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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary study of theatre audiences Warren, Sarah Meyler 1972

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF' THEATRE AUDIENCES  by SARAH MEYLER WARREN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of THEATRE  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April,  1972  COLUMBIA  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  D a t e  rffJststfJj  t  /#TA  ii ABSTRACT This p r o j e c t attempts work i n t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e The and  p r o j e c t was  are  between audience effect  on  the  audience  small  a  of audience  productions.  These are  expectations  audience  addition, in  a survey  examined.  response  d a t a was  (1)  and  the  survey.  specific  relationships  of a s e r i e s  (2)  the  of productions.  i n so  f a r as  t h i s was  In  trends  possible in  and  the  Like It,  Dorothy  Ghost Sonata.  division  half being d i d not  The  each.  production  so  which assessed  Questionnaire  each the  p u r p o s e was  The  third  first  to e l i c i t  the  Inside  age  years  significant  was  The  the  d i v i d e d by o f age.  a series  General  of  Questionnaire,  background, outlook s e c o n d was  indication  Post-Production  This  trends.  completed b e f o r e an  of  E a c h g r o u p was  individual's  they  pro-  into  under t w e n t y - f i v e  theatre.  which  Its  was  The  purpose  p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d  p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x a m i n e d by  of  f o r the  Playhouse production  Somerset S t u d i o  r e v e a l any  questionnaires.  experience  the  Thirty-six  groups o f twelve  sex,  were c h o s e n  T h e s e were t h e F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e  Tango,  and  the  of,  group.  o f As_ You  three  Two  examined t o d i s c o v e r g e n e r a l  attitudes,  duction  the  for future  expectations  r e a c t i o n s and  Three Vancouver productions of  a base  research.  r e a c t i o n s to t h e a t r i c a l  aspects  to e s t a b l i s h  of  the each  and  Pre-Production production.  their  Questionnaire,  expectations. which  iii concentrated The and  the  cussed data,  the  participants'  relationships  cumulative  one  effect  important  to a r i g i d  does n o t  i t s nature  fulfilment and  the  There  and  and  i s an  of continuous  frame o f  reactions  response  are  examination the  e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f their  dis-  of  the  parti-  productions reference.  e n j o y m e n t and i t  o b j e c t i v e response.  indication  the  frame o f  Future  reference  of a r e l a t i o n s h i p  about a p l a y ' s  t h a t the  and  type  approval  of  and  the  The  exposure to productions  the  intention  production.  f i t their  intention.  reinforcement  between  participants  performance to  p l a y ' s type  and  an  and  production.  i t s influence.  interpret  of the  to each  Apparently,  prevalent this  of expectations  the maintenance  subexpec-  main  cumulative  appears  to  be  o f the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d  reference.  Specific which deserve Conclusion  p o i n t s about audiences  more e x t e n s i v e  of t h i s  composition  of  paper.  r e f e r e n c e and  general  and  audience  study_ a r e p r e s e n t e d  These  audiences,  t o a c t i n g , c o s t u m e s and of  and  i s a l s o some s u g g e s t i o n  tations  the  firmly  critical  on  theatrical  s u b s e q u e n t e n j o y m e n t and  consciously  effect  After  evaluate  work m i g h t d i s c o v e r how  There  paper.  always c o i n c i d e w i t h  seems t o i n h i b i t  is,  of attendance  t r e n d appeared.  a s s i m i l a t e and  according  response  between e x p e c t a t i o n s  at length i n this  cipants  This  on  include questions  audience  scenery, response  in  and to  response the about  expectations, attitudes  participants' productions.  frame  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page INTRODUCTION  I  . . .  1  METHOD  3  Outline o f Production Attendance  . . . .  Outline of Questionnaire D i s t r i b u t i o n II  . .  THE QUESTIONNAIRES  15  The P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  . . . .  22  The P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  . . . .  26  DESCRIPTION  OF THE PARTICIPANTS  31  P r o f i l e o f Group A  38  P r o f i l e o f Group B  40  P r o f i l e o f Group C IV  "  GROUP RESPONSE TO AS YOU L I K E I T  43 48  As Y o u L i k e I t - D e s c r i p t i o n o f Production  48  The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f G r o u p A a b o u t As Y o u L i k e I t  52  The R e a c t i o n s Like I t  o f G r o u p A t o As_ Y o u  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o As_ You L i k e I t V  12 15  The G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  III  11  GROUP RESPONSE TO TANGO Tango D e s c r i p t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n  5  4  57 63 63  V  Chapter  Page The E x p e c t a t i o n s Tango  o f Group A about  The E x p e c t a t i o n s  o f Group B about  Tango The R e a c t i o n s  o f G r o u p A t o Tango  The R e a c t i o n s o f G r o u p B t o Tango The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e Combined Group A and B and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o Tango VI  GROUP RESPONSE TO I N S I D E THE GHOST SONATA  . .  6  7  6  9  7  2  77 83 86  I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata - D e s c r i p t i o n o f Production  ^6  The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f G r o u p A a b o u t I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  90  The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f G r o u p B a b o u t I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  92  The E x p e c t a t i o n s o f G r o u p C a b o u t I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  94  The R e a c t i o n s Ghost Sonata  o f Group A t o I n s i d e t h e 96  The R e a c t i o n s Ghost Sonata  o f Group B t o I n s i d e t h e  The R e a c t i o n s Ghost Sonata  o f Group C t o I n s i d e t h e  102  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f The C o m b i n e d G r o u p A, B, a n d C a n d T h e i r Reactions t o I n s i d e t h e Ghost Sonata  105  109  CONCLUSION  H  BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . .  145  7  vi Chapter  Page NOTE ON THE APPENDICES  146  APPENDIX A - GENERAL  14 7  QUESTIONNAIRE  APPENDIX B - PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU L I K E I T  159  APPENDIX C - POST-PRODUCTION AS YOU L I K E I T  165  APPENDIX D - PRE-PRODUCTION TANGO APPENDIX E - POST-PRODUCTION TANGO  QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTIONNAIRE 173 QUESTIONNAIRE 178  APPENDIX F - PRE-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA . . . .  186  APPENDIX G - POST-PRODUCTION QUESTIONNAIRE INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA . . . .  192  APPENDIX H - L I S T OF LABYRINTH UNITS  201  . . . .  INTRODUCTION  This project  paper  i n t e n d e d as  field  o f audience  basic  purpose  and of  i s a discussion  audience  response  i s t o ask  to a t h e a t r i c a l  "answers" which a r e  study  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  reactions.  The  of  a series  o f p r o d u c t i o n s on  to  the  responses  points,  would  some o f w h i c h  reveal  c o u l d be  arise  out  any  The  direction,  first  the  cumulative  the response  general attitudes  the  and  effect  participants  In a d d i t i o n  hoped t h a t  examined  of  two  concerned  between e x p e c t a t i o n s  concerned  i t was  Its  audiences  r a t h e r than  a definite  p r o d u c t i o n i n the s e r i e s .  specific  production.  important.  the problem  these  data  a s p e c t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  final  a  f o r f u t u r e work i n t h e  o f the c o l l e c t e d  second  of  I t i s the q u e s t i o n s which  In o r d e r t o g i v e the specific  study  description  r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s about  research.  the examination  tentative  a pilot  and  to  participants'  towards the t h e a t r e ,  i n future,  more e x t e n s i v e ,  studies. A major purpose a study  of t h i s  co-operative responsive they  project  kind i s i n practical  i s t o see how  terms;  that  feasible  i s , how  a group o f Vancouver t h e a t r e - g o e r s are,  they  are to t h i s  are to being  the problem  of t h i s  tested  type  over  o f the e f f i c i e n c y  of survey  and  a p e r i o d of time. and  validity  how  how  amenable  Further,  of both  questions  / / / /  2 and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s has Although  examining  the  the  been c e n t r a l  study  itself  participants'  to t h i s  has  been comprehensive  a t t i t u d e s , experience  t h e a t r e , p r e - p e r f o r m a n c e k n o w l e d g e and as  their  response  p a r t i c i p a n t s was size  of the  regarded  as  comments. suggest  c o n c l u s i o n s , but  questions  developed  Finally, a d v a n t a g e s and survey  observations  during  A n o t e on  the  this  terms w h i c h were used  repeated  i n the  are  they  used  source  i s the  of  are u n d e r l i n e d questionnaire  well  Because o f cannot  comments  the  and  which which studies.  comments s u g g e s t particular  of  be  i n more e x t e n s i v e  the  as  number  audience response  and  the  observations  be  type  included here.  participants'  i n the  discussion.  and  the  in  the  of  project.  text should  d i s c u s s i n g the  study  r a t h e r as  explored  disadvantages  and  of the  concerning  and  the  in a l l .  observations  developed  describing and  results  of  expectations,  productions,  small, t h i r t y - s i x  I t i s these  the  m i g h t be  to p a r t i c u l a r  group the  project.  responses,  questionnaires  Whenever t h e s e  are  words  often  w o r d s and  to i n d i c a t e t h a t the itself.  When  terms  direct  CHAPTER  I  METHOD  The people  practical  problems o f the survey  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study  collecting  were  finding  and d i s t r i b u t i n g a n d  the questionnaires according  to a r i g i d  time-  table . A group o f people required.  who r e g u l a r l y go t o t h e t h e a t r e was  I t was d e c i d e d  thirty-six,  t h a t the group should  number  as t h i s was t h e l a r g e s t number o n e i n t e r v i e w e r  could handle.  Eighteen  o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x were  between t h e ages o f e i g h t e e n were n o n - s t u d e n t s o v e r  students  and t w e n t y - f i v e , and t h e r e s t  t h e age o f t h i r t y - f i v e .  t o t a l g r o u p w e r e women, i n o r d e r  Half the  t o s e t up a p o s s i b l e  c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f m a l e and f e m a l e members o f the group.  These s u b d i v i s i o n s a r e n o t examined i n t h e  d i s c u s s i o n , but the responses t o the questions  are  arranged  t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o c o m p a r e t h e n o n - s t u d e n t w i t h t h e student  expectations  and r e a c t i o n s . ^  In f u t u r e work, t h e group should should  be l a r g e r , b u t i t  be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t one t e s t e r c a n h a n d l e  participants although testers.  ( t h i r t y - s i x plus  four  "spares",  t h e t a s k w o u l d be s i m p l i f i e d  forty  see p . 7 ) ,  i f t h e r e w e r e two  I n f u t u r e work l a r g e r groups o f s e v e r a l h u n d r e d  / /  /  4 participants testers  c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o  assigned  to each group.  w o u l d p r o d u c e more c o n c l u s i v e Three p r o d u c t i o n s study  Testing a larger  Theatre  types  production  a traditional  Tango,  It, a classic  the Playhouse Theatre  Somerset S t u d i o  These p r o d u c t i o n s  took  groups o f twelve female, first The  student  place over  each, m a i n t a i n i n g  S o n a t a , b u t n o t As_ You L i k e  three  o f male and  p.11).  three  i n t h i s way was  and  r e a c t i o n s o f one g r o u p w i t h of a similar  The  productions.  Tango and I n s i d e t h e  It.  productions  the  The t h i r d  group,  Sonata but not t o (Refer to O u t l i n e  The p u r p o s e o f s t a g g e r i n g t o compare t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s the expectations  and  g r o u p whose members h a d a l s o r e c e n t l y  s e e n one o r more p r e v i o u s it  the balance  t o I n s i d e the Ghost  Production Attendance,  reactions  divided into  Group A, went t o a l l t h r e e  e i t h e r o f t h e two p r e v i o u s  and  production.  a n d n o n - s t u d e n t members i n e a c h g r o u p .  group o f twelve,  groups  style;  a p e r i o d o f f o u r weeks.  g r o u p o f t h i r t y - s i x was  G r o u p C, went o n l y  of  multi-media  s e c o n d g r o u p , G r o u p B, a t t e n d e d  Ghost  production of  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f I n s i d e the Ghost  an e x p e r i m e n t a l ,  total  presentation  i n a contemporary  S o n a t a , w h i c h was  The  a c c e s s i b l e and i n v o l v e d  T h e s e were t h e F r e d e r i c Wood  o f As_ You L i k e  a modern p l a y p r e s e n t e d  the Dorothy  group  i n V a n c o u v e r were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e  of play.  style;  two  results  because they were a v a i l a b l e ,  three d i f f e r e n t  in  groups o f f o r t y w i t h  productions.  i s p o s s i b l e to determine  the extent  That  i s , t o see i f  o f the i n f l u e n c e o f  5 an  immediately  ing  two  productions  of course. the  three  ison  previous  w o u l d be  Only  necessary  two  available  cumulative  effect  the  for this  productions  of  third  and  f o r the  r e a c t i o n s , so  attendance  production.  on  the  to the  those  previous  production  s e e n one  had  s e e n two.  two  g r o u p s a t t e n d i n g two  and  three plays.  different factor  The  types  of production the  similar  this  met  turned  particular  available  production  and  expectations  those  of  an  three  and  for this  time The  different  was  a fairly  and  original the  were a l r e a d y p l a n n i n g  However, than  groups of sex  and  twelve f o r whom  comparable  Furthermore, the  re-  types  regular activity,  r e a c t i o n s w o u l d be  study,  a  pursued.  three  o f age  with  distinctly  of comparing  not  of  groups  more d i s s i m i l a r  to assemble  average audience.  budget who  t o be  to  who  modern, e x p e r i m e n t a l ) .  a s p e c t was  t h e a t r e was  those  a t the  groups to three  above r e q u i r e m e n t s  the  extended  t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e  out  on  c o u l d h a v e b e e n done  possibility  similar  their  people  the  p r o b l e m was  the  attending  no  fact  (traditional,  groups  The  was  third  p l a y s , r a t h e r than  of production  t h i s was  sponses o f t h r e e  who  The  study  compar-  a possible  i n the d e c i s i o n to have t h r e e groups.  idea behind  since  entire  was  Thus t h e r e was  response  had  attending  question  response  attend-  purpose,  q u e s t i o n on  c o m p a r i s o n between the who  groups  However, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a l r e a d y  of expectations  include  production.  since  participants to a t t e n d the  had  so to  there to  first  be two  that  6 required  plays.  (Complimentary  S o n a t a were g i v e n  t o those  who h a d n o t a l r e a d y This  tickets  See b e l o w p . 6) .  and t h e p r o b l e m o f e n s u r i n g  people  attended  t h e t h e a t r e on a f a i r l y  solved  by u s i n g  the records  the  F r e d e r i c Wood  selected the  Playhouse  who  subscribed  and  checking  students, and  G r o u p A was  subscribers  their  By t e l e p h o n i n g  people  against  of  people  on t h i s  age g r o u p and w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y  and who were w i l l i n g  (a n o n - s u b s c r i p t i o n The  list  were  to attend  production)  was  I n s i d e the Ghost formed.  s e c o n d g r o u p was f o r m e d i n t h e same way, b y  telephoning potential  Theatres.  was  holders of  s u b s c r i b e r s and d r a w i n g up a l i s t to both.  these  regular basis,  ticket  t h e F r e d e r i c Wood  that  t h e g r o u p who w o u l d be a t t e n d i n g As_ You L i k e I t  Tango,  Sonata  o f season  and P l a y h o u s e  by c h e c k i n g  the Ghost  members o f G r o u p s A, B, and C  b o u g h t them.  problem,  f o r Inside  a list  o f Playhouse  subscribers only.  members o f G r o u p B d i d n o t q u a l i f y  s e e n o r were p l a n n i n g Since  The  i f they had  t o s e e As_ You L i k e I t .  t h e r e were no s e a s o n t i c k e t s  f o r the Dorothy  S o m e r s e t S t u d i o , members o f G r o u p C, t h e g r o u p w h i c h was t o attend  Inside  productions, either an  the Ghost  previous  was drawn f r o m r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s  bought t i c k e t s  interest  S o n a t a , b u t n o t t h e two  i n seeing  t o the production i t .  Complimentary  the  G h o s t S o n a t a were p r o v i d e d  and  B, a n d f o r t h o s e  who h a d  o r who h a d tickets  expressed  to Inside  f o r t h e members o f G r o u p s A  members o f G r o u p C who d i d n o t a l r e a d y  /  7 have t i c k e t s . cruiting general  the  This  provided  participants,  attitude  of  an  and  predisposed  favorable factor  is  that  group. pants  response to  final  possibly  that  t h o s e who the  t o k e e p i n mind One  the  production,  i n any  future  note about the  final  i s , i f the  should begin with these p a r t i c i p a n t s  sixteen  the  same way  members o f  the  group, t h e i r responses  questionnaires  can  be  and  drop out  at  h a l f way  or  gone t o  supposed  the  d i s q u a l i f i e d member, t h e  two  of  four  one  Unless  the  each  to  the  a small  of  or  the  series  the  there  group  i t will  meet t h e  partici-  study other of drops  someone be  discovered  established  p r o d u c t i o n s he  was  i s a replacement  for  study w i l l  be  spoiled,  in  included,  necessary.  g r o u p s had  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  in  i n the  a l t e r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were  them p r o v e d  Once t h e the  attend.  take part  through,  not  study  to  has  further  participants  i f a g r o u p member  really  free  participants  same t i m e as  Even w i t h  a p a r t i c i p a n t does not  requirements,  the  substituted  is disqualified.  sure to  the  a  g r o u p number i s t w e l v e  exactly  and  the  That  in  this  this is a  s e l e c t i o n of  Since  that  and  have  t o h a v e some s u b s t i t u t e s  tester  to  work.  least.  is  them t o  i t i s advisable  the  or  contributed  re-  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  received  at  out  i n d u c e m e n t when  co-operation.  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y tickets  extra  been  formed, the  questionnaires  Questionnaire D i s t r i b u t i o n , p.12).  The  (See  next  problem  outline  was  of  o r i g i n a l telephone  8 c o n t a c t was f o l l o w e d b y a l e t t e r of  the study,  Included with  and o u t l i n i n g this  stating  the general  t h e form t h e study  l e t t e r was t h e G e n e r a l ,  would  purpose take.  or P r o f i l e ,  2  Questionnaire, their few  and a stamped  addressed  attending all  next  the productions  S i n c e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s would be on d i f f e r e n t  a day b e f o r e  complicated  without  sure o f the date  being  delivering  buting  of arrival  pants.  This  I t i s possible that  personal  t h e r e f o r e , f o r the t e s t e r  towards t h e p r o d u c t i o n s  contri-  and c o - o p e r a t i o n .  some i n f l u e n c e on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  attitude  Questionnaires  them a t t h e t h e a t r e s a n d t o  response  i s also possible that this  important,  expectations.  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was a f a c t o r  general  dates  then  t o meet t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the other questionnaires.  to their  and e v e r y o n e  the Pre-Production  made i t much e a s i e r t o c o l l e c t  personal contact with  earlier  t h e y w e r e d e l i v e r e d by h a n d .  t o t h i n k about t h e i r  h a n d meant an o p p o r t u n i t y  distribute  no  t h a n m a i l i n g them a t d i f f e r e n t  t h e same l e n g t h o f t i m e  In most c a s e s  n i g h t s , and s o t h a t  Questionnaire  the performance,  T h i s was l e s s  had  and o n l y a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e s e r i e s was t h e P r e -  would have t h e P r e - P r o d u c t i o n  than  it  returned  had t o be p i c k e d up.  Production Questionnaire.^  by  Most  c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n a few d a y s ,  The  had  envelope.  However,  c o n t a c t might response.  have  I ti s  t o appear n e u t r a l i n  when m e e t i n g  the p a r t i c i -  9  I t was o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y questionnaires before  t o p i c k up t h e c o m p l e t e d  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  saw t h e p r o d u c t i o n .  T h i s was done by m e e t i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s the t h e a t r e b e f o r e  the performance.  d i s c u s s any d i f f i c u l t i e s Questionnaire,  i n the lobby o f  They w e r e t h e n  able t o  they had had w i t h t h e P r e - P r o d u c t i o n  and t h i s m e e t i n g p r o v i d e d  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  r e m i n d them o f t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n , o r r e a c t i o n , Questionnaire. I t was i m p o r t a n t fill  t o the study  out the Post-Productxon  that the participants 4  Questionnaires  a f t e r the performance, while the d e t a i l s and  immediately  of the experience  t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o i t were f r e s h i n t h e i r minds.  members o f G r o u p A w e r e a s k e d t o r e m a i n i n t h e i r a f t e r As_ You L i k e I t , participants'  in  their  before  s e a t n u m b e r s , i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r The p a r t i c i p a n t s  then  of the to disremained  s e a t s , completed t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and r e t u r n e d  they  left  the theatre.  As a r u l e ,  this  v e r y w e l l d u r i n g t h e r u n o f As_ Y o u L i k e I t . covered,  seats  a n d s i n c e a r e c o r d was k e p t  tribute the questionnaires.  The  however, t h a t u n l e s s  system worked  I t was  dis-  someone i s s t a n d i n g b y t h e  participant with a questionnaire held t h e moment t h e h o u s e l i g h t s  them  prominently,  come up t h e p a r t i c i p a n t  will  t h i n k no one i s c o m i n g a n d s t a r t t o l e a v e . Collecting  the Post-Production  Questionnaires  t h e P l a y h o u s e p r o d u c t i o n o f Tango was a l i t t l e cated,  f o r two r e a s o n s .  more  after compli-  I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t was n o t  /  possible was o v e r , filled lobby  t o use the t h e a t r e i t s e l f so the P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n  out i n the lobby. and f i n d i n g  or misunderstood  after  the performance  Questionnaires  Arranging  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  h a d t o be  a meeting place  (who f r e q u e n t l y f o r g o t  the meeting place)  i n the  after-performance  crowd was n o t a g r e a t p r o b l e m , b u t i s one w h i c h kept  i n mind  i n future studies.  was t h a t a f t e r director  The  other  s h o u l d be  complication  some o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s o f Tango t h e  a n d members o f t h e c a s t came on s t a g e  cussion with  i n the  the audience.  b e e n warned o f t h i s ,  Although  and had agreed  fora  dis-  the p a r t i c i p a n t s had t o come i n t o  the lobby  before  the d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g  how many o f them  forgot  t o do s o and. h a d t o b e f e t c h e d .  This  reason  f o r keeping  numbers.  a r e c o r d o f the seat  Distribution for  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata,  was e a s i e r .  By t h i s  f a m i l i a r with so  o f the Post-Production  time  the f a c t  easier only  four people  misunderstood immediately collected  to find  and f i n a l  audience  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  t h a t t h e r e was o n l y  to c o l l e c t  Questionnaires  one e x i t  forgot to wait  after  instructions,  contacted  was  smaller,  i n t h e crowd,  d o o r made i t  a l l the questionnaires.  their  production,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g r o u p were  the r o u t i n e , the t o t a l  that i twas•easier  and  the t h i r d  i s another  During  the study  a production, or  and t h e s e  people  were  and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d a n d  by t h e f o l l o w i n g day a t t h e l a t e s t .  11 There  are s e v e r a l reasons  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f i l l e d after of  the performance.  the study  immediate the  time  filling for  The f i r s t  i s t h a t f o r the purpose  reason  practical  group.  The t h i r d  and h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t  reason  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  bined with w o u l d be  sent  this  t h e most  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  w o u l d be  or returned  The  either  the completed  upon, o r g o i n g  h o u s e and c o l l e c t i n g  i t , which,  o f the Pre-Production  com-  Questionnaires,  impractical.  OUTLINE OF PRODUCTION Production: Attended by  being  the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h c o u l d n o t be r e l i e d to  as p o s s i b l e  was t h e p u r e l y  one o f t h i s  p o s s i b l e methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h till  way  between s e e i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n and  e f f i c i e n t way t o c o l l e c t  waiting  was t h a t i n t h i s  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was as c o n s t a n t  the t o t a l  other  immediately  to get the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  The s e c o n d  which e l a p s e d  e m p h a s i s on h a v i n g  i n and c o l l e c t e d  i t was i m p o r t a n t  response.  for this  :  As  You L i k e I t  Group A  ATTENDANCE  Tango  Inside  the Ghost  Group A  Group A  Group B  Group B Group C  Sonata  OUTLINE OF QUESTIONNAIRE  DISTRIBUTION  GROUP:  Group A  Group B  Group C  QUESTIONNAIRE:  General  General  General  pre - As You L i k e I t p o s t - As You L i k e I t pre - Tango  pre - Tango  post - Tango  post •- Tango  pre - I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  pre - Inside the Ghost Sonata  pre - Inside the Ghost Sonata  post - I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  post •- Inside the Ghost Sonata  post - I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  to  13 The  General Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d  ed b e f o r e the p a r t i c i p a n t s  went t o any o f the p r o d u c t i o n s .  Each P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d b e f o r e the p a r t i c i p a n t s  and c o l l e c t -  and c o l l e c t e d  went to the performance i n q u e s t i o n .  Each P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d and collected  immediately  a f t e r the performance i n q u e s t i o n .  14 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I  "'"See d a t a f i l e d i n F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Library,  2 See  General  Questionnaire,  See  Pre-Production  p . 14 7  3  p . 159  ^See p. 16 5,  Post-Production  Questionnaire  Questionnaire  (As You L i k e  It),  (As You L i k e I t ) ,  CHAPTER I I THE  QUESTIONNAIRES  General  Questionnaire 5  The the  first  purpose o f t h e General  or P r o f i l e Questionnaire,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e s e r i e s , was t o e s t a b l i s h a n  o u t l i n e o f t h e s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d age l e v e l o f t h e participants tastes, and  attitudes  towards p l a y s and a s p e c t s  questions  concentrated  about t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s  f i l m viewing habits.  their attitude  and t e l e v i s i o n  The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o  i s important t o the time  more, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' to  of production  experience.  on g e n e r a l l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s  t h e i r l e i s u r e time on  t h e i r g e n e r a l o u t l o o k and  the extent of t h e i r theatre-going The  and  and t o a s c e r t a i n  s i n c e i t has a d i r e c t  effect  spent a t the t h e a t r e .  Further-  choice of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s  will,  a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , r e f l e c t t h e i r g e n e r a l o u t l o o k and  tastes. It w i l l activities^  be s e e n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n a b o u t  concentrated  on s o c i a l a r e a s , w h i l e s o l i t a r y  h o b b i e s were n o t i n c l u d e d . activity,  i t was d e c i d e d  leisure  Since theatre i s a s o c i a l  t h a t i t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e  attempt t o d i s c o v e r a comparative  and p o s s i b l y  to  related  i n t e r e s t between t h e t h e a t r e and o t h e r s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d  activities.  However, i n any  f u t u r e survey, i n order to  get a c l e a r e r i d e a o f the t a s t e s and  o u t l o o k of the  p a r t i c i p a n t s and o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards l e i s u r e ( f o r example, whether i t should be s t r u c t u r e d , whether they p r e f e r organized  p u r s u i t s to spontaneous ones, e t c . ) some attempt  should be made to d i s c o v e r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and orientated  non-group-  hobbies.  As w e l l as g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of the areas of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and t a s t e s , i t was q u e s t i o n s on t e l e v i s i o n  7  and  f e l t t h a t the  8 f i l m - v i e w i n g h a b i t s c o u l d be  used to d i s c o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f any, between the amount and type o f t e l e v i s i o n and  f i l m watched and the response  to  t h e a t r i c a l s t a g i n g , i n c l u d i n g a t t i t u d e s towards a c t i n g costume, scenery, c h a r a c t e r , and dramatic Although  the q u e s t i o n s about t e l e v i s i o n viewing  be expanded i n any  f u t u r e study, the p a t t e r n developed  t h i s survey worked w e l l m e c h a n i c a l l y e l i c i t e d was  plot.  useful.  However, i n the s e c t i o n on f i l m some  p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked  The  to i n d i c a t e which f i l m s on the  seen and to r a t e these  a c c o r d i n g to the e x t e n t they had a t e l y , t h e r e was  for  and the i n f o r m a t i o n  problems were r e v e a l e d which should be d i s c u s s e d .  they had  could  f i l m s from one enjoyed  list  to three  each one.  Unfortun  no r a t i n g category p r o v i d e d between one  l i k e d i t very much,  and  two  = d i d not l i k e  i t very much.  A category which would a l l o w the p a r t i c i p a n t s to i n d i c a t e  =  17 that  they had enjoyed  included. the  the f i l m moderately  s h o u l d have  (However, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d  f i l m with  a two i n d i c a t e d  that  that  been rating  they had enjoyed i t  moderately.) The within  films  on t h e l i s t  t h r e e months p r i o r  available.  They  fell  into  had a l l been a v a i l a b l e  to the survey;  to  much s e r i o u s c o n t e n t ,  communicate  question available  evidence than  film  that  in  t h a t were  intended  The m a i n d e f e c t i n t h i s  No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r f i l m  some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  and t h e r e i s  attended  I n any f u r t h e r tastes  films  study,  a  other  clearer  and a t t i t u d e s  towards  w o u l d p r o b a b l y be o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g them t o films  t h e same way t h a t television  they  they  had r e c e n t l y  had been asked  programs.  shows and f i l m s  seen and e n j o y e d , about  their  A f u r t h e r dimension  added b y a s k i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  The  those  entertaining,  series or vintage films,  four or five  favorite  and t h o s e  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  entertainment  currently  was composed o n l y o f c o m m e r c i a l l y  t h e t y p e on t h e l i s t .  indication  list  the l i s t  current films.  societies,  entirely  a s e r i o u s statement.  i s that  some were  two m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s :  t h a t were i n t e n d e d t o be a l m o s t without  locally  to l i s t  they had seen and l e a s t  w o u l d be  the t e l e v i s i o n enjoyed.  s e c t i o n w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e 9  theatre-going experience on  trying  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  t o d i s c o v e r the types  concentrated  o f p l a y s and p r o d u c t i o n s  18 w i t h w h i c h t h e g r o u p members were of  their  response only  attendance  to the questions  preferences.  u s e f u l was  in this  frequency  experience  of plays, but also of  involved a l i s t  Each o f the p l a y s belonged  The  s e c t i o n g a v e an i d e a n o t  One q u e s t i o n w h i c h was  t h e one w h i c h  modern comedy,  and t h e  a t the v a r i o u s Vancouver t h e a t r e s .  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  their  familiar  particularly  o f twenty  plays.  t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s or  avant  g a r d e p l a y s , and i t was  possible to discover with  which  t h e y w e r e most f a m i l i a r  and w h i c h  error  modern s e r i o u s drama, c l a s s i c s ,  i n the r a t i n g  cussion  they  preferred.  system, a l r e a d y mentioned  o f t h e q u e s t i o n on f i l m s ,  a l s o appears  type  (The  i n the d i s i n this  question.) This tical  section also included questions  involvement' i n t h e a t r e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e i r  experience  of theatre i n other  about the standard an  audience's  to  productions  previous  a series  of local  expectations  centres  final  felt  o f t h e t h e a t r e and t h e i r  and  that  reactions  of  their  productions.  s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ ^ was about the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  and  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s theme, i n t e n t i o n  and  towards the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  the  attitude  t h e a t r e s i n c e i t was  of plays  of questions  about aspects  and t h e i r  a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by a l l t h e a s p e c t s  experience  The of  about the p r a c -  and s t y l e  of production.  composed  preferences of plays The  questions  o f s t a g i n g a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , b u t some o f  terminology  used i n the q u e s t i o n s  a b o u t theme,  style,  and  i n t e n t i o n s h o u l d be  real world, i n an  discussed.  fantasy world,  inner world  a purely  an a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s b a s e d on  view.  The  imaginary  seemed t o h a v e no of course,  and  approach,  these  p r e f e r r e d a p l a y t o be  concepts  ( T h i s does  prove t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s understood the Asking  and  the p a r t i c i p a n t s whether  s e r i o u s o r e n t e r t a i n i n g was  a t t e m p t t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t  those  out,  w h i c h do  s e r i o u s and  categories. arising by  As  an for  plays life  some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p o i n t e d exclusive  Attempts t o s o l v e the problems of  the  as  they  statement about  e n t e r t a i n i n g are not mutually  f r o m t h e use  asking  this  not.  not,  terms  a t t e m p t t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n a p r e f e r e n c e w h i c h do  of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h them.  they were intended.)  used  realistic  a subjective point  terms chosen were f e l t t o express  i n t h e m o s t e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d way,  terms  o f the mind are  a t t e m p t t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n a  approach to a p r o d u c t i o n , and  For example, the  definition  o f somewhat a b s t r a c t t e r m s w e r e made  same q u e s t i o n s  i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways  seemed t o g i v e a more c o h e r e n t i d e a o f t h e  and  group  attitude. The to  get  purpose of t h i s  a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the  g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d by this and  s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f p l a y and  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  s e c t i o n were r e p e a t e d Post-Production  type  preference  i n order ( i f any)  production  questions  i n some f o r m i n t h e  Questionnaires^"'"  t h e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e and  The  was  in  Pre-Production to  discover  when  the  20  questions  are  a p p l i e d to a s p e c i f i c  Several series  The  t o c h o o s e one  opinion.  This  In the  first  those  the  theme, s t y l e ,  second asked  questions  type  t y p e was  which  and  asked  responses  to t h i s  question  pants'  s u b j e c t i v e , r a t h e r than  productions.  gave a c l e a r e r  Patterns  and  b e g a n t o show up used,  participant's  to  and  decide In  the  the p a r t i c i p a n t a l l the  of m u l t i p l e -  of the  o f an  when t r y i n g  was  choices  partici-  o b j e c t i v e , response  o f q u e s t i o n used  his  experience,  indication  personal  was  questions  to  the  individual's  w i t h i n e a c h q u e s t i o n when  e n j o y m e n t and  of  that  expressed  second type  groupings  particularly  Another type  forms  of a production.  of preference  of  answer  participant  of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e question  The  method was  the  the  participant  one)  k n o w l e d g e and  choice  response  the  most u s e f u l f o r  intention  t o number i n o r d e r  provided.  first  different  o r t h a t most c l o s e l y  about background, p r e v i o u s for  Two  (sometimes more t h a n  a p p l i c a b l e t o him  throughout  m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type  u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y .  q u e s t i o n were u s e d .  asked was  o f q u e s t i o n were u s e d  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  q u e s t i o n was this  types  production.  t o gauge  this a  response. i n the  survey  was  one 12  which The  involved contrasting pairs  p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d  aspects the  of  the  opposing  productions  terms.  Again,  of d e s c r i p t i v e  to indicate on  their  a five-point  this  type  words.  response  to  s c a l e between  of question, while  not  21 u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y , seemed t o g i v e o f the  participants'  question, gave t h e  used  a more p r e c i s e  s u b j e c t i v e response.  i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the  participant  the  A  final  s e r i e s , was  opportunity  indication type  one  to w r i t e  of  which  in his  own  response. The with  main a d v a n t a g e o f p r o v i d i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  a choice of  standardize  the  response,  i s t h a t i t was  a n s w e r s when c o m p i l i n g  a l s o made t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s The  choices  provided  participants t h e i r own ing  a n s w e r s , so  than  that  comprehensive  important  indirect.  aspect  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s were n o t  were they  d i s t r a c t e d by  right  a wrong answer t o t h e  I t must be when c o m p l e t e d ,  into  the  is felt  i n t e n t i o n behind any  less  in limit-  in  gives In  t o be  participants'  in this  are  direct  made t o  the  feel  and  that  questions,  nor a  questions.  t h a t the  General  a bare o u t l i n e of  Questionnaire, the  f u t u r e work, i f a more necessary,  in  rather  i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e was  emphasized  only  background.  profile  the  to w r i t e  questions  i s t h a t they  a concealed  pants'  complete.  significant  opportunity  of the  t h e r e was  and  to  and  I t i s perhaps  this  following questionnaires  than  quicker  and i t  responses.  