UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing patterns of family life in urban Gujarat : a study of twelve high-caste working women Wood , Marjorie Rodgers 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1972_A8 W66.pdf [ 9.62MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0101724.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101724-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101724-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101724-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101724-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101724-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101724-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

CHANGING PATTERNS OF FAMILY LIFE IN URBAN GUJARAT: A STUDY OF TWELVE HIGH-CASTE WORKING WOMEN by Marjorie Rodgers Wood B.A., Barnard College, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April , 1972 In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Depa rtment The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i . ABSTRACT "Changing Patterns of Family Li f e in Urban Gujarat" i s primarily a descriptive analysis of the family lives of twelve em-ployed Indian women. Data for the study are derived from formal and informal interviews conducted i n Ahmedabad, Gujarat, between June 1968 and April 1969. Three areas of family l i f e are examined: traditions of caste and sect, l i f e - s t y l e , and intrafamilial r e l a -tionships. For each area, the women's present behaviour and beliefs are compared to those evident i n their recollections of childhood experiences, and to the behaviour and beliefs prescribed by Gujar-at i tradition. It i s hypothesized that the changes in family l i f e made by the employed women are congruent with the values and a t t i -tudes of modern individuals, values and attitudes which are said to be indicated by a dynamic^ and pragmatic approach to l i f e , an individualistic view of self and others, and a cosmopolitan orient-ation. Analysis reveals that changes have occurred in the three areas of family l i f e . Traditions of caste and sect pertaining to daily routine and life-cycle events have been abbreviated or omit-ted, while those pertaining to calendrical events are observed and some all-caste celebrations have been universalized and elaborated upon. In their l i f e - s t y l e , the respondents are more mobile than were their parents, and more inclined to reside i n suburban areas and i n socially heterogeneous areas. The amount of li v i n g space has declined, while the number and variety of material possessions has increased. The respondents, their husbands, and their children spend less time in the home than did members of the respondents' families of orientation, but they spend more time together as a family. In their intrafamilial relationships, the respondents favour i i i . less hierarchical, more egalitarian modes of interaction. They follow traditional patterns of interaction i f their relationship to a family member i s strained or, i n the case of husband's elders, i f i t i s intermittent. But positive relationships within the house-hold are characterized by reciprocal, relatively egalitarian beha-viour. It i s suggested that the reasons given by the respondents for the changes in family l i f e are congruent with modern attitudes and values. Reasons given for several changes in traditions of caste and sect and i n features of l i f e - s t y l e indicate the opera-tion of a dynamic, pragmatic approach to l i f e or of a cosmopolitan orientation. Increased individualism is evident i n the reasons given for other changes in tradition and l i f e - s t y l e , and for changes in intrafamilial relationships. Women's employment appears to be an important factor influencing the direction of change, particu-l a r l y i n the area of traditions. Other variables such as the re-spondents' caste a f f i l i a t i o n , type of marriage, household composi-tion, and educational background are found to influence the extent of change. However, reason for employment does not appear s i g n i f i -cantly related to the direction or extent of change. The study i s based on a small, atypical, and non-random sample of women. No major conclusions are reached, but the patterns of change and factors in change which are suggested raise questions for further research on a growing and influential element of India's population — that of the educated and employed woman. i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES 1 Conceptual Tools of Analysis 2 Character of the Sample 5 1) Individual Life-Histories 6 2) Similarities in Background 19 Dimensions of the Study 26 CHAPTER II TRADITIONAL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS: BRAHMINS AND BANIAS IN GUJARAT 33 Structure of the Varna Hierarchy 35 Backgrounds of the Jatis and Sects 40 1) Brahmin Jatis and Sects 42 2) Bania Jatis and Sects 47 Community Traditions of the Respondents 54 1) Daily Activities 54 2) Life-Cycle Events 61 3) Calendrical Occasions 64 CHAPTER III MODERN LIVING IN AHMEDABAD: EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION 72 Residential Patterns 73 Household Arrangements 88 Modern Behaviour Patterns 98 V. CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V INTRAFAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF EDUCATED AND EARNING WOMEN The Husband-Wife Relationship The Employed Daughter-in-Law The Educated, Working Mother The Independent, Married Daughter PATTERNS OF CHANGE: HYPOTHESES SUMMARY AND Patterns of Change Factors i n Change Implications of Change GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A METHODOLOGY B QUESTIONNAIRE C KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY 109 110 125 136 148 160 160 166 175 179 182 187 190 196 LIST OF TABLES I. SUMMARY OF BIOGRAPHICAL DATA II. BIRTH ORDER AND CHANGES IN ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF RESPONDENTS III. REASONS FOR EMPLOYMENT AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT IV. TERMS OF CASTE NAMES AS CATEGORIZED BY RESPONDENTS V. LOCATION OF RESIDENCES AND SOCIAL COMPOSITION OF NEIGHBORHOODS VI. SIZE AND ALLOCATION OF LIVING SPACE VII. SIZE OF LIVING SPACE AND PRESENCE OF MATERIAL POSSESSIONS VIII. PARENTAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS PROPOSED MATCH AND NATURE OF MARITAL RELATIONSHIP IX. RESPONDENTS' RELATIONSHIPS WITH HUSBANDS' ELDERS X. NUMBER AND SEX OF CHILDREN DESIRED AND REALIZED XI. SOURCES OF INFORMATION REGARDING INFANT CARE AND CHILD REARING XII. CHILD'S FAVORITE RELATIVE XIII. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESPONDENT AND HER ELDERS XIV. ATTITUDES OF RESPONDENTS AS INDICATED BY BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE XV. COMPOSITE ATTITUDINAL SCORES BY VARNA AND REASON FOR EMPLOYMENT v i i . LIST OF FIGURES AND MAP FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 MAP TITLE DIVISIONS OF VARNAS REPRESENTED BY RESPONDENTS STRUCTURE OF THE VARNA HIERARCHY IN GUJARAT DIVISION OF RELIGIONS REPRESENTED BY BANIA RESPONDENTS AHMEDABAD, SHOWING POSITION OF OLD WALLS AND PRESENT THOROUGHFARES PAGE 34 38 51 74 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES In this study I seek to analyse changes which have occurred in the patterns of family l i f e of twelve upper-caste working women in Ahmedabad, India. Two interrelated concerns provide focus for the analysis. My f i r s t objective i s to identify the general nature and direction of the changes. Secondly, I wish to estimate the re-lative significance of certain variables as they relate to the changes. In pursuing these concerns, I hope to gain an understand-ing of the implications of the changes for individual members of . families, and for the family unit i t s e l f . Information concerning the twelve women and their patterns of family l i f e was gathered between June, 1968 and A p r i l , 1969, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Research techniques (Appendix A) included pre-liminary casual v i s i t s , focussed interviews by personally adminis-tered questionnaire (Appendix B), and observations of the respondents in their own homes, in their parental homes when possible, and at their places of work. No attempt was made to select a random sam-ple, and a l l formal interviews were conducted i n English. On the basis of the information obtained, I w i l l compare in the following chapters the patterns of family l i f e found i n my respondents' present homes with the patterns of family l i f e which they r e c a l l having experienced as children. Changes in patterns w i l l be noted i n relation to three dimensions of family l i f e : traditions of caste and sect, l i f e - s t y l e , and intrafamilial interaction. The women's employment, their reasons for employment, and their caste 2. backgrounds w i l l be examined as possible factors influencing the nature and extent of the changes. F i r s t , in the present, introductory chapter, I w i l l dis-cuss the key concepts used in the analysis, the character of the sample on which the thesis i s based, and the specific questions which each subsequent chapter seeks to answer. Conceptual Tools of Analysis A study which deals with changes in contemporary Indian culture inevitably confronts the concept of modernization, a pro-cess in which change takes place i n a particular direction. An extensive body of literature i s devoted to identifying that direc-tion, to defining i t s supposed outcome, "modernity," and to des-cribing i t s relationship to the presumed unchanged state, "tradi-tion." Various scholars analyse the modernization of p o l i t i c a l sys-tems, economic a c t i v i t i e s , social structures, and religious i n s t i -tutions. The processes of urbanization, Westernization, and indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n are viewed alternately as prerequisites, concomitants, and consequences of modernization. The present study u t i l i z e s the concept of modernization to evaluate the changes made by the twelve respondents i n their patterns of family l i f e . It focusses more on the direction of change than on i t s causes or consequences, and more on the i n d i v i -dual than on any other unit of society. For this expressed and limited purpose, I find the c r i t e r i a of modernity enumerated by Lloyd and Susanne Rudolph "heuristically useful" (1967: 3 - 4 ) : 'modernity' assumes that local ties and parochial perspec-tives give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan 3. attitudes; that the truths of u t i l i t y , calculation, and science take precedence over those of the emotions, the sacred, and the non-rational; that the individual rather than the group be the primary unit of society and p o l i t i c s ; that the associations in which men work be based on choice not birth; that mastery rather than fatalism orient their attitude toward the material and human environment; that identity be chosen and achieved, not ascribed and con-firmed; that work be separated from family, residence, and community in bureaucratic organizations; that manhood be delayed while youth prepares for i t s tasks and responsi-b i l i t i e s ; that age, even when i t i s prolonged, surrender much of i t s authority to youth and men some of theirs to women; ••.. In the chapters that follow, usage of the terms "modern" and "modern-ization" indicates the prevalence of, or an increase i n , one or more of these c r i t e r i a of modernity. The modern individual, according to the Rudolphs' c r i t e r i a , has a cosmopolitan orientation and a dynamic, pragmatic approach to l i f e . 1 Above a l l , the modern individual behaves ind i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y . He selects his own work, determines the degree of his own success or failure, defines his own identity and makes his own decisions. He is the "primary unit of society." The traditional individual has a relatively parochial orientation and his actions are based on "the truths of ... the emotions, the sacred." Not only i s his role as worker integrated with his roles as family and community member. His very identity i s prescribed and proscribed by his birth into particular family and community units. In India, the traditional individual sees himself as a member of a joint family and of a caste, "the most important groups for an individual" and the primary units of Indian society (Karve, 1965: 114). ^In using terms such as individualistic, pragmatic, dynamic, etc., I refer to standard dictionary definitions. Similar characteristics are attributed to modern man by Inkeles, 1966: 141-144; see also Goode, 1968: 242-246; and Smelser, 1966: 111-117. 4. Students of Indian culture have long appreciated the fact that when "tradition" meets "modernity" in India, a familistic and and community-oriented way of l i f e i s confronted with an individual-i s t i c way of l i f e (see, for example, Gore, 1968: 42-43; Ross, 1961: 14-26). Whereas a modern man plans and works for his own future and that of his wife and dependent children, the traditional Indian lives for the future of his larger, joint family. As the modern man faces problems of decision making and decision implementation, the member of a traditional Indian family faces problems of decision acceptance and adjustment to a predetermined set of decision makers. But whereas the man i n a modern, individualistic culture has l i t t l e choice except to succeed on his own or to f a i l i n the eyes of others, today's Indian may successfully exert himself either as a member of a family or as an individual. For the Indian man, the decision to act on his own may be problematic i n some respects. Without the background and frame-work of an individualistic culture, he must develop a sense of s e l f -identity distinct from that of family-identity; he must find an inner security i n l i e u of the security found within the large fam-i l y ; and he must cultivate his capacity for i n i t i a t i v e and achievement, rather than his a b i l i t y to co-operate and to adjust. But other as-pects of traditional behaviour need not alter i f , out of necessity or personal inclination, a man acts independently of his joint fam-i l y . For example, his roles as husband and father may remain un-changed i f he furthers his education, pursues a new career, or de-velops a l i f e - s t y l e distinct from that of his natal family. For the Indian woman, who faces greater problems of decis-ion acceptance than does her brother, the alternative of succeeding as an individual rather than as a member of a family is not as 5. acceptable socially, and i t involves a more comprehensive change In behaviour. Independent action on the part of an Indian woman re-quires not only hew bases of identity, security, and motivation, but also a re-defiriition of her very purpose in l i f e . She i s raised to be a wife and mother, to find security i n her husband and his family, and to serve them i n return. The pursuit of other interests, for reasons of necessity or personal desirej may easily conflict with these primary roles. In the f i r s t instance, the very decision to hold a salaried position outside the home suggests the operation of modern attitudes; a cosmopolitan orientation, a dynamic and pragmatic approach to l i f e , and an individualistic view of self. Subsequently, employment may foster these attitudes. In either case, i t seems reasonable to assume that i n a highly familistic culture such as that of India, a woman who undertakes the role of an employee i s l i k e l y to alter at least some aspects of her familial roles. I hypothesize that the changes in patterns of family l i f e , made by employed Indian women in their capacities as wives and mothers, are congruent with the values and attitudes of modern man. On the basis of information gathered from twelve respondents, and u t i l i z i n g the above c r i t e r i a of modernity, I w i l l attempt to explore this hypothesis i n the following pages. Character of the Sample My respondents are not at a l l typical of Gujarat's female population, not to mention that of India. Whatever -cluster of c i r -cumstances and qualifications may characterize the "average"-Gujarat! woman, i t does not apply to the present sample. These twelve (res-pondents are atypical, f i r s t of a l l , because they l i v e i n urban areas, 6. while approximately 75% of a l l Gujaratis reside rurally (Government of India, 1961: 282). Furthermore, their castes are of Brahmin or Vaishya varna, whereas an estimated 88% of Gujarat's population f a l l s into the lower Shudra or Outer-*-e categories (Government of India, 1931, VIII: 411; X: 282). Economically, too, although these women and their families are not part of the state's wealthier e l i t e , they are more secure financially than the great majority of Gujaratis. Finally, i n a state where over 77% of the female population is i l l i -terate, my respondents have earned at least their Bachelor of Arts degree and hold responsible positions in business, governmental, and educational institutions (Government of India, 1961: 381). In sum, the present sample consists of urban, high-caste, middle class, educated and employed Gujarati women. 1) Individual Life-Histories Exclusive as the category i s to which these women belong, important differences sub-divide i t . Although the present study fo-cusses on what the women have in common, i t f i r s t introduces each woman as an individual, noting her childhood experiences, her reasons for seeking higher education and employment, and her present social and economic situation. Differences among the individual l i f e -histories are of interest for two reasons. F i r s t , they indicate the breadth of the base upon which the similarities are grounded. Se-condly, they help account for differences i n present patterns of attitudes and ac t i v i t i e s . The li f e - h i s t o r i e s presented below are edited autobiogra-phies, primarily. That i s , I am presenting my respondents' percep-tions of their childhood experiences, their relatives, and themselves; _ Definitions of Indian terms, and of English terms whose meanings alter i n the Indian context, are l i s t e d alphabetically in the Glossary. 7. but I take the l i b e r t y of introducing each woman s u b j e c t i v e l y , as she appeared to me. The b r i e f d escriptions w i l l , I t r u s t , enable the reader to view the respondents as l i v i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Urmila i s a thirty-one-year-old J a i n Bania, very i n t e l l i -4 gent and poised. She has a somewhat p l a i n , unanimated countenance, and a sincere, frank manner. Urmila's paternal grandfather was the she£h, or ch i e f e l d e r , of her p51, or i n n e r - c i t y neighborhood, and manager of a prosperous cotton-waste business as w e l l . His wife, Urmila's grandmother, was a cultured and pious shethanl who held the f a m i l i e s of her f i v e sons together peaceably. Urmila, the second of s i x c h i l d r e n born to the eldest son, remembers that as a young c h i l d she was well-dressed, well-fed, and surrounded by equally w e l l - o f f cousins. When she was ten years o l d , her grandfather p a r t i a l l y r e -t i r e d from business, and at the same time l o s t most of h i s power and much of his prestige as sheth because of post-Independence municipal government p o l i c y . Urmila's father, who was " u n p r a c t i c a l " when i t came to household and f i n a n c i a l matters, responded to the s i t u a t i o n by devoting himself to r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and by leaving the family business i n the hands of a partner. Urmila's mother took over manage-ment of the family budget and the children's education, and arranged a good marriage f o r her eldest daughter. But Urmila, although she had never been p a r t i c u l a r l y serious about her studies, was encouraged by her mother to get a college degree, so that she might never have to depend e n t i r e l y on her future husband for support. Just before Urmila received her B.A. i n Sanskrit and psy-chology, her "unpractical 1' father l o s t the family business to h i s 4 The caste and sect of each respondent, mentioned b r i e f l y i n the l i f e - h i s t o r i e s , are discussed i n Chapter Two, The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the various houses and neighborhoods are described i n Chapter Three. 8. fraudulent partner. Urmlla tutored while completing her M.A., and then found c l e r i c a l work at an insurance office. She has the dis-tinction of being the f i r s t woman ever hired by the Ahmedabad branch of the company. For four years, she alone supported the family. At the office, Urmila met and f e l l i n love with the head of her division, a Maharashtrian Brahmin who lived i n a pol.-bungalow near her own Jain p51. After four years, when Urmila's brother had completed his degree and found service, both families blessed the marriage. Urmila started li v i n g with her husband's family, and con-tributing her salary to her mother-iri-law's budget. Urmila feels that as long as her mother-in-law can manage the housework and childcare, her own daily absence is inconsequential, at least as far as her husband and child are concerned. However, she apologizes for her performance as a daughter-in-law and believes that only economic necessity should keep a woman so much away from home. Aruna i s a beautiful, thirty-two-year-old Jain Bania, shy, gentle, and humble. Her father was a small cloth merchant and a high-ly respected elder of the pol. Her mother came from a family of well-established Bombay industrialists, and Aruna's brothers were sent to them to be educated. She and her sisters remained at home where they were raised according to orthodox Jain standards. Aruna did well in school, and her parents permitted her to continue her education while they arranged marriages for her younger sisters. With one year off to help with a sister's confinement, Aruna completed anM.A. in Gujarati and Sanskrit."* During this time, at her cousin's house, she frequently met a boy from her own Jain caste. His mother had died, and his father had responded in a way most uncharac-t e r i s t i c of a Jain: he had given up his textile business and joined It i s common in Gujarat for a woman to return ito her family of or-ientation several months before delivery, and to remain there for several months after giving birth. 9. the m i l i t a r y . His f i v e sons, only one of them married at the time, were not ostracized because of t h e i r father's a c t i o n , but they were not considered good marriage partners. Aruna's parents opposed the match. When they s t i l l had not consented a f t e r four years, Aruna married without t h e i r blessings and went to l i v e with her husband and his brothers. At the time, her husband held a job i n the t e x t i l e m i l l which h i s father had l e f t . However, because i t seemed he would not be promoted, perhaps because of his father's actions, he looked for a more promising p o s i t i o n and f i n a l l y became a salesman f o r a pharmaceutical company. In the meantime, Aruna found c l e r i c a l em-ployment i n a business o f f i c e . She regrets the time she must spend away from home and the f l a r e s of temper caused by long hours of work. But she and her husband f i n d no other way to maintain the moderate standard of l i v i n g enjoyed by the husband's brothers and the i r f a m i l i e s , a standard which Aruna considers e s s e n t i a l f or her children's happiness. Nandini, a homely, t h i r t y - y e a r - o l d Hindu Bania, i s pretty because of her brig h t eyes and g i r l i s h mannerisms. She impresses me as being what the Gujaratis term "innocent." Nandini was the eighth and l a s t c h i l d born to a Baroda c i v i l servant i n a small v i l l a g e near Ahmedabad. The family's modest but steady income ended with the dethronement of Baroda's r u l e r when Nandini was ten years o l d . Five yearB l a t e r her father died of can-cer. The eldest son of the family, who had been prominent i n the n a t i o n a l i s t movement, enabled h i s younger brothers to f i n d jobs. Together they arranged marriages f o r a l l t h e i r s i s t e r s ex-cept Nandini. She had always been an avid reader and was permitted to attend college i n Ahmedabad. There she decided to marry a Brahmin 10. boy, the son of a good friend of her eldest brother and her own ac-quaintance since childhood. For five years the couple waited for the consent of their families. During this time, Nandini completed her B.A. i n psychology and took a c l e r i c a l job i n a government office i n Ahmedabad in order to stay near her husband-to-be. After consent was formally granted, Nandini joined her hus-band i n his one room of an old suburban bungalow. The husband had expected to find a good job so that Nandini could stop working, but he discovered that his engineering diploma did not guarantee him a substantial enough income. Nandini resumed work, this time in a bus-iness office, and her husband accepted a position as works manager i n a manufacturing company. He does not want his wife to work, and Nandini believes her place is at home with her daughters, but they feel the extra income i s essential i f the children are to "enjoy l i f e . " Kamala, a thirty-year-old Brahmin, is a graceful and some-what reserved young woman who expresses herself with unexpected i n -tensity and conviction. Her father was a well-to-do Ahmedabadi phy-sician, temperamental and extremely extroverted. Until Kamala was three years old, her father's three younger brothers and their fami-l i e s lived jointly with Kamala's family. But the eldest brother's behaviour eventually drove them away, and later his own elder son fled to Bombay. Kamala feared her father, and at his wish she took up dancing, gave up drawing, and completed her B.A. i n English. During her f i n a l year at college, while l i v i n g at home, Kamala f e l l i n love with a Muslim man whom she had met at the home of a friend. A l l relatives forbade the match except for one maternal cousin, with whom Kamala stayed before getting married i n a c i v i l ceremony. Disapproval was so intense that even after receiving the announcing telegram, her parents did not " c a l l her" immediately, and 11. some r e l a t i v e s s t i l l refuse to speak to her. For almost three years the couple l i v e d alone i n a Bombay apartment. Kamala's husband, who owns a ready-made garment business, could provide only a small and somewhat i r r e g u l a r income. To supple-ment the family income, Kamala completed her B. Ed. i n one year and started teaching English i n a high school. Just before the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d , Kamala's husband's young s i s t e r joined them, to help with the cooking and housework. She has stayed on, minding t h e i r daughter and r e l i e v i n g Kamala of a great many chores. Nevertheless, Kamala f e e l s that only severe economic necessity should keep a woman away from her home. Hansa i s a plump and motherly t h i r t y - s i x - y e a r - o l d Brahmin, pleasant and i n q u i s i t i v e , with a quiet sense of humour. Her father, a prominent member of the highest caste i n Gujarat, was a physician and Superintendent of Health i n Saurashtra. His wife, who came from the Court of Marwar, bore him seven c h i l d r e n , of which Hansa was the f i f t h . Home l i f e was r e l i g i o u s but l i v e l y , and f r e e from economic anxiety. When Hansa's older s i s t e r s were growing up, t h e i r father opposed women's education. However, h i s p o l i c y changed i n time to permit Hansa to study f o r the B.A. and then the B.Ed, degree. Three years before the completion of her education, she was betrothed to the son of her father's best frien d ' s s i s t e r . The s i s t e r and her husband, an Ahmedabadi high school teacher, were not as well o f f f i n a n c i a l l y as Hansa's family, but they were highly respected i n the caste commun-i t y . A f t e r marriage, Hansa and her husband l i v e d with h i s family s i x months; then the bank f o r which the husband worked transferred them 12. to Baroda. When they returned to Ahmedabad eight years l a t e r with two daughters, the husband's family's f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n had deter-iorated. His father had r e t i r e d , four of h i s s i s t e r s had been mar-r i e d at considerable expense, and the f i f t h was s t a r t i n g c o l l e g e . As an only son, Hansa's husband had seven persons to support. At f i r s t , Hansa's o f f e r s to work were rejected, p r i m a r i l y out of concern f o r what people would say. The family rented the ground f l o o r of t h e i r bungalow and accommodated themselves i n i t s upstairs quarters. But the d i e t grew more meager, s i l k c l o t h i n g could not be replaced, and pilgrimages had to be postponed for lack of funds. When her younger daughter reached school age, Hansa was permitted to accept a teaching p o s i t i o n at a nearby p r i v a t e school. She f e e l s that her job occa s i o n a l l y t i r e s her f o r her duties as mother and as daughter-in-law, but she appreciates both the exper-ience the job has given her and the extra income i t provides. Kusum i s a t a l l and energetic Brahmin woman of twenty-six years with a broad-minded and compassionate a t t i t u d e towards others. Her father was a High Court J u s t i c e of Baroda State. Her mother, a devout gentlewoman, bore him seven c h i l d r e n , of which Kusum was the l a s t . At f i r s t , home l i f e was t ; j o l l y , " as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s , and free of f i n a n c i a l concerns. But when Kusum was three years o l d , her father died unexpectedly. Two years l a t e r , the new Congress govern-ment took charge of Baroda's a f f a i r s . Kusum's family l o s t i t s main wage earner, and also the p o s s i b i l i t y of Court positions f o r Kusum's brothers. The elder brothers applied to the new Congress o f f i c i a l s and found modest p o s i t i o n s , one as an information o f f i c e r , the other as a government sales-promoter. 13. The brothers' heaviest r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was that of arranging t h e i r s i s t e r s ' marriages. They managed f o r the eldest three, but by the time Kusum's turn came, she and her l i f e l o n g f r i e n d next door had decided to marry; The boy was a Sindhi and a Kshatriya, but h i s father had served with Kusum's father, and the two f a m i l i e s were of equal f i n a n c i a l status. Both f a m i l i e s agreed to the match immediately. For seven years, while her finance completed h i s t r a i n i n g as an a r c h i t e c t , Kusum continued her education xn psychology. She also taught nursery school, i n order to help her family with her un i v e r s i t y expenses. No e f f o r t was made to regain the s t y l e of l i f e enjoyed during the days of the Ruler. In Baroda C i t y , so many ac-quaintances had suffered the same loss that i t was considered "every-body's f a t e , " not an i n d i v i d u a l ' s misfortune. For a year a f t e r they were married, Kusum and her husband l i v e d with h i s family and looked f o r jobs. F i n a l l y , j u s t before the b i r t h of t h e i r son, they moved to Ahmedabad so that the husband could accept a short-term apprenticeship. Kusum found work as a teacher at an experimental p r i v a t e school, where she now also analyses beha-v i o u r a l data gathered on the p u p i l s . She enjoys her job, and f e e l s i t i s necessary i f she and her husband are to l i v e away from the pols, which they consider unhealthy for t h e i r son. But Kusum also believes that u n t i l her c h i l d s t a r t s school, she should be at home with him. Sharda, a J a i n Bania of t h i r t y - t h r e e years, looks and acts old and despondent f o r her age. Her father owned a small f u r n i t u r e business i n Bombay. Sharda and her younger s i s t e r were "the only concentration" of t h e i r mother, who r a i s e d them according to orthodox J a i n standards. From the time Sharda was s i x , her father's health began to decline; when she was ten, he returned to h i s native Kaira to d i e . 14. Sharda's mother kept her daughters i n K a i r a with her de-ceased husband's family. She received a minimum of f i n a n c i a l sup-port, and no emotional support. When the time came to arrange mar-riages f o r her daughters, the prospect of good matches was poor. Sharda decided not to marry, but to continue her educa-t i o n . Most r e l a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y her mother, vehemently opposed the plan, p r i m a r i l y on the grounds that "people w i l l t a l k . " But Sharda secured a scholarship at the Univ e r s i t y of Baroda, and went to l i v e with her mother's s i s t e r . While completing her B.A., she f e l l i n love with a fellow student, not a J a i n , but a Hindu Bania. Again, a l l r e l a t i v e s except f o r her mother's s i s t e r opposed Sharda's plans, and a f t e r four years of hoping f o r t h e i r consent, Sharda eloped. Her husband's family consisted of h i s mother, one mar-r i e d s i s t e r , and an elder brother with a wife and two c h i l d r e n . Both the brother and Sharda's husband, who found work as a section head i n a business firm, had reasonable incomes. But Sharda wanted to work also, and her husband got her a c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n h i s o f f i c e . D i f f i c u l t i e s arose over the f a c t that Sharda " j u s t s a t " i n serv i c e , while her s i s t e r - i n - l a w did most of the housework. When t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d was f i v e months o l d , and Sharda's husband wished her to resume work, the couple separated from the husband's family. Their c h i l d was l e f t with Sharda's mother i n Kaira, and l a t e r given to the husband's s i s t e r . A f t e r four years of j o i n t e f f o r t , Sharda and her husband bought t h e i r own bungalow i n a new suburb. Their second c h i l d was bom a year l a t e r , and Sharda's mother moved i n to help take care of him. I t i s no longer necessary f o r Sharda to work, and she seems vague about her reasons f o r doing so. Po s s i b l y her s a l -ary helps r e a l i z e the material goals set by her husband. He takes 15. great pride in the bungalow, and talks of costly undertakings. Champa is a l i v e l y , sharp-featured Jain Bania of thirty-three, chatty but decisive as a respondent. Her father conducted a business i n Bombay eight months of the year, while her mother raised six children in an Ahmedabad pol. Champa, the youngest daughter, was encouraged to get her B.A., and later her desire to work at an insurance office met with f u l l approval. Even when she decided to marry her brother's good friend, a Hindu Bania, the only objection was to her insistence on an inexpensive ceremony. At f i r s t the couple lived in a bungalow in one of Ahme-dabad's older suburbs, but after the birth of their second son they returned to a p31 house situated near the houses of their families. Champa's husband i s an assistant i n a bank, and Champa continues at the insurance office as a clerk. She enjoys being "out of doors," and feels that her sons are happy without her, sur-rounded as they are by friends, relatives, and a devoted aya, or nursemaid. Malti, a twenty-seven-year-old Hindu Bania, is an ac-complished and refined young woman, mild-mannered and articulate. Her father travelled nine months of each year on business, while her mother guided Malti and two younger brothers i n household, re-ligious, and scholastic matters. The mother also managed the family budget: money was never a problem, but i t was treated as a scarce commodity which had to be saved. Malti's excellence in school was praised by her parents a l l the way through her M.A. programme in home" science. Only then did they arrange her marriage to the son of a business friend. Mal-t i ' s husband's family owns one of Ahmedabad's larger new bungalows, and her husband works as manager in his father's m i l l . 16. Before her marriage, Malti was asked by a woman's organ-ization to lecture i n home science. This she did un t i l one month before the birth of her daughter. Her job was not considered nec-essary or even useful, but her mother-in-law was pleased to indulge the whims of the new daughter-in-law. Malti has no plans to re-turn to work immediately, but she hopes that after a second child reaches school age, she w i l l be able to participate i n activities outside the home. Asha i s a pretty, thirty-six-year-old Brahmin woman who wears a look of consternation and speaks with a slight stammer. Her sensitivity and thoughtfulness make her particularly interest-ing as a respondent. Asha and her younger sister were the only children born to a prosperous lawyer and his quiet wife. Her father encouraged even pressured Asha in her studies, and she followed his lead to the point of getting a degree i n lav;. While attending law school, Asha f e l l in love with another student, a Brahmin from her own caste, but from an improverished family. Asha's father opposed the match and, for the f i r s t time, Asha opposed her father. For five years the couple waited for his blessing, finishing their L.L.B.'s and finding jobs. After consent was fin a l l y given, Asha moved to the rented bungalow where her husband lived with his father's widowed sister, his only liv i n g relative except for a married sister. Asha contin-ued serving a manufacturer's association as a legal consultant, and her husband taught in a local vernacular college. After four years of stringent saving, they were able to build their own bungalow i n a new suburb. 17. Both Asha and her husband now f e e l w e l l s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n . The husband has a good job teaching law, and Asha has become involved i n labour welfare work. She enjoys her work and would l i k e to s t a r t w r i t i n g as w e l l . She f e e l s that she needs a personal p r o j e c t f or her own well-being and hence f o r her family's sake. Jaya i s a plump and j o l l y Brahmin of thirty-two years with a free-spoken manner and an u n f a i l i n g sense of humour. She was the youngest daughter of ten ch i l d r e n born to the manager of Saurashtra's r a i l r o a d . Her family moved f i v e times, oc c a s i o n a l l y l o s i n g a s i s t e r i n marriage or a brother i n service but gaining widowed aunts and new nephews and nieces through the years. While doing her B.A. at Baroda, Jaya worked on a s o c i a l research project i n r u r a l areas. Although her mother opposed such t r a v e l s , her father matched her salary with s e c u r i t y bonds. Organ-i z i n g the p r o j e c t was a Bania whom Jaya decided to marry. However, because her father died j u s t a f t e r she received her B.A., Jaya postponed t e l l i n g her family of her husband-to-be. Instead, she completed her M.S.W. under h i s tutelage and s t a r t e d work at a Fam-i l y Planning C l i n i c . Once again her mother opposed her, so Jaya declared h e r s e l f engaged and went to l i v e with her fiance's family. The action was unprecedented, yet when the marriage was celebrated three months l a t e r , a l l was forgiven. D i f f i c u l t i e s arose, however, with the husband's mother. She accepted Jaya's s a l a r y without comment, but continually demand-ed more help with the housework. Even when Jaya was i l l during pregnancy, her mother-in-law would not l e t her r e s t . Jaya and her husband moved upstairs from h i s family, but c r i t i c i s m concerning the care of t h e i r c h i l d and the household expenses increased. F i n -a l l y , the couple moved to Ahmedabad, where the husband now teaches 18. at a post-graduate i n s t i t u t i o n . The b i r t h of a second c h i l d has meant an intermission i n Jaya's career, but she hopes to return to i t soon. She enjoys working, and wants to do "something of s o c i a l value." Janu, a t h i r t y - e i g h t - y e a r - o l d Brahmin woman, i s strong and quiet and very serious. Her mother was the thi i d w i f e of an Ahmedabad! income tax o f f i c e r . In the home, orthodox Brahmlnical customs were c a r e f u l l y observed, and Janu frequently courted d i s -pleasure by her tomboyish a c t i v i t i e s and her careless altitude to-wards study. At f i r s t , although the family was f a r from wealthy, i t was f i n a n c i a l l y secure. Then, when Janu was seven years o l d , her father died suddenly, and two years l a t e r her mother's f a v o u r i t e brother passed away. When Janu's eldest brother came down with typhoid, the s i t u a t i o n become c r i t i c a l . I t was at t h i s point that Janu, then fourteen, assumed the tasks of cooking and housekeeping, and started studying i n earnest. Janu's mother f e l t seventh standard was enough schooling for a g i r l , but a teacher persuaded her that an S.S.C. c e r t i f i c a t e was a good q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a bri d e to have. A f t e r securing the S.S.C, Janu chose, from among several p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a young wid-ower from Baroda. Before t h e i r marriage, she completed her f i r s t year of u n i v e r s i t y and taught high school "to gain experience" and help with expenses. But a f t e r the marriage, her mother-in-law ob-jected to the hours spent away from home, and a f t e r the b i r t h of her f i r s t son, Janu was forbidden by her in-laws to return to teaching. Quarrels occurred frequently i n her husband's home, and Janu spent as much time as pos s i b l e with her own mother i n Ahmedabad. 19. Her husband joined her there and sta r t e d h i s own business. Janu would have taught again, but the death of her second c h i l d , a two month-old daughter, l e f t her severely depressed. By the time she bore another son, three years l a t e r , her husband's business was doing w e l l . Since a second income was not needed, Janu decided to continue her education. She earned a B.Ed, and then an M.A. i n psychology. When her second son entered nursery school, she organ-ized an elementary school of her own. Janu devotes much of her time to her duties as p r i n c i p a l , because she takes a personal i n -terest i n each teacher and p u p i l , and because she f e e l s that the al t e r n a t i v e of gi v i n g "too much att e n t i o n " to her sons would a f f e c t them negatively. 