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Chuang Tzu's untrammelled wandering and the Hsiang-Kuo commentary Liu, Bernard Tien-Chun 1972

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d CHUANG TZU'S UNTRAMMELLED WANDERING AND THE HSIANG-KUO COMMENTARY by BERNARD T. C. LIU B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Asian S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1972 In present ing .thi s thes is in part i a l . - ful . f i Invent of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion . Bernard T . C . L i u . Department of As ian S tudies The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada 1st,, , M^y, 197? A b s t r a c t The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f my t h e s i s i s . - t he t r a n s l a t i o n o f the f i r s t c h a p t e r , Un t r ammel l ed Wande r ing , i n Chuang T z u , and the H s i a n g - K u o commentary on t h i s c h a p t e r i n t o E n g l i s h . U n d e r -s t a n d a b l y the main onus has been the d e c i p h e r i n g and t r a n s c r i b -i n g o f a rcane and a b s t r u s e p a s s a g e s . I n the s emina r s my p r o f e s s o r s , a few k i n d r e d s o u l s and m y s e l f have t r i e d a s s i d u o u s l y to u n e a r t h the meanings l o d g e d i n the Ch inese s e n t e n c e s , sometimes q u i t e f o r b i d d i n g s e n t e n c e s . The s i m p l e r p a r t s were , w i t h the g u i d a n c e o f the p r o f e s s o r s , q u i t e e a s i l y d i s p e n s e d w i t h . But we have had d i f f i c u l t i e s n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the r e a l l y r e c o n d i t e p o r t i o n s . T e x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n , o f c o u r -se , was the A r i a d n e ' s t h r e a d we on a few o c c a s i o n s r e s o r t e d t o . We f i n i s h e d about h a l f o f the r e c o n n a i s s a n c e i n the s e -m i n a r s . I consummated the t a s k i n my s u b t e r r a n e a n c e l l . I have r ead a l l the a v a i l a b l e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Chuang T z u and d e -p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y on c e r t a i n key p o i n t s from a l l the t r a n s l a t o r s . T r a n s l a t i o n s o f a n c i e n t C h i n e s e t e x t s a r e , i n d e e d , o f t t i m e s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s and a re i n e l u c t a b l y c o l o u r e d by the t r a n s l a t o r ' s p a r t -i c u l a r l e a n i n g s . The H s i a n g - K u o commentary has o n l y been a t t empted i n p a r t -i b u s . I t i s d e c i d e d l y more d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d t han Chuang  T z u p r o p e r . The commentators have i n j e c t e d , n a t u r a l l y , t h e i r own i d e a s and b i a s e s i n t o t h e i r w r i t i n g . At t i m e s t hey e l a b o r a t e and expand r a t h e r f r e e l y what i s o n l y h i n t e d at i n the t e x t . I n the p r o l o g u e I have t r i e d t o p r e s e n t Chuang T z u ' s p h i -l o s o p h y as s u c c i n c t l y as I c o u l d . An a n a l y s i s o f Un t r ammel l ed Wander ing ensues . S i n c e the H s i a n g - K u o commentary i s a c l a s s i c i n i t s own r i g h t , I have a t t emp ted a s t u d y o f the commentators and t h e i r m i l i e u . I must say a v a i l a b l e works on the commentary i n E n g -l i s h do not abound. I r e l i e d , i n the main , on secondary s o u r c e s i n C h i n e s e . The chasm between a n c i e n t C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h i s r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t to b r i d g e . Fu r the rmore Chuang T z u ' s language i s un ique and p o e t i c . I t i s d o u b l y h a r d t o c a p t u r e h i s s p i r i t and s u g g e s t -i v e n e s s i n E n g l i s h . I hope my t r a n s l a t i o n does not e n t i r e l y mi s s h i m . As t o the H s i a n g - K u o commentary, i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to u n -d e r s t a n d but e a s i e r to do j u s t i c e t o . I t has been s a i d , by a C h ' a n monk, t h a t i t was Ghuang T z u who wro te a commentary on H s i a n g - K u o . I do f i n d , however , t h a t from t ime t o t ime the commenta tors ' i d -eas do not e n t i r e l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h Chuang T z u ' s o r i g i n a l i m p o r t . The d e f i n i t e n e s s and a r t i c u l a t e n e s s o f the commenta tors , on the o t h e r hand, a re q u i t e m e r i t o r i o u s and command p r a i s e . TABLE OF CONTENTS P r o l o g u e I Chuang T z u ' s P h i l o s o p h y I I A n a l y s i s o f Un t r ammel l ed Wander ing I I I A S tudy o f the H s i a n g - K u o Commentary I X U n t r a m m e l l e d Wander ing and the Commentary - XXI The A p p e a l o f Tao ism XXIV Notes to the P r o l o g u e X X V I I I Text —•- 1 Names and N o t e s 16 B i b l i o g r a p h y 20 Append ix — 22 seeker of t r u t h f o l l o w no path a l l paths l e a d where t r u t h i s here — E. E. Cummings - I -Prologue I have t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h i n t o Chinese (Hesse's Siddhartha, merely a novel) but not v i c e versa. Any undertak-in g i s understandably fraught with dismay f o r the novice, and, a l a s , Chuang T zu i s ancient and v e r i t a b l y abstruse. The comm-entary i s at times w e l l - n i g h Sphingine. The work was at times quite vexing. Conversely I must confess I extracted, once the meaning was grasped, an enormity of pleasure from hunting f o r l e s mots j u s t e s . I suppose I am just f i n i c a l enough to value words which are, according to Chuang Tzu, merely guests of rea-l i t y . Chuang Tzu's Philosophy Chuang Tzu's grand motif i s freedom. A wide consensus has i t that On Seeing Things As Equal i s the most important of the 33 chapters i n Chuang Tzu. ( l ) Untrammelled Wandering, how-ever, r e a l l y contains the k e r n e l of hi3 philosophy. In i t Chu-ang Tzu enjoins everyone to divest himself of a l l e x i s t e n t i a l entanglements imaginable. The root of the problem i s that we de-pend. We depend on things, people, p o s i t i o n s , knowledge ad nau-seam, and we c l i n g with a l l the t e n a c i t y under the sun to value systems c u l l e d from s o c i a l realms. And, u l t i m a t e l y , we depend on l i f e i t s e l f . When we possess what we d e s i r e , needless to say we want more and b e t t e r . Furthermore we are never t o t a l l y free from a haunting psychic shadow. This shadow i s the thought of the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of the very things we c h e r i s h . When these cherished items are l o s t or absent, o me miserum. To l i v e i s to journey, through diverse v i c i s s i t u d e s , from womb to tomb. U l t i m a t e l y nothing i s gained, nothing i s add-ed to us. As Chuang Tzu smugly suggests, even standing on t i p -toe s u f f i c e s not to enhance l i f e by so much as a j o t . Metaphy-s i c a l l y we are nothing and have nothing. And yet we depend, or t r y to depend, on so much! - I I -From these p r e m i s s e s the d a r k e s t n i h i l i s m can be woven. Chuang T z u sees beyond n i h i l i s m . By a v e r y s u b t l e t u r n o f the mind he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the cosmos and the cosmic l a w s . What i s n a t u r a l i s c o s m i c a l l y good . T h i s i s the t u r n o f the s c r ew . The "Tao" o f the T a o s i t s d e n o t e s , I o p i n e , the t o t a l i t y o f the n a t -u r a l n e s s i n the u n i v e r s e . The u n i v e r s e n a t u r a l l y comes i n t o b e -i n g t h r o u g h the "Tao" and i s s u s t a i n e d by the " T a o " . Chuang T z u deems f l a w l e s s l y good and t r u l y d i v i n e a i l i ' . l h a t ' i s n a t u r a l and spon taneous . M a n ' s du ty i s to a c c e p t , w i t h e q u a n i m i t y , a l l the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s wrought by cosmic f o r c e s and t o en joy man's d e s -t i n y , the d e s t i n y o f an e x i s t e n t i n the v a s t cosmos. Whatever e x i s t s and i s n a t u r a l i s good . Hence Lao T z u w r i t e s , "Tao i s g r e a t , the heaven i s g r e a t , the e a r t h i s g r e a t , and man i s a l s o g r e a t . " £ft/'£, >M]"7^ ) Man i s g r e a t but a r t i f i c i a l i t y and h u b r i s must be b a n i s h e d , f o r Lao T z u a l s o w r i t e s , "Man models h i m s e l f a f t e r the e a r t h , the e a r t h the heaven, the heaven the T a o , the Tao models i t s e l f a f t e r T z u - J a n . " (A. i%J> *h M ilL > H . ^ ^ M ) U l t i m a t e l y man i s n e i t h e r above nor benea th the T a o , but p a r t i c i p a t e s e x i s t e n t i a l l y i n the cosmic e v o l u t i o n i n i t i a t -e d , s u s t a i n e d and d i r e c t e d by the T a o . Man, i f n a t u r a l , i s a t one w i t h the T a o , and i n harmony w i t h the m a n i f o l d , w h i c h , u n -l i k e man, have a l w a y s been n a t u r a l . I t f o l l o w s t h a t man s h o u l d a l w a y s be spontaneous and open-minded , but not j udgemen ta l and a n a l y t i c . Thus he e n j o y s the u n i v e r s e e n t i r e w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n . Human n a t u r e i n such a s t a t e would be t r u l y p r i m a l . What-e v e r happens i n such p r i s t i n e e n v i r o n s wou ld be good , good i n cosmic t e r m s . T a o i s m i s T a o - c e n t r e d , not human-cen t red , and the Tao i s the cosmic T a o . C o n f u c i u s can s a y , "The ways o f heaven a re f a r , the ways o f man n e a r . " {^fej^ k.'$L'i$j^ ) Chuang T z u wou-l d say t h a t i f the ways o f heaven p r e v a i l , man i s a t h i s most n a t u r a l and the ways o f man ope ra t e i n u n i s o n w i t h the ways o f heaven . To s e p a r a t e the two i s t o commit an e x i s t e n t i a l faux p a s . As l o n g as one i s . n a t u r a l , one i s a t one w i t h the Tao and p a r t a k e s e x i s t e n t i a l l y i n the g rand e v o l u t i o n . O n e ' s a c t i o n s a re - I I I -not t i n g e d w i t h s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s but a re t r u l y r e l i g i o u s . By c u l t i v a t i n g such an a t t i t u d e o f mind one g r a d u a l l y comes to accep t the u n i v e r s e and o n e ' s s e l f , as w e l l as the m a n i f o l d , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l the l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h i n a c t u a l i t y a re not l i m i t a t i o n s but a re j u s t s o . T h i s i s s t i l l not enough. The apo-t h e o s i s i s t o e n j o y w h o l e h e a r t e d l y , nay , to r e l i s h , the u n i v -e r se and man's p l a c e i n i t . One t hus o b s e r v e s the supreme d o c -t r i n e o f non-ado $J ) and e n j o y s e x i s t e n c e per s e , as an a u t -a r k i c man. To obse rve non-ado i s to be o b l i v i o u s to a l l c o n s i -d e r a t i o n s but the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f l i f e — l i v i n g . T h i s i s the message and i s , t o employ Chuang T z u ' s p h r a s e o l o g y , tantamount to w a n d e r i n g a b s o l u t e l y u n t r a m m e l l e d . To convey h i s g rand m o t i f and t h o u g h t s Chuang T z u e s -chews f o r m a l , d i s c u r s i v e arguments — l i k e a l l Ch inese p h i l o s o -phe r s o f a n t i q u i t y — b u t , e m p l o y i n g many a l l e g o r i e s , metaphors , r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s , d i a l o g u e s and a n e c d o t e s , i s s u p e r b l y humo-u r o u s , and U n t r a m m e l l e d Wander ing b e a r s t h i s t y p i c a l i t y . A n a l y s i s o f Un t r ammel l ed Wander ing 1. Use o f Metaphors and A l l e g o r i e s : -Chuang T z u has a penchant f o r u s i n g p o e t i c metaphors and a l l e g o r i e s t o convey h i s p o s i t i v e v i s i o n s . Un t r ammel l ed  Wander ing i s w e l l - n i g h s u f f u s e d w i t h such l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . From page 1 t o page 5 i n the t r a n s l a t i o n Chuang T z u p u r -p o r t s to show how d i f f e r i n g l i m i t a t i o n s p e r t a i n t o d i f f e r e n t e n -t i t i e s . The commentators deduce t h i s to mean t h a t by r e m a i n i n g t r u e t o o n e ' s n a t u r e , one a t t a i n s to the v e r y p i n n a c l e o f b e i n g . I s s u e s such as s i z e and l o n g e v i t y a re q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t . The p o -i n t i s not to c r a v e f o r more, but t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h o n e ' s n a t u r a l endowments. Chuang T z u j u x t a p o s e s the g r e a t P ' e n g w i t h the q u a i l t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r needs d i f f e r and must d i f f e r . The commentators a m p l i f y and s t a t e t h a t t he se two c r e a t u r e s would bo e q u a l l y happy s h o u l d they be i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r un ique n a -t u r e s . -IV-The stories about upsetting water into a hole and journeying varying distances are meant to show how different measures are warranted by different circumstances. Then the metaphor of Lieh Tzu riding the winds on pp. 6 and 7 shows that dependence, even to a very n e g l i g i -ble degree,.is absolutely anathema. To be free one must needs be autarkic and not depend, not even on winds. The story of Yao (^) trying to cede the empire to Hsu Yu ( i ^ ^  ) i s quite obvious i n i t s intent. I f i t i s not one's business, then even the empire should be declined. A f t e r t a l l , "priests do not step over the wine vessels and meat stands to supplant, even should the l a t t e r be indolent." (Untrammelled  Wandering.TThis apophthegm of Chuang Tzu's has become common usage.) The Divine Man on the remote mountain Ku Yeh i s Chu-ang-'lzu* s apothesis of an autarkic man. This Divine Man de-pends on nothing at a l l , i s graceful as a young v i r g i n , and le t s the world be. He observes non-ado to the very h i l t . The commentators note that Chuang Tzu situates his Divine Man be-yond the extreme bounds and describes him in extravagant terms to emphasize the vast difference between him and ordinary pe-ople. Thus people are jostled out of their conventional men-t a l attitudes and can appreciate better the sublime merits of non-ado. In yet another story the Yueh (M) people have no use for embroidered caps. This i s likened to the four sages on Ku Yeh having no need for the empire or for Yao's throne. The comm-entators append that the emperor Yao does not deem the empire important and does not approach i t as a task. He observes non-ado and l e t s the empire be,.and the empire rights i t s e l f by i t -s e l f . Thus Yao rules well by non-ado. The passage containing the story about the salve for chapped hands, and the metaphor-of the- big calabash f r u i t pur-port to show, as the commentary notes, " A l l things d i s s i m i l a r l y - V -have t h e i r uses. I f they are a p p l i e d r i g h t l y , one can d i s p o r t o n e s e l f u t t e r l y anywhere one goes." The l a s t c o n v e r s a t i o n between Chuang Tzu and Hui Ssu , i n which we f i n d metaphors of a b i g t r e e , a w i l d c a t , a weasel and a b i g yak, i s i n t e n d e d t o r e v e a l the supreme v a l u e of u s e l e s s -ness and non-ado. The yak and.the b i g t r e e are e n t i r e l y u s e l e s s , and t h e r e f o r e are immune from harm. The w i l d cat and the weasel a g i t a t e themselves e x c e s s i v e l y and t h e r e b y come to g r i e f . