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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary study of theatre audiences Warren, Sarah Meyler 1972

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF' THEATRE AUDIENCES by SARAH MEYLER WARREN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f THEATRE We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e rffJststfJj t /#TA i i ABSTRACT T h i s p r o j e c t attempts to e s t a b l i s h a base f o r f u t u r e work i n t h e a t r e audience r e s e a r c h . The p r o j e c t was a survey of audience e x p e c t a t i o n s o f , and r e a c t i o n s to t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s . Two s p e c i f i c aspects are examined. These are (1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between audience e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s and (2) the e f f e c t on audience response of a s e r i e s of p r o d u c t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the data was examined to d i s c o v e r g e n e r a l trends i n audience a t t i t u d e s , i n so f a r as t h i s was p o s s i b l e i n so s m a l l a group. Three Vancouver p r o d u c t i o n s were chosen f o r the purpose o f the survey. These were the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre p r o -d u c t i o n of As_ You L i k e I t , the Playhouse p r o d u c t i o n o f Tango, and the Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata. T h i r t y - s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups o f twelve each. Each group was d i v i d e d by age and sex, h a l f b e i n g under t w e n t y - f i v e years of age. T h i s d i v i s i o n d i d not r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were examined by a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f i r s t was the General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which assessed each i n d i v i d u a l ' s background, o u t l o o k and e x p e r i e n c e o f the t h e a t r e . The second was the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e which they completed b e f o r e each p r o d u c t i o n . I t s purpose was to e l i c i t an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The t h i r d was the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which i i i c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response to each p r o d u c t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s and the cumulative e f f e c t o f attendance on response are d i s -cussed a t l e n g t h i n t h i s paper. A f t e r an examination o f the data, one important t r e n d appeared. A p p a r e n t l y , the p a r t i -c i p a n t s a s s i m i l a t e and e v a l u a t e t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to a r i g i d and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e . T h i s does not always c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i r enjoyment and i t seems to i n h i b i t c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e response. F u t u r e work might d i s c o v e r how p r e v a l e n t t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s , i t s nature and i t s i n f l u e n c e . There i s an i n d i c a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f u l f i l m e n t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n and the subsequent enjoyment and a p p r o v a l o f the p r o d u c t i o n . There i s a l s o some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s sub-c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t the performance to f i t t h e i r expec-t a t i o n s of the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n . The main cumulative e f f e c t o f continuous exposure t o p r o d u c t i o n s appears to be the maintenance and r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e . S p e c i f i c p o i n t s about audiences and audience response which deserve more e x t e n s i v e study_ are p r e s e n t e d i n the C o n c l u s i o n of t h i s paper. These i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s about the composition o f audiences, audience e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s to a c t i n g , costumes and scenery, and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' frame of r e f e r e n c e and g e n e r a l response to p r o d u c t i o n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Cha p t e r Page INTRODUCTION . . . 1 I METHOD 3 O u t l i n e o f P r o d u c t i o n A t t e n d a n c e . . . . 11 O u t l i n e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D i s t r i b u t i o n . . 12 I I THE QUESTIONNAIRES 15 The G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 15 The P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . 22 The P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . 26 I I I DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS 31 P r o f i l e o f Group A 38 P r o f i l e o f Group B 40 P r o f i l e o f Group C " 43 IV GROUP RESPONSE TO AS YOU LIKE IT 4 8 As You L i k e I t - D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n 48 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A about As You L i k e I t 52 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group A t o As_ You L i k e I t 5 4 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e Expec-t a t i o n s o f Group A and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o As_ You L i k e I t 57 V GROUP RESPONSE TO TANGO 63 Tango D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n 63 V C h a p t e r Page The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A about Tango 6 7 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B about Tango 6 9 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group A t o Tango 7 2 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group B t o Tango 77 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f the Combined Group A and B and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o Tango 83 V I GROUP RESPONSE TO INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA . . 86 I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata - D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n ^6 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A about I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata 90 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B about I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata 92 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group C about I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata 94 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group A t o I n s i d e t h e Ghost S o n a t a 96 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group B t o I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata 102 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group C t o I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata 105 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f The Combined Group A, B, and C and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata 109 CONCLUSION H 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . 145 v i Chapter Page NOTE ON THE APPENDICES 146 APPENDIX A - GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE 14 7 APPENDIX B - PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU LIKE IT 159 APPENDIX C - POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU LIKE IT 165 APPENDIX D - PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE TANGO 173 APPENDIX E - POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE TANGO 178 APPENDIX F - PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA . . . . 186 APPENDIX G - POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA . . . . 192 APPENDIX H - LIST OF LABYRINTH UNITS . . . . 201 INTRODUCTION T h i s paper i s a d i s c u s s i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p r o j e c t intended as a p i l o t study f o r f u t u r e work i n the f i e l d o f audience response to a t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n . I t s b a s i c purpose i s to ask r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s about audiences and audience r e s e a r c h . I t i s the q u e s t i o n s which a r i s e out of the examination o f the c o l l e c t e d d a t a r a t h e r than any t e n t a t i v e "answers" which are important. In o r d e r to g i v e the study a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n , two s p e c i f i c a spects were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The f i r s t concerned the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s . The second concerned the cumulative e f f e c t of a s e r i e s of p r o d u c t i o n s on the response of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o the f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the s e r i e s . In a d d i t i o n to these s p e c i f i c p o i n t s , i t was hoped t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses would r e v e a l g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s towards the t h e a t r e , some o f which c o u l d be examined i n f u t u r e , more e x t e n s i v e , s t u d i e s . A major purpose of t h i s p r o j e c t i s to see how f e a s i b l e a study of t h i s k i n d i s i n p r a c t i c a l terms; t h a t i s , how c o - o p e r a t i v e a group o f Vancouver t h e a t r e - g o e r s a r e , how r e s p o n s i v e they are to t h i s type of survey and how amenable they are to being t e s t e d over a p e r i o d o f time. F u r t h e r , the problem of the e f f i c i e n c y and v a l i d i t y o f both q u e s t i o n s / / / / 2 and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s has been c e n t r a l to t h i s p r o j e c t . Although the study i t s e l f has been comprehensive i n examining the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s , e x p e r i e n c e o f the t h e a t r e , pre-performance knowledge and e x p e c t a t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e i r response to p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s , the number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was s m a l l , t h i r t y - s i x i n a l l . Because o f the s i z e of the group the r e s u l t s of the study cannot be regarded as c o n c l u s i o n s , but r a t h e r as o b s e r v a t i o n s and comments. I t i s these o b s e r v a t i o n s and comments which suggest the q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g audience response which might be developed and e x p l o r e d i n more e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s . F i n a l l y , the o b s e r v a t i o n s and comments suggest the advantages and disadvantages of the p a r t i c u l a r type o f survey developed d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t . A note on the t e x t should be i n c l u d e d here. When d e s c r i b i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses, words and terms which were used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are o f t e n repeated i n the d i s c u s s i o n . Whenever these words and terms are used they are u n d e r l i n e d to i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i r e c t source i s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . CHAPTER I METHOD The p r a c t i c a l problems o f t h e s u r v e y were f i n d i n g p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y and d i s t r i b u t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a c c o r d i n g t o a r i g i d t i m e -t a b l e . A group o f p e o p l e who r e g u l a r l y go t o t h e t h e a t r e was r e q u i r e d . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t the group s h o u l d number t h i r t y - s i x , as t h i s was the l a r g e s t number one i n t e r v i e w e r c o u l d h a n d l e . E i g h t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x were s t u d e n t s between t h e ages o f e i g h t e e n and t w e n t y - f i v e , and t h e r e s t were n o n - s t u d e n t s o v e r t h e age o f t h i r t y - f i v e . H a l f t h e t o t a l group were women, i n o r d e r t o s e t up a p o s s i b l e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f male and female members o f the group. These s u b d i v i s i o n s a r e n o t examined i n the d i s c u s s i o n , b u t t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e a r r a n g e d t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e n o n - s t u d e n t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s . ^ I n f u t u r e work, t h e group s h o u l d be l a r g e r , b u t i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t one t e s t e r can h a n d l e f o r t y p a r t i c i p a n t s ( t h i r t y - s i x p l u s f o u r " s p a r e s " , see p . 7 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e t a s k would be s i m p l i f i e d i f t h e r e were two t e s t e r s . I n f u t u r e work l a r g e r groups o f s e v e r a l hundred / / / 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o groups of f o r t y w i t h two t e s t e r s a s s i g n e d to each group. T e s t i n g a l a r g e r group would produce more c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s Three p r o d u c t i o n s i n Vancouver were s e l e c t e d f o r the study because they were a v a i l a b l e , a c c e s s i b l e and i n v o l v e d three d i f f e r e n t types of p l a y . These were the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre p r o d u c t i o n of As_ You L i k e I t , a c l a s s i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e ; the Playhouse Theatre p r o d u c t i o n of Tango, a modern p l a y p r e s e n t e d i n a contemporary s t y l e ; and the Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o p r e s e n t a t i o n of I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, which was an e x p e r i m e n t a l , multi-media p r o d u c t i o n . These p r o d u c t i o n s took p l a c e over a p e r i o d o f f o u r weeks. The t o t a l group o f t h i r t y - s i x was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups o f twelve each, m a i n t a i n i n g the balance o f male and female, student and non-student members i n each group. The f i r s t group o f twelve, Group A, went to a l l three p r o d u c t i o n s . The second group, Group B, attended Tango and I n s i d e the  Ghost Sonata, but not As_ You L i k e I t . The t h i r d group, Group C, went o n l y t o I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata but not to e i t h e r o f the two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s (Refer to O u t l i n e o f P r o d u c t i o n Attendance, p.11). The purpose of s t a g g e r i n g the t h r e e groups i n t h i s way was to compare the e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s of one group w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r group whose members had a l s o r e c e n t l y seen one or more p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . That i s , to see i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine the e x t e n t o f the i n f l u e n c e of 5 an immediately p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n . Only two groups a t t e n d -i n g two p r o d u c t i o n s would be necessary f o r t h i s purpose, of course. However, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l r e a d y a t t e n d i n g the t h r e e a v a i l a b l e p r o d u c t i o n s f o r the q u e s t i o n on compar-i s o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s , so the q u e s t i o n on cumulative e f f e c t o f attendance on response was extended to i n c l u d e the t h i r d p r o d u c t i o n . Thus t h e r e was a p o s s i b l e comparison between the response to the t h i r d p r o d u c t i o n o f those who had seen one p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n and those who had seen two. The e n t i r e study c o u l d have been done w i t h two groups a t t e n d i n g two p l a y s , r a t h e r than t h r e e groups and t h r e e p l a y s . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e were th r e e d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t types of p r o d u c t i o n a v a i l a b l e a t the time was a f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n to have t h r e e groups. The o r i g i n a l i d e a behind t h i s was the p o s s i b i l i t y of comparing the r e -sponses o f t h r e e s i m i l a r groups to three d i f f e r e n t types of p r o d u c t i o n ( t r a d i t i o n a l , modern, e x p e r i m e n t a l ) . However, s i n c e the groups turned out to be more d i s s i m i l a r than s i m i l a r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r aspect was not pursued. The problem was to assemble t h r e e groups of twelve who met the above requirements of age and sex and f o r whom a t t e n d i n g the t h e a t r e was a f a i r l y r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y , so t h a t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s would be comparable to those o f an average audience. Furthermore, s i n c e t h e r e was no budget f o r t h i s study, the p a r t i c i p a n t s had to be people who were a l r e a d y p l a n n i n g to a t t e n d the f i r s t two 6 r e q u i r e d p l a y s . (Complimentary t i c k e t s f o r I n s i d e the Ghost  Sonata were g i v e n to those members o f Groups A, B, and C who had not a l r e a d y bought them. See below p. 6) . T h i s problem, and the problem of e n s u r i n g t h a t these people attended the t h e a t r e on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s , was s o l v e d by u s i n g the re c o r d s o f season t i c k e t h o l d e r s o f the F r e d e r i c Wood and Playhouse T h e a t r e s . Group A was s e l e c t e d by checking the F r e d e r i c Wood s u b s c r i b e r s a g a i n s t the Playhouse s u b s c r i b e r s and drawing up a l i s t o f people who s u b s c r i b e d to both. By t e l e p h o n i n g people on t h i s l i s t and c h e c k i n g t h e i r age group and whether or not they were stu d e n t s , the group who would be a t t e n d i n g As_ You L i k e I t and Tango, and who were w i l l i n g to a t t e n d I n s i d e the Ghost  Sonata (a n o n - s u b s c r i p t i o n p r o d u c t i o n ) was formed. The second group was formed i n the same way, by t e l e p h o n i n g a l i s t o f Playhouse s u b s c r i b e r s o n l y . The p o t e n t i a l members o f Group B d i d not q u a l i f y i f they had seen or were p l a n n i n g to see As_ You L i k e I t . Since t h e r e were no season t i c k e t s f o r the Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o , members o f Group C, the group which was to at t e n d I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, but not the two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s , was drawn from r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s who had e i t h e r bought t i c k e t s t o the p r o d u c t i o n o r who had expressed an i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g i t . Complimentary t i c k e t s t o I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata were p r o v i d e d f o r the members o f Groups A and B, and f o r those members of Group C who d i d not a l r e a d y / 7 have t i c k e t s . T h i s p r o v i d e d an e x t r a inducement when r e -c r u i t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n . There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e e t i c k e t s p r e d i s p o s e d those who r e c e i v e d them to have a f a v o r a b l e response t o the p r o d u c t i o n , and t h i s i s a f u r t h e r f a c t o r t o keep i n mind i n any f u t u r e work. One f i n a l note about the s e l e c t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s t h a t i t i s a d v i s a b l e to have some s u b s t i t u t e s i n each group. That i s , i f the f i n a l group number i s twelve p a r t i c i -pants the t e s t e r should b e g i n w i t h s i x t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t l e a s t . Since these p a r t i c i p a n t s take p a r t i n the study i n e x a c t l y the same way and a t the same time as the o t h e r members o f the group, t h e i r responses to the s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can be s u b s t i t u t e d i f a group member drops out o r i s d i s q u a l i f i e d . Even w i t h a s m a l l group someone i s sure to drop out h a l f way through, or i t w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a p a r t i c i p a n t does not r e a l l y meet the e s t a b l i s h e d requirements, or has gone t o one of the p r o d u c t i o n s he was not supposed to a t t e n d . Unless t h e r e i s a replacement f o r the d i s q u a l i f i e d member, the study w i l l be s p o i l e d , i n t h i s study f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n c l u d e d , and two o f them proved n e c e s s a r y . Once the groups had been formed, the next problem was the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (See o u t l i n e o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D i s t r i b u t i o n , p.12). The o r i g i n a l telephone 8 c o n t a c t was f o l l o w e d by a l e t t e r s t a t i n g the g e n e r a l purpose of the study, and o u t l i n i n g the form the study would ta k e . Included w i t h t h i s l e t t e r was the Ge n e r a l , or P r o f i l e , 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a stamped addressed envelope. Most r e t u r n e d t h e i r completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n a few days, and o n l y a few had to be p i c k e d up. The next q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the s e r i e s was the Pre-P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ^ S i n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s would be a t t e n d i n g the p r o d u c t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t n i g h t s , and so t h a t a l l would have the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e no e a r l i e r than a day b e f o r e the performance, they were d e l i v e r e d by hand. T h i s was l e s s c o m p l icated than m a i l i n g them a t d i f f e r e n t dates w i t h o u t b e i n g sure o f the date o f a r r i v a l and everyone then had the same l e n g t h of time t o t h i n k about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . In most cases d e l i v e r i n g the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by hand meant an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s made i t much e a s i e r to c o l l e c t them a t the t h e a t r e s and to d i s t r i b u t e the o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s was a f a c t o r c o n t r i -b u t i n g to t h e i r g e n e r a l response and c o - o p e r a t i o n . However, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t might have had some i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response. I t i s important, t h e r e f o r e , f o r the t e s t e r to appear n e u t r a l i n a t t i t u d e towards the p r o d u c t i o n s when meeting the p a r t i c i -p ants. 9 I t was o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y t o p i c k up t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s b e f o r e the p a r t i c i p a n t s saw the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s was done by me e t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e l o b b y o f the t h e a t r e b e f o r e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . They were t h e n a b l e t o d i s c u s s any d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y had had w i t h t h e P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h i s m e e t i n g p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o remind them o f the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n , o r r e a c t i o n , Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t was i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s t u d y t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 4 f i l l o u t t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t x o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , w h i l e t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o i t were f r e s h i n t h e i r minds. The members o f Group A were asked t o remai n i n t h e i r s e a t s a f t e r As_ You L i k e I t , and s i n c e a r e c o r d was k e p t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e a t numbers, i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o d i s -t r i b u t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e n r emained i n t h e i r s e a t s , c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and r e t u r n e d them b e f o r e t h e y l e f t t h e t h e a t r e . As a r u l e , t h i s s y stem worked v e r y w e l l d u r i n g the r u n o f As_ You L i k e I t . I t was d i s -c o v e r e d , however, t h a t u n l e s s someone i s s t a n d i n g by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e h e l d p r o m i n e n t l y , t h e moment t h e house l i g h t s come up t h e p a r t i c i p a n t w i l l t h i n k no one i s coming and s t a r t t o l e a v e . C o l l e c t i n g t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a f t e r t h e P l a y h o u s e p r o d u c t i o n o f Tango was a l i t t l e more c o m p l i -c a t e d , f o r two r e a s o n s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t was n o t / p o s s i b l e t o use the t h e a t r e i t s e l f a f t e r the performance was over, so the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had to be f i l l e d out i n the lobby. A r r a n g i n g a meeting p l a c e i n the lobby and f i n d i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s (who f r e q u e n t l y f o r g o t o r misunderstood the meeting place) i n the a f t e r - p e r f o r m a n c e crowd was not a g r e a t problem, but i s one which s h o u l d be kept i n mind i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . The o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t a f t e r some of the performances of Tango the d i r e c t o r and members of the c a s t came on stage f o r a d i s -c u s s i o n with the audience. Although the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been warned o f t h i s , and had agreed to come i n t o the lobby b e f o r e the d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g how many o f them f o r g o t t o do so and. had to be f e t c h e d . T h i s i s another reason f o r keeping a r e c o r d o f the s e a t numbers. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, the t h i r d and f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n , was e a s i e r . By t h i s time the m a j o r i t y o f the group were f a m i l i a r w i t h the r o u t i n e , the t o t a l audience was s m a l l e r , so t h a t i t was•easier t o f i n d the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the crowd, and the f a c t t h a t there was o n l y one e x i t door made i t e a s i e r to c o l l e c t a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . During the study o n l y f o u r people f o r g o t to wa i t a f t e r a p r o d u c t i o n , o r misunderstood t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s , and these people were immediately c o n t a c t e d and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed and c o l l e c t e d by the f o l l o w i n g day at the l a t e s t . 11 There are s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s emphasis on h a v i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f i l l e d i n and c o l l e c t e d immediately a f t e r the performance. The f i r s t i s t h a t f o r the purpose of the study i t was important to get the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' immediate response. The second reason was t h a t i n t h i s way the time which e l a p s e d between s e e i n g the p r o d u c t i o n and f i l l i n g i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was as c o n s t a n t as p o s s i b l e f o r the t o t a l group. The t h i r d reason was the p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l and h i g h l y important one o f t h i s b e i n g the most e f f i c i e n t way to c o l l e c t the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The ot h e r p o s s i b l e methods of d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s would be e i t h e r w a i t i n g t i l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s sent or r e t u r n e d the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which c o u l d not be r e l i e d upon, or going to each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s house and c o l l e c t i n g i t , which, com-b i n e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , would be i m p r a c t i c a l . OUTLINE OF PRODUCTION ATTENDANCE P r o d u c t i o n : As You L i k e I t Tango I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata Attended by : Group A Group A Group A Group B Group B Group C OUTLINE OF QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION GROUP: Group A Group B Group C QUESTIONNAIRE: General General General pre - As You Like It post - As You Like It pre - Tango pre - Tango post - Tango post • - Tango pre - Inside the Ghost Sonata pre - Inside the Ghost Sonata pre - Inside the Ghost Sonata post - Inside the Ghost Sonata post • - Inside the Ghost Sonata post - Inside the Ghost Sonata to 13 The General Questionnaire was d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t -ed before the partic i p a n t s went to any of the productions. Each Pre-Production Questionnaire was d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d before the pa r t i c i p a n t s went to the performance i n question. Each Post-Production Questionnaire was d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d immediately a f t e r the performance i n question. 14 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I "'"See data f i l e d i n F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 See General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p. 14 7 p. 159 p. 16 5, 3 See P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (As You L i k e I t ) , ^See P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (As You L i k e I t ) , CHAPTER I I THE QUESTIONNAIRES G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 5 The purpose o f t h e G e n e r a l o r P r o f i l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e s e r i e s , was t o e s t a b l i s h an o u t l i n e o f t h e s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and age l e v e l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r g e n e r a l o u t l o o k and t a s t e s , a t t i t u d e s towards p l a y s and a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r t h e a t r e - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The q u e s t i o n s about t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on g e n e r a l l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m v i e w i n g h a b i t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t has a d i r e c t e f f e c t on t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o t h e t i m e s p e n t a t t h e t h e a t r e . F u r t h e r -more, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c h o i c e o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , r e f l e c t t h e i r g e n e r a l o u t l o o k and t a s t e s . I t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n about l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ^ c o n c e n t r a t e d on s o c i a l a r e a s , w h i l e s o l i t a r y h o b b i e s were n o t i n c l u d e d . S i n c e t h e a t r e i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t i t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e t o at t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r a c o m p a r a t i v e and p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t between the t h e a t r e and o t h e r s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . However, i n any future survey, i n order to get a clearer idea of the tastes and outlook of the pa r t i c i p a n t s and of t h e i r attitude towards l e i s u r e (for example, whether i t should be structured, whether they prefer organized pursuits to spontaneous ones, etc.) some attempt should be made to discover t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and non-group-orientated hobbies. As well as giving an i n d i c a t i o n of the areas of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and tastes, i t was f e l t that the 7 8 questions on t e l e v i s i o n and film-viewing habits could be used to discover r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f any, between the amount and type of t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m watched and the response to t h e a t r i c a l staging, including attitudes towards acting costume, scenery, character, and dramatic p l o t . Although the questions about t e l e v i s i o n viewing could be expanded i n any future study, the pattern developed for t h i s survey worked well mechanically and the information e l i c i t e d was useful. However, i n the section on f i l m some problems were revealed which should be discussed. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to indicate which films on the l i s t they had seen and to rate these films from one to three according to the extent they had enjoyed each one. Unfortun ately, there was no r a t i n g category provided between one = l i k e d i t very much, and two = did not l i k e i t very much. A category which would allow the p a r t i c i p a n t s to indicate 17 t h a t they had enjoyed the f i l m moderately s h o u l d have been i n c l u d e d . (However, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d t h a t r a t i n g the f i l m w i t h a two i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had enjoyed i t moderately.) The f i l m s on the l i s t had a l l been a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y w i t h i n three months p r i o r to the survey; some were c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . They f e l l i n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s : those t h a t were intended t o be almost e n t i r e l y e n t e r t a i n i n g , w i thout much s e r i o u s content, and those t h a t were in t e n d e d to communicate a s e r i o u s statement. The main d e f e c t i n t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t h a t the l i s t was composed on l y o f commercially a v a i l a b l e c u r r e n t f i l m s . No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r f i l m s o c i e t i e s , f i l m s e r i e s o r v i n t a g e f i l m s , and t h e r e i s evidence t h a t some o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s attended f i l m s o t h e r than the type on the l i s t . In any f u r t h e r study, a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' t a s t e s and a t t i t u d e s towards entertainment would probably be o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g them to l i s t f o u r or f i v e f i l m s they had r e c e n t l y seen and enjoyed, i n the same way t h a t they had been asked about t h e i r f a v o r i t e t e l e v i s i o n programs. A f u r t h e r dimension would be added by ask i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s to l i s t the t e l e v i s i o n shows and f i l m s they had seen and l e a s t enjoyed. The s e c t i o n which was intended to d i s c o v e r the 9 t h e a t r e - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t r y i n g t o d i s c o v e r the types of p l a y s and p r o d u c t i o n s 18 w i t h which the group members were f a m i l i a r and the frequency of t h e i r attendance a t the v a r i o u s Vancouver t h e a t r e s . The response t o the q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n gave an i d e a not o n l y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f p l a y s , but a l s o o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s . One q u e s t i o n which was p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l was the one which i n v o l v e d a l i s t o f twenty p l a y s . Each o f the p l a y s belonged to one o f the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s modern comedy, modern s e r i o u s drama, c l a s s i c s , o r avant garde p l a y s , and i t was p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r w i t h which type they were most f a m i l i a r and which they p r e f e r r e d . (The e r r o r i n the r a t i n g system, a l r e a d y mentioned i n the d i s -c u s s i o n of the q u e s t i o n on f i l m s , a l s o appears i n t h i s q u estion.) T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s about the p r a c -t i c a l involvement' i n t h e a t r e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of t h e a t r e i n o t h e r c e n t r e s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e about the standar d o f l o c a l t h e a t r e s i n c e i t was f e l t t h a t an audience's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the t h e a t r e and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to p r o d u c t i o n s are c o n d i t i o n e d by a l l the aspects o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f p l a y s and p r o d u c t i o n s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ ^ was composed of a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s about the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s towards theme, i n t e n t i o n and s t y l e o f p l a y s and towards the v a r i o u s aspects of p r o d u c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s about aspects o f s t a g i n g are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , but some of the terminology used i n the q u e s t i o n s about theme, s t y l e , and i n t e n t i o n s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d . F o r example, the terms r e a l w o r l d , f a n t a s y w o r l d , i n n e r w o r l d o f the mind a r e used i n an a t t e m p t t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a r e a l i s t i c approach t o a p r o d u c t i o n , a p u r e l y i m a g i n a r y a p p r o a c h , and an approach which i s based on a s u b j e c t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w . The terms chosen were f e l t t o e x p r e s s t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n t h e most e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d way, and the p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed t o have no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h them. ( T h i s does n o t , o f c o u r s e , prove t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s u n d e r s t o o d t h e terms as t h e y were i n t e n d e d . ) A s k i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s whether t h e y p r e f e r r e d a p l a y t o be s e r i o u s o r e n t e r t a i n i n g was an a t t e m p t t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a p r e f e r e n c e f o r p l a y s w h i c h do a t t e m p t t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t e m e n t about l i f e and t h o s e w h i c h do n o t . As some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p o i n t e d o u t , s e r i o u s and e n t e r t a i n i n g a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . A t t e m p t s t o s o l v e t h e problems o f d e f i n i t i o n a r i s i n g from th e use o f somewhat a b s t r a c t terms were made by a s k i n g t h e same q u e s t i o n s i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways and t h i s seemed t o g i v e a more c o h e r e n t i d e a o f the group a t t i t u d e . The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o g e t a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f t h e t y p e o f p l a y and p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were r e p e a t e d i n some form i n the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n and P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Questionnaires^"'" i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e change i n a t t i t u d e and p r e f e r e n c e ( i f any) when the 2 0 q u e s t i o n s are a p p l i e d to a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i o n . S e v e r a l types o f q u e s t i o n were used throughout the s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type o f q u e s t i o n was used most f r e q u e n t l y . Two d i f f e r e n t forms o f t h i s q u e s t i o n were used. In the f i r s t the p a r t i c i p a n t was asked to choose one (sometimes more than one) answer t h a t was a p p l i c a b l e t o him or t h a t most c l o s e l y expressed h i s o p i n i o n . T h i s f i r s t type was most u s e f u l f o r q u e s t i o n s about background, p r e v i o u s knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and f o r those q u e s t i o n s which asked the p a r t i c i p a n t t o d e c i d e the theme, s t y l e , and i n t e n t i o n of a p r o d u c t i o n . In the second type of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t was asked to number i n order o f p r e f e r e n c e a l l the c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d . The responses to t h i s second type of m u l t i p l e -c h o i c e q u e s t i o n gave a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n o f the p a r t i c i -pants' s u b j e c t i v e , r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e , response to the p r o d u c t i o n s . P a t t e r n s and groupings of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response began to show up w i t h i n each q u e s t i o n when t h i s method was used, p a r t i c u l a r l y when t r y i n g to gauge a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s enjoyment and p e r s o n a l response. Another type o f q u e s t i o n used i n the survey was one 12 which i n v o l v e d c o n t r a s t i n g p a i r s of d e s c r i p t i v e words. