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Chuang Tzu's untrammelled wandering and the Hsiang-Kuo commentary Liu, Bernard Tien-Chun 1972

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d  CHUANG TZU'S UNTRAMMELLED  WANDERING AND THE HSIANG-KUO  COMMENTARY  by  BERNARD T. C. L I U B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of  Asian  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  Studies  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April,  1972  COLUMBIA  1970  In  p r e s e n t ing .thi s thes i s  an advanced degree the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  at  the  make  that  it  in  p a r t i a l . - f u l . f i Invent o f  University freely  of  available  permission for  his  of  this  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  is  for  extensive  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d  by  British  by  the  shall  not  requirements  Columbia, reference  copying of Head o f  u n d e r s t o o d that  gain  the  I  agree  and  be a l l o w e d  this  w i t h o u t my  Bernard T . C . L i u .  Asian Studies  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia  Vancouver 8, Canada  1st,, , M^y, 197?  thesis or  publication  written permission.  Department  that  study.  my Department  copying or  for  Abstract The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f my t h e s i s the  first  chapter,  is.-the t r a n s l a t i o n of  U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g , i n Chuang T z u , and  t h e H s i a n g - K u o commentary on t h i s c h a p t e r  into English.  s t a n d a b l y t h e m a i n onus h a s b e e n t h e d e c i p h e r i n g and i n g o f arcane  and a b s t r u s e  I n the myself the  Under-  transcrib-  passages.  s e m i n a r s my p r o f e s s o r s ,  a few k i n d r e d s o u l s and  have t r i e d a s s i d u o u s l y t o u n e a r t h t h e m e a n i n g s l o d g e d i n  Chinese sentences,  sometimes q u i t e  forbidding  sentences.  s i m p l e r p a r t s were, w i t h the g u i d a n c e o f the p r o f e s s o r s , e a s i l y d i s p e n s e d w i t h . B u t we have had d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the se,  really  quite  negotiating  recondite portions. Textual corruption, of cour-  was t h e A r i a d n e ' s t h r e a d we on a few o c c a s i o n s r e s o r t e d We f i n i s h e d  minars.  about  half  o f the  reconnaissance  I consummated t h e  task  i n my s u b t e r r a n e a n  read a l l the a v a i l a b l e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s part  significantly  icular  i n the  cell.  and a r e  Chinese t e x t s  are,  I  se-  have  indeed, ofttimes  i n e l u c t a b l y c o l o u r e d by the  de-  translators.  translator's  interpart-  leanings. The H s i a n g - K u o commentary h a s o n l y b e e n a t t e m p t e d  ibus.  to.  o f Chuang T z u and  on c e r t a i n k e y p o i n t s from a l l t h e  Translations of ancient pretations  The  It  i s d e c i d e d l y more d i f f i c u l t  to understand  T z u p r o p e r . The c o m m e n t a t o r s have i n j e c t e d , i d e a s and b i a s e s expand r a t h e r  into their writing.  part-  t h a n Chuang  n a t u r a l l y , t h e i r own  At t i m e s they e l a b o r a t e  f r e e l y what i s o n l y h i n t e d at  i n the  I n t h e p r o l o g u e I have t r i e d t o p r e s e n t l o s o p h y as s u c c i n c t l y as I c o u l d .  in  and  text.  Chuang T z u ' s  phi-  An a n a l y s i s o f U n t r a m m e l l e d  Wandering ensues.  S i n c e t h e H s i a n g - K u o commentary i s a c l a s s i c  i n i t s own r i g h t ,  I have a t t e m p t e d  their milieu. lish  a s t u d y o f the  I must s a y a v a i l a b l e w o r k s on t h e  do n o t a b o u n d .  I relied,  i n the  main,  commentators  and  commentary i n E n g -  on s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s  Chinese. The chasm b e t w e e n a n c i e n t difficult  C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h i s  t o b r i d g e . F u r t h e r m o r e Chuang T z u ' s l a n g u a g e  is  really unique  in  and p o e t i c .  It  i s doubly hard to capture  iveness i n English.  h i s s p i r i t and  I hope my t r a n s l a t i o n d o e s n o t  suggest-  e n t i r e l y miss  h i m . As t o t h e H s i a n g - K u o commentary,  it  i s more d i f f i c u l t  derstand  It  has been s a i d , by a C h ' a n  but e a s i e r  t o do j u s t i c e  to.  to  un-  monk, t h a t  i t was Ghuang T z u who w r o t e a commentary on H s i a n g - K u o .  I do f i n d ,  however,  e a s do n o t  e n t i r e l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h Chuang T z u ' s o r i g i n a l  The d e f i n i t e n e s s o t h e r hand,  are  that  from t i m e t o t i m e the  and a r t i c u l a t e n e s s  o f the  commentators'  commentators,  q u i t e m e r i t o r i o u s and command p r a i s e .  id-  import. on  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Prologue  I Chuang T z u ' s P h i l o s o p h y  II  A n a l y s i s o f Untrammelled Wandering  III  A Study o f the  H s i a n g - K u o Commentary  U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g and t h e  Text  IX  Commentary - X X I  The A p p e a l o f T a o i s m  XXIV  Notes to the  XXVIII  Prologue  —•-  1  Names and N o t e s  16  Bibliography  20  Appendix  —  22  seeker of t r u t h f o l l o w no p a t h a l l p a t h s l e a d where t r u t h i s here  —  E . E.  Cummings  -IPrologue I have t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h i n t o Chinese S i d d h a r t h a , merely a n o v e l ) but not v i c e v e r s a . Any ing  (Hesse's undertak-  i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y f r a u g h t w i t h dismay f o r the n o v i c e , and,  a l a s , Chuang T zu i s a n c i e n t and v e r i t a b l y a b s t r u s e . The comme n t a r y i s at times w e l l - n i g h S p h i n g i n e . The work was at times q u i t e v e x i n g . C o n v e r s e l y I must c o n f e s s I e x t r a c t e d , once the meaning was grasped, an enormity o f p l e a s u r e from h u n t i n g f o r les  mots j u s t e s . I suppose I am j u s t f i n i c a l enough t o v a l u e  words which a r e , a c c o r d i n g to Chuang Tzu, merely guests o f r e a lity. Chuang Tzu's P h i l o s o p h y Chuang Tzu's grand m o t i f i s freedom. A wide consensus has i t t h a t On Seeing T h i n g s As Equal i s the most important o f the 33 c h a p t e r s i n Chuang Tzu.  ( l ) Untrammelled Wandering, how-  ever, r e a l l y c o n t a i n s the k e r n e l of hi3 p h i l o s o p h y . I n i t Chuang Tzu e n j o i n s everyone to d i v e s t h i m s e l f o f a l l e x i s t e n t i a l entanglements  i m a g i n a b l e . The  root o f the problem  i s t h a t we  de-  pend. We depend on t h i n g s , people, p o s i t i o n s , knowledge ad nauseam, and we c l i n g w i t h a l l the t e n a c i t y under the sun t o v a l u e systems c u l l e d from s o c i a l realms. And, u l t i m a t e l y , we depend on l i f e i t s e l f . When we possess what we d e s i r e , n e e d l e s s t o say we want more and b e t t e r . Furthermore  we are never t o t a l l y  from a h a u n t i n g p s y c h i c shadow. T h i s shadow i s the thought  free of  the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of the v e r y t h i n g s we c h e r i s h . When these c h e r i s h e d items are l o s t or absent, o me miserum. To l i v e  i s to j o u r n e y , through d i v e r s e v i c i s s i t u d e s ,  from womb to tomb. U l t i m a t e l y n o t h i n g i s g a i n e d , n o t h i n g i s added t o us. As Chuang Tzu smugly suggests, even s t a n d i n g on  tip-  toe s u f f i c e s not t o enhance l i f e by so much as a j o t . Metaphys i c a l l y we are n o t h i n g and have n o t h i n g . And yet we depend, o r try  to depend, on so much!  -IIFrom t h e s e p r e m i s s e s  the  Chuang T z u s e e s b e y o n d n i h i l i s m . mind he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e natural  darkest  By a v e r y s u b t l e  cosmos and t h e  i s c o s m i c a l l y good. T h i s i s the  "Tao" o f the T a o s i t s d e n o t e s , uralness  n i h i l i s m c a n be w o v e n .  I opine,  turn of  c o s m i c l a w s . What  t u r n o f the the  the is  s c r e w . The  totality  o f the  nat-  i n the  u n i v e r s e . The u n i v e r s e  n a t u r a l l y comes i n t o  i n g through the  " T a o " and i s s u s t a i n e d  by the  be-  " T a o " . Chuang T z u  deems f l a w l e s s l y good and t r u l y d i v i n e a i l i ' . l h a t ' i s n a t u r a l  and  spontaneous.  the  Man's duty i s to accept,  transformations tiny,  the  wrought  and i s n a t u r a l  great,  the  i n the vast  cosmos.  i s g o o d . Hence L a o T z u w r i t e s ,  heaven i s g r e a t ,  the  £ft/'£, >M]"7^) Man  great."  earth  is great,  i s g r e a t but  himself  the  Tao,  earth,  t h e Tao m o d e l s i t s e l f  H.^^M)  earth  after  participates  ed,  sustained  heaven,  T z u - J a n . " (A.  U l t i m a t e l y man i s n e i t h e r  but  the  the  heaven  a l w a y s be s p o n t a n e o u s  It  and o p e n - m i n d e d ,  a n a l y t i c . T h u s he e n j o y s  the  universe  also and the ilL >  i% *h M J>  the T a o ,  and d i r e c t e d by t h e T a o . Man, i f n a t u r a l ,  man, have a l w a y s b e e n n a t u r a l .  is  cosmic e v o l u t i o n i n i t i a t -  one w i t h t h e T a o , and i n harmony w i t h t h e like  "Tao  "Man m o d e l s  above n o r b e n e a t h  e x i s t e n t i a l l y i n the  Whatever  artificiality  f o r Lao T z u a l s o w r i t e s ,  the  des-  and man i s  h u b r i s must be b a n i s h e d , after  all  by c o s m i c f o r c e s and t o e n j o y man's  d e s t i n y o f an e x i s t e n t  exists  with equanimity,  is  manifold, which,  follows that but  not  entire  at un-  man s h o u l d  judgemental  and  without d i s t i n c t i o n .  Human n a t u r e i n s u c h a s t a t e w o u l d be t r u l y p r i m a l . e v e r happens i n s u c h p r i s t i n e cosmic terms. Tao i s t h e are ld  far,  natural  e n v i r o n s w o u l d be g o o d , good i n  Taoism i s Tao-centred,  not  cosmic Tao. Confucius can say,  t h e ways o f man n e a r . "  say t h a t  What-  human-centred, "The ways o f  and  the  heaven  {^fej^ k.'$L'i$j^ ) Chuang T z u w o u -  i f t h e ways o f h e a v e n p r e v a i l , man i s a t  his  most  and t h e ways o f man o p e r a t e i n u n i s o n w i t h t h e ways o f  h e a v e n . To s e p a r a t e t h e  two i s t o commit an e x i s t e n t i a l f a u x  As l o n g as one i s . n a t u r a l ,  one i s a t  pas.  one w i t h t h e Tao and  p a r t a k e s e x i s t e n t i a l l y i n the grand e v o l u t i o n . O n e ' s a c t i o n s  are  -IIInot  tinged with social  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s but  By c u l t i v a t i n g s u c h an a t t i t u d e accept  the u n i v e r s e  l i m i t a t i o n s but theosis  are  just  trine  l i m i t a t i o n s which i n a c t u a l i t y are so. T h i s i s s t i l l  o f non-ado  in it.  a r k i c man. To o b s e r v e derations  but  the  message and i s ,  non-ado  of l i f e  the  per se,  doc-  as an a u t -  — living.  This is  the  tantamount  untrammelled. and t h o u g h t s  chews f o r m a l , d i s c u r s i v e a r g u m e n t s phers of a n t i q u i t y — but, devices,  apo-  univ-  supreme  t o employ Chuang T z u ' s p h r a s e o l o g y ,  To c o n v e y h i s g r a n d m o t i f  urous,  e n o u g h . The  to r e l i s h , the  existence  not  i s t o be o b l i v i o u s t o a l l c o n s i -  quintessence  to wandering a b s o l u t e l y  rhetorical  nay,  not  One t h u s o b s e r v e s  $J ) and e n j o y s  to  as w e l l as t h e m a n i f o l d ,  i s to enjoy wholeheartedly,  e r s e and m a n ' s p l a c e  truly religious.  o f mind one g r a d u a l l y comes  and o n e ' s s e l f ,  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l the  are  — like  Chuang T z u e s -  a l l Chinese p h i l o s o -  e m p l o y i n g many a l l e g o r i e s ,  d i a l o g u e s and a n e c d o t e s ,  metaphors,  i s s u p e r b l y humo-  and U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g b e a r s t h i s t y p i c a l i t y .  A n a l y s i s o f Untrammelled Wandering 1. Use o f M e t a p h o r s and A l l e g o r i e s Chuang T z u has a p e n c h a n t and a l l e g o r i e s t o  :for using poetic  convey h i s p o s i t i v e v i s i o n s . Untrammelled  Wandering i s w e l l - n i g h suffused  w i t h such l i t e r a r y  From page 1 t o page 5 i n t h e ports  translation  t o show how d i f f e r i n g l i m i t a t i o n s p e r t a i n  tities.  The c o m m e n t a t o r s  true to one's nature,  deduce  this  i s not  natural the  to crave  one a t t a i n s t o t h e  endowments.  f o r more,  Chuang T z u p u r to d i f f e r e n t  irrelevant.  t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the  The p o one's  great P'eng  with  t h e i r n e e d s d i f f e r and must d i f f e r .  a m p l i f y and s t a t e t h a t  en-  very pinnacle of being.  quite  Chuang T z u j u x t a p o s e s  q u a i l to i l l u s t r a t e  commentators  but  devices.  t o mean t h a t b y r e m a i n i n g  I s s u e s s u c h as s i z e and l o n g e v i t y a r e int  metaphors  The  t h e s e two c r e a t u r e s w o u l d  bo e q u a l l y happy s h o u l d t h e y be i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r u n i q u e tures.  na-  -IVThe s t o r i e s about u p s e t t i n g water i n t o a hole and journeying v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s are meant to show how d i f f e r e n t warranted by d i f f e r e n t  measures are  circumstances.  Then the metaphor of L i e h T z u  r i d i n g the winds  on pp. 6 and 7 shows that dependence, even to a very n e g l i g i ble  degree,.is a b s o l u t e l y anathema. To be f r e e one must needs  be a u t a r k i c and not depend, not even on winds. The s t o r y of Yao (^) t r y i n g to cede the empire to Hsu Yu ( i ^ ^ ) i s q u i t e obvious i n i t s i n t e n t . I f i t i s not one's business, then even the empire should be d e c l i n e d .  After all, t  " p r i e s t s do not step over the wine v e s s e l s and meat stands to supplant, even should the l a t t e r be i n d o l e n t . " (Untrammelled Wandering.TThis apophthegm of Chuang Tzu's has become common usage.) The Divine Man on the remote mountain Ku Yeh i s Chuang-'lzu* s apothesis of an a u t a r k i c man. T h i s Divine Man depends on nothing at a l l , i s g r a c e f u l as a young v i r g i n , and l e t s the world be. He observes non-ado to the very h i l t . The commentators  note that Chuang T z u s i t u a t e s h i s Divine Man be-  yond the extreme bounds and d e s c r i b e s him i n extravagant terms to  emphasize the vast d i f f e r e n c e between him and o r d i n a r y pe-  ople. Thus people are j o s t l e d out o f t h e i r conventional mental  a t t i t u d e s and can a p p r e c i a t e b e t t e r the sublime merits of  non-ado. In for  yet another story the Yueh (M) people have no use  embroidered caps. T h i s i s l i k e n e d to the four sages on Ku  Yeh having no need f o r the empire or f o r Yao's throne. The comme n t a t o r s append that the emperor Yao does not deem the empire important and does not approach i t as a task. He observes nonado and l e t s the empire be,.and the empire r i g h t s i t s e l f by i t s e l f . Thus Yao r u l e s w e l l by non-ado. The passage c o n t a i n i n g the story about the salve f o r chapped hands, and the metaphor-of the- b i g calabash f r u i t purport to show, as the commentary notes, " A l l t h i n g s d i s s i m i l a r l y  -Vhave t h e i r u s e s . I f t h e y a r e  applied  oneself  goes."  u t t e r l y anywhere one The  last  i n w h i c h we a b i g yak, n e s s and and  conversation  therefore  are  yak  He  immune f r o m harm. The  Hui  Ssu  ,  non-ado, and  cicada,  t r e e s , yak,  often invents  liking  and  and  t h e r e b y come t o merits  t o lampoon a r t i f i c i a l i t y  exemplars to i l l u s t r a t e  uselessthe  weasel  grief. and  of  and  quotes s t spontaneous-  futile  craving.  for l i v i n g things —  other animals —  and  birds,  u s e s them  his subtle, mystical  i n s i g h t s . I t i s , p e r h a p s , b e c a u s e he  and  e n t i r e l y useless,  w i l d cat  employs metaphors to convey the  v e h i c l e s and and  and  r e c a p i t u l a t e , Chuang T z u  seems t o e n t e r t a i n a g r e a t  fish,  and  disport  supreme v a l u e o f  and.the b i g t r e e are  a g i t a t e themselves e x c e s s i v e l y  n e s s and  can  f i n d metaphors of a b i g t r e e , a w i l d c a t , a weasel  non-ado. The  o r i e s and  one  b e t w e e n Chuang T z u  i s intended to r e v e a l the  To  rightly,  as  thoughts  approves of t h e i r spont-  aneity. 