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , Chuang Tzu o f t e n i n v e n t s and quotes s t -o r i e s and employs metaphors to convey the m e r i t s o f spontaneous-ness and non-ado, and to lampoon a r t i f i c i a l i t y and f u t i l e c r a v i n g . He seems t o e n t e r t a i n a g r e a t l i k i n g f o r l i v i n g t h i n g s — b i r d s , f i s h , c i c a d a , t r e e s , yak, and o t h e r a n i m a l s — and uses them as v e h i c l e s and exemplars t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s s u b t l e , m y s t i c a l thoughts and i n s i g h t s . I t i s , perhaps, because he approves of t h e i r spont-a n e i t y . 2. The Concept o f Non-ado :-Non-ado i s , a l o n g w i t h Tao and T z u - j a n , the c a r d i n a l con-cept i n Taoism. They c o n s t i t u t e , s h a l l we say, the T a o i s t T r i n i t y . Chuang T z u i s the s i g n a l p h i l o s o p h e r , p r o b a b l y the p r o -g e n i t o r , i n what H. G. C r e e l c l a s s i f i e s as C o n t e m p l a t i v e Taoism. (2) The p r i m a r y concern, i n t h i s wing of Taoism, i s to be detached from the h u r l y - b u r l y , t o c u l t i v a t e and r e a l i z e the Tao immanent i n each, and t o e n j o y , serene and f r e e , the m u l t i f a c e t e d phenomena i n the cosmos w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n . But non-ado, even i n Chuang T z u , d e f i n i t e l y does not mean d o i n g n o t h i n g . I would have i t mean, s i m p l y , to act i n accordance w i t h n a t u r e . The' Hsiang-Kuo commentary n o t e s , "Tao escapes not t h i n g s . " I n any set o f v a r i a b l e s t h e r e e x i s t s a Tao t h a t governs and s u s t a i n s . To observe t h i s Tao, t h i s n a t u r a l law, and t o act i n harmony w i t h t h i s r e i g n i n g Tao, h a r b o u r i n g no u l t e r -i o r motives nor c o m m i t t i n g any redundant a c t s , i s t o observe non-ado. - V I -I t i s v e r y a k i n t o b e i n g s c i e n t i f i c , i n the sense o f r e s p e c t i n g n a t u r a l l aws and r e f r a i n i n g from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h these l a w s , j u s t l i k e the o l d cook c a r v i n g an ox i n a m a s t e r l y manner, Chuang T z u , chap . 3> He was t h o r o u g h l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h the anatomy o f the ox and j u s t m a n i p u l a t e d h i s k n i f e a l o n g the h o l l o w s and c r e v i c e s . We can a lmos t say he was imbuded w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t . To c o n t r a v e n e the T a o , - a c c o r d i n g to the T a o i s t s , i s to vex o n e s e l f n e e d l e s s l y and the r e s u l t o f t t i m e s i s much ado about n o t h i n g , sometimes even w o r s e . Non-ado i s ment ioned o n l y once i n U n t r a m m e l l e d Wande r ing . (The term appea r s o n l y t h r e e t i m e s i n the N e i P ' i e n , ' I n n e r Chap-ters'M , o f Chuangr 'Tzu.) I n the l a s t s t o r y i n v o l v i n g the b i g t r e e , Chuang T z u e n j o i n s H u i T z u t o d i s p o r t h i m s e l f i n non-ado by the t r e e ' s s i d e and t o repose u n t r a m m e l l e d under i t . The c o n -n o t a t i o n seems t h a t i f one o b s e r v e s non-ado , one becomes u n t r a -mmel l ed . The emphasis h e r e , as i n most of. Chuang T z u ' s a n e c d o t e s , i s on w i t h d r a w a l from the w o r l d . C o n v e r s e l y , She commentary i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s has "non-ado" and i t s e q u i v a l e n t s . (5b; t w i c e i n 12a , 15a , 16a . ) Chuang T z u ' s metaphors and a l l e g o r i e s a l l c o n v e r g e , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , on non-ado and n a t u r a l n e s s . The commentators p e r f o r c e c r y s t a l l i z e Chuang T z u ' s i n t e n t i o n s , as good commentators s h o u l d , and e n u n c i a t e by w r i t i n g "non-ado" , the c r u c i a l concept and s i g -n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f T a o i s m . 3. Chuang,T^ Sage ly^Man , Divine Man, The Commentators ' Independent M a n . : -Many e p i t h e t s a re used by Chuang T z u to d e l i n e a t e the man who has a t t a i n e d to the T a o , h i s a p o t h e o s i s . One enumerates P e r -f e c t , S a g e l y , D i v i n e and i n the commentary o n e r f i n d s Independen t . These e p i t h e t s , i n a c t u a l i t y , d e s c r i b e the same r e a l i t y and can r e a d i l y be subsumed under " a u t a r k i c " . Such a man, a c c o r d i n g to Chuang T z u , i s w i t h o u t s e l f h o o d , achievement and name/fame. He, - V I I -c o n s e q u e n t l y depends on n o t h i n g at a l l . One who i s a t one w i t h ' t h e Tao depends on n o t h i n g . Even L i e h T z u o n l y r eached the p e n u l t i m a t e s t age — w i t h o u t w ind he c o u l d not t r a v e l . On ly the a u t a r k i c man who has d i v e s t e d h i m s e l f o f the v e r y c o n c e p t s o f s e l f h o o d , achievement and name/fame can t r u l y en joy e x i s t e n c e and e v o l u t i o n p e r se , r e g a r d l e s s o f c i r -cums tances . I n v e r y e x t r a v a g a n t ' t e r m s Chuang T z u d e s c r i b e s the mys t ique and powers o f such a man. Chuang T z u ' s a u t a r k i c man e v o -l v e d , p r o b a b l y , i n t o the a p o t h e o s i s o f the l a t e r T a o i s t s — H s i e n ) . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l T a o i s t s t r i e d to app rox ima te t h i s i d e a l by n u r t u r i n g p e r f e c t , i m m o r t a l d i v i n e b o d i e s — "embrjtfyonic b o d -i e s " , (3) s i n g u l a r l y a k i n to Chuang T z u ' s m y s t i c a l images and s u p p o s e d l y command s u p e r n a t u r a l powers . 4. The Powers o f the A u t a r k i c Man : -Throughout the c h a p t e r Chuang T z u makes r e f e r e n c e s to the powers m a r v e l l o u s o f the a u t a r k i c one to c u r t a i l c a l a m a t i e s , t o s ecu re p l e n i t u d e , and to enhance contentment f o r a l l and s u n -d r y . The commentators add t h a t he i s not one who " h o l d s h i s hands i n s i l e n c e and s e q u e s t e r s h i m s e l f i n the m o u n t a i n s . " but who g o -v e r n s by not g o v e r n i n g and r e g u l a t e s by not r e g u l a t i n g . He l e t s the w o r l d be , b e c a u s e , the commentators r e a s o n , the w o r l d n a t u r -a l l y d e s i r e s harmony, and w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e harmony i s n a t u r -a l l y a t t a i n e d . I n a deeper sense the P e r f e c t Man i s the t r u l y e t h i c a l one . He i s n a t u r a l and he a l l o w s a l l w i t h w h i c h he comes i n t o c o n t a c t be n a t u r a l . H i s a c t s a re not t i n g e d w i t h s e l f - c e n t r e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . He mere ly communes w i t h the a l l - p e r v a s i v e Tao and a s s i s t s i n the e t e r n a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h i n g s . I n e s s e n c e , he o b s e -r v e s what the cosmos d e c r e e s and r e f r a i n s from d i s t o r t i n g and t r -o u b l i n g t h i n g s . He l i v e s out h i s a l l o t t e d d e s t i n y , q u i e s c e n t and s e r e n e , and tampers not w i t h the d e s t i n i e s o f o t h e r s . I n Chuang T z u ' s words , such men f a r s u r p a s s even Yao and Shun. - V I I I -5. Chuang T z u ' s Language : -Chuang T z u ' s l anguage has l o n g been p r a i s e d . I t i s v i v i d , b r i l l i a n t , a t t i m e s l y r i c a l , a l w a y s c a p t i v a t i n g . He can be c o n -c i s e , s u b t l e , and g r a n d i o s e . M y s t i c a l i n s i g h t s a re c l o t h e d i n v i v i d and germane metaphors and e v o c a t i o n s o f n a t u r e a re never anecdo te s and i l l u m i n a t i n g d i s p u t a t i o n s on d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s . S e l -dom has p h i l o s o p h y been w r i t t e n i n such a l i v e l y v e i n . The i n n e r c h a p t e r s , a t t i m e s , r e a l l y seem extemporaneous u t t e r a n c e s o f a v e r y b r i l l i a n t man. I t i s a d e l i g h t to r ead such w i s e and humour-ous words . have become common usage . The Ch inese p o s s e s s a penchant f o r s a y -i n g a l o t i n a few words . Chuang T z u ' s apophthegms and metaphors p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t v e h i c l e s f o r t h i s . I c u l l the f o l l o w i n g from Unt rammel l ed Wander ing : w i t h o u t charm. The book c o n t a i n s , i n a d d i t i o n , many i n t e r e s t i n g From U n t r a m m e l l e d Wander ing s e v e r a l terms and ph ra se s One who j o u r n e y s ' ! thousand l i spend 3 months to accumula t e f o o d . ( 2 ) The morn ing mushroom knows not o f the b e g i n n i n g o r the end o f a month. When the t a p i r d r i n k s at the r i v e r , i t takes- but a b e l l y f u l . A l t h o u g h the cook does not a t t e n d t o the c o o k i n g , the i m p e r s o n a t o r o f the dead at the s a c r i f i c e and the p r i e s t do not s t ep o v e r the wine v e s s e l s and meat s t ands t o s u p p l a n t h i m . - I X -A S tudy o f The H s i a n g - K u o Commentary What f o l l o w s a t t emp t s t o p r o f f e r a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f the m i l i e u , the l i v e s and the work o f the commenta tors . C e r t a i n o f t h e i r n o t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to Un t r ammel l ed Wander ing a re t hen j u x t a p o s e d w i t h Chuang T z u ' s o r i g i n a l i d e a s and a n a l y s e d . 1. The M i l i e u : S u i ' s (f% ) u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a i n A . D . 589 ended a p r o -l o n g e d p e r i o d o f d i s u n i t y and c o n f u s i o n and c r i s e s a p l e n t y , p r e -c i p i t a t e d by H a n ' s c o l l a p s e i n A . D . 220. D u r i n g these t r o u b -lesome 4 c e n t u r i e s wars were rampant , i n v a s i o n s o f nomadic t r i b e s from the n o r t h d e v a s t a t e d the l a n d , and u s u r p a t i o n s d e s o l a t e d the p e o p l e . C h i n a was even sundered i n t o two d y n a s t i e s , r u l i n g the n o r t h and the s o u t h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I t was a p e r i o d o f s o c i a l u n -r e s t , p o l i t i c a l c o n f u s i o n , and g e n e r a l t u r m o i l . T h i s p e r i o d i s known as the " S i x D y n a s t i e s " . P o l i t i c a l l y the " S i x D y n a s t i e s " were q u i t e f r augh t w i t h d i s c o r d , i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , p u n c t u a t e d by numerous w a r s . 'Yet c u l t u r a l l y C h i n a r eached one o f i t s p e a k s . " P a i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y , p o e t r y , and p h i l o s o p h y were at t h i s t ime a l l a t t h e i r b e s t . " (4) I n v a r i a b l y when the t i m e s were out o f j o i n t i n Ch inese h i s t o r y , T a o i s m a t t r a c t e d numerous s c h o l a r s and p o e t s . T a o i s m ' s messages o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e and s e r e n i t y e m i n e n t l y s u i t the ment-a l i t y o f a p u r t u r b e d age . I n the W e i - C h i n ( ^ - ^ ) p e r i o d , A . D . 220-420, Lao-Chuang ) were i n d e e d v e r y much r e v e r e d and s t u d i e d . A f t e r 2 hundred y e a r s o f C o n f u c i a n supremacy i n the Han, t ime was r i p e f o r a r e v a l u a t i o n and s t udy o f the d i v e r s e i s c h o o ^ s i , ' : ^ The m e t i c u l o u s and e n d l e s s s t u d i e s o f the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s u n -de r the Han had become shee r s c h o l a s t i c i s m . (5) There was bound t o be a r e a c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , a f t e r the p r o l o n g e d c o n t r o v e r s y be tw-een the A n c i e n t - S c r i p t S c h o o l and M o d e r n - S c r i p t S c h o o l , t h e r e were n u r t u r e d the s p i r i t and d e s i r e f o r c r i t i c a l s t udy and independent - X -t h i n k i n g . I n t e l l e c t u a l s were no l o n g e r c o n t e n t t o l e a r n and me-m o r i z e , but to i n q u i r e f r e e l y i n t o b o t h o l d and new i s s u e s . T a o i s m was t h o r o u g h l y s t u d i e d , new l i g h t was shed and n o v e l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s appea red . N e o - I a o i s m made i t s e n t r a n c e and f l o u r i s h e d . Some s c h o l a r s t h i n k T a o i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y d i d not r e a c h i t s p e r f e c t i o n u n t i l now. (6) I n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the W e i - C h i n p e r i o d , w i t h t h e i r more de -v e l o p e d s e n s i t i v i t y and c o n c e r n , quag in fee -Mec tua l s , e x p r e s s e d them-s e l v e s i n two f a c e t s — Pure C o n v e r s a t i o n ( C h ' i ng -T ' an £ | , " D i s -c u s s i o n o f a b s t r a c t and u n w o r l d l y m a t t e r s " . The word " P u r e " app-r o x i m a t e s t o the s p i r i t o f T a o i s m — d i s c u s s i o n f o r d i s c u s s i o n ' s s a k e . ) and Hsuan Hsueh ( A b s t r u s e L e a r n i n g , ) , one i n v o l v i n g the o t h e r . The Pure C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s m o s t l y eschewed gove rnmen ta l p o s i t i o n s . They c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d as q u i e t i s t ' s , o b s e r v i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r a l n e s s (% f^, ) and s e e k i n g a harmonious c o m p l i a -nce w i t h t h e i r own n a t u r e s . T h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t , as f a r as p o l i t i c s was c o n c e r n e d , wou ld be the a c t i v i s t s who u p h e l d M i n g C h i a o The t e a c h i n g o f names — g i v i n g t o e v e r y name i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e a l i t y . ) . The a c t i v i s t s were p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l C o n f u c i a n e t h i c s , sought o f f i c e to r i g h t the wrongs o f the w o r l d , and were conce rned w i t h harmonious human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o r d e r -l i n e s s i n the w o r l d . The Pure C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, were i c o n o c l a s t i c , c a r e f r e e , a v o i d i n g to the p o i n t o f f a s t -i d i o u s n e s s mundane m a t t e r s , and shocked c o n v e n t i o n a l peop le "by t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s c a l e o f v a l u e s " . (7) N o t h i n g d e l i g h t e d these F e n g - L i u ($Llti\j, r o m a n t i c ) w o r t h i e s more t han t o d r i n k wine t o g e t h e r , s e q u e s t e r e d i n some q u i e t n i c h e , t o d i s c o u r s e w i t t i l y on pure p h i l o s o p h y , to d i s p l a y l o f t y i d e a l s and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i d e a s , and to w r i t e p o e t r y . They f r e e l y c o n s o r t e d w i t h B u d d h i s t s as and en joyed d i s p u t a t i o n s and e x p o s i t i o n s o f c l a s s i c s and s u t r a s . Ep ig rams and w i t t i c i s m s were p r i z e d more t han a n y t h i n g e l s e under the sun . T h e i r s p i r i t was c e r t a i n l y T a o i s t i c . The more renowned o f t he se d e n i z e n s o f Bohemia came t o - b e known as "The Seven Sages o f The Bamboo G r o v e " i a n g H s i u , who w r o t e , at l e a s t i n p a r t i b u s , the commentary and whose l i f e w i l l be o u t l i n e d l a t e r , -XI-was a member. The a u t h o r i t i e s , of course, looked askance at them and some of them came to g r i e f . The Hsuan Hsueh wing, however, was more important. The word "Hsuan" denotes "dark, mysterious, abstruse," and the Tao i n loao Teh Ching i s once d e s c r i b e d as Hsuan of Hsuan, mystery of mysteries. So members of t h i s school had as subject matter the abstruse and the mysterious, i n short, metaphysics. They accorded the a p p e l l a t i o n of "The 3 Hsuan Books" to Tao Teh Ching, Chuang  Tzu and the I Ching, and upheld, the non-being i n Lao-Chuang, while g i v i n g i t a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as the substratum of a l l t h i n g s . Phil o s o p h e r s of t h i s school^we-re^ however, s y n c r e t i c . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n the Schools of Names (^^-) and l i n k e d t h e i r Hsuan Hsueh with Ming-Li ,The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g of terms and analy-s i s of prinieiplels. (8)) In a c t u a l i t y • they were T a o i s t i c i n t h e i r metaphysics, Confucian i n t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l philosophy. (9) Neo-Taoism was r e a l l y a r a t h e r C o n f u c i a n i z e d Taoism i n essence. Hsiang Hsiu ), Wang P i {£ $fh , 266-249), Ho Yen d. 249) and Kuo Hsiang Cjf §f<L ) were the most outstanding Neo-Tsoists. Wang P i wrote b r i l l i a n t commentaries on the,»Trao.aTeh Ching and the I Ching. He was a very s i g n a l t h i n k e r of h i s time. Some of the t e c h n i c a l terms he employed l a t e r obtained wide currency. ( T ' i f ^ , Yungj|J, Lift-, so important i n Neo-Confucianism. (10)) Wang and h i s f e l l o w l i t e r a t i a l l revered Confucius more than Lao-Chuang. Hsiang Hsiu f o r one denigrated the hermits when he was granted an audience with the emperor. (Hsiang Hsiu P i e h - C h u a n Y ^ / ' J ^ ) They a l l h e ld, besides being c e l e b r a t e d s c h o l a r s , f a i r l y important min-i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s at court. Richard B. Mather t h i n k s these p h i l o s o p h e r s compromised with the demands of the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e s p i t e t h e i r t r a n -scendental a s p i r a t i o n s . (11) Feng Yu-Lan d e s c r i b e s t h e i r work as "an e f f o r t to t u r n the e a r l y T a o i s t s ' o r i g i n a l t h e o r i e s of the so-l i t a r y and contemplative l i f e with a philosophy of the world f i t f o r o r d i n a r y beings i n i t , combining what i s outside the world with what i s i n s i d e i t . " (12) - X I I -2. The A u t h o r s : The H s i a n g - K u o commentary, a l o n g w i t h Wang P i ' s commentar-i e s on the Tao Teh C h i n g and the I C h i n g a re p r o b a b l y the most r e -nowned, and p r o f o u n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l works from the S i x D y n a s t i e s . l i t was, i n a p e c u l i a r way, the work o f two men. The S h i h - S h u o H s i n - Y u ( t i £ | & j ^ $ ^ , chap . 4) men t ions a H s i a n g - K u o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Chuang T z u . H s i a n g d e s i g n a t e s H s i a n g H s i u . The C h i n Shu ) i n i t s b i o g r a p h y o f H s i a n g H s i u says H -s i a n g wro te a commentary on Chuang T z u and Kuo H s i a n g "ex tended i t " . H s i a n g H s i u ( ^ i j , c a . 221 - c a . 300) b e f r i e n d e d the l i t e r -a t i who obse rved F e n g - L i u ( r o m a n t i c i s m , a n t i n o m i a n i s m ) . Then , when some o f h i s f r i e n d s , p r a c t i o n e r s o f an extreme l a i s s e z - f a i r e p h i l o -sophy and d e e p l y imbued w iuh T a o i s t t h o u g h t s , came to g r i e f , H s i a n g became an o f f i c i a l a t c o u r t . "But the C h i n Shu s a y s , "He i s a t Cour t but does not assume h i s d u t i e s ; he mere ly c o n t a i n s h i s t r a c e s t h e r e . ) When 'Hs i ang f i n i s h e d h i s commentary on Chuang T z u , he showed i t t o h i s l e a r n e d f r i e n d s . The L i t e r a t u r e  C h a p t e r i n Sh ih -Shuo H s i n - Y u r e c o r d s t h a t h i s f r i e n d s were so imp-r e s s e d t h a t they e x c l a i m e d , "Chuang T z u has not d i e d . " Such were H s i a n g ' s a s t u t e n e s s and s c h o l a r s h i p . Kuo H s i a n g Cf^ %L > ? - ca . , 315) was a f a i r l y i m p o r t a n t m i n -i s t e r a t c o u r t . The C h i n Shu i n h i s b i o g r a p h y w r i t e s , "He, even when v e r y young , had t a l e n t and r e a s o n , l o v e d Lao and Chuang, c o u -l d d i s c o u r s e p r o f o u n d l y . M i n i s t e r Wang Hsen o f t e n s a i d , 'When H s -i a n g t a l k e d , i t was l i k e a w a t e r f a l l p o u r i n g down w a t e r . I t j u s t poured and was neve r e x h a u s t e d . ' " The C h i n Shu i n a d d i t i o n s a y s , "He wro te commentar ies on Autumn F l o o d , Extreme H a p p i n e s s , changed ( H s i a n g H s i u ' s ) commentary on H o r s e ' s Hoof" ( A l l c h a p t e r s i n Chuang  Tzu) B o t h H s i a n g and Kuo were i m p o r t a n t and l e a r n e d pe rsonages i n t h e i r t i m e . B o t h were fond o f Lao T z u and Chuang T z u , and b o t h were s i g n a l N e o - T a o i s t s . H s i a n g l e a n e d towards the Pure C o n v e r s a t -i o n a l i s t s and Kuo adhered to the Hsiian Hsueh S c h o o l . But i n K u o ' s b i graphy i n the C h i n Shu i t i s s a i d , "The two Chuang T z u s o f H s i a n g and Kuo c o n t a i n the same i d e a s . " T - X I I I -So the commentary can be c o n c e i v e d o f as an amalgam o f H s i a n g ' i » 4 and K u o ' s work . S c h o l a r s agree to d i s a g r e e on the amount o f each manls c o n t r i b u t i o n . No e x t a n t r e c o r d , however , a s s e r t s t ha t the two men t r u l y c o l l a b o r a t e d i n t h i s c e l e b r a t e d e x p o s i t i o n s o f Chuang T z u , a c l a s s i c i n i t s own r i g h t . C h i n e s e commentar ies on c l a s s i c a l w o r k s , i f b r i l l i a n t , become c l a s s i c s t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s not i n f r e q u e n t t h a t p ro found t h -i n k e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l i d e a s w i t h a commentary on a c l a -s s i c as t h e i r v e h i c l e , c l o t h i n g t h e i r t hough t s i n t e c h n i c a l terms e s t a b l i s h e d by the a n c i e n t a u t h o r s . T h i s i s s o , as Feng Y u - L a n s u g g e s t s , (13) because these p h i l o s o p h e r s / c o m m e n t a t o r s were q u i t e w i l l i n g to subsume t h e m s e l v e s under some a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t y , so as t o o b t a i n a s u p p o s e d l y l a r g e r a u d i e n c e . S e c o n d l y , I t h i n k , i t i s because the C h i n e s e l i t e r a t i were t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s o f the f i r s t wa-t e r . An o l d b o t t l e c o n t a i n g new wine would be e m i n e n t l y to t h e i r t a s t e . The commentary on Chuang T z u , d e s i g n a t e d h e r e a f t e r as H s i a n g -Kuo , w h i l e c l e a r l y a b r i l l i a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Chuang T z u , i s a l s o a p h i l o s o p h i c a l work i t s e l f . I t i s i n acco rdance w i t h the g e n e r a l s p i r i t o f Chuang T z u , but not the t e n o r . N o v e l i d e a s appea r , and the f o c u s i s , t o a c e r -t a i n e x t e n t , s h i f t e d . The commenta tors ' p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e a n i n g s c o n s t i t u t e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 3. The Commentary : ' ' Chuang T z u i s - a - s u b l i m e w r i t e r . Bu t he s o m e t i m e s . m e r e l y s u g g e s t s , a t t i m e s f i n e s s e s r a t h e r c r y p t i c a l l y , and o f t t i m e s j u s t p o s t u l a t e s i d e a s . The f i r s t m e r i t o f the H s i a n g - K u o commentary, o f c o u r s e , i s i t s d e f i n i t e n e s s . The commentators employ l u c i d and g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t s , e x p a n d i n g Chuang T z u ' s t h o u g h t s and t r a n s -f o r m i n g them i n t o w e l l - d e v e l o p e d p r i n c i p l e s . One m i s s e s the p o e t i c f l i g h t s but i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a cogent and c a r e f u l l y worded p rose work . Feng Y u - L a n c a l l s t h i s p r o g r e s s . I beg to d i f f e r . H s i a n g and Kuo: c r y s t a l l i z e d Chuang T z u ' s i d e a s , i t seems to me, and r e i t e r a t e d - X I V -them i n t h e i r tame and c l e a r p r o s e . I t i s a m e r i t , to be s u r e , but no more t ha t t h a t . (1) N a t u r a l i s t i c Cosmology : The H s i a n g - K u o commentry i s v e r y much c e n t r e d on n a t u r a l -n e s s . The u n i v e r s e i s d e n i e d a c r e a t o r and, t h e r e f o r e , a t r a n s c e n d a d e n t a l p u r p o s e . "There i s no c r e a t o r , e v e r y t h i n g c r e a t e s i t s e l f . E v e r y -t h i n g c r e a t e s i t s e l f and depends on n o t h i n g . T h i s i s 'I the no rma l way o f the u n i v e r s e . " chap . 2. "The u n i v e r s e i s the c o l l e c t i v e name f o r the m y r i a d t h i n g s . The u n i v e r s e has the m a n i f o l d e n t i t i e s as the c o n t e n t s , and the m a n i f o l d must heeds have the n a t u r a l as i t s norm. What i s s p o n t a n e o u s l y so , w i t h o u t a r t i f i c -i a l i t y , i i - a i i & y i ^ d s r t i h e n a t u r a l . " chap . 1. The c e n t r a l i s s u e i s not the Tao but T z u - J a n ) , and a l l t h i n g s Tu-Hua i^^'O), t r a n s f o r m by t h e m s e l v e s . No o u t s i d e agent i n t e r -f e r e s o r tampers w i t h the d e s t i n i e s o f t h i n g s ; t h e y a re j u s t s p o n -t a n e o u s l y t h e m s e l v e s . The Tao i n Lao-Chuang i s t h a t by w h i c h a l l come to b e . The H s i a n g - K u o commentary s t a t e s , "The Tao i s capab le o f n o t h i n g . To say t h a t a n y t h i n g i s d e r i v e d from the Tao means i t comes o f i t s e -l f . " ( chap . 5«) T h i s i s a ' d e p a r t u r e from p r i m o r d i a l T a o i s m . The Tao i s r e g u l a t e d to the r e a l m o f a c t u a l n o n - e x i s t e n c e , and the commentary i s e n t i r e l y , as w i l l be'seen,. , permeated by i t s n a t u r -a l i s t i c cosmology . (2) Change : The u n i v e r s e i s c o n c e i v e d to be i n c o n s t a n t f l u x . N o t h i n g , so to speak , s t a y s p u t . " F o r heaven and e a r t h and the m y r i a d t h i n g s change and and a re d i f f e r e n t e v e r y d a y . They go a l o n g w i t h t i m e . What causes t h i s ? i t i s m e r e l y I z u - J a n . " chap . 2. I t i s . w e l l - n i g h H e r a c l i t e a n . N i e t z s c h e s a i d we cannot s t ep i n t o the same r i v e r t w i c e . Buddhism d e r i v e d i t s f i r s t p r e m i s s from the know-ledge o f the e t e r n a l t r a n s i e n c e o f t h i n g s . The H s i a n g - K u o commentary - X V -a l s o emphasizes t h i s most s a l i e n t t r u t h . The e n t i r e u n i v e r s e goes through c o u n t l e s s changes each and e v e r y minute. A c c o r d i n g to Hs-i a n g and K uo, a l l these m u l t i f a r i o u s changes are s e l f - i n d u c e d , spontaneous and n a t u r a l . "The myriad t h i n g s and myriad predicaments approach and r e l i n q u i s h d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . I t seems as i f a t r u e a r b i t e r causes them t o be so. To seek the t r a c e s of t h i s t r u e a r b i t e r , however, would be i n the end f u t i l e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s c l e a r t h a t a l l t h i n g s are Tzu-Jan. N o t h i n g causes them t o be so." chap. 2. A g a i n i I t I s n a t u r a l t h a t a l l these c'buntless changes take p l a c e , and' o f themselves. The we o f to-day d i f f e r from the we o f y e s t e r -day. And, to-morrow i s another day. T h i s i s so because n a t u r e de-c r e e s i t . And n a t u r e , i n Hsiang-Kuo, i s the u l t i m a t e . (3) L i f e and Death : C o n f u c i u s s a i d , "Not knowing even l i f e , how can we know-death?" (## f l % , % A n a l e c t s . ) The C o n f u c i a n i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , are p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h w o r l d l y a f f a i r s , such as the o r d e r l i n e s s o f the w o r l d and c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among persons. Hsiang and Kuo though p r e d o m i n a n t l y C o n f u c i a n , employed Lao-Chuang's i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n w i t h the a l l to combat death, the e t e r n a l onus of manunkind. "Should we be content w i t h whatever we meet w i t h , why s h o u l d we worry about death when we have j u s t a t t a i n e d t o l i f e . " chap. 2. "For time does not stop f o r an i n s t a n t , and the now q u i c k l y ceases to e x i s t . T h e r e f o r e the dream of y e s ^ r r t e r d a y i s t r a n s f o r m e d now. The changes o f l i f e and death do not d i f f e r from t h i s . Why b e l a b o u r our minds w i t h t h i s ? And yet the f o o l i s h are p e r t u r b e d . They t h i n k they know t h a t l i f e i s e n j o y a b l e , and dea-t h i s l a m e n t a b l e . They have yet to hear about the n a t -u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h i n g s . " i b i d . "For the body, l i f e , o l d age and death are a l l Me. The body b e a r s me, l i f e b e l a b o u r s me, o l d age f r e e s me, death r e s t s me. Through these f o u r changes I remains m y s e l f . Why s h o u l d I lament them?" chap. 6 . "Do not evade or approach any realm. Go a l o n g w i t h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . " chap. 6 . Aldous Huxley w r i t e s , "For we are but l i f e ' s s l a v e , and l i f e time - X V I -f o o l . And t i m e , t h a t h o l d s sway o v e r e v e r y t h i n g , must have s t o p . " (Time Must Have S top) The H s i a n g - K u o commentary does not adhere t o such a & m y s t i c a l a t t i t u d e but e n j o i n s man to i d e n t i f y w i t h the g r a -nd t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s e , o f w h i c h we are u n d e n i a b l y a p a r t . F o r t ime i s but change, and change i s n a t u r a l and , i p s o f a c -t o , c o r r e c t . Even b i r t h and dea th s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d o f as a spe -c t s o f the same r e a l i t y — T z u - J a n . . (4) F a t a l i s m : Na tu re to, the H s i a n g - K u o i s paramount . Changes a re n a t u r -a l , and t h i n g s a re what t hey are by n a t u r e , s p o n t a n e o u s l y . Hence the commenta tors ' p h i l o s o p h y i s t i n g e d w i t h e l emen t s o f f a t a l i s m . " I t i s not by a c c i d e n t t h a t we have our l i f e . I t i s ' n o t by chance t h a t our- l i f e . i s - w h a t i t i s . The u n i v e r s e i s v e r y e x t e n d e d , t h i n g s ' a re v e r y numerous. Yet i n i t and among them, we are j u s t what we a re What we a re n o t , we cannot b e . What we a r e , we cannot bu t b e . . What we do not do, we cannot do . What we can do , we c a n -not but do . L e t e v e r y t h i n g be what i t i s , t hen t h e r e w i l l be p e a c e . " chap'. 5. Feng Y u - L a n , p . 223, A Shor t H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e H i s t o r y "We have our l i f e , not because we w i s h to have i t . W i t h -i n our l i f e , a span o f one hundred y e a r s , s i t t i n g , r i s -i n g , w a l k i n g , s t a n d i n g , a c t i n g , r e s t i n g , g a i n i n g , l o s i -ng , f e e l i n g , i n s t i n c t , knowledge , and a b i l i t y , a l l t h a t we have , a l l t h a t we have n o t , a l l t h a t we do, and a l l t h a t we meet, a re so , not because we v/ant them t o be s o . By n a t u r a l r e a s o n , t hey are what they a r e . " chap . 5. A l t h o u g h change i s u b i t q u i t o u s , t h e r e seems l i t t l e we can a c t u a l l y do to change t h i n g s . However, the H s i a n g - K u o t e a c h e s contentment whatever the s i t u a t i o n and however the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " N e i t h e r f r ee w i l l not c h o i c e has meaning i n t h e i r s y s t e m . " (14) T h i s i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , not d e p l o r a b l e , f o r we f i n d i n the H s i a n g - K u o f "Never mind what we are endowed w i t h . Be con ten t w i t h wha teve r we meet w i t h . " chap . 