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Techniques of composition in the choral music of Anton Webern Petrowitz, Thomas Fredrick 1971

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TECHNIQUES OF OPPOSITION IN THE CHORAL MUSIC OF ANTON WEBERN by THOMAS FREDRICK PETROWITZ B. Mus., University of B r i t i s h Columbia 9 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of MUSIC W© accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard* THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1971 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of ^/ 'J&t&ttf' The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada pate fipuy g$>t /*r?/ ... I understand the word 'Art' as meaning the f a c u l t y of presenting a thought i n the clearest, simplest form, that i s , the most "graspable" form ... That i s my view of a r t . And that i s why I have never understood the meaning of ' C l a s s i c a l ' , 'Romantic1 and the rest, and I have never placed myself i n opposition to the masters of the past but have always t r i e d to do just l i k e them: to say what i t i s given to me to say with the utmost c l a r i t y Anton Webern 1 Anton Webern, Letters to Hildeqard Jone and Joseph  Humplik. (Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 1967), p. 36. ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s . t h e s i s i s to investigate the compositional changes, s i m i l a r i t i e s and innovations that occur i n the choral music of Anton Webern. The study i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that the f i v e pieces to be discussed cover the span of his creative l i f e . Only the free atonal period which includes Op. 3 to Op. 17 has no representative choral music. Each composition, or where applicable, each movement within that composition i s studied i n a similar manner: 1. Outward organization, form, compositional and pre-compositional devices, treatment of the twelve-note series (after Op. 19). 2. Text, treatment of words with regard to contour, natural i n f l e c t i o n and rhythm. 3. Instruments and t h e i r role i n the l a s t four choral pieces. From the study, the author concludes that the composi-t i o n a l techniques i n Anton Webern1s choral music are based primarily on a continual metamorphosis and consolidation of f i v e basic elements: form, text, melody, harmony and instrumentation. The c l a s s i c a l model which i s used as the basis for Op. 2 i s replaced i n Op. 19 by a structure dependent on the length and d i v i s i o n s of the text. In the l a s t three pieces, form i s dependent on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and r e s t r i c t i o n s inherent i n the dodecaphonic technique. Texts with regular meters and simple rhythms are used i n Op. 2 and Op. 19. A f t e r the Zwei Lieder Webern chooses blank verse poems and s h i f t s his attentions to the singling out of p a r t i c u l a r words and expands on t h e i r inherent musical and timbral q u a l i t i e s . The melodic contours which Webern perceived i n the poem " E n t f l i e h t auf leichten. Kahnen..." are r e f l e c t e d i n h i s musical l i n e s . V e r t i c a l expansion by regular stages to vocal extremes occurs i n the succeeding works returning, i n the f i n a l movement of Op. 31 to the gentle contours and poetic considerations that were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Op. 2. In the l a s t four pieces melodic v a r i a t i o n occurs as a result of Webern's manipulation of a recurring four-note motive which i s regarded as the composer's "signature phrase." In Op. 2, Webern1s approach to harmony i s based on romantic models although most of the v e r t i c a l structures of t h i s piece have multiple interpretations. As his command over the twelve-tone technique becomes more refined, his v e r t i c a l structures evolve from a random ordering of one series to a homorhythmic r e a l i z a t i o n of four series within the framework of one or more pitch canons. -Webern uses instruments i n his choral pieces to provide continuity between the vocal sections and to i n t r o -duce, continue, or end a p a r t i c u l a r mood. Choral sections are r a r e l y accompanied and the composer prefers to use the. instruments as voices i n canon with the solo l i n e s rather than as accompaniments. Instruments are chosen usually for t h e i r proximity to vocal timbre and for t h e i r percussive q u a l i t i e s . The use of Klangfarbenmelodie or melody of timbres becomes increasingly evident throughout Webern's compositional career. In conclusion, i t i s seen that these f i v e aspects, combined i n varying degrees, res u l t i n f i v e compositions that are unique i n musical history, works that are at the same time i n t r i c a t e , economic and transparent.' F i n a l l y , the study i s intended to provide the reader with some small measure of understanding and approachability to the choral music of Anton Webern. A p r i l , 1971 Supervisor C h a p t e r Page A b s t r a c t i i I n t r o d u c t i o n v i I . E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n Kahnen... Opus 2 1 I I . Zwei L i e d e r , Opus 19 12 I I I . Das A u g e n l i c h t , Opus 26 27 IV. F i r s t C a n t a t a , Opus 29 41 V. Second C a n t a t a , Opus 31 66 C o n c l u s i o n 94 . Appendix 97 B i b l i o g r a p h y 102 INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s paper i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l changes, s i m i l a r i t i e s and i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t occur i n t h e c h o r a l works of Anton Webern. The study i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t the f i v e works t o be d i s c u s s e d range from the t o n a l t o t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e Schoenberg t w e l v e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e and beyond t o t h e p e r s o n a l r e f i n e m e n t found i n t h e Second C a n t a t a , h i s l a s t p u b l i s h e d work. Each c h o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n , or where a p p l i c a b l e each movement w i t h i n t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n , i s s t u d i e d i n a s i m i l a r manner: f i r s t l y , the outward and p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such as form, c o m p o s i t i o n a l and p r e - c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s and, a f t e r Op. 19, t h e t r e a t m e n t of t h e t w e l v e -note s e r i e s ; s e c o n d l y , the t e x t and the t r e a t m e n t of t h e words w i t h r e g a r d t o c o n t o u r , n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n and rhythm; f i n a l l y , the i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e i r r o l e i n t h e l a s t f o u r c h o r a l works. From th e s t u d y , t h e a u t h o r hopes t o show t h a t the c h o r a l t e c h n i q u e s of Anton Webern are based on a c o n t i n u a l metamorphosis; th e p h a s i n g out of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s i n o r d e r t o a c c e n t u a t e o t h e r s . CHAPTER I E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n Kahnen ... Op. 2 Of h i s t h i r t y - o n e c o m p o s i t i o n s w i t h Opus numbers, o n l y f i v e of A nton Webern's works are f o r c h o r u s . W r i t t e n between 1908 and 1943, t h e s e f i v e p i e c e s c o v e r the span of h i s c r e a t i v e l i f e . Only the f r e e a t o n a l p e r i o d which i n c l u d e s Op. 3 t o Op. 17 has no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h o r a l music. The P a s s a c a q l i a f o r O r c h e s t r a , Op. 1 (1908) and E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n Kahnen ... Op. 2 (1908) f o r a c a p e l l a mixed chorus"'- are t h e o n l y c o m p o s i t i o n s of h i s e n t i r e o utput t h a t have key s i g n a t u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n s t y l e from h i s l a t e r works, t h e y do c o n t a i n s e v e r a l elements t h a t become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s l a t e r s t y l e . Op. 2 i s a s e t t i n g of the poem w i t h t h e same t i t l e by S t e f a n George. The p i e c e f a l l s i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s The i n d i c a t i o n i n the s c o r e , U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n s No. 6643, i s f o r a c a p e l l a mixed c h o r u s . There i s , however, r e f e r e n c e t o an u n p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment t o t h i s work i n A n t o n Webern: P e r s p e c t i v e s , c o m p i l e d by Hans Moldenhauer ( S e a t t l e and London: U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1966) p. 125. ^One of the " M o u r n f u l Dances" from h i s "The Year of t h e S o u l , " w r i t t e n i n 1897, p u b l i s h e d i n S t e f a n George Werke i n Zwei Banden, (Munich: Helmut Kupper Vormals Georg B o n d i , 1958, p. 161. (A-B-A'-Coda) and i s c a n o n i c t h r o u g h o u t . The f i r s t s e c t i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t each of i t s two c a n o n i c v o i c e s i s doubled a t e i t h e r t h e t h i r d or s i x t h below. The m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l of t h e f i r s t canon i s v e r y c h r o m a t i c i n a c l o s e l y k n i t c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h most of t h e motion by seconds, e i t h e r major or minor. There i s here a l s o t h e f i r s t use of a f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e , a c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n Webern's l a t e r w r i t i n g s . Example 1 O p . 2 m m I Op . i q f * ) mm i f j> ft J> 1 J J * - 1 > 1$ * *J*-^  Xff 1 Of.Zb m m 8 - 9 O p . 3 1 - * m m f 7 - 2 8 A t t h e c e n t r e of t h e f i r s t canon (measure f i v e ) t h e r e i s th e r e p e a t e d i n t e r v a l of a minor s i x t h i n t h e Soprano and A l t o ( b ^ and d ' ) ^ and a temporary r e v e r s a l of m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n , h i n t i n g a t the a r c h form t h a t becomes an important compositional device of Webern's l a t e r works. The temporary reversal idea becomes more s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s noticed that the centre of the following canon receives a similar treatment. Example 2 Op. 2 mm 5" mm D k t j 'P P 'P 'F 9 The high points of the f i r s t canon, the e'', f ' 1 and f#'' i n measures two, four and six respectively are s t r u c t u r a l l y placed so that they complement the arch form indicated above. The f i r s t canonic entry of the opening section i s the soprano which i s p a r a l l e l e d by the a l t o at the t h i r d below. The imitating voices, bass and tenor respectively, follow at the distance of one measure, the tenor i n the same octave as the alto and the bass an octave below the soprano. At the beginning of the t h i r d measure, however, t h e bass and t e n o r i n t e r c h a n g e p a r t s so t h a t the bass f o l l o w s t h e a l t o , and the t e n o r , t h e soprano. I n measures t h r e e a l s o , the f i r s t f o u r n otes of t h e a l t o l i n e a re a l t e r e d so t h a t t h e y do not p a r a l l e l the soprano. A s i m i l a r a l t e r a t i o n o c c u r s l a t e r i n measures seven and e i g h t . Example 3 Op Z mm 3 mm 7 - 8 t r n T i These a l t e r a t i o n s a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y p l a c e d so t h a t an ambiguous t o n a l i t y , r e s u l t i n g f r om a s e r i e s of s i m i l a r harmonic i n t e r v a l s s urrounds them. The f i r s t f o u r i n t e r v a l s between t h e soprano and a l t o have a changing q u a l i t y - minor, major, minor, major - from which one may deduce a harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n of I - I V - I i n G major, or V-I-V i n C major. However, a f t e r t h e s e f i r s t f o u r , t h e q u a l i t y of t h e s u c c e e d i n g i n t e r v a l s remains c o n s t a n t f o r s e v e r a l c o n s e c u t i v e n o t e s so t h a t the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n emerges - seven major t h i r d s , a l t e r e d s e c t i o n , f o u r minor t h i r d s , s i x minor s i x t h s , two major t h i r d s , f o u r minor s i x t h s , a l t e r e d s e c t i o n . I n t r a d i t i o n a l c a n o n i c w r i t i n g i t was t h e p r a c t i s e t o compose m e l o d i c l i n e s so t h a t t h e y would f i t t o g e t h e r i n an a c c e p t a b l e harmonic p a t t e r n , depending on the harmonic d i r e c t i o n , r e s o l u t i o n s , degree d i s s o n a n c e p e r m i t t e d , e t c . I n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , by k e e p i n g t h i s q u a l i t y t h e same Webern a v o i d s e s t a b l i s h i n g a t o n a l c e n t r e . Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e work s t a r t s and ends i n G major, t h e t o n a l c e n t r e remains ambiguous t h r o u g h o u t . The second s e c t i o n of the work, measures n i n e t h r o u g h s e v e n t e e n , i s a f o u r - p a r t canon w i t h t h e a l t o as t h e f i r s t v o i c e . The soprano answers o n e - h a l f bar l a t e r a t t h e f o u r t h above. The bass e n t e r s i n measure t e n an octave below t h e a l t o and t h e t e n o r , one h a l f measure a f t e r the b a s s , an octave below th e soprano. The syncopated f i g u r e a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e c a n o n i c theme o c c u r s f i r s t a t measure e i g h t i n t h e soprano on t h e r e p e a t e d word e n t q e l t e n . r e s u l t i n g i n an i n t e r e s t i n g o v e r l a p and c o n n e c t i o n between th e two s e c t i o n s . S e v e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l elements combine i n t h i s second s e c t i o n i n such a way t h a t t h e r e s u l t i s an i n t e n s i f y i n g of m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . F i r s t l y , t h e c a n o n i c e n t r i e s are now t h r e e b e a t s a p a r t i n s t e a d of s i x , as i s t h e case i n the opening s e c t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s a syncopated and t i e d f i g u r e over the s t r o n g beat which t e m p o r a r i l y suspends t h e 6 / 8 meter t h a t Webern was so c a r e f u l t o p r e s e r v e i n t h e "A" s e c t i o n . T h i s new r h y t h m i c a m b i g u i t y combines w i t h a r a p i d m e l o d i c movement t o produce a much more e x c i t e d m u s i c a l atmosphere. T h i r d l y , t h e r h y t h m i c u n i f o r -m i t y of t h e f i r s t p a r t has been r e p l a c e d by m e l o d i c s i m p l i c i t y and r e p e t i t i o n . The me l o d i c c o n t o u r i s p r e s e n -t e d as a r e v e r s a l of t h a t of t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , r i s i n g a b r u p t l y i n t h e soprano t o a g'' i n measure t h i r t e e n and t a p e r i n g o f f g r a d u a l l y , but not c h r o m a t i c a l l y t h i s t i m e , t o a d'' i n measure s i x t e e n . P a r a l l e l i n g t h i s m e l o d i c c o n t o u r a re t h e q u i c k l y i n c r e a s i n g and s l o w l y d e c r e a s i n g tempo i n d i c a t i o n s i n measures n i n e , e l e v e n , t h i r t e e n , f o u r t e e n , f i f t e e n , s i x t e e n and seventeen. The l a s t beat of measure seventeen marks t h e r e t u r n of t h e "A" s e c t i o n . The r e t u r n i s e x a c t f o r t h r e e measures a f t e r which t h e r e i s an e x p a n s i o n by a s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e of t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l drawn from t h e second and t h i r d measures of t h e f i r s t canon. A f t e r measure twenty-two, t h e r i g i d c a n o n i c w r i t i n g d i s s o l v e s i n t o f r a g m e n t a t i o n but t h e mpdd p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h t h e s t r i c t i m i t a t i o n of fra g m e n t s . The shape of the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r i s the same as t h a t of t h e opening s e c t i o n w i t h the h i g h e s t note of t h e p i e c e , a'', o c c u r r i n g i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l o c a t i o n , measure t w e n t y - t h r e e . A t t h e coda, which b e g i n s i n measure t w e n t y - f i v e , the bass l i n e d i v i d e s , t h e lower p a r t m a i n t a i n i n g a p e d a l G w h i l e t h e upper c o n t i n u e s i n t h e f a m i l i a r t h i r d s and s i x t h s w i t h the t e n o r . The upper v o i c e s a r e t r e a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t of measures s i x and seven w h i l e t h e lower p a r t s p r e s e n t a much d i m i n u t e d v e r s i o n of t h e o v e r a l l m e l o d i c c o n t o u r of the "B" s e c t i o n . A n a l y t i c a l l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r e a t t h i s c h orus by any of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of d e a l i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l harmony. