been observed tha t l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n has been p e r m i t t e d to occur wi thou t r e f e r -ence to problems o f water supply (or waste d isposa l )—much l e s s concern fo r r e s u l t a n t l and use i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s e r v i c i n g s t a n -dards p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . For these reasons , i t i s the p u r -pose of. t h i s t h e s i s to examine the r o l e water s e r v i c i n g may p l a y i n f u r t h e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f co t t age r s and the p u b l i c on these I s l a n d s . I m p l i c i t o f course i s the need to examine the p o t e n t i a l , v/ater s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s have i n d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g v a c a t i o n use lands from more'permanent r e s i d e n t i a l d ev elopmen t s. In order to develop such an unders tanding , i t i s the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s to examine: (1) v/ater supply requirements and f a c t o r s govern ing water usuage, ( w i t h emphasis upon c o t t a g i n g ) . (2) environmenta l problems a r i s i n g from i n d i s c r i m i n a t e groundwater wi thdrawal and waste v/ater d i s p o s a l . (3) l o t user p re fe rences f o r v/ater s e r v i c i n g w i t h i n co t tage areas o f the G u l f I s l a n d s . (4) p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over water supply s e r v i c i n g and resource management. STUDY HYPOTHESIS In order to p r o v i d e a c e n t r a l focus o f d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s , the f o l l o w i n g hypo thes i s has been c o n s t r u c t e d : In view of the p r e v i o u s l y expressed need to d i s t i n g u i s h v a c a t i o n l o t development from more permanent forms o f development i t i s hypo thes ized tha t on Hornby and o ther s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d I s l a n d ORGANIZED SYSTEMS OP WATER SUPPLY ARE AN APPROPRIATE REQUIRE-MENT FOR THOSE LANDS WHICH ARE BEING SUBDIVIDED FOR VACATION USE PURPOSES. THE SERVICING REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS MORE 19 OVER SHOULD BE SUFFICIENTLY FLEXIBLE TO PERMIT, IF NOT ENCOUR-29 AGE RUDIMENTARY SYSTEMS'OF WATER SUPPLY. Such p o l i c i e s i t i s f u r t h e r suggested are not o n l y s u i t e d to I s l a n d water manage-ment needs but i n keeping w i t h the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g i n t e r e s t s o f those c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n conse rv ing the r e c r e a t i o n a l ameni t ies o f these areas . RELATED STUDIES I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe tha t the growing concern by p l anne r s over the phenomena o f v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n has r e c e n t l y spurred cons ide rab l e r e sea rch a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d . These s t u d i e s which have p r o v i d e d most u s e f u l i n s i g h t s i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e , R i c h a r d L . R a g a t z ' s genera l 30 a n a l y s i s o f V a c a t i o n Homes (1969), James P i o t n i k o f f ' s s tudy 31 of "Cot t ag ing and R e l a t e d Support S e r v i c e s " (1970), and R. Ian B i r t w e l l 1 s study o f "Second Home R e c r e a t i o n a l Communities 32 i n the P a c i f i c Northwest , (1971) . The l a s t two s tud i e s were cons ide red most r e l e v a n t i n the sense tha t they p r o v i d e d some c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f bo th ends o f the v a c a t i o n home spectrum: P i o t n i k o f f ' s t h e s i s f o r example was concerned w i t h sma l l s c a l e cot tage developments i n compara t ive ly remote areas f e a t u r i n g a minimum o f s e r v i c e s , w h i l e B i r t w e l l 1 s t h e s i s concent ra ted on l a r g e s c a l e v a c a t i o n l o t developments 20 i n proximity to comprehensive community f a c i l i t i e s and featur-ing a high l e v e l of services. The former emphasized user cha-r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs while the l a t t e r discussed those charac-t e r i s t i c s which would enable the t r a n s i t i o n to permanent deve-lopment. Both i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough paid considerable attention to servicing aspects, p a r t i c u l a r l y water supply and sewage d i s -posal but only inasmuch as they related to perceived notions of the ser v i c i n g convenience within cottage areas. (No attempt was made to look at the implications of water usuage i n these areas nor environmental problems created as a r e s u l t of the use of conventional waste treatment systems). SCOPE OF STUDY AND LIMITATIONS This Study intends to investigate water supply pro-blems and associated land use implications peculiar to Hornby  Island. This has been done so as to l i m i t i t ' s scope primar-i l y to groundwater and problems associated with unregulated l o t subdivision and development within unorganized vacation areas of the Gulf Islands. Hence a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Study f i n d -ings to other regions w i l l have to be judged accordingly. 21 T h i s Study does not pu rpor t to p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i v e answers to d e f i n i t i v e problems f o r Hornby b a s i c a l l y because i t i s handicapped by l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g I s l a n d water resources and hydro logy , as no groundwater e x p l o r a t o r y work or w e l l surveys have been undertaken by the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r t h i s I s l a n d (see p . 1 7 0 ) . Furthermore, I s l a n d s o i l surveys as p r o v i d e d by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , are o n l y o f use i n d e s c r i b i n g average s o i l c o n d i t i o n s over r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a reas . T h i s l a c k o f d e t a i l or s p e c i f i c i t y makes d e f i n i t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l groundwater problem areas a most d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Hence t h e s i s emphasis has been p l a c e d i n d e f i n i n g the "combin-a t i o n " o f c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n which groundwater problems may be expected. A second major l i m i t a t i o n concerns the q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey which attempted to draw out l o t owner 's p re fe rences f o r v/ater s e r v i c i n g . A c h i e f problem w i t h such a survey—or any o ther which attempts to i n v e s t i g a t e the need f o r area improve-ments; i s tha t i t tends to s t i r up a host o f o v e r l y ambi t ious demands among respondents , which i t i s observed are seldom sup-p o r t e d by the genera l community when they are faced w i t h p a y i n g f o r these "improvements" as w e l l as l i v i n g w i t h them. T h i s v/as f e l t to be p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue i n the Hornby q u e s t i o n n a i r e , espe-c i a l l y s i n c e : — respondents were not observed t y p i c a l o f I s l a n d l o t owners. Those responding v/ere e i t h e r l i v i n g on t h e i r I s l a n d p rope r ty (had a co t tage or house on 22 i t ) or had exper ienced s p e c i a l problems i n u s i n g o r . d e v e l o p i n g i t . 3 3 -— the cos t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p i p e d s e r v i c i n g was not made c l e a r nor were respondents made s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r water s e r v i c i n g . a f i n a l p o i n t which should be noted i s tha t the "water supply" ques t ionna i res , were o r i g i n a l l y set up to prove the con -verse o f the t h e s i s hypo thes i s ; "that urban standards o f water supply should be made a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s a p p r o v a l " . The r e s u l t a n t l a c k o f r e l evance o f some o f the survey ques t ions e x p l a i n s i n l a r g e pa r t the l a c k o f emphasis upon survey r e s u l t s . In a d d i t i o n , many o f the ques t ions i n c l u d e d were in tended to "spark op in ions concern ing waters needs and s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s . Hence, w h i l e many of these responses d i d not l e n d themselves to s t a t i s t i c a l t reatment , they were u s e f u l nonetheless i n gaug-i n g l o t owners' and deve lope r s ' o p i n i o n s on the mat te r . METHODOLOGY I n order to t e s t the hypo thes i s bo th r e sea rch i n t o e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e sources and emper ica l f i e l d s t u d i e s were undertaken. These were in tended to p r o v i d e both an overview as w e l l as s p e c i f i c i n s i g h t i n t o water s e r v i c i n g problems a f -f e c t i n g the I s l a n d s . The f i e l d r e sea rch f o r Hornby c o n s i s t e d o f a " l o t owner 's q u e s t i o n n a i r e " and a water supply " q u e s t i o n n a i r e " , bo th 23 administered under the auspices of the Comox Strathcona Regional D i s t r i c t — w h i c h was undertaking a planning study of the Island 34 at that time: The intention of both questionnaires was to fi n d out why people purchased t h e i r l o t s , how they used them, problems of water supply encountered, plans for l o t use and other miscellaneous problems owners may have experienced with 35 t h e i r l o t s . Because the subject matter of the thesis dealt with a s p e c i f i c set of social/environmental circumstances surround-ing vacation l o t subdivision and planning for an area of B.C. — t h e Gulf Islands, there was a need to r e l y heavily on l o c a l sources of information. Special emphasis i n t h i s regard was placed i n obtaining the opinions of developers, government of-f i c i a l s and other professionals interested and fa m i l i a r with the problem of water supply i n these areas ( a l i s t of contribu-tors to t h i s Study i s given i n the Bibliography). STUDY AREA AND EMPHASIS ON GROUNDWATER Hornby Island i s situated i n the S t r a i t of Georgia approximately 50 miles north of Nanaimo. It i s separated from mainland Vancouver Island by Denman Island and two fe r r y sys-tems. Both Hornby and i t s companion Denman are two of the most northerly of the Gulf Islands. Hornby i t s e l f covers ap-24 p r o x i m a t e l y 12 square m i l e s and has a permanent p o p u l a t i o n o f around 150 pe r sons . Dur ing the summer months however, the i n f l u x o f co t t age r s and t o u r i s t s inc rease t h i s o v e r a l l f i g u r e to v / e l l over a 1,000. Apart from t o u r i s m , the I s l a n d has no l o c a l i n d u s -t r y save l o t s u b d i v i s i o n and co t tage development. exper ienced perhaps the g rea tes t amount o f a c t i v i t y f o r i t s s i z e ( p r e s e n t l y over 700 l o t s under 1 acre have been subd iv ided and l e s s than one i n 13 have been deve loped) . Prime water f rontage ranging i n p r i c e from $75 to over $100 per f rontage foot i s a good i n d i c a t i o n o f the a r e a ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r c o t t a g i n g and 36 r e a l e s t a t e investment . W i t h respect l o t s u b d i v i s i o n , the I s l a n d has r e c e n t l y FIG' !URE 1 H O R N B Y I S L A N D B C mpps >0INT ST. JOHN'S POINT 1. Perry 2. Shingle Spit Resort 3. Galleon Beach Subdivision 4. Hornby Island Lodge 5. Co-op Store 6. Heron Rocks Campsite 7. Seabreeze Guest Farm 8. Sandpiper SHINGLE 5PIT Beach Subdi-vision tion Bay Estates To Denman Island 10. Modern Develop-ment Ltd. Subdivision MILES lApprox.) Hornby I s l a n d was chosen as the case study f o r t h i s t h e s i s f o r a number o f reasons: Most impor tan t , i s the f a c t the I s l a n d possesses a great many r e c r e a t i o n a l f ea tu res o f i n t e r e s t to the genera l p u b l i c and tha t u n c o n t r o l l e d s u b d i v i s i o n and de-velopment o f the type r e c e n t l y wi tnessed may j e o p a r d i z e those r e c r e a t i o n a l resources o f r e g i o n a l importance. Perhaps more r e -l evan t to the t h e s i s , Hornby was chosen because i t i s : (1) among the "be t te r" examples o f unregula ted sub-d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the G u l f I s l ands today, e x h i b i t i n g many o f the l and use problems found w i t h -i n r a p i d l y deve lop ing r e c r e a t i o n a reas . (2) dependent upon r e l a t i v e l y scarce and presumably v u l n e r a b l e groundwater resources fo r domestic water supp ly . Current s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t i e s moreover have aroused cons ide r ab l e anx i e ty tha t : — I s l a n d water resources w i l l not be s u f f i -c i e n t t o meet i n c r e a s i n g demands, and i n p a r t i c u l a r p revent l o t owners from deve lop -i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . — l o t s u b d i v i s i o n to date has ignored the f u n -37 damental problem o f groundwater p o l l u t i o n . The major emphasis upon groundwater a r i s e s from the f a c t tha t these are not yet l i c e n s e d by the P r o v i n c e and the re fo re not a f forded the k i n d s of c o n t r o l s and p r o t e c t i o n s g iven surface wa-t e r s , (as de f ined i n the Water Act). T h i s was f e l t to imply a s p e c i a l need to i n s t i t u t e p r o t e c t i v e l a n d use measures among w e l l users where r e q u i r e d . But more impor tan t , the r e l i a n c e upon groundwater i n unsew^red areas in t roduces a v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n -mental problems which must be understood i f s o l u t i o n s are to be deve loped . ORGANIZATION E i g h t Chapters comprise t h i s s tudy. In b r i e f , t h e i r contents are as f o l l o w s : CHAPTER _2 d i s cus se s the concept o f p l a n n i n g and i t s con -c e r n f o r i n s t i t u t i n g water s e r v i c i n g c o n t r o l s at the sub-d i v i s i o n stage o f l and development. CHAPTER _3 examines the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g v/ater consumption w i t h a view f o r e s t i m a t i n g user requirements w i t h i n c o t t a g i n g areas . CHAPTER 4_ d i s cus se s environmental problems a r i s i n g from groundwater wi thdrawal and waste water d i s c h a r g e . Con-s i d e r a b l e emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the e v a l u a t i o n o f household waste treatment systems. CHAPTER 5. i s concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l problem of ground water development and resource management. T h i s chapter concludes w i t h an examinat ion o f p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and concern over such ma t t e r s . CHAPTER 6 examines l o t owners' p re fe rences for community water supply systems or " p r e - s e r v i c i n g " and the standards o f v/ater s e r v i c i n g d e s i r e d . CHAPTER _7 looks i n t o the p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n a l aspects o f water s e r v i c i n g . T h i s examinat ion i s in tended to c l a -r i f y e x i s t i n g l e g a l powers o f p l anne r s and the v a r i o u s b u r e a u c r a t i c hoops which s tand i n the way o f p o l i c y i m -p1ementat ion. CHAPTER 8_ con ta ins the summary and c o n c l u s i o n s to t h i s t h e s i s . BIBLIOGRAPHY and APPENDICES f o l l o w . 27 F O O T N O T E S 1. See L . Brooks "The Demand f o r R e c r e a t i o n Space i n Canada". Paper i n Proceedings of Resources f o r Tomorrow Conference, Ottawa, 1962. 2 . M. Clawson, B . Held and C. Stoddard , "Land f o r the F u t u r e " , Resources f o r the Future I n c . , John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e . 3. R. L . Ragatz "Vaca t i on Homes, An A n a l y s i s o f the Market f o r Seasonal R e c r e a t i o n Hous ing" , p u b l i s h e d PHD t h e s i s , Depa r t -ment o f Housing and D e s i g n , • C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New Y o r k , 1969, p . 2. (Note, "housing s t a r t s " i n c l u d e a p a r t -ment u n i t s and mobi le homes as w e l l as s i n g l e • f a m i l y de-tached houses ) . 4 . For a more comprehensive treatment o f the subject see R. Ragatz "Vaca t ion Homes", I b i d . 5. Reg iona l D i s t r i c t o f Comox S t ra thcona P l a n n i n g Department, "Hornby I s l a n d P l a n n i n g Study, 1971", p . 18. (These" r e s u l t s were ob ta ined from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey o f I s l a n d l o t owners by the w r i t e r ) . 6. S i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e surveys were conducted by the Depar t -ment f o r Denman and Quadra I s l a n d s d u r i n g the s p r i n g o f 1971. Survey r e s u l t s corresponded c l o s e l y w i t h those f o r Hornby. 7. These are w e l l documented i n "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission: Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n f o r Amer ica , A Report  to the P r e s i d e n t , U . S . Government P u b l i c a t i o n , Washington, D . C . , 1962. 8. See Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission, Study Report No. 22, ""Trends i n American L i v i n g and Outdoor Recrea -t i o n " , U . S . , Government P u b l i c a t i o n , op_. c i t . , 1962. 9. B . C . Parks Branch "Annual Repor t , 1968", ( the p r o v i n c e ' s pop-u l a t i o n grew by l e s s than 25% d u r i n g the p e r i o d ) . 10. E . Higby, "The Squeeze", (George J . McLeod L t d . , Toronto , 1960), pp . 39, 90. 11. Hornby I s l a n d P l a n n i n g Study, op_. c i t . , p . 13. (Th i s i n f o r -mat ion v/as based on tax assessment records as p r o v i d e d by the P r o v i n c i a l A s s e s s o r ' s O f f i c e , Courtenay, B . C . , ( S p r i n g 1971) . 28 12. T h i s i s a W i l l Rogers ' quote—as used i n a t y p i c a l s a l e s brochure f o r the I s l ands—by Nanaimo R e a l i t y . (Sandpiper Beach and Wha l ing -S t a t i on -Bay ' .Es t a t e s s a l e s p r o p e r t i e s 1971). 13. A survey of co t tages i n the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay area o f Horn-by I s l a n d d u r i n g J u l y , 1971 by the w r i t e r i n d i c a t e d tha t the great m a j o r i t y w e r e b e i n g . r e n t e d . 14. Ragatz , op_. c i t . , p . 46. 15. Darcy McKeough, Munc ipa l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r , (Ontar io) comment-i n g on a i akeshore c a p a c i t y s tudy r e c e n t l y commissioned by the Department. On ta r i o P l a n n i n g N e w s l e t t e r , March, 1971. 16. A number o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on "user impact" are p resen ted i n : Towards a. New R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Man and Nature  i n Temporate L a h d s — I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union o f Conse rva t ion o f Nature and N a t u r a l Resources , P u b l i c a t i o n No. 7, Morges, S w i t z e r l a n d . 17. T h i s v i ewpo in t i s shared i n H. B e r l i n e r ' s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Plague on the Land" as r e p r i n t e d i n the J u l y 1971 i s sue o f P . I . B . C . News, p . 20. 18. Based upon the w r i t e r ' s examinat ion o f "government tax s a l e s r e c o r d s " , Tax Assessment O f f i c e , Courtenay, B . C . , 1971, t o -gether w i t h t a l k s between l o c a l deve lope r s . 19. A f t e r the "moratoreum" was o f f i c i a l l y d e c l a r e d on October 28 of 1969, the P r o v i n c i a l Government p e r m i t t e d the submiss ion of new a p p l i c a t i o n s to s u b d i v i d e , f o r an a d d i t i o n a l f i v e month p e r i o d , ( to March 31, 1970). Th i s p e r i o d o f grace was in tended to accommodate those s u b d i v i d e r s who had taken c e r -t a i n elementary steps toward s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e i r lands ( s i t e d e s i g n , survey, e t c . ) . As a consequence o f t h i s " loopho le" i n the l e g i s l a t i o n , a t o t a l o f 396 a d d i t i o n a l l o t s were subd iv ided on Hornby I s l a n d alone a f t e r the moratoreum came i n t o " e f f e c t " . These l o t s p r e s e n t l y comprise 54% of the cu r ren t sma l l l o t t o t a l . ( R e s u l t s are based on a l o t sub-d i v i s i o n a n a l y s i s by the w r i t e r f o r the Hornby I s l a n d P l a n -n i n g Study, op_. c i t . ) . 20. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y ev ident f o r wa te r f ron t l a n d s . A l r e a d y f o r example, two sma l l r e s o r t s have d i s c o n t i n u e d ope ra t ions i n recent years and the fu ture o f the remaining three i s i n doubt. The major reason f o r t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y i s the f a c t the m a j o r i t y o f these r e s o r t p r o p e r t i e s are wor th f a r more i f subd iv ided than r e t a i n e d i n t h e i r p resen t use. ( In format ion based on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s o r t opera to rs (Mr. R o r n e l l o f Hornby I s l a n d f o r one) and Mr . Hami l ton , P r o v i n c i a l Asse s so r , Courteney, B . C . , June-1971.) 29 21. R. Ian B i r t w e l l , "Large S c a l e Second Home R e c r e a t i o n Commu-n i t i e s i n the P a c i f i c Northwest: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and po ten -t i a l f o r permanent se t t l ement ; an unpubl i shed M. S c . , Thes i s ( the schoo l o f Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g , U . B . C . , 1971), p . 42 . 22. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e "Vaca t ion Homes, A Guide" , p . 1 4 . 23. K . B . Smi th , "Cottages becoming year-around homes", Globe and M a i l , Toronto , September 5, 1967. 24. "Lot Owners' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " , Hornby I s l a n d P l a n n i n g Study, 1971, op. c i t . . 25. C a p i t a l Region D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g Department, " G u l f I s l a n d s Study, 1970", ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . ) , p . 3. 26. R. Sharpe, Hornby I s l a n d P l a n n i n g Study Repor t , 1971, (Re-g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Comox S t r a t h c o n a ) , p . 28. 27. R . L . Ragatz , op. c i t . , p . 47 . 28. L e t t e r from Frank B e a l , Sen io r P l anne r , American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , Chicago (1965) quoted by Ragatz , pp . 197, 198. 29. "Rudimentary systems" are de f ined i n Chapter 6. 30. R . L . Ragatz , op. c i t . 31. J . P l o t n i k o f f , "Cot tag ing and R e l a t e d Support S e r v i c e s " an unpubl i shed M . A . t h e s i s (School o f Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g , U . B . C . ) , 1971. . 32. R. Ian B i r t w e l l , op_. c i t . 33. An i d e a o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e can be gained by the f o l l o w i n g : Over h a l f of those who r e p l i e d had a co t tage or house on t h e i r l o t s ( the o v e r a l l r a t i o o f l o t s a l e s to development i s 3.5 to 1 ) ; over 70%.of respondents owned t h e i r l o t s f o r more • than 2 years (whereas over h a l f o f a l l I s l a n d l o t s had o n l y been s o l d i n the p r e v i o u s two y e a r s ) . A r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i -cant response moreover was ob ta ined from the l a r g e Sandpiper and G a l l e o n Beach s u b d i v i s i o n s which comprise 437 o f the I s l a n d s ' 736 "smal l l o t s " . Here a 5% q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n was no ted . (Th i s compares w i t h an o v e r a l l response r a t e o f 52% f o r the I s l a n d ) . These s u b d i v i s i o n s , by v i r t u e of the f a c t they are v i r t u a l l y unse rv iced and undeveloped, appear to represent the ve ry " co t t ag ing s i t u a t i o n " w i t h which t h i s t h e -s i s i s concerned. 30 The w r i t e r was employed as a p lanner on t h i s p r o j e c t . For a s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used and conduct of surveys , r e f e r to Appendices . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s based on a s p e c i a l s u b d i v i s i o n a n a l y s i s cdnducted by t h e ' w r i t e r — r e f e r to "Hornby I s l a n d Study Repor t , 19 71, p_p_. c i t . A l e t t e r w r i t t e n to the Honouralole Dan Campbel l , express ing r e s i d e n t s ' concern over g r o u n d w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n i s con ta ined w i t h i n the Appendix to t h i s t h e s i s . "No plan always means i n fact some inherited and frequently bad plan"„ Paul and Percival Goodman "Communities", (Vintage Books, New York), p. 10. C H A P T E R T W O W A T S R A N D S U B D I V I S I O N C O N T R O L A C E N T R A L P L A N N I N G F O C U S INTRODUCTION I t has l o n g been acknowledged tha t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f safe and p l e n t i f u l sources o f water supply i s a necessary and b a s i c p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r human se t t l emen t . Water i s not o n l y a fundamental element o f l i f e , but an i n c r e a s i n g l y important f a c -t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s o c i a l and economic enhancement o f modern l i v i n g . The v a r i o u s uses and va lue o f water f o r domestic house-h o l d purposes need not be d e s c r i b e d . They are apparent . Not so apparent however are the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g demands which are be ing made upon the l i m i t e d resources and the p o t e n t i a l l a n d use r epe rcuss ions a r i s i n g as a consequence o f such demands. F o r t u -n a t e l y however, a u t h o r i t i e s are beg inn ing to r ecogn ize t ha t wa-t e r not o n l y imposes c o n s t r a i n t s upon l and use but a l s o o f f e r s 1 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r coord ina ted l and management. For p l anne r s these c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s are much too important to be ove r looked . Before examining some o f these c o n s t r a i n t s and oppor-t u n i t i e s i n subsequent chapters i t i s the purpose o f t h i s chap-t e r to f i r s t acquain t the reader w i t h the b a s i c reasons under-l y i n g p l a n n i n g concern f o r water management and s e r v i c i n g . T h i s 32 w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the concept o f p l a n -n i n g and i t s p reoccupa t ion w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s . THE PLANNING CONCEPT AND APPROACH P l a n n i n g i s merely a l o g i c a l p rocess o f p remedi ta ted a c t i o n f o r the at ta inment o f some g o a l . As a s t r a t e g y f o r ac -t i o n , i t presupposes some knowledge o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s or con-sequences o f a c t i o n s t aken . A b e l i e f i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n n i n g and the p l a n n i n g p rocess moreover, " res t s on the as -sumption tha t man c o n t r o l s h i s d e s t i n y ; e i t h e r by a f f e c t i n g the r a t e and d i r e c t i o n o f on-going change or by i n i t i a t i n g such 2 mo t ion" . A major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p l a n n i n g process i s tha t i t tends to go about problem s o l v i n g i n a comprehensive and sys temat ic manner. W h i l e pu rpose fu l and e f f i c i e n t l and use and resource a l l o c a t i o n i s p l a n n i n g ' s p r imary concern , i t ' s p o l i c y recommendations i n v a r i a b l y take i n t o account r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s which g ive these resource so -3 c i a l r e l e v a n c e . The essence o f p l a n n i n g i s c o n t r o l over fu tu re events through a n t i c i p a t i o n o f fu tu re needs, changes or p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I f p l a n n i n g has an u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y i t i s i n s o l v i n g p r o -blems before they a r i s e . I t s ve ry success t he re fo re l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t the fu ture w i t h some degree o f assurance. This emplies' both a knowledgeable and i n t u i t i v e grasp of hu-man and environmental processes—as well as a genuine sense of humility for the unforeseen. For these reasons planning i s 4 neither a science nor an art; i t i s both. Furthermore, be-cause future conditions are most d i f f i c u l t to predict, and be-cause human needs and aspirations tend to change overtime, plan-ning cannot be considered an end i n i t s e l f , but as a basis for a continuing process of guiding and shaping the environment. Today, planning i s generally recognized to be an exclu sive form of government intervention—intended to supplement the "free market" system. As such, government land use planning has the added jresponsibility of i d e n t i f y i n g community needs or goals and for coordinating i n d i v i d u a l plans i n order these com-munity "i n t e r e s t s " may be secured i n the most reasonable and equitable fashion. The essential role of the planner and the planning process therefore i s to improve the decision making process by providing an objective and inspired insight into a l -5 ternate ways and means for problem solution or goal attainment. These "basic goals" are usually clothed i n such "motherhood" statements as " l i v a b i l i t y , e f f i c i e n c y , amenity, f l e x i b i l i t y and choice, minimum harm to natural communities of plants and ani-6 mais, optimum use of resources, and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . Because goal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or value formation i s an underlying feature of the planning process, the planner by 7 t r a d i t i o n " i s mo  than merely an e f f i c i e n t decision maker", 34 f o r d e c i s i o n i s i n t r i n s i c to a l l a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g v a l u a t i o n or c h o i c e ; "h i s ethos r e q u i r e s as w e l l tha t he foe an i n s p i r e d one " . Desp i t e ' i t s growing p reoccupa t ion w i t h resources and " t h i n g s " , p l a n n i n g i s u l t i m a t e l y a "people o r i e n t e d " a c t i v i t y . I t s t r i v e s to make the most people happy over the longes t p e r -i o d o f t ime . Because p l a n n i n g i s f u t u r i s t i c i n scope i t a l s o tends to t h i n k o f the l o n g term consequences o f l a n d use d e c i -s ions as w e l l as the short term. Hence most p l a n n i n g exe r t s a moderat ing i n f l u e n c e upon those p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and e n t r e -peneurs whose a c t i v i t i e s can foe summed up foy the o f t heard ex-p r e s s i o n "to h e l l w i t h p o s t e r i t y , what can our c h i l d r e n ever do 9 f o r us- anyways". In a d d i t i o n to a w e l l de f ined goa l o r p l a n n i n g concept there are s e v e r a l fundamental requirements which must foe f u l -f i l l e d i f the p l a n n i n g process as expressed i n a p l a n i s t o have fo rce and e f f e c t . Goal a t ta inment f o r example i s observed: (1) "dependent upon imagina t iveness o f the p l a n i t s e l f •and i t s power to i n s p i r e wide support (2) dependent on the t e c h n i c a l p r a c t i c a l i t y o f the p l a n and i t s power to i n s p i r e conf idence (3) dependent on the extent to which p l a n n i n g i s i n •*• i n the mainstream of d e c i s i o n making" . u In t h i s l a t t e r respec t i t must foe noted, tha t w h i l e p l anne r s take the i n i t i a t i v e i n p ropos ing " r equ i r ed" s o l u t i o n s , i t i s the p o l i t i c i a n s and genera l p u b l i c who make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . The p l a n n i n g r o l e t he re fo re i s u l t i m a t e l y an a d v i -sory one; and so i t should be i n a p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y . SCOPE OF PLANNING AND ULTIMATE IMPLICATIONS W h i l e the cur ren t range and scope o f l a n d use c o n t r o l s i n the form o f l and use zon ing , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s , b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and the i n c r e a s i n g l y popu la r performance standards may appear impre s s ive , i t i s r ecogn ized tha t these c o n t r o l s are not s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to achieve d e s i r e d l a n d use ob j ec -t i v e s : For e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g to take p l a c e , i t i s necessary to coord ina te a l l the many 'p r iva t e i n d i v i d u a l s and "obscure" pub-l i c agencies upon whose d e c i s i o n s the communit ies ' shape and cha rac t e r l i e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue w i t h i n t h i n l y popu-l a t e d co t tage areas where the need f o r p u b l i c l y "imposed" l a n d use c o n t r o l s has never been ve ry apparent—much l e s s p o p u l a r . Neve r the l e s s , l e s t we become too e n t h r a l l e d w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g i n c i d e n c e , scope and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g p o -wers; i t should be remembered tha t these s t r a t e g i e s as p r e s e n t l y conce ived are merely intended to f o r e s t a l l environmental p r o -blems a r i s i n g from un re s t r a ined growth and resource deve lop-ment. Because the r e s i l i e n c y o f n a t u r a l systems are l i m i t e d , such s t r a t e g i e s are u l t i m a t e l y s e l f d e f ea t i n g and at best merely a veneer w i t h which to g l o s s over cu r ren t environmental excesses . In the f i n a l ana lysfB i t i s observed t h a t : "P lann ing cannot prevent development. P lanners do not have t h i s power and some at l e a s t , do not want i t . P l a n n i n g ' s job i s to d i r e c t development i n t o forms and l o c a t i o n that w i l l bes t secure the longer term i n t e r e s t s o f the communi ty" . - x To t h i s can be added "no matter what the community pe c e i v e s t h e i r best l ong term i n t e r e s t s t o be" . Another aspect of p l a n n i n g which should be p o i n t e d out , i s tha t the process i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an inc rease i n the number o f c o n t r o l s or r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h which an i n d i v i -dua l i s faced: In a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y where pe r sona l f ree dom to persue l i f e s t y l e s o f pe rmiss iveness and d i v e r s i t y are i r o n i c a l l y coming to a r a p i d c l o s e — d e s p i t e i n c r e a s i n g va lue which s o c i e t y p l a c e s on them, care should be taken to p r o t e c t whatever v e s t i g e s of i n d i v i d u a l freedom s t i l l e x i s t . I t i s important t he re fo re that the genera l p u b l i c p r o t e c t themselves from those p l a n n i n g z e a l o t s who would u n n e c e s s a r i l y take away some o f these freedoms: Accord ing to P e r c i v a l Goodman the bes t way the p u b l i c can do t h i s ; " i s t o become informed about the p l a n t ha t i s indeed e x i s t e n t and o p e r a t i n g i n our l i v e s ; and to l e a r n to take the i n i t i a t i v e i n p ropos ing or suppor t ing r e a -soned changes. Such a c t i o n i s not on ly a defence aga ins t p lanners but good i n i t s e l f , f o r to make p o s i t i v e d e c i s i o n s f o r one ' s community, r a the r than be ing regimented by o t h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s i s one o f the nob les t ac ts o f man".-^ 37 TRADITIONAL PLANNING CONCERN FOR WATER SUPPLY Throughout the course o f h i s t o r y communities have grown and d e c l i n e d i n accordance w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wa te r . I t s importance to man i s most g r i m l y r e f l e c t e d by the innumer-able wars which have been fought over i t and the c i v i l i z a t i o n s 13 which have p e r i s h e d from l a c k o f i t . In view o f the c e n t r a l importance o f water supply , i t i s no co inc idence tha t the great e a r l y se t t lements were l o c a t e d a long l a k e s or w i t h i n f e r t i l e r i v e r v a l l e y s such as the T i g r i s , Euphrates and N i l e . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g fea tu re o f c i v i l i z e d growth moreover, has been a growing tendency to r e l y upon o r -ganized systems o f water supp ly . T h i s i s s imply because water resources tend to become dep le ted or p o l l u t e d w i t h inc reased use and p o p u l a t i o n growth thereby f o r c i n g the a f f ec t ed communi-t y to look f u r t h e r a f i e l d fo r a l t e r n a t e sources of supply: Where c i v i l i z a t i o n s were able to keep abreast o f t h e i r water needs— as d i d some o f the c i t i e s of the great Roman Empire by the con-s t r u c t i o n o f massive aquaducts f o r example (some extending f o r 14 hundreds o f mi les ) they f l o u r i s h e d . Where due to l a c k o f en-t e r p r i s e or r e sources , necessary water supply systems c o u l d not be dev i sed and cons t ruc t ed , c i v i l i z a t i o n s p e r i s h e d . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e r e f o r e , i t was the i n g e n u i t y o f man i n o v e r -coming l o c a l water d e f i c i e n c i e s through e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t r a -38 tegies that enabled h i s existence and continued c u l t u r a l development. This basic r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s t i l l with us today. THE PLANNING CONCERN FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND SERVICING TODAY Planners today are increasingly resorting to the use of a new found euphemism "comprehensive planning" i n dealing with the multifaceted implications of land use planning and resource a l l o c a t i o n . While th i s approach i s not r e a l l y novel to planning, i t does re a f f i r m the planning conviction that a l l p o l i c i e s and controls pertaining to human and natural resources should be coordinated for the achievement of s p e c i f i e d goals. With "comprehensive" planning has also come the con-15 cept of "regional" and "multiple-purpose" planning. These stem from the recognition that water i s a regional resource s e l -dom manageable within established p o l i t i c a l boundaries and that growing c o n f l i c t s over water w i l l necessitate a more intensive use and sharing of t h i s resource within a region. The widen-ing scope of powers being given the P r o v i n c i a l Water Resources Service (p. 179) and of course, the establishment of the regional d i s t r i c t concept but a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s concern for improved resource management and need to integrate physical and s o c i a l planning on a more functional area wide basis. This i s a s i g n i -f i c a n t improvement over from the past, where i t was observed that water management was l a r g e l y the "domain of single purpose agen-16 cies having l i m i t e d operational and t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n " . 39 The need to cons ide r water resources as an important aspect o f comprehensive l a n d use p l a n n i n g on Hornby and o ther G u l f I s l a n d s becomes apparent when one i s made f a m i l i a r w i t h c o t t a g e r s ' problems i n s e c u r i n g s u i t a b l e water sources f o r house-h o l d use. W h i l e i t may be argued tha t p i c n i c i n g , camping or even weekend cot tage use may not r e q u i r e the convenience o f an I s l a n d water supp ly , few w i l l d i sagree w i t h the v iew tha t f o r any sus t a ined use o f l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes some l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e source o f "water supply i s an economic n e c e s s i t y . T h i s concern i s perhaps bes t expressed by a v a c a t i o n l o t owner on Hornby I s l a n d v/ho s t a t e d : " o f f e r i n g l and f o r sa le suggests tha t i t i s worth b u i l d -i n g on or at l e a s t w i l l support a s tay o f a week or two at a t ime . A reasonably convenient access to water i s i n t e g r a l t o t h i s . Buyers from the Main land or those who have o n l y exper ienced l a k e r e s o r t s may not a p p r e c i -ate the c r u c i a l importance o f water on sea-surrounded 17 i s l a n d s " . -Al though i t has l ong been r ecogn ized tha t water can determine i n l a r g e p a r t the nature o f land-use o r development which can or w i l l occu r , i t i s o n l y compara t ive ly r e c e n t l y tha t p l anne r s have had the " a u d i c i t y " to use water s e r v i c i n g c o n t r o l s ( fo r one) to shape the k i n d o f l i v i n g environment which i s de-s i r e d . Th i s growing emphasis upon the use of such b a s i c s e r v i -ces as c r i t i c a l p l a n n i n g " l e v e r s " to achieve l and use o b j e c t i v e s i s perhaps best expressed by the f o l l o w i n g : "In i t s ' s imp les t form, our c o n t e n t i o n i s tha t p u b l i c 40 c o n t r o l of groundwater p l u s c o n t r o l of p u b l i c water supply and waste water d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s would give more complete c o n t r o l of urban development ... i f the p a t t e r n s have been determined by the community. We must r e c a l l t h a t i t has only been comparatively r e -c e n t l y that highways have been looked on by t r a f f i c engineers as shapers of urban land use as w e l l as s a t i s f i e r s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements. We con-tend t h a t water and sewer s e r v i c e s should a l s o be looked upon and used as important shaping t o o l s i n the p h y s i c a l environment". ® For these and other reasons i t has g e n e r a l l y been con-s i d e r e d good p o l i c y by planners t o : (1) encourage compact development by r e q u i r i n g a l l s u b d i v i s i o n s to be connected to p u b l i c or group water and sewage s y s t e m s — o r to have very l a r g e l o t s . (2) e s t a b l i s h procedures by which the f u l l cost of l o c a l water and sewer s e r v i c e s and p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of major u t i l i t y f a c i l i t i e s can become p a r t of p r i v a t e l and development c o s t s . (3) e x e r c i s e c a r e f u l c o n t r o l i n the extension of v/ater and sewer l i n e s . (4) i n s i s t on the adoption of complimentary water supply and waste treatment f a c i l i t i e s t o ensure the main-tenance of a s a n i t a r y environment. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s however, i t must be remembered tha t the philosophy u n d e r l y i n g t h i s broadening approach to water resource development and a s s o c i a t e d s e r v i c i n g c o n t r o l s " i s based on the growing a f f l u e n c e of our s o c i e t y , which permits choices among a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s and p o s s i b l e s e l e c t i o n of more c o s t l y methods of s a t i s f y i n g p h y s i c a l needs i n order to preserve or 19 enhance the amenities"-'. 41 GOVERNMENTAL JURISDICTION OVER WATER SUPPLY In B.C. as elsewhere i n Canada the primary responsibi-l i t y for public water supply rests with l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l agencies of government. This arrangement i s but a r e f l e c t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l concern of government for the protection of public h e a l t h — g i v e n impetus i n the mid-nineteenth century when i t was recognized that water could transmit such diseases as cholera, typhoid, and infect i o u s h e p a t i t i s . More recently how-ever, government involvement with water supply has been extended into a v a r i e t y of managerial and developmental spheres. These w i l l be discussed more f u l l y i n Chapter 5 . P r o v i n c i a l agencies concerned with the safe supply and " b e n e f i c i a l " use of water resources include the Department of Health, the Public U t i l i t i e s Commission and the Water Resources Service. Local planning inte r e s t i n water supply on the other hand i s shared by the Water Resources Service i n conjunction with the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s and l o c a l councils or regional d i s t r i c t s . However, a more involved procedure including a l l of the above named agencies of government (as well as the Department of Highways) has been established where l o c a l decisions concern-ing water supply are made at the subdivision stage of land deve-lopment (refer to Chapter 7 ) . 42 REASON FOR PLANNING E M P H A S I S UPON SUBDIVISION CONTROLS The p l a n n i n g concern f o r water management and s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s i s most apparent at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage o f l and deve-lopment. T h i s i s because r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n (which i s the p rocess o f c o n v e r t i n g raw l and i n t o b u i l d i n g s i t e s ) i s one o f the most important f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the development o f a community. R e s i d e n t i a l l o t l i n e s , s t r e e t s and s e r v i c e s once e s t a b l i s h e d , g ive an area a b a s i c cha r ac t e r and f u n c t i o n which i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to change (wi thout recourse to expensive urban renewal p r o j e c t s ) . For t h i s reason p r i m a r i l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r e s i g h t and a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d l and s u b d i v i s i o n through s p e c i a l p u b l i c r e g u l a t i o n s or p r i v a t e covenants designed to meet community l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s . Because o f the c e n t r a l importance o f " s u b d i v i s i o n " and " s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s " i n l and use p l a n n i n g , a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f these terms i s i n o rde r ; S u b d i v i s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y de f ined as the d i v i s i o n o f a p a r c e l o f l a n d i n t o two or more l o t s or p a r c e l s " for the p u r -pose o f s a l e o r b u i l d i n g development, and may mean e i t h e r the 20 process of s u b d i v i d i n g or the t e r r i t o r y be ing s u b d i v i d e d " . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , " s u b d i v i s i o n " embodies the d i v i s i o n o f l a n d f o r a l l urban purposes i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l , commercia l , p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s e m i - p u b l i c as v / e l l as r e s i d e n t i a l uses . The second major use o f the word " s u b d i v i s i o n " i s i n re fe rence to 4 3 "a group o f homes or improved l o t s hav ing the cha rac t e r o f a 2 1 more or l e s s d i s t i n c t development u n i t " . 'A t h i r d and some-what confus ing but nonetheless v a l i d d e f i n i t i o n , i s "the conso-l i d a t i o n o f l and where the end r e s u l t i s a fewer number o f p a r -c e l s . T h i s i s a l s o cons idered to be a s u b d i v i s i o n because i t 2 2 i s a change i n the l e g a l p a t t e r n " . Use o f t h i s term i n the t h e s i s however w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to the f i r s t two d e f i n i t i o n s and d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two can u s u a l l y be i n f e r r e d from the con t ex t . The term " s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s " i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g -n i z e d to mean those p u b l i c l y accepted r e g u l a t i o n s which o f f i -c i a l l y govern the p rocess and manner o f l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n p r e -v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . As i m p l i e d , these r e g u l a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y in tended to i n f l u e n c e the s i z e and shape o f proposed b u i l d i n g l o t s as w e l l as the nature o f roads and o ther s e r v i c i n g f a c i l i -t i e s which must be p r o v i d e d by p r o s p e c t i v e s u b d i v i d e r s . I t should a l s o be noted tha t conven t iona l s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s seldom make reference to b a s i c requirements p e r t a i n i n g to the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f l a n d f o r purposes o f l o t ownership, a l though 2 3 such requirements are always i m p l i e d . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND In Nor th America s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s were the na -t u r a l outgrowth o f the es tab l i shment o f new towns—many o f which 44 "were l a i d out pursuent to i n s t r u c t i o n s con ta ined i n r o y a l d i -24 r e c t i v e s and cha r t e r s granted by the c o l o n i a l a s s e m b l i e s . . . " There was a d e f i n i t e need even then as now f o r p r o s p e c t i v e l o t owners to conform to the d e s i r e d c i t y form, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the s t r e e t p a t t e r n . W i t h r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y o c c u r i n g i n the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th cen tury the need f o r r e c o r d i n g l a n d ownership i n a sys temat ic and accura te f a s h i o n became q u i c -k l y ev iden t . ' T h i s soon l e d to the es tab l i shment of r e g u l a t i o n s or procedures f o r l a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n which were to become manda-t o r y fo r a l l l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n s . These were soon coupled w i t h p r o v i s i o n s governing road access , wid ths and al ignments and a host o f o ther measures in tended to i n s u r e tha t the p u b l i c would not be inconvenienced by the r e s u l t i n g road network. T h i s t r a -d i t i o n a l emphasis on l and r e g i s t r a t i o n and roads as we s h a l l boserve , e x p l a i n s i n l a r g e p a r t the l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and o r g a -n i z a t i o n f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approval i n B . C . today (Chapter 7 ) . EVOLVING SUBDIVISION CONSIDERATIONS There i s a growing r e c o g n i t i o n tha t r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i -v i s i o n s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y observed to be i n the " t w i l i g h t zone" be-tween a c l e a r cut p r i v a t e u t i l i t y and an o u t r i g h t p r i v a t e b u s i -ness , are now tend ing to be regarded by p lanne r s and the c o u r t s 45 25 as belonging to the former category. To t h i s end subdivision p o l i c i e s are presently based on a far greater range of consider-ations than mere l o t r e g i s t r a t i o n and road access. An i n d i c a -t i o n of the broad nature of t h i s concern can be grasped by the stated purpose of the P r o v i n c i a l Subdivision I^gulations which read: "The purpose of these regulations i s to a s s i s t i n assuring the safe, h e a l t h f u l l , equitable, e f f i c i e n t , economical and at-t r a c t i v e subdivision of land for the benefit of the community 26 as a whole". In more s p e c i f i c terms, i t i s generally intend-ed that land subdivision i n B.C: 1. i s suited to the configuration of the land being subdivided and i s i n harmony with adjacent developments. 2. occupies land which i s suitable for continued r e s i -d e n t i a l use. 3. does not make impractical the further subdivision of any land within the proposed subdivision or of any adjacent p a r c e l . 4. w i l l provide the services necessary to create an acceptable l e v e l of public health, safety, conven-ience, and aesthetic environment. 5. w i l l not necessitate excessive costs to the muni-c i p a l i t y either present or future. 