5. " F o r among t h i n g s i t i s n e v e r the g r e a t t h a t c r a v e s f o r the s m a l l , but the s m a l l i n v a r i a b l y d e s i r e s the g r e a t . C o n s e q u e n t l y Chuang T z u e n u n c i a t e s the d i s s i m i l a r i t y b e t w i x t the g r e a t and the s m a l l and show t h a t p r e d e s -t i n e d l i m i t a t i o n s o b t a i n i n b o t h c a s e s . C r a v i n g and l o n -g i n g can a v a i l but naugh t . R e a l i z i n g t h i s we can b a n i s h - X V I I -the t rammels a c c r u e d from c r a v i n g and l o n g i n g . F o r g r i e f i s b o r n i n t r o u b l e . I f t r o u b l e i s d i s p e l l e d , g r i e f dep-a r t s . When g r i e f has d e p a r t e d , l i f e needs must be at e a s e . " chap. 1. "To c u l t i v a t e l i f e i s not t o hope t o t r a v e s t y our l o t , but t o harmonize w i t h L i f f _ , and l i v e out our y e a r s . " chap . 3 . The L i i n the above quote i s the r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f a t h i n g , the f o r -ce t h a t s u s t a i n s i t , the w i l l t h a t gove rns i t . A l s o i t i s the p r i n -c i p l e i n the u n i v e r s e t h a t d e c r e e s i t s f a t e and i s immljnant i n i t . T h i s L i became a s i g n a l concept f o r the N e o - C o n f u c i a n i s t s . Because o f t h e i r f a t a l i s m , H s i a n g - K u o s t a t e s i t i s o f p a r a -mount impor t ance t h a t we come t o terms w i t h our f a t e and v i c i s s i -t u d e s . F o r one can neve r be a n o t h e r even i f one e l e c t s to i m i t a t e . "We have our l i f e , not beeause we w i s h t o have i t W i t h c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t some peop le t r y to be g r e a t a r t i -s t s , t hey can neve r s u c c e e d . Yet w i t h o u t knowing how, the g r e a t a r t i s t s s p o n t a n e o u s l y become a r t i s t s . W i t h c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t some p e o p l e t r y t o be sages , but t hey can neve r s u c c e e d . Yet w i t h o u t knowing how, the sages s p o n t a n e o u s l y become sages . Not o n l y a re the sages and a r t i s t s d i f f i c u l t t o i m i t a t e , we cannot even be f o o l s , o r dogs , by s i m p l y w i s h i n g and t r y i n g t o b e . " c h a p . 5 . Now C o l e r i d g e w r i t e s i n Ode On D e j e c t i o n t h a t , "Hope not I from outward forms w i n , the p a s s i o n and the l i f e , whose f o u n t a i n s a re w i t h i n . " H s i a n g and Kuo seem t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s " F o u n t a i n o f p a -s s i o n and l i f e " i s what we are n a t u r a l l y endowed w i t h . What needs to be done i s to obey and n u r t u r e i t . "The n a t u r e ^ o f e v e r y t h i n g has i t s l i m i t . I f one i s i n d -uced by what i s beyond i t , o n e ' s n a t u r e w i l l be l o s t . One s h o u l d d i s r e g a r d the inducement and the o t h e r s , l i v e a c c o r d i n g to o n e ' s n a t u r e . I f s o , the i n t e g r i t y o f o n e ' s n a t u r e w i l l be p r e s e r v e d . " chap . 1 0 . The commentatorsi ' p h i l o s o p h y i s f a t a l i s t i c and y e t , because i t i s to a g r e a t e x t e n t imbued w i t h T a o i s t m e t a p h y s i c s , t hey do n o t , as the B u d d h i s t s c e r t a i n l y dos? deem change and impermanence as the r o o t o f a l l e v i l . What i s n a t u r a l i s good , and men s h o u l d be c o n t -ent to l i v e out t h e i r d e s t i n y s , d e c r e e d and f a s h i o n e d by n a t u r e . -XVIII-(5) P o l i t i c a l Philosophy : Now i n the Hsiang-Kuo s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l phenomena are a l s o subject to the n a t u r a l law of change. "There i s nothing which i s not n a t u r a l — peace or confu-s i o n , success or f a i l u r e — a l l are produced by nature, not man." chap. 7. Hsiang-Kuo's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n embraces the world of human a f f a i r s as w e l l . S i m i l a r l y , as i n regards to cosmic changes, Hsiang-Kuo advocates a d j u s t i n g and y i e l d i n g to what i s new i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l realms. S o c i e t y i s always, l i k e the universe, i n f l u x . Human needs and c o n d i t i o n s change as w e l l . When c o n d i t i o n s change and new demands emerge, new measures should be adopted. "The i n s t i t u t i o n s of the former kings s a t i s f i e d the needs of t h e i r time. I f they continue to e x i s t when times change, they become anathema to the people, and s t a r t to be a r t i f i c i a l . " chap. 7. I n s t i t u t i o n s and morals gooa i n one time might not be apposite when confronted with a new set of v a r i a b l e s . It f o l l o w s that the r u l e r should deal with a l l transformations without any d e l i b e r a t e mind of h i s own, (Wu Hsin , ^ j / v v ) but with non-ado. (Wu Wei,.Jf ^ ), so that he can be always equal to the s i t u a t i o n . One might almost say, i n pass-ing, that the E x i s t e n t i a l i s t " S i t u a t i o n E t h i c s " i s analogous. "These two sages (Shun and King Wu) were to set the world i n order when there was t u r m o i l . One d i d i t b y t p e a c e f u l means, the other by m i l i t a r y f o r c e . They d i f f e r e d because t h e i r times d i f f e r e d . Between them there i s no d i f f e r e n c e of s u p e r i o r i t y or i n f e r i o r i t y . " chap. 12. D i f f e r e n t times warrant d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and. measures. The r u l e r should not c l i n g to the past. He should be Wu Hsin and Wu Wei enough to allow new and adequate i n s t i t u t i o n s and measures to appear spontaneously. (Toynbee's "Challenge and Response"?) Confucius, not Lao Tzu or Chuang Tzu, according to Hsiang-Kuo, was, r i s i n g above a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , wise enough to do j u s t t h a t . Although the sage/king i n Hsiang-Kuo observes WuWei, he a c t u a l l y governs human a f f a i r s . T h i s i s q u i t e c o n t r a r y to Chuang Tzu's contemplative l e a n i n g s . Furthermore, 'the commentators were not against i n s t i t u t i o n s and morals as such, as Lao!chuang were. They were -XIX-simply against the i n s t i t u t i o n s and morals that were antiquated and t h e r e f o r e a r t i f i c i a l and defunct. The Hsiang-Kuo's i d e a l of a r u l e r i s of one who embodies •s a g e l i n e s s without and k i n g l i n e s s w i t h i n " . (^f-l£tfj:£ ) Also, be-cause of .their b e l i e f that even complex s i t u a t i o n s come i n t o being n a t u r a l l y , the commentators thi n k i t i s n a t u r a l to adopt complica-ted measures to harness them. Return to p r i m i t i v i t y as expounded by Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu was qu i t e d i s c a r d e d . "Hearing the theory of non-ado, some people think that l y i n g i s b e t t e r than walking. These people go too f a r and misunderstand Chuang Tzu's philosophy." chap.9. Fruthermore, " I f by p r i m i t i v e n e s s we mean the u n d i s t o r t e d , the man v,r3> whose c h a r a c t e r i s not d i s t o r t e d i s the most p r i m i t i v e , though he may be capable of doing many t h i n g s . " chap. 15. And so the Hsiang-Kuo e u l o g i z e Yao and Shun, who followed t h e i r na-ture s and who, while occupying the highest p o s i t i o n s , had i n t e r i o r l i v e s as sound and as devoid of Hsin (Ai/' ) as i f they had been se-questered i n v a l e s and h i l l s . The upshot i s Hsiang and Kuo write i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e i r commentary that "though Chuang"s words were both true and sub-lime, they were u s e l e s s f o r a c t i o n i n human s o c i e t y . " (l|j) T h e i r po-l i t i c a l theory and t h e i r apotheosis of man are s u r e l y at va r i a n c e with Chuang Tzu's. Conclusion : Hsiang Hsiu and Kuo Hsiang were e s s e n t i a l l y C o n f u c i a n i s t s Who had grasped the metaphysics of Taoism. Through the alembic of t h e i r Confucian minds the "Taoist system was emasculated." (1$>) and trimmed down to f i t a , m i l i e u i n which the Confucian conventions were dominant. The commentary provided t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the l i t e r a t i with professed T a o i s t l e a n i n g s to t h r i v e at court, manipulating and a r b i t r a t i n g human a f f a i r s . Needham th i n k s a l l the commentators eminently d i s t o r t e d and "emasculated" (IT,) the Taoism of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu. In a sense these commentators adopted, corrupted and p r a c t i s e d the purposive wing of Taoism, embodied i n - X X -the Tao Teh Ching. I t i s i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l philosophy that we d i s -cern most s a l i e n t d e v i a t i o n s from e a r l y Taoism, p a r t i c u l a r l y from Chuang Tzu. The commentators' modus V i v e n d i s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g , and v i c e v e r s a . - X X I -Untrammelled. Wander ing and the Commentary The.&bject o f Chuang T z u ' s a p o t h e o s i s i s one who t r a n s c e n d s a l l d i f f e r e n c e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s , who roams i n the r ea lm o f u n d i f f -e r e n t i a t e d n e s s and i s dependent upon n o t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r . He enumer-a t e s i n t u r n the P ' e n g (jjjjf!]) , w h i c h depends on the wind f o r i t s g r -and f l i g h t s ; the c i c a d a and the dove, w h i c h at la a s t depend on the t r e e s to r e s t on ; p e t t y o f f i c i a l s o r r u l e r s o f s t a t e s , who mere ly resemble i n a c t u a l i t y the c i c a d a and the dove; Sung Yung T z u who d i d not b o t h e r w i t h the w o r l d but s t i l l l e f t some th ing u n e s t -a b l i s h e d ; L i e h T z u , who c o u l d c h a r i o t the winds but t h e r e f o r e i p s o f a c t o depends on them. Chuang T z u approves o f none o f them. He app-r o v e s o n l y o f one who " r i d e s upon the e t e r n a l f i t n e s s o f the cosmos, h a r n e s s e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f the 6 a i r s , and roams i n the r e a l m o f the i n f i n i t e and needs a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g to defend o n . " Such a man has no s e l f , no ach i evemen t , and no name/fame. Wit'hr the H s i a n g - K u o commentary, the focus has s h i f t e d . W h i l e the commentators do r e c o g n i z e the a b s o l u t e freedom o f the a u t a r k i c one, they emphasize the f a c t t h a t when those t h a t depend p o s s e s s what they depend on , t hey a re e q u a l l y u n t r a m m e l l e d . Na tu re d e c r e e s t h a t they must p e r f o r c e depend, and a l l a c t i o n s s h o u l d be commen-s u r a t e w i t h n a t u r a l endowments. One d i s c e r n s the f a t a l i s m o f the commenta tors . " I f t h e r e i s contentment w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s , t hen even the P ' e n g has n o t h i n g t o be p roud o f i n c o n t r a s t t o the s m a l l b i r d s ; and the s m a l l b i r d h a r b o u r s no d e s i r e f o r the C e l e s t i a l L a k e . And ye t t h e r e i s s a t i s f a c t i o n enough to s p a r e . T h e r e f o r e though the b i g d i f f e r s from the s m a l l , '.'.! t h e i r un t r ammel l ednes s i s o n e . " chap . 1. "Each t h i n g has i t s n a t u r e , and. each n a t u r e i t s l i m i t , " i b i d . The emphasis i s here on contentment w i t h o n e ' s n a t u r e , but not t r -a n s c e n d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s ' . S e c o n d l y I do f e e l t ha t bo the the commentary and the sub -commentary (by C h ' e n Hsuan Y i n g , ) e u l o g i z e the s a g e - k i n g Yao too much. The t e x t p r o p e r neve r g i v e s the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t C h -uang T z u approves o f Y a o . Yao i s not p r e s e n t e d as a p e r f e c t man, r u l i n g w i t h non-ado . Yao i s , q u i t e . o n the c o n t r a r y , u n f a v o u r a b l y - X X I I -j u x t a p o s e d f i r s t l y w i t h Hsu Y u , then w i t h the f o u r sages on the remote Mt . Ku Y e h . The p a r a b l e about a Sung man t r a n s p o r t i n g emb-r o i d e r e d caps t o s e l l to the t a t t o o e d Yueh p e o p l e who have no need at a l l o f the caps p u r p o r t s , d o u b t l e s s l y , to show t h a t Y a o ' s em-p i r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e acumen a re q u i t e u s e l e s s to those who have a t t a i n e d t o the T a o . Chuang Tzu ' r e p e a t e d l y c l a i m s t h a t even the dus t and s i f t i n g s from h i s D i v i n e man make Yao and Shun. Chuang Tzu ' . s p h i l o s o p h y i s r e a l l y meant f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s p r i m a r i l y p e r s o n a l i s t i c . The h e r m i t f o r him f a r s u r p a s s e s e v -en Yao . I n Un t r ammel l ed Wander ing he w r i t e s , "Why s h o u l d he (The D i v i n e Man) be w i l l i n g to approach t h i n g s as a t a sk t o be done?" The H s i a n g - K u o commentary, on the o t h e r hand, makes much o f Yao , s t a t i n g t h a t Yao r u l e d w e l l w i t h non -ado . "Yao gove rns the empire w e l l by not g o v e r n i n g . " chap . 1. and a g a i n , "Yao and .Shun were not mere ly Yao and Shun, but were endowed w i t h ' t h e essence o f the d i v i n e man." chap . 