2. The  C o n c e p t o f Non-ado  :-  Non-ado i s , a l o n g w i t h Tao  and  T z u - j a n , the  c e p t i n T a o i s m . They c o n s t i t u t e , s h a l l we Chuang T z u genitor, The  i n what H.  i s the G.  say,  signal philosopher,  Creel  c a r d i n a l con-  the T a o i s t p r o b a b l y the  hurly-burly,  in  e a c h , and  in  the  But  t o c u l t i v a t e and  t o e n j o y , s e r e n e and  cosmos w i t h o u t  r e a l i z e t h e Tao  f r e e , the  I n any  and  to act  ior  motives nor  immanent phenomena  d e f i n i t e l y does not to act  w i t h n a t u r e . The' H s i a n g - K u o commentary n o t e s , t h a t g o v e r n s and  detached  multifaceted  I w o u l d have i t mean, s i m p l y ,  things."  (2)  distinction.  non-ado, e v e n i n Chuang T z u ,  doing nothing.  pro-  c l a s s i f i e s as C o n t e m p l a t i v e T a o i s m .  p r i m a r y c o n c e r n , i n t h i s w i n g o f T a o i s m , i s t o be  from the  Trinity.  set of v a r i a b l e s t h e r e  s u s t a i n s . To  i n harmony w i t h  "Tao  o b s e r v e t h i s Tao,  t h i s r e i g n i n g Tao,  c o m m i t t i n g any  mean  i n accordance escapes  not  exists a  this natural h a r b o u r i n g no  Tao law, ulter-  r e d u n d a n t a c t s , i s t o o b s e r v e non-ado.  -VIIt  i s v e r y a k i n t o b e i n g s c i e n t i f i c , i n the  natural like  respecting  l a w s and r e f r a i n i n g from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e s e l a w s ,  the  chap.  sense o f  o l d cook c a r v i n g an ox i n a m a s t e r l y manner,  3> He was t h o r o u g h l y c o n v e r s a n t  and j u s t  w i t h the  m a n i p u l a t e d h i s k n i f e a l o n g the  can a l m o s t  say he was imbuded w i t h t h e  To c o n t r a v e n e nothing,  sometimes  Chuang T z u ,  anatomy  o f the  result  ox  h o l l o w s and c r e v i c e s . We  scientific  spirit.  the T a o , - a c c o r d i n g to the T a o i s t s ,  v e x o n e s e l f n e e d l e s s l y and t h e  just  ofttimes  is  i s much ado  to about  even w o r s e .  Non-ado i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y once i n U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g . (The t e r m a p p e a r s o n l y t h r e e t i m e s  i n the  ters'M  last  tree, by t h e  , o f Chuangr'Tzu.) I n the  Chuang T z u e n j o i n s tree's  notation  here,  i s on w i t h d r a w a l from t h e Conversely, "non-ado"  and i t s  She  on n o n - a d o  crystallize nal  himself in  non-ado  i t . The c o n -  one becomes  untraanecdotes,  commentary i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s (5b; t w i c e i n 12a,  15a,  and a l l e g o r i e s a l l c o n v e r g e ,  and n a t u r a l n e s s .  by w r i t i n g  big  world.  "non-ado",  has 16a.)  i n the  The c o m m e n t a t o r s  Chuang T z u ' s i n t e n t i o n s ,  and e n u n c i a t e  Chap-  i n v o l v i n g the  untrammelled under non-ado,  'Inner  as i n most of. Chuang T z u ' s  equivalents.  Chuang T z u ' s m e t a p h o r s analysis,  repose  i f one o b s e r v e s  m m e l l e d . The e m p h a s i s  story  Hui Tzu to disport  s i d e and t o  seems t h a t  Nei P ' i e n ,  perforce  a s good c o m m e n t a t o r s the  crucial  concept  final should,  and  sig-  c o n t r i b u t i o n of Taoism.  3. C h u a n g , T ^  S a g e l y ^ M a n , D i v i n e Man,  The C o m m e n t a t o r s '  Independent  Many e p i t h e t s who has a t t a i n e d fect,  Sagely,  These e p i t h e t s ,  are  Man.:-  u s e d b y Chuang T z u t o d e l i n e a t e  to the Tao, h i s a p o t h e o s i s .  D i v i n e and i n t h e inactuality,  r e a d i l y be subsumed u n d e r Chuang T z u , i s w i t h o u t  "autarkic".  selfhood,  the  man  One e n u m e r a t e s P e r -  commentary o n e r f i n d s  describe  the  Independent.  same r e a l i t y and c a n  S u c h a man, a c c o r d i n g t o  achievement  and name/fame.  He,  -VIIconsequently  d e p e n d s on n o t h i n g at a l l .  One who i s a t  one w i t h ' t h e Tao depends on n o t h i n g .  L i e h T z u o n l y reached c o u l d not of  the  penultimate  t r a v e l . Only the  the v e r y concepts  cumstances.  s t a g e — w i t h o u t w i n d he  a u t a r k i c man who has d i v e s t e d h i m s e l f  of selfhood,  t r u l y enjoy e x i s t e n c e  Even  achievement  and e v o l u t i o n p e r  In very extravagant'terms  se,  and name/fame  regardless  of  can cir-  Chuang T z u d e s c r i b e s  the  m y s t i q u e and powers o f s u c h a man. Chuang T z u ' s a u t a r k i c man e v o lved,  probably,  i n t o the  apotheosis  o f the  later Taoists —  ) . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l T a o i s t s t r i e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e by n u r t u r i n g p e r f e c t , ies",  i m m o r t a l d i v i n e b o d i e s — "embrjtfyonic b o d -  command s u p e r n a t u r a l  4. The P o w e r s o f t h e Throughout secure  powers.  A u t a r k i c Man : -  the  chapter  the powers m a r v e l l o u s o f the plenitude,  Chuang T z u makes r e f e r e n c e s  autarkic  one t o c u r t a i l  and t o enhance c o n t e n t m e n t  d r y . The c o m m e n t a t o r s in  add t h a t  he i s not  v e r n s b y not g o v e r n i n g and r e g u l a t e s the w o r l d be, ally  desires  because, harmony,  the  f o r a l l and  regulating.  reason,  and w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e  sunhands  He  lets  the w o r l d  natur-  harmony i s  natur-  attained. In a deeper sense the  one.  calamaties,  m o u n t a i n s . " b u t who g o -  by not  commentators  to  one who " h o l d s h i s  s i l e n c e and s e q u e s t e r s h i m s e l f i n t h e  ally  ideal  (3) s i n g u l a r l y a k i n t o Chuang T z u ' s m y s t i c a l images and  supposedly  to  this  Hsien  He i s n a t u r a l  contact  be n a t u r a l .  considerations. assists  i n the  r v e s what  the  H i s a c t s are  not  truly  tinged with  He m e r e l y communes w i t h t h e evolution of things.  cosmos d e c r e e s and r e f r a i n s He l i v e s out  and t a m p e r s not  T z u ' s words,  Man i s t h e  ethical  and he a l l o w s a l l w i t h w h i c h he comes  eternal  oubling things. serene,  Perfect  s u c h men f a r  destinies  self-centred  a l l - p e r v a s i v e Tao and In essence,  he  obse-  from d i s t o r t i n g and  his allotted destiny,  w i t h the  into  quiescent  of others.  s u r p a s s e v e n Yao and S h u n .  trand  I n Chuang  -VIII5. Chuang T z u ' s Language  :-  Chuang T z u ' s l a n g u a g e has brilliant,  at  times  lyrical,  always c a p t i v a t i n g .  cise,  subtle,  vivid  and germane m e t a p h o r s and e v o c a t i o n s  without  and g r a n d i o s e .  l o n g been p r a i s e d .  Mystical  c h a r m . The book c o n t a i n s ,  insights  dom has p h i l o s o p h y b e e n w r i t t e n chapters,  at  times,  v e r y b r i l l i a n t man. ous  vivid,  He c a n be  are  con-  clothed  many  in  never  interesting  on d i f f i c u l t  issues.  i n s u c h a l i v e l y v e i n . The  Selinner  r e a l l y seem e x t e m p o r a n e o u s u t t e r a n c e s o f a It  is a delight  to read  s u c h w i s e and  humour-  words. From U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g s e v e r a l  have become ing a lot  t e r m s and  phrases  common u s a g e . The C h i n e s e p o s s e s s a p e n c h a n t  i n a few w o r d s .  provide excellent  vehicles  Untrammelled Wandering  Chuang T z u ' s apophthegms and for  this.  I cull  the  for  say-  metaphors  following  from  : One who j o u r n e y s ' !  thousand  3 months t o a c c u m u l a t e (2)  is  o f nature are  in addition,  a n e c d o t e s and i l l u m i n a t i n g d i s p u t a t i o n s  It  l i  food.  The m o r n i n g mushroom knows not b e g i n n i n g o r the When t h e  tapir  takes- but  a  A l t h o u g h the the  do n o t  the  of  the  end o f a m o n t h .  d r i n k s at  the  river,  it  bellyful. cook does n o t  c o o k i n g , the  dead at  spend  attend  impersonator  sacrifice  and t h e  of  supplant  him.  the  priest  s t e p over the wine v e s s e l s  meat s t a n d s t o  to  and  -IXA S t u d y o f The H s i a n g - K u o Commentary What f o l l o w s a t t e m p t s t o p r o f f e r the  milieu,  the  l i v e s and t h e  a general  work o f t h e  picture  commentators.  Certain  of t h e i r n o t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to Untrammelled Wandering are j u x t a p o s e d w i t h Chuang T z u ' s o r i g i n a l 1. The M i l i e u  ideas  and  of then  analysed.  :  Sui's  (f% ) u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a i n A . D . 589 ended a p r o -  l o n g e d p e r i o d o f d i s u n i t y and c o n f u s i o n and c r i s e s a p l e n t y , c i p i t a t e d by Han's lesome 4 c e n t u r i e s  c o l l a p s e i n A . D . 220. D u r i n g these w a r s were r a m p a n t ,  from t h e n o r t h d e v a s t a t e d people. rest,  known as t h e  i n t o two d y n a s t i e s ,  confusion,  It  and g e n e r a l  the  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l ,  punctuated  the un-  is  and p h i l o s o p h y were a t  this  time a l l at  t i m e s were o u t  and s e r e n i t y  ality  I n the W e i - C h i n ( ^ - ^  Lao-Chuang After  age.  t i m e was r i p e  (4)  i n Chinese  s c h o l a r s and p o e t s . eminently suit  Taoism's the  ment-  ) p e r i o d , A . D . 220-  ) were i n d e e d v e r y much r e v e r e d and  2 hundred y e a r s  with  their best."  of joint  messages o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e of a purturbed  fraught  "Painting, calligraphy,  numerous  studied.  o f C o n f u c i a n supremacy i n t h e H a n ,  f o r a r e v a l u a t i o n and s t u d y o f t h e d i v e r s e i s c h o o ^ s i , ' : ^  The m e t i c u l o u s and e n d l e s s  studies  o f the  Confucian c l a s s i c s un-  Han had become s h e e r s c h o l a s t i c i s m . ( 5 ) T h e r e was bound  be a r e a c t i o n . nurtured  the  by numerous w a r s . 'Yet  h i s t o r y , Taoism a t t r a c t e d  een t h e  ruling  turmoil. This period  " S i x D y n a s t i e s " were q u i t e  I n v a r i a b l y when t h e  der the  desolated  was a p e r i o d o f s o c i a l  c u l t u r a l l y C h i n a r e a c h e d one o f i t s p e a k s .  420,  tribes  "Six Dynasties".  Politically  poetry,  troub-  i n v a s i o n s o f nomadic  l a n d , and u s u r p a t i o n s  south simultaneously.  political  discord,  the  C h i n a was e v e n s u n d e r e d  n o r t h and t h e  pre-  Furthermore,  after  the  prolonged controversy  A n c i e n t - S c r i p t S c h o o l and M o d e r n - S c r i p t S c h o o l , the  spirit  and d e s i r e  for c r i t i c a l  s t u d y and  to  betw-  there  were  independent  - X -  thinking. morize,  Intellectuals  but  to i n q u i r e f r e e l y  was t h o r o u g h l y s t u d i e d , t i o n s appeared. scholars until  new l i g h t was s h e d and n o v e l  N e o - I a o i s m made i t s  i n two f a c e t s  cussion of abstract r o x i m a t e s to the  reach i t s  s p i r i t of Taoism — d i s c u s s i o n for  other.  The P u r e C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s m o s t l y eschewed  p o s i t i o n s . T h e y c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d of naturalness  app-  discussion's the  governmental observing  the  (% f^, ) and s e e k i n g a h a r m o n i o u s c o m p l i a -  own n a t u r e s . T h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t ,  was c o n c e r n e d ,  w o u l d be t h e  as  f a r as p o l i t i c s  a c t i v i s t s who u p h e l d M i n g C h i a o  The t e a c h i n g o f names — g i v i n g t o e v e r y name i t s The a c t i v i s t s were p r a c t i t i o n e r s sought  "Dis-  one i n v o l v i n g  as q u i e t i s t ' s ,  nce w i t h t h e i r  ethics,  them,  and u n w o r l d l y m a t t e r s " . The word " P u r e " ),  de-  expressed  — P u r e C o n v e r s a t i o n ( C h ' i n g - T ' an £ |  and Hsuan Hsueh ( A b s t r u s e L e a r n i n g ,  Confucian  perfection  i n t h e W e i - C h i n p e r i o d , w i t h t h e i r more  sake.)  reality.).  interpreta-  e n t r a n c e and f l o u r i s h e d . Some  s e n s i t i v i t y and c o n c e r n , q u a g i n f e e - M e c t u a l s ,  principle  Taoism  (6)  Intellectuals selves  t o l e a r n and me-  i n t o b o t h o l d and new i s s u e s .  t h i n k T a o i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y d i d not  now.  veloped  were no l o n g e r c o n t e n t  o f f i c e to r i g h t  corresponding  o f the  traditional  t h e wrongs o f t h e  world,  and were c o n c e r n e d w i t h h a r m o n i o u s human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  order-  l i n e s s i n t h e w o r l d . The P u r e C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s , on t h e  other  hand,  of  were i c o n o c l a s t i c , c a r e f r e e ,  a v o i d i n g to the  point  i d i o u s n e s s mundane m a t t e r s ,  and s h o c k e d c o n v e n t i o n a l p e o p l e  their  of values".  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c scale  these Feng-Liu together,  ($Llti\j,  sequestered  romantic)  i n some q u i e t  (7) N o t h i n g d e l i g h t e d  niche,  to discourse  i d e a l s and  wittily  transcendental  and t o w r i t e p o e t r y . T h e y f r e e l y c o n s o r t e d w i t h B u d d h i s t s as  and e n j o y e d d i s p u t a t i o n s  and e x p o s i t i o n s o f c l a s s i c s and  sutras.  E p i g r a m s and w i t t i c i s m s were p r i z e d more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e the  "by  w o r t h i e s more t h a n t o d r i n k w i n e  on p u r e p h i l o s o p h y , t o d i s p l a y l o f t y ideas,  fast-  s u n . T h e i r s p i r i t was c e r t a i n l y T a o i s t i c . The more  of these denizens  o f B o h e m i a came t o - b e known as  o f The Bamboo G r o v e " in partibus,  the  iang Hsiu,  commentary and whose l i f e  will  under  renowned  "The S e v e n  who w r o t e ,  at  be o u t l i n e d  Sages least later,  -XI-  was  a member. The  and  some o f them came t o The  word  authorities,  Hsuan Hsueh wing, however, was  "Hsuan" d e n o t e s  "dark,  mysterious,  Ching  mysteries.  So members o f t h i s  a b s t r u s e and  giving  o f "The  the I C h i n g , i t a new  school^we-re^  ,The  249)  really  He  technical  fellow  all  linked  employed  later  political  Hsuan analy-  in their  philosophy.  (9)  i n essence.  Some o f  o b t a i n e d wide c u r r e n c y .  i n Neo-Confucianism.  Yen  the  the (T'if^,  ( 1 0 ) ) Wang and Lao-Chuang.  d e n i g r a t e d the h e r m i t s when he was  granted  an  ( H s i a n g H s i u P i e h - C h u a n Y ^ / ' J ^ ) They fairly  important  min-  at c o u r t . Mather t h i n k s t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s compromised social  scendental aspirations.  (11)  institutions,  to t u r n the e a r l y T a o i s t s '  litary  contemplative  ordinary beings it."  life  tran-  original  t h e o r i e s o f the  as so-  w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y o f the w o r l d f i t  i n i t , combining (12)  despite their  F e n g Yu-Lan d e s c r i b e s t h e i r work  "an e f f o r t  i s inside  their  o f terms and  t h i n k e r of h i s time.  w i t h the demands o f the  what  and  r  w i t h t h e emperor.  and  of a l l things.  l i t e r a t i a l l r e v e r e d C o n f u c i u s more t h a n  R i c h a r d B.  while  commentaries on the,»T ao.aTeh C h i n g and  so i m p o r t a n t  positions  Chuang  s y n c r e t i c . T h e y were  held, besides being celebrated scholars,  isterial  for  and  the  Cjf §f<L ) were t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g N e o - T s o i s t s .  a very signal  H s i a n g H s i u f o r one audience  social  of  accorded  ), Wang P i {£ $fh , 266-249), Ho  Hsiang  t e r m s he  Lift-,  Yungj|J, his  was  Tao  i n Lao-Chuang,  substratum  however,  They  Ching,  a r a t h e r C o n f u c i a n i z e d Taoism  Wang P i wrote b r i l l i a n t I Ching.  Teh  distinguishing  Confucian i n t h e i r  and Kuo  the  ( 8 ) ) I n a c t u a l i t y • they were T a o i s t i c  Hsiang Hsiu d.  as t h e  S c h o o l s o f Names ( ^ ^ - )  of prinieiplels.  