UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Spatial perspectives at the consumer-store interface Taylor , Stuart Martin 1972

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SPATIAL PERSPECTIVES AT THE CONSUMER-STORE INTERFACE by STUART MARTIN TAYLOR B.A., University of B r i s t o l , 1969. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1972. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r . p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f Geography The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Date 7th March, 1972. i i ABSTRACT The understanding of consumer s p a t i a l behaviour, and of the forces influencing the s p a t i a l organisation of urban r e t a i l a c t i v i t y , can be advanced through an analysis of the processes operating at the consumer-store i n t e r f a c e . Such an analysis can contribute to the development of models of consumer s p a t i a l behaviour which combine predictive accuracy and t h e o r e t i c a l adequacy. A review of the l i t e r a -ture indicates that t h i s combination has not characterised the models previously developed i n the course of r e t a i l geographic research. A model formulated i n the f i e l d of consumer behaviour theory serves as the conceptual framework for analysing the process whereby a consumer forms preferences for p a r t i c u l a r stores. This process involves complex interactions at the consumer-store interface between two basic variable sets comprising consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and store c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In essence, preferences are formed as the outcome of the consumer comparing perceived store c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with a set of predetermined evaluative c r i t e r i a . These preferences relate to the set of store c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which the consumer interprets as sources of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the course of shopping experience. The measurement of consumer attitudes towards s a l i e n t store c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s provides the basis for operationalising the conceptual model of store preference formation. An empirical study was conducted to i d e n t i f y the structure of consumer preferences for clothing stores and to derive consumer groups consisting of i n d i v i d u a l s with r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r attitude p r o f i l e s . Unstructured interviews with consumers served to determine a set of salient a t t i t u d i n a l items. These items were then incorporated within a modified Likert attitude s c a l i n g instrument, which was administered to a convenience sample group comprising undergraduate students and th e i r parents. The data obtained was factor analysed to i d e n t i f y a t t i t u d i n a l dimensions. Ten factors were extracted which indicated that concepts such as "boutiqueness", "cheapness", "security", "convenience", "exclusiveness" and " r e l i a b i l i t y " were appropriate to describe the structure of the clothing store preferences of the sample group. Factor scores were computed for each of the respondents and a h i e r a r c h i c a l grouping technique was used to derive six consumer groups. Interpretation of the "representative group p r o f i l e s ' showed that the groups could be equated with recognisable shopper types, including the 'teenage boutique' shopper,, the 'bargain store' shopper, and the high class 'specialty store' shopper. The findings of t h i s empirical study require further v a l i d a t i o n and extension i n the course of additional research; nevertheless, they indicate the potential u t i l i t y of attitude measurement as a basis for explaining the s p a t i a l preferences of consumers i n the r e t a i l environment. This i s a step towards the development of models which can adequately explain and accurately predict consumer s p a t i a l behaviour. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER 1. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF RETAIL GEOGRAPHY . . . . 5 A . INTRODUCTION 5 B . A CONTINUUM OF RETAIL RESEARCH APPROACHES 5 ( i ) A g g r e g a t e A p p r o a c h e s t o R e t a i l Geography 6 ( i i ) L i m i t a t i o n s o f a C e n t r a l P l a c e A p p r o a c h 8 ( i i i ) P a r t l y D i s a g g r e g a t e d A p p r o a c h e s 11 ( i v ) M a r k e t i n g Geography 17 (v ) D i s a g g r e g a t e A p p r o a c h e s 19 C. CONCLUSIONS 22 CHAPTER 2. INTERACTION AT THE CONSUMER-STORE INTERFACE . . . . 2k A . INTRODUCTION 2k B. A MODEL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR . . 2k A D e s c r i p t i o n o f E n g e l ' s M o d e l 26 C . THE CONSUMER-STORE INTERFACE . 30 ( i ) The P u r c h a s i n g P r o c e s s . 30 ( i i ) B a s i c Components o f I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s e s . . . . 30 (a ) E v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a 31 (b) P e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e s 33 ( c ) Compar i son p r o c e s s e s and a c c e p t a b l e v e r s u s u n a c c e p t a b l e s t o r e s . 36 ( i i i ) P r o b l e m S o l v i n g o r H a b i t u a l B e h a v i o u r a t the C o n s u m e r - S t o r e I n t e r f a c e . . . . 37 ( i v ) A Summary o f I n t e r a c t i o n a t the C o n s u m e r - S t o r e I n t e r f a c e and t h e R o l e o f S t o r e P r e f e r e n c e . . . . kO D. ENVIRONMENTAL SPACE PREFERENCE STUDIES kl E . SUMMARY ^5 V CHAPTER 3 . THE DEFINITION OF STORE PREFERENCE GROUPS . . . . 47 A. INTRODUCTION 47 B. SUBDIVIDING A POPULATION TO DETERMINE STORE PREFERENCE GROUPS 48 ( i ) Income 48 ( i i ) S o c i a l C l a s s 50 ( i i i ) The Adequacy o f P r o x y M e a s u r e s o f S t o r e P r e f e r e n c e . 54 C . THE AGGLOMERATIVE APPROACH TO STORE PREFERENCE GROUP DEFINITION 54 ( i ) I l l u s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s 55 ( i i i The Measurement o f I n d i v i d u a l S t o r e P r e f e r e n c e s . . 58 ( i i i ) The D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f P r e f e r e n c e 59 ( i v ) The D e f i n i t i o n o f P r e f e r e n c e G r o u p s u s i n g M u l t i v a r i a t e S t a t i s t i c a l T e c h n i q u e s 60 (a ) F a c t o r a n a l y s i s 6 l (b) M u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s 62 ( c ) N o n m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g . . . . 63 (d) Taxonomic p r o c e d u r e s 65 D. SUMMARY 66 CHAPTER 4 . THE ANALYSIS OF PREFERENCE ON THE BASIS OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES 68 A . INTRODUCTION ' 68 B. ATTITUDE AS THE KEY VARIABLE I N PREFERENCE STUDIES . . 68 ( i ) The F u n c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s i n the Consumer B e h a v i o u r M o d e l 68 ( i i ) The O r d e r i n g F u n c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s 70 ( i i i ) A t t i t u d e Measurement i n S p a t i a l Image S t u d i e s . . 71 ( i v ) A t t i t u d e s and P r e f e r e n c e - I l l u s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s . . 72 ( v ) C o n c l u s i o n 73 C. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR 74 ( i ) G e o g r a p h i c a l S c e p t i c i s m 74 ( i i ) F i s h b e i n ' s F i n d i n g s 75 ( i i i ) A t t i t u d e s and t h e N a t u r e o f t h e B e h a v i o u r under S t u d y 77 ( i v ) C o n c l u s i o n 79 D. SUMMARY 79 CHAPTER 5. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CLOTHING STORE PREFERENCE DIMENSIONS AND PREFERENCE GROUPS 8 l A . INTRODUCTION .81 v i B. THE DETERMINATION OF EVALUATIVE CRITERIA 82 ( i ) Purpose 82 ( i i ) Method of Data C o l l e c t i o n 83 ( i i i ) Sample Selection 84 (iv) Interview Procedure Sk (v) Results 85 C. THE ANALYSIS OF PREFERENCE DIMENSIONS . 89 ( i ) Development of the Questionnaire 89 ( i i ) Sample Selection 91 ( i i i ) Data Analysis 91 (a) Model selection 91 (b) Basic concepts of factor analysis 92 (c) Reduction of the variable set . . . . . . 95 (d) Factor analysis of the reduced variable set . . 96 (e) Factor i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 98 (iv) The De f i n i t i o n of Consumer Preference Groups . . . 106 (a) The computation and meaning of factor scores . 106 (b) Grouping of factor scores 108 (c) Validation of respondent c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and group differences 114 (v) The Relationship of Demographic and Socio-economic Characteristics to Attitude Scores 117 D. SUMMARY 120 CHAPTER 6 . IN RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT 122 A. PRELUDE 122 B. METHODOLOGICAL REFINEMENT 123 C. FACT OR FICTION , 124 D. CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS AND STORE PREFERENCE . . . . 1 2 6 E. SYNTHESIS 128 Literature Cited 130 Appendix . 137 v i i LIST OF TABLES I. Downs' Cognitive Categories and Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales kk I I . Stone's Di s t r i b u t i o n of Consumer Types 56 I I I . Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interviewees by Age . . . 8k IV. Evaluative C r i t e r i a 87 V. Variance Accounted for by each Factor 97 VI. Rotated Factor Loadings Matrix . 9 8 VII. Highest Loading Variables on the Rotated Factors • • 102 VIII. Matrix of Correlations between the Factors . . . . 107 IX. Group Mean Factor Scores 110 X. Summary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n obtained from Discriminant Analysis 115 XI. I n i t i a l F Values of the Input Variables 116 XII. Correlations between Demographic Variables and Factor Scores 119 v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES 1. An I n t e g r a t e d M o d e l o f Consumer B e h a v i o u r . 27 2 . B a s i c Components o f C o n s u m e r - S t o r e I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s e s . . 31 3 . Group P r o f i l e s I l l k. S c a t t e r g r a m o f R e s p o n d e n t s on the f i r s t two D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n s . . . . . . 118 GENERAL INTRODUCTION A ma jor f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s a t the p r e s e n t t i m e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n a l y s i n g the p r o c e s s whereby man imposes o r d e r on the c o m p l e x i t y o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t so t h a t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s r e s u l t i n c o n s i s t e n t l y s a t i s f y i n g ou tcomes . The e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t h i s p r o c e s s a re seen t o be the o b j e c t s , c o n d i t i o n s , o r a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n the e n v i r o n m e n t ; the i n f o r m a t i o n about e n v i r o n m e n t a l phenomena w h i c h i s r e c e i v e d by the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n ; the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d e s i r e , and e x p r e s s i o n s o f p r e f e r e n c e t h r o u g h d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e h a v i o u r . O r d e r t h e r e f o r e i s a c h i e v e d by the i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l space p r e f e r e n c e s as an outcome o f a complex sequence o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h t h e n s e r v e t o d i r e c t h i s f u t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s p e c i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l phenomena. The r a p i d l y emerg ing d i s c i p l i n e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by r e s e a r c h o f t h i s k i n d , and s i g n i f i c a n t advances a r e b e i n g made, f o r e x a m p l e , i n e x p l a i n i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l space p r e f e r e n c e s . The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine the f o r m a t i o n o f space p r e f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the u r b a n r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t by so d o i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r w i l l be e n h a n c e d , a n d , f u r t h e r m o r e , the f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y s h o u l d a l s o become more c l e a r l y u n d e r -s t o o d . In o r d e r t o a n a l y s e the p r o c e s s o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r a t the i n t e r f a c e between t h e consumer and the r e t a i l s t o r e , s i n c e i t i s t h r o u g h the p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . The a n a l y s i s o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h e c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e has been the s u b j e c t o f o n l y l i m i t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n by consumer b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h e r s . E v e n more r a r e l y has t h e i r i n t e r e s t e x t e n d e d t o an e x p l i c a t i o n o f the s p a t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r r e s u l t s . T h i s w o u l d seem t h e r e f o r e t o be an endeavour w h i c h has l a t e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the g e o g r a p h e r , and i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l s e r v e t o expose t h e m . I n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e , the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the t h e s i s can be b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : C h a p t e r 1 p r e s e n t s an o u t l i n e o f the ma jor a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f r e t a i l g e o g r a p h y . The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g e x p l a n a t o r y f rameworks and t o emphas i se the p o t e n t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l a d v a n c e s t h a t can be made as a r e s u l t o f p u r s u i n g a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h w h i c h f o c u s s e s on the i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e . C h a p t e r s 2, 3 and k c o n c e r n the deve lopment o f a r e s e a r c h framework f o r a n a l y s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e , w i t h the subsequent p u r p o s e s o f i d e n t i f y i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s and d e r i v i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , C h a p t e r 2 examines the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r -a c t i o n a t t h e c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e i n c o n c e p t u a l t e r m s w i t h i n the l a r g e r framework o f a model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r . P a r t i c u l a r emphas i s 3. i s p l a c e d on the f o r m a t i o n o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a s a r e s u l t o f the c o n s u m e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C h a p t e r 3 a d d r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e e m p i r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . The use o f p r o x y demographic and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s o u t l i n e d and t h e i r adequacy i s d i s c u s s e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e p r e f e r e n c e s a re an outcome o f i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e n the measurement o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d e s a more r e l i a b l e b a s i s on w h i c h t o d e f i n e p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g model s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . C h a p t e r k examines i n more d e t a i l the u t i l i t y o f the a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t as a b a s i s f o r m e a s u r i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e and a n a l y s i n g consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . E s p e c i a l emphas i s i s p l a c e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t e d a t t i t u d e s and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r s i n c e t h i s has been t h e ma jor s o u r c e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n g e o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . C h a p t e r 5 i l l u s t r a t e s an e m p i r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h methodology d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s t h r e e c h a p t e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s a p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s t r u c t u r e o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d i n t e r v i e w i n g and q u e s t i o n n a i r i n g sample g r o u p s o f consumers t o d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e and s t r e n g t h s o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On the b a s i s o f t h i s d a t a p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and p r e f e r e n c e g roups were d e r i v e d u s i n g t a x o n o m i c p r o c e d u r e s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p r o j e c t f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n the t e s t i n g o f s u g g e s t e d h y p o t h e s e s s h o u l d advance the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r and o f the f o r c e s i n f l u e n c -i n g t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . CHAPTER 1 APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF RETAIL GEOGRAPHY A . INTRODUCTION. I n t h i s c h a p t e r , the purpose i s t o o u t l i n e the v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o r e t a i l geography w h i c h have been a d o p t e d . T h i s i s i n no way i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as a comprehens ive r e v i e w of the e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e a . The a i m i s r a t h e r t o p i n p o i n t l i m i t a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g e x p l a n a t o r y model s i n the c o n t e x t o f the c o n t e m p o r a r y s e a r c h f o r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e o g r a p h i c t h e o r y . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a l t h o u g h a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h e s have been s u c c e s s f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g m a c r o s c o p i c p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and d i s -t r i b u t i o n i n t h e r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t , i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o adopt a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n more d e t a i l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . S t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by m a r k e t e r s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e seen t o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f the d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h a t t h i s d i s a g g r e g a t e d l e v e l might p r o c e e d ; b u t , . i f t h e o r y i s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a d v a n c e d , i t seems v e r y n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a b e h a v i o u r a l framework t o f u n c t i o n a s a d i r e c t i v e f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h e c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e and the consequent f o r m a t i o n o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d form the e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t h i s f ramework . B . A CONTINUUM OF RETAIL RESEARCH APPROACHES. R e t a i l i n g b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f demand a t s e l e c t e d p o i n t s o f s u p p l y where goods a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o consumers w i t h i n the o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s e t t i n g o f the r e t a i l s t o r e . The r e t a i l f u n c t i o n c a n t h e r e f o r e be seen t o c o m p r i s e the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c components : the goods t o be d i s t r i b u t e d , the consumers t o whom t h e s e goods a r e t o be d i s t r i b u t e d , the i n d i v i d u a l merchant o r c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e t a i l s t r a t e g y , and t h e s t o r e i n w h i c h the t r a n s a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . W h a t e v e r a s p e c t o f r e t a i l i n g i s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y , i t wou ld t h e r e f o r e seem t o f o l l o w t h a t each o f t h e s e components must r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H e n c e , i n the c o n t e x t o f r e t a i l g e o g r a p h y , t h e s e same b a s i c u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s a r e a p p l i c a b l e , and i t i s the v a r y i n g ways i n w h i c h t h e y have been m a n i p u l a t e d t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e the r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h have been a d o p t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems u s e f u l i n r e v i e w i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t o r e t a i l r e s e a r c h t o c a t e g o r i s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n t e rms o f the l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s e m p l o y e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e t a i l s t u d i e s can be t h o u g h t t o o c c u r a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m , r a n g i n g f rom t h o s e s t u d i e s w h e r e i n a t o t a l l y a g g r e g a t e d a p p r o a c h has been a d o p t e d t o t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a t o t a l l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d a p p r o a c h . Between t h e s e two ex t remes a r e found t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e a p a r t l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d a p p r o a c h . F u r t h e r breakdown w i t h i n each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . ( i ) A g g r e g a t e A p p r o a c h e s t o R e t a i l G e o g r a p h y . I n the case o f t o t a l l y a g g r e g a t e d s t u d i e s , i n t e r e s t has commonly f o c u s s e d on the n a t u r e o f the b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n i n t e r m s o f the k i n d s o f goods and s e r v i c e s d i s t r i b u t e d , r a t h e r t h a n on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e no a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r v a r i a t i o n i n merchant s t r a t e g y and t h e e f f e c t t h i s has i n d i f f e r e n t i a t -i n g s t o r e s w h i c h p e r f o r m e s s e n t i a l l y the same b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , no a t t e m p t i s made t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c o n s u m e r s ; t h e y are assumed t o c o m p r i s e a homogeneous g r o u p . T h e r e i s a h i s t o r y o f s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h and t h e s e have been t h e s u b j e c t o f c r i t i c a l r e v i e w i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t ( L e i g h , 1965) and hence o n l y a b r i e f resume w i l l be g i v e n h e r e . Some o f the e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o P r o u d f o o t ( 1 9 3 7 ) , who was e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e r n e d to d e s c r i b e the e m p i r i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s he o b s e r v e d i n the u r b a n l a n d s c a p e . He was among the f i r s t t o p o i n t out t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l a s s e s o f b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s , and was a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and t r a d e a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s were l a t e r s e t w i t h i n a more a n a l y t i c a l f ramework by R a t c l i f f ( 1 9 ^ 9 ) , who a r g u e d f rom an e c o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the i n t r a - u r b a n p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y r e f l e c t e d r e n t c o m p e t i t i o n among b u s i n e s s e s f o r s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s . The deve lopment o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the c i t y i n v o l v e d a p p l y i n g the b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f c e n t r a l p l a c e m o d e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the n o t i o n s o f • t h r e s h o l d ' and ' r a n g e ' w h i c h had been o r i g i n a l l y f o r m u l a t e d by C h r i s t a l l e r ( 1 9 3 3 ) and L o s c h (195*0 t o a p p l y a t t h e i n t e r - u r b a n s c a l e . C a r o l ( i 9 6 0 ) a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e goods v a r y i n t h e i r demand f r e q u e n c y t h e y a re c h a r a c t e r i s e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h r e s h o l d and r a n g e . T h i s i s seen t o be the c a u s a l b a s i s f o r the deve lopment o f an h i e r a r c h i c a l sy s tem o f b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s w i t h i n the c i t y r e p r e s e n t i n g a m i c r o c o s m o f the i n t e r - u r b a n c e n t r a l p l a c e s y s t e m . The work o f B e r r y and a s s o c i a t e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e s the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e n t r a l p l a c e c o n c e p t s a t the i n t r a - u r b a n s c a l e . F o r e x a m p l e , B e r r y ( 1 9 6 3 ) , u n d e r t o o k a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f the r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e o f C h i c a g o , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d as a p a t t e r n o f b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s , b u s i n e s s r i b b o n s and s p e c i a l i s e d b u s i n e s s a r e a s . The c e n t r e s a re seen t o compose a f i v e -l e v e l h i e r a r c h y , r a n g i n g f rom the l o w o r d e r c o n v e n i e n c e c e n t r e t o the l e v e l o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e o r C . B . D . The o r g a n i s a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n c e n t r e s , a t each l e v e l o f the h i e r a r c h y i s r e l a t e d t o the t h r e s h o l d s o f the goods d i s t r i b u t e d , and the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e goods a re demanded. I t i s h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t b u s i n e s s e s d i s t r i b u t i n g h i g h t h r e s h o l d , i n f r e q u e n t l y demanded g o o d s , w i l l l o c a t e w i t h i n h i g h o r d e r c e n t r e s , and more e s p e c i a l l y the C . B . D . , i n o r d e r t o max imise t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o the t o t a l market a r e a w h i c h , i t i s a s sumed, t h e y s e r v e . C l e a r l y , b u s i n e s s e s d i s t r i b u t i n g l o w t h r e s h o l d , f r e q u e n t l y demanded goods do n o t depend f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l on s e r v i n g the t o t a l market a r e a ; t h e y can t h e r e f o r e l o c a t e w i t h i n . l o w o r d e r c e n t r e s , m e e t i n g the demand i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s w i t h i n the c i t y . The e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l o r g a n i s a t i o n r e s u l t s t h e r e f o r e f rom b u s i n e s s e s c o m p e t i n g f o r l o c a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l s a t i s f y the demands o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t h r e s h o l d s . I t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t b u s i n e s s e s , h a v i n g s i m i l a r t h r e s h o l d s , w i l l l o c a t e i n c e n t r e s o c c u p y i n g the same l e v e l i n t h e h i e r a r c h y . ( i i ) L i m i t a t i o n s o f a C e n t r a l P l a c e A p p r o a c h . C o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t u s has been a t t r i b u t e d by g e o g r a p h e r s to the c e n t r a l p l a c e model as a b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g the i n t r a - u r b a n p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . T h i s s t a t u s i s c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f i e d where t h e c o n c e r n i s w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and d i s -t r i b u t i o n a t a m a c r o s c o p i c l e v e l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e i t s g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y a t t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s , c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e model have been r e c o g n i s e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . L e i g h (1965) n o t e d t h a t s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r were commonly l o c a t e d a t suburban s i t e s . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t -a t i o n s based on the c e n t r a l p l a c e model whereby s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s a r e seen t o l o c a t e i n t h e C . B . D . t o s e c u r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the t o t a l m a r k e t a r e a . L e i g h d e m o n s t r a t e d however t h a t such s t o r e s f r e q u e n t l y do n o t depend on a t t r a c t i n g custom f rom a l l p a r t s o f t h e market a r e a ; on the c o n t r a r y , t h e y were shown t o depend on the p a t r o n a g e o f a s m a l l segment o f the m a r k e t . Consumers w i t h i n t h i s segment were c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n v e r y p a r t i c u l a r u r b a n a r e a s and hence the s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s c o u l d o p e r a t e p r o f i t a b l y by l o c a t i n g w i t h i n t h e same a r e a s , o r a t s i t e s a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e i r s p e c i a l market g r o u p s . S c h i l l e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) has shown t h a t s e e m i n g l y anomolous s i t u a t i o n s c a n e x i s t a t the i n t e r - u r b a n s c a l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l o u t l e t s . He found t h a t i n the O u t e r M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a o f London s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s and s e r v i c e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n u r b a n c e n t r e s s e r v i n g h i g h income g r o u p s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a breakdown o f t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e h i e r a r c h y o f b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n s s i n c e i n c e r t a i n c a s e s s m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s had many more s p e c i a l t y o u t l e t s t h a n c o n s i d e r -a b l y l a r g e r c e n t r e s . The marke t a r e a s o f a d i s c o u n t and n o n - d i s c o u n t s u p e r m a r k e t were compared i n a s t u d y by E l i o t H u r s t and S e l l e r s (1969). The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s h o p p e r s a r o u n d t h e two s t o r e s was found t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom t h e o r e t i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t was q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the d i s c o u n t s t o r e was a t t r a c t i n g c u s t o m e r s f rom a wide market a r e a and d i s p e r s e d p o i n t s by v i r t u e o f l o w p r i c e s . C u s t o m e r s a t the n o n - d i s c o u n t s t o r e were found t o be much more l o c a l i n o r i g i n , and m o t i v a t e d l e s s by c o s t t h a n by c o n v e n i e n c e . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e m o d e l , i n p a r t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s e s t u d i e s , r e s u l t f rom the f a r - r e a c h i n g a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h i n e v i t -a b l y form t h e b a s i s o f an a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h . F o r e x a m p l e , the assump-1 0 . t i o n of perfect competition i n r e t a i l i n g i s a fundamental weakness of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework as outlined. This suggests that each store, performing a s p e c i f i e d business function, o f f e r s an i d e n t i c a l good, with the assumed r e s u l t that the customer's choice of store i s based primarily on distance-cost minimisation, whereby the customer selects the nearest store o f f e r i n g the required good. While t h i s outcome might pertain to the purchase of certain convenience goods (although not always then as E l i o t Hurst and S e l l e r s have pointed out), i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c i n r e l a t i o n to the purchase of shopping and s p e c i a l i t y goods, where the extent of customer search has been shown to be much greater. (Bucklin, 19&3) I f the assumption of perfect competition i s relaxed, and a d i f f e r e n t -i a t e d product i s assumed, i t follows that each store w i l l be d i f f e r e n t -iate d on the basis of product differences, and i n terms of the conditions surrounding the sale of the product. This s i t u a t i o n more accurately describes the r e a l world, where monopolistic competition operates (Chamberlin, 1 9 6 5 ) . This immediately helps to explain how s p a t i a l patterns at variance with t h e o r e t i c a l expectations can e x i s t . Garner ( 1967) has attempted to reinterpret the notion of 'threshold' i n a s i t u a t i o n where monopolistic competition i s assumed. He argues that the means by which a p a r t i c u l a r r e t a i l outlet seeks to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s product has an effect on the cost-revenue structure of the firm, and t h i s , i n turn, has an effect on the size of the threshold. It follows that a range i n threshold values exists for each business type rather than a single unique value which has hitherto been supposed. When the notion of threshold i s recast i n t h i s framework, Garner argues that explanations are available for some of the anomolies which have hitherto characterised central place studies. Research has yet to indicate the v a l i d i t y of t h i s contention. A further basic l i m i t a t i o n of an aggregate approach i s that by 11. a s s u m i n g r a t i o n a l ( i . e . c o s t - m i n i m i s i n g ) b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t o f a l l c o n s u m e r s , no r e c o g n i t i o n i s made o f the e x i s t e n c e o f f u n d a m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s i n consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s a g a i n i n e v i t a b l e t h a t anomolous s i t u a t i o n s a r e found t o o c c u r when s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and d i s t r i b u t i o n on the b a s i s o f the c e n t r a l p l a c e m o d e l . I n summary, an a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h i s u s e f u l i n so f a r t h a t i t y i e l d s b r o a d g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e a t a m a c r o s c o p i c l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a n o m o l i e s u n a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e s e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s f u n c t i o n t o d i r e c t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w h i c h has as i t s a im the deve lopment o f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x p l a n a t o r y f rameworks a p p l i c a b l e a t a m i c r o s c o p i c l e v e l . To v i e w the c e n t r a l p l a c e model i n t h i s way m e r e l y r e f l e c t s t h e f u n c t i o n o f model s i n g e n e r a l . A s R a g g e t t (1965, p.19) has s t a t e d : " i n model b u i l d i n g we c r e a t e an i d e a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y i n o r d e r t o demons t ra te c e r t a i n o f i t s p r o p e r t i e s . " C e r t a i n l y t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e model d e m o n s t r a t e s c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s o f u r b a n r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e . H a g g e t t has a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t a n o t h e r p u r p o s e o f m o d e l -b u i l d i n g i s t o s t i m u l a t e f r e s h i n q u i r y , l e a d i n g on t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and m o d i f i c a t i o n s , s i n c e m o d e l - b u i l d i n g " t h r o u g h i t s v e r y o v e r - g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s , makes c l e a r t h o s e a r e a s where improvement i s n e c e s s a r y . " ( p .23). A g a i n t h i s a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s the s t a t u s o f t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e model as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The c e n t r a l p l a c e model has c e r t a i n l y s t i m u l a t e d f r e s h i n q u i r y and the deve lopment o f s e v e r a l model s w h i c h have a l e s s a g g r e g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , and i t i s t o a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t h a t a t t e n t i o n now t u r n s . ( i i i ) P a r t l y D i s a g g r e g a t e d A p p r o a c h e s . S t u d i e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a f i n e r breakdown o f e i t h e r the consumer marke t o r t h e u n i v e r s e o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . G r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o the e x i s t e n c e o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e v a r i a t i o n s and some c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the f a c t o r s w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s . H u f f (1961, 1962 and 1963) d e v e l o p e d a model t o measure the marke t p e n e t r a t i o n o f s t o r e s on the b a s i s o f v a r i a t i o n s i n consumer-c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r . Such an i n c l u s i o n l i e s beyond the c a p a c i t y o f the c e n t r a l p l a c e model g i v e n i t s l i m i t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the h o m o g e n e i t y o f the consumer m a r k e t . H u f f ' s s t o c h a s t i c model o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r assumes t h a t consumers i s o l a t e a s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e c h o i c e s f rom a much l a r g e r group c o n s i s t -i n g o f a l l p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s ; t h a t t h e y c a l c u l a t e a p o s i t i v e measure o f u t i l i t y f o r each o f t h e s e p e r c e i v e d a l t e r n a t i v e s ; and t h a t t h e y d i s t r i b u t e t h e i r r e t a i l p a t r o n a g e s p a t i a l l y i n p r o b a b i l i s t i c f a s h i o n . H u f f s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a p e r s o n ' s t r a v e l l i n g t o a g i v e n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the u t i l i t y o f t h a t c e n t r e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u t i l i t y o f o t h e r c e n t r e s , where the u t i l i t y o f a c e n t r e i s d e t e r m i n e d by i t s s i z e ( i n t e r m s o f square f o o t a g e o f s e l l i n g space ) and t h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o r e a c h i t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : S . (T . . ) * i 0 P. . = 10 n S . J=i where i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a consumer a t i t r a v e l l i n g t o s h o p p i n g c e n t r e j , S. i s the s i z e o f the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e j , T . . i s the t r a v e l t i m e s e p a r a t i n g i and 3 , and X i s a p a r a m e t e r t h a t v a r i e s w i t h the t y p e o f m e r c h a n d i s e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h a t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m e r c h a n d i s e s u p p o r t d i f f e r e n t amounts o f consumer s e a r c h . The v a l u e o f the exponent was d e t e r m i n e d e m p i r i c a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s t o g i v e a ' b e s t - f i t ' s o l o u t i o n , i n a s i m i l a r manner t h a t S e i l l y (1931) d e t e r m i n e d the v a l u e o f the exponent o f the d i s t a n c e t e r m i n h i s model o f r e t a i l g r a v i t a t i o n . The b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n o f H u f f ' s model i s the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c o n s u m e r ' s e v a l u a t e r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s on the b a s i s o f o n l y two v a r i a b l e s , t h e s e b e i n g the s i z e o f the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e and the t r a v e l t ime t a k e n t o r e a c h i t , w h e r e a s , i n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t a g r e a t many o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a f f e c t t h e consumer s e a r c h p r o c e s s f o r r e t a i l m e r c h a n d i s e . H u f f ' s l i m i t e d a p p r a i s a l o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t h i s purpose was t o d e v e l o p a p r o c e d u r e f o r e s t i m a t i n g r e t a i l s a l e s p o t e n t i a l s a t s p e c i f i c s t o r e s i t e s , and not t o a n a l y s e the f o r m a t i o n o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s p e r s e . He a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t the u t i l i t y o f a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e t o a consumer i s based upon a h o s t o f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s , but he m a i n t a i n s t h a t , f o r the p u r p o s e o f mak ing r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o " d i s c o v e r and s p e c i f y o n l y a few r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s " . ( H u f f , 1962, p.17) W h i l e t h i s a s s e r t i o n may be t r u e , the p r o b l e m r e m a i n s t h a t a s i m p l i s t i c p r e d i c t i v e model may d e v i a t e so f a r f rom r e a l i t y as t o l a c k c o n c e p t u a l v a l u e . I t f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e t h a t s u c c e s s i n the development o f a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i v e model s i s not a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a n e g l e c t o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h i s a imed a t i n c r e a s i n g our knowledge o f the complex p r o c e s s whereby consumer r e t a i l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e f o r m e d . A dynamic model d e v e l o p e d by Simmons (1964) r e c o g n i s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e as a v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g the c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n i n an u r b a n a r e a . He r e g a r d s the p o p u l a -t i o n and income o f an a r e a as f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g the r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e , m o d i f i e d by the e f f e c t s o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e and m o b i l i t y and r e t a i l o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . H i s model has an a d d i t i o n a l dynamic d i m e n s i o n i n t h a t changes i n i n c o m e , t e c h n o l o g y , and p a t t e r n s o f u r b a n i s a t i o n a f f e c t i t s s t r u c t u r e o v e r t i m e . I n com-p a r i s o n w i t h the model s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h i s f ramework e x h i b i t s much g r e a t e r s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . A l t h o u g h some o f the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n the model a re d e f i n e d w i t h r e l a t i v e p r e c i s i o n , f o r example the p o p u l a t i o n - i n c o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p , o t h e r s a r e f a r l e s s p r e c i s e l y f o r m u l a t e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g e s t i m a t e s w h i c h t e n d t o push the model i n a d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . The l a t t e r wou ld seem t o a p p l y t o t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n v o l v i n g consumer p r e f e r e n c e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t more s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n needs t o be p a i d t o t h i s v a r i a b l e i f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p a t t e r n o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n i s t o be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . D i s a g g r e g a t i o n t o the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h -ment i s p r o p o s e d by H o r t o n (1968). H i s c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f consumer a t t r a c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s the i s o l a t i o n and u t i l i s a t i o n o f f a c t o r s w h i c h u n d e r l i e the v a r i a t i o n i n the a t t r a c t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s o f s p e c i f i c r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . He a r g u e s t h e r e f o r e t h a t r e s e a r c h s h o u l d f o c u s on e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e l e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n on the i n d i v i d u a l consumer . H o r t o n q u e s t i o n s the u s e f u l n e s s o f a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by the m a j o r i t y o f c o m m e r c i a l t r i p g e n e r a t i o n s t u d i e s , w h i c h have e s s e n t i a l l y been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f consumers t o c o m m e r c i a l c a t e g o r i e s r a t h e r t h a n t o i n d i v i d u a l o u t l e t s . He d e r i v e s a r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l , h a v i n g as i t s dependent v a r i a b l e , consumer a t t r a c t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y measured i n terms o f the number o f t r i p s t o p a r t i c u l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) , and as i t s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , m i c r o and macro f e a t u r e s o f the s t o r e s i t e , e x p r e s s e d as i n v e s t m e n t and l o c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a l s . The u n d e r l y i n g h y p o t h e s e s a re t h a t the q u a l i t y o f t h e s i t e , measured on the b a s i s o f t h e s e two d i m e n s i o n s ( d e f i n e d i n te rms o f t w e n t y s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e s ) , i s a ma jor d e t e r m i n -a n t o f consumer a t t r a c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e s i t e p r o f i t a b i l i t y . The work o f C l a u s ( 1969) and R o t h w e l l ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i l l u s t r a t e s a s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h t o t h a t a d o p t e d by H o r t o n , s i n c e i n b o t h c a s e s t h e y were c o n c e r n e d t o p r e d i c t the p e r f o r m a n c e o f g a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f m i c r o and macro s i t e f e a t u r e s . R o t h w e l l was a b l e t o d e v e l o p a model c a p a b l e o f p r e d i c t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h i n t e n p e r c e n t o f a c t u a l f i g u r e s i n t e rms o f t o t a l g a l l o n a g e pumped by i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the work o f C l a u s i s p e r h a p s u n i q u e i n s e e k i n g t o r e l a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n r e t a i l s t r a t e g y and p e r f o r m a n c e t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n v o l v e d . I n t h i s r e g a r d , C l a u s sought t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s e the d i m e n s i o n s o f P r e d ' s ' b e h a v i o r a l m a t r i x ' , the se b e i n g : the a c t o r ' s ' l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n * and h i s ' a b i l i t y to a c t ' . ( P r e d , 1967 and 1969) He d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the l o c a t i o n a l and o v e r t s i t e p e r f o r m a n c e o f g a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l and a b i l i t y t o a c t o f c o r p o r a t e a c t o r s , T h i s r e s e a r c h methodo logy c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l i n s i g h t i n t o the s p a t i a l dynamics o f u r b a n r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f the m e r c h a n t ' s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process . ' ' * T h i s p r o c e s s i s not a f o c u s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n subsequent c h a p t e r s , but i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l and c o r p o r a t e a c t o r s i s a v e r y n e c e s s a r y component o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e framework o f u r b a n r e t a i l r e s e a r c h . There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the t o t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t o r e s i t e a re b a s i c t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f consumer a t t r a c t i o n as the se s t u d i e s m a i n t a i n . But i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s n o t p e r c e i v e d as e q u a l l y -a t t r a c t i v e by a l l consumers . To a rgue i n t h a t way wou ld be t o deny the i m p o r t a n c e o f r e t a i l s t r a t e g y a s a key t o p r o f i t a b i l i t y . I t w o u l d seem more r e a l i s t i c t o a rgue t h e r e f o r e t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e s i t e a r e a t t r a c t i v e t o a segment o f t h e consumer m a r k e t , r a t h e r t h a n t o consumers i n t o t a l , e s p e c i a l l y when a s h o p p i n g o r s p e c i a l t y good i s s o u g h t . T h i s argument t h e r e f o r e c a l l s f o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f H o r t o n ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r e s e a r c h s h o u l d f o c u s on e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e l e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n on the i n d i v i d u a l consumer , i n f a v o u r o f an a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s f o c u s s e d on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e l e c t e d and on the p a r t i c u l a r consumers by whom t h e y a r e s e l e c t e d . The b a s i s on w h i c h an a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h t o consumer b e h a v i o u r has been a d o p t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r e t a i l r e s e a r c h i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d s t a t e d by Y u i l l (1957, p .105). He p o i n t s out t h a t any a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e the r e a s o n s f o r the s u c c e s s o f any one e s t a b l i s h m e n t u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e s the e x a m i n a t i o n o f " t h e a c t i o n s , r e a c t i o n s , and m o t i v e s o f i t s c u s t o m e r s , f o r t h e y make the sy s tem o p e r a t e . " But because t h e d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r such an e x a m i n a t i o n has been seen t o be ( i n Y u i l l ' s words) " a t b e s t u n m e a s u r a b l e " , i n v e s t i g a t i o n has r e t r e a t e d t o a s u r r o g a t e measure - the r e s u l t a n t b e h a v i o u r , t h u s p r e c l u d i n g the s e g m e n t a t i o n o f the market on the b a s i s o f b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a b l e s . That such a r e t r e a t i s n o t i n e v i t a b l e i s a major c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , and i n d e e d u n d e r l i e s much o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . 17. ( i v ) Marketing Geography, S t u d i e s under t h i s heading are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p a r t l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d approach. Marketing geographers have b a s i c a l l y concerned themselves with the pragmatics of s t o r e l o c a t i o n r e s e a r c h , and have shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of theory. Emphasis has been p l a c e d on the accur a t e measurement and p r e d i c t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l s a l e s l i k e l y to be achieved at a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s , and t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t has c e n t r e d on the i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , while no s i g n i f i -cant attempt has been made to study v a r i a t i o n s i n consumer p r e f e r e n c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to choice of s t o r e . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of s t u d i e s undertaken i n t h i s context i s to be found i n Kornblau (1968). In t h e i r attempts to determine s a l e s p o t e n t i a l s , marketing geographers have been concerned with the accur a t e d e l i m i t a t i o n of trade areas of p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e s i t e s . In so doing, they have employed an e m p i r i c a l r a t h e r than t h e o r e t i c a l approach. The p r i n c i p a l v a r i a b l e s which have been s t u d i e d i n c l u d e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t r a f f i c flow, extent o f t r a d i n g area, p o p u l a t i o n and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , income, economic s t a b i l i t y , and co m p e t i t i o n . On t h i s b a s i s , the marketing geographer has performed the f u n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g expert a s s i s t a n c e to b u s i n e s s management, to a i d i n making d e c i s i o n s about the g e o g r a p h i c a l p a t t e r n of b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s has i n v o l v e d m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e c o n t a c t with b u s i n e s s o r g a n i s a t i o n s , because only there can be found the i n f o r m a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s needed, and because of the need f o r t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g techniques of a n a l y s i s i n the context of a c t u a l b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s . The f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n of marketing geography seems no more aimed to theory b u i l d i n g than h i t h e r t o ; the emphasis remains on the develop-ment of b e t t e r techniques f o r c o l l e c t i n g and u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and H a m i l l (1965), r e c o g n i s i n g t h i s c o n t i n u i n g t r e n d has expressed doubt as t o t h e need f o r f o r m a l t h e o r i e s i n m a r k e t i n g g e o g r a p h y . T h i s o p i n i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by A p p l e b a u m , who i s p r o b a b l y the most a c t i v e r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s f i e l d ; he c o n t e n d s t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l geographer i n b u s i n e s s " c a n n o t e x p e c t t o f i n d h i s answers t o s p e c i f i c p r o b e l m s i n b r o a d g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s and neat f o r m u l a s . " ( A p p l e b a u m , 1 9 6 l , p . 4 9 ) Thompson, however , i s not c o n v i n c e d o f the t r u t h o f t h i s a r g u m e n t ; he f e e l s t h a t advance s i n m a r k e t i n g geography a r e dependent on " g e n e r a l i z i n g and d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e f rom e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h " , i n an a t t e m p t t o " r e l a t e s u c h s t u d i e s t o the l a r g e body o f r e s e a r c h on consumer b e h a v i o r , w h i c h l a r g e l y i g n o r e s t h e l o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n . " ( D a l r y m p l e and Thompson, 19&9, p . 1 0 5 f f ) E l s e w h e r e , Thompson has s t a t e d t h a t such a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e f f o r t w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e " l e s s emphas i s on census and o t h e r p u b l i s h e d d a t a as the p r i n c i p a l i m p u t s t o e x p i a t o r y m o d e l s , more emphas i s on the s a m p l i n g o f consumer a t t i t u d e s , and a t t e n t i o n t o s u r v e y r e s e a r c h . " (Thompson, 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 7 ) Thompson' s comments c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i c u l a r l y cogent c r i t i c i s m o f the m a r k e t i n g g e o g r a p h e r ' s a p p r o a c h and t h e y a r e d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t he c o u n t e r s Y ' u i l l ' s de fence o f an a g g r e g a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o consumer b e h a v i o u r by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the measurement o f b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a b l e s , ( f o r example a t t i t u d e s ) i s p o s s i b l e and the f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t , by so d o i n g , a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o s e r v e as the b a s i s f o r f u t u r e m a r k e t i n g geography r e s e a r c h c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e a s u r i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s a s a b a s i s f o r a d v a n c i n g t h e o r y i n r e t a i l geography i s the s u b j e c t o f d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . The o r i e n t a t i o n t o r e t a i l r e s e a r c h w h i c h Thompson has a d v o c a t e d i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s a g g r e g a t e o n e . When a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h i s a d o p t e d , t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a r e formed becomes a f o c a l p o i n t o f the a n a l y s i s ; s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . ( v ) D i s a g g r e g a t e A p p r o a c h e s , In the case o f t o t a l l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d s t u d i e s , i n t e r e s t has f o c u s s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and has t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e d the measurement o f b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e , g e o g r a p h e r s have o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o r e a l i s e the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s , v e r y few s t r i c t l y g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s have a d o p t e d a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h . However , consumer b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h , p a r t l y u n d e r t a k e n by m a r k e t e r s and p a r t l y by p s y c h o l o g i s t s , has i n v o l v e d c e r t a i n s t u d i e s o f r e t a i l i n g w h i c h have d e f i n i t e s p a t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e have n o t a l w a y s been d e v e l o p e d i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s t r u e , f o r e x a m p l e , o f s t o r e image s t u d i e s . The s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by M a r t i n e a u (1958 and 1958a), e x a m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h o i c e o f s t o r e , have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , p e r h a p s because M a r t i n e a u was among the f i r s t t o r e c o g n i s e the i m p o r t a n c e o f s t o r e ' i m a g e ' a s a d e t e r m i n a n t o f r e t a i l p a t r o n a g e . H i s s t u d i e s o f female s h o p p i n g b e h a v i o u r l e d h im t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the s h o p p e r s eeks out the s t o r e whose image i s most c o n g r u e n t w i t h the image she has o f h e r s e l f r e g a r d l e s s o f the p r i c e f a c t o r . The degree o f c o n g r u e n c e , he f e l t , was d e t e r m i n e d by the shopper e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r s u b c o n s c i o u s l y a n s w e r i n g f o r h e r s e l f such q u e s t i o n s a s : 'what i s the s t a t u s o f the s t o r e ? ' ; 'what can I e x p e c t i n t e rms o f o v e r a l l a t m o s p h e r e , p r o d u c t 20. q u a l i t y and p e r s o n a l t r e a t m e n t ? 1 ; 'how i n t e r e s t i n g l y does i t f u l f i l i t s r o l e ? ' 'how does t h i s image match my own d e s i r e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s ? ' B e c k e r (1967), has e x p l o r e d t h e n o t i o n o f r e t a i l s t o r e ' i m a g e ' i n some d e p t h . He c o n c e p t u a l i s e s t h a t image i s an o u t g r o w t h o f ' a t t i t u d e s ' i n the mind o f the consumer i n r e l a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e . 'Image' i s seen t o be a c o n v e n i e n t way o f s u m m a r i z i n g an ' a t t i t u d e ' ; t h e s e ' i m a g e s ' t h e n g u i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s u m p t i o n h a b i t s . B e c k e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t the consumer c o n s t r u c t s a m e n t a l map o f r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h d i r e c t s h i s c h o i c e o f s t o r e ; the s t o r e w i t h a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e image b e i n g p r e f e r r e d t o one w i t h a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e i m a g e . In t h i s way a h i e r a r c h y o f image v a l u e i s c o n s t r u c t e d and a c h o i c e i s made on the b a s i s o f t h e h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e i m a g e . These m e n t a l maps a re s u p p o s e d l y c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n s u m e r ' s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , p e r c e p t i o n s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , (p .8) B e c k e r goes on t o c o n s i d e r t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f r e t a i l s t o r e image as i t b e a r s upon the r e t a i l e r ' s c h o i c e o f m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y . S t o r e image s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n and s t o r e s e l e c t i o n a r e complex p r o c e s s e s , i n v o l v i n g numerous i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e assumed t o d e t e r m i n e r e t a i l p a t r o n a g e i n a g g r e g a t e s t u d i e s , ( f o r example s i z e o f s t o r e and d i s t a n c e t o s t o r e ) a re n o t r e f u t e d , but t h e y emerge as components o f a much l a r g e r s e t o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i m p i n g e upon consumer b e h a v i o u r . T h i s u n d e r l i n e s the l i m i t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y c h a r a c t e r i s e a g g r e g a t e m o d e l s , and i t h e l p s t o e x p l a i n why such model s f a i l t o a c c o u n t a c c u r a t e l y f o r p a t t e r n s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r and d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s t o r e s as o b s e r v e d i n the r e a l w o r l d . The c o n c e p t o f s t o r e image i s a f u n d a m e n t a l one i n a n a l y s i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s and i t i s the s u b j e c t o f f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . R e s e a r c h a t a d i s a g g r e g a t e l e v e l has been u n d e r t a k e n on b e h a l f o f r e t a i l f i r m s by c o n s u l t a n t p s y c h o l o g i s t s . I n m e a s u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l consumer p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e l a t i n g t h e s e t o r e t a i l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , t h e p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f a d i s a g g r e g a t e r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h has been d e m o n s t r a t e d . The Gruens p r e s e n t a method , u s i n g s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , d e s i g n e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e the v a l u e o f a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s t o a p a r t i c u l a r f i r m . They a d m i t t h a t t h e s e e s t i m a t e s a re p r o b a b l y l e s s p r e c i s e t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n a b l e f o r more e a s i l y measurab le v a r i a b l e s such as d r i v i n g t i m e and i n c o m e , but t h e y j u s t i f y t h e i r methodo logy on t h e b a s i s t h a t " a n i m p r e c i s e e s t i m a t i o n o f the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i s o f more v a l u e t h a n a p r e c i s e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . " (Gruen and G r u e n , 19&7, P«327) T h i s comment i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i r s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m o f p r e v i o u s r e t a i l l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s . They m a i n t a i n t h a t such s t u d i e s have t o o o f t e n assumed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s t a n d a r i s e d r e t a i l f i r m s and c u s t o m e r s who a re m o t i v a t e d u n i f o r m l y by a d e s i r e t o shop a t t h e n e a r e s t and l a r g e s t s h o p p i n g a g g l o m e r a t i o n . In r e a l i t y , t h e Gruens c o n t e n d t h a t the economy i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by r e t a i l f i r m s whose s u r v i v a l depends upon t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o f f e r a p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the u n i q u e i d e n t i t y and o p e r a t i n g methods o f the f i r m ; w h i l e , the s h o p p i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s n o n - u n i f o r m and s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d t o c e r t a i n r e t a i l f i r m s . I f r e s e a r c h i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e a l i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s , t h e n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n between consumer and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must become t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a n a l y s i s . One outcome 2 2 . o f t h i s a n a l y s i s might be t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e group p r o f i l e s , w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r and p a t t e r n s o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n . The method by w h i c h t h i s outcome might be a c h i e v e d i s a l s o the b a s i s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . C . CONCLUSIONS. From t h i s c u r s o r y s u r v e y o f a p p r o a c h e s t o r e t a i l g e o g r a p h y , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s emerge. C e n t r a l p l a c e a p p r o a c h e s have u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o a m a c r o s c o p i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f u r b a n r e t a i l p a t t e r n s . A t the same t i m e , t h e i d e a l i s e d a s s u m p t i o n s about consumers and m e r c h a n t s on w h i c h the c e n t r a l p l a c e model i s based s e r i o u s l y l i m i t i t s a p p r o p -r i a t e n e s s when s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n r e a l w o r l d p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The anomolous s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h r e m a i n u n a c c o u n t e d f o r s t i m u l a t e the s e a r c h f o r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x p l a n a t o r y f r a m e w o r k s . No w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e f ramework has y e t emerged i n the c o u r s e o f r e s e a r c h a t the p a r t l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d l e v e l w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f C l a u s ' r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s p e r h a p s because t h i s - a p p r o a c h has emphas i s ed the deve lopment o f p r a g m a t i c model s t o g i v e a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s o f r e t a i l s a l e s p o t e n t i a l s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s made t o t h e development o f g e o g r a p h i c t h e o r y appear t o have been m i n i m a l ; t h i s has been a cause o f c r i t i c i s m i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and i t has a l s o e n c o u r a g e d the a d o p t i o n o f a t o t a l l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d b e h a v i o u r a l a p p r o a c h . A t the d i s a g g r e g a t e d l e v e l much more r e a l i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s can be made w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h consumer and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f o r m a t i o n o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s emerges as a key p r o c e s s . But i t i s a l s o a complex p r o c e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f o r m a t i o n and e v a l -u a t i o n o f r e t a i l s t o r e i m a g e s . D e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d 23. i n a d o p t i n g a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h , the work o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s has d e m o n s t r a t e d i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . The p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y o f t h i s a p p r o a c h w i t h r e s p e c t t o the deve lopment o f r e t a i l g e o g r a p h i c t h e o r y r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y an unknown q u a n t i t y . I n o r d e r t o shed l i g h t on the u t i l i t y o f a d i s a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l t o d i s c u s s the components o f a p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h f ramework i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h a n has been r e l e v a n t t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w . As s u g g e s t e d , the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e and the consequent f o r m -a t i o n o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a r e r e g a r d e d as the f u n d a m e n t a l component s . I t i s t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e t h a t our a t t e n t i o n now t u r n s . 24 . CHAPTER 2 INTERACTION AT THE CONSUMER-STORE INTERFACE. A . INTRODUCTION. The a s s o c i a t e d p r o c e s s e s o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n and s t o r e s e l e c t i o n a r e subcomponents w i t h i n t h e t o t a l framework o f consumer b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s s e d on t h e s e s u b -component p r o c e s s e s , t h e y can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d i n the c o n t e x t o f the t o t a l f r amework . The i n i t i a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e f o r e i s t o d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y a model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r , o u t l i n i n g t h e s e q u e n t i a l n a t u r e o f consumer d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the c o n s u m e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t forms an e n d - p o i n t o f t h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e q u e n c e . I n t e r a c t i o n a t t h e c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e i s t h e n a n a l y s e d i n d e t a i l and the c o n t i n g e n t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d . The n o t i o n o f ' p r e f e r e n c e ' i s i n v o k e d t o summarise the outcome o f the complex c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h media te between the r e c e p t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i and the p e r f o r m a n c e o f a b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e i n te rms o f s t o r e s e l e c t i o n . The c o n t e m p o r a r y r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l space p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i s n o t e d , and the r e l e v a n c e o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d t o the r e t a i l c o n t e x t i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . B . A MODEL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR. A model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r must a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e the s t r u c t u r e o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the ' b l a c k b o x ' w h i c h i n t e r v e n e s between s t i m u l u s r e c e p t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e . B o t h i n t u i t i v e l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y the deve lopment o f s u c h a model i s e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x , e s p e c i a l l y as i t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o v a l i d a t e the 25. h y p o t h e s i s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between ' b l a c k b o x ' component s . V a r i o u s c o n c e p t u a l f rameworks have been p r o p o s e d ( H o w a r d , 1 9 6 3 ; N i c o s i a , 1 9 6 6 ) , w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i b e consumer b e h a v i o u r i n t e rms o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a complex s e t o f i n t e r r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . W h i l e such p r o p o s i t i o n s have done much t o advance knowledge and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f consumer b e h a v i o u r , t h e y l e a v e many q u e s t i o n s u n a n s w e r e d . T h i s r e s u l t s p a r t l y f rom t h e i r a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n and p a r t l y f rom the p a u c i t y o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s w h i c h might p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n s . H o w a r d ' s model can be c r i t i c i s e d on t h e b a s i s o f i t s a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n and the f a i l u r e t o s p e c i f y w i t h c l a r i t y the l i n k a g e s between v a r i a b l e s . The components o f N i c o s i a ' s model a r e more s p e c i f -i c a l l y d e f i n e d but the model has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y s i n c e i t r e l a t e s o n l y t o i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s t o an a d v e r t i s i n g s t i m u l u s . However , E n g e l and o t h e r s ( 1 9 6 8 ) , s e n s i t i v e t o the i n h e r e n t weaknesses o f the p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s , have d e v e l o p e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e model o f consumer m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r . They have shown g r e a t e r c o n c e r n t h a n e a r l i e r w o r k e r s t o a r r i v e a t p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the c o n c e p t s i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the model f r amework , and they have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o r e l a t e t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n s t o e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . E n g e l ' s model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n the r e t a i l c o n t e x t s i n c e i t emphas i s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e , and i s o l a t e s the component v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s model t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e s an advance on p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f consumer b e h a v i o u r , a n d , a t the same t i m e , i t has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e -vance f o r the s t u d y o f r e t a i l p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n and c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the model i s j u s t i f i e d i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . The model w i l l f i r s t be d i s c u s s e d i n i t s t o t a l i t y b e f o r e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e p e r se i s i s a t t e m p t e d . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f E n g e l ' s m o d e l . A s F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the model i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e ' c e n t r a l c o n t r o l u n i t ' w h i c h f u n c t i o n s a t t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e i n p u t s t i m u l i and o u t p u t r e s p o n s e s o f the s y s t e m . ( E n g e l e t a l , o p . c i t , pp40-53) The ' c e n t r a l c o n t r o l u n i t * c o n s i s t s o f memory and t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h a re c o n d i t i o n e d by the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i n t e r m s o f h i s b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s and m o t i v e s , and by h i s s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l based on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . These c o n d i t i o n i n g components f i n d combined e x p r e s s i o n i n the i n d i v i d -u a l ' s v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s . The i n d i v i d u a l i s exposed t o s t i m u l i e m a n a t i n g f rom h i s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , bu t an a c t i v e r e s p o n s e w i l l n o t o c c u r u n t i l a r o u s a l t a k e s p l a c e i n the form o f need a c t i v a t i o n . The n a t u r e o f the need w i l l d e t e r m i n e the s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f i n c o m i n g s t i m u l i , and a c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e s s u n d e r t a k e n a t t h i s s t a g e c o n t r o l s what a c t i o n , i f a n y , i s t o be t a k e n t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h the need c r e a t e s . I f a d e c i s i o n i s made t h a t a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n can l e a d t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , t h e n a s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s i s b e g u n . Once the a l t e r n a t i v e s have been i s o l a t e d t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n to d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n . I t i s o n l y a t t h i s s t a g e , h a v i n g made t h i s sequence o f p r i o r d e c i s i o n s , t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l consumer e n t e r s i n t o a p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n , and even t h e n i t i s f a r f rom c e r t a i n t h a t an a c t u a l p u r c h a s e w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be made. But w h a t e v e r t h e u l t i m a t e outcome, the e x p e r i e n c e d e r i v e d w i l l be added t o t h e s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r . 2 7 . j_ S E A R C H _ , ~$ 5LT I I N P U T S ! P H Y S I C A L S O C I A L P E R S O N A L I T Y C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S Traits, Motives S T O R E D IN-F O R M A T I O N and P A S T " E X P E R I E N C E S E N S O R Y R E C E P T O R S 7nZ.iT. ~1 i A R O U S A L ! \ / V A L U E S A N D A T T I T U D E S C E N T R A L C O N T R O L U N I T (Memory and Thinking) Figure 1. An Integrated Model of Consumer Behaviour. (from Engel et a l , 1968, p.50) 28. The b a s i c components o f t h e model w i l l no t v a r y w i t h the n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , bu t c l e a r l y t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s w i t h i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be a p p r e c i a b l y m o d i f i e d by t h e p o t e n t i a l p u r c h a s e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e a r c h o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s w i l l o b v i o u s l y be more e x t e n s i v e i f the p u r c h a s e o f a c a r i s p r o p o s e d , a s opposed t o a c a r t o n o f m i l k ; i n the l a t t e r c a s e , where t h e p u r c h a s e i s p r o b a b l y ba sed on h a b i t , t h i s s t e p may be c o m p l e t e l y b y p a s s e d . I t i s a l s o r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t e r m i n a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s can o c c u r a t v i r t u a l l y any s t a g e ; i n many i n s t a n c e s t h i s i s l i k e l y t o t a k e p l a c e p r i o r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r i n g i n t o an a c t u a l p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e outcomes a t each s t a g e may be m o d i f i e d by t h e e f f e c t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s e t s s u c h as the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r i s k and doubt i n b u y i n g s i t u a t i o n s . G i v e n t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f the d i s c u s s i o n so f a r , i t i s p e r h a p s u s e f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e the o p e r a t i o n o f the model i n t e rms o f a h y p o t h e t -i c a l " r e a l i s t i c " e x a m p l e . L e t u s assume a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a husband and w i f e have r e c e i v e d an i n v i t a t i o n t o a d i n n e r p a r t y . The w i f e ' s t h o u g h t s a r e q u i c k l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r she has a n y t h i n g s u i t a b l e t o wear f o r t h i s o c c a s i o n . There a r e p e r h a p s v a r i o u s i t e m s i n h e r w a r d -robe w h i c h come n e a r t o s a t i s f y i n g h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s , but not t o the e x t e n t t h a t she w h o l l y d i s c o u n t s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b u y i n g s o m e t h i n g new. I n t h i s way, t h e r e f o r e , a need has been a c t i v a t e d , and the w i f e becomes r e c e p t i v e t o i n c o m i n g s t i m u l i . These may be o f v a r i o u s f o r m s : a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n f a s h i o n magaz ines o r n e w s p a p e r s ; shop window d i s p l a y s ; t h e c l o t h e s o f r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . The p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e s t i m u l i w i l l be s e l e c t i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o the w i f e ' s v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s ; f o r 2 9 . e x a m p l e , i f she i s n o t v e r y f a s h i o n c o n s c i o u s she may pay l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n t e n t s o f f a s h i o n m a g a z i n e s . A t t h i s s tage a d e c i s i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y be made as to w h e t h e r the p o s s i b l e p u r c h a s e o f new c l o t h e s w i l l s a t i s f y h e r needs b e t t e r t h a n t h e c l o t h e s she a l r e a d y owns. I f she d e c i d e s t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be g a i n e d f rom h a v i n g new c l o t h e s t h e n the b u y i n g p r o c e s s i s t e r m i n a t e d . B u t , i f new c l o t h e s a r e f a v o u r e d t h e n a p r o b l e m has been r e c o g n i s e d and a s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s p r o c e e d s . The purpose o f s e a r c h i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s w i l l be t o d e t e r m i n e the type o f c l o t h i n g t o be b o u g h t , whether a d r e s s o r a s u i t , f o r e x a m p l e ; f u r t h e r m o r e , d e c i s i o n s have t o be made r e g a r d i n g t h e s t y l e and c o l o u r p r e f e r r e d , a n d , o f c o u r s e , p r i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can r a r e l y be i g n o r e d . A g a i n , the e x t e n t o f s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n w i l l depend upon the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; i f , f o r example , she p l a c e s g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e upon h e r appearance t h e n i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h i s s t age w i l l be p r o l o n g e d . Once , t h e w i f e has a r e a s o n a b l y p r e c i s e i d e a o f the type and s t y l e o f c l o t h i n g she p r e f e r s , she i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o e n t e r i n t o a p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w i l l p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e the e v a l u a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t o r e s b e f o r e she r e a c h e s a d e c i s i o n as t o where the p u r c h a s e i s t o be made. I n the event t h a t no s t o r e o f f e r s the k i n d o f good sought t h e n t h e p l a n n e d p u r c h a s e might s t i l l be abandoned . W h a t e v e r t h e e v e n t u a l outcome, the e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f the b u y i n g p r o c e s s , p l u s the degree o f p o s t - p u r c h a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the case o f a good b e i n g b o u g h t , w i l l be added t o t h e b u y e r ' s s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n and so i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r . T h i s i s t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e o c c u r s , and a t t e n t i o n can now t u r n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n 30. o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i t s e l f . C . THE CONSUMER-STORE INTERFACE. ( i ) The P u r c h a s i n g P r o c e s s The p u r c h a s i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n c e p t u a l i s e d as c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r i n t e r a c t i n g s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s : ( i ) p r e - s h o p p i n g p u r c h a s e i n t e n t i o n s ; ( i i ) consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; ( i i i ) s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; ( i v ) p u r c h a s e outcomes . ( E n g e l e t a l . , 1968 pp.444-458) P r e - s h o p p i n g p u r c h a s e i n t e n t i o n s can v a r y f rom the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e s h o p p e r has d e c i d e d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the s t o r e b o t h the p r o d u c t and the s p e c i f i c b r a n d o f p r o d u c t t o be p u r c h a s e d , t o the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g the s t o r e the consumer has l i t t l e o r no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s about what i f a n y t h i n g i s t o be p u r c h a s e d . I n the l a t t e r case t h e o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e o f a p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n w i l l l a r g e l y depend on the i n f l u e n c e o f i n - s t o r e s t i m u l i . V a r i a t i o n a g a i n e x i s t s i n the n a t u r e o f the p o s t - s h o p p i n g o u t c o m e s . I t may be t h a t the p r o d u c t and b r a n d i s bought i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s ; i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s b r a n d s u b s t i t u t i o n may o c c u r ; and i t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t no p u r c h a s e i s made. To the m a r k e t e r and consumer b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h e r t h e r e i s o b v i o u s i n s i g h t t o be g a i n e d f rom a s t u d y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t a t e o f p r e - s h o p p i n g i n t e n t i o n s and the subsequent p o s t s h o p p i n g outcomes , bu t i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t e r e s t f o c u s s e s f a r more on t h e two s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e seen t o i n t e r v e n e between t h e i n t e n t i o n s and the outcomes , namely on consumer c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t between them. ( i i ) B a s i c Components o f I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s e s . I n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e c o n s i s t o f f o u r b a s i c component s : (a ) e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a ; (b) p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e s ; ( c ) c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e s s e s ; (d) a c c e p t a b l e and u n a c c e p t a b l e s t o r e s . ( E n g e l e t a l , 1 9 6 8 , p451) T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 . S t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n and s t o r e s e l e c -t i o n a re t h e r e f o r e outcomes o f p r o c e s s e s whereby the consumer compares t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e s , as she p e r c e i v e s them, w i t h e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d f u l l y the way i n w h i c h the s h o p p e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s between a c c e p t a b l e and u n a c c e p t a b l e s t o r e s , i t i s c l e a r l y n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a on w h i c h a c o m p a r i s o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s b a s e d . E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a 1. L o c a t i o n ( d i s t a n c e ) 2 . A s s o r t m e n t b r e a d t h and d e p t h 3 . P r i c e 4, A d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s p r o m o t i o n 5 . S t o r e p e r s o n n e l 6 . S e r v i c e s 7. E t c . P e r c e i v e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t o r e s 1. L o c a t i o n 2 . A s s o r t m e n t 3 . P r i c e k. A d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s p r o m o t i o n STORE IMAGE 5 . S t o r e p e r s o n n e l 6 . S e r v i c e s COMPARISON PROCESSES ACCEPTABLE STORES UNACCEPTABLE STORES F i g u r e 2 . B a s i c components o f c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , ( f r o m E n g e l e t a l , 1 9 6 8 , p V ? l ) (a ) E v a l u a t i v e _ c r i t e r i a . E n g e l ( 1 9 6 8 , p p . 4 5 2 - 5 3 ) , l i s t s s i x v a r i a b l e s w h i c h he a r g u e s form the b a s i s on w h i c h consumers e v a l u a t e s t o r e s . These a re ( i ) l o c a t i o n -E n g e l c i t e s the s h i f t away f rom downtown s h o p p i n g i n f a v o u r o f suburban 3 2 . s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , i n w h i c h the f a c t o r o f p a r k i n g c o n v e n i e n c e has been v e r y i m p o r t a n t ( J o n a s s e n , 1 9 5 3 ) , t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e ; ( i i ) d e p t h and b r e a d t h o f a s s o r t m e n t -c l e a r l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e goods o f f e r e d a r e g o i n g t o a f f e c t t h e c h o i c e o f s t o r e ; ( i i i ) p r i c e - i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s the i m p o r t a n c e o f the p r i c e v a r i a b l e a s an e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i o n , s i n c e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e seems t o v a r y g r e a t l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t b e i n g p u r c h a s e d ; ( i v ) s t o r e p e r s o n n e l - v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n n e l b e h a v i o u r may be e v a l u a t e d i n c l u d i n g f r i e n d l i n e s s , c o u r t e o u s n e s s , p r o d u c t knowledge and o t h e r s ; ( v ) a d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s p r o m o t i o n -h e r e a g a i n i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i s e about the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n ; ( v i ) s e r v i c e s - the r e t u r n p o l i c y o f the s t o r e and c r e d i t p o l i c i e s a r e c e r t a i n l y i m p o r t a n t i t e m s under t h i s h e a d i n g . C l e a r l y , t h e s e c r i t e r i a subsume more d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i v e i t e m s , w h i c h can p e r h a p s o n l y be a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a s p e c i f i e d p r o d u c t c a t e g o r y . A more d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a i s d i s c u s s e d by Brown and F i s k ( 1 9 6 5 ) . They were c o n c e r n e d t o measure the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f depar tment s t o r e s as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c o n s u m e r s ' c h o i c e s o f p l a c e s t o s h o p . They l i s t t h i r t y f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f the i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o them by the sample group o f c o n s u m e r s . The h i g h e s t r a n k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was ' h i g h q u a l i t y ' and the l o w e s t r a n k i n g was ' t r a d i n g s t a m p s ' . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h a r a n k o r d e r i n g o f t h i s k i n d i s a r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a i s open t o q u e s t i o n ; t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w i l l change w i t h the p r o d u c t and the consumer . The d e f i n i t i o n o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a has been e q u a t e d w i t h the i s o l a t i o n o f consumer p a t r o n a g e m o t i v e s . (Brown and F i s k , 1965) I t i s 3 3 . q u e s t i o n a b l e how f a r the se two v a r i a b l e s e t s a r e synonymous . T h e r e i s no doubt t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a f f e c t s the s e t o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a w h i c h a consumer e s t a b l i s h e s when s e l e c t i n g a s t o r e . ( D o u g l a s , F i e l d and T a r p e y , I967 , c h . 3 ) But o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s s u c h as v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a r e a l s o o f i m p o r t a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r p a t r o n a g e m o t i v e s r e a l l y do c o n s t i t u t e ' m o t i v e s ' , s i n c e t h e y u s u a l l y r e f e r t o o v e r t s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as ' w i d e s e l e c t i o n ' o r ' g o o d q u a l i t y ' r a t h e r t h a n t o c o n c e a l e d f o r c e s w i t h i n the p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a common misusage o f the t e r m ' m o t i v e ' i n t h e m a r k e t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . ( E n g e l e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 , P 6 8 f f ) . B u c k l i n (1963, p .53) has p r o v i d e d some c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s c o n f u s i o n i n t e r m i n o l o g y by s t a t i n g t h a t : " P a t r o n a g e m o t i v e s a re d e r i v e d f rom consumer a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g the r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . They a r e r e l a t e d t o f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e consumer i s l i k e l y t o r e g a r d as c o n t r o l l e d by t h e r e t a i l e r . These w i l l i n c l u d e a s s o r t m e n t , c r e d i t , s e r v i c e , g u a r a n t e e , s h o p p i n g e a s e , and e n j o y m e n t , and u s u a l l y p r i c e . " T h i s s y n o p t i c s t a t e m e n t a c c o r d s w e l l w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s , w h i c h , as the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s r e v e a l , emphas i s e s the i m p o r t -ance o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n s e e k i n g t o a n a l y s e the p r o c e s s whereby consumer r e t a i l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e f o r m e d . (b) P e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f _ s t o r e s . The a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t what consumers p e r c e i v e the p r i c e , m e r c h a n d i s e o f f e r i n g and s e r v i c e s o f a s t o r e t o be may d i f f e r c o n s i d e r -a b l y f rom what t h e y a c t u a l l y a r e . Whether o r n o t a consumer p a t r o n i s e s a s t o r e depends on h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and how t h e y compare w i t h e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . The way i n w h i c h consumers p e r c e i v e 34. a s t o r e i s t y p i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as a s t o r e ' s ' i m a g e ' . T h i s c o n c e p t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , and i t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s i t s r o l e as a b a s i c component o f c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The c o n c e p t o f s t o r e image has been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d , but M a r t i n e a u ' s d e f i n i t i o n wou ld p r o b a b l y meet w i t h f a i r l y g e n e r a l a g r e e -ment . In h i s scheme image i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s " t h e way i n w h i c h the s t o r e i s d e f i n e d i n the s h o p p e r ' s m i n d , p a r t l y by i t s f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s and p a r t l y by an a u r a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . " ( M a r t i n e a u , 1958) V a r i o u s c a t e g o r i s a t i o n s o f the d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s t o r e image have d e v i s e d ( F i s k , 1 9 6 l ; K u n k e l a n d B e r r y , 1968; D a l r y m p l e and Thompson, I 9 6 9 ) , bu t t h e y b a s i c a l l y p a r a l l e l t h e e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d a b o v e . S t u d i e s have i l l u s t r a t e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f s t o r e employees a s d e t e r m i n a n t s o f image f o r m a t i o n ( M a r t i n e a u , 1957; P r o g r e s s i v e G r o c e r , 1965). S t o r e f i x t u r e s and d e c o r a t i o n a r e a l s o i n f l u e n c i a l f a c t o r s ( M a r t i n e a u , 1958), a s a l s o a r e p r i c e ( N e l s o n , 1962) and a d v e r t i s i n g ( A r o n s , 1 9 6 l ) . More d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n o f s t o r e image d e t e r m i n a n t s i s p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y where image s t u d i e s a r e u sed t o shape r e t a i l s t r a t e g y . F o r e x a m p l e , F i s k (1961, P«5), l i s t s s i x ' c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n s ' w h i c h can be s u b d i v i d e d t o g i v e t h i r t y d e t e r m i n -a n t s o f s t o r e i m a g e . K u n k e l and B e r r y (1968, p .26) l i s t t w e l v e m a j o r components , c o m p r i s i n g f o r t y - s i x image d e t e r m i n a n t s . These v a r i a t i o n s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l depend on the k i n d o f p u r c h a s e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e the s a l i e n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s t o r e image i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t c a t e g o r i e s . J u s t a s s t o r e image has been d e f i n e d and c a t e g o r i s e d i n v a r i o u s 3 5 . ways , so t o o have the methods o f m e a s u r i n g s t o r e image v a r i e d . The t e c h n i q u e s employed i n c l u d e the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e , ( M i n d a k , 1 9 6 l ) , t h e s t a p l e n o n - v e r b a l r a t i n g s c a l e ( C r e s p i , 1 9 6 l ) , Guttman s c a l i n g , ( R i c h a r d s , 1 9 5 7 ) , cu s tomer p r o t o t y p e s ( W e a l e , 1 9 6 1 ) , Q - s o r t ( S t e p h e n s o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , ( K h o o , 1 9 6 8 ) , r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , (Hughes , 1 9 6 6 ) . E a c h o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s p o s s e s s c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e s combined w i t h c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t no one a p p r o a c h o f f e r s u n i v e r s a l a d v a n t a g e s . The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . The amount o f r e s e a r c h e f f o r t t h a t has been expended i n s t u d y i n g t h e s t o r e image c o n c e p t emphas i s e s the i m p o r t a n c e i t i s seen t o e x e r t on p u r c h a s i n g b e h a v i o u r ; i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e why t h i s s h o u l d be s o . The p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n d e r i v e s f rom g e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , whereby i n d i v i d u a l s a re t h o u g h t t o o r g a n i s e t h e i r p e r c e p -t i o n s o f phenomena i n t e rms o f p a t t e r n e d t o t a l i t i e s . ( C l a w s o n , 1950) I n r e l a t i o n t o consumer p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e t a i l s t o r e s , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the t o t a l s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t has a s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l consumer , w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o h e r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . T h i s s y m b o l i c a t t r i b u t e o f the s t o r e i s the e s sence o f i t s i m a g e , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n o b j e c t i v e measurements o f s t o r e image can p e r h a p s n e v e r u n c o v e r i t s c o m p l e t e i d e n t i t y . W h i l e the s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n p r o d u c t s has r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n the consumer b e h a v i o u r l i t e r a t u r e ( L e v y , 1959 and 1 9 6 4 ) , t h e r e has been an a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t s t o r e s can a l s o assume a s y m b o l i c meaning i n t h e minds o f c o n s u m e r s . The r e s u l t s o f two g e o g r a p h i c a l . s t u d i e s a re r e l e v a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d , and f u r t h e r m o r e i n d i c a t e t h a t image f o r m a t i o n may o p e r a t e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a g g r e g a t i o n t h a n t h e r e t a i l s t o r e . Simmons (1964) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t images w h i c h s e r v e t o a t t r a c t some t y p e s o f consumers and r e p e l o t h e r s . A s t u d y by L y n c h ( i 9 6 0 ) showed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d to s i m p l i f y the c o m p l e x i t y o f the w o r l d a round them i n o r d e r t o make d e c i s i o n s , and t h a t subsequent b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s were r e l a t e d t o the t o t a l image o f the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i v e d . E n v i r o n m e n t a l phenomena were a t t r i b u t e d s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e and o r g a n i s e d w i t h i n a g e s t a l t f r a m e w o r k . I n the m a r k e t i n g c o n t e x t , i t i s the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s t o r e i m a g e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f image f o r m -a t i o n , t h a t i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n d i r e c t i n g t h e d e s i g n o f r e t a i l s t r a t e g y . The r e t a i l e r i s c o n c e r n e d t o m a n i p u l a t e a l l f o u r a s p e c t s o f t h e m a r k e t i n g mix - p r o d u c t , p r i c e , p l a c e and p r o m o t i o n - so as t o c r e a t e an image w h i c h i s a t t r a c t i v e t o a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e segment o f the market t o e n s u r e p r o f i t a b i l i t y . ( c ) C o m p a r i s o n _ p r 0 £ e s s £ s _ a n d _ a £ C £ p _ t a b l e v e r s u s _ u n a £ c e p t a b l e _ store^s^ A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a re formed and s t o r e s a r e s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f the consumer c o m p a r i n g p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( o r the s t o r e ' s image) w i t h a p r e -d e t e r m i n e d s e t o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , the c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e s s e s t h e m s e l v e s have n o t been the s u b j e c t o f s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . E q u a l l y , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c c e p t a b l e and u n a c c e p t a b l e s t o r e s have n o t been r e s e a r c h e d . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t , when t h e p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s t o r e f u l f i l l the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , the s t o r e i s p r e s u m a b l y a c c e p t a b l e ; bu t t h e r e i s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t , f o r e x a m p l e , whether consumers seek a m a x i m i s i n g o r s a t i s f i c i n g s o l u t i o n when c h o o s i n g a s t o r e . B e c k e r ( l 9 6 7 ) 37. i n h i s c o n c e p t u a l s t u d y o f r e t a i l image s u g g e s t s t h a t a m a x i m i s i n g s o l u t i o n i s s o u g h t . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s n o t c l e a r what happens when p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a i l t o s a t i s f y e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . I t r e m a i n s an open q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r consumers s t o p e v a l u a t i n g s t o r e s , w h e t h e r e v a l u a -t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e r e v i s e d downward, o r whether the p r o b l e m w h i c h i n i t i a t e d the e v a l u a t i o n o f s t o r e a l t e r n a t i v e s i s e x t i n g u i s h e d . There i s c l e a r l y a need t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e u n r e s o l v e d q u e s t i o n s . ( i i i ) P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g or H a b i t u a l B e h a v i o u r a t t h e C o n s u m e r - S t o r e  I n t e r f a c e . To t h i s p o i n t the d i s c u s s i o n has assumed t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e c o n s i s t s o f t h e consumer c o m p a r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s h o p p i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t e r m s o f the degree o f c o i n c i d e n c e between e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a and p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the consumer a d o p t s a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h , whereby ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n s a r e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . However , i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , the e f f e c t o f h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r may be o f e q u a l , i f n o t g r e a t e r , i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e a n d s e l e c t i o n . I n E n g e l ' s model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r , i t can be seen t h a t f e e d -b a c k o c c u r s as t h e r e s u l t o f a p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n , t h e consequences o f the a c t i o n a r e s t o r e d and w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e on f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r . I t f o l l o w s t h a t the n a t u r e o f p o s t - p u r c h a s e s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e o f t h e f e e d b a c k . I f the cu s tomer i s c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t and s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d f rom a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the same s t o r e w i l l be chosen when s e e k i n g t o s a t i s f y s i m i l a r needs on subsequent o c c a s i o n s . Each s u c c e e d i n g p u r c h a s e r e i n f o r c e s the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s s t o r e and the p r o d u c t s i t s e l l s a r e a v e h i c l e t o s a t i s f y i n g n e e d s : a p a t t e r n o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r i s e s t a b l i s h e d and s h o p p i n g h a b i t s a r e d e v e l o p e d . A h a b i t i n v o l v e s the a u t o m a t i c r e a c t i o n o f a p e r s o n t o a s t i m u l u s . H a b i t s d i f f e r f rom i n s t i n c t s i n t h a t h a b i t s a re l e a r n e d . (Rachman, 1969, p . 101 f f . ) They are r e p e a t e d r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s accompanied by a minimum o f c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y ( B a y t o n , 1 9 5 8 , p . 2 8 6 ) . S t o r e p a t r o n a g e based on h a b i t c l e a r l y d i f f e r s g r e a t l y f rom the p u r c h a s i n g p r o c e s s as o u t l i n e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , where c o n s i d e r -a b l e c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y was assumed t o t a k e p l a c e i n the c o u r s e o f r a t i o n a l , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o u r . C o n s i d e r a b l e debate has s u r r o u n d e d the i s s u e o f whether consumer b e h a v i o u r n o r m a l l y p r o c e e d s on the b a s i s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o r h a b i t . K a t o n a ( 1 9 5 3 ) , a rgued t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s a r e l a t i v e l y r a r e o c c u r r e n c e , and t h a t h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r i s t h e most u s u a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o genuine d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s r e c o g n i s e d most commonly as a d e v i a t i o n f rom h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r under the i m p a c t o f s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s and new e v e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , K a t o n a m a i n -t a i n s t h a t changes i n b e h a v i o u r due t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e n d t o be s u b s t a n t i a l and a b r u p t r a t h e r t h a n s m a l l and g r a d u a l . I f we a c c e p t Katona" s comment t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o u r most commonly o c c u r s under the i m p a c t o f s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s and new e v e n t s , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h i s a p p l i e s t o p u r c h a s i n g b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n to an i n f r e q u e n t l y demanded good and one w h i c h i n v o l v e s s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l o u t l a y . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t h a t the consumer i s s u f f i c -i e n t l y m o t i v a t e d t o u n d e r t a k e an e x t e n s i v e s e a r c h o f a l t e r n a t i v e shopp-i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h ; e q u a l l y , i t i s i n such a s i t u a t i o n t h a t the consumer has a minimum o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e f rom w h i c h t o have d e v e l o p e d a p a t t e r n o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r and s h o p p i n g h a b i t s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r i s most common 39. where a f r e q u e n t l y demanded and r e l a t i v e l y l o w c o s t i t e m i s s o u g h t . F o r example , g r o c e r y i t e m s a re n o r m a l l y p u r c h a s e d on the b a s i s o f h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r i n te rms o f the w e e k l y o r m o n t h l y v i s i t t o the s u p e r m a r k e t . The o c c u r r e n c e o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o r h a b i t u a l • b e h a v i o u r i s n o t o n l y r e l a t e d t o the t y p e o f p r o d u c t sought however ; the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the consumer a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t . F o r t h o s e consumers who r e g a r d s h o p p i n g as an a r d u o u s and u n e n j o y a b l e a c t i v i t y , the f o r m a t i o n o f h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r t o maximise c o n v e n i e n c e may be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a n f o r t h o s e consumers who r e g a r d s h o p p i n g as an a t t r a c t i v e l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t y , and who, t h e r e f o r e , have no o b j e c t i o n t o s h o p p i n g a r o u n d when t h e y f e e l the need a r i s e s . These d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s h o p p i n g may e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e o v e r the e n t i r e p r o d u c t r a n g e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i s e about the r e l a t i v e o c c u r r e n c e o f h a b i t u a l as- opposed t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o u r , o t h e r t h a n t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f the p r o d u c t t o be p u r c h a s e d and consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h o p p i n g as a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s . C l e a r l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r b o t h t y p e s o f b e h a v i o u r i n s t u d y i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e . Where p o s t - p u r c h a s e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o c c u r s the consumer e x p e r i e n c e s v a r y i n g degree s o f f r u s t r a t i o n . I f t h i s i s r e p e a t e d on a number o f o c c a s i o n s , a p a t t e r n o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r w i l l a g a i n be e s t a b l i s h e d , bu t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t w i l l l e a d t o the a v o i d a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e h a b i t u a l p a t r o n a g e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e or s t o r e s . C o l l a z z o (1965) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the degree and n a t u r e o f f r u s t r a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n the income c l a s s and o c c u p a t i o n o f the consumer . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the most common cause o f 40. f r u s t r a t i o n among the u p p e r - i n c o m e group o f consumers was i n ' f a c t the l e a s t common cause among the l o w e r - i n c o m e g r o u p . However the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y do not p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t o the e f f e c t t h a t the h i g h e r the s o c i a l c l a s s the more s e n s i t i v e the b u y e r i s t o f a i l u r e s i n a s t o r e ' s s e r v i c e s and g o o d s . ( i v ) A Summary o f I n t e r a c t i o n a t the C o n s u m e r - S t o r e I n t e r f a c e and the  R o l e o f S t o r e P r e f e r e n c e . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n can be summarised as f o l l o w s . On the b a s i s o f consumer b e h a v i o u r t h e o r y , i t i s a rgued t h a t the p r o c e s s whereby a consumer s e l e c t s a s t o r e a t w h i c h t o p u r c h a s e a p a r t i c u l a r good i n v o l v e s complex i n t e r a c t i o n s between two b a s i c v a r i a b l e s e t s : consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S e l e c t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by the consumer c o m p a r i n g p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a s e t o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i n v o l v e s the o p e r a t i o n o f complex c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g p e r c e p t i o n and memory, i n ways w h i c h a r e not w h o l l y u n d e r -s t o o d , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y a re c o n d i t i o n e d by the e f f e c t s o f consumer p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s ( e g . m o t i v a t i o n ) . The d e c i s i o n r e a c h e d , as the outcome o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e , a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t s h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r as w e l l a s t r u e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . P a s t s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e s the consumer w i t h s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o d i r e c t f u t u r e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S t o r e s e l e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s p a r t l y a p r o d u c t o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r and p a r t l y o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g u n i q u e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The b a l a n c e between l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s seen t o be r e l a t e d t o the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h the good i s p u r c h a s e d , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the g o o d , and the c o n s u m e r ' s s h o p p i n g a t t i t u d e s . Throughout the d i s c u s s i o n i t has been assumed t h a t the consumer forms p r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h a re e x p r e s s e d i n s t o r e s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r . In kl. l i g h t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e more s p e c i f i c a l l y . S t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s d e f i n e a s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t s as s o u r c e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the c o u r s e o f s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e . P r e f e r e n c e i s a f u n c t i o n o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r , s i n c e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g l e a d s t o t h e i s o l a t i o n o f s a t i s f y i n g r e t a i l c h o i c e s , w.hi.le the s o u r c e s o f t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e l e a r n e d and s t o r e d i n the memory. T h i s s t o r e d i n f o r m -a t i o n i s c o n s o l i d a t e d i n the c o u r s e o f f u r t h e r s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s become i n c r e a s i n g l y w e l l d e f i n e d , l e a d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a b l e c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r . T h i s s t a b i l i t y p r o v i d e s a method o f o r d e r i n g the c o m p l e x i t y o f the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h s h o p p i n g b e h a v i o u r can be p e r f o r m e d ; e f f i c i e n c y b e i n g a measure o f the ease w i t h w h i c h s a t i s f y i n g outcomes can be a c h i e v e d . D . ENVIRONMENTAL SPACE PREFERENCE STUDIES. The c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r o r d e r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g complex s e t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r i b u t e s i s by no means u n i q u e t o the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e . I n d e e d , the a n a l y s i s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l space p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n and o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s and b e h a v i o u r i s a t t r a c t i n g i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n among b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t s i n the f i e l d o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . R e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d has e x t e n d e d t o a v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l phenomena r a n g i n g from r o a d s i d e s ( W i n k e l , M a l e k and T h i e l , 1970) t o s t u d e n t d o r m i t o r i e s ( P r e i s e r , 1970). So f a r l i t t l e r e s e a r c h w i t h i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y has f o c u s s e d on p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i n the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . However , one e x c e p t i o n i s Downs' s t u d y o f the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f u rban s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s (Downs, 1970). Downs h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t s h o p p e r s h o l d ' i m a g e s ' o f s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s based on t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s e c e n t r e s i n t e r m s o f n i n e c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . S i n c e the n a t u r e o f the images i s seen t o d e t e r m i n e the c o n s u m e r ' s p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e c e n t r e w i t h the most f a v o u r -a b l e image was assumed t o be the most p r e f e r r e d . T h i s l e d t o the t e s t i n g o f the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the image o f the a r e a r e g u l a r l y u sed by t h e consumer would be w e i g h t e d t o the more f a v o u r a b l e end o f a s e t o f s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Downs e n c o u n t e r e d an i n s o l u b l e s a m p l i n g p r o b l e m s i n c e r e s p o n d e n t s were u n a b l e to d e s c r i b e t h e i r images o f s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s o t h e r t h a n i n t e rms o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e s , and i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d the same s t o r e s when d e s c r i b i n g s h o p p i n g c e n t r e i m a g e s . He was a b l e however t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the c o n s u m e r ' s image o f a ma jor s h o p p i n g c e n t r e and h e r a s s o c i a t e d p r e f e r e n c e s a r e o r g a n i s e d i n t e rms o f n i n e c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n s . By means o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s he d e m o n s t r a t e d the e x i s t e n c e o f e i g h t c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s : s e r v i c e q u a l i t y , p r i c e , s t r u c t u r e and d e s i g n , s h o p p i n g h o u r s , i n t e r n a l p e d e s t r i a n movement, shop range and q u a l i t y , v i s u a l a p p e a r a n c e , and t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t was seen t o a c c o r d w e l l w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s . However , Downs r e c o g n i s e s t h a t t h i s was an i d e o g r a p h i c s t u d y , r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , and hence t h e r e -was no means o f a s s e s s i n g the g e n e r a l i t y o f the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c e d by the a n a l y s i s . The c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h he h y p o t h e -s i s e d and the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s he employed t o t e s t t h e i r ^3 v a l i d i t y a re shown i n T a b l e I ( p . 4 4 ) Downs' s t u d y i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s t h e s i s s i n c e a p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , r e p o r t e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , was d e s i g n e d t o a n a l y s e the c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g consumer p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c l o t h i n g s t o r e s and u s e d a somewhat s i m i l a r m e t h o d o l o g y . G o l l e d g e (1967) has p r e s e n t e d a c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n . He r e g a r d s s t a b l e p r e f e r e n c e s as the e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e o f a s t o c h a s t i c l e a r n i n g m o d e l . He a r g u e s t h a t s e a r c h a c t i v i t y w i l l c o n t i n u e u n t i l the c o n s u m e r ' s g o a l has been s a t i s f i e d . I f the d e c i s i o n made a t t h i s p o i n t p r o v e s f a v o u r a b l e t h e n the e x t e n t o f f u t u r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y i s r e d u c e d and i s r e p l a c e d by some r e g u l a r o r h a b i t u a l p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e s . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f an e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e f o l l o w s a p r o b a b i l i s t i c f u n c t i o n d e s c r i b e d by a Markov c h a i n m o d e l . The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s model must a w a i t e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g . However , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the model d e s c r i b e s p r e f e r e n c e f o r m -a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o market a r e a s and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e s ; i t w o u l d seem t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s may f u n c t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y i n the f o r m e r c a s e . I n p a s s i n g i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t p r e s e n t a t t e m p t s t o r e v i s e the c e n t r a l p l a c e m o d e l , t h r o u g h the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f more r e a l i s t i c b e h a v i o u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s , have a l s o r e c o g n i s e d the c e n t r a l i t y o f consumer space p r e f e r e n c e f u n c t i o n s . A s e r i e s o f p a p e r s by R u s h t o n ( 1 9 6 9 , 7 0 , 71) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . However , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s case i s f a r d i f f e r e n t f rom t h a t f o r m u l a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . R u s h t o n a r g u e s t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s a re formed on t h e b a s i s o f o n l y two v a r i a b l e s : d i s t a n c e - s e p a r a t i o n and p l a c e -u t i l i t y . I t i s n o t c l e a r how t h i s c o n t e n t i o n d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y 44. Table I. Downs' Cognitive Categories and Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales, (1) Price 1 competitive 2 many bargains 3 good value for money 4 many price cuts (2) Structure and Design 5 well designed 6 simple layout 7 designed with shoppers in mind 8 wide pavements (3) Ease of Internal Movement and Parking 9 easy to cross roads 10 easy to park 11 not congested 12 easy to walk around in (4) Visual Appearance 13 well kept shops 14 tidy 15 clean 16 attractive (5) Reputation 17 good reputation 18 generally well known 19 generally popular 20 recommend to friends (6) Range of Goods 21 good choice 22 wide range 23 well stocked 24 can get it (7) Service 25 helpful 26 friendly service 27 good service 28 polite (8) Shopping Hours 29 late closing 30 convenient opening times 31 good for evening shopping 32 always somewhere open (9) Atmosphere 33 busy 34 relaxed atmosphere 35 personal 36 friendly atmosphere uncompetitive few bargains poor value for money few price cuts badly designed complicated layout not designed with shoppers in mind narrow pavements difficult to cross roads difficult to park congested difficult to walk around in badly kept shops untidy dirty unattractive bad reputation generally„Mttle known generally unpopular wouldn't recommend to friends poor choice narrow range badly stocked can't get it unhelpful unfriendly service poor service rude early closing inconvenient opening times bad for evening shopping never anywhere open not busy tense atmosphere impersonal unfriendly atmosphere (from Downs, R. (1970), p.22.) 4 5 . from a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g consumer p r e f e r e n c e s i n p r e v i o u s c e n t r a l c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r m u l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y as R u s h t o n choose s t o measure p l a c e - u t i l i t y s o l e l y i n t e rms o f town p o p u l a t i o n . However , i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d t h a t the se a s s u m p t i o n s may be r e a s o n a b l e a t the i n t e r -u r b a n s c a l e w i t h w h i c h R u s h t o n i s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d . Beyond the r e t a i l c o n t e x t , many i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n s i g h t i n t o the p r o c e s s o f e n v i r o n -m e n t a l space p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r a l i n i t s scope t o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n -m e n t a l c o n t e x t s , i n c l u d i n g r e t a i l i n g . A number o f p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d a t the a n n u a l m e e t i n g s o f the E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Among p a p e r s of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t a r e t h o s e o f Craun ( 1 9 7 0 ) , H e r s h b e r g e r ( 1970) and P e t e r s o n , B i s h o p and Neumann ( 1 9 7 0 ) • They r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l e n v i r o n -ment g e n e r a l l y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y a r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I t soon becomes c l e a r t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e s s e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n a re e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t i n o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . E . SUMMARY. T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d the i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s w h i c h o p e r a t e a t the c o n s u m e r - s t o r e i n t e r f a c e , and t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n has been r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . ' P r e f e r e n c e ' emerges a s a f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t when a n a l y s i n g t h e p r o c e s s whereby an i n d i v i d u a l o r d e r s complex s e t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r i b u t e s i n s e e k i n g t o ach ieve , c o n s i s t e n t l y s a t i s f y i n g b e h a v i o u r a l outcomes . The s e l e c t i o n o f a s t o r e i s seen t o i n v o l v e an o r d e r i n g p r o c e s s o f t h i s k i n d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i s u n d e r l i n e d by the v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h i t has been a f o c a l p o i n t o f a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o n s u m e r - s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s t h e r e f o r e i s s u g g e s t as a p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h i n s e e k i n g t o advance the e x p l a n a t i o n o f s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s i n the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . Subsequent c h a p t e r s i n t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s ways i n w h i c h t h i s p o t e n t i a l might be r e a l i s e d . 4 7 . CHAPTER 3 . THE DEFINITION OF STORE•PREFERENCE GROUPS. A . INTRODUCTION A l t h o u g h the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r o c e s s whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l consumer forms s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s , i t i s a t r u i s m t o p o i n t out t h a t the r e t a i l market o p e r a t e s t o s e r v e consumer  g r o u p s . A r e t a i l e r cannot f u n c t i o n t o s a t i s f y what may be the u n i q u e p r e f e r e n c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l ; he must assume the e x i s t e n c e o f g roups w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e t h e s e g roups i n s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . T h i s c h a p t e r a d d r e s s e d the q u e s t i o n o f how consumer p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s can be d e f i n e d . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o b l e m , and as s u c h , two p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s can be a d o p t e d . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the s u b d i v i s i o n o f a p o p u l a t i o n on the b a s i s o f d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . T h i s a p p r o a c h has commonly been employed i n s e g m e n t i n g t h e r e t a i l market a c c o r d i n g to demographic and s o c i o -economic c r i t e r i a ; i n w h i c h c a s e , i t i s assumed t h a t demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a re s u i t a b l e p r o x y measures o f p r e f e r e n c e p e r s e . The a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s the a g g l o m e r a t i o n m e t h o d , whereby i n d i v i d u a l s a r e g rouped on t h e b a s i s o f s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e q u i r e s t h e d i r e c t measure-ment o f i n d i v i d u a l consumer p r e f e r e n c e s , and the subsequent a s s e m b l y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o some g r o u p i n g p r o c e d u r e . T h i s c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s i n some d e t a i l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h method i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the purpose o f a n a l y s i n g r e t a i l s p a t i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . 48. B . SUBDIVIDING A POPULATION TO DETERMINE STORE PREFERENCE'GROUPS. Many d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s have been u sed i n market s e g m e n t a t i o n a n a l y s i s f o r the p u r p o s e o f s u b d i v i d i n g a p o p u l a t i o n i n t o g roups w h i c h a r e seen t o e x h i b i t d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e s . ( K o t l e r , 1 9 ^ 7 , c h . 3 ) D i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l f o c u s on two v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have p e r h a p s been most commonly employed t o s u b d i v i d e a p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s ; t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e income and s o c i a l c l a s s . ( i ) Income. The e x i s t e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between income l e v e l and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e can be i l l u s t r a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o a number o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . I t has been shown t h a t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s p e c i a l t y s t o r e a p p e a l t o d i s t i n c t income g r o u p s . R e f e r e n c e was made i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r t o t h e s t u d i e s by L e i g h (1965) and S c h i l l e r (1971) w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e c l i e n t e l l e o f s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s i n V a n c o u v e r and the O u t e r M e t r o -p o l i t a n A r e a o f London i s l a r g e l y drawn from upper income g r o u p s . T h i s i s seen t o e x p l a i n why t h e s e s t o r e s have l o c a t e d i n t h o s e u r b a n a r e a s where the upper income groups a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d , o r t o w h i c h t h e y can be a t t r a c t e d . I n c o n t r a s t , c e r t a i n r e t a i l f i r m s d e f i n i t e l y a p p e a l t o l o w income groups and t h i s t o o has been a f a c t o r w h i c h has i n f l u e n c e d s t o r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y . F o r e x a m p l e , S c h l e s i n g e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) , i n a s t u d y o f ' J o h n ' s B a r g a i n S t o r e s ' , a v a r i e t y c h a i n i n t h e e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n d i c a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f i r m o f a The c r i t e r i a u sed t o d e f i n e s o c i a l c l a s s have v a r i e d i n the c o n t e x t o f m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h , and the s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e f l e c t t h i s v a r i a t i o n . A t h o r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r o b l e m o f a p p l y i n g s o c i a l c l a s s measures i n market s e g m e n t a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s found i n Carmen ( 1 9 6 5 ) . l o c a t i o n w i t h i n a l o w - i n c o m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d where the r e s p o n s e t o b a r g a i n s i s u s u a l l y d r a m a t i c . The i m p o r t a n c e o f income as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e i s i m p l i e d by Nader (1963). I * 1 a s t u d y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and consumer b e h a v i o u r , he d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s h o p p i n g p a t t e r n s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n s u m e r ' s house t y p e , and t h e r e f o r e t h a t house t y p e may be r e g a r d e d a s a s a l i e n t v a r i a b l e i n market s e g m e n t a t i o n . The r a t i o n a l was t h a t t h e r a t e a b l e v a l u e o f the house formed a v a l i d i n d e x o f the s o c i o -economic s t a t u s o f the o c c u p a n t s . I n c o m p a r i n g two suburban s h o p p i n g a r e a s i n L e e d s , D a v i s (1968) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t wide d i f f e r e n c e s can be found i n degree s o f f u n c t i o n -a l s p e c i a l i s a t i o n and q u a l i t y r a t i n g s o f s t o r e s a c c o r d i n g t o income d i f f e r e n c e s between the two suburban p o p u l a t i o n s . He n o t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h a c u r s o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s i n the two a r e a s r e v e a l e d a b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e o f the f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the two c e n t r e s emerged f rom a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e f u l l complex o f a c t i v i t i e s p u r s u e d by i n d i v i d -u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the h i g h income a r e a were much more s p e c i a l i s e d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and o f much h i g h e r q u a l i t y t h a n t h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the l o w income a r e a . Here a g a i n the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t d i f f e r i n g income g r o u p s v a r y i n t h e i r s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t o r e s w h i c h s e r v e them. A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by R i c h and P o r t i s (1964) u sed income i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h s t a g e i n l i f e - c y c l e and p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e as a b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l a r g e segments o f a r e t a i l m a r k e t . Depar tment s t o r e s i n New Y o r k and C l e v e l a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s were c l a s s i f i e d as p r o j e c t 50. i n g h i g h - f a s h i o n , b r o a d - a p p e a l or p r i c e i m a g e s . P a t r o n s o f the t h r e e s t o r e t y p e s were t h e n a n a l y s e d i n t e rms o f t h e i r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t was found t h a t m i d d l e - i n c o m e g r o u p s , e a r n i n g between #5,000 and #10,000 a n n u a l l y , a c c o u n t e d f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p p e r s i n t h e p r i c e - a p p e a l s t o r e s , and kj> p e r c e n t o f the s h o p p e r s i n the h i g h - f a s h i o n depar tment s t o r e . S h o p p e r s i n t h e " n o c h i l d r e n " l i f e c y c l e s t age r e p r e s e n t e d 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p p e r s i n the t y p i c a l h i g h - f a s h i o n s t o r e but o n l y 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p p e r s i n t h e s t o r e w i t h a b r o a d - a p p e a l . These r e f e r e n c e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w o u l d seem t h a t the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income g r o u p s w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a has o f t e n a f f e c t e d the l o c a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e t y p e s . ( i i ) S o c i a l C l a s s . S e v e r a l m a r k e t i n g s t u d i e s can be q u o t e d t o i n d i c a t e the u s e f u l -ne s s o f s u b d i v i d i n g the r e t a i l market on the b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s membership and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e was the f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t i n the ' C h i c a g o T r i b u n e ' s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by M a r t i n e a u i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the s o c i o l o g i s t , W. L l o y d Warner ( M a r t i n e a u , 1958a). M a r t i n e a u was c o n s c i o u s o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y i n g income a s a b a s i s f o r market segment a n a l y s i s . He n o t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n market f a l l i n t o t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e r a n g e s , bu t t h a t t h i s income c a t e g o r y i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i t y i n te rms o f t h e b u y i n g b e h a v i o u r , t a s t e s and s p e n d -i n g - s a v i n g a s p i r a t i o n s o f i t s members. He a r g u e d t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s p o s i t i o n and m o b i l i t y - s t a b i l i t y d i m e n s i o n s would r e f l e c t i n much 51. g r e a t e r dep th each i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e - s t y l e i n c l u d i n g h i s p u r c h a s i n g b e h a v i o u r . One o f the C h i c a g o s t u d i e s ( M a r t i n e a u , 1958a) d e s c r i b e d how a sample o f the C h i c a g o p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o s o c i a l c l a s s e s f o r t h e purpose o f a n a l y s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s g r o u p -i n g s and c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and s t o r e p a t r o n a g e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e was made f o r two l e a d i n g C h i c a g o f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s . R e s u l t s showed t h a t w h i l e the one s t o r e a p p e a l e d p r i m a r i l y t o the m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s , t h e o t h e r a p p e a l e d t o the l o w e r c l a s s e s . T h i s s e g m e n t a t i o n o f the market was found t o o c c u r even though b o t h s t o r e s had f u r n i t u r e i n a l l p r i c e r a n g e s and p r o f e s s e d t o s e l l t o e v e r y o n e . Brown and F i s k (19&5) r e l a t e d t h e s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s o f h o u s e -w i f e s drawn from f o u r s o c i a l g roups and a q u a l i t y r a n k i n g o f s i x P h i l a d e l p h i a n depar tment s t o r e s . I t was found t h a t the s t o r e h i e r a r c h y and s o c i a l c l a s s h i e r a r c h y were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d i n t h a t t h e h i g h e s t q u a l i t y s t o r e was p r e f e r r e d by h o u s e w i f e s i n the upper s o c i a l c l a s s g r o u p , w h i l e the s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s o f s u c c e s s i v e l y l o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s e s c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h d e c r e a s i n g q u a l i t y r a n k i n g o f the s t o r e s . L e v y (1966) has made some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t a t u s and s h o p p i n g b e h a v i o u r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s o c i a l s t a t u s a p p e a r s t o a f f e c t how p e o p l e f e e l about where t h e y s h o u l d s h o p . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e same p r o d u c t s may be p u r c h a s e d i n d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n by members o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . He n o t e s t h a t i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f c o s m e t i c s , upper m i d d l e c l a s s women are more apt t o shop i n depar tment s t o r e s t h a n a re l o w e r s t a t u s women who a r e , i n t u r n , r e l a t i v e l y more a p t t o shop i n v a r i e t y s t o r e s . D r u g s t o r e s however seem e q u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e o r s u i t -a b l e t o a l l . In a d d i t i o n he makes t h e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e s h a r p d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t a t u s r e p u t a t i o n o f depar tment s t o r e s , and t h a t consumers t e n d t o s o r t t h e m s e l v e s out i n te rms o f where i t i s . a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e m s e l v e s t o s h o p . Most e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , L e v y a r g u e s , w i l l have c u s t o m e r s o f more t h a n one s o c i a l c l a s s , but t h e i r l o a d i n g s w i l l d i f f e r , and t h e i r p u r c h a s i n g p a t t e r n s may d i f f e r . L e v y goes on t o d e v e l o p a p e r c e p t i v e s o c i a l c l a s s t y p o l o g y o f s h o p p i n g b e h a v i o u r . He o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s woman o r g a n i s e s s h o p p i n g more p u r p o s e f u l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n women o f l o w e r s t a t u s , b e i n g more k n o w l e d g a b l e a b o u t what she w a n t s , where she w i l l go f o r i t , and when she w i l l get i t ; w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t h e r s h o p p i n g i s b o t h s e l e c t i v e and w i d e - r a n g i n g . Lower m i d d l e c l a s s women a r e seen t o e x h i b i t g r e a t e r a n x i e t y about s h o p p i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r non f o o d p u r c h a s e s , and t he y a r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s e e k i n g out the b e s t buy f o r the money. Lower c l a s s women a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the most i m p u l s i v e and t h e l e a s t o r g a n i s e d , o f t e n u s i n g s h o p p i n g as a r e a s o n t o get out o f the h o u s e . Perhaps the most s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c l a s s t y p e o f shopper i s the l o w e r l o w e r c l a s s woman who p r e f e r s l o c a l f a c e - t o -f a c e p l a c e s where she f e e l s she w i l l get a f r i e n d l y r e c e p t i o n and p e r h a p s even easy c r e d i t i f n e e d e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l c l a s s t o consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r h a s been the s u b j e c t o f d e t a i l e d s t u d y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . G a y l e r ( f o r t h c o m i n g ) compared the s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r o f s h o p p e r s f o r c o n v e n i e n c e , s h o p p i n g and s p e c i a l t y goods w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l c l a s s , measured on the b a s i s o f t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e . He f ound t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r 53. e n c e s . These s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t members o f the same s o c i a l c l a s s group a re l i k e l y t o e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s , , The u s e f u l n e s s o f s o c i a l c l a s s as a b a s i s f o r d e l i m i t i n g p r e f e r e n c e groups i s emphas-i s e d by E n g e l e t a l (1968 p p . 3 0 5 - 6 ) . They recommend s o c i a l c l a s s as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e on w h i c h t o base a market s e g m e n t a t i o n p o l i c y . One o f the ma jor r e a s o n s t h e y p u t f o r w a r d t o s u p p o r t t h i s recommendat ion i s t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n i n c o m e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n ( w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a ) and p a t t e r n s o f a c t i v i t y . I n s h o r t , many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n f o r m i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a r e seen t o be compounded i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s v a r i a b l e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a s t r o n g argument i n f a v o u r o f the use o f s o c i a l c l a s s t o d e r i v e s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . However , i t i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r f r o m the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e whether s o c i a l c l a s s g r o u p s a r e as homogeneous as E n g e l and a s s o c i a t e s c l a i m . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e seems t o be some debate i n the m a r k e t i n g l i t e r a t u r e as t o the homogene-i t y o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n c o m e . Wasson and McConaughy (1968) m a i n t a i n t h a t no s o c i a l c l a s s forms a homogeneous market because o f the wide range o f incomes w i t h i n e v e r y c l a s s and the o v e r l a p between c l a s s e s . M a r t i n e a u (1958a), a s n o t e d a b o v e , e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r d o u b t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f income and s o c i a l c l a s s g r o u p s . He m a i n -t a i n e d t h a t no income group forms a homogeneous market because o f t h e r ange o f s o c i a l c l a s s w i t h i n e v e r y g r o u p . I t i s p e r h a p s s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n c l u d e t h a t , s i n c e many o f the s o c i a l c l a s s i n d i c e e s i n c o r p o r a t e a measure o f i n c o m e , a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f o v e r l a p between income and s o c i a l c l a s s g roups i s t o be e x p e c t e d , a l t h o u g h t o t a l congruence i s u n l i k e l y . 5 4 . ( i i i ) The Adequacy of Proxy Measures of Store Preference. From these studies, i t i s clear that income and s o c i a l class measures form useful bases for segmenting the r e t a i l market. Other variables which have also proved useful i n segmentation analysis include a variety of geographical, personality and buyer behaviour measures (Kotler, 1968). The approach to market segmentation seems to have been largely pragmatic such that the variables used have been selected to f i t a p a r t i c u l a r marketing s i t u a t i o n . However, ease and cost of data c o l l e c t i o n has often favoured the use of socio-economic variables rather than personality or buyer behaviour measures. It i s important to recognise that, although market segmentation studies indicate the existence of a relationship between various aggregate c r i t e r i o n measures (such as income and s o c i a l class) and store preference, the nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p remains undefined. In other words t h i s approach does not answer the question of why, for example, income or s o c i a l class groups are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of t h e i r store preferences. I n t u i t i v e l y , i t i s clear that the answer l i e s i n the fact that store c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are evaluated d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t income and s o c i a l class groups; but how these evaluations d i f f e r remains la r g e l y unexplained. This points to the t h e o r e t i c a l inadequacy of defining store preference groups on the basis of proxy variables, which have only i n t u i t i v e v a l i d i t y . The alternative to the use of proxy measures of preference involves the adoption of an agglomerative rather than a subdivision approach to store preference group c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C. THE AGGLOMERATIVE APPROACH TO STORE PREFERENCE GROUP DEFINITION. The agglomerative approach involves grouping i n d i v i d u a l s on the basis of s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r store preferences. In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i t was shown t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d as an outcome of t h e i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t i n g p e r c e i v e d s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t the a g g l o m e r a t i v e method o f c l a s s i f y i n g s t o r e p r e f e r -ence groups n e c e s s i t a t e s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u m e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y g r o u p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who e x h i b i t s i m i l a r e v a l u a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s method o f d e f i n i n g p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s has the advantage o v e r the s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o a c h o f b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o c e s s whereby i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e f o r m e d . ( i ) I l l u s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s . Fewer s t u d i e s e x i s t w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e t h i s method o f d e r i v i n g consumer t y p o l o g i e s . P e r h a p s t h e most w i d e l y q u o t e d s t u d y o f t h i s k i n d i s S t o n e ' s t y p o l o g y o f C h i c a g o s h o p p e r s . ( S t o n e , 195*+) He i d e n t i f i e d f o u r t y p e s o f s h o p p e r s among a sample o f 150 f emale r e s i d e n t s o f C h i c a g o ' s n o r t h w e s t s i d e . H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was ba sed on t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n s o f s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i r s t type was the ' e c o n o m i c ' s h o p p e r , who was e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o p r i c e , q u a l i t y , and a s s o r t m e n t o f m e r c h a n d i s e , when makin a p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n ; s e c o n d l y , the ' p e r s o n a l i s i n g ' shopper formed s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h s t o r e p e r s o n n e l w h i c h were c r u c i a l i n d e t e r m i n -i n g s t o r e p a t r o n a g e ; t h i r d l y , the ' e t h i c a l ' shopper was w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e l o w e r p r i c e s and w i d e r s e l e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t the s m a l l r e t a i l e r i n the face o f c o m p e t i t i o n from the c h a i n s t o r e ; and f o u r t h l y , the ' a p a t h e t i c ' shopper found s h o p p i n g an onerous t a s k , and hence c o n v e n i e n c e o f l o c a t i o n p r o v e d c r u c i a l t o h e r s e l e c t i o n o f a s t o r e r a t h e r t h a n p r i c e , q u a l i t y o f g o o d s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h s t o r e p e r s o n n e l or e t h i c s . T a b l e I I . o u t l i n e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f consumer t y p e s i d e n t i f i e d by S t o n e : T a b l e I I . S t o n e ' s D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Consumer T y p e s . TYPE OF CONSUMER % Economic 33 28 P e r s o n a l i s i n g E t h i c a l 18 A p a t h e t i c I n d e t e r m i n a t e 17 4 T o t a l 100 S o u r c e : S t o n e , 1954, pp36 4 5 . Stone a l s o n o t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between shopper t y p e s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s . He found t h a t the h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n among newcomers t o a r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y w o u l d e v a l u a t e s t o r e s on the b a s i s o f ' e c o n o m i c ' c r i t e r i a ; the l o w e r l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n and the g r e a t e r the degree o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f newcomers , the g r e a t e r the i m p o r t a n c e o f ' p e r s o n a l i s i n g ' c r i t e r i a . I n t h e case o f l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s , S tone c o n c l u d e d t h a t the g r e a t e r the s u c c e s s t h e y had e n j o y e d , t h e g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e wou ld assume the t h e most i m p o r t a n c e i n e v a l u a t i n g s t o r e s . In a much more r e c e n t s t u d y K e n n y - L e v i c k (1969) has a t t e m p t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h S t o n e ' s t y p o l o g y c o u l d be used t o segment the g r o c e r y t r a d e market i n L i v e r p o o l . A sample o f 55^ h o u s e -w i v e s were a s k e d why t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o shop a t t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e g r o c e r y s t o r e . Responses were c l a s s i f i e d i n t e rms o f t w e l v e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h were t h e n c o l l a p s e d t o form f i v e b r o a d e r ba sed d i v i s i o n s . K e n n y -L e v i c k i d e n t i f i e d t h e s e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h S t o n e ' s f o u r shopper t y p e s p l u s a m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a t e g o r y . He t h e n compared the p e r c e n t a g e r e p r e s -e n t a t i o n o f consumers i n the f o u r c o i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s . He found t h a t 57. a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s . L i v e r p o o l h o u s e w i v e s seemed t o be more ' a p a t h e t i c ' and l e s s ' e t h i c a l ' t h a n t h e i r C h i c a g o c o u n t e r p a r t s . The ' p e r s o n a l i s i n g ' f a c t o r was s t r o n g e r i n C h i c a g o , w h i l e t h e ' e c o n o m i c ' f a c t o r was o f e q u a l and the g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e i n b o t h s t u d i e s . K e n n y - L e v i c k c o n c l u d e d t h a t L i v e r p o o l s h o p p e r s c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d i n te rms o f a s e v e n - f o l d t y p o l o g y , the f i r s t f o u r b e i n g c o i n c i d e n t w i t h S t o n e ' s . The t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s he d e r i v e d were c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s ' t i m e - s a v i n g ' , ' enhancement o f s e l f - i m a g e ' , and ' p l e a s u r e s e e k i n g " . F u r t h e r m o r e , he h y p o t h e s i s e d the k i n d o f s t o r e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f shopper was most l i k e l y t o p r e f e r . The two ex t remes were the ' e c o n o m i c ' shopper who was most l i k e l y t o p r e f e r a c u t - p r i c e s t o r e and the ' p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g ' s h o p p e r who was a t t r a c t e d by the c o n t i n e n t a l d e l i c a t e s s a n w i t h wide v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t i n g f o o d s . A l t h o u g h b o t h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e open t o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c r i t i c -i s m , the f u n d a m e n t a l a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d i s t h e f o c u s o f c o n c e r n h e r e . B o t h S tone and K e n n y - L e v i c k were s e e k i n g t o a n a l y s e t h e d i m e n s i o n s on w h i c h consumers e v a l u a t e s t o r e s as a means o f d e r i v i n g a consumer t y p o l o g y c o n s i s t i n g o f g roups e x h i b i t i n g s i m i l a r e v a l u a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . The m a r k e t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t ; s i n c e , by i d e n t i f y i n g the r e l e v a n t e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , a r e t a i l e r can know what a t t r i b u t e s h i s s t o r e must p o s s e s s i f i t i s t o a t t r a c t a p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . T h i s i s c l e a r l y much more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h t o base r e t a i l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a n c o n v e n t -i o n a l market s e g m e n t a t i o n a n a l y s i s can p r o v i d e , whereby g roups a r e d e f i n e d o n l y on the b a s i s o f p r o x y measures o f p r e f e r e n c e . 58. ( i i ) The Measurement of I n d i v i d u a l S t o r e P r e f e r e n c e s . The measurement of consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e groups on the b a s i s of an agglomerative approach depends on the p r i o r measurement of i n d i v i d -u a l s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . P r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n has shown that i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s r e s u l t from the consumer e v a l u a t i n g p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e t a i l environment. I t f o l l o w s t h a t there are two q u e s t i o n s to be answered i n measuring i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s : f i r s t l y , what f a c t o r s of the r e t a i l environment do consumers c o n s i d e r important when e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s , i n other words, what are the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a ; and secondly, what weightings are a s c r i b e d to these c r i t e r i a . As was i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a which are probably r e l e v a n t to most p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n s , these i n c l u d e such v a r i a b l e s as p r i c e , l o c a t i o n , a d v e r t i s i n g and p e r s o n n e l . However the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i s dependent on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c u l a r p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t seems l i k e l y , f o r example, that consumers adopt a d i f f e r e n t s e t of c r i t e r i a when e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e supermarkets as opposed to a l t e r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a may be common to both s i t u a t i o n s . Downs (1970) d e f i n e d e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a with r e s p e c t to urban shopping c e n t r e s p a r t l y on the b a s i s of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e and p a r t l y on the b a s i s of i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s with consumers. S i n c e , e x i s t -i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d i t i s perhaps necessary to i n t e r v i e w consumers i n order to determine the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a r e l e v a n t to a s p e c i f i c p u r c h a s i n g s i t u a t i o n . Having i d e n t i f i e d the c r i t e r i a , i t i s necessary to measure the 59. i m p o r t a n c e t h a t consumers a s c r i b e t o each c r i t e r i o n when e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s . S e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s , d e v e l o p e d i n p s y c h o l o g y f o r t h e purpose o f m e a s u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s p l a y s , a r e a p p l i c a b l e ( C r a i k , 1968); b u t , as Downs (1970a) has p o i n t e d o u t , we need t o be aware o f the many p r o b l e m s a t t e n d a n t t o t h e i r u s e . I n e s s e n c e , i t w o u l d seem t h a t i n s e e k i n g t o d e f i n e i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s the b a s i c c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e measurement o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t a re r e a l l y b e i n g a sked t h e r e f o r e a r e what a t t i t u d e s do consumers h o l d t o w a r d s s t o r e s and what a r e the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s . I f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f consumers ' a t t i t u d e s i s b a s i c t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e s t h e n t h e use o f a t t i t u d e measurement p r o c e d u r e s i s c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the c o n c e p t o f ' a t t i t u d e ' and a t t i t u d e measurement i n t h i s r e g a r d r e s t s on two f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e s . F i r s t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o show t h a t a c o n s u m e r ' s a t t i t u d e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e s t h a n a r e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f h i s p e r s o n -a l i t y . The second i s s u e c o n c e r n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . U n l e s s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p can be assumed between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s and h i s p u r c h a s i n g b e h a v i o u r t h e n the measurement o f p r e f e r e n c e s on the b a s i s o f a t t i t u d e s has l i t t l e m e a n i n g . These a r e b o t h c r u c i a l i s s u e s w h i c h demand d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h i s forms the f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . ( H i ) The D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f P r e f e r e n c e . Because o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e r e t a i l s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t , p r e f e r e n c e s a r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t f rom the e v a l u a t i o n o f a v e r y v a r i e d s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s . P r e f e r e n c e t h e r e f o r e i s a m u l t i v a r i a t e c o n c e p t . B u t , a t the same t i m e , p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e s e t can be r e d u c e d t o a s m a l l e r number o f u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s w i t h o u t t o o much i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g l o s t . The v a r i o u s s t o r e image s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e o f a d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n consumer p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f r e t a i l s t o r e s w h i c h u n d e r l i e s a more complex c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and f a c i l i t a t e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h a t s t r u c t u r e . ( F i s k , 1 9 6 l ; K u n k e l and B e r r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , E q u a l l y , Downs ( 1970) was a b l e t o i s o l a t e the c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h formed t h e b a s i s on w h i c h consumers e v a l u a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . The ma jor advantage t o be g a i n e d f rom d e t e r m i n i n g the d i m e n s i o n -a l i t y o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s l i e s i n t h e c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h r e s u l t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d i m e n s i o n s s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r d e r i v i n g i n t e r p r e t a b l e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . The e x t r a c t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s f rom a complex d a t a s e t and the subsequent g r o u p i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r m s o f s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s i s made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e use o f a v a r i e t y of m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . ( i v ) The D e f i n i t i o n o f P r e f e r e n c e G r o u p s u s i n g M u l t i v a r i a t e  S t a t i s t i c a l T e c h n i q u e s . M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g models seem the most a p p r o p r i a t e m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s f o r the purpose o f a n a l y s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e . G u i l f o r d ( 1 9 5 4 , p.246) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g mode l s a re a p p l i c a b l e i n the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : 1 w i t h c o m p l i c a t e d s t i m u l i (where s t i m u l i a r e the o b j e c t s . o f c o n c e r n ) 2 w i t h s t i m u l i whose p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s a r e n o t w e l l known 3 w i t h judgements o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e no r e c o g n i s e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s . 61. These c a t e g o r i e s a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n f a c e d i n m e a s u r i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e , s i n c e t h e r e t a i l s t o r e c o m p r i s e s a complex s e t o f s t i m u l i ; m o r e o v e r , p r e f e r e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d and t h e a s s o c i a t e d d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i s n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g model s d e f i n e a g e o m e t r i c a l space o f v a r y i n g d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n w h i c h p o i n t s a r e l o c a t e d r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f o b j e c t s ( t h e s e may be p e o p l e , p r o d u c t s , s t o r e s e t c . d e p e n d i n g on the n a t u r e o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h e d i m e n s i o n s ) . Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the space form the f o c i o f i n t e r e s t : i t s s t r u c t u r a l d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and t h e g r o u p i n g o f p o i n t s on the b a s i s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n i n the s p a c e . The i n p u t d a t a , f rom w h i c h the space i s c o n s t r u c t e d and the p o i n t s p o s i t i o n e d , i s f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e form o f s c o r e s on a s e r i e s o f s c a l e c o n s t r u c t s . I n the c o n t e x t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s t u d i e s , t h e d a t a may be s c o r e s on a s e t o f a t t i t u d i n a l c o n s t r u c t s . Three k i n d s o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s have been used i n m a r k e t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e the s t r u c t u r a l d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f o b j e c t s p a c e s ; t h e s e a r e , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s and n o n - m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g . The subsequent a p p l i c a t i o n o f t a x o n o m i c p r o c e d u r e s ( c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s ) t o t h e o b j e c t space s d e r i v e d u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s d e t e r m i n e s the n a t u r a l g r o u p i n g s o f p o i n t s . Each o f t h e s e f o u r t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . A s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the use o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i n the c o n t e x t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e r e s e a r c h i s f o u n d i n C h a p t e r 5. ( a ) F a c t £ r _ a n a l y s i s ; . Of the t h r e e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l s , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s has been the one most commonly used i n g e o g r a p h i c and m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s i s . The raw d a t a u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f the s c o r e s o f a s e t o f o b j e c t s o r » a s e r i e s o f s c a l e s . I n t e r v a l l e v e l d a t a i s n o r m a l l y u s e d . The s c a l e s c o r e s a r e i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and the r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l -a t i o n m a t r i x i s r e d u c e d t o a f a c t o r m a t r i x , each e lement o f w h i c h c o n t a i n s a s c a l e s c o r e ( o r l o a d i n g ) on a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r . The f a c t o r s d e f i n e the d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e i n p u t d a t a , and the s c a l e l o a d i n g s form the b a s i s f o r l a b e l i n g the d i m e n s i o n s . A number o f f a c t o r i n g methods a re a v a i l a b l e , w h i c h v a r y i n t e r m s o f the k i n d o f a x i s r o t a t i o n e m p l o y e d ; each method i s l i k e l y t( y i e l d a d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . The number o f f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d f rom t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i s n o r m a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by an i n s p e c t i o n o f the e i g e n v a l u e s . The r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g o f o b j e c t s i n the r e s u l t i n g m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l space i s d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p u t i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each o b j e c t . A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f f a c t o r a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s i s found i n Harman (1967). The use o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n a m a r k e t i n g c o n t e x t i s e x e m p l i f i e d by F r a n k , Kuehn and Massy (1962), H e l l e r (1968) and M y e r s and N i c o s i a (1968). The p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the use o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s a s a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e . (b ) _ M u l t i p _ l e d i s _ c r i m i n a n t _ a n a l y s _ i s . In t h i s case the i n p u t d a t a i s s i m i l a r to t h a t u sed i n f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , c o n s i s t i n g o f the s c o r e s o f o b j e c t s r a t e d on the b a s i s o f s p e c i f i e d a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r a r e seen t o a c c o u n t f o r the i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the o b j e c t s . 6 3 . G i v e n such d a t a , m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s a p o w e r f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e between the o b j e c t s . The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s f i r s t f i n d i n g the w e i g h t e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t e s most among o b j e c t s , m a x i m i z i n g an F - r a t i o o f b e t w e e n - o b j e c t t o w i t h i n - o b j e c t v a r i a n c e . Second and subsequent w e i g h t e d c o m b i n a t i o n s a re found w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t e m a x i m a l l y among o b j e c t s , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t t h a t t h e y a l l be h n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . H a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d as many d i s c r i m i n a t i n g d i m e n s i o n s as p o s s i b l e , average s c o r e s can be used t o p l o t p r o d u c t s on each d i m e n s i o n and hence t o l o c a t e them i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . D i s t a n c e s between p a i r s o f o b j e c t s i n t h i s space r e f l e c t the amount o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between t h e m . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n market s e g m e n t a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s the s u b j e c t o f s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n i n a r e c e n t p a p e r by Johnson (1971). ( c ) N o n m e t r i £ m u l t i d i m e _ n s i o n a l _ s c a l i n g . T h i s t e c h n i q u e r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l deve lopment w h i c h has t h e advantage o v e r t h e two t e c h n i q u e s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d t h a t i t does n o t r e q u i r e i n t e r v a l d a t a . Nor i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e i n advance s a l i e n t a t t r i b u t e s o f the o b j e c t s t o f u n c t i o n as s c a l e c o n s t r u c t s . I t i s t e rmed a ' n o n m e t r i c ' t e c h n i q u e s i n c e t h e i n p u t d a t a i s o r d i n a l ; b u t , a f u r t h e r p o s i t i v e advantage o f n o n m e t r i c m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g i s t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e d a t a i s o r d i n a l , i t i s seen t o p o s s e s s l a t e n t i n t e r v a l p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s f o l l o w s f rom the p i o n e e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a by Coombs (1950) who n o t e d t h a t , where the e x i s t e n c e o f a u n i t o f measurement i s n o t a s sumed, i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o o r d e r t h e magni tude o f t h e i n t e r v a l s between o b j e c t s , and hence t o d e f i n e an " o r d e r e d m e t r i c " f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l e . The d a t a i s p r o v i d e d by r e s p o n d e n t s m a k i n g judgements o f t h e r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t y o f the o b j e c t s unde r s t u d y . T h i s may i n v o l v e r e s p o n d e n t s s p e c i f y i n g w h i c h two o b j e c t s o f a s e t o f t h r e e t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be most o r l e a s t s i m i l a r ; a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e y may be a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a most s i m i l a r p a i r among a s e t o f p a i r e d o b j e c t s ; or t h i r d l y , d a t a may be d e r i v e d f rom a r a n k - o r d e r i n g o f k-1 o b j e c t s i n t e rms o f s i m i l a r i t y w i t h t h e k t h . From t h i s d a t a i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r a n k o r d e r each o b j e c t p a i r i n t e rms o f " s u b j e c t i v e " s i m i l a r i t y . The r a n k o r d e r i s t h e n s u b m i t t e d to a computer a l g o r i t h m w h i c h d e v e l o p s a s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t -i n g the d a t a . The d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e space p r o d u c e d i s m i n i m i s e d on the b a s i s o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d ' goodnes s o f f i t ' c o n s t r a i n t . The d i m e n s i o n s r e p r e s e n t p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o b j e c t s e a c h o b j e c t has a p o i n t l o c a t i o n i n t h e s p a c e . The p o s i t i o n s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s on t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a re r e p r e s e n t e d by ' i d e a l ' p o i n t s d e r i v e d f rom each r e s p o n d e n t ' s r a n k o r d e r e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the o b j e c t s The l a t e n t i n t e r v a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a re such t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r a measure o f s i m i l a r i t y between two o b j e c t s from the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g the two p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g them. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the c l o s e r two p o i n t s a r e t o each o t h e r the more s i m i l a r t h e y a re p e r c e i v e d t o be by the r e s p o n d e n t s , and the c l o s e r two ' i d e a l ' p o i n t s a r e t o g e t h e r t h e more s i m i l a r a r e t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f the two r e s p o n d -e n t s t h u s r e p r e s e n t e d . The most c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n the c o n t e x o f m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s i s i s t h a t by Green and Carmone ( 1 9 7 0 ) . 65. (d) Taxonomix ^ o c e d u r e s ^ E a c h o f t h e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d p r o d u c e s a m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l space i n w h i c h o b j e c t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by p o i n t l o c a t i o n s . In the c o n t e x t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e r e s e a r c h , we can c o n c e i v e o f the d i m e n s i o n s as d e f i n e r s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l components o f p r e f e r e n c e , and o f each p o i n t l o c a t i o n as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n d e n t . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the f i n a l o b j e c t i v e o f a s s i g n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o g r o u p s , w h i c h e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e i n t e r n a l homogene i ty w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y the n a t u r a l g r o u p i n g s i n the d a t a a s i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . Over r e c e n t y e a r s a s e t o f n u m e r i c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g o b j e c t s has been d e v e l o p e d , p r i m a r i l y i n the a r e a o f b i o l o g y , unde r t h e h e a d i n g o f n u m e r i c a l taxonomy ( S o k a l and S n e a t h , 1963)• These p r o c e d u r e s a r e d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f g r o u p i n g o b j e c t s i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a p p l y i n g n u m e r i c a l taxonomy i n m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s i s have been r e v i e w e d by F r a n k and Green (1968). They p o i n t out ( p . 1 0 4 ) t h a t the e s s e n t i a l p r o b l e m i n t a x o n o m i c s t u d i e s c o n s i s t s o f d e c i d i n g how t o a s s i g n o b j e c t s t o g r o u p s s u c h t h a t w i t h i n - g r o u p s i m i l a r i t y i s m a x i m i s e d and between group d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o m a x i -m i s e d . F o u r o t h e r q u e s t i o n s a r e seen as s u b s i d i a r y t o t h i s b a s i c i s s u e : 1. How i s the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g o f p o i n t s i n t h e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l space t o be d e t e r m i n e d ? T h r e e m a j o r a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , 2 , What g r o u p i n g p r o c e s s i s t o be used? A v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s a r e p o s s i b l e i n c l u d i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g 66. r o u t i n e s , t h r e s h o l d or c u t - o f f r o u t i n e s , Q - t e c h n i q u e , and s p a c e - d e n s i t y s e a r c h r o u t i n e s . 3 . What d e s c r i p t i v e measures a re a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s u m m a r i z i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each group? The c l u s t e r ' s c e n t r o i d may be u s e d , o r , i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , the p r o f i l e o f the o b j e c t c l o s e s t t o t h e g r o u p ' s c e n t r o i d may f u n c t i o n a s t h e " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o f i l e " . 4. A r e the g roups so formed r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom each o t h e r ? T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f what i n f e r e n c e s can be drawn f rom the r e s u l t s o f c l u s t e r a n a l y s e s . F r a n k and G r e e n (1968, p.121) s u g g e s t t h a t , a l t h o u g h n u m e r i c a l taxonomy has o b v i o u s p o t e n t i a l i n m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s i s , r e s u l t s s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n because o f t h e ad hoc c h a r a c -t e r o f many o f the d e c i s i o n s made when a p p l y i n g c l u s t e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s . They a d v i s e t h a t the s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among the r e s u l t s o f a l t e r n a -t i v e p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n where p o s s i b l e . I t would seem t h e r e f o r e t h a t n u m e r i c a l taxonomy p r o v i d e s a v a r i e t y o f methods f o r d e r i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e g roups where the i n p u t d a t a c o n s i s t s o f p o i n t l o c a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s p a c e . However , the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d must be a c c e p t e d w i t h c a u t i o n s i n c e d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s a re l i k e l y to y i e l d d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s , w h i l e t h e r e seem t o be no c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a t o g u i d e the s e l e c t -i o n o f a s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e . D. SUMMARY. T h i s c h a p t e r has examined p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . A d i s t i n c t i o n was drawn between the measurement o f p r e f e r e n c e on the b a s i s o f p r o x y v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the d i r e c t measurement o f p r e f e r -ence i n t e rms o f how consumers e v a l u a t e the complex a t t r i b u t e s o f a s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h , i t was s u g g e s t e d , may c o n s t i t u t e a measure-ment o f consumer a t t i t u d e s . 