One the  data,  t h a t t h e method u s e d was  took advantage o f  own  possible to  t h a t t h e y were f r e e t o w r i t e  i t might have been.  few  their  understood  the  e a s i e r and  were v e r y  then  partici-  comprehensive  a more i n t e n s i v e i n q u i r y  e d u c a t i o n a l background,  economic  b a c k g r o u n d , and  l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y w o u l d be  required to obtain  a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f t h e i r o u t l o o k and However, the danger o f a l i e n a t i n g p u t t i n g them on t h e d e f e n s i v e r e s p o n s e ) by  a too d e t a i l e d  g r o u n d i s one  t h a t m u s t be  attitude.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  (and t h u s a f f e c t i n g  investigation  and their  into their  kept i n mind.  back-  There i s a l s o  the  a d d i t i o n a l d a n g e r o f a l l o w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o become t o o l o n g and  unmanageable, b o t h from the p o i n t o f v i e w  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and  The The t h e y saw two  of the i n t e r v i e w e r .  Pre-Production  Questionnaire  q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n s w e r e d by  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p r o d u c t i o n s was  main p u r p o s e s .  of  The  p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e and t h e y were about t o see;  f i r s t was experience  brief  and  to d i s c o v e r the  before had  participants  of the p a r t i c u l a r  play  t h e s e c o n d , t o o b t a i n an o u t l i n e  t h e i r s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n .  The  b a s i c d e s i g n of a l l t h r e e P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e same, b u t t h e r e w e r e some v a r i a t i o n s productions The  t h e m s e l v e s w e r e so  of  s i n c e the  was  three  dissimilar.  f i r s t main s e c t i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l t 13  w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' In  t h e As_ You  p r e v i o u s knowledge of the  play.  Like I t Pre-Production Questionnaire  composed o f d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s  about the  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the play i t s e l f .  i t was  participants'  I t w o u l d , however, have  been more u s e f u l to have t r i e d to d i s c o v e r the f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Shakespearean comedy or w i t h  participants' Shakespeare's  works as a whole, s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t any  expectations  would be based on f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a c e r t a i n type o f p r o d u c t i o n , r a t h e r than on one p l a y o n l y . In the Tango and  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  Pre-Production  Questionnaires t h i s s e c t i o n included a l i s t of f i f t e e n s i m i l a r i n type to the one  plays  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' were about to  14  see.  The  they had  e i t h e r read o r seen a c c o r d i n g to how  enjoyed  p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to r a t e those  them.  much they  were about t o see, and  participants  the purpose of the q u e s t i o n was  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' response  the responses,  indicate l i t t l e on the l i s t  i n d i v i d u a l and  relation  cumulative,  t h a t i s r e l e v a n t to the study.  i n the I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  In  i n the Tango  P r e - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e seem to bear l i t t l e Tango, and  to  to t h i s g e n e r a l type.  r e t r o s p e c t , however, the p l a y s on the l i s t  to  had  The p l a y s on each l i s t were i n c l u d e d because  they were the same g e n e r a l type as the p l a y the  elicit  plays  The  plays  Pre-Production  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e are more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to S t r i n d b e r g ' s Ghost Sonata.  Since they bear l i t t l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the  p r o d u c t i o n , they cannot be r e l a t e d too s p e c i f i c a l l y u s e f u l l y to the p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f , to  although the  responses  t h i s q u e s t i o n d i d g i v e a f u l l e r p i c t u r e of the  pants' background.  T h i s q u e s t i o n , which t r i e s  a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d response  or  partici-  to d i s c o v e r  t o a g e n e r a l type of p l a y would  h a v e b e e n more u s e f u l i f i t h a d accurate  been worked o u t  detail.  I n t h e Tango P r e - P r o d u c t i o n was  added  anything  a s k i n g i f the about the  of a question  anything  about the  the  time  strike  should the  was  author,  e v a l u a t i o n s or The  or  Sonata  f u r t h e r developed  i f they  had  heard  production.  This  question  heard  Ghost  by  or  the  read  final  point that  t a k i n g p l a c e t h e r e was Consequently,  i n f o r m a t i o n was  about the  I n s i d e the  mentioned a t t h i s  i n Vancouver.  duction  read  a  form  one.  be  study  asking  particular  t h e more u s e f u l It  In the  q u e s t i o n was  addition  Questionnaire,  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  play.  questionnaire this  was  i n more  available,  interviews with  throughout  a newspaper  none o f u s u a l such  pre-pro-  as d i s c u s s i o n s  d i r e c t o r , a c t o r s and  critics  photographs.  p a r t i c i p a n t was  a l s o asked  what g e n e r a l  standard  15  and  style  he  expected  from the  theatre i n question.  These p a r t i c u l a r  q u e s t i o n s were b a s e d on  knowledge o f , o r  familiarity  were a l s o i n t e n d e d expectations  with,  to d i s c o v e r the  about the  production  In the main p a r t o f the tations, by  the  t h a t as  own  t h e a t r e , and  they  general  itself.  s e c t i o n on  responses  specific  t o answer t h e would b e . ^  regular theatre-goers  h a v e some i d e a o f t h e way  participant's  participants'  p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d  i m a g i n i n g what t h e i r  suggested  the  the  they would  t h e y were l i k e l y  to  expecquestions It  was  probably  respond.  This  approach  this  s e c t i o n were v e r y  included any  seemed t o work v e r y w e l l .  i n the  General  group t e n d e n c i e s .  were i n c l u d e d i n t h e to e s t a b l i s h reaction.  the  The  participants' tion  o f the  chapter  was  to express  further the  asked  type on  and  and  s t a g i n g they  after  the  the  General  theatrical  yet e a s i l y  and  questions The  t o be  final  two  an e x t e n s i o n o f  should  perhaps have been  t o d i s c o v e r the  by  the  t h a t the  Post-Production  really  An  to  enjoy.  expected  to  The  main  problem  participants. questions  without  examination this  be  of  A  in had  being  so  the  p r o b l e m was  solved.  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  General  Questionnaire,  included i n i t .  participants'  the  Questionnaires  productions  show how  the  their  i n language t h a t would  fact  questions  of  a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n  understood  themselves w i l l  inten-  production.  terms  meaningless.  and  most e x p e c t e d they  order  the  s t a g i n g and  Questionnaire.  the  in  and  impression  t o d e s c r i b e t h e way  been  section  to discover  approach of the  c o m p l i c a t i o n was  as  in this  in  discover  Questionnaire  a general  a p p l i c a b l e to a l l three  general  to  a b o u t theme, c o n t e n t  o f q u e s t i o n has  Pre-Production  t o be  already  c o r r e l a t i o n between e x p e c t a t i o n  p l a y and  during  questions  i n order  questions  Post-Production  about the  the  accurate  A l l the  expectations  They were a l s o  This  some h a d  q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d  o f the  f e e l both  and  Questionnaire  p l a y , as w e l l as  expectations aspects  simple,  The  reasons  and  T h e s e were  f o r buying  intended  season  26 tickets (The  and f o r coming t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r  play  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata P r e - P r o d u c t i o n  does n o t , o f c o u r s e ,  include the question  i n question.  Questionnaire  about  season  tickets.)  Post-Production The  Post-Production  functions. ticipants'  The f i r s t response  Questionnaire  h a d two m a i n  was t o o b t a i n an o u t l i n e  to the production  s e c o n d was t o p r o v i d e of  Questionnaire  o f the par-  as a w h o l e ,  some b a s i s f o r t h e d i r e c t  comparison  the groups' r e a c t i o n s t o each p r o d u c t i o n with  expectations.  For. t h i s  Pre-Production  Questionnaire  Production  second  Questionnaire  expectations,  these  and t h e  their  purpose, questions  were r e p e a t e d  i n the Post-  but instead of inquiring  questions  now a s k e d  from the  about  about r e a c t i o n s t o  17 the  specific  contributed to  productions. to the o u t l i n e  T h e s e same q u e s t i o n s o f t h e g r o u p members'  also response  t h e a t r e as a w h o l e . The  questions  are d i v i d e d i n t o  i n the Post-Production  t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s :  Questionnaire  (a) t h o s e  about  18 the  participants'  s u b j e c t i v e response  to the performance  19 (i.e., (its  d i d they  intention,  serious, aspects  enjoy  it?);  main c o n c e r n ,  realistic  (b) t h o s e  about the p l a y  w h e t h e r i t was c o m i c o r  o r u n r e a l i s t i c ) ; and (c) t h o s e a b o u t 20 o f the s t a g i n g . Questions about the p l a y i t s e l f  27  precede questions the  central  element and  about the  i d e a and  foremost  i n t e n t i o n of  i n the  was  a t the  correct.  suggestion  Now  time,  way  t h a t the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n would decide  three,  coherent  only  i d e a of the  experience,  the b e s t  this  that the  response,  problem  there  first.  assumption  i s some  arrangement.  Further  this.  one,  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s from  p o i n t s o f v i e w was  participants'  r a t h e r than  general  i s over  purpose of q u e s t i o n i n g  r a t h e r than  felt  o f knowing i f t h i s  study  not  I t was  p l a y w o u l d be  to deal with  no  t h a t t h i s was  The  the  participants'  i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e  T h e r e was,  production.  merely  response  to i s o l a t e d  to get  to the aspects  a  entire of  the  production. The  main problems o f t h i s  which have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d Pre-Production culties be  of expressing  clear  apply  Questionnaire.  to the  to the  the  i n the  questions  aspects  which would  of play  and  they  t o a l m o s t any  c o u l d be  used  theatrical  f o r the  should aspects  be of  m e n t i o n e d h e r e was the  performances  the  which would  production,  the  diffi-  would  production,  productions.  that c o n t i n u a l l y recurred throughout  the  accurately  purpose of comparing  responses of a group to d i f f e r e n t  those  on  i n terms which  second, of d e v i s i n g a s e t of questions applicable  chapter  T h e s e were f i r s t ,  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  various  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  study  that of describing  so  and  be that  the One and  problem which  visual  i n v e r b a l terms which had  the  28  same m e a n i n g  f o r both  In the  I n s i d e the Ghost  Questionnaire, labyrinth used  and  i n the  used are  cussed. of  the  previous  One  be  T h i s was  tended  and  types  f o r the  response  As  are  mentioned  and  Pre-  i s t h a t the  o f costumes  list  and  repeated  questions in  very  the  the although  longer  q u e s t i o n n a i r e took complete.  in  different  useful,  questionnaire slightly  twenty-five minutes to  dis-  extended.  i t proved  i t i s , the  not  question  purpose o f c r o s s - c h e c k i n g  and  the  have a l r e a d y been  description  Questionnaire  of  General  n o t i c e d t h a t some o f t h e  t o make t h e  desirable.  The  they  m i g h t , i n f u t u r e work, be  participants'  fifteen  f o r the  Post-Production  d e v i c e s w h i c h were  i n the  p o i n t t h a t s h o u l d be  Post-Production  was  slides,  and  interviewer.  were a d d e d t o c o v e r  productions.  Questionnaires,  It w i l l  forms.  and  which appeared  terms p r o v i d e d  scenery  it  film  and  Sonata  several questions  those  Production  participants  than  between  29  FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I  5  S e e p. 147.  6  S e e p. 149 q u e s t i o n ( i ) .  7 See pp. 147-148 q u e s t i o n s g  See pp. 148-149 q u e s t i o n s  (e) and  (f).  (g) and ( h ) .  9 See pp. 150-152 q u e s t i o n s (j) t o (n) and p. 153 q u e s t i o n s ( s ) , p.155 q u e s t i o n s (x) and ( z ) , p. 156 q u e s t i o n (aa), p. 157 q u e s t i o n ( f f ) , p. 158 q u e s t i o n ( i i ) to (kk). "^See p. 154 q u e s t i o n s (t) t o (w) , pp. 152-153 q u e s t i o n s (o) t o ( r ) , p. 155 q u e s t i o n ( y ) . "'""'•Compare pp. 152-153 q u e s t i o n s (o) t o (r) w i t h p. 161 q u e s t i o n (k) and pp. 165-166 q u e s t i o n ( d ) . 12 See p. 166 q u e s t i o n ( d ) . 13 See pp. 159-160 q u e s t i o n s  (c) t o  (j).  See p. 176 q u e s t i o n  p. 190 q u e s t i o n  14 (m),  (m) . 15 See p. 159 q u e s t i o n s  (a) and ( b ) .  "^See p. 161. 17 Compare pp. 161-163 q u e s t i o n s (k) t o (m) w i t h pp. 165-166 q u e s t i o n s (a) t o (d) , p. 167 q u e s t i o n ( f ) , p. 169 q u e s t i o n s (1) and (n), p. 170 q u e s t i o n (p) and p. 171 question ( t ) .  30 18  See p. 165 q u e s t i o n s (a) and (b), p. 166 l a s t p a r t of (d), p. 167 q u e s t i o n s ( f ) , (g) , and (h), p. 171 q u e s t i o n s (r) , ( s ) , (t) , and (u) , p. 172 q u e s t i o n (w) . 19  pp  165-166 q u e s t i o n s  (d) and ( e ) .  20 See p. 165 q u e s t i o n ( c ) , p. 167 q u e s t i o n 168-171 questions (j) t o ( q ) .  ( i ) , pp  CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTION OF THE  The in  t o t a l group o f t h i r t y - s i x people who  t h i s study comprised  students.  fifty.  participated  e i g h t e e n students and e i g h t e e n non-  The s t u d e n t s ' ages were from e i g h t e e n t o twenty-  f i v e , and the although  PARTICIPANTS  non-students'  ages from t h i r t y t o s i x t y ,  the m a j o r i t y o f the l a t t e r were between t h i r t y and Examination  o f the r e s u l t s d i s c l o s e d no d i s c e r n i b l e  d i f f e r e n c e between the a t t i t u d e s o f those between t h i r t y and  f o r t y and those between f i f t y  and s i x t y .  With r e g a r d t o the g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l l e v e l o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l l but one o f the e i g h t e e n nons t u d e n t s had graduated  from h i g h s c h o o l ; h a l f o f these had  u n i v e r s i t y degrees and f i v e had post-graduate of  degrees.  Six  these people were housewives, e i g h t had p r o f e s s i o n a l  c a r e e r s , one was a graduate business careers.  student, and the r e s t had  To conform w i t h the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f  the study, a l l the e i g h t e e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e year o l d s were u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , and, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one mathematics major, none was i n any o f the s c i e n c e s . (Perhaps  f u r t h e r study c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t students i n the s c i e n c e s are not,as interested  i n the t h e a t r e . )  a rule,  very  A c c o r d i n g to the responses to the q u e s t i o n s on l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s these people do not spend a g r e a t d e a l of time watching  television.  They seem t o be  s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r v i e w i n g and t o choose  highly  programs which  would l e t them f e e l t h a t the time they had spent t e l e v i s i o n was value.  worthwhile  watching  i n terms o f l e a r n i n g something  of  The types o f show t h a t they i n d i c a t e d they p r e f e r r e d  were drama, movies and news, and the programs they named as t h e i r f a v o r i t e shows were news,educational drama programs.  and  serious  Among the s p e c i f i c programs named by the  p a r t i c i p a n t s , even those shows whose i n t e n t i o n s were to e n t e r t a i n o f f e r e d more e d u c a t i o n a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l  content  21 than the average  t e l e v i s i o n show.  t o l e a r n something  T h i s apparent  desire  and t o have a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e  t e l e v i s i o n i s important as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the need of the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make time and e f f o r t i n any a c t i v i t y g i v e a p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e t u r n .  apparent invested  This a t t i t u d e  seems t o have a b e a r i n g on the group members  1  the t h e a t r e as w e l l .  attitude to  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the  s t u d e n t s i n the group watch l e s s t e l e v i s i o n than the s t u d e n t s , but t h i s may  from  be because  have easy access to' t e l e v i s i o n  non-  fewer of the s t u d e n t s  sets.  The m a j o r i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s go t o the movies at l e a s t once a month, mainly to p o p u l a r commercial which have had some measure o f c r i t i c a l For A l l Seasons,  a c c l a i m (A  films Man  f o r example) and they u s u a l l y enjoy  these  f i l m s a t l e a s t moderately.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d the  movies almost as f r e q u e n t l y as they a t t e n d f a c t , the m a j o r i t y  the t h e a t r e .  In  o f the group m a i n t a i n s t h a t going t o the  t h e a t r e , movies, and v i s i t i n g a r t g a l l e r i e s a r e among t h e i r main l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t few o f the opera, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e opera  i s c l o s e l y related to theatre. pants say t h a t they c o n s i d e r the most important aspect the a c t i n g it  Since most o f the p a r t i c i -  the p l a y w r i g h t ' s  theme t o be  o f a performance, f o l l o w e d by  (that i s , the r e a l i s t i c  representation  o f people)  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they f e e l they won't get s a t i s f a c t i o n  from the opera.  I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t o n l y two  members o f the group a t t e n d  n i g h t c l u b performances which  are a l s o a form o f t h e a t r e .  Among the p o s s i b l e  f o r t h i s a r e the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f n i g h t c l u b  explanations  entertainers  on t e l e v i s i o n and the p u r e l y e n t e r t a i n i n g q u a l i t y of t h i s k i n d o f t h e a t r e , which would n o t make the time seem p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l spent.  Further,  there  invested i s less re-  l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s k i n d o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t and the human e x p e r i e n c e than i s found a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l  theatre.  This  apparent n e c e s s i t y o f l i n k i n g s p e c t a c l e , a c t i o n and immediacy with some k i n d o f s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l relevance  or e t h i c a l  i s f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t few members  of the group a t t e n d  spectator  sports.  A f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s the h i g h  proportion  of p a r t i c i p a n t s who i n d i c a t e t h a t one o f t h e i r main i n t e r e s t s  34 is  visiting  art galleries,  suggests  that  terested  i n , the v i s u a l  The the of  they  particularly  are remarkably  s i n c e the study  unaware o f , and u n i n -  aspects o f t h e a t r i c a l  m a j o r i t y o f the group i n d i c a t e s  that  t h e a t r e i s one o f t h e i r m a i n i n t e r e s t s . the group,  however, m a i n t a i n  main i n t e r e s t .  Of t h e seven  where p l a y s o r t h e a t r i c a l available,  Although that  they  they  performances Wood  any f r e q u e n c y  are interested  Fewer t h a n h a l f  mainly  Theatre  by t h e g r o u p members.  t h e group had seen  Wood a n d P l a y h o u s e  exclusiveness  would  appear  kinds of theatre.  theatre i n other  experience  Theatres.  by  themselves  this from  their  themselves  t o t h e two t h e a t r e s a b o v e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e  conventional  that  Although  a t the  developing  group m a i n t a i n  faculties.  cities.  of theatre i s  Possibly,  t h e g r o u p members p r e v e n t critical  their  and the Playhouse  confined t o the type o f production presented  Frederic  half  are consistently  i n certain  T h i s means, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e i r  Fewer t h a n  p l a c e s i n Vancouver  i n theatre,it  are only interested  going to  i t was a c t u a l l y  established  only the Frederic  were a t t e n d e d w i t h  that  production.  they  t h e y h a v e h a d some e x p e r i e n c e  productions.  (In t h i s  study  restrict  o f un-  "unconventional"  means any p l a y t h a t h a s no s c e n e r y , m i x e d m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n s , or  those which i n v o l v e  participation.) at had  some d e g r e e  The g r o u p members e n j o y e d  l e a s t moderately.  Fewer t h a n h a l f  been t o p r o d u c t i o n s t h a t  experimental.  of physical  audience  these  the group,  productions however,  t h e y w o u l d d e s c r i b e as  35 The theatre  majority  a t the  and  final  In  s p i t e of  are  strongly  in this of  had  time been  a t one  few  the  F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e s  as  their  the  apparent safe  areas of  the  involved  the  to  say  that  the  evaluation  a production.  actual  theatre  group i s t h a t  i n some a s p e c t  i n v o l v e d a t the  a fairly  interesting  t o see  how  examining a l a r g e r The most l i k e  the  of  majority  either  see  o f which  this  play  the  r e i n f o r c e s the  suggestion  gravitate  towards the  familiar,  rather  theatre.  they would p r e f e r p l a y s theme, r a t h e r  and This  be  affected  by  the the  with  than those with  type of  most  participants which  More members o f ethical  a romantic  play  experience.  they  a more a d v e n t u r o u s  an  by  i t i s perhaps  drama i s t h e  that  would  drama, f o l l o w e d  type of play with  than t a k i n g  the  i t would  w o u l d be  a v a n t g a r d e drama, and  g r o u p seems t o h a v e had  when a t t e n d i n g  study.  group i n d i c a t e d they  t h a t modern s e r i o u s  the  and  proportion  were modern s e r i o u s  modern comedy and significant  proportion,  the  high  sample.  types of to  high  time of  by One  u n i v e r s i t y , amateur, o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e ,  were s t i l l  good  i n d i f f e r e n c e to  influenced in this  members o f  seems t o be  This  of  discussion of  experience  a  standard  p r o f i c i e n c y i n these  point  school,  group r a t e d  costumes i t i s p r o b a b l y  participants technical  the  P l a y h o u s e and  to e x c e l l e n t . scenery  of  or  a  most  approach  the  or with  are  group a  say  social  political  36  theme.  The  m a j o r i t y would p r e f e r to  inner world plays  of the  a b o u t the  mind, a l t h o u g h  real  world.  s i x would p r e f e r p l a y s it  to the and  personal  audience,  familiarity  play-going  O n l y two  are  serious  preferred.  seem t o p l a y  no  or The  an  the  to provide  This  preference  about the  in  More members o f an  i s probably  for plays  inner world  of  with the  demand a more p e r s o n a l ,  response  from the  involvement preference  audience.  i s supported for seats  by  i n the  than  a position  awareness o f t e c h n i q u e position  their  This the  a t the  and  back o f the  detached a viewpoint.  consider-  the  group  experience,  about  life  or  be  the  theme  and  mind, s i n c e  these  would  therefore  desire for  middle of the  emotional, emotional  of the  group's  theatre.  more c o n d u c i v e  c l o s e t o the  stage,  emotional  where  might d i s t r a c t ,  most i m p o r t a n t  This  to  house which might tend The  be  ethical  majority  detail  a  to  consistent with an  and  i s generally considered  involvement  emotional  statement  probably  position  recognition  group would p r e f e r a p l a y  t h a n make a s i g n i f i c a n t  indicated  a  familiar  elements of part  thirty-  general,  to  to a world  prefer  of  In  related  important  preference.  entertaining.  plays  people out  be  the  would  r a t h e r than merely e n t e r t a i n i n g , though  would p r e f e r a p l a y  only  a few  about  experience.  a b l e number had  rather  plays  about a f a n t a s y w o r l d .  experience,  More members o f  too  quite  seems t h a t p l a y s whose a c t i o n c a n  recognizable  see  or to  aspects  an a create of  a  production acting.  f o r the  Very  interested  few  group are are  the  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  p r i m a r i l y i n scenery  p r e f e r minimal  scenery,  scenery  i s comparatively  minimal  scenery  which  refers to  realistic actually  detail. dislike  I t has of  the  i s very  study  A  lavish,  already this  had  the  of  members d i d n o t theatres.  The  majority  indication In  and/or complete  been p o i n t e d broken  season  t o the  have season sample  that  i s too  the  to  in  every they  purposes  smaller  for both  three  those  who  major types are  very  and  G r o u p C whose  to e i t h e r of small  these  i n t e r e s t e d i n seeing  a l o t of  are  plays  and  who  live  attend are  i t requires l i t t l e particular  effort;  productions  attend and  those  which appeal  s e v e r a l major d i f f e r e n c e s between the  show up cussed  i n an i n the  examination of  the  following sections.  data,  the  and  one  There  make a p o i n t o f p a t r o n i z i n g U n i v e r s i t y t h e a t r e ;  because  two  t o make a p o s i t i v e  of Vancouver theatre-goer.  Vancouver area.and  Play-  G r o u p B whose members  who  i n the  groups:  the  statement, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t each group r e p r e s e n t s of  study,  only  f o r the  into three  tickets  tickets  that  scenery.  out  Playhouse;  are  this  group i n d i c a t e t h a t  spectacular  g r o u p was  While the  none  costumes, i n c o n t r a s t  the  the  and  t o them.  F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e s ;  season t i c k e t s  the  theme and  s t a g i n g which provides  G r o u p A whose members had h o u s e and  plot,  costumes.  supports  elaborate few  or  unimportant  b a r e n e c e s s i t i e s i n s e t s and s t a g i n g which  playwright's  those  Playhouse who  only  t o them. groups these  There  which are  dis-  38 Profile  The tickets  to both  the  fairly  to have a r a t h e r  and  the  and  arts. this  though  are  As  are  fact  tickets  that to  serious  and  a l l the  i n community  t o be  a serious  evidence of use  of  it  the  comes t o  community. standard  of  more e r r a t i c  an  organized  they  are  fully  g r o u p members a r e  attending  the  A possible production and  the  other  committed not  and  at these  very  play  the  way  arts,  they  recreational t h e y seem  to  season to  It also the  seems  theatre  these  two  adventurous theatres i s that  is likely  presented  to  activities.  inclination  for this  theatres  enter-  outgoing.  service  established  explanation  type o f  are  a t t i t u d e towards  l e i s u r e time.  the  opera.  program.  own  on  escapist  group have  their  Although theatres,  the  indicates their  to  the  outlook  entertainment  about the  organized;  Theatres,  educational  i n t e r e s t s and  members o f  theatres  or  Group A  committed  and  commit t h e m s e l v e s  and  towards the  their  some e x t e n t  two  and  a marked t e n d e n c y  members o f  structured  to  taste  than towards p u r e l y  l e i s u r e time;  involved  F r e d e r i c Wood  i n t e r e s t e d i n symphonies  They seem t o be  activities  the  season  i n d i c a t e some i n t e r e s t i n most o f  a group, the  spend t h e i r  g r o u p w h i c h had  a t t i t u d e towards  group t o g r a v i t a t e  They  The  serious  A  in their  T h e r e seems t o be  tainment.  be  P l a y h o u s e and  instructive, rather  few  the  conservative  and  of  Group  members o f G r o u p A,  seem t o be  part  of  when in the  to  be  is likely  to  the  39 be  less  predictable  the Playhouse.  than  a t t h e F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e  In o t h e r words, i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r  support,  t h e members o f t h e g r o u p seem t o want some a s s u r a n c e their  evening  a t the t h e a t r e w i l l  terms o f c o n f o r m i n g  to a c e r t a i n  be w o r t h  and  that  t h e i r while  s t a n d a r d and  in  fulfilling  their expectations. The  members o f Group A h a v e h a d  seeing theatre i n other c i t i e s , of p l a y s tends and  in  They p r e f e r  more i n t e r e s t e d  the p h y s i c a l interested  that  i s , c o s t u m e s and  i n the v i s u a l  experience  they would p r e f e r than  must be this  their  they  than are  not  aspects of a production,  groups  experience Although  traditional  have a t t e n d e d  d u c t i o n s which they  and  they  p r e f e r e n c e f o r an  1  t o be  t h e members o f G r o u p  realistic are not  enjoyed.  They  usually  A  productions, i t  inflexible  feel  that  intellectual  about  a number o f n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l  V a n c o u v e r t h e a t r e i s g o o d and they  of a play  they  a t the t h e a t r e , Group A i n d i c a t e s  p o i n t e d out t h a t  and  they p r e f e r )  scenery.  emotional.  seem t o p r e f e r  (which  i n staging, but  i n the c o n t e n t  In s p i t e o f the t o t a l  rather  realism  drama  experience  a s p e c t s o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n , and  very  emotional  experience  t h e i r main  t o w a r d s modern r e a l i s t i c  classics.  are r e a l l y  and  some  the  enjoy  standard the  proof  productions  attend. This  conservative  group, t h e n , s e e m s t o have a f a i r l y ;  attitude  towards the  theatre.  serious  Their  and  interest  40 seems t o a r i s e  from  a combination  tained  and a w i s h  social  v a l u e s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e  production mainly  to learn  of a desire  something  t o be e n t e r -  i n t e r m s o f human o r  that  they  evaluate a  i n terms o f t h e f u l f i l l m e n t  o f these  wishes.  Profile The tickets in  members o f G r o u p B, t h e g r o u p  to the Playhouse  their  o f Group B  attitude  o n l y , seem somewhat  towards t h e t h e a t r e than  G r o u p A, a n d do n o t h a v e t h e same for in  activities intention.  and  clearly  which a r e i n s t r u c t i v e , On t h e w h o l e ,  B a r e more l o o s e l y organized  which had  c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s  committed about  t h e way  serious  t h e members o f defined  inclination  e d u c a t i o n a l and  the l e i s u r e  structured;  less  season  activities  social  o f Group  t h e y do n o t seem t o b e l o n g t o and t h e y  they  spend  seem l e s s their  serious  leisure  time  t h a n do t h e members o f G r o u p A. G r o u p B's more r e l a x e d a t t i t u d e approach  to theatre.  the Playhouse and This  Although  seems t o i n d i c a t e  planation  they have season  go t o t h e a t r e s o t h e r t h a n that  theatre i s a rather  to these p a r t i c i p a n t s , for their  less  serious  and t h i s attitude  might  i n their  tickets to  t h e y do n o t seem t o go t o a l l t h e  t h e y do n o t o f t e n  interest  i s reflected  performances, the Playhouse. casual  be one e x -  towards  plays.  /  / /  41 A l t h o u g h modern the  serious  i s not the type o f play that  of  but are automatically  plays  plays that  they  f o r which they hold  prefers  plays  that  serious.  prefer  the  On  plays  expresses  with  society  rather  have s o c i a l  a place  it  i s necessary It  where,  emotional, of  less  according  those which  state  possibly  relevance  seem t o f e e l  G r o u p B seems t o r e g a r d evening  asking  they would l i k e were  that what  t o have quite  than  experience,  or society.  the responses of type o f play  they  e t c . ) and what  type  (entertaining,  scattered.  indicates that  to pre-established  that  the  rather  t o have a w o r t h w h i l e  to note  they  and d o e s n o t h a v e t o  (modern comedy, c l a s s i c s ,  possibly  that  experience at  to l e a r n something about l i f e  educational)  uniformity  they  in itself  i n order  Group B t o t h e q u e s t i o n s  of experience  also  play  Group B  than  and t h i s  t o have a p l e a s a n t  i s interesting  would p r e f e r  theme,  I n t h i s way  significance.  as  rather  suggests the  t h a n an e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h h a s  i s complete  as a p l a c e  tickets.  choice  those  I t also  f o r a more p e r s o n a l  i n general.  a performance  season  hand, they  an e t h i c a l  in their  o f d i s c o v e r i n g what  their  the other  It is  to attend  tickets.  are e n t e r t a i n i n g ,  a preference  theatre,  theatre  t h e y buy  selective  inclined  season  t h e y do n o t make a p o i n t  about b e f o r e  are  are not highly  play seeing,  t h e y seem t o p r e f e r .  possible  to  i s the type o f  members o f G r o u p B h a v e t h e most e x p e r i e n c e o f  this  is  drama  they  ideas  This  lack  are responding  about the  function  42  of  the t h e a t r e than The most  according  important  to individual  aspect  of a production  members o f Group B i s t h e a c t i n g , and t h e y the  visual  Unlike  aspects  interest  in realistic  would p r e f e r minimal study  be u n o b t r u s i v e distracting  pleasant is  s t a g i n g t o any o t h e r k i n d .  from i t .  This apparent  p r e f e r the scenery t o than  lack of interest i n  t h a t s p e c t a c l e i s an i m p o r t a n t  and e n t e r t a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e  than  i s true, or  seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  deduced from t h e f a c t  rather  say they  Further  and s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e a c t i o n r a t h e r  c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y assumption  t o them.  s t a g i n g , and t h e y  a c t u a l l y mean t h a t t h e y  that  do n o t i n d i c a t e any  might i n d i c a t e whether o r n o t t h i s  whether they  to the  indicate  of a play are not important  t h e members o f G r o u p A, t h e y  particular  preferences.  exclusively  element o f a  a t the t h e a t r e .  This  t h a t Group B p r e f e r s e n t e r t a i n i n g s e r i o u s t h e a t r e , and y e t do n o t  feel  t h a t c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y  this  experience.  They r e l y ,  a r e an i m p o r t a n t  aspect o f  r a t h e r , on t h e a c t i n g .  Some o f t h e members o f G r o u p B, t h o u g h n o t a s many as  i n G r o u p A, h a v e h a d some e x p e r i e n c e  productions; were asked  very  few have b e e n t o p r o d u c t i o n s  to participate.  some e x p e r i e n c e  was  G r o u p A, f e l t good.  non-conventional i n which  they  The members o f Group B h a v e h a d  of theatre i n other  t h e members o f Group B e n j o y like  seeing  cities.  themselves  t h a t the standard  On t h e w h o l e ,  a t the t h e a t r e , and,  o f Vancouver t h e a t r e  43 Profile  o f Group C  G r o u p C i s t h e g r o u p whose members, w h i l e themselves tickets  as r e g u l a r  for either  Theatres. less of  social  their  istic  pursuits.  the l i s t  t h a n t h e members  leisure  interest  to  were c h o s e n  social,  time  i t i s possible  i n more s o l i t a r y  Although  t h e members  symphony, w h i c h  of  t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s  and t o f i l m s ,  and more  they individual-  they i n d i c a t e  This  has been mentioned is difficult  that  on  o f Group C a r e i n t e r e s t e d  i n symphony o r o p e r a .  in  by t h e members  p r o v i d e d , a n d as t h e a c t i v i t i e s  going to the A r t G a l l e r y  little  activities  a few a c t i v i t i e s  were g e n e r a l l y  spend  in  leisure  o f G r o u p C t e n d t o be  p r o g r a m s as f a r as t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e  Only  Group C from list  t h e F r e d e r i c Wood o r t h e P l a y h o u s e  i n their  structured  the  season  G r o u p s A o r B, and t h e y do n o t seem t o a d h e r e  concerned. of  g o e r s , d i d n o t have  On t h e w h o l e , t h e members  either  any  theatre  describing  lack  very  of interest  i n the discussions to explain  without  further research. Comparing t h e range s e e n by t h e members  o f f i l m s , , on t h e l i s t  of this  group w i t h  provided,  t h e amount o f t i m e  22  they  spend  going to films,  and takxng  the  list  the  time o f the study, i t would  of  was composed o f c o m m e r c i a l  into  account  movies a v a i l a b l e a t  appear  that  t h e members  G r o u p C p r o b a b l y go t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f  series  or attend f i l m  interest  i n films  society  showings.  as an a r t f o r m ,  that  rather  This  film  s u g g e s t s an  than merely  as an  44 e n t e r t a i n m e n t medium, and t h i s  point  in  some o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h i s  In  the f i r s t  place,  accept  a production  without  demanding  relevance.  Also,  they  o f view i s r e f l e c t e d  group towards  a r e p o s s i b l y more i n c l i n e d  as a c o m p l e t e work o f a r t i n  that  i t have  some e d u c a t i o n a l  t h e members o f Group C a r e  more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y of  the other  whole or  two  groups.  This  have a l e s s c l e a r l y of  a play,  that  defined  w h i c h must be  fulfilled  minimal of  A possible  realistic  i s that  scenery  supportive  that  explanation first  than  of the  serious  function  f o r them  during  i n the  the scenery  for this noticed  to  feel  a per-  these p a r t i c i p a n t s f i n d  theme.  scenery  t o be  preference  i n the  for  responses  elaborate  i n t r u s i v e and d i s t r a c t i n g , r a t h e r  or  than  o f the a c t i o n .  The members o f G r o u p C w o u l d p r e f e r either  was  i n t e r e s t e d i n the playwright's  s c e n e r y , w h i c h was  G r o u p B,  on t h e  experience.  c o s t u m e s , and t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r  minimal.  idea  i n order  They a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a c t i n g and  t h e members  t h e members o f G r o u p C  The members o f G r o u p C m a i n t a i n a r e most  social  considerably  than  preconceived  they have had a s a t i s f y i n g  formance t h e y  or  as t o w h e t h e r a p l a y  suggests that  to  itself,  Group C i n d i c a t e d t h a t  t h e y h a d no p r e f e r e n c e  entertaining.  theatre.  a social  o r an e t h i c a l  theme,  plays  with  and t h e y w o u l d  prefer  t o h a v e an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r  than  educational  seems t o i n d i c a t e  or e n t e r t a i n i n g  one.  This  an e x c l u s i v e l y  45 that  they  e x p e c t more f r o m  a p r o d u c t i o n than  o f G r o u p B, who w o u l d p r e f e r don't  feel  value,  that  t o be e n t e r t a i n e d , and t h e y  a p r o d u c t i o n must h a v e some p o s i t i v e  i s interesting  been i n v o l v e d  that  i n some k i n d  t o attendance,  Frederic  Wood T h e a t r e  t h e m a j o r i t y o f Group C has  o f t h e a t r e a t one t i m e .  almost several  times  i n the previous  This either  o f attendance  indicates  o r an i n t e r e s t  that  a rather  themselves  possibly  be d e t e r m i n e d  at  theatres.  i n the theatre,  by t h e t y p e o f p r o d u c t i o n  p r o v i d e d b y t h e two U.B.C. t h e a t r e s . restrict  and t h e r e i s  a t other Vancouver  casual interest  i s satisfied  year,  Somerset S t u d i o .  few, however, h a d b e e n t o t h e P l a y h o u s e ,  n o t much i n d i c a t i o n  With  a l l o f Group C h a d b e e n t o t h e  and more t h a n h a l f h a d b e e n t o t h e D o r o t h y Very  social  as do t h e members o f G r o u p A. It  regard  t h e members  S i n c e t h e Group members  i n t h i s way, t h e i r  attitudes  will  by t h e t y p e o f t h e a t r e a v a i l a b l e  t h e s e two p l a c e s . G r o u p C's main e x p e r i e n c e o f p l a y s seems t o be o f  modern s e r i o u s  drama/ b u t more members o f t h i s  of  t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s  be  called  experimental.  