2 ) S i m i l a r i t i e s i n Background Table I . (p. 2 0 ) summarizes a few of the b a s i c fa c t s presented i n the above l i f e - h i s t o r i e s . The names are f i c t i c i o u s , but I have t r i e d to s e l e c t appropriate pseudonyms, considering the varna and o r i g i n a l name of each woman ( i . e . , whether I t i s "modern" or " t r a d i t i o n a l " ) . I t should be noted that h a l f of the twelve re-spondents are Brahmins, and h a l f are Banias. Their ages range be-tween twenty-six and t h i r t y - e i g h t , with the average being j u s t over t h i r t y . "Father's Occupation" gives some i n d i c a t i o n of the s e t -t i n g into which each woman was born, whether urban ( s i x respondents), suburban ( f i v e ) , or r u r a l (one). I t also i n d i c a t e s to a c e r t a i n extent the economic circumstances of each woman's family of o r i e n -t a t i o n . However, economic circumstances may be judged according to Table I. SUMMARY OF BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Respon- Age Father's Edu- Occu- Mar- House- Chll-dent Occupation cation pation riage hold dren Urmila (V) 31 business, pol sheth BA MA clerk L J 1 Aruna (V) 32 merchant, pol elder BA MA clerk L J 2 Nandini (V) 30 village civ-i l service BA clerk L N 2 Kamala (B) 30 doctor in suburb BA BEd teacher L N (HuSis) 1 Hans a (B) 36 doctor in suburb BA BEd teacher A J 2 Kusum (B) 26 court judge in Baroda BA MA teacher L N 1 Sharda (V) 33 business, Bombay pol BA clerk L N (WiMo) 2 Champa (V) 33 away from pol for business BA clerk L N 2 Malti (V) 27 away from pol for business BA MA teacher A J 1 Asha (B) 36 lawyer, po"l and suburb BA LLB social worker L N 2 Jaya (B) 32 R.R. manag-er, suburb BA MSW social worker L N 2 Janu (B) 38 c i v i l ser-vant, suburb BEd MA principal A N 2 V = Bania B = Brahmin L = love marriage A = arranged marriage J = joint family N = nuclear family 21. three different c r i t e r i a : standard of l i v i n g , amount of liquid wealth, and degree of economic security. For example, Kamala probably enjoyed the highest standard of l i v i n g . Her father entertained lavishly, dressed his family ex-travagently, and f i l l e d his bungalow with the latest items from Bombay and England. However, he lived almost beyond his means. Malti's father, on the other hand, earned as much but kept his family in a modest pol house. Her mother kept account of every peesa spent, and as Malti's lavish wedding indicated, the family saved a great deal. But the incomes of Kamala's and Malti's fathers were subject to considerable fluctuation. By contrast, Janu's father could depend on a regular monthly income and annual salary increase, moderate though these were. Taking into consideration the standard of l i v i n g , the amount of liquid wealth, and the degree of economic security, I would say that none of my respondents was born into India's wealthier e l i t e , although Hansa's family comes close to f i t t i n g this category, now did any of my women come from India's impoverished majority. Table I also suggests a certain relationship between varna and occupation. Fathers of a l l the Bania women except for Nandini were engaged in business, while the fathers of the Brahmin women were professional men or salaried government employees. Fur-thermore, the occupations of the women themselves generally f i t their varna traditions. A l l the Banias except Malti have c l e r i c a l posi-tions, while the Brahmins are either teachers or social workers. In light of the l i t e r a t i tradition of the Brahmin varna (discussed i n Chapter Two), i t should also be noted that the three women who have only one academic degree are a l l Banias. Finally, Table I indicates a few characteristics of the present sample which suggest that i t may be relatively modern in 22. some respects. F i r s t , only three respondents married men selected for them in the customary manner. Nine asserted their individuality by making "love matches:" two with the whole-hearted blessings of their elders,four with formal parental consent, and three without consent.7 Although f u l l s t a t i s t i c s are not available.on the i n c i -dence of love-marriages as opposed to arranged-marriages, one re-cent study of three hundred working women in Delhi found that as many as 46% had been married by arrangement (Kapur, 1970: 57). Secondly, the distribution of types of household composi-tion suggests an independence from joint families. Although only four respondents had not lived jointly with their husbands' families after marriage, six now liv e in s t r i c t l y nuclear families, and two more liv e with one dependent relative. Kapur's study, referred to above, found that 44% of i t s sample lived in s t r i c t l y nuclear fam-i l i e s (1970: 65). Thirdly, none of the twelve women has more than two l i v i n g children, although three of them plan to have as many as three eventually (see Chapter Three). Several factors probably contribute to the decrease in number of children between my respondents' fam-i l i e s of orientation (average 5.5"?) and their families of procrea-tion (average l.fc&). Ahmedabad i s saturated with family planning propaganda, the degree of industrialization has been steadily i n -creasing, and half of the respondents are less well off financially than were their parents. But I am inclined to believe that a modem orientation towards dynamic, individualistic inclinations may also contribute to the decrease in number of children (see Goode, 1968: 240, 250). In Kapur's study of working women, 64% of the women had no more than two children, and only 1% had five or more (1970: 67). ^Seven of the nine love matches may be considered particularly modern in that they were cross caste, indicating a certain degree of cosmopolitanism. In Kapur's study, only 20% of the marriages were cross caste (1970: 471). 23. t a b l e II (p. 24) summarizes other basic f a c t s , presented i n the l i f e - h i s t o r i e s , which suggest that c e r t a i n f a c t o r s , or a combination of fa c t o r s , may have prompted the women of the present sample to seek employment. Before examining the xrays i n which em-ployment a f f e c t s the women and t h e i r patterns of family l i f e , I wish to note the circumstances that could have f a c i l i t a t e d or moti-vated t h e i r decisions to take jobs i n the f i r s t place. One f a c t of possible relevance i s that h a l f of the twelve respondents are e i t h e r the only daughters or the youngest daughters of t h e i r parents. Kapur's study does not present b i r t h order i n f o r -mation i n tabular form, but i n reading i t s case studies I was struck by the number of subjects who were the youngest daughters i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Why might women having e x t r a - f a m i l i a l duties i n a f a m i l -i s t i c culture tend to be youngest daughters? The l i f e - h i s t o r i e s of the present study's respondents suggest that a youngest daughter i s often indulged. She i s kept at home beyond the age at which her s i s t e r s are married. Her desire to continue studying i s granted. And even her choice of husband i s usually given at l e a s t formal ap-proval. As a youngest daughter, her behaviour cannot jeopardize her s i s t e r s ' chances of making good marriages. A second possible f a c t o r i n the women's decisions to work i s an economic one: a l l but three respondents have experienced f i n a n c i a l l o s s , f i v e during childhood and four a f t e r marriage. High-caste f a m i l i e s may be "poor but pure" f o r generations, i n which case economic circumstances may not motivate female members to seek em-ployment. But f o r nine women i n t h i s sample, economic hardship oc-curred suddenly and without precedent. They sensed a double dispar-i t y : between the status of t h e i r caste and t h e i r own economic status, and between t h e i r past and present l e v e l s of pr o s p e r i t y . The seriousness of economic loss suffered by the respondents l 24. Table II. BIRTH ORDER AND CHANGES IN ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF RESPONDENTS Respondent Birth Order Economic Loss Economic Loss Before Marriage After Marriage Urmila 2nd of 3 Dau shetjis dissolved, none (V) 2nd of 8 Chn business lost Aruna 2nd of 4 Dau none Husband had to (V) 3rd of 7 Chn change jobs Nandini 5th of 5 Dau Fa' Job dis- Hu cannot find (V) 8th of 8 Chn solved, Fa died a good job Kamala only Dau none Hu' business (B) 3rd of 3 Chn small, unstable Hansa 4th of 5 Dau none Hu supports (B) 5th of 7 Chn joint family Kusum 4th of 4 Dau Fa died, Bros' Hu' apprentice-(B) 7th of 7 Chn jobs dissolved ship pays l i t t l e Sharda 1st of 2 Dau Fa i l l , Fa died none (V) 1st of 2 Chn Champa 4th of 4 Dau none none (V) 5th of 6 Chn Malti only Dau none none (V) 1st of 3 Chn Asha 1st of 2 Dau none Hu without (B) 1st of 2 Chn money and family Jaya 5th of 5 Dau none none (B) 8th of 10 Chn Janu 1st of 2 Dau Fa died, Mo Bro none (B) 3rd of 4 Chn died, E l Bro i l l V « Bania B • Brahmin Abbreviations of kinship terms are given i n Appendix C. 25. i s in some degree due to the gradual decline i n the fam i l i s t i c -orientation of Indian culture. The five women who f i r s t experienced economic loss during their childhoods did so when-their fathers "died or, in Urmila's case, when he proved incompetent. Traditionally, a family l e f t without adult males could depend on relatives for support. With the help of relatives, the family could marry i t s daughters well and find appropriate positions for i t s sons when they matured. But as the histories of Urmila, Nandini, Sharda, and Janu indicate, relatives today are not always willing to assume the extra financial burden, nor i s the pressure of caste-community opinion strong enough to oblige them to do so. Furthermore, many positions once considered the preserve of certain castes are now open to competition, and long years of study are necessary to enable sons of traditional holders to qualify for them. India's Indepen-dence meant the loss of a great many hereditary and honorary posi-tions. Congress government policy affected the families of Urmila, Aruna, Nandini, and Kusum in this way. Of the four women whose economic circumstances f i r s t de-clined after marriage, three suffered particularly because they had made love matches. Aruna's and Kamala's families offered their daughters no financial support, and Asha and her husband refused offers of aid. The traditional, familistic system of rights and obligations did not extend to, or was not u t i l i z e d by, respondents making modern, individualistic marriages. In contrast, the fourth woman f i r s t suffering economic loss after marriage, Hansa, did so for a highly traditional reason: her husband assumed financial re-sponsibility for his parents and unmarried sister after his father's restirement. A third fact possibly related to the women's positions as employees may be extrapolated from Tables I and II. Seven of my 26. twelve respondents grew up in "fatherless" families, because of the death of the father (four cases), his absence on business (two), or his incompetence (one). In traditional Indian culture, an uncle or elder male cousin could be expected to serve as a "father figure": to look after the family's budget, supervise i t s children's educa-tion, and arrange marriages for i t s daughters and jobs for i t s sons. But the mothers of Urmila, Kusum, Nandini, Sharda, Champa, Malti, and Janu received a minimal amount of such support. They coped with financial and educational matters as well as with household af f a i r s . A more extensive survey of Indian women might show that daughters raised i n such "fatherless" families are prediposed to assume an essentially male role, that of wage-earner. In summary, the present sample i s atypical for Gujarat in that i t consists of urban, high-caste, middle class, educated and employed women. The high frequency of love marriages, nuclear family households, and small numbers of children suggest that the sample may also be quite modern. The women's employment, perhaps another indication of modernity, may be related to certain child-hood experiences: that of being the youngest or only daughter, of suffering financial loss, and of growing up in a "fatherless" fam-i l y . I t i s on these similarities in background that the s i m i l a r i -ties and differences i n present behaviour and attitudes are based. Dimensions of the Study Although certain aspects of background experience such as those discussed above may enable or pre-dispose Indian women to seek employment, the immediate reasons for working which my respond-ents gave f a l l into two categories: economic need and personal de-sire (Table III, p. 27). 2 7 . Table I I I. REASONS FOR EMPLOYMENT AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT Respondent Reason for Reason for Attitude Towards Fi r s t Job Present Job Employment Urmila economic need economic need R should be home (V) before marr. of Joint fam. to help Mo-in-law Aruna economic need economic need R should be home (V) of nuc. fam. of nuc. fam. with children Nandini to be i n Ahm'd economic need R should be home (V) near fiance of nuc. fam. with daughters Kamala economic need economic need R should be home (B) of nuc. fam. of nuc. fam. for Hu and Dau Hansa economic need economic need R enjoys, but tires (B) of joint fam. of joint fam. as Mo & Dau-in-law Kusum economic need economic need R enjoys, but should (B) before marr. of nuc. fam. be home for son Sharda economic need desire for (no data) (V) of nuc. fam. extra income Champa to be "out- to be "out- job makes no d i f -(V) doors" doors" ference i n home l i f e Malti for experi- for experi- enjoys act i v i t i e s (V) ence, pleasure ence, pleasure outside the home Asha for experi- for pleasure, personal project (B) ence, interest interest betters R as Wi & Mo Jaya for experi- pleasure, val- job does not inter-(B) ence, pleasure uable service fere with home l i f e Janu for experi- interest, val- job keeps R from (B) ence, income uable service spoiling sons V • Vaishya B • Brahmin R » respondent nuc. fam. » nuclear family of procreation joint fam. * joint family, Husband's family of orientation "Economic need" i s a highly relative concept dependent upon each individual's experience of economic plenty: how rich an experience that was, how recent, and how drastically the situation altered. Urmila and Hansa hold jobs "out of necessity," yet Hansa is better off financially right now than Urmila has been since she was ten years old. Janu and Asha work for reasons of personal i n -clination, yet Asha enjoys a new bungalow complete with bedroom and dining-room sets,, while Janu i s content with half of a sparsely furnished old bungalow. The concept of economic need i s so relative that the six women who say they work out of personal desire do not necessarily maintain a higher standard of li v i n g than the six who work primar-i l y for the salary. Kusum, for example, feels she must work i n or-der to keep her son from l i v i n g conditions lik e those to which Champa and her husband freely chose to return. Past experience plays a large role in shaping present values and goals. Kapur's study of 300 Delhi women found that 36% had orig-inally sought employment for economic reasons, but 60% presently worked primarily for the income. Kapur suggests that the increase may in part be due to the subjects' "newly developing desire for a higher standard of l i v i n g " (1970: 78). Since only one of my re-spondents — Sharda — gives an economic reason for working while enjoying a higher standard of livi n g than the one she experienced as a child, I am inclined to believe that the women of the present sample seek to regain or to maintain certain standards, rather than to achieve higher ones. Champa and Janu, who could easily afford higher standards of l i v i n g , maintain the li f e - s t y l e s to which they have been accustomed since childhood. The contrast between Kapur's suggestion and mine may be due to an attitudinal difference between North Indians and Gujaratis with regard to money (see Chapter Two). Table III indicates a direct correlation between reason for employment and attitude toward being employed. A l l of the six women who presently hold jobs for economic reasons feel they should be at home, as mothers (five), as daughters-in-law (two), and as wives (one). But the women working for personal reasons feel that their jobs do not conflict with their roles as family members. In-deed, Asha and Janu believe that their performance in the home im-proves when they participate i n out-of-home a c t i v i t i e s . Kapur sug-gests that in India, marriage requires "self-negation" of a woman, while a job offers her "self-enhancement" (1970: 15). From the perspective of an individualistically-oriented working woman, this may be true. But from the perspective of a familistically-oriented Indian woman, holding a job may seem to demand a good deal of self-negation. In seeking to identify the relationship between a woman's employment and changes in her patterns of family l i f e , I w i l l pay particular attention to her reason for working. On the one hand, the facts that she i s not in the home and i s involved in the "out-side world" may affect her behaviour and beliefs regardless of her reason for employment. On the other hand, a woman who works be-cause she feels she has to may retain a familistic and community orientation in her home activities and relationships, while a woman who works for personal satisfaction may permit or encourage an i n -dividualistic orientation to permeate her home l i f e . Six respondents — Urmila, Aruna, Nandini, Kamala, Hansa, and Kusum — state that they continue to work because of economic need. The remaining six respondents — Sharda, Champa, Malti, Asha, Jaya and Janu — work for personal satisfaction. A second dimension i s added to the study since half of each of these groups i s Bania (Vaishya), and half Is Brahmin. Thus my sample may be categorized 30. in the following manner.° VARNA Vaishya Brahmin Urmila Kamala Economic Aruna Hansa Nandini Kusum REASON FOR EMPLOYMENT Sharda Asha Personal Champa Jaya Malti Janu Just as reason for employment may or may not prove more relevant to the changes than employment i t s e l f , so too with varna background. On the one hand, the respondent's urban environment, their education, and their extra-familial involvements may f a c i l i -tate an equal distribution of similar changes regardless of the respondents' caste a f f i l i a t i o n . On the other hand, general tradi-tions .and characteristics of varnas (discussed in Chapter Two) have proven tenacious and adaptable i n the past, and they may be so in this context. In either case, the dimension of caste background, cross cutting as i t does the dimension of reason for employment, helps to balance the basis for my deductions. In analysing the pat-terns of family l i f e described by the women and observed in their homes, I w i l l look for variations which correspond with the d i v i -sion of the women according to their reasons for employment, and according to their caste backgrounds. First, in Chapter Two, I w i l l describe the community 8 l am indebted to Prof. Brenda Beck for pointing out this four-fold division to me. In each table, I l i s t the women according to their reason for employment (economic need, then personal desire) and, within this division, according to their caste background (Banias f i r s t , then Brahmins). 31. traditions of each respondent's varna, caste, and sect. By compar-ing the women's childhood experiences of social and religious tra-ditions with their present attitudes and activities regarding these traditions, I w i l l try to estimate the extent and the nature of the changes that have taken place: How has daily caste and religious behaviour altered? Are cy c l i c a l and calendrical occasions observed in the same way, for the same reasons? In so far as traditional attitudes and act i v i t i e s , remembered from homes of orientation, are not present in homes of procreation, to what extent may a woman's employment be an explanatory factor? Chapter Three w i l l describe the daily l i f e of the respond-ents as inhabitants of modern Ahmedabad. Again, comparison with childhood experiences remembered by the women raises questions re-garding change: Have attitudes towards the various types of neigh-borhoods altered? Does the internal arrangement of homes reflect the same priorities? What material possessions have increased or decreased in social value? How have the duties and leisure a c t i v i -ties of various family members changed? Finally, may a woman's employment be related to the changes observed? In Chapter Four, I w i l l examine the intrafamilial rela-tionships of my respondents, their relationships as wives, as daughters-in-law, as mothers, and as sisters and married daughters. For each interpersonal relationship I w i l l note the traditional Indian ideal, the women's personal ideals, and the women's actual behaviour. What discrepancies occur between traditional and personal ideals? Between personal ideals and actual behaviour? Do such discrepancies indicate an actual emphasis on relationships between family members as i n d i v i -duals, rather than as role-players? To what extent does a woman's employment appear to affect her personal ideals and intrafamilial relationships? 32. Finally, Chapter Five w i l l provide a summary of the changes in patterns of family l i f e indicated by the date. Are there general trends or patterns of change? Does caste background or reason for employment affect the nature or extent of the changes? How does employment relate to the changes observed? Finally, are the general trends or patterns of change congruent with the attitudes and ideals of modern individuals? The present study i s based on a small and atypical group of women. For India, however, such a group may prove highly signi-ficant in that It i s representative of a growing and dynamic force which cannot help but permeate multiple areas of Indian culture: As employees, women have a unique perspective, and a unique contri-bution to make. As mothers of sons, working women present a new model for female behaviour which transforms the expectations of future husbands. And for their daughters and acquaintances, their example opens a new possibility, the possibility that economic needs or personal desires can be satisfied by a woman's own i n d i -vidual effort. CHAPTER TWO TRADITIONAL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS: BRAHMINS AND BANIAS IN GUJARAT The present chapter focuses on caste, not because i t i s requisite background material for any anthropological study of India, but because i t i s directly related to the particular subject of my study: the behaviour and beliefs of employed, high-caste women i n urban Gujarat. F i r s t , I shall note the relative position of each varna to help explain certain of my respondents' attitudes towards themselves and members of other varnas. Secondly, I shall b r i e f l y describe the mythological and hi s t o r i c a l backgrounds of each j a t i and sect, to aid i n understanding some of the pr i o r i t i e s and a c t i -v i t i e s emphasized by the respondents. Finally, I shall examine the social and Eligious customs maintained i n the respondents' homes of procreation, as compared with those found i n their homes of or-ientation, in order to discern ways in which patterns of traditional behaviour appear to be changing. In referring to the various "levels" of caste, I shall use the terms varna, j a t i , and gol, to mean Vedic class or category, caste "proper,'' and sub-caste, respectively. I realize that each of the terms and each of the suggested translations i s subject to lengthy debate, but an attempt to develop a comprehensive model of caste for Gujarat would not further the interests of the present study. Fig-ure 1 (p. 34) indicates how the castes of the twelve respondents may be made to f i t a model of caste such as that adapted by Ames (1971: 85) from Beteille's study of Sripuram (1965: 60-76). Note that while I refer to "Vaishyas' in my discussion of the varna hierarchy, the respondents themselves consistently use the term "Banias." Whether the two names are synonymous, or whether "Banias" refers to a cluster 34. Figure 1 . DIVISIONS OF VARNAS REPRESENTED BY RESPONDENTS Brahmin Raikwa Vaishya Hindu Bania Shri-Gaud jar Jain Bania Auditch Nagar Chitpavan Shrimali Modh Shrimali Porwad ^ li rw, Vadnagara Visnagara V D V*D V D V D * V - Visa D « Dasa * Not represented by respondents 35. of mercantile Vaishya j a t i s as opposed to Vaishya j a t i s engaged i n agriculture, I am unable to ascertain. Further discussion of Fig-ure 1 follows the description of Gujarat's varna hierarchy. Structure of the Varna Hierarchy According to Vedic tradition, each of the four varnas — Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra — has a distinct set of roles and a distinct system of values. In Gujarat, however, through historical coincidence, assimilation, and conscious emulation, the Brahmin and Vaishya varnas have come to project very similar images. Although the resemblance may in part be due to recent factors of industrialization and modernization, h i s t o r i c a l sources indicate much earlier grounds for similarities between the Brahmins and Vai-shyas of Gujarat. Theoretically, the classic varna hierarchy prevailed in Gujarat before the spread of Buddhism, c. 300 B.C. Kshatriyas shared with Brahmins the power and prestige of society's e l i t e positions, while Vaishyas, without large c i t i e s , safe highways or sea routes, or the commercial networks dependent upon these, remained relatively depressed (Lamb, 1959: 25). Brahminical tradition b e l i t t l e d those who o f f i c i a l l y dealt with material rather than with s p i r i t u a l mat-ters, although unofficially Brahmins frequently pursued worldly means and ends. Kshatriyas scoffed at the pursuit of liquid wealth as opposed to landed wealth, although their policies of "taxation, regulation, and outright confiscation" belied their moralistic con-tempt (Lamb, 1959: 25). While privileged and high-class from a non-Aryan point of vLew, Vaisyas were the lowest of the twice-born varnas. Brahmins were the highest. Given the limitations imposed by the social and geograph-i c a l environments, the only way the Vaishyas of Gujarat could improve 36. their status was to work outside of the Vedic system. Many tried to do this between 300 and 100 B.C. by embracing Buddhism and Jain-ism. The heretical sects advocated ahimsa, or abstention from vio-lent action, speech, aid thought. Since the indispensability of the Brahmin rested on his right and duty to perform sacrifice, and since the necessity of sacrifice rested on the authority of the Vedas, the doctrine of ahimsa alone threatened the very pinnacle of society and the very foundation or religion. The fact of their conversion might not, i n i t s e l f , have helped the Vaishyas' cause. However, paradoxically, many martial Kshatriyas also accepted the non-violent faiths. While Brahminical sacrifice and certain occupations such as brewing were considered himsa, or violent, fighting was approved (Sangave, 1959: 277-279). Kshatriya rulers found they could disregard Brahminical sanctions and s t i l l retain or even increase their own powers. Under Buddhist or Jain Kshatriya rulers, the Buddhist or Jain Vaishya merchants enjoyed relative prestige and occupational freedom. Even after the Furanic Renaissance of c. 500 A.D., a re-vi t a l i z a t i o n movement which reinstated the Brahmin and eliminated Buddhism, Kshatriya rulers i n Gujarat tolerated and even patronized Jainism (Munshi, 1954: 55-74). Mool Raj, the founder of Gujarat's ancient capital of Anhilwad, erected a Jain temple and protected laymen of that faith, although he himself worshipped Shiva (Forbes, 1924: I, 40-41). A later and more reknowned ruler, Sidh Raj, re-stored and visited Brahmin temples, but entertained certain Jain notions (Forbes, 1924: I, 167-168). "There can be l i t t l e doubt that from the foundation of Unhilwara (Anhilwad] to i t s destruction* the religions of Shiva and of the Jain Teerthunkars existed there together, sometimes the one and sometimes the other gaining the 37. predominance" (Forbes, 1924: I, 236). Fundamental similarities between the culture of Gujarat's Brahmins and that of her Jain Vaishyas had probably emerged by the eighth century reign of Sidh Raj. Both groups were essentially urban-dwelling, both competed for minsterial positions under Ksha-triyas, and both had a literary tradition communicated by a priestly order (Lamb, 1959: 29-30). At the outset, these shared features may have resulted in a heightened awareness on the part of each group of the other's behaviour and beliefs. B/entually, confron-tation between Brahmins and Jains of Anhilwad was institutionalized in the form of philosophical debates which took place in Court, with the Kshatriya ruler s i t t i n g as judge (Forbes, 1924: I, 236). Competition and confrontation between Gujarat's Brahmins and her Jain Vaishyas, instead of polarizing the values involved, may have aided i n their synthesis. On the one hand, as Shah and Shroff argue (1959: 63), certain Vaishya customs underwent "San-skritization." On the other hand, i t appears that some "Jainiza-tion" characterized the development of Brahmin ethics. In particu-lar, behaviour based on the Jain doctrine of ahimsa became generally accepted as prestigious. Brahmins gradually ceased to practice blood-sacrifice, and both Brahmins and non-Jain Vaishyas adopted vegetarian diets. When Gujarat's Kshatriyas lost much of their power following the imposition of Mogul rule c. 1300, their meat-eating and spirit-drinking were regarded by Brahmins and Vaishyas as additional causes for loss of prestige (Shah, 1964: 35). With Kshatriyas no longer dominant, Brahmins and Vaishyas constituted the pinnacle of the varna hierarchy i n Hindu Gujarat. Although oversimplified, Figure 2 (p. 38) indicates relative positions of the twice-born varnas i n Gujarat during three h i s t o r i c a l Figure 2. STRUCTURE OF THE VARNA HIERARCHY IN GUJARAT Model I. Before 300 B.C. Brahmins - Kshatriyas Vaishyas Model II. 300 B.C. - 1300 A.D. Kshatriyas Brahmins - Vaishyas Model III. After 1300 A.D. Brahmins - Vaishyas Kshatriyas 39. periods. Each model reflects the status of the varnas according to the " r i t u a l " standard of prestige, with i t s criterion of relative purity, and according to the "secular" standard of prestige, deter-mined by relative economic and p o l i t i c a l power (cf. Pocock, 1954; 1955; 1957). Thus, after 300 B.C. (Model II), Kshatriyas retained secular and r i t u a l prestige, while Vaishyas challenged the Brahmins' r i t u a l prestige and successfully competed for positions of secular prestige. A thousand years later (Model III), after a redefinition of "purity" and the imposition of Mogul rule, Kshatriyas lost both r i t u a l and secular prestige. Under Mogul rule, Brahmins and Vaish-yas had l i t t l e opportunity to rise in secular prestige, but relative to the other Hindu varnas, they topped the hierarchy in terms of r i t u a l prestige.9 After the decline in Mogul rule, the basis of economic power began shifting from landed wealth to liquid wealth, and Gujarat's Vaishyas found themselves rising to positions of greater secular prestige. In summary, the history of the relative positions of Gujarat's Brahmins and Vaishyas indicates a competitive relation-ship of long standing. Competition both resulted from and foster-ed the sharing of certain values and customs. Because of the Jain l i t e r a t i tradition, converted Vaishyas debated with Brahmins over intellectual and philosophical issues. Because Gujarat's Kshatriya rulers tolerated and occasionally patronized Jainism, Vaishyas as well as Brahmins sought ministerial positions. And because the Jain doctrine of ahimsa" was incorporated into the Brahminical sys-tem of ethical values, Vaishyas who also practiced ahimsa competed with Brahmins for positions of r i t u a l purity. S^ome Brahmins, granted land and taxation rights by the Moguls, probably retained secular prestige i n the rural areas. But Vaishya commercial enterprises appear to have been thwarted by Mogul rule (Moore, 1966: 322; but see also Lamb, 1959: 29). 40. The history of the varna structure also indicates the na-ture of the Brahmins' and Vaishyas' status as the e l i t e of urban Gujarat. In the early 1800's, Forbes (1924: II, 236) observed that "'Brahmin-waneea' [-vaishya] i s now a synonymous expression for 'oojulee-wustee' [fair-people], or high-caste population". Members of the Brahmin and Vaishya j a t i s represented by the respondents of this study think of themselves i n these terms, aid strive to act accordingly. Thus, differences in attitudes and behaviour which correspond to differences in the varna of the respondents must oc-cur not only in spite of the respondents' urban environment, educa-tion, and out-of-home ac t i v i t i e s , but also in spite of certain his-torical similarities between the customs, values, and statuses of their varnas. Backgrounds of the Jatis and Sects While a varna is traditionally distinguished primarily on the basis of i t s role in society and i t s value system, a j a t i or caste "proper" i s distinguished primarily by i t s h i s t o r i c a l and mythological background. Most of my respondents were aware of their particular community's background and traditions, and several explained instances of personal behaviour or expressions of a t t i -tude in relation to their community a f f i l i a t i o n . In answer to my i n i t i a l query about caste, the women i n -terviewed responded promptly with two or three terms, each one mod-i f i e d by the term preceeding i t . But when asked specifically for the names of varna, j a t i , and gol, several women hesitated. Their responses (Table IV, p.41) indicate how l i t t l e agreement there i s as to which term of the caste name corresponds to which of the sug-gested "levels" or categories of caste. 41. TERMS OF CASTE NAMES AS CATEGORIZED BY RESPONDENTS Respon- Caste Name Varna dent (see Fig. 1)* Urmila Visa Porwad Jain Bania (Bania) Aruna Visa Shrimali Jain Jain (Bania) Nandini Dasa Modh (Hindu) Hindu Bania Kamala Raikwa Brahmin Brahmin Hansa Vadnagara Nagar Nagar (Brahmin) Kusum Chitpavan Brahmin Brahmin Sharda Visa Porwad Jain Bania (Bania) Champa Dasa Shrimali Jain Jain (Bania) Malti Dasa Shrimali Bania (Hindu) Bania Asha Visnagara Nagar Nagar (Brahmin) Jaya Shri Gaud Brahmin Brahmin Janu Auditch Brahmin Brahmin Ja t i Jain Shrimali Bariia Raikwa Vadnagara Maharashtrian Jain Visaporwad Visa Shrimali Visnagar Shri Gaud Auditch Das a * Terms in parentheses were not i n i t i a l l y e l i c i t e d from the respon-dents but are included to f a c i l i t a t e comparison with Figure 1 (p. The term go*! is used by staff members of the B. M. Institute to mean the level of caste beneath that of j a t i . However, some of my respondents did not consider the term relevant to their parti-cular communities. 42. Had the respondents agreed among themselves on c e r t a i n points — f o r example, that " J a i n " constitutes a varna — I would have been tempted to represent them accordingly i n Figure 1 (p. 34). But considering the extent of disagreement among my respondents, I chose to categorize the various terms of each caste name according to my own understanding of t h e i r appropriate " l e v e l s . " A compari-son of Figure 1 and Table IV reveals that my c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and the responses of the women coincide i n seven of the twelve cases of varna, or Vedic c l a s s , and i n f i v e cases of j a t i , or caste "proper." Only three women mentioned gols, whereas i n response to the question "What i s your caste?", eight named sub-castes. The categorization of castes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 helps systematize and c l a r i f y the following discussion of j a t i s . But the responses of the wmen shown i n Table IV are j u s t as important as my categorization, i f not more so, f o r they i n d i c a t e an a t t i t u d e or a sense of i d e n t i t y of each respondent. The following accounts of the various j a t i s and sects suggest po s s i b l e sources of some of these a t t i t u d e s . 1) Brahmin J a t i s and Sects "The Brahmins of Goozerat are believed to be subdivided into more castes than those of any other part of India" (Forbes, 1924: I I , 233). T r a d i t i o n a l l y i t i s s a i d that there are eighty-four endogamous Brahmin communities i n Gujarat, hit attempts at enumerating them i n d i c a t e ftie existence of w e l l over one hundred. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , no two of the s i x Brahmin respondents i n t h i s study belong to the same endogamous u n i t . However, Hansa and Asha both belong to the Nagar j a t i , a l e v e l of caste relevant i n t h i s case to the h i s t o r i c a l and mythological heritage of i t s members. 43. According to historians of ancient Gujarat, the Nagars are descend-ed from the Maitraka hordes which invaded Gujarat from the north during the f i f t h and sixth centuries A.D. (Forbes, 1924: I, 21; II, 234). They originally settled i n Wurnugger, "one of the oldest citi e s of the province," where they served the Valabhi kings. When one of these kings conquered neighboring territory and founded a new city, Veesulnugger, he asked his Brahmins to perform a sacr i -fi c e . "Resorting to a strategem," the king bestowed grants of land on several priests for their services. Those tricked into accept-ing the alms were excommunicated by the Wurnugger Brahmins and form-ed their own, Veesulnugger community. From these two groups are descended the Vadnagars and Visnagars to which Hansa and Asha be-long, respectively. In terms of both the r i t u a l and the secular standards of prestige, Nagars represent Gujarat's most prestigious community. In matters regarding purity, their precautions are most elaborate and most ri g i d l y adhered to (cf. Forbes, 1924: II, 258). They were the only Brahmin j a t i which refused, u n t i l recently, to dine with other Brahmins. In matters regarding p o l i t i c a l and economic power, Nagars have long been dominant. "Under the Muslims and Mara-thas they were diwans, government officers of a l l sorts, teachers, and scholars. They are the most intellectual community of Gujarat and made themselves indispensable to the rulers of Gujarat." ( G i l -lion, 1968: 81-82). By responding "Nagar" for varna instead of for j a t i , Hansa and Asha reflect the Nagar sense of sup e r i o r i t y . ^ While Nagars are the most prestigious Brahmins in Gujarat, Auditch Brahmins are probably the most numerous. One respondent i UOne Nagar, not included in the present sample, explained that there were originally five varnas, the f i f t h and highest one being the Nagar varna. 44. identified them as "the typical Gujarati Brahmin." Like the Nagars, Auditch Brahmins came from the north (Audichya, l i t . : Northerner), and at least one group steadfastly refused to accept gifts from their kings. Others, however, accepted gifts of towns and surround-ing villages i n return for "ratifying" the "fasting, vows, bathing, pilgrimages and penances" of Mool Raj (Forbes, 1924: I, 63-64). Sidh Raj renewed the grants, and when certain Auditches found their land too "terror-causing," he assigned them more c i v i l i z e d t e r r i -tory on the Sabarmati River close to where Ahmedabad now stands (Forbes, 1924: I, 168). In this location they prospered by extracting transit duties on the grain coming from their former homeland. It i s , per-haps, this part of their history, rather than their numerical pre-ponderance, which earns them the t i t l e of typical Gujarati Brahmin. For although Gujarati Brahmins of every j a t i may be found in busi-nesses today, only Auditches are traditionally associated with non-literary occupations other than land-owning. Janu, the Auditch respondent, came from a family of revenue clerks and married into a family with a private business. As I wrote down this informa-tion she laughed and added, "We are pukka Banias." About Jaya's j a t i , the Shri Gaud Brahmins, I was able to discover very l i t t l e . Majmudar (1965: 45) says only that they are immigrants to Gujarat who retained the name of their native place. Unlike my other Brahmin respondents, Jaya was ex p l i c i t l y "not con-cerned with these matters." She supposed that' Shri Gauds might once have served the rulers of Saurashtra, but today they follow " a l l manner of occupation," such as engineering, government service, and medicine. They are not, however, currently engaged i n 45. agriculture. x x Information pertaining to Raikwa Brahmins came not from Kamala but from her brother's wife's brother, a twenty-six-year-old whose v i s i t to the States had l e f t him somewhat cynical about his own culture. According to him, Raikwas came to Gujarat peace-full y before the time of Mogul rule and settled in and around Ahmed-abad. Some took to agriculture; others became household priests for agriculturalists and artisans. The group remained small i n number and loosely structured. The same informant gives the im-pression that Raikwas act more independently of one another than do members of other j a t i s . There are no caste functions per se, although relatives and caste friends do gather "at times of sor-row and times of joy." Individuals aspiring to higher education for their daughters, foreign travel, or non-traditional occupa-tions feel free to pursue their goals. These views may be due i n part to wishful thinking. Certainly when Kamala married out of caste, the disapproval of other Raikwas on caste principles was vehement. The sixth and last Brahmin j a t i represented by women i n -terviewed is that of the Chitpavans. Kusum, a Chitpavan Brahmin, gave her j a t i as Maharashtrian, since to anyone in Gujarat this i s the second most relevant term of identification. The Chitpav-ans come from the southern coast of Maharashtra, where certain families traditionally served as chief ministers to the kings (Karve, 1963: 2). During Maratha rule in Gujarat, from 1753 to as late as 1947 in same small pockets, Maharashtrians of various 1 One learned principal of a school mentioned that Gaud Brah-mins, because they study the Vedas pertaining to l i f e - s a c r i f i c e , are considered himsa by other Hindus (cf. Forbes, 1924: II, 232). I am uncertain as to whether "Gaud" and "Shri Gaud" refer to the same Brahmin community. 