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San Michele in Foro representative of late romanesque architecture in Lucca Wolverton, Muriel Beatrice 1972

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SAN MICHELE IN FORO REPRESENTATIVE OF LATE ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN LUCCA  by  Muriel Beatrice Wolverton  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts in the Department of Fine Arts  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1972.  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s an  thesis  advanced degree at  the L i b r a r y  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f  the U n i v e r s i t y  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may his  of  this  written  representatives.  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  be g r a n t e d by  the Head, of my  It i s understood that  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  by  of  the  Columbia  be  that  study.  this  thesis  Department  c o p y i n g or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  i  ABSTRACT The phenomenal expansion of church building during the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries can be noted i n Lucca as elsewhere. The power of the Benedictine Order and the Bishopric, the increase i n wealth because of the s i l k industry as well as a prime position on the trade route between I t a l y and North Europe, and r i v a l r i e s with Florence and P i s a , a l l promoted a f l o u r i s h i n g of the arts i n Lucca during the Romanesque period. An attempt  has been made i n t h i s paper to draw attention to the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l background i n Lucca during the Romanesque period. architecture appears to be divided into two phases.  The  The f i r s t phase  demonstrates a c l a s s i c s i m p l i c i t y that appears to relate to the Early C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a l church with the possible intrusion of Lombard ideas. The second phase demonstrates a noticeable change i n the facade which becomes a decorative screen with b l i n d arcading, doors and windows with splayed arches and free standing g a l l e r i e s with carving or i n t a r s i a i n the s t r u c t u r a l components.  The s t r u c t u r a l and decorative aspects of the  facade appear to have been adopted from the school of architecture at Pisa but at Lucca they are stamped with a l o c a l exuberance which has a l i v e l y and p l a s t i c quality not seen at Pisa.' There i s an underlying.classical t r a d i t i o n which appears to be a fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Tuscan architecture.  The use of arcading,  i n t a r s i a and sculpture, a l l of c l a s s i c a l heritagejwhen adopted at Lucca, seem to f i n d closer p a r a l l e l s i n the Eastern t r a d i t i o n .  Super-imposed  l e v e l s of arches are used i n Lombard and Saracenic architecture and appear at Lucca as a r e f l e c t i o n of the facade of the cathedral at Pisa.  The  ii  spandrel i n t a r s i a decoration varies from that at Pisa and seems to r e f l e c t the designs of Byzantine and Saracenic t e x t i l e s , on the other hand, the columnar i n t a r s i a at Lucca appears to have p a r a l l e l s in the a r c h i t e c t u r a l decoration adopted by the Normans a f t e r t h e i r defeat of the Arabs i n S i c i l y . The Sarved r e l i e f of the columns finds s t i l l other p a r a l l e l s i n Lombard, Byzantine and Saracenic work.  The decoration of the facades of San Martino  and San Michele at Lucca indicates, however, that i f the concept was of Eastern o r i g i n there was no d i r e c t adoption of any p a r t i c u l a r prototype but interpretation perhaps even second hand interpretation which resulted in a mode of expression that remained unique to Lucca.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I II  San M i c h e l e i n F o r o General D e s c r i p t i o n  1  Lucca H i s t o r i c a l Aspects  6  III  Influences  on A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  11  IV  A r c h i t e c t u r a l and S c u l p t u r a l D e t a i l  21  V  Influences  33  o f Tuscan S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  Summary o f i n f l u e n c e s  on A r c h i t e c t u r e a t  Lucca  Illustrations  36  Footnotes  Ul  Bibliography  kf  Appendix  52  iv  ILLUSTRATIONS Figure  1  San Michele i n Foro, Lucca.  2  San Martino, Lucca.  3  k 5  Facade, San Martino.  1926, p i . 133.  A l i n a r i Photo.  A l i n a r i Photo. B i e h l , Toskanische P l a s t i k ,  S i l v e r g i l t r e l i c box. Museo Sacro, Vatican C i t y Photo. Plan of San Martino, Lucca.  1953, p. 5^.  B a r s a l i , Guida d i Lucca,  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I would l i k e to thank Professor Ian McNairn f o r his encouragement to explore and to raise questions when my interest i n the churches at Lucca surfaced.  San Michele i n Foro, Representative of Late Romanesque Architecture i n Lucca Chapter I San Michele i n Foro ( f i g . l ) was r e b u i l t late i n the Romanesque period. It i s a d i s t i n c t i v e example of strong regional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l architecture of Lucca and Pisa at that time.  These centres  produced work rooted i n the so-called c l a s s i c a l tradition, but with what would appear to be Lombard, Byzantine and Saracen influences.  San Michele  can be placed i n the second of two phases of Romanesque architecture at L u c c a . I n the f i r s t phase, there was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m p l i c i t y of the church i n t e r i o r .  In the second phaser, the cruciform plan was introduced^but  the most remarkable change came i n the exterior where the facade became the domain of the sculptor.  The facade was turned into a screen of sculpture  and polychrome i n l a y which covered the s o l i d walls.  This type of decorative  facade appears to have been influenced by the Cathedral at P i s a b u t when y  i t comes to Lucca, possibly f i r s t to the cathedral of San Martino ( f i g . and then to San Michele, i t i s presented with an exuberance  2)  to the sculpture  and i n t a r s i a that i s purely l o c a l . San Michele stands as a white marble mass at the north-east corner of a large piazza, on the s i t e of an old Roman forum.  Although the church was  founded i n 795, the date llU3 found i n the l e f t p i l a s t e r of the presbytery is generally regarded as the completion date of the rebuilding of the  2 b a s i l i c a n structure, including the blind arcading encompassing the exterior. This blind arcading comprises the f i r s t of three zones of a remarkable facade. The blind arcading of t h i s zone with six columns^ two l a t e r a l p i l a s t e r s , and bichromatic voussoirs,scans seven compartments.  The central arch i s  2  l a r g e r than the o t h e r s and  i t c o n t a i n s the main p o r t a l w i t h a c o r n i c e and  an a r c h i t r a v e i n c a r v e d r e l i e f .  Above t h i s t h e r e i s a wheel window framed  by a c a r v e d a r c h i v o l t s p r i n g i n g from the back o f a l i o n on e i t h e r s i d e . c o n t r a s t the two  l a t e r a l p o r t a l s are unadorned.  r e c e s s e d lozenge  shaped panels appear under the heads o f the a r c h e s .  In  A p a r t from the c e n t r a l a r c h , This  scheme r e f l e c t s the p a r a l l e l zone i n the c a t h e d r a l a t P i s a and the s t y l e o f the a r c a d i n g emcompassing the church i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f the B a p t i s t e r y o f Pisa.  Because o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Salmi c o n f i r m s R i d o l f ' s  t h a t the a r c a d i n g o f San M i c h e l e was  suggestion  f i n i s h e d by D i o t i s a l v i who  initiated  3 the B a p t i s t e r y a t P i s a i n 1 1 5 2 .  C e . r t a i n l y t h e r e i s an elegance  i n the a r c a d i n g o f the B a p t i s t e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t seen a t San The  second  and harmony  Michele.  zone o f the facade w a l l has m u l l i o n e d windows w i t h s p l a y e d  arches i n Lombard f a s h i o n f i r s t  noted  i n the e i g h t h c e n t u r y Lombard work  third  zone c o n t a i n s a wheel window, a  k at  S. P i e t r o i n T u s c a n i a .  The  window and an a r c h e d opening.  Over these two  round  zones a s c r e e n i s super  imposed, c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r l e v e l s o f arcaded g a l l e r i e s w i t h e l a b o r a t e s c u l p t u r e and i n l a y .  The t h i r d zone i s remarkably  the church f o r some unaccountable to  reason.  h i g h e r than the body o f  Perhaps t h i s was  done w i t h a view  making the facade more i m p r e s s i v e and t o making the church appear e x t e r n a l l y  l a r g e r than i t was.  ' F a l s e ' facades which do not d e f i n e the a c t u a l r o o f  o v e r the nave and the a i s l e s are found i n e a r l i e r churches such as Sant' Ambrogio, M i l a n , f i r s t q u a r t e r o f e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , and a t San M i c h e l e 5 Maggiore, P a v i a , f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . Surmounting the facade t h e r e i s a l a r g e awkward Statue o f the A r c h a n g e l M i c h a e l and two t a b e r n a c l e s  6 on the s l o p e a t e i t h e r s i d e , a l l o f u n c e r t a i n d a t e . marked v e r t i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n i n the f a c a d e .  These f a c t o r s e f f e c t  S t y l i s t i c a l l y the arcaded  a  gallery  3 at the apse end appears to predate the facade g a l l e r i e s while that of the side walls i s of a much l a t e r date.  The blind arcading and the arcaded  g a l l e r i e s give a strong contrast to the l i g h t and shadow i n the exterior of San Michele. This contrast i s also seen at San Martino where the lower zone i s an open portico with three arches with s o l i d heavy piers r e c a l l i n g the early eleventh century Lombard piers i n the narthex and atrium at Sant' Ambrogio, Milan.  The upper facade wall also retains the Lombard influence i n the  splayed arches of the mullioned windows which have three orders of jamb shafts and corresponding square a r c h i v o l t s .  This facade also presents  three zones but only a single l e v e l of arcades i n the top zone.  Consideration  of t h i s and also of the projection of the open portico could suggest that the o r i g i n a l intent might have been to deal with the upper portion of the facade in a d i f f e r e n t fashion. in e a r l i e r churches.  Two methods of dealing' with the narthex may be seen  Many churches i n Rome integrate the lower narthex with  the upper gable by means of a sloping roof  undoubtedly derived from o l d St.  Peter's and also seen i n the reconstruction drawings f o r the Benedictine 7  Abbey of 1075 at Montecassino.  At Sant' Ambrogio. Milan, the narthex has a  simple unbroken outline with two stories of broad open arches screening the a r t i c u l a t i o n s of the i n t e r i o r .  