UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Sources of information and education used by Korean adult residents in Vancouver Lee, Rimkyu 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A8 L44.pdf [ 6.62MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101734.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101734-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101734-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101734-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101734-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101734-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101734-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101734-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101734.ris

Full Text

SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND EDUCATION USED BY KOREAN ADULT RESIDENTS IN VANCOUVER by RIMKYU LEE B . A . , Konkuk U n i v e r s i t y , S e o u l , Korea , 1959 Post -Graduate , Seoul N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , S e o u l , Korea , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y of Educa t ion (Adul t Educa t ion) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH, 1972 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Adult Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B. C,, Canada vDatet March, 1972 THANKS BE TO GOD i ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to determine the use made of c e r t a i n sources of i n fo rma t ion and educa t ion by Korean immigrants i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The a n a l y t i c a l survey method which a p p l i e s a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule was used, and a sample c o n s i s t i n g of e igh ty- two a d u l t Koreans was i n t e r v i e w e d . Male and female a d u l t Koreans were compared, and f a c t o r s such as socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pa t t e rns were ana lyzed i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t educa t ion to determine whether or not any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The Korean r e s i d e n t s had a median of two to three years o f l eng th of r e s idence , a median age o f 30, and an average o f 16 years of schoo l completed. The Koreans were newer r e s i d e n t s , i n the younger age ca tegory , and h i g h l y educated. The respondents had a median annual f a m i l y income of $7i500. There were o n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the male and female respondents and these were age and E n g l i s h f l u e n c y . The males tended to be o l d e r and more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h than the females . One-quarter of the respondents had attended schools or u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada, and the m a j o r i t y of those a d u l t s were graduate st u d e n t s . One-tenth of the sample had completed v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses i n Vancouver. Koreans' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education was mainly concentrated i n E n g l i s h language c l a s s e s . Some f o r t y - s i x per cent of the respondents had taken a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses. Most of those respondents had completed a one-month course o f b a s i c a d u l t E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to e i g h t socio-economic s t a t u s i n c l u d i n g age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n a t home, l e n g t h of re s i d e n c e i n Vancouver, employment, income, and ed u c a t i o n . There was on l y one s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was E n g l i s h f l u e n c y a t the time of a r r i v a l i n Canada. Approximately seventy-one per cent of the sample s u b s c r i b e d to newspapers, 59.8 per cent read magazines i n E n g l i s h , 91.5 per cent r e g u l a r l y watched t e l e v i s i o n , and 78'. 1 per cent r e p o r t e d r e g u l a r m o n i t o r i n g o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . Of the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A lower degree of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to hi g h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 The Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . 2 Method . 3 P o p u l a t i o n and Sample 3 Data C o l l e c t i o n 4 Data A n a l y s i s 5 Review of Rela ted L i t e r a t u r e 5 Importance o f A s s i m i l a t i o n 6 Language and A s s i m i l a t i o n 8 Informat ion and A s s i m i l a t i o n . . . . 9 A d u l t Educa t ion and A s s i m i l a t i o n . . 12 P l a n of the Study 13 I I KOREAN RESIDENTS IN VANCOUVER . . . . . . 14 Koreans i n Canada 14 Koreans i n Vancouver 16 Length o f Residence 16 Age 17 M a r i t a l S ta tus 19 Fami ly Composi t ion and Number o f C h i l d r e n 20 E n g l i s h Fluency . . . . . . . . . 21 Employment 24 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 31 i v CHAPTER PAGE I I KOREAN RESIDENTS IN VANCOUVER (Cont 'd ) Income 32 9-L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s . . . . . . . . 34 A t t i t u d e toward L i v i n g i n Canada 35 Summary 36 I I I EDUCATION • 38 Schools i n Korea . . . . . . 38 Educa t ion . 42 Job T r a i n i n g 48 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 IV ADULT EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES . . 54 The P r o v i s i o n o f A d u l t Educa t ion . . . 54 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t Educa t ion . . . 56 Age 59 • Sex 59 M a r i t a l S ta tus . . . . . . 60 Number o f . C h i l d r e n 61 Length o f Residence 62 Employment 64 Income . . . . . . . . . 65 E d u c a t i o n a l Background i n Korea . 67 Prev ious E n g l i s h Fluency . . . . . 68 V CHAPTER PAGE IV ADULT EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES (Cont'd) Present E n g l i s h Fluency . . . . . 69* Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 D e s i r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . . . . 72 Sources of Inf o r m a t i o n . . . . . . . . .73 Agencies 7^ Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . ?6 Summary . . . . . . . . . 80 S o c i a l Contacts . . . . . 81 A t t i t u d e ..toward L i v i n g i n ' Canada . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 81 P a r t i c i p a t i o n ;.in Non-Ethnic Group' A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . 82 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E t h n i c Group A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . 83 V i s i t i n g w i t h Canadian F a m i l i e s i n Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . 83 V i s i t i n g with Korean F a m i l i e s i n Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . 85 C h a t t i n g or T a l k i n g with Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 V SUMMARY 90 Korean Residents i n Vancouver . . . . 90 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . . . . . 9k Sources of Information 95 . CHAPTER P A G E V SUMMARY (Cont'd) S o c i a l Contacts 97 Conclusions 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 APPENDIX ONE 1 0 k APPENDIX TWO 107 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Length of Residence i n Vancouver 17 2 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Age 18 3 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Marital Status . . 19 4 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Number of Children 20 5 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Previous English Fluency . . . . . . . 22 6 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Present English Fluency . 23 7 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Previous N English Fluency and Present English Fluency 24 8 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Present Occupation 26 9 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Previous Occupation i n Korea 29 10 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Previous Occupation i n Korea and Present Occupation 30 11 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Job Satsfaction 31 v i i i TABLE PAGE 12 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Own Earnings . . . 32 13 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Family Income . . 33 14 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by A t t i t u d e toward L i v i n g i n Canada 36 15 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Years of School completed i n Korea . . . . . . . 42 16 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Years of Schooling i n Canada . 43 17 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Academic Degree held 45 18 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Major Studies i n U n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea . 46 19 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Major Studies i n Canadian Schools 47 20 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Previous Job T r a i n i n g r e c eived i n Korea 48 21 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Job T r a i n i n g r e c e ived i n Canada . . 50 22 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Male and Female Respondents by Adu l t Education Courses taken 58 23 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and Non-participants i n Adul t Education by Age 59 i x TABLE PAGE 2k Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Sex 60 25 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by M a r i t a l S t a t u s . . . 6l 26 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Number of C h i l d r e n 62 27 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Length of Residence . 63 28 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s 65 29 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by T o t a l Family income . 66 30 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Years of School completed i n Korea 67 31 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Previous E n g l i s h Fluency 69 32 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Present E n g l i s h Fluency 70 X TABLE PAGE 33 C h i Square V a l u e s f o r D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 71 34 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs D e s i r e d by the K o r e a n Respondents . 73 35 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by A t t i t u d e toward L i v i n g i n Canada 82 36 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n N o n - E t h n i c Group A c t i v i t i e s 83 37 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Number o f V i s i t s w i t h C a n a d i a n F a m i l i e s i n Vancouve r . . . 84 38 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Number o f V i s i t s w i t h K o r e a n F a m i l i e s i n Vancouve r . . . . 85 39 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by Number o f Cha t s o r T a l k s w i t h N e i g h b o u r s . 87 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Since Canada has admitted l a r g e numbers of immigrants, the country has developed i n t o an e t h n i c a l l y heterogeneous s o c i e t y . During the p e r i o d of 1852 to 1970, over ten m i l l i o n immigrants entered Canada from v i r t u a l l y every n a t i o n of the w o r l d . 1 Approximately one i n nine 2 persons i s a post-war immigrant. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the Canadian s o c i e t y tends to be segregated i n t o e t h n i c groups and a n a t i o n a l problem i n s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l f i e l d s r e s u l t s . In t h i s r egard, a s s i m i l a t i o n o f immigrants i s a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect to be considered by a d u l t educators. A man without an adequate e d u c a t i o n a l background and knowledge can not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n formal and organized community l i f e . E d u c a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , an important element i n l e a d i n g the a d u l t to become an i n t e r e s t e d and s o c i a l l y ^1970 Immigration S t a t i s t i c s , Canada, Canada Immigration D i v i s i o n , Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa, 19?0, pp. 4. p G. P. A l l e n , E t h n i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canadian  S o c i e t y , Prepared f o r The Trans-Canada A l l i a n c e of German-Canadians Annual Convention, S t . C a t h a r i n e s , O n t a r i o , (November), 1968, pp. 1. "• c o n t r i b u t i n g member of h i s community. A d u l t educa t ion should f u n c t i o n to g ive the adu l t an awareness of h i s c u l t u r e and to enhance prompt e f f e c t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n . In t h i s r ega rd , i t i s e s s e n t i a l tha t adu l t educators understand e thn ic groups and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i f they are to work w i t h them e f f e c t i v e l y . There are, ve ry few s t u d i e s tha t attempt to desc r ibe and analyse the func t ions of each e thn ic group i n the Canadian s o c i e t y . The educators must a l s o take i n t o account the need f o r a p r e c i s e s tudy o f these adu l t s as new Canadians and as members of the Canadian s o c i e t y . THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to determine the use made of c e r t a i n sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and educat ion by Korean immigrants i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, Male and female a d u l t Koreans were compared, a n d f a c o t r s such as age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number o f c h i l d r e n * l eng th of r e s i d e n c e , educa t ion , employment, income, and E n g l i s h f l u e n c y were analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t educa t ion to determine whether or not any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . In a d d i t i o n , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pa t t e rns o f the Koreans i n c l u d i n g a t t i t u d e toward l i v i n g i n Canada, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-e thn i c group a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e thn ic group .3 a c t i v i t i e s , v i s i t i n g with Canadians-families, v i s i t i n g w i t h Korean f a m i l i e s , and c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours were analyzed i n connection with p a r t i c i p a t i o n and non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education to observe the r e l a t i o n s h i p between such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. METHOD The a n a l y t i c a l survey method which a p p l i e s a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule (see attached appendix two) was used i n t h i s study. Population and Sample There are 163 Korean a d u l t s l i v i n g i n Vancouver according to the recent Korean r e s i d e n t s d i r e c t o r y issued by the Vancouver Korean S o c i e t y i n J u l y , 1971. The numbers were composed of 82 male and 81 female a d u l t s . In s e l e c t i n g the sample, the names were l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n t o two r o s t e r s , one a male a d u l t group and the other a female a d u l t group. A s t r a t i f i e d random sample of 50 per cent of each group was s e l e c t e d to comprise 41 males and 41 females. In a d d i t i o n , 30 a l t e r n a t e s (15 males and 15 females) were als o randomly s e l e c t e d i n order to cover any p o s s i b l e l o s s from the o r i g i n a l sample during the survey. 4 Data C o l l e c t i o n Prior to c o l l e c t i n g the data, f i v e adults who were not i n the sample nor i n the alternates were interviewed in order to determine whether there would be any problem concerning the survey administration. The revised interview schedule was then used for personal interview with the sample. In the process of the survey, 21.9 per cent (10 males and 8 females) were eliminated from the o r i g i n a l samples selected. Five per cent (1 male and 3 females) refused to be interviewed and 7 •3 .per cent (4 males and 2 females) were rejected because they were temporary residents i n Canada. Approximately ten per cent (5 males and 3 females) had moved during the two to three months between the enumeration and the v interviewing. Those in the o r i g i n a l sample who were not interviewed were replaced from the reserved alternates. The interview schedule was printed i n English. The interview procedure required the interviewer•either to read each questionnaire i n English or to interpret each of the items into Korean or to use both languages at the respondent's convenience to obtain the appropriate responses. Approximately one hour was required to complete an interview. Most interviewees r e a d i l y agreed to be interviewed and showed a sincere inte r e s t i n the subject 5 and i n responding to the prepared items. The c o l l e c t i o n of the data r e q u i r e d s i x weeks during the months of September and October, 1971. Data A n a l y s i s The data were coded and entered on punch cards and analysed by the MVTAB and TRIP computer programs at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v a r i a t e and b i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s were used to summarize the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s and the h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l , and t o t a l percentages of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d . Chi square t e s t s were used to appraise the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y of the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was used to determine the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to non-English speaking immigrants c o n s i s t s of d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s of a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n , and a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y reviewed with respect to four major dimensions i n c l u d i n g importance of a s s i m i l a t i o n ; language and a s s i m i l a t i o n ; i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n ; and a d u l t education and a s s i m i l a t i o n . 6 A number o f t he se s t u d i e s have been r e v i e w e d by P o r t e r and ^ 4 h i s a s s o c i a t e s , ^ by Sawrey and T e l f o r d , by M c l e n d o n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , and by V e r n e r and B o o t h . Those r e v i e w s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t needs f o r the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t s i n a h o s t s o c i e t y and i n d i c a t e the n a t u r e o f a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s r e v i e w w i l l s t r e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t E n g l i s h l anguage t r a i n i n g program f o r i m m i g r a n t s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as t h e s e two a s p e c t s a r e p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s s t u d y . IMPORTANCE OF ASSIMILATION A s s i m i l a t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t s can s t r e n g t h e n the r e s e r v e p o o l s o f manpower, bu t when i t i s n o t e f f e c t i v e l y ^ B e r n a r d R . B l i s h e n , F r a n k E . J o n e s , K a s p a r D . N a e g e l e , and J o h n P o r t e r ( e d s . ) , C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ( T h i r d E d i t i o n ) , M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a / T o r o n t o , 1968 . 4 James M . Sawrey and C h a r l e s W. T e l f o r d , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , P s y c h o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n , Second E d i t i o n , A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . , B o s t o n , 1964-. •^Jonathon C . M c l e n d o n , S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f  E d u c a t i o n , C u r r e n t R e a d i n g s from the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , The M a c m i l l a n Company, New Y o r k , 1966. ^ C o o l i e V e r n e r and A l l a n Booth," A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , The C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a t i o n , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1964. maintained the n a t i v e s o c i e t y l o s e s a u s e f u l sources of i n t e l l i g e n c e and l a b o u r . Breton i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m o b i l i t y p o t e n t i a l o f the immigrant i s reduced when the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e t h n i c group are n e g a t i v e l y evaluated by the n a t i v e community.''7 T h e r e f o r e , a s s i m i l a t i o n must be a p p r o p r i a t e l y and v i g o r o u s l y encouraged by the host s o c i e t y . To promote a s s i m i l a t i o n of immigrants, there may be s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways to proceed; P o r t e r s a i d t h a t the establishment of f a i r employment and f a i r accommodation i n i n d u s t r i e s and Q p r o v i n c e s promotes a s s i m i l a t i o n to some extent. Woodsworth p o i n t e d out "the o n l y way to a s s i m i l a t e immigrants was by t h e i r being s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s the e n t i r e country r a t h e r than being l e f t i n t i g h t s o l i d communities". Cass emphasized t h a t today's communities should encourage people to p a r t i c i p a t e and a s s i m i l a t e i n community l i f e . He f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d t h a t the l e a d e r s of communities should have more concern and awareness of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to 'Raymond Breton, I n s t i t u t i o n a l Completeness of E t h n i c Communities and the P e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s of Immigrants i n B l i s h e n , Jones, Naegele, and P o r t e r (eds.), op. c i t . , pp. 670. 8 John.Porter, The V e r t i c a l Mosaic. An A n a l y s i s o f School C l a s s And Power In Canada, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965. pp. 72. % o odsworth, c i t e d i n I b i d . , pp. 66. 8 h e l p a d u l t s whose e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r l i f e i n t h e i r new community." 