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a h i n t of G major i n d i c a t e d by the key s i g n a t u r e , by the opening i n t e r v a l s of each s e c t i o n and by the p e d a l G and the s t r o n g l y sub-dominant p e n u l t i m a t e chord i n t h e coda, t h e extreme c h r o m a t i -c i s m c r e a t e d by t h e t w i s t i n g c a n o n i c t e x t u r e and the o u t - o f phase q u a l i t y c r e a t e d by t h e a c c e n t e d d i s s o n a n c e s makes a m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s of the c h o r d s upon wh i c h t h e p i e c e i s b u i l t an unrewarding t a s k . Webern uses c h r o m a t i c i s m t o dominate t h e d i a t o n i c s t r u c t u r e t o the p o i n t where most of t h e chords have m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . When th e non-harmonic t o n e s occur i n a c c e n t e d s i t u a t i o n s , a m b i g u i t y of f u n c t i o n becomes a prominent p a r t of t h e music. F o u n d a t i o n s of t h e t o n a l s t r u c t u r e l i e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A t c r i t i c a l s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t s t h e t o n i c and dominant p l a y major r o l e s . • The e x p a n s i o n of the s o n o r i t i e s t h r o u g h th e s u p e r p o s i t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l t h i r d s and t h e sound i d e a l of t h e c h o r d of n a t u r e have tended t o g i v e most c h o r d s a dominant f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s u c c e e d i n g chord.4 The t e x t f o r t h e work was w r i t t e n by S t e f a n George (1863-1933). ... a German l y r i c poet who was c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e v i v a l of German p o e t r y a t t h e t u r n of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A t one t ime he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mallarme and t h e S y m b o l i s t s i n P a r i s and the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s i n London. H i s aim was t o impose a new c l a s s i c i s m on German p o e t r y , a v o i d i n g impure rhymes and m e t r i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . The f o r m a l p e r f e c t i o n i s m of h i s poems i s accompanied by a c o o l n e s s of t o n e , a s e l f c o n t a i n e d q u a l i t y w h i c h a t t i m e s seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e words. Vowels and c o n sonants were a r r a n g e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n t o a c h i e v e an i n n e r harmony and t o show c l e a r l y h i s p o e t i c i d e a l s , a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e debasement of h i s language, m a t e r i a l i s m and n a t u r a l i s m . H i s c o l l e c t e d works f i l l e i g h t e e n volumes and show h i s development from e a r l y doubts and s e l f e x a m i n a t i o n t o an a s s u r a n c e of h i s m y s t i c a l r o l e as a s e e r i n a new s o c i e t y based on the humanism f i r s t preached by t h e G r e e k s . ^ 4 M e r r i l l K. Bradshaw, "Tonal S t r u c t u r e i n t h e E a r l y Works of A nton Webern" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph. D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1962), p. 45. Hans S e i g b e r t R e i s s , " S t e f a n George" i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a  B r i t a n n i c a , 1963, x, p. 193. was w r i t t e n i n t h r e e , f o u r - l i n e v e r s e s and s e t by Webern i n t h r e e p a r t s : "A," n i n e measures; "B," n i n e measures and "A'11 p l u s Coda, e l e v e n measures. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e t e x t t o t h e rhythm and melody of t h e music i s not as pronounced i n t h i s i n s t a n c e as i n Webern's l a t e r works. Owing t o t h e r a p i d movement of the m i d d l e s e c t i o n and t o t h e composer's sense of p r o p o r t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , he i s o b l i g e d t o i n c l u d e ( t h e f i r s t ) two l i n e s from t h e l a s t v e r s e i n o r d e r t o have enough words f o r h i s music. S u b s e q u e n t l y , t o accommodate an almost e x a c t r e t u r n of t h e b e g i n n i n g s e c t i o n , he i s f u r t h e r o b l i g e d t o extend t h e t e x t t h r o u g h the f o l l o w i n g r e p e t i t i o n s : Es s i e d i e s t i l l e T rauer d i e d i e s e n F r u h l i n g F u l l e es s i e d i e s t i l l e T r a u e r d i e s t i l l e T r a u e r d i e s t i l l e T r a u e r d i e d i e s e n F r u h l i n g f u l l e d i e s e n F r u h l i n g d i e s e n F r u h l i n g f u l l e . 6 T h i s r e p e t i t i o n i s not a l t o g e t h e r u n r e a s o n a b l e , however, as George h i m s e l f uses an echo e f f e c t a t t h e end of h i s s t a n z a s . Webern's t r e a t m e n t of one such echo i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n measures e i g h t and n i n e . The b e g i n n i n g of t h e The p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of t h e s e l a s t two l i n e s i s : "Es s i e d i e s t i l l e t r a u e r Die d i e s e n f r u h l i n g f u l l e . " t h i r d s t a n z a of the poem i n measure t h i r t e e n , (Das n i c h t ...) i s a l s o t r e a t e d i n a s p e c i a l manner, by a r i t a r d and a change of dynamics, and i s f o l l o w e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l y s l o w e r tempo i n d i c a t i o n a t the m i d d l e of measure f o u r t e e n . I n t h i s work, the words and t h e music seem i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t o e n t e r i n t o f o r m a l and e m o t i o n a l t i e s as a r e s u l t of Webern's bending of the t e x t t o s u i t h i s p h r a s e s . As w i l l be seen, t h i s q u a l i t y of e m o t i o n a l attachment i s n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g i n h i s l a t e r c h o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . As the o u t l i n e of and the approach t o t h i s work are e s s e n t i a l l y Romantic, t h e r e are s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the spoken and the m u s i c a l rhythm. Example 4 Op. 2 m rn 4l—+r— 8- to 0 LIT E *r d «e - S^ n "few--k / L J }i K J \ =•• T * * J 1 » + 1 J fc SeKt - die - s<»r» Taw-George's p o e t r y i t s e l f , w i t h i t s f o r m a l p e r f e c t i o n and emphasis on t h e smoothly f l o w i n g l i n e l e n d s i t s e l f a d m i r a b l y t o t h e r e g u l a r rhythms t h a t Webern has chosen, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e o u t e r s e c t i o n s . Important vowels and dipfchongs a r e g i v e n s t r e s s i n placement and rhythm. Example 5 Op. % m m iq t 21 The dynamic markings work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e 6 / 8 meter and t h e c a n o n i c e n t r i e s t o produce g e n t l y s u r g i n g emphases which complement t h e t e x t . CHAPTER I I Zwei L i e d e r Op. 19 In h i s next c h o r a l work, Zwei L i e d e r , Op. 19 (1926), f o r mixed chorus w i t h accompaniment of c e l e s t a , g u i t a r , v i o l i n , c l a r i n e t and bass c l a r i n e t , Webern chose t e x t s from Goethe's C h i n e s i s c h e J a h r e s und T a q e s z e i t e n . I t was t h e t h i r d work t o be w r i t t e n a f t e r h i s a d o p t i o n of t h e Schoenberg t e c h n i q u e of composing w i t h t w e l v e semitones w h i c h a re r e l a t e d o n l y t o one-another. I n h i s l e c t u r e s e r i e s , The P a t h t o Twelve-Note Composition," 1' Webern r e f l e c t s on h i s own e a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h the "system": About 1911 I wrote the B a g a t e l l e s f o r S t r i n g Q u a r t e t , Op..9, a l l v e r y s h o r t p i e c e s , l a s t i n g a c o u p l e of minutes - perhaps t h e s h o r t e s t music so f a r . Here I had the f e e l i n g , 'When a l l t w e l v e notes have gone by, th e p i e c e i s over.' Much l a t e r I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s was p a r t of t h e n e c e s s a r y development. I n my s k e t c h -book I wrote out the c h r o m a t i c s c a l e and c r o s s e d o f f th e i n d i v i d u a l n o t e s . Why? Because I had c o n v i n c e d m y s e l f , ' T h i s note has been t h e r e a l r e a d y . ' I t sounds g r o t e s q u e , i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and i t was i n c r e d i b l y d i f f i c u l t . . The i n n e r ear had d e c i d e d q u i t e r i g h t l y t h a t t h e man who c r o s s e d o f f the i n d i v i d u a l n o t e s was no f o o l . I n s h o r t , a r u l e of law emerged; u n t i l a l l t w e l v e n o t e s have o c c u r r e d , none of them may occur A nton Webern, The P a t h t o t h e New Musi c . W i l l i R e i c h ( e d . ) , ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1963). a g a i n . The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t h a t each 'run' of t w e l v e n o t e s marked th e d i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e p i e c e , i d e a or theme.^ and l a t e r , i n the same t a l k , he says: My Goethe song. G l e i c h und G l e i c h ( f r o m Four Songs, Op. 12 (1917) ) b e g i n s as f o l l o w s : G sharp -A - D sharp - G, t h e n a f o u r note c h o r d , E - C -B f l a t - D, t h e n F sharp - B - F -'C sharp. That makes t w e l v e n o t e s : none i s r e p e a t e d . A t t h a t time we were not c o n s c i o u s of t h e law, but had been s e n s i n g i t f o r some t i m e . One day Schoenberg i n t u i t i v e l y d i s c o v e r e d t h e law t h a t u n d e r l i e s t w e l v e -note c o m p o s i t i o n . An i n e v i t a b l e development of t h i s l aw was t h a t one gave th e s u c c e s s i o n of t w e l v e notes a p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r . 3 The Zwei L i e d e r marks th e end of an e l e v e n year p e r i o d d u r i n g which time Webern wrote v o c a l music e x c l u s i v e l y . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e r e was a g r a d u a l f o r m u l a t i o n and development of h i s unique m o t i v i c s t y l e , a c o m p o s i t i o n a l a s p e c t t h a t w i l l be noted i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e m a i n i n g c h o r a l works. The i n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e of t h e s e songs c o n t a i n s t h e most complex c h o r a l w r i t i n g t h a t Webern was t o produce. I n t h e f i r s t song of the group, t h e t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s w i t h the soprano b e i n g answered i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y a n t i p h o n a l manner by t h e a l t o , t e n o r and b a s s , i n c l u s i v e l y . T h i s I b i d . - , p. 51 I b i d . antiphonal e f f e c t i s maintained and heightened by the twelve-tone technique, within which the soprano shares one row-form with the f i r s t group of instruments, the guitar and celesta, while the other instruments and the three remaining voices have another form of the series. The v i o l i n , c l a r i n e t and bass-clarinet parts are i n d i f f e r e n t rhythms from the voice parts and invariably, t h i s echoing occurs just a f t e r the vocal sound, thereby merely adding another color or dimension to the sound rather than aiding the chorus i n maintaining the correct p i t c h . When the chorus enters i n measures six and seven, the soprano, guitar and celesta have the "0" form while the other three voices have the eighth transposition^ of the Retrograde-inversion. This i s the f i r s t twelve-tone work i n which Webern uses any row transpositions. The ones exclusively employed i n t h i s case are a t r i t o n e from the basic set, that i s , i n t h i s instance, the eighth transposition of any given row form. In t h i s piece there are no d i r e c t l y overlapping rows i n which the twelfth note of one series becomes the f i r s t note of the next, thereby setting up a predetermined series of row forms. Although i n one instance i n the second song, measure three, there 4 See Appendix number one for i l l u s t r a t i o n of transposition numbering. i s a r e p e a t e d 'g' which marks the end of one row and the b e g i n n i n g of the n e x t , t h e a u t h o r does not f e e l t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s o v e r l a p p i n g . The p r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of row forms t h a t i s employed and expanded upon i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h o r a l p i e c e s depends on a s i n g l e sound f o r i t s d u a l f u n c -t i o n . The l a s t c hord of t h e f i r s t song i n the p r e s e n t work c o n t a i n s a l l t w e l v e t o n e s and i s t h e o n l y i n s t a n c e i n which Webern uses t h i s l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e tone c l u s t e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s c h o r a l music. S t r u c t u r a l l y , the f i r s t song of Op. 19 f o l l o w s no p r e - e x i s t i n g form. The o n l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s are t h e poem., which i s used w i t h o u t the r e p e t i t i o n s t h a t mark Webern's f i r s t attempt a t a c h o r a l s e t t i n g , and the use of o n l y e i g h t forms of the row, O r i g i n a l - one and e i g h t , I n v e r s i o n - one and e i g h t , R e t r o g r a d e - one and e i g h t and R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n - one and e i g h t . There i s no p r e d e t e r m i n e d sequence apparent i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e s e e i g h t row-forms. The e n t i r e song i s based on the f o u r - n o t e soprano motive i n measures s i x and seven. Example 6 !"•" "'1 \ Op. W «•*»» ^ T •» J . 13 hy^ i E j I n t h i s , h i s t h i r d s e r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n , Webern i s e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l t o m a i n t a i n the ex a c t sequence of notes d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e t . The o n l y l i b e r t y he a l l o w s h i m s e l f i s t h e m u l t i p l e r e p e t i t i o n of one note b e f o r e moving t o t h e n e x t , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h , handled as i t i s i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , r e s u l t s i n a v e r y jagged and s t a t i c s t y l e w h i c h i s a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d t o the mood of t h e poem. R h y t h m i c a l l y , t h e f i r s t song i s h i g h l y complex; the use of m u l t i p l e f i g u r e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e s u l t s i n a v e r y t h i c k t e x t u r e . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s complex rhythm i s d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e two i n s t r u m e n t a l g r o u p i n g s . Example 7 I-= 1 j o / LV£/ ^ * The f a c t t h a t the next song of Op. 19 has o n l y one r h y t h m i c f i g u r e o c c u r r i n g a t any g i v e n time w i l l be of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n h i s f u t u r e s t y l e of w r i t i n g . I n the second song t h e r e i s no a n t i p h o n a l w r i t i n g and t h e e n t i r e ensemble s h a r e s the same row-form. The i n s t r u m e n t a l l i n e s s t i l l c o n t a i n many r e p e a t e d n o t e s , c o n t i n u i n g the jagged mood i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f i r s t song. S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h i s song, l i k e t h e f i r s t one, f o l l o w s no p r e - e x i s t i n g form. The b a s i s i s , a g a i n , a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n s on the f o u r - n o t e m o tive. There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r e x p a n s i o n of t h a t m o t i v e , however, i n t h i s second song. As i n t h e f i r s t song Webern chooses t o use o n l y t h e e i g h t forms of t h e s e r i e s i n d i c a t e d above. And once more, t h e r e i s no apparent p r e d e t e r m i n e d o r d e r i n which t h e s e row forms are used, a l t h o u g h each time a new e n t r y of t h e row appears, t h e time d i s t a n c e t o i t s c o m p l e t i o n i s s m a l l e r . The poems f o r the Zwei L i e d e r were w r i t t e n , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). H i s g r e a t n e s s l i e s m a i n l y i n h i s s u b j e c t i v e approach t o l i f e and, as a r e s u l t , v e r y l i t t l e of h i s work sprang from what might be termed a r t i s t i c or o b j e c t i v e i m p u l s e . I t i s as a l y r i c poet t h a t h i s supremacy cannot be c h a l l e n g e d . From a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , Goethe s t o o d a p a r t f rom t h e 'Sturm und Drang' which so d e e p l y i n v o l v e d h i s c o m p a t r i o t S c h i l l e r and the o t h e r R o m a n t i c i s t s . Goethe's many s i d e d a c t i v i t y i s a t r i b u t e t o h i s mind and p e r s o n a l i t y ; we may see i n him m e r e l y t h e embodiment of h i s p a r t i c u l a r age, or we may r e g a r d him as a poet ' f o r a l l t i m e ' , but w i t h one o p i n i o n a l l who have f e l t t he power of Goethe's i n f l u e n c e a r e i n agreement ... Of a l l men of g e n i u s , Goethe i s t h e most u n i v e r s a l . 5 John G. R o b e r t s o n , "Johann Wolfgang von Goethe" i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . 1963, X, p. 464. The f i r s t poem, Weiss wie L i l i e n ... (White, l i k e L i l i e s . . . ) , i s w r i t t e n i n t r o c h a i c t e t r a m e t e r w i t h no i r r e g u l a r l i n e s . The t e x t , t h e n , f i t s p e r f e c t l y Webern's c h o i c e of a f o u r note m o t i v e : one complete l i n e of p o e t r y f o r e v e r y two m o t i v i c s t a t e m e n t s . As i n t h e midd l e s e c t i o n -of Op. 2, Webern's fondness f o r t e m p o r a r i l y suspending t h e motion by t h e use of t h e s y n c o p a t e d - t i e d note f i g u r e a g a i n comes t o t h e f o r e , on t h e words " S t e r n e n , " " l e u c h t e t , " "rotgesaumt" and "Mogen" i n measures n i n e t o t e n , e l e v e n , t h i r t e e n and twenty-two t o t w e n t y - t h r e e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Example 8 Ster - ner> \euch - +e+ saumt I n a n o t her i n s t a n c e , on t h e word " f r u h z e i t i g e , " t h e rhythm i s changed from t h e normal t r o c h a i c p a t t e r n t o accommodate t h e t r i p l e t f i g u r e on the l a s t t h r e e s y l l a b l e s . Example 9 IT -froh O t h e r w i s e , t h e rhythm f o r a g i v e n m e l o d i c motive f o l l o w s t h e spoken word and, i n the a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , i s much c l o s e r t o t h e a c t u a l s p e a k i n g rhythm t h a n a s e t t i n g of t h e same poem by a r o m a n t i c composer might have been. The i n s t r u m e n t s a r e used here e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e i r c o l o r i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n and t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d i n g the poem i n t o i t s r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n s . As the work i s s e r i a l and the i n s t r u m e n t s have i n t e g r a l and s e p a r a t e p a r t s of the s e r i e s , t h e i r use as a d o u b l i n g f o r the v o i c e i s i m p o s s i b l e Independent as t h e y a r e , the i n s t r u m e n t s do not y e t f o l l o w t h e K l a n g f a r b e n m e l o d i e p r i n c i p l e as t h e y do i n s u c c e e d i n g c h o r a l works. However, the f i g u r e a t measure t w e n t y - e i g h t h a s , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t i m b r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the t e n o r and soprano p a r t s i n measures twenty-seven and twenty e i g h t . Example 10 Op«<» mm *1- 22 f p*jnij "In. r t>r-w h i l e i n measure s i x , the same i n s t r u m e n t s merely h e i g h t e n t h e p o i n t i l l i s t i c e f f e c t of the soprano l i n e t h r o u g h r e g i s t e r e x t e n s i o n . Example 11 Op. <9 fslo. I mm 6 The second song i s by f a r the most a p p r o a c h a b l e of the two from an a n a l y t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . As mentioned, the row forms used i n t h i s song are the same as t h o s e of the p r e v i o u s one. However, t h e y are used one a t a time i n t h i s song, the r e s u l t b e i n g a f a r s i m p l e r s t r u c t u r e . The poem f o r t h e second song i s not w r i t t e n i n a r i g i d t r o c h a i c t e t r a m e t e r i n t h a t the second and l a s t l i n e s of each s t a n z a do not end w i t h a weak a c c e n t . T h i s c a t a l e c t i c t r e a t m e n t of t h e f o u r l i n e s by Goethe r e c e i v e s f u r t h e r s p e c i a l t r e a t -ment by the composer. The f i r s t t r u n c a t i o n (measure t e n i n t h e score) on t h e word "Grun" i s s e p a r a t e d from t h e remainder of t h e music by s i x t e e n t h r e s t s (see example t w e l v e ) . The v o i c i n g and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t has been s a i d t o be d e s c r i p t i v e i n the sense of c h r o m o s t h e s i a , 6 ( i . e . , t h e sound a c t u a l l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e c o l o r g r e e n ) . The next example of c a t a l e x i s o c c u r s as mentioned, a t the end of the f o u r t h l i n e of the t e x t on the word " e r b l u h n , " the " b l u h n " s y l l a b l e b e i n g s e p a r a t e d from t h e p r e c e e d i n g music by s i x t e e n t h r e s t s . Example 12 O p . 1 9 min 1 0 • A *4 K in m m H (ty* »J*— Grtin -/V t—7-p TT-S— * tJL^ f ^ -* ' f t 1 * Grur» y * W a l l a c e C. McKenzie, "The Music of Anton Webern," ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , N o r t h Texas S t a t e C o l l e g e , I 9 6 0 ) , p.393. The t h i r d m e t r i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t y , a t the end of t h e s i x t h l i n e of t h e t e x t shows the " g l a n c e " as b e i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s by t h e i n t e r v a l s used: f a l l i n g minor s i x t h , a s c e n d i n g augmented f o u r t h , f a l l i n g p e r f e c t f o u r t h and a s c e n d i n g major seventh. Example 13 Op. (9 rrtn* »0 - l<? "Biict-3 L_. eiicic p i B l t e k -The f i n a l word of the poem, "Gluck," l i k e "Grun" i s a f f o r d e d s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t by s e p a r a t i n g i t from the r e s t of t h e music. O p I9, mm S| I n a l l o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h e rhythm of t h e music f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the n a t u r a l rhythm of t h e words. T h i s a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s from h e a r i n g the p o e t r y r e c i t e d , t h a t Webern i s p a r t i c u l a r l y aware of t h e l o n g e r vowel sounds and the f a s t f l o w i n g words i n c h o o s i n g h i s r h y t h m i c f i g u r e s . As i n the f i r s t song, use i s made of the s y n c o p a t e d - t i e d f i g u r e s w h i c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e a t t h e p o i n t s of m e t r i c a l c a t a l e x i s o u t l i n e d above. Example 15 OP. 19 rr»*n 10- %Q The r e s u l t i s a h a s t e n i n g toward t h e f i n a l s t r o n g beat of t h e p o e t i c l i n e w h i c h , i n t h e music, i s a r e s t w i t h the i r r e g u l a r metered word o c c u r r i n g on a weak p a r t of the measure. The o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s one of b r e a t h l e s s n e s s and e x p e c t a t i o n , a mood which i s m u s i c a l l y v e r y c l o s e t o the mood of t h e poem ( m i s t - l i k e g l a n c e , w i s h f u l f i l m e n t ) . The i n s t r u m e n t s have much more i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s i n t h i s song than i n the p r e v i o u s one because of the use of o n l y one row-form a t a t i m e . As i n the f i r s t song, t h e i r use, w i t h a v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s , i s one of s u p p l y i n g an added c o l o r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e music or a p p r o x i m a t i n g a v o c a l t i m b r e . One p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t example of t h e l a t t e r i s at measure t e n , accompanying the word "Grun" which has a l r e a d y been mentioned. A n o t h e r i s a t the end of t h e song, a t measures twenty-one and twenty-two where the p a r t i c u l a r n o t e s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and time v a l u e s chosen echo t h e v o c a l sound of t h e soprano's "Gluck." Example 16 The echo e f f e c t which Webern used i n the f i r s t song i s more p r e v a l e n t i n t h e second and i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c a b l e a t the e n t r y of t h e chorus i n measures s i x and seven. Example. 17 Op. 13 "Mo. X r».rtit-1 Jiehn dtt Scha- fr *Tff-y 7—bf2Tx Sfip \fo/\6ef P o i n t i l l i s m and r e g i s t e r extremes a r e a g a i n much i n e v i -dence w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment determined m a i n l y by the soprano v o i c e . There i s no apparent use of p r e d e t e r m i n e d composi-t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n Op. 19 as were p r e v a l e n t i n t h e f i r s t c h o r a l work, namely the e x t e n s i v e use of canon and a c l o s e d t e r n a r y form. The r o m a n t i c m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s of Op. 2 has been r e p l a c e d by a jagged l i n e which i s , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , much more sy m p a t h e t i c t o the n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the spoken words, even though t h i s i n f l e c t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y d i s t o r t e d a t t i m e s . Example 18 Op. 19 *r»m W, M-lfc OpZ mm * l Ra - ra - die -s* i«trt-H»y-fr Traw T h i s v o c a l l i n e i s comprised m o s t l y of seconds, t h e i r i n v e r s i o n s and t r a n s p o s i t i o n s . The t e x t i s f o l l o w e d word f o r word w i t h no r e p e t i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y , as was t h e case i n Op. 2 f o r t h e sake of the f o r m a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . Webern d e v e l o p s f u r t h e r i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g work, Das A u g e n l i c h t , where he s t r i v e s f o r an even c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n between the spoken word and t h e music. CHAPTER I I I Das A u q e n l i c h t Op. 26 Among the few r e a l l y s u c c e s s f u l performances of A nton Webern's music d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e was t h a t of Das A u q e n l i c h t by t h e B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n c h o r u s and o r c h e s t r a i n London on June 17, 1938. Das A u q e n l i c h t i s a s i n g l e movement p i e c e w r i t t e n i n a motet s t y l e : t h a t i s , w i t h t h e i d e a of s e p a r a t i n g i m i t a t i v e p o l y p h o n i c s e c t i o n s w i t h c h o r d a l s e c t i o n s . By 1935, Webern had mastered t h e Schoenberg t w e l v e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e and had begun t o experiment w i t h o t h e r composi-t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h a t system. I n t h i s work we see f o r t h e f i r s t t i me i n h i s c h o r a l music, a p r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of tone-row t r a n s p o s i t i o n s e f f e c t e d by a l l o w i n g the l a s t note of one s e r i e s t o become t h e f i r s t note of t h e n e x t , r e d u c i n g the p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s t o f o u r from the u s u a l f o r t y - e i g h t . ^ Webern's a f f i n i t y f o r the c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s of t h e N e t h e r l a n d ' s S c h o o l , such He was t o impose even f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e c h o i c e of t r a n s p o s i t i o n i n h i s s u c c e e d i n g c h o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . as t h e s t r i c t use of canon and the c l o s e d form, r e t u r n s i n Op. 26 a f t e r b e i n g n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g i n t h e p r e c e d i n g Zwei L i e d e r . H i s use of c a n o n i c t e c h n i q u e i s even more e x t e n s i v e and r e s t r i c t i v e i n Das A u q e n l i c h t t h a n i n Op. 2 because of t h e c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e canon and the p o l y p h o n i c a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e row t r a n s p o s i t i o n s . F o r m a l l y , Das A u q e n l i c h t a l t e r n a t e s between p o l y -p honic - i n s t r u m e n t a l and c h o r d a l s e c t i o n s , i n the f o l l o w i n g sequence: to T J c h o r d a l | p o l y p h o n i c c h o r d a l : | i n s t r u m e n t a l p o l y p h o n i c so to 90 /Co i n s t r u m e n t a l p o l y p h o n i c p o l y p h o n i c | i n s t r u m e n t a l j c h o r d a l j i n s t r u m e n t a l p o l y p h o n i c £ i n s t r u m e n t a l c h o r d a l ^ p o l y p h o n i c ' c h o r d a l i n s t r u m e n t a l p o l y p h o n i c c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e of Das A u q e n l i c h t i n a l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r of th e t e x t , H i l d e g a r d Jone. When you asked about t h e .'.Augenlicht' t h e o t h e r day when we were l o o k i n g a t your p a i n t i n g s , t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t I c o u l d answer mom e n t a r i l y was t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o say a n y t h i n g about i t . But a c t u a l l y , how I would have l i k e d t o t e l l you a g r e a t d e a l about i t . A f t e r a l l , i t was an e s p e c i a l j o y f o r me t o see you a g a i n i n t h e f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s of h a v i n g completed t h e work! Then we were d i s t r a c t e d . And so, t o f i l l t h e gap u n t i l we meet a g a i n , I would l i k e t o say a few t h i n g s i n t h i s medium, above a l l , something t h a t I would d e a r l y l i k e t o have e x p r e s s e d l o n g ago and p a r t i c u -l a r l y a t t h e time when you asked me: namely, how much your words meant t o me once more! 'O Meer des B l i c k e s mit der Tranenbrandburg!' ('Oh the ocean of a g l a n c e w i t h i t s s u r f of t e a r s ! ' ) ( i t l i e s j u s t a t t h e m i d d l e of the p i e c e and c o n s t i t u t e s a t the same time i t s dynamic c l i m a x . ) What a t h o u g h t ! And t h e n i n c o n t i n u a t i o n ( m u s i c a l l y , t h e l a r g e s t c o n t r a s t f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y ) you awaken an image t h a t can o n l y be t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e of a l l l o v e l i n e s s ; a l l k i n d n e s s : 'Die t r o p f e n , welche s i e v e r s p r u h t auf Wimpernhalme, von H e r z e n , und der sonne werden s i e b e s c h i e n e n ' ('The drops i t s p r a y s on the b l a d e s of an e y e l a s h are drenched i n the l i g h t of t h e sun and of the h e a r t ' ) , and t h u s the.mode or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t I can o n l y r e g a r d as t h e h i g h e s t i s p r o v i d e d : t h e t e a r s , a drop of w a t e r , 'shone on by t h e h e a r t and by t h e sun'; and 2 what makes them f l o w ? The answer i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y . The f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n , from Webern's own d e s c r i p t i o n and from the p r e c e d i n g - example, i s t h a t of an Anton Webern, L e t t e r s t o H i l d e g a r d Jone and J o s e p h Humplik. ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1967), p. 31. a r c h . The b e g i n n i n g of t h a t a r c h i s t h a t measure twenty, t h e c l i m a x , as i n d i c a t e d by Webern, at measures s i x t y -f o u r t o s i x t y - n i n e , and t h e c o n c l u s i o n a t measure n i n e t y -t h r e e . I t must be noted a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e a r c h i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e p h y s i c a l placement of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g s e c t i o n s , w h i c h i n t u r n are u l t i m a t e l y dependent on t h e l e n g t h of t h e p o e t i c l i n e . I n comparing the preceding: . graph w i t h t h e poem, we f i n d t h a t f o r each change i n mode of e x p r e s s i o n , p o l y p h o n i c or c h o r d a l , t h e r e i s a new l i n e of p o e t r y . The t e x t u r e of Das A u q e n l i c h t i s v e r y much more t r a n s p a r e n t t h a n t h a t of t h e Zwei L i e d e r and i s r e m i n i s c e n t of t h a t i n h i s f i r s t c h o r a l work, E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n  KMhnen ... The v o c a l l i n e s are comprised m o s t l y of q u a r t e r and h a l f n o t e s , making them s u b s t a n t i a l l y e a s i e r t o p e r f o r m t h a n t h o s e of Op. 19, i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o n t a i n an abundance of v o c a l l y d i f f i c u l t i n t e r v a l s : major and minor s e v e n t h s and n i n t h s . The c a n o n i c w r i t i n g a l s o i s s i m p l e r i n t h a t the e n t r i e s are never c l o s e r t h a n one-h a l f beat t o each o t h e r . I n one i n s t a n c e t h e y are as d i s t a n t as t h r e e measures from each o t h e r . Op- £ 6 71- T? ASopto< T - 7 1 ? ' 5—1—| \ — — » » J TJJ — i i I—*~i—* r — r j 1 • — > T 1 - V - J 1 > ft. ^  >f V J — — * y -The c h o r d a l s e c t i o n s i n t h i s work are c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n y t h i n g found i n Webern's p r e v i o u s c h o r a l works and occur o f t e n i n t h e r e m a i n i n g c o m p o s i t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper. F o r t h e most p a r t t h e s e homorhythmic s e c t i o n s a re comprised of t h r e e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e R e t r o g r a d e form and one of t h e R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n . The Q two e x c e p t i o n s occur a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e arch° where two st a t e m e n t s of the O r i g i n a l a re combined w i t h two of See Example 19. t h e R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n , and a t the apex where two t r a n s -p o s i t i o n s of t h e R e t r o g r a d e , one of the R e t r o g r a d e -i n v e r s i o n and one of the I n v e r s i o n are used. The use of f o u r forms of t h e b a s i c s e t i n a s i m u l t a n e o u s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n a c h o r a l sound of e x t r a o r d i n a r y b eauty, w h i l e r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n the bounds of the s t r i c t f o r m a l c o n t r o l s t h a t are so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Webern's w r i t i n g s . The v o c a l l i n e s f o l l o w the chosen row-forms e x a c t l y and employ a l l t r a n s p o s i t i o n s , as opposed t o Op. 19 where a s i n g l e t r a n s p o s i t i o n i s used. Webern began t o use t h e p o e t r y of H i l d e g a r d Jone e x c l u s i v e l y a f t e r the two met i n 1926. In 1926 Webern made the a c q u a i n t a n c e of t h e p o e t e s s and p a i n t e r H i l d e g a r d Jone and her husband the s c u l p t o r J o s e p h Humplik. M a t t e r and form of the poems evoked an immediate and l a s t i n g r esponse i n Webern; and he was soon aware of a deep r e c i p r o c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s own work on t h e p a r t of the c o u p l e . And t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o a r t and t h e w o r l d , t h e i r human q u a l i t i e s and conduct of l i f e were so c o n g e n i a l t o Webern t h a t the a c q u a i n t a n c e soon r i p e n e d i n t o f a s t f r i e n d s h i p - i n t o mutual under-s t a n d i n g t o the u l t i m a t e degree.4 V e r y l i t t l e i s known about H i l d e g a r d Jone's l i f e and works except i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a t e r v o c a l music of Anton Webern. From her p o e t r y t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e we can a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t s p i r i t u a l bond between her and t h e J o s e f P o l n a u e r , i n p r e f a c e t o L e t t e r s t o H i l d e g a r d Jone  and Joseph Humplik. (Bryn Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1967), p. 7. composer was i n t h e i r mutual l o v e of n a t u r e and i t s e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c c o n n e c t i o n t o the " r e a l i t y b e h i n d the p r e s e n t . W e b e r n f o l l o w e d her p o e t r y w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of c a r e and p r e c i s i o n i n h i s music, t a k i n g no l i b e r t i e s such as t h e r e p e t i t i o n i n Op. 2. I n Das A u q e n l i c h t , the form of t h