The contrast of the narthex at San Martino  with rows of arcades above suggests that there i s a discrepancy i n the date of execution of the design between these two areas.  I t appears that the  arcades were modified at some stage to accommodate the campanile. At San Michele there i s a more harmonious relationship between the high arches of the blind arcading at the lowers l e v e l and the arches of the free standing g a l l e r i e s above although the c l a s s i c a l f e e l i n g of the lower zone finds i t s d i r e c t antithesis i n the a n t i - c l a s s i c a l f e e l i n g of the upper zones. I t i s  k  generally suggested that these two areas were executed at d i f f e r e n t periods. The free standing g a l l e r i e s with t h e i r sculpture and i n l a y , appear to be a l o c a l expression of the h i g h l y ornamented surfaces of Eastern  magnificence  which screen facade w a l l s and the i n t e r i o r a r t i c u l a t i o n s . In the i n t e r i o r at San Michele the elements are w e l l coordinated and r e f l e c t the simple and compact b a s i l i c a l churches of the f i r s t phase of Lucchese Romanesque a r c h i t e c t u r e with the a d d i t i o n of the cruciform plan. The bays of the nave have twice the breadth as the bays of the side a i s l e s . The length of the c e n t r a l nave i s ^7.90 18.70  meters.  meters.  The breadth of the nave i s  The breadth of the transept i s 32.10  axis of the transept i s 8.28  meters.^  meters and the minor  The l a t e r a l w a l l s of the nave contain  c l e r e s t o r y windows and a h o r i z o n t a l moulding at the height of the a i s l e s that continues around the w a l l of the r a i s e d apse.  The nave i s d i v i d e d by  arcades each containing s i x monolithic columns with broad bases and Romanesque c a p i t a l s i n i m i t a t i o n of the C o r i n t h i a n and the Composite orders. The triumphal arch r e s t s upon two p i l a s t e r s ;  The o r i g i n a l trussed c e i l i n g was  replaced i n the sixteenth century by the present vaulted c e i l i n g . there i s a f i n e sense of proportion and c l a s s i c s i m p l i c i t y .  Overall  This same sense  of s e c u r i t y of proportion and sparsemess of decoration i s seen i n the eleventh century churches of San Alessandro, Lucca, and San Giorgio de B r a n c o l i i n the d i s t r i c t and i t i s a l s o seen i n the t w e l f t h century p o r t i o n of San Frediano, Lucca.  An e a r l i e r version of the facade at San Martino  might have been l i k e t h i s .  The p r o j e c t i n g transepts at San Michele might be  an influence from P i s a but the e a r l y t w e l f t h century cruciform church, Michele Maggiore, Pavia; must not be overlooked.  San  There i s some question as to  the date of the a d d i t i o n of the p r o j e c t i n g transepts at San Martino. The homogeneity i n the Lucchese Romanesque a r c h i t e c t u r e of the f i r s t  5  phase i s translated into San Michele i n terms of a fine sense of proportion and a c l a r i t y of line., i n r e l a t i o n to the i n t e r i o r and to the blind arcading of the exterior.  The decorative aspects of the facade r e f l e c t ideas  probably introduced from Pisa, the cruciform plan, the blind arcading, the rhythmic succession of g a l l e r i e s and the use of polychrome.  Lucca o f f e r s  a p l a s t i c sculpture and an elaboration of i n l a y i n polychrome not seen at Pisa.  The fusion of influences at Lucca i s handled i n a creative, imaginative  manner.  However, variations i n the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of arcades i n San  Michele as well as San Martino ( f i g . 3) suggests  a range i n the dates of  execution and without t h i s decorative screen both church facades would relate more c l o s e l y to the churches of the f i r s t phase i n Romanesque building at Lucca.  The covering o f sculpture and i n t a r s i a must surely r e f l e c t the  secure position of the c i t y as a centre of trade and prosperity.  6  Chapter II Both Lucca and Pisa were experiencing the peak of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic power during the Romanesque period.  There was undoubtedly frequent  exchange as well as r i v a l r y between these two c i t i e s .  Church expansion  and elaboration during this period was probably dedicated to c i v i c power as much as to the glory of God.  I t appears that commerical enterprise and  creative i n i t i a t i v e were taking place at the same time as c i v i l wars, invasions and murderous r i v a l r y between factions i n the c i t i e s and republics of Northern I t a l y , during the middle ages.  In the course of the eleventh century, Pisa  joined with Genoa, rose to great maritime power and subsequent prosperity. Together they drove the Saracens out of Sardinia and Corsica and divided the islands into f i e f s distributed to both states.  The ships of these  two  republics engaged i n the profitable trade of transporting soldiers of the F i r s t Crusade to the Holy Land.  They further increased t h e i r wealth from  plunder when they joined with the count of Barcelona i n l i b e r a t i n g the Balaeric Islands from the Saracens and when they joined with the Normans to capture Palermo from the Saracens i n 1062.  The Pisan republic extended  trade on a large scale throughout the Mediterranean  e s t a b l i s h i n g trade  quarters i n S i c i l y , North Africa,and the Near East and inevitably established commerical and c u l t u r a l contacts with the  Saracens.  In the eleventh century many towns i n Northern I t a l y such as Siena, Florence, P i s a , Lucca, Milan Pavia, Brescia and Bologna organized extensive rights of s e l f government f o r maintenance and extension of c i v i l  liberties.  At t h i s time the commune, a sworn body of c i t i z e n s and nobles, came into being.  Each commune was anxious to control i t s own  that of i t s neighbours.  trade outlet as well as  The Pisan Republic expanded r a p i d l y on land i n order  7  to gain this power as w e l l as a wide subject t e r r i t o r y . strength and the support of the Emperor.  They had m i l i t a r y  Their expansion of the north  was  c u r t a i l e d by the republic of Lucca and on the east by the republic of Florence.  The a l l i a n c e with the Emperor bound Pisa to the Ghibelline party.  During the long struggle between the Popes and the Emperors the names Guelph. and Ghibelline were used to designate the papal and imperial parties respect(  ively.  O r i g i n a l ^ the names had been associated with dynastic r i v a l r i e s i n  Germany, the Guelphs being the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria and the Ghibell i n e s the lords of Hohenstaufen.  Guelph l o s t a l l trace of i t s o r i g i n a l  association and became applied to the supporters of the papacy i n the struggle against the emperor. civic politics.  The names outlived t h i s struggle to survive i n I t a l i a n  At no time did either party c l e a r l y represent any p a r t i c u l a r  doctrine or s o c i a l class but these two r i v a l factions plunged I t a l y into i n t e r n a l warfare for many years. The geography of Tuscany and the development of land trade routes l a r g e l y responsible for the r i v a l r i e s of the provinces.  was  The Via Francigena  was the main route f o r pilgrims and trade from France and Northwest Europe to Rome.  Lucca held both the Northern outlet of the Via Francigena  i t s crossing at the Arno.  and  The Lucchese sought to extract dues from a l l  trade passing through t h e i r c i t y from the north. on the road before i t reached Lucca.  Pisa sought a foothold  I t i s not surprising that by  before these c i t i e s were communes, they were f i g h t i n g .  In the 12th  1003, century,  f r i c t i o n between Genoa and Pisa turned into open warfare and at t h i s time Lucca a l l i e d h e r s e l f with Genoa i n the struggle against P i s a .  Before  Florence became a strong commercial centre she joined with Pisa i n the f i g h t i n order to gain free trade and concessions for Florentines i n Pisa. Of course, t h e i r mutual interest evoked h o s t i l i t y and war erupted between  8  these two by 12l8.  The peace i n Tuscany was continually disrupted by t h i s  fight f o r commercial supremacy. Lucca, c a p i t a l of the county of Tuscany and home of the reigning count was an important centre throughout t h i s period. the most important pilgrimage centre i n I t a l y .  Next to Rome, Lucca was The 'Volto Santo' the  large sculptured c r u c i f i x i n San Martino, the cathredral of Lucca, became famous f o r i t s miracles throughout Europe. swore 'per sanctum Bultum de Luca'. antiquity of t h i s c r u c i f i x .  William II of England frequently  A legend grew to authenticate the  I t was claimed that Nicodemus carved i t i n the  likeness of Christ and that i t had arrived i n Lucca i n the 8th century. Regardless, the c r u c i f i x played some role i n the r i s e of Lucca's power and i t remained an a t t r a c t i o n to the pilgrims throughout the twelfth and t h i r teenth centuries. A powerful l i n e of bishops effected reform i n the church and monastic orders at Lucca.  These e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and monastic reforms had begun with  the founding of Cluny i n 910 by the Benedictine order.  This reform coupled  with the wars overlay investiture by the rulers of Europe reawakened r e l i g i o u s zeal throughout Europe.  Accompanied by the commercial enterprise  which was a r i s i n g at t h i s time, the stage was set f o r a f l o u r i s h i n g of the arts.  At Lucca i n the second h a l f of the eleventh century the n o b i l i t y ,  wealthy bankers and merchants and clergy began a program of founding and rebuilding churches and monasteries, most of which were placed under the increasingly powerful Benedictine order. S i g n i f i c a n t events i n the late eleventh century and early twelfth century brought fame to the diocese. Anselmo da Baggio was c a l l e d from Milan to Lucca as Bishop i n 1060.  The next year he rose to prominence when  he became Pope Alexander I I . He retained his episcopacy at Lucca and  9  returned frequently.  At t h i s time the atmosphere was i d e a l f o r an increase  i n church building at Lucca as elsewhere.  The recurring mention of the  episcopacy of Lucca i n documents r e f e r r i n g to S. Pietro i n Valdottavo, S. Giorgia d i Brancoli, and S. Alessandro might indicate d i r e c t intervention of the bishop i n t h e i r construction, a point to remember when considering the homogeneity of these churches.  