1 " 0 T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y t r u e when r e l a t e d t o i m m i g r a n t s from n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . I n t h i s r e g a r d , many c o m m u n i t i e s a r e o f f e r i n g an E n g l i s h c o u r s e f o r new C a n a d i a n s . LANGUAGE AND ASSIMILATION A s s i m i l a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t ma in t enance o f good c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t hose i n the communi ty . When p e o p l e communica te , t h e y m u t u a l l y exchange i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r d s . I m m i g r a n t s c o u l d l e a r n the new c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n the r e c e i v i n g communi ty . 1 " ' ' However , i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e the new c u l t u r e when t h e r e i s a l anguage b a r r i e r f a c i n g the i m m i g r a n t . T h e r e f o r e , t o l e a r n enough o f the c o m m u n i t y ' s l anguage t o be a b l e t o c a r r y on u s e f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f 12 a s s i m i l a t i o n . Sawrey and T e l f o r d p o i n t e d ou t l anguage i s A n g e l i c a W. C a s s , Fundamen ta l and L i t e r a c y E d u c a t i o n f o r N a t i v e and F o r e i g n - B o r n A d u l t s , i n M a l c o l m S . K n o w l e s ( e d . ) , Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f the U . S . A . , C h i c a g o , 111., I960, p p . 455. i : i C h a r l e s A . E l l w o o d , C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k ! D . A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C o . , 192?, p p . 83-4. Ward Hunt Goodenough, C o o p e r a t i o n i n Change , R u s e l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1963, p p . 389-91. 9 one o f most e f f e c t i v e means o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f immigrants 13 and s o c i a l c o n t a c t . E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g program w i l l i n s t i l l a de s i r e fo r c i t i z e n s h i p , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the n a t i v e community l i f e , and awareness of the du t i e s 14 • and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the community members. Thus, E n g l i s h language courses w i l l l ead e thn ic a d u l t s who have had l i t t l e or no formal educa t ion i n the new country to understand the problems of t h e i r immediate environment. INFORMATION AND ASSIMILATION In fo rmat ion i s gained through pe r sona l i n t e r a c t i o n and through the media o f mass communication. One must have i n f o r m a t i o n from both these sources i f he i s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community l i f e . Thus, men n a t u r a l l y pe rce ive the n e c e s s i t y of in tercommunica t ion w i t h o thers and the need to r e l y on mass media. Schram exp la ined tha t mass communication he lps men a r r i v e at a consensus so tha t people can put p o l i c y i n t o e f f e c t , and he lps men keep the o r d i n a r y 15 i n t e r a c t i o n s of a communal l i f e g o i n g . Neve r the l e s s , 13 ^Sawrey and T e l f o r , op. c i t . , pp. 84. , "^Cass , i n Knowles ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , pp. 456-57. ^ W i l b u r Schram, The Nature of Mass Communication, i n Mclendon, op. c i t . , pp. 96, 97. 10 Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver can not r e l y too h e a v i l y on the mass media due to t h e i r i n s u f f i c i e n t unders tanding of E n g l i s h . Ne i t he r can they become s o c i a l l y a c t i v e i n the s o c i e t y they l i v e i n because of the language b a r r i e r . W i l l i a m s s a i d tha t when the media Use a d i f f e r e n t a lphabet and language from tha t of the r e c e i v e r , l i t t l e or no. i n fo rma t ion would be t r ansmi t t ed f o r each would supposedly 16 be communicating i n d i f f e r e n t languages. . To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , Korean a d u l t s i n Vancouver g e n e r a l l y tend to depend on i n t e r a c t i o n wi th t h e i r countrymen i n t h e i r mother tongue more than they depend on the media of mass communication. They use the media main ly f o r amusement, t u r n i n g to the enter ta inment programs on t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o . Some of the Korean a d u l t s who know more about the n a t i v e s o c i e t y and are able to understand more E n g l i s h , ac t as sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n fo r o ther Koreans . Verner and Booth s a i d tha t o p i n i o n l eaders tend to be the audience of 17 mass media and they then d isseminate the i n f o r m a t i o n . Bre ton and P i n a r d i n d i c a t e d tha t immigrants w i th ' l i t t l e Frank E . W i l l i a m s , Conference Overview With Models and Summary L i s t s o f Tenable Ideas and Research Areas , i n • C a l v i n W. T a y l o r ( e d . ) , I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media and C r e a t i v i t y , The Proceedings of the S i x t h Utah C r e a t i v i t y Research Conference he ld at Tor ry P ines I n n . , La J a l l a , C a l i f o r n i a , John Wi ley and Sons, I n c . , New York , 1966, pp. 363. 17 Verner and Booth, op. c i t . , pp. 33« 11 knowledge of the n a t i v e language tended to a s s o c i a t e with t h e i r own n a t i o n a l group. They found that "47 per cent of those who speak E n g l i s h w e l l have most of t h e i r t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r own n a t i o n a l group, as compared with 91 per cent of . 18 those who speak E n g l i s h p o o r l y " . Breton and P i n a r d a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t a r e c e n t l y - a r r i v e d immigrant has a g r e a t e r tendency to a s s o c i a t e w i t h i n h i s n a t i o n a l group than a longer term immigrant. , Since communication with the n a t i v e groups i s the main means to g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the c u l t u r e and h a b i t s of the host s o c i e t y , to i n c r e a s e the immigrant's f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h i s important. I t suggests the need f o r a combined a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program f o r immigrants so t h a t they could become i n v o l v e d i n a c o n t i n u i n g course to improve t h e i r f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h and to i n c r e a s e t h e i r a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community l i f e . Groves emphasized! The e d u c a t i o n a l program l e a d i n g to the a s s i m i l a t i o n of f o r e i g n people can not stop at the mere t e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h . There i s a l s o g r e a t need of i n t e r p r e t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , h i s t o r y , and government p r i n c i p l e s of the host s o c i e t y so as to g i v e the immigrant the s o c i a l background necessary f o r an understanding of the n a t i v e community c i v i l i z a t i o n . ^ 9 18 Raymond Breton and Maurice P i n a r d , Immigrants: C r i t e r i a and Processes, i n B l i s h e n , Jones, Naegele, and P o r t e r ( e d s . ) , Canadian S o c i e t y , S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , Revised E d i t i o n , Macmillan of Canada/Toronto, 1965.- pp. 85. 19 E r n e s t R. Groves, S o c i a l Problems and Education, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1925» pp.-283. . 12 ADULT EDUCATION AND ASSIMILATION The r o l e o f a d u l t educa t ion cou ld c o n t r i b u t e to the process o f a s s i m i l a t i o n o f immigrants i n t o the n a t i v e 20 community. Verner and h i s a s soc i a t e as w e l l as 21 Hal lenbeck s a i d tha t a d u l t educa t ion p rov ides knowledge concerning l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l issues-, Wiggin i n d i c a t e d tha t the movement fo r immigrants ' 22 a s s i m i l a t i o n was an important t rend i n adu l t e d u c a t i o n . The importance o f adu l t educat ion a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e spec t to immigrants ' a s s i m i l a t i o n can not be underes t imated . In g e n e r a l , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n a d u l t educa t ion , as Verner and Booth i n d i c a t e d t ha t , va ry depending on s o c i o -economic s t a tus such as age, sex/' m a r i t a l s t a t u s / n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n , r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , educa t ion , occupa t ion , 23 and income. Verner and Newberry i n d i c a t e d tha t 20 • Verner and Booth, op. c i t . , pp. 10. 21 Wi lbur C . Ha l l enbeck , Community i n Theory and P r a c t i c e o f A d u l t Educa t i on , i n Wi lbur C. Ha l l enbeck , C o o l i e Verner , Jack London, Pau l Be rgev in , and Robert M. Smi th , A d u l t Educa t ion Theory and Method, Community and A d u l t Educa t ion , A d u l t Educa t ion A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S. A . , Washington (June) , 1962, pp. 1. 22 Gladys A . Wigg in , M a t e r i a l s f o r A d u l t Educa t ion , i n Knowles ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , pp. 97-8 . 23 Verner and Booth, op. c i t . , pp. 28-9 . 13 p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s o f v a r i o u s e thn ic groups may vary w i th 24 the s t a tus o f the e thn ic group. PLAN OF THE STUDY The s t a tus of Korean a d u l t r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver beg inn ing wi th the a n a l y s i s of data about the people ; l eng th of r e s idence , age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f a m i l y compos i t ion and number of c h i l d r e n , E n g l i s h f l u e n c y , employment, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , income, and a t t i t u d e toward l i v i n g i n Canada are desc r ibed i n Chapter Two. That chapter i s fo l l owed by one which desc r ibes the educa t i ona l background o f the Korean a d u l t s i n Korea and i n Canada. A d u l t educa t ion i s d i scussed i n Chapter .Four w i t h respec t to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h i s survey r ega rd ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t educa t ion and s o c i a l con tac t s i s presented i n t h i s chap te r . Chapter F i v e presents the summary and conc lu s ions of the s tudy . C o o l i e Verner and John ,S . Newberry, J r . , "The Nature of A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , A d u l t Educa t ion , 8:208-222, (Summer, 19.58). 14 CHAPTER TWO KOREAN RESIDENTS IN VANCOUVER The Korean group i n Vancouver i s e t h n i c a l l y homogeneous but s ca t t e r ed throughout the c i t y of Vancouver. There are some d i f f e r e n c e s between Korean immigrants and other e thn ic groups i n Vancouver and these may be a t t r i b u t e d to the recent en t ry o f the Koreans i n t o Canada. D i s t i n c t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s which represent the Korean e thn ic group were observed. This gene ra l s t a tus o f the Korean e thn ic group i s s i m i l a r to tha t of other overseas Korean r e s i d e n t s elsewhere i n Canada, Europe, and South and North Amer ica . KOREANS IN CANADA There are now 4,918 Koreans l i v i n g i n Canada. The m a j o r i t y of the Korean r e s i d e n t s were admit ted a f t e r the new immigra t ion r e g u l a t i o n s came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1967. 1 A recent s t a t i s t i c a l datum marks the f o l l o w i n g s t a tus o f 2 immigra t ion from the Repub l ic of Korea : The Overseas Korean Res idents S t a t u s , The Bureau o.f Consular A f f a i r s of the M i n i s t r y of Fo re ign A f f a i r s , Repub l ic of Korea government, S e o u l , Korea , (December 1, 1971), pp. 213. . - ' 2 L e t t e r , Ottawa KIA OJ 9, Korean Immigrat ion  S t a t i s t i c s . Department of Manpower and Immigra t ion , Ottawa, September 16, 1971. 15 Year admit ted Number of the immigrants 1965 94 1966 189 196? 622 1968 s 851 1969 880 1970 • 918 1971 ( f i r s t 6 months) 456 The f i r s t year Koreans were recorded s e p a r a t e l y i n the s t a t i s t i c s of Department of Manpower and Immigra t ion , -Ottawa was 1965. P r i o r to tha t they were i n c l u d e d wi th o ther A s i a n n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Most o f the Korean immigrants are l i v i n g i n the urban a reas . The m a j o r i t y of the Korean immigrants , es t imated a t approximate ly three, thousand are - l i v i n g . i n : ' Toronto and i t s suburban areas w h i l e Mont rea l and Vancouver have approximate ly four hundred each. Edmonton and Ottawa a l s o have s e v e r a l hundred o f these r e s i d e n t s whereas other s m a l l c i t i e s such as C a l g a r y , Saskatoon, Regina , Mani toba , S a u l t s t e . M a r i e , London, K i t c h e n e r - w a t e r l o o , Guelph, Hami l t on , H a l i f a x , and S t . John ' s h a v e , l e s s than one hundred Korean f a m i l i e s . In a d d i t i o n , ' a few Koreans are s c a t t e r e d elsewhere throughout Canada; '•for example , . there are l e s s than 10 Korean f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n W i l l i a m s Lake, 16 Pr ince George, Ne l son , and Vancouver I s l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia . There are approximate ly 3 .820 Koreans i n the Eas t e rn p rov inces beyond Manitoba and 1 ,098 i n the Western . 3 p r o v i n c e s . KOREANS IN VANCOUVER Length of Residence. The l eng th of res idence of the Korean respondents i n Vancouver ranged from four months to seven and h a l f yea r s . The median l eng th o f res idence was two to three.-years and the average was two and / .half years a t the time o f the i n t e r v i e w . Of the respondents , 23-2 per cent had one year of l e s s , 51-2 per cent had two to three yea r s , 19.5 per cent had four to f i v e yea r s , 3.7 per cent had s i x to seven yea r s , and 2.4 per cent had over seven years of res idence i n Vancouver. (Table l ) . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n l eng th of r e s i d e n c e . Some 82.9 per cent o f the sample came ' ' d i r ec t ly from the Republ ic of Korea to Vancouver w h i l e 1.7.1 per cent came from elsewhere i n Canada or from another f o r e i g n coun t ry . The Overseas Korean Res idents S ta tus , op. c i t . 17 TABLE 1 . . PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION.OF MALE.AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE' IN VANCOUVER Years o f res idence T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % 1 or l e s s 19 23.2 7 17.1 12 29.3 2 - 3 42 51.2* 23 56.1* 19 46.3* 4 - 5 16 19-5 9 22.0 7 17.1 6 - 7 3 3.7 1 2 . 4 2 4.9 Over 7 2 2.4 1 2 . 4 1 2.4 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 2 . 1 4 , Df 3, P > .05 Age The age o f the Korean respondents ranged from 19 to 64 years o l d and the median age was 3 ° . Of the respondents , 62.2 per cent were 34 years o f age or l e s s whereas 37 .'8 per cent were more than 34 years o l d . (Table 2 ) . There were two la rge groups o f the Korean respondents i n the age groups 25 to 34 years o l d (57.3 per cent) and 35 to 44 years o l d (34.2 per c e n t ) . R e l a t i v e l y fewer respondents were i n the youngest and o l d e s t age c a t e g o r i e s . The age d i s t r i b u t i o n between the' male and female respondents was . S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t and the female respondents were found to be younger than the male respondents . TABLE 2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE BY AGE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS Age group T o t a l Male Female No No % No % 15 - 19 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 2.4 2 0 - 2 4 3 3.7 0 0.0 3 7.3 2 5 - 3 4 47 57.3* 20 48.8 •27 65.9* 35 - 44 28 34.2 18 43.9* 10 24.4 45 - 54 2 2.4 2 4.9 : 0 0.0 55 - 64 1 1.2 1 •"' 2.4- 0 0.0 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 8.94, Df 2, ' P < .05 Accord ing to the new immigra t ion r e g u l a t i o n s , the a p p l i c a n t of 18 to 35 years o l d cou ld o b t a i n ten u n i t s 4 whi l e one u n i t was deducted f o r each year of age over 35• This r e g u l a t i o n may be important i n f l u e n c e on the age o f th respondents as o l d e r a p p l i c a n t s would b e . p e n a l i z e d . A New Approach To Immigra t ion , Department.of Manpower and Immigra t ion , Canada, 1969. pp. 5. 19 M a r i t a l S ta tus There were more marr ied a d u l t s than s i n g l e persons among the Korean respondents . Of the sample, 82.9 per cent were marr ied w h i l e 17.1 per cent were s i n g l e . (Table 3) . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s . No one was l i s t e d as d i v o r c e d , separa ted , or widowed among the Korean respondents , and on ly one person had marr ied a non-Korean. TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE -AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS M a r i t a l s t a tus T o t a l ' Male Female No. ' % ' No. '% No. % Mar r i ed 68 82 .9* 35 85.4* 33 80 .5* S i n g l e 14 17.1 6 14.6 8 19-5 Divorced , Separated or Widowed 0 0.0 0 0 . 0 0 0.0 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 0.09, Df = l , ' P > .05 About s i x t y per cent of the respondents were household heads wh i l e 40.2 per cent were dependents o f household heads. 20 Fami ly Composi t ion and Number o f C h i l d r e n Some s i x t y - t h r e e per cent of the respondents r epor ted tha t they had c h i l d r e n wh i l e 36.6 per cent had none. The number of c h i l d r e n ranged from one to f i v e and the average was 1.4 c h i l d r e n per marr ied a d u l t . Of the parent respondents , 32.9 per cent had one c h i l d , 15-9 per cent had two c h i l d r e n , 8.5 per cent had th ree , 3-7 per cent had fou r , and 2.4 per cent had f i v e c h i l d r e n . (Table 4). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t : d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents w i t h respec t to the number o f c h i l d r e n . TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE-RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN Number o f c h i l d r e n T o t a l Male ,Female No. fo No. % No. fo 1 2? 32 .9* 13 31.7* 14 34.2* 2 13 15.9 6 14.6 7 17.1 3 7 8.5 3 7.3 4 9.7 4 3 3.7 2 5.0 1 2.4 5 2 2.4 1 2.4 1 2.4 None 30 36.6 16 39.0 14 34.2 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = .00, Df = 1, P > .05 21 In number of p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , 31•7 per cent r e p o r t e d that they had one, and 18.3 per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t they had two c h i l d r e n of p r e - s c h o o l age. There were 12.2 per cent of the respondents who r e p o r t e d t h a t they had c h i l d r e n i n Grade 1, 8.5 per cent s a i d t h at they had c h i l d r e n i n Grade 2, and 4.9 per cent s a i d t h a t they had c h i l d r e n i n Grade 3« No c h i l d r e n of the Korean respondents were i n a grade h i g h e r than Grade 3- The number o f Korean c h i l d r e n i n the lower grades was c o n s i s t e n t with the lower age of the p a r e n t s . E n g l i s h Fluency In order to observe the degree of the respondent's f l u e n c y and improvement i n the E n g l i s h language, E n g l i s h f l u e n c y a t the time of a r r i v a l i n Canada (previous E n g l i s h f l u e n c y ) and E n g l i s h f l u e n c y a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w (present E n g l i s h f l u e n c y ) were measured. In the p r e v i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y , 20.7 per cent of the respondents were a t the v e r y poor l e v e l , 58.6 per cent spoke E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l , and 20.7 per cent spoke f l u e n t l y . (Table 5). More than 50 per cent of both male and female respondents were f a i r l y f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h a t the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada. However, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n p r e v i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y , with males more f l u e n t than females. 22 . TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS ENGLISH FLUENCY E n g l i s h f l uency T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % Speak E n g l i s h a l l or p o o r l y not a t 17 20.7 2 4,9 15 36.6 Speak E n g l i s h f a i r l y w e l l w e l l or 48 58.6*' 27 65.9* 21 51.2* Speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y 17 20.7 12 29.2 5 12.2 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 =. 13.57, Df = 2, P < .05 In the degree o f present E n g l i s h f l u e n c y , 10.9 per cent of the respondents had no spoken E n g l i s h or were very poor, 47.6 per cent spoke w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l , and 41.5 per cent spoke f l u e n t l y . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n present E n g l i s h f luency as 53.7 per cent of the males spoke f l u e n t l y w h i l e 53«7 per cent of the females were f a i r l y f l u e n t a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . Thus, the male :• respondents were more f l u e n t than the females at p re sen t . (Table 6 ) . 23 TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY PRESENT ENGLISH FLUENCY E n g l i s h f luency T o t a l Male . Female No. % No. • % No. % Speak E n g l i s h a l l or p o o r l y not a t 9 .10 .9 2 4.-9 7 ' 17 .1 Speak E n g l i s h f a i r l y w e l l w e l l or 39 47 .6* 17 41.4 22 53 .7* Speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y 34 41 .5 22 53.7*.' 12 29 .2 T o t a l 82 100 .0 41 100.0 41 100 .0 * Median X 2 = 6.36, Df = 2, P < .05 The present E n g l i s h f luency showed a r e l a t i v e l y h ighe r l e v e l compared w i t h p rev ious E n g l i s h f l u e n c y and' i l l u s t r a t e d an improvement of the Korean respondents i n t h e i r E n g l i s h language s ince they a r r i v e d i n Vancouver. (Table 7 ) . 