6. conforms generally to e x i s t i n g community goals. (Where zoning bylaws and o f f i c i a l plans are i n existence for example, these should be followed). While the above c r i t e r i a — g l e a n e d from B.C. l e g i s l a t i v e acts pertaining to subdivision are c e r t a i n l y laudable i n that they appear to cover a l l p o t e n t i a l aspects of land subdivision 46 prob l ems—the i r succes s fu l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and implementa t ion u l -t i m a t e l y depend upon the l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and p l a n n i n g compe-27 tence o f l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n approving o f f i c e r s . The former, as w i l l be shown i n subsequent chapters are subjec t t o a number o f c o n s t r a i n t s . SUMMARY P l a n n i n g , which i s b a s i c a l l y comprised o f goa l formu-l a t i o n , means i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p o l i c y implementa t ion , i s an e s s e n t i a l p rocess f o r pu rpose fu l resource a l l o c a t i o n . The i n -c r e a s i n g scope and complex i ty o f government p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the i n c r e a s i n g number o f resource use con -f l i c t s — w a t e r among one, w i t h which s o c i e t y i s f aced . Because many p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s seek to c u r t a i l i n d i v i d u a l freedoms, t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n must be made o n l y a f t e r a thorough examina-t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . P l a n n i n g f o r water supply has been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f ea tu re of , a l l deve lop ing and c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t i e s . In modern t imes water has become even more important s imply because i t i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to n e a r l y a l l phases o f technology and ma-t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Neve r the l e s s , the b a s i c problems faced by v/ater purveyors i n p r o v i d i n g safe and p o t a b l e v/ater s u p p l i e s f o r growing j>opulations cont inues to be a b a s i c concern . T h i s 47 r a p i d l y growing demand f o r water , bo th f o r i n d u s t r i a l and do-mes t i c (as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l uses) and the growing l a c k o f s u i t a b l e waters i s the most compe l l i ng reason f o r the cu r r en t emphasis upon " integrated" 1 management o f water r e sources , (or "comprehensive", " r e g i o n a l " and " m u l t i p l e purpose" p lanning) at the.government l e v e l . R e c o g n i t i o n by l and use p lanners tha t water s e r v i c i n g can p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l " l e v e r s " w i t h which to i n f l u e n c e the cha rac t e r and l o c a t i o n o f human a c t i v i t i e s has r e s u l t e d i n a merging o f i n t e r e s t s . Water s e r v i c i n g c o n t r o l s designed to achieve p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s are g e n e r a l l y implemented at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage o f l and development. I t i s at t h i s stage tha t development can be most e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d . Relevant agencies o f government concerned w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and water s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f Highways, Water Resources S e r v i c e , Department o f H e a l t h , P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission and Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . CONCLUSION Increased involvement by government i n water s e r v i c i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage appears i n e v i t a b l e i n the face o f ever i n c r e a s i n g resource use c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r r e s u l t a n t need to p re s s i n t o s e r v i c e m o r e • e f f e c t i v e l and use c o n t r o l s . In the f u -t u r e i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e , tha t s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l con t inue to expand t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l h o r i z o n s . 43 F.'O O T N O T E S 1. Andrew W. Spieker "Water i n Urban P l a n n i n g , S a l t Creek B a -s i n , I l l i n o i s " , G e o l o g i c a l Survey Water Supply Paper 2002 1970, U . S . Government, Washington, p . 13. 2. Pau l D a v i d o f f and Thomas A. R e i n e r , "A Choice Theory o f P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , May 1362, p . 106. 3. See R . A . Walker , "The P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n i n Urban Government", U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1951, p . 112. 4. Samual H. Ordway J r . , "Trends i n Law and Other I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the Nur ture of D i v e r s e H a b i t a t s " Future Environments of Nor th Amer ica , F . D a r l i n g and J . M i l t o n e d i t o r s , The Na-t i o n a l H i s t o r y P re s s , New York , 1966, p . 678. 5. Pau l D a v i d o f f et a l , op_. c i t . , p . 106. 6. Coleman Woodbury, "The Role o f the Reg iona l P lanner i n P r e -s e r v i n g Hab i t an t s and Scen ic V a l u e s " , Future Environments  of Nor th Amer ica , op. c i t . , pp. 575, 576. 7. J . Dykernan, " 'Planning and D e c i s i o n Theory, J o u r n a l American  I n s t i t u t e o f P l anne r s , November 1961, p . 343. 8. L o c . c i t . 9. Source unknown. 10. F . S tua r t Chapin J r . , " E x i s t i n g Techniques o f Shaping Urban Growth", Taming M e g a l o p o l i s , (H.W. E l d r i d g e , e d i t o r ) , Dou-b leday and Company, I n c . , Garden C i t y , New York , 1967, p . 732. 11 . Robin Sharpe, "Hornby I s l a n d P l a n n i n g S t u d y—1 9 7 1 " , op_. c i t . , p . 5. 12. Pau l and P e r c i v a l Goodman, "Communities", V in t age Books, New Y o r k , pp . 10, 11. 13. See T. B l a k e , "Water f o r the C i t i e s " , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. 14. I b i d . , p . 14. 49 15. See L . O. G e r t l e r "Reg iona l P l a n n i n g and Development", R e g i o n a l and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada, (R. Krueger , F . Sargent , A . De Vos and N . Pearson e d i t o r s ) , H o l t , R ineha r t and Winston o f Canada L t s . , Toronto , 1963, pp . 24-32. 16. A . S p i c k e r , op. c i t . , p . 3. 17. Ques t i onna i r e Survey o f Hornby by the w r i t e r , op. c i t . 18. See K . B . Kenny, " P u b l i c P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s A f f e c t i n g Water and Sewer Sources i n Urban Growth A r e a s , op. c i t . , p . 189. 19. F . P . K o i s c h , "P lann ing Approaches" 3 , J o u r n a l Amer ican Water  Works A s s o c i a t i o n , January 1969, p . 20. 20. Twin C i t i e s M e t r o p o l i s . P l a n n i n g Commission L o c a l P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n "Guide to S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l " , S t . P a u l Minneso ta , A p r i l 1960, p . 1. 21. U . S. Housing and Home F inance Agency, "Suggested Land Sub-d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s " , Washington, D . C . , U . S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1956, p . 9. 22. "What i s S u b d i v i s i o n " — a book le t put out by the C a p i t a l Region D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Department. 23. F . M. Jennings and E . H. Campbel l , " R e g u l a t i n g S u b d i v i s i o n s " a r epor t sponsored by the a s s o c i a t i o n o f Washington C i t i e s i n coope ra t ion w i t h the U . S . Bureau o f Governmental Research, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , May 1954, p . 2. 24. W. Goodman and E . C. Fruend, e d i t o r s , ' " P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c -t i c e s o f Urban P l a n n i n g " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers A s s o -c i a t i o n , Washington, 1968, p . 443. 25. R. R. Wal t e r s "Land S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l w i t h Emphasis on L o c a t i o n and T i m i n g " — m i c r o f i l m e d M . A . t h e s i s , Georg ia I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, 1956. 26. S e c t i o n 2.01 o f the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t , ( B . C . Regu la t ions 262/70) . 27. The w r i t e r i s not i n a p o s i t i o n to make any g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e -ments concern ing the p l a n n i n g competence o f Dept . o f H i g h -ways approving o f f i c e r s — a t t h i s t ime . "Pure water . . . i s the bes t d r i n k f o r persons o f a l l ages and temperments. By i t s f l u i d i t y and mi ldness i t promotes a f ree and equable c i r c u l a t i o n o f the b lood and humours through a l l the v e s s e l s o f the body, upon which the due performance of every animal f u n c t i o n depends, and hence water d r i n k e r s are not on ly the most a c t i v e and n imble , but a l s o the most chee r -f u l : and s p a r i n g l y o f a l l people But to d e l i c a t e and c o l d i n s t i t u t i o n , and to persons unaccustomed to i t , water wi thout wine i s a ve ry unproper d r i n k " . P h i l a d e l p h i a Monthly Magazine (1798) C H A P T E R T H R E E W A T E R R E Q U I R E M E N T S INTRODUCTION Planners and p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s are i n c r e a s i n g l y p l a c e d i n the s i t u a t i o n o f hav ing to determine the s u i t a b i l i t y or adequacy of areas to support d e s i r e d l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l o c a l water supply sources and adequacy o f p l a n -ned water d i s t r i b u t i o n systems are o f major c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W h i l e government standards have been e s t a b l i s h e d to r egu l a t e p u b l i c water supply systems proposed f o r new s u b d i v i s i o n s , there has been some con t rove r sy o f l a t e as to whether these s t a n -dards of water supply impose unnecessary and undes i r ab l e urban requirements upon v a c a t i o n l o t developers and l o t owners. The r a p i d l y broadening spectrum o f v a c a t i o n l o t development would appear to suggest tha t a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s cou ld be warran ted . I t i s not the purpose o f t h i s chapter to suggest whether or not such d i s t i n c t i o n s may be d e s i r a b l e o r ever p r a c -t i c a l , but whether i n f ac t such d i s t i n c t i o n s do e x i s t , and may be d e f i n e d . The purpose o f t h i s chapter t h e r e f o r e , i s to examine v a r i o u s water users requirements i n v a c a t i o n areas and to d i s c u s s p o t e n t i a l s tandards o f water supp ly . Subsequent chapters w i l l d i s c u s s environmental h e a l t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as w e l l as p o t e n t i a l resource use c o n s t r a i n t s . The p r e v i o u s chapter mentioned some o f the b a s i c r e a -sons f o r government concern and involvement w i t h v/ater supply and resource management. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t has been arranged tha t where v/ater systems are to be p r o v i d e d as a community s e r v i c e i n B . C . they must be designed i n accordance w i t h requirements as e s t a b l i s h e d by: (a) the Department o f Hea l th and the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. (b) the Department o f H e a l t h and the Water Resource S e r v i c e when an improvement d i s t r i c t has an a p p l i -cab le s u b d i v i s i o n by- law pursuant to the Water Act o r , (c) the Department o f Hea l th and the Department o f M u n i c i p a l Af fa i r s" ' - where a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t "has an a p p l i c a b l e by-lav/ s e t t i n g out the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f any ex tens ion to i t s community water system. THE PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION As the c o t t a g i n g and v a c a t i o n l o t phenomena i s p r i m a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d to p r i v a t e development w i t h i n unorganized areas ( l a c k -i n g e s t a b l i s h e d water supply s e rv i ce s ) the r e g u l a t i o n s , and s t a n -dards as p r e s c r i b e d by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission are most r e l e v a n t . Where a community v/ater supply i s s t i p u l a t e d as a c o n d i t i o n f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approval f o r example, the person or c o r p o r a t i o n i n t e n d i n g to cons t ruc t and operate such a system as 2 a p u b l i c u t i l i t y must o b t a i n a l i c e n c e ( c a l l e d a " c e r t i f i c a t e o f p u b l i c convenience and neces s i t y " ) from the Commission. T h i s 52 l i c e n s i n g procedure enables the Commission to r e g u l a t e proposed water supply systems by p r e s c r i b i n g minimum water s e r v i c i n g s t a n -dards and maintenance p r o v i s i o n s which must be met. Among the many c o n d i t i o n s or assurances the developer must p r o v i d e the Commission i n order to o b t a i n a l i c e n s e , i s evidence o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u f f i c i e n t and s u i t a b l e sources o f water supply and the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l means fo r con -s t r u c t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g proposed water supply systems over t ime . F u r t h e r , i n order to secure performance o f s t a t e d arrangements f o r water supp ly , the Commission may a l s o r e q u i r e tha t monies be set as ide to p r o v i d e a .source o f work ing c a p i t a l i n order to p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t i n i t i a l o p e r a t i n g expenses and con -<b t i n g e n c i e s , and as a s t imulus f o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t i n u i t y o f ope ra -3 t i o n . These measures have been e s p e c i a l l y in t roduced to m i n i -mize problems a r i s i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where l o t purchases were made by i n d i v i d u a l s or where zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n concess ions were granted by c o u n c i l s — o n the unders tanding tha t a water supply would be p r o v i d e d . In s i t u a t i o n s where the a p p l i c a n t proposes to take a supply o f water from a surface source l i c e n s a b l e under the Water A c t , such as a stream, l a k e , or s p r i n g , assurances must be p r o -v i d e d by the a p p l i c a n t tha t he has ob t a ined , o r i s i n a p o s i t i o n to o b t a i n , an adequate v/ater l i c e n s e . Where ground water i s to be used a copy o f the v / e l l d r i l l e r s l o g must be submit ted , t o -gether w i t h a copy o f a r epor t c e r t i f i e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l engineer 53 or groundwater g e o l o g i s t r e c o r d i n g w e l l t e s t r e s u l t s and c o n t a i n -i n g a c o n c l u s i o n as to the c a p a b i l i t y o f the source to p r o v i d e 4 a y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t to meet the in tended requirements , (ground v/ater i s not yet l i c e n s e d under the Water Act) . I t i s i n t e r e s -t i n g to note i n t h i s regard , tha t i n e v a l u a t i n g w e l l y i e l d s or sur face supply p o t e n t i a l s the source o f supply must be adequate to meet "maximum system demand". COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR WATER SUPPLY In r e c o g n i t i o n o f the many f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g water con -5 sumption the P . U . C . has w i s e l y dec ided to be f l e x i b l e but w i t h -i n l i m i t s , on the ques t ion o f water s e r v i c i n g s tandards . For r e -s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s i t i s the p o l i c y o f the Commission to ad-here to the f o l l o w i n g s tandards: TABLE 1 PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION POLICY STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY 6 CONSUMPTION RANGE: From 200 - 350 - 500 g . p . d . / l o t SOURCE: Capable o f supp ly ing t o t a l d a i l y consumption i n 24 hours STORAGE: 2/3 days requirement f o r the s u b d i v i s i o n or 10,000 g a l l o n s (whichever i s g r e a t e r ) . W i t h re ference to the above, i t i s important t o note t ha t : — these standards p e r t a i n o n l y to domestic water requirements which would i n c l u d e . s u c h water uses as d r i n k i n g , cook ing 54 TABLE 1 (con t 'd ) and washing, f l u s h i n g o f t o i l e t s , lawn and garden s p r i n k -l i n g , and water f o r c o o l i n g and f i r e f i g h t i n g . unless o therwise i n d i c a t e d , a l l g a l l o n s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s t h e s i s are Canadian g a l l o n s . (One I m p e r i a l g a l l o n i s e q u i -v a l e n t to 1.20 U . S . g a l l o n s . ) F u r t h e r , " g . p . d . " or " g . p . c . d . " are s tandard a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r g a l l o n s per day•or g a l l o n s per c a p i t a , day. The Commission would p r e f e r to have a developer p r o v i d e 500 g . p . d . / l o t and p rov ide f o r a peak d a i l y demand o f tw ice t h i s f i g u r e to s a t i s f y normal urban demands and c o n t i n g e n c i e s . Such a supply would meet p robable peak hour water demand which i s rough ly eaual to peak domestic demand p l u s " f i r e f l ow" (water 7 used i n f i g h t i n g a l o c a l f i r e ) . No twi ths t and ing such d e s i r e d s e r v i c i n g , lower standards w i l l be pe rmi t t ed : 350 g a l l o n s f o r ex-ample i s g e n e r a l l y cons idered adequate to meet most domestic r e -quirements throughout the yea r . Only under e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m -stances however i s the lower a l l o w a b l e l i m i t o f 200 g . p . d . / l o t a l lowed—but t h i s o n l y w i t h i n v a c a t i o n l o t areas where due to l i m i t a t i o n s i n water supply the h ighe r s tandards recommended can-not be economica l ly ach ieved . P iped i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c i n g and emergency s torage however i s always a b a s i c requirement . 55 THE NEED TO REVIEW EXISTING STANDARDS AND SERVICING POLICIES I t should be r e i t e r a t e d at t h i s p o i n t tha t the r e q u i r e -ments of the Commission apply o n l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where developers agree to p r o v i d e a community water supply system. In unorganised areas subjec t o n l y to p r o v i n c i a l s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , deve-l o p e r s are not compelled to p r o v i d e water supply i f l o t s c r ea t ed are over 18,000 square feet i n s i z e (p.179 ) . Consequently what-ever p r o v i s i o n s are made fo r water supply shor t o f a p i p e d d i s -t r i b u t i o n system as r ecogn ized by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, these systems (whether they be community s tandpipes r e l y i n g on w e l l s or o ther sources o f supply) w i l l not be subject to r e g u l a -t i o n — o t h e r than those normal ly imposed by the Department o f P u b l i c H e a l t h . Hence i f l a r g e l o t s are c rea ted^deve lopers , sub-j e c t p r i m a r i l y to market i n f l u e n c e s , are r e l a t i v e l y f ree to set whatever s tandards o f v/ater supply they cons ide r i s i n t h e i r bes t i n t e r e s t . On Hornby I s l a n d where a handful o f r e a l - e s t a t e groups have v i r t u a l monopoly over I s l a n d l o t s a l e s , s e v e r a l major com-pan ies have chosen to p rov ide o n l y a rudimentary l e v e l o f water s e r v i c i n g ; o thers no sex-vicing whatsoever . T h i s reason ing stems from a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : Most important i s the f a c t tha t the cos t of e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e l i a b l e water system i s a major under tak ing , c o s t i n g anywhere from $500 to more than $3,000 per g l o t . Fur thermore, where systems are e s t a b l i s h e d under the P u b l i c 56 U t i l i t i e s A c t , the re i s a compulsion to m a i n t a i n s e r v i c i n g u n t i l such t ime as a l o c a l improvement d i s t r i c t o r water u s e r s ' commu-n i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s may prove expensive to the developer i n these s p e c u l a t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s where few l o t s are s o l d and r e s i d e n t s refuse to take over management o f d e f e c i t systems. The second major reason g iven by developers i s tha t many p r o s p e c t i v e customers f o r v a c a t i o n l o t s on Hornby do not appear to be i n t e r e s t e d i n a h i g h s tandard o f water supply s e r -v i c e s , not because they cannot a f f o r d them, but because they choose not t o . Many were not f e l t to have any d e f i n i t e r e s i d e n -t i a l p l a n s o ther than shor t term camping or co t tage use. R e t i r e -ment p l a n s were cons ide red to foe nebulous a l s o (see Chapter 6 ) . Fo r these reasons p r i m a r i l y , deve lopers on Hornby I s -l and have emphasized the need to rev iew " c o t t a g i n g " and v a c a -t i o n l o t requirements f o r water supp ly . These are f e l t neces-sary i n order p r o v i n c i a l s tandards be based upon l o c a l needs r a t h e r than upon " a r b i t r a r y urban s tandards" which r e q u i r e "over de s ign" to meet s i t u a t i o n s which may never occur—or be d e s i r e d to o c c u r . ( T r a n s i t i o n to year around re s idence f o r example) . R e c e n t l y a l s o , a number o f l o c a l governmental depa r t -ments have become ra the r f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to demand s e r v i c i n g o f developers (p . 234) or to p resen t reasoned a rgu-ments as t o what k i n d o f s e r v i c e s should be p r o v i d e d i n r u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . A d m i t t e d l y , a c h i e f problem i n t h i s regard i s the 57 l a c k o f knowledge concern ing the l i k e l y use and p o t e n t i a l deve lop-ment o f v a c a t i o n l o t areas—as w e l l as t h e i r a b i l i t y f o r s o l v i n g v/ater problems as they a r i s e . The argument f o r rudimentary standards o f water s e r v i -c i n g was r e c e n t l y put forward i n a water f e a s i b i l i t y study o f v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s on Hornby I s l a n d . T h i s survey, v o l u n -9 t a r i l y performed at the request o f the M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , concluded tha t due : to the u n l i k e l y prospect o f the I s l a n d a t t r a c -t i n g year around r e s i d e n t s , an al lowance o f 75 g .p . day per l o t 10 " w i l l p r o v i d e ample v/ater f o r these developments". A c c o r d i n g l y , the above s u b d i v i s i o n s were r e g i s t e r e d on t h i s b a s i s . In view o f the f a c t tha t s i m i l a r . s t u d i e s c o u l d j u s t as w e l l have i n d i c a t e d tha t 25 or 10 g . p . d . / l o t were cons ide red su f -f i c i e n t f o r fu tu re development, or even have concluded tha t a l o -c a l source o f water supply i s not necessary f o r the in tended de-velopment ( a l t e r n a t e sources such a s • r a i n - w a t e r c i s t e r n s or tank t r u c k systems c o u l d s u f f i c e i f and when requi red) would suggest tha t some r e a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f water supply needs and supply sources would be d e s i r a b l e — i f not f o r s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l than at l e a s t from a des ign p o i n t o f view-. I t would i n e i t h e r case he lp to subdue some o f the con t rove r sy which has a r i s e n l a t e l y over the wisdom of p e r m i t t i n g l a r g e s c a l e s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n r e c r e a t i o n a l areas where scarce ground and surface water r e sources have not been developed—much l e s s proven to e x i s t . 58 In view o f the fo rego ing , what are " a c t u a l " water supply needs which w i l l p r o v i d e reasonable user s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n v a -c a t i o n l o t areas? In order to aaswer t h i s ques t ion i t w i l l be necessary f i r s t , t o examine the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g water demand and determine t h e i r r e l evance w i t h i n v a c a t i o n a reas . (Es -t ima ted household requirements a f f ec t ed by a v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m -stances sur rounding v a c a t i o n l o t use w i l l f o l l o w t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ) . FACTORS INFLUENCING WATER CONSUMPTION There are a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g domestic water consumption. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each must be recogn ised i f water needs are to be s a t i s f i e d i n a most economic manner. S i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n water usuage may be observed due to d i f -ferences i n : 1. Standard o f l i v i n g and a s s o c i a t e d use o f water con -suming a p p l i a n c e s . 2. Nature o f occupancy and use o f . p r o p e r t y . 3. Q u a l i t y or p r o p e r t i e s of wate r . 4 . C l i m a t e . 5. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e ( a l t e r n a t e water s u p p l i e s ) . 6. Presence o f sewerage or s e p t i c systems. 7. Extent o f metered supply and cos t o f water . 8. Nature o f d i s t r i b u t i o n systems. 59 In a d d i t i o n to the above f a c t o r s , i t should be p o i n t e d out tha t "normal" v a r i a t i o n s i n demand a r i s i n g p r i m a r i l y from seasona l , d a i l y and h o u r l y f l u c t u a t i o n s i n household a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as water needs f o r lawn s p r i n k l i n g and such c o n t i n g e n c i e s as f i r e f i g h t i n g , and a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g must a l s o be cons ide red . The f o l l o w i n g i s an examinat ion o f a l l these f a c t o r s i n t u r n : STANDARD OF LIVING AND ASSOCIATED USE OF WATER CONSUMING APPLIANCES I t i s a w e l l acknowledged f ac t t ha t i nc r ea sed standards o f l i v i n g are synonomous w i t h i nc rea sed v/ater usuage. In the underdeveloped na t ions f o r example i t i s es t imated tha t the per c a p i t a water consumption fo r a l l purposes—domest ic , a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l i s about e igh t g a l l o n s a day. In the U . S . by 11 c o n t r a s t i t i s about 1440 g a l l o n s . W h i l e i t i s r ecognised tha t the minimum l i f e needs o f humans i s q u i t e s m a l l — ( p r i m i t i v e man was able to get by e a s i l y on l e s s than a g a l l o n a day f o r d r i n k i n g and cooking) l i f e i n " t e c h n o l o g i c a l " s o c i e t i e s demands a great dea l more. Today f o r example average domestic water consumption i s approximate ly 40 g a l l o n s pe r c a p i t a and r ang ing from a low o f 10-12 g a l l o n s pe r person i n slum areas to a h i g h o f over 120 g a l l o n s per day i n 12 e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a reas . Many co t tage s u b d i v i s i o n s p o r t r a y a s i m i l a r range o f water consumption p a t t e r n s . 60 The trend towards increased water use i s most e v i -dent i n North American Society; a trend which can be expected to continue as l i v i n g standards r i s e and water can continue to 13 be obtained i n an economic fashion. As a matter of i n t e r e s t current studies have shown that water use i n North American c i t i e s continues to surpass population growth by about 10% per 14 year. The most dramatic increases i n per capita water con-sumption however can be expected within the many developing vaca-t i o n areas. Here the demand for such urban "conveniences" as dishwasters, home laundries, garbage grinders, water cooled a i r conditioners, lawn sprinklers and even swimming pools can be expected to become most pronounced. This i s attributed i n part to the current d i s p a r i t y i n services provided and the rapid emer-gance of a new breed of "vacationer"—the "comfort cottager" and the p o t e n t i a l year around resident, both of whom are attracted to the more f u l l y serviced subdivisions which have the p o t e n t i a l for developing into permanent year around communities. NATURE OF OCCUPANCY AND USE OF PROPERTY Closely r e l a t e d to l i v i n g standards are the a c t i v i t y aspects of home occupancy. These may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t within vacation areas as cottages tend to be used by proportion-ately larger family groupings over much shorter periods of time. Because cottages provide a convenient "home base" from which to 61 engage i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s one would expect i nc rea sed water consumption due to the use o f showers and ba ths . Such vise " c o u l d be pronounced w i t h i n r eg ions where s a l t water swimming i s the major a c t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the c o t t a g i n g " l i f e s t y l e " o f t en i m p l i e s a change o f r o u t i n e : Short v i s i t s f o r example s e l -dom n e c e s s i t a t e c l o t h e s washing, o r lawn s p r i n k l i n g . These f a c -t o r s must be cons ide red i n v a c a t i o n areas i f a case f o r r u d i -mentary water s e r v i c i n g i s to be made. QUALITY OR PROPERTIES OF WATER We o f ten hear the express ion "as pure and t a s t e f u l as s p r i n g wa te r " . I t i s a m i s l e a d i n g express ion i n tha t no water i s a b s o l u t e l y pure i n nature and i f i t were; i t c e r t a i n l y w o u l d n ' t t a s t e good. Whenever we d i s t i n g u i s h water s u i t a b l e f o r domestic purposes , we u s u a l l y imply water tha t i s bo th safe to d r i n k and g e n e r a l l y p l easan t to our senses o f s i g h t and smel l as w e l l as t a s t e . T h i s water w i l l u s u a l l y c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y o f suspended i m p u r i t i e s ( b a c t e r i a a lgae , p ro tozoa and s i l t ) and d i s s o l v e d c o n s t i t u e n t s (va r ious m i n e r a l s a l t s and gases ) . Whi l e there are d e f i n i t e a l l owab le l i m i t s to the q u a l i t y o f waters which may be d i s t r i b u t e d fo r p u b l i c consumption i n B . C . i t i s apparent tha t a cons ide rab l e v a r i a t i o n i n water q u a l i t y i s p e r m i t t e d . A f t e r a l l , apart from p u b l i c h e a l t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s what people want to d r i n k and use i s u l t i m a t e l y t h e i r own bus ines s . 62 W i t h i n areas such as the G u l f I s l ands where persons may of ten be confronted w i t h h i g h l y m i n e r a l i z e d water , these sources w i l l tend to be used o n l y f o r washing and lawn s p r i n k l i n g purposes . The use o f "dua l " systems f o r household supply as w i l l subsequent ly be shown, g e n e r a l l y enables the u t i l i z a t i o n o f these secondary sources w i t h l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l consumption as o n l y a smal l amount o f water i s used fo r d r i n k i n g and c o o k i n g . CLIMATE Al though t h i s f a c t o r may a l s o be cons ide red a "normal" v a r i a t i o n i n tha t seasonal changes b r i n g about d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i -t i e s i n n e a r l y a l l a reas , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n water con-sumption may a l s o be observed between areas because o f d i f f e r -ences i n the degree o f c l i m a t i c change. As might be expected the g rea tes t use o f water i s d u r i n g the h o t t e s t and d r i e s t p o r -t i o n o f the summer; no tab ly J u l y and August when a d d i t i o n a l wa-t e r f o r lawn s p r i n k l i n g , a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t s and swimming or wading p o o l s i s r e q u i r e d . Dur ing the w i n t e r months i n B . C . , water consumption i s unders tandably decreased. Th i s r e s u l t a n t p a t t e r n i n season-a l v/ater consumption i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 3. Mote tha t water consumption d u r i n g the peak summer months i s n e a r l y four t imes as great as du r ing the w i n t e r months. In c o l d e r c l i m a t e s such 63 as found i n the Winnipeg a rea , minor seasonal peaks may a l s o o c -cur du r ing January and February when water i s run to waste i n order to keep household s e r v i c e s and p ipes from f r e e z i n g . Fo r purposes o f e s t i m a t i n g p o t e n t i a l water consumption, the G u l f I s l ands can be cons ide red as hav ing a c l i m a t e s i m i l a r t o tha t o f south-western Vancouver or V i c t o r i a . Seasonal v a -r i a t i o n s as d e p i c t e d i n Table 3 would the re fo re be most r e l e -van t . I t i s important t o note a l s o tha t the p e r i o d o f most i n -tense v a c a t i o n l o t use on the I s l a n d c o i n c i d e s w i t h the p e r i o d o f maximum demand, the "summer drought" . AVAILABILITY OF PRIVATE (ALTERNATE) WATER SUPPLIES P r i v a t e sources o f water supply may be used to augment p u b l i c or community sources . W i t h i n many c i t i e s f o r example, commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l concerns w i l l o f t en f i n d i t t o t h e i r advantage to develop s p e c i a l water sources independent o f pub-l i c s u p p l i e s i n order to s a t i s f y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. The use o f p r i v a t e l y developed ground water i s most common i n s i t u -a t i o n s where c o o l water i s r e q u i r e d f o r a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g purpo-ses . In r u r a l areas r a i n water c o l l e c t e d from r o o f s , or water hau led i n by t r u c k and s to red i n " c i s t e r n s may p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l water du r ing the summer when water systems are unable to meet inc reased l o c a l demands. 64 The use o f "dual systems'" i s a l s o becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y popu la r i n areas where p o t a b l e sources o f water supply are d i f -f i c u l t to o b t a i n . On Hornby I s l a n d f o r example, s a l t water has been used by one r e s o r t opera tor f o r t o i l e t f l u s h i n g purposes . As many cot tages f ron t on s a l t v/ater, or are able to tap r e l i a b l e sources o f b r a c k i s h water by d r i l l i n g deep w e l l s , the use o f such h i g h l y m i n e r a l i z e d waters fo r o ther than d r i n k i n g , cook ing and washing purposes may become an i r r e s i s t a b l e t empta t ion . (Problems i n d i s c h a r g i n g such waters however may l i m i t use un less s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s are t a k e n ) . These and o ther arrangements as w i l l be shown (Chapter 5) p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s to t r a d i t i o n a l no t i ons o f v/ater supply development w i t h i n v a c a t i o n l o t areas such as Hornby which are p lagued by a shortage o f surface and groundwater r e -sources . PRESENCE OF SEWERAGE OR SEPTIC SYSTEMS N a t i o n a l s t ud i e s have shown tha t areas r e l y i n g upon s e p t i c tanks have lower consumption r a t e s than those areas s e r -v i c e d w i t h sewers: "Consumers apparen t ly use l e s s e r amounts o f water f o r domestic purposes because o f concern tha t t h e i r under-16 ground d i s p o s a l systems w i l l r e q u i r e more frequent c l e a n i n g " . Consequent ly , i n t r o d u c t i o n o f sewers i n t o such areas , has been 17 known to i nc rease water consumption by as much as 25%. 65 The swi tchover from p i t p r i v i e s or cesspoo l s to sep-t i c tanks ( the most l i k e l y occurance w i t h i n v a c a t i o n areas o f the G u l f I s l ands ) could i nc rease water consumption even more s i g -n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d to the f ac t p i p e d systems are u s u a l l y accompanied by the f u l l range o f indoor plumbing f a c i l i -t i e s . But p e r h a p s , a l s o by the mere removal o f the p h y s i c a l i f not p s y c h o l o g i c a l " i m p a s s e " o f hav ing to empty a s lop p a i l or worry about where the next s i n k f u l l o f water w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d r a i n under the house, w i l l cause s u b s t a n t i a l l y g rea te r volumes of water to be used. (Tables 6 and 7 i n d i c a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c consumption r a t e s expected f o r areas served by s e p t i c sys tems) . EXTENT OP METERED SUPPLY AND COST OF WATER I n c r e a s i n g the p r i c e o f water i s r ecogn ized as a method o f c u r t a i l i n g water use i n in s t ances where water i s metered. But t h i s s t r a t egy i s not a popular one and i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to water use i n excess o f normal domestic needs ( to achieve r e -duc t ions i n lawn s p r i n k l i n g and misce l l aneous house washing ac-t i v i t i e s f o r example.) In l a r g e r c i t i e s f o r example, where per c a p i t a water consumption i n c l u d e s not on ly domestic uses but i n -d u s t r i a l , commercia l , and p u b l i c uses as w e l l , me te r ing has been observed to reduce consumption by as much as 50%. At the same t ime i t i s a l s o admit ted tha t w h i l e meter ing may s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce water consumption i n i t i a l l y , " there i s a tendency f o r con-18 sumption to i nc rease g r a d u a l l y . . . " t h e r e a f t e r . 66 Perhaps the g rea tes t impact mete r ing has on water use i s i n a c h i e v i n g r educ t ions i n peak demand caused by s p r i n k l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . As w i l l be shown these v a r i a t i o n s can be c o n s i d e r -able and the expense i n c u r r e d i n d e s i g n i n g community water s y s -tems to meet a l l demand con t ingenc i e s may be unreasonable . The expense o f i n s t a l l i n g and read ing meter ing systems to check "un-reasonable" consumption may o f t en be p r o h i b i t i v e i f not unneces-sa ry a l s o . W i t h i n sma l l d i s t r i b u t i o n systems f o r example, mem-bers may v o l u n t a r i l y l i m i t water consumption or extend i t more evenly throughout the day, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they are made to r e -cognize t h i s p r a c t i c e o f water c o n s e r v a t i o n to be i n t h e i r o v e r -19 a l l bes t i n t e r e s t . NATURE OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Of a l l the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g water consumption, the method by which water i s d i s t r i b u t e d to the household i s by f a r the most impor tan t—This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e . for v a c a t i o n areas where a v a r i e t y o f d i s t r i b u t i o n systems may be observed; v/ater p i p e d from a community source to i n d i v i d u a l l o t s , c e n t r a l com-munity stand p i p e s where water i s c a r r i e d or t r ucked to each l o t , or i n d i v i d u a l water supply systems u t i l i z i n g w e l l s , r a i n water or o ther surface sources ( s to red on s i t e i n c i s t e r n s or i n moveable c o n t a i n e r s ) . The major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g fea tu re of 67 these systems w i t h respec t to water consumption i s e s s e n t i a l l y the ease or convenience w i t h which water i s ob ta ined for; use. What t h i s r e a l l y i m p l i e s i s the amount o f water or p ressure which i s made a v a i l a b l e at the t ime and p l a c e demanded. For t h i s reason, the v a r i o u s water consumption es t imates g iven i n t h i s chapter are b a s i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the type o f water d i s t r i b u t i o n systems employed. NORMAL VARIATIONS IN DEMAND For des ign purposes i t i s not merely s u f f i c i e n t to know how much water w i l l be demanded on a y e a r l y b a s i s but how t h i s demand v a r i e s over t ime . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s a water system i s judged on i t s ' a b i l i t y to supply water d u r i n g £>eriods o f peak demand. The - fo l lowing i s a d i s c u s s i o n and rev iew o f peak monthly, d a i l y and h o u r l y v a r i a t i o n s i n demand which can be expected w i t h i n most b u i l t up r e s i d e n t i a l areas: Peak monthly d em arid as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i s c o i n c i -dent .wi th the months of l e a s t r a i n f a l l and g rea tes t evapora t ion l o s s — J u l y and August . Dur ing these months i t i s not uncommon f o r consumption i n a r i d areas to ' i n c r e a s e from 3 to 4 t imes the 20 minimum average fo r a w i n t e r month. N e a r l y a l l o f t h i s i n -crease i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d lawn s p r i n k l i n g and where a p p l i c a b l e , a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g . 68 Peak d a i l y demand "between summer and w i n t e r months may va ry even more g r e a t l y than peak monthly demands. I n a d d i -t i o n to changes i n s p r i n k l i n g and c o o l i n g needs occas ioned by d a i l y weather changes, v a r i a t i o n s i n water consumptions w i l l a l -so r e f l e c t changing household a c t i v i t i e s . Mondays f o r example are t y p i c a l wash days w i t h i n year around r e s idences ; w h i l e i n v a c a t i o n areas peak water consumption can be expected on week-end s. Hour ly v a r i a t i o n s are most pronounced i n tha t they are not on ly a r e f l e c t i o n o f a l l the above f a c t o r s but a l s o v a r i a -t i o n s i n water consumption due to r e g u l a r r o u t i n e s people have f o r e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , washing and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Re-search on urban r e s i d e n t i a l water consumption p a t t e r n s i n the 21 UiiS. by the Department o f Housing and Urban Development, has r e s u l t e d i n the es tabl i shment o f the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r - r e l a t i o n -sh ips between peak monthly, d a i l y and h o u r l y demand, ( these are suggested f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas where records o f water supply are u n a v a i l a b l e and the normal range o f urban water s e r v i c e s are t o be p r o v i d e d ) . — an average monthly demand o f 80 g . p . c . d . and 4 persons per d w e l l i n g u n i t (320 g . p . d . / d w e l l i n g u n i t ) . — maximum d a i l y demand o f 200% of average demand (640 g . p . d . / d w e l l i n g u n i t ) . — maximum h o u r l y demand o f 500% of average demand or 1600 g a l l o n s ("except i n areas where ' e x t e n s i v e ' lawn ' i r r i -g a t i o n ' is .commonly p r a c t i c e d , and then a r a t e o f 700% or more o f the average d a i l y demand i s recommended"). 69 FIRS DEMAND The p r o v i s i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t water supply f o r l o c a l f i r e f i g h t i n g needs may a l s o be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the des ign o f l o c a l water systems. As emergency demands are un-p r e d i c t a b l e i t i s next to i m p o s s i b l e to des ign systems which w i l l p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t water supply to meet a l l c o n t i n g e n c i e s . In most c i rcumstances the volume o f water used i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , but "the r a t e at which i t must be s u p p l i e d i s h i g h and becomes o f de te rmin ing i n f l u e n c e i n the de s ign o f smal l community water 22 systems". In Nor th America water requirements f o r f i r e p r o t e c -t i o n are normal ly based on standards as recommended by the N a t i o n a l Board o f F i r e Insurance U n d e r w r i t e r s . These standards are very s t r i n g e n t and few communities are able to achieve the r e q u i r e -ments o f f lows and s to rage . For r e s i d e n t i a l areas tha t are o n l y 1/3 b u i l t up f o r example, a minimum of 400 g .p .m. emergency sup-23 p l y i s r e q u i r e d , and hydrants p r o v i d i n g at l e a s t 30 p s i . are recommended spaced no more than 350 fee t apa r t . Higher s tandards are r e q u i r e d as d e n s i t i e s and b u i l d i n g he igh t s are i n c r e a s e d . Areas not meeting Board requirements are p e n a l i z e d i n terms o f h igher f i r e insurance r a t e s . I n those r e c r e a t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s to be found on Den-man and Hornby I s l ands the need to des ign water systems f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g i s not u s u a l l y necessary , p r o v i d e d modern pumper f i r e 70 t r u c k s o f s u f f i c i e n t c a p a c i t y are a v a i l a b l e and s t a t i c sources o f water supply are i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . A "500 g a l l o n " pumper f o r example can d e l i v e r a j e t o f around 60-95 g .p .m. f o r p e r i o d s o f between 5 to 9 minutes . T h i s i s u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t to q u e l l 24 most house f i r e s . However, i f two t r u c k s are a v a i l a b l e a con -ven ien t s h u t t l e s e r v i c e may be p o s s i b l e . In e i t h e r case , should more water be r e q u i r e d then tha t c a r r i e d and access to l a k e , r i -ve r or sea water be p o s s i b l e , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l no rmal ly be weighed aga ins t use o f l o c a l hydrants or stem p i p e s ( v i r t u a l l y any s t a t i c o r p ressu re source can and w i l l be used by pumpers p rov ided i t i s a c c e s s i b l e ) . On Hornby, where p o t e n t i a l w e l l systems are o f low y i e l d (averag ing c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than 20 g.p.m.) the use o f sea water w i l l tend to be r e l i e d upon unless emergency water s torage requirements as proposed by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commis-s i o n are adhered to and necessary hydrants or c ro s s - connec t i ons p r o v i d e d . Because "pressure" sources are cons ide red to be expen-s i v e i f not i m p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g i n these I s l a n d s , these water requirements w i l l not be i n c l u d e d i n the "des ign" es t imates f o r water s e r v i c i n g to be subsequent ly p r o -posed by the w r i t e r . 71 OUTDOOR SPRINKLING ACTIVITIES AND AIR CONDITIONING Two f a c t e r s o f p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s e m i - a r i d v a c a t i o n areas are lawn s p r i n k l i n g and the use o f water coo l ed a i r c o n d i t i o n e r s . Both are observed to use s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f water . OUTDOOR SPRINKLING In a recent study o f r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the U . S . i t was shown tha t the s p r i n k l i n g l o a d c o u l d c o n s t i t u t u e as much as 75% of the t o t a l d a i l y volume o f water demanded and as much as 25 80% of the peak h o u r l y demand. T h i s s tudy by Geyer f u r t h e r r evea l ed tha t homes w i t h l a r g e lawns g e n e r a l l y consumed about, tw ice as much water per c a p i t a as d i d .homes wi thou t lawns. An i n s i g h t i n t o the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f water consumed by outdoor s p r i n k l i n g and misce l l aneous washing a c t i v i t i e s can be gained by comparing w i n t e r and summer consump-t i o n . Us ing t h i s procedure f o r a suburban f a m i l y o f f i v e i n the V i c t o r i a area and assuming tha t normal indoor water uses account f o r 190 g .p . / househo ld day, (average consumption from November to February) then as much as 69% of the t o t a l water con-sumed d u r i n g J u l y and August can be a t t r i b u t e d to outdoor s p r i n k -l i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( r e f e r to Table 3 ) . Th i s i s observed to inc rease o v e r a l l water consumption d u r i n g the peak summer months by more 26 than three times the minimum winter' figure. This would sugges that s i g n i f i c a n t reductions i n demand could be achieved i f lawn spr i n k l i n g was not permitted. AIR CONDITIONING While the a i r conditioning "fad" has not yet reached s i g n i f i c a n t proportions i n Vancouver (as opposed many comparable American c i t i e s ) r e s i d e n t i a l sales are constantly increasing. The basic concern i n resort areas however i s that the introduc-27 t i o n of "pipe to drain" a i r conditioners--even by one house-hold could seriously disrupt small community water supply re-sources. The d i s t i n c t i o n "pipe to drain" i s most important since there are a var i e t y of water cooled a i r conditioners on the market which do not consume nearly as much v/ater. As i t i s usually to the advantage of the customer to purchase a water consuming unit (these units usually cost less to buy, require l e s s space to i n s t a l l , and are more e f f e c t i v e under conditions of extremely hot weather) government r e s t r i c t i o n s have been applied to discourage t h e i r use where problems of l o c a l v/ater supply or thermal p o l l u t i o n are of p o t e n t i a l concern. (In the Vancouver area water cooled a i r conditioning systems are permit-ted only i f metered separately and even then, a l i m i t of 9 U.S. gallons per minute has been.imposed on. t h e i r use)'. 73 An i n d i c a t i o n o f the amount o f water these systems are capable o f u s i n g can be grasped by the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s : I t was es t imated tha t the water r e q u i r e d to a i r c o n d i t i o n a modern 1200 square foot home d u r i n g average summer c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d 28 e a s i l y exceed 2,000 g a l l o n s per day. T h i s i s e q u i v i l e n t to the average d a i l y indoor requirements o f at l e a s t 20 homes. I t must f u r t h e r be p o i n t e d out tha t such a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g demands are not l i m i t e d to summer months a lone . S o l a r h e a t i n g as en-couraged by ex tens ive use o f g l a s s and house o r i e n t a t i o n to sun-l i g h t may n e c e s s i t a t e c o o l i n g even on days when o u t s i d e a i r temperature may be w e l l below 70 degrees F . Hence c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f water may be consumed throughout the y e a r . ESTIMATED USSR REQUIREMENTS Because many f a c t o r s and ex tenua t ing c i rcumstance a f -fee t water consumption p a t t e r n s i t i s most d i f f i c u l t to make any broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s as to fu ture requi rements . T h i s i s espe-c i a l l y so because i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the amount of water r e -q u i r e d (over and above b a s i c requirements) i s g e n e r a l l y a r e -f l e c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s ' d e s i r e s to pay f o r the convenience o f hav ing s u f f i c i e n t water under a wide v a r i e t y o f c i r cumstances . Neve r the l e s s , water consumption records such as the f o l l o w i n g , p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o p o t e n t i a l p a t t e r n s of water con -74 sumption. These may be compared to r e l evan t water p l a n n i n g " s i t u a t i o n s " . TABLE 2 RESIDENTIAL WATER CONSUMPTION IN 39 STUDY AREAS 29 OF THE U . S . 2 Consumption M & PS* M &. PS F R & P S M & ST Apartment West Eas t West Eas t East ( U . S . g a l l o n s / d a y / d w e l l i n g un i t ) Average annual 458 301 692 245 191 Average annual -" in-house" 247 207 236 191 157 Average summer " s p r i n k l i n g " * * 387 185 1012 125 Maximum day s p r i n k l i n g 707 556 2083 523 Peak hour s p r i n k l i n g 2076 1534 4812 1583 * M = metered; PS = p u b l i c sewer; FR = f l a t r a t e ; ST = s e p t i c tank ** " s p r i n k l i n g " does not i n c l u d e indoor water consumption Water consumption records f o r a f a m i l y o f f i v e i n the suburban V i c t o r i a area are presen ted on the f o l l o w i n g page. The house was connected to sewer and the water supply was metered. Note the wide v a r i a t i o n i n v/ater use obse rv ieed throughout the y e a r — m u c h o f i t caused by ex t ens ive lawn s p r i n k l i n g d u r i n g the summer months. 75 TABLE 3 "SPRINKLING" AS A PROPORTION OF OVERALL SUBURBAN WATER CONSUMPTION PERIOD 30 WATER CONSUMPTION VICTORIA AREA TOTAL GAL. GAL. /DAY,* GAL./MONTH EST. SPRINKLING ACTIVITIES 3 1 J a n . - Feb. (8 year record) 12,000 March - A p r i l (6 year record) 16,000 May - June 26,800 (7 ear record) J u l y - Aug. (7 year record) 39,750 Sept . Oc t . (4 year record) 18,500 Nov. - Dec. (5 year record) 10,700 204 254 440 640 302 176 6,000 8,000 13,000 20,000 9,000 5,000 12% 21% 55% 69% 34% 0% Average Weekly F a m i l y Consumption Peak Summer Month 5,000 g a l . Lowest Win te r Month 1,500 g a l . Average D a i l y Fami ly Consumption Peak Summer Month . Lowest Win te r Month 640 g a l . 240 g a l . 