46. castes immigrated to serve the Gaikwadi court and i t s bureaucracy. Although my sample was to include only Gujarati women, I interviewed Kusum, thinking that as a third generation Gujarati. she would qualify. However, her mother tongue, household ri t u a l s , and dietary habits turned out to be very Maharashtrian. In so far as behaviour associated with l i f e - s t y l e and intrafamilial relation-ships i s also specific to a former "native place," my observations and interviews with her may provide exceptional data for the pre-sent study. But as the descriptions of the other Brahmin j a t i s i n -dicate, no two respondents represent precisely the same sub-division of Brahminical culture. Unlike the Bania castes discussed below, almost a l l of Gujarat's Brahmins belong to the same religious "sect," that of Shiva. Shiva i s an "Aryan" deity, represented at Mahenjo-daro and mentioned in the Mahabarata (Majmudar, 1965: 211; Munshi, 1954: 57). In ancient times, as the god of destruction and procreation, he was worshipped by the sacrifice of bulls and oows. During the sixth and seventh centuries, as part of the Puranic Renaissance (see p. 36), Shaivism grew i n popularity i n opposition to Buddhism. However, the doctrine of ahimsa" so influenced Brahminical practice that by the seventh or eighth century, worship by sacrifice had become a "heinous sin." The Brahmin was heralded as the "protect-or of kings, cows, and women." A second non-Aryan influence on Shaivism came from the idol-worship of adivasls, or original irhabitants (Majmudar, 1965: 211). Images and symbols of Shiva were installed i n temples and homes. The Shiva-lingam, a symbol indicative of an emphasis on the god's reproductive powers rather than his powers of destruction, was worshipped by pouring liquid over i t . Reincarnations of Shiva 47. proliferated, as did his names, of which Mahadev is today the most commonly heard. Although only the Nagar respondents of the present sample referred to themselves as Shaivite, an image or symbol of Shiva had a central place in the puja-area of every Gujarati Brahmin home I visited. Kusum, the Maharashtrian Brahmin respondent , mentioned Ganapati puja, or the worship of Ganesh, as being common to " a l l Maharashtrians." Although both Shiva and Ganesh are worshipped by certain physical signs of devotion such as the pouring of liquid or the presentation of flowers, most of the puja consists of r e c i -tations or readings from scriptures. Hours not considered ones of puja worship are also spent memorizing and reading religious texts. 2) Bania Jatis and Sects Not the Brahmin but the mercantile Vaishya j a t i s subtly 'dominate" Gujarat, both i t s external image and i t s internal af-f a i r s . In other parts of India, a Gujarati is assumed to be a trader or financier. By Western observers, he has been termed "the least other-worldly of a l l Indian peoples," "the Jew of India." Within Gujarat i t s e l f , the "Bania ethic" is pervasive. The segmentation of Gujarat's Vaishyas is quite complex. As mentioned above in relation to Figure 1, a l l Gujarati Vaishyas, to my knowledge, are referred to as Banias. Furthermore, today a l l Jains are presumed to be Banias, although Jain Kshatriyas are known to have played an important role in Gujarat's history. In giving "Jain" as their varna (Table IV, p.41), Aruna and Champa reflect the assumption that a l l Jains are Banias, and the consequent practice of omitting "Bania" from the caste name. 48. Figure 1 (p. 34) indicates an i n i t i a l division of Banias according to doctrinal a f f i l i a t i o n , whether Hindu or Jain. The third level of j a t i categorizes them on the basis of hi s t o r i c a l and mythological origin. And the fourth level refers to tradition-a l r i t u a l status, one of the major considerations in match-making. In addition to these four levels of segmentation, each caste name may be further modified on the basis of region. Thus, for example, Urmila i s an Ahmedabadi Visa Porwad Jain Bania. To complicate matters, the doctrinal a f f i l i a t i o n of both Hindu and Jain Banias is sub-divided according to sect and, in the case of Jains, sub-sect. The significance of divisions based on religion i s discussed below. Three of the six Bania respondents — Aruna, Champa, and Malti — belong to the Shrimali j a t i , the most numerous and possi-bly the most prosperous community of Bania Gujarat. Shrimalis came to Gujarat from the ancient town of Shreemala in Rajasthan. It is said that there Lord Vishnu created 90,000 Banias to serve 45,000 Brahmins (Sangave, 1959: 93). Forbes states (1924: II, 233) that when Shreemala declined, many of i t s Brahmins migrated to the grow-ing urban centre of Anhilwad in Gujarat, where a large number convert-ed to Jainism. No mention i s made of Shrimali Bania migration or conversion, but i t appears l i k e l y that they followed the same pat-tern. 12 As the origin myth related above suggests, Banias depended upon the Brahmins and upon urban activities for their livelihood. If Brahmins l e f t Shreemala because of urban decline, Banias had twice the reason to leave. 12An alternative hypothesis to the one suggested here i s that Shrimali Jains are indeed descended from Shreemala's Brahmins, but have adopted the Bania varna along with Bania occupations. This would not, however, explain the existence of non-Jain Shrimali Banias such as Malti. 45. If my historical extrapolation i s correct, Shrimali Banias, both Jain and Hindu, have been livi n g in urban Gujarat for more than a thousand years. Their relationship to Brahmins, originally an occupational one, took on new dimensions with the conversion to Jain-ism. On the one hand, since both Brahmins and Banias converted, a certain amount of cultural exchange probably took place. On the other hand, i t was at this time that competition between Brahmins and Jains was institutionalized at Anhilwad, increasing communica-tion between the two groups. Two of the six Bania respondents — Urmila and Sharda — belong to the Porwada j a t i . Porwadas are also said to have come from Shreemala, where they lived on the east side of town (pragvSta, l i t . : east). Like the Shrimalis, Porwadas claim to be Banias. But their history reads lik e that of many Kshatriya communities in Gujarat: they descended from the Gujara tribe of invaders; they migrated to Shreemala on the king's orders to protect the town; and centuries later, after migration to Gujarat, they s t i l l held military and ministerial positions under Kshatriya rulers (Sangave, 1959: 94; Forbes, 1924: I, 107, 233, 252). It is not impossible that the earlier Porwads were also considered Bania, or Vaishya, but more probably, succeeding generations "became Vaishya by taking to commercial activities."13 Perhaps because of their later start, Porwadas as a group never founded an entrepreneurial empire like that which the Shrimal-is s t i l l control. The latter "great merchant princes," originally dealers in jewels, perfumes, and brocades, now manage much of Gujar-at's vast textile industry and speculate in "bullion and shares and even in American futures" (Sangave, 1959: 327). A Shrimali business many may boast that when travelling anywhere in India, Europe, North l^Sangave (1959: 96) suggests this for Khandelavala Jains. 50. America, Southeast Asia or East Africa, he may stay at the homes of other Shrimali businessmen.^ Both Shrimalis and Porwadas are sub-divided into Visas and Dasas. The origin and significance of these terms is not clear. Forbes (1924: II, 237) writes that "Waneeas . . . are again sub-divided, as into right and l e f t hand, or into Dusha and Veesha, names implying degrees of rank, and derived from words signifying ten and twenty.'' Sangave (1959: 95) says that in the case of the Porwadas, descendehts or members who once dined with the sons of a remarried widow are Dasa, while descendents of those who refused are Visa. According to Hindu and Jain ethics, Visas would be the ri t u a l l y purer of the two groups. About Shrimalis, Sangave (1959: 93) relates three stories, one deriving the terms Dasa and Visa from the words for ten and twenty, one from the words for direction and section, and one from a story concerning l e f t and right sides. In each case, Visa i s the more prestigious term. There i s some indication that "Dasa" and "Visa" s t i l l connote relative r i t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y and superiority. For example, marriages are not infrequently arranged between members of d i f f e r -ent Bania j a t i s (e.g., between Shrimali and Porwad), but few i f any arranged marriages occur between Visas and Dasas, even of the same j a t i . In terms of secular prestige, however, there appears to be no noticeable difference. Dasa Shrimali Jains constitute one of Ahmedabad's wealthiest communities. Banias, particularly Jain Banias, are divided into almost as many sects as j a t i s (Figure 3, p. 51). In Ahmedabad, three sects dominate, their members being most numerous and most prosperous with-± 4Unfortunately, I am not certain of landini's j a t i , but I have reason to believe she i s a Modh Bania. Modhs served as administrat-ors and financiers under Saurashtrian rulers. 51. Figure 3. DIVISION OF RELIGIONS REPRESENTED BY BANIA RESPONDENTS Hindu Jain Valshnava Shiva Marg (Digambara)* Svetambara Murti-pujaka Sthana-kavasi * Not represented i n the present sample 52. i n the Bania community: Vaishnava Hindus, Murtipujaka J a i n s , and Sthanakavasi Jains. A l l follow the doctrine of ahimsa, but while the J a i n sects endorse asceticism and s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n , Vaishna-vas a f f i r m the "epicurean" and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t l i f e of good works (Majmudar, 1965: 220; Lamb, 1959: 30). One of the f i r s t preceptors to introduce Vaishnavism to Gujarat was himself i n the Householder Stage of L i f e . Majmudar (1965: 214) believes that " t h i s f a c t ex-pl a i n s the ready response given by ... the mercantile communities of Gujarat." They could continue to pursue t h e i r e a r t h l y goals while, through worship of Krishna (Vishnu), a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n . But the contrast between "epicurean Vaishnavas" and " p u r i -t a n i c a l J a i n s " (Lamb, 1959: 30) could e a s i l y be over-emphasized. G u j a r a t i Vaishnavas, i n p a r t i c u l a r , l i v e modestly by comparison with, fo r example, merchants i n parts of North India (cf. Hazelhurst, 1967). Yet i t i s true that the ultimate i n f r u g a l i t y characterizes J a i n l i f e , i n dress and d i e t , i n prosperous circumstances as w e l l as i n lean, even at the time of a daughter's carriage. While good business sense may r e i n f o r c e such behaviour, the Jain s c r i p t u r e s also sanction i t (Sangave, 1959: 217-223). In a d d i t i o n to the doctrine of ahimsa, the three dominant Bania sects also emphasize injunctions found i n the G l t a : the im-portance of performing one's duty f o r i t s own sake; the need f o r s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , self-knowledge, and self-contentment; and the de-s i r a b i l i t y of a t o t a l devotion to Krishna (Vishnu). The sects d i f -f e r from one another p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r manner of devotion. Murti-puja J a i n s , such as Urmila, Aruna, and Sharda, "are the thorough worshippers of i d o l s . They o f f e r f r u i t s , flowers and s a f f r o n , etc., to t h e i r i d o l s and adorn them with r i c h clothes and ornaments" (Sangave, 1959: 56). Vaishnava Hindus such as Nandini worship i n a s i m i l a r manner, but repeat verses derived from Vedic rather than 53. from J a i n l i t e r a t u r e . In contrast, Sthankavasi Jains such as Champa r e j e c t idol-worship e n t i r e l y . They honour t h e i r a s c e t i c s with food and g i f t s , and v i s i t temples r e g u l a r l y to take darshan and to hear readings. The s i x t h Bania respondent, M a l t i , belongs to a Hindu sect which worships Shiva. While Shiva worship i s not exceptional f o r a Gujarati Bania, i t i s f a r from t y p i c a l . Possibly her j a t i ' s connex-ion with the Shrimali Brahmins of ancient Anhilwad can explain the d o c t r i n a l s i m i l a r i t y . In summary, the backgrounds of my respondents' j a t i s and sects i n d i c a t e that although the Brahmin and Vaishya (Bania) varnas have come to project very s i m i l a r images, Brahmin and Vaishya j a t i s r e t a i n d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n s — t r a d i t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r varna, i n several instances. Thus, Nagar, Chitpavan,and possibly Shri Gaud Brahmins are t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with government s e r v i c e . Shrimali and Porwad Banias (Vaishyas) remain commercially involved. Relative prestige w i t h i n the Nagar j a t i i s based on past episodes inv o l v i n g acceptance or r e f u s a l of alms, an important aspect of Brahminical e t h i c s . Within the Shrimali and Porwad j a t i s , r e l a t i v e prestige i s sa i d to be based on episodes inv o l v i n g acceptance or r e -f u s a l of "impure" food, an important aspect of Bania e t h i c s . Mem-bers of Brahmin j a t i s include extensive readings and r e c i t a t i o n s from Vedic and subsequent texts i n t h e i r worship. Members of Bania j a t i s s t r e s s worship by devotion to the god and by proper act i o n . In other words, the backgrounds and t r a d i t i o n s of my r e -spondents' j a t i s and sects i n d i c a t e that s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Brahmin and Bania varnas are f a r from comprehensive. Differences i n a t t i t u d e s and behaviour among my respondents may indeed be found to correspond to differences i n t h e i r caste backgrounds, i f they are not mitigated by the respondents' urban environment, education, and employment. 54. Community Traditions of the Respondents Imbedded in my respondents' patterns of family l i f e are traditions of their castes and sects. Below, I w i l l describe the traditions pertaining to daily routine, life-cycle events, and c a l -endrical occasions. In each case, I w i l l compare the behaviour of my respondents and their families of procreation with the behaviour of their families of orientation. I w i l l note any differences be-tween the two, and suggest what bearing caste background and women's employment may have on the changes indicated. 1) Daily Activities About 620 A.D., a Gujarati Brahmin described the morning r i t u a l as follows: He rose early i n the morning; having taken his bath he put on a clean white garment; with rosary i n hand he recited Vedic mantras . . . He then worshipped the image of Shiva by pouring milk over i t , then of-fering i t sweet-smelling flowers and incense and pig-ments; he also offered arati . . . Munshi, 1954: 63. To a remarkable extent, this passage describes what I saw and heard in Ahmedabad thirteen centuries later. The actual hour of rising seems to have been postponed over time. Forbes (1924: II, 254-255) reports that Brahmins and Banias start the day about four o'clock, since many of them are un-der a vow to bathe before sunrise. The women in this study remember that their parents rose by five o'clock, although the children slept an hour or two longer. Today, in their own homes, senior relatives living with them may bathe before sunrise, but the women themselves get up about six or six-thirty. 55. Each adult, upon rising, bathes by washing feet, hands, and face, and by brushing teeth and tongue. In winter, children's baths may be postponed u n t i l later i n the day, but several women, a l l of them Brahmin, remember that i n their own childhoods they were never spared the early mornirg dousing. Three respondents, a l l Ban-ias, say they occasionally omit an infant's bath on very cold days. According to Urmila, "Brahmins are more particular i n these matters [than Banias]." After changing from the previous day's clothing into a fresh cotton sa a r i i or shirt, each person acknowleges one or more gods. This is done in the same manner daily, but ftie form varies from one j a t i and sect to another. For example, the repetition of certain slokas, the presentation of certain types of flowers, and the application of certain types of make-up to the statue of the god are required. Nandini eats a small piece of clay before a pic-ture of the god. The parents of my respondents appear to have spent a longer time acknowledging the gods before taking tea than the re-spondents and their husbands do now. Two Jain women report that a morning v i s i t to the temple was compulsory for their fathers before even water could be swallowed. Depending on his age, a child i s also expected to acknow-ledge the god after bathing and before taking his milk. Parents press an infant's hands together in a gesture of namaste and en-courage him to say "je-je," much as Western parents pump a child's arm up and down while repeating "bye-bye." By the age of about seven, children greet the god as their parents do, and may be per-mitted or even required to collect flowers, repeat slokas, etc. In general, the women interviewed expect less participation of their children than their parents did of them. 56. My respondents report that as children, after morning tea, they played, helped their mothers in the kitchen, or accompanied their fathers to temple or in the puja-area until dinner was ready at about ten o'clock. As wives, they must get their husbands and themselves off to work between eight-thirty and ten-thirty. Dinner is either served earlier, or tea becomes a more substantial meal and dinner is postponed u n t i l noon. In either case, the time once devoted to puja and temple-going is sharply reduced. With the exception of Kamala, whose father was "not r e l i -gious," a l l of the Brahmin women remember their fathers performing puja for one to three hours every morning. As i n the case of the i n i t i a l greeting of the god, the r i t u a l was the same every day, but varied between families. Xr tT , the ci r c l i n g of a flame before the god, was mentioned by most of the Brahmin women as a part of the father's puja. If a father died, his wife performed the ritu a l s . Children were usually permitted i n the pGja-area, and frequently spent at least a few minutes each morning listening to and helping their fathers. Only in Janu's and Hansa's homes are the traditions adher-ed to today. Kamala, Kusum, and Jaya, who married outside their j a t i s and sects, neither expect nor desire their husbands to spend more time in morning worship. Kusum tries to devote a few minutes to Ganesha-puja each day, but Kamala and Jaya do not try to practice the rituals of their parental homes. Asha's husband spent an hour at puja when his father's sister lived with them, but after her death, "as we went on being independent, i t gradually went out." Among the lania women, the Jains remember morning v i s i t s to temple. Urmila and Aruna re c a l l both temple-darshan and puja as part of their fathers' morning a c t i v i t i e s . The non-Jain Banias 57. describe puja rites resembling those of the Brahmins' fathers. It appears that the mothers of the Bania respondents par-ticipated in the morning worship more often than did the Brahmins' mothers. Three possible explanations may be suggested for this. F i r s t , both Jainism and Vaishnavism accord women an active and im-portant role i n religious a c t i v i t i e s . Shaivism, on the other hand, regards a woman as a f a c i l i t a t o r of her husband's worship. At most she i s a companion to him as he f u l f i l l s the Householder's duties to the gods. Secondly, Jain sects and to a certain extent Vaishnavas permit each spouse to practice the rituals of his or her parental home. Thus Champa's mother, a Sthanakavasi Jain, took darshan of holy men only. Her husband, a Murtipujaka Jain, "did not believe in this action, but in God only." Brahmin women, on the other hand, although they normally worship the same god (Shiva) as their husbands, are not free to follow the particular rites of their parental homes. Thirdly, mothers of the Bania women may have become more involved in the morning worship because their husbands were so often away on business. Like the Brahmin widows, they took over their husbands' duties to the gods. In general, the Bania respondents, as adults, find as l i t t l e time for morning puja as do the Brahmin respondents. Only Aruna reports that she, her husband, and her son read mantras and v i s i t the temple every morning.-'--' Malti's and Urmila's husbands leave the performance of rites entirely to their parents, with whom they l i v e . Nandini, Sharda, and Champa report that their husbands have no time for regular puja or temple going before dinner. They must "conduct some small business," such as writing letters and •^Aruna married a man of her own j a t i whose family was in dis-grace. Their religious activity may be one way to redeem themselves in the eyes of their fellow caste members. I 58. settling household accounts. The dinner the women prepare is aLso peculiar to the caste and sect of the cooks. Different ingredients are proscribed by some communities and prescribed by others. The proportions of the seven curry spices and the methods of cooking also vary, so much so that when someone remarks that a preparation tastes like that of a particular community, he subtly conveys a criticism or compliment to the cook. In describing the difficulties of marry-ing out of caste, two women, both of them Banias, mention their frustration at not knowing how to prepare certain dishes i n the manner of their husbands' families. Although a few recently introduced items such as powdered cocoa and ready-to-eat cereals have been incorporated into my re-spondents' diets, only three women feel that they eat anything today that was forbidden them in childhood. Urmila, a Jain, married into a Brahmin family and now eats potatoes and other vegetables and fruits proscribed by Jainism. Asha, a Brahmin, can tolerate eggs only in cakes, but since the time of her husband's father's sister's death she has prepared omlette for her children, "so they w i l l not have my prejudice." Jaya and her husband, who found they "enjoyed everything, even some meat'' during their year abroad, continue to take non-vegetarian food. It is interesting that although some studies of Indians reveal men to be less restrictive in their diets than women, no husband in the present sample, except for Jaya's, who eats beef, is more risque in his eating habits than i s his wife (see, for example, Singer, 1968: 439). Several Brahmin customs regarding cooking and eating, well remembered from childhood, are practiced today only on special oc-casions, or by women livin g with senior relatives. For example, 59. the exclusion of menstruating women from the kitchen s t i l l applies to Hansa, a Nagar Brahmin livi n g with her in-laws. But i t has been disregarded by Janu since her separation from her husband's family, and by Asha since the death of her husband's father's sister. Sim-i l a r l y , the traditional wearing of s i l k at meals now occurs, for the most part, only on days when family members do not have to leave for work immediately after eating. Only senior relatives chant prayers while washing their hands before dinner, and the offering of food and prayers before eating takes place less frequently, per-haps six or eight times a month. After dinner, my respondents and their husbands go to work, and their children to school or play. If they pass in front of a temple of their sect, men, women, and.children often pause to namaste or to take darshan. Afternoon tea is taken in the company of colleagues and co-workers. Although these tend to be members of the same varna, they rarely belong to the same j a t i , and in a few instances Parsis and members of other religions, as well as Hindus and Jains, take tea together. Among Jains, the type and the source of any refreshment appear more important than the company in which i t i s taken. A l -though few mothers give their children pocket money, only Jains offer the explanation that they fear their children w i l l buy un-acceptable things to eat. Both Brahmin and Bania respondents (Jain and Hindu) remember being forbidden food secured from vendors, or from friends of other castes. But as adults today, only my Jain respondents impose such restrictions on their children. In the evening, women are again busy cooking, but they also perform their own pujas at this time. Brahmin women reca l l that their mothers used to spend as much as an hour in the puja-60. area. Banias report that, at least for their mothers, an evening v i s i t to the temple was "compulsory." For a l l the respondents, ev-ening worship has become a more or less family a f f a i r , which they frequently combine with an evening s t r o l l . Several times a week, family members in groups of two or three walk to the temple to of-fer flowers, to take darshan of the god or holy man, or to hear readings from religious texts. They stop to chat with friends and to v i s i t relatives along the way. Children usually are involved in the evening a c t i v i t i e s . Although none are compelled to go to temple, most seem eager to accompany their elders. It is a "favourite pastime," "they can be with us and with friends also." The period just before bedtime is frequently devoted to tel l i n g stories from the Mihabarata and the Ramayapa. To summarize, specific traditions of caste and sect per-taining to daily routine are maintained in the homes of my respond-ents in varying degrees. Religious activities (i.e., those a c t i v i -ties described in answer to the questions "What religious customs did/does your family do each day?") have altered most noticeably in comparison with the respondents' childhood experiences. The i n i t i a l acknowlegement of the god has been abbreviated, morning puja i s generally omitted, and evening has become a family occasion. Bathing and similar acts of pollution avoidance are adhered to more by adults than by children, more by persons liv i n g jointly with elders than by persons liv i n g separately, and more by Brahmins than by Banias. Cooking and eating habits acquired by the respond-ents i n their childhoods continue vi r t u a l l y unchanged, although the Brahmins are somewhat less r i g i d in this regard than are the Banias, particularly the Jain Banias. 61. In general, changes in the observance of community tradi-tions pertaining to daily routine appear to be i n the direction of abbreviation aid selective application. 2) Life-Cycle Events Traditions of caste and sect pertain to l i f e - c y c l e events in two ways: ceremonies and rites mark the event i t s e l f , and cer-tain attitudes and expectations affect decisions which must be made in connexion with the events. Traditions pertaining to the celebration of l i f e - c y c l e events, like traditions imbedded in daily routine, have been mini-mized by my respondents. For example, only five women (four Brah-min and one Bania) had three-day wedding ceremonies, whereas the parents of a l l twelve respondents bad been wed in ceremonies last-ing between three and five days. Similarly, although several wo-men recall that pregnancy rites were performed for their mothers before the birth of their younger siblings, only Asha participated in pregnancy rites for the birth of her second d i i l d . - ^ Even for the f i r s t child, two women celebrated in the traditional manner because their mothers "insisted." Life-cycle events given by the respondents for their children, rather than by their parents for them, are even more ab-breviated. For instance, the traditional name giving ceremony i n -volves many relatives, particularly the husband's sister who chooses the name. But seven of my respondents and their husbands named their children "with the approval'1 of the husbands' sisters (or 16Hansa returned to her "mother's- place" for the ceremonies but her second child arrived prematurely, before the rites could be per-formed. 6 2 . husband's father's sister) and om^itted the ceremony altogether. Similarly, the upanayana ceremony, i n which a Hindu upper-caste boy receives his sacred thread, was a major event in the lives of the Brahmin and Hindu Bania respondents' brothers. But Janu's two sons received the thread on the same day, "for economy;" Asha and her husband arranged their son's upanayana so as not to "disappoint" Asha's parents; and the other respondents feel that the ceremony i s "not necessary for modern Hindus,1' or that "some small gifts to Brahmins (priests)" should suffice. Traditional attitudes and expectations appear not to gov-ern decisions made by my respondents i n connexion with stages of their children's life-cycles. Selection of a child's school de-pends on economic circumstances rather than on caste or sect af-f i l i a t i o n . Private schools are judged superior, not because the teachers there tend to be Brahmin, but because the classes are smaller and the tuition fees higher. Senior relatives of one Ban-ia and four Brahmin respondents instruct young members of their families with religious texts, but no child i s asked to memorize whole chapters, as were several of the respondents. Academic marks are considered highly important, regardless of the subject or the interests of the child, but this emphasis was also present i n the childhood homes of my respondents. Selection of a career, according to the respondents, should not be restricted either by the caste's traditional occu-pational a f f i l i a t i o n or by the father's occupation. The fathers of at least ten respondents, as noted in Chapter One, followed careers traditionally associated with their j a t i s , and the husbands of three respondents i n i t i a l l y chose the occupations of their fa-thers. But the sons of the respondents w i l l apparently one day be able to make 'free" and "personal" decisions on their own. Among 63. the Brahmin women, only Janu suggests specifically that her son may go into commerce, however, she i s "not pushing him." Among the Bania women, Champa and Aruna have specific careers in mind for their sons: doctor, engineer, and architect. The hope for a son's occupation among Banias seems to be, as Urmila puts i t , "not a business man, but someplace where he can use his intelligence." Of the seven women who have daughters, four (Nandini, Malti, Asha, and Jaya) suggest that their daughters may some day have careers, and three (Aruna, Kamala, and Hansa) suggest that their daughters may take jobs " i f i t becomes necessary." It i s said that the potential strength of traditional attitudes i s realized when decisions pertaining to marriage are made. However, since three-fourths of the women in this study made "love-matches," and since over half of them married outside their castes, attitudes towards arranged, in-caste marriages are predict-ably negative. Even women such as Hansa and Janu, whose husbands were chosen for them, feel that "Marriage is a personal wish. We would like to guide [our children] only." Whether the match i s arranged by parents or by the bride and groom, " a l l should agree, then a l l must be happy, whatever problems come later." Only Aruna plans to arrange her daughter's marriage and to r e s t r i c t her son's choice of spouse: "Preferably he w i l l marry a Jain, but i f he marries a Hindu (not a Mohammedan, Sindhi, or Punjabi because the customs are different), we w i l l keep them with us so the bride w i l l get to know the customs of our house and relatives." With the exception of Aruna, no woman expressed more permissive attitudes regarding her son's future marriage than regarding her daughter's. However, no woman referred to the possibility that her son or daugh-ter might remain unmarried. To summarize, traditions of caste and sect pertaining to life - c y c l e events have relatively l i t t l e influence on my respondents' 64. present patterns of family l i f e . Life-cycle ceremonies, performed for most children in the respondents' homes of orientation, are performed in their homes of procreation for the first-born child and first-born male only, or they may be omitted entirely. De-cisions regarding the education, career, and marriage of each child are, at least i n theory, not to be made by the respondents and their husbands in accordance with traditional attitudes and expectations, but in accordance with the child's inclinations. In general, community traditions regarding li f e - c y c l e events no longer appear particularly relevant to the li f e - c y c l e . 3) Calendrical Occasions Unlike l i f e - c y c l e events, calendrical occasions appear to be celebrated as f u l l y today as when the respondents were young. Calenders i n Gujarat frequently note the god, man, or event to be remembered each day? there are three hundred and sixty-five poten-t i a l occasions for celebration or lamentation. Among these, the five most frequently mentioned by my respondents are festivals i n which a l l castes participate: DiwalT, Navratri, Rakshabandan, Uthrarn, and Holi. In their families of orientation, my respond-ents celebrated these events by going to temples of their sects, and by gathering at the homes of relatives with fellow j a t i members. Today, every respondent exchanges v i s i t s and gifts with at least one family of a caste other than her own, Diwali, the festiv a l of lights, has become a time for the exchange of gif t s and v i s i t s between friends regardless of their castes. During Navr3tri, the songs which the women sing as they dance around the Goddess AmbajT are often peculiar to cer-tain castes and sects, but a l l women join i n the refrains and take turns leading songs of their own communities. Rakshabandan, once an occasion for a brother to give a g i f t in exchange for a pledge of sisterly devotion, now resembles a platonic Valentine's day. Girls may present any number of male acquaintances with the wrist-band symbolic of their friendship. Uthrarn, the day of kite^flying, i s also an occasionfor peer groups. Friends gather on roof-tops to compete with other groups for dominance and excellence in the skies. Although Holi i s rot celebrated as vividly or as extensive-ly i n Gujarat as in other parts of India, younger people do throw coloured water, f i r s t on members of their own families, then on neighbors, and ultimately on society at large. The celebration of Krishna's birthday was mentioned by only four respondents, a l l of them Bania, but children of a l l castes participate in the f e s t i v i t i e s at school. The importance granted Krishna's birthday in Gujarat reflects the dominance of Banias in the area. Other groups, particularly the larger and more affluent communities, also gather for their god's day. Nagar Brahmins, for example, parade to and around their p3l temple once a year and then s i t down to a large feast. Nandini and ler husband, and Kusum and her husband go to temple together on each other's god's days. The major occasions common to a l l castes are marked by feasting, particularly by the eating of sweets (see Mayer, 1960: 33-34). Minor occasions, on the other band, more often involve fasting, a practice frequently observed by Gujaratis on non-calend-r i c a l occasions and for a variety of reasons. The abstainer conveys a sense of humility and a sense of power simultaneously. Children compel their parents, pupils their teachers, wives their husbands, and worshippers their gods through proper fasting. M.K. Gandhi, a Gujarati par excellence, often fasted — in a l l humility — to bring a government to i t s knees (cf. Erikson, 1969: 417-418, et  passim). 66. The sense of blended humility and power i s probably l e s s evident i n the c a l e n d r i c a l f a s t s undertaken so r e g u l a r l y . Never-theless, c e r t a i n goals may be discerned. To get a good husband, three Brahmin respondents have fasted i n J u l y , from the age of puberty, by eating only s a l t l e s s food and only f r u i t i n the even-ing. Nandini, a Vaishnavite, observed a " f i v e day f a s t f o r v i r -g ins" once a year from the age of ten u n t i l her marriage. Janu and Kusum f a s t at the time of the moon's e c l i p s e , " f o r a good husband, for the same husband i n the next l i f e , f o r son's health." One theory i s that f a s t i n g p u r i f i e s , and that p u r i t y i n a woman increases her power (Beck: 1970). In support of t h i s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l the Brahmin respondents at one time fasted one day a month to cleanse themselves a f t e r menstrua-t i o n , and three continue to do so. Individual vows to f a s t one day a week "fo r health" have been made by Kusum and M a l t i . And a l l four J a i n respondents observe Paryusha", the eight-day f a s t for forgiveness of s i n s . In general, Jains f a s t more frequently and more r a d i c a l l y than do Hindus. No water i s taken, no eating before sunrise or a f t e r sunset i s permitted, and the d i e t i s ex-tremely l i m i t e d . Two J a i n respondents — Sharda and Champa — were never compelled to f a s t . Others, Urmila and Aruna, remember not being able to sleep because of hunger and t h i r s t . As adults, none of them require t h e i r c h i l d r e n to abstain " i f [the children] do not wish i t . " To summarize, t r a d i t i o n s of caste and sect pertaining to c a l e n d r i c a l occasions are observed i n my respondents' homes of pro-creation with at l e a s t as much enthusiasm as they were i n t h e i r homes of o r i e n t a t i o n . Occasions common to a l l castes s t i l l tend to be celebrated with v i s i t s , f e a s t s , and exchanges of g i f t s , but today they are also occasions when members of d i f f e r e n t castes 67. celebrate together. Occasions peculiar to certain j a t i s , sects, or to individuals tend to be narked by fasting, as they were in the respondents' childhoods. In general, community traditions regard-ing calendrical occasions are livi n g traditions, maintained and in some instances elaborated upon in the homes of the respondents. From the data presented above, i t may be concluded that traditions of caste and sect are observed by my respondents 'in varying degrees. In comparison with community traditions observed in the respondents' childhoods, traditions pertaining to l i f e -cycle events have teen a l l but deleted, those pertaining to daily routine have been significantly modified, and those pertaining to \ calendrical occasions have been expanded to include members of other castes. It appears that at least two patterns characterize the changes in observance of community tradition: a pattern of abbreviation and omission, and a pattern of elaboration and univer-salization. Analysis suggests that both patterns may be related to similar sets of factors. For example, women who have married out of caste tend to modify and delete more traditions than do women who have married within their castes, but they also tend to incor-porate members of at least two castes equally in their observance of calendrical occasions. On the one hand, i f husband and wife represent different j a t i s or sects, decisions must be made as to which traditions should be observed, who should o f f i c i a t e , and so forth. On the other hand, traditions common to both castes may be celebrated without d i f f i c u l t y with the relatives of both husband and wife. Similarly, women living in nuclear families tend to abbreviate the observance of certain traditions more extensively than do women liv i n g in joint families, but they also include in their celebrations of cross-caste calendrical events many non-68. family and non-caste acquaintances. Caste background does not appear related to the general patterns of change. Both Brahmin and Bania respondents have modi-fied traditions pertaining to daily routines and lif e - c y c l e events, and both have universalized their observance of traditions pertain-ing to certain calendrical occasions. However, caste background does appear related to the traditions themselves. For example, traditions of pollution avoidance were adhered to more ri g i d l y by Brahmin women in their childhoods than by Bania women in theirs, and although respondents of both varnas have become more flexible in this regard, Brahmins continue to be more fastidious, relative to Banias. Similarly, traditions concerning dietary and eating habits were more nimerous and more restricting in the Banias 1 families of orientation than in those of the Brahmins, and they continue to be so, relatively speaking.^ Thus, although caste does not appear to influence the extent or direction of change in community tradition, i t does affect the nature of traditional be-haviour. Furthermore, caste background may be related to the reasons which the respondents give for the changes they have made. I w i l l examine this possibility in the concluding chapter of the present thesis. Since a l l of my respondents are employed, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate women's employment as a factor in the changes observed. Nevertheless, the data on the observance of community tradition suggests that employment may be related to the patterns of change in at least three ways. Fi r s t of a l l , women's employment necessi-tates a re-allocation of time. Women who work have fewer hours :: l^In terms of Erikson's theory of oral and anal cultures (1963: 133-186), the Brahmin emphasis on cleanliness indicates an "anal" preoccupation, while the Bania (particularly the Jain Bania) focus on eating and non-eating indicates an "oral" preoccupation. 