24 TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS ENGLISH FLUENCY AND PRESENT ENGLISH FLUENCY E n g l i s h f l u e n c y Previous E n g l i s h Present E n g l i s h No. % • No. % Speak E n g l i s h not at a l l or poo r l y 17 20.7 9 10.9 Speak E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l 48 58.6 * 39 47.6* Speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y 17 20.7 34 41.5 T o t a l 82 100.0 82 100.0 * Median X 2 = 9.05, Df = 2, P < .05 Employment Some s i x t y - n i n e per cent of the sample reported that they had a job while 30 .5 per cent reported no job at the time of the i n t e r v i e w . The occupations of the respondents were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h i r t y - s i x c a t e g o r i e s . These were c l a s s i f i e d on a socio-economic index scale"' and Socio-economic index t a b l e f o r 320 o c c u p a t i o n s . i n 1961 Census of Canada, i n Bernard R. B l i s h e n , Frank E. Jones, Kaspar D. Naegele, and John P o r t e r (eds.), Canadian S o c i e t y , S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s (Third E d i t i o n ) , Macmillan of Canada/Toronto, 1968, pp. 745-50. 25 categorized i n t o f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s e s 0 i n order to determine occupational s t a t u s . Of the respondents, 4.9 per cent had a P r o f e s s i o n a l occupation, 3«? Per cent had Semi-professional and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , 18,2 per cent had C l e r i c a l and S a l e s , 25.6 per cent had S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d p o s i t i o n s , and 17.1 per cent had an U n s k i l l e d present occupation. (Table 8). Of the unemployed respondents, 12.2 per cent were f u l l - t i m e students i n Vancouver. Thus, the a c t u a l number of unemployed respondents was one male (1.2 per cent) and fourteen females (17.1 per c e n t ) . The median occupational s t a t u s of the Korean respondents was S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d . No female respondents h e l d a job i n P r o f e s s i o n a l and Semi-professional and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' c l a s s e s and they held r e l a t i v e l y lower l e v e l p o s i t i o n s than the males. However, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n present occupation. A l l respondents who held a job were working f o r Canadian employers except one male who was self-employed as a businessman. The time spent to f i n d a job ranged from one to f o r t y - n i n e weeks and the average time was three weeks. °Five occupational c l a s s e s a p p l i e d were P r o f e s s i o n a l , Semi-professional and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , C l e r i c a l and Sales, S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d , and U n s k i l l e d . These were r e f e r r e d to Occupational c l a s s (index t a b l e 4 ) , i n I b i d . , pp. 720. 26 Some 10.9 per cent had found t h e i r present job through p re -a r rang ing t h e i r employment p r i o r to coming to Vancouver. TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY PRESENT OCCUPATION Occupa t iona l s t a tu s T o t a l Male Female No. % No. fo No. fo P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 4.9 4 9.8 0 0 .0 S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 3 3.7 3 7.3 0 0 .0 C l e r i c a l and Sa le s 15 18.2 8 19.5 7 17 .1 S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers 21 2 5 . 6 * 11 26.8* 10 24 .4* U n s k i l l e d 14 17.1 6 14.6 8 19 .5 None 25 30.5 9 22.0 16 39 .0 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100 .0 * Median X 2 = 4.43, Df = 3, P > .05 The l eng th of employment i n Vancouver ranged from one month to s i x years and the median length o f employment was two and h a l f yea r s . Of the respondents who he ld a job , 31.7 per cent repor ted tha t they he ld a job fo r one year or l e s s , 25.6 per cent s a i d tha t they had a job f o r two to three years , and 12.2 per cent s a i d tha t they had been 27 working f o r four to s i x years at the time o f the i n t e r v i e w . The median l eng th of employment of the. respondents corresponded to the median l eng th of res idence i n Vancouver. Since the respondents came from a n o n - E n g l i s h speaking count ry , E n g l i s h f luency was a major b a r r i e r to the respondents access to a b e t t e r j o b . Owing 'to the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l background and the language d i f f i c u l t y , i t was hard fo r them to o b t a i n a good job wi thou t appropr i a t e E n g l i s h f luency and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i n Canadian s c h o o l s . For example, one of the four respondents who h e l d a job at the P r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l as a p ro fe s so r , had obta ined h i s d o c t o r a l degree from a u n i v e r s i t y i n the Uni ted S ta tes where he s tud ied nine years beyond h i s 16 years o f p rev ious s c h o o l i n g i n Korea . The second person was a d e n t i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia who graduated from the F a c u l t y of D e n t i s t r y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia . P r i o r to tha t he had graduated from a Denta l Co l l ege i n Korea , and had completed a t o t a l of 22 years of s c h o o l i n g . The respondents who he ld a job i n the lowest s t a tus l e v e l ( U n s k i l l e d ) i nc luded an e x - e d i t o r and n o v e l i s t , an ex-pharmacis t , an ex-h igh schoo l t eacher , and an ex-r e g i s t u r e d nur se . They were no longer able to have s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a tus i n Vancouver due to the E n g l i s h language b a r r i e r . In f a c t , both these s i t u a t i o n s of h ighes t and lowes t o c c u p a t i o n a l s ta tuses of the Korean respondents 28 i l l u s t r a t e the g e n e r a l circumstances of employment of the Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver. The former, case' ( P r o f e s s i o n a l ) i s r e l a t e d to the Koreans being educated i n Canada or America and those who had a high degree of E n g l i s h f l u e n c y while the l a t t e r case ( U n s k i l l e d ) r e v e a l e d the d i f f i c u l t y of the Koreans who"had n e i t h e r an e d u c a t i o n a l background i n North America nor a high standard of E n g l i s h f l u e n c y . Richmond poi n t e d out t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y of n o n - E n g l i s h speaking immigrants was t h a t "non-manual workers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who were not from E n g l i s h -speaking c o u n t r i e s , s u f f e r e d the l a r g e s t i n i t i a l d e c l i n e 7 i n s t a t u s and had the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o v e r i n g " . The respondents who h e l d jobs i n the other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , b esides those two c l a s s e s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , had a language f l u e n c y and e d u c a t i o n a l background corresponding with t h e i r present o c c u p a t i o n . The p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s possessed i n Korea were d i s t r i b u t e d over t h i r t y - t w o c a t e g o r i e s . Some e i g h t y - f o u r per cent of the sample had h e l d a job i n Korea while 15.9 per cent had no job i n Korea. Of the respondents who p r e v i o u s l y h e l d a job i n Korea, 17.1 per cent had 7 Anthony H. Richmond, S o c i a l M o b i l i t y of Immigrants i n Canada, i n B l i s h e n , Jones, Naegele, and P o r t e r (eds.), op. c i t . , pp. 740. / 29 P r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , 12.2 per cent had S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and 30'5 Ver cent had S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d jobs p r i o r to coming to Vancouver. The median s t a tu s of p rev ious occupa t ion i n Korea was C l e r i c a l and S a l e s . The female respondents had he ld r e l a t i v e l y lower c l a s s e s of jobs compared w i th those of the male respondents and there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n prev ious o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . (Table 9 ) . TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS OCCUPATION IN KOREA Occupa t iona l s t a tus T o t a l Male Female No. "/o No. % No. % P r o f e s s i o n a l 14 17.1 13 31.7 1 2.4 S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 10 12.2, 8 19 . 5 * 2 4.9 C l e r i c a l and Sa l e s 25 ' 30.5* 10 24.4 15 36.6* S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers 20 24.4 7 17.1 13 31.7 None 13 15.8 •3 7-3 10 24.4 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 16. 14, Df" 3, P < .05 • 30 The p rev ious o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a tus of the Korean respondents was r e l a t i v e l y h igher than the present s t a t u s . There were more respondents i n the P r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s o f p rev ious occupat ions and none o f the respondents had he ld a p o s i t i o n lower than the S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers l e v e l . I n t h e i r present occupa t ion , there were a few respondents i n the h ighes t c l a s s ( P r o f e s s i o n a l ) whereas there was a l a rge number o f respondents i n the lowest c l a s s ( U n s k i l l e d ) . (Table 10). TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE •'RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS OCCUPATION IN' KOREA' AND PRESENT OCCUPATION Occupa t iona l s t a tus Canada. Korea No. % No.- % P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 4.9 14 17.1 S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 3. 3-7 10 12.2 C l e r i c a l and Sa les 15 18.2 25 30.5* S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers 21 25.6* 20 24.4 U n s k i l l e d 14 17.1 0 0.0" None 25 3° .5 13 15.8 T o t a l 82 100.0 82 100.0 * Median X 2 = 24.9^, Df = = 4, P < .05 31 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Approximate ly t h i r t y per cent of the sample repor ted tha t they were s a t i s f i e d or very s a t i s f i e d w i th t h e i r present j ob , 19-5 per cent s a i d tha t they are n e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d nor d i s s a t i s f i e d whereas another 19-5 per cent s a i d tha t they are d i s s a t i s f i e d or ve ry d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b . (Table 11). The median job s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Korean respondents was i n the n e u t r a l ca tegory . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n job s a t i s f a c t i o n . TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY JOB SATISFACTION S ta tus T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % Very s a t i s f i e d 8 9.8 4 9.8 4 9.8 S a t i s f i e d 17 20.7 11 26.8 6 14.6 N e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d nor d i s s a t i s f i e d 16 19.5* 8 19.5* 8 19.5* D i s s a t i s f i e d 13 15.8 8 19.5 5 12.2 Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 3 3.7 1 2.4 2 4.9 No job 25 30.5 9 22 .0 16 39.0 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 Median X 2 = .40, Df = 2, P > .05 32 Income Approximate ly seventy-seven per cent of the sample repor ted that they earned income du r ing the past 12 months wh i l e 23.2 per cent s a i d tha t they earned no income dur ing tha t p e r i o d . The amount of earnings by the respondents themselves ' ranged from $700 to $12,999 w i th a median i n the $5,000 to $6,999 c l a s s and the average was $6,000. (Table 12). TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY OWN EARNINGS - • Income c l a s s T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % Less than $ 1,000 2 2.4' 0 0.0 . 2 4 . 9 $ 1,000 - $ 1,999 3 3-7 1 2 .4/ '. 2 4 . 9 $ 2,000 - $ 2,999 12 14 . 6 ' 3 7.3 9 21.9 $ 3,000 - $ 4,999 10 12.2 4 9.8 6 14 . 6 * $ 5,000 - $ 6,999 15 18 . 3 * ' 9 ' 21.9* 6 : 14.-6 $ 7,000 - $ 9,999 17 20.7. 13 31.7 4 9.8 $10,000 - $12,999 4 4 . 9 4 9-8 0 0.0 No j o b 19 23.2 7 17.1 12 29.3 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 14 . 26 , Df = 5, P > .05 33 The lower amounts (from l e s s than $1,000 to $2,999) o f earned income o f those respondents was a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r shor t l eng th of employment i n Vancouver. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n earned income but s l i g h t l y more male respondents were i n the h igher income c l a s s e s . The t o t a l f a m i l y income of the Korean respondents dur ing the past 12 months ranged from $1,000 to $18,000. (Table 13). TABLE 1.3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY FAMILY INCOME Income c l a s s T o t a l Male Female No. fo No. % No. % $ 1,000 - $ 1,999 3 3.7 1 2.4 2 4.9 :$ 2,000 - $2 ,999 14 17.1 4 .9.8 10 24.4 $ 3,000 - $ 4,999 11 13.4 9 21.9 2 . 4.9 $ 5,ooo - $ 6,999 12 14.6 5 12.2' 7 17.1* $ ?,ooo - $ 9,999 18 21.. 9* 9 21.9*. .9 21.9 $10,000 - $12,999 H 13.4 7 17.1 4 '• 9.8 $13,000 - $14,999 8 9.8 4 9.8. 4 9.8 $15,000 - $18,000 5 6.1 2 4.9 3 7.2 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 IOO.O •; , 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 4.36, Df = 3, P >• .°5 34 The median f a m i l y income was i n the $7,000 to $9,999 c l a s s and the average was $7,500. The median f a m i l y income of the male respondents was $7,500 compared to $6,000 f o r female respondents . The male respondents had s l i g h t l y h igher incomes than the female respondents , but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n t o t a l f a m i l y income. L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s One-tenth of' the sample repor ted tha t they owned t h e i r homes i n Vancouver wh i l e the remainder s a i d tha t they r e n t e d . The l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the Korean respondents compared favourab ly w i t h o thers i n the c i t y as every house had a te lephone, 91-5. Ver cent of them had t e l e v i s i o n , 87.8 per cent of them had r a d i o , and 54.9 per cent o f them owned a . c a r . The Korean respondents were s c a t t e r e d throughout Vancouver. The respondents were g e n e r a l l y s i t u a t e d i n f i v e areas o f Vancouver as f o l l o w s : 1,4.6 per cent of the respondents i n the downtown area (West End); 7-4 per cent i n the eas te rn area (East Hast ings) ; - 21.9- per cent i n the southern area ( 4 l s t to Marine D r i v e ) ; 42.7 per cent i n the c e n t r a l area ( K i t s i l a n o ) ; and 13.4 per cent i n the western area (The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia endowment l a n d s ) . This phenomenon of d i s p e r s i o n i s o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t from 35 other A s i a t i c e thn ic communities such as the Chinese and Japanese. Since the Koreans have formed no e thn ic s o c i e t y , i t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may tend to be more l i k e t h e i r neighbours than those of o ther A s i a t i c groups w i t h an e t h n i c community. The Korean do have s o c i a l contac t through a Korean Church and a Korean S o c i e t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Woodsworth, w i t h respec t to th,e s ca t t e r ed s i t u a t i o n of immigrants , i n d i c a t e d tha t "the on ly way to a s s i m i l a t e immigrants was by t h e i r be ing s c a t t e r e d across the e n t i r e country r a t h e r 8 than be ing l e f t i n t i g h t s o l i d communit ies" . . 9 A t t i t u d e Toward L i v i n g I n Canada Almost h a l f or 48.8 per cent of the respondents r epor t ed tha t they are s t r o n g l y favorab le o r . favorab le toward l i v i n g i n Canada, 40.3 per cent s a i d tha t they are n e u t r a l whereas 10.9 per cent r epor ted tha t they were . . unfavorable or s t r o n g l y unfavorable toward Canada. (Table 14). The female respondents were s l i g h t l y more favorab le than the male respondents a l though the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the two groups was not Woodsworth, c i t e d i n John P o r t e r , The V e r t i c a l  Mosa ic , An A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l C l a s s and Power In Canada, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P re s s , 1965, pp. 66. 9 The score of a t t i t u d e s ca l e on l i v i n g i n Canada i s shown i n page 11 o f Appendix Two. A h igh s ca l e score r e f l e c t s the lower degree of the f a v o r a b i l i t y . 36 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 14 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY ATTITUDE TOWARD LIVING IN CANADA S ta tus T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % S t r o n g l y favorab le 13 15.9 7 17.1 6 14.6 Favorable 2? 32.9 10 • 24.4 17 41 , 5* N e u t r a l 33 40 .2* 20 48.8* 13 31.7 Unfavorable 4 4.9 1 2.4 3 7.3 S t r o n g l y unfavorable 5 6.1 3 7.3" 2 4.9 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = 2 .49, Df = 2 * P > .05" SUMMARY The Korean immigrants , i n g e n e r a l a r e r e l a t i v e l y new r e s i d e n t s and are i n the younger age c a t e g o r i e s compared to o ther e thn ic groups. The average number i n a f a m i l y per household was f o u r . T h e i r main b a r r i e r in"-the Vancouver community l i f e was a l a c k o f f l uency i n E n g l i s h and t h i s was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r access to a job and income. A cons ide rab le degree o f d i s p a r i t y e x i s t e d i n 37 f a m i l y incomes o f the K o r e a n s . The ave rage a n n u a l f a m i l y income was $7,500, b u t t h e r e were 28 r e s p o n d e n t s (3 ^ . 1 p e r c e n t ) who had l e s s t h a n $5,000 t o t a l f a m i l y income d u r i n g the p a s t 12 mon ths . The K o r e a n r e s i d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r , d e s p i t e t h e i r r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were n o t d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s and were f a v o r a b l e t oward l i v i n g i n C a n a d a . CHAPTER THREE EDUCATION Education i s a process of changing behavior, and the r e s u l t s of education g r e a t l y a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s of human beings i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a l i f e p a t t e r n regarding occupational s t r u c t u r e and earning p o t e n t i a l . The educational achievement of the Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver i s g e n e r a l l y high, and c e r t a i n educational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are discussed i n d e t a i l i n t h i s chapter. 1,2 SCHOOLS IN KOREA As of 1970, there were 5,961 elementary schools, 1,608 middles schools, 889 high schools, 56 j u n i o r c o l l e g e 71 c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 64 graduate schools i n the Republic of Korea. The people of Korea have a high propensity to l e a r n ; sometimes c a l l e d "educational f e v e r " . In the educational h i s t o r y of Korea, the schools have Jungok Kim and Kion Han, H i s t o r y of Education i n Korea, i n Chunsuk Oh, I n k i Lee, Hanyoung Lim, Shitae Chung Bummo Chung, Byungchil Choi,.Ra'eun Sung, Hyonki Pak, and Younghan Moon (eds.), H i s t o r y of Education, Hyondae Gyoyuk Chong Suh Co., Seoul, Korea, 1961, pp. 27I-36O. 2 Facts About Korea. The M i n i s t r y of Culture and Information, Republic of Korea government, Seoul, Korea, 1971, pp. 80-3. 39 developed through f o u r stages: pre-modern s c h o o l years; the beginnings of the modern s c h o o l s ; Japanese c o l o n i a l education; and p o s t - l i b e r a t i o n e d u c a t i o n . The pre-modern s c h o o l s were i n e x i s t e n c e f o r s i x t e e n hundred years u n t i l the appearance of modern schools i n 1885. These s c h o o l s operated under the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of Confucianism and were c h i e f l y used to t r a i n c o u r t o f f i c i a l s of the a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s . The f i r s t s c h o o l s , c a l l e d "Hyangdong"(private) and "Taehak"(state operated) were e s t a b l i s h e d i n A..D. 372 i n the Kingdom of Koguryo, a n o r t h e r n s t a t e of Korea. -Both were elementary schools . and taught youths the Chinese c l a s s i c s , l i t e r a t u r e , and h i s t o r i e s f o r the i m p o r t a t i o n of Chinese cultu're. In A.D. 682, a s t a t e - o p e r a t e d high s c h o o l (up to Grade 12) c a l l e d "Kukhak" was e s t a b l i s h e d i n "the Kingdom-of S i l l a , a south-e a s t e r n s t a t e of Korea. In 992, a h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n c a l l e d "Kukchagam" was founded by the Koryo dynasty, the u n i f i e d Kingdom of Korea. In the Y i dynasty, the successor of the Koryo dynasty, there was an i n c r e a s i n g number of elementary and high s c h o o l s and a c o l l e g e ("Sunggyungwan") was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . However, because a l l of these o l d e r s c h o o l s were to s e l e c t s t a t e o f f i c i a l s through a system of p u b l i c s e r v i c e examinations and taught i n Chinese c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r academic programs 40 were l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d to the r e a l i t i e s of the n a t i o n . . The o l d e r s chools began to v a n i s h g r a d u a l l y with the emergence of modern schools i n 1885. Modern s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y had begun to take r o o t i n 1885 with the establishment of a high s c h o o l i n Seoul,' the c a p i t a l c i t y o f Korea, by a m i s s i o n a r y group from the North Methodist Church of the United S t a t e s . The s c h o o l a c t i v i t y , with i t s w e l l organized c u r r i c u l u m and new e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy, was immediately supported by p u b l i c response. T h i s was f o l l o w e d by the establishment of s e v e r a l other boys' and g i r l s ' high schools i n the c i t y and gave an i n c e n t i v e to the subsequent establishment of v a r i o u s modern schools throughout the country. However, these schools s u f f e r e d under Japanese c o l o n i a l education from 1910 u n t i l 19^5. In 1910, Korea was annexed to Japan by the Japanese i n v a s i o n and Japan imposed an a u t h o r i t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n i n Korean schools f o r 36 y e a r s . These schools were .freed from Japan's dominion when Japan surrendered to the a l l i e d n a t i o n s i n 19^5. The Korean e d u c a t i o n a l system was able to prepare f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the s o c i e t y d u r i n g the U.S. m i l i t a r y government occ u p a t i o n from 19^5 to 1948. 