76 ESTIMATED REQUIREMENTS WITHIN VACATION AREAS As previously indicated i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make any predictions concerning water consumption unless s p e c i f i c factors or conditions a f f e c t i n g v/ater consumption are known. In deter-mining water consumption for resort areas i t becomes quickly apparent that three major d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made. Water user needs can be distinguished on the basis of: (1) the t r a d i t i o n a l cottager or "frontiersman" dedicated to the pursuit of a r u s t i c l i f e s t y l e within r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped vacation areas, (ascribing to the "Daniel Boon" e t h i c ) . (2) the "comfort cottager" with "intermediate" se r v i c i n g requirements. (3) the "luxury cottager" or p o t e n t i a l year around r e s i -dent requesting the f u l l complement of urban services and amenities. While i t i s admitted that t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s somewhat a r t i f i c i a l i n view of the fact cottage areas tend to be a mix-ture of a l l three " l i f e s t y l e s " , i t must nevertheless be conceed-ed that for a given period i n time average user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as described above can usually be observed. What i s more impor-tant however, i s that each of these "stereo-types" can be asso- / ciated with a v a r i e t y of inter-dependent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which 77 are capable o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o d i s t i n c t i v e s e r v i c i n g s tandards . Of u n d e r l y i n g concern a l s o , - is t ha t p l anne r s are o f t en concerned w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s i n d e s i r e d l i f e s t y l e s wherever these can be de f ined p a r t i c u l a r l y s i nce unexpected changes may d i s r u p t p r e v a i l i n g p a t t e r n s o f c o t t a g i n g or l and use. For t h i s reason p r i m a r i l y , i t i s f e l t tha t t h i s attempt to segregate v a -c a t i o n l o t users on the above b a s i s i s not o n l y j u s t i f i a b l e from water des ign s tandpoint but u s e f u l i n a l and use p l a n n i n g contex t a l s o . Le t us now d i s c u s s the ..water' needs o f each i n t u r n : THE "RUSTIC" COTTAGER I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e groups o f l o t owners or co t t age r s who p ro fess to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h b a -s i c water s e r v i c e s . These preferences are u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n s p a r s e l y popula ted or remote r e c r e a t i o n areas where e i t h e r the cos t of p r o v i d i n g community s e r v i c e s would be exces s ive o r where i t i s f e l t tha t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h igher l e v e l s o f s e r -v i c i n g would a t t r a c t more peop le , thereby i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s to a degree which would s u b s t a n t i a l l y impa i r the r e c r e a t i o n a l exper i ence . As no .form o f p i p e d d i s t r i b u t i o n system i s developed (water u s u a l l y be ing c a r r i e d or t rucked i n from p r i v a t e or pub-l i c sources ou t s ide the house) water consumption tends to be q u i t e modest. A c c o r d i n g l y the use o f f l u s h t o i l e t s and shower f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not o r d i n a r i l y be p o s s i b l e . Lawn s p r i n k l i n g i s o f course out o f the q u e s t i o n . W i t h these c o n s t r a i n t s i n mind minimal water needs as es t imated fo r an average ' s days a c t i v i -t i e s and an average weeks' s tay fo r a f a m i l y o f four are e s t i m a -t e d by the w r i t e r as f o l l o w s : TABLE 4 "BASIC" WATER REQUIREMENTS (Fami ly o f Four) USE DAILY CONSUMPTION WEEKLY CONSUMPTION DRINKING 2 g . 14 g. COOKING AND KITCHEN 3 - 5 g . 2 1 - 3 5 g . ABLUTIONS 5 - 12g. 35 - 84 g . DISWASHING 5 - 8 g . 35 - 56 g . CLOTHES WASHING 2 - 4 g . 14 - 28 g . MISCELLANEOUS WASHING 1 - 3 g . 7 - 21 g . T o t a l Weekly Consumption 126 - 224 g . D a i l y F a m i l y Consumption 18 - 32 g . Per C a p i t a D a i l y Consumption 4 .5 - 8 g . 79 THE "COMFORT" (ECONOMY - MINDED) COTTAGER T h i s ca tegory o f cot tage owners i s by f a r the most com-mon. A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g fea ture i s the d e s i r e f o r even tua l p r o v i -s i o n o f f u l l indoor plumbing f a c i l i t i e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f year around r e s idency . F a c i l i t i e s p r e s e n t l y d e s i r e d u s u a l l y i n c l u d e showers and s i n k f i x t u r e s w i t h hot running water and o f t e n , but not n e c e s s a r i l y , ba th tubs and f l u s h t o i l e t s . These f a c i l i t i e s o f course imply p iped w a t e r - s e r v i c i n g w i t h water d i s t r i b u t e d to the fawcett e i t h e r d i r e c t from a c e n t r a l p r e s s u r i z e d source or d i s t r i b u t e d by pe r sona l i n i t i a t i v e f o r on s i t e s torage i n c i s -t e rns to be used where r e q u i r e d . Lawn s p r i n k l i n g i s seldom pos -s i b l e as systems tend to be rudimentary i n des ign and c a p a c i t y , none f o r example would p r o v i d e f o r emergency f i r e f l o w s — p r e v i -o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f es t imated requirements f o r a v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n i n the G u l f I s l ands (where s a l t water swimming i s engaged i n ) . Note the f i r s t e s t i -mate r e f e r s to "average" domest ic .water consumption expected. I t aprolies to households served by a f u l l compliment o f indoor plumbing f a c i l i t i e s and r e l y i n g upon s e p t i c tanks (p iped s e r v i -c i n g i m p l i e d ) . The second es t imate d e p i c t s the water needs o f households which do not have e i t h e r a ba th tub nor f l u s h t o i l e t . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f both es t imates i s t ha t they are based on the v/ater needs o f householders who are consc ious o f the need to con-serve water . TABLE 5 33 "INTERMEDIATE" SUMMER WATER REQUIREMENTS (Family of Four) USE AVERAGE CONSUMPTION EST. WEEKLY CONSUMPTION CHARACTERISTICS MINIMUM AVERAGE DRINKING @ h. g./person/day 14 g. 14 g. COOKING & KITCHEN DISHWASHING DAILY ABLUTIONS BATHS SHOWERS CLOTHES WASHING 3 times a day @ 1/3 g. /meal 3 times/day @ 4 g./wash 1 - 2 g./person/day 1 bath/person @ 30 g. each bath 3 - 5 "f i v e min. quick-ies "/person/week <B 20 g. per shower 1 - 2 "ringer" loads/ wk. @ 15 g./load MISCELLANEOUS WASH-ING (House i n t e r -i o r s , exterior win-dows, wash tubs, car, others) 2 - 1 0 min. tap run/ day @ 4 g.p.m. TOILET SPRINKLING LAWNS avg. 4 flushes/person/ day @ 4 g./flush 28 g. 50 g. 28 g. N i l 240 g. 15 g. 50 g. N i l N i l 28 g. 84 g. 56 g. 120 g. 400 g. 30 g. 280 g. 448 g. N i l TOTAL WEEKLY CONSUMPTION 425 g. DAILY FAMILY CONSUMPTION 84 g. PER CAPITA DAILY CONSUMPTION 21 g. 1460 g. 208 g. 52 g. 81 THE "LUXURY" COTTAGER OR YEAR AROUND "RESIDENT" T h i s c l a s s o f v a c a t i o n l o t user i s a t t r a c t e d to areas which pe rmi t a h i g h s tandard o f water s e r v i c i n g which w i l l en-able- him to enjoy a l l the usua l conveniences and a c t i v i t i e s which are a p a r t o f normal urban l i v i n g . An important p r e - r e -q u i s i t e f o r such a l i f e s t y l e o f course i s an u n r e s t r i c t e d sup-p l y o f domestic v/ater supp ly . (Th is has been recogn ized i n many o f the new "second home" v a c a t i o n communities such as B lock B r o t h e r ' s 108 m i l e Ranch i n the Car iboo which c a t e r s to the growing market f o r seasonal c o t t a g i n g and re t i r ement l i v i n g ) . Water requirements are s i m i l a r to those p r e v i o u s l y d i scus sed except f o r the f a c t tha t s p r i n k l i n g a c t i v i t i e s are u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the nature and magnitude o f water consumption which can be expected i n areas where ex t en -s i v e s p r i n k l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s engaged i n i s p r o v i d e d by the f o l -l owing resume o f water consumption pa t t e rns w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas surrounding Courtenay Comox and Royston on Vancouver I s l a n d ( c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n these areas resemble those o f the G u l f I s l ands most c l o s e l y ) . 82 TABLE 6 10 WATER CONSUMPTION IN METERED AREAS OP THE COMOX VALLEY - 1969 COURTENAY COMOX ROYSTON Average Annual Per C a p i t a Consumption Average Per C a p i t a Consump-t i o n - June, J u l y , August Average Per C a p i t a Consump-t i o n - J u l y 113 g . 98 g . 131 g. 167 g . 167 g . 178 g . 175 g . 186 g . 212 g. Us ing the fo rego ing consumption c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a b a s i s , A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g s e r v i c e s has recommended the f o l l o w i n g standards i n Table 7 f o r des ign o f a r e g i o n a l water supply system. The f i g u r e s "wh i l e q u i t e l i b e r a l , do not r e p r e -sent a comple te ly u n r e s t r i c t e d demand. Dur ing very dry p e r i o d s , 34 i t w i l l be necessary to impose l i m i t e d s p r i n k l i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s ' TABLE 7 RECOMMENDED SERVICING STANDARDS 35 FOR COMOX VALLEY RESIDENTS D a i l y f low f o r peak hour Maximum d a i l y r a t e 470 g a l l o n s per c a p i t a 320 g a l l o n s per c a p i t a Average d a i l y r a t e du r ing the month o f peak demand 200 g a l l o n s per c a p i t a 83 TABLE 7 (con t ' d ) Average d a i l y r a t e du r ing the year 120 g a l l o n s per c a p i t a POTENTIAL REDUCTIONS IN WATER USE I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t the main f a c t o r d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g water needs between co t t age r s i s whether or not s p r i n k -l i n g i s p e r m i t t e d and f l u s h t o i l e t s are used. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . TABLE 8 33 COMPARATIVE SUMMER DAILY WATER NEEDS (Fami ly o f Four i n a Cottage) NATURE OF INSIDE SINK OUTSIDE WASHING OVERALL NEEDS COTTAGER & WASH WASTES TOILET & SPRINKLING PER DAY "Rus t i c C o t -tager (Bas i c Needs) 25 g. "Comfort" Minimum Needs 87 g. Average Needs 104 g. "Luxury" 110 g, N i l N i l 64 g. N i l V g. 40 g. 80 g . 500-750 g. 25 q. 94 g. 208 g. 700-850 g. Dur ing the h o t t e s t summer months a p r o h i b i t i o n on lawn s p r i n k l i n g may achieve a r e d u c t i o n i n water use o f up to 750 g a l 84 Ions /day! (With 450—500 g a l l o n s a more l i k e l y f i g u r e i n most a r e a s ) . The c u r t a i l m e n t o f ou t s ide washing a c t i v i t i e s may save a fu r the r 40 g a l l o n s . Most noteworthy from the u sua l cot tage s tandpoin t however i s the p o t e n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n water which can be r e a l i z e d through the c u r t a i l e d use o f f l u s h t o i l e t s . T o i l e t f l u s h i n g fo r example normal ly i s observed to use from 50-70% o f the t o t a l water consumed w i t h i n the house. For a f a m i l y o f four t h i s c o u l d e a s i l y amount to 80 g a l l o n s per day. With minor adjustments to a f l u s h t o i l e t a " h a l f f l u s h " system fo r example, r educ t ions o f as much as 40 g a l l o n s per day c o u l d be ach ieved . Using an e l e c t r i c / p r o p a n e t o i l e t or p i t p r i v y moreover c o u l d i l l i m i n a t e the need fo r any water to be used fo r t o i l e t f l u s h i n g purposes . Hence, i f the above water conse rva t i on methods were used; domestic consumption should not be expected to exceed 100 g a l l o n s per day. Th i s as i n d i c a t e d (Table 5) s t i l l pe rmi t s the householder to engage i n a l l the u sua l water consuming ac-t i v i t i e s — b u t lawn s p r i n k l i n g and t o i l e t f l u s h i n g . SUMMARY The standards o f the P . U . C - g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t those o f p u b l i c agencies and other l e v e l s o f governments. The Commission would p r e f e r t ha t from 350 to 500 g . p . d . / l o t be p r o v i d e d . Water consumption i n v a c a t i o n areas i s most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the k i n d o f d i s t r i b u t i o n system used: A p i p e d sup-p l y i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h indoor plumbimg and sewer or sep-t i c systems. These enable and encourage the householder to use more water . The need to p l a n f o r a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g needs and f i r e f i g h t i n g i s expensive and not a l t o g e t h e r necessary . R e s t r i c t i o n s can be p l a c e d on the former and ocean or l a k e sources can e a s i l y be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the l a t t e r . Es t ima ted household water requirements f o r c o t t a g i n g range from 18-32 g a l l o n s / d a y f o r a f a m i l y o f four to 208 g a l l o n s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y due to t o i l e t f l u s h i n g and m i s c e l -laneous washing a c t i v i t i e s . By e l l i m i n a t i n g such uses from 50 to 100 g a l l o n s would normal ly be r e q u i r e d . CONCLUSION These r e s u l t s appear to i n d i c a t e t ha t P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission standards are somewhat unreasonable f o r r e c r e a t i o n areas where lawn s p r i n k l i n g and o ther outdoor water consuming a c t i v i t i e s are not indu lged i n . Whi l e the lower l i m i t o f 200 g . p . d . / l o t appears j u s t i f i a b l e f o r many developments, there are many o thers which cou ld ve ry w e l l get by on l e s s than h a l f t h i s amount. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue f o r co t tage areas where r e -s iden t s are aware o f the need to conserve water supply and where p i p e d d i s t r i b u t i o n systems are not p resen t . 86 F O O T N O T E S 1. S e c t i o n .4.09 o f the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t , " P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i -s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s " . 2. S e c t i o n 2 o f the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Act de f ines " p u b l i c u t i -l i t y " to mean a person ( i n c l u d i n g the " l e s see , t r u s t e e , r e c e i v e r , or l i q u i d a t o r o f such person) who owns or operates i n the P rov ince equipment or f a c i l i t i e s fo r the d i v e r t i n g , deve lop ing , pumping, impounding, d i s t r i b u t i n g , or f u r n i s h -i n g o f water to f i v e or more persons or any c o r p o r a t i o n fo r compensation: " 'Compensat ion ' means any r a t e , remunera-t i o n , g a i n , or reward o f any k i n d p a i d , payab le , p romised , demanded, r e c e i v e d , or expected, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , and i s presumed to e x i s t where a p u b l i c u t i l i t y s e r v i c e i s promised or p r o v i d e d as pa r t o f a p l a n to s e l l l a n d " . 3. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on such c o n t r o l s as the "Main ten-ance Guarantee Reserve Fund", r e f e r to a p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i -t l e d : "Water U t i l i t i e s , In format ion and A p p l i c a t i o n f o r C e r t i f i c a t e o f P u b l i c Convenience and N e c e s s i t y " p u b l i s h e d by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, V i c t o r i a , B . C . , 1970. 4. I b i d , p . 4 . 5. " P . U . C . " i s an accepted abbrev ia ted form f o r " P u b l i c U t i l i -t i e s Commission". 6. Water supply standards based on an i n t e r v i e w w i t h T. P r e n t i c e , Engineer P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, V i c t o r i a , J u l y 1971. 7. R. T. Anderson, "Comprehensive P l a n n i n g f o r Environmenta l H e a l t h " , M . A . t h e s i s , ( C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ) , June 1964, p . 86. 8. Th i s economic aspect i s f u r the r d i scussed i n Chapter 6. 9. D r . Gibson , M e d i c a l Hea l t h O f f i c e r , Courtenay branch o f the Upper I s l a n d H e a l t h U n i t . 10. T h i s "Report on Water Supply Sources fo r S u b d i v i s i o n s i n P a r t s o f S e c t i o n 1, 6, 7 and 16; Hornby I s l a n d " was per fo rm-ed by a J . M o t h e r w e l l , P . Eng. o f V i c t o r i a , 19 70. The sub-d i v i s i o n s ana lyzed i n c l u d e d M a r t i n i 1 s G a l l e o n Beach, Sand-p i p e r and Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay E s t a t e s . 87 11. L . B . Leopo ld , K. S. D a v i e s , "Water", Time I n c o r p . , New Y o r k , 1966. 12. E . A . Ackerman and G.O.G. Lflf "Technology i n American Water Development". The John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1969, p . 48. 13. A r t i c l e on water consumption t rends by A b e l Wolman, ( e d i t o r G. White) i n "Water, H e a l t h and S o c i e t y " Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969, p . 9. 14. G.M. F a i r , J . C . Geyer, and D . A . Okeu, "Water and Wastewater E n g i n e e r i n g " , John W i l e y and Sons I n c . , New York , 1966, p . 5 .16 . 15. These p r o v i n c i a l requirements are o u t l i n e d i n the B . C . H e a l t h Branch p u b l i c a t i o n "Recommended Water Q u a l i t y Standards , 1969". 16. " R e s i d e n t i a l Water Use" , a study by the U . S . Department o f Housing and Urban Development, F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , Washington, D . C . 20410, p . 31. 17. I b i d . 18. E.W. S t e e l e , "Water Supply and Sewerage", McGraw H i l l , Toron-t o , 1960, p . 17. 19. T h i s p r i n c i p l e o f " s e l f r e s t r a i n t " has worked w e l l among members o f the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay Water Improvement D i s -t r i c t , (Hornby I s l a n d ) . But a d m i t t e d l y , ' community w e l l s are much e a s i e r t o "share" than p i p e d v/ater systems where one can "sneak" water much e a s i e r . 20. J . C . Day, "Urban Management Problems on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reach o f the R i o Grande. The Case o f E l P a s o - C i d , Jua rez , Conference o f Water Resources Research, U n i v e r s i t y o f To-ron to , 1968 ( p u b l i c a t i o n no. 4 ) , p . 11 . 21. Refer to the p u b l i c a t i o n " R e s i d e n t i a l Water Use" , U . S . De-partment o f Housing and Urban Development, op_. c i t . 22. G .M. F a i r et a l , "Water and Wastewater E n g i n e e r i n g " , op_. c i t . , p . 5 .16. 23. E . m. Ste 'el "Water Supply and Sewerage", I b i d . , p . 131. 24. J . M c K u l l e n , I n spec to r , P r o v i n c i a l F i r e M a r s h a l l ' s O f f i c e , Vancouver, (phone i n t e r v i e w Dec. 6, 1971). 88 25. Geye r s ' s study i s to be found i n " R e s i d e n t i a l Water Use" , op. c i t . 26. To p r o v i d e a f u r t he r p e r s p e c t i v e on lawn s p r i n k l i n g r e q u i r e -ments, i t should be p o i n t e d out t ha t an inc rease i n consump-t i o n o f 440 g . p . d . d u r i n g the summer would represent o n l y an hour and 45 minutes of a d d i t i o n a l lawn s p r i n k l i n g t ime per household/day. (4 g .p .m. i s u s u a l l y cons ide red the no r -mal r a t e o f water flow) . .A l lowing f o r evapora t ion l o s s e s , t h i s amount o f water would be s u f f i c i e n t to apply on ly two-t h i r d s inches o f water over 1,000 square fee t o f lawn or garden (a 50 ' by 20' l a w n ) . 27. "Pipe to d r a i n " a i r c o n d i t i o n e r s are those which do not r e -c i r c u l a t e used wate rs . 28. These c a l c u l a t i o n s are based on a requirement o f 2 g .p .m. ( the usua l range i s 1.5-3 g.p.m.) to a i r c o n d i t i o n 300 square fee t o f household space. For a 1200 square fee t home i t was' assumed tha t 3-4 hours o f o p e r a t i n g t ime would be needed on an average sunny summer day. (Th i s in fo rma-t i o n was based upon a te lephone i n t e r v i e w w i t h pe r sonne l employed by C a r r i e r A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g o f Vancouver ) , Dec. 6, 1971. ' 29. Char l e s W. Howe " M u n i c i p a l Water Demands", F o r e c a s t i n g the  Demands f o r Water (W.R. S e w e l l , B . T . Bower et a l e d i t o r s ) P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g Branch, Department o f Energy, Mines and Resources , Ottawa, O n t a r i o , 1968. 30. Th i s p e r s o n a l r eco rd o f household water consumption was p r o -v i d e d by T. P r e n t i c e , Engineer wi th ' the . P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. I t i s based upon records which have been com-p i l e d over a minimum o f 4 y e a r s . These are cons ide red to represent the average water needs of suburban middle c l a s s household o f f i v e i n the V i c t o r i a a rea . 31. T h i s es t imate was based on the assumption the average c o n -sumption from November to February (190 gal lons/month) r e -present average " indoor" uses (non s p r i n k l i n g ) . 32. P l o t n i k o f f , "Cot tag ing and R e l a t e d Support S e r v i c e s " , pp. c i t . 33. The w r i t e r ' s e s t ima te . 34. These s t a t i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d by A s s o c i a t e d Engineering-S e r v i c e s i n a study e n t i t l e d "Comox V a l l e y Water Supply" f o r the Reg iona l D i s t r i c t o f Comox S t ra thecona , 1969, p . 8. 35. I b i d . "An i n d i v i d u a l l y acceptable amount of water p o l l u t i o n , added to a toler a b l e amount of a i r p o l l u t i o n , added to a bearable amount of noise and congestion can produce a t o t a l l y unacceptable health environment. It i s e n t i r e l y possible that the b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of these envir.on-mental hazards, some of which reach man slowly and s i -l e n t l y over decades or generations, w i l l f i r s t begin to reveal themselves only aft e r t h e i r impact has become i r -re v e r s i b l e " . "A Strategy f o r a Livable Environ-ment, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Washington D.C., (June, 1967), p. 2. C H A P T E R F O U R G R O U N D W A T E R P O L L U T I O N INTRODUCTION I t i s apparent tha t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a l i s t i c p o l i -c i e s and requirements f o r water supply , i t i s not merely s u f f i -c i e n t t o determine p o t e n t i a l user needs, but to determine whe-the r such needs may be s a f e l y and c o n v e n i e n t l y p r o v i d e d over t ime . T h i s i n v a r i a b l y i m p l i e s the need to examine e x i s t i n g en-v i r o n m e n t a l — h e a l t h c o n s t r a i n t s and resource i m p l i c a t i o n s o f v/ater use. From an environmental h e a l t h p o i n t o f v iew we are p r i -m a r i l y concerned i n t h i s chapter w i t h those n a t u r a l and man-made f a c t o r s which may cause p o l l u t i o n of water r e sources . Groundwa-t e r p o l l u t i o n f o r example i s i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by the nature o f v/astes d i scha rged by.man (as a f f e c t e d by h i s waste t reatments) and by the n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s o f surrounding s o i l s to absorb, d i l u t e or o therwise n e u t r a l i z e wastes . The f a i l u r e o f these s y s -tems to prevent con tamina t ion o f ground waters by pathogenic organisms and t o x i c chemicals may cause problems of w e l l v/ater supply , beach p o l l u t i o n and l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . These problems may become pronounced i n v a c a t i o n areas where w e l l s are used i n con junc t ion w i t h o n s i t e waste d i s p o s a l systems. I n examining these t o p i c s , t h i s chapter v / i l l be o rga -n i z e d i n t o th ree b a s i c p a r t s : "The f i r s t p a r t v / i l l d ea l w i t h en-v i r o n m e n t a l - h e a l t h problems i m p l i c a t e d by waste d i scha rges and p u b l i c awareness o f the problem. T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f n a t u r a l and "man-induced" systems to curb groundwater p o l l u t i o n . The t h i r d and c o n c l u d i n g p a r t w i l l c o n s i s t o f an examinat ion o f p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h con-t r o l s p e r t a i n i n g to the l o c a t i o n o f subsurface waste t reatment u n i t s . Before beg inn ing the d i s c u s s i o n a d e f i n i t i o n o f the terms "contaminat ion" and " p o l l u t i o n " i s i n o rde r : C u r r e n t l y , bo th terms have been used in t e r changeab ly . I n c r e a s i n g l y however, attempts have been made to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two: For purposes o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s r e -cognizes "contaminat ion" to be the a d d i t i o n o f f o r e i g n or man-made substances to a r e sou rce . " P o l l u t i o n " on the o ther hand, i s cons ide red to mean the accumulat ion o f contaminants to the 1 p o i n t at which undes i r ab l e e f f e c t s beg in to occu r . These, "un-d e s i r a b l e " e f f e c t s are s a i d to occur when the p e r c e i v e d "change" i n the form of matter and i t s l o c a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n na -t u r e ' s scheme o f t h ings i s such as to c rea te a nu i sance , to i m -p a i r i t s subsequent use fu lness , o r to i n t e r f e r e w i t h n a t u r e ' s ba lance . . Or perhaps more s imply p o l l u t i o n may be de f ined as "the wrong t h i n g i n the wrong p l a c e at the wrong t i m e " . In r e -f e r r i n g to the word "contaminat ion" or "contaminant" t h e r e f o r e , we do not i n f e r any t o x i c c o n d i t i o n or p r o p e r t y , o n l y a po ten -t i a l f o r such. 91 A. GENERAL CONCERN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IN COTTAGE AREAS The concern fo r environmental h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n i s most pronounced w i t h i n r u r a l r e g i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n the many mushrooming v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s . These have t r a d i -t i o n a l l y been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the l a c k o f o rgan ized systems o f community water supply and waste d i s p o s a l . The emphasis o f t h i s concern at p resen t i s not so much d i sease p r e v e n t i o n (a l though t h i s i s always a b a s i c cons ide r a t i on ) as i t i s a mat ter o f aes-t h e t i c s or concern f o r the maintenance or at tainment o f a qua-l i t y environment. These concerns as w i l l be shown, may be c l o s e -l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d aspects o f p u b l i c h e a l t h a l s o . Whi l e many homeowners v / i l l e v e n t u a l l y o b t a i n w a t e r from organ ized community sources , the number o f persons r e l y -i n g upon i n d i v i d u a l sources o f supply can be expected to i nc rea se due to the cont inued i n t e r e s t i n c o t t a g i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and the r e s u l t a n t development o f even more "vaca t i on" lands remote from any form of e s t a b l i s h e d s e r v i c i n g . T h i s p o t e n t i a l problem i s p l aced i n p e r s p e c t i v e by a Canadian study which found tha t l e s s than 4% of houses i n r u r a l areas r e l y upon sewers, w h i l e approx-ima te ly 68% use s e p t i c s or s e s spoo l s . The remainder, a f u r t h e r 4 28% r e l y on o ther forms o f o n - s i t e d i s p o s a l . A c c o r d i n g to B a r c l a y Jones, " t h i s p a t t e r n o f occupancy w i l l l e a d to an e n t i r e l y new set o f environmental h e a l t h problems. We have been as 92 s u c c e s s f u l as we have i n the pas t i n improving h e a l t h standards by b r i n g i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l l i n g the environment occupied by most o f the people most o f the t ime . While a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f our p o p u l a t i o n w i l l no rmal ly occupy these c o n t r o l l e d environments, neve r the l e s s , the number o f man days spent i n u n c o n t r o l l e d environments w i l l i nc rease s u b s t a n t i a l l y . We w i l l have to f i n d new means o f coping w i t h these problems i f we hope to ma in t a in the same l e v e l s o f freedom from disease and l eng th o f l i f e " . 5 Where r e s i d e n t s are fo rced to r e l y upon sha l low w e l l s for domestic water supply and p i t p r i v i e s or s e p t i c tanks fo r on s i t e d i s p o s a l , as i n most areas o f the G u l f I s l a n d s , the problem o f environmenta l s a n i t a t i o n becomes most acu te . In these areas the problem i s compounded by the nature o f development, s u s c e p t i -b i l i t y o f groundwater to surface p o l l u t i o n and the types o f en-v i ronmen ta l safeguards c u r r e n t l y employed. While the d i s c r e -t i o n a r y powers o f p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s fo r one, appear suf-f i c i e n t to impose a v a r i e t y o f requirements upon s u b d i v i d e r s and r e s i d e n t s fo r the purpose o f safeguarding l o c a l groundwaters few have the necessary competence, much l e s s knowledge o f l o c a l environmenntal c o n d i t i o n s to e x e r c i s e the i r -powers i n a s u f f i -c i e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y manner (p. 136) . The l a c k o f funds fo r p e r i o d i c government i n s p e c t i o n s o f these systems o n l y addes to the problem. But an u n d e r l y i n g f ac to r o f course i s the unpre-d i c t a b l e behaviour o f s e p t i c tank systems. 93 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DEFINED What then do we mean by "environmental health" and how does i t d i f f e r from t r a d i t i o n a l notions of public health? H i s t o r i c a l l y , the role of the medical health profession has been accepted by society as being a remedial one and r e s t r i c -ted p r i m a r i l y to the treatment of phy s i c a l disorders a r i s i n g from within a patient. Unfortunately, t h i s notion has pers i s t e d to modern times despite the fact the profession has progressively geared i t s e l f toward the prevention of disease o r i g i n a t i n g both from within a patient and the physical and s o c i a l environment outside. This w h o l i s t i c approach to the preservation and enhance-ment of human health i s t a c i t acknowledgement that the concept of health cannot be separated from the concept of environment or ecosystem of which man i s part. This understanding i s per-haps best i l l u s t r a t e d by the establishment i n the medical health profession of a f i e l d of concern c a l l e d "Environmental Health" whose defined purpose i s "the control of a l l those factors i n man's physical environment which exercise or may exercise a 6 deleterious e f f e c t on h i s physical, mental or s o c i a l well-being". 94 HEALTH PROBLEMS ARISING FROM WATER POLLUTION M e d i c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l l y agree tha t water i s the most important n a t u r a l c a r r i e r o f communicable d i sease bo th i n modern as w e l l as i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s . But i t i s a l s o agreed tha t the i n c r e a s i n g presence o f man-made chemica l and r a -d i o l o g i c a l p o l l u t a n t s together w i t h n a t u r a l m i n e r a l s , which i n themselves may be t o x i c , may c o n s t i t u t e a more s u b t l e i f not e q u a l l y s e r ious h e a l t h haza rd . Diseases which have been e s t a b l i s h e d as be ing "water born" are no t ab ly those o f the i n t e s t i n e , due o f course to sewage contamina t ion o f some form. Among the more important d i seases c u r r e n t l y r ecogn ized are t y p h o i d f eve r , c h o l e r a , i n f e c t i o u s hepa-t i t i s , p o l i o m y e l i t i s and the d y s a n t r i e s . T h i s group o f " e n t e r i c " fevers i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f a c t t ha t a p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l v i c -t ims become " c a r r i e r s " a f t e r r ecove ry . The organisms e x i s t and t h r i v e i n the i n t e s t i n e f o r years thus making an i n d i v i d u a l a 7 ,8 p o t e n t i a l f o c a l cen t re f o r an ep idemic . The p o t e n t i a l se r iousness o f water born e n t e r i c d i sease i s emphasized by the f a c t t ha t " w i t h i n recent y e a r s , more than 60 d i s t i n c t v i r u s s t r a i n s have been i d e n t i f i e d which e i t h e r p r o -duced d i sease or are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i sease and are known to 9 be excre ted through the human a l imen ta ry t r a c t " . Of g rea te r s i g n i f i c a n c e however i s the b e l i e f by r ecogn ized h e a l t h autho-95 r i t i e s t ha t "at the p resen t time i t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t ha t there are no adequate methods o f c o n t r o l l i n g these organisms and v i r u s e s or o f removing them s u c c e s s f u l l y from a raw water 10 s u p p l y " . A rev iew o f water born d isease outbreaks by E l i a s s e n and Cummings fo r the U . S . du r ing 1938 to 1960 i n d i c a t e d — t h a t un t rea ted (not c h l o r i n a t e d or f i l t e r e d ) ground waters were most 11 f r equen t ly the cause o f d isease ou tbreaks . While the number o f persons observed a f f e c t e d were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f numbers, i t i s thought tha t these " sporad ic" cases may not be i n -d i c a t i v e o f the se r iousness o f the problem. They may i n e f f e c t o n l y be the " c l i n i c a l man i f e s t a t i ons from among a much g rea te r number o f s u b c l i n i c a l cases r e s u l t i n g from exposure to v i r a l 12 i n f e c t i o n s " . Fu r the r , incomplete r e p o r t i n g , the l a c k o f d i -r e c t measurements o f concen t r a t ions o f v i r u s e s by mediums o ther than water and the masking e f f e c t s o f immunity make i t d i f f i c u l t to eva lua te the r e l a t i o n between water q u a l i t y and i nc idence o f 13 v i r a l d i sease , p a r t i c u l a r l y — p o l e o m y o l i t i s " . Th i s may a l s o be t rue for the many chemica l po isons which f i n d t h e i r way i n t o the water supply through n a t u r a l causes or domestic waste d i s c h a r g e s . High c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f n i t r a t e s d i s s o l v e d from surrounding s o i l s or accumulated through break-down o f domestic wastes for example; can be f a t a l to both man and animal a l i k e . ( C h i l d r e n are p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptable to h igh n i t r a t e waters and may develop a d isease known as methemie-96 g l o b i n e m i a ) . But the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y o f man-made chemicals which are in t roduced i n t o household use each year are p o t e n t i a l l y more s i g n i f i c a n t . An u n d e r l y i n g problem i s the w e l l known f ac t t ha t ve ry few of these chemica l contaminants have un-dergone v igo rous s tud i e s to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r t o x i c i t y or s a f e t y . In a task fo rce repor t to the .American Department o f H e a l t h , Educa t ion and Welfare i t was f r e e l y admit ted tha t "there i s v i r t u a l l y no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e or be ing s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sought on the h e a l t h i m p l i c a t i o n s , o f t r a c e substances i n d r i n k -i n g water which may produce d i sease o n l y a f t e r a ve ry long p e r i o d 14 o f t i m e " . The repor t f u r t he r went on to say tha t "grave, de-l a y e d p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s can r e s u l t from repeated exposure to concen t r a t i ons o f environmental p o l l u t a n t s so s m a l l ' t h a t they do not make one i l l enough to send him to the d o c t o r . E n v i r o n -mental p o l l u t a n t s can have cumula t ive e f f e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y be -15 cuase they accumulate i n c e r t a i n t i s s u e s and organs" . What the above suggests t h e r e f o r e , i s tha t problems o f environmental h e a l t h may w e l l become unmanageable i f i t i s necessary f o r government o f f i c i a l s to e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l s and 16 standards on the b a s i s of e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l ev idence; which may never be fo r thcoming . Hence i t i s i m p l i e d tha t we should cas t a j aundiced eye upon a l l v a r i e t i e s o f " f o r e i g n " contaminants and accept minimum standards f o r the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o l l u t a n t s , a r b i t r a r y as these may be, u n t i l such t ime as b e t t e r s tandards are developed. In Canada each p r o v i n c e i s f ree to pursue what ever v/ater s tandards i t d e s i r e s as no n a t i o n a l s tandards have been adopted. The s i m i l a r i t y i n s tandards between p r o v i n c e s i s exp l a ined by the f a c t tha t a l l t a c i t l y accept Un i t ed S ta t e s Pub-l i c Hea l th Standards as sanc t ioned by the American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n . PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE POTENTIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS ARISING .Although an awareness o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man, microbe and v i r u s has e x i s t e d i n t u i t i v e l y through h i s t o r y , i t was o n l y u n t i l compara t ive ly recent t i m e s , - w i t h the advent o f Pas teur and Koch tha t the s p e c i f i c na ture o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been brought i n t o focus . But even up to t h i s p e r i o d and w e l l beyond, progress in . unders tanding even the e t i o l o g i c a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s o f v/ater supply has been s low, and p u b l i c educa t ion even s lower . In 1784 f o r example, Fourc roy wrote tha t " d r i n k -able v/aters may be e a s i l y known by the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. They have a b r i s k , sharp t a s t e 2. They have no sme l l 3. They b o i l e a s i l y 4. They make ready pot herbs w e l l 5. They d i s s o l v e soap wi thou t forming lumps ^ 6. They d i s s o l v e no th ing or ve ry l i t t l e by t e s t s . Th i s l a c k o f unders tanding by Fourc roy tha t " d r i n k a b l e waters c o u l d make people s i c k " p e r s i s t e d to the 20th Century . Ment ion i s made of a judge who as l a t e as 1904, dec l a r ed tha t " i t i s not necessary to weigh w i t h tenderness and care the t e s -timony o f e x p e r t s . Any o r d i n a r y mor t a l knows whether v/ater i s f i t to d r i n k and use" . 98 Whi l e the p u b l i c i s becoming r a p i d l y aware o f the p o -t e n t i a l h e a l t h problem r e s u l t i n g from the use o f p o l l u t e d wa te r s , a l a c k o f unders tanding s t i l l e x i s t s . The v i r t u a l e l l i m i n a t i o n o f many of the more dreaded d i seases such as c h o l e r a and t y p -h o i d has g iven many r u r a l r e s i d e n t s a sense of complacency which may not be ai l together deserved. Perhaps i l l o g i c a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e surface waters to be more susceptable to p o l l u t i o n than groundwaters, o f t en on the f a l s e assumption tha t there i s some myste r ious d i s t i n c t i o n or s epa ra t ion betv/een surface waters and p e r c o l a t i n g , ground wate r s . On Hornby as w e l l as Denman I s l a n d s there i s some spe-c u l a t i o n tha t l o c a l aqu i f e r s are r e p l e n i s h e d by groundwater sources o r i g i n a t i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d . Whi l e there may be some t r u t h to t h i s v i ew, i t i s neve r the le s s accepted tha t the source o f most I s l a n d a q u i f e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the sha l low ones, stems from l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and r e s u l t a n t p e r c o l a t i o n of surface v/aters. Where w e l l water i s pumped to the surface and d i scha rged a f t e r use f o r example, much o f t h i s water may be subsequent ly re tu rned to ground water s torage f o r r euse . Hence groundwater ob ta ined may be a b l e n d of many recharge sources , s e p t i c tank e f f l u e n t f o r one. Surveys o f v / e l i waters i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas r e l y i n g upon w e l l s i n combinat ion w i t h s e p t i c tanks fo r example commonly e x h i b i t such t r a c e chemicals as de te rgen ts , wh ich o f course i s 99 i n d i c a t i v e o f the f a c t t ha t an u n d e s i r a b l e c l o s e d c i r c u i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d and tha t o ther p o l l u t a n t s 'may as a r e s u l t be 19 present a l s o . I r o n i c a l l y t h e r e f o r e , w h i l e r e s i d e n t s have a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e v u l s i o n of as t ronauts d r i n k i n g v/ater r ec l a imed f3:om t h e i r own wastes , or much worse, hav ing to p e r s o n a l l y d r i n k 20 r ec l a imed sewage waters many people today are d r i n k i n g " r e -c i r c u l a t e d " groundwaters which i n many ins t ances are o f subs tan-t i a l l y i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , i f not unsafe, when compared to " a r t i -f i c i a l l y " t r e a t e d waters—without so much as knowing i t . POTENTIAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS—HORNBY AND ASSOCIATED GULF ISLANDS B a c t e r i a l or chemica l p o l l u t i o n o f groundwater sources on Hornby i s an ever p resen t t h rea t i n view o f the f a c t r e s i d e n t s r e l y almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon sha l low a q u i f e r s fo r water use but cont inue to use o n - s i t e s e p t i c tanks and p i t p r i v i e s . T h i s problem appears p a r t i c u l a r l y acute w i t h i n numerous areas o f Hornby where: - s o i l s are t h i n and h i g h l y permeable - the water t a b l e i s c l o s e to the ground sur face and u n d e r l a i n by hardpan or o ther impervious c l a y s - the a q u i f e r i s c r e v i c e d sandstone, or conglomerate bedrock tha t extends to or near the l and su r face . , In a d d i t i o n to the above f a c t o r s , problems o f ground-water p o l l u t i o n are compounded by the ve ry t r e n d o f development and nature o f the surrounding t e r r a i n on the I s l a n d . Cottage 100 s u b d i v i s i o n has p r e s e n t l y occured a long a r e l a t i v e l y narrow c o a s t a l s t r i p w i t h most developed l o t s on the w a t e r f r o n t . Here no problem has been observed as most w e l l s are l o c a t e d above waste d i s p o s a l f i e l d s . However, as new development i s p e r m i t t e d to occur on s teeper s lopes i n ascending t i e r s above present r e -s i d e n t s ' p r o p e r t i e s (as i n the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay Area) the r i s k o f w e l l con tamina t ion inc reases g r e a t l y . T h i s concern f o r water, q u a l i t y i s not o n l y r e s t r i c t e d to domestic groundwater sources but a l s o i n c l u d e s those surface waters which are fed by groundwater movements. Should these be contaminated by pathogenic organisms or c e r t a i n chemica l wastes a v a r i e t y o f problems may r e s u l t : BACTERIAL AND VIRAL POLLUTION B a c t e r i a l or v i r a l con tamina t ion of swimming beaches i s always a p o t e n t i a l problem on the I s l a n d s : P r e v a i l i n g t e s t s cannot be r e l i e d upon to p r o v i d e warning i n d i c a t o r s o f p o l l u t i o n . Where un t rea ted sewage f i n d s i t s way to the surface i n stagnant ponds or i n sa tu ra ted s o i l s the a c t i o n o f anaerobic b a c t e r i a may c rea te f o u l odors which may be de tec ted f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e . Exper ience has shown tha t i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e r c e i v e d nuisances of s i g h t or smel l more s e r ious problems o f d i sease may of ten be prevented a l s o . 101 The p o l l u t i o n of marine organisms which provide food for man i s becoming an increasingly common occurrence with coastal development. S h e l l - f i s h , through f i l t e r feeding are par-t i c u l a r l y adept i n concentrating bacteria viruses and chemical contaminants at thousands of times the level s found i n solution 21 or suspension. Often these lev e l s may become toxic to man. Where i n t e r - t i d a l areas have been set aside for t h e i r c u l t i v a -t i o n — a s on portions of Hornby and nearby Denman Island, s e r i -ous economic i f not health repercussions can be expected should these s h e l l f i s h leases be rendered "unsafe". LAKE EUTROPHICATION Another aspect of water p o l l u t i o n being given increa-sing attention i n recreational areas affected by indiscriminant cottage development along shorelines i s lake eutrophication. This process i s associated with an increase i n the dissolved mi- -neral content of a lake as well as increased sedimentation. This natural phenomenum i s accelerated i n lakes where the na-t u r a l food supply for aquatic organisms i s augmented by man through the addition of such prime "nutrients" as phosphates and n i t r a t e s . These enter lakes either through surface run-102 o f f from f i e l d s i n wh ich ' t he se .-chemicals have been a p p l i e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r lawn treatment purposes o r from subsurface dra inage o f domestic was tes - -which break down to form these com-2 2 pounds. In e f f e c t , l ake e u t r o p h i c a t i o n i s observed to r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the aqua t i c l i f e and environment o f the l a k e a f f e c t e d , (marine environments are seldom a f f ec t ed i n t h i s manner). The shor t term e f f e c t s o f t h i s "b ios t imu- la t ion" ( a d d i -t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s ) i s the r a p i d , growth o f such i n d i c a t o r p l a n t spec ies as a lgae , p l a n k t o n , and the l a r g e r aqua t i c p l a n t s . T h i s phenomenum i s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the seasonal d e p l e t i o n o f oxygen from deeper water (due to a lgae d i e - o f f and degrada-t i o n ) and r e s u l t a n t f i s h and animal k i l l s because o f oxygen d e f i c i e n c i e s . Of more s e r i o u s long term consequence i s the growing "marshiness" o f the l a k e a f f e c t e d , r i s e i n water temperatures , permanent r e d u c t i o n o f d i s s o l v e d oxygen content and inc reased s i l t a t i o n and t u r b i d i t y . Such Changes w i l l have d e l e t e r i o u s a f f e c t s not o n l y upon such r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as spor t f i s h i n g , b o a t i n g and swimming (as r e f l e c t e d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y by the l o w e r i n g o f adjacent l and va lues) but a l s o add to the cos t o f t r e a t i n g water fo r d r i n k i n g purposes where such i s r e q u i r e d . On o c c a s i o n , these induced changes may even cause the premature d e s t r u c t i o n o f the l a k e i t s e l f . T h i s l a t t e r aspect i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g examinat ion of l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n problems: "'A 1967 survey, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Mid-wes te rn U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n d i c a t e d tha t 5 percent o f the n i t r o g e n and 2 percent of the phosphorus r each ing Wiscons in waters comes from s e p t i c t anks . T h i s may appear to the u n i n i t i a t e d to be a minor problem, however, the seepage from the s e p t i c tanks o f on ly a few summer homes and r e s o r t s i s r i c h enough i n n u t r i e n t s to speed up the e u t r o p h i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . For example, Cochran Lake, a once b e a u t i f u l l ake i n the w i l d s o f Nor thern W i s c o n s i n , has d e t e r i o -r a t e d so r a p i d l y s ince the f i r s t o f seven c o t t a -ges was b u i l t on i t s shores a decade ago, tha t i t i s now sa id^ to l ook l i k e "a 300 acre c a l d r o n o f pea. soup " . From recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o a v a r i e t y o f n a t u r a l and man-developed water sheds c o n t r i b u t i n g n u t r i e n t s i n t o l a k e systems i t has been shown t h a t : (a) "even i n watersheds w i t h a modest p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y (50/k .m. ) , the human c o n t r i b u t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s to water areas i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , account ing f o r near -l y a t h i r d o f the n i t r o g e n absorbed i n runof f and exceeding the n a t u r a l range o f phosphorous d i s c h a r g e d . (b) t h i s p r o p o r t i o n inc reases r a p i d l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g pop-u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . (c) b i o l o g i c a l t reatment does not change the s i t u a t i o n fundamenta l ly . (d) e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r educ t ions i n n i t r o g e n and phosphorous removal may be achieved o n l y w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e r t i a r y waste treatment systems 24 'which are pushed to the h ighes t p o s s i b l e e f f i c i e n c y ' " . The p o t e n t i a l se r iousness o f these problems and the i n a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l waste treatment systems to e l l i m i n a t e the cause o f l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n problems has prodded many govern-m e n t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the U . S . , t o take some p o s i t i v e ac -t i o n on the mat te r . The shore l ine -—pro tec t ion p a r t o f W i s c o n s i n 1 U 4 25 : ' •. . ' ' •' " 1966 Water Resources A c t , i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n tha t i t g ives a mandate f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to enact s p e c i a l l and use r e g u l a -t i o n s not o n l y around l akes but adjacent to streams which feed these l a k e s . For e x a m p l e , . c o r r i d o r s to act as p o l l u t i o n b u f f e r s have loeen e s t a b l i s h e d 300 fee t on each s i d e o f every nav igab le stream and 1000 fee t back from the h i g h v/ater mark o f l a k e s . These are subject to a v a r i e t y o f p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s des igned to min imise e u t r o p h i c a t i o n problems. Emphasis here was p l a c e d on the c o n t r o l of r e s i d e n t i a l development through the i m p o s i t i o n o f zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s r e g u l a t i n g p r i v a t e sewage d i s -p o s a l systems (which are cons ide red the main sources o f con tami-26 -nat ion) . B - EVALUATION WASTE TREATMENT PROCESSES The sc ience of v/ater or sewage treatment has advanced d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the 20th Century l a r g e l y i n response to the i n -c r e a s i n g need to secure q u a l i t y water s u p p l i e s f o r domestic as w e l l as commercial and i n d u s t r i a l purposes and the growing de-g rada t i on o f e x i s t i n g sources to meet these needs. In many p a r t s o f the U . S . the re -use o f r i v e r waters which have been con tami-nated by sewage has been i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s o r t e d to f o r l a c k o f 27 a l t e r n a t i v e water s u p p l i e s . The remarkably low inc idence o f d i sease a t t e s t s t o the e f f i c a c y o f modern t rea tments . The nuc-l e u r power i n d u s t r y o f course has even more s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e -105 merits f o r water supply which as observed, can a l s o be met. But these s o p h i s t i c a t e d accomplishments of modern technology are a f a r c r y from the types o f waste . t rea tment systems found w i t h i n most cot tage areas where the causa l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the "qua-l i t y " of wastes d i sposed and the q u a l i t y o f waters used f o r do-mes t i c consumption are not so apparent nor w e l l de f ined p a r t i c u -l a r l y i f groundwaters are r e l i e d upon. W i t h i n cot tage areas , we,are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i n d i v i d u a l subsurface waste d i s p o s a l systems; namely p i t p r i v i e s , cess p o o l s , s e p t i c tanks and to a l e s s e r ex ten t , ae rob ic u n i t s (chemica l t o i l e t s due to t h e i r l a c k o f p o p u l a r i t y and p o t e n t i a l f o r permanent use w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d ) . As the fo rego ing s y s -tems cont inue to be the mainstays o f sewage d i s p o s a l i n v a c a t i o n areas such as the G u l f I s l a n d s , t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s must be known i f problems of groundwater supply are to be min imized . In d i s c u s s i n g waste water treatment i t i s apparent tha t conven t iona l household treatment systems are based upon the c o n t r o l l e d use o f n a t u r a l processes to f i l t e r , d i l u t e , breakdown or o therwise d e a c t i v a t e or n e u t r a l i z e wastes . T h i s i m p l i e s an unders tanding o f the type o f wastes produced and t h e i r s u s c e p t i -b i l i t y to "treatment" by t h e i r n a t u r a l p roces ses . Before d i s -c u s s i n g the r e l a t i v e worths o f the above treatment systems t h e r e -fore a genera l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o these areas i s i n o rder : 106 NATURE OF DOMESTIC WASTES DISCHARGED The volume o f wastes discharged, from a household i s roughly e q u i v a l e n t to indoor consumption. As p r e v i o u s l y shown t h i s may range anywhere from 25 to 250 g a l l o n s f o r most homes— i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by the nature o f water s e r v i c i n g and indoor 28 p l u m b i n g s - f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d . Whi l e des ign f i g u r e s f o r urban r e s i d e n t i a l areas g e n e r a l l y expect from 145-165 g a l l o n s pe r day, co t tages and smal l d w e l l i n g s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by seasonal occupancy w i l l u s u a l l y have much lower sewage f l o w s . From the p r e v i o u s chapter and above es t imates we can expect : - 15-35 g a l . / d a y from households not served by f l u s h t o i l e t s or p i p e d water systems. - around 90-110 g a l l o n s / d a y from households not served by f l u s h t o i l e t s but on a p iped water system (where water i s conserved) . An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f domestic sewage i s tha t i t i s almost e n t i r e l y composed o f water . In f a c t , s o l i d s r a r e l y exceed 2-3% of the t o t a l we igh t—of ten be ing l e s s than 0.1%. T h i s i s because t o i l e t wastes g e n e r a l l y account from 50-70% 29 of the t o t a l wastes d i scharged from an "urban" household . As w i l l subsequent ly be shown, t h i s h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t o i l e t was-t e s has important i m p l i c a t i o n s fo r waste t rea tment . Another important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f sewage i s the r e -l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i n o r g a n i c or chemical matter to be found i n suspension ©3?