Neo-Taoism was  The  as s u b j e c t m a t t e r  i n short, metaphysics.  interpretation,  i n the  metaphysics,  s c h o o l had  upheld, the n o n - b e i n g  Hsueh w i t h M i n g - L i sis  a b s t r u s e , " and  3 Hsuan B o o k s " t o Tao  and  Philosophers of t h i s interested  more i m p o r t a n t .  i s once d e s c r i b e d as Hsuan o f Hsuan, mystery  the m y s t e r i o u s ,  the a p p e l l a t i o n and  l o o k e d a s k a n c e at them  grief.  i n loao T e h  Tzu  of course,  what  i s o u t s i d e the world  with  -XII2. The A u t h o r s  :  The H s i a n g - K u o commentary, i e s on t h e T a o T e h C h i n g and t h e nowned, and p r o f o u n d was,  Hsiang-Kuo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n H s i u . The C h i n Shu  some o f h i s  but  d o e s not  Chapter  (romanticism,  antinomianism).  Then,  court.  court.  when v e r y y o u n g ,  came t o g r i e f ,  C h i n Shu s a y s ,  ) When'Hsiang f i n i s h e d h i s  commentary  on  to h i s  learned  friends.  that  The  his friends  "Chuang T z u has not  Literature were  scholarship.  had t a l e n t  315) was a f a i r l y  important  and r e a s o n ,  "He,  iang talked,  i t was l i k e  a w a t e r f a l l p o u r i n g down w a t e r .  exhausted.'"  (Hsiang H s i u ' s )  commentary  said,  on H o r s e ' s  even cou-  'When H s It  The C h i n Shu i n a d d i t i o n  on Autumn F l o o d ,  min-  l o v e d Lao and Chuang,  M i n i s t e r Wang Hsen o f t e n  commentaries  so i m p -  d i e d . " Such were  profoundly.  "He w r o t e  Court there.  The C h i n Shu i n h i s b i o g r a p h y w r i t e s ,  and was n e v e r  Hsiang  "He i s a t  ld discourse poured  philo-  his traces  Kuo H s i a n g Cf^ %L > ? - c a . , at  when  he m e r e l y c o n t a i n s  exclaimed,  H s i a n g ' s a s t u t e n e s s and ister  thoughts,  it".  liter-  o f an e x t r e m e l a i s s e z - f a i r e  "But t h e  assume h i s d u t i e s ;  they  of Hsiang H s i u says H the  i n Shih-Shuo Hsin-Yu records  ressed that  a  300) b e f r i e n d e d  imbued w i u h T a o i s t  Chuang T z u , he showed i t  4) m e n t i o n s  221-ca.  practioners  at  re-  Six Dynasties.lit  , chap.  biography  , ca.  Feng-Liu  became an o f f i c i a l  most  on Chuang T z u and Kuo H s i a n g " e x t e n d e d  (^ij  friends,  sophy and d e e p l y  (ti£|&j^$^  ) in its  Hsiang Hsiu  the  o f Chuang T z u . H s i a n g d e s i g n a t e s H s i a n g  a commentary  who o b s e r v e d  probably  commentar-  t h e work o f two men.  The S h i h - S h u o H s i n - Y u  ati  I Ching are  p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k s from t h e  i n a p e c u l i a r way,  s i a n g wrote  a l o n g w i t h Wang P i ' s  Extreme H a p p i n e s s ,  just says, changed  H o o f " ( A l l c h a p t e r s i n Chuang  Tzu) B o t h H s i a n g and Kuo were in their were  t i m e . B o t h were  signal Neo-Taoists.  ionalists  important  and l e a r n e d  personages  f o n d o f Lao T z u and Chuang T z u , and Hsiang leaned  and Kuo a d h e r e d t o t h e  towards  the  Pure  both  Conversat-  Hsiian Hsueh S c h o o l . B u t i n K u o ' s b i  g r a p h y i n t h e C h i n Shu i t i s s a i d , and Kuo c o n t a i n the same i d e a s . "  "The two Chuang T z u s o f H s i a n g  T-XIII-  So t h e  commentary c a n be c o n c e i v e d o f a s an amalgam o f  and K u o ' s w o r k . S c h o l a r s a g r e e t o d i s a g r e e m a n l s c o n t r i b u t i o n . No e x t a n t  Hsiang'i»4  on t h e amount o f e a c h  r e c o r d , however, a s s e r t s that  the  two men t r u l y c o l l a b o r a t e d i n t h i s c e l e b r a t e d e x p o s i t i o n s o f Chuang T z u , a c l a s s i c i n i t s own r i g h t . C h i n e s e c o m m e n t a r i e s on c l a s s i c a l w o r k s , i f become c l a s s i c s t h e m s e l v e s .  It  i s not  inkers expressed t h e i r o r i g i n a l s s i c as t h e i r v e h i c l e , (13) b e c a u s e  authors.  thoughts  in technical  ter.  as is  f i r s t wa-  c o n t a i n g new w i n e w o u l d be e m i n e n t l y t o  while c l e a r l y a b r i l l i a n t  so  Secondly, I think, i t  t a s t e . The commentary on Chuang T z u , d e s i g n a t e d h e r e a f t e r Kuo,  quite  authority,  C h i n e s e l i t e r a t i were t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s o f t h e  An o l d b o t t l e  claterms  t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s / c o m m e n t a t o r s were  to o b t a i n a supposedly l a r g e r audience. the  th-  T h i s i s s o , as Feng Yu-Lan  w i l l i n g t o subsume t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r some a n c i e n t because  that profound  i d e a s w i t h a commentary on a  clothing their  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e a n c i e n t suggests,  infrequent  brilliant,  their as  Hsiang-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Chuang T z u , i s  a l s o a p h i l o s o p h i c a l work i t s e l f . It  i s i n accordance w i t h the g e n e r a l s p i r i t  but not the t e n o r . t a i n extent,  Novel ideas appear,  s h i f t e d . The c o m m e n t a t o r s '  leanings constitute  the  subject  3. The Commentary :  matter '  and t h e  focus i s , to a  particular o f the  o f Chuang T z u , cer-  philosophical  following  section.  '  Chuang T z u i s - a - s u b l i m e w r i t e r . B u t he s o m e t i m e s . m e r e l y suggests,  at  postulates course,  times finesses  i d e a s . The f i r s t  is its  rather  cryptically,  and o f t t i m e s  m e r i t o f t h e H s i a n g - K u o commentary, o f  d e f i n i t e n e s s . The commentators employ l u c i d  generalized statements,  just  and  trans-  f o r m i n g them i n t o w e l l - d e v e l o p e d p r i n c i p l e s . One m i s s e s t h e  poetic  flights work.  but  i s presented  e x p a n d i n g Chuang T z u ' s t h o u g h t s  and  w i t h a cogent  Feng Y u - L a n c a l l s t h i s p r o g r e s s .  Kuo: c r y s t a l l i z e d  Chuang T z u ' s i d e a s ,  it  and c a r e f u l l y  worded p r o s e  I beg to d i f f e r . seems t o me, and  H s i a n g and reiterated  -XIVthem i n t h e i r no more t h a t (1)  tame and c l e a r p r o s e .  It  i s a merit,  t o be s u r e ,  but  that.  N a t u r a l i s t i c Cosmology : The  ness.  H s i a n g - K u o commentry i s v e r y much c e n t r e d  The u n i v e r s e  dental  i s denied a creator  and,  on n a t u r a l -  therefore,  a  transcenda  purpose. " T h e r e i s no c r e a t o r , e v e r y t h i n g c r e a t e s i t s e l f . E v e r y t h i n g c r e a t e s i t s e l f and depends on n o t h i n g . T h i s i s 'I t h e n o r m a l way o f t h e u n i v e r s e . " c h a p . 2.  "The u n i v e r s e i s t h e c o l l e c t i v e name f o r t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s . The u n i v e r s e h a s t h e m a n i f o l d e n t i t i e s a s t h e c o n t e n t s , and t h e m a n i f o l d must h e e d s have t h e n a t u r a l as i t s n o r m . What i s s p o n t a n e o u s l y s o , w i t h o u t a r t i f i c i a l i t y , i i - a i i & y i ^ d s r t i h e n a t u r a l . " c h a p . 1. The  central issue  i^^'O),  Tu-Hua feres  t h e Tao b u t T z u - J a n  transform by themselves.  or tampers  taneously  i s not w i t h the  destinies  ),  No o u t s i d e  of things;  and a l l  agent  they are  things  inter-  just  spon-  themselves.  The T a o i n L a o - C h u a n g i s t h a t by w h i c h a l l come t o b e . H s i a n g - K u o commentary s t a t e s ,  "The T a o i s c a p a b l e  o f n o t h i n g . To  s a y t h a t a n y t h i n g i s d e r i v e d from t h e Tao means i t lf." Tao  (chap.  5«) T h i s i s a ' d e p a r t u r e  i s regulated  to the  alistic  comes o f  itse-  from p r i m o r d i a l T a o i s m . The  realm of a c t u a l non-existence,  commentary i s e n t i r e l y , as w i l l  The  be'seen,.,  and  p e r m e a t e d by i t s  the natur-  cosmology.  (2) Change  :  The so t o s p e a k ,  universe stays  i s c o n c e i v e d t o be i n c o n s t a n t  flux.  Nothing,  put.  " F o r h e a v e n and e a r t h and t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s change and and a r e d i f f e r e n t e v e r y d a y . T h e y go a l o n g w i t h t i m e . What c a u s e s t h i s ? i t i s m e r e l y I z u - J a n . " c h a p . 2. It  i s . w e l l - n i g h H e r a c l i t e a n . N i e t z s c h e s a i d we c a n n o t  same r i v e r t w i c e . B u d d h i s m d e r i v e d i t s ledge of the  eternal  transience  first  step i n t o  the  p r e m i s s from t h e know-  o f t h i n g s . The H s i a n g - K u o  commentary  -XV-  a l s o emphasizes  t h i s most s a l i e n t  t r u t h . The  e n t i r e u n i v e r s e goes  t h r o u g h c o u n t l e s s c h a n g e s e a c h and e v e r y m i n u t e .  According to  i a n g and K o ,  self-induced,  u  spontaneous  a l l t h e s e m u l t i f a r i o u s changes are  and  Hs-  natural.  "The m y r i a d t h i n g s and m y r i a d p r e d i c a m e n t s a p p r o a c h and r e l i n q u i s h d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . I t seems as i f a t r u e a r b i t e r c a u s e s them t o be s o . To seek t h e t r a c e s o f t h i s t r u e a r b i t e r , however, would be i n t h e end f u t i l e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s c l e a r that a l l t h i n g s are TzuJ a n . N o t h i n g c a u s e s them t o be s o . " c h a p . 2. A g a i n i I t I s n a t u r a l t h a t a l l these c'buntless changes t a k e p l a c e , and' o f t h e m s e l v e s . The day. And,  o f t o - d a y d i f f e r f r o m t h e we  of yester-  to-morrow i s a n o t h e r day. T h i s i s so b e c a u s e n a t u r e  c r e e s i t . And (3) L i f e and  death?"  we  nature, i n Hsiang-Kuo, i s the  "Not  (##  A n a l e c t s . ) The  %,%  knowing even l i f e ,  are preoccupied w i t h w o r l d l y a f f a i r s , t h e w o r l d and  ultimate.  Death :  Confucius said, fl  de-  correct  how  can we know-  Confucianists,  therefore,  s u c h as t h e o r d e r l i n e s s  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among p e r s o n s . H s i a n g and  t h o u g h p r e d o m i n a n t l y C o n f u c i a n , e m p l o y e d Lao-Chuang's  Kuo  identifica-  t i o n w i t h t h e a l l t o combat d e a t h , t h e e t e r n a l onus o f m a n u n k i n d . " S h o u l d we be c o n t e n t w i t h w h a t e v e r we meet w i t h , why s h o u l d we w o r r y about d e a t h when we have j u s t a t t a i n e d t o l i f e . " chap. 2. " F o r t i m e does not s t o p f o r an i n s t a n t , and t h e now q u i c k l y c e a s e s t o e x i s t . T h e r e f o r e t h e dream o f y e s ^ r r t e r d a y i s t r a n s f o r m e d now. The c h a n g e s o f l i f e and d e a t h do not d i f f e r f r o m t h i s . Why b e l a b o u r o u r m i n d s with this? And y e t t h e f o o l i s h a r e p e r t u r b e d . T h e y t h i n k t h e y know t h a t l i f e i s e n j o y a b l e , and d e a t h i s l a m e n t a b l e . T h e y have y e t t o h e a r about t h e n a t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i n g s . " i b i d . " F o r t h e b o d y , l i f e , o l d age and d e a t h a r e a l l Me. The b o d y b e a r s me, l i f e b e l a b o u r s me, o l d age f r e e s me, d e a t h r e s t s me. T h r o u g h t h e s e f o u r c h a n g e s I r e m a i n s m y s e l f . Why s h o u l d I lament them?" chap. 6. "Do not evade o r a p p r o a c h any t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . " chap. 6. Aldous Huxley w r i t e s ,  " F o r we  r e a l m . Go a l o n g w i t h t h e  are but l i f e ' s  s l a v e , and  life  time  -XVIfool.  And t i m e ,  that  h o l d s sway o v e r e v e r y t h i n g , must have  stop."  (Time Must Have S t o p ) The H s i a n g - K u o commentary does not a d h e r e such a & m y s t i c a l a t t i t u d e nd  transformations  part. to,  c t s o f the (4)  e n j o i n s man t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e  o f the u n i v e r s e ,  For time i s but  correct.  but  change,  gra-  o f w h i c h we a r e u n d e n i a b l y a  and change i s n a t u r a l a n d ,  ipso  E v e n b i r t h and d e a t h s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d o f a s  fac-  aspe-  same r e a l i t y — T z u - J a n . .  Fatalism  :  N a t u r e to, the H s i a n g - K u o i s paramount. al,  to  and t h i n g s a r e what t h e y a r e b y n a t u r e ,  the commentators'  Changes a r e  spontaneously.  naturHence  p h i l o s o p h y i s t i n g e d w i t h elements of f a t a l i s m .  " I t i s not b y a c c i d e n t t h a t we have o u r l i f e . I t i s ' n o t by c h a n c e t h a t our- l i f e . i s - w h a t i t i s . The u n i v e r s e i s v e r y e x t e n d e d , t h i n g s ' a r e v e r y n u m e r o u s . Y e t i n i t and among them, we a r e j u s t what we a r e What we a r e n o t , we c a n n o t b e . What we a r e , we c a n n o t b u t b e . . What we do n o t d o , we c a n n o t d o . What we c a n d o , we c a n n o t but d o . L e t e v e r y t h i n g be what i t i s , t h e n t h e r e w i l l be p e a c e . " chap'. 5. F e n g Y u - L a n , p . 2 2 3 , A S h o r t H i s t o r y of Chinese H i s t o r y "We have o u r l i f e , not b e c a u s e we w i s h t o have i t . W i t h i n o u r l i f e , a s p a n o f one h u n d r e d y e a r s , s i t t i n g , r i s ing, walking, standing, acting, resting, gaining, l o s i n g , f e e l i n g , i n s t i n c t , k n o w l e d g e , and a b i l i t y , a l l t h a t we h a v e , a l l t h a t we have n o t , a l l t h a t we d o , and a l l t h a t we meet, a r e s o , n o t b e c a u s e we v/ant them t o be s o . By n a t u r a l r e a s o n , t h e y a r e what t h e y a r e . " c h a p . 5. A l t h o u g h change i s u b i t q u i t o u s , do t o change t h i n g s . whatever the free  will  not  nevertheless,  t h e r e seems l i t t l e  we c a n a c t u a l l y  However, the Hsiang-Kuo t e a c h e s  s i t u a t i o n and however t h e  circumstances.  contentment "Neither  c h o i c e has m e a n i n g i n t h e i r s y s t e m . " (14) T h i s not  deplorable,  f o r we f i n d  i n the  " N e v e r mind what we a r e endowed w i t h . w h a t e v e r we meet w i t h . " c h a p . 5.  is,  Hsiang-Kuof  Be c o n t e n t  with  " F o r among t h i n g s i t i s n e v e r t h e g r e a t t h a t c r a v e s f o r the s m a l l , but the s m a l l i n v a r i a b l y d e s i r e s the g r e a t . C o n s e q u e n t l y Chuang T z u e n u n c i a t e s t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y b e t w i x t t h e g r e a t and t h e s m a l l and show t h a t p r e d e s t i n e d l i m i t a t i o n s o b t a i n i n b o t h c a s e s . C r a v i n g and l o n g i n g c a n a v a i l b u t n a u g h t . R e a l i z i n g t h i s we c a n b a n i s h  -XVIIt h e t r a m m e l s a c c r u e d from c r a v i n g and l o n g i n g . F o r g r i e f i s born i n t r o u b l e . I f t r o u b l e i s d i s p e l l e d , g r i e f depa r t s . When g r i e f has d e p a r t e d , l i f e n e e d s must be at e a s e . " c h a p . 1. "To c u l t i v a t e l i f e i s n o t t o hope t o t r a v e s t y o u r l o t , b u t t o h a r m o n i z e w i t h L i f f _ , and l i v e out o u r y e a r s . " chap. 3 . The  L i i n the  ce t h a t ciple  above q u o t e  sustains  it,  i s the  the w i l l  i n the u n i v e r s e t h a t  that governs  decrees  T h i s L i became a s i g n a l c o n c e p t Because o f t h e i r  r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f a t h i n g , the its  it.  fate  Also i t  prin-  and i s immljnant i n  it.  f o r the N e o - C o n f u c i a n i s t s .  f a t a l i s m , Hsiang-Kuo s t a t e s i t  mount i m p o r t a n c e t h a t we come t o t e r m s w i t h o u r f a t e tudes.  i s the  for-  F o r one c a n n e v e r be a n o t h e r  i s of  and  e v e n i f one e l e c t s  para-  vicissi-  to  imitate.  "We have o u r l i f e , n o t b e e a u s e we w i s h t o have i t W i t h c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t some p e o p l e t r y t o be g r e a t a r t i s t s , t h e y c a n n e v e r s u c c e e d . Y e t w i t h o u t k n o w i n g how, t h e g r e a t a r t i s t s s p o n t a n e o u s l y become a r t i s t s . W i t h c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t some p e o p l e t r y t o be s a g e s , but t h e y can n e v e r s u c c e e d . Y e t w i t h o u t k n o w i n g how, t h e s a g e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y become s a g e s . Not o n l y a r e t h e s a g e s and a r t i s t s d i f f i c u l t t o i m i t a t e , we c a n n o t e v e n be f o o l s , o r d o g s , by s i m p l y w i s h i n g and t r y i n g t o b e . " c h a p . 