This pope and two wealthy Lucchese,  Lambertus and Blancarius, were instrumental i n bringing about the reconstruction of San Martino at t h i s time. his  Pope Urban II stopped i n Lucca on  return from the Council of Clermont.. , c a l l e d i n 1 0 9 5 to deal with t h i s 1  reforms and to organize the f i r s t Crusade. there on t h e i r way to the Holy Land. Martino, dating to 1111,  Later the crusaders congregated  The oath of the money changers of San  indicates the importance of t h i s Cathedral as the  centre of the community at that time, with a c t i v i t i e s which could be conveniently conducted under an open portico. Lucca's position i n the network of rdads leading north and south was of prime importance i n the establishment of her f l o u r i s h i n g s i l k industry. Rulers had long regarded the s i l k industry as a necessary c u l t u r a l a r t . Imperial workshops f o r weavers date to the pre-Christian era i n the Eastern world.  The superiority of the Persian t e x t i l e s exercised an influence  throughout the world.  Myth and symbol was adopted into the patterning f o r  costuming and decoration f o r pomp and display.  After the introduction of  Christianity^ weavers adjusted t h e i r s k i l l s to meet the requirement f o r resplendent hangings and vestments f o r the church.  Papal inventories mention  t e x t i l e s imported from the Byzantine and Sassanian empires.  Bagdad, known  as Baldacco i n I t a l y , provided c o s t l y f a b r i c s c a l l e d  'baldacchino' a term  l a t e r associated with canopies made of such f a b r i c s .  Lucca became famous  for i t s production of fabrics c a l l e d  'diasperati' or 'diaspri'.  These  10  t e x t i l e s had f i g u r e s  o f a n i m a l s o r b i r d s w i t h h e a d s , f e e t and sometimes wings  brocaded i n s i l v e r o r g o l d .  Santangelo s t a t e s t h a t these 'panni l u c a n i '  were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n c h u r c h i n v e n t o r i e s o f t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h 2 centuries. B a r s a l i s t a t e s t h e f i r s t m e n t i o n o f weavers i n L u c c a d a t e s t o 8U6 and t h a t s i l k manufacture twelfth century:  had a phase o f f l o w e r i n g and e x p a n s i o n i n the  t h e o l d e s t known example o f t h i s s i l k a t F l o r e n c e i s  from  3 t h e tomb o f B e r n a r d i n o o f U b e r t i who d i e d i n 1133-  There i s a l s o a  frag-  ment o f s i l k a t t r i b u t e d t o the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y weavers a t L u c c a i n the  k S t a t e Museum, B e r l i n . was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  This c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the s i l k i n d u s t r y at Lucca b e f o r e t h e exodus o f s i l k weavers a t Palermo i n 126-5  when C h a r l e s I o f A n j o u d e f e a t e d t h e Hohenstaufens T h i s i s not t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e on L u c c a b e f o r e  that date.  i n South I t a l y and S i c i l y .  the i n f l u e n c e o f the weaving a t e l i e r s a t The a t e l i e r o r  ' H o t e l de T i r a z ' a t t a c h e d t o  c o u r t s o f t h e Saracen e m i r s a t Palermo were t a k e n o v e r by Roger I t h e Norman c o n q u e s t . of l i f e .  Palermo the  after  The Normans adopted much o f the E a s t e r n l u x u r i o u s way  Roger I I brought back Greek weavers t o s t r e n g t h e n the I m p e r i a l work-  'Shop-^after'his conquest  a t C o r i n t h , Thebes and Athens i n l l U 7 .  account f o r t h e b l e n d i n g o f S a r a c e n i c  T h i s would  and B y z a n t i n e m o t i f s i n S i c i l y .  A  r e l a t i o n s h i p can be seen between t h e t e x t i l e d e s i g n s o f L u c c a and t h o s e of S i c i l y .  I n 1186 t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e German Emperor Henry V I t o  t h e h e i r e s s t o t h e Norman c r o w n , e s t a b l i s h e d and C e n t r a l E u r o p e .  Constantine,  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s between  Sicily  I m p e r i a l robes o f the Emperors o f the H o l y Roman Empire  were made i n Palermo f o r the Norman k i n g s and t h r o u g h Henry V I t h e y came i n t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f the Hohenstaufens.  A n o t h e r r o u t e opened f o r  t r a n s f e r o f m o t i f s and t e c h n i q u e s o f t e x t i l e s  the  from the e a s t t o t h e w e s t ,  e x p a n s i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by p o l i t i c a l and economic power o f t h i s  period.  an  11  Chapter I I I In the early part of the 13th century the cultural..arts were f l o u r i s h i n g at Lucca.  Sculpture and decoration was  San Martino and San Michele.  seen i n abundance i n the facades of  In these facades the spandrels of the arcades  are decorated i n a crowded fashion with geometrical and figured i n l a y motifs that appear to relate d i r e c t l y to the patterns of eastern o r i g i n that were used i n the famous s i l k s of Lucca.  Certain columns are i n l a i d i n a manner  also r e f l e c t i n g an Eastern influence other columns are sculptured i n what appears to be a Lombardesque s t y l e .  These decorative forms are a l i v e l y  addition to a s t r u c t u r a l complex that r e c a l l s the facade of the cathedral at Pisa.  At P i s a t h e cathedral was erected between 1063 /  and 1150,  and the  unique facade was created a f t e r the nave was extended westward the length  1 of two and one half bays. At Pisa,the facade seems to r e f l e c t therrenaissance of the antique i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l combined with the chromatic o r i e n t a l conception of i n t a r s i a found i n the 11th century facade at San Miniato a l Monte at Florence, but the e s s e n t i a l l y f l a t e f f e c t at San Miniato i s given a t h i r d  2 dimension at Pisa.  The three h o r i z o n t a l d i v i s i o n s of these facades have  been given a more p l a s t i c e f f e c t at Pisa by the creation of free standing arcades and by the application of r e l i e f sculpture to the s t r i n g courses, c a p i t a l s , impost blocks and at the lower stage to the column shafts. There were possibly three architects responsible f o r t h i s facade which could account f o r the lack of r e g u l a r i t y i n the placement of the i n t e r v a l of the arches at the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s .  At the ground l e v e l there i s a  s l i g h t inequality of the i n t e r v a l of the seven arches.  In the t h i r d story,  the i n t e r v a l of the arches i n the wedge shaped ends increases to six from the f i v e below.  The fourth story has eight over nine of the t h i r d story.  The i r r e g u l a r i t y of the i n t e r v a l of the arches at d i f f e r e n t l l  e v e  ]_  s  gives a  12  l i v e l y e f f e c t and enforces a horizontal disposition^a r e s u l t of the columns not l i n i n g up one over the other.  This horizontal d i s p o s i t i o n i s reenforced  by the dimentions of the facade,for the base i s much wider than the height of the side walls.  At Lucca i n both the facades the columns of the super(  imposed g a l l e r i e s l i n e up one over the other, and i t i s the sculptural and i n l a y decoration that creates a l i v e l y e f f e c t .  At San Martino the rhythmic  succession of b l i n d arches i n the lower l e v e l i s recessed under and arcaded portico and the upper l e v e l of the arcaded g a l l e r i e s appears incomplete. In the portico one of these arcades i s smaller than the other two,,in order (  to accommodate the b e l l tower.  Again the base i s much wider than the height  of the side walls e f f e c t i n g a horizontal d i s p o s i t i o n .  The lower stage of  San Michele bears more resemblance to that of the cathedral at Pisa but the arcade i n t e r v a l s are narrower and more regular except f o r the one at the c e n t r a l p o r t a l .  The marked v e r t i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n at San Michele i s the  result of several factors.  The width of the base i s almost equal to that  of the side walls, the columns of the g a l l e r i e s l i n e up one over the other, the upper l e v e l stands higher than the body of the church and the sculpture of Saint Michael at the top with the two tabermacles on the slopes, a l l emphasize the v e r t i c a l l i n e . The source of the graceful arcading at the lower zone of the facades at Pisa and Lucca i s somewhat puzzling.  Salmi sees i t as a r e f l e c t i o n of  3 a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements at Ravenna.  I t i s true that strong b l i n d arcades  frame the windows of the f i f t h century mausoleum of Galla P l a c i d i a  t  Similarly,.', arcades frame the windows of the sixth century S. Apollinare i n Classe, but these were s t r u c t u r a l elements as w e l l as decorative and they were incorporated to lighten the framework because the ground at Ravenna was s o f t .  Lavigno presents a developmental sequence f o r the change of these  13  s t r u c t u r a l elements to decorative elements between the seventh and tenth  k  centuries.  Decorative arcading developing out of t h i s Ravenna style i s  seen i n S. Martino of Arliano, which according to Luporini i s a Lombard Romanesque church of the tenth century.  A church of t h i s style raises the  question as to how much the l o c a l taste was formed by the penetration o f Lombard influence into the Lucca t e r r i t o r y .  I t i s worth noting again that  R i v o i r a relates S. Martino o f Arliano and S. Pietro of Tuscania i n regard to t h e i r Lombard workmanship.  The o r i g i n a l eight century portion of the  walls o f the nave are f i n i s h e d with b l i n d arcading and R i v o i r a finds the e a r l i e s t known form of t h i s decoration i n e x t e r i o r recessed arches at the b a s i l i c a o f Eski-Djuma at Salonica, f i f t h century, where these  arcades  were f i l l e d by transennae intended to transmit a modified l i g h t to the g a l l e r y , but of course three hundred years i s a long span of time and  5 d i r e c t contact would have to be known to establish t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The  atrium carried out by Archbishop Anspert at San Ambrogio, Milan, i n the ninth 6  century has blocked i n arcading which gives the appearance of b l i n d arcading. Of course one must not overlook Roman architecture as a source for arcading) both open and b l i n d . The screen-like s t r u c t u r a l form of the facade at Pisa with i t s emphasis on l i g h t and dark shadows may be a synthesis of Lombard and Saracen a r c h i t e c t u r a l and decorative ideas.  The Lombard practice o f using a free standing  g a l l e r y at the apse end; and the Lombard practice o f using decorative mullioned windows i n each o f the r i s i n g stages of the campanile, both lend themselves to ideas formulated i n the free standing g a l l e r i e s at P i s a .  In the exterior  of the major apse at Pisa there i s a free standing arcade surmounted by a free standing colonnade.  Twelfth century free standing g a l l e r i e s exist at  Lucca i n the apse o f San Frediano and the apse of San Michele.  Rivoira  suggests t h a t t h e s e g a l l e r i e s arched n i c h e s as  might have developed from the use o f r e c e s s e d  seen i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y apse o f San Ambrogio.  