e music stems from t h e poem i t s e l f • w i t h each l i n e b e g i n n i n g w i t h an upper case l e t t e r marking the commencement of a new s e c t i o n . The bogen s t a r t s a t the second complete s e c t i o n and ends w i t h the p e n u l t i m a t e . I n d i v i d u a l words are g i v e n a m e l o d i c c o n t o u r t h a t i s v e r y c l o s e t o the n a t u r a l spoken i n f l e c t i o n . Example 21 Op 2(p mm 76-80 , f x 3 3 M e r r i l l K. Bradshaw, "Tonal S t r u c t u r e i n t h e E a r l y Works of Anton Webern" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1962), p. 105. The musical rhythm i s also closer to the natural spoken rhythm than i n the previous choral writings. The instrumental accompaniment i n Das Augenlicht i s more d i r e c t l y associated with the choral part than that of either of his previous choral pieces. Although Webern never r e l i e s on the technique of Klanqfarbenmelodie or melody of timbres i n his choral music as he did i n his l a t e r , purely instrumental works, there i s some hint of t h i s compositional device i n Das Augenlicht. e s p e c i a l l y at the opening where there are many timbral contributions to the melodic l i n e . Example 22 O p . I - € mm Pk. 0b. * l Mr, >»-»• p i By 1935, Webern had become f a m i l i a r with the Schoenbergian technique of Sprechstimme i n which the vocal part i s actually spoken on an indicated pitch. Although he never used t h i s technique as such i n his vocal writings, i t i s apparent that h i s intentions were in t h i s d i r e c t i o n as he keeps as close as possible to the i n f l e c t i o n and rhythm of the spoken word when setting t h i s text to music. F o r t h e most p a r t , the i n s t r u m e n t s are employed i n Op. 26 much i n the same manner as i n t h e p r e v i o u s Zwei L i e d e r . e x c e p t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l t e x t u r e i n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e i s much more t r a n s p a r e n t . The f a m i l i a r t e c h n i q u e of e c h o i n g t h e v o c a l l i n e by s p e c i f i c t i m b r e s i n octave t r a n s p o s i t i o n appears i n a l l of the p o l y p h o n i c s e c t i o n s of Op. 26. Example 23 Op. 36 *nrr\ 37-3 9 9 > ITT 3 4^-3 A l s o t h e t e c h n i q u e of u s i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o approximate a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a l i n f l e c t i o n i s employed a g a i n , n o t a b l y i n measure e i g h t y - o n e on the word " n i e d e r s e n k t " Op.Zb mm Bl 4-• — A l _ l * 7& vie. , and w i t h the s o l o cymbal on the l a s t word of t h e song,"gut." Example 25 Op. 2fe r»m 113 " 3 -m Out tot totter), The c h o r d a l s e c t i o n s of the work are a l l a c a p e l l a w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e one t h a t o c c u r s a t the apex of the a r c h , where i n s t r u m e n t s are used t o augment and i n t e n s i f y t h e d r a m a t i c and s t r u c t u r a l i m p o r t a n c e . The p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n s , of which t h e r e are s i x , are t o prepare the l e v e l of e x c i t e m e n t t h a t i s t o f o l l o w i n the c h o r a l p a r t s , such as the c h o r d a l s e c t i o n from measures s i x t y - f o u r t o s i x t y - n i n e which i s preceded i n measure s i x t y - o n e by an i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n of a h i g h l e v e l of e x c i t e m e n t and f o l l o w e d i n measure seventy-two by a much s h o r t e r one of calm. Example 26 The accompaniment used by Webern i n Das A u g e n l i c h t i s much more " t r a d i t i o n a l " t h a n t h e one found i n Op. 19. The o n l y i n s t r u m e n t t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d unusual i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e i s t h e mandolin. Webern was v e r y f o n d of t h e p e r c u s s i v e q u a l i t i e s of a l l i n s t r u m e n t s and h i s o r c h e s t r a t i o n s show t h e s e q u a l i t i e s as w e l l as h i s wide use of t u n a b l e and non-tunable p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . I n Op. 26, t h e ty m p a n i , g l o c k e n s p i e l , x y l o p h o n e , cymbal, c e l e s t a and harp a re used i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s and r e g i s t e r s i n d i c a t i n g Webern's u n f a i l i n g i n t e r e s t i n tone c o l o r s . Example 27 10' l1^ mit Uampfor rr". J ' = ^ li= — ^ — r T~~C-~ 1 mit Uamp/br Jtrn A , iff 0 'mit Samp fer I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t Webern has an acute awareness of t h e m u s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a l r e a d y i n the p o e t r y of H i l d e g a r d Jone - i n t h e n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n and rhythm of t h e words - and i n the sounds of the words t h e m s e l v e s - which c o n t i n u e f o r the composer t o evoke i n s t r u m e n t a l t i m b r e a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n the melody, accompaniment and form, t h e composer has c a t e r e d e n t i r e l y t o t h e t e x t . CHAPTER IV F i r s t C a n t a t a Op. 29 There i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of Webern 1 s l a s t two c h o r a l works, t h e C a n t a t a s Op. 29 and Op. 31, t h a n f o r t h o s e p i e c e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper. These l a t e r works a r e mentioned many t i m e s i n Webern's p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s t o H i l d e g a r d Jone and J o s e p h Humplik- 1 - and i n the volume of d i e Reihe which i s devoted e n t i r e l y t o h i s l i f e o and works. The most n o t a b l e f e a t u r e of t h e s e documents i s the r e c u r r i n g mention of the c l o s e p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s of Jone and Webern which r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e m a r k a b l e a f f i n i t y between the t e x t and the music. F i r s t mention of t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e C a n t a t a Op. 29 i s found i n one of the l e t t e r s from Webern t o Jone, Now l i s t e n t o t h i s : I am composing ' K l e i n e r F l u g e r Ahornsamen schwebst im Winde . . . ' ( ' L i t t l e winged seed of maple, born by b r e e z e s . . . ' ) . I t i s t o be the key t o a s i z a b l e symphonic c y c l e f o r s o l o , Anton Webern, L e t t e r s t o H i l d e g a r d Jone and J o s e p h Humplik. ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1967.) d i e Reihe (ed.) H e r b e r t E i m e r t and K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen. ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1958), v o l . I I . o r c h e s t r a and c h o r u s , i n which more of your t e x t s a r e t o appear. A s o r t of symphony w i t h v o c a l s e c t i o n s . 3 However, he a p p a r e n t l y changed h i s mind about the symphonic a s p e c t s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e e x c l u s i v e l y v o c a l ( w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment) c y c l e of- t h r e e movements.^ News of the f i n a l c o m p l e t i o n of the work i n e a r l y 1940 i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r from t h e same c o l l e c t i o n , The s c o r e of my C a n t a t a , t h a t i s , the p a r t t h a t I worked on l a s t , i s now f i n a l i z e d and f i n i s h e d once and f o r a l l . How I would l o v e t o show i t t o you. How your w o n d e r f u l words, dear H i l d e g a r d , have become m u s i c a l ; ' C h a r i s d i e Gabe des Hochsten: d i e Anmut der Gnade e r g l a n z e t ' ( C h a r i t y , t h e g i f t of the h i g h e s t ; the grace of mercy s h i n e s f o r t h ' ) , or the p r e c e d i n g passage 'und auch d i e b l a s s e r e m B i l d e r zum S i e g e l des Specktrums geschmolzen' ('and p a l e images t o o , melted i n t o the s e a l of t h e spectrum') ... I have now had t o put t h i s p i e c e a t t h e end of the C a n t a t a a f t e r a l l . M u s i c a l l y i t had t o be a t the ending. I t was so i n t h e p l a n and i t has t u r n e d out e x a c t l y so. M u s i c a l l y t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e c e n t r e of g r a v i t y i n t h e p i e c e . The harmonic c o n s t r u c t i o n ( r e s u l t a n t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s ) i s such t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s f l o a t i n g . ^ C o n c e r n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e of the C a n t a t a , t h e r e i s no f i r s t -hand i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e l e t t e r t o Jone c o n c e r n i n g t h e f i n a l movement. Anton Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 36. 4 • There are no e x c l u s i v e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l movements i n t h e p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n , U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n s No. 12197. 5 Anton Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 40. Now I w i s h t o t e l l you t h a t the ' C h a r i t e n ' are f i n i s h e d ! The p i e c e was a l o t of work. I n c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s a f o u r p a r t fugue: but t o r e g a i n a l l t h e freedom of m o b i l i t y w i t h i n t h i s s t r i c t n e s s - so t h a t t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n of f o r c i n g - was no easy t a s k . So i n f a c t i t t u r n e d i n t o something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , a s c h e r z o form t h a t came about on t h e b a s i s of v a r i a t i o n s . But s t i l l a fugue! Now I am p r e p a r i n g the s c o r e . That w i l l t a k e some time - I have t o o b t a i n a sound more m a n i f o l d , perhaps, t h a n a n y t h i n g I have imagined h i t h e r t o . That done, t h e C a n t a t a w i l l be complete. I t h i n k t h e ' C h a r i t e n ' w i l l have t o be t h e f i r s t ^ p i e c e f o r m u s i c a l r e a s o n s but a l s o f o r t e x t u a l ones. A r e n ' t t h e ' l i t t l e wings' and ' L i g h t e n i n g and t h u n d e r ' answering the q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h e ' C h a r i t e n ' v e r s e s , dear H i l d e g a r d ? A r e n ' t t h e y s a y i n g what i s i m p l i e d by t h e l a t t e r , by t h e sound, t h e 'word', the ' s e a l of t h e spectrum'? Of c o u r s e the ' C h a r i t e n ' are composed on t h e b a s i s of t h e same sequence of t w e l v e n o t e s as t h e o t h e r two p i e c e s , the s e r i e s w h i c h , as I have a l r e a d y t o l d you, has t h e p e c u l i a r i t y t h a t the second s e t of s i x n o t e s , i s . , i n . . i t s i n t e r v a l s , t h e backwards i n v e r s i o n of t h e f i r s t s e t , so t h a t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t o c c u r s can be t r a c e d back t o the sequence of s i x n o t e s . Ever the same: whether i t ' s the ' b l i s s f u l s t r i n g s ' , the 'charm of mercy', t h e ' l i t t l e w i n g s ' , the ' l i g h t e n i n g of l i f e ' , or t h e 'thunder of t h e h e a r t b e a t ' . S u r e l y i t i s e v i d e n t from t h i s how w e l l t h e music and the t e x t can be b u i l t i n t o the same sequence. And m u s i c a l l y , i t i s j u s t t h e same. And y e t , each time something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ! ' Whereas the b a s i s f o r the s t r u c t u r e of t h e p r e c e d i n g work, Das A u q e n l i c h t , i s found i n the t e x t , i n Op. 29 t h e s t r u c t u r e i s based on the unique o v e r l a p and c o m b i n a t i o n E v i d e n t l y Webern's p l a n of h a v i n g the " C h a r i t e n " v e r s e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the work must have undergone a f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n as t h e p u b l i s h e d o r d e r of v e r s e s remained the same as t h a t i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t l e t t e r t o H i l d e g a r d Jone r e g a r d i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the work. Anton Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 39 q u a l i t i e s of t h e t w e l v e - n o t e s e r i e s . As Webern mentions i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l e t t e r , t h e second h a l f of t h e s e r i e s used i n Op. 29 i s an e x a c t r e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n of the f i r s t h a l f , t h e r e s u l t b e i n g t h a t a c e r t a i n t r a n s p o s i t i o n of t h e O r i g i n a l form has an i d e n t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t i n the R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n form. See Example 29. Op. 29 I . K a n t a t e S E R I A L A N A L Y S I S ROW-FORM CHART (0) 10 11 12 ( I ) 6 7 9 10 11 12 D# B D C# F E G F# Bb A C A b G E b F# F A Ab B B b D C# E C E' C D# D F# F GP G B B b C# A. F C# E E b G Gb A Ab C B D Bb C# A C B D# D F E G# G B b F# D B b C# C E E b F# F A A b B G B G B b A C# C D# D p# F G# E C G# B Bb D c # E E b G F# A F G# E G F# B b A C B E b D F C# A F G# G B Bb C# C E Eb F# D F# D F E G# G B b A C# C Eb B Bb F# A G# C B D C# F E G E b 10 3 h 5 6 7 8 ( R ) 10 11 12 11 12 ( R I I d e n t i c a l s e r i e s a l s o occur between the c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e I n v e r s i o n and R e t r o g r a d e forms. The c h o i c e of row-form t o be used a t a g i v e n time i s even more l i m i t e d i n t h e f i r s t C a n t a t a t h a n i t was i n Das A u g e n l i c h t . I n Op. 26, a tone-row s e r i e s i s e f f e c t e d by a l l o w i n g the l a s t note of one t r a n s p o s i t i o n t o become th e f i r s t note of t h e s u c c e e d i n g one. Because of t h e n a t u r e of t w e l v e - t o n e music, t h i s r e s u l t s i n a c h o i c e of f o u r t r a n s p o s i t i o n s f o r use, one i n each of t h e row forms. I n t h e C a n t a t a Op. 29, t h i s s e r i a l i z a t i o n of rows r e s u l t s from a l l o w i n g the l a s t two notes of one t r a n s p o s i -t i o n t o become t h e f i r s t two of t h e next. F u r t h e r , because of t h e i n t e r v a l arrangement of t h e b a s i c s e t , t h e p a r t i c u l a r row form used a t the b e g i n n i n g of each movement can not be changed w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g the p r i n c i p l e of p r e - d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o r d e r of tone-rows. I n o t h e r words, 9 O r i g i n a l must l e a d t o O r i g i n a l , I n v e r s i o n t o I n v e r s i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r v a l s between the t r a n s p o s i t i o n s a r e such t h a t a c y c l e of f o u r tone-rows emerges, w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s p o s i t i o n of a g i v e n row-form b e l o n g i n g t o o n l y one c y c l e . ^Only t h e O r i g i n a l and I n v e r s i o n forms of t h e s e r i e s a re mentioned i n t h i s paper because of t h e i r d u p l i c a t i o n by t h e R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n and R e t r o g r a d e forms r e s p e c t i v e l y . 3 It 5 i-D o) Example 29 10 11 12 Op. 29 I. Kantate SERIAL ANALYSIS ROW-FORM CHART 3 h (I) 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 H 5 6 7 (RI) 10 10 11 12 D# B D C# F E G F# Bb A C A b G E b F# F A A b B B b D C# E C E C D# D F# F G# G B B b c# A F C# E E b G Gb A A b C B D . B b C# A C B D# D ' F E G# G B b F# D B b C# C E Eb F# F A Ab B G B G Bb A C# C D# D F# F G# E C G# B Bb D C# E E b G F# A F G# E G F# B b A C B E b D F C# A F G# G B B b C# C E E b F# D F# D F E G# G B b A C# C E b B Bb F # | A G# C B D C# F E G E b 3 It 5 6 7 8 (R) 10 11 12 11 12 I n t h e p r e c e d i n g example o n l y one c y c l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d , showing t h a t t h e f i r s t t r a n s p o s i t i o n of t h e I n v e r s i o n l e a d s t o the e i g h t h , which l e a d s t o the t e n t h , and t h e n t o t h e e l e v e n t h which l e a d s back t o t h e f i r s t . F u r t h e r c y c l e s can be seen i n the second, t h i r d , f i f t h and t w e l f t h t r a n s p o s i t i o n s and i n t h e f o u r t h , s i x t h , s e v e n t h and n i n t h t r a n s p o s i t i o n s . These c y c l e s a l s o occur between the same t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e O r i g i n a l form, g i v i n g a t o t a l of s i x c y c l e s or r o w - s e r i e s t h a t can be used. A n o t h e r p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e of the p r e s e n t row, b e s i d e s i t s m i r r o r image c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o u t l i n e d above, i s t h a t i t c o n t a i n s no m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l s o t h e r t h a n t h e minor second, minor t h i r d and major t h i r d . The row may f u r t h e r be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r segments, each c o n t a i n i n g a l l of the t h r e e i n t e r v a l s mentioned above. The p e r f e c t f i f t h which o c c u r s between tone t w e l v e and tone one of any g i v e n t r a n s p o s i t i o n i s never used as a m e l o d i c e n t i t y because of the c y c l i c p r i n c i p l e mentioned above. The F i r s t C a n t a t a c o n s i s t s of t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g movements w h i c h are connected t e x t u a l l y as Webern s u g g e s t s , r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l l y , m e l o d i c a l l y or r h y t h m i c a l l y . The t e x t d i s c u s s e s v a r i o u s phenomena of n a t u r e : i n the f i r s t movement, t h u n d e r and l i g h t n i n g " ^ ; i n the second t h e Zunden (measure f o u r t e e n ) and Donner (measure t w e n t y - s i x ) . r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e of t h e maple t r e e and i n the t h i r d , t h e metamorphosis of the G r a c e s . I n e x p l a i n i n g what she meant be "Graces," t h e p o e