^- s o l u t i o n (compr i s ing 50% of s o l i d s at times). A t y p i c a l analysis of "urban" wastes would l i k e l y re-veal the following d i s t r i b u t i o n : TABLE 9 30 NATURE OF CONSTITUENTS IN DOMESTIC SEWAGE Suspended s o l i d s * Dissolved s o l i d s * * organic 200 p.p.m. organic 200 p.p.m. inorganic 100 p.p.m. inorganic 300 p.p.m. t o t a l 300 p.p.m. t o t a l 500 p.p.m. OVERALL TOTAL 800 p.p.m. * (" s e t t l i n g " & "suspended c o l l o i d a l " ) ** (dissolved " c o l l o i d a l " or "c r y s t a l l o i d " ) BASIS OF WASTE TREATMENT PROCESSES P r i n c i p a l l y , p i t p r i v i e s , cesspools, septic tank sys-tems and other "on-site" treatment systems are designed to as-s i s t i n the decomposition of organic household wastes into sim-p l e r and more s t a b i l e forms, re-useable by plants and animals. This process i s most important for waste disposal because i t i s associated with: -- destruction or f i l t r a t i o n of pathogenic organisms (these are eventually unable to survive the pro-cesses of decomposition nor attack by the r i c h b i o -l o g i c a l l i f e of the decomposing mass). — reduction i n the volume and. mass of the decompo-sing material (as great as 80%) by production of 108 such gases as methane, carbon d i o x i d e , ammonia and n i t r o g e n which are d i s s i p a t e d i n t o the atmos-phere . ' — p r o d u c t i o n o f so luab l e m a t e r i a l s which under usua l c i rcumstance , l eak away i n t o the u n d e r l y i n g s o i l ( n i t r a t e s , su lpha tes and phosphates) and e v e n t u a l l y break down i n t o reusab le substances once more. Organic wastes which c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y o f n i t rogenous , carbonacious and sulpherous compounds are broken down i n t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t elements i n a number o f s teps ; f i r s t l y by ae rob i c and/or anaerobic b a c t e r i a (o f ten i n the presence o f o ther forms o f p l a n t and animal l i f e o f l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e — s u c h as f u n g e i , p ro tozoa and sludge worms) and f i n a l l y , by o x i d a t i o n to form the f i n a l p roduc ts o f decomposi t ion . Both in t e rmed ia t e and f i n a l p roducts o f t h i s p rocess as w e l l as the e n t i r e c y c l i c a l p rocess i t s e l f are s c h e m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. FIGURE X 31 CYCLE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION Cycle of nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur in aerobic decomposition. Cycle at mtrogen, carbon, and sulfur in anaerobic decompotitioi 109 Im important d i s t i n g u i s h i n g fea tu re o f the decomposi-t i o n process i s whether i t occur red under ae rob ic or anaerobic c o n d i t i o n s . Ae rob i c c o n d i t i o n s are those d u r i n g which f ree d i s -so lved oxygen r e q u i r e d f o r r e s p i r a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e to organisms f o r growth. When f ree oxygen i s not a v a i l a b l e (as i n many da r -kened and enclosed spaces) anaerobic organisms may take over (anaerobic b a c t e r i a o b t a i n oxygen from compounds they are able to break, down). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the l a t t e r p rocess which i s a s -s o c i a t e d w i t h p i t p r i v i e s and s e p t i c tanks i s much slower and a s soc i a t ed w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f such f o u l s m e l l i n g gases as ammonia and. methane. NATURAL DESTRUCTION OR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS Of p r imary concern i n waste t reatment i s the a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l processes to des t roy or f i l t e r out pa thogenic bac-t e r i a and v i r u s e s and t h e i r a b i l i t y to move through s o i l s to contaminate domestic groundwater sources . These processes w i l l now be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d : NATURAL MORTALITY Because pathogenic organism s are by d e f i n i t i o n "para-s i t i c " i n na ture , they depend upon contac t w i t h man f o r s u r v i -v a l . Once removed from such contac t however, they are c o n t r o l -110 l e d by a v a r i e t y o f processes and c o n d i t i o n s , the most impor-t a n t be ing n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y . Released i n t o a water e n v i r o n -ment fo r example, pathogens are observed to d i e a t a l o g a r i t h m i c r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by such f a c t o r s as water tempera-t u r e , p . h . l e v e l ; presence o f chemica l p o l l u t a n t s , d i s s o l v e d oxygen, n u t r i e n t s and s u n l i g h t . In genera l d i e - o f f i s acce-l e t e r a t e d where the above f a c t o r s i n combina t ion : — d i f f e r marke t ly from the human "body environment" — encourage the growth o f competing b a c t e r i a l f l o r a and p ro tozoa many o f which are p reda to ry i n na tu re . With r e spec t to the above i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n f a i r l y pure water , 90% o f pa thogenic organisms w i l l d i e 32,33 w i t h i n 5-7 days . The remainder however, may take weeks. I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t to note t ha t the m o r t a l i t y r a t e o f pa tho-gens i n s a l t water i s much h ighe r than i n f resh and t ha t p o l l u -t ed waters tend to be a more favourable environment than f r e s h . Th i s i s because o f the many n u c l i d e s o r p a r t i c u l a t e s i n s o l u -t i o n or c o l l o i d a l suspension which may envelope these organisms ( p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r u s e s ) i n p o l l u t e d wate rs , w i l l p rov ide a degree o f p r o t e c t i o n not o therwise a v a i l a b l e . Where pathogens are. d i scharged i n t o c o o l damp s o i l s , these organisms may l i v e c o n s i d e r a b l y longer—up to 5 months. Rapid o rgan ic decomposi t ion on the other hand w i l l a c c e l e r a t e d i e - o f f . But even under s lower c o n d i t i o n s o f decomposi t ion as found w i t h i n und i s tu rbed p r i v y con ten t s , b a c t e r i a l pathogens x v i l l seldom s u r v i v e more than 2 months. I l l NATURAL FILTRATION Movement o f b a c t e r i a through s o i l s i s not g e n e r a l l y great and i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by s o i l p o r o s i t y and water f l o w . Under average c o n d i t i o n s h o r i z o n t a l t r a v e l o f b a c t e r i a i s usu-a l l y l e s s than 3 fee t and downward t r a v e l , l e s s than 10 f e e t . In f i n e sand however, b a c t e r i a have been observed to pene t ra te 35 as deep as 25 fee t and i f accompanied by c o n s i d e r a b l e water f l ow as i n many a q u i f e r s , h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e s o f n e a r l y 100 36 fee t may be reached. But i n areas where the o v e r l y i n g s o i l s are t h i n and h i g h l y permeable and where subsurface geo log i c f o r -mations c o n s i s t o f f i s s u r e d r o c k s , c r e v i c e d snadstone, c o n c l o -merate or where l imes tone format ions extend to or near the s u r -face , p o l l u t a n t s may be c a r r i e d by s o l u t i o n channels f o r much grea te r d i s t a n c e s . Hence o n l y deeply b u r i e d aqu i f e r s o v e r l a i n by r e l a t i v e l y impermeable shale or c l a y format ions are e f f e c t i v e l y p ro t ec t ed from contamina t ion by s u r f a c e wastes—provided w e l l s 37 and other t e s t ho les have been e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l e d . F o r t u n a t e l y , the r e l a t i v e l y slow r a t e o f groundwater f l ow tends to r e t a r d the spread of pa thogenic organisms—which as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d w i l l undergo c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n by reason o f n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y . In sand and g r a v e l a q u i f e r s f o r 38 example water movement may be on ly a few fee t a day. Though sandstone and o ther f i n e g ra ined d e p o s i t s such as c l a y and sha le however, movement may o n l y amount to a few fee t a year (bac-t e r i a and v i r u s e s can o n l y t r a v e l i n the d i r e c t i o n of water f lows) . .'Another c o n s o l a t i o n i s tha t b a c t e r i a l t r a v e l through a medium becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t w i t h t i m e . T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y - to the . na tu ra l compaction and c l o g g i n g o f s o i l s by v/ater borne b a c t e r i a . Hence w i t h cont inued use, a s o i l g e n e r a l l y becomes more impermeable' and r e s i s t a n t to v/ater and b a c t e r i a l t r a v e l . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n u n f o r t u n a t e l y does not 40 apply to chemical substances tha t are d i s s o l v e d i n wate r . Perhaps the bes t i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f s o i l s to prevent groundwater p o l l u t i o n can be ob ta ined by examining mo-dern procedures f o r p u r i f i c a t i o n o f p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s . These i n v a r i a b l y use sand f i l t e r s rang ing i n t h i c k n e s s from 2 to 3 fee t and c o n s i s t i n g o f a v a r i e t y o f f i n e s to f i l t e r out pathoge-n i c organisms as w e l l as o ther suspended mat te r . But even the bes t o f those f i l t e r systems (the o l d slow sand f i l t e r s f o r ex-ample) are not cons idered to assure a b a c t e r i o l o g i c a i l y safe water and are used p r i m a r i l y to save i n the amount o f c h l o r i n e which i s u l t i m a t e l y added t o d i s i n f e c t the water p r i o r to use. V i r u s e s moreover are l e a s t susceptable to f i l t r a t i o n or o ther forms o f m e c h a n i c a l l y or c h e m i c a l l y induced t reatments p r i m a r i l y • 41,42 by reason o f t h e i r sma l l s i z e . Because pathogenic organisms cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y removed under a l l c i rcumstances , p u b l i c h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s con-t i n u e to urge the sa fe -guard ing o f p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s , .and^the 113 c l o s u r e o f watershed lands f o r example m a i n t a i n i n g tha t p reven -t a t i v e r a the r than remedia l "treatment" s t r a t e g i e s are u l t i m a t e -l y the o n l y r e a l p r o t e c t i v e measures which can be r e l i e d upon. T h i s view i s shared w i t h i n areas where subsurface s o i l s and geo-l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g groundwater f i l t r a t i o n or d i l u t i o n are p o o r l y unders tood. NATURAL "REMOVAL" OF INORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN SUSPENSION OR SOLUTION The movement o f i n o r g a n i c substances i n suspension or s o l u t i o n , i s most e f f e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d by movement o f the ground-water i t s e l f . The removal or breakdown of chemica l c o n s t i t u e n t s by n a t u r a l p rocesses i s normal ly a slow and u n c e r t a i n p rocess accomplished p r i m a r i l y . b y o x i d a t i o n , and d i l u t i o n and to a much l e s s e r ex ten t ; p h y s i c a l o r chemical s o r p t i o n . For t h i s reason man induced processes must g e n e r a l l y be r e l i e d upon to e f f e c t treatment (see p r imary , secondary and t e r t i a r y t rea tments , p . 114) . The p r imary concern w i t h removal o f chemica ls from waste wa te r s , i s o f t en d i r e c t e d at phosphates and n i t r a t e s which are not on ly in t roduced by detergents but from n a t u r a l decompo-s i t i o n p roces se s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, these compounds are cons ide red to be the major c o n t r i b u t i n g reasons f o r l a k e e u t r o -p h i c a t i o n . I n t h i s respec t i t i s important to note tha t phos-phorous can be removed by n a t u r a l f i l t r a t i o n as i t i s known to c l i n g to s o i l s . N i t r o g e n and o ther c h l o r i d e s u n f o r t u n a t e l y can-114 43 not be so e a s i l y removed as they d i s s o l v e e a s i l y i n wa te r . (Even under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s there i s as y e t not adequate 44 procedure fo r t h e i r removal o ther than d i l u t i o n ) . SPECIFIC HOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS DESCRIBED Having i n d i c a t e d the k i n d of. processes b a s i c to waste t reatment , i t now remains fo r the t h e s i s to examine the nature and r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l household systems: Waste t reatment systems are g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e spec t to e f f i c i e n c y as to whether they p rov ide "pr imary" , "secondary" o r " t e r t i a r y " t rea tment : For example cesspools and p i t p r i v i e s g e n e r a l l y p rov ide p r imary treatment whereas s e p t i c and ae rob ic systems may be capable o f secondary t rea tment . For p u r -poses o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n we u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between these t r e a t -ments as f o l l o w s : 1. Pr imary Treatment: Th i s r e s u l t s i n a r e d u c t i o n o f the suspended and f l o a t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n sewage. These are p h y s i c a l l y removed by passage through s o i l s ( s e p t i c f i e l d s ) or man-made s i e v e s . F i n e r m a t e r i a l s . l e f t i n suspension are removed w i t h i n p i t p r i v i e s or sep-t i c tanks by n a t u r a l s ed imen ta t ion . In more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d systems the t reatment may a l s o i n c l u d e " a g i -t a t i o n . . . or a d d i t i o n o f chemicals to enhance f l o c -c u l a t i o n and inc rease the e f f e c t i v e s e p a r a t i o n o f the s o l i d " i n order to achieve removal .^5 2. Secondary Treatment: Th i s i s r ecogn ized to be the r e -moval o f d i s s o l v e d and c o l l o i d a l m a t e r i a l s t ha t are not amenable to s epa ra t i on by mechanical methods or g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e s . Th i s t reatment , u s u a l l y p rece -ded by p r imary treatment p r o v i d e s some means fo r s a -t i s f y i n g the oxygen demand f o r o x i d a t i o n o f bo th o rgan ic and i n o r g a n i c compounds. F i n a l l y , c h l o r i -n a t i o n may be used not on ly to d i s i n f e c t the above p rocesses , des t roy odours , but a l s o to reduce the B iochemica l Oxygen Demand ( c h l o r i n e i s not normal ly used where b a c t e r i a l p rocesses are r e l i e d upon). 3« T e r t i a r y : Th i s i s r e s o r t e d to where p r imary and se -condary t reatments desc r ibed above are found unsa-t i s f a c t o r y . Contaminants c a l l e d " r e f r a c t o r y sub-s tances" f o r example—which i n c l u d e bo th o rgan ic and i n o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s are seldom removed or des -t royed by p r imary and secondary t rea tments . Hence such processes as u l t r a - v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n , a b s o r p t i o n , e l e c t r o - d i a l i s i s , e x t r a c t i o n , h y d r a t i o n , foaming, f r e e z i n g , evapora t ion , i o n exchange and chemical o r e l e c t r o - c h e m i c a l o x i d a t i o n may be used. As most o f these processes axe q u i t e . e x p e n s i v e and not used f o r treatment o f i n d i v i d u a l household wastes they w i l l not be d i s cus sed any f u r t h e r . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r imary and secondary t reatments v / i l l va ry g r e a t l y , depending of course on the q u a l i t y o f des ign and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the treatment system. However some genera l s t a t i s t i c s and obse rva t ions may be u s e f u l i n comparing the e f -f i c i e n c y o f most systems u t i l i z i n g the v a r i o u s t reatments des-c r i b e d : — Pr imary treatment i s observed to remove above 35% o f the B . O . D . and from 10 to 75% of b a c t e r i a . In ve ry few cases does the percentage o f suspended s o l i d s surpass 70%. — Pr imary t reatment i n combinat ion w i t h secondary treatment i s observed to remove approximate ly 85% of the B . O . D . and over 95% of the b a c t e r i a . But beyond t h i s l e v e l t r e a t ment becomes c o n s i d e r a b l y more expensive and r e s u l t s L ' c somewhat u n c e r t a i n . ^ 116 CESSPOOLS AND PIT PRIVIES Cesspools and p i t p r i v i e s are merely ho l e s i n the ground or " l e a c h i n g v a u l t s " i n which wastes are depos i t ed . A cesspoo l may be used f o r the r e n t i o n o f s i n k wastes as w e l l as t o i l e t wastes , whereas a p i t p r i v y i s u s u a l l y concerned o n l y w i t h the l a t t e r . Both are designed to r e t a i n the o rgan ic matter and s o l i d s but permi t the l i q u i d s to seep through the bottom and s ides i n t o the sur rounding s o i l . B a c t e r i a l a c t i o n which i s p r i -m a r i l y anaerob ic , he lps break down waste c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t o s o l u -able form f o r f u r t he r d i s p e r s i o n . Because cesspools are used f o r complete sewage t r e a t -ment they have by f a r the g rea tes t p o t e n t i a l f o r con tamina t ion of groundwater sources . I t i s f o r t h i s reason tha t t h e i r use alone or i n con junc t ion w i t h s e p t i c tanks has been p r o h i b i t e d i n most a reas . The p i t p r i v y or "dry c e s s p o o l " by c o n t r a s t i s the most s imple and perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e method f o r waste d i s p o s a l i n co t tage a reas—despi te i t s p e r c e i v e d a e s t h e t i c s h o r t -comings. The p i t p r i v y i s e f f e c t i v e because i t i s used p r i m a r i l y f o r the treatment o f t o i l e t wastes . As a r e l a t i v e l y dry p roces s , the p r i v y min imizes problems o f groundwater con tamina t ion by l e a c h a t e . The long d e t e n t i o n t imes of p r i v y contents toge ther w i t h the common and convenient a p p l i c a t i o n o f chemicals such as 117 c h l o r i n e are u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t to reduce pathogen below i n f e c -t i o u s l e v e l s . Proper sc reen ing and c o v e r i n g can a l s o min imize a s soc i a t ed problems of d i s ea se , t r a n s f e r by i n s e c t s and a n i -mals as w e l l as those a e s t h e t i c concerns o f s i g h t and s m e l l . Given s u f f i c i e n t t ime , anaerobic a c t i o n may achieve complete r e d u c t i o n o f wastes . Should a new p r i v y be d e s i r e d , the ho le may be e a s i l y f i l l e d and another dug. The c h i e f disadvantage o f the p i t p r i v y i s tha t i t i s not designed f o r l i q u i d wastes . Hence i t s use i s o f ten a c -companied by the i n d i s c r i m i n a n t use o f a s lop p a i l and sur face d i s p o s a l o f s i n k and ba th water . W i t h re fe rence to ground water contamina t ion the p i t p r i v y has th ree d i s t i n c t advantages: F i r s t l y , w i t h con t inued use, the sur rounding s o i l becomes r a p i d l y c logged and b u i l d s up an even b e t t e r f i l t e r o f o rgan ic matter and mic ro-organ i sms . Se-cond ly , i t s l o c a t i o n i s more v i s i b l y de f ined to neighbours who are contempla t ing the l o c a t i o n o f w e l l s . T h i r d l y , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , persons are g e n e r a l l y more aware o f the l i m i -t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p i t p r i v i e s , and not hav ing s taked cons ide r ab l e money nor space f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n are not adverse to remov-i n g them should they pose a t h r ea t t o the s a n i t a t i o n or amenity o f t h e i r neighbourhood. 118 SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS A s e p t i c tank system i s merely a s o p h i s t i c a t e d c e s s -p o o l . A major d i s t i n c t i o n i s the p r o v i s i o n of a system o f see-page p i t s or abso rp t ion t renches which a l l o w f o r more e f f e c t i v e abso rp t ion and c o n d i t i o n i n g o f e f f l u e n t through spaced d i s c h a r g e . Under s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s secondary treatment i s p r o v i d e d i n the f i e l d by ae rob ic b a c t e r i a l o c a t e d i n the upper l a y e r s o f the s o i l (aera ted by oxygen from the surface) or i n the coa r se r ag-gregate a long which the d r a i n p i p e s are extended. The p r imary purpose o f the s e p t i c tank i t s e l f i s t o c o n d i t i o n the sewage by means of f i l t r a t i o n , and a l e s s e r ex ten t , decomposi t ion by an-ae rob ic b a c t e r i a i n order to min imize c l o g g i n g o f the d i s p o s a l f i e l d by d i scharged e f f l u e n t . Al though the sewage undergoes t reatment by anaerobic decomposi t ion and c l a r i f i c a t i o n by d e t e n t i o n w i t h i n the tank, t h i s p rocess i s seldom c a r r i e d to comple t ion . I t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged tha t under normal c o n d i t i o n s o f use, s e p t i c tanks do not accompl ish a h i g h degree o f b a c t e r i a removal and the l i -qu id d i scharged " i s i n some r e s p e c t s , more o b j e c t i o n a b l e than 47 tha t which goes i n ; i t i s s e p t i c and malodorous". P e r c o l a t i o n through s o i l and decomposi t ion by b a c t e r i a w i t h i n s o i l i s u l t i -mately r e l i e d upon to "c leanse" the e f f l u e n t o f i t s u n d e s i r a -b l e q u a l i t i e s . 1 1 9 Cont ra ry to popular b e l i e f t h e r e f o r e , s e p t i c tanks are not much safer than cesspools or p i t p r i v i e s , and i n some cases c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s sa fe . They merely tend t o s c a t t e r con tami-nants over a wider area and somewhat c l o s e r to the surface than t h e i r " p r i m i t i v e " coun te rpa r t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t must be admit-ted tha t under proper c o n d i t i o n s t h i s a c t i o n w i l l induce more e f f i c i e n t treatment of. wastes by ae rob ic decomposi t ion and p r o -v i d e a more s u b s t a n t i a l b u f f e r o f s o i l s epa ra t i on between r e -l eased wastes and groundwater t a b l e s . A. major problem w i t h s e p t i c tank systems i s tha t many users are m i s l e d i n t o t h i n k i n g tha t because these systems are designed to handle both t o i l e t and s ink wastes , they may serve as a convenient s u b s t i t u t e f o r sewers. Unfo r tuna t e ly t h i s sense o f assurance and r e s u l t a n t "ove r load ing" o f s e p t i c systems i s a c h i e f reason f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e . B a s i c to the problem o f course i s tha t s e p t i c systems r e l y upon anaerobic b a c t e r i a fo r eventua l decomposi t ion o f o rgan ic was tes . T h i s i s accomplished bo th w i t h -i n the tank and to a l e s s e r esc t en t i n the f i e l d . T h i s i n t e r - r e -l a t i o n s h i p i s p o o r l y understood by most r e s i d e n t s who are o f the b e l i e f tha t as l o n g as the t o i l e t keeps f l u s h i n g , wastes are be ing e f f e c t i v e l y removed and t r e a t e d . Seldom apprec ia t ed a l s o , i s the f a c t t ha t s e p t i c f i e l d s i n s t a l l e d under the bes t o f c o n d i t i o n s and used p r o p e r l y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become c logged and u n s u i t a b l e f o r waste d i s p o s a l . In 120 most areas fo r example the e f f e c t i v e l i f e o f f i e l d s has been 48 es t imated to be l i t t l e more than 10 y e a r s . However i n areas where r e l a t i v e l y impermeable s o i l s u n d e r l a i n by hardpan e x i s t —and these are q u i t e common i n the nor the rn G u l f I s l a n d s , l o c a l h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e t ha t few f i e l d s w i l l f u n c t i o n s a t i s f a c -t o r i l y a f t e r 3-5 years o f s u s t a i n e d use . Even du r ing t h i s sho r t 49 p e r i o d o f use moreover " f a i l u r e s have been known to o c c u r " . No twi ths tand ing the acknowledged u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e o f s e p t i c f i e l d s (concrete tanks may l a s t i n d e f i n i t e l y ) i s the l a c k o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f such systems when " i n o p e r a t i o n " . Temporary or permanent f a i l u r e o f s e p t i c tanks and f i e l d s may be caused by a number o f f a c t o r s : W i t h i n the' tank anaerobic b a c t e r i a may be des t royed by the presence o f t o x i c household chemicals or when s e a s o n a l l y used, by the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s to pe rmi t b a c t e r i a to l i v e through the v/ inter months (the tank may be r e -a c t i v a t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f appropr i a t e c u l t u r e s and n u t r i -e n t s — u s u a l l y sewage s l u d g e ) . I n s u f f i c i e n t i n s u l a t i o n to main-t a i n the temperature o f the. tank over the w i n t e r months may r e -s u l t i n temporary, f a i l u r e a l s o bu t t h i s i s seldom a problem on the c o a s t . The m a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f a s e p t i c f i e l d can be a t t r i b u -t e d to a v a r i e t y o f caused but p r i n c i p a l l y to the tank i t s e l f : A c h i e f problem i s t ha t "processed" s e p t i c e f f l u e n t con ta ins a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s o l i d matter which must be fu r the r broken down a f t e r be ing d i scharged i n t o the s o i l . Whi le i t i s admi t ted tha t anaerobic processes can d i g e s t o rgan ic s o l i d s n e a r l y 121 comple te ly—they r e q u i r e an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f time (a m i n i -mum o f 5 days de t en t i on time under the bes t o f c o n d i t i o n s ) to achieve such r e d u c t i o n . Most s e p t i c tanks are designed for a 24 hour de t en t i on p e r i o d , a n d o f ten when over loaded as w i t h Mon-day morning wash water fo r example, matter i n suspension may 50 not be g iven even t h i s degree o f t rea tment . The problem o f c logged d r a i n f i e l d s i s compounded by the r e luc t ance o f users to have t h e i r tanks pumped p e r i o d i c a l l y (s ince they "appear to f l u s h s a t i s f a c t o r i l y " ) . The accumula t ion o f s l u d g e — i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f decomposi t ion does not always s e t t l e out a t the bottom of the tank, but through a g i t a t i o n (caused by p r o d u c t i o n o f methane and o ther gaseous by-produc ts o f anaerobic decomposi t ion and augmented by n a t u r a l i n f l o w s o f domestic waste) tends to encourage sludge m i x i n g w i t h the c l e a r e f f l u e n t above, w i t h r e s u l t a n t escape i n t o the f i e l d . This r e -lease o f p o o r l y t r e a t e d e f f l u e n t , caus ing premature c l o g g i n g o f d i s p o s a l f i e l d s has prompted many h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s i n B . C . to recommend tha t tanks be c leaned a t l e a s t once every two y e a r s . In Spokane Country Washington fo r example, laws have been enac-51 t ed to force homeowners to sludge t h e i r tanks every y e a r . The s a t u r a t i o n o f s o i l s by pro longed f l o o d i n g e i t h e r by surface or ground water may d i s r u p t the f u n c t i o n i n g o f a sep-t i c f i e l d a l s o . F r o s t may i n h i b i t b a c t e r i a l a c t i o n i n areas where due to low temperatures and l a c k o f cover i t i s ab le to 122 pene t ra t e the f i e l d . Compaction o f s o i l s , t r a m p l i n g or f l o o d -i n g w i l l i n h i b i t proper d i s p o s a l a l s o s i n c e ae rob i c b a c t e r i a l o -ca ted i n the upper l a y e r s o f the s o i l r e l y upon the p o r o s i t y o f the s o i l f o r a e r a t i o n . In e f f e c t t h e r e f o r e , there are many "con-d i t i o n s " which may go wrong. W i t h i n co t tage areas where d i s p o s a l f i e l d s are used on a seasonal b a s i s o n l y , t h e i r p e r i o d o f usefu lness may w e l l be extended s i n c e the ground i s g iven some t ime to absorb the wastes and through n a t u r a l p rocesses become porous a g a i n . The p e r i o d o f s ludge and waste water d e t e n t i o n would a l s o appear pro longed thus improving t rea tment . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e p t i c systems can perhaps be gauged by a s tudy o f 4500 co t tages under-taken by the O n t a r i o Department of H e a l t h i n 1970. T h i s survey o f cot tages i n the Kawartha Lakes r e g i o n , A l g o n q u i n Pa rk , Musko-ka D i s t r i c t and i n the Thousand I s l a n d s area o f the S t . Lawrence R i v e r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t 66% had waste treatment systems r a t e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y ? 15% were r epo r t ed to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and 19% 52 were c a t e g o r i z e d as p o t e n t i a l l y p o l l u t i n g . T h i s i s a f a r from i d e a l s i t u a t i o n i n a r e g i o n where the presence o f ex t ens ive rock outcroppings and ext remely permeable s o i l s combine to pe rmi t easy con tamina t ion o f adjacent water b o d i e s . There i s no reason to b e l i e v e tha t a s i m i l a r survey i n the G u l f I s l a n d s would not r e v e a l the same c o n d i t i o n s o f s e p t i c tank performance. 123 AEROBIC TREATMENT SYSTEMS These u n i t s d i f f e r from s e p t i c systems i n t ha t both p h y s i c a l s epa ra t i on o f s o l i d s and ae rob ic decomposi t ion are ac -complished w i t h i n the tank i t s e l f . The d i s p o s a l f i e l d i s used o n l y to d i spose o f t r e a t e d e f f l u e n t . , . SThen p r o p e r l y o p e r a t i n g these systems may achieve s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n s i n b i o c h e m i -c a l oxygen demand, (sometimes w i t h r e s i d u a l oxygen) t u r b i d i t y , and c o l i f o r m counts ( these are s t i l l r e l i e d upon t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of f e c a l con t amina t ion ) . The h ighe r q u a l i t y o f the t r e a t e d e f f l u e n t min imizes c l o g g i n g o f the d i s p o s a l f i e l d t h e r e -by p r o l o n g i n g i t s l i f e . Because a g rea t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the o rgan ic matter i s o x i d i z e d w i t h i n the tank, problems o f b a c t e -r i a l contamina t ion or f o u l odours c r ea t ed by decomposi t ion a f t e r d i scha rge are seldom observed . Most are designed to r e l e a s e wastes i n s o l u t i o n o n l y . But r a t h e r , t h a n p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the waste r e d u c t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s o f these systems ( there are a wide v a r i e t y on the market) i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t ha t one o f these u n i t s has r e c e n t l y been t e s t e d by the Department o f H e a l t h ' 53 and au tho r i zed f o r p r o v i n c i a l use i n l i e u o f s e p t i c t anks . An i n s i g h t i n t o the p o t e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f these u n i t s i s p r o v i d e d by comparing the c i rcumstances under which the Eng inee r ing D i v i s i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f H e a l t h i s 54 prepared to a l l o w t h e i r use: Por example, i t i s Department p o l i c y 124 not to permit absorption f i e l d s f o r septics to be used where per-c o l a t i o n rates exceed 30 minutes per inch or where there i s i n -s u f f i c i e n t space to provide the required length of drainage pipe (refer to tables 10 and 11). For aerobic units however the a-bove noted report suggested that t h e i r use could be permitted under a much wider variety of conditions; " i t must be remembered that the effluent from a Cromo-glass (aerobic) unit has already"" undergone secondary treatment comparable to that provided i n the design of a standard disposal f i e l d , hence i t i s reasonable that p e r c o l a t i o n rates greater than 30 minutes per inch can safely be used i n conjunction with the Cromoglass unit. In addition, the t i l e f i e l d can be located at greater depths since there i s no need for further b a c t e r i a l action within the bed".^ The f i n a l recommendation of t h i s report moreover sug-gested that these units could be used i n areas where pe r c o l a t i o n rates of over 60 minutes per inch were experienced. The above study also indicated that under most s o i l and slope conditions a t i l e f i e l d of 30 feet was found to be s a t i s f a c t o r y for d i s -posal of aerobically treated household wastes. TABLE 10 56 GROUND ABSORPTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SEPTIC FIELDS PERCOLATION RATE (in minutes per ince) 1 5 10 20 30 DRAINAGE PIPE (no. feet per bedroom) 30 53 70 90 107 125 While i t appears that these units are gaining i n popu-l a r i t y , a major drawback i s the r e l a t i v e l y high cost of purchase and maintenance: i % t y p i c a l household unit (500 gallon capacity) 57 presently costs about $1600 i n s t a l l e d . ;& septic tank and f i e l d by contrast w i l l usually cost around $500 to $800 but seldom.more than $1100 when i n s t a l l e d i n rocky t e r r a i n . Xn addi-t i o n , aerobic systems depend upon an e l e c t r i c a l l y driven pump which at 1C/K.W. hour may cost as much as $5.00 per month to operate. 'A servicing contract usually implied may cost around $70 f o r three routine inspections per year. For cottage areas used on a seasonal basis or within remote developments where servicing cannot be economically provided more f l e x i b l e terms 58 may be arranged. Nevertheless for year round use, a t o t a l maintenance cost of from $100 to $125 can be expected. The improved treatment and greatly extended l i f e of the disposal f i e l d i s often used to defend the higher cost of aerobic units. Further, these units by v i r t u e of p e r i o d i c i n -spections, and b u i l t i n "warning" indicators provide a means for maintaining t h e i r performance over t i m e — a much neglected factor among users of septic tank systems. Should the power supply f a i l i t i s further countered, these units w i l l merely re-vert to septic systems. F i e l d studies of these units to date 59 have not encountered any unusual problems. The maintenance arrangement would appear to be the e s s e n t i a l aspect of concern. 126 A b a s i c problem common to bo th ae rob ic and anaerobic systems c u r r e n t l y produced i s t ha t n e i t h e r systems are des igned t o remove n i t r a t e s and phosphates—the s o - c a l l e d "macro -nu t r i en t s " e f f e c t i n g e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . N i t r a t e s i n s o l u t i o n as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d may a l s o pose a s e r ious h e a l t h hazard when inges t ed i n h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . I n e f f e c t t h e r e f o r e , the more " e f f i c i e n t " these household treatment u n i t s p rocess o rgan ic wastes , the more n u t r i e n t s w i l l be r e l ea sed to contaminate s o i l s and ground wa te r s . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f p o l l u t i o n by b a c t e r i a l or v i r a l p a -thogens w h i l e reduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p a r t i c u l a r by ae rob ic t r e a t -ment, i s c e r t a i n l y not e l l i m i n a t e d e i t h e r . ELECTRIC/PROPANE TOILETS One o f the most e f f e c t i v e treatment systems on the market i s the e l e c t r i c - p r o p a n e t o i l e t . Even when used i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h cesspoo l s these may e f f e c t i v e l y e l l i m i n a t e the problem of waterborne d i sease t r a n s f e r . T h i s t o i l e t v i r t u a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e s f e c a l wastes i n t o harmless ash p roduc t s and steam v/hich may e a s i l y be d i sposed o f . The e l l i m i n a t i o n o f f e c a l wastes as p r e v i o u s l y noted, g r e a t l y reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y o f pa thogenic organisms be ing r e l e a s e d i n t o domestic water sources as w e l l as those n u t r i e n t s which c o n t r i b u t e to l a k e e u t r o p h i c a -t i o n problems. 127 .'Again, the major drawback t o these systems i s t h e i r expense; The f a c t t ha t an e l e c t r i c - p r o p a n e t o i l e t c o s t s i n the v i c i n i t y o f $500 to i n s t a l l and approximate ly 10-* a f l u s h t h e r e -60 a f t e r d i scourages t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n and use w i t h i n co t tage a reas . Often i n e v a l u a t i n g the " c o s t - b e n e f i t " o f these systems co t t age r s are unaware o f the env i ronmen ta l -hea l th problems ave r -t e d by t h e i r use . B. PROVINCIAL CONTROLS FOR HOUSEHOLD WASTE DISPOSAL I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t p i t p r i v i e s , c e s spoo l s , s e p t i c tanks and a e r o b i c systems u l t i m a t e l y depend upon e n v i r o n -mental resources to decompose or o therwise n e u t r a l i z e wastes , a v a r i e t y o f c o n t r o l s have been i n t roduced by the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f H e a l t h i n order to min imize problems a r i s i n g from the use o f these systems. As these r e g u l a t i o n s d i c t a t e the c o n d i t i o n s and manner by which most waste d i s p o s a l systems are c o n s t r u c t e d , l o c a t e d and main ta ined , a b r i e f rev iew o f these r e -g u l a t i o n s i n s o f a r as they i n f l u e n c e groundwater supply would appear most i n s t r u c t i v e at t h i s s tage . I t i s important to note tha t the Department o f H e a l t h 61 has b a s i c j u r i s d i c t i o n over i n d i v i d u a l waste d i s p o s a l systems. Fo r t h i s reason, n e a r l y a l l r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to sewage d i s p o s a l are o u t l i n e d w i t h i n the H e a l t h A c t and enforced by l o -c a l M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s . These r e g u l a t i o n s have been conso-l i d a t e d fo r convenience w i t h i n the " P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Re-g u l a t i o n s " o f the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t (1970). A b a s i c tenet o f the H e a l t h A c t i s t ha t an owner i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s p o s a l o f a l l wastes from h i s p r o p e r t y by a treatment system which must be approved by a M e d i c a l H e a l t h 62 O f f i c e r . To t h i s end, a s p e c i a l form d e s c r i b i n g the nature o f the proposed system o f e f f l u e n t d i s p o s a l must be completed by the a p p l i c a n t and submit ted to the H e a l t h O f f i c e r f o r appro-v a l (see Append ice s ) . Where these p r e s c r i b e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r waste treatment cannot be met, e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n i s made i n 63 the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu l a t i ons f o r the s u b d i v i d e r tos 1. p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e sewage d i s p o s a l system which can meet p r o v i n c i a l s a n i t a r y requi rements . 2 . agree i n w r i t i n g t o the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a covenant which s h a l l r e s t r i c t or p r o h i b i t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s or s t r u c t u r e o f the use o f the subd iv ided lands u n t i l such t ime as the s u b d i v i d e r removes the cause o f the o b j e c t i o n or compl ies w i t h d e s i r e d s e r -v i c i n g requi rements . MINIMUM LOT SIZE B a s i c a l l y d i s p o s a l systems must s a t i s f y the f o l l o w i n g 64 requirements p e r t a i n i n g to l o t s i zes — i n sewered areas, i n d i v i d u a l t reatment systems are not p e r m i t t e d . — where no sewer i s a v a i l a b l e but a community water supply has been p r o v i d e d the i n d i v i d u a l i s p e r m i t -t e d to use p i t p r i v y , s e p t i c tank or o ther approved systems p r o v i d e d the l o t i s at l e a s t 7500 square fee t i n s i z e . 129 - - where n e i t h e r a community sewer or water supply i s a v a i l a b l e , a l o t o f no l e s s than 18,000 square fee t must be a v a i l a b l e f o r treatment o f i n d i v i d u a l house-h o l d wastes . Minimum l o t s i z e s , may p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e buf fe r i n a n t i c i p a t i n g p o t e n t i a l problems o f groundwater p o l l u t i o n . P e r -haps most impor tan t , minimum l o t s i z e s c o n t r o l the number o f households and thereby the t o t a l amount o f wastes which a g iven area may be sub jec t . Lot s i z e s . a l s o have an i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e upon the l o c a t i o n o f waste d i scha rges and hence, l i k e l i h o o d tha t ' ad jacent w e l l s may be contaminated. A b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n , i s t ha t l o t s i z e s p r o v i d e no i n d i -c a t i o n as t o the a b i l i t y of s o i l s t o abosrb household wastes . In t h i s r e spec t , the s i z e and s u i t a b i l i t y o f waste a b s o r p t i o n f i e l d s as i n d i c a t e d by p e r c o l a t i o n t e s t s , ground s lope and depth to water t a b l e s are c l e a r l y more i n s t r u c t i v e parameters . Never -t h e l e s s the f a c t t ha t these parameters are more d i f f i c u l t to measure p r o v i d e s at l e a s t one reason why minimum l o t s i z e s w i l l con t inue to be r e l i e d upon as a l a s t " l i n e o f defense" i n waste t rea tment . W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y admit ted tha t l a r g e minimum l o t areas , say 3-5 ac res , g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e s an e f f e c t i v e b u f f e r f o r m i n i m i z i n g problems o f groundwater p o l l u t i o n , i t i s a l u x u r y which few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s can a f fo rd—par -t i c u l a r l y i f l and development p ressures are great and a l t e r n a -130 t i v e waste d i s p o s a l c o n t r o l s are a v a i l a b l e . Fo r t h i s reason, the great v a r i a t i o n i n minimum l o t s i z e s observed between areas i s not so much a t t r i b u t e d to fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s between l o c a l s o i l s to absorb wastes s a f e l y (as such can o n l y be de f ined w i t h d i f f i c u l t y ) as i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of land use p o l i c i e s which are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to envi ronmenta l h e a l t h con -s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s perhaps bes t e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r e v a i l i n g 10 acre minimum s i z e l i m i t on s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n p a r t s o f the G u l f I s l a n d s . Where subsurface waste d i s p o s a l systems are employed the re are a number o f a d d i t i o n a l l and use requirements imposed t o safeguard the environmental h e a l t h o f the community. These requirements i n c l u d e " s a t i s f a c t o r y " ground abso rp t i on o f wastes as measured by p e r c o l a t i o n t e s t s and ground s lope as w e l l as the c o n t r o l l e d l o c a t i o n of d i s p o s a l systems. Under ext remely adverse ground c o n d i t i o n s these not o n l y p r o v i d e f o r a subs tan-t i a l i nc rease i n the minimum l o t s i z e p e r m i s s i b l e (see Table 11) but on o c c a s i o n may out law the use o f s e p t i c tank systems e n t i r e l y . SPECIAL .AREA REQUIREMENTS H e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s i n B . C . i n s i s t t ha t an unse rv i ced l o t o f 18,000 square fee t must p r o v i d e at l e a s t 1,000 square f ee t o f s o i l which i s "usuable" f o r sewage d i s p o s a l . T h i s i m -131 p l i e s tha t the s o i l has a p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e o f l e s s than 5 m i n -u tes per i n c h and tha t the f i e l d i s l o c a t e d on a l o t hav ing an o v e r a l l s lope o f l e s s than 10%. Where these "minimum" c o n d i t i o n s o f s o i l p e r c o l a t i o n and l o t s lope are exceeded, the f o l l o w i n g areas must be added to the l o t : TABLE 11 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOTS EXPERIENCING "UNUSUAL" CONDITIONS OF SOIL PERCOLATION OR LOT SLOPE PERCOLATION RATE (minutes pe r inch) MINIMUM AREA ADDED TO PARCEL MINIMUM AREA SOIL WITHIN PARCEL 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 500 1,000 1, 500 2,000 2,500 1, 500 2,000 2, 500 3,000 3,500 SLOPE (%) 10 to 14 15 t o 19 20 to 24 e t c . 500 1,000 1,500 e t c . 132 P e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s are used as the p r imary b a s i s fo r de te rmin ing the nature o f d i s p o s a l systems which .can be used and the s i z e o f the d i s p o s a l f i e l d and l o t which must be p r o v i d e d . Unfo r tuna t e ly these t e s t s and r e l a t e d c o n t r o l s are o f l i t t l e re levance o f groundwater systems. For example, w h i l e p e r c o l a t i o n t e s t s appear admirable s u i t e d fo r de termining whether s o i l s are able to absorb wastes , i t i s i r o n i c tha t s o i l s hav ing h i g h pe r -c o l a t i o n r a t e s have a co r r e spond ing ly low a b i l i t y fo r f i l t e r i n g 66 out chemical and o rgan ic v/astes. Hence a w e l l d r a ined l o t u t i l i z i n g a shor t d r a i n f i e l d (as l i t t l e as 30 fee t i s a l lowed) may achieve grea te r contaminat ion o f groundwater sources than a l e s s permeable f i e l d w i t h a g rea te r l eng th o f d r a i n f i e l d . No twi ths tand ing the f a c t t ha t poor s o i l p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s w i l l r e q u i r e developers to i n s t a l l more e f f i c i e n t t r e a t -ment systems ( p r i m a r i l y by i n c r e a s i n g the l eng th o f d r a i n f i e l d s and area o f abso rp t ion f i e l d s r equ i red ) or by treatment before d i scharge (a conven t iona l s e p t i c tank system may not be used i f p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s exceed 30 minutes p e r ; i n c h ) i t i s obvious both s t r a t e g i e s p r i m a r i l y address themselves to problems o f d i -sease and nuisance caused by the s a t u r a t i o n o f surface s o i l s and r e s u l t a n t anaerobic decomposi t ion o f wastes . For t h i s reason, these a d d i t i o n a l "safequards" are not s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to guarantee t ha t problems o f ground water p o l l u t i o n v / i l l not a r i s e . 133 W i t h respec t t o the above, the w r i t e r w i l l quote W . J . Drescher who i n a d i s c u s s i o n on groundwater supply problems expressed the f e e l i n g s o f many h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s on the matters "I do not b e l i e v e tha t we can i nc rea se standards suf -f i c i e n t l y merely by i n c r e a s i n g the area i n which we a l l o w a c e r t a i n amount o f waste to be d i sposed o f i n the ground. I t h i n k tha t we had b e t t e r know the geo-l o g y and hydro logy o f the a r ea . We do not want to p o l l u t e the ground water even a l i t t l e b i t . I n some p l a c e s no waste should go i n t o the ground, i n o ther p l a c e s a great amount o f waste can go i n through p r o -p e r l y designed s y s t e m s " . 6 7 "LOCATION" REQUIREMENTS In a d d i t i o n to the above l o t s i z e and s o i l a rea r e q u i r e -ments, subsurface v/aste d i s p o s a l systems are a l s o subjec t to a number o f a r b i t r a r i l y imposed l o c a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s which have been:l,introduced to f u r t h e r min imize problems o f v/aste t r a v e l . These c o n s t r a i n t s (summarized i n Table 12 below) c l o s e l y resem-b l e those o f o ther p r o v i n c e s , based as they are upon standards e s t a b l i s h e d by the American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n and World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n . TABLE 12 68 LOCATIONAL CRITERIA FOR SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS D I S T A N C E F R O M NATURE DIS- PARCEL SOURCE NATURAL BOUND- GROUND POSAL UNIT BUILDING BOUNDARY ' POTABLE JURY OF LAKE OR WATER WATER . STREAM TABLE P i t p r i v y 10 f t . — 100 f t . 100 f t . * 18 i n . * S e p t i c tank 3 f t . 3 f t . 50 f t . S e p t i c tank 10 f t . 10 f t . 100 f t . 100 f t . * 2 5 i n . * W i t h respec t t o the above, i t i s important t o note t ha t : * Under " e x c e p t i o n a l " c i rcumstances , the M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r may permi t l e s s e r d i s t a n c e s o f up to 50 f ee t . ^9 ** V e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s to ground water t a b l e s are de f ined o n l y i n an i n d i r e c t manner. P i t p r i v y contents f o r example may be r e l e a s e d "anywhere" down to 30 i n c h e s . S e p t i c d r a i n p i p e s which extend to a depth of 23 i n c h -es are p e r m i t t e d e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y where "the groundwa-t e r t a b l e or h i g h v/ater mark o f any body o f v/ater o r water course i s g rea te r than 4 fee t below the ground sur face at any t i m e . 