'Subsequently, a f t e r the Republic of Korea was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1948 i t s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were founded upon the democratic 41 p r i n c i p l e of g r a n t i n g equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to every c i t i z e n r ega rd l e s s of sex, r e l i g i o n , and s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s . ' • The cur ren t schoo l system i n Korea i s organized i n accordance w i t h the 6-3-3-4 p a t t e r n . There are seven ca t ego r i e s i n the cur ren t system of schools i n Korea : elementary, middle and h igh schoo l s . and c o l l e g e ; teachers t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e ; t e c h n i c a l h igh s c h o o l ; c i v i c s choo l and s e n i o r c i v i c s c h o o l ; s p e c i a l schools f o r the handicapped; k i n d e r g a r t e n ; and misce l l aneous i n s t i t u t e s . The h igh schools f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , engineer ing , ' commerce, and other t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s are separated from l i b e r a l a r t s h igh schools and they are comparable to B r i t i s h modern schools and the German R e a l s c h u l e n . Since 1953» the c e a s e f i r e - between North and South i Korea has encouraged an increased i n t e r e s t i n educa t ion i n the South . Thus, an educa t i ona l boom has occurred i n Korean s o c i e t y and such a s o c i a l tendency has p r e v a i l e d fo r the l a s t two decades.. Perhaps t h i s phenomenon i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the accumulated educa t i ona l d e s i r e s of the Korean people through t h e i r l eng thy absence from schoo l a c t i v i t i e s du r ing World War I I and aga in dur ing the .Korean war (1950-1953)• Another f a c t o r cou ld be the s t rong i n f l u e n c e of a cons ide rab le number o f Korean e l i t e s i n the 42 l e a d i n g c l a s s e s of the s o c i e t y and those who had been educated i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s or western c o u n t r i e s f o l l o w e d by a continuous flow of American c u l t u r e i n post war Korea. There i s much s i m i l a r i t y between the s c h o o l systems of Korea and Canada since they are both modeled a f t e r American e d u c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . EDUCATION Of the 82 Koreans sampled i n Vancouver, a median of 16 years of formal s c h o o l i n g p r e v i o u s l y completed i n Korea was r e p o r t e d . Some sixty-two per cent o f the sample r e p o r t e d 16 years or more formal e d u c a t i o n whereas 17.1 per cent had 13 years to 15 years and 20.7 per cent completed 9 years to 12 years of s c h o o l i n g i n Korea. (Table 15)• TABLE 15 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED IN KOREA Years o f s c h o o l i n g T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % 7 - 1 2 17 20.7 6 14.6 11 26.8 1 3 - 1 5 14 17.I 4 9.8 10 24.4* 16 or more 51 62.2* 31 75.6* 20 48.8 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 4 l 100.0 * Median X 2 = 6.41, Df = 2, P < .05 43 Three-quar te rs of the male respondents had graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea wh i l e s l i g h t l y l e s s than h a l f of the females (20) h e l d a u n i v e r s i t y , degree from Korea . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents i n educa t i ona l backgrounds i n Korea , w i t h the males r e p o r t i n g a h ighe r l e v e l e d educa t i on . There were 26.8 per cent of the respondents .who had r e c e i v e d some educat ion i n North Amer ica . (Table 16). Nineteen respondents (23.2 per cent) were educated i n Canada and three (3»7 per cent) i n the Uni ted S t a t e s . TABLE 16 ' PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING IN CANADA Years o f s c h o o l i n g T o t a l Male Female No % No. '% No. % 1 or l e s s 11 13-4* 7 17.1 • V - .9.8* 2 8 9.8 . ' 6 14. 6* . 2 4.9 3 - 4 2 2.4 2 4.9 0 0.0.' 5 - 9 1 1.2 1 2.4 , " o 0.0 No Canadian s c h o o l i n g 60 73.2 25 61.0 35 85.3 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 , 41 100.0 2 * Median X = .91, Df = 1. P > .05 Note: Two male and one female respondents who were educated i n America were i n c l u d e d . Since 62.2 per cent of the sample had graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea, most of the e d u c a t i o n a l experiences of those who were educated or undertaking courses i n Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s were found as graduate s t u d e n t s . Of the 19 respondents who r e p o r t e d enrollment i n Canadian s c h o o l s or u n i v e r s i t i e s the average was two years of formal Canadian e d u c a t i o n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female respondents with r e s p e c t to the years of s c h o o l i n g i n Canada. Of the 51 respondents r e c e i v i n g a u n i v e r s i t y degree i n Korea, 3 males (3-7 per cent) r e p o r t e d having a Masters degree whereas 1 male had completed a post-graduate course. Two respondents were awarded a Masters degree by a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y and 18.3 per cent were e i t h e r u n dertaking graduate s t u d i e s or had attended one year of r e g u l a r course i n u n i v e r s i t y i n Vancouver a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . Of the 3.7 per cent who were educated i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , one male h e l d a D o c t o r a l degree and one male and one female had obtained a Masters degree. (Table 17). 45 TABLE 17 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY ACADEMIC DEGREE HELD' Degree he ld T o t a l Male • Female No. % No. ' : % No. % D o c t o r a l degrees 1 1.2 1 • 2.4 \ \ 0 0.0 Masters degrees 7 8.5 5 12 .2 ,'- 2 4.9 Bachelors degrees 43 5.2.5* 2 5 61.0* . 18- 43 .9* No degree 31 37.8 10 24.4 21 51.2 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 * Median X 2 = .80, Df = 1, P > .05 T h i r t y - t h r e e major programs of u n i v e r s i t y study i n Korea were documented. S i x male respondents (7-3 per cent) repor ted majors i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s , f i v e males (6.1 per cent) i n the A p p l i e d sc ience (Eng inee r ing ) , and one male (1.2 per cent) i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . T h i r t y per cent majored i n A r t s , 2 .4 per cent i n Commerce and bus iness a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 4 .9 per cent i n Educa t ion , and 2 .4 per cent i n F o r e s t r y . Some seventeen per cent majored i n Hea l th s c i e n c e s , and 1.2 per cent i n Law. F i v e per cent had minors i n L i b r a r i a n s h i p beyond t h e i r s t u d i e s , 1.2 per cent i n P h y s i c a l educa t ion , and 4.9 per cent i n the S c i e n c e s . (Table 1 8 ) . H a l f of the respondents who were educated i n 46 TABLE 18 ' PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY MAJOR STUDIES IN UNIVERSITIES IN KOREA Major s tudy area T o t a l Male Female No. % No. % No. % A g r i c u l t u r a l sc iences 6 7.3 6 14.7 0 0.0 A p p l i e d sc ience . (Eng ine r r ing ) 5 6.1 5 12.2 0 0.0 A r c h i t e c t u r e 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 A r t s 25 30.5 9 22.0 16 39.0 Commerce and bus iness a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 2.5 1 2.4 1 2.4 Educa t ion 6 7.3 3 7.3 3 7.3 Hea l th sc iences . 10 12.2 1 2.4 9 22.0 Law 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Pharmaceut ica l sc iences ; 4 4 .9 3 7.3 1 2.4 P h y s i c a l educa t ion 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Science 4 4 .9 4 9.8 0 0.0 None 17 20.7 6 14.7 11 26.9 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea had t h e i r major areas o f study i n A r t s . The types of p rev ious study of the male respondents had a wider d i s t r i b u t i o n In comparion to the female respondents . 47 One-quarter o f the sample had r e c e i v e d some of t h e i r educa t ion i n Canada. The major s t u d i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d among 17 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . F i v e per cent s t ud i ed A g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s ; 1.2 per cent s tud ied A p p l i e d sc ience (Eng inee r ing ) ; 6.1 per cent i n A r t s ; and 1.2 per cent i n E d u c a t i o n . These were fo l lowed by J.8 per cent who majored i n F o r e s t r y , 4.9 per cent i n Hea l th s c i e n c e s , and 3.8 per cent i n N a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . (Table 1 9 ) . The number o f female TABLE 19 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY MAJOR STUDIES IN CANADIAN SCHOOLS Major study area T o t a l Male . Female No. % No. ' % " 'No. .. % A g r i c u l t u r a l sc iences 4 4.9 •'. . 4 9.8 • 0 . 0 . 0 A p p l i e d sc ience (Engineer ing) 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 A r t s 5 6.1 3 ; 7.3 2 4.9 Educa t ion ' 1 1.2 1 2.4- 0 0.0 F o r e s t r y 3 . 3.7 3 7.3; 0 0.0 H e a l t h sc iences 4 4.9 l 2 :4 3 7.3 N a t u r a l sc iences 4 4.9 3 7.3 '•• r 2.4 None 60 73.1 25 •61.1 • 35 ' 85 . 4 ' ' T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0-respondents who had , taken courses i n Canadian schools was s m a l l e r than the males . Some n ine teen per cent of the Canadian-educated respondents ( i n c l u d i n g 2.4 per cent who were American-educated) were males whereas 6.1 per cent were females . JOB TRAINING Twenty-eight per cent o f the sample repor ted tha t they had r e c e i v e d job t r a i n i n g i n Korea . (Table 2 0 ) . TABLE 20 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY JOB TRAINING RECEIVED IN KOREA Type o f t r a i n i n g T o t a l Male Female No. % No. No. fo Carpentry 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Computer programming 3 3.8 3 7.3 0 0.0 Designning 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 E n g l i s h t y p i n g 2 2.4 0 0.0 2 5.0 Flower des ignning 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 ' 2.4 Food m i c r o b i o l o g y 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 H a i r d r e s s i n g 2 ' 0 0.0 - ' 2 5.0 Heavy equipment courses 2 2.4 2 5.0 0 0.0 IBM ope ra t ing 1 1.2 •1 - 2.4 0 0.0 Key punch ope ra t i ng 1 1.2 0 • o.o 1 2.4 49 TABLE 20 (Cont 'd ) Type of t r a i n i n g T o t a l Male Female No % No. % No. % L i b r a r y t r a i n i n g 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Midwi fe ry and n u r s i n g 3 3 . 8 0 0.0 3 7.3 Persona l service , work 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 • 0.0 Survey ing 1 1.2 1 2.4 . 0 0 . 0 , T a y l o r t r a i n i n g 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 2.4 Voca l music t r a i n i n g 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 . 2.4 , None 59 72.0 29 70.9 30 73 . 1 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 The l eng th of the job t r a i n i n g pe r iod ranged from one to 24 months and the median 1 was 6 months. The types of job t r a i n i n g are d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o 16 c a t e g o r i e s . Some of the respondents had taken t r a i n i n g s h o r t l y before they l e f t Korea i n order to o b t a i n a job i n Canada, but they repor ted tha t t h i s t r a i n i n g d i d not meet the o p p o r t u n i t i e s they d e s i r e d , due main ly to the E n g l i s h language b a r r i e r . Unless they had a cons ide rab le degree of E n g l i s h f luency t h e i r p rev ious occupa t i ona l background and job t r a i n i n g , was not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y recognized i n Canada. 50 With r e s p e c t to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses i n Canada, there were onl y 9.8 per cent of the respondents who had taken such t r a i n i n g s i n c e a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver. (Table 21). The types of t r a i n i n g they had r e c e i v e d were d i s t r i b u t e d among seven ar e a s . The p e r i o d o f the t r a i n i n g undertaken ranged from 2 to 10 months and the median was 3 to ? months. F i v e of the t r a i n e e s were sponsored by Canada Manpower whereas three were s e l f - s p o n s o r e d . The number of respondents who had taken v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n Canada was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i n c l u d e d l e s s than one-tenth of the sample. TABLE 21 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY JOB TRAINING RECEIVED IN CANADA Type of t r a i n i n g T o t a l Male Female No. % No. fo No. % E n g l i s h t y p i n g 2 2.4 0 0.0 2 4.8 C o l o u r TV r e p a i r i n g 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Key punch o p e r a t i n g 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 2.4 Logging t r a i n i n g 1 1.2 1 . 2.4 0 0.0 S e c r e t a r y t r a i n i n g 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 • 2.4 S t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e e r i n g 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 Upgrading e n g i n e e r i n g 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 None 74 90.4 37 90.4 37 90.4 T o t a l 82 100.0 41 100.0 41 100.0 51 The p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l achievement of the Korean respondents may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r immigration s e l e c t i o n due to Canada's new immigration r e g u l a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to the r e g u l a t i o n s , education and t r a i n i n g are s e l e c t i n g f a c t o r s f o r immigration, and "one u n i t w i l l be assigned f o r each s u c c e s s f u l l y completed year of formal e d u c a t i o n and f o r each > year of p r o f e s s i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l and formal t r a d e s , t r a i n i n g , 3 or a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , up to a maximum of twenty u n i t s " . There were a number of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between pr e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P r e v i o u s education i n Korea was c o r r e l a t e d to p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n i n Korea (r = .36), p r e v i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y (r = .47), p r e s e n t E n g l i s h f l u e n c y ( r = .55). use of the E n g l i s h language (r = .32), p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n - n o n - e t h n i c group a c t i v i t i e s (r = .22), v i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s (r = .27), and c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours . (r = .36). These r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e that the respondents who had a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l background tended to be more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , use E n g l i s h more, p a r t i c i p a t e more i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s , v i s i t more with Canadian f a m i l i e s , and chat or t a l k more with neighbours. There was a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between pr e v i o u s education i n Korea and the New Approach To Immigration. Department of Manpower and Immigration, Canada, 1969. pp. 5« 5 2 r e a d i n g o f E n g l i s h newspapers ( r = - . 3 6 ) . The more educa t ed p e o p l e t ended t o r e a d E n g l i s h newspapers l e s s . E d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d i n Canada was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e s e n t E n g l i s h f l u e n c y ( r =. . 5 5 ) » use o f E n g l i s h l anguage ( r = . 4 5 ) , and income ( r = .51). The r e s p o n d e n t s t hose who were e d u c a t e d i n Canada t ended to be more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , use E n g l i s h l anguage more, and e a r n more income t h a n those were n o t educa t ed i n Canada . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n i n K o r e a and p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n i n Vancouver ( r = - . 0 4 ) . U n l e s s the fo rmer e d u c a t i o n had the advan t ages o f E n g l i s h f l u e n c y o r a s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l , i t was found n o t t o be a u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r o f the p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n V a n c o u v e r . SUMMARY The e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s o f the K o r e a n r e s i d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h as 6 2 . 2 p e r c e n t o f the sample had g r a d u a t e d from a u n i v e r s i t y i n K o r e a and l ? . l p e r c e n t o f them had some u n i v e r s i t y b a c k g r o u n d s . M a j o r s t u d i e s were .documented i n t h i r t y - t h r e e a r e a s , b u t h a l f o f the r e s p o n d e n t s who had a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n majored i n A r t s . O n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e . r e s p o n d e n t s had a t t e n d e d s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada , and the m a j o r i t y o f t hose r e s p o n d e n t s were g r a d u a t e l e v e l s t u d e n t s . The ave rage y e a r s o f 53 s c h o o l i n g i n Canada was two yea r s . Some twenty-e igh t per cent of the sample had taken job t r a i n i n g i n Korea and 9 .8 per cent o f the respondents had completed v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses i n Vancouver. The Korean r e s i d e n t s were l e s s l i k e l y to take these courses un less they had a job guarantee i n . advance or a t l e a s t a f i n a n c i a l sponsor fo r t h i s program. Since E n g l i s h f luency i s one of the important requirements i n Vancouver community l i f e , the p rev ious e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds were not the key elements i n secur ing, o c c u p a t i o n a l success or a rewarding s o c i a l l i f e . Hence, the p rev ious educa t ion of the Korean r e s i d e n t s must be accompanied by a competency i n E n g l i s h i n order f o r the newly a r r i v e d Korean to a t t a i n h igh o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s t a tus i n Vancouver. 54 CHAPTER'FOUR ADULT EDUCATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES Since i t i s known t h a t E n g l i s h f l u e n c y i s one of the major advantages to Korean r e s i d e n t s who l i v e i n the Vancouver community, t h i r t y - f i v e a d u l t s out of t h i r t y - e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had taken E n g l i s h language courses whereas o n l y three a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n job r e l a t e d programs. Thus, t h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e - s e e k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' . In a d d i t i o n , the sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n used by the Korean respondents as w e l l as t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s are" analysed i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . . , THE PROVISION OF ADULT EDUCATION 1 P u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Vancouver i s o f f e r e d by s c h o o l boards as part-time and f u l l - t i m e courses i n v o c a t i o n a l , n o n - v o c a t i o n a l , and academic programs. The Night S c h o o l Programs provide a wide v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l T h i s section.'is based on i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by ,Mrs. H. P a t r i c i a Wakefield, the C h i e f I n s t r u c t o r , E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g , Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , i n an i n t e r v i e w conducted on November 9, 1971 and by an is s u e of "Adult E d u c a t i o n i n Vancouver" (Teaching E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language) w r i t t e n by Hutchings, Wilma, March, 1968. 55 o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e i s the combined a d u l t e d u c a t i o n component of three day A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e s . One of these, the King Edward Centre, o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of academic s u b j e c t s at the c o l l e g e : i n t r o d u c t o r y and p r e p a r a t o r y l e v e l s and one-and two-year day or evening programs at the post-high • s c h o o l l e v e l . The second c e n t r e , the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , . o f f e r s t e c h n i c a l and. v o c a t i o n a l courses, and the t h i r d , the Vancouver School of A r t , conducts programs at an advanced l e v e l . E n g l i s h language c l a s s e s f o r immigrants have been conducted f o r many years d u r i n g the day and i n the evening i n the downtown f a c i l i t y known as "the Language Sch o o l " . A r e p o r t of 1933 had mentioned " E n g l i s h f o r New Canadians" as a program. Many immigrants were in t r o d u c e d to evening c l a s s e s i n t h i s language program which was conducted i n n i g h t s c h o o l c e n t r e s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s have been e n r o l l e d s i n c e . The r e g i s t r a t i o n dropped f o r t y per cent i n 1958 due to reduced immigration, however, there s t i l l were 77 day and. evening c l a s s e s i n E n g l i s h and C i t i z e n s h i p programs i n t h a t year. The B a s i c E n g l i s h Program has been expanded s i n c e 1966 because of the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of immigrants. Thus, Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e set up a s p e c i a l program d i v i s i o n to d e a l with an a d u l t education program i n E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . T h i s S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n conducts 56 E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g f o r new immigrants i n c o o p e r a t i o n with Canada Manpower. These E n g l i s h c l a s s e s are o f f e r e d twice a day (Day c l a s s e s from 9 A.M. to 12 Noon and Evening c l a s s e s from 6:30 to 9 P.M.) from Monday through F r i d a y . There are f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of the E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s i n c l u d i n g Beginners, I n t e r m e d i a t e , Advanced, and E n g l i s h 099. The E n g l i s h 099 course i s e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r immigrant students who are a c a d e m i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r c o l l e g e l e v e l work, but l a c k f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . Each c l a s s i s composed of 20 a d u l t s and continues f o r a t h r e e -month p e r i o d . I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a l e a r n e r to be promoted to the next l e v e l at the end of a month i f he has mastered the course m a t e r i a l . T h i s occurs i n a most cases except f o r those t a k i n g E n g l i s h 099- At the'beginning of each month the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n opens new.classes. In 1970, the E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s e n r o l l e d 2,000 and i n November of 1971 there were 200 new •. p a r t i c i p a n t s i n one month. There are Ik f u l l - t i m e and 85 to 100 part-time E n g l i s h teachers i n t h e . S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e as of November, 1971. PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION The extent and nature o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s analysed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Nine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n , 57 l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , employment, income, e d u c a t i o n a l background, and E n g l i s h f l u e n c y were s e l e c t e d i n order to compare the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and to observe whether these v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i r t y - e i g h t respondents (46.4 per cent) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , 81.6 per cent had taken E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g a t the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , 10.5 p e r cent attended the E n g l i s h language courses at the Center f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 5.3 per cent had taken A g r i c u l t u r a l programs i n e a s t e r n Canada, and 2.6 per cent had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an Accounting course at the I n s t i t u t e of Chartered Accountants i n Vancouver. (Table 22). Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , some f o r t y - s e v e n per cent were sponsored by Canada Manpower and 2.6 per cent was sponsored by her employer f o r E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g . The remaining f i f t y per cent were s e l f - s p o n s o r e d . Canada Manpower grants f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to an immigrant f o r E n g l i s h t r a i n i n g depending on f a m i l y s t a t u s . For example: $47 per week to a s i n g l e person; $62 to a person who has one dependent; $72 to a person who h o l d s two dependent f a m i l i e s ; $82 to a person who has three dependents; and $88 to a person.who has more than f o u r dependent f a m i l i e s . -This support i s g i v e n upon the d e c i s i o n 58 of the Canada Manpower c o u n s e l l o r . TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY ADULT EDUCATION COURSES TAKEN Type of program T o t a l Male Female _No. % No. % No. % E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g 35 42.7* 13 31.7* 22 58.6* A g r i c u l t u r a l programs 2 2.4 2 4.9 0 0.0 Accountant courses 1 1.2 1 2.4 0 0.0 N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s 44 53.7 25 61.0 19 46.4 T o t a l 82 100.0 4 l 100.0 4 l 100.0 * Median X 2 = I.76, Df = 1 , P > .05 Most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had taken one program, the Beginners course of E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g , a t the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e i n t h e i r e a r l y days i n Vancouver. Only three respondents (2 males i n E n g l i s h 099 and 1 female i n the Beginners courses) were undertaking a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses at the time they were i n t e r v i e w e d . 59 Age Of the t o t a l t h i r t y - e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e ducation, 78.9 per cent were l e s s than 35 years o l d and 21.1 per cent were more than 35 years of age. Since the Korean respondents were r e l a t i v e l y young, the age d i s t r i b u t i o n between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . (Table 23). Thus, age was not a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . TABLE 23 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY AGE Non-Age group T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. fo No. % 19 - 35 64 78.1* 30 78.9* 34 77.3* 36 - 47 17 20.7 8 21.1 9 20.4 Over 47 1 1 . 2 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 3 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = .03, Df = 1, P > .05 Sex The r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the male and female respondents i n a d u l t education was 16 males (42.1 per cent) 60 to 22 females (57.9 per cent) among the sample whereas 25 males (56.8 per cent) and 19 females (43.2 per cent) were n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . (Table 24). I t would seem t h a t female respondents tended to p a r t i c i p a t e more i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n than the male respondents, but t h i s observed d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t r i b u t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s tendency toward h i g h e r female p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r l e s s e r f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h a t the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver as compared to the male respondents. TABLE 24 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY SEX Sex T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % Male 41 50.0 16 42.1 25 56.8 Female 41 50.0 22 57.9 19 43.2 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 x 2 = 1.76, Df = 1, P > .05 M a r i t a l S t a t u s Some ei g h t e e n per cent of the t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were s i n g l e whereas 81.6 per cent were 61 married. Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 15.9 per cent were s i n g l e while 84.1 per cent were mar r i e d . (Table 25). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s , thus, m a r i t a l s t a t u s exerted no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . TABLE 25 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY MARITAL STATUS M a r i t a l s t a t u s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % Married 68 82.9* 31 81.6* 37 84.1* S i n g l e 14 17.1 7 18.4 7 15.9 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = .09, Df = 1, P > .05 Number of C h i l d r e n Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , some t h i r t y - o n e per cent had one c h i l d and 28.9 per cent had two or more c h i l d r e n while 39«5 per cent r e p o r t e d no c h i l d . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 34.1 per cent had one c h i l d and 31.8 per cent had more than two c h i l d r e n whereas 34.1 per cent s a i d t h a t they had no c h i l d . (Table 2 6 ) . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 62 between.the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to the number of c h i l d r e n , thus', t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was not a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the Korean respondents' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . TABLE 26 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN ' Number of c h i l d r e n T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % 1 27 32.9* 12 31.6 15 34.1 2 13 15.9 3 7.8 10 22.7* 3 7 8.5 4 10.6* 3 6.8 4 3 3.7 2 5-3 i 2.3 5 2 2.4 2 5.3 0 0.0 None 30 36.6 15 39.4 15 34.1 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median 3-28, Df = 2, P > .05 Length of Residence The l e n g t h of re s i d e n c e i n Vancouver of the sample averaged two-and o n e - h a l f y e a r s . Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education, 18.4 per cent had l e s s than one year, 50.0 per cent had two to three years, 29.0 per cent had f o u r to 63 f i v e years, and 2,6 per cent had more than f i v e years o f re s i d e n c e i n Vancouver a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 18.2 per cent had one year or l e s s , 50,0 per cent had two to three years, 18.2 per cent had four to f i v e years, and 13.6 per cent had more than f i v e years o f re s i d e n c e i n Vancouver. (Table 27). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r l e n g t h o f res i d e n c e i n Vancouver. Thus, the p e r i o d o f re s i d e n c e exerted no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE _ - . . _ _ _ Years of re s i d e n c e T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No % No. % 1 or l e s s 15 18.3 7 18.4 8 18.2 2 - 3 41 50.0* 19 50.0* 22 50.0* 4 - 5 19 23.2 11 29.0 8 18.2 More than-' 5 7 8.5 1 2.6 6 13.6. T o t a l 82 100.0 .38 .100.p 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 3.90, Df = 3, . P > .05 64 Employment . The prese n t o c c u p a t i o n of the respondents was found not to i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , 5-2 per cent had P r o f e s s i o n a l , Semi-p r o f e s s i o n a l , and Lower-Administrators c l a s s e s , 15.8 per. cent h e l d C l e r i c a l and S a l e s c l a s s e s , 26.3 per cent had S k i l l e d or S e m i - s k i l l e d l e v e l , 21.1 per cent had U n s k i l l e d l e v e l , and 31«6 per cent had no job a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . By comparison, 11.4 per cent of the non-1 p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d P r o f e s s i o n a l , S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s c l a s s jobs, .20.4 per cent had C l e r i c a l and S a l e s c l a s s e s , 25.0 per cent were S k i l l e d and; S e m i - s k i l l e d workers, 13.6 per cent had U n s k i l l e d jobs, and 29.6 per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t they had no job a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . (Table 28). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and ', n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n present o c c u p a t i o n . 65 TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY OCCUPATIONAL STATUS Non-Oc c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 4 .9 l 2.6 3 6.8 S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 3 3.7 l 2.6 2 4 .6 C l e r i c a l and Sal e s 15 18 .3 6 15.8 9 20.5 S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers 21 25.6* 10 26.3* 11 24. 9* U n s k i l l e d 14 17.0 8 21.1 6 13.6. No Job 25 30.5 12 31.6 13 29.6 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 1.54, Df = 2, P > .05 Income The p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had s i m i l a r f a m i l y incomes d u r i n g the past 12 months. More than one-quarter o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s had a f a m i l y income of l e s s than $6,000 d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months whereas 73.7 per cent had between $6,000 and $15,000 i n f a m i l y income. The median annual f a m i l y income of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was i n the $6,000 to $9,999 c l a s s and the. 66 average was $8,000. Those with lower incomes u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as Verner and Booth i n d i c a t e d s i n c e income i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n because e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c o s t money, and t h e r e f o r e , those with l e s s money are l e s s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t 2 e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s study, 43.2 per cent of the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s had l e s s than a $6,000 f a m i l y income d u r i n g the past 12 months while 56.8 per cent more than $6,000 i n f a m i l y income d u r i n g the past 12 months. , (Table 29). TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION'OP THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY TOTAL FAMILY INCOME Non-Income c l a s s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % $ 1,000 - $ 2,999 17 20.7 7 18.4 10 22.7 $ 3,000 - $ 5.999 12 14.6 3 7.9 9 20.5 $ 6,000 - $ 9.999 29 35-4* 15 39.5* 14 31.8* $10,000 - $15,000 24 29.3 13 34.2 11 25.0 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 3.31, Df = 3, P > .05 ^ C o o l i e Verner and A l l a n Booth, A d u l t Education, The Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education, Inc., New York, 1964, pp. 28. 6 7 The median and average annual f a m i l y income of the non-' . p a r t i c i p a n t s was the same as th a t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus, income was not a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n among Korean respondents. E d u c a t i o n a l Background i n Korea Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , 5 2 . 6 per cent had graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea, 2 6 . 3 per cent had some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y i n Korea whereas 2 1 . 1 per cent had completed Grades 9 to 1 2 i n Korea. Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 7 2 . 7 per cent had graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea, 9 . 1 per cent had some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y i n Korea and 1 8 . 2 per cent had completed Grades 9 to 1 2 i n Korea. (Table 3 0 ) . TABLE 3 0 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND-NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED IN KOREA Years of s c h o o l i n g T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No^ % No. % No. % 9 - 1 2 1 6 1 9 . 5 8 2 1 . 1 8 18 . 2 1 3 - 1 5 14 1 7 . 1 1 0 2 6 . 3 4 9 . 1 1 6 or more 5 2 6 3.4* 2 0 5 2 . 6 * 3 2 7 2 . 7 * T o t a l 82 1 0 0 . 0 3 8 1 0 0 . 0 44 1 0 0 . 0 * Median X 2 = 4 . 9 3 , Df = 2 , -P > . 0 5 68 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to the years of s c h o o l completed i n Korea. Previo u s E n g l i s h Fluency Previous E n g l i s h f l u e n c y of the Korean respondents was a major v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , 31.6 per cent spoke no E n g l i s h or were very poor i n E n g l i s h when f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver, 57*9 per cent spoke E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l whereas 10.5 per cent were f l u e n t . The l e v e l of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h of the p a r t i c i p a n t s when f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver was found to be f a r lower than t h a t of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 11.4 per cent spoke no E n g l i s h or were ver y poor i n E n g l i s h , 59.1 per cent spoke w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l while 29.5 per cent were f l u e n t when f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver. (Table 31). There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r e v i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y . The people who were l e s s f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h at the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver tended to p a r t i c i p a t e more i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n than the people who were more f l u e n t . Thus, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the lower degree of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h upon the Korean respondents' f i r s t a r r i v a l i n Vancouver. TABLE 31 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY PREVIOUS ENGLISH FLUENCY Non-E n g l i s h f l u e n c y T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . No. % No. % No. % Speak E n g l i s h p o o r l y or not at a l l .1? 20.7 12 31.6 5 11.4 Speak E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l 48 58.6* 22 57.9* 26 59.1* Speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y 17 20.7 4 10.5 13 29.5 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 7.58, Df = 2, P < .05 Present E n g l i s h Fluency Approximately s i x t e e n per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s spoke no E n g l i s h or were poor i n E n g l i s h , 47.4 per cent spoke E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l , and 36.8 per cent were f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h at the time they were interviewed. I n c o n t r a s t , approximately seven per cent of the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s spoke no E n g l i s h or were poor i n E n g l i s h , 47.7 per cent spoke E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l , and 45-5 per cent were f l u e n t at the time of the i n t e r v i e w . (Table 3 2 ) . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t 70 e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n present E n g l i s h f l u e n c y . T h i s suggests t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was u s e f u l to Korean r e s i d e n t s as an a i d i n c l o s i n g the gap with r e s p e c t to E n g l i s h f l u e n c y between the time of e n t r y i n t o Canada and the pres e n t . TABLE 32 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION' OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY PRESENT ENGLISH FLUENCY . _____ E n g l i s h f l u e n c y T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % Speak E n g l i s h p o o r l y or not a t a l l 9 11.0 6 15.8 3 6.8 Speak E n g l i s h w e l l or f a i r l y w e l l 39 ^7.6* 18 47.4* 21 47.7* Speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y 34 41.4 14 36.8 20 45.5 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 • 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 1.86, Df = 2, P > .05 SUMMARY Of the nine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d , there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s except f o r prev i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y upon e n t r y i n t o Canada. (Table 33) 71 The p rev ious E n g l i s h f l uency o f the Korean respondents upon a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver was found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t educa t ion . S ince the l a c k of E n g l i s h f l uency i s a s e r ious b a r r i e r to the immigrants i n l i v i n g i n the host community, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t educa t ion appears to o f f e r a means of a s s i s t i n g immigrants to a s s i m i l a t e i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . TABLE 33 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Degree o f Freedom C h i Square Age 1 0.03 Sex 1 1.76 M a r i t a l s t a tus 1 0.09 Number of c h i l d r e n 2 3.28 Length of res idence i n Vancouver 3 3.90 Present occupa t ion 2 1.5-Income 3 3.31 E d u c a t i o n a l achievement 2 -.93 Prev ious E n g l i s h f luency 2 7.58 Present E n g l i s h f luency 2 1.86 Note: The unde r l i ned va lue i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . 72 DESIRE FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION The Korean respondents showed a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . Approximately n i n e t y per cent of the sample r e p o r t e d t h a t they wanted to take some a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses i n the future? 28.1 per cent i n E n g l i s h courses, 42.7 per cent i n job r e l a t e d courses, 2.4 per cent i n s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n courses, and 9.7 per cent i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s such as Chinese language, French, Fine a r t s , and r e g u l a r u n i v e r s i t y courses. (Table 3 * 0 . The''remaining 17.1 per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t they had no i n t e r e s t i n t a k i n g any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses. These i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t a wider v a r i e t y of programs as compared to t h e i r p r e v i o u s experience which was co n f i n e d p r i m a r i l y to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses i n E n g l i s h . The d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y with a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( r = -.26) and v i s i t i n g with Korean f a m i l i e s (r = -.29). These r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e t h at the people who d e s i r e d to take courses were l e s s l i k e l y to have taken the E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g program and were l e s s l i k e l y to v i s i t with Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver. 73 TABLE 34 ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS DESIRED ' BY THE KOREAN RESPONDENTS Type of courses Number of the respondents d e s i r e d No. % Job r e l a t e d 35 42.7* E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g 23 28.1 Academic courses 6 7.3 S o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n courses 2 2.4 Chinese language 1 1.2 French language 1 1.2 No course d e s i r e d 14 17.1 T o t a l 82 100.0 * Median SOURCES OF INFORMATION In a d d i t i o n to a d u l t education programs, Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver use a v a r i e t y o f sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n to a s s i s t t h e i r process of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . S e v e r a l o f those sources are examined i n subsequent s e c t i o n s . 