t e s s says ... above a l l , i t means i n f i n i t e l y more t h a n something not q u i t e r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h complete s e r i o u s n e s s . F o r grace i t s e l f can be a l l t h a t i s p u r e s t and deepest i n the s e r i o u s n e s s of l i f e , not o n l y the b r e a t h of beauty i n what i s w e l l and whole, but a l s o i n t h e h e a l i n g of . t h e wound, and t h e c h e e r f u l acceptance of the wound t h a t cannot be h e a l e d . But the music ... i s no o t h e r t h a n t h e s p a r k l e of t h e grace of Grace . . . i i S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e opening movement of t h e F i r s t  C a n t a t a i s m o d e l l e d a f t e r Das A u g e n l i c h t w i t h the i n s t r u m e n t a l and c h o r a l s e c t i o n s a l t e r n a t i n g i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g manner: H i l d e g a r d J o n e , "A C a n t a t a " i n d i e R e i h e , (ed.) H e r b e r t E i m e r t and K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen. (Bryn Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1958). v o l . I I , p. 1. Example 30 •f-9 _ i n s t r u m e n t a l I c h o r a l 5 i n s t r u m e n t a l | c h o r a l j i n s t r u m e n t a l c h o r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l I n the preceding'-example i t can be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s e c t i o n s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the two-measure i n s t r u -mental p a r t a t measures t h i r t y and t h i r t y - o n e ) become p r o g r e s s i v e l y s h o r t e r toward the c e n t r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n , measures t w e n t y - t h r e e t o t w e n t y - f i v e where, i n a m i r r o r f a s h i o n d e r i v e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i p l e of t h e b a s i c s e t , t h e y become l o n g e r toward the end. F u r t h e r s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen between t h e homorhythmic s e c t i o n s of Das A u g e n l i c h t and t h e v o c a l p a r t of the e n t i r e f i r s t movement of t h i s F i r s t C a n t a t a Example 31 Op.2(o mm tO-2i O p ^? No.l rwm 70- Zi ' » I ' l l 7 t . j J 3 ^ I n b o t h c o m p o s i t i o n s t h e v o i c i n g of t h e f o u r s i m u l t a n e o u s t r a n s p o s i t i o n s r e s u l t s i n a harmony t h a t has now become a f a v o u r i t e c h o r a l d e v i c e of Anton Webern. I n t h e C a n t a t a . however, t h e c h o i c e of row form i s such t h a t a t any g i v e n t i m e t h e r e a r e o n l y s i x p o s s i b l e f o u r - n o t e s t r u c t u r e s . Op *q Mo. I mm 14 - zt, 5et»r«n» oio A f A h G 8 B b C * C f £k F * 0 P P 6 * G B k * C* Chord* A « 4 C D C » T © e P D P C C A t " i l i I i I i 1 Because the i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n s a l t e r n a t e w i t h t h e v o c a l and use t h e same tone rows, t h i s r e s t r i c t i v e c h o r d c h o i c e c a r r i e s over t o t h e i r p a r t as w e l l a l t h o u g h i n t h e former t h e r e i s o f t e n a one-beat d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t i m e of e n t r y . R e f e r r i n g back t o example t h i r t y - t w o , i t i s n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e v e r s a l p r o c e s s d e r i v e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i -p l e of t h e b a s i c s e t o c c u r s a l s o i n the c h o r d s e l e c t i o n , A-B-A, C-D-C, E-B-E and F-D-F. T h i s r e v e r s a l i s extended t o s i x s u c c e s s i v e chords i n measure t h i r t y - t w o . Example 33 Op. 29 Ale. I mm 3 2 - ^ 4 ' Soprano B b p C** IT P * a / A l t © G E*> IT C* 0 B b Tenor Ah C B 0 C* F B«<$ p p B C cwonrfs c F tr tr r c i . i The one-beat d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e of e n t r y mentioned above a l s o o c c u r s i n the v o c a l p a r t s . I n measures s i x t e e n , s eventeen, t w e n t y - s e v e n , t w e n t y - e i g h t and t h i r t y - t w o t h e t e n o r and bass sound one b eat a f t e r t h e soprano and a l t o . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h o m o p h o n i c a l l y a r r a n g i n g t h e upper two and the l o w e r two v o i c e s i s a prominent f e a t u r e of t h e "A" s e c t i o n s of t h e f i r s t c h o r a l p i e c e , E n t f l i e h t auf  l e i c h t e n Kahnen ... The i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t i o n and p o s t l u d e t o t h e f i r s t movement c o n t a i n homophonic, c a n o n i c and combined homophonic-canonic s e c t i o n s u s i n g s i x n o t e s from f o u r t o n e -r o w - s e r i e s t h a t are s e l e c t e d t o y i e l d t h e s i x v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s mentioned above. (See a l s o example n i n e t e e n ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a l t i m b r e s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s c o r e , Webern never uses more t h a n s i x of t h e s e a t any one t i m e , r e s u l t i n g i n an e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d and t r a n s p a r e n t t e x t u r e . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l d o u b l i n g of the v o i c e p a r t s i n measure e i g h t e e n w h i c h h e i g h t e n s t h e e x p l o s i v e e f f e c t o f , and adds a n o t h e r c o l o r i s t i c d i m e n s i o n t o the word " s c h l u g , " t h e c h o r a l p a r t s a r e a c a p e l l a . As i n Das A u g e n l i c h t , the i n s t r u m e n t s are use i n Op. 29 as an i n h e r e n t p a r t of t h e form and f o r t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e c o l o r - d i m e n s i o n , e i t h e r p r e v i e w i n g or c o n t i n u i n g t h e e f f e c t of a word-sound, or i n t r o d u c i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of t e n s i o n and e x c i t e m e n t . Example 34 ©>*<t . No.I *n*4C;;?4. 1 m 4 =5* Because of i t s f l o w i n g and l y r i c a l . n a t u r e , the second movement s e r v e s as a g r e a t c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i r s t . The t e x t i s p r e s e n t e d by t h e v o i c e i n q u i t e r e g u l a r p h r a s e s of e i t h e r t e n or t w e l v e s y l l a b l e s . I n t h e former i n s t a n c e s , t h e tone-rows a r e s e r i a l i z e d by a two-note o v e r l a p ; i n t h e l a t t e r , no o v e r l a p o c c u r s . The form i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the f i r s t movement and may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : Example 35 S i -i n s t r u m e n t a l s o l o soprano i n s t r u m e n t s ^ i n s t r u m e n t a l s o l o soprano i n s t r u m e n t s ^ i n s t r u m e n t a l s o l o soprano i n s t r u m e n t s "I i n s t r u m e n t a l In t h i s movement the mirror form which again i s derived from the construction p r i n c i p l e of the basic set, i s much more symmetrical than that of the f i r s t movement. Melodically, the entire movement i s based on a now-familiar four note motive found i n measures six and seven, which appears i n transposed, inverted, retrograde, and v e r t i c a l l y expanded and contracted forms, much i n keeping with the text. One might imagine seeing a myriad of maple leaves, each b a s i c a l l y the same, but seen " i n dif f e r e n t l i g h t s , showing d i f f e r e n t colors and from 12 di f f e r e n t angles showing d i f f e r e n t shapes." The treatment of the text i n regard to the natural spoken rhythm i s not as exact as one might expect from the increasing attention paid to t h i s compositional aspect i n Op. 2, Op. 19, and Op. 26. Although the rhythm approximates the natural spoken rhythm i n the second movement of the Cantata - with the longer notes occurring on the appropriate dipthongs, and rests occurring at the end of the spoken phrase - the vocal l i n e appears to be 12 Wallace C. McKenzie, "The Music of Anton Webern" (unpublished Ph. D. thesis, North Texas State College, I960), p. 438. dictated by the metamorphosis of the four-note motive rather than by the natural i n f l e c t i o n of the words. Example 36 Op^R No, St. m m U-H W a i m ^ T i 1*11 IT h i Klei - ner Flii <*H A - how- i& - men «eWbd* iw Vlin-de 1 WvJW deck MI d 1 ' • - ' -The instrumental accompaniment to the central movement of the F i r s t Cantata i s constructed from four simultaneous statements (but not homorhythmic) statements of the series with the emphasis on the horizontal rather than the v e r t i c a l aspects of r e a l i z a t i o n . The i n s t r u -mental introduction presents three d i f f e r e n t compositional ideas: a two note motive (la b e l l e d "a"), a four note motive i d e n t i c a l i n structure with that of the vocal l i n e ( l a b e l l e d "b") and a three note chord ( l a b e l l e d " c " ) , constructed by a perfect fourth and an augmented fourth. Example 37 As i n t h e f i r s t movement t h e c h o i c e of t r a n s p o s i t i o n i s such t h a t a t any time the same numbered note i n t h r e e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s o c c u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the same c h o r d a l s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s . The i n s t r u m e n t a l p o r t i o n of t h i s movement i s not c a n o n i c i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l sense, i n t h a t t h e t h r e e c o m p o s i t i o n a l a s p e c t s t h a t serve as the b a s i s a r e employed i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r by each of t h e f o u r l i n e s . When t h e v o i c e e n t e r s i n measure s i x i t proceeds t h r o u g h o u t t h e movement w i t h i t s own row-forms, and i s n e i t h e r c onnected t o nor s h a r e s a row w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t s as d i d t h e p o l y p h o n i c s e c t i o n s of Op. 26 and t h e second song of Op. 19. The t e c h n i q u e of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , however, i s t he same as mentioned above, t h a t i s , t o b o t h i n c r e a s e t h e v e r t i c a l d i m e n s i o n of t h e p i e c e and t o add another c o l o r . F o r t h e f i r s t time i n the works d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper t h e r e i s a s p e c i f i c use of K l a n q f a r b e n m e l o d i e i n t h e p a s s i n g of t h e tone-row (which f o l l o w s t h e spoken phrase) t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s , so t h a t a s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t r a r e l y has more t h a n one or two not e s of t h a t p h r a s e . ample 38 The f i n a l movement of the F i r s t C a n t a t a marks Webern's r e t u r n t o t h e more f a m i l i a r c a n o n i c i d i o m which s e r v e s as a b a s i s f o r h i s e a r l i e r c h o r a l works. I n t h i s movement, however, the c a n o n i c t r e a t m e n t i s a g a i n unique. As Webern's tone-rows become synonymous w i t h m e l o d i c l i n e s he r e l i e s l e s s and l e s s on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e term. I n Op. 2 the c a n o n i c w r i t i n g i s t r a d i t i o n a l i n e v e r y sense. I n Op. 19 t h e r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between the v o i c e s are s t i l l not i n t e r -dependent w i t h the tone-row. I n Op. 26, however, the c a n o n i c w r i t i n g i s such t h a t the same numbered t o n e s of each row-statement have th e same ti m e v a l u e . I n t h e p r e s e n t work, e s p e c i a l l y i n the second movement, the canon i s not t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h a t each of t h e f o u r l i n e s have t h e i r own r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , however, i t may be c a l l e d a p i t c h - c a n o n because of t h e i n h e r e n t s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s of t h e f o u r h o r i z o n t a l l y t r e a t e d row-forms. T h i s use of p i t c h - c a n o n i s e x p l o i t e d and r e f i n e d i n the s u c c e e d i n g c o m p o s i t i o n . 13 From t h i s p o i n t i n h i s c h o r a l works, Webern was t o employ two t y p e s of c a n o n i c w r i t i n g , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and a type t h a t depended o n l y on t h e n o t e s of the t w e l v e - t o n e row f o r i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r t y pe i s r e f e r r e d t o as a p i t c h canon. The s t r u c t u r e of t h e t h i r d movement of t h e p r e s e n t work i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e o t h e r two and may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : Example 39 en *"3 •a. c h o r a l & i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t a l c h o r a l & ' i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t a l c h o r a l & i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t a l and c h o r a l - i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n s , t h e random l e n g t h does not d e f i n e a m i r r o r form as i s the case i n t h e p r e v i o u s two movements. C o n c e r n i n g t.he s t r u c t u r e of t h i s movement and the f i t t i n g t o g e t h e r of t h e t e x t and t h e music, H i l d e g a r d Jone makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : Webern wished t o have no c e n t r e of g r a v i t y i n t h i s p i e c e . The harmonic s t r u c t u r e l e a v e s e v e r y t h i n g i n a s t a t e of suspense. 'She comes i n d a r k n e s s ' ; a d a r k n e s s made deeper by t h e music; t h i s g i f t i n d e e d must come from above and be s h i n i n g b r i g h t t o be sensed as a g i f t a t a l l . 'In d a r k n e s s , the r i p e n i n g h e a r t ' s g i f t ' can o n l y do good w i t h l o v e f u l l of g r a c e . Y es, l o v e i s t h e 'dew of p e r f e c t i o n ' ( d e r Tau der V o l l e n u n g ). As mentioned, Webern h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e d t h e movement as a f o u r v o i c e fugue w i t h i n which are c o n t a i n e d c e r t a i n 15 q u a l i t i e s of a s c h e r z o and v a r i a t i o n s . M e l o d i c a l l y , the f i n a l movement of t h e C a n t a t a i s a g a i n d i f f e r e n t from a n y t h i n g found i n Webern's p r e v i o u s c h o r a l music. The f i r s t of the c h o r a l s e c t i o n s i s a two v o i c e canon a t the time d i s t a n c e of f i v e q u a r t e r n o t e s . The two v o i c e s , however, are passed among a l l f o u r c h o r a l l i n e s . There are t h r e e s t a tements of the O r i g i n a l form of t h e row used i n each of t h e ca n o n i c v o i c e s and t h e s e a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by t h e n o w - f a m i l i a r t e c h n i q u e of t o n e -H i l d e g a r d J o n e , "A C a n t a t a " i n d i e R e i h e , (ed.) H e r b e r t E i m e r t and K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen. ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1958), v o l . I I , p. 7. Anton Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 39. row s e r i a l i z a t i o n . The second c h o r a l s e c t i o n , b e g i n n i n g a t measure t h i r t y - n i n e a g a i n s t a r t s out as. a two v o i c e canon, o n l y t h i s t i m e the e n t r i e s a r e an e i g h t h note a p a r t and b o t h t h e O r i g i n a l and I n v e r s i o n forms a r e used. I n measure f o r t y - n i n e t h e canon expands t o f o u r v o i c e s but c o n t i n u e s t o employ t h e same row-forms and t i m e i n t e r v a l . The t h i r d c h o r a l p a r t b e g i n s as a soprano s o l o i n measure f i f t y - s e v e n . T h i s l e a d s t o a f o u r v o i c e canon i n measure s i x t y - f o u r t h a t i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the one i n measure f o r t y - n i n e . A t measure s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - s i x t h e r e i s a f o u r v o i c e homorhythmic p a r t i n which f o u r t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e tone-row (two O r i g i n a l and two I n v e r s i o n ) proceed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e same c o n t r o l l e d v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s t h a t were found i n the f i r s t movement (See example t h i r t y - t w o ) . The i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment i s much more c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c h o r a l p a r t i n t h i s movement t h a n i n th e o t h e r two, w i t h the v o c a l l i n e s doubled i n a l l but t h e f i n a l n i n e measures. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n a l l of h i s c h o r a l p i e c e s t h a t c o n t a i n the c o n t r o l l e d v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s , Webern p r e s e n t s them unaccompanied. B e s i d e s t h e v o c a l d o u b l i n g p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e r e i s one statement of t h e row which i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l l i n e s . As i n t h e o t h e r c h o r a l works t h a t have accompani-ments, t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t s here i s t o add a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o the sound, and t o v e r t i c a l l y extend by o c t a v e s t h e shape of t h e v o c a l l i n e . The i n s t r u m e n t a l t e x t u r e i s much t h i c k e r i n t h e p r e s e n t movement t h a n i t was i n t h e p r e v i o u s two, w i t h t h e emphasis on t h e unusual and unique c o m b i n a t i o n s of t i m b r e s . F o r example, a s i x -note chord i n measure twenty-seven i s p l a y e d by a b a s s -c l a r i n e t , trombone, c e l e s t a (two n o t e s ) , v i o l i n and c e l l o . The t e c h n i q u e of K l a n g f a r b e n m e l o d i e i s c a r r i e d t o new h e i g h t s i n t h i s movement as w e l l ; the v o c a l l i n e d o u b l i n g s a r e passed among a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , each of which never has more t h a n s i x no t e s of t h e s e r i e s . The s i n g l e s e r i e s t h a t i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e o r c h e s t r a i s passed among t h e i n s t r u m e n t s even more f r e e l y . As i n t h e p r e v i o u s two movements, t h e rhythm of t h e t e x t i s t o Webern a most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t . Because of t h e l i m i t e d number of me l o d i c i n t e r v a l s , m o s t l y seconds and se v e n t h s , t h e n a t u r a l v o c a l i n f l e c t i o n i s somewhat ex a g g e r a t e d and a t t i m e s e n t i r e l y d e s t r o y e d by t h e a n g u l a r m e l o d i c l i n e . Example 40 Op. No.3 mm f8-t>0 I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t Webern was more i n t e r e s t e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r sound of t h e moment, t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t i e i d e a l of r e p r e s e n t i n g r e a l i t y beneath t h e s u r f a c e , t h a n i n f o l l o w i n g t h e sound of the spoken word which i n t r i g u e d him i n h i s e a r l i e r c h o r a l works. T h i s s h i f t i n emphasis i s e x p l o i t e d t o t h e f u l l i n h i s next and l a s t c h o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n . CHAPTER V Second C a n t a t a Op. 31 The l a s t completed work by Webern, t h e Second  C a n t a t a Op. 31, was begun i n 1941 and f i n i s h e d i n 1943. i n t h i s work t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e not p r e s e n t i n h i s e a r l i e r works. F i r s t , i t i s t h e l o n g e s t of h i s c h o r a l p i e c e s . ^ Second, i t i s t h e o n l y work of h i s e n t i r e c o m p o s i t i o n a l c a r e e r t h a t c a l l s f o r t h e male v o i c e as s o l o . T h i r d , i t i s t h e o n l y work which s p e c i f i e s a women's c h o r u s . W h i l e w o r k i n g on t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , a p i e c e t h a t i n some r e s p e c t s r e p r e s e n t s a d i s t i l l a t i o n of a l l p r e v i o u s l y accumulated s t y l i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e composer wrote r e p e a t e d l y t o b o t h H i l d e g a r d Jone and Dr. W i l l i R e i c h about h i s p r o g r e s s . I n a l e t t e r t o Jone, d a t e d 2nd. March 1941, t h e r e i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Webern was about t o b e g i n a new c h o r a l p i e c e and a l s o a statement of t h e c r i t e r i a upon which he bases h i s c h o i c e of a c h o r a l work over any o t h e r m u s i c a l medium. In a l e t t e r t o W i l l i R e i c h dated 22nd. F e b r u a r y 1944, Webern mentions " D u r a t i o n - h a l f an hour". The i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e s c o r e i s f o r a d u r a t i o n of s i x t e e n m i n u t e s . The Robert C r a f t r e c o r d i n g i s about t e n and o n e - h a l f minutes i n l e n g t h . P l e a s e u n d e r s t a n d me c o r r e c t l y : I have never gone out l o o k i n g (as i t were) f o r a ' t e x t ' w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of w r i t i n g something v o c a l (a song, a c h o r a l p i e c e e t c . ) . I t was never t h u s ; t h e t e x t  was always p r o v i d e d f i r s t ! G i v e n a t e x t , t h e n of c o u r s e , something v o c a l s h o u l d r e s u l t ... t h e F e l d p o s t p a c k e n had a r r i v e d and w i t h t h a t , much was a l r e a d y d e c i d e d . So when I say I c a n ' t w a i t t o see your new work, t h a t i s p u r e l y f o r t h e sake of your work and f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n . Then, of c o u r s e , how b e a u t i f u l i t i s when t h i n g s t u r n out r i g h t onee more; but t h a t cannot and must not be t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r from t h e word go, and i t i s not! ... But I have t o admit: I v e r i l y b e l i e v e t h a t your poem ' F r e u n d s e l i g i s t das Wort' ( ' C h a r i t y i s t h e word') i s once more something f o r me.2 Many more of Webern's l e t t e r s t a l k of t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e work and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t he composed t h e movements i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , t h u s , t h e f i n a l completed form remained nebulous f o r some t i m e . News of c o m p l e t i o n reached H i l d e g a r d Jone on t h e 2 8 t h of J a n u a r y 1944. Now I have t o r e v e a l t o you t h e f o l l o w i n g : I was wo r k i n g v e r y i n t e n s i v e l y on ' K l e i n e r s i n d G o t t e r gerworden ...' ('Gods have got s m a l l e r ' ) - I t o l d you r e c e n t l y t h a t t h i s was t o be t h e next p i e c e , t h e f o u n d a t i o n s were a l r e a d y l a i d - when suddenly I f e l t w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y - f a i n t h i n t s of i t had been e v i d e n t a c o u p l e of t i m e s b e f o r e - t h a t t h i s work was m u s i c a l l y complete i n t h e s i x f i n i s h e d p i e c e s ! I was s t i l l h e s i t a n t , but I q u i c k l y a r r i v e d a t a f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o group t h e s e f i n i s h e d p i e c e s t o g e t h e r i n t o a ' C a n t a t a ' . A l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y was a s l i g h t r e p o s i t i o n i n g (as a g a i n s t the o r d e r o r i g i n a l l y planned) - f o r m u s i c a l r e a s o n s , but a l s o f o r r e a s o n s connected w i t h the d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e t e x t . The r e s u l t s a t i s f i e s me i n a l l r e s p e c t s . Now l o o k a t the o r d e r ; i s n ' t i t b a s i c a l l y a 'Missa B r e v i s ' ? A n t o n Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 43. 1) 'Schweight such die Welt ...' (Though i t i s s t i l l ' ) 2) 'Sehr t i e f verhalten' (Deep down the inner l i f e ' ) 3) 'Schopfen aus Brunnen des Himmels ...' (Drawing the Word's most fresh water') 4) 'Leichteste Burden der Baume' (Bearing the tree's l i g h t e s t burdens') and 5) 'Freundselig i s t das Wort' ('-Charity i s the Word') (Bass Solo), Isn't that a Kyrie? (Bass Solo) : the 'Gloria i n excelsis deo' of the quite around the beehive at home! (Female chorus with soprano solo.) Isn't that a Credo? (Soprano Solo) (Soprano Solo and mixed chorus) a 'Benedictus qui venit i n nomine domine' and 'Sanctus'? Is not that 'blessed' which the wind bears through the 'spaces': the 'fragrances', the 'gentle shape'? And holy, holy i s 'the word' which knows of ' a l l that i s thine'? Holy, holy: 'doch wenn es wieder aufklingt i n der Morgenfruhe' ('and yet i t sounds out i n the dawn again') f i n a l l y : 6) 'Gelockert aus dem Schosse ...' Chorus: 'Agnus dei' ('It was a womb that bore him') the 'Lamb of God.' I r e a l l y believe that my selection displays cohesion... The above indicates that the Mass i s the basis for the ordering of movements. In a l l the movements, formal cohesion r e s u l t s , as i t did i n the F i r s t Cantata, from the overlapping q u a l i t i e s of the tone-row. Whereas i n the previous Cantata where s e r i a l i z a t i o n of tone-rows y i e l d s cycles of four rows, i n 3 Ibid, p. 52. t h i s p i e c e t h e s e r i a l i z a t i o n by t h e same two-note o v e r l a p y i e l d s f o u r c y c l e s of t w e l v e rows.^ Webern uses t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e r i a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e as the b a s i s f o r t h e second and t h i r d movements. I n t h e f i r s t , f o u r t h , p a r t s of the f i f t h , and s i x t h movements, a s e r i a l i z a t i o n of rows by the o v e r l a p of a s i n g l e note a p p e a r s , r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e t e c h n i q u e used i n Das A u g e n l i c h t . I n o t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h e f i f t h movement, an o v e r l a p of t h r e e n o t e s o c c u r s i n th e c o n n e c t i o n of t h e soprano s o l o l i n e t o t h e soprano l i n e of t h e c h o r u s . I n t h e f i r s t movement, wh i c h f o l l o w s no p r e - d e f i n e d form and which uses o n l y t h e t w e l f t h t r a n s p o s i t i o n of each of t h e f o u r row-forms, Webern uses a unique method of v a r i a t i o n . A l l t h e m e l o d i c and harmonic elements are p r e s e n -t e d i n t h e f i r s t t w e l v e measures. They t h e n undergo two s e p a r a t e r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n s i n measures t w e l v e t o twenty-f i v e and t w e n t y - s i x t o f o r t y - f o u r . The coda, measures f o r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y - e i g h t , p r e s e n t s a s i n g l e statement of th e i n i t i a l m e l o d i c and harmonic m a t e r i a l of each v a r i a t i o n . M e l o d i c a l l y , t h e f i r s t movement depends on a l i n e a r r e a l i z a t i o n of a t w e l v e - n o t e row which c o n s i s t s of f o u r minor seconds, two minor t h i r d s and f i v e major t h i r d s . The sequence of tone-rows i s as f o l l o w s : 0-1, RI-7, 0-5, RI- 3 , 0-9, RI-6, 0-12, RI-11, 0-10, RI-8, 0-4, RI-2. 0-2, RI-4, 0-8. RI-10,0-11, RI-12, 0-6, RI-9, 0-3, RI-5, 0-7, RI - 1 . I t i s n o t i c e d t h a t t h e second sequence i s t h e back-wards i n v e r s i o n of t h e f i r s t . The same sequences occur between t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e I n v e r s i o n and R e t r o g r a d e forms. The s o l o v o c a l l i n e proceeds w i t h i t s own t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e tone-row and i s accompanied by b o t h h o r i z o n t a l r e a l i z a t i o n and r e c u r r i n g v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . The v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h o s e found a t measures f i v e , s i x and n i n e , are of s i x n o t e s and use e i t h e r the t o n e s one t o s i x or seven t o t w e l v e of t h e s e r i e s . The e f f e c t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e homorhythmic s e c t i o n s of Das A u q e n l i c h t and t h e F i r s t  C a n t a t a . The e x c e p t i o n s mentioned above a r e i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t u r e t o each o t h e r . Example 41 I n t h e accompaniment, o n l y one t w e l v e - n o t e s e r i e s i s used a t any one t i m e , r e s u l t i n g i n an e x t r e m e l y t h i n and p o i n t i l l i s t i c t e x t u r e . The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i s always d i f f e r e n t , e x p l o i t i n g new p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e K l a n g f a r b e n m e l o d i e p r i n c i p l e . As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s c h o r a l p i e c e s , Webern pays p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the n a t u r a l rhythm of t h e spoken work i n s e t t i n g the t e x t , but l i k e Das A u q e n l i c h t and the F i r s t C a n t a t a , t h e n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of t h e words has been r e p l a c e d by t h e t i m b r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c e r t a i n v o c a l sounds i n p a r t i c u l a r r e g i s t e r s . Example 42 Op. 31 No. I, mm 9, \0 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e second movement, an a r i a f o r s o l o b a s s , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s Webern's own d e s c r i p t i o n i n a l e t t e r t o Dr. R e i c h : I have h a r d l y stopped w o r k i n g . A g a i n a p i e c e has been completed w i t h i n t h e framework of t h e p l a n of which I have r e p e a t e d l y spoken: a bass a r i a . T h i s has become s t r i c t e r and, as a r e s u l t , f r e e r . That means t o say, I am moving on the b a s i s of a ' p e r p e t u a l double canon i n i n v e r s i o n ' i n complete freedom. Through v a r i a t i o n s , d i m i n u t i o n s , e t c . - something l i k e Bach does w i t h h i s theme i n t h e 'Art of t h e fugue.' But i n i t s form th e a r i a i s i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s w i t h a theme of a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - t w o b a r s i n p e r i o d i c form: t h u s a g a i n , t h e c l o s e s t i n t e r l i n k i n g of t h e two forms of p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n c h a r a c t e r , a k i n d of hymn: Die S t i l l e urn den B i e n e n k o r b i n der Heimat' (The q u i e t around t h e b e e h i v e at home').^ J A n t o n Webern, The P a t h t o t h e New M u s i c , (ed.) W i l l i R e i c h . ( B r y n Mawr: Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1963), p. 64. The ' p e r p e t u a l double canon i n i n v e r s i o n ' of which Webern speaks b e g i n s i n the harp ( 0 - 8 and 1-12) w i t h the v o i c e s answered at a h a l f - n o t e d i s t a n c e by 1-11 and 0-12 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Exajfrnole 43 R e f e r r i n g back t o the o u t l i n e of tone-row sequences ( f o o t n o t e f o u r ) i t can be seen t h a t each e n t r y i s p a r t of a d i f f e r e n t sequence. The c o n s t r u c t i o n i s such t h a t when"1 each of t h e sequences has been completed, the movement i s f i n i s h e d . F u r t h e r , by employing t h i s t e c h n i q u e , Webern has a v o i d e d u s i n g any t r a n s p o s i t i o n of any row form more t h a n once. The freedom of which he speaks i s found i n t h e r h y t h m i c a s p e c t of t h e canon which i s not always i n s t r i c t i m i t a t i o n . ^ The v o c a l l i n e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e accompaniment, as t h e canon i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t the movement, i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s each c o n t a i n i n g an e q u a l p a r t of t h e s e r i e s . The c o n n e c t i n g of the s e s e c t i o n s o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e row s e r i a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . L i k e t h e v o c a l l i n e , t he i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment i s r e a l i z e d e n t i r e l y h o r i z o n t a l l y ; t h e v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s so c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e p r e v i o u s movement are o m i t t e d e n t i r e l y . However, t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l t e x t u r e , because of the h o r i z o n t a l t r e a t m e n t , i s much more u n i f o r m now t h a n i n movement one. The K l a n q f a r b e n m e l o d i e p r i n c i p l e i s prom i n e n t , w i t h t h e to'ne-row ( w h i c h i n t h i s movement i s a l s o t h e m e l o d i c l i n e ) passed i n one, two or t h r e e - n o t e fragments among t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . W i t h r e g a r d t o the t e x t , Webern a g a i n bases h i s Compare, i n example 4 3 , t o n e s seven t o n i n e i n each of t h e f o u r v o i c e s . s e t t i n g on t h e n a t u r a l rhythm of t h e spoken word and i n a n o w - f a m i l i a r manner extends the n a t u r a l c o n t o u r of t h e words t o o b t a i n the unique t i m b r a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t have come t o c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s c h o r a l w r i t i n g s . An i n t e r e s t i n g c omparison might be made between the s k e t c h of t h e f i r s t few measures of t h i s movement, found i n a l e t t e r from t h e composer t o t h e p o e t , and t h e f i r s t few measures of t h e p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n . Example 44 cU~ fait £a$a - 3e/o A l t h o u g h t h e p i t c h e s have remained i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h cases the rhythm i n t h e l a t t e r has been q u a d r u p l e d . D e t a i l s on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e t h i r d movement reached H i l d e g a r d Jone on a l e t t e r dated 1 1 t h October 1943 ... I have been working u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y : my new p i e c e s h o u l d soon be f i n i s h e d . I t i s : 'Schopfen aus Brunnen des Himmels . ..' ('Drawing the word's most f r e s h water ...') f o r t h r e e p a r t female chorus and soprano s o l o ( w i t h o r c h e s t r a ) . F o l l o w i n g a f t e r ' S t i l l e d i e M i t t e r n a c h t ' ('Quiet of m i d n i g h t ' ) i t w i l l be a very-animated p i e c e . Yet not so much something e x c i t i n g as ( t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f i n Goethe's s p i r i t ) ' r e p r e s e n t i n g something e x c i t i n g ' — or so I hope at l e a s t . So i t w i l l be i n t h e s p i r i t of your w o n d e r f u l poem 'Sturm-l a u t e n muss nun d i e L i e b e 1 ('Now l o v e must sound t h e alarm') ... Note a l s o t h e c h o i c e of f o u r female v o i c e s ...7 S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e p r e s e n t movement b e g i n s almost t h e same as movement two, as a double canon ( n o t , however, as a ' p e r p e t u a l double canon i n i n v e r s i o n ' ) . Each of t h e f o u r v o i c e s uses t h e R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n - O r i g i n a l row s e r i e s ' and t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s chosen at t h e b e g i n n i n g a r e Q a h a l f s e r i e s d i s t a n t from each o t h e r . The p a t t e r n i s m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h r e e , t w e l v e - n o t e s t a t e m e n t s . I n measure t h i r t e e n , t h e two R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n s e r i e s a re p r e s e n t e d , a l s o f o r t h r e e , t w e l v e - n o t e s t a t e m e n t s . I n measure f o r t y -f i v e , t h e R e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n - O r i g i n a l s e r i e s ' r e t u r n w i t h the f i n a l t h r e e rows i n each h a l f of t h e two s e r i e s . The f o r m a l d i v i s i o n of the t h i r d movement t h e n , i s s i m i l a r t o the p r e v i o u s movement except t h a t each s e c t i o n i s t h r e e tone-rows i n l e n g t h as opposed t o f o u r i n t h e second. Anton Webern, L e t t e r s ... , p. 51. 