modern s e r i o u s considerable ductions Only  half  have seen  productions that  They would  drama o r a v a n t  group  garde  prefer  than  could  t o see e i t h e r  theatre.  They  have  experience of seeing non-conventional  pro-  and some e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e i n o t h e r o f t h e group  i n V a n c o u v e r was g o o d ,  felt  that  the rest  cities.  the standard of theatre felt  i t was f r o m  fair to  mediocre.  T h i s w o u l d seem  this  group have  than  the  members  a higher of  the  to  indicate  standard with other  two  that  the  regard  groups.  to  members theatre  47 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I I  21 See p. 148 q u e s t i o n ( f ) . 22 See p. 148 q u e s t i o n  (g) and p. 149 q u e s t i o n ( h ) .  CHAPTER IV  GROUP RESPONSE TO AS YOU L I K E I T  As  You L i k e  The production  I t - Description of Production  main i n t e n t i o n o f t h e F r e d e r i c Wood o f As_ You L i k e  Theatre  I t was t o e n t e r t a i n t h e  For  this  purpose,  the  play  and t h e s e r i o u s u n d e r t o n e s were l a r g e l y  and  the element o f parody, which  the  p l a y , was m a i n l y  was p l a y e d beginning  apparently,  ignored.  down, t h e r e  audience.  the problems suggested  undeveloped,  i s an e s s e n t i a l  Because thematic  seemed t o be l i t t l e  t o end o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n .  by  aspect o f material  development  Consequently  from  the a c t i o n  d e p e n d e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w h i c h , perhaps because o f t h e i r artificial  and u n i n t e r e s t i n g .  which, while  i t was a t t r a c t i v e  m e a n i n g l e s s and r a t h e r The in  superficial  general  The r e s u l t was a t o look  style  of the production  t h a t i t c o n f o r m e d t o an a c c e p t e d Shakespearean t r a d i t i o n .  scribed  the v i s u a l 23  Stage  Door:  a t , was  seemed production essentially  boring.  century  in  treatment,  effect  type  was  traditional,  of twentieth  D r . F.B. S t . C l a i r d e -  o f the production  i n h i s review  49 The c o s t u m e s a n d a r t n o u v e a u F o r e s t 'of A r d e n a p p e a r e d t o b e an e s s a y i n e v o k i n g a t u r n o f - t h e - c e n t u r y Shakespeare p r o d u c t i o n . . . . The various  t r e e s , grassy  a b r o o k , were t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  and a l t h o u g h  were a r e a l it  s e t created a fantasy world.  elements o f the f o r e s t :  flowers, ial,  F o r e s t o f Arden  indicated  the audience  but highly  was n o t e x p e c t e d  The t r a n s i t i o n  by h a n g i n g  streamers.  from w i n t e r  the trees with  The o v e r a l l  effect  blue  of this  arid  quality  t o the scene which  c o u r t scenes  no p u r p o s e .  on t h e f o r e s t a g e i n  o f a p l a i n d r o p which had a n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  suggesting  pillars.  T h i s s e t was s i m p l e  d o m i n a n t c o l o u r was g r a y , contrast  period,  and i t p r o v i d e d  costumes d i d n o t s t r i c t l y  although  particularly  scenes  motif  i n the c o u r t scenes.  the c o u r t scenes  were m a i n l y  a considerable  colours.  t o any h i s t o r i c a l  medieval,  o r perhaps  t o t h e costume  scheme,  The c o s t u m e c o l o u r s i n  wine and b l u e ,  brown a n d b e i g e , w i t h  and Audrey  lighter  and a u s t e r e , t h e  belong  t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e  more a c c u r a t e l y , P r e - R a p h a e l i t e ,  forest  design  t o the f o r e s t .  The  stone  chiffon  t h e r e was a s a d ,  seemed t o s e r v e  were p l a y e d  to accept  s e t was p a s t o r a l  perhaps because o f the a r t i f i c i a l i t y ,  front  artific-  t o summer was  and g r e e n  but,  The  banks,  t h e a c t o r s t r e a t e d t h e s e t as t h o u g h i t  locale,  as r e a l i s t i c .  The  and i n t h e  Jaques i n b l a c k ,  Touch-  i n m o t l e y , a n d some o f t h e o t h e r s i n The g e n e r a l  e f f e c t was muted  and somewhat  austere.  /  / /  50  The the  cumulative  establishment  of  e f f e c t of  c o s t u m e s and  a non-existent,though  scenery  perhaps  was  not  ideal, world. In  general,  production sistently  was  Le  were t h e  Beau.  ances t h a t and  rather  ideas  the  unnatural,  picked  by  J a q u e s and  the  and  Rosalind,  was  no  In  the  unity  the  had  reasons  the  The  for their  the  acting,  to  funny,  describes  which  their the  acting the  and  in  there  style.  acting  as: . . . a galloping exercise broad a c t i n g .  play.  Touchstone  degree,  the  a  characters.  action of  a considerable  St. C l a i r  Rosalind,  hand, employed  those p l a y i n g  o v e r a l l approach  perform-  playing  s t y l e of  to  Celia,  actions  those p l a y i n g minor  relation  conThe  i n these  actors  other  particularly  same r e v i e w , D r .  this  motivation.  some s u g g e s t i o n  to  in  movement were  T o u c h s t o n e were o f t e n  overacted to  and  presentational  little  actors,  acting  p l a y i n g Duke F r e d e r i c k ,  a number o f  performances bore Many o f  actors  T o u c h s t o n e , on  up  the  E n e r g y and  about t h e s e a c t i o n s .  curious,  of  f o r thought  characters  and  Although  low.  T h e r e was  Orlando,  was  standard  substituted  exceptions and  the  unremittingly  R o m a n t i c s c e n e s were p l a y e d i n t h e same h e c t o r i n g manner as t h e r u s t i c e p i s o d e s , and e v e r y t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g nuance i n i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a b s e n t . G i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t w o u l d be unf a i r t o c r i t i c i z e i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s ; even the F r e d d y Wood's u s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f E q u i t y and s t u d e n t p l a y e r s f a i l e d t o y i e l d any p e r f o r m a n c e s t h a t emerged w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n f r o m t h e o v e r a l l m e d i o c r i t y o f t h e e f f o r t . 24  51 As was  the  The Since  t h e r e was  no  t h e p l a y d e p e n d e d on  the  t h e r e was  suggestion  connection with  ships  production  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  of the  relationships the  exceptions  the  already  mentioned,  people.  Consequently,  p l a y , the  arbitrary  action  between  c h a r a c t e r s on  and  professional.  development, the  t h a t the  real  seemed a r t i f i c i a l  conventions  student  thematic  However, w i t h  no  of  c a s t of t h i s  p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e d w h i c h a c t o r s were  characters.  any  the  composed o f a c o m b i n a t i o n  actors.  of  above s u g g e s t s ,  and,  stage the  had relation-  even w i t h i n  a c t i o n seemed m e c h a n i c a l  the and  contrived. The enjoyable, fulfill in  p r o d u c t i o n was  e s c a p i s t evening  this  terms o f  intended  intention,  any  to provide  f o r i t s audience.  a happy, In o r d e r  s t i m u l a t i n g elements of the  i d e a s o r p r o b l e m s were d e - e m p h a s i z e d by  to play  the  production. In s p i t e o f the general majority ing  audience  response  of people  themselves  critical  and  who  comments o u t l i n e d a b o v e ,  to this  went t o t h e  p r o d u c t i o n was  good.  p l a y seemed t o be  seemed t o a p p r o v e o f t h e  The  enjoy-  production.  The  E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group A A b o u t As The  group t h a t  optimistic  a t t e n d e d As_ You  You  Like It  L i k e I t had  e x p e c t a t i o n s about the p r o d u c t i o n .  they  expect  that  they  to enjoy  also  themselves,  expected  to f e e l  but  Not  there are  better  very only d i d  suggestions  after having  seen  25 the p l a y than The  It  b e f o r e t h e y had  Wood T h e a t r e  this  t o be  p r o d u c t i o n t o be  is difficult  experimental It  had  treatment  a romantic,  of a romantic  that  they  t o be  as w e l l  as  t h e p r o d u c t i o n t o be  serious  intentions.  t o be  suggested are  experimental.  escapist  they comedy.  an  unrealistic  very  this  the  unrealistic  without  and  fantasy, which f o r the  not.  particular  They d i d e x p e c t  possibilities limited  an  comedy o r  t h e members o f t h e g r o u p e x p e c t e d  infinite  actually  and  escapist  d i d not expect  production  Although  experimental,  staging at  t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e y were e x p e c t i n g  i s more p r o b a b l e  duction  seen i t .  members o f G r o u p A g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t e d  the F r e d e r i c expected  they  play  the  any  pro-  c o u l d have  staging, their  when a n t i c i p a t i n g  the  ideas  costumes  and  26 scenery.  Few  felt  that either  historical,  which would  choice.  t h e o t h e r h a n d , no  scenery that these  On  t o be  modern.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s aspects.  of these  seem t o be one  This limited do  a s p e c t s would  at l e a s t  one  expected  costumes  response  logical and  seems t o  n o t g i v e much a d v a n c e t h o u g h t  Perhaps they  do  not  feel  that  be  costumes  suggest to and  53  scenery  a r e an i m p o r t a n t  possible which of  they  are not r e a l l y  the production. suggests  according  members a r e most actors, style  t h a t the group i s responding  own  interested  to these according  t h a t Group A  i n a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e  and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they  feel  t h a t mood a n d  a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e a c t o r s .  however,  and  from t h e t o t a l e f f e c t  style  aspects  frame o f r e f e r e n c e , r a t h e r  o f t h e p l a y and p r o d u c t i o n  of a production  I ti s  ideas.  probable,  it  that i t i s these  The u n i f o r m i t y o f r e s p o n s e  to their  The a s p e c t  enjoyment.  t h e mood a n d d e f i n e t h e s t y l e  some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d g e n e r a l  than  i n their  aware  significantly establish  questions to  factor  t h a t they  do n o t s e p a r a t e  I ti s  mood, a t m o s p h e r e  of the production.  Thus  i s t h e a c t i n g and c h a r a c t e r s , n o t t h e c o s t u m e s a n d  scenery,  which create t h i s  effect  f o r t h e members o f t h i s  group. Although at  t h e members o f G r o u p A a r e f a i r l y  seeing p l a y s , they  aspects  o f the production  they  seem  This  suggests  the that  do n o t seem v e r y  disposed  effect their  experience.  as s e p a r a t e  t o take  that their  a critical,  main i n t e r e s t  i t h a s o n them e m o t i o n a l l y , indicated  preference  experienced  aware o f t h e v a r i o u s components, analytical  n o r do approach.  i n the theatre i s i n spite  of the f a c t  i s f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l  54  The  R e a c t i o n s o f Group A  In d i s c u s s i n g Like  I t i t i s important  intention and  of  that  the  audience  was  ters,  They  and  and  various  production and  as  was  felt the  it  the  occasion  i n s u c h a way  question  and  and  i t can  in fact  and  i t i s possible the  they  the seen  serious  attitude  the  the  towards the  of  action  play  was  p r o b a b l y be  the  play  unfold  a  fantasy,  assumed  t h e y do  descriptions.  play  particularly  play  charac-  obligation.  although  the  the  a f t e r having  They a c c e p t e d  b e t w e e n t h e s e two that  audience  situations.  i t i s interesting that  out  primary  that  h a v e much  uncritical  intellectual  You  whole e n j o y e d  refreshed  production.  that  the  about the  the  the  d i d not  not  response to  complimentary  that  t o As_  to e n t e r t a i n the  g r o u p on  a very  (by w h i c h  pointed  believable),  or  production  group f e l t  was  again  experience of watching  inconsistency  their  relaxed  of  It  a more t h a n a d e q u a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n  realistic  must be  this  t h e y had  mean b e l i e v a b l e ) any  was  out  presented  actions,  f e e l i n g any The  Like  a s k e d t o make d e c i s i o n s  aspects  enjoyed  without  it  not  felt  intention  to p o i n t  a c t i o n was  You  participants' reaction  production  members o f  production it.  the  judge t h e i r The  the  the  t o As  that  as  i n an  than the  pejorative  hand, i t i s e n t i r e l y  possible  that  term.  (or  t h e y were a b l e  this even  to  chose On  see  However,  attempt  automatically  rather  not  p r e s e n t e d on  realistic  they  express  the the  to  other  suspend  their  disbelief  to the extent that  the action  d i d seem  believable. It  i s interesting  distinction and  cases  stone In  felt  and Jaques,  enjoyed  t h e most  gave t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e s .  and t h e female  romantic  In  c h a r a c t e r s , Touchlead, Rosalind.  g e n e r a l , i f the c h a r a c t e r i s e n j o y a b l e i n h i m s e l f they t h e a c t o r has g i v e n a good  whether o r not t h a t  a c t o r has c o n t r i b u t e d  performance,  t o the development  t h e theme a n d t h e mood o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o r h a s c r e a t e d  a believable  c h a r a c t e r s h o w i n g e v i d e n c e o f some l i f e  the r e p e t i t i o n o f h i s l i n e s . of  does n o t make any  t h e s e were t h e two m a i n c o m i c  seem t o t h i n k t h a t  of  t h e group  between t h e c h a r a c t e r s they  the a c t o r s they  both  that  Besides having the  advantage  b e i n g c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y demanded  all  t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s were p r e s e n t e d  a simple v e r s i o n apparent and  that  actors.) selves  and t h i s  enjoy.  very  good  acting, time.  overacted  and T o u c h s t o n e  The a u d i e n c e ,  a way a s t o make  and i d e a  immediately  then,  ( i t i s perhaps  d i d n o t h a v e t o e x e r t themseems t o be an i m p o r t a n t  p l a y - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e , one w h i c h they  felt  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  few o f t h e g r o u p  they  the standard o f a c t i n g  and a l t h o u g h  c o u l d hear  i s no i n d i c a t i o n ,  signifi-  were p l a y e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l  opportunity to relax  Although  There  attention,  The a c t o r s p l a y i n g R o s a l i n d  definitely  Jaques  aspect o f t h e i r and  every motive  to the audience.  Touchstone  cant  of their  i n such  beyond  they  expect was  enjoyed the  a l l the actors a l lthe  however, t h a t  this  bothered  56 them v e r y much.  T h i s seems t o c o r r o b o r a t e  audiences  t o miss a t l e a s t  on  expect  stage.  saying  a reluctance  about  t h a t any o f t h e a c t o r s were n o t so g o o d as t h e and t h i s  may o r may n o t be a r e f l e c t i o n  tendency  t o make a l l o w a n c e s  attitude  may h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e n e r a l  production.  f o r student  This i n t u r n suggests  aware o f some s h o r t c o m i n g s ment i s n o t much a f f e c t e d  by  that  some o f what i s g o i n g on  The g r o u p seemed t o f e e l  majority,  their  the idea  performers. response  The  This  to the  that,although  they a r e  i n the production, t h e i r by t h i s  awareness.  e v a l u a t i o n they  enjoy-  In general  e n j o y m e n t does n o t seem t o be s u b s t a n t i a l l y  any c r i t i c a l  of the  affected  m i g h t make.  group's c h o i c e o f d e s c r i p t i v e  terms  f o r the 27  costumes and s c e n e r y The  most p o p u l a r  Touchstone's. popular  was a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n .  c o s t u m e s were F r e d e r i c k ' s , R o s a l i n d ' s a n d  It i s significant  c o s t u m e s were worn b y t h e a c t o r s who were c h o s e n as  the b e s t  a n d who p r e s e n t e d  Possibly  t h e group f e l t  most e f f e c t i v e l y  only  clearly  interesting  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s  characters. chosen  o f the charac-  i s t h a t t h e members  remember t h e c o s t u m e s worn by c h a r a c t e r s on them.  two o u t o f t h e t h r e e  Rosalind's  costumes  A further possibility  who made an i m p r e s s i o n that  two o f t h e f a v o r i t e  that the three  expressed  t e r s w e a r i n g them. could  that, two o f t h e most  Perhaps i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  c o s t u m e s , F r e d e r i c k ' s and  were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  simple  that the non-students  i n design.  i n t h e group  It is indicated  57  t h a t F r e d e r i c k ' s costume, which e f f e c t i v e l y authoritarian indicated tion  role,  t h a t Touchstone's  o f ragged  look,  appealed  appealed  motley  they  as many as h a l f  ing  enjoyed  o f the time  detrimental  The  with  i t s sugges-  an a n t i - a u t h o r i t a r i a n  the p l o t  out-  a few  t e d i o u s t o some  said  t h e y were  degree,  occasionally  o f boredom l e a d s t o t h e r a t h e r  audiences  expect  and do n o t f i n d  to t h e i r  Relationship  the production, quite  o f the group  This acceptance  conclusion that  part  costume w h i c h ,  indicated  members o f t h e g r o u p . f o u n d  bored.  t o them, w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s  t o them.  Although  and  indicated h i s  overall  t o be b o r e d  this  boredom  interest-  at least  particularly  enjoyment.  Between t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f G r o u p A A n d  T h e i r R e a c t i o n s t o As You L i k e I t  The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  aspect o f the comparison  G r o u p A ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f As_ You L i k e to  t h e p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e way t h e y Group A s a i d  duction and  a t the F r e d e r i c  they expected  experimental. realistic, purpose that  that  the staging  good t o e x c e l l e n t ,  t h e a t r e t o be I t t o b e an u n -  comedy s e t i n a f a n t a s y w o r l d ,  o f w h i c h was t o e n t e r t a i n . members e x p e c t e d  reactions  correspond.  t o be f r o m  at this  their  the standard of pro-  T h e y e x p e c t e d As_ You L i k e  romantic  t h e group  closely  they expected Theatre  I t with  of  t h e main  The a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a y  t o e n j o y were e i t h e r t h e  /  /  58 r e l a t i o n s h i p s between\ t h e characters language,  and  they  expected  either elegant  expectation  and  the  t h a t the  and  expected relaxed  to and  feel  was  the  w o u l d be  refreshed  general  They  r o m a n t i c comedy w i t h the  With the is  a  of  the  the  primary  fairly  accurate  production  aspect  individual  of the  and  lifelike,  stylized.  the  the  of  Energetic  happy,  the  word the  decided  set  in a  play. the  The  acting the  the  or  this  aspect and  interesting,  t h a t the  a c t i n g was  flamboyant  fantasy  "realistic",  relation-  development  depended, d i d not  flamboyant,  style  to e n t e r t a i n .  on w h i c h  production  and  They  realistic,  m o s t e n j o y e d was  characters,  and  They  functional,  general  a  It is interesting  energetic  general  colorful.  elements,  they  t h a t the  and  and  Group A  p l a y was  play  They f e l t  acting  performance.  most e n j o y e d was  characters.  the  p e r f o r m a n c e , and  d e s c r i p t i o n of  action in this  them more.  and  g o o d , and  use  rather  the  colorful  they  s h i p s between these of the  the  poetic  a r o m a n t i c comedy.  the  some s e r i o u s  of  the  or energetic  f u n c t i o n o f w h i c h was  exception  or  acting,  production,  was  felt  plot  the  fanciful  the  seen the  standard  traditional.  world,  after  individual  f i t i n with  fanciful,  amused d u r i n g  A f t e r having that  stylized  p l a y w o u l d be  scenery  the  They e x p e c t e d  seem t o  c o s t u m e s w o u l d be  t h a t the  to enjoy  costumes or music.  flamboyant, both of which  felt  or  themselves, r a t h e r than the  than scenery, w o u l d be  characters  interest  either natural elegant  i s perhaps  the  and most  59 appropriate stylized  n o r n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e .  described and  c h o i c e , as t h e a c t i n g was n e i t h e r e l e g a n t a n d The g r o u p members  t h e costumes as h i s t o r i c a l ,  the scenery  as f a n c i f u l ,  colorful  functional  and f u n c t i o n a l .  though t h e costumes were f a r from monochromatic, d o e s n o t seem t o b e a n e n t i r e l y  amused, d e l i g h t e d , and i n t e r e s t e d . had f e l t It  seems c l e a r ,  in  there  After  then,  that this  o f the group.  a r e no g r e a t c h a n g e s , i n  the Pre-Production  Except  to is,  than  questions  and  t o be  uniform  ideas  more  fully  Questionnaire  o f the performance,  which  to the Pre-Production  suggests  that there are  about the t h e a t r e which  t h e members o f t h e g r o u p .  preconceived  t o the questions  are s l i g h t l y  response  Questionnaires  some e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s all  Questionnaires;  expected.  surprisingly  Post-Production  i n a few  i n the Pre-Production  a b o u t t h e same a s p e c t s  of course, The  Questionnaire  the responses  on t h e  the a t t i t u d e s revealed  and i n t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n  the Post-Production  developed  felt  the performance  production  the main d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s in  had  During  happy, r e l a x e d and r e f r e s h e d .  w h o l e met t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s cases  t h a t they  (Al-  colorful  appropriate choice.)  the performance the group m a i n t a i n e d  they  and c o l o r f u l ,  a r e common t o  These p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d o r  seem t o h a v e c r e a t e d a f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e  w h i c h i s u s e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  when a n t i c i p a t i n g a n d  evaluating  study  a production.  Further  might  r e v e a l how  extensively  this  frame o f  T h e r e were few had  seen the  play,  the  responses are the  frame o f  reference  in spite  suggestion  While the  style  Theatre,  that  the  that  this  felt  after  The that to  particular  i n the  the  the  of a  was  actually  w o u l d be  d e c i s i o n t h a t i t was of the  s h e d s some l i g h t  question  in fact  the  pro-  decided  They  expected  by  on  the  to  this  attitude,  w o u l d be  realistic, o f the  fact  style referred  r a t h e r than in  but  realistic.  explained  production  p h y s i c a l immediacy on  they  a  general  unrealistic  s e c o n d change  t h a t the  further  t h a t the  t h a t i t was  the  of  group to  traditional.  play,  The  two  n e c e s s a r i l y of this  approach to the T h e a t r e ,  production.  or  this  the  experimental,  production  members  firmly established  a p p l i e d by  though not  the  t h a t one  group's e x p e c t a t i o n  seen the  expectation  a result  fairly  Pre-Questionnaire  overall  f r o m an  fact  c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e c a n be  particular  to  having  the  i n a p p r o p r i a t e , and  t h a t i t w o u l d be  production  first  of  customarily  production.  d u c t i o n , was  is established.  changes i n a t t i t u d e a f t e r  slightly  supports  a t the  reference  unrealistic  is possibly  production,  group's understanding  o f the  and term  "realistic". One the  f a c t o r w h i c h must be  m a j o r i t y o f the  g r o u p had  were somewhat f a m i l i a r w i t h expectations  and  into  r e a d As_ You  the  r e a c t i o n s are  taken  play, related  and  account Like  I t and  probably  to t h i s  i s that so  both  familiarity.  61 Several ity  of  response  frame o f the  frame o f  for  reference  example, the  production  The  third  tentative  their  the  first  firmly  i n t e r p r e t e d i n order  costumes.)  The  seemed t o meet t h e maintain  the  was  to  use  enjoyed last  fact  two  of  this  the  the  of  the  facts  word i s that the  group.  production  points  t h a t the  in itself  to  f i t i t . (Note,  expectations  to these  i s that  expectations  enjoyment.  applies  second p o i n t  they  uniform-  established  established that  somewhat i n a p p r o p r i a t e  conclusion  i s t h a t the  group c u s t o m a r i l y  firmly  With r e f e r e n c e  matched t h e i r in  are  i s t h a t they  much.  The  e v e n some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t  i s so  to describe  the  very  which  There are  production  colorful  emerge.  seems t o i n d i c a t e a  reference  theatre.  of the  things  a  production  a strong  factor  62  FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I V  F . B . S t C l a i r , "As You L i k e 1, No. 1, M a r c h 19 70, p . 6. 2 3  Vol.  It','  Stage Door,  24, . , Ibid.  to  feel  See p.162 q u e s t i o n ( k ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e c t happy, r e l a x e d , a n d r e f r e s h e d a f t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . 26 See p. 163 q u e s t i o n  (m).  27 (p)-  See p . 169 q u e s t i o n costumes.  (n) - s c e n e r y  and p . 170 q u e s t i o n  CHAPTER V GROUP RESPONSE TO TANGO  Tango - D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P r o d u c t i o n The Wood  Playhouse, p r o d u c t i o n  production  assumptions they an  o f As_ You L i k e  about  Eleanor,  conservative  the production  generation are  t h e m a i n one b e i n g  to the kind social  of ridicule,  gap theme.  n o t an i n h e r e n t  tried  o f jokes  that  which  p o i n t o f view.  as m i d d l e - a g e d  t o develop  a kind  o f these  support  S t o m i l and  a n d , i n an a t t e m p t  The e f f e c t  aspect  the F r e d e r i c  seemed b a s e d on s e v e r a l  f o r example, were p r e s e n t e d  automatic objects topical,  It,  i t s audience,  would be s y m p a t h e t i c  extremely  of Tango,like  hippies,  t o be  of reverse  two m o t i f s ,  which  o f t h e t e x t , was i n t r u s i v e and  distracting. The large,  a c t i o n took p l a c e  h i g h - c e i l i n g e d , angular,  room o f a d e c a y i n g that  o l d house.  junk had been accumulating  decades, although right  angles  Since  T h e r e was some i n corners  i n a poorly  object  considerable  over  living  several Upstage, a t  lighted  a c t u a l l y was u n t i l a c t i o n takes  a  suggestion  area,  B e c a u s e o f i t s p o s i t i o n , i t was  t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h i s play.  sparsely-furnished  t h e room was n o t c l u t t e r e d .  to the audience,  was a c a t a f a l q u e .  the  i n a box s e t r e p r e s e n t i n g  place  difficult well  on and  into  64 around  the  catafalque  o b s c u r i t y was The device  confusing  s e t was  general  of  i n t i m e and  i n what e r a  and  Various which  to For  example,  versions gray  the  of  transparent  a c t i o n going  s e t was  place  present  the  time.  Stomil, Eleanor,  s l a c k s and  hippy  behind a  first  the  and  a b l a z e r , E u g e n i a was  costumes were e f f e c t i v e  the  lack of b e l i e v a b i l i t y , The  costume c o l o r s i n t h e  muted g r a y s  and  blues  The attractive, with  Ala  Arthur,  dark  in  conventional Edwardian  the  obscure  were b a s e d  on  stylistic  a c t were  Edwardian evening  wore h i s  first  The  a c t costume.  and  characters'  s e c o n d a c t c o s t u m e s were h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e and  shorts.  amusing.  the  first  in  mainly  colours.  i n a p e r i o d wedding d r e s s . who  intended  represented.  c o n t r i b u t e d to the  confusion.  and  eighteen-  bermuda  and  added t o  play, underlined  and  costumes  late  dressed  the  a l l e g o r y of  place.  wore v e r y  Individually  confused  taking  were d r e s s e d  Eugene wore a j a c k e t , t i e , and  merely  suspen-  decide  character  Eddie  The  of  E a c h c o s t u m e seemed  costumes, A r t h u r  however, t h e y  considered  to  a c t wore  from the  the  them.  difficult  c o s t u m e , and  Collectively,  this  by  feeling  a c t i o n was  period  p o i n t o f view o f  rich  play,  when i t was  on  i t was  i n the  historical  the  realistic  to create  i n that  characters  to the  express  from b e i n g  what c o u n t r y  s p a n n e d an  nineties  the  of  distracting.  prevented  to r e v e a l the  effect  beginning  and  o f making the w a l l s  necessary  sion  a t the  and  dress,  exception Otherwise,  was the  c o s t u m e c o l o r s were b l a c k The  apparent  lack  and w h i t e . of decision  was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a c t i n g . own way o f d e a l i n g w i t h and  Each a c t o r  the questions  seemed t o h a v e h i s  of h i s t o r i c a l  l o c a l e and w i t h what seemed t o be a s l i g h t l y  script.  Some u n i t y was a c h i e v e d  a d o p t i o n o f an i n d e t e r m i n a t e had  about a d e f i n i t e s t y l e  a confusing The  using  accent.  by t h e  This,  playing Arthur  expressed  stages of h y s t e r i a .  the character  N o t o n l y was t h i s  monotonous, b u t i t r e s u l t e d i n a c h a r a c t e r  who was  r e a s o n a b l e t h a t he was m e a n i n g l e s s .  Arthur  central in  pivot of the a c t i o n , t h i s  i t s e f f e c t on t h e t o t a l The  actor  presentational acceptable  playing  playing but of  apart  Stomil  so u n was t h e disastrous  E d d i e g a v e an i n t e r e s t i n g i f r a t h e r  The a c t o r  one who c r e a t e d  from t h e l i n e s  playing  E u g e n e , how-  a character  behind h i s behavior  and who  who h a d seemed t o h a v e  he was r e c i t i n g .  The  actor  a l s o h a d some moments o f b e l i e v a b i l i t y ,  the r e s t of the cast  seemed t o r e l y  on t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  caricatures. The  primary  criticism  seemed t o work a g a i n s t of  p e r f o r m a n c e was  approach  play.  and b e l i e v a b l e .  and i d e a s  some l i f e  Since  by  p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d h i s m e t a m o r p h o s i s was  e v e r , was t h e o n l y motives  however,  and d i s t r a c t i n g e f f e c t .  actor  varying  stilted  among t h e a c t o r s  foreign  period  the play  of the production  the text.  i s the expression  While  i s that i t  t h e main  of a p o l i t i c a l  intention  allegory, the  66 production, would  b a s e d on  appeal  generation  the  i n t e n t i o n was  the  pre-play gap  assumption  that this  to a Vancouver audience,  comedy a b o u t t h e  ation  the  evident  publicity,  theme, and  gap.  i n the  tried  This  to present  confusion  different  which emphasized  the  approach  about  approaches  the  comic  background' o f the  play.  expressed  i t i n h i s C.B.C. r a d i o  As  Mr.  Ben  of  gener-  program note which o u t l i n e d  political  a  the  Metcalfe  review:  I n s t e a d o f M r o z e k s h a r d and s h a r p l y p o i n t e d a l l e g o r y , r u t h l e s s l y s t a b b i n g a t the audience, s h o w i n g us how a d e c a d e n t s o c i e t y i n e x o r a b l y f a l l s v i c t i m t o a b r u t a l and m i n d l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , Mr. D e a r i n g [ t h e d i r e c t o r ] g i v e s us a f l a b b y and s i l l y melodrama t h a t t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p r o g r a m notes.... 1  I n s t e a d o f g i v i n g us a t e r r i b l e s e n s e s i n i s t e r f o r e b o d i n g , we a r e s e n t away w i t h o f comic f a i l u r e .  of a sense  Only a student o f the p l a y c o u l d p o s s i b l y s u s t a i n i t s meaning under t h e s e circumstances. A n y o n e c o m i n g o f f t h e s t r e e t w o u l d be a t a l o s s know what was g o i n g on u n d e r t h e f a r c e . 2 8 This  production  You  Like  the  a u d i e n c e wanted t o see,  of  It,  o f Tango, l i k e  a theme o r  reception of wise, but and  seemed t o be  the  of  i n the  production  an  production  on  play.  a certain  underlying  of  As  assumed i d e a o f w h a t the  presentation  General  audience  seemed g o o d r a t h e r t h a n  seemed t o be confusion  on  r a t h e r than  idea inherent  there  a feeling  based  the  to  other-  amount o f p e r p l e x i t y this  response.  / /  /  67 The  Expectations  o f Group A About  When e x a m i n i n g t h e questionnaires,  results  i t i s important  the  p l a y nor  the  author  The  group's e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f G r o u p A's  pre-Tango  t o remember t h a t n e i t h e r  a r e w e l l known t o t h e  general  t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t be  knowledge o f M r o z e c k ' s work. house p u b l i c i t y  Tango  The  m a t e r i a l and  on  group had  the  public.  based  to r e l y  comments o f  on  on  a  Play-  friends  who 2  had  seen the  production  Through these than  two  usual d i r e c t  audience.  Since  consistent with that  these  produced by  the  those for  i n f l u e n c e on  the  expectations  situation  to evaluate the  play  a t t i t u d e on  realistic, about l i f e ,  expectations have  of  Group A  i n which  the  a l s o suggested gap".  o f Group A,  t h i s was  going  the  an  greater  their very  the  people  standards are  who  used  created  a healthy  possibility  by one  of  a  audience. t h a t the  and  p l a y would  be  statement  be e n t e r t a i n i n g ,  the p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l ,  p l a y w o u l d be  g r o u p members d i d n o t  t o be  are  theme, make a m e a n i n g f u l  approach of  a  of  very  i s o b v i o u s l y not  t h a t the  The  the  production  h a v e some c o m i c e l e m e n t s the  had  production,it is possible  p a r t of the  a social  are c o n s i s t e n t with  "generation  the  then,  information.  the e x p e c t a t i o n s  approach o f the  A  present  The  that  Playhouse,  theatre, since i t decreases  critical  which  the  pre-performance  e x p e c t a t i o n s were c r e a t e d by  audience  the  sources  the  Tango.  who  f o r any  entirely  about  the  feel, evidently,  amusing o r  relaxing  68  treatment  o f the  escapist,  but  they expected end  of the  topic.  felt  t o h a v e some q u e s t i o n s  is  to feel  possible  play,  p u z z l e d and  that  to the  on  particular  audience,  T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about p r o d u c t i o n were l o g i c a l  they  acting  and  t h e c o s t u m e s t o be  You  over, i t  optimistic  expected  the  t o be  realistic  the  and  they  about  the costumes.  expected  o f Group A may Like It,  although  the  They  these  a g r e a t i m p r e s s i o n on  seemed  final  fairly  of having  t h e members o f Group  point i s that  definite  in their  although  the  to  recently  costumes d i d not  That  felt most  note,  i n c o s t u m e s on  c o s t u m e s o f w h i c h were f a i r l y  a t the time  One  a result  the  lifelike  followed, i t i s interesting  be  this  to see.  and  modern.  T h i s sudden i n t e r e s t  the  consistent with  the aspect o f the p r o d u c t i o n they would enjoy the a c t i n g ,  the  i s probably  staging of  natural  and  the  i tis.  s t a g i n g , an e x p e c t a t i o n w h i c h  is,  part  s i n c e they  t h e more r e a l i s t i c  unsettling  indicated  by  and,  d i s t u r b e d when i t was  t y p e o f p l a y t h e y had  w o u l d be  the  i n terms  t h e i r p r e v i o u s knowledge o f p r o d u c t i o n s a t  Playhouse.  that  realistic  situation  g r o u p members were f a i r l y  s t a n d a r d o f the based  and  i n t h e i r minds a t  t h e p l a y t o be  t h e more p o t e n t i a l l y The  be  performance.  r e p r e s e n t i n g some f a m i l i a r  expected  the p l a y t o  i t would have s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n s ,  Group A e x p e c t e d of  They d i d n o t e x p e c t  the  seen  As  striking,  seem t o make A.  the group  members  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the  type  of p l a y they  were g o i n g  would be s t a g e d , play  into  that  t h e y were n o t a s a g r o u p a b l e  any d e f i n i t e  were f a i r l y they  rigid  have a g e n e r a l  terms  response  category.^  almost  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , who these  t o s e e and t h e manner i n w h i c h i t  The Like  The c h o i c e s  provided  academic ones, and i t i s p o s s i b l e r a t h e r than  are i n h i b i t e d  to a s p e c i f i c  to this  to f i t the  when a s k e d  situation.  question  supports  Expectations  a specific  meaning f o r to apply  The s c a t t e r e d  this  suggestion.  o f Group B About  Tango  t h e members o f Group A, none o f t h e members o f  G r o u p B h a d any f i r s t  hand  f a m i l i a r i t y with  t h e m a j o r i t y o f G r o u p B, l i k e about the p l a y  Tango.  G r o u p A, h a d h e a r d  f r o m t h e same g e n e r a l  sources  However  something  a s t h e members  o f G r o u p A. The that  members o f G r o u p B, l i k e  those  o f G r o u p A,  Tango w o u l d be an e n t e r t a i n i n g s o c i a l  make a m e a n i n g f u l  statement  about l i f e .  play which  There  some m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s groups.  The e x p e c t a t i o n s  defined,  and t h e i r  intention  the response  u n d e v e l o p e d , and t h e i r  o f t h e two and w e l l  about t h e s t a g i n g and t h e  o f t h e p l a y were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  comparison,  would  a r e , however  o f Group A were u n i f o r m  expectations  felt  each  other.  In  o f G r o u p B was s c a t t e r e d and  expectations  about the i n t e n t i o n o f  the  p l a y d i d n o t seem t o s t i m u l a t e a n y e x p e c t a t i o n s  the  staging.  about  70 While lifelike,  Group A  realistic,  and the  that  i s usually about  likely  the  as  a  scenery might  and  the  the be  costumes  realistic,  o n l y a b l e t o say  functional  fulfilled)  and  group  a p p r o p r i a t e to  that  (an e x p e c t a t i o n  and  their  c o s t u m e s were t o o s c a t t e r e d  a r e a i n which group B d i d not  as G r o u p A was  responses.  Group A  i n the  to  expecindicate  that  they would The  feel  feel  a g r o u p were u n a b l e t h e p l a y was  t o be  they would  the  how  and  unwill-  possibility  amused d u r i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , t o imagine  be  over.  the o t h e r hand were  to anything but  the  responses  they  tend  they might  feel  o f Group B t o the  t o be  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Group An  expected  d u r i n g the performance,  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p l a y i t s e l f  undeveloped,  defined  felt  own  so  and  as  after  over.  Although their  they  p u z z l e d when t h e p l a y was  members o f G r o u p B on  they would  about  that  interested  t o commit t h e m s e l v e s  that  respond  evaluation of t h e i r  indicated  amused, i n v o l v e d , and  play  t o be  natural  trend.  fully  and  the  Group B was  s c e n e r y w o u l d be  Another  ing  felt  functional,  modern.  felt  any  Group A  modern and  they  tations  a c t i n g w o u l d be  o f a c t i n g m i g h t be  Furthermore,  colorful  the  t h e members o f G r o u p B c o u l d n o t  d e c i d e what s t y l e play.  felt  important realistic  difference and  similar  are  questions scattered  t o t h e more  clearly  A. i s that  Group A e x p e c t e d  Group B e x p e c t e d  i t t o be  the  unreal-  71 A possible explanation Group A had  had  play  not  t h e y were g o i n g  they  quite  might respond.  clearly  defined  There are differences that  p o s s i b l y had  i n comparison  not  to see; they  really  to  they  had  limited  d i d n o t know, as  G r o u p A,  on  sort  ideas a  the o t h e r hand,  Like I t .  having  o f Groups A  for  the  B.  One  and  The  can  be  fact  the  out  the  Pre  e x p l a i n e d by  As_ You  Like  next  Sonata)  Pre-Production and  f o r m may  Like It  the  that  fact  I t than  Tango.  h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h  their  ( f o r I n s i d e the  increased f a m i l i a r i t y with  o t h e r h a n d , were n o t out  Questionnaire  first  the  this.  (Group C,  i s t h a t t h e members o f G r o u p A,  s e e n As  Like I t , carried  their  Ghost  on  later  the filled  Another p o s s i b l e  explanation You  out  questionnaire  a t a l l h e s i t a n t when t h e y  Pre-Questionnaire.)  a  - As_ You  G r o u p B d i d n o t h a v e a s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n when f i l l i n g the  they  t h a t Group A d i d n o t have  partially  t h e y w e r e more f a m i l i a r w i t h  is  a l r e a d y answered i t b e f o r e  s i m i l a r h e s i t a t i o n when f i l l i n g Questionnaire  had  expectations.  