74 Agencies Approximately t h i r t y - o n e per cent of the respondents reported that they would go to Canada Manpower f o r employment inf o r m a t i o n , 61.0 per cent s a i d that they would depend on newspapers or r a d i o advertisements, and 8.5 per cent reported that they would contact Korean or Canadian f r i e n d s f o r such i n f o r m a t i o n i f they needed to f i n d jobs. The i n f o r m a t i o n seeking c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s regarding f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e were determined i n s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . Some twenty-three per cent s a i d that they would contact Canada Manpower f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , 15.8 per cent reported that they would go to the C i t y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e , 8.5 per cent s a i d that they would go to the bank, 3.7 per cent reported that they would contact the Unemployment Insurance Commission, and 32.9 per cent s a i d that they would t a l k with Korean or Canadian f r i e n d s f o r such i n f o r m a t i o n . Approximately s i x t e e n per cent d i d not respond. For i n f o r m a t i o n on E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g , eleven per cent s a i d that they would go to Canada Manpower, 40.3 per cent s a i d that they would go to the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , 21.9 per cent s a i d that they would go to the Center f o r Continuing Education of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and 7.3 per cent s a i d that they would go to Community Centers. The remaining 19.5 per cent 75 r e p o r t e d t h a t they would c o n t a c t t h e i r Korean or Canadain f r i e n d s i n Vancouver f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n . The respondents who had f o r m e r l y graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Korea and those who had advanced f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h were much more i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g u l a r academic i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r improving t h e i r E n g l i s h . Those who were l e s s educated and a t a lower l e v e l o f E n g l i s h r e p o r t e d t h a t they would go to the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e . For o b t a i n i n g job t r a i n i n g a d v i c e , some twenty-seven per cent s a i d t h a t they would go to Canada Manpower, 14.6 per cent s a i d t h a t they would c o n s u l t t h e i r employer, and 3 2 . 9 per cent s a i d t h a t they would c o n t a c t the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . Of the remainder, approximately eig h t e e n per cent s a i d t h a t they would go to the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology and 4 , 8 per cent s a i d t h at they would c o n t a c t t h e i r Korean or Canadian f r i e n d s . Some two per cent gave no response. In g e n e r a l , the Korean female respondents tend to depend more on formal agencies f o r h e l p with t h e i r employment or e d u c a t i o n a l problems. On the other hand, the male respondents were found to be more independent i n u s i n g other r e s o u r c e s f o r such matters. The Korean respondents g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d that they were f a r l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n the Manpower f o r job or t r a i n i n g purposes because of t h e i r 76 u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h i s a g e n c y . R a t h e r , t h e y e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f the mass media o r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s f o r such p u r p o s e s . Mass M e d i a A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the sample r e a d K o r e a n magaz ines and a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - t h r e e pe r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e a d K o r e a n magaz ines r e g u l a r l y . Some s e v e n t e e n per c e n t o f the r e a d e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y r e a d one K o r e a n magazine p e r month w h i l e 6 . 1 p e r c e n t r e g u l a r l y r e a d more t h a n two K o r e a n magaz ines p e r mon th . These r e a d e r s were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming r e g u l a r r e a d e r s o f magaz ines p u b l i s h e d i n K o r e a , bu t t h e y r e c e i v e d the magaz ines from t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s i n K o r e a . As f o r r e a d i n g magaz ines i n E n g l i s h , a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y p e r c e n t o f the sample r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e a d magaz ines i n E n g l i s h w h i l e 4 0 . 2 p e r c e n t d i d n o t . More t h a n h a l f o f the K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s r e a d E n g l i s h m a g a z i n e s , w h i l e l e s s t h a n o n e - q u a r t e r o f them r e a d K o r e a n m a g a z i n e s . I n g e n e r a l , the male r e s p o n d e n t s r e a d more E n g l i s h magaz ines t h a n the f e m a l e s . The number and k i n d s o f E n g l i s h magaz ines v a r i e d w i t h the p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f the s u b s c r i b e r s . F o r example , p h a r m a c i s t s r e a d E n g l i s h magaz ines d e a l i n g w i t h p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a r e a s and e n g i n e e r s r e a d ones t h a t complement t h e i r work i n t e r e s t s . 77 A p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t y - o n e per. c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e a d newspapers i n E n g l i s h whereas 29.3 p e r c e n t s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r e a d them a t a l l . These r e a d e r s were n o t a l l r e g u l a r s u b s c r i b e r s o f d a i l y n e w s p a p e r s . Some r e s p o n d e n t s r e a d o n l y one o r two days p e r week, u s u a l l y F r i d a y o r S a t u r d a y . Of the s u b s c r i b e r s , s i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t s a i d t h a t t h e y r e a d " V a n c o u v e r Sun" w h i l e 9.8 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e a d "The P r o v i n c e " . Mos t female s u b s c r i b e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s e c t i o n o f the pape r w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t some r e s p o n d e n t s a re s t i l l i n u n s t a b l e employment s i t u a t i o n s and a r e l o o k i n g f o r b e t t e r j o b s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t he r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y watched t e l e v i s i o n w h i l e 8.5 p e r c e n t d i d n o t . Some f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f the r e c e i v e r s wa tch an ave rage o f one hour pe r day , 29.3 p e r c e n t wa tch two h o u r s , and 1 8 .3 p e r c e n t wa tch more t h a n t h r e e h o u r s p e r d a y . These f i g u r e s show a f a i r l y h i g h t r e n d o f t e l e v i s i o n w a t c h i n g among the K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s . The t y p e s o f TV programs w h i c h the K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s watched were o f two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t m a i n l y wa tch movie o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t programs w h i l e 29.3 p e r c e n t watch news, documenta ry , and s p o r t s p r o g r a m s . The t y p e o f program v i e w e d was r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . The r e s p o n d e n t s who were 78 a t a lower l e v e l of f luency tended to watch movies or o ther enter ta inment programs from which they could de r ive unders tanding through v i s u a l e f f e c t s . The respondents who were a t r e l a t i v e l y h igher l e v e l o f E n g l i s h f l u e n c y were i n t e r e s t e d i n news or documentary programs which are not f u l l y comprehensive wi thout E n g l i s h f l u e n c y . In time spent l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o , some seventy-e igh t per cent of the respondents ranged from one to twen ty-e igh t hours per week and the average amount o f l i s t e n i n g time per person was seven hours a week. Approximate ly f i f t y - t h r e e per cent o f the l i s t e n e r s averaged seven hours l i s t e n i n g t ime , 15-9 per cent four teen hours , and 9'7 per cent more than f i f t e e n hours per week. There were no d i f f e r e n c e s between the male and female respondents i n time spent l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o . Most l i s t e n e r s d i d not depend on r a d i o news broadcast r e p o r t s on domestic and f o r e i g n even ts . The i r main purpose i n l i s t e n i n g was to g a i n an unders tanding and aquaintance w i t h the genera l t rend of r a d i o broadcas ts i n the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y . A r e l a t i v e l y sma l l number l i s t e n e d to the r a d i o f o r the purpose of o b t a i n i n g news and i n f o r m a t i o n on cu r ren t events , however, i f the news was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r res idence i n Canada or t h e i r home country s i t u a t i o n , then they would l i k e l y inform t h e i r countrymen of such news by telephone c a l l or pe r soan l c o n t a c t . 79 There were a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between use o f t he mass media and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . R e a d i n g K o r e a n magaz ines showed a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h age ( r = .62) and p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n i n K o r e a ( r = .49). The o l d e r p e o p l e and t h o s e who had f o r m e r l y had h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n K o r e a were more l i k e l y t o r e a d K o r e a n m a g a z i n e s . R e a d i n g magaz ines i n E n g l i s h was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h f l u e n c y ( r = .32), i n t e n t i o n t o become a C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n ( r = .49), and income ( r = .31) • These a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the. . r e s p o n d e n t s who r e a d E n g l i s h magaz ines were found t o be more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h and t h i s was n o t u n e x p e c t e d . The r e s p o n d e n t s who r e a d E n g l i s h magaz ines t ended t o become C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s and e a r n more income t h a n those were n o n - s u b s c r i b e r s to E n g l i s h m a g a z i n e s . R e a d i n g newspapers c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h number o f c h i l d r e n ( r = .37) and n e g a t i v e l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n i n K o r e a ( r = -.36). The r e s p o n d e n t s who had more c h i l d r e n and l e s s e d u c a t i o n t ended to r e a d more E n g l i s h n e w s p a p e r s . T h i s r e s u l t was u n e x p e c t e d and c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t l e s s educa t ed p e o p l e a r e o f l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and seek t o b e t t e r t h e i r j ob o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . A n o t h e r r e a s o n c o u l d be due t o the unemployed house w i v e s who a l s o seek j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h the newspape r . There were two n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between w a t c h i n g 80 t e l e v i s i o n and age (r =• -.38) and the former c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and number of c h i l d r e n (r = - , k 7 ) . The o l d e r people and those who had more c h i l d r e n were l e s s l i k e l y to watch t e l e v i s i o n . L i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (r = .26) and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the number of c h i l d r e n ( r = -.32). The respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t education tended to l i s t e n to the r a d i o more than the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The respondents who had more c h i l d r e n were l e s s l i k e l y to l i s t e n to the r a d i o . SUMMARY The respondents who had a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n Korea and fewer c h i l d r e n tended to use the mass media more and read E n g l i s h magazines more than the l e s s educated people with more c h i l d r e n . The p r o p o r t i o n of the audience among the Koreans showed t h a t approximately s i x t y per cent of the respondents read E n g l i s h magazines, 70.8 per cent read E n g l i s h newspapers, 91.5 per cent watched t e l e v i s i o n , and 78.1 per cent l i s t e n e d to the r a d i o . However, the Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver appeared to l a g behind i n o b t a i n i n g immediate news through the mass media because of t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d approach to i t . 81 SOCIAL CONTACTS A comparison was drawn between the participants and non-participants i n adult education on the basis of six s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s including attitude toward l i v i n g i n Canada, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s , v i s i t i n g with Canadian families i n Vancouver, v i s i t i n g with Korean families i n Vancouver, and chatting or talking with neighbours. This comparison i s drawn i n order to observe whether these variables are related to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. Attitude Toward Living In Canada Of the participants i n adult education, approximately f o r t y - f i v e per cent reported that they were strongly favorable or favorable toward l i v i n g i n Canada, 44.7 per cent were neutral, while 10.5 per cent were unfavorable or strongly unfavorable to l i v i n g i n Canada. Of the non-participants i n adult education, some fifty-two per cent reported that they were strongly favorable or favorable toward l i v i n g i n Canada, 36.4 per cent were neutral, and 11.4 per cent were unfavorable or strongly unfavorable to l i v i n g i n Canada. (Table 35). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the participants and non-participants i n adult education i n the attitude toward l i v i n g i n Canada. 8 2 TABLE 3 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY ATTITUDE TOWARD LIVING IN CANADA Status T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % Str o n g l y favorable or favorable 40 48 . 8 1 7 44 . 7 2 3 5 2 . 3 * N e u t r a l 3 3 4 0 . 2 * 1 7 4 4 . 7 * 1 6 3 6 . 3 Unfavorable or s t r o n g l y unfavorable 9 1 1.0 4 1 0 . 6 5 11.4 T o t a l 82 100.0 3 8 1 0 0 . 0 44 1 0 0 . 0 * Median X 2 = • . 6 0 , Df = 2 , P '•> . 0 5 P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Non-Ethnic Group A c t i v i t i e s S i x of the a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a n t s and f i v e of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s . The remaining 84.2 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education and 88 . 6 per cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s . (Table 3 6 ) . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s . 83 TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY PARTICIPATION IN NON-ETHNIC GROUP ACTIVITIES _____ S t a t u s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % No. % P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s 11 13.4 6 15.8 5 11.4 N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s 71 86.6 32 84.2 39 88.6 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = .34, Df = 1, P > .05 P a r t i c i p a t i o n In E t h n i c Group A c t i v i t i e s There was t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Korean respondents i n t h e i r group a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n or n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The Vancouver Korean S o c i e t y u s u a l l y conducts formal meetings on n a t i o n a l Canadian h o l i d a y s or weekends so that the m a j o r i t y of the members can a t t e n d . V i s i t i n g With Canadian F a m i l i e s In Vancouver With r e s p e c t to v i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver, some s i x t y - e i g h t per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v i s i t e d l e s s than f i v e times per month 84 whereas 31.6 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adu l t educa t ion repor ted that they had not v i s i t e d a t a l l . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t educa t ion , s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent had v i s i t e d l e s s than f i v e t imes per month and 2.3 per cent had v i s i t e d e igh t t imes per month wh i l e 22.7 per cent repor ted tha t they had not v i s i t e d any Canadian f a m i l i e s . (Table 37)• There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t educa t ion i n v i s i t i n g w i t h Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver. TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY NUMBER OF VISITS WITH CANADIAN FAMILIES IN VANCOUVER Number of v i s i t s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. f Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No . None 1 - 4 5 - 1 0 22 26.9 12 31.6 10 22.7 59 71.9* 26 68.4* 33 75-0* 1 1.2 0 0.0 1 2.3 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = .81 , Df = 1, P > .05 85 V i s i t i n g With Korean F a m i l i e s In Vancouver In r e p o r t i n g the number of v i s i t s to Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver, approximately eighty-two per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t they v i s i t e d one to f o u r times per month, 15.8 per cent of them s a i d t h a t they v i s i t e d more than f i v e times per month, and 2.7 per cent had not v i s i t e d . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education, approximately seventy-three per cent had v i s i t e d Korean f a m i l i e s one to f o u r times per month, 22.7 per cent had more than f i v e times per month and 4.5 per cent had not v i s i t e d . (Table 38). The d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two groups was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY NUMBER OF VISITS WITH KOREAN FAMILIES IN VANCOUVER Number of v i s i t s T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-p a r t i c i p a n t s No. + No. * No. % None 3 3.7 1 2.7 2 4.6 1 - 4 63 76.8* . 31 81.7* 32 72.7* 5 - 1 0 13 15.8 6 15.6 7 15.9 11 - 30 3 3.7 0 0.0 3 6.8 T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = .70, Df = 1, P > .05 86 C h a t t i n g or T a l k i n g With Neighbours In C h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours, approximately t h i r t y - s e v e n per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t they had done so one to' f o u r times per month, 29.0 per cent s a i d t h a t they had done so more than f i v e times per month, while 3^-2 per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t they had no such c o n t a c t s . Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education, some twenty-seven per cent r e p o r t e d t h a t they had chatted or t a l k e d with t h e i r neighbours one to f o u r times per month, 50.0 per cent had done so more than f i v e times per month, while 22.7 per cent of them r e p o r t e d t h a t they had not chatted or t a l k e d with t h e i r neighbours at a l l . (Table 39). The median number of chats or t a l k s per month between the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education and t h e i r neighbours was f i v e to ten and the average was seven, while between the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education and t h e i r neighbours the median was eleven to t h i r t y and the average was e i g h t e e n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with t h e i r neighbours. 8? TABLE 39 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION BY NUMBER OF CHATS OR TALKS WITH NEIGHBOURS Number of chats ' • Non-or t a l k s with T o t a l P a r t i c i p a n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s neighbours No. % No. % No. % None 23 2 8 . 0 13 34.2. 10 22.7 ' 1 - 4 26 31.7 14 36.8 12 27-3 5 - 1 0 13 15.9* 5. 13.2* . 8 18.2 11 - 30 20 24.4 6 15.8 . 14 31.8* T o t a l 82 100.0 38 100.0 44 100.0 * Median X 2 = 2.74, Df = 2, P > .05 V i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with E n g l i s h f l u e n c y (r = .39 ) i use of the E n g l i s h language (r = .26), and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s ( r = . 2 2 ) . These a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the people who v i s i t e d Canadian f a m i l i e s more tended to be more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , use E n g l i s h more, and p a r t i c i p a t e more i n formal group a c t i v i t i e s . C h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours was c o r r e l a t e d with such v a r i a b l e s as E n g l i s h f l u e n c y (r = . 4 2 ) , use of the E n g l i s h language (r = .39), p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s (r = .27), r e a d i n g o f E n g l i s h newspaper (r = - . 2 2 ) , and 88 v i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s (r = ,24). These a s s o c i a t i o n s show t h a t the people who chat or t a l k more with neighbours tended to be more f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , use E n g l i s h more, p a r t i c i p a t e more i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s , read E n g l i s h newspapers l e s s , and v i s i t Canadian f a m i l i e s more o f t e n . SUMMARY • In g e n e r a l , the Korean respondents a s s o c i a t e d l e s s , with the surrounding community i n formal group a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a l meetings, but tended to be more a c t i v e i n t h e i r own n a t i o n a l group. With r e s p e c t to a t t i t u d e toward l i v i n g i n Canada, 89.6 per cent of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and 88.4 per cent o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were i n the f a v o r a b l e or i n the n e u t r a l category toward Canada. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f Korean respondents i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s was o n l y 15.8 per cent f o r the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and 11.4 per cent f o r the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s e s o f the Korean respondents d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s . There' was t o t a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the Korean respondents i n . e t h n i c group a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and/non-parti.cipation' i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . With r e s p e c t to v i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver, some s i x t y - e i g h t per cent of the a d u l t 89 e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d . s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v i s i t e d l e s s than f i v e times per month. Approximately eighty-two per cent of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and seventy-three per cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v i s i t e d with Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver one to fou r . t i m e s per month. In c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours, f i f t y , per cent of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and 45.5 per c e n t ' o f the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education c h a t t e d or t a l k e d with t h e i r neighbours. Of the s i x s o c i a l - i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d , there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . Since most of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , had taken a one-month program of Ba s i c A d u l t E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , Koreans' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . ' . .. 