7 0 W h i l e i t may be easy to prevent d i s p o s a l f i e l d s from be ing e s t a b l i s h e d c l o s e r than 100 fee t from a l a k e i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o ensure tha t s e p t i c f i e l d s and p i t p r i v i e s are l o c a t e d at l e a s t 18 to 25 inches*above the water t a b l e . T h i s i s o f t en d i f f i c u l t to determine as ground water l e v e l s may f l u c t u a t e g r e a t l y . Here as i n p e r c o l a t i o n t e s t i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s are p e r m i t -135 t ed to perform these t e s t s w i t h a minimum o f exper ience or super-v i s i o n . R e a l i s t i c procedures f o r t e s t i n g are s i m i l a r l y l a c k i n g . A p o t e n t i a l problem a r i s i n g f o r example i s t ha t where t e s t s are made d u r i n g the summer the water t a b l e may be observed c o n s i d e r -ab ly below i t s ' seasonal or y e a r l y norm and hence underes t imated. For year a ID und co t tage development r e l y i n g upon s e p t i c systems f o r waste d i s p o s a l and sha l low a q u i f e r s f o r water supply , t h i s o v e r s i g h t may pose s e r ious problems d u r i n g the we t te r p o r t i o n s o f the year when grounds may be f l o o d e d . LIMITATIONS IN THE USE OF "MINIMUM" STANDARDS "Minimum" standards f o r subsurface waste d i s p o s a l as proposed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government are admirable i n tha t they p r o v i d e p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s and o the r r e s p o n s i b l e persons w i t h a convenient b a s i s upon which to eva lua te p o t e n t a i l problems o f s o i l and water p o l l u t i o n . However, i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknow-ledged tha t these c r i t e r i a may not be s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to guarantee tha t groundwater p o l l u t i o n problems a r i s i n g from waste d i scharges w i l l not occur . The f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g waste t reatment are f a r too complex and c o n d i t i o n s throughout the p r o -v i n c e much too v a r i a b l e t o be a n t i c i p a t e d by any one set of a r -b i t r a r y s tandards . Most h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l agree moreover tha t " there i s no conven t iona l method f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e con -t amina t ion p o t e n t i a l ( s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to contaminat ion) of areas 71 or s i t e s where wastes are r e l e a s e d to the ground". For t h i s reason, even should l o c a l s tandards be d e r i v e d , these cannot be cons ide red a s u b s t i t u t e f o r pe r sona l judgement and d i s c r e t i o n . The problem w i t h "minimum" standards a l s o i s that they tend to become "maximum" standards and tha t complex i n t e r - r e l a -t i o n s h i p s sur rounding waste t reatments become g r o s s l y o v e r - s i m -p l i f i e d . An u n d e r l y i n g reason i s tha t persons complying w i t h these standards or charged v / i th e n f o r c i n g them i n the f i e l d are seldom f a m i l i a r w i t h ho\»/ they have been d e r i v e d ( u s u a l l y by i n -t u i t i v e processes) and the re fo re are seldom aware o f t h e i r many l i m i t a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , few h e a l t h I n s p e c t o r s , engineers and geo-l o g i s t s have been g iven the k i n d o f t r a i n i n g to make them su f -f i c i e n t l y aware of the p o t e n t i a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and c h e m i c a l , much l e s s econo-mic aspects o f waste d i s p o s a l w i t h i n d i f f e r i n g g e o l o g i c and hy-72 d r o l o g i c environments . An a s s o c i a t e d problem w i t h re ference to i n s p e c t i o n s i s t ha t M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s and t h e i r a i d s are handicapped by l i m i t e d f inances or manpower to g i v e household waste treatment systems the degree o f a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d . Once a system i s ap-proved f o r example i t i s seldom reinspected—-unless o f course compla in t s a r i s e . Where p e r i o d i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s can be made, a n a l y s i s o f p o t e n t i a l groundwater p o l l u t i o n problems i f o f t en made most d i f f i c u l t by a l a c k of knowledge concern ing subsurface dra inage c o n d i t i o n s . 1 For these reasons , the Department o f H e a l t h , i n conjunc t i o n w i t h the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Department o f Highways has encouraged tha t "minimum" standards p e r t a i n i n g to waste d i s p o s a l be r e v i s e d upwards wherever p o s s i b l e . Empha-s i s i n t h i s regard has always been p l a c e d upon the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g -use o f l o c a l l y adopted standards and p rocedures . SUMMARY R u r a l l i v i n g I s o f t en accompanied by unique e n v i r o n -mental h e a l t h problems a r i s i n g from o n - s i t e waste d i s p o s a l . W h i l e waterborne d i sease has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a problem (a l though not always recogn ized as such) i n c r e a s i n g concern today i s f o -cused on envi ronmenta l problems a r i s i n g from waste d i s c h a r g e s . The problem of l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r p l e x i n g as i t cannot be so lved by merely l i m i t i n g the use o f de tergents o r u s ing c o n v e n t i o n a l waste treatment systems. The volume o f household wastes c l o s e l y approximates indoor water consumption. Waste treatment systems are based on n a t u r a l processes to decompose or f i l t e r out wastes . The major d i s t i n c t i o n between systems i s whether they use ae rob ic or an-ae rob ic ( s e p t i c ) b a c t e r i a to reduce wastes . (The l a t t e r i s a s lower p rocess and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n u i s a n c e ) . These systems are a ided by n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y and f i l t r a t i o n o f pathogens i n water Unfo r tuna t e ly none o f these processes e i t h e r alone o r i n combin-a t i o n can assure a safe water supp ly . P i t p r i v i e s and cesspoo l s p r o v i d e "pr imary" t reatment whereas s e p t i c and ae rob ic systems when f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y are capable o f "secondary" t rea tment . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f ae rob ic systems and e l e c t r i c - propane t o i l e t s would appear t o reduce o n - s i t e d i s p o s a l problems c o n s i d e r a b l y . P r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l s r e g u l a t i n g l o t s i z e s , d i s p o s a l f i e l d s and l o c a t i o n o f treatment systems are s i m i l a r to those i n o ther areas o f Nor th A m e r i c a . The r e l i a n c e upon p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s as a b a s i s f o r d i c t a t i n g standards f o r waste d i s p o s a l may a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to problems o f groundwater p o l l u t i o n . T h e i r e f f e c -t i v e n e s s i n c u r b i n g p o l l u t i o n i s moreover handicapped by cu r ren t procedures f o r i n s p e c t i o n s . CONCLUSION I t i s r ecogn ized tha t the s o l u t i o n o f problems r e l a -t i n g to ground water p o l l u t i o n are ext remely complex and i n v o l v e a wide v a r i e t y o f env i ronmen ta l -hea l th c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In t h i s r espec t a knowledge o f the s u s c e p t a b i l i t y o f l o c a l groundwaters t o con tamina t ion i s an important p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r e n l i g h t e d a c t i o n . W h i l e a great number o f n a t u r a l and man " induced" c o n -t r o l s may be p r e v a i l e d upon to min imize problems o f groundwater p o l l u t i o n and domestic water supply where o n - s i t e d i s p o s a l s y s -tems are used, none are n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as those r e l a t i n g to the c u r t a i l m e n t o f waste d i s c h a r g e s . Such s t r a t e g i e s i f pub-l i c l y accep tab le , appear to o f f e r co t t age r s w i t h the most p o s i -t i v e and e f f e c t i v e means far i n s u r i n g t h e i r h e a l t h as w e l l as the maintenance o f a q u a l i t y environment. F O O T N O T E S 1. Herbert M. Bosch, "Environmental H e a l t h C r i t e r i a f o r M e t r o -p o l i t a n A r e a s " i n J . A . Logan, P . Oppermann and W. E . Tucker ( e d s . ) . Proceedings o f the F i r s t Conference on E n v i r o n -mental Eng inee r ing and M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g , Nor th-wes te rn U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962, p . 12. 2. E . R. Baumann " P h y s i c a l , . S c i e n t i f i c and Eng inee r ing Aspec t s o f P o l l u t i o n " from Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l and Abatement (T. W i l l r i c k and N . Hines , e d s . ) . The Iowa S ta t e U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , Ames Iowa, 1967, p . 13 . 3. W. J . Mauder "What i s P o l l u t i o n " a r t i c l e i n P o l l u t i o n (W. J . Mauder, ed.) a p u b l i c a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , V i c -t o r i a , B . C . , 1969, p . 1. 4 . J . A . Vance "Water Supply and Sewage Treatment i n Canada", Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l , August 1967, p . 50. 5. B a r c l a y Jones "Land uses i n the U . S . i n the year 2,000; Man's Environment i n the 21st Cen tury . A s e r i e s from the Department o f Environmenta l Sc iences and E n g i n e e r i n g , School o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , U n i v e r s i t y o f Nor th C a r o l i n a , Chapel H i l l , ( P u b l i c a t i o n No. 105) , J u l y 1965, p . 23. 6. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n has been accepted by the Wor ld H e a l t h Orga-n i z a t i o n . 7. " P u b l i c H e a l t h Aspec t s of Mater Supp ly" , C i t y of C a l g a r y Waterworks D i v i s i o n , (a brochure d e s c r i b i n g the Glenmore Dam system o f v/ater s u p p l y ) , J u l y 1969, p . 1. 8. For a more comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e a l t h problems a r i -s i n g from the p o l l u t i o n o f r u r a l water s u p p l i e s r e f e r to Edmond G. Wagner and J . N . L e n o i x , " E x c r e t a D i s p o s a l f o r R u r a l Areas and Smal l Communities" Wor ld H e a l t h O r g a n i z a -t i o n , Monograph S e r i e s No. 39, Geneva, S w i t z e r l a n d , 1958. 9. Wendel R. LaDue, "Development o f the American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n P o l i c y on R e s e r v o i r Use" , J o u r n . Am. Water Works A s s o c . , August 1958, p . 1063. 10. I b i d . 141 11. S. R. I f e i b e l , F . R. D i x o n , R. B . Weidner, and L . J . McCabe, "Waterborne Disease Outbreak, 1946-50" i n Jou rn . Am. Water  Works A s s o c . , August 1964. 12. D a n i e l A . Okun " A l t e r n a t i v e s i n Water Supp ly" , Jou rn . Am. Water Works A s s o c . , May 1969, p . 215. 13. H. Hudson J r . "High Q u a l i t y Water P r o d u c t i o n and V i r a l D i - ; sease". Jou rn . Am. Water.Works A s s o c . , Oc t . 1962, p . 1268. 14. A S t r a t egy f o r A L i v e a b l e Environment r epo r t prepared f o r the U . S . Department o f H e a l t h , Educa t ion & Wel f a r e , Wash-i n g t o n , D . C . , June 1967, p . 13. 15 . I b i d , p . 6. 16. Rene Dubos "Promises and Hazards o f Man's A d a p t a b i l i t y " Envi ronmenta l Q u a l i t y i n a Growing Economy, John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , M d . , 1966. 17. Quote from H a r o l d W. Wolf " Q u a l i t y Standards f o r N a t u r a l Waters , H i s t o r i c a l Background", Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l  Sumposium on Q u a l i t y Standards f o r N a t u r a l Wa te r s—Unive r -s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , School o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , J u l y 1966, p . 27. 18. I b i d . 19. W. C . Ackermann, "The Ground Water Supply Problem", i n P r o -ceedings o f the F i r s t Conference on Envi ronmenta l Eng inee r -i n g and M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g , ( J . A . Logan et a l e d i t o r s ) op. c i t . , p . 82. 20. See D. M e z t l e r , R. Gulp , et a l , -"Emergency Use o f Recla imed Water f o r Po t ab l e Supply at Chanute Kansas" , Journ. ' Am. Water  Works A s s o c . , August 1958, p . 1021. 21. "Wastes Management Concepts f o r the C o a s t a l Zone", a p u b l i -c a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l A c a -demy of E n g i n e e r i n g , Washington, D . C . , 1970, p . 77. 22. F e e d l o t s fo r c a t t l e , p i g s , c h i c k e n , e t c . , have a h i g h p o t e n -t i a l f o r con tamina t ion o f sur face waters a l s o . An appre-c i a t i o n o f the waste d i s p o s a l problem can be ob ta ined by the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n waste p r o d u c t i o n : 1 cow i s e q u i -v a l e n t to 16.4 peop le ; 1 p i g i s e q u i v a l e n t to 3 peop le ; 7 ch ickens are equ iva l en t t o 1 pe rson . 1 4 2 2 3 . M i l l a r d W-. H a l l . a n d O t i s J . S p r o u l , "Water Q u a l i t y Aspec t s o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Land Use", Proceed ing o f the Conference on  P o l l u t i o n , A t l a n t i c S e c t i o n o f the Chemical I n s t i t u t e o f Canada, S t . M a r y ' s U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a s , 1 9 6 9 , p . 4 6 . 2 4 . See K a r l Werkmann " O b j e c t i v e s , Technology, and R e s u l t s o f N i t r o g e n and Phospherous Removal P rocesses" paper i n Advance  i n Water Q u a l i t y Improvement; Water Resource Symposium No. 1 , (Earnest F . . G l o y n a and W. i Jes l ey Eckenfe lde r , J r . E d i t o r s ) U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , A u s t i n , 1 9 6 8 , p . 2 2 . 2 5 . Chapter 6 1 4 , (Laws, 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 6 ) . 2 6 . J . H . Beuscher "Shoreland C o r r i d o r Regu l a t i ons to P r o t e c t Lakes" , a paper i n E u t r o p h i c a t i o n , Causes, Consequences, C o r r e c t i o n s (proceeding o f a symposium sponsored by the U . S . Academy of S c i e n c e s — G . A . R o h l i c h , chairman) Washing-t o n , D . C . , 1 9 6 9 , p . 3 . 2 7 . I t has been s a i d i n a h a l f j o k i n g manner t ha t the c i t i z e n s on the lower reaches o f the M i s s i s s i p p i are r e l i a n t upon a water supply which has passed through at l e a s t th ree se ts o f k i d n e y s . When one wi tnes ses the extent t o which t h i s r i v e r and o the r s l i k e i t are used, t h i s statement i s perhaps not f a r from the t r u t h . 2 8 . For des ign purposes , the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l governments expect a minimum o f 8 0 g a l l o n s o f sewage e f f l u e n t pe r p e r -son/day ( 3 . 8 persons per household) . W h i l e t h i s f i g u r e i s cons idered r a t h e r h i g h by many a u t h o r i t i e s , i t does p r o v i d e a g rea te r s a fe ty margin f o r d e s i g n . For a more thorough a-n a l y s i s o f suggested sewage des ign f lows r e f e r t o the 1 9 6 7 U . S . P u b l i c H e a l t h p u b l i c a t i o n , "Manual o f S e p t i c Tank P r a c t i c e " , ( U . S . D e p ' t . o f H e a l t h , Educa t ion & Wel fa r e , P u b l i c Hea l th S e r v i c e , R o c k v i l l e , Maryland 2 0 8 5 2 ) , p . 4 3 . 2 9 . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by H a r l e y K e l s e y , C h i e f E n -g i n e e r , Nor thern P u r i f i c a t i o n S e r v i c e s LteL , Vancouver, ( I n t e rv i ew Jan . 2 , 1 9 7 2 ) . 30. S iguro Grava, "Urban P l a n n i n g Aspec t s of Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l " , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 , p . 3 6 . 3 1 . K a r l Imhoff and.Gordon M. F a i r , "Sewage Treatment", .John W i -l e y &. Sons, 1 9 5 6 , pp . 2 3 & 2 4 . 3 2 . E . W. S t e e l , Water Supply and Sewage, McGraw H i l l , Toronto , 1 9 5 3 , p . 1 9 3 . 143 33. Refer to G. Berg. P. Scarpin and D. Berman, "Survival of Bacteria and Viruses i n National Waters" Proceedings of the National Symposium on Quali t y Standards for Natural  Waters, op. c i t . pp. 231-241. 34. Edmond G. Wagner and J. N. Lanoix, op. c i t . , p. 27. 35. Ibid., p. 31. 36. Ibid., p. 29. 37. W. H. Walker, " I l l i n o i s Ground Water P o l l u t i o n " , Journ. Am. Water Works Assoc., January 1969, p. 32. 38. The normal-irate of flow of groundwater i s probably between 5 feet/year and 5 feet/day, J . P. Waltz "Ground Water" i n Water, Earth and Man, R. J . Ghorley editor, Methuan & Co. , London England, 1969, p. 267. 39. See R. B. Krone, "Water Spreading Research by the Sanitary Engineering Research Library, University of C a l i f r o n i a " , Proceedings of the Conference on Water Spreading for Ground- water Recharge at Davis, C a l i f o r n i a , March 1957 (L. S c h i f f , editor) issued by the Committee on Research i n Water Re-sources. 40. Groundwater and Wells, Edward E. Johnson, Inc., Saint Paul Minnesota, publishers, 1966, p. 408. 41. Wendel R. LaDue, op. c i t . , p. 1063. 42. J . A. Vance "Water Supply & Sewage Treatment i n Canada", Water & P o l l u t i o n Control, August 1967, p. 24. 43. See M. if. H a l l and 0. J. Sproul, op_. c i t . , p. 39. 44. Dr. Ian McTaggert Cowan, "Man & His Environment", Proceed-ings of the Conference on B. C. Environment, (H. M. Rosen-t h a l , editor) University of B.C., June 1967, p. 9. 45. Water Quality Objectives, P o l l u t i o n Control Council, P a c i -f i c North West Area, Nov., 1966, p. 3. 46. D. Bramhall and E. M i l l s , "Alternative Methods for Improving Stream Quality" paper i n Water Resources Research, v o l . 2, No. 3., 1960. 47. "Manual of Septic Tank Practice", a p u b l i c a t i o n of the U.S. Dep't. of Health, op. c i t . , p. 29. 144 48. This figure has been agreed upon as i n d i c a t i v e of the average l i f e of f i e l d s by Mr. Hebert, Senior Sanitary Health Inspec-tor, Simon Fraser Health Unit, (phone interview Jan. 3 & 4th, 1972) and J. Lamb and H. Kelsey of Northern P u r i f i c a -t i o n Services Ltd., Vancouver, B. C. (phone interview Jan. 3 & 4th, 1972). 49. Mr. S. Chamut, Health Inspector for the Upper Island Health Unit, Campbell River, (personal interview, May 1971). These observations are based-on the Campbell River area of Van-couver Island. 50. Dr. Oldham, Faculty of Applied Science, U.B.C., (personal interview, Dec. 1971). 51. J . Lamb (Sales co-ordinator), Northern P u r i f i c a t i o n Services Ltd., Vancouver, op. c i t . 52. Carl F. Schenk "The Cottage Country Fight to Save Our Re-claimed Lakes" In Water & P o l l u t i o n Control, Sourthern Bu-siness Publications, Don M i l l s , Ontario, (March, 1971), p. 23. 53. As allowed for under D i v i s i o n 8 of the Dep't of Health "Re-gulations Governing Sewage Disposal", 54. Based upon an "Interm Report on the Use of the Cromaglass Single Home Aerobic Wastewater System i n B.C."—Environmen-t a l Engineering D i v i s i o n , Health Branch, Parliament Bldgs., V i c t o r i a , 1970, p. 6. 55. Ibid., p. 2. 56. D i v i s i o n 3.03 of the Health Act, "Regulations Governing Se-wage Disposal". 57. H. Kelsey, op. c i t . , "the current purchase p r i z e of these units i s $1250". 58. Ibid. 59. See "Interim Report on the Use of the Cromaglass Unit", op. c i t . 60. F. Waidman, Manager "Johnny on the Spot T o i l e t Rentals, Vancouver, B.C. (phone interview Dec. 17, 1971). 145 61 . Should a community system be used where volume o f wastes d i scha rged i s g rea te r than 5,000 g a l l o n s pe r day than the mat ter i s p l a c e d under the j u r s i d i c t i o n o f the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch . 62. Hea l t h A c t , S e c t i o n 59. 63. S e c t i o n 6 .04 . 64. S e c t i o n 6 .01 , 6 .02 , and 6.03 o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s . 65. These standards are t o be found i n Appendix B o f the P r o v i n -c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s , op_. c i t . , p . 10. 66. M. H a l l and O. S p r o u l , op. c i t . , p . 46. 67. From a d i s c u s s i o n on a paper g iven by W. C . Ackermann on "The Ground Water Supply Problem", Logan, Oppermann and Tucker , ed s . , op. c i t . , p . 86. 68. These standards can be found w i t h i n v a r i o u s B . C . Heal th; A c t "Regula t ions Govern ing Sewage D i s p o s a l . 69. S e c t i o n 67, P a r t 8, H e a l t h Ac t " S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s " . 70. Refer to S e c t i o n 4 o f Appendix B , ( P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s ) , 1970. 71. Harry E . LeGrand "System f o r E v a l u a t i o n o f Contaminat ion P o -t e n t i a l o f Some Waste D i s p o s a l S i t e s " , Jou rn . Am. Water Works Assoc .—Augus t 1964, p . 959. 72. I b i d . "In the conse rva t i on of a l l renewable r e sources , water p l a y s a p a r t not o n l y i n i t s own r i g h t , but i n s u s t a i n -i n g the o ther resources . . . . R e a l conse rva t i on r e q u i r e s a balanced program i n which the r e l a t i v e importance o f a l l the i n d i v i d u a l resources i n each l o c a l i t y i s r e c o g -n i z e d " . Ha ro ld E . Thomas U . S . G e o l o g i c a l Survey C H A P T E R F I V E G R O U N D W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T INTRODUCTION The p r e v i o u s chapter i n v e s t i g a t e d the envi ronmenta l h e a l t h aspects o f groundwater con tamina t ion cavised by water con -sumption and r e s u l t a n t waste d i s c h a r g e s . I f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n l e d the reader t o b e l i e v e tha t groundwater i s the dominant source of domestic supply f o r many o f the G u l f I s l a n d s today, i t gave the r i g h t i m p r e s s i o n . I f however, i t gave the impress ion tha t groundwater i s a v a i l a b l e i n v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d supply or tha t i t i s the o n l y p o t e n t i a l source or domestic v/ater supply , i t was m i s l e a d i n g . As w i l l be shown, there are d e f i n i t e c o n s t r a i n t s to the groundwater supply , as w e l l as a v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t e p o s -s i b i l i t i e s f o r water development. The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s to d i s c u s s the k inds o f n a t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development o f ground-water : E x c e s s i v e pumpage o f underground r e s e r v o i r s f o r example may sha rp ly reduce v/ater t a b l e s c r e a t i n g problems o f w e l l supply , i n t e r f e r e n c e between w e l l s , s a l twa t e r i n t r u s i o n ; , and i n extreme s i t u a t i o n s , d i m i n i s h groundwater r e s e r v o i r s as a r e s u l t o f l and subs i s t ence . The unexpected d e p l e t i o n or p o l l u t i o n o f ground-water resources moreover may c rea te s e r i o u s s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n s i n I s l a n d l and use i f a l t e r n a t e sources o f supply cannot be developed. A knowledge and unders tanding o f the geo-147 h y d r o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of areas and t h e i r s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to groundwater development i s o f course a b a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f app ropr i a t e p o l i c i e s and c o n t r o l s . As one would expect , the above " p h y s i c a l " l i m i t a t i o n s o f groundwater supply are to a l a r g e extent merely a r e f l e c t i o n o f the p r e v a i l i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l means and s o c i a l — i n s t i t u t i o n a l fo rces i n f l u e n c i n g water development. Because these "human f o r c e s " p r o v i d e a most b a s i c and i n f l u e n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t upon the development o f groundwater r e sources , the second p a r t o f t h i s chapter w i l l be devoted to t h e i r genera l d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . Here, emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d i n d e s c r i b i n g w e l l u s e r s ' r i g h t s and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and powers f o r water resources management. BASIC DEFINITIONS Before beg inn ing the d i s c u s s i o n , a d e f i n i t i o n o f "ground-water" and " a q u i f e r s " would appear necessary f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n : Groundwater i s water found beneath the sur face o f the ground i n such c i rcumstances as to permi t f ree movement under g r a v i t a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e . Or more p r e c i s e l y , i t i s groundwater l o c a t e d " w i t h i n s a tu ra t ed zones where the h y d r o s t a t i c p re s su re 1 i s equal to o r g rea te r than atmospheric p r e s s u r e " . This l a t t e r 148 d e f i n i t i o n i s used to d i s t i n g u i s h groundwater and o ther types o f subsurface water which are a f f e c t e d by c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n or molecu la r a t t r a c t i o n so as to p rec lude " f ree" movement. A q u i f e r s are g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l s which y i e l d economi-c a l l y developable s u p p l i e s o f wate r . T h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s are determined by t h e i r n a t u r a l p o r o s i t y o r a b i l i t y to s t o r e water , and p e r m e a b i l i t y — t h e i r a b i l i t y to move wa te r . (These terms are fu r t he r d i s c r i b e d on page 155) . Because a q u i f e r c a p a b i l i t i e s a re u l t i m a t e l y judged i n economic terms, a q u i f e r s may mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s to d i f f e -ren t peop le , depending upon t h e i r need and use f o r groundwater and technology a v a i l a b l e f o r development. A sha l low water source y i e l d i n g 100 g a l l o n s per day may be cons ide red an a q u i f e r f o r a s i n g l e household f o r example but c e r t a i n l y not cons ide red such f o r purposes o f l a r g e s ca l e crop i r r i g a t i o n . CONCEPTUAL IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT W i t h the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g demands which are be ing p l a c e d upon groundwater resources i n many cot tage areas has come the p a r a l l e l need* to manage these resources more e f f i c i e n t -l y and e q u i t a b l y . I m p l i c i t o f course i s the growing r e c o g n i -t i o n tha t groundwaters are a fundamental community resource which should i d e a l y be managed at the community o r government l e v e l i4y f o r the public benefit. A necessary pre - r e q u i s i t e for ground water management i s adequate hydrologic data and the establishment of l e g a l con-cepts and mechanisms which w i l l insure that resource a l l o c a t i o n p o l i c i e s are based upon sound s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . The prac-t i c a l l i m i t of development and u t i l i z a t i o n of groundwater how-ever, " w i l l be set by the general public, who must weigh the value of the water to them against the cost of obtaining i t , and t h i s l i m i t i s thus dependent on the degree of enlightenment of the c i t i z e n r y as to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of ground-2 water reservoirs i n meeting t h e i r requirements for water". Achie-ving agreement on such matters i s sometimes the most d i f f i c u l t procedure of a l l . CONFLICTING VIEWPOINTS UNDERLYING GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT A major and d i s t i n c t problem related to the e s t a b l i s h -ment of p o l i c i e s f o r optimum groundwater management i s that com-petant authorities much less ordinary c i t i z e n s ,are seldom i n a po s i t i o n to evaluate the nature of t h i s underground resource or i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to use. Groundwaters s t i l l tend to be consi-dered "mysterious" and "inscrutable" resources because they can-not be r e a d i l y perceived by the unaided senses. For t h i s reason resource use p o l i c i e s must often be guided by environmental feed-150 backs from i n s t i t u t e d uses . Such " t r i a l and e r r o r " procedures are seldom conducive to good p l a n n i n g but o f t en the o n l y a l t e r -n a t i v e a v a i l a b l e to a u t h o r i t i e s . another u n d e r l y i n g problem r evo lve s around the funda-mental disagreement by the p u b l i c as to what c o n s t i t u t e s an ap-p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y o f resource c o n s e r v a t i o n . As D r . Leopold would p o i n t out a b a s i c confus ion a r i s e s becuase "we h o l d g e n e r a l l y , two d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s i n the use o f n a t u r a l r e sources : Where a p p l i e d t o renewable r e s o u r c e s — s o i l , water and f o r e s t — t h e con -cept o f conse rva t i on may mean use o f the resource on ly at a r a t e and under such c o n d i t i o n s tha t the resource i s r e p l a c e d as f a s t as i t i s u t i l i z e d . T h i s i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as a sus t a ined y i e l d b a s i s . Where a p p l i e d to non-renewable resources—copper , i r o n , c o a l and o i l — c o n s e r v a t i o n u s u a l l y means wise development 3 and use wi thout undue was te" . The " t r o u b l e " w i t h groundwater i s t ha t u n l i k e most s u r -face wate rs , i t can be d e s c r i b e d as bo th a renewable or non- re -newable r e source , depending upon the t ime f a c t o r f o r groundwater replenishment which i s a p p l i e d . Por deep r e l a t i v e l y impermeable a q u i f e r s such as the sandstone/conglomerate format ions u n d e r l y -i n g the G u l f I s l a n d s f o r example, complete recharge may o f t en be measured i n terms o f c e n t u r i e s . Hence w i t h respect to c u r -ren t o r fo r seeab le use o f these s to red wa te r s , i t i s apparent these resources warrant the "non-renewable" d i s t i n c t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s t ha t some o f these s o - c a l l e d "non-renewable" waters w i l l tend to be used f o r cu r r en t "bene-f i c i a l " uses i n a manner which may be o b j e c t i o n a b l e to those c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s who would adhere o n l y to the " sus ta ined use" p h i l o s o p h y . A more important i m p l i c a t i o n however, i s tha t un-l e s s the extent o f groundwater resources are known, excess ive pumping i n excess o f n a t u r a l recharge (sometimes c a l l e d "min-ing") may r e s u l t i n premature d e p l e t i o n o f the resource w i t h r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l , economic and environmenta l r e p u r c u s s i o n s . In g e n e r a l , water resource p l a n n i n g and management have two o b j e c t i v e s : "The f i r s t i s to make maximum use of the r e source ; tha t i s t o s a t i s f y the needs and d e s i r e s o f the great-es t numbers o f p o t e n t i a l water u se r s . The second o b j e c t i v e i s to conserve the resource so tha t i t can be main ta ined f o r bene-f i c i a l use i n d e f i n i t e l y . The cha l l enge to water resource p l a n -ners l i e s i n f i n d i n g techniques tha t w i l l p e r m i t the g r ea t e s t 4 r e a l i z a t i o n of these two seemingly c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s " . Often as observed e i t h e r o f these o b j e c t i v e s are i m p r a c t i c a l i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o ach ieve w i t h i n g i v e n economic .and l and use c o n s t r a i n t s o r terms o f r e f e r ence . 1 5 2 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL REPERCUSSIONS  ARISING FROM GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWAL Problems o f groundwater supply r e s u l t i n g from s u s t a i n -ed wi thdrawa l are g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as be ing e i t h e r " r e s e r -v o i r " problems, " p i p e l i n e " problems or "watercourse" problems: These are d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : "RESERVOIR PROBLEMS" " R e s e r v o i r " problems are occas ioned when water th rough-out the a q u i f e r or t o t a l groundwater r e s e r v o i r i s withdrawn i n excess of annual recharge . A p e r e n n i a l ove rd ra f t w i l l r e s u l t i n the p r o g r e s s i v e l o w e r i n g o f the water t a b l e throughout the r e s e r v o i r a r ea . T h i s p rocess i s seldom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e p l e -t i o n o f the groundwater resource i t s e l f as r i s i n g cos t s of water pumpage w i l l u l t i m a t e l y n e c e s s i t a t e abandonment o f w e l l s f o r a l t e r n a t e sources o f supp ly . Such d e p l e t i o n o f groundwater r e s e r v o i r s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s u l t a n t problems of s a l t -water i n t r u s i o n and l a r g e sca l e l and subs i s t ence . (These v / i l l be fu r the r d i s cus sed on succeeding pages ) . I n developed areas " r e s e r v o i r " problems may be caused by the growing sur face o f concre te and aspha l t and " o v e r l y e f -f i c i e n t " network o f sur face d r a i n s . These d i scourage groundwa-t e r recharge by way o f sur face i n f i l t r a t i o n s o f r u n - o f f wa te r s . 153 The growing number o f "consumptive" uses such as lawn s p r i n k l i n g , i r r i g a t i o n , a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the use o f se -wers e f f e c t i v e l y "shor t c i r c u i t " t h i s n a t u r a l process o f ground water recharge a l s o . "PIPELINE" PROBLEMS " P i p e l i n e " problems are e s s e n t i a l l y " r e s e r v o i r " p r o -blems on a m i c r o - s c a l e . These r e f e r to the i n a b i l i t y o f ground-waters to move through aqu i f e r s s u f f i c i e n t l y f a s t to r e p l e n i s h waters which are pumped i n the v i c i n i t y o f the w e l l a r ea . Hence i n r e l a t i v e l y impermeable a q u i f e r s or those a q u i f e r s which are recharged over a grea t d i s t a n c e , the r a t e o f groundwater w i t h -drawal w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c u r t a i l e d , l i m i t e d o f course by the amount o f water which can be s u p p l i e d by those underground "p ipe -l i n e s " . Should groundwater w i thd rawa l exceed l o c a l water i n f l o w or i n f i l t r a t i o n t h e r e f o r e , "the water l e v e l s i n w e l l s w i l l de-c l i n e whether the a q u i f e r as a whole i s adequately charged or 5 no t " . W e l l i n t e r f e r e n c e problems caused by in tense wi thd rawa l from w e l l s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to each o ther p rov ides a good ex-ample o f t h i s phenomenon (p. 159) . 154 "WATERCOURSE" PROBLEMS "Watercourse" problems are those i n which ground and surface waters are so i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d tha t a change i n one w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t the o the r . Many sur face watercourses f o r example depend to a l a r g e extent upon groundwater sources f o r replenishment du r ing p e r i o d s o f low p r e c i p i t a t i o n and s u r -face r u n o f f . Conve r se ly , sur face waters o f t en p r o v i d e an i m -por t an t source o f groundwater recharge p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g h i g h water f l o w s . For these reasons the ground and sur face waters i n many areas must be cons ide red a s i n g l e h y d r o l o g i c u n i t . Where such an i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s and i s not p e r c e i v e d and uncon-t r o l l e d water development i s p e r m i t t e d , s i g n i f i c a n t d i s r u p t i o n s i n bo th sur face f lows and groundwater l e v e l s may r e s u l t . FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDWATER SUPPLY AND MOVEMENT A s i d e from ' "cons idera t ions o f l o c a l hydro logy" the volume o f v/ater which may be h e l d i n subsurface s torage o r r e -serve i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d b y , t h e n a t u r a l p o r o s i t y and p e r -m e a b i l i t y o f u n d e r l y i n g s o i l and rock fo rma t ions . These d e t e r -mine i n l a r g e p a r t , the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f areas to " r e s e r v o i r " , " p i p e l i n e " and "watercourse" problems p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . A knowledge o f these f a c t o r s i s a l s o important f o r i d e n t i f y i n g na-t u r a l rechargega^eas; those areas o f h i g h p e r m e a b i l i t y which enable a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f su r face waters to . . i n f i l t r a t e , thereby augmenting the groundwater supp ly . POROSITY " P o r o s i t y " i s s imply the pores or open spaces (some-t imes c a l l e d v o i d s or i n t e r s t i c e s ) i n g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l and i s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : P o r o s i t y = Volume o f v o i d s i n a m a t e r i a l t o t a l or b u lk volume o f the m a t e r i a l I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t ha t i n p r e d i c t i n g p o r o s i t y which i n essence de f ines the p o t e n t i a l water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y o f an a q u i f e r , g r a i n s i z e i s not a l t o g e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t . P o r o -s i t y moreover i s a l s o determined by the u n i f o r m i t y i n the s i z e o f g r a i n s , t h e i r shape and p a c k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As p r e -v i o u s l y i n t i m a t e d , " r e s e r v o i r " problems are most d i r e c t l y i n -f luenced by the p o r o s i t y o f the r e s e r v o i r m a t e r i a l . PERMEABILITY " P e r m e a b i l i t y " can be de f ined as the a b i l i t y o f water t o pass through ea r th m a t e r i a l s . I t i s u s u a l l y expressed i n water f lows through a predetermined area of m a t e r i a l at a g iven h y d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t . H i g h l y permeable m a t e r i a l s as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d are l e a s t s u s c e p t i b l e to " p i p e l i n e " and most suscept -i b l e t o "watercourse" problems. RELATIVE SUITABILITY OP GEOLOGIC MATERIALS AS AQUIFERS AND SUR-FACE AREA RECHARGE ' The f o l l o w i n g ' table p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e p o r o s i t i e s and p e r m e a b i l i t i e s o f g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l s . A summary o f the r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t i e s o f these m a t e r i a l s as a q u i f e r s i s p resen ted i n the f i n a l column. Note tha t u n c o n s o l -i d a t e d depos i t s are g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r a q u i f e r s than sedimentary rock fo rmat ions . These i n t u r n are s u b s t a n t i a l l y b e t t e r a q u i -f e r s than igneous and metamorphic r o c k s . I t must a l s o be noted tha t the r e l a t i v e l y low p o r o s i -t i e s and p e r m e a b i l i t i e s o f t he unconso l ida ted rock do not take i n t o account such anomalies as c r e v i c e s , j o i n t s or f r a c t u r e s . These may p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t sources o f v/ater supply i f tapped. I n such "hard" rocks as l imes tone and do lemi tes f o r example, s o l u t i o n channels i n the form o f l a r g e underground caverns may permi t the movement and s torage o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f p o t a b l e water . TABLE 13 REPRESENTATIVE POROSITIES AND PERMEABILITIES OB1 GEOLOGIC MATERIALS AND THEIR OVERALL 6 SUITABILITY AS AQUIFERS REPRESENTATIVE .APPROXIMATE RANGE GEOLOGIC POROSITIES IN PERMEABILITY MATERIAL (% V o i d Space) ( U . S . G a l l o n s / d a y / f t . 2 ) H y d r a u l i c g rad ien t = 1 GENERAL SUITABILITY AS AQUIFERS UNCONSOLIDATED C l a y 50-60 S i l t and G l a c i a l T i l l 20-40 A l u v i a l Sands 30-40 A l u v i a l g r a v e l s 25-35 0.0001-0.001 0 .001-10. 10-10,000 10,000 -1 ,000 ,000 F a i r Good E x c e l l e n t E x c e l l e n t INDURATED SEDIMENTARY: Shale S i l t s t o n e Sandstone Conglomerate Limestone 5-15 5-20 5-25 5-25 0.1-10 0.0000001-0.0001 0.00001-0.100 0.001-100 0.001-100 0.001-10 Poor F a i r Good Good Good to F a i r IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC: V o l c a n i c ( b a s a l t ) 0 . 0 0 1 - 5 0 . G r a n i t (wea-thered) 0.001-10 G r a n i t e ( f resh) 0.0001-1 S l a t e 0.001-1 S c h i s t 0.001-1 Gneiss 0.0001-1 Tuf f 10-80 0.0001-1 0.00001-0.01 0.0000001-0.00001 0.0000001-0.0001 0.000001-0.001 0.0000001-0.0001 0.00001-1 F a i r Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor F a i r to Poor J.5B From the preceding table we may further deduce three important types of groundwater areas. These are important i n a land use planning context for groundwater recharge: 1. Watercourses, consisting of a channel occupied by a perennial stream, together with the enclosing and underlying a l l u v i a l material saturated with water that comes from the stream, from i n f i l t r a t i o n at the sur-face, or from adjacent water-bearing materials. 2. Loose water-bearing materials, c h i e f l y gravels and sands as well as g l a c i a l d r i f t and outwash. Buried g l a c i a l v a l l e y s not now occupied by perennial streams are included i n t h i s group. 3. Consolidated water-bearing rocks, of which limestone, basalt, and sandstone are the most important. Im-portant recharge generally coincide with the areas of outcrop of the permeable rocks, as well as areas where the rocks are buried beneath le s s permeable materials but y i e l d usable water to w e l l s . 7 DEVELOPMENTAL PROBLEMS OF WELL INTERFERENCE,. SALTWATER INTRUSION  AND LAND SUBSISTENCE DESCRIBED Interference between wells, saltwater intrusion and land subsistence as previously implied, are physical changes re-s u l t i n g from "excessive" groundwater withdrawal. The following i s an attempt to understand these processes and evaluate t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of well water development i n the Gulf Islands. , . 1 5 9 WELL INTERFERENCE PROBLEMS W e l l " i n t e r f e r e n c e " i s s a i d to occur where two or more w e l l s share a common source o f groundwater supply and wi thd rawa l o f water i n one, a f f e c t s the y i e l d o f another . Th i s problem as p r e v i o u s l y i m p l i e d , i s e s s e n t i a l l y the r e s u l t o f overpumping i n a sma l l p o r t i o n o f an a q u i f e r , r e s u l t i n g i n a l o c a l r e d u c t i o n or ever d e p l e t i o n i n the a v a i l a b l e water supp ly . This process i s p a r t l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igu re 3. Here we observe tha t pumping from a s i n g l e w e l l r e s u l t s i n a su r roun-d ing "ho le" , or cone o f depress ion i n the water t a b l e . This "cone o f depress ion" i s s imply a l o w e r i n g i n the h y d r a u l i c p r e s -sure i n the v i c i n i t y o f the w e l l head produced by pumping and i s synonomous w i t h an i nc rea sed a t t r a c t i o n for d i s t a n t subsurface waters (by reason o f an inc rease i n the h y d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t ) . Con-t i n u e d pumping however tends to expand t h i s cone o f depress ion caus ing water to be drawn to the w e l l from a p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r -ger a r ea . Dur ing t h i s time "the water l e v e l i n the w e l l con-t i nues to drop, but a t a dec reas ing r a t e as time goes on u n t i l the cone has expanded fa r enough to reach e i t h e r an area o f n a t u r a l recharge , or an area o f n a t u r a l d i scharge o f the a q u i -f e r . Only when the pumping i s ba lanced by i nc r ea sed movement from the recharge area or decreased n a t u r a l d i scha rge , w i l l the 8 p r o g r e s s i v e d e c l i n e o f v/ater l e v e l i n the v / e l l be a r r e s t e d " . 160 Should a l a r g e number o f w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d w e l l s u t i -l i z e a common a q u i f e r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l cones o f dep res s ion may coa l e sce thereby c r e a t i n g a genera l l o w e r i n g o f the water t a b l e over a broad a rea . These " c o n d i t i o n s are s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r t o those i n overdeveloped a q u i f e r s where d r a f t exceeds r e p l e -nishment". Therefore , when problems o f d e c l i n i n g water t a b l e s a r i s e , these are d i f f i c u l t to a r r e s t because o f the r e l a t i v e l y great number o f w e l l users which are u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d . W h i l e c o r r e c t i o n o f w e l l i n t e r f e r e n c e problems i s o b v i o u s — c u r t a i l pumping—detect ion of i n t e r f e r e n c e between w e l l s i s not so apparent . The u sua l t e s t i n v o l v e s a program of r e c o r -ded w e l l pumping and m o n i t o r i n g : I t i s s tandard p r a c t i . e to d r i l l a s e r i e s o f t e s t ho l e s around the w e l l i n q u e s t i o n t o determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a q u i f e r as i n d i c a t e d by the c a l c u l a -ted "cone o f d e p r e s s i o n " . Dyes which serve as " t r a c e r s " may a l -so be r e l e a s e d from adjacent w e l l s i n order to c o n f i r m suspec-t ed groundwater movement. Because o f the r e l a t i v e l y slow r a t e o f v/ater movement—often i n c i r c u i t o u s and d i s con t i nuous pa th s , such measurements must u s u a l l y be c a r r i e d out under q u a l i f i e d s u p e r v i s i o n over a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l days or weeks. Por t h i s reason, expendi tures are o f t en ext remely h i g h and end r e s u l t s s t i l l somewhat u n c e r t a i n . Where s t u d i e s o f w e l l i n t e r f e r e n c e by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s used to e s t a b l i s h i n d i v i d u a l water r i g h t s , the re i s no gua-rantee t h a t the c o u r t s w i l l r ecogn ize such ev idence . A p a r t from 161 the o b s e r v a t i o n tha t da ta accoun t ing f o r w e l l i n t e r f e r e n c e i s seldom c o n c l u s i v e , i s the more s e r i o u s f a c t t ha t groundwater r i g h t s i n B . C . have not yet been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y de f ined ( r e f e r to p . US). SALT WATER INTRUSION PROBLEMS I n many c o a s t a l areas s a l t water w i l l u s u a l l y be found below the f r e s h wate r . Because the f r e s h v/ater t a b l e i s above sea l e v e l and s a l t water has a h ighe r d e n s i t y , the two waters are main ta ined i n h y d r a u l i c ba lance . For t h i s reason a l s o t h i s i n t e r f a c e i s a c t u a l l y a zone o f t r a n s i t i o n from f r e sh to s a l t , i t s l o c a t i o n and w i d t h c o n t r o l l e d by p e r m e a b i l i t y o f the a q u i f e r , range o f ocean t i d e s , and o f course , the extent o f f r e s h water 10 pumping. A s i m p l i f i e d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s x-/ater "balance" i s p resen ted below: FIGURE 3 DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALT .AND FRESH WATER IN A COASTAL A Q U I F E R 1 1 JLb2 Thi s d i f f e r e n c e i n v/ater d e n s i t i e s w i l l no rma l ly cause f r e sh water to extend below the sur face to a depth o f about f o r t y t imes the he igh t tha t t h i s water t a b l e i s found above sea l e v e l (Ghyben-Herzberg p r i n c i p l e ) . I n o ther words, i f the fresh-water t a b l e v/ere 10 f t . above sea l e v e l (and not a perched wa-t e r t ab le ) then v/e c o u l d expect f r e s h v/ater to extend below the water t a b l e f o r about 4 0 0 1 . The important i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e -gards to pumping i s tha t a drop i n the v/ater t a b l e of o n l y one roo t w i l l reduce the f r e s h groundwater r e s e r v o i r by 4 0 ' . F u r -t h e r , heavy pumping at "A" may induce s a l t v/ater t o r i s e s u f f i -c i e n t l y to contaminate w e l l " B " . Cont inued pumping may r e s u l t i n s a l t water contamina t ion o f a l l w e l l s i n the v i c i n i t y . W h i l e there i s no c o n c l u s i v e evidence tha t s a l t water i n t r u s i o n i s o c c u r r i n g on Hornby ( the few b r a c k i s h v/aters which were tapped c o u l d w e l l have been connate sources) the problem may w e l l p resen t i t s e l f i n the fu tu re should con t inued deve lop-ment o f the deeper a q u i f e r s take place. . PROBLEMS OF LAND SUBSISTENCE Land subs i s t ence has been known to occur i n many p a r t s o f the w o r l d where i n t e n s i v e development o f groundwaters has occu r r ed . In Nor th Amer ica t h i s phenomenum i s most ev iden t i n c e n t r a l C a l i f o r n i a where vas t amounts o f groundwater have been 163 "permanently" removed f o r i r r i g a t i o n . Here, as much as 8 to 14 fee t d i f f e r e n c e i n e l e v a t i o n has been observed w i t h i n a t ime spall o f l e s s than 50 years o f cont inued groundwater w i t h d r a w a l . W h i l e subs i s t ence i n most cases has averaged l e s s than 1/3 foot pe r year , some areas have exper ienced a drop o f as much as 1.3 12 fee t pe r year.' Such ground subs i s t ence i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f problems: Prom an eng inee r ing o r l a n d use p o i n t o f view i r r e g u l a r subs i s t ence over vas t areas has damaged c a n a l s , p i p e l i n e s , t r a n s m i s s i o n towers, roads and even b u i l d i n g s . I t has a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d remapping. To t h i s should be added d a -mages caused by deformat ion and f a i l u r e o f w e l l c a s i n g s . But perhaps most s e r i o u s , l and subs i s tence r e s u l t s i n a compaction o f the water b e a r i n g medium thus r educ ing water s torage p o t e n -t i a l and y i e l d s f o r a l l t ime . These environmenta l changes can-not be r e c t i f i e d . Land subs i s t ence does not appear to be a p o t e n t i a l p r o -blem i n the G u l f I s l a n d s and o ther c o a s t a l areas o f B . C . , s i nce u n d e r l y i n g format ions do not c o n t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f ex-t r a c t a b l e wate r . Where water i s removed, many o f these under-ground r e s e r v o i r s are s u s c e p t i b l e to i n f l o w s o f s a l t wa te r . Por t h i s reason t h i s problem w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d any f u r t h e r . 164 GENERAL MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES In view o f the many p o t e n t i a l problems a r i s i n g from excess ive pumping o f groundwater, i t i s apparent tha t f o r o p t i -mum development o f resources , some form o f c o n t r o l l e d use based upon sound resource c o n s e r v a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s must be i n t r o d u c e d . Al though c o n d i t i o n s sur rounding groundwater occurence and use as noted are extremely v a r i e d and complex, there are never the-l e s s a number o f b a s i c management concepts which should be con -s i d e r e d : I n t h i s respec t h y d r o l o g i c a l systems and the co r r e spon-d i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l supply wh ich may be taken from them by w e l l s are g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g b d> "management", c a t e g o r i e s : 1. "For a c q u i f e r s r e a d i l y recharged from the su r face , average pumpage may equal average recharge , but should not exceed i t . " 2. "For deep a r t e s i a n a q u i f e r s w i t h l i t t l e o r no n a t u r a l recharge i n the areas where the v/ater i s d e s i r e d , average pumpage may exceed recharge—but t h i s must be managed, based on q u a n t i t a t i v e es t imates o f how much o f the t o t a l groundwater s torage i s b e i n g used. 3. " In c o a s t a l a q u i f e r s or on oceanic i s l a n d s , average pumpage must be c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than average r e -charge i n order to m a i n t a i n the i n t e r f a c e between s a l t water and f r e s h water at a safe d i s t a n c e sea-ward from the w e l l s i t e s " . 1 3 165 GROUNDWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSTRAINTS—HORNBY ISLAND Hornby r e s i d e n t s p r e s e n t l y r e l y almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon groundwater f o r domestic water supp ly . Excep t ions t o t h i s statement are th ree good q u a l i t y sp r ings which d i scharge from f i s s u r e s a long the northwest base o f Mount Geoffrey ( F i g u r e 1 ) . There are no ' s u i t a b l e ponds or c reeks from which water may be taken f o r household—much l e s s community purposes . Whi l e the re has been l o c a l t a l k o f damming St rachan V a l l e y , there, has been no p r o f e s s i o n a l study undertaken to determine the m e r i t s o f t h i s p r o p o s a l . Groundwater by con t r a s t appears t o have a g rea te r p o -t e n t i a l f o r development as s u c c e s s f u l w e l l s have now been d r i l -14 l e d or dug i n most areas o f the I s l a n d . WELL YIELDS. AND PROBLEMS On the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e w e l l r e c o r d s , there are l e s s than h a l f a dozen "h igh c a p a c i t y " w e l l s which have been developed on the I s l a n d t o da te . These w e l l s — n e a r l y a l l o f which have 15 been d r i l l e d , are capable o f s e r v i c i n g the " b a s i c " domestic requirements o f from 7 to 100 householders each. They va ry i n depth from 18 to 3 4 0 ' . The more succes s fu l w e l l s appear to ob-t a i n water from " f r ac tu r e s and f i s s u r e zones i n t h i n bedded sha les and sandstones tha t outcrop over one m i l e wide s t r i p ex-16 t end ing from Tr ibune Bay to the n o r t h end o f Hornby I s l a n d . 