UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Residential development in the City of North Vancouver. Amissah, Samuel Bentsi 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A6_7 A45.pdf [ 8.42MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101746.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101746-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101746-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101746-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101746-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101746-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101746-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101746-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101746.ris

Full Text

J • . . . ' RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER by SAMUEL BENTSI AMISSAH Dip.L.Arch., Dip.T.P. (Univ. of Durham, Newcastle-on-tyne), A.M.T.P.I. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make it f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s f o r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada This study examines the relat ionships between the res ident ia l density and prices of res ident ia l land in the Lonsdale Area of the City of North Vancouver during the period 1967-1970. S pec i f i c a l l y i t inves-t igates the nature of the pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between the d i s t r i bu t i on of re s ident ia l density and the d i s t r i bu t i on of land pr ices . I t also i d en t i f i e s the extent to which the form of the re lat ionsh ip i s associated with the nature of change in the res ident ia l density, and the distance from Lonsdale Avenue. The study area i s divided into three sectors (Upper, Central and Lower Lonsdale) to f a c i l i t a t e i d en t i f i c a t i o n of patterns in locations having d i s t i n c t character i s t i c s and unique s i t e a t t r ibu tes . S i m i l a r l y , the three blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue are included in the study area to enhance the i den t i f i c a t i on of the ef fects of distance from Lonsdale Avenue. The technique used consists of a format, which i s e s sent ia l l y a matrix-cum-grid, and which coincides with the cadastral map of the City in terms of s t ree t s , blocks and sectors. This format i s the main ve-h i c l e used in organising and analysing the data for both density and p r i ce . The potent ia l in the technique enhances an easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of changes, trends, and movement in both density and p r i ce , and the spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between them. The units of measurement are so selected that they aid measurabil-i t y and comparability with in each var iab le , and between them, thus helping in locat ing re lat ionsh ips . Due to wide margins of prices and f l uc tua t i on s , the method of aggregation, or grouping averages, is used. The invest igat ion establishes that there i s a pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between the d i s t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density and the d i s t r i bu t i on of land pr i ces , and that th i s re lat ionsh ip is associated with the nature of change in the res ident ia l density, and the distance from Lonsdale Avenue. I t concludes that: a) economic and soc ia l factors underly the increases in density and p r i ce , as well as the relat ionships between them; b) the period 1967-1970 was favourable for investment in apartment development, and f e r t i l e fo r speculat ion; c) the 1967 Zoning By-Laws, and the f inanc ia l capacit ies of devel-opers, d i rec t and control res ident ia l densit ies to a large extent; d) depending on locat ion and other a t t r i bu te s , land character i s t i c s are both homogeneous and heterogeneous. The impl ications of these conclusions are evaluated in terms of apartment development po l icy for the City of North Vancouver, and in terms of the present state of our theoret ica l understanding of the sub-jec t of density and p r i ce . Areas for further research are suggested, and observations made on the methodology and technique applied in the study. Page LIST OF TABLES . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . x Chapter . I. INTRODUCTION 1 GENERAL 1 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . 4 SOURCE OF DATA . 6 PROBLEMS OF DATA COLLECTION 7 THE APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 7 THE TECHNIQUE OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . 10 THE UNIT OF MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Density . . . . . . . . . . 10 Land Pr ice . . . . 11 ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS 13 I I. DOCUMENTATION OF PREVIOUS STUDIES AND RELATED LITERATURE 15 I I I. RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH VANCOUVER 24 INTRODUCTION 24 B r i t i s h Columbia 24 Vancouver Metropolitan Area 25 The North Shore . . . . . 26 THE PERIOD 1956-1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 THE PERIOD 1963-1967 . 30 THE PERIOD 1967-1970 . . . . . . . . 31 i SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . 33 I V . THE RESIDENTIAL LAND MARKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . 35 . SECTION A: RESIDENTIAL DENSITIES . . . . . . . . . 36 The Apartment Developers . 36 The Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Apartments and Residential Densities . . . . . . . . . 3 7 The Character i s t ics of Apartment Suites . . . . . 59 Prel iminary Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . 62 SECTION B: THE PRICES OF RESIDENTIAL SITES . . . . . 63 Introduction . . . . . . 63 The Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Sales Prices and Transactions . . . . . . . . . . 65 Movements in S i te Prices and S i te Pr ice Changes 77 What Factors are Responsible for Such Pr ice Movements? . 83 Prel iminary Conclusions . 85 V. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENSITY AND PRICE . . . . . . 86 THE PATTERN OF SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP . . . . . . . . 87 CONCLUSIONS . 97 VI. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONCLUSIONS 100 IMPLICATIONS ON APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTIAL CHANGES 100 THE DECISION PROCESS AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS ." . . . 103 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONCLUSIONS ON , EXISTING THEORIES . . 105 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE METHODOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE STUDY 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 A. EARLY THEORIES ON LAND USE PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . 121 B. STATISTICAL DATA ON APARTMENTS - GENERAL .' . . . . . . 127 C. THE STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALE PRICE, 1967-1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 D. 1967 Zoning By-laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Table Page I I I . l . Households by Dwelling Type: Metropolitan Vancouver, 1961-1981 ' . 26 2. Apartments in Metropolitan Vancouver Area, 1961-1966 27 3. Residential Uses--North Vancouver C i t y , 1956-1963 28 4. Trends in Bui ld ing Construction, 1956-1963 29 5. Land Use Composition of Apartment Zones, 1963-1967 31 6. Apartment Dens i t ies, 1967-1970 32 IV.1. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Densities by Sectors, 1970 . . 54 2. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Densities by Blocks, 1970 . . . 55 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Acreages by Zoning, 1970 55 4. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Acreages by Sectors, 1970 56 5. D i s t r ibut ion of Relative Sizes of Densities by St reets , 1967-1970 . . . . . . 57 6. D i s t r ibut ion of Relative Sizes of Densities by Sector, 1967-1970 57 7. D i s t r ibut ion of Relative Sizes of Densities by Block, 1967-1970 . 58 8. D i s t r ibut ion of Relative Densities along Lonsdale Avenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 9. D i s t r ibut ion of Type of Suites 60 10. Lonsdale Avenue--The Structure and D i s t r ibut ion of Sales Prices 70 Table Page IV.11. D i s t r ibut ion of Residential S i te Prices in Study Area by Ranking, 1967-1970 . . . . . . . 71 12. D i s t r ibut ion of Residential Pr ice Levels in the Sectors, 1967-1970 72 13. D i s t r ibut ion of Residential Pr ice Levels by Blocks • • 72 14. D i s t r ibut ion of Pr ice Levels by Blocks along Lonsdale Avenue 73 15. D i s t r ibut ion of Total Number of Sales Transactions by Street 75 16. D i s t r ibut ion of Number of Sales Transactions by*Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . 76 17. D i s t r ibut ion of Number of Sales Transactions by Blocks 77 18. D i s t r ibut ion of Number of Sales Transactions along Lonsdale Avenue . . . . . . . 77' V . l . The Spat ia l Relationship between the D i s t r ibut ion of Price Levels and Residential Density by Blocks . . . . . . . . . . 95 2. The Spatial Relationship between the > D i s t r ibut ion of S i te P r i ce , and the D i s t r ibut ion of Density by Sector . 96 3. The Spatial Relationship between A Residential S i te .Pr i ces and -D i s t r ibut ion of Densities 97 B . l . Population—North Vancouver 128 2. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartments by Area and Type, Metropolitan Vancouver, D e c , 1967 129 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartments by Area and Type, Metropolitan Vancouver, D e c , 1969 130 Table Page B.4. Apartment Vacancy Rates, 1964-1970 . . . . . . . . 131 5. Apartment Vacancy Rates, June, 1970 . 133 6. Apartment Rents in Metropolitan Vancouver, Aug., 1968 . . . . . . . . . . . 134 7. Apartment Rents in Metropolitan Vancouver, Aug., 1970 135 8 . Forecasts of Apartment Construction, Vancouver and Metropolitan Area: 1961-1981 136 9. Actual and Forecast Apartment Construction in North Vancouver, 1961-1981 (Derived from Table B.8) 137 10. Apartment Operating Costs . . . . 138 11. The Corporation of the City of North Vancouver, Comparative S t a t i s t i c s . • . . . . 139 12. Apartment Floor Space Ratios and Parking Requirements by Mun ic ipa l i t y , Aug., 1968 . . . . . 140 13. Apartment Floor Space Ratios and Parking Requirements by Mun ic ipa l i ty , Aug., 1970 141 7 Map Page 1. The Study Area in Relation to the City of North Vancouver . . . . • . . . ". 9 Figure 1. 1966 Cumulative Densities by Blocks . 41 2. 1966 Cumulative Densities by Sectors 42 3. 1967 Cumulative Densities by Blocks 44 4. 1967 Cumulative Densities by Sectors 44 5. 1968 Cumulative Densities by Sectors . . . . . . . . 45 6. 1968 Cumulative Densities by Blocks 47 7. 1969 Cumulative Densities by Sectors 49 8. 1969 Cumulative Densities by Blocks 50 9. 1970 Cumulative Densities by Sectors . . . . . . . . 51 10. 1970 Cumulative Densities by Blocks . . 53 c Grid 1. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites (Cumulative) 1966 . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . 39 2. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1967 . 43 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1968 46 4. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1969 . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 48 5. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1970 . . . . . . . 52 Grid Page 6. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i t e s , 1967 . ' . . . . . . . • . . . . 66 7. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i t e s , 1968 67 8. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i t e s , 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . 68 9. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i t e s , 1970 . . . . . . . 69 Graph 1. a. Density by Blocks . . . . . . . 88 b. Pr ice by Block . . . . . . . . . . 88 2. a. Density Gradient . . . . . 88 b. Pr ice Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3. a. Apartment Demand by Blocks 88 b. Pr ice Demand by Blocks 88 4. a. Density by Sectors 89 b. Pr ice by Sectors . . . . 8 9 5. a. Apartment Completions by Sectors . . . . . . . . . . 89 b. Pr ice Levels by Sectors . . .•' . . "'. • 89 6. a. Apartment Density 1967-1970 . . . . . . . . . . . 90 b. Sales Transactions 1967-1970 90 7. a. Apartment Demand 1967-1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 b. Pr ice Levels 1967-1970 . . . . . 90 1. Spatial Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Sales Transactions 92 2. Spat ia l Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Density 93 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Sites that Fai led to A t t rac t both Sales Transactions and Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank my supervisors, Dr. R. C o l l i e r and Professor B. Wiestnan, for t he i r guidance and suggestions. I am pa r t i c u l a r l y grateful to Professor S. Hamilton, De-partment of Commerce, Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, fo r the very useful suggestions during the i n i t i a l stages of the study. My thanks also go to Mr. Brock Stanley for his v a l i d comments on the f i n a l d ra f t . To those o f f i c i a l s in various o f f i ces outside the Univers ity who ass isted in the data c o l l e c t i o n , I acknow-ledge t he i r help. These are the o f f i c i a l s in the Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board o f f i c e ; the Land Registrar; and Mr. Joseph L. Whitehead, president and publ isher, Journal of Commerce, Vancouver. F i n a l l y , I am grateful to the Government of Canada for granting the two-year study award under the Common-wealth Fellowship Scheme tenable at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia; and to Dr. Peter Oberlander for sponsor-ing my app l i ca t ion . RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER INTRODUCTION General Since the mid 19601 s, there has been a noticeable change in the spat ia l pattern of res ident ia l development in the C i ty of North Van-couver. There have been sh i f t s both in the spat ia l organisation of household concentrations, and housing construction. The t r a d i t i o n a l l y predominant s ingle family pattern i s rapidly disappearing in the Lons-dale area, giving way to apartment development. 1 The tota l area devel-oped for apartments has almost doubled between 1968 and 1969. The 2 population has increased by about 15 per cent between 1966 and 1970, ra i s ing the to ta l number to approximately 32,000 by the end of that period. At the same time, the average household s ize has declined from 3.25 to 2.67 persons per dwelling un i t , approximating the same figures 3 f o r Metropolitan Vancouver. In economic a c t i v i t i e s , the climate for investment indicated Current ly, apartments const itute more than 40 per cent of the to ta l housing stock in the City of North Vancouver and occupy about 47 per cent of the to ta l area saved for apartments. The average i s about 6.1 acres a year of apartment construct ion. 2 See Appendix B, Table B . l , Population - North Vancouver. A l so, The C i ty of North Vancouver, Apartments in the City of North Vancouver, 1970, Appendix , Table 3 The C i ty of North Vancouver, Apartments in the City of North  Vancouver, 1970, Report I I I . favourable s igns; and the local economy showed trends of growth. Com-5 mercial and r e t a i l trade became active along Lonsdale Avenue, with pro-jects being commenced at a faster rate than ever before. Wages and sa lar ies reached a new high and the to ta l e f fects of a l l these was a general response in the housing market to the changes in the economy. In 1967, a new set of zoning by-laws 6 was passed. Since then, i t seems that noticeable s h i f t s have occurred in the structure of land 7 8 values and res ident ia l dens i t ies . These sh i f t s are associated with the s i t e and l oca t i on , and the attr ibutes that they have. A set of var-iables are i d e n t i f i e d not only with the d i f fe rent a t t r i bu te s , but also with the d i f f e ren t character i s t i c s in the d i s t r i bu t i on of these a t t r i -butes. I t appears that the higher the res ident ia l density, the greater the incentive to increase the pr ice of the s i t e so as to spread i t over In 1968, Neptune Terminals started new bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s with a cap i ta l of $10 m i l l i o n . Extensions to the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Elevator involved a cap i ta l of $15 m i l l i o n . Hooker Chemicals, and Canadian Park and T i l ford invested $6 m i l l i o n and $1 m i l l i o n respect ively i n extension projects. Canadian National Railway's new bridge at the Second Narrows, expanded North Shore marshalling yards and greatly im-proved r a i l service to shipping f a c i l i t i e s . 5 Safeway, Super-Valu, and a chain of smaller r e t a i l shops emerged with other o f f i c e bui ld ings. 6See Appendix-D, page 146. ^Changes in land values became evident along the commercial cor-r idor of Lonsdale Avenue, and in the adjacent apartment area. The general picture shows wide var iat ions of s i t e prices within blocks and along some s t reet s , with a decreasing gradient from Lonsdale Avenue. o Household s izes in the C i ty dropped from 2.2 persons per dwelling un i t ( in apartments constructed p r io r to 1967) to 1.71 ( in apartments constructed a f te r 1967). a large number of dwelling un i ts . Economic factors therefore seem c r i -t i c a l , and underly the issue of high density housing concentration in the City of North Vancouver. This raises some concern. While these economic, factors are pre-sently encouraging physical growth (which i s tenable in the short-term per iod), the impl icat ions are that i f the current form of spat ia l s t ruc -9 ture i s not e f f i c i e n t l y d irected and cont ro l l ed , future growth may be r e s t r i c t i v e . This argument i s c i r c u l a r , and at the same time dichotomous. The very nature of the argument poses the issue: at what level should growth be encouraged, and at what point in time should i t be rest r icted? Underlying the issue, which i s at cross-purposes with each other, i s the problem of the de f i n i t i on of short-term development goals, and long-term planning object ives. - r-I t seems that in the C i ty of North Vancouver, res ident ia l growth general ly, and apartment development in pa r t i c u l a r , i s associated with a certa in form and structure in the d i s t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density and prices of res ident ia l land. I t therefore appears that the d i s t r i b u -t iona l patterns of density and pr ice are c r i t i c a l factors underlying the character and rate of physical growth. Larry S. Bourne, Pr ivate Redevelopment of the Central C i ty (The Univers i ty of Chicago, 1967), p. J defines "Spat ia l Structure" in two ways. The f i r s t refers to the framework, arrangement, and i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ships among urban phenomena as they are d i s t r ibuted in space. The sec-ond refers to bui ld ings. In th i s study, the two def in i t ions are used inter-changeably. The former refers to long-term e f f e c t s , and the l a t t e r the present s t ructura l apartment stock. As such, th i s study examines the fol lowing hypothesis: That there i s a pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between the d i s -t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density, and the d i s t r i bu t i on of land p r i ce s , and that th i s re lat ionsh ip is associated with (a) the nature of change in the res ident ia l density, and (b) the distance from the major a r t e r i a l s t reet . By d e f i n i t i o n : a) Pa t te rn 1 ^ implies that the spat ia l d i s t r i bu t i on of elements or of a process, as portrayed in two-dimensional project ion or on maps, have certa in regular geometric properties or d i s t r i bu t i ona l r e gu l a r i t i e s . b) The Major A r t e r i a l Street refers to Lonsdale Avenue, in the City of North Vancouver. c) Residential Dens i ty 1 1 i s the net accommodation density referred to as the number of habitable suites per net res ident ia l area. A su i te i s therefore defined as a dwelling un i t , and the use of the two are interchangeable. ^The usage i s discussed in North Eastern I l l i n o i s Planning Com-mission, Metropolitan Planning Guidel ines, Phase One: Background Docu-ments, Commercial Structures (Chicago: The Commission, May, 1965), p. 11. ^See page 10 for the discussion on the s ign i f icance of the suite as a unit of measurement. d ) Land Pr ice for the study period 1967-1970 is the cap i ta l i zed value of i t s economic rent—determined by the expected return on investment in the Land and the Structures constructed on i t . In North Vancouver, th i s i s represented by the sales pr ice—being the pr ice for which the bui lder can obtain the land a f te r bar-gaining. The statement of the hypothesis introduces a number of var iab les : density, l oca t i on , zoning by-laws and the level of u t i l i t y as well as other soc ia l serv ices. These var iab les , in f a c t , could lead to a s ta te -ment of a nul l -hypothesis. But underlying a l l these i s the pr ice factor which i s conditioned by the forces in the housing market. Bas i ca l l y therefore, the study asks the question: What factors determine the cost of a un i t of res ident ia l land in the C i ty of North Vancouver? The scope of the study investigates the extent to which the var-ious factors connected with res ident ia l density concentrations influence the cost of re s ident ia l land, and in turn are influenced by other factors I t i den t i f i e s the re lat ionsh ip between res ident ia l density and land p r i ce ; and examines the extent to which apartment development i s i n f l u -enced by t he i r i n te r re la t i onsh ip s . The study area i s confined to the Lonsdale Area of the C i t y , and i examined in terms of distances from Lonsdale Avenue (along an east-west 12 Grace Milgram, The City Expands (U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C.), p. 8, uses th i s de f i n i t i on in her empir i -cal studies in Ph i lade lph ia. ax i s ) , and from point of view of Upper, Centra l , and Lower Lonsdale (along a north-south ax i s ) . Sources of Data The sales data for th i s study was extracted and compiled from: a) the Land Registry f i l e s , supported with aggregate approximations from the assessors r o l e , and the s t a t i s t i c a l records from the r Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board; b) the Teela Market Surveys, being a documentation of a l l sales transactions of real estate in the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Area. Jo provide a cross-check on the currency of the land pr ice data, some -developers and real estate agents were interviewed. The density data was extracted and compiled from: a) the approved plans of apartments, Planning Department, C i ty of North Vancouver; b) the Bui ld ing Inspectors Records of apartment construct ion; c) the tax assessors reg i s te r . To up-date the data in terms of extensions, and/or demolit ion, a cross-check was made f i r s t on the locat ion of the ex i s t ing apartments, and second on the ex i s t ing number of suites actua l ly rentable. This was done through s i t e surveys, and inspection of apartments. The experience in co l l ec t i ng data has been worthwhile. I t has been time consuming, but rewarding. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain prices at which land i s so ld , and the acreage to which pr ice i s appl icable. Sales transaction i s by private negot iat ion, usual ly regarded as conf ident ia l and not published. There i s d i f f i c u l t y in compiling prices of plots over any pa r t i cu la r period because of the variables involved. The very nature of f luctuat ions in p r i ces , and the market value of land makes i t d i f f i c u l t to obtain a precise picture of the pattern of land values over any time period. Where data was obtained, there were complexities of fol lowing the transact ional h i s tory of plots transferred as un i t s , sub-divided, re -jo ined or re-div ided in a var iety of ways at d i f fe rent points in time. This problem i s further complicated by the d i f f i c u l t y in getting the par t i c u l a r development var iables fo r each transact ion. Lack of r e l i ab l e and analysable data therefore creates a serious handicap to understand™ The Approach and Methodology 13 Lonsdale Avenue i s the busiest s t reet in the C i ty—serv ing the shopping needs of both the C i ty and the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. I t therefore creates both centr i fuga l and centr ipeta l forces along i t s cor-r idor and beyond i t . 