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r response to aspects o f the p r o d u c t i o n s on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e between the opposing terms. Again, t h i s type of q u e s t i o n , w h i l e not 21 used e x t e n s i v e l y , seemed to g i v e a more p r e c i s e i n d i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e response. A f i n a l type o f q u e s t i o n , used i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the s e r i e s , was one which gave the p a r t i c i p a n t the o p p o r t u n i t y to w r i t e i n h i s own response. The main advantage of p r o v i d i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a c h o i c e of response, i s t h a t i t was then p o s s i b l e t o s t a n d a r d i z e the answers when c o m p i l i n g the d a t a , and i t a l s o made the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e a s i e r and q u i c k e r t o complete. The c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d were very comprehensive and the p a r t i c i p a n t s understood t h a t they were f r e e to w r i t e i n t h e i r own answers, so t h a t the method used was l e s s l i m i t -i n g than i t might have been. I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t few took advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to w r i t e i n t h e i r own responses. One important aspect o f the q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s and i n the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h a t they are d i r e c t r a t h e r than i n d i r e c t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were not made to f e e l t h a t t h e r e was a concealed i n t e n t i o n behind the q u e s t i o n s , nor were they d i s t r a c t e d by any i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e was a r i g h t and a wrong answer to the q u e s t i o n s . I t must be emphasized t h a t the General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , when completed, o n l y g i v e s a bare o u t l i n e o f the p a r t i c i -pants' background. In f u t u r e work, i f a more comprehensive p r o f i l e i s f e l t t o be necessary, a more i n t e n s i v e i n q u i r y i n t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l background, economic b a c k g r o u n d , and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y would be r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e i r o u t l o o k and a t t i t u d e . However, the danger o f a l i e n a t i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and p u t t i n g them on t h e d e f e n s i v e (and t h u s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e ) by a t o o d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i r back-ground i s one t h a t must be k e p t i n mind. There i s a l s o t h e a d d i t i o n a l danger o f a l l o w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o become too l o n g and unmanageable, b o t h from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . The P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e answered by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b e f o r e t h e y saw each o f t h e t h r e e p r o d u c t i o n s was b r i e f and had two main p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t was t o d i s c o v e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e v i o u s knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p l a y t h e y were about t o see; t h e s econd, t o o b t a i n an o u t l i n e o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e p r o d u c t i o n . The b a s i c d e s i g n of a l l t h r e e P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was t h e same, b u t t h e r e were some v a r i a t i o n s s i n c e t h e t h r e e p r o d u c t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s were so d i s s i m i l a r . The f i r s t main s e c t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l t 13 w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r e v i o u s knowledge o f t h e p l a y . In t h e As_ You L i k e I t P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t was composed o f d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s about th e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p l a y i t s e l f . I t w o u l d , however, have been more useful to have t r i e d to discover the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f a m i l i a r i t y with Shakespearean comedy or with Shakespeare's works as a whole, since i t i s possible that any expectations would be based on f a m i l i a r i t y with a c e r t a i n type of production, rather than on one play only. In the Tango and Inside the Ghost Sonata Pre-Production Questionnaires t h i s section included a l i s t of f i f t e e n plays s i m i l a r i n type to the one the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' were about to 14 see. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to rate those plays they had eit h e r read or seen according to how much they had enjoyed them. The plays on each l i s t were included because they were the same general type as the play the p a r t i c i p a n t s were about to see, and the purpose of the question was to e l i c i t the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response to t h i s general type. In retrospect, however, the plays on the l i s t i n the Tango Pre-Production Questionnaire seem to bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to Tango, and the responses, i n d i v i d u a l and cumulative, indicate l i t t l e that i s relevant to the study. The plays on the l i s t i n the Inside the Ghost Sonata Pre-Production Questionnaire are more cl o s e l y related to Strindberg's Ghost Sonata. Since they bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the production, they cannot be related too s p e c i f i c a l l y or u s e f u l l y to the production i t s e l f , although the responses to t h i s question d i d give a f u l l e r picture of the p a r t i c i -pants' background. This question, which t r i e s to discover a pre-established response to a general type of play would have been more u s e f u l i f i t had been worked out i n more accurate d e t a i l . In the Tango P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a q u e s t i o n was added asking i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s had read or heard a n y t h i n g about the p l a y . In the I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h i s q u e s t i o n was f u r t h e r developed by the a d d i t i o n of a q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i f they had heard or read anything about the p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s f i n a l form was the more u s e f u l one. I t should be mentioned a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t throughout the time the study was t a k i n g p l a c e t h e r e was a newspaper s t r i k e i n Vancouver. Consequently, none of u s u a l p r e - p r o -d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , such as d i s c u s s i o n s about the author, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d i r e c t o r , a c t o r s and c r i t i c s e v a l u a t i o n s or photographs. The p a r t i c i p a n t was a l s o asked what g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d 1 5 and s t y l e he expected from the t h e a t r e i n q u e s t i o n . These p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s were based on the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s knowledge o f , o r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h , the t h e a t r e , and they were a l s o intended to d i s c o v e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f . In the main p a r t o f the s e c t i o n on s p e c i f i c expec-t a t i o n s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to answer the q u e s t i o n s by imagining what t h e i r own responses would b e . ^ I t was suggested t h a t as r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s they would pr o b a b l y have some idea of the way they were l i k e l y to respond. T h i s approach seemed to work very w e l l . The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were very simple, and some had a l r e a d y been i n c l u d e d i n the General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r any group t e n d e n c i e s . A l l the q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h the c o r r e l a t i o n between e x p e c t a t i o n and r e a c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s were designed t o d i s c o v e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s about theme, c o n t e n t and i n t e n -t i o n of the p l a y , as w e l l as a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the approach of the s t a g i n g and the aspects o f the p l a y and s t a g i n g they most expected to enjoy. They were a l s o asked to d e s c r i b e the way they expected to f e e l both d u r i n g and a f t e r the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s type of q u e s t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter on the General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The main problem was to express t h e a t r i c a l terms i n language t h a t would be a c c u r a t e and y e t e a s i l y understood by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t the q u e s t i o n s i n the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n and P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had to be a p p l i c a b l e to a l l t h r e e p r o d u c t i o n s without b e i n g so g e n e r a l as to be meaningless. An examination o f the q u e s t i o n s themselves w i l l show how t h i s problem was s o l v e d . The f i n a l two q u e s t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e a l l y an e x t e n s i o n o f the General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and should perhaps have been i n c l u d e d i n i t . These were in t e n d e d to d i s c o v e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' reasons f o r buying season 26 t i c k e t s and f o r coming to the p a r t i c u l a r p l a y i n q u e s t i o n . (The I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e does not, of course, i n c l u d e the q u e s t i o n about season t i c k e t s . ) P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e had two main f u n c t i o n s . The f i r s t was t o o b t a i n an o u t l i n e o f the pa r -t i c i p a n t s ' response t o the p r o d u c t i o n as a whole, and the second was to p r o v i d e some b a s i s f o r the d i r e c t comparison of the groups' r e a c t i o n s to each p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . For. t h i s second purpose, q u e s t i o n s from the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were rep e a t e d i n the P o s t -P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e but i n s t e a d o f i n q u i r i n g about e x p e c t a t i o n s , these q u e s t i o n s now asked about r e a c t i o n s t o 17 the s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i o n s . These same q u e s t i o n s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the o u t l i n e o f the group members' response to t h e a t r e as a whole. The q u e s t i o n s i n the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e are d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s : (a) those about 18 the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e response to the performance 19 ( i . e . , d i d they enjoy i t ? ) ; (b) those about the p l a y ( i t s i n t e n t i o n , main concern, whether i t was comic or s e r i o u s , r e a l i s t i c o r u n r e a l i s t i c ) ; and (c) those about 20 aspe c t s o f the s t a g i n g . Questions about the p l a y i t s e l f 27 precede q u e s t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n . I t was f e l t t h a t the c e n t r a l i d e a and i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y would be the element foremost i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g e n e r a l response, and i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l w i t h t h i s problem f i r s t . There was, a t the time, no way o f knowing i f t h i s assumption was c o r r e c t . Now t h a t the study i s over t h e r e i s some su g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s was not the b e s t arrangement. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would decide t h i s . The purpose o f q u e s t i o n i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s from t h r e e , r a t h e r than o n l y one, p o i n t s of view was to get a coherent i d e a of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response to the e n t i r e e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r than merely to i s o l a t e d a spects o f the p r o d u c t i o n . The main problems o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were those which have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n the c h a p t e r on the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These were f i r s t , the d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f e x p r e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n s i n terms which would be c l e a r to the p a r t i c i p a n t s and which would a c c u r a t e l y apply to the v a r i o u s aspects o f p l a y and p r o d u c t i o n , and second, of d e v i s i n g a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s which would be a p p l i c a b l e to almost any t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n , so t h a t they c o u l d be used f o r the purpose of comparing the responses of a group to d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n s . One problem t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y r e c u r r e d throughout the study and which should be mentioned here was t h a t o f d e s c r i b i n g v i s u a l aspects o f the performances i n v e r b a l terms which had the 28 same meaning f o r both p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n t e r v i e w e r . In the I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s were added to cover the l a b y r i n t h and the f i l m and s l i d e s , d e v i c e s which were not used i n the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . The types of q u e s t i o n used are those which appeared i n the G e n e r a l and Pre-P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and they have a l r e a d y been d i s -cussed. One p o i n t t h a t s h o u l d be mentioned i s t h a t the l i s t o f terms p r o v i d e d f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n o f costumes and scenery might, i n f u t u r e work, be extended. I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t some of the q u e s t i o n s i n the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e are r e p e a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t forms. T h i s was f o r the purpose o f c r o s s - c h e c k i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response and i t proved very u s e f u l , although i t tended to make the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s l i g h t l y l o n g e r than was d e s i r a b l e . As i t i s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e took between f i f t e e n and t w e n t y - f i v e minutes to complete. 29 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER II 5See p. 147. 6See p. 149 question ( i ) . 7 See pp. 147-148 questions (e) and ( f ) . g See pp. 148-149 questions (g) and (h). 9 See pp. 150-152 questions (j) to (n) and p. 153 questions (s), p.155 questions (x) and (z), p. 156 question (aa), p. 157 question ( f f ) , p. 158 question ( i i ) to (kk). "^See p. 154 questions (t) to (w) , pp. 152-153 questions (o) to ( r ) , p. 155 question (y). "'""'•Compare pp. 152-153 questions (o) to (r) with p. 161 question (k) and pp. 165-166 question (d). 12 See p. 166 question (d). 13 See pp. 159-160 questions (c) to ( j ) . 14 See p. 176 question (m), p. 190 question (m) . 15 See p. 159 questions (a) and (b). "^See p. 161. 17 Compare pp. 161-163 questions (k) to (m) with pp. 165-166 questions (a) to (d) , p. 167 question ( f ) , p. 169 questions (1) and (n), p. 170 question (p) and p. 171 question ( t ) . 30 18 See p. 165 questions (a) and (b), p. 166 l a s t part of (d), p. 167 questions ( f ) , (g) , and (h), p. 171 questions (r) , (s), (t) , and (u) , p. 172 question (w) . 19 pp 165-166 questions (d) and (e). 2 0 See p. 165 question (c), p. 167 question ( i ) , pp 168-171 questions (j) to (q). CHAPTER III DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTICIPANTS The t o t a l group of t h i r t y - s i x people who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study comprised eighteen students and eighteen non-students. The students' ages were from eighteen to twenty-f i v e , and the non-students' ages from t h i r t y to s i x t y , although the majority of the l a t t e r were between t h i r t y and f i f t y . Examination of the r e s u l t s disclosed no d i s c e r n i b l e difference between the attitudes of those between t h i r t y and f o r t y and those between f i f t y and s i x t y . With regard to the general educational and s o c i a l l e v e l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l l but one of the eighteen non-students had graduated from high school; h a l f of these had uni v e r s i t y degrees and f i v e had post-graduate degrees. Six of these people were housewives, eight had professional careers, one was a graduate student, and the r e s t had business careers. To conform with the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the study, a l l the eighteen to twenty-five year olds were uni v e r s i t y students, and, with the exception of one mathematics major, none was i n any of the sciences. (Perhaps further study could investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y that students i n the sciences are not,as a ru l e , very interested in the theatre.) According to the responses to the questions on l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s these people do not spend a great deal of time watching t e l e v i s i o n . They seem to be highly s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r viewing and to choose programs which would l e t them f e e l that the time they had spent watching t e l e v i s i o n was worthwhile i n terms of learning something of value. The types of show that they indicated they preferred were drama, movies and news, and the programs they named as t h e i r f a v o r i t e shows were news,educational and serious drama programs. Among the s p e c i f i c programs named by the p a r t i c i p a n t s , even those shows whose intentions were to entertain offered more educational or i n t e l l e c t u a l content 21 than the average t e l e v i s i o n show. This apparent desire to learn something and to have a p o s i t i v e experience from t e l e v i s i o n i s important as i t i s related to the apparent need of the part i c i p a n t s to make time and e f f o r t invested i n any a c t i v i t y give a proportionate return. This at t i t u d e seems to have a bearing on the group members 1 attitude to the theatre as w e l l . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n that the students i n the group watch less t e l e v i s i o n than the non-students, but t h i s may be because fewer of the students have easy access to' t e l e v i s i o n sets. The majority of the p a r t i c i p a n t s go to the movies at l e a s t once a month, mainly to popular commercial films which have had some measure of c r i t i c a l acclaim (A Man  For A l l Seasons, for example) and they usually enjoy these films at l e a s t moderately. The par t i c i p a n t s attend the movies almost as frequently as they attend the theatre. In fact, the majority of the group maintains that going to the theatre, movies, and v i s i t i n g a r t g a l l e r i e s are among t h e i r main l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that few of the participants attend the opera, p a r t i c u l a r l y since opera i s c l o s e l y related to theatre. Since most of the p a r t i c i -pants say that they consider the playwright's theme to be the most important aspect of a performance, followed by the acting (that i s , the r e a l i s t i c representation of people) i t i s possible that they f e e l they won't get s a t i s f a c t i o n from the opera. I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g that only two members of the group attend night club performances which are also a form of theatre. Among the possible explanations for t h i s are the a v a i l a b i l i t y of night club entertainers on t e l e v i s i o n and the purely entertaining q u a l i t y of t h i s kind of theatre, which would not make the time invested seem p a r t i c u l a r l y well spent. Further, there i s less re-lat i o n s h i p between t h i s kind of entertainment and the human experience than i s found at the conventional theatre. This apparent necessity of l i n k i n g spectacle, action and immediacy with some kind of s o c i a l , educational or e t h i c a l relevance i s further r e f l e c t e d i n the fact that few members of the group attend spectator sports. A further i n t e r e s t i n g point i s the high proportion of participants who indicate that one of t h e i r main i n t e r e s t s 34 i s v i s i t i n g a r t g a l l e r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the study suggests t h a t they are remarkably unaware o f , and u n i n -t e r e s t e d i n , the v i s u a l aspects o f t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f the group i n d i c a t e s t h a t going to the t h e a t r e i s one of t h e i r main i n t e r e s t s . Fewer than h a l f o f the group, however, m a i n t a i n t h a t i t was a c t u a l l y t h e i r main i n t e r e s t . Of the seven e s t a b l i s h e d p l a c e s i n Vancouver where p l a y s o r t h e a t r i c a l performances are c o n s i s t e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , o n l y the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre and the Playhouse were attended w i t h any frequency by the group members. Although they are i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a t r e , i t would appear t h a t they are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f t h e a t r e . Fewer than h a l f the group had seen t h e a t r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s . T h i s means, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e i s mainly c o n f i n e d t o the type o f p r o d u c t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t the F r e d e r i c Wood and Playhouse T h e a t r e s . P o s s i b l y , by t h i s e x c l u s i v e n e s s the group members prevent themselves from d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r c r i t i c a l f a c u l t i e s . Although they r e s t r i c t themselves t o the two t h e a t r e s above, the m a j o r i t y o f the group m a i n t a i n t h a t they have had some e x p e r i e n c e o f un-c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s . (In t h i s study " u n c o n v e n t i o n a l " means any p l a y t h a t has no scenery, mixed media p r o d u c t i o n s , or those which i n v o l v e some degree o f p h y s i c a l audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ) The group members enjoyed these p r o d u c t i o n s a t l e a s t moderately. Fewer than h a l f the group, however, had been to p r o d u c t i o n s t h a t they would d e s c r i b e as e x p e r i m e n t a l . 35 The m a j o r i t y o f the group r a t e d the s t a n d a r d o f t h e a t r e a t the Playhouse and F r e d e r i c Wood Theatres as good to e x c e l l e n t . In s p i t e of t h e i r apparent i n d i f f e r e n c e to scenery and costumes i t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e to say t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s are s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n by t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n these areas o f a p r o d u c t i o n . One f i n a l p o i n t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the a c t u a l t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e of the members o f the group i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y had a t one time been i n v o l v e d i n some asp e c t o f e i t h e r h i g h s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y , amateur, or p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e , and a few were s t i l l i n v o l v e d a t the time of the study. T h i s seems to be a f a i r l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n , and i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how t h i s p r o p o r t i o n would be a f f e c t e d by examining a l a r g e r sample. The types of p l a y the group i n d i c a t e d they would most l i k e t o see were modern s e r i o u s drama, f o l l o w e d by modern comedy and avant garde drama, and i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t modern s e r i o u s drama i s the type o f p l a y o f which the group seems to have had the most e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s g r a v i t a t e towards the type o f p l a y w i t h which they are most f a m i l i a r , r a t h e r than t a k i n g a more adventurous approach when a t t e n d i n g the t h e a t r e . More members of the group say they would p r e f e r p l a y s w i t h an e t h i c a l or w i t h a s o c i a l theme, r a t h e r than those w i t h a romantic or a p o l i t i c a l 36 theme. The m a j o r i t y would p r e f e r to see p l a y s about the i n n e r world of the mind, although q u i t e a few would p r e f e r p l a y s about the r e a l w orld. Only two people out o f t h i r t y -s i x would p r e f e r p l a y s about a f a n t a s y w o r l d . In g e n e r a l , i t seems t h a t p l a y s whose a c t i o n can be r e l a t e d t o a r e c o g n i z a b l e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , o r t o a w o r l d f a m i l i a r to the audience, are p r e f e r r e d . The elements o f r e c o g n i t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y seem to p l a y an important p a r t i n t h e i r p l a y - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e . More members o f the group would p r e f e r a p l a y to be s e r i o u s r a t h e r than merely e n t e r t a i n i n g , though a c o n s i d e r -able number had no p r e f e r e n c e . More members o f the group would p r e f e r a p l a y to p r o v i d e an emotional e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r than make a s i g n i f i c a n t statement about l i f e o r be o n l y e n t e r t a i n i n g . T h i s i s probably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r p l a y s w i t h an e t h i c a l theme and p l a y s about the i n n e r world o f the mind, s i n c e these would probably demand a more p e r s o n a l , and t h e r e f o r e e m o t i o n a l , response from the audience. T h i s d e s i r e f o r emotional involvement i s supported by the m a j o r i t y of the group's p r e f e r e n c e f o r s e a t s i n the middle of the t h e a t r e . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d more conducive to emotional involvement than a p o s i t i o n c l o s e to the stage, where an awareness of technique and d e t a i l might d i s t r a c t , or a p o s i t i o n a t the back of the house which might tend to c r e a t e too detached a v i e w p o i n t . The most important aspects of a p r o d u c t i o n f o r the group are the p l a y w r i g h t ' s theme and the a c t i n g . Very few are i n t e r e s t e d i n the p l o t , and none are i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n scenery or costumes. The m a j o r i t y p r e f e r minimal scenery, which supports the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t scenery i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y unimportant to them. In t h i s study, minimal scenery r e f e r s t o s t a g i n g which p r o v i d e s o n l y the bare n e c e s s i t i e s i n s e t s and costumes, i n c o n t r a s t to s t a g i n g which i s very e l a b o r a t e and/or complete i n every r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l . A few o f the group i n d i c a t e t h a t they a c t u a l l y d i s l i k e l a v i s h , s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y . I t has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r the purposes of the study t h i s group was broken i n t o t h r e e s m a l l e r groups: Group A whose members had season t i c k e t s f o r both the P l a y -house and the F r e d e r i c Wood Th e a t r e s ; Group B whose members had season t i c k e t s t o the Playhouse; and Group C whose members d i d not have season t i c k e t s t o e i t h e r of these two t h e a t r e s . While the sample i s too s m a l l to make a p o s i t i v e statement, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t each group r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h r e e major types o f Vancouver t h e a t r e - g o e r . There are those who are very i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g a l o t o f p l a y s and who make a p o i n t o f p a t r o n i z i n g U n i v e r s i t y t h e a t r e ; those who l i v e i n the Vancouver area.and a t t e n d the Playhouse because i t r e q u i r e s l i t t l e e f f o r t ; and those who o n l y a t t e n d p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s which appeal to them. There are s e v e r a l major d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups which show up i n an examination o f the d a t a , and these are d i s -cussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 38 P r o f i l e of Group A The members o f Group A, the group which had season t i c k e t s to both the Playhouse and the F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e s , seem to be f a i r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r t a s t e and o u t l o o k and to have a r a t h e r s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e towards e n t e r t a i n m e n t and the a r t s . There seems to be a marked tendency on the p a r t o f t h i s group t o g r a v i t a t e towards the e d u c a t i o n a l and i n s t r u c t i v e , r a t h e r than towards p u r e l y e s c a p i s t e n t e r -tainment. They i n d i c a t e some i n t e r e s t i n most o f the a r t s , though few are i n t e r e s t e d i n symphonies or opera. As a group, the members o f Group A are o u t g o i n g . They seem to be s e r i o u s and committed about the way they spend t h e i r l e i s u r e time; t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are s t r u c t u r e d and o r g a n i z e d ; and they seem to be i n v o l v e d to some e x t e n t i n community s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . The f a c t t h a t a l l the members of the group have season t i c k e t s to two t h e a t r e s i n d i c a t e s t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n to commit themselves to an o r g a n i z e d program. I t a l s o seems to be evidence o f a s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e towards the t h e a t r e and the use o f t h e i r own l e i s u r e time. Although they are f u l l y committed to these two t h e a t r e s , the group members are not very adventurous when i t comes to a t t e n d i n g the o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a t r e s i n the community. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t the s t a n d a r d of p r o d u c t i o n a t these t h e a t r e s i s l i k e l y to be more e r r a t i c and the type o f p l a y presented i s l i k e l y to 39 be l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e than a t the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre and the Playhouse. In o t h e r words, i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r support, the members o f the group seem to want some assurance t h a t t h e i r evening a t the t h e a t r e w i l l be worth t h e i r w h i l e i n terms o f conforming to a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d and f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The members o f Group A have had some e x p e r i e n c e s e e i n g t h e a t r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s , and t h e i r main e x p e r i e n c e of p l a y s tends towards modern r e a l i s t i c drama (which they p r e f e r ) and c l a s s i c s . They p r e f e r r e a l i s m i n s t a g i n g , but they are r e a l l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n t e n t of a p l a y than i n the p h y s i c a l aspects o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n , and they are not very i n t e r e s t e d i n the v i s u a l a s p e c t s of a p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i s , costumes and scenery. In s p i t e o f the t o t a l g r o ups 1 p r e f e r e n c e f o r an emotional e x p e r i e n c e at the t h e a t r e , Group A i n d i c a t e s t h a t they would p r e f e r t h e i r e xperience to be i n t e l l e c t u a l r a t h e r than e m o t i o n a l . Although the members o f Group A seem to p r e f e r t r a d i t i o n a l and r e a l i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n s , i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t they are not i n f l e x i b l e about t h i s and have attended a number of n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l pro-d u c t i o n s which they enjoyed. They f e e l the s t a n d a r d o f Vancouver t h e a t r e i s good and u s u a l l y enjoy the p r o d u c t i o n s they a t t e n d . T h i s group, then, ;seems t o have a f a i r l y s e r i o u s and c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the t h e a t r e . T h e i r i n t e r e s t 40 seems to a r i s e from a combination of a d e s i r e t o be e n t e r -t a i n e d and a wish t o l e a r n something i n terms of human or s o c i a l v a l u e s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they e v a l u a t e a p r o d u c t i o n mainly i n terms of the f u l f i l l m e n t o f these wishes. P r o f i l e o f Group B The members of Group B, the group which had season t i c k e t s to the Playhouse o n l y , seem somewhat l e s s s e r i o u s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the t h e a t r e than the members o f Group A, and do not have the same c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n c l i n a t i o n f o r a c t i v i t i e s which are i n s t r u c t i v e , e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i n i n t e n t i o n . On the whole, the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f Group B are more l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d ; they do not seem t o b e l o n g t o o r g a n i z e d c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s and they seem l e s s s e r i o u s and committed about the way they spend t h e i r l e i s u r e time than do the members o f Group A. Group B's more r e l a x e d a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r approach t o t h e a t r e . Although they have season t i c k e t s t o the Playhouse they do not seem t o go to a l l the performances, and they do not o f t e n go t o t h e a t r e s o t h e r than the Playhouse. T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a t r e i s a r a t h e r c a s u a l i n t e r e s t to these p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h i s might be one ex-p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r l e s s s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e towards p l a y s . / / / 41 Although modern s e r i o u s drama i s the type o f p l a y the members o f Group B have the most e x p e r i e n c e o f s e e i n g , t h i s i s not the type o f p l a y they seem to p r e f e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they are not h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r c h o i c e of p l a y s b ut are a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d to a t t e n d those p l a y s f o r which they h o l d season t i c k e t s . I t a l s o suggests t h a t they do not make a p o i n t o f d i s c o v e r i n g what the p l a y i s about b e f o r e they buy t h e i r season t i c k e t s . Group B p r e f e r s p l a y s t h a t are e n t e r t a i n i n g , r a t h e r than those which are s e r i o u s . On the o t h e r hand, they a l s o s t a t e t h a t they p r e f e r p l a y s w i t h an e t h i c a l theme, and t h i s p o s s i b l y expresses a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a more p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t the t h e a t r e , r a t h e r than an e x p e r i e n c e which has r e l e v a n c e to s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . In t h i s way they seem to f e e l t h a t a performance i s complete i n i t s e l f and does not have to have s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Group B seems to r e g a r d the t h e a t r e as a p l a c e t o have a p l e a s a n t evening r a t h e r than as a p l a c e where, i n o r d e r to have a worthwhile e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s necessary to l e a r n something about l i f e o r s o c i e t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the responses of Group B t o the q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g what type o f p l a y they would p r e f e r (modern comedy, c l a s s i c s , e t c . ) and what type of e x p e r i e n c e they would l i k e t o have ( e n t e r t a i n i n g , e m o t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l ) were q u i t e s c a t t e r e d . T h i s l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are responding l e s s a c c o r d i n g t o p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s about the f u n c t i o n 42 of the t h e a t r e than a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . The most important aspect of a p r o d u c t i o n to the members o f Group B i s the a c t i n g , and they i n d i c a t e t h a t the v i s u a l aspects of a p l a y are not important to them. U n l i k e the members o f Group A, they do not i n d i c a t e any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n r e a l i s t i c s t a g i n g , and they say they would p r e f e r minimal s t a g i n g t o any o t h e r k i n d . F u r t h e r study might i n d i c a t e whether or not t h i s i s t r u e , o r whether they a c t u a l l y mean t h a t they p r e f e r the scenery t o be u n o b t r u s i v e and s u p p o r t i v e o f the a c t i o n r a t h e r than d i s t r a c t i n g from i t . T h i s apparent l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n costumes and scenery seems to c o n t r a d i c t the c o n v e n t i o n a l assumption t h a t s p e c t a c l e i s an important element of a p l e a s a n t and e n t e r t a i n i n g experience a t the t h e a t r e . T h i s i s deduced from the f a c t t h a t Group B p r e f e r s e n t e r t a i n i n g r a t h e r than e x c l u s i v e l y s e r i o u s t h e a t r e , and y e t do not f e e l t h a t costumes and scenery are an important a s p e c t o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . They r e l y , r a t h e r , on the a c t i n g . Some of the members of Group B, though not as many as i n Group A, have had some experi e n c e s e e i n g n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s ; very few have been to p r o d u c t i o n s i n which they were asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The members of Group B have had some experience o f t h e a t r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s . On the whole, the members of Group B enjoy themselves a t the t h e a t r e , and, l i k e Group A, f e l t t h a t the standard o f Vancouver t h e a t r e was good. 43 P r o f i l e of Group C Group C i s the group whose members, w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g themselves as r e g u l a r t h e a t r e goers, d i d not have season t i c k e t s f o r e i t h e r the F r e d e r i c Wood o r the Playhouse T h e a t r e s . On the whole, the members of Group C tend t o be l e s s s o c i a l i n t h e i r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s than the members of e i t h e r Groups A or B, and they do not seem to adhere to any s t r u c t u r e d programs as f a r as these a c t i v i t i e s are concerned. Only a few a c t i v i t i e s were chosen by the members of Group C from the l i s t p r o v i d e d , and as the a c t i v i t i e s on the l i s t were g e n e r a l l y s o c i a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they spend t h e i r l e i s u r e time i n more s o l i t a r y and more i n d i v i d u a l -i s t i c p u r s u i t s . Although the members o f Group C are i n t e r e s t e d i n going t o the A r t G a l l e r y and to f i l m s , they i n d i c a t e very l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n symphony or opera. T h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n symphony, which has been mentioned i n the d i s c u s s i o n s of the o t h e r two groups i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n w ithout f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Comparing the range o f f i l m s , , on the l i s t p r o v i d e d , seen by the members o f t h i s group w i t h the amount o f time 22 they spend going t o f i l m s , and takxng i n t o account t h a t the l i s t was composed o f commercial movies a v a i l a b l e a t the time o f the study, i t would appear t h a t the members of Group C probably go t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of f i l m s e r i e s o r a t t e n d f i l m s o c i e t y showings. T h i s suggests an i n t e r e s t i n f i l m s as an a r t form, r a t h e r than merely as an 44 entertainment medium, and t h i s p o i n t o f view i s r e f l e c t e d i n some of the a t t i t u d e s of t h i s group towards t h e a t r e . In the f i r s t p l a c e , they are p o s s i b l y more i n c l i n e d t o accept a p r o d u c t i o n as a complete work o f a r t i n i t s e l f , w i t h o u t demanding t h a t i t have some e d u c a t i o n a l or s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e . A l s o , the members o f Group C are c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n costumes and scenery than the members of the o t h e r two groups. Group C i n d i c a t e d t h a t on the whole they had no p r e f e r e n c e as to whether a p l a y was s e r i o u s or e n t e r t a i n i n g . T h i s suggests t h a t the members o f Group C have a l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a of the f u n c t i o n o f a p l a y , which must be f u l f i l l e d i n order f o r them to f e e l t h a t they have had a s a t i s f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The members o f Group C m a i n t a i n t h a t d u r i n g a p e r -formance they are most i n t e r e s t e d i n the p l a y w r i g h t ' s theme. They are more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i n g than i n the scenery and costumes, and they would p r e f e r the scenery t o be minimal. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r minimal scenery, which was f i r s t n o t i c e d i n the responses of Group B, i s t h a t these p a r t i c i p a n t s f i n d e l a b o r a t e o r r e a l i s t i c scenery i n t r u s i v e and d i s t r a c t i n g , r a t h e r than s u p p o r t i v e o f the a c t i o n . The members o f Group C would p r e f e r p l a y s w i t h e i t h e r a s o c i a l o r an e t h i c a l theme, and they would p r e f e r to have an emotional e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than an e x c l u s i v e l y e d u c a t i o n a l or e n t e r t a i n i n g one. T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e 45 t h a t they expect more from a p r o d u c t i o n than the members of Group B, who would p r e f e r t o be e n t e r t a i n e d , and they don't f e e l t h a t a p r o d u c t i o n must have some p o s i t i v e s o c i a l v a l u e , as do the members of Group A. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the m a j o r i t y of Group C has been i n v o l v e d i n some k i n d o f t h e a t r e a t one time. With r e g a r d t o attendance, almost a l l o f Group C had been to the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre s e v e r a l times i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r , and more than h a l f had been t o the Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o . Very few, however, had been t o the Playhouse, and t h e r e i s not much i n d i c a t i o n o f attendance a t oth e r Vancouver t h e a t r e s . T h i s e i t h e r i n d i c a t e s a r a t h e r c a s u a l i n t e r e s t i n the t h e a t r e , o r an i n t e r e s t t h a t i s s a t i s f i e d by the type o f p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e d by the two U.B.C. t h e a t r e s . Since the Group members r e s t r i c t themselves i n t h i s way, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s w i l l p o s s i b l y be determined by the type o f t h e a t r e a v a i l a b l e a t these two p l a c e s . Group C's main exper i e n c e o f p l a y s seems to be o f modern s e r i o u s drama/ but more members o f t h i s group than of the o t h e r two groups have seen p r o d u c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be c a l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l . They would p r e f e r to see e i t h e r modern s e r i o u s drama or avant garde t h e a t r e . They have c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e o f s e e i n g n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l pro-d u c t i o n s and some ex p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e i n o t h e r c i t i e s . Only h a l f o f the group f e l t t h a t the standard o f t h e a t r e i n Vancouver was good, the r e s t f e l t i t was from f a i r t o m e d i o c r e . T h i s w o u l d s e e m t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m e m b e r s t h i s g r o u p h a v e a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a t r e t h a n t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e o t h e r t w o g r o u p s . 47 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER III 21 See p. 148 question ( f ) . 22 See p. 148 question (g) and p. 149 question (h). CHAPTER IV GROUP RESPONSE TO AS YOU LIKE IT As You L i k e I t - D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o d u c t i o n The main i n t e n t i o n o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre p r o d u c t i o n of As_ You L i k e I t was to e n t e r t a i n the audience. For t h i s purpose, a p p a r e n t l y , the problems suggested by the p l a y and the s e r i o u s undertones were l a r g e l y undeveloped, and the element o f parody, which i s an e s s e n t i a l aspect o f the p l a y , was mainly i g n o r e d . Because thematic m a t e r i a l was p l a y e d down, th e r e seemed to be l i t t l e development from b e g i n n i n g to end o f the p r o d u c t i o n . Consequently the a c t i o n depended on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s , which, perhaps because of t h e i r s u p e r f i c i a l treatment, seemed a r t i f i c i a l and u n i n t e r e s t i n g . The r e s u l t was a p r o d u c t i o n which, w h i l e i t was a t t r a c t i v e t o look a t , was e s s e n t i a l l y meaningless and r a t h e r b o r i n g . The general s t y l e o f the p r o d u c t i o n was t r a d i t i o n a l , i n t h a t i t conformed to an accepted type o f t w e n t i e t h century Shakespearean t r a d i t i o n . Dr. F.B. S t . C l a i r de-s c r i b e d the v i s u a l e f f e c t o f the p r o d u c t i o n i n h i s review 23 i n Stage Door: 49 The costumes and a r t nouveau F o r e s t 'of Arden appeared t o be an essay i n evoking a t u r n -o f - t h e - c e n t u r y Shakespeare p r o d u c t i o n . . . . The F o r e s t o f Arden s e t c r e a t e d a f a n t a s y w o r l d . The v a r i o u s elements o f the f o r e s t : t r e e s , grassy banks, f l o w e r s , a brook, were t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l but h i g h l y a r t i f i c -i a l , and although the a c t o r s t r e a t e d the s e t as though i t were a r e a l l o c a l e , the audience was not expected t o ac c e p t i t as r e a l i s t i c . The t r a n s i t i o n from w i n t e r t o summer was i n d i c a t e d by hanging the t r e e s w i t h b l u e and green c h i f f o n streamers. The o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f t h i s s e t was p a s t o r a l but, perhaps because o f the a r t i f i c i a l i t y , t h e r e was a sad, a r i d q u a l i t y to the scene which seemed t o serve no purpose. The c o u r t scenes were p l a y e d on the f o r e s t a g e i n f r o n t o f a p l a i n drop which had a n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e s i g n s u g g e s t i n g p i l l a r s . T h i s s e t was simple and a u s t e r e , the dominant c o l o u r was gray, and i t p r o v i d e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r a s t t o the f o r e s t . The costumes d i d not s t r i c t l y belong to any h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , although t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e medieval, o r perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , P r e - R a p h a e l i t e , m o t i f t o the costume scheme, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o u r t scenes. The costume c o l o u r s i n the c o u r t scenes were mainly wine and b l u e , and i n the f o r e s t scenes brown and b e i g e , w i t h Jaques i n b l a c k , Touch-stone and Audrey i n motley, and some o f the o t h e r s i n l i g h t e r c o l o u r s . The g e n e r a l e f f e c t was muted and somewhat a u s t e r e . / / / 50 The cumulative e f f e c t o f costumes and scenery was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a non-existent,though perhaps not i d e a l , w o r l d . In g e n e r a l , the s t a n d a r d o f the a c t i n g i n t h i s p r o d u c t i o n was r a t h e r low. Energy and movement were con-s i s t e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r thought and m o t i v a t i o n . The e x c e p t i o n s were the a c t o r s p l a y i n g Duke F r e d e r i c k , C e l i a , and Le Beau. There was some s u g g e s t i o n i n these perform-ances t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s had reasons f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and i d e a s about these a c t i o n s . The a c t o r s p l a y i n g R o s a l i n d , Orlando, and Touchstone, on the o t h e r hand, employed a c u r i o u s , u n n a t u r a l , p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t y l e o f a c t i n g , which was p i c k e d up by a number o f those p l a y i n g minor c h a r a c t e r s . Although Jaques and Touchstone were o f t e n funny, t h e i r performances bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o the a c t i o n o f the p l a y . Many o f the a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those p l a y i n g Touchstone and R o s a l i n d , o v e r a c t e d to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, and t h e r e was no u n i t y to the o v e r a l l approach to the a c t i n g s t y l e . In the same review, Dr. S t . C l a i r d e s c r i b e s the a c t i n g as: . . . a g a l l o p i n g e x e r c i s e i n u n r e m i t t i n g l y broad a c t i n g . Romantic scenes were p l a y e d i n the same h e c t o r i n g manner as the r u s t i c e p i s o d e s , and e v e r y t h i n g approaching nuance i n i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was almost e n t i r e l y absent. Given the c ircumstances i t would be un-f a i r t o c r i t i c i z e i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s ; even the Freddy Wood's u s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e combination o f E q u i t y and student p l a y e r s f a i l e d t o y i e l d any performances t h a t emerged wi t h d i s t i n c t i o n from the o v e r a l l m e d i o c r i t y o f the e f f o r t . 24 51 As the above suggests, the c a s t of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n was composed of a combination o f student and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s . The program i n d i c a t e d which a c t o r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l . S i n c e there was no thematic development, the a c t i o n of the p l a y depended on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s . However, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n s a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e r e was no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s on stage had any c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e a l people. Consequently, the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s seemed a r t i f i c i a l and a r b i t r a r y and, even w i t h i n the conventions of the p l a y , the a c t i o n seemed mechanical and c o n t r i v e d . The p r o d u c t i o n was intended to p r o v i d e a happy, e n j o y a b l e , e s c a p i s t evening f o r i t s audience. In o r d e r to f u l f i l l t h i s i n t e n t i o n , any s t i m u l a t i n g elements o f the p l a y i n terms o f ideas or problems were de-emphasized by the p r o d u c t i o n . In s p i t e o f the c r i t i c a l comments o u t l i n e d above, g e n e r a l audience response to t h i s p r o d u c t i o n was good. The m a j o r i t y of people who went to the p l a y seemed t o be e n j o y -i n g themselves and seemed to approve of the p r o d u c t i o n . The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A About As You L i k e I t The group t h a t attended As_ You L i k e I t had very o p t i m i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n . Not o n l y d i d they expect to enjoy themselves, but t h e r e are s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t they a l s o expected to f e e l b e t t e r a f t e r h a v i n g seen 25 the p l a y than they had b e f o r e they had seen i t . The members of Group A g e n e r a l l y expected s t a g i n g a t the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre to be e x p e r i m e n t a l , and they expected t h i s p r o d u c t i o n to be a romantic, e s c a p i s t comedy. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e c i d e whether they were e x p e c t i n g an ex p e r i m e ntal treatment o f a romantic e s c a p i s t comedy or not. I t i s more probable t h a t they d i d not expect t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n to be e x p e r i m e n t a l . They d i d expect the p l a y as w e l l as the p r o d u c t i o n to be u n r e a l i s t i c and w i t h o u t any s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n s . Although the members of the group expected the p r o -d u c t i o n t o be an u n r e a l i s t i c f a n t a s y , which c o u l d have suggested i n f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the s t a g i n g , t h e i r i d e a s are a c t u a l l y very l i m i t e d when a n t i c i p a t i n g the costumes and 2 6 scenery. Few f e l t t h a t e i t h e r of these a s p e c t s would be h i s t o r i c a l , which would seem t o be a t l e a s t one l o g i c a l c h o i c e . On the o t h e r hand, no one expected costumes and scenery to be modern. T h i s l i m i t e d response seems to suggest t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s do not g i v e much advance thought to these a s p e c t s . Perhaps they do not f e e l t h a t costumes and 5 3 scenery are an important f a c t o r i n t h e i r enjoyment. I t i s p o s s i b l e they are not r e a l l y aware t h a t i t i s these a s p e c t s which s i g n i f i c a n t l y e s t a b l i s h the mood and d e f i n e the s t y l e o f the p r o d u c t i o n . The u n i f o r m i t y o f response to these q u e s t i o n s suggests t h a t the group i s responding a c c o r d i n g to some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d g e n e r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e , r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own i d e a s . The aspect o f the p l a y and p r o d u c t i o n t h a t Group A members are most i n t e r e s t e d i n are the c h a r a c t e r s and the a c t o r s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they f e e l t h a t mood and s t y l e o f a p r o d u c t i o n are dependent on the a c t o r s . I t i s pro b a b l e , however, t h a t they do not separate mood, atmosphere and s t y l e from the t o t a l e f f e c t o f the p r o d u c t i o n . Thus i t i s the a c t i n g and c h a r a c t e r s , not the costumes and scenery, which c r e a t e t h i s e f f e c t f o r the members o f t h i s group. Although the members o f Group A are f a i r l y e x p e r i e n c e d at s e e i n g p l a y s , they do not seem very aware o f the v a r i o u s aspects o f the p r o d u c t i o n as separate components, nor do they seem di s p o s e d to take a c r i t i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l approach. T h i s suggests t h a t t h e i r main i n t e r e s t i n the t h e a t r e i s the e f f e c t i t has on them e m o t i o n a l l y , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e i r i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . 5 4 The Reactions o f Group A to As You L i k e I t In d i s c u s s i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a c t i o n to As_ You  L i k e I t i t i s important to p o i n t out a g a i n t h a t the primary i n t e n t i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n was to e n t e r t a i n the audience and t h a t the a c t i o n was presented i n such a way t h a t the audience was not asked to make d e c i s i o n s about the c h a r a c -t e r s , judge t h e i r a c t i o n s , or q u e s t i o n the s i t u a t i o n s . The members of t h i s group on the whole enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n and f e l t r e l a x e d and r e f r e s h e d a f t e r h a ving seen i t . They f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n d i d not have much s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n and they had a very u n c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e towards the v a r i o u s aspects of p r o d u c t i o n . They accepted the p r o d u c t i o n as a more than adequate p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p l a y and enjoyed the e x p e r i e n c e o f watching the a c t i o n u n f o l d w i thout f e e l i n g any i n t e l l e c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n . The group f e l t t h a t although the p l a y was a f a n t a s y , i t was r e a l i s t i c (by which i t can probably be assumed they mean b e l i e v a b l e ) and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t they do not see any i n c o n s i s t e n c y between these two d e s c r i p t i o n s . However, i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the p l a y as p r e s e n t e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n was not i n f a c t p a r t i c u l a r l y r e a l i s t i c (or even b e l i e v a b l e ) , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n an attempt to express t h e i r response to the p l a y they a u t o m a t i c a l l y chose the complimentary r a t h e r than the p e j o r a t i v e term. On the o t h e r hand, i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t they were ab l e to suspend t h e i r d i s b e l i e f t o the e x t e n t t h a t the a c t i o n d i d seem b e l i e v a b l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the group does not make any d i s t i n c t i o n between the c h a r a c t e r s they enjoyed the most and the a c t o r s they f e l t gave the b e s t performances. In both cases these were the two main comic c h a r a c t e r s , Touch-stone and Jaques, and the female romantic l e a d , R o s a l i n d . In g e n e r a l , i f the c h a r a c t e r i s e n j o y a b l e i n h i m s e l f they seem to t h i n k t h a t the a c t o r has g i v e n a good performance, whether or not t h a t a c t o r has c o n t r i b u t e d to the development of the theme and the mood of the p r o d u c t i o n or has c r e a t e d a b e l i e v a b l e c h a r a c t e r showing evidence o f some l i f e beyond the r e p e t i t i o n o f h i s l i n e s . B esides having the advantage o f b e i n g c h a r a c t e r s which a u t o m a t i c a l l y demanded a t t e n t i o n , a l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s were pre s e n t e d i n such a way as to make a simple v e r s i o n o f t h e i r every motive and i d e a immediately apparent to the audience. The a c t o r s p l a y i n g R o s a l i n d and Touchstone d e f i n i t e l y o v e r a c t e d ( i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i -c a n t t h a t Jaques and Touchstone were p l a y e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s . ) The audience, then, d i d not have to e x e r t them-s e l v e s and t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to r e l a x seems to be an important aspect o f t h e i r p l a y - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e , one which they expect and enjoy. Although they f e l t the st a n d a r d o f a c t i n g was very good and p r o f e s s i o n a l and although they enjoyed the a c t i n g , few of the group c o u l d hear a l l the a c t o r s a l l the time. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n , however, t h a t t h i s b o t h ered 56 them very much. T h i s seems t o c o r r o b o r a t e the i d e a t h a t audiences expect t o miss a t l e a s t some of what i s going on on stage . The group seemed to f e e l a r e l u c t a n c e about s a y i n g t h a t any o f the a c t o r s were not so good as the m a j o r i t y , and t h i s may or may not be a r e f l e c t i o n of the tendency to make allowances f o r student performers. T h i s a t t i t u d e may have i n f l u e n c e d the g e n e r a l response to the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n suggests t h a t , a l t h o u g h they are aware of some shortcomings i n the pr o d u c t i o n , t h e i r enjoy-ment i s not much a f f e c t e d by t h i s awareness. In g e n e r a l t h e i r enjoyment does not seem to be s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by any c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n they might make. The group's c h o i c e o f d e s c r i p t i v e terms f o r the 27 costumes and scenery was a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p r o d u c t i o n . The most popular costumes were F r e d e r i c k ' s , R o s a l i n d ' s and Touchstone's. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that, two o f the most popul a r costumes were worn by the a c t o r s who were chosen as the b e s t and who presented two o f the f a v o r i t e c h a r a c t e r s . P o s s i b l y the group f e l t t h a t the three costumes chosen most e f f e c t i v e l y expressed the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the ch a r a c -t e r s wearing them. A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the members c o u l d o n l y c l e a r l y remember the costumes worn by c h a r a c t e r s who made an impression on them. Perhaps i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t two out of the three costumes, F r e d e r i c k ' s and R o s a l i n d ' s were co m p a r a t i v e l y simple i n d e s i g n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the non-students i n the group i n d i c a t e d 5 7 t h a t F r e d e r i c k ' s costume, which e f f e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t e d h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n r o l e , appealed t o them, w h i l e the students i n d i c a t e d t h a t Touchstone's costume which, w i t h i t s sugges-t i o n o f ragged motley i n d i c a t e d an a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n o u t -look, appealed t o them. Although they enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n , q u i t e a few members of the group.found the p l o t t e d i o u s to some degree, and as many as h a l f o f the group s a i d they were o c c a s i o n a l l y  bored. T h i s acceptance o f boredom l e a d s t o the r a t h e r i n t e r e s t -i n g c o n c l u s i o n t h a t audiences expect to be bored a t l e a s t p a r t of the time and do not f i n d t h i s boredom p a r t i c u l a r l y d e t r i m e n t a l to t h e i r o v e r a l l enjoyment. The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A And  T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o As You L i k e I t The most s i g n i f i c a n t a spect o f the comparison o f Group A's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f As_ You L i k e I t w i t h t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the p r o d u c t i o n i s the way they c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d . Group A s a i d t h a t they expected the standard o f p r o -d u c t i o n a t the F r e d e r i c Theatre to be from good to e x c e l l e n t , and they expected the s t a g i n g a t t h i s t h e a t r e t o be e x p e r i m e n t a l . They expected As_ You L i k e I t t o be an un-r e a l i s t i c , romantic comedy s e t i n a f a n t a s y world, the main purpose o f which was to e n t e r t a i n . The aspects o f the p l a y t h a t the group members expected to enjoy were e i t h e r the / / 58 r e l a t i o n s h i p s between\ the c h a r a c t e r s or the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s themselves, r a t h e r than the p l o t or the p o e t i c language, and they expected to enjoy the a c t i n g , r a t h e r than scenery, costumes or music. They expected the a c t i n g would be e i t h e r e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d o r e n e r g e t i c and  flamboyant, both of which seem to f i t i n w i t h the g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the p l a y would be a romantic comedy. They f e l t the costumes would be f a n c i f u l , c o l o r f u l and f u n c t i o n a l , and t h a t the scenery would be f a n c i f u l and c o l o r f u l . They expected to f e e l amused d u r i n g the performance, and happy, r e l a x e d and r e f r e s h e d a f t e r the performance. A f t e r h a v i n g seen the p r o d u c t i o n , Group A d e c i d e d t h a t the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d was good, and the g e n e r a l s t y l e was t r a d i t i o n a l . They f e l t the p l a y was a r e a l i s t i c , r omantic comedy w i t h some s e r i o u s elements, s e t i n a f a n t a s y  w o r ld, the primary f u n c t i o n of which was to e n t e r t a i n . With the e x c e p t i o n o f the use of the word " r e a l i s t i c " , t h i s i s a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l a y . The a s p e c t of the p r o d u c t i o n they most enjoyed was the a c t i n g and the a s p e c t o f the p l a y they most enjoyed was the i n t e r e s t i n g , i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between these c h a r a c t e r s , on which the development of the a c t i o n i n t h i s p r o d u c t i o n depended, d i d not i n t e r e s t them more. They f e l t t h a t the a c t i n g was e i t h e r n a t u r a l  and l i f e l i k e , e n e r g e t i c and flamboyant, or e l e g a n t and  s t y l i z e d . E n e r g e t i c and flamboyant i s perhaps the most 59 a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e , as the a c t i n g was n e i t h e r e l e g a n t and  s t y l i z e d nor n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e . The group members d e s c r i b e d the costumes as h i s t o r i c a l , f u n c t i o n a l and c o l o r f u l , and the scenery as f a n c i f u l , c o l o r f u l and f u n c t i o n a l . ( A l -though the costumes were f a r from monochromatic, c o l o r f u l does not seem to be an e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e choice.) During the performance the group maintained t h a t they had f e l t amused, d e l i g h t e d , and i n t e r e s t e d . A f t e r the performance they had f e l t happy, r e l a x e d and r e f r e s h e d . I t seems c l e a r , then, t h a t t h i s p r o d u c t i o n on the whole met the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the group. Except i n a few cases t h e r e are no g r e a t changes,in the a t t i t u d e s r e v e a l e d i n the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n and i n the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; the main d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t the responses t o the q u e s t i o n s i n the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e are s l i g h t l y more f u l l y developed than the responses i n the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e to q u e s t i o n s about the same aspects o f the performance, which i s , of course, to be expected. The s u r p r i s i n g l y uniform response to the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n and P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s suggests t h a t t h e r e are some e s t a b l i s h e d ideas about the t h e a t r e which are common to a l l the members of the group. These p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d or pre c o n c e i v e d ideas seem to have c r e a t e d a frame o f r e f e r e n c e which i s used by the p a r t i c i p a n t s when a n t i c i p a t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a p r o d u c t i o n . F u r t h e r study might r e v e a l how e x t e n s i v e l y t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d . There were few changes i n a t t i t u d e a f t e r the members had seen the p l a y , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t one or two o f the responses are s l i g h t l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , and t h i s f u r t h e r supports the s u g g e s t i o n o f a f a i r l y f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e c u s t o m a r i l y a p p l i e d by the group to a p r o d u c t i o n . While the group's e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the g e n e r a l s t y l e a t the Theatre, though not n e c e s s a r i l y o f t h i s p r o -d u c t i o n , was t h a t i t would be e x p e r i m e n t a l , they d e c i d e d t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n was a c t u a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l . They expected t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n would be u n r e a l i s t i c but f e l t a f t e r having seen the p l a y , t h a t i t was r e a l i s t i c . The f i r s t change i n a t t i t u d e can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t i n the P r e - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e the q u e s t i o n on s t y l e r e f e r r e d to the o v e r a l l approach t o the T h e a t r e , r a t h e r than to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n . The second change i n a t t i t u d e , from an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o the d e c i s i o n t h a t i t was i n f a c t r e a l i s t i c , i s p o s s i b l y a r e s u l t of the p h y s i c a l immediacy o f the p r o d u c t i o n , and sheds some l i g h t on the group's understanding o f the term " r e a l i s t i c " . One f a c t o r which must be taken i n t o account i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the group had read As_ You L i k e I t and so were somewhat f a m i l i a r w i t h the p l a y , and p r o b a b l y both e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s are r e l a t e d to t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y . 61 S e v e r a l t h i n g s emerge. The f i r s t i s t h a t the uniform-i t y of response seems to i n d i c a t e a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e which the group c u s t o m a r i l y a p p l i e s to the t h e a t r e . There are even some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s so f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the f a c t s o f the p r o d u c t i o n are i n t e r p r e t e d i n o r d e r to f i t i t . (Note, f o r example, the somewhat i n a p p r o p r i a t e use o f the word c o l o r f u l t o d e s c r i b e costumes.) The second p o i n t i s t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n seemed to meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the group. The t h i r d i s t h a t they m a i n t a i n they enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n very much. With r e f e r e n c e t o these l a s t two p o i n t s a t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the f a c t t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n matched t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s was i n i t s e l f a s t r o n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r enjoyment. 62 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER IV 2 3 F . B . St C l a i r , "As You L i k e It',' Stage Door, V o l . 1, No. 1, March 19 70, p. 6. 2 4 , . , I b i d . See p.162 q u e s t i o n (k). The p a r t i c i p a n t s expect to f e e l happy, r e l a x e d , and r e f r e s h e d a f t e r the performance. 2 6 See p. 163 q u e s t i o n (m). 27 See p. 169 q u e s t i o n (n) - scenery and p. 170 q u e s t i o n (p ) - costumes. CHAPTER V GROUP RESPONSE TO TANGO Tango - D e s c r i p t i o n o f the P r o d u c t i o n The Playhouse, p r o d u c t i o n o f T a n g o , l i k e the F r e d e r i c Wood p r o d u c t i o n o f As_ You L i k e I t , seemed based on s e v e r a l assumptions about i t s audience, the main one b e i n g t h a t they would be sympathetic t o the k i n d o f jokes which support an extremely c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l p o i n t o f view. S t o m i l and El e a n o r , f o r example, were pr e s e n t e d as middle-aged h i p p i e s , automatic o b j e c t s o f r i d i c u l e , and, i n an attempt t o be t o p i c a l , the p r o d u c t i o n t r i e d t o develop a k i n d o f r e v e r s e g e n e r a t i o n gap theme. The e f f e c t o f these two m o t i f s , which are not an i n h e r e n t aspect o f the t e x t , was i n t r u s i v e and d i s t r a c t i n g . The a c t i o n took p l a c e i n a box s e t r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e , h i g h - c e i l i n g e d , a n g u l a r , s p a r s e l y - f u r n i s h e d l i v i n g room o f a decaying o l d house. There was some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t junk had been accumulating i n c o r n e r s over s e v e r a l decades, although the room was not c l u t t e r e d . Upstage, a t r i g h t angles to the audience, i n a p o o r l y l i g h t e d a r e a , was a c a t a f a l q u e . Because o f i t s p o s i t i o n , i t was d i f f i c u l t to understand what t h i s o b j e c t a c t u a l l y was u n t i l w e l l i n t o the p l a y . Since c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i o n takes p l a c e on and 64 around the c a t a f a l q u e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the p l a y , t h i s o b s c u r i t y was c o n f u s i n g and d i s t r a c t i n g . The s e t was prevented from b e i n g r e a l i s t i c by the d e v i c e of making the w a l l s t r a n s p a r e n t when i t was c o n s i d e r e d necessary to r e v e a l the a c t i o n going on behind them. The g e n e r a l e f f e c t of the s e t was to c r e a t e a f e e l i n g of suspen-s i o n i n time and p l a c e i n t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t to d e c i d e i n what e r a and what country the a c t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e . V a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n the f i r s t a c t wore costumes which spanned an h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d from the l a t e e i g h t e e n -n i n e t i e s t o the p r e s e n t time. Each costume seemed in t e n d e d to express the p o i n t o f view o f the c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d . For example, S t o m i l , E l e a n o r , and Eddie were dressed i n v e r s i o n s o f r i c h h ippy costumes, A r t h u r wore very c o n v e n t i o n a l gray s l a c k s and a b l a z e r , Eugenia was d r e s s e d i n Edwardian costume, and Eugene wore a j a c k e t , t i e , and bermuda s h o r t s . I n d i v i d u a l l y the costumes were e f f e c t i v e and amusing. C o l l e c t i v e l y , however, they merely added to the obscure and confused a l l e g o r y of the p l a y , u n d e r l i n e d the c h a r a c t e r s ' l a c k o f b e l i e v a b i l i t y , and c o n t r i b u t e d to the s t y l i s t i c c o n f u s i o n . The costume c o l o r s i n the f i r s t a c t were mainly muted grays and b l u e s and dark c o l o u r s . The second a c t costumes were h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e and a t t r a c t i v e , and were based on Edwardian evening d r e s s , w i t h A l a i n a p e r i o d wedding d r e s s . The e x c e p t i o n was A r t h u r , who wore h i s f i r s t a c t costume. Otherwise, the costume c o l o r s were b l a c k and white. The apparent l a c k o f d e c i s i o n about a d e f i n i t e s t y l e was r e f l e c t e d i n the a c t i n g . Each a c t o r seemed to have h i s own way o f d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d and l o c a l e and w i t h what seemed to be a s l i g h t l y s t i l t e d s c r i p t . Some u n i t y was achieved among the a c t o r s by the adoption o f an in d e t e r m i n a t e f o r e i g n accent. T h i s , however, had a c o n f u s i n g and d i s t r a c t i n g e f f e c t . The a c t o r p l a y i n g A r t h u r expressed the c h a r a c t e r by u s i n g v a r y i n g stages o f h y s t e r i a . Not o n l y was t h i s approach monotonous, but i t r e s u l t e d i n a c h a r a c t e r who was so un-reasonable t h a t he was meaningless. Since A r t h u r was the c e n t r a l p i v o t of the a c t i o n , t h i s performance was d i s a s t r o u s i n i t s e f f e c t on the t o t a l p l a y . The a c t o r p l a y i n g Eddie gave an i n t e r e s t i n g i f r a t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n a l performance, and h i s metamorphosis was ac c e p t a b l e and b e l i e v a b l e . The a c t o r p l a y i n g Eugene, how-ever, was the o n l y one who c r e a t e d a c h a r a c t e r who had motives and ideas behind h i s b e h a v i o r and who seemed to have some l i f e a p a r t from the l i n e s he was r e c i t i n g . The a c t o r p l a y i n g S t o m i l a l s o had some moments of b e l i e v a b i l i t y , but the r e s t of the c a s t seemed t o r e l y on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of c a r i c a t u r e s . The primary c r i t i c i s m o f the p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t i t seemed to work a g a i n s t the t e x t . While the main i n t e n t i o n of the p l a y i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y , the 66 p r o d u c t i o n , based on the assumption t h a t t h i s approach would appeal to a Vancouver audience, t r i e d t o p r e s e n t a comedy about the g e n e r a t i o n gap. T h i s c o n f u s i o n about the i n t e n t i o n was e v i d e n t i n the d i f f e r e n t approaches of the p r e - p l a y p u b l i c i t y , which emphasized the comic gener-a t i o n gap theme, and the program note which o u t l i n e d the p o l i t i c a l background' o f the p l a y . As Mr. Ben M e t c a l f e expressed i t i n h i s C.B.C. r a d i o review: Instead of Mrozek 1s hard and s h a r p l y p o i n t e d a l l e g o r y , r u t h l e s s l y s t a b b i n g a t the audience, showing us how a decadent s o c i e t y i n e x o r a b l y f a l l s v i c t i m t o a b r u t a l and mindless a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , Mr. Dearing [the d i r e c t o r ] g i v e s us a f l a b b y and s i l l y melodrama t h a t t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t s the program n o t e s . . . . Instead o f g i v i n g us a t e r r i b l e sense o f s i n i s t e r f o r e b o d i n g , we are sent away w i t h a sense o f comic f a i l u r e . Only a student o f the p l a y c o u l d p o s s i b l y s u s t a i n i t s meaning under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Anyone coming o f f the s t r e e t would be a t a l o s s t o know what was going on under the f a r c e . 2 8 T h i s p r o d u c t i o n of Tango, l i k e the p r o d u c t i o n of As  You L i k e I t , seemed to be based on an assumed i d e a o f what the audience wanted to see, r a t h e r than on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a theme or i d e a i n h e r e n t i n the p l a y . General audience r e c e p t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n seemed good r a t h e r than o t h e r -wise, but t h e r e seemed to be a c e r t a i n amount of p e r p l e x i t y and a f e e l i n g o f c o n f u s i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s response. / / / 67 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A About Tango When examining the r e s u l t s o f Group A's pre-Tango q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i t i s important to remember t h a t n e i t h e r the p l a y nor the author are w e l l known to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The group's e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be based on a knowledge o f Mrozeck's work. The group had to r e l y on P l a y -house p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l and on the comments of f r i e n d s who 2 had seen the p r o d u c t i o n f o r any pre-performance i n f o r m a t i o n . Through these two sources the Playhouse, then, had a g r e a t e r than u s u a l d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r audience. Since the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A are very c o n s i s t e n t with the approach o f the p r o d u c t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these e x p e c t a t i o n s were c r e a t e d by the very people who produced Tango. A s i t u a t i o n i n which the standards used by the audience to e v a l u a t e the p r o d u c t i o n are c r e a t e d by those who p r e s e n t the p l a y i s o b v i o u s l y not a h e a l t h y one f o r the t h e a t r e , s i n c e i t decreases the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of the audience. The e x p e c t a t i o n s of Group A, t h a t the p l a y would be r e a l i s t i c , have a s o c i a l theme, make a meaningful statement  about l i f e , have some comic elements and be e n t e r t a i n i n g , are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the approach o f the p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l , which a l s o suggested t h a t the p l a y would be about the " g e n e r a t i o n gap". The group members d i d not f e e l , e v i d e n t l y , t h a t t h i s was going t o be an e n t i r e l y amusing or r e l a x i n g 6 8 treatment of the t o p i c . They d i d not expect the p l a y to be e s c a p i s t , but f e l t i t would have s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n s , and they expected to have some q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i r minds a t the end of the performance. Group A expected the p l a y to be r e a l i s t i c i n terms of r e p r e s e n t i n g some f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n and, s i n c e they expected t o f e e l p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d when i t was over, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t to the audience, the more r e a l i s t i c the p l a y , the more p o t e n t i a l l y u n s e t t l i n g i t i s . The group members were f a i r l y o p t i m i s t i c about the sta n d a r d o f the s t a g i n g , an e x p e c t a t i o n which i s p r o b a b l y based on t h e i r p r e v i o u s knowledge of p r o d u c t i o n s a t the Playhouse. T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n were l o g i c a l and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the type o f p l a y they had i n d i c a t e d they expected to see. That i s , they expected the a c t i n g t o be n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e and the costumes to be r e a l i s t i c and modern. They f e l t t h a t the aspect o f the p r o d u c t i o n they would enjoy the most would be the a c t i n g , f o l l o w e d , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, by the costumes. T h i s sudden i n t e r e s t i n costumes on the p a r t of Group A may be a r e s u l t of h a v i n g r e c e n t l y seen As  You L i k e I t , the costumes of which were f a i r l y s t r i k i n g , although a t the time these costumes d i d not seem to make a g r e a t impression on the members of Group A. One f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t although the group members seemed f a i r l y d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the type o f p l a y they were going t o see and the manner i n which i t would be staged, they were not as a group able t o f i t the p l a y i n t o any d e f i n i t e c a t e g o r y . ^ The c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d were f a i r l y r i g i d almost academic ones, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they have a g e n e r a l r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c meaning f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s , who are i n h i b i t e d when asked t o apply these terms to a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . The s c a t t e r e d response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n supports t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B About Tango L i k e the members o f Group A, none of the members o f Group B had any f i r s t hand f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Tango. However the m a j o r i t y o f Group B, l i k e Group A, had heard something about the p l a y from the same g e n e r a l sources as the members of Group A. The members of Group B, l i k e those o f Group A, f e l t t h a t Tango would be an e n t e r t a i n i n g s o c i a l p l a y which would make a meaningful statement about l i f e . There a r e , however some major d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the two groups. The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A were uniform and w e l l d e f i n e d , and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g and the i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h each o t h e r . In comparison, the response o f Group B was s c a t t e r e d and undeveloped, and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y d i d not seem t o s t i m u l a t e any e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g . 