windows r i s i n g i n t i e r s  i n Lombard campaniles  Mullioned  are seen e a r l y i n t h e i r d e v e l -  opment i n the towers o f the c a t h e d r a l o f I v r e a a t the end o f t h e t e n t h 7  century. On the o t h e r hand the use o f m u l t i - l e v e l l e d a r c a d e s has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the S a r a c e n s . and i n the c o u r t y a r d s  They were used i n both t h e i r mosques  and f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o r n a m e n t a l  surface  d e s i g n t h a t i s not u n r e l a t e d i n f e e l i n g t o the facade a r c a d e s a t P i s a and Lucca. Superimposed l e v e l o f a r c h e s can be seen i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y mosque a t C a i r o , and a t the mosque at Cordova b u i l t d u r i n g the e i g h t h t o t e n t h centuries.  8  A c o u r t y a r d a t Damascus o f the b e g i n n i n g o f the e i g h l h c e n t u r y 9  a l s o has t h e s e superimposed their architecture  levels.  The Normans adopted t h i s form i n t o  i n the south o f I t a l y and i n S i c i l y as  s e e n . i n the t w e l f t h  c e n t u r y churches o f C e f a l u , Monreale and P a l e r m o . An e a r l i e r example i s seen i n the Norman c a t h e d r a l o f S. M a r i a D e g l i A n g e l i a t S a l e r n o c o n s e c r a t e d i n 108k.  10  The l o w e r l e v e l o f the a t r i u m has columns brought from Paestum,  b o t h l e v e l s have b i c h r o m a t i c s t i l t e d a r c h e s i n the Saracen f a s h i o n . S a r a c e n i s the i n t a r s i a i n the l o w e r s p a n d r i l s o f r o u n d e l s and patterns s i m i l a r to those i n t h e • c a t h e d r a l  at P i s a .  Also  geometrical  Superimposed  arcading  i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n the Norman c a t h e d r a l a t A m a l f i , the t e n t h c e n t u r y structure,  r e b u i l t i n 1208, has the Saracen d e c o r a t i v e  surface  treatment  11 a p p l i e d t o a facade which i s not u n r e l a t e d t o Lombard i n o u t l i n e . The use o f t h e a r c a d e d g a l l e r i e s but the t r e a t m e n t o f the d e c o r a t i v e The d e c o r a t i v e  a t L u c c a r e f l e c t the facade a t  Pisa,  s u r f a c e i s h a n d l e d i n a unique manner.  appearance seems t o r e l a t e t o m a t e r i a l o t h e r t h a n s t o n e ,  such  15  as that of illuminated MSS.,  ivory carving, or metal work.  responsible f o r the sculpture and i n l a y of the columns.?  Who i s  The idea of the  i n t a r s i a i n the spandrels seems to have been foreign to the person charged with i t s execution.  Salmi attributes Guidetto with the d i r e c t i o n of the  decorative programs of the facades not only at San Martino but also at San Michele.  Variation in the d i f f e r e n t g a l l e r i e s and i n the facade wall  suggest that others had a hand i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . i s mentioned  Although Guidetto  i n documents of the period^ nothing i s known as to where he  came from and as his name changes from the diminuitive there i s some confusion i n regard to h i s works f o r the name i s used by other masters of t h i s period.  Leader Scott refers to Guido and Guidetto i n r e l a t i o n to  sculpture and architecture at Lucca, s i g n i f y i n g that Guido was the father and that he was a Comacine worker but the i n s c r i p t i o n s that Scott uses for his sources make no mention of Como. a ciborium of 1168  The name Guido i s inscribed i n  i n the church of S. Maria d i r C a s t e l l o "JOHANNES ET  GUIDO HOC OPUS FECFRUNT" and i n the church of S. Maria Corteorlandi was b u i l t i n 1187  f o r the feudal lords of Rolandinga on the occasion of one of  t h e i r family j o i n i n g the crusades^ the name Guido i s inscribed i n the passage  12 leading to the s a c r i s t y "Guidus Maiser E d i f i c a v i t " .  At San Martino, i n  the f i r s t l e v e l i n the column near the campanile a figure stands holding a s c r o l l which reads "MILLE CC LLLL CONDIDIT ELECTI TAM PULCHRAS DEXTRA  13 GUIDECTI" of 1168  Salmi distinguishes Guidetto from the Guido i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s  and II87 and again from Guido B i g a t e l l i da Como who worked l a t e r  than these two at Lucca as well as Pisa and P i s t o i a .  This confusion of names  of the twelfth century has created problems of confusion i n the a t t r i b u t i o n of work to these sculptors and a r c h i t e c t s . Guidetto with "Guido marmolarius 1211  Salmi confirms the i d e n t i t y of  sancti Martini d i Lucca" who on June  contracted to work at S. Stefano, Prato, u n t i l the work was  k,  finished,  returning four times a year to Lucca and no more, i n d i c a t i n g that he was Ik  the head of a school.  Drawings o f the o l d facade o f S. Stefano, now  the Duomo at Prato, show a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n i n the p l a s t i c q u a l i t y of the recessed molding w i t h bichromatic voussoirs o f the arched windows to those 15 i n the facade of San Martino.  Salmi also points out a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n  the i n t a r s i a o f the doors at Prato and that of the g a l l e r i e s at Lucca. I f t h i s s t y l e of window i s Guidetto's he l e f t h i s mark on the upper facade w a l l of San Martino, f o r at every l e v e l there are three windows of uniform design and a l l but one have a white marble m u l l i o n .  The one  without i s adjacent to the campanile i n the f i r s t l e v e l of the middle zone.  Each window has splayed arches with a l t e r n a t i n g green and white  voussoirs and an i n l a y of three roundels with geometric design i n the spandrels. This type o f window i s seen on two of the levels of the second zone at San Michele.  Those of the f i r s t l e v e l do not have the same regular  recession of columnar shafts as the others and only the centre one has a mullion.  I t could be that these windows were a m o d i f i c a t i o n of e a r l i e r  ones i n the facade.  The mullion shaft i n these windows i s green porphyry»  At San Martino grey porphyry shafts appear i n the splayed arches of the windows o f the second l e v e l of the middle zone i n s i n g l e p a i r s and a l s o i n double p a i r s i n the top zone. porphyry columns i n the arcade.  This top zone i s the only zone which has At San Michele the roundels o f geometric  design i n the spandrels of the windows are handled w i t h l e s s u n i f o r m i t y than at San Martino. The facades at both churches present problems i n s o r t i n g out the d i f f e r e n t periods when additions were made. At San Martino apparently there was a 'porticalum' i n 767 and i t i s not c l e a r j u s t what comprised the facade when Anselmo enlarged the church i n the eleventh century but  17  a bird's eye view of the exterior indicates that additions have been made If  at d i f f e r e n t levels i n d i f f e r e n t periods.  Surface f i n i s h at the side of  the projecting facade wall varies at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s .  B a r s a l i indicates  that i n 1196 "1'Opera de Frontespizio," i n i t i a t e d work on the facade s t a r t i n g from the atrium of Anselmo, with the new facade resting upon two arches of the e a r l i e r facade of equal size and of the depth of the atrium above the  17 vault of the atrium.  I t appears that the present facade at San Martino  was modified to accommodate the campanile,  In the portico neither the  height of the smaller arch nor the handling of the bichromatic vousspirs i s similar to that i n the two larger arches  %  One would also wonder at the  appearance of the upper facade where the symmetry o f the arcades i s d i s rupted by the campanile.  I t seems possible that i n the o r i g i n a l intent  and execution, i t must have appeared i n symmetrical form» San Michele also raises questions i n regard to the facade for here i t appears the additions were made at different periods.  At what point  was the facade altered i n the second zone so that i t no longer indicated the outline o f the aisles' roofs?  Does the eight spoked wheel window belong  to the facade of 11^3 or was i t introduced later?  At San Pietro i n  Tuscania there i s an early twelfth century rose window set i n a square above the portal, but the spokes of the wheel number twelve, not eight as at San Michele.  There i s evidence at San Pietro o f Cosmati work. The  Pieve of Massa Cararra has an eight spoked wheel and i n Lucca the portals of San Michele, S. Cristoforo and S. Giovanni have eight spoked  18 wheels.  These windows might have been additions to e x i s t i n g structures.  The portals of the two l a t t e r churches have splayed arches and bichromatic voussoirs similar to those seen i n the windows of San Martino and San  Michele.  I t i s interesting to note the wheel window in the r e l i e f of  Nicolo Pisano, Presentation of Christ i n the Temple, i n the pulpit of  19 the Pisa Baptistery of 12; 0.  The placement i n the facade gable i s  similar to the way i t might have appeared at San Michele before the facade was extended. The columnar shaft on the small portico arch at San Martino and the molding of the arch i s carved i n a fashion similar to that of the concentric frames of the wheel window of San Michele, where i t appears i n a more exaggerated form.  This method of carving s p i r a l s or chevrons i s  seen i n the north at Lombardy and Como and frequently i n Rome.  Both  these areas developed the rose window i n the twelfth century but these windows have twelve spokes.  Brackets with human figures and crouching  lions appear i n the portico, those with humans are strangely placed i n the spandrels and those with crouching lions at the springing of the arches S. Giovanni with bichromatic voussoirs and a wheel window has human figures at the springing of the inner arch and at the outer arch crouching lions are placed above the brackets and human figures below.) There i s a uniformity of the decorative arcading at San Martino and San Michele which suggests the concept arose i n one mind.  But variations  arise which suggest that the idea f e l l into the hands of more than one master.  The f i r s t g a l l e r y of the middle zone at San Martino i s the only  one where a l l the columns are decorated.  The i n t a r s i a of the spandrels  at t h i s g a l l e r y also exhibit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i f f e r at other l e v e l s . Roundels with geometric designs are more abundant and larger i n t h i s g a l l e r y , suggesting the hand active here i s missing from the other g a l l e r i e s The cornice under t h i s arcade i s comprised of human and animal, as well as v e g i t a l motifs, whereas the other three cornices pertain to plants.  There  seems to be more uniformity at a l l levels i n the rosettes of the impost blocks and the human and animal heads that appear at the springing o f the arches.  