90 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY An a n a l y t i c a l survey method which a p p l i e s a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule was used i n t h i s study. Eighty-two a d u l t Koreans c o n s i s t i n g of 41 males and 41 females, as a random sample, i n Vancouver were i n t e r v i e w e d i n September and October, 1971. The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the use made of c e r t a i n sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and educa t i o n by Korean immigrants i n the c i t y o f Vancouver. F a c t o r s such as socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s were analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to determine whether or not any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . KOREAN RESIDENTS IN VANCOUVER In g e n e r a l , the Korean respondents were newer r e s i d e n t s , i n the younger age category, and h i g h l y educated. The l e n g t h of re s i d e n c e o f the Korean respondents i n Vancouver averaged two and a h a l f years a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . The median age of the a d u l t Koreans was approximately 30 years but the male group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y o l d e r than the female group. Approximately e i g h t y - t h r e e 91 per cent of the Korean respondents were married and had an average o f 1.4 c h i l d r e n . A l l c h i l d r e n of the Korean respondents were i n a grade lower than Grade 4 or pr e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and t h i s was c o n s i s t e n t with the low age of the pa r e n t s . Approximately t h r e e - f i f t h of the Korean respondents were household heads and the remainder were dependents of household heads. Some seventy-nine per cent o f the Korean respondents were f l u e n t or f a i r l y f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h at the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada and 89.1 per cent o f the respondents were f l u e n t or f a i r l y f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and the female respondents i n prev i o u s E n g l i s h f l u e n c y , with males more f l u e n t than females. Approximately seventy per cent of the Korean respondents had a job and 12.2 per cent were f u l l - t i m e students i n Vancouver. Some ei g h t e e n per cent o f the respondents were unemployed a t the time they were i n t e r v i e w e d . The occupations of the respondents were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s e s i n c l u d i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l , S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and Lower A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , C l e r i c a l and S a l e s , S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d workers, and U n s k i l l e d . T h e i r median o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was S k i l l e d and S e m i - s k i l l e d c l a s s e s . There were a few respondents i n 92 the h i g h e r c l a s s e s whereas t h e r e were a l a r g e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n the l o w e r c l a s s e s . The p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the K o r e a n r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouve r was r e l a t i v e l y -l o w e r t h a n the p r e v i o u s s t a t u s i n K o r e a . T h e i r l a c k o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h and d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d were seen as the l a r g e s t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r d e c l i n e i n s t a t u s . The K o r e a n f a m i l i e s ave r aged $7,500 i n t o t a l income f o r the p a s t 12 months and 3 .^2 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $5,000. The low income r e s p o n d e n t s t ended t o be l e s s f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , n o n - e d u c a t e d i n Canada , and s h o r t - t e r m r e s i d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r . The K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s were s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t V a n c o u v e r . O n e - t e n t h o f the r e s p o n d e n t s owned t h e i r homes i n V a n c o u v e r w h i l e the r e m a i n d e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y r e n t e d . T h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h o t h e r s i n the c i t y as e v e r y house had a t e l e p h o n e , 91-5 p e r c e n t o f them had t e l e v i s i o n , 87.8 p e r c e n t o f them had r a d i o , and 5-.9 p e r c e n t o f them owned a c a r . The K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e toward l i v i n g i n Canada . Some e i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s were i n the f a v o u r a b l e o r i n the n e u t r a l c a t e g o r y toward C a n a d a . A p p r o x i m a t e l y twen ty -one p e r c e n t o f the K o r e a n r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t e d 9 y e a r s to 12 y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g i n K o r e a , 17.1 p e r c e n t had 13 y e a r s t o 15 y e a r s , and 62.2 93 p e r c e n t c o m p l e t e d 16 y e a r s o r more o f s c h o o l i n g i n K o r e a . There were 26.8 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s who had r e c e i v e d some e d u c a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . N i n e t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s were e d u c a t e d i n Canada and t h r e e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Mos t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f those who were educa t ed o r u n d e r t a k i n g c o u r s e s i n Canada o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s were found as g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . T h e i r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s was f o r an average o f two y e a r s . Of the f i f t y - o n e r e s p o n d e n t s r e c e i v i n g a u n i v e r s i t y degree i n K o r e a o r N o r t h A m e r i c a , one r e s p o n d e n t h e l d a D o c t o r a l d e g r e e , 7 r e s p o n d e n t s o b t a i n e d a M a s t e r s d e g r e e , and kj were awarded a B a c h e l o r s d e g r e e . H a l f o f those u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s had t h e i r major a r e a s o f s t u d y i n A r t s . Some o n e - q u a r t e r o f the r e s p o n d e n t s had r e c e i v e d job t r a i n i n g i n K o r e a and a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t e n t h o f the K o r e a n s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . 94 ADULT EDUCATION T h i r t y - e i g h t Korean respondents (46.4 per cent) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s in" a d u l t education, 35 had taken E n g l i s h language courses and 3 attended job r e l a t e d courses. Most, of the Korean p a r t i c i p a n t s had taken a one-month program, the Beginners course of E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g a t the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e i n t h e i r e a r l y days i n Vancouver. Nine socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n , l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n Vancouver, present occupation, income, e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, and E n g l i s h f l u e n c y were s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . There was o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h a t was E n g l i s h f l u e n c y a t the time of e n t r y -into Canada. The l e v e l of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h of the p a r t i c i p a n t s when f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver was found to be f a r lower than t h a t of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus, a lower degree of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education seemed u s e f u l to Korean r e s i d e n t s as an a i d i n c l o s i n g the gap with r e s p e c t to E n g l i s h f l u e n c y between the time of entry i n t o 95 Canada and the p r e s e n t . : • • The Korean respondents showed a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . Approximately n i n e t y per cent of the sample wanted to.take courses i n the f u t u r e i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s such as job r e l a t e d courses, .English language t r a i n i n g courses, s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n courses, and u n i v e r s i t y academic courses. These i n t e r e s t s r epresented a wider v a r i e t y of programs as compared to t h e i r p r e v i o u s experience which was c o n f i n e d to a d u l t education courses i n E n g l i s h . SOURCES OF INFORMATION Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver used a v a r i e t y of sources of i n f o r m a t i o n to a s s i s t t h e i r process of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . Approximately t h i r t y -one per cent of the respondents r e p o r t e d that they would go to Canada Manpower f o r employment i n f o r m a t i o n , 69.0 per cent s a i d t h a t they would depend on other r e s o u r c e s such as newspaper advertisements and p e r s o n a l sources f o r such i n f o r m a t i o n . Most of the respondents tended to use newspaper advertisements f o r t h e i r employment i n f o r m a t i o n . In seeking i n f o r m a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , h a l f of the respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t they would co n t a c t formal agencies i n c l u d i n g Canada Manpower, the C i t y S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e , the bank, and the Unemployment Insurance 96 Commission and' t h i r t y - t h r e e per cent of the sample s a i d t h a t they would use p e r s o n a l sources. For i n f o r m a t i o n on E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g , some e i g h t y per cent of the respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t they would c o n t a c t formal agencies such as Canada Manpower, the S p e c i a l Programs D i v i s i o n of Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , the Center f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Community Centers and 19.5 per cent of the respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t they would depend on p e r s o n a l sources. For o b t a i n i n g job t r a i n i n g a d vice, approximately e i g h t y per cent of the respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t they would c o n t a c t formal agencies i n c l u d i n g Canada Manpower, the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , and the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology and 19.4 per cent s a i d t h a t they would depend on p e r s o n a l sources. The female respondents g e n e r a l l y tended to depend more on formal agencies f o r h e l p with t h e i r employment or e d u c a t i o n a l problems. On the other hand, the male respondents were found to be: more independent i n u s i n g other r e s o u r c e s f o r such matters. With r e s p e c t to mass media as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , approximately seventy-one per cent of the sample s u b s c r i b e d to newspapers, 59.8 per cent read magazines i n E n g l i s h , 91.5 per cent r e g u l a r l y watched t e l e v i s i o n , and 78.1 per cent r e p o r t e d r e g u l a r m o n i t o r i n g of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . However, - i t has been found t h a t the scope of i n f o r m a t i o n 97 acqui red through such media was r e s t r i c t e d . As the mass media was t r ansmi t t ed i n E n g l i s h , the i n f o r m a t i o n such as news of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l events may be d i s t o r t e d by a l ack of unders tanding of .Hhe language. Therefore , the s i z e of the Korean audience u s ing a p a r t i c u l a r media may be b iased upwards due to the element o f incomprehension. Some s u b s c r i b e r s repor ted tha t they read on l y the a d v e r t i s i n g pages i n newspapers, u s u a l l y F r i d a y or Saturday; some audience s a i d tha t they mos t ly watched movies or o ther enter ta inment programs on t e l e v i s i o n and o thers repor ted tha t they l i s t e n e d to r ad io broadcasts not fo r news or o ther s p e c i f i c i n fo rma t ion purposes, but merely from h a b i t . SOCIAL CONTACTS In a d d i t i o n to a d u l t educa t ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Vancouver had a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l con tac t s w i t h formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s and community members. Some t h i r t e e n per cent of the Korean respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n non-e thn ic group a c t i v i t i e s . The degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-e thnic group a c t i v i t i e s was r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The h igher o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a tus of the respondents was the key f a c t o r r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-e thn ic group a c t i v i t i e s . There was t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Korean respondents i n t h e i r own n a t i o n a l group a c t i v i t i e s . 9 8 Some seventy-three per cent of the respondents had v i s i t e d with Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver averaging two v i s i t s per month. Some n i n e t y - s i x per cent o f the sample had v i s i t e d with Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver and averaged three v i s i t s per month. Three-quarters of the Korean respondents averaged f i v e times per month i n c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with t h e i r neighbours. The remainder r e p o r t e d t h a t they had no such c o n t a c t s . The respondents g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d l e s s with the surrounding community i n group a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a l meetings. They tended to be more a c t i v e i n t h e i r e t h n i c group a c t i v i t i e s and communicated more with t h e i r own group. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . S i x s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d a t t i t u d e toward l i v i n g i n Canada, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e t h n i c group a c t i v i t i e s , v i s i t i n g with Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver, v i s i t i n g with Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver, and c h a t t i n g or t a l k i n g with neighbours. 99 CONCLUSION The sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n of e t h n i c a d u l t r e s i d e n t s are major f a c t o r s to be f u l l y determined i n a s s i m i l a t i n g them i n t o the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y . In g e n e r a l , the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study were i n c o n s i s t e n t with those sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n used by the n a t i v e a d u l t s . In the sample, the use of mass media was p r i m a r i l y f o r entertainment purposes. For these people, then, i n f o r m a t i o n and c u r r e n t events were a c q u i r e d p r i m a r i l y through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . As a r e s u l t , they r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n l a t e r than those who obtained i t from the mass media even though they had an e q u i v a l e n t p r o x i m i t y to media sources. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Korean a d u l t r e s i d e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was d i s t r i b u t e d i n s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s with those of the n a t i v e a d u l t s i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l i n g and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g with the e x c e p t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education was mainly concentrated i n E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s and was c h i e f l y i n f l u e n c e d by the d e s i r e f o r E n g l i s h f l u e n c y r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d socio-economic s t a t u s . In view of such c o n t i n u i n g d e s i r e s f o r E n g l i s h language f l u e n c y , the study suggests the need f o r a r i g o r o u s examination of the E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g programs by 100 a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n o r d e r to e v a l u a t e and promote the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a d u l t c l a s s e s f o r v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . As the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f the K o r e a n a d u l t r e s i d e n t s w i t h the o b s e r v e d n a t i v e community members showed, t h e r e was a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between such i n t e r a c t i o n s and the r e l a t i v e E n g l i s h f l u e n c y o f the K o r e a n i m m i g r a n t s . The improvement o f E n g l i s h was found as a major o b s t a c l e to v a r i o u s segments o f the K o r e a n p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the deve lopment o f an e f f e c t i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program i n the E n g l i s h l anguage wou ld enhance and i n c r e a s e the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the K o r e a n r e s i d e n t s to the h o s t s o c i e t y . 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , G. P. E t h n i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canadian S o c i e t y . S t . C a t h a r i n e s , O n t a r i o : Prepared f o r The Trans-Canada A l l i a n c e of German-Canadians Annual Convention, (November, 1968). B l i s h e n , Bernard R., Prank E. Jones, Kaspar D. Naegele, and John P o r t e r ( e d s . ) . Canadian S o c i e t y . \ S o c i o l o g i c a l  P e r s p e c t i v e s , 3d ed. Toronto: M a c m i l l a n v q f Canada, 1968. ( e d s . ) . Canadian S o c i e t y . S o c i o l o g i c a l . P e r s p e c t i v e s , r e v . ed. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1965. Bogardus, E. S. S o c i a l D i s t a n c e . Yellow S p r i n g s , Ohio: A n t i o c h Press, 1959. Dyer, John. I v o r y Towers i n the Market P l a c e s . I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1956. Ellwood, C h a r l e s A. C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n . New York: D. Appleton Century Co., 1927. Fagen, Richard R. . P o l i t i c s and Communication. An A n a l y t i c  Study. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 19~6"6. Goodenough, Ward Hunt. Cooperation i n Change. New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, I963. Groves, E r n e s t R. S o c i a l Problems and E d u c a t i o n . New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1925. Hagedorn, R., and S. L a b o v i t z . " P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n s by Occupation; A Test of Three T h e o r i e s " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 33: 272-283, TXpril, 19T8T. and . "An A n a l y s i s of Community and P r o f e s s i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Among Occupations". S o c i a l  Forces, 46: 483-491, (June, 1 9 6 7 ) . and . "Occupational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s " . S o c i a l  F o r c e s . 47: 16-27, (September, 1968). 102 H a l l e n b e c k , W i l b u r G ( e d . ) . Community and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f the U . S . A . , 1962. Hay, D . G . , D . E n s m i n g e r , S . R . M i l l e r , and E . J . L e b r u n , R u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Three Maine Towns. Maine E x t e n s i o n B u l l e t i n 391. 19-9. J o h n s o n , Henry F . A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1968. K i m b e l , .Gregory A . P r i n c i p l e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : The R o n a l d P r e s s Company, 1956. K n o w l e s , M a l c o l m S ( e d . ) . Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f the U . S . A . , i 9 6 0 . L l o y d , A n t o n y J o h n . Community Development i n C a n a d a . O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r f o r A n t h r o p o l o g y , S a i n t P a u l U n i v e r s i t y , 196?. M c l e n d o n , J o n a t h o n C . S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n . C u r r e n t R e a d i n g s from the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1966~~] Newber ry , J r . , J o h n S . " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " . U n p u b l i s h e d R e s e a r c h R e v i e w , New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , Bu reau o f A p p l i e d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1958. Oh, Chunsuk , I n k i L e e , Hanyoung L i m , S h i t a e , C h u n g , Bummo Chung, B y u n g c h i l C h o i , Raeun Sung , H y o n k i Pak , and Younghan Moon ( e d s . ) . H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n . S e o u l , K o r e a j Hyondae Gyoyuk Chong Suh C o . , 1961. O l s e n , Edward G ( e d . ) . The S c h o o l and Community R e a d e r . E d u c a t i o n i n P e r s p e c t i v e . New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1963. P o r t e r , J o h n . The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c . An A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l  C l a s s And Power I n Canada , T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , I 9 6 5 . Rhee, J e u n g . E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y . S e o u l , K o r e a : Bae Young Sa Company, 1970. Sawrey , James M . , and C h a r l e s W. T e l f o r d . E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y . B o s t o n : 2d e d . A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . , 1964. 