1. and ye t a g a i n , " A l t h o u g h Yao l o r d e d o v e r the m y r i a d t h i n g s , he has neve r been but u n t r a m m e l l e d . " The H s i a n g - K u o commentary makes much o f Yao and Shun because the s, commentators approve o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n the mundane r e a l m and o f a r b i t r a t i n g w o r l d l y a f f a i r s . A l t h o u g h t hey u p h e l d the c o n c e p t s o f non-ado and n a t u r a l n e s s , they were C o n f u c i a n i s t s , i f not to the c o r e , t hen at the c o r e . H s i a n g H s i u t r a d u c e d the a n c i e n t h e r m i t s whom Chuang T z u o b v i o u s l y a p p r o v e d . H s i a n g H s i u s a i d t o h i s emperor , i n response to a q u e r y , t h a t he t h o u g h t , "Ch'^ao Fu ( j|->C ) a n d Hsu Yu ( ^ f ( ^ ) were t i m i d , p u s i l l a n i m o u s men, not wor thy o f much e m u l a t i o n . " (1<8) C h ' a o and Hsu were a n c i e n t h e r m i t s o f renown. The H s i a n g - K u o commentary, i n some i n s t a n c e s , employs n o n -ado d i f f e r e n t l y from Chuang T z u . I n the commenta tors ' hands non-ado a c q u i r e d the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f — " R e i g n but not r u l e " , "To r u l e by not r u l i n g " . Seldom i n Chuang T z u p r o p e r , and n e v e r i n Un t r ammel l ed  Wander ing , can one f i n d passages a d v o c a t i n g i n v o l v e m e n t i n w o r l d l y a f f a i r s , i n r u l i n g an empire w i t h non-ado . ( - X X I I I -The commentary, w h i l e g r a s p i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f n a t u r a l -ness i n a l l t h i n g s and r e a l m s , q u i t e emphas izes non-ado as a s i g -n a l concept i n gove rnmen ta l a f f a i r s and as a method o f c o n t r o l . Chuang Tzu i s p r e o c c u p i e d • w i t h t r a n s c e n d i n g 'the w o r l d and harmon-i z i n g w i t h the T a o , ' -wi th non-ado . The commentators i n some cases p o s t u l a t e non-ado as a panacea f o r the a s p i r i n g r u l e r . These two v a r i a n t f o c i p o i n t t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between " C o n t e m p l a t i v e " and " P u r p o s i v e " p h i l o s o p h i c a l T a o i s m . - X X I V -The A p p e a l o f Tao ism Our modern w o r l d i s f r a n t i c , our age i s "an; age o f a n x i e t y " (W&H. Auden) , our t ime i s s u r e l y out o f j o i n t . S c i e n t i s m and T e c h -n o l o g y dwarf man, and l i f e i n m e t r o p o l i s e s r e sembles a v e r i t a b l e n i g h t m a r e . Our v e r s i o n o f Gorgon r e a r s f e a r s o m e l y i t s h i d e o u s heads — P o l i t i c s , P o l l u t i o n ? O v e r - p o p u l a t i o n and N u c l e a r w a r s . To a v o i d s o u n d i n g l i k e a minor p r o p h e t , l e t me j u s t s ay , i s n ' t man l i k e I c a r u s ? T a o i s m ' s n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h n a t u r a l l aws was at l e a s t c o n d u c i v e t o p r o t o - s c i e n c e i n a n c i e n t C h i n a . R e l i g i o u s T a o i s m ' s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the s e a r c h o f i m m o r t a l i t y l e d to a l chemy , a p r i m a r y .step i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n a t u r e . I am, however , r e g r e t f u l l y not q u a l i f i e d at a l l t o mut t e r on the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between T a o i s m and s c i e n c e . J o s e p h Needham's monumental magnum opus a rgues the case most c o n v i n c i n g l y . (-20) S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t even i n s c i e n c e T a o -i s t cosmology , s.kndfeeven cosmogony, at the p r e sen t age a re s t i l l not w i t h o u t v a l u e s . The a p p e a l o f Tao ism i s , f o r a f l e s h and b l o o d p e r s o n , i t s q u i e t i s m , i t s serene accep t ance o f the cosmos, and i t s s u b l i m e c o n c e p t i o n ' o f the oneness o f a l l . Man, i n T a o i s m , i s neve r a l i e n -a t e d from the a l l , as he s h o u l d neve r b e . Man i s j u s t an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f n a t u r e , n e i t h e r above nor be low the m a n i f o l d , and wha teve r t h a t e x i s t s . The s o c i a l o r d e r may be t o p s y t u r v y , but the cosmic o r d e r remains m a r v e l l o u s , and w i l l e t e r n a l l y be m a r v e l l o u s . F u r -t he rmore , even l i f e i s t augh t as not t h a t i n d i s p e n s a b l e , and the " i c y c l a w s " o f dea th not t h a t h o r r i b l e . Tao i sm seduces us to d i s -engage o u r s e l v e s from our cho re s and w o r r i e s , and. t o remember we e x i s t i n a g r and u n i v e r s e and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a g rand t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t i s the s p i r i t u a l sus tenance T a o i s m a c c o r d s t h a t i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . Modern man, so r a t i o n a l i s t i c , f i n d s here some-t h i n g k i n d r e d to r e l i g i o n , and ye t i s d e f i n i t e l y not c o n t r a - r a t i o n a l . Taoism b l e s s e s us w i t h some e x i s t e n t i a l r e s p i t e , and d i s p o s e s us to l e t t h i n g s be , and to grow fond o f them. I t p l a c a t e s the h e a r t , s a t i s f i e s r e a s o n and n u r t u r e s ( n u r s e s ? ) the s o u l . - X X V -I f e a r I can go on e u l o g i z i n g t i l l the cows come home. B e -f o r e they do s u f f i c e i t t o say T a o i s m ' s j o y f u l a ccep t ance o f the u n i v e r s e pe r se i s a v e r y n i c e i d e a to e n t e r t a i n . From i t can g r -ow the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a l l i s w e l l , and a p r o f o u n d i n t e r e s t i n the m y r i a d t h i n g s , and the courage t o h e . As i t were T a o i s m ' s a p p e a l i s p r i m a r i l y s p i r i t u a l and our w o r l d , s u r e l y , might l e n d i t i t s e a r s . T a o i s m , a d m i t t e d l y , i s a n t i - a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c , and ye t i t does e l e v a t e s m a n at the same t i m e . I s n ' t t h a t m a r v e l l o u s ? - X X V I -I have a t t empted to t r a n s l a t e au p i e d de l a l e t t r e . Owing to the i n t r i n s i c d i f f i c u l t i e s o f Chuang T z u ' s l anguage and p o s s i -b l e t e x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n , my t r a n s l a t i o n i s r e a l l y my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Indeed , any t r a n s l a t i o n o f a n c i e n t C h i n e s e books i s r e a l l y an i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n d i f f i c u l t i n s t a n c e s I have presumed to d e c i p h e r a c c o r d i n g t o what I t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d . Kub H s i a n g e d i t e d the p r e s e n t Chuang T z u . H i s commentary on the book may be , i n p a r t i b u s , the work o f H s i a n g H s i u . The comso mentary i s a t t i m e s more d i f f i c u l t to fathom than the t e x t i t s e l f . At t i m e s I f e e l Chuang T z u r a t h e r e l u c i d a t e s the commenta tors . But on the whole the commentary i s q u i t e r e a d i b l e and dependab le . C h ' e n Hsuan Y i n g ( / ^ ' ^ ^ i $ L ) i s q u i t e r e l i a b l e . Sometimes I have r e l i e d on h i s sub-commentary t o u n e a r t h the meaning o f the comments I have used L i u W e n - T i e n ' s ^$\^JL ) Chuang T z u Pu-Cheng (ft^fifa ) . Kuan F e n g ' s modern C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n i s f a i r l y h e l p f u l . Of the a v a i l a b l e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Chuang T z u , B u r -t o n Wa t son ' s i s the b e s t . I t i s more l u c i d and l i v i l i e r t h a t a l l i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s . James R. Ware ' s e m i n e n t l y u n o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s q u i t e p e c u l i a r , but n e g l i g i b l e as a g u i d e . H e r b e r t A . G i l e s i s q u i t e " l i t e r a r y " and at t i m e s t r a n s l a -t e s e r r o n e o u s l y . Feng Y u - L a n i s g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e by . h i s E n g l i s h , a l b e i t c o r r e c t , i s s i n g u l a r l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g . H i s p a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f the commentary now and then th rows some l i g h t . Thomas M e r t o n ' s The Way o f Chuang Tzu c o n t a i n s a good i n -t r o d u c t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n g r e n d e r i n g o f Chuang T z u ' s anecdo tes a l a M e r t o n . I have endeavoured t o do j u s t i c e t o Chuang T z u . B e s i d e s b e -i n g a p h i l o s o p h e r o f the f i r s t magn i tude , he i s a superb s t y l i s t as w e l l . H i s words a re s i g n a l and w i s e , b u t , as Watson s u g g e s t s , i t & s h i s s p i r i t , h i s u n t h e r e d s p i r i t t h a t i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . He p r a c t i s e d , I f e e l s u r e , what he p h i l o s o p h i z e d . -XXVII-Notes to The Prologue (1) p. 137, Symposium On Taoism. (2) p. 75, H. G. C r e e l , What Is. Taoism. (3) p. 110, Symposium On Taoism. (4) p. 216, Feng Yu-Lan, Short H i s t o r y Of Chinese Philosophy. (5) p. 314, W. T. Chan, A Source. Book On Chinese Philosophy. (6) p. 145, Feng Yu-Lan, Chuang Tzu. (7) p. 434, Joseph Needham, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China. (8) p. 217, Feng Yu-Lan, Short H i s t o r y of Chinese Philosophy. (9) p. 316, W. T. Chan, A Source Bood on Chinese Philosophy. (10) p. 434, Joseph Needham, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China. (11) p. 169, R. B. Mather, Symposium On Taoism. (12) p. 146, Feng Yu-Lan, S p i r i t of Chinese Philosophy. (13) p. 145, Feng Yu-Lan, Chuang Tzu. (14) p. 318, W.T. Chan, A Source Book on Chinese Philosophy. (15) p. 433, Joseph Needham, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China. (16) i b i d . (1^ i b i d . (18) p. 169, R. B. Mather, Symposium on Taoism. (19) In the N'ei P i i e n , non-ado has nothing to do with a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In the remaining 26 chapters, mostly not authored by Ch-uang Tzu, non-ado appears 53 times, denoting a technique of r e i g n i n g only o n e - t h i r d of the time. c f . p. 78, H. G. C r e e l , What Is Taoism?. (20) In p. 56 of Needham's Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China, v o l he p o i n t s out that the T a o i s t temple has been designated as Kuan (f|j||). He t r a c e s i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l and d e r i v a t i v e meani-ngs and s t a t e s that embodied i n t h i s common name f o r a T a o i s t temple i s the ancient s i g n i f i c a n c e of the o b s e r v a t i o n of nat-ure. T h i s minatiae alone i s qu i t e symptomatic of. the T a o i s t outlook on nature. From there on Needham argues very convinc-i n g l y of the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t i n e a r l y Taoism. -1-Untrammelled Wandering By Chuang Tzu  With Commentary by Hsiang Hsiu and Rue- Hsiang "Although the l a r g e and the small are d i s s i m i l a r , yet i f they d i s p o r t themselves i n the realm of self-contentment, then e n t i t i e s f o l low t h e i r n a t % ures, t h i n g s correspond to t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s . A l l assume t h e i r d i s t i n i e s (1) and are e q u a l l y u n t r -ammelled. Amidst them there i s no room f o r d i s t -i n c t i o n s as s u p e r i o r i t y or i n f e r i o r i t y . " In the Northern Ocean there e x i s t s a f i s h . I t s name i s Kun. The Kun i s so huge I know not how many.thousands of l i i t i s . I t metamorphoses i n t o a b i r d , named P'eng. "As to the s u b s t a n t i a l i t y of the Kun and the P'eng, I do not know the d e t a i l s . The general theme of Chuang Tzu dwells i n untrammelled wandering, and self-contentment through non-ado. He, t h e r e f o r e , ^ V A S P I p o l a r i z e s to t h e i r extremes the la r g e and the small to i l l u s t r a t e the i n c l i n a t i o n s o f natures and des-t i n i e s . Men of a l l - p e n e t r a t i n g v i s i o n must needs c u l l the quintessence and abandon that i n which the thoughts are lodged, but not f i n i c a l l y r a i s e d i s p u t e s on a l l matters. As long as d e l e t i o n does not impoverish the grand motif, by a i l means d e l e t e . " The P'eng's back i s I know not how many thousands of l i . When i t i s aroused and f l i e s (2), i t s wings resemble sky-obscuring clouds. , When t h i s b i r d moves about i n the ocean, i t i s to set o f f . f o r the Southern Ocean, the C e l e s t i a l Lake. "Unless i t be i n the vast ocean,, the P'eng cannot move about; unless i t be on nine thousand l i of a i r , i t s wings cannot be borne. T h i s i s , r e a l l y , not due to a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the strange. It i s j u s t beca-use l a r g e t h i n g s n a t u r a l l y s p r i n g from l a r g e p l a c e s ; and lar g e p l a c e s n a t u r a l l y bear l a r g e t h i n g s . The p r i n c i p l e i s so of i t s e l f . Why, r e a l l y , belabour the mind amidst these t h i n g s . " Airman named Ch'i Hsieh (3) recorded strange happenings. Hsieh enunciated, "When the P'eng journeys to the Southern Ocean, the waters are r o i l e d f o r three thousand l i . He mounts a whirlwind and soars up s p i r a l l y n i n e t y thousand l i . -2-" S i n c e the wings a re g i g a n t i c , they a re d i f f i c u l t to r a i s e . So the P ' e n g must mount a w h i r l w i n d to r i s e , and must needs surmount a h e i g h t o f n i n e t y thousand l i to be a i r - b o r n e . As the P ' e n g p o s s -e s ses such w i n g s , how can i t a b r u p t l y a s cend , and get down at a few t ens o f f e e t ? (4) The P ' e n g , not because i t l i k e s t o , but p e r f o r c e must ac t as i t d o e s . " The P ' e n g r e s t s a f t e r g o i n g f o r s i x months. "The b i g b i r d i n one a t tempt f l i e s f o r h a l f a y e a r . I t r e aches the C e l e s t i a l Lake and r e s t s . The l i t t l e b i r d i n one a t tempt f l i e s f o r h a l f a m o r n i n g . I t d a r t s t o the t r e e s and s t o p s . I f . t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s a re compared, t hen t h e r e i s .a d i f f e r e n c e . But t h e i r a c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e i r "na tu res , and i n t h i s t h -ey a re o n e . " There i s the w a n d e r i n g a i r ; t h e r e ' a r e the w a n d e r i n g motes ; and l i -v i n g t h i n g s blow each o t h e r about w' i th t h e i r "b rea th . (5) " A l l o f t h e s e a re what the P ' e n g depend on to f l y . W i l d h o r s e s connote w a n d e r i n g a i r . " As t o the s k y ' s b l u e n e s s , i s i t i t s t r u e c o l o u r ? Does the sky e x t e n d t o w i t h o u t end? When the P ' e n g l o o k s down, what o b t a i n s i s j u s t the same, (same a m b i g u i t y , same a n s u r e n e s s . ) (6) "Now when we l o o k at the' s k y ' s b l u e n e s s , we do not even know i f i t i s r e a l l y the s k y ' s t r u e c o l o u r . And we are not sure i f the sky ex t ends away t o w i t h o u t end . When the P ' e n g gazes upon the e a r t h from above , i t i s j u s t as we see the sky from the e a r t h . And ye t i t r i s e s and a t t e m p t s the s o u t h . T h i s i s t o say the P ' e n g does not c o g n i z e d i s t a n c e . The penchant i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g , and hence i t v a n i s h e s . " And i f wa te r does not p i l e up d e e p l y , i t l a c k s the v e r y c a p a c i t y t o f l o a t l a r g e boat ' s . Upset a c u p f u l i n t o a h o l l o w on the g r o u n d , a mustard seed becomes a b o a t . P l a c e the cup and i t w i l l s t i c k , f o r wa te r i s s h a l l o w and v e s s e l l a r g e . " A l l t h e a e s i c l a r i f y why the P : ' eng s o a r s h i g h , i t s wings a re b i g ! F o r i f the s m a l l needs not the g r e a t , t hen what the g r e a t needs cannot p e r f o r c e be s m a l l , i h e r e 4 f o r e , t r u t h s have a p p o s i t e l i m i t s ( 7 ) , t h i n g s f i x e d l i m i t a t i o n s . Each s u f f i c e s ( i n i t s own rea lm) and can e q u a l l y s u c c e e d . I f the fundamenta l s o f o b l i v i o u s n e s s o f l i f e (8) a re l o s t , and l i f e i s n u r t u r e d o u t s i d e the most germane, t a s k s become incommensurate w i t h a b i l i t y and a c t i o n s not e q u a l to s i t u a t i o n s . Then even s k y -o b s c u r i n g wings w i l l be found w a n t i n g , and , s i m i l a r l y , the f l i g h t t h a t i s i n s t a n t a n e o u s w i l l meet w i t h t r o u b l e . " - 3 -I f w i n d i s not p i l e d up d e e p l y , then i t l a c k s the v e r y c a p a c i t y t o u p h o l d huge w i n g s . At a h e i g h t o f n i n e t y thousand l i , i t i t r e a l l y wind t h a t i s b e l o w . The P ' e n g t hen mounts the w i n d , s h o u l d e r s the b l u e s k y , and n o t h i n g at a l l can h i n d e r or d e t e r h i m . On ly now does the P ' e n g a t tempt the sou th . . "As t o the P ' e n g ' s a t t e m p t i n g the sou th o n l y under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s . not t h a t he l o v e s h e i g h t and v a l u e s d i s t a n c e . He i s w e l l aware t h a t s h o u l d the volume o f wind be s m a l l , he w i l l be o b s t r u c t e d and h i s t r i p f o r e s t a l l e d . Hence the P ' e n g ' s u n t r a -mmel l edness . " (t9) The c i c a d a and the l i t t l e dove l a u g h at t h i s , s a y i n g , "When we f l y , we t ake o f f i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , d a r t t o the t r e e s . a n d s t o p . Sometimes we f a i l t o r e a c h and we j u s t f a l l t o the g r o u n