These motifs appear to be related to similar motifs at the  Baptistry of Pisa.  At San Martino, the second l e v e l of the middle zone  d i f f e r s from the other g a l l e r i e s f o r there are no columns with i n t a r s i a and i n the spandrels the i n t a r s i a i s o f a d i f f e r e n t design.  The roundels  with geometric design are reduced i n size and number from those of the f i r s t level.  There are more heraldic compositions of animals i n confront-  ation and i n combat as well as the king on horseback with the falcon, a l l designs from t e x t i l e s of t h i s period.  At t h i s l e v e l and i n the zone above  a s t y l i z e d tree appears i n the triangle of the spandrel.  I t i s unique to  these leveIs appearing three times i n the middle zone and twice i n the ;  top.  These variations would tend to relate the work of these spandrels  to the same period. G a r z e l l i suggests  that the hand of Guido da Como can be seen i n the  i n t a r s i a decoration of the upper g a l l e r y at San Martino. master Bonaggiunta  Guido, pupil of  B i g a r e l l i of Arogno i n the bishopric o f Como, known as  Guido da Como i s f i r s t mentioned at Lucca i n documents of 12kk and i n others  20  of 1253-5'+.  To the right of the main portal an i n s c r i p t i o n indicates that  21  the decoration with i n l a y and sculpture o f t h i s zone was begun i n 1233The elegance o f the i n t a r s i a with the chevron motif i n the columnar shafts and i n the archivolts of the main p o r t a l relates to the framing of the p l u t e i i i n the font of the Baptistery at Pisa which was also executed by  22 Guido da Como i n 12k6.  His work seems to have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a s t i c  q u a l i t y and clearness of representation. The banding of green porphyry i n the top zone and the integration with the porphyry voussoir of the window to give an added depth coupled with the geometric banding which i s similar  20  to that between the portals and also on the font gives r i s e to the suggestion that Guido da Como was responsible f o r work i n this top zone. The knotted column that appears l a t e r a l l y at t h i s zone appears also in each of the f i r s t l e v e l of the upper zones at San Michele. possible that i t appeared of San Michele are i n l a i d .  f i r s t at San Michele.  It is  Columns of the top l e v e l  At the other l e v e l s they appear with i n t a r s i a ,  sculpture or p l a i n surfaces.  In the decoration of the double arch'ivblts  of the arcades the outer ones alternate between carved foliage i n r e l i e f and leaves of a more threi-dimensional form.  This matches the treatment  in the arcade of the f i r s t l e v e l at San Martino, whereas the remaining levels at San Martino make use of the standing l e a f form only. This might indicate that the facade of San Michele was executed i n the f i r s t h a l f of the twelfth century before Guido da Como incorporated two more levels of arcades at San Martino.  Note should be taken that the  i n t a r s i a of the spandrels of the two zones at San Michele were executed i f not under d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n c e r t a i n l y by d i f f e r e n t hands.  In the  i n t a r s i a of the spandrels i n the middle zone geometric motifs appear under the rectangular designs.  In the upper zone animals and birds appear under  the rectangles which are much more uniform i n shape and form a strong horizontal l i n e .  This d e l i g h t f u l i n t a r s i a design appears somewhat foreign  to the scheme of things at Lucca.  Certainly i t was foreign to the hand  and mind charged with i t s execution.  Chapter IV The polychrome and sculptural decoration at Lucca appears to relate to the profusion of i n t r i c a t e decoration seen i n the Byzantine and the Saracen world.  Lucca's prime position i n the trade route north and  south  would undoubtedly bring her into contact with objects r e a d i l y portable such as ivory carvings, r e l i q u a r i e s and illuminated MSS., for the introduction of new  ideas to Lucca.  a l o g i c a l source  Lucca's unique p o l i t i c a l and  economic position, the power of her Bishopric and Monastic orders and her r i v a l r y with Pisa help to explain her leading role i n the a r t i s t i c in Tuscany.  revival  There are a considerable number of works that attest to the  eminence of her scriptorium i n the late eleventh and e a r l y twelfth centuries. It i s reasonable to assume that MSS.  brought to Lucca would be copied i n  the scriptorium and might serve as models f o r major art such as sculpture and architecture. The arcading at both these churches brings to mind the decorative arcading seen i n the Canon Tables, where the spandrels are crowded with designs and f a n c i f u l motifs cover the surface of the columns.  There appear  four knotted columns, each comprised of four knotted colonettes, l a t e r a l l y placed, on the lower l e v e l of each of the two upper zones at San Michele, and there are two l a t e r a l l y placed knotted columns on the upper zone at San Martino. of a knot.  These columns are looped together i n the middle giving the effect There are a few other examples of t h i s type of column i n Tuscany  but they are of uncertain date.  In the facade of San Quirico d'Orcia (Siena),  the Lombard style portal with splayed arches has knotted columns on either side, each consistsof four shafts which rest on the backs of animals. According to Salmi, t h i s facade p o r t a l i s dated i n the twelfth century and i t was  incorporated into the church facade at the time of the rebuilding  1 in the f i r s t decades of the thirteenth century.  Because these p a r t i c u l a r  columns project from the doorway, i t i s not certain i f they were executed at the same time as the engaged columns of the p o r t a l .  At Arezzo i n the  parish church at Gropina, there are two examples of the knotted columns with two shafts rather than four: one i n the free standing g a l l e r y at the apse end and one i n the ambone.  Both knotted columns are of uncertain date, but  are close enough i n style to have been executed by the same hand, or at  2 least at the same time.  There i s also one of these columns i n the cam-  panile at Arezzo and two are i n the Museum.  One of the l a t t e r columns i s  : dated to the thirteenth century.  3 The others are of unknown date.  There  i s a plaque i n the spandrel above the door at San Paolo a Ripa at Pisa with a figure i n orans position and two knotted columns on either side, each comprised of two shafts.  However, the manner i n which the knotted  columns were used at Lucca finds a closer p a r a l l e l to the examples found in illuminated MBS. Several i n t e r e s t i n g examples of the knotted column appear i n Byzantine MSS.  Because of the two dimensional nature of the p i c t u r e , i t appears as  though these columns are comprised of two shafts.  In the l i b r a r y of the  Greek Patriarch o f Jerusalem, eight knotted columns appear i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n at the s t a r t o f a l i t u r g i c a l r o l l dated to the late eleventh or early  k twelfth century.  The figures i n a l i t u r g i c a l r o l l appear upside down so  that they would appear r i g h t side to the congregation as the r o l l passed over the back o f the ambo.  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n the enthroned  Christ appears i n the middle of a quadrilobed medallion. an arcade containing six knotted columns. the V i r g i n and c h i l d :  Above, there i s  Under the arcade:  i n the centre,  to the l e f t , SaintJean Chrysostome and St. Georges:  to the r i g h t , SaintBasile and an unidentified saint.  The l i t u r g y of the  orthodox church i s credited to St. Jean Chrysostome and Saint B a s i l e . There i s an outer frame comprised of an arch with decorative l e a f y s c r o l l supported by two knotted columns each a r i s i n g from an urn supported by a base and topped with an ornate leafy c a p i t a l .  A knotted column appears i n 5  a New  Testament .',MS. of the early twelfth century. ;  appears i n a trumeau below an ornate tympanum. and an impost block above the leafy c a p i t a l .  The knotted column  There i s a f o l i a t e base  Two knotted columns appear  6 on either side of a double arch i n a Canon Table from Messina. columns have leafy bases and c a p i t a l s and impost blocks.  Both  This MS... might  have been copied i n S. Salvatore from a Greek model and i t dis. dated tbethe ;  thirteenth century. The use of the knotted column i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting appears i n Greek MSS.  frequently i n connection with a multidomed church.  i l l u s t r a t e d MSS.  In the  of the Homilies of Gregory, an author p o r t r a i t of the  l i t u r g i c a l e d i t i o n , none of which can be dated e a r l i e r than the f i r s t h a l f of the eleventh century, Gregory i s shown dressed as a monk seated beneath a t r i p a r t i t e arch supported by knotted columns with bases and 7  c a p i t a l s composed of leaves.  Above the arch there i s some ambiguity as  to how many domes the church has.  In the Homilies of the V i r g i n by Monk  James of Kokkinobaphos, a scene of the ascension shows the facade of a five domed church with four knotted columns i n the arches at the lower l e v e l 8 the bases and the c a p i t a l s are l e a f - l i k e .  The ascension scene occupies  the centre arch and the figures of saints appear i n the side arches.  The  frontispiece of a L i t u r g i c a l R o l l . d f the twelfth century, shows a similar five-domed  church with four knotted columns at the lower stage of the facade  The bases here are indistinguishable but the c a p i t a l s again appear l e a f like.  Two priests and two servers appear i n the centre t r e f o i l arch and  there i s a server i n each of the side arches.  Another Frontispiece of a  L i t u r g i c a l R o l l of the thirteenth century shows two l a t e r a l knotted columns in a more extended facade, with a c l e r i c figure i n each o f the three  10 arches.  These domed churches resemble San Marco, Venice which was begun  about 1070; a f i l i a t i o n of Justinian's Church of the Holy Apostles i n Constantinople.  The Church of the Holy Apostles was begun i n 5U0, r e b u i l t  in the second t h i r d of the tenth century and destroyed by Mehmed the Conqueror i n l U 6 l .  Galvaris, i n reference to the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of  the author p o r t r a i t of Gregory Nazianus, states that the a r c h i t e c t u r a l complex does not represent any s p e c i f i c building."'"' ' 1  Krautheimer believes  that there are four depictions of the Church of the Holy Apostles i n Constantinople; one mentioned already from the sermons of the monk James  12 Kokkinobophos, the other three from the Menologium of B a s i l 11.  MSS.  with a five domed church might well depict the Church of the Holy Apostles as i t was r e b u i l t i n the second t h i r d o f the tenth century with f i v e domes. Therefore, since these MSS. also show the knotted column, i t might have been an e s s e n t i a l of the structure.  