69. in which to devote themselves to the observance of daily r i t u a l s , and they are less able to assume household chores which f a c i l i t a t e their husbands' observance of daily r i t u a l s . For example, the wearing of s i l k clothing during meals i s time consuming not only for the husband who must change before leaving for work, but also for the wife who must launder the extra apparel. On the other hand, working women do have time in which to observe all-caste calendrical events. Because a l l castes participate i n them, schools and businesses set aside days for their celebration, and a l l mem-bers of the family enjoy the holidays together. Secondly, women's employment may be related to the changes in traditional behaviour in that i t f a c i l i t a t e s a re-allocation of interests and s>urces of personal satisfaction. A woman who works may relegate her role as organizer of social and religious functions to fourth position, following those of wife, mother, and employee. By serving her family as a wage-earner, she need not feel negligent for diminishing her role as mediator of tradition. And by involv-ing herself in her job, she satisfies a need for purposeful a c t i v i -ty also satiable through participation i n community tradition. Fur-thermore, my respondents have already violated traditional norms by getting higher degrees, marrying out of caste, and taking jobs. At-tention to traditions of caste and sect would do l i t t l e to further their sense of moral uprighteousness or sp i r i t u a l security, and i t might appear hypocritical. Jaya and her husband do not instruct their daughter in religious matters, because they wish for her to "find some meaning" for herself. Hansa feels that her in-laws are "very sincere in these matters, but we are thinking of the expense too much." Champa is happy that her sons "enjoy the worship of God and sadvis, why should we care for [ceremonial] pomp?" Thirdly, and almost i n contradiction to the above sug-gestion, women's employment may increase the degree to which certain 70. traditions are observed by creating in working women a sense of guilt. For example, the amount of v i s i t i n g and gift-giving, done by working women on calendrical occasions for which they have h o l i -days, to some extent may be compensatory for the women's lack of participation on other occasions. Similarly, fhe practice of fast-ing may help to reconcile a working woman to her neglect of more time-consuming traditions. Fasting is believed to benefit others and to require only the individual's w i l l . A healthy woman who does not fast appears selfis h or self-indulgent — major vices i n the Gujarati scale of values. Studies of change i n Indian culture frequently indicate that although new patterns of behaviour and belief may character-ize men's acti v i t i e s outside the home, traditional patterns may s t i l l characterize the acti v i t i e s of both men and women inside the home (see, for example, Singer, 1968: 438-439). The present study suggests that when women as well as men participate i n outside act-i v i t i e s , new ways of thinking and behaving may be introduced i n the home. Because my respondents' employment removes them from the home^  they must abbreviate the time spent on daily and lif e - c y c l e r i t u a l s . Their husbands cannot "delegate" to them responsibility for the observance of tradition. Similarly, because their employ-ment places them in the larger community, the respondents are as exposed to new ideas and new forms of behaviour as are their hus-bands. I have already noted that, with one exception, my respond-ents are as li b e r a l as their husbands with regard to dietary habits. They also form as many acquaintances with members of other castes as do their husbands. Whereas a man may confine his inter-caste relationships to the "domain" of his office, particularly i f his wife maintains a traditional home l i f e , a working woman feels free to invite to her home, and to include i n her celebrations of calen-drical events, befriended colleagues regardless of their caste. 71. Thus, what Singer (1968: 438) refers to as the "compartmentaliza-tion" of conduct and norms between place of work and place of r e s i -dence appears not to characterize the behaviour of men whose wives work. The employed Indian woman is not "the stronghold of tradi-tion." In Chapter Two I have tried to show that vhile the varnas represented by my respondents have in common certain values, customs, and statuses, the j a t i s of the respondents retain traditions pecu-l i a r to the varnas of which they are a part. In comparison with their families of orientation, my respondents' families of procrea-tion pay l i t t l e attention to their j a t i s ' traditions pertaining to life-cycle events, and only abbreviated attention to traditions imbedded in daily routine. However, they f u l l y observe traditions pertaining to many calendrical occasions, and have universalized certain of these traditions so as to include members of different castes in the celebrations. I have suggested that while caste back-ground may affect the nature of traditional behaviour, and while family composition and type of marriage may be related to the ex-tent of change in that behaviour, women's employment appears to be a very significant factor influencing the patterns of change. In the concluding chapter to this thesis, I w i l l explore the pos-s i b i l i t y that the patterns of change in the observance of commun-ity tradition — patterns of modification and deletion on the one hand, and patterns of elaboration and universalization on the other — indicate the operation of modern values, and constitute part of the process of modernization. CHAPTER THREE MODERN LIVING IN AHMEDABAD: EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION As indicated i n Chapter Two, most of the j a t i s represent-ed in this study have long been associated with Gujarat's urban areas. For generations, their members have been accustomed to a monetary economy, to literary and cultural institutions, and to an awareness of social and p o l i t i c a l developments taking place out-side of Gujarat. In their l i f e - s t y l e s and i n their interpersonal relationships as well, members of these j a t i s have traditionally exhibited certain behavioural and attitudinal patterns which mem-bers of rural, agricultural communities now acquire as new, "modern" patterns, only after exposure to urban areas. Because their fami-l i e s have long been urbanized, the behaviour and beliefs of the present study's respondents are unlikely to change as a result of urbanization. But industrialization, a process in which inanimate sources of energy are u t i l i z e d for production and manufacture, i s a rela-tively recent phenomenon in Gujarat. Moreover, the social and pol-i t i c a l consequences of industrialization, consequences which I re-gard as aspects of the process of modernization, appear to have been delayed. In his history of Ahmedabad, Kenneth G i l l i o n (1968: 7) fo-cusses on the "limited correlation" between industrialization and modernization: "Ahmedabad's economic progress was achieved within a society which remained socially conservative and p o l i t i c a l l y backward" unt i l the F i r s t World War. Thus my respondents, with the exception of Nandini, were born into families that were urbanized but s t i l l adjusting to the 73. delayed consequences of I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The present chapter w i l l consider three areas of t h e i r adjustment: r e s i d e n t i a l pat-terns, household arrangements, and d a l l y r o u t i n e . In discussing each area of adjustment, I s h a l l t r y to assess the e f f e c t s of my respondents' employment upon t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and actions regard-ing the changes. Res i d e n t i a l Patterns Ahmedabad displays most of the features noted by Brush (1962) and Breese (1966) as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Indian c i t i e s . A densely populated old c i t y , with highly mixed land use and s o c i a l l y segregated r e s i d e n t i a l areas, contrasts with r e l a t i v e l y planned sub-urban areas, where land use i s s p e c i a l i z e d and r e s i d e n t i a l areas are l e s s segregated. But u n l i k e most of the c i t i e s r e f e r r e d to by Brush and Breese, Ahmedabad did not develop her suburban areas u n t i l the beginning of the twentieth century, when i n t e n s i f i e d i n -d u s t r i a l expansion, rather than the B r i t i s h presence, stimulated the transformation. Ahmedabad was founded i n 1411 A.D., when Sultan Ahmed Shah enclosed two square miles of land with "impregnable" w a l l s . O r i g i n a l l y , i n the middle of the western w a l l , overlooking the Sabarmati River, stood Bhadra Fo r t , centre for the Mogul municipal government. Although the c i t a d e l i t s e l f no longer stands, other areas remain e s s e n t i a l l y unaltered (see map, p. 74). Walking east-ward through the centre of town, one f i r s t encounters the main bazaar f o r dry goods and a r t i s a n s ' wares, then the c e n t r a l mosque, and f i n a l l y the main bazaar f o r food s t u f f s . On e i t h e r s i d e of t h i s p u b l i c area, but p a r t i c u l a r l y to the south, are c l u s t e r s of residential-cum-business b u i l d i n g s , or pols. 74. MAP Ahmedabad: Showing Position of Old Walls and Present Thoroughfares Legend: 1. Bhadra Fort 2. Bazaar of Dry Goods 3 . Mosque 4. Bazaar of Food Stuffs 5. Railroad Station I 75. Outwardly, the Ahmedabadi pol resembles European neigh-borhoods which grew up within medieval walled c i t i e s , such as Rot-tenberg in Germany. Three- to five-storey buildings, adjoining one another on two or even three sides, crowd along a labyrinth of narrow, unpaved alleys and cul-de-sacs. At the one or two entrances from the main road are gates, that formerly were locked at night, and latrines. At the center of the labyrinth, in an open area used for feasts and meetings, i s the pol well, now no longer used, and a small temple or shrine. Until recently, these communal fac-i l i t i e s were maintained by a system of fines, taxes on the sale of houses, and gifts from wealthy residents (Ahmedabad Gazeteer, 1879, cited in G i l l i o n , 1968: 25). Three basic features of pol l i f e — functional multipli-city, social homogeneity, and economic heterogeneity — changed significantly i n response to increasing industrialization and con-sequent pressures of population. Most obvious to the outside ob-server i s the shift from functional diversity, or highly mixed land use, to functional specialization. Formerly, in an Ahmedabadi pol house, an office or shop often occupied the front rooms of the ground floor, a storeroom or workshop was located behind or above, while the family's liv i n g quarters took up the top floors. Today, areas s t i l l referred to as pols tend to be residential areas, pre-dominantly. Some artisan groups continue to work in their homes, and Banias may have offices on the second or third floor, but enter-prises dealing directly with the public are, for the most part, no longer located in pols. The fathers of half the respondents con-ducted their business in the home, but none of the respondents' husbands do so. An interrelated set of factors stimulated functional specialization in the pols. On the one hand, industries were founded 76. to the north and northwest of the city's walls. Businesses associa-ted with mills found i t convenient to locate near them, and as r e s i -dential areas for m i l l managers and workers grew, members of artisan and serving castes l e f t the pols also. Furthermore, to encourage settlement beyond the walls, land prices were reduced, and new or expanding enterprises found i t economical to leave the pols. On the other hand, industries stimulated immigration and a rise in the birth-rate. The municipal government thought to a l l e -viate congestion by ploughing thoroughfares through the city (Gillion, 1968: 148). Displaced pSl residents crowded in with their relatives, increasing the already heightened demand for liv i n g quarters. The thoroughfares, accessible to the public and negotiable by wheeled vehicles, became centres of commercial specialization. Businesses that could not afford to s h i f t either to the suburbs or to the thor-oughfares closed completely. Thus, industrialization and the con-sequent pressures of population both "pushed" and "pulled" the place of business away from the place of residence. Only a fine l i n e may be drawn between the effects of i n -dustrialization and the process of modernization. The loss of fun-ctional multiplicity may i l l u s t r a t e this point. To the men of the pols, functional specialization meant higher overhead and a sharper division between family matters and business concerns. To women, i t meant greater independence and increased responsibility within the home, but at the same time a narrower range of personal exper-ience outside the home. And to children, sons in particular, i t meant a reduction of opportunity for the training i n , and i d e n t i f i -cation with, their fathers' occupations. The modern emphasis on individuality i s no doubt stimulated by numerous factors. The sep-aration of occupation from home-life very probably i s one of them. 77. Industrialization also affected the social homogeneity of pol l i f e . The original pT5\ consisted of members of a single j a t i , and occasionally a few members of serving castes, such as priests, carpenters, and barbers. As businesses l e f t the pol, homogeneity of j a t i could be maintained only at great cost to pol standards (cf. Morrison, 1969: 1-10). One of the few studies done on Ahmeda-badi pols contrasts the plight of one traditionally minded pol with that of one which adapted to modern needs (Doshi, 1968: 19-32). In the case of the latter, rules regarding the j a t i of residents were "danged" (i.e., ignored), and members of other j a t i s were welcomed. This pol flourishes today, while the one that maintained i t s tra-ditional regulations i s impoverished. On the other hand, as Doshi points out, the traditional p*o"l retains i t s co-operative and "warm or oppressive" coziness i n the urban environment, while In the more pragmatic pj5l_, "mere co-residence" has replaced the multifaceted j a t i relationships. From the perspective of pol residents, i t i s probably these intangible implications of social homogeneity and heterogen-eity that distinguish traditional urban l i f e from modern urban l i f e . Particularly for women who spend most of their time in the pol, the scarcity of fellow j a t i members In a modern pol permits freer be-haviour and more independent decision-making. Furthermore, while most relationships may be neutral, i n a heterogeneous pol there i s the possibility that close friendships w i l l develop between persons of different j a t i s . As two women of this study, Urmila and Kusum, point out, considerable learning takes place i n such circumstances. Ideas on child-care, cooking, and caste customs are exchanged. In other words, while functional specialization may narrow a woman's experience i n the pol, social heterogeneity may expand i t . The third feature of pol l i f e to change in response to industrialization was that of economic heterogeneity. Originally, 78, the pol housed j a t i members of varying economic status. Wealthier residents displayed more elaborately carved shutters and doors, and more expensive houshold furnishings. They held positions of p o l i -t i c a l power and economic prestige, and contributed substantially to the maintenance of communal f a c i l i t i e s and to the r e l i e f of the pol's destitute. This economic heterogeneity dissolved quickly as the pgls became congested, and alternative residential areas open-ed up beyond the walls. The standard of l i v i n g for pol residents deteriorated both absolutely and by comparison with the new sub-urban alternative. Wealthy residents l e f t the p*ols for several reasons. Some wished to be closer to their recently established mills or offices; others sensed a loss i n status. In the new, socially heterogenous pol, the position of sheth (leader) and the role of elders i n the pol pahch (the executive and j u d i c i a l body, which had been coter-minous with that of the j a t i ) no longer guaranteed power or pres-tige. In the suburbs, the e l i t e of the pols hoped to improve their l i f e - s t y l e and regain status. Their leaving not only deprived the pol of economic support, but of a source of pride as well. J a t i members remaining in the pols had a new goal: to get to the sub-urbs. However, there was never a general exodus from Ahmedabad's poXs, and even the i n i t i a l move was made hesitantly. Through years of famine, fi r e s , and plague, Ahmedabadls steadfastly refused to leave their p~oLs. Finally, the consequences of greater industrial-ization l e f t them no other alternative. In 1872, ten years after the founding of the f i r s t m i l l , there were 356 pols with an average population density of 52,435 persons per square mile, more than double that of London (Gillion, 1968: 25, 144). Thirty years later, when the f i r s t suburb was f i n a l l y founded outside the walls, there were 60,000 persons per square mile in the walled area. 79. The wealthy pol residents who f i r s t l e f t were m i l l owners. They bu i l t immense, three-storey bungalows near their mills north of the walls.18 These homes of twenty and twenty-five rooms are bu i l t around open courtyards, or chowks, and are surrounded by gardens in which stand servants' quarters, a well, and latrines. After the government lowered the price of land, coopera1-tive housing "societies," managed in much the same way as the pols from which their founders came, developed on the western banks of the Sabarmati. The societies are relatively spacious and well planned. Each area i s sub-divided into compounds, plots of various sizes enclosed by walls having a single entrance. Within the walls stand one or more bungalows, a tank, and latrines. Unlike the m i l l -owners' homes, there are no servants' quarters or gardens, and the five- to ten-room bungalows have only one or at the most two stories. The f i r s t societies, like the pols, were socially homo-geneous in composition. Although no pinch restricted the leasing of residences, decisions concerning the construction and ownership of bungalows had to meet the approval of elected representatives. Latrines and wells (eventually taps) were no longer communally owned, but the salaries of some servants, like the night watchman, were paid jointly. Unlike the pc>Ls, the societies served as r e s i -dential areas only, and the economic status of the members of any given society tended to be homogeneous. Ahmedabad's population i s s t i l l growing; i t s suburbs continue to proliferate. On the western banks of the Sabarmati alone, approximately twelve square miles are inhabited by some 250,000 people, compared to 500,000 in the two square miles of "Bungalow," an anglicized form of the Bengali word for house, i s used in Gujarat to refer to free-standing residential dwellings i n urban areas. 80. inner-city (Setya, 1968: 2). But the newer suburbs do not reflect the system that structured l i f e in the pols and older suburbs. In-stead of "Gusaparekh's Pol" or "Jain Society," new developments tend to be named after groups of professional people or after bus-inesses. Other areas are developed by unassociated real estate agents who place few, i f any, restrictions on the caste or occupa-tion of buyers. In the newer suburbs, compounds are smaller and contain only one bungalow, normally a one-storey structure without a chowk, or inner courtyard. The smaller size reflects the higher costs of land and construction, the lower income of the buyers, and possibly a changed expectation of family size and composition. None of the women in this study who owns a bungalow of her own choosing anti-cipates having daughters-in-law l i v e with her. Social differences between the old and new suburbs appear similar to the differences between the traditional and modern pols described by Doshi (see p.77). In the newer suburbs, people tend to know their near neighbors, but close friendships are formed s e l -ectively, with regard to personal preference rather than to caste. Respondents l i v i n g in a new society, or planning to move into one, praise i t s "free and friendly" atmosphere. Residents of the older societies, particularly ones which do not yet rent to members of other j a t i s , scorn the "lonely" l i f e led when one's neighbors are "strangers" and not caste fellows. From an economic point of view, the crucial division i n neighborhoods i s between pols and suburbs. But from a social per-spective, j a t i homogeneity or heterogeneity classifies both pols and suburbs as essentially either traditional or modern. Using the c r i t e r i a of geographical location (pol or suburb), and social 81. composition (mixed caste or single caste), I have categorized the past and present residences of my twelve respondents i n Table V (p. 82). Non-traditional factors appear to influence two aspects of the residential histories: the range of experience with various types of neighborhoods and the patterns of residential s h i f t s . In traditional society, geographical and social mobility i s not unusual for e l i t e members, but most of the population grows, multiplies, and dies i n circumstances very much like those into which i t i s born. The variety of economic surroundings experienced by the women in this study (Table V) i s one indication of the f l u -i d i t y of urban l i f e i n Gujarat today. Only Urmila, raised i n a well-to-do pol where her grandfather was sheth, has never lived beyond the city's walls. And everyone but Nandini, who moved from a v i l -lage to her husband's surburban bungalow, has experienced po"! l i f e . The social differences between traditional and modern neighborhoods are also known to most of the women through personal experience. Both the pols and the suburbs in which Champa and Aruna have lived are traditional, but the other women have resided i n modern, social-ly heterogeneous areas. Similarly, a l l the women except Kusum have lived i n traditional areas at one time or another. When the respondents' shifts in residence are analysed chronologically, general patterns emerge. For example, there i s evidence of a trend towards the suburbs. Only five of the twelve women lived i n suburbs in their childhood, but nine l i v e there now. Even more pronounced i s the s h i f t from traditional to modern neigh-borhoods. Only three women were raised in areas of substantially mixed j a t i composition, whereas today only three women do not l i v e i n such areas. Most noticeable i s the increased frequency of r e s i -dential moves. Nine women never shifted residence un t i l their mar-riage. Only three have not moved at least once since marriage. 82. Table V. LOCATION OF RESIDENCES AND SOCIAL COMPOSITION OF NEIGHBORHOODS Respondent During Childhood A f t e r Marriage At Present (1968-1969) Urmila (V) tP mP mP Aruna (V) tP t s tS (and tP) Nandini (V) R mS mS Kamala (B) tS mP mP Hansa (B) t s tS ( l a t e r mP) t s Kusum (B) mS mS ( l a t e r mP) mS Sharda (V) tP ( l a t e r R) tP ( l a t e r mP) mS Champa (V) tP t s tP M a l t i (V) tP mS mS Asha (B) tP ( l a t e r mS) mS mS Jaya (B) mS tP mS Janu (B) mS tP mS TOTAL tP 6 3 1 tS 2 3 2 mP - 2 2 mS 3 4 7 V - Bania B - Brahmin t - t r a d i t i o n a l homogeneous j a t i composition m - modern heterogeneous j a t i composition P - p o l r e s i d e n t i a l area of inner c i t y S - suburban r e s i d e n t i a l area beyond walls R - r u r a l area 83. Of the six respondents whose families of orientation lived in pols. only Asha's family moved "up and out" before her marriage. As Chapter I suggests, financial setbacks ruled out this p o s s i b i l i -ty i n most of the other cases. Rather, i t i s as wives that Champa, Aruna, Sharda, and Malti f i r s t resided in suburban areas. Champa and her husband, whose natal pols adjoin one an-other, moved to the suburbs after marriage, but returned to a t^X house five years later, "to be near the servant who was getting old." Perhaps, too, Champa's husband's family wished that he, their only surviving son, could be closer to home. But the return may also reflect a decision based on traditional Bania values. In their modest suburban bungalow, Champa and her husband could l i v e comfort-ably, but the expectations and demands of pol-dwelling relatives limited their a b i l i t y to save. In their pol house, Champa and her husband l i v e more frugally, i n accordance with the l i f e - s t y l e of those around them, but they are able to show bundles of savings bonds and stock certificates accumulated i n their sons' names. Re-calling the emphasis placed on t h r i f t and savings by Champa's hus-band's mother (Malti's mother, see pp. 15, 21), the decision to re-turn to the pol i s not surprising. Aruna also moved to an old suburb after marriage, to her husband's family's large bungalow. As more sisters-in-law came to reside thetQ however, the atmosphere became somewhat strained. At the same time, Aruna's parents became reconciled to the fact of her "love match". Increasingly, Aruna, her husband and children ate and slept with her parents. Today, their son v i s i t s with his ma-ternal grandparents on a more or less permanent basis, and i s join-ed by his parents and young sister- several days a week. Aruna and her husband can i l l afford their own separate bungalow, but resid-ing full-time with her parents would be "not our custom." They 84. therefore alternate between inner-city and suburban homes. Sharda and her husband f i r s t lived i n his family's pol house, but as in Aruna's case, a sister-in-law made the situation at home unpleasant. The couple moved to cramped quarters i n an-other pol, remaining there u n t i l they were able to build a modest bungalow four years later. They s t i l l do not v i s i t the husband's pol, but Sharda's mother-in-law v i s i t s them two or three days each week. Malti moved directly to a new suburb after marriage, and continues to li v e there with her husband's family. There are no inter-personal d i f f i c u l t i e s with in-laws, and Malti v i s i t s her natal pol with her daughter at least once a week. It i s interesting to note that five of the six women raised in pols are Banias, a fact that may reflect my non-random methods of selection; but other p o s s i b i l i t i e s deserve considera-tion. Whereas Bania enterprises frequently depend on proximity to markets, transportation f a c i l i t i e s , and related enterprises, Brahmins are more li k e l y to require only a local clientele for their professions. During British rule, as the l i f e - h i s t o r i e s of three respondents demonstrate, Brahmins frequently found govern-ment positions, and lived in suburbs with other government person-nel. Furthermore, there appears to be slightly less reluctance among Brahmins than among Banias to li v e as well as their means per-mit. If Brahmins can afford to l i v e beyond the walls, they tend to do so, whereas Banias tend f i r s t to save their extra earnings, then to invest them, and only thirdly do they spend them on im-proving their life-style. Possibly for several reasons, then, traditional pol l i f e was experienced primarily by the Bania respond-ents. 85. The general pattern wherein the Bania respondents moved from p5l to suburb after marriage may be related to their caste background, for Banias, more than Brahmins, stress hypergamy. Malti's arranged marriage illustrates this quite clearly, but the "love matches" happen to support the hypothesis just as well. Champa married Malti's brother, who could afford to move to the suburbs. Aruna married a man whose family already owned a bungalow. And Sharda, whose family had lived on charity since her father's death, married into a family which owned a pol house. Only Urmila, whose "unpractical" father had lost the family business, married a man whose economic circumstances were no better than her own. At least Malti, Champa, and Aruna got out of the pols by marrying up the economic hierarchy. As indicated above, the women who" started l i f e in suburbs happen to be Brahmins. Hansa and Kamala lived in traditional soc-iet i e s , but Kusum, Jaya, and Janu grew up i n areas of high social heterogeneity. Kusum's neighborhood was composed of Gujaratis and Maharashtrians of various j a t i s , many connected with the Gaikwad's court. The fathers of Jaya and Janu worked for the British govern-ment and were given the opportunity to buy bungalows with other gov-ernment personnel of comparable rank. Thus the Brahmin women, in contrast to the Banias, tend to have experienced modern suburban l i f e for longer and more formative periods of their live s , a fact to be considered with regard to household arrangements and daily routines discussed below. The general pattern of moving to the suburbs after hyper-gamous unions i s not illustrated by the Brahmin residential histor-ies. Indeed, when Kamala married, she l e f t her father's large bung-alow for a single floor in a pol house. Her case i s extreme in this and other respects, but the contrast with the hypergamous tendency 86. of the Banias i s illustrated by other Brahmins as w e l l . ^ Jaya married the son of a small cloth merchant and went to l i v e i n his family's pol house. Serious problems with her mother-in-law made her husband decide to separate from his family, f i r s t by l i v i n g on a different floor of the house, and later by moving to a small bungalow in a society developed for professors of his college. Janu's arranged marriage was to a man whose family lived in a pBl, but con-sidering her family's financial situation after her father's death, the match was one between equals. Again, conflict with in-laws caused the couple to move as soon as they could into a rented bungalow in an old suburb which had become heterogeneous. Hansa's arranged marriage took her from one traditional society to another. As in Janu's case, the match was between equals, although her husband's family suffered financial setbacks soon after her arrival. For eight years, while her husband worked in other c i t i e s , Hansa experienced l i f e in modern pols. Kusum's "love match" was also to a man of equal economic status, a fact considered fav-ourable by both families. She moved l i t e r a l l y next door, to the bungalow of her husband's family, but when her husband sought work in Ahmedabad, the couple was obliged to rent two rooms of a pol house. They found their quarters "too warm and somewhat unhealthy," and now rent the upper floor of a suburban bungalow. In summary, the above discussion illustrates how certain consequences of industrialization have affected residential patterns in Ahmedabad: Inner-city land use has become specialized, separa-ting business from residential areas. Inner-city residential areas ^Hypogamy i s not practiced by Gujarat's Brahmins, however, as evidenced by the attitudes of Asha's family towards her proposed marriage (see p. 16). 87. have become economically homogeneous, with most of their residents earning moderate to low incomes. Many inner-city pols and suburban societies have become socially heterogeneous, so that neighbors represent various caste communities. The residential histories of the twelve respondents i n -dicate the increasing prevalence of heterogeneous, suburban l i f e . In some cases, they also indicate that the specific reasons for moving between pol and suburb, or between traditional and modern neighborhoods, are themselves consequences of industrialization. For example, the jobs that Kusum's and Nandini's husbands found, and the practice of inter-office transfer which affected Hansa's husband, might not have occurred i n pre-industrial Gujarat. But1- other residential histories show that the sh i f t to modern suburban neighborhoods may take place in response to highly traditional features of Gujarati l i f e , such as hypergamous marriage among Banias, or conflict within the joint family. The response to intra-familial conflict i s particularly interesting. The pro-blem arises in a traditional social setting; a solution i s provi-ded by the morphology of an industrialized urban area; and the re-sponse to both the problem and the solution depends upon the strength of modern values in the minds of the people involved. Jaya's mother-in-law demanded that her son choose between his wife and herself. He chose his wife, and they l e f t . Sharda's sister-in-law demanded that Sharda leave her job and work as a "prop-er daughter-in-law" in the house. Sharda and her husband moved, and Sharda kept her job. Janu's father-in-law refused his son any position of authority i n the family business. His son left,-and started his own business. Only in traditional society would these problems be so extreme. Only i n an area affected by increasing 88. industrialization would these particular solutions be so readily available. And only to modern individuals would the value of a close husband-wife relationship, of an educated and employed woman, and of an independent occupation make the acceptance of the solu-tions so natural. Household Arrangements Consequences of industrialization may be seen not only in Ahmedabad's residential patterns but also i n the l i f e - s t y l e s of her residents. Below, I w i l l discuss standards of li v i n g i n relation to two indices: size and type of residence, and number and type of material possessions. I shall compare the women's present and past situations, and the circumstances of one woman in relation to those of another. No comparison with Western standards i s intended. As indicated in the f i r s t part of this chapter,'the size of accommodation has tended to decrease in recent years, both in pojs and in suburbs. In the p"o"ls, families that once occupied three-to five-storey buildings for business and residential pur-poses now share purely residential houses with other families. In the suburbs, the older, larger bungalows frequently house two or more unrelated families, and new, single-family bungalows tend to be relatively modest in size. The typical pol house never was spacious by comparison with the suburban bungalow, and today i t i s even less so. Of the four women who presently reside in p"ols, three of them occupy two-room quarters, including kitchens. Champa and her husband rent the ground floor of a small house. In their front room, about 10' by 14', they receive guests during the day and sleep at night. In the backroom, which i s about 10' by 8', one corner i s devoted to puja, one corner has a tap and i s used for bathing, and the walls are 8 9 . lined with cooking utensils and supplies. Kamala, her husband, their daughter, and her husband's sister have a similar pair of rooms on the second floor of their pol house. And Aruna's parents, with whom Aruna and her family spend much of their time, occupy two somewhat larger rooms i n the house they once occupied complete-ly . Among the po\ dwelling women, only Urmila enjoys more than a single l i v i n g room. In a converted government building, she, her husband, and their son,together with her husband's parents and sister, have four large rooms i n addition to a kitchen and a balcony which overlooks an inner courtyard. But li k e Champa and Kamala, Urmila and her family have private access to only one tap. Latrines are located at a distance, and are shared by several fam-i l i e s . None of the women presently l i v i n g i n pols expressed any objection to the size or characteristics of her quarters. Indeed, each appeared anxious that I realize the favorable aspects. Champa pointed out that she has both a front and back door for ventilation. Kamala considered herself fortunate to li v e near to both her school and her husband's business. And Urmila expressed appreciation of the courtyard balcony, where her son can play away from p"ol t r a f f i c . Objections to pol residence were voiced only by those wo-men who had since moved to the suburbs. Sharda, Jaya, and Janu, each of whom f i r s t lived in pol houses with in-laws, found the close quarters conducive to inter-personal conflict. As Jaya said of her mother-in-law and herself: "We were always meeting, and she was t e l l i n g me what I was doing, and we were not speaking for four-five days." Kusum, her husband, and their son lived happily together in two-room pol quarters, but i n retrospect they consider them to have been unhealthy. Similarly, Hansa enjoyed the years 90. with her husband i n a pol, but she feels "the a i r i s not good for children. They cannot play freely." Contentment with limited l i v i n g space i s neither "mere rationalization" nor i s i t "natural for Indians."^Q- Rather, ac-ceptance of one's circumstances i s a virtue emphasized both i n the Gita and i n Jain scripture. For women in particular, any expression of grievance reflects on the husband's a b i l i t y to provide. For these reasons I take as more revealing the comments of women whose husbands moved them from pol quarters to more spacious bungalows. Their remarks indicate that privacy, particularly conjugal privacy, and more hygienic surroundings are f u l l y appreciated, once they are available. Ahmedabad's suburban bungalows are more spacious i n terms of number and size of rooms, and also in terms of yard area. But in suburbs, as in pols, the average size of l i v i n g quarters has decreased since the f i r s t bungalows were built at the beginning of the century. Of the nine women presently residing in suburbs, five of them l i v e i n large, old bungalows, but onty one — Aruna — has access to a l l rooms of the bungalow. Even her access i s qualified, for one of the rooms i s allotted to each of the five brothers, their wives and children. Only the veranda, s i t t i n g room, kitchen, and puja room are used by a l l members of the family. Hansa's husband's family owns an equally large, old bunga-low, but they are obliged to l e t the ground floor. Upstairs, one 2°However, i t i s true that Gujaratis tend to interact with one another i n closer physical proximity than do, for example, English-men. Even i n spatial homes, men often s i t side by side to talk, and women tend to work together in one small area. 91. room i s used by Hansa and her husband, one by his parents, and one by his unmarried sister. Puja, which once took place i n a separate room, i s now performed in the kitchen. Kusum, Janu, and Nandini reside i n rented portions of old bungalows. In each case, their three- or four-member families occupy one or two rooms, plus a k i t -chen and bathing room. The area of their l i v i n g quarters i s less than that of Urmila's p'ol home, but they have compound yards and semi-private latrines. WHIe the older bungalows have proven either too expensive or too large for the joint families who built them, the newer homes tend to be smaller, one-family dwellings. Jaya, Asha, and Sharda live i n bungalows typical of the newer developments. Each has three rooms plus kitchen and bathing room. Only Malti resides i n a spa-cious, two-storied new bungalow. She, her daughter, and her hus-band, together with his parents, his brother, and his brother's wife, share seven large rooms and a kitchen. As Table VI (p. 92) shows, the average number of rooms per person ranges from one to one-quarter, excluding kitchens, bath-ing rooms, and verandas. In general, when the nuclear family has two rooms for i t s purposes, i t uses one as a bedroom and the other as a s i t t i n g and receiving room. This eliminates the need to dis-assemble and reassemble bedding each morning and evening, although mattresses not on bed frames continue to be removed during the day. Kusum and her husband choose to use their second room as a dining room, since i t adjoins the kitchen and i s too small for their four-poster bed. Furthermore, the bed i s their only piece of furniture, so i t occupies the central position i n their l i v i n g room. Families with a third room tend to use i t for dining. This Is considered a luxury, particularly i f chairs and table prevent the 92. Table VI SIZE AND ALLOCATION OF LIVING SPACE Respondent Number of Number of Urmila Aruna Nandini Kamala Hansa Kusum Sharda Champa Malti Asha Jaya Janu Persons 6 14 4 4 7 3 3 4 7 4 4 4 Rooms 4 kv 7 kbv 1 kb 1 k 3 kv 2 kbv 3 db 1 k 7 kb 3 kb 3 kb 2 kb Rooms per  Person .66 .50 .25 .25 .43 .66 1.00 .25 1.00 .75 .75 .50 Use of Rooms If More Than One receiving receiving, puja dining receiving, dining receiving, dining, Chn's bedroom receiving receiving TOTAL number of rooms used for receiving only: 6 for dining only: 3 for puja only: 2 for Chn only: 1 k - kitchen b - bathing room v - veranda, large balcony 93. room from being used for receiving. The dining room i s a Western idea, and those who do not have them consider them particularly unnecessary in modern, urban India, where gas and o i l burners make cooking a relatively cool, smoke-free operation. Similarly, k i t -chen counters, such as Malti and Asha have in their homes, are- re-garded by the other respondents, who work on the floor, as unnec-essary features installed only because the idea of them i s Western. Asha and her husband, who designed their own home, chosen not to separate the dining and cooking areas, but to give their children a separate bedroom. They were influenced i n this decision by Asha's sister, a c l i n i c a l social worker trained i n the United States. No other respondent sleeps apart from her children, re-gardless of the number of rooms available. Within their single room, Kamala's daughter sleeps with her father's sister, partly because "she [the daughter] is too inquisitive," and partly because few people ever sleep alone. Visiting friends or relatives spend-ing the night in the l i v i n g room are frequently joined by a l i k e -sexed member of the host family, as a courtesy. The reluctance to separate children's and parents' bed-rooms, and the attitude towards sleeping alone reflect traditional Indian customs. However, the traditional separation of husband and wife i s not practiced by these women, even those in joint households. Janu and Aruna sleep apart from their husbands,' but i n the same room. Janu's husband "wishes i t this way. He i s somewhat traditional." Aruna and her husband feel that their sleeping together "would create a bad impression" for their six-year-old son. But every couple has a separate room for themselves and their children where they can meet during the day, keep their belongings, and sleep at night. In summary, an examination of the spatial aspects of my re-spondents' liv i n g quarters reveals, f i r s t of a l l , a general decrease 94. i n s i z e between the women's childhood homes and t h e i r present ones. Secondly, the allotment of l i v i n g space r e f l e c t s a primary emphasis on the nuclear family u n i t . Third, a f t e r allotment of one room to each nuclear family, one extra room i s used f o r r e c e i v i n g , a second fo r dining, and only a t h i r d f o r puja. In so f a r as the t r a d i t i o n a l Gujarati family divides i t s working and sleeping areas between males and females, and reserves one room f o r gods, the women of t h i s study may be s a i d to u t i l i z e t h e i r more l i m i t e d household space i n more modern ways. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e of l i v i n g space and kinds of material possessions appears roughly correlated, as indic a t e d by Table VTI (p. 95). A l l women i n t h i s survey have i n t h e i r homes t h i n mattresses or p a l l e t s , low wooden s t o o l s , cooking and eating u t e n s i l s , and r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e s . These are t y p i c a l b a s ic f u r n i s h -ings for a Gujarati home, and although the standard of l i v i n g of the owner might be judged from t h e i r q u a l i t y , a d d i t i o n a l f u r n i s h -ings provide more obvious and more i n t e r e s t i n g c r i t e r i a f o r evalu-ation . The f i r s t piece of f u r n i t u r e purchased by a couple, i f i t i s not given them at t h e i r marriage, i s a t a l l , wooden wardrobe. Houses us u a l l y have neither c l o s e t s nor cupboards, so c l o t h i n g and personal belongings are ei t h e r hung on pegs and stored i n trunks, as i n Kusum1s home, or they are kept i n a wardrobe. Other pieces of f u r n i t u r e , except for the basics l i s t e d above, are considered les s necessary. Armchairs, couches, and e s p e c i a l l y d i ning room f u r -n i t u r e , depending on the circumstances under which they are acquired, appear to be valued p r i m a r i l y as status symbols. For example, Janu's f u r n i t u r e was purchased secondhand from a B r i t i s h c i v i l servant with whom her father had worked. Kusum's 95. Table VII SIZE OF LIVING SPACE AND PRESENCE OF MATERIAL POSSESSIONS Respon- Rooms per Western Style Radio Toys Books Other dent* Person Furniture* Urmila .66 C, A - - X tricycle (V) only toy Nandini .25 C, A X - - glass-topped (V) coffee table Hansa .43 B X X X glassware (B) Kusum .66 B,D - X - portable (B) fan Sharda 1.00 B,C,A,D X fis h tank (V) for god Champa .25 B - X - secretary (V) Malti 1.00 B,C,A,D X X air-condi-(V) tioning, rugs Asha .75 B,C,A,D X X X iron, record-(B) player Jaya .75 B,C X X X chest of (B) drawers Janu .50 C,A X X X Chn's cup-(B) boards TOTAL A - 6 7 7 5 B - 3 C - 3 B + C - 4 D - 4 *Aruna and Kamala are omitted due to lack of data. A - armchair(s) B - bed(s) C - chesterfield D - dining set X - item present 96. husband, an architect, made their dinner table because he could get the materials at nominal cost. But Nandini, Asha, and Sharda purchased their furnishings new. Considering the traditional Bania emphasis on savings and modest l i v i n g , these costly purchases may indicate a new emphasis on material possessions, an emphasis new to the Banias, Nandini and Sharda, i n particular. Not because they are Western i n style, but because the decision to purchase them contradicts traditional p r i o r i t i e s , the furniture indicates the influence of modern values. A radio, the second most popular item l i s t e d i n Table VII, i s too common among persons of lower income brackets to be considered a status symbol by these women. Rather, the radio i n -dicates a concern with social and p o l i t i c a l issues, beyond those of the immediate community. Some of the respondents listen to pro-grammes of devotional songs (bhajans), others permit themselves or their children to hear popular film music. But most of them men-tioned news broadcasts or special informative programmes i n partic-ular. For instance, Hansa finds she has no time for daily news-papers, but from the radio she can "find out what i s happening." Asha notes that her children are very much involved with themselves and their schoolwork, "but they w i l l l i s t e n to the radio i f we are listening." In contrast, the mothe is-in-law of Hansa and Malti show no interest i n radio except for bhajan hours, and Urmila's mother-in-law refuses to have a radio at a l l . Limited though my informa-tion i s , i t suggests that for several of the respondents, radio has a modern value and serves a modern purpose. The presence of toys other than household artifacts used as playthings does not appear to be related to the size of l i v i n g quarters or to the number of other possessions. Champa, whose home and furnishings are as limited as any considered here, purchases toys 97. for her sons. Her elder son participated i n a child-study project for which he played with various games. Champa reports he now "demands" toys to keep, and she realizes they are "practical for his education." Similarly, Asha's sociologist sister introduced toys to Asha's children; Jaya "learnt about toys, how they can teach child-ren" while in the United States; and Kusum and Hansa were persuaded by their training in psychology and education to purchase toys. The novelty of the idea l i e s i n the reason behind i t . The playthings are not presented to indicate fond indulgence, as in Malti's case; they are to help the child develop as an individual. As Hansa says, "Even i f they are broken, I don't mind. They provide more a c t i v i -ties. The essential thing i s that children should be self-sufficient. They should do for themselves. This i s the new approach." The pre-sence of toys may thus reflect a modern desire, not for material pos-essions, but for independence and i n i t i a t i v e in children. Their pre-sence reflects not the standard of li v i n g of the owners, but the latters' contact with and acceptance of principles of elementary ed-ucation and child psychology. The presence of books i s also unrelated to the size of l i v -ing space and the possession of other material goods. Rather, i t ap-pears related to the varna of the householder- Of the five women i n whose homes a significant number of books are found, four are Brahmin. The f i f t h woman, Urmila, i s married to a Brahmin. And the only Brah-min woman who does not have books in her home, Kusum, i s married to a Kshatriya. The sample i s far too small to permit any firm conclu-sions, but i t raises the possibility that while the radio i s u t i l i -zed by women of both varnas for modern purposes, books continue to serve their traditional users. 98. In summary, while the presence of material possessions corresponds roughly to the size of l i v i n g quarters, different items appear to reflect different values of the owners. Books may re-fle c t the traditional Brahmin value placed on literature. Toys i n -dicate an awareness on the part of the purchaser of their value for child development. Radio, depending on how i t is used, may serve to satisfy and expand.interest In'current;.social, political,'and academic issues. And new furnishings appear to reflect a sh i f t from the traditional Bania emphasis on saving to a modern emphasis on consuming. Modern Behaviour Patterns In Chapter Two, daily activities and special events were discussed in relation to the traditions of j a t i and sect. Below, I w i l l examine similar activities i n relation to the demands of modern industrialized society. One far reaching effect of indu-st r i a l i z a t i o n has been the introduction of the concepts of "fixed time" and "regular programme." Industrialization i s not so new to Ahmedabad that my respondents did not encounter these concepts i n their childhoods. But the impact of the concepts on their patterns of family l i f e has increased significantly i n several ways. As children, the women were not expected to do anything "by the clock" until they entered school. Of the twelve respond-ents, half of them started school at about age six; four went earl-i e r , to nursery school; and two of them — Asha and Jaya — stayed at home under private tutors un t i l the age of ten. By contrast, most of their own children started or w i l l start school at two and a half years of age.21 Several factors have helped to lower the 2 1 0 n l y Nandini's five year old daughter does not yet attend school: "In India we believe they should go at three years, but I had leave [for the birth of a second child]. At the end of four years we tried for fifteen - twenty days, but the staff was not good, and the aya i s here [for the second child]." 99. age of f i r s t school experience.22 The cost of nursery school edu-cation decreased in the 1950's, when the number of nurseries i n -creased. At about the same time, principles of educational psychol-ogy began to influence attitudes towards learning. Traditionally, learning was thought possible only when a child's oral comprehension and articulation were such that he could converse with adults. On these grounds, some elders of the women in this study feel that nurs-ery school i s an expense "without purpose." However, their daughters argue that the children get "primary learning" in how to "do for them-selves." For children in nuclear families residing separately, such as Janu's, nurseries "provide company." For children i n joint fam-i l i e s , Aruna points out, nurseries help them "get the idea to stay alone two - three hours." Because of the respondents' employment, the ava i l a b i l i t y of nursery schools, and the changed attitude towards them, are par-ticularly convenient. Indeed, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say whether the desire to work stimulated the acceptance of pre-primary education, or vice versa. In any case, the children of the respondents find themselves with a "regular programme" considerably earlier in l i f e than did their mothers. Once in elementary school, they are ex-pected to be i n the classroom at eleven o'clock, and to participate In scheduled activities u n t i l five o'clock. Kusum mentions "under-stand timings of school" as one duty for her son when he i s older. Aruna feels she i s "made most happy" i f her son "becomes ready at the proper time." Although tardiness and absenteeism are not system-ati c a l l y punished in the schools these children attend, an explana-tion i s demanded from the errant child or from the servant or parent who brings him to school. ^information regarding %he. development of pre-primary education in Ahmedabad was gathered from interviews with Janu, Shri Ishwarbhai Parikh of B. M. Institute, and Mrs. Ruth Cohen, an American who -started her own nursery school in Ahmedabad i n 1967. I 100. As working women, my respondents must also keep to a r i g i d schedule, a "fixed programme" which never regulated the activities of their female elders. After preparing and eating the morning meal, the respondents' mothers "tended to small household matters" or "cared for their hair, did some stitching and handicraft." Fol-lowing the afternoon rest, they took tea with their children and visited with other women u n t i l i t was time to prepare the evening meal. When on leave for childbirth, my respondents follow sim-i l a r routines. But when working, they must be at their jobs by nine or eleven o'clock, and most do not return u n t i l about five-thirty. Tardiness i s not punished, but punctuality i s expected. If delayed by transportation d i f f i c u l t i e s or a family c r i s i s , a woman w i l l inform her superior, not directly, but "through some means." Similarly, the respondents expect promptness from those with whom they work. It i s worth noting that i n anticipating ap-pointments with non-working women, I quickly adjusted to "Indian Standard Time," an adjustment which had to be unlearned when I started interviewing these clock-conscious employed women.^ 3 Hard work and long hours characterized Gujarati men's daily activities long before industrialization. But for many Brah-min and Bania men, their time was their own. The fathers of at least half the women interviewed could start and stop work each day ^Adherence to a "regular programme" and respect for a "fixed time" are often thought to be foreign to Indian behaviour and values. As Moddie (1968: 40) has complained: "We usually keep each other waiting. . . we do not carry out projects to a time schedule. . . we habitually squander time, add to cost, and delay returns on enorm-ous investments." While i t i s true that the women in my study show a great deal of patience in waiting for busses, servants, and friends, there i s no doubt that they and their husbands in their own behaviour demonstrate considerable promptness. 101. when they wished, and take holidays of their own choosing. Accord-ing to the life-histories related in Chapter One, many chose to spend most of their time at work, or away from home on business. By contrast, the husbands of most of my respondents keep regular hours dictated by their employers, but spend more time at home. No husband goes "out of station" for business; indeed, Champa's husband refused a better paying job because i t would have required travel. Most leave home about 9:30, some of them after their wives have l e f t , and they return between 5:30 and 8:00. Three husbands are able to come home for dinner and rest in the afternoon, and one of them — Kusum's husband — eats dinner alone with his son, since his wife cannot return u n t i l evening. The combined factors of early education for children, employment for women, and fixed working hours for men effectively reduce the amount of time which children spend with their mothers, but may increase the time they share with their fathers. The hours family members spend at home may be divided into religious a c t i v i -ties (Discussed in Chapter Two), leisure a c t i v i t i e s , which I w i l l discuss at the end of the present chapter, and household tasks. My respondents appear to divide household tasks into three cate-gories: cooking, personal duties, and servant's work. Cooking i s primarily the task of the mother of the family, and i t may be her only task. Others help to clean grain, cut veg-etables, and grind spices, but the actual combining of these ingre-dients i s performed by the mother. As children, my respondents and their sisters helped in the kitchen i f their family could not afford a cook, and later, sons' wives assisted. Several respondents recall that as very young children, they were permitted to take meals with their fathers, but after starting to help with the cooking at 102. about the age of seven, they waited to eat u n t i l after their father had finished. As mothers in their own households, most of the women do a l l the cooking, as their mothers did. Women in joint families — Hansa, Malti, and Urmila — s t i l l only help their mothers-in-law, and in these cases, fresh meals are prepared both i n the morning and evening. The men usually eat before the women, and young g i r l s — Hansa's daughter and Urmila's sister-in-law — are not expected to help i n the kitchen. For the women in nuclear families, one meal usually con-sists of left-overs. Wives and children eat together with the men, or even before them i f the men leave later i n the morning or re-turn quite late in the evening. Young g i r l s such as Asha's and Jaya's daughters help extensively with the cooking. Although only Kamala mentions that her husband helps i n the kitchen, the husbands of Kusum arid Jaya display considerable know-how on occasion. No sons, however, assist their mothers with the cooking. In describing other household tasks which they performed as children, or tasks which they request their own children to per-form, most of my respondents qualify their remarks with "after ser-vant l e f t " or "before we had a servant." The division between "per-sonal duties" and "servants' work" appears to vary, depending on how many servants the family has. In their childhood homes, eight of the twelve women had at least one full-time servant. Accordingly, their own responsibili-ties were quite l i g h t : Kusum, for example, had as her sole duty the gathering of flowers for morning puja. Hansa, Janu, and Nandini, with only part-time servants, were asked to put away clean vessels 103. or clean clothes, and to make their own beds. Sharda, whose family had no servant, washed dirty vessels and clothes, and even swept the floors. Today, in their own homes, Janu, Malti, and Champa have full-time servants, but die remaining nine women employ only part-time help. The part-time servants come each morning to sweep and swab the floors, washt he dishes, and launder a l l but personal items of clothing. The women oversee the servant's a c t i v i t i e s , put away bedding and clean clothes, and note purchases which they or their husbands, whoever •• works nearer to the bazaar, w i l l make in the af ternoon. In response to questions concerning a child's role in the performance of household tasks, most of the women describe chores their children are capable of doing, but few give examples of regu-lar personal duties. As in households where the mother is home a l l day, children in my respondents' homes are asked to help "according to their a b i l i t y . " For example, the young sons and daughters of Kamala, Malti, Kusum, Urmila, and Aruna may be asked to "fetch some item" or replace utensils, etc. Older children should put their dinner plates near the tap to be washed, and should help to fold bedding and saris upon request. Only Asha and Sharda assign fixed, regular duties to their children, and Urmila plans to do so when her son is older: "He should have experience, but not work and work. He should train how man is independent." Unlike mothers who are at home a l l day, my respondents frequently pressure their children for cooperation. For example, Sharda and Asha "scold" i f their children do not respond immediately when asked to help. Janu finds herself i r r i t a t e d i f her sons "are doing what I ask according to mood." Hansa and Aruna become impatient 104. and may administer "one or two blows" i f their children dally or "make play of their assistance." These women have a precise number of minutes i n which to complete their household tasks. They request cooperation not at their children's pleasure, but immediately. Just as they supplement the servants' efforts, they ask their children to supplement their own efforts as i t becomes necessary. While household tasks normally occupy the morning hours, evenings and week-end afternoons are devoted to leisure a c t i v i t i e s , often i n combination vith religious observances. In their child-hoods, my respondents spent their evenings studying, listening to religious stories, or sitting with their fathers' v i s i t o r s . Kusum, Jaya,and Malti occasionally went to the cinema, but the other women were forbidden both cinema and restaurants. Their mothers rarely went out in the evening except to temple, and almost never went any-where with their husbands. In their own homes today, my respondents u t i l i z e evenings and week-ends for more family-oriented a c t i v i t i e s . Only Janu's, Hansa's, and Nandini's husbands have close friends (bhal) who v i s i t them frequently in the evenings. The other husbands spend their time "only" with their wives and children. Together they s t r o l l i n the evenings, v i s i t friends and relatives, and go to parks and playgrounds on week-ends. These act i v i t i e s are "for the children's benefit." A few women express feelings such as Kusum's that "We are away too much. Except for work, we never leave him [their son]." On the other hand, Malti goes out with her husband two or three times a week, leaving her daughter at home. The behaviour of the majority of respondents f a l l s somewhere between these two extremes. The women devote most of their free hours to their children, but enjoy "the 105. rare hour of shopping" alone or the occasional movie with their husbands.24 They do not, however, spend hours drinking tea or chewing pan (a digestive like betel nut) with women from neighbor-ing pol houses or neighboring bungalows. Casual conversations with neighbors, in the street or across the compound wall, are pleasant but brief. And requests from friends and relatives for v i s i t s are often met with a sense of obligation, rather than in anticipation of a welcome diversion. In summary, an examination of the daily routines establish-ed by my twelve respondents indicates two basic ways in which the consequences of industrialization effect patterns of family l i f e . The greater emphasis on "fixed time" and "regular programme" obliges employed mothers to manage their household af f a i r s , and their child-ren's role in household affair s , with maximum efficiency. The same adherence to fixed working hours frees the husbands, i n the evenings and on week-ends, to be with their families. In general, my respond-ents spend less time in the home than did their mothers, and less time with neighbors, but more time with their husbands. In Chapter Three I have tried to show that changes i n r e s i -dential patterns, household arrangements, and daily routines of my respondents are, to a large extent, responses to delayed consequences of industrialization. The general increase in residential mobility, the trend away from inner-city pols towards suburban societies, and the greater frequency of residence in socially heterogeneous neighbor-hoods are at least f a c i l i t a t e d by consequences of industrialization. 24A11 the women except Nandini go to the cinema several times a year. Asha permits her children to go, although she tries to "make them aware of the bad features" of certain films. Hansa and her husband take their daughters with them, but recently they have be-come concerned that the younger daughter "behaves like a film star after viewing." 106. S i m i l a r l y , the decrease i n s i z e of l i v i n g space and the increase i n number and v a r i e t y of material possessions r e f l e c t the higher cost of l i v i n g and the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of consumer goods, r e s p e c t i v e l y . P a r t i c u l a r l y the r e g u l a r i t y and punctuality characterizing the behav-iour of my respondents and t h e i r f a m i l i e s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the emphases on f i x e d time and regular programme introduced by i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n . The caste background of the respondents appears more s i g -n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the respondents' previous l i f e - s t y l e s than to t h e i r present ones. For example, most Bania respondents grew up i n pols where t h e i r fathers could be close to transportation f a c i l i -t i e s and entrepreneurial centres, while most Brahmin respondents were raised i n suburbs where t h e i r fathers had l o c a l c l i e n t e l e f o r t h e i r professions, or housing provided by the government f o r which they worked. Today, one Brahmin and two Bania respondents reside i n pSls. S i m i l a r l y , most of the Banias' f a m i l i e s of o r i e n t a t i o n l i v e d modestly, regardless of t h e i r income, i n order to accumulate savings, while the Brahmin f a m i l i e s of o r i e n t a t i o n tended to l i v e according to t h e i r means. In t h e i r f a m i l i e s of procreation, a l l sspondents with the exceptions of one Bania — Champa — and one Brahmin — Janu — d i s -play t h e i r wealth i n the form of consumer goods.25 Only the pre-sence of books i n Brahmin homes, and th e i r s c a r c i t y i n Bania homes, d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the women's present l i f e - s t y l e s i n accordance with t h e i r caste background. However, i n the concluding chapter to t h i s t h e s i s , I w i l l examine the p o s s i b i l i t y that the d i f f e r e n t reasons given by the respondents f o r changes i n t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e s do corre-spond with differences i n t h e i r caste background. The women's employment, rather than determining changes 25ihe t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on saving among Banias may i n part be due to the f l u c t u a t i n g nature of t h e i r income, based as i t i s on cycles i n business and economy. The s h i f t to consuming would be understood to accompany the s h i f t from independent business to more stable, s a l a r i e d p o s i t i o n s . 107. i n l i f e - s t y l e , appears to i n t e n s i f y and hasten them, f o r at l e a s t three reasons: i t provides extra income, demands the women's time, and exposes them to new attitudes and a c t i v i t i e s . The extra income provided by the respondents' employment f a c i l i t a t e s s h i f t s i n residence and a c q u i s i t i o n of material posses-sions. Sharda, Jaya, Janu, and th e i r husbands wished to leave the husbands' f a m i l i e s ' homes because of interpersonal c o n f l i c t , and they were able to do so because of the extra incomes. Kusum, Asha, Sharda, and t h e i r husbands desired c o s t l i e r dwellings i n suburban areas, and acquired them by saving the women's earnings. A l l of the respondents, secure i n the knowledge that both they and t h e i r husbands enjoy s a l a r i e d p o s i t i o n s , f e e l free to l i v e according to t h e i r means. Unemployed women and t h e i r husbands might wish to es t a b l i s h separate residences, to move to suburban bungalows, and to acquire new consumer goods, but they would not be able to do so with the confidence and ease of employed women and t h e i r husbands. The demands which employment makes on a woman's time i n -t e n s i f i e s the effects which the concepts of f i x e d time and regular programme have on her and on members of her family. For example, most c h i l d r e n i n urban India must adhere to a school schedule, but the c h i l d r e n of employed women, e i t h e r because t h e i r mothers f e e l they must work, or because t h e i r mothers want to work, may be sent to school at a p a r t i c u l a r l y early age.26 S i m i l a r l y , most employed men i n urban India have fixed working hours and work weeks around which t h e i r f a m i l i e s plan other a c t i v i t i e s . But f a m i l i e s i n which ^ A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i n so f a r as e a r l i e r schooling i s considered desirable f o r the child, a mother may seek employment to a l l e v i a t e boredom and s a t i s f y a need for purposeful a c t i v i t y . None of my r e -spondents, however, gave t h i s reason f o r taking a job. 108. both husband and wife work have fewer hours to spend on household chores and leisure a c t i v i t i e s . These hours must be carefully or-ganized and eff i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d , and children's prompt cooperation is demanded out of necessity. The exposure to new attitudes and modes of behaviour given women by their employment may increase the rate at which consequences of industrialization affect their families. Women employed outside the home may acquire a taste for new varieties of consumer goods whfch they see in the homes of colleagues whose li f e - s t y l e s d i f f e r from their own. They may develop an interest in learning more about the larger community in which they work, an interest which can i n part be satisfied through listening to news broadcasts and education-a l programmes on the radio. Women's employment familiarizes them with inter-caste settings, and i t may even predispose them towards socially heterogeneous neighborhoods. Finally, women who work out-side the home and take meals at their place of work may be less re-luctant to enjoy leisure activities outside the home, such as going to the cinema or restaurant. Consumer goods, radio and cinema, and inter-caste neighborhoods are available to most middle class families of urban Gujarat, but the extent to which they affect fam-i l y l i f e may depend on the mother's readiness to accept them — a readiness increased by exposure to the larger community of which they are a part. Thus, the former li f e - s t y l e s of ny respondents were i n part determined by the caste a f f i l i a t i o n of their families of or-ientation, and their present li f e - s t y l e s appear to be influenced by consequences of industrialization, an influence augmented by the women's employment. In the concluding chapter to this thesis, I w i l l evaluate the changes made between past and present l i f e -styles i n terms of my c r i t e r i a of modernization. CHAPTER FOUR INTRAFAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF EDUCATED AND EARNING WOMEN The nature of interpersonal relationships among members of a family affects a l l aspects of family l i f e . It determines the s p i r i t with which community traditions are observed or modified. It influences the effect which the acceptance or avoidance of a modern l i f e - s t y l e has on the family unit. To understand the atmos-phere i n which other patterns of family l i f e are found, I w i l l describe i n the present chapter the attitudes and behaviour charact-erizing the patterns of interaction among members of my respondents' families. I w i l l note variations i n the patterns, and seek to iden-t i f y correlated variations i n the women's caste a f f i l i a t i o n , educa-tional background, and other factors suggested by analysis. Fin-a l l y , I w i l l note any apparent relationship between the women's employment and their patterns of intrafamilial interaction. My questionnaire (Appendix B) was designed to e l i c i t i n -formation concerning socialization methods and principles. Much of my data therefore pertains to the relationship between mother and child. But i n answering my questions, the women frequently r e l a -ted their behaviour as mothers to their relationships with other members of the household. Since my observations are not limited to the women'8 a c t i v i t i e s as mothers, I w i l l include i n the present discussion of their interpersonal behaviour their relationships as wives, in-law^ mothers, and married daughters. I never directly questioned a respondent about her rela-tionship with a particular family member. Nor did I ask my respon-dents what they thought the traditionally ideal relationship was. Rather, I tried to e l i c i t personal ideals by asking, for example, I 110. "Please give ne your ideas . . . How should a wife be to her husband?" The lack of deviation between my respondents' personal ideals and the traditional ideals described i n most literature on India sur-prised me. Only by observing the women as they interacted with others, and by asking the particulars about decision making, d i f f e r -ences i n opinion, etc., did I realize how significantly Interpersonal behaviour may vary from the traditional ideal. The Husband-Wife Relationship The subordinate position of women vis-a-vis their husbands is generally acknowledged i n India. Ancient texts such as the Manu Smrjti, and popular folklore such as the Ramayana, represent mortal females as vulnerable beings, totally dependent on men: on their fathers when young, on husbands when grown, and on sons when old. Considered both physically and emotionally weak, a woman must con-centrate what energies she does possess on keeping her failures of omission from degenerating into failures of commission. Her thoughts should be devoted to her husband and his greater happi-ness. Her act i v i t i e s should f a c i l i t a t e his a c t i v i t i e s and those of his parents. Traditionally, loyalty to the husband In thought, word, and deed entails unquestioning compliance with his decisions and obedience to his commands. Indeed, the loving and dutiful Gujarati wife i s likened to Sita, who worshipped her husband, Ram, as Lord and master. Two aspects of the traditional wife's position reward such subservient and selfless behaviour. I n i t i a l l y , when her hus-band i s i n his second Stage of Li f e , that of the Householder, a wife plays an indispensable role i n his efforts to f u l f i l l the Householder's Duties (grhastha dharma). She must assist him i n 111. his rituals If the gods, ancestors, and riahis are to be satisfied. She must be a gracious and prudent hostess i f her husband is to meet his duties as host. And she must bear sons. The wife who fai t h f u l l y aids her husband i n f u l f i l l i n g grhastha dharma may win the respect and appreciation of her natal family, her in-laws, and her husband. Selfless wifely behaviour i s again rewarded when the husband retires from the worldly l i f e of Sensual Pleasure and Mat-e r i a l Pursuits (kairra and artha). He may invite his wife to accom-pany him in the third Stage of Life, that of the Hermit, or he may leave her i n the care of sons. In the latter situation, a woman enjoys a position of prestige and relative power. In the former, she goes with her husband not as a servant, but as a companion, or saatl. In giving their own ideas about the ideal relationship between husband and wife, few of my respondents modified the tradi-tional expectations concerning a wife, but a majority of them sug-gested non-traditional roles for the husband. The key term i n the personal ideals relating to a wife's behaviour i s "adjust." Nandini feels that, above a l l else, a wo-man should adjust her ideas to those of her husband. Kusum states that this should be done for the husband's happiness, even i f the wife has opposing ideas. But Janu remarks that a wife should re-spect her husband by sharing his ideas, not by "ri g i d l y obeying" them. Urmila'8 reply hints at what a Westerner might term feminine v i l e : a woman should love her husband and adjust to his wishes, for "the husband w i l l follow after the wife gives i n . " Besides Urmila, Hansa and Sharda also mention that a wife should be loving and affectionate. Malti and Aruna emphasise a wife's i 112. duty to f a c i l i t a t e her husband's work and pleasure. Only Champa expresses the Idea that a wife should be "l i k e a saati," or compan-ion, to her husband. Among the personal Ideals concerning a husband's behaviour towards his wife, the key term i s "interest." Champa, who feels that a wife should be a aaafrj, believes that a man should i n turn show keen interest*in his wife's a c t i v i t i e s . A married couple should be "l i k e partners." But other women, who fe e l wives should adjust to their husbands, agree with Champa that men should show interest i n their wives' affairs by "enquiring," "helping," and "praising." Three respondents — Urmila, Hansa, and Malti — add that husbands should be loving and affectionate. In a more traditional vein, Kamala and Malti mention that a husband should be a good provider. And Sharda states only that he should be f a i t h f u l . Thus, while the respondents generally agree that wives should behave more or less i n the traditional manner, most suggest that husbands should recognize and appreciate their wives to an extent not demanded by tradition. The actual behaviour which I observed between husbands and wives, and examples of Interaction described by the respondents, i l l u s t r a t e the extent to which husband-wife relationships may vary from traditional and personal ideals, and how much they may vary from one another. Husband-wife interaction, at least i n India, i s probably the most d i f f i c u l t type of interaction to witness or to describe. But from interviews and observations, I find that the relationships of the couples i n this study f a l l into three general categories: romantic, friendly, and neutral or negative. By "romantic" I mean affectionate behaviour and attitudes t 113. Indicated by praise, solicitude, charity, and expressions of gr a t i -tude between spouses. A wife's actions and attitudes i n a romantic relationship resemble traditional patterns to a large extent. She conscientiously tends to her husband's needs, prepares his favourite dishes, and listens attentively when he speaks. But a husband's behaviour i n a romantic relationship goes beyond the traditional demands for economic provision and socio-religious supervision. Below, I describe b r i e f l y the interaction of the four couples whose relationships I consider romantic. Kamala and Aruna describe their husbands as "devoted" and "very loving." Both praise their husbands' understanding and "flexible nature" with regard to child-rearing and household f i -nancing. The husbands, particularly Aruna's, praise their wives' a b i l i t i e s to cope with both home and office work, and they object to the women's confessions to me of temper or mis-management. Dur-ing one interview, Aruna's husband announced that the next day was their tenth wedding anniversary, and that he planned to take his wife on an outing.27 Asha and Urmila appear to have very mature but equally romantic relationships to their husbands. Praise for and defense of one another's behaviour i s mutual between husband and wife. There i s also indication of sympathy for the wives, and of appre-ciation of this sympathy. In Asha's case, her younger sister and only sibling i s unmarried at age thirty, a fact which disturbs Asha to the point where she may weep when the issue i s discussed. Her husband's efforts to comfort her, and his personal concern about the problem, constitute the most overtly affectionate behaviour between husband and wife that I witnessed in Gujarat. In Urmila's case, she had given birth, after prolonged and d i f f i c u l t labour, to twins, one of which had died. In relating this experience to 27Traditionally, a wedding anniversary i s not noted u n t i l a man retires from the Householder Stage of Li f e , when he is congratulated on how-ever many years of marriage he has enjoyed. 114. me, she reiterated several times how much loving and understanding support her husband had offered and continues to offer In times of need. While the behaviour of wives In romantic relationships resembles that described by traditional sources, the interaction between couples having "friendly" relationships resembles the inter-action between close male friends i n Gujarat. Both the "friendly" marital relationship and the relationship between non-blood "brothers" (bhaibandh, l i t . : brother bound), involve comradely behaviour indica-ted by unself-conscious togetherness, a mutual give and take of ideas, and an eager interest In the other's independent a c t i v i t i e s . At least two married couples, and possibly four, interact i n a bhaibandh manner. Jaya and her husband exhibit something close to a joking relationship. They tease one another about short-comings and per-sonal differences, and i l l u s t r a t e these to third parties by t e l l i n g humourous anecdotes. On one occasion only, when Jaya suffered from a serious infection of the breasts, did her husband's troubled con-cern over-ride his customary flippant manner. Theirs i s the only such marital relationship I encountered, and i t may i n part be due to their having spent a year together at a university i n the United States. Champa and her husband are, as Champa says husband and wife ought to be, " l i k e partners." They discuss things freely with each other, regardless of who is present, and they act as a team in dealing with their children or in preparing for an outing. Champa, more than any other woman in this study, shows no sign of deference to her husband; nor does he assume a protective or authoritative a t t i -tude towards her. They appear to be each other's best friends. 115. Kusum's and Hansa's marriages combine "romantic" and "friendly" behaviour. Kusum and her husband have known each other since childhood, and they continue to relate to one another as comrades in discussions and in a c t i v i t i e s . Hansa and her husband have had a "very happy" twelve years since their arranged marriage, and have worked out a give-and-take relationship which leaves each of them equally independent of, and dependent on, the other. But Kusum, primarily i n her comments, and Hansa in her behaviour, ex-press deferential and even worshipful attitudes towards their hus-bands. They praise the latters' "loving nature," and are, as Hansa says, "greatful to God" for giving them such husbands. In the positive marital relationships, either the women behave i n a traditional manner and their husbands i n an equally loving, non-traditional manner, or both act as do bhalbandh male friends. But in the three marriages which I term "neutral" or "negative," the husbands behave in a traditional manner, while their wives manifest everything from comprehensive formality to suppressed h o s t i l i t y . Since there is no discussion of the "ideal negative re-lationship" i n traditional sources, I can only suggest that the be-haviour and comments of the women whose marriages are neutral or negative are traditional i n so far as they do not suggest divorce or separation, but a minimalizatlon of husband-wife interaction. Malti's relationship with her husband i s a neutral one. She has been married "only a short time," three years. Her husband "keeps busy" i n his father's m i l l , while she i s occupied with their young daughter, about whom her husband "knows very l i t t l e . " The couple goes out together, to friends' homes or the cinema, two or three times a week. Their interaction on these occasions seems pleasant, but as formal as that of couples during their engagement. 