166 The great majority of Island wells however are of r e l a t i v e l y low y i e l d ; s ervicing at most two to six f a m i l i e s . Questionnaire surveys moreover have indicated that most I s -landers are d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r wells, as few provide r e l i -able flows the year round. A basic reason for f a i l u r e i s that most wells are shallow (seldom exceeding a depth of 15 feet) and designed to intercept seepages running along the surface of the underlying rock or impermeable hard pan (clay) s t r a t a . Since l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s the primary source f o r water i n these unconsolidated s u r f i c i a l deposits, v/ater l e v e l s i n the wells fluctuate considerably between periods of r a i n f a l l and drought. This condition i s observed to exhaust the water supply of most shallow wells d. i n g the l a t e summer and early f a l l , c reating seasonal hardship among well users. TABLE 14 DUG WELLS NUMBER DEPTH YIELD—GAL/HR. ESTIMATED WELL CA-PABILITY (homes at 100 g a l / d a y ) 1 9 17 IS WELL RECORDS—HORNBY ISLAND (to 1971) 10 14 1 2-10' 10-30" 50'-Unknov/n Unknown Unknown Data not available Data not available Data not available DRILLED WELLS 1 1 1 1 1 35' 50' 98' 100' 110' 115 ' 360 30 43 3 1 300 840 5 36 .100 1 (Continued) 167 TABLE 14 (con t ' d ) ESTIMATED WELL CA DRILLED WELLS NUMBER DEPTH YIELD—GAL/HR. PABILITY (Homes a-100 ga l /day) 1 125' 600 72 1 125' 60 7 1 190' 210 25 — S a l i n e 1 225' 60 7 — S a l i n e 1 340' 5 1 WATER QUALITY Knowledge o f water q u a l i t y i s p r e s e n t l y skimpy. The few t e s t s which have been conducted show water q u a l i t y to be e x -t remely v a r i a b l e throughout the Is land? but p a r t i c u l a r l y v a r i -able as can be expected w i t h i n c r e a s i n g depth . Many o f the s h a l -low w e l l s u n d e r l a i n by hardpan or sandstone/conglomerate forma-20 t i c n s f o r example supply water o f " e x c e l l e n t " q u a l i t y . Deeper w e l l s however have encoutered l e s s f avourab le wa te r s . Here m i -n e r a l s such as i r o n and carbonates as w e l l as hydrogen s u l f i d e gases may be p r e s e n t . These impart o b j e c t i o n a b l e t a s t e s , c o l o u r and odor to the water (which can u s u a l l y be removed by s imple a e r a t i o n and f i l t r a t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n t o these problems t r a c e s o f s a i t water have been encountered by w e l l s as " sha l low" as 190' and 2 2 5 ' . EVALUATION OF ISLAND AQUIFERS A v a i l a b l e evidence and p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n .would sug-gest tha t the G u l f I s l a n d s and Hornby i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e , p o o r l y endowed w i t h p o t a b l e groundwater s u p p l i e s . N e i t h e r sha l low or deep l y i n g a q u i f e r s are cons ide red to o f f e r p o t e n t i a l f o r ex -t e n s i v e development f o r r e s i d e n t i a l much l e s s i r r i g a t i o n a l p u r -21 poses . On Hornby the sha l low a q u i f e r s c o n s i s t o f g l a c i a l - - t ^ - - — ••— • • ' " " •"" t i l l e d - "ove r l a in by coarse t e x t u r e d marine veneer d e p o s i t s " . "These d e p o s i t s , r ang ing i n t h i c k n e s s from a few inches to about 22 2 5 ' , mantle the bedrock over most o f the I s l a n d . D e s p i t e the s u i t a b i l i t y o f s u r f i c i a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s to permi t i n f i l t r a t i o n o f runof f wate rs , few are o f s u f f i c i e n t depth and i n t e r c o n n e c t i v e ness t o be o f consequence i n s t o r i n g these wa te r s . An a s s o c i a -t ed problem i s tha t the p e r i o d of i n f i l t r a t i o n o f r a inwa te r s does not correspond w i t h p e r i o d s o f maximum wi thdrawal—the summer months (Table 15 ) . A l t h o u g h the use o f more e f f i c i e n t w e l l s y s -tems ( w e l l - p o i n t systems, i n f i l t r a t i o n g a l l e r i e s , c i s t e r n s f o r s torage o f peak w e l l f lows e t c . ) may s u b s t a n t i a l l y inc rease e f -f e c t i v e y i e l d s , i t i s doubt fu l whether these systems can be r e -l i e d upon to p r o v i d e l i t t l e more than " in t e rmed ia t e" water r e -quirements to sma l l groups o f householders d u r i n g the dry sum-mer months. Such low w e l l y i e l d s observed can be expected to encourage the coope ra t i ve e x p l o r a t i o n , development and manage-ment o f fu tu re water resources on the I s l a n d . 169 The more succes s fu l w e l l s observed to date have been d r i l l e d i n t o r e l a t i v e l y sha l low p o r t i o n s o f the bedrock—which i s composed o f "an a l t e r n a t i n g succes s ion of conglomerates , sandstones and sha les ex tending t o over 5,000 f t . i n t h i c k n e s s " . But even i n these format ions problems o f development are encoun-t e r e d as these sedimentary rocks y i e l d u n u s u a l l y sma l l amounts o f v/ater as compared w i t h s i m i l a r format ions found elsewhere i n 25 ' , the w o r l d . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the sands tone /conglo-merate format ions u n d e r l y i n g the whole o f the G u l f I s l a n d s are cons ide red w e l l " indura t ed" or c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low degree o f p e r m e a b i l i t y due to t h e i r i n t e r s t i c e s be ing l a r g e l y cemented QcJ ( f i l l e d w i t h su lpha tes and c l a y s ) . T h i s r e s u l t a n t rock c o n d i t i o n 26-sometimes c a l l e d a "graywache" not o n l y reduces the p o t e n t i a l r e s e r v o i r c a p a c i t y o f these "aqu i f e r s " but i n h i b i t s water w i t h -drawal and recharge whether by n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l means. A l t h o u g h no t e s t s have been made to determine the r a t e o f recharge, the re i s reason to b e l i e v e such waters have taken decades and perhaps c e n t u r i e s to accumulate i n the lower p o r -t i o n s o f these rock fo rmat ions . Hence, once t h i s water i s w i t h -drawn i t may not be r ep l aced w i t h i n spans o f t ime tha t are mean-i n g f u l f o r resource p l a n n i n g . 170 LIMITED KNOWLEDGE OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIALS A MAJOR OBSTACLE P r e s e n t l y I s l a n d w e l l s are l o c a t e d on the i n t u i t i v e advise o f l o c a l water d i v i n e r s . W h i l e r e s u l t s have been most 27 s a t i s f a c t o r y — e x c e e d i n g by f a r the expec ta t ions o f chance, fu tu re d r i l l i n g o f deeper w e l l s w i l l tend to r e l y upon more s c i e n t i f i c methods. I f any th ing , the h i g h cos t o f d r i l l i n g — f r o m $6 to $9 per foot w i l l see t o i t , (Chapter 6 ) . I n r e t r o s p e c t , a l though much i s presumed, v e r y l i t t l e i s p r e s e n t l y known concern ing the d i s t r i b u t i o n , quanfeiity or q u a l i t y o f I s l a n d groundwater r e sou rces . Apar t from a p a r t i a l w e l l i n v e n t o r y conducted by the Groundwater D i v i s i o n o f the P r o -v i n c i a l Water Resources S e r v i c e , no o ther f i e l d surveys have been undertaken by the Government to determine l o c a l hydro logy , groundwater f lows o r water use. T h i s has handicapped w e l l de-velopment, water management and l and use p l a n n i n g . Wi th i n c r e a -s i n g use o f groundwaters, such knowledge may a l s o p r o v i d e e v i -dence which can be used t o p r o t e c t water r i g h t s o f users i n the event o f fu ture , a d j u d i c a t i o n s . T h i s need to develop improved knowledge o f e x i s t i n g groundwater c o n d i t i o n s i s acknowledged by the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment' s recent d e c i s i o n to conduct "door t o door" surveys of I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s i n order to o b t a i n a more comprehensive p i c -t u r e o f I s l a n d w e l l l o c a t i o n s , and groundwater use p a t t e r n s . 171 T h i s i n v e n t o r y , which i s to be completed d u r i n g the summer of 28 1972 "by the l a t e s t " , i s cons ide red by the w r i t e r t o be o f l i -mi ted usefu lness because i t w i l l ]a r g e l y be based upon the so -l i c i t e d o p i n i o n s o f I s l a n d w e l l users—at l e a s t those which can be contac ted when the survey i s i n p r o g r e s s , (a p h y s i c a l survey and e v a l u a t i o n of groundwater resources and uses v / i l l not be made at t h i s t i m e ) . Another major problem i s the f a c t tha t t h i s proposed survey may w e l l be da ted .as soon as i t i s completed i f no " f o l l o w up" l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n t roduced ( s p e c i f i c recommenda-t i o n s v / i l l be d i s cus sed i n Chapter 8 ) . ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS FOR WATER SUPPLY W h i l e the use o f sha l low w e l l s u t i l i z i n g l o c a l ground-water sources appears to be the most economic system o f water supply c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to most I s l a n d e r s , i t i s becoming i n -c r e a s i n g l y apparent tha t there are a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . These i n c l u d e tank t r u c k systems o f supply , r a inwa te r ( r o o f - c i s -tern) catchment systems, s a l i n e v/ater conve r s ion p l a n t s and "dua l " water supply systems. Each i s s u i t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f l a n d use s i t u a t i o n . Tank t r u c k systems u t i l i z i n g some o f the b e t t e r I s l a n d w e l l s o r h i g h y i e l d sp r i ngs can p r o v i d e convenient i f not i n e x -pens ive shor t term arrangements f o r water supp ly . Where l a r g e groups o f co t t age r s or year around r e s i d e n t s are i n v o l v e d , the 172 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f water by tanker v e s s e l and s torage w i t h i n spe-c i a l l y cons t ruc ted I s l a n d r e s e r v o i r s may p r o v i d e a more perma-29 nent s o l u t i o n . The i n c r e a s i n g compet i t iveness o f modern s a -l i n e conver s ion p l a n t s f o r sma l l communities should not be un -deres t imated e i t h e r . These p r e s e n t l y p r o v i d e economical water 30,31 sources f o r many c o a s t a l communities throughout the w o r l d . The use o f "dua l " water supply systems as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned (Chapter 3) p r o v i d e an important means f o r ex tending scarce f reshwater s u p p l i e s w h i l e at the same t ime c u r t a i l i n g o v e r a l l water use: A c c o r d i n g to recent s t u d i e s on the t o p i c , as much as 80% or more o f domestic water demand today c o u l d be s a t i s f i e d by 32 "second r a t e " sources—sea water i n c l u d e d . D e s p i t e such p o t e n t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , the most p r a c t i -c a l and economic method f o r o b t a i n i n g p o t a b l e water s u p p l i e s i n the G u l f I s l a n d s today ( l i t t l e recognized) i s the use of r a i n w a t e r s . These c o u l d foe c o l l e c t e d from r o o f tops and s to red i n c i s t e r n s . One i n c h o f r a i n f a l l on a roo f measuring 25' x 30' fo r example, would c a t c h approximate ly 375 imp. g a l l o n s . On the b a s i s o f l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n r eco rds , the f o l l o w i n g amounts o f water c o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y be c o l l e c t e d from a 750 square f t . r o o f : TABLE 15 33 ESTIMATED RAINWATER CATCHMENT POR HORNBY ISLAND RAINFALL VOLUME POTENTIAL" CUMULATIVE MONTH ( inches) WATER ( g a l . ) YIELD WATER ® 200 g . /day STORAGE (gal) October 5.32 2000 10 days 2000 November 8.29 3100 15 5100 December 9.22 3450 17 8550 January 7.49 2810 14 11 j. 350 February 6.48 2430 12 13,790 March 3.68 137Q 6 15,160 A p r i l 2.57 970 5 16,130 May 1.58 590 3 16,720 June 1.43 550 3 17,270 J u l y 0.94 350 2 17,620 August 1.09 410 2 18,030 September 2.26 850 4 18,880 TOTAL 50.40 inches 93 days 18,880 * An evapora t ion l o s s may be expected d u r i n g runof f , or t o f l u s h the r o o f p r i o r to c o l l e c t i o n (va lves are commonly used) . But due to the v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n which can be expected f o r the area and l a c k o f accura te records—the more p e r t i n a n t q u e s t i o n which a r i s e s i s "what v a r i a t i o n i n p r e -c i p i t a t i o n can be expected from year to yea r?" Only when t h i s da ta i s ob ta ined can evapora t ion or o the r mi sce l l aneous l o s s e s be m e t h o d i c a l l y c a l -c u l a t e d ( these l o s s e s would seldom account f o r more than 10%). The fo rego ing would suggest tha t i f a 100 c u b i c y a r d 34 c i s t e r n -were a v a i l a b l e to serve a household, 17,000 g a l l o n s c o u l d be captured d u r i n g the "win te r" months (from October to June) . T h i s supply would be more than s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e a household o f four w i t h a l l i t s " n o n - s p r i n k l i n g " water needs from June through September. I f the co t tage were used o n l y two f u l l months o r l e s s d u r i n g the summer then more than t w i c e t h i s sup-p l y o r over 300 g a l l o n s per day would be a v a i l a b l e . T h i s as p r e v i o u s l y noted would pe rmi t the co t t age r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f u l l range o f water use a c t i v i t i e s , lawn s p r i n k l i n g i n c l u d e d . PROVINCIAL WATER RIGHTS, ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT POLICIES W i t h the excep t ion o f such s p e c i a l mat ters as n a v i g a -t i o n , f i s h e r i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l streams, the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment today has e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over water r e sources . T h i s r i g h t , o r i g i n a l l y i m p l i e d i n the B r i t i s h Nor th Amer ica Act o f 1867, r ecogn ized the need f o r p r o v i n c e s to l e g i s l a t e over "p ro-p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , over mat ters o f a l o c a l and p r i v a t e na -35 cure and over l o c a l works" . A c c o r d i n g l y , j u r i s d i c t i o n over water has been r e -de l ega t ed to v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l government a-genc ies , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and l o c a l water i m -provement d i s t r i c t s . Neve r the l e s s , the p r imary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r water management con t inues to r e s i d e w i t h the Water Resource S e r v i c e o f the Department o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources . I t ' s a u t h o r i t y as set f o r t h by i t s e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e s ; the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Water Resources has j u r i s d i c t i o n overs (a) the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Water A c t , and (b) a l l mat ters p e r t a i n i n g to the water resources of the P r o v i n c e . 175 WATER RIGHTS In B r i t i s h Columbia a l l recorded waters are a l l o c a -t e d on the b a s i s o f " p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i v e r i g h t s " . What t h i s i m -p l i e s i s tha t a l l water i s the p r o p e r t y o f the Crown and the r i g h t to use such waters must be au tho r i s ed by a p p r o p r i a t i o n pe rmi t or l i c e n s e . P r i o r i t y i n t ime or date o f l i c e n s i n g gen-e r a l l y confers the b e t t e r r i g h t (nature o f use, nature o f sup-p l y and amounts r e q u i r e d f o r " b e n e f i c i a l use" are a l s o taken i n -t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) . Whi l e l i c e n s e s are no rma l ly cons ide red p e r -manent, forming p a r t o f the va lue o f the l a n d where the water i s used and p a s s i n g w i t h any t r a n s f e r o f the l a n d , the " h o l d -i n g o f a water l i c e n s e i s always c o n d i t i o n a l upon con t inued b e n e f i c i a l use o f the water and upon payment to the Crown o f an 36 annual r e n t a l " . The P r o v i n c i a l Water A c t f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e s the p r i n c i p l e s , procedures and r i g h t s o f water use. I t i s important t o £ n o t e tha t water used f o r domestic 37 purposes does not have to be l i c e n s e d as long as the water used i s "unrecorded". The term "unrecorded water" i s de f ined by the Water A c t as water which has not been l i c e n s e d or a l l o -ca ted f o r use under any s p e c i a l or p r i v a t e a c t . Groundwaters which are not p e r c e i v e d to be i n t e r r e l a -ted w i t h l i c e n s e d sur face water f lows are c l a s s i f i e d as "unre-corded wa te r s" . Hence groundwaters, u n l i k e sur face wa te r s , are exempt from most p r o v i s i o n s o f the Water A c t . E f f e c t i v e con-t r o l of groundwaters i s made more d i f f i c u l t because groundwaters are cons idered l e g a l l y "appertunant" to the o v e r l y i n g l and and the re fo re subjec t t o p r i v a t e ownership. (These " r i p a r i a n " r i g h t are s i m i l a r to those t r a d i t i o n a l l y a p p l i e s to sur face w a t e r s ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s tha t w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l users are v i r t u -a l l y f ree to develop groundwaters i n whatever q u a n t i t i e s and purposes they d e s i r e , users are s imul t aneous ly denied the p r o -t e c t i o n s afforded*by the A c t . Where groundwater development i s in t ense moreover, the l a c k of w e l l l i c e n s i n g procedures and a s s o c i a t e d v/ater management p o l i c i e s may c rea t e an u n f a i r i f not u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n f o r groundwater wi thdrawa l and recharge GBBERAL ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OP THE WATER RESOURCES SERVICE The P r o v i n c i a l Water Resources S e r v i c e has been c r e a -t ed as a r e s u l t o f a r a p i d l y grov/ing awareness f o r the need to manage water r e s o u r c e s - i n a coo rd ina t ed and comprehensive f a s h -i o n . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s e r v i c e and the widen ing spectrum of pov/ers which have c o n t i n u o u s l y been added to i t . These .changes date from Governor Doug las ' e s t a -b l i shment o f the Gold F i e l d s A c t o f 1859 to recent and impending 38 c o n s o l i d a t i o n s and amendments t o the Water Resources A c t . The S e r v i c e i s a r e l a t i v e l y new c r e a t i o n o f government hav ing been e l e v a t e d from "Branch" s t a tus w i t h i n the Department o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Slater Resources i n 1962. As expected, 177 t h i s move t o e s t a b l i s h an "independent" agency o f government concerned w i t h development o f c e n t r a l i z e d powers o f water r e -source management, was soon f o l l o w e d by the fo rmat ion o f a d i s -t i n c t Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch . These toge ther w i t h the Water R i g h t s Branch are now p a r t o f the Water Resources S e r v i c e . The r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f these Branches are d e s c r i b e d below: The Water R i g h t s Branch i s p r i m a r i l y charged w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Water A c t . "An important f ea tu re o f t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y to the l o c a l l e v e l , where D i s t r i c t Engineers are r e q u i r e d under the Water A c t , to i n t e r p r e t the e x i s t i n g water l i c e n s e s and r e g u l a t e a l l use o f 39 water accord ing to the e s t a b l i s h e d r i g h t s " . As the A c t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the es tab l i shment o f improvement d i s t r i c t s and wa-t e r users communities f o r the purpose o f deve lop ing , o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g p u b l i c water supply systems, the Branch i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g and a s s i s t i n g i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch i s concerned w i t h the t e c h n i c a l mat ters r e l a t e d to water development and c o n s e r v a t i o n . To t h i s end a separate d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the Branch has been e s t a -b l i s h e d to s tudy area hydro logy , water r e sources , domestic water needs and developmental i m p l i c a t i o n s . The Branch i s a l s o geared to implement the recommendations o f i t s f i n d i n g s . 178 The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch dea l s w i t h mat ters p e r -t a i n i n g t o the d i scha rge o f wastes to l a n d , water and most r e -c e n t l y , a i r . I t s j u r i s d i c t i o n and f u n c t i o n are l a i d down i n the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967. W i t h respect to domestic waste d i s -p o s a l , i t s f u n c t i o n s ove r l ap those p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as asso-c i a t e d w i t h t h e Department o f H e a l t h . Recent changes i n the powers of the S e r v i c e , o f major importance t o t h i s Study, was the amendment i n 1960 t o extend the p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t to groundwater "to any p a r t o r p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e " where such may be needed. Al though these p r o -v i s i o n s o f the A c t have not bees, made a p p l i c a b l e to any s p e c i f i c areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia by Orders i n C o u n c i l , a Groundwater D i v i s i o n has been set up w i t h i n the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch "to c a r r y out the t e c h n i c a l work necessary to permi t the c o n t r o l 40 of groundwater use when t h i s becomes necessary" . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , groundwater (and w e l l users) on Hornby I s l a n d c o u l d be p l a c e d under the j u r s i d i c t i o n o f the Water A c t , should the government dec ide to g ive t h i s area a s p e c i a l "water conse rva -t i o n " s t a t u s . POTENTIAL "MANAGEMENT" ROLE OF THE WATER RESOURCES SERVICE A gl impse o f the S e r v i c e r s fu tu re r o l e i s perhaps best r evea l ed by a proposed amendment to the Water Resources A c t which r e c e i v e d f i r s t r ead ing i n the L e g i s l a t u r e du r ing the s p r i n g o f i v y 1971, ( B i l l No. 79) . I n - b r i e f , t h i s B i l l s t r e s se s a more com-prehens ive approach to water management by e n l a r g i n g the powers o f the M i n i s t e r to p l a n f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n , use and deve lop-ment o f a l l water resources i n the p r o v i n c e . (Water resources are def ined as i n c l u d i n g s a l t water , groundwater, f r e sh sur face waters and "atmospheric m o i s t u r e " ) . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the o v e r -a l l i n t e n t o f the B i l l was p r o v i d e d by the Honourable Ray W i l -l i s t o n who s t a t ed i n re fe rence to the B i l l : "We are go ing to look a t the t o t a l water resources o f the p r o v i n c e , and manage our water the way we manage our f o r e s t s " . W h i l e t h i s statement may w e l l be i n t e r p r e t e d (or m i s -construed?) by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o mean a "hands-off" p o l i c y i n l o c a l resource management s i m i l a r to the r e c e n t l y passed B i l l 41 100, l e t us look, at the genera l and more obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the B i l l i t s e l f . W i t h respect to water resource surveys and r e sea rch , the B i l l would pe rmi t the M i n i s t e r t o : S e c t i o n 2 (1) (a) i n s t a l l , operate and ma in t a in h y d r o l o g i c and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t a t i o n s (fo) enter i n t o agreements r e s p e c t i n g the c o l l e c -t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f water resource da t a . (c) c a r r y out water resource , e c o l o g i c a l and t opo -graph ic surveys o f sur face wate rs , groundwa-t e r s , and watersheds as may be r e q u i r e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n , and use o f water r e source ; and (d) undertake research , i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and s t u -d i e s r e l a t e d to water resource and wa te r -sheds i n v e n t o r y , c o n s e r v a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and use. 180 W i t h respec t t o water resource p l a n n i n g , the M i n i s t e r may; S e c t i o n 3 (1) make, w i t h the adv ice and a s s i s t a n c e o f the a d v i -sory committee and o f such o the r governmental foodies as he cons ide r s a d v i s a b l e , p l ans f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n , use and development o f water r e s o u r -ces i n any a r e a . . . Sec t ions 3 and 4 r e q u i r e tha t any person who wishes to undertake development of a water resource which r equ i r e s a d i v e r s i o n and use o f water exceeding 10 cub ic fee t (62.3 gal) persecond, or an annual s torage of water exceeding 3,000 acre f e e t , comply w i t h whatever p l a n s have been approved f o r the area by the M i n i s t e r . Should such a p l a n not have been prepared , then development may be undertaken i n accordance w i t h p r o v i s i o n s o f the Water A c t . W i t h respect t o water development and w e l l d r i l l i n g s S e c t i o n 5 (1) (3) No person , c o r p o r a t i o n or m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l commence or c a r r y on the c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n or ex t ens ion o f a p u b l i c water supply system w i t h -out f i r s t o b t a i n i n g a pe rmi t from the M i n i s t e r (no twi ths t and ing the u sua l requirements o f the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s A c t , and the H e a l t h A c t r e s -p e c t i n g water sys tems) . S e c t i o n 8 (1) On, from and a f t e r the f i r s t day o f January, 1972, no person s h a l l c a r r y out v/ater w e l l d r i l l i n g w i t h -out a permit from the m i n i s t e r . (2) A p p l i c a t i o n f o r pe rmi t under subsec t ion (1) s h a l l be made to the m i n i s t e r i n such form and c o n t a i n -i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n as i s p r e s c r i b e d i n the r e -g u l a t i o n s . (3) A person v/ho c a r r i e s out water w e l l d r i l l i n g under t h i s A c t s h a l l send to the c h i e f engineer w i t h i n one month a f t e r comple t ion o f d r i l l i n g o f a w e l l cop ie s o f the l ogs kept i n respec t o f the w e l l . I n i t i a l impress ions are t ha t the B i l l i s an important benchmark i n v/ater l e g i s l a t i o n i n B . C . because i t r ecogn izes the fundamental need to p l a n f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e use of surface 181 and groundwaters. I t i s a nove l p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r t h i s p r o v i n c e and Canada, not because i t at tempts to manage water resources i n a more comprehensive and long term f a s h i o n , but because i t at tempts to g i v e the M i n i s t e r g r e a t l y extended power to c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e groundwaters i n one qu i ck sweep. (Most o ther p r o v i n c e s i n con t r a s t to B . C . have s l o w l y evo lved l e g i s -l a t i o n and programs a f f e c t i n g groundwater management). However, w i t h re fe rence to the fo rego ing i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t ; — There i s no r e s t r a i n t whatsoever on the use o f groundwaters f o r p e r s o n a l domestic use which i s withdrawn and used on one ' s p r o p e r t y . T h i s i s s tandard p o l i c y i n water l e g i s -l a t i o n throughout Canada. S i m i l a r l y , the re i s no p r o v i s i o n made f o r the r e t r i v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n , much l e s s r e g u l a t i o n o f w e l l s which are dug by backhoe; these c o n s t i t u t e the g rea te r p r o p o r t i o n o f w e l l s developed on Hornby and the I s l a n d s to da te . — N e i t h e r the Water Act nor t h i s B i l l permit Govern-ment a u t h o r i t i e s t o review or revoke l i c e n s e d water uses i n v iew o f changing c i rcumstances o f water supply and demand. — The proposed l e g i s l a t i o n i s s t i l l too vague t o be o f any use i n s e c u r i n g p u b l i c p r o t e c t i o n from problems a r i s i n g from i m p r o p e r . d r i l l i n g ope ra t ions ( p o l l u t i o n o f a q u i f e r s , uncon-t r o l l e d a r t e s i a n f l o w s , t e s t ho le or w e l l abandoment). F u r t h e r , the re i s no mention made o f e n a b l i n g r e g u l a t i o n s which would permi t p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s and a q u i f e r s to be moni tored i n order t ha t changing resource c o n d i t i o n s may be observed and problems ave r t ed . A b a s i c c r i t i c i s m concern ing the proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f the "Adv i so ry Commission" i s con ta ined w i t h i n the C o n c l u s i o n to t h i s t h e s i s . SUMMARY Whi l e the exact nature o f the groundwater resources beneath Hornby and the G u l f I s l a n d s are not known f o r l a c k o f geohydro logic i n f o r m a t i o n , a v a i l a b l e o p i n i o n i s o f the concen-sus that many of t h e s e . I s l a n d s (Hornby i n p a r t i c u l a r ) w i l l ne-ver be ab le to s u s t a i n l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n concen t r a t i ons depen-dent upon groundwater. The problem i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the i n a b i l i t y o f u n d e r l y i n g sandstone/conglomerate and sha le format ions t o s to r e useable wa te r s . Exper ience has shown tha t developmental problems may a r i s e i f water development i s a l lowed to procede wi thou t r e -ference to resource c o n s t r a i n t s or p l a n n i n g gu ide lands . A l -though problems o f ground subs i s tence are not cons ide red to be a th rea t i n the G u l f I s l a n d s , con tamina t ion o f w e l l waters by s a l t water i n t r u s i o n c o u l d w e l l d i m i n i s h useable f r e s h water s u p p l i e s . The most apparent problem" o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t o f groundwater w i thd rawa l however concerns l o c a l i z e d problems o f w e l l i n t e r f e r e n c e . These appear to be unavoidable aspects o f groundwater development. Meanwhile, exhaus t ion o f sha l low a q u i -f e r s d u r i n g summer droughts w i l l con t inue to p lague as w e l l as s u r p r i s e r e s i d e n t s o f these I s l a n d s . W h i l e groundwater i s p r e s e n t l y the most r e a l i s t i c sourc f o r domestic water supply fo r most I s l a n d e r s , i t i s never the-l e s s recogn ized tha t a v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s do ex i s t . ' These range from home water d e l i v e r y by v e h i c l e and r a inwa te r c a t c h -ment systems t o v a r i o u s d e s a l i n a t i o n p roces ses . Of these , roo f top c o l l e c t i o n o f ra inwate r would apjjear most f avourab le from a l ong term c o t t a g i n g p o i n t o f v i e w . The Water Resources S e r v i c e o f the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment has b a s i c j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l mat ters p e r t a i n i n g to the water resources o f t h i s p r o v i n c e . Al though groundwater i s not ye t r e g u l a t e d by the Water A c t , p r o v i s i o n has been made f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n should c i rcumstances war ran t . The p r e v a i l i n g l a c k of government c o n t r o l over ground-water and a s s o c i a t e d p o l i c i e s fo r e f f e c t i v e resource management, l eave I s l a n d e r s i n an unenviab le s i t u a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h regards t o the economic and r e l i a b l e p r o v i s i o n o f groundwater s u p p l i e s . R e c e n t l y proposed l e g i s l a t i o n has attempted to breach t h i s management gap. However, even should B i l l Ho. 79 be passed i n i t s e n t i r e t y d u r i n g i t s second read ing t h i s s p r i n g , con t inued a d d i t i o n s to t h i s groundwater l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l s t i l l be r e q u i r e d i f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the B i l l are to be f u l f i l l e d . 1 8 4 CONCLUSION I t i s apparent tha t e x i s t i n g knowledge o f groundwater resource p o s s i b i l i t i e s or development c o n s t r a i n t s on Hornby as w e l l as most o ther G u l f I s l a n d s are f a r from adequate. Ground-water management c o n t r o l s and p o t e n t i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r sus t a ined resource use are s i m i l a r l y l a c k i n g . In view o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced i n s ecu r ing such l e g i s l a t i o n and expense i n v o l v e d i n e s t a -b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s f o r groundwater resource management, con t inued I s l a n d development should be a l lowed o n l y on the unders tanding tha t e v e n t u a l l y , a l t e r n a t e water supply sources w i l l need to be developed. Fo r the p resen t , i t would appear tha t a c a r e f u l e x a -mina t ion o f groundwater resource p o t e n t i a l s should precede r e -s i d e n t i a l development i n s i t u a t i o n s where i t i s t o be r e l i e d upon f o r domestic supply or where e s t a b l i s h e d uses may be a f f e c t e d . Th i s procedure would he lp to min imize resource use c o n f l i c t s and perhaps more impor tan t , enable groundwater resources t o be developed i n the most economic manner and fo r the b e n e f i t o f the e n t i r e community. I n v iew o f e x i s t i n g resource c o n s t r a i n t s a b a s i c manage-ment p r i n c i p l e which should be a p p l i e d i n conse rv ing a v a i l a b l e groundwaters ( f o r e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l users) on I s l a n d s such as Hornby, i s the p r i n c i p l e o f user r e s t r a i n t . Households should be d i scouraged from u s i n g l a r g e amounts of water f o r s p r i n k l i n g 185 a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g and o ther "consumptive" uses which r e l e a s e ground -water to the atmosphere o r the ocean through r u n o f f . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t must be remembered tha t scarce groundwater resources are the most economic sources of domestic water supply-p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to I s l a n d e r s and f o r t h i s reason alone should be shared amongst e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l Island, users as f a r as i s p u b l i c l y and p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e . iOD F O O T N O T E S 1. J . P . W a l t z , "Ground Water" Water , E a r t h and Man, op. c i t . , p . 259. 2. Haro ld E . Thomas, The Conse rva t ion o f Ground Water, McGraw-H i l l , Toronto , 1951, p . 228. 3. Water and W e l l s , op. c i t . , p . 413. (Th i s i s an i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f L e o p o l d ' s w r i t i n g s i n Water and the Conse rva t ion  Movement, c i r c u l a r 402, U . S . G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Washington. . 4 . J . B . G i l b e r t and P . N . Shove l , "Water Q u a l i t y P l a n n i n g and Management" Jou rn . Am. Water Works A s s o c . , March/70, p . 141. 5. Ha ro ld E . Thomas, op. c i t . , p . 98 . 6. T h i s table , has been adapted from J . P . W a l t z , op. c i t . , p . 260. The column r a t i n g s u i t a b i l i t y o f g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l s as a q u i f e r s has been added by the w r i t e r . 7. Thomas, op. c i t . , pp . 31, 32. 8. I b i d . , p . 99. 9. I b i d . 10. R. L . Nace, "Human Use o f Groundwater", Water , E a r t h and  Man, op. c i t . , p . 292. 11 . I b i d . 12. Regions p a r t i c u l a r l y no tab le i n t h i s regard are the San Joaquin V a l l e y , Santa C l a r a V a l l e y and L a Verne area east o f Los Ange les , C a l i f o r n i a . M a t e r i a l from J . F . P o -l a n d , "Land Subs is tence and Ground Water Development i n C a l i f o r n i a " Proceedings o f the Conference on the C a l i -f o r n i a Ground Water S i t u a t i o n , B e r k e l y , C a l i f o r n i a , Dec-1956. ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a p u b l i c a t i o n , D. K . Todd, e d i t o r ) . 13- Water and W e l l s , p p . c i t . , p . 417. 14. In format ion based on the w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l obse rva t ions and t a l k s w i t h I s l a n d e r s as w e l l as government pe r sonne l i n the Water Resources S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a (Summer, 1971). 187 15. A no tab le excep t i on i s the r e l a t i v e l y sha l low w e l l (18 ' ) at Heron Rocks (Norman P o i n t ) which s u p p l i e s campers w i t h as much as 1800 g a l l o n s a day d u r i n g the summer. I n f o r -mation from E . C . Hals tead and A . T r e i c h e l "Ground Water Resources o f the C o a s t a l Lowland and adjacent I s l a n d s : Nanoose Bay to Campbell . R i v e r , East Coast Vancouver I s -l a n d . ( G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, ^Ottawa, 1 9 6 6 — B u l l e t i n No. 144) p . 7. 16. I b i d . 17. Hornby l o t owner 's q u e s t i o n n a i r e , op. c i t . 18. In format ion based on " v o l u n t a r i l y ™ p r o v i d e d records as compi led by the Groundwater D i v i s i o n o f the Water Resources S e r v i c e s . I t i s important to note few sha l low w e l l s are recorded , hence the t a b l e does not p r o v i d e a t r ue p i c t u r e of I s l a n d w e l l s developed to da te . ( In format ion cour t e sy o f Mi s s Penny Hewitson, June/1971) . 19. "Est imated w e l l c a p a b i l i t i e s " are based on a 12 hour pump-i n g day ( c i s t e r n s torage assumed l i m i t e d ) . 20. "The community w e l l at JJhal ing S t a t i o n Bay i s cons ide red by r e s i d e n t s to be an extremely p o t a b l e source" . Mr . C. Armstrong, (Treasurer o f the r e s i d e n t s Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay Improvement D i s t r i c t ) , i n t e r v i e w , Hornby I s l a n d , June 1971). 21. Ha l s t ead , op. c i t . 22. " S o i l Survey Report No. 6—(Vancouver I s l a n d , Qual icum— A l b e r n i Sheet) a p u b l i c a t i o n o f the B . C . Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( V i c t o r i a ) i n con junc t ion w i t h the F e d e r a l Government (Ottawa) and U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , 1958. 23. E rns t W. B . Hoen "Geology o f Hornby I s l a n d " . M. S c . t h e s i s , Geology Department, U . B . C . , August 1958, p . 17. 24. See a l s o M u l l e r J . E . and D. J . Carson: "Geology and M i n e r a l Depos i t s o f A l b e r n i Map—Area B r i t i s h Columbia G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Department of Mines and Resources , Ottawa (Map 9 2 - F ) , 1969. 25. D r . Bes t , Department o f Geology, U . B . C . , ( i n t e r v i e w , U . B . C . , January 21, 1972). 26. See F . J . P e t t iJohn, P . E . P o t l e r and R. S i e v e r , "Geology of Sand and Sandstone" a conference sponsored by the I n -d ians G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Department o f Geology, Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y , 1965, (Bloomington, I n d i a n a ) , p . 42. 27. In format ion based on t a l k s w i t h l o c a l developers and Mr . Seon—noted I s l a n d d i v i n e r (Hornby I s l a n d , J u l y 1971). 28. D r . J . C . Fouraker , Groundwater D i v i s i o n o f the Jfater I n -v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch, Water Resources S e r v i c e o f B . C . , (pe rsona l i n t e r v i e w , V i c t o r i a , June 1971). 29. " H i r s h l i e f e r , commenting on the es t imated cos t o f t r a n s -p o r t i n g water by tanker v e s s a l from the nor thern to the sour thern p a r t o f C a l i f o r n i a ($3.70/1000 g a l . , not i n c l u -ded s torage , mooring and l o a d i n g c o s t s ) , p o i n t s out tha t a l -though t h i s f i g u r e i s h i g h , t anker t r a n s p o r t c o u l d compete w i t h s a l i n e water conve r s ion i n c o a s t a l areas and might be used u n t i l demand b u i l d s up". F . P . Linaweauer J r . and C. Sco t t jGlark "Costs o f Water T ransmis s ion"—Journ . Am. Water Works A s s o c . , Dec. 1964, p . 155. 30. S o l a r d i s t i l l a t i o n p l a n t s are capable o f p roduc ing p o t a b l e water from s a l t at a. cos t o f about $3-$6 per .1000 g a l l o n s ( w i t h a "minimum" c a p i t a l o u t l a y ) . These systems are p a r -t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r sma l l s c a l e water p r o d u c t i o n o f from 5 to 25,000 g .p .day . Mo. E7011B.1, "So la r D i s t i l l a t i o n " , New Y o r k , ' 1970. 31. W h i l e most sma l l s c a l e p l a n t s are p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d i n such areas as K i n d l y A i r Force Base, Bermuda, Dhakran, Saudi A r a b i a and Kuwait—where e i t h e r cheap f u e l i s a v a i l -ab l e or where m i l i t a r y demands make cos t o f water a secon-dary c o n s i d e r a t i o n ^ recent advances i n d e s a l i n a t i o n p r o -cesses have enabled more widespread uses . A d i s t i l l a -t i o n p l a n t was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the community o f S t . Thomas i n the V i r g i n I s l a n d s i n 1960 fo r example at a cos t o f ap-p r o x i m a t e l y $2.17 per 1000 g a l l o n s (17,000 p e r s o n s ) . S i n c e then, s m a l l s ca l e p l a n t s have reduced the cos t to w e l l un -der $2.00 per 1000 g a l l o n s ) . Used i n con junc t ion w i t h " d u a l " v/ater systems these c o u l d be economica l ly a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r v/ater supply i n a r i d r e g i o n s . ( In fo rmat ion based i n p a r t on C. F . MacGowan's a r t i c l e "Report on Demon-s t r a t i o n P l a n t s f o r Sa l ine—Water Conve r s ion" J o u r . Am. Water Works A s s o c . , Nov. 1964). 32. See D a n i e l A . Okun's a r i t c l e " A l t e r n a t i v e s i n Water Supp ly" , op_. c i t . , p . 218. 189 33. The p r e c i p i t a t i o n records upon which these es t imates were based were recorded fo r Denman I s l a n d i n "Cl ima te o f B r i -t i s h Columbia, 1965", Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , B . C , ( i t s c l i m a t e i s most s i m i l a r to Hornby I s l a n d ) . 34. A c i s t e r n l a r g e enough to accommodate t h i s s u p p l y — i f b u i l t beneath a 750 square f t . co t t age , would need to be between 3% to 4 fee t i n depth . 35. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Water Resources i n Canada, Canadian C o u n c i l o f Resource M i n i s t r i e s , Mon t rea l 1968. 36. H. D. DeBeck "Present Use o f B . C . ' s Water" , Seventeenth B . C . N a t u r a l Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1967, p . 42. 37. "Domestic use" i s de f ined by the Water A c t as water t ha t i s used f o r household requi rements , s a n i t a t i o n , f i r e p r e -v e n t i o n , the wa te r ing o f domest ic animals and p o u l t r y , and the i r r i g a t i o n o f gardens. ("Gardens" must not exceed one quar t e r acre and a d j o i n a d w e l l i n g ) . 38. Refer to A l l e n Mac-Lean's a r t i c l e on " H i s t o r i c Development o f Water L e g i s l a t i o n i n B . C . " , S i g h t h B . C . N a t u r a l Resour-ces Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1955. 39. H. De Beck, op. c i t . , p . 42. 40. H . De Beck, op. c i t . , p . 42. 41 . B i l l 100 i s now S e c t i o n 50 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t , 1971. I t removed Tree Farms and Tree Farm L i c e n s e areas from r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n . " P o l i t i c s i s what determines what can and can't be done. P o l i t i c a l attitudes l i m i t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for planning at the l o c a l , regional and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l " . . . . "Plan-ning must r e f l e c t what most people want. I t should s p e l l out land use p o l i c i e s that express t h i s p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y " . The Honourable Dan Campbell, Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s , B r i t i s h Columbia—in an address to the Planning I n s t i t u t e of B.C., Harrison Hot Springs, November 1971 (as quoted i n the P.I.B.C. News, December 1971). C H A P T E R S I X W A T E R N E E D S A N D P R E F E R E N C E S O F L O T O W N E R S INTRODUCTION In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s water s e r v i c i n g standards can-not be imposed upon people s imply because " i t i s good f o r them". S e r v i c e s must be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f e s t a b l i s h e d user needs or preferences—however misguided these may appear to p lanners— f o r i t i s the r e s i d e n t s which must l i v e w i t h these s e r v i c e s or l a c k o f them not the p l a n n e r s . In examining l o t pu rchase r s 1 needs and p re fe rences fo r water s e r v i c i n g on Hornby I s l a n d t h i s chapter makes a d i s -t i n c t i o n between: (a) cornpulsary o r g a n i z a t i o n fo r water s e r v i c i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage o f l a n d development (b) rudimentary standards of s e r v i c i n g . (a) COMPULSORY ORGANIZATION FOR WATER SERVICING AT THE SUBDIVI-SION OF LAND DEVELOPMENT Compulsory o r g a n i z a t i o n fo r water- supply i s a cha rac -t e r i s t i c f ea tu re o f r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n urban areas . P r e - s e r v i c i n g has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been made compulsory f o r r e a -sons o f community hygiene and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , but the concern f o r economic p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , compact development and o f course the v i r t u a l dependence by r e s i d e n t s Upon community systems 1S1 f o r water supply w i t h i n c i t i e s are apparent reasons a l s o . In r u r a l areas water s e r v i c i n g requirements are g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d e i t h e r because l a r g e l o t s are f e l t to be s e l f s u f f i c i e n t water xdse o r tha t the i m p o s i t i o n o f water s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e -ments p l a c e s an unnecessary burden upon s u b d i v i d e r s and l o t p u r -chase r s . Low d e n s i t y development or inde te rmina te p l a n s f o r l o t use are major reasons . Furthermore, s i n c e there are a v a r i e t y o f economic a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the devel opment o f water w i t h i n most areas o f B . C . — e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the G u l f I s l a n d s (p. 171) i t i s fo r tuna te the p r o v i n c i a l government has dec ided to d e a l l i g h t l y w i t h such ma t t e r s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu l a t i ons which v i r t u a l l y ignore water s e r v i c i n g f o r l a r g e l o t s w h i l e at the same t ime p l a c i n g a r e l a -t i v e l y great number o f c o n t r o l s upon sewage d i s p o s a l (Chapter 4 ) . LOT OWNERS' CONCERN Lot owners ' concern fo r o rgan ized systems o f water sup-p l y on Hornby I s l a n d i s perhaps bes t i n d i c a t e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s a s k i n g owners who should be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e fo r water supply and why? TABLE 16 1 RESPONSIBILITY POR WATER SUPPLY PERSON OR AGENCY HELD RESPONSIBLE PERCENTAGE The S u b d i v i d e r Lo t purchaser Government Both government and s u b d i v i d e r 68% 6% 3% 3% 13% _Z2£ Unce r t a in No anwser TOTAL 100% The reasons g i v e n by the above respondents suppor t ing the v iew tha t the s u b d i v i d e r should be made d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i -b l e f o r water supply are g iven ( i n order o f importance) as f o l -(1) The s u b d i v i d e r has best c o n t r o l over water supply and i s i n the best p o s i t i o n to o rgan ize community groups. "Often the l o t owner has no c o n t r o l over the source o f supply i n h i s a rea , o r i f he has , i t should not be p e r m i t t e d t o become a p r i v a t e marketable commodity, but should be a v a i l a b l e to the e n t i r e area at the r e q u i r e d cos t to the owners t h e r e i n . " (2) A system dev i sed by the s u b d i v i d e r w i l l be cheaper i n the l o n g run . "On l a r g e acreage, one can d i g w e l l s , but on c i t y s i z e d l o t s , a w e l l on each l o t — i f there i s water , i s expensive and i m p r a c t i c a l " . (3) Lot purchasers must be p r o t e c t e d as water supply-i s o f t en ove r looked . " In any t r a n s a c t i o n I f e e l i t i s o n l y f a i r t o in form the p r o s p e c t i v e buyer f u l l y . . . . The P u b l i c should know what they are ge t t ing—and t h a t s up to the s u b d i v i d e r to in form h i s c l i e n t " . lows: (4) Water i s a necessary p r o v i s i o n f o r c o t t a g i n g and r e s i d e n t i a l development and p l a n n i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage i s necessary to r e l a t e resources t o p o p u l a t i o n needs. (5) "Only the s u b d i v i d e r has o p p o r t u n i t y f o r good o v e r -v iew and p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Board o f H e a l t h f o r a p p r o v a l . S u b d i v i d e r s must have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r combined e f f e c t i v e n e s s of safe water and sewage d i s p o s a l " . (6) Water supply should accompany s u b d i v i s i o n i f o n l y f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n reasons a lone . (7) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o h o l d r e a l e s t a t e deve lopers to t h e i r p romises : "The r e a l e s t a t e man t o l d us water would go i n a few hundred yards from u s — i t d i d —a pump". One o f the more vehement r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n o f s e r v i c i n g which sums up the v iew o f many l o t purchasers s u r -veyed, was expressed as f o l l o w s : "The s a l e o f l o t s f o r r e c r e a -t i o n home on an I s l a n d which i s c l o s e to a sub-deser t i n p r e -c i p i t a t i o n wi thou t a proven water supply i s s c a r c e l y shor t o f c r i m i n a l — e s p e c i a l l y so i n the absence o f e f f e c t i v e l o c a l gov-ernment " . An u n d e r l y i n g reason f o r concern as noted i s t ha t many persons had purchased l o t s wi thou t hav ing been g iven a s su -rance tha t a source o f water supply would be a v a i l a b l e when they were ready to use or develop t h e i r p r o p e r t y . Fur thermore , over h a l f o f the respondents had or expected problems w i t h respec t t o water supp ly . Even those r e s i d e n t s hav ing developed s a t i s f a c -t o r y water supioly systems were d i s s a t i s f i e d : The i n c r e a s i n g i n -c idence of "water r u s t l i n g " which has become a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 194 f ea tu re o f summer l i v i n g on the I s l a n d f o r example, has n e c e s s i -2 t a t e d the l o c k i n g o f s e v e r a l community s t andp ipes . A l s o of concern i s the problem o f p o t e n t i a l w e l l water p o l l u t i o n from 3 u n c o n t r o l l e d development and waste d i s c h a r g e s . I n order to understand I s l a n d e r ' s concern over the l a c k of o rgan ized water s e r v i c i n g i t should be p o i n t e d out t ha t the re are p r e s e n t l y 736 " s m a l l " l o t s (under 2 acres) w i t h i n the p r i n -c i p l e s u b d i v i s i o n areas on Hornby I s l a n d . Of these , l e s s than 100 l o t s are p r e s e n t l y s e r v i c e d w i t h a p i p e d water supply (none to P . U . C . s t anda rd ) . Approx ima te ly 70 r e l y upon th ree community water systems planned by developers and the remainder (about 30) have developed i n d i v i d u a l w e l l systems s e r v i n g from 3 to 7 f a m i l i e s each. The great m a j o r i t y o f I s l a n d l o t s — o v e r 85%, are 4 wi thout any developed source o f water supp ly . DEVELOPERS' CONCERN An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t on the ques t i on o f o rgan ized s e r -v i c i n g i s t ha t o f a l l the major s u b d i v i d e r s and r e a l e s t a t e agents con tac ted f o r the I s l a n d and sur rounding r e g i o n , not one suggested tha t o rgan ized systems o f water supply should not be 5 made a necessary p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r sma l l l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s . Opin ions v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y o f course , as to the type of s e r -v i c e s which were to be p r o v i d e d and the extent t o which the sub-d i v i d e r should s t r i v e to ma in t a in the system once l o t s have been 195 6 s o l d . But these do not d e t r a c t from the o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h i s v i e w . (b) RUDIMENTARY STANDARDS OF SERVICING W i t h i n co t tage areas there are a v a r i e t y o f water sup-p l y systems which may be o rgan ized a t i t h e community l e v e l , from p i p e d water supply systems as a u t h o r i z e d by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission to more rudimentary systems as e x e m p l i f i e d bys .. — p i p e d "community" supply sources r e l y i n g upon i n d i v i d u a l pumping and water s torage s y s t e m s . 