70 While Group A f e l t the a c t i n g would be n a t u r a l and  l i f e l i k e , the members o f Group B c o u l d not as a group dec i d e what s t y l e o f a c t i n g might be a p p r o p r i a t e to the p l a y . Furthermore, Group A f e l t the scenery might be r e a l i s t i c , modern and f u n c t i o n a l , and the costumes r e a l i s t i c , c o l o r f u l and modern. Group B was o n l y a b l e to say t h a t they f e l t the scenery would be f u n c t i o n a l (an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i s u s u a l l y l i k e l y t o be f u l f i l l e d ) and t h e i r expec-t a t i o n s about the costumes were too s c a t t e r e d t o i n d i c a t e any t r e n d . Another a r e a i n which group B d i d not respond so f u l l y as Group A was i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r own expected responses. Group A i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t they would be amused, i n v o l v e d , and i n t e r e s t e d d u r i n g the performance, and t h a t they would f e e l p u z z l e d when the p l a y was o v e r . The members o f Group B on the o t h e r hand were u n w i l l -i n g to commit themselves to anything but the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they would f e e l amused d u r i n g the performance, and as a group were unable to imagine how they might f e e l a f t e r the p l a y was over. Although the responses o f Group B to the q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p l a y i t s e l f are s c a t t e r e d and undeveloped, they tend to be s i m i l a r to the more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of Group A. An important d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Group A expected the p l a y to be r e a l i s t i c and Group B expected i t t o be u n r e a l -71 A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t the members of Group A had r e c e n t l y seen As_ You L i k e I t and p o s s i b l y had a more c o n c r e t e i d e a of a p r o d u c t i o n i n comparison to Group B, who had not seen a p l a y as r e c e n t l y . In summary, Group B was not r e a l l y sure what s o r t o f p l a y they were going to see; they had l i m i t e d ideas about the p o s s i b l e s t a g i n g ; and they d i d not know, as a group, how they might respond. Group A, on the o t h e r hand, had q u i t e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Groups A and B. One i s t h a t the members of Group A were more f a m i l i a r w i t h the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f , having a l r e a d y answered i t b e f o r e they saw As_ You L i k e I t . The f a c t t h a t Group A d i d not have a s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n when f i l l i n g out the Pre - As_ You L i k e I t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e can be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t they were more f a m i l i a r w i t h As_ You L i k e I t than Tango. Group B d i d not have a s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n when f i l l i n g out the next P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( f o r I n s i d e the Ghost  Sonata) and i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e form may have something t o do w i t h t h i s . (Group C, on the other hand, were not a t a l l h e s i t a n t when they l a t e r f i l l e d out t h e i r f i r s t P r e - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ) Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the members o f Group A, who had r e c e n t l y seen As You L i k e I t , c a r r i e d t h e i r subsequent awareness o f 7 2 the aspects o f l i v e t h e a t r e over to t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Tango. F i n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Group A, the group with the most ex p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e and with the most con-s e r v a t i v e o u t l o o k , has more r i g i d l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s because of t h i s wider e x p e r i e n c e . The Reactions o f Group A to_ Tango The members of Group A f e l t t h a t Tango was a s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n of a s e r i o u s , r e a l i s t i c s o c i a l p l a y which made a meaningful statement about l i f e , and they f e l t t h a t i t had been worth s e e i n g . They f e l t the s t a n d a r d o f p r o d u c t i o n was good t o e x c e l l e n t ; d u r i n g the performance they m a i n t a i n they were i n v o l v e d and i n t e r e s t e d , w h i l e a t the end they f e l t d i s t u r b e d . In s p i t e of the p o s i t i v e and a p p a r e n t l y e n t h u s i a s t i c n a ture o f t h i s response/ t h e r e are s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e v e a l e d by the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e which suggest t h a t the group members d i d not r e a l l y get as much enlightenment o r enjoy-ment as they m a i n t a i n out o f the p r o d u c t i o n . In the f i r s t p l a c e , i n s p i t e o f the group o p i n i o n , Tango was not p r i m a r i l y a s o c i a l p l a y (although pre-performance p u b l i c i t y emphasized t h i s aspect) and i t was c e r t a i n l y not r e a l i s t i c . The c u r i o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s as expressed by both costumes and scenery and the b i z a r r e b e h a v i o r o f the c h a r a c t e r s d i d not, however, suggest to the p a r t i c i p a n t s / l I 73 t h a t the p l a y was s e t i n any ot h e r than the " r e a l w o r l d " . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t they d i d not r e a l l y seem very aware of these v i s u a l a spects of the s t a g i n g . Although t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o costumes and scenery was more p o s i t i v e than o t h e r w i s e , and although they f e l t t h a t the costumes and scenery were s u i t a b l e t o the p l a y , t h e i r c h o i c e of d e s c r i p t i v e terms f o r these aspects was not the most a p p r o p r i a t e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e d the s e t as r e a l i s t i c , symbolic and f u n c t i o n a l although f a n c i f u l and l a v i s h would have been more a c c u r a t e , and they d e s c r i b e d the costumes as symbolic when f a n c i f u l , h i s t o r i c a l , muted and modern would r e a l l y have been more a c c u r a t e . The use o f the term "symbolic" seems to appear whenever t h e r e i s any ambiguity about s e t o r costumes throughout the study and, on the whole, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study seem to have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o g n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the v i s u a l aspects o f a p r o d u c t i o n , even when u s i n g what are a f t e r a l l very n o n - t h e a t r i c a l terms. The members of Group A f e l t the a c t i n g was more p r o f e s s i o n a l than not and more good than poor. However, although they m a i n t a i n t h a t the a c t i n g was the aspect o f the s t a g i n g they most enjoyed, as many as f i v e out o f the twelve were i r r i t a t e d by p h y s i c a l and v o c a l mannerisms of v a r i o u s a c t o r s . Furthermore, the response to the a c t -i n g s t y l e was s c a t t e r e d , d i v i d e d mainly between n a t u r a l and 74 l i f e l i k e and powerful and p a s s i o n a t e . N e i t h e r o f these terms i s a p p r o p r i a t e , as the a c t i n g was a c t u a l l y q u i t e s t y l i z e d and mannered. However, n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e and powerful and p a s s i o n a t e c o u l d be used to d e s c r i b e the performances of the a c t o r p l a y i n g Eugene and the a c t o r p l a y i n g S t o m i l r e s p e c t i v e l y . Since these were chosen as the b e s t a c t o r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t these two a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d the a c t i n g norm i n the p r o d u c t i o n . Although i n t h i s q u e s t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to i n d i c a t e the th r e e b e s t a c t o r s , the response was very s c a t t e r e d , and o n l y two a c t o r s emerge. The c h a r a c t e r s t h a t the group most enjoyed were Eugene and S t o m i l , which i s f u r t h e r evidence t h a t t h e r e i s not much d i s t i n c t i o n made between c h a r a c t e r and a c t o r on the p a r t o f the audience. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t although the m a j o r i t y o f Group A f e l t t h a t t h i s had been a s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n , o n l y h a l f f e l t the d i r e c t o r had i n t e r p r e t e d the author's i n t e n t i o n p r o p e r l y , compared to the m a j o r i t y who had f e l t t h a t the d i r e c t o r o f As_ You L i k e I t had i n t e r p r e t e d the author's i n t e n t i o n p r o p e r l y . T h i s suggests some f e e l i n g s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f u s i o n as t o what the p l a y was about. An i n c i d e n t a l note i s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f Group A were at l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y bored d u r i n g the p r o d u c t i o n . How-ever, as has a l r e a d y been observed, the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem to accept t h i s boredom as a normal p a r t o f the t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e . 75 The aspects of the p l a y most enjoyed by Group A were the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s and the development of the s t o r y . They f e l t t h a t the development o f the s t o r y was c l e a r , r e a l i s t i c , l o g i c a l , and b e l i e v a b l e . None of these terms i s r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e , but p o s s i b l y i n the attempt to i n d i c a t e t h e i r enjoyment or a p p r o v a l o f the way the p l o t developed the p a r t i c i p a n t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y chose the p o s i t i v e term. That they d i d have some r e s e r v a -t i o n s i s suggested by the way the responses are i n d i c a t e d 31 on the s c a l e . Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n i s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n s p i t e of t h e i r a l l e g e d enjoyment o f the p l o t , were not r e a l l y aware of t h i s element at a l l . Given s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the members o f Group A were unable to c a t e g o r i z e t h i s p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to g e n e r a l type and s t y l e . T h i s i s more the f a u l t o f the p r o d u c t i o n than the audience, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not express any o b j e c t i o n s about the r a t h e r i n c o h e r e n t s t y l e o f the p r o d u c t i o n . The responses to the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e t h a t the members o f Group A had some r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h i s p r o -d u c t i o n . Although t h e i r g e n e r a l response i s more p o s i t i v e than n e g a t i v e , i t i s u s u a l l y o n l y m a r g i n a l l y so. For example, i n one q u e s t i o n about g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n s to the p r o d u c t i o n the q u a l i f y i n g "somewhat" i s used more o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n / / 76 w i t h the d e s c r i p t i v e term than the q u a l i f y i n g "very" - as i n somewhat e x c i t i n g . In summary, then, a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of the group was i r r i t a t e d by the a c t i n g , though the a c t i n g was the a s p e c t of the s t a g i n g they most enjoyed; they were unable to d e s c r i b e costumes and scenery a p p r o p r i a t e l y , although they l i k e d these aspects a t l e a s t moderately and f e l t they were a p p r o p r i a t e to the p l a y . They were unable to decide on the g e n e r a l s t y l e of the p r o d u c t i o n , but d i d not seem d i s t u r b e d by i t s u n i n t e n t i o n a l l a c k of coherence, and they were unable to d e s c r i b e the development o f the p l o t a p p r o p r i a t e l y . Most were bored a t some p o i n t and o n l y h a l f f e l t the p l a y had been i n t e r p r e t e d p r o p e r l y . In_ s p i t e of a l l t h i s they f e l t  i t had been a s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t because the members of Group A went t o the p r o d u c t i o n e x p e c t i n g t o enjoy themselves, because on the whole t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the nature o f the p l a y had been met ( r e v e a l e d by study) and because going to the t h e a t r e i s a s o c i a l event, they f e l t t h a t i t was i n a p p r o p r i a t e to comment a d v e r s e l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they i g n o r e d t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s and decided i t must have been a good and worthwhile p r o d u c t i o n . 77 The Reactions o f Group B to Tango On the whole, the response o f Group B to Tango was very c l o s e t o t h a t of Group A, but t h e r e are some i n t e r e s t -i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . L i k e the members o f Group A, Group B f e l t t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n was a s u c c e s s f u l one, and they i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e to see more p r o d u c t i o n s of t h i s k i n d . They f e l t t h a t the standard of the p r o d u c t i o n was good, but not good to e x c e l l e n t (which was the e v a l u a t i o n of Group A ) . Group B, l i k e Group A, f e l t the p l a y was mainly  s e r i o u s and made a meaningful statement about the r e a l world, but u n l i k e Group A, who f e l t the p l a y was s o c i a l , they were unable as a group t o say what the main concern o f the p l a y was. T h i s i s i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t , l i k e Group A, they had expected the main concern t o be s o c i a l . U n l i k e Group A, Group B d i d not t h i n k t h a t the development o f the  p l o t was r e a l i s t i c , c l e a r , o r b e l i e v a b l e . However, l i k e Group A, they d i d f i n d i t i n v o l v i n g , more e n t e r t a i n i n g than t e d i o u s , and more l o g i c a l than i l l o g i c a l . Group B, l i k e Group A, found the p l a y r e a l i s t i c , though Group B had expected i t to be u n r e a l i s t i c . Group B, l i k e Group A, was unable t o d e s c r i b e the a c t i n g s t y l e , and the m a j o r i t y o f Group B, compared to fewer than h a l f o f Group A, were i r r i t a t e d by p h y s i c a l and v o c a l mannerisms o f v a r i o u s a c t o r s . However, the a c t i n g was the 78 aspect of the p r o d u c t i o n which the members of both groups most enjoyed. The c h a r a c t e r s most enjoyed by the members of Group A were those which they f e l t had been most w e l l a c t e d . T h i s i s not e n t i r e l y t r u e o f Group B, and t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the members of Group B do make 3 2 some s l i g h t d i s t i n c t i o n between c h a r a c t e r and a c t o r . Although the members of Group B seemed t o have no d e f i n i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s as a group about the s t a g i n g o f the p l a y , t h e i r responses t o these q u e s t i o n s were the same as the responses o f Group A, who d i d have d e f i n i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s about the costumes and scenery. T h i s would seem t o suggest t h a t w h i l e e x p e c t a t i o n s about costumes and scenery are an index t o the o v e r a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the p r o d u c t i o n , the enjoyment or appro v a l o f these a s p e c t s i s not dependent on the f u l f i l l m e n t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . Group B, a p p a r e n t l y went to the p r o d u c t i o n w i t h f a i r l y open minds, ready t o ac c e p t whatever was pr e s e n t e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l whether the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B were f u l f i l l e d o r not, s i n c e so many responses o f t h i s group t o both the Pre- and P o s t - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s c a t t e r e d and d i v i d e d . Group B i n d i c a t e d t h a t they enjoyed the p l a y , though perhaps not so much as Group A d i d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Group B was on the whole more c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e about the p r o d u c t i o n than Group A, and t h i s heightened o b j e c t i v i t y may be r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t Group B had fewer r i g i d e x p e c t a t i o n s . The l e s s u n i f o r m / / / / 79 response o f Group B t o both the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n and P o s t -P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s might be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t l y used by Group A to e v a l u a t e p r o d u c t i o n s i s l e s s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Group B. With r e g a r d t o the s t a g i n g of the p r o d u c t i o n , more members of the group expected the a c t i n g to be n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e than a n y t h i n g e l s e . They expected the scenery to be f u n c t i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c , modern, and symbolic and the costumes to be r e a l i s t i c , c o l o r f u l , and modern. These e x p e c t a t i o n s seem to be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the type o f p l a y they were e x p e c t i n g to see. The aspect o f the p l a y they most expected to enjoy was the i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l  c h a r a c t e r s . A f t e r having seen the p r o d u c t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i d e d t h a t Tango was a r e a l i s t i c s o c i a l p l a y , s e t i n the r e a l w o r ld, which made a meaningful statement about l i f e . They f e l t i t was mainly s e r i o u s w i t h some comic elements. The response to the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g Group B to d e c i d e the s t y l e o f the p r o d u c t i o n was s c a t t e r e d , which seems to suggest t h a t i t d i d not conform to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e . T h i s d i d not, however, pr e v e n t them from e v a l u a t i n g the s t a n d a r d o f p r o d u c t i o n as good. Although o n e - t h i r d o f the group f e l t the a c t i n g c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e n e r g e t i c and flamboyant, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s to the a c t i n g s t y l e were on the whole too s c a t t e r e d to i n d i c a t e any group response. One p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s d i f f u s e response might have been the l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y 80 i n the o v e r - a l l a c t i n g s t y l e . While i t might have been p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e the s t y l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s , there was no u n i t y i n the a c t i n g s t y l e o f the c a s t as a whole. The p a r t i c i p a n t s decided t h a t the scenery was r e a l i s t i c , symbolic, and f u n c t i o n a l , and t h a t the costumes were symbolic and f u n c t i o n a l . Modern and h i s t o r i c a l would have been b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of the costumes; and r e a l i s t i c was not r e a l l y an a p p r o p r i a t e term f o r the scenery. ( I t must be remembered t h a t a box s e t , such as the one i n t h i s p r o d u c t i o n , w i l l u s u a l l y make the scenery seem r e a l i s t i c . ) The aspect of the p r o d u c t i o n they most enjoyed was the a c t i n g and the aspects of the p l a y they most enjoyed were the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s and the development of the s t o r y . During the performance the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t amused, i n v o l v e d , and i n t e r e s t e d , and a f t e r i t was over they f e l t d i s t u r b e d . They f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l and they would l i k e t o see more p r o d u c t i o n s of t h i s k i n d . As f a r as the i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y i t s e l f was con-cerned the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the group were f u l f i l l e d . That i s , they were e x p e c t i n g to see a r e a l i s t i c s o c i a l p l a y , with some comic elements, which made a meaningful statement  about l i f e , and t h i s i s what they f e l t they had seen. I t i s hard to understand why they had f e l t they had seen a p l a y o f t h i s k i n d s i n c e the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n d i d not r e a l l y f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the 81 e x p e c t a t i o n s are so f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the performance i t s e l f i s s u b c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d to f i t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The a b s t r a c t nature o f the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l a y s i n t e n t i o n would make t h i s adjustment e a s i e r than would be p o s s i b l e w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f the p r o d u c t i o n . Most o f the few e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t were not f u l f i l l e d were indeed those about the s t a g i n g . The e x p e c t a t i o n s about the exp e r i e n c e the members f e l t they would have d u r i n g the performance, but not a f t e r , were a l s o f u l f i l l e d . S i n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n was a s u c c e s s f u l one and s i n c e they would l i k e to see more pro-d u c t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d , a t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n might be drawn:' i f the e x p e c t a t i o n s about the i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y are f u l f i l l e d , even i f some o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g are not f u l f i l l e d , the audience i s l i k e l y t o have a p o s i t i v e response t o the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s p o s i t i v e r e -sponse may a l s o be r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e i r own r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g the performance were f u l f i l l e d . One p o i n t t h a t must be emphasized i s t h a t although the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the i n t e n t i o n s o f the pl a y were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e a c t i o n s , they were not r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p l a y . Tango i s not a r e a l i s t i c s o c i a l p l a y , but a non-r e a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y , and the p o l i t i c a l n a ture o f the p l a y was o u t l i n e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree i n the program. ( I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know how many people read / 82 these notes, o f course) There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e explana-t i o n s f o r t h i s group p o i n t of view, and i t must be remembered t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f emphasized the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the p l a y to the d e t r i m e n t of the p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s . However, t h e r e i s s t i l l the q u e s t i o n of why the group d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s was a r e a l i s t i c p l a y . The c u r i o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s expressed by the costumes, the t r a n s -p a r e n t w a l l s o f the s e t , and the b i z a r r e b e h a v i o r o f the c h a r a c t e r s alone p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s was not a r e a l i s t i c p l a y . P o s s i b l y the group members equate the term u n r e a l i s -t i c w i t h u n b e l i e v a b l e or u n a c c e p t a b l e , and use i t as a p e j o r a t i v e , r a t h e r than a d e s c r i p t i v e term. There i s the f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y a l r e a d y suggested, t h a t the audience a d j u s t s i t s responses to the p r o d u c t i o n to f i t i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the terms p r o v i d e d had l i m i t e d meaning f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n t h e i r frame o f r e f e r e n c e . For example, they may not be accustomed to t h i n k i n g about p l a y s a c c o r d i n g to the c a t e g o r i e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (modern comedy, avant garde, etc.) I f t h i s i s indeed the case, f u r t h e r work must be done to f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e terms which are meaningful to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 83 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f the Combined  Group A and B and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s to Tango None of the members of Groups A and B combined had read Tango, or had seen a p r o d u c t i o n o f i t , although the m a j o r i t y had heard something about i t . However, t h i s l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y d i d not prevent the p a r t i c i p a n t s from formu-l a t i n g some d e f i n i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t any i n f o r m a t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s had about Tango was second-hand and came from many d i f f e r e n t sources the responses t o the e x p e c t a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are again s u r p r i s i n g l y u n iform and d e f i n i t e . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s u n i f o r m i t y i s t h a t t h e • a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the p l a y t r i g g e r e d o f f responses t h a t l e d to the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e . That i s , they a l l r e c o g n i z e d some elements i n t h e i r p r e - p r o d u c t i o n i n -for m a t i o n which s i g n a l e d the automatic a p p l i c a t i o n o f the system or framework o f which those elements are an i n t e g r a l p a r t . F u r t h e r study might i n d i c a t e the nature o f t h i s system and i t s component elements. B r i e f l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s expected the s t a n d a r d o f p r o d u c t i o n at the Playhouse to be good and the s t a g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l , although some members f e l t the s t a g i n g might a l s o be experimental o r r e a l i s t i c . With r e g a r d to s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p l a y i t s e l f , they expected t o see a 84 r e a l i s t i c s o c i a l p l a y , comic to some degree, s e t i n the r e a l world which would p r i m a r i l y make a meaningful statement  about l i f e , but which would a l s o be e n t e r t a i n i n g . In view o f t h i s r a t h e r d e f i n i t e o u t l i n e i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the group response as to what type o f p l a y t h i s would be (modern  comedy, avant garde, modern s e r i o u s drama, etc.) i s so s c a t t e r e d , although one q u a r t e r o f the group f e l t t h a t i t would be a modern comedy. / 85 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V 2 8 From Transcript of review broadcast on The B i l l Terry Show, C.B.C. Radio, March 1970. 29 As has been mentioned, the d a i l y newspapers were on s t r i k e . "^See p. 175 question (i) l a s t section. 31 See p. 180 question (g). 32 See p.180 question (f) and p. 181 question (j) CHAPTER VI GROUP RESPONSE TO INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata - D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n The Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n o f I n s i d e the  Ghost Sonata was an experimental p r o d u c t i o n based on S t r i n d b e r g ' s Ghost Sonata. The t e x t o f the o r i g i n a l p l a y was reduced to th r e e s h o r t scenes, which a l t e r n a t e d w i t h phases o f what was r e f e r r e d t o as a l a b y r i n t h . T h i s l a b y r i n t h was b a s i c a l l y a simple maze around the o u t s i d e o f the c e n t r a l area i n which the three main, or key, scenes were p l a y e d . The s e t f o r the th r e e main scenes was very s i m p l e , c o n s i s t i n g o f two l e v e l s w i t h c o n n e c t i n g s t e p s . The f u r n i -t u r e was c h a i r s , m i r r o r s , and Hummel 1s w h e e l c h a i r . The main c o l o u r was dark gray. The s e t was a u s t e r e and non-r e a l i s t i c and e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t e d a b e l i e v a b l e l o c a l e f o r the b i z a r r e but r e s t r a i n e d development of the a c t i o n . The p r o j e c t i o n o f f i l m and s l i d e s on the backdrops,the i n t e r a c t i o n between l i v e a c t o r and f i l m and the t r a n s i t i o n s between l i v e a c t o r and act o r on f i l m were important a s p e c t s o f these scenes. The a c t i n g i n the main scenes was, on the whole b e l i e v a b l e ; r e l a t i o n s h i p s were c l e a r , and although the reasons behind a g r e a t d e a l o f the a c t i o n were obscure, the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s seemed motivated. The a c t i n g 87 seemed s l i g h t l y s t y l i z e d , p a r t l y because of the r a t h e r s t i l t e d way the speeches were w r i t t e n . T h i s s t y l i z a t i o n c r e a t e d a u n i f i e d e f f e c t and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the u n r e a l q u a l i t y o f the a c t i o n . Except f o r the a c t o r p l a y i n g Hummel, who i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l , the c a s t was composed o f student a c t o r s . The main scenes, then, p r o v i d e d a c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t the audience s a t down to watch the e s s e n t i a l a c t i o n o f the p l a y u n f o l d on the st a g e . The l a b y r i n t h p r o v i d e d a c o n t r a s t t o t h i s i n t h a t the audience was expected to p a r t i c i p a t e by moving around. The l a b y r i n t h was a s e r i e s o f s m a l l i n t e r c o n n e c t e d rooms, areas, c o r n e r s , and t u n n e l s i n which ide a s o r images from the p l a y and from the process o f p r o d u c t i o n were expressed u s i n g a c t o r s and props. Although d u r i n g the l a b y r i n t h phase t h e r e were a c t o r s moving among the audience c o n v e r s i n g w i t h each other, t h e r e was no d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n between a c t o r s and audience. During the main scenes t h e r e was no a c t i v i t y i n the l a b y r i n t h , and t h i s area was shut o f f . There were f i v e l a b y r i n t h phases, a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h the th r e e main scenes, and the evening opened and c l o s e d w i t h a phase o f the l a b y r i n t h . Each l a b y r i n t h phase was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ; d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s appeared; areas were c l o s e d o f f and new areas were opened. During a l a b y r i n t h phase a l l the u n i t s of t h a t phase were c o n c u r r e n t and co n t i n u o u s . T h i s meant t h a t the audience members were f r e e to f i n d t h e i r own rou t e 88 around the l a b y r i n t h and to spend as much or as l i t t l e time as they wished a t a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t . I t should be mentioned t h a t members o f the audience d i d not have t o go through the l a b y r i n t h a t a l l i f they d i d not want t o , but c o u l d remain i n the main scene area, which a t times became a l a b y r i n t h u n i t . The l a b y r i n t h areas, o r u n i t s , i n c l u d e d m i n i a t u r e scenes i n v o l v i n g a c t o r s , t a b l e a u x w i t h o r without a c t o r s , c o l l e c t i o n s o f f u r n i t u r e and props, p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i l m s and s l i d e s sometimes wi t h a c t o r s , sometimes w i t h dancers, a l l o f which were intended t o express some p a r t i c u l a r i d e a o r image a r i s i n g out of the t e x t o f the p l a y . Some o f the u n i t s were i n s p i r e d not by d i r e c t a c t i o n i n the p l a y , but by r e f e r e n c e s to t h i n g s which happen o u t s i d e the a c t i o n o f the p l a y . F o r example, Hummel's p a r t i n the death o f the Milkmaid, which i n the p l a y takes p l a c e l o n g b e f o r e the a c t i o n b e g i n s , was the b a s i s o f one u n i t ; the r e f e r e n c e t o the v i s i t t o the opera was the b a s i s o f another u n i t . I n c i d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n the complete t e x t o f the p l a y , such as the i n a u d i b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n between the Dark Lady and the A r i s t o c r a t , which were not i n c l u d e d i n the a b b r e v i a t e d scenes, were a l s o the bases f o r some of the u n i t s . The u n i t s , however, were not a l l based on the p l a y . S e v e r a l were intended to g i v e an i d e a o f the process o f 33 p u t t i n g the p r o d u c t i o n t o g e t h e r . 89 The purpose o f the l a b y r i n t h was to e x p l o r e and express some of the images suggested by the p l a y and o u t -l i n e d i n the main scenes, u s i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e media. The performance opened wi t h a l a b y r i n t h phase b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t scene. The audience was encouraged out o f the l a b y r i n t h and i n t o the c e n t r a l area by dimming the l i g h t s i n the l a b y r i n t h and by a c t o r movement. At the end o f each scene the a c t i o n i n the main area ceased, the doors to the l a b y r i n t h were opened and the l i g h t s were r a i s e d i n the l a b y r i n t h a r e a . Sound and a taped v o i c e were a l s o used to s i g n a l the b e g i n n i n g and end o f each phase. The costumes f o r the p r o d u c t i o n were based on l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d r e s s , s e v e r a l i n v a r y i n g stages o f decay. The Mummy's costume was composed of gauze bandaging and i n o r d e r to show her s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as she had been and as she had become she wore the f r o n t and upper p a r t o f the s t a t u e o f h e r s e l f on her back. The costumes, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Mummy and the Young Lady who wore white, were gray and b l a c k , which c o n t r i b u t e d to the sombre atmosphere. The response o f the m a j o r i t y of people who attended t h i s p r o d u c t i o n was very f a v o r a b l e . Most people seemed to enjoy the e x p e r i e n c e of moving around the l a b y r i n t h and had no d i f f i c u l t y making the t r a n s i t i o n from the l a b y r i n t h to the key scenes and back a g a i n . 90 The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A About I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata Group A expected the standar d o f p r o d u c t i o n a t the Dorothy Somerset St u d i o t o be good, and they expected the type o f s t a g i n g a t t h i s t h e a t r e to be e x p e r i m e n t a l . T h i s i s perhaps i n t e r e s t i n g , s i n c e the type o f p l a y u s u a l l y presented a t the Stu d i o i s not, i n f a c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p e r i m e n t a l . However, the f a c t t h a t i t i s a s m a l l u n i v e r -s i t y t h e a t r e and perhaps the name S t u d i o , which presupposes a workshop, suggest e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o d u c t i o n s . Few members o f the group had any f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p l a y on which the p r o d u c t i o n I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata was based, but the m a j o r i t y had heard something about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n . Group A had d e f i n i t e and c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i d e a s about the k i n d o f p l a y they were going to see. They f e l t i t would be a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a y about the i n n e r w o r l d o f  the mind and they f e l t i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c . The t i t l e o f the p l a y Ghost Sonata probably suggested a g r e a t d e a l to the group, and the t i t l e o f the p r o d u c t i o n " I n s i d e the  Ghost Sonata" most l i k e l y suggested an e x p e r i m e n t a l approach to the p l a y . One i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s the way the group members connect the term " u n r e a l i s t i c " with " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " and "in n e r world o f the mind". T h i s might be an i n d i c a t i o n o f the f e e l i n g t h a t n o t h i n g s u b j e c t i v e has much v a l i d i t y . How-/ i 91 ever, s i n c e they were e x p e c t i n g the p l a y t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l and u n r e a l i s t i c , terms which seem to suggest to them t h a t a n y t h i n g can happen, the members o f Group A were pro b a b l y very r e c e p t i v e to the unusual approach of the p r o d u c t i o n . Although Group A had no d i f f i c u l t y i n d e s c r i b i n g the type o f p l a y they thought they were going to see, they were unable to d e s c r i b e the p o s s i b l e a s p e c t s o f the s t a g i n g - - a c t i n g s t y l e , costumes and scenery. A l l t h a t i s r e v e a l e d i s t h a t h a l f the group f e l t the scenery might be symbolic and h a l f f e l t the costumes might be symbolic and f a n c i f u l . The use of the word "symbolic "(see above p.73 ) probably i n d i c a t e s t h a t the group have no c l e a r i d e a s about the s t a g i n g , although they seem to t h i n k i t w i l l be e x p e r i m e n t a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t , a l t h o u g h the group expect the g e n e r a l approach to be e x p e r i m e n t a l , a c t i n g i s s t i l l the a s p e c t o f the p r o d u c t i o n they were e x p e c t i n g to enjoy most and they were a l s o l o o k i n g forward to watching the development of the p l o t and the i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s seems to suggest t h a t Group A are r e a l l y e x p e c t i n g the p l a y to run along c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e s . Although the group i n d i c a t e t h a t they expected the p r o d u c t i o n to p r o v i d e them w i t h an emotional e x p e r i e n c e , d u r i n g the performance they expected o n l y to be i n v o l v e d and i n t e r e s t e d . These two terms by themselves, do not u s u a l l y express s t r o n g emotional involvement. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the group d i d not s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the 92 nature o f t h e i r p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n , but on the o t h e r hand the c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d i n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e do not r e a l l y g i v e them much o p p o r t u n i t y to express emotional involvement. A f t e r the performance they maintained t h a t they expected to f e e l p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d , which seems to i n d i c a t e an i n t e l l e c t u a l r a t h e r than an emotional e x p e r i e n c e , and i n t h i s q u e s t i o n the l i s t p r o v i d e d d i d c o n t a i n some terms which would a t l e a s t have suggested an emotional e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s l e a d s to the t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the members of the group are not r e a l l y e x p e c t i n g an e x p e r i e n c e which would a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e t h e i r emotional response. The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B About  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata In g e n e r a l , the e x p e c t a t i o n s of Group B about I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata were very s i m i l a r t o those o f Group A. L i k e Group A, Group B expected t o see a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a y about the i n n e r w o r l d o f the mind which p r i m a r i l y p r o -v i d e d an emotional e x p e r i e n c e . The members o f Group B expected the standard o f p r o d u c t i o n a t the S t u d i o t o be good and the probable s t y l e o f p r o d u c t i o n a t t h i s t h e a t r e to be e x p e r i m e n t a l . One i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e emerges, however, and t h a t i s t h a t although o n l y two members of Group B (compared t o the m a j o r i t y of Group A) had heard a n y t h i n g about t h i s 93 p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n , the members o f Group B had s l i g h t l y more d e f i n i t e ideas about the p o s s i b l e s t a g i n g o f the p r o d u c t i o n . Group B's e x p e c t a t i o n o f the a c t i n g s t y l e was a l s o l e s s s c a t t e r e d — h a l f of t h i s group f e l t the a c t i n g would be powerful and p a s s i o n a t e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand what t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s based on, u n l e s s t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n i n the minds o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s between s e r i o u s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l emotional e x p e r i e n c e and a powerful and p a s s i o n a t e s t y l e o f a c t i n g . P o s s i b l y t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the f e e l i n g t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be u n r e a l i s t i c , r a t h e r than r e a l i s t i c . F u r t h e r examples of Group B's more un i f o r m responses are t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f Group B f e l t the scenery would be symbolic, and h a l f f e l t i t would a l s o be f u n c t i o n a l . The m a j o r i t y o f Group B f e l t the costimes would be symb o l i c , and h a l f f e l t they would a l s o be r e a l i s t i c and f u n c t i o n a l . These terms are not very d e s c r i p t i v e . However, j u d g i n g from the way the responses o f Group A and B to these q u e s t i o n s are s c a t t e r e d , t h e r e i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t more members o f Group B made an attempt t o d e s c r i b e p o s s i b l e 34 costumes and scenery than d i d the members of Group A. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say whether o r not t h e r e i s r e a l l y any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the d i f f e r e n c e i n e x p e c t a t i o n s of Groups A and B about the s t a g i n g . Although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s q u i t e s l i g h t , the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group B about a c t i n g , costumes and scenery are more un i f o r m than 94 those o f e i t h e r Group A or Group C. The m a j o r i t y o f Groups A and C had heard something about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e o n l y two members of Group B had any advance i n f o r m a t i o n , so i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s g r e a t e r p r e - p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a -t i o n had some e f f e c t on the members of Groups A and C. The o n l y o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i n the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Groups A and B i s t h a t w h i l e Group A f e l t they would be p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d when the performance was over, Group B's response was too s c a t t e r e d t o i n d i c a t e any t r e n d . P o s s i b l y , the use o f the terms p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d i n d i c a t e s the e x p e c t a t i o n o f some k i n d o f mental involvement, and t h i s response may p o s s i b l y be a r e f l e c t i o n o f a more c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e l l e c t u a l o u t l o o k on the p a r t o f Group A. T h i s a t t i t u d e would be i n keeping w i t h the p r o f i l e o f Group A (See above pp. 38-40). The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group C About  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group C about I n s i d e the Ghost  Sonata were very s i m i l a r t o those of Groups A and B. I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t Group C's e x p e c t a t i o n s about a c t i n g , costumes, and scenery are c l o s e r t o those o f Group A than Group B. T h i s has been t e n t a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t Group C, l i k e Group A, had g r e a t e r p r e -performance i n f o r m a t i o n than Group B. 9 5 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t almost a l l Group C used the term symbolic to express t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about costumes and scenery, w h i l e o n l y h a l f o f Group A who had seen two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s and had used t h i s term f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s of these p r o d u c t i o n s , used symbolic a f t e r h a v ing seen I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata. Perhaps t h i s term was b e g i n n i n g to seem inadequate to the members o f Group A. Group B, however, used symbolic almost as much as Group C. While both Groups A and B a n t i c i p a t e d enjoyment o f the development o f the p l o t , as w e l l as enjoyment of the c h a r a c t e r s , Group C showed very l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the former a s p e c t . T h i s g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n p l o t on the p a r t o f Groups A and B may be a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f having seen one or more pre v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s r e c e n t l y . The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group C, who had not seen e i t h e r o f the two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s were s i m i l a r t o those of Groups A and B. The e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g seen one or both of the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s d i d not seem to have a d i s c e r n i b l e i n f l u e n c e on the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Groups A and B about I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata. An important p o i n t to keep i n mind i s t h a t s i n c e Group C's e x p e c t a t i o n s were the same as those of the o t h e r two Groups, Group C was o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g i n the same g e n e r a l terms as these groups b e f o r e they saw the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t because a f t e r the performance Group C's responses are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those of Groups A and B. The R e a c t i o n s o f Group A to  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata The members of Group A i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata had been very worth  s e e i n g and t h a t the g e n e r a l standard had been good to e x c e l l e n t . They f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n had been s u c c e s s f u l , t h a t i t had been o r i g i n a l , e x c i t i n g and a r t i s t i c , and they i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e t o see more o f the same type o f p r o d u c t i o n . A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the members of t h i s group probably enjoyed themselves i s t h a t o n l y two people were o c c a s i o n a l l y bored d u r i n g the performance. T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e drop i n the number of people i n t h i s group who were bored by the two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . (Six members of Group A were a t l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y bored by As  You L i k e I t and seven were at l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y bored by Tango.) The Group f e l t the p l a y i t s e l f was sad and p e s s i m i s t i c . However, they f e l t i t was o n l y somewhat moving and o n l y two . people f e l t depressed a f t e r the performance was over. F u r t h e r more,judging from the e n t h u s i a s t i c way they moved about the l a b y r i n t h , and from the f a c t t h a t they were not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the two most o b v i o u s l y p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r s (the Student and the Young Lady) these f e e l i n g s of sadness and pessimism d i d not a f f e c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s d e e p l y . Perhaps the method o f p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t e d a more o b j e c t i v e 97 p o i n t o f view f o r the audience, so t h a t w h i l e they were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y aware t h a t the p l a y was sad and p e s s i m i s t i c t h i s knowledge d i d not a f f e c t them e m o t i o n a l l y . The two c h a r a c t e r s i n the main scenes most enjoyed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s were Hummel and the Mummy. The grotesque appearance o f these two c h a r a c t e r s may have been a f a c t o r i n t h e i r a p p e a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t o n l y h a l f o f the group responded t o the Student, and very few responded to the Young Lady. P o s s i b l y the v a r i o u s " a l i e n a t i n g " e f f e c t s of both the p l a y and the p r o d u c t i o n prevented the audience from suspending d i s b e l i e f as f a r as these c h a r a c t e r s were concerned. The aspect o f the s t a g i n g o f the main scenes which Group A most enjoyed was the a c t i n g , f o l l o w e d by costumes and scenery. Only two members o f the group found the use of f i l m and s l i d e s more i n t e r e s t i n g than the o t h e r a s p e c t s of p r o d u c t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the group were not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the f i l m and s l i d e s and d i d not f i n d t h a t they added s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the e x p e r i e n c e . Although the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem to accept the g e n e r a l ex-p e r i m e n t a l nature o f the p r o d u c t i o n , they a p p a r e n t l y f i l t e r out c e r t a i n aspects and respond mainly to those they would f i n d i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . Group A e v a l u a t e d the a c t i n g as somewhat p r o f e s s i o n a l and somewhat good. T h i s suggests t h a t they were not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the a c t i n g . Perhaps the u n c o n v e n t i o n a l nature o f the p r o d u c t i o n d i d not g i v e the audience the 9 8 experience t h a t the a c t i n g i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n does. However, o n l y two members of t h i s group mentioned v o c a l o r p h y s i c a l mannerisms o f the a c t o r s t h a t they f e l t were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer than were i r r i t a t e d by a c t o r s ' mannerisms d u r i n g e i t h e r Tango (6 people) or As You L i k e I t (3 people) so t h a t although the m a j o r i t y o f the Group were not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the a c t i n g , they were unable to i d e n t i f y what they f e l t was wrong wi t h i t , which i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t . The Group chose the a c t o r s p l a y i n g Hummel and the Mummy as the two b e s t , and i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t these were a l s o the c h a r a c t e r s t h a t the Group enjoyed most. Though h a l f of the Group f e l t the Student was one of the most i n -t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r s , the m a j o r i t y f e l t t h a t the a c t o r was not so good as the r e s t of the p e rformers. T h i s i s the f i r s t s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Group A makes any d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t o r and c h a r a c t e r . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t continuous exposure to the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s a f a c t o r i n t h i s response. As f a r as the a c t i n g s t y l e was concerned, the members of Group A were d i v i d e d i n t h i n k i n g t h a t i t was e l e g a n t and  s t y l i z e d and s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l . Those who f e l t i t was s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l d i d not seem t o be b o t hered by t h i s or f e e l i t was i n a p p r o p r i a t e , s i n c e none of the group f e l t the a c t i n g was poor. In the same way they d i d not f e e l t h a t the development of the p l o t was e i t h e r c l e a r , b e l i e v a b l e or l o g i c a l but t h i s d i d not prevent them from f i n d i n g i t i n v o l v i n g , another p o i n t which may be s i g n i f i c a n t . 99 Group A l i k e d the costumes very much and f e l t they were a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p l a y . The f a v o r i t e costumes were those o f Hummel and the Mummy, although many of the o t h e r costumes were as e f f e c t i v e . However, the p a r t i c i p a n t s do not seem to be a b l e to d i s s o c i a t e a c t o r , c h a r a c t e r and costume, and throughout the study seemed to choose the b e s t costume a c c o r d i n g to how good they f e l t the a c t o r wearing i t was. Since they do not seem t o be very aware v i s u a l l y o f costumes and scenery i t may be t h a t they can o n l y remember the costumes o f those a c t o r s who made an i m p r e s s i o n on them. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t they chose the b e s t costumes a c c o r d i n g to how w e l l the costume helped the a c t o r express the c h a r a c t e r . The m a j o r i t y o f the Group enjoyed both the l a b y r i n t h and the main scenes and f e l t t h a t the l a b y r i n t h added v e r y much t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p l a y . Only h a l f o f the Group, however, f e l t t h a t the p l a y had been i n t e r p r e t e d p r o p e r l y . The o t h e r h a l f d i d not know. They were not bothered by having to move around the l a b y r i n t h and seemed i n f a c t t o enjoy the e x p e r i e n c e very much. Probably the f a c t s t h a t i t was q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the l a b y r i n t h was not t h r e a t e n i n g and t h a t the a g g r e s s i v e elements which are o f t e n p r e s e n t i n p r o d u c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n were absent c o n t r i b u t e d t o p u t t i n g the audience a t ease. The aspect o f the l a b y r i n t h Group A enjoyed most was the s c e n e r y , f o l l o w e d by the costumes. Although they / 100 f e l t i n t r i g u e d , shocked, and i n v o l v e d by the e x p e r i e n c e o f meeting the a c t o r s , the a c t i n g was not the aspect i n which they were most i n t e r e s t e d . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n any a c t i n g which has taken p l a c e on a stage and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they d i d not r e a l l y f e e l the a c t o r s i n the l a b y r i n t h were a c t i n g , s i n c e t h e i r a c t i v i t y was o f t e n a p p a r e n t l y u n s t r u c t u r e d . A t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n might be t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s do not r e a l l y a c cept any a c t i v i t i e s o f a c t o r s as a c t i n g u n l e s s they take p l a c e i n some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , s t a t i c stage a r e a . Furthermore t h e r e i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t when the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n c e n t r a t e l e s s on the a c t i n g they become more v i s u a l l y aware o f the o t h e r aspects of s t a g i n g . They were, f o r example, much more c l e a r about which l a b y r i n t h u n i t s they l i k e d than they were about the d e t a i l s o f the scenery i n the main scene a r e a . The c e n t r a l area was e s s e n t i a l l y q u i t e bare, but the p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed to have some d i f f i c u l t y i n remembering even t h i s p o i n t . I t would appear t h a t as soon as the Group members got away from the c o n v e n t i o n a l stage area they had l e s s u n iform and more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c responses, an i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t . The Group response t o which a c t o r s i n the l a b y r i n t h they l i k e d b e s t was very s c a t t e r e d , as was t h e i r response t o which l a b y r i n t h u n i t they l i k e d b e s t . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y because they are not ju d g i n g the aspects 101 of the l a b y r i n t h a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own i d e a s o f what a p l a y should be l i k e . I t must be remembered t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s moved f r e e l y through the l a b y r i n t h t a k i n g t h e i r own time and not a l l of them n e c e s s a r i l y saw a l l o f the u n i t s . Although the responses to the l a b y r i n t h u n i t s were very s c a t t e r e d , almost a l l o f Group A l i k e d the Cook's K i t c h e n . T h i s i s perhaps because t h i s u n i t was among those which were most r e c o g n i z a b l y l i k e a p l a y i n t h a t an a c t i v i t y was going on which the audience c o u l d s t a n d back from and watch i n a group. A l s o the u n i t was s e t i n what was a c t u a l l y a m i n i a t u r e box s e t w i t h d e f i n i t e boundaries e s t a b l i s h e d by the a c t o r s and by the w a l l s of the s e t . T h i s was, i n o t h e r words, one of the most c o n v e n t i o n a l u n i t s and as such was perhaps r e c o g n i z e d and a p p r e c i a t e d by the audience members. The s l i g h t l y shocking e f f e c t o f the use o f r e a l raw l i v e r (with i t s accompanying s m e l l ) , r e a l p o r r i d g e and r e a l v e g e t a b l e s and the grotesque appearance o f the Cook were probably even g r e a t e r f a c t o r s i n the appeal of t h i s u n i t . Perhaps the use of r e a l food made the Cook's K i t c h e n seem more immediate and dynamic than the o t h e r u n i t s , although the a c t i o n i n t h i s u n i t was not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f . In summary, then, Group A, w h i l e a c c e p t i n g the g e n e r a l experimental nature of the p r o d u c t i o n , seemed to s e l e c t and 102 respond to those aspects of the main scenes which they f e e l would be found i n a conventional production. Furthermore, they seemed to f e e l that the l a b y r i n t h , on the whole, could not be included i n the category "play". Apparently as a r e s u l t of t h i s f e e l i n g they were able to respond to the labyrinth according to t h e i r personal preferences rather than according to what i s emerging as a f a i r l y r i g i d set of expectations. The Reactions of Group B To Inside the Ghost Sonata The response of Group B to Inside the Ghost Sonata was on the whole very s i m i l a r to the response of Group A. However, although Group B enjoyed the production and i t s various aspects, they were s l i g h t l y less enthusiastic than Group A and i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that more than h a l f of Group B'were bored at l e a s t o ccasionally. Group B seemed les s conservative i n t h e i r responses to the various aspects of play and production of Inside the  Ghost Sonata than Group A. That i s , there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that Group A evaluated the production i n terms of the conventions of t r a d i t i o n a l productions while Group B seemed s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d to evaluate the production on i t s own terms, rather than according to a pre-established set of expectations. 103 One example i s t h a t Group A f e l t the p r o d u c t i o n p r i m a r i l y p r o v i d e d an emotional e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e Group B f e l t i t made a meaningful statement about l i f e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Group A d i d not r e a l l y accept the main scenes and the l a b y r i n t h as complementary aspects o f the same p r o d u c t i o n . Group B, on the o t h e r hand, seemed t o have no d i f f i c u l t y making the t r a n s i t i o n from the main scenes to the l a b y r i n t h and back a g a i n . Consequently, Group B accepted the l a b y r i n t h and the main scenes as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s of the whole performance. S i n c e the p r o d u c t i o n d i d have coherence and u n i t y f o r Group B they were more a b l e to e x t r a c t and respond t o some s i n g l e theme or l i n e o f develop-ment which they i n t e r p r e t e d as a meaningful statement about l i f e . The e x p e r i e n c e was, then, f o r Group B, an i n t e l l e c t u a l one. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t as an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , Group B d i d not f i n d the p r o d u c t i o n an e n t i r e l y s a t i s f y i n g one and t h i s may account f o r the s l i g h t l y l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c response and the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n who were o c c a s i o n a l l y bored. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t Group A tended t o be l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t o the f i l m and s l i d e s i n the main scenes than to the a c t i n g , costumes and scenery, elements which would be found i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . Group B, on the o t h e r hand, d i v i d e d t h e i r response mainly between the a c t i n g and. the f i l m and s l i d e s , which seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t they are more i n c l i n e d t o accept a non - c o n v e n t i o n a l approach t o p r o d u c t i o n than the members of Group A. 104 In c o n t r a s t to Group A, who chose Hummel's and the Mummy's costumes, the response o f Group B to which costumes they l i k e d b e s t was very s c a t t e r e d . Hummel's costume got the most c o n c e n t r a t e d response from the members of Group B, but t h i s was s t i l l fewer than h a l f the group. I t would appear t h a t Group B doesn't e v a l u a t e costumes a c c o r d i n g t o the same standards as Group A. I t seems q u i t e c l e a r , however, t h a t Group B does make more of a d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t o r and costume than Group A. Although the members o f Group A were c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o c l a s s i f y the p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e -e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e they were unable t o do so. Consequently they d i d not t r y to e x t r a c t an i n t e l l e c t u a l statement from the p l a y and allowed themselves to e x p e r i e n c e i t e m o t i o n a l l y . As an apparent r e s u l t o f t h i s they enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n more and were l e s s bored. Group B had l e s s d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g the p h y s i c a l framework o f the p l a y and they t r i e d to base t h e i r e xperience on the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o ntent o f the p r o d u c t i o n . Since t h i s was an as p e c t o f the p r o d u c t i o n t h a t was not emphasized, Group B d i d not f i n d the exper i e n c e so s a t i s f y i n g as Group A and was more o f t e n bored. 1 0 5 The R e a c t i o n s o f Group C t o I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata When ex a m i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e o f Group C t o the I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s im-p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s had n o t been t o t h e p r e v i o u s two p r o d u c t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y and t h a t t h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i me t h e y had answered t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s i n c e t h e members o f Group C had not had t h e s e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s o f one o r two v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s , t h e y were e v a l u a t i n g I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata l e s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e a t r e . That i s , Group C i s l e s s i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k o f the p r o d u c t i o n as a " p l a y " . F o r one t h i n g , t h e r e s p o n s e s o f Group C t e n d t o be more s c a t t e r e d t h a n t h o s e o f Groups A and B. T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a r e more a r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e t h a n a r e s u l t o f an e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e a p p l i e d t o t h e a t r e . W h i l e t h e members o f Groups A and B f e l t t h e p r o -d u c t i o n was u n r e a l i s t i c , as many as h a l f o f Group C f e l t t h a t i t was r e a l i s t i c . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Groups A and B r e g a r d e d t h i s p r o d u c t i o n as u n r e a l i s t i c i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h As_ You L i k e I t and Tango, o r as u n r e a l i s t i c i n co m p a r i s o n w i t h l i f e . Those members o f Group C who f e l t i t was r e a l i s t i c were p o s s i b l y n o t making a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n / / / / 106 between the p r o d u c t i o n and l i f e . S i nce they had not seen the two p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s which e s t a b l i s h e d the conven-t i o n s o f a p l a y , they p o s s i b l y d i d not t h i n k o f t h i s pro-d u c t i o n as a " p l a y " , but as an e x p e r i e n c e which was i n c l u d e d i n , not separate from, t h e i r l i v e s . In t h i s way i t was r e a l i s t i c , not u n r e a l i s t i c , t o them. T h i s p o s s i b l e acceptance o f the r e a l i t y of the exper-i e n c e may have something to do w i t h the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (though fewer than h a l f ) of Group C who f e l t uncomfortable about moving about the l a b y r i n t h i n comparison w i t h very few i n Groups A and B. S i n c e , p o s s i b l y , the e x p e r i e n c e was more " r e a l " to some o f Group C they might have f e l t t h a t i t made more demands on them p e r s o n a l l y . That i s , they d i d not f e e l p r o t e c t e d by the c o n v e n t i o n s o f the t h e a t r e which g i v e the audience anonymity. Groups A and B, on the o t h e r hand, regarded the p r o d u c t i o n as a p l a y and themselves as audience. As i n d i v i d u a l s they f e l t p r o t e c t e d by t h i s i d e n t i t y w i t h the group and by what they saw (by s e l e c t i n g those a s p e c t s which would be found i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n and responding a c c o r d i n g l y ) as the f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e , and t h e r e f o r e s a f e , framework of the p l a y . Very few Group C members responded to the Cook's K i t c h e n l a b y r i n t h u n i t , i n comparison w i t h the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of Groups A and B. Since Group C seemed to f i n d the e n t i r e e x p e r i e n c e more r e a l than t h e a t r i c a l , the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 107 t h i s u n i t o f the r e a l food perhaps had l e s s impact f o r them than f o r the members o f the p r e v i o u s groups, who were p o s s i b l y responding to the c o n t r a s t between the r e a l props of t h i s u n i t and the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the o t h e r u n i t s . Group C d e s c r i b e d the scenery as a u s t e r e and symbolic and the costumes as h i s t o r i c a l and symbolic. These are 35 more a p p r o p r i a t e terms than those chosen by Groups A and B. There i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the members o f Groups A and B take costumes and scenery very much f o r gra n t e d w i t h i n the framework of a p l a y , but s i n c e some members o f Group C d i d not seem to r e g a r d t h i s p r o d u c t i o n as a " p l a y " they d i d not a u t o m a t i c a l l y i g n o r e the costumes and scenery t o the same ex t e n t and so were able t o d e s c r i b e them a l i t t l e more a c c u r a t e l y . With regard t o the a c t i n g i n the main scenes, more members o f Group C than of Group A or B n o t i c e d p h y s i c a l or v o c a l mannerisms on the p a r t o f the a c t o r s which i r r i t a t e d them. T h i s suggests t h a t the members o f Group C are not making the automatic allowances f o r the a c t i n g made by Groups A and B w i t h i n the frame of r e f e r e n c e o f a " p l a y " . With r e g a r d t o the main scenes, the same number i n Group C as i n Group A and B s a i d t h a t a c t i n g was the as p e c t i n which they were most i n t e r e s t e d . T h i s was s t i l l fewer than h a l f the Group. However, more members of Group C than of e i t h e r Groups A or B gave f i l m and s l i d e s as the as p e c t 108 they most enjoyed. An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more students than non-students i n Group C enjoyed the f i l m and s l i d e s and more non-students than students i n t h i s group enjoyed the a c t i n g more than any o t h e r a s p e c t . A p p a r e n t l y the non-students i n t h i s group are more i n c l i n e d than the students to r e f e r to the conventions of the t h e a t r e when a s s i m i l a t i n g a performance. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g s p l i t between non-students and students i n e i t h e r o f the ot h e r two groups. I t has been mentioned i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f Group A's response t o I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata t h a t as soon as these p a r t i c i p a n t s were away from the main scene area (or conven-t i o n a l stage area) t h e i r response became l e s s u n i f o r m and more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . I t was suggested t h a t t h i s was because they were not e v a l u a t i n g the l a b y r i n t h a c c o r d i n g t o an e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e which they use to d e a l w i t h the t h e a t r e . T h i s apparent tendency t o respond i n a more p e r s o n a l , l e s s s t a n d a r d i z e d way seems to be more f u l l y developed i n the responses of Group C, who do not seem to be e v a l u a t i n g any p a r t of the p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the standards of c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e a t r e . There seems to be a d i f f e r e n c e i n the response o f those who went to I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata w i t h o u t h a v i n g seen one or both of the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s , compared t o the response of those who had seen one or both of the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . Groups A and B seemed / 109 t o impose a frame o f r e f e r e n c e on I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata which p o s s i b l y had been e s t a b l i s h e d or r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i r immediately p r e v i o u s p l a y e x p e r i e n c e . Group C, on the othe r hand, had not perhaps had t h e i r frame of r e f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e a t r e r e c e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d and t h e r e f o r e d i d not so c o n s t a n t l y t r y to f i t the p r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e . The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f the Combined Group A, B and C and T h e i r  Reactions to I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata The Group of t h i r t y - s i x as a whole expected t h a t I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata would be a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a y about the i n n e r w o r l d o f the mind which would p r o v i d e an emotional  e x p e r i e n c e . They expected the st a n d a r d t o be good, the s t y l e e x p e r i m e n t a l and the p r o d u c t i o n u n r e a l i s t i c r a t h e r than r e a l i s t i c . Since over h a l f o f t h i s Group had heard something about t h i s p r o d u c t i o n i t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s were so a p p r o p r i a t e . With o n l y one e x c e p t i o n these e x p e c t a t i o n s were f u l f i l l e d . While the Group expected the p r o d u c t i o n p r i m a r i l y to p r o v i d e an emotional e x p e r i e n c e they d e c i d e d a f t e r h a v i n g seen i t t h a t i t a c t u a l l y made a meaningful statement about  l i f e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s made a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t to i n t e r p r e t the development o f the a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g 110 to an i n t e l l e c t u a l scheme. T h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l approach perhaps j u s t i f i e d the p r o d u c t i o n f o r them and made the experience worthwhile, w h i l e a s i m i l a r type o f p r o d u c t i o n which mainly p r o v i d e d an emotional e x p e r i e n c e might not get a p o s i t i v e response from t h i s Group. As f a r as the a c t u a l s t a g i n g of the p l a y was concerned the Group expected both scenery and costumes to be symbolic and f a n c i f u l . The terms a u s t e r e and f u n c t i o n a l were a l s o chosen by a number of the Group and the terms minimal to d e s c r i b e the scenery and muted to d e s c r i b e costumes were a l s o chosen. The Groups' e x p e c t a t i o n s about the a c t i n g were s c a t t e r e d , although twelve of the t h i r t y - s i x expected i t to be powerful and p a s s i o n a t e . These e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g can be e x p l a i n e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways. The f i r s t i s t h a t they are a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f what the p a r t i c i p a n t s had heard about the p r o d u c t i o n . The second p o s s i b i l i t y , supported by the u n i f o r m i t y o f the response which suggests some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e , i s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s have d e s c r i b e d the s t a g i n g of what i s , to them, the i d e a l or normative experimental p r o d u c t i o n . The t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e i r response i s a r e s u l t o f the combination o f h a v i n g heard about the p r o d u c t i o n and t h e i r own ideas about experimental p l a y s . The Groups e x p e c t a t i o n s about s t a g i n g as f a r as costumes and scenery were concerned were f u l f i l l e d to a I l l c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , although a f t e r h a v ing seen the costumes h i s t o r i c a l and r e a l i s t i c were added to the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the costumes, and t h e r e are s e v e r a l o t h e r s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s which can be' seen by examining the r e s u l t s themselves. I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t n e i t h e r symbolic nor f a n c i f u l were a p p r o p r i a t e terms f o r the scenery i n the key scene area, y e t these are the terms chosen by most o f the Group t o d e s c r i b e i t . T h i s f u r t h e r supports the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s are not r e a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o a l l the v i s u a l a s pects of a p r o d u c t i o n . The c o n t i n u a l use o f symbolic to d e s c r i b e t h i n g s t h a t are not symbolic i s p o s s i b l y f u r t h e r evidence o f the apparent i n c l i n a t i o n on the p a r t o f the Group members to f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r as many aspects o f the t h e a t r e as p o s s i b l e . On the o t h e r hand, i t may simply i n d i c a t e t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s have no i d e a how costumes and scenery should be d e s c r i b e d , but they f e e l they should make an attempt t o d e s c r i b e these a s p e c t s anyway. P o s s i b l y too , the p a r t i c i p a n t s simply cannot remember these aspects o f s t a g i n g c l e a r l y enough t o d e s c r i b e them. The Groups' e x p e c t a t i o n s about the a c t i n g were s c a t t e r e d , although twelve of the t h i r t y - s i x expected t h a t i t would be powerful and p a s s i o n a t e . A f t e r h a v i n g seen the p r o d u c t i o n the p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d between t h i n k i n g the a c t i n g was s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l and e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d , though p o s s i b l y these two f a c t i o n s were responding to the same q u a l i t y i n the a c t i n g . The m a j o r i t y of the Group f e l t / / 112 the a c t i n g was somewhat good and somewhat p r o f e s s i o n a l and w h i l e t h i s i s a p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than a n e g a t i v e response i t does not seem to be very e n t h u s i a s t i c and may or may not be connected w i t h the f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s about the a c t i n g were u n f u l f i l l e d . The a s p e c t of the p r o d u c t i o n the Group expected to be most i n t e r e s t e d i n was the a c t i n g , f o l l o w e d by the scenery, and the aspect of the p l a y they were most a n t i c i p a t i n g was the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s . A f t e r having seen the p r o d u c t i o n they found t h a t i n the main scenes the f i l m and s l i d e s engaged t h e i r i n t e r e s t most, g i v i n g the a c t i n g secondary importance, and i n the l a b y r i n t h the scenery was the most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t . T h i s i s a f a i r l y n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e , s i n c e these were the most a r r e s t i n g aspects o f the p r o d u c t i o n . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e a l l y had been f o l l o w i n g the development of a meaningful statement about l i f e they might have been more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i n g i n both main scenes and l a b y r i n t h . Only f u r t h e r study c o u l d determine whether or not t h i s i s a v a l i d s u g g e s t i o n . An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t about the l a b y r i n t h i s t h a t although the response to the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g which u n i t s the p a r t i c i p a n t s most enjoyed was s c a t t e r e d , those u n i t s which i n c l u d e d a c t o r s who had appeared i n the main scenes got more response than the p u r e l y s t a t i c u n i t s or those 113 which i n c l u d e d a c t o r s who d i d not appear i n the main scenes. T h i s suggests again t h a t the element o f r e c o g n i t i o n i s an important aspect o f audience enjoyment. A p p a r e n t l y the p a r t i c i p a n t s respond most to the elements of the p r o d u c t i o n which can be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the p l o t and c h a r a c t e r s and which perhaps e l u c i d a t e them to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . I t a l s o suggests t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were t r y i n g to f i t the l a b y r i n t h i n t o a coherent, meaningful, scheme. T h i s i s a n a t u r a l approach, but i t i s a more i n t e l l e c t u a l than spontaneous response. The m a j o r i t y response to the Cook's K i t c h e n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . Although the p a r t i c i p a n t s expected to enjoy the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s , they a c t u a l l y responded more t o the c h a r a c t e r s as i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . S i n c e the main aspect o f the p l a y i s dependent on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to whether the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e a l l y d i d get a meaningful statement from the p l a y . During the p r o d u c t i o n the Group expected to f e e l i n -v o l v e d and i n t e r e s t e d , and a t l e a s t one q u a r t e r of the Group expected to be amused and e n l i g h t e n e d . Afterwards they f e l t they would be p u z z l e d and d i s t u r b e d , w h i l e one q u a r t e r expected to f e e l f a t i g u e d and e n l i g h t e n e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e were so few who expected to be e n l i g h t e n e d and t h i s supports t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the 114 p r o d u c t i o n would p r o v i d e an emotional e x p e r i e n c e . The Group's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the way they would f e e l d u r i n g and a f t e r the performance were r e a l i z e d . On the whole, the p a r t i c i p a n t s enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n very much, f e l t i t was s u c c e s s f u l , and would l i k e to see more p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d . The m a j o r i t y were not a t a l l bored and not a t a l l uncomfortable when moving about the l a b y r i n t h . They enjoyed the l a b y r i n t h and the main scenes e q u a l l y and f e l t the l a b y r i n t h added moderately t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p l a y . They d i d not know, however, whether or not the p l a y had been i n t e r p r e t e d p r o p e r l y . S e v e r a l p o i n t s emerge. The f i r s t i s t h a t although the p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n t h a t f o r them the p l a y made a meaningful statement, t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o whether they would be able t o d e f i n e what t h i s statement was. In an attempt t o make the e x p e r i e n c e manageable, and i n t h i s way perhaps l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g , they have t r i e d to e x p l a i n the a c t i o n i n terms of an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y coherent statement. The main argument a g a i n s t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the pro-d u c t i o n i n terms of a meaningful statement i s t h a t t h e r e was no s i n g l e simple statement i n h e r e n t i n the p r o d u c t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, the p a r t i c i p a n t s came prepared t o accept the p r o d u c t i o n i n terms o f an'emotional e x p e r i e n c e and were unable to do so. P o s s i b l y the i n t e r r u p t i o n s o f the a c t i o n o f the main scenes and the almost f e s t i v e mood c r e a t e d by the audience moving about the l a b y r i n t h d e s t r o y e d 115 the c o n t i n u i t y o f the atmosphere i n the p r o d u c t i o n , which would perhaps have c o n t r i b u t e d to an emotional e x p e r i e n c e . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were prevented from t h i n k i n g the p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e d an emotional e x p e r i e n c e by t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f t h a t t h i s alone would not j u s t i f y the p r o d u c t i o n . A f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 main expec-t a t i o n s about the p l a y i t s e l f , about some o f t h e i r own responses and about some aspects of the s t a g i n g , were f u l l y r e a l i z e d . Furthermore, they seemed to enjoy the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s supports the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t enjoyment and acceptance of a p r o d u c t i o n are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the f u l f i l l m e n t o f P r e - P r o d u c t i o n e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n . 