5 . Now C o l e r i d g e w r i t e s i n Ode On D e j e c t i o n t h a t , o u t w a r d forms w i n , the p a s s i o n and t h e  life,  w i t h i n . " H s i a n g and Kuo seem t o t h i n k t h a t s s i o n and l i f e "  "Hope n o t  from  whose f o u n t a i n s  this  are  "Fountain of pa-  i s what we a r e n a t u r a l l y endowed w i t h .  t o be done i s t o obey and n u r t u r e  I  What n e e d s  it.  "The n a t u r e ^ o f e v e r y t h i n g has i t s l i m i t . I f one i s i n d u c e d by what i s b e y o n d i t , o n e ' s n a t u r e w i l l be l o s t . One s h o u l d d i s r e g a r d t h e i n d u c e m e n t and t h e o t h e r s , l i v e a c c o r d i n g to o n e ' s n a t u r e . I f so, the i n t e g r i t y o f o n e ' s n a t u r e w i l l be p r e s e r v e d . " c h a p . 1 0 . The it  i s to a great  as t h e root ent  commentatorsi' extent  p h i l o s o p h y i s f a t a l i s t i c and y e t ,  imbued w i t h T a o i s t m e t a p h y s i c s ,  because  t h e y do  B u d d h i s t s c e r t a i n l y dos? deem change and impermanence as  of a l l e v i l . to l i v e  out  What i s n a t u r a l  their destinys,  i s g o o d , and men s h o u l d be  d e c r e e d and f a s h i o n e d b y  not, the  cont-  nature.  -XVIII-  (5) P o l i t i c a l  Now also  Philosophy  :  i n the H s i a n g - K u o s o c i a l  s u b j e c t to the  n a t u r a l law  of  and  political  phenomena a r e  change.  "There i s n o t h i n g w h i c h i s not n a t u r a l — peace o r c o n f u s i o n , success or f a i l u r e — a l l a r e p r o d u c e d by n a t u r e , not man." chap. 7. H s i a n g - K u o ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n embraces the w o r l d affairs  as w e l l .  Kuo  advocates  and  social  new  as  a d j u s t i n g and  realms.  Human needs and and  Similarly,  i n regards  yielding  t o cosmic  t o what  S o c i e t y i s always,  i s new  o f human  changes, i n the  Hsiang-  political  like  the u n i v e r s e , i n f l u x .  c o n d i t i o n s change as w e l l .  When c o n d i t i o n s change  demands emerge, new  measures s h o u l d be  adopted.  "The i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e f o r m e r k i n g s s a t i s f i e d the needs o f t h e i r t i m e . I f t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t when t i m e s change, t h e y become anathema t o the p e o p l e , and s t a r t t o be a r t i f i c i a l . " chap. 7. Institutions confronted  and  morals  w i t h a new  gooa i n one  time  set of v a r i a b l e s .  might not be  I t f o l l o w s t h a t the  should deal with a l l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s without his  own,  can be ing,  (Wu  Hsin,^j /  always equal  ) but  v v  t o the  w i t h non-ado.  situation.  t h a t the E x i s t e n t i a l i s t  a p p o s i t e when  One  any  deliberate  (Wu  Wei,.Jf ^  might  almost  "Situation Ethics"  is  ruler mind  of  ), so t h a t say,  he  i n pass-  analogous.  "These two s a g e s (Shun and K i n g Wu) were t o s e t the w o r l d i n o r d e r when t h e r e was t u r m o i l . One d i d i t b y t p e a c e f u l means, the o t h e r by m i l i t a r y f o r c e . T h e y d i f f e r e d b e c a u s e t h e i r t i m e s d i f f e r e d . Between them t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e o f s u p e r i o r i t y o r i n f e r i o r i t y . " chap. 12. Different  times warrant  The  ruler  s h o u l d not  cling  Wei  enough t o a l l o w new  appear spontaneously. Confucius, was,  rising just  different  institutions  t o t h e p a s t . He  and  adequate i n s t i t u t i o n s  (Toynbee's "Challenge  not  Lao T z u  and  Wu  and  Wu  measures t o  Response"?)  a c c o r d i n g to Hsiang-Kuo,  contradictions,  wise  enough  do  he  a c t u a l l y g o v e r n s human a f f a i r s . T h i s i s q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o Chuang  against  institutions  sage/king  H s i n and  to  Tzu's contemplative  the  and  o r Chuang T z u ,  above a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s that. Although  s h o u l d be  and. measures.  i n Hsiang-Kuo o b s e r v e s  l e a n i n g s . Furthermore, and  morals  as  such,  WuWei,  'the commentators were  not  as L a o ! c h u a n g were. T h e y were  -XIX-  simply and  against  therefore The  the i n s t i t u t i o n s artificial  of a ruler  i s o f one who  and k i n g l i n e s s w i t h i n " .  cause o f .their b e l i e f  that  antiquated  defunct.  Hsiang-Kuo's i d e a l  • s a g e l i n e s s without  naturally,  and  and m o r a l s t h a t were  (^f-l£tfj:£  embodies  ) A l s o , be-  even complex s i t u a t i o n s come i n t o  t h e commentators t h i n k  i t i s n a t u r a l t o adopt  t e d measures t o h a r n e s s them. R e t u r n t o p r i m i t i v i t y Lao T z u and Chuang T z u was q u i t e  being  complica-  a s expounded b y  discarded.  " H e a r i n g t h e t h e o r y o f non-ado, some p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t l y i n g i s b e t t e r t h a n w a l k i n g . T h e s e p e o p l e go t o o f a r and m i s u n d e r s t a n d Chuang T z u ' s p h i l o s o p h y . " c h a p . 9 . Fruthermore, " I f by p r i m i t i v e n e s s we mean t h e u n d i s t o r t e d , t h e man v,3> whose c h a r a c t e r i s n o t d i s t o r t e d i s t h e most p r i m i t i v e , though he may be c a p a b l e o f d o i n g many t h i n g s . " chap. 15. r  And  so t h e Hsiang-Kuo e u l o g i z e  tures  and who, w h i l e  occupying the highest  l i v e s a s sound and a s d e v o i d questered  i n vales  The  upshot  lime,  t h e y were u s e l e s s  with  p o s i t i o n s , had i n t e r i o r  (Ai/' ) a s i f t h e y had been s e -  i s H s i a n g and Kuo w r i t e  commentary t h a t  theory  of Hsin  t h e i r na-  and h i l l s .  their  litical  Yao and Shun, who f o l l o w e d  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to  "though Chuang"s words were b o t h t r u e and subf o r a c t i o n i n human s o c i e t y . " ( l | j ) T h e i r po-  and t h e i r  apotheosis  o f man a r e s u r e l y a t v a r i a n c e  Chuang T z u ' s .  Conclusion  :  Hsiang Hsiu  and Kuo H s i a n g were e s s e n t i a l l y  Confucianists  Who had g r a s p e d  the m e t a p h y s i c s o f T a o i s m . T h r o u g h the a l e m b i c o f  their  minds t h e " T a o i s t  Confucian  trimmed  down t o f i t a , m i l i e u  s y s t e m was e m a s c u l a t e d . "  i n which the Confucian  (1$>) and  conventions  were dominant. T h e commentary p r o v i d e d  theoretical justification  for  leanings  the l i t e r a t i  manipulating  with  professed  and a r b i t r a t i n g  commentators e m i n e n t l y  human a f f a i r s .  to t h r i v e at c o u r t ,  Needham t h i n k s a l l t h e  d i s t o r t e d and " e m a s c u l a t e d "  o f Lao T z u and Chuang T z u . corrupted  Taoist  I n a sense t h e s e  and p r a c t i s e d the p u r p o s i v e  (IT,) t h e T a o i s m  commentators a d o p t e d ,  w i n g o f T a o i s m , embodied i n  -XX-  the  Tao T e h C h i n g . I t i s i n t h e i r  c e r n most  salient  deviations  political  from e a r l y  Taoism,  Chuang T z u . The  commentators' modus V i v e n d i  their  and v i c e  thinking,  versa.  philosophy that  we  particularly  significantly  dis-  from  affected  -XXIU n t r a m m e l l e d . W a n d e r i n g and t h e Commentary The.&bject all  o f Chuang T z u ' s a p o t h e o s i s  differences  erentiatedness  i s one who  and d i s t i n c t i o n s , who roams i n t h e and i s dependent  t r e e s to rest  the  c i c a d a and t h e  on; p e t t y  la a s t  still  ablished;  the winds but  L i e h T z u , who c o u l d c h a r i o t  depends  left  of  the  the  transformations  infinite  man has no s e l f ,  o f the  6 airs,  one,  who m e r e l y  something  unest-  therefore  fitness  o f the  no a c h i e v e m e n t ,  and no  realm  name/fame.  the  c o m m e n t a t o r s do r e c o g n i z e t h e a b s o l u t e they emphasize the  fact  t h e y must p e r f o r c e  surate  cosmos,  and roams i n t h e  f o c u s has s h i f t e d . freedom o f t h e  t h a t when t h o s e  that  depend  depend,  While  autarkic possess  what t h e y depend o n , t h e y a r e e q u a l l y u n t r a m m e l l e d . N a t u r e that  ipso  and n e e d s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g t o d e f e n d o n . " Such a  Wit'hr t h e H s i a n g - K u o commentary, the  the  on them. Chuang T z u a p p r o v e s o f none o f them. He a p p -  r o v e s o n l y o f one who " r i d e s upon t h e e t e r n a l harnesses  gr-  d o v e ; Sung Yung T z u  who d i d n o t b o t h e r w i t h t h e w o r l d b u t facto  depend on  or r u l e r s of s t a t e s ,  c i c a d a and t h e  He enumer-  on t h e w i n d f o r i t s  dove, which at  officials  resemble i n a c t u a l i t y the  realm o f u n d i f f -  upon n o t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r .  a t e s i n t u r n t h e P ' e n g (jjjjf!]) , w h i c h depends and f l i g h t s ;  transcends  decrees  and a l l a c t i o n s s h o u l d be commen-  w i t h n a t u r a l endowments. One d i s c e r n s t h e  fatalism of  the  commentators. " I f t h e r e i s contentment w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s , t h e n even t h e P ' e n g has n o t h i n g t o be p r o u d o f i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s m a l l b i r d s ; and t h e s m a l l b i r d h a r b o u r s no d e s i r e f o r t h e C e l e s t i a l L a k e . And y e t t h e r e i s s a t i s f a c t i o n enough t o s p a r e . T h e r e f o r e t h o u g h t h e b i g d i f f e r s from t h e s m a l l , '.'.! t h e i r u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s i s o n e . " c h a p . 1. " E a c h t h i n g has i t s n a t u r e , The e m p h a s i s i s h e r e  and. e a c h n a t u r e  on c o n t e n t m e n t  its limit, "ibid.  with one's nature,  but not  tr-  anscending d i s t i n c t i o n s ' . S e c o n d l y I do f e e l  that bothe  commentary (by C h ' e n Hsuan Y i n g , Yao t o o much. The t e x t  the  commentary and t h e ) e u l o g i z e the  p r o p e r never g i v e s the  u a n g T z u a p p r o v e s o f Y a o . Yao i s n o t p r e s e n t e d r u l i n g w i t h non-ado.  Yao i s , q u i t e . o n t h e  sub-  sage-king  i n d i c a t i o n that Chas a p e r f e c t  contrary,  man,  unfavourably  -XXIIjuxtaposed f i r s t l y  w i t h Hsu Y u , then w i t h the  remote M t . K u Y e h . The p a r a b l e about roidered at  caps t o s e l l  a l l o f the  to the t a t t o o e d  caps p u r p o r t s ,  f o u r s a g e s on t h e  a Sung man t r a n s p o r t i n g embYueh p e o p l e who have no need  d o u b t l e s s l y , t o show t h a t  p i r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e acumen a r e q u i t e u s e l e s s attained dust  t o t h e T a o . Chuang T z u ' r e p e a t e d l y  t o t h o s e who have  claims that  even  the  and s i f t i n g s from h i s D i v i n e man make Yao and S h u n . Chuang T z u ' . s p h i l o s o p h y i s r e a l l y  It  Y a o ' s em-  i s p r i m a r i l y p e r s o n a l i s t i c . The h e r m i t  meant  f o r the  individual.  f o r him f a r s u r p a s s e s  ev-  en Y a o . I n U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g he w r i t e s , "Why s h o u l d he (The D i v i n e Man) be w i l l i n g t o a p p r o a c h t h i n g s as a t a s k t o be d o n e ? " The H s i a n g - K u o commentary, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , makes much o f Y a o , s t a t i n g t h a t Yao r u l e d w e l l w i t h  non-ado.  "Yao g o v e r n s t h e e m p i r e w e l l b y n o t g o v e r n i n g . " c h a p .  1.  and a g a i n , "Yao a n d . S h u n were n o t m e r e l y Yao and S h u n , but were endowed w i t h ' t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e d i v i n e m a n . " c h a p . 1. and y e t  again, " A l t h o u g h Yao l o r d e d o v e r t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s , never been but u n t r a m m e l l e d . "  he  has  The H s i a n g - K u o commentary makes much o f Yao and Shun b e c a u s e  t h e s,  c o m m e n t a t o r s a p p r o v e o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e mundane r e a l m and o f arbitrating worldly affairs. n o n - a d o and n a t u r a l n e s s , then at  the  A l t h o u g h they upheld the  concepts of  t h e y were C o n f u c i a n i s t s , i f not  c o r e . Hsiang H s i u traduced the a n c i e n t  to the  h e r m i t s whom  Chuang T z u o b v i o u s l y a p p r o v e d . H s i a n g H s i u s a i d t o h i s e m p e r o r , response (^f(^  to a query,  ) were t i m i d ,  t h a t he t h o u g h t ,  "Ch'^ao Fu (j|->C )  i n some i n s t a n c e s ,  ado d i f f e r e n t l y from Chuang T z u . I n t h e  commentators'  a c q u i r e d the  c o n n o t a t i o n s o f — " R e i g n but not  not  Seldom i n Chuang T z u p r o p e r ,  affairs,  n  d  Hsu Yu  h e r m i t s o f renown.  The H s i a n g - K u o commentary,  Wandering,  a  in  p u s i l l a n i m o u s men, not w o r t h y o f much e m u l a t i o n . "  (1<8) C h ' a o and Hsu were a n c i e n t  ruling".  core,  c a n one f i n d  rule",  employs nonhands  non-ado  "To r u l e by  and n e v e r i n U n t r a m m e l l e d  passages a d v o c a t i n g involvement i n w o r l d l y  i n r u l i n g an e m p i r e w i t h n o n - a d o .  (  -XXIIIThe commentary, w h i l e g r a s p i n g t h e n e s s i n a l l t h i n g s and r e a l m s , nal  concept  importance o f  natural-  q u i t e e m p h a s i z e s n o n - a d o as a  i n governmental a f f a i r s  sig-  and as a method o f c o n t r o l .  Chuang T z u i s p r e o c c u p i e d • w i t h t r a n s c e n d i n g 'the w o r l d and h a r m o n i z i n g w i t h the Tao, '-with non-ado. postulate variant  n o n - a d o as a p a n a c e a  foci  point  to the  The c o m m e n t a t o r s  f o r the  differences  "Purposive" p h i l o s o p h i c a l Taoism.  i n some  cases  a s p i r i n g r u l e r . T h e s e two between  " C o n t e m p l a t i v e " and  -XXIVThe A p p e a l o f T a o i s m Our modern w o r l d i s (W&H. A u d e n ) , o u r t i m e i s  s u r e l y out  n o l o g y d w a r f man, and l i f e nightmare.  frantic,  o u r age  is  of j o i n t .  "an; age o f a n x i e t y " S c i e n t i s m and  i n m e t r o p o l i s e s resembles  a veritable  Our v e r s i o n o f G o r g o n r e a r s f e a r s o m e l y i t s  — Politics,  Tech-  hideous  heads  P o l l u t i o n ? O v e r - p o p u l a t i o n and N u c l e a r w a r s . To a v o i d  sounding l i k e  a minor prophet,  let  me j u s t  say,  isn't  man  like  Icarus? Taoism's non-interference conducive to p r o t o - s c i e n c e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the .step i n t h e qualified  with natural  i n ancient  least  Religious Taoism's  pre-  search o f i m m o r t a l i t y l e d to alchemy, a primary  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of nature.  at  China.  l a w s was a t  a l l to mutter  on t h e  I am, h o w e v e r ,  regretfully  not  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between T a o i s m  and s c i e n c e . J o s e p h N e e d h a m ' s monumental magnum opus a r g u e s t h e most ist  convincingly.  (-20)  Suffice  it  to  say t h a t  c o s m o l o g y , s.kndfeeven cosmogony, a t  without  quietism,  its  serene acceptance  c o n c e p t i o n ' o f the  present  age a r e  still  f o r a f l e s h and b l o o d p e r s o n , o f the  from t h e  part  of nature,  that  e x i s t s . The s o c i a l  a l l , as he s h o u l d n e v e r b e . neither  even l i f e  not  not  paramount  i s the  o r d e r may be t o p s y t u r v y , b u t  the  cosmic  that  e t e r n a l l y be m a r v e l l o u s .  as n o t  that  indispensable,  h o r r i b l e . Taoism seduces  s p i r i t u a l sustenance  i n a grand  and  us t o  the dis-  remember we transformation.  Taoism accords that  and y e t  i s d e f i n i t e l y not  Taoism b l e s s e s  us w i t h some e x i s t e n t i a l r e s p i t e ,  let  and t o grow f o n d o f t h e m .  satisfies  Fur-  i s of  Modern man, so r a t i o n a l i s t i c , f i n d s h e r e  t h i n g k i n d r e d to r e l i g i o n , t h i n g s be,  an i n t e g r a l whatever  from o u r c h o r e s and w o r r i e s , and. t o  importance.  