expectations  itself,  about  group,  t h e members o f G r o u p A w e r e more f a m i l i a r w i t h  As_ You  a  Group  s u r e what  several possible explanations  i n the  Questionnaire saw  I t and  of  s e e n a p l a y as r e c e n t l y .  t h e p o s s i b l e s t a g i n g ; and how  Like  idea of a production  I n summary, Group B was of  i s t h a t t h e members  r e c e n t l y s e e n As_ You  more c o n c r e t e B, who  for this  who  subsequent  had  recently  awareness  of  72  the  aspects of l i v e  Tango. with  Finally,  theatre over  i t i s possible  o u t l o o k , has  because of t h i s wider  The The  expectations of  t h a t G r o u p A,  t h e most e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a t r e and  servative  more r i g i d l y  with  the  group  t h e most  con-  defined expectations  experience.  Reactions  o f Group A to_ Tango  members o f G r o u p A  production  of a serious,  meaningful  statement  been worth  seeing.  was  to t h e i r  They  t h e y were i n v o l v e d and  that  realistic  about  good t o e x c e l l e n t ;  felt  life,  felt  social and  the  Tango was  a  successful  p l a y w h i c h made a  they  felt  that  i t had  standard of production  d u r i n g the performance interested,  while  they  a t the  maintain  end  they  felt disturbed. In nature  spite  of this  revealed  by  place,  i n spite  emphasized The by the  response/ t h e r e are  really  of the  a social this  play  aspect)  several  c o s t u m e s and  enthusiastic  contradictions  suggest  that  o f the p r o d u c t i o n .  the or  i t was  certainly  of h i s t o r i c a l  scenery  and  enjoy-  not  publicity realistic.  p e r i o d s as  expressed  the b i z a r r e b e h a v i o r  c h a r a c t e r s d i d n o t , however, s u g g e s t  to the  first  not  (although pre-performance and  group  In the  g r o u p o p i n i o n , Tango was  curious juxtaposition both  apparently  g e t as much e n l i g h t e n m e n t  they maintain out  primarily  and  the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  members d i d n o t ment as  o f the p o s i t i v e  of  participants  /  I l  73 that  t h e p l a y was One  possible  not r e a l l y staging. was  Although  their  t h e most  appropriate.  set  as r e a l i s t i c ,  and  lavish  the  c o s t u m e s as s y m b o l i c  and  modern  would r e a l l y  the term  "symbolic"  terms f o r t h e s e  and f u n c t i o n a l  when f a n c i f u l ,  after  felt  t o the p l a y , aspects  was  d e s c r i b e d the  although  fanciful  historical,  h a v e b e e n more a c c u r a t e . seems t o a p p e a r  on t h e w h o l e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  visual  muted  The  whenever  the  i n the study  study  seem t o  a s p e c t s o f a p r o d u c t i o n , e v e n when u s i n g what a l l very n o n - t h e a t r i c a l  professional although  that  t w e l v e were  felt  t h e a c t i n g was  t h e a c t i n g was  s t a g i n g t h e y most e n j o y e d , irritated  of v a r i o u s a c t o r s . s t y l e was  are  Furthermore, divided  and v o c a l  the aspect of out of the  mannerisms  the response mainly  more However,  as many as f i v e  by p h y s i c a l  scattered,  the  terms.  t h a n n o t and more good t h a n p o o r .  they maintain  use  there i s  i n r e c o g n i z i n g and d e s c r i b i n g  The members o f Group A  ing  suitable  they  about s e t o r costumes throughout  have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  the  and a l t h o u g h  scenery  w o u l d have b e e n more a c c u r a t e , and t h e y d e s c r i b e d  any a m b i g u i t y and,  they d i d  aspects of the  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  symbolic  world".  t o c o s t u m e s and  than otherwise,  not  of  reaction  choice of d e s c r i p t i v e  i s that  of these v i s u a l  t h e c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y w e r e  their  the " r e a l  explanation for this  seem v e r y aware  more p o s i t i v e  that  s e t i n any o t h e r t h a n  to the  between  act-  natural  and  74 lifelike terms  and p o w e r f u l  i s appropriate,  stylized and  and p a s s i o n a t e .  However, n a t u r a l  and p a s s i o n a t e  could  the  Stomil  best  that  respectively.  actors,it  t h e s e two a c t o r s  production.  i n this  was v e r y  scattered,  characters Stomil,  that  and o n l y  best  actors,  two a c t o r s  the response  emerge.  The  t h e g r o u p most e n j o y e d were Eugene and there  and a c t o r  i s n o t much on t h e p a r t o f  audience. i s interesting that  Group A f e l t only  half  intention that  that  felt  about.  although  had been a s u c c e s s f u l  properly,  compared t o t h e m a j o r i t y As_ You L i k e  intention properly.  This  and c o n f u s i o n  An i n c i d e n t a l n o t e  as h a s a l r e a d y  suggests  production, the author's who h a d  felt  some f e e l i n g s  as t o what t h e p l a y  i s that  the majority  been o b s e r v e d ,  was  o f G r o u p A were  the production. the p a r t i c i p a n t s  a c c e p t t h i s boredom as a n o r m a l p a r t  experience.  of  I t had i n t e r p r e t e d the  l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y bored during  ever,  the majority  t h e d i r e c t o r had i n t e r p r e t e d  dissatisfaction  at  this  the d i r e c t o r o f  author's  to  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  which i s f u r t h e r evidence t h a t  It  of  felt  t h e a c t i n g norm i n t h e  d i s t i n c t i o n made b e t w e e n c h a r a c t e r the  to describe the  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  question  were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e t h r e e  lifelike  t h e s e were c h o s e n as  that  established  Although  quite  Eugene and t h e a c t o r  Since  i s possible  and  be u s e d  performances of the actor p l a y i n g playing  o f these  as t h e a c t i n g was a c t u a l l y  and m a n n e r e d .  powerful  Neither  Howseem  of the theatre  75 The were t h e  aspects  the  the  s t o r y was  None o f  the  play  story.  They  t h e s e terms i s r e a l l y  attempt  to i n d i c a t e t h e i r  the  way  p l o t developed  the  chose the  characters  felt  clear, realistic,  the  tions  most e n j o y e d by  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  development of of  of  p o s i t i v e term.  i s s u g g e s t e d by  the  that  and  the  logical,  Group the  development  and  believable.  appropriate,  but  enjoyment or  approval  participants  possibly  the  in  of  automatically  T h a t t h e y d i d h a v e some  t h e way  A  responses are  reserva-  indicated  31 on  the  scale.  Another p o s s i b l e  inappropriate spite  of  really  their  were u n a b l e general  this  to c a t e g o r i z e  than  style. the  incoherent The  style  responses  Although  than negative, in the  one  question  this  participants, in  the  p l o t , were  not  the  members o f  Group  production  express of  to the  the  fault  any  objections  to the  about  the  production.  Questionnaire  general  i t i s usually only about general  of  A  i t i s interesting that  some r e s e r v a t i o n s  their  according  i s more t h e  audience, but  members o f G r o u p A had duction.  this This  p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not  rather  for  element at a l l .  several opportunities,  t y p e and  production  the  a l l e g e d enjoyment o f  aware o f Given  the  description i s that  explanation  indicate that about  response  to  pro-  i s more p o s i t i v e  marginally  reactions  this  the  so.  the  q u a l i f y i n g "somewhat" i s u s e d more o f t e n  in  For  example,  production conjunction  /  /  76 with in  the d e s c r i p t i v e  somewhat In  was of  the q u a l i f y i n g  summary, t h e n , by  the  acting,  c o s t u m e s and  these  aspects  appropriate general  to the  style  though the  scenery  of the p r o d u c t i o n , but  to  d e s c r i b e the development o f the  had  lack  properly.  been a s u c c e s s f u l It  i s possible  plot  only half In_ s p i t e  had  the whole t h e i r b e e n met  theatre to  their  own  they  they were  t h e y were  appropriately. felt  the  unable Most  the p l a y had they  felt  t h a t b e c a u s e t h e members o f G r o u p  event,  study) they  and  that that  i t was they  play  the  inappropriate ignored  d e c i d e d i t must  production.  to  A  because  the nature o f the  It i s possible  worthwhile  themselves,  because going  felt  p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s and  b e e n a good and  to  seem d i s t u r b e d  of a l l t h i s  e x p e c t a t i o n s about  comment a d v e r s e l y .  aspect  production.  ( r e v e a l e d by  is a social  group  t o d e c i d e on  and  went t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n e x p e c t i n g t o e n j o y on  felt  d i d not  of coherence,  a t some p o i n t and  been i n t e r p r e t e d  and  They w e r e u n a b l e  i t s unintentional  it  as  the  a p p r o p r i a t e l y , although  at l e a s t moderately play.  a c t i n g was  t h e y were u n a b l e  by  were b o r e d  "very" -  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f t h e  s t a g i n g t h e y most e n j o y e d ;  describe liked  than  exciting.  irritated the  term  have  77 The R e a c t i o n s o f G r o u p B t o Tango On very ing  t h e w h o l e , t h e r e s p o n s e o f G r o u p B t o Tango  close  to that  differences.  o f G r o u p A, b u t t h e r e Like  that  the production  that  they would  They  felt  but  that  like  a r e some i n t e r e s t -  t h e members o f G r o u p A,  was  a successful  n o t good t o e x c e l l e n t  was  felt  indicated  of this  of the production (which was  Group B  one, and t h e y  t o s e e more p r o d u c t i o n s  the standard  was  kind.  good,  the e v a l u a t i o n  of  Group A ) . G r o u p B, serious but  like  G r o u p A,  felt  and made a m e a n i n g f u l  unlike  Group A, who  felt  the play  statement  was  mainly  about the r e a l  t h e p l a y was  social,  world,  they  were u n a b l e as a g r o u p t o s a y what t h e m a i n c o n c e r n o f t h e p l a y was.  This  i s i n s p i t e o f the f a c t  they had e x p e c t e d  t h e main  c o n c e r n t o be  G r o u p A, G r o u p B d i d n o t t h i n k p l o t was  realistic,  G r o u p A,  they d i d f i n d  tedious,  and more l o g i c a l  G r o u p A,  found the p l a y  expected  i t t o be  G r o u p B, acting  style,  that  like  social.  Group  clear, or believable.  Unlike  However,  like  i t i n v o l v i n g , more e n t e r t a i n i n g than  illogical.  realistic,  A,  the development o f the  G r o u p B,  than  like  though Group B had  unrealistic.  like  G r o u p A, was  and t h e m a j o r i t y  unable to describe  o f G r o u p B, compared  t h a n h a l f o f G r o u p A, were i r r i t a t e d mannerisms  that,  of various  actors.  by p h y s i c a l and  the t o fewer vocal  However, t h e a c t i n g was  the  78 aspect  o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h t h e members o f b o t h  most e n j o y e d . of  The c h a r a c t e r s most  G r o u p A were  acted.  those  which they  This i s not e n t i r e l y  a definite  suggestion  enjoyed  felt  groups  by t h e members  h a d b e e n most  well  t r u e o f G r o u p B, a n d t h e r e i s  t h a t t h e members o f G r o u p B do make 32  some s l i g h t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n Although definite play,  responses about  responses  t o these  expectations  to  o f these  the production with  w h a t e v e r was  this  expectations  fairly  a r e an  of the production, the  aspects  i s n o t dependent on  G r o u p B, a p p a r e n t l y  open m i n d s , r e a d y  fulfilled  group t o both  to accept  to t e l l  whether the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  o r n o t , s i n c e so many r e s p o n s e s  t h e P r e - and P o s t - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  and d i v i d e d .  the  t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t s o much as G r o u p A d i d .  interesting  t o note  Group B i n d i c a t e d  t h a t they  and o b j e c t i v e a b o u t t h e p r o d u c t i o n  and  heightened  that  enjoyed I ti s  t h a t G r o u p B was o n t h e w h o l e more  critical this  of  were  scattered play,  went  presented.  i s difficult  G r o u p B were  t h e same a s t h e  a b o u t c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y  fulfillment of expectations.  It  were  T h i s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t  expectations  enjoyment o r a p p r o v a l the  questions  t h e c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y .  to the o v e r a l l  t o h a v e no  as a g r o u p a b o u t t h e s t a g i n g o f t h e  o f G r o u p A, who d i d h a v e d e f i n i t e  that while index  t h e members o f Group B seemed  expectations  their  c h a r a c t e r and a c t o r .  objectivity  Group B had fewer r i g i d  than  may be r e l a t e d  expectations.  G r o u p A,  to the f a c t  The l e s s  uniform  / / / /  79 response  o f Group B t o b o t h  Production  Questionnaires  pre-established to  evaluate With  the  Pre-Production  m i g h t be  an  indication  frame o f r e f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t l y  productions regard  i s less  t o the  firmly  s t a g i n g of the  lifelike  They e x p e c t e d  be  else.  realistic,  modern, and  c o s t u m e s t o be  realistic,  colorful,  expectations they  seem t o be  were e x p e c t i n g  most e x p e c t e d  to enjoy  was  The the  Group  the  and  aspect  interesting  These  type  of the  to  the  modern. the  B.  and  scenery and  A  more  natural  symbolic  consistent with  to see.  the  u s e d by  a c t i n g t o be  functional,  that  production,  the  anything  Post-  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Group  members o f t h e g r o u p e x p e c t e d than  and  of  play  play  they  individual  characters. After decided  world,  They  felt  that  to the  question  i t d i d not  Although d e s c r i b e d as  reactions  to the  indicate  this  diffuse  any  participants  play, set i n  statement  asking  life.  elements.  Group B t o d e c i d e seems t o  however, p r e v e n t  of production  o n e - t h i r d o f the e n e r g e t i c and  the  the suggest  participants' pre-established  This d i d not, standard  about  some c o m i c  s c a t t e r e d , which  conform to the  group  group response.  One  as  felt  flamboyant,  a c t i n g s t y l e were on  response  the  social  serious with  o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n was  from e v a l u a t i n g the  to  a realistic  mainly  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  be  production  w h i c h made a m e a n i n g f u l  i t was  response  style  seen the  t h a t Tango was  real  The  having  good.  the  the  acting could  participants'  the whole  too s c a t t e r e d  p o s s i b l e reason  might have been the  them  lack of  for  consistency  80 in  the  over-all acting  possible there  to describe  was  whole.  no  The  realistic,  unity  and  was  scenery. one  and  not  really  the  felt  after  over they  was  productions of As  with  scenery that  the  a box  usually the  story.  During  amused, i n v o l v e d , felt  this the  and  the  set,  the  the  such  they play  most they  and  performance  the  like  felt to  and  the see  more  kind. i n t e n t i o n of  the  play  itself  was  the  g r o u p were f u l f i l l e d .  t h e y were e x p e c t i n g  to  see  a realistic  social  of  really  t h i s i s what t h e y  t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h i s kind  since  t h e y had the  f i t this description.  actual  felt felt  t h e y had  It is possible  That  statement  seen.  t h e y had  production  con-  play,  some c o m i c e l e m e n t s , w h i c h made a m e a n i n g f u l and  most  characters  They  they would  as  scenery  interested,  disturbed.  and  for  make t h e  of  would  and  production  aspects  costumes  historical  term  a  was  the  costumes;  appropriate  as  of  hard  play  that  the  cast  expectations  about l i f e , is  and  successful  f a r as  the  the  the  will  actors,  s t y l e of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  participants  production  of  aspect of  acting  development of  i t was  individual  remembered t h a t  The  e n j o y e d were t h e  is,  an  i n this production,  the  the  f u n c t i o n a l , and  descriptions  ( I t must be  e n j o y e d was  cerned  acting  i t might have been  f u n c t i o n a l . Modern and  seem r e a l i s t i c . )  the  s t y l e of  i n the  symbolic,  have been b e t t e r  the  the  While  p a r t i c i p a n t s decided  were s y m b o l i c  realistic  style.  seen  did that  not the  It a  81 expectations itself The  a r e so f i r m l y  i s subconsciously  a b s t r a c t nature  w o u l d make t h i s with  e s t a b l i s h e d that the performance  interpreted to f i t their  o f the d e s c r i p t i o n of the plays i n t e n t i o n  adjustment e a s i e r than  M o s t o f t h e few e x p e c t a t i o n s those  experience  t h e members f e l t  Since  The e x p e c t a t i o n s  were a l s o  the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t  of this  kind,  staging  the  production  like  expectations  the audience  pro-  to the f a c t  about the t o have  This p o s i t i v e r e that the p a r t i c i p a n t s  a b o u t t h e i r own r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g  1  the performance  fulfilled.  expectations  with  Tango i s n o t a r e a l i s t i c  realistic  political  social  although  appropriate  (Iti s impossible  t o the  p l a y , b u t a non-  a l l e g o r y , and t h e p o l i t i c a l  p l a y was o u t l i n e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e  program.  i s that  o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e p l a y were c o n s i s t e n t  t h e r e a c t i o n s , they were n o t r e a l l y  play.  the  t o s e e more  i s likely  One p o i n t t h a t must be e m p h a s i z e d the  was a  about the i n t e n t i o n o f the p l a y  response t o the production.  s p o n s e may a l s o b e r e l a t e d  were  fulfilled.  e v e n i f some o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  are not f u l f i l l e d ,  a positive  about the  a t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n might be  drawn:' i f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s fulfilled,  were  they would have d u r i n g t h e  s u c c e s s f u l one and s i n c e t h e y w o u l d ductions  o f the production.  t h a t were n o t f u l f i l l e d  about t h e s t a g i n g .  performance, but not a f t e r ,  are  w o u l d be p o s s i b l e  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l aspects  indeed  expectations.  degree  nature o f i n the  t o know how many p e o p l e  read  /  82 these  notes,  tions  for this  that of  the  the  of  production  play  this  to  was  the  itself  walls  characters play. tic  is still  of  alone  the  the  pointed  rather  The  expressed  by  the  out  that  i t must be  the  social  o f why  the  i t s responses  this  was  group  the  to  trans-  of  the  a realistic term u n r e a l i s -  use  i t as  There  t h a t the  production  decided  juxtaposition  not  and  suggested,  to the  aspects  b i z a r r e behavior  than a d e s c r i p t i v e term.  adjusts  remembered  costumes, the  or unacceptable,  p o s s i b i l i t y already  the  curious  g r o u p members e q u a t e  further  explana-  p o l i t i c a l aspects.  question  s e t , and  unbelievable  pejorative,  the  of  a r e a l i s t i c play.  P o s s i b l y the  with  several possible  emphasized  detriment  of h i s t o r i c a l periods parent  There are  g r o u p p o i n t o f v i e w , and  However, t h e r e that  course)  a  is  the  audience  f i tits  expectations. Finally, limited  meaning  reference. thinking  For  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f o r the example,  about p l a y s  terms p r o v i d e d  participants within they  according  may  not  to the  be  categories  (modern comedy, a v a n t g a r d e ,  is  case,  the  appropriate  f u r t h e r work must be  terms which a r e m e a n i n g f u l  frame  accustomed  questionnaire indeed  their  etc.)  done t o  in  had of  to the  If  this  find  to the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  83 The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s G r o u p A and B and T h e i r R e a c t i o n s  o f t h e Combined t o Tango  None o f t h e members o f G r o u p s A and B c o m b i n e d h a d read  Tango, o r h a d s e e n a p r o d u c t i o n o f i t , a l t h o u g h t h e  m a j o r i t y had heard of  familiarity  lating and  something about  d i d not prevent  some d e f i n i t e  i ti s interesting  information  expectations  and d e f i n i t e .  uniformity triggered their all  sources  are again  second-  the responses  A possible explanation  o f f responses  to  for this  that l e d to the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  some e l e m e n t s  i n their  Further  study  might  s y s t e m and i t s component Briefly,  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  although  a l s o be e x p e r i m e n t a l expectations  indicate  i s , they  application  e l e m e n t s a r e an the nature  of the integral  of this  elements.  a t the Playhouse  traditional,  those  That  pre-production i n -  which s i g n a l e d the automatic  s y s t e m o r framework o f w h i c h  production  t h a t any  surprisingly  p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  formation  formu-  i s t h a t t h e • a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p l a y  recognized  part.  of the fact  h a d a b o u t Tango was  expectation Questionnaires  uniform  from  lack  about the p r o d u c t i o n ,  that i n spite  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  However, t h i s  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  h a n d and came f r o m many d i f f e r e n t the  i t .  expected  the standard o f  t o be good a n d t h e s t a g i n g  some members or realistic.  about the p l a y i t s e l f ,  felt  the s t a g i n g might  With r e g a r d they  to s p e c i f i c  expected  t o see a  84 realistic  social  play,  comic  r e a l world which  would  p r i m a r i l y make a m e a n i n g f u l  about of  life,  but which  this rather  group  definite outline  a v a n t g a r d e , modern  scattered,  the statement  In view  i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that the  serious  a l t h o u g h one q u a r t e r  be a modern  set in  a l s o be e n t e r t a i n i n g .  r e s p o n s e as t o w h a t t y p e o f p l a y  comedy,  would  would  t o some d e g r e e ,  t h i s would  be  (modern  drama, e t c . ) i s so  o f the group  felt  that i t  comedy.  /  85 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V  28 From T r a n s c r i p t o f review b r o a d c a s t T e r r y Show, C.B.C. Radio, March 1970.  on The B i l l  29 on  As has been mentioned, the d a i l y strike. "^See p. 175 q u e s t i o n  (i) l a s t  newspapers were  section.  31 See p. 180 q u e s t i o n ( g ) . 32 See p.180  question  (f) and p. 181 q u e s t i o n ( j )  CHAPTER V I GROUP RESPONSE TO INSIDE THE GHOST SONATA  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata The  Dorothy  - Description of Production  Somerset S t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n o f I n s i d e t h e  Ghost Sonata  was an e x p e r i m e n t a l  Strindberg's  Ghost Sonata.  was r e d u c e d  to three  The t e x t  short scenes,  p h a s e s o f what was r e f e r r e d l a b y r i n t h was b a s i c a l l y the c e n t r a l were  p r o d u c t i o n based  o f the o r i g i n a l  play  which a l t e r n a t e d with  t o as a l a b y r i n t h .  a simple  area i n which  on  This  maze a r o u n d t h e o u t s i d e o f  t h e t h r e e main, o r key, scenes  played. The  consisting  s e t f o r t h e t h r e e main scenes  was v e r y  o f two l e v e l s w i t h  steps.  connecting  simple, The  t u r e was c h a i r s , m i r r o r s , and Hummel s w h e e l c h a i r .  The  1  m a i n c o l o u r was d a r k realistic  gray.  and e f f e c t i v e l y  The s e t was a u s t e r e  furni-  and n o n -  created a believable locale f o r  the b i z a r r e but r e s t r a i n e d development o f t h e a c t i o n . projection between actor  live  believable; reasons  and s l i d e s  a c t o r and f i l m  and a c t o r The  the  of film  i n t h e main scenes  relationships  individual  and t h e t r a n s i t i o n s  on f i l m w e r e i m p o r t a n t  acting  behind  on t h e b a c k d r o p s , t h e  were c l e a r ,  aspects  The  interaction  between  live  o f these  was, on t h e w h o l e and a l t h o u g h t h e  a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e a c t i o n were  obscure,  c h a r a c t e r s seemed m o t i v a t e d .  The a c t i n g  scenes.  87 seemed s l i g h t l y  stylized,  partly  because o f the r a t h e r  stilted  way t h e s p e e c h e s were w r i t t e n .  created  a unified  quality  of the a c t i o n .  effect  This  stylization  and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n r e a l Except  f o r the actor p l a y i n g  Hummel,  who i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e c a s t was composed o f s t u d e n t actors. The theatre the  main s c e n e s ,  experience  essential  labyrinth  then,  a contrast to this  to p a r t i c i p a t e  was a s e r i e s  of small i n which  from t h e process and  props.  interconnected ideas  during  t h e r e was no d i r e c t  labyrinth and  labyrinth. different areas  phase  conversing  there  with  off.  each  and  the three  main  were other,  audience. i n the  T h e r e were  five scenes,  a phase o f t h e  Each  labyrinth  p h a s e was s l i g h t l y  actors  appeared;  areas  different;  were c l o s e d o f f and new  a labyrinth  t h e a u d i e n c e members were  actors  t h e r e was no a c t i v i t y  a r e a was s h u t  o f t h a t p h a s e were c o n c u r r e n t that  corners,  using  i n t e r a c t i o n between a c t o r s  During  labyrinth  rooms, a r e a s ,  opened and c l o s e d w i t h  were o p e n e d .  The  were e x p r e s s e d  phases, a l t e r n a t i n g with  the evening  i n that the audience  the l a b y r i n t h  t h e main s c e n e s  and t h i s  The  o r images from t h e p l a y and  a c t o r s m o v i n g among t h e a u d i e n c e  labyrinth,  s a t down t o w a t c h  by moving a r o u n d .  of production  Although  During  conventional  a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y u n f o l d on t h e s t a g e .  provided  tunnels  a  i n that the audience  was e x p e c t e d  and  provided  phase  a l l the u n i t s  and c o n t i n u o u s . free to find  This  their  meant  own  route  88 a r o u n d t h e l a b y r i n t h and t o s p e n d a s much o r as t i m e as t h e y mentioned through could a  wished  at a particular  I t should  be  t h a t members o f t h e a u d i e n c e d i d n o t h a v e t o go  the l a b y r i n t h a t a l l i f they  remain  d i d n o t want t o , b u t  i n t h e main scene area,  w h i c h a t t i m e s became  labyrinth unit. The  scenes  l a b y r i n t h areas,  with  slides  all  o f w h i c h were i n t e n d e d  sometimes w i t h  the  image a r i s i n g  references play.  t o express  out of the text o f the play.  action begins, visit  Incidents  takes  idea  Some o f t h e  the a c t i o n o f  i n the death o f the  place  long before the  t o t h e o p e r a was t h e b a s i s o f a n o t h e r u n i t . included  Aristocrat,  i n the complete  text o f the play,  between t h e Dark Lady  w h i c h were n o t i n c l u d e d  s c e n e s , were a l s o t h e b a s e s  such and t h e  i n the abbreviated  f o r some o f t h e u n i t s .  u n i t s , h o w e v e r , were n o t a l l b a s e d o n t h e p l a y .  S e v e r a l were i n t e n d e d  to give  an i d e a o f t h e p r o c e s s 33  putting  dancers,  was t h e b a s i s o f one u n i t ; t h e r e f e r e n c e t o  the inaudible conversation  The  of films  a c t i o n i n the play, but  F o r e x a m p l e , Hummel's p a r t i n the play  actors,  some p a r t i c u l a r  t o t h i n g s w h i c h happen o u t s i d e  Milkmaid, which  the  o r without  a c t o r s , sometimes w i t h  u n i t s were i n s p i r e d n o t b y d i r e c t by  miniature  o f f u r n i t u r e and p r o p s , p r e s e n t a t i o n s  and  or  or units, included  involving actors,tableaux  collections  as  unit.  little  the production  together.  of  89  The express lined  purpose o f the  some o f t h e  l a b y r i n t h was  images s u g g e s t e d  i n t h e main s c e n e s , The  of the  out o f the  labyrinth  the  lights  i n the  end  o f each  the  doors  raised  first and  to the  i n the  into  the  and  The  by  labyrinth  were a l s o u s e d t o s i g n a l  phase  main a r e a  the b e g i n n i n g  the  encouraged dimming  end  At  the  ceased, lights  a taped  and  before  was  a c t o r movement.  Sound and  out-  media.  a r e a by  were o p e n e d and  area.  and  p l a y and  audience  central  a c t i o n i n the  labyrinth  the  a labyrinth  scene.  labyrinth  scene the  by  using a l l available  performance opened w i t h  the b e g i n n i n g  to explore  were  voice  of  each  phase. The  costumes  nineteenth-century decay.  The  f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n were b a s e d on dress, s e v e r a l i n varying stages  Mummy's costume was  and  i n order  and  as  the  statue of herself  she  t o show h e r  had  simultaneously  become she on  composed o f g a u z e  wore t h e her  back.  as  front The  she  and  of  bandaging  had  been  upper p a r t  costumes, w i t h  exception  o f t h e Mummy and  the  were g r a y  and  c o n t r i b u t e d to the  b l a c k , which  late  Young L a d y who  wore  of the  white,  sombre  atmosphere. The this  p r o d u c t i o n was  enjoy had to  response  no  the  very  experience  difficulty  the key  o f the m a j o r i t y o f people  scenes  favorable.  and  Most p e o p l e  o f moving around the  making the back  transition  again.  who  attended seemed  labyrinth  from the  to  and  labyrinth  90 The  Expectations  o f Group A A b o u t  Group A e x p e c t e d Dorothy type is  Somerset  of staging  perhaps  presented  sity  the standard  Studio at this  theatre since  a t the Studio  theatre  the Ghost  Sonata  of production  a t the  t o be g o o d , and t h e y  interesting,  experimental.  Inside  t o be e x p e r i m e n t a l .  the type  of play  i s not, i n fact,  However, t h e f a c t and p e r h a p s  expected the  that  usually  particularly  i t i s a small  t h e name S t u d i o ,  workshop, s u g g e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l  This  which presupposes a  productions.  Few members o f t h e g r o u p h a d a n y f a m i l i a r i t y the  play  on w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t i o n  was b a s e d , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y particular  be the of the  kind  to  they  and t h e y  were g o i n g  the play group,  felt  this  They  ideas felt  suggested  of the production  most l i k e l y  about  i t would  about the i n n e r world  i t w o u l d be u n r e a l i s t i c .  and t h e t i t l e  Sonata"  defined  to see.  Ghost Sonata probably  suggested  of  The  a great  title  deal to  "Inside the  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  approach  the play. One i n t e r e s t i n g  connect  the term  "inner world the  Sonata  something about  and c l e a r l y  a serious psychological play  Ghost  the Ghost  with  production.  of play  mind  Inside  had h e a r d  Group A had d e f i n i t e the  univer-  feeling  point  i s t h e way t h e g r o u p  "unrealistic"  o f the mind". that nothing  with  members  " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " and  T h i s m i g h t be an i n d i c a t i o n  s u b j e c t i v e h a s much v a l i d i t y .  of How-  /  i  91 ever, and  s i n c e t h e y w e r e e x p e c t i n g t h e p l a y t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l  unrealistic,  anything very  terms which  seem t o s u g g e s t  c a n h a p p e n , t h e members o f Group A were  r e c e p t i v e to the unusual Although  G r o u p A had  type o f p l a y they  thought  approach  no  t h e y were g o i n g  to d e s c r i b e the p o s s i b l e  style,  c o s t u m e s and group  felt  scenery.  half  the  the  felt  t h e c o s t u m e s m i g h t be  that  t h e g r o u p h a v e no  although  they  It  A l l that  symbolic  to see,  ) probably  be  and  fanciful.  a s p e c t o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n t h e y were e x p e c t i n g t o  This  seems t o s u g g e s t  and  the  acting  expect  the  development of the p l o t  are r e a l l y  along conventional  lines.  Although  the group i n d i c a t e  that  during and  the performance  interested.  usually possible  express that  they  T h e s e two  t e r m s by  the group d i d not  they  an e m o t i o n a l  expected  strong emotional  still enjoy the  interesting characters.  t h a t Group A  t o p r o v i d e them w i t h  is  to watching  the p l a y to run  production  use  experimental.  experimental,  l o o k i n g forward  half  indicates  g e n e r a l approach  t h e y were a l s o  were  The  the  most and  the  the s t a g i n g ,  t h a t , a l t h o u g h the group  t o be  they  symbolic  i d e a s about  seem t o t h i n k i t w i l l  is interesting  in describing  i s revealed i s that  and  a b o v e p.73  clear  probably  a s p e c t s o f the s t a g i n g - - a c t i n g  s c e n e r y m i g h t be  t h e word " s y m b o l i c "(see  that  of the p r o d u c t i o n .  difficulty  unable  of  t o them  expecting  expected  the  experience,  o n l y t o be i n v o l v e d themselves,  involvement. seriously  do  not  It is  consider  the  92 nature the  of their  p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n , b u t on t h e o t h e r  choices provided  i n the Questionnaire  do  hand  not r e a l l y  g i v e them much o p p o r t u n i t y  to express  emotional  involvement.  After  maintained  t h a t they  expected  to  the performance they  feel  puzzled  intellectual this  and d i s t u r b e d , w h i c h  r a t h e r than  question the l i s t  an e m o t i o n a l  provided  w o u l d a t l e a s t have s u g g e s t e d This  an e m o t i o n a l  The  involve their  Expectations  G h o s t S o n a t a were v e r y  G r o u p A, Group B e x p e c t e d about the i n n e r w o r l d an e m o t i o n a l  the standard  and t h e p r o b a b l e  t o be  experimental. One i n t e r e s t i n g  that although  only  expecting  an  experience  response.  Sonata  similar  o f Group B about t o those  Inside  o f G r o u p A.  Like  t o see a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l o f t h e mind w h i c h p r i m a r i l y  experience.  good  is  which  experience.  emotional  In g e n e r a l , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  expected  and i n  o f Group B About  I n s i d e the Ghost  vided  an  leads to the t e n t a t i v e conclusion that the  which would a c t u a l l y  play  experience,  d i d c o n t a i n some t e r m s  members o f t h e g r o u p a r e n o t r e a l l y  the  seems t o i n d i c a t e  The members o f Group B  of production style  pro-  a t the Studio  of production  at this  t o be theatre  d i f f e r e n c e e m e r g e s , h o w e v e r , and t h a t two members o f G r o u p B  t h e m a j o r i t y o f G r o u p A) h a d h e a r d  anything  (compared t o about  this  93 particular  production,  more d e f i n i t e production. also  less  ideas  and is  related  style  of acting.  experience  and h a l f  felt  Possibly this  t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n  and  felt  the costimes  they would a l s o be  These terms are n o t v e r y  questions  there  powerful  expectation will  be  realistic.  the responses of  are scattered, there  would  functional.  w o u l d be  realistic  descriptive.  responses  the scenery  i t w o u l d a l s o be  o f Group B f e l t  f r o m t h e way  and a  e x a m p l e s o f G r o u p B's more u n i f o r m  majority half  to  i s b a s e d on, u n l e s s  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f Group B f e l t  symbolic,  the a c t i n g  It i s difficult  emotional  r a t h e r than  Further  group f e l t  was  i n t h e minds o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b e t w e e n  to the f e e l i n g  unrealistic,  are  expectation  psychological  passionate  of the a c t i n g s t y l e  and p a s s i o n a t e .  what t h i s  a connection  serious,  expectation  s c a t t e r e d — h a l f of this  understand  slightly  about the p o s s i b l e s t a g i n g o f the  G r o u p B's  w o u l d be p o w e r f u l  is  t h e members o f G r o u p B h a d  and  However,  G r o u p A and B t o  The  symbolic, functional. judging these  i s some s u g g e s t i o n  members o f Group B made an a t t e m p t  be  t h a t more  to describe possible  34 c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y It really of  than  is difficult  any s i g n i f i c a n c e  d i d t h e members o f G r o u p  t o say whether o r n o t t h e r e i s i n the d i f f e r e n c e i n expectations  G r o u p s A and B a b o u t t h e s t a g i n g .  difference  A.  i s quite slight,  Although  the e x p e c t a t i o n s  a b o u t a c t i n g , c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y  this  o f Group  a r e more u n i f o r m  B  than  94 t h o s e o f e i t h e r G r o u p A o r Group C. A and C h a d h e a r d while so  only  something about t h i s  particular  two members o f Group B h a d any a d v a n c e  i t i s possible that this  t i o n h a d some e f f e c t The o n l y  other  o f Groups production, information,  greater pre-production  informa-  on t h e members o f G r o u p s A a n d C. d i f f e r e n c e i n the expectations  Groups A and B i s t h a t w h i l e puzzled  The m a j o r i t y  Group A f e l t  they  of  would be  and d i s t u r b e d when t h e p e r f o r m a n c e was o v e r ,  Group  B's r e s p o n s e was t o o s c a t t e r e d t o i n d i c a t e any t r e n d . Possibly, the  t h e use o f t h e terms p u z z l e d  expectation  o f some k i n d  o f mental involvement,  r e s p o n s e may p o s s i b l y be a r e f l e c t i o n intellectual  outlook  the p r o f i l e  indicates and t h i s  o f a more c o n s c i o u s l y  o n t h e p a r t o f Group A.  would be i n k e e p i n g w i t h pp.  and d i s t u r b e d  This  o f Group A  attitude  (See a b o v e  38-40).  The E x p e c t a t i o n s Inside  the Ghost Sonata  The e x p e c t a t i o n s S o n a t a were v e r y has a l r e a d y  o f Group C A b o u t  o f Group C a b o u t I n s i d e  similar  t o t h o s e o f G r o u p s A a n d B.  b e e n m e n t i o n e d t h a t Group C's  about a c t i n g , costumes, and s c e n e r y Group A t h a n G r o u p B. to the fact  It  expectations  are c l o s e r t o those o f  T h i s has been t e n t a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e d  t h a t Group C, l i k e  performance i n f o r m a t i o n  the Ghost  Group A, h a d g r e a t e r p r e -  t h a n Group B.  95  It  is interesting  term symbolic and  scenery,  previous their  to express while  their  and  had  d e s c r i p t i o n s of these seen  beginning  G r o u p A.  Group B,  Group  expectations  used  this  Ghost  Groups A  development o f the  characters,  Group C  and  plot,  showed v e r y  little  o f Groups A  B may  and  o r more p r e v i o u s  of the  two  symbolic this  members  almost  of  as much  as  two  previous  and  B.  enjoyment o f interest  in plot  result  o f Group C,  productions  The  experience  productions  influence  on  the  Sonata.  Ghost  a direct  enjoyment  on  in  the  the  the  of having  of  part  seen  one  productions recently.  expectations  the p r e v i o u s the  An  o t h e r two  same g e n e r a l  the p r o d u c t i o n .  important  these  those  B.  and  and  either  to those  s e e n one  or  of both  discernible  B about  same as  Inside  those  obviously thinking i n  groups b e f o r e  i s s i g n i f i c a n t because responses  seen  p o i n t t o keep i n mind i s  e x p e c t a t i o n s were t h e  t e r m s as  not  seem t o h a v e a  o f Groups A  p e r f o r m a n c e Group C's o f Groups A  had  of having  G r o u p s , Group C was  This  who  were s i m i l a r  d i d not  expectations  s i n c e Group C's  the  be  The  Groups A  the  to the  as w e l l as  This greater interest  of  seen  Perhaps  B anticipated  former a s p e c t .  that  used  symbolic  costumes  frequently i n  Sonata.  t o seem i n a d e q u a t e however, u s e d  had  the  C. While both  of  about  term  productions,  I n s i d e the  t e r m was  a l l Group C used  o n l y h a l f o f G r o u p A who  productions  a f t e r having  the  t h a t almost  they  saw  after  the  are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from  The  R e a c t i o n s o f Group A  I n s i d e the Ghost The  members o f G r o u p A  production  I n s i d e the Ghost  seeing  that  and  They  that  been o r i g i n a l ,  indicated  that  felt  this  group  A  exciting  b e e n good  and  been  to  successful,  artistic,  and  probably enjoyed  themselves  i s that only  by  I t and  the  members two  d u r i n g the performance.  i n t h e number o f p e o p l e  t h e two  they  same  that  bored  the  worth  indication  were b o r e d  Like  been v e r y  felt  t o s e e more o f t h e  in this  previous productions.  