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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the construction "verb + preposition + infinitive" in Spanish Ingre, Maurice David 1972

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION "VERB+PREPOSITION+INFINITIVE" IN SPANISH by MAURICE DAVID INGRE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISPANIC AND ITALIAN STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 2 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n Studies The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The i n t e n t o f the t h e s i s , as e x p l a i n e d i n the In t r o d u c -t i o n , i s to examine the development and use of the verb+pre-p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n C a s t i l i a n . The Introd u c -t i o n serves t o present the problem and to suggest an explana-t i o n . That i s , the p o s t u l a t i o n of an i n i t i a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning w i t h i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n , which has s i n c e been l o s t i n many cases. Chapter One deals w i t h the three terms employed i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n , and i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l e ambiguity of each term, and the complexity i n h e r e n t w i t h i n i t s use. I t examines s e v e r a l accepted d e f i n i t i o n s of the terms and of t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s h i p to one another, and seeks to r e s o l v e s e v e r a l conse-quent problems. Chapter Two c o n s i s t s o f a study of the development of the c o n s t r u c t i o n from L a t i n to Old Spanish. I t attempts t o d e a l b r i e f l y w i t h v a r i o u s L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e i r sub-sequent i n f l u e n c e , and t r i e s to show how many of them r e s u l t e d i n the Spanish c o n s t r u c t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Chapter Three examines a number of examples of t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Old Spanish. I t presents a p o s s i b l e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of these q u o t a t i o n s i n the context of the verb+ p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and attempts t o demon-s t r a t e how and why they occurred, comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g Old and modern usage. Chapter Four i s an examination of the s i t u a t i o n of Modern Spanish, i n terms of the same c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t loo k s a t a number of verbs i n the language, i n d i c a t e s t h e i r e t y -mology b r i e f l y , and p o i n t s out v a r i o u s comparisons and con-1 1 t r a s t s w i t h modern French. A d i s c u s s i o n of these forms f o l l o w s , w i t h the i n t e n t of c o r r o b o r a t i n g the o r i g i n a l hypo-t h e s i s . The Conclusion^, c o n s i s t s of a summation of the i n f o r -mation gained i n the course of the study. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S a b b r e v i a t i o n s page i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n . . Ii. " 1 Chapter I .. ..... " 9 Chapter I , Footnotes " 2 5 Chapter I I " 23 Chapter I I , Footnotes..... — :. " 5 0 Chapter I I I " 5 2 Chapter I I I , Footnotes... " 7 7 Chapter IV .... " 7 9 Chapter IV, Footnotes " 1 1 0 Conclusion 11 1 1 1 B i b l i o g r a p h y " 1 1 4 LIST OF TABLES Table I Verbs Re q u i r i n g the P r e p o s i t i o n "a" page 82 Table I I Verbs Re q u i r i n g the P r e p o s i t i o n nde" " 86 Table I I I Verbs Re q u i r i n g Other P r e p o s i t i o n s " 9 0 Table IV Verbs R e q u i r i n g Wo P r e p o s i t i o n " 9 5 Table V S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Verb L i s t s " 9 7 ABBREVIATIONS The f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s w i l l be used throughout both t e x t and f o o t n o t e s to designate the works i n d i c a t e d ; these l a t t e r may be found sub verba i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . Academia A l l e n F i s i o n o m i a Gramatica Hescott L i n g u i s t i c a Lopez S i n t a c t i c a : Real Academia Espanola, Gramatica de l a lengua espafiola. : A l l e n and Greenough*s New L a t i n Grammar : Criado de V a l , F i s i o n o m i a d e l idioma  espanol : Toro y Gomez, Miguel de, Gramatica de l a  lengua c a s t e l l a n a segun l a Academia EspaHola : Hescott, R., E l D e s a r r o l l o de l a s p r e p o s i - ciones en e l espaHol medieval : P o t t i e r , Bernard, L i n g u i s t i c a moderna y f i l o - l o g i a h i s p a n i c a : Lopez, Maria L u i s a , Problemas y metodos en  e l a n a l i s i s de. p r e p o s i c i o n e s : M a r t i n Alonso, : E v o l u c i o n s i n t a c t i c a d e l  espanol INTRODUCTION The i n t e n t of t h i s paper w i l l be to examine the de-velopment and use of c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n c e r t a i n types of i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n C a s t i l i a n . . The b a s i c purpose, however, w i l l not be merely to t r a c e the documented usage of these p a r t i c l e s , but to c o n s i d e r them i n the l i g h t of what might more r e a d i l y be termed a k i n d of grammatical v e s t i g e of a p r e v i o u s l y " f e l t " p a r t of speech. A person speaking h i s own n a t i v e language tends to be unaware - c o n s c i o u s l y - of the i n t r i c a c i e s of the grammar of t h a t language. He u t i l i z e s c e r t a i n forms, c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c -t i o n s , or t u r n s of phrase, not through the open r e c o l l e c t i o n of some governing r u l e , but r a t h e r by the immediate " f e e l i n g " t h a t i t "sounds r i g h t " . What "sounds r i g h t " w i t h i n a s i n g l e language, however, i s i t s e l f a r a t h e r ambiguous and o f t e n m e r c u r i a l c r i t e r i o n . G e n e r a l l y , each i d e o l e c t maintains c r i t e r i a which are p e c u l i a r to i t s e l f ; l i k e w i s e , w i t h i n - a s h o r t p e r i o d of time, the more g e n e r a l " f e e l i n g " of "what sounds r i g h t " w i t h i n a speech community a l s o tends to change. Those u t t e r a n c e s which p e r t a i n more to the v e r n a c u l a r and t o s l a n g , are u s u a l l y the most u n s u c c e s f u l i n i n t r o d u c i n g them-s e l v e s i n t o any more d e f i n i t i v e grammatical c r i t e r i o n than "what sounds r i g h t " . And yet'these u t t e r a n c e s are o f t e n the most c o l o u r f u l , the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the changing con-d i t i o n s of the language, and thus the most luminous i n d i c a -t o r s of the manner i n which the speakers of the language are modifying t h e i r " f e e l i n g " f o r t h e i r mother tongue. A f t e r some time, of course, many u t t e r a n c e s which had .2 o r i g i n a l l y appeared i n a language through attempts to cr e a t e n o v e l images, to make e x p r e s s i o n s more c o l o u r f u l , or t o a v o i d the c o n f u s i o n of words which have become homo-nyms, are f u l l y accepted w i t h i n the f o r m a l framework of the language's l e x i c o n or syntax. Such was the case w i t h French t e t e from TESTA, f o r example. S i m i l a r l y , semantic e x t e n s i o n r e s u l t e d i n the g e n e r a l Romance Languages' a d o p t i o n of CABALLUS w i t h the g e n e r a l meaning of horse; an analogous type of phenomenon r e s u l t e d i n the t r a n s f e r e n c e of meaning which caused BUCCA to give boca, e . t c , w i t h the meaning of mouth r a t h e r than cheek. And here vie encounter one of the prime.questions to be c o n s i d e r e d . To what e x t e n d i s the way a person - a n a t i v e speaker - viex^s h i s own language, " f e e l s " -h i s own language, confuses h i s own emotional i n f e r e n c e s w i t h h i s l e a r n e d and c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x e s , r e l e v a n t to the way..in which he e f f e c t s a change i n h i s mother tongue? What i s the i n f l u e n c e of a group's supposed memories of what i s to be c o n s i d e r e d " c o r r e c t " , upon the metamorphosis c o n s t a n t l y i n p l a y i n any language? Such t h i n g s as h y p e r c o r r e c t i o n are o f t e n m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s i n f l u e n c e , f o r example the hum-erous c o n n o t a t i o n a p p l i e d to such e r r o r s as bacalado, B i l b a d o , stemming from c o r r e c t i o n s t o the commonly heard but o f f i c i a l l y condemned p r o n u n c i a t i o n s such"as habla*o, canta'o, e t c . S i m i l a r l y , the e f f e c t of r e g u l a r i z a t i o n , which has had s t r o n g e f f e c t on the f o r m a t i o n of many Spanish verbs, has not been f o r c e f u l enough to i n c l u d e forms such as *rompido, *decido, and * v o l v i d o , which have not f a l l e n s u b j e c t to r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s . 3 One f a c t should permanently be borne i n mind, des-p i t e i t s seemingly obvious nature: d e s c r i p t i v e , p r e s c r i p -t i v e and p r o s c r i p t i v e grammars a l i k e are the r a t h e r a r t i -f i c i a l c r e a t i o n s of people attempting to comment upon a de f a c t o s i t u a t i o n . Although supposedly a u t h o r i t a t i v e bodies - the Real.Academia Espanola or the Academie F r a n -pa l s e , for.example - do expedite or impede change i n a language, they too are i n e f f e c t d e a l i n g a p o s t e r i o r i w i t h a language o r i g i n a t e d by a m u l t i t u d e of speakers almost t o t a l l y unconcerned w i t h " c o r r e c t n e s s " . The i n f l u e n c e s of both s u b s t r a t a and s u p e r s t r a t a , and the d i v e r s e speech p a t t e r n s of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e , i n a sense, the t r u e b u i l d e r s of speech c r i t e r i a . The f a c t t h a t F r a n c i e n superceded other G a l l i c d i a l e c t s , such as Provenpal, by f o r c e of both l i t e r -a r y and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ascendency over a p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b -l i s h e d l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , i s an example of how one d i a l e c t becomes a prestige, tongue'. Such i s a l s o the case w i t h the r i s e of C a s t i l i a n - the l i n g u i s t i c "odd man out" amongst the v a r i o u s I b e r i a n d i a l e c t s . P u r e l y e t y m o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s may be j u s t i f i e d i n the case of l e x i c a l d e r i v a t i o n s ; though here, too, one no-t i c e s the i n t e r f e r e n c e of,such phenomena as analogy, f a u l t y j u n c t u r e , popular etymology, e t c . (For example, e s t r e l l a from the "combination" of ASTRUM and STELLAM; algodon and many others r e t a i n i n g the A r a b i c d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e ; c e r r o j o by i n f l u e n c e of c e r r a r from VERUCULUM.) With the i n t r o d u c -t i o n of caiques i n t o a language, e t y m o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n can become i n c r e a s i n g l y tenuous, a t l e a s t as an e x c l u s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (For example, the f o r m a t i o n of h i d a l g o , and French p l u t . a u c i e l . ) And when one attempts to e x p l a i n syn-tax and phraseology, e s p e c i a l l y viewed d i a c h r o n i c a l l y , e t y -mology may be more hindrance than h e l p . The e x p l a n a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon, of course, should be sought w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the type of problem to be s o l v e d . That i s to say, i f the matter concerns phonetic p o i n t s , a phonetic e x p l a n a t i o n should be developed; i f m o r p h o l o g i c a l , a l i k e s o l u t i o n must be found; i f s y n t a c t i c , analogous means taken. S i m i l a r l y , i f the problem a t hand i s one which seems to r e -s i d e more i n the way i n d i v i d u a l s approach t h e i r language, t h a t i s , a'*"..subjective, type o f c r i t e r i o n , but seen on a mass s c a l e , some s o r t of " s u b j e c t i v e " s o l u t i o n must be pursued. B a s i c a l l y , the type of u t t e r a n c e to be d e a l t w i t h here i s t h a t of the p r e p o s i t i o n used between c e r t a i n verbs and t h e i r dependent i n f i n i t i v e s i n C a s t i l i a n . F o r example, why does one say voy a h a c e r l o r a t h e r than voy h a c e r l o or voy en  h a c e r l o ? Why i s i t . c o r r e c t t o say empiezan a l e e r but not empiezan l e e r or empiezan de l e e r ? What accounts f o r the l o c u t i o n cuento con v e r l e i n s t e a d of cuento a v e r l e ? What i s the reason f o r the choice of p r e p o s i t i o n i n sueno c o n t i g o , r a t h e r than sueno de t i ? Two; r a t h e r obvious types of r e a -soning w i t h r e g a r d to an answer appear immediately. One can s t a t e t h a t the usage i s e n t i r e l y dependent upon l o n g e s t a -b l i s h e d grammatical conventions and t h e r e f o r e to be observed. Or one can merely attempt t o answer the q u e s t i o n "why?" w i t h 5 the panaceic (but f a c t u a l l y i n v a l i d ) "because i t sounds r i g h t t h a t way". Both supposed answers a r e , of course, placebos, and propose no' r e a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The former i s but the k i n d o f a p o s t e r i o r i pronouncement a l r e a d y men-t i o n e d , which i n e f f e c t begs the q u e s t i o n . And the l a t t e r , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , tends, t o answer a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ques-t i o n , t h a t of "what i s used?" r a t h e r than t h a t o f "why?". N e i t h e r , then, i s s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c o r d i n g to the problem presented. Another t a c k o f t e n taken i s t o d e s c r i b e the circum-stances l e a d i n g up t o the present s t a t e of a f f a i r s . T h i s would e n t a i l a more or l e s s comprehensive l i s t i n g o f past s i t u a t i o n s , l e a d i n g up to modern grammatical p r e s c r i p t i o n , without i n v e s t i g a t i o n s or, d e l i b e r a t i o n o f impetus o r moti-v a t i o n . S e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s have been made of the development of Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n s from L a t i n . But t h i s type of. work a l s o tends t o s k i r t the i s s u e i n a most impor-t a n t sense. The "development" i n q u e s t i o n i s s t i l l a l o n g the l i n e s o f "what has happened" r a t h e r than "why. has i t happened". And i t tends to n e g l e c t , as w e l l , the "subjec-t i v e " p lane. That i s t o say, the language d i d not develop as an e n t i t y unto i t s e l f . The people speaking i t were, i n f a c t , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r moulding i t i n t o i t s present s t a t e . And those people, as we have mentioned, d i d not g e n e r a l l y govern themselves by grammatical concepts, but by p e r s o n a l c h o i c e . How e l s e can one gi v e comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i f f e r i n g s t a t e of a f f a i r s t o be found i n the d i f f e r e n t 6 Romance languages, t a k i n g i n t o account, of course, a l l o t h e r types of c r i t e r i a , such as s u b s t r a t a and s u p e r s t r a t a ( a l -though these, too, r e l a t e t o the idea of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s whims). Why, f o r example, does Spanish say prometi h a c e r l o , w h i l e French p r e f e r s . j ' a i promis de l e f a i r e ? Why does Spanish say sone' con mis amigos, i n c o n t r a s t t o French . j ' a i songe* a mes amis? And a v i v i d example might be the ambi-valence i n modern French between commencer a. f a i r e quelque-chose and commencer de f a i r e quelquechose. What accounts f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s ? Analogy w i t h i n a language, to be sure, does p l a y an important r o l e . But i t cannot r i g h t l y be taken as.the prime source o f change. The b a s i c q u e s t i o n s t i l l remains' unanswered: why was a c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n chosen to f o l l o w a c e r t a i n verb? In o r d e r to attempt a s o l u t i o n t o the problem, a num-ber of f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d . The usage i n q u e s t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a language d e r i v e d c h i e f l y from L a t i n . T h e r e f o r e , we should t r y i n i t i a l l y t o e s t a b l i s h the proba-b i l i t i e s of d i r e c t ..development from t h i s source, but b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t L a t i n seldom u t i l i z e d t h i s type of c o n s t r u c t i o n . Perhaps an examination of t h e : t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i n c l u d i n g V u l g a r L a t i n and I b e r i a n Romance w i l l prove more f r u i t f u l . We c a n a l s o attempt an a n a l y s i s of the verb - t h a t i s to say, w i t h regard to i t s meaning - which seems to have d i s p l a y e d an a f f i n i t y f o r a c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n before a dependent i n f i n -i t i v e . W i t h i n t h i s frameworky.we must c o n s i d e r such f a c t o r s as analogy - both amongst verbs and w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a d j e c -7 t i v e s and s u b s t a n t i v e s as w e l l - and concept,, as j u s t men-t i o n e d . S uccessive grammarians a l s o are sure sources of i n f l u e n c e , as i s the r e g u l a t i n g e f f e c t of the Real Academia. There must be an involvement not o n l y w i t h the e x i g e n c i e s of l i t e r a r y s t y l e , whose development u n e r r i n g l y e f f e c t s m o d i f i -c a t i o n s w i t h i n a language, but w i t h the s p o n t a n e i t y of the spoken word, whose i n f l u e n c e has been continuous throughout the h i s t o r y of the language. One of the most important and c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be the f o l l o w i n g . What are the v a r i o u s ways i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e to view the d e f i n i t i o n and f u n c t i o n of a pre-p o s i t i o n ? Not o n l y the e x p l i c i t (and o c c a s i o n a l l y i m p l i c i t ) r o l e s i t . h a s been a s s i g n e d by grammars, but the manner i n which i t can be conceived and i n t e r p r e t e d by a speaker. As the use of the p r e p o s i t i o n spread and grew i n the Romance languages, owing i n l a r g e p a r t to the breakdown of the L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n s , what kinds of connotations can be h y p o t h e s i z e d as having been a t t a c h e d to these p a r t i c l e s ? For i t i s r e a d -i l y admitted t h a t the connotations one a t t r i b u t e s t o any word, whatever i t s p u r e l y grammatical f u n c t i o n , are o f t e n more r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r the f a t e of t h i s word than i t s d e n o t a t i o n . And i t must be remembered t h a t i n . an u t t e r a n c e such as se divoLrtio en l a ciudad, the p r e p o s i t i o n f u l f i l l s a completely d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n than i t does i n se d i v i r t i o en v e r l a ciudad. In the former, the p r e p o s i t i o n demonstrates some k i n d of i n d e -pendent conceptual f u n c t i o n , w h i l e i n the l a t t e r i t serves r a t h e r as a mere grammatical t o o l , without any obvious, funda-mental p a r t t o p l a y i n the meaning of the phrase. How, then, do we account both f o r the a c t u a l r e t e n t i o n of a p r e p o s i t i o n , and f o r the p a r t i c u l a r choice of the p r e p o s i t i o n en a f t e r the verb d i v e r t i r s e ? . When I b e r i a n Romance speakers " i n i t i a l l y " d e cided t o u t i l i z e en i n t h i s context - or another p r e p o s i -t i o n i n another s i t u a t i o n , o r no p r e p o s i t i o n a t a l l - how were th e y approaching the meaning? Did they perhaps tend to t h i n k of the p r e p o s i t i o n as b e i n g important because of a r e a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n b e i ng c o n s i d e r e d i n h e r e n t i n i t s use? That i s to say, were these c o n s t r u c t i o n s formed a t f i r s t by speakers viewing the p r e p o s i t i o n as a word w i t h a v i t a l mean-i n g of i t s own, as r e l e v a n t and as necessary to conveying the sense of the sentence as t h a t of any other word w i t h i n i t ? By attempting to co n f r o n t t h i s type o f problem, we can per-haps d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n "why d i d i t happen?", r a t h e r than "What happened?". CHAPTER I The i n i t i a l . s t e p i n the attempted c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Spanish should p e r f o r c e be an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of terms and concepts. I t i s e n t i r e l y probable t h a t a f a i r l y w e l l educated speaker of Spanish or E n g l i s h would u t i l i z e the words "verb", "prep-o s i t i o n " , and " i n f i n i t i v e " , without any seeming d i f f i c u l t y . He may be aware of d