67. Where p r o x y v a r i a b l e s have been used the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e groups has n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d s u b d i v i d i n g a p o p u l a t i o n on the o a s i s o f a p r i o r i c l a s s e s , f o r example s o c i a l c l a s s e s . However t h i s a p p r o a c h i s l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e a p r i o r i g roups and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e p e r se i s n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r -s t o o d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s were summarized w h i c h demon-s t r a t e t h e u t i l i t y o f s u b d i v i d i n g a p o p u l a t i o n on the b a s i s o f income and s o c i a l c l a s s as a means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . The a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s t o group i n d i v i d u a l s on the b a s i s o f s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s . S i n c e p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t -u r e s a r e seen t o be m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , t h e y can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . R e l e v a n t p r o c e d u r e s were d i s c u s s e d and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f n u m e r i c a l taxonomy t o the p r o b l e m o f group d e f i n i t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . The i n h e r e n t advantage o f t h i s a g g l o m e r a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i t i s o l a t e s t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h seem d i r e c t l y t o u n d e r l i e the deve lopment o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . A s s u c h , t h i s a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s a more p r e c i s e b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g the p u r c h a s i n g b e h a v i o u r o f consumer g r o u p s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y p r o m i s e s t o become a f o c u s o f i n c r e a s e d r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development o f the m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e d t o p r o c e s s the complex d a t a i n v o l v e d . The p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 5, i l l u s t r a t e s the use o f some o f the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s m e n t i o n e d here i n r e l a t i o n t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . 6 8 . CHAPTER k THE ANALYSIS OF PREFERENCE ON THE BASIS OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES A . INTRODUCTION. In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t the a n a l y s i s o f p r e f e r e n c e may e s s e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e t h e measurement o f c o n s u m e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y r a i s e s two q u e s t i o n s w h i c h form the f o c u s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i r s t l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o j u s t i f y the i s o l a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s a s t h e key v a r i a b l e i n a n a l y s i n g p r e f e r e n c e , s i n c e i t i s c l e a r ( f r o m t h e model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2) t h a t v a r i o u s o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i m p i n g e upon i n d i v i d u a l p u r c h a s i n g . S e c o n d l y , i f a t t i t u d e measurement i s t o p r o v i d e a sound b a s i s f o r p r e f e r e n c e s t u d i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o assume a c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s and h i s a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r . The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e debate i n t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , a s w e l l as w i t h i n geography and m a r k e t i n g . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s i s s u e i s t h e r e f o r e r e l e v a n t i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . B . ATTITUDE AS THE KEY VARIABLE IN PREFERENCE STUDIES. ( i ) The F u n c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s i n t h e Consumer B e h a v i o u r M o d e l . In s e e k i n g t o j u s t i f y t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e a s the key v a r i a b l e i n a n a l y s i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r back t o t h e model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2. From F i g u r e 1 we see t h a t a c o n s u m e r ' s a t t i t u d e s a re r e g a r d e d as a b a s i c component o f t h e ' c e n t r a l c o n t r o l u n i t " . M o r e o v e r , t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e t h o u g h t t o be p a r t l y an outcome o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . m o t i v e s ) and p a r t l y an outcome o f i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d from p a s t p u r c h a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The compound s t r u c t u r e o f a t t i t u d e s , s u g g e s t e d 6 9 . by E n g e l ' s m o d e l , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h M c K e a c h i e and D o y l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n ; t h e y d e s c r i b e an a t t i t u d e a s " an o r g a n i s a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s , b e l i e f s , h a b i t s and m o t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t . " ( M c K e a c h i e a n d D o y l e , 1966, p . 5 6 0 ) T h i s i s n o t t o sugges t t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the p a s t e x p e r i e n c e o f the consumer f u n c t i o n s o l e l y as a t t i t u d i n a l components ; t h e y each r e t a i n a u n i q u e f u n c t i o n ; but t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s f o r the p u r p o s e o f e v a l u a t i n g an o b j e c t does seem t o be the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f a t t i t u d e f o r m a t i o n ( E n g e l e t a l , 1 9 6 8 , p . 1 6 6 ) . A d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn i n t h e model between ' v a l u e s ' and ' a t t i t u d e s ' . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s not t o t a l l y c l e a r b u t , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , t h a t " v a l u e s a re more b a s i c and p e r v a s i v e t h a n a t t i t u d e s and s e r v e , t h e r e f o r e , a s a type o f c e n t r a l o r g a n i s i n g v a r i a b l e f o r t h i s more s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . " ( p . l 6 6 ) The e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f an a t t i t u d e i s f u r t h e r emphas i sed i n Osgood ' s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n : " a t t i t u d e s a r e l e a r n e d and i m p l i c i t ; t h e y may be evoked by p e r c e p t u a l s i g n s o r l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s ; t h e y are p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o r e s p o n d e v a l u a t i v e l y t o t h e s e s i g n s ; and the e v a l u a t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n may f a l l anywhere a l o n g a s c a l e f rom ' e x t r e m e l y f a v o u r a b l e ' t h r o u g h ' n e u t r a l * t o ' e x t r e m e l y u n f a v o u r a b l e ' " (Osgood , 1 9 6 5 ) . From t h i s i t w o u l d seem t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b a s i s f o r e v a l u a -t i n g o b j e c t s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s a t t i t u d e s . A s was p o i n t e d out i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i n a n a l y s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s , the e s s e n t i a l c o n c e r n i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the e v a l u a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h consumers a p p l y t o the c o m p l e x i t y o f the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . The measurement o f consumer a t t i t u d e s i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r l y an a p p r o p r i a t e 7 0 . methodo logy t o advance u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . ( i i ) The O r d e r i n g F u n c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s . In C h a p t e r 2 ( p . 4 l ) , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s e s s e n t i a l l y s e r v e as a means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g o r d e r a t the consumer-s t o r e i n t e r f a c e . P r e f e r e n c e s a r e t h e r e f o r e a s t a b i l i s i n g f o r c e w i t h i n a dynamic b e h a v i o u r a l s y s t e m , e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c h i e v e c o n s i s t e n t l y s a t i s f y i n g outcomes w i t h i n a complex e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g . S i m i l a r s t a b i l i s i n g and o r d e r i n g f u n c t i o n s have been a t t r i b u t e d t o a t t i t u d e s . K a t z ( i 9 6 0 ) d i s c u s s e s the o r d e r c r e a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e f o r m a t i o n . He r e c o g n i s e s t h a t no one can e x i s t f o r l o n g i n an u n o r g a n i s e d , c h a o t i c u n i v e r s e , and t h a t a t t i t u d e s s a t i s f y the need f o r o r d e r by p r o v i d i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r e v a l u a t i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t . Once o r d e r has been a c h i e v e d , the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l u c t a n t t o a l l o w c o n f l i c t and hence d i s o r d e r t o i n t e r f e r e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a t t i t u d e s t e n d t o be f a i r l y p e r m a n e n t . C a n t r i l ( 1934) n o t e d t h e permanency and c o n s i s t e n c y o f a t t i t u d e s i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n : " a n a t t i t u d e i s a more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t l y e n d u r -i n g s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s o f m e n t a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w h i c h p r e d i s p o s e s an i n d i v i d u a l t o r e a c t i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way t o any o b j e c t o r s i t u a t i o n w i t h w h i c h i t i s r e l a t e d . " The r e s i s t a n c e o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o change has been t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s e d i n the m a r k e t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , i n r e l a t i o n t o the development o f e f f e c t i v e p r o m o t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . I n r e v i e w i n g the r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , E n g e l e t a l ( 1 9 6 8 , , pp 2 2 4 - 2 5 ) c o n c l u d e t h a t m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y i s not l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l i f i t c o n t r a d i c t s s t r o n g l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s o f the consumers i t s eeks t o a t t r a c t . P r o m o -t i o n s w h i c h a re i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h i s way a r e more l i k e l y t o be s c r e e n e d out by the consumer t h r o u g h s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , d i s t o r t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f i n c o m i n g s t i m u l i . I n s h o r t , i t seems t h a t a d v e r t i s e r s have l i t t l e hope o f c h a n g i n g cus tomer p r e f e r e n c e s u n l e s s the i n d i v i d -u a l i s w i l l i n g t o a l l o w h i s p r e f e r e n c e s t o be c h a l l e n g e d . The o r d e r i n g and s t a b i l i s i n g f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by a t t i t u d e s a r e a p p a r e n t l y c o n g r u e n t w i t h the f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n , and t h i s u n d e r l i n e s the a p p r o p r i a t e -n e s s o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n p r e f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s . ( i i i ) A t t i t u d e Measurement i n S p a t i a l Image S t u d i e s . P r e f e r e n c e s a re formed as the r e s u l t o f the i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t i n t h e p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t s . A s was s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r 2 , t h i s has l e d t o the v i e w t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t s t o r e s on the b a s i s o f the images t h e y h o l d . I n t h i s r e g a r d , the c o n s u m e r ' s s e t o f s t o r e images i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s p r e f e r e n c e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t t i t u d e measurement has been s u g g e s t e d a s a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s p a t i a l i m a g e s . Downs (1970a) has n o t e d the r e l e v a n c e o f a t t i t u d e t h e o r y i n t h e f i e l d o f g e o g r a p h i c space p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , he s u g g e s t s t h a t i m p o r t a n t p a r a l l e l s e x i s t between the c o n c e p t s o f an ' i m a g e ' and an ' a t t i t u d e * . He c i t e s the work o f K a t e s (1967) as i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e t h e o r y i n space p e r c e p t i o n r e s e a r c h . A t a n o t h e r p o i n t i n t h e same p a p e r , he d i s c u s s e s the " e v a l u a t i v e a p p r o a c h " t o space p e r c e p t i o n r e s e a r c h (pp 8 0 - 8 l ) , and h e r e a g a i n a t t i t u d e t h e o r y w o u l d appear t o be a v e r y r e l e v a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The r e l e v a n c e o f a t t i t u d e t h e o r y and measurement w i t h r e s p e c t to s t o r e image s t u d i e s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s e d i n a t h e s i s by B e c k e r (1967). As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n C h a p t e r 1, B e c k e r c o n c e i v e s o f an 7 2 . i n d i v i d u a l ' s " image 1 of a s t o r e a s an o u t g r o w t h o f h i s ' a t t i t u d e s ' . The image c o n c e p t i s s e e n a s a c o n v e n i e n t way o f s u m m a r i s i n g the combined e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s . M o r e o v e r , i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t , t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i m a g e s , t h e c o n s u m e r ' s a t t i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e and s e l e c t i o n . I n summary, because o f t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h i s t a k e n t o e x i s t between t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s p a t i a l images and p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o r m e r i s s e e n t o j u s t i f y f u r t h e r the f o c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e s i n p r e f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s . ( i v ) A t t i t u d e s and P r e f e r e n c e - I l l u s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e s i n p r e f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s i s emphas i s ed by s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s on b e h a l f o f r e t a i l f i r m s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s not r e p o r t e d i n the m a r k e t -i n g l i t e r a t u r e because o f the c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e o f the f i n d i n g s . However , p a p e r s by Gruen a n d Gruen (1966 and 19&7) i n d i c a t e the k i n d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t i s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t . I n d i s c u s s i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an o p t i m a l l o c a t i o n o f a new o u t l e t f o r a m u l t i - s t o r e r e t a i l f i r m , t h e y s u g g e s t t h e use o f a t t i t u d e measures t o d e t e r m i n e the p r o f i l e ( s ) o f the consumer g r o u p ( s ) w h i c h p a t r o n i s e e x i s t i n g s t o r e s . A s u r v e y o f consumer a t t i t u d e s i s recommended i n the market a r e a s o f t h e a l t e r n a t e s i t e s f o r t h e new o u t l e t i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the k i n d o f s t o r e p r e f e r r e d by l o c a l c o n s u m e r s . The number o f p o s s i b l e s i t e s i s t h e r e b y r e d u c e d t o t h o s e where t h e consumer p r e f e r -ences a r e most c o n g r u e n t w i t h the i d e n t i t y o f t h e f i r m , a s e s t a b l i s h e d and m a i n t a i n e d by i t s e x i s t i n g o u t l e t s . A change i n f i r m i d e n t i t y a t a new l o c a t i o n i s n o t a d v i s e d s i n c e t h i s w i l l a f f e c t t h e image o f the f i r m as a w h o l e , and may have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on s a l e s a t e x i s t i n g 73. o u t l e t s . The a t t i t u d e d a t a i s u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h demographic s t a t i s t i c s o f the market a r e a s a s a b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e number o f consumers who w o u l d shop a t each o f t h e a l t e r n a t e s i t e s . From t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e t h e ' o p t i m u m ' s i t e f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f a new s t o r e . The a d o p t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h methodo logy c l e a r l y assumes t h a t a t t i t u d e measurement p r o v i d e s a sound b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g consumer p r e f e r e n c e s . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e a d o p t i o n o f a s t r a t e g y w h i c h i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d a t t i t u d e s o f e x i s t i n g c u s t o m e r s may l e a d t o a l o s s o f s a l e s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the e a r l i e r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t consumer a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t e a s i l y changed and t h a t m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x i s t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . A s t u d y by Murphy (1970) d e m o n s t r a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e o f a t t i t u d e s on r e c r e a t i o n a l and s h o p p i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . H i s b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t the a t t i t u d e s t r e n g t h o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d any g i v e n d e s t i n a t i o n w i l l v a r y o v e r d i s t a n c e and w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p a t r o n i s e t h e g i v e n d e s t i n a t i o n . Murphy found t h a t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a c h o s e n a l t e r n a t i v e and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o m p e t i t o r s combined t o e x p l a i n up t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a -t i o n s i n s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . T h i s e v i d e n c e g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e s t r e n g t h as a v a r i a b l e i n a n a l y s e s o f space p r e f e r e n c e and s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . ( v ) C o n c l u s i o n . From the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , i t seems t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t as t h e k e y v a r i a b l e i n p r e f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s can be s u p p o r t e d on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e s i s c o n f i r m e d by t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n the model o f consumer b e h a v i o u r o u t l i n e d i n a 7 4 . p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ; a t t i t u d e s p e r f o r m an o r d e r i n g and s t a b i l i s i n g f u n c t i o n w h i c h i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e ; a t t i t u d e s have formed t h e b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p a t i a l images w h i c h , i n t h e form o f s t o r e i m a g e s , a r e seen t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p r e f e r -ence f o r m a t i o n ; f u r t h e r m o r e , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s sugges t t h a t a t t i t u d e measurement p r o v i d e s a v a l i d b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e c o n d i s s u e , c o n c e r n -i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . C. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR. ( i ) G e o g r a p h i c a l S c e p t i c i s m . D e f i n i t i o n s o f a t t i t u d e have been many and v a r i o u s , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e y have commonly s t a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s an o b j e c t and h i s b e h a v i o u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t o b j e c t . A l l p o r t (193*0 r e v i e w e d a v a r i e d s e l e c t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s , and s y n t h e s i s e d the common e l e m e n t s he o b s e r v e d t o f o r m u l a t e a f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n , w h i c h has p e r h a p s been t h e most w i d e l y q u o t e d i n the b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . He d e f i n e d an a t t i t u d e a s : " a m e n t a l and n e u r a l s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s , o r g a n i s e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , e x e r t i n g a d i r e c t i v e o r dynamic i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e t o a l l o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h i t i s r e l a t e d . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c l e a r l y assumes a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e t o w a r d s s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t s . However , i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , H a r v e y (1969) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t a p e r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s an o b j e c t i s n o t a ma jor d e t e r m i n a n t o f h i s b e h a v i o u r , and he c o n c l u d e s t h a t , i f t h i s i s t h e . c a s e , " t h e n we can a f f o r d l a r g e l y t o i g n o r e t h e p r o b l e m o f a t t i t u d e s i n s e e k i n g 75. f o r a c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l l o c a t i o n t h e o r y . " H i s s c e p t i c i s m i s b a s e d on s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e o f F i s h b e i n (1967). Downs (1970a, p . 8 9 f f ) a l s o see s i n F i s h b e i n ' s r e s e a r c h a cause f o r c a u t i o n i n t r y i n g t o p r o d u c e p r e d i c t i v e model s f o r b e h a v i o u r ba sed on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n and i m a g e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , G o l l e d g e (1970) i s more o p t i m i s t i c w i t h r e g a r d t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s i n a n a l y s i n g s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . I n a n y e v e n t , i t w o u l d seem t h a t F i s h b e i n ' s comments j u s t i f y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ( i i ) F i s h b e i n ' s F i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have f r e q u e n t l y d e f i n e d a t t i t u d e as a m u l t i c o m p o n e n t c o n c e p t - c o n s i s t i n g o f c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and c o n a t i v e domains - measures o f a t t i t u d e have been e s s e n t i a l l y u n i d i m e n s -i o n a l , a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n i n a s i n g l e s c o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree o f f e e l i n g t o w a r d the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . Thus F i s h b e i n (1967, p.479) c o n c l u d e s t h a t : " t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l v a r i a b l e we c a l l an ' a t t i t u d e ' can be measured by c o n s i d e r i n g e i t h e r b e l i e f s o r b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s o r by a t t e m p t i n g t o get a t e v a l u a t i o n p e r s e . " I n f a c t , r a t h e r t h a n v i e w i n g b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s a s p a r t o f a t t i t u d e , F i s h b e i n p r e f e r s t o d e f i n e them i n d e p e n d e n t l y , and t o v i e w them a s phenomena t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e s ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , he sees b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s a s d e t e r m i n a n t s o r consequents o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r i n i s o l a t i o n ; r a t h e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between a t l e a s t f o u r c o n c e p t s , t h o s e o f a t t i t u d e , b e l i e f , b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n , and b e h a v i o u r . The f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r t h i s s e t o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s seen t o e x p l a i n why t h e measurement o f a t t i t u d e s a l o n e has n o t s e r v e d a s 76. an a c c u r a t e b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r . I n t e r m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s between b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , F i s h b e i n a r g u e s t h a t i n many c a s e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a c l a s s o f p e o p l e o r o b j e c t s h a s been measured and t h i s a t t i t u d e has been used i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e d i c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p a r t i c u l a r member o f t h a t c l a s s . Thus a r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d ' N e g r o e s ' i s f r e q u e n t l y m e a s u r e d , and t h e n an a t t e m p t i s made t o p r e d i c t h i s b e h a v i o u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p a r t i c u l a r Negro i n d i v i d u a l . However , i t seems v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f s about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Negro a r e even s i m i l a r t o h i s b e l i e f s about •Negroes i n g e n e r a l ' . Hence , i t seems f a i r l y o b v i o u s t h a t " t h e c h a n c e s o f p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r f rom a t t i t u d e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n i l u n t i l a t l e a s t we s t a r t m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l i . " ( p .480) A second p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r f a i l u r e t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o u r f rom a t t i t u d e s i s s i m p l y t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r b e i n g s t u d i e d may be c o m p l e t e l y o r p a r t i a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e ; t h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e most i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t any b e h a v i o u r i s d e t e r m i n e d by a l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s a n d , a s F i s h b e i n h i m s e l f m a i n t a i n s , b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s may f u n c t i o n as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r i n d e p e n d e n t o f a t t i t u d e . F i s h b e i n i s t h e r e f o r e l e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t even i f a t t i t u d e measures were d e s i g n e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f s e t s o f b e l i e f s and t y p e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e s p e r s e , the c h a n c e s wou ld s t i l l be h i g h t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r c o u l d n o t be p r e d i c t e d . I n c o n c l u s i o n , he d e v e l o p s a model w h i c h does n o t assume a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r , bu t r a t h e r emphas i s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f s i t u a t i o n a l , m o t i v a t i o n a l and n o r m a t i v e v a r i a b l e s as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g o v e r t b e h a v i o u r . T h i s model s t a t e s t h a t " a n I n d i v i d -77. u a l ' s i n t e n t i o n t o p e r f o r m any b e h a v i o u r ( and h i s a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e b e h a v i o u r ) i s a f u n c t i o n o f ( l ) h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d p e r f o r m i n g the b e h a v i o u r i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , and (2) the norms g o v e r n i n g t h a t b e h a v i o u r i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n and h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o comply w i t h t h o s e n o r m s . " (p .489) T h i s m o d i f i e d v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r d o u b t l e s s c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n c e p t u a l a d v a n c e , but i t i s n o t c l e a r t o what e x t e n t the p r o p o s e d model can be o p e r a t i o n a l i s e d . The need t o a s s e s s the r e l e v a n t norms and t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o comply w i t h t h o s e norms i n t r o d u c e s extreme measurement p r o b l e m s and i t i s u n c e r t a i n how t h e s e c o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o v e r c o m e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i s n o t t o deny t h e b a s i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f F i s h b e i n ' s comments. A s a r e s u l t , i t w o u l d be n a i v e t o r e g a r d the a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t a s a panacea i n a n a l y s e s o f s p a t i a l p r e f e r e n c e a n d b e h a v i o u r ; a t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e does n o t seem t o be t o t a l j u s t i f i -c a t i o n f o r a c c e p t i n g H a r v e y ' s c o n t e n t i o n e i t h e r and t h e r e f o r e d i s m i s s -i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u t i l i s i n g t h e c o n c e p t a l t o g e t h e r . A s F i s h b e i n p o i n t s o u t , some o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r on the b a s i s o f a t t i t u d e s can be overcome i f c a r e i s t a k e n t o ensure t h a t we measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l i , v i s - a - v i s the b e h a v i o u r s we a re a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e d i c t . E q u a l l y , we can be more c o n f i d e n t i n u s i n g a t t i t u d e measures i f we a r e f i r s t s a t i s f i e d t h a t a sphere o f a t t i t u d e s e x i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c -u l a r b e h a v i o u r under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ( i i i ) A t t i t u d e s and t h e N a t u r e o f t h e B e h a v i o u r under S t u d y . There i s a b a s i s f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e use o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n a n a l y s i n g s p a t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s and b e h a v i o u r may be more r e l i a b l e t h a n F i s h b e i n ' s f i n d i n g s sugges t because o f t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e 7 8 . b e h a v i o u r i t s e l f . I t may have been t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e o f the i s s u e s t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have f r e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t e d t o s t u d y u s i n g a t t i t u d e measurement w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t o v e r t b e h a v i o u r w i t h a c c u r a c y . F o r e x a m p l e , L a P i e r e (193*0 i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n s i s t e n c y between t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f h o t e l p r o p r i e t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o C h i n e s e g u e s t s . He r e p o r t s t h a t he accompanied a C h i n e s e d u r i n g a two y e a r p e r i o d o f t r a v e l w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and o n l y once were t h e y r e f u s e d s e r v i c e a t any o f t h e h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s t h e y v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . S i x months a f t e r an e s t a b l i s h m e n t had been v i s i t e d , the p r o p r i e t o r was s e n t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e q u e s t i o n : " W i l l you a c c e p t members o f the C h i n e s e r a c e a s g u e s t s i n y o u r e s t a b l i s h -m e n t ? " R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f rom 128 o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t had been v i s i t e d p r e v i o u s l y and the outcome was t h a t 91 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s t a u r a n t p r o p r i e t o r s and 92 p e r c e n t o f t h e h o t e l managers r e p l i e d " N o " i n answer t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . The c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s i n v o l v i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by F e n d r i c h ( 1 9 6 7 ) , when i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y between the s t a t e d a t t i t u d e s and o v e r t b e h a v i o u r o f w h i t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h N e g r o e s . He found t h a t " v e r b a l a t t i t u d e s can be e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s -t e n t w i t h o v e r t b e h a v i o u r , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e way r e s p o n d e n t s d e f i n e the a t t i t u d e measurement s i t u a t i o n ."(p. 3 5 5 ) The r e f e r e n c e s t h a t F e n d r i c h l i s t s u n d e r l i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h the c o n s i s t e n c y between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r has been t e s t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e r e a s o n a b l e t o sugges t t h a t g r e a t e r c o n s i s t -ency might be e x p e c t e d i n l e s s c o n t e n t i o u s s i t u a t i o n s o f w h i c h measur-i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might be o n e . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l m a r k e t i n g s t u d i e s show r a t h e r c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t a knowledge o f a t t i t u d e s p r o v i d e s a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s upon w h i c h t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o u r . ( A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1966 and 1968) A f u r t h e r f a c t o r f a v o u r i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e -ment i n s t u d i e s o f consumer s p a t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s and b e h a v i o u r i s t h a t t h e a c c u r a c y o f p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r f rom s t a t e d a t t i t u d e s has been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o the f a m i l i a r i t y o f the s u b j e c t w i t h the p a r t i c -u l a r a c t i v i t y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (Murphy and G o l l e d g e , 1971) C l e a r l y s h o p p i n g i s one a c t i v i t y w i t h w h i c h s u b j e c t s can be e x p e c t e d t o have q u i t e a h i g h degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y . ( i v ) C o n c l u s i o n . From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e r e a re g rounds f o r c a u t i o u s o p t i m i s m i n a s s u m i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between consumer a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . F i s h b e i n has i n d i c a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c a u t i o n , and t h e weaknesses t h a t have c h a r a c t e r i s e d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n t h e p a s t . I f t h e s e c a u t i o n s a r e r e c o g n i s e d and a p p l i e d , we can be somewhat o p t i m i s t i c about the r e l i a b i l i t y o f m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s i n s e e k i n g t o a n a l y s e consumer s p a t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s and b e h a v i o u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s our a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on r e l a t i v e l y f a m i l i a r and n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l a c t i v i t i e s . D. SUMMARY. D i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r has c e n t r e d on two f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e s a r i s i n g f rom t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s can be d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f m e a s u r i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s . V a r i o u s a rguments were put f o r w a r d t o s u p p o r t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a t t i t u d e as t h e key v a r i a b l e i n p r e f e r e n c e s t u d i e s . F u r t h e r , i t was a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a s s u m i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p 80. between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f consumer b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h , a l t h o u g h c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the c a u t i o n a r y f i n d i n g s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s s i n c e t h e s e have f r e q u e n t l y been d e s c r i b e d and r e v i e w e d i n the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The most c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n i s found i n F i s h b e i n (1967a) . 81. CHAPTER 3. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CLOTHING STORE PREFERENCE DIMENSIONS AND PREFERENCE GROUPS. A . INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s o f a p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f consumer p r e f e r -e n c e s f o r c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t o d e f i n e consumer g r o u p s e x h i b i t i n g r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h e r e f o r e a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . I n s e e k i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h a r e s a l i e n t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e s . U n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a sample group o f consumers formed t h e b a s i s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . S e c o n d l y , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o measure t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t consumers a s c r i b e t o t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s . A s econd sample group o f consumers c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h s u p p l i e d t h e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was u sed t o r e d u c e t h i s d a t a t o a s m a l l e r number o f d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h a r e seen t o form t h e b a s i s on w h i c h p r e f e r e n c e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d . F a c t o r s c o r e s were computed f o r each r e s p o n d e n t and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a g r o u p i n g p r o c e d u r e i n d e n t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s i m i l a r p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s . I n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n , i t was n o t e d t h a t the s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s o f consumers p r o b a b l y v a r y d e p e n d i n g upon the t y p e o f p r o d u c t t o be p u r c h a s e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s t o r e a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h 82, a r e s a l i e n t i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n w i l l d i f f e r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t y p e s o f s t o r e w h i c h the consumer has t o e v a l u a t e . I t i s seen as n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r e t o d e f i n e and measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e a t t r i b u t e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e t a i l f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n f o r s t o r e s i n g e n e r a l w h i c h has f r e q u e n t l y been t h e a p p r o a c h i n s t o r e image s t u d i e s . T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s do n o t e x i s t w h i c h are b a s i c t o the e v a l u a t i o n o f s t o r e s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e t a i l f u n c t i o n s . However , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a s t r u c t u r e i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h we s h o u l d seek t o u n c o v e r i n t h e c o u r s e o f r e s e a r c h r a t h e r t h a n t o assume i t s v a l i d i t y a p r i o r i . On t h i s b a s i s , r e s e a r c h i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . C l o t h i n g s t o r e s were s e l e c t e d f o r two b a s i c r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i t was assumed t h a t , when p u r c h a s i n g ma jor i t e m s o f c l o t h i n g , consumers n o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e and compare a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a c o n s c i o u s f o r m a t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e s . S e c o n d l y , c l o t h i n g i s p u r c h a s e d a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s by most consumers t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g f o r the d e v e l o p -ment o f r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s . On the b a s i s o f t h e s e two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t i s assumed t h a t d e f i n a b l e c l o t h i n g s t o r e p r e f e r -ences e x i s t and t h a t consumers a r e a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s . C l e a r l y , t h e s e a re two f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n s w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s can have l i t t l e m e a n i n g . A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t -i o n and a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s e m p l o y e d . B . THE DETERMINATION OF EVALUATIVE C R I T E R I A , ( i ) P u r p o s e . I t was seen as e s s e n t i a l a t t h e o u t s e t t o d e t e r m i n e the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a r e l e v a n t t o t h e c l a s s o f o b j e c t s u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n t h i s 8 3 . c a s e , c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h K e l v i n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n m a r k e t i n g a n a l y s i s ; he has s u g g e s t e d t h a t : " i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d a im a t d i s c l o s i n g a s much as p o s s i b l e o f t h e p a t t e r n o f a t t i t u d e s w h i c h e x i s t v i s - a - v i s the p r o d u c t ( s t o r e ) t y p e . " ( K e l v i n , 19&0, p . 3 1 ) The use o f an a p r i o r i l i s t i n g o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a ba sed e i t h e r on p a s t r e s e a r c h o r on i n t u i t i o n was n o t r e g a r d e d as j u s t i f i a b l e , s i n c e t h i s may have o b s c u r e d t h e t r u e d i m e n s i o n s on w h i c h consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c l o t h i n g s t o r e s a r e o r g a n i s e d . F o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s , Downs ( 1 9 7 0 ) , when a n a l y s i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f an u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , began w i t h a s e r i e s o f impromptu d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h women s h o p p e r s i n o r d e r t o h e l p i s o l a t e t h e c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r -l y i n g the image o f a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e . ( i i ) Method o f D a t a C o l l e c t i o n . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h female consumers s e r v e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r d e t e r -m i n i n g e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . T h i s r e f l e c t s E y s e n c k ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t : " i d e a l l y the a t t i t u d e a n a l y s t s t a r t s ou t w i t h some p r e l i m i n a r y o p e n -ended t e c h n i q u e s f o r g e t t i n g a f e e l f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n m a t e r i a l t o d e v e l o p a s e n s i b l e h y p o t h e s i s . " ( E y s e n c k , 1 9 6 0 , p.l4) The method t h e r e f o r e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o the purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a b l e s t o g u i d e o t h e r phases o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s t h a t o f the ' u n s t r u c t u r e d ' o r ' o p e n - e n d e d ' i n t e r v i e w . T h i s method has been d e s c r i b e d by K e r l i n g e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : " a l t h o u g h the r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s g o v e r n the q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , t h e i r c o n t e n t , t h e i r s equence , and t h e i r w o r d i n g a r e e n t i r e l y i n t h e hands o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . O r d i n a r i l y , no s c h e d u l e i s u s e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , the u n s t a n d a r d i s e d , n o n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i s an open s i t u a t i o n i n c o n t r a s t t o the s t a n d a r d i s e d , s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , w h i c h i s a 8 4 . c l o s e d s i t u a t i o n . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t an u n s t a n d a r d i s e d i n t e r -v i e w i s c a s u a l . I t s h o u l d be j u s t a s c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d as t h e s t a n d a r d -i s e d o n e . " ( K e r l i n g e r , 1 9 6 4 , p . 4 6 9 ) ( i i i ) Sample S e l e c t i o n . The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w were known p e r s o n a l l y by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h i s was n o t seen t o be o f a n y d i s a d v a n t a g e o r a s o u r c e o f b i a s , g i v e n t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n t o be r e q u e s t e d was e s s e n t i a l l y n o t o f a c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e . On t h e c o n t r a r y the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a c q u a i n -t a n c e w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s was r e g a r d e d a s an advantage s i n c e i t f a c i l i t a t e d m a x i m i s i n g t h e age range and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e sample g r o u p . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s by age i s shown i n T a b l e I I I . T a b l e I I I . F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e r v i e w e e s by a g e . AGE NO. OF INTERVIEWEES UNDER 2 0 7 2 0 - 3 0 10 3 1 - 4 0 4 4 1 - 5 0 1 5 1 - 6 0 5 N = 27 ( i v ) I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e . A few days p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w da te each o f t h e s u b j e c t s was i n f o r m e d o f the p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h , and was a s k e d t o c o n s i d e r h e r most r e c e n t m a j o r c l o t h i n g p u r c h a s e ( e g . d r e s s o r c o a t ) and t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h had i n f l u e n c e d h e r c h o i c e o f s t o r e . I t was hoped t h a t i n t h i s way the s u b j e c t s w o u l d f i n d i t e a s i e r t o v e r b a l i s e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t h a n i f t h e y had had no p r i o r i n d i c a t i o n o f the k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be r e q u e s t e d . I n e a c h i n t e r v i e w the s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e h e r most 85. r e c e n t c l o t h e s s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a n d , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s a c c o u n t , t o s p e c i f y , where p o s s i b l e , t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h she f e l t had g u i d e d h e r c h o i c e o f s t o r e . I n t h e subsequent s t a g e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w the i n v e s t i g a t o r a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r j e c t a s l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e . C l e a r l y , t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d have been a s k e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o t h e e f f e c t : " . . . d o d i s p l a y f e a t u r e s i n f l u e n c e y o u ? . . . do you p r e f e r s m a l l s t o r e s ? . . . i s c o n v e n i e n t p a r k i n g i m p o r t a n t ? . . . " and so o n . B u t , i t was f e l t t h a t by p r o c e e d i n g i n t h a t way t h e s u b j e c t m i g h t m e r e l y c o n f i r m t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s p r e c o n c e p t i o n s w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y s t a t i n g t h e f a c t o r s t h a t she h e r s e l f f e l t t o be o f most i m p o r t a n c e t o h e r when c h o o s i n g a s t o r e a t w h i c h t o make c l o t h i n g p u r c h a s e s . I n w h i c h case t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d have s a v e d t ime by c o m p i l i n g an a p r i o r i l i s t o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , a n d have d i s p e n s e d w i t h the i n t e r v i e w s t a g e a l t o g e t h e r . The f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s had been g i v e n t i m e t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e s b e f o r e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a b i l i t y t o a v o i d o v e r - f r e q u e n t i n t e r j e c t i o n s . I t was commonly o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r v e n e when a s u b j e c t was f i n d i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n v e r b a l i s i n g some c o n c e p t o f h e r s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; any d i r e c t i o n g i v e n i n such i n s t a n c e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s o u r c e o f b i a s . The c r i t e r i a w h i c h e a c h s u b j e c t s u g g e s t e d had d i r e c t e d h e r s t o r e s e l e c t i o n were r e c o r d e d v e r b a t i m . The a p p r o x i m a t e l e n g t h o f each i n t e r -v i e w was f o r t y f i v e m i n u t e s . ( v ) R e s u l t s . The t w e n t y seven i n t e r v i e w s r e s u l t e d i n a l i s t o f one h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y two e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . Some i t e m s were e s s e n t i a l l y synonymous w i t h o t h e r s a l t h o u g h t h e i r w o r d i n g d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y . Some o f t h e c r i t e r i a were f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d , w h i l e o t h e r s were o n l y 8 6 . m e n t i o n e d by one i n t e r v i e w e e . Each s u b j e c t had been a s k e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h o s e c r i t e r i a w h i c h d i s p o s e d h e r p o s i t i v e l y t o w a r d s a s t o r e and t h o s e w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a n e g a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n . I l l c r i t e r i a were s u g g e s t e d a s p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s and 6 l a s n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s . However , i t i s d o u b t f u l t o what e x t e n t a m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e d i v i s i o n can be drawn between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s s i n c e c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d p o s i t i v e by some consumers and n e g a t i v e by o t h e r s . A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t h e s u g g e s t e d c r i t e r i a i s g i v e n i n T a b l e I V . They a r e o r d e r e d on the b a s i s o f f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e . A p l u s o r minus s i g n i n d i c a t e s w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m was s u g g e s t e d a s a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the i t e m s g i v e s some v e r y g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a a s ba se s f o r p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n . B u t , g i v e n t h e s m a l l s i z e o f the sample g r o u p , any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn a r e i n e v i t a b l y t e n u o u s , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , each i t e m was r e g a r d e d a s e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the p u r p o s e o f subsequent d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The i t e m s l i s t e d range a l o n g a s p e c i f i c i t y - g e n e r a l i t y c o n t i n u u m . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t some consumers e v a l u a t e s t o r e s on t h e b a s i s o f g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a , whereas o t h e r s can s p e c i f y much more d e t a i l e d a t t r i -b u t e s o f t h e s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t a s b e i n g i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s l i s t o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a i s more d e t a i l e d t h a n t h o s e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, the e x i s t e n c e o f common b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s c a n be n o t e d . Such c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e p r i c e , q u a l i t y , l o c a t i o n , p e r s o n n e l and a d v e r t i s i n g . However , i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e s e c a t e -g o r i e s a r e synonymous w i t h the d i m e n s i o n s on w h i c h p r e f e r e n c e s a r e f o r m e d . T a b l e I V . E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a . ITEM FREQUENCY A g g r e s s i v e a s s i s t a n t s (-) 18 Good q u a l i t y p r o d u c t s (+) 16 Ease o f r e t u r n i n g goods (+) 14 S e l e c t i o n o f goods (+) lk Good r e p u t a t i o n (+) Ik F a v o u r a b l e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e (+) 13 Good v a l u e f o r money (+) 12 S a l e s o f f e r s / s p e c i a l p r o m o t i o n s (' + ) 11 A d v e r t i s e d goods (+) 10 B e i n g l e f t a l o n e t o browse (+) 10 S t o c k o f s u i t a b l y s t y l e d goods (+) 10 Crowded s t o r e (-) 10 C o n v e n i e n t t o home (+) 9 W e l l - o r g a n i s e d l a y o u t (+) 9 C o n v e n i e n t f o r p a r k i n g (+) 9 S u i t a b l y p r i c e d goods (+) * 8 S t o c k o f n o n - s t a n d a r d i s e d goods (+) 7 A t t r a c t i v e window d i s p l a y (+) 6 C o n v e n i e n t f o r bus (+) 6 C o l o u r f u l d i s p l a y s (+) 6 I n t e r e s t i n g d i s p l a y (+) 6 B e i n g r e c o g n i s e d by the a s s i s t a n t s (+) 5 B e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the s t o r e (+) 5 Too e x p e n s i v e goods (-) 5 C l u t t e r e d d i s p l a y (-) 5 L o c a t i o n n e a r o t h e r s t o r e s u sed (+) 5 W e l l - c a r p e t e d s t o r e (+) 5 N o n - p r e s s u r i s i n g a s s i s t a n t s (+) 4 B e i n g a b l e t o f e e l anonymous (+) 4 C o l o u r o f goods s t o c k e d (+) 4 Background mus ic (+) 4 D i s o r g a n i s e d lay-out (-) 4 Bad p a s t e x p e r i e n c e (-) 4 Jumbled ar rangement o f goods (-) 4 H o l d i n g a charge a c c o u n t (+) 3 ITEM S t o c k o f f a s h i o n a b l e goods (+) P o s t - p u r c h a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n (+) M u l t i p l e p u r c h a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( Quie t s t o r e (+) S p a c i o u s l a y o u t (+) A i r y a tmosphere (+) T a s t e f u l d i s p l a y s (+) T r u s t w o r t h y s t o r e (+) Mature c l e r k s (+) P r o f e s s i o n a l s a l e s s t a f f (+) P a r t i t i o n e d l a y o u t (+) Good l i g h t i n g (+) I n s i n c e r i t y o f s a l e s s t a f f (-) Low q u a l i t y m e r c h a n d i s e (-) C l o s e s c r u t i n y by a s s i s t a n t s (-) Empty s t o r e (-) F e e l i n g c o n s p i c u o u s (-) Ease o f o b t a i n i n g charge a c c o u n t ( * P e r s o n n e l o r i e n t e d t o t h e young (+) Atmosphere o r i e n t e d t o t h e young (+ K n o w l e d g a b l e s a l e s s t a f f (+) S t o c k o f brand name goods (+) E a s y t o f i n d goods (+) C o n v e n i e n t t o w o r k p l a c e (+) S i n c e r e p e r s o n n e l (+) Good p r o v i s i o n o f m i r r o r s (+) B o u t i q u e - t y p e s t o r e (+) E x c l u s i v e l y t a i l o r e d i t e m s (+) C e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d (+) Subdued l i g h t i n g (+) W e l l - s p a c e d r a c k s (+) D e l i v e r y s e r v i c e (+) C l e a n s t o r e (+) C l e a r l y t agged i t e m s (+) Ease o f e x i t (+) ITEM FREQUENCY E a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p e r s o n n e l (+) 2 I n c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n (-) 2 Cheap a tmosphere (-) 2 Cramped l a y o u t (-) 2 S t a n d a r d i s e d i t e m s (-) 2 P o o r s e r v i c e (-) 2 Rushed s e l l i n g (-) 2 C o n f u s i n g d i s p l a y (-) 2 B a r g a i n basement a tmosphere (-) 2 Rock mus ic p l a y i n g (-) 2 L o c a t i o n i n d e p r e s s i n g a r e a (-) 2 No p r e s s u r e on t ime payments (+) 1 S t o c k i n g c o r r e c t s i z e (+) 1 I n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n n e l (+) 1 Money back g u a r a n t e e (+) 1 B e i n g a b l e t o t r y on goods a t home (+) 1 A s s i s t a n t s w i t h p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( + ) 1 A s s i s t a n t s u n p e r t u r b e d by no s a l e (+) 1 Range o f medium p r i c e d goods (+) 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e s t y l e o f goods (+) 1 S t o r e w h i c h s t a n d s b e h i n d i t s goods (+) 1 C o n c i s e arrangement o f goods (+) 1 Empty s t o r e ( +) 1 R e l i a b l e p r i c i n g (+) 1 A t t r a c t i v e d i s p l a y s (+) 1 E x p e n d i t u r e on d e c o r (+) 1 P o s t - p u r c h a s e s e r v i c e s (+) 1 A s s i s t a n t s n e a r a t hand (+) 1 Wel l -made i t e m s (+) 1 I tems made f rom q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s (+) 1 W e l l - w r i t t e n s i g n s / l a b e l s (+) 1 Use o f a t t r a c t i v e model s (+) 1 E x c l u s i v e a tmosphere(+) 1 C l e r k s d r e s s e d i n l i n e w i t h own t a s t e (+) 1 M i x e d l i g h t i n g (+) 1 D e s i r a b l e i t e m s i n the window (+) 1 Young window model s (+) 1 E x c l u s i v e l y d e s i g n e d i t e m s (+) 1 S t y l e o f p a c k a g i n g (+) 1 Comprehens ive d i s p l a y (+) 1 ITEM FREQUENCY T e x t u r e o f goods (+) 1 Young p e r s o n n e l (+) 1 C a s u a l l y d r e s s e d s a l e s s t a f f (+) 1 I n d e p e n d e n t l y o p e r a t e d s t o r e (+) 1 S e l e c t i v e b u y i n g (+) 1 P e e r group p e r s o n n e l (+) 1 P r o m i n e n t d i s p l a y s (+) 1 Complementary i t e m s i n window d i s p l a y (+) 1 L o c a t i o n i n p l e a s a n t a r e a (+) 1 S m a l l s t o r e (" + ) 1 Calm atmosphere (+) 1 Wooden f i t t i n g s (+) 1 E s t a b l i s h e d - l o o k i n g s t o r e (+) 1 D i s c r e t e l y p r i c e d goods (+) 1 S t o c k o f B r i t i s h goods (+) 1 Modern s t o r e (+) 1 A i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g (+) 1 L o c a t i o n i n q u a l i t y a r e a (+) 1 O n e - f l o o r s t o r e (+) 1 L u x u r i o u s s e t t i n g (+) 1 C o a t s a r r a n g e d a r o u n d w a l l s (+) 1 N i c e d r e s s i n g rooms (+) 1 O f f the ground f l o o r (+) 1 D i s p l a y s u g g e s t i v e o f b a r g a i n s (+) 1 I m p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n t s (-) 1 F a i l i n g t o s t o c k c o r r e c t s i z e (-) 1 S t y l i s h goods (-) 1 S p e c i a l t y s t o r e (-) 1 P o o r s t o r e s e r v i c e s (-) 1 V e r y modern s t o r e (-) 1 S u s p i c i o u s a tmosphere (-) 1 S a l o n - t y p e atmosphere (-) 1 M i s l e a d i n g a d v e r t i s i n g (-) 1 Not b e i n g a l l o w e d t o browse (-) 1 S t o c k o f J apanese goods (-) 1 H a v i n g t o pay f o r d e c o r (-) 1 A m a t e u r i s h l y p r i n t e d s i g n s / l a b e l s (-) 1 B u l l y i n g by o t h e r cus tomers (-) 1 E x c e s s i v e a d v e r t i s i n g (-) 1 Dominant s m e l l s (-) 1 ^ Co 89. ITEM FREQUENCY. Narrow a i s l e s (-) U n p a r t i t i o n e d shop f l o o r (-) H a r s h l i g h t i n g (-) M a j o r r e t a i l o r g a n i s a t i o n s (-) V e r y wide s e l e c t i o n (-) D i s i n t e r e s t e d s a l e s s t a f f (-) L a r g e p r i c e t a g s (-) Chrome f i t t i n g s (-) D i r t y s t o r e (-) Near b a n k r u p t s t o r e (-) No o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y on goods (-) Use o f d u l l c o l o u r s (-) Goods s c a t t e r e d o v e r a wide a r e a (-) V e r y q u i e t s t o r e (-) C h e c k i n g i n / o u t o f d r e s s i n g rooms (-) S e l f - s e r v i c e (-) F r e q u e n t s a l e s o f f e r s (-) M o d i s h a s s i s t a n t s (-) E l d e r l y a s s i s t a n t s (-) O l d s t o c k (-) N o i s y s t o r e (-) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The p u r p o s e o f the n e x t s t a g e o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o r e d u c e t h i s l i s t o f c r i t e r i a t o a s m a l l e r number o f u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . C . THE ANALYSIS OF PREFERENCE DIMENSIONS, ( i ) Development o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The i n t e r v i e w s t age d e t e r m i n e d a t t r i b u t e s o f the s t o r e e n v i r o n -ment w h i c h a r e a p p a r e n t l y s a l i e n t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f consumer p r e f e r -e n c e s . I n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e t h e e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n s on w h i c h p r e f e r -ences a r e s t r u c t u r e d i t was n e c e s s a r y t o measure t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t consumers a s c r i b e t o t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s when s e l e c t i n g a s t o r e a t w h i c h t o p u r c h a s e c l o t h i n g . F o r t h i s purpose a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d i n T a b l e I V . I t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e c r i t e r i a s u g g e s t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s d e c i s i o n was made on t h e b a s i s t h a t a s u b j e c t i v e e d i t i n g a t t h i s s t a g e w o u l d have i n t r o d u c e d an unwanted s o u r c e o f b i a s . The f a c t t h a t a number o f ' r e d u n d a n t ' c r i t e r i a were 9 0 . t h e r e f o r e r e t a i n e d ' was n o t r e g a r d e d a s a d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n c e the s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s was s een t o p r o v i d e a more v a l i d b a s i s on w h i c h t o d e t e r m i n e r e d u n d a n t v a r i a b l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e t e n t i o n o f seem-i n g l y synonymous c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e d a measure o f d a t a r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h e form o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c h e c k s . The i t e m s were l i s t e d i n a random o r d e r i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s s e r v e d t o e n s u r e a random d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i t e m s , and hence t o r e d u c e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s e t e r r o r . Two i t e m r o t a t i o n s were e m p l o y e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s was t o a v o i d i t e m s b e i n g s c o r e d i n t h e same sequence by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s was s e e n t o be i m p o r t a n t g i v e n t h e e x h a u s t i v e l e n g t h o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . I t i s d e b a t a b l e w h e t h e r s c h e d u l e l e n g t h and d a t a r e l i a b i l i t y a r e i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d , bu t the use o f d i f f e r e n t i t e m r o t a t i o n s s e r v e s t o m i n i m i s e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e r r o r b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d f rom t h i s s o u r c e . The s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e employed t o measure t h e a t t i t u d e s o f consumers t o w a r d s t h e v a r i o u s s t o r e a t t r i b u t e s , d e s c r i b e d by t h e c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a L i k e r t s c a l e . ( L i k e r t , 1932) Each r e s p o n d e n t was a s k e d t o s c o r e each o f the c r i t e r i a on a s c a l e r a n g i n g f rom ' 1 ' t o ' l O ' , where ' 1 ' was t o i n d i c a t e an i t e m o f no i m p o r t a n c e when s e l e c t i n g a s t o r e a t w h i c h t o p u r c h a s e c l o t h i n g and ' 1 0 ' i n d i c a t e d an i t e m o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . I t ems w h i c h were f e l t t o be i m p o r t a n t n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s were t o be s c o r e d i n the same way e x c e p t t h a t a minus s i g n was t o be u sed t o i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e v a l e n c e . ( I t t r a n s p i r e d t h a t most r e s p o n d e n t s u s e d a t w e n t y - o n e p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g f rom - 1 0 t o +10 w i t h a m i d - p o i n t z e r o . ) I tems r e l a t i n g t o demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . E a c h r e s p o n d e n t was a s k e d t o g i v e d e t a i l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , 91. f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and c l o t h i n g e x p e n d i t u r e . The purpose o f c o l l e c t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was to i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t e d between the r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h s e r v e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a p p e a r s i n the a p p e n d i x . ( i i ) Sample S e l e c t i o n . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o members o f a f i r s t y e a r u n d e r -g r a d u a t e geography c l a s s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Those s t u d e n t s l i v i n g a t home were g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s t o c o m p l e t e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d , o f w h i c h 120 were u sed as the b a s i s f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . The r e m a i n i n g 50 p e r cen t were e i t h e r n o t r e t u r n e d o r were r e t u r n e d i n c o m p l e t e . The use o f c o n v e n i e n c e samples o f t h i s k i n d i s common where t h e r e s e a r c h purpose i s t o i d e n t i f y u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s w i t h i n complex d a t a s e t s as a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s f o r subsequent t e s t i n g . ^ The purpose i n d i s t r i b u t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s was t o i n c r e a s e t h e demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f the sample group i n s e e k i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s c o r e s and consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( i i i ) D a t a A n a l y s i s . (a ) M o d e l s e l e c t i o n I n C h a p t e r 3 v a r i o u s methods f o r d e f i n i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f i n i t i a l d a t a s e t s were d i s c u s s e d ; one o f t h e s e , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , was The e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a number o f examples o f t h e use o f c o n v e n i e n c e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t s s i m i l a r t o the one d i s c u s s e d h e r e ; s e e , Downs ( 1 9 7 0 ) , M c K e c h n i e ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and P e t e r s o n , B i s h o p and Neuman ( 1 9 7 0 ) . 92. used i n t h i s p i l o t s t u d y . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was s e l e c t e d as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g model g i v e n the n a t u r e o f the d a t a ( i . e . s c a l e s c o r e s on p r e d e t e r m i n e d a t t r i b u t e s ) , t h e n a t u r e o f the o b j e c t s ( i . e . c l o t h i n g s t o r e s i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c o u t l e t s ) , and t h e e x p l o r a t o r y purpose o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s u s e f u l i n two r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t s ; t h e s e a r e (a ) t o e x p l o r e v a r i a b l e a r e a s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s p r e s u m -a b l y u n d e r l y i n g the v a r i a b l e s ; (b) t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s about t h e r e l a t -i o n s among v a r i a b l e s . ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964, p . 680) The c o n c e r n h e r e i s w i t h t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e two p u r p o s e s , s i n c e the a i m i s t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s ( e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a ) and t o d e r i v e common f a c t o r s ( p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s ) w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e s t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . The p r i m a r y v a l u e o f u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s way i s t o a c h i e v e c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and h e r e t h e s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n i s t o c l a r i f y the c o n c e p t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e by i d e n t i f y i n g i t s u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s . (b ) Bas_ic £onc£pt_s_o_f _ f a £ t o r _ a n a 1 y s i s . A n a l y s i s b e g i n s w i t h t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o -e f f i c i e n t s among a l l the v a r i a b l e s . From t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e l i n e a r e x p r e s s i o n s f o r each o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t e r m s o f some new f a c t o r s i n s u c h a way t h a t the l i n e a r model p r o v i d e s an adequate f i t t o t h e o b s e r v e d d a t a . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s assumes t h a t t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e o f a v a r i a b l e j i s composed o f common, s p e c i f i c and e r r o r v a r i a n c e . Common v a r i a n c e i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e w h i c h c o r r e l a t e s w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ; s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e w h i c h does n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h any o t h e r v a r i a b l e ; and e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s the chance v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r s o f s a m p l i n g , measurement , u n s t a n d a r d i s e d c o n d i t i o n s o f t e s t i n g , and many o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h may c o n t r i b u t e t o u n r e l i a b i l i t y . I t i s assumed t o be u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the r e l i a b l e v a r i a n c e and o t h e r e r r o r v a r i a n c e . ( F r u c h t e r , 1954, p.45) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f v a r i a n c e can be d e s c r i b e d by the f o l l o w i n g l i n e a r e q u a t i o n where t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e o f j e q u a l s 1.0. 2 2 2 2 2 1.0 = a . n + a . » + a . + s . + e . J l 02 j r j 0 I I [ I I common v a r i a n c e s o r s p e c i f i c e r r o r -, • *. r^. 2.\ v a r i a n c e v a r i a n c e c o m m u n a l i t y C h . ) 3 A s t h i s e q u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , the c o m m u n a l i t y o f v a r i a b l e j i s d e t e r m i n e d by the sum o f i t s i n d e p e n d e n t common v a r i a n c e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s " c l a s s i c a l " f a c t o r a n a l y s i s model f rom t h e p r i n c i p a l components m o d e l . Wherea s , i n t h e case o f the c l a s s i c a l f a c t o r m o d e l , each v a r i a b l e i s d e s c r i b e d l i n e a r l y i n t e r m s o f a number o f common f a c t o r s and a f a c t o r u n i q u e t o the p a r t i c -u l a r v a r i a b l e , i n t h e p r i n c i p a l components model each v a r i a b l e i s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f common f a c t o r s o n l y . Harman (196?, p.28) p o i n t s out t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two model s i n t h a t " t h e v a l u e s p u t i n t h e d i a g o n a l o f t h e o b s e r v e d c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x d e t e r m i n e what p o r t i o n s o f the u n i t v a r i a n c e s a r e f a c t o r e d i n t o common f a c t o r s . " I n the case o f the c l a s s i c a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s m o d e l , numbers a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e communal-i t i e s a r e put i n t h e d i a g o n a l o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , and the subsequent f a c t o r s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s b o t h common and u n i q u e f a c t o r s ; w h e r e a s , i n t h e case o f the p r i n c i p a l components m o d e l , u n i t i e s a re p l a c e d i n t h e d i a g o n a l w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e f a c t o r s o l u t i o n must 9 4 . n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e o n l y common f a c t o r s " s i n c e o n l y common f a c t o r c o -e f f i c i e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n r e p r o d u c i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s , and u n i t i e s must be r e p r o d u c e d . " (Harman, 1 9 6 8 , p-. 1.47) The i n i t i a l f a c t o r m a t r i x (n v a r i a b l e s x m f a c t o r s ) can be a r r i v e d a t by v a r i o u s methods o f w h i c h the most common i s the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n d e v e l o p e d by H o t e l l i n g ( 1 9 3 3 ) . T h i s method i n v o l v e s d e f i n i n g axe s w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f N i n d i v i d u a l s i n n d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . These axe s c o r r e s p o n d t o the f a c t o r s . F a c t o r 1 i s d e f i n e d i n such a way t h a t i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e v a r i a n c e i s m a x i m i s e d , the second and s u c c e e d i n g f a c t o r s a r e o b t a i n e d such t h a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the r e s i d u a l v a r i a n c e s i n each case a r e m a x i m i s e d . T h i s i n i t i a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n has an a r b i t r a r y r e f e r e n c e b a s i s , and f o r the p u r p o s e s o f f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r o t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e i s u s u a l l y employed t o d e r i v e a second f a c t o r m a t r i x . V a r i o u s o r t h o g o n a l o r o b l i q u e s o l u t i o n s can be o b t a i n e d . Of t h e o r t h o g o n a l s o l u t i o n s , the v a r i m a x method ( K a i s e r , 1958) i s p e r h a p s t h e most p o p u l a r , and t h i s was u s e d i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . C r i t e r i a t o gu ide the s e l e c t i o n o f a r e f e r e n c e b a s i s f o r a f a c t o r s o l u t i o n a re o u t l i n e d by Harman ( 1 9 6 7 , P»98) on the b a s i s o f T h u r s t o n e ' s p r i n c i p l e o f ' s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e ' . ( T h u r s t o n e , 1947) The ' s i m p l e s t r u c t -u r e ' c r i t e r i o n f a c i l i t a t e s f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s f i n d i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g i v e n c l u s t e r s o f v a r i a b l e s but w h i c h a r e u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h o s e i n d i c e e s b e l o n g i n g t o the o t h e r c l u s t e r s . Once the r o t a t e d f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e has been d e t e r m i n e d , i t i s u s u a l t o compute f a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h d e f i n e t h e p r o f i l e s f o r the N i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e rms o f the new h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e t h e s e f a c t o r s c o r e s by o b t a i n i n g l i n e a r e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e 9 5 . f a c t o r s i n t e r m s o f the o b s e r v e d v a r i a b l e s , and subsequent ly-s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e s o f such v a r i a b l e s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . ( c ) R e d u c t i o n £ f _ t h e _ v a r i _ a b l e _ set^. P r i o r t o t h e f a c t o r i n g o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o reduce the number o f v a r i a b l e s . A r e d u c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t l y , t o e l i m i n a t e s u s p e c t e d r e d u n d a n c y i n t h e i n i t i a l s e t o f v a r i a b l e s , s i n c e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was n o t s i m p l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s e r e d u n d a n c i e s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y be i d e n t i f i e d and removed b e f o r e f a c t o r i n g . S e c o n d l y , a r e d u c t i o n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case was n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y the c o n s t r a i n t o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s m o d e l , t h a t the number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s exceed t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d t o s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g r e d u n d a n c i e s i n t h e v a r i a b l e s e t . Where two o r more c o n c e p t -u a l l y synonymous v a r i a b l e s were found t o be h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , o n l y one v a r i a b l e was r e t a i n e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . F o r e x a m p l e , ' a t t r a c t i v e d i s p l a y ' , ' c o l o u r f u l d i s p l a y ' and ' t a s t e f u l d i s p l a y ' were h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and o n l y ' t a s t e f u l d i s p l a y ' was r e t a i n e d ; s i m i l a r l y , f rom ' q u i e t s t o r e ' , ' v e r y q u i e t s t o r e ' and ' n o i s y s t o r e ' o n l y ' q u i e t s t o r e ' was r e t a i n e d . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n t u i t i v e l y s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s c o n f i r m a t i o n on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s . A t t h e same t i m e , h o w e v e r , t o assume t h a t a p p a r e n t l y ' s i m i l a r * v a r i a b l e s a r e i n f a c t synonymous on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b e i n g h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d must be r e c o g n i s e d as a s o u r c e o f b i a s ; e q u a l l y , the s e l e c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e f rom a s e t o f two o r more s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s i n e v i t a b l y i n t r o d u c e s s u b j e c t i v i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t 96. the degree o f s u b j e c t i v i t y i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s way i s l e s s t h a n w o u l d have o c c u r r e d had t h e v a r i a b l e s e t been r e d u c e d p r i o r t o the a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s , w h i c h were n o t r e g a r d e d as commonly s i g n i f i -c a n t t o consumers when s e l e c t i n g a c l o t h i n g s t o r e , were p r e d i c t a b l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l o w b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s ( f o r e x a m p l e , ' c o a t s a r r a n g e d a r o u n d w a l l s ' and 'wooden r a c k s ' ) . These were u s u a l l y i t e m s w h i c h had been r e c o r d e d o n l y once d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s t a g e . S u c h v a r i a b l e s were a l s o e x c l u d e d from t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s i n c e t h e y were j u d g e d n o t t o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f common f a c t o r s . On the b a s i s o f t h e s e p a r t l y s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , t h e v a r i a b l e s e t was r e d u c e d t o 70. The s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the a p p e n d i x . (d) F a £ t o r _ a n a l y s i s of_the_re_duce_d_variable_ set , . The BMDX 72 f a c t o r a n a l y s i s programme was u s e d t o p r o c e s s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a . V a l u e s i n t h e d i a g o n a l o f the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x were i n i t i a l c o m m u n a l i t y e s t i m a t e s computed on t h e b a s i s o f s q u a r e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s . A v a r i m a x o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e , and f a c t o r s c o r e s were computed f o r e a c h o f the 120 o b s e r v a t i o n s . The f i r s t s t a g e o f the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d the f o r m a t i o n o f a 70x70 c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x d e s c r i b i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between the v a r i -a b l e s . Of t h e 4830 o f f - d i a g o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , 917 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t ) were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the.01 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . ( n . d . f.=ll8) As a b a s i s f o r the i n i t i a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 97. e q u a t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x were computed ; t h e r o o t s o f t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , t e r m e d e i g e n - v a l u e s , s e r v e as a g u i d e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the number o f common f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d . I t i s u s u a l to e s t a b l i s h a c u t - o f f l e v e l f o r f a c t o r i n g a t the p o i n t where t h e e i g e n - v a l u e s f a l l b e l o w a v a l u e o f +1.0. I n t h i s c a s e , t e n f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n - v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n +1.0 were e x t r a c t e d w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r 55*5 p e r -c e n t o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e . The i n i t i a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a 70 v a r i a b l e s x 10 f a c t o r s m a t r i x w h i c h was t h e n r o t a t e d t o p r o d u c e a s e cond 70x10 m a t r i x . E l e m e n t s i n t h e r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x c o n t a i n e d f a c t o r l o a d i n g s w h i c h c o m p r i s e a measure o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i a b l e s and t h e f a c t o r s . The r o t a t e d f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d a r e f e r e n c e b a s i s f o r f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T a b l e V shows the p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by each f a c t o r , and t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made by each f a c t o r t o t h e common f a c t o r v a r i a n c e b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r r o t a t i o n . T a b l e V I shows t h e r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x . T a b l e V . V a r i a n c e s A c c o u n t e d f o r by each F a c t o r . % o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e % o f common f a c t o r % o f common f a c t o r v a r i a n c e b e f o r e v a r i a n c e a f t e r r o t a t i o n r o t a t i o n F a c t o r 1 22.268 40.12 .13.80 F a c t o r 2 10.922 19.68 18.19 F a c t o r 3 5.179 9.33 14.46 F a c t o r 4 3.527 6.35 10.32 F a c t o r 5 3.144 5.66 14.04 F a c t o r 6 2.368 4.26 5.86 F a c t o r 7 2.311 4.16 4.62 F a c t o r 8 2.110 3.80 9.61 F a c t o r 9 1.876 3.38 4.05 F a c t o r 10 1.798 3.24 5.04 55.5 a p p r o x . 100.0 a p p r o x . 100.0 a p p r o x . T a b l e y i . R o t a t e d F a c t o r - L o a d i n g s M a t r i x . f A C' np - L o A n i IM 0, S M A T R I X ' I T S A V \ U I E O S F A T f P T H A N OR FCt)/>l. T O 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 V A P. T A Sit F i GLUT ,? r "M. i . 3 1 I. 4 c o <! v 5 r A r s 6 TH'ST 7 C A L M n c :< r i_ 9 O U A I . 10 rtf'l.lT 1 1 1 .<": A 0 1 S P cr !.n f- A n ~ 1 2 1 3 11 1 9 2 0 /.I 2 A 2 5 2 7 2 8 P T J l.i'>'p r -• T A IIV-L " M P K r. L r- A I 7 ^ ' - ' A T . S S T C P O V K_fL I A V p c o o n <; T n R ! r. Ij T 0 Fpy u C T O wUA!.. P I' ;- !. S T Y ! . r.' i o F i) l PT 1 M H A P F A r: r . v , P A o K O P L S 9 TOP Oil T O y r , i IM jr <: L ; T | Mf r V i r f c A r. *-i r A 3 4 G P I ' K 0 "AO. o o n n PAYS MC'-'F. ' N | U : L 1 A Y O T M O S • c - i 7F - p p r-. o • Y P A C (i\ST 0 * - 0 F A r.T PJR c ? pf; 7 1 3 8 (.. •:. :>•:>?, 11 l 3 1 F! 6 - 6 ! P-2 •<: . 7 1 1 1 6 • 0 . A ; 1 6 6 0 . 1 0 1 4 9 • 0 . 0 5 7 6 2 0 7 9 9 3 C 6 9 ' - 0 6 4 6 9 0 7 7 6 6 r i f l P 8 - o r. * - 0 - 0 0 0 5 6 6 . 1 2 0 7 4 , C 1 3 8 0 . 3 0 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . 0 2 4 2 1 0 1 2 6 7 0 9 7 4 4 2 3 9 2 8 1 2 9 3 8 - 0 . 1 0 8 1 3 0 . 0 4 0 9 9 0 . 1 . 2 9 1 4 - 0 . 0 6 1 6 1 0 . 1 1 5 4 2 2 0 4 3 2 3 6 6 81 0 5 5 4 0 0 7 2 3 5 0 6 1 7 7 . 0 2 1 8 4 . 2 0 5 4 5 . 0 3 7 3 5 , 0 6 4 9 0 . 0 2 3 3 5 - 0 , 0 . 0 , - 0 . - 0 . 1 3 8 2 7 1 2 9 2 6 0 5 5 3 1 0 53 8 9 0 2 4 7 4 1 0 0 . 0 . 0 . - 0 . - 0 . 1 0 2 4 3 0 8 1 4 1 0 8 2 2 4 0 2 2 3 7 2 1 9 9 4 1 0 5 ] <•• '(• '" A '• 3 r 4 0 7 ]?."<? 4 8 9 ^ 3 04 7 5 1 * - 0 . 6 3 8 7 6 C . O 1 C 1 2 - o . o a 11 7 r . 0 ? 5 3 0 - C . i. 4 3 6 0 ">7 - - > • . o i 0 * 0 0 - 0 . 0 9 5 7 1 4 n o p , 6 . 3 9 ; 4 ^ > 7 0 9 7 5 C 5 3 . ? 5 . C 7 7 2 9 - . - 0 . - 0 , - 0 . -C. 1 9 0 4 2 2 7 0 2 3 1 3 0 4 7 1 ! 5 1 0 C 4 7 6 6 1 0 3 3 0 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . 0 9 6 8 3 0 5 0 7 2 0 6 1 8 8 0 9 5 7 0 0 1 9 3 0 1 4 R 8 1 O.lJ2~90T" 0 . 0 9 2 9 3 0 . 0 4 4 6 7 0 . 0 0 8 5 9 - 0 . 0 4 5 2 0 I T . 1 1 5 2 7 1 5 2 0 8 44 c<3 6 0 2 4 2 8 3 2 74-4 0 4 .3 7 6 2 o 4 0 1 2 5 0 2 5 0 3 4 ^ 1 4 C ^ 5 0 - 0 . 1 . 4 2 2 7 • 0 . 7 5 4 9 2 - 0 . 1 5 3 2 2 7 l ? ! . 7 6 6 0 9 ' . 1 0 2 4 4 i 0 0 2 7 2 C 6 2 4 7 . 1 7 1 8 7 . 5 9 3 4 3 0 9 1 5 9 . 2 9 6 1 1 . - 0 . 4 7 6 6 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 7 3 0 . ! 2 8 4 5 - 0 . 7 4 0 7.7 0 . 0 0 7 6 4 7 0 5 3 6 0 3 3 3 2 1 4 0 5 3 0 2 7 91 1 r 2 2 I • 0 . 0 6 5 5 1 0 . 0 5 4 2 9 0 . 0 £ I 0 - 0 . 0 5 1 7 5 • O . o ? 2 0 9 - 0 . 6 6 9 9 4 0 4 3 5 1 0 2 6 2 5 0 7 5 7 2 2 7 2.0 1 1. 1 0 . 3 8 2 6 4 4 6 "0"335T" C 3 9 8 7 2 1 7 1 9 0 6 7 2 1 1 3 3 4 7 0 9 2 4 0 - 0 . , 0 9 6 1.7 . 0 6 4 0 5 . 2 7 1 1 6 , 0 0 4 6 6 C 5 6 2 9 . 0 2 6 2-3 2 5 3 2 4 0 5 2 2 9 0 7 6 2 6 0 4 1 6 0 1 2 6 4 1 6 2 5 6 4 4 2 1 9 3 1 2 6 9 5 1 0 ^ 3 5 2 7 6 1 4 1 1 2 5 8 2 8 5 8 2 0 - 0 * - 0 0 - 0 , 4 7 7 9 7 1 8 . 2 7 6 . 4 3 5 2 1 , 6 6 C 1 3 3 2 9 6 5 9 , 3 2 8 7 1 0 ^ " 0 . 0 3 20 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 20 - 0 . 0 4 4 8 1 0 . 0 3 0 4 9 0 . 0 5 2 S 9 _ 0 . 0 4 7 1 5 o; 0 1 5 7 0 0 7 9 6 9 1 2 5 6 9 0 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 0 1 - 0 , - 0 , - 0 - 0 . <J. - 0 , 2 4 2 2 1 0 6 2 0 2 2 0 6 7 0 0 9 7 16 0 0 5 5 3 0 0 7 6 7 0 . 2 8 4 3 7 0 . 3 8 5 0 8 0 . 2 8 9 8 4 - 0 . 0 8 8 4 7 C . 0 9 5 4 5 0 . 3 3 8 5 6 - 0 . - 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . - 0 , 0 4 6 1 9 0 3 7 6 5 1 8 4 9 5 1 0 1 2 8 0 4 8 3 9 0 9 0 1 3 - 0 . 1 1 3 7 4 0"5"10 2 0 . 0 2 1 7 8 C . 1 0 8 1 9 0 . 1 4 6 14 0 . 0 1 8 1 3 0 . 0 3 2 3 4 1 5 6 3 4 0 0 C 2 9 0 1 9 5 8 1 7 1 6 3 0 2 3 8 2 - 0 . 0 , - 0 . - 0 , 0 . - 0 . 1 9 1 9 7 C 1 9 5 8 0 7 2 0 8 0 2 8 1 0 0 7 5 4 6 1 1 8 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 6 1 0 . 0 1 3 6 8 0 . 0 7 6 4 4 C . 0 4 0 6 1 0 . 0 2 0 3 9 0 . 1 5 2 6 2 0 . 0 . * 0 . - 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 6 2 4 5 0 7 5 4 9 5 6 4 9 6 0 0 8 7 2 1 2 1 2 8 1 6 3 5 1 0 3 4 6 8 0 7 6 6 8 0 0 C 2 1 11 1 4 2 11 178 0 . 4 0 5 4 3 - 0 , - 0 • - 0 . - 0 , - 0 , - 0 . 0 1 4 10 2 3 6 0 3 1 6 9 3 9 1 7 3 6 9 0 7 3 3 1 2 3 9 4 7 * - 0 1 - 0 *-o 2 7 6 9 7 1 ('• R 5 4 0 5 5 4 3 2 5 4 2 8 0 3 1 4 1 0 1 1 7 3 0 . 0 7 9 4 1 5 8 7 1 9 0 2 4 8 0 0 8 7 7 0 0 c K 3 4 . 5 c 'un 1 0 9 9 6 7 " , 0 4 0 3 7 , ! 3 6 6 8 . 2 8 6 9 6 . 4 2 6 6 c ; . 0 4 6 0 5 2.2 3 7 9 5 4 1 5 6 . 1 " 3 1 8 5 5 0 9 0 , 6 3 1 0 1 0 1 3 8 9 - 0 . 0 . * - 0 . 0 . - 0 , - 0 . 2 3 2 1 6 0 2 8 7 7 6 4 5 9 0 0 3 9 1 7 1 4 1 9 5 1 7 0 1 5 1 2 7 9 3 0 7 8 4 9 0 5 4 5 6 0 . 2 1 0 7 9 0 3 6 C 9 0 2 6 8 1 0 . 0 7 6 8 3 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 3 4 6 0 . 0 0 7 7 5 - 0 . 0 0 8 3 5 - 0 . 0 5 2 4 2 . 1 6 9 3 1 , 0 8 6 0 1 . 0 1 5 2 4 , 2 1 5 4 3 0 8 4 7 9 , 0 9 9 1 7 0 . 0 9 3 9 9 0 . 1 4 3 7 1 0 . 1 7 3 7 5 0 . 1 5 9 7 3 - C . 0 0 0 9 6 _ G . 0 ^ 8 3 4 _ - 0 ^ 2 2 2 1 8 0 . 0 9 4 5 7 - 0 . 0 1 4 8 6 0 . 0 6 3 5 7 0 . 0 4 1 2 1 0 . 1 4 7 1 9 . 2 5 3 3 1 . 0 6 2 4 0 . 3 4 7 3 9 . 0 2 0 2 8 . 0 7 9 0 7 , 2 1 6 4 6 . 0 2 9 2 5 . 1 8 7 9 1 , 0 0 4 2 5 . 1 1 1 8 4 . 0 2 3 3 8 . 1 1 9 6 6 - 0 . 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . 1 84 91 0 5 8 7 3 1 5 3 3 8 3 6 3 38 0 9 6 0 2 1 C 6 2 9 * - G . 0 . * - 0 . - 0 . 54 3 9 4 2 3 2 3 1 5 7 3 5 3 0 5 9 3 1 0 6 4 9 6 2 7 6 2 4 0 . 1 4 4 8 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 1 1 0 . 0 8 4 6 6 0 . 0 5 8 4 6 0 . 0 8 5 0 5 0 . 0 1 4 4 2 0 . 0 0 3 0 5 • 0 . 1 7 2 9 8 - 0 . 0 7 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 4 6 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 6 0 . 1 6 5 7 9 - 0 - 0 . - 0 *-o - 0 , 4 9 4 9 4 0 9 5 2 6 ,1 1 1 4 8 , 5 7 4 9 8 , 5 8 8 4 6 . 1 1 8 1 1 0 . 1 4 4 4 6 - 0 . 1 8 2 4 6 - 0 . 0 9 7 4 1 0 . 0 1 7 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 1 6 0 0 . 0 1 2 5 3 . 0 6 4 9 4 . 0 9 2 0 5 . 0 1 9 1 8 . 0 4 1 9 0 , 1 1 3 0 0 , 1 8 3 9 1 Co T a b l eVI - c o n t i n u e d . P A , ! P C K F S -V .1 9 0 8 7 - n . 2 3 5 8 2 0 . 2 0 3 6 7 " " - 0 . 3 3 2 4 8 - 0 . 3 2 5 3 2 0 . 0 7 1 7 0 0 . 0 4 6 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 3 5 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 6 3 0 . 0 3 6 5 2 7 M ' - ' C Y l i ^ f - * - 0 . 7 1 2 7 1 - 0 . C (• 6 9 9 0 . 0 C 4 3 9 0 . 0 2 9 7 2 - 0 . 1 8 3 1 0 0 . 0 7 8 2 6 0 . 0 5 7 0 7 - 0 . 1 5 6 1 9 - 0 . 1 0 8 2 2 - 0 . 0 5 2 1 4 . 0 n, ' • ,P V A I PI 0 . O f * « e . 1 1 1 8 4 * C . 7 P 6 8 1 P . 0 0 2 . 6 3 - 0 . 1 4 2 5 9 - 0 . 0 1 4 5 7 0 . 0 8 7 5 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 7 3 - 0 . 0 6 3 4 6 0 . 0 1 9 2 8 < ; P I G . n n n s - 0 . 0 3 3 3 0 . C P 3 5 c , 0 . 6 f J 2 5 5 0 . 0 0 6 8 7 - 0 . 2 1 6 7 2 0 . 0 7 2 1 3 0 . 0 0 6 5 1 - 0 . 1 4 3 5 6 0 . 0 0 8 1 8 0 . 0 6 4 8 0 f I " C P 1. AY - A . i 1 3 6 8 3> — Pi . A p 2 9 6 0 . 0 4 0 5 5 0 . 0 7 3 7 4 - 0 . 0 8 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 4 1 5 5 - 0 . 0 6 6 8 9 0 . 0 7 7 3 3 - 0 . 0 8 8 3 6 - 0 . 0 8 5 1 5 4 1 . 1 6 5 2 . , - . 