The knotted column found i t s way  into the architecture o f San Marco i n the tympanum o f the Porta Sant * Alipo.  Demus dates the t e n d r i l framing the tympanum a f t e r the middle of  the thirteenth century but makes no mention of the arcade with the knotted columns and the screens of the i n t e r v a l which might have been executed at  13 an e a r l i e r date.  The knotted columns at San Michele are shorter than the  other columns o f the arcade i n which they are placed. They stand on a high pedestal with a p l i n t h .  There i s an abacus above the c a p i t a l .  The two  l a t e r a l knotted columns at the second zone have c a p i t a l s with f i g u r a t i v e sculpture, the l a t e r a l knotted columns of the upper zone have c a p i t a l s with s t y l i z e d acanthus leaves.  The two lower columns have inserts of contrasting  marble i n the knot. The height of these columns r e c a l l s the placement of  25  the ones at San Quirico D'Orcia>.  These at San Michele would adapt r e a d i l y  to t h i s type that surmounts a beast and supports a projecting portico. In any creative society, craftsmen are keenly aware of the objects within t h e i r sphere whether native or imported.  From these objects,  influences are adapted into t h e i r work either consciously or unconsciously. in the adaption of new ideas, those a l l i e d to a f a m i l i a r concept coalesce readily, but a l i e n ideas can gain acceptance when conveyed with impact through drama or s i m p l i c i t y . provide sources f o r design.  Because of t h i s concept, portable objects An eleventh century Byzantine s i l v e r g i l t  r e l i c box might have r e a d i l y supplied a source f o r the knotted column i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l decoration ( f i g . k). The top of t h i s reliquary now i n the Museo Sacro, Vatican C i t y depicts the enthroned  Christ  and the four Martyrs  of Trebizond standing under an arcade comprised of rope l i k e knotted columns with s t y l i z e d l e a f bases and c a p i t a l s . relief.  I t i s an exquisite piece case i n  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand the migration of Byzantine  influences to the west when considering works of t h i s nature.  Byzantine  metal work of a monumental native, bronze church doors, were also of some influence i n the spread of techniques and motifs i n the West. republics established compounds i n Constantinople.  The merchant  The powerful Pantaleon  family from Amalfi;established at Constantinople, ordered bronze doors which they donated to the duomo of Amalfi, San Salvatore of A t r a n i , Sam;;Mi"ehele: of Monte Gargano, San Paolo f u o r i l e mura, Rome and Monte Cassino.  Four of  the 2k panels i n the pair ordered f o r the Cathedral o f Amalfi were incised with figures of Christ, the V i r g i n , St. Peter and St. Andrew.  These doors are  each standing i n an arch comprised of knotted columns. Landulfo Butromilo and h i s wife Guesa presented bronze doors from Ik  Constantinople to the Cathedral at Salerno, ca. 108^.  These doors are  26  an imitation of those at Amalfi but larger, containing f i f t y - f o u r panels. Eight panels are f i l l e d with figures and ornaments.  The figures are set  in arches with highly s t y l i z e d knotted columns, bases and c a p i t a l s .  Two  sets of magnificent bronze doors of San Marco, Venice date to the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Those of the chapel of San Clemente were either brought to San Marco with the spoils of the Byzantine conquest of 120k  or  15 they were a g i f t of the Emperor Alexus Comnenus, -1087-1118 A.D.  As doors  were frequently donated as tributejthe l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y seems l i k e l y . These doors have twenty-eight panels, twenty-two contain s t i l t e d arches with knotted columns, two with crosses and the remainder with Christ and the saints.  The knotted column i s an interesting motif f o r i t cannot  be traced back e a r l i e r than the tenth century.  I t appears i n Byzantine  MSS.  and i n the architecture and decoration of the Lombards. The small rectangles of these bronze doors were cast separately, i n cised and then s i l v e r was hammered into t h i s l i n e or i t was f i l l e d with green or red enamel.  Frequently faces, hands and feet appeared as separate  inserts with incised d e t a i l . of  This technique relates to the Byzantine art  "Cloisonne and i s probably of Persian o r i g i n . Metalwork i n l a y and marble polychrome i n l a y are c l o s e l y a l l i e d .  Poly-  chrome inlay has a long history dating back to the terracotta cones of chevron  16 or chequerboard  pattern executed at Ur, ca. 2600 B.C.  Intarsia or opus  s e c t i l e was a decorative technique employed extensively by the Romans.  It  might well be an indigenous I t a l i a n modification of opus vermiculatura, with small tesserae, which was  introduced from the east.  Incredible s k i l l and  labour i s required to cut and piece together white marble with contrasting pietra dura porphyry or serpentine. ;  Geometric and f i g u r a t i v e i n l a y of walls  and floors became firmly established i n Roman decoration and i s s t i l l  practiced up to the present day i n I t a l y . The i n t a r s i a i n San Michele might have come from the cathedral workshop.  The motifs of the columns are predominantly geometric, consist-  ing of chevrons, s p i r a l s , chequerboards, roundels with stars and crosses, there are a few with c u r v i l i n e a r t e n d r i l s and one with winged dragons. Intarsia decoration is-'found i n profusion i n S i c i l y where i t was introduced by the Arabs from Spain or North A f r i c a .  possibly  This technique was  adopted by the Norman builders a f t e r t h e i r conquest of S i c i l y . Saracen craftsmen employed the chequerboard motif i n the mosaics i n the Cappella Palatina, Palermo i n the f i r s t h a l f of the twelfth century. A l Monreale Cathedral, i n the c l o i s t e r of the twelfth century, the shafts of the columns have sculpture and i n l a i d chevron, chequerboard and s p i r a l motifs. The chevron becomes a popular motif i n sculpture and i n t a r s i a a f t e r the eleventh century.  Examples before t h i s date do not seem to be known  in the west and seem to be rare i n the east.  From Baouit, Egypt a carved  r e l i e f , ca. 600 shows the chevron quite c l e a r l y i n a portion of a colon-  17 ette.  Large zig-zag bordering appears on the facade of the palace of  18 Mshatta, which Creswell dates to the Umayyad Dynasty. i s i n l a i d of the shafts of columns at Monreale. at Salerno, dating to 1175,  This chevron motif  The Paschal candlestick  has eight and four pointed stars set i n chevron  19 bands, executed by workmen imported from S i c i l y . The i n l a i d column with the c u r v i l i n e a r symmetrical t e n d r i l s i s similar  20 to those of the window arches at Cefalu of 11U8.  The columns i n l a i d with  geometric roundels appear to relate to motifs found i n the mosaic pavements such as those at Florence i n the Baptistery and San Martino,  1207,  21 perhaps i n d i c a t i n g related workshops.  The source of these roundel motifs  appears to be t r a d i t i o n a l patterns from Saracen t e x t i l e s .  In t e x t i l e s  large tangent roundels of geometric design were used to enclose a pair of  22  animals.  Undoubtedly, the l i m i t a t i o n imposed by Mohammed upon the  representation of natural objects would account f o r the development of geometric forms i n t e x t i l e , as well as other a r t s , however, the followers of Mohammed avoided l i t e r a l interpretation of the l i m i t a t i o n s and thereby introduced birds and animals into t h e i r design i n a s t y l i z e d  form.  Inlay work i n t h i s manner was also taken up by the Cosmati of Rome.  1  They  were responsible f o r the i n l a i d , p l a i n and twisted columns i n the c l o i s t e r  23 of San Paolo f u o r i l e mura begun i n 1205 and finished ca. 1235-  Motifs  of the columns at San Martino and San Michele are similar to those seen i n S i c i l y and also i n Rome but they are handled i n a d i f f e r e n t fashion. At San Michele one unique column i s symmetrically divided i n black and white with reverse images of a winged dragon amongst t e n d r i l s .  A  winged dragon of similar s t y l e , with a looped t a i l , appears i n the zoomo rphic f r i e z e i n the lower part o f the campanile at Pisa, executed by 2k Biduino ca. 117^.  Also there i s a winged dragon i n the choir screen at  25 San Miniato, o f a s l i g h t l y l a t e r date.  Could t h i s suggest again a  relationship of workshops between these areas? The columns of foliage carved i n low r e l i e f and seen l a t e r a l l y i n the top arcade o f the second and t h i r d zones at San Michele as w e l l as l a t e r a l l y i n the middle zone at San Martino bear some resemblance  to columns seen i n  the c l o i s t e r at Monreale and also to the columns of the main p o r t a l i n the cathedral at Pisa. There are s i x columns carved with a p l a s t i c Romanesque l i v e l i n e s s that appears to relate to the school of Biduino.  These columns a l l depict paired  animals, some with interlaced t a i l s , and three also depict a double-tailed  siren, a s u r v i v a l of the antique form, popular i n Lombard art and used again i n Romanesque times.  The interlace forms also goes back to the  seventh century Lombard art and survived i n sculpture, and illuminated MSS.  Two  illuminated MSS.  from St. Martial now at the Bibliotheque  Nationale, Paris, show animals i n combat with interlocked t a i l s , they datefrqmthe  end of the eleventh and end of the twelfth century respectively.  The sculpture of the Lombards was r i c h and varied and frequently depicts animal i n t e r l a c e .  There are two examples of sculpture with dragon  t a i l s interlocking, i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l sculpture of San Michele, Pavia,  27  ca. Il80.  One i s seen i n a c a p i t a l where intertwining dragon t a i l s are  locked around the human form and the other i s seen i n a base where l i z a r d -  28  l i k e dragons have heads as well as t a i l s interlaced.  The siren which  appears i n these Lombardesque columns i s seen i n e a r l i e r examples i n Tuscany.  The most immediate connection i s the siren i n the architrave of  the main p o r t a l at San Michele.  Among the unfinished l e a f spray there i s  also a female centaur, g r i f f i n s and animals i n combat and i n the centre there i s a medieval-like archangel standing on a dragon.  In the architrave  over the tribune amongst the vine, s c r o l l there are g r i f f i n s , animals i n combat and a centaur.  29  twelfth century.  Salmi places these architraves to the middle of the  The motif of the double t a i l e d siren also dating to  30  the same time i s seen i n a corbel at the Baptistery at Pisa. A unique siren i n low r e l i e f with f i n - l i k e t a i l s , i s seen i n the pulpit of Gropina.  