116. Janu, on the other hand, has been married seventeen years. She and her husband are f u l l y occupied with their careers, and i n the home "each does his duty." In the presence of her husband, Janu seems reluctant to discuss her school a c t i v i t i e s , or the be-haviour of her younger son about which she and her husband disagree. The atmosphere is not unpleasant, but somewhat strained. Sharda and her husband have the least positive relationship of a l l couples observed. They disagree on matters of child-rearing, purchasing, and socializing. At one time, according to Sharda, their differences of opinion were vocalized, but now she "keeps mum" except when " i t becomes too much." Sharda blames her unhappiness not on her husband, but on the fate which she feels has coloured her entire l i f e . I find the relationship between Nandini and her husband most complex and most interesting. The husband, although he tends to be dogmatic i n his opinions, generally acts in a friendly manner towards his wife. She behaves in a romantic way, while her comments indicate a certain amount of disappointment or confusion. For ex-ample, her husband came home one evening, sprawled on the chester-f i e l d , and talked on at length about an incident at the office. Nandini sil e n t l y brought him a glass of water, prepared his tea and snacks, and sat down to li s t e n . The husband's close friend, his bhalbandh, came, and the husband repeated his story i n the same tone of voice. Later the topic shifted to the husband's guru, who had produced a ring out of thin air the previous week and had presented i t to the husband with the advice that he should find a new job. In referring to this evening on another occasion, Nandini said i n an almost questioning way that she does not understand why such i n c i -dents as the one at the office occur nor why her husband puts so much faith in the guru. If her relationship to her husband were I I 117. like that of a bhalbandh friend, she would probably ask him about his assessment of these issues. If her feelings were negative, she might express doubt to others about his judgment. But her romantic concept of their marriage and of herself as wife prevents her from questioning anything except the motives of the office colleagues and the guru. The similarities between the personal Ideals of the women and the actual husband-wife behaviour suggest that most of the women enjoy marital relationships which they consider satisfactory. Certain personal ideals, for example Sharda's assertion that a husband should simply be f a i t h f u l , may represent an accommodation to personal ex-perience and reality. But most of my respondents' ideals seem to refer to the relationship thought best for a l l marriages, as well as to the relationship achieved by the women and their husbands specif-i c a l l y . A l l the women except Champa believe wives should behave i n the manner prescribed by tradition, and a l l of them except Champa and Jaya do behave traditionally as wives. Similarly, a l l except Sharda and Malti express non-traditional ideals for a husband's behaviour, and a l l husbands except Sharda's, Malti's and Janu's act in non-traditional romantic or friendly ways. While personal ideals and the nature of actual relation-ships depend primarily on the individuals involved, oneother factor deserves mention. During the informal conversations preceding the ad-ministration of the questionnaire, the f i r s t fact volunteered by each woman about her marriage concerned i t s origin as a "love match" or as an arranged marriage. The three women whose marriages were arranged — Janu, Hansa, and Malti — consider the procedures to be customary for their communities and acceptable to themselves, given the intelligence and sensitivity of the elders who did the match making. Each of the nine women who made love marriages considers the action to be most unusual for her community, and each, except for Kusum 113. and Champa, feels that her decision to marry was a particularly weighty one. But although my respondents categorize their marriages ac-cording to the origin of the match, a factor more relevant to the husband-wife relationship may be the nature and extent of each couple's interaction before marriage, as determined by parental approval or disapproval of the match. As Table VIII (p. 119) shews, what I term roaantic behaviour characterizes five of the six long-awaited love matches, while friendly behaviour is associated with 28 four of the six matches made with l i t t l e or no opposition.*° The circumstances under which disapproved courtships take place help to explain how romantic marital relationships result. Asha, Urmila, and Nandini each waited almost five years for parental consent to marry. Urmila's elders f e l t that her pro-posed out-of-caste marriage would jeopardize her younger sister's chances for a proper match. While waiting for her sister's marriage to be arranged, Urmila supported her family financially. Once the sister had been married and the eldest brother had found a job, Urmila's parents "saw the good nature" of her fiance and consented to the marriage. In Asha's and Nandini's cases, consent eventually was given because the parents "saw my misery" or "loved me too [so] much." A Westerner might ask i f the parents' recognition of misery or expression of love could not have occurred earlier. He might also ask why the 2 8 i n her study of 300 working women in Delhi, Kapur (1970: 57) found that the percentage of well-adjusted marriages was considerably higher where parents of both spouses had given wholehearted consent. Since she does not differentiate between "romantic" and "friendly" marriages, her conclusions would not necessarily contradict my suggestions. 119. TABLE VIII PARENTAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS PROPOSED MATCH AND NATURE OF MARITAL RELATIONSHIP Respondent Parental Attitude Towards Match Urmila approval after 4-5 years Aruna disapproval; elopement after waiting 4 years Nandini approval after 4-5 years Kamala disapproval; elopement after waiting 2 years Hansa arranged match Kusum immediate approval Sharda disapproval; elopement after waiting 4 years Champa immediate approval Malti arranged match Asha approval after 4-5 years Jaya parents not informed Janu arranged match Hu-Wi Relationship  After Marriage romantic romantic romantic romantic friendly friendly negative friendly neutral romantic friendly neutral SUMMARY TABULATION Parental  Approval of Match Delayed or  Never Given Immediate or Match Arranged Hu-Wi Relationship  Romantic Other 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 120. young couples waited as long as they did for permission which might never have been given. One answer may be that both Nandini and Asha, and their parents, were a l l but Immobilized — by traditions on the one hand, and by personal desire on the other. The parents, for the sake of their forefathers, their own status, and that of their posterity, were obliged to marry their children well — within the caste and within a certain economic range. Furthermore, at least Asha's parents sincerely believed that she would be unhappy, married to the poor and familyless man she had chosen. But the parents could not arrange alternative marriages without their daughters' consents. To have done so would not only have been viewed as old-fashioned and harsh by their peers, i t would also have risked their daughters' 29 happiness and even their lives. For their part, Nandini and Asha f e l t they could not violate the wishes of elders who had always given them "as much as they could," or, as Asha says, "everything." Neither woman saw her attachment to her fiance as an act of defiance or as an experiment with Western romantic behaviour. It was, to each, a unique and i r -revocable relationship, regrettable only i n the anguish i t caused the parents. Elopement, therefore, was not discussed. Instead, what can only be described as non-violent, passive resistance was brought to bear. For five years, Asha and Nandini "could not eat well," but neither could Nandini's mother. A silence pervaded both households as the young women "kept mum," while Asha's mother re-lated sadly how sleepless and despondent Asha's father had become. Ultimately, consent was given when the parents had done their best ^St o r i e s of young women who commit suicide because of thwarted love or unhappy marriages abound i n Gujarat. They usually refer to "long ago" or to rural areas or to other castes, but they are part of these women's thoughts. 121. to dissuade, and their duty to marry their daughters and secure their happiness became their .primary concerns. For Aruna, Sharda, and Kamala, similar waiting periods did not result as satisfactorily. The adamancy of Aruna*s parents is somewhat d i f f i c u l t to understand, for they, l i k e Asha's and Nandini's elders, had always indulged the wishes of their daughter. Sharda's elders, on the other hand, had opposed their daughter's every move towards "progressive" behaviour, from the wearing of frocks to the writing of the S. S. C. exam. And Kamala's father had consistently displayed intolerant and violent attitudes toward independent behaviour, to the point of disowning his own son. Kamala waited only two years before being married i n a c i v i l cere-mony. But Aruna and Sharda waited four years u n t i l they "lost a l l hope" of approval. Romantic relationships may "incubate" during the years of patience, faith, and semi-martyrdom which couples making disapproved matches must endure. My respondents' histories of thwarted love re-semble romantic tales of Indian folklore, and their behaviour to-ward their husbands in marriage continues to follow traditional ro-mantic patterns. Friendly relationships, on the other hand, may dev-elop when couples know one another over long periods of time without parental opposition. Kusum and Champa grew up next door to their future husbands, and their proposed marriages met with immediate approval. Jaya'8 parents did not even know of her relationship to her future husband u n t i l i t had developed for several years at a university. ~30 j n g e n e r a l , i t appears that romantic marital r e l a -tionships are preceded by years of parental opposition to the matches, 3%ansa and her husband interact i n the friendly, bhaibandh manner after twelve years of a successful, arranged marriage. 122. while friendly marital relationships follow years of unopposed i n -teraction between fiancees. How do the educations and the earning positions of the respondents influence their relationships with their husbands? A l l the women hold degrees comparable to those of their husbands, and four surpass their husbands i n education: Janu had only her S. S. C. when her marriage was arranged, but she earned two degrees after the birth of her sons. Hansa and her husband were matched as "equals i n education," but during their three-year engagement, Hansa got a se-cond degree. Aruna pursued an M. A. before leaving her family of orientation, and Kamala earned her B. Ed. in order to help support her family of procreation. With the possible exception of Janu's husband, no hus-band displays a negative attitude towards his wife's academic achieve-ments. The husbands of Nandini, Champa, Malti, and Sharda regard their wives' educations matter-of-factly, but the other seven hus-bands refer to their wives' accomplishments with varying degrees of pride and pleasure. Of course, "pride and pleasure" i s not the same as intellectual appreciation. In spite of the fact that three women — Asha, Champa, and Jaya — had majored i n the same fields of study as their husbands, only Asha and Kamala indicate that they ever discuss books, current a f f a i r s , or other academic issues with their husbands. At least overtly, a wife's education appears to be a source of pride rather than a basis for communication. On the other hand, since five of my respondents met their husbands-to-be at college, higher education may offer opportunities for the estab-lishment of relationships. Furthermore, during informal conversa-tions with my respondents and their husbands, I noted that a l l except Nandini contributed to discussions on various p o l i t i c a l , economic, and social issues. 123. Although several women surpass their husbands i n educa-tion, none holds an occupational position or earns a salary superior to her husband's. Indeed, a l l the women except Janu, who i s p r i n c i -pal of her own school, are engaged in "service": the Brahmins serve as teachers or social workers, and the Banias, with the exception of Malti, who teaches, serve as clerks or assistants in offices. In contrast, only Hansa's and Champa's husbands, who are assistants in banks, hold less than managerial or professional positions. No woman expresses a desire for, or an expectation of, promotion. But I am unable to say whether this i s due to a reluctance to do better than their husbands, or to a r e a l i s t i c assessment of the opportuni-ties for women, or to the Influence of the Gita's doctrine of con-tentment (see pp. 52, 90). Their salaried positions do not guarantee the women a voice in the financial decision-making of the household. Only three women — Asha, Kusum, and Jaya — share the problems of household economics with their husbands, while four women — Urmila, Hansa, Malti, and Sharda — are not consulted at a l l . The extent to which wives participate i n the decision-making appears unrelated to the nature of the husband-wife relationship. For example, since wives having romantic relationships tend to behave in the traditional manner, i t might be hypothesized that they would not be involved in money matters, yet Asha and her husband work out both short-term and long-term budgets together. Similarly, one might expect couples having friendly relationships to cooperate on financial matters, but Champa i s only consulted (often, I believe, at her own i n s i s t -ence) . Rather than the nature of the marital relationship, the independent variable appears to be the presence or absence of the husband's elders. A l l but one of the four women who are excluded from financial decision-making li v e jointly with (heir husband's 124. elders. And a l l but (ne of those consulted l i v e In nuclear house-holds. The two exceptions deserve mention: Aruna's husband, who does discuss family finances with his wife, lives not with his father but with his brothers, each of whom manages his own budget. Sharda and her husband, although they do not li v e with his elders, no longer discuss money matters, perhaps because they disagree so heartily on how salaries should be spent. Moreover, Sharda's mother stays in their home most of the time. It i s possible that Sharda's husband asserts himself to the extent that fas does either to re-assure himself of the headship i n the presence of his mother-in-law or to prevent undue amounts of money from flowing to Sharda's relatives. The accusation that a wife passes goods to her family of orientation i s a common rumour in Gujarat. To summarize: i n their interpersonal behaviour as wives, my respondents follow either traditional patterns of behaviour, or patterns characteristic of male bhalbandh friendships. Those be-having i n the friendly, bhalbandh manner enjoy similar, reciprocal behaviour from their husbands. Those behaving i n the traditional manner receive non-traditional appreciation and concern from their husbands i f the relationship i s positive, or traditional "provision and supervision" i f the relationship i s neutral or negative. The nature of pre-marital interaction between my re-spondents and their husbands appears to affect their marital re-lationships more than their education or occupation does. Simi-la r l y , the composition of the respondents' households appears to affect the women's involvement with financial decisions more than their position as educated women commanding salaries. In general, neither the nature of husband-wife Interaction nor the wife's role in economic decision-making appears to be determined by the fact of a wife's employment. However, certain aspects of a husband's 125. non-traditional appreciation of his wife concern her double duty as home-maker and wage-earner. And the absence of such appreciation may be a factor contributing to neutral or negative marital relation-ships (cf. Kapur, 1970: 84-87). The Employed Daughter-in-Law Traditionally, a woman's devotion to her husband manifests i t s e l f to a large extent i n her respectful behaviour towards his fam-i l y , particularly his mother. Conflict between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law constitutes one of the most common themes i n Gujar-a t i folklore and daily gossip; but ideally, the mother-in-law assumes a role of director and substitute mother, while the daughter-in-law acts as a willi n g helper and loving daughter. For a g i r l married at an early age, the relationship with her husband's mother a l l but determines her happiness or misery. The father-in-law, i n traditional families, rarely inter-acts with his son's wife. The latter does not s i t i n his presence unless invited to do so, covers her head in his presence, and speaks only i f asked a question. There is l i t t l e opportunity for direct conflict between father-in-law and daughter-in-law, hit neither i s a friendship between them possible. A husband's elder brothers, depending on their seniority and on the extent to which they assert their rights, receive the same respect and avoidance shown the husband's father. Younger brothers, on the other hand, are free to establish a friendly or joking rela-tionship with an elder brother's wife. They may chaperone her out-side the home, discuss problems with her, and even tease her about her husband. 126. The role of a husband's sister i s not clearly defined, either in traditional texts or i n folklore. But for several reasons, she i s unlikely to be a close friend of her brother's wife. A young, unbetrothed husband's sister enjoys ac t i v i t i e s not permitted a c i r -cumspect new wife. If married, the sister's v i s i t s with her family are considered respites from her own duties and restraints as daughter-in-law. And i f widowed, a husband's sister may be a bitter presence in the home, for several reasons. Her husband's family considers her "bad luck" and may blame her for her husband's death.31 i f upper-caste, she w i l l never be able to remarry, and, particularly i f she is childless, her future looks bleak. Not only may she envy her brother's wife, but the latter may also resent her presence, since the traditionally ideal relationship between brother and sister i s close and affectionate — closer than that between the brother and his new wife. Although I did not question my respondents about their personal ideals concerning relationships with particular in-laws, I did query them regarding the advantages and disadvantages of joint family l i v i n g . Eight of the twelve women have Uved with their husband's families at some time since marriage, and many of their comments are based on personal experience. With the exceptions of Urmila, who has lived johtly since marriage, and Champa, who has never lived with her husband's elders, a l l the women mention negative aspects of joint family l i f e . Although the comments vary consider-ably, they relate to two general problems: differences of opinion and differences in economic circumstances among the nuclear units comprising the joint family. JJ-Two women not included in the present sample r e c a l l that their mothers were called "Murderer" and "Untouchable" by their deceased fathers' families. 127. Nandini, Kamala, Sharda, Malti and Janu consider d i f f e r -ences of opinion negative aspects of joint family l i f e because "they cannot be expressed." For instance, Sharda and her husband wished to send their child to nursery school, but the husband's eldest broth-er "did not agree." The couple "kept silent for respect" and enrol-led the child just before leaving the brother's home. Janu believes that in the joint family situation, children stop respecting their mother because she is constantly contradicted by her mother-in-law. Kamala, although her husband's mother is "better than my own mother," feels that she would not be free, l i v i n g with the joint family, to read, to talk with her husband, or to express her ideas (e.g., about how many children she should have.) Only Hansa considers differences of opinion detrimental to joint family l i f e precisely because they are expressed, and "children won't learn anything but quarrels" in such circumstances. By contrast, differences i n economics are believed to cause arguments by a l l five respondents who consider them a negative aspect of joint family l i v i n g . Jaya's mother-in-law complained constantly that although her son earned more than her husband, he contributed the same amount to household expenses.32 Kusum feels there i s an i n -evitable "comparison and clash" i f one brother earns more than another and Janu agrees that quarrels occur " i f one child gets more or less milk." In Aruna's husband's family, where a l l five brothers earn com-parable salaries and none supports more than two children, arguments frequently occur when "the sisters-in-law become self i s h , hids things or give more [to their children] than i s allowed." A woman should not argue with an elder's opinions regarding herself or her chil d -rearing methods, for "elders have experience here," but she may vent •^According to Jaya, her husband wished to save the remainder of his salary for the purchase of a separate bungalow, but his mother accused him of squandering i t on Jaya. 128. consequent frustrations by fighting for equal economic benefits for her children. With the exceptions of Nandini, who has never lived j o i n t -ly, Kusum, who lived two years with her husband's family, and Sharda, whose husband s t i l l does not speak to his brother ten years after sep-arating from him, a l l my respondents mention positive aspects of l i f e in a joint family. In general, their comments refer to two "lessons'* which the presence of numerous relatives teaches the individual: "ad-justing" and "mixing." According to Urmila, Hansa, Champa, and Malti, the happi-ness of a joint family depends upon the adjustment of " a l l the d i f -ferent natures" to one another. To achieve this adjustment, each i n -dividual has to learn patience, a "let-go policy," and a willingness to cooperate with others. Urmila feels that the sense of emotional security in a joint family, "the feeling that there are others," en-ables the individual to give to others and to be agreeable. At the same time that the individual learns to adjust to others, he learns to mix with them. Urmila, Aruna, Kamala, and Malti feel that joint family l i f e i s particularly advantageous for children, who learn to be "outgoing" and independent of their parents, rather than shy and hesitant. Shyness i s often thought to be characterist-i c a l l y Indian, and I am under the impression that i t i s generally considered a virtue,particularly i n women. My respondents, however, refer to shyness as a fault i n themselves and as a problem i n their children. In addition to the lessons they teach, joint families are considered advantageous by Janu and Hansa because elders help with child care and household tasks, and by Aruna because children learn quickly, by imitation, how to dress, eat, and behave. In general, 129. however, my respondents find joint family l i v i n g advantageous for i t s effects on personality, and disadvantageous i n so far as i t re-st r i c t s the individual's freedom of expression or causes quarrels. The nature of the actual relationships between my respond-ents and their in-laws appears to vary with the frequency of contact between them. Wives li v i n g apart from their husbands' families tend to interact i n a traditional manner with the various members, while wives livi n g i n joint families tend to behave in what I define below as a modern way. In most cases, unique explanations may be found for the nature of the interaction, yet as Table IX (p.130) indicates, the general pattern i s clear enough to deserve mention. Nandini, Kusum, and Janu l i v e apart from their in-laws and relate to them i n a traditional manner, both on r i t u a l occasions and during daily interaction. They touch their father- and mother-in-laws' feet at each meeting, keep their heads covered at a l l times, and refrain from speaking to anyone except their own children, their husbands' younger brothers, and some of the other daughters-in-law. While v i s i t i n g the joint family, each of the three women sil e n t l y assists her mother-in-law with cooking and housework, waits to eat u n t i l after the men have finished (the husband's mother serves the food), and sleeps with other women and with children. Nandini's behaviour might be explained by the fact that her husband's family lives in a village, where the expectation of traditional behaviour perhaps i s stronger than i n urban areas. Janu's behaviour might be due to the facts that hers was an arranged mar-riage, and that the relationship between her husband and his father remains negative. Just as the husbands and wives whose relationships are neutral or negative depend on traditional patterns of behaviour for co-existence, so do sons and daughters-in-law tend to act tradi-tionally when their relationships with elders are strained. 130. Table IX Respondent RESPONDENTS' RELATIONSHIPS WITH HUSBANDS' ELDERS Structure Frequency of Contact Ritual Behaviour Dally Interaction Urmila Aruna Nandini Kamala Hansa Kusum Sharda Champa Malti Asha Jaya Janu J J N N J N N N J N N N daily no daily no 4-5x a yr. yes 4-5x a yr. no daily yes 6-8x a yr. yes lx a wk, no (HuMo comes) daily no daily no no (Hu has no li v i n g 3x a yr. no (HuFa comes) 2-3x a yr. yes modern modern traditional traditional modern traditional modern modern traditional elders) modern traditional SUMMARY TABULATION Nature of Daily Interaction Traditional Modern Frequency of Contact Dally Occasional 1 1111 1111 11 HH - household J - joint N - nuclear 131. Kusum's traditional behaviour toward her in-laws might be explained by the fact that her husband's parents are North Indian Kshatriyas. Since Gujarati Kshatriyas generally i n s i s t on tradi -tional restraints on women more than do Brahmins or Banias, and since Kshatriyas in North India often follow Muslim practices concerning women to the point of keeping them in purdah, i t i s possible that Kusum acts as she does to meet her in-laws' expectations. But Kusum grew up next door to her in-laws. As she herself points out, her father-in-law saw her i n frocks for over twenty years. The trans-formation i n their relationship occurred when Kusum and her husband l e f t the joint family i n Baroda for a job i n Ahmedabad. Kamala, who is married to a Moslem, does rot follow the traditional r i t u a l behaviour with her in-laws, but with her husband's mother she restrains herself i n daily interaction, and with his fath-er she rerely interacts. The difference between her relationships as an in-law, and those of Nandini, Janu, and Kusum, might be due to the Moselm traditions of her husband's family, but for lack of information on Moslem intrafamilial patterns I cannot say to what extent this i s so. Three other women — Sharda, Jaya, and Champa ~ also l i v e separately from their husband's families but do not interact with them in an entirely traditional manner. Neither Sharda nor Jaya ever v i s i t s her in-laws' homes, since their husbands are not on speaking terms with certain relatives there. Instead, Sharda's mother-in-law and Jaya's father-in-law come to v i s i t their sons. In their own homes, Sharda and Jaya do not follow the rituals of feet-touching or head-covering. In daily interaction they occasion-a l l y "keep mum for respect," but they address their husbands in the presence of the elders and "carry on [normally] i n every respect." 132. Champa's pol house is situated on the border between her own family's pSl and that of her husband's family. V i s i t s back and forth take place daily, and both r i t u a l and normal interaction deviates from traditional patterns. Champa chats freely with her father-in-law, and covers her head "only in the presence of God." The nature of Champa's interaction with her in-laws is consistent with her behaviour and attitudes toward a l l persons. But I feel that the proximity of the husband's family may also motivate at least educated and employed women such as my respondents to establish freer, less traditional relationships with thdr in-laws. In general, the four women who li v e j o i n t l y with their husband's families — Urmila, Aruna, Malti, and lansa — relate to their various in-laws i n modern ways: they s i t and chat with them, and with their husbands when the elders are present. They share a room with their husbands, and occasionally take meals with them. Except for Malti, the women discuss differences of opinion freely with their mothers-in-law. Except in Hansa's home, r i t u a l feet-touching and head-covering takes place only on ceremonial occasions, or when a family member i s leaving for, or returning from, an ex-tended journey. As was the case with women livin g apart from their in-laws, the behaviour of each woman liv i n g j o i n t l y may be explained by uni-que factors. For instance, Malti's in-laws pride themselves on their "progressive notions." Her mother-in-law martyrs herself i n the name of modernity, indulging Malti's desire to work and encoura-ging the young couple to go out i n the evening while she minds her granddaughter. Aruna's lack of traditional behaviour toward her in-laws might be due to the facts that the family i s laterally, not lin e a l l y , 133. joint, and that her husband i s the second eldest brother. But con-sidering how very traditionally Aruna behaves toward her husband and with regard to community traditions, I find her matter-of-fact attitude toward her in-laws particularly noteworthy. Between Urmila and her mother-in-law exists the most lov-ing relationship cf a l l those I witnessed. They observe no r i t u a l s , do houseowrk as a team without "director" and "helper" divisions of labour, and discuss personal problems like Intimate friends. Possi-bly the disparate socio-religious backgrounds — Gujarati Jain Bania and Maharashtrian Ganesha-pula Brahmin — compelled Urmila and her in-laws to work out such a unique relationship. But i t i s my under-standing that the basic Intrafamilial patterns of the two communi-ties do not vary in such a way as to explain the total absence of formality regarding both r i t u a l and daily interaction. Hansa i s the one respondent who lives with her in-laws and behaves, in some respects, in the traditional manner.^3 A l -though she and her husband lived independently for eight years, Han-sa now refrains from addressing him i n the presence of her in-laws, covers her head in their presence, and usually takes meals after her father-in-law. On the other hand, she initiates discussions with her husband's mother, and replies more than the traditional " J l i " (Sir) to her hisband's father's comments. Perhaps the eight years of separate residence established the patterns of r i t u a l be-haviour, while the more recent years of joint l i v i n g have resulted in a non-traditional form of daily interaction. 3 3Asha's husband has no liv i n g relatives other than a married sister. However, for ten years u n t i l her death, his father's sister lived with them. During this time, Asha behaved in an orthodox traditional manner, "never talking or laughing, only serving." 134. To summarize: although the apparent reasons for the d i f -ferences i n the relationships between my respondents and their i n -laws vary considerably, the general correlation between frequency of contact with husband's elders and observance of traditional be-haviour deserves further testing. I would hypothesize that educa-ted women, particularly women who hold jobs i n the outside world, willingly behave i n the traditional manner during occasional v i s i t s to their in-laws. But when interacting with in-laws on a daily basis, the same independent s p i r i t which motivated the women to attain higher educations and salaried positions compels them to establish frank and open relationships with their in-laws, to as-sert themselves in their husbands' homes. One indicator by which this hypothesis could be tested is the way in which a woman handles her objections to her mother-in-law's ideas or practices. If hehaving i n a traditional manner, a wife w i l l either "keep mum" or appeal to her husband. For ex-ample, Kusum's mother-in-law applies eye-black to children with a metal stick. Kusum expresses no objection, and when v i s i t i n g her in-laws she permits i t and even does i t herself. In her own home, however, she applies i t with her finger. Similarly Asha, during the ten years when her husband's father's sister lived with her, and Jaya, before she and her husband l e f t his family, sil e n t l y ac-cepted reprimands from their husbands' elders, but appealed to their husbands to argue their cases: why breast feeding could not be pro-longed, why a doctor must be called, why a friendship with a neigh-bor should be permitted. If a modern relationship exists between the wife and her in-laws, the same issues are discussed directly, without a go-between. If the manner in which a woman handles her disagreements with her in-laws i s noted, traditional r i t u a l behaviour or the lack 135. of i t may prove to be a false indicator of the nature of daily i n -teraction. Thus Hansa, who consistently observes the symbolic actions of a traditional daughter-in-law, discusses and even argues issues with her mother-in-law. The latter once scolded her for slapping a child, and Hansa explained what the child did and how physical punishment could be effective and beneficial. The mother-in-law mumbled something about book-learning, but ©needed that a swat now and then might be necessary. Conversely, Malti never observes symbolic r i t u a l behaviour as a daughter-in-law, yet her daily interaction follows the tradi-tional pattern of "silence for respect." For instance, Malti want-ed to put her daughter in diapers, but the mother-in-law objected on the grounds that the child would be uncomfortable. Malti re-moved the diapers and appealed to her husband who, "after some days," spoke tp his raptner. Between them they worked out a com-promise whereby the daughter might wear diapers when visitors were present, but not otherwise. At no time did Malti discuss the issue with her mother-in-law. With the exception of Malti, the w>men in this sample ex-press their opinions and argue for their ideas directly, when i n  their own homes. For those liv i n g separately from their husband's families, this requires temporary restraints during v i s i t s to their in-laws. But for those liv i n g jointly with their husbands' fami-l i e s , i t requires the establishment of a modern pattern of inter-personal behaviour. As noted above, my respondents hold joint fam-i l y living to be advantageous i n i t s effects on personality, but disadvantageous ii i so far as i t curbs the expression of individual-i t y . In their actual behaviour, when v i s i t i n g their in-laws, the respondents manifest the "adjusting" personality of ideal joint family members. But when living with in-laws on a permanent basis, the respondents assert their individuality. 136. The Educated, Working Mother Just as a woman's devotion to her husband i s thought to be reflected in her attitudes toward his parents, so is her devo-tion to his parents thought to be reflected in her attitudes toward childbearing and child-rearing. Traditionally, a woman i s expect-ed to bear several children, particularly sons, for her husband's family (see Poffenberger, 1968: 31-104). She should raise them according to the practices of her husband's family, as dictated by her husband's mother. Any lack of care or undue disciplinary meas-ures on her part- may be interpreted as an attack by an "outsider" on a new member of the "inside" family. On the other hand, a woman's affection for her child must not interfere with her duties in the household. Nursing is both a legitimate cause for r e l i e f from house-work and a symbol of the indispensable role which oaly a "mere daughter-in-law" can f i l l . 3 * Children generally nurse on demand unt i l the birth of the next child. Otherwise, weaning takes place after two or more years, often when the child himself no longer shows an interest i n nursing. Toilet training, whereby children learn not to eliminate in certain places, i s similarly untraumatic. Mothers or older siblings usually clean up after infants, u n t i l , after three or four years, children begin to care for themselves by imitating their parents' actions. While a mother's overt affection for her diild i s .limited primarily by the amount of time she has to devote to him, a father's affection i s limited by his role as a disciplinarian and by traditional ^Information on customary socialization methods i s derived from Carstairs, 1961; Cormack, 1953; Dube, 1955; Kennedy, 1954; Minturn and Hitchcock, 1966; Steed, 1950; and Wiser and Wiser, 1963; and other sources l i s t e d in the Bibliography. 137. beliefs that i t i s disrespectful of a father to express positive feelings for his child in front of his own elders. While a mother cultivates a loving relationship with her son, oriented toward his eventual care for her in her old age, a father must maintain an authoritative relationship, oriented toward the day when his son; must obey him i n matters of public behaviour and family business. On the other hand, a somewhat closer relationship i s permitted be-tween a father and daughter, while a mother must train a daughter for her future role as a daughter-in-law. Almost a l l my respondents express highly traditional per-sonal ideals concerning the relationships between parents and chil d -ren. Mothers should "love and teach" their daughters, while daught-ers should "love and help" their mothers. Fathers should protect their daughters and "see to their futures," while daughters should make their fathers happy by behaving well, dressing properly, and "showing respect for his wishes." Similarly, my respondents believe that sons should give "love and care i n old age" to their mothers and "respect and obedience" to their fathers. But somewhat less traditional personal ideals were expressed with regard to the parents' relationships with their sons. A mother's love should be tempered by discipline and by an awareness of the son's eventual independence, while a father's discipline should be tempered with friendship and "understanding." Four or five women who expound on their personal ideals refer not to their own children but to themselves and their brothers. For example Aruna, who feels that a daughter should "behave well and li s t e n to her father so as not to hurt his feelings," adds that she herself was not a good daughter. And Kamala, whose ideal father "finds time, talks with his son, always gives a proper answer, doesn't reject him," adds that her father was "just the opposite." If the respondents do have as their frame of reference their own 1 3 8 . childhood experiences, then the traditional nature of their personal Ideals concerning daughters may be due to feelings of guilt or re-gret about their own f i l i a l behaviour. And their more modern ideals about parent-son relations may reflect their feelings of sympathy and loyalty for their brothers. Furthermore, i f families of or-ientation constitute the frame of reference, then the ideal mother, who i s "loving but also s t r i c t " with her son, i s rot necessarily more of a disciplinarian than the ideal father, who i s "not s t r i c t , l i k e a friend." Rather, she is more of a disciplinarian than were the respondents' mothers, and the ideal father i s friendlier than were the respondents' fathers. The attitude toward having children has been greatly i n -fluenced by Gujarat's family planning programme (Table X, p. 139).^5 Of my respondents' twelve first-born children, eight wEre planned pregnancies; two children — Hansa's and Jaya's — arrived in spite of preventive measures; and two — Nandini's and Sharda's — surpris-ed non-planning parents. In contrast, a l l eight second-born children were planned. At least five women take contraceptive p i l l s , and two have had s t e r i l i z i n g operations. Six respondents, each of whom has two children, do not want any more. Women with only one child — Urmila, Kamala, Kusum, and Malti — hope to have one more, "or two at most." Only Nandini and Hansa, who have two daughters each, plan to have one more child, in the hope that i t w i l l be a boy. The desire for sons expressed by my respondents could not reinforce anthropological cliches about India more strongly. A l l twelve women, their husbands, families, and in-laws, wished for the first-born to be a boy. And a l l assumed that the mothers were 3^An a r t i c l e appraising family planning programmes in Gujarat's rural areas appears i n the January 14, 1968 edition of The New York  Times Magazine. 139. TABLE X NUMBER AND SEX OF CHILDREN DESIRED AND REALIZED Respon- Age of Sex of Child Desired Plans for more dent Child Child Planned Sex Children Urmila 3 yrs M yes M 1 more: F Aruna 7 M yes M none 2 F yes F Nandini 4 F no M 1 more: M 1 F yes M Kamala 3 F yes M 1 more: M Hansa 9 F no M 1 more: M 5 F yes M Kusum 1 M yes M 1 or 2 more: M or F Sharda 10* F no M none 4 M yes M Champa 6 M yes M none 2 M yes F Malti 1 F yes M 1 more: M Asha 11 F yes M none 9 M yes M Jaya 8 F no M 2nd F born after interview; now noi Janu 15 M yes M none (died) (F) (yes) (F) 8 M yes F *Sharda's daughter resides permanently with Sharda's husband's sister (see p. 14). 140. responsible for the sex of the child. Kusum's brothers "were con-fident, because a l l the sisters have sons." Sharda's in-hws despair-ed, because her father and his brother had had only daughters. Of the twelve first-borns, seven were g i r l s , and of these seven, only one "got a good reception." This was Malti's daughter, the f i r s t child born into her father's household in twenty-two years. When Asha and Sharda, who had f i r s t given birth to daught-ers, produced sons, the "receptions" were very good indeed. Asha's husband's father's sister was "mad with joy," and Sharda's mother-in-law f i r s t started visiting her son after the birth of the grandson. But Nandini and Hansa each had second daughters.36 Hansa's in-laws "tried to say 'in modern age i t i s not important,' but I was very sad." Nandini "cried for two days," and could not (or would not) nurse her new daughter for over a week. Daughters are hoped for, though not as fervently, once a son has been born. Champa "would have preferred" that her second child be a g i r l , but i t was "no matter" when a second son arrived. Aruna wanted "anyone, preferably a g i r l , " and was happy to have a l i t t l e daughter. And Janu, whose second child and only daughter had died, was disappointed that her third child was a boy — a disappointment not shared by her in-laws. As Kamala says, "old people are anxious to have sons for economic reasons, but daughters give happiness to their mothers." Although highly traditional i n their desire for sons and in their concepts of most aspects of the parent-child relationship, J 0Jaya also had a second daughter, two months after the admini-stration of the questionnaire. I did not ask her how the child was "received." 