d . Why ascend n i n e t y thousand l i and a t tempt the s o u t h ? " " I f t h e r e i s contentment w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s , t hen even the P ' e n g has n o t h i n g t o be proud o f i n c o n -t r a s t t o the s m a l l b i r d s ; and the s m a l l b i r d h a r -b o u r s no d e s i r e f o r the C e l e s t i a l L a k e . And y e t t h e r e ; i i s s a t i s f a c t i o n enough to s p a r e . T h e r e f o r e though the >4 b i g d i f f e r s from the s m a l l , t h e i r un t r ammel l ednes s i s o n e . " He who goes t o the g reen woods nearby and t akes t h r e e meals w i t h h i m , r e t r u n s w i t h h i s s tomach as f u l l as e v e r . He who. t r a v e l s a hundred l i must g r i n d enough food f o r a n i g h t ' s h a l t . He who j o u -r n e y s a thousand l i must needs g a t h e r enough food f o r a t h r e e months ' d u r a t i o n . "The f u r t h e r one goes , the more food must be g a t h e r e d . M u t a t i s m u t a n d i s , t h e b i g g e r the w i n g s , the t h i c k e r the a i r s must needs b e . " The two l i t t l e c r e a t u r e s — what do they know? "The two l i t t l e c r e a t u r e s denote the c i c a d a and the s m a l l dove . As the s m a l l d i f f e r s from the l a r g e , each goes h i s d i f f e r e n t way. T h e i r ways d i f f e r not \> because t hey know t h e y a re d i f f e r e n t and d i f f e r f o r d i f f e r e n c e ' s s a k e . They do not know why i t i s so but a re mere ly b e i n g n a t u r a l . B e i n g n a t u r a l i s tantamount t o o b s e r v i n g non-ado . Such i s the g rand theme o f u n t r a m m e l l e d n e s s . " - 4 -L i t t l e understanding does not encompass as much as great under-standing; short l i f e does not extend as much as long l i f e . "Each t h i n g has i t s nature, and each nature i t s l i m i t . J u st l i k e understanding and l o n g e v i t y — even standing on t i p t o e w i l l not enhance or l e n g -then. From here onwards to the example of L i e h Tzu the d i f f e r i n g magnitudes of understanding and long-e v i t y are enumerated. Each b e l i e v e s i n one realm and none can supersede another. The a u t a r k i c man, (l©i). then, transcends them a l l . He f o r g e t s and abandons the dichotomy of I and Not-I, d i s c a r d s a l l m u l t i -p l i c i t i e s , a t t a i n s e q u a l l y i n a l l d i s s i m i l a r realms, and yet i s h i m s e l f devoid of concepts'of merit and honour. Therefore the one who transcends the con-cepts of the lar g e and the small does not harbour such d i s t i n c t i o n s . I f such d i s t i n c t i o n s are enter-t a i n e d , then v e r i l y even the P'eng or the q u a i l , and to o f f i c i a t e or to c h a r i o t winds,.are without f a i l entangled by t h i n g s . One who e q u a l i z e s conce-pts of l i f e and death does not harbour such d i s t -i n c t i o n s . I f such d i s t i n c t i o n s are e n t e r t a i n e d , "« then v e r i l y even the Ta-ch'un and the summer c i c a -da, P'eng Tsu (11) and the morning mushroom, are without exception a h o r t - l i v e d . Therefore one who roams i n o b l i v i o n of the lar g e and the small i s without l i m i t s . One who dwells i n o b l i v i o u s n e s s of l i f e and death i s without end. I f one d e s i r e s unt-raramelledness and yet i s tethered to a realm, then even i f he i s to f r e e l y wander he w i l l meet with d i f f i c u l t i e s . He i s not t r u l y a u t a r k i c . " How do we know t h i s i s so? The morning mushroom knows nothing of the end and beginning of a month; (12) %he summer c i c a d a knows nothing of s p r i n g and autumn. These i n s t a n c e s of short l i v e s . In the south of Chu ( # ) there i s a Ming-Ling (13) which counts f i v e hundred years as one s p r i n g and f i v e hundred years as one autumn. In ancient a n t i q u i t y there was Ta-Ch'un (13) that counted eight thousand years as one s p r i n g and eight thousand years as one au-tumn. These are i n s t a n c e s of long l i v e s . Yet P'eng Tsu i s now r e -nowned f o r h i s l o n g e v i t y . And everyone, a l a s , apes him! "The d i s p a r i t y between small and great understanding, long and short l i v e s , i s r e a l l y so great! Compared to what people g r i e v e about, t h i s i s t r u l y g r i e v o u s . Yet people do not regret t h i s . It i s because i n the nature of t h i n g s there e x i s t n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . I f we take cognizance of the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s and recognize that we cannot a s p i r e , even t i p t o e i n g , f o r a j o t more than -5-i s proper and n a t u r a l , then.what, i s so r e g r e t t a b l e under the sun?1''For amongst, t h i n g s i t i s never the great that vraves f o r the small, but the small i n v a r i a b l y d e s i r e s the great. Consequently Chuang Tzu enunciates the d i s s i m i l a r i t y betwixt the great and the small and shows that p r e d e s t i n e d (14) l i m i t a t i o n s o b t a i n i n both cases. Craving and l o n g i n g can a v a i l nothing. Real- . i z i n g t h i s we' can banish the trammels of c r a v i n g and long i n g . For g r i e f i s born i n t r o u b l e . I f t r o u b l e i s d i s p e l l e d , g r i e f departs. When g r i e f has departed, l i f e needs must be at ease." It was on t h i s very subject that T 1 a n g asked C h i . "When T'ang asked Chi, i n the quest i o n we a l s o d i s -cern the statement that t h i n g s have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and i f a f r e e r e i n i s allowed then a l l would be sm-ooth and w e l l . T h e r e f o r e Chuang Tzu concurs with the d i s c o u r s e . " In the ba l d and barren north, there i s a dark sea, the C e l e s t i a l Lake. In i t i s a f i s h s e v e r a l thousand l i across, and no one knows how long. I t ' s name i s Kun. There i s a l s o a b i r d , name P'eng. I t s back resembles Mount T * a i and i t s wings sky-obscuring clouds. He mounts a whirlwind and ascends s p i r a l l y , l i k e a ram's horn, to n i -nety thousand l i . I t soars c l e a r of the clouds and shoulders the blue sky. Then the P'eng attempts the south, and journeys to the Southern Ocean. The l i t t l e q u a i l laughs at him, saying, "Pray, wh-ere i s he going? I s p r i n g up with a leap, and come down a f t e r no more than a few yards. I j u s t f l u t t e r about amidst the weeds and brambles. This too i s the epitome of f l y i n g . Where does he think he i s going?" Such i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the small and the l a r g e . (15) "Each deems approximation of h i s nature as the epitome, and the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the s e l f as u l t i m a t e . For-merly Chuang Tzu says the two c r e a t u r e s are endowed with d i s s i m i l a r wings and consequently reach d i f f e r e n t p l -aces. One hovers above the C e l e s t i a l Lake, the other g r a t i f i e s h i s wishes f l u t t e r i n g amidst t r e e s . Each a c t s i n accordance to i t s p h y s i c a l i t y , and does cognize the why and whereof. Now Chuang Tzu di s c o u r s e that the d i f f e r e n c e s between the small and the l a r g e are n a t u r a l l y so. T h e i r unique p r o p e r t i e s cannot be a t t a i n e d by c r a v i n g or longing. Each i s at ease with i t s nature and does not lament that they d i f f e r . And hence the r e p e t i t i o n . " -6-Take, therefore, a man whose knowledge enables him to c r e d i t a b l y f i l l an o f f i c e , or a man whose f l a w l e s s conduct impresses a com-munity, or a man whose v i r t u e b e f i t s him to be a r u l e r so that the empire w i l l be benefited — h i s opinion of himself w i l l be l i k e the q u a i l ' s . "Such a man would be j u s t l i k e the b i r d d i s p o r t i n g i t s e l f i n a c e r t a i n realm." Yet Sung Yung Tzu would laugh at such a man. "Sung laughs, because such a man cannot equa-l i z e t h i n g s . " The whole world could p r a i s e Sung Yung Tzu and he would not be en-couraged; the whole world could praduce him and he would not be up-set. "This i s to i l l u s t r a t e self-contentment." For Sung d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the i n t r i n s i c and the e x t r i n s i c . "He recognizes the I i s i n t r i n s i c , the non-I e x t r i n s i c . " He recognized the realms of honour and disgrace. "He honours himself and l e t s down others." At t h i s Sung stopped, and he d i d not bother himself with tne world.(16) "Sung cannot surpass t h i s l e v e l . He f i n d s enough conten-tment i n himself, and therefore l e t s the world be." Yet he s t i l l l e f t something to be desired. "Sung can but a f f i r m himself; he cannot approve of a l l . " As to Lieh Tzu, he could c h a r i o t the winds and pursue h i s way with a sublime ease, r e t u r n i n g a f t e r 15 days. "Lieh Tzu can r i d e the winds i n a l i g h t and marvellous manner. Yet i f there i s dependency, although one c h a r i o t s the winds to t r a v e l , one cannot circumscribe a l l i n one t r y . " He did not have to bother himself much with the attainment of happi-ness. (17) "Lieh Tzu can n a t u r a l l y r i d e the winds, he does not have to exert himself." He dispensed with the trouble of walking, but s t i l l had to depend upon something. "Lieh Tzu can not t r a v e l without the winds because he depends upon them. Only those who can r i d e anything are t r u l y a u t a r k i c . " - 7 -Had he been r i d i n g upon the e t e r n a l f i t n e s s of the cosmos, and ch-a r i o t i n g the transformations o f the 6 a i r s (18), and roamed i n the realm of the i n f i n i t e ~ what, then, had he to depend on? "The universe i s the c o l l e c t i v e name, f o r the myriad things. The universe has the manifold e n t i t i e s as i t s contents, and the manifold must needs have as norm the n a t u r a l . What i s spontaneously so, w i t h -out a r t i f i c i a l i t y , i s the n a t u r a l . The P'eng a b i l i t y to soar highf.* the q u a i l ' s a b i l i t y to f l y low, the t r -ees a b i l i t y to l i v e long, (19) and the morning mu-shroom's a b i l i t y to l i v e but s h o r t l y — a l l these are n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s , not made or acquired. They are not concocted but n a t u r a l l y so; thus they are normal and f i t . Therefore to r i d e the f i t n e s s of the universe sim-p l y means f o l l o w i n g the natures of things. To c h a r i o t the transformations of the 6 a i r s smi-p l y means roaming the way of change. Going l i k e t h i s , wherefore the l i m i t ? One r i d e s whatever one encounters and depends on nothing at a l l . This i s the untrammelledness of the p e r f e c t l y v i r -tuous man who s u b t l y unites the s e l f and others. I f one depends on something, then one can be happy only when one has that very something that one de-pends on. Even though Lieh Tzu journeys with a sublime ease, he s t i l l can not t r a v e l without the winds, l e t alone the P'eng. Only he who merges with t h i n g s , and f o l l o w s the great e v o l u t i o n can be r e a l l y a u t a r k i c and always free. He i s more than just free himself. He l e t s those that depend have t h e i r own ways, and not lose what they depend on. As long as those that depend do not lose what they depend on, they are equally enjoying freedom. Therefore I cannot equate the dependent with the i n -dependent. (20) As to things being at ease with t h e i r natures, with the universe n a t u r a l l y u n f o l d i n g i t s secrets and decr-eeing, and the things r e c e i v i n g unknowingly t h e i r a t -easeness, I cannot d i s c e r n d i f f e r e n c e , ( i n t h e i r spont-aneousness and at-easeness.) Even the a u t a r k i c one does not d i f f e r from those that de-pend i n the manner each receives i t s n a t u r a l endowments. Let alone the magnitudes of those that depend. ( A l l d i f f -erences are natural.) - 8 -Therefore i t i s said the Perfect Man has no s e l f . "One who has divested himself of selfhood acc-omodates things. By accomodating things he arr-ives at the pinnacle of being." The Divine Man has no achievement. "Things never thank nature for th e i r l i v e s , yet they depend happily on the multifarious things for their l i v e l i h o o d . So when the pr i n c i p l e (of naturalness) prevails, t r a i t s (of a r t i f i c i a l i t y ) perish. Now the Divine Man accomodates but does not assist things. He (just l e t s things be and) i s at one with the supreme princip l e (of naturalness). Hence he has no achievement." The Sagely Man has no name/fame. "The name sage i s applied to someone who has a t t -ained to his nature, i t suffices not to denote the very thing (sageliness) he has attained." Yao wished to cede the empire to Hsu Yu. (21) He said, "When the sun and the moon have come out and yet we s t i l l burn the torches, i t wo-uld be hard put for the torches to enhance the l i g h t , wouldn't i t ? When the seasonal rains are f a l l i n g , and yet we s t i l l i r r i g a t e the f i e l d s , i t would be, in apropos to our i r r i g a t i n g , a waste of labour, wouldn't i t ? Now master, should you be enthroned, the whole empire would be well-ordered. And yet I, l i k e a corpse, s t i l l occupy the throne. I look at myself and detect many f a i l i n g s . I beg you w i l l rule the empire." "Those who well govern the empire are those who do not govern the empire. Therefore Yao governs the empire by not governing; he does not govern well by governing. Now Hsu Yu understands that the empire i s already well-governed and there i s - r e a l l y no room for him. The em-pire i s well-governed owing to Yao's administration. Hsu Yu undertands this and that i s why he says, "You (should) govern the empire." We should ignore mere words but search for the quint-essence . If one says that Yao well governs by governing, and that Yao gets to govern because Hsu Yu does, not gove- -rn, then one misses by a wide margin. For the orderliness stems from not governing. To accomplish comes from non-ado. Yao alone suf f i c e s . There i s no need to s o l i c i t from Hsu Yu. - 9 -"You, s i r , govern the empire, M s a i d Hsu YU, "and i t i s already governed. The words of Chuang Tzu and Lao Tzu are ignored by those i n power p r e c i s e l y because people miscon-strue non-ado to mean holding one's hand i n s i l e n c e i n the mountains and woods. Those who must he i n the realm of a c t i o n and do not ret u r n , labour under t h i s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " Now i f I s t i l l supplant you, s i r , w i l l I be doing i t f o r a name? But name i s but the guest of r e a l i t y — w i l l I be doing i t so as to be a guest? ""Those who a f f i r m themselves antagonizes t h i n g s . Those who accomodates things have no antagonists. Therefore Yao does not antagonizes the world, and Hsu Yu i s on a par with Chi and Ch' i . Why do I say so? For i f one harmonizes with t h i n g s , then things perforce cannot be estranged from one. And so one responds deeply with no-heart (no a r t i f i -f i a l i t i e s ) and observes one's true sensations. One f l o a t s l i k e an untethered boat and roams unceasing to the east and the west. Therefore one who acts i n accordance with the people i s the master of the world whereever he goes. I f one acts thus and ru l e s the world, he i s as nat-u r a l as the sky i s high, and he r e a l l y possesses a King's v i r t u e s . I f one i s attached to s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n , and adheres to the p a r t i a l i t i e s of a c e r t a i n school, he would t r y to s t r a i n h i s neck and proudly stand alone on the summit of a high mountain. Such a one i s merely an item i n the mundane world — and can only be Yao's outer co-u r t i e r . I f the outer c o u r t i e r supplants the inner master, he has the name of a r u l e r , but not the r e a l i t y of a r u l e r . " When the t i t nests i n the f o r e s t , i t occupies but a s i n g l e branch. When the t a p i r d r i n k s at the r i v e r , i t consumes but a b e l l y f u l . " A l l natures have l i m i t s . I f one i s g r a t i f i e d to the l i m i t s of one's nature, then one can ignore a l l the treasures i n the world." Return and r e s t , s i r , I have no use f o r r u l l n g ^ t h e empire. " I t i s f u t i l e to share and Yao alone has i t . One who harbours Vacuity (22) i s without realms. The world understands t h i s and never t i r e s i n e l -e c t i n g and f o l l o w i n g him." Although the cook does not attend to the cooking, the impersonator of the dead at the s a c r i f i c e and the p r i e s t do not step over the wine -10-v e s s e l s and meat s t ands to s u p p l a n t h i m . " " I f the cook , the i m p e r s o n a t o r o f the dead at the s a c r i f i c e , the p r i e s t a re a l l con t en t w i t h t h e i r d u t i e s , and i f the b i r d s , b e a s t s and the m y r i a d t h i n g s a re s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r endowments, and i f emperor Yao and Hsu Yu are se rene w i t h t h e i r d e s t i n i e s , t hen t hey a l l have the supreme r e a l i t y i n the w o r l d . S i n c e the supreme r e a l i t y i s a t t a i n e d , "\^i)i.'r what e l s e i s t h e r e to ac t f o r ? ' One s i m p l y e n j o y s o n e s e l f . T h e r e f o r e a l t h o u g h Yao and Hsu d i f f e r i n t h e i r a c t i o n s , t hey a re e q u a l l y u n t r a m m e l l e d . " C h i e n Wu asked L i e n Shu, s a y i n g , " I hea rd from C h i e h Yu some u t t -e r a n c e s . They were e x t r a v a g a n t and u n j u s t i f i a b l e , and they were not c i r c u m s c r i b e d and c o n t a i n e d . I was a s tounded w i t h what he s a i d , b o u n d l e s s as the M i l k y Way. H i s words were w i l d and i m p r o b a b l e and d i d not come near human e x p e r i e n c e . " L i e n Shu a s k e d , "What were h i s u t t e r a n c e s ? " "He s a i d , " C h i e h Wu r e p l i e d , " F a r away on the M o u n t a i n o f Ku Yeh t h - . e re d w e l l s a D i v i n e Man, w i t h f l e s h and s k i n l i k e i c e o r snow, g r -a c e f u l demeanours l i k e a young v i r g i n ' s . "These a re a l l a l l e g o r i e s . The D i v i n e Man i s the p r e s -ent day Sage. A l t h o u g h the Sage i s i n the p a l a c e , h i s h e a r t i s no d i f f e r e n t s h o u l d he be amids t the woods. What does the w o r l d know o f t h i s ? P e o p l e see the Sage s p o r t y e l l o w s i l k (2$) and employ the e m p e r o r ' s s e a l , and t hey t h i n k t h a t t he se t e t h e r h i s h e a r t . They see him t r a v e r s e the mounta ins and s t reams and ha rmon ize s the a f f a i r s o f the p e o p l e , and t h i n k t h a t these v e n t u r e s exhaus t h ' i s s s p i r i t s . They have no i d e a t h a t the supreme man i s n e v e r i m -• p o v e r i s h e d . Nov/ Chuang Tzu d i s c o u r s e s on the man w i t h k i n g l y v i r t u e s . He p u t s him i n the Ku Yeh mounta in to show t h a t the w o r l d has no r e a s o n t o know h i m . T h i s i s why Chuang Tzu s i t u a t e s him o u t s i d e the extreme bounds , and pushes him to beyond the s e n s e s . The metaphor o f a young v i r g i n i s employed to show the D i v i n e Man does not harm the i n t r i n s i c w i t h the e x t r i n s i c . " The D i v i n e Man does not eat the f i v e g r a i n s but i n h a l e s the w ind and d r i n k s the dew. "We a l l eat the f i v e g r a i n s and he a l o n e i s the D i v i n e Man. T h i s show the D i v i n e Man i s not p roduced by the f i v e g r a i n s but i s e s p e c i a l l y endowed w i t h the m a r v e l l o u s b r e a t h o f n a t u r e . " -11-He r i d e s on the clouds and a i r s , c h a r i o t s the f l y i n g dragons, and wanders beyond the four seas. His s p i r i t i s quiescent and saves things from sickness and plague. Yearly he causes the crope to r i p e n p l e n t i f u l l y . I thought t h i s was insane and d i s b e l i e v e d i t . " "Although he sequesteres i n a quiet dwelling-place, one whose body and soul dwell i n the marvellous, and who exhausts the supreme p r i n c i p l e of natur-alness to the f i n e s t p o i n t s , harmonizes with a l l that i s even beyond the four seas. Therefore he r i d e s heaven and earth, and c h a r i o t s the s i x a i r s , harmonizes the people and shepherds the myriad things. I f a l l things harmonizes with him, he can r i d e the f l o a t i n g clouds. I f a l l shapes bear him up, he can chariot the f l y -i n g dragons. He abandons h i s body and enjoys self-contentment, h i s l i f e i s serene and independent. He s i t s o b l i v i o u s , walks o b l i v i o u s , and acts ob-l i v i o u s . His body i s r e s i l i e n t l i k e withered wood being dragged, h i s heart i s serene l i k e accumulated dead ashes. And so h i s s p i r i t i s s a i d to be quiesent. His s p i r i t being quiescent, those with perturbed s p i r i t s b e n e f i t from him. People i n v a r i a b l y draw from t h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e r i -ences and judge accordingly. How can they b e l i e v e i n t h i s ? " "Yes," Lien Shu s a i d , "A b l i n d man cannot appreciate b e a u t i f u l patterns. A deaf man cannot l i s t e n to b e l l s and drums. And b l i n d -ness and deafness are not s o l e l y p h y s i c a l ; the understanding has them too. "Not to know i n the extreme marvellousness of wise r e -words and to think they are insane and d i s b e l i e v e i n them i s to s u f f e r from the deafness and b l i n d -ness of the understanding." His words (Chieh Yu's) are l i k e a g r a c e f u l young g i r l . "This i s to say Chieh Yu t a l k e d about things nat-u r a l l y sought by things. But those s u f f e r i n g from deafness and blindness of the understanding say there i s no such p r i n c i p l e . " The v i r t u e of such a man w i l l encompass the myriad things. Accord-to him the whole world i s t i r e d of t u r m o i l (and n a t u r a l l y longs f o r peace). I f so, why should he bother himself e x c e s s i v e l y with the world as i f i t ' s a task to be done? - 1 2 -"The S a g e ' s hea r t e p i t o m i z e s the acme o f heaven and e a r t h , and e x h a u s t s the s u b t l t i e s o f the i © A < m y r i a d t h i n g s . Hence he can embody e v o l u t i o n s and ha rmonize w i t h change and i s a t peace u b i t -q u i t o u s l y ; and he can encompass a l l the m y r i a d t h i n g s w i t h not a s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n . The w o r l d seeks me because o f chaos . I am d e v o i d o f h e a r t ( a r t i f i c i a l i t i e s ) . I f I am d e v o i d o f h e a r t , why not accomodate the w o r l d ? One who embodies the q u n i t e s s e n c e and e x h a u s t s the s u b t l t i e s o f t h i n g s can p e n e t r a t e the na tu re o f the m y r i a d t h i n g s , mould and f a s h i o n a l l the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s under the sun and a t t a i n to the fame o f a sage , j u s t l i k e Yao and Shun. Why i s i t so? He p r a c t i s e s non-ado! Why l a b o u r i o u s l y e x e r c i s e s y o u r s p i r i t s and t o r -ment y o u r t hough t s and t a c k l e the w o r l d as a p r -oblems as i f i t ' s the o n l y way?" N o t h i n g can harm t h i s man. " I f one a c c e p t s w i t h e q u a n i m i t y when one i s harmed, t hen harm cannot r e a l l y harm one . I f even harm cannot harm one, i t f o l l o w s t h a t n o t h i n g can harm one. " He w i l l do t even drown even i f a f l o o d r eaches to the s k i e s . He w i -l l not even f e e l hot i f a d rought causes m e t a l s to mel t and s c o -r c h e s mounds. "When one i s a t ease anywhere one goes , t hen any p l a c e e m i n e n t l y s u i t s . Even dea th and b i r t h do not t r a n s f o r m one, l e t a l o n e such n o n e n t i t i e s as f l o o d and d r o u g h t . .The supreme man i s not w o r r i e d by d i s a s t e r s and a d -v e r s i t i e s . I t i s so because he a v o i d s them, but b e -cause he o b s e r v e s the p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r a l n e s s and advances s p o n t a n e o u s l y . Thus he n a t u r a l l y meets w i t h the good . " (2<f0 Even dus t and s i f t i n g s from him c o u l d s t i l l mould and f a s h i o n Yao and Shun. How s h o u l d he be w i l l i n g to t a c k l e t h i n g s as t a s k s ? "Yao and Shun are w o r l d l y names but they do not q u i t e p i n p o i n t what the names r e a l l y i m p l y . T h e r e f o r e Yao and Shun were not mere ly Yao and Shun, but must needs be endowed w i t h the essence o f the D i v i n e Man. Now what the names Yao. and Shun- i m p l y to the w o r l d a re m e r e l y the dust and s i f t i n g s o f the q u i n t e s s e n c e . " -13-A Sung man pu rchased some e m b r o i d e r e d caps and c a r r i e d them to Yueh . But p e o p l e i n Yueh cut t h e i r h a i r and t a t t o o e d t h e i r b o d i e s . They had no use f o r f i n e r i e s as t he se c a p s . Yao r u l e d the p e o p l e o f the empire and a d m i n i s t e r e d p e r f e c t l y the a f f a i r s w i t h i n the f o u r s e a s . He went to see the f o u r sages i n the remots Kiu Yeh m o u n t a i n . On r e t u r n i n g to h i s n o r t h o f the Fen r i -v e r , he q u i e t l y f o r g o t h i s e m p i r e . "Yao had no use f o r the e m p i r e , j u s t l i k e the Yueh p e o p l e had no use f o r embro ide red c a p s . Yet the empire p r e c i s e l y needs the man who f o r g e t s about the e m p i r e . Though the empire f o l l o w e d Yao , Yao h i m s e l f neve r deemed the empire as h i s . He t h e r e -f o r e q u i e t l y f o r s o o k i t and l e t h i s mind wandered i n the r e a l m o f n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h he l o r d -ed o v e r the m y r i a d t h i n g s , , he has n e v e r been but u n t r a m m e l l e d . The f o u r sages a re meant to be t a k e n a l l e g o r i c a l l y . I t i s to show Yap i s not c e n t r e d upon h i s Yaohood . Yao a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e d n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n . He a c t e d i n a cco rdance w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e and l e f t h i s , Y a o ' s marks . H i s p r i n c i p l e o f n o n - d i s t i n c t i o n and the marks he l e f t p e r t a i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o the i n n e r and o u t e r r e a l m s . One s h o u l d not v i e w the i n n e r from the o u t -e r and be s u r p r i s e d at what one s e e s . The w o r l d i n v a i n sees the Yao was Yao ( o n l y p e r -c e i v e s the o u t e r Y a o ) . What does the w o r l d know o f Y a o ' s s u b t l t i e s o f o b s e r v i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f n o n -d i s t i n c t i o n ? T h e r e f o r e those who seek the f o u r sages w i t h i n the f o u r s e a s , (2'&) and base Yao-'upon t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , and say , as a r e s u l t , t h a t Yao moves a l o n g w i t h t h i n g s , has r e a l l y mi s sed the cause o f Y a o ' s u n t r a -mmel l ednes s . These p e r s o n s do not as ye t know f o r the one i n tune w i t h t h i n g s , the t r a c e s o f the f a r t h e r e s t would .. b e . a l l the n e a r e r ; and f o r those who come t o g e t h e r and meet, the h i g h e s t p l a c e i s on the c o n t r a r y l o w . " -14-I f one s t r i c t l y deems s e l f - s u p r e m a c y as the e p i -tome, and does not l e v e l w i t h mundane e n t a n g l e m e n t s , even he be a s o j o u r n e r i n the h i l l s and v a l e s , he i s not an a u t a r k i c one. He does not q u a l i f y at a l l to d i s c o u r s e on the supreme and to wander i n the i n f i n i t e . " H u i T z u s a i d to Chuang T z u , "The Emperor o f Wei C$^) bes towed upon me a c a l a b a s h s eed . I p l a n t e d i t and i t s l a r g e f r u i t can c o n t a i n 5 b u s h e l s . I employed i t as a v e s s e l . I t was too f r a g i l e to h o l d wa-t e r . I s p l i t i t f o r l a d l e s but d e s p i t e the s i z e t hey were too s h a -l l o w f o r a n y t h i n g . I d e m o l i s h e d i t because i t was u t t e r l y u s e l e s s . Chuang T z u r e p l i e d , "My dear s i r , you are r a t h e r ob tuse i n u t i l i z i n g the l a r g e . A Sung man p o s s e s s e d a good r e c i p e f o r s a l v e f o r chapped hands . F o r g e n e r a t i o n s h i s f a m i l y washed s i l k as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . "The r e c i p e p r o t e c t e d hands from becoming chapped. Hence they c o u l d s a f e l y d i p t h e i r hands i n t o wa te r and r i n s e s i l k . " A s t r a n g e r hea rd o f t h i s and o f f e r e d to purchase the r e c i p e w i t h , one hundred ounces o f g o l d . The c lansmen g a t h e r e d and d i s c u s s e d the o f f -e r . They c o n s i d e r e d , " F o r g e n e r a t i o n s we have been w a s h i n g s i l k and have ea rned no more than a few ounces o f g o l d . L e t us g i v e the r e c -i p e to h i m . " The s t r a n g e r o b t a i n e d the r e c i p e and i m p r e s s e d h i m s e l f upon the k i n g o f Wu. When Yueh c r e a t e d t r o u b l e f o r Wu ( 2 $ ) , the k i n g o f Wu a p p o i n t -ed the s t r a n g e r as g e n e r a l . I n the w i n t e r he engaged Yueh i n a n a v a l b a t t l e and s o u n d l y d e f e a t e d Yueh . K i n g Wu rewarded the s t r a n g e r by f e o f f i n g and t i t l i n g h i m . Now the e f f i c a c i o u s n e s s o f the r e c i p e i n p r o t e c t i n g hands remained the same and ye t i n one case a t i t l e was c o n f e r r e d , i n the o t h e r the t o i l s o f w a s h i n g s i l k were not even a v o i d e d . T h i s was so because o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . Nov/ y o u , s i r , have t h i s f i v e - b u s h e l c a l a b a s h . Why d o n ' t you f a s h i o n a b i g b o t t l e out o f i t and t h e r e b y f l o a t i n r i v e r s and l a k e s ? You were d i s t r a u g h t because i t was too s h a l l o w to c o n t a i n a n y t h i n g ! R e a l l y , I f e a r you have a r a t h e r woo ly h e a d . " -15-" W o o l i n e s s deno tes i n a b i l i t y to go s t r a i g h t , to the p o i n t . T h i s passage shows a l l t h i n g s dissi%lU.