13 This cor r idor has a m u l t i p l i c i t y of land uses, being the main shopping s t reet . I t carr ies the highest s i t e values, in terms of cap i -t a l i z e d s i t e rent. In order to measure the influence of these forces in terms of res ident ia l density and prices of s i t e s , the study area (Map 1) i s d i v -ided into three sectors along an east-west ax i s : a) Upper Lonsdale--defined as the area enclosed by 9th and 21st St reets , and by the 300th blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue; b) Central Lonsdale—defined as the area enclosed by 6th and 9th St reets , and by the 300th blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue; c) Lower Lonsdale—defined as the area enclosed by 1st and 6th S t reets , and by the 300th blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue. These three sectors are selected in order to f a c i l i t a t e : a) a comparison of land prices and d i f fe rent densit ies both within each sector, and between them; b) the measurement of any relat ionships that may occur with in each sector, and between them; c) the tes t ing of the hypothesis in spat ia l terms, and d) the evaluation of the conclusions of the inves t i gat ion , and the i r impl icat ions for ex i s t ing theories and knowledge. The period 1967-1970 i s selected because of i t s s ign i f icance in terms of apartment development, economic boom, and the zoning by-laws. Levels Highway Key: C ity Boundary — Study Area — — Apartments: RH RM m CD : : : : Scale 1":1600' The general technique used in the study consists of a g r id and a matrix. The g r id i s a construct with an array of the 126 blocks enclosed by the study area. The format and or ientat ion of the gr id coincides, to a large extent, with the cadestral maps of the C i t y . This has the advan-tage of easy comparative r eadab i l i t y , and also the appl icat ion and t ransfer of data from the map to the g r i d , and v ice-versa. Any f igures plotted into the gr id are eas i l y interpreted in spat ia l terms. P rac t i ca l appl icat ion of the gr id i s therefore enhanced. Thus, the technique renders inter-changeable both the gr id and the map. The matrix quant i f ies in absolute numbers the density and pr ice measurements f o r each block and each s t reet . This provides a measure of the degree of concentration of any factor for any locat ion at any p a r t i -cu lar point in time. The matr ix, therefore, defines not only a frame fo r the spat ia l d i s t r i bu t i on of units (or f a c to r s ) , but also a basis fo r measurabil ity and comparabi l ity. This therefore enhances the c r i t e r i o n of measurement for factors both within and between the Sectors and Streets. The Unit of Measurement Density. As defined previous ly, the term density implies the i n -14 tens i ty of use of res ident ia l space, using as the unit of measurement the su i te or dwelling un i t . The de f i n i t i on i s important because i t gives ^ I n t e n s i t y of use of space i s measured as the ra t i o of the vac-ancy rate to the tota l number of su i tes . an ind icat ion of the degree of in tens i ty of household concentration, as wel l as the u t i l i z a t i o n of serv ices. The un i t of measurement i s s i gn i f i c an t because: a) i t provides a measure of the tota l housing stock for any l oca -t ion at any point in time; . b) i t provides an index for measuring the. demand fo r suites within any locat ion at any point in time; c) i t provides an instrument for the estimation of apartment land needs and land demand; d) i t provides a basis fo r the measure of the re lat ionsh ip between density and land value, and f i n a l l y e) the term su i te makes other general analysis and comparison easy since occupancy rates , vacancy rates, rent l e ve l s , taxation and other forms of assessment are based on the su ite as a un i t . Land P r i ce . Due to wide margins of prices and f luctuat ions in the speculative market, the method of aggregation or grouping averages i s used. This method tends to reduce the dispersal of the data by can-c e l l i n g out inherent errors . The resultant mean value, though subject to some er ro r , may be smaller than the average error of the indiv idual measurements. In any case, to estab l i sh the accuracy of the mean as a unit of measurement, standard deviations of samples of the mean were c a l -cu lated, and the error was found to be i n s i g n i f i c an t . In order to t rans late the transactional aggregated pr ice units to spat ia l i n te rpreta t ions , an assessment of the to ta l number of acres per block was made, and the average pr ice per s i t e was computed with in blocks. Through th i s process, there was an el iminat ion of non-residential trans-actions from the aggregations. The advantages of invest igat ing with grouped averages on per s i t e acre basis are: t a) i t of fers a common unit of comparabil ity and measurabil ity with that used in measuring the density. This helps, f i r s t , to estab-l i s h any re lat ionsh ip between density and p r i ce ; and second, to proceed to tes t the hypothesis; b) there i s a greater degree of confidence in the accuracy of the aggregate data; c) a l l l o ca l i zed var iat ions in the data sort themselves out within the block, or with in each sector; d) a l l physical locat iona l att r ibutes e i ther within blocks, or within sectors, are i den t i f i ed as a homogeneous e n t i t y ; e) the effects of shape, l o t s i z e , pos i t ion of l o t with respect to 15 viewpoints, distances from serv ices, a l l cancel out in the block averages. I t i s recognized, however, that the l oca l i zed ef fects are important to our understanding of the spec i f i c i m p l i -cations of the housing market ana lys i s , but as Brodsky observes, 1^ an analysis of these factors serve only to obscure the broader as-pects of market behaviour upon which ex i s t ing land theory i s based 15 In the metropolitan area, there i s evidence that tenants pay for good views by paying high rents. This re f lec t s in prices of s i t e s . ^Ha ro ld Brodsky, "Res ident ia l Land and Improvement Values in a Central C i t y , " Land Economics, August, 1970, Vol . XLVI, No. 3, pp. 229-247 Nevertheless, though the aggregation of pr ice per spat ia l unit solves some problems of ana lys i s , i t also raises others. For example, the mean being a s ingle measurement cannot provide a completely adequate descr ipt ion of the un i t , espec ia l l y where the frequency d i s t r i bu t i on with in any pa r t i cu l a r sector may skew. Furthermore, the average s ize of the spat ia l un i t used for the analysis and the var iat ions in s izes among units in d i f fe rent blocks or sectors, may a f fect the s t a t i s t i c a l measure-ment. However, with in the present time constraints and r e s t r i c t i v e re-sources, aggregated data seems a reasonable tool to apply. Organization of the Thesis The study i s divided into s ix chapters: Chapter I gives the introduction to the study, and covers the general context of the study, the statement of the hypothesis, data sources, and the methodology and techniques used. Chapter II i s a documentation of previous related l i t e r a t u r e -being a summary of our present state of knowledge and of the main f indings relevant to the study. Chapter III presents the housing s i tuat ion in the North Shore with a view to providing the background against which the s pec i f i c inves-t i ga t i on i s focused. Chapter IV i s divided into two sections: Section A examines r e s i -dent ia l d e n s i t i e s — i t s s t ructure, pattern, d i s t r i bu t i on and degree of concentration; Section B investigates the form, movements and d i s -persal of land p r i ce s , and the patterns that emerge. Chapter V establishes the relat ionships between density and land pr ice through an. analysis process, and then presents a synthesis. Chapter VI i den t i f i e s the conclusions of the study, and presents t he i r impl ications f o r : (a) apartment development and housing po l i c ie s f o r the C i ty of North Vancouver; (b) the present state of theoret ica l knowledge and research; (c) areas fo r further research, and (d) general observations on the methodology and technique used in the study. DOCUMENTATION OF PREVIOUS STUDIES AND RELATED LITERATURE The purpose of th i s l i t e r a t u r e review i s twofold: f i r s t , to pro-vide an understanding of the present state of knowledge on the subject; second, to out l ine a theoret ica l base for the subsequent examination of the impl icat ions of th i s study. The early pioneering works 1 on the subject of land use emerged from three d i s t i n c t approaches: a) the works of Johann Heinrich von Thunen; • b) the approach re f lected in the wr it ings of Ricardo in the 1820's, and c) Homer Hoyt and the sectoral approach. Though these works do not provide an integrated model of urban housing behaviour s u f f i c i e n t as a tool fo r discussion in th i s study, they, never-the less , set the main s t ructura l foundations for our understanding of re-cent f ind ings. 2 Current l i t e r a t u r e on housing market analysis represents an attempt to synthesize previous concepts with related knowledge from other . 1 Refer to Appendix A: f indings of Thunen, Ricardo and Hoyt. p Most of the current works are found in the Bibliography i n : (a) A l f red M. Page, Warren R. Seyfr ied (eds.), Urban Analys i s ; (b) Harvey S. sectors of the soc ia l sciences. I t also explores new techniques fo r evaluating the older concepts, f o r test ing new hypotheses, fo r assessing the present, and predict ing the future. The fol lowing works are s i g n i f i -cant to th i s study. 3 Richard F. Muth summarizes the recent works on the subject by concerning himself p r i n c i p a l l y with the aggregate demand and supply re-lat ions fo r res ident ia l land and housing in the urban area. Using a sophist icated model, he examines the in te r re la t ions between the residen-t i a l land and housing markets in d i f fe rent locations in the urban area. His work considers that the locations selected by households are made to depend on land prices and the cost of transportation to the centre of the c i t y , which he assumes to be the only work-tr ip dest inat ion. 4 In another study Muth bases his invest igat ions on the empirical 5 f indings of Col in C lark, and making many assumptions about the functional form of a model (which he c a l l s s imple), and using data from 46 U.S. c i t i e s , he implies that the pr ice per un i t of housing, rent per unit of Perl o f f and Lowdon Wingo (eds.), Issues in Urban Economics; (c) Wallace F. Smith, Housing: The Social and Economic Elements; (d) Peter Hal l (ed.) , Land Values; (e) P. A. Stone, Housing, Town Development, Land and Cost; and (f) W. Lean and B. Goodal l , Aspects of Land Economics. 3 Richard F. Muth, "Urban Residential Land and.Housing Market," Issues in Urban Economics, eds. Harvey S. Perl o f f , and Lowden Wingo (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1968), pp. 285-330. 4 , "The Spatial Structure of the Housing Market," Urban Ana lys i s , eds. A l f red Page and Warren R. Seyfried (Glenview, I l l i n o i s : Scott, Foresman and Co., 1970), pp. 197-207. c Col in Clark, "Urban Population Dens i t ies , " Journal of the Royal  S t a t i s t i c a l Society, Series A, 1951, Vo l . 114, pp. 490-496. land, and output of housing per unit of land a l l dec l ine, and that the per capita consumption of housing increases with distance from the market. A Applying the fundamental relat ionships in the model, he establ ished that gross population density declines negative exponential ly with distance from the market. As Muth expla ins, the l a t t e r i s equal to the price gradient mu l t ip l i ed by a constant which depends upon the real-income-constant-price e l a s t i c i t y of housing demand and the exponents of the housing production funct ion. In th i s work, even though Muth has demonstrated how much of the housing market a c t i v i t y can be explained on the basis of a highly sophis-t i ca ted model , his technique uses almost exc lus ive ly and dwells largely on economic determinants only. He therefore ignores soc ia l f ac to r s , immobil it ies and other variables that may be pertinent to the problem. This reduces the effectiveness of his technique. This narrow approach prevents him from dealing with some highly s i gn i f i c an t factors in the housing market. Furthermore, too many assumptions are made that are c r i t i c a l to the housing issue general ly. However, Muth's technique i s a va l i d i n t e l l e c t ua l and s c i e n t i f i c procedure, representing a break-through in knowledge. But, as Anthony Downs observes 6 " . . . i t i s more reasonable to expect analysts to develop theories useful to decision-makers than i t i s to expect p rac t i ca l . men of action to change the i r ways to f i t i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' models." 7 He; ^Anthony Downs comments on the a r t i c l e by Br i t ton Har r i s , "Quan-t i t a t i v e Models: The Decision-making Process," in Issues in Urban  Economics, pp. 423-429. further remarks " . . . that narrowly defined analyses of the housing mar-ket - - though they can be extremely useful in extending our ins ights into the working of that market—should not be used as the basis fo r broad conclusions about i t . " 8 9 John F. Kain presents some empirical evidence on the manner in which transportation costs influence the household's choice of a r e s i -dent ia l l oca t ion . He proposes that households subst i tute journey-to-work expenditures for s i t e expenditure. This subst i tut ion depends on household preferences fo r low density as opposed to high density residen-t i a l s t ructures. Making some assumptions, he derived an unique loca -t i ona l so lut ion fo r each household. His theory has two parts: the f i r s t concerns i t s e l f with the optimal manner of purchasing re s ident ia l space, •and expresses re s ident ia l locat ion as a function of the quantity of r e s i d e n t i a l space consumed by the household. The second concerns i t s e l f with the quantity of re s ident ia l space which the household consumes. Using data from the Detro it Area Transportation Study, his f i n d -ings about the spat ia l pattern of homesites supported his hypothesis that households tend to se lect a res ident ia l locat ion by minimizing the sum of l o ca t i on , rent and transportation costs fo r that quantity of res ident ia l space which maximizes the to ta l sa t i s fact ions obtainable from the household's income. He postulates that "the surface of locat ion rents tends to decrease with distance from the central business d i s t r i c t , 8Downs, p. 427. 9 John F. Kain, The Journey-to-work as a Determinant of Residen-t i a l Locat ion, " Urban Analys i s , pp. 207-226. and that the rate of decrease was greatest near the centre and leas t near the pe r i phe r y . " 1 0 He concludes that households se lect t he i r r e s i -dences by subst i tut ing between expenditure for transportation costs and locat ion rents. The households maximum u t i l i t y locat ion depends on the quantity of space consumed by i t , as well as the level and steepness of the schedule of locat ion rents around the workplace. I. S. Lowry 1 1 applies equi l ibr ium models to describe the choice of housing as a subst i tut ion process. He f i r s t generates a land, rent and density surface which accords with experience ( i . e . , both variables decline with distance from the centre of the c i t y ) , "This i s accomplished by assuming that a set of homogeneous households which makes t r i p s only to the centre of the c i t y , compete fo r space with the i r ident ica l l oca -t ion budgets." In equ i l ib r ium, the pr ice paid for land at distance (A) from the centre, must be equal to the addit ional transportation costs incurred by households locat ing at distances greater than (A), making assumptions about shape of res ident ia l plots and travel costs , he gener-ates the rent and density surfaces sought. From th i s po int, Lowry shows how households se lect s i te s which imply land, rent, and p lot s izes (or conversely density) on the basis of var ia t ion in incomes and varying tastes f o r space. The l a t t e r i s assumed to be pr imar i ly a function of family s i ze . 1 0 K a i n , p. 225. ^ I . S. Lowry, Residential Location in Urban Areas (Berkeley: Univers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i on , Dept. of Econ-omics, 1956). Using empirical v e r i f i c a t i o n for the hypothesis, Lowry applies the tes t by showing a re lat ionsh ip between density and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the non-residential centre on the one hand, and family t r a i t s (e.g., income and family s ize) on the other. Assuming u t i l i t y maximising be-haviour on the part of the household, and pos i t ive transportation costs, a household's decision as to where to locate w i l l depend on the job locat ion of the head of the household and of subsidiary members, the budget ava i lab le to the household, and i t s space or housing s ty le pref-erence. ' I t i s evident from th i s l i t e r a t u r e overview that to ascribe the genesis of the ideas and concepts pertinent to th i s study to any one ind iv idual i s a d i f f i c u l t one. Both the pioneering works and the recent invest igat ions are of pa r t i cu l a r i n te re s t . 12 13 P. A. Stone establishes in most of his work the re lat ionsh ip between density and the price of res ident ia l land. He deals with the physical at t r ibutes of the s i t e ( l ocat ion , s i z e , and distances from the CBD or any central point) pr ice of s i t e s , t he i r values, and the impact a r i s ing from legal sanctions to use the s i t e . He establishes the r e l a -t ionships of these variables by accounting fo r the extent to which each controls the pr ice of s i t e s , and in turn i s contro l led by the others. From t h i s , he draws a pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of land values and prices of s i t e s . He draws a number of conclusions: 12 P. A. Stone, "The Prices of Bui lding Sites in B r i t a i n , " Land  Values, ed. P. Hall (Acton Society Trust, London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1965), pp. 1-18. 13 a) fo r the s i t e , the value depends on the att r ibutes the s i t e enjoys as a bundle of i t s own r i gh t s , the att r ibutes from other develop-ments around i t , the att r ibutes from the current pattern of use in the area, and the extent to which the resu l t ing att r ibutes of the s i t e may be exploited in future; b) the greater the density the greater the pr ice per acre; . c) dens it ies decl ine proport ionately, with other var iables being equal, as the land values f a l l ; d) the f a l l in prices per acre as the distance from the centre i n -creases i s f a r greater than i s accounted fo r by decreases in density. His basic conclusions are of considerable relevance to th i s study. His f indings on the e f fec t of zoning controls on changes in land use and a v a i l a b i l i t y of u t i l i t y services confirm the conclusions of Denman and S tewar t . 1 4 15 Other recent works, though peripheral to th i s study, come from 16 17 the empirical invest igat ions of Wingo, Alonso, and Pascal. While Alonso emphasized var iat ions in the s i ze of the s i t e , and Kain concerned 14 / D. R. Denman and U. F. Stewart, Farm Rents (Al len and Unwin, 1 9 5 9 ) . 15 For a summary of t h i s , see Harold Brodsky, "Residential Land and Improvement Values in a Central C i t y , " Land Economics, August, 1970, pp. 229-247. 1 6Lowdon Wingo, Transportation and Urban Land (Baltimore, Mary-land: The John Hopkins Press, 1961). 1 7 W i l l i a m Alonso, Location and Land Use (Cambridge: Harvard Uni-ver s i t y Press, 1964). himself pr imar i ly with the subst i tut ion of transportation costs for housing costs, Lowdon Wingo introduced s t i l l another cons iderat ion, i . e the marginal value of le i su re into the re lat ionsh ip between transporta-t ion costs and the value of locations in urban space. Their current theory i s that an increase in the value of res ident ia l land and an i n -crease in res ident ia l density occurs as the main employment centre i s approached. In areas where transportation costs to employment are least because of competition for land, the value of cen t ra l l y located land r i s e s . As land rents r i s e i t becomes p ro f i tab le to increase r e s i -dent ia l dens it ies to accommodate those households not w i l l i n g to spend more on t ransportat ion, but who are w i l l i n g to subst itute higher densi-t i e s fo r lower transportation costs. Higher densit ies in turn add to the value of cen t ra l l y located land. Wingo and Alonso produced various models to show how economic processes operate to produce the above pattern. I o On the other hand, Pascal, treats household as i f i t were a f i rm producing housing services which i t provides to i t s members. In se lect ing a s i t e to l i v e i n , the household has the goal of maximising the u t i l i t y of the household members. "During th i s procedure the house hold attempts to se lec t , from the myriad of l o ca t i on , housing type, pr ice packages ava i lab le to i t , that one which w i l l maximize u t i l i t y , given the l i v i n g s ty le a sp i ra t i on , the budget, and the t r i p dest ination 19 of the householders." 18 A. H. Pascal , The Economics of Housing Segregation (The Rand Corporation, 1967). This l i t e r a t u r e review seems to suggest that the locat ion and concentration of res ident ia l a c t i v i t y i s determined by a var iety of factor s . These factors condit ion the choice of households in terms of where they want to l i v e . To what extent, then, do these factors a f fect or have affected res ident ia l development in North Vancouver? RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH VANCOUVER Introduction This chapter presents an account of res ident ia l development in North Vancouver from 1956-1970. The aim i s to i dent i f y in general terms the various factors that have conditioned housing development in three phases of time: 1956-1963, 1963-1967, and 1967-1970. The purpose i s to explore the extent to which these fac to r s , over time, have influenced the s t ructure , pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of density and land values. . The chapter considers f i r s t , and in broad terms, the general hous-ing s i tua t i on in the Vancouver metropolitan area. Using th i s as a back-ground fo r comparative purposes, the rest of the chapter then proceeds to i den t i f y the pert inent factors relevant to the examination of the general hypothesis. The s pec i f i c focus i s on apartments. B r i t i s h Columbia. In general, house bui ld ing a c t i v i t y in B r i t i s h Columbia 1 rose to a record level in 1969. Housing s tarts were up by 21.5 per cent to 31,800 un i t s . Of these, some 17,700 units were in Vancouver, representing approximately 55 per cent of the to ta l fo r the province. The figures for 1968 were 15,700. A l l the B r i t i s h Columbia f igures in th i s section are from: Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Canadian Housing S t a t i s t i c s (Ottawa, March, 1970), pp. v i i i - x i v . In the metropolitan Vancouver area, apartments accounted for 20.9 per cent of a l l occupied dwellings during the 1961 census. In 1966, the . f igure rose to about 29.2 per cent of the t o t a l , representing a numerical increase from 47,630 in 1961 to 79,873 in 1966. The average construction cost per sq. f t . estimated by applicants for NHA loans in 1969 was $14.62 compared to $13.68 the previous year, th i s representing an increase of 6.9 per cent. Pr ice of bui ld ing mater-i a l s also rose by 7.2 per cent in 1969, an increase in which lumber p r i ces , which went up by 8.9 per cent, played an important part. Con-s t ruct ion wage rate also rose by 7.6 per cent during the year. Land costs increased more rapidly than construction costs. Vancouver Metropolitan Area. There was a s i gn i f i c an t increase in apartment construction during the period 1961-1966. S ingle-family detached dwellings are expected to reach a very high f igure by 1981. Approximately 9,000 units of housing per year are required to meet house-hold formation, which i s at a f a i r l y constant rate, while the average family s i ze tends to decrease. This implies fewer larger homes, and probably, more demand for one or two bedroom family apartments. The fol lowing table demonstrates that there i s an increasing trend towards mult i - fami ly dwelling in the metropolitan area. What factors contribute to th is ? And where are they mostly concentrated? Year Total Single Det 'd. Dwel1i ng Single A t t ch ' d . Dwelling Aparts. Others % in Aparts. 