alien-  and  i n a g r a n d u n i v e r s e and p a r t i c i p a t e s It  sublime  i s never just  its  manifold,  i s taught  claws" o f death  engage o u r s e l v e s  and i t s  Man i s  above n o r b e l o w t h e  o r d e r r e m a i n s m a r v e l l o u s , and w i l l thermore,  cosmos,  oneness o f a l l . Man, i n T a o i s m ,  ated  exist  even i n s c i e n c e T a o -  values. The a p p e a l o f T a o i s m i s ,  "icy  the  case  r e a s o n and n u r t u r e s  (nurses?)  It the  contra-rational.  and d i s p o s e s us  placates soul.  some-  the  heart,  to  -XXVI fore  fear  I c a n go on e u l o g i z i n g t i l l  t h e y do s u f f i c e  universe ow t h e  per  it  to  say T a o i s m ' s j o y f u l  cows come home. acceptance of  se i s a v e r y n i c e i d e a t o e n t e r t a i n .  c o n v i c t i o n that a l l i s w e l l ,  myriad things,  and t h e  courage  ears. Taoism, admittedly, at  the  to he.  As i t  surely,  might  Isn't  that  marvellous?  gr-  in  the  appeal  lend i t and y e t  Be-  the  can  interest  were T a o i s m ' s  is anti-anthropocentric,  same t i m e .  From i t  and a p r o f o u n d  i s p r i m a r i l y s p i r i t u a l and o u r w o r l d , elevatesman  the  its it  does  -XXVII have a t t e m p t e d to the  to t r a n s l a t e  intrinsic difficulties  au p i e d de l a l e t t r e .  o f Chuang T z u ' s l a n g u a g e  Owing  and p o s s i -  b l e t e x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n , my t r a n s l a t i o n i s r e a l l y my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Indeed,  any t r a n s l a t i o n o f a n c i e n t  terpretation.  In d i f f i c u l t  instances  a c c o r d i n g t o what I t r u l y  mentary i s at  I have presumed t o  present  i n partibus,  Chuang T z u . H i s commentary  t h e work o f H s i a n g H s i u . The comso  t i m e s more d i f f i c u l t  to fathom t h a n the  At t i m e s I f e e l Chuang T z u r a t h e r e l u c i d a t e s on t h e w h o l e t h e  commentary i s q u i t e  C h ' e n Hsuan Y i n g relied  (/^'^^i$L)  i s quite  I have u s e d L i u W e n - T i e n ' s  the  text  itself.  commentators.  r e a d i b l e and  on h i s s u b - c o m m e n t a r y t o u n e a r t h  (ft^fifa  decipher  understand.  Kub H s i a n g e d i t e d t h e on t h e book may b e ,  C h i n e s e b o o k s i s r e a l l y an i n -  But  dependable.  r e l i a b l e . Sometimes I the meaning o f the  ^$\^JL  )  have  comments  Chuang T z u P u - C h e n g  ) . Kuan F e n g ' s modern C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n i s  fairly  helpful. Of t h e  available English translations  ton Watson's i s the b e s t . its  It  i s more l u c i d  o f Chuang T z u , B u r -  and l i v i l i e r  that  predecessors. James R. W a r e ' s e m i n e n t l y u n o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  q u i t e p e c u l i a r , but  is  n e g l i g i b l e as a g u i d e .  Herbert A. Giles tes  all  i s quite  " l i t e r a r y " and a t  times  transla-  erroneously. Feng Yu-Lan i s g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e  correct,  is singularly uninteresting.  by .his E n g l i s h ,  albeit  His p a r t i a l translation of  the  commentary now and t h e n t h r o w s some l i g h t . Thomas M e r t o n ' s T h e Way o f Chuang T z u c o n t a i n s a good i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n g r e n d e r i n g o f Chuang T z u ' s a n e c d o t e s a l a Merton. I have e n d e a v o u r e d i n g a p h i l o s o p h e r o f the well.  H i s words a r e  first  magnitude,  s i g n a l and w i s e , b u t ,  h i s s p i r i t , h i s unthered practised,  t o do j u s t i c e  I feel sure,  s p i r i t that  t o Chuang T z u . B e s i d e s b e he i s a s u p e r b  stylist  as Watson s u g g e s t s ,  i s o f paramount  what he p h i l o s o p h i z e d .  as  it&s  i m p o r t a n c e . He  -XXVII-  N o t e s t o The  Prologue  (1) p. 137, Symposium On T a o i s m . (2) p. 75, H. G. C r e e l , (3) p. 110, Symposium  What Is. T a o i s m .  On T a o i s m .  (4) p. 216, F e n g Yu-Lan, S h o r t H i s t o r y Of C h i n e s e (5) p. 314, W. T. Chan, A Source. Book On C h i n e s e  Philosophy. Philosophy.  (6) p. 145, F e n g Yu-Lan, Chuang T z u . (7) p. 434, J o s e p h  Needham, S c i e n c e  (8) p. 217, Feng Yu-Lan, S h o r t  and C i v i l i z a t i o n  H i s t o r y o f Chinese  (9) p. 316, W. T. Chan, A S o u r c e  Bood on C h i n e s e  (10)  p. 434, J o s e p h  (11)  p. 169, R. B. M a t h e r , Symposium On T a o i s m .  (12)  p. 146, F e n g Yu-Lan, S p i r i t  (13)  p. 145, F e n g Yu-Lan, Chuang T z u .  (14)  p. 318, W.T.  (15)  p. 433, J o s e p h  (16)  ibid.  (1^  Needham, S c i e n c e  Chan, A Source  Philosophy. Philosophy.  and C i v i l i z a t i o n  o f Chinese  i n China.  i n China.  Philosophy.  Book on C h i n e s e  Philosophy.  Needham, S c i e n c e and C i v i l i z a t i o n  i n China.  ibid.  (18)  p. 169, R. B. M a t h e r , Symposium on T a o i s m .  (19)  I n t h e N ' e i P i i e n , non-ado has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n t h e r e m a i n i n g 26 c h a p t e r s , m o s t l y n o t a u t h o r e d by Chuang T z u , non-ado a p p e a r s 53 t i m e s , d e n o t i n g a t e c h n i q u e o f r e i g n i n g o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t i m e . c f . p. 78, H. G. C r e e l , What I s T a o i s m ? .  (20)  I n p . 56 o f Needham's S c i e n c e and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , v o l he p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e T a o i s t temple has been d e s i g n a t e d as Kuan (f|j||). He t r a c e s i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l and d e r i v a t i v e meanings and s t a t e s t h a t embodied i n t h i s common name f o r a T a o i s t temple i s t h e a n c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r e . T h i s m i n a t i a e a l o n e i s q u i t e symptomatic of. t h e T a o i s t o u t l o o k on n a t u r e . From t h e r e on Needham a r g u e s v e r y c o n v i n c i n g l y o f the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t i n e a r l y Taoism.  -1-  U n t r a m m e l l e d W a n d e r i n g By Chuang T z u W i t h Commentary by H s i a n g H s i u and Rue- H s i a n g  " A l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e and t h e s m a l l a r e d i s s i m i l a r , yet i f they d i s p o r t themselves i n the realm o f self-contentment, then e n t i t i e s follow t h e i r n a t % ures, t h i n g s correspond to t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . A l l assume t h e i r d i s t i n i e s (1) and a r e e q u a l l y u n t r ammelled. Amidst them t h e r e i s no room f o r d i s t i n c t i o n s as s u p e r i o r i t y o r i n f e r i o r i t y . " In the Northern The  Ocean t h e r e e x i s t s  a fish.  I t s name i s Kun.  Kun i s so huge I know n o t how many.thousands o f l i i t i s .  metamorphoses i n t o  a bird,  It  named P'eng.  "As t o t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i t y o f t h e Kun and t h e P'eng, I do n o t know t h e d e t a i l s . T h e g e n e r a l theme o f Chuang T z u d w e l l s i n u n t r a m m e l l e d w a n d e r i n g , and s e l f - c o n t e n t m e n t t h r o u g h non-ado. He, t h e r e f o r e , ^ V A S P I p o l a r i z e s t o t h e i r e x t r e m e s t h e l a r g e and t h e s m a l l to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n c l i n a t i o n s o f n a t u r e s and d e s t i n i e s . Men o f a l l - p e n e t r a t i n g v i s i o n must needs c u l l the q u i n t e s s e n c e and abandon t h a t i n w h i c h the thoughts a r e lodged, but not f i n i c a l l y r a i s e d i s p u t e s on a l l m a t t e r s . As l o n g as d e l e t i o n does not i m p o v e r i s h t h e g r a n d m o t i f , by a i l means d e l e t e . " The  P'eng's back  When i t i s a r o u s e d  i s I know n o t how many t h o u s a n d s  and f l i e s  (2),  i t s wings resemble  of l i .  sky-obscuring  clouds. , for  When t h i s b i r d the Southern  moves about  Ocean,  i n t h e ocean,  the C e l e s t i a l  i t i s to set o f f .  Lake.  " U n l e s s i t be i n t h e v a s t ocean,, t h e P'eng cannot move about; u n l e s s i t be on n i n e t h o u s a n d l i o f a i r , i t s wings cannot be b o r n e . T h i s i s , r e a l l y , n o t due to a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the s t r a n g e . I t i s j u s t because l a r g e t h i n g s n a t u r a l l y s p r i n g from l a r g e p l a c e s ; and l a r g e p l a c e s n a t u r a l l y b e a r l a r g e t h i n g s . T h e p r i n c i p l e i s so o f i t s e l f . Why, r e a l l y , b e l a b o u r t h e mind a m i d s t t h e s e t h i n g s . " Airman named C h ' i H s i e h Hsieh enunciated, the w a t e r s and  (3) recorded strange  happenings.  "When t h e P'eng j o u r n e y s t o t h e S o u t h e r n  are r o i l e d  s o a r s up s p i r a l l y  f o r t h r e e thousand n i n e t y thousand  li.  li.  Ocean,  He mounts a w h i r l w i n d  -2"Since the wings are g i g a n t i c , they are d i f f i c u l t t o r a i s e . So t h e P ' e n g must mount a w h i r l w i n d t o r i s e , and must n e e d s surmount a h e i g h t o f n i n e t y t h o u s a n d l i t o be a i r - b o r n e . As t h e P ' e n g p o s s e s s e s s u c h w i n g s , how c a n i t a b r u p t l y a s c e n d , and get down a t a few t e n s o f f e e t ? (4) The P ' e n g , n o t b e c a u s e i t l i k e s t o , but p e r f o r c e must a c t a s i t d o e s . " The  P'eng rests after  g o i n g f o r s i x months.  "The b i g b i r d i n one a t t e m p t f l i e s f o r h a l f a y e a r . I t r e a c h e s t h e C e l e s t i a l L a k e and r e s t s . The l i t t l e b i r d i n one a t t e m p t f l i e s f o r h a l f a m o r n i n g . I t d a r t s t o t h e t r e e s and s t o p s . I f . t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e c o m p a r e d , t h e n t h e r e i s .a d i f f e r e n c e . But t h e i r a c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r " n a t u r e s , and i n t h i s t h ey a r e o n e . " There i s the wandering a i r ;  t h e r e ' a r e the wandering motes;  and l i -  v i n g t h i n g s b l o w e a c h o t h e r a b o u t w'ith t h e i r " b r e a t h . ( 5 ) " A l l o f t h e s e a r e what t h e P ' e n g depend on t o f l y . W i l d horses connote wandering a i r . " As t o t h e  sky's blueness,  is it  i t s true  c o l o u r ? Does t h e  t o w i t h o u t end? When t h e P ' e n g l o o k s down, what o b t a i n s same,  (same a m b i g u i t y , same a n s u r e n e s s . )  sky extend  i s just  the  (6)  "Now when we l o o k a t the' s k y ' s b l u e n e s s , we do not e v e n know i f i t i s r e a l l y t h e s k y ' s t r u e c o l o u r . And we a r e not s u r e i f t h e s k y e x t e n d s away t o w i t h o u t e n d . When t h e P ' e n g g a z e s upon t h e e a r t h from a b o v e , i t i s j u s t as we s e e t h e s k y from t h e e a r t h . And y e t i t r i s e s and a t t e m p t s t h e s o u t h . T h i s i s t o s a y the P ' e n g does not c o g n i z e d i s t a n c e . The penchant i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g , and hence i t v a n i s h e s . " And  i f w a t e r d o e s n o t p i l e up d e e p l y ,  to f l o a t  l a r g e boat's.  Upset a c u p f u l  a m u s t a r d seed becomes a b o a t . w a t e r i s s h a l l o w and v e s s e l  it  l a c k s the v e r y c a p a c i t y  i n t o a h o l l o w on t h e  P l a c e the  cup and i t w i l l  ground, stick,  for  large.  " A l l t h e a e s i c l a r i f y why the P ' e n g s o a r s h i g h , i t s w i n g s a r e b i g ! F o r i f the s m a l l n e e d s n o t t h e g r e a t , t h e n what t h e g r e a t n e e d s c a n n o t p e r f o r c e be s m a l l , i h e r e 4 f o r e , t r u t h s have a p p o s i t e l i m i t s ( 7 ) , t h i n g s f i x e d l i m i t a t i o n s . E a c h s u f f i c e s ( i n i t s own r e a l m ) and c a n e q u a l l y succeed. I f the fundamentals o f o b l i v i o u s n e s s o f l i f e (8) a r e l o s t , and l i f e i s n u r t u r e d o u t s i d e t h e most germane, t a s k s become i n c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h a b i l i t y and a c t i o n s n o t e q u a l t o s i t u a t i o n s . T h e n e v e n s k y o b s c u r i n g w i n g s w i l l be f o u n d w a n t i n g , a n d , s i m i l a r l y , t h e f l i g h t t h a t i s i n s t a n t a n e o u s w i l l meet w i t h t r o u b l e . " :  -3-  If  w i n d i s not p i l e d up d e e p l y ,  u p h o l d huge w i n g s . At a h e i g h t wind t h a t  then i t  l a c k s the v e r y c a p a c i t y  of n i n e t y thousand l i , i t  i s b e l o w . The P ' e n g t h e n mounts t h e w i n d ,  b l u e s k y , and n o t h i n g a t the P ' e n g attempt  the  a l l can h i n d e r or d e t e r  it  to  really  shoulders  the  h i m . O n l y now d o e s  south..  "As t o the P ' e n g ' s a t t e m p t i n g the s o u t h o n l y under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s . n o t t h a t he l o v e s h e i g h t and v a l u e s d i s t a n c e . He i s w e l l aware t h a t s h o u l d t h e v o l u m e o f w i n d be s m a l l , he w i l l be o b s t r u c t e d and h i s t r i p f o r e s t a l l e d . Hence t h e P ' e n g ' s u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s . " (t9) The c i c a d a and t h e  little  dove l a u g h a t  this,  s a y i n g , "When we f l y ,  we t a k e o f f i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y ,  dart  to the  we f a i l  fall  t o t h e g r o u n d . Why a s c e n d n i n e t y  t o r e a c h and we j u s t  t h o u s a n d l i and a t t e m p t  the  trees.and  stop.  Sometimes  south?"  " I f t h e r e i s contentment w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s , then e v e n t h e P ' e n g has n o t h i n g t o be p r o u d o f i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s m a l l b i r d s ; and t h e s m a l l b i r d h a r b o u r s no d e s i r e f o r t h e C e l e s t i a l L a k e . And y e t t h e r e ; i i s s a t i s f a c t i o n enough t o s p a r e . T h e r e f o r e t h o u g h t h e >4 b i g d i f f e r s from t h e s m a l l , t h e i r u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s i s one." He who g o e s t o t h e g r e e n woods n e a r b y and t a k e s t h r e e m e a l s him,  retruns  w i t h h i s s t o m a c h as f u l l  h u n d r e d l i must g r i n d enough f o o d  He who. t r a v e l s  for a night's h a l t .  r n e y s a t h o u s a n d l i must n e e d s g a t h e r months'  as e v e r .  with  He who j o u -  enough f o o d f o r a t h r e e  duration. "The f u r t h e r one g o e s , t h e more f o o d must be g a t h e r e d . M u t a t i s mutandis, t h e b i g g e r the w i n g s , t h e t h i c k e r t h e a i r s must n e e d s b e . "  The two l i t t l e  creatures  a  — what do t h e y know?  "The two l i t t l e c r e a t u r e s d e n o t e t h e c i c a d a and t h e s m a l l d o v e . As t h e s m a l l d i f f e r s from t h e l a r g e , e a c h g o e s h i s d i f f e r e n t way. T h e i r ways d i f f e r n o t \> b e c a u s e t h e y know t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t and d i f f e r f o r d i f f e r e n c e ' s s a k e . T h e y do n o t know why i t i s so but a r e m e r e l y b e i n g n a t u r a l . B e i n g n a t u r a l i s tantamount t o o b s e r v i n g non-ado. Such i s the grand theme o f u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s . "  -4Little  u n d e r s t a n d i n g does not  standing;  short l i f e  does not  encompass as much as g r e a t extend  as much as l o n g  under-  life.  "Each t h i n g has i t s n a t u r e , and e a c h n a t u r e i t s l i m i t . J u s t l i k e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l o n g e v i t y — even s t a n d i n g on t i p t o e w i l l not enhance o r l e n g t h e n . From h e r e onwards t o t h e example o f L i e h T z u t h e d i f f e r i n g m a g n i t u d e s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l o n g e v i t y a r e enumerated. E a c h b e l i e v e s i n one r e a l m and none can s u p e r s e d e a n o t h e r . The a u t a r k i c man, (l©i). t h e n , t r a n s c e n d s them a l l . He f o r g e t s and abandons t h e d i c h o t o m y o f I and N o t - I , d i s c a r d s a l l m u l t i p l i c i t i e s , a t t a i n s e q u a l l y i n a l l d i s s i m i l a r realms, and y e t i s h i m s e l f d e v o i d o f c o n c e p t s ' o f m e r i t and honour. T h e r e f o r e the one who t r a n s c e n d s t h e conc e p t s o f the l a r g e and t h e s m a l l does not h a r b o u r such d i s t i n c t i o n s . I f such d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e e n t e r t a i n e d , t h e n v e r i l y even t h e P'eng o r the q u a i l , and t o o f f i c i a t e o r t o c h a r i o t w i n d s , . a r e w i t h o u t f a i l e n t a n g l e d by t h i n g s . One who e q u a l i z e s c o n c e pts o f l i f e and d e a t h does not h a r b o u r such d i s t i n c t i o n s . I f s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e e n t e r t a i n e d , "« t h e n v e r i l y even the T a - c h ' u n and the summer c i c a da, P'eng T s u (11) and the m o r n i n g mushroom, a r e w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n a h o r t - l i v e d . T h e r e f o r e one who roams i n o b l i v i o n o f t h e l a r g e and the s m a l l i s w i t h o u t l i m i t s . One who d w e l l s i n o b l i v i o u s n e s s o f l i f e and d e a t h i s w i t h o u t end. I f one d e s i r e s u n t r a r a m e l l e d n e s s and y e t i s t e t h e r e d t o a r e a l m , t h e n even i f he i s t o f r e e l y wander he w i l l meet w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . He i s not t r u l y a u t a r k i c . " How  do we  t h e end  know t h i s  and  i s so? The  m o r n i n g mushroom knows n o t h i n g o f  b e g i n n i n g o f a month;  (12) %he  summer c i c a d a knows  n o t h i n g o f s p r i n g and  autumn. These i n s t a n c e s o f s h o r t l i v e s .  the  there i s a Ming-Ling  s o u t h o f Chu  hundred In  (#)  y e a r s as one  ancient antiquity  thousand  y e a r s as one  s p r i n g and t h e r e was  five  hundred  Ta-Ch'un (13)  s p r i n g and  eight  And  everyone,  autumn.  that  eight  counted  y e a r s as one  Yet P'eng T s u alas,  five  y e a r s as one  thousand  tumn. T h e s e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f l o n g l i v e s . nowned f o r h i s l o n g e v i t y .  (13) w h i c h c o u n t s  In  apes  i s now  aure-  him!  "The d i s p a r i t y between s m a l l and g r e a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l o n g and s h o r t l i v e s , i s r e a l l y so g r e a t ! Compared t o what p e o p l e g r i e v e about, t h i s i s t r u l y g r i e v o u s . Yet p e o p l e do not r e g r e t t h i s . I t i s b e c a u s e i n the n a t u r e of t h i n g s t h e r e e x i s t n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . I f we t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s and r e c o g n i z e t h a t we cannot a s p i r e , e v e n t i p t o e i n g , f o r a j o t more t h a n  -5-  i s p r o p e r and n a t u r a l , then.what, i s so r e g r e t t a b l e under t h e sun? ''For amongst, t h i n g s i t i s n e v e r t h e g r e a t that v r a v e s f o r the s m a l l , but the s m a l l i n v a r i a b l y d e s i r e s t h e g r e a t . C o n s e q u e n t l y Chuang T z u e n u n c i a t e s the d i s s i m i l a r i t y b e t w i x t t h e g r e a t and t h e s m a l l and shows t h a t p r e d e s t i n e d (14) l i m i t a t i o n s o b t a i n i n b o t h c a s e s . C r a v i n g and l o n g i n g c a n a v a i l n o t h i n g . R e a l - . i z i n g t h i s we' c a n b a n i s h t h e trammels o f c r a v i n g and longing. F o r g r i e f i s born i n t r o u b l e . I f t r o u b l e i s d i s p e l l e d , g r i e f d e p a r t s . When g r i e f has d e p a r t e d , l i f e needs must be a t e a s e . " 1  It  was on t h i s v e r y  s u b j e c t t h a t T a n g asked  Chi.  1  "When T ' a n g a s k e d C h i , i n t h e q u e s t i o n we a l s o d i s c e r n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h i n g s have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and i f a f r e e r e i n i s a l l o w e d t h e n a l l would be smo o t h and w e l l . T h e r e f o r e Chuang T z u c o n c u r s w i t h t h e discourse." In  t h e b a l d and b a r r e n n o r t h , t h e r e i s a dark  Lake. I n i t i s a f i s h  s e v e r a l thousand  how l o n g . I t ' s name i s Kun. T h e r e back r e s e m b l e s  thousand  blue  s k y . T h e n t h e P'eng a t t e m p t s  a bird,  like  i s he g o i n g ?  quail  the south, laughs  a ram's h o r n ,  to n i -  and j o u r n e y s  to the wh-  I s p r i n g up w i t h a l e a p , and come down a f t e r no  a few y a r d s .  i s going?"  c l o u d s . He  a t him, s a y i n g , "Pray,  I just  flutter  about  brambles. T h i s too i s the epitome o f f l y i n g . he  name P'eng. I t s  l i . I t s o a r s c l e a r o f t h e c l o u d s and s h o u l d e r s t h e  Ocean. The l i t t l e  more t h a n  i s also  and a s c e n d s s p i r a l l y ,  nety  ere  l i a c r o s s , and no one knows  Mount T * a i and i t s wings s k y - o b s c u r i n g  mounts a w h i r l w i n d  Southern  sea, the C e l e s t i a l  amidst  t h e weeds and  Where does he t h i n k  Such i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s m a l l and t h e  l a r g e . (15) "Each deems a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f h i s n a t u r e a s t h e e p i t o m e , and t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e l f a s u l t i m a t e . F o r m e r l y Chuang T z u s a y s t h e two c r e a t u r e s a r e endowed w i t h d i s s i m i l a r wings and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e a c h d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . One h o v e r s above t h e C e l e s t i a l Lake, t h e o t h e r g r a t i f i e s h i s wishes f l u t t e r i n g amidst t r e e s . Each a c t s i n a c c o r d a n c e t o i t s p h y s i c a l i t y , and does c o g n i z e t h e why and w h e r e o f . Now Chuang T z u d i s c o u r s e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s m a l l and t h e l a r g e a r e n a t u r a l l y s o . T h e i r u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s cannot be a t t a i n e d by c r a v i n g o r l o n g i n g . E a c h i s a t ease w i t h i t s n a t u r e and does n o t lament t h a t t h e y d i f f e r . And hence t h e r e p e t i t i o n . "  -6Take, t h e r e f o r e , a man  whose knowledge e n a b l e s him to c r e d i t a b l y  f i l l an o f f i c e , or a man munity, or a man  whose f l a w l e s s conduct impresses a com-  whose v i r t u e b e f i t s him to be a r u l e r so t h a t  the empire w i l l be b e n e f i t e d — l i k e the  h i s o p i n i o n of h i m s e l f w i l l  be  quail's. "Such a man would be j u s t l i k e the b i r d d i s p o r t i n g i t s e l f i n a c e r t a i n realm."  Yet Sung Yung Tzu would laugh at such a  man.  "Sung l a u g h s , because such a man l i z e things."  cannot equa-  The whole world c o u l d p r a i s e Sung Yung Tzu and he would not be  en-  couraged; the whole w o r l d c o u l d praduce him and he would not be  up-  set. "This i s to i l l u s t r a t e  self-contentment."  For Sung d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the i n t r i n s i c and the "He  r e c o g n i z e s the I i s i n t r i n s i c , the non-I e x t r i n s i c . "  He r e c o g n i z e d the realms of honour and "He  extrinsic.  disgrace.  honours h i m s e l f and l e t s down o t h e r s . "  At t h i s Sung stopped, and he d i d not b o t h e r h i m s e l f w i t h tne world.(16) "Sung cannot surpass t h i s l e v e l . He f i n d s enough contentment i n h i m s e l f , and t h e r e f o r e l e t s the w o r l d be." Yet he s t i l l l e f t something to be d e s i r e d . "Sung can but a f f i r m h i m s e l f ; he cannot approve of  all."  As to L i e h Tzu, he c o u l d c h a r i o t the winds and pursue h i s way a sublime  with  ease, r e t u r n i n g a f t e r 15 days.  " L i e h Tzu can r i d e the winds i n a l i g h t and m a r v e l l o u s manner. Yet i f t h e r e i s dependency, a l t h o u g h one c h a r i o t s the winds to t r a v e l , one cannot c i r c u m s c r i b e a l l i n one t r y . " He d i d not have t o bother h i m s e l f much w i t h the attainment ness.  of happi-  (17) " L i e h Tzu can n a t u r a l l y r i d e the winds, he does not have to e x e r t h i m s e l f . "  He dispensed  w i t h the t r o u b l e of w a l k i n g , but s t i l l had to depend  upon something. " L i e h Tzu can not t r a v e l without the winds because he depends upon them. Only those who can r i d e a n y t h i n g are t r u l y a u t a r k i c . "  -7-  Had  he been r i d i n g upon the e t e r n a l f i t n e s s of the cosmos, and  a r i o t i n g the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s realm of the i n f i n i t e ~  ch-  o f the 6 a i r s ( 1 8 ) , and roamed i n the  what, then, had he to depend  on?  "The u n i v e r s e i s the c o l l e c t i v e name, f o r the myriad t h i n g s . The u n i v e r s e has the m a n i f o l d e n t i t i e s as i t s c o n t e n t s , and the m a n i f o l d must needs have as norm the n a t u r a l . What i s spontaneously so, w i t h out a r t i f i c i a l i t y , i s the n a t u r a l . The P'eng a b i l i t y to soar highf.* the q u a i l ' s a b i l i t y to f l y low, the t r ees a b i l i t y to l i v e l o n g , (19) and the morning mushroom's a b i l i t y to l i v e but s h o r t l y — a l l these are n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s , not made or a c q u i r e d . They are not concocted but n a t u r a l l y so; thus they are normal and f i t . Therefore to r i d e the f i t n e s s of the u n i v e r s e simp l y means f o l l o w i n g the n a t u r e s of t h i n g s . To c h a r i o t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the 6 a i r s smip l y means roaming the way of change. Going l i k e t h i s , wherefore the l i m i t ? One r i d e s whatever one encounters and depends on n o t h i n g at a l l . T h i s i s the untrammelledness of the p e r f e c t l y v i r tuous man who s u b t l y u n i t e s the s e l f and o t h e r s . I f one depends on something, then one can be happy o n l y when one has that v e r y something t h a t one depends on. Even though L i e h Tzu journeys w i t h a sublime ease, he s t i l l can not t r a v e l without the winds, l e t alone the P'eng. Only he who merges w i t h t h i n g s , and f o l l o w s the great e v o l u t i o n can be r e a l l y a u t a r k i c and always f r e e . He i s more than j u s t f r e e h i m s e l f . He l e t s those t h a t depend have t h e i r own ways, and not l o s e what they depend on. As l o n g as those t h a t depend do not l o s e what they depend on, they are e q u a l l y e n j o y i n g freedom. T h e r e f o r e I cannot equate the dependent w i t h the i n dependent. (20) As to t h i n g s b e i n g at ease w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s , w i t h the u n i v e r s e n a t u r a l l y u n f o l d i n g i t s s e c r e t s and d e c r e e i n g , and the t h i n g s r e c e i v i n g unknowingly t h e i r a t easeness, I cannot d i s c e r n d i f f e r e n c e , ( i n t h e i r spontaneousness and at-easeness.) Even the a u t a r k i c one does not d i f f e r from those t h a t depend i n the manner each r e c e i v e s i t s n a t u r a l endowments. Let alone the magnitudes of those that depend. ( A l l d i f f erences are n a t u r a l . )  -8Therefore i t i s s a i d the P e r f e c t Man has no  self.  "One who has d i v e s t e d h i m s e l f of selfhood accomodates t h i n g s . By accomodating t h i n g s he a r r i v e s at the p i n n a c l e of b e i n g . " The Divine Man has no achievement. "Things never thank nature f o r t h e i r l i v e s , yet they depend h a p p i l y on the m u l t i f a r i o u s things f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . So when the p r i n c i p l e (of n a t u r a l n e s s ) p r e v a i l s , t r a i t s (of a r t i f i c i a l i t y ) p e r i s h . Now the Divine Man accomodates but does not a s s i s t t h i n g s . He (just l e t s t h i n g s be and) i s at one with the supreme p r i n c i p l e (of n a t u r a l n e s s ) . Hence he has no achievement." The Sagely Man has no name/fame. "The name sage i s a p p l i e d to someone who has a t t ained to h i s nature, i t s u f f i c e s not to denote the very t h i n g ( s a g e l i n e s s ) he has a t t a i n e d . " Yao wished to cede the empire to Hsu Yu. (21) He s a i d , "When the sun and the moon have come out and yet we s t i l l burn the torches, i t would  be hard put f o r the torches to enhance the l i g h t , wouldn't i t ?  When the seasonal r a i n s are f a l l i n g , and yet we s t i l l fields,  i r r i g a t e the  i t would be, i n apropos to our i r r i g a t i n g , a waste of labour,  wouldn't i t ? Now  master, should you be enthroned, the whole  would be w e l l - o r d e r e d . And yet I, l i k e a corpse, s t i l l throne. I look at myself and detect many f a i l i n g s .  empire  occupy the  I beg you w i l l  r u l e the empire." "Those who w e l l govern the empire are those who do not govern the empire. Therefore Yao governs the empire by not governing; he does not govern w e l l by governing. Now Hsu Yu understands that the empire i s already w e l l governed and there i s - r e a l l y no room f o r him. The emp i r e i s well-governed owing to Yao's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Hsu Yu undertands t h i s and that i s why he says, "You (should) govern the empire." We should ignore mere words but search f o r the q u i n t essence . I f one says that Yao w e l l governs by governing, and that Yao gets to govern because Hsu Yu does, not gove- rn, then one misses by a wide margin. For the o r d e r l i n e s s stems from not governing. To accomplish comes from non-ado. Yao alone s u f f i c e s . There i s no need to s o l i c i t from Hsu Yu.  - 9 -  "You,  s i r , govern t h e e m p i r e ,  M  s a i d Hsu YU, "and i t i s a l r e a d y governed.  The words o f Chuang T z u and Lao T z u a r e i g n o r e d by those i n power p r e c i s e l y because people miscons t r u e non-ado t o mean h o l d i n g one's hand i n s i l e n c e i n the mountains and woods. Those who must he i n t h e realm o f a c t i o n and do not r e t u r n , l a b o u r under t h i s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " Now i f I s t i l l supplant you, s i r , w i l l I be d o i n g i t f o r a name? But name i s but the guest o f r e a l i t y —  w i l l I be d o i n g i t so as  t o be a guest? ""Those who a f f i r m themselves a n t a g o n i z e s t h i n g s . Those who accomodates t h i n g s have no a n t a g o n i s t s . T h e r e f o r e Yao does not a n t a g o n i z e s t h e w o r l d , and Hsu Yu i s on a p a r w i t h C h i and C h ' i . Why do I say so? F o r i f one harmonizes w i t h t h i n g s , then t h i n g s p e r f o r c e cannot be estranged from one. And so one responds deeply w i t h no-heart (no a r t i f i f i a l i t i e s ) and observes one's t r u e s e n s a t i o n s . One f l o a t s l i k e an u n t e t h e r e d boat and roams u n c e a s i n g t o the east and t h e west. T h e r e f o r e one who a c t s i n accordance w i t h the people i s the master o f the w o r l d whereever he goes. I f one a c t s thus and r u l e s the w o r l d , he i s as n a t u r a l as the sky i s h i g h , and he r e a l l y possesses a King's v i r t u e s . I f one i s a t t a c h e d t o s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n , and adheres t o the p a r t i a l i t i e s o f a c e r t a i n s c h o o l , he would t r y t o s t r a i n h i s neck and p r o u d l y stand alone on the summit o f a h i g h mountain. Such a one i s merely an item i n the mundane w o r l d — and can o n l y be Yao's o u t e r c o urtier. I f the o u t e r c o u r t i e r s u p p l a n t s the i n n e r master, he has t h e name o f a r u l e r , but not t h e r e a l i t y o f a r u l e r . " When the t i t n e s t s i n the f o r e s t , i t o c c u p i e s but a s i n g l e  branch.  When the t a p i r d r i n k s at t h e r i v e r , i t consumes but a b e l l y f u l . " A l l n a t u r e s have l i m i t s . I f one i s g r a t i f i e d t o the l i m i t s o f one's n a t u r e , then one can i g n o r e a l l t h e treasures i n the world." Return and r e s t , s i r , I have no use f o r r u l l n g ^ t h e empire. " I t i s f u t i l e t o share and Yao alone has i t . One who harbours V a c u i t y (22) i s w i t h o u t realms. The w o r l d understands t h i s and never t i r e s i n e l e c t i n g and f o l l o w i n g him." Although t h e cook does not a t t e n d t o the c o o k i n g , the impersonator o f the dead a t the s a c r i f i c e and t h e p r i e s t do not s t e p over the wine  -10v e s s e l s and meat  stands to supplant  him."  " I f t h e c o o k , t h e i m p e r s o n a t o r o f t h e dead a t t h e s a c r i f i c e , the p r i e s t are a l l content w i t h t h e i r d u t i e s , and i f t h e b i r d s , b e a s t s and t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r endowments, and i f e m p e r o r Yao and Hsu Yu a r e s e r e n e w i t h t h e i r d e s t i n i e s , t h e n t h e y a l l have t h e supreme r e a l i t y i n t h e w o r l d . S i n c e t h e supreme r e a l i t y i s a t t a i n e d , "\^i)i.'r what e l s e i s t h e r e t o a c t f o r ? ' One s i m p l y e n j o y s o n e s e l f . T h e r e f o r e a l t h o u g h Yao and Hsu d i f f e r i n t h e i r a c t i o n s , they are e q u a l l y untrammelled." C h i e n Wu a s k e d L i e n S h u , s a y i n g , erances.  They were e x t r a v a g a n t  c i r c u m s c r i b e d and c o n t a i n e d .  "I heard  from C h i e h Yu some  and u n j u s t i f i a b l e ,  utt-  and t h e y were  not  I was a s t o u n d e d w i t h what he s a i d ,  b o u n d l e s s a s t h e M i l k y Way. H i s words were w i l d and i m p r o b a b l e and d i d not  come n e a r human e x p e r i e n c e . "  L i e n Shu a s k e d ,  "What were h i s  "He s a i d , " C h i e h Wu r e p l i e d , ere  utterances?"  " F a r away on the M o u n t a i n o f Ku Yeh t h - .  d w e l l s a D i v i n e Man, w i t h f l e s h and s k i n l i k e  aceful  demeanours  like  i c e o r snow,  gr-  a young v i r g i n ' s .  "These a r e a l l a l l e g o r i e s . The D i v i n e Man i s t h e p r e s ent day S a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e Sage i s i n t h e p a l a c e , h i s h e a r t i s no d i f f e r e n t s h o u l d he be a m i d s t t h e w o o d s . What does t h e w o r l d know o f t h i s ? P e o p l e see t h e Sage s p o r t y e l l o w s i l k (2$) and e m p l o y t h e e m p e r o r ' s s e a l , and t h e y t h i n k t h a t t h e s e t e t h e r his heart. T h e y see h i m t r a v e r s e t h e m o u n t a i n s and s t r e a m s and h a r m o n i z e s t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e p e o p l e , and t h i n k t h a t these ventures exhaust h ' i s s s p i r i t s . T h e y have no i d e a t h a t t h e supreme man i s n e v e r i m • p o v e r i s h e d . Nov/ Chuang T z u d i s c o u r s e s on t h e man w i t h k i n g l y v i r t u e s . He p u t s him i n t h e Ku Yeh m o u n t a i n t o show t h a t t h e w o r l d has no r e a s o n t o know h i m . T h i s i s why Chuang T z u s i t u a t e s him o u t s i d e t h e e x t r e m e b o u n d s , and p u s h e s h i m t o b e y o n d t h e s e n s e s . The m e t a p h o r o f a y o u n g v i r g i n i s e m p l o y e d t o show t h e D i v i n e Man does n o t harm t h e i n t r i n s i c w i t h t h e extrinsic." The D i v i n e Man does not e a t and d r i n k s t h e  the  five  g r a i n s but  i n h a l e s the  wind  dew.  "We a l l e a t t h e f i v e g r a i n s and he a l o n e i s t h e D i v i n e Man. T h i s show t h e D i v i n e Man i s not p r o d u c e d by t h e f i v e g r a i n s b u t i s e s p e c i a l l y endowed w i t h t h e m a r v e l l o u s breath of nature."  -11He r i d e s on the c l o u d s and a i r s , c h a r i o t s the f l y i n g dragons, wanders beyond the f o u r seas. H i s s p i r i t i s q u i e s c e n t and  and  saves  t h i n g s from s i c k n e s s and plague. Y e a r l y he causes the crope t o r i p e n p l e n t i f u l l y . I thought  t h i s was insane and d i s b e l i e v e d i t . "  "Although he s e q u e s t e r e s i n a q u i e t d w e l l i n g - p l a c e , one whose body and s o u l d w e l l i n the m a r v e l l o u s , and who exhausts the supreme p r i n c i p l e of n a t u r a l n e s s t o the f i n e s t p o i n t s , harmonizes w i t h a l l t h a t i s even beyond the f o u r seas. T h e r e f o r e he r i d e s heaven and e a r t h , and c h a r i o t s the s i x a i r s , harmonizes the people and shepherds the myriad t h i n g s . I f a l l t h i n g s harmonizes w i t h him, he can r i d e the f l o a t i n g clouds. I f a l l shapes bear him up, he can c h a r i o t the f l y i n g dragons. He abandons h i s body and enjoys s e l f - c o n t e n t m e n t , h i s l i f e i s serene and independent. He s i t s o b l i v i o u s , walks o b l i v i o u s , and a c t s oblivious. His body i s r e s i l i e n t l i k e w i t h e r e d wood b e i n g dragged, h i s heart i s serene l i k e accumulated dead ashes. And so h i s s p i r i t i s s a i d to be q u i e s e n t . His s p i r i t b e i n g q u i e s c e n t , those w i t h p e r t u r b e d s p i r i t s b e n e f i t from him. People i n v a r i a b l y draw from t h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e r i ences and judge a c c o r d i n g l y . How can they b e l i e v e in this?" "Yes," L i e n Shu s a i d , "A b l i n d man p a t t e r n s . A deaf man  cannot a p p r e c i a t e b e a u t i f u l  cannot l i s t e n to b e l l s and drums. And  blind-  ness and deafness are not s o l e l y p h y s i c a l ; the u n d e r s t a n d i n g has them too. "Not t o know i n the extreme m a r v e l l o u s n e s s o f wise r e words and t o t h i n k they are insane and d i s b e l i e v e i n them i s to s u f f e r from the deafness and b l i n d ness of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " His  words (Chieh Yu's) are l i k e a g r a c e f u l young g i r l . "This i s to say Chieh Yu t a l k e d about t h i n g s n a t u r a l l y sought by t h i n g s . But those s u f f e r i n g from deafness and b l i n d n e s s o f the u n d e r s t a n d i n g say there i s no such p r i n c i p l e . "  The v i r t u e o f such a man w i l l encompass the myriad t h i n g s . A c c o r d to  him the whole w o r l d i s t i r e d of t u r m o i l (and n a t u r a l l y longs f o r  peace). I f so, why should he b o t h e r h i m s e l f e x c e s s i v e l y w i t h the w o r l d as i f i t ' s a t a s k to be done?  -12"The S a g e ' s h e a r t e p i t o m i z e s t h e acme o f h e a v e n and e a r t h , and e x h a u s t s t h e s u b t l t i e s o f t h e i © A < m y r i a d t h i n g s . Hence he c a n embody e v o l u t i o n s and h a r m o n i z e w i t h change and i s a t peace u b i t q u i t o u s l y ; and he c a n encompass a l l t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s w i t h n o t a s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n . The w o r l d s e e k s me b e c a u s e o f c h a o s . I am d e v o i d o f h e a r t ( a r t i f i c i a l i t i e s ) . I f I am d e v o i d o f h e a r t , why not accomodate the w o r l d ? One who e m b o d i e s t h e q u n i t e s s e n c e and e x h a u s t s the s u b t l t i e s o f t h i n g s can p e n e t r a t e the nature o f t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s , mould and f a s h i o n a l l t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u n d e r t h e s u n and a t t a i n t o t h e fame o f a s a g e , j u s t l i k e Yao and S h u n . Why i s i t so? He p r a c t i s e s n o n - a d o ! Why l a b o u r i o u s l y e x e r c i s e s y o u r s p i r i t s and t o r ment y o u r t h o u g h t s and t a c k l e t h e w o r l d as a p r oblems as i f i t ' s the o n l y w a y ? " N o t h i n g c a n harm t h i s man. " I f one a c c e p t s w i t h e q u a n i m i t y when one i s harmed, t h e n harm c a n n o t r e a l l y harm o n e . I f e v e n harm c a n n o t harm o n e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t n o t h i n g c a n harm one. " He w i l l ll  not  d o t e v e n drown e v e n i f a f l o o d even f e e l  hot  i f a drought  reaches  causes  to the  s k i e s . He w i -  m e t a l s t o m e l t and s c o -  r c h e s mounds. "When one i s a t e a s e anywhere one g o e s , t h e n any p l a c e e m i n e n t l y s u i t s . E v e n d e a t h and b i r t h do not t r a n s f o r m o n e , l e t a l o n e s u c h n o n e n t i t i e s as f l o o d and d r o u g h t . .The supreme man i s n o t w o r r i e d b y d i s a s t e r s and a d v e r s i t i e s . I t i s so b e c a u s e he a v o i d s them, b u t b e c a u s e he o b s e r v e s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r a l n e s s and a d v a n c e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y . T h u s he n a t u r a l l y meets w i t h t h e g o o d . " (2<f0 Even dust  and s i f t i n g s from h i m c o u l d s t i l l  and S h u n . How s h o u l d he be w i l l i n g  mould and f a s h i o n Yao  t o t a c k l e t h i n g s as  tasks?  "Yao and Shun a r e w o r l d l y names b u t t h e y do n o t q u i t e p i n p o i n t what t h e names r e a l l y i m p l y . T h e r e f o r e Yao and Shun were n o t m e r e l y Yao and S h u n , but must n e e d s be endowed w i t h t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e D i v i n e Man. Now what t h e names Yao. and Shun- i m p l y t o t h e w o r l d a r e m e r e l y t h e d u s t and s i f t i n g s o f t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e . "  -13-  A Sung man p u r c h a s e d Yueh. But people They had no u s e  i n Yueh c u t for  w i t h i n the  t h e i r h a i r and t a t t o o e d  f i n e r i e s as t h e s e  Yao r u l e d t h e p e o p l e affairs  some e m b r o i d e r e d c a p s and c a r r i e d them  o f the  their  e m p i r e and a d m i n i s t e r e d p e r f e c t l y  four seas.  he q u i e t l y f o r g o t  his  bodies.  caps.  He went  t o see  the  four sages i n  r e m o t s Kiu Yeh m o u n t a i n . On r e t u r n i n g t o h i s n o r t h o f t h e ver,  to  the the  Fen r i -  empire.  "Yao had no use f o r t h e e m p i r e , j u s t l i k e t h e Yueh p e o p l e had no u s e f o r e m b r o i d e r e d c a p s . Y e t t h e e m p i r e p r e c i s e l y n e e d s t h e man who f o r g e t s a b o u t t h e e m p i r e . Though t h e e m p i r e f o l l o w e d Y a o , Yao h i m s e l f n e v e r deemed t h e e m p i r e as h i s . He t h e r e f o r e q u i e t l y f o r s o o k i t and l e t h i s mind w a n d e r e d i n t h e r e a l m o f n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h he l o r d ed o v e r t h e m y r i a d t h i n g s , , he has n e v e r b e e n b u t untrammelled. The f o u r s a g e s a r e meant t o be t a k e n a l l e g o r i c a l l y . I t i s t o show Yap i s not c e n t r e d upon h i s Y a o h o o d . Yao a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e d n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n . He a c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e and l e f t h i s , Y a o ' s marks. H i s p r i n c i p l e o f n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n and t h e marks he l e f t p e r t a i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o t h e i n n e r and o u t e r r e a l m s . One s h o u l d n o t v i e w t h e i n n e r from t h e o u t e r and be s u r p r i s e d at what one s e e s . The w o r l d i n v a i n s e e s t h e Yao was Yao ( o n l y p e r c e i v e s t h e o u t e r Y a o ) . What does t h e w o r l d know o f Y a o ' s s u b t l t i e s o f o b s e r v i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f nondistinction? T h e r e f o r e t h o s e who seek t h e f o u r s a g e s w i t h i n t h e f o u r s e a s , (2'&) and b a s e Yao-'upon t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , and s a y , as a r e s u l t , t h a t Yao moves a l o n g w i t h t h i n g s , has r e a l l y m i s s e d t h e c a u s e o f Y a o ' s u n t r a mmelledness. T h e s e p e r s o n s do not as y e t know f o r t h e one i n t u n e w i t h t h i n g s , t h e t r a c e s o f t h e f a r t h e r e s t w o u l d .. b e . a l l t h e n e a r e r ; and f o r t h o s e who come t o g e t h e r and m e e t , t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e i s on t h e c o n t r a r y l o w . "  -14I f one s t r i c t l y deems s e l f - s u p r e m a c y as t h e e p i tome, and does n o t l e v e l w i t h mundane e n t a n g l e m e n t s , e v e n he be a s o j o u r n e r i n t h e h i l l s and v a l e s , he i s not an a u t a r k i c o n e . He does n o t q u a l i f y a t a l l t o d i s c o u r s e on t h e supreme and t o wander i n t h e infinite." H u i T z u s a i d t o Chuang T z u , "The E m p e r o r o f Wei C$^) b e s t o w e d upon me a c a l a b a s h s e e d . bushels. ter.  I planted i t  I employed i t  I split it  as a v e s s e l .  f o r l a d l e s but  llow for anything.  hands.  It  despite  large  sir,  A Sung man p o s s e s s e d  For generations  fruit  can c o n t a i n 5  was t o o f r a g i l e t o h o l d w a the  I demolished i t because  Chuang T z u r e p l i e d , "My d e a r the l a r g e .  and i t s  you are  s i z e t h e y were t o o it  was u t t e r l y  rather  a good r e c i p e  h i s f a m i l y washed s i l k  obtuse  useless.  in  utilizing  for salve for as t h e i r  sha-  chapped  occupation.  "The r e c i p e p r o t e c t e d hands from b e c o m i n g c h a p p e d . Hence t h e y c o u l d s a f e l y d i p t h e i r hands i n t o w a t e r and r i n s e s i l k . " A stranger  h e a r d o f t h i s and o f f e r e d  to purchase  h u n d r e d o u n c e s o f g o l d . The c l a n s m e n g a t h e r e d er.  They c o n s i d e r e d ,  "For generations  the  r e c i p e w i t h , one  and d i s c u s s e d t h e  off-  we have been w a s h i n g s i l k  have e a r n e d no more t h a n a few o u n c e s o f g o l d .  L e t us g i v e t h e  and rec-  ipe to h i m . " The s t r a n g e r  o b t a i n e d the  o f Wu. When Yueh c r e a t e d  r e c i p e and i m p r e s s e d h i m s e l f upon t h e trouble  ed t h e  stranger  battle  and s o u n d l y d e f e a t e d  feoffing Now t h e the  as g e n e r a l .  f o r Wu ( 2 $ ) , t h e k i n g o f Wu a p p o i n t -  I n t h e w i n t e r he engaged Yueh i n a n a v a l Y u e h . K i n g Wu r e w a r d e d t h e  stranger  by  and t i t l i n g h i m . efficaciousness  same and y e t  T h i s was so b e c a u s e Nov/ y o u , s i r , a big bottle  were not  o f the  have t h i s out o f i t  You were d i s t r a u g h t I fear  o f the  recipe  i n p r o t e c t i n g hands  i n one c a s e a t i t l e was c o n f e r r e d ,  t o i l s of washing s i l k  Really,  king  other  the  even a v o i d e d .  difference  in its application.  five-bushel calabash. and t h e r e b y  because  i n the  remained  float  Why d o n ' t  i n r i v e r s and  you f a s h i o n lakes?  i t was t o o s h a l l o w t o c o n t a i n a n y t h i n g !  y o u have a r a t h e r  wooly  head."  -15" W o o l i n e s s d e n o t e s i n a b i l i t y t o go s t r a i g h t , t o t h e p o i n t . T h i s p a s s a g e shows a l l t h i n g s dissi%lU.£f I; m i l a r l y have t h e i r u s e s . I f t h e y a r e a p p l i e d r i M ? l g h t l y , one c a n d i s p o r t o n e s e l f u t t e r l y anywhere one g o e s . " s  Hui  T z u s a i d t o Chuang T z u , " I have a b i g t r e e .  the a i l a n t h u s .  Its  be a p p l i e d . I t s  brances  are  It  so t w i s t e d t h a t  roadside  even d e i g n t o l o o k a t ' i t .  it  stands,  but  cast  and  west and a v o i d s n e i t h e r i n a trap,  It  t h e h i g h pibace o r t h e  or dies i n a  do not  a r e b i g , h o l l o w and  them  careless prey.  cannot  compasses  carpenters aside."  " Y o u a l o n e have not w a t c h e d a w i l d c a t  c r o u c h e s and w a i t s f o r i t s  entangled  squares  Now y o u r S o r d s Y S s i r ,  People without exception just  Chuang T z u s a i d ,  it's  t r u n k i s so s w o l l e n t h a t m e a s u r i n g r o d s  c a n n o t be u s e d . By t h e useless.  P e o p l e say  or^a weasel?  l e a p s about  low. It  is  east  finally  net.  T h e r e a g a i n i s t h e y a k , huge a s s k y - o b s c u r i n g c l o u d s . I n d e e d i t big.  Yet i t  cannot  Now y o u , s i r ,  is  even c a t c h mice! ( 2 7 )  have a b i g t r e e and y o u w o r r y t h a t  do y o u not p l a n t  and  it  i n the  land of nonexistence,  i t ' s u s e l e s s . V/hy i n a w i d e and  bar-  ren wilderness? By i t s  s i d e you can d i s p o r t y o u r s e l f w i t h non-ado.  repose  untrammelled.  Neither b i l l  n o r axe w o u l d c u t i t  entirely useless,  Under i t  down. N o t h i n g c a n harm i t .  i n what c a n i t be  you can Being  troubled?"  "As t o l a r g e and s m a l l t h i n g s , i f t h e y a r e u s e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , I it hen i t i s -an ;« p r o b a b l e t o come t o harm a s t o g o o d . C o n v e r s e l y , as l o n g a s t h e t h i n g i s a p p o s i t e l y e m p l o y e d , one can r e s t u n t r a m m e l l e d . " 5  Name s |Wd'tu£feJ^?N 0'J5^ r  ang, Chi,!P\,  , first  e m p e r o r o f Shang,  a s c h o l a r i n T'ang's t i m e .  