members o f G r o u p A were a t l e a s t You  had  they  further  a c o n s i d e r a b l e drop  who  Sonata  that  t h e p r o d u c t i o n had  p e o p l e were o c c a s i o n a l l y is  indicated  they would l i k e  type of p r o d u c t i o n . of  Sonata  t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d had  excellent. i t had  to  occasionally  s e v e n were a t l e a s t  This group  (Six  bored  occasionally  by  As  bored  by  Tango.) The  Group  However, t h e y people  felt  from  labyrinth,  and  interested  i n the  (the  Student  and  pessimism  the p l a y i t s e l f  f e l t i t was  depressed  more,judging  Perhaps  felt  and  after  the  two  the performance  fact  that  and  was  pessimistic. o n l y two .  over.  Further  t h e y moved a b o u t  t h e y were n o t  the  really  most o b v i o u s l y p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r s  t h e Young L a d y ) t h e s e  d i d not  sad  o n l y somewhat m o v i n g and  t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c way  from  was  affect  feelings  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  of  sadness  deeply.  t h e method o f p r o d u c t i o n c r e a t e d a more  objective  97 p o i n t o f view  f o r the  intellectually this  aware t h a t t h e  knowledge d i d not The  by  the  two  appeal.  group responded  p l a y was them  of both  the  sad  t o the  c h a r a c t e r s may  Student,  and  the  and  as  f a r as  most  enjoyed  The  have been a  very  few  of  the  responded  "alienating"  these  grotesque factor  that only h a l f  production prevented  disbelief  were  and p e s s i m i s t i c  t h e Mummy.  P o s s i b l y the v a r i o u s  play  suspending  two  they  emotionally.  It is interesting  Young L a d y .  from  that while  p a r t i c i p a n t s were Hummel and  their  the  affect  so  c h a r a c t e r s i n the main scenes  appearance of these in  audience,  to  effects  the  audience  c h a r a c t e r s were  concerned. The  aspect  of  G r o u p A most e n j o y e d and of  scenery. film  and  Only  the  s t a g i n g o f the main scenes  was  the  two  members o f t h e  s l i d e s more i n t e r e s t i n g  of production,  suggesting  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by  not  t h a t they  Although  the  perimental out find  certain  o f the  aspects  and  i n a conventional  somewhat g o o d .  satisfied nature  with  o f the  the  the  than  the  film  and  the  other  slides  to the  seem t o a c c e p t production,  respond  the  they  mainly  use  aspects group  and  did  experience. general  apparently  to those  they  exfilter would  production.  Group A e v a l u a t e d and  group found  added s i g n i f i c a n t l y  participants  nature  costumes  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the  were n o t find  a c t i n g , f o l l o w e d by  which  This  the  a c t i n g as  suggests  acting.  t h a t t h e y were n o t  Perhaps  production d i d not  somewhat p r o f e s s i o n a l  the  give  entirely  unconventional  the  audience  the  98  experience does.  that  the  acting  However, o n l y  vocal  or  two  irritated  by  majority  of  Mummy as  of  the  the  character. the  and and  or  i t was  feel  the  the  that  the  and  poor.  involving,  this  the  d i d not  felt  the  was  Hummel and  one  of  that  performers.  the  these  the This  that  i t was  same way p l o t was  response. members  elegant felt  the  either clear,  and  i t  group  they d i d not  p r e v e n t them f r o m be  between  b o t h e r e d by  none o f  first  continuous  T h o s e who  since  was  i s the  distinction that  Though  actor  concerned, the  seem t o be  a n o t h e r p o i n t w h i c h may  the  most i n -  i s a factor in this  unnatural.  In the  with  r e c a l l e d that  felt  in thinking  inappropriate,  development of  l o g i c a l but  majority  d i d not  the  Group e n j o y e d most.  a c t i n g s t y l e was  unnatural  a c t i n g was  be  It i s also possible  stilted  stilted  the  the  (6  although  satisfied  G r o u p A makes any  G r o u p A were d i v i d e d  stylized  that  playing  S t u d e n t was  Questionnaires  f a r as  so  felt  significant.  i t will  r e s t of  they  fewer t h a n were  i d e n t i f y what t h e y  that  the  that  e i t h e r Tango  entirely  actors  the  indication that and  actors  (3 p e o p l e )  and  characters  characters,  As  or  best,  Group f e l t  exposure to  of  It  Group were n o t  two  g o o d as  slight  Like  Group c h o s e t h e  the  teresting  actor  the  the  were a l s o  so  You  i t , which i s perhaps  The  the  production  group mentioned  i s considerably  t h e y were u n a b l e t o  wrong w i t h  not  This  this  a c t o r s ' mannerisms d u r i n g  p e o p l e ) o r As  half  members o f  p h y s i c a l mannerisms o f  were i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  acting,  i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l  was  this felt  feel believable  finding i t  significant.  99  Group A l i k e d  t h e c o s t u m e s v e r y much a n d f e l t  were a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y . those  costumes  were  o f Hummel a n d t h e Mummy, a l t h o u g h many o f t h e o t h e r  c o s t u m e s were a s e f f e c t i v e . not  The f a v o r i t e  they  However, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s do  seem t o be a b l e t o d i s s o c i a t e  costume, costume  and t h r o u g h o u t  actor,  the study  seemed t o c h o o s e t h e b e s t  a c c o r d i n g t o how g o o d t h e y  it  was.  Since they  of  costumes  and s c e n e r y  possibility  according  felt  the actor  do n o t seem t o b e v e r y  the costumes o f those Another  c h a r a c t e r and  i t may be t h a t  they  visually  can only  remember  a c t o r s who made an i m p r e s s i o n on  i s that  t o how w e l l  aware  wearing  they  chose  t h e costume  the best  helped  them.  costumes  the actor  express  the c h a r a c t e r . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e G r o u p and  t h e main  scenes  and f e l t  much t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g Group,  however,  properly. bothered in  fact  facts was  felt  that  The o t h e r h a l f by h a v i n g  t o enjoy  that  the l a b y r i n t h  the l a b y r i n t h  o f the play.  Only  d i d n o t know.  half  very  o f the  interpreted  the l a b y r i n t h  established  added  They w e r e n o t  t h e e x p e r i e n c e v e r y much. that  a n d seemed  Probably the the l a b y r i n t h  the a g g r e s s i v e elements  i n productions involving  p a r t i c i p a t i o n were a b s e n t  which  audience  contributed to putting the  a t ease.  The was  both  t h e p l a y had been  n o t t h r e a t e n i n g and t h a t  audience  that  t o move a r o u n d  i t was q u i c k l y  are o f t e n present  enjoyed  aspect o f the l a b y r i n t h  Group A e n j o y e d  t h e s c e n e r y , f o l l o w e d by t h e c o s t u m e s .  Although  most they  /  100 felt  intrigued,  meeting  shocked,  and i n v o l v e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f  t h e a c t o r s , t h e a c t i n g was n o t t h e a s p e c t  t h e y were most i n t e r e s t e d . considerable on  a stage  the  interest  This  i s i n contrast to their  i n any a c t i n g w h i c h h a s t a k e n  and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y  place  d i d not r e a l l y  a c t o r s i n t h e l a b y r i n t h were a c t i n g , s i n c e t h e i r  was o f t e n a p p a r e n t l y  unstructured.  m i g h t be t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s activities  defined, static  some s u g g e s t i o n  less  aspects  more c l e a r  about which  were a b o u t t h e d e t a i l s area.  The c e n t r a l  participants even t h i s  They w e r e ,  labyrinth  there  concentrate aware o f t h e  liked  i n t h e main  much than  they  scene  quite bare,  but the  i n remembering  point. appear  t h a t as s o o n as t h e G r o u p stage  a n d more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  significant  point.  in  the l a b y r i n t h  they  This  Furthermore  u n i t s they  a r e a was e s s e n t i a l l y  and  their  place i n  f o r example,  o f the scenery  away f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  uniform  area.  take  seemed t o h a v e some d i f f i c u l t y  I t would got  they  become more v i s u a l l y  of staging.  activity  a c c e p t any  t h a t when t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  on t h e a c t i n g t h e y  other  do n o t r e a l l y  stage  feel  A tentative conclusion  o f a c t o r s as a c t i n g u n l e s s  some c l e a r l y is  i n which  response  area  they  responses,  The G r o u p r e s p o n s e liked  b e s t was v e r y  t o which l a b y r i n t h  i s p o s s i b l y because  they  unit  members  had l e s s  an  interesting  t o which  actors  s c a t t e r e d , as was  they  liked  are not judging  best.  the aspects  101  o f the play  labyrinth  should  be  according  like.  I t must be  participants  moved f r e e l y  own  not  t i m e and  to t h e i r  own  ideas  o f what  remembered t h a t  through  the  labyrinth  a l l o f them n e c e s s a r i l y saw  a  the taking  a l l of  their  the  units. Although very  the  responses to the  s c a t t e r e d , a l m o s t a l l o f Group A  Kitchen.  This  i s perhaps because  w h i c h were most r e c o g n i z a b l y was  going  watch  on w h i c h t h e  i n a group.  a miniature by  the  box  o t h e r w o r d s , one was  perhaps  the  set with by of  u n i t s were  liked  Cook's  this  the  u n i t was  a play  u n i t was  definite  boundaries set.  t h e most c o n v e n t i o n a l and  back  a p p r e c i a t e d by  those  activity  from  s e t i n what was  the w a l l s of the  recognized  among  i n t h a t an  audience could stand  Also  a c t o r s and  like  labyrinth  and actually  established T h i s was,  u n i t s and the  in as  such  audience  members. The liver  slightly  (with i t s accompanying  vegetables probably  and  use  more i m m e d i a t e  in  the  grotesque  even g r e a t e r  Perhaps the  the  shocking  of and  action in this  effect  o f the  smell), real  the  appeal  f o o d made t h e the  other  u n i t was  particularly  raw  and  real  Cook were  of t h i s  unit.  Cook's K i t c h e n  dynamic t h a n not  of r e a l  porridge  appearance of  f a c t o r s i n the  real  use  units,  seem  although  interesting  itself. I n summary, t h e n ,  experimental  nature  of  Group A,  the  while  production,  accepting  the  general  seemed t o s e l e c t  and  102 respond to those would be  found  aspects of the main scenes which they  i n a conventional production.  feel  Furthermore,  they seemed to f e e l t h a t the l a b y r i n t h , on the whole, c o u l d not be  i n c l u d e d i n the category Apparently  "play".  as a r e s u l t of t h i s  f e e l i n g they were a b l e  t o respond to the l a b y r i n t h a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r preferences a fairly  The  r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g to what i s emerging as  r i g i d s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Reactions The  was  personal  of Group B To  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  response o f Group B t o I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata  on the whole very s i m i l a r to the response o f Group A.  However, although  Group B enjoyed  the p r o d u c t i o n and i t s  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s , they were s l i g h t l y l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c than Group A and  i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t more than  of Group B'were bored  half  at l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l l y .  Group B seemed l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r  responses  to the v a r i o u s aspects o f p l a y and p r o d u c t i o n of I n s i d e Ghost Sonata than Group A.  That i s , t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n  t h a t Group A e v a l u a t e d the p r o d u c t i o n i n terms o f conventions  the  the  of t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s w h i l e Group B seemed  s l i g h t l y more i n c l i n e d to e v a l u a t e the p r o d u c t i o n on i t s own of  terms, r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g to a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d s e t expectations.  103  One primarily felt  difficulty labyrinth  as c o m p l e m e n t a r y  making  the t r a n s i t i o n  and t h e m a i n  the whole performance. and u n i t y  and r e s p o n d  ment w h i c h t h e y life. one.  satisfying  one  and t h i s  bored.  will  in a traditional  and s l i d e s ,  more i n c l i n e d production  Group B  theme o r l i n e  then,  to the  parts  that  as an  an  response  mainly  elements  less  were  t o be  less  scenes  than  w h i c h w o u l d be  G r o u p B, on t h e o t h e r between  the a c t i n g  w h i c h seems t o i n d i c a t e  t h e members o f G r o u p  entirely  f o r the s l i g h t l y  i n t h e main  production.  about  intellectual  Group A t e n d e d  and s l i d e s  develop-  intellectual  t h e p r o d u c t i o n an  account  that  of  statement  f o r Group B,  to accept a non-conventional  than  no  accepted  as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y ,  their  scenes  and t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n who  to the f i l m  hand, d i v i d e d  t h e main  as a m e a n i n g f u l  may  be r e c a l l e d  the a c t i n g ,  film  scenes  S i n c e the p r o d u c t i o n d i d have  Group B d i d n o t f i n d  occasionally  the  from  scenes  interpreted  response  responsive  It is  a s p e c t s o f t h e same  t o some s i n g l e  enthusiastic  It  life.  a c c e p t t h e main  Consequently,  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  found  about  B  f o r G r o u p B t h e y were more a b l e t o  The e x p e r i e n c e was,  experience,  to  e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e Group  statement  and b a c k a g a i n .  coherence  the p r o d u c t i o n  G r o u p B, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , seemed t o h a v e  labyrinth  extract  felt  t h a t Group A d i d n o t r e a l l y  production.  of  Group A  p r o v i d e d an e m o t i o n a l  the l a b y r i n t h  the  i s that  i t made a m e a n i n g f u l  possible and  example  A.  that  they  approach  to  and. are  104 I n c o n t r a s t t o Group A, who Mummy's c o s t u m e s , t h e r e s p o n s e they  l i k e d best  t h e most  was  very  concentrated  B, b u t t h i s was  still  same s t a n d a r d s  o f Group B t o w h i c h  scattered.  response  f r o m t h e members o f G r o u p  evaluate  as G r o u p A.  costumes  Hummel's c o s t u m e g o t  fewer than h a l f  a p p e a r t h a t Group B d o e s n ' t the  c h o s e Hummel's and t h e  the group.  I t would  costumes a c c o r d i n g t o  I t seems q u i t e c l e a r ,  however,  t h a t Group B does make more o f a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n and  costume t h a n Although  trying  statement  they  difficulty  content the find often  As  an a p p a r e n t  t r i e d t o base t h e i r o f the p r o d u c t i o n . t h a t was  the experience bored.  to a pre-  unable  themselves  result  less  of this  bored.  t o do s o .  experience Since  to  experience  they  enjoyed  Group B had  a c c e p t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l framework  production  constantly  d i d n o t t r y t o e x t r a c t an i n t e l l e c t u a l  p r o d u c t i o n more and were  they  according  f r o m t h e p l a y and a l l o w e d  emotionally.  and  t h e members o f Group A were  frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h e y were  Consequently  the  A.  to c l a s s i f y the production  established  it  Group  actor  less  o f the play  on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  t h i s was  an a s p e c t  of  n o t emphasized, Group B d i d n o t  so s a t i s f y i n g  as G r o u p A and was  more  105  The R e a c t i o n s  o f Group C t o I n s i d e t h e G h o s t S o n a t a  When e x a m i n i n g  t h e response  o f Group C t o t h e I n s i d e  the Ghost Sonata P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s imp o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t these to  the previous  is  the f i r s t  two p r o d u c t i o n s  time  p a r t i c i p a n t s had n o t been  i n the study  and t h a t  this  they had answered t h e P o s t - P r o d u c t i o n  Questionnaire. T h e r e i s some s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s i n c e t h e members o f Group C had n o t had these  immediately  previous  experiences  o f one o r two v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s , t h e y evaluating standards  I n s i d e the Ghost Sonata l e s s of conventional theatre.  less inclined  those  to  That i s , Group C i s  o f Group C tend  o f G r o u p s A a n d B.  t h e i r responses than  according to the  t o t h i n k o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n as a " p l a y " .  one t h i n g , t h e r e s p o n s e s than  were  For  t o b e more s c a t t e r e d  T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e  a r e more a r e s u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l  that  preference  a r e s u l t o f an e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e a p p l i e d  theatre. While  t h e members o f G r o u p s A a n d B f e l t  the pro-  d u c t i o n was u n r e a l i s t i c ,  a s many a s h a l f o f G r o u p C  t h a t i t was r e a l i s t i c .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Groups A and  B regarded  t h i s p r o d u c t i o n as u n r e a l i s t i c  w i t h As_ You L i k e I t a n d T a n g o , comparison w i t h l i f e . i t was r e a l i s t i c  felt  i n comparison  o r as u n r e a l i s t i c i n  T h o s e members o f G r o u p C who  were p o s s i b l y n o t making a c l e a r  felt  distinction  / / /  /  106 b e t w e e n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and the  two  tions  life.  duction  as  in,  separate  not  a  realistic,  i e n c e may  "play", but from,  as  possible  d i d not  lives.  t o do w i t h  o f Group C who  Groups A  B.  Since, possibly,  regarded  t h e g r o u p and  they  responding therefore  felt  found  Very  few  with  and  the  unit,  e x p e r i e n c e more r e a l  few  d i d not  and  on  the o t h e r  themselves this  fairly  in  i t made  t h e a t r e which  B,  (though  more  o f the  as  hand,  audience.  identity those  give  with aspects  and  predictable,  and  play.  i n comparison  to the  with  the  S i n c e G r o u p C seemed t o than  exper-  about  that  i s , they  G r o u p C members r e s p o n d e d  B.  the  very  felt  (by s e l e c t i n g  framework o f t h e  labyrinth  Groups A  That  a p l a y and  saw  of  i n a conventional production  a c c o r d i n g l y ) as safe,  i t was  t h e e x p e r i e n c e was  p r o t e c t e d by  by what t h e y  w h i c h w o u l d be  of  Groups A  t h e p r o d u c t i o n as  individuals  Kitchen  the conventions  anonymity.  included  uncomfortable  i n comparison  them p e r s o n a l l y .  p r o t e c t e d by  way  pro-  the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n  t o some o f G r o u p C t h e y m i g h t h a v e  the audience  As  In t h i s  felt  labyrinth  feel  conven-  think of this  o f the r e a l i t y  the  more demands on  the  seen  t o them.  moving about and  not  e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h was  acceptance  have something  than h a l f )  an  their  not u n r e a l i s t i c ,  This  "real"  had  p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s which e s t a b l i s h e d  o f a p l a y , they p o s s i b l y  fewer  Since they  theatrical,  the  Cook's  large majority  find  the  entire  introduction  in  107 this  u n i t o f the r e a l  than  f o r t h e members o f t h e p r e v i o u s  possibly of  this  responding unit  f o o d p e r h a p s had l e s s  the costumes  as h i s t o r i c a l  f o r them  were  the r e a l  of the other  Group C d e s c r i b e d t h e s c e n e r y and  g r o u p s , who  t o the c o n t r a s t between  and t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y  impact  units.  as a u s t e r e  and s y m b o l i c .  props  and  symbolic  These a r e 35  more a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m s t h a n There take  i s some s u g g e s t i o n  those  c h o s e n by Groups A and  B.  t h a t t h e members o f G r o u p s A a n d B  c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y  very  much f o r g r a n t e d  w i t h i n the  framework o f a p l a y , b u t s i n c e some members o f G r o u p C d i d not  seem t o r e g a r d  automatically extent  this  ignore  and so were  production  as a  "play" they  t h e c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y  able  t o d e s c r i b e them  d i d not  t o t h e same  a little  more  accurately. With regard  t o t h e a c t i n g i n t h e main s c e n e s ,  members o f G r o u p C t h a n o r v o c a l mannerisms  more  o f Group A o r B n o t i c e d p h y s i c a l  on t h e p a r t o f t h e a c t o r s w h i c h  irritated  them.  This suggests  t h a t t h e members o f G r o u p C a r e n o t  making  the automatic  allowances  f o r t h e a c t i n g made b y  G r o u p s A and B w i t h i n t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f a With regard  t o the main  scenes,  Group C as i n G r o u p A and B s a i d in  w h i c h t h e y were  than of  half  either  most  the Group.  However,  Groups A o r B gave  t h e same number i n  t h a t a c t i n g was  interested.  "play".  T h i s was  the  still  aspect fewer  more members o f G r o u p C  film  and s l i d e s  as t h e  than  aspect  108 t h e y most e n j o y e d .  An i n t e r e s t i n g  point  c a n t l y more s t u d e n t s t h a n n o n - s t u d e n t s the  film  this  and s l i d e s  group  enjoyed  Apparently than  either  response  split  from  their  more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c .  This apparent  developed  i n the responses  significant  and s t u d e n t s i n  that  as soon  t h e main scene  tendency  s t a n d a r d i z e d way  area  became l e s s  suggested  o f Group A's  that  as t h e s e (or conven-  u n i f o r m and t h i s was  because  a c c o r d i n g t o an use t o d e a l w i t h  t o respond  i n a more  seems t o be more  o f G r o u p C, who  fully  do n o t seem t o  any p a r t o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  of conventional theatre.  There  seems t o be a d i f f e r e n c e  t h o s e who went t o I n s i d e t h e G h o s t seen  inclined  of the theatre  i s no  frame o f r e f e r e n c e w h i c h t h e y  evaluating  aspect.  a r e more  i n the d i s c u s s i o n  the l a b y r i n t h  less  standards  There  response  personal,  be  group  Sonata  I t was  they were n o t e v a l u a t i n g  the t h e a t r e .  students i n  groups.  t o I n s i d e the Ghost  established  than  to the conventions  has been mentioned  stage area)  enjoyed  between n o n - s t u d e n t s  p a r t i c i p a n t s were away tional  i n this  a performance.  o f t h e o t h e r two It  i n Group C  t h e a c t i n g more t h a n any o t h e r  the students to r e f e r  corresponding  signifi-  and more n o n - s t u d e n t s  the non-students  when a s s i m i l a t i n g  i s that  one o r b o t h  the response  i n the response o f  Sonata w i t h o u t  having  o f t h e p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s , compared t o  o f t h o s e who  previous productions.  had seen Groups  A  one o r b o t h and  B  of the  seemed  /  109 t o impose  a frame o f r e f e r e n c e on I n s i d e t h e G h o s t  Sonata  w h i c h p o s s i b l y h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d o r r e i n f o r c e d by immediately  previous  play experience.  o t h e r hand, had n o t perhaps had t h e i r regarding so  their  G r o u p C, on t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e  t h e a t r e r e c e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d and t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t  constantly t r y to f i t the production  into  this  frame o f  reference.  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s  o f the  Combined G r o u p A, B and C a n d T h e i r Reactions  The the Ghost the  Group o f t h i r t y - s i x  experience.  than  They e x p e c t e d  experimental realistic.  their  to provide seen  that  the standard  and t h e p r o d u c t i o n  Since over  half  production  an  about  emotional  t o be g o o d , t h e  unrealistic  of this  Inside  rather  Group had h e a r d  i t i s perhaps n o t s u r p r i s i n g  e x p e c t a t i o n s were s o a p p r o p r i a t e .  With o n l y fulfilled.  as a w h o l e e x p e c t e d  o f t h e mind which would p r o v i d e  something about t h i s that  Sonata  Sonata would be a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a y  inner world  style  t o I n s i d e the Ghost  While  one e x c e p t i o n  these  t h e Group e x p e c t e d  an e m o t i o n a l  i tthat i tactually  experience  expectations  were  the production  they  decided  made a m e a n i n g f u l  primarily  after  statement  having about  life.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s made a d e l i b e r a t e  effort  to interpret  the development o f the a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g  110 to  an  intellectual  perhaps  justified  scheme.  This  intellectual  t h e p r o d u c t i o n f o r them and made t h e  experience worthwhile, while a s i m i l a r which  approach  type of p r o d u c t i o n  m a i n l y p r o v i d e d an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e m i g h t  a positive As  response  from t h i s  f a r as t h e a c t u a l  staging  o f t h e p l a y was  concerned  Group expected both  s c e n e r y and  c o s t u m e s t o be  and  fanciful.  a u s t e r e and  f u n c t i o n a l were  chosen  by  describe also  a number o f t h e G r o u p and t h e s c e n e r y and  chosen.  The  were s c a t t e r e d , it  t o be  several  direct  muted t o d e s c r i b e  Groups'  also  minimal  to  c o s t u m e s were  e x p e c t a t i o n s about  the  acting  although twelve of the t h i r t y - s i x  e x p e c t a t i o n s about  different  result  production. uniformity  ways.  the s t a g i n g  The  first  expected  The  second  possibility,  o f the response which i s that  their  response  heard  about  third  their  some  ideal  described  normative  possibility  own  ideas  staging  the  pre-established  have  or  a  the  i s that  about  plays.  Groups e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t  c o s t u m e s and  about  o f the combination o f h a v i n g  t h e p r o d u c t i o n and  experimental The  i s a result  heard  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  The  they are  s u p p o r t e d by  suggests  s t a g i n g o f what i s , t o them, t h e  experimental production.  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  i s that  o f what t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d  frame o f r e f e r e n c e , the  the terms  symbolic  p o w e r f u l and p a s s i o n a t e .  These in  terms  get  Group.  the  The  not  as  f a r as  s c e n e r y were c o n c e r n e d were f u l f i l l e d  to a  Ill considerable historical the  extent,  and  although  realistic  c o s t u m e s , and  there  which can  be' s e e n by  s h o u l d be  p o i n t e d out  were a p p r o p r i a t e area, yet these  are  several other  are the  are not  really The  describe  things  t h a t are not  evidence  o f the  apparent  may  of  simply  the  c o s t u m e s and they  aspects  too , the of  The scattered, it  the  attempt  twelve  powerful the  a c t i n g was  and  though p o s s i b l y these same q u a l i t y  i n the  two  on  the  On  the  the  Group that visual  symbolic  to  p a r t o f the f o r as other  cannot  Group  many hand, i t idea  they  how  feel  aspects  anyway.  remember  these  them.  a c t i n g were  thirty-six  passionate.  and  scene  i s possibly further  about the  of the  participants stilted  of  enough t o d e s c r i b e  Groups' e x p e c t a t i o n s although  fanciful  to a l l the  d e s c r i b e d , but  simply  It  suggestion  to d e s c r i b e these  participants  of  variations  p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e no be  staging clearly  w o u l d be  production  should  the  explanation  possible.  t h a t the  scenery  s h o u l d make an  Possibly  inclination  t h e a t r e as  nor  c o n t i n u a l use symbolic  costumes  themselves.  most o f  sensitive  intellectual  indicate  slight  i n the key  f u r t h e r supports  of a production.  aspects  scenery  the  description  results  terms chosen by  the  an  the  f o r the  This  members t o f i n d  seen  that n e i t h e r symbolic  to describe i t .  aspects  having  were a d d e d t o t h e  examining  terms  participants  after  After  expected having  that  seen  the  were d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h i n k i n g unnatural  and  elegant  and  f a c t i o n s were r e s p o n d i n g  acting.  The  m a j o r i t y of the  stylized,  to  Group  the felt  /  /  112 the  acting  while  was  somewhat good and  this is a positive  it  does not  be  connected with  about  the  seem t o be  acting  The  the  aspect  were  the  and  individual  production  the  acting,  followed  by  the  production  and  s l i d e s e n g a g e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t most, g i v i n g  production. really  had  statement in  the  valid  i n the  i n the This  following  about l i f e  the  scenery,  having  main scenes  labyrinth is a  that  acting was  natural  aspects of  i f the  development of  seen  film  scenery  fairly  most a r r e s t i n g  the  the  the  was  the  participants  a  meaningful  t h e y m i g h t h a v e b e e n more  interested  i n b o t h main could  After  be  s c e n e s and  labyrinth.  determine whether or  not  Only  this is  a  suggestion.  although  got  found t h a t  t h e s e were t h e  been  study  An  interesting point the  response to  participants  which  characters.  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  acting  further  the  between the  and  the  to  t h e y w e r e most a n t i c i p a t i n g  most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t .  response,since  not  Group e x p e c t e d  relationships  the  play  the  the  importance,  o r may  expectations  the  they  response  may  and  secondary  the  enthusiastic  and  unfulfilled.  i n was of  very  than a negative  fact that  aspect of  most i n t e r e s t e d  rather  somewhat p r o f e s s i o n a l  included  the  question  most e n j o y e d was  actors  more r e s p o n s e  about the  who  t h a n the  had  is  asking which  scattered,  appeared  purely  labyrinth  those  i n the  static  units  main or  that units units scenes those  113 w h i c h i n c l u d e d a c t o r s who This  suggests  important  again  aspect  d i d not  t h a t the  of  audience enjoyment.  r e s p o n d most t o t h e  which  related  and also  be  directly  labyrinth natural  t h a t the  into  K i t c h e n has  relationships more t o t h e  the  the  between the c h a r a c t e r s participants  response  really  the  production  characters extent.  scheme.  p a r t i c i p a n t s expected  characters of  majority  an  to  It  f i t the  This  is a  than  to the  Cook's  discussed.  between the  the main a s p e c t  and  a certain  meaningful,  The  a l r e a d y been  Although  plot  i t i s a more i n t e l l e c t u a l  spontaneous response.  the  to the  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s were t r y i n g  a coherent,  approach, but  Apparently  elements of  w h i c h p e r h a p s e l u c i d a t e them t o suggests  scenes.  element of r e c o g n i t i o n i s  participants can  appear i n the main  to enjoy  c h a r a c t e r s , they  as  interesting  play the  actually  d i d get  responded  individuals.  i s d e p e n d e n t on question  the  arises  a meaningful  Since  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s as  to whether  statement  the  from  play. During  volved  and  the  production  i n t e r e s t e d , and  Group e x p e c t e d  t o be  they  w o u l d be  felt  quarter  they  expected  to  the  at least  amused and  feel  puzzled  one  t h a t t h e r e were so  enlightened  and  supports  quarter  enlightened. and  few their  to  feel  of  the  who  enlightened. expected  expectation  in-  Afterwards  disturbed, while  f a t i g u e d and  interesting  this  Group e x p e c t e d  to  one It i s  be  that  the  114 p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e an e m o t i o n a l  experience.  G r o u p ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e way t h e y w o u l d after  the performance  were  i t was s u c c e s s f u l ,  more p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d . bored  equally  They e n j o y e d  and f e l t  understanding  enjoyed  and would  o f the play.  like  t o see  when m o v i n g a b o u t t h e  the l a b y r i n t h  the l a b y r i n t h  the production  The m a j o r i t y were n o t a t a l l  and n o t a t a l l u n c o m f o r t a b l e  labyrinth.  d u r i n g and  realized.  On t h e w h o l e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s v e r y much, f e l t  feel  The  and t h e m a i n  added m o d e r a t e l y  scenes  to their  They d i d n o t know, h o w e v e r ,  whether o r n o t t h e p l a y had been i n t e r p r e t e d p r o p e r l y . Several  p o i n t s emerge.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n t h a t meaningful  statement,  The f i r s t  attempt  way p e r h a p s the a c t i o n The  t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r statement  less  c h a l l e n g i n g , they  have t r i e d  i n t e r m s o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  i n terms o f a m e a n i n g f u l  was no s i n g l e  simple  statement  created  t o do s o .  Possibly  o f t h e main scenes by t h e a u d i e n c e  statement.  o f the pro-  i s that  there  inherent i n the production. came p r e p a r e d  the p r o d u c t i o n i n terms o f a n ' e m o t i o n a l  action  In  to explain  coherent  statement  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  were u n a b l e  was.  t o make t h e e x p e r i e n c e m a n a g e a b l e , and i n t h i s  main argument a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  duction  although  f o r them t h e p l a y made a  t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o d e f i n e what t h i s an  i s that  to accept  e x p e r i e n c e and  the i n t e r r u p t i o n s  and t h e almost  moving about  festive  of the mood  the l a b y r i n t h  destroyed  115 the  c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e atmosphere  i n the production,  w o u l d p e r h a p s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o an e m o t i o n a l Another p o s s i b i l i t y  by  their  the  underlying belief  that this  prevented  an e m o t i o n a l alone  experience  would n o t j u s t i f y  production. A  tations  final  point i s that the p a r t i c i p a n t s  about the p l a y i t s e l f ,  responses realized. This  experience.  i s t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were  from t h i n k i n g the p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e d  which  and a b o u t some a s p e c t s Furthermore, they  supports  the suggestion  of a production Pre-Production intention.  about  are d i r e c t l y expectations  1  main  some o f t h e i r  expecown  o f t h e s t a g i n g , were  seemed t o e n j o y t h a t enjoyment related  fully  the production. and  acceptance  t o the f u l f i l l m e n t of  about the p l a y ' s  type and  116  FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V I  3 3  See  p. 201.  3 4  See  p . 197 q u e s t i o n  (1) and p . 19 8 q u e s t i o n ( p ) .  3 5  See  p . 197 q u e s t i o n  (1) and p . 198 q u e s t i o n ( p ) .  CONCLUSION  This questions  p r o j e c t was i n t e n d e d  about t h e a t r e  d i c a t e d by g e n e r a l questions  trends  While  small  o f t h e group  size  clusions.  to  data.  These  o f f u t u r e work i n a u d i e n c e  some d e f i n i t e  trends  have emerged, t h e  involved prohibits definite  The two s p e c i f i c  between e x p e c t a t i o n s  effect  and d e f i n e a n y  r e s p o n s e w h i c h were i n -  i n the c o l l e c t e d  m i g h t be t h e b a s i s  research.  ships  audience  to discover  pilot  questions  (the r e l a t i o n -  a n d r e a c t i o n s and t h e  cumulative  o f c o n t i n u a l a t t e n d a n c e o n r e s p o n s e ) were  give  the study  expectation  some d i r e c t i o n  con-  included  and form, n o t i n t h e  t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d i n d i c a t e any  final  conclusions. A major purpose o f t h e study u s e d was p r a c t i c a l  and i f t h e r e s u l t s  method were u s e f u l . pp.  3-13  practical. method study an  to test  Using  p r o d u c e d by  the system d e s c r i b e d  a group o f t h i s  size  and t y p e  this  above (see seems  S u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n made i n t h e c h a p t e r  (p. 3 ) f o r a d a p t i n g  the system developed  t o a much l a r g e r g r o u p .  T h i s would i n v o l v e  very on  i n the dividing  u n l i m i t e d number.of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o g r o u p s o f f o r t y ,  each group b e i n g The  was t o s e e i f t h e m e t h o d  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f a team o f two w o r k e r s .  use o f t h e s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  produces  adequate  118 results,  though the  views w i t h already  the  been  m i g h t be  term  this  means i n t h i s  the  When t h e  or  t o o u t l i n e the  and  as  study  to describe  revealed was  by  s e t up,  influential  However, as  the  study  ideas which  aspects  on  of  these  frame o f  the  the  and  the  ing  to  and  to which  the  or production.  always  audience.  this  extent  not  realized  frame o f  how  reference  a number o f a t t i t u d e s and  consistent  to the  various  b e g a n t o emerge. i n t o a system,  This  frame o f  their  That or  reference,  personal  prefer-  comes b e t w e e n t h e  seem t o e v a l u a t e  t o which  this  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r when  coincide with  They  what  for  elements of  i t was  productions  to define  study.  progressed,  spontaneous responses,  the  the  seem t o h a v e c o a l e s c e d  a play  w h i c h does n o t  the  participants' reactions  reference,  e n c e s and  has the  reasons  seem t o h a v e a d i r e c t  plays  ideas  evaluating  As  been c o n t i n u a l l y  context,  and  fixed  has  I t i s important  entrenched  influence  is,  reference"  study.  i t exists,  frame o f r e f e r e n c e  was.  considered.  inter-  useful.  "frame o f  throughout  deeply  adding personal  p a r t i c i p a n t s m i g h t be  used  believing  of  s u g g e s t e d , a more d e t a i l e d v e r s i o n o f  questionnaires The  possibility  i t conforms to  production  a production the  frame  accord-  of  reference. Among t h e tence  of  p o i n t s which  t h i s widespread  uniformity  of response;  support  frame o f the  the  idea of  reference  similarity  are  between  the  exis-  the expectation  119 and  reaction questionnaires  common t o  the  e n t i r e group);  remain uniform which  for  to  this  f i t the  to  the  facts of  fact or  the  with  that  comparison of  the  i n t h a t Group C's  response probably production  responses  are  inter-  support  c o n t i n u a l reappearance of c e r t a i n the  study  which  response o f Groups A frame  more s c a t t e r e d ,  indicated a direct  seemed  a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  t h a t o f Group C seemed t o h i g h l i g h t t h e  reference,  the  Further  ( o u t l i n e d below) t h r o u g h o u t  the  constant  production  i n d i c a t e a p o i n t o f v i e w common t o  Finally  a  innappropriate,  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  i d e a i s the  attitudes  and  e v e n when i n a c c u r a t e  suggests t h a t the  preted  (which s u g g e s t s  B  of  individualistic  r e a c t i o n to  r a t h e r than a r e a c t i o n according  and  the  to the  frame  of  reference. The  frame o f  reference  knowledge o f  the  conventions  production.  The  details  but  those  the  frame o f r e f e r e n c e  ence, a p l a y  and  should  production  a production  If  first  motivation,  mentally.  of  have not  emerged  inherent  below.  place,  according  to  a clearly  must make t h e s e  clear,  as  the  w h i c h does n o t  an  an  ideas,  demand t h a t  they  a worthwhile  study,  frame o f  defined  idea.  and  any  exert  a  of  element  p a r t i c i p a n t s seem t o  must be  a m u s i n g and  the  on  type  from t h i s  discussed  present  based  traditional  are  A production  i t i s not  seems t o be  a very  a t t i t u d e s w h i c h seem t o be  In the  more, t h e  itself  of  referFurtheraction  prefer themselves  experience;  e n t e r t a i n i n g comedy i t s h o u l d  120 present  (fairly  about l i f e .  clearly)  Related  a meaningful  to this  needs some j u s t i f i c a t i o n fulfill  some f u n c t i o n .  fulfill  positive  t h a t time  participants  maintain  spent  they  return.  