e f i n i t i o n s common to grammar books, such as "A verb i s a p a r t of speech which expresses a c t i o n or s t a t e " ; "A p r e p o s i t i o n i s a p a r t of speech which l i n k s a word or group of words' not c o n t a i n i n g a verb to the r e s t of the sentence"; and, "An. i n f i n i t i v e i s a v e r b a l noun". Even a c u r s o r y examination of customary d e f i n i t i o n s of the p a r t s of speech presents an•unfortunate d i f f i c u l t y : the cognate d e f i n -i t i o n . The e x p l a n a t i o n of one p a r t of speech i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of another, whose d e f i n i t i o n i s couched i n terms of yet.another, and so on. "Most of us", says L o u i s B. Salomon, " t o s s about a number of words r a t h e r promiscuously (not.words on the order of 'cucumber* or ' t e n n i s * or ' g l a s s * or * parakeet*, but * peace*, *democracy*, * freedom*, * j u s t i c e * , * r i g h t s ' ) without ever r e a l l y examining what r e f e r e n t s or d e f i n i n g q u a l i t i e s we have i n mind, or even whether we have had any a t a l l ; and, i f challenged, we are l i k e l y to t u r n to our f a v o r i t e d i c t i o n a r y i n the hope t h a t i t w i l l t e l l us what we have been meaning a l l along."1 An i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s l a r g e l y t r u e i n s o f a r as one i s accustomed to i n t e r p r e t the meaning of "verb", "prep-o s i t i o n " , and " i n f i n i t i v e " . Though the terms are d i s c u s s e d 10 w i t h frequency and apparent f a c i l i t y , and t h e i r r e f e r e n t s employed n e c e s s a r i l y i n a l l everyday speech, the f u l l com-p l e x i t y of t h e i r i d e n t i t y s t i l l seems h i g h l y e l u s i v e . And yet, i t must be admitted, - t h i s ignorance on the p a r t of the m a j o r i t y of the speech community produces ho t a n g i b l e e f f e c t s , b e n e f i c i a l or p r e j u d i c i a l , on the l i v e s of the i n d i v i d u a l members of t h a t community. Desp i t e an o s t e n s i b l e negative appearance, t h i s i s a v e r y important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Unaware of any c a t e g o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s which have been somehow imposed on one's language, o n e . n a t u r a l l y remains r e l a t i v e l y unaware of growing d i v e r -gencies i n the.speech of the "community; one's i d e o l e c t w i l l be much more i n f l u e n c e d by.some k i n d of s u b j e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s than by. the supposed " c o r r e c t n e s s " of grammars employed i n an e d u c a t i o n a l system. I f of one m i l l i o n people speaking the same language,. o n l y one thousand are t r u l y cog-n i z a n t of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r terminology, but these are unable to impose t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s on the o t h e r s , the • remaining nine hundred and n i n e t y - n i n e thousand - the over-whelming m a j o r i t y of the speech community - w i l l continue to speak t h e i r - l a n g u a g e and communicate by i t , unconcerned w i t h grammatical r u l e s . T h e i r speech w i l l g r a d u a l l y change; i n -deed, the l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y aware they are of grammatical pre-s c r i p t i o n and p r o s c r i p t i p n , the more r a p i d the changes are l i k e l y to be. In a sense, we can use t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n as an analogy to p a r t of the l i n g u i s t i c h i s t o r y of the Romance orb i l of western Europe. U n t i l c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t times, i n t e r -communication on a l a r g e s c a l e was unknown between geogra-p h i c a l l y ' or'- p o l i t i c a l l y separated- a r e a s . A l s o u n t i l a r e l a -t i v e l y s h o r t time ago, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the populace of a l l areas was i l l i t e r a t e . They spoke as they chose, and : they were u n c o n s t r a i n e d by any knowledge of " c o r r e c t grammar";. I t can be surmised t h a t t o the average uneducated speaker of a medieval Romance language, L a t i n was almost as incomprehensi-b l e as another Romance language might have been. And so, as we d i s c o v e r t h a t the reasons f o r the choice of p r e p o s i t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e s we s h a l l be i n v e s t i g a t i n g cannot be ex-p l a i n e d s o l e l y through d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to L a t i n , we s h a l l see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f o l l o w i n g i d e a . The way people spoke and the way they thought, the way they approached "what soun-ded r i g h t " , uncurbed by adherence to f o r m a l i z e d grammar, s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the growth and development of the verb+ p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e l o c u t i o n . "The standard meaning of a v e r b a l symbol a t any g i v e n time i s what the users of the,symbol do w i t h i t a t t h a t time."2 T h i s w i l l be t r u e r e g a r d l e s s of a p o s t e r i o r i grammatical pronouncements, and i s manifested by' the constant changes observable i n a language such as Spanish. A p p l y i n g t h i s concept d i r e c t l y to the verb+preposition+ i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , we can conclude t h a t , i n f a c t , i t does not r e a l l y matter i f one has a r r i v e d a t the form "empezar de", p r o v i d e d one i s a b l e to communicate the a p p r o p r i a t e con-cept w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y , t o the m a j o r i t y of the speech community. The i n i t i a l choice of a word i n a g i v e n e n v i r o n -1.2 merit by the speakers of a language i s unimportant i n most cases, as long as the symbol ,is accepted by a l l , or a t l e a s t by a "quorum" f o r communication. One can thus p o s t u l a t e the f o l l o w i n g : as a language grows, i t e x i s t s over a g i v e n time space. W i t h i n t h a t time space - l e t us take the a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e of f i v e hundred years - each.generation w i l l l e a r n the language and pass i t on to i t s progeny. Not. o n l y does each g e n e r a t i o n e f f e c t s l i g h t changes i n the language, but d i f f e r e n c e s are of course n o t i c e a b l e on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l as w e l l . What would hap-pen, then, i f one g e n e r a t i o n decided unanimously to make-a change i n the language of the speech community?3 I f they were s u c c e s s f u l i n making the change f a i r l y unanimous, and could i n some way r e t a i n r e l a t i v e l y good communication w i t h t h e i r e l d e r s as w e l l , the change co u l d e a s i l y become "normal" i n the language. T h i s type of m o d i f i c a t i o n u s u a l l y occurs spontaneously and - i n a sense - u n c o n s c i o u s l y . Good exam-p l e s are the i n s t a n c e s of new s l a n g which s p r i n g i n t o common usage i n any language, .such as "hang-up" and "up t i g h t " and " r i p o f f " i n E n g l i s h . Once they are f a i r l y common and wide-spread, they become i n t e l l i g i b l e , t o most of the speech com-munity; a f t e r remaining i n the language f o r some time and a f t e r having gained more u n i v e r s a l acceptance, they u s u a l l y come t o be con s i d e r e d a p a r t of the " f o r m a l " l e x i c o n . Again, i n E n g l i s h , one could p o i n t t o the mu l t i t u d e of terms o r i g i -n a l l y coined as neologisms by such authors as Shakespeare, words which now form p a r t of "standard E n g l i s h " . 13 An analogous type, of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e i n attempting to e x p l a i n the emergence, of some of the c h o i c e s of p r e p o s i t i o n i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Spanish. As the L a t i n case system broke down, the use of p r e p o s i t i o n s developed r a p i d l y . As people spoke, they used the words they were c r e a t i n g , and the l o c u t i o n s they were i n v e n t i n g , t o express themselves more c l e a r l y , more c o l o u r -f u l l y , or more p r e c i s e l y . T h e i r reasons f o r choosing one word over another may or may not have had a r a t i o n a l e xplan-a t i o n . The speakers might have been a t t r a c t e d by the sound of a grouping of words, or they might have thought they r e -membered having been taught to use a c e r t a i n syntax; they might have e s t a b l i s h e d d i f f e r e n c e s not p r e v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y or e x i s t i n g because of a d e s i r e to a v o i d what now seemed:an ambiguity; they might have m i s t a k e n l y i n t e r p r e t e d a term:no l o n g e r i n common use and:decided "to r e p l a c e i t w i t h one oc-c u r r i n g more f r e q u e n t l y , f o r " a e s t h e t i c " reasons alone, l e a -v i n g us w i t h an unexplained modern enigma of phraseology. We are thus f o r c e d to c o n s i d e r the problem not o n l y from a narrow e t y m o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, .but from a much wider.one, encompassing semantic.and human i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l . "Nos vemos o b l i g a d o s " , says P o t t i e r , "para obrar de buena f e , a r e c u r r i r a l a s u s t a n c i a semantica. Y no hay por qu6 avergonzarse. Los e s t u d i o s r e c i e n t e s exclusivamente formales han demostrado con su f r a c a s o que l a lengua es a l g o muy d i s t i n t o de un simple mecanismode combina-c i o n e s . E l mecanismo e x i s t e , e i n c l u s o es funda-mental. Y, desde luego, t i e n e su razon de s e r : l a n ecesidad por parte d e l hombre de aprovechar a l m&xirno (mediante l a s d i f e r e n c i a c i o n e s d e l d i s -curso) un reducido numero de cuadros simples de 14 pensamiento ( l a s r e p r e s e n t a c i o n e s de l a lengua) que l e permitan de e s t a ,manera, y con un mfnimo de e s f u e r z o , expresar l a m u l t i p l i c i d a d de sus a c t i v i d a d e s mentales. Quierase o no, l a l i n g - ' u i s t i c a es una c i e n c i a humana."^-In order to i n d i c a t e the' c o n f u s i o n which may u n d e r l i e concepts n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d simple, a r t i c u l a t e , and une-q u i v o c a l , l e t us examine some p o s t u l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s of the. three p a r t i c l e s w i t h which we are concerned, the verb, the p r e p o s i t i o n , and the i n f i n i t i v e . While so doing, we s h a l l attempt to p o i n t out d i s c r e p a n c i e s , , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , d i f -f i c u l t i e s , and, h o p e f u l l y , some c o n c l u s i o n s concerning the development of the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n modern Spanish. Lenz says the f o l l o w i n g : "...para l l e g a r a una d e f i n i c i d n d e l verbo debemos d i s t i n g u i r dos casos: 1) E l verbo e n c i e r r a • en s i l a e x p r e s i o n c l a r a d e l surjeto pronominal, como en l a t i n y c a s t e l l a n o ; entonces e l VERBO. es una palabra que por s i s o l a expresa todo un j u i c i q independiente ( s u j e t o y p r e d i c a d o ) y forma una o r a -c i 6 n . 2) Se exige, como.eh f r a n c o s , i n g l e s y a l e - i m£n, l a expresi6*n separacia d e l s u j e t o ; entonces e l VERBO es una p a l a b r a que anadida a un s u j e t o , ex-presa con e l un j u i c i o cbmpleto e independiente y forma una oraci6n."5. ., H i s a t t e m p t - t o ; r e s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t y i n c u r r e d by the i n c l u -s i o n of s e v e r a l languages f a l l s prey to other problems. Fo r example, Lenz t h i n k s even t h i s r a t h e r complex d e f i n i t i o n i n s u f f i c i e n t ; consequently he proceeds to d i s c u s s r e s t r i c -t i o n s and e x c e p t i o n s . One might thus suppose he i s p r o p e r l y i n t e n t on a v o i d i n g any p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n or ambiguity. How-ever, what can we make of h i s use of the term "palabra"? . 15 Only c e r t a i n tenses o f the verb i n Spanish - not to mention other languages - are composed o f a s i n g l e word. Or are. we to i n t e r p r e t " p a l a b r a " as meaning "word or group of words", i n which case do we not encounter the problem of attempting to determine what e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s the verb (grammatically as w e l l as meaning f u l l y ) i n a form such as "Nunca se me ha podido d e c i r l o " ? What, then, i s the exact s i g n i f i c a n c e o f "verb"? M i g u e l de Toro y Gomez attempts a much s i m p l e r d e f i n i -t i o n . "YERBO", he says, "es una parte de l a o r a c i o n que designa e s e n c i a , e x i s t e n c i a , a c c i o n , pasion, o estado, c a s i siempre con expresi6n de tiempo y de persona."^ Perhaps because o f i t s v e r y vagueness and i m p r e c i s i o n , t h i s d e f i n i -t i o n i s not s u b j e c t t o the same s o r t of c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h a t o f Lenz. But how does i t d i s t i n g u i s h words such as " a g r i o " - which i n d i c a t e s " e s e n c i a " , " e t e r n o " - which i n -d i c a t e s " e x i s t e n c i a " , " c a r r e r a " - which i n d i c a t e s " a c c i o n " , "locamente" - which i n d i c a t e s "pasion", or "cansado" - which i n d i c a t e s "estado", from "VERBO", i f the e x p r e s s i o n o f time and person i s not n e c e s s a r i l y one of the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of a verb. What about the i n f i n i t i v e ? "Modo i n f i n i t i v o " , says Toro y Gomez "es e l que anuncia en a b s t r a c t o l a idea d e l verbo s i n expresar numero n i persona."7 A c c o r d i n g to Lenz, though, the " i n f i n i t i v o " i s a " s u b s t a n t i v d v e r b a l " , and i s one of the three "verboides d e l c a s t e l l a n o " . The term " v e r f e i d e s " he d e f i n e s as " a q u e l l a s formas v e r b a l e s que no e n c i e r r a n en s i 16 l a expresion.de l a persona d e l s u j e t o y que, s i se agregan a un nominativo sujeto-, no forman con 61 una p r o p o s i c i o n s e p a r a b l e , -aunque contengan todos l o s elementos de un j u i c i o completo."3 The most important a s p e c t here i s the mention of the term " s u b s t a n t i v o v e r b a l " . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows an attempt.to r e l a t e t h i s i d e a to t h a t of the prepo-s i t i o n . 9 "De l o s terminos r e l a c i o n a d o s por l a prepo-s i c i o n , e l primero puede' s e r un s u b s t a n t i v o , un a d j e t i v o o un verbo, y tambien un pronombre o un adverbio. y'hasta una i n t e r j e . c c i o n ; pero e l segundo ha de s e r siempre un nombre s u b s t a n t i v o o p a l a b r a o l o c u c i o n de s i g n i f i c a c i o n e q u i v a l e n t e . E q u i v a -l e n t e s en s i g n i f i c a c i o n a l s u b s t a n t i v o sabemos que son: e l pronombre, e l i n f i n i t i v o , que es l a forma s u b s t a n t i v a d a d e l verbo, una o r a c i o n s u b s t a n t i v a y • l o s a d v e r b i o s de l u g a r y de tiempo, que no son mas que l o s pronombres demostrativos de l o s nombres que denotan dich a s i d e a s . " The import of t h i s argument seems t o be t h a t the i d e n t i t y of the i n f i n i t i v e i s always t h a t of a s u b s t a n t i v e . However, i f the i n f i n i t i v e i s i n e v i t a b l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s u b s t a n t i v e , should i t not behave i n the same way as the l a t t e r i n a l l cases? But here we see one of the anomalies of verbs which govern no p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e a noun, but which do r e q u i r e a p r e p o s i t i o n before a dependent i n f i n i t i v e , f o r example "apren-der". One says "Aprendo a hacer e l t r a b a j o " , but "Aprendo l a l e c c i o n " . Does t h i s not c a s t doubt on the b a s i c idea of t r a -d i t i o n a l grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n which maintains t h a t the i n f i n i t i v e i s o n l y a v e r b a l noun, and does not behave ind e -pendently? 17 "PREPOSICION", says Toro y Gomez, "es una parte i n -d e c l i n a b l e de l a or a c i o n que s i r v e para denotar e l regimen o dependencia que t i e n e n entre s i dos palabras o c l a u s u l a s . n-*-( This i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the d e f i n i t i o n a f f o r d e d us by Lenz, who once agai n , i n h i s attempt to be thorough and comprehensive, in c l u d e s too much m a t e r i a l and thus creates other problems. He o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : "La PREPOSICION es una palabra i n v a r i a b l e que s i r v e para transformer un su b s t a n t i v o en a t r i b u t o o complement© de otro elemento de l a misma p r o p o s i c i d n . S i e l termino no es verda-dero s u b s t a n t i v o , a l menos funciona como t a l . . . De l a s formas v e r b a l e s , e l i n f i n i t i v o , que es subs t a n t i v o v e r b a l , con f a c i l i d a d e x t r a o r d i n -a r i a admite en c a s t e l l a n o c u a l q u i e r p r e p o s i -cion..."11 The d i f f i c u l t y , i t i s apparent, i s the same encountered above i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of the i n f i n i t i v e . But two p o i n t s do appear from the above: f i r s t , t h a t the prepo-s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s some s o r t of r e l a t i o n between two elements, and t h a t i t s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i s a l s o of importance. These concepts have evolved through the course of cen-t u r i e s of grammatical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and, w i t h the exception of the i n t e r j e c t i o n , modern c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the pa r t s of speech, i n c l u d i n g the p r e p o s i t i o n , can be t r a c e d back to the Greeks.12 A very b r i e f h i s t o r y of p r e p o s i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n can be obtained from the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s . "Las preposiciones fueron consideradas como palabras de enlace, junto con l a s conjunciones, por l o s e s t o i c o s , que senalaron tambiln su c a r a c t e r de prepuestas...Fue D i o n i s i o de T r a c i a quien separd l a s preposiciones d e l grupo que formaban con l a s conjunciones, y d e f i n i o l a p r e p o s i c i d n como l a parte 18 ' • de l a o r a c i 6 n que se coloea delante de l a s otras partes en combinaciones s i n t a c t i c a s y en formacidn de palabras...En l a s escuelas de Europa, durante toda l a antiguedad y l a Edad Media, l a gramatica c o n c i b i o , pues, l a pr e p o s i c i d n desde e l punto de v i s t a de l a l o g i c a , como...un termino de union, que se oponia a l a s palabras concretas como l o s norabres o l o s pronombres...Sint&ctieamente, se d e f i n i o l a p r e p o s i c i d n como un termino *colocado d e l a n t e * . . . A l l l e g a r a l Renaci-miento, l a d e f i n i e i o n de, l a Gramcitica Cas-t e l l a n a de Nebrija...no representa nada nuevo: •Una de l a s d i e z partes de l a o r a c i o n , l a c u a l se pone delante de l a s o t r a s por a i u n -tamiento o por composicidn*. Y senala b i e n que l a s preposiciones s i r v e n para demostrar l a s i g n i f i c a c i o n de l o s casos...Mas o r i g i n a l es l a d e f i n i c i d n . . . d e V i l l a n d n : *La lengua c a s t e l l a n a t i e n e palabras que e l l a t i n llama preposiciones porque se proponen a l nombre o a l verbo en l a c l a u s u l a para manifestar mas e l a f f e c t o humano d e l que l a pronuncia*... S c a l i g e r o e s t u d i a ampliamente l a s p r e p o s i -ciones y rechaza todas l a s d e f i n i c i o n e s t r a -d i c i o n a l e s . Las preposiciones s i r v e n para i n d i c a r e l l u g a r , e l movimiento y e l r e p o s e . . Despues de m u l t i p l e s t e n t a t i v a s de d e f i n i e i o n , llegamos a l a cdlebre Gramatica de Por t - R o y a l , plenamente s a t i s f a c t o r i a : 'Es e l exponente de una r e l a c i d n considerada de una maner-a a b s t r a c -t a y general, e independiente de t.odo termino antecedente y consecuente*. D e f i n i e i o n comple-tamente a l d i a , y que esta* en l a base de l a t e o r i a de Viggo Br^ndal, que de f i n e l a s prepo-s i c i o n e s como palabras cuya f u n c i o n es expresar una r e l a c i d n , pero una r e l a c i d n pura s i n con-si d e r a c i o n e s d i r e c t a s a l o s objetos- o a l a s situac i o n e s . " 1 3 This l a s t d e f i n i t i o n , and t h a t of Port-Royal, i n s i s t on the f u n c t i o n of the p r e p o s i t i o n , r a t h e r than i t s own inde-pendent i d e n t i t y . That i s t o say, i t would appear to take a t l e a s t a part of i t s meaning from what precedes and what f o l -lows i t . Born d i r e c t l y from t h i s idea i s the question of whether the p r e p o s i t i o n demonstrates a meaning of. i t s own, or i s i t merely a connector?14 A b i t contentious seems the Real Academia*s d e f i n i t i o n : "Esta p a r t i c u l a , llamada impropiamente parte de l a o r a c i o n , no t i e n e v a l o r de por s i en e l habla; es un element© de r e l a c i d n , cuya s i g n i f i -cacidn depende no s o l o de e l l a , s i n o d e l v a l o r de l o s voca-b l o s por e l l a relacionados."15 One such r e l a t i o n s h i p would occur i n a sentence such as "Me abstengo de fumar demasiado", i n which a p p a r e n t l y the p r e p o s i t i o n "no t i e n e v a l o r de por s i en e l habla", s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of "abstener" t o "fumar" i s t h a t of the simple idea "No fumo demasiado", or " P r e f i e r o no fumar demasiado". However, s i n c e the concept of a b s t e n t i o n can be f i g u r a t i v e l y construed as one of w i t h -drawal, the p r e p o s i t i o n "de" may have been chosen to b e t t e r v i s u a l i z e t h i s i d e a . A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n can be found i n an analogy w i t h sentences such as "Abstengo d e l v i n o cuahto puedo", i n which the p r e p o s i t i o n has l i k e l y been deri v e d from the use of a previous g e n i t i v e . Note a l s o t h i s comment of Salomon, which, though here r e l a t i n g t o adverbs, could a l s o be a p p l i c a b l e t o p r e p o s i t i o n s : "...