31  Another late twelfth century siren appears i n a c a p i t a l from  32 the c l o i s t e r of the Abbey of Torrey.  The siren i s a motif from Roman  times and probably survived into the Romanesque period because of the adoption by the Lombard carvers. sarcophagi and  architecture.  The s p i r a l column also i s frequently i n  The i n t a r s i a , or opus s e c t i l e that spreads from under the cornice at each l e v e l and into the spandrels at San Michele presents another i n t e r e s t i n g study.  Opus s e c t i l e was u t i l i z e d extensively i n Byzantine and Islamic  spandrel decoration and i t appears to have been re-introduced through these channels to Pisa and Lucca.  A relationship can be seen between the  polychrome ornamentation of Santa Sophia, Constantinople and that of the facades of Pisa and Lucca.  In the profusion of geometric motifs and fine  s c r o l l work found at Pisa at Lucca there i s added fantastic heraldic creatures i n hunting scenes, i n combat and i n confrontation at San Michele. The i n t a r s i a of the spandrels of the second zone d i f f e r s from that of the t h i r d zone suggesting that the work was done by two d i f f e r e n t hands. is more r e g u l a r i t y to the design of the upper zone.  There  The rectangular  frames of the animals i n the second zone are not as regular i n dimensions as those above, and stars and crosses are used to f i l l the space beneath these rectangles, whereas i n the above animals and birds f i l l these spaces. The regular placement of the rectangular forms i n the upper zone creates a strong horizontal l i n e that i s missing from the second zone.  The place-  ment of design i n t h i s manner i s at variance with the free flow of design with a continuous border at top and bottom as seen at Hagia Sophia. The manner of framing the design i n a rectangle i s reminiscent of the bands of animals i n the facade of S. Michele Maggine, Pavia and also  33 sculptured architrave from S. Benedetto, B r i n d i s i begun around 1080.  In  each of three rectangles a monstrous creature i s depicted with a hunter and spear.  There appears to be a relationship between the s t y l i z e d animals  at  San Michele and those appearing i n lozenges i n the border of the cathedral  of  San Nicola, Bari dating to 1098.  In the cathedral the lozenges and  animals are carved i n low r e l i e f and contrasted with a backround of brown  31  cement, comprised of wax and marble powder.  S t y l i z e d birds and animals  are framed i n squares separated by curvelinear t e n d r i l s i n the p u l p i t  35 of Bishop Agnello, Ravenna, dating to the f i f t h century.  It i s interest-  ing to note that t h i s Eastern presentation of a f r i e z e of s t y l i z e d animals  36 also appears i n the Bayeux Tapestry dating to 1073-83. Jairazbhoy draws attention to the kinship i n f e e l i n g and decorative technique underlaying the c o f f e r i n the Treasury of the CapeTla Palatina  37 and the facade of San Michele.  In the c o f f e r the s t y l i z e d animals are  carved from ivory and contrasted with a brown background whereas the i n l a y at San Michele i s white marble and green serpentine.  The relationship i n  techniques used i n S i c i l y and Apulia suggest that workmen from these areas could have been employed at Lucca.  Considering the flow of t r a f f i c  and  trade from the South v i a Pisa and Lucca to the Hohenstaufen; Empire, i t would be reasonable to assume that craftsmen migrated to d i f f e r e n t centres along t h i s route. The fundamental design of t h i s related i n t a r s i a appears to f i n d i t s source i n t r a d i t i o n a l patterning of SaraceniC and Byzantine t e x t i l e s . These t r a d i t i o n s were fused i n the Imperial workshop established at Palermo, with s k i l l e d artfesans from Byzantium, Persia and India, immediately  after  38 the Arab conquest i n 827.  These S i c i l i a n weavers produced patterns i n  roundels or bands with bird and animal forms interspersed with geometrical stars and crosses or arabesques within square or rectangular panels. Undoubtedly, the Lucchese s i l k industry was well established before the S i c i l e a n weavers came to Lucca a f t e r the disintegration of the kingdom of Frederick I I , thirteenth century, but interconnection between designs can be seen e a r l i e r . A hunting scene from early thirteenth century Lucchese s i l k shows a  king with a falcon on horseback and a hound attacking a rabbit.  39  Such a  scene r e f l e c t s the interest of Frederick I I of S i c i l y who adopted the science o f falconry from his contact with Muslim c i v i l i z a t i o n .  The three  representations o f the king with falcon on horseback at San Michele appear to relate to this type of t e x t i l e design but show more freedom of movement. The early Lucchese fabrics have many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of t e x t i l e s from Palermo, but gradually the d i s t i n c t i v e S i c i l i a n patterning of animal and b i r d forms was eliminated.  I t would, therefore, appear that  designs of i n t a r s i a at San Michele are related to the t e x t i l e s of Lucca using motifs from the East.  The framing disappears and the animals are  distributed symmetrically over the fabric with rosettes or stars placed in the i n t e r v a l s .  The animals that appear i n the i n t a r s i a r e f l e c t the  designs of the t e x t i l e s .  The designs at Lucca become freer i n handling  in the t e x t i l e s and this i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t a r s i a .  33  Chapter V Regional schools of architecture emerged i n Tuscany i n the eleventh century with main centres i n Florence, Pisa and Lucca.  I t appears that a l l  three were influenced by so-called c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s blended with what appears to be Lombard, Byzantine and Saracen elements.  The majority of  Romanesque churches were of modest dimension and reflected the form o f some important church of regional example.  The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Florentine architecture i s San Miniato a l Monte.  The characterizing feature  i s the facade decoration consisting of bold black and white i n l a y covering the wall surface.  Influences of San Miniato are reflected i n the twelfth  century Badia of Fiesole and the late eleventh century church o f S. Andrea  1 C o l l e g i a t a , Empoli. The expansion  of the Pisan Romanesque school was considerable.  It is  characterized by elements found i n the cruciform cathedral, bichromatic banding, blind arcading, lozenge decoration, super-imposed free standing g a l l e r i e s , areas o f i n t a r s i a and a timbered roof.  B a s i l i c a s i n Pisan style  were b u i l t i n Sardinia, S.Gavino at Porto Torres, late eleventh century, the T r i n i t a d i Saccargia at Codrongianus, during the twelfth century and  2 Sta. Maria de Castello at C a g l i a r i i n the thirteenth century. mainland, examples seem countless.  On the  One o f the most notable i s S. Paolo  a Ripa d'Arno at Pisa and i t might have been a forerunner o f the cathedral  3 with i t s cruciform plan and dome.  . There i s one less stage on the facade  and the columns are plain and twisted.  The architect Gruamons, whose  name appears i n i n s c r i p t i o n s of the twelfth century, influenced important buildings i n P i s t o i a such as the cathedral S. Andrea and S. Giovanni Fuorcivitas.  The l a t t e r presents a south flank with three l e v e l s o f  bichromatic banding, blind arcading and lozenge decoration.  The doorway c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pisa with splayed columnar shafts flanking p i l a s t e r s topped by a carved l i n t e l and recessed molding i n the arch above was frequently used as a decorative motif as i n S. Giovanni at  Lucca. At Lucca^it would appear that c l a s s i c a l and Lombard features were  in evidence i n the f i r s t phase of Romanesque building.  This seems to set  the stage f o r the entrance of influence d i r e c t from Pisa.  Free standing  g a l l e r i e s at the apse end might be derived from sources other than Pisa yet  the super imposed levels of g a l l e r i e s of the facade could have been -  d i r e c t l y influenced by Pisa.  The blind arcading was not hew to the  d i s t r i c t of Lucca, i t was known i n the eighth century at S. Pietro i n Tuscania and at S. Martino, A r l i a n o , i n the tenth century. at Pisa influence that of San Michele?  How much did the arcading  The idea of the facade screen no  longer o u t l i n i n g the shape of the roof was known i n the eleventh century in Lombardy at San Ambrogio and S. Michele Maggiore, Pavia.  The form at  San Michele varies greatly but seems to relate to the basic idea of wishing to add grandeur to the church. come from Pisa.  This idea of the false facade does not  The idea i s seen again i n the thirteenth century Pieve  of S. Maria i n Arezzo where the west front bears no r e l a t i o n to the i n t e r i o r . The f i r s t of four stories i s a blind arcade and the other three consist of two open arcaded g a l l e r i e s with a open colonnade above.  The i n t e r v a l of  the arches i s very i r r e g u l a r and the columns are p l a i n and carved.  The  facade r e a l l y presents a wild deviation from what can be seen at Pisa or Lucca. In addition to the free standing g a l l e r i e s the t h i r d dimension of the facades at Lucca increased with the introduction of carved columns, windows with splayed arches and the wheel window at San Michele with the r i c h l y  carved frame.  These features seem to characterize the school which was  active at Lucca i n the second phase of Romanesque b u i l d i n g .  The eight-  spoked wheel was not introduced from Pisa and i t s appearance at Lucca i s puzzling for the Lombard and Roman rose wheels of the eleventh centurya l l have twelve spokes.  The a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the horizontal  bands of rectangular i n t a r s i a with figures of animals and men unique W  Lucca.  The i n t a r s i a i n the spandrels, an idea that appears to  be adopted from Pisa, i s unique i n i t s format and motifs. as  remains  This i n t a r s i a , :  well as the carved and i n l a i d columns,meem to r e f l e c t a l o c a l interpre-  tation of a cosmopolitan an a i r of eastern  idea that attempts to give the churches at Lucca  splendour.  At Lucca i n the eleventh  twelfth and thirteenth centuries;the power  of the Benedictine Order, the strong l i n e of Bishops, the r i s e of the s i l k industry with the subsequent increase i n wealth, the flow of cosmopolitan t r a v e l l e r s , scholars, c l e r i c s , pilgrims and workers a l l combined to create an atmosphere where the unique facades of San Martino and Michele could be expressed  i n such a remarkable fashion.  San  36  F i g . 1 San Michele i n Foro, Lucca  F i g . 2 San Martino, Lucca  38  F i g . 