116 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER VI 3 3 S e e p. 201. 3 4 S e e p. 197 q u e s t i o n (1) and p. 19 8 q u e s t i o n (p). 3 5 S e e p. 197 q u e s t i o n (1) and p. 198 q u e s t i o n (p). CONCLUSION T h i s p r o j e c t was intended to d i s c o v e r and d e f i n e any q u e s t i o n s about t h e a t r e audience response which were i n -d i c a t e d by g e n e r a l trends i n the c o l l e c t e d d ata. These q u e s t i o n s might be the b a s i s o f f u t u r e work i n audience r e s e a r c h . While some d e f i n i t e trends have emerged, the sm a l l s i z e o f the group i n v o l v e d p r o h i b i t s d e f i n i t e con-c l u s i o n s . The two s p e c i f i c p i l o t q u e s t i o n s (the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s and the cum u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f c o n t i n u a l attendance on response) were i n c l u d e d to g i v e the study some d i r e c t i o n and form, not i n the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the r e s u l t s would i n d i c a t e any f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s . A major purpose o f the study was to see i f the method used was p r a c t i c a l and i f the r e s u l t s produced by t h i s method were u s e f u l . Using the system d e s c r i b e d above (see pp. 3-13 t o t e s t a group of t h i s s i z e and type seems v e r y p r a c t i c a l . Suggestions have been made i n the cha p t e r on method (p. 3) f o r adapting the system developed i n the study t o a much l a r g e r group. T h i s would i n v o l v e d i v i d i n g an u n l i m i t e d number.of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o groups o f f o r t y , each group b e i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a team of two workers. The use of the s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s produces adequate 118 r e s u l t s , though the p o s s i b i l i t y o f adding p e r s o n a l i n t e r -views w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s might be c o n s i d e r e d . As has a l r e a d y been suggested, a more d e t a i l e d v e r s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s might be u s e f u l . The term "frame o f r e f e r e n c e " has been c o n t i n u a l l y used throughout the study. I t i s important to d e f i n e what t h i s means i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t o o u t l i n e the reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g i t e x i s t s , and to d e s c r i b e the elements of t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e as r e v e a l e d by the study. When the study was s e t up, i t was not r e a l i z e d how deeply entrenched and i n f l u e n t i a l t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e was. However, as the study p r o g r e s s e d , a number o f a t t i t u d e s or f i x e d i d e a s which seem to have a d i r e c t and c o n s i s t e n t i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s to the v a r i o u s aspects o f the p l a y s and p r o d u c t i o n s began to emerge. That i s , these ideas seem to have c o a l e s c e d i n t o a system, o r frame o f r e f e r e n c e , to which the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r when e v a l u a t i n g a p l a y or p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e , which does not always c o i n c i d e with t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r -ences and spontaneous responses, comes between the p r o d u c t i o n and the audience. They seem to e v a l u a t e a p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d -i n g to the e x t e n t t o which i t conforms to the frame o f r e f e r e n c e . Among the p o i n t s which support the i d e a o f the e x i s -tence of t h i s widespread frame o f r e f e r e n c e are the u n i f o r m i t y o f response; the s i m i l a r i t y between e x p e c t a t i o n 119 and r e a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (which suggests a c o n s t a n t common to the e n t i r e group); and the f a c t t h a t the responses remain uniform even when i n a c c u r a t e o r i n n a p p r o p r i a t e , which suggests t h a t the f a c t s o f the p r o d u c t i o n are i n t e r -p r e t e d to f i t the frame of r e f e r e n c e . F u r t h e r support f o r t h i s i d e a i s the c o n t i n u a l reappearance o f c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s ( o u t l i n e d below) throughout the study which seemed to i n d i c a t e a p o i n t of view common t o a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y the comparison o f the response o f Groups A and B with t h a t o f Group C seemed to h i g h l i g h t the frame o f r e f e r e n c e , i n t h a t Group C's more s c a t t e r e d , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c response probably i n d i c a t e d a d i r e c t r e a c t i o n to the p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r than a r e a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the frame o f r e f e r e n c e . The frame o f r e f e r e n c e i t s e l f seems t o be based on a knowledge o f the conventions o f a very t r a d i t i o n a l type o f p r o d u c t i o n . The d e t a i l s have not emerged from t h i s study, but those a t t i t u d e s which seem to be an i n h e r e n t element o f the frame of r e f e r e n c e are d i s c u s s e d below. In the f i r s t p l a c e , a c c o r d i n g to the frame o f r e f e r -ence, a p l a y should p r e s e n t a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i d e a . F u r t h e r -more, the p r o d u c t i o n must make these i d e a s , and any a c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n , c l e a r , as the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem to p r e f e r a p r o d u c t i o n which does not demand t h a t they e x e r t themselves m e n t a l l y . A p r o d u c t i o n must be a worthwhile e x p e r i e n c e ; I f i t i s not an amusing and e n t e r t a i n i n g comedy i t s h o u l d 120 p r e s e n t ( f a i r l y c l e a r l y ) a meaningful i n t e l l e c t u a l statement about l i f e . R e l a t e d to t h i s i s the a t t i t u d e t h a t a p l a y needs some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s performance; i t sho u l d f u l f i l l some f u n c t i o n . The a c t i o n i s not complete i n i t s e l f (as i t i s to a g r e a t e x t e n t , i n some forms of dance, f o r example). The u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n must f u l f i l l a worthwhile f u n c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the apparent p r i n c i p l e t h a t time spent i n a g i v e n a c t i v i t y must g i v e a p o s i t i v e p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e t u r n . T h i s i s so important t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t , r a t h e r than admit t h e i r time has been wasted, they w i l l r a t e a p r o d u c t i o n good o r e x c e l l e n t and ma i n t a i n they enjoyed i t i n s p i t e o f apparent p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s . While a p l a y s h o u l d be e i t h e r e n t e r t a i n i n g and/or make a meaningful statement about l i f e , i t s h o u l d , a t the same time, p r o v i d e the audience w i t h an emotional e x p e r i e n c e . However, th e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they l i k e t o keep the a c t i o n a t a m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y comfortable d i s -tance . A c c o r d i n g t o the frame o f r e f e r e n c e , a p r o d u c t i o n takes p l a c e i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d area w i t h boundaries r e c o g n i z e d by the a c t o r s , and d e f i n e d , u s u a l l y by w a l l s . The t r e n d i s to r e g a r d the t h e a t r e as p r i m a r i l y a showcase f o r a c t o r s . I n t e l l e c t u a l c ontent may j u s t i f y the p r o d u c t i o n , but i t i s r e a l l y the a c t o r s who make i t e n j o y a b l e . Con-v e r s e l y , an a c t i v i t y o f an a c t o r i s c o n s i d e r e d a c t i n g o n l y / 121 when i t takes p l a c e w i t h i n the c l e a r l y d e f i n e d boundaries o f the s t a g e . The b e l i e f seems to be t h a t i n d i v i d u a l performances are complete i n themselves r e g a r d l e s s o f whether or not the a c t o r has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e x p r e s s i o n o f the p l a y ' s c e n t r a l concept, the. e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the development o f the p l o t , o r the mood o f the p r o d u c t i o n when these t h i n g s are demanded by the p l a y . An automatic a l l o w -ance i s made by the p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r a c t o r s and the tendency i s t o d i s r e g a r d i r r i t a t i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a l o r p h y s i c a l mannerisms when e v a l u a t i n g the st a n d a r d o f the a c t i n g . There i s a tendency to make l i t t l e o r no d i s t i n c t i o n between c h a r a c t e r and a c t o r and a tendency ( u s u a l l y , but not always j u s t i f i e d ) t o b e l i e v e t h a t the b e s t a c t o r s are the ones w i t h the b i g g e s t p a r t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s may be assuming t h a t i f the c h a r a c t e r i s more i n t e r e s t i n g or important, the a c t i n g i s b e t t e r . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the frame of r e f e r e n c e , the p a r t i c i p a n t s are a p p a r e n t l y a b l e t o focus o n l y on one asp e c t o f the p r o d u c t i o n a t a time, and t h i s aspect i s u s u a l l y the a c t i n g . Costumes and scenery are taken very much f o r granted, and to a g r e a t e x t e n t i g n o r e d . T h i s p a t t e r n o f r e a c t i o n can be broken by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an unconven-t i o n a l technique such as the use of f i l m and s l i d e s , but th e r e i s some evidence t h a t where the frame of r e f e r e n c e i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the u n c o n v e n t i o n a l technique w i l l 122 have l e s s impact and the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be l e s s d i s t r a c t e d from the a c t i n g than w i l l the members of a group i n which the frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s not so f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Throughout the study, when asked to name the most e f f e c t i v e costume, the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y chose those worn by the a c t o r s who they f e l t had g i v e n the b e s t performances, although these costumes were o f t e n not the most e f f e c t i v e or a t t r a c t i v e by o t h e r c r i t e r i a . One p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t they d i d not n o t i c e the costumes to the e x t e n t t h a t they c o u l d remember them c l e a r l y enough to make a d e c i s i o n . However, i t should be kept i n mind t h a t i t i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r a member o f the audience to separate a c t o r from costume than i t i s to separate a c t o r or costume from scenery. As soon as the p a r t i c i p a n t s moved away from the c o n v e n t i o n a l stage area and i n t o one i n which the a c t o r s were not the f o c a l p o i n t , they seemed to become more v i s u a l l y aware of the s t a g i n g . The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the use o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a g i n g may i n some way i n h i b i t t h e i r v i s u a l response. In s p i t e o f t h i s apparent l a c k o f awareness of even the b a s i c o u t l i n e s of the s t a g i n g , shown throughout the study by the r e c u r r e n t i n a b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e i t a p p r o p r i a t e l y , there i s an u n d e r l y i n g demand f o r t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . Since a l l these p r o d u c t i o n s were t e c h n i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to imagine with any c e r t a i n t y how the p a r t i c i -123 pants would respond to p o o r l y executed s t a g i n g . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know i f the tendency not to a l l o w poor a c t i n g to i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r enjoyment would show up i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o s t a g i n g . T h i s demand t h a t the s t a g i n g be t e c h n i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t i s a f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e t h a t time spent a t the t h e a t r e i s an investment t h a t should g i v e a worthwhile r e t u r n . The demand f o r t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n combination w i t h a t o l e r a n c e o f poor a c t i n g may be r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 e x p e r i e n c e o f t e l e v i s i o n and movies which o f t e n i n v o l v e poor a c t i n g but have a hig h degree o f t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . The apparent d i s i n t e r e s t i n costumes and scenery suggests t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s are unaware how much these elements c o n t r i b u t e t o the mood and atmosphere o f the p l a y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they b e l i e v e mood and atmosphere are dependent o n l y on the a c t o r s . One important p o i n t i s t h a t t h e r e i s some evidence t h a t the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f the frame o f r e f e r e n c e do not always c o i n c i d e w i t h the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s suggests t h a t they are r e g i s t e r i n g a p p r o v a l o f p r o d u c t i o n s t h a t r e a l l y have l i t t l e impact on them i n terms o f entertainment o r enlightenment. A p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t they are s u p p o r t i n g the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f a type o f t h e a t r e t h a t has no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r them o t h e r than the f a c t t h a t they r e c o g n i z e i n i t the r e p i t i t i o n o f a f a m i l i a r form. / 124 These, then, are some o f the a t t i t u d e s which seem t o c o n s t i t u t e the frame o f r e f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t l y used by the p a r t i c i p a n t s to e v a l u a t e and a s s i m i l a t e a p r o d u c t i o n . The d i s t u r b i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i f a p r o d u c t i o n f u l f i l s the requirements o u t l i n e d above, the audience w i l l approve the p r o d u c t i o n , whether or not as i n d i v i d u a l s they r e a l l y enjoyed o r responded t o i t e m o t i o n a l l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y or i n any o t h e r way. T h i s suggests t h a t they might support, approve and recommend poor, as w e l l as good p r o d u c t i o n s , s i n c e they are unable t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between what i s good and what i s n ot. The frame o f r e f e r e n c e , then, seems t o i n h i b i t to some e x t e n t c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e response. Consequently, the standards o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s are not very h i g h and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they w i l l accept o n l y f a i r t h e a t r e as e x c e l l e n t t h e a t r e . They are encouraged i n t h i s by the tendency o f l o c a l t h e a t r e s (and perhaps t h e a t r e s everywhere) t o p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n s which t r y to conform t o audience, r a t h e r than a r t i s t i c , s t a n d a r d s . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the group which has the most ex p e r i e n c e of t h e a t r e , and which has the a p p a r e n t l y most committed and s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e to t h e a t r e ( t h a t i s , Group A ) , i s the group which r e l i e s most h e a v i l y on the frame of r e f e r e n c e . T h i s suggests t h a t g r e a t e r exposure t o t h e a t r e merely r e i n f o r c e s the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f 1 2 5 r e f e r e n c e , r a t h e r than d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l awareness. However, as has been mentioned above, t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d c r i t i c a l awareness r e s u l t i n g from cumulative exposure to a combination o f the p r o d u c t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . There i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i f the p r o d u c t i o n does not f u l f i l the e s t a b l i s h e d requirements o f the frame o f r e f e r e n c e , the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l not accept i t as a " p l a y " . T h i s does not mean t h a t they w i l l not enjoy and approve such a non-conventional p r e s e n t a t i o n , but i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the experi e n c e would have l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e i r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e to t h e a t r e . There are s e v e r a l g e n e r a l trends i n a t t i t u d e which, w h i l e they do not seem to f i t i n t o the frame o f r e f e r e n c e , c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c u r and seem t o have an i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response. F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e i s a tendency to accept the a u t h o r i t y of the p r o d u c t i o n . That i s , i f the p r o d u c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y g o ing on, they f e e l i t must be good. T h i s i s r e l a t e d t o a tendency of the p a r t i c i p a n t s to i g n o r e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the b e l i e f , which j u s t i f i e s t h e i r presence a t the t h e a t r e , t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n i s worthwhile. There i s a n a t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r b e i n g c o m f o r t a b l e , r a t h e r than uncomfortable, f o r which the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem prepared t o s a c r i f i c e meaning. On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s an automatic acceptance o f some boredom d u r i n g a performance as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the 126 t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s does not seem to a f f e c t t h e i r o v e r a l l enjoyment, nor do the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem annoyed when they cannot hear a l l the a c t o r s , but again tend to accept t h i s . T e s t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 e x p e c t a t i o n s was not so d i f f i c u l t as had been a n t i c i p a t e d . I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t they had few r e s e r v a t i o n s about d e f i n i n g the type o f p r o d u c t i o n they were going to see and t h e i r own p o s s i b l e responses to i t . I t seems probable t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a f a c t o r i n t h i s . I t was s t a t e d i n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e "... As a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e -goer you probably have some i d e a o f the way you are l i k e l y to respond to (the p l a y ) . . . . Whether o r not you have read or seen the p l a y p r e v i o u s l y t r y to answer the q u e s t i o n s by i m a g i n i n g what your response i s l i k e l y to be." The statement acknowledges the v a l i d i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s o p i n i o n ( s i n c e he i s a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e goer) and d e a l s w i t h the problem o f h i s probable u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p l a y i n q u e s t i o n . The use o f the terms "probably" "some i d e a " " l i k e l y " were in t e n d e d to f r e e the p a r t i c i p a n t from the f e a r t h a t h i s answers would be wrong i f h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s proved to be u n f u l f i l l e d . The phrase " . . . t r y to answer . . . by i m a g i n i n g . . . your response. . . . " g i v e s the p a r t i c i p a n t even more freedom when d e a l i n g w i t h what i s a f t e r a l l a somewhat a b s t r a c t problem. With r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p r o d u c t i o n and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to i t , / / 127 the main tre n d s can be summarised b r i e f l y . In the case o f each p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the study, the e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n were f u l f i l l e d to a c o n s i d e r -able e x t e n t and the p a r t i c i p a n t s maintained t h a t they enjoyed the p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s suggests t h a t there i s a p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n between the f u l f i l m e n t o f these e x p e c t a t i o n s about type and i n t e n t i o n o f p l a y and the enjoyment and app r o v a l o f the p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f . However, although the e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g seem to be an index t o the o v e r a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the p r o d u c t i o n (that i s , they g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l type o f p l a y the p a r t i c i p a n t s are e x p e c t i n g ) , the enjoyment or a p p r o v a l o f the performance does not seem dependent on the f u l f i l m e n t of these p a r t i c u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s . Another f a c t o r i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a p p r o v a l o f the p r o d u c t i o n seems t o be the f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e i r own p e r s o n a l response d u r i n g the performance (that i s , whether they expect t o f e e l amused, bored, e n l i g h t e n e d , e t c . , w h i l e the p l a y i s t a k i n g p l a c e ) . However, the f a c t t h a t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the way they w i l l f e e l a f t e r the performance i s over are not f u l -f i l l e d does not seem t o have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on t h e i r enjoyment o r a p p r o v a l . There i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t when the e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the audience w i l l s u b c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t , t h e f a c t s o f the performance t o f i t these expec-t a t i o n s . The co m p a r a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t nature o f the d e s c r i p t i o n 128 of the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n would make t h i s adjustment an easy one. Throughout the study the e x p e c t a t i o n s which were not f u l f i l l e d were i n v a r i a b l y those about the s t a g i n g , the concrete f a c t s o f which i t would be more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t o r t u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n order to f i t the e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t i t would a l s o be more d i f f i c u l t f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o have p r e c i s e e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s t a g i n g . For t h i s reason the q u e s t i o n s which asked about e x p e c t a t i o n s of costumes and scenery were phrased i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c terms. In cases i n which a groups' e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p r o d u c t i o n were l e s s uniform and more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , the r e a c t i o n s to the p r o d u c t i o n were more c r i t i c a l and more o b j e c t i v e . T h i s suggests t h a t i n these cases the p a r t i c i -pants were l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by the frame of r e f e r e n c e , which, i n combination w i t h the p r e - p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , p o s s i b l y c r e a t e d the e x p e c t a t i o n s . More important, perhaps, i s the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the frame o f r e f e r e n c e may i n h i b i t a c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e response. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n g e n e r a l the e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n are a r e s u l t of the combination o f p r e - p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n and a knowledge of the conventions o f the t h e a t r e , the memory of which i s t r i g g e r e d by t h i s p r e -p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n . There, i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n the case of a t l e a s t one p r o d u c t i o n (Tango) the e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n were c r e a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y by those who produced the p l a y ( s i n c e they were the o n l y source of p r e - p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n ) and so were, of course, more l i k e l y to be f u l f i l l e d . T h i s has d i s t u r b i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , among them the s u g g e s t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y of m a n i p u l a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g audience response i n the same way t h a t commercial f i l m a d v e r t i s i n g attempts t o c o n t r o l and d i r e c t the response o f the f i l m audience-. The next major q u e s t i o n which s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d i s the cumulative e f f e c t on e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s o f having seen one or more p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . There i s some evidence t h a t s e e i n g one or more p r o -d u c t i o n s has an e f f e c t on the e x p e c t a t i o n s about a subsequent p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h a t t h e r e seems to be an i n c r e a s e d a n t i c i -p a t i o n about the enjoyment o f the p l o t . A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f Group A and B members a n t i c i p a t e d enjoyment o f the development of the p l o t of I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, w h i l e none o f the members o f Group C (who had not seen an immediately p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n ) i n d i c a t e d much i n t e r e s t i n t h i s element. F u r t h e r , Group A's a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e s t i n p l o t i n c r e a s e s a f t e r each p r o d u c t i o n ; Group B's a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e s t i n p l o t a l s o i n c r e a s e s , though to a l e s s e r degree. A p a r t from t h i s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s do not seem to be n o t i c e a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the e x p e r i e n c e of s e e i n g an immediately p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n . The next q u e s t i o n i s whether the e x p e r i e n c e o f s e e i n g one or more p r o d u c t i o n s seemed to have a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t 130 e f f e c t on the r e a c t i o n s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s to a subsequent p r o d u c t i o n . There i s d e f i n i t e l y a d i f f e r e n c e i n the response o f Groups A and B to Tango. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know i f t h i s i s because Group A had r e c e n t l y seen and enjoyed As You L i k e I t , w h i l e Group B had not, or i f i t i s because o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e r e n t i n each group. The members o f Group B were n o t i c e a b l y more c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e i n t h e i r e v a l u -a t i o n of Tango than the members of Group A. The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t Group A's enjoyment and a p p r o v a l o f As_ You L i k e I t may i n some way have p r e d i s p o s e d them to be l e s s c r i t i c a l i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f Tango. F a c t o r s which must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , however, are Group A's wider range of t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e , and the f a c t t h a t they are the group which most c l o s e l y adheres to a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e . The e x p e r i e n c e o f h a ving seen one or both o f the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s d i d seem to have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the responses of Groups A and B to I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata. While Group B's response i s a g a i n more c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e than t h a t o f Group A, both groups' responses are g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r and both seem to r e f l e c t a f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e towards the t h e a t r e . In c o n t r a s t to the responses of Groups A and B, which were ve r y uniform, the responses o f Group C to I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata were c o n s i d e r a b l y more 131 s c a t t e r e d . The members o f Group C seemed more i n c l i n e d to respond a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g t o the standards o f the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e , which i s a p p a r e n t l y the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e i n the response o f Groups A and B. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t because the two p r e v i o u s p r o -d u c t i o n s adhered to the conventions o f t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r e and because the frame of r e f e r e n c e o f Groups A and B was a p p a r e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d by exposure t o these p r o d u c t i o n s , they t r i e d to e v a l u a t e I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata a c c o r d i n g t o the terms o f these c o n v e n t i o n s . Although t h e r e i s some d i s -s i m i l a r i t y i n the make-up of the th r e e groups, Group C had s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and experience o f the t h e a t r e t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h these c o n v e n t i o n s . That t h i s i s the case i s i n d i c a t e d by the s i m i l a r i t y o f Group C's e x p e c t a t i o n s t o those o f the o t h e r two groups, e x p e c t a t i o n s which are p a r t l y based on a knowledge o f the conventions o f t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r e . The s u g g e s t i o n i s , then, t h a t s i n c e Group C d i d not see a p r o d u c t i o n j u s t p r e v i o u s t o I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, and s i n c e the p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f was a dep a r t u r e from the c o n v e n t i o n a l approach t o t h e a t r e , Group C d i d not r e c o g n i z e the p r o d u c t i o n as b e i n g a p l a y as d e f i n e d by the terms o f the frame of r e f e r e n c e and d i d not e v a l u a t e i t a c c o r d i n g l y . C o n v e r s e l y , the s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t i f Group C had r e c e n t l y seen a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n , t h e i r response might have 132 been c l o s e r t o t h a t o f Groups A and B. Apart from the apparent r e i n f o r c e m e n t of the e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e , the o n l y o t h e r evidence o f the cumulative e f f e c t o f continuous exposure to both pro-d u c t i o n s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h a t by the time they had seen I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata, some members o f Groups A and B were b e g i n n i n g to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between c h a r a c t e r and a c t o r . Otherwise t h e r e were no apparent changes i n the b a s i c o u t l o o k o f e i t h e r of these groups. An i n c i d e n t a l p o i n t i s t h a t by the end of the study, Group A i s b e g i n n i n g t o use the term symbolic l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than the members o f Groups B and C. I t may be t h a t w i t h g r e a t e r exposure t o p r o d u c t i o n s and to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h i s term i s b e g i n n i n g to seem inadequate. When examining the responses to both the e x p e c t a t i o n and the r e a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i t must be taken i n t o account t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e o f answering the q u e s t i o n s probably encouraged the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o reexamine t h e i r use o f t e r m i n o l o g y . There i s a f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s made the p a r t i c i p a n t s more aware o f a c r i t i c -a l l y e v a l u a t i v e approach t o v i e w i n g p l a y s and t h i s i s probably a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r response. B r i e f l y then, the e f f e c t o f s e e i n g one t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n seems t o have an i n f l u e n c e on the r e a c t i o n s o f the group to a subsequent t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h a t the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame of r e f e r e n c e i s m a i n t a i n e d 133 and perhaps r e i n f o r c e d by each e x p e r i e n c e to the e x t e n t t h a t the attempt was made to apply the standards o f the frame o f r e f e r e n c e t o a t h i r d , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . In c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the p o i n t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t must always be kept i n mind t h a t because the group i n v o l v e d was a ve r y s m a l l one the r e s u l t s of the study cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n any sense as c o n c l u s i o n s . Rather they are i n d i c a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e areas which i t might be worthwhile to examine i n f u t u r e work. Before e x t e n s i v e work i s done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s , o r on the cumulative e f f e c t on response o f s e e i n g a s e r i e s o f p r o d u c t i o n s , the frame o f r e f e r e n c e must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . An attempt should be made to e s t a b l i s h whether or not t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e r e a l l y e x i s t s . I f i t does, as i s l i k e l y , the d e t a i l s o f the frame o f r e f e r e n c e must be i s o l a t e d and examined. F u r t h e r , i t s o r i g i n and the depth and e x t e n t o f i t s i n f l u e n c e should be examined. One p o s s i b l e method o f d e a l i n g w i t h the problem o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f the frame o f r e f e r e n c e might be the comparison o f the responses t o a p r o d u c t i o n o f a group of r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s w i t h the responses o f a group o f people who' never go to the t h e a t r e . The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the responses o f those who don't go to the t h e a t r e •are u n l i k e l y t o conform so c l o s e l y to a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d 134 frame o f r e f e r e n c e . The c o n t r a s t between the responses of the two groups would throw the r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s ' frame of r e f e r e n c e i n t o r e l i e f and emphasize some o f i t s d e t a i l s . A quick p i l o t study s h o u l d be done f i r s t t o see i f t h i s approach seems v a l i d and to make sure i t i s p r a c t i c a l . A suggested o u t l i n e f o r t h i s p i l o t study would i n v o l v e two groups (one group o f r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s ; one of non-t h e a t r e - g o e r s ) who a t t e n d the same f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . They would answer the three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; a p r o f i l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an e x p e c t a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a r e a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Examination o f the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r response should i n d i c a t e whether or not f u r t h e r study i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n would be warranted. A separate problem f o r f u r t h e r study i s the q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between audience members' e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to a p r o d u c t i o n . Work i n t h i s a r e a might l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w any study which r e v e a l s the e x i s -tence o r non-existence o f the frame of r e f e r e n c e , s i n c e , so f a r , the e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s seem dependent on the frame of r e f e r e n c e . A p o s s i b l e study would not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o take p l a c e over a l o n g p e r i o d o f time, nor need i t i n v o l v e many p r o d u c t i o n s . Indeed, the o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n of three p r o d u c t i o n s (one c l a s s i c , one modern, one experimental) might w e l l be u s e f u l . In o r d e r to o b t a i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s a l a r g e r number o f p a r t i c i - ' pants should be i n v o l v e d . 13 F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n o f whether or not the ex p e r i e n c e o f s e e i n g a s e r i e s o f p l a y s has a cumulative e f f e c t on e x p e c t a t i o n s and/or r e a c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study suggest t h a t immediately p r e v i o u s t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e might have some i n f l u e n c e on subsequent e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s , but o n l y more e x t e n s i v e study would show how t r u e t h i s i s . One approach t o the problem would be to conduct a study which i n v o l v e d t e s t i n g a group's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f and r e a c t i o n s to a much more e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s o f p r o d u c t i o n s . A suggested o u t l i n e might i n v o l v e nine p r o d u c t i o n s over a p e r i o d o f nine months (from September to A p r i l , which i s when e s t a b l i s h e d Vancouver t h e a t r e i s a c t i v e ) . Two major problems come to mind when c o n s i d e r i n g any f u r t h e r study. The f i r s t i s the composition o f the group or groups. P a r t i c i p a n t s should be p r e - t e s t e d o r screened very c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e each f i n a l group i s d e c i d e d upon so t h a t a l l the members o f each group have an equal e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge o f the t h e a t r e and a f a i r l y s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e and degree o f commitment. At the same time p a r t i c i p a n t s should be chosen so t h a t they are f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an average Vancouver audience. The second problem i s the' method o f t e s t i n g . Even i n a s h o r t term study, such as t h i s one, i t i s apparent t h a t the repeated use o f the same q u e s t i o n s and the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had some i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' 136 responses. A f t e r answering the same questions several times i t i s possible that they begin to know what i t i s they should be looking for i n each production, as well as, perhaps, what the interviewer i s looking f o r . In t h i s way the questionnaires themselves become an ad d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e . Over a more extended study t h i s would probably prove to be an even greater factor i n t h e i r response. The problem, then, i s to discover some method of t e s t i n g which would make i t possible for the interviewer to standardize the responses, yet which could be presented i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t forms. The main purpose of t h i s project was to try to discover and define some of the questions about theatre audiences which deserve further study. The questions which have occurred as a r e s u l t of the examination of the data are outlined below. These have been divided into general categories, but there i s a considerable amount of overlapping. F i r s t of a l l there are some questions about the type of person who goes to the theatre: 1 . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study are highly s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n viewing, choosing mainly news and educational programs and serious drama. Is t h i s generally true of a l l people-who go to the theatre? If i t i s true, how does i t influence t h e i r responses to productions? 137 A m a j o r i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had a t some time been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n h i g h s c h o o l , amateur or p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e . To what e x t e n t i s t h i s t r u e of audience members i n g e n e r a l ? Each of the t h r e e groups i n t h i s study had a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e and approach to the t h e a t r e . Are these groups r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the main types of people who make up Vancouver audiences? Does each t h e a t r e have a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t type o f audience? The group which had the most s e r i o u s and committed a t t i t u d e t o the t h e a t r e and which had as w e l l the widest range o f t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e had the l e a s t c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e response to the p r o d u c t i o n s . What i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s apparent c o r r e l a t i o n ? The group w i t h the more l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e was more i n c l i n e d t o accept a n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l approach to the t h e a t r e . Is t h i s t r u e of audiences as a whole, and i f so, what i s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ? The group w i t h the w i d e s t e x p e r i e n c e of the t h e a t r e had the most r i g i d l y d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . Con-v e r s e l y , the group which had the most o b j e c t i v e response was the group w i t h fewer r i g i d e x p e c t a t i o n s . What are the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these p o i n t s ? 