1961 228,596 171,620 8,843 47,630 503 20.9 1966 273,511 184,013 8,823 79,873 802 29.2 1971 311,906 214,583 11,380 85,280 667 27.4 1976 358,471 238,344 12,448 106,976 661 29.8 1981 409,409 266,344 13,417 128,790 760 31.5 Increase from 1961-1966 44,915 12,393 - 20 32,243 299 72.0 1966-1971 38,395 23,793 1,513 14,922 70 . 38.9 1971-1976 46,565 23,761 1,069 21,696 - 6 46.5 1976-1981 50,938 28,000 969 21,814 99 42.9 Source: The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Apartment Study, May, 1968, Table VI I, p. 56. The North Shore. In the North Shore, while the C i ty of North Vancouver had a rapid growth in apartment construction during 1967-1969, the D i s t r i c t d id not have such a boom. West Vancouver had the highest percentage in occupied apartments fo r the period 1961-1966. Table 111.2 gives the d i s t r i bu t i on of apartments in the North Shore for that period. I t i s i n teres t ing to note that while West Vancouver had an apart-ment growth in the period 1961-1966, the C i ty of North Vancouver took o f f from the end of that per iod, and went through the same growth from 1967-1970, thus forming a continuum in the North Shore fo r the period 1961-1970. The reasons fo r such differences in locat ional preferences North Shore consists of three mun ic ipa l i t i e s : the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, the C i ty of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. at d i f f e r i n g points in time fo r the same geographic communities could be a subject of another invest igat ion. TABLE III.2 APARTMENTS IN METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA, 1961-1966 Munic ipa l i ty T t l Occpd Dwllngs Apartments % in Apartments 1961 1966 1961 1966 1961 1966 Vancouver 113,457 138,449 37,520 60,023 33.1 43.4 New Westminster 8,837 12,281 2,738 5,579 31.0 45.4 Burnaby 26,057 31,620 2,483 5,686 9.5 17.9 West Vancouver 7,226 9,698 504 1,932 7.0 19.9 N. Vancouver City 6,704 8,275 2,073 2,844 30.8 34.3 N. Vancouver Dist. 10,305 12,534 312 468 3.0 3.7 Metro Vancouver 219,250 271 ,956 47,630 79,802 21.7 29.4 Source: The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Apartment Study, May, 1968, p. 6. In the C i ty of North Vancouver, four d i s t i n c t res ident ia l sectors are i d e n t i f i a b l e : a) Upper Lonsdale; b) Lower Lonsdale; c) Hamilton-Fell Area; d) The s ingle family res ident ia l communities, spreading generally from the edges of (a) and (b) above to the peripheral of the c i t y , and merging imperceptibly with the D i s t r i c t (see Map I, page 9). The Period 1956-1963 Single family housing consumed a r e l a t i v e l y large proportion of the land. In 1956, the s ingle family home occupied 22.7 per cent, while apartments used only 0.8 per cent. By 1963, s ingle family housing occupied 25.3 per cent of the land, while apartments occupied 1.3 per cent of the land. Expressed in areal terms, s ingle family housing occupied 34.1 acres by the end of th i s period. Table III.3 below i l l u s -trates the d i s t r i b u t i o n . TABLE III.3 RESIDENTIAL USES - NORTH VANCOUVER CITY, 1956-1963 (In Acres) 1956-1963 Change 1956 1963 Less Plus Net Small Holding 21.2 2.9 18.3 — -18.3 Single Family 730.0 812.6 44.4 127.0 82.6 Two Family 16.1 28.4 6.6 18.9 12.3 Apartment 24.8 42.4 2.2 19.8 17.6 TOTALS 792.1 886.13 -Source: This table i s compiled from the figures in Table T L.M.R.P.B., Land Use in the Ci ty of North Vancouver, 1963 (Interim Report). The period 1956-1963 also saw the extension and improvement of municipal u t i l i t y serv ices , the sub-div is ion of small holdings, and the sale of municipal land resu l t ing in large areas being developed for s ing le- fami ly housing. During the same period, garden apartments and duplexes emerged in areas outside Lonsdale- -part icu lar ly in the north-western part , and in areas north of the Upper Levels Highway. The property values for th i s per iod, according to the Lower Main-land Regional Planning Board Study showed "that most natural redevelop-ment in the past (e.g., s ing le- fami ly to apartment) took place when the r a t i o of the assessed value of the bui ld ing to the assessed value of the 3 land was 0.8:1 or l e s s . " This re lat ionsh ip established some spec i f i c areas as being r ipe fo r displacement. It i s also worth noting that the 1961 census i d e n t i f i e d 17 per cent of the dwellings as having been b u i l t before 1920. Most of these buildings were located in Lower Lonsdale. The res ident ia l bu i ld ing trends extracted from bui ld ing permits fo r the period 1956-1963, are shown in the table below. TABLE III.4 TRENDS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, 1956-1963 Year No. of Dwelling Units Apartment Units Other Units 1956 287 (299) 193 (67.2%) 94 1957 271 (248) 207 (76.4%) 64 1958 381 (311) 159 •(41.7%) 232 1959 318 (428) 149 (46.8%) 169 1960 62 (178) 27 (43.5%) 35 1961 121 ( 84) 48 (39.7%) 73 1962 152 (161) 85 (55.9%) 67 1963 .408 Oil')'. 357 (87.5%) 51 TOTAL 2,000 ' (1,820) 924 785 Note: The f igures in brackets a f te r the number of dwelling units indicate completions, as against bui ld ing permits issued in that year. Source: Extracted figures from L.M.R.P.B., Land Use in the C i ty  of North Vancouver, 1963 (Interim Report). L.M.R.P.B., Land Use vn_ the C i ty of_ North Vancouver, 1963 ( Inter-im Report), p. 4. I t i s interest ing to observe from Table III.4 that: a) the general bui ld ing a c t i v i t y dropped to the lowest level in 1960, and soared sharply to the highest leve l fo r th i s period in 1963; b) the percentage of apartment construction units dropped to i t s lowest in 1961, and rose at a f a i r l y high gradient to 87.5 per cent in 1963; c) of the 408 bui ld ing permits issued in 1963, only 111 units were actua l l y completed. The observation here is--why was there an enthusiasm in having bui ld ing permits issued, and less enthusiasm in construction? The Period 1963-1967 The number of s ingle family dwellings completed rose from 64 in 1963 to 108 in 1966, representing a percentage increase of 68.7 per cent. Apartments completed, on the other hand, rose from 69 to 460 for the same period, representing a percentage increase of 566.6 per cent. From 1966-1967 the f igure rose to 482, showing a percentage increase of 598.5 per cent fo r the period 1963-1967. The apartments b u i l t during th i s period were generally of the 3-storey frame construction un i t s . And while the maximum permitted density under 1958 zoning by-laws was 54 suites per net acre, the 1967 by-laws put no r e s t r i c t i o n on the number of suites per acre. Nevertheless, the average density for a l l apartments (except garden apartments) constructed before January 1st, 1968, was 53 < suites per acre. According to the studies by the City O f f i c e , the prices for frame apartments during th i s period were among the highest in the suburbs, but in 1966 the pr ice level became remarkably stable as compared to the steep r i ses in Burnaby and New Westminster. I t i s s i g -n i f i c a n t to note that presently the pr ice levels fo r the C i ty of North Vancouver are among the lowest in the metropolitan area, fol lowing a pattern s im i l a r to the City of Vancouver, but on a lower pr ice l e v e l . Table 111.5 below i l l u s t r a t e s the land use composition. TABLE III.5 LAND USE COMPOSITION OF APARTMENT ZONES, 1963-1967 1963 1967 Increase Decrease Type of Use Acre % Acres % Acre Acre Apartment 34.1 25 58.6 45 24.5 Vacant 15.5 12 12.5 10 — 3.0 SFD 69.6 52 48.9 38 20.7 Duplexes 5.5 4 2.9 2 — 2.6 Non-Resid. 9.6 7 6.2 5 — 3.4 TOTAL 134.3 100 129.1 100 24.5 5.2 Source: The C i ty of North Vancouver, The Saturation Study, Table I. The Period 1967-1970 By 1967, 58.6 acres representing 45 per cent of the tota l area zoned fo r r e s i d e n t i a l , are occupied by apartments. P r io r to 1967, the res ident ia l density was 58.0 suites per net acre. By 1967 i t has r isen to 68.4 suites per net acre. By the end of 1970, 84.37 acres represent- ( ing 64.6 per cent of the to ta l area zoned r e s i d e n t i a l , are occupied by apartments. 5 In 1967, when the new zoning By-laws were introduced, 392 su i te s , representing 51.5 per cent of the to ta l number of suites by the end of 1966, were added to the C i t y ' s supply. In 1969, the to ta l number of suites constructed for that year alone was 1,164, occupying 15.59 acres . 7 This represents an increase of 196.9 per cent in apartment supply fo r the period 1967-1969, and a density of approximately 75 suites per net acre. The table below i s a summary of the density s izes f o r 1967-1970. TABLE 111.6 APARTMENT DENSITIES, 1967-1970 No. of Suites Year per net acre P r i o r to 1967 58.0 1967 68.4 1968 68.9 1969 78.1 1970 92.9 The increases ' i n dens it ies are ref lected in the character i s t i c s of the suites constructed during the same period. The percentage of 5See Appendix D S 1967 zoning by-laws. Unlike the 1958 zoning by-laws, th i s new one put no l i m i t on the number of suites per acre. 6See Chapter IV, Section A, Grid 2 , page 43 . 7See Chapter IV, Section A, Grid 4 , page 48. one-bedroom suites rose from 32.2 to 73.4 per cent, while f o r the same per iod, three-bedroom suites dropped from 8.8 per cent to n i l . These s i g n i f i c an t changes were noticed pa r t i c u l a r l y in the high r i se areas around V i c t o r i a Park (Central Lonsdale), and in Upper Lonsdale (between 14th and 21st S t reets ) . The reasons for such concentrations could be a t t r ibutab le to a t t rac t i ve central l o ca t i on , and the highest permitted dens i t ies . Land values continued to r i se in proportion to the r i se in den-s i t i e s . The tota l annual sales transactions for areas zoned for apart-ments were 134 in 1967; 141 in 1968; 161 in 1969; and 50 in 1970. This suggests that 1967-1969 was a period of the maximum speculation in the re s ident ia l land market and a sharp drop i s noticed in 1970. Summary The sum up th i s chapter, there i s the impl icat ion that: a) housing development in the C i ty of North Vancouver has depicted d i f f e ren t sca les , type and form at d i f fe rent periods in time; b) re s ident ia l concentrations have occurred in Central and Upper Lonsdale due, perhaps, to locat ional and s i t e a t t r i bu te s ; c) there i s a reduction in the construction of s ingle family hous-ing—due, perhaps in part , to a r e l a t i ve scarc i ty of ava i lab le land of an a t t r ac t i ve qua l i ty for that type of housing; . d) apartment construction i s becoming fashionable and economically f ea s i b l e , concentrating at s pec i f i c locat ions , and thus re-d i s t r i bu t i ng household concentrations; e) since the introduction of the 1967 zoning by-laws, there has been an increase in the rate of apartment construction in the study area; f ) the number of sales transactions in apartment zones have increased, ind icat ing the scale of land and property speculation in the hous-ing market; g) land values and prices of s i te s have increased in consonance with density increases at s pec i f i c l ocat ions ; h) increases in construction costs and services appear to pr ice the s ing le family residence out of reach of potent ia l households. There i s also the high serv ic ing standards now required, coupled with high rates of in teres t on housing loans. Underlying a l l these impl ications are the basic determinants of an economic and soc ia l nature. How these factors influence res ident ia l dens it ies and prices of s i te s w i l l be the subject of invest igat ion in the next chapter. CHAPTER IV THE RESIDENTIAL LAND MARKET Introduction f In general th i s chapter concerns i t s e l f , with the issue: 1 ) Why do apartments concentrate in pa r t i cu l a r locations at certa in periods in time? 2) Why do developers bu i ld where they do, and in the way they do? S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t examines the price of s i te s fo r apartment development on the one hand, and apartment density on the other. The aim i s to iden-t i f y the re lat ionsh ip between the two, and to examine the factors con-d i t ion ing such in ter re la t ionsh ips between s i t e pr ices , and how they inf luence, and are influenced by apartment density. The chapter i s divided into two sections: Section A deals with res ident ia l dens i t ies . I t i s concerned with the degree to which apartments tend to concentrate in pa r t i cu l a r locations in Upper, Cent ra l , and Lower Lonsdale. Section B gives an ana l y t i ca l descr ipt ion of the d i s t r i bu t i on of apartment s i t e p r i ces , and of the factors a f fect ing them. It con-siders the study area generally and then Upper, Centra l , and Lower Lonsdale with a view to drawing comparison between them. In order to i dent i f y the decision construct of the developer in terms of locat ion and the housing market, the question i s asked: Why do developers bu i ld where they do, and in the way they do? The Apartment Developers. To answer t h i s , ten developers 1 who operate mainly on the North Shore were interviewed. The fol lowing sum-mary i s a consensus of t h e i r reasons, in terms of a.decision process: a ) He v e r i f i e s the compatability of apartment development with the zoning by-laws and bui ld ing regulat ions. He then conducts sur-veys, ba s i ca l l y informal and rudimentary. b) He chooses a s i t e at a locat ion where a market has been shown to ex i s t . In th i s a rb i t ra ry dec i s ion, he is mindful of the r i sks involved, namely, the competition from larger developers. The locat ion i s of l i t t l e concern because the consumer has no choice in the long run (at least as fa r as North Vancouver i s con-cerned). "Bu i ld an apartment anywhere," they assert, "and people w i l l move i n . " Of course th i s assumes construction in a favourable housing market. c) With regard to the type of apartment, the decision-making pro-cess i s c i r c u l a r . Decisions about locat ion and s i t e are made ^A questionnaire i s a better method fo r co l l a t i n g and quantifying t he i r reasons. But they were unwi l l ing to commit t he i r views on paper, due to management regulations and personal reasons. As such, a l i s t of the f i rms, with names, would be profess ional ly imprudent. together, with locat ional and marketing considerations i n t e r -acting in both the choice of the s i t e and the type of apartment. d) Given the type of apartment that w i l l . b e marketable and p r o f i t -able, his f i nanc ia l concern i s not with the pr ice of the land but with the price of the completed apartment and i t s capacity to a t t r ac t quick returns. This does not, however, imply that the pr ice of the s i t e does not influence his decis ion. e) He does not always bu i ld to the maximum permissible density. The conclusion from the interview-summaries i s that developers use the zoning by-laws as a vehicle in organising resources for apartment development. Given the locat ion (or the market), the developers exp lo i t the physical at t r ibutes of the s i t e , and employ arch i tectura l s ty les to a t t rac t res idents. The developer's aim i s to maximize his- returns and he does th i s by constructing large numbers of suites over a given s i t e . He increases the density in order to reduce his land cost per un i t . As 2 Brewster points out, consumers preferences have l i t t l e e f fec t on the developer's choice of where to b u i l d , as long as there i s a high demand fo r housing. The Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Apartments and Residential  Dens it ies. The method used to establ i sh the pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of apartment densit ies consists of: Maurice R. Brewster and Will iam A. F l i nn , and Ernest H. Jurkat, How to Make and Interpret Locational Studies of the Housing Market (Washington, D.C: Of f ice of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1955), p. 6. F i r s t , a compilation of the cumulative f igures for the tota l num-ber, locat ion and d i s t r i bu t i on of apartment suites p r i o r to 1967. This was l im i ted to the study area. The objective was to provide a time-base fo r the subsequent examination and comparison of changes and trends in density. Second, an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the to ta l number of suites in each apartment bu i ld ing with in each block, and along each s t ree t , and fo r each year. The objective was to provide an ind icat ion of the spec-i f i c locations where su ite concentrations occur, and the pattern that - they fo l low. This method also provides a basis fo r measuring and quantifying the density in absolute terms. Furthermore, i t estab-l i shes a basis fo r comparability with the other var iable that the hypothesis considers--pr ice of apartment s i t e . The -approach involved an examination of both the approved apart-ment plans fo r the C i t y , and the tax assessors records. A cross-check -was made on the s i t e by co l l e c t i ng from apartment managers, the actual number of suites in each occupied apartment. This was to up-date the data in terms of apartment extensions, and/or demolition of old ones. 3 In t h i s connection, 41 blocks were surveyed. The technique consists of a gr id and a matrix. The g r id i s a con-s t ruct with an array of a l l the res ident ia l blocks from F i r s t Street to Twenty-f i rst St reet, covering three blocks on e i ther side of Lonsdale These are the actual blocks occupied with apartments by March, SBTck S t r t \ 300 200 100 21 20 . 45 19 55 18 11 17 16 15 14 13 31 12 11 IP 9 8 108 7 6 5 4 .it 3 2 1 TOTAL 4 250 LU ZD LU •a: LU _ J CO 100 200 300 119 74 45 48. 3 5 45 102 8 30 385 83 38 39 TOTAL 164 129 11 93 66 45 210 30 760 Grid 1. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites (Cumulative), 1966 Avenue, and enclosing about 126 b locks . 4 The format and or ientat ion of the gr id coincides, to a large extent, with the cadastral map of the C i t y . The matrix quant i f ies both the current cumulative and the yearly additions of the number of suites for each block and each s t reet . This provides a measure of the degree of concentration for any locat ion at any pa r t i cu l a r point in time. The matrix therefore defines not only a frame for the pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of apartments over the years, but also a basis fo r measurabil ity and comparabil ity. This technique, therefore, enhances the measurement of density factors both within and between the sectors and s t reet s . Grid 1 gives the pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of the density in .1966. Grids 2 to 5 demonstrate quant i tat i ve ly the density picture fo r each of the years 1967-1970. The fol lowing i s a summary of the analysis year by year: a) P r i o r to 1967, there were a few scattered apartments in Upper Lonsdale, with s ingle family dwellings dominating the housing scene in the whole C i t y . Out of a to ta l of 760 suites fo r the whole C i t y , Upper Lonsdale accommodated 508, representing 49.6 per cent, while Central Lonsdale had 210 representing 26.1 per cent, and Lower Lonsdale 42 representing 17.0 per cent. In 4 These are the to ta l number of blocks in the gr id for the whole study area. However, the ex i s t ing form of the layout of the town ex-cludes three blocks west of Lonsdale Avenue, 9th, 10th, and 11th Streets are therefore non-existent only in Central Lonsdale. The e f fec t i ve number covered by the study is 117. terms of blocks, the blocks nearest to Lonsdale Avenue ( i . e . , 100th blocks east and west) attracted 635 suites out of the t o t a l . The graph below presents the density d i s t r i b u t i o n , on an east-west ax i s . I t i s of in teres t to note that during th i s per-i od , Lower Lonsdale was characterized by sub-standard housing and general physical deter io ra t ion , pa r t i c u l a r l y in the areas south of Third Street. 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Lonsdale Avenue ^ 300 200 100 100 West Blocks 200 300 East Figure 1. 1966 Cumulative Densities by Blocks T 450 o 4-> £ 400 to 350 o. £ 300 +-> 5 250 ° 200 o S 150 - 100 to I- 50 0 Upper Central Lower Lonsdale Figure 2. 1966 Cumulative Densities by Sectors b) In 1967, increase in apartment construction occurred along 12th and 19th St reets , and also along Lonsdale Avenue in the 100th blocks. The to ta l addit ional number of suites was 191 in Upper Lonsdale out of a to ta l of 423 suites fo r the whole C i t y . Cen-t r a l Lonsdale registered 187 suites a l l of them concentrated in the west 100th block. Lower Lonsdale registered a s i gn i f i c an t 5 increase in the areas between F i r s t and Sixth Streets, concen-t ra t i ng mainly in the 200th block east. There was, however, a general concentration of new apartments along Lonsdale Avenue in Upper and Central Lonsdale. Note that in th i s year, the Kiwanis Senior C it izens Housing Scheme was constructed par t l y with publ ic c a p i t a l . ^sBTck S t r t \ 300 200 100 100 200 300 TOTAL 21 20 45 119 164 19 63 • 118 74 63 192 18 11 29 29 29 40 17 16 10 10 LONSDALE AVENUE 45 48 10 103 15 LONSDALE AVENUE 14 15 15 LONSDALE AVENUE 15 15 13 31 LONSDALE AVENUE 35 66 12 LONSDALE AVENUE 30 30 13 13 43 43 11 LONSDALE AVENUE 45 45 10 • LONSDALE AVENUE 9 LONSDALE AVENUE 8 LONSDALE AVENUE 7 187 295 LONSDALE AVENUE 102 187 397 6 LONSDALE AVENUE 5 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 4 LONSDALE AVENUE 15 15 15 19 3 LONSDALE AVENUE 30 30 8 30 38 2 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 LONSDALE AVENUE 30 30 TOTAL 4 15 15 260 510 LONSDALE AVENUE 59 444 58 141 38 392 1 152 Grid 2. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1967 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 300 West 200 100 100 Blocks 200 The hatched areas dicate increases previous years. 300 East Figure 3. 1967 Cumulative Densities by Blocks Note: In th i s year, the density of apartments in West Lonsdale s i g n i f i c a n t l y outnumber the 1966 f igure for East Lonsdale. 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Upper Central Lower Lonsdale Figure 4. 1967 Cumulative Densities by Sectors c) In 1968, a to ta l of 472 suites was added to the C i ty stock. Out of t h i s , 174 were constructed in Upper Lonsdale, only 23 in Central Lonsdale, 44 of them in the 100th block east, and 231 in Lower Lonsdale. Thus, Lower Lonsdale had the highest addit ion of suites fo r 1968, with bui ld ing a c t i v i t y occurring mainly on vacant l a nd . 6 . Concentration occurred mainly between Second and F i f t h Streets on the eastern sector of the C i t y . This "apartment invasion" changed both the obsolescent character of the area, and the dominance of s ing le- fami ly housing. Measuring by blocks apartment construction in 1968 increased by four fo ld on 100th block east as against 100th block west. The cumulative measurement shows an increase of approximately 22 per cent of the east 100th block as compared with the west 100th block. The cumulative to ta l number of suites -for the whole City stood at 2,759 by the end of 1968. s-o +-> o CD l/l s-Q. in CD +-> =3 in 4-o in c CD Q 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Upper Central Lower Lonsdale Figure 5. 