(W)e have some compound verbs ( i n E n g l i s h ) i n which "words" are interchangeable w i t h t h e i r apparent opposites: when you enter data on a r o u t i n e form or q u e s t i o n n a i r e , you are f i l l i n g i t i n (or o u t ) ; v/hen you reduce the speed of your car, you are slowing up (or down), and so f o r t h . I f the s u b s t i t u t i o n of out f o r i n , down f o r up_, produces no change i n the meaning of the whole expression, t h i s a t l e a s t r a i s e s a question as to whether these words ( i n such expressions) have what we should c a l l meaning. "16 A s i m i l a r type of phenomenon can be s a i d to be observed i n Spanish. Although the present "grammaticality" of the ex-p r e s s i o n would s u f f e r , would i t have caused u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . 2 0 f o r the f u t u r e i f "continuar de h a c e r l o " had developed i n place of "continuar a h a c e r l o " , " f i j a r s e de a l g o " , and the l i k e ? Or i f "empezar a h a c e r l o " had remained as "empezar de h a c e r l o " , as i t had been i n Old Spanish? I t i s i n t e r e s -t i n g t o observe, i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h a t i n terms of general semantic meaning, de i s the d i r e c t opposite of a, and per-haps i n some way, one could conceive of the absence of a p r e p o s i t i o n as being s e m a n t i c a l l y c o n t r a r y to the incidence of any p r e p o s i t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g - w i t h no f a c e t i o u s i n t e n t whatever - t h a t "nothing" may be as important or as unnece-s s a r y as "something" when d e a l i n g w i t h semantics. S i m i l a r l y , one can sense analogies between "empezar a hacer/poder hacer" and "begin tp_ do i t / c a n do i t " . What could we c a l l the "meaning f u n c t i o n " of the E n g l i s h p r e p o s i t i o n a l i n f i n i t i v e marker, i f not the same as t h a t of the Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n , t h i s same "empty form", even without attempting t o equate the normal concept of. " i n f i n i t i v e marker" i n Spanish w i t h t h a t of E n g l i s h ? A c o n t r a s t i n g but d e f i n i t i v e view i s taken by P o t t i e r , who says: "Hasta se ha podido. d e c i r que hay preposiciones . que l l e g a n a no tener s i g n i f i c a c i d n (a pro p d s i t o d e l *de f f r a n c o s ) , l o que no se puede j u s t i f i c a r : s i e x i s t e un mor-fema en una lengua, esta este condicionado y por l o tanto desempena un pa p e l en l a * e s t r u c t u r a f de l a lengua. "17 i f , then, a p r e p o s i t i o n must have a . d e f i n i t e meaning, must con-vey some k i n d of inf o r m a t i o n independent of t h a t granted by the words which surround i t , what form may t h i s "meaning" ; 2 1 take when viewed i n the context of the verb+preposition+ i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n ? Does "meaning" i n t h i s sense merely i n d i c a t e some k i n d of "grammatical convention" as the p l e o n a s t i c ne has become i n c e r t a i n comparison s t r u c -t ures i n French? Or i s "meaning" r e q u i r e d to have some type of semantic j u s t i f i c a t i o n as w e l l ? The former by i t -s e l f would be unworkable, s i n c e i t obscures the d i s t i n c t i o n between sense and form. Thus one can p o s t u l a t e , as previous l y mentioned, t h a t there once e x i s t e d a p r i o r "meaning" (now l o s t ) attached t o the p r e p o s i t i o n . I n t h i s way can one ex-p l a i n the occurrence of the v a r i o u s p r e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r v a r i o u s environments: a t the time of f i r s t u t i l i z i n g t h i s p a r t i c l e , the speakers " f e l t " a need f o r i t i n order t o communicate t h e i r ideas. Such a theory would, i n f a c t , t i e together the i m p l i c a t i o n of the Real Academia and the pro-nouncement of P o t t i e r : the word was necessary and e x i s t e d t o f i l l a semantic need; i t s importance was gradually, l o s t t o the consciousness of the speakers, but has remained as a grammatical v e s t i g e , without which the phrase would not "sound r i g h t " t o the n a t i v e , even i f i t s meaning d i d not change. x I t has become unimportant but a t the same time necessary, both meaningful and "palabra vacia 1?. I n terms of how we are t o understand the f u n c t i o n of the p r e p o s i t i o n , i t i s of i n t e r e s t t o consider s t i l l another remark of Lopez, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the grammarian Vendryes: 22 "Por su p a r t e , Vendryes ha rechazado l a s preposiciones de l a s partes de l a o r a c i o n porque son simples morfemas; e l papel que desempefian puede representarse en o t r a s lenguas por un procedimiento morfoldgico muy d i s t i n t o . A s i , e l espanol dice * e l l i b r o de. Pedro*, donde e l l a t i n , * l i b e r P e t r i * . " 1 9 I s h i s p o i n t , however, v a l i d ? Even i n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n , p r e p o s i t i o n s had t h e i r uses, q u i t e d i s t i n c t and auto-nomous from the semantic m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the morphological system. And s u r e l y , the f a c t t h a t Spanish has a l l but done away w i t h the case system cannot be considered a good reason f o r e x c l u d i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s from grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n . In f a c t , keeping i n mind, what N e b r i j a had s a i d w i t h r e -gard to the d e f i n i t i o n of p r e p o s i t i o n s 2 0 } j.et us examine a piece of i n f o r m a t i o n presented by the Real Academia 2!: Es tan intima l a conexidn entre l a p r e p o s i c i d n y e l nombre que junto con e l l a s i r v e de complemento a o t r o vocablo, que e l entendimlehto l a concibe como f o r -mando un s o l o concepto mental con dicho nombre, y a l expresarlo. l o haee como s i l a s dos palabras, es d e c i r , l a p r e p o s i c i d n y e l nombre, fuesen una s o l a ; y a s i , decimos *de casa, a casa, por casa*, s i n dar v a l o r prosddieo a l a s p a r t i c u l a s *de, a, por*, y pronun-ciandolas como. s i se e s c r i b i e s e *decasa, acasa, por-casa*. Por esta razdn son p r o c l i t i c a s todas l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s , y en este s e n t i d o b i e n podemos d e c i r que e l c a s t e l l a n o t i e n e una * d e c l i n a c i d n p r e p o s i c i o -n a l * en compensaeion de l a - p e r d i d a d e c l i n a c i d n l a t i n a que l a s lenguas romances han s u b s t i t u i d o por l a s p p r e -p o s i c i o n e s y e l nombre, a s i como en l a t i n l a s d e s i -nencias no fueron en su .origen o t r a cosa que p a r t i - • culas que iban detras de l o s mismos nombres." In the context of the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s concept would not r e a l l y be f u n c t i o n a l , q u i t e apart from the d i f f i c u l t i e s of attempting t o describe such a system com-pre h e n s i v e l y .for s u b s t a n t i v e s . The choice of the p r e p o s i t i o n •23 i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n we are concerned w i t h , then, depends not on the i n f i n i t i v e f o l l o w i n g , but on the preceding verb, and, at times, upon the c o n t e x t u a l meaning, when more than one p r e p o s i t i o n may f o l l o w a c e r t a i n verb. The p r e p o s i t i o n , then, i s here c l e a r l y not a p r o c l i t i c of the i n f i n i t i v e . An i n t e r e s t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l system could be conceived, however, analogous though opposite i n d i r e c t i o n to t h a t sug-gested by the Academia. I n such a system - speaking p a r t i -c u l a r l y of the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n - the p r e p o s i t i o n could become, i n f a c t , a v e r b a l e n c l i t i c , com-p l e t i n g a k i n d of d e c l e n s i o n a l system of the verb, o r, i n other words, e s t a b l i s h i n g yet another c l a s s w i t h i n the con-j u g a t i o n a l system now e x i s t i n g . Thus, the verb would be con-jugated through tense and v o i c e ; i t s forms f o r mood would inc l u d e i n d i c a t i v e , s u b j u n c t i v e , i n f i n i t i v e , and one f i n a l form, c a l l e d , perhaps, the " e n c l i t i c mood". The p o s t c l i t i c p r e p o s i t i o n s ' a 1 , 'de', e t c . , would be attached t o the verb to form t h i s mood ( s i m i l a r i n concept, one might say, to.the Portuguese personal i n f i n i t i v e ) , whenever the verb d i r e c t l y preceded an i n f i n i t i v e . A "zero form" would be recognized to deal w i t h those verbs which govern a dependent i n f i n i t i v e without, p r e p o s i t i o n . But i t would then be necessary t o c l a s s -i f y verbs which can govern a v a r i e t y of p r e p o s i t i o n s , those which r e q u i r e a p r e p o s i t i o n before an i n f i n i t i v e but not a su b s t a n t i v e , and those which take a ' p r e p o s i t i o n except before a pronoun object ( f o r example, c o n t e s t a r ) . Such a system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , of course, would be even more u n w i e l d l y and -24 problematic than the r a t h e r cumbersome one p r e s e n t l y em-, ployed t o describe Spanish. However, i t s h y p o t h e t i c a l v a l i d i t y should be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e f u t e . And con-s i d e r i n g i t should p o i n t out t h a t , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , common terms such as " p r e p o s i t i o n " , can e a s i l y prove to be ambiguous, d i f f i c u l t , and extremely complex, when examined i n many of t h e i r everyday s t r u c t u r e s . FOOTNOTES, CHAPTER I 1) Salamon, Louis B., Semantics & Common Sense, H o l t , Rine-h a r t and Winston, Inc., N.Y., 1966, p. 49 2) I b i d , p. 23 3) This type of experiment was attempted by M u s s o l i n i , a l -though i t must be admitted t h a t no "generation decided unanimously" t o abandon " L e i " i n a l l d i s c o u r s e . The reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of t h i s experiment are l i k e l y extremely complicated, and would i n v o l v e f a c t o r s such as the n a t u r a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the people t o change t h e i r speech h a b i t s of generations, the d i f f i c u l t y of thorough communication and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l , changeovers, and - probably most important of a l l - the f a c t t h a t t h i s change was f o r c i b l y imposed, r a t h e r than f r e e l y chosen. P o t t i e r , Bernard; L i n g u i s t i c a moderna y f i l o l o g i a h i s pan-i c a , v e r s i o n espanola de M a r t m Blanco A l v a r e z , E d i t o r i a l Gredos, S.A., Madrid 1968, p. 143 Lenz, Rudolfo, La Oracion y sus p a r t e s , Estudios de gramatica general y c a s t e l l a n a , Madrid, 1935, p. 392 Gramatica, p. 57 I b i d , p. .59 Lenz, p. 396..'. • - V ] ' Academia, p. 207 Gramatica, p. 189 . Lenz, p. 509/520 Lopez, p. 13 I b i d , p. 15/16 " . . . E l gramatico sueco Nat Beckman...pone preposiciones y conjunciones juntas bajo l a i n d i c a c i d h comun de *conec-t o r e s * (*Bindeord t), y d e c l a r a que l a p r i n c i p a l t a r e a de l a p r e p o s i c i d n es e s t a r *conectada T a un s u s t a n t i v o , con e l p r o p o s i t o de formar un a t r i b u t o , y que l a p r i n c i p a l t a r e a de l a s conjunciones es de u n i r f r a s e s . " L6pez, p. 19 15) Academia, p. 206 16) Salomon, p. 8 / 9 17) L i n g i i l s t i c a , p. 145-P o t t i e r i s c r i t i c i z i n g the idea of the "empty word", the 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 14 26 p a r t i c l e which i s used grammatically, but whose e x i s -tence cannot apparently be j u s t i f i e d by semantic means, and which i s t h e r e f o r e considered to be e n t i r e l y super-f l u o u s . He elaborates h i s argument as f o l l o w s : " E l h i s t o r i a d o r de l a lengua, acostumbrado tra d i c i o n a l m e n t e a buscar e l d e t a l l e , e l ejemplo marginal, se s i e n t e pro-c l i v e a pensar que un morfema como 'a' o 'de*, que parece que s i g n i f i c a n l o que uno q u i e r a , acaban, en consecuencia por no s i g n i f i c a r nada p r e c i s o . Y de a h i l a desastrosa denominacidn de "palabra v a c i a " , verdadero monstruo l i n -g u i s t i c o . Por e l hecho de e x i s t i r c i e n variedades de azul<i diriamos, acaso, que e l a z u l es un " c o l o r vacio"? De ninguna manera, pues quedan numerosos componentes comunes entre l o s d i s t i n t o s a z u l e s como para d i s t i n g u i r l o d e l a m a r i l l o . De l a misma forma, s i 'de' fuese una p a l -abra v a c i a , no sentiriamos l a necesidad, l a conveniencia de su uso en "tasse de the", opuesto a "tasse a the", e t c e t e r a . Esto deberia aparecer evidente. Hemos de l u -char con e l d i c c i o n a r i o , que nos da l a mas f a l s a idea que pudieramos tener de l a semdntica de l a lengua. Para cada p r e p o s i c i d n da v e i n t e , cincuenta o c i e n "acepciones" de l a s euales, por c i e r t o , no tenemos n i co n c i e n c i a n i conocimiento. Nuestro sistema p r e p o s i c i o n a l es not a b l e -mente simple, variando muy poco d e l nino a l anciano. Lo que se enriquece es l a p o s i b i l i d a d de u t i l i z a r e l sistema para hacerle p r o d u c i r mils numerosos efectos de expresidn. Las condiciones minimas de l a 'lengua 1 permiten en e l 'd i s c u r s o ' multitudes d e ' r e a l i z a c i o n e s . " I b i d , p. 138 18) Compare the sentences "Salgo para v er a mi t i o " and "He de ver a mi . t i o " . The former u t i l i z e s the p r e p o s i t i o n "para" which r e t a i n s i t s o r i g i n a l semantic f u n c t i o n : i t i s r e ' s t r i c t i v e l y necessary to the sense of the word group, although, a d m i t t e d l y , only to a c e r t a i n e xtent. In the l a t t e r the p r e p o s i t i o n ' " d e " possesses t h i s char-a c t e r i s t i c to such a s l i g h t degree, i f a t a l l , as to make i t n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e . . However, i n a sentence such as "Salg s i n v e r a mi t i p " , the s i t u a t i o n i s t o t a l l y d i s t i n c t . Here, the p r e p o s i t i o n , " s i n " i s of v i t a l importance t o the meaning of the sentence; without i t , a completely oppo-s i t e idea would l i k e l y be construed. Here, then, the p r e p o s i t i o n has r e t a i n e d f u l l y the o r i g i n a l semantic f u n c t i o n once a t t r i b u t e d , t o the others, but s i n c e l o s t . 19) Lopez, p. 66 20) Lopez, p. 16. N e b r i j a says: "Los acident.es d e l a p r e p o s i -c i d n son t r e s : f i g u r a , orden i-caso...Los casos con que se a i u n t a n l a s preposiciones son dos, g e n i t i v o i acusa-t i v o . . . S i r v e n . . . l a s preposiciones para demostrar l a d i -v e r s i d a d dela s i g n i f i c a c i d h delos casos, como de para demostrar cu i a es alguna cosa que es e l segundo caso, a 27 para demostrar a q u i e n aprovechamos o empecemos que es e l t e r c e r o case, a esso mesmo para demostrar e l cuarto caso enlos nombres p r o p r i o s i aun algunas vezes enlos comunes. A i algunas preposiciones que nunca se h a l l a n s i n o en composici(5n, i son estas con des r e , como con-cordar, desacordar, r e c o r d a r . " N e b r i j a , Antonio de; Gramdtica G a s t e l l a n a , E d i c i o n de l a Junta d e l Genten-a r i o , Madrid, 1946,. p. 83/84. See a l s o Chapter IV, pages 79-81 and 101-103. 21) Academia, p. 206 CHAPTER- I I The f a c t t h a t Spanish d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from the other Romance languages presents the complex problem of . determining why i t should have.derived d i f f e r e n t l y from French, I t a l i a n , Portuguese, or Rumanian. As w e l l , one must consider the development of the d i f f e r e n t Romance d i a -l e c t s w i t h i n the confines of each language. Here, too, of course, one i s faced w i t h the question of determining what d i s t i n g u i s h e s a language from a d i a l e c t . U n t i l comparatively r e c e n t l y , f o r example, Catalan was considered f i r s t a d i a l e c t of Provencal - i t s e l f o f t e n having been understood as a d i a -l e c t of French - and then of Spanish. And what i s meant by Spanish? Does one include w i t h i n the language, madrileTio, a s t u r i a n o , gallego-portugu£s, v a l e n c i a n o , andaluz, e t c . , or does one have t o make f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n s ? I f so, then where and how does one e s t a b l i s h these d i f f e r e n c e s of terminology? These, however, are not the problems t o be confronted i n t h i s paper. When reference i s made to Spanish, i t i s to be under-stood t h a t what i s meant, i s the so c a l l e d "standard Spanish". What must be considered here, however, i s the process by which c e r t a i n t r a i t s of Spanish reached t h e i r present s t a t e , and, i n d i r e c t l y , the c o n t r a s t s o f t e n evident between Spanish and, f o r example, French. The f a c t o r s which governed the development of a speech p e c u l i a r l y Spanish i n the confines of the I b e r i a n peninsula were manifold. To begin w i t h , the substratum' languages of the area were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s upon the L a t i n super-imposed upon them. The e f f e c t of the Roman conquest i n 29 the area now Spain was immensely heavy. Not only d i d the indigenous speeches secede"to the i m p l a n t a t i o n of a f o r e i g n language - and t h i s phenomenon o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a compara-t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time - but the e n t i r e c u l t u r a l f a b r i c of the land was r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d so as to conform to c r i -t e r i a of the expanding Roman empire. The n a t i v e peoples r a p i d l y r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s - w i t h the notable exception.of the Basques, who have remained l i n g u i s -t i c a l l y autonomous and c u l t u r a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e to t h i s day -and g r a d u a l l y acquired a f a i r degree of homogeneity as a Roman province. "En e l tiempo de AUGUSTO", M a r t i n Alonso i n -forms u s , l " c u a l q u i e r c i v i s romanus de nuestras ciudades de I t ^ l i c a (Vicus i t a l i c e n s i s ) o M<_rida (Augusta Emerita) podia v i a j a r por l a s calzadas romanas y hacerse entender en l a s G a l i a s ( F r a n c i a ) , l a Dacia (Rumania), l a R e t i a (parte de S u i z a , I t a l i a y A u s t r i a ) hasta l a s o r i l l a s d e l Danubio y d e l R i n . La coordinacidn de l a f r a s e y e l saludo eran i d e n t i c o s : Salve (Dios te guarde). Vale (Se f u e r t e ) . " This f a c t i s no longer t r u e , however. Phraseology, g r e e t i n g s , f a r e w e l l s , as w e l l as l e x i c o n , d i f f e r g r e a t l y , not o n l y between the v a r i o u s areas named, but even w i t h i n the confines of each. In the I b e r i a n peninsula, the Romance speech which even-t u a l l y developed from the admixture of Vulgar L a t i n and the languages of the province, a t l e n g t h became re c o g n i z a b l e , and began to acquire p e c u l i a r i t i e s of i t s own. For example, where-as manducare was g e n e r a l l y used i n the G a l l i c provinces and the I t a l i c peninsula ( g i v i n g French manger and I t a l i a n mang-30 i a r e ) , the form comedere predominated i n I b e r i a , producing comer. 