141. my respondents express and to a certain degree implement non-traditional notions on child-rearing. As Table XI (p. 142) i n -dicates, most women are advised by relatives on how to deal with their new-born infants: how to bathe them, when to feed them, and "what to give for slow motion." Only Sharda depended on books and on discussions with a colleague for information on infant care. But ten of the twelve respondents state that college courses, and books read since college, furnish them with ideas on how to deal with older children. During the f i r s t year of her infant's l i f e , when her r e l -atives are advising her, a mother's position as a working woman i n -fluences her interaction with her child more than does her educa-tional experience. Women receive a three-month maternity leave with pay, and with the guarantee that their jobs w i l l be held for them. Depending on the economic need of her family and on the relationship with her employer, a woman then IEturns to " f u l l ser-vice." Since six weeks of the three months are supposed to be taken before delivery, the traditional forty-day confinement of mother and child i s barely over when the mother resumes work. I am under the impression that among employed women, the length of maternity leave has become something of a status symbol: the more extended leave indicates greater economic and job security. Eight women give their return to service as the reason for early weaning and for the introduction of bottle-feeding.^ They nursed their children for an average of four months and would have liked to nurse two to four months longer, "u n t i l he could take food, and milk from a cup." But in spite of their own reservations and 37 0f the other four mothers, three stopped nursing for medical reasons, and only one — Janu — nursed for a f u l l year and weaned because "they are too big after twelve months." 142. TABLE XI SOURCES OF INFORMATION REGARDING INFANT CARE AND CHILD-REARING Respon-dent Infant Care Relative Friend Studies Child Rearing Relative Friend Studies Urmila Mo HuMo psych. BA Aruna Mo HuElBroWi Hu Nandini Sis office clerk Sis psych. BA Kamala BroWi MoSisSoWi BroWi B.Ed. Hansa HuMo BEd, con-ferences Kusum Mo psych. MA, conferences Sharda office 1 text clerk 1 text Champa Aya office clerk " a l l " Malti Mo HuMo home s c i -ence MA home s c i -ence MA Asha HuFaSis Sis extensive reading Jaya Mo neigh-bor MSW Janu Mo B.Ed, psych. MA See Appendix C for meanings of kinship term abbreviations. 143. in spite of criticism from some relatives, a l l eight introduced supplementary bottle-feeding about one month before returning to their jobs. No woman feels that she would have toilet-trained later had she remained at home longer. Diapers are not used except on infants in cradles, and in urban homes accidents are more incon-veniencing than they are i n village houses which have d i r t and dung floors. Champa took her children regularly to bathroom and latrine when they were one month old, and the latest toilet-training (by Janu) started at eight months. A l l children were f u l l y trained by the age of three, and the majority by the age of two.^S Jobs do not appear to relieve women of their responsibil-i t i e s as mothers. Each of my respondents gives the bottles whenever at home, toilet-trains and cleans up after her children, and bathes and dresses them before leaving for work. The women in joint fami-l i e s report with "regret" that their mothers-in-law must occasion-a l l y help them. But except for Kusum and Kamala, no woman gets help from her husband. Instead, ayas (nursemaids) "do the neces-sary" while the women are away.^9 Once the child can walk and is able to understand simple sentences, two aspects of his socialization gradually start to J ODifferences i n feeding and toilet-training patterns do not correspond to differences in the respondents' varna a f f i l i a t i o n , as the "oral" and "anal" emphases of Bania and Brahmin community tra-ditions might suggest, (pp. 53, 55, 58-60,and 68). S^Sharda provides an interesting exception. Her own mother lives with her and does at least half the work. She i s there out of economic and social need, a poor relation in an area where most mothers do not v i s i t their married daughters even a block away. 144. change. His father participates more frequently i n his training, and his mother's education and reading become increasingly rele-vant to the manner in which he i s handled. In some instances, the two appear to be inter-related: women studying child psychology may encourage their husbands' interest and participation. Four respondents, a l l of them Brahmin, have read exten-sively i n child psychology (see Table XI, p. 142). Hansa has a degree i n elementary education and participates in weekly confer-ences on child behaviour at the school where she teaches. Kusum, whose Master's degree i s in psychology, also participates in the conferences where articles by child psychologists are frequently discussed. Janu, who has both a B. Ed., and a Master's degree i n psychology, continues to read extensively i n the f i e l d . Asha has never had formal training related to children, but her sister, an active case-worker and c l i n i c a l sociologist working with children, discusses every aspect of childcare with Asha and provides her with literature on the subject. Each of these four women encourages her hisband to play and talk with his children, and to discuss the older childrens' mis-behaviour with them "quietly, li k e adults." Ironically, a l l four find themselves being more s t r i c t than their husbands. For example, Hansa frequently says "no" to a request for sweets or small favours, "but Poppa i s bringing anyway." Asha wishes her children would re-spond more quickly to her directions and her Bequests for help, but her husband says "'this isn't a military camp.' He i s not particu-lar. He says I am unnecessarily s t r i c t . " Similarly Janu would like more regularity in her sons' habits, while her husband tends to be quite lenient. After one morning meal, the younger son refused to brush his teeth. Janu insisted, saying he should be clean for school. When the son objected, his father told him he could just gargle. It is interesting, in terms of the relationship postulated between a woman's education and her husband's interaction with his children, 145. that Janu's husband "did not much bother" with their first-born son. Only since her training in child psychology has he taken an interest in the behaviour of his children. Six respondents, four Bania and two Brahmin, have read a few books and articles on child rearing. Urmila and Nandini studied psychology while i n college, and Kamala, Malti, and Jaya have degrees in education, home science, and social work, respectively. Sharda read one text recommended to her by an office colleague. The re-maining two respondents, Aruna and Champa, both of whom are Bania, have not read anything on child-rearing except a few newspaper ar-t i c l e s . Of these eight respondents who have not studied matters regarding children extensively, five state that there are no d i f -ferences of opinion between their husbands and themselves about child-rearing methods. Urmila, Kamala, and Malti say their hus-bands have " f u l l confidence and trust" in their a b i l i t i e s . Each of these women has a very young child, and each encourages her husband to "find some time for play." Champa and Jaya have older children, and their husbands willingly spend an hour or so most mornings and evenings with them. Neither Champa nor Jaya can think of a specific issue over which they and their husbands disagree; i n general, "each does according to his own way." The three respondents who have not studied child-rearing and do disagree with their husbands' ideas on the subject do so for different reasons. Nandini would like to be str i c t e r with her daught-ers than her husband permits her to be. During one interview, her hus-band stated that his daughters "should enjoy. We could not enjoy. They should have whatever they wish — Cadbury's, dancing. I w i l l not say 'no'. Even i f they break this glass [tabletop, his prize possession] we w i l l not scold." Nandini looked at her lap throughout his statement, and on another occasion she told me she feels i t i s necessary, at 146. times, to "discipline and deny." Like Nandini, Aruna i s more demanding of her children than her husband, who has ideas of his own: "don't beat or scold; be polite; treat as a friend; play with them." Unlike Nandini, Aruna admires her husband's ways with children and consciously tries to emulate them. But she finds that after a day's work, " i f they don't do a thing after two-three times asking, I become angry and sometimes beat."^ Sharda i s fhe one respondent whose relationship with her children i s far less disciplinarian than that of her husband. She encourages her husband to play with his son on Saturday, while she and her mother do housework. But the husband believes that a child should stay indoors and clean. He scolds his son "for spoiling while eating or playing, but I [ShairdaJ anj thinking, 'let him enjoy.'" It appears that among the women who mention differences of opinion, those with less education in matters of childcare — Nandini, Aruna, and Sharda — bow to their husbands' wishes. But those who have read or trained extensively in the subject — Hansa, Kusum, Asha, and Janu — discuss the differences with their husbands and "reach some conclusions." Perhaps women who have learned non-traditional methods of rearing children both surprise their husbands with their ideas, and defend their ideas with confidence. Women without extensive reading either employ methods with which their husbands are familiar and in agreement, or they are unable to de-fend the methods with which their husbands disagree. While a woman's educational experience may influence her * u"Beat", to Gujaratis, means "cuff" or "slap", unless modified by adverbs such as "thoroughly" or "severely." 147. own and her husband's relationships with their children, her posi-tion as a working woman continues to be a factor as well. Just as in infancy weaning is hastened due to a mother's employment, so i n childhood, training i s intensified. The strictness of my respondents' interaction with their children, as compared to that of their husbands, is not only a result of their encouraging ftie husbands' involvement with the children; i t i s also due to the pres-sures of time and occasional fatigue under which the women them-selves operate. Out of some twenty-eight examples of childrens' "naughtiness" lis t e d by my respondents, eighteen examples concern time-consuming behaviour: demands, pranks, or non-cooperation. In general, the response to time-consuming behaviour tends to be more negative than the response to other types of "naughtiness." For example, Asha i s annoyed by her son's absorption in his books and by his copying his sister's behavfour. About his reading, she gets very angry: "You don't care about others," she once shouted when he did not get up to answer the door. "I should do every-thing when I don't have time to read." But when he wanted to dance with his sister and her friends, she reasoned with him quietly that he should "learn to distinguish" himself. Several women mention that their responses to time'con-suming behaviour are less than ideal. Janu, with her second son in particular, tries to be "more relaxed." Hansa feels she should distract her daughter with stories and games, rather than scold. Urmila does not want to threaten her son to get him to eat. As women educated in the f i e l d of child psychology, my respondents strive to reason with their children, to let them "express them-selves." But as working women, their time i s precious and their patience limited. To summarize: my respondents encourage direct and positive 148. Interaction between their husbands and their children, and theor-et i c a l l y desire a similar relationship for themselves. As working mothers of small infants, they depend on advice from relatives and help from ayas. As working mothers of older children, they try to implement book-learntc! child-rearing methods but find that these demand patience which is not always theirs. Thus, the woman who is both educated in the f i e l d of child-care and employed in a f u l l -time job finds that in relation to her children, her goals conflict and her capabilities are limited. The Independent, Married Daughter A daughter, in traditional Gujarat, is i n some respects a burden to her family. As a child her behaviour must meet certain standards or she w i l l not be marriageable. Her marriage costs her father as much as he can afford, and gifts must accompany her when-ever she returns to her in-laws after a v i s i t at home. As a wife, her behaviour in her husband's home and her a b i l i t y to bear child-ren reflects on members of her own family, particularly on her sisters. Potentially, a daughter can become a permanent financial and emotional burden to her family, for i f widowed, although her husband's family is traditionally obligated to provide for her, she frequently returns to her own family after the period of mourning. In other respects, a daughter may be a source of pride and joy. Particularly when v i s i t i n g her family as a married woman, her relationships with i t s members may be pleasant and free from strain. She can now provide adult female companionship to her mother, and leadership to her younger sisters. She takes great interest in her brothers' problems and prospects, aid he i n hers. Although her children belong to her husband's lineage, her own par-ents feel free to demonstrate as much affection as they wish. And 149. i t i s expected that between her brother and her children there w i l l develop an affectionate, comradely relationship. Girls who marry early may return, after two or three weeks with their husbands' families, to spend months with their own families. The frequency and length of v i s i t s dwindle as a woman adjusts to married life, bears children, and takes over the responsibilities of her aging mother-in-law. Eventually, depend-ing on the geographical distance of her family, a woman returns home only for l i f e - c y c l e events (to give birth to a child, or to name her brother's child), and for calendrical f e s t i v i t i e s such as Rakshabandan (see p. 65). Among traditional Gujaratis, the geographical proximity of a woman's home to her husband's depends to a certain extent on caste. While Brahmins tend to arrange mar-riages between families of equal social and economic status, they have no rule regarding regional endogamy. Banias, on the other hand, feel free to arrange socially and economically hypergamous marriages, but only within their own regions. Certain attitudes and practices regulate the interaction between members of a woman's family and members of her husband's. The two sets of elders tend to avoid each other; Indeed, older Brah-min women not included i n this sample informed me that their mothers never saw their mothers-in-law after the wedding, nor set foot In their daughters' homes as long as their sons-in-law were alive, and that their fathers, on rare v i s i t s to them, would accept only water in their daughters' homes of procreation.^ 1 Most frequently i t i s a woman's brother who v i s i t s her do not know how common this practice i s i n Gujarat. Certain-ly among Banias, where regional endogamy and hypergamy prevail and marriages frequently take place between the children of business as-sociates, I would not expect the restrictions to be as severe. ISO. after marriage. When she is to return home, he fetches her. If she has problems, he may speak for her to her husband, or to the community at large i f pressure must be brought to bear. And when she has children, he w i l l bring them g i f t s , play and joke with them, and later counsel them. Theoretically, i n an hypergamous marriage, a woman's brother would not be the honoured guest i n her home of procreation that her husband i s in her home of orientation. But I have never heard i t said that a brother-in-law i s treated with any disrespect i n Gujarat. New dimensions of the positive relationships between sisters and brothers, and between children and their mother's sib-lings, are illustrated by my respondents' l i f e - h i s t o r i e s . Nandini, Champa, and Aruna met their husbands-to-be through their brothers or "cousin brothers." Nandini's marriage took place at her brother's bungalow, and her f i r s t child was born there. When Aruna married without parental approval, i t was her brother who came to " c a l l her" for the reconciliation. Urmila's mother's brother was the only relative who "reasoned" with her parents i n favour of her proposed love-match. And Sharda's mother's brother was the only relative to witness her civil-ceremony marriage. Sharda also had a friend i n her mother's sister, who provided room and board while Sharda attended college against her mother's wishes and who per-mitted v i s i t s from Sharda's fiance. Similarly, Kamala lived with her mother's sister's son and his wife for a few months before eloping. Although the children of my respondents are for the most part too young to have developed mature relationships with r e l a -tives, i t i s interesting to note how many have as their "favourite" relative members of their mothers' families (Table XII, p. 151). The mothers themselves f a c i l i t a t e these positive relationships by TABLE XII CHILD'S FAVOURITE RELATIVE 151. Respondent Child Maternal Relative Paternal Relative Urmila Aruna Nandini Kamala Hansa Kusum Sharda Champa Malti Asha Jaya Janu Son 3 Son 7 Dau 2 Dau 4 Dau 1 Dau 3 Dau 9 Dau 5 Son 1 Son 4 Son 6 Son 2 Dau 1 Dau 11 Son 9 Dau 8 Son 15 Son 8 MoMo MoSis MoElBro MoMo MoElBro MoMo MoYoBro MoMo MoYoBro MoSis MoSis MoSisDau MoMo FaYoSi* FaBroWi* FaYoSi* FaMo* FaBroDau FaMo * Relatives residing in the same household as child See Appendix C for meanings of kinship term abbreviations. I 152. seeing their families often, and by regarding v i s i t s with them as pleasurable occasions. Janu, Malti, and Urmila take their children to their parental homes one to three times every week. Sweets are served, quiet games are played, and the children are often praised and complimented directly, or indirectly but within earshot. Kusum's son i s rarely out of arms when he v i s i t s his mother's family every six or eight weeks, and Champa's children enjoy daily doses of af-fection and small gifts from their mother's relatives, who li v e down the street. If the relationship between a woman and her parents i s less than cordial, i t i s unlikely that her children w i l l attach themselves to their maternal grandparents; however, other maternal relatives may s t i l l be favourites. Thus Asha, who v i s i t s her elders regularly once a week, and Kamala, wio v i s i t s for several days two or three times a year, do so "for respect." Their posi-tive emotional ties, and those of their children, are to their sister and brother respectively, whom they meet i n the parental home. Similarly, Nandini sees her mother about once a year, but one of her sisters v i s i t s frequently and "loves the babies too much." Of course, the relationship depends also on the personal inclination of the child. Hansa's sister v i s i t s two or three times a week, but her daughter "wants DadI (grandmother) only." Under unusual circumstances, when a woman'8 relatives are responsible for disciplining her children, the relationship may not only not be positive, i t may be quite negative. For example, Sharda's mother, who lives with her daughter and takes care of her grandson, "beats" her charge for the slightest misdemeanour. And Aruna's parents, with whom Aruna, her husband and children stay several days a week, "beat" their grandchildren, and reprimand Aruna regularly for having such unruly children. Disciplinary 153. measures taken by maternal grandparents may not be mitigated, as they are i n the case of paternal grandparents, by the fact that the grandchildren are of their own lineage, and represent that lineage's future happiness and prosperity. But aich cases are rare: the relationship between a married woman's children and her own parents normally remains care-free and affectionate. The relations between my respondents themselves and their families of orientation range from very positive to neutral and even to negative. The differences, at least for this small sample, do not correlate with differences i n caste, proximity of relatives, age of parents, or structure of the daughter's family of procreation. Rather, the nature of parent-married daughter interaction appears most directly related to the parental attitudes toward the daughter's marriage and education (see Table XIII p. 154). In the eyes of their husbands, my respondents are primarily wives and mothers. But to their parents, they are on the one hand wives and mothers, and on the other hand educated and employed women. Parents may take credit for their daughters' success in both sets of roles, particularly i f they favoured the marriage and encouraged the ed-ucation. However, i f they opposed their daughter's marriage, i t i s unlikely that they w i l l manifest great pride or pleasure i n her act i v i t i e s as wife and mother. And i f they never took an i n -terest in her education, they are unlikely to appreciate her suc-cess i n u t i l i z i n g that education. As Table XIHindicates, six of my twelve respondents en-joy positive relationships with their families of orientation. They chat freely with them about their children and their jobs, borrow and lend cooking utensils and saarls, and leave the ch i l d -ren with the grandparents when they are particularly busy. The parents of four of these six woman — Kusum, Hansa, Champa and 154. TABLE XIII Respon- dent Urmila Aruna Nandini Kamala Hansa Kusum Sharde Champa Malti Ashe Jaya Janu RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESPONDENT AND HER ELDERS Elders' Attitude Elders' Attitude  Towards Marriage Towards Education + 0 — 0 + + + + + Respondents' Rela- tionship to Elders + + + • positive + + + + 0 •» neutral SUMMARY TABULATION 0 + + + + 0 0 + — « negative Relationship to Elders Positive to Elders' A t t i t u d e s b o t h  to Marr. and Educ. Negative to one or both Positive 1111 11 Neutral or Negative 111111 f 1 5 5 * Malti — both approved of their daughters' marriages and encouraged their education. Janu's family lauded their daughter's housework more than her studies, but they take f u l l credit for arranging her marriage. Urmila married In opposition to her parents, but was en-couraged by them to continue her education and to take a job. Three respondents interact with their parents i n what I have termed a neutral manner. They v i s i t them regularly, discuss the parents' act i v i t i e s with them "sympathetically," and "l i s t e n respectfully" to what the parents hve to say. Asha's and Kamala's v i s i t s to their parental homes show the neutral parent-married daught-er relationship to be somewhat one-sided. The women give a great deal in terms of emotional support, service, and respect, but re-ceive very l i t t l e . Asha, whose father takes great pride i n her law degree, discusses her job with him, but not her children. Kam-ala 's father praises his daughter's academic achievements repeat-edly to vis i t o r s i n his home, but Kamala avoids mentioning anything about herself. Although I never saw Jaya i n her home of orienta-tion, the fact that her father, who encouraged her education, has since died probably limits the extent to which she i s appreciated as an educated or employed woman in her parental home. In contrast to the women whose marriages were approved, Asha, Kamala, and Jaya refrain from borrowing anything from their families, even in the most casual way. To do so would be to admit to need, or to failure on their husbands' part to provide for them adequately. Asha, whose family lives about ten minutes away by bus, has never requested her parents to mind her children, since this would invite comments: "You must labour too much, this comes from a love-match." The women's continuous efforts to serve and respect their 156. parents may stem i n part from the desire to be good daughters as defined by Indian tradition. But i t may also be due to a sense of guilt and desire to atone for what they feel was u n f i l l a l behaviour. Although Asha, Kamala, and Jaya each assesses her parents' short-comings i n an objective and almost c l i n i c a l manner, each also feels that her parents loved her very much and "looked to my benefit only." Having crossed their parents by marrying against their wishes, the women now selflessly do what they can to rectify what they view as a self i s h , but necessary, wrong. The three women whose relationships with their elders I term "negative" maintain a strained silence except for necessary exchanges of information and >ccasional outbursts. Since Aruna must l i v e several days a week with her parents, who disapprove of her being employed, the silence i s a very tense one. Sharda's mother lives i n her daughter's home, rather than the reverse, and the outbursts are more frequent. Just as educated women livin g with their in-laws tend to express their opinions despite tradi-tional restrictions, daughters liv i n g with their parents may est-ablish a traditionally u n f i l i a l mode of behaviour. Among the women whose relationships with their parents are negative, only Nandini, who rarely sees her mother, has avoided quarreling with her directly since marriage. To summarize: i t appears that highly positive relation-ships obtain between my respondents and their siblings and mother's siblings. Brothers aid mothers' brothers function i n new capaci-ties with regard to love matches, but traditional behaviour s t i l l characterizes the relationships between brothers and their sisters and sisters' children. The interaction between a respondent and her parents tends to be positive, free and affectionate, i f the latter approved the respondent's marriage and encouraged her 157. education. If parents disapproved of their daughter's marriage or discouraged her education, the relationship between them tends to be formal and i n some cases hostile. In Chapter Four I have tried to show how my respondents' personal ideals of intrafamilial relationships vary from tradition-a l ideals and from their actual relationships. In general, my re-spondents favour interaction among family members which i s less hierarchically differentiated and more reciprocal than that pre-scribed by tradition: Tradition maintains that a wife should ad-just to her husband and his a c t i v i t i e s , but my respondents believe that a husband should also take an interest in his wife's a c t i v i -ties. Tradition declares that members of a younger generation should hearken to members of an older generation, but my respond-ents believe that both children and grown sons, daughters, and daughters-in-law should also be able to express themselves. In effect, the intrafamilial relationships considered ideal by the respondents are more egalitarian, relative to the traditionally ideal relationships. Many of the actual relationships within the respondents' families reflect the more egalitarian ideals. As wives, nine of the twelve women interact with their husbands in a reciprocal, "friendly" or "romantic" manner. As daughters-in-law, six have established direct, give-and-take patterns of interaction with their husband's elders. Nine women try to discuss their childrens' behaviour with them, and encourage their husbands to do the same. Finally, six of the twelve women interact with their own elders i n a mutually free and casual manner. At least quantitatively, egal-itarian ideals appear to affect husband-wife and parent-child re-lationships more than they do the relationships between parents-in-law and daughter-in-law, or between parents and married daughter. 158. Various factors appear associated with the frequency and extent of reciprocity i n intrafamilial relationships.42 Mu-tual consideration and interest between spouses may be related to the origin of the marriage as a love match. Open discussions be-tween mother-in-law and daughter-in-law tend to occur when the two interact on a daily basis. Exchanges of opinion and reason-ing with children are encouraged by mothers who have read or train-ed in child psychology. Exchanges of help, information, and ad-vice are made by married daughters with elders who approve of their choice of spouse and their decision to work. Cross-cutting the variables of origin of carriage, comp-osition of household, and area of education i s the factor common to a l l respondents, their position as working, earning women. On the one hand, a woman's employment may have a negative effect on interpersonal interaction and may even hinder any trend toward egalitarianism. At least one respondent's husband's lack of ap-preciation of his wife's activities i s a source of strain i n their relationship. Three respondents and their husbands separated from their husband's families when their employment became a source of conflict. At least five respondents find that their employment, by exacting time and energy, occasionally prevents them from imple-menting the child-rearing methods they favour. And six respondents maintain formal relationships with their elders who indicate dis-approval of their employment, either by terming i t inappropriate or by considering i t an unfortunate consequence of the respondent's love-marriage. 42in general, i t appears that differences i n the respondents' caste backgrounds do not correspond to differences i n their inter-personal relationships. However, the three women who do not dis-cuss problems of behaviour with their children, are a l l Bania, and the four wonen who have read extensively In child "psychology are a l l Brahmin. 159. On the other hand, a woman's employment may affect her intrafamilial interaction positively, and may even foster a trend toward egalitarlanism. Four husbands i n the present sample ex-press admiration specifically of the ways i n which their wives cope with both home and office work. Four of the six respondents who enjoy mutually expressive relationships with their husbands' elders are appreciated by the latter as employed daughters-in-law. Six women encounter concepts of child psychology as a direct result of their employment, and two more have learned some child-rearing methods through conversations with office colleagues. Fin-a l l y , the six respondents who enjoy reciprocal, friendly relations with their own parents, and two respondents whose relations with their elders are strained for other reasons, are celebrated by their parents as employed women. The data presented above suggest traditional, hierarchi-cal and differentiated modes of interaction tend to characterize relationships which are either strained or, i n the case of i n -laws, intermittent. G t - n urally, however,the ideal relationships of my respondents and, to a lesser extent, their actual relation-ships are more reciprocal and egalitarian than the relationships of Indian and Gujarati tradition. In the concluding chapter to this thesis, I w i l l evaluate the trend toward egalitarian intre-familial relationships i n terms of the c r i t e r i a of modernity set forth i n Chapter One. CHAPTER FIVE PATTERNS OF CHANGE: SUMMARY AND HYPOTHESES At the outset of this thesis, I expressed an intention to identify the ways in which the family l i f e of twelve respondents differs from the family l i f e they experienced as. children. To this end I presented in Chapters Two, Three, and Four descriptive mater-i a l concerning community tradition, l i f e - s t y l e , and intrafamilial relationships, respectively. Analysis revealed that i n a l l three areas, certain important changes between the women's past and pre-sent home lives have taken place, and that these changes may be re-lated to a number of factors. In this concluding chapter I w i l l summarize the changes, in order to answer the following questions: Do the changes i n d i -cate any general trends or patterns of change? Which circumstances or conditions appear related to the occurrence and strength of the patterns? What hypotheses concerning the patterns and conditions of change warrant further investigation? Finally, how significant are these changes for individual members of families, and for the family unit i t s e l f ? Patterns of Change Comparison of my respondents' past and present family lives suggests that both behavioural and attitudinal changes have taken place. The behavioural changes, described in the preceding chapters, may be summarized as follows: With regard to traditions of caste and sect, daily rituals and lif e - c y c l e events tend to be abbreviated or omitted i n the respondents' homes cf orientation (pp. 54-64). Calendrical events, on the other hand, are s t i l l 161. observed, and several all-caste occasions have been elaborated upon (pp. 64-67). With regard to l i f e - s t y l e , residential patterns indicate a greater separation of occupational and family l i f e , an increase in residential mobility, and trends toward suburban and multi-caste neighborhoods (pp. 75-88). Household arrangements in the respondents' present homes show a decrease in li v i n g space, a re-allocation of that space in favour of the nuclear family, and a tendency to acquire a variety of consumer goods (pp. 88-98). Daily a c t i v i t i e s of the re-spondents and their families of orientation are more r i g i d l y sched-uled than were the ac t i v i t i e s of their families of procreation, but the families of orientation spend more time together as families (pp. 98-105). With regard to intrafamilial relationships, interaction between my respondents and members of their families tends to be more egalitarian and less hierarchical than the interaction described by traditional sources. Particularly the husband-wife relationship i s characterized by reciprocal rather than differentiated modes of behaviour (pp. 110-125), although the respondents in their personal ideals favour reciprocity between daughter-in-law and mother-in-law as well (pp. 125-135). The parent-child relationship for the most part follows traditional patterns when the child i s an infant, but when he i s older his interaction with both mother and father tends to be based on principles of mutual explanation and understanding, rather than ones of discipline and obedience (pp. 136-148). Not a l l aspects of behaviour discussed in the preceding chapters have changed since the women's childhoods. For example, dietary proscriptions and calendrical fasts are observed by most respondents as they were by the respondents' mothers. Similarly, 162. the desire for sons, the practice of children sharing a bedroom with their parents, and the lack of regular chores for children are features of my respondents' lives as they were features of my respondents' natal families' lives. Interpersonal relationships between brother and sister, between mother's siblings and sister's children, and between parents and married daughter also remain re-latively unchanged. Why might certain aspects of community tradition, l i f e -style, and intrafamilial relationships change while others remain unaltered? In the introduction to this thesis, I hypothesized that changes made by employed Indian women in their patterns of family l i f e are congruent with the values and attitudes of modern individuals — values and attitudes accompanying a dynamic and prag-matic approach to l i f e , sa individualistic view of self, and a cosmopolitan orientation (pp. 2-5). It follows that patterns of family l i f e not changed by employed women either congrue with these values and attitudes, or at least do not hinder their manifestation. In order to test these hypotheses, i t i s necessary to determine what attitudinal changes are indicated by the observed behavioural changes, and whether the unaltered behavioural patterns reflect similar a t t i -tudes . Differences between the attitudes and values of my respond-ents and those of their elders are evidenced by the reasons which the respondents give fer the changes that they make i n their pat-terns of family l i f e . One group of changes i n community tradition and l i f e - s t y l e i s attributed by the respondents to the costliness of the previous mode of behaviour, i t s time-consuming nature, or it s impracticality. But these customs were just as expensive, time-consuming, and practical or impractical for the respondents' elders. Furthermore, the respondents do find money, time, and uses for other 163. items of behaviour which were not part of their parents' lives. For example, life - c y c l e ceremonies are modified or omit-ted because they are too costly, yet expensive and unessential fur-niture i s acquired for the home. Daily rituals are abbreviated and deleted because they demand too much time, but time i s found for the women's jobs. Puja rooms are "not necessary" but extra room is provided for dining. In other words, my respondents' have made certain changes in.community tradition and l i f e - s t y l e because their p r i o r i t i e s d i f f e r from those governing the community tradition and l i f e - s t y l e of their childhoods. I suggest that these p r i o r i t i e s reflect a dynamic and pragmatic approach to l i f e , such as that at-tributed to modern individuals. Reasons given for another group of changes indicate that the respondents also grant high priority to the interests and i n -clinations of the individual. For example, several shifts i n r e s i -dence were made because the respondents or their husbands f e l t thwart-ed when livi n g with the husbands' elders. Life-cycle events and daily rituals are abbreviated or omitted by some respondents either for lack of personal conviction or for lack of interest. Particu-l a r l y in relation to their children, my respondents demonstrate an orientation toward principles of individualism: they spare the children the early morning bath, the shaven head during upanayana, and the ordeal of fasting i f the children do not desire these; they favour early schooling and the use of toys for child development; and, at least in theory, they leave decisions concerning the future careers and marriages of the children up to them. A third group of behavioural changes made by the respond-ents indicates that their orientation i s also more cosmopolitan than was that of their elders. On the one hand, they have universalized 164. all-caste traditional activities so as to include in them friends, neighbors, and colleagues regardless of j a t i a f f i l i a t i o n . On the other hand, they participate in new a c t i v i t i e s , such as cinema-going and restaurant-dining, which their parents forbade. In gen-eral, the respondents demonstrate a willingness to expand their realm of experience: they shift to heterogeneous neighborhoods, liste n to radio programmes for news and discussion, and experiment with new ideas. It appears that the attitudinal changes which are i n d i -cated by the behavioural changes made by the respondents are con-gruent with the values and attitudes of modern individuals. The respondents' changed patterns of family l i f e reflect a dynamic prag-matism, a belief in individualism, and a cosmopolitanism not reflect-ed in their elders' patterns of family l i f e . Do the unchanged as-pects of the respondents' behaviour also indicate these attitudes? Certainly the intrafamilial relationships that remain unaltered are those which traditionally are least hierarchical and most egalitar-ian. Traditional relationships between brother and sister, between mother's siblings and sister's children, and between parents and married daughter permit a good deal of reciprocal behaviour, and they are congruent, relative to other traditional relationships, with the expression of individualism. Other unaltered patterns of family l i f e do not appear to reflect modern attitudes, but neither do they interfere with their manifestation. 4 3 For example, the continued observance of dietary 4 3The absence of regular household duties for children may be congruent with a dynamic, pragmatic attitude i f , as Hansa says, i t i s due to the fact that i t takes more time and energy to see that a child does the job than i t does to do i t personally. 165. proscriptions and calendrical fasts i s attributed by the respondents to "custom" and to personal belief i n their efficacy — explanations which congrue with traditional Indian values. But neither dietary proscriptions nor fasts are time-consuming, costly, or (unless car-ried to extremes) "impractical." Since the respondents observing them believe as individuals in their worth, their observance does not transgress principles of individualism^ And since they are easily observed outside the home, they do not interfere with cos-mopolitan interests or a c t i v i t i e s . The novelty of pragmatic, individualistic, and cosmopoli-tan attitudes could easily be over-emphasized. As mentioned i n Chapters Two and Three, the families and j a t i s represented in the present sample have lived in urban, relatively cosmopolitan areas for centuries. Sources of Indian tradition such as Kautilya's Artha  £astra, the Dharma Jiastra, and the Manu Smrti embody highly prag-matic and, in some respects, individualistic values.^5 Particularly for Gujarati Banias, considerations of time, money, and practical-i t y are not new (see, for example, Spodek, 1969). And for Brahmins especially, I believe that the traditional religious and philosophi-cal focus on the "Self" — whether the Self is affirmed or denied — fosters at least a consciousness of individuality (cf. Biardeau, 1965). ^"Individual" here refers to the 'belf-determined" being rather than to "the empirical subject . . . the particular man" (Dumont, 1965: 15-16). «The sources outline the rights and obligations of each i n d i -vidual, but they do so according to each person's varna and ashrama (Stage of L i f e ) , i.e., his "socially-determined" being. Further-more, the rights and obligations involve, for the most part, pairs of hierarchically related persons — the Indian "functional equiva-lent" of a single, "self-determined" individual i n modern society, according to Dumont (1965: 91). 