1968 Cumulative Densities by Sectors By the end of 1968, the to ta l amount of vacant land in Lower Lons-dale was 25.4 acres, of which the City owns 10.8 acres. S t r b \ 300 200 100 21 20 h5 19 118 18 11 17 17 17 16 10 15 3 5 35 14 41 56 13 31 12 11 10 9 8 7 295 6 5 4 i+ 3 2 1 TOTAL 4 41 56 52 562 Ul —1 e t O CO 100 200 300 17 136 29. 1 03 23 52 45 48 24 24 35 17 47 13 45 23 125 94 94 . 15 29 29 60 90 8 48 48 3 0 232 676 132 273 38 TOTAL 17 181 29 221 23 63, 17 17 103 59 59 41 56 66 17 60 45 23 420 94 94 19 89 127 48 48 30 457 1 609 Grid 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1968 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 300 West 200 100 100 Blocks 200 300 East Figure 6. 1968 Cumulative Densities by Blocks Note: Once more, the densit ies in the 100th blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue change in a reverse order, showing a greater concentration in the east block. This demonstrates the degree of "com-p e t i t i o n " fo r apartments along Lonsdale Avenue. In 1969, apartment development reached a record l e v e l . One thousand one hundred and s i x ty - four addit ional suites were com pleted and occupied, bringing the tota l cumulative number to 2,759. The most s i gn i f i c an t increases occurred in Upper and Central Lonsdale, p a r t i c u l a r l y around V i c t o r i a Park where 277 S t r K 300 200 100 21 57 57 20 33 78 19 118 18 39 50 17 44 44 17 16 28 28 10 15 51 51 9 44 14 56 13 31 12 11 10 9 8 7 171 466 6 5 171 171 4 : 4 83 83 3 2 1 TOTAL 4 123 J79 563 1 125 UJ < Ul _ J o CO 100 200 300 TOTAL 57 57 136 33 214 103 221 52 39 102 39 39 83 100 45 48 28 131 24 60 119 56 35 66 77 124 13 77 137 44 89 44 89 106 231 277 697 53 147 224 318 47 47 15 130 149 29 90 8 127 64 112 48 48 112 160 30 30 366 1 042 64 337 48 86 1 164 2 773 Grid 4. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1969 suites were completed. Upper Lonsdale accommodated an addit ional 421 su i te s , while Lower Lonsdale (especia l ly along 4th and 5th streets) had 466 su i tes . Thus, in numerical considerations, Lower Lonsdale shows the highest additions for the year, maintain-ing i t s record of highest numerical additions from the previous year, and reg i s ter ing an increase of approximately 100 per cent. 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Upper Central Lower Lonsdale Figure 7. 1969 Cumulative Densities by Sectors 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 _ 800 o 750 s- 700 CD a. w 650 cu +-> "5 600 to o 550 § . 500 J 450 S 400 o 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 300 200 100 100 200 300 West Blocks East I In 1970, the f i n a l pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of apartment suites was a concentration of apartment suites along Upper Lonsdale Avenue, and around V i c to r i a Park. In Lower Lonsdale the concent t r a t i on was also along Lonsdale Avenue with further concentration in the south-east area of the Sector. The 300th blocks east and west in ' Central and Upper Lonsdale f a i l e d to a t t rac t apartments. However, in Lower Lonsdale, the 300th block west attracted only 45 suites along 4th and 5th s t ree t s , while the eastern block attracted 155 suites along 1st and 2nd s t reets . 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Upper Central Lower Lonsdale Figure 9. 1970 Cumulative Densities by Sectors S t r L \ 300 200 100 LONSDALE AVENUE 100 200 300 TOTAL 21 57 LONSDALE AVENUE 57 20 78 LONSDALE AVENUE 136 214 19 118 LONSDALE AVENUE 103 221 18 50 LONSDALE AVENUE 29 81 29 131 17 44 17 LONSDALE AVENUE 39 - . 100 16 28 72 82 LONSDALE AVENUE 45 48 72 203 15 51 44 LONSDALE AVENUE 80 80 . 24 80 199 14 56 LONSDALE AVENUE 56 13 31 LONSDALE AVENUE 79 114 79 145 12 30 61 LONSDALE AVENUE 124 13 30 198 11 LONSDALE AVENUE 89 89 10 LONSDALE AVENUE 9 LONSDALE AVENUE 8 LONSDALE AVENUE 7 50 516 LONSDALE AVENUE 231 50 747 6 LONSDALE AVENUE 5 21 21 171 LONSDALE AVENUE 147 "21 339 4 20 24 83 LONSDALE AVENUE 47 15 20 169 3 83 83 LONSDALE AVENUE 29 90 8 83 210 2 36 84 36 196 1 33 63 33 63 TOTAL 41 45 83 262 152 .. 1 3QS„ 109 1 451 79 416 69 155 533 3 637 Grid 5. D i s t r ibut ion of Apartment Suites Constructed, 1970 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Lonsdale Avenue 300 200 West 100 100 Blocks Figure 10. 1970 Cumulative Densities by Blocks 200 300 East The general density pattern i s as fo l lows: for Upper Lonsdale--a concentration between 12th and 20th. Streets; for Central Lonsdale--a concentration around V i c t o r i a Park; and for Lower Lonsdale--an ind i sc r im-inate but l oca l i zed dispersal involving a l l the blocks, but not covering a l l of them. In order to measure the average su i te density per net s i t e acre,^ the pa r t i cu l a r blocks, and the pa r t i cu la r lots with in each block spec i -8 f i c a l l y zoned for apartments, were i d e n t i f i e d . Spatial measurements Q were then taken on the basis of the acre. The average density per s i t e acre was then computed for each block and each sector. The fol lowing tables indicate the density averages both by blocks and by sectors. TABLE IV.1 DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE DENSITIES BY SECTORS, 1970* No. of blocks zon- Average no. of ed f o r and occu- Avg. no. of s u i - suites per s i t e Sector pied by aptmnts. tes per sector acre/sector Upper Lonsdale 25 64.5 25 Central Lonsdale 2 373.5 75 Lower Lonsdale 14 69.8 18 These f igures refer to the picture at the end of the study period. This i s defined as the average number of suites for an acre of s i t e with in a block. 8 This process eliminated s ing le- fami ly residence in the study area. TABLE IV.2 DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE DENSITIES BY BLOCKS, 1970* Blocks No. of blocks zon-ed for and occu-pied by aptmnts. Avg tes . no. of s u i -per block . Average no. suites per acre/block of s i t e 100th Blk. East 12 120.9 30 100th Blk. West 12 109.0 27 200th Blk. East 7 59.4 12 200th Blk. West 5 52.4 11 300th Blk. East 3 51.7 10 300th Blk. West 2 22.5 5 These f igures refer to the picture at the end of the study period. TABLE IV.3 DISTRIBUTION OF APARTMENT ACREAGES BY ZONING, 1970* Acres Zoned for Apartments Acres Occupied by Apartments Percentage Occupd by Apartments RM-2 66.01 49.21 74.55 CD-3R & CD-2 21.73 7.95 36.59 RM-1 27.12 18.84 69.47 RH & CD-5 15.66 8.37 53.45 TOTAL 130.52 84.37 64.64. * These f igures refer to the picture at the end of the study period. Western Eastern Total Acres Sector # Acres % Occupied # Acres % Occupied Upper Lonsdale Central Lonsdale Lower Lonsdale 21.64 5.97 20.91 51.1 73.2 16.1 38.19 5.55 30.31 69.0 42.0 26.0 59.83 11.52 51.22 TOTAL 48.52 74.05 122.57 An examination of Tables IV.1-IV.4 indicates that even though Cen-t r a l Lonsdale had the lowest number of acres presently occupied by apart-ments, i t accommodates the highest average density in the C i t y . This i s an evidence of the in tens i t y of the use of res ident ia l land in that sector. The blocks along Lonsdale Avenue attracted s i g n i f i c a n t l y high density f i gures , while those further away f a i l e d to a t t rac t any concen-t r a t i on of apartments. Comparatively, Upper and Lower Lonsdale have Targe acreages occupied by apartments. The matrix below (Table IV.5) gives the 1967-1970 res ident ia l den-s i t y in a ranking Order of r e l a t i ve s i ze s . This was extracted from the cumulative s t reet densit ies in Grids 2-5, and reduced to r e l a t i ve s i z e s . 1 0 The ve r t i c a l vector at the extreme r ight (Table IV.5) reveals the changes and trends in the re l a t i ve sizes of densit ies fo r 1967-1970. The h o r i -zontal vector ( to ta l ) indicates the cumulative re l a t i ve s izes by streets as at the end of 1970. 1 0 Us ing 50 suites to represent one un i t s ize of density, r e l a t i ve to the ex i s t ing uniform density per dwel l ing, x units per s t reet were com-puted. The same method i s applied for the sectors and the blocks to estab-l i s h re l a t i ve density s i zes . In Lower Lonsdale, the highest density concentration i s along F i f t h Avenue, followed by Third and Second St reets , in a decreasing order of magnitude. In Upper Lonsdale, the highest density concentrations are along Nineteenth, Twentieth and Sixteenth St reets , in a decreasing order of magnitude. TABLE IV.5 DISTRIBUTION OF RELATIVE SIZES OF DENSITIES BY STREETS, 1967-1970 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Tt l 1967 1968 1969 1970. 0 0 0 0 0 - 7 0 0 2 0 1 - 8 0 3 2 3 6 - 14 1 4 4 3 6 - 15 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 3 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 4 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 1 1 4 3 1 4 4 2 2 4 4 1 17 25 49 63 Total 1 7 8 6 13 - 44 - 2 7 6 3 7 10 4 5 15 14 2 154 TABLE IV.6 DISTRIBUTION OF RELATIVE SIZES OF DENSITIES BY SECTOR, 1967-1970 Sector 1967 1968 1969 ' 1970 Total Upper Lonsdale 10 14 21 30 75 Central Lonsdale 7 8 14 15 44 Lower Lonsdale 0 3 14 18 35 DISTRIBUTION OF RELATIVE SIZES OF DENSITIES BY BLOCK, 1967-1970 Blocks 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total West Lonsdale 3 2 13 5 23 East Lonsdale 2 7 9 5 23 TABLE IV.8 DISTRIBUTION OF RELATIVE DENSITIES ALONG LONSDALE AVENUE East West 100 200 300 100 2 > - ^ 200 300 Total 55 13 3 Lonsdale Avenue The observation from the above matr ix, Table IV.8, ind icates: a) that the highest densit ies tend to concentrate in the 100th blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue, and b) that the densit ies decrease rapid ly with increase in the number of blocks from Lonsdale Avenue. An a p r i o r i conclusion from the above observations i s that: a) re s ident ia l densit ies tend to increase to the i r maximum at l o ca -tions with in proximity of shopping centres and commercial c o r r i -dors ; b) re s ident ia l dens it ies have a tendency to decrease with increases in the number of blocks (distances) from the shopping centre or commercial co r r i do r ; c) , in general, i t seems that when population and economic a c t i v i t i e s reach a certa in stage, a pa r t i cu l a r part of a c i t y becomes a t t rac t i ve fo r high density res ident ia l development. It i s at th i s stage that the l o c a l i t y i s considered favourable f o r devel-opment, ceter i s paribus. I t would therefore seem that the Lons-dale Area of the C i ty of North Vancouver became " r i p e " fo r development during the period 1967-1970. The Character i s t ics of the Apartment Suites. A f te r ident i f y ing the locat iona l patterns of apartment su i te s , and the i r concentration in terms of s i z e , the study now examines the character i s t i c s of the suites i n terms of t h e i r type and demand. It therefore discusses the fol lowing areas: a) the vacancy rates: in order to provide a measure of both the f r e -quency and in tens i t y of occupation, as well as the demand; b) the su i te type: in order to throw l i g h t on the household charac-t e r i s t i c s , and c) the rent l eve l s : in order to. estab l i sh the impl icat ion of (a) and (b) above. An analysis of Tables 3-6 in Chapter III suggests that: apartments, as well as the demand for them. In 1968-1970, the figures indicated a "U" curve, dropping from 1.2 per cent to 0.6 per cent, and r i s i n g again to 1.8 per cent in 1970. The i n -crease in 1970 could be at t r ibutab le to the increase in apart-ment supply, which reached i t s highest in that year, b) The character i s t i c s of the apartment suites as shown in Table IV.9 below, demonstrate that one-bedroom suites maintain the highest number fo r the ent i re period. During the same per iod, two-bedroom suites dropped from 47.8 per cent in 1967 to 14.2 per cent in 1969. The three-bedroom suites reduced considerably from 8.8 per cent in 1967 to n i l in 1970. TABLE IV.9 DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE OF SUITES Year Total No.* Bachelor % One-Bedroom % Two-Bedroom % Three-Bedroom % 1967 1,152 11 32 48 9 1968 1,609 16 57 - 26 1969 2,773 12 73 14 1970 3,637 22 66 12 The to ta l f igures for the number of suites are cumulative, while the percentage figures are proportions of the year ly t o t a l s . Holding other things constant, the inference could be drawn: a) that the bachelor/single bedroom suites const itute the highest demand in terms of suite-type and s i z e ; . 6 1 b) that the household formation i s characterized by a predominance of bachelor/spinster, and couples with either.no ch i ld ren , or very small f am i l i e s ; c) . Rent levels have shown a gradual increase from 1967-1970 on a l l types of su i tes . Appendix B, Table B.6 shows, however, that the rate of increase i s typ ica l in a l l apartment areas in the metro-po l i tan region, and therefore representative, What then i s the impl icat ion of low vacancy rates on increasing rent levels? To some extent, i t could be inferred that the increases in apartment rent may be due to the increased demand—as re f lected in the low vacancy rates. The fol lowing inferences could be drawn from the analysis of the apartment cha rac te r i s t i c s : a) that the low vacancy rates r e f l e c t not only the state of the apartment supply in the C i t y , but also an ind icat ion of the i n -tens i ty , and frequency of the use of the apartment s i t e s . I t also indicates a high demand from consumers; b) that as long as there is a high demand for apartments in the C i t y , consumers' preferences have l i t t l e e f fec t on the developer's choice of where to b u i l d ; c) that the primary factor in apartment demand l i e s in the demo-graphic character i s t i c s of the consumers; d) that the increasing rents and low vacancy rates r e f l e c t the rent-paying a b i l i t y of the consumers, and perhaps t he i r income pros-pects; e) that where income prospects are favourable, the decision on choice i s a t rade-off with s ing le- fami ly homes pa r t i cu l a r l y for consumers with large f am i l i e s . This inference i s supported by . the evidence of the drast ic reduction of the 3-bedroom type of su i te s ; f ) a c r i t e r i o n for measuring household formation in the City could be derived from the character i s t i c s of the su i te s , and the marital status of the household. Prel iminary Conclusions. To conclude the discussion on densit ies in t h i s chapter, i t would seem that factors of an economic, soc ia l and p o l i t i c a l administrative nature combine to determine the pattern and d i s -t r i bu t i on of dens i t ies . The socio-economic factors operate in a competi-t i v e market process for the producer on one hand, and in a process of t rade-off f o r the consumer, on the other. The producer i s conditioned by the zoning by-laws, bui ld ing regulat ions, and other bundles of legal r ights and r e s t r i c t i o n s . The consumer i s influenced by soc ia l indices such as soc ia l serv ices , journey-to-work, and general amenity and conven-ience. However, to both the producer and consumer, a l l decisions to bu i ld or locate, in the l a s t cons iderat ion, are measured in terms of what i s economically pract icable under any one pa r t i cu la r set of circumstances. The developer influences density through his economic capacity to a t t rac t consumers to a pa r t i cu l a r locat ion in a competitive market. The consumer i s influenced by his own a b i l i t y to pay towards the to ta l cost involved in l i v i n g in a pa r t i cu l a r apartment, on a pa r t i cu l a r s i t e , in a pa r t i cu l a r locat ion. I t seems therefore that economic factors inf luence, and are in turn influenced by other locat ion factors . This implies a t rade-off in any decision to locate. A premise could therefore be establ i shed, at th i s stage, that the point at which any balance i s struck i s inf luenced, to a large extent, by the price of land. The second section of th i s Chapter i s therefore devoted to an examination of the prices of residen-t i a l s i t e s . Section B: The Prices of Residential S ites Introduction. This section investigates the structure and disper-sal pattern of prices of res ident ia l s i te s in the study area. The aim i s to i den t i f y the movement of s i t e prices from 1967-1970, and the various factors responsible f o r such movements. The method used i s s im i l a r to that used fo r the discussion on Residential Dens it ies. In order to provide a general s t ructura l frame-work fo r pr ice comparison, data was co l lected for a l l sales transactions i n 1967. This involved an examination of 180 sales transactions for the year, 27 of which were along Lonsdale Avenue. From 1968-1970, data was co l lected only f o r those transactions that f a l l with in the res ident ia l land use in the study area. However, in 1970, data was co l lected fo r a l l transactions along Lonsdale Avenue in order to help comparison, and evaluations. For the ent i re study, a to ta l number of 345 s a l e s 1 1 t rans-actions were examined f o r the study period. ^ T h i s f igure represents the to ta l number of sales transactions carr ied on in the study area from 1967-1970. A sampling technique proved to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y un ju s t i f i ab le to apply due to the nature of the market and the extent of speculation. This made data co l l ec t i on painstaking and time consuming. Data was co l lected on two aspects of pr ices : the assessment value and the sales pr ice of transactions. The margin of error in the assess-ment value proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y large. Sales transact ions, there-fo re , const itute the main data used in the study. The technique applied in the pr ice study is s im i l a r to the matrix-cum-grid format used in the density analys is . The tota l sales prices of transactions for every block along a l l the streets for a l l the years are i d e n t i f i e d . This provides a vehicle for measuring the move-ments in s i t e p r i ces , and fo r ident i f y ing t he i r pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on To d i s t ingu ish separate sales of vacant lots from single family houses, and apartments, an attempt was made to trace the transactional record of each parcel-type from 1967-1970. This raised problems and confusion mainly from new addresses that come with new construct ion, and from changes in addresses that come with the demolition of s ing le -family houses fo r apartments. Furthermore, parts of a vacant l o t are usual ly sold independently or combined with land of an adjacent parcel to improve locat iona l amenities or s i t e serv ices. These and other prob-lems made the task of t rac ing such transactional prices extremely tedious. However, the block aggregation technique that i s used in the analysis reduces possible d i s tort ions that may ar ise in measurements. Housing market studies recognize the fact that any land has both heterogeneous character i s t i c s and homogeneous att r ibutes pecul iar to i t s e l f . I t i s therefore not a simple process to determine what might be considered the levels of land price at anytime. Percentage changes and ranking are therefore used in some areas of the study to indicate changes in levels of pr ices . As Mil gram observes: At any given time in a pa r t i cu l a r geographical area, there i s not one pr ice fo r vacant land, but a range of prices at which ind iv idual pieces of land are bought, varying with t he i r locat ional and physi-cal c ha rac te r i s t i c s , and the legal and other res t ra ints upon t he i r possible use, as well as the personal pressures, market knowledge, and c r ed i t resources of pa r t i cu l a r buyers and s e l l e r s . This view i s supported by the evidence from the sales transactional data fo r the C i ty of North Vancouver. And i t raises problems of refinement in measurement and accuracy in analys i s . The Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Sales Prices and Transactions. This section i den t i f i e s the s pec i f i c locations that attracted large sales transactions at d i f f e ren t periods. I t i s concerned with the pr ice factors f o r res ident ia l land, the nature of the land market, and the form •of pr ice d i s t r i bu t i on that emerges. I t examines the transactional a c t i v -i t i e s fo r the various s i te s with in the blocks, and for the various blocks wi th in the sectors. In th i s connection, Lonsdale Avenue i s treated sep-arately in order to estab l i sh i t s pu l l on the res ident ia l land.market. An examination of the processed data in Grids 6-9 indicates that: a) Lonsdale Avenue attracted the largest number of sales transac-tions for each year, reg i s ter ing the highest f igure in 1968, 12 S t r t \ 300 200 100 21 7 14 000 2 1 5 000 20 19 1 7 500 4 10 000 6 1 5 000 18 1 18 900 3 12 000 1 19 000 17 2 18 000 1. . 11 '500 3 17 000 16 2 1 5 000 2 82 000 15 1 10 000 1 17 300 14 1 10 000 2 13 000 2 27 000 13 1 20 000 2 16 000 9 1 8 000 12 6 20 000 11 10 9 8 7 2 20 000 • 5 147 000 6 1 22 500. 3 9 000 5 10 3 000 4 9 000 4 . 3 12 000 '• 6 27 000 3 2 6 000 5 1 3 000 4 1 5 000 2 1 6 000 1 3 .12 000 1 1 5 000 TOTAL Q co 100 200 300 4 156 000 4 13 000 4 17 000 3 219 000 4 148 000 2 1 5 000 2. 17 000 . 1 30 000 2 22 000 6 25 000 4 31 000 3 23 000 2 14 000 6 15 000 5 14 000 2 • 47 000 4 16 000 4 31 000 2 43 000 2 16 000 4 62 000 2 16 000 2 18 000 1 511 000 4 200 000 4 60 000 7 148 000 2 14 00 0 3 12 000 2 1 3 000 4 41 000 1 19 900 2 9 000 3 29 000 4 19 000 2 1 3 000 • 1 17 500 4 1 5 000 3 19 000 2 35 000 1 31 500 6 1 3 000 1 17 500 7 25 000 1 28 000 6 16 000 4 14 000 3 8 000 1 6 200 3 1 3 000 1 8 500 3 9 000 1 14 900 TOTAL Grid 6. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i te s , 1967 Key: The top f igure in each block is the tota l number of sales for the year. The lower f igure i s the average annual sales price for each block'. ^BTck S t r t \ 300 . .200 100 21 2 4 20 2 19 000 19 3 51 000 18 1 5 3 136 000 17 2. 1 5 000 4 63 000 16, 1 2 21 000 4 70 000 15 3 2 20 000 5 20 000 14 2 1 13 12 1 11 10 9 8 7 6 2 5 30 000 5 5 23 000 4 4 79 000 4 11 000 3 52 000 3 2 18 000 1 45 000 . 1 2 1 1 TOTAL u i _ J o. CO 100 200 300 3 84 000 l 3 2 115 000 2 3 4, 132 000 r 4 4 114 000 2 2 . 4 70 000 5 3 3 417 000 . 3 89 000 7 3 9 0 00 1 7 76 000 1 284 000 2 2 3 2 1 ' 4 104 000 3 2 13 73 000 5 2 6 35 000 2 24 000 4 3 3 32 000 1 12 42 000 1 11 000. 4 7 5 11 0 0 0 TOTAL Grid 7. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i t e s , 1968 Key: The top f igure in each block is the tota l number of sales for the year. The lower f igure is the average annual sales pr ice for each block. S t r t \ 300 200 100 100 200 300 21 3 3 74 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 20 5 117 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 120 000 1 19 LONSDALE AVENUE 2. 240 000 1 18 1 9 29 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 6 222 000 1 17 2 3 • 17 000 2 40 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 10 26 000 3 2 16 7 25 000 4 52 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 15 I LONSDALE AVENUE •1 .103 00 0 1 315 000. 14 1 1 23 500 LONSDALE AVENUE 13 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 84 000 12 1 88 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 225 000 2 11 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 138 000 1 6 1Q LONSDALE AVENUE 1 2 9 LONSDALE AVENUE 8 1 128 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 2 7 LONSDALE AVENUE 6 8 45 000 LONSDALE AVENUE . 6 27 000 3 5 •1 8 36 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 8 41 000 2 1 4 2 102 000 3 25 000' 7 47 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 56 000 5 1 3 3 30 000 3 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 78 000 9 22 000 3 163 0 00 2 3 6 LONSDALE AVENUE 11 63 000 14 20 000 1 2 2 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 8 1 18 600 TOTAL LONSDALE AVENUE G r id 8. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i te s , 1969 Key: The top f igure in each block is the to ta l number of sales for the year. The lower f igure i s the average annual sales pr ice fo r each block. ^NBlck S t r K 300 200 100 100 200 300 21 l 1 600 000 LONSDALE AVENUE l 4 20 2 1 128 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 19 5 l 2 295 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 18 4 186 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 40 000 2 3 17 1 18 350 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 16 1 1 li+5 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 15 6 2 71 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 14 5 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 1 13 l 3 166 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 12 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 134 000 2 11 LONSDALE AVENUE 4 10 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 1 1 9 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 8 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 3 7 3 284 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 254 000 6 1 2 4 116 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 97 000 4 ' 1 5 4 27 000 1 30 000 LONSDALE AVENUE 2 356 000 3 1 4 1 1 3 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 45 000 1 14 000 1 3 5 2 . LONSDALE AVENUE • 2 19 000 2 110 000 2 3 2 1 LONSDALE AVENUE 1 2 1 2 2 1 LONSDALE AVENUE 3 4 1 16 0 0 0' TOTAL LONSDALE AVENUE Gr id 9. D i s t r ibut ion of Average Se l l i ng Prices of Apartment S i te s , 1970 Key: The top f igure in each block is the to ta l number of sales for the year. The lower f igure i s the average annual sales pr ice for each block. ~ with an average of 29 for the four-year period. The to ta l t rans-act ional sales along Lonsdale fo r the period amounted to approx-imately 6.7 m i l l i o n do l l a r s , the highest sale being $2,549,000 f fo r 1970. The average annual sales prices increased by about 60 per cent between 1969-1970. In general there was an upward trend both in the to ta l amount of sales transacted, and in the average annual sales fo r the period. However, there were f l u c -tuations in the number of sa les. TABLE IV.10 LONSDALE AVENUE - THE STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALES PRICES 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total Number of Sales 27 33 27 30 117 T t l . amount of sales $935,000 $1 ,699,000 $1 ,444,000 $2,549,000 $6,627,000 Average annual sales 35,00 52,000 53,000 85,000 b) The matrices that fo l low, showing the d i s t r i bu t i on of prices of 13 land, were constructed through the ranking system. Table IV.11 reveals that during the period, the highest prices in the City occurred along Keith Road (7th Street) in Central Lonsdale. In 13 Throughout the analysis ranking systems are used in order to s impl i f y the sizes of numbers, and to f a c i l i t a t e measurabil ity and com-p a r a b i l i t y . To obtain ranking, aggregated averages of s i t e prices are ca lcu lated; and applying x=20,000 do l l a r s , the sales prices are converted into ranking units in order to show re l a t i ve increases and changes. Upper Lonsdale, 13th Street had the highest; while in Lower Lons-dale, 4th Street registered the maximum. In 1967, the highest prices showed along 13th Street; in 1968 along 16th St reet ; in 1969 along 15th and 18th Streets; and in 1970 along Keith Road--th i s i s the maximum level of price ever recorded in the r e s i -dent ia l area. Second Street attracted the lowest leve l of prices i n the study area. In general, prices along every s t reet showed a tendency to increase with the years. This evidence i s con-firmed by the ve r t i c a l vector (under to ta l ) which shows a propor-t ionate increase from 1967 to 1970. An examination of the horizontal vector shows price f luctuat ions along the streets for the per iod, except for the peaking at Keith Road and 13th Street. TABLE IV.11 DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTIAL SITE PRICES IN STUDY AREA BY RANKING, 1967-1970 \ s t Y r X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 .T t l . 1967 1 0 1 2 2 2 9 1 _ 2 2 7 14 3 2 4 1 2 2 4 4 65 1968 1 2 3 4 4 4 6 1 0 0 . 3 5 2 2 4 17 4 5 6 3 3 79 1969 2 2 4 4 8 12 10 - - 1 2 6 4 5 11 2 3 11 8 10 3 108 1970 3 1 5 12 8 5 24 1 1 1 0 4 10 10 4 4 1 11 3 4 16 128 Total 7 5 13 22 22 23 49 3 1 4 7 22 40 20 21 27 9 29 19 21 26 380 c) By Sectors, the matrix below, Table IV.12, demonstrates that the d i s t r i bu t i on of prices was highest in Upper Lonsdale. There i s also the evidence that price changes showed a steady increase in a l l the sectors for the period. Sector 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total Upper Lonsdale 47 54 66 69 236 Central Lonsdale 12 11 22 30 75 Lower Lonsdale 6 14 20 29 69 Note: The ranking is extracted from Table IV.11 above. d) The d i s t r i bu t i on of price levels by blocks i s shown in the table below. The highest pr ice levels are i den t i f i ed in 1970 in the •100th block west of Lonsdale, along Keith Road. Unlike the sec-t o r s , the prices in the block showed considerable f l uc tuat ions , •except f o r the West 100th block, where changes in pr ice levels T.ose sharply between 1969 and 1970. TABLE IV.13 DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTIAL PRICE LEVELS BY BLOCKS \ Blk Yr \ West East Total 300 Block 200 Block 100 Block 100 Block 200 Block 300 Block 1967 2 3 9 25 13 6 58 1968 2 2 9 • 23 10 1 47 1969 2 2 13 25 10 4 56 1970 - - 39 16 3 2 60 The c luster ing of high price levels along Lonsdale i s demonstrated by the matrix below. There i s also evidence from the horizontal vectors that the pr ice levels change with increases in blocks from Lonsdale Avenue. TABLE IV.14 DISTRIBUTION OF PRICE LEVELS BY BLOCKS ALONG LONSDALE AVENUE East West 100 200 300 100 7 > - ^ 200 ^ 7 ^ \ ? ^ 300 Total 159 43 19 Lonsdale Avenue Note: The ranking i s extracted from the previous table, Table IV.13. The d i s t r i bu t i on of the number of sales also shows s im i l a r move-ments, changes, and trends in i t s spat ia l organization. This occurs be-tween the s t r ee t s , between the sectors, between the blocks and through time. For example: a) Between the s t ree t s , 5th Street recorded the highest of 79 sales f o r the per iod, as wel l as the highest for 1967 and 1968. This suggests that the s t reet attracted the largest number of sales transact ions. Fifteenth-Eighteenth Streets attracted s i gn i f i c an t sales number in Upper Lonsdale, while 3rd-4th Streets had s im i -l a r high sales numbers. . b) Between the Sectors, there i s evidence from Tables IV.15 and IV.16 that while Upper Lonsdale captured the highest number of sales for a l l land uses and fo r the areas zoned for apartments, Lower Lonsdale part ic ipated s i g n i f i c a n t l y in the same market a c t i v i t y . About 45 per cent of the to ta l number of sales trans-actions operated in the apartment market. In Lower Lonsdale, i t was more than 50 per cent. Sales a c t i v i t i e s in Central Lonsdale decl ined, perhaps due to " saturat ion " of apartment development, and the absence of vacant land, or obsolescence. c) Over the per iod, 1967 saw the highest number of transactions for a l l land uses in the study area. However, as Table IV.15 i n d i -cates, 1969 attracted the highest number of Transactions in the areas s p e c i f i c a l l y zoned for apartments. Sales in th i s zone accounted fo r more than 50 per cent of the to ta l number of sales for the whole study area. Nevertheless, in 1970, the sales num-ber in the apartment zone reduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a record of 161 to 49.' What could be the reasons for this? There i s evidence that the d i s t r i bu t i on of number of sales was highly concentrated along Lonsdale Avenue, 17th and 18th St reets , and be-tween 1st and 6th Streets during 1967-1970. There was considerable spec-u lat ion along 12th, and 15th-18th in Upper Lonsdale, while l s t - 6 th Streets attracted s im i l a r proportions in ' Lower Lonsdale. The highest number of transactions in areas zoned for apartments was i d e n t i f i e d in the fol lowing s t reets : in 1967, 12th, 3rd and 4th . S t reets ; in 1968, 5th, and 15th Streets; in 1969, 2nd, and 3rd Streets; and 1970, 3rd-6th and 18th Streets. Fourth Street therefore attracted the largest number of sales transactions with a s i g n i f i c a n t l y heavy con-centration along 2nd to 5th Streets. The tota l number of sales trans-actions registered the highest i n 1969, with sales concentration along 2nd-6th Streets in Lower Lonsdale, and 16th-18th in Upper Lonsdale. TABLE IV.15 DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF SALES TRANSACTIONS BY STREET Street 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total # of Sales Lonsdal( 5 27 _ 33 27 _ 30 _ 117 _ 21 21 6 13 7 8 3 7 1 49 17 20 9 3 9 4 9 8 7 1 34 16 19 16 8 12 7 3 . 2 11 2 47 19 18 17 7 17 7. 17 15 12 7 63 36 17 19 6 18 10 22 13 2 1 61 30 16 10 4 10 10 15 11 2 1 37 26 15 10 8 20 17 5 4 12 2 42 31 14 13 8 4 1 6 5 7 - 30 14 13 17 14 2 - 6 4 4 3 29 21 12 17 17 9 8 5 3 4 1 35 28 11 7 2 5 1 10 3 4 - 26 6 10 5 - 3 - 3 - 3 - 14 -9 p 2 - 2 - - - 1 - 5 -o 7 16 5 1 _ 5 1 4 — 26 6 6 12 4 16 9 17 14 14 6 59 33 5 23 6 25 18 20 16 11 7 79 47 1 4 17 17 23 17 21 15 8 6 69 55 3 22 17 11 7 21 18 11 9 65 51 2 8 4 21 13 34 25 9 2 72 44 1 9 1 17 5 17 1 13 1 56 8 Total 297 137 271 141 271 161 174 49 1,015 488 Key: For each year, the f igure on the l e f t represents tota l number of sales for a l l uses. The f igure on i t s r ight represents number of sales in areas zoned fo r apartments only. Sector 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total 1967-1970 Upper 80 72 71 19 242 Lonsdale 190 157 136 89 572 Central 5 _ 1 _ 6 Lonsdale 16 1 5 4 26 Lower 49 69 89 31 238 Lonsdale 91 113 130 66 400 Key: The top f igure represents tota l annual sales transaction fo r areas zoned for apartments only. The lower f igure represents tota l annual sales transaction for a l l uses in the study area. The matrices in Tables IV.17 and IV.18 below reveal the nature of the speculation in the land market, the c luster ing of r e l a t i v e l y high land transactions along Lonsdale Avenue, and how the sales numbers de-crease as the number of blocks increase from Lonsdale Avenue. There i s evidence that speculation in the market started with a maximum high i n 1967, and declined to i t s lowest in 1970. The trend in speculation con f l i c t s with the trends in price levels and res ident ia l s i t e pr ices . The former shows a decrease over the per iod, while the l a t t e r indicates increases. I t seems that movements in s i t e prices and s i t e pr ice changes are associated with these con f l i c t s in trends. The discussion now inves-t igates th is in order to i dent i f y the nature of the factors in the c o n f l i c t s . Yr \ 300 200 100 100 200 300 Total 1967 17 37 56 41 65 55 271 1968 22 19 43 59 56 41 240 1969 9 23 61 54 55 38 240 1970 27 18 30 18 27 32 152 Total 75 97 190 172 203 166 Lonsdale Avenue Note: These f igures refer to actual number of sa les , and not ranking. TABLE IV.18 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF SALES' TRANSACTIONS ALONG LONSDALE AVENUE ^ ^ E a s t test 100 200 300 100 1 9 0 ^ 4 ^ 200 300 ^ ^ 1 6 6 ^ Total 362 300 241 Lonsdale Avenue Movements in S i te Prices and S i te Pr ice Changes. The character-i s t i c s of movements in s i t e prices i s revealed by an examination of the data on sales prices and the frequency of the number of transactions. Wide var iat ions and sharp pr ice changes occur not only on l o t transac-t ions , but also on aggregated prices with in the sectors, and between the blocks. . To i dent i f y the changes and movements in l o t p r i ces , the sales transact ional h istory of pa r t i cu l a r lots were traced. This revealed, in some cases, astronomical differences over r e l a t i v e l y short periods of time. For example, a l o t "A" bought f o r $14,000 was sold s ix months l a t e r fo r $213,000. Another l o t "B" bought fo r $32,000 was sold nine months l a t e r fo r $345,000. In another instance, a l o t "C" bought for $18,000 was sold together with s i x other lot s of the same s ize with in the same block for $35,000 only two days a f te r the f i r s t t ransact ion. Six months l a t e r , a l l the lot s were sold again for $190,000. These are but only a few examples to describe the nature of the pr ice movements in the market. The in tens i ty and frequency of pr ice changes, and the extremely wide differences they carry, a f fect both the 14 annual pr ice averages, and inter-annual pr ice comparisons. The fo l lowing , however, i s the nature of the pr ice movements: a) In 1967, the lot s with in the 100th block West of Lonsdale Avenue attracted considerable price movements with var iat ions from $9,000-$20,000 (122 per cent) in Upper Lonsdale, and $6,000-$12,000 (100 per cent) in Lower Lonsdale. As Grid 6 ind icates , the average sales pr ice for that year was higher per block average on East Lonsdale that i t was on 14 For example in 1967, with in s ix months, a p lot was sold f i ve times with a pr ice range of $9,000-$!9,400. In 1968, the same plot was sold f o r $24,700. the West. There i s also the tendency for the block averages to reduce with increases in distance from Lonsdale Avenue. In Upper Lonsdale the highest average prices occurred along 12th and 20th St reets , while the highest sales transactions occurred with in the 100th block along 18th Street. In Central Lonsdale, the highest concentration of sales was in the 100th block along Keith Road, with an average of $147,000 The average to ta l sales price fo r East Keith Road, however, was $50,000. This indicated the movement of the pr ice structure along s t reets—thus demonstrating the homogeneous qua l i t i e s of blocks along any pa r t i cu l a r s t ree t , and the differences in a t t r i butes along i t s ax i s . A comparison of a l l the blocks east and west of Lonsdale Avenue shows a higher range of averages for the east blocks, espec ia l l y in Upper Lonsdale. In 1968, considerable price movements and sales transactions occurred along West 15th Street. In the 100th block West, the pr ice range fo r lot s was $36,000-$43,000 (44 per cent). Grid 7 indicates that the average sales price was higher on 100th block east of Lonsdale Avenue than i t was for west. This was a common charac te r i s t i c of a l l the sectors. The highest average prices occurred along 16th, 18th and 19th Streets in Upper Lonsdale. In Central Lonsdale, even though there were more sales on the east than the west, the average sale prices fo r a l l the transactions on the west was higher ($91,000) as compared with $28,000 on the east. Were these d i f -ferences due to supply factors or demand indices? In Lower Lonsdale, the average prices were higher on the east than the west. More transactions were carr ied in the eastern section than the western, pa r t i cu l a r l y in the 100th block along 5th Street. A comparison of east and west blocks shows higher average prices f o r the east.. A comparison of prices between the sectors indicate a high f igure in Upper Lonsdale and dropping evenly to Lower Lonsdale. In 1969, pr ice var iat ions occurred in lots along West 1st Street $20,000-$40,000 in the 100th block, and $12,000-$15,000 in the 200th block. Along 4th St reet, the range was $12,000-$55,000, ,while along 20th Street the range was .$25,000-$90,000, and on 21st, $42,000-$90,000. These figures suggest that the pr ice ranges of lots were higher in Upper Lonsdale. In Lower Lonsdale the number of transactional sales as well as the to ta l amount of transactions indicate an intensive market a c t i v i t y with in.that sector. The analysis indicates that more marketing and sales a c t i v i t y happened in the eastern section of Lower Lonsdale. Total amount of sales registered a s i gn i f i c an t increase over the f igures fo r previous years. Except Central Lonsdale where there was only one sale ($128,000) average prices were generally higher on the eastern section of a l l the sectors. eastern Upper Lonsdale. The market i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t e r i l e due to a state of ' saturat ion of t ransact ions ' from previous years. Only f i ve sales were recorded, as compared with 119 from 1967-1969 in the areas s p e c i f i c a l l y zoned for apartments. In general, there i s evidence that the to ta l number of transactions both for the whole study area, and fo r the areas zoned for apartments, dropped s i g n i f i c a n t l y along a l l the s t reets . Like a ' speculat ive invas ion, ' the job had been done, and a retreat i s the only l o g i -cal step. Nevertheless, movements in prices of lots continued. Along West 4th Street in the 100th block, a range of $42,000-$57,000 was recorded. Along west 15th Street the range was $24,000-.$30,000. The market i s no longer competitive in Upper Lonsdale, and so the pr ice changes appear narrow and few. Comparatively, Lower Lonsdale continued to have high transac-t iona l sa les. In terms of east and west comparison, more sales and transactions operated in the western sect ion, thus reversing the normal trend. An interest ing observation from the market sales for the whole c i t y is that in 1970 the to ta l number of sales fo r s ing le family houses along west 15th Street increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y in the res ident ia l areas adjacent to the apartment zone. Have these purchases been done in ant ic ipat ion of a pos-s i b l e extension of the apartment zone? Central Lonsdale continued to enjoy i t s favourable climate of sales transact ions, maintaining l i t t l e or no var iat ions in s i t e pr ices . To summarize the discussion on pr ice movements and s i t e pr ice changes, i t seems a) that in Upper Lonsdale the prices of s i te s increased with the concentration of marketing a c t i v i t i e s between 15th and 21st Streets. Pr ice movements, though intens ive, have been r e l a t i v e l y s tab le ; and the pr ice range has also been r e l a t i v e l y narrow. In terms of blocks, most of the transactions are concentrated with in the 100th blocks east and west of Lonsdale. In terms of zoning, the intensive market a c t i v i t y i s i den t i f i ed in the apartment areas; b) that in Central Lonsdale both the in tens i ty and frequency of marketing a c t i v i t i e s have been regular and constant. Prices have been constantly the highest in the sector, there have not been any s i gn i f i c an t changes in var ia t ion of p r i ces . The area in terms of acres, i s comparatively the smal lest, and yet the most act ive in terms of transactions. I t seems that i t s unique locat ion and i t s physical at t r ibutes make the sector the most demanding from the point-of-view of both the developer and the consumer; c) that in Lower Lonsdale, the pr ice movement was extensive, and changed with the years. Variations in prices were also consider-able. The average pr ice therefore changed by year, by block, and with in blocks; d) the movement of the prices with uniform concentration in the 100th blocks, and c luster ing along Lonsdale Avenue, demonstrate the homogeneous qua l i t i e s of blocks, and the differences in att r ibutes as the number of blocks increase, from Lonsdale. These differences establ i sh the heterogeneous character i s t i c s of land and i t s re lat ionsh ip with pr ice and distance; e) the frequency of the pr ice movement, and the speed with which i t occurs, demonstrates the strength of the apartment market and i t s s e n s i t i v i t y to speculation. What factors are responsible f o r such pr ice movements? I t would seem from the e a r l i e r invest igations in Section A of th i s chapter that two agents combine to create the factors determining the s i t e p r i ce : the producer and the consumer. These two combine t he i r in teres t in housing to create a demand. This part of the inves t i gat ion , therefore, examines th i s area from two points of view. F i r s t , the housing producer, or the developer, who operates in the C i t y , and whose primary aim i s to supply housing on the self-assurance -that there would be demand fo r his produce. He concentrates on those factors v i t a l to the construction market. Thus he examines the vacancy rates for apartments, rent l e v e l s , the capacity of his competitors, land a v a i l a b i l i t y , development regulat ions, and to ta l costs. Where the invest-ment climate is favourable, his decision to develop a pa r t i cu l a r locat ion i s contro l led by his a b i l i t y to enter into speculation. Speculation becomes not only the main tool fo r exploring and exp lo i t ing the market, but also the main vehicle for competition in the land market. In th i s competitive process, there i s bidding in the sales transact ion. The purchaser offers the highest bid to a t t rac t the s e l l e r . This process causes the pr ice schedule on some s i tes in North Vancouver to be wide and discontinuous. I t appears that the demand fo r s i tes arises from the demand by developers to bu i l d . Hence s i t e prices are strongly influenced by the prices offered by the developer. Thus in Central Lonsdale where supply i s l im i ted and demand i s high, the pr ice of the bui ld ing s i t e increases,, and the pr ice fo r the completed apartment r i ses s u f f i c i e n t l y to enable more to be offered for s i te s without reducing the.other factors of pro-duction. The developers in the North Shore, therefore, do create, in the long run, s h i f t s in land values and prices of s i t e s . Furthermore, the att r ibutes of the s i t e in terms of l o ca t i on , and proximity to services contribute s i g n i f i c an t l y to the unit cost of land. This accounts for the high prices along west 20th Street in Upper Lons-dale, and the low prices along west 2nd in Lower Lonsdale, where there i s considerable physical decay and obsolescence. To the developer, there fo re , the pr ice of land i s a regulator. The second factor determining the prices of s i t e , in terms of de-mand, comes from the consumer. This depends pr imar i ly upon the to ta l population in the C i t y , or the number of households, t he i r per capita or family disposable income, and the re l a t i ve pr ice of the housing serv ices. The point was made in Section A of th i s chapter that the very low vacancy rates and high rent levels suggest the f inanc ia l capacity of the residents and the i r a b i l i t y to create demand. To the consumer, there-fo re , the forces of demand determine the price schedule, given supply. Prel iminary Conclusions. To conclude th i s chapter, the fol lowing observations are made: a) the. 1967 zoning by-laws have been acting as a guide in sales fo r re s ident ia l s i tes in terms of density; b) the fact that lots do not f a l l into homogeneous groups but vary marginally one from another, makes prices of s i te s wide and d i s -continuous; c) land speculation is* one of the main causes of increases in prices of s i t e s ; d) prices of s i te s are low in locations where there is an evidence of decay and physical deter io ra t ion ; e) prices are competitive and high in the areas zoned fo r apartments, pa r t i c u l a r l y high r i se apartments; ' f ) prices of s i tes show a decreasing tendency along an east-west axis from Lonsdale Avenue; g) prices of s i te s are f a i r l y even along Lonsdale Avenue, demonstrat-ing a s i g n i f i c an t concentration, and homogeneous cha rac te r i s t i c s ; h) the att r ibutes of a s i t e , in terms of i t s locat ion to the shop-ping area of Lonsdale Avenue, condition to a large extent the pr ice l e ve l s ; i ) the greater the number of lots in any sector, the higher the num-ber of sales transactions. The evidence from Lower and Central Lonsdale supports th i s observation. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENSITY AND PRICE The matrices and models in the previous chapters have demonstrated in quant i tat ive terms the d i s t r i bu t i ona l form of density and pr ice of land in North Vancouver. The discussions have established that the char-a c t e r i s t i c s of each of the two variables are r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous with in each sector and block. However, between the sectors and the blocks, the character i s t i c s tend to be heterogeneous. This dichotomy i s i d en t i f i ed as a function of the locat ional at t r ibutes inherent in each var iab le . The nature of the d i s t r i bu t i on in each var iable has been continu-ous; and the character i s t i c s of the d i s t r i bu t i on of the scores have been l i nea r . S im i l a r l y , the d i s t r i bu t i on in each of the att r ibutes has been cha r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y unimodal and r e l a t i v e l y i d e n t i c a l . The sectors have been used to establ i sh the nature of the change in density and p r i ce ; while the blocks have been used to i den t i f y the ef fects of distance from Lonsdale. This chapter applies the quant itat ive results from the previous chapters to confirm: a) that there i s a pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between the d i s -t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density, and the d i s t r i bu t i on of land p r i ce s , and b) that the re lat ionsh ip is associated with the nature of change in the res ident ia l density, and the distance from Lonsdale Avenue. The s pec i f i c object ive, however, i s to estab l i sh the extent to which res ident ia l density and pr ice of res ident ia l land are re-la ted. The Pattern of Spatial Relationship This section presents a graphic interpretat ion of the spa t i a l , d i s t r i bu t i on in the matrices as portrayed in a two-dimensional projec-t i o n . An examination of Graphs 1-3 f o r the Density, Pr ice of land, and Distance indicates a strong spat ia l association between density and pr ice var iab les . The fol lowing i s a summary of the spat ia l re lat ionsh ips : a) Where the number of suites per s i t e acre increases within the 100th block, there i s a corresponding increase in the pr ice of s i t e with in the same 100th block. The normal curve fo r the den-s i t y gradient i s . i d e n t i c a l with the pr ice gradient curve, meas-ured from Lonsdale Avenue. S im i l a r l y , the apartment demand curve shows the same movements as the sales transaction curve. b) With regard to the nature of the change (Graphs 4 and 5) , Central Lonsdale registered the highest number of suites per s i t e acre with in the 100th block, followed by Upper and Lower Lonsdale. It i s interest ing to observe that s im i l a r spat ia l i n -creases occur in the same order for the prices of s i tes in the sectors. Density Pr ice cu s-C J cu s-cu Cl-io cu +-> • I — to 4-O =tfc CU > CU CU o s-80 60 40 100 200 300 Graph l . a . Density by Blocks 80 CU o ro CU s-to cu 4-> o =*t= 20 0 100 200 Graph l . b . Pr ice by Blocks', 80 60 40 20 300 cu > CD OJ O O-0 fc 300 200 100 100 200 300 Graph 2.a. Density Gradient 80 cu S-CJ fd CU s-cu Q. to cu •r— to « f -o =8= 60 40 20 0 300 200 100 100 200 300 Graph 2.b. Pr ice Gradient 80 o - 60 o CO to I 40 4-> 10 CU ro CO 20 Graph 100 200 300 3.a. Apartment Demand 100 200 Graph 3.b. Pr ice Demand Density Pr ice cu s -o fO CO s-OJ Cl-lO OJ =3 CO <+-o 80 60 40 20 CO • c o * i — 4-> O CO CO E ' ra S-4-> co CU ro co 80 60 40 20 Graph 4.a. Density by Sectors Graph 4.b. Pr ice by Sectors - a O J +-> OJ r — C L E o o OJ 80 •60 40 -t-> I 20 ro O =ffc •OJ o a . 80 60 - 40 20 J L _ J Graph 5.a. Apartment Completions by Sectors Graph 5.b. Price Levels by Sectors PRICE, DENSITY AND TIME Density Pr ice 80 £....60 • o +-> £ OJ £ +-> ti-res «=c 40 20 10 £ o • I — +-> - CJ ra CO ' £ • ro i-+-> to OJ re co 1967 1968 1969 1970 Graph 6.a. Density fo r the Period 80 60 40 20 1967 1968 1969 1970 Graph 6.b. Sales Transactions fo r the Period £ OJ 80 B 60 C O £ OJ • o 40 +-> « 20 O-Graph 7.a. OJ > OJ OJ CJ CL. 1967 1968 1969 1970 Apartment Construction for the Period 80 60 40 20 1967 1968 1969 1970 Graph 7.b. Price Levels fo r the Period The number of apartments completed and the i r re l a t i ve i n -creases in the sectors correspond with the r e l a t i ve increases in the pr ice l e ve l s . A l l these increases tend to concentrate in the 100th block, and decrease proportionately within the other blocks. c) In terms of P r i c e , Density, and Time, an examination of Graphs 6 and 7 demonstrates that where there i s an increase in apart-ment density, there i s a corresponding r i se in sales transac-t i ons . A point of note i s that between 1969-1970 the apartment density f e l l sharply down. During the same per iod, the sales transact ion also showed a s im i l a r ve r t i c a l f a l l . Furthermore, where the demand for apartment suites increases, the pr ice -levels also show a tendency to r i s e . . d) F i n a l l y , a comparison of Charts 1 and 2 shows the spat ia l pat-tern and d i s t r i bu t i on of density on the one hand, and the spat ia l pattern and d i s t r i bu t i on of sales transact ions, on the other. The common movements in the pattern are i den t i f i ed in the d i s t i n c t demarcation of the sectors and in the locat iona l at t r ibutes with in the sectors. The rhythm in the pattern of the density d i s t r i bu t i on i s in harmony with that of the d i s t r i bu t i on of sales transactions though on d i f f e r i n g scales of i n tens i t y . There i s s i m i l a r i t y in structure and form of flow. Lonsdale Avenue and the 100th blocks are i den t i f i ed with very intensive a c t i v i t y in the res ident ia l land market. 1967 1968 1969 1970 Lonsdale Avenue Lonsdale Avenue n Lonsdale Avenue1 Lonsdale Avenue Chart 1. Spatial Pattern and D i s t r ibut ion of Sales Transactions CO ro Lonsdale Avenue T " 1 Lonsdale Avenue I — 7^7 — r > f Lonsdale Avenue Lonsdale Avenue Si®''-' Chart 2. Spatial Pattern and "Distr ibution of Density Lonsdale Avenue •4> 4 -r Lonsdale Avenue •I Lonsdal Avenue ri 1 Chart 3. D i s t r ibut ion of Sites that Fai led to At t ract neither Sales Transactions nor Density 4i» neither sales transactions nor apartments, demonstrates a s i g -n i f i c a n t rhythm in the patterning and structur ing of such s i t e s . This implies that even the negative form has a pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip associated with the nature of change in the r e s i -dent ia l density, and the distance from Lonsdale Avenue. What then i s the extent of the re lat ionsh ip between the d i s t r i b u -t ion of density and price? TABLE V. l THE SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRICE LEVELS AND RESIDENTIAL DENSITY BY BLOCKS ^ ^ ^ P r i c e Dens i ty^. 100 blk High 200 blk Medium 300 blk Low 100 blk High 159 55 200 blk Medium 13 \ . 300 blk Low ^ . \ v J 9 3 There i s evidence in the above matrix that the spat ia l d i s t r i bu t i on of pr ice levels by blocks fo l low the same proportional regu lar i ty as the density patterns. Both density and pr ice decrease'as the number of blocks increase from Lonsdale Avenue. There i s uniformity in the spat ia l agglomeration of both density and price within the pa r t i cu la r blocks. The fol lowing matrix demonstrates the uniformity in the re la t i ve increases of density and pr ice within the sectors and between them. The re lat ionsh ip shows the same re la t i ve regu lar i ty in an increasing order of spat ia l magnitude from Lower Lonsdale to Upper Lonsdale. TABLE V.2 THE SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISTRIBUTION OF SITE PRICES, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF DENSITY BY SECTOR ^ ^ - ^ Pr ice D e n s i t y \ ^ Upper Lonsdale Central Lonsdale Lower Lonsdale Upper Lonsdale " \ 2 3 6 75 Central Lonsdale Lower Lonsdale 69 35 \ . For the period 1967-1970, the fol lowing matrix shows that prices increased annually as the re l a t i ve increases in the annual density. The spat ia l re lat ionsh ips between them is an increasing uniformity of r e l a t i ve magnitude. The character i s t i c s of the changes and trends in pr ice and density fol low a pattern of regu la r i t y . The three matrices therefore establ i sh the nature of the spat ia l re lat ionship, between res ident ia l density and land pr ice in terms of the blocks, the sectors, and the time span 1967-1970. THE SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESIDENTIAL SITE PRICES AND DISTRIBUTION OF DENSITIES ^ \ P r i ce D e n s i t y ^ - ^ 1967 1968 1969 1970 1967 1968 1969 1,970 Conclusions This study has shown that each of the three sectors in the City o f North Vancouver has i t s own d i s t i n c t character i s t i c s quite d i f fe rent from the others. These unique attr ibutes tend to make the sectors homo-geneous in terms of res ident ia l density and land pr ices . However, con-s idered together, the sectors tend to be heterogeneous in t he i r i n t e r -re la t ionsh ips . The blocks along Lonsdale Avenue have ident ica l capacit ies of a t t rac t ing not only commercial and service funct ions, but also high den-s i t i e s and high land pr ices . S i gn i f i cant d i spa r i t i e s occur in the d i s -t r i bu t i on of densit ies and pr ices . Along the s t reet s , the marginal var iat ions in s i t e att r ibutes and unique locations tend to create heterogeneous groups. The pr ice schedule tends to be wide and discontinuous. Considerable differences occur in the frequency and in tens i ty of use of res ident ia l s i t e s . The current patterns of use along a pa r t i cu la r s t ree t , and the extent to which the resu l t ing att r ibutes of the s i t e are exploited do inf luence, to a large extent, the pr ices. During the period 1967-1969, there was a s i gn i f i c an t increase in both density and res ident ia l p r i ce . Central Lonsdale was the most i n -tens ive ly developed in terms, of apartments, a t t ract ing the highest sales, transactions as wel l as the highest pr ice l eve l s . Apartment development emerged as a means of redeveloping Lower Lonsdale where there was a gen-eral decay and obsolescence. During the period a l so , sales transactions rocketed up together with apartment density, but dropped down sharply in 1970. This trend seems to suggest that the study area reached a stage of " sa turat ion " in 1969, and from that time on, the housing market showed signs of decl ine. Land zoned fo r apartment, or approaching development was trans-acted in the same year or the year immediately pr io r to the beginning of construct ion. The patterns of the transaction seem c y c l i c a l . Specu-l a t i on was at i t s highest in 1969 in the apartment market creating a competitive process, and inf luencing a d i s t r i bu t i ona l pattern in land prices and density. Generally, however, the period 1967-1970 may be considered r ipe for apartment development in the C i t y . I t would seem that the zoning by-laws act as a guide in d i rect ing sales for res ident ia l s i t e s , while at the same time acting as a s ta tu -tory tool in cont ro l l i ng the locat ion of high dens i t ies . Though the study did not discuss the zoning by-laws per se, the i r ef fects are se l f -ev ident in many ways. This assumption i s based on the evidence that households do not decide, in statutory planning terms, the locations nor dens it ies at which they wish to l i v e . In general, the study has demonstrated that the greater the den-s i t y the higher the pr ice per s i t e acre. The structure of land prices is determined by the degree of density. The densit ies are highest in the 100th block along Lonsdale Avenue. They, however, tend to decline as the distance from the centre increases. The study has further established that the spat ia l pattern of density and pr ice has i dent i ca l character i s t i c s in i t s d i s t r i b u t i on . The structure and form of each successive pattern seems r e p e t i t i v e , pro-ducing a certa in uniform flow in i t s a t t r i bu te s , and throughout the period of the study. The movements with in the s t ructura l pattern appear to carry a certa in uniformity that gives i t a touch of d i s t r i bu t i ona l regu la r i t y . This regu lar i ty is i den t i f i ed as the pattern of spat ia l re -lat ionsh ip that ex ists between the d i s t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density and the d i s t r i bu t i on of prices of res ident ia l land. The study has again demonstrated that the d i s t r i bu t i ona l regu lar i ty has certa in proportional propert ies. These properties are associated with the nature of change in the apartment density, and with the distance from Lonsdale Avenue along an east-west ax i s . Thus th i s invest igat ion has shown that there i s a pattern of spat ia l re lat ionsh ip between the d i s t r i bu t i on of res ident ia l density and the d i s t r i bu t i on of land pr ices , and that th i s re lat ionsh ip i s associated with (a) the nature of change in the res ident ia l dens ity, and (b) the distance from the major a r t e r i a l s t reet . THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONCLUSIONS This f i n a l chapter evaluates the implications of the conclusions of th i s study in terms of a) apartment development and housing po l i c i e s for the C i t y of North Vancouver, and b) the present State of Theoretical knowledge and research. I t also makes some observations on the general methodology and technique of the study and explores possible areas for further research. Implications on Apartment Development and Residential Changes One important theme that emerges from the conclusion i s that when -population and economic a c t i v i t i e s reach a certa in stage, a pa r t i cu l a r part of a c i t y becomes a t t r ac t i ve to developers. This stage i s then con-sidered favourable f o r development. C lea r l y , the C i ty of North Vancouver has been proved to have reached that stage during 1967-1970. What are the planning impl icat ions of such a stage? a) The t r ad i t i ona l .and predominant s ing le family housing.would give way to apartments. Changes in land prices would occur, and the land prices would r e f l e c t the potential or expected uses rather than ex i s t ing uses and needs. This could d i s t o r t the normal structure of s i t e pr ices , and create considerable d i s pa r i t y , and an increased speculat ion. b) Economic factors inf luence, and are in turn influenced by other considerations of density. This implies that the housing market, i n the short run, would be responsive to the preva i l ing state of the economy. Any weaknesses in the economic base are therefore re f lected in the housing market. But the C i ty performs residen-t i a l functions for the metropolitan region, forming part of a wider metropolitan res ident ia l system. This implies that any var iat ions in the loca l economy, and v ice-versa, may a f fect any part of the to ta l apartment system. ' c) The primary factor in apartment demand i s population. An increase i n population does not in i t s e l f encourage apartment development. I t should be accompanied by buying power. Therefore, where the loca l economy i s sound, an increase in population i s a c r i t i c a l f ac to r in short term planning. However, in the long run, any growth in the prov inc ia l or federal economy becomes an important determinant, even where the population ;does not increase. d) Apartment development has been proved to be both economically and s o c i a l l y feas ib le as an instrument for redevelopment and a concept f o r e l iminat ing decay, with other things being equal. Lower Lonsdale has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y reactivated with apartment construct ion. In the short run, apartment development as a planning process }encourages growth. In the long run, when apartment construction reaches " sa tu ra t ion , " growth i s r e s t r i c t e d , and the land market begins to decl ine. The study has established th i s tendency with evidence from the sales transactions and pr ice l e ve l s , as demonstrated in the 1970 pattern and d i s t r i b u t i on . The zoning by-laws const i tute the statutory instrument fo r d i r -ecting and cont ro l l i ng apartments in terms of where they should be located, and at what level of density. Nevertheless, the study has proved that apartment development does not necessar i ly take place merely because an area has been zoned for that purpose. There are pockets of plots in Upper and Lower Lonsdale s t i l l un-developed even though the area has been zoned fo r apartments. This implies that apartment development, l i k e any form of invest-ment) i s sens i t ive to market react ions, and the taste of developers. This has further impl icat ion: that those who develop apartments can make or break the market. I t would therefore seem reasonable to deduce that at any pa r t i cu la r point in time, with other things held constant, the developer has the trump card. This suggests that markets and locations of apartments influence investment de-c i s i on s . In terms of land costs, there i s evidence in the invest igat ion that the developer increases the density pr imar i ly as a means of reducing his un i t cost of land. In f a c t , he may even choose to accept more cost ly construction in order to achieve the density. This implies that where the zoning by-laws put no r e s t r i c t i o n on res ident ia l dens i ty, the developer assumes the ro le of d i rect ing density concentrations and growth patterns. This indicates the effects of the 1967 zoning by-laws which put no l i m i t on the height of buildings in certa in parts of the C i t y . The Decision Process and Po l icy Considerations This study has shown that in planning fo r housing, i t i s not  enough to construct models of the economy, bu i ld input-output tab les , construct a : system of matrices, and delineate certa in sections of the land for apartments. I t i s important to make the plan operational by introducing into the process a system for evaluation and pred ic t ion . In view of t h i s , the study submits the fol lowing model as an aid in decision-making and po l i cy formulation. I t i s extracted from the technique used in the study, and used as a base fo r land use planning, predict ion and evaluat ion. Long Term/Short Term The advantage of the matrix-cum-grid technique i s that at any point in time, a p r i o r i judgements could be made on s pec i f i c s i tuat ions at any locat ion . This i s enhanced by the se l f -quant i fy ing att r ibutes as a base, predictions about apartment zoning proposals could be made. These predictions render themselves to an easy evaluation because of the unimodal character i s t i c s in the two aspects: predict ion and evaluation. Matrix-Cum-Grid Technique l t Predict ion b u i l t into the technique. Therefore, using the results in the construct For the plan or decision to be operat ional , i t i s evaluated in terms of short-term and long-term imp l i ca t ion , and the results viewed against the to ta l p red ic t ion . This implies that the model operates in a c y c l i c a l process, but produces l i nea r re su l t s . The three aspects—pred ic t ion, evaluat ion, and operat ional—provide a means of checking the v a l i d i t y of the technique i t s e l f , and any assumptions that i t may make. Any c r i t i c a l f ac to r in the planning process could be introduced into the construct as a va r iab le , and i t s re lat ionsh ip and impl icat ions establ ished through a s t a t i s t i c a l analys i s . The fol lowing areas are therefore submitted as c r i t i c a l factors i n apartment development for the C i ty of North Vancouver: a) Popu la t ion—i t s growth patterns, and i t s capacity to generate income indicate the rent-paying a b i l i t i e s . The demographic pat--term of household character i s t i c s estab l i sh the number and type of suites to be provided. b) The economy—the short-term ef fects of the loca l economy and i t s capacity to generate and accelerate investment in housing; and the long-term ef fects of the national economy and i t s i n f l a -t ionary repercussions. c) The locat ion of the apartments in terms of t r a ve l l i n g time to downtown Vancouver, and in re la t ion to proximity of shopping and other soc ia l serv ices. d) Redevelopment proposals and urban renewal schemes could apply . apartment development as a means of e l iminat ing b l i ght and achieving res ident ia l growth. e) The Zoning By-laws--how fa r they influence development, and are in turn influenced by other factors . f ) The taste and preferences of housing consumers, and how fa r they influence supply and type of housing. I t i s evident that part of the causes of increased land prices and re s ident ia l density i s a t t r ibutab le to the. developmental process i t -s e l f . The other causes are demographic, technolog ica l , soc io log ic and economic. These variables could be introduced into the construct as hypotheses, and t h e i r influences tested. B r i t ton Har r i s , commenting on the process of decision-making, takes the view that "the management of the scarce resource of space i s a predominant problem in metropolitan development and that soc ia l welfare and economic development problems are strongly coloured by spat ia l con-s iderat ions . " ' ' The spat ia l planning of apartment development in North Vancouver should therefore be conceived within a to ta l urban system -based on a long-term oriented decision-making and po l i cy . The Implications of the Conclusions on Ex i s t ing Theories In general, the findings of the study agree in a large measure with ex i s t ing theor ies. The effects of zoning by-laws on land values have been establ ished by the Uthwatt Committee: ^Br itton Har r i s , "Quantitat ive Models of Urban Development: t he i r Role in Metropolitan Policy-making" in Issues in Urban Economics (Harvey S. Pe r l o f f and L. Wingo (eds.)) (Washington, D.C: Resources for the Fu-ture, Inc., The John Hopkins Press, 1968). The publ ic control of the use of land, whether i t i s operated by means of the ex i s t ing planning l e g i s l a t i on or by other means, neces-s a r i l y has the e f fec t of s h i f t i n g land values; in other words, i t increases the value of some land, and decreases the value of the other, but i t does not destroy land va lues . 2 This implies that zoning by-laws have a tendency to red i s t r ibute land values. They also have the greatest e f fec t on pr ice l e ve l s . The 1967 zoning by-laws f a c i l i t a t e d the development of complementarity between economic a c t i v i t i e s , thus creating a r i se in the overal l land uses along Lonsdale Avenue. As Lean observes, " rent i s not merely a charge fo r a saving in transportation costs to the user of the s i t e , but a charge based on the 3 p r o f i t a b i l i t y or u t i l i t y obtained by the user fo r being on the s i t e . " There i s evidence that the higher the f l o o r on which a su i te i s , the higher the rent. This i s based on the views that the resident enjoys. Thus, rents are higher around V i c to r i a Park, and on h i l l y s i te s command-ing scenic views. This implies that "the more sa t i s f ac t i on a user obtains from a s i t e r e l a t i ve to other s i t e s , the more rent he w i l l be 4 w i l l i n g to pay." . The spat ia l forms that emerged in the density gradient and pr ice curves confirm the theoret ica l f indings of Col in Clark and the other 5 researchers. The f indings of the study on high density development in 2 Uthwatt Committee Report, Expert Commission on Compensation and  Betterment (London: H . M .S . O . ) , p. 15, paragraph 26. 3 Lean, Economics of Land Use Development, p. 75. 4 Lean, I b i d . , p. 76. re l a t i on to costs confirm the theoret ica l postulated of Stone. Lean and Goodall ' ' have formulated an economic approach in housing studies designed to aid the decision-making process. They observe: " i f i t i s calculated that the town planning w i l l lead to higher land values than would ex i s t without i t , then i t i s desirable from an economic point-of-view. The town plan which would lead to the highest aggregate land 8 values i s the best economically." Haig 's theories formulated in 1926 demonstrate that the c i t y planner must seek to reduce aggregate costs of f r i c t i o n to the lowest possible l e v e l . "Of the two c i t i e s , otherwise a l i k e , the better planned, from the economic point-of-v iew, is the one in which the costs of g f r i c t i o n are l e s s . " This view c l ea r l y contradicts that of Lean and Goodall. However, recent works by Evans^ has proved that Haig 's submission i s both t heo re t i ca l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y incorrect . But R a t c l i f f ^ seems to support Haig 's views, s t i pu l a t i ng that both the aggregate land values and to ta l transportation costs should be minimized at the same time. 6 Stone, Housing Development, Bui lding and Cost, pp. 117-120. ''Lean and Goodall, Aspects of Land Economics. 