8 R I - 2 i s f o l l o w e d by RI-6; RI-1 by RI-12. See f o o t n o t e f o u r f o r complete sequences. The f i r s t canon, from measures one t o f o u r t e e n , h a s . f o u r v o i c e s , each o c c u r r i n g a t a time d i s t a n c e of t h r e e e i g h t h n o t e s . A l l p a r t s m a i n t a i n t h i s t i me d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i o n even though the note v a l u e s a r e somewhat a l t e r e d . Example 4 5 Op. 31 NO 3 mm 1- 5* st 1 ™ i r r ~ — \ x : ^  i -^e * for^ ' W t h'J j f - H \RI-U * — i ZV^ W kJ 1 *t l b * —T hJ V #S V 7. M — 1 'f |—-Wrf-« — * 3L_ L_ -3 -[J 8 l * ' [  -g ,1 hi ' ^V^H - f I ^ 4 1 — * — p — f — V 7 7 7 4 + / n : •/—ifr^r—? - 4 X—- 7 — f / 7 —I 1 ' « ! ) • ' ? *=1 The second canon which i s more c o r r e c t l y c a l l e d a p i t c h canon b e g i n s a t measure t h i r t e e n . The rhythm i s d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d i n the t h r e e v o i c e s t h a t a r e used as accompaniment. The f i r s t f o u r t o n e s of each i n s t r u m e n t a l e n t r y a re p r e s e n t e d as a v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e . S i m i l a r i t y can be seen a g a i n between t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s and t h e homo-r h y t h m i c a c a p e l l a s e c t i o n s of t h e p r e c e d i n g two works. Example 4 6 Op.31 NO.3 mm l 4 - ~ i V fie.I rv,m * 0 Op. 2* rnm H2 | I n t h i s movement f o u r t o n e s of one t r a n s p o s i t i o n a re used, whereas i n t h e p r e c e d i n g examples t h e s t r u c t u r e i s made up of one tone from f o u r t r a n s p o s i t i o n s . R h y t h m i c a l l y , t h i s p i t c h canon m a i n t a i n s i t s i r r e g u l a r i t y u n t i l measure twenty-n i n e a t the e n t r y of t h e t h r e e chorus p a r t s . From t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e g u l a r canon r e t u r n s w i t h the t h i r d v o i c e a l t e r -n a t i n g between the soprano s o l o and f i r s t - s o p r a n o chorus p a r t . At measure t h i r t y - s i x , t h e r e i s a r e t u r n of t h e unique p i t c h canon w h i c h b e g i n s the second s e c t i o n of t h i s movement. L i k e t h e p r e c e d i n g movement, the v o c a l p a r t s i n t h e t h i r d movement ar e t h e r e s u l t of a h o r i z o n t a l r e a l i z a t i o n of p a r t s of t h e tone-row, w i t h the rhythm of t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s a g a i n based on t h e rhythm of t h e spoken word. A g a i n , n a t u r a l word i n f l e c t i o n i s expanded v e r t i c a l l y f o r s p e c i a l t i m b r a l e f f e c t i n the c h o r a l and s o l o l i n e s . There i s f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l l i n e ; t h e t e c h n i q u e of d o u b l i n g t h e v o c a l l i n e t o add a new d i m e n s i o n t o the sound i s a l s o employed i n t h i s movement, as i t i s i n t h e t h i r d movement of t h e F i r s t C a n t a t a . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e s e two movements ar e unique i n Webern's c h o r a l w r i t i n g s . 9 I n a l e t t e r t o Dr. R e i c h , Webern d i s c u s s e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l b a s i s of t h i s t h i r d movement. I was t o t a l l y absorbed by my work (Second C a n t a t a ) and s t i l l am. The f i r s t movementlO of t h i s c h o r a l See f o o t n o t e 1 of C hapter 1. i^The movements were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e a r r a n g e d . From the p r e s e n t l e t t e r i t would appear t h a t the t h i r d movement was composed f i r s t . work w i t h s o l o i s t s and o r c h e s t r a - i t w i l l p r o b a b l y go beyond the scope of a C a n t a t a - a t l e a s t t h a t i s my p l a n - t h i s f i r s t movement i s f i n i s h e d and a l r e a d y s c o r e d . I s h o u l d l i k e t o t e l l you something about i t : i n form, i t i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n , a r e c i t a t i v e , but b a s i c a l l y i t i s b u i l t on a s t r u c t u r e never perhaps b e f o r e imagined by a ' N e t h e r l a n d e r " . H Perhaps i t was the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k ( i n t h i s r e s p e c t ) which I have ever had t o u n d e r t a k e . The b a s i s i s a canon i n f o u r p a r t s of t h e most c o m p l i c a t e d k i n d . I t s execu-t i o n t a t l e a s t I b e l i e v e so) was p o s s i b l e o n l y on t h e b a s i s of t h e s e r i a l law, which here i s q u i t e p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n e v i d e n c e : i n d e e d , i t s i d e a has become perhaps f u l l y e x p r e s s e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . I r e a d i n P l a t o t h a t 'Nomos' (law) was i d e n t i c a l w i t h 'tune' (melody). Now the melody t h a t the soprano s i n g s i n my p i e c e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n ( r e c i t a t i v e ) , t h i s may be the law (nomos) f o r a l l t h a t f o l l o w s . I n the sense of Goethe's ' p r i m e v a l p l a n t ' : w i t h t h i s model and i t s key, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o i n v e n t an i n f i n i t e number of p l a n t s ... t h e same law i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l e l s e t h a t i s l i v i n g . I s not t h i s b a s i c a l l y the essence of our s e r i a l law?12 The f o u r t h movement, a c c o r d i n g t o Webern, was t o be c onnected t o t h e f i f t h , e v e n though t h e y are m u s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t and w i l l be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s paper. W r i t t e n f o r soprano s o l o and o r c h e s t r a , the f o u r t h movement i s twenty-two measures i n l e n g t h , t h e s h o r t e s t of t h e C a n t a t a . I J - F o o t n o t e from F r i e d r i c h W i l d g a n s , Anton Webern, (London: C a l d e r and B o y a r s , 1966), p. 156 r e a d s : "one of t h e F l e m i s h composers of t h e 16th c e n t u r y who used c o m p l i c a t e d c o n t r a -p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e s . " - ^ F r i e d r i c h W i l d g a n s , Anton Webern. (London: C a l d e r and B o y a r s , 1966), p. 156. 13 See l e t t e r quoted on page 67 of t h i s paper. The movement t a k e s t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e f i v e w h i c h employ t h e c a n o n i c p r i n c i p l e and i s c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t t h e row arrangement of the second h a l f i s a m i r r o r i n v e r s i o n of the f i r s t . W i t h i n t h i s m i r r o r form, made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h the c h o i c e of o n l y t h e f i r s t t r a n s p o s i t i o n of t h e f o u r row-forms, t h e r e a re two canons p r e s e n t as shown by th e f o l l o w i n g c h a r t : Example 47 i—vo ice * l-i I n t he example above, t h e numbers r e p r e s e n t the v o i c e e n t r y o r d e r and t h e b r a c k e t s , t h e two v o i c e s t h a t a re i n canon w i t h each o t h e r . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t t h e note v a l u e s of t h e canon between v o i c e e n t r i e s one and f o u r a r e e x a c t l y t w i c e as l a r g e as t h o s e of t h e o t h e r . C o m p o s i t i o n a l l y , t h i s movement i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o th e f i r s t . I n b o t h c ases a s i n g l e v o c a l l i n e appears w i t h i t s own sequence of tone-rows. A l s o t h e r e i s a r e c u r r e n c e of the v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s , c o n s t r u c t e d from c o n s e c u t i v e t o n e s of t h e s e r i e s . B o t h movements are composed e n t i r e l y f rom a s i n g l e t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the f o u r row-forms; i n t h i s movement, the f i r s t t r a n s p o s i t i o n and i n t h e f i r s t movement, th e t w e l f t h . As i n t h e second movement, Webern employs here a ' p e r p e t u a l double canon i n i n v e r s i o n . ' However, he uses t h e s e c a n o n i c p r i n c i p l e s much more f r e e l y i n the f o u r t h movement. The o n l y v o i c e t h a t i s w r i t t e n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c a n o n i c f a s h i o n i s t h e v o c a l l i n e w hich i s t h e t h i r d e n t r y . I t s expanded c o u n t e r p a r t , shown i n t h e p r e c e d i n g example as v o i c e number one i s a g a i n a p i t c h canon t h a t i s r e a l i z e d i n a combined h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l manner. The o t h e r f o u r tone-row v o i c e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the f l u t e and oboe i n measure two, i s a l s o w r i t t e n as a p i t c h canon, a composi-t i o n a l d e v i c e p o s s i b l e " o n l y on the b a s i s of t h e s e r i a l law. The r h y t h m i c b a s i s f o r t h i s movement i s found once a g a i n i n t h e n a t u r a l rhythm of t h e spoken word. F o r t h e f i r s t time s i n c e E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n Kahnen ... , t h e r e i s a r e p e t i t i o n of an extended r h y t h m i c f i g u r e , found i n measures one t o f o u r and t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n of t h e v o c a l l i n e . Example 48 O p 31. No4 m r h 1 - 4 4 • > , J L | J T U T T T l U l E a p i 1 2 - l*\ 3 The n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of t h e words i s a g a i n overshadowed by t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o c a l sounds w h i c h have become i n c r e a s -i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e l i n e s a f t e r Das A u q e n l i c h t . The accompanying l i n e s a r e much more t r a n s p a r e n t i n t h i s movement th a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e f i r s t , i n s p i t e of a s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e . Never more t h a n f o u r notes o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and t h e s e occur i n the same i n s t r u m e n t s and i n the same s p a t i a l o r d e r . Example 49 Op. 31 No. 4 mm l , 2 , S" , l l , 1 2 o * k m § *4 The K l a n q f a r b e n m e l o d i e p r i n c i p l e i s r e f i n e d t o the p o i n t t h a t even though s i m i l a r t i m b r e s o c c u r , t h e y do so as p a r t s of d i f f e r e n t m e lodic l i n e s , r e g u l a t e d by t h e s e r i a l t e c h n i q u e . I n a l e t t e r dated 3rd June 1942, t o H i l d e g a r d Jone, Webern mentions th e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e of what was t o become the f i f t h movement of the Second C a n t a t a . The s c o r e of ' F r e u n d s e l i g i s t das Wort' ( ' C h a r i t y i s t h e Word') i s now about f i n i s h e d ... I t ' s t o be an a r i a f o r soprano s o l o w i t h c horus and o r c h e s t r a . I n i t I have managed - I b e l i e v e - t o a c h i e v e a c o m p l e t e l y new s t y l e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; on a p u r e l y p o l y p h o n i c b a s i s I a r r i v e d a t the most o p p o s i t e s o r t of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i m a g i n a b l e . 1 5 L a t e r , i n J u l y of t h e same y e a r , he w r o t e : The s c o r e of ' F r e u n d s e l i g i s t das Wort' i s f i n i s h e d . The q u e s t i o n of economy of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - and some o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n a l t h i n g s - h e l d me up l o n g e r t h a n I i m a g i n e d . I t i s l i k e an a r i a f o r soprano' s o l o , c h o r u s and o b l i g a t o s o l o v i o l i n ( i . e . t h i s s o l o runs r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e p i e c e ) and o r c h e s t r a . You ask about the shape: at the c e n t r e a r e t h e words: 'Weil er am Kreuz verstumme, mussen w i r ihm nach, i n a l i e n E r n s t der B i t t e r n i s , ihm f o l g e t unser Hauch' ('Because he f e l l s i l e n t on t h e c r o s s , we must go a f t e r him, i n a l l s e r i o u s n e s s of b i t t e r n e s s , our b r e a t h f o l l o w s him')'. What went b e f o r e i s now r e p e a t e d backwards. 'Repeated' : ' A l l shapes are s i m i l a r and none are t h e same; t h u s t h e " c h o r u s p o i n t s t o a secretc..law, t o a h o l y r i d d l e ' . . . But the f a c t t h a t i t was j u s t t h e s e words t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the c e n t r e of t h e m u s i c a l shape came about of i t s own a c c o r d - i n d e e d i t c o u l d not be o t h e r w i s e ...1° ' i b i d . , p. 47. The f i f t h movement, w i t h i t s m i r r o r form r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e f o u r t h , c o n t a i n s some of Webern's most i n t r i c a t e w r i t i n g . B a s i c a l l y c a n o n i c i n n a t u r e ( b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l and p i t c h canons are p r e s e n t ) w i t h t h e u s u a l f o u r v o i c e s , t h e e n t r i e s v a r y i n d i s t a n c e from z e r o i n t h e a c a p e l l a homorhythmic s e c t i o n s t o s i x b e a t s i n measures twenty-one and twenty-two. These a c a p e l l a homorhythmic s e c t i o n s are s i m i l a r i n c o n s t r u c -t i o n t o t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Das A u q e n l i c h t and the F i r s t C a n t a t a ; t h a t i s a s i m u l t a n e o u s r e a l i z a t i o n of f o u r t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of t h e t w e l v e - n o t e s e r i e s . I n t h i s move-ment, the same form of t h e s e r i e s i s used so t h a t t h e s e s e c t i o n s are now homophonic i n s t e a d of m e r e l y homorhythmic. By u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e , Webern has f i n a l l y a r r i v e d a t "about the most o p p o s i t e s o r t of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ... on a p u r e l y p o l y p h o n i c b a s i s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e of u s i n g o n l y one row-form a t one t ime i s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r t h e e n t i r e movement. The i n t r i c a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n of the t one rows as a p i t c h - c a n o n i s one of t h e most remarkable c o m p o s i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s movement. Webern c o n s t r u c t s h i s v e r t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s from th e same tone of f o u r t r a n s p o s i t i o n s and f r om f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e t o n e s of one t r a n s p o s i t i o n . Example 50 Op. 31 No.S" m*r» 1 / 8 3 . I n t h e l a t t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n he p r e s e r v e s t h e same s p a t i a l o r d e r as w e l l as t h e same tone numbers so t h a t the homophonic f e e l i n g i s m a i n t a i n e d . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Webern has chosen the i n t e r v a l s of h i s b a s i c s e t so t h a t 0 tone-row s e r i a l i z a t i o n can o ccur by the o v e r l a p of one, two or t h r e e n o t e s , a l l of which appear i n t h i s movement. I n the c o n t r a p u n t a l s e c t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e as many notes as p o s s i b l e from h i s a l r e a d y t r a n s p a r e n t t e x t u r e , he uses s i n g l e n otes as p a r t of more th a n one c a n o n i c v o i c e . For example, a t measure f i f t y - o n e , the l a s t note t h a t t h e soprano s i n g s i s p a r t of a l l f o u r v o i c e s , i n t u r n , R-2 tone 9, R-6 tone 4, R-7 tone 3 and R-4 tone 5. I n t h i s movement, Webern e l i m i n a t e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e term "canon" and r e l i e s e n t i r e l y on t h e t w e l v e - n o t e s e r i e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y s e p a r a t e and s i m i l a r v o i c e s of h i s p i t c h canons. By do i n g so, he manages t o v a r y almost e v e r y c o m p o s i t i o n a l a s p e c t ( t h e e n t r i e s , rhythm, and m e l o d i c l i n e s w h i l e s t i l l p r e s e r v i n g the "canon." The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g t e x t u r e s w i l l show how t h e r e v e r s i n g form i s d e t e r m i n e d . Example 51 3-T^a c a p e l l a | s o l o & accompaniment ~ja c a p e l l a --solo &, accompaniment --a c a p e l l a ^ ^.J?-solo & accompaniment $_p-a c a p e l l a ] s o l o & accompaniment T-a c a p e l l a * -;olo & accompaniment ' j a c a p e l l a } s o l o & accompaniment j j a c a p e l l a : ^ a 0 l c l t P & e l l C a C 0 r n P a n i m e n t i s o l o & accompaniment ; ^ a c a p e l l a The p o i n t of r e v e r s a l t h a t was i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s l e t t e r t o Jone o c c u r s i n measure t w e n t y - e i g h t and i s d e termined by the number of t w e l v e - n o t e s t a t e m e n t s w i t h i n t h i s e n t i r e s e c t i o n . W i t h i n t h e homophonic s e c t i o n s of t h e f i f t h movement Webern employs two me l o d i c l i n e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e o b t a i n e d from t h e same form of t h e s e r i e s , t h e y a c h i e v e t h e i r s e p a r a t e q u a l i t i e s by t h e a l t e r i n g of t h e octave p o s i t i o n of t h e t o n e s (see example 4 9 ) . I n t h e above mentioned example, which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t h e c h o r a l s e c t i o n s of t h i s movement, t h e soprano and a l t o share one me l o d i c l i n e i n p a r a l l e l minor seve n t h s w h i l e t h e t e n o r and bass share t h e o t h e r i n p a r a l l e l major, s e v e n t h s . The i n t e r v a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e v o i c e s i s c o n s t a n t , e i t h e r e x a c t l y or by i n t e r v a l i n v e r s i o n . A t the same t i m e , t h e t i m b r a l and e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h e chords change w i t h g r e a t f l e x i b i l i t y due t o t h e s p a c i n g of t he l i n e s and the changes of r e g i s t e r . The rhythm of the v o c a l l i n e s , as now e x p e c t e d , i s d e r i v e d from t h e rhythm of t h e spoken word. A l s o , the momentary t i m b r e of t h e v o c a l sound c o n t i n u e s t o t a k e precedence over t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n , e i t h e r e x a c t l y or by augmentation, of t h e n a t u r a l v o c a l i n f l e c t i o n . Because of t h e f l e x i b i l i t y and c o m b i n a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the tone-row t r a n s p o s i t i o n s , Webern has no d i f f i c u l t y i n f i t t i n g a b l a n k - v e r s e poem t o h i s music. Most of t h e rhythm f o r the i n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniment i s e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e s o l o soprano l i n e . When t h i s o c c u r s t h e r e s u l t i s a s t r i c t canon w i t h the same note v a l u e used f o r t h e same tone number. Example 52 O p . 