166. But there Is something different about the pragmatism, Individualism, and cosmopolitanism manifested In my respondents' patterns of family l i f e , a difference which, I submit, i s "modern." Their pragmatism, for lack of a better word, i s "dynamic": they consume rather than save; they work rather than worship; "the truths of u t i l i t y , calculation, and science take precedence over those of the emotions, the sacred, and the non-rational" (Rudolph, 1967: 3). The individualism of (he respondents i s also manif .sted at the ex-pense of religious customs, but above a l l at the expense of famil-i s t i c and caste ties: the associations i n which the respondents work are "based on choice not birth," and are "separated from fam-i l y and residence;" the respondents' identity, relative to that of their elders, i s "chosen and achieved, not ascribed and affirmed;" the older generation has surrendered "much of i t s authority to youth and men some of theirs to women" (Rudolph, 1967: 3-4). Fin-a l l y , the cosmopolitanism of the respondents constitutes a "d i f f e r -ent" attitude i n so far as i t represents not only an awareness of diverse and alternative patterns of l i f e , but also a willingness to experience them personally: "'Modernity' assumes that local ties and parochial perspectives give way to universal commitments" (Ru-dolph, 1967: 3). My respondents do not reject "tradition" as such; they modify i t and adapt i t , where necessary, to congrue with their modern attitudes and values. Factors i n Change Throughout this thesis I have tried to estimate the signi-ficance of my respondents' employment for their patterns of family l i f e . In Chapter Two (pp. 68-71) I suggested that women's employ-ment, by necessitating a re-allocation of time and f a c i l i t a t i n g a re-allocation of interests, contributes significantly to the abbrev-iation and deletion of daily rituals and lif e - c y c l e events. On the 167. other hand, by exposing women to mixed-caste settings and perhaps by creating in them a sense of guil t , employment prompts the cele-bration of all-caste calendrical events and the observance of fasts In Chapter Three (pp. 105-108) I found that while consequences of Industrialization account for most changes i n the respondents' r e s i dential patterns, household arrangements, and daily routines, women employment intensifies and hastens the changes by providing extra income, demanding the women's time i n a fixed and regular programme and by familiarizing them with different l i f e - s t y l e s . In Chapter Four (pp. 158-159) I concluded that several variables appear rela-ted to the egalitarian nature of the various family relationships, but that women's employment may affect those relationships either negatively or positively, depending primarily on the attitude of family members toward women's employment. Possibly most significant i s the effect of women's employ ment on the attitudes which are reflected in behavioural changes. A woman who works is aware of job opportunities and job require-ments, and has a personal stake in the allocation of income. She develops a sense of identity and sense of purpose apart from those gained through her familial roles of wife, daughter-in-law, and mother. And through her activities i n the "outside world," she expands her realm of experience. In effect, employment may foster in women a dynamic and pragmatic approach to l i f e , an individual-i s t i c view of self, and a pragmatic orientation — the attitudes which are manifested in her patterns of family l i f e . In addition to employment, the preceding chapters suggest a number of variables which appear related to the nature and extent of change. For example, love marriage may influence the degree of reciprocity between husband and wife. Cross-caste marriage and nu-clear household composition tend to increase the extent to which 168. dally rituals and life-cycle ceremonies are abbreviated and omit* ted. A woman's educational background appears related to her and her husband's modes of interaction with ftxeir children. Due to the limitations imposed by my small and non-random sample, I can only suggest that these variables appear significant and may war-rant further investigation. Within the limits of my data, however, I am able to ex-plore the relevance of two possible factors i n change: varna af-f i l i a t i o n and reason for employment. As noted i n Chapter I (pp. 29-30), three of my respondents are Banias, or Vaishyas, working for reasons of economic "need," and three are Brahmins employed because of economic "need." Three respondents are Banias working for reasons of personal inclination or interest, and three are Brahmins employed for similar personal reasons. Other variables are distributed f a i r l y equally among these four groups. An arrang-ed marriage occurs i n each division except that of Banias (Vaishyas) working for economic reasons; at least one joint family i s represent-ed i n each division except that of Brahmins working for personal reasons; and education in child psychology occurs i n a l l four groups, although extensive training i n the f i e l d i s found only among the Brahmins. It would be possible to chart the distribution of speci-f i c behavioural changes according to the respondents' varnas and reasons for employment. But a l l of the women, in one way or an-other, have modified community tradition, changed their l i f e - s t y l e , and redefined intrafamilial relationships. More significant, I believe, i s the distribution of attitudinal changes, as indicated by the various behavioural changes. Below are l i s t e d fifteen items of behavioural change, five which I consider indicative of increased dynamic pragmatism, five indicative of increased individualism, 169. and five Indicative of increased cosmopolitanism. Behavioural Changes Indicating Dynamic Pragmatism: 1) modification of one or more aspects of community tradition be-cause of expense or time; 2) modification of one or more aspects of community traditbn be-cause of "impracticality"; 3) shift i n residence or plans to shift residence for higher stan-dard of li v i n g ; 4) allocation of li v i n g space for social rather than for personal or traditional (puja") use; and 5) hopes for child's career expressed in terms of economic rather than personal or traditional ( j a t i or varna) considerations. Behavioural Changes Indicating Individualism: 1) modification of one or more aspects of community tradition be-cause of personal disinterest or disbelief; 2) sh i f t i n residence or plans to shift residence for personal f u l -fillment; 3) allocation of livi n g space for personal rather than for social or traditional (puja) use; 4) consideration of woman's extra-familial a c t i v i t i e s and conse-quent needs received from husband; and 5) i n i t i a t i v e and independence consciously fostered i n children. Behavioural Changes Indicating Cosmopolitanism: 1) modification of one or more aspects of community tradition to include members of other castes; 2) shift i n residence to neighborhood having a significantly hetero-geneous social composition;' 3) u t i l i z a t i o n of radio and/or cinema for (broadly defined) educa-tional purposes; 170. 4) acceptance of restaurant dining as a leisure time activity; and 5) denial of caste as a factor relevant to the selection of child's future spouse. These fifteen Indices represent pronounced differences be-tween the women's present patterns of family l i f e and those they experienced as children, and they are general enough to apply equal-ly to each respondent, regardless of her varna or reason for employ-ment. For example, "modification of tradition" applies to the Brah-min who has changed her bathing customs, or to the Bania who has re-laxed her dietary proscriptions. Similarly, "shift for higher stan-dards" would be less l i k e l y to apply to women working for economic reasons, but I include both "plans to s h i f t " and shifts made be-cause of better paying job offers. Furthermore, as mentioned in Chapter One, a l l the respondents f a l l within approximately the same economic bracket (p. 28). Using the fifteen items of behavioural change, I obtain attitudinal scores for each respondent (Table XIV, p. 171). For example, Urmila's scores are 2/3/5. She has made two out of five changes indicative of a dynamic, pragmatic attitude; three changes indicative of increased individualism; and five indicate of an i n -creased cosmopolitan attitude. By adding each of her three scores to the comparable ones of Aruna and Nandini, I obtain composite attitudinal scores for the Bania respondents employed for reasons of economic "need." Before arriving at these composite scores, I had the following expectations: 1) Women working for economic reasons would be more dynamically pragmatic than women working for personal reasons. 2) Banias would be more dynamically pragmatic than Brahmins. 171. TABLE XIV ATTITUDES OF RESPONDENTS AS INDICATED BY BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE Respondent Attitude Score Dynamic Pragmatism Individualism Cosmopolitanism Urmila 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2/3/5 Aruna 1 3 5 2 3 4 4 3/3/1 Nandini 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 4/0/3 Kamala 2 5 1 3 4 5 1 2 4 5 2/4/4. Hansa 1 3 5 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 3/3/4 Kusum 1 2 3 4 2 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 4/3/5 Sharda 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 2 4 5 5/1/4 Champa 1 2 3 5 1 4 5 1 3 4 5 4/3/4 Malti 1 1 3 5 2 3 4 1/3/3 Asha 2 3 1 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2/4/5 Jaya 2 4 1 2 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2/4/5 Janu 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 5 1/3/4 TOTAL 9 8 7 4 5 5 5 7 8 9 10 D 830 9 172. 3) Reason for employment would be more relevant to the degree of dynamic pragmatism than caste. 4) Women working for personal reasons would be more Individualistic than women working for economic reasons. 5) Brahmins would be more Individualistic than Banias. 6) Reason for employment would be more relevant to the degree of individualism than caste. 7) Women working for personal reasons would be more cosmopolitan than women working for economic reasons. 8) Brahmins and Banias would be equally cosmopolitan. 9) Reason for employment would be more relevant to the degree of cosmopolitanism than caste. As Table XV (p. 173) shows, only five of these nine ex-pectations (#1, 2, 4, 5, and 7) are confirmed by the tabulations of data used to "test" them. As predicted, women employed because of economic "need" are more dynamically pragmatic, less individual-i s t i c , and less cosmopolitan than women employed because of per-sonal inclination or interest: Dynamic Prag- Individual- Cosmopolitan-matism Score ism Score ism Score Employed for 2 2 Economic Reason. Employed for 5 2 5 Personal Reason However, the differences between their composite scores — d i f f e r -ences of three, two, and three for pragmatism, individualism, and cosmopolitanism, respectively — are very slight. The expectations that Banias would be more dynamically pragmatic and less individualistic than Brahmins are also confirmed. But whereas I predicted that respondents from both varnas would be 1 7 3 . TABLE XV COMPOSITE ATTITUDINAL SCORES* BY VARNA AND REASON FOR EMPLOYMENT Dynamic Pragmatism Score Individualism Score VARNA VARNA Bania Brahmin Bania Brahmin Eco- Q Q Eco- 1 0 REASON nomic y J REASON nomic D FOR FOR EMPLOY-MENT Per-sonal 1 0 5 EMPLOY-MENT Per-sonal 7 1 1 Cosmopolitanism Score Overall Attitudinal Change VARNA VARNA Bania Brahmin Bania Brahmin REASON FOR Eco-nomic 9 1 3 REASON FOR Eco-nomic 2 4 3 2 EMPLOY-MENT Per-sonal 1 1 1 4 EMPLOY-MENT Per-sonal 2 8 3 0 *Each composite attitudinal score i s obtained by adding together the number of behavioural changes made by my respondents which indicate that attitude (as liste d on pp. 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 ) . 174. equally cosmopolitan, the composite scores indicate that Banias are considerably less cosmopolitan than Brahmins: Dynamic Prag- Individual- Cosmopolitan- mat ism Score ism Score ism Score Banias 19 13 20 Brahmins 14 21 27 The differences between these composite scores — differ-ences of five, eight, and seven — are more significant than the differences between the scores obtained according to reason for employment (differences of three, two, and three). Hence, the expectations that reason for employment would be more relevant to the degrees of attitudinal change than caste are not confirmed. By subtracting the differences found between the "reason for em-ployment" scores from the differences between the "varna a f f i l i a -tion" scores, i t may be noted that caste is more relevant to the degree of dynamic pragmatism by two "points," to the degree of i n -dividualism by six "points," and to the degree of cosmopolitanism by four "points." On both methodological and theoretical grounds, the sound-ness of the above findings may be questioned. However, in so far as they correctly indicate differential patterns of change among my respondents, the findings help to answer questions posed i n Chapter One (pp. 29-30). F i r s t of a l l , they suggest that the gen-eral tradition and character of a varna, i t s ethos, may indeed per-meate the family lives of urbanized, educated and employed women. While my respondents are expl i c i t l y oblivious to many overt aspects of community tradition, the above tabulations indicate that they are subject to less tangible implications of varna a f f i l i a t i o n . Secondly, the findings suggest that a woman's employment affects 175. her behaviour and beliefs to the extent i t does regardless of her reason for working. The facts that my respondents are not i n their homes and are involved in the "outside world" appear more relevant to the changes they make in their family lives than do their moti-vations for employment. In summary, analysis of the available data reveals that several variables such as origin of marriage, household composi-tion, area of education, and caste a f f i l i a t i o n influence the extent of change in family l i f e . In relation to intrafamilial relation-ships, these variables may also affect the pattern and direction of change. With regard to features of l i f e - s t y l e , however, con-sequences of industrialization appear most relevant to the patterns of change. And in relation to aspects of community tradition, women's employment appears to be an important factor in change. Implications of Change My primary concern throughout this thesis has been to ident-i f y the nature, direction, and possible causes of change in family l i f e . I wish to end with a note on the consequences of those changes for the family. The new patterns of behaviour appear to affect the family i n two basic ways. On the one hand, extended family functions and ties decrease i n number and importance. On the other hand, func-tions and ties of the nuclear family increase. The diminishing importance of extended family ties may be seen in a l l three areas examined for behavioural change. With re-gard to community tradition, the participation of numerous relatives in l ife-cycle events has been drastically reduced. In some cases, respondents state that they abbreviate or omit the celebration of life-cycle events because of the expense or time involved, and 176. because a cross-caste marriage poses d i f f i c u l t i e s for the function's planners. But i n other cases, relatives are excluded from l i f e -cycle events (such as the naming of a child) because the conjugal couple does not wish to involve them. Similarly, in celebrating a l l -caste calendrical occasions, the respondents not only include friends and neighbors of other castes, they also reduce, at least proportion-ately, the extent to which relatives are included in the celebrations. With regard to aspects of l i f e - s t y l e , the increased mobil-i t y of the respondents decreases the frequency of joint family house-holds. Of the twelve shifts i n residence made by the respondents, six separated nuclear family units from joint families. Two of these moves were made for better job opportunities or because of inter-office transfer, but the remaining four were made for the expressed purpose of getting away from the joint family. For those respond-ents l i v i n g jointly with, or i n close proximity to, their husbands' families, the new patterns of egalitarian intrafamilial interaction transform the hierarchical system of rights and duties which tradi-tionally t i e daughters-in-law to their husbands' relatives. More pronounced than the decrease in extended family ties and functions i s the increased focus on the nuclear family. Again, behavioural changes in a l l three areas effect the pattern. Commun-ity traditions such as evening puja and the order of dining are mod-i f i e d so as to include husbands, wives, and children. Living space i s allocated for nuclear families as wholes, and new bungalows are bu i l t for the needs of a single, nuclear family. Of a l l intrafamil-i a l relationships, those between husband and wife and parent and child most frequently reflect the new egalitarian ideals. Further-more, members of nuclear families spend more time a l l together than did members of the respondents' families of orientation. Instead of s i t t i n g with their fathers and the fathers' bhalbandh friends, or 177. accompanying their mothers and female neighbors, the respondents' children enjoy evenings i n the home or weekend outings with both their mothers and their fathers. Some behavioural changes strengthening the nuclear fam-i l y (such as residential mobility) may be fac i l i t a t e d or even neces-sitated by the consequences of industrialization (see Goode, 1968). But in other respects, the ties and functions of my respondents' families appear to increase almost i n spite of factors affecting changes i n their attitudes and behaviour. For example, the combina-tion of early schooling for children, fixed working hours for men, and employment for women effectively reduces the number of hours which family members spend at home. Yet the time spent together as families has increased. Similarly, women's employment exposes them to opportunities and activities outside the home, yet they continue to concentrate energy and time inside the home. Even the dynamic pragmatism evidenced by the respondents does not appear to detract from the emotional ties and functions of the nuclear family (see Smelser, 1966: 115). I have argued above (pp. 162-165) that the attitudes re-flected in my respondents' changed patterns of family l i f e are mod-ern attitudes. It follows that the changed familial behaviour may i t s e l f be "modern." Certainly the decrease i n extended family ties and functions, and the increase i n nuclear family ones are consider-ed characteristic of "modern" families by Goode (1968), Smelser (1966), and others. But as suggested in Chapter One (pp. 3-5), the opposi-tion in today's India may not be between joint and nuclear families as much as i t i s between families, or familism, and individuals, or individualism. With few exceptions, the respondents of the present study behave and believe indi v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y . Whether they li v e jointly or i n nuclear households, and however much they maintain 178. joint family ties or emphasize nuclear family integrity, my respond-ents demonstrate in their changing patterns of family l i f e that they are individuals — "self-determined beingi' — i n families. 179. Gujarati adivasl ahimsa Ambajl "SratT, a r t l artha ashrama aya Bania bhal bhalbandh bhajan Brahmin chowk darshan Diwall diwan Gaikwad Ganesh, GanapatT Glta gol grhastha dharma guru himsa GLOSSARY English aboriginal; t r i b a l non-violence goddess; incarnation of Shakti cir c l i n g of flame before image of god during worship material pursuits stage of l i f e nursemaid merchant; Gujarati Vaishya brother; common suffix on Gujarati male names l i t : brother bound; intimate male friend hymn the p r i s t l y class; top Hindu social stratum li v i n g space i n house open to the sky awe f e l t in the presence of someone highly esteemed festival of lights chief minister in a princely state princely ruler of Baroda State god of fortune, having head of an elephant; son of Shiva Bhagwad GTta; sacred text sub-caste; endogamous group householder's duties teacher; s p i r i t u a l mentor violence 180. Roll j a t i je-je kama Krishna Kshatriya Mahabharata mantra Maratjia MSgul Mohenjo-daro namas te Navratri pan Parsi Paryusha pol pol panch puja pukka purdah festival at the vernal equinox, celebrated with throwing of colour-ed powder or water caste salutation sensual pleasure god; incarnation of Vishnu the warrior class; second Hindu social stratum epic celebrating the battle be-tween the Pandava and Kaurara princes prayer, incantation dominant ethnic group in Maharash-tra; ruled Gujarat during last half of eighteenth century Muslim imperial rulers of India; ruled Gujarat from 1473 to 1753 sit e of prehistoric Indus c i v i l i -zation ruins salutation made with palms folded festival of the nine nights before Dussehra digestive made from betel leaf and nut member of Zoroastrian religious sect eight-day fast observed by Jains for forgiveness of sins inner-city neighbourhood executive and ju d i c i a l body i n the pol, previously coterminous with that of a j a t i worship l i t : baked; good, well-made l i t : curtain; protective v e i l for women 181. Rakshabandan Ramayana r i s h l s a a r i l saatT sadvt Saurashtra sheth shethanl Shiva Shiva-lingam Shudra Sindhi sloka Teerthunkar upanayana Uthrarn Vaishya varna Veda Vishnu fes t i v a l celebrating mutual devotion of brothers and sisters epic celebrating the adventures of Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu ancient Hindu sage prevalent costume of adult women consisting of several yards of wrapped cloth companion holy man of Sthanakavasi sect among Jains peninsular region of Gujarat chief elder of a pgj wife of sheth God of destruction and procreation one of many idols of Shiva i n form of phallus the labourer class; fourth Hindu social stratum Hindu from Sind, ordinarily a post-partition refugee verse deified preceptor in the Jain r e l i g -ion ceremony in which upper-caste Hindu boys receive sacred thread winter festival celebrated with kite-flying the merchant class; third Hindu social stratum Hindu social stratum; Vedic class most ancient collection of Hindu songs and prayers God of preservation 182. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmedabad Gazetteer, 1879, cited i n G i l l i o n . Ahmedabad: A Study in  Indian Urban History. 1968. Ames, Michael M. "Indian Castes Old and New: A Review Art i c l e , " Pacific Affairs, XLIV, 1 (Spring 1971). Beck, Brenda E.F. Lectures delivered at the University of British Columbia. 1969-1971. Beteille, Andre. Caste, Class and Power: Changing Patterns of Strat- i f i c a t i o n in Tanjore Village. Berkeley: University of Californ-i a Press, 1965. Beteille, Andre. Cast es Old and New: Essays i n Social Structure and Social Stratification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1969. Biardeau, Madeleine. "Ahamkara, the Ego Principle in the Upanishads," Contributions to Indian Sociology, VIII (October 1965). Breese, Gerald. Urbanization i n Newly Developing Countries. Engle-wood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Brush, John E. "The Morphology of Indian Cities," India's Urban  Future, ed. Roy Turner. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962. Carstairs, G. Morris. The Twice-Born: A Study of High-Caste Hindus. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1961. Chhibbar, Y.P. From Caste to Class: A Study of the Indian Middle  Classes. New Delhi: Associated Publishing House, 1968. Cormack, Margaret. The Hindu Woman. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1953. Desai, I.P. Some Aspects of Family in Mahuva: A Sociological Study  of Jointness in a Small Town. London: Asia Publishing House, 1964. Doshi, Harish C. "Industrialization and Neighborhood Communities in a Western Indian City — Challenge and Response," Journal of  the Indian Sociological Society, XVII, 1 (March 1968). Dube, S.C. Indian Village. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1955. Dumont, Louis. "The Functional Equivalents of the Individual in Caste Society," Contributions to Indian Sociology, VII (October 1965). Dumont, Louis. "The Modern Conception of the Individual," Contribu- tions to Indian Sociology, VIII (October 1965). 183. Erikscm, Erik H. Childhood and Society. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1963. Erikson, Erik H. Gandhi's Truth: On the Origins of Militant Non- violence. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1969. Forbes, Alexander K. Ras Mala: Hindu Annals of the Province of Goozerat in Western India. 2 Vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1924. Gi l l i o n , K.L. Ahmedabad: A Study in Indian Urban History. Berk-eley: University of California Press, 1968. Goode, William J. "Industrialization and Family Change," Indust- r i a l i z a t i o n and Society, ed. Bert F. Hoselitz and Wilbert E. Moore. UNESCO, 1968. Gore, M.S. Urbanization and Family Change. Bombay: Popular Prak-ashan, 1968. Government of India. Census of India 1931, VIII, 2; X, 2, Bombay Presidency General Report. Bombay: Government Central Press, 1933. Government of India. Census of India 1961, V, 9, Gujarat Census Atlas. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1966. Gusfield, Joseph R. "Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change," The American Journal of Sociol- ogy, LXXII, 4, (January 1967). Hazelhurst, Leighton. Entrepreneurship and the Merchant Castes i n a Punjabi City. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1966. Inkeles, Alex. "The Modernization of Man," Modernization, ed. Myron Weiner. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1966. Inkeles, Alex. "Social Change and Social Character: The Role of Parental Mediation," The Journal of Social Issues, II, 2 (1955). Kapadia, K.M. Marriage and Family i n India. London: Oxford Univer-sity Press, 1966. Kapur, Promila. Marriage and the Working Woman in India. Delhi: Vikas Publications, 1970. Karve, D.D. The New Brahmans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. Karve, Irawati. Kinship Organization in India. Bombay: Asia Pub-lishing House, 1965. 184. Kennedy, Beth C. "Rural-Urban Contrasts in Parent-Child Relations in India," Indian Journal of Social Work, XV, 3 (December 1954). Khatri, A.A. "Certain Salient Features of the Joint Family Relevant for Family Interaction Project," unpublished a r t i c l e , n.d. Khatri, A.A. "Changing Family and Personality of Hindus — A Few Broad Hypotheses," Vidya: Journal of Gujarat University, VII, 2 (August 1965). Khatri, A.A. "Joint Family and Child Personality: A Brief Note," unpublished a r t i c l e , n.d. Khatri, A.A. "Some Neglected Approaches and Problems in the Study of Family i n India," Sociological Bulletin, X, 1 (March 1961). Lamb, Helen. "The Indian Merchant," Traditional India: Structure  and Change, ed. Milton Singer. Philadelphia: The American Folklore Society, 1959. Majmudar, M.R. Cultural History of Gujarat: From Early Times to  Pre-British Period. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1965. Mayer, Adrian C. Caste and Kinship in Central India: A Village and  Its Region. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1960. Mehta, Rama. The Western Educated Hindu Woman. New York: Asia Publishing House, 1970. Minturn, Leigh, and John J. Hitchcock. The Rajputs of Khalapur. Six Cultures Series: III. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Minutes from weekly meetings of the Family Interaction Project. Ahmedabad, B.M. Institute, 1968. Misra, B.B. The Indian Middle Classes: Their Growth in Modern Times. London: Oxford University Press, 1961. Moddie, A.D. The Brahmanical Culture and Modernity. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1968. Moore, Barrington, Jr. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1966. Morrison, Charles. "Some Aspects of Caste-Neighbourhood Variation in a North Indian City," paper delivered at the American Anthro-pological Association Meeting i n New Orleans: November 22, 1969. Munshi, K.M. Glory That Was Gurjara Desa. Bombay: Bharatiy A Vidya Bhavan, 1954. Murphy, Gardner. In the Minds of Men: The Study of Human Behaviour  and Social Tensions in India. New York: Basic Books - UNESCO, 1953. 185. Murphy, Lois. "Roots of Tolerance and Tensions in Indian Child Development," in Gardner Murphy, 1953. Nair, B.N. The Dynamic Brahmin. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1959. Narain, Dhirendra. Hindu Character: A Few Glimpses. Bombay: University of Bombay Publications, 1957. The New York Times. January 14, 1968. Pandit, D.P. "Creative Response in Indian Economy: A Regional Analysis," The Economic Weekly, February 23 and March 2, 1957. Pocock, D.F. "The Hypergamy of the Patidars," Ghurye Fel i c i t a t i o n  Volume. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1954. Pocock, D.F. "The Movement of Castes," Royal Anthropological In- stitute Proceedings, No. 79 (1955). Pocock, D.R. "Inclusion and Exclusion: A Process in the Caste System of Gujarat," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology XIII (1957). Poffenberger, Thomas. "Husband-Wife Communication and Motivational Aspects of Population Control in an Indian Village." Unpublish-ed manuscript, University of Baroda, 1968. Prasad, Bhagwan. Socio-Economic Study of Urban Middle Classes. Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1968. Ramanathan, G. Indian Babu: A Study in Social Psychology. New Delhi: Sudha Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1965. Ramanujam, B.K. "Family Relations in India and Possible Psychologi-cal Implications," unpublished a r t i c l e , n.d. Ramanujam, B.K. "Some Thoughts on Psychological Problems of Families in India," Indian Journal of Psychiatry, IX, 1 (January 1967). Ross, Aileen D. The Hindu Family i n Its Urban Setting. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961. Rudolph, Lloyd I., and Susanne Hoeber Rudolph. The Modernity of  Tradition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967. Sangave, Vilas Adinath. Jaina Community: A Social Survey. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1959. Setya, R.L. "Ahmedabad — A Growing Metropolis," an address to the Gujarat University Teachers' Association, August 30, 1968. Shah, A.M., and R.G. Shroff. "The Vahivanca Barots of Gujarat: A Caste of Genealogists and Mythographers," Traditional India: Structure and Change, ed. Milton Singer. Philadelphia: The American Folklore Society, 1959. 186. Shah, A.M. " P o l i t i c a l System in Eighteenth Century Gujarat," Enquiry, I, 1 (1964). Quoted i n Srinivas, Social Change i n Modern India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. Singer, Milton. "The Iidian Joint Family In Modern Industry," Structure and Change in Indian Society, ed. Milton Singer and Bernard S. Cohn. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1968. Smelser, Neil J. "The Modernization of Social Relations," Mod- ernization, ed. Myron Weiner. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1966. Spodek, Howard. "Traditional Culture and Entrepreneurship," Eco- nomic and P o l i t i c a l Weekly, IV, 8 (February 22, 1969). Spratt, P. Hindu Culture and Personality: A Psycho-Analytic Study. Bombay: P.C. Manaktala and Sons Private Limited, 1966. Steed, Gitel P. Field notes taken i n rural Gujarat, 1950. Taylor, W.S. "The Orthodox Hindu Family System," International  Journal of Social Work, IV (1943). Thapar, Romila. "The E l i t e and Social Mobility in Early India," unpublished a r t i c l e , Spring 1968. The Times of India. June 1968 - April 1969. Wiser, William H., and Charlotte V. Wiser. Behind Mud Walls: 1930 -1960. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 187. APPENDIX A METHODOLOGY As an undergraduate at Barnard College, I wrote a Senior Thesis entitled "Some Aspects of Hindu Socialization Patterns: A Rural-Urban Comparison." It was to have been researched in India, but as the date of my arrival there had to be postponed, i t was based entirely on library resources. Once in India, however, I be-came interested i n pursuing some of the questions raised by the B.A. Thesis. The nature of the mother-son relationship and the concept of group identification seemed particularly worthy of pursuit. In their preface to In the Minds of Men (1953), Lois and Gardner Murphy acknowledge help received from the staff of the Bak-ubhal Mansukhbhal (B. M.) Institute, i n Ahmedabad. Here I, too, found a good library, interesting seminars on case-studies and social surveys, and very helpful friends. With these aids I drew up a questionnaire (Appendix B) and was introduced to my f i r s t respond-ents . No attempt was made to select a random sample. I inter-viewed any Gujarati woman who spoke some English, had a child under ten years of age, and was interested i n participating i n the study. Several persons, including one man and seven unmarried women, were also interviewed upon their request. Out of some thirty respond-ents, the twelve included in the present sample attracted me in particular because of their positions as employed women, and be-cause my relationships with them were relatively close and compre-hensive. My relationship with each woman developed i n three stages. F i r s t , a mutual acquaintance introduced us, either i n her home or 188. at the respondents' place of work. My Interest In Gujarati child-rearing methods was explained, usually by the mutual acquaintance. The respondent then Invited me to her home (In Kamala's case, to her mother's home) for afternoon tea. She Introduced me to members of her family and chatted about her work, her children, and about topics of general interest such as the cost of l i v i n g and fashions in saariis. I took no notes during these i n i t i a l , informal sessions but wrote down as much as I could after leaving. Next I met with each respondent i n her home at an appoint-ed time, usually late afternoon, to administer the questionnaire. I did not request privacy, nor did I request the presence of any-one but the respondent. The husbands of Urmila, Aruna, Nandini, and Champa sat with their wives during at least part of the formal interview. I addressed my questions exclusively to the women, but their husbands occasionally contributed answers. No mother-in-law came into the room where the interview was held for more than a few minutes, but the children of the respondents ran i n and out, or sat staring at me, throughout the proceedings. Only during the f i r s t formal session with Champa did I feel that the presence of other persons — there were eighteen crowded into the two-room pol house — might have affected the responses to questions. However, in sub-sequent interviews, Champa's replies seemed consistent with those given during the f i r s t session. The administration of the question-naire took between three and four hours, and was completed in most cases on two successive days. Finally, I continued to see my respondents informally. I accepted invitations to their homes of orientation, to their husbands' families' homes, and to their places of work. I visited some of the schools attended by the women's children, and accompanied the fami-l i e s of several respondents on outings to temples, bazaars, or parks. 189. Naturally I came to know some respondents better than others, but even those with whom I spent the least amount of time (approximate-ly seven hours) seemed to give frank and open answers consistent with my observations of their actual behaviour. Needless to say, I am very grateful to my respondents and their families, and to the staff of Bakubhai Mansukhbhai (B.M.) Institute, for their cooperation, advice, and friendship. At the University of British Columbia, I have received both intellectual stimulation and helpful guidance from Professors Michael M. Ames and Brenda E. F. Beck. I wish also to thank Professors Kenelm Burridge, Tissa Fernando, and Helga Jacobson for their comments on the thesis and their encouragement. My husband, John, saw the thesis through a l l i t s stages and, with me, has learned a lot about working women. 190. APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE Basic Information F u l l Name Father's Name Address Date of birth; husband's Place of birth; husband's Cas te; husband's Varna; husband's J a t i ; husband's Gol; husband's Religion; husband's Sect; husband's Native Place; husband's Education; husband's Service/Occupation; husband's Child's name Child's date of birth Orientation A. Structure of Household 1. Who was staying in your house when you were born? 2. Who was born after you? (Kakl's, BhabhT's children, brothers and sisters). 3. Who came to stay with your family after your birth (DadI, Fol, Bhabhl)? 4. Which relatives and friends did you see most often? Was there one favorite? 191. 5. Did anyone i n your family go out of station often or for some time? 6. Did anyone leave the house before your marriage (for education, service, marriage)? 7. Did any close relative expire before your marriage? B. Childhood Experience 8. What housework did you do? Who was cooking? What were servants doing? 9. What did you do with the younger children? What was Aya doing? 10. Did you have peesa sometimes? How did you get one sweet, bangri, etc.? 11. What things do you remember doing each day? Who was playing with you? 12. What religious customs did your family do each day? Week? Year? 13. What good things did you do that made your family happy with you? 14. When they were happy with you, how did they express this? What did they say? 15. What naughty things did you do that your family did not like? 16. When you were naughty, what did your family do? What did they say? 17. Did your family change residence? (When, to where, and why?) 18. When did you start school, what did you enjoy and not enjoy at school? 19. What were your special interests, a c t i v i t i e s , and hobbies? 20. Did you travel before marriage? (Where, when, with whom, for what reason?) 21. Did you have any service or occupation before marriage? C. Marriage 22. Date of Marriage 23. How did you meet your husband? 24. For how long were you engaged? What was your relationship then? 192. 25. Where did you marry; what ceremony and functions did you have? 26. Where did you stay after marriage? Who was i n that household? 27. Where have you stayed since marriage? Why did you change r e s i -dence? Procreation A. Infancy 28. Pre-/Post-natal factors a) Place of birth; months at mother's place; Aya for how long? b) Health during pregnancy and delivery c) Did you plan to have a child at this time? How many more do you want? d) Was a boy or g i r l hoped for (by you, your husband, in-laws, etc.)? 29. Feeding a) How much did the child cry, and at what time? What did you do f i r s t ? b) How often each day did you give mother's milk? For how many months? Why did you stop giving mother's milk? How did you get him to stop? c) When did you f i r s t give bottle? Who was giving? Was there any problem? d) When did you f i r s t give cup/glass? When could he take by himself? e) When did you f i r s t give food? When did he take by himself? Does he take food everyday at the same time, or whenever he is hungry? 30. Cleanliness a) Who bathes the child, and how often? When did he f i r s t bathe himself? 193. b) When did you f i r s t take the child to the bathroom? When did he f i r s t go there by himself, and pour water after? c) Until what age did he sometimes wet the bed at night? d) When did you f i r s t take him to latrine? When did he go by himself, and when could he wash himself after? e) If he had an accident and soiled i n the house, what did you say/do? 31. Socializing a) Where did the child sleep after birth at night? When did he f i r s t sleep on his own bed? What are the sleeping arrangements now? b) When could he say a few words? How much does he talk now? c) When did he f i r s t walk? Is this early or late? How much does he move about? d) How many times do you go out each week without your child? Who takes care of him then? e) Where do you go when you take the child out with you? B. Childhood Responsibility a) How does your child help you i n the housework? Do you ask him to do some things? What should he do regularly when he i s 10 years old? b) When a younger child i s with him, what does he do? What should he do? c) If your child asks for one thing from bazaar, who w i l l give i t to him? When w i l l you not give i t ? When w i l l you f i r s t give peesa to him? Discipline/Affection a) What does your child do that makes you most happy? your husband most happy? 32. 33. 194. b) How do you show him you are happy?.. What does your husband do or say to him? c) What naughty things does your child do? What does your husband not like? d) When he i s naughty, what do you do? What does you husband do? (Other?) e) If your child w i l l not eat/stop quarreling with another child, what do you do? 34. Socializing a) Which relatives and friends do you v i s i t / v i s i t with you most often? Does your child have one favorite relative? b) Are you, your husband or other family members going out of station? c) When did/will your child f i r s t go to school? Who wanted him to go? d) Please describe your typical daily routine, br i e f l y . (Eating, sleeping, going and coming, child's activities) e) What religious custom do you do i n your house each day? week? year? Attitudes 35. What hopes do you and your husband have for his education? occupation? marriage? 36. How did you learn about child care? What i s the best way for a g i r l to learn? 37. In what way does your husband (other) disagree with your ideas about child care? 38. Please give your ideas about the following relationships: a) A boy sould be ; g i r l b) Son to father; daughter to father. c) Son to mother; daughter to mother 195. d) Father to son; father to daughter e) Mother to son; mother to daughter f) Brother to sister; sister to brother g) Husband to wife; wife to husband 39. For children in Ahmedabad, i s a joint or separate family better, and why? Environment 40. Neighborhood/Society 41. Compound/Bungalow 42. Family's quarters a) Sleeping b) Cooking/eating c) Bathing d) Other 43. Articles: books, toys, etc. 196. APPENDIX C KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY Abbreviation Fa Mo So Dau Bro Si Hu Wi E l Yo FaFa, MoFa FaMo, MoMo FaBro, FaBroWi FaSi, FaSiHu MoBro, MoBroWi MoSi, MoSlHu BroWi, SiHu HuBro, HuSi Kinship Term father mother son daughter brother sister husband wife elder younger Gujarati Equivalent bapu ba dlkro d l k r i bhal bhen patl patni mota (moti) nano (nanl) dada.aja* dadi, naniba* kaka, kakl f o i , foa Mama, Maml Masl, masa bhabi, banevi jetha, nanand *Noted by Karve (1965:197) but not e l i c i t e d from respondents. 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items