8 I b i d . , p. 229. 9 Robert M. Haig, "Towards an Understanding of the Metropol i s , " Quarterly Journal of Economics, XL (May, 1926), p. 421. ^ A l a n W. Evans, "Two Economic Rules for Town Planning: A c r i t i c a l note," Urban Studies, Vo l . 6, 1969. ^R . U. R a t c l i f f , Urban Land Economics, p. 385. In 1950, Quinn also introduced d i s u t i l i t y into the models of Haig and R a t c l i f f . However, in terms of zoning decis ions, the f indings 13 of Haig, R a t c l i f f and Quinn, were proved incorrect by Evans who states that housing planning by fol lowing th i s concept "can bring about a state of a f f a i r s such that e f f i c i ency i s not optimised but to ta l costs of f r i c t i o n are reduced below the costs of f r i c t i o n resu l t ing at an optimum." Furthermore, the f indings of Lean and Goodal l - - "the best planned town i s one where the aggregate land values are at a maximum"1 4 contra-d i c t R a t c l i f f s : i t " fol lows that the best planned c i t y w i l l have the 15 lowest to ta l of land values." The observations and conclusions of th i s study demonstrate that the in tens i t y and frequency of apartment uses appear to be at t he i r max-imum. This indicates the leve l of demand in the apartment market, the f e r t i l i t y of the market, and the ve r i l e nature of the housing transactions and speculat ion. These are indicators of a buoyant market in a r i s i ng land values. Therefore, the conclusions of the study support the views of Lean and Gooda l l 1 6 —the apartment development in the C i ty has been desirable from an economic point-of-v iew; and the planning in the Lons-dale Area of the City i s the best, at least fo r the per iod, 1967-1970. 12 James A. Quinn, Human Ecology (New York: Prentice H a l l ) . 1 3 I b i d . , p. 230. 1 4 Lean and Goodal l , I b i d . , p. 228. 1 5 R a t c l i f f , I b i d . , p. 15. 1 6 See reference 8. I t i s evident from the above theoret ica l analysis that contradic-tions ex i s t in th i s area of knowledge, and that our understanding of the subject i s l im i ted and confused. I t i s equally c lear from the planning impl icat ions , that the conclusions of th i s study have l i t t l e meaning unless they are related to and studied in conjunction with other factor s . As such, the fol lowing areas are suggested for further research: a) I t has been establ ished that the spat ia l pattern of apartment development in North Vancouver has been sec t i ona l , with d i s t i n c t homogeneous cha rac te r i s t i c s . The process of spat ia l change seems to create c r i t i c a l implications to our understanding of the subject. As Larry Bourne observes: "Concepts, such as con-cent r i c and sectoral var iat ions in land use patterns, and invasion and succession as descriptions of expansion in soc io-economic zones, are fa r too s i m p l i s t i c a view.of a complex 17 18 process." Though i t i s acknowledged that recent studies have thrown more l i g h t on the o r i g ina l concentric theory of ^ L a r r y S. Bourne, Pr ivate Redevelopment of the Central C i t y , p. 176. I o For example: N. M. Segal, "The Unchanging Area in T rans i t i on , " Land Economics, Vo l . 43, August 1967, pp. 284-293. Also: R. E. Preston, "The Zone in Trans i t ion: A Study of Urban Land Use Patterns, " Economic Geography, Vol . 42, July 1966, pp. 236-260. Idem, "Trans i t ion Zone Structure: The Three-Sector Hypothesis," The Town Planning Review, Vol . 39, October 1968, pp. 235-250. no Burgess, i t would seem that the process of spat ia l change in North Vancouver has such unique character i s t i c s that an i n v e s t i -gation would be worthwhile. b) The matrix-cum-grid technique used in th i s study has a consider-able potent ia l f o r organising and analysing data. Various models to aid various forms of decision in land use planning could be constructed from the technique. Its usefulness should be explored fu r ther , and i t s i n t r i n s i c qua l i t i e s ref ined and improved. c) The Unit of Measurement in the study of land values in re la t ion to land use planning i s an important area. The study should look in to the problem of aggregation of areal units in terms of i t s use as the s t a t i s t i c a l mean. d) The e f fect s of crime and other forms of moral delinquency on land values offers another area fo r research excitement. The Idest End of the City of Vancouver offers an opportunity for such an inves t i gat ion . e) The C i t y of North Vancouver i s applying the concept of apartment development as a t oo l fo r redevelopment. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the concept, and the v a l i d i t y of the c r i t e r i a fo r such redevelop-ment requires further studies. 19 For discussion on Burgess/Hoyt theory see F. Stuart Chapin, J r . , Urban Land Use Planning (Urbana: Univers ity of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965), pp. 13-21. Also see: Wallace Smith, Housing: The Social and Economic Elements (Berkeley: Univers i ty of Ca l i f o rn i a Press, 1970), pp. 336-341. f ) F i n a l l y , the use of apartment planning as a means of r e d i s t r i -buting demographic patterns of a major c i t y could be a useful device in population planning. This approach could further be developed as a technique in establ i sh ing the re lat ionsh ip be-tween regional planning and land use planning. In f a c t , the sectoral impl icat ions of national planning could be evaluated with in the context of local housing development and apartment planning. Limited techniques ex i s t fo r the evaluation and co-ordination of v e r t i c a l and horizontal planning as a t o ta l system. I t i s c r i t i c a l therefore that the impl ications of loca l planning on national po l i c i e s be invest igated. In.this connection, the matrix-cum-grid technique used in th i s study could be explored further in terms of i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y as a tool i n i dent i f y i ng the impl ications of both micro and macro planning. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abe l , Joseph H., and Fred N. Severud. Apartment Houses. New York: Progressive Architecture L ib rary , Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1947. Abrams, C. The C i ty i s the Front ier . New York: Harper and Tow, 1965. Alonso, Wi l l iam. "The Theory of the Urban Land Market." Paper-delivered at Regional Science Assoc. Annual Meeting, 1960. _ . Location and Land Use. Cambridge: Harvard Univers i ty Press, 1964. . "P red ict ing with imperfect Data," J . I . P . , Vo l . 35, No. 3, J u l y , 1968. Andrews, Richard B. Urban Growth and Development. New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1962. Anstey, Bryan. Planning and Land Va lue s . London : Estate Gazette, 1960. Armiaer, Louis E a r l , J r . Towards a Model of the Res ident ia l Location  Decision Process: A Study of Recent and Prospective Buyers of New  and Used Homes. Chapel H i l l : Univers i ty of North Caro l ina, 1966. Berkman, Herman G. "The Game Theory of Land Use Determination," Land  Economics, XLI, February, 1965. Beyer, Glenn H. Housing and Society. New York: Macmillan, 1965. Bourne, Larry S. Pr ivate Redevelopment of the Central C i t y . Chicago: Univers i ty of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, Research Paper #112, 1967. . "Comments on the Trans i t ion Zone Concept," The Professional Geographer, V o l . 2 0 , September, 1968. _ . "Market, Locat ion, and S i te Selection in Apartment Construc-t i o n , " The Canadian Geographer, Vo l . 12 (Winter 1968). , _ _ _ _ _ _ "Location Factors i n the Redevelopment Process: A Model of Residential Change," Land Economics, Vo l . 45 (February 1969). Brewster, Maurice R., Wi l l iam F l i n n , and Ernest Jurkat. How to Make and. Interpret Locational Studies of the Housing Market. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1955. Brigham, E. F. "The Determinants of Residential Land Values," Land • Economics, Nov. 1965. Brodsky, Harold. "Residential Land and Improvement Values in a Central C i t y , " Land Economics, August, 1970. Chapin, F. S. Urban Land Use Planning. Urbana: Univers i ty of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965. Chapin, Stuart, and Shi r ley F. Weiss. Factors Influencing Land Develop- ment: Evaluation of Inputs fo r a Forecast Model. Chapel H i l l : I n s t i tu te for Research and Social Science, Univers ity of North Caro l ina, 1962. C i ty of North Vancouver. Lower Lonsdale Revewal Scheme. C i ty of North Vancouver Planning Dept., 1968. ________ Apartment Zoning: Saturation Study. C ity of North Vancouver Planning Dept., March, 1968.. Co l t , E l i zabeth. Report on Family Liv ing in High Rise Apartment Bu i l d -ings. Publ ic Housing Admin., Government Pr int ing O f f i c e , Aug., 1965. Czamanski, S. "E f fects of Publ ic Investments on Urban Land Values," J . I . P . , Ju l y , 1966. Denman, D. R., and U. F. Stewart. Farm Rents. A l len and Unwin, 1959. . "Peak Prices and Planning," Journal of Planning and Property Law, No. 457, 1960. ~ Land in the Market. Hobart Paper 30. In s t i tute of Economic A f f a i r s , 1964. Duhl, Leonard J . (ed.). The Urban Condition. New York: Basic Books, 1963. E i ch l e r , Edward P., and Marshall Kaplan. The Community Bu i lder. Berkeley: Univers i ty of Ca l i f o rn ia Press, 1967. Etobicoke. Mul t ip le Family Housing. Etobicoke, Ontario Planning Dept., 1967. Evans, Alan W. "Two Economic Rules for Town Planning: A C r i t i c a l Note," Urban Studies, Vo l . 6. London, 1969. Frieden, Bernard J . , and R. Morris (eds.). Urban Planning and Social  Po l i cy . New York: Basic Books, 1968. G i l l i e s , James (ed.). Essays in Urban Land Economics. Los Angeles: Real Estate Research Programme, Univ. of Ca l i f o rn i a at Los Angeles, 1966. Goodman, Wil l iam I., and E r i c C. Freund (eds.). P r inc ip les and Pract ice  of Urban Planning. Washington: International C i ty Managers Assoc-i a t i o n , 4th ed. , 1968. Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board. Real Estate Trends, in Metropolitan  Vancouver, 1966. . Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1967. . Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1968. . Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1969. . Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1970. Grebler, Leo. Housing Issues in Economic S t ab i l i s a t i on Po l i cy . New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1960. , D. M. Blank, and L. Winnick. Capital Formation in Residential Real Estate. Princeton: Princeton Univers i ty Press, 1956. Grigsby, Wil l iam G. Housing Markets and Publ ic Po l i cy . Ph i ladelphia: Univers i ty of Pennsylvania Press, 1963. Haggett, Peter. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. London: Edward Arnold, L t d . , 1965. Haig, Robert M. "Towards an Understanding of the Metropol i s , " Quarterly . Journal of Economics, XL (May, 1926). H a l l , Peter (ed.). Land Values: being the report of the Proceedings of a Colloquium held in London on March 13 and 14, 1965, under the aus-pices of the Acton Society Trust. London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1965. Hansen, W. B. "How A c c e s s i b i l i t y Shapes Land Use," J . I . P . , XXV (May 1959). . "An Approach to the Analysis of Metropolitan Residential Exten-s i on , " Journal of Regional Science, Vo l . 13, No. 3, Summer, 1961. Har r i s , B r i t t on . "Plan or Project ion: An Examination of Use of Models in Planning," J.I .P., Vo l . 26, November, 1960. Harvey, D. W. "Pat tern, Process, and the Scale Problem in Geographical Research," Inst, of B r i t i s h Geographers Transactions, Sept., 1968. Hodge, Gerald, and Ira M. Robinson. Jobs, People and Transportation (Their role in Metropolitan Physical Development). 1960. Jensen, Rolt . High Density L i v ing . New York: Frederick Praeger, 1966. Kaiser, Edward J . Toward a Model of Residential Developer Location  Behavior. Unpublished Ph.D. d i s se r ta t i on , Univers ity of North Caro l ina, 1966. Lakshmanan, T. R. "A Model fo r A l locat ing Urban A c t i v i t i e s in a State, " Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vo l . 1, No. 3, J u l y , 1968. Lansing, John B., Gary Hendricks. L iv ing Patterns and Att itudes in the Detro it Region. Detro it Regional Transportation and Land Use Study, Metropolitan Area Regional Planning Commission, January, 1967. , Robert W. Marans. "Evaluation of Neighbourhood Qua l i ty , " J .A. I .P. , Vo l . 35, May, 1969. ~ Lean, Wi l l iam. Economics of Land Use Planning: Urban and Regional. London: The Estates Gazette, L t d . , 1966. , and B. Goodall. Aspects of Land Economics. London: The Estates Gazette, L t d ; , 1966. L i c h f i e l d , Nathaniel. Economics of Planned Development. London: The Estates Gazette, 1956. Lipman, M. Social Effects of the Housing Environment. Ottawa: Canadian Conference on Housing, Sept., 1968. L i t t l e F a l l s . Garden Apartment Study. L i t t l e Fa l l s Planning Board, Passaic County, New Jersey, May 1, 1965. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. Towards an Apartment Location  Po l i cy fo r Burnaby, D e c , 1964. Lowry, Ira S. Residential Location in Urban Areas. Berkeley: Univers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , unpublished Ph.D. d i s se r t a t i on , Dept. of Economics, 1956. _______ A Model of Metropol is. Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a : The Rand Corporation, 1964. Maise l , Sherman J . , and Leo Grebler. Determinants of Residential Con- s t r uc t i on . A Review of Present Knowledge. New York: Commission on Money and Cred i t , 1963. . Financing Real Estate. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. Metropolitan Toronto. Apartment Survey. Metro Toronto Planning Board, June, 1962. Meyerson, Martin et al_. Housing, People and C i t i e s . New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1962. Milgram, Grace. The C i ty Expands: A Study of the Conversion of Land from  Rural to Urban use, Phi ladelphia 1945-62. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1967. Morr is, R. N., and John Mogey. The Sociology of Housing. London: Rout-ledge and Kegan Paul , 1965. Nardecchia, T. J . Urban Land Values and the Compensation and Betterment  Problem. London: Estates Gazette, 1951. Needleman, L ione l . The Economics of Housing. London: Staples Press, 1965. Neutze, Max. The Suburban Apartment Boom. Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future, 1968. Nev i t t , Adela A. (ed.). The Economic Problems of Housing. New York:. Macmillan, 1967. Norcross, C a r l , and John Hyson. Apartment Communities. Urban Land I n s t i t u te , Technical Bu l l e t i n No... 61 , 1967. North York. Report on Apartments in North York. North York Planning Dept., Aug., 1968. Nourse, Hugh 0. Regional Economics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. Page, A l f red N., and Warren R. Seyfr ied. Urban Analys is: Readings in  Housing and Urban Development. Glenview, I l l i n o i s : Scott, Foresman and Co., 1970. Pascal , A. H. The Economics of Housing Segregation. Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a : The Rand Corporation. Memorandum RM-5510-RC. Nov., 1967. P e r l o f f , Harvey S., and Wingo Lowden (eds.). Issues in Urban Economics. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1968. Preston, R. E. "The Zone in Trans i t ion: A Study of Urban Land Use Pat-terns , " Economic Geography, Vo l . 42, J u l y , 1966. . "Trans i t ion Zone Structure: The Three Sector Hypothesis," The Town Planning Review, Vo l . 39, October, 1968. Quinn, James A. Human Ecology. New York: Prentice H a l l , 1948. Rapkin, Chester, L. Winnick, and David M. Blank. Housing Market Analys is . Washington: Government Pr in t ing O f f i ce , 1953. , and Wil l iam G. Grigsby. The Demand for Housing in Eastwick. Ph i lade lph ia: In s t i tute of Urban Studies, 1960. R a t c l i f f , Richard U. Urban Land Economics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1949. . Real Estate Analys i s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961. Reid, Margaret G. Housing and Income. Chicago: Univers i ty of Chicago Press, 1962. Rose, A lber t . "High Rise Habitat, " Canadian A rch i tec t , Vo l . 10, No. 3, March, 1965. Royal I n s t i tu te of B r i t i s h Arch i tect s . "Family L i f e in High Rise Density Housing." London, May, 1957. St. Louis. Mult iple-Family Housing: A Survey and Evaluation. St. Louis Planning Commission, 1965. S c i e n t i f i c American. C i t i e s . . New York: A l f red A. Knopf, 1966. . Segal, N. M. "The Unchanging Area in T rans i t i on , " Land Economics, Vo l . 43, August, 1967. Smith, Wallace F. Housing: The Social and Economic Elements. Berkeley: Univers i ty of Ca l i f o rn i a Press, 1970. Stevens, P. H. M. Densities in Housing Areas: Tropical Bui ld ing Studies  No. 1. London: Dept. of S c i e n t i f i c and Industr ia l Research, Bui lding Research Stat ion. H.M.S.O., 1960. Stone, P. A. Housing, Town Development, Land and Costs. London: The Estates Gazette L t d . , 1963. • • ' "The Pr ice of Sites fo r Residential Development," The Property  Developer. London, 1964. Taylor, G. K. Relationships Between Land Values and Land Use in a C.B.D. Washington: Urban Land I n s t i tu te , 1957. Technical Planning Board. Proposed Revisions to Apartment Zoning Regula- tions , Report No. 2, Aug., 1960. . Apartment Zoning and Suburban Commercial Centres, Report No. 3, Part A., Apartment Zoning, D e c , 1964. . Proposed Revisions to Apartment Zoning Regulations, RM-4, Mult ip le Dwelling D i s t r i c t , May 1965. Report No. 4. The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. Apartment Study, Planning and Property D i v i s i on , May, 1968. . Apartment Study (Supplement), A p r i l , 1969. Thompson, Wilbur R. A Preface to Urban Economics. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1965. Uthwatt Committee Report. Expert Commission on Compensation and Better-. ment. London: H.M.S.O., 1942. Vernon, R. The Myth and Realty of Our Urban Problems. Cambridge: Jo in t Centre for Urban Studies of M.I.T. and Harvard Un ivers i ty , 1962. V i c t o r i a . Oak Bay Apartment Study. Capital Region Planning Board, V i c t o r i a , Sept., 1966. Voorhees, A. M. "Appl icat ion of Model Techniques in Metropolitan Planning," A. I .P., Conference Proceedings, 1964. Weimer, Arthur M., and Homer Hoyt. Real Estate. New York: The Ronald Press Co., 5th e d i t i o n , 1966. Wendt, Paul F. Housing Pol icy—The Search for Solut ions. Berkeley:. Univers i ty of Ca l i f o rn i a Press, 1962. , and Wil l iam Goldner. "Land Values and the Dynamics of Residen-. t i a l Location,"-Essays in Urban Land Economics. Los Angeles: Univers i ty of Ca l i f o r n i a Real Estate Research Programme, 1966. West Vancouver Planning Department. Apartment Buildings in West Van- couver, 1965. Wheaton, Wil l iam L. C. et al_. (eds.). Urban Housing. New York: The Free Press, 1966. — Wil lhelm, S. M. Urban Zoning and Land Use. Theory. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. •Wilner, D. M. et al_. The Housing Environment and Family L i f e . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1962. -Wilson, James 0. (ed.). The Metropolitan Enigma. Cambridge: Harvard Univers i ty Press, 1968. Wingo, Lowden. Transportation and Urban Land. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961. APPENDICES APPENDIX A EARLY THEORIES ON LAND USE PATTERNS EARLY THEORIES ON LAND USE PATTERNS The fol lowing i s a summary of the f indings of David Ricardo, Johann Heinrich von Thunen, and Homer Hoyt on the theories about pat-terns of land use: 1 1) David Ricardo. The pr ice of land was his pr inc ipa l concern, and though his problems focused on ag r i cu l tu ra l land "his argument was so fundamental and his conclusions so basic that they c l ea r l y apply not only to a l l types of land uses, including urban, but to many other economic resources as w e l l . " I t was widely be-l ieved i n England, during the Napoleonic Wars, that a sharp i n -crease in the pr ice of food was caused by increases in the rent of land. The basis of Ricardo's study was to explain how such land rent was determined. His conclusion was that the pr ice of wheat was not determined by the rent of the land, but rather land rents were determined by the pr ice of wheat. Answering the question why land should have a p r i ce , since the pr ice does not determine the quantity of land, Ricardo came out with the central point that rent i s not a cost of production, and that i t i s a consequence of d i f f e r e n t i a l product iv i ty o f a type of For a discussion on t h i s , see Wallace Smith, Housing: the Social  and Economic Element (Berkeley: Univers ity of Ca l i f o rn i a Press, 1970), pp. 325-355. resource which i s f i xed in supply. The coro l la ry being that rent i s a " t rans fer payment." Economic rent Land Type of Land Crop The supply of land i s f i xed in l oca t i on , and i s not affected by changes in pr ice of land. The demand D brings in rent Ox per un i t of land, and i f demand increases to D', i t brings i t a rent of Oy. Rent r i ses with increase in demand, more wealth accrues because supply i s f i x ed . 2) Johann Heinrich von Thunen. Like Ricardo, he worked on a g r i -cu l tu ra l problems, and though his work may not have a d i rect -bearing on housing per se, nevertheless the pr inc ip les involved .are of urban s i gn i f i cance. He based the l oca t i on , type, and patterning of the agr i cu l tu ra l a c t i v i t i e s on seven condit ions: - there i s only one c i t y with i t s ag r i cu l tu ra l h inter land; - . the c i t y i s the only market fo r surplus products from the h inter land; - the hinterland ships i t s surplus products to no other market except the c i t y ; - the hinterland has a homogeneous physical environment favour-able f o r ag r i cu l tu ra l a c t i v i t i e s ; 2 Joseph A. Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis (New York: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1954), pp. 465-468. - the hinterland i s inhabited by farmers desir ing the maximise t he i r p ro f i t s and capable of adjusting t he i r type of farming to the demands of the market; - only one means of transportation in the h inter land; - transportation costs are d i r e c t l y proportional to distance and are borne en t i r e l y by the farmers who ship the produce. Given th i s s i t u a t i o n , s i x concentric rings of d i f fe rent a g r i c u l -tu ra l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l develop around the c i t y . Any p r o f i t a farmer rea l i sed depended on three var iables: (a) the s e l l i n g pr ice at the marked, (b) production cost on the farm, and (c) transportat ion cost between the two. This i s shown by the f o r -mula: P = V - (E + T) where P = p r o f i t , V .= value of commodities so ld , E = to ta l production expenses, e.g., labout, equipment, e t c . , T = transportation cost in getting the commodities from farm to market. Using examples, Thunen observed that the cost expended and prices received per acre (or per any unit of land area) vary with com-modity. The main conclusion i s that "the number of p ro f i tab le options decreases with distance from the c i t y market." His theory has two pr inc ipa l aspects: - that an outer distance fo r each type of farming would be de-termined by decl in ing p ro f i t s depending on transport costs; - that an inner distance would be determined by more lucrat ive a l te rnat i ves . 