to the  activity  This  in itself  i t i n spite  must  apparent  must g i v e a  i s so i m p o r t a n t  admit t h e i r  rate a production  enjoyed  i t should  that the production  i n a given  t h a t , r a t h e r than  wasted, they w i l l  that a play  i n some forms o f d a n c e , f o r  function i s related  proportionate  statement  The a c t i o n i s n o t c o m p l e t e  The u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f  a worthwhile  principle  i s the a t t i t u d e  f o r i t s performance;  (as i t i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , example).  intellectual  time  to the  has been  g o o d o r e x c e l l e n t and  o f apparent  personal  reservations. While  a play  make a m e a n i n g f u l same time, p r o v i d e However, t h e r e the  s h o u l d be e i t h e r  statement  about l i f e ,  the audience  with  i s some i n d i c a t i o n  a c t i o n at a mentally  e n t e r t a i n i n g and/or i t should,at the  an e m o t i o n a l  t h a t they  and e m o t i o n a l l y  like  experience. t o keep  comfortable  dis-  tance . According takes  place  t o t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e , a p r o d u c t i o n  in a clearly  defined area with  boundaries  r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e a c t o r s , and d e f i n e d , u s u a l l y b y w a l l s . The  trend i s to regard  for  actors.  but  i ti s really  versely,  t h e t h e a t r e as p r i m a r i l y  Intellectual  content  may  justify  a showcase  the production,  t h e a c t o r s who make i t e n j o y a b l e .  an a c t i v i t y  o f an a c t o r i s c o n s i d e r e d  Con-  acting only  /  121 when i t t a k e s  place within  the c l e a r l y  defined  boundaries  of the stage. The  belief  seems t o b e t h a t  are  complete  the  a c t o r has c o n t r i b u t e d  central  i n themselves  concept,  things  regardless  of the play's  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the  o r t h e mood o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n  a r e demanded b y t h e p l a y .  An a u t o m a t i c  ance i s made b y t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r a c t o r s is  to disregard i r r i t a t i n g  inappropriate  m a n n e r i s m s when e v a l u a t i n g is  a tendency  character  t o make l i t t l e  the biggest  that  i f the character  participants  the  allow-  vocal  or physical  of the acting.  There  between  ( u s u a l l y , b u t n o t always actors  a r e t h e ones  The p a r t i c i p a n t s may be a s s u m i n g  i s more i n t e r e s t i n g  or  important,  acting i s better. Within  of  parts.  when  and t h e tendency  o r no d i s t i n c t i o n  to b e l i e v e that the best  with  the  the standard  and a c t o r a n d a t e n d e n c y  justified)  performances  o f whether o r n o t  to the expression  the. e s t a b l i s h m e n t  development o f the p l o t , these  individual  the context  o f t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e  are apparently  the production  a t a time,  able  t o focus  and t h i s  a c t i n g . Costumes and s c e n e r y  aspect  on one  i s usually  are taken very  reaction  c a n be b r o k e n b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an u n c o n v e n -  there is  s u c h as t h e u s e o f f i l m  i s some e v i d e n c e  firmly  This  much f o r  and t o a g r e a t  technique  ignored.  aspect  granted,  tional  extent  only  pattern of  and s l i d e s , b u t  t h a t where t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e  established, the unconventional  technique  will  122 have l e s s impact from the the  and  the  a c t i n g than w i l l  frame o f  reference  Throughout the effective worn by  the  actors  reason  for this  to  extent  they these  i s that  actor  they  they  t o name t h e  given  s o o n as  the  notice  the  not  the  One  possible  costumes  remember them c l e a r l y be  i t i s to  kept the  those  best  enough  i n mind  audience  separate  to  actor  p a r t i c i p a n t s moved away f r o m  were n o t  the  focal  point,  visually  aware o f  visual  most  scenery.  area  of  the  criteria.  However, i t s h o u l d  stage  the  conventional  and  i n t o one  they  actors  seemed t o become more  staging.  staging  i n which the  the  The  may  suggestion  i n some way  i s that  inhibit  the  their  response. In  basic  s t u d y by  spite of  this  o u t l i n e s of the  recurrent underlying  apparent  the  i s an  Since  a l l these productions  impossible  to  lack of  staging,  inability  there  is  other  d i d not  could  conventional  the  established.  c o s t u m e s were o f t e n  f r o m costume t h a n  costume from As  use  f e l t had  a t t r a c t i v e by  that  firmly  less distracted  a group i n which  i t i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r a member o f  separate or  so  be  p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y chose  who  t o make a d e c i s i o n . that  members o f  s t u d y , when a s k e d  although  most e f f e c t i v e o r  the  i s not  costume, the  performances,  the  participants will  awareness o f  shown t h r o u g h o u t  to describe  even  the  i t appropriately,  demand f o r t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . were t e c h n i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t i t  imagine with  any  c e r t a i n t y how  the  partici-  123 pants would respond be  executed  staging.  their  to i n t e r f e r e with  their  attitude to staging.  that  that  should  technical  time spent  give  This  demand t h a t  at the theatre  a worthwhile  the staging  return.  The demand f o r a tolerance of  p o o r a c t i n g may b e r e l a t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  but  and movies which o f t e n  have a h i g h The  suggests  of the  i s an i n v e s t m e n t  p r o f i c i e n c y i n combination with  television  poor  e n j o y m e n t w o u l d show up i n  technically proficient i s a further reflection  attitude  of  I t would  i n t e r e s t i n g t o know i f t h e t e n d e n c y n o t t o a l l o w  acting  be  to poorly  involve  1  experience  poor  acting  degree o f t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y .  a p p a r e n t d i s i n t e r e s t i n costumes and s c e n e r y  that  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e unaware how much  these  elements c o n t r i b u t e  t o t h e mood a n d a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e p l a y .  It  t h e y b e l i e v e mood a n d a t m o s p h e r e a r e  i s possible  dependent o n l y  that  on t h e a c t o r s .  One i m p o r t a n t that  point  i s that  there  i s some  t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e  always c o i n c i d e participants. approval  with This  the personal suggests  o f productions  that  that  preferences they  really  implication  i s that  a type o f theatre  other  than  repitition  the f a c t  they  are r e g i s t e r i n g  have l i t t l e  are supporting  do n o t  of the  them i n t e r m s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  of  evidence  the  impact on A  possible  perpetuation  t h a t h a s no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r them that  they  recognize  i n i t the  o f a f a m i l i a r form.  /  124 These, then, constitute  a r e some o f t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h  t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t l y  participants  to evaluate  aspect  suggestion  that i f a production  of this  frame o f r e f e r e n c e  above, t h e audience  way.  to i t emotionally,  This  suggests  recommend p o o r , unable is  is  t h a t they  not.  i sthe  the  requirements  approve the p r o d u c t i o n ,  they  really  enjoyed  intellectually might support,  as w e l l a s good p r o d u c t i o n s ,  The f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e n , critical  standards  or  o r i n any o t h e r approve and s i n c e they are  excellent  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  theatre.  tendency o f l o c a l to present  There  accept  theatres  artistic,  most c o m m i t t e d  only  which  i n this  by t h e everywhere)  audience,  standards. t h a t the group which has  o f t h e a t r e , and which has t h e a p p a r e n t l y  Group A ) , i s t h e group which  to t h e a t r e merely  and i t  t h e a t r e as  t r y t o conform t o  and s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  fair  high  (and p e r h a p s t h e a t r e s  i s some i n d i c a t i o n  t h e most e x p e r i e n c e  Consequently,  are not very  They a r e e n c o u r a g e d  productions  than  seems t o i n h i b i t t o  and o b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e .  p o s s i b l e t h a t they w i l l  rather  The  t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n what i s g o o d a n d what  some e x t e n t the  fulfils  will  w h e t h e r o r n o t as i n d i v i d u a l s responded  u s e d by t h e  and a s s i m i l a t e a p r o d u c t i o n .  disturbing  outlined  seem t o  This  relies  suggests  to theatre  (that i s ,  most h e a v i l y o n t h e that greater  exposure  r e i n f o r c e s t h e p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f  125  reference,  r a t h e r than  developing  However, as h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d  of increased c r i t i c a l  cumulative  exposure  i s some  awareness r e s u l t i n g  to a combination  from  o f the productions  the questionnaires. T h e r e i s some s u g g e s t i o n  not  fulfil  reference,  that i f the production  the e s t a b l i s h e d requirements the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l  This  d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e y w i l l  such  a non-conventional  that  the experience  attitude  while  o f t h e frame o f  not accept  i t as a " p l a y " .  not enjoy  and approve  would have l i t t l e  effect  on t h e i r  general  to theatre.  they  production  response.  which,  t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e ,  First  of a l l , there  the a u t h o r i t y of the production. i s actually  i s related  going  own p e r s o n a l  which  justifies  their  presence  for  being  comfortable,  the  participants  the  o t h e r hand, t h e r e  That  i s , i f the  i t must be g o o d .  maintaining  to ignore the b e l i e f ,  a t the theatre, that the  There  i s a natural  r a t h e r than  seem p r e p a r e d  feel  i s a tendency  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  reservations while  i s worthwhile.  boredom d u r i n g  on, t h e y  t o a tendency  their  production  i n attitude  r e c u r a n d seem t o h a v e an i n f l u e n c e on t h e  participants' accept  trends  do n o t seem t o f i t i n t o  consistently  This  does  presentation, but i t i s possible  There are s e v e r a l g e n e r a l  to  awareness.  above, t h e r e  indication  and  critical  preference  uncomfortable,  to sacrifice  i s an a u t o m a t i c  meaning.  acceptance  a p e r f o r m a n c e as an i n t e g r a l  f o r which On  o f some  p a r t o f the  126 theatre  experience.  overall  enjoyment, nor  they  cannot  hear  T h i s does n o t do  a l l the  seem t o a f f e c t  the p a r t i c i p a n t s a c t o r s , but  their  seem a n n o y e d when  again  tend  to  accept  this. Testing  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  difficult  as had  that  had  they  production responses of  the  goer  few  t h e y were g o i n g  probably to  read or seen  Questionnaire  opinion  acknowledges the ( s i n c e he  "likely"  The  use  by  were i n t e n d e d  unfulfilled.  imagining  in  terms  to free  The  . . . your  phrase  you  are  likely  Whether o r n o t  you  have  is likely  the  questions  to be."  o f the  The  participant's and  with  "probably"  deals  "some i d e a "  participant  " . . .  from  t r y t o answer  ..."  with  the p l a y i n  i f his expectations  response.  this.  "... As a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e -  unfamiliarity  t h a t h i s a n s w e r s w o u l d be wrong t o be  possible  a factor  i s a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e goer)  of the  of  t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n  validity  the problem o f h i s probable question.  type  p l a y p r e v i o u s l y t r y t o answer the response  so  significant  the  own  h a v e some i d e a o f t h e way  i m a g i n i n g what y o u r  statement  their  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  (the p l a y ) . . . . the  and  I t seems p r o b a b l e  s t a t e d i n the  you  t o see  not  I t i s perhaps  r e s e r v a t i o n s about d e f i n i n g  to i t .  to respond  by  been a n t i c i p a t e d .  Pre-Production  I t was  e x p e c t a t i o n s was  1  g i v e s the  e v e n more f r e e d o m when d e a l i n g w i t h what i s a f t e r  the  fear  proved . . . participant  all a  somewhat a b s t r a c t p r o b l e m . With regard expectations  to the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  a b o u t a p r o d u c t i o n and  their  the  participants'  r e a c t i o n s to i t ,  /  /  127 the main t r e n d s  c a n be summarised b r i e f l y .  each p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e study, the  play's  type  able extent the  fulfilled  and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n e d This suggests  that there  connection  between t h e f u l f i l m e n t  about type  and i n t e n t i o n  of play  o f the production  expectations overall  the expectations  a n d i n t e n t i o n were  production.  approval  In the case o f about  to a considert h a t they  i s a possible  o f these  expectations  and t h e e n j o y m e n t and  itself.  However, a l t h o u g h t h e  a b o u t t h e s t a g i n g seem t o be an i n d e x  expectations  some i n d i c a t i o n  o f the production  of the general  enjoyed  type  (that  of play  to the  i s , they  give  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  are e x p e c t i n g ) , t h e enjoyment o r a p p r o v a l  o f the performance  d o e s n o t seem d e p e n d e n t on t h e f u l f i l m e n t  of these  expectations.  Another  of the production expectations performance bored,  (that  filled  feel  own p e r s o n a l  i s , whether they  enlightened,  will  i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  seems t o be t h e f u l f i l m e n t  about t h e i r  However, t h e f a c t they  factor  etc., while  that their  after  particular  of their  response  expect  approval  during the  to feel  amused,  the play i s taking p l a c e ) .  expectations  the performance  about  i s over  t h e way  are not f u l -  d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t  on  their  enjoyment o r a p p r o v a l . There  i s some s u g g e s t i o n  about a p l a y ' s type firmly  and i n t e n t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d , the audience  interpret,the tations .  facts  t h a t when t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s are c l e a r l y will  d e f i n e d and  subconsciously  o f the performance t o f i t these  The c o m p a r a t i v e l y  a b s t r a c t nature  expec-  o f the d e s c r i p t i o n  128 of  the  play's type  an  e a s y one.  were n o t the  and  i n t e n t i o n w o u l d make t h i s  Throughout the  fulfilled  concrete f a c t s  study  the  were i n v a r i a b l y of which  expectations  those  i t w o u l d be  must be  pointed  for  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o have p r e c i s e e x p e c t a t i o n s  the  staging.  about e x p e c t a t i o n s general  production the  This  combination  created the  the  critical It  pre-play the  the  i n f l u e n c e d by  t h a t the  objective  production  information  and  information.  at l e a s t play's  one type  more  about  which  asked  were p h r a s e d  in  about  were more c r i t i c a l  the  a  individualistic,  cases  frame o f  pre-production  the  and  more  partici-  reference,  which,  information, possibly  More i m p o r t a n t ,  perhaps, i s  f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e may  inhibit  a  response.  are  a result  the  expectations  about  of  the  combination  of  a knowledge o f  the  conventions  of  There, i s some s u g g e s t i o n  production and  It  difficult  t h e a t r e , t h e memory o f w h i c h i s t r i g g e r e d by  play of  scenery  i s possible that i n general  a particular  more  questions  that i n these  expectations.  and  and  production  the  to  terms.  uniform  suggests  with  indication  the  staging,  expectations.  i n which a groups' e x p e c t a t i o n s  r e a c t i o n s to the  p a n t s were l e s s in  specific  were l e s s  objective.  reason  o f c o s t u m e s and  r a t h e r than In cases  f i t the  t h a t i t w o u l d a l s o be  this  which  more d i f f i c u l t  unconsciously  For  to  about the  distort  out  i n order  adjustment  (Tango) t h e  this  t h a t i n the  expectations  i n t e n t i o n were c r e a t e d  precase  about  e x c l u s i v e l y by  those  who  produced the  of pre-play t o be  information)  fulfilled.  them t h e  of  film The  is  the  having  next  d u c t i o n s has  effect  to control  and  on  on  s h o u l d be  expectations  the  i n that there  and  the  plot  of  an  plot.  B members a n t i c i p a t e d  indicated  anticipated  (who  response  i n f l u e n c e d by  had  interest  reactions of  previous next  o r more a  A  do  experience  antici-  significant  not  number  the  Sonata,  while  s e e n an  immediately  in this  in plot  element.  increases  interest  degree. not  pro-  subsequent  increased  anticipated  expectations the  discussed  about  much i n t e r e s t  G r o u p B's  the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  The  and  Ghost  a l s o i n c r e a s e s , though t o a l e s s e r  immediately  commercial  the  enjoyment o f  I n s i d e the  members o f G r o u p C  each p r o d u c t i o n ;  noticeably  and  productions.  seems t o be  enjoyment o f  G r o u p A's  this,  that  direct  expectations  effect  Further,  one  same way  an  production)  plot  i n the  of manipulating  t h a t s e e i n g one  previous  after  possibility  i s some e v i d e n c e  development of the none o f t h e  likely  o r more p r e v i o u s  about the  o f Group A  more  major q u e s t i o n which  s e e n one There  pation  so w e r e , o f c o u r s e ,  audience-.  cumulative  production,  source  response  a d v e r t i s i n g attempts  the  only  d i s t u r b i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , among  o f the  audience  ( s i n c e t h e y were t h e  and  T h i s has  suggestion  controlling film  play  Apart  seem t o  of seeing  in from  be  an  production.  question  o r more p r o d u c t i o n s  i s whether the  experience  seemed t o h a v e a d i r e c t  or  of  seeing  indirect  130 effect  on  the  reactions  of  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s to  a  subsequent  production. There i s d e f i n i t e l y Groups A  and  B t o Tango.  if  this  As  You  of  differences  Like  is  of  that  may  into  more c r i t i c a l  G r o u p A's  members o f  e n j o y m e n t and  of  Tango.  consideration,  theatre  and  experience,  or  t o know  enjoyed  members o f  Group  in their  evalu-  objective G r o u p A.  The  suggestion  o f As_ You  them t o be  Factors  Like  w h i c h must be  wider range  and  that  are  w h i c h most c l o s e l y a d h e r e s  to  they  the  a pre-established  in  taken  G r o u p A's  fact  It  less c r i t i c a l  however, a r e the  of  i f i t i s because The  approval  have p r e d i s p o s e d  evaluation  not,  s e e n and  i n each group.  Tango t h a n t h e  i n some way  their  recently  I t , w h i l e G r o u p B had inherent  response  However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  i s b e c a u s e G r o u p A had  B were n o t i c e a b l y ation  a d i f f e r e n c e i n the  of  group  frame  of  reference. The previous the  experience  productions  responses of  W h i l e G r o u p B's than t h a t similar attitude  of  and  response  of  Groups A  of  Group C  and to  and  B to  i s again  both  B,  theatre.  the  Inside  the  of  Ghost  Ghost  more c r i t i c a l  a fairly  In  w h i c h were v e r y  Inside  or both  groups' responses  seem t o r e f l e c t  towards the  s e e n one  the  d i d seem t o h a v e a d i r e c t e f f e c t  Groups A  G r o u p A, both  of having  contrast uniform,  and  are  on  Sonata. objective  generally  conventional to  the  the  responses  responses  S o n a t a were c o n s i d e r a b l y  more  131 scattered. respond rather  The members o f G r o u p C seemed more i n c l i n e d  according than  to their  according  t o the standards  frame o f r e f e r e n c e , w h i c h in  the response It  ductions and  own p e r s o n a l  to  preferences, o f the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d  i s apparently  the greatest i n f l u e n c e  o f G r o u p s A and B.  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t because adhered  t h e two p r e v i o u s  to the conventions  of traditional  protheatre  b e c a u s e t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f G r o u p s A and B was  apparently tried  r e i n f o r c e d by e x p o s u r e t o t h e s e  to evaluate  terms o f t h e s e  I n s i d e the Ghost  conventions.  Sonata a c c o r d i n g  Although  similarity  i n t h e make-up o f t h e t h r e e  sufficient  knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e  familiar  with  indicated those  these  conventions.  by t h e s i m i l a r i t y  of the other  productions,  there  they  to the  i s some  dis-  g r o u p s , Group C had  o f t h e t h e a t r e t o be  That  this  i s the case i s  o f G r o u p C's e x p e c t a t i o n s t o  two g r o u p s , e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e p a r t l y  b a s e d on a knowledge o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s  of traditional  theatre. The  suggestion  see  a production  and  s i n c e the production  conventional  just  i s , then,  approach  previous  t h a t s i n c e Group C d i d n o t t o I n s i d e the Ghost  i t s e l f was a d e p a r t u r e  from the  t o t h e a t r e , Group C d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e  the  production  the  frame o f r e f e r e n c e and d i d n o t e v a l u a t e  Conversely,  Sonata,  as b e i n g  a play  the suggestion  as d e f i n e d b y t h e t e r m s o f i t accordingly.  i s t h a t i f Group C had r e c e n t l y  seen a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n ,  their  response  might  have  132 been c l o s e r  t o t h a t o f G r o u p s A and  Apart established the  from  seen  and  effect  I n s i d e the  actor.  basic  Group A than  of continuous  Ghost Sonata,  incidental  of these  t o use  the  t h e members o f G r o u p s B and  g r e a t e r exposure t o p r o d u c t i o n s this  term  i s beginning  When e x a m i n i n g and  t o seem the  the  apparent  term C. and  the  they  had  I t may to the  character  of the  study,  less frequently  be  that  with  questionnaire  inadequate.  responses  to both  t h a t the  experience  of answering  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  the  expectation  taken  the  into  questions  to reexamine t h e i r  There i s a f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y  that  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s made t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s more aware o f  a  ally  is  e v a l u a t i v e approach to viewing  probably  a gradually increasing  Briefly production of  the  that  then,  the  effect  seems t o h a v e an  group to a subsequent  the  and  i n the  symbolic  account  terminology.  pro-  changes  end  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i t must be  of  of  groups.  reaction  encouraged  time  between  the  probably  evidence  exposure to both  p o i n t i s t h a t by  i s beginning  the  some members o f G r o u p s A  t h e r e were no  of either  of  only other  t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n  Otherwise  outlook An  reinforcement  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h a t by  B were b e g i n n i n g and  apparent  frame o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e  cumulative  ductions  the  B.  p l a y s and  factor  this  in their  o f s e e i n g one  i n f l u e n c e on traditional  use  the critic-  response.  traditional  the r e a c t i o n s production, i n  p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s  maintained  133 and  perhaps r e i n f o r c e d by each e x p e r i e n c e  that  t h e a t t e m p t was made t o a p p l y  frame o f r e f e r e n c e t o a t h i r d ,  to the extent  the standards  of the  non-traditional production.  In c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the p o i n t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter,  i t must a l w a y s be k e p t  g r o u p i n v o l v e d was a v e r y  i n mind t h a t because t h e  s m a l l one t h e r e s u l t s  o f the study  cannot be c o n s i d e r e d  i n any s e n s e as c o n c l u s i o n s .  they  o f p o s s i b l e areas  are indications  which  Rather  i t m i g h t be  w o r t h w h i l e t o examine i n f u t u r e work. Before  e x t e n s i v e work i s done on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between e x p e c t a t i o n s effect  on r e s p o n s e  a n d r e a c t i o n s , o r on t h e c u m u l a t i v e  of seeing  a series  frame o f r e f e r e n c e must be c l e a r l y should  really  exists.  I f i t does,  Further, i t s origin  i t s i n f l u e n c e should One  and t h e d e p t h and e x t e n t  be e x a m i n e d .  the comparison o f the responses  group o f people  with  o f those  might  to a production of a the responses  who' n e v e r go t o t h e t h e a t r e .  t h a t the responses  •are u n l i k e l y  the problem o f  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e  group o f r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s  is  frame o f  as i s l i k e l y , t h e  p o s s i b l e method o f d e a l i n g w i t h  establishing be  An a t t e m p t  o f t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e must b e i s o l a t e d a n d  examined. of  defined.  be made t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s  reference details  of productions, the  of a  The s u g g e s t i o n  who d o n ' t go t o t h e t h e a t r e  t o c o n f o r m so c l o s e l y  to a pre-established  134 frame o f r e f e r e n c e . the  two  The  c o n t r a s t between the  groups would throw the  frame o f r e f e r e n c e i n t o  relief  regular and  responses  of  theatre-goers'  emphasize  some o f i t s  details. A quick this A  study  a p p r o a c h seems v a l i d  suggested  two  pilot  groups  outline (one  theatre-goers) production. a profile  in  who  of  the  and  should  separate  f o l l o w any  or non-existence expectations  Examination  seem d e p e n d e n t on would not time,  original  the  modern, one  pants  further  study  s h o u l d be  r e v e a l s the  area exis-  frame o f r e f e r e n c e , s i n c e ,  (one  m i g h t w e l l be a larger  so  participants A possible  p l a c e over  three productions  involved.  question  expectations  Work i n t h i s  r e a c t i o n s o f the  to o b t a i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s  and of  i s the  members'  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  experimental)  non-  results  a long  need i t i n v o l v e many p r o d u c t i o n s .  pattern of  of  warranted.  study which  n e c e s s a r i l y have t o take nor  of the  f o r f u r t h e r study  o f the and  one  expectation questionnaire  reactions to a production.  tence  the  involve  conventional  i n d i c a t e whether or not  problem  practical.  three questionnaires;  d i r e c t i o n w o u l d be  logically  of  same f a i r l y  answer t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an  might  far,  t o see i f  i t is  study would  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a u d i e n c e  their  done f i r s t  t o make s u r e pilot  a t t e n d the  particular A  be  group o f r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r s ;  They w o u l d  response  this  and  for this  a reaction questionnaire. their  should  period  Indeed,  classic,  useful.  study  In  the  one order  number o f p a r t i c i - '  13 Finally, experience effect this  there  of seeing a series  o f p l a y s has a  on e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d / o r r e a c t i o n s .  particular  theatre  study  suggest  cumulative  The r e s u l t s o f  t h a t immediately  previous  e x p e r i e n c e m i g h t h a v e some i n f l u e n c e on s u b s e q u e n t  expectations would  i s the q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t the  and r e a c t i o n s , b u t o n l y more e x t e n s i v e  study  show how t r u e t h i s i s . One a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d be t o c o n d u c t  study which reactions A  a group's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f and  t o a much more e x t e n s i v e  suggested  period  involved testing  o u t l i n e might  o f n i n e months  series  involve nine  (from  a  of productions.  productions over  September t o A p r i l ,  a  which i s  when e s t a b l i s h e d V a n c o u v e r t h e a t r e i s a c t i v e ) . Two m a j o r p r o b l e m s any  further  study.  group o r groups. screened  very  come t o mind when c o n s i d e r i n g  The f i r s t  i s the composition  Participants  carefully  should  b e f o r e each  of the  be p r e - t e s t e d o r  final  group i s d e c i d e d  upon s o t h a t a l l t h e members o f e a c h g r o u p h a v e an e q u a l experience similar time  and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t h e a t r e a n d a  attitude  participants  representative The in  s h o u l d be c h o s e n  o f an a v e r a g e  second  a s h o r t term  that  a n d d e g r e e o f commitment.  problem  study,  the repeated  fairly  A t t h e same  so t h a t t h e y  Vancouver  are f a i r l y  audience.  i s the' method o f t e s t i n g .  such  as t h i s  Even  one, i t i s a p p a r e n t  u s e o f t h e same q u e s t i o n s  a n d t h e same  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a d some i n f l u e n c e on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  136 responses.  A f t e r answering the same q u e s t i o n s  times i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they begin they  to know what i t i s  l o o k i n g f o r i n each p r o d u c t i o n ,  as w e l l  perhaps, what the i n t e r v i e w e r i s l o o k i n g f o r .  In t h i s  way  should be  several  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  variable.  themselves become an a d d i t i o n a l  Over a more extended study  t h i s would  prove to be an even g r e a t e r f a c t o r i n t h e i r The  problem, then,  as,  probably  response.  i s to d i s c o v e r some method o f  testing  which would make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r to s t a n d a r d i z e the responses, a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t The  y e t which c o u l d be presented  in  forms.  main purpose of t h i s p r o j e c t was  to t r y t o  d i s c o v e r and d e f i n e some o f the q u e s t i o n s  about t h e a t r e  audiences which deserve f u r t h e r study.  The  which have o c c u r r e d  questions  as a r e s u l t o f the examination of  data are o u t l i n e d below.  the  These have been d i v i d e d i n t o  g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s , but there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f overlapping. F i r s t of a l l t h e r e are some q u e s t i o n s type o f person who 1.  The  goes t o the  about  the  theatre:  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study  are h i g h l y  selective  i n t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n viewing,  choosing  and  s e r i o u s drama.  Is  t h i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e o f a l l people-who go to  the  e d u c a t i o n a l programs and  theatre?  I f i t i s t r u e , how  responses to  productions?  mainly news  does i t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r  137 A m a j o r i t y o f the been a c t i v e l y  involved i n high  or p r o f e s s i o n a l  theatre.  true of audience Each of the  participants  t h r e e groups  attitude  Are  groups  of people each  who  a t some  time  s c h o o l , amateur  To what e x t e n t i s t h i s  members i n g e n e r a l ?  different these  had  and  in this  approach  study  had  a  to the t h e a t r e .  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the main  make up V a n c o u v e r a u d i e n c e s ?  t h e a t r e have a d i s t i n c t l y  different  types Does  type  of  audience? The  g r o u p w h i c h had  attitude widest  to the  range  critical  and  What i s t h e  t h e most s e r i o u s and  t h e a t r e and  w h i c h had  of theatre experience objective  response  significance  as w e l l  had  the  to the  of this  committed the  least  productions.  apparent  correlation? The  group w i t h  t h e a t r e was approach  t h e more l i m i t e d  more i n c l i n e d  to the t h e a t r e .  as  a w h o l e , and  The  group w i t h  had  t h e most r i g i d l y  experience  to accept Is t h i s  a  of  non-conventional  true of  audiences  i f s o , what i s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ? the w i d e s t  experience  of the  defined expectations.  versely,  the group which had  response  was  the group w i t h  What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  t h e most fewer  theatre Con-  objective  rigid  expectations.  of these p o i n t s ?  138 Second, t h e r e a r e q u e s t i o n s  about audience  expectations: 1.  Apparently  i t i s n o t necessary  f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  e x p e c t a t i o n s about s t a g i n g t o be f u l f i l l e d for  them t o enjoy  the p r o d u c t i o n .  I f the e x p e c t a t i o n s  about the p l a y ' s type and i n t e n t i o n were even i f the e x p e c t a t i o n s filled,  i n order  fulfilled,  about s t a g i n g were u n f u l -  the group has a p o s i t i v e response t o the  production.  Does t h i s suggest  an important d i f f e r e n c e  between the two types o f e x p e c t a t i o n ? 2.  When e x p e c t a t i o n s about a p l a y are c l e a r l y and  defined  f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d there i s considerable  t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l  sugges-  subconsciously i n -  t e r p r e t the f a c t s o f the performance t o f i t these expectations. audience? and 3.  I s t h i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e o f the average  I f i t i s t r u e , what i s the n a t u r e ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s subconscious  degree  adjustment?  When an audience member's e x p e c t a t i o n s  about i n t e n -  t i o n and g e n e r a l nature o f the p l a y a r e f u l f i l l e d does he tend t o i g n o r e h i s own p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s about the performance?  I f t h i s i s t r u e o f audiences  i n g e n e r a l , what i s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ? 4.  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p o s i t i v e to  a performance and the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  about t h e i r own p e r s o n a l response  response  expectations  (whether they  will  f e e l amused, saddened e t c . ) d u r i n g a performance?  /  139 5.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o s i t i v e response  t o each  perform-  ance was a p p a r e n t l y n o t a f f e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about the way they would a f t e r the performance was over were u n f u l f i l l e d .  feel  (happy, annoyed, e t c . )  What i s the d i f f e r e n c e between  p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s d u r i n g a performance and p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s a f t e r the performance i s over? 6.  There i s some evidence one  t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e o f s e e i n g  or more p r o d u c t i o n s has an e f f e c t on the  participants  1  e x p e c t a t i o n s about a subsequent p r o -  duction i n that there i s increased a n t i c i p a t i o n about enjoyment o f the p l o t .  I f t h i s i s true, to  what can i t be a t t r i b u t e d ? . Next, t h e r e a r e a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s about a t t i t u d e s t o some o f the p h y s i c a l elements o f a p r o d u c t i o n : 1.  To what e x t e n t a r e audiences elements o f a p r o d u c t i o n  aware o f the v i s u a l  (that i s , costumes and  scenery)? 2.  When a t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e  takes p l a c e i n an area  t h a t i s n o t a t r a d i t i o n a l stage the p a r t i c i p a n t s become more r e s p o n s i v e t o costumes and scenery. Does the use o f the t r a d i t i o n a l stage i n h i b i t  visual  response? 3.  The m a j o r i t y o f the group m a i n t a i n minimal scenery. attitude?  they p r e f e r  Does i t r e f l e c t g e n e r a l  What does t h i s a c t u a l l y mean?  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s ?  audience What i s  140 4.  Are audiences  really  clearly  aware o n l y  c o s t u m e s worn by t h e a c t o r s whose impressed 5.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n  element o f the p r o d u c t i o n  When t h e y  concentrate visually  less  acting unless  clearly  defined  attitude  Are audiences  feel  i t takes stage  able  area.  i s wrong w i t h  entirely  How  much d i s t i n c t i o n  and  character?  satisfied  To what e x t e n t  How  Questions to productions, are  section:  i n some k i n d o f  unstructured  t h a t they  audience  acting?  specifically  what  make b e t w e e n a c t o r  influenced i n their  by i t s t e c h n i c a l p r o respond  i f the p r o d u c t i o n  executed?  about the p a r t i c i p a n t s '  so i n t e r - r e l a t e d  activity  with i t ?  would they  and q u e s t i o n s  a t a time?  an a c t o r ' s  do a u d i e n c e s  poorly  to  able to  What i s g e n e r a l  are audiences  were t e c h n i c a l l y  they  t h e a c t i n g when t h e y a r e  evaluation of a production ficiency?  place  to identify  not  only  o f a performance  towards a p p a r e n t l y  Are audiences they  9.  on t h e a c t i n g do  The p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t r e g a r d as  f o r them.  aware o f and r e s p o n s i v e  r e s p o n d t o one a s p e c t  8.  t h a t a c t i n g i s t h e most  important  c o s t u m e s and s c e n e r y ?  7.  performances  them?  become more  6.  of the  general  a b o u t t h e frame o f will  responses reference  be i n c l u d e d i n t h e same  Is t h e r e  a system o f p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d o r  i d e a s w h i c h have c r e a t e d  pre-conceived  a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r  a u d i e n c e members when e v a l u a t i n g and a n t i c i p a t i n g  a  production? Although  t h e g r o u p members  came f r o m d i f f e r e n t each p r o d u c t i o n able  1  sources  were v e r y  information  pre-play their  information  expectations  uniform.  Did the a v a i l -  contribute to the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d s y s t e m o f r e s p o n s e ? particular important There  of  elements o f the p r e - p l a y i n this  and i s so f i r m l y  the production  this  On t h e o t h e r  t h a t t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d that the facts  only  If this  h a v e on g e n e r a l  information are  are i n t e r p r e t e d t o f i t i t (although  seems t o a p p l y  production).  to a t r a d i t i o n a l  hand, i f t h e p r o d u c t i o n  does n o t f u l f i l  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t seem t o a c c e p t as a " p l a y " .  able  What e f f e c t audiences  1  this  general  i t or evaluate  i s t r u e , how d o e s i t a f f e c t  to non-conventional  to enjoy  will  o f t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e  If this  audience response they  does i t  audience e v a l u a t i o n o f performances?  b a s i c requirements  Are  style of  i s t r u e , what e f f e c t  the  it  Which  respect?  i s some i n d i c a t i o n  exists  about  productions?  and approve o f such type  of production  productions  h a v e on  a t t i t u d e t o the theatre?  /  Do a u d i e n c e s responses not  have l e s s  when t h e y  attend  and more  sponding rather How  mean t h a t i n t h i s according  than  accept  mental production those  tional There  area?  are r e -  preferences  t h a t although the  separate  nature  o f an e x p e r i -  and respond  e l e m e n t s w h i c h w o u l d be f o u n d  i s some s u g g e s t i o n  their  more c r i t i c a l reference  i n a conven-  t h a t when t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  according  t o t h e frame o f  reactions to the productions  and o b j e c t i v e .  inhibit  a critical  T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e  preferences  and o b j e c t i v e  that the standards  o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  registering  real  impact  approval  response?  o f the  the personal  Are audiences  of productions  in  t h a t have  on them?  