7 — t r u c k d e l i v e r y systems u t i l i z i n g on s i t e c i s t e r n s torage f a c i l i t i e s o r moveable c o n t a i n e r s . '•.— community w e l l s or p r e s s u r i z e d s tandpipes whereby r e s i d e n t s must c a r r y water t o homes. "ULTIMATE" SERVICING PREFERENCES In a s se s s ing l o t owners ' p re fe rences f o r water sup-p l y s e r v i c i n g , i t became r e a d i l y apparent t ha t most respondents u l t i m a t e l y planned on hav ing f u l l indoor plumbing f o r t h e i r co t tage or r e s idence and tha t a p r e s s u r i z e d community water system s e r v i c i n g i n d i v i d u a l homes would foe necessary f o r t h i s (Tables 17 and 18 ) . What t h i s appears to suggest , i s t ha t there i s a growing s k e p t i c i s m concern ing the romantic n o t i o n tha t p e r -sons owning $3 ,000 to $10,000 l o t s or l i v i n g i n modern co t tages f o r extended p e r i o d s o f t ime v / i l l con t inue to p r e f e r t o c a r r y t h e i r own v/ater o r be s a t i s f i e d w i t h rudimentary systems o f s e r v i c i n g : TABLE 17 8 DESIRE POR PULL INDOOR PLUMBING WITHIN COTTAGES Yes 66% No 14% U n c e r t a i n 10%. No Answer 10% TOTAL .100% (70 responses) TABLE 18 9 NATURE OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ULTIMATELY DESIRED P iped Community Supply 57% Community Standpipe 14% Own w e l l or o ther i n d i -v i d u a l system water supply 24% Not s t a t ed 5% TOTAL 100% (70 responses) Whi l e i t may be tru-s tha t the "Dan ie l Boone" syndrome on Hornby I s l a n d i s on the d e c l i n e w i t h the advent o f roads , e l e c t r i c i t y , h i g h p r i c e d l o t s and t rend to year aio und l i v i n g , t he re are neve r the le s s a number o f ex tenua t ing c i rcumstances t ha t l e a d one to b e l i e v e rudimentary s tandards o f s e r v i c i n g w i l l con t inue to be p r e f e r r e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e group o f I s l a n d e r s . These "c i rcumstances" w i l l now be d i s cus sed w i t h -i n the context o f : —- expressed demand f o r water s e r v i c i n g "now" — fo r seeab le l o t use and development p l a n s . EXPRESSED DEMAND FOR WATER SERVICING "NOW" Lot owners were ques t ioned as to t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o support a p i p e d community water system "how". Respondents, who were predomina te ly co t tage owners but represented a l l areas o f the I s l a n d were f a i r l y evenly d i v i d e d on the i s s u e : 45% s a i d "yes" , 35% s a i d "no" and 20% were " u n c e r t a i n " . The reasons g iven f o r the above noted response are presen ted on the f o l l o w -i n g page. The m a j o r i t y o f respondents not f a v o u r i n g p i p e d d i s -t r i b u t i o n systems gave l a c k o f use o r p l a n s f o r l o t development f o r t h e i r reasons . Many o f those s t r o n g l y o b j e c t i n g the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f p i p e d water systems d i d so f o r environmental reasons a lone : For example, the m a j o r i t y o f co t tage owners i n t he Wha-l i n g S t a t i o n Bay area were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned tha t p i p e d systems would tend to i nc rease water consumption thereby i n c r e a -s i n g the p o t e n t i a l fo r p o l l u t i o n — a s w e l l as d i m i n i s h i n g scarce groundwater resources i n the a rea . The cos t and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n problem o f o p e r a t i n g p iped d i s t r i b u t i o n systems were a l s o men-t i o n e d as reasons ( these co t t age r s p r e s e n t l y c a r r y t h e i r water from a community w e l l ) . TABLE 19 REASONS POR AND "AGAINST" THE SUPPORT OP A PIPED WATER 10 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM "NOW" REASONS FOR REASONS AGAINST OR "UNCERTAIN" E x i s t i n g water source Have adequate supply or s u i t -14 10 Most economic and p r a c - Do not use l o t s u f f i c i e n t l y 10 to warrant a p i p e d system „ . . 9 P r i m a r i l y f o r reasons o f 7 h e a l t h and convenience . . 6 TOTAL 30 A f r a i d o f p o l l u t i o n or 6 1 TOTAL 33 OVERALL TOTAL 63 (7 d i d not respond) Dwe to the i n c o n c l u s i v e nature of the fo rego ing survey r e s u l t s and l a c k o f r ep re sen ta t iveness o f the p o p u l a t i o n sample used, (p . 21) an examinat ion i n t o l o t u s e r s ' needs f o r water s e r -v i c i n g as i n d i c a t e d by extent o f p r o p e r t y use, "even tua l " deve-lopment p l ans and w i l l i n g n e s s to pay f o r s e r v i c e s , i s i n o rde r : DEVELOPERS' OPINIONS REGARDING LOT USE AND DEVELOPMENT A major argument put f o r t h by deve lopers aga ins t the i m p o s i t i o n o f P . U . C . s tandards o f s e r v i c i n g i s tha t few persons use t h e i r l o t s u f f i c i e n t l y to warrant such an investment at t h i s t ime . Few moreover were f e l t t o have d e f i n i t e development p l a n s most hav ing purchased t h e i r p r o p e r t y f o r camping or investment purposes . Whi l e r e t i r ement reasons are a l s o g iven f o r l o t p u r -chases, a cco rd ing to a. l o c a l promoter : "many people w i l l never r e s i d e here permanently as these are e s s e n t i a l l y regarded as investment p r o -p e r t i e s " . H A c c o r d i n g l y many p r o p e r t y owners were observed s a t i s -f i e d w i t h u s ing t h e i r l o t s as t en t and t r a i l e r campsi tes . (The shortage o f government campsites or s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s on Hornby I s l a n d has p r o v i d e d a compe l l i ng reason f o r such " i n t e r i m 12 u se ) . Few had immediate p lans f o r r e t i r e m e n t . For these r e a -sons, i t has been es t imated by l o c a l promotors tha t l e s s than h a l f o f those p r o p e r t i e s c u r r e n t l y s o l d are expected to be de-13 ve loped w i t h 10 y e a r s . A recent study o f I s l a n d water needs—commissioned by the major developers g e n e r a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d these arguments and concluded w i t h the remarks t h a t : "While the l i m i t e d occupa t ion c o u l d be a s c r i b e d i n some degree to r e s u l t from the present absence o f water s e r v i c e , t h i s i s not thought to be the r u l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Most p a r t t ime r e s i d e n t s spoken to by the w r i t e r do not w i s h to make the investment r e -q u i r e d fo r water s e r v i c e and are content to c a r r y what water i s required. In addition, they do not wish to pay the year around service charges v/hich would r e s u l t from i n s t a l l a t i o n of a high capacity water system".-^ SURVEY CONFIRMATION (LOT USE AND DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES) In independent survey was conducted by the writer i n order to check expressed opinions and observations concerning the occupancy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l o t owners and the i r associated plans for development of t h e i r Island properties. Because the development of a "high capacity" water system i s a r e l a t i v e l y expensive proposition for areas such as Hornby i t was observed generally r e s t r i c t e d to those residences within whih i t was either highly valued or e a s i l y afforded. It i s no coincidence therefore that nearly a l l homes used year around on the Island currently have indoor water systems under pressure with f u l l plumhing f a c i l i t i e s , as these are considered i n t e g r a l to modern notions of year around l i v i n g . The more expensive cot-tages and those which are used most frequently tend to be simi-15 l a r l y equipped. Questionnaire r e s u l t s generally v e r i f i e d these observa-tions. In short, nearly a t h i r d of the respondents were presently using t h e i r property for b r i e f periods during the summer, and a substantial number (16%) "haven't had the opportunity to use i t yet", (Table 20). When one considers the fac t that these 201 occupancy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' r e f l e c t the more a c t i v e group o f l o t owners on the I s l a n d (p . 21) and tha t co t tage f a c i l i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y shared' w i t h o the rs through r e n t a l arrangements, the need f o r p i p e d water s e r v i c e s does not appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e s s i n g at t h i s t ime ( the n o v e l t y o f c a r r y i n g water i n a h o l i -day s i t u a t i o n moreover i s o f t en cons idered an i n t e r e s t i n g de-p a r t u r e from urban l i v i n g — a t l e a s t f o r shor t p e r i o d s o f t i m e ) . TABLE 20 16 LOT OCCUPANCY CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS NATURE OF LOT USE NUMBER PERCENTAGE Haven ' t used i t yet 11 16% Few weekends d u r i n g the summer 5 7% 2-3 weeks o n l y d u r i n g the summer 15 21% 1-2 months d u r i n g the summer IS 23% Summer and weekends year around 6 3% 2-5 months occupancy 13 18% Year around, permanent 4 6% TOTAL 70 100% The de t e rmina t ion o f p o t e n t i a l development w i t h i n these c o t t a g i n g areas i s perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t task—as l o t owners themselves are o f t en u n c e r t a i n as to what they may u l t i m a t e l y do w i t h t h e i r p r o p e r t y . Neve r the l e s s , on the b a s i s o f q u e s t i o n -n a i r e surveys , assessment records i n d i c a t i n g t rends i n l o t s a l e s and development and mod i f i ed by deve lope r s ' o p i n i o n s , i t i s e s -t ima ted by the w r i t e r t ha t from 40 to 50% of cur ren t lo ts p u r -chased v / i l l remain undeveloped f o r at l e a s t 10 y e a r s , and even should some o f the b e t t e r wa te r f ron t and "view" lands be deve-loped before t h i s t ime, the q u e s t i o n s t i l l remains: What type o f s e r v i c i n g v / i l l these co t t age r s r e a l l y want? WILLINGNESS TO PAY In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the w i l l i n g n e s s o f l o t owners' t o pay fo r water s e r v i c i n g v / i l l l i m i t the k i n d o f s e r v i c e s which can be p r o v i d e d . Por t h i s reason l o t owners were asked to i n d i -ca te "What i s the maximum you would be w i l l i n g t o pay f o r a com-munity supply f o r your l o t ? " Table 21 summarizes respondents r e p l i e s . (Note? responses have been compared w i t h amounts these same i n d i v i d u a l s are c u r r e n t l y b e i n g charged f o r v/ater s e r v i -c i n g at t h e i r urban home). I t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t to observe tha t the m a j o r i t y of respondents v/ho would e n t e r t a i n the i d e a o f p r e s s u r i z e d wa-t e r systems, would not be w i l l i n g to pay more than $4.00 pe r month f o r these s e r v i c e s . W h i l e a sma l l group o f i n d i v i d u a l s would pay more than $7.00 per month "should such be r e q u i r e d " , most d i d not want to pay more than what they v/ere c u r r e n t l y pay-i n g f o r p i p e d water s e r v i c i n g i n t h e i r c i t y homes. TABLE 21 17 WILLINGNESS TO PAY POR SERVICING (COTTAGE V S . HOME) HOW MUCH WILLING TO PAY? HOW MUCH PRESENTLY PAYING? (COTTAGE) • • (HOME) 11% Less than $2/mo. 10% 47% from $2-$4/mo. 54% 29% f rom$4-$7/mo. 36% 13% from.$7 & over/mo. 0% TOTAL 10C% (42 respondents) TOTAL 100% (57 respondent; These r e s u l t s would l e a d one to the c o n c l u s i o n tha t respondents e i t h e r p l a c e l i t t l e va lue on p i p e d water s e r v i c i n g at t h i s t ime or e l s e have l i t t l e knowledge as to how much the development o f h i g h c a p a c i t y systems on I s l a n d s such as Hornby would c o s t . COST OF WATER SERVICING On the t o p i c o f c o s t s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t i n 1966, a sha l low w e l l system d i s t r i b u t i n g water to 84 l o t s 18 ( to P . U . C . standard) i n the Ships P o i n t S u b d i v i s i o n cos t the developers $69,000. Another s i m i l a r system s e r v i c i n g a 103 l o t s u b d i v i s i o n at Deep Bay f o r comparison, cos t $75,000 (1968) . 204 • 19 "But s i nce then labour and m a t e r i a l s have inc reased g r e a t l y " . A more rudimentary community water system e s t a b l i s h -ed i n 1970-1 fo r Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay E s t a t e s on Hornby I s l a n d , and s e r v i n g approximate ly 29 l o t s cos t $4500. T h i s system which i s r e l i a n t upon a 15 ' w e l l u t i l i z e s a 2 i n c h p l a s t i c t runk l i n e and 3/4 i n c h feeders . ( I f developed to minimum P . U . C . s tandards i t s ' cos t as es t imated by the deve lope r s , would be no 20 l e s s than $35 ,000) . The cos t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g i n d i v i d u a l w e l l s i s o f t en more e x p e n s i v e — i f not more v a r i a b l e than community water s y s -tems. In genera l I s l a n d w e l l s have been observed to range i n cos t from $400 to $2500—with some exceeding $5,000; depending of course on the d r i l l i n g depth and type o f subsurface m a t e r i a l s 21 encountered. T h i s does not however take i n t o account the p o s s i b i l i t y o f "dry" w e l l s . I r o n i c a l l y , the cos t o f w e l l s y s -tems i s seldom r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . On the b a s i s o f the fo r ego ing , a cos t o f $1,000 per l o t would be a most c o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e f o r h i g h p re s su re house-h o l d s e r v i c i n g (even should water "be c o n v e n i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e ) . Hence even $5.00 per month on a year around b a s i s pe r customer would f a i l to pay the cos t o f i n t e r e s t on the c a p i t a l investment o f an average community system (designed t o P . U . C . standards) much l e s s amor t ize spendings and pay f o r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s i n c u r -r e d . 205 An u n d e r l y i n g reason f o r t h i s coramoniy encountered " r e s i s t a n c e to pay" f o r urban s tandard o f s e r v i c i n g and the apparent l a c k o f i n s i g h t i n t o p o t e n t i a l cos t s tha t such deve lop -ment would e n t a i l on these I s l a n d s , may be e x p l a i n e d i n l a r g e p a r t by the f a c t most l o t owners l i v e i n the metro Vancouver o r 22 V i c t o r i a areas or o ther urban cen t res where developed water supply systems p r o v i d e v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d s u p p l i e s o f water to consumers at most economical r a t e s : Over 60% of respondents f o r example had an unmetered water supply i n t h e i r "year around" homes and w e l l over t w o - t h i r d s p a i d l e s s than $4.00 per month i n water b i l l s . A s i z e a b l e group moreover (23%) l i v e d i n a p a r t -ments where the cos t of water was not known as i t was i n c l u d e d 23 i n the r e n t . Perhaps a l s o , t h i s charge i s equated to the cos t o f a q g i r i n g and h o l d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d s : On Hornby a $2500 l o t may be purchased by p a y i n g as l i t t l e as 1% down and 1% per month. ( I f a $10.00 water b i l l were added t o t h i s amount i t would i nc rease l and h o l d i n g cos t s f o r one o f the cheaper l o t s 24 by about 40%—a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e ) . . SUMMARY •' Most respondents favoured an o rgan ized system o f water supply as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o sma l l l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l l a n d s . Such a requirement f o r c e d upon s u b d i v i d e r s , was f e l t t o p r o v i d e l o t owners' w i t h the most convenient and economic 206 s o l u t i o n to t h e i r "problems". T h i s v iew c u r i o u s l y enough was shared by a l l r e a l e s t a t e promoters and l and deve lopers ap-proached by the w r i t e r . . . . The ques t i on o f s e r v i c i n g requirements was f a r more complex i n v o l v i n g as i t d i d assumptions concern ing fu tu re l a n d use, w i l l i n g n e s s o f customers to pay f o r s e r v i c e s , and perhaps most impor tan t , a knowledge o f the p o t e n t i a l environmenta l con -sequences o f each s tandard o f water s e r v i c i n g proposed. W h i l e most respondents f e l t t ha t an "urban" s tandard o f s e r v i c i n g would u l t i m a t e l y be necessary f o r t h e i r p r o p e r t y , few were o f the o p i n i o n t ha t p i p e d water s e r v i c i n g would p r e s e n t l y be d e s i -rable. . The low inc idence o f l o t use coupled w i t h u n c e r t a i n p l a n s f o r r e t i r ement or year around use underscored t h i s observed l a c k o f support f o r "urban" standards o f s e r v i c i n g "now". Some o b j e c t i n g to h ighe r s e r v i c i n g s tandards mentioned the genera l s c a r c i t y o f p o t a b l e groundwater, p o l l u t i o n o f l o c a l w e l l s and o f course , the added cos t o f i n t r o d u c i n g p i p e d s e r v i -c i n g as reasons'; I n t h i s l a t t e r r e spec t , few persons were w i l l i n g t o pay more than $5-$7 per month and the average person d i d not want to pay more than $3-$4 f o r water supply—an amount n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o what most l o t owners ' were c u r r e n t l y p a y i n g i n t h e i r urban res idences back home. 207 CONCLUSION I n genera l t h i s survey appeared to i n d i c a t e t ha t most persons d e s i r i n g an urban s tandard o f s e r v i c i n g were e i t h e r not aware o f the p o t e n t i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d nor environmenta l problems i m p l i e d by i nc rea sed water consumption. Lot owner 's o v e r a l l l a c k o f concern f o r h i g h c a p a c i t y water systems and indoor plumb-i n g "new" appears to be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the f a c t most l o t s are p r e s e n t l y used on weekends or shor t h o l i d a y p e r i o d s d u r i n g the summer w i t h r e n t i n g or sha r ing o f f a c i l i t i e s between f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s , a common occurance. Th i s pe rmi t s rudimentary c o t -tage f a c i l i t i e s t o be accepted as p a r t o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l ex-p e r i e n c e . 208 F O O T N O T E S 1. Based on the w r i t e r ' s Water Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , op. c i t . 2. The respondent i s a member o f the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay Water Improvement D i s t r i c t ( the area r e l i e s on a community w e l l ) . 3. A number o f l e t t e r s had been w r i t t e n by l o t owners b e l o n g -i n g to the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay Improvement D i s t r i c t t o v a r i o u s government o f f i c i a l s d u r i n g the s p r i n g o f 1971 (Dan Campbel l , f o r one) r eques t ing t ha t development be c u r t a i l e d around t h e i r - w e l l s i t e i n order to p r o t e c t t h e i r community supply from p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n problems. (One such l e t t e r i s reproduced i n the A p p e n d i c e s ) . 4 . In format ion based on w r i t e r ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey, op. c i t . 5. R e a l e s t a t e agents contac ted represen ted Nanaimo R e a l t y , B l o c k B r o t h e r s , Modern Developments, Comox' V a l l e y R e a l t y , as w e l l as o ther sma l l e r companies i n the study a r ea . 6. The main p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n here concerns the o b l i g a t i o n imposed by the P . U . C . upon developers to m a i n t a i n water systems u n t i l such t ime as l o c a l r e s i d e n t s are w i l l i n g to o rgan ize t h e i r own water users community or improvement d i s t r i c t . 7. An example o f such a system i s to be found i n the Whaling-S t a t i o n Bay a rea . Here, a community w e l l i s used and households use t h e i r own pumps and d i s t r i b u t i o n systems to c o l l e c t water f o r t h e i r needs (developers have found t h i s to be a convenient method f o r g e t t i n g around P . U . C . s tandards f o r water supply w h i l e s imul t aneous ly p r o v i d i n g l o t purchasers w i t h a convenient and cheap s e r v i c i n g arrangement) . 8. Hornby Water Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , op_. c i t . 9 . I b i d . 10. I b i d . 11. F . H. M c L a u g l i n , op. c i t . 12. "Only 2/75 of the f i r s t p l a n purchased f o r r e t i r emen t r e a -sons w i t h i n a year or two. A l l the r e s t f o r r e c r e a t i o n now", F . ' H. M c L a u g h l i n , I b i d . 209 13. F . H. McLaugh l in , I b i d . 14. J . Mothe rwe l l "Report on Water Supply Sources . . . " , Hornby I s l a n d , pp . c i t . , p . 6 . 15. T h i s c o i n c i d e s w i t h P l o t n i k o f f s obse rva t ions t h a t w i t h more frequent use "the h igher the d e s i r e , and presumably the w i l l i n g n e s s to -pay f o r b e t t e r s e r v i c e s " , P l o t n i k o f f , op. c i t . , p . 61 . 16. R.esults based on w r i t e r ' s Water Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . 17. I b i d . 18. T h i s s u b d i v i s i o n , developed by Nanaimo R e a l t y i s l o c a t e d adjacent to the I s l a n d highway near Fanny Bay on Vancouver I s l a n d . 19. F . E . McLaugh l in , op. c i t . 20. I b i d . 21. The usua l range o f d r i l l i n g cos t s v a r i e s from $5-$7 per f o o t . For a sha l low 14' "well dug by backhoe i n c l a y (10 ' x 10 ' ) a t y p i c a l breakdown o f c o s t s would be as f o l l o w s : $150 f o r back hoe ($20/hr . ) $350 f o r concre te r i n g s or c o l l a r s $250 f o r work and other m a t e r i a l (pump not inc luded) TGTAL$700.00 Note: T h i s w e l l was des igned to p r o v i d e v/ater f o r 5-6 f a m i l i e s i n the Whal ing S t a t i o n Bay area o f Hornby I s l a n d . ( In format ion cour t e sy o f Mr . C o l i n Mouat, a developer w i t h Modern Developments L t d . — i n t e r v i e w J u l y 1971). 22. A n a l y s i s o f assessment records has i n d i c a t e d tha t the o r i -g i n o f most o f Hornby 's sma l l l o t owners i s the metropo-l i t a n Vancouver area and southern Vancouver I s l a n d ( V i c -t o r i a p r i n c i p a l l y ) . Lo t owners from these areas c o n s t i -t u t e over one h a l f o f a l l " smal l l o t " owners on the I s -l and (31% and 24% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Lot owners r e s i d i n g i n the U . S . and o ther f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s are rough ly e q u i v i -l e n t to those r e s i d i n g i n the p r a i r i e s and eas te rn Canada, a mere 4%.' Less than 10% of a l l sma l l l o t owners (13) are r e s i d e n t s o f Hornby I s l a n d . The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f a l l owners the re fo re l i v e w i t h i n urban areas . ( T h i s r e -search was-par t o f a s u b d i v i s i o n a n a l y s i s performed by the w r i t e r f o r the Reg iona l D i s t r i c t o f Comox S t r a thcona P l a n n i n g Department 1971). 210 23. W r i t e r s ' Ques t i onna i r e r e s u l t s , op. c i t . 24. These terms can'commonly be arranged w i t h many o f the l a r g e r r e a l - e s t a t e companies. "It i s more important to understand what l i f e i s and what i t might become and l e t the i n s t i t u t i o n s grow around the v i s i o n planted i n men's minds". Percy Bysshe Shelly C H A P T E R S E V E N L E G A L P L A N K I N G C O N S T R A I N T S INTRODUCTION Desp i t e the reasons l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and p l anne r s may have fo r i n t r o d u c i n g o rgan ized systems o f water s e r v i c i n g w i t h i n co t tage areas , they are u l t i m a t e l y c o n s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s by the l e g a l powers they have been g i v e s . Of concern p r i m a r i l y are those powers d e a l i n g w i t h the enactment of s u b d i -v i s i o n bylaws and es tabl i shment of s tandards f o r s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l . Before examining these powers f o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , t h i s chapter w i l l begin w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g s u b d i v i s i o n approva l and the v a r i o u s b u r e a u c r a t i c hoops which make up the p r o v i n c i a l " s u b d i v i s i o n p r o c e s s " . BASIC ACTS HAVING JURISDICTION E n a b l i n g p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n g i v i n g a u t h o r i t y and c r i t e r i a f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approva l i s con ta ined p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n p r o v i s i o n s o f the Land R e g i s t r y A c t , the M u n i c i p a l A c t and the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t . The Water A c t and H e a l t h A c t set out a d d i -t i o n a l requirements fo r approval which must be met. The r e l a -t i o n s h i p s o f these A c t s to one another and the " s u b d i v i s i o n p r o -cess" i s g r a p h i c a l l y d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 4 . 212 The Land R e g i s t r y Ac t as p r e v i o u s l y i m p l i e d i s the o l d e s t and most fundamental p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n f l u e n c i n g l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n i n B . C . In a d d i t i o n to s t i p u l a t i n g the manner by which a l l subd iv ided land i s to foe desc r ibed and recorded i t a l s o s p e c i f i e s necessary p r o v i s i o n s f o r road access or pub-l i c r i g h t o f ways. But perhaps most important i n s o f a r as t h i s Study i s concerned, i t de lega tes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u b d i v i -s i o n approva l to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; or i n the case o f unorganized areas to the Department o f Highways ( u s u a l l y the D i s t r i c t H i g h -ways E n g i n e e r ) . The M u n i c i p a l A c t i s important because i t s e t s out the genera l na ture and scope o f p l a n n i n g powers and r e g u l a t i o n s p e r -t a i n i n g to the s u b d i v i s i o n , o f lands w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e g i o n -a l d i s t r i c t s , and Community P l a n n i n g A r e a s . Hence any funda-mental changes d e s i r e d i n the s u b d i v i s i o n approval r e g u l a t i o n s or powers o f l o c a l area governments would have to foe f i r s t ap-proved by the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t and a s s o c i a t e d P r o v i n c i a l Sub-d i v i s i o n Regu l a t i ons are o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l evence to t h i s Study. The former se ts o u t p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r unorganized areas and the l a t t e r p r e s c r i b e s c r i t e r i a f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approval w i t h i n areas not r e g u l a t e d by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t or m u n i c i p a l bylaws or s p e c i a l ac t s o f L e g i s l a t u r e such as the r e c e n t l y i m -posed "moratorium" on s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the G u l f I s l a n d s . 213 I t i s important to note tha t the p r o v i s i o n s o f the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t cover v i r t u a l l y a l l aspects o f l and use p l a n -n ing and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l as de f ined i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t f o r 1 organ ized a reas . For t h i s reason the re i s no r e a l need to d i f -f e r e n t i a t e between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and unorganized areas when d i s c u s s i n g p o t e n t i a l l e g a l c o n s t r a i n t s a f f e c t i n g s e r v i c i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu l a t i ons are o f s p e c i a l importance because they have been in tended to serve as guides f o r the enactment o f l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . These r e g u l a t i o n s are designed to be o f p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to l o c a l approving o f f i c e r s and p l anne r s by : 1. c o n s o l i d a t i n g the v a r i o u s s u b d i v i s i o n requirements of the Department o f Highways (pursuent the Land R e g i s t r y A c t ) w i t h p r o v i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t and H e a l t h A c t . 2. c l a r i f y i n g s u b d i v i s i o n c r i t e r i a f o r a l l o f the above: In p a r t i c u l a r , e s t a b l i s h i n g minimum p r o v i n c i a l s i t e area requirements f o r s e r v i c e d and unse rv iced l o t s . SUBDIVISION REVIEW PROCEDURE There a number o f c i r c u i t o u s paths which must be f o l -lowed f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approval—depending o f course on the com-mitments which are r e q u i r e d o f the s u b d i v i d e r . Where community water s e r v i c i n g i s r e q u i r e d fo r example s p e c i f i c approval may-be r e q u i r e d o f the Department o f H e a l t h , Water Resources S e r v i c e and the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. The duty o f the approving o f f i c e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y to forward cop ies o f the s u b d i v i s i o n ap-• T . H E L E G I S L A T U R E S U B D I V I S I O N A P P R O V A L F L O W C H A R T LAND REGISTRY ACT HIGHWAYS ACT CONTROLLED ACCESS M U N .1 C I P A L 1 A C T WATER ACT IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT BYLAWS LOCAL SERVICES ACT REGIONAL DISTRICT BYLAWS LOCAL . MUNICIPAL BYLAWS PROVINCIAL SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS COMMUNITY PLANNING BYLAWS REAL ESTATE ACT OTHER ACTS OF GOVERN-MENT HAVING JURIS-DICTION REGISTRAR LAND TITLES SUPREME COURT JUDGE F I G U R E 4 214 p l i c a t i o n to the r e s p e c t i v e departments or agencies o f government hav ing j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r comment and app rova l , ( r e f e r to F i g u r e 4 ) . A t the l o c a l l e v e l and w i t h i n Community P l a n n i n g Areas the Department o f Highways has e s t a b l i s h e d a precedure whereby p r i o r consent from the area b u i l d i n g in spec to r or improvement d i s t r i c t t r u s t e e s i s r e q u i r e d f o r submiss ion o f s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s . Where r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s 'have been g iven p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over Community P l a n n i n g Areas—which i s now most commonly the case the D i s t r i c t Highways Engineer w i l l forward a copy o f the s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n to the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t concerned. I f important o r d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s must be made the approving o f f i c e r may be a s s i s t e d i n t h i s t a sk by 2 a T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee which i s no rma l ly c h a i r e d by the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r o f t ha t d i s t r i c t . These l a t t e r j>rocedural arrangements have done much to a l l e v i a t e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d aga ins t D i s t r i c t Highways Eng inee r s . As may be expected, the re are a number o f "checks" i n the s u b d i v i s i o n p rocess to ensure tha t de lega ted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r s u b d i v i s i o n approva l i s not overs tepped. Under normal c o n -d i t i o n s f o r example, the Department o f Highways approving o f f i -cer , i s c o n s t r a i n e d i n h i s powers at the l o c a l l e v e l by the e x i s -tence o f an o f f i c i a l l and use p l a n and r e l a t e d s u b d i v i s i o n by laws . These are o f course complimented ?oy r e l e v a n t p r o v i n c i a l c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h i n g minimum standards or c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u b d i v i s i o n 2 1 5 3 approval. Insofar as the in d i v i d u a l intending to subdivide land i s concerned, provision i s made for appeal to the Supreme Court of B.C. "should the approving o f f i c e r r e j e c t the applica-t i o n for the s u b d i v i s i o n — o r f a i l to approve or jreject within the 4 prescribed time". Accordingly, the judge may make "such order i n the premises as the circumstances of the case require, and may order that the plan be deposited i n the Land Registry Office 5 i f i t i s otherwise i n order". In the f i n a l analysis, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for subdivi-sion approvals rests with the Pr o v i n c i a l Government. Accordingly, i t has been arranged that where any additional reasons may be required to influence subdivision approval, these may be pres-6 cribed at any time by Orders i n Council proclamation. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note also that i n case of appeals, the Lieutenant Governor or L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, not the Supreme Court, has f i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over subdivision approval. STATUTORY AUTHORITY FOR WATER SERVICING REGULATIONS The Municipal Act gives regional d i s t r i c t s statutory authority to enact a l l of the planning controls available to mun i c i p a l i t i e s . These include the power to enact zoning and subdivision bylaws within unorganized areas not utnder Community Planning Area control. As the nature and scope of statutory 216 powers f o r the i m p o s i t i o n o f water s e r v i c i n g c o n t r o l s by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s are con ta ined w i t h i n a number o f a c t s , i t would appear u s e f u l at t h i s t ime to c l a r i f y whatever misunders tandings have a r i s e n on the matter and p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o p o t e n t i a l powers which may be used to i n f l u e n c e s e r v i c i n g . For purposes o f the d i s c u s s i o n , e n a b l i n g L e g i s l a t i o n f o r water s e r v i c i n g con -t r o l s may be grouped under th ree d i s t i n c t headings: 1. Genera l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the es tab l i shment o f c o n t r o l s r e g u l a t i n g water s e r v i c i n g f o r s u b d i -v i s i o n s w i t h i n a l l areas o f B . C . 2. S p e c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the es tab l i shment of c o n t r o l s w i t h i n areas o rgan ized f o r purposes o f p u b l i c water supp ly . 3. Genera l d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers of- l o c a l approving o f f i c e r s and med ica l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s p e r t a i n i n g to water s e r v i c i n g . .1. GENERAL ENABLING LEGISLATION One immediate impress ion gained from examinat ion o f the M u n i c i p a l Ac t i s t ha t there i s no d i r e c t r e fe rence or s t a t e -ment which can be const rued to pe rmi t the r e g u l a t i o n of l and s u b d i v i s i o n by p r e s c r i b i n g minimum standards of water supp ly . No twi ths t and ing the present ambigui ty o f the Ac t on the mat te r , the r i g h t t o impose s e r v i c i n g requirements f o r s u b d i v i s i o n ap-p r o v a l has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been based upon S e c t i o n 711 p a r t 1(a) and (b) which r e f e r s to a c o u n c i l ' s r i g h t t o " regu la te the a rea , shape and dimensions o f l a n d . . . " and (b) p r e s c r i b e minimum s t a n -dards f o r the above. (Note tha t any re ference to s e r v i c i n g i s 217 a v o i d e d ) . In u s i n g t h i s e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n as a b a s i s fo r the enactment o f bylaws p e r t a i n i n g to v/ater supply s e r v i c i n g , two important c o n s t r a i n t s must be kept i n mind: (a) the s p e c i f i c manner i n which"bylaws p e r t a i n i n g to s e r v i c i n g can be worded (b) the minimum s i t e area requirements o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s . (a) BYLAW WORDING I t i s important t o note tha t s i n c e the above l e g i s l a -t i o n au tho r i ze s the use o f minimum s e r v i c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o n l y as they r e l a t e t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f l o t "area , shape and 'dimen-s i o n " , a s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h water supply s e r -v i c i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y wi thou t r e l a t i n g to l o t s i z e or shape t h e r e -f o r e , would be cons ide red " u l t r a v i r e s " or beyond the l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l scope o f t h i s " enab l ing" l e g i s l a t i o n . An i l l u s -t r a t i o n o f such i l l e g a l l y worded l e g i s l a t i o n i s the f o l l o w i n g : — W i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l zone A a l l proposed s u b d i v i s i o n must p r o v i d e e s t a b l i s h e d p r o o f o f v/ater supply aa a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r l o t a p p r o v a l . (b) PROVINCIAL SITE AREA REQUIREMENTS A l l bylaws d r a f t e d i n the p r o v i n c e under t h i s s e c t i o n o f the Ac t must at l e a s t meet i f not exceed the minimum s i t e area requirements o f the " P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s " . These as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d (p. 128) are d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water or sewer systems. Of major i n t e r e s t here i s t ha t a "community water s y s -tem" i s de f ined by the Act as a system o f water works which serves two o r more p a r c e l s and which i s owned, opera ted and main-t a i n e d by an improvement d i s t r i c t under the Water A c t or the M u n i c i p a l A c t , or a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , or which i s r e g u l a t e d un-der the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s A c t . Hence, un less a u t h o r i t i e s a re w i l l i n g to r ecogn ize rudimentary l e v e l s o f s e r v i c i n g as s a t i s -f y i n g t h i s . j . d e f i n i t i o n o f "community water system" the re i s no p o s s i b i l i t y tha t v a c a t i o n l o t s may be subd iv ided t o l e s s than 18,000 sq'iiare f e e t . T h i s cou ld be unfor tunate i f by the i n t r o -d u c t i o n of necessary s a n i t a r y c o n t r o l s the area c o u l d be made s u i t a b l e fo r such d e n s i t i e s . Should the developer dec ide to c rea te a l o t o f over 18,000 square fee t moreover, he i s no longer o b l i g a t e d by the A c t to p r o v i d e such a "community supply" —much l e s s ' p r o v e the water p o t e n t i a l of the area d e s p i t e fu tu re water development p l a n s area r e s i d e n t s may have. Th i s stands i n marked c o n t r a s t to p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r sewage d i s p o s a l — which as p r e v i o u s l y observed do not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e to l o t s i z e but the a b i l i t y o f the l o t and d i s p o s a l system to "adequately" 8 ~ t r e a t wastes . The o n l y s p e c i f i c re fe rence to water s e r v i c i n g i s con -t a i n e d w i t h i n S e c t i o n 4.11 o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu la -t i o n s which s t a t e s : "That where a community water system i s to 219 be i n s t a l l e d i n a s u b d i v i s i o n , a supply o f p o t a b l e water ade-quate to serve the s u b d i v i s i o n s h a l l be proven before the s u b d i -s i o n i s approved". Aga in the i m p l i c a t i o n here i s t ha t the re i s no compulsion to p r o v i d e community water supply i f l a r g e l o t s a re^s rea ted , but i f such i s in tended to be p r o v i d e d by the sub-d i v i d e r then a whole s e r i e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s governing water sup-Q -/ p l y w i l l come i n t o f o r c e . What the fo rego ing suggests i s t ha t the P r o v i n c i a l Government: — wishes to encourage the use of p i p e d community water s e r v i c i n g and sewers i n r u r a l areas when sma l l l o t de-velopment has taken p l a c e . , — does not b e l i e v e tha t water development and w e l l use on i n d i v i d u a l l o t s can be prevented and t ha t waste d i s p o s a l problems w i l l e v e n t u a l l y a r i s e w i t h use. (Hence the emphasis on waste t reatment r a the r than c u r t a i l m e n t o f water u s e ) . — b e l i e v e s i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l i f not u n r e a l i s t i c to expect tha t co t t age r s i n r u r a l s i t u a t i o n s can be h e l d to rudimentary water s e r v i c e s or encouraged to use p i t p r i v i e s , e l e c t r i c / p r o p a n e t o i l e t s and ae rob i c waste treatment systems. L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s not i n agreement w i t h such a " p h i l o -sophy" f o r water s e r v i c i n g and wi sh ing to i n s t i t u t e g r ea t e r con -t r o l over s e r v i c i n g and l a n d use i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s have a v a -r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s open to them. Apa r t from s imply r a i s i n g area requirements f o r unse rv iced l o t s — w h i c h has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the most common p l a n n i n g r e f l e x ; o f ten a more convenient and e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o use the "development area" approach o r l and use con t rac t s s LAND USE CONTRACTS Recen t l y in t roduced l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o enter i n t o " land use c o n t r a c t s " w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e s u b d i v i d e r s appears t o g i v e l o c a l c o u n c i l s wide leeway i n the i m p o s i t i o n o f s e r v i c i n g c o n d i t i o n s not o therwise p o s s i b l e , under c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . I n theo ry , r e g i o n a l d i s -t r i c t c o u n c i l s are empowered to implement whatever c o n t r o l s or concess ions they are s k i l l f u l enough to n e g o t i a t e , "no ho lds 10 b a r r e d " . There are however two l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s which must be p o i n t e d ou t . F i r s t l y , a land use c o n t r a c t as i m p l i e d i s an agree-ment between two p a r t i e s , and as such, can o n l y come about i f the terms o f the agreement are a c c e p t i b l e to both p a r t i e s . But i f a s u b d i v i d e r does not w i s h t o come to terms, then under Sec-t i o n 702A (7) o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t , he must foe g iven the o p t i o n o f deve lop ing h i s p rope r ty i n accordance w i t h p r e v a i l i n g zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s should he f e e l these are more s u i t e d to h i s needs. I n s i t u a t i o n s where l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s have not been enacted f o r example, the minimum standards o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu la t i ons come i n t o f o r c e . The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s tha t should a c o u n c i l w i s h to impose s e r v i c i n g standards upon a s u b d i v i d e r by means o f a l and use c o n t r a c t , then i t w i l l be necessary f o r c o u n c i l t o d r a f t 221 ext remely undes i r ab l e s u b d i v i s i o n " a l t e r n a t i v e s " . A minimum l o t s i z e o f ten acres or perhaps even two acres fo r r e c r e a t i o n a l areas c o u l d fo r example p rov ide the necessary i n c e n t i v e fo r e f f e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g to take p l a c e . However, the i m p o s i t i o n o f l a r g e l o t s u b d i v i s i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s c o u l d prove to be an unpop-u l a r i f not unacceptable i m p o s i t i o n upon the communities p e r c e i -ved " r i g h t to s u b d i v i d e " . Th i s " s t r a t egy" c o u l d a l s o be a t odds w i t h p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s fo r l a n d development i n the a r ea . Should the problem of r ezon ing be overcome, two f i n a l hu rd l e s remain: P u b l i c acceptance and p r o v i n c i a l government r a -t i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d use con t r ac t s entered i n t o by r e g i o n a l d i s -t r i c t c o u n c i l s . L e t us now examine these b r i e f l y : P u b l i c Acceptance Reg iona l d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l s have been de lega ted the autho-r i t y to l and use c o n t r a c t s . These d e c i s i o n s however are u s u a l l y made on the advice o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g departments. While t h i s means tha t the g e n s r a l p u b l i c i s u s u a l l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n v o l v e d , i t does not suggest tha t a l l l and use con t r ac t s can be passed wi thou t p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . W i t h i n unorganized areas fo r exam-p l e the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l w i l l o f t en accept the op in ions o f the L o c a l A d v i s o r y P l a nn ing Commission on the ma t t e r . Th i s Commis-s i o n — c h a i r e d by the D i r e c t o r o f the E l e c t o r a l Area concerned (who a l s o a member o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t board) i s most i n f l u e n -t i a l . In a d d i t i o n a development p e r m i t cannot be i s s u e d un less 11 a p u b l i c h e a r i n g has been h e l d on the mat te r . A p o t e n t i a l problem i n secu r ing acceptance by coun-c i l t o proposed l and use c o n t r a c t s l i e s i n the f a c t t ha t a great amount o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e can be brought to bear upon in tended p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s by l o c a l a rea r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , p l a n -n i n g commissions and r a t e payers a s s o c i a t i o n s who may not r e -present the broad i n t e r e s t s o f l o c a l l a n d owners, much l e s s the r e g i o n a l px ib l i c which may be a f f e c t e d by t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i s observed by the w r i t e r to be one o f the major problems a f f e c -t i n g the G u l f I s l a n d s and one which w i l l not be r e s o l v e d u n t i l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s s u e s are s e t t l e d as they should be by the p roper f u n c t i o n i n g o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o n c e p t — p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the p a s s i n g o f l and use c o n t r a c t s and o ther bylaws o f r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e at the Board l e v e l . (Th i s a l s o i m p l i e s the need by p l anne r s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between r eg iona l and l o c a l p l a n n i n g i s sues i n communicating to board members). P r o v i n c i a l R a t i f i c a t i o n In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s may upset the terms o f a l and use con t r ac t and s u b s t i -t u t e other t e r m s . f e l t t o be more i n accord w i t h l a n d r e q u i r e -ments i f s 223 1. R e s t r i c t i v e covenants comprising the requirements of a land use contract do not meet the stated re-quirements of the Land Registry O f f i c e . 2. The conditions of a land use contract are i n con-f l e c t with provisions based upon the Controlled Access Highways Act (a land use contract i s deemed to be a zoning bylaw for the purposes of t h i s Act) . 3. The subdivider and council cannot come to an agree-ment and no p r a c t i c a l alternatives are present for what may be considered by the Minister a lawful and reasonable request for land subdivision. While the f i r s t two grounds are r e a d i l y apparent—and apply to any covenants or bylaws which may be passed by organized 12 areas; the f i n a l ground for r e j e c t i o n or r e v i s i o n of a land use contract i s highly discretionary: This l e g i s l a t i o n — w h i c h 13 has only recently been passed not only allows the subdivider to bypass the r e g i o n a l . d i s t r i c t and come to terms d i r e c t l y with the p r o v i n c i a l government, but allows the Government to desig-14 nate "Development Areas" i n unorganized areas wherever such are f e l t needed. Nevertheless, despite such p o t e n t i a l i n t e r -ference, i n i t i a l impressions are that land use contracts pro-vide regional d i s t r i c t s with the best means available to date for obtaining "unusual" se r v i c i n g concessions from prospective subdividers. 224 2. SPECIAL ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR AREAS ORGANISED FOR PURPOSES  OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY The most ex tens ive and r e l i a b l e powers f o r r e g u l a t i n g water s e r v i c i n g are a v a i l a b l e to areas which have o rgan ized under the M u n i c i p a l A c t or Water A c t f o r purposes o f p u b l i c water supp ly . PROVISIONS UNDER THE MUNICIPAL ACT Inso fa r as unorganized areas are concerned, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s areempowered under S e c t i o n 711(5) o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t t o enact bylaws s e t t i n g out the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f any ex tens ion to t h e i r community water systems. More s p e c i f i -c a l l y t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n proposes " that where the neares t boun-dary o f any l and proposed to be subd iv ided i s 2,000 fee t or more i n d i s t a n c e . . . , from an e s t a b l i s h e d t runk water-main or a t runk s a n i t a r y sewer, or both tha t p r o v i s i o n be made by the owner o f the l and f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f water mains o r s a n i t a r y sewers, or b o t h . . . i n and to the proposed s u b d i v i s i o n , a cco rd ing t o minimum standards p r e s c r i b e d i n the by law" . W h i l e the s t a t ed minimum d i s t a n c e o f 2,000 fee t would appear to be an o v e r s i g h t on b e h a l f o f those persons responsi?ole 15 f o r d r a f t i n g t h i s s e c t i o n o f the A c t , t he re i s no doubt tha t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s the most concre te and e f f e c t i v e means 225 fo r o b t a i n i n g s e r v i c i n g concess ion from s u b d i v i d e r s w i t h i n areas where p iped s e r v i c i n g i s d e s i r e d and where p u b l i c systems have been developed. But perhaps most important fo r v a c a t i o n s u b d i -v i s i o n s , the mere ex i s t ence o f such powers may p rov ide c o u n c i l s w i t h the necessary leverage wi thwhich to impose rudimentary standards o f s e r v i c i n g or o ther c o n d i t i o n s d e s i r e d through l and use c o n t r a c t s . These may enable the area to ma in t a in i t s r u r a l cha rac t e r ove r t ime . PROVISIONS UNDER THE WATER ACT S i m i l a r bu t more ex tens ive requirements may be p r e s -c r i b e d fo r l o t s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the s e r v i c e boundar ies o f improvement d i s t r i c t s as e s t a b l i s h e d under p r o v i s i o n s o f the Water A c t . (Water Users Communities by c o n t r a s t have no powers to enact l o c a l by laws) . ' Under the A c t Trustees are able to es -t a b l i s h bylaws " r e g u l a t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n and use o f water , I 6 power or any o ther t h i n g or s e r v i c e rendered or made a v a i l a b l e " and make these r e g u l a t i o n s a c o n d i t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n approva l throughout the i n c o r p o r a t e d a reas . The o n l y problem i n t h i s r e spec t i s tha t r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i r e d can norma l ly be imposed o n l y w i t h the boundaries o f the d i s t r i c t and o f t en o n l y a f t e r sma l l l o t s u b d i v i s i o n has taken p l a c e . While water improvement d i s t r i c t s are no rma l ly i n c o r -pora ted for purposes of' deve lop ing and d i s t r i b u t i n g water by p i p e d networks excep t ions have been made a l b e i t d e c r e a s i n g l y so . 