3 Smith comments that what von Thunen has done i s to subst itute transportation costs fo r Ricardo's differences in f e r t i l i t y to explain the existence of economic rent for land and the reason f o r var ia t ion in the rent of d i f fe rent parcels of land. The observations on his theory are that though the basic forces he t r i ed to explain are s t i l l operative, the numerous •forms of modern transportation make an example of his study d i f -f i c u l t to come by. Furthermore, transportation costs are neither /directly proportional to distance nor do they increase s im i l a r l y i n a l l d i rec t ions . However (as Smith observes) Thunen's concept i s important fo r the study of land economics. There i s the impl icat ion that under the conditions assumed by him, rat iona l s e l f - i n t e r e s t on the part of pr ivate land owners serves the publ ic in teres t at least as well as any "planned" system of land use. The log ic in his concept provides a s ta r t ing point in the analysis of many land-use problems. His model i s f l e x i b l e both with respect to quan-t i t i e s of products and to changes in the transportation cost per mile fo r e i ther or both of the crops. *Smith, Ib id. 3) Homer Hoyt. Analysing res ident ia l neighbourhoods involving more than 200,000 blocks in about seventy American c i t i e s , and apply-ing a sector construct, he evolved a theory that growth takes place along main transportation routes to form a star shaped c i t y . He observed that high rent neighbourhoods move from the centre towards the c i t y ' s edge. He further noted that: - high grade res ident ia l growth tends to proceed from a given point of o r i g in along established l ines of t ravel or towards another ex i s t ing nucleus of buildings or trading centres; - the zone of high rent areas tends to progress toward high ground which i s free from the r i s k of f lood ing, e t c . ; - the higher-priced res ident ia l neighbourhood tends to grow fo -rward the homes of the leaders of the community; - high grade res ident ia l areas tend to develop along the fastest ex i s t ing transportation l i n e s ; - the growth of high-rent neighbourhoods continues in the same d i rec t ion f o r a long period of t ime; - deluxe high-rent apartment areas tend to be established near the business centre in old res ident ia l areas. APPENDIX B STATISTICAL DATA ON APARTMENTS - GENERAL TABLE B.I POPULATION - NORTH VANCOUVER 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 .1986 C i ty of North Vancouver 7,652 8,510 8,914 15,687 19,951 23.656 26,851 30,000 34,000 37,400 40,000 Dist of North Vancouver. 2,950 4,788 5,931 14,469 26,252 38,971 48,124 58,000 72,000 84,000 98,900 TOTAL 10,602 13,298 14,845 30,156 46,203 62,627 74,975 88,000 106,000 121,400 138,900 Note: Population f igures for 1961-1986 do not include Indian Reserves. Source: Compiled from 1921-1961, Census of Canada; and L.M.R.P.B. Population Trends ( A p r i l , 1968). AREA • C i ty of North Vancouver 4.4 sq. miles approximately D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver 62.4 sq. miles approximately 66.8 sq. miles approximately ro oo Apartment Suites Apartment Suites Total Prcntge of Total Prcntge of Number City Total Number City Total Metropolitan Vancouver 56,531 TOO.O 2,595 _ _ 100.0 Vancouver 40,158 100.0 71.0 1,794 100.0 69.1 West End 16,144 40.2 28.6 '420 23.4 16.2 South Granville-Oak 5,344 13.3 9.4 321 17.9 12.4 K i t s i l a no ' 4,256 10.6 7.5 261 14.5 10.0 Kerr isdale 2,893 7.2 5.1 121 6.7 4.7 Marpole 2,892 7.2 5.1 166 9.3 6.4 East Hastings 5,183 12.9 9.2 310 17.3 11.9 Rest of C ity 3,446 8.6 6.1 195 10.9 7.5 Burnaby 5,204 — 9.2 282 — 10.9 New Westminster 4,541 8.1 181 — 7.0 North Vancouver 2,999 — 5.3 190 — 7.3 West Vancouver 1,843 — . 3.3 51 — 2.0 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 1,082 — 1.9 62 — 2.4 "Southern Mun ic ipa l i t i e s^ 575 — 1.0 27 — 1.4 Type of Suite by Munic ipa l i ty One- Two- Three-Total Bachelor Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Metropolitan Vancouver % TOO % 16.4 % 62.3 % 18.1 % 3.2 Vancouver 100 19.9 66.1 12.9 1.1 West End 100 24.7 65.3 9.5 0.5 South Granville-Oak 100 22.0 65.7 11.6 0.7 K i t s i l ano 100 13.0 72.2 1.4.5 0.3 Kerr isdale 100 8.2 63.4 24.6 3.8 Marpole 100 10.8 73.4 15.4 0.4 East Hastings 100 22.9 65.3 10.9 0.9 Rest of C i ty 100 11.3 62.2 22.7 3.8 Burnaby 100 2.8 51.0 33.7 12.4 New Westminster 100 12.9 63.9 20.8 2.4 North Vancouver 100 3.5 48.1 42.2 6.2 West Vancouver 100 13.6 52.4 28.0 6.0 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 100 3.0 37.0 41.9 18.1 Southern Municipalities;}) 100 1.7 34.5 35.7 28.1 Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, and Port Moody. ^Richmond, Surrey, White Rock, and Delta. Source: Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate  Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1968. DISTRIBUTION OF APARTMENTS BY AREA AND TYPE Metropolitan Vancouver, December 1969 Apartment Suites Apartment Suites Total Prcntge of Total Prcntge of Number C i ty Total Number C i ty Total Metropolitan Vancouver 72,059 100.0 3,014 _ _ _ 100.0 Vancouver 46,046 100.0 64.1 1,945 100.0 64.5 West End 18,069 39.2 25.0 446 22.9 14.8 South Granvilie-Oak 6,199 13.5 8.6 336 17.4 11,2 K i t s i l a no 5,155 11.2 7.6 286 . 14.7 9.4 Kern's dale 2,894 6.3 4.0 121 6.2 4.0 Marpole 3,158 6.8 4.4 177 9.1 5.8 East Hastings 6,391 13.9 8.9 353 18.1 11.8 Rest of C ity 4,180 9.1 5.6 226 11.6 7.5 Burnaby 8,102 — - 11.2 351 — 11.6 New Westminster 6,266 — • 8.7 222 — 7.4 North Vancouver 5,133 — 7.1 265 — 8.8 West Vancouver 2,315 • — 3.2 57 — 1.9 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 1,784 2.4 64 — 2.2 Southern Municipalities<j) 2,284 — '3.1 102 — 3.4 Type of Suite by Munic ipa l i ty One- Two- Three-Total Bachelor Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Metropolitan Vancouver 72,°059 % 14.9 % 61.7 % 19.9 % 3.5 Vancouver 46.046 19.4 66.4 13.1 1.1 West End 18,069 25.0 64.5 9.5 0.5 South Granvilie-Oak 6,199 21.9 65.3 11.9 0.9 K i t s i l ano 5,155 13.7 72.9 13.1 0.3 Kerr isdale 2,894 8.1 63.4 24.7 3.8 Marpole 3,158 10.7 73.7 15.1 0.4 East Hastings 6,391 21.5 68.4 9.4 0.7 Rest of C i ty 4,180 9.6 61.7 25.1 3.6 Burnaby 8,102 3.9 57.9 29.3 8.9 New Westminster 6,266 12.2 64.9 20.8 2.1 North Vancouver 5,133 5.9 45.3 39.9 8.9 West Vancouver 2,315 11.2 52.3 29.6 6.9 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 1,784 1.5 43.4 39.0 16.1 Southern Municipal ities<}>.. .2,284 2.1 39.6 ' 41.4 16.9 * Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, and Port Moody. 'Richmond, Surrey, White Rock, and Delta. Source: Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, Real Estate , Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1970. TABLE B.4 APARTMENT VACANCY RATES, 1964-1970 A l l Buildings 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 . 1969 1970 A l l Types of Suites % % . % % % % % Metropolitan Vancouver '4.8 4.0 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.2 2.7 Vancouver C i ty 4.3 4.1 1.6 1.0 1.1 0.8 2.1 West End 3.1 4.7 2.0 1.1 1.3 1.0 2.2 South Granvilie-Oak 3.9 2.9 0.5 1.2 0.6 0.6 1.6 K i t s i l ano 4.9 1.7 1.1 0.5 1.0 0.4 2.0 Kern's dale 2.1 6.3 2.6 0,3 0.6 0.8 1.1 Marpole 3.8 4.4 0.3 1.1 1.9 0.3 3.1 East Hastings 11.3 3.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.5 Rest of C i ty - - 1.1 0.5 0.2- 2.1 Burnaby 6.6 1.7 0.4 1.0 2.2 2.2 3.3 New Westminster 7.9 5.0 1.4 1.1 2.0 1.9 4.1 North Vancouver 5.1 4.1 0.4 0.5 1.4 1.2 3.4 West Vancouver 8.6 6.1 2.9 1.4 1.0 2.3 1.9 Bachelor Suites Metropolitan Vancouver — 4.6 1.1 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.7 -Vancouver City - 4.4 0.9 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.6 West End - . 4.8 0.8 0.7 1.4 0.8 1.5 South Granvi1le-Oak - 1.4 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.7 K i t s i l ano - 2.9 1.6 . 0.4 1.3 0.2 2.3 Kern's dale - 11.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 2.0 Marpole - 3.2 .0.0 0.7 0.4 0.0 2.5 East Hastings - 5.6 2.2 2.3 2.8 1.5 1.5 Rest of C i ty - - 2.6 .0.9 0.0 2.1 Burnaby - 1.7 0.0 3.9 1.7 3.9 2.0 New Westminster - 8.1 0.6 1.6 1.8 2.5 3.2 North Vancouver - 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.4 West Vancouver • - 5.8 5.3 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.8 Note: There have been s l i g h t changes in concept and cover-age of the various surveys. These changes do not a f fec t year-to-year comparisons. The vacancy surveys were conducted in e i ther May or June in each year shown above. 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 One-Bedroom Suites % % % % % % % Metropolitan Vancouver _ 4.4 1.6 1.0. 1.4 1.2 3.1 Vancouver C i ty - 4.4 1.7 1.0 1.1 0.8 2.4 West End - 5.2 2.3 1.1 1.3 0.8 2.5 South Granvi.lle-Oak - 3.3 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.5 2.3 K i t s i l ano - • 1.6 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.6 2.3 Kerr isdale •7.8 1.8 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.9 Marpole • - 5.5 0.2 1.1 2.1 0.4 3.6 East Hastings 2.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.9 3.0 Rest of C ity - - - 0.8 0.3 0.3 1.8 Burnaby 1.8 0.6 1.4 3.3 3.2 4.3 New Westminster - 4.0 1.2 1.2 1.9 1.8 4.7 North Vancouver - 3.5 0.7 0.8 2.0 1.4 5.3 West Vancouver - 8.2 2.9 0.8 0.6 2.1 1.9 Two-Bedroom Suites Metropolitan Vancouver - 2.3 1.8 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.5 Vancouver C i ty - 2.3 2.5 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.6 West End - 2.5 2.7 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.7 South Granville-Oak — 3.5 0.4 2.9 0.5 1.2 1.0 K i t s i l ano 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.6 Kerr isdale - 1.6 5.3 0.3 1.0 0.2 1.3 Marpole 0.4 0.9 1.2 ; 1.1 0.2 1.2 East Hastings - " 4.6 , 0.7 1.9 -0.7 1.2 1.4 Rest of C i ty - - •. - 1.2 0.3 0.1 3.2 Burnaby - 1.7 0.3 0.7 1.3 1.1 2.0 New Westminster - 5.7 2.0 0.7 2.4 1.6 2.7 North Vancouver - 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.6 1.8 West Vancouver - . 2.0 1.2 3.2 0.8 3.1 2.0 Source: Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, Real Estate  Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1970. TABLE B.5 APARTMENT VACANCY RATES, JUNE 1970 Vacancy Rates by Size of Bui lding A l l 10-19 20 or more Buildings . Units Units Units Metropolitan Vancouver 2.7% 2.3% 2.1% 3.0% Vancouver C i ty 2.1 2.4 1.8 2.2 West End 2.2 1.7 1.9 2.2 South Granvilie-Oak 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.9 K i t s i l ano 2.0 1.5 1.1 2.6 Kerr isdale 1.1 6.8 1.0 0.6 Marpole 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.0 East Hastings 2.5 3.0 2.4 2.5 Rest of C ity 2.1 1.5 1.9 2.3 Burnaby 3.3 2.1 3.7 3.3 New Westminster 4.1 2.2 2.7 4.5 North Vancouver 3.4 1.3 1.4 4.8 West Vancouver 1.9 1.7 0.7 1.9 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 8.4 • 5.4 5.0 9.2 .Southern Muni c i pal ities<j> 4.8 3.7. 3.2 5.2 Vacancy Rates by Type of Suite One- Two- Three-Bachelor Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Metropolitan Vancouver 1.7% 3.1% - 2.5% 1.8% Vancouver C i ty 1.6 2.4 1.6 0.2 West End 1.5 2.5 1.7 0.0 South Granvilie-Oak 0.7 2.0 1.0 2.7 K i t s i l ano 2.3 2.3 0.6 0.0 Kerr isdale 2.0 0.9 1.3 0.0 Marpole 2.5 3.6 1.2 0.0 East Hastings 1.5 3.0 1.4 0.0 Rest of C i ty 2.1 1.8 3.2 0.0 Burnaby 2.0 4.3 2.0 1.7 New Westminster 3.2 4.7 2.7 4.1 North Vancouver 3.4 5.3 1.8 2.4 West Vancouver 0.8 1,9 2.0 2.5 Eastern Mun i c i pa l i t i e s * 4.6 12.7 5.3 4.0 Southern Muni ci pal ities<j> 0.0 '2.4 8.7 1.3 Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, and Port Moody. ^Richmond, Surrey, White Rock, and Delta. Source: Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, Real Estate  Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1970. Approximate Monthly Rents Bachelor One-Bedroom Two-Bedroom Vancouver City $ $ $ West End - frame 95 110 145 - highr ise 105 • 125 180 South Granville-Oak - frame 95 120 165 - highrise 105 135 175 K i t s i l ano - frame 95 115 155 - highr ise 105 130 175 Kerr isdale - frame 95 130 180 - highrise 107 145 200 .Marpole 95 115 155 East Hastings 90 105 145 Main Street 90 105 145 Burnaby 105 125 150 New Westminster - frame 95 115 150 - h ighr ise 100 125 155 -North Vancouver 100 130 170 West Vancouver 105 130 180 Richmond - 125 165 Surrey - 115 145 White Rock 100 125 150 Delta - 130 , 165 Coquitlam 90 115 145 Port Coquitlam - 110 135 Port Moody - 115 140 Source: Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1968. Approximate Monthly Rents Studio One-Bedroom Two-Bedroom Three-Bedroom Vancouver C i t y $ - ' $ • . $ $ West End - frame 115 135 175 -- highrise 125 150 200 -South Granville-Oak - frame 115 145 200 -highrise 125 155 215 -K i t s i l ano - frame 115 145 200 -- highrise 125 160 210 -Kerr i sdale - frame 115 145 200 -highrise 125 160 215 -Marpole n o 130 175 -East Hastings n o 130 165 -Main n o 130 165 -Burnaby 115 135 160 -*New Westminster _ frame 100 • 120 150 -- highrise 105 135 165 --North Vancouver 115 135 175 -West Vancouver - highrise 115 150 200 -Coquitlam 125 160 180 Port Coquitlam - 120 155 175 Port Moody - 120 145 160 Richmond - 130 165 230 Surrey _ townhouse _ 130 165 195 - frame - 120 140 160 White Rock - 125 150 -Delta - 130 170 -Source: Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, Real Estate  Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1970. 1961 1981 Metropolitan Population 790,165 1 ,300,000 Persons per dwelling 3.46 3.3 rj) Total dwellings 228,596 394,000 % apartments of to ta l new dwellings 1961-1981 -- 40 Total apartments 36,188 102,400 & apartments of to ta l dwellings 15.8 "26.0 Apartment increase 1961-1981 Total 66,200 Average Annual 3,310 Vancouver C i ty Population 384,522 435,000 Persons per dwelling 3.25 3.10 <f> Total dwellings 118,405 140,000 Total apartments 29,200 68,900 Purpose-designed 21,800 61,500 Conversions 7,400 7,400 % apartments of to ta l dwellings i n C ity 24.7 49.2 Apartment increase 1961-1981 Total : 39,700 Average Annual 1,985 % of Metro Increase 60 % of Total Metro apartments in C ity 81 67 * Apartment Zoning and Suburban Commercial Centres, Part A -Apartment Zoning, Table 5, City of Vancouver. ' ' ' i t i s assumed that the trend of decrease in household s ize which has taken place throughout th i s century w i l l continue 1961-1981. Source: The Corp. of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Apartment Study. Number of Units 1961 (Actual) 1964 (Forecast) 1981 (Forecast) Metropolitan Vancouver 36,188 48,181 102,400 Vancouver C i ty Share 29,200 36,768 68,900 Residual fo r Metro (exc l . Vancouver) 6,988 11,413 33,500 North Vancouver Share (Projected from Ci ty and D i s t r i c t % in 1961) 2,093 3,238 9,514 CDNV Share (Projected from % in 1961) 132 217 636 North Vancouver Share (Projected from C i ty and D i s t r i c t % in 1964) 2,093 2,748 8,074 s CDNV Share (Projected from % in 1964) 132 239 704 Forecast from 1966 School Study Dist . of North Vancouver C i ty of North Vancouver 7,770 4,320 NORTH VANCOUVER (TOTAL) (Ultimate Total) 12,090 Source: The Corp. of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Apartment Study. The f igures below fo r frame buildings are based on eight buildings rang-ing from 2 to 5 years old which have a t o ta l of 248 su i te s , and eight buildings ranging from 8 to 42 years old having a to ta l of 161 su i tes . The figures fo r high r i se buildings are based on seven buildings ranging from 2 to 5 years old with a to ta l of 1,034 su i tes . Buildings 2-5 years Buildings 8-42 years Prcntge of Annual Cost Prcntge of Annual Cost Rntl Incme Per Unit Rntl Incme Per Unit Frame Buildings % $ . % : $ Fixed Costs: Taxes 12.2 188 11.9 150 Insurance 1.1 17 0.8 10 Operating Expenses: Licence 0.7 10 0.7 10 E l e c t r i c i t y 2.1 32 1.7 21 Fuel - Gas 4.2 65 5.1 64 Caretaker 5.4 83 7.8 98 Scavenging 0.1 2 1 i Water 0.7 10 i . i 1 o Miscellaneous 1.2 18 4.8 60 Cablevision 1.2 18 1.4 18 Repair & Maintennce Costs 5.1 78 10.7 135 TOTAL 34.0 521 46.0 579 High Rise Buildings Fixed Costs: Taxes 16.5 306 Insurance 0.7 13 Operating Expenses: Licence 0.5 10 • ' ' E l e c t r i c i t y 2.7 50 Fuel - Gas 2.4 45 Caretaker 4.9 91 Scavenging - Water 0.6 11 Miscellaneous 1.3 24 Cablevision 1.1 20 Repair & Maintennce Costs 4.3 80 TOTAL 35.0 . .651 1958 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 Capital Asset Mileage .- . Roads: Hard Surfaced Earth or Gravel Total 56.9 41.8 98.7 62.2 39.2 101.4 63.8 38.7 102.5 66.2 37.6 103.8 71.8 37.6 109.4 79.0 32.3 111.3 79.4 32.6 112.0 Sidewalks: Concrete 29.7 41.2 43.6 47.1 . 49.3 54.0 58.8 Sewers: Sanitary Storm 34.9 7.7 51.7 19.2 55.8 21.1 59.8 23.6 63.2 25.6 64.8 28.4 65.2 32.4 Water Mains: Permanent Temporary Tota l 62.1 1.6 63.7 66.8 1.1 67.9 67.2 1.1 68.3 68.0 1.1 69.1 68.4 1.1 69.5 69.9 1.5 71.4 71.3 1.1 72.4 ^Number of: Water Services Hydrands Street Lights 5,368 367 589 5,843 398 684 6,009 402 682 6,003 410 676 6,079 413 688 6,118 419 741 6,162 423 753 1966 Population i s F inal Census f igure per D.B.S. Bu l l e t i n A-3 of 8-6-67. 2 Basis of Assessment i s 50% of current market value. Assessed values are taxable to a maximum of 100% on land and 75% on improvements f o r both General Purpose and School Taxes. Improvements are taxed at 40% fo r General Purposes in the C i ty of North Vancouver. 3 Net Taxable Assessment f o r General Purpose Taxation—Land 100%— Improvements 40%. ^Percentage breakdown fo r 1968 Taxable Assessments i s as fo l lows: Residential 50.9; Apartment 19.1; Commercial 11.6; Industr ia l 18.4. ^Includes debenture issues of $1,000,000 authorized under a f i ve year Capital Improvement By-law passed in 1966, which provided fo r the borrowing of $1.7 m i l l i o n . A supplementary Debt Retirement Fund Reserve . fo r repayment of Refunding Debenture Pr inc ipa l amounted to $297,074 as at December 31, 1968, and has not been deducted from the 1968 Gross De-benture Debt. Source: Assessors Dept., C i ty of North Vancouver. APARTMENT FLOOR SPACE RATIOS AND PARKING REQUIREMENTS BY MUNICIPALITY, AUGUST 1968 Building Regulations Required Parking F.S.R. S i te area Units Max. S i te . Car spaces Max. bldg area per unit per acre Coverage per su i te per acre North Vancouver sq . f t . % sq . f t . C i ty R.G. - 2,400 18.1 - 1.20 -R.M.I 1.00*<j> - - - 1.20 -R.M.2 1.00 - - - 1.20 -R.H. 1.20* - - 1.20 -North Vancouver D i s t r i c t R.G.I - 6,000 7.3 _ 1.25 -R.G.2 - 3,600 12.1 - 1.25 -R.G.3 - 2,400 18.1 - 1.25 -R.H.I - 1,200 36.3 - 1.25 -R.H.2 - 800 54.4 - • 1.25 -R.H.3 - 800 54.4; 1.25 -West Vancouver 1.75* - - • .1. • 1.00# -Balconies not included. *Bonus can be earned (e.g., s i t e s i z e , l o t coverage, or parking). *Must be enclosed within the bui lding and/or underground. Source: Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, 1968. APARTMENT FLOOR SPACE RATIOS AND PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1970 Bui lding Regulations Required Parking F.S.R. S i te area. Units Max. S i te Car spaces Max. bldg area per unit per acre Coverage per su i te per car space sq . f t . % s q . f t . North Vancouver C i t y R.G. _ 2,400 18.1 - 1.20 -R.M.I 1.00*<j) - - - 1.20 -R.M.2 1.00*<|> - - 1.20 -R.H. 1.20*<f> . - - - 1.20 -West Vancouver R.M.I 1.75* Min. 400 _ - 1.00# 900 R.M.2 1.75* Min. 400 - - 1.00# 900 R.M.2 Townhouse 1.75 - - 1.50 -North Vancouver D i s t r i c t R.G.I _ 6,000 7.3 50° 1.25 -R.G.2 _ 3,600 , 12.1 50 1.25 -R.G.3 - 2,400 '> 18.1 50 1.25 -R.G.4 - • 9,600 4.5 50 1.25 -R.G.5 - 7,200 6.1 50 1.25 -R.H.I' - 1,200 36.3 50 1.25 -R.H.2 Low r i s e - 800 54.4 50 1.25 -R.H.3 - 800 54.4 50 1.25 -Balconies not included. Source: Real Estate Board of ^ ^Bonuses can be earned (e.g., s i t e s i z e , l o t coverage, parking). Greater Vancouver, Real Estate oMust be enclosed with in the bui lding and/or underground. Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, Coverage permitted varies by type of bui ld ing and may include 1^ ZP_-parking areas and driveways in some instances. APPENDIX C THE STRUCTURE" AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALE PRICE, 1967-1970 S t r t West 21 116 00 0 q 13 000 20 19 140 000^ 16 000 18 74 000 5 1 5 000 17 97 000 g 16 000 16 278 000 4 70 000 15 27 000 2 14 000 14 90 000' g 18 000 13 211 000-j £ 19 000 12 118 000 4 29 000 11 10 9 8 7 1131 000 7 162 000 6 51 000 4 13 000 5 76 000 g 13 000 4 248 OOO-JQ 25 000 3 136 000-|i 12 000 2 12 000 2 6 000 1 75 000 g 15 000 UJ UJ <c o co East 742 000, 000 62 737 000 000 3 82 107 000 000 21 292 22 o o o 1 3 000 189 15 o o o 1 3 000 158 ooo e 000 26 240 000 £ 000 30 318 000 £ 000 40 1310 000 c 262 000 1269 0 0 0,, ooo1 115 34.7 ooo 7 000 50 181 000 36 ooo w 19 000 . 10 000 c 87 000 „ o o o . J 29 99 000 16 ooo 6 136 000 r. 17 000 177 000 g 000 20 194 000 r. 000 24 204 18 00O| i 000 67 ooo 7 10 000 53 ooo 5 _oo.p_._ 11 KEITH ROAD St r t WestHj East 21 148 000 25 000 316 000 7 45 000 ' 20 39 000 , 19 000 L 326 000 47 000 ' 19 155 000 , 52 000 " 649 000 72 000 18 305 000 c 3 3 000 515 000 g 64 000 17 290 000 , 48 00 0 404 000-J2 34 000 16 216 000 -31 000 ' 1281 000 ^ 320 000 15 374 0.0 0-ir 37 000 539 000-ir-54 00 0 14 53 00 0. • 18 000 34 0 00 . 17 000 C 13 27 500". 27 500 00 0 . ''22 0 00 12 30 500 . 30 500 rj z: 557 000 70 000 8 11 >• < 367 000 c 73 000 w 10 <c Q 55 000 18 0 00 " 9 CO o _ i 30 000 r 15 000 C 8 20 000 20 000 17 637 000. 91 000 ' 282 000 28 000 K 6 188 000 -27 000 529 000 c 59 000 " 5 117 000 C 23-00 0 * 1 118 0002(-56 000 4 513 • 000, • 47 000 3 30 0 0 0,, 27 000 C 3 87 0.0 0 L 22 000 .275 000 , 46 00 0 2 8.8 000 -1 3 000 519 000|Z 37 000 1 9 500 • 9 500 301 OOO,, 19 000 Grid 10 - 1967 Grid 11 - 1968 The Structure and D i s t r ibut ion of Sale Prices by Street Key: The top f igure represents tota l sales for the year. The lower f igure i s the annual average sal'e. The side f igure i s the annual tota l number of sales transacted. S t r t West 21 268 000 g 45 000 20 574 000 1 15 .000 b 19 18 282 000,,. 28 000 17 256 000 7 37 000 16 386 000 3 5 000 1 15 60 000 20 000 3 14 35 000 2 17 000 13 12 88 0 00 -j 11 10 9 8 128 000 7 53 9 0 0.Q 49 0 0 0*' 6 366 000 46 0 0 0 8 5 3 30 0 00 37 000 9 4 617 000 51 OOO12 3 152 000 25 000 6 2 149 000 15 OOO10 1 89 000 . 22 000 U J Q CO East S t r t West 57 000 , 28 000 C 21 631 000 r 315 000 C 388 000 97 000 20 182 000 61 000 3 512 000 170 000 3 19 439 000 55 000 8 1358 000 7 194 000 ' 18 576 00 0 144 000 ^ 388 000 26 000 l b 17 18 3 50 ^  25 000 6 000 ^ 16 168 000 , 84 000 L 420 000 , 210 000 c 15 164 0U0 , 55 000 ^ 364 000 i 91 000 .14 13 750 • 335 000 4 84 000 13 780 000 L 195 000 485 000 L 121 000 12 554 ooa 55 000 11 65 000 22 000 3 10 9 67-000 ' 17 000V 8 157 000 52 000 3 KEITH ROAD 7 702 0 0 0 ', 234 0 00 C 1816 000 202 000 9 6 372 000 ? 53 000 535 ooa 134 0 0 0 5 109 0 00 c 22 000 w 320 ooa 32 OOO10 4 L 201 000 , 200 .000 737 ooa 49 000 3 309 000 44 000 / 1007 000 35 OOCr 2 117 0O0 f 20 000 296 0 0 0, 3 23 000 1 1 13 000 • 23 000 ' East 94 000 24 000 100 000 25 000 49 000 16 000 219 000 27 000 28 000 '28' 000 76 000 19 000 37 000 2 19 000 313 000 78 .00 0 72 000 18 OOO 46 "000 15 0-00 20 000 20 000 54 000 27 000 764 000 255 000 299 000 43 000 797 0 00 .133 000 106 000 35 000 258 000 64 000 34 000 11 00 0 319 000 40 000 Grid 12 - 1969 Grid 13 - 1970 The Structure and D i s t r ibut ion of Sale Prices by Street Key: The top f igure represents to ta l sales fo r the year. The lower f igure i s the annual average sa le. The side f igure i s the annual to ta l number of sales transacted. APPENDIX D 1967 ZONING BY-LAWS' APPENDIX D 1967 ZONING BY-LAWS The 1962 Zoning By-laws introduced new controls fo r garden apart-ments, frame apartments, h igh-r i se apartments, and apartments accessory to commercial developments. The recommended change consisted of va r i a -t ions of density, bulk, and s i t i n g contro l s . The by r law replaced the o ld 1958 zoning regulations which required a minimum l o t area per su i te with a system of f l oo r area r a t i o s . The new by-laws introduced changes designed to conceal parking, to improve the qua l i ty of landscaping, and to provide greater f l e x i b i l i t y in the type and s ize of su i tes . I t put no l i m i t to height of apartments. I t i s in terest ing to note that since i t s int roduct ion, one garden apartment, one h i gh - r i se , two accessory apartment towers, and a large number of frame apartments have been b u i l t . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101746/manifest

Comment

Related Items