2 Words d e r i v i n g from I b e r i a n r o o t s which remained common produced a vocabulary unknown to the other areas, f o r example i z q u i e r d o , b a r r o , z o r r o , and so f o r t h . The V i s i g o t h i c i n v a s i o n s and -settlements produced other changes upon the speech of the i n h a b i t a n t s . Then, from the beginning of the e i g h t h t o the end of the f i f t e e n t h century, Spain - or a t l e a s t l a r g e parts of i t - was under Arab domination. Once more, the a t t r i b u t e s of the language changed repeatedly. F i n a l l y , during the Golden Age, the work of a number of suc-cessive grammarians, cu l m i n a t i n g i n a sense i n the e s t a b l i s h -ment and r e c o g n i t i o n of the Real Academia Espanola i n 1713> provided f o r an accepted r e g u l a r i z a t i o n of Spanish, i n form almost i d e n t i c a l to t h a t of the present day. One of the most important f a c t o r s i n the development of Spanish t o be considered here i s the f o l l o w i n g . The L a t i n case system was breaking down. The d i s t i n c t i o n between the v a r i o u s cases of a d e c l e n s i o n became unrecognizable i n speech; words from one declension s h i f t e d to another, "adapting" t h e i r form accordingly;3 L a t i n f o u r t h and f i f t h d e c l e n s i o n words were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the other three d e c l e n s i o n s . New means of communicating ideas became r e q u i s i t e ; o l d d i f f e r e n c e s were l o s t and thus produced considerable confusion; what was once a language now considered one of the most p r e c i s e , a r t i c u l a t e and l o g i c a l , was f a s t becoming something t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t -a koine of f a i r l y nondescript character, a t l e a s t i n the l i g h t of any comparison w i t h i t s parent tongue. But one cannot 31 surmise t h a t the speakers of t h i s language, somewhere be-tween what i s c a l l e d Vulgar L a t i n and what i s r e f e r r e d t o as Romance, were a t any time unable to converse a r t i c u l a t e l y . Despite the fragmentation which was i n progress, and the i n -c r e a s i n g divergence of the speech of one community from t h a t of another, making intercommunication more and more d i f f i c u l t , the people themselves continued to use t h e i r language w i t h the f l u e n c y of any n a t i v e speaker of any tongue. I t must be r e -membered t h a t they themselves were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the changes which were.occurring; they themselves were modifying t h e i r speech h a b i t s and molding t h e i r means of communication. What "sounded r i g h t " t o them was acceptable, without the i n t e r f e r -ence or c r i t i c i s m of " a u t h o r i t a t i v e " p r e s c r i p t i o n or p r o s c r i p -t i o n . T h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c consciousness served them as needed to communicate w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s , even though t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r s o c i e t y could l i k e l y support a l e s s complex communication paraphernalia than i s now a p p a r e n t l y necessary. The l o s s ' o f the case system occurred along w i t h a depen-dence on s y l l a b i c s t r e s s r a t h e r than v o c a l i c l e n g t h d i s t i n c -t i o n - a phenomenon which was, i n e f f e c t , a l r e a d y the r u l e i n Vulgar L a t i n . At the same time, there grew up a more and more a n a l y t i c s i n t a c t i c system t o replace the s y n t h e t i c one which had l o s t i t s communicative a b i l i t i e s . M a r t i n Alonso s t a t e s : ^ "La flexicon nominal practicamente desaparece, y para s u p l i r l a se introducen, en e l lenguaje popular mas que en e l l i t e r a r i o , l a s preposiciones f l e x i v a s . E l uso de l o s casos se h i z o cada vez mas r e s t r i n g i d o . Aun en l o s mismos autores 32 t a r d i o s , como en PETRONIO, se produce una verdadera confusion en l a s d e c l i n a c i o n e s . " This f a c t i s of extreme importance, f o r we see here the i n t i m a t i o n s of a new syntax which acquired an i n c r e a s i n g dependence on p r e p o s i t i o n s . The p r e p o s i t i o n , or r a t h e r , p r e p o s i t i o n a l l o c u t i o n s , could no longer be a matter of s t y l e or emphasis, as f o r example, between "exeunt Roma", and "exeunt de Roma", but r a t h e r the o n l y a v a i l a b l e means of i n d i c a t i n g b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s of kinds p r e v i o u s l y shown w i t h -i n the d e c l e n s i o n a l system. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t the development of the prepo-s i t i o n and of i t s usage was but one of the numerous changes being undergone. The phonetic system i t s e l f was becoming modified; the morphology of verbs as w e l l as of s u b s t a n t i v e s was being r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d ; the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e was becoming r e c o g n i z a b l y d i s t i n c t from a demonstrative a d j e c t i v e . The importance of the p r e p o s i t i o n a l development must not be under-estimated, f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r process can be seen as one of the l i n k s between t h a t which would be considered part of "gram-mar" by the B l o o m f i e l d i a n s c h o o l , and t h a t which would be clas s e d as semantics, which they l a r g e l y ignored s i n c e they d i d not seem able to d e f i n e i t i n the same k i n d of absolute terms governing the langue and parole d i s t i n c t i o n s of Saussure. As people began to use p r e p o s i t i o n s t o convey b a s i c mean-in g s , they must i n e v i t a b l y have come to "understand" them i n a d i f f e r e n t way from before. T h e i r " f e e l i n g " f o r the prepo-s i t i o n s grew out of the semantic content of t h e i r e n t i r e speech p a t t e r n s . And t h i s would seem a matter of g r e a t e r 33 s i g n i f i c a n c e than the mere " j o i n i n g together of two other words i n the sentence": there was no other k i n d of juncture p o s s i b l e ; and yet the number of p r e p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e and u t i l i z e d has always been s m a l l e r than the number of p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between other words. The r e s u l t was t h a t each p r e p o s i t i o n i n common usage a c q u i r e d more than one type of meaning, depending upon the context of the i n -d i v i d u a l word r e l a t i o n s h i p , and, o f t e n , of the l o c u t i o n of which i t formed a p a r t . And upon the u t i l i z a t i o n of prepo-. s i t i o n s i n dependent i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , one must as-sume t h a t somehow the very people who had been using the p a r t i c l e s independently, imputed s i m i l a r meanings t o them i n t h i s f u n c t i o n . That i s to say, the p r e p o s i t i o n which came to be used a f t e r a c e r t a i n verb to introduce an i n f i -n i t i v e would i n some way be thought of as necessary, whether f o r the purpose of expressiveness, emphasis, or v a r i e t y . I t would somehow seem u n l i k e l y t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n s g r a d u a l l y ac-q u i r e d such a f u n c t i o n f o r no reason whatever, and the l i k e -l i h o o d of semantic causes r a t h e r than "grammatical" ones appears g r e a t e r , s i n c e s c a r c e l y any h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a t t e r can be found i n terms of L a t i n o r i g i n . There-f o r e , -we must suppose th a t t h i s f u n c t i o n of the p r e p o s i t i o n was the " i n v e n t i o n " of the people who continued t o speak the changing Romance of the times, and f u l f i l l e d a communicative need, however i l l u s o r y t o us now. 34 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o bear i n mind t h a t , although the fu n c t i o n s imposed upon p r e p o s i t i o n s , caused by the i n c r e a s -i n g need t o replace " r e l a t i o n s h i p markers" l o s t through the degeneration of the d e c l e n s i o n a l system of L a t i n , were, f o r the most p a r t , without l i n g u i s t i c precedent i n the l i n g u a  franca of Romance, the a c t u a l words chosen were a l l e i t h e r d i r e c t d e r i v a t i v e s of L a t i n p r e p o s i t i o n s , or compounds formed from them. This i s to say t h a t no t r u l y o r i g i n a l forms were constructed; no t o t a l l y new a d d i t i o n s were made to the l e x i c o n as a means of a l l e v i a t i n g a d i f f i c u l t y not p r e v i o u s l y evident. The d e r i v a t i o n of common modern Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n s . i s r e l a t i v e l y simple and d i r e c t . Those which are most o f t e n connected w i t h the s t r u c t u r e of verb+prepo-s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e are as f o l l o w s : LATIN to SPANISH AD a CUM con DE de IN en pora < por + a para PER por SINE s i n SUPER sobre I t should be noted t h a t L a t i n A, AB, ABS d i d not succeed i n maintaining a place i n the language. The reasons are f a i r l y e a s i l y explained.. With the l o s s of the case system, the de-velopment of t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n t o "a", as would be r e g u l a r , would l e a d to i n e v i t a b l e homonymic confusion w i t h "a" from 35 AD, a s i t u a t i o n i n t o l e r a b l e under the l i g h t of t h e i r con-t r a r y meanings.5 We have seen, then, t h a t the perhaps most cogent reason f o r the r a p i d development of the p r e p o s i t i o n was to f u l f i l l the f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by the case system of L a t i n . What types of f u n c t i o n s were these, and by what were they i n f a c t replaced? A) THE GENITIVE 6 1) I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n , one of the f u n c t i o n s of the g e n i t i v e case i n v o l v e d a k i n d of a p p o s i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n or m o d i f i c a t i o n of the noun, but not i n d i c a t i n g normal pos-s e s s i o n . e.g. " V i r summae v i r t u t i s " (Un hombre de gran v a l o r ) 2) I t may i n d i c a t e a "true g e n i t i v e " ; t h a t i s , a pos-s e s s i v e g e n i t i v e , commonly shown i n E n g l i s h by the. use of the possessive i n f l e c t i o n . e.g. " A l e x a n d r i canis grandis e s t . " ( E l perro de Alejandro es grande) 3) I t i s used t o show the complement of c e r t a i n i n t r a n s -i t i v e verbs, such as those of remembering. e.g. "Memini semper n o m i n i s v e s t r i . " (Me acuerdo siempre de vuestro nombre.) 4) I t i n d i c a t e s the noun which i s the complement of copula verbs. e.g. "Non est hominis f o r t i s lugere d o l o r i b u s . " (No es de hombres f u e r t e s l l o r a r en l a s desgracias.) • 36 5) I t i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a c c u s a t i o n o r f a u l t . ... "; •'>= e.g. "Arguo te p a t r i a e l e s a e . " (Te acuso de ofensa a l a pa-t r i a . ) 6) I t i s used to show esteem or give an e s t i m a t i o n . e.g. "Quanti t i b i hoc e s t ? " $En cuento estimas esto?) 7) I t replaces a f i n a l d a t i v e i n c e r t a i n expressions. e.g. "Doctor honoris causa" (Doctor honorario -.'para honra*) Both the f i r s t and second examples have been replaced by "de" plus an object i n Spanish. Although the meaning of each c o n s t r u c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t , the a c t u a l form of both i n -volved the g e n i t i v e , and consequently underwent common: de-velopment. This should not, of course, be taken as suggest-ing t h a t from a l l s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n L a t i n were derived s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n Spanish. For example, the Accusa-t i v e i n "Vado ad Romam" produces the analogous "voy a Roma", whereas t h a t of the e p i t h e t "me miserum!" i s represented by the apparent g e n i t i v e of "pobre de mi". However, the d i s -t i n c t i o n between numbers 1) and 2) can a l s o be observed i n common modern E n g l i s h usage, wherein the f i r s t normally r e -q u i r e s the p r e p o s i t i o n " of", the second normally demonstrat-in g the apostrophe of possession. The d i f f e r e n c e i s neces-s a r i l y a semantic one, sin c e i n the former example, one could not s u b s t i t u t e the l a t t e r * s c o n s t r u c t i o n without r a d i c a l l y 37 a l t e r i n g the meaning, and v i c e v e r s a . The t h i r d case provides a p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i v e explana-t i o n of c e r t a i n verb c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n Spanish. The analogy from "me acuerdo de mi promesa" t o "me acuerdo de haberlo prometido" i s f a i r l y obvious. Both i n v o l v e the same k i n d of d e s c r i p t i o n , or f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of the verb, t h a t i s to say, i t s complement. Since a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n was the r e s u l t of the former, the. l a t t e r idea a l s o could most e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by speakers i n the same way, l e a d i n g to the i d e n t i c a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l usage. The idea contained w i t h i n the f o u r t h example, coupled w i t h a f u r t h e r use of the g e n i t i v e w i t h a d j e c t i v e s , such as "insons culpae", help to e x p l a i n the e v o l u t i o n of modern Spanish c o n s t r u c t i o n s such as "Es f a c i l de hacer", "bueno de", " l i b r e de", and "breve de". However, a l o c u t i o n such as " l e n t o a", or "primero a" and i t s v a r i a n t "primero en", are not so e a s i l y e x p l i c a b l e , except by reference to a d i f -f e r e n t L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h a t of the Dative used w i t h c e r -t a i n a d j e c t i v e s , f o r example "naturae aptum", " c a s t r i s i d o -neus l o c u s " , and the sentence "sedes huic nostro non impor-tuna sermoni". On the other hand, the l o c u t i o n " n i h i l d i f -f i c i l e amanti puto" does not provide us w i t h a ready d e r i -v a tory c o n s t r u c t i o n . Number 5) can f a i r l y e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way as number 3)« The progression from "me d i s c u l p o de l a f a l t a " to "me d i s c u l p o de f a l t a r " i s a simple one, and q u i t e understandable i n semantic terms. 33 M a r t i n Alonso a l s o informs us? t h a t i n the Vulgar L a t i n of the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a , the g e n i t i v e was o f t e n replaced by other c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r by the use of "de" plus the A b l a t i v e , e.g. " C l e r i c i DE i p s a e c c l e s i a " ( C l e r i g o s de l a misma i g l e s i a ) "Possesor DE p r o p r i a t e r r a " (Poseedor de su t i e r r a ) As w e l l , the g e n i t i v e continued to be used i n p a r t i t i v e construc-t i o n s , as i t o f t e n was i n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n . e.g. " A l i q u i d habet DE verecundia d i s c i p u l i " (Tiene algo de l a verguenza d e l d i s c i p u l o . ) He adds th a t the G e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n began to l o s e consider-able ground towards the beginning of the t h i r d century A.D.• However, i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t the G e n i t i v e has s u r v i v e d i n modern Spanish i n c e r t a i n words. Examples of the "possessive" G e n i t i v e can be seen i n words l i k e "martes" and "jueves", coming from "dies mart i s " and. "dies .jovis", r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d e s c r i p t i v e G e n i t i v e shows i t s presence i n " a g r i c u l t u r a " from " a g r i c u l t u r a " , a Genitive-Nominative compound from L a t i n . From the foregoing, i t can be seen t h a t a t l e a s t i n some measure, i t i s p o s s i b l e to e x p l a i n a number of the verb+prepo-s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e constructions- of modern Spanish by a d e v e l -opment from the l o s s of the G e n i t i v e case d i s t i n c t i o n and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of p r e p o s i t i o n s . ' Also of importance, though, are some of the usages of the Dative i n L a t i n , and t h e i r consequent development i n t o Spanish.$ B) THE DATIVE 1) As the i n d i r e c t object of a verb. e.g. " S i b i regnum parabat." (Preparaba para s i e l mando.) 39 2) As the complement of c e r t a i n i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs. e.g. "Praetor e x e r c i t u i praeerat magno." ( E l p r e t o r estaba a l f r e n t e de un gran e j e r c i t o . ) 3) As the complement of c e r t a i n nouns or a d j e c t i v e s . 9 e.g. " H o s t i s est quoque i n i m i c u s s i n g u l i s n o b is." ( E l enemigo de l a p a t r i a es tambien enemigo de cada uno de nosotros.) 4) To express the agent of a predicate i n the p a s s i v e . e.g. "Signum tradendum est v i c t i s m i l i t i b u s . " (La bandera ha de s e r entregada por l o s soldados vencidos.) 5) As a complement i n d i c a t i n g s p a c i a l and temporal r e -l a t i o n s h i p . e.g. "Exeuntibus ex c a s t r i s t u r r i s a l t i s s i m a e s t . " ( A l s a l i r d e l campamento, hay una t o r r e muy a l t a . ) 6) The "possessive D a t i v e " e.g. "Sunt nobis m i t i a poma." (Tenemos dulees manzanas.) Alonso mentions as -we n i p t h a t the Dative remained i n f a i r l y common usage i n the I b e r i a n Peninsula f o r a longer p e r i o d than d i d the G e n i t i v e . However, he p o i n t s out t h a t even around the time of P l a u t u s , i t became frequent to r e p l a c e i t by the Accu-s a t i v e preceded by the p r e p o s i t i o n "ad". e.g. "Ad me magna n u h t i a v i t . '(Me anuncid grandes cosas.) " S i pecunia AD i d templum data e r i t . . . " ( S i fuere dado dinero para este templo...) " A i t AD me." (Me d i j o . ) As i s the case w i t h the G e n i t i v e , however, c e r t a i n v e s t i g e s of the d a t i v e case remain i n modern Spanish, f o r example the i n -40 i d i r e c t object pronouns " l e " and "me" from " i l l i " and " m i n i " r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the r e l a t i v e "cuyo" from "cuites 1 1. This i n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be u s e f u l i n beginning to account f o r some verbs i n modern Spanish which govern the p r e p o s i t i o n "a" before an i n f i n i t i v e . For example, number 1) can be a p p l i e d by analogy to the c o n s t r u c t i o n s "prepararse a", "acostumbrarse a", "atreverse a", e t c . This i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n : o f the Dative being replaced by AD plus the A c c u s a t i v e , t h u s " g i v i n g d i r e c t e t y m o l o g i c a l r e a -soning as w e l l . Probably more important, however, i s the f o l -lowing assumption. One cannot ignore' the almost i n e v i t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t o the speakers of L a t i n , the Dative c a r r i e d an understood and " f e l t " meaning. This c o n s t r u c t i o n was g r a -d u a l l y replaced by t h a t of AD/Accusative. I t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e that the l a t t e r d i d not i n some way perpetuate the semantic f o r c e of i t s predecessor i n the minds of the people, who were i n f a c t changing t h e i r own language, but o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d i n g to r e t a i n f u l l communicative a b i l i t i e s w i t h each other and hence not w i s h i n g to o b l i t e r a t e meanings and d i s t i n c t i o n s im-portant t o them. Thus, they would tend t o " f e e l " the prepo-s i t i o n l i n k i n g the two verbs of a sentence such as "Cum vener-i s ad bibere"-'-!. I f they had not considered i t a necessary part of the l o c u t i o n , they would s u r e l y have abandoned i t ; or i n other words, they would not have o r i g i n a t e d i t i n the f i r s t , place i f i t were of no importance to the meaning of the sen-tence f o r them, i n accordance w i t h how they " f e l t " t h e i r l a n g -uage. I t i s evident now, however, th a t t h i s s t r o n g and d i r e c t 41 p r e p o s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t or obscured, but the occurrence of the p r e p o s i t i o n i t s e l f i n such l o c u t i o n s i s evidence and v e s t i g e of the o l d e r "meaning group" of which i t then formed such a necessary part.. 42 I f we were to assume t h a t the type of c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t we .are concerned w i t h d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from L a t i n , i t should be e a s i l y demonstrable t h a t a vast number of one t o one cor-respondences between C l a s s i c a l L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s and those of modern Spanish e x i s t , on which to v e r i f y t h i s hypothesis. However, as we s h a l l see, t h i s does not seem to be the case. L a t i n tended to use a su b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n preceded by UT i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , NE i n the negative, t o handle most c l a u s a l l o c u t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t of the major Romance languages, the only one which has r e t a i n e d t h i s type of s t r u c -ture i s Rumanian, which introduces n o n - r e l a t i v e clauses -whether a change of subject from the p r i n c i p a l clause e x i s t s or not - w i t h the p a r t i c l e sa plus a s u b j u n c t i v e . I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t t h i s phenomenon d e r i v e s i n l a r g e p a r t from the t a r d y i n f l u e n c e of l i n g u i s t i c changes w i t h i n the c e n t r a l Empire upon t h i s r a t h e r remote r e g i o n . L y i n g on the per i p h e r y of the Roman sphere of power, those changes e f f e c t e d by speakers of the language towards the a x i s - Rome - would r e q u i r e long per-iods of time to be t r a n s m i t t e d and accepted by the i n h a b i t a n t s of Dacia. However, A u r e l i a n ' s r e c a l l of the Roman Legions from t h i s o u t l y i n g province, around 270 A.D., r e s u l t e d i n i t s complete i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of the Empire. L i n g u i s t i c changes occurring l a t e r simply never reached Dacia, which then continued an independent development, but r e t a i n i n g some " a r -c h a i c " f e a t u r e s . Another anomaly appears, however. For a long time, the v a r i o u s areas now w i t h i n the confines of modern day Spain, 43 France, and I t a l y , were i n only scanty communication w i t h one another. Interchange of language became s l i g h t , and the va r -ious areas grew independently i n l a r g e measure. And yet i t i s an observable f a c t t h a t a l l three areas - a t l e a s t i n terms of the "standard language" a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each - have d e v e l -oped analogous c o n s t r u c t i o n s . The idea of c e r t a i n verbs r e -q u i r i n g c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n s .before an i n f i n i t i v e i s as•common to the I t a l i a n or to the Frenchman as i t i s t o the Spaniard. From a common o r i g i n i n L a t i n , which had no such tendency - or a t l e a s t shows only s c a t t e r e d examples of verbs f o l l o w e d by AD before an i n f i n i t i v e - the vast m a j o r i t y of Romance tongues have accepted t h i s as an i n t e g r a l n e c e s s i t y of speech. That the b a s i s of a common approach e x i s t e d , cannot, then, be i g -nored, s i n c e the m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n f l u e n c e s - s u b s t r a t a , super-s t r a t a , l i t e r a t u r e , the court, etc.. - which exerted themselves d i f f e r e n t l y upon the peoples of the d i f f e r e n t regions could not have permitted t h i s k i n d of homogeneity to be born of i t -s e l f . I t seems probable' that; the impetus was r e c e i v e d from the same breakdown of the L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l system and r e s u l t a n t growth and importance of p r e p o s i t i o n s which has a l r e a d y been mentioned. This phenomenon was most d e f i n i t e l y a u n i v e r s a l one amongst a l l Romance speakers, and i t s e f f e c t s were, again, among the most f o r c e f u l of those which e f f e c t e d the appearance of Romance and i t s subsequent development.