The  cumulative  not  seem t o h a v e much i n f l u e n c e o n r e s p o n s e  effect  to reinforce  term study  were  Does t h e f r a m e o f  f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e do n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h  than  mainly  production?  reference  no  I f so,  they  own p e r s o n a l  the general  they  were n o t r e s p o n d i n g  fact  that i s  t o t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e ?  true i s the suggestion  participants  stage  situation  to their  according  individual  a performance  confined to a conventional  does t h i s  to  uniform  o f continuous  exposure  t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e . A  might not support  this  does other long  suggestion.  143 10.  Do audiences  respond o n l y t o the elements o f a  i  p r o d u c t i o n which can be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o p l o t and 11.  characters?  Although  the group members were aware o f some o f  the shortcomings o f the p r o d u c t i o n s , t h e i r  enjoy-  ment and a p p r o v a l o f each performance were  apparently  not a f f e c t e d by t h i s awareness. audiences 12.  Is t h i s t r u e o f  i n general?  How e x t e n s i v e i s the audiences'  apparent acceptance  o f boredom as a normal p a r t o f the t h e a t r e experience? 13.  To what e x t e n t w i l l  audiences  i g n o r e t h e i r own  p e r s o n a l r e s e r v a t i o n s about a p r o d u c t i o n maintaining  while  the b e l i e f t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n was a  worthwhile experience?  Why do they do t h i s ?  In the contemporary t h e a t r e t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n . physically  Attempts a r e made t o  i n v o l v e the audience i n the p r o d u c t i o n by  i n v i t i n g them on t o the stage, sending  a c t o r s o u t i n t o the  audience and a s k i n g f o r comments and s u g g e s t i o n s  from  audience members d u r i n g the performance.  these  Often,  d e v i c e s o n l y emphasize the gap between audience and a c t o r s . Many o f these  attempts seem t o pay i n s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e n t i o n  to the f a c t t h a t the audience i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g by b e i n g present  i n the t h e a t r e .  By responding  t o some aspects o f  144 the performance audience lated by  and i g n o r i n g o t h e r s  c r e a t e f o r themselves  t h e members  an e x p e r i e n c e  t o , but i s not i d e n t i c a l with,  of the  which  i sr e -  the experience  intended  the d i r e c t o r . The  nature  participation guesswork.  and e x t e n t o f t h i s  i s largely  It i s essential,  a matter  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t more  be made t o d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e  audience  participation,  of  systematic  and p r o b l e m s o f t h i s  s i n c e i t i s one o f t h e m a j o r  elements o f the t h e a t r e experience factors  audience  unknown a n d i s u s u a l l y  attempts  trolling  type, o f  and i s one o f t h e c o n -  i n the development o f the t h e a t r e .  /  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A r m s t r o n g , M a r t i n D o n i s t h o r p e . The A r t o f L i s t e n i n g . i n E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , L o n g o n , 19 56. T e l e v i s i o n and Human. B e h a v i o r ; T e l e v i s i o n R e s e a r c h i n Mass C o m m u n i c a t i o n . e d . L e o n A r o n s a n d Mark A May, New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 19 63. B e l s o n , W i l l i a m A. A S e r i e s o f F o u r L e c t u r e s on Mass M e d i a Research. Sydney. P u b l i s h e d f o r the Market Research S o c i e t y o f A u s t r a l i a b y West Pub. C o r p . , 1961. Cauter,  T. a n d Downham, J . S . The C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f I d e a s , A S t u d y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y I n f l u e n c e s on U r b a n L i f e . L o n d o n , C E a t t o a n d Windus"^ 19 54 .  Glick,  I r a 0. a n d L e v y , S i d n e y J . L i v i n g C h i c a g o , A l d i n e Pub. C o . , 1962.  With  Television.  H o l l i n g s w o r t h , Harry L e v i . The P s y c h o l o g y o f A u d i e n c e . New Y o r k , C i n c i n a t t i , A m e r i c a n Book Company,  1935. Payne,  Stanley LeBaron. The A r t o f A s k i n g Q u e s t i o n s . P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951.  Roper,  B u r n s W. Emerging P r o f i l e s o f T e l e v i s i o n and O t h e r Mass M e d i a : P u b l i c T e l e v i s i o n A t t i t u d e s , New Y o r k T e l e v i s i o n I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e , 1967.  Seldes,  Gilbert Vivian. P r e s s , 1950.  Simmons, W.R.  Profile  The G r e a t A u d i e n c e . New Y o r k , o f the M i l l i o n s .  New Y o r k ,  Viking  Knopf,  1962. Stage Door.  V o l . 1, No. 1, M a r c h 1970.  Mass M e d i a and C o m m u n i c a t i o n . ed. Steinby, Charles New Y o r k , H a s t i n g s House, 1966. The Awkward S t a g e ; t h e O n t a r i o T h e a t r e S t u d y T o r o n t o , M e t h u e n , 1969.  Report,  Side,  A P P E N D I C E S  NOTE ON THE APPENDICES  Both cipants'  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a summary  responses w i l l  be f o u n d  summary o f r e s p o n s e s h a s b e e n questionnaires question. form.  so t h a t each  The r e s p o n s e s  The d e t a i l e d  i n the appendices.  superimposed  response  and c o m p l e t e  form  o f t h e d a t a i s on  that  any one i n t e r e s t e d than  The  t h e a b b r e v i a t e d form.  A, B, and C a l w a y s  numbers u n d e r  participants,  a n d i t i s recommended  i n studying the data should r e f e r to  I n t h e summary o f r e s p o n s e s letters  on t o t h e  are presented here o n l y i n a b r i e f  i n t h e F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e L i b r a r y  rather  The  i s with the appropriate  file  the complete  o f the p a r t i -  refer  the l e t t e r s  unless otherwise  presented here, the  t o G r o u p s A, B, and C.  always  refer  indicated.  t o t h e number o f  APPENDIX A GENERAL  QUESTIONNAIRE  a)  147  .?hich of the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s vour age ?  r  (check one)  A B C  IS to 25 years o l d  b  E h~  2  5  25 to 30 years o l d 30 to 45 years o l d  1  45 to 50 years o l d  1  l  50 to 60 years o l d  2  1 3  over 60 years o l d  b)  i'/hicn of tne f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s your e d u c a t i o n ? (check one)  A B C  ~  T  attended h i g h s c h o o l but d i d not graduate  "  2  2  high s c h o o l graduate  1  1  vocational  1  some u n i v e r s i t y  2  u n i v e r s i t y graduate  1  2  post-graduate  professional - 7 housewives - 7 students - 18  What i s your o c c u p a t i o n ?.  what is°yo ur husband's o c c u p a t i o n ? 1  >  I f you are a s t u d e n t , what year are you i n ?  "  what i s your major ? 3  e)  degree  currently attending university  I f you a r e a housewife, d)  ____  1  6 6 6 c)  training  Approximatelv week  ?  (checK  0  „  ..  ,  scattered ,  scattered  how many hours do you watch t e l e v i s i o n i n an average one)  25 t o 30 hours  A  B  2  15 t o 25 hours 7 to 15 hours  2  3  1 1  3 to 7 hours only o c c a s i o n a l l y never watch  G  television  3  k-  2  3»  148  If" y o u v/atch t e l e v i s i o n , (checK.. any t h a t  what k i n d s  o f p r o g r a m do y o u most e n j o y ?  A  apply) drama  _  comedy  9  3  6  —*  l  1 6  news  7  7  v a r i e t y show&  1  3  movies  9  8  game shows  l  1  2  3  daytime  7  drama  t a l k shows  Three f r e q u e n t l y  G  9  westerns  Name t h r e e o f your f a v o r i t e  B  11  2  t e l e v i s i o n programs  mentioned  :  C . B . C . Weekend, The A v e n g e r s  N.E.T.  Playhouse,  Approximately how f r e q u e n t l y do you go to the movies ? (checK. oxie)  A B C 4 to 8 times* a month  3  2 to 4 times a month  3  3  1}.  once a month .  if.  If.  3  _  once every two months  1 2 3  once every f o u r months twice a year  2  once a year  1  l e s s than once a year  1  1  149 h)  Of the f o l l o w i n g movies,  which have you seen and which have you enjoyed ? . * ,x rating: ( r a t e each movie i n the space p r o v i d e d ;  Funny G i r l  attendance: A F£  B 3  G  2 5  1 1  2 6  P a i n t Your Wagon Putney Swope  ___  A B C 2 1.5 1 2 1  2  Laughter i n The Dark True G r i t  1 = liked i t very much l 1.5 2 = d i d not l i k e i t I: l very much 3 = disliked i t 2 1  2  Butch C a s s i d y and  3  6  8  1  1  1  A Man F o r A l l Seasons  9  9  8  1  1  2.5  Goodbye Mr. Chips  2  The Pxiine of * i i s s Jean Brodie  ll-  l 5  2 3  1 1  1 1  2 1  Midnight Cowboy  6  5  9  1  1  1  The Graduate  3 10 12  1 10  1  2 1  2 1  Blow Up  9  8 \  1  The Sundance K i d  _ _  The Undefeated Topaz  7  Jenny 5  Ted and A l i c e Bonnie and Clyde The Sound o f Music  7 8  Easy R i d e r  ll-  W 1^ 3 9  s o c i a l clubs  2  1  symphony c o n c e r t s  3  6  activities  2 11  2  1  1  1  7 8 7  7 7 10  1 3 1  1 1 1  participation  1 2 1  i n your l e i s u r e sports  entertaining  A  B  6  7  C  1 3  ni^ht clubs  k  2  3  5  2  5 l  5  museums church  2  i n any of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s  time ? (check any t h a t A spectator sports 2 .8 movies  opera  5 l  The R e i v e r s  Do you p a r t i c i p a t e  2  1  Bob and C a r o l and  i)  1  theatre art g a l l e r i e s planetarium other  (specify)  Which o f the above a c t i v i t i e s do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n most f r e q u e n t l y ? scattered response  11 11 11 7  11 10  6  5  5  150 j)  Ho./ o f t e n 0  fJixAiA  do y o u go  the l a s t  to the t h e a t r e  yjar  ( ."'ebru-ry 1039  to o')rrr.ry T  1070  ) hr.vc vou  A to  the F r e d e r i c  (check  Wood T h e a t r e  one)  7 to 4  times  11  4 to 2  cii.-.es  1  i n the l a s t  year  been  C  ll  1  2  one: not  3  3  but a t t o n d e ^ p r e v i o u s l y  Nevir  Within (check  the l a s t  year  have y o u b e a n t o t h e p l a y h o u s e A B C_ 7 to 4 t i n e s 2 ^  one)  x  4  3  to 2 t i a e s  ^  one i not  i n the l a s t  yarr  but atteaded  previously  k  1 never Within  the l a s t  year  (check one)  h a v e y o u b e a n t o th.e^por^thy S o m e r s e t S t u d i o  3 t o 5 tiii.es  2  1 t o 2 tiir.es  £  not i n the l a s t never '.'/itain t h e l a s t (c.ieck one)  —  year 6  yw.r  have you been  to 9 ti~.es  but attended p r e v i o u s l y  3 l IL 11 5 to the /;rts Club A B C 1 1  *± co o •cir.ies  3  1  2 to 4 tines  2  1 2  1 to. 2 times  2  not n  i n tho l a s t  3ver  _  year  ll  b-jit ^ t t ^ i c e d  1  Theatre  11  previously  6  W i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r h a v e y o u b e e n t o tir.e M e t r o T h e a t r e (check  one)  6 to 9 times  A -  4 t o o tir/.es 2 to  4  i n the l a s t  never  ^  times  1 to 2 times not  B C — ^  5 year b ^  2  1  1  attended  7  3  previously  151  Within  the l e s t year h".vc vou' boon - -to p i a y s r.t the Vancouver A r t  A B C Gallery  11  (checJc ono  to l b times  3 to 10 tir.ies  y  ^  4 to 3 ti{aes  ^  2 to 4 times  1  1  1 to 2 times not once i n t.ie Inst year but  attended previously  ^  n  '.Vit.iin the l a s t yeur Theatre ? (check one)  Uva  10 i l 3  r  you  oeen to plays at oimcii  A  7 to 12 t i - e s  B  feuar  University  C  —  4 to 6 times 2 to 4 times  2  1 to 2 tiir.es  1  not once i n the Ir.st y s a r hut a/tt ended p r e v i o u s l y 2 2 1 never ' 8 9 11  V . ' i t . i i n the  l a s t y e a r have you seen any  p r o f e s s i o n a l , t o u r i n g companies ? A B C yes 5 1 5 " no I f yes, botv r.nny?  k)  Have you  total  7  A B C TO  average;  i n che j>ast p a r t i c i p a t e d in &Ay  t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s by  2  of the f o l l o w i n g . ?  A B C  X)  u n i v e r s i t y theatre  ^  p r o f e s s i o n a l t.ientre  ^  Are you  ^  ^  c u r r e n t l y a c t i v e i n aoy  -  -  c.ma.teur t h e a t r e  3  2  5  high s c h o o l  2  2  1}.  theatre  profession^  A B C  of the f o l l o w i n g ?  A B C u n i v e r s i t y theatre  -  _  amateur t h e a t r e  1  1  1  1  theatre  n  R  -  high school t h e a t r e  _  1  1  1  152 m)  I f you have .votked 02- aro no* working i n one or more- of the typos o f theatre l i s t e d now  i n k) and 1 ) , i n vhttt c a p a c i t i e s have ycu b_>,n o r are you  i n v o l v e d ? (check any t h a t apply) A _ 2  actor  B  C  3 Z  director designer  -1  2  playwright  n)  A  B  C  stage manager  A B C ~ 1 costume c o n s t r u c t i o n  stage crew  administration  set  _  ccnstructi^ii  teacher  3  board o f d i r e c t o r s  1  other  (specify)  Cf the f o l l o w i n g general types of p l a y , which do y c u tend to p r e f e r ? (number i n order of p r e f e r e n c e ) A B C A B C modern comedy modern s e r i o u s drama/ musicals  avant-garde p l a y s  Group A : Group B : Grouo G : o)  (specify) MODERN SERIOUS DRAMA MODERN COIvIEDY a n d AVANT GARDE AVANT GARDE a n d MODERN SERIOUS DRAMA  Cf the f o l l o w i n g types o f p l a y , wnicn would you g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r t o see ? (number i n o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e ) p l a y s i n which the wain concern i s : romantic  Group A : Group B : Grouo C :  SOCIAL ETHICAL SOCIAL and ETHICAL  political ethical social  p)  In general do you p r e f e r a pi-ay to be: (check one)  G r o u p ^. Group B Group C  q)  Shakespeare  wd;ced-medifi_ p r o d u c t i o n s  classics other  op e r r  serious  SERIOUS ENTERTAINING NO PREFERENCE  entertaining no p r e f e r e n c e  "/liich do you f i n d more i n t e r e s t i n g ? (number i n order of p r e f e r e n c e ) p l a y s thnt deal •.vith:  G r o u p A:  INNER WORLD ariS -REAL WORLD G r o u p b : IWRE a WORLD a n d REAL WORLD G r o u p C : INNER WORLD a n a R E A L WORLD  the r e a l  world*  an inner world of the mind a f a n t a s y world  1 1  153  In jjjrterr.1, QO you f e e l more s a t i s f i e d  r)  that  r.ftc-r you neve S i ; n c. play Group A : •- • : has boon e n t e r t a i n i n g ENTERTAINING and ^ ~ • SIGNIFICANT has luade a s i g n i f i c a n t statement about l i f e Group B : EMTEbMAINB SIGNIFICANT and has provided an. emotional experience EicOTlONAL Group C : EMOTIONAL  C f t.12 folftowin^ l i s t of c l a y s which have you e i t h e r seen or read, and  s)  which have ycu enjoyed ? (put  S f o r ssoii o r R f o r read i n the f i r s t  column and r a t e the p l a y s  between  1 and 3 i n the second column) 1 = l i k e d i t very ir.uch 2  = d i d not liice i t very t'uch  3 = disliked i t  ,  Black Comedy  majority rating: A B C T T "2"  S t r e e t Car Alamed J3esire «-nlat life i t ine  For Godot  seefl; A B C " (S" "3" I  1 1 2  7  8  7  1  9 9 9  2 2 2  2 1 1  7 7 8  1 2 2  3 i i  2 3.5' 1  3  2  Man and oupcrman  1 1 1  2  I). 3  2 2  Two For The See Saw  2 1 2  1  if. 2  1 2  The Beard  1 1 1  1  6  The T«u.;ing of The Shrew  1  1 1 1  E n t e r Laughing The S e a g u l l  read: A B C — — —  1  ^ _  1  2  .  8  8  l i  7  2 1  2 1  1  /mcrics. Hurrah  ,  —  —  1  1  A Month i n The Country  6  3 3  day Fever  -1 2.5 3.5  The d e v i l s  2  1 1  1.1  1  Barefoot i n The Park  1 2  3*3  Death of A Salesman  1 1  Look 3ack i n Anger  1 2  1 1  The C r u c i b l e  Che  1  10 6  8  12  2  7 7 5  2.5 1 3.5 1 3 . 5 1  Who's .Afraid of V i r g i n i a Woolf  2  2  1 1  1 1  2 x 2  2  ^ - ^ 7 5 7 8  1  _  1 2  1  1  154  t)  V/hich o f t h e f o l l o w i n g when y o u go t o 6. p l a y (number i n o r d e r  of  a s p e c t s o f p. p r o c ' u c t i s r .  importcn t to you  : preference)  PLAYWRIGHT'S THEME and ACTING  Grout} A  is rest  t'ne s t a n d a r d  o f act ine  t-ie c o s t u m e s  Groan B : ACTING and PLAY.vR I G H T ' S  the- p l a y w r i g h t ' s  theme  the scenery Group C : PLAYWRIGHT'S THEME and ACTING  t  u)  When y o u s e * a. p l a y ,  h  e  ^  l  o  t  Iio.v ijnporta-nt t o y o u i s t h e a c t i n g  (chock one)  very  ?  important,  Group A : VERY IMPORTANT  quite  Group B :VERY IMPORTANT  not very  Group C : VERY IMPORTANT  not  important important  important  at a l l  undecided  v)  W.ion y o u s e e a p l a y ,  hcv/ i m p o r t a n t  (c.-,eck o n e )  to you are t h e scenery  and costumes ?  very important  Group A : NOT VERY IMPORTANT Group B : NOT VERY IMPORTANT Group C : QUITE IMPORTANT  quite  important  not very net  important  important  at a l l  undecided  w)  In general, (number  Group A Group B : Group C :  do y o u p r e f e r  i n order  of  plays  written i n  preference)  COLLOQUIAL and NO PREFERENCE NO PREFERENCE and COLLOQUIAL COLLOQUIAL and NO PREFERENCE  verse poetie  prose  colloquial elegant,  language  formal  language  dialect no  preferenci  /  155  x)  »^.ya y o u 2v_>r s e ; n p l ^ y s w h i c h have  nc s c e n e r y  but r.rc a c t e d  o n en empty  stage ? A  If  3  To o  y 3 8  C  ,  TO  A B C  Z  i 0  S Z  Grorr? A : 1 saw b.; 2 saw 3 • , _ • 3 saw 1 ; 1 saw 3 Gruuo ^—r a: s a " 1; 1 saw 3-4Group C : 2 sav; 1; 2 saw 2 t h i s tvpe of -orodiicticr. ? 2 saw 3 » 1 saw i l 1 sav/ 5 ; 1 saw 12 no undecided A B~U A B C 2 1  y e s , h o p rany i n the. l a s t  tnree years?  1  I f y e s , did Y O U  fiftjoy  yes A 9 y)  B IT 3  10  G e n e r a l l y S p e a k i n g , do y o u p r e f e r (number i n o r d e r of preference)  p l r . y s u/hich  have:  l a v i s h , spectacular  scenery  r e a l i s t i c scenery Group A : REALISTIC and MINIMAL a minimal set Group B :..--MINIMAL no s c e n e r y s± a l l Group C: .MINIMAL Are t h e r e any o f t h e above t h a t y o u d i s l i k e ?  Group A ; ' Group B : Group C :  z)  Have y o u been to a n y n i x e d - m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n s A B C A B C 7^s ^ no ] 3 3 I f yes d i d you enjoy  these productions  (cneck.one)  1  2 LAVISH 1 REALISTIC 2 LAVISH 1, NO SCENE SY JpJLAViSH  ?  ?  v e r y much  Group A : MODERATELY  moderately  Group B : VERY MUCH  slightly  Sroup C : MODERATELY  n  o  t  ,  ta  l  l  undecided  7ould you l i k e  t o set- more m i x e d - m e d i a A B C no  productions?  I f y o u have n e v e r s e e n any mixed-msj-dia p r o d u c t i o n s , v ; c u l d be i n t e r e s t e d  i n seeing  this  undecided  ^  A B C £ ^  do y o u t n i n k y o u  t y p e o^ p r o d u c t i o n ?  156  :c)  There i s «. t r e n d i n ta»- titer, tro towi-.rds uucionce members o f tne audience  par t i c ipa-t i or.; that i s ,  are encouraged to l e a v e t h e i r seats and become  i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by the a c t o r s .  Have you ever been t o a p r o d u c t i o n i n waic,: the auaience  participate 7 Q  yes9_J  was askeet t o  Q  7  n  3__9  o  ?  I f no, do you t h i n k you would ettjoy t h i s Kind of p r o d u c t i o n ? A B C A B C A B O yes?__T T 1 _ I 5 undecided _ _ f D  n  T  n  o  I f ycu have been a t t h i s type o f p r o d u c t i o n , Were ycu one o f the audience members who w«3 p a r t i c i p a t i n g ?  y  A B C  1—1  e s  3  no  A B C  IL_2  £  I f you have ever been to a p r o d u c t i o n i n which the audience to p a r t i c i p a t e d i d you enjoy C. thecx  Grout) k : Grout* B : Group C :  ( whether or not you became a c t i v e l y  was asfc*d  involved yourself)  t h i s experience ?  one)  very much  VERY MUCH VERY MUCH VERY MUCH MODERATELY  moderately  '  slightly not a t a l l undecided  Would you l i k e to go to more p r o d u c t i o n s which i n v o l v e  audience  participation ?  A B C  yes o* J  A B C  o*  1  *o Z  1  unoeciaed  A B C  £  2  3  bb) As a general r u l e do you f e e l t h a t the. theatre, should be s u b j e c t t o c e n s o r s h i p i f i t offends the usual s o c i a l standards yes  cc)  zL B  -r  Do you f e e l  9.  no L  -  £ • i  sa-n  o f behavior ? undecided  i i  —  —  that language and behavior u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d indecent or  o f f e n s i v e i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a c c e p t a b l e on the s t a g e ? (chock one)  •  a c c e p t a b l e under any circumstances  rrout) A : A C C E P T A B L E -./HEN  a c c e p t a b l e when a p p r o p r i a t e to the p l a y  A P P R O P R I A T E  Group 3 : A C C E P T A B L E -roup C :  —  Vi'HEM  APPROPRIATE ACCEPTABLE VEEN APPROPRIATE  n  e  v  e  r  «cccptaalo  und*ciaod  ;  157 dd)  Do y o u u s u a l l y  read  na-.7cpr.oer  r c v i o v . s o f the- p l a y s  Group A J AFTER  before  Group B : AFTER  after  y o u have  Group C : BEFORE AND AFTER  never  read  If you read reviews, (check Group A :  any th,s<.t  that  y o u see ?  y o u s e e tJve p l a y seen  the play  reviews  w h i c h ones do y o u u s u a l l y  read  ?  apply) t n e reviev.. i n 'The P r o v i n c e  SUN and PROVINCE  t h e r e v i e w i n The Sun Group B : SUN and PROVINCE other  Group C : SUN and PROVINCE  (specify)  uo y c u u s u a l l y A B C  agree w i t h  the evaluations A B C M 7 T T  cf the critic  Do y c u u s u a l l y A B C yoj  agree  the e v a l u a t i o n s A B C no 1 ?  of the c r i t i c  J 2 _3L 1* QS  ee)  J>o y o u e v e r  rath  find tAat  ploy are noticeably  che- r e a c t i o n s  different  (check one)  r es, r  i n The Sun ? A B C u n d e c i d e d ~eL B" 7  of t h e rest  from yours  y^s, clmcst  Grouo A : SOMETIMES  i n The F r c v i n c A B C undecided ~  o f the. a u d i e n c e  at a  ?  always  oiten  Group B : SOMETIMES  sor.iotitr.es  Group C : SOMETIMES  seldom never uncec i d e d  ff)  MavG v  c  s  -  yv  If sec-  s  you over  A B C  B~S  y e s , them  been  to  any n  o"  whicn  ?  ones  i n  experimental  o  ° the l  p r o d u c t i o n s  A B C  -H5F ? 2" a s t  year  have  Group A  y e u seen,  mentioned; SAVAGE GOD s e r i e s TEE CRIMINALS  If  y e s , do y o u f i n d  (check OPO"* MODERATELY  Group B  little  GROUP C  MODERATELY  response  tnat  ?  v e r y n.uch moderately slightly not £ t a l l uneecided  d i d y o u  at A r t G a l l e r y  Arts  as a r u l e y o u e n j o y  a n d where  Club  :perimental  plays  158  gg)  Generally speaking,  where do y o u l i k e  to s i t i n the theatre  (check one)  close  to the stage  Group A : IN THE MIDDLE  in  Group B : IN THE MIDDLE  near the back  the miclcle  no p r e f e r e n c e  Group C : IN THE MIDDLE Do you p r e f e r to s i t oh tne a i s l e ? yes  A B C  3 3"?  no  A  B  •X 2  A B C  p_ no p r e f e r e n c e  £ 3 9  hh) How o f t e n do you enjoy the p l a y s you go t o (checK one; •Group A : OFTEN ENJOY  I u s u a l l y enjoy the p l a y  Group B : USUALLY  I sometimes enjoy the p l a y  I o f t e n enjoy the p l a y  I am o f t e n d i s a p p o i n t e d by the  Group C : USUALLY - OFTEN ENJOY  play ii)  In which o f the f o l l o w i n g (check a l l that apply)  jj)  San F r a n c i s c o  A B C T 2~ 3?  Minneapolis  A B C - — —  c e n t r e s have you seen p l a y s ? A B C London, England > H Y ^ ' ^orh e  A Stratford, Ontario'J o  t  n  e  r  (  s p e  cify)  A B J£ ^  Y  B C ^7 3" Montreal  A j"  3  Toronto, S e a t t l e e t c .  Give a r a t i n g between 1 and 5 f o r the g e n e r a l standard o f the p l a y s you have seen a t the f o l l o w i n g  theatres:  A  B  c  1 = excellent  Playhouse Theatre  2  2  2  2 = good  F r e d e r i c V.'ood Theatre  1  2  3 = fair  Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o  2  2 1  4 = mediocre  A r t s Club Theatre  5 = poor  Vancouver Art G a l l e r y Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Theatre Metro Theatre  1-2 2  2-3 1- 3 2- 3 3 2-3 3 k.  other ( s p e c i f y ) ck) Do you t h i n k the standard of t h e a t r e i n Vancouver i s g e n e r a l l y : (check one) Group A : GOOD  excellent good fair  Group B : GOOD Group C : GOOD - F a i r  mediocre poor undeu ioeel  2  APPENDIX B PRE-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU  LIKE  159  a)  In <:eneral  f  what standard of p r o d u c t i o n do you expect when you  r  :o to a p l a y at the F r e d e r i c doc:: Theatre ?  (check one)  excellent Group A : GOOD - EXCELLENT sood  fair mediocre b)  poor Y/hat type of s t a g i n g of a p l a y do you expect to see a t the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre ? s t a g i n g i n which the approach i s :  traditional  (check any that apply)  experimental extravagant  Group A : EXPERLMSNTAL  .  austere realistic fanciful  c)  Have you ever read As You L i k e I t ? yes  A "5  A no  K  A d)  I f you have read i t , d i d you read i t w i t h i n :  .the l a s t 3 o r l\. weeks the l a s t y e a r the l a s t  4_  1  two years  I  the l a s t f i v e years the l a s t t e n y e a r s more than t e n years ago 2  160  e)  i f ,o'ou hove rend the p l a y d i d you enjoy i t ? (check one)  very much moderately  Group A : MODERATELY  not v e r y much  f )  Have you ever seen a p r o d u c t i o n of As You L i k e I t ? A A yes 1 no n  g)  If you have seen a p r o d u c t i o n of As You L i k e I t , d i d you enjoy i t (check one)  v e r y much moderately  Group A : VERY MUCK ( 1 person) not v e r y much h)  If you have seen a p r o d u c t i o n of As You Like I t , was i t w i t h i n : A  (check one)  w i t h i n the l a s t year w i t h i n the l a s t two y e a r s w i t h i n the l a s t f i v e  years  w i t h i n the l a s t t e n years more than t e n years ago 1)  Have you seen more than one p r o d u c t i o n of As You Like I t ? A yes no I£ If y e s , approximately how many ?  j)  -.'/here have you seen the p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s of As You L i k e I t ? A Vancouver ^ S t r a t f o r d , Ontario London, England San F r a n c i s c o  Minneapolis  S t r a t f o r d on Avon  other  / / /  161  k)  As a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r , you p r o b a b l y have sone i d e a of how you a r e l i k e l y to respond  to As You L i :e I t .  \mether o r not you have read o r  seen the p l a y p r e v i o u s l y , t r y t o answer the q u e s t i o n s by imagining what your response  Is l i k e l y to be.  In g e n e r a l , what.sort of t h i n g s do you tend t o expect from As You L i k e I t ? Do you expect the main concern of the p l a y to be: (check one) G  political  r o u p A : ROMANTIC  social ethical romantic psychological  Do you expect t h i s . p l a y t o be: (check one) Group A :  serious  MAINLY COMIC V/ITH SOME SERIOUS ELEMENTS  ^ i n l y s e r i o u s but w i t h some comic , elements comedy m a i n l y comic b u t w i t h some s e r i o u s elements about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and comic  Do you expect t h i s p l a y p r i m a r i l y : (check any that a p p l y ) ,_...,....„-,, Jroup A : i&t 'riLRTAIivi ING  to make a meaningful statement  about l i f e  t o be e n t e r t a i n i n g ^ to p r o v i d e an emotional experience  Do you expect t h i s p l a y to be: (check one) m a i n l y about the i n n e r world of the mind Group A :  FANTASY WORLD  raainly  a  D  o  u  t  t  mainly about  h  e  r  e  a  l  ,  7 o r l d  a f a n t a s y -world ."_  _  Do you expect the play t o be: (check one)  realistic  Group A : UNREALISTIC  unrealistic  During the performance of t h i s p l a y , which do you t h i n k you are likeliest amused  t o be ?  A  11  ~E~  saddened  detached 2  A  1  A  enlightened  A  2  A  bored  A  delighted S  A  depressed  (check any t h a t apply)  involved  A  2  interested  ^  At the end of the performance of t h i s p l a y , which do you t h i n k you a r e likeliest you  to be ?  (check any t h a t apply) Do you t h i n k that perhaps  w i l l be:  hapny  A  A  A  A  anoyed fatigued ^ depressed ' A" A angry n u z z l e d 2" disturbed 1 enlightened X " * A A reassured 1^ soothed 1 refreshed 6 1)  9 IT"  In a p l a y of t h i s k i n d , what aspects you  are most l i k e l y  of the p r o d u c t i o n  t o enjoy ? (number i n order  A  relaxed  A  8  j[  do you -Blink  of a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e  the costumes the  acting  the  scenery  Group A : ACTING  the music m)  Which aspects  of the p r o d u c t i o n  (number i n order  do you a n t i c i p a t e e n j o y i n g most ?  of a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e s t )  i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l characters development of the s t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s p o e t i c language  Group A : RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHARACTERS and INTERESTING INDIVIDUAL  163 D  o  you expect  the a c t i n g  , •(checit sne ) •  In  *> *°! A  Aj^U^^l natural  and l i f e l i k e  elegant  and s t y l i s e d  energetic  J L •  and f l a m b o y a n t  _JL  n o v / e r f u l and p a s s i o n a t e stilted  and u n n a t u r a l  +- -vio c c - n - ^ r of As You L i k e Do y o u e x p e c t ohe s c ^ n — „ / ^ — _ v ( c h e c k any t h a t a p p l y ) n  .  I t to be:  *  realistic fanciful  -  1  _L_ 3  historical 3_  symbolic lavish austere  5_  minimal  9„.  colorful muted  1_  modern stylish  . 1  functional  So y o u expect the c o s t « s of A, a m L l k . realistic  & LL_  fanciful  o  aistorlcal  7  t o be: ^ colorful  1  modern stylish  austere  3  2 functional  Lavish  ,.  muted 3 _  symbolic  2  2 .  minimal  1  164  n)  Why are you going to t h i s p l a y ? (number 3 reasons i n o r d e r of importance;  i f you a r c a season  t i c k e t h o l d e r , number 3 other r e a s o n s ) _ Because:  Group A : s c a t t e r e d re soonse  I am a season t i c k e t h o l d e r  yrj  I've seen other p r o d u c t i o n s of t h i s p l a y and enjoyed them I've read the p l a y , but have never seen i t I've heard about t h i s p l a y , and want to see what i t i s l i k e I enjoy Shakespeare I've never seen any of Shakespeare's p l a y s and would l i k e to see one other reasons ( s p e c i f y )  o)  Why d i d you buy season t i c k e t s  t o the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre ?  (number any that a p p l y i n order of importance) Because  :  Group A : s c a t t e r e d response  I went t o a number of p r o d u c t i o n s at t h i s t h e a t r e l a s t y e a r , and enjoyed them I like the  t o support u n i v e r s i t y t h e a t r e  s e l e c t i o n of play/s appealed t o me  a member of my f a m i l y , or a f r i e n d , and I bought  the t i c k e t s  buying the t i c k e t s see the f u l l  l i k e s to go to t h i s  theatre  i n o r d e r to accompany them  i n advance means t h a t I am more l i k e l y to  season of p l a y s a t t h i s t h e a t r e , r a t h e r than  one or two of them  just  APPENDIX C POST-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE AS YOU L I K E I T  165  a)  How that you  the performance  feeling ?  (check anv that  A  b)  i s over, now d i d t h i s p r o d u c t i o n leave  apoly)  A  A  happy Q  annoyed annoyed  X X  fatigued  depressed  relaxed  H  angry  puzzled  disturbed  reassured  soothed  A  A enlightened ~ i A refreshed  A  T  Mow would you d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f the p r o d u c t i o n you have j u s t seen ? (check one)  excellent good  Group A : GOOD  fair mediocre  _ _  poor  c)  V/ould you d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l s t y l e of the p r o d u c t i o n a s : (check one)  traditional  _  experimental  Group A : TRADITIONAL.  extravagant austere realistic fanciful  d)  Do you t h i n k the main concern of As You L i k e I t i s : (check one)  Group  A  :  political social  ROMANTIC  ethical romantic psychological Do You t h i n k As You L i k e I t i s : (check one) Iroup  A  :  IAAINLY  COMIC  serious mainlv s e r i o u s out with some comic V/ITh" SOME SERIOUS E L E M E N T S comedy  elements  mainly comic but witn some s e r i o u s elements about  e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and comic  166  3oos A s Ycu Lilco I t p r i m a r i l y : (chock  Group A  one)  make a m e a n i n g f u l  provide  As  You  (check  Grouo A  one)  You  (chec»c  Grouo A  mainly  emotional  the  i n n e r v/orld o f the  mainly about  the  real  mainly  a  acout  r.ind  world  fantasy world  realistic unrealistic  ten p a i r s  pair.  Put  at  the p o i n t  ns  You  Is  As  a  of contrasting chec'z on  adjectives with a scale  the s c a l e  w h i c h most c l o s e l y  between each  describes your  pair  feelings  of  between adjectives  about  Like I t .  You  very  Li.ts I t :  somewhat  i n the middle  shallow  6  sad  2  meaningful"  8_  happy boring moving  6  3  A  profound  1  interesting  very  7  J  settseless  somewhat A  A  sentimental  experience  Like I t ;  REALISTIC  each  an  about  one)  3elow a r e  life  Like It:  FANTASY V/ORLD  I s AS  about  entertain  ENTERTAIN  Is  statement  important  trivial  stupid  clever  aptimistic »orth s e e i n g  s  2  9  2 _  simple  e)  I s As  You  :  k  pessinistic :not w o r t h s e e i n g complex  —  Like I t ;  ( c h e c k one)  Group A  1 1  : C0LZ3DY  satire comedy serious  drama  tragedy none o f  these  167  f)  .Vhich aspects of As You LiKe I t d i d you enjoy (number i n o r d * r of enjoyment)  the most ?  Group A  : INTE u£3TiNG INDIVIDUA RAC/i?.£>R ^ ;  the i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s tne development of the s t o r y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  the c h a r a c t e r s  the p-oetic language  \7hich c h a r a c t e r s i n As You L i k e I t ( r e g a r d l e s s of how w e l l acted) d i d you enjoy  the most ? (name as many as  Group A  g)  : TOUCHSTONE, JAQUES, ROSALIND  Did you t h i n k the development of the s t o r y (out a check on the s c a l e between which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your  very entertaining  3:  logical  somewhat A 2  6  lm  unrealistic  was:  each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s at the p o i n t opinion)  i n the middle  '3 2  somewhat very A A 1 2 : 3 k  3 3  unbelievable not i n v o l v i n g  What aspects  tedious illogical realistic unclear  9:  clear  h)  three)  2  1  of the p r o d u c t i o n d i d you enjoy  i  believable  I  involving  the most ?  (number i n order of enjoyment) rroup A  : ACTING  the costumes the a c t i n g the scenery the music  i)  Did you t h i n k the standard  o f a c t i n g , on the whole,  was:  (put a check on the s c a l e a t the p o i n t which best d e s c r i b e s your very A.  somewhat A  professional  : J£  : 27  poor  :1  :  i n the middle A :£ •  somewhat A r~ : lj-  very A :J :  7  opinion)  : amateur : good  / /  168  j)  V/hich do you and  t h i n k ware the bos I a c t o r s or a c t r e s s e s i n the  v/hich d i d you  t h i n k gave • por fonnances /which soomod lower  the g e n e r a l standard i n the f i r s t  proauction, than  ? (nuraber tnc three best i n o r c i r • of -prefer^nco  column, and  three v/no d i d not seen very good i n the  second column) Group A  : best  : JAQUES, TOUCHSTONE, ROSALIND  n o t as g o o d : best not as good  scattered  E l i z a b e t h i-iurpay as R o s a i i n d Jim I-'cQuoen as Orlando V i c t o r Young as O l i v e r Maureen LicVdae as C e l i a F e t e r B r o c k i n r t o n as Jaques Derek R a l s t o n as Du.te F r e d e r i c k B i l l L o u i s as Touchstone David Glyn-Jones as Duke S e n i o r David D i c k as Le Beau Tony Chick as C o r i n A l l a n L y s e l l as. S i l v i u s Susanna McKeoWn as Phebe Hank St i n s on as Ad ant Knott Don  as Audrey  •  Ford as S i r O l i v e r I-iartext  •  R u s s e l l V/alsh as V/iliiam A l a n Cartv/right as Jaques do 5oys Hick Orchard  us A l i e n s  Brian Bueckert  as C h a r l e s  /ere there any p h y s i c a l or f a c i a l mannerisms of some p a r t i c u l a r a c t o r ( s ) or a c t r e s s ( e s ) that seemed to you A  ™  to be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ?  A  I f yes, ,/aich a c t o r (s) or a c t r e s s (es) ? ' ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s )  mentioned —  : ROS.-.LIND, PHE3E, U i j l V i n , FREDERICK '  169  V/ero t h e r e a n y p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f s p e e c h or a c t r e s s ( e s )  no  -T  answer  (loer.tny  said  A  ^  uy rcarnxng c n a r a c t c r s )  D i d the a c t o r s ?  actor(s)  t o y o u t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ?  i s y e s , which a c t o r (s) or a c t r e s s (es)  ,. .  k)  seemed  A  yes  If  that  o f some p a r t i c u l a r  ?  ,  x.. n  ? n :  ^ , . ^j^Z,  CELIA  CHARLES, JAQUES de~BOY  s p e a k c l e a r l y enough f o r y o u t o h e a r e v e r y t h i n g t h e y  (check one)  all  G r o u p A : MOST V/SRE CLEAR  were c l e a r  most were c l e a r some w e r e c l e a r a few were c l e a r none were  l)  In general,  would you d e s c r i b e  (chec.i one) Group A :  clear  the acting  n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e elegant  scattered  and s t y l i z e d  energetic powerful stilted  m)  D i d you l i k e  as:  the scenery  (check one)  and flamboyant and p a s s i o n a t e  and u n n a t u r a l  ? v e r y much noderatly  A : VERY MUCH s i :.ghtly not a t a l l n)  V/ouIcI y o u d e s c r i b e  the scenery  ( c n e c k any t h a t a p p l y )  as ?  A  A  realistic fanciful _6 historical  j  symbolic  2  lavish austere  minimal  colorful  muted modern  1  stylish funct i o n a l  8  2 1 1  7  170  D i d y o u t h i n . ; t . i e s c e n e r y was a p p r o p r i a t e A A y e s TO no 2  If  t h e r e was a n y p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e  to the olay ?  of the scenery  t o be p a r i c u l a r l y i n n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y mentioned:  o)  D i d you l i k e  trees,  t h a t seemed  to you  , what was i t ?  stream  the costumes  ?  (cheese o n e )  v e r y raucn moderately  A  : VERY LIUCH slightly not at a l l  p)  Would y o i ' d e s c r i b e (check any t n a t  t h e costumes  as:  apply)  realistic  J7." 4  fanciful  |j  historical  <0.  minimal col  mu t e d  symbolic stylish lavish  modern 2  functional 2  were a p p r o p r i a t e  A If  to the play ?  A no  11  t a a r e wore any p a r t i c u l a r costumes  play,  w h i c h were they ?  tidentify  that  soernes  inappropriate to the  by n a m i n g c h a r a c t e r s  t h e c a s e o f c h a r a c t e r i i a v i n f more t h a n one c o s t u m e , d 2 t a i l  )  ^  austere  D i g you t h i n k t h e costumes y^s  11  colorful  mentioned  who wore t r o m ; i n  g i v ; ; some  ; ROSALIND'S f i n a l  identifying  dress  CHARLES' costume  Wnic.i costumes, i f a n y , d i a y o u l i k e the beat ? ( i d e n t i f y by n a m i n g c h a r a c t e r s ; name t h r e e ) Group A :  TOUCHSTONE. FR  TC.X ROSALIND f  171  •° ' i o - .you thi.iK the costumes v/ent vvith the scenery ? n  yes  q)  no  O  D i e you l i k e  2  the music ? very much moderately  Group A : VERY TJJCH  slightly  r)  On the whole, d i d you enjoy  this production ?  very much  Groun A : VERY MUCH  moderately slightly not at a l l  s)  Were you ever bored  d u r i n g the performance ? all  the time  often occasionally not at a l l  t)  In g e n e r a l , ho'.v d i d you f e e l d u r i n g the performance o f t h i s p l a y ? (check three of the f o l l o w i n g adverbs v/hich iiost c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e your response)  A  A amused  saddened  A enlightened 1  A detacned  ~  delighted  depressed u)  bored T  A involved  A  6"  interested  ^  irritated  Was t h i s p r o d u c t i o n : (put a check on the s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s a t the p o i n t whicA most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your o p i n i o n )  conventional  very A  somewhat  A  worthwhile  i n the middle  A  2 1  somewhat  A 2  very  .A  worthless excit ing  dull art i s t i c  1  confused amateur  original  :1  5  tasteless  2  1  5_  6  coherent profess ion  5  / /  172  .• Do. you  tiiin.-: the d i r e c t o r of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n has  author's A y $  intention properly ?  A no 2  £ S  w) Group A  i n t e r p r e t e d the  Would you  , , . don'tt know  A 1  d e s c r i b e the p r o d u c t i o n on the whole as.  : SUCGSSSPUL  successful unsuccessful  Would you  like  to see mere p r o d u c t i o n s of t h i s s o r t ?  Group A : YES yes x)  V/ere you  Group A : YES  no comfortable  i n your s c a t ?  yes  no  Would you have p r e f e r r e d s i t t i n g .A.  (checic any  that apply)  c l o s e r to the stage c l o s e r to the middle  X  p  f a r t h e r av/ay from the stage on the a i s l e y)  Was anyone near you coughing, s h u f f l i n g t h e i r f e e t , or doing e l s e t h a t d i s t u r b e d you d u r i n g the performance ? A B ' yes T nc  z)  Have you read any radio ?  reviews  of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n  yes  no  I f y«s, which reviews  ?  „  , or heard any  anything  on  tne  -£0  .. ;  — --  D i d you agree r/ith the e v a l u a t i o n s of these c r i t i c s ? ( i d e n t i f y any you  comment upon)  /  APPENDIX D PRE-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE  TANGO  173  g),  In.general, vhat standard of production do you expect when you go to a play at the Playhouse Theatre ? (checU~brie)  excellent  _____  good  Group A : GOOD Group B  f e i r  : GOOD  mediocre poor  b)  What type of staging of a play do you expect to see at the Playhouse  Theatre ?  staging i n which the approach i s : (check any that apply)  traditional experimental  roup A :  TRADITIONAL and REALISTIC extravagant  roup B :  TRADITIONAL, EXPERIMENTAL and REALISTIC .  a u s t o r e  realistic fanciful  c)  Have you ever read Tango ? yes  d)  A  —  B  —  no  A  B  J.2  I f you have readdit, d i d you read i t w i t h i n : the l a s t 3 or 4 weeks the l a s t year the l a s t 2 years the l a s t 5 years the l a s t 10 years more than 10 years ago I f you have read the play, d i d you enjoy i t ? (check one)  very much moderately not at a l l  e)  Have you eger s^en a production o^ Tango ? yes  no  12  T*2  I f you have seen a production of Tango, d i d you enjoy i t ? (check one)  very much moderately not at a l l  f)  I f you have seen a production of Tango, was i t within: (check one)  within the l a s t year within the l a s t 2 years within the l a s t 5 years within the l a s t 10 years more than 10 years ago  . .g)  Have you seen more than one production of Tango ? yes  no  j  174  How many p r o d u c t i o n s o f Tanf-o have you s e e n ,  h)  and where d i d you see them ?  