T a i M o u n t a i n , ifclU  . p.5. p.5.  , s a c r e d m o u n t a i n i n t h e west o f S h a n g t u n g . p.5.  Sung Yung T z u j t ^ - J " , a l i a s man i n Sung i n t h e H s a i c h a p t e r where himself rather too  Sung Y e n , $ $ f , a v i r t u o u s and l e a r n e d W a r r i n g S t a t e s . He a p p e a r s i n t h e T ' i e n Chuang T z u t h i n k s o f him a s a g i t a t i n g much f o r t h e w o r l d .  h,  Yao, , sage-king-of; a n c i e n t China.. Hsu Y u , f ^ r ^ , renowned h e r m i t , c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h Yao. C h i e n Wu,^^ , a n d L i e n Shu, tiquity.  l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s men o f a n -  C h i e h Y u , ^ ^ , h i s o t h e r name was L u T u n g , / ^ ^ , , a h e r m i t i n Conf u c i u s ' t i m e . He p r e f e r r e d t o t i l l and p l o u g h t h e l a n d t h a n t o s e r v e u n d e r t h e k i n g o f ' C h u , ^ ? . I n t h e A n a l e c t s he j e ers at Confucius.. S h u n , ^ , s u c c e e d e d Yao. Fen  S h u i C h i Yang, ital.  , north, o f r i v e r Fen,  s i t e o f Yao's c a p -  H u i Ssu,]§, p h i l o s o p h e r f r o m Sung i n t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s . He was p r i m e m i n i s t e r o f Lian,#fl , c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h Chuang T z u . He was a. g r a n d m a s t e r o f t h e M i n g C h i a , ^ |L, and o f t e n , a l e a s t i n Chuang T z u , d i s p u t e d , w i t h Chuang T z u .  Notes (1)  t o The T e x t X  F e n ( jfi ) . I t r a n s l a t e a s d e s t i n y . The i d e a i s some u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s and a l l o t t e d v i c i s s i t u d e s p e r t a i n s e p a r a t e l y t o e a c h and e v e r y o n e . A l l a r e g o v e r n e d by s o m e t h i n g a k i n t o a " K a r m i c Law", e x c e p t i n T a o i s m i t i s t h e n a t u r a l l a w . One c a n n o t , and s h o u l d not, e x c e e d what one i s endowed w i t h o r f a t e d t o e n c o u n t e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s one s h o u l d assume o n e ' s d e s t i n y .  ( 2 ) Nu I c a n n o t f i n d an e x a c t e q u a v a l e n t . P r o f . H u r v i t z , p h i l o l o g i s t p a r e x c e l l e n c e a s he i s , has t r i e d t o d i s s u a d e me b u t I r e c a l c i t r a n t l y t h i n k t h a t t h e g e n e r a l i d e a , t h e ambience o f d a u n t l e s s n e s s , c r e a t e d by Nu c a n n o t be c a p t u r e d a s s u c c i n c t l y in English. (3)  Ch'i Hsieh I f o l l o w Yu Yueh and t a k e i t t o be a man's name. The p r i m a f a c i e e v i d e n c e l i e s i n U n t r a m m e l l e d Wandering i t s e l f . I n the next sentence i t i s s a i d — "The w o r d s of H s i e h are " I f Ch'i Hsieh f% ) i s a book, t h e n Chuang Tzu c a n n o t w r i t e as he d o e s but s h o u l d s a y — "The words o f C h ' i H s i e h |# ) "  (4)  J e n (4$  (5)  Yeh Ma Yeh { $ j ) . The commentary e x p l i c a t e s t h e t e r m a s w a n d e r i n g a i r s . From F e n g Y u - L a n * s Chuang T z u I c u l l t h e a f o i l o w i n g n o t a t i o n by Kuo C h i n g - f a n — "This i s to i l l u s t r a t e that the a c t i o n o f t h e P'eng i s j u s t a s n a t u r a l a s t h e movement o f the w a n d e r i n g a i r , o r t h e m o t e s . "  (6)  Here I d e p a r t d r a s t i c a l l y f r o m t h e o t h e r t r a n s l a t o r s . My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e commentary.on t h i s p a s s a g e w i l l , I hope b e a r me o u t .  (7)  L i Yu C h i h F e n ) . The g e n e r a l i d e a i s when u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e e x i s t l i m i t s and r e a l m s t h a t c a n n o t be e x c e e d e d .  (8)  Wang Sheng C h i h Chu ( ^ i ^ i ^ ^ ) . I t h i n k i t means t h e fundame n t a l s of f o r g e t t i n g to bother w i t h l i f e , r a t h e r than a master who e x c e l s i n f o r g e t t i n g about l i f e .  ).  1 J e n i s 7 Chou  ) feet.  (9) The P'eng's u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s stems f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t he i s aware o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , i . e % o n l y t h i c k a i r c a n b e a r b i g w i n g s , and t h e r e f o r e c a n h a r m o n i z e h i s own n a t u r e w i t h them. (10)  Wu T a i C h i h J e n {J${% A. ). I c o n f e s s I harbour a p a r t i a l i t y t o w a r d s t h e e p i t h e t a u t a r k i c . The a u t a r k i c man a p p r o x i m a t e s t o the Wu T a i C h i h J e n , one who d e p e n d s on n o t h i n g . The T'ung i ($^j U ) means t h e a u t a r k i c one p r e s i d e s o v e r a l l . But t o t r anscend i s even b e t t e r than t o p r e s i d e .  (11)  T a - c h ' u n , see n o t e (13). P'eng T s u {p/J^l ) . He was a Shang ( $} ) man, l o n g e v i t y , e n c o m p a s s i n g 800 y e a r s .  renowned f o r h i s  -18(12)  H u i (1% ) . T h i s word means t h e end o f a m o n t h . Shuo [f§ ) i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a m o n t h . The m o r n i n g mushroom i s so named b e c a u s e i t i s b o r n i n t h e m o r n i n g and p e r i s h e s i n the e v e n i n g . I t n e v e r l i v e s t h r o u g h a month.  (13) M i n g L i n g ( | f ^ ) and T a - c h ' u n {"K^t ). Some c o m m e n t a t o r s s a y t h e s e a r e names o f p e r s o n s , some say t r e e s . I t e n d t o c o n c u r w i t h t h e l a t t e r . See '(vl9) (•14) T i n g P e n ( j ] ) . I r e n d e r t h i s as p r e d e s t i n e d L i t e r a l l y i t i s "fixed portions". context,  limitations.  (15)  P ' i e n (_^ff ) . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e i t h e r difference or dispute.  (16)  Shu Shu J a n Yeh & ) • Here t h e p h r a s e c a n o n l y mean " t o b o t h e r w i t h " . I t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s t o i n t e r p r e t , as some t r a n s l a t o r s have d o n e , Shu Shu as m e a n i n g many. I t has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h numbers h e r e .  (Yjl)  The commentary u s a g e o f Shu Shu b e a r s antiate i t .  (18)  Lu C h i wind, r a i n ,  (19)  C h ' u n Mu (^XJv ) . The c o m m e n t a r y ' s u s a g e o f Ch&un Mu r e v e a l s t h a t t h e ' c o m m e n t a t o r s I n t e r p r e t M i n g L i n g and T a - C h ' u n ( n o t e l 3 ) as t r e e s , n o t p e r s o n s .  note  ) . The se s i x a i r s d e s i g n a t e d a r k n e s s and b r i g h t n e s s .  P ' i e n here  (16)  out and  the male, the  c a n mean  substfemale,  ( 2 0 ) T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t p a s s a g e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e n t e n c e c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d two w a y s . F i r s t — S i n c e t h e a u t a r k i c one and t h o s e t h a t depend a<ue«t'inssa'citmal i t y v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t , t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s p e r f o r c e c a n n o t e q u a t e them-. S e c o n d — The a u t a r k i c one i s f r e e , but when t h o s e t h a t depend p o s s e s s what t h e y d e p e n d , t h e y a r e e q u a l l y a t e a s e . T h e r e f o r e s t he s e n t e n c e c a n b e r r e a d as — " P u Neng Pu C h i Yeh (^'•fl^'ff•& )" m e a n i n g I c a n n o t but e q u a t e t h e m , a d d i n g a P u b e f o r e t h e Neng. I t e n d t o t h i n k t h e e m e n d a t i o n i s germane. (21) T i e n H s i a ( f ) . I t r a n s l a t e as t h e e m p i r e , b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t t o t h e C h i n e s e i n a n t i q u i t y , t h e C h i n e s e e m p i r e encompassed the whole w o r l d . K  (22)  H u a i Huo (fj|jf§ ) This t e r m has t h e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f b e i n g a b l e t o a c c o m o d a t e a l l and encompass a l l . V a c u i t y w i t h a c a p i t a l V m i g h t do i t j u s t i c e . Huo ) means " a gap o r h o l l o w s p a c e w h i c h i s open a t b o t h e n d s , h e n c e , p a s s a b l e , as a r a v i n e o r v a l l e y b e t w e e n m o u n t a i n s . " c f . A . L i n k , p i . 197 o f Symposium On T a o i s m .  (23) Wang Wu ( ^ ) . I n a n c i e n t t i m e s the emperor rode a c h a i s e canopy f a s h i o n e d out o f y e l l o w s i l k . It  means t h e g o o d , t h e h a p p y , t h e  with  (24)  Chi ( & ).  fortunate.  (25)  Wai ( $ - ) s h o u l d r e a l l y be N e i ( f$ ) . Yao s e e k s t h e s a g e s i n r e mote Ku Y e h , s u p p o s e d l y o u t s i d e t h e f o u r s e a s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e myopic p e r s o n s would seek the sages w i t h i n the f o u r s e a s .  -19(26)  I n t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s Wu ( J * ) and Yueh <J$$[, ) v e r y o f t e n w i t h each o t h e r .  (27)  The yak i s l a r g e . I t c a n n o t l e a p about o r c a t c h m i c e , l i k e t h e w i l d c a t o r t h e w e a s e l . Y e t t h e yak d i s p o r t s i t s e l f s e r e n e l y , t i l l i t s n a t u r a l end. The w i l d c a t o r t h e w e a s e l e x e r t t h e m s e l v e s t f e m e n d o u s l y but . c a n n o t evade an a b r u p t and p a i n f u l e n d . The yak i s ••••not so a g i l e , i n f a c t , i s b l a t a n t l y u s e l e s s b u t e n j o y s a much h a p p i e r lot. S o , i t f o l l o w s , what i s u s e l e s s i s r e a l l y s u p r e m e l y u s e f u l , as f a r as i t s e l f i s c o n c e r n e d .  f\  warred  B i b l i o g r a p h y i>  A. Books i n C h i n e s e :  1. C h ' i e n Mu, A T h o r o u g h A n a l y s i s o f Chuang-Lao, Chuang Lao Tung P i en, 'WM~ ' New A s i a R e s e a r c h Centre,~. H . ' K ' . , 1957. 2. Chou Shao Yen, D i s c o u r s e s on W i e - C h i n P u r e C o n v e r s a t i o n , W e i - C h i n C h ' i n g T'an Shu Lun, %&ff; ^4j&M \ C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , Taiwan,. 1966. (  3. Fan Shou K'ang, The P u r e C o n v e r s a t i o n W e i - C h i n T i C h ' i n g T'an, W Commercial P r e s s , S h a n g h a i , 1936. t  i n Wei—Chin,  f ^ ^ l "  '  4. Ho C h ' i M i n , A S t u d y o f t h e S e v e n Sages o f t h e Bamboo Grove, C h u - L i n C h ' i - H s i e n Y e n - C h i u , /^fj-fo #$; £lfaff # " T a i P e i , 1966. ' '' ' tt  x  5. Hou Wai-Lu, H i s t o r i c a l R e f l e c t i o n s on A n c i e n t Chung-Kuo Ku T a i S s u - H s i a n g Hsueh Shuo S h i h , 18  ,  Chinese Philosophy, -i^L**/, ~  Wen-Feng, C h u n h k i n g , 1942  6. Hsu T i Shan, H i s t o r y o f T a o i s m , ... Tao C h i a o S h i h , t&J ill, ^'j&fflJJC , C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , S h a n g h a i , 1934. 7. Kuan Feng, T r a n s l a t i o n , A n a l y s i s and C r i t i q u e o f t h e I n n e r Chapt e r s i n Chuang T z u , Chuang T z u N e i P ' i e n I Peking C h i e h Ho P ' i P'an, 1961  ^^W*^^P$«%$^'' >  ' -  8. L i u Wen-Tien, Emended T e x t o f Chuang T z u , W i t h Commentaries, Chuang T z u Pu Cheng, f j &.JT" jTf ft \ C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , S h a n g h a i , 1947. 9. Moo T s u n g San, The Hsuan Hsueh i n W e i - C h i n , W e i - C h i n Hsuan Hsueh, Iff-^ , *$%jf%$¥ T u n g H a i U n i v e r s i t y , T a i w a n , 1962.  ,  10. T ' a n f Yung T ' i n g , D i s c o u r s e s and A r t i c l e s on W e i - C h i n Hsuan Hsueh, W e i - C h i n Hsuan Hsueh Lun Kao , Zfo "4% P e k i n g , 1957. ' ^ T  11.  Yung Shao Tsum, N a t u r a l i s m i n W e i - C h i n , W e i - C h i n T i T z u J a n Chu I , jtir 4$ Commercial P r e s s , T a i w a n , 1966. f "'  " J g % £ j '  B. Books i n E n g l i s h %  1.  Chan, W i n g - T s i t , A S o u r c e Book i n C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , P r i n c i t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963.  2. C r e e l , H. G.f What i s Taoism?, C h i c a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. 3. Feng Yu-Lan, A H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , v o l . 2, t r . D. Bode, I f e i n c i t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. 4. F e n g Yu-Lan, The S p i r i t o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , t r . E . R. Hughes, Kegan P a u l , London, 1947. 5. Feng Yu-Lan, A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , ed. D. Bodde, The F r e e P r e s s , New York, 1948. 6.  Feng Yu-Lan, Chuang Tzu, Commercial P r e s s , S h a n g h a i ,  1933.  7.  Graham, A. C., L i e h Tzu, John Murray, London, I960.  8.  K a r l t e n m a r k , Max, Lao T z u and Taoism, t r . Rdger G r e a v e s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  9. 10.  1969.  G i l e s , H e r b e r t A., Chuang T z u : M y s t i c , M o r a l i s t , Reformer, London, 1889.  and  Socail  L i n Yu-Tang, ed., The Wisdom o f Lao Tzu, The Modern L i b r a r y , New York, 1948.  11. McNaughton, W i l l i a m , The I n n A r b o r P a p e r b a c k s , U. 12. M e r t o n , Thomas, The Way New D i r e c t i o n s , 1965.  Taoist Vision, o f M i c h i g a n , 1971. o f Chuang Tzu,  13.  Needham, J o s e p h , S c i e n c e and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , v o l . 2, R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t Wang L i n g ), Can-bridge, 1962.  14.  Waley, A r t h u r , L a o - T z u ; The Way and I t s Power, B a r n e s and N o b l e , E n g l e w o o d ' C l i f f s , New York, 1963.  15. Ware, James, t r . The S a y i n g s o f Chuang T z u , Mentor, New York, 1963. 16. Watson, B u r t o n , t r . , Chuang T z u , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 17. Welch, Holmes, The P a r t i n g o f t h e B e a c o n P r e s s , B o s t o n , 1957.  1968.  Way,  Journal;?:  H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n , Symposium on T a o i s m , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , November-February,  1969-1970.  -22Appendix A G o r d i a n knot p r e s e n t s The  itself  i n the  study of Taoism.  Tao, a c c o r d i n g to the T a o i s t s , i s p e r f e c t ,  eternal,  a l l - p r e v a i l i n g . . The Tao creates a l l and s u s t a i n s a l l . But  then,  when and why t h e  Tao? When and wh'^f, d i d man s t a r t to create  values,  self-conscious, unnatural?  to p r e f e r  fall  from,  not g r a c e ,  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e ,  to  some and eschew o t h e r s ,  t o t h i n k and a c t  teleologically,  but  the  fragment,  t o become  i n short,  t o be  I f t h e Tao i s t h e t o t a l i t y o f a l l t h e n a t u r a l n e s s  i n the  universe,  i s t h e r e some A n t i - T a o t h a t  turalness  i n t h e u n i v e r s e ? A L u c i f e r i a n A n t i - T a o ? I f Tao g o v e r n s  all,  how c a n u n n a t u r a l n e s s  exist  i s the t o t a l i t y o f the  i n the  first  unna-  place?  Chuang T z u o b v i o u s l y r e g a r d e d e v e n t h e w o r l d he l i v e d (he w o u l d be a g h a s t  to view ours)  rather  i m p e r f e c t and  in  separated  from t h e T a o . H e , i n h i s w o r k , d e f i n i t e l y does n o t e x p l a i n what p r o m p t e d t h i s i m p e r f e c t i o n and Why from Wu In  separation,  ) t o Yu ( ^  )? Why from non-ado t o  t h e B e l l a g i o C o n f e r e n c e on T a o i s m t h e  n o t s o l v e d . (3.-1) The s c h o l a r s p r e s e n t  same i s s u e was r a i s e d but  a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t  Chinese o f a n t i q u i t y never m y t h o l o g i z e d the The  fall  p a r a d o x o f Tao p r o d u c i n g s o m e t h i n g u n t a o ,  disorder,  C h r i s t i a n paradox o f e v i l  by God, o m n i s c i e n t , o m n i p o t e n t ,  i.e.  unnaturalness, C h i n e s e , VJ  e x i s t i n g i n a world  omnipresent,  the  from Tao a t a l l .  i m p e r f e c t i o n , was n e v e r r e a l i z e d b y t h e  The  much-ado?  a f f o r d s an  created  apposite  a n a l o g y . A n y t h i n g t h a t emanates from God p e r f o r c e must be g o o d . M u t a t i s M u t a n d i s a w o r l d f a s h i o n e d b y Tao must be f l a w l e s s . B u t n o t e v e n t h e T a o i s t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e w o r l d was In  essence,  perfect.  Lao T z u and Chuang T z u seemed t o d e p l o r e a  w o r l d c r e a t e d and f a s h i o n e d by t h e T a o , t h e  selfsame Tao they  urge  us t o swear a l l e g i a n c e t o . T h i s i s a b o n a f i d e p a r a d o x and r e m a i n s , I  confess,  a G o r d i a n k n o t t o me. Hand me, p r i t h e e ,  ( 1 ) p . 1 1 2 , Symposium on T a o i s m .  Excalibur!  

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