3 Facade, San Martino  39  Fig. k  Silvergilt relic  box  Byzantine, Eleventh Century  hO  Pianta  Fig. 5  del Diiomo  (da E. RIDOLFI)  Plan of San Martino, Lucca  NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 See  Appendix.  ^Mario Salmi, L'Architettura Romanica i n Toscana, Milan, 1927,  p. ^5 n 37.  ^Ibid., p.. U6 n kO.  k G. T. Rivoira, Lombardic Architecture, Oxford, Claredon Press, 1933 pp. 139 and 152. According to R i v o i r a t h i s church dates back to the reign of Luitprand i n the eight century, at the zenith of Lombard domination. He also relates San Pietro to the church at Arliano which he dates to the eight century which i s not i n agreement of Luporini's date of the tenth century which i s pointed out on page ik. Rivoira also claims Roman 'marmorami* were responsible for the Lombardesque portal with splayed arches i n the remodelled front of San Pietro at the close of the twelfth century. 3  5  l b i d . , pp. 261 and  269.  Salmi, (1927), p. U9 n k3. Salmi places the upper g a l l e r i e s and the archangel i n the second half of the thirteenth century. "^Kenneth John Conant, Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1959 p i . VIIIA. Isa B e l l i B a r s a l i , Guida Di Lucca, Lucca, 1970,  p.  120  NOTES TO CHAPTER II Clara Baraccini e Antonio Caleca, "architettura 'Medievale' i n Lucchesia, 2." Firenze, C r i t i c a d'Arte, XVII, Novembre-Decembre, 1970, p. 13. ^Antonio Santangelo, Great I t a l i a n T e x t i l e s , Translated by Peggy Craig, New York, 19 U, p. 17. 3  Barsali,  (1970), p. 76,  n.  1.  ^Santangelo, (19 U), p i . 8. This fragment shows pairs of eagles and doubleheaded eagles of gray-green on red ground, now faded pink, apparently the heads were o r i g i n a l l y white. This i s bordered i n blue with bands of animals and the lower portion of the double headed eagle from the centre section appearing i n yellow.  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I •''Salmi, (1927) p. 11. 2  I b i d . , p. 9.  3 l b i d . , p. 11. **E. Luporini, "Nuovi Studi S u l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r r a , Medievale Lucchese." Studi d i Storia d e l l Arte Medievale e Modern d e l l ' Universita d i Pisa, Firenze, 1953, V. 1., p. 135Rivoira, (1933), p. ihO, f i g . 17'-. Ibid., p. 259-  7 l b i d . , p. 210, f i g . 269. ^K.A.C. Cresswell, A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture, Beirut, 1958, p. 213-215I b i d . , p. U5.  9  10  J.W. Franklin, The Cathedrals of I t a l y , London, 1958, f i g . 91.  ^Cummings, A History of Architecture of I t a l y , London, 1928, V. 1., p. hS, f i g . 268. 1 2  S c o t t , Leader, The Cathedral Builders, London, 1899, p. 277.  ^Giuseppe Marchini, I I Duomo de Prato, I t a l i a , 1957 ll+  Salmi, (1928), p. 126, n. 21  •^Marchini, l6  p. 2h.  (1957), f i g . c opposite p. 16.  S a l m i , 1927, p i . 51  ^ B a r s a l i , op. c i t . f i g . c opp. p. 16.  18 Salmi, 1927  p i . 82, 13 , 111,  227.  19 Joseph Polzor, The Lucca R e l i e f s and Nicola Pisano, f i g . 5-  20 Salmi, 1928, p i . 116. 21,I b i d . p. 117. L  2 2  I b i d p. 115.  NOTES TO CHAPTER IV ''"Salmi, (1927), p. 52 n 56. 2  Salmi, (1928), p i . Jk.  3 l b i d . , p. U9 n 9. ^Stern, L'Art Byzantine. Paris, 19 5, f i g . 71, number 109 of the Stravrou series. ^Byzantine A r t and European A r t , Athens, I96H, fig.296, Bodleian Library, Oxford, Auct T i n f r a 1, 10, f o l . l 6 v . r  L a t t a n z i , Linamenti, d i Storia d e l l a Minatura i n S i c i l i a , Firenze, 1966, f i g . 13, Universijry Library, F.S. Salvatore 88c l 8 r .  ^George Galavaris, The I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the L i t u r g i c a l Homilies o f Gregory Nazianzenus, Princeton, 1969, f i g . 377, F o l . k, Sinai Cod. Gr., Princeton University. Q Christa Schug-Wille, The A r t of the Byzantine World, New York, 19 '9 p. 175, F o l . 3 verso MS. Gr. 1028, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. :  ^Byzantine and European Art, f i g . 358, Athens National Library, 2759« 1 0  13  I b i d . , f i g . 359, Patmos, Monastery of St. John the Theologian, 707-  -Galavaris, (19* 9), p. 22.  "-^Krautheimer, Studies i n Early C h r i s t i a n Medieval and Renaissance A r t , Middlesex, 1965, f i g . 75, 76, and 77- Vat. Gr. 1613 under the dates of January 22 F o l . 3lk January 27, f o l . 353 and October 18, F o l . 121. 13 -'Demus, The Church of San Marco i n Venice, Washington, 19c0, f i g . Ik  Le Porte Bizantine Di San Marco, p. 15, f i g . 1 5  I b i d . F i g . 2, 7, 9, 10, Plate 1, p. Ik.  ^Mallowan, Early Mesopotamia and Iran, London, 1965, pp. 36, 37, and 38. ^Grabar, L'age d'or, f i g . 303. C r e s s w e l l . £1958) p. lk2. 1%. Jairazbhoy, Oriental Influences i n Western Art, London, 1965, 20 p. i V L , p i . 6. Gustav Kunstler, Romanesque A r t i n Europe, New York, 1968, p. 135. p i . 117l8  ^5:  S a l r a i , (1927), p i . 2h and ?>k.  21  A d e l e Coulin Weibel, Two Thousand Years of T e x t i l e s , New York, 1952, p i . 66.  22  23  Edward Hutton, The Cosmati, London, 1950, p. 9«  2l+  S a l m i , (1928), p. 7^, f i g .  177.  I b i d . , .fig. 10U.  2 5  ^'D. Gaborit-Chopin, La Decoration des Manuscrits a Saint-Martial de Limoges et en Limousin du IX au XII Siecle, Paris, 1969- f i g - 159, Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Lat. 1135 f o l . 97, and f i g . 161, Paris Bibliotheque Nationale, Lat. 9576, f o l . 6.  2  K u n s t l e r , (1968), p. 133-  27  A . K. Porter, Medieval Architecture, New York, 1909 V. 1.,  28  9 s a l m i , (1928), p. 73.  2  3  p i . 113 & l l U .  °Ibid., f i g . 2 l U . I b i d . , f i g . jh.  3 1  l b i d . , f i g . U9.  3 2  -^Alfredo Petrucci, C a t t e d r a l i d i Puglia, f i g . 201 and p. 557. 3 C. A. Willemsen and D. Odenthal, Apulia, New York, 1959, f i g - 185 and p. 250. 4  W.  35  H. W. Janson, History of A r t , New York, 1969, f i g . 3 '2.  3  ?  37  3  Lowrie, A r t In the Early Church, New York, 19^7, p i . 50.  R. A. Jairazbhoy, (1965), p i . 1 and p. U9..  \.  Glazier, H i s t o r i c T e x t i l e Fabric, London, 1928.  39'Ernst Flemming, An Encyclopedia of T e x t i l e s , New York, 1927, p. ^9-  NOTES TO CHAPTER V "''Salmi, (1928), p i . 36 and 37. 2  3  Conant, (1959), p. 23h. S a l m i , (1928), p i . l l U .  ^Ibid., p i . 121, 123 and 12U. 5  I b i d . , p i . 203.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, J.J.G. Norman Illumination. 966-1100, Oxford, Clarendon Press,  1970  Balbas, L. Torres. La Mezquita de Cordoba. Madrid, E d i t o r i a l Plus Ultra, 1952. Baracchini, Clara & Caleca Antonio. "Architettura Medievale" i n Lucchesia, C r i t i c a D'Arte, Firenze, Novembre-Decembre, 1970. Baroni, F. "Brevi note storiche s u l l a chiesa e i l seminaro d i S. Michele i n Foro" Rassegna E c c l . Lucchese, 1931B a r s a l i , Isa B e l l i . Guida Di Lucca.  Lucca, Maria Pacini F a z z i ,  Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art.  New  1970. 196U.  York, Frederick A. Praeger,  Berg, K. Studies i n Tuscan Twelfth Century Illumination. 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York, Wittenborn & Co.  1968  Larte Romanica, Milan, Kraus  Thousand Years of Textiles^, New  York, Pantheon  Whelpton, E r i c . The F a l l , The Reign and the Eglipse of Rome» London, George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 1970. =  Willemsen, C. A. and Odenthal, D..  1959-  Apulia» New  York, Frederick A. Praeger  Appendix The e d i f i c e s of the f i r s t phase of Romanesque architecture i n Lucca, from the end of the tenth century u n t i l the end of the twelfth century, are simple and compact, presenting a balanced coordination of a l l the elements.  O v e r a l l there i s a fine sense of proportion and a c l a s s i c  s i m p l i c i t y i n these buildings of white limestone.  This security of  proportion and sparseness o f decoration i s seen i n the eleventh century churches of San Alessandro at Lucca and San Giorgio de Brancoli and S. Pietro i n Valdottavo.  San Frediano follows i n t h i s pattern i n the  twelfth century portion of the church.  In these churches the breadth  of the nave bays i s twice that o f the side a i l e s .  I t was not the l o c a l  practice i n t h i s f i r s t phase to build b a s i l i c a l churches with projecting transepts. In the surrounding d i s t r i c t there are also e d i f i c e s less showy but of equal interest i n t h i s early plan.  Some remarkable examples of  these buildings i n white limestone with a unique nave, are to be found in the Valdi Serchio, the Pievg and S. Lorenzo of'Moriano, S. Lorenzo i n Corte and S. Maria i n Piazza of Brancoli, S. Guisto of Puticiano and others such as S. Stefano at the V i l l a at Roggio, S. I l a r i a at Brancoli, the Pieve of C e r r i t o , and i n the Pisan Mountains, S. Andrea at Gattaiola, S. Quirico of Guamo, S. Leonardo i n Treponzio and not the least of these, S. Tommaso i n Lucca.  With the exception of San Frediano, a l l the churches  mentioned have raised choirs. This unity and fine sense of proportion i s synthesized into San Michele' concise, pure, geometrical monochromatic coverings of i n t e r n a l and external design, but t h i s i n t e g r i t y i n use of materials and i n design i s not trans-  lated into the two upper zones of the decorative facade. It i s very d i f f i c u l t to relate San Martino to t h i s homogenity i n the Lucca architecture of the f i r s t phase. Frigidianus around 56O.  The cathedral was b u i l t by St.  I t was r e b u i l t f i r s t a f t e r i t s destruction by  the Lombards i n the seventh century and then by Bishop Anselmo, l a t e r Pope Alexander I I , who consecrated i t i n 1070 i n the presence of the Countess Matilda and her mother.  Further reconstruction started at the  end of the twelfth century and the church i n i t s present aspect was finished i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century.  The proportion  of the bays o f the nave i s equal to the side a i l s e s - a notable difference from the other churches at Lucca and i n the d i s t r i c t .  The raised l e v e l  at the end of the f i f t h bay suggests the choir might have been located there at one time.  The facade must have included an open portico f o r at  t h i s time there was a g a l l e r y b u i l t d i r e c t l y above i t s regular opening in the marble facade.  This suggests that the b l i n d arcading around the  corner and also adjoining the l a t e r a l nave at the top might have been continued across t h i s l e v e l of the facade.  Building technique as seen  from the side view indicates that the l e v e l s above were constructed at a d i f f e r e n t time.  This would also account f o r the v a r i a t i o n of the cornice  below the f i r s t g a l l e r y , where i t i s composed of human and animal heads as opposed to the cornices above of c u r v i l i n e a r t e n d r i l s . I t i s hard to discern when the campanile was added because i t i s not w e l l documented but the plan indicates i t could have caused the e x i s t i n g facade to be modified, ( f i g .  5).  

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