138 Second, there are questions about audience expectations: 1. Apparently i t i s not necessary for the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' expectations about staging to be f u l f i l l e d i n order for them to enjoy the production. I f the expectations about the play's type and intention were f u l f i l l e d , even i f the expectations about staging were u n f u l -f i l l e d , the group has a p o s i t i v e response to the production. Does t h i s suggest an important difference between the two types of expectation? 2. When expectations about a play are c l e a r l y defined and firmly established there i s considerable sugges-t i o n that the par t i c i p a n t s w i l l subconsciously i n -terpret the facts of the performance to f i t these expectations. Is t h i s generally true of the average audience? I f i t i s true, what i s the nature, degree and s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s subconscious adjustment? 3. When an audience member's expectations about inten-t i o n and general nature of the play are f u l f i l l e d does he tend to ignore h i s own personal reservations about the performance? If t h i s i s true of audiences i n general, what i s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ? 4. What i s the re l a t i o n s h i p between a p o s i t i v e response to a performance and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' expectations about t h e i r own personal response (whether they w i l l f e e l amused, saddened etc.) during a performance? / 139 5. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o s i t i v e response to each perform-ance was apparently not affected by the fac t that t h e i r expectations about the way they would f e e l a f t e r the performance was over (happy, annoyed, etc.) were u n f u l f i l l e d . What i s the difference between personal reactions during a performance and personal reactions a f t e r the performance i s over? 6. There i s some evidence that the experience of seeing one or more productions has an e f f e c t on the part i c i p a n t s 1 expectations about a subsequent pro-duction i n that there i s increased a n t i c i p a t i o n about enjoyment of the p l o t . If t h i s i s true, to what can i t be attributed? . Next, there are a serie s of questions about attitudes to some of the physical elements of a production: 1. To what extent are audiences aware of the v i s u a l elements of a production (that i s , costumes and scenery)? 2. When a t h e a t r i c a l experience takes place i n an area that i s not a t r a d i t i o n a l stage the par t i c i p a n t s become more responsive to costumes and scenery. Does the use of the t r a d i t i o n a l stage i n h i b i t v i s u a l response? 3. The majority of the group maintain they prefer minimal scenery. Does i t r e f l e c t general audience attitude? What does t h i s a c t u a l l y mean? What i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of this? 140 4. Are audiences r e a l l y c l e a r l y aware o n l y of the costumes worn by the a c t o r s whose performances impressed them? 5. The p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n t h a t a c t i n g i s the most important element of the p r o d u c t i o n f o r them. When they c o n c e n t r a t e l e s s on the a c t i n g do they become more v i s u a l l y aware of and r e s p o n s i v e to costumes and scenery? Are audiences o n l y a b l e t o respond to one aspect of a performance a t a time? 6. The p a r t i c i p a n t s do not r e g a r d an a c t o r ' s a c t i v i t y as a c t i n g u n l e s s i t takes p l a c e i n some k i n d o f c l e a r l y d e f i n e d stage a r e a . What i s g e n e r a l audience a t t i t u d e towards a p p a r e n t l y u n s t r u c t u r e d a c t i n g ? 7. Are audiences able t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c a l l y what they f e e l i s wrong wit h the a c t i n g when they are not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t ? 8. How much d i s t i n c t i o n do audiences make between a c t o r and c h a r a c t e r ? 9. To what e x t e n t are audiences i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f a p r o d u c t i o n by i t s t e c h n i c a l pro-f i c i e n c y ? How would they respond i f the p r o d u c t i o n were t e c h n i c a l l y p o o r l y executed? Questions about the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g e n e r a l responses to p r o d u c t i o n s , and q u e s t i o n s about the frame of r e f e r e n c e are so i n t e r - r e l a t e d t h a t they w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the same s e c t i o n : Is t h e r e a system o f p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d o r p r e - c o n c e i v e d i d e a s which have c r e a t e d a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r audience members when e v a l u a t i n g and a n t i c i p a t i n g a pr o d u c t i o n ? Although the group members 1 p r e - p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n came from d i f f e r e n t sources t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about each p r o d u c t i o n were very uniform. D i d the a v a i l -a ble i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d system of response? Which p a r t i c u l a r elements o f the p r e - p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n are important i n t h i s r e s p e c t ? There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the frame of r e f e r e n c e e x i s t s and i s so f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the f a c t s o f the p r o d u c t i o n are i n t e r p r e t e d t o f i t i t (although t h i s seems t o apply o n l y to a t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f p r o d u c t i o n ) . I f t h i s i s t r u e , what e f f e c t does i t have on g e n e r a l audience e v a l u a t i o n o f performances? On the o t h e r hand, i f the p r o d u c t i o n does not f u l f i l the b a s i c requirements o f the frame of r e f e r e n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s do not seem t o accept i t or e v a l u a t e i t as a " p l a y " . I f t h i s i s t r u e , how does i t a f f e c t audience response t o no n - c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s ? Are they a b l e to enjoy and approve o f such p r o d u c t i o n s What e f f e c t w i l l t h i s type o f p r o d u c t i o n have on au d i e n c e s 1 g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o the t h e a t r e ? / Do audiences have l e s s u niform and more i n d i v i d u a l responses when they a t t e n d a performance t h a t i s not c o n f i n e d to a c o n v e n t i o n a l stage area? I f so, does t h i s mean t h a t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n they are r e -sponding a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g to the frame o f r e f e r e n c e ? How t r u e i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t although the p a r t i c i p a n t s accept the g e n e r a l nature o f an e x p e r i -mental p r o d u c t i o n they separate and respond mainly to those elements which would be found i n a conven-t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n ? There i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t when the p a r t i c i p a n t s were not responding a c c o r d i n g t o the frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the p r o d u c t i o n s were more c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e . Does the frame o f r e f e r e n c e i n h i b i t a c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e response? There i s some evidence t h a t the standards o f the frame of r e f e r e n c e do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Are audiences i n f a c t r e g i s t e r i n g a p p r o v a l o f p r o d u c t i o n s t h a t have no r e a l impact on them? The cumulative e f f e c t o f continuous exposure does not seem t o have much i n f l u e n c e on response o t h e r than t o r e i n f o r c e the frame of r e f e r e n c e . A l o n g term study might not support t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . 143 10. Do audiences respond only to the elements of a i production which can be related d i r e c t l y to plot and characters? 11. Although the group members were aware of some of the shortcomings of the productions, t h e i r enjoy-ment and approval of each performance were apparently not affected by t h i s awareness. Is t h i s true of audiences i n general? 12. How extensive i s the audiences' apparent acceptance of boredom as a normal part of the theatre exper-ience? 13. To what extent w i l l audiences ignore t h e i r own personal reservations about a production while maintaining the b e l i e f that the production was a worthwhile experience? Why do they do th i s ? In the contemporary theatre there i s an increasing i n t e r e s t i n audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Attempts are made to phy s i c a l l y involve the audience i n the production by i n v i t i n g them on to the stage, sending actors out into the audience and asking for comments and suggestions from audience members during the performance. Often, these devices only emphasize the gap between audience and actors. Many of these attempts seem to pay i n s i g n i f i c a n t attention to the fact that the audience i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g by being present i n the theatre. By responding to some aspects of 144 the performance and i g n o r i n g o t h e r s the members o f the audience c r e a t e f o r themselves an ex p e r i e n c e which i s r e -l a t e d t o , but i s not i d e n t i c a l w i t h , the e x p e r i e n c e i n t e n d e d by the d i r e c t o r . The nature and e x t e n t o f t h i s type, o f audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l a r g e l y unknown and i s u s u a l l y a matter o f guesswork. I t i s e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t more s y s t e m a t i c attempts be made t o d e f i n e the nature and problems o f t h i s audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s i n c e i t i s one o f the major elements o f the t h e a t r e e x p e r i e n c e and i s one o f the con-t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s i n the development o f the t h e a t r e . / BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, M a r t i n D o n i s t h o r p e . The A r t of L i s t e n i n g . i n E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , Essays and S t u d i e s , Longon, 19 56. T e l e v i s i o n and Human. Behavior; T e l e v i s i o n Research i n Mass  Communication. ed. Leon Arons and Mark A May, New York, Appleton-Century C r o f t s , 19 63. Be l s o n , W i l l i a m A. A S e r i e s o f Four L e c t u r e s on Mass Media  Research. Sydney. P u b l i s h e d f o r the Market Research S o c i e t y o f A u s t r a l i a by West Pub. Corp., 1961. Cauter, T. and Downham, J.S. The Communication o f Ideas, A Study o f Contemporary I n f l u e n c e s on Urban L i f e . London, CEatto and Windus"^ 19 54 . G l i c k , I r a 0. and Levy, Sidney J . L i v i n g With T e l e v i s i o n . Chicago, A l d i n e Pub. Co., 1962. H o l l i n g s w o r t h , Harry L e v i . The Psychology o f Audience. New York, C i n c i n a t t i , American Book Company, 1935. Payne, S t a n l e y LeBaron. The A r t of A s k i n g Q u e s t i o n s . P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. Roper, Burns W. Emerging P r o f i l e s o f T e l e v i s i o n and Other  Mass Media: P u b l i c T e l e v i s i o n A t t i t u d e s , New York T e l e v i s i o n I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , 1967. Seld e s , G i l b e r t V i v i a n . The Great Audience. New York, V i k i n g P r e s s , 1950. Simmons, W.R. P r o f i l e o f the M i l l i o n s . New York, Knopf, 1962. Stage Door. V o l . 1, No. 1, March 1970. Mass Media and Communication. ed. S t e i n b y , C h a r l e s S i d e , New York, Hastings House, 1966. The Awkward Stage; the O n t a r i o Theatre Study Report, Toronto, Methuen, 1969. A P P E N D I C E S NOTE ON THE APPENDICES Both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a summary o f the p a r t i -c i p a n t s ' responses w i l l be found i n the appendices. The summary of responses has been superimposed on to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s so t h a t each response i s with the a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n . The responses are p r e s e n t e d here o n l y i n a b r i e f form. The d e t a i l e d and complete form of the data i s on f i l e i n the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre L i b r a r y and i t i s recommended t h a t any one i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g the data s h o u l d r e f e r t o the complete r a t h e r than the a b b r e v i a t e d form. In the summary o f responses presented here, the l e t t e r s A, B, and C always r e f e r t o Groups A, B, and C. The numbers under the l e t t e r s always r e f e r to the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d . APPENDIX A GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE a) r.?hich of the following describes vour age ? 147 (check one) IS to 25 years old 25 to 30 years old 30 to 45 years old 45 to 50 years old 50 to 60 years old over 60 years old A B C b E h~ 2 5 1 1 l 2 1 3 b) i'/hicn of tne following describes your education ? (check one) A B C ~ T " 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 attended high school but did not graduate high school graduate 2 2 6 6 6 c) What i s your occupation ?. vocational t r a i n i n g some uni v e r s i t y ____ univ e r s i t y graduate post-graduate degree currently attending u n i v e r s i t y professional - 7 housewives - 7 students - 18 I f you are a housewife, what is°yo1ur> husband's occupation ? d) If you are a student, what year are you in ? „ .. , " s c a t t e r e d what i s your major ? , 3 0 scattered e) Approximatelv how many hours do you watch t e l e v i s i o n in an average A B G w e e k ? ( c h e c K o n e ) 25 to 30 hours 15 to 25 hours 7 to 15 hours 3 to 7 hours only occasionally never watch t e l e v i s i o n 2 3 3 k-2 1 1 2 3» 148 I f " you v/atch t e l e v i s i o n , what k i n d s o f program do you most e n j o y ? (checK.. any that apply) A B G drama _ 11 9 9 comedy 3 6 —* westerns l 1 news 7 7 6 variety show& 1 3 movies 9 8 7 game shows l 1 daytime drama talk shows 2 3 2 Name three of your favo r i t e t e l e v i s i o n programs T h r e e f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d : C . B . C . Weekend, N . E . T . P l a y h o u s e , The A v e n g e r s Approximately how frequently do you go to the movies ? (checK. oxie) 4 to 8 times* a month A B C 3 2 to 4 times a month 3 3 1}. once a month . _ if. If. 3 once every two months 1 2 1 once every four months 3 twice a year 2 1 once a year 1 less than once a year 149 h) Of the following movies, which have you seen and which have you enjoyed ? . * ,x r a t i n g : (rate each movie in the space provided; 1 = l i k e d i t very much 2 = did not l i k e i t very much 3 = d i s l i k e d i t attendance: A B G A B C F£ 3 2 1.5 1 Funny G i r l Paint Your Wagon 2 1 2 2 l 1.5 5 1 6 1 I : l Putney Swope ___ Laughter in The Dark 2 2 True G r i t 2 1 Butch Cassidy and 3 6 8 1 1 1 The Sundance Kid _ _ A Man For A l l Seasons 9 9 8 1 1 2.5 Goodbye Mr. Chips 2 l 2 1 1 2 The Pxiine of *iiss Jean Brodie ll- 5 3 1 1 1 Midnight Cowboy 6 5 9 1 1 1 The Undefeated Topaz The Graduate Blow Up Jenny Bob and Carol and Ted and Al i c e The Reivers Bonnie and Clyde The Sound of Music Easy Rider 3 1 10 12 10 9 7 8 \ 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 5 5 2 2 1 1 l 1 7 7 7 1 1 1 8 8 7 3 1 2 ll- 7 10 1 1 1 i ) Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n any of the following a c t i v i t i e s in your l e i s u r e time ? (check any that A W1^ spectator sports 2 3 2 movies .8 9 11 s o c i a l clubs 2 1 symphony concerts 3 6 k opera 2 3 5 museums 5 5 church a c t i v i t i e s 2 l p a r t i c i p a t i o n sports entertaining ni^ht clubs theatre art g a l l e r i e s planetarium A B 6 7 C 1 3 other (specify) 11 11 11 11 7 10 6 5 5 Which of the above a c t i v i t i e s do you p a r t i c i p a t e in most frequently ? s c a t t e r e d response 150 j ) Ho./ o f t e n do you go to the t h e a t r e 0 fJixAiA the l a s t y j a r ( ."'ebru-ry 1039 to To')rrr.ry 1070 ) hr.vc vou been A 3 C to the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre 7 to 4 times 11 ll (check one) 4 t o 2 cii.-.es 1 1 2 3 one: not i n the l a s t y e a r but a t t o n d e ^ p r e v i o u s l y N e v i r W i t h i n the l a s t y e a r have you bean to the playhouse A B C_ (check one) 7 to 4 t i n e s x 2 ^ 4 to 2 t i a e s 3 ^ one i not i n the l a s t yarr but att e a d e d p r e v i o u s l y 1 k never W i t h i n the l a s t year have you bean to th.e^por^thy Somerset S t u d i o (check one) 3 to 5 tiii.es 2 1 to 2 tiir.es £ not i n the l a s t yw.r but a t t e n d e d p r e v i o u s l y 3 l — IL 11 5 never '.'/itain the l a s t year have you been to the /;rts Club T h e a t r e A B C (c.ieck one) 6 to 9 ti~.es 1 1 *± co o •cir.ies 3 1 2 to 4 t i n e s 2 1 2 1 to. 2 times 2 l l not i n tho l a s t year b-jit ^ t t ^ i c e d p r e v i o u s l y _ 1 11 6 n 3 v e r W i t h i n the l a s t year have you been to tir.e Metro Theatre A B C (check one) 6 to 9 times - — ^ 4 to o tir/.es ^ 2 to 4 times 1 to 2 times 5 1 1 not i n the l a s t year b ^ attended p r e v i o u s l y never 2 7 3 151 Within the l e s t year h".vc vou' boon - -to piays r.t the Vancouver Art A B C Gallery 11 to lb times (checJc onoy 3 to 10 tir.ies ^ 4 to 3 ti{aes ^ 2 to 4 times 1 to 2 times 1 1 not once i n t.ie Inst year but attended previously n ^ r 10 i l 3 '.Vit.iin the l a s t yeur U v a you oeen to plays at oimcii feuar University A B C Theatre ? 7 to 12 t i - e s — (check one) 4 to 6 times 2 to 4 times 2 1 to 2 tiir.es 1 not once in the Ir.st ysar hut a/tt ended previously 2 2 1 never ' 8 9 11 V . ' i t . i i n the l a s t year have you seen any t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s by p r o f e s s i o n a l , t o u r i n g companies ? A B C A B C yes 5 1 5 " no TO 7 I f yes, botv r.nny? t o t a l average; 2 k) Have you i n che j>ast p a r t i c i p a t e d in &Ay of the following.? R n A B C - - -u n i v e r s i t y theatre ^ ^ ^ c.ma.teur theatre 3 2 5 professional t.ientre ^ high school theatre 2 2 1}. X) Are you currently active in aoy of the following ? A B C A B C - _ -u n i v e r s i t y theatre _ amateur theatre 1 1 1 p r o f e s s i o n ^ theatre high school theatre 1 1 1 1 152 m) If you have .votked 02- aro no* working in one or more- of the typos of theatre l i s t e d in k) and 1 ) , in vhttt capacities have ycu b_>,n or are you now involved ? (check any that apply) actor _ direc t o r designer playwright A B C 2 3 Z A B -1 2 stage manager stage crew _ set ccnstructi^ii teacher C 3 1 A B C - ~ 1 costume construction administration board of directors other (specify) 1 1 n) Cf the following general types of play, which do ycu tend to prefer ? A B C (number i n order of preference) A B C modern comedy modern serious drama/ avant-garde plays c l a s s i c s other (specify) m u s i c a l s op err wd;ced-medifi_ p r o d u c t i o n s Shakespeare Group A : MODERN SERIOUS DRAMA Group B : MODERN COIvIEDY and AVANT GARDE Grouo G : AVANT GARDE and MODERN SERIOUS DRAMA o) Cf the following types of play, wnicn would you generally prefer to see ? (number in order of preference) plays i n which the wain concern i s : Group A : Group B : Grouo C : SOCIAL ETHICAL SOCIAL and ETHICAL romantic p o l i t i c a l e t h i c a l s o c i a l p) In general do you prefer a pi-ay to be: (check one) serious Group ^ . Group B Group C SERIOUS ENTERTAINING NO PREFERENCE entertaining no preference q) "/liich do you f i n d more interesting ? (number in order of preference) plays thnt deal •.vith: the re a l world* Group A: INNER WORLD an inner world of the mind ariS -REAL WORLD a fantasy world Group b : IWRE a WORLD and REAL WORLD Group C : INNER WORLD ana REAL WORLD 153 r) In jjjrterr.1, QO you feel more s a t i s f i e d r.ftc-r you neve Si;n c. play Group A : •- • that : has boon entertaining ENTERTAINING and ^ ~ • SIGNIFICANT has luade a s i g n i f i c a n t statement about l i f e Group B : EMTEbMAINB SIGNIFICANT and has provided an. emotional experience EicOTlONAL Group C : EMOTIONAL s) Cf t.12 folftowin^ l i s t of clays which have you either seen or read, and which have ycu enjoyed ? (put S for ssoii or R for read in the f i r s t column and rate the plays between 1 and 3 i n the second column) 1 = l i k e d i t very ir.uch 2 = did not liice i t very t'uch 3 = d i s l i k e d i t majority r a t i n g : seefl; read: A B C A B C A B C Black Comedy , T T "2" " (S" "3" I — — — Street Car Alamed J3esire 1 1 2 7 8 7 1 1 «-nlat 1 1 1 9 9 9 2 2 2 life i t ine For Godot 2 1 1 7 7 8 1 2 2 Enter Laughing 3 1 The Seagull 1 1 1 6 i i l i 2 1 The T«u.;ing of The Shrew 1 1 2 . 8 8 7 2 1 The Beard ^ _ 2 3.5 ' 1 3 2 1 Man and oupcrman 1 1 1 2 I). 3 2 2 Two For The See Saw 2 1 2 1 if. 2 1 2 /mcrics. Hurrah , — — 1 1 3 6 day Fever 3 1 A Month in The Country -1 2.5 3.5 1 2 2 The de v i l s 1 1 1 1 10 6 8 _ 1 1 The Crucible 1.1 1 Barefoot in The Park 1 2 3*3 Death of A Salesman 1 1 Che 1 2 2 7 7 5 2 x 2 2.5 1 3.5 2 2 2 Look 3ack in Anger 1 3 . 5 1 ^ - ^ 7 1 Who's .Afraid of V i r g i n i a Woolf 5 7 8 2 1 1 1 1 1 154 t ) V/hich o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f p. p r o c ' u c t i s r . i s r e s t i m p o r t c n t to you when you go to 6. p l a y : (number i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e ) Grout} A PLAYWRIGHT'S THEME and ACTING Groan B : ACTING and PLAY.vR I G H T ' S t'ne s t a n d a r d o f a c t ine t-ie cos tumes the- p l a y w r i g h t ' s theme t h e s c e n e r y Group C : PLAYWRIGHT'S THEME and ACTING t h e ^ l o t u) When you s e * a. p l a y , Iio.v i jnporta-nt t o you i s the a c t i n g ? ( c h o c k o n e ) Group A : VERY IMPORTANT Group B :VERY IMPORTANT Group C : VERY IMPORTANT v e r y i m p o r t a n t , q u i t e i m p o r t a n t n o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t n o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l u n d e c i d e d v ) W.ion you see a p l a y , hcv/ i m p o r t a n t t o y o u a r e t h e s c e n e r y and cos tumes ? (c.-,eck one) v e r y i m p o r t a n t Group A : NOT VERY IMPORTANT q u i t e i m p o r t a n t Group B : NOT VERY IMPORTANT Group C : QUITE IMPORTANT n o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t n e t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l u n d e c i d e d w) In g e n e r a l , do you p r e f e r p l a y s w r i t t e n i n (number i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e ) Group A v e r s e p o e t i e p r o s e COLLOQUIAL and NO PREFERENCE Group B : NO PREFERENCE and COLLOQUIAL Group C : COLLOQUIAL and c o l l o q u i a l l a n g u a g e NO PREFERENCE e l e g a n t , formal l a n g u a g e d i a l e c t no p r e f e r e n c i / 155 x ) »^.ya y o u 2v_>r s e ; n p l ^ y s w h i c h have nc s c e n e r y but r.rc a c t e d on en empty s t a g e ? A 3 C A B C y 3 8 To o TO , i 0 Z S Z Grorr? A : 1 saw b.; 2 saw 3 I f y e s , hop rany i n the. l a s t t n r e e y e a r s ? • , _ • 3 saw 1 ; 1 saw 3 Gruuo ^—r a:1 s a1" 1; 1 saw 3-4-Group C : 2 sav; 1; 2 saw 2 I f y e s , did Y O U fiftjoy t h i s t v p e o f - o r o d i i c t i c r . ? 2 saw 3 » 1 saw i l 1 sav/ 5 ; 1 saw 12 y e s no u n d e c i d e d A B IT A B~U A B C 9 3 10 2 1 y ) G e n e r a l l y Speaking , do you p r e f e r p l r . y s u/hich h a v e : (number i n o r d e r l a v i s h , s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y o f p r e f e r e n c e ) r e a l i s t i c s c e n e r y Group A : REALISTIC and MINIMAL a m i n i m a l s e t Group B :..--MINIMAL no s c e n e r y s± a l l Group C: .MINIMAL Are t h e r e any o f the above t h a t you d i s l i k e ? Group A ; 2 LAVISH ' 1 REALISTIC Group B : 2 LAVISH 1, NO SCENE SY Group C : JpJLAViSH z) Have y o u been to any n i x e d - m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n s ? A B C A B C 7^s ^ no ] 3 3 I f y e s d i d y o u e n j o y t h e s e p r o d u c t i o n s ? ( c n e c k . o n e ) v e r y much Group A : MODERATELY m o d e r a t e l y Group B : VERY MUCH s l i g h t l y Sroup C : MODERATELY n o t , t a l l  u n d e c i d e d 7 o u l d you l i k e to set- more m i x e d - m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n s ? A B C A B C no u n d e c i d e d ^ £ ^ I f y o u have v ; cu ld be n e v e r s een any mixed-msj-dia p r o d u c t i o n s , do y o u t n i n k i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g t h i s t y p e o^ p r o d u c t i o n ? y o u 156 :c) There i s «. trend in ta»- titer, tro towi-.rds uucionce par t i c ipa-t i or.; that i s , members of tne audience are encouraged to leave t h e i r seats and become involved in the a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by the actors. Have you ever been to a production in waic,: the auaience was askeet to part ic ipate Q 7 Q y e s 9 _ J 7 n o 3__9 ? I f no, do you think you would ettjoy this Kind of production ? D n A B C A B C A B O y e s ? _ _ T T n o 1 _ I 5 undecided _ _ f T If ycu have been at thi s type of production, Were ycu one of the audience members who w«3 pa r t i c i p a t i n g ? A B C A B C y e s 1—1 3 no IL_2 £ If you have ever been to a production i n which the audience was asfc*d to p a r t i c i p a t e ( whether or not you became a c t i v e l y involved yourself) did you enjoy this experience ? C. thecx one) very much Grout) k : VERY MUCH moderately Grout* B : VERY MUCH ' Group C : VERY MUCH - s l i g h t l y MODERATELY not at a l l undecided Would you l i k e to go to more productions which involve audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? A B C A B C A B C yes o* J o* *o Z 1 1 unoeciaed £ 2 3 bb) As a general rule do you f e e l that the. theatre, should be subject to censorship i f i t offends the usual s o c i a l standards of behavior ? yes zL B 9. no L £ • i undecided — — — -r - s a - n i i cc) Do you fe e l that language and behavior usually considered indecent or offensive in s o c i a l relationships i s acceptable on the stage ? (chock one) • acceptable under any circumstances rrout) A : A C C E P T A B L E -./HEN acceptable when appropriate to the play A P P R O P R I A T E Group 3 : A C C E P T A B L E Vi'HEM n e v e r «cccptaalo ; A P P R O P R I A T E -roup C : A C C E P T A B L E V E E N und*ciaod A P P R O P R I A T E 157 dd) Do you u s u a l l y r e a d na-.7cpr.oer r c v i o v . s o f the- p l a y s t h a t y o u see ? Group A J AFTER b e f o r e you see tJve p l a y Group B : AFTER a f t e r you have seen the p l a y Group C : BEFORE AND AFTER n e v e r r e a d r e v i e w s I f y o u r e a d r e v i e w s , w h i c h ones do you u s u a l l y r e a d ? ( c h e c k any th,s<.t a p p l y ) tne reviev. . i n 'The P r o v i n c e Group A : SUN and PROVINCE the r e v i e w i n The Sun Group B : SUN and PROVINCE o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) Group C : SUN and PROVINCE uo y c u u s u a l l y agree w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n s c f t h e c r i t i c i n The F r c v i n c A B C A B C A B C JQS2 _3L 1* M 7 T T u n d e c i d e d ~ Do y c u u s u a l l y agree rath the e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e c r i t i c i n The Sun ? A B C A B C A B C y o j no 1 ? u n d e c i d e d ~eL B" 7 ee) J>o y o u e v e r f i n d t A a t che- r e a c t i o n s o f t h e r e s t o f the. a u d i e n c e a t a p l o y a r e n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m y o u r s ? ( c h e c k one) y ^ s , c l m c s t a l w a y s Grouo A : SOMETIMES r r e s , o i t e n Group B : SOMETIMES sor.iotitr.es Group C : SOMETIMES s e l d o m n e v e r uncec i d e d f f ) M a v G y o u o v e r b e e n t o a n y e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o d u c t i o n s ? v c s A B C n o A B C yv-s B~S o" ° -H5F ? 2" I f y e s , w h i c n o n e s i n t h e l a s t y e a r h a v e y e u s e e n , and where d i d y o u s e c - t h e m ? mentioned; SAVAGE GOD series at Art Ga l l e r y  TEE CRIMINALS Arts Club Group A Group B GROUP C I f y e s , do y o u f i n d t n a t as a r u l e you e n j o y ( c h e c k O P O " * v e r y n.uch m o d e r a t e l y s l i g h t l y n o t £ t a l l u n e e c i d e d : p e r i m e n t a l p l a y s MODERATELY l i t t l e response MODERATELY 158 gg) G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , where do you l i k e to s i t i n the t h e a t r e (check one) Group A : IN THE MIDDLE Group B : IN THE MIDDLE Group C : IN THE MIDDLE Do you prefer to s i t oh tne a i s l e ? A B C no A B close to the stage in the miclcle near the back no preference yes 3 3"? •X 2 p_ no preference A B C £ 3 9 hh) How often do you enjoy the plays you go to (checK one; •Group A : OFTEN ENJOY Group B : USUALLY Group C : USUALLY - OFTEN ENJOY I usually enjoy the play I often enjoy the play I sometimes enjoy the play I am often disappointed by the play i i ) In which of the following centres have you seen plays ? A B C A B (check a l l that apply) London, England > H Y ^ e ' Y ^ orh J£ ^ A B C A B C A 3 San Francisco T 2~ 3? S t r a t f o r d , O n tario ' J 7^ 3" Montreal j " A B C Minneapolis - — — o t n e r ( s p e c i f y ) Toronto, Seattle etc. j j ) Give a rating between 1 and 5 for the general standard of the plays you have seen at the following theatres: 1 = excellent Playhouse Theatre 2 = good Frederic V.'ood Theatre 3 = f a i r Dorothy Somerset Studio 4 = mediocre Arts Club Theatre 5 = poor Vancouver Art Gallery Simon Fraser University Theatre Metro Theatre other (specify) A B 2 2 1 2 2 1-2 2 1- 3 2- 3 3 c 2 2 1 2 2-3 2-3 3 k. ck) Do you think the standard of theatre in Vancouver i s generally : excellent good f a i r mediocre poor (check one) Group A : GOOD Group B : GOOD Group C : GOOD - F a i r undeu ioeel APPENDIX B PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU LIKE 159 a) In <:eneralf what standard of production do you expect when you r:o to a play at the Frederic doc:: Theatre ? (check one) excellent Group A : GOOD - EXCELLENT sood f a i r mediocre poor b) Y/hat type of staging of a play do you expect to see at the Frederic Wood Theatre ? staging i n which the approach i s : t r a d i t i o n a l (check any that apply) experimental extravagant . Group A : EXPERLMSNTAL austere r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l c) Have you ever read As You Like It ? A A yes "5 no K A d) If you have read i t , did you read i t within: .the l a s t 3 or l\. weeks 4_ the l a s t year 1 the l a s t two years I the l a s t f i v e years the l a s t ten years more than ten years ago 2 160 e ) i f ,o'ou hove rend the play did you enjoy i t ? (check one) very much moderately Group A : MODERATELY not very much f ) Have you ever seen a production of As You Like It ? A A yes 1 no n g) If you have seen a production of As You Like I t , did you enjoy i t (check one) very much moderately Group A : VERY MUCK ( 1 person) not very much h) If you have seen a production of As You Like It, was i t within: A (check one) within the l a s t year within the l a s t two years within the l a s t f i v e years within the l a s t ten years more than ten years ago 1) Have you seen more than one production of As You Like It ? A yes no I£ If yes, approximately how many ? j) -.'/here have you seen the previous productions of As You Like It ? A Vancouver ^ Stra t f o r d , Ontario London, England San Francisco Minneapolis S t r a t f o r d on Avon other / / / 161 k) As a regular theatre-goer, you probably have sone idea of how you are l i k e l y to respond to As You L i :e I t . \mether or not you have read or seen the play previously, t r y to answer the questions by imagining what your response Is l i k e l y to be. In general, what.sort of things do you tend to expect from As You Like It ? Do you expect the main concern of the play to be: (check one) p o l i t i c a l Group A : ROMANTIC s o c i a l e t h i c a l romantic psychological Do you expect t h i s . p l a y to be: (check one) serious Group A : MAINLY COMIC V/ITH SOME ^ i n l y serious but with some comic SERIOUS ELEMENTS , elements comedy mainly comic but with some serious elements about equally serious and comic Do you expect this play p r i m a r i l y : (check any that apply) to make a meaningful statement about l i f e _ ,_...,....„-,, to be entertaining Jroup A : i&t 'riLRTAIivi ING ^ to provide an emotional experience Do you expect this play to be: (check one) mainly about the inner world of the mind Group A : FANTASY WORLD raainly a D o u t t h e r e a l , 7 o r l d  mainly about a fantasy -world ."_ Do you expect the play to be: (check one) r e a l i s t i c Group A : UNREALISTIC u n r e a l i s t i c During the performance of thi s play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t to be ? (check any that apply) A A A A amused 11 saddened 1 enlightened 2 bored ~E~ A A A detached 2 delighted S involved 2 interested ^ A depressed At the end of the performance of this play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t to be ? (check any that apply) Do you think that perhaps you w i l l be: A A A A A hapny 9 anoyed fatigued ^ depressed relaxed 8 I T " ' A" A A angry nuzzled 2" disturbed 1 enlightened j[ X " * A A reassured 1^  soothed 1 refreshed 6 1) In a play of this kind, what aspects of the production do you -Blink you are most l i k e l y to enjoy ? (number i n order of anticipated intere the costumes Group A : ACTING the acting the scenery the music m) Which aspects of the production do you anticipate enjoying most ? (number i n order of anticipated i n t e r e s t ) i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l characters Group A : RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHARACTERS and development of the story INTERESTING INDIVIDUAL relationships between the characters poetic language 163 D o you expect the a c t i n g In Aj^U^^l *> *°! A , n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e J L •(checit sne ) • • e l e g a n t and s t y l i s e d e n e r g e t i c and flamboyant _ J L nov/erful and p a s s i o n a t e . s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l +- -vio c c - n - ^ r of As You L i k e I t to be: Do you expect ohe sc^n—„/ ^ — _ * n v r e a l i s t i c 1 -(check any t h a t a p p l y ) f a n c i f u l _ L_ h i s t o r i c a l 3 symbolic 3_ l a v i s h a ustere minimal 5_ c o l o r f u l 9„. muted 1_ modern . s t y l i s h 1 f u n c t i o n a l 7 So you expect the c o s t « s of A, a m L l k . to be: ^ & c o l o r f u l 1 2 ,. r e a l i s t i c LL_ muted f a n c i f u l o modern a i s t o r l c a l 3 _ s t y l i s h 3 symbolic 2 f u n c t i o n a l 1 La v i s h 2 minimal austere . 164 n) Why are you going to this play ? (number 3 reasons in order of importance; i f you arc a season t i c k e t holder, number 3 other reasons) _ Group A : scattered re soonse Because: I am a season t i c k e t holder yrj I've seen other productions of t h i s play and enjoyed them I've read the play, but have never seen i t I've heard about this play, and want to see what i t i s l i k e I enjoy Shakespeare I've never seen any of Shakespeare's plays and would l i k e to see one other reasons (specify) o) Why did you buy season t i c k e t s to the Frederic Wood Theatre ? (number any that apply i n order of importance) Because : Group A : scattered response I went to a number of productions at this theatre l a s t year, and enjoyed them I l i k e to support u n i v e r s i t y theatre the s e l e c t i o n of play/s appealed to me a member of my family, or a f r i e n d , l i k e s to go to this theatre and I bought the t i c k e t s i n order to accompany them buying the ti c k e t s i n advance means that I am more l i k e l y to see the f u l l season of plays at this theatre, rather than just one or two of them APPENDIX C POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU LIKE IT 165 a) How that the performance i s over, now did this production leave you f e e l i n g ? (check anv that apoly) A A A happy Q annoyed X fatigued depressed puzzled annoyed  A relaxed H disturbed reassured soothed A T angry A enlightened ~ i A refreshed b) Mow would you describe the general standard of the production you have just seen ? (check one) excellent good Group A : GOOD f a i r mediocre _ _ poor c) V/ould you describe the general s t y l e of the production as: (check one) t r a d i t i o n a l _ experimental Group A : TRADITIONAL. extravagant austere r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l d) Do you think the main concern of As You Like It i s : (check one) p o l i t i c a l Group A : R O M A N T I C s o c i a l e t h i c a l romantic psychological Do You think As You Like It i s : (check one) serious mainlv serious out with some comic elements Iroup A : I A A I N L Y C O M I C V/ITh" SOME SERIOUS E L E M E N T S comedy mainly comic but witn some serious elements about equally serious and comic 1 6 6 Group A 3oos As Ycu Lilco I t p r i m a r i l y : make a meaningful statement about l i f e e n t e r t a i n p r o v i d e an emotional e x p e r i e n c e (chock one) ENTERTAIN Grouo A I s As You L i k e I t : (check one) FANTASY V/ORLD m a i n l y about the i n n e r v/orld o f the r.ind m a inly about the r e a l world mainly acout a f a n t a s y world Grouo A Is AS You L i k e I t ; (chec»c one) REALISTIC r e a l i s t i c u n r e a l i s t i c 3elow are t e n p a i r s o f c o n t r a s t i n g a d j e c t i v e s w i t h a s c a l e between each p a i r . Put a chec'z on the s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s a t the p o i n t which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your f e e l i n g s about ns You L i k e I t . I s As You Li.ts I t : v e r y somewhat i n the middle somewhat v e r y settseless shallow sad i n t e r e s t i n g sentimental important s t u p i d a p t i m i s t i c »orth s e e i n g simple 3 s 9 6 2 A J 2 _ : k — 6 2 1 1 1 A 7 A 8_ meaningful" profound happy b o r i n g moving t r i v i a l c l e v e r p e s s i n i s t i c :not worth s e e i n g complex e) Is As You L i k e I t ; (check one) s a t i r e Group A : C0LZ3DY comedy s e r i o u s drama tragedy none o f these 167 f) .Vhich aspects of As You LiKe It did you enjoy the most ? (number in o r d * r of enjoyment) Group A : INTE;u£3TiNG INDIVIDUA RAC/i?.£>R ^  the i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l characters tne development of the story the relationships between the characters the p-oetic language \7hich characters in As You Like It (regardless of how well acted) did you enjoy the most ? (name as many as three) Group A : TOUCHSTONE, JAQUES, ROSALIND g) Did you think the development of the story was: (out a check on the scale between each pa i r of adjectives at the point which most closely describes your opinion) very entertaining l o g i c a l u n r e a l i s t i c clear unbelievable not involving 3: lm 9: 3 3 somewhat A 2 6 in the middle '3 2 somewhat 2 1 A 2 : 3 k A 1 very i I tedious i l l o g i c a l r e a l i s t i c unclear believable involving h) What aspects of the production did you enjoy the most ? (number in order of enjoyment) rroup A : ACTING the costumes the acting the scenery the music i ) Did you think the standard of acting, on the whole, was: (put a check on the scale at the point which best describes your opinion) very somewhat in the middle somewhat very A. A A A A professional : J£ : 27 :£ r~ : J : amateur / poor : 1 : • : lj- : 7 : good / 168 j) V/hich do you think ware the bos I actors or actresses in the proauction, and v/hich did you think gave • por fonnances /which soomod lower than the general standard ? (nuraber tnc three best in o r c i r • of -prefer^nco in the f i r s t column, and three v/no did not seen very good in the second column) Group A : b e s t : JAQUES, TOUCHSTONE, ROSALIND not as good : s c a t t e r e d best not as good Elizabeth i-iurpay as Rosaiind  Jim I-'cQuoen as Orlando  Victor Young as Oliver  Maureen LicVdae as C e l i a  Feter Brockinrton as Jaques  Derek Ralston as Du.te Frederick  B i l l Louis as Touchstone  David Glyn-Jones as Duke Senior  David Dick as Le Beau  Tony Chick as Corin  All a n L y s e l l as. S i l v i u s  Susanna McKeoWn as Phebe  Hank St ins on as Ad ant  Knott as Audrey • Don Ford as S i r Oliver I-iartext • Russell V/alsh as V/iliiam  Alan Cartv/right as Jaques do 5oys  Hick Orchard us Aliens  Brian Bueckert as Charles  /ere there any physical or f a c i a l mannerisms of some p a r t i c u l a r actor(s) or actress(es) that seemed to you to be inappropriate ? A ™ A If yes, ,/aich actor (s) or actress (es) ? mentioned : ROS.-.LIND, PHE3E, ' — U i j l V i n , FREDERICK (id e n t i f y by naming characters) ' 169 V/ero t h e r e any p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f s p e e c h o f some p a r t i c u l a r a c t o r ( s ) o r a c t r e s s ( e s ) t h a t seemed to you t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? A A y e s -T no ^ I f answer i s y e s , w h i c h a c t o r ( s ) o r a c t r e s s ( e s ) ? x.n. ? n : ^ , . ^j^Z, CELIA ,. . , CHARLES, JAQUES de~BOY ( l o e r . t n y uy rcarnxng c n a r a c t c r s ) s a i d ? ( c h e c k one) G r o u p A : MOST V/SRE CLEAR k) D i d the a c t o r s speak c l e a r l y enough f o r y o u t o h e a r e v e r y t h i n g t h e y a l l were c l e a r most were c l e a r some were c l e a r a few were c l e a r none were c l e a r l ) I n g e n e r a l , w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h e a c t i n g a s : ( c h e c . i one) n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e Group A : scattered e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d e n e r g e t i c and f l a m b o y a n t p o w e r f u l and p a s s i o n a t e s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l m) D i d you l i k e the s c e n e r y ? ( c h e c k one) v e r y much n o d e r a t l y A : VERY MUCH s i : . g h t l y n o t a t a l l n) V/ouIcI you d e s c r i b e the s c e n e r y as ? A ( c n e c k any t h a t a p p l y ) r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l _6 h i s t o r i c a l j s y m b o l i c 2 l a v i s h a u s t e r e 1 A minimal c o l o r f u l 8 muted modern s t y l i s h 2 1 1 f u n c t i o n a l 7 170 D i d y o u t h i n . ; t . ie s c e n e r y was a p p r o p r i a t e t o the o l a y ? A A y e s TO no 2 I f t h e r e was any p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e s c e n e r y t h a t seemed t o y o u to be p a r i c u l a r l y i n n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p l a y , what was i t ? mentioned: trees, stream o) D i d you l i k e the costumes ? (cheese one) v e r y raucn m o d e r a t e l y A : VERY LIUCH s l i g h t l y n o t a t a l l p) Would y o i ' d e s c r i b e t h e cos tumes a s : ( c h e c k any t n a t a p p l y ) 4 " r e a l i s t i c J7. f a n c i f u l |j h i s t o r i c a l <0. s y m b o l i c s t y l i s h 2 l a v i s h 2 c o l m i n i m a l 11 c o l o r f u l mu t e d modern f u n c t i o n a l ^ a u s t e r e D i g you t h i n k t h e cos tumes were a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y ? A A y ^ s 11 no I f t a a r e wore any p a r t i c u l a r cos tumes t h a t soernes i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y , w h i c h were they ? t i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s who wore t r o m ; i n the ca se o f c h a r a c t e r i i a v i n f more t h a n one c o s t u m e , g i v ; ; some i d e n t i f y i n g d 2 t a i l ) mentioned ; ROSALIND'S f i n a l dress CHARLES' costume W n i c . i c o s t u m e s , i f a n y , d i a you l i k e the beat ? ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s ; name t h r e e ) Group A : TOUCHSTONE. FR TC.Xf ROSALIND 171 •° ' n i o - .you thi.iK the costumes v/ent vvith the scenery ? yes O no 2 q) Die you l i k e the music ? very much moderately s l i g h t l y Group A : VERY TJJCH r) On the whole, did you enjoy this production ? very much moderately s l i g h t l y Groun A : VERY MUCH not at a l l s) Were you ever bored during the performance ? a l l the time often occasionally not at a l l t) In general, ho'.v did you f e e l during the performance of this play ? (check three of the following adverbs v/hich iiost c l o s e l y describe your response) amused A detacned ~ depressed A saddened delighted A i r r i t a t e d enlightened 1 A involved ^ A bored T interested A 6" u) Was t h i s production: (put a check on the scale between each pa i r of adjectives at the point whicA most c l o s e l y describes your opinion) conventional worthwhile d u l l art i s t i c confused amateur very A 1 :1 somewhat A 5 1 i n the middle A 2 1 2 somewhat very A . A 2 5_ 5 6 o r i g i n a l worthless excit ing tasteless coherent profess ion / / 172 .• Do. you tiiin.-: the director of this production has interpreted the author's intention properly ? A A A y £ S $ no 2 , , . 1 don'tt know w) Would you describe the production on the whole as. Group A : SUCGSSSPUL successful unsuccessful Would you l i k e to see mere productions of this sort ? Group A : YES yes no x) V/ere you comfortable in your scat ? Group A : YES yes no Would you have preferred s i t t i n g .A. (checic any that apply) closer to the stage X closer to the middle p farther av/ay from the stage on the a i s l e y) Was anyone near you coughing, s h u f f l i n g t h e i r feet, or doing anything else that disturbed you during the performance ? A B ' yes T nc z) Have you read any reviews of t h i s production , or heard any on tne radio ? yes no -£0 I f y«s, which reviews ? „ .;. — - -Did you agree r/ith the evaluations of these c r i t i c s ? ( i d e n t i f y any you comment upon) / APPENDIX D PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE TANGO 173 g), In.general, vhat standard of production do you expect when you go to a play at the Playhouse Theatre ? (checU~brie) excellent _____ good Group A : GOOD f e i r  Group B : GOOD mediocre poor b) What type of staging of a play do you expect to see at the Playhouse Theatre ? staging in which the approach i s : (check any that apply) traditional experimental roup A : TRADITIONAL and REALISTIC extravagant roup B : TRADITIONAL, EXPERIMENTAL a u s t o r e  and REALISTIC . r e a l i s t i c fanciful c) Have you ever read Tango ? A B A B yes — — no J.2 d) If you have readdit, did you read i t within: the last 3 or 4 weeks the last year the last 2 years the last 5 years the last 10 years more than 10 years ago If you have read the play, did you enjoy i t ? (check one) very much moderately not at a l l e) Have you eger s^en a production o^ Tango ? yes no 12 T*2 If you have seen a production of Tango, did you enjoy i t ? (check one) very much moderately not at a l l f) If you have seen a production of Tango, was i t within: (check one) within the last year within the last 2 years within the last 5 years within the last 10 years more than 10 years ago j . .g) Have you seen more than one production of Tango ? yes no 174 How many produc t ions of Tanf-o have you seen, and where d i d you see them ? h) I f you have not seen Tangm, have you read about i t , or heard a n y t h i n g about i t ? _ A B A B yes XQ B n o _2_ 3" I f you have read , or heard a n y t h i n g aboujr Tango A B vas i t : i n a newspaper ^ |^ at a l e c t u r e on the r a d i o 2 1 Playhouse p u h l i c i t y m a t e r i a l 3 3 i n a book o ther source ( s p e c i f y ) friends who had s e e n i t i ) As a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r , you probab ly have some i d e a of how you are l i k e l y to respond to Tango. Whether or not you have read or seen the p l a y p r e v i o u s l y t r y to answer the ques t ions by i m a g i n i n g what your response i s l i k e l y to be . In g e n e r a l , what s o r t of t h i n g s do you expect from Tan^o ? Do you expect the main concern of the p lay , to be : (check one) p o l i t i c a l S O C1 cX 3. Grow A : SOCIAL ~~~ j " e t h i c a l Group B : SOCIAL romant ic p s y c h o l o g i c a l Do you expect t h i s p l a y to be : (check one) s e r i o u s Group A : MAINLY SERIOUS m a i n l y s e r i o u s but w i t h some comic elements WITH COMIC ELEMENTS c o m e d ©ROUP 3 : MAINLY SERIOUS WITH J  COMIC ELEMENTS m a i n l y comic b u t _ v i t h some s e r i o u s elements about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s find comic Do you expect t h i s p l a y p r i m a r i l y : (check any t h a t apply) to make a meaningful statement about l i f e Group A : MEANINGFUL t o b e e n t e r t a i n i n g STATEMENT and to p rov ide an emot iona l exper ience ENTERTAINING Sroup B : MEANINGFUL STATEMENT and ENTER T A I MING 175 Do ycu expect t h i s p l a y to be: (check one) Group A : R E A L . 7 0 R L D Grout) 3 : R E A L W O R L D and i : N E R V I 'ORLD Do you expect" Tango to be : (check one) J a modern s e r i o u s drama" a p o l i t i c a l p l a V A B 2 T m a i n l y about the i n n e r wor ld of the mind m a i n l y about the r e a l w o r l d m a i n l y about a f a n t a s y w o r l d A B A a modern comedy ~5 T\- an avant-garde play2~ i B A B ? J t h e a t r e of the absurd ~_ ~g A B 2 b l a c k comedy j ) Do you expect the p.ct ing i n Tango to be : (check one) Group A : N A T U R A L AND L I F E L I K E Group 3 : scattered n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e e legant and s t y l i z e d e n e r g e t i c and flamboyant power fu l and pas s ionate s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l Do you expect the scenery of Tango to be: (check any t h a t app ly ) A B r e a l i s t i c 7 5 f a n c i f u l 2 h i s t o r i c a l J symbol ic 7 $ l a v i s h l au s tere 3 1 minimal c o l o r f u l 6 1 muted 1 1 modern 7 1 3 s t y l i s h f u n c t i o n a l -7 8 Do you expect the costumes of Tango to be: (check any t h a t apply) Grout) Do you expect the p l a y to be: (check one) '. .ri S A IS T 1 C r e a l i s t i c u n r e a l i s t i c r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l h i s t o r i c a l symbol ic l a v i s h aus tere c o l o r f u l muted modern s t i l i s h f u n c t i o n a l minimal A 7 2 •3 1 7 9 2 k 1 B I 5 1 l 2 1 2 1 k 176 During the performance of this play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t to be ? A B , A B (check any that apply) amused 7—-To saddened-B -3 B enlightened A B bored 4 —?j detached — ^ delighted ^ TJ-involved A g I interested A B depressed A B B 6~" 8" 2 2 At the end of the performance of this play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t t (check any that a.pply) Do^you think thaj^ peghaps you w i l l be: ^ g r ? 2 2 " 1* 1 2" ~1 happy annoyed ^ ^ fatigued a_ g depressed^ g relaxedl .2 angry puzzled ~G f? disturQed ~% 2 A B enlightened |j- —^reassured — — soothed — B A B — refreshed Tj* k) In a play of this kind, what aspects of the production do you think you are most l i k e l y to enjoy ? (number in order of anticipated interest) the costumes Group A : ACTING? t h e a c t i n g  the scenery the music Group B : ACTING l) Which aspects of the play do you anticipate enjoying most ? (number in order of anticipated interest) interesting individual characters Group A : scattered development of the story Group 3 : RELATIONSHIPS BSTV/EEN relationships between the characters poetic language CHARACTERS m) Of the following l i s t of plays which have you either seen or read, and which have you enjoyed ? (put S for seen or R for read in the f i r s t column, ?„nd rate the plays between i and 4 in the second column) 1 = liked i t very much 2 = liked i t moderately 3 = did not like i t very much The Chairs Tiny Alice l>.ndo and Lis Hr.ppy Days.- . The Bald Sopranp The Dumb Waiter Red Magic The Zoo Stoty The Automobile Graveyard Krapp' s Ln.st Tape The Rhino cc-ros The Dwarfs The Sandbox Orison Act Without Words The Lessen seen; A ] 6 r * 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 ~hr readVA d i s l3 k e d ^ 1 I 1 r a t i n g : A . B „ t-lj. 1-2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1-2 2 l-Jj. 2; 2 2 177 Why are ycu going tc this play ? (number 3 reasons in order cf importance; i f you are aseason ticket holder, number 3 ether reasons) Because: I am a season ticket holder I've read the play, but have never seen i t C-rou'o A : SEASON TICKSTS HEARD ABOUT THIS PLAY I've heard about the play and am interested in seeing what i t is like Group B : SEASON TICKETS I enjoy this type of play Som e of the cast members are actors whose performances I usually enjoy I have no idea what this play is about, but the ibitle intrigues me •Why did you buy season tickets to the Playhouse? (number any that apply in order of importance) Because: I went to a number of productions at this theatre last year, Group A : WENT TO a na enjoyed them PRODUCTIONS LAST YEAR Ai'iD iL. .JOYED I like to support Vancouver's major professional theatre co. THEM the selection of plays appealed to me Group B : V/ENT TO * r'RODUCTIONS LASl a .member of my family or a friend likes to go to this theatre YEAR AND ENJOYED THEM and I bought the tickets in order to accompany them Buying the tickets in advance means that I am more li k e l y to see the f u l l season of plays at this theatre, rather than just one or two of them o APPENDIX E POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE TANGO 178 a) Nov/ that tne performance i s fee l i n g ? over, ho:/ die this production leave you (check any that ap-^ly) A B * A B happy 7£ 1 annoyed 1 1 A B . A B depressed T£ ^ relaxed ^ ~~ puzzled^: _ § disturbed ^  ... J "5 O — O reassured £ g soothed ^ 3 1 ~ A B A _B fatigued 2 2 A 3 angry 2 enligntened A S refreshed ^ g 2 T Group A : GOOD Group 3 : GOOD b) I-iow would you describe the general standard of the -roduction you have just seen ? (check one) excellent good f a i r mediocre poor c) Would you describe the general s t y l e of the production as: t r a d i t i o n a l experimental (check one) Group A : scattered Group B : scattered °xtravagant uistere r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l d) Do you tnink the main concern of Tangois (check one) :-roup A : SOCIAL Jroup B : SOCIAL p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l e t h i c a l romantic psychological Do ycu think Tango i s : (cnec.t one) serious _ mainly serious but with some comic elements Groun A : SERIOUS and HAINLY SERIOUS comedy V/ITH COMIC ELEMENTS mainly comic but with some serious elements Group B : MAINLY SERIOUS V/ITH COMIC ELEMENTS about equally serious ana comic 179 Does Tango primarily: (eheck one) make a meaning/ul statement about l i f e Group A : MEANINGFUL STATEMENT entertain _ _ n T T c,rnsrpr--;-,>T.T, provide an emotional experience Group B : I t i M 1 ! lA'G-r U L 0 1 ^ 1 ^ : 1 J. R *• Is Tango: (check one) Group A : REAL WORLD Group B : REAL WORLD Is Tango: (check one) Group A : REALISTIC Group B : REALISTIC mainly about the inner world of the mind mainly about the rea l world mainly about & fantasy world r e a l i s t i c u n r e a l i s t i c Below are ten pairs of contrasting adjectives with a scale between each p a i r . Put a check on the scale between each pai r of adjectives at the point which most closely describes your feelings about Tango. Is Tango: very somewhat in the A A B A senseless ~~ : shallow : 3— sad 5> : 3 ;3 i n t e r e s t i n g ^ Q : '• —3 sentimental : 1 1 h important ® : 3 ^> .1 1 stupid : :1 optimistic : :3 vorth seeinglO: 5 : 1 7 :1 simple ^ : • 2 :2 2 A B r j r 6 _l 2 h 3 very A B 7 J f 1 - 4 5" meaningful J profound happy boring moving t r i v i a l clever pessimistic mot'worth cooing g £.: complex a 1 3. 3. 7 e) Is Tango: (check one) Group A : scattered Group B : SERIOUS DRAM s a t i r e comedy serious drama tragedy none of these 180 f) Which aspects of Tango did you enjoy the most ? (number in order of enjoyment) the interesting individual characters Grouo A : DEVELOPMENT OP i U .• , + , .. STORY and development 01 tne story RELATIONSHIPS 33T»VE..£he relationships between the characters CHARACTERS , x . , tne poetic language Group 3 : RELATIONSHIPS BETV/EEN CHARACTERS and DEVELOPMENT OP STORY V/hich characters i n Tango (regardless of how well acted) did ycu enjoy the most ? (name as many as three) Group A : EUGENE and STOMIL Group B : STOMIL and ARTHUR g) Did you think the development of the story was: (put a checK on tne scale between each pa i r of adjectives at the point v/hich most closely describes your opinion) very somewhat i n the middle semev/hat very entertaing tj" l o g i c a l 5 unreal i s t i c clear 6 unbelievable^ B 5-7 k_ l i -no t involving : g_ A B 3 2 T 3 1 2 A 2 t i B h A B 1 i _ 35 5 -~. tedious : i l l o g i c a l : r e a l i s t i c : unclear j believable involving h) i/nat aspects of the production did you enjoy the most ? (number i ^ order of enjoyment) Group A : ACTING Group B : ACTING the costumes the acting the scenery the music i ) Did you think the standard of acting, on the whole, was: {-out a check on the scale at the point which bost describes ycur opinion) very somewhat in the middle somewhat very L ' B A B A B professional Zj- _2_ : 6 cT Q. 2" A B 1 — — — : amateur poor '•••5 4*-9 good 181 j ) " . 'hich do you t h i n ' c wcr ;• the h o s t a c t o r s o r a c t r e s s e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and ' . / i i i c n ao you t h i n . ; gave p e r f o r m a n c e s w h i c h seemed l o w e r t h a n t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d ? (number t h e t h r e e b e s t i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e i n the f i r s t c o l u m n , and t h r e e wno a i d n o t seem v e r y good i n the s e c o n d co lumn) Xen Buhay as E d d i e R o b e r t C l o t h i e r as Eugene P a t Gage as E l e a n o r Logan H o u s t o n as S t o m i l Fran.c i-iaraden as A r t h u r M i c > i K a u n s e l l as E u g e n i a P i a S h a n d e l as ^ i a Group A : best - EUGENE, STOMIL not as good - EDDIE Group 3 : best - EUGENE, STOMIL not as good - EDDIE, ALA b e s t n o t as good V/ere t h e r e any p h y s i c a l o r f a c i a l manner i sms o f some p a r t i c u l a r a c t o r ( s ) o r a c t r e s s l o s ) t h a t seemed t o y c u t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? y e s 5 no £ J I f y e s , w h i c h a c t o r ( s ) o r a c t r e s c ( e s ) ? _ ( i d e n t i f y c j naming c h a r a c t e r s ) — Group A mentioned : ARTHUR, EDDIE, ELEANOR Group 3 mentioned : ARTHUR,ELEANOR, ALA M 1 8 2 V/ero there any peculiarities of speech of son..- particular actor(o) or actress(es) that seemed to you to be inappropriate ? A B A J3 yes 5" 10 no ET i 2 If answer is yes, which actor(s) or actress(es) ? (identify by Attmiftj characters) Group A mentioned : ELEANOR Group B mentioned : ELEANOR, AR3JITD3, EDDIE k) bid the actors speak clearly enough for you to hear everything they said ? (check one) all were clear most were clear come were clear a few v.'ere clear none were clear Group A : ALL WERE CLEAR Group B : ALL WERE CLEAR Group A Groun B 1) In general, would you describe the acting as: (check one) natural sad lifelike elegs.nt and stylised energetic and flamboyant scattered scattered powerful and passionate stilted and unnatural m) Did you like the scenery ? (check one) Group A : VERY MUCH - MODERATELY Grouu B : VERY MUCH very much noderatly slightly not at all n) JJcuid ycu describe the scenery at (check any that apply) realis cic nciful B 2 historical^ symbolic g lavish 3 austere 2 minimax colorful A 3 muted 3 1 moaern stvlish functi cnal 183 L i d .you t n i n . : tne s c e n e r y was a p p r o p r i a t e t o tne p l a y ? A B ' A B y»?s T l 12 no r ~ I f t h e r e was any p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e see-...-;' t h a t seemed t o y o u to be p a r i c u l a r l y i n n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p l a y , what was i t ? Group A : NOT ENOUGH CLUTTER AND LIGHT IN FIKS'P A.CT j 0 , v - { l v ^ — — Group B : TRANSLUCENT WALLS THE CATAFALQUE : : RECORD PLAYER o) Group A Croup B P ) VERY MUCH - MODERATELY MODERATELY L i d you l i k e the costumes ? (cheese one) v e r y raucii modera t e l y s l i g h t l y n o t a t a l l Would you a 'es t f i ' i je . fcho cos tumes a s : ( c h e c k any tiuvfc a p p l y ) r e a l i s t i c ^ f a n c i f u l 1|_ 1 c o l h i s t o r i c a l 2 _1 s y m b o l i c _7 10 s t y l i s h 1 1 l a v i s h 1 2 m i n i m a l T_ c o l orful-^ muted modern .Jk 1 f u n c t i o n a l a u s t e r e • you t h i n k t h e costumes "wore a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y ? A B A ~ B" y e s 10 12 no I f t h e r e were any p a r t i c u l a r costumes t h a t seernes i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y , w h i c h were t h e y ? t i d o n t i f y by naming characters who wore them; i n the care of characters h a / i n y more t h a n one c o s t u m e , g i v e some, i d e n t i f y i n g d e t a i l ) Group^ ^ S U f f E N I A , ARTHUR Group B : ALA Wfccich costumes, i f any, did you l i k e the best ? '"identify by naming characters; name three) roup A STOMIL, EUGENE Group B : STOMIL 184 D i d you t h i n n the co& tumta wen I with t h e sc ener y ? A B A * " yes TO T l A B no 2 q) Did you l i k e the music ? very much Group A : scattered Group B : MODERATELY nicJ-. Group A Group B t e l y s l i g h t l y not at a l l r) On the whole, did you enjoy t h i s production ? very much moderately s l i g h t l y not at a l l VERY MUCH MODERATELY s) Y7are you ever bored during the performance a l l the time o f t e n 1 2 occasionally J not at a l l £ 3 t) In general, how did you f e c i during the performance of t h i s play ' (check three of the f ol ] o^'inj adverbs v/hich most c l o s e l y describe your response) amused A 6" A B T T detacned -1- -L depressed A ' B saddened ~S • 2" delighted i r r i t a t e d A B 2 T F t A B... A B enlightened 2" labored 2 A B A B involved ^ "8 interested H o" u) V/as th i s production: (•cut a chock on the scale between each pa i r of adjectives at th< point wiuich most closely describes your opinion) conventional worthwhile d u l l a r t i s t i c conffs ad amateur-very S< A B A :6 6 : 3 JL--6 l l ewhat B _1_ S-2 in thi A B T -3r . v i d d l e 2 2 -il-1-SO' nowhat vo r y A rr B 1.. 3; o r i g i n a l • 1- worthless 8 -3- : lr e x c i t i n g 1 : 1 tasteless 6 Ii ; 2 "2, coherent 6 _3_ : 3—1: p r o f e s s i o n 185 v) Do y o u t i i i n . c t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n hr.s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n p r o p e r l y ? „ . . „ A B A B A B y w ° $ c5 n o 2 T d o n ' t t know £ 3" w) Would you describe the production on the whole as. • .... : Group A : SUCCESSFUL , . ^ successful Group B : SUCCESSFUL unsuccessful V/ould you l i k e to see rtcre productions of t h i s sort ? A B A B yes 7 Tl no 3" I x) V/ere you comfortable in vour seat ? V/ould you h a v e preferred s i t t i n g A B (checK any that apply) closer to the stage -j_ closer to the middle ^ 2 farther away from the stage ^ on the a i s l e y) Was anyone near ycu coughing, s h u f f l i n g t h e i r feet, or doing anything else that disturbed you during the performance ? yes | _ § nc | Q z) Have you read any reviews of th i s production , or heard any on tne radio ? yes ^  j| no _A B Group A " If yes, wnicn reviews ? mentioned,.: Ubjii&ei,._ Vancouver,-v. . Express Group B mentioned: " Ubyssey, Vancouver Did you agree with the evaluations of these cri?5c^' 1^ i 1 3-* Express ( i d e n t i f y any you comment upon) Grouo A : disagreed Group B: disagreed APPENDIX F PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA 186 a) In general, wn^t standard of production co ycu aspect when you uo to a play at the Dorothy Somerset Studio ?. (check one) excellent Group A : GOOD eood Group B : GOOD i c " l r  mediocre Group C : GOOD poor b) 'Jhat type of staging of a play do ycu expect tc sea at the Dorothy Somerset Studio ? staging i i i v/Aicw the approach i s : (check any th«t ap??ly) t r a d i t i o n a l experimental Group A : EXPERIMENTAL ' ~~ extravagant Group B : EXPERIMENTAL austere Group C :EXPERIMENTAL r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l c) I-Iave you ever read Ghost Sonata ? A B C A B C yes 1_2 3 no i i 1 0 9 d) I f you have read i t , did you read it^wi^hiij,: the l a s t 3 or 4 weeks 1 the l a s t year • the l a s t 2 years 1 thv; l u s t b years ^ the l a s t 10 years 1 more than 10 years ago ]_ If you have read the play, did you enjoy i£ ?g Q (chock one) very mmch 2* moderately 3 not at a l l e) Have you ever seen a production of Ghost Sonata ? yes no None of the participants had ever seen a production of t h i s play. Z£ y-s;.: have saan s_ prediction/ .-. jp C'KQSJ ocnata, did you enjoy i t ? (cnecic o.;e) very much moderately act at a l l 187 f) If you have seen a production of Ghost Gonata, was i t within: (check one) wit.iiu the l a s t year v/itkin the l a s t 2 years within the l a s t 5 years within the l a s t 10 years more than 10 years ago g) Have you seen more than one production of Ghost Sonata ? yes no How many production s of Ghost Sonata nave you seen, and where did ycu see thed ? h) I f you have not seen Ghost Sonata, have you read about the play, or heard onythx/ig about i t ? A B C A B C yes ___ "5 S no 1 7 Tj. I f you have read, or heard anything about Ghost Sonata (the play not the production) was i t : A B C m a newspaper r " r at a lecture 1 1 on the radio 1 in a book 1 2 1 other source (specify) Mavo yc^z he^ard ^nything, or r3a£ agv't*Sjift& about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r production? yes 7 2' ' 10 no t__JO ~*2 I f you have he-rtf a« yfr'tf ciJW.-ct this p tco'it zt.* igx • rgis i£: in a nevepap^r ? ~" If. on the radio 1 1 2 frcM someone who has sgm i t 2 p u b l i c i t y n a t a r i a l _* ^ other source (specifyX 2 i ) As a regular theatre-goer,,you probably have some idea cf how you are l i k e l y to respond to Ghost Sonata. Whether or net you have read or seen the play previously try to answer the questions by imagining what your responc"-i s l i k e l y to be. In general, what sort of tnings do ycu expect from Ghost Sonata ? Do you eKpect the main concern of the play to be: (check one) p o l i t i c a l Group A : PSYCHOLOGICAL s o c i a l e t h i c a l Group 3 : PSYCHOLOGICAL -t- ~»-p -> - r* I W ( ' t it j t *- * v-Group C : PSYCHOLOGICAL psychological 18 Do you expect t h i s play to b e : (check one) s e r i c u s _ , „ n a i n l y s e r i o u s but "'ith some comic elements Group A : SERIOUS comedy Groun B : SERIOUS mainly comic but rritn seme s e r i o u s elements Group C : SERIOUS about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and c c n i c Do you expect t r . i s p l a y p r i m a r i l y : (chc-ch any that apply) to make a meaningful statement about l i f e to be e n t e r t a i n i n g Group A : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE to provide an emotional experience Group B : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE Group C : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE Do ycu expect t h i s play to be: (check one) mainly about the inner world of the mind _ Group A : INKER WORLD mainly about the r e a l world Group B : HTNER WORLD mainly about a fantasy world Group C : INNER WORLD j) l?c you, expect the a c t i n g i n Gho^t Sonata to be: (check one) n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e Group A : scattered elegant and s t y l i z e d T2 . . . , energetic and flamboyant Group 3 : scattered powerful and p a c j i o n a t e Group C : scattered ..... . s t i l t e d ana unnatural _____ Do you expect the scenery c f Ghost Sonata to be: (check any that apply) A B c r e a l i s t i c 2 f a n c i f u l k 5 h i s t o r i c a l 2 symbol i e 6 n 10 l a v i s h 1 1 austere k 1 minimal 5 2 c o l o r f u l 2 2 muted 2 5 2 modern 2 k 2 s t y l i s h I 2 f u n c t i o n a l k 6 2 189 Do you expect the costuir.es of G.iost Sonata to be: (check any that ap ly) r e a l i s t i c 6 1 f a n c i f u l 6 2 5 h i s t o r i c a l symbolic 6 7 10 l a v i s h 1 1 austere 3 1 c o l o r f u l 3 2 1 muted 3 ^ 3 modern 1 3 s t y l i s h ^ functiona.1 1 6 3 minimal Do ycu expect t h i s play tc be: (chock on_?) r e a l i s t i c Group A : UNREALISTIC u n r e a l i s t i c " Group B : UNREALISTIC Group C : UNREALISTIC During the performance c f th i s play, which do you thinlc you are l i k e l i e s t to be ? A B C A B C . F I 2 2 1 1 (check any tnat apply) amused saddened A B C A B C A B C A B ~ ~ % - 2 T - ~ T 1 1 enlightened bored detached delighted A B C A B C A B C involved 7? £ interested _] o, 7 depressed £ 1 1 At the end of the performance of th i s play, which do you think ycu are lifcelies to be? (check any that apply) Dc^  yqu tihink perhaps yoUpWiLl be: A B A B C A B _ ^ 2 ^ " ~ ~ ~ ~ happy4- ^ 1 annoyed ^  ^ f^.tigued^ depressed ^ _^  ^re^a.;cejd ^ ^ sngry puzsled ^ -^ disturbecT -^ e n l i g h t e n e d ^ ^ A B C A B C A B C reassured _, soothed refreshed 1 1 k) In a play of t h i s kind, what aspects of the production do ycu thinJc you are most l i k e l y to enjoy ? (number in order of anticipated interest) Group A : ACTING t h o c o s t u m e s -Group B : ACTING the ecting the scsnery Group C : ACTING the music / 190 1) V/hich aspects of the play Co you anticipate enjoying most ? (nur.ber i n order of anticipated interest) Group A : DEVELOPMENT 0? in t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l characters STORY and INTERESTING INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERS development of the story Group B : RELATIONSHIPS B E T W E E N ^ ^ ^ ^ h 9 t m m t h s c h a r 2 c t 2 r 5 CHARACTERS and DEVELOPMENT OP poetic language STORY Group C : RELATIONSHIPS BETV/EEN CHARACTERS E I ) Cf t h e fol-LOvvin^ l i s t of plays w h i c h have you eith e r se^n c r read, anu v / h i c h have yon enjoyed ? (put 3 for seen and R f c r road i n tne f i r s t column, and rate t h e plays betr.e.n 1 and 4 i n the second c o l u m n ) 1 = l i k e d i t very uch 2 = li k e d i t moderately _ 3 = d i d not l i k e i t very much r a t i n g : 4 = disli.ted i t , seen: read: A B C A _ B C A B C Spring's A w a k e n i n g 2 Ubu Roi ' 1 - ^ 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 7 ^ 6 2 2 1 1 - 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 1-2 2 1 1 1 $ ' 1 1 1 1-2 1 1 1 3 1 1 Peer Gynt Ghosts Before l>avm The Dream Play The- Three Sis tors Miss J u l i e £ne £iue Bi r d 1-2 2 1 2 The Cherry Orchard -i ^__2 3 1 3 1 2 2 The Wild Duck 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 The father -j_ - L _ ^ 1 2 1 1 1 To Damascus Heartbreak House 1 1 3 1 2 I}. 2 From Morn to HidnigAt 2 1 r - ^ . 191 V/hy arc you g o i n g tc th i c play ? (number o r .asono in order c i importance) Because : I 've read the play , but have never seen I've heard about the play and am interested seeing what i t i s l i k e I enjoy t u i s type of play I've heard about this production and am interested i n seeing what i t i s l i k e Some cf the cast members are actors whose performances I usually enjoy I have no idea what this play i s about, out the t i t l e intrigues ne I usnt to a nu.Viber of productions at t h i s theatre l a s t year, auid enjoyed them /3 « c o w ' S ' £ I a'A",' ^aft'i'cipating i n an' Audience Research project Group A : AUDIENCE RESEARCH PROJECT Group B : AUDIENCE RESEARCH PROJECT Group C : s c a t t e r e d APPENDIX G POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA 192 a; Now that taa performance is over, ho~ did this production leave you feeling ? (check any that apply) A B C A B C A B C A B C happy 2 _ _ i 1 annoyed- 1 2 fatigued^ F IT depressed 2 J+ r? A B C A ~B~ C_ A ~ ^ - C - A - B C relaxed 2 2 II angry 1 puzzled - 4 0 7 J d i s t u r b e d 0 , 0 2 _ A B C ~ a B C A " B" C A. B C enlightenedlj! 3 2 r e a s s u r e d soothed 1 1 refreshed 1 b) now would you describe the general standard of the production you have j u s t seen ? (check one) e x c e l l e n t G-roup A : GOOD-EXCELLENT G ° o d  f a i r Group B. : GOOD-EXCELLENT Grouo C : GOOD mediocre Door c) Would you describe the general s t y l e of the production as: (check one) t r a d i t i o n a l Group A : EXPERIMENTAL experimental Group B : EXPERIMENTAL extravagant Group C : EXPERIMENTAL austere r e a l i s t i c f a n c i f u l d) Do you caiiuc cue r,.ain concern of the pla y Ghost Sonata i s : (check one) p o l i t i c a l G r o u p A : PSYCHOLOGICAL s o c i a l Group B : PSYCHOLOGICAL e t h i c a l Group C : PSYCHOLOGICAL romantic p s y c h o l o g i c a l Do you t a i n k the play Ghost Sonata i s : (check one) s e r i o u s Q.-.Q^-T) A • S~'RI07TS mainly s e r i o u s but wit h some comic elements comedy Group B : SERIOUS J  mainly comic but wit h some s e r i o u s elements Grouo C : SERIOUS / / aoout e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and comic , 193 Doe^° Ghost .Sonata p r i m a r i l y : (check one) Group A : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE Group B : MEANINGFUL STATEISNT Group C : scattered make a meaningful statement about l i f e entertain provide an emotional experience Is Ghost Sonata: (check one) Group A : INNER WORLD Group B : INNER V/ORLD Group C : INNER WORLD Is Ghost Sonata: (check one) Group A : UNREALISTIC Group B : UNREALISTIC mainly about the inner world of the mind mainly about the r e a l world mainly about a fantasy world r e a l i s t i c u n r e a l i s t i c Group C : scattered-half f e l t i t was REALISTIC Below are ten pairs of contrasting adjectives with a scale between each p a i r . Put a check on the scale between each p a i r of adjectives at tho poinj v/hich most c l o s e l y describes your f e e l i n g s about Ghost Sonata. Is Ghost Sonata: very A B C : A scjiewgat .in the_middle A B C A somewhat A very c senseless . 1 .1 2 .1' • 1 Ik meaningful shallow : 2 -* :2 7 8 — 4 2- l : profound sad 6 : 7 -4 * . :6 3 —6. : 2 — 1 • — • happy interesting- 10 6 S : l : 3 : —1 — • boring sentimental — : 2 -2. : 3 5L_ 3 •6 h— =2 3_ 6: moving impottant :k 2 _ 3 : 2 3 — 3 • 2 _ 2 L_ - t r i v i a l stupid 1 _ : 2_ 6 5 _ i 3: clever optimistic a = 1 : 2 _ 1 '•2 :7 12 6: pessimistic worth seeing 11 6 _ 5 : l 3_1+ : 2 _ 1 __1 • 1 1 not worth se..ing simple : — 1 : 1 2_ 1 :3 2 _ i t :8 8 6: complex e) Is Ghost Sonata: (check one) sat i r e Group A : s c a t t e r e d com edy Group B : scattered Group C : scattered serious drama tragedy none of these 1 9 4 f) Which aspects o£ Ghost Sonata did you enjoy t::e most ? (number in order of enjoyment) Group A : n n D I V D U A L ^ i n t e r M t i d i v i d u a l characters „ . j_ , the development of the story Group B : s c a t t e r e d - J .he relationships betv/e-j :he poetic language n j - 4 - ^ „ ^ t i 3 o r e l a t i o n s h i p s betv/een the characters Group C : s c a t t e r e d Which characters i n Ghost Sonata ( regardless of ho-v v?el2 acted) did yo 2 r'joy the most ? (name as many as tnree) Gr>oup A : HUMMEL, MUIC/T , STUDEHT G^mip B : HUMMEL. MUMMY, STUDENT  Group G : HUMMEL g) Did you think the development of the story v/as: (put a chec_". on the scale betv/een each pa i r of adjectives at the point v/hich most c l o s e l y describes your opinion) V A erv c s o r r/bat G middle so A r.icv/hat B G A very B C entertaining I. -3- : i 1 -» 3 • 3 : 1 3 ~ 2 * tedious M- J J o id ogieal 2 — : i 2- -3 3 2 - 3 2 3 i l l o g i c a l nrealis£ic 3 3- 5 ij. —2- 2 : 1 2—3 : r r e a l i s t i c lear 2 — 1 - 2 i 2 - 3 : 3 4 - 7 3 -2— • unclear n'oel ievable -3- • 2—2 3 3 - 2 : 1 3 — 2 : believable not involving : : involving i 2 1 I 4 . 2 3 2 4 7 S 4 1) '.That aspects of the main scenes did you enjoy the most ? (number in order of enjoyment) the costumes Group A : ACTING: Group B : ACTING and FILM and SLIDES Group C : ACTING and FILM and SLIDES tne acting the scenery the f i l m and s l i d e s the sound 1 9 5 'uhichaspects of the labyrinth did you enjoy the most ? (number i n order of enjoyment) the acting Group A : SCENERY • ^ c a s t u _ 3 S _ Group B : SCENERY the scenery Group C : SCENERY tne (films ana s l i d e s the sound i) Did you think, the standard c f acting i n the three main scenes, on the >vhole, was : (put a chec't on the ser.is at the point v/hich best describes yc.ur opinion) very somewhat i n the middle somewhat very A B C A 3 C A B C A 3 C_ A. K . G .roiessional : X JL_ T 7 S - £ : ~ 5—5 :3 1—2 ; _ • amateur p e a r : : _1_ 2 *• 2 1_ 2 : If 6 2 : 5 _ 2 4 g o o d .'/hich did you prefer: (check one) the three main scenes Group A : BOTH the lab y r i n t h Group B : scattered enjoyed both equally Group C : scattered d i s l i k e d both equal..y j) Y/iiicn do you thinx were the best actors or actresses in th2. three wain scenes, and wVi.cK do ycu think gave p«rfom&aces which, seemed lower than the general standard ? (number the three best in order of preference i n the f i r s t column, and three who did r.ot seem very good i n the sedond column) Group A : best - HUMMEL, L'FUMMY not as good - STUDENT Group B : best - HUMMEL, MUMMY, not as good - COLONEL Gjroup C : best - HUMMEL not as good - • ' - scattered "7ayne Hoboon as Humme 1 Mariko Van Cannen as the Young Lady Art 4 0 S S as Student Ann V/est as the Mummy David Dick as Colonel Dick Day as Bengston Glynis Loyshon as the Fiancee Robert Graham as the Ar i s t o c r a t •Jeff Goldberg as the Consul ran Waruk a?; the Cook 196 V /hich i f t i c r s ' i n the l a b y r i n t h d i d you t h i n k gave the b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e s ? ( I d e n t i f y by g i v i n g a lev/ d e t a i l s ) G r o u p A : s c a t t e r e d ...  G r o u n B : s c a t t e r e d  G r o u p C : s c a t t e r e d I n t h e t h r e e ma in s c e n e s , r.'ere t h e r e any p h y s i c a l o r f a c i a l manner i sms o f some p a r t i c u l a r a c t r e s s ( e c ) c r a c t o r ( s ) t h a t seemed t o you , t c J ? £ i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? A B C A _[ C - -y a a 2 _ 2 IT n c l O J - 0 0 I f y e s , w h i c h a c t c r ( 3 ) c r a c t r e s s ( e s ) ? ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s ) r T ? , n i m . G O O y j S "'N7"! E~r-7 ^  fl-nnnp R ; } H O O K , VOTING L A D Y G ^ n p p G : S T H W T , GO - , F T A N Q B E , A R I S T O C R A T , G SI-IS H A L I n the t h r e e j s a in s c e n e s were t h s r e any p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f s p e e c h c<£ some p a r t i c u l a r a c t o r ( s ) o r a c t r e s s ( o s ) t h a t seemed to y o u t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? A B C A B C y ? s - 2 3" n o 12 9 9 I f answere i s y e s i v /h ich a c t c r ( s ) o r a c t r e s c ( e s ) G r o u p A :  I d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s ) G r o u p B : C O O K , STUDENT G r o u p C t " C O I J O M E L , C O N S U L k ) I n t h e --three rra.in s c e n e s , d i d t h e a c t o r s speak c l e a r l y enough f o r you t c to h e a r e v e r y t h i n g t h e y s a i d ? ( c h e c k one) G r o u p A : A L L V/ERE C L E A R £ i i v ; s r e c l G a r  G r o u p B : A L L V/ERE C L E A R r r - o s t w s r e c l e n r  G r o u p C : A L L V/ERE C L E A R S o n , - G v / e r e c l c r - r  a few were c l e a r none were c l e a r . _ 1) I n g e n e r a l , w c u l d you Strike the a c t i n g i n t h e t h r o e n a i * S c « o S a s : ( c h e c k one) n a t u r a l ana l i f e l i k e G r o u p A : s c a t t e r e d -h a l f " f e l t i t was S T I L T E D AND U N N A T U R A L e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d G r o u p B : E L E G A N T AND S T Y L I Z E D ^ t i c c n d f l o n b t a n d S T I L T E D AND UNNATURAL p o w e r f u l and p a s s i o n a t e G r o u p C : s c a t t e r e d -._ .-s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l / 197 Cid you l i k e tne scenery i n the three main scenes ? (ch eck on e) ve ry rr.u ch Group A : MODERATELY moderatiy Group 3 : MODERATELY . . s l i g h t l y Group C : MODERATELY -VERY MUCH n o * a t a l x  Did you l i k e the scenery i n the l a b y r i n t h ? (check one) very much Group A : VERY MUCH moderatly Group B : VERY MUCH s l i g h t l y Group C : VERY MUCH not az a l l would you describe the scenery i n the key scenes es? A B C (check any that apply) r e a l i s t i c T f a n c i f u l 6 If. 1 h i s t o r i c a l ^ 3 symbolic 5 9 7 l a v i s h ^ 2 austere 5 I}. 7 minimal c o l o r f u l muted mocorn 7 8 h-2 4 3 1 s t y l i s h 2 f u n c t i o n a l ^ ^ ^ m) V/hich p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s i n the l a b y r i n t h d i d yotf. enjoy the nost ? Group A : COOK'S KITCHEN  Group 3 : COOK'S KITCHEN ' Group C : scattered n) d i d you t h i n k the general manner of s t a g i n g was appropriate to the - l a y B C A B C o yes 12 11 12 no 1 ) i f there -..-as tuvy p a r t i c u l a r feature c f che s t a ^ i n j that ceer.cd Lo you tb be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n n a p p rcpriate t c th@ pl a y , what was i t Group A -«-—STROBE ROOM _ ftrrmp n : _ GRQ.7 7*_1G—£1,'C.Rj '"y.Ti- fJ^AGE«G Group C : SMELL, STAIRS 198 p) Did you l i k e the ccctunas ? (caeck one) very rr.c! :ch Group A : VERY MUCH moderately Group B : VERY MUCH s i i L h t l y Group C : VERY MUCH not at a l l v/oulc. you :describe the costumes as: _ * -o n A B C A B C (check any that apply) r e a l i s t i c 2 E It minimal ^ f a n c i f u l 6 if. 5 c o l o r f u l 2 3 3 h i s t o r i c a l 1 3 7 muted ^ 2 3 symbolic Q Q Q • modern 1 s t y l i s h g 1 2 f u n c t i o n a l 3 4 1 lasrish 1 3 2 austere j 3 1 Die you thi n k the costumes were appropriate t o the play ? A B C A B C y e s 1 2 - 11 12 n o 1 I f there were zny p a r t i c u l a r costumes v/hich seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e to the play , v/hich v/ere they ? ( i d e n t i f y by naming characters v/ho wore them) :: . . ' • • Group A : Group 3 : Group C : STUDENT'S JACKET k . Which costumes, i f any, d i d ycu l i k e the best ? ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s ; name three) Group A : HUMMEL, MUMMY Group B : scattered Group C : scattered Did you t h i n x the costumes went with the st a g i n g ? v - 5 A B G no — — 2. y ^ s Te—ii 12 0 — c\) i i i u j f v " l i k e the F i U J ? ' c oo.«/v« • very inuch moderately Group A : VERY MUCH s l i g h t l y . Group B : MODERATELY VERY MUCH Group C : M0DE1ATSLY .,t ,.•»% 199 r) Cn the whole, did yc-..- enjoy this production Group A Group B Group C VERY MUCH VERY MUCH -MODERATELY VERY MUCH -MODERATELY very r.;ucn moderately s l i g h t l y not at a l l V/'ere you ever bored during this p«^for«ance ? a l l tne time Group A often Group B occasionally Group C not at a l l NOT AT ALL hal f - OCCASIONALLY OCCASIONALLY t) in general, how did you ti!e»l during the performance of this play? (check three of the following adverbs which nost c l o s e l y describe your response) , A B C amusec, £ . . . A B C . . , , . A B C , . A B C sadcened -y enligntened^ o" ^ o r e a \ 2 2 « , A B C i , . , , , A B C. , ,A B C . , deiachea ^ 2 ae l i g h t 00. ^ •ginvclvedj-Q y ^ i n t e r , A B C . _ . A B C depressed TT T T" i r r i t a c e u — T , , A B C ested ~-Q u) was thi s production: (put a check on the scale between each pa i r cf adjectives at the point which most cl o s e l y describes your opinion) . very somewhat i n the ai d e l e somewhat very A B C A B C A B C A n n A _r conventional : worthwhile Q £ g du l l : a r t i s t i c confused amateur 7 2 — £ 2 : 1 1 : 3 r — ii- -V 9 : — -i- : 2 3 — i f 5 -7- 6: 3 — 1 2 - 3 - 6: 2 6 — 2 2 _L_ •• 1 2_ 3 B C A B C 3 2—h-2 — 1 5 k-iL 2 3—!(-7 6 _ 7 n : o r i g i n a l 9 - 6 7 : worthless 5 " V 3 e x c i t i n g : tasteless : coherent 3 £ _2 ' £professional v) Do you think the people who stagio this production have interpreted the play properly ? A B - C A B aon A B C w) ./ould ycu describe the production on the whole aS:. Group A : SUCCESSFUL Group B : SUCCESSFUL Group C euccesr.ful UD.SUC c&6s£ixl SUCCESSFUL 200 Would yov l i k e to set more p r c ciu e t ip nc„ o f thin sort ? A B C >L £ C y°3 I I . -H 11 -ho i _ 3 1 x) Hov: did you fe-sl about nee ting actors as you moved about the labyrinth ? (chec.toAa»j^thgt apxiy) A B C A B C A B amused it ~S ~% i n t r i g u e d l l ^ T shocked 7" 5 2" amoved A B~ C A ~ F C A B C " C o r n e a - j ^ -j involved *£ "5 i n d i f fer ent "J 3. 1 y) "Did ycu feel, that the labyrinth added to you r understanding of the play very much Group A : MODERATELY moderately Group B : scattered Giiffktly Group C : MODERATELY not at a l l ) Vc^ re. yoo • U5vcon.-Ta-rtab.1e because the audience was expected ± 0 tt.ove around rs.tk.er than regain its one Saat ? very Much Group A moderately Group B s l i g h t l y not at a l l Group C NOT AT ALL NOT AT ALL NOT AT ALL a) j^ave you g e a ^ e n ^ r £ v i ^ s of t ^ i s ^ r o ^ i u c t ion, or heard- any on the radio' yoag ~ § nc V TO " ? Id yes, whic* reviews ? Group A : UBYSSEY Group... B. : Group C : UBYSSEY did yeu. agrees wlfctx tho. evaluations of tAes-g c r i t i c s ? (i d e n t i f y a/sy you cemfte/vt upon) : CT.rmp A : TM~i-:nTr>^ r> Group B : Group C : NO Cc«w.ents on the, production : APPENDIX H LIST OF LABYRINTH UNITS 201 labyrinth Units Entrance to maze with strobe l i g h t T r i a l s and Tr i b u l a t i o n s (room with blue wall-paper One minute f i l m Reading room Table with food Valkyrie room ( o p e r a ) Student - Milkmaid room ( f i l m of Milkmaid and btudent) Flower place Mummy closet Growing place ( f i l m and s l i d e s ) Research project room (with t.v. monitor) Dark Lady and Aristocrat - inaudible conversation) Colonel s t r i p p i n g Funeral room Film projected on bodies ( f i l m and dancers wearing screens) Insane room Cook's kitchen Ice drowning (f i l m and dancers) Janitress* niche Telephone booth Fiancee and her window Sound room 

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