^ 2 Let us now examine some of the L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s which provide comparison and co n t r a s t w i t h those of modern Spanish, 44 and attempt t o d i s c e r n what conclusions can be drawn from them. Gen e r a l l y speaking, L a t i n , as mentioned, used c l a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r than dependent i n f i n i t i v e s . However, c e r t a i n l o c u t i o n s could govern the i n f i n i t i v e , p r i n c i p a l l y s u b s t a n t i v e clauses or t h e i r variants.1 3 1) Verbs which have the meaning of admonish, ask, bargain, command, decree, determine, permit, persuade, r e s o l v e , urge, and wish may use.an i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n place of a de-pendent cla u s e , but do so most f r e q u e n t l y i n poetry. Such verbs include caveo, cogo, concedo, c o n s t i t u o , euro, decerno, edico, f l a t i g o , h o r t o r , impero, i n s t o , mando, moneo, persuadeo, peto, postulo,. p r i n c i p i o , pronuntio, quaero, rogo, s c i s c o , timeo, video, v o l o , e t c . , Observe the f o l l o w i n g two examples of each c o n s t r u c t i o n : • . i ) h o r t a t u r eos ne animo d e f i c i a n t ( l e s urge que no se 'desanimen) i i ) h i s u t i conquirerent imperavit ( l e s mando que buscaran) i i i ) ne quaere d o c e r i (no busques que te l o digan) i v ) temptat praevertere ( i n t e n t a v olverse) In the f i r s t example, Spanish sees no d i f f i c u l t y i n f o l l o w i n g the s t r u c t u r e of L a t i n . I n the second, however, " l e s mando buscar" would be of equal a c c e p t a b i l i t y . The t h i r d case shows the use of the passive i n f i n i t i v e of L a t i n , a form long l o s t to Romance; consequently, Spanish must use a subjunctive,con-s t r u c t i o n , as i s g e n e r a l l y common when a sub j e c t change i s i n -volved. The f o u r t h example shows no such change, and demon-45 s t r a t e s i d e n t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , w i t h the exception t h a t Spanish u t i l i z e s a r e f l e x i v e verb. 2) Some verbs i n L a t i n , f o r example iubeo and veto, nor-m a l l y take an i n f i n i t i v e , w i t h i t s subject i n the ac c u s a t i v e case.14 For example: i ) Labienum iugum montis ascendere iu b e t ( l e manda a Labieno s u b i r a l a cumbre. i i ) ab opere l e g a t e s discedere v e t u e r a t ( l e habia prohir; bido a l ten i e n t e d e j a r e l tr a b a j o ) i i i ) vetuere (bona) r e d d i ( p r o h i b i e r o n que se d e v o l v i e r a n l o s bienes) A sub j u n c t i v e clause would perhaps be more common i n modern Spanish i n the f i r s t example: " l e manda a Labieno que suba...". In number i i ) as i n number i ) , a su b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n would be e q u a l l y v a l i d i n Spanish: " l e habia p r o h i b i d o a l t e n i e n t e que d e j a r a . . . " . And as in ' t h e previous s et of examples, number i i i ) c a n n o t be t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y because of i t s use of the passive r e d d i . 3) E i t h e r the i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n or the su b j u n c t i v e i s p e r m i s s i b l e w i t h verbs of wish i n g . As o f t e n occurs i n Spanish, when no subject change occurs, an i n f i n i t i v e i s commoner; when the subject of one clause d i f f e r s from t h a t of the other, a subj u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d . i ) augur f l i e r i v o l u i (querfa hacerme augur) i i ) cupio v i g i l i a m meam t i b i t radere (deseo entregarte mi v i g i l i a ) i i i ) iudicem me esse, non doctorem v o l o (no quiero ser pro-46 f e s o r , sine- juez) i v ) me Caesaris m i l i t e m d i c i v o l u i (quiero que me llamen soldado de Cesar) v) cupio me esse clementem /Generally: cupio clemens esse/ (quiero s e r clemente) v i ) omnes homines, q u i sese student praestare c e t e r i s animalibus (todo hombre que qui e r a superar l o s demas seres) v i i ) v o l o te s c i r e (quiero que sepas) v i i i ) vim volumus e x s t i n g u i (queremos que se suprima l a v i o l e n c i a ) i x ) t e tua f r u i v i r t u t e cupimus (deseamos que r e c i b a s l a recompensa de t u v i r t u d ) : x) vupio ut impetret (espero que e l l o consiga) x i ) numquam optabo ut a u d i a t i s (nunca esperare que oigas...) The f i r s t s i x sentences i n v o l v e no change of subject i n the L a t i n ; the f o l l o w i n g f i v e do change. Notice i n number i ) tha t the L a t i n passive i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s rep l a c e d by a r e f l e x i v e . The use of the r e f l e x i v e i n Spanish, i t might be noted, i s one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the language. In number i v ) , however, t h i s p e r i p h r a s i s i s not f e a s i b l e , and Spanish must r e s o r t to a sub j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e a change of subject does occur between "quiero" and "llamen". The same t h i n g i s true of sentence number v i i ) . And here i t should be n o t i c e d t h a t whereas L a t i n can u t i l i z e an i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , d espite the su b j e c t change, Spanish i s unable to do so. This i s observable i n a l l the remaining examples above. 4 7 4 ) Verbs which convey the idea of permission can govern c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e or a s u b j u n c t i v e . i ) p e r m i s i t ut f a c e r e t ( l e p e r m i t i o hacer) i i ) concedo t i b i ut ea praetereas (concedo que pases por a l t o a q u e l l o s asuntos) i i i ) tabernacula s t a t u i passus non est (no p e r m i t i o que acamparan) .iv ) vinum i m p o r t a r i non s i n u n t (no dejan que se importe vino) Number i ) , of course, could a l s o be expressed as "permitio que l o h i c i e r a " ; number i i ) as "te permito pasar..."; number i i i ) as "no l e s p e r m i t i o acampar". To express number i v ) as "no l e s dejan importar v i n o " , however, would d e t r a c t from the impersonal idea inherent i n the L a t i n . 5) S i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s are p o s s i b l e w i t h verbs which express determination, decree, r e s o l v e , and the l i k e . i ) c o n s t i t u e r a n t ut L. B e s t i a quereretur. (habian deter-minado que Lucio B e s t i a se quejara) i i ) p r o e l i o supersedere s t a t u i t (se d e c i d i o a rehusar b a t a l l a ) i i i ) de bonis r e g i s quae r e d d i censuerant (de l o s bienes d e l rey, l o s cuales se habia declarado que se d e v o l -vieran) Only i n the second example can Spanish a v o i d a s u b j e c t change and consequent s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Again one sees i n number i i i ) the value of the passive i n f i n i t i v e , which pre-cludes the i n v o l v e d and awkward dependent clause i n Spanish. L8 . Subjunctive clauses are seen comparatively i n the f o l l o w i n g : i v ) d e c e r n i t u t i consules dilectum habeant (ordena que l o s consules hagan leva) . v) e d i c t o ne quis i n i u s s u pugnaret (habiendo dict a d o que ninguno luchara s i n drdenes) 6) Verbs which express caution or e f f o r t g e n e r a l l y employ c the s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n * w i t h UT, but CONOR u s u a l l y takes a dependent i n f i n i t i v e . i ) cura ut quam primum i n t e l l e g a m (hazme saber cuanto antes) . i i ) dant operam ut habeant (se esfuerzan tener) i i i ) conatus e s t Caesar r e f i c e r e p o n t i s (Cesar t r a t d de r e c o n s t r u i r e l puente) Note t h a t a l l these examples u t i l i z e the dependent i n f i n i t i v e i n Spanish, and t h a t number i i i ) evidences the verb+preposi-t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n question. Thus we have seen t h a t a grammatical convention i n L a t i n need not produce a s i m i l a r one i n Spanish. Hence, the idea of d e r i v i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s e t y m o l o g i c a l l y i n the same way as i t i s most o f t e n p o s s i b l e to do w i t h l e x i c o n , i s f r e q u e n t l y not a v a l i d procedure. Once again, i t must be maintained t h a t the most important f a c t o r t o be considered i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of a phenomenon i s the very f a c t t h a t the speakers of a l a n g -uage e f f e c t changes which they d e s i r e to make. T h e i r reasoning i s not n e c e s s a r i l y l o g i c a l , but more o f t e n dependent upon "what sounds r i g h t " to them. As long as they are able to 49 convey ideas, d i s t i n g u i s h nuances, and express themselves to other members of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c community, t h e i r language continues to be " c o r r e c t " and "acceptable" t o them; and t h e i r f e e l i n g f o r t h e i r n a t i v e speech i s not to be hindered or expedited by what may have gone before. FOOTNOTES, CHAPTER I I 1) S i n t a c t i c a , p. 11 2) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, t h a t Catalan uses men.jar from manducaffe, i l l u s t r a t i n g one of the many f e a -t u r e s i t shares i n common w i t h Gallo-Romance. 3) Cuando desaparece e l l a t i n v u l g a r fundido en l a s lenguas de l a Romania, s a l v o en l o s pronombres personales, quedaban en Dacia t r e s casos, y en e l r e s t o d e l Imperio, dos: un nominativo y un a c u s a t i v o . La forma d e l p l u r a l es o t r a de l a s c a r a c t e r i s t i c a s . La 's' f i n a l l a t i n a se cdnserva en l a Romania o c c i d e n t a l . En l a o r i e n t a l se e l u d i e r o n l a *s* y l a 'm' f i n a l e s y l a 'u' y&la ? o r sonaron l o mismo. No habia medio de d i s t i n g u i r .•portam* de *portas*. S i n t & c t i c a , p.17, Note. 4) I b i d , p. 17 5) More w i l l be s a i d about t h i s f e a t u r e on page 101-2 , i n terms of p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x e s and independent p r e p o s i t i o n s . 6) Adapted i n part from S i n t a c t i c a , p. 17, e t . seq. 7) I b i d , p. 18 8) Adapted i n part from l o c . c i t . 9) Cf. see p. 37 ; the e x p l a n a t i o n of the f o u r t h example of The G e n i t i v e . •' 10) S i n t a c t i c a , p. 18 11) Loc. c i t . . , 12) Let i t not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t French r e t a i n e d a two-case system f o r a great l e n g t h of time; t h a t Rumanian s t i l l evidences the Nominative-Accusative case as d i s t i n c t from the G e n i t i v e - D a t i v e , and has separate Vocative forms f o r some words, i n the modern language; even modern E n g l i s h , whose speakers o f t e n t h i n k of t h e i r language as almost com-p l e t e l y a n a l y t i c , has v e s t i g e s of a case system: he/him, she/her, who/whom, e t c . However, the very f a c t t h a t word order has assumed such semantic importance i n the modern Romance languages i s evidence of the monumental e f f e c t caused by the d e s t r u c t i o n of the L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l system. 13) Adapted from A l l e n , pps. 363 et seq. 14) Observe t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e of L a t i n has been incorporated i n t o E n g l i s h grammar; one says, f o r example, " I ordered him to buy the book", i n which "him", a c c u s a t i v e case, i s the subject of the i n f i n i t i v e "buy", which i s i n t u r n the d i r e c t 51 object of the verb "ordered". Note a l s o t h a t i n French, one says, f o r example, "Je l * a i f a i t p a r l e r " , i n c o n t r a s t to "Je l u i a i f a i t d i r e l a phrase". But due to the l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n between d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t object pronouns i n Spanish, no such c o n t r a s t can be found between " l e .nice h a b l a r " and " l e hiee d e c i r l a f r a s e " . CHAPTER I I I With the appearance of an i d e n t i f i a b l e Romance standard w i t h i n the I b e r i a n Peninsula, the use of p r e p o s i t i o n s to i n t r o -duce i n f i n i t i v e s a f t e r verbs became, as we have seen, a recog-n i z a b l e phenomenon. We may now attempt t o d i s c e r n what i n -fluences were a t work to maintain and develop i t . R. Hescott t e l l s us r a t h e r c a t e g o r i c a l l y - seemingly too much so i n view of the complexity of the.problem - t h a t t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n n s e d e s a r r o l l d en e l l a t i n t a r d i o como continuacion de l o s g i r o s vulgares de p r e p o s i c i o n con gerundio r i g i e n d o un complemento. "-*-He a l s o provides us w i t h examples of i n f i n i t i v e s governed by the p r e p o s i t i o n s ad, de_, per, pro, and the compound per ad, as evidenced i n Roman S p a i n . 2 And he makes a p o i n t of t e l l i n g us the meaning expressed by each p r e p o s i t i o n : ad shows the neces-s i t y of the a c t i o n of the i n f i n i t i v e ; de seems to l a c k meaning f o r him, and i s noteworthy only by i t s s c a r c i t y ; pro i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a c t i o n of the i n f i n i t i v e remained u n r e a l i z e d and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Spanish3 - h o p e f u l l y , he does not wish h i s apparent c o r o l l a r y to be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t u n r e a l i -z a t i o n of a c t i o n i s a Spanish c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; the same prepo-s i t i o n can a l s o i n d i c a t e f i n a l i t y or d e s t i n a t i o n , he says, as can per, and the compound, per ad. A) i ) "uendimus ad t i b i Ienneco p r e s b i t e r t e r r a n o s t r a propia que abes ad debedire cum S a r r o z i n o " , (Cardefia, 173, 2, 965, 162) i i ) " s i a l i q u i s homo ad disrependun v e n e r i t . . . t u n c a b i a t i s  ad prendere de nos i p s a e r e d i t a t e " , (San V i c e n t e , 32, 11, 53 1 0 3 7 , 1 6 2 ) B) i ) "de rompere i l l d s montes...tale poetione abeat regula de S a n c t i J u k i a n i " , (Cardena, 363, 40, O 6 4 , 1 6 9 ) i i ) "non habuerunt fuero de horaicidio pectare", (San M i l l a n , 49, 3 8 , 9 9 6 - 1 0 2 0 , 1 6 9 ) '' C) i ) "et de ipso p r e c i o non remansit debitum pro dare", (Cardena, 6 0 , 8 0 / 9 1 2 , 1 7 0 ) i i ) " scalda qiiarn u e l pro s c a l i d a r e " , (San V i c e n t e , 3 0 , 3 4 , 1 0 2 8 , 1 7 0 ) i i i ) "Ego Radanius q u i s a i o n f u i t . per mandatus i u d i c i s pro ipsa u i l l a absoluere", (Santa Maria, 2 , 6 6 , 0 2 7 , 1 7 1 ) i v ) " s i venit...homo u i l l a n o pro pignos saccare per f o r c i a " , (San M i l l a n , 4 9 , 15, 9 5 5 , 1 7 1 ) D) i ) "et i l l o s montes per l i g n a taggare aut pascere", (Cardena, 3 6 3 , 3 8 , 9 6 4 , ' 1 7 1 ) i i ) " f u i ad casa de Fredlnando cum F r i o l a et rogauimos i l i u m per cartam t r a s l a t a r e de utnia...et t r a n s l a t a u i t . . . ipsam ca r t a n " , (Santo T o r i b i o , 6 6 , 6, 9 6 2 , 1 7 1 ) E) i ) "non donem vobis i l i a aqua per ad u e s t r a n e c e s s a r i a a d i m p l i r e " , (Cardena, 5 4 , 1 5 , 9 5 6 , 1 7 2 ) This i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g i n th a t i t i l l u s -t r a t e s the v a c i l l a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the developing, language, and shows the beginnings of neologisms, such as pro, and the usages immediately a s c r i b e d to them. However, once again, i t does nothing t o i n d i c a t e the reason f o r i n i t i a l choice, un l e s s , perhaps, i n d i r e c t l y . I t must be remembered t h a t "a" 54 d e r i v e s from a p r e p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g d i r e c t i o n towards some-t h i n g , an idea e a s i l y a s s o c i a b l e w i t h t h a t of n e c e s s i t y , i n the sense of progression towards the completion of an a c t i o n . Hescott presents us w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the use of p r e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n f i n i t i v e s i n Old Spanish, g i v i n g again the meaning of the p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . Let us examine h i s conclusions i n order to decide whether some k i n d of semantic a s s o c i a t i o n can be a s c e r t a i n e d ; t h a t i s , l e t us see whether a "why" can be found, corresponding t o h i s "what".^-I . The p r o p o s i t i o n "a" The i n f i n i t i v e w i t h "a" denotes d i r e c -t i o n towards, and thus the purpose of an a c t i o n . 