31 MO.*" r*srr> - T 4 As i n a l l of Webern's l a t e r o r c h e s t r a l accompaniments, t h e h o r i z o n t a l l i n e i s d i v i d e d up among the i n s t r u m e n t s so t h a t each makes a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n . A l s o , t h i s r e s u l t s i n a me l o d i c c o n t o u r t h a t i s g r e a t l y expanded t h r o u g h the use of octave t r a n s p o s i t i o n and i n t e r v a l i n v e r s i o n . I n t h e f i n a l movement of t h i s Second C a n t a t a , t h e r e i s a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of many of Webern's c h o r a l w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The movement i s based on the same t r a d i t i o n a l c a n o n i c i m i t a t i o n t h a t appears i n t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l s e c t i o n s t h r e e v e r s e s and f o r t h e f i r s t time i n any of h i s c h o r a l 18 works, Webern uses t h e same music f o r each v e r s e . Each of t h e v o c a l l i n e s i s doubled by i t s own group of i n s t r u -ments which a l t e r n a t e w i t h each o t h e r . The " C h o r a l e " i s b a s i c a l l y a f o u r - p a r t canon w i t h exact r h y t h m i c and me l o d i c i m i t a t i o n i n two sequences which a l s o r e s u l t s i n a double canon. F u r t h e r , by moving the t o n e s back under-ne a t h one a n o t h e r , i t i s n o t i c e d t h a t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p a i r i n g s , i t i s a most amazing canon i n d e e d . Example 53 Op, ? l No. 6 F * A F e & * 0 < 6 B B k O C ^ C e b 6 BbQAC* F E G * GF * 8 b A C* C * F C 6" e b 8 D 8 K C C A * C*A F F* 0 & C b B t f t # A B* F* & ^ E ^ f c t f f F D D F P ° C e B 6 * 6 f*&A A* C B> € * 6 0 F*Fd> £ Cb 0 F* F> 4 A C»A*»C g Q *« o B c F c * 4 6*r*»s c *«r F C * A D B ^ C C * O ^ 6 6 « F / I F * I 1 LJdlJ I f l I n E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n Kahnen ..., t h e opening m a t e r i a l r e t u r n s , as d i c t a t e d by the t e r n a r y form, but o n l y f o r t h r e e measures (17, 18 and 1 9 ) . Between t h e soprano and a l t o and the t e n o r and bass, t h e same two p i t c h e s are always p a i r e d t o g e t h e r ; D-D, F-B, D b-Eb, G#-G#, C-E, G-A and F#-Bb. F u r t h e r , by combining a l l t h e no t e s t h a t now occur v e r t i c a l l y , a m i r r o r p a t t e r n r e s u l t s . From t h e example one can n o t i c e t h a t the soprano l i n e i s a r e t r o g r a d e of t h e bass and s i m i l a r l y , t h e a l t o l i n e a r e t r o g r a d e of t h e t e n o r . Thus t h e r e i s not o n l y a f o r w a r d canon but a l s o a p i t c h canon i n r e t r o g r a d e . Webern h i m s e l f spoke of t h i s movement i n a l e t t e r t o W i l l i R e i c h . Meanwhile, I have completed another p i e c e . I t ' s t o form t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e planned ' o r a t o r i o ' , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g ones. I t ' s f o r c h o i r and o r c h e s t r a , c o n c e i v e d r a t h e r as a c h o r a l e . But a g a i n t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s - t h e second p a r t ( a l t o ) s i n g s t h e notes of the f i r s t ( t e n o r ) backwards, t h e t h i r d (soprano) has the i n v e r s i o n of t h e second and the f o u r t h (bass) i s t h e i n v e r s i o n of t h e f i r s t , but moreover s i n g s t h e notes of t h e t h i r d backwards! -So, a double i n t e r l i n k i n g , one and f o u r , two and t h r e e (by i n v e r s i o n ) , a l s o one and two, t h r e e and f o u r ( c a n c r i z a n ) . I t h i n k t h e l o o k of t h e sco r e w i l l amaze ypu. Long note v a l u e s but a v e r y f l o w i n g tempo.1" One s u r p r i z i n g f e a t u r e of t h i s movement i s t h e r e t u r n t o th e spoken word as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c o n t o u r of t h e me l o d i c l i n e , a f e a t u r e t h a t was p r o g r e s s i v e l y abandoned i n f a v o u r of the t i m b r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o c a l sounds a f t e r the Zwei L i e d e r . Example 5 4 Op.3l Mo <o mm 3-4 Gtf - lok — Kerf Ov$ d*n* Se Mo ^ — £c There i s no r e g u l a r meter i n t h i s movement, an o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n of Webern i n h i s c h o r a l music. A l t h o u g h each of the f o u r l i n e s has the same sequence of meters w i t h the s t r e s s e s c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the n a t u r a l s y l l a b i c s t r e s s of t h e words, t h i s m e t r i c a l sequence i s a l s o a r r a n g e d c a n o n i c a l l y . The c h o r a l e n t r i e s a re so o r d e r e d t h a t w i t h a l l f o u r v o i c e s sounding, the s t r e s s e s may be heard i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Thus t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e t e x t i n d e t e r m i n i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e i s never g r e a t e r i n Webern's w r i t i n g s t h a n i n t h i s movement. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, each of t h e f o u r l i n e s i s doubled by i t s own group of i n s t r u m e n t s , i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e t h i r d movement of the F i r s t C a n t a t a . How-e v e r , w h i l e t h e r e a re a l s o s e p a r a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l l i n e s i n the F i r s t C a n t a t a , t h e r e a r e none i n t h i s movement of the Second. The soprano i s doubled by the f i r s t v i o l i n and oboe, t h e a l t o by t h e trumpet, second v i o l i n and c l a r i n e t , t h e t e n o r by t h e saxophone, F r e n c h horn and v i o l a and t h e bass by t h e b a s s - c l a r i n e t , trombone and c e l l o . The i n s t r u m e n t a l t i m b r e s , chosen f o r t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r v o i c e range, a l t e r n a t e and change much i n t h e same manner as t h e y do i n o t h e r movements of t h i s c a n t a t a . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i m e , however t h a t t h e r e i s any r e s t r i c t i o n whatsoever on t h e use of i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h e c h o r a l accompaniments. The Second C a n t a t a , i n c o n c l u s i o n , marks a c o n s o l i d a -t i o n of Webern's c h o r a l t e c h n i q u e s - h i s t r e a t m e n t of t h e poem, c a n o n i c p r i n c i p l e s and the t w e l v e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e . He r e p l a c e s t h e Romantic t e n d e n c i e s of r e p e t i t i o n ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e l a s t movement) by v a r i a t i o n , t h e i n v e n t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l v o i c e or p i t c h canon, the use of K l a n g f a r b e n m e l o d i e and an e x t r e m e l y t h i n t e x t u r e . CONCLUSION From t h e p r e c e d i n g s t u d y , t h e a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i n Anton Webern's c h o r a l music are based p r i m a r i l y on a c o n t i n u a l metamorphosis and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of f i v e b a s i c elements: form, t e x t , melody, harmony and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A c l a s s i c a l model i s used as the b a s i s f o r Op. 2 f o l l o w e d i n Op. 19 by a s t r u c t u r e based on the l e n g t h and d i v i s i o n of t h e t e x t . I n t h e l a s t t h r e e c h o r a l p i e c e s , f o rm i s dependent on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the dodecaphonic t e c h n i q u e . T e x t s w i t h r e g u l a r meters and s i m p l e rhythms are used i n Op. 2 and Op. 19. As Webern's c o n t r o l over h i s m u s i c a l r e s o u r c e s becomes more s e c u r e , he r e l i e s l e s s and l e s s on t h e t e x t u a l a s p e c t s f o r g uidance. A f t e r t h e Zwei  L i e d e r Webern chooses b l a n k v e r s e poems and s h i f t s h i s a t t e n t i o n s t o t h e s i n g l i n g out of p a r t i c u l a r words and expands on t h e i r i n h e r e n t t i m b r a l and m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s . The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s Webern p e r c e i v e d i n the poem " E n t f l i e h t auf l e i c h t e n KShnen ..." are f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y i n h i s m e l o d i c l i n e s . V e r t i c a l e x p a n s i o n by r e g u l a r s t a g e s t o v o c a l extremes o c c u r s i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g works r e t u r n i n g , i n t h e f i n a l movement of Op. 31 t o the g e n t l e c o n t o u r s and p o e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Op. 2. The m e l o d i c v a r i a t i o n spoken of i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a s t f o u r c h o r a l p i e c e s o c c u r s as a r e s u l t of Webern's m a n i p u l a t i o n of a f o u r - n o t e motive w h i c h as been as t h e composer's " s i g n a t u r e p h r a s e . " ^ I n h i s e a r l y music, Webern's approach t o harmony i s c l e a r l y based on r o m a n t i c models even though most of t h e v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of Op. 2 have m u l t i p l e t o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As h i s command over th e t w e l v e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e becomes more r e f i n e d , so do h i s v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , e v o l v i n g f r om a random o r d e r i n g of one s e r i e s t o a homo-rh y t h m i c r e a l i z a t i o n of f o u r s e r i e s w i t h i n t h e framework of one or more p i t c h canons. The accompaniments t o Webern's c h o r a l p i e c e s are more c o r r e c t l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r l u d e s t o p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y between the v o c a l s e c t i o n s and t o i n t r o d u c e , c o n t i n u e or end a p a r t i c u l a r mood. The c h o r a l s e c t i o n s a r e r a r e l y accompanied and t h e composer p r e f e r s t o use t h e i n s t r u m e n t s as v o i c e s i n canon w i t h t h e s o l o l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n accompaniments. I n s t r u m e n t s a r e chosen u s u a l l y f o r t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o v o c a l t i m b r e and f o r t h e i r p e r c u s s i v e q u a l i t i e s . The use of K l a n g f a r b e n m e l o d i e or melody of t i m b r e s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t Webern's c o m p o s i t i o n a l c a r e e r . The o r c h e s t r a t i o n of Op. 31 i s a m a s t e r p i e c e i n t r a n s p a r e n c y w i t h t h e tone-rows ( m e l o d i c l i n e s ) passed i n v e r y b r i e f segments among the i n s t r u m e n t s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s seen t h a t t h e s e f i v e a s p e c t s , combined i n v a r y i n g degrees by the m u s i c a l g e n i u s of t h e composer r e s u l t i n f i v e c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e unique i n m u s i c a l h i s t o r y , works t h a t a r e a t the same ti m e i n t r i c a t e , economic and t r a n s p a r e n t . The a u t h o r hopes f i n a l l y t h a t t h e above s t u d y has p r o v i d e d a measure of a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e c h o r a l music of Anton Webern. APPENDIX S e r i a l a n a l y s i s row-form c h a r t s of Op. 19, Op. 26 and Op. 31 i l l u s t r a t i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n numbering as used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s paper. Zwei Lieder SERIAL ANALYSIS ROW-FORM CHART ( I ) 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 G B b F# F £ b A G# C# D B E C 1 2 E G E b D C F# E b B b G# C# A 2 3 G# B G F# E B b A D E b C F C# 3 h A C G# G F B B b E b E C# F# D h 5 B D B b A G C# C F F# E b A b E 5 6 F G# E D # D b G F# B C A D B b 6 7 F # A F E D G # G C C # B b Eb B 7 8 C# E C B A E b D G G# F B b F# 8 9 E b B B b A b D C# F# G E A F 9 10 E b F# D C# B F E. A B b G C G# 10 11 B b C# A G# G b C B E F D G E b 11 12 D F C# C B b E E b A b A F# B G 12 1 2 3 * + 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (RI) S E R I A L A N A L Y S I S ROW-FORM CHART ( I ) 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 A b B b A C B D# E C# F D F# G 1 2 G b A b G B b A C# D B D# C E F 2 3 G A G# B B b D D# C E C# F F# 3 it E F# F G# G B C A C# B b D D# 1» 5 F G G b A A b C D b B b D B £ b E 5 D D b E b D F E G# A F# B b G B C 6 7 C D C# E E b G G# F A F# B b B 7 8 E b F E G F# B b B G# C A C# D 8 9 B C# C D# D F# G E G# F A B b 9 10 D E E b F # F A B b G B G# C C# 10 11 B b C B D C# F F# D# G E G# A 11 12 A B B b C# C E F D F# E b G G# 12 1 2 3 It 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (RI) I. Kantate SERIAL ANALYSIS ROW-FORM CHART ( I ) 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 D# B D C# F E G F# B b A C A b 1 2 G E b F# F A A b B B b D C# E C 2 3 E C D# D F# F G# G B B b C# A 3 It F C# E E b G G b A A b C B D B b 5 C# A C B D# D F E G # G B b F# 5 6 D B b C# C E E b F# F A A b B G 6 7 B G B b A C# C D# D F# F G# E 7 8 C G# B B b D C# E E b G p# A F 8 9 G# E G p# B b A C B E b D F c # 9 10 A F G# G B B b C# C E E b F# D 10 11 F# D F E G# G B b A C# C E b B 11 12 B b F# A G# C B D C# F E G E b 12 1 2 3 !f 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (RI) I I . Kantate S E R I A L A N A L Y S I S ROW-FORM CHART ( I ) 1 2 3 1» 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 F# A F E G# D# G B \ B b D D b C 1 2 D # F# D C# F C E G# G B B b A 2 3 G' Bb F# F A E G# C B D# D C# 3 It G# B G F# B b F A C# C E Eb D U 5 E G Eb D F# C# F A G# C B B b 5 6 A C G# G B F# B b D c # F E D# 6 7 F G# E E b G D F# Bb A c # C B 7 8 C# E C B Eb B b D F# F b A G# G 8 9 D F c# C E B E b G F# Bb A G# 9 10 B b C# A G# C . 0 B E b D F# F E ' 10 11 B D B b A C# G# C E Eb G F# F 11 12 C Eb B fib D A C # F E G# G F# 12 1 2 3 It 5 6 7 ' 8 9 10 11 12 ( R I ) A u s t i n , W i l l i a m W., Music i n the 2 0 t h C e n t u r y , New York; W. W. N o r t o n and Company, 1966. B a s a r t , Ann P h i l l i p s , S e r i a l M u s i c : A C l a s s i f i e d B i b l i o - graphy of W r i t i n g s on Twelve-tone and E l e c t r o n i c M u s i c , B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s ; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1961. Bradshaw, M e r r i l l K., Tonal S t r u c t u r e i n t h e E a r l y Works  of Anton Webern Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1962. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 62-6106. C o l l e a r , P a u l . " A r n o l d Schoenberg, Anton Webern and A l b a n B e r g , " i n A H i s t o r y of Modern M u s i c , C l e v e l a n d ; World P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1961. H a m i l t o n , I a i n , "Alban Berg and Anton Webern," i n European  Music the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , ed. Howard H a r t o g , London; Ro u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1957. H o d i e r , Andre, "Anton Webern" i n S i n c e Debussy: A View of  Contemporary M u s i c , t r a n s . N o e l B u r c h , New Y o r k ; Grove P r e s s , 1961. K o l n e d e r , W a l t e r , Anton Webern: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o H i s Works. B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s ; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968. McKenzie, W a l l a c e C., J r . , The Music of Anton Webern, Ph.D. T h e s i s , N o r t h Texas S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1960. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 60-2792. Moldenhauer, Hans, ed. Anton Webern: P e r s p e c t i v e s . S e a t t l e and London; U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1966. P e r l e , George, S e r i a l C o m p o s i t i o n and A t o n a l i t y : An I n t r o - d u c t i o n t o the Music of Schoenberg. Berg and Webern. B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s ; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1962. S p i n n e r , L e o p o l d . "Anton Webern's Ka n t a t e Nr. 2, Opus 31; d i e F o r m p r i n z i p i e n der k a n o n i s c h e n D a r s t e l l u n g " i n S c h w e i z e r i s c h e M u s i k z e i t u n g . 1961. Webern, Anton, L e t t e r s t o H i l d e a a r d Jone and J o s e p h Humplik, ed. J o s e p h P o l n a u e r , B r y n Mawr, P e n n s y l v a n i a ; Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1967. , The P a t h t o t h e New Mus i c , ed. W i l l i R e i c h . B r y n Mawr, P e n n s y l v a n i a ; Theodore P r e s s e r Company, 1963. Wi l d g a n s , F r i e d r i c h , Anton Webern. t r a n s . E d i t h R o b e r t s and Humphrey S e a r l e . London; C a l d e r and B o y a r s , 1966. 

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