3 7 ]. 3 0 . 1 6 7 6 2 - 0 . 4 7 4 7 4 - 0 . 1 7 1 9 3 0 . 2 1 7 4 9 - 0 . 0 3 6 2 3 - 0 . 2 1 4 6 3 - 0 . 0 6 2 1 3 0 . 0 1 8 5 1 - 2 Q i i r 5 r no [ t - 0 . 3 2 8 A 4 p . 2 ?. 2 r - 9 0 . 2 2 1 5 4 - 0 . 1 3 8 0 5 - 0 . 1 7 2 4 9 0 . 0 8 8 7 6 - 0 . 0 7 3 9 9 - 0 . 0 8 8 7 1 0 . 4 2 0 0 4 0 . 0 1 . 2 6 3 4 3 T .'. n n 1 5 p - 0 . 3 4 0 3 4 0 . 0 « f , n 3 0 . 3 0 1 8 ° - 0 . 1 2 2 2 3 - 0 . 2 2 2 1 . 4 0 . 2 4 0 0 2 0 . 3 2 1 8 4 - 0 . 4 2 8 9 5 0 . 2 0 1 3 6 0 . 2 3 3 8 8 4 4 '••! ! L r ,»• ?' * - 0 . 5C 4-^1 () . 0 P P ? 2 0 . A ' 5 8 2 1 - P . 1 3 8 4 7 - 0 . 1 9 7 7 9 0 . 1 6 4 3 1 0 . 0 0 8 7 2 - 0 . 0 2 7 3 7 0 . 1 0 6 9 7 0 . 2 8 1 8 0 4 C : K ::l i P P 1 C -p. . o / , p -c . 0 7 1 p 4 * 0 . 6 2 3 0 7 - 0 . 8 4 - 0 . 1 6 5 9 3 - 0 . 0 8 1 2 7 ' - 0 . 0 3 0 5 9 - 0 . 1 2 5 3 6 0 . 1 3 5 0 3 0 . 0 1 0 5 6 4 A p p p v i . c ] c. -j r o (• r% - 0 . ! 3 1.6 5 - 0 . 0 1 1 4 7 - 0 . 1 0 9 2 8 - 0 . 0 5 3 4 9 0 . 0 6 1 7 8 0 . 1 0 7 6 8 - 0 . 2 8 4 6 1 - 0 . 1 6 2 9 4 /-7 - P • 4 - P P 4 _ (•• . ) 7 A P P 0 . 1 7 A 7 8 0 . 1 6 4 P 2 - 0 . 0 1 6 3 7 0 . 0 1 1 3 3 C . 0 5 2 3 9 - 0 . 1 3 3 4 7 0 . 1 2 4 6 3 0 . 2 3 0 3 0 J ^ P I1. A l T P C P O -A . P P A P 1 -1 . 1 6 J 2 6 0 . 0 7 2 4 3 - 0 . 3 6 6 7 8 - 0 . 1 9 7 7 7 C O 8 0 1 8 0 . 0 0 7 1 4 - 0 . 2 3 3 5 4 0 . 0 0 3 8 8 0 . 4 0 6 5 5 4 P • / r n r p . p r n - 0 . 3 5 2 3 ! - 0 . 1 10 ] 4 0 . 0 2 7 9 7 - 0 . 4 5 1 0 8 - 0 . 1 6 8 7 3 0..9 5 0 6 5 0 . 2 9 6 4 4 - 0 . 3 5 4 4 6 0 . 1 6 2 3 5 0 . 1 1 4 3 2 t; r S A I. A T ' H ? ' " - c . P 6 C 9 6 0 . 0 e ? 4 3 - 0 . 0 3 7 1 1 - 0 . 1 2 3 4 3 0 . 0 2 f 8 1 - 0 . 1 6 0 o 2 - 0 . 0 6 2 4 8 G . 1 4 9 9 2 0 . 0 9 1 6 2 5 1 - P . r 7 0 1 0 o . - 1 4 2 2 0 . 2 4 1 1 2 _ p. ~x i: o. i, r) - 0 . 1 6 7 0 5 0 . 0 0 6 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 5 4 3 - 0 . 4 5 0 8 2 0 . 1 2 3 4 7 0 . 0 5 7 9 2 6 2 r * V p X'11 P A . P 4 P ' 4 2 0 . 1 I 2 4 6 * C . 5 7 9 1 9 - 0 . 0 7 1 7 3 - 0 . 1 1 6 4 5 0 . 1 4 1 2 4 0 . 1 1 3 5 5 - 0 . 2 9 7 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 4 4 0 . 1 9 0 3 9 5 3 A T T [••„ ; - r . 3 6 ^ 5 n - A . 0 2 2 0 7 0 . 2 9 8 9 2 - 0 . ? 2 1 ° 5 - 0 . 2 9 2 7 9 0 . 2 2 4 3 8 0 . 4 6 5 6 8 - 0 . 3 1 6 2 3 0 . 0 0 2 6 9 0 . 2 6 0 8 9 er ? - T O i P ' ' i r. - P . 3 P . 7 C 3 -p> . 0 P 8 2 3 0 . 2 2 8 7 7 0 . 0 2 9 4 5 - 0 . 2 0 3 Q 9 0 . 1 0 5 0 8 0 . 2 8 2 3 4 - 0 . 4 2 3 2 5 - C . 2 2 5 2 . 2 0 . 1 9 7 5 0 s L ! T A L f ' N •-' . P A P A 0 0 . 2 2 1 8 4 0 . 0 6 8 2 9 * - 0 . 7 7 4 8 4 0 . 0 7 8 1 7 0 . 0 0 0 9 3 - 0 . 0 5 5 9 2 - 0 . 1 3 1 2 4 0 . 0 0 0 7 1 Pf F f ' i - s r r : r ? r - 0 , 2 4 P 3 3 - 0 . 2 6 6 2 3 - 0 . P 6 ' 6 7 0 . 0 9 8 26. - 0 . 0 S 6 2 7 - 0 . 0 7 7 3 6 * - 0 . 5 3 4 1 7 - 0 . 2 9 3 6 5 0 . 0 6 3 9 7 0 . 1 6 3 4 2 3 7 A ^f- C P. P A - 0 . ] 2 5 8 4 _ n . ' 0 0 2 9 2 C . 2 6 8 7 8 - 0 . 2 1 9 0 4 * - 0 . 5 6 7 7 8 0 . 1 9 7 8 1 0 . 0 9 8 9 6 - 0 . 1 5 7 5 6 C . 1 6 0 4 5 0 . 0 5 5 0 9 158 T iL: 5 T 0 i ' r 0 . 0 1 P 3 ! 0 . C 6 C 4 6 * 0 . 7 / , 2 8 2 - 0 . 1 ) 6 5 2 - 0 . 2 2 4 8 2 0 . 0 9 2 2 3 0 . 1 2 7 0 9 - 0 . 2 9 7 9 9 0 . 1 2 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 5 3 0 2 tr c. <•••r I i_ M c M - 0 . 1 P ' l * 6 - (1 . 1 3 > " i 1 C . 2 4 2 4 3 - 0 . 3 1 6 4 9 - 0 . 2 3 3 5 3 0 . 1 7 8 9 3 - 0 . C 4 9 1 0 * - 0 . 5 0 9 6 5 - 0 . 0 1 6 1 7 0 . 0 5 7 4 3 (• r ;.M.!<:.H<;f-i i - 0 . 1 6 1 'il'- * - 0 . 6 S 1 ] 2 - 0 . C 5 P : 6 0 - 0 . 1 0 6 6 5 0 . 1 5 1 3 3 0 . 0 4 7 2 4 0 . 0 9 7 0 4 0 . 1 2 2 0 3 - 0 . 0 8 6 5 2 0 . 0 5 9 7 2 6 ] V n j n p r . AM . 0 4 4 7 3 '} .r A. 3 f i 0 0 . 2 4 5 6 1 - P . ^ 6 4 0 0 - 0 . 1 4 7 2 7 0 . 2 0 4 6 1 0 . 2 2 4 1 7 0 . 1 0 1 8 3 - 0 . 0 1 0 6 0 0 . 1 1 9 3 5 t ? - 0 . 1 4 2, p A. •f - f-. 3 6 / 3 - 0 . 1 2 6 P 5 0 . C 3 2 9 6 - 0 . 0 6 2 2 7 - 0 . 0 8 1 9 4 - 0 . 1 0 5 9 3 - 0 . 0 3 4 4 2 - 0 . 2 8 7 1 3 0 . 0 5 9 8 9 / p !< POl-i «i S S I - 0 . 1 7 5 8 4 /*• . p A 4 9 8 0 . 3 r - 3 4 B - 0 . 1 3 6 6 7 - 0 . 1 4 8 4 2 0 . 0 1 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 5 6 9 4 * - 0 . 6 8 6 1 2 0 . 0 4 7 4 2 0 . 0 5 4 7 1 r ^ P O P P A <• P U —r i ? p ? . f; . 0 7 0 7 7 0 . 4 2 5 6 1 - 0 . 3 2 4 7 5 - 0 . 2 4 3 0 2 0 . 1 1 1 9 4 - 0 . 0 3 2 2 9 - 0 . 3 7 9 1 3 0 . 3 0 1 6 0 - 0 . 0 6 6 4 9 A 5 - 0 . O ^ ' A . C P -O. . 1 5 3 7 9 0 . 1 8 9 9 2 - 0 . 1 « 3 7 5 - 0 . 1 3 3 9 1 0 . 2 4 8 3 3 - C . 0 7 C 1 1 - 0 . 1 1 5 0 6 - 0 . 1 4 4 3 2 * 0 . 6 0 1 9 8 A 6 - 0 . 1 6 1 7 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 4 7 0 . 1 5 4 2 4 - P . 3 2 4 Q 3 - 0 . 4 5 8 9 4 0 . 0 2 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 1 0 7 6 0 . 0 1 8 0 2 0 . 0 0 3 7 7 0 . 0 8 9 2 9 A 7 F '•'t'OrsPCO *-0 . P ? 9 2 0 . 0 2 3 2 3 - 0 . 0 8 8 1 2 - 0 . 0 5 6 6 4 - 0 . 4 5 1 9 7 0 . 1 4 C 2 9 0 . 1 3 2 9 3 - 0 . 0 9 0 9 2 0 . 1 8 4 8 5 0 . 1 9 6 9 7 6 ! ' S P A T L A v o - 0 . 0 3 . 1 . 8 0 0 . 1 0 9 7 9 - 0 . 1 0 7 0 5 - 0 . 2 7 9 3 0 * 0 . 7 5 8 1 2 0 . 0 4 5 1 1 - 0 . 0 7 8 9 5 0 . 0 8 6 3 8 0 . 1 1 3 5 0 6 9 • : - V f- P I i V f j - 0 . 0 = 6 1 7 r, . 0 3 4 6 0 0 . 2 4 9 4 8 - 0 . 1 3 A 0 6 - 0 . 1 3 0 7 8 * 0 . 8 1 1 6 5 0 . 1 0 5 4 6 - 0 . 1 3 6 5 4 0 . 0 7 0 4 8 0 . 0 1 9 7 0 7 0 L A P T A G - 0 . ( , 9 3 2 0 - 0 . 1 5 5 6 7 - 0 . 0 4 6 5 9 - 0 . 0 8 6 7 3 - 0 . 2 4 5 9 1 * 0 . 5 4 7 7 3 - 0 . 4 7 6 5 2 - 0 . 0 5 7 5 5 - 0 . 0 9 1 4 2 0 . 1 1 8 9 7 Si,'.''' ur- sou A H E D F A C T O R - L O A D I N ; . S O i V I O E C B Y SUf! C F C O M M U N A L I T I E S 0 . 1 3 P. C 1 0 . 1 4 4 6 7 0 . 1 0 3 2 2 0 . 1 4 0 3 8 0 . 0 5 8 6 1 0 . 0 4 6 2 4 0 . 0 9 6 0 8 0 . 0 4 0 5 1 0 , 0 5 0 4 0 S O 100,. ( e ) F a c t £ r _ i n t e_rp_ret a t i o n . The r o t a t e d f a c t o r s a r e b e s t d e s c r i b e d i n t e rms o f t h e i r h i g h e s t l o a d i n g v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e VU l i s t s the t e n h i g h e s t l o a d i n g v a r i a b l e s on e a c h f a c t o r . A d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h l o a d h i g h e r on t h e f a c t o r t h e y a r e d e s c r i b i n g t h a n on any o t h e r , and v a r i a b l e s w h i c h l o a d e d h i g h e r on a f a c t o r o t h e r t h a n the one t h e y a r e d e s c r i b i n g (shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) . F a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l y s u b j e c t i v e . I d e a l l y , t h e a i m i s t o a c h i e v e a c a p s u l e d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h c r y s t a l l i s e s t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h h a s p r e s u m a b l y r e s u l t e d i n a s e t o f v a r i a b l e s b e i n g c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r on a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r d i m e n s i o n . However , f a c t o r d e f i n i t i o n i s r a r e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , s i n c e i t may be the ca se t h a t d i m e n s i o n s r e p r e s e n t c l u s t e r s o f s e e m i n g l y u n r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . T h i s i s more e s p e c i a l l y a p r o b l e m where f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s employed i n an e x p l o r a t o r y c o n t e x t , a s i n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , a s a p r i o r i e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e a r e t h e n se ldom w e l l -d e f i n e d . The v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e VTIare u sed h e r e t o d e s c r i b e t h e d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h u n d e r l i e the r e s p o n d e n t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s l o a d i n g h i g h l y on f a c t o r 1 l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e y have i n common an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b o u t i q u e - t y p e s t o r e s a p p e a l i n g t o a r e l a t i v e l y young c l i e n t e l l e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e c o n c e p t o f ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' i s c o n j u r e d t o summarise t h i s e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n . V a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g f a c t o r 2 a r e c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w q u a l i t y s t o r e s , r e f l e c t i n g s u c h i n - s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s t h e a t m o s -p h e r e , s e r v i c e and a r rangement o f t h e g o o d s . ' C h e a p n e s s ' i s s een t o 101'. be an a p p r o p r i a t e summary c o n c e p t . F a c t o r 3 c a n p e r h a p s be l a b e l l e d a ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' d i m e n s i o n . The c o n c e p t o f r e l i a b i l i t y i s s een t o be r e l a t e d h e r e t o such v a r i a b l e s a s good v a l u e , q u a l i t y m e r c h a n d i s e , and the r e p u t a t i o n and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f t h e s t o r e . F a c t o r k r e p r e s e n t s a c l u s t e r i n g o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h commonly d e f i n e the c o n c e p t o f ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' . C o n v e n i e n c e p e r h a p s e x t e n d s beyond the n o t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s o f s t o r e and home, and s t o r e and w o r k p l a c e , t o f a c t o r s w h i c h make f o r ease o f p u r c h a s i n g . I t i s p e r h a p s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o c r e d i t b u y i n g l o a d h i g h e s t on t h i s f a c t o r . F a c t o r 5 b r i n g s t o g e t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i m p l y the c o n c e p t o f ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' . T h i s i s seen t o p e r t a i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m e r c h a n d i s e , the s t o r e f a c i l i t i e s and t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the n e i g h -b o u r h o o d i n w h i c h the s t o r e i s l o c a t e d . F a c t o r 6 a c c o u n t e d f o r a l o w p e r c e n t a g e o f the common f a c t o r v a r i a n c e , and o n l y t h r e e v a r i a b l e s have t h e i r h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n . These seem t o be r e l a t e d t o f e a t u r e s o f s t o r e a r r a n g e -ment and l a y o u t . V a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g f a c t o r 7 a r e l a r g e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ' d i s p l a y ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F a c t o r 8 r e p r e s e n t s a c l u s t e r i n g o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h can p e r h a p s be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f the c o n c e p t o f * s e c u r i t y ' , e x t e n d i n g f rom c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e p o l i c y s u c h as a money-back g u a r a n t e e , and f rom t h e d i s p o s i t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s o f the p e r s o n n e l . The p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g v a r i a b l e s on f a c t o r 9 r e l a t e t o the c o n c e p t s o f ' q u i e t n e s s ' and ' c a l m n e s s ' , w h i l e v a r i a b l e s w i t h n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s a r e 102 T a b l e V I I . H i g h e s t L o a d i n g V a r i a b l e s on the R o t a t e d F a c t o r s . * F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 F a c t o r 3 F a c t o r 4 F a c t o r 5 b o u t i q u e n e s s " " c h e a p n e s s " " r e l i a b i l i t y " " c o n v e n i e n c e " " e x c l u s i v e n e s s " ATMOYUNG POORSERV GOODVALU CONVHOME LEFTALON (-.71) (-.76) (+.78) (-.63) (-.77) YOUNGPER JUMBGOOD TRUSTORE CONVWORK NICEDRES (-.70) (-.75) (+.74) (-.59) (-.66) SALATMOS DIRTSTOR QUALMATS TIMEPAYS FASHGOOD (-.65) (-.74) (+.70) (-.55) (-.64) CASSTAFF CLUTDISP SELGOODS CHARGEAC CLEANSTO (-.56) (-.71) (+.68) (-.54) (-.62) ROCMUSIC HARLIGHT WELLMADE ADVGOODS CORRSIZE (-.55) (-.71) (+.65) (-.47) (-.57) EXPODECO DISORLAY RELIPRIC MAJORGAN CONCARRA (-.52) (-.69) (+.62) (-.46) (-.56) WELLCARP RUSHSELL FAVEXPER (MODERSTO) ORGALAYO (-.50) (-.68) (+.57) (-.45) (-.54) BOUTSTOR INSINCER GALMATMO (QUALAREA) STYLPACK (-.48) (-.66) (+.49) (-.42) (-.48) PARTLAYO SCRUTASS (MONEYBAC) (BRITGOOD) QUALAREA (-.44) (-.63) (+.42) (-.36) (-.47) SMALSTOR CHEATM03 GOODREPU INTEPERS LOCSTORE (-.43) (-.58) (+.42) (-.36) (-.45) F a c t o r 6 F a c t o r 7 F a c t o r 8 F a c t o r 9 F a c t o r 10 " d i s p l a y " " s e c u r i t y " " n o i s i n e s s " EASEFIND EMPSTORE KNOWASSI QUISTORE FEELANON (+.81) (-.53) (-.68) (+.42) (+.60) SPACLAYO (LARGETAG) MONEYBAC (CALMATMO) ESTASTOR (+.75) (-.47) (-.58) (+.38) (+.56) LARGETAG ATTRWIND INTEPERS (MISADVER) BRITGOOD (+.54) (+.46) (-.57) (+.33) (+.40) (FEELANON) ( INTEDISP) WELLSIGN (GOODREPU) (STYLPACK) (+.24) (+.40) (-.50) (+.30) (+.34) (TASTDISP) (DULLCOLO) (ORGALAYO) (EXCLITEM) (WELLCARP) (+.24) (-.36) (-.49) (+.28) (+.28) (ATTRWIND) (TASTDISP) CONVPARK (BARGBASE) (ATTRWIND) (+.22) (+.32) (-.45) (-.28) (+.26) (ADVGOODS) (MODERSTO) TASTDISP (ROCMUSIC) (QUALAREA) (+.21) (+.29) (-.42) (-.28) (+.25) (TIMEPAYS) (MEDIPRIC) MEDIPRIC (SCRUTASS) (TASTDISP) (+.21) (+.28) (-.42) (+.28) (+.23) (MAJORGAN) (MAJORGAN) (GOODREPU) (MEDIPRIC) (SMALSTOR) (+.20) (+.22) (-.37) (-.22) (+.23) (CONCARRA) (CLUTDISP) MODERSTO (YOUNGPER) (CASSTAFF) (+.19) (-.20) (-.35) (-.22) (+.21) The k e y t o t h e v a r i a b l e a b b r e v i a t i o n s i s found i n the a p p e n d i x . 1 0 3 . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n o i s y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The c o n c e p t o f ' n o i s i n e s s ' p e r h a p s t h e r e f o r e b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h i s d i m e n s i o n . F a c t o r 10 i s d e s c r i b e d by v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e n o t o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d and i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n t e r m s o f a c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n . A l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s s u g g e s t e d h e r e as a b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g t h e f a c t o r d i m e n s i o n s a r e l a r g e l y s p e c u l a t i v e , c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s t a n d out c l e a r l y . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e does sugges t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t e v a l u a -t i v e d i m e n s i o n s t r a n s c e n d a s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t e rms o f g e n e r a l a n d t a n g i b l e c r i t e r i a . Downs (1970) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t the p r o c e s s b y w h i c h consumers c o l l e c t , c o d e , and e v a l u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t may w e l l r e f l e c t the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t a n g i b l e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h may l a c k o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l r e f e r e n t s . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e v a l u a t i v e c o n c e p t s p u t f o r w a r d i n much o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t a n g i b l e s t o r e c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s . These c o n c e p t s were r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r a s g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a s u c h a s p r i c e , s e l e c t i o n and q u a l i t y o f m e r c h a n d i s e , s t o r e l o c a t i o n and so o n . T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s o u t l i n e d above o f s u b t l e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e s e more g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a , w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f l e s s t a n g i b l e c o n c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n s f u n c t i o n i n g as the b a s i s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s and f o r the subsequent deve lopment o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . The p r o b l e m comes, as n o t e d a l r e a d y , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s ; b u t , i n r e l a t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e p r e f e r -e n c e s , i t seems t h a t n o t i o n s s u c h as ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' , ' c h e a p n e s s ' , ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' , ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' and so on may be f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e da ta and methods u sed h e r e . 104. C l e a r l y t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f consumer r e t a i l p r e f e r -ence o b t a i n e d depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t upon t h e v a l i d i t y o f the i n p u t v a r i a b l e s . A j u s t i f i a b l e c r i t i c i s m o f the use o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ha s b e e n t h a t a d e s i r e d r e s u l t can e a s i l y be a c h i e v e d i f the i n p u t v a r i a b l e s a r e s u i t a b l y s e l e c t e d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f an u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e d e r i v e d by Downs (1970) i s p e r h a p s s u s p e c t . I t can be a r g u e d t h a t he was i n e v i t a b l y a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h he h y p o t h e s i s e d s i m p l y as a r e s u l t o f the n a t u r e o f the v a r i a b l e s he i n c o r p o r a t e d as t h e b i p o l a r c o n s t r u c t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t ( see T a b l e I ) . The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e a r i s e s o f w h e t h e r h i s r e s u l t s a r e s o l e l y a p r o d u c t o f h i s r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y , o r whether t h e y do i n d e e d r e f l e c t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f consumer images o f an u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e as t h e y e x i s t i n r e a l i t y . I t i s o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y t o pose t h e same q u e s t i o n i n a s s e s s i n g the v a l i d i t y o f t h e a n a l y s i s and r e s u l t s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . I n the c o n t e x t o f v a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n and measurement , K u n k e l and B e r r y (1968, p.25) have commented upon the weakness o f u s i n g s t r u c t u r e d t e c h n i q u e s i n a n a l y s i n g r e t a i l image d i m e n s i o n s . They c o n c l u d e t h a t , where o n l y s t r u c t u r e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e e m p l o y e d , " t h e r e s u l t i n g ' i m a g e ' i s l i k e l y t o be more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n s t r u m e n t t h a n w i t h r e a l i t y " . A s an a l t e r n a t i v e they a d v o c a t e the use o f u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as a means o f i s o l a t i n g " c r i t i c a l image c o m p o n e n t s " . I n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s p i l o t s t u d y , t h e comments o f K u n k e l and B e r r y i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b l e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d . T h i s s t r e n g t h r e s u l t s f rom the use o f u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s a s a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the s e t o f e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a t o be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The purpose i n so d o i n g was t o a v o i d t h e 105. p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e r e l y c o n f i r m i n g what may have been f a l s e a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f consumer r e t a i l p r e f e r -e n c e s . However , t h e use o f u n s t r u c t u r e d t e c h n i q u e s i n v a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n c a n o n l y i n c r e a s e t h e l i k l i h o o d o f o b t a i n i n g more v a l i d r e s u l t s i n so f a r as a l l o f the s a l i e n t v a r i a b l e s a re u n c o v e r e d . To have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t w o u l d seem t o r e q u i r e t h a t a l a r g e number o f sample i n t e r v i e w s be c o n d u c t e d , i n v o l v i n g i n t e r v i e w e e s drawn from a d i v e r s i t y o f demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e t h i s d i v e r s i t y was made i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e must be some q u e s t i o n a s t o the adequacy o f t h e sample s i z e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e some c o n f i d e n c e i n the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s f rom the f a c t t h a t the d i m e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e d do c o i n c i d e i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s w i t h the r e s u l t s o f r e t a i l image s t u d i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o n c e p t o f • c o n v e n i e n c e ' i s commonly i d e n t i f i e d by B e r r y (1968), Downs (1970), F i s k ( l 9 6 l ) and S t e p h e n s o n (1969). The c o n c e p t o f ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' can be e q u a t e d w i t h S t e p h e n s o n ' s ' d e p e n d a b i l i t y ' d i m e n s i o n , a n d i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r t o the c o n c e p t o f ' r e p u t a t i o n * as d e r i v e d by Downs and B e r r y . However , i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t i n g e n e r a l the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y demons t ra te o n l y a l i m i t e d c o i n c i d e n c e w i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s seen t o r e s u l t f rom t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h domain i n t h i s p i l o t s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the r e s u l t s a re o n l y t r u l y comparab le t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n a s i m i l a r l y d e f i n e d r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s t o r e image s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o , w h i c h a re comparab le i n t e rms o f m e t h o d o l o g y , a re n o t d i r e c t l y comparab le i n te rms o f the r e t a i l u n i v e r s e 106. s e l e c t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , B e r r y ' s r e s u l t s r e l a t e t o depar tment s t o r e s , Downs' t o a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e , S t e p h e n s o n ' s t o s u p e r m a r k e t s , and F i s k ' s r e s u l t s s u p p o s e d l y r e l a t e t o s t o r e s i n g e n e r a l . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h domain can d e t e r m i n e the r e s u l t i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f consumer p r e f e r e n c e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by the emergence o f ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' as a ma jor d i m e n s i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i n p a r t i c u l a r i s p e c u l i a r t o c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . I t f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e t h a t an a s ses sment o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n e d cannot be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ; r a t h e r , i t seems t h a t v a l i d a t i o n must a w a i t f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c l o t h i n g s t o r e s i n v o l v i n g the use o f d i f f e r e n t , and h o p e f u l l y l a r g e r , sample g r o u p s . ( i v ) The D e f i n i t i o n o f Consumer P r e f e r e n c e G r o u p s , (a ) The_ £ o m p u t a t i o n and m e a n i n g o f _ f a c t o r scores j_ As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , once the f a c t o r d i m e n s i o n s have been d e t e r m i n e d i t i s p o s s i b l e t o compute f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each o b s e r v a t i o n ( r e s p o n d e n t ) . Each r e s p o n d e n t t h e r e f o r e has a s e t o f s c o r e s e q u a l t o the number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h have been e x t r a c t e d , i n t h i s case t e n . These f a c t o r s c o r e s s e r v e as a u s e f u l check on t h e o r t h o g o n a l i t y o f the f a c t o r d i m e n s i o n s . T h i s check can be made by c o m p u t i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f a c t o r s on the b a s i s o f the f a c t o r s c o r e s . The m a t r i x o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d above i s shown i n T a b l e V I I I . T h e v e r y l o w i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s c o n f i r m t h a t the t e n f a c t o r s a r e o r t h o g o n a l . As a r e s u l t o f the c o m p u t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e e m p l o y e d , the f a c t o r s c o r e s o b t a i n e d were e f f e c t i v e l y s t a n d a r d i s e d h a v i n g t h e r e f o r e a z e r o mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l t o one . The i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s c o r e Table V'lTJ.Matrix of Correlations between the Factors. 1 2 3 4 5 Factor 1 1,000 Factor 2 0.013 1.000 Factor 3 0.008 0.009 1.000 Factor 4 0.022 0.014 -0.006 1.000 Factor 5 0.050 -0.009 -0.021 0.025 1.000 Factor 6 -0.004 0.003 0.006 -0.015 -0.009 Factor 7 -0.017 0.017 0.009 -0.012 -0.003 Factor 8 0.025 -0.001 -0.048 0.043 0.013 Factor 9 0.006 0.013 0.012 -0.038 -0.009 Factor 10 -0.017 -0.020 0.006 -0.018 -0.013 6 7 8 9 10 1.000 0.002 1.000 -0.016 -0.018 1.000 0.007 0.002 -0.016 0.014 0.021 -0.023 1.000 0.003 1.000 108. p r o f i l e s a re t h u s a measure o f the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n d e n t t o the s p e c i f i e d p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t , s i n c e the f a c t o r s c o r e s were d e r i v e d on t h e b a s i s o f o b t a i n i n g l i n e a r e x p r e s s i o n s f o r the f a c t o r s i n te rms o f the o b s e r v e d v a r i a b l e s , t h e y a re e f f e c t i v e l y w e i g h t e d t o r e f l e c t the p r o -p o r t i o n o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by each f a c t o r . I t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t any two r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d have e x a c t l y the same p r o f i l e , but i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the p r o f i l e s o f s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a number o f consumers a s c r i b e s i m i l a r d e g r e e s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r when c h o o s i n g between a l t e r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s can be r e d u c e d t o a s m a l l e r number o f d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . (b ) Gr£up_ing_o_f _f a £ t £ r _ s co r e s_. The p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g ' n a t u r a l ' g r o u p i n g s o f p o i n t s a s d i s t r i b u t e d i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l spaces was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3, and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s t axonomic p r o c e d u r e s i n t h i s r e g a r d was n o t e d . I n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t a h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g programme (FACT HGROUP) was u sed t o a g g r e g a t e r e s p o n d e n t s on the b a s i s o f s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r f a c t o r s c o r e p r o f i l e s . T h i s programme b e g i n s by d e f i n i n g each r e s p o n d e n t as a g r o u p , and t h e n r e d u c e s t h e s e N (120) g roups by a s e r i e s o f s t e p d e c i s i o n s u n t i l a l l N r e s p o n d e n t s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one o r o t h e r o f two g r o u p s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s c l u s t e r i n g t e c h n i q u e compares a s e r i e s o f N s c o r e p r o f i l e s o v e r a s e r i e s o f K (10) v a r i a b l e s and p r o g r e s s i v e l y a s s o c i a t e s them i n t o g roups i n such a way as t o m i n i m i s e an o v e r a l l e s t i m a t e o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n c l u s t e r s . I n each o f t h e s e r i e s o f s t e p s the t e c h n i q u e combines some p a i r o f g r o u p s , t h u s r e d u c i n g the number o f 109. g r o u p s by one i n each s t e p . The c r i t e r i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h p a i r i s t o be combined i s e s t a b l i s h e d on a b a s i s o f p r o f i l e s i m i l a r i t y where the t o t a l w i t h i n group v a r i a t i o n i s the f u n c t i o n t o be m i n i m a l l y i n c r e a s e d a t each s t e p i n the p r o c e s s . P r o f i l e s i m i l a r i t y i s measured i n t e rms o f the d i s t a n c e s s e p a r a t i n g the N p o i n t s i n t h e k d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e , and d i s t a n c e s a r e recomputed a f t e r each s t e p . Any g r o u p i n g a n a l y s i s i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e s a d e c i s i o n as t o how many g roups t o s t u d y . The e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n on w h i c h t o base t h i s d e c i s i o n i s the i n d e x o f c u m u l a t i v e e r r o r w h i c h i n c r e a s e s as the number o f g r o u p s i s r e d u c e d i n the case o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e d u r e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t e p - w i s e changes i n the v a l u e o f the e r r o r t e r m u s u a l l y r e v e a l s a p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e ( s ) where a n o t i c e a b l e e r r o r jump o c c u r s . The number o f g roups d e f i n e d i n the s t age p r e c e d i n g t h i s jump i s seen t o be e s p e c i a l l y w o r t h y o f s t u d y s i n c e r e d u c t i o n t o t h e n e x t s t age w o u l d i n v o l v e a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n e r r o r . T h i s c r i t e r i o n i s n o r m a l l y combined w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a p p r o x i m a t e number o f g r o u p s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s p e c i f i c number o f g r o u p s t o be a n a l y s e d . I n g r o u p i n g the f a c t o r s c o r e s i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , a n o t i c e -a b l e jump i n the e r r o r t e r m was a p p a r e n t i n r e d u c i n g the number o f g r o u p s from t e n t o n i n e . I t was d e c i d e d t h e r e f o r e t o examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t e n g r o u p s . S i x o f t h e s e t e n g r o u p s a c c o u n t e d f o r a l l bu t f i v e o f the 120 r e s p o n d e n t s and a t t e n t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p r o f i l e s o f t h e s e s i x g r o u p s . I d e a l l y , the ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o f i l e ' f o r a group i s o b t a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the group c e n t r o i d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e t h e r e was no programme a v a i l a b l e w h i c h d e f i n e d the group c e n t r o i d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a p p r o x i m a t e the c e n t r o i d by c o m p u t i n g the t e n mean factor scores for each group on the basis of the scores of the group members; these are l i s t e d i n Table IX. Group p r o f i l e s were then drawn using these mean factor score values and these are shown i n Figure 3« P r o f i l e s are shown for each of the six groups separately, and they can be compared by examining the superimposed p r o f i l e graph (figure 3g) A B C D E F Factor 1 -0.796 0.599 0.358 -0.494 -0.469 1.212 Factor 2 0.996 -0.042 -0.177 0.757 -0.982 0.723 Factor 3 0.125 -0.747 0.278 -0.317 O.192 0.460 Factor 4 0.392 0.664 0.482 -0.718 -0.217 -O.768 Factor 5 O.178 0.608 -0.055 -0.325 -0.351 -O.507 Factor 6 O.068 -0.444 -0.262 -0.055 0.247 -O.O54 Factor 7 0.229 -0.190 -0.118 0.174 0.224 -0.318 Eactor 8 -0.550 O.638 -0.135 0.436 -0.200 -0.816 Factor 9 0.399 0.006 -0.955 -O.207 0.310 0.491 Factor 10 -0.620 0.084 -0.376 0.628 0.334 0.187 * In constructing the factor score p r o f i l e s , the valences of the mean values were reversed for those factors which were negatively defined ( i e . factors: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) In terms of the factor i n t e r p r e t a t i o n outlined above, the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group p r o f i l e s can be described as follows. Group 1 respondents attributed positive importance to 'boutique-ness', and 'security', and negative importance to 'cheapness', while being e s s e n t i a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t to 'convenience'; ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' , and 'exclusiveness' when sel e c t i n g a clothing store. Group 2 members attributed negative importance to 'boutiqueness', ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' , 'convenience' and 'exclusiveness' and were r e l a t i v e l y i n d i f f e r e n t to the other dimensions. Group 3 represented i n d i v i d u a l s who placed positive importance on ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' and negative importance on 'noisiness' and 'boutiqueness'. Group 4 consumers placed positive 111. Figure 3. Group Profiles. (a) Group A (N=17) +1 0 \ -» • • • F, F_ P.P. F F p pc p p (c) Group C (1=22) * " '° +1 - l 4 p, p* p* i; p«- F« p7 p* p9 p.« (e) Group B (N=30) +1 0 1 -1 (b) Group B (N=21) +1 J 0 J -1 4 i i i i i_ P, F J3 P„ p r Pt P, a. F„ P„ (d) Group D (K=14) +1 -1 - i 1 1 L. P, P i P 3 P V P r P4 F 7 P» F„ P w j Group P (N=ll) +1 A 0 4 -1 p . p * p 3 P. Pj- p< p 7 V p 9 p, 0 F, F 4 P 3 F< P r F, P 7 P v P , F„ (g) Groups A-P (N=»115) +1 P, v2 P; F 4 p r P 4 i\ P , P Q F / O i m p o r t a n c e on ' c o n v e n i e n c e * and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t on ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' and n e g a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e on ' c h e a p n e s s ' . Group 5 members a t t r i b u t e d p o s i t i v e i m p o r t a n c e t o ' c h e a p n e s s ' and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t ' b o u t i q u e -n e s s ' ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' and ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' ; and Group 6 i n d i v i d u a l s p l a c e d p o s i t i v e i m p o r t a n c e on ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' , ' s e c u r i t y ' and ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' and n e g a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e on ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' and ' cheapnes s ' . I t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d , g i v e n the method by w h i c h f a c t o r s c o r e s a r e b u i l t , t h a t t h e s e p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a b s o l u t e s c o r e s o f t h e s i x g r o u p s on the t e n p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e IX shows t h a t o n l y one o f the mean f a c t o r s c o r e s was g r e a t e r t h a n - 1 , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t no extreme d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e group p r o f i l e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e group p r o f i l e d i ag rams i n d i c a t e r e c o g n i s a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s o f the s i x g r o u p s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n j e c t u r e t o what e x t e n t t h e s e p r o f i l e s match i n t u i t i v e i d e a s r e g a r d i n g r e c o g n i s a b l e t y p e s o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e c l i e n t e l l e . The p r o f i l e o f Group 1 seems t o c h a r a c t e r i s e the y o u n g , f a s h i o n - c o n s c i o u s shopper who w o u l d r e g u l a r l y f r e q u e n t b o u t i q u e s t o r e s and be p r e p a r e d p e r h a p s t o f o r e g o cheapnes s and c o n v e n i e n c e f o r t h e sake o f b e i n g i n f a s h i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , t h i s t y p e o f s h o p p e r i s l i k e l y t o p l a c e i m p o r t a n c e on the s e c u r i t y a t t a c h e d t o a 'money-back g u a r a n t e e ' a s a p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t a ' w r o n g ' d e c i s i o n a t the t i m e o f p u r c h a s e . I n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s the p r o f i l e o f Group 2 i s s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e ' b a r g a i n h u n t e r ' , who p r e f e r s l o w e r q u a l i t y s t o r e s . I n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s t y p e o f s h o p p e r i s the n e g a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s o f ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' and ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' w h i c h commonly c h a r a c t e r -i s e h i g h q u a l i t y s t o r e s . A h i g h e r s c o r e on ' c h e a p n e s s ' m i g h t have been e x p e c t e d however t o be t o t a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e ' b a r g a i n h u n t e r ' . The p r o f i l e o f Group 3 f i t s t h a t o f a n o n d e s c r i p t t y p e o f s h o p p e r , who has few s t r o n g l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s about c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , a l t h o u g h t h e a v e r s i o n t o n o i s e s u g g e s t s a p r o b a b l e a v o i d a n c e o f s t o r e s o r i e n t e d t o younger consumers . I n some ways t h e p r o f i l e o f Group k matches t h a t o f S t o n e ' s ' a p a t h e t i c ' s h o p p e r ( S t o n e , 195*01 p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r m s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n e g a t i v e i m p o r t -ance a t t r i b u t e d t o ' c h e a p n e s s ' p e r h a p s s u g g e s t s an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o expend any e f f o r t t o s e c u r e a b a r g a i n p u r c h a s e i n a l o w e r q u a l i t y s t o r e . The young ' b a r g a i n h u n t e r ' seems t o match t h e p r o f i l e o f Group 5 most c l o s e l y . The g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e i s p l a c e d on ' c h e a p n e s s ' bu t n o t t o t h e t o t a l n e g l e c t o f f a s h i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The ' b o u t i q u e ' c h a i n s t o r e s a r e p e r h a p s most l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t t h i s t y p e o f s h o p p e r . The p r o f i l e o f Group 6 c l e a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h e o l d e r s p e c i a l t y s t o r e c u s t o m e r , who i s a v e r s e t o s t o r e s w h i c h seek t o a t t r a c t a young c l i e n t e l l e o r w h i c h have l o w q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e f a v o u r i n g s t o r e s w h i c h a r e ' e x c l u s i v e ' and ensure t h e s h o p p e r ' s ' s e c u r i t y ' . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i m p o r t a n c e i s a l s o p l a c e d on ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' , w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t t h a t s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s h o p p e r s e x p e c t t o f i n d s u i t a b l e c l o t h i n g s t o r e s n e a r t o t h e i r homes. T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t o f L e i g h ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s s eek l o c a t i o n s i n a r e a s where t h e i r c l i e n t e l l e a re c o n c e n t r a t e d o r i n a r e a s t o w h i c h t h e y 114. can be a t t r a c t e d ( L e i g h , 1965). C l e a r l y , t h e s e t h u m b - n a i l s k e t c h e s a r e l a r g e l y i n t u i t i v e , b u t t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s sugges t t h a t the consumer g r o u p s d e r i v e d i n t h i s p i l o t s t u d y a r e r e a s o n a b l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c o g n i s a b l e t y p e s o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e c u s t o m e r . I n a d d i t i o n , the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn h e r e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t y p e s o f s t o r e t o w h i c h each o f t h e s e g r o u p s might be a t t r a c t e d a r e o f i n t e r e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e q u i r e v a l i d a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . ( c ) V a l i d a t i o n _ o _ f r e s p o n d e n t _ c l a s _ s i f i c a t i o n and g_roup_ d i j f f e r e n c e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o v a l i d a t e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s o b t a i n e d f rom t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g programme and t o c o n f i r m t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the group p r o f i l e s u s i n g m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s a measure o f t h e p o s t e r i o r p r o b a b i l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g come f rom a p r e s p e c i f i e d group and an a s s o c i a t e d r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t s . Where t h e s e p r o b a b i l i t i e s a r e h i g h and where the r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e s t h e i n i t i a l c a l s s i f i c a t i o n , the group membership i s v a l i d -a t e d and the e x i s t e n c e o f c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e g r o u p p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s c o n f i r m e d . I n p u t d a t a i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ' f a c t o r s c o r e s l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f group membersh ip . The p r o c e d u r e was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f the l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n p u t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e d between t h e g r o u p s o f r e s p o n d e n t s , i n t h e sense t h a t t h e b e t w e e n - g r o u p s sum o f s q u a r e s was m a x i m i s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w i t h i n - g r o u p sum o f s q u a r e s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s way i s c a l l e d a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n and was u s e d t o r e c l a s s i f y the r e s p o n d e n t s . The summary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o b t a i n e d i s shown i n T a b l e X . . 115. T a b l e „ X . Summary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o b t a i n e d f rom D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s . Group A B C D E F A 16 0 0 1 0 0 B 0 21 0 0 0 0 C 0 2 20 0 0 0 D 0 0 0 Ik 0 0 E 0 0 0 1 28 1 F 0 0 0 0 1 10 O f f - d i a g o n a l v a l u e s i n t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e a m i s c l a s s i f i e d c a s e . On t h i s b a s i s i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t o n l y 6 o f t h e 115 r e s p o n d e n t s were m i s c l a s s i f i e d , w h i c h s e r v e s t o v a l i d a t e the group c o m p o s i t i o n and t o c o n f i r m t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e group p r o f i l e s . T h i s l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n was f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t v a l u e s i n the between group F p r o b a b i l i t y m a t r i x were a l l f o u n d t o be z e r o . These v a l u e s a r e a measure o f the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r -ences i n the p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f any two g r o u p s c o u l d have o c c u r r e d by c h a n c e . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e powers o f t h e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . S i n c e a s t e p w i s e t e c h n i q u e was employed (BMD : 0 7 M ) , the o r d e r i n w h i c h the v a r i a b l e s were e n t e r e d i n t o the s e t o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t s t h e s e r e l a t i v e p o w e r s . T h i s o r d e r i n g i n t u r n e s s e n t i a l l y r e f l e c t s the i n i t i a l F v a l u e s computed f o r each o f the i n p u t v a r i a b l e s ; t h e s e a r e shown i n T a b l e X I , T a b l e X I . I n i t i a l F V a l u e s o f t h e I n p u t V a r i a b l e s . 116. F a c t o r 1 20.8578 • F a c t o r 2 31.2623 * F a c t o r 3 6.1201 F a c t o r 4 13.6332 F a c t o r 5 . 11.6277 * F a c t o r 6 7.0072 * F a c t o r 7 1.3797 F a c t o r 8 12.8120 * F a c t o r 9 10.7124 * F a c t o r 10 6.7353 * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t .001 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l , n . d . f . = 5, 109. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h e r e f o r e t h a t n i n e o f t h e t e n i n p u t v a r i a b l e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between t h e r e s p o n d -e n t s ' p r o f i l e s ; t h e e x c e p t i o n b e i n g f a c t o r 7 w h i c h d i d n o t a s s i s t i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between t h e p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n f a c t t h e F p r o b a b i l i t y v a l u e a s c r i b e d t o f a c t o r 7 exceeded the c r i t i c a l l i m i t o f .051 w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e was d e l e t e d f rom the s e t o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s and t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t appear i n the s u b s e -quent d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The F v a l u e s i n T a b l e 9 f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r o f i l e s were f o u n d t o d i f f e r most m a r k e d l y i n r e l a t i o n t o f a c t o r 2, w h i c h , i n terms o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s f a c t o r , may s i g n i f y the c o n t r a s t between t h e a t t i t u d e s o f the ' b a r g a i n h u n t e r * and o f the shopper who r e g u l a r l y p a t r o n i s e s ' h i g h q u a l i t y ' s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s . O t h e r s e e m i n g l y i m p o r t a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d ' b o u t i q u e n e s s * ( f a c t o r 1 ) , ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' ( f a c t o r 4) , • s e c u r i t y ' ( f a c t o r 8) and ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' ( f a c t o r 5 ) . D i f f e r e n t w e i g h t e d c o m b i n a t i o n s ( d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s ) o f the n i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s were computed i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y m a x i m a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d among the r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t 117. t h a t they" were u n c o r r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r . I t emerged t h a t two m a j o r d i m e n s i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l d i s p e r s i o n among the r e s p o n d e n t s . A p l o t o f the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n (X a x i s ) a g a i n s t t h e second (Y a x i s ) was o b t a i n e d and i s shown i n F i g u r e k. S c o r e s on t h e s e two c o - o r d i n a t e s were computed f o r each r e s p o n d e n t and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s shown by a l e t t e r e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e i r g r o u p . T h i s s c a t t e r g r a m a l s o s p e c i f i e s the l o c a t i o n s o f the group means. Two g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be n o t e d : f i r s t , t h e group means a re q u i t e c l o s e t o g e t h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e case o f g roups A , F , and D; and s e c o n d , t h e r e i s s u b s e q u e n t l y a c e r t a i n degree o f s p a t i a l o v e r -l a p between t h e g r o u p s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s c r e e t c l u s t e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s drawn f rom the same group a r e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o i n t s on t h e two d i m e n s i o n s shown i n t h e s c a t t e r g r a m t e n d t o c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r o f i l e c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s ; t h e s e b e i n g , t h a t the p r o f i l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s drawn from d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s do d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y and can be d i s c r i m i n a t e d w i t h m i n i m a l m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but t h a t extreme d i f f e r e n c e s i n group p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n o t f o u n d . ( v ) The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Demographic a n d S o c i o - e c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t o A t t i t u d e S c o r e s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t e d between the r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c l o t h i n g s t o r e s and t h e i r demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d . The i n p u t d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ' s c o r e s on the v a r i o u s demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i t e m s , a p p e a r i n g on page 1 o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( see the a p p e n d i x ) and t h e i r t e n f a c t o r s c o r e s . The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f c o r r e l a t i o n s a re shown i n T a b l e X I I ; ; demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a re l i s t e d a c r o s s the t o p and the f a c t o r d i m e n s i o n s on the s i d e . Figure 4. Scattergram of respondents on the f i r s t two discriminant functions. 5 .2 0 0 . •• 5 . 2 0 0 ' . . '550 . 4 . 9 5 0 4 . 7 0 0 . 4 . 7 0 0 4 .4 50 . F 4 . 4 5 0 4 .2 00 . 4 . 2 0 0 3.95C . 3 . 9 5 0 3 .700 . • 3 . 7 0 0 3 .^50 . 3 . 4 5 0 3.2 00 . A 3 . 2 0 0 2 . <s 50 . A A 2 . 9 5 0 2 . 7 C O . $ A F 2 . 7 0 0 2 .4 5 C . A 2 . 4 5 0 2 . 200 . F 2 . 2 0 0 1 .050 . A F A * AA F A 1. 9 5 0 1 . 70 0 . A A F * D 1 . 7 0 0 1. 4 50 . F A AD 1 . 4 5 0 1 .7 CO . C 0 0 DO 1 . 2 0 0 0 . 9 5O . B C C F AD D * A 0 . 9 5 0 0 . 7 0 0 . C B C * 0 . 7 0 0 0.4 50 . C C D C . 4 5 0 n . ? 0 0 . C B C C F E 0 . 2 0 0 - 0 . 0 50 . B 0 D E E - 0 . 0 5 0 - C . 3 0 0 . 3B C * F 0 D E - C . 3 0 0 C B B O B CP fin F - 0 . 5 5 0 - 0 . RC0 . * B C E E E - 0 . 8 0 0 -1 .050 . B f. C C E E - 1 . 0 5 0 - l . i o o . B C B F E E * E - 1 . 3 0 0 • - 1 . -50 . C F E E - 1 . 5 5 0 - 1 . 0 0 0 . H B . B E E E E - 1 . 8 0 0 - 2 . 0 5 0 . E - 2 . 0 5 0 - 2 . 300 . C E - 2 . 3 0 0 - 2 . 5 5 0 . . B E - 2 . 5 5 0 _ 2. f' 0 0 . - 2 . 8 0 0 - 3 . <"5 0 . - 3 . 0 5 0 - 3 . 3 0 0 . C E - 3 . 3 0 0 - 3 . C 5 C . E E - 3 . 5 5 0 - 3 . 8 0 0 . - 3 . 8 0 0 -4.P-50 . - 4 . 0 5 0 - 4 . 30 0 . - 4 . 3 0 0 - 4 . 5 5 0 . - 4 . 5 5 0 -4 .P .00 . - 4 . 8 0 0 - 5. 050 . - 5 . 0 5 0 - 5 . 3 0 0 . - 5 . 3 0 0 -5 .55 0 . - 5 . 5 5 0 - 5 . S C O . - 5 . 8 0 0 - 6 . 0 5 0 . - 6 . 0 5 0 - 6 . 3 0 0 . - 6 . 3 C 0 - 6 . ^ 5 0 . - 6 . 5 5 0 - 6 . B O O . - 6 . 8 C 0 - 7 . 0 5 O . - 7 . 0 5 0 - 5 . 5 5 0 - 2 . 5 5 0 0 . 4 5 0 3 . 4 5 0 6 . 4 5 0 - 7 . 050 - 4 . 0 5 0 - 1 . 0 5 0 1 . 9 5 0 4 . 9 5 0 6 . 4 5 0 6 . 2 0 0 5 . 9 5 0 5 . 7 0 0 5 . 4 5 0 H CO T a b l e X I I . C o r r e l a t i o n s between Demographic V a r i a b l e s and F a c t o r S c o r e s . Age M a r i t a l S t u d e n t C h i l d r e n E a r n i n g s F i n a n c i a l Sex C l o t h e s E d u c a t i o n S t a t u s S u p p o r t S p e n d i n g F a c t o r 1 -.297 * -.297 * -.228 -.265 * -.258 * -.061 -.059 .022 -.030 F a c t o r 2 .068 -.039 .059 -.017 .002 -.005 .049 .081 -.045 F a c t o r 3 .205 .219 .172 .140 -.012 .154 .282 * .180 -.164 F a c t o r 4 .304 * .227 .223 .234 .028 .047 .040 .108 -.269 * F a c t o r 5 -.120 -.088 .027 -.093 .011 .021 .154 .154 .045 F a c t o r 6 .082 -.005 .029 -.017 -.058 -.025 .023 .018 -.030 F a c t o r 7 -.172 - /049 -.114 .009 -.019 .074 -.063 -.016 .068 F a c t o r 8 .307 * • .164 .267 * .196 .140 .061 -.038 .111 -.183 F a c t o r 9 .217 .204 .232 .070 .141 .247 * .007 .044 -.014 F a c t o r 10 .214 .198 .223 .092 .007 .084 .119 .089 -.061 * s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ( n . d . f . = l l 8 ) 120. I t i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s a re g e n e r a l l y l o w . O n l y two v a l u e s e x c e e d .30, and o f the 90 b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s o n l y 10 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . These t e n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between age and i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o ' b o u t i q u e n e s s 1 ; a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and ' s e c u r i t y ' . An i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p was found between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and ' b o u t i q u e n e s s * , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t m a r r i e d r e s p o n d e n t s were l e s s l i k e l y t o p l a c e p o s i t i v e i m p o r t a n c e on t h i s f a c t o r . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s sugges t t h a t f emale r e s p o n d e n t s were more l i k e l y t o p l a c e i m p o r t a n c e on ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' ; n o n - s t u d e n t s were more l i k e l y t o p l a c e i m p o r t a n c e on ' s e c u r i t y ' ; ' b o u t i q u e n e s s ' was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o number o f c h i l d r e n , and a l s o t o e a r n i n g s ; ' c a l m n e s s ' was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ; and ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n . These r e s u l t s , though i n t u i t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e , a re t o a l a r g e e x t e n t s p e c u l a t i v e , g i v e n the s m a l l s i z e o f the s a m p l e . I n a d d i t i o n , the l o w v a l u e s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s i s p e r h a p s i n d i c a t i v e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o the demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d . T h i s l e a d s t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t e s t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between demographic and a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s u s i n g l a r g e r and more h e t e r o g e n e o u s s a m p l e s . O n l y t h e n w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f rom s p u r -i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n s . D. SUMMARY. The r e s u l t s o f the p i l o t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e a t e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f the v a r i a b l e s w h i c h u n d e r -l i e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c l o t h i n g s t o r e s . I t was d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the complex s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h i m p i n g e upon the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e t a i l o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be r e d u c e d t o a s m a l l e r number o f c o n c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n s , t h u s p r o v i d i n g a more i n t e l l i g i b l e v i e w o f the s t r u c t u r e o f consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s . A t the same t i m e , t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' s c o r e s on t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s f a c i l i t a t e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a b l e consumer g r o u p s , each o f w h i c h e x h i b i t s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e . The p r e l i m i n a r y and e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o a l i m i t e d s e t o f s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e s e a r c h methodo logy o u t l i n e d w o u l d seem t o have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and i t i s the purpose o f t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r t o i n d i c a t e what t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e . 122. CHAPTER 6  IN RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT: A . PRELUDE, C o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t deve lopment s i n the s t u d y o f human s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r i n geography and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c i e n c e s ( H a r v e y 1969, Downs, 1970a, C r a i k , 1970), a l a r g e p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s has i n v o l v e d a c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f the r e s p o n s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g . The emphas i s has been t o comprehend the p r o c e s s whereby s p a t i a l p r e f e r -ences a re formed i n the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t . On a c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s the i n d i v i d u a l consumer e v a l u a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r i b u t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n s o f them. A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s i s c o n c e p t u a l l y c o m p l e x , i t has been shown t h a t e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n can s u c c e e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g c e r t a i n b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l components o f p r e f e r e n c e t h r o u g h the measurement o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e subsequent a p p l i c a t i o n o f m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s s u c h as f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n a l y s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e h a v i o u r on the b a s i s o f m e a s u r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s p l a y s i s an i n t r i g u i n g o n e , w h i c h i s a t t r a c t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n i n the f i e l d o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . However , i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t , the measurement o f r e s p o n s e and t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o g n i t i o n and e v a l u a -t i o n a r e n o t t o be m i s t a k e n f o r r e s e a r c h ends i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s . R a t h e r , t h i s r e s e a r c h methodology s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a means t o an end w h i c h i s an enhancement o f our a b i l i t i e s t o e x p l a i n human s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r o v e r and above the c a p a c i t i e s o f e x i s t i n g m o d e l s . 123. I n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t t h e r e f o r e the f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s the way i n w h i c h the measurement o f consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s can c o n t r i b u t e t o a d v a n c i n g our a b i l i t y t o e x p l a i n consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . B . METHODOLOGICAL REFINEMENT. A f u n d a m e n t a l p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o the a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e s e a r c h g o a l s i s t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p and r e f i n e t e c h n i q u e s f o r a n a l y s i n g r e t a i l p r e f e r e n c e beyond the p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . P i l o t s t u d i e s o f t h a t k i n d s e r v e a n e c e s s a r y purpose i n i n d i c a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t ; t h e i n i t i a l i t e m p o o l i s t h e r e b y r e d u c e d and i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p subsequent i n s t r u m e n t s on the b a s i s o f the ' k e y ' v a r i a b l e s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d . F o r the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t used i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y , the c o n s t r u c t s t o o k the form o f s h o r t p h r a s e i t e m s . I t i s seen t o be d e s i r a b l e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o n c e p t u a l p r e c i s i o n and i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s the i t e m s i n terms o f b e h a v i o u r a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r use i n subsequent d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p h a s e s . F o r example , the i t e m ' t r u s t w o r t h y s t o r e ' m i g h t p e r h a p s be r e p l a c e d by the s t a t e m e n t ' I shop a t s t o r e s I know I can t r u s t ' . C l e a r l y , the s c a l e format w o u l d have t o change a c c o r d i n g l y ; r a t h e r t h a n a t e n p o i n t s c a l e o f i m p o r t a n c e , i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o use a f i v e p o i n t s t a t e m e n t r e s p o n s e , r a n g i n g f rom ' s t r o n g l y a g r e e ' t o ' s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' o r p e r h a p s from ' a l w a y s ' t o ' n e v e r ' . The r e s p o n d -ent w o u l d t h e n be r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h each i t e m was d e s c r i p t i v e o f h i s v i e w s o r o f h i s t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r . T h i s method o f m e a s u r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e i n v e n t o r i e s a t p r e s e n t b e i n g d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . ( M c K e c h n i e , 1970) 124. By a d m i n i s t e r i n g a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t o f t h i s k i n d t o l a r g e r and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples t h a n were i n v o l v e d i n the p i l o t s t u d y , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t and t o a r r i v e a t more d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s and o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c r i t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and consumer g r o u p s . By u s i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t t o measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a v a r i e t y o f s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t s , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the s t a b i l i t y o f p r e f e r e n c e d i m e n s i o n s a c r o s s a range o f r e t a i l f u n c t i o n s . C . FACT OR F I C T I O N . In s e e k i n g t o a c h i e v e the r e s e a r c h g o a l o f t h e o r e t i c a l a d v a n c e -ment i n the f i e l d o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r , i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o be a b l e t o demons t ra te t h a t the p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s o f a n a l y s i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s t o r e s ; i t i s a f u n d a m e n t a l n e c e s s i t y t o show c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and  g r o u p s , w h i c h d i f f e r i n t e rms o f t h e i r r e t a i l p r e f e r e n c e s , a l s o e x h i b i t  d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r . I n s h o r t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y ; h e r e , the q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s whether the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s a c t u a l l y measure what t h e y p u r p o r t t o measure . T h r o u g h o u t the d i s c u s s i o n i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , the i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n has been made t h a t s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e , as measured i n t e rms o f consumer a t t i t u d e s d i r e c t l y d e t e r m i n e s s t o r e s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r . I t i s o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y t o v a l i d a t e t h i s c e n t r a l a s s u m p t i o n e m p i r -i c a l l y . V a l i d a t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s the t e s t i n g o f two r e l a t e d h y p o t h e s e s : f i r s t l y , t h a t consumers w i t h d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r -ence p r o f i l e s e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l c h o i c e s ; and s e c o n d l y , t h a t 125. i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s i m i l a r p r e f e r e n c e s e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s p a t i a l c h o i c e s . I f i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s i n each case t h e n t h e v a l i d i t y o f a s s u m i n g a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d i n a l measures o f p r e f e r e n c e and b e h a v i o u r i s c l e a r l y q u e s t i o n a b l e , and t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e r e s e a r c h methodo logy o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y i s i n d o u b t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the v a l i d i t y o f the c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s o f the s t o r e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n the consumer b e h a v i o u r l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d r e q u i r e r e a s s e s s m e n t . A s s u m i n g f o r the moment t h a t t h e s e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s can be r e j e c t e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , i t w o u l d be r e l e v a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l s o the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e and s t o r e s e l e c t -i o n b e h a v i o u r have w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . I t was p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r t h a t r e t a i l r e s e a r c h b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n by c o n s u l t a n t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s seems t o i n d i c a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f consumer a t t i t u d e s as a v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c -i n g the l o c a t i o n o f u r b a n r e t a i l a c t i v i t y (Gruen and G r u e n , 1966 and 1967), and the c o n c l u s i o n s o f L e i g h (1965) and S c h i l l e r (1971) c o n c e r n -i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s seem a l s o t o be r e l e v a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a n a l y s e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t o r e l o c a t i o n and consumer a t t i t u d e s , , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y as a p r e l i m i n a r y t o d e t e r m i n e the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f consumer a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a u s i n g a r e a l s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I f i t t h e n a p p e a r s as t h o u g h s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g roups can be s p a t i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d , t h e r e wou ld be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t e s t i n g f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t o r e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n or i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o v a r i o u s p r e f e r e n c e a r e a s . I n so d o i n g , i t wou ld be n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t t o 126. measure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t s i m i l a r t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n r a t i n g s c a l e u sed by D a v i e s (1968) t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between suburban s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . There i s c e r t a i n l y good r e a s o n t o suppose t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s e x t e n d beyond the s t u d y o f consumer s p a t -i a l b e h a v i o u r o f r e t a i l f i r m s . I t was n o t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t , a s s t o r e s have become c r i t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom one a n o t h e r , r e t a i l c o n s u l t a n t s have i n c r e a s i n g l y p l a c e d emphas i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a n a l y s i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n consumer s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a t a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s a s a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the optimum l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e t a i l f i r m . I t f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f consumer a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a i s p e r h a p s a n e c e s s a r y endeavour i n s e e k i n g t o d e v e l o p more a c c u r a t e e x p l a n a t o r y and p r e d i c t i v e model s o f u r b a n r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e . In t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r t a k e an a n a l y s i s o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f t h e r e t a i l f i r m i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s the e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r -ences has been sought and i m p l e m e n t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t o r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y . The r e s e a r c h methodo logy d e v e l o p e d by C l a u s (1965), r e f e r r e d t o i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f one p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h t o the a n a l y s i s o f r e t a i l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , w h i c h m i g h t be u s e f u l i n t h i s c o n t e x t . I t i s c l e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t the a n a l y s i s o f t h e consumer c a n n o t be d i v o r c e d f rom an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e t a i l f i r m i f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f consumer b e h a v i o u r v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n mode l s o f u r b a n r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e i s t o be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d . D. CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS AND STORE PREFERENCE. I n C h a p t e r 2, i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e s a re formed 127. as the outcome o f i n t e r a c t i o n between consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n subsequent d i s c u s s i o n the c o n c e r n has l a r g e l y -been t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f the s t o r e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h a re s a l i e n t i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n ; as a r e s u l t , l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between consumer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the s p e c u l a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d as p a r t o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The a p p a r e n t n e g l e c t o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s no r e f l e c t i o n on i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n C h a p t e r 3, i t was m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a t t i t u d e measures p r o v i d e us w i t h a more adequate t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e g roups t h a n do p r o x y v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the consumer . A g a i n t h i s i s a s u p p o s i t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s v a l i d a t i o n . I f i t s h o u l d t r a n s p i r e t h a t a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s a re c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c e e s , i t c o u l d p e r h a p s be a r g u e d t h a t the use o f the l a t t e r s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i s p r e f e r a b l e i n model s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r s i n c e t h e y are u s u a l l y more e a s i l y and r e l i a b l y measured . I f a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t f o u n d t o e x i s t , and i f the p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e and s e l e c t i o n have been c o n f i r m e d , t h e n t h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e i s a n e c e s s a r y component i n s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n the deve lopment o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e sponse i n v e n t o r i e s i n t e r e s t has f o c u s s e d as much on the p s y c h o d y n a m i c meaning o f the s c a l e s employed a s on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . ( M c K e c h n i e , 1970) The q u e s t i o n f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d t h e r e f o r e i s ' w h a t a r e the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who r e s p o n d i n p a r t i c u l a r 128. ways t o s p e c i f i e d i t e m s o r s e t s o f i t e m s ? ' D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i g h s c o r e r s on i n v e n t o r y s c a l e s have been l a r g e l y ba sed upon c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s c a l e s w i t h such w e l l -known p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s as the C a l i f o r n i a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y (Gough, 1964), the M y e r s r - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r ( M y e r s , 1962) and the M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (Hathaway and M c K i n l e y , 1 9 ^ 3 ) . A n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s p o n s e i s an i m p o r t a n t and e s s e n t i a l l y u n e x p l o r e d a s p e c t o f s t o r e p r e f e r e n c e r e s e a r c h . I f we a c c e p t the p r e m i s e t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e n i t w o u l d seem i m p o r t a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n s e e k i n g t o d e v e l o p a comprehens ive t h e o r y o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r . T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a c h i e v e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g p e r s o n a l -i t y t e s t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e t a i l r e s p o n s e i n v e n t o r i e s . E . SYNTHESIS. I t seems i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t , by c h o o s i n g t o adopt a d i s -a g g r e g a t e d a p p r o a c h t o the a n a l y s i s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r f o c u s s i n g on the p r o c e s s whereby the i n d i v i d u a l makes d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n the c o m p l e x i t y o f the r e t a i l e n v i r o n m e n t , many i n t r i g u i n g and p o t e n t -i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e r e s e a r c h avenues a re r e v e a l e d . In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , a c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h methodo logy has been o u t l i n e d i n b o t h c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l t e rms and i t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the f u r t h e r development and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s methodo logy s h o u l d s e r v e t o enhance our a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p model s o f consumer s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h combine p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l adequacy , a c o m b i n a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t i n g model s have e s s e n t -i a l l y l a c k e d as was i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r . 129. The l o n g t e rm r e s e a r c h p r o s p e c t t h e r e f o r e i s seen t o be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by an e x p a n s i o n and i n c r e a s e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y , p e r t a i n i n g t o the dynamics o f u r b a n r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e , i n v o l v i n g b o t h t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the consumer and the r e t a i l f i r m . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e o r y development w i l l f o l l o w from a s y n t h e s i s o f r e s e a r c h endeavour w i t h i n the b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s , o f w h i c h the r a p i d g r o w t h o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y i s a c o n t e m p o r a r y r e f l e c t i o n . I f t h i s t h e s i s has succeeded i n p r e s e n t i n g an i n t e l l i g i b l e o u t l i n e o f one p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h methodo logy by w h i c h t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s might be f u r t h e r e d , i t s purpose w i l l have been f u l f i l l e d . 130. LITERATURE CITED A l l p o r t , G . W . , 1935, " A t t i t u d e s " , i n C . M u r c h i s o n ( E d . ) , Handbook o f  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1966, A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h a t S e a , C h i c a g o . A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968, A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h on the R o c k s , C h i c a g o . A p p l e b a u m , W, 196l , " T e a c h i n g M a r k e t i n g Geography by t h e Case M e t h o d " , E c o n . G e o g . , v o l . 3 7 , pp .48 -60. A r o n s , L , 196l , "Does T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g I n f l u e n c e S t o r e Image and S h o p p i n g F r e q u e n c y ? " J o u r n a l o f R e t a i l i n g , v o l . 3 7 , p p . 1 - 1 3 . B a y t o n , J . A . , 195&, " M o t i v a t i o n , C o g n i t i o n , L e a r n i n g - B a s i c F a c t o r s i n Consumer B e h a v i o u r " , J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , v o l . 2 3 , p p . 2 8 2 - 2 8 9 . B e c k e r , W . H . , 1967, R e t a i l S t o r e Image; A c o n c e p t u a l A p p r o a c h , U n p u b l i s h e d M . B . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B e r r y , B . J . L . , 1963, C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C o m m e r c i a l B l i g h t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , D e p t . o f G e o g r a p h y , R e s e a r c h P a p e r N o . 8 5 . B e r r y , L . 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M . , 1965i The A p p l i c a t i o n o f S o c i a l C l a s s i n M a r k e t Segmen-t a t i o n , B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , I n s t i t u t e o f B u s i n e s s and Economic R e s e a r c h . C a r o l , H , i960, "The H i e r a r c h y o f C e n t r a l F u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the C i t y " , A n n a l s o f the A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f G e o g r a p h e r s , v o l . 5 0 . C h a m b e r l i n , E , 1965, The T h e o r y o f M o n o p o l i s t i c C o m p e t i t i o n , E i g h t h E d i t i o n , H a r v a r d - U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . C h r i s t a l l e r , W, 1966, C e n t r a l P l a c e s i n S o u t h e r n Germany, A m e r i c a n E d i t i o n , Eng lewood C l i f f s , N . J . C l a u s , R . J . , 1969, S p a t i a l Dynamics o f G a s o l i n e S e r v i c e S t a t i o n s , B . C . Geog . S e r i e s , N o . 1 0 , T a n t a l u s R e s e a r c h L t d . 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M u r p h y , P , and G o l l e d g e , R , 1971, "The P o s i t i o n o f A t t i t u d e T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h a s a P o t e n t i a l V a r i a b l e i n Urban Geography R e s e a r c h " , p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e W e s t e r n D i v i s i o n o f t h e C . A . G . i n V a n c o u v e r . M y e r s , I , 1962, M a n u a l f o r t h e M y e r s - B r i g g s Type I n d i c a t o r , P r i n c e t o n , N . J . , E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e . M y e r s , J , and N i c o s i a , F , 1968, " O n t h e S t u d y o f Consumer T y p o l o g i e s " , J o u r n a l o r M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h , v o l . 5 , pp.182-193. N a d e r , G , 1969, " S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s and Consumer B e h a v i o u r " , Urban S t u d i e s , p p . 235-244. N e l s o n , B , 1962, " S e v e n P r i n c i p l e s i n Image F o r m a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f  M a r k e t i n g , v o l . 2 6 , 0 0 . 6 7 - 7 1 . N i c o s i a , F , 1966, Consumer D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s e s , Eng lewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l . Osgood, C , 1965, " C r o s s - c u l t u r a l C o m p a r a b i l i t y i n A t t i t u d e M e a s u r e m e n t " , i n S t e i n e r and F i s h b e i n ( E d s . ) , C u r r e n t S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n . P e t e r s o n , G , B i s h o p , R , and Neumann, E , 1970, " T h e Q u a l i t y o f V i s u a l R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the F i r s t A n n u a l M e e t i n g  o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , p p . 1 0 1 - 1 1 4 . P r e d , A , 1967, B e h a v i o r and L o c a t i o n P a r t I , Sweden, The R o y a l U n i v e r s i t y o f L u n d . P r e d , A , 1969, B e h a v i o r and L o c a t i o n P a r t I I , Sweden, The R o y a l U n i v e r s i t y o f L u n d . P r e i s e r , W, 1970, " B e h a v i o r a l D e s i g n C r i t e r i a i n S t u d e n t H o u s i n g " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , p p . 243-259 . P r o g r e s s i v e G r o c e r , 1965, C o l o n i a l S t u d y , New Y o r k . P r o u d f o o t , M , 1937, " C i t y R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e " , Economic G e o g r a p h y , v o l . 1 3 . Rachman, D, 1969, R e t a i l S t r a t e g y and S t r u c t u r e - A Management A p p r o a c h , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l . 136. R a t c l i f f , R, 19^9, Urban Land Economics. New York, McGraw H i l l . R e i l l y , W, 1931, The Law of R e t a i l Gravitation, New York, Putman. Rich, S, and P o r t i s , B, 1964, "The 'Imageries' of Department Stores", Journal of Marketing, v o l . 2 8 , pp. 10-15. Richards, E, 1957, "Commercial Application of Guttman Attitude Scaling Techniques", Journal of Marketing, v o l . 2 2 , pp . l 6 6 - 1 7 3 . Rothwell, D, 1970, Vancouver Gasoline Market, M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Rushton, G, 1969, "Temporal Changes i n Space Preference Structures", Proceedings of the American Association of Geographers, pp.129-132. S c h i l l e r , R, 1971, "Location Trends of S p e c i a l i s t Services", Regional  Studies, v o l . 5 , pp.1-10. Schlesinger, F, 1963, "John's Bargain Stores", The New York R e t a i l e r . Simmons, J, 1964, The Changing Pattern of R e t a i l Location, Chicago, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, Research Paper No.92. Sokal, R, and Sneath, P, 1963, P r i n c i p l e s of Numerical Taxonomy, San Francisco, Freeman and Co. Stephenson, W, 1963, "Public Images of Public U t i l i t i e s " , Journal of  Advertising Research, v o l . 3 , pp.34-39. Stone, G, 1954, "City Shoppers and Urban I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , American Journal of Sociology, v o l . 5 9 , pp.36-45. Thompson, D, 1966, "Future Directions i n R e t a i l Area Research", Economic Geography, vol.42, No.l, pp.l - l 8 . Thurstone, L.L., 1947, Multiple Factor Analysis, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Wasson, C, and McConaughy, D, 1968, Buying Behavior and Marketing  Decisions, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts. Weale, W, 1 9 6 l , "Measuring the Customer's Image of a Department Store", Journal of R e t a i l i n g , v o l . 3 7 , pp.40-48. 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APPENDIX C O N S U M E R A T T I T U D E S U R V E Y A D D R E S S : hundred block street city AGE: For the following. items record your answers under the appropriate heading: S I N G L E P E R S O N S O N L Y (I)" male female (1) (2) student other (1) • (2) If'other'ple?se specify occupation: Approx. earnings/year ?_ Approx. financial support from family/yoa-r Estimated annual spending on clothing goods i M A R R I E D P E R S O N S  O N L Y (7) male female (1) (2) student other (1) (2) If 'other'please specify occupation: Number of children Approx. earnings/year % Approx, financial support from fajnily/year ( i n c l . spouse) Estimated annual spending on clothing goods t EDUCATION C O M P L E T E S T O D A T S : (check the appropriate item) some high school ( ) (1) ' graduated from high school ( ) (2) • . some university ( ) (3^ graduated from university ( ) (i,) postgraduate work ( ) (5) ITEM RATINGS; In the space provided, rate the following items in terms of their importance for you when choosing a store at which to make ma.jor clothing purchases. Items should be rated on a scale ranging from 1 to 10, where 1 indicates an item of least or no importance, and 10 an item of greatest., importance; for example, i f you think an item is, somewhat important you might want to rate i t in the following way: easy to return goods _6 In the case of items li k e l y to mrko you decide against a store, the rating should bo preceded by a minus sign (-). SMT/UBC/MARCH 71. 138 ^ H o l d i n g . ? c h r r g e r e c o u n t e t t h e s t o r e •K - ' l tock o f fc s h i on? b l ? f o o d s * N o f r e s s u r e on t i m e -rey- icnts I ^person- 1" 1 r . t t i t u d c o f e . s s i s ' t en t s • C o n v e n i e n c e t o home F e l l i n g t o s t o c k c o r r e c t s i so B a s e o f o b t a i n i n g c h r r g e r e c o u n t I n c o n v e n i e n t l o c r t i o n 33? s y t o r e t u r n goods P e r s o n n e l o r i e n t e d t o t h e y o u n g • I n s i n c e r i t y o f s e l e ^ - s t c f f Good o u e l i t y p r o d u c t s • W e l l o r g a n i s e d l e y o u t • Chcp.p - t m o s n h e r e • S t o c k i n g c o r r e c t s i z e * I n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n n e l • Honey—brc'k g u e r e n t e e * C r o w d e d s t o r e • S e l e o f f e r s / s p o c i r i p r o m o t i o n s *Atraoesr>hc-ve o r i e n t e d t o t h e y o u n g B e i n g r c c p g n i s ' . - d . by t h e e s p i s t e n t s • G o o d v e l u e f o r money Be-d e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l f / f r i e n d s P o s t - p u r e h e s e s p . t i s f p . c t i o n * S e l e c t i o n o f goods * D i e o r g s n i o o d l e y o u t B e i n g r b l e t o t r y on {-roods e t home * A ^ l v o r ' * ' i g p d g o o d s * Q u i e t e t o r e « T r s t e f u l d i s o l e y s E l d e r l y r s s i s t e n t s • W e l l c e r o e t e d s t o r e Too e x p e n s i v e f o o d s Good l i g h t i n g • R e l i a b l e p r i c i n g • S t o r e l o c a t e d i n p l o e s c n t eroe . * S o c k m u s i c n l p y i n g S t o c k o f n o n - s t e n d r r d i s e d goods • S p i e l l s t o r e M u l t i p l e p u r c h r s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s N e r r o w p . i s l e s be tween r r c i s C l o e r l y t e g g e d i t e m s # S t ~ c k o f B r i t i s h goods • I i o d e r n s t o r e * j 3 e l o n - t y p e e t m o s p h t r e B u l l y i n g by o th f - r c u s t o m e r s P e e r g r o u p p e r s o n n e l VIoodon r e c k s I n d e p e n d e n t l y o p o r r t e d s t o r e S t y l i s h r o o d s Af.v r e s s i v e e s ~ i s t e n t s _ * C o n v e n i e n t f o r p p r k i n g * F c v o u r r b l c n e s t e x p e r i e n c e _ * A t t r e c t i v o v:indow d i s p l r y * R e n r : c o f medium p r i c e d , g o o d s _ « B e i n g l e f t r l o n e t o b rowse _ * Empty s t o r o S t o r e w h i c h s t p n d s b e h i n d i t s goods i i e t u r c e s e i s t r n t s _ E x c l u s i v e e t r a o s o h e r e S t o c k o f J - o e n c s e poods _ H e r v i l y e d v e r t i s e d . • ' i t r n d r r d i zed i t e m s M i x e d l i g h t i n g Y o u n g window m o d e l s . A i r y r t a o s o h e r e _ • C o n c i s e e r ' f engenien t o f goods C o n v e n i e n t f o r bus * T r u s t w o r t h y s t o r e # W o l l w r i t t e n s i g n s rnd. l e b e l s U n p e r t i t i o n e d s h o o - f l o o r • R u s h e d s e l l i n g • H e j o r r c t e i l o r g e n i z e t i o n s Chro rne - ' o l r - t ed f i t t i n g s F r e e m e n t s e l e s o f f e r s S e l f - s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n • B e r g e i n b r s o m c n t e t n o s p h e r e C h e c k i n g i n / o u t o f d r e s s i n g rooms * ;Cnowledre b l e rc;:• i s t e n t s •Good , r e p u t a t i o n S t o c k o f s u i t r b l y . s t y l e d goods • B e i n g p b l e t o f e e l enonymous P r i c e o f g o o d s F r m i l i e r i t y w i t h o s t o r e 3 e s e o f s o r t i n g t h r o u g h i t e m s C o l o u r f u l d i s p l e y s E x c l u s i v e l y d e s i g n e d ite,-ns G u e r r n t e e d p o s t - p u r c h e . s e s e r v i c e s • L o c e t i o n n o o r o t h e r s t o r e s f r e c r u e n t e d S i n c e r e p e r s o n n e l • E x p e n d i t u r e on d e c o r Good p r o v i s i o n o f m i r r o r s • S p e c i o u s l e y o u t . • E r s e o f f i n d i n g tyr>e o f g o o d s o u g h t B e c k g r o u n d . <nusic D i s p l e y s u g g e s t i v e o f b e r g e i n s P o o r s t o r e s e r v i c e s • L e r . P ' o p r i c e t e g s 139 S p e c i a l t y s t o r e * C l u t t e r e d d i s p l a y Very wide s e l e c t i o n •Use of d u l l colours •Well-fiia.de items A s s i s t a n t s near-at-hand A t t r a c t i v e "displays •Convenient to workplace Colour of goods stocked N o n - p r e s s u r i z i n g a s s i s t a n t s Conservative s t y l e of goods Amateurishly p r i n t e d s i g n s / l a b e l s L o c a t i o n i n depressing a.ree. Very q u i e t s t o r e .. Confusing d i s p l a y Coats arranged around w a l l s Ease of e x i t "' A i r - c o n d i t i o n e d store • C a s u a l l y dressed s a l e s - s t a f f • D i s c r e t e l y priced^ £rood.s •Close s c r u t i n y by a s s i s t a n t s Noisy s t o r e . Luxurious s e t t i n g One-floor s t o r e D e l i v e r y s e r v i c e •Calm atmosphere • E x c l u s i v e l y t a i l o r e d items D e s i r a b l e items i n the wind.ow C l e r k s dressed i n l i n e with your t a s t e Use of a t t r a c t i v e models *Iterns made from q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s •Boutique—type s t o r e Cramped layout A s s i s t a n t s w i t h p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s Stock of brand-name goods Susp i c i o u s atmosphere C e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d s t o r e . A s s i s t a n t s unperturbed'by no-sale •Misleading a d v e r t i s i n g Very modern s t o r e . No opportunity to t r y on goods ^ P a r t i t i o n e d l a y o u t •Jumbled arrangement of goods Well-spaced racks Having to pay f o r decor. D i s i n t e r e s t e d c l e r k s Complementary items on d i s p l a y Not being a l lowed, to browse. Lou q u a l i t y merchandise «01d e s t a b l i s h e d - l o o k i n g s t o r e Goods scattered- over a wide area, ^ _ •Harsh l i g h t i n g Texture of goods ' P r o f e s s i o n a l s a . l e s - s t a f f ...... .Store w i t h a. dominant s m e l l -•Poor s e r v i c e '' _^ «Ciorn st o r e Comprehensive d i s p l a y of goods •Location i n q u a l i t y ' a.rea. Noax bankrupt s t o r e . . • .. Old. stock | 'Modish' a s s i s t a n t s P o o l i n g conspicuous Prominent d i s p l a y of s e l e c t e d items «Style of packaging E a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e personnel *Nict' dressing, rooms Off the ground f l o o r i * D i r t y s t o r e • I n t e r e s t i n g d i s p l a y S e l e c t i v e buying by the s t o r e •Young personnel Empty s t o r e ... .Su-bdued l i g h t i n g - -* I n d i c a t e s the input v a r i a b l e s used i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , used i n TableVIl(pJ02) are u n d e r l i n e d . A b b r e v i a t i o n s 

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