1) I t can introduce the d i r e c t object of a t r a n s i t i v e verb such as ayudar, comecar, empecar, pensar or conpecar: : ' "e ruego a San Peydro que me ayude a rogar" ( C i d , 363) "Conpiepan a r e c i b i r l o que e l f i d mando", ( I b i d , 25§5) 2) With verbs of motion, i t i n d i c a t e s the goal or object of the a c t i o n : "Do sopieron que era venienronlo a vuscar", (Fern. Glez., 119); "Abaxaron l a s lancas y fueron a f e r y r " ( I b i d , 308); "e tornos a s o n r r i s s a r " , . (C i d , 1266) 3) " a l " w i t h i n f i n i t i v e i n d i c a t e s s i m u l t a n e i t y , or a c t i o n immediately p r i o r to t h a t of the verb: " a l e x i r de Salon mucho ovo buenas aves", (Cid. 859)5 " a l cargar l a s areas - veriedes gozo t a n t o " , ( I b i d , 170) 4) With haber ( a v e r ) , i t i n d i c a t e s n e c e s s i t y or f u t u r i t y : "ca a mouer ha mio p i d " , ( C i d . I69) ; t 5 c a s t i g a r - l o s he como abran a f a r " , ( I b i d , 229); "ouieron te a laudare", ( I b i d , 335) 5) Used w i t h s e r , i t s i g n i f i e s the passive e q u i v a l e n t of. haber a or haber de: "firme mientre son estos a escar-mentar", ( C i d , 1121);."tales ganancias t r a e n que son a aguardar", ( I b i d , 1823). The f i r s t two cases present no apparent problem. The f a c t t h a t a has been chosen to introduce a d i r e c t o b ject was l i k e l y the r e s u l t of mental a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the use of AD plus ACCUSA-55 TOTE, which developed, as both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o b ject i d e n t i f i e r . Note the use of the modern Spanish "personal a". S i m i l a r l y , AD i n d i c a t e d movement and d i r e c t i o n towards a place or person or o b j e c t ; the analogy i s obvious, since the a c t i o n inherent i n the i n f i n i t i v e i s r e a d i l y conceived of as being an object.5 The case of number 3) can perhaps be explained i n the l i g h t of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h such. L a t i n idioms as "ad tempus", "ad l a t e r a " , "ad hunc modum", and "ad diem", where the concur-rence of p o s i t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d to a concurrence of time. Number 4) might : be viewed as.a d i r e c t development from the previous L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n of HABERE AD, which, though not g e n e r a l l y employed w i t h i n f i n i t i v e , was not unknown, and from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of some verbs, a l s o i n c l u d i n g HABERE, t a k i n g AD plus the gerund or gerundive, f o r example "corpora insu e t a ad onera portanda".6 However, we must consider t h i s w h i l e bearing i n mind the modern usage of "haber de" c o e x i s t i n g w i t h "hay (< haber) que", t h e - l a t t e r probably owing i t s d e r i v a t i o n to "que" having been i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u b s t a n t i v e on the one hand, and as a subordinate conjunction on the other, as both f u n c t i o n s are a l s o commonplace i n modern Spanish. In the l a s t case, number 5), one can again see two f o r c e s a t work. Analogy w i t h "haber a" must s u r e l y have c o n t r i b u t e d to the choice of "a" to be used w i t h " s e r " , . s i n c e , as Hescott mentions, the i d e n t i t y of the l a t t e r can be construed as a passive rendering of the former. As w e l l , "a" being " f e l t " and thought of i n terms of "an approach towards" something, the idea of the i n -f i n i t i v e ' s a c t i o n comprehended as the d e s t i n a t i o n would a l s o 56 be e a s i l y construed i n the mind of the speakers, who were res p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s choice of l o c u t i o n . I I . The p r e p o s i t i o n "antes". This p r e p o s i t i o n expresses the n o t i o n of p r i o r i t y : "E yre a. l a c o r t - en antes de i a n t a r " , ( C i d , 3045). This example provides us w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t . Where-as the use of "a" w i t h the i n f i n i t i v e can, as we are attempt-i n g t o v e r i f y , be conceived as the residue of a meaningful segment of a c o n s t r u c t i o n , now l i t t l e more than a grammatical contrivance, a p r e p o s i t i o n such,as antes de, f a l l s i n to-another category a l t o g e t h e r . The compound of Mantes" found i n the quotation above (from which the present day p r e p o s i t i o n "delante de" i s d e r i v e d ) , need prove no impediment: the crux here i s meaning, not appearance. The d e r i v a t i o n of "antes" from ANTE continues the concept of p r i o r i t y ; w i t h i n the con-s t r u c t i o n of v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o r i + i n f i n i t i v e , t h i s concept has remained i n t a c t to the present day. This i s indeed d i f f e r e n t from the case of both "a" and "de" i n t h i s f u n c t i o n , whose o r i g i n a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning-load has been removed almost t o t a l l y . I I I . The p r e p o s i t i o n "de". In the Middle Ages, says Hescott, t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n was g r e a t l y p r e f e r r e d over "a" before an i n f i n i t i v e , and he quotes Beardsley as saying t h a t "De mas e l i n f i n i t i v o es l a mas popular de todas".7 An important f a c t appears, though, when we consider the 57 statement of Lenz, t h a t "...en c a s t e l l a n o , e l uso d e l i n f i n i t i v e con de retrocede, pues en vez de "'me cumple de f a z e r , olvidabaseme de e s c r i b i r * , e t c . , hoy se pre-f i e r e e l i n f i n i t i v o s i n p r e p o s i c i d n . T h u s we observe t h a t a r a d i c a l change seems to have occurred. T h i s , i n t u r n , can be compared to the f a c t t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n " d i " i s the most f r e q u e n t l y employed i n the corresponding c o n s t r u c t i o n i n modern I t a l i a n , and th a t "de". seems to be g a i n i n g some ascendency i n modern French. 1) I t may be used w i t h i n f i n i t i v e as the s u b j e c t of " s e r " , w i t h a s u b s t a n t i v e , a d j e c t i v e , or adverb: "de dar e q u i t a r e l es e l facedor", (Fern. Glez., 441); "Venida es l a hora de prender l a soldada", ( M i l de Nt r a . Sra., 136). S i m i l a r l y , i t may introduce an i n f i n i t i v e which i s the pr e d i c a t e of the copula: "pensemos de y r nuestra v i a , esto sea de vagar", (Gid, 3&); "La obra d e l p a l a c i o non es de o l v i -dar", ( L i b . de A l e x . , 1956). 2) I t may govern an i n f i n i t i v e used as a d i r e c t object of verbs such as comencar, empecar, cesar, prometer: "moros e moras - compeparon de l l o r a r " , (Gid, 856); "juntos con sus mesnadas - compepos l a s de l e g r a r " , ( I b i d , 1083). 3) S i m i l a r to t h i s , Hescott says, i s the use of "de" plus i n f i n i t i v e to express a non-absolute i d e a , used w i t h verbs such as those mentioned i n 2), and with.others l i k e pensar, asmar, dudar, f i n c a r , dexar, e t c . "Beardsley l a llama *de r e l a t i v a * , 58 he t e l l s us, and "Menendez P i d a l d ice que t i e n e e l sentido i n c e p t i v o de disponerse a u ocuparse en"9: "Sueltan l a s r i e n -das e pienssan de a g u i j a r " , ( C i d , 16) ; "e l o s mediados g a l l o s piensan de cavalgar", ( I b i d , 325). 4) I t can be used w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e to express cause, means, and se p a r a t i o n : "por amor de acabarlo non se podia dar vagar", (Fern. Glez. 385); "Nos f a r t a n de c a t a r l e quantos ha en l a c o r t " , ( C i d , 3406); " e l abbat don Sancho tornan de cas-t i g a r " , ( C i d , 384). 5) The c o n s t r u c t i o n can modify a s u b s t a n t i v e : "En l o s di a s de vagar", ( C i d , 2963). 6) I t i s used w i t h aver.(modern "tener") plus a substan-t i v e , i n d i c a t i n g d e s i r e , f e a r , e t c . : " v i n i e s s e a mio p i d que a sabor de cavalgar", ( C i d , 1190). 7) The c o n s t r u c t i o n of de_ plus i n f i n i t i v e may a l s o modify an a d j e c t i v e : "Sabet que e s t a es una de l a s cosas d e l mundo rnas grave de poner so una r e g l a g e n e r a l " , ( L i b . Enfenido, .125) . 8) Haber de-plus- the i n f i n i t i v e ' expresses the same neces-s i t y or f u t u r i t y as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of haber a: "en l a f e de don C r i s t o que avyan de creexj", (Fern. Glez., 14); "Para siempre jamas non l o s ha de perder", ( L i b . de Buen Amor, 151). In general, we can i n t e r p r e t the usage of de w i t h the i n f i n i t i v e as being the r e s u l t of two concepts, t h a t of the g e n i t i v e , and t h a t of temporal or s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n , the l a t t e r 60 being, i n general, the co n t r a r y of a, which showed temporal or s p a t i a l approach. However, the element of n e c e s s i t y or f u t u r i t y , a l s o shown by t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n would more r e a d i l y be envisaged as a d e r i v a t i o n from the L a t i n gerund or gerun-d i v e . For example, i n number 1 ) , we can see a g e n i t i v e idea i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , a gerundive concept i n the second. Now, the idea of n e c e s s i t y can a l s o be thought of i n terms of "possession": when something i s necessary, i t belongs to the absolute order of d e s t i n y or p r a c t i c a l i t y . When something i s contained i n the idea of f u t u r i t y , i t must l i k e w i s e form part of what i s to come. One might e a s i l y t h i n k of speakers " f e e l -i n g " t h a t t h i s "belonging" r e q u i r e d some k i n d of i d e n t i f i e r , and, coupled w i t h the constant i n f l u e n c e of analogy, undertake unconsciously to f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e by the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r g e n i t i v e marker, the p r e p o s i t i o n "de". When one t h i n k s of something, the g e n i t i v e idea i s again c l e a r . However, what of concepts such as doubting, l e a v i n g , and promising? When one doubts the existence of something, one i s r e t r a c t i n g t h a t t h i n g from the realm of f a c t ; when one leaves something, or ceases to do something, one i s removing oneself from t h a t concept and e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i g u r a t i v e d i s -tance between oneself and t h a t idea; when one promises to do something, one i s f a i r l y e a s i l y able t o v i s u a l i z e t h i s a c t as a v o l u n t a r y surrender of one's freedom of choice t o do other-wise, t h a t i s , one withdraws oneself.from the a r b i t r a r y . A l l these may th e r e f o r e be expressed by the concept of de, s i g n i -f y i n g "away from". 61 The cause and means of number 4) are again c l e a r l y a g e n i t i v e i d e a . The s e p a r a t i o n concept of the same number i s , n a t u r a l l y enough, an example of f i g u r a t i v e r e t r a c t i o n . Both, t h e r e f o r e , use de without prese n t i n g a problem of understanding the choice of p r e p o s i t i o n . The case of number 5), ob v i o u s l y , i s t h a t of another k i n d of g e n i t i v e , t o be constructed w i t h t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n which expresses t h i s concept. The same i s true of number 6). An ex p l a n a t i o n of number 7) can once more be couched i n terms of co n t i n u i n g a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Whereas i n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n , o n l y c e r t a i n a d j e c t i v e s r e g u l a r l y governed the g e n i t i v e case, l a t e r usage permitted the g e n i t i v e w i t h a great number of them, thus p r o v i d i n g the framework of meaning and understanding which l e d to ve r b + d e + i n f i n i t i v e . 1 ° IV• The p r e p o s i t i o n "en". Hescott t e l l s us t h a t the construc-t i o n v e r b + e n + i n f i n i t i v e c a r r i e s the same meaning as would the c o n s t r u c t i o n without the p r e p o s i t i o n . But, he says t h a t i t answers the questions where? and how? w i t h verbs and a d j e c t i v e s , "que siempre te t r a b a i s en s a l v a r l o s errados", ( M i l . de N t r a . Sra., 289); "Ovyeron gran rrebato en pasar aquel vado", (Fern. Glez., 356); "Senores, punad en f a s e r buerias obras", (La Danza.de l a Muerte, 41); "en v i s i t a r enfermos non era 1 enbargado", (Santo Domingo, 116) . I f the meaning of the phrase were e x a c t l y the same w i t h or without the p r e p o s i t i o n , and i f a t the time t h a t t h i s con-s t r u c t i o n - th a t u s i n g en - became accepted, no d i f f e r e n c e were t o be imputed by the speakers, does i t r e a l l y seem l i k e l y 62 t h a t they would have evolved the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the f i r s t place? I s i t not more l i k e l y t h a t the o r i g i n a l idea of the p r e p o s i t i o n IN - both t h a t of IN plus a c c u s a t i v e and IN plus a b l a t i v e - was s t i l l maintained i n the minds of the speakers? The f i g u r a t i v e idea of place w i t h i n or movement i n t o , as w e l l as the o c c a s i o n a l l i t e r a l one contained i n the meaning of the l o c u t i o n , i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . The answering of both ques-t i o n s - how and where - ,1s r e a d i l y conceived i n terms of "place". A n d thus i t would seem reasonable to assume again t h a t the " f e e l i n g " t h a t the speakers had f o r t h e i r language, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h i s language was s t i l l i n a considerable s t a t e of f l u x , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of t h i s con-s t r u c t i o n . V. The p r e p o s i t i o n "para", or "pora", and the p r e p o s i t i o n "por". Both p r e p o s i t i o n s , when used w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e , express the idea of purpose. "Pero, s i l a s q u e r i a para con e l l a s usar", ( L i b . de Buen Amor, 48); "Vos fuerades pora b i v i r , e yo pora morir maest", (Cantar de Roncesvalles, 89); " a r -rando l a s t i e r r a s para sembrar pan", (La Danza de l a Muerte, 223)5 "Los que son por v e n i r p l a z r a l i s de o i l l a " , ( M i l . de N t r a . Sra., 215); "Cruzaronse romeros por i r en ultramar", ( M i l . De N t r a . Sra., 102); "estas se adoban por i r con e l Canpeador", ( C i d , ,1997) . Once again, the c o n t i n u a t i o n of a meaning and a concept appears r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n . Both PER and PRO, which are the etymon of both por and para, 63 i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r l i t e r a l or f i g u r a t i v e purpose, even when expressed by the idea of "through". Since the l a t t e r L a t i n p r e p o s i t i o n - which c a r r i e d much emphasis of purpose and f i g u r a t i v e d i r e c t i o n - was the more important i n the d e r i v a -t i o n of the' Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n s , the r e s u l t a n t c o n c e p t u a l i -z a t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s even more understandable. VI . The p r e p o s i t i o n " s i n " . This i n d i c a t e s the l a c k of r e a l i -z a t i o n of the a c t i o n of the i n f i n i t i v e which i t precedes: "Non ay syn noche d i a , n i n segar syn sembrar, n i n ' r e y r s i n llor|.r"/Sem. Tob., 156). No discrepancy occurs here, e i t h e r . The idea c a r r i e d through from that of SINE remains constant. The expression i s c l e a r , and the meaning i s conveyed; *the c o n s t r u c t i o n ' s o r i g i n i s s u r e l y e a s i l y envisaged. A f i n a l note t o be taken i s t h a t i n a l l these cases shown, the i n f i n i t i v e , has o b v i o u s l y been thought of as a s u b s t a n t i v e , and has behaved a c c o r d i n g l y . This might w e l l seem too obvious and n a t u r a l to be of worth. However, as we have seen i n Chap-t e r I , t h i s i s not the case. An i n f i n i t i v e does not a l -ways f u n c t i o n i n a f a s h i o n i d e n t i c a l to t h a t of a s u b s t a n t i v e . 64 The m a t e r i a l presented thus f a r might seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t only two c r i t e r i a need be considered to determine the reasons f o r the development of the c o n s t r u c t i o n verb+prepo-s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e : the i d e n t i t y of the i n f i n i t i v e and i t s meaning, and the i d e n t i t y and meaning of the p r e p o s i t i o n , i n terms, of course, of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between these two. Th i s , however, would be to leave out the t h i r d c o n t r o l -l i n g v a r i a b l e , the i n i t i a l verb of the c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o which only i n d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n has been given i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. Let us now focus a t t e n t i o n on t h i s element, and t r y b e t t e r to r e a l i z e i t s importance. F o l l o w i n g i s an examination of the uses of verbs w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s and i n f i n i t i v e s i n Old Spanish, from the point of view of seeing which verbs governed which p r e p o s i t i o n s . H Some two hundred examples have been found i n f o u r main sources, and they cover, i n general, the period of time from the ten t h through the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The f i r s t • i s the s e c t i o n designated Documentos C a s t e l l a n o s , as found i n Menendez './ P i d a l ' s Crestomatfa d e l espanol medieval, Tomo I.12 The1 iden-t i f i c a t i o n of these quotations w i l l be the number 1, i n d i c a t i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , folloxved by the number corresponding to the sub-s e c t i o n , as l i s t e d w i t h i n the Grestomatxa, f o l l o w e d by the l i n e number. The sub-sections comprise the f o l l o w i n g documents:13 1) A n o 921 - Cardena (Burgos) 2) A f i o 937 - Cardena . 3) A n o 939 - Valpuesta, p a r t . jud. de V i l l a r c a y o (Burgos) 4) A f i o 967 - C a s t i l l a d e l Norte 65 5) A f i o 971 - Ibeas de Juarros (Burgos) 6) Ano 978 - Covarrubias (Burgos) 7) Ano 993 - C a s t i l i a d e l Norte 8) Afio 1011 - Valpuesta, p a r t . j u d . de V i l l a r c a y o (Burgos) 9) Hacia e l ano 1030 - C l u n i a o Coruna d e l Conde (Burgos) 10) Afio 1039 - Valpuesta j p a r t . jud. de V i l l a r c a y o (Burgos) 11) Afio 10ZJ.4 - San M i l l a n de l a C o g o l l a , p a r t , de Najera, (Logrono) 12) Afio 1047 - Santona (Santander) 13) Afio IO63 - Ona (N. de Burgos) A l l these, then, are C a s t i ' . l i a n documents, and are thus most re l e v a n t t o our study. The second source i s the e d i t i o n of the C i d , a l s o found i n the same Crestomatfa- 1^• This w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by the i n i t i a l number 2, f o l l o w e d by the l i n e number. The t h i r d source i s the Generaciones y Semblanzas, the c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of R.B. Tate-1-^, w i t h quotations taken from the s e c t i o n s comprising pages 1 through 13. These w i l l be designated by the reference Tate, f o l l o w e d by the page and l i n e number. The f o u r t h source i s the Prologo ,r and T i t o l I through IV of L i b r o _ °f E l Fuero v i e . jo de C a s t i l l a . - 6 Those quotations taken from t h i s source w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by the word Fuero, f o l -lowed by the page number. I t i s recognized t h a t three d i f f e r e n t e d i t o r s are respon-s i b l e f o r the t e x t s chosen, and t h a t the many v a r i a n t s encoun-tered w i t h i n the manuscripts upon which they based t h e i r e d i -t i o n s , are o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . However, f o r the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , no important problem should a r i s e therefrom. 66 In most cases, the use of p r e p o s i t i o n s i s f a i r l y uniform, and the o c c a s i o n a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s which might a r i s e should serve on l y to i n d i c a t e the s t a t e of f l u x w i t h i n the language during those c e n t u r i e s . Furthermore, f o r our purposes, i t i s imperative t o e s t a b l i s h a base, and t h i s must be a recog-n i z e d e d i t i o n of o l d t e x t s , since paleography i s not i n ques-t i o n here. That i s t o say,, the "word" of the e d i t o r has had to be accepted verbatim, and h i s e f f o r t s a r b i t r a r i l y considered a u t h o r i t a t i v e . The number of t e x t s chosen, and the quotations discerned from them^ i s not i n any way intended to be thorough or com-prehensive, but r a t h e r i l l u s t r a t i v e . Such a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of examples could never purport t o c a t e g o r i c a l conclu-s i o n s ; however, va l u a b l e i n d i c a t i o n s of the l i n g u i s t i c s t a t e of a f f a i r s of the times can be gleaned from such a s e l e c t i o n , , i n the same s o r t of way as a random sampling of a community can p o i n t out o p i n i o n trends. And-the existence of trends towards the use of v e r b + p r e p p s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i s r e a l l y the g i s t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . One f i n a l p o i n t : the graphy " f " has c o n s i s t e n t l y been t r a n s c r i b e d here as " s " ; the graphy  nZ " has been w r i t t e n "e"; the verbs are l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y - those which have e a s i l y r ecognizable modern forms are shown under t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n , f o r example "aver" w i l l appear under "haber", " f a z e r " under "hacer", e t c . , whereas verbs such as "compecar" are l i s t e d independently. acogerse acoiense a andar de d i a e de noch (2,2690) a d e l i n a r a d e l i n a n a posar 'pora f o l g a r essa noch (2,2857) apartarse - , se apartava a ver sus .fechos (Tate, 6, 8) atender (modern meaning -" esperar) non deve atender a pagar, n i n a d e j a r penos a l t e r c e r d i a (Fuero, 10) ayudar f a s t a 4uel*ayuden a ganar senor (Fuero 13) e Ruego a san Peydro que me ayude a Rogar (2,363) bas t a r bastara d e z i r tanto que... (Tate, 11, 7) menos seso e esfuerco l e s basta para r e g i r (Tate, 5> 26) cansar canssados son de f e r i r e l l o s amos a dos (2,2745) comenzar comenzd a r e i n a r (Tate, 5.11) compepar l a sena t i e n e en mano, conpecd de espolonar (2,705) Essora l e s conpiepan a dar ( l o s ) ; yfantes de C a r r i o n (2,2735) curar (modern meaning - cuidar) non euro de l o e s c r i v i r (Tate,11,19) dar s i e l Rey da algund c a s t i e l l o a tener a alguno (Fuero,6) deber non l a s deve dar a ningund hombre (Fuero,4) c6mmo l o deuedes f a r (2,315) 68 en un espejo se deven mirar (Tate,10,11) non debent i b i pascere (1,11,11) debent r e f e r i r e (1,11,7) ; J Non l a s deuieraos tomar por varraganas, s i non f(o)ssemos •Rogados (2,2759/60) debent uenire ad u i l l a m e acc i p e r e f i d i a t o r e m (1,11,5) de.jar non se dexen governar..a o t r o s (Tate, 5,29) a l o s i u d i o s te dexeste prender (2,347) entremeterse algunos que se entreraeten de e s c r i v i r e notar l a s antiguedades i (Tate,1,10) se entreraetan de t u r b a r (Tate,10,13) e n v i a r devenle imbiar a d e c i r . . .que;;.. (Fuero,17) e l rey enbio a l a so c o r r e r a su condestable (Tate,7,10) imbianvos p e d i r merced (Fuero,l6) e s c r i b i r Por l o s conplazer e l i s o n j a r o por temor de l o s enojar, e s c r i v e n mas... (Tate,2,20) esperar non deve atender a pagar...nin esperar de q u i t a r l o s ( F u e r o , l l ) e s t a r d e v e l ' e s t a r a amistat (Fuero,25) grave s e r i a grave de c r e r (Tate,6,l8) cosas muy grandes e graves de c r e r (Tate, 1,13). haber quando muere e l v a s a l l o . . . a a dar a suo Senor... ( F u e r o , l l ) a l T a dar t r e i n t a d i a s (Fuero,14) se a v i e r a d e s l i n d a r (Fuero,23) e conseiaronle en toda l a Corte, que l o a v i a a f a c e r (Fuero,8) a s s i l o an todos ha f a r (2,322) ouieron ( t ) e a laudare (2.335) en e l monumento ( o v i s t e a) Resupit(ar) (2,358) E quando o v i e r e l Rico orae a s a l i r (Fuero,14) e a a t o m a r l a amistat (Fuero,25) 69 ...e de l o que ha de aver e l Sefior d e l v a s a l l o por Nuncio (Fuero,11) e s t o s c a v a l l o s , que e l a v i a de a v e r (Fuero,12) mucho aueraos de andar (2,321) l a v i l l a fue tan t o aquexada que se ovo de a p l a z a r (Tate,7,21) v o l u n t a d i^ue e l a v i a de c o n t i n u a r (Tate,12,19) quel*an de f a c e r derecho (Fuero,26) que non aya de f a c e r e l Rey pecho (Fuero,5) e a l o de mostrar a F i j o s d a l g o (Fuero,24) cada uno a v i a de r e g i r (Tate,11,22) como a de v e n i r e l de l a B e h e t r i a (Fuero,10) l a s manos se ouo de un t a r (2,354) e e l Senor non l e a que demandar (Fuero,11) hacer l a poca conversacidm f a z e a l . p r x c i p e s e r temido (Tate.6,1) ^uando oy nos partimos, en v i d a nos f a z i u n t a r (2,365) fago vos saver que... (Fuero,21) i r deben i r con e l a g u a r d a r l e (Fuero,13) e yre a l a c o r t enantes de ya n t a r (2,3051) E l C i d a dona Ximena 'yuala a b r a c a r (2,368) ...a Dios se (fo) acomendar (2,411) dona Ximena a l p i d l a manol va bes a r (2,369) E l Rey don Alfonsso :• a T o l l e d o va e n t r a r (2,3053) yuanlos f e r i r de f u e r t e s corapones (2,718) Vo meter l a u u e s t r a sena en aque11a mayor az (2,707) sobre Nauas de Palos e l Duero ua passar (2,401) l a manol ban besar (2,298) a l a F i g u e r u e l a myo p i d i u a posar (2,402) A l a s i e r r a de Hiedes e l l o s yuan posar (2,415) hyua Repebir a don E l u i r a e a dona S o l (2,2817) a l a l m o f a l l a se uan t o r n a r (2,694) l a calpada de guinea y u a l a t r a s p a s s a r (2,400) Minaya ua ueer sues primas do son (2,2858). mandar Con aquestos p i e n t o que adobar mandd (2,3101) mandan f i n c a r l a t i e n d a y f a n t e s de C a r r i 6 n (2,2701) mando j u n t a r todas sus gehtes (Tate,8,19) que e l mando matar (Fuero,23) e rex G a r s i a mandauit peggare, e serna a p r e c i a r e e peggare (1,11,23) mandaronle y r ade l a n t e (2,276,6) a sos c a u a l l e r o s mand6los todos i u n t a r (2,312) Mandaron carg a r l a s azemi l a s con aueres (2,2705) mandedes e n s e l l a r (2,317) M a n d 6 f a z e r candelas y poner en e l a l t a r (2,3055) 1 70 Mando e l Rey a myo Cid' (a) aguardar (2,308) necesario necesario es de s e r muy r i c o (Tate,6,14) osar Non uos osariemos a b r i r n i n coger por nada (2,44) conbidar...mas ninguno non osaua (2,21) ca n o l osan d e z i r nada (2,30) non l e o s a r i e n uender a l menos dinarada (2,64) pensar A l i i " pienssan de a g u i i a r (2,10) d e z i l d e s que prendan Rastro. y pienssen de andar (2,389) pense* de e s c r i v i r (Tate,^,5) pensemos de y r n u e s t r a vxa, esto sea de vagar (2,380) pienssan de andar (2,391) Otro d i a manana pienssa de caualgar (2,394) Myo p i d eon l o s sos v a s s a l l o s pensso de caualgar (2,376) penssemos de caualgar (2,320) Otro d i a manana pienssan de caualgar (2,413) a l o s mediados g a l l o s pienssan de e n s e l l a r (2,324) Penssad, sefior, de e n t r a r en. l a pibdad (2,3046) p l a c e r a mas l e s plaze r e l a t a r cosas estrafias (Tate,1,11) poder Ca en yermo o en poblado podernos han alcanpar (2,390) nos l a s pueden camear ca e l p i d b i e n l a s connospe (2,3183) l a u t i l i d a d e provecho que d e l l o se l e s podia s e g u i r (Tate,2,8) se puede l l a m a r t r u f a (Tate,1,17) Nol pueden c a t a r de yerguenpa yfantes de C a r r i o n (2,3126) q u i l o s podrie contar (2,699) tanto son de traspuestas que nada d e z i r non pouden (2,2784) Aquel Pero Vermudoz non l o pudo endurar (2,704) non podrie escapar (2,310) danle grandes colpes, mas n o l pueden f a l s s a r (2,713) Hya non pueden f a b l a r (2,2747) algun bien uos pueda f a r (2,302) Buen casamiento p e r d i e s t e s , meior podredes ganar (2.2867) No l o podemos negar, ca dos espadas nos dio (2,3172) e l o s podrie perder (Fuero,6) en su t i e r r a l pudies tomar (2,309) iiun veamos e l d i a que vos podamos vengar (2,2868) que a v i a poder de esaminar (Tate,1,20) 71 querer s i algund Rico; ome.. .se q'uier espedir d e l e de non s e r suo v a s a l l o (Fuero,12) et non quesierunt ynfantjones deSpelia suo mandato f a c e r e . (1,9,10) non l o q u i s i e r o n f a z e r (Tate,7,27) nunca e l l o quiso f a z e r (Tate,9,31) d'aquesta guisa quiero y r a l a c o r t (2,3078) Nos quiso l e u a n t a r e l Grespo de Grandn (2,3112) comigo non q u i s i e r o n auer nada y perdieron mi amor (2,3157) ya querien caualgar (2,367) s i algund Rico ome...se q u i e r e s p e d i r d e l e de non s e r suo ^ v a s a l l o (Fuero,12) d£rgelas queremos d e l l a n t estando uos (2,3174) e quieren crebar a l b o r e s (2,235) dar uos quiero uuestra p a r t (2,314) deportar se quieren con e l l a s a todo su sabor (2,2711) l a noch q u e r i i e n t r a r (2,311) essa noch myo p i d Taio non quisso passar (2,3044) ante Roydo de atamores l a t i e r r a q u e r i d quebrar (2,696) por t a l l o faze esto que Recabdar quiere todo l o so (2,3098) todo ome, que se q u i s i e r s a l v a r (Fuero,9) no gelo quiso tomar, mas mucho gelo g r a d i d (2,2850) non l e s querien t o r n a r palabra (2,21) r e t r a e r s e se r e t r a e r i a n de f a z e r obras (Tate,3,25) saber toda nuestra Rencura sabremos contarnos (2.2862b) l o s c a s t e l l a n o s supieron veneer (Tate,12,9) s a l i r Recebir l o s s a l e (2,297) ser s i o tro omo f u e r a d e s a f i a r (Fuero,19) a q u e l l a s que fuesen de enmendar (Fuero,2) entre todas l a s v i r t u d e s l a s que mas fueron en.el de l o a r fueron... (Tate,9,19) Yieniendo a l a primera, que es guardar f i d e l i d a d (Tate,11,1) s u f i c i e n t e ' era s u f i c i e n t e a r e g i r e governar (Tate,5,25) 72 *temare p r o f e r r e temaueri (1,3,4) tener non son tenudos de i m b i a r l e mas ninguna cosa (Fuero,17) t o r n a r (modern meaning vo l v e r ) e tornaronse a armar (2,695) E e l a l a s nirias t o r n o l a s a c a t a r (2,371) tornos a s o n r i s a r (2,298) . A l abbat don Sancho tornan de c a s t i g a r (2,383) traba.jar t r a b a j a n l o s manificos reyes e prxncipes en f a z e r guerras... (Tate,3,9) usar maguer que e l Rey non use a posar en e l l a (Fuero,8) usaban a n s i de dar e l suo c a v a l l o (Fuero,12) v e n i r non quiso v e n i r , a f a c e r l e derecho (Fuero,22) s i algund Labrador de F i j o d a l g o v e n i e r sb e l Rey a morar . . (Fuero,5) t r e s Reyes de Arabia te v i n i e r o n adorare (2.336) esta t e r c e r a a Toledo l a v i n f e r oy (2,3131) venid aca seer comigo, Campeador (2,3114b) Vino myo C i d yazer a Spinaz de Can (2,393) ver v eriedes armarse moros, a p r i e s s a e n t r a r en az (2,697) v^uando l o v i e r o n e n t r a r a l que en buen ora napid (2,3107) S i vieredes yentes v e n i r por connusco y r , abbat (2,3$$) , Vxolos v e n i r e odid una Razdn (2,2772) f a s t a que v i e s s e v e n i r sus primas amas a dos (2,2770) Veriedes tantas lancas premer e a l p a r , t a n t a adagara foradar e passar, tanta l o r i g a f a l s s a r e desmanchar, tantos pendones blancos s a l i r vermejos en sangre, tantos buenos c a u a l l o s s i n sos duenos andar (2,276-80) ^ v o l e r e legamenta inervare v o l v e r i t (1,1,4) voluntad (as i n d i c a t i o n of *volere) 73 a v i a grande voluntad de hordenar su f a z i e n d a (Tate,6,3) Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the above set of examples are the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . The verb compepar i s shown both w i t h the p r e p o s i t i o n a' and the p r e p o s i t i o n de, whereas i t s cognate comenzar only w i t h a, and the modern verb empezar i s construc-ted w i t h a as w e l l . One might a l s o mention t h a t the French cognate, commencer. normally takes the p r e p o s i t i o n a, although an ambivalence s i m i l a r t o t h a t witnessed w i t h i n Old Spanish i s now o c c u r r i n g i n French, w i t h the construct commencer de becoming f r e q u e n t l y heard. When one begins to do something, one i s f i g u r a t i v e l y approaching i t - a concept expressed by the p r e p o s i t i o n a r a t h e r than de, and was l i k e l y foremost i n the mind of the speakers. The occurrence of the de construc-t i o n i s most probably the r e s u l t of analogy and the commonness of t h a t l o c u t i o n , as mentioned e a r l i e r ; i t i s worthy of note th a t i t i s no longer acceptable i n Spanish. A s i m i l a r idea would be surmised to e x p l a i n the incidence °f e n v i a r a, of which two examples are quoted. The construc-t i o n of e n v i a r plus i n f i n i t i v e without p r e p o s i t i o n would tend to i n d i c a t e two t h i n g s : i t was f e l t t h a t the idea of d i r e c t i o n was too remote to e f f e c t r e t e n t i o n of the a, and t h a t meaning di d not change, nor was confusion caused, as i s p r e s e n t l y the case i n the n o - p r e p o s i t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n of the modern language. I l l u s t r a t i o n s are shown f o r a l l three c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h the verb haber: use of a, use of de, and use of que. An ex-p l a n a t i o n f o r these l o c u t i o n s has a l r e a d y been suggested above. 74 But note t h a t w i t h the verb i r , the c o n s t r u c t i o n without the p r e p o s i t i o n a i s much more' commonly encountered than t h a t of the modern language. , I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare the ol d c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h a t of modern French, which l i k e w i s e says a l l e r f a i r e quelque chose, without recourse to a p r e p o s i -t i o n . However, the c o n t r a s t i n g case of mandar shows g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y w i t h modern Spanish. Once more, the idea of d i r e c t i o n l o s e s ground as a conscious concept, and f i n a l l y disappears, w h i l e w i t h i r , t h i s idea remained constant and powerful, pre-c l u d i n g the l o s s of the p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e . c o n s t r u c t i o n . The usage of pensar de c a r r i e s the idea of the g e n i t i v e . However, the modern d i s t i n c t i o n between pensar de and pensar en would seem a r e s u l t of the f o l l o w i n g conceptual d i s t i n c t i o n . When c o n s i d e r i n g the commission of an a c t - t h a t i s , being about t o c a r r y i t out, r a t h e r than ruminating upon i t - the idea of proceding towards i t and e s t a b l i s h i n g contact w i t h i t i s a f a c i l e one. Thus, en, d e r i v i n g from IN plus a c c u s a t i v e , was a l o g i c a l semantic choice to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s concept from t h a t of i n d i c a t i n g what the q u a l i t i e s of the "pensar" a c t u a l l y are. In the case of poder, the l a s t example i s i n c l u d e d merely to i n d i c a t e t h a t when the i n f i n i t i v e i s used s u b s t a n t i v e l y , i t r e q u i r e s a g e n i t i v e concept to f o l l o w , again f o r the purposes of q u a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n , whereas when the i n f i n i t i v e i s used v e r b a l l y , as i n the other examples, no p r e p o s i t i o n a l f o r c e was ever f e l t . The f i r s t and l a s t examples of the use of querer are the 75 same qu o t a t i o n ; but the r e p e t i t i o n i s to emphasize t h a t i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , the p r e p o s i t i o n d_e introduces the second i n f i n i t i v e , s e r , whereas the second instance i s i n accord w i t h a l l the other examples, showing no p r e p o s i t i o n before the i n -f i n i t i v e e spedir. The use of the de i n the one case was l i k e l y caused by an e r r o r of a t t r a c t i o n from the "del"*s preceding, r a t h e r than being a use j u s t i f i a b l e by meaning. The examples of s e r plus a, s e r plus de., and s e r plus the i n f i n i t i v e alone, are most l i k e l y analogous to the three usages of haber, excepting the l a s t case, i n which p r e p o s i -t i o n a l meaning i s f e l t when the i n f i n i t i v e guardar i s used as the s u b j e c t i v e complementjof the copula. Since when one does something again, one "returns t o do i t " , as i s the l i t e r a l meaning of t o r n a r (or modern v o l v e r ) , the use of a before the i n f i n i t i v e i s most reasonable indeed, and i t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y employed to convey a then v e r y necessary meaning, and has been kept to t h i s day. The c o n t r a s t i n g t o r n a r de most proba-b l y occurred through analogy t o the common usage of t h i s pre-p o s i t i o n a t the time, iin analogous e x p l a n a t i o n could be su r -mised f o r the c o n f l i c t i n g usage of usar, s i n c e when one i s accustomed to something, one increases one*s p r o x i m i t y to i t , f i g u r a t i v e l y speaking. The use of ver plus an i n f i n i t i v e i s , i n one sense, the same type of c o n s t r u c t i o n as those going before. However, i t must be admitted t h a t i n some way, the "deep-structure" mean-ing i s of a d i f f e r e n t category; The i n f i n i t i v e f o l l o w i n g v e r 76 must n e c e s s a r i l y be the d i r e c t object of the verb, and must-show i t s own s u b j e c t . An i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n w i l l occur f o r t r a n s i t i v e verbs which express the r e c e i p t of a sensory ac-t i o n , f o r example, o f r , or s e n t i r . A S mentioned i n i t i a l l y , the f o r e g o i n g does not pretend to be a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of o l d usage, nor does i t purport t o e x p l a i n thoroughly the reasons f o r the growth of t h i s usage. Rather, i t i s designed to serve as an i l l u s t r a -t i o n of both, and an i n d i c a t i o n of how the t o p i c can be ap-proached, not from a s t r i c t l y d i a c h r o n i c , o b j e c t i v e viewpoint, but from one i n which the i n d i v i d u a l speaker 7 s sense and f e e l -i n g f o r h i s own language would have appeared to p l a y a major r o l e , and i n which ideas - the p r e p o s i t i o n a l concept i n par-t i c u l a r - are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r word and s t r u c t u r e choice, and i f and when t h i s idea i s no longer f e l t , the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o change as w e l l . CHAPTER I I I - FOOTNOTES 1) Hescott, p. 37 2) I b i d , pps. 37/38. The references t o the manuscripts are h i s , and are i d e n t i f i e d on pps. 3$/39 °f Hescott. 3) "Por medio de este g i r o se expresa l a f a l t a de cumplimiento de a c c i d n del i n f i n i t i v o . Ya eso es c a r a c t e r i s t i c o d e l propio espartol." Hescott, p. 37.. 4) The m a t e r i a l i s adapted from Hescott, pp. 77 et seq.; the uses of the p r e p o s i t i o n s and the quotations c i t e d are. h i s , and are i d e n t i f i e d on h i s p. 85. 5) "Se uso mucho e l ac u s a t i v o como complemento de verbos t r a n -s i t i v o s : Unctionem hanc u t e b i s . Y Pe t r o n i o e s c r i b e : Per-suadeam te (por t i b i ) • . . ( E ) l d a t i v o se conservd ma's tiempo que e l g e n i t i v o . S i n embargo, ya desde PLAUTO se tiende a • s u s t i t u i r l o por e l a c u s a t i v o con ad: AD me magna n u n t i a v i t . . . Detras de l o s verbos de movimiento se ponia~ad o i n con acu s a t i v o : Eamus IN forum." S i n t a c t i c a , pps. 18/11?. 6) A l l e n , p. 291 7) A S c i t e d by Hescott, p. 79, (23). 8) Lenz, R., La Oracidn y sus partes, Centro de Estudios h i s t d r i c o s , Madrid, 1935., p. 403. Compare as w e l l the r e l a t i v e numerical s u p e r i o r i t y of "a" t o "de", as seen i n Chapter IY, page 96. 9) Hescott, p. 80. 10) "The poets and l a t e r w r i t e r s use the g e n i t i v e w i t h almost any a d j e c t i v e to denote t h a t w i t h reference to which the q u a l i t y e x i s t s ( G e n i t i v e of s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) : - " " C a l l i d u s r e i m i l i t a r i s " , "pauper aquae", "notus animi p a t e r n i " , " f e s s i rerum", " i n t e g e r v i t a e s c e l e r i s q u e purus". The G e n i t i v e of S p e c i f i c a t i o n i s an extension of the c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h adjec-t i v e r e q u i r i n g an object of reference, (those) denoting d e s i r e , knowledge, memory, f u l n e s s , power, s h a r i n g , g u i l t , and t h e i r o p p o s i t e s . . . " A l l e n , pps. 216/17. 11) A number of v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e s have a l s o been in c l u d e d , s i n c e the construction- v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i -t i v e i s analogous t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n verb+prepositidn+in-f i n i t i v e , w i t h which we are p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned. A very thorough treatment of t h i s i s s u e can be found i n Beardsley, W.A., I n f i n i t i v e C onstructions i n Old Spanish, A M S Press Inc., New-York, .1966. Dr. Beardsley has made a comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o both the documented usages of verb plus p r e p o s i t i o n plus i n f i n i t i v e , and the r e l a t i v e 78 frequency of these occurrences. I t should a l s o be pointed out, however, th a t although h i s s t i p u l a t e d i n t e n t i s to "serve not only as a systematic record of the f a c t s i n the case, but a l s o and e s p e c i a l l y as an a i d i n the comprehension of modern phenomena i n the l i g h t of t h e i r o r i g i n and h i s -t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s " ( p . x i ) , and although i t would seem t h a t he has d e f i n i t e l y r e a l i z e d h i s aim, he a l s o i s concerned w i t h the "what" r a t h e r than the "why". He does not r e a l l y attempt to a s c e r t a i n the semantic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or other p o s s i b l e reasons i n the minds of the people, which would have l e d t o the k i n d of l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n producing the va r i o u s l o c u t i o n s evidenced. 12) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum. 13) Men. P i d a l , pps. 12 et seq. 14) I b i d , pps. 32-50. 15) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum. 16) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum. CHAPTER. IV Having looked b r i e f l y a t va r i o u s usages of verbs w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n plus i n f i n i t i v e i n the o l d e r form of the language, l e t us now consider the s i t u a t i o n of modern Spanish, and attempt t o analyse our f i n d i n g s i n the l i g h t of the c o n t r a s t . The m a j o r i t y of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be presented i n the form of a paradigm, upon which some d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o l l o w . The t a b l e attempts to i l l u s t r a t e a v a r i e t y of po i n t s , 1 arranged i n f o u r major s e c t i o n s , each c o n t a i n i n g f o u r columns. The s e c t i o n s show r e s p e c t i v e l y , verbs which normally take the p r e p o s i t i o n "a", those which r e q u i r e "de", those f o l l o w e d by some other p r e p o s i t i o n - "con", "en", "para", " s i n " , or "sobr.e", or by "que" - and those which govern an i n f i n i t i v e d i r e c t l y , without the use of a p r e p o s i t i o n . The l e f t - h a n d column shows the p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x i n -herent w i t h i n the verb. This i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l serve to point out some co n t r a s t s which "occur when a p r e f i x d e r i v i n g from one category of p r e p o s i t i o n , forms p a r t of a verb which uses a d i f f e r e n t type of p r e p o s i t i o n before an i n f i n i t i v e ; i t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s another use of these p a r t i c l e s which has s u r v i v e d i n a d i f f e r e n t environment from t h a t of the independent prepo-s i t i o n . For the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g t h i s c o n t r a s t , the p r e f i x e s w i l l normally be shown i n the form of the Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n t h a t they have become, and w i l l appear i n lower case; exceptions are those which have no d i s t i n c t d e r i v a t i v e i n the p r e p o s i t i o n a l l e x i c o n of the modern language, f o r ex-ample, OB, and AD> a t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from AB; these w i l l be w r i t t e n i n upper case. 80 The second column gives an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of verbs r e q u i r i n g the p r e p o s i t i o n s p e c i f i e d a t the head of each s e c t i o n , lis i n the previous chapter, a few v e r b a l adjec-t i v e s are i n c l u d e d , i n order to note analogous c o n s t r u c t i o n s of i n t e r e s t . This l i s t pretends only to be exemplary: i t i s not to be viewed as a complete or thorough c o m p i l a t i o n of Spanish grammar r e l a t i n g to verbs and p r e p o s i t i o n s . 