I f y o u have n o t seen Tangm, have y o u r e a d about i t , o r h e a r d a n y t h i n g about i t ? A B yes XQ B  _  B _2_ 3" A  n o  I f y o u have r e a d , o r h e a r d a n y t h i n g aboujr Tango vas  A  B  ^  |^  on the r a d i o  2  1  Playhouse p u h l i c i t y m a t e r i a l  3  3  it:  i n a newspaper at a l e c t u r e  i n a book o t h e r source i)  As a r e g u l a r t h e a t r e - g o e r , t o respond t o Tango.  (specify)  f r i e n d s who had  Whether o r n o t y o u have read o r seen t h e p l a y p r e v i o u s l y by i m a g i n i n g what y o u r response i s  likely  to be. I n g e n e r a l , what s o r t of t h i n g s do y o u e x p e c t from  Tan^o ?  Do y o u expect t h e main c o n c e r n o f t h e p l a y , t o b e : (check one)  political  Grow A : SOCIAL "  S O C1 cX 3. ~~~ ethical  Group B : SOCIAL  romantic  j  psychological Do y o u expect t h i s p l a y t o b e :  Group A  serious  : MAINLY SERIOUS m a i n l y s e r i o u s b u t w i t h some comic elements WITH COMIC ELEMENTS : MAINLY SERIOUS WITH COMIC ELEMENTS m a i n l y comic b u t _ v i t h some s e r i o u s elements c  ©ROUP 3  o  m  e  d  J  about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s  find comic  Do y o u expect t h i s p l a y p r i m a r i l y : (check any t h a t a p p l y ) Group A :  Sroup B :  i t  y o u p r o b a b l y have some i d e a o f how y o u a r e l i k e l y  t r y t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s  (check one)  seen  t o make a m e a n i n g f u l statement  about l i f e  t o b e e n t e MEANINGFUL rtaining STATEMENT and t o p r o v i d e an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ENTERTAINING MEANINGFUL STATEMENT and ENTER T A I MING  175  Do y c u expect t h i s p l a y t o be: m a i n l y about t h e i n n e r w o r l d of t h e mind  (check one)  Group  A  :  REAL  .70RLD  Grout)  3  :  R E A L  WORLD  i  m a i n l y about the r e a l w o r l d m a i n l y about a f a n t a s y w o r l d  and  VI'ORLD  :NER  Do y o u expect" Tango t o b e :  A  a modern comedy ~5  (check one)  i J?  a modern s e r i o u s  2  j) A  B  J black  T\-  A  comedy  2  B  B  T  Do y o u e x p e c t t h e p.cting i n Tango t o b e : (check one)  Group  A  an a v a n t - g a r d e play2~ A B t h e a t r e o f the a b s u r d ~_ ~g  drama"  a p o l i t i c a l plaV A  B  :  N A T U R A L  AND  n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e L I F E L I K E  e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d energetic  Group 3 : s c a t t e r e d  and flamboyant  p o w e r f u l and p a s s i o n a t e s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l Do y o u e x p e c t the s c e n e r y o f Tango t o be: (check any t h a t  apply)  A  B  7  5  7  $  realistic  2  fanciful historical symbolic  J  lavish  l  austere  3 1  minimal colorful muted modern stylish functional Do y o u e x p e c t t h e costumes o f Tango t o be: (check any t h a t  apply)  realistic  6  1 1  7 1  3  -7  8  A  B  1  7  fanciful historical symbolic  2  •3  5  1 7  l 2  lavish austere colorful muted  (check one) Grout)  '. .ri S A  IS T1C  realistic unrealistic  1  1  modern  9  2  stilish  2  1  functional  k 1  k  minimal Do you e x p e c t the p l a y t o be:  I  176  During the performance of t h i s play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t to be ? (check any that apply) enlightened  A  B  A  g  B  6~"  involved  A  amused  bored  4  B  7—-To  —?j  I interested  , A  saddened ^B  detached  —  A  depressed  B  B  -  -3  A  B  2  2  8"  B  ^  delighted  TJ-  At the end of the performance of t h i s play, which do you think you are l i k e l i e s t t (check any that a.pply)  r ? happy relaxedl  22" .2  enlightened k)  Do^you think thaj^ peghaps you w i l l be: ^  A  annoyed ^ angry  1* 1 ^  B  |j- —^reassured  fatigued puzzled —  —  a_ ~G  soothed  g  2" g depressed^ f? disturQed ~%  B —  —  refreshed  g 2  ~1 A  Tj*  B  In a play of t h i s kind, what aspects of the production do you think you are most l i k e l y to enjoy ?  (number i n order of a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e s t )  the costumes  Group A : ACTING? Group B  t h e  the scenery  : ACTING  l)  a c t i n g  the music  Which aspects of the play do you a n t i c i p a t e enjoying most ? (number i n order of a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r e s t ) i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l characters  Group A  :  scattered  development of the story  Group 3  : RELATIONSHIPS BSTV/EEN r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the characters  CHARACTERS m)  poetic language  Of the following l i s t of plays which have you either seen or read, and which  have you enjoyed ?  (put S f o r seen or R f o r read i n the f i r s t column, ?„nd rate  the plays between i and 4 i n the second column) 1 = l i k e d i t very much 2 = l i k e d i t moderately 3 = d i d not l i k e i t very much  seen; A Chairs  r]  Tiny A l i c e  6  The  l>.ndo and L i s Hr.ppy Days.- . The Bald Sopranp The Dumb Waiter  *  readVA 1  d i s l  3 I  k e d  ^ rating:  A . B„ t-lj. 1-2  1  1  1 1 1 3  2 2  1 2  2  2 2  1-2 2  Red Magic The Zoo Stoty  1  The Automobile Graveyard Krapp' s Ln.st Tape The Rhino cc-ros The Dwarfs The Sandbox Orison Act Without Words The Lessen  2  2  2  2  2  1  3  ~hr  1  l-Jj. 2;  2  2  177  Why are ycu going tc this play ? (number 3 reasons i n order c f importance; i f you are aseason t i c k e t holder, number 3 ether reasons) Because:  I am a season t i c k e t holder I've read the play, but have never seen i t  C-rou'o A : SEASON TICKSTS HEARD ABOUT THIS PLAY  I've heard about the play and am interested i n seeing what i t i s l i k e  Group B :  SEASON TICKETS I enjoy t h i s type of play Som  e of the cast members are actors whose  performances I u s u a l l y enjoy I have no idea what t h i s play i s about, but the i b i t l e intrigues me  •Why did you buy season t i c k e t s to the Playhouse? (number any that apply i n order of importance) Because: Group A : WENT TO  PRODUCTIONS LAST YEAR Ai'iD iL. .JOYED THEM  I went to a number of productions a t t h i s theatre l a s t year, a n  a enjoyed them  I  like to support Vancouver's major professional theatre co.  the s e l e c t i o n of plays appealed to me G r o u p B : V/ENT TO * r'RODUCTIONS LASl a .member of my family or a f r i e n d l i k e s to go to t h i s theatre  YEAR AND ENJOYED THEM  and I bought the t i c k e t s i n order to accompany them Buying the t i c k e t s i n advance means that I am more l i k e l y to see the f u l l season of plays a t t h i s theatre, rather than just one or two of them  o  APPENDIX E POST-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE  TANGO  178  a)  b)  Nov/ that tne performance i s over, ho:/ d i e t h i s p r o d u c t i o n feeling ? (check any t h a t A B happy 7£ 1 A B depressed T£ ^  ap-^ly) * A B annoyed 1 1 . A B r e l a x e d ^ ~~  fatigued A angry 2  puzzled^: J reassured  A .. B. disturbed ^  enligntened  _§  "5  £ 1  g soothed  I-iow would you d e s c r i b e  A  O—O  ^ ~  3  _B 2  2  3  refreshed  S  A  ^  2  the general  standard  leave you  g T  o f the - r o d u c t i o n you  have j u s t seen ? (check one)  excellent good  Group A : GOOD  fair  Group 3 : GOOD  mediocre poor  c)  Would you d e s c r i b e  the general  s t y l e of the p r o d u c t i o n a s :  (check one)  traditional experimental  Group A : s c a t t e r e d  °xtravagant  Group B : s c a t t e r e d  uistere realistic fanciful d)  Do you t n i n k the main concern of Tangois (check one) political social  :-roup A : SOCIAL  ethical  Jroup B : SOCIAL  romantic psychological  Do y c u t h i n k Tango i s : (cnec.t one)  serious  _  mainly s e r i o u s but with some comic elements Groun A :  Group B :  SERIOUS and HAINLY SERIOUS comedy V/ITH COMIC ELEMENTS mainly comic but with some s e r i o u s MAINLY SERIOUS V/ITH COMIC ELEMENTS about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s ana comic  elements  179  Does Tango  primarily:  (eheck one) Group A  make a meaning/ul statement about  life  : MEANINGFUL STATEMENT e n t e r t a i n  _  _  Group B : I t i M ! lA'G-r 1  n T T  c  ,  rnsrpr  -- -, . , p r o v i d e an emotional experience ;  >T  T  0 1 ^ 1 ^ : 1  U L  R  J.  *•  Is Tango: (check one)  mainly about the inner world o f the mind  Group A : REAL WORLD  mainly about the r e a l world  Group B : REAL WORLD  mainly about & f a n t a s y world  Is Tango: (check one)  realistic  Group A : REALISTIC  unrealistic  Group B : REALISTIC Below a r e t e n p a i r s o f c o n t r a s t i n g a d j e c t i v e s with a s c a l e each p a i r .  between  Put a check on the s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s  at the p o i n t which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your f e e l i n g s about Tango. Is Tango:  senseless  interesting ^ Q : sentimental  : ® :  stupid  :  optimistic  :  vorth s e e i n g l O : simple  e)  A  B  : 5> :  important  somewhat  A  ~~ :  shallow sad  very  A  ^ :  3 1  ;3 '•  i n the  3—  .1 :1 3 :1 2  1  : 1  •  7  2  :  B 5"  meaningful  6  J  profound  h  _l  1  3  3.  boring moving trivial  1  -4  a  3. 7  clever pessimistic  m o t ' w o r t h cooing  2  I s Tango: (check one)  A  7 J f  :  5  very  r j r  2 h  B  happy  —3  1 3 ^>  A  satire comedy  Group A : s c a t t e r e d  s e r i o u s drama  Group B : SERIOUS DRAM  tragedy none o f these  g  £.: complex  180  f)  Which aspects o f Tango d i d you enjoy  the most ?  (number i n order of enjoyment) the i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s Grouo A : DEVELOPMENT OP . • , , .. STORY and development 01 tne s t o r y RELATIONSHIPS 33T»VE..£h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h a r a c t e r s CHARACTERS , . , tne p o e t i c language Group 3 : RELATIONSHIPS BETV/EEN CHARACTERS and DEVELOPMENT OP STORY i  U  +  e  x  V/hich c h a r a c t e r s i n Tango ( r e g a r d l e s s o f how w e l l acted) d i d y c u enjoy the most ? (name as many as three) Group A :  EUGENE and STOMIL  Group B :  STOMIL and ARTHUR  g)  Did you t h i n k the development o f the s t o r y was: (put a checK on tne s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s a t the p o i n t v/hich most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your very  B 57  e n t e r t a i n g tj" 5  logical unreal i s t i c  somewhat i n the middle A B A B 2 3 2  T  k_  3  unbelievable^  li-  1  no t i n v o l v i n g  : g_  2  clear  6  h)  opinion)  t h  semev/hat A 1  very  B  ~. t e d i o u s  i  i_  :  illogical  35  :  realistic  5-  : unclear j believable involving  i/nat aspects o f the p r o d u c t i o n d i d you enjoy the most ? (number i ^ order o f enjoyment) the costumes  Group A : ACTING  the a c t i n g  Group B : ACTING the  scenery  the music i)  D i d you t h i n k the standard o f a c t i n g , on the whole, was: {-out a check on the s c a l e at the p o i n t which bost d e s c r i b e s ycur  very somewhat i n the middle 'B A B A B p r o f e s s i o n a l Zj- _2_ : 6 cT Q. 2"  L  poor  somewhat A 1  B —  '•••5  opinion)  very —  4*9  —:  amateur good  181  j)  ".'hich do y o u t h i n ' c wcr ;• t h e h o s t  actors  or a c t r e s s e s  a n d ' . / i i i c n ao y o u t h i n . ; g a v e p e r f o r m a n c e s general the  standard  first  ?  (number  c o l u m n , and t h r e e  the  three  best  i n the  production  w h i c h seemed l o w e r t h a n i n order  of preference  wno a i d n o t seem v e r y good  i n the  the in  second  column)  best X e n Buhay  as  Eugene  Eleanor  L o g a n H o u s t o n as  Stomil  Fran.c i-iaraden as  Arthur  M i c > i K a u n s e l l as P i a Shandel  as  Eugenia  ^ia  Group A  : b e s t - EUGENE, STOMIL  not  Group 3  : b e s t - EUGENE, STOMIL  not as good - EDDIE,  V/ere t h e r e  any p h y s i c a l o r f a c i a l  or a c t r e s s l o s )  that  as good - EDDIE  mannerisms  no £ which a c t o r ( s )  (identify  or actresc(es)  ?  c j naming c h a r a c t e r s )  Group A mentioned Group 3 mentioned  actor(s)  ?  J _ —  : ARTHUR, EDDIE, ELEANOR : ARTHUR,ELEANOR,  ALA  o f some p a r t i c u l a r  seemed t o y c u t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e  yes 5 I f yes,  good  Eddie  R o b e r t C l o t h i e r as P a t Gage as  n o t as  ALA  M  1  8  2  V/ero there any peculiarities of speech of son..- particular actor(o) or actress(es) that seemed to you to be inappropriate ? A B A J3 yes 5" 10 no ET 2 i  If answer is yes, which actor(s) or actress(es) ? (identify by Attmiftj characters) Group A mentioned : ELEANOR Group B mentioned : ELEANOR, AR3JITD3, EDDIE  k) bid the actors speak clearly enough for you to hear everything they said ? (check one) Group  A : ALL WERE CLEAR  Group B :  ALL WERE CLEAR  all were clear most were clear come were clear a few v.'ere clear none were clear  1)  In general, would you describe the acting as: (check one)  Group A  scattered  Groun B  scattered  natural sad lifelike elegs.nt and stylised energetic and flamboyant powerful and passionate stilted and unnatural  m) Did you like the scenery ? (check one) Group  A : VERY MUCH - MODERATELY  Grouu B :  VERY MUCH  very much noderatly slightly not at all  n) JJcuid ycu describe the scenery at (check any that apply) realis cic nciful historical^ symbolic lavish austere  B 2  g 3 2  minimax colorful muted  moaern stvlish  A 3  3 1  functi cnal  183 L i d .you t n i n . : t n e s c e n e r y A B y»?s T l 12  If  there  was a p p r o p r i a t e ' A B no r ~  was a n y p a r t i c u l a r  feature  t o be p a r i c u l a r l y i n n a p p r o p r i a t e Group A  to tne p l a y ?  o f t h e see-...-;' t h a t  to the play  seemed t o y o u  , what was i t ?  : NOT ENOUGH CLUTTER AND LIGHT IN FIKS'P A.CT j , v - { l v ^ — — 0  Group B  :  TRANSLUCENT WALLS THE CATAFALQUE RECORD PLAYER  :  L i d you l i k e  o)  the costumes ?  (cheese o n e ) Group A  very  slightly  MODERATELY  not W o u l d y o u a ' e s t f i ' i j e . fcho c o s t u m e s  P)  ( c h e c k a n y tiuvfc realistic  ^  fanciful  1 | _  col  1  col  orful-^  muted  _1  1  10  modern  stylish  1  1  functional  lavish  1  2  austere•  A  there  t h e c o s t u m e s "wore a p p r o p r i a t e B  10 12  no  were any p a r t i c u l a r  w h i c h were t h e y  ?  A~  to the play  seernes i n a p p r o p r i a t e  t h a n one c o s t u m e ,  Group^ ^SUffENIA,  ARTHUR  : ALA  Wfccich costumes, i f any, d i d you l i k e the best ? '"identify by n a m i n g c h a r a c t e r s ; name t h r e e )  Group B : STOMIL  to the  t i d o n t i f y by n a m i n g c h a r a c t e r s who wore t h e m ; i n  Group B  STOMIL, EUGENE  ?  B"  costumes t h a t  care o f characters h a / i n y more  detail)  roup A  .Jk  m i n i m a l T_  _7  yes  the  as:  symbolic  you t h i n k  play,  at a l l  apply)  historical 2  If  raucii  modera t e l y  VERY MUCH - MODERATELY  Croup B  :  g i v e some, i d e n t i f y i n g  184  D i d you t h i n n  A B TO T l  yes  q)  the co& tumta wen I with t h e sc ener y ? A  no  A * "B 2  Did you l i k e the music ? very much  Group A :  scattered  nicJ-.  Group B : MODERATELY  tely  slightly not at a l l  r)  On the whole, d i d you enjoy  t h i s production ?  very much  Group A  VERY MUCH  moderately  Group B  MODERATELY  slightly not at a l l  s)  Y7are you ever bored  d u r i n g the performance all  the time  often  1  J  occasionally not at a l l  t)  2  £  3  In g e n e r a l , how d i d you f e c i d u r i n g the performance o f t h i s p l a y ' (check three of the f ol ] o^'inj adverbs v/hich most c l o s e l y  describe  your response)  A  amused  A  6"  saddened  A  T -  1  u)  V/as t h i s  L  enlightened  B T  involved ^  A 2  B  T detacned -depressed  delighted irritated  ' B  ~S • 2"  Ft  A B... 2" labored  A  A 2  B  B A  "8 i n t e r e s t e d H  B o"  production:  (•cut a chock on the s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s a t th< p o i n t wiuich most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your very  conventional worthwhile  S<  A B A :  6  B  6 3  i n thi  A  T  _1_  art i s t i c ad  amateur-  B  -3r  .viddle  SO'nowhat  A  rr  :  dull  conffs  ewhat  JL--6 l l  S2  2 2  opinion) vo r y  B  1..  -il-  8  1-  6 Ii 6 _3_  -3-  1  3;  worthless  • 1:  original  exciting  lr  tasteless  :  1  ;  2 "2,  coherent  3—1  profession  :  :  185  v)  Do y o u t i i i n . c author's „..„ °  y w  w)  the d i r e c t o r  intention  A $  of  this  properly  hr.s i n t e r p r e t e d  n  o  2  B T  don'tt  B 3"  A  know  Would you d e s c r i b e the p r o d u c t i o n on the whole as. • ....  Group A : SUCCESSFUL ^ Group B  the  ?  A  B c5  production  £  :  ,. successful  : SUCCESSFUL  unsuccessful  V/ould you l i k e to see rtcre p r o d u c t i o n s of t h i s s o r t ? yes x)  A  7  B  Tl  no  A  3"  B  I  V/ere you comfortable i n vour seat ? V/ould you h a v e  A  preferred s i t t i n g  (checK any that apply)  c l o s e r to the stage  B -j_  c l o s e r to the middle  ^  2  f a r t h e r away from the stage  ^  on the a i s l e y)  Was anyone near y c u coughing, s h u f f l i n g t h e i r f e e t , or doing anything e l s e that d i s t u r b e d you d u r i n g the performance ? yes  z)  | _  §  nc  |  Q  Have you r e a d any reviews o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n , or heard any on tne radio ?  yes ^  j|  no  _A  B  Group A " If yes, wnicn reviews ? mentioned,.: Ubjii&ei,._ Vancouver,-v. . Express  Group B mentioned: " Ubyssey, Vancouver D i d you agree with the e v a l u a t i o n s o f these c r i ? 5 c ^ ' ^ - * Express ( i d e n t i f y any you comment upon) 1  Grouo A  :  Group B:  i13  disagreed disagreed  APPENDIX F PRE-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE  INSIDE THE GHOST  SONATA  186  a)  In g e n e r a l , wn^t standard o f p r o d u c t i o n co ycu aspect when youu o to a play a t the Dorothy  Somerset  (check one)  S t u d i o ?. excellent  Group A : GOOD  eood  Group B : GOOD  " mediocre  i c  l r  Group C : GOOD poor  b)  'Jhat type o f s t a g i n g o f a p l a y do ycu expect t c sea a t the Dorothy Somerset S t u d i o ? s t a g i n g i i i v/Aicw the approach (check any t h « t ap??ly)  is  :  traditional  Group B : EXPERIMENTAL  experimental ' extravagant austere  Group C :EXPERIMENTAL  realistic  Group A : EXPERIMENTAL  ~~  fanciful c)  I-Iave you ever read Ghost Sonata ? A B C yes  d)  A  1_2 3  no  B  i i  1  0  C  9  I f you have r e a d i t , d i d you read i t ^ w i ^ h i i j , : the l a s t 3 o r 4 weeks the l a s t y e a r  •  the l a s t 2 years thv; l u s t  b years  the l a s t  10 years  1 1 ^ 1  more than 10 y e a r s ago  ]_  I f you have read the p l a y , d i d you enjoy i£ ?g Q (chock one)  2*  very mmch moderately  3  not a t a l l e)  Have you ever seen a p r o d u c t i o n of Ghost Sonata ? yes  no  None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had ever seen a p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s Z£  y-s;.: have saan s_ p r e d i c t i o n / .-. jp (cnecic o.;e)  C'KQSJ  ocnata, d i d you enjoy i t ?  very much moderately act  play.  at a l l  187 f)  I f you have seen a p r o d u c t i o n of Ghost Gonata, was (check one)  i t within:  wit.iiu the l a s t year v/itkin the l a s t 2 years w i t h i n the l a s t 5 y e a r s w i t h i n the l a s t 10 y e a r s more than 10 y e a r s ago  g)  Have you seen more than one p r o d u c t i o n o f Ghost Sonata ? yes How  no  many p r o d u c t i o n s o f Ghost Sonata nave you seen, and where d i d ycu see  thed ? h)  I f you have not seen Ghost Sonata, have you read about  the p l a y , or  heard onythx/ig about i t ? yes  A B C ___ "5  S  1  no  A B C  7 Tj.  I f you have r e a d , or heard anything about Ghost Sonata the p r o d u c t i o n )  was  it:  A m  r  a newspaper  at a l e c t u r e  B  C  "  r  1  1  on the r a d i o  (the p l a y not  1  i n a book  1 2  1  other source ( s p e c i f y ) r3a  Mavo yc^z he^ard ^ n y t h i n g , or yes  7  2' ' 10  £  no  I f you have he-rtf a« yfr'tf  g 't*Sjift& about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i o n ?  a  v  t _ _ J O ~*2 ciJW.-ct this  p tco'it zt.* igx • rgis i£: ?  i n a nevepap^r on the r a d i o  1  frcM someone who  has s g m  publicity natarial other source i)  ~"  _*  If. 1  it  2 2  ^  (specifyX  2  As a r e g u l a r theatre-goer,,you probably have some idea c f how you are l i k e l y to respond to Ghost Sonata. Whether or net you have r e a d or seen the p l a y p r e v i o u s l y t r y to answer the q u e s t i o n s by imagining what your respon "i s l i k e l y to be. c  In g e n e r a l , what s o r t of t n i n g s do ycu expect from Ghost Do you eKpect (check one)  the main concern of the p l a y to be: political  Group A  : PSYCHOLOGICAL  social ethical  Group 3  : PSYCHOLOGICAL  I  Group C  : PSYCHOLOGICAL  psychological  W  -t( ' t  it j t *-r** v-  ~»-p  -> -  Sonata ?  18  Do you expect t h i s p l a y t o b e : (check one) _ , „ Group A : SERIOUS Groun B : SERIOUS  sericus n a i n l y s e r i o u s but " ' i t h some comic  elements  comedy m a i n l y comic but rritn seme s e r i o u s elements  G  r o u p C : SERIOUS  about e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and c c n i c  Do you expect t r . i s p l a y p r i m a r i l y : (chc-ch any t h a t a p p l y )  t o make a m e a n i n g f u l statement about  life  to be e n t e r t a i n i n g Group A : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE to p r o v i d e an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e Group B : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE Group C : EMOTIONAL E X P E R I E N C E Do y c u expect t h i s p l a y t o be: (check one)  m a i n l y about t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f t h e mind  Group A : INKER WORLD  m a i n l y about t h e r e a l w o r l d  Group B : HTNER WORLD  m a i n l y about a f a n t a s y w o r l d  _  Group C : INNER WORLD j)  l?c y o u , expect t h e a c t i n g i n Gho^t Sonata t o be: (check one)  n a t u r a l and l i f e l i k e  Group A : s c a t t e r e d  e l e g a n t and s t y l i z e d  T2 . .. , Group 3 : s c a t t e r e d  e n e r g e t i c and flamboyant  Group C : s c a t t e r e d  p o w e r f u l and p a c j i o n a t e ..... . stilted  ana u n n a t u r a l _____  Do y o u expect t h e s c e n e r y c f Ghost Sonata t o be: (check any t h a t a p p l y )  A  B  k  5  6  n  realistic fanciful  2  historical symbol i e lavish austere minimal colorful muted modern  2 10  1  1 1  5  2 2  k 2  2 2  5  2 2  k  6  I  2 2  stylish functional  c  k  189  Do you expect the costuir.es o f G.iost Sonata (check any t h a t ap l y )  t o be:  realistic  6  1  6  2  5  symbolic  6  7  lavish  1  1  austere  3  1  colorful  3  fanciful historical  10  2  1  3 ^ 3  muted 1  modern  3  stylish  ^ 1  functiona.1  6  3  minimal Do ycu expect t h i s p l a y t c be: (chock on_?) Group A  realistic  : UNREALISTIC  unrealistic"  Group B : UNREALISTIC  Group C : UNREALISTIC  During the performance c f t h i s p l a y , which do you thinlc you a r e l i k e l i e s t t o  A  be ?  B  F (check any tnat a p p l y )  A B C  ~  ~  enlightened  -  2  A B C  £  T  -  A B C  i n t e r e s t e d _]  (check any that apply)  A B C  happy4-  ^  A B _  1 annoyed ^  sngry  puzsled ^  reassured  k)  ^  A B C _,  ~  saddened  A  T  detached 7  o,  depressed  2  £  A B C 1  1  which do you t h i n k ycu a r e l i f c e l i e s  ^  disturbecT  A B C  soothed  11  Dc^ yqu tihink perhaps yoUpWiLl be:  ^ f^.tigued^ ^-  B  delighted  At the end o f the performance o f t h i s p l a y , to be?  2 1 1  2  A B C  bored  i n v o l v e d 7?  I  A B C .  amused  A B C  %  C  " depressed ^  ^refreshed  In a p l a y o f t h i s k i n d , what aspects  ~ _^  A  B  ~ ~ ^re^a.;cejd ^  ~ ^  enlightened^  ^  A B C 1  o f the p r o d u c t i o n  1  do y c u thinJc you are  most l i k e l y to enjoy ? (number i n order  Group A : ACTING Group B  : ACTING  Group C : ACTING  of anticipated interest) t  h  o  c o s t u m e s  -  the e c t i n g the s c s n e r y the music  /  190  1)  V/hich a s p e c t s o f the p l a y Co you a n t i c i p a t e e n j o y i n g most ? (nur.ber i n o r d e r o f a n t i c i p a t e d  interest)  Group A :  DEVELOPMENT 0? interesting individual characters STORY and INTERESTING INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERS development o f t h e s t o r y Group B : RELATIONSHIPS B E T W E E N ^ ^ ^ ^ CHARACTERS and DEVELOPMENT OP p o e t i c language STORY Group C : RELATIONSHIPS BETV/EEN CHARACTERS h  EI)  Cf  fol-LOvvin^ l i s t  t h e  v/hich  of plays  have yon enjoyed  column, and r a t e  t h e  '  1  Peer Gynt Ghosts  h  s  c  h  a  r  2  c  t  2  r  5  -  i n the second  first  c o l u m n )  ^ 2 1 1 1  1 7 ^  6  11-2  1  3  1  1  1  1  2 2 2  3  2  3  The Dream P l a y The- Three S i s t o r s Julie  Cherry Orchard  1 1  1-2  1  1 1 1-2  1  The  -j_  1  $  1  2  1 1 1  3  3  1  3  - _^ 1 2 L  2 1 1 1  '  3  2 ^__2  -i  The W i l d Duck father  1  1 2 1-2 2 1  £ne £iue B i r d The  t  1 = l i k e d i t very uch 2 = l i k e d i t moderately _ 3 = d i d n o t l i k e i t very much 4 = disli.ted i t , seen: read: A _ B C A B C  2  Before l>avm  Miss  m  p l a y s betr.e.n 1 and 4  A w a k e n i n g  Roi  m  ? (put 3 f o r seen and R f c r road i n tne  A B C Ubu  t  have you e i t h e r se^n c r r e a d , anu  w h i c h  rating:  Spring's  9  3  2 1 2  2  2  2 2 1 1  1 1  To Damascus Heartbreak  House  From Morn to H i d n i g A t  1  1  3 2  1  2  I}.  2 1  191  r-^.  V/hy a r c you g o i n g  t c t h i c play ?  (number o r .asono  i n o r d e r c i importance)  Because  :  I 've read the p l a y  , but have never seen  I've heard about the p l a y and am  interested  s e e i n g what i t i s l i k e I enjoy t u i s type of p l a y I've heard about interested  t h i s p r o d u c t i o n and  am  i n s e e i n g what i t i s l i k e  Some c f the c a s t members are a c t o r s whose performances I u s u a l l y enjoy I have no i d e a what t h i s p l a y i s about, out the t i t l e  i n t r i g u e s ne  I usnt to a nu.Viber o f p r o d u c t i o n s at t h i s theatre l a s t year,  auid enjoyed them  /3 « c o w ' S ' £ I a'A",' ^aft'i'cipating i n a n ' Audience Research p r o j e c t  Group A : Group B  AUDIENCE RESEARCH PROJECT  : AUDIENCE RESEARCH PROJECT  Group C : s c a t t e r e d  APPENDIX G POST-PRODUCTION  QUESTIONNAIRE  INSIDE THE GHOST  SONATA  192  a;  Now that taa performance is over, ho~ did this production leave you feeling ?  (check any that apply) A B C A B C A B C happy _ _ i 1 annoyed- 1 2 fatigued^ F IT A B C A ~B~ C_ A ~ ^ -C relaxed 2 2 II angry 1 puzzled-40 7 J A B C ~ a B C A " B" C 1 1 enlightenedlj! 3 2 r e a s s u r e d soothed 2  b)  A  B C depressed J+ r? A-B C disturbed0,0 2 _ A. B C 1 refreshed 2  now would you d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n you have  j u s t seen ? (check one)  excellent  G-roup A : GOOD-EXCELLENT  G  °  o  d  G r o u p B. : GOOD-EXCELLENT  fair  G r o u o C : GOOD  mediocre Door  c)  Would you d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l s t y l e o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n a s : (check one)  traditional  G r o u p A : EXPERIMENTAL  experimental  G r o u p B : EXPERIMENTAL  extravagant  G r o u p C : EXPERIMENTAL  austere realistic fanciful  d)  Do you caiiuc cue r,.ain concern (check one)  o f the p l a y Ghost S o n a t a i s : political  G r o u p A : PSYCHOLOGICAL  social  G r o u p B : PSYCHOLOGICAL  ethical  G r o u p C : PSYCHOLOGICAL  romantic psychological  Do you t a i n k the p l a y (check one) Q.-.Q^-T)  A •  Ghost Sonata i s : serious  S~'RI0 S 7T  G r o u p B : SERIOUS G r o u o C : SERIOUS  m a i n l y s e r i o u s but w i t h some comic elements comedy J  mainly  comic but w i t h some s e r i o u s elements /  / aoout e q u a l l y s e r i o u s and comic  ,  193  Doe^° G h o s t .Sonata  primarily  :  (check one) Group A : EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE  make a meaningful statement  about  life  entertain  Group B : MEANINGFUL STATEISNT p r o v i d e an emotional experience Group C : s c a t t e r e d Is Ghost Sonata: (check one)  mainly about  the i n n e r world o f the mind  Group A : INNER WORLD  mainly about  the r e a l world  Group B : INNER V/ORLD  mainly about  a f a n t a s y world  Group C : INNER WORLD Is Ghost Sonata: (check one)  realistic  Group A : UNREALISTIC  unrealistic  Group C : s c a t t e r e d - h a l f f e l t i t was REALISTIC Group B : UNREALISTIC Below a r e t e n p a i r s of c o n t r a s t i n g a d j e c t i v e s with a s c a l e between each pair.  Put a check on the s c a l e between each p a i r o f a d j e c t i v e s a t tho  p o i n j v/hich most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your f e e l i n g s about Is Ghost  senseless  very A B C . 1 :  6  interesting-  A .1 :  : :  7-4*.  10 6  S  —  6  3 —6.  l  :  :  2  k  stupid  :  6_5  :  —  :l  2—1  :  3  Group A :  scattered  Group B : s c a t t e r e d Group C : s c a t t e r e d  • :  —1  2_3  :2  3—3  •  1 _  :  2_  6 5 _ i  : 2  _  1  :  2_  1  : 1  2_  1  1  sat i r e com edy s e r i o u s drama tragedy none o f these  1  c  Ik meaningful profound  :  happy  —  •  —  • boring  3 _ 6: moving L_  -  trivial  3: c l e v e r :7  __1 :3  =2  2_2  '•2  very  2- l  8—4  •6 h—  3_1+  A •  5L_ 3  Is Ghost Sonata: (check one)  somewhat  7  2  :  :  A  3  -2.  =1  a  worth s e e i n g 1 1  e)  2  .in the_middle A B C .1'  :  impottant  simple  scjiewgat  -*  2  sentimental  optimistic  Sonata.  Sonata:  shallow sad  Ghost  •  2 _ i t:8  12 6: p e s s i m i s t i c 1 8  1 not worth se..ing 6: complex  194  f)  Which aspects o£ Ghost Sonata  d i d you  enjoy t::e most ?  (number i n order of enjoyment) Group A  : nnDIVDUAL^  „  . j_  i  n  t  e  r  M  n  dividual  i  characters  , the development o f the s t o rJ y  Group B : s c a t t e r e d Group C  t  -  j - 4 - ^ „ ^ t i 3 o r e l a t i o n s h i p s betv/een : s c a t t e r e d .he r e l a t i o n s h i p s betv/e-j  the characters  :he p o e t i c language  Which c h a r a c t e r s i n Ghost Sonata 2r  ( r e g a r d l e s s of ho-v v?el2 acted) d i d yo  ' j o y the most ? (name as many as  tnree)  Gr>oup A : HUMMEL, MUIC/T , STUDEHT G^mip B : HUMMEL. MUMMY, STUDENT Group G : HUMMEL  g)  Did you  t h i n k the development o f the s t o r y v/as:  (put a chec_". on the s c a l e betv/een each p a i r of a d j e c t i v e s at the p o i n t v/hich most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your  V  c s o r r/bat  erv  A : I. M- -3- i  ogieal  J  2  2- -3  nrealis£ic  3  lear  2  entertaining  n'oel i e v a b l e not  — i :  1  -»  J  — -3-  •  o  3 • id  3  3  2-  3  ij. — 2 -  2  1 -2  i  2 -3  2—2  3  3-  2  so .icv/hat r  :  A  B  1  3~2  G  2  A  very  B  C *  :  1  2—3  :  3  4-7  :  1  r  :  realistic  3 -2— 3  tedious illogical  3  •  — 2  involving :  :  unclear believable  : involving  i 1)  middle  G  3- 5  opinion)  2 1 I 4 . 2  3  2  4  7  '.That aspects o f the main scenes d i d you enjoy the most ? (number i n order of enjoyment) the costumes  Group A : ACTING: Group B : ACTING and FILM and SLIDES Group C : ACTING and FILM and SLIDES  tne a c t i n g the scenery the f i l m and the sound  slides  S  4  195  'uhichaspects o f the l a b y r i n t h d i d you enjoy the most ? (number i n order o f enjoyment) the a c t i n g Group A :  SCENERY  •  ^  c  a  s  t  u  _  3  _  S  Group B : SCENERY  the scenery  Group C : SCENERY  tne (films ana s l i d e s the sound  i)  D i d you think, the s t a n d a r d c f a c t i n g i n the three main  scenes,  on the  >vhole, was : (put a chec't on the ser.is a t the p o i n t v/hich best d e s c r i b e s yc.ur o p i n i o n )  very  A .roiessional pear  :X  B  i n the middle  somewhat  C  A  JL_ T  :  :  3 7 S  _1_  C  A  - £  :  B ~  2 *• 2  C 5—5  1_  somewhat  A  2  :  3  : If  3  1—2  6  very  C_  A. K . G _  ;  2  : 5 _2  • 4  amateur  good  .'/hich d i d you p r e f e r : (check one) Group A : Group B  the three main scenes  BOTH  the l a b y r i n t h  : scattered  enjoyed  Group C : s c a t t e r e d j)  disliked  both e q u a l l y both equal..y  Y/iiicn do you t h i n x were the best a c t o r s o r a c t r e s s e s i n t h 2 . three wain scenes, and wVi.cK do y c u t h i n k gave p«rfom&aces which, seemed lower the g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d ? the f i r s t  (number the t h r e e best i n order o f p r e f e r e n c e i n  column, and three who d i d r.ot seem very good i n the sedond column)  Group A : b e s t Group B : best -  Gjroup C : b e s t -  HUMMEL, L'FUMMY n o t as good - STUDENT HUMMEL, MUMMY, n o t as good - COLONEL  HUMMEL n o t as good - • ' - scattered  "7ayne Hoboon as Humme 1  Mariko Van Cannen as the Young Lady Art  40SS  Ann  V/est as the Mummy  as Student  David Dick as C o l o n e l Dick Day as Bengston G l y n i s Loyshon as the F i a n c e e Robert  Graham as the A r i s t o c r a t  •Jeff Goldberg  than  as the Consul  ran Waruk a?; t h e Cook  196  V/hich i f t i c r s ' i n (Identify  the l a b y r i n t h  ?  by g i v i n g a l e v / d e t a i l s )  Group  A  Groun  B : scattered  Group  d i d y o u t h i n k gave t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e s  : scattered  ...  C : scattered  I n t h e t h r e e m a i n s c e n e s , r.'ere t h e r e a n y p h y s i c a l o r f a c i a l m a n n e r i s m s o f some p a r t i c u l a r a c t r e s s ( e c ) c r a c t o r ( s ) t h a t seemed t o y o u , t c J ? £ i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? A B C A _[ C - y  If  a  2 _ 2  a  y e s , which a c t c r ( 3 )  (identify  IT  n  cr actress(es)  lOJ-0 0  c  ?  by naming c h a r a c t e r s )  rT?,nim  .  GOO  fl-nnnp  R  G^npp  G :  y  j  7  S "'N "! E~- ^  ;  }  r 7  GO - , F T A N Q A R I S T O C R A T , G SI-IS H A L S T H W T ,  I n t h e t h r e e jsain s c e n e s were t h s r e any p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f s p e e c h particular A y?s  -  actor(s) B  or actress(os)  C  2 3"  n o  that  seemed  A  B  C  12  9  9  I f answere i s y e s i v/hich a c t c r ( s ) I d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s )  VOTING L A D Y  HOOK,  c<£ some  to y o u t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e ?  or actresc(es)  Group A : G r o u p B : COOK, Group  k)  I n t h e --three rra.in s c e n e s , to h e a r  Group  did t h e actors  everything they s a i d  A : A L L V/ERE C L E A R  G r o u p B : A L L V/ERE C L E A R Group  C : A L L V/ERE C L E A R  ?  B E ,  C  t  STUDENT  "COIJOMEL,  CONSUL  s p e a k c l e a r l y enough f o r y o u t c  ( c h e c k one) £  i  r r  -  i  v  ;  s  o s t  w  -  v  S o n ,  G  r  e  s  r  /  e  c  l  e  r  e  G  a  r  c  l  e  n  c  l  c  r  -  r  r  a few were c l e a r none w e r e c l e a r 1)  In g e n e r a l , wculd you (check one)  Strike  the a c t i n g  i  c  c  n  d  f  _  i n the throe n a i *  n a t u r a l ana l i f e l i k e Group A : scattered h a l f " f e l t i t w a s S T I L T E D AND U N N A T U R A L elegant and s t y l i z e d G r o u p B : E L E G A N T AND S T Y L I Z E D ^ a n d S T I L T E D AND UNNATURAL powerful and p a s s i o n a t e Group C : scattered -._ .s t i l t e d and u n n a t u r a l t  .  l  o  n  b  S  c  « o  S  as:  t  /  197  Cid you l i k e t n e scenery i n t h e t h r e e main scenes ? (ch eck on e)  ve ry rr.u ch  Group A : MODERATELY Group 3 : MODERATELY  moderatiy . . slightly  Group C : MODERATELY VERY MUCH * Did you l i k e t h e s c e n e r y i n t h e l a b y r i n t h ? n o  (check one)  a  t  a  l  x  v e r y much  Group A : VERY MUCH moderatly Group B : VERY MUCH slightly Group C : VERY MUCH not az a l l  would y o u d e s c r i b e t h e s c e n e r y i n t h e key scenes es? A  (check any t h a t a p p l y )  realistic  T  fanciful  6  B  historical  C  If.  1  ^  3 7  symbolic  5  9  lavish  ^  2  austere  5  I}.  7  minimal  7  8  h-  colorful muted  2  mocorn  1  3 2  stylish functional  m)  4  ^  ^  ^  V/hich p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s i n t h e l a b y r i n t h d i d yotf. enjoy t h e n o s t ? Group A :  COOK'S KITCHEN  Group 3 :  COOK'S KITCHEN  Group C :  scattered  '  n) d i d you t h i n k t h e g e n e r a l manner of s t a g i n g was a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e - l a y B C A B C yes 12 11 12 no 1  o)  i f t h e r e -..-as tuvy p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e c f che s t a ^ i n j t h a t ceer.cd Lo y o u t b be particularly  i n n a p p r c p r i a t e t c th@ p l a y , what was i t  G r o u p A -«-—STROBE ROOM ftrrmp  n  : _ GRQ.7 7*_1G—£1,'C.Rj '"y.Ti-  Group C :  SMELL, S T A I R S  _ fJ^AGE«G  198  p)  D i d you l i k e the c c c t u n a s ? (caeck one)  very rr.c! :ch  Group A : VERY MUCH  moderately  Group B : VERY MUCH  sii htly  Group C : VERY MUCH  not a t a l l  L  v/oulc. you : d e s c r i b e t h e costumes a s : (check any t h a t a p p l y )  realistic  A 2  B  C  fanciful  6  historical  1  symbolic  Q  Q  stylish  g  1 2  lasrish  1  E  _ It  if. 5 3  3  * A ^  minimal colorful  -o B 3  2  7  muted  ^  Q •  modern  1  n  C  3  2  3  4 3  1  functional 2  3  austere  j  Die you t h i n k t h e costumes were a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y ? A B C A B C y 1 2 - 11 12 1 e s  n  o  I f t h e r e were zny p a r t i c u l a r costumes v/hich seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p l a y , ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s v/ho wore them) :  v/hich v/ere they ? ' ••  :  Group A : Group 3 : Groupk C : STUDENT'S JACKET.  Which costumes, i f any, d i d y c u l i k e t h e b e s t ? ( i d e n t i f y by naming c h a r a c t e r s ; name t h r e e ) Group A :  HUMMEL, MUMMY  Group B :  scattered  Group C :  scattered  Did you t h i n x t h e costumes went w i t h t h e s t a g i n g ? v - 5 y  A  B  no —  G  ^ Te—ii 12 s  —  0  c\) i i i u j f v " l i k e t h e F i ? ' c UJ  —  oo.«/v« • v e r y inuch moderately  Group A : Group B : Group C :  VERY MUCH MODERATELY VERY MUCH M0DE1ATSLY  slightly  .  ., ,.•»% t  2.  ..  1  199  r)  Cn the whole, d i d yc..- enjoy  this  -  Group A  very r.;ucn  VERY MUCH  moderately  VERY MUCH MODERATELY  Group B  slightly  VERY MUCH MODERATELY  Group C  V/'ere you ever bored all  production  not a t a l l  d u r i n g t h i s p«^for«ance ?  tne time  Group A  often occasionally  NOT AT ALL  Group B  half  Group C  OCCASIONALLY  - OCCASIONALLY  not at a l l  t)  i n g e n e r a l , how d i d youti!e»ld u r i n g the performance o f t h i s  play?  (check t h r e e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g adverbs which nost c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e your response) ,A  B  amusec,  £  « ,A deiachea  .. . A B C .. , , . A B C , sadcened -y e n l i g n t e n e d ^ o" ^  C B ^  o  e  a  . A B C \ 2 2  , ,A i,. , , , A B C. , ,A B C . , ae l i g h t 00. ^ •ginvclvedj-Q y ^ i n t e r ested  C 2  , A B C depressed TT T T"  u)  r  . _ . A irritaceu —  B  B  C ~-  Q  C T  was t h i s p r o d u c t i o n : (put a check on the s c a l e between each p a i r c f a d j e c t i v e s a t the p o i n t which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s your . A  conventional worthwhile  very B C  : Q  dull  g  ii- - V  :  7  confused  2  amateur  :  i n the a i d e l e A B C :  1 £  artistic  v)  somewhat A B C  -i2 — £  1  5  9  —  :  2  3—if  :  -3- 6  2  _ L _ ••  somewhat very A Bn Cn A AB_rC A : original 3 2—h- 9 - 6 7 : worthless 2—1 n  5  k-iL  3—1  :  2  Do you t h i n k the people  3r—  :  -7- 6  opinion)  exciting 5 " V 3 : tasteless  2  6—2  2 3—!(-  3  1  2_ 3  7  £  6_7  : _2 '  coherent £professional  who s t a g i o t h i s p r o d u c t i o n have i n t e r p r e t e d the p l a y  properly ? A  w)  B - C  A  B  A  aon  B  ./ould ycu d e s c r i b e the p r o d u c t i o n on the whole aS:.  Group A : SUCCESSFUL Group B : SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL Group C  euccesr.ful UD.SUC  c&6s£ixl  C  200  Would yov l i k e to s e t more p r c ciu e t ip nc„ o f t h i n s o r t ? A B C >L £ C y° II.-H 11 -ho i _ 3 1 3  x) Hov: d i d you fe-sl about nee t i n g a c t o r s as you moved about (chec.to a»j^thgt a p x i y )  A B C  A  ~S ~% B~ C ^ -j  amused it A Cornea-j  y)  intriguedll ^ A~F i n v o l v e d *£  the l a b y r i n t h ?  A B C T C "5  shocked 7"  5 A i n d i f f e r ent "J  A 2" B 3.  C 1  B  amoved "  "Did ycu feel, that t h e l a b y r i n t h added to you r understanding o f the p l a y very much  Group A :  MODERATELY  moderately  Group B :  scattered  Group C :  MODERATELY  Giiffktly not a t a l l )  U5vcon.-Ta-rtab.1e because  Vc^re. yoo •  the audience was  expected  ± 0 tt.ove around rs.tk.er than r e g a i n its one Saat ? very Much  Group A  moderately Group B slightly not a t a l l  a)  j^ave you g yoag  ~  e a  ^  e  n  ^ £ i^s r  v  Group C  nc V reviews ?  TO " ?  Group  A :  UBYSSEY  Group... B. : Group C : UBYSSEY  did yeu. agrees wlfctx  NOT AT ALL NOT AT ALL  of t ^ i s ^ r o ^ i u c t i o n , or heard- any on t h e r a d i o '  §  Id yes, whic*  NOT AT ALL  tho. e v a l u a t i o n s o f tAes-g c r i t i c s ?  ( i d e n t i f y a/sy you cemfte/vt upon) :  CT.rmp A : TM~i-:nTr>^r> Group B : Group C : NO  Cc«w.ents on the, p r o d u c t i o n :  APPENDIX H L I S T OF LABYRINTH UNITS  201  labyrinth Units  Entrance Trials paper  to maze with s t r o b e  and T r i b u l a t i o n s  One minute  light  (room with blue w a l l -  film  Reading room Table with food V a l k y r i e room (  o p e r a  Student - Milkmaid and btudent) Flower  )  room ( f i l m o f Milkmaid  place  Mummy c l o s e t Growing p l a c e ( f i l m and s l i d e s ) Research  p r o j e c t room (with t . v . monitor)  Dark Lady and A r i s t o c r a t Colonel  - inaudible conversation)  stripping  F u n e r a l room F i l m p r o j e c t e d on bodies wearing s c r e e n s )  ( f i l m and dancers  Insane room Cook's k i t c h e n Ice  drowning ( f i l m and  Janitress* Telephone  niche booth  Fiancee and her window Sound room  dancers)  

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