226 The rudimentary system r e l y i n g upon a w e l l supply upon which the Whaling S t a t i o n Bay Improvement D i s t r i c t i s based i s a good example. Here t r u s t ee s may enact bylaws to prevent p o l l u t i o n o f t h e i r groundwater supply (p resc r ibe waste treatment me th ods for example) or prevent low owners from deve lop ing i n d i v i d u a l sources o f supply which may i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r community sup-P l y -I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note tha t because t h i s rudimentary system i s a "community water supp ly" as de f ined w i t h i n the P r o -v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu la t ions i t i s p o s s i b l e fo r the area to be subd iv ided to 7500 square fee t . . While t h i s may be s u i t a b l e for cot tage areas , i t o b v i o u s l y i m p l i e s c l o s e coope ra t ion between agencies o f government concerned w i t h community hygiene and l a n d use p l a n n i n g . Unless t h i s assurance can be p rov ided the Water 17 R igh t s Branch from l o c a l governments concerned, i t does not appear such arrangements fo r s u b d i v i s i o n w i l l be entered i n t o a g a i n . 3 . - GENERAL DISCRETIONARY POWERS OF LOCAL APPROVING OFFICERS AND  MEDICAL HEALTH OFFICERS Whereas approving o f f i c e r s must f o l l o w e x p l i c i t bylaws p r e s c r i b i n g minimum requirements fo r water supply , there are a number o f " d i s c r e t i o n a r y " powers a v a i l a b l e which appear to p rov ide an a d d i t i o n a l degree o f c o n t r o l over s e r v i c i n g . These "powers" are summarily d e s c r i b e d on the next page: 227 I n e v a l u a t i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r s u b d i v i s i o n , an ap-p r o v i n g o f f i c e r may refuse to g ive approva l i f i n h i s op in ions (1) the s u b d i v i s i o n i s not s u i t e d to the use f o r which i t i s in tended ( P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s , S e c t i o n 4 . 0 1 ( b ) ) . (2) the cos t t o the d i s t r i c t o f p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s or o ther p u b l i c works or s e r v i c e s would be e x c e s s i v e . ( M u n i c i p a l 'Act - S e c t i o n 711 (4) ') ; (3) the a n t i c i p a t e d development o f the s u b d i v i -s i o n would i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t the e s t a b l i s h e d ameni t ies o f a d j o i n i n g or adjacent p r o p e r t i e s (Land R e g i s t r y Ac t - S e c t i o n 9 6 ) . (4) and f i n a l l y the approving o f f i c e r cannot permi t s u b d i v i s i o n approva l i f the P u b l i c H e a l t h O f f i -ce r i s o f the o p i n i o n tha t r e s u l t a n t s u b d i v i s i o n w i l l emper i l the p u b l i c h e a l t h ( P r o v i n c i a l Sub-d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s , S e c t i o n 6 . 0 6 ) . (1) USE INTENDED The f i r s t d i s c r e t i o n a r y power would appear to be o f l i m i t e d usefu lness i n demanding water supply f o r v a c a t i o n sub-d i v i s i o n s i f i t were cha l l enged i n cour t . .Ubl t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r example to de f ine what " v a c a t i o n " l o t s u b d i v i s i o n i m p l i e s i n the way o f development and whether a source o f water supply as s t i p u l a t e d i s necessary to s u s t a i n tha t presumed development or use through t ime . T h i s view i s conf i rmed by c o u r t p roceed-ings on s i m i l a r mat ters (p. 229) and w i t h i n S e c t i o n 4.04 o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu l a t i ons which s p e c i f i e s "those p h y s i -c a l l o t " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not approvable" f o r l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s 228 These i n c l u d e c o n d i t i o n s o f l a n d e r o s i o n , s l i p , f l o o d i n g or inadequate dra inage , which would p r e c l u d e "des i r ed" l o t use and development. Note tha t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l o c a l source o f water supply i s not mentioned. The same i s t r ue f o r S e c t i o n 4 .06 o f the Act which g ive s the approving o f f i c e r the r i g h t to r e q u i r e the owner o f the l and be ing subd iv ided to p r o v i d e ne-cessa ry i n f o r m a t i o n upon which to base h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f l o t s u i t a b i l i t y (Water supply i s aga in not i n c l u d e d ) . (2) EXCESSIVE COSTS T h i s argument can be used as a b a s i s f o r r e j e c t i n g wate r ' and sewer hookups—where l eng thy t runk ex tens ions are r e q u i r e d . Often however t h i s matter can be i r o n e d out on a cos t s h a r i n g arrangement agreeable to both p a r t n e r s . Where the developer i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h rudimentary s e r v i c e s i t may be extremely d i f f i c u l t i f not p o i n t l e s s to argue tha t even tua l development w i l l r e q u i r e the es tabl i shment of expensive water systems and tha t such a c t i o n w i l l i n v a r i a b l e in t roduce "unnecessary" cos t s to the sur rounding communit ies . I n most cases l o c a l improvement taxes can be adjusted t o pay f o r any a d d i t i o n a l expendi tu res—should these be r e q u i r e d . As r u l i n g s o f the approving o f f i c e r can be appealed to the Supreme Court o f B . C . , the use o f t h i s c l ause i s neces-s a r i l y l i m i t e d to c i rcumstance where the re i s s u f f i c i e n t docu-mented evidence o f c o s t s . 229 (3) AMENITIES AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent tha t cou r t s are capable o f d e f i n i n g " th rea t s" to " e s t a b l i s h e d ameni t i e s" and the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . However, i t i s not cons ide red l i k e l y tha t the f a i l u r e to prove or p r o v i d e an o rgan ized system o f water sup-p l y w i t h i n v a c a t i o n l o t areas would be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s l i g h t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n i n s t ances where s e r v i c i n g p r o v i d e d i s over and above the minimum needed to s u s t a i n year around l i -v i n g or e l s e where an economic source o f water supply can be developed by i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e when such i s r e q u i r e d . Perhaps the bes t i n d i c a t i o n o f cour t pos tu re o f such 1 8 matters i s p r o v i d e d by p r e v i o u s cour t a c t i o n s . These conf i rm the r i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l s to subd iv ide and use p r o p e r t y wi thou t undue i n t e r f e r e n c e from p u b l i c bod ies—unless o f course s p e c i -f i c l e g i s l a t i o n or s u i t a b l e reason can be shown f o r such i n t e r -fe rence : The f i r s t case was an a c t i o n by a p r i v a t e l and owner seek ing r e l i e f from a bylaw passed by the Surrey D i s t r i c t r e -q u i r i n g the owner of p r o p e r t y sought to be subd iv ided ( s i t u -a ted w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s p o s a l d i s t r i c t ) to p r o v i d e at h i s own expense, s a n i t a r y sewers f o r the genera l use o f the 19 m u n i c i p a l i t y . I n r e v i e w i n g - t h e case, J u s t i c e J . W i l s o n had t h i s to say: "The r i g h t to subd iv ide r e a l p r o p e r t y , t o s e l l a p a r t r a the r than the whole, i s an o r d i n a r y i n c i d e n t o f owner-s h i p . V a r i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s l i m i t i n g t h i s r i g h t have been e s t a b l i s h e d by s t a t u t e , f o r the s a l u t a r y reason tha t the u n r e s t r i c t e d e x e r c i s e o f such a r i g h t can c rea te hardsh ip to o ther landowners and to m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . Wo one can q u e s t i o n . t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r such c o n t r o l s . Neve r the l e s s , such r e s t r i c t i o n s are i n de roga t ion of common:-law r i g h t s and, where they are sought to be imposed by m u n i c i p a l bylaw, c l e a r s t a t u t o r y au thor i ty -mus t be shown". A c c o r d i n g l y , s i n c e i t was p o i n t e d out tha t S e c t i o n 708 of the M u n i c i p a l A c t (now changed to S e c t i o n 7.11) d i d not e x p r e s s l y empower c o u n c i l t o r e q u i r e the owner to p r o v i d e s e r -v i c e s o ther than those r e l a t e d to highways ( s u b s e c t i o n 1(d) of S e c t i o n 711 had not yet been i n t r o d u c e d ) , the bylaw was c o n s i -dered u l t r a v i r e s and quashed. As a p a r t i n g shot on the mat ter J u s t i c e W i l s o n c i t e d 20 Oslen J . A . M e r r i t t v . Toronto ( C i t y ) . " M u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , i n the e x e r c i s e o f the s t a t u -t o r y powers con fe r r ed upon them to make b y - l a w s , should be conf ined s t r i c t l y w i t h i n the l i a a i t s o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y , and a l l attempts on t h e i r p a r t to exceed i t should be f i r m l y r e p e l l e d by the C o u r t s . A ' f o r t i o r i ' ^ 1 should t h i s be so where t h e i r b y -laws are d i r e c t e d aga ins t the common law r i g h t , and the l i b e r t y and freedom, o f every subjec t t o employ h i m s e l f i n any l a w f u l t r ade or c a l l i n g he p l e a s e s " . To which J u s t i c e Wi l son concluded? " I f I might , w i t h r e s p e c t , supplement tha t pronounce-ment w i t h words a p p l i c a b l e here I would add i t to these words, ' o r to d i spose o f h i s l a n d as he p l e a s e ' " . The second and f i n a l l i t i g a t i o n r e l a t i n g to s u b d i v i -s i o n approval concerns the r e f u s a l of an Approv ing O f f i c e r o f ' the D e l t a D i s t r i c t to permi t s u b d i v i s i o n of a p o r t i o n o f the Tsawwassen B l u f f , j u s t no r th o f the P o i n t s Roberts I n t e r n a t i o n -a l Boundary L i n e (1960). I n c o n s i d e r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n , the approving o f f i c e r was o f the o p i n i o n tha t the proposed s u b d i -22 v i s i o n "would be aga ins t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . The approving o f f i c e r ' s reasons f o r not g r a n t i n g ap-p r o v a l were-based on an -eng inee r ' s r epor t t ha t the area was p o t e n t i a l l y uns tab le f o r b u i l d i n g s i t e s because o f the u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y nature o f founda t ion s o i l s , s teep topography, seepage c o n d i t i o n s and wave a c t i o n e x i s t i n g . In c o n t r a s t to the p r e v i o u s case, d e s c r i b e d , there was no q u e s t i o n as to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the law to prevent subdi v i s i o n on such grounds. The p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n however, was whether t h i s s t a t u t o r y power confe r red upon the approving o f f i -ce r was used i n a reasonable manner and i n good f a i t h . In p a r -t i c u l a r , does the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " r e f e r r e d to i n S e c t i o n 96 of the Land R e g i s t r y A c t " i n c l u d e the i n t e r e s t o f subsequent purchases who might f i n d tha t some but not every r e s i d e n t i a l use they contemplate cannot be p e r m i t t e d by the nature o f the 23 t e r r a i n " ? (Note the analogy here between the p o t e n t i a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f the c l i f f s t o support the f u l l range o f r e s i d e n t i a l development and the l a c k o f an economic or convenient source o f water -within a v a c a t i o n l o t area to support the f u l l range o f water consuming a c t i v i t i e s i m p l i e d by year around r e s i d e n -t i a l development.) iv In t h i s context i t was observed tha t c o n s i d e r a b l e a t -t e n t i o n was g iven the r e s u l t s o f an eng inee r ing survey of s u r -f i c i a l ground c o n d i t i o n s i n the area (s tudy a u t h o r i z e d by the p e t i t i o n e r ) >which was o f the o p i n i o n " l i g h t slimmer type co t t ages c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y cons t ruc t ed on the subjec t benches and occup ied , f o r a p e r i o d approximat ing t h e i r normal economic l i f e , p r o v i d e d tha t a l l measures necessary fo r the maintenance o f the d e l i c a t e n a t u r a l e q u i l i b r i u m o f the s lopes are a p p l i e d and r i g i d -l y i n f o r c e d at a l l t imes" . I n c o n s i d e r i n g the above evidence the Judge r e f e r r e d to a p r e v i o u s cour t a c t i o n i n which J u s t i c e J . Coady p o i n t s ou t : "There are many reasons why m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s should have and are g iven a measure o f c o n t r o l over proposed s u b i d i v i s i o n s and the cour t should not on appeal l i g h t l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h the d e c i s i o n o f the approving o f f i c e r " . "firthe fu tu re owners o f these l o t s co-opera te , i t would not seem tha t any d i f f i c u l t y v / i l l a r i s e . I f . they do not co-opera te , then tha t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e i r problem. To seek to p r o t e c t them i n a cont ingency t ha t may-never a r i s e i s t o assume a p o s i t i o n tha t i s too p a t e r n a l i s t i c and un rea l i n the c i r cums tances" . A c c o r d i n g l y i t was concluded tha t the approving o f f i -c e r ' s concern was f o r the unasce r ta ined purchasers o f the l o t s c rea ted by the p l a n f o r which approva l i s sought i s "too p a -t e r n a l i s t i c and un rea l i n the c i r cums tances" . I t was f u r t h e r added tha t w h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t some fu tu re owner may not conf ine h i m s e l f to a l i g h t l ow-cos t summer co t t age , " i t does not seem to me tha t t h i s cont ingency , s p e c u l a t i v e a s ' i t i s , i s one which can or w i l l i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t the i n t e r e s t s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y . The appeal was the re fo re a l lowed and the p l a n r e g i s -t e r e d . Because i t was cons ide red tha t the approving o f f i c e r ac ted " i n the e x e r c i s e o f h i s bes t judgement and on what he con -s ide red suff ic ient grounds", the Crown absorbed the c o s t s o f the l i t i g a t i o n . DISCRETIONARY POWERS OF THE MEDICAL HEALTH OFFICER The powers o f the Department o f H e a l t h have t r a d i t i o n -a l l y been con f ined to the more obvious problems a r i s i n g from the improper, i n s t a l l a t i o n and use o f domestic waste d i s p o s a l . systems. I t i s apparent t ha t these Departmental "Regula t ions 24 Governing Sewage D i s p o s a l " , p r o v i d e an important means f o r ensur ing the p r o t e c t i o n o f domestic groundwater sources . I n so -f a r as water s e r v i c i n g i s concerned however, M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s are o n l y empowered to ensure tha t necessary s a n i t a r y p r e c a u t i o n s are undertaken i n i n s t ances where such s e r v i c e s are 25 i n s t a l l e d and main ta ined f o r the p u b l i c b e n e f i t . There i s no e x p l i c i t l e g i s l a t i o n g i v i n g h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s the r i g h t to de-mand tha t water be supp l i ed—unles s o f course i t can c l e a r l y be shown tha t the p u b l i c h e a l t h i s endangered by the l a c k o f such .pre-planned s e r v i c e s . 234 In t h i s respect there i s a general discretionary clause which gives the Lieutenant Governor the power to make regular tions to provide for and regulate " a l l such matters, acts and things as may be necessary for the protection of the public 26 health". In using t h i s cluase i t i s clear that the courts do riot accept the broad d e f i n i t i o n of the World Health Organization which holds "public health" to be not merely "the absence of disease and i n f i r m i t y but a state of complete physical, mental and s o c i a l well being". Unless new l e g i s l a t i o n i s passed e x p l i -c i t l y redefining "public health" only an argument based upon epidemiological grounds w i l l presently be accepted by the.At-27 torney General. This i s not to say that Health authorities are not able to "convince.'1* developers to i n s t a l l water systems or undertake surveys to prove the s u f f i c i e n c y of the water source. Experience i n the northern Gulf Islands has shown the Department of Health to be most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s regard—par-t i c u l a r l y when dealing with the larger and more reputable land 28 development companies. While such non-coercive measures may achieve compliance for water ser v i c i n g within a v a r i e t y of circumstances i t i s l i t t l e more than naive to believe that such persuasion w i l l work under a l l circumstances. In the f i n a l analysis compliance i s dependent upon either the ignorance or goodwill of developers. Neither can be depended on when s i g n i -f i c a n t amounts of money are involved. 235 SUMMARY Lega l p l a n n i n g c o n s t r a i n t s are the u l t i m a t e p l a n n i n g r e a l i t i e s . E n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n g i v i n g a u t h o r i t y and c r i t e r i a f o r s u b d i v i s i o n approva l are p r i m a r i l y con ta ined w i t h i n p r o v i -s ions o f the Land R e g i s t r y A c t , M u n i c i p a l A c t , and L o c a l S e r v i -ces A c t ( " P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s " p r i m a r i l y ) . The Water A c t , H e a l t h A c t and on o c c a s i o n , the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s A c t may set out a d d i t i o n a l requirements i f water s e r v i c e s are to be p r o v i d e d . I t i s the approving o f f i c e r ' s job to c i r c u l a t e sub-d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s among agencies o f government hav ing j u r -i s d i c t i o n f o r comment and a p p r o v a l . The M u n i c i p a l A c t empowers r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o e s -t a b l i s h s tandards f o r water s e r v i c i n g (over and above the m i n i -mum requirements o f the p rov ince ) but o n l y as these r e l a t e to  l o t s i z e o r shape. Water s e r v i c i n g o b l i g a t i o n s — u n l i k e waste d i s p o s a l o b l i g a t i o n s cannot c o n v e n i e n t l y be dodged by merely sub-d i v i d i n g to l a r g e r s i z e . Minimum p r o v i n c i a l s tandards f o r s u b d i v i s i o n do not permi t l o t s t o be subd iv ided under 18,000 square fee t i f e i t h e r a community water supply or sewer sys temis p r o v i d e d . The d e f i -n i t i o n o f "community water supply" however lends i t s e l f to a v a r i e t y o f rudimentary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The r e l u c t a n c e of p r o -v i n c i a l agencies t o r ecogn ize rudimentary s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h i s con tex t i s p r i m a r i l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to c o o r d i -236 nate necessary waste d i s p o s a l safeguards and l and use p l a n n i n g measures. Land use c o n t r a c t s appear to have great p o t e n t i a l f o r o b t a i n i n g "unusual" s e r v i c i n g concess ions from deve lope r s . These tend to be e f f e c t i v e i n s i t u a t i o n s where l a r g e l o t zoning i s i n f o r c e . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s l and use c o n t r a c t s are merely cove-nants which must meet the requirements o f the Land R e g i s t r y Of-f i c e and be r a t i f i e d by the p r o v i n c i a l approving o f f i c e r w i t h i n unorganized a reas . The most ex tens ive and r e l i a b l e power f o r r e g u l a t i n g water s e r v i c i n g are a v a i l a b l e to areas which have o rgan ized un-der the M u n i c i p a l A c t o r Water A c t f o r purposes o f p u b l i c water supp ly . But these are on ly a v a i l a b l e a f t e r s u b d i v i s i o n has u s u a l l y occur red and must be i n i t i a t e d by l o c a l area r e s i d e n t s . W h i l e the d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers o f l o c a l approving o f -f i c e r s and med ica l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s appear to p r o v i d e a wide v a -r i e t y o f grounds upon which to o b t a i n community water s e r v i c i n g , c l o s e r s c r u t i n y would i n d i c a t e t ha t few are o f use i n o b t a i n i n g water s e r v i c i n g concess ions from deve loper s . P r e v i o u s cou r t a c t i o n s conf i rm the r i g h t o f the i n d i v i d u a l to subd iv ide and use h i s p r o p e r t y wi thou t undue p l a n n i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e — u n l e s s such grounds f o r " in t e fe rence" can be e x p l i c i t l y shown. CONCLUSION The d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers o f l o c a l approving o f f i c e r s and medica l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s are no s u b s t i t u t e f o r l o c a l bylaws e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n i n g water s e r v i c i n g s tandards . Whi l e o rgan i sed s e r v i c i n g cannot normal ly be demanded o f developers i f minimum l o t s i z e s are met, there are a v a r i e t y o f l e g a l measures which may encourage the adopt ion o f necessary methods o f s e r v i c i n g . Where rudimentary s e r v i c e s are to be en-couraged f o r example i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r government agencies ( the Water R i g h t s Branch and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f o r example) to g i v e them "community water supply" s t a tus thereby a f f o r d i n g r e -s i d e n t s w i t h some.measure o f p r o t e c t i o n and c o n t r o l over s e r v i -c i n g . I t would a l s o enable v a c a t i o n l o t s to be subd iv ided to 7500 square fee t where t h i s i s thought d e s i r a b l e . In any case the i n i t i a t i v e f o r such " r e c o g n i t i o n " l i e s w i t h r e g i o n a l d i s -t r i c t s and o ther " l o c a l " l e v e l s o f government who are ab le t o i n t roduce s a n i t a r y c o n t r o l s and developmental r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r these areas to the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l agenc ies . F O O T N O T E S 1. L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t , Chapter 224, S e c t i o n s 3 (a) and 3 ( i ) . 2. M u n i c i p a l A c t , S e c t i o n 798B. 3. P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n , op. c i t . 4 . Land R e g i s t r y A c t , S e c t i o n 98 ( 1 ) . 5. S e c t i o n 98 ( 4 ) , I b i d . 6. Land R e g i s t r y A c t , S e c t i o n 93 ( 2 ) . 7. "Community P l a n n i n g A r e a s " are e s t a b l i s h e d under the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t and merely enable the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to p r o v i d e p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s to r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n these areas (see Chapter 224, S e c t i o n 3 (a) and 3 ( i ) of the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t ) , 1 9 6 2 . 8. See S e c t i o n s 6 .04, 6.05 and 6.07 o f the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i -s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s . 9 . These have been b r i e f l y d i s cus sed i n Chapter 3 and are r e f e r r e d to i n the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n R e g u l a t i o n s . 10. Don Sou th , . .D i r ec to r o f P l a n n i n g , Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , B . C . , ' (pe rsona l i n t e r v i e w , June 1971). 11 . M u n i c i p a l A c t , S e c t i o n 702A ( 6 ) . 12. I n unorganized areas o n l y the Sen io r Approv ing O f f i c e r may a u t h o r i z e the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f covenants aga ins t p r o p e r t i e s . Hence land use- .contracts must a u t o m a t i c a l l y be r a t i f i e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government as represented by the Department o f Highways. 13. M u n i c i p a l A c t , S e c t i o n 798A ( 7 ) . 14. "Development Area s " are those w i t h i n which l a n d use c o n t r a c t s may be i s s u e d . 15. As p r e s e n t l y . w r i t t e n , s u b d i v i s i o n s l e s s than 2,000 fee t from e s t a b l i s h e d t runk water mains would be exempt from t h i s p r o v i s i o n . T h i s was o b v i o u s l y not in tended . 16. S e c t i o n s 59 ( i and j ) , B . C . Water A c t . 239 17. A . O. Fergusson, Inspec to r o f Improvement D i s t r i c t s , Water R i g h t s Branch, V i c t o r i a , B . C . (phone i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 28, 1972). 18. There have been l e s s than h a l f a dozen cour t a c t i o n s i n v o l -v i n g s u b d i v i s i o n i n B . C . , S. C. Todd, P r o f e s s o r o f Law, U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . ( i n t e r v i e w November, 1971). 19. Re: M u n i c i p a l A c t ; Re: Bylaw No. 1665 o f Sur rey D i s t r i c t (1959) Western Weekly Repor ts (a l e g a l case h i s t o r y o f the F e d e r a l Government), v o l . 28, p . 428. 20. O. J . M e r r i t h v . Toronto (1895), op. c i t . , v o l . 22, p. 205, ( a r t . 207). 21. A " f o r t i o r i 3 5 s imply means " a l l the more so" . I t i n d i c a t e s tha t the second case (where common lav/ r i g h t s are abrogated f o r example) i s even more reason f o r the c o u r t s to p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l from bylaws passed by m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . (Th is i s an example o f the use o f the word o n l y ) . 22. D i s c r e t i o n a r y power based upon S e c t i o n 96 o f the Land R e g i s -t r y A c t . 23. J u s t i c e Verche re , Western Weekly Repor t s , v o l . 34, p. 45 . 24. These "Regula t ions Governing Sewage D i s p o s a l " ( H e a l t h Ac t ) are summarized f o r e t c . . . . 25. Hea l t h A c t , Chapter 170, S e c t i o n 21, 22. 26. H e a l t h A c t , S e c t i o n 6 (ee) 27. Conc lus ions based on d i s c u s s i o n w i t h p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s (Courtenay and V i c t o r i a o f f i c e s — J u l y 1971) . 28. The Hornby water survey p r e v i o u s l y a l l u d e d to i n Chapter 3 was performed by the developer at the request o f the l o c a l M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r (Dr . G ibson , Upper I s l a n d H e a l t h U n i t , Courtenay, B . C . ) . "Would you t e l l me, p l e a s e , which way I ought to go from here? That depends a good dea l on where you want to get to s a i d the c a t " . Lewis C a r r o l l ( A l i c e ' s Adventures i n Wonderland) C H A P T E R E I G H T S T U D Y F I N D I N G S & R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S INTRODUCTION P r e v i o u s chapters have presen ted s t rong arguments i n favour o f rudimentary standards of o rgan ized water s e r v i c i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage of l and development w i t h i n v a c a t i o n l o t areas on Hornby I s l a n d . These may be summarised as fo l lowss — Chapter 2 i n d i c a t e d tha t because water i s necessary f o r any sus ta ined use€lof l a n d i t has become a n a t u r a l focus o f p l a n n i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage (at a t ime when development can be most c r i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . ) — Chapter 3 showed tha t b a s i c water requirements f o r co t t age r s can be q u i t e modest when compared t o t y p i c a l urban standards as advocated by the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. — Chapter 4 d e s c r i b e d how problems a r i s i n g from ground-water contaminat ion are most e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d by reduc ing water consumption and to much l e s s e r ex-t e n t , through household waste t rea tments . — Chapter 5 i n d i c a t e d tha t o rgan ized community water supply sys tems—in c o n t r a s t to i n d i v i d u a l systems o f supply , o f f e r by f a r the g rea te r p o t e n t i a l f o r ground-water management and c o n t r o l . C u r t a i l e d l e v e l s o f wa-t e r use would i n . a d d i t i o n conserve e x i s t i n g water r e sources . —• Chapter 6 confirmed l o t owners d e s i r e s f o r o rgan i sed community water s e r v i c i n g at the s u b d i v i s i o n stage o f l and development. W h i l e many persons f e l t p i p e d v/ater systems s e r v i n g i n d i v i d u a l households would u l t i m a t e l y be necessary few v/ere w i l l i n g to support such s e r v i c e s now. A number o f co t tage areas i n t e r -e s t i n g l y enough v/ere overwhelmingly i n favour o f rudimentary water s e r v i c e s . T h e i r arguments were e s s e n t i a l l y based on environmenta l h e a l t h reasons . — Chapter 7 showed tha t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s g iven the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n have been de lega ted s u f f i c i e n t l e -g a l powers to undertake v i r t u a l l y any k i n d o f water s e r v i c i n g p o l i c i e s cons idered necessary f o r unorga-n i z e d areas under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . In v iew o f the fo rego ing i t would appear tha t the t h e -s i s hypo thes i s : Organized systems o f water supply are an appro-p r i a t e requirement fo r those l ands which are be ing subd iv ided  f o r v a c a t i o n use purposes has been v e r i f i e d — a t l e a s t w i t h i n the context o f v a c a t i o n use on prime r e c r e a t i o n a l lands on Hornby I s l a n d . The sub-hypothes is tha t the s e r v i c i n g requirements f o r  such systems should be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to permi t i f not  encourage rudimentary systems o f water supply would appear v i n d i -ca ted a lso—but again o n l y i n the event sca rce groundwater sup-p l i e s are r e l i e d upon and o n - s i t e waste d i s p o s a l systems are i n use . THE UNDERLYING CONCEPT OF VACATION AREAS Tn the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s many o f the problems and hopes sur rounding v a c a t i o n l o t development were a i r e d . The problems p e r c e i v e d by the w r i t e r were due p r i m a r i l y to the cha -r a c t e r i s t i c l a c k o f permanence o f these areas—and the r e s u l t a n t b e l i e f by government o f f i c i a l s t ha t t r a n s i t i o n to "suburban form" i s o n l y a mat ter o f t ime . T h i s a t t i t u d e which i s observed r e f l e c t e d i n the p l a n n i n g f o r these areas i s f e l t not o n l y to dep r ive the co t t age r o f the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s o f good v a c a t i o n des ign but to has ten the ve ry u r b a n i z i n g p rocess i t s e l f . To r e i t e r a t e , the u n d e r l y i n g theme o f the t h e s i s has been to develop a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r water supply i n the nor the rn G u l f I s l a n d s . T h i s s t r a t e g y presupposes an o b j e c t i v e f o r v a c a t i o n l o t development towards which r e l e v a n t p o l i c i e s may be d i r e c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e f o r v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n i s a l s o in tended to p r o v i d e the reader w i t h a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g p o l i c y recommendations which f o l l o w : V a c a t i o n areas e n v i s i o n e d by the w r i t e r would be d i s -t i n g u i s h e d by a d i s t i n c t i v e set o f s u b d i v i s i o n des ign and s e r v i -c i n g standards which would e s s e n t i a l l y r e f l e c t the needs o f v a -243 c a t i o n e r s "now"—while a t the same t ime hav ing op t ions f o r fu tu re changes i n l a n d use should these a r i s e . Standards proposed would attempt to improve the r e c r e a t i o n a l exper ience o f l o t users by r educ ing the s e r v i c i n g "commitment" normal ly r e q u i r e d o f s u b d i -v i d e r s . Where necessary c o n t r o l s must be in t roduced t h e i r ob jec t would be to min imize the f e e l i n g tha t some form of o rgan ized space has been imposed upon the c o t t a g i n g landscape . T y p i c a l requirements c o u l d i n c l u d e narrow wind ing roadways, unc lea red r i g h t o f ways, b u r i e d u t i l i t y l i n e s , p r i m i t i v e pathways, and r u -dimentary water d i s t r i b u t i o n systems which p r e c l u d e sewer s e r v i -c i n g . These c o u l d a l s o be accompanied by landscape c o n t r o l s and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s designed to m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l f l a -vour of the a rea . GENERAL PROPOSAL I n view o f the f a c t there i s a need to take some o f f i -c i a l pos tu re as to what the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n i n the G u l f I s l ands should be i n order to coo rd ina t e a rea p o l i c i e s f o r t h e i r achievement, the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l i s made: I t i s proposed tha t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s r ecogn ize v a c a -t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s as a l e g i t i m a t e form of l a n d use and s t r i v e  t o assemble and in t roduce p o l i c i e s which w i l l coo rd ina t e the many- o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and agencies concerned. 244 To t h i s end i t i s suggested tha t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t be taken to d i s -t i n g u i s h at l e a s t some o f these areas from t h e i r urban coun te r -p a r t s by the o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f "Na tu ra l V a c a t i o n Use A r e a s " which would f u l f i l l the terms o f re ference s t a t ed abbv;e. Such "des igna t i on" need not be i n terms o f s p e c i f i c zon ing but c o u l d be expressed as an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y statement by the board . T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n o f " p r i n c i p l e s " would be h e l p f u l i n the d e c i s i o n ma-k i n g process when n e g o t i a t i n g l and use c o n t r a c t s f o r v a c a t i o n l o t s u b d i v i s i o n . Having adopted t h i s GENERAL OBJECTIVE f o r v a c a t i o n lot-development, the re are a number o f r e l a t e d p o l i c y statements and r e g u l a t i o n s concern ing WATER SUPPLY, WASTE DISPOSAL, AND WATER MANAGEMENT, which w i l l now be presented and d i s c u s s e d : ??ATBR SUPPLY Water supply has been observed a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r a f f e c -t i n g l and use and development w i t h i n the G u l f I s l a n d s . Por t h i s reason i t i s proposed tha t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s take the i n i t i a -tive.:, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s which w i l l p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t p r o v i n c i a l agencies w i t h the necessary c o o r d i n a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s and g u i d e l i n e s . BYLAWS RECOMMENDED FOR HORNBY ISLAND (Reg iona l D i s t r i c t o f Comox Stra t l icona) 1. No twi ths t and ing the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n 601, 6 02 and 603 • o f B . C . Reg 262/70 the Approv ing O f f i c e r s h a l l refuse to ap-prove the s u b d i v i s i o n o f any p a r c e l over 2 acres f o r r e s i d e n -t i a l purposes where the s u b d i v i s i o n i s not served by a com-munity water supply system w i t h a t e s t e d c a p a c i t y adequate t o serve the proposed s u b d i v i s i o n . 2. That a "community water system" as de f ined i n the P r o v i n c i a l S u b d i v i s i o n Regu la t ions be cons ide red to i n c l u d e "rudimentary" systems o f s e r v i c i n g w i t h i n areas which have been des igna ted "Na tu ra l V a c a t i o n Use Areas" by the Board . 3. (a) The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and standards w i l l be a c -cepted as meeting the requirements f o r "rudimentary" systems. "Rudimentary" v/ater systems are de f ined as those which are incapab le o f meeting the average year around needs o f urban r e s i d e n t s served by the f u l l compliment o f indoor plumbing f a c i l i t i e s . These systems w i l l seldom meet p r e s e n t l y s t a t ed "minimum requirements" o f the. P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commis-s i o n . Rudimentary systems are c h a r a c t e r i z e d moreover by: ~ c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d s tandpipes p r o v i d i n g ground or sur face water f o r the s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h s u f f i -c i e n t p ressu re to s a t i s f y minimum requi rements . — ground or sur face waters which are s to red f o r p i p e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . The system used may employ a community pump a t the s torage s i t e or merely pe rmi t water to be siphoned or pumped through i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . (b) Where "rudimentary" systems have been g iven "community wa-t e r system" s t a t u s , the water source used should be capable o f p r o v i d i n g a minimum o f 50 g a l l o n s o f water per l o t per day dur ing the summer months. Emergency s torage requirements are not f e l t to be a necessary requirement but the source should have a standby pump which should be capable o f s u p p l y i n g t o t a l d a i l y consumption w i t h i n 24 hou r s . SUGGESTED AMENDMENTS TO THE PROVINCIAL SUBDIVISION REGULATION (Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) . . •— Under S e c t i o n 4.04 " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Not Approvable" add "(e) con ta ins l a n d which because o f inadequate surface or ground water supply . i s not su i t ab le , for the use to which i t i s in t ended" . — Under S e c t i o n 4 .06(c) "A p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r ' s r e p o r t o n " : add " ( i v ) t h e ' g e o - h y d r o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the , Aarea w i t h a ' v i e w for de te rmin ing groundwater s torage and movements". Note, t ha t w i t h the p a s s i n g o f these two r e g u l a t i o n s the l and owner may have covenants,, r e g i s t e r e d aga ins t h i s p r o -p e r t y r e s t r a i n i n g l o t use or development u n t i l such time as the necessary water " d e f i c i e n c i e s " are c o r r e c t e d . (Sec t ion 4.05 o f the above A c t ) . 247 PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION I t i s urged tha t the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission r e c o g -n i z e "rudimentary" s tandards o f water s e r v i c i n g as proposed i n 3(a) and (fo) i n order tha t systems s a t i s f y i n g the d e f i n i t i o n o f a p u b l i c u t i l i t y ( S e c t i o n 2 o f the Water Works Regula t ions ) be g iven the necessary degree o f s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l . WATER RIGHTS BRANCH OF THE PROVINCIAL WATER RESOURCES SERVICE RECOMMENDATIONS That on the recommendation o f the l o c a l p l a n n i n g autho-r i t y the Branch permi t the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f an area f o r purposes of deve lop ing , ope ra t i ng and m a i n t a i n i n g rudimentary systems o f water supply based on surface or groundwater sources . WASTE DISPOSAL I t i s apparent tha t a s l ong as unsewered development i s p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n areas susceptafole to the movement o f c o n t a -minated groundwaters the p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h and envi ronmenta l p r o -blems a r i s i n g from the use o f i n d i v i d u a l waste treatment systems and w e l l waters w i l l always be p r e sen t . These problems may be min imized i n a number o f ways: 248 1. DECREASE THE DENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT THROUGH LARGE LOT RE-STRICTIONS From p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s , (Chapter 4) i t i s r e c o g - ' n i z e d tha t the movement o f contaminants through s o i l s i s a c h i e -ved o n l y by wa te r . Hence any s e r i o u s attempt t o min imize p r o -blems a r i s i n g from groundwater p o l l u t i o n must u l t i m a t e l y concern i t s e l f w i t h the amount o f sewage or water which i s used to f l u s h away s i n k and t o i l e t wastes . Short o f p r o h i b i t i n g on s i t e d i s -p o s a l o f wastes ( s e l f con ta ined pump-out systems f o r example) l a r g e l o t zoning as c a r r i e d to the extreme i n the concept o f " s h o r e l i n e b u f f e r " zones are most e f f e c t i v e i n c u r t - a i l i n g p o l l u -t i o n and should be encouraged. These r e s t r i c t i o n s would appear most b e n e f i c i a l w i t h i n areas susceptab le to l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n problems and c o u l d go hand i n hand w i t h the much needed f o r e s t bu f f e r zones which the P r o v i n c i a l Government has been slow i n r e c o g n i z i n g . ENCOURAGE THE USE OF MORE EFFICIENT WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS The use of ae rob ic systems, e l e c t r i c / p r o p a n e systems or merely the proper use and maintenance o f s e p t i c systems can s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve waste treatment. W h i l e the o l d p i t p r i v y i s s t i l l the most r e l i a b l e treatment system going i t i s appa-ren t tha t the re i s a growing need to use systems which can t r e a t both t o i l e t and wash wastes more e f f e c t i v e l y . The l a t t e r are thought to p rov ide the major source o f n u t r i e n t s fox' l ake e u t r o -p h i c a t i o n as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p r o g r e s s i v e m i n e r a l i -z a t i o n o f groundwater and problems a r i s i n g the reo f . While i t i s most d i f f i c u l t to prevent such contamina-t i o n unless s e l f con ta ined pump-out systems or a e r o b i c a l l y r e c y -c l e d wastes are used fo r t o i l e t f l u s h i n g (these systems are e a s i l y i n s t a l l e d and merely c o n s i s t o f an e l e v a t e d h o l d i n g tank which i s used to c o l l e c t t r e a t e d was tes . These contents are c h l o r i n a t e d before be ing r e c i r c u l a t e d , there are a v a r i e t y o f c o n t r o l s which may be imposed to minimize problems o f water p o l -l u t i o n w i t h i n cot tage a reas . I t i s recommended fo r Hornby I s l a n d t h a t : 2 . 1 Where community water supply systems are not p r o v i d e d or a v a i l a b l e , and o n - s i t e w e l l s are used fo r domestic water supply on- l o t s sma l l e r than 25 ,000 square fee t , t ha t sep-t i c systems be out lawed. 2.2 Where a community water supply system designed to "rudimen-t a r y " s tandard enables a developer to subd iv ide to l e s s than 18,000 square fee t t ha t covenants be r e g i s t e r e d aga ins t these p r o p e r t i e s which would : (a) f o r b i d the fu r the r development o f groundwaters fo r water supply w i t h i n the proposed boundar ies o f the proposed s u b d i v i s i o n un less i t can be e s t a b l i s h e d 250 tha t such development v / i l l not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the.community source . (b) p r o h i b i t the use o f s e p t i c t anks . (c) impose any o ther covenants which may be cons ide r neces-sa ry to achieve the s t a t ed o b j e c t i v e s of the Board f o r v a c a t i o n l o t use and development i n the area de-s i g n a t e d . 3. ENCOURAGE THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH TO IMPROVE CURRENT PROCE-DURES FOR PERCOLATION TESTING AND SITE EVALUATIONS FOR SUB-SURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS S i t e i n s p e c t i o n s by M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r n e a r l y a l l waste t reatment measures p r e s c r i b e d by gov-ernment a u t h o r i t i e s . For t h i s reason they must be improve where-ver p o s s i b l e i f envi ronmenta l h e a l t h problems are t o be m i n i m i z e d . S p e c i f i c recommendations addressed t o the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f H e a l t h a re : 3.1 (a) Perro.it p e r c o l a t i o n t e s t i n g t o be performed by s p e c i a l l y a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n n e l , (b) R e s t r i c t the t imes o f year when p e r c o l a t i o n t a s t i n g may be p e r m i t t e d . 3.2 Encourage the p e r i o d i c pump-out and i n s p e c t i o n o f s e p t i c u n i t s (every 3 years a minimum) 251 T h i s i s f e l t by the w r i t e r t o be a s o r e l y needed b i t o f l e g i s l a t i o n which r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s should encourage the Department o f H e a l t h to enact and implement. 3.3 Encourage "au tho r i zed pe r sonne l " t o make en l igh tened d i s -c r e t i o n a r y judgements concern ing the s u s c e p t a b i l i t y o f ground water systems to p o l l u t i o n . I n t h i s l a t t e r r e spec t , an e v a l u a t i o n system such as tha t proposed by H. Le Grand ( Jou rna l American Water Works A s s o -c i a t i o n , August 1964) would appear most s a t i s f a c t o r y . E s s e n t i -a l l y , h i s system p r o v i d e s a method f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g a s i t e i n terms o f the p robab le e f f e c t o f f i v e envi ronmenta l f a c -t o r s ; depth and g rad ien t o f water t a b l e , s o r p t i o n and permeabi-l i t y o f o v e r l y i n g s o i l s , and h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e between a waste d i s p o s a l p o i n t and p o i n t o f w a t e r - w i t h d r a w a l . T h i s method i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t ha t i t can p r o v i d e a qu i ck a p p r a i s a l o f s i t e s where g e o l o g i c or h y d r o l o g i c da ta are scarce (a common occurance) . Neve r the l e s s , use o f the system does r e q u i r e "some knowledge o f the k i n d o f wastes i n v o l v e d , t h e i r method o f d i s -p o s a l and the genera l theory u n d e r l y i n g movement and behaviour o f contaminents i n the ground. W h i l e the system i s c e r t a i n l y not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r minimum s i t e a rea and l o c a t i o n a l s tandards p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , i t can complement H i e i r use by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l environmen-t a l "probes" which may p r o v i d e a more r e a l i s t i c i n s i g h t i n t o 252 t h e i r adequacy. Perhaps most impor tan t , the system p r o v i d e s a r i g o r o u s "check l i s t " or " t a l l y cha r t " which induces an i n d i v i -dua l to make some r e l e v a n t s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s , the a n a l y s i s o f which can be used to make some c o n c l u s i o n s as to the a reas ' sus -c e p t a b i l i t y to groundwater p o l l u t i o n . WATER MANAGEMENT The need to c o - o r d i n a t e l a n d use p l a n n i n g and v/ater management p o l i c i e s on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t . W h i l e a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t s between the j u r i s d i c -t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s o f government i t i s apparent t ha t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e on such ma t t e r s . POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS (WATER RESOURCES SERVICE) A number o f p o l i c y recommendations d e a l i n g w i t h r e t r i -v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n from dug w e l l s , r e v o k i n g o f water l i c e n s e s , need f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l sur rounding d r i l l i n g ope ra t ions and m o n i t o r i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s are a l l u d e d to ov on pp . 181,182. But r a the r than s p e c i f y the k i n d o f p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s which the w r i t e r would l i k e to see in t roduced—the S e r v i c e i s merely d i r e c t e d to examine the groundwater l e g i s l a t i o n enacted i n Sas-katchewan s ' "Under the Groundwater Conse rva t ion A c t (see Sas-katchewan Reg 1727/66-OC 1387/66) . In the o p i n i o n o f the 253 w r i t e r i t i s the most advanced and comprehensive i n Canada and we yM worth copying here . Two b a s i c recommendations which are most r e l e v a n t t o the t h e s i s d i s c u s s i o n concerns the l i c e n c i n g o f groundwater and the proposed es tab l i shment o f a "Water Resources A d v i s o r y Com--m i t t e e " ( B i l l 79 o f the Water Resources A c t ) . GROUNDWATERS TO BE LICENCED W i t h respec t t o groundwaters i t i s suggested tha t the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Water A c t be made a p p l i c a b l e to groundwaters; But o n l y w i t h i n the immediate watershed areas o f those s u b d i v i -s i ons which u t i l i z e these waters through approved community wa-t e r supply systems. Fo r c l a r i f i c a t i o n " approved" systems are those r e c o g -n i z e d by e i t h e r the Reg iona l D i s t r i c t , l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Water R i g h t s Branch or the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. COORDINATION IN LAND USE PLANNING AND WATER MANAGEMENT STRESSED The w r i t e r does not b e l i e v e tha t the proposed "Water Resources A d v i s o r y Committee" w i l l f u r t h e r in t e r -governmenta l coope ra t ion un less c e r t a i n b a s i c ground r u l e s are i r o n e d ou t . B a s i c c r i t i c i s m o f the Committee(which c o n s i s t s o f the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Water Resources a s . t h e chairman "and o ther members 254 as the L ieu tenan t -Governor i n C o u n c i l may appoint") i s d i r e c t e d at the wide d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers g iven members. W h i l e p r o v i -s i o n i s made f o r h o l d i n g o f p u b l i c meetings f o r purposes o f de-t e r m i n i n g the l o c a l views o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e s i d e n t s , the Committee i s not duty bound to comply w i t h t h e i r w i shes . T h i s i s unders tandable . But should a community l and use p l a n as autho-r i z e d by the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s be i n e x i s t e n c e f o r the area , one would n a t u r a l l y f e e l t ha t the A d v i s o r y Commission should be bound by the resource c o n s t r a i n t s i m p l i c a t e d by t h i s plan.™ T h i s i s not mentioned i n the l e g i s l a t i o n nor in tended . A f t e r a l l , i f resources are in tended to compliment l and use development, then a l a n d use p l a n sanc t ioned by both l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f government would appear to be the best i n d i c a t i o n o f the k i n d o f coo rd ina t ed resource deve lop -ment which i s d e s i r e d . For t h i s reason p r i m a r i l y i t i s f e l t the B i l l should be amended w i t h the p r o v i s o tha t the Commis-s i o n r ecogn ize e x i s t i n g l a n d use p l a n s and s t r i v e to min imize c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from water development (or non-development) . What t h i s a l s o i m p l i e s o f course , i s the need to i n v o l v e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n a c l o s e r and p r e f e r a b l y formal r e l a t i o n s h i p i n o r -der to improve the d e c i s i o n making p rocess p e r t a i n i n g to water resource development and l and use p l a n n i n g . A& t h i s and o ther proposed l e g i s l a t i o n (p. 179) i s an attempt to break new ground and f e e l out p u b l i c and F e d e r a l views on the matter o f water management, i t can be f o r g i v e n i n p a r t f o r c e r t a i n omi s s ions . But, i f a d d i t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c -t i n g groundwater development i s not i n t roduced remedying the p o i n t mentioned above and those d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5, the A c t v / i l l f a l l f a r shor t o f i t s s t a t ed o b j e c t i v e s . B I B L I O G R A P H Y 25b B O O K S Ackerman, E . A . and L d f , G .O .G . Technology i n American Water  Development. B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1969. B l a k e , T. Water f o r the C i t i e s . Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. E l d r i d g e , H.W. ( e d i t o r ) . Taming M e g a l o p o l i s . Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Doubleday and Company, I n c . , 1967. Chapin , P . S tua r t J r . " E x i s t i n g Techniques o f Shaping Urban Growth". Chor l ey , R. J . ( e d i t o r ) . Water, E a r t h and Man. London, England : Methran & C o . , 1969. W a l t z , J . P . "Ground Water" . Nace, R . L . "Human Use o f Groundwater". 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