£f I; m i l a r l y have t h e i r u s e s . I f t hey a re a p p l i e d r i s M ? l g h t l y , one can d i s p o r t o n e s e l f u t t e r l y anywhere one g o e s . " H u i Tzu s a i d t o Chuang T z u , " I have a b i g t r e e . P e o p l e say i t ' s the a i l a n t h u s . I t s t r u n k i s so s w o l l e n t h a t m e a s u r i n g rods cannot be a p p l i e d . I t s b r a n c e s a re so t w i s t e d t h a t squa res and compasses cannot be u s e d . By the r o a d s i d e i t s t a n d s , but c a r p e n t e r s do not even d e i g n to l o o k a t ' i t . Now y o u r S o r d s Y S s i r , a re b i g , h o l l o w and u s e l e s s . P e o p l e w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n j u s t c a s t them a s i d e . " Chuang T z u s a i d , "You a l o n e have not watched a w i l d ca t o r ^ a wease l? I t c rouches and w a i t s f o r i t s c a r e l e s s p r e y . I t l e a p s about eas t and west and a v o i d s n e i t h e r the h i g h pibace o r the l o w . I t i s f i n a l l y e n t a n g l e d i n a t r a p , o r d i e s i n a n e t . There a g a i n i s the y a k , huge as s k y - o b s c u r i n g c l o u d s . Indeed i t i s b i g . Ye t i t cannot even c a t c h m i c e ! (27) Now y o u , s i r , have a b i g t r e e and you wor ry t h a t i t ' s u s e l e s s . V/hy do you not p l a n t i t i n the l a n d o f n o n e x i s t e n c e , i n a wide and b a r -r e n w i l d e r n e s s ? By i t s s i d e you can d i s p o r t y o u r s e l f w i t h non -ado . Under i t you can repose u n t r a m m e l l e d . N e i t h e r b i l l no r axe would cu t i t down. N o t h i n g can harm i t . B e i n g e n t i r e l y u s e l e s s , i n what can i t be t r o u b l e d ? " "As to l a r g e and s m a l l t h i n g s , i f t hey are used w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , I 5 it hen i t i s -an ;« p r o b a b l e to come to harm as t o good . C o n v e r s e l y , as l o n g as the t h i n g i s a p p o s i t e l y employed , one can r e s t u n t r a m m e l l e d . " Name s |Wd'tu£feJ^?Nr0'J5^ ang, , f i r s t emperor o f Shang, . p.5. Ch i , ! P \ , a s c h o l a r i n T'ang's time. p.5. T a i Mountain, ifclU , s a c r e d mountain i n the west o f Shangtung. p.5. Sung Yung T z u j t ^ - J " , a l i a s Sung Y e n , $ $ f , a v i r t u o u s and l e a r n e d man i n Sung i n the War r i n g S t a t e s . He appears i n the T ' i e n Hsai c h a p t e r where Chuang T z u t h i n k s o f him as a g i t a t i n g h i m s e l f r a t h e r too much f o r the w o r l d . h, Yao, , sage-king-of; a n c i e n t China.. Hsu Y u , f ^ r ^ , renowned h e r m i t , contemporaneous w i t h Yao. Chien Wu,^^ , and L i e n Shu, l e a r n e d and v i r t u o u s men o f an-t i q u i t y . C hieh Y u , ^ ^ , h i s o t h e r name was Lu Tung,/^^,, a hermit i n Con-f u c i u s ' time. He p r e f e r r e d t o t i l l and plough the l a n d than to serve under the k i n g of'Chu,^? . In the A n a l e c t s he j e -e r s at C o n f u c i u s . . S h u n , ^ , succeeded Yao. Fen Shui Chi Yang, , north, o f r i v e r Fen, s i t e o f Yao's cap-i t a l . Hui Ssu,]§, p h i l o s o p h e r from Sung i n the War r i n g S t a t e s . He was prime m i n i s t e r o f Lian ,# f l , contemporaneous w i t h Chuang Tzu. He was a. grand master o f the Ming C h i a , ^ |L, and o f t e n , a l e a s t i n Chuang Tzu, d i s p u t e d , w i t h Chuang Tzu. Notes to The Text X (1 ) Fen ( jfi ). I t r a n s l a t e as d e s t i n y . The i d e a i s some unique p r o -p e r t i e s and a l l o t t e d v i c i s s i t u d e s p e r t a i n s e p a r a t e l y to each and everyone. A l l are governed by something a k i n t o a "Karmic Law", except i n Taoism i t i s the n a t u r a l law. One cannot, and s h o u l d not, exceed what one i s endowed w i t h o r f a t e d to encounter. I n o t h e r words one s h o u l d assume one's d e s t i n y . (2) Nu I cannot f i n d an exact e q u a v a l e n t . P r o f . H u r v i t z , p h i -l o l o g i s t par e x c e l l e n c e as he i s , has t r i e d t o d i s s u a d e me but I r e c a l c i t r a n t l y t h i n k t h a t the g e n e r a l i d e a , the ambience o f d a u n t l e s s n e s s , c r e a t e d by Nu cannot be c a p t u r e d as s u c c i n c t l y i n E n g l i s h . (3) C h ' i H s i e h I f o l l o w Yu Yueh and take i t t o be a man's name. The prima f a c i e evidence l i e s i n Untrammelled  Wandering i t s e l f . I n the next sentence i t i s s a i d — "The words of H s i e h are " I f C h ' i H s i e h f% ) i s a book, then Chuang Tzu cannot w r i t e as he does but s h o u l d say — "The words of C h ' i H s i e h |# ) " (4) Jen (4$ ) . 1 Jen i s 7 Chou ) f e e t . (5) Yeh Ma Yeh { $ j ) . The commentary e x p l i c a t e s the term as wandering a i r s . From Feng Yu-Lan*s Chuang Tzu I c u l l t h e a f o i l -owing n o t a t i o n by Kuo C h i n g - f a n — " T h i s i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the a c t i o n o f the P'eng i s j u s t as n a t u r a l as the movement o f the wandering a i r , o r the motes." (6) Here I depart d r a s t i c a l l y from the o t h e r t r a n s l a t o r s . My i n t -e r p r e t a t i o n o f the commentary.on t h i s passage w i l l , I hope bear me o u t . (7) L i Yu C h i h Fen ). The g e n e r a l i d e a i s when u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s are concerned, t h e r e e x i s t l i m i t s and realms t h a t can-not be exceeded. (8) Wang Sheng C h i h Chu ( ^ i ^ i ^ ^ - ). I t h i n k i t means the fundam-e n t a l s o f f o r g e t t i n g t o b o t h e r w i t h l i f e , r a t h e r than a master who e x c e l s i n f o r g e t t i n g about l i f e . (9) The P'eng's untrammelledness stems from the f a c t t h a t he i s aware of the n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , i . e % o n l y t h i c k a i r can bear b i g wings, and t h e r e f o r e can harmonize h i s own n a t u r e w i t h them. (10) Wu T a i C h i h Jen {J${% A. ). I c o n f e s s I harbour a p a r t i a l i t y towards the e p i t h e t a u t a r k i c . The a u t a r k i c man approximates t o the Wu T a i C h i h J e n , one who depends on n o t h i n g . The T'ung i ($^j U ) means the a u t a r k i c one p r e s i d e s over a l l . But to t r -anscend i s even b e t t e r than to p r e s i d e . (11) Ta-ch'un, see note (13). -P'eng Tsu {p/J^l ). He was a Shang ( $} ) man, renowned f o r h i s l o n g e v i t y , encompassing 800 y e a r s . -18-(12) H u i (1% ) . T h i s word means the end o f a month. Shuo [f§ ) i s the b e g i n n i n g o f a month. The m o r n i n g mushroom i s so named because i t i s b o r n i n the morn ing and p e r i s h e s i n the e v e n i n g . I t neve r l i v e s t h r o u g h a month. (13) M i n g L i n g ( | f ^ ) and T a - c h ' u n {"K^t ). Some commentators say these a re names o f p e r s o n s , some say t r e e s . I t end to concur w i t h the l a t t e r . See '(vl9) (•14) T i n g Pen ( j ] ) . I r e n d e r t h i s as p r e d e s t i n e d l i m i t a t i o n s . L i t e r a l l y i t i s " f i x e d p o r t i o n s " . (15) P ' i e n (_^ff ) . W i t h r e f e r e n c e to the c o n t e x t , P ' i e n here can mean e i t h e r d i f f e r e n c e o r d i s p u t e . (16) Shu Shu J a n Yeh & ) • Here the phrase can o n l y mean " to b o t h e r w i t h " . I t would be e r r o n e o u s t o i n t e r p r e t , as some t r a n s l a t o r s have done, Shu Shu as meaning many. I t has n o t h i n g to do w i t h numbers h e r e . (Yjl) The commentary usage o f Shu Shu b e a r s note (16) out and s u b s t -a n t i a t e i t . (18) Lu C h i ) . The se s i x a i r s d e s i g n a t e the ma le , the f e m a l e , w i n d , r a i n , d a r k n e s s and b r i g h t n e s s . (19) C h ' u n Mu (^XJv ) . The commentary ' s usage o f Ch&un Mu r e v e a l s t ha t t h e ' c o m m e n t a t o r s I n t e r p r e t M i n g L i n g and T a - C h ' u n ( n o t e l 3 ) as t r e e s , not p e r s o n s . (20) T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t p a s sage . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r sen tence can be i n t e r p r e t e d two ways . F i r s t — S i n c e the a u t a r k i c one and those t h a t depend a<ue«t'inssa'citmal i t y v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t , the commentators p e r f o r c e cannot equate them-. Second — The a u t a r k i c one i s f r e e , but when those t h a t depend p o s s e s s what they depend, t h e y a re e q u a l l y a t e a s e . T h e r e f o r e s t he sen tence can b e r r e a d as — "Pu Neng Pu C h i Yeh (^'•fl^'ff•& )" meaning I cannot but equate them, a d d i n g a Pu b e f o r e the Neng. I t e n d t o t h i n k the emendat ion i s germane. (21) T i e n H s i a ( f K ) . I t r a n s l a t e as the e m p i r e , b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t to the C h i n e s e i n a n t i q u i t y , the Ch inese empire encompassed the whole w o r l d . (22) Hua i Huo (fj|jf§ ) This t e rm has the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f b e i n g a b l e to accomodate a l l and encompass a l l . V a c u i t y w i t h a c a p i t a l V might do i t j u s t i c e . Huo ) means "a gap o r h o l l o w space w h i c h i s open a t b o t h ends , hence , p a s s a b l e , as a r a v i n e o r v a l l e y between m o u n t a i n s . " c f . A . L i n k , p i . 197 o f Symposium  On Tao i sm . (23) Wang Wu ( ^ ) . I n a n c i e n t t imes the emperor rode a c h a i s e w i t h canopy f a s h i o n e d out o f y e l l o w s i l k . (24) C h i ( & ) . I t means the good , the happy, the f o r t u n a t e . (25) Wai ( $ - ) s h o u l d r e a l l y be N e i ( f$ ) . Yao seeks the sages i n r e -mote Ku Y e h , s u p p o s e d l y o u t s i d e the f o u r s e a s . C o n v e r s e l y , the myopic p e r s o n s would seek the sages w i t h i n the f o u r s e a s . -19-( 2 6 ) I n the W a r r i n g S t a t e s Wu ( J * ) and Yueh <J$$[, ) v e r y o f t e n war r ed w i t h each o t h e r . ( 2 7 ) The yak i s l a r g e . I t cannot l e a p about o r c a t c h m i c e , l i k e the w i l d ca t o r the w e a s e l . Ye t the yak d i s p o r t s i t s e l f s e r e n e l y , t i l l i t s n a t u r a l end . The w i l d ca t o r the w e a s e l e x e r t t h e m s e l v e s t f e m e n d o u s l y but . cannot evade an abrup t and p a i n f u l end . The yak i s ••••not so a g -i l e , i n f a c t , i s b l a t a n t l y u s e l e s s but en joys a much h a p p i e r l o t . So, i t f o l l o w s , what i s u s e l e s s i s r e a l l y supremely u s e f u l , as f \ f a r as i t s e l f i s c o n c e r n e d . B i b l i o g r a p h y i> A. Books i n Chinese : 1. Ch'ien Mu, A Thorough A n a l y s i s of Chuang-Lao, Chuang Lao Tung P i en, 'WM~ ' New A s i a Research Centre,~. H . ' K ' . , 1957. 2. Chou Shao Yen, Discourses on Wie-Chin Pure Conversation, Wei-Chin Ch'ing T'an Shu Lun, %&ff; ( ^4j&M \ Commercial Press, Taiwan,. 1966. 3. Fan Shou K'ang, The Pure Conversation i n Wei—Chin, Wei-Chin T i Ch'ing T'an, t W f ^ ^ l " Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1936. ' 4. Ho Ch'i Min, A Study of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, Chu-Lin Ch'i-Hsien Yen-Chiu, /^fj-fo tt#$; £lfaff # " T a i P e i , 1966. ' x '' ' 5. Hou Wai-Lu, H i s t o r i c a l R e f l e c t i o n s on Ancient Chinese Philosophy, Chung-Kuo Ku Tai Ssu-Hsiang Hsueh Shuo Shih, -i^L**/, ~ 18 , Wen-Feng, Chunhking, 1942 6. Hsu T i Shan, H i s t o r y of Taoism, ... Tao Chiao Shih, t&J ill, ^'j&fflJJC , Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1934. 7. Kuan Feng, T r a n s l a t i o n , A n a l y s i s and C r i t i q u e of the Inner Chap-t e r s i n Chuang Tzu, Chuang Tzu Nei P'ien I Chieh Ho P ' i P'an, ^^W*^^P$«%$^'' > Peking' 1961-8. L i u Wen-Tien, Emended Text of Chuang Tzu, With Commentaries, Chuang Tzu Pu Cheng, f j &.JT" jTf ft \ Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1947. 9. Moo Tsung San, The Hsuan Hsueh i n Wei-Chin, Wei-Chin Hsuan Hsueh, Iff-^ , *$%jf%$¥ , Tung Hai U n i v e r s i t y , Taiwan, 1962. 10. T'anf Yung T ' i n g , Discourses and A r t i c l e s on Wei-Chin Hsuan Hsueh, Wei-Chin Hsuan Hsueh Lun Kao , Zfo "4% Peking, 1957. ' ^ T 11. Yung Shao Tsum, Naturalism i n Wei-Chin, Wei-Chin T i Tzu Jan Chu I, jtir 4$ " J g % £ j Commercial Press, Taiwan, 1966. f " ' ' B. Books i n E n g l i s h % 1. Chan, Wing-Tsit, A Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy, P r i n c i t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. 2. C r e e l , H. G.f What i s Taoism?, Chicago U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970. 3. Feng Yu-Lan, A H i s t o r y of Chinese Philosophy, v o l . 2, t r . D. Bode, I f e i n c i t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953. 4. Feng Yu-Lan, The S p i r i t of Chinese Philosophy, t r . E. R. Hughes, Kegan Paul, London, 1947. 5. Feng Yu-Lan, A Short H i s t o r y of Chinese Philosophy, ed. D. Bodde, The Free Press, New York, 1948. 6. Feng Yu-Lan, Chuang Tzu, Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1933. 7. Graham, A. C., L i e h Tzu, John Murray, London, I960. 8. Karltenmark, Max, Lao Tzu and Taoism, t r . Rdger Greaves, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969. 9. G i l e s , Herbert A., Chuang Tzu: Mystic, M o r a l i s t , and S o c a i l  Reformer, London, 1889. 10. L i n Yu-Tang, ed., The Wisdom of Lao Tzu, The Modern L i b r a r y , New York, 1948. 11. McNaughton, W i l l i a m , The T a o i s t V i s i o n , Inn Arbor Paperbacks, U. of Michigan, 1971. 12. Merton, Thomas, The Way of Chuang Tzu, New D i r e c t i o n s , 1965. 1 3 . Needham, Joseph, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China, v o l . 2, Research A s s i s t a n t Wang L i n g ), Can-bridge, 1962. 14. Waley, Arthur, Lao-Tzu; The Way and I t s Power, Barnes and Noble, E n g l e w o o d ' C l i f f s , New York, 1963. 15. Ware, James, t r . The Sayings of Chuang Tzu, Mentor, New York, 1963. 16. Watson, Burton, t r . , Chuang Tzu, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1968. 17. Welch, Holmes, The P a r t i n g of the Way, Beacon Press, Boston, 1957. Journal;?: H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n , Symposium on Taoism, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, November-February, 1969-1970. -22-Append ix A G o r d i a n knot p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n the s t u d y o f T a o i s m . The T a o , a c c o r d i n g to the T a o i s t s , i s p e r f e c t , e t e r n a l , a l l - p r e v a i l i n g . . The Tao creates a l l and s u s t a i n s a l l . But t h e n , when and why the f a l l f rom, not g r a c e , but the Tao? When and wh'^f, d i d man s t a r t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , t o f r agment , to c r e a t e v a l u e s , to p r e f e r some and eschew o t h e r s , to become s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , to t h i n k and a c t t e l e o l o g i c a l l y , i n s h o r t , to be u n n a t u r a l ? I f the Tao i s the t o t a l i t y o f a l l the n a t u r a l n e s s i n the u n i v e r s e , i s t h e r e some A n t i - T a o t h a t i s the t o t a l i t y o f the unna-t u r a l n e s s i n the u n i v e r s e ? A L u c i f e r i a n A n t i - T a o ? I f Tao gove rns a l l , how can u n n a t u r a l n e s s e x i s t i n the f i r s t p l a c e ? Chuang Tzu o b v i o u s l y r e g a r d e d even the w o r l d he l i v e d i n (he would be aghas t t o v i e w our s ) r a t h e r i m p e r f e c t and s e p a r a t e d from the T a o . He, i n h i s work , d e f i n i t e l y does not e x p l a i n what prompted t h i s i m p e r f e c t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n , Why from Wu ) t o Yu ( ^ )? Why from non-ado t o much-ado? I n the B e l l a g i o Confe rence on Taoism the same i s s u e was r a i s e d but not s o l v e d . (3.-1) The s c h o l a r s p r e s e n t a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t the C h i n e s e o f a n t i q u i t y neve r m y t h o l o g i z e d the f a l l from Tao a t a l l . The paradox o f Tao p r o d u c i n g some th ing u n t a o , i . e . u n n a t u r a l n e s s , d i s o r d e r , i m p e r f e c t i o n , was neve r r e a l i z e d by the C h i n e s e , V J The C h r i s t i a n paradox o f e v i l e x i s t i n g i n a w o r l d c r e a t e d by God, o m n i s c i e n t , o m n i p o t e n t , o m n i p r e s e n t , a f f o r d s an a p p o s i t e a n a l o g y . A n y t h i n g t h a t emanates from God p e r f o r c e must be good . M u t a t i s M u t a n d i s a w o r l d f a s h i o n e d by Tao must be f l a w l e s s . But not even the T a o i s t b e l i e v e d t h a t the w o r l d was p e r f e c t . In e s s e n c e , Lao T z u and Chuang Tzu seemed to d e p l o r e a w o r l d c r e a t e d and f a s h i o n e d by the T a o , the s e l f s ame Tao they urge us to swear a l l e g i a n c e t o . T h i s i s a bona f i d e paradox and r e m a i n s , I c o n f e s s , a G o r d i a n knot to me. Hand me, p r i t h e e , E x c a l i b u r ! (1) p . 112, Symposium on T a o i s m . 

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