103 Shapiro, Samuel ( e d . ) . I n t e g r a t i o n o f Man and S o c i e t y i n  L a t i n America. Notre Dame, Indiana: U n i v e r s i t y o f Notre Dame Press, 1967. Smith, J . , and H. D. Rawls. " S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of an E d u c a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e ; the Need and i t s Consequences", S o c i a l Forces. 44: 57-66. T a y l o r , C a l v i n W ( e d . ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media and C r e a t i v i t y . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Thut, I . N., and Don Adams. E d u c a t i o n a l P a t t e r n s i n Contemporary S o c i e t i e s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. Verner, C o o l i e , and A l l a n Booth. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New York: • The Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education, Inc., 1964. Verner, C o o l i e , and John S, Newberry, J r . "The Nature of A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n " . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 8: 208-222, (Summer, 1958). A New Approach To Immigration. Ottawa: Canada Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1969. F a c t s About Korea. Seoul, Korea: The M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e and Information, Republic of Korea Government, 1971. Korea, I t s Land, People, and C u l t u r e o f A l l Ages. Seoul, Korea: Hakwonsa Company L i m i t e d , I963. The Overseas Korean Residents S t a t u s . Seoul, Korea: The M i n i s t r y of F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , Republic of Korea Government, 1971. 1970 Immigration. S t a t i s t i c s , Canada. Ottawa: Canada Immigration D i v i s i o n , Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1970. APPENDIX ONE TABLE 1 SELECTED CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ALL KOREAN RESPONDENTS 105 APPENDIX ONE SELECTED CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. 1.00 2 . .42 1 .00 3. .27 .01 1.00 4. -.20 - .32 .01 1.00 5. .24 .12 .35 .05 1.00 6. -.24 - .13 .28 .06 -.06 1.00 7. .17 - .10 .03 .22 .16 -.06 1.00 8. .23 - .01 • 15 .36 -.25 -.14 .13 1-.00 9. .1:6 .10 .28 -.04 .23 -.24 -.01 .26 1.00 10. .14 - .21 .. -35 .47 .58 -.19 .29 .28 .18 1.00 11. .02 - .29 • 39 .5 5 i i i -.14 .26 .26 .17 .90 1.00 12. -.05 - .06 .19 .22 .12 -.34 -.05 .10 .09 .22 .25 1.00 13. .24 .05 .04 -.15 .00 -.08 .10 -.07 .02 .01 -.05 -.05 14. -.05 .10' -.24 -.02 -.06 .47 -.05 .21 -.32 -.11 -.10 -.31 15- .62 .25 .09 .06 .66 -.21 .35 .49 -.23 .02 -.06 -.17 16. -.03 .18 • 15 -. 14 .12 .00 -.01 .12 .21 • 25 .32 .12 17- .06 • 37 -.00 -.36 -.18 .13 -.15 -.17 -.15 -.44 -.48 -.09 18. -.38 - .47 -;;16 .07 -.18 .13 .04 -.12 -.13 -.11 -.07 -.13 19. -.08 - .32 -.04 .15 .06 .10 .26 -.14 -.14 .05 .19 .05 20. - .02 -V .02 .52 -.18 -.03 .20 .51 .43 .42 .15 21. .16 .01 .67 -.09 .51 -.16 -.06 .00 .30 .30 .28 .14 22 . -.04 - .01 .11 -.06 -.22 .03 .07 .05 .01 .18 .15 -.13 23. -.05 - .04 .06 .27 -.07 .00 .16 -.03 .03 .32 • 39 ' .22 24. -.09 - .11 .39 • 36 .04 -.22 .25 .09 -.02 .31 .42 .27 Note: The u n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . L i s t o f F a c t o r s : - - No. D e s c r i p t i o n 1. Age 2. Number of C h i l d r e n 3. Length o f Residence 4. Years o f School completed i n Korea 5. Years of S c h o o l i n g i n Canada 6. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 7. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 8. Previous Occupation i n Korea 9. Present Occupation 10. Previous E n g l i s h Fluency 11. Present E n g l i s h Fluency 1 0 6 TABLE 1 FOR ALL KOREAN RESPONDENTS 1 3 14 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 24 1.00 .04 1.00 -.10 . 1 5 1.00 - . 1 5 -.10 .08 1.00 - . 0 7 -.02 .22 - . 0 3 1.00 - . 0 6 - . 0 5 - . 1 3 - . 2 7 - . ° 5 - . 0 9 - . 0 3 .21 -.12 - . 0 5 .19 -.20 ! • . 20 . 1 5 -.11 .10 -.18 - . 0 6 • 3 1 .00 .08 . 0 6 -.18 . 0 7 .00 . 0 6 -.18 .08 . 1 9 -.14 - . 0 7 - . 0 9 - . 0 7 . 0 7 -.22 1.00 . 1 9 1.00 -.21 .01 1.00 - . 2 3 - . 0 9 .6? 1.00 . 1 9 - . 0 9 .22 . 0 7 1.00 .12 .20 .01 -.02 .18 1.00 -.02 - . ° 5 . 0 9 . 1 6 . 0 5 .24 No. D e s c r i p t i o n 12. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Non-Ethnic Group A c t i v i t i e s 1 3 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E t h n i c Group A c t i v i t i e s 14. A t t i t u d e toward L i v i n g i n Canada 1 5 . Reading of Korean Magazines 16. Reading o f Magazines i n E n g l i s h 1 7 . Reading o f E n g l i s h Newspapers 18. Watch T e l e v i s i o n 19. L i s t e n to the Radio 2 0 . Respondent's E a r n i n g s 2 1 . Family Income 2 2 . V i s i t with Korean F a m i l i e s i n Vancouver 2 3 . V i s i t with Canadian F a m i l i e s i n Vancouver 24. Chat or Talk with Neighbours APPENDIX TWO VANCOUVER KOREAN ADULT RESIDENTS INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 108 U.B.C./K.A.V./71 Re spondent' s Number VANCOUVER KOREAN ADULT RESIDENTS INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name:. • Address: Record o f V i s i t s ; Date Time Comments F i r s t Second ' Third . Interview and F i e l d Check: O f f i c e Coding: F i n a l Check: Coding: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.. 109 - 1 IDENTIFICATION DATA Re spondent' s Number 1, 2-. Data Card Number 3-. 1 Language o f Interview 1. Korean 4. 1 2. E n g l i s h 2 5. Both 3 START INTERVIEW HERE 1. Sex o f respondent 1. Male 5* 1 2. Female 2 2. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 1. Single 6. 1 2. Married 2 3. Widowed .Divorced' or Separated' 3 3. Is the respondent the household head? 1. Yes 7» 1 2. No 2 4. "What i s vour age? 8,9- _ 1. 15 - 19 10. 1 2. 20 - 24 2 3. 25 - 34 3 4. 35 44 4 5. 45 - 54 5 6. 5 5 - 6 4 6 7. 6 5 - 6 9 7 8. 70 p l u s 8 5. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 11.' _ a. How many are not yet o f school age? 12. b. How many are a t t e n d i n g school from Grade 1-12? 13-c. How many are a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y ? 14. d. How many c h i l d r e n do you have who have l e f t school? 15« 110 2 - . 6. What i s the homeland o f your spouse? 16. 7. What' i s your s t a t u s i n Canada? 1. Landed Immigrant 17. 1 2. Student 2 3. Trade and Busine ss . 3 4. The Embassy member & fami l y 4 5. Other: S p e c i f y 5 8. What i s the s t a t u s o f your spouse i n Canada? 1. Landed Immigrant 18. 1 2. Student 2 3- Trade and Busine ss 3 4. The Embassy member & fa m i l y 4 5. Other: Spe c i fy 5 9. How many months have you l i v e d i n Canada? 19,20. 10. How many months have you l i v e d i n Vancouver? 21,22. 11. Where did you l i v e before coming to Vancouver? 1. Korea 23. 1 2. B r i t i s h Columbia 2 3. P r a i r i e Province 3 4. Ont a r i o or Quebec 4 5- Maritime P r o v i n c e s 5 6. United S t a t e s 6 7- Japan 7 8. South America 8 9. Other: S p e c i f y 9 12. How many years o f s c h o o l i n g have you completed "in Korea? " 24,25-1. 6 or l e s s 26. 1 2. 7 - 9 2 3. 10 - 12 3 4. 13 - 14 4 5. 15 (3-year s i t y ) u n i v e r -rz 6. 16 or more 6 - 3 - 111 What was your major study i n c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , and graduate s c h o o l i n Korea? 27,28. 13. Did. you have any j o b t r a i n i n g i n Korea? 1. Yes 29. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", how many months d i d you have t r a i n i n g ? 30,31. _ I f "yes", what type o f t r a i n i n g d i d you t a k e ? 32. 14. Were you employed i n Korea? 1. Yes 33. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what was your main o c c u p a t i o n i n Korea? 34. _ 15. Kow many y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g have you completed i n Canada? ~ 35,36. _ 1. 6 or l e s s 37. 1 2. 7 - 9 2 3. 1 0 - 1 2 3 4. 13 - 14- 4 5. 15 ( 3 - y e 3 r u n i v e r -s i t y ) 5 6. 16 or more 6 What was your major study i n Canada? 38,39. _ 16. Have you taken any v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g course i n Canada? 1. Yes 40. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", how many months have you taken? 41,42. _ I f "yes", which c o u r s e ( s ) have you taken? 43,44. Who sponsored the above l i s t e d c o u r s e ( s ) ? 1. Manpower 45. 2. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 46. 3. Employer 47. 4. S e l f 48. 5. O t h e r : S p e c i f y 49. 112 17. Are .you p r e s e n t l y employed? 1. Yes 50. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", What i s your p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n ? 51. How many weeks d i d i t take to get your f i r s t j o b i n Vancouver? ' 52,53< 1. Was arrcn£<?d 54• b e f o r e a r r i v a l 1 2. l e s s than 1 week 2 3. 1 - 4 weeks 3 4. 5 - 1 2 weeks 4 5. 13 - 24 weeks 5 6. 2 5 - 4 8 weeks 6 7. 49 weeks o r more 7 18. How many ye.nrc- have you been w o r k i n g i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n ? 55,56. 1. • 1 or l e s s 57- 1 2. 2 - 3 2 3- 4 - 5 3 4 . 6 - 1 0 4 5. 11 and over 5 19. .Is your p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o your p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n i n Korea? 1. Yes 58 •. 1 2. No 2 20. How do you l i k e your p r e s e n t job? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 59. 1 2. S a t i s f i e d 2 3- N e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d nor u n s a t i s f i e d 3 4-. U n s a t i s f i e d 4 5. Very u n s a t i s f i e d 5 21, Have you taken any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n your a r r i v a l i n Canada? 1. 2. course s i n c e Yes No 60. 1 2 - 5 -113 I f "yes", what course (s) have you taken? E n g l i s h 1. Yes 61. 1 2. No 2 J o b - r e l a t e d 1. Yes 62. 1 2. No 2 S o c i a l 63. o r i e n t a t i o n 1. Yes 1 2. No 2 Other: S p e c i f y 1. Yes 64. 1 2. No 2 Who sponsored the above l i s t e d courses? Eng.lang. J o b - r e l . Soc.Orien. Other 65. 66. 67_ 68_. 1. Manpower 1 1 1 1 2. A p p r e n t i c e -s h i p Board 2 2 2 2 3. Employer 3 3 3 3 4. S e l f 4 4 4 4 5. Other: Specify 5 5 5 5 Who organized the c l a s s e s you took? 1. Vancouver School Board 69. 1 2. U.B.C. Center f o r C o n t i n u i n g Edc. 2 3. B.C.I.T. 3 4. YM/YWC-4 ^ 5. Community Center 5 6. Korean So c i e t y 6 7. Korean Church 7 8. Other: S p e c i f y 8 22. Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g any a d u l t education course -i n t h - f u t u r e ? 1. Yes 70. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what kind of course? 1. E n g l i s h 71. 1 2. J o b - r e l a t e d 2 3. S o c i a l O r i e n t a t i o n 3 4. Other: S p e c i f y 4 114 START DATA CARD 2 Respondent's Number 1,2. Data Card Number 3. 2 23. How many years o f s c h o o l i n g has your spouse completed? 4,5. 1. 6 or l e s s 6, 1 2. 7 - 9 2 3. 1 0 - 1 2 3 4. 1 3 - 1 4 4 5- 15 (3-year u n i v e r -s i t y ) 5 6. 16 or more 6 24. Was your spouse employed before he/she came to Canada? 1. Yes 7. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what was h i s / h e r occupation before he/she came to Canada? ' 8,9. 25. Did he/she have any job t r a i n i n g before coming to Canada? 1. Yes " 10. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what type o f t r a i n i n g d i d he/she take? 1. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 11. 1 2. P u b l i c v o c a t i o -n a l t r a i n i n g s chool 2 3. On the job t r a i n i n g 3 4. Other: S p e c i f y 4 26. Has your spouse had any job t r a i n i n g since h i s / h e r a r r i v a l i n Canada? 1. Yes 12. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what type o f t r a i n i n g d i d he/she take? 1. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 13. 1 2. P u b l i c v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g school 2 3. On the job t r a i n i n g 3 4. Other: S p e c i f y 4 - 7 - 115 Who sponsored the t r a i n i n g ? 1. Manpower 14. 1 2. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p Bd. 2 3. Employer 3 4. S e l f 4 5. Other: S p e c i f y 5 27. Has your spouse taken any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n course since h i s / h e r a r r i v a l i n Canada? 1. Yes 15. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what course (s) did he/she take? 16. 1. E n g l i s h language 1 2. J o b - r e l a t e d 2 3. S o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n 3 4. Other: S p e c i f y 4 28. Is your spouse p r e s e n t l y employed? 1. Yes 17. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", what i s h i s / h e r present occupation? 18,19. b) read E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3- 4. 5. 24. c) write E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 5. 4. 5- 25« T o t a l Score 26 ,27 . I f "No", i s your spouse l o o k i n g f o r a job? 1. Yes 20. 1 2. No 2 29. Do you own a c a r , t r u c k , motorcycle? 1. Yes 21. 1 2. No 2 Do you have a v a l i d B.C. d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e ? 1. Yes 22. 1 2. No 2 30. When you a r r i v e d i n Canada how w e l l could you: a) speak E n g l i s h ? 1. Not at a l l 2. Not very w e l l 3. F a i r l y w e l l 4. Very w e l l 5. F l u e n t l y or extremely w e l l 2'3» 31 Nov; how w e l l do vou : 32, a) speak E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b) read E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 4. 5. c) w r i t e E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. A. 5-T o t a l Score When your spouse he/she; arrived i n Canada how w e l l a) speak E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b) read E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. c) write E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. T o t a l Score Nov; how w e l l does your spouse : a) speak E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b) read E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. c) w r i t e E n g l i s h ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5-T o t a l Score 28. 29. 30. 31,32. 33. 34. 35. 36,37. 38. 39. 40. 41,42. 34. How ofte n do you use E n g l i s h when you are:-a) shopping b) t a l k i n g to your spouse/ close f r i e n d s i f s i n g l e c) t a l k i n g to your c h i l d r e i (omit i f s i n g l e ) d) t a l k i n g to your neigh-bo ur s e) t a l k i n g to your workmate s 1. Rarely 2. Occasi-o n a l l y 3. Almost Alway s x l x2 x3 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. T o t a l s 49,50. - 9 -117 \ 35- Do you in tend to become a c i t i z e n o f Canada? 1. Yes '51. 1 2. No 2. 3. Undecided 3 4. . Not a p p l i c a b l e (Already a c i t i z e n ) 4-: 36. Chapin Scale Would you please to t r y to r e c a l l a l l those o r g a n i z a t i o n s tha t you belong to? Name o f o r g a n i z a t i o n Type E . or N . A t t e n -dance C o n t r i -bu t ion Co mm. memb. O f f . Held 1. 2. 3. 4. .5-6. 7. 8. 9. 10. T o t a l s ( x l ) (x2) (x3) Cx4) • (x5' T o t a l 52,53-Score 54. T o t a l Non-E t h n . Sc. 55,56. 57-T o t a l E t h n . Score 58,59. 60. E.. as a % of T o t a l 61. Cod i n g ; 0 1 - 5 -6 -10 -11-15 -16-20 -1 21 2 26 3 31 4 5 25 -30 -31 - 35 -35 p lu s -6 7 8 Q - 10 -118 i 37. Bogardus S c a l e T h i s s e c t i o n o f the i n t e r v i e w i s concerned w i t h the ways you might f e e l about d i f f e r e n t groups. Do'not g i v e your r e a c t i o n s t o the b e s t , o r to the worst members o f the group t h a t you have known b u t , t h i n k o f the p i c t u r e t h a t you have o f the whole group. I w i l l t e l l you the name o f the group, and then you t e l l me how many o f the c a t e g o r i e s on t h i s card would "go a l o n g w i t h " f o r each group.. (Hand r e s p o n d e n t c a r d ) ( I n d i c a t e ' b y m a r k i n g x i n the a p p r o p r i a t e b o x e s ) . J a p a -ne se American Ne gro Chine se People from I n d i a Can ad i an s Swede s Score 1. To c l o s e k i n s h i p "i. To go p l a c e s w i t h as per so n a1 f r i e n d s 3. To l i v e n e x t to as n e i g h b o u r s • i . To work w i t h on a job !5. To become a Canadian c i t i z e n j5. To be a v i s i t o r i n Canada 7. To be k e p t out o f Canada T o t a l s Columns 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67-68,69. - 11 -119 38. I will.now read you s i x statements concerning how d i f f e r e n t people might f e e l about l i v i n g i n Canada. Please p i c k the statement that best d e s c r i b e s how you f e e l . 1. I am s t r o n g l y f a v o r a b l e to l i v i n g i n Canada 70. 1 •2. I am fa v o r a b l e to l i v i n g i n Canada 2 3. I am n e u t r a l toward l i v i n g i n Canada 3 4. I am unfavorable to l i v i n g i n Canada 4 5. I am s t r o n g l y unfavorable to l i v i n g i n Canada 5 6. I.am p l a n n i n g to go back to Korea 6 39. Do you read any Korean magazine? 1. Yes 71. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", how many do you read per month r e g u l a r l y ? 72. 40. Do you read magazines i n E n g l i s h ? 1. Yes 73. 1 •2. No 2 I f "yes", how many do you read per month r e g u l a r l y ? 74. START DATA CARD 3 Respondent's Number V ^ v Data Card Number 3. 3 41. Do you read d a i l y newspapers i n E n g l i s h ? 1. Yes 4. 1 2. No 2 I f "yes", which one do you read? 1. Vancouver Sun 5. 1 2. Vancouver Province 2 3. Other: S p e c i f y 3 I f "yes", how many do you read r e g u l a r l y ? 6. 42. Do you have a t e l e v i s i o n ? 1. Yes 7- 1 2. No 2 - 12 -120 I f "yes", which type o f program do you l i k e best? 1. Cartoons 8. 1 2. Entertainment, M u s i c a l 2 3- E d u c a t i o n a l T.V. 3 4. Mo v i e s 4 5. News & documentaries 5 6. Spor t s 6 I f "yes", about how many hours per week do you watch t e l e v i s i o n on an average? 9,10. 43. Do you have r a d i o ? 1. Yes 2. No I f "yes", how many hours per week do you l i s t e n ? 12,13. 44. How would you f i n d a job i f you were unemployed? 1. Korean f r i e n d s 14. 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3. R e l a t i v e s 3 4. Korean So c i e t y h 5- Korean Church 5 6. Manpower 6 7. Newspaper,Radio advertiseme nt 7 8. S e l f : d i r e c t a p p l i -c a t i o n 8 9. Do not know 9 Other: S p e c i f y A 45. Where would you go to get were unemployed? i a l a s s i s t a n c e i f you 1. Korean f r i e n d s 15• 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3. R e l a t i v e s 3 4. Korean So c i e t y 4 5- Korean Church 5 6. Manpower 6 7. C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e : Welfare 7 8. Do not know 8 9. Other: S p e c i f y 9 - 13 -121 46. Where would you go i f you wanted to improve E n g l i sh? 1. Korean f r i e n d s 16. 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3. R e l a t i v e s 3 4. Korean S o c i e t y 4 5. Korean Church 3 6. Manpower 6 7. Vancouver S c h o o l Board " (Night S c h o o l ) 7 8. Y.M. C.A.. 8 9. U.B.C. E x t e n s i o n Q Community C e n t e r s A B. O t h e r ; S p e c i f y B 47. Where would you go to get a d v i c e about b e i n g t r a i n e d 1. Korean f r i e n d s 17. 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3. R e l a t i v e s 3 4. Korean S o c i e t y 4 c • Korean Church 5 6. Manpower 6 7. Own employer 7 8. Vancouver V o c t n . I n s t . 8 9. B.C.I.T. 9 A . O t h e r : S p e c i f y A 48. • How d i d you.or your f a m i l y find, a p l a c e to l i v e when you f i r s t a r r i v e d i n Vancouver ?1. Ecrean f r i e n d s 18. 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3. R e l a t i v e s _ 3 4. Korean S o c i e t y 4 5. Korean Church 5' 6. Manpower 6 7. Newspaper a d v e r t s . 7 8. Immign. R e c e p t . C e n t e r 8 9. S e l f : d i r e c t a p p l n . 9 A . Other.: S p e c i f y A 49. How d i d you or your f a m i l y f i n d your p r e s e n t l i v i n g p l a c e i n Vancouver? 1. Korean f r i e n d s 19. 1 2. Canadian f r i e n d s 2 3- R e l a t i v e s 3 4. Korean S o c i e t y 4 5. Korean Church 5 6. Manpower 6 7. Newspaper a d v e r t s . 7 8. Immign. Recept. Center-8 9. S e l f : d i r e c t a p p l n . 9 A . O t h e r : S p e c i f y A 50. 51. 52. ' 53. 54. 55. 56." 57. "Dept." of Canada Manpower "Dept." of Immigr-a t i c n Immign. Recept. C e n t e r Vancou-v e r A d u l t Educ. Vancou-v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y Unemp-loyment I n s u r a n c e Commission "Dept." of C i t i z e n -s h i p I n f o r m a t i o n Canada program A. Have you h e a r d of t h i s a gency? 1. Yes 2. No 20 27 34 - 41 48 55 62 69 B. What does t h i s agency do? 1. Good knowledge 2. Some knowledge 3. Does n o t know 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 C. How o f t e n have you c o n t a c t e d t h i s agency? # of t i m e s 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 D. Do you f i n d t h i s agency h e l p f u l o r n o t ? 1. Yes 2. No 23 30 37 44 51 58 65 72 E. How s a t i s f i e d a r e you w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e you r e c e i v e d ? 1. V e r y s a t i s f i e d 2. Somewhat s a t i s f i e d 3. Not s a t i s f i e d 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 F. Would you r e t u r n t o t h i s agenc> f o r f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e ? 1. Yes 2. No 25 32 39 46 53 . 60 67 74 G. T o t a l S c o r e s 26. 33 40 47 54 61 68 75 76,77,78,79,80. - 15 -1 2 3 START DATA CARD 4 Re spendent's Number 1 , 2 . Data Card'Number 3-58. Income: a. F i r s t 1 2 months i n Canada; Own e a r n i n g s f 4 , 8 . 9. Spouse ft i 10,14. - 1 5 . F a m i l y members $ 1 6 , 2 0 . . 2 1 . Other S o u r c e s : ] 2 2 , 2 6 . 2 7 . ( S p e c i f y ) T o t a l f a m i l y I n c . $ 2 8 , 3 2 . 3 3 -b. The p a s t 1 2 months i n Canada: Own e a r n i n g s | 3 4 , 3 5 . 3 9 . Spouse I 4 0 , 4 4 . 4 5 . F a m i l y members S -46 , 5 0 . 5 1 . Other- S o u r c e s : $ [ 5 2 , 5 6 . 5 7 . ( S p e c i f y ) T o t a l f a m i l y Inc.fr 5 9 . What i s your r e l i g i o n ? 8,6c 1 . P r o t e s t a n t 2 . C a t h o l i c 3 , Buddhism 4 , O t h e r : S p e c i f y 63. 64 D 4 60, 61. 62. How many t i m e s per month, do you a t t e n d Church s e r v i c e s? How many t i m e s per month do you v i s i t w i t h Canadian f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver? 65 How many t i m e s per month do you v i s i t w i t h Korean f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver? 6 6 . 6 7 . How many t i m e s per month do you chat o r t a l k w i t h your n e i g h b o u r s ? 6 8 , 6 9 . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101734/manifest

Comment

Related Items