2 A great many more instances might have been i n c l u d e d , but the number chosen s u f f i c e s f o r the purpose. One f i n a l p o i n t w i t h regard to the verb l i s t : p r e p o s i t i o n s enclosed w i t h i n parentheses, f o l l o w i n g the verb, i n d i c a t e a l t e r n a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , to be found under the appropriate s e c t i o n j an (x) a l l u d i n g t o the s e c t i o n of verbs r e q u i r i n g no p r e p o s i t i o n . The t h i r d column c o n s i s t s of e t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the verbs. Etymons shown are f o r the purpose of i n d i c a t i n g the L A T I N to Spanish composition of the words, u s u a l l y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x plus root word. No attempt has=been made to i l l u s t r a t e a l l steps i n the d e r i v a t i o n of the Spanish words, f o r which.one .v should r e f e r to Corominas, D i c c i o n a r i o , as i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . Verbs whose p r e f i x c o n s i s t s of a form of the p r e p o s i t i o n DE tend to maintain the meaning of the p r e p o s i t i o n i n the pre-f i x , t h a t . i s , e i t h e r i n i t s s t a t i c or k i n e t i c aspect of sepa-r a t i o n or pseudo-genitive, f o r example d e c i d i r , depender. However,- the combination .of DE and EX i n some way, to form a p r e f i x , conveys the idea of negation or r e f u t a t i o n , f o r ex-ample desprenderse, d i s c u l p a r s e . The p r e f i x IN- s i g n i f i e s the 81 n e g a t i o n or r e f u t a t i o n o f the r o o t t o which i t i s a t t a c h e d , and i s w r i t t e n i n upper case to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the form IN >en which i n d i c a t e s p o s i t i o n . The f o u r t h column c o n t a i n s the French e q u i v a l e n t s -whenever t h i s word i s cognate ito the Spanish - i n o r d e r to demonstrate the many i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s which o c c u r . F o l l o w i n g the f o u r s e c t i o n s o f the l i s t w i l l be. a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the forms c i t e d . Note:{-In these t a b l e s as w e l l , ' examples o f v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e s t a k i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s are o c c a s i o n a l l y c i t e d . S i m i l a r l y , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IT, page 104-, some o f the v e r b a l l o c u -t i o n s shown are f o l l o w e d by a s u b s t a n t i v e r a t h e r than an i n -f i n i t i v e . Both these c o n s t r u c t i o n s have been i n c l u d e d to i l -l u s t r a t e the development of analogous usage i n the language. 8 2 TABLE I - VERBS- REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION "a" a abalanzarse afcbalanzar c VjL. *BILANCIA AD abandonarse Fr. < Frankish bandon (+a=AD) a'abandonner £ AD acoeder ACCEDERE < AD+CEDERE acceder a XAD acercarsa AD+G_)RCA AD acertar (cos) AD+CERTIS+Basque influence AD aconodarse AD+COHMODUS s'accomoder de AD acostumbrarse AD+CONSUETUDINE s'accoutuner a AD adelantarse AD+DE+IK+AKTE .. s'avancer vers AD adorar (en) AD+ORARE adorer AD aficionarse (de) AD+AFFICERE AD agarrarse (de) AD+GARFA1:, A AD agaardarse AD+Y/ARDON AD ajustarse AD+*JTJXTARE AD alcanzar alentar (para) AD+*IHCALCARE : *ALENITARE < AHHELARE AD allanarse animarse AD+PLANUS AN IMA antic iparse ANTICIPARE antic iper AD aplicarse AD+PLICARE s'appliquer a. AD aprender AD+PREHENDERE apprendre a, AD apresurarse AD+PRSSSTJRA s'empresser de AD arriesgar AD+RESECARE risquer de AD arrojarse AD+RUSSEUS AD asistir ASSISTERE < AD+SISTERE assister a AD aspirar ASPIRARE < AD+SPIRARE aapirer a. AD atinar atreverse • DESTHARE ("a^" bv apparent contradic-tion or "ae") AD+TRIBUERE SIBI autorizar (para) *AUCTORICARE <. AUCTOR autoriser. a. AD avenirse • AD+VENIRE > ADVENTUS AD aventurarse AD*VEHTURA s'aventurer a AD avezarse AD+VITIUM AD ayudar bastar (para) caer ADJUTARE < AD+JDVARE •EASTARE CADERE aider a ceder CEDERE ' ceder a 33 : COM cogerse COLLIGERE < CUM+LIGERE COM corneasar *COMINITHRE c con+INITIARE connencer a, de CON comparar (con) COMPARARE < CUM+PARARE comparer a CON comprometerse con+PROMITTERE! CON condenar con+DAMNARE condamner a CON confiar (en) •CONFIDAEE <: con+FIDERE confier a CON conformarse (con) CONFORMARE < con+FORMA se conformer a CON consagrarse CONSACRARE < SACRtT se consacrer a. CON con3pirar con+SPIRARE conspirer CON contestar (x) CONTESTARI < TESTIGO continuar CONTINUARE contimier a , de CON contribuir CONTRUIBUERE contribuer a) CON convidar (para) •COHVITARE < IHVITARE+CONVIVI0H inviter a. correr (de,con) CURRERE courir dar (con,en) DARE donner sur DE decidir(le) (por,: x) DECIDERE < DE+CAEDERE decider de (-se estar decidido c.f. decidir etre decide a DE dedicarse DEDICARE < DE+DICARE < DICERE se dedier a DE,EX,AD desafiar DE+EX+AD+FIDARE • defier de destinar (para) DESTINARE destiner a DE deterninarle DETERHINARE < DE+TERMINU etre determine i estar determinado (en) c.f„ determinar H II - i DE disponerse DEPONERE / des+poner echarse JACTARE en eapezar. en+PIEZA commencer a., de en ensenar HSIGNARE enseigner a entrar (en) INTRARE entrer dans en er-viar INVIARE.<..iN+yiA. •„•„ envoyer. equivaler AEQ.UBS + VALERE - equi^aibix a. EX esforzarse (para, EX +. FORTIA s'efforcer de por)' esperar (x) S PER ARE ' EX exceder (de) EX + CEDERE EX excitar EXCI-TARE < EX +. CITARE exciter a EX exponerse EX -;- .PONERE s'exposer a forzar FORTIA forcer a. ganar Gothic' *GANAH • estar hecho c.f. -hacer $4 humillarse HUKILIARE /, HtJMILIS s'humilier a IN. impeler IMPELLERE <. IN +' PELLERE IN impulsar II-1PULSARE <; IN + PELIERE IN inoitar . 11 .+. CITARE • inciter a IN inclinarse KCLINARE <. IN + CLIN ARE etre enclin a IN indueir IN + DUCERE IN inspirar IN + SPIRARE inspirer a IN invitar (para) IN + VITARE inviter a ir IRE aller jugar JOCARI jouer a, de lanzarse LANCEARE < LANCEA se lancer sur limitarse LIMITARE i. LIMITE se limiter a llegar PLICARE r aandarle (x) MANDARE meterse MITTERE se mettre a. mirar HIRARI necesario (para) NECESSARITJS < NE CESSE necessaire a negarse (x) NEGARE obligar OB + LIGARE '; obliger a. ofrecerse OPFERRE < OB + FERRE' offrir de oler OtERE oponerse OPPONERE OB + PONE RE s'opposer a parar (de,en) PARARE parecerse (x) •PARESCERE PARERE pasar (defsin) *PASSARE< PASSU passer a PER persuadirse ponerse PERSUADERE < PER + SUADERE PONERE persuader & PRAE prepararse (para) PREPARARE 4. PRAE + PARARE se preparer a. PRAE : prestarse PRAESTAREX PRAE + STARE se preter a. PRAE presto (para) c.f. prestar pret a primero (en) PRIHARTU premier a principiar PRINCIPIU proceder PRO + CEDERE proceder a. propasarse PRO +'PASSARE propio (de,para) PROPRIUS propre a PRO pronto (para) PROHPTUS < PROHERE < PRO +EMERE PRO provocar PROVOCARE £ PRO + VOCARE < VOCE provoquer a 35 quedarse (en,por,para) Q.UTETARE " RE rebajarse RE + BASSUS s'abaisser a RE reducirse RE + DUCERE se reduire a RE referirse RE + PERRE ': . se refe'rer a. rehusarse (x) REFIfflDERE refuser de RE renunciar (x) RENUNTIARE renoncer a RE resigna'rse • RESIGHARE; se re signer a RE resistirse (s) RESISTERE rlsister "a RE resolverse,(x) RESOLVE RE se resoudre a responder (de) RESPOHDERE repondre a. romper RUMPERE saber (x) SAFE RE •: salir S A LIRE semejar •SIMILIARE < SIMILIS sembler a sentarse (para) • *ADSENTARE < SEDERE s'asseoir afin someterse SUBHITTERE se soumettre a subir (x) SUBIRE tender TENDERE tendre a tenter TEKPTARE tenter de tirar Germanic TERAN tornar TORNARE tras traducir (en) ' TRADUCERE < TRANS + DUCERE traduire en trepar onomatopoeic ultimo (en) ULTIMUS venir (en) VENIRE venir volar VOLARE voler volver VOLVERE votar (por) VOTU voter pour 8 6 TABLE II - VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION "de" abominar (x) ABOHINARE AB abstenerse ABSTIHERE < AB + TENERE s'abstenir de AB abusar AEUSUS < AB + USU abuser de AD acabar (con,por) AD + cabo < CAPUT AD acompanado acompanar < AD + COMPANIA accorapagne de AD acordarse AD + CORDATU AD adornar (con) AD + ORNARE orner de AD advertir ADVERTERE avertir de AD aficionarse (a) c.f, aficionarse a AD afligirse AFFLIGERE s'affliger de AD agarrarse (a) c.f. agarrarse a AD agraviarse ' *AGGRAVIARE < GRAVE alegrarse 1 *ALECRIS < ALECER alimentarse (con) ALIHENTU < ALERE . s'alimenter de AD apiadarse AD + PIU , s'apitoyer sur AD aprovecharse AD + PROFECTU profiter de AD . arrepentirse . AD + REPAENIT2RE se repentir de asirse ASA se saisir de AD asonbrarse a +--sombra < UMBRA AD asustarse a + susto <; onomatopoeia avaro AVARU avare de AD avergon2arse a + verguenaa < VERECUNDIA avisar French aviser aviser de bueno (para) BONU bon a burlarse uncertain origin cansarse (en) CAHPSARE cesar CESSARE CEDERE cesser de con compadecersD con + padecer < padir < PATI compatir avec con concluir (por) CONCLUDERE < CON + CLAUDERE con congratularse ' . CONGRATULARI < CON + GRADU congratiller de con constar CONSTARE < CON + STARE contento CONTENTU content de correrse (a,con) c.f. correr a con cubrir (con) COOPERIRE < CON + OPERIRE couvrir de 6 7 cuidarse COGITARE culpar CULPARE CULPA -inculper de deber (x) DEBERE devoir de dejar(se) de + lexar 4. LAXARE de depender DEPENDERE < DE + PENDERE dependre de de,EX desconfiar des + COHFIDERE , se mefier de • de,EX descontento des + contento / c.f. contento mecontent de de,EX descuidarse (en) des + cuidar / c.f. cuidar de,EX deshacerse (por) des + hacer / c.f. hacer de de,EX despedirae de + espedir < EXPETERE < EX + PETERE de,EX desprenderse des + prender < PREHENDERE dificil DIFICILIS difficile a de,EX disculparse (por) dis + culpar / c.f. culpar de de,EX disfrutar (x) dis + f rutar < FRUTO < FRUI dotado DOTE doue' de dudar (en) DUBITARE ? douter de en enamorarse en + amor < AMOR s'enamourer de en encargarse en + cargar < CARRICARE se charger de en enfadarse Gallego-Portugue's enfadar-se <en+FATU se facher de en enojarse (con) INODIARE en entender IN TENDERE < IN •!• TENDERE equivocarse AEQ.UUS + VOCARE escandalizarse SCAKDALU EX espantarse •EXPAVENTARE < EX 4 PAVERE examinerse EXAKINARE. < passer un examen en EX exceder (a) cf. exceder a excusarse acusar (+.esconder)< ACCUSARE s'excuser de extraSarse (x) SXTRAKEUS' extrano • ii etrange de facil FACILIS . facile a falto *FALLITUS< FALLERE, felicitari(se) FELICITARE ; . (se) feliciter de fiarse (en) *FIDARS< FIDERE se fier a . gloriarse , GLORIA ' • se glorifier de • gozar (con,en) . " GAUD ID guardarse Germanic WARDAN ae garder de gustar GUSTUS 88 haber (que) ' HABERE hacer (por,x) FACERE hartarse FARTU henchir IMPLERE remplir de huir (x) FUGERE s'enfuir de IN imposible IMPOSSIBILE impossible a IN ' incomodarse (por) IN + COMMUDU IN indignarse (con) IN + DIGNARE < DIGNU eHre indigne de IN inquietarse (en,por) IN + OTIETU s'inquieter de jactarse . HACTARE libre LIBERU libre de . llenar (con) PLENU ' remplir de lleno PLENU piein de maravillarse HIRABILIA s'emerveiller de mudar(se) MtTTARE necesitar (x) NECESSARIU necessiter ofenderse OFFENDERE s'offendre de olvidarse (x) •OBLITARE < OBLITU oublier de parar (a,en) cf. parar a • pasar (a,sin) cf. pasar a surpasser pensar (en,x) PENSARE <.PENDERE penser de pesar PENSARE < PENDERE PRAE prec6dido preceder < PRAE + CEDERE precede'' de preciarse .• PRETIARE.< PRETIU prendarse pendra < penpra < PIGNORA PRAE,OB preocuparse (por) PRAEOCCtFPARE < PRAE + OB +CAPERE se preoccuper de PRAE prescindir . FRAESCINDERE < PRAE + SCINDERE presumir (x) PRAESUMERE < PRAE + SUMERE propit (a,para) cf. propio a propre a quejarse •&UASSTARE < QUASSARE RE recatarse • re * CAPTARE < CAPERE. RE recelarse (x) re + CELARE reirse RIDERE rire de responder (a) RESPONDERE repondre de responsable RESPONDERE fesponsable de $9 seguido (por) servir (para,x) sorprenderse sospechar (en) teher niedo tratar triunfar us'ar valerse (x) vengarse. ver SEaui SERVIRE French surprendre < PREHENDERE SUSPECTARE, 4. SUSPICARI TEEERE + HETUS TRACTARE' TRIUHPHU •USARE < UTI VALE RE VTNDICARE VIDERE suivi de servir de se surprendre soupponner tpiompher,de user de se venger de 90 TABLE III - VERBS REQUIRING OTHER PREPOSITIONS COH AD acabar (de,por) cf. acabar de AD acertar (a) cf. acertar a AD adornar (de) cf . adornar de orner de alimentarse cf. alimentarse de." Salimenter de amenazar (x) MINACIA <.  MINA nenacer de bastar (a,para) cf. bastar a casarse CASA con conparar (a) cf. comparar a comparer a con conformarse (a) cf . confarmarse a se conformer a con congraciarse CONGRATIARE < CON + GRADU con contar COMPUTAEE < CON + PURARE compter sur con contentarse (de) cf. contento de,. se contenter de correr (a,de) cf. correr a con cubrir (de) cf. cubrir de couvrir de cumplir (x) COMPLERE dar (en,a) cf. dar a' de.EX descontento (de) cf. contento de mecontent de ds divertir.se (en) DITCRTERE < DE + VERTERE en encararse (x) en * cara < ^f(^iC of uncertain origin en encarinarse en + carino< CARERE en enojarse (de) cf. enojarse de entre entretenerse (en) entre + tener < TENERE goar(se) (de,en) cf. goaar de IN indignarse (de) cf. indignarse de s'indigner de llenar (de) cf. llenar de renplir de PRAE,OB preocuparse (de,por) cf. preocuparse de se preoccuper de rozarse *RUPTIARE < RUMPERE soSar SOMNUS + SOMNIUM songer a topar top ^  onomatopoeia tropezar entrepepar < *INTERPEDIARE < INTERPEDIRE 91 AD. adorar ADORARE < AD + ORARE adorer afanarse (por) , *AFFMHARE aferrarae Catalan aferrar <L FERRU apoyarse (sobre) " ., Italian appoggiare <L PODIU s'appuyer sur cansarse (de) cf. cansarse de con complacerse COMPLACERE; < CON.+ PLACERE se complaire a. con,de,EX condescender CONDESCENDERE £ CON + DE + EX + SCANDERE condescendre con confiar (a) cf. confiar a se f ier "a con consentir -CONSENTIRE < CON + SENTIRE consentir a con consistir con + SISTEREj consister de con convenir CONVENIRE < CON + VENIRE convenir de convertir CONVERTERE < CON -r VERTERE convertir a dar (a,con) cf. dar a de.EX descuidar(se) (de) cf. descuidarse de de estar determinado (a) cf. determinar a etre determine de divertirse (con) cf. divertirse con dudar (de,x) cf. dudar de en empeSarse en + penos < PIC-NU entrar (a) cf. entrar a entrer dans entre entretenerse (con) cf. entretenerse con EX esaerarse EX + MERU estribar estribo < Germanic; uncertain fiar (de) cf. fiarse de se fier a fijarse FIXU frisar : (TELA) FRISIA friser gozar(se) (con,de) cf. gozar de en incurrir INCURREP.E< IN + CURRERE encourir en influir INF WERE < IN + FLUE RE influer sur en insistir EISISTERE CJS + SISTERE insister pour entre ffcnteresarse (por) INTERESSE £ INTER + ESSE s'interesser a lento LENTU lent k « molestarse HOIESTARE < MOLES obstinarse OBSTINATU ' s'obstiner a, OB ocuparse OCCUPARE < OB + CAPERE s'occuper de parar (a,de) cf. parar a 9i PER PER RE RE RE RE.TRAS penetrar pensar•(de,x) perseverar persistir plaoerse primero (a) quedar (a,por,-se para) reclinarse (sobre) recostar (sobre) recrearse reparar retrasarse sospechaf (de) tardar tardo trabajar (para,por) traducir (a) ultimo (a) vacilar venir (a) PENETRARE of. pensar de PERSSVERARE <.PER + SEVERU PERSISTERE < PER + SISTERE PLACERE cf. primero a cf. quedarse a RECLINARE ^  RE + CLIHARE COSTA RECREARE < RE + CREARE REPARARE < RE + PARARE RE + tras <> TRANS cf. sospechar de TARDARE TARDU •TRIPALIARE < TRIPALIU cf. traducir a cf. ultimo a VACILLARE cf. venir a pdnfitrer dans penser a perse'verer dans persister a se plaire a premier \ s'incliner au/ies s'attarder a soupconner de tarder a tard a travailler a traduire en vaciller entre PARA alentar (a). cf. alentar a autorizar (a) cf. autorizar a autoriser a , bastar (a) • cf. bastar a bueno (de) of. bueno de bon "a convidar (a) cf. convidar a inviter a destinar (a) ' cf. destinar a d e 3 t i n e r a. EX esforzarse (a,por) .• cf. esforzarse a s'efforcer de estar. (por) ' STARE 3tre pret a. en invitar (a) cf. invitar a inviter a. luchar- (por), ' LUCTARI lutter pour necesario (a) cf. necesario a necessaire a s>sM NUMERARE nommer a PRAE presto (a) cf! presto a pret a. . propio (a,de) cf. propio a propre a 93 pronto (a) cf. pronto a prompt a pugnar (por) PUGNARE quedarse (a,en,por) cf. quedarse a sentarse (a) cf. sentarse a s'asseoir :a servir (de,x) cf. servir de servir de POR AD acabar (de,con) cf'. acabar de . afanarse (en) cf. afanarse en AD apurarse a + PDRU con conoluir (de) cf. concluir de de deoidirse (a,x) cf. decidirse a se decider a de.EX deshacerse (de) cf. deshacerse de de,EX desvivirse des + vivir <^  VIVERE de,EX diseulparse (de) ' cf. diseulparse de EX esforzarse (a,para) cf» esforzarse a s'efforcer de estar (para) cf. estar para Stre en faveur de hacer (de,x) cf. hacer de IN impacientarse in + PATIENTE etre impatient de IN incomodarse (de) cf. incomodarse de s1incommoder pour IN inquietarse (con,de) cf, inquietarse de s'.inquieter pour interesarse (en) cf. interesarse en s'interesser^a luchar (para) cf. luchar para lutter pour mirar MIRARI morirse HORIRE mourir de optar OPTARE opter pour preguntar (x) •PRAECUNCTARE < PERCONTARI PRAE,OB prgocBparse«,Ide) cf, prgbtnipgEsa de se preoccuper de pugnar (para) cf. pugnar para quedar (a,en,para) cf. quedarse a rabiar RABIA RE restar RESTARE < RE. + STARE seguido (de) cf. seguido de suivi de terminar TERMINARE trabajar (en,para) ' cf. trabajar en travailler pour velar VIGILARE veiller sur votar (a) VOTU voter pour 94 arc haber (de) of. haber de SIN pasarse (a,de) cf. pasar a se passer de SOBRE apoyarse (en) cf, apoyarse en s'appuyer sur 95. TABLE IV - VERBS REGUTRIHG HO PREPOSITION aconsejar CONSILIU conseiller de acordar (de) cf. acordarse de accorder amenazar (con) cf, amenazar con menacer de anhelar AMHELARE ansiar ANXIA AD aparentar APPARENTE -<AD + PARENTE AD aprobar APPROBARE < AD •+ PROBARE approuver celebrar CELEBRARE cele'brer con conseguir CONSEBUI < CON + SEQ.UI con contestar (a) cf. contestar a cuaplir (con) cf. cumplir con accomplir deber (de) cf. deber de devoir de decidir (a,por) cf. decidir a decider de de dejar (de) cf. dejar de laisser de de determinar (a) cf. determinar a §tre determine' de dignarse DIGNARE< DIGNU daigner t?.e,EX disfrutar (de) cf. disfrutar de dudar (de,en) cf. dudar de douter de EX eligir ELIGERE < EX + LEGERE elire en encarar (con) cf. encararso con esperar- (a) cf. esperar a esperer esquivar Germanic origin esquiver EX evitar EVITARE < EX + VITARE eviter de excusar (de) cf. excusar de j.'excuser de extrarTar (de) cf. extranarse de falter •FALLITA < FALIERE fingir FINGERE fe indre gustar (de) cf. gustar de hacerle (de,por) cf. hacer de faire huir (de) cf. huir de fuir impedirle IMPEDIRE empeNsher de intentar INTENTARE tenter de jurar JURARE jurer de lograr LUCRARI < LUCRU 96 raandar (a) cf. mandar a commander de nerecer . Hispanic Latin MERESOERE ^  HERERE meriter de necesitar (de) cf. necesitar de necessiter negar (-se a) cf. negarse a nier de olvidar (de) cf, olvidar de oublier de brdenar ORBINARE ordoimer de osar AUSARE^  AUDERE oser pareoer (-se a) cf. parecerse a paraitre pedir PETERE pensarC:{de,en) cf. pensar de penser PER permitir PERMITTERE < PER + HITTERS pernettre de PRAE preferir • ' PRAEPERRE•< PRAE + FERRE pref isrer preguntar (por) cf. preguntar por PRAE presidir PRAESIDERE < PRAE + SEDERE presider PRAE presunir (de) cf. presumir de presumer de PRAE pretender PRAETEHDERE ^  PRAE + TENDERE pretendre PRAE preterir PRAETERIRE < PRAE + IRE PRO procurar PROCURARE PRO + CURARE procurer PRO prohibir PROHIBERE < PRO + HAVERE prohiber de PRO proraeter PROHITTERE< PRO + HITTERE promettre de PRO proponer(se) PROPONERE < PRO + PONERE proposer de PRO proyectar PROJECTARE < PROJICERE < PRO + JACERE projeter de querer O.UAERERE RE recelar (-se de) ~ cf. recelarse de reoordar RECORDARI RE rehuir REFUGERE <, RE + FUGERE RE rehusar (-se a) cf. rehusarse a refuser de RE renunciar (a) cf, renunciar a renoncer a RE resistir (a) cf, resistir a resister a RE resolver (a) cf. resolver a resoudre "a. saber (a) cf. saber a savoir sentir SENTIRE servirse ,(de,para) cf. servirse de soler SOLERE sostener SUSTINERE soutenir subir (a) cf. subir a 97 tenor TENS RE tocar .•* onomatopoeia toucher valer (-se de)r cf. valerse de. valoir vedar' . VETARE .-TABLE V - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OP VERB LISTS FORM NUMBER OF 'ITEMS APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE Total number of listings:-Total number of different forms:-Number of forms which may govern more than one preposition:-467 353 114 1 0 0 . 0 76.0 2 4 . 0 Forms governing the folloT7ing prepositions: "a" "deJi "con" "en" "para" "sobre" 137 117 31 55 19 30 1 1 •1 39.0 33.0 9.0 16.0 5.0 8.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 Verbs requiring no preposition:- 75 21.0 Prefixes:-"a" ^  "AD" "AB" 44 2 12.0 0.6 98 "con" 24 6.6 "de" 7 2.0 "de.EX" 11 3.1 "en" 14 4.0 "entre" 2 0.6 "M" 12 3.1 "OB" 2 0.6 "TRAS" 2 0.6 "VSR" 4 1.4 "PRAE" 10 2.? "PRO" 7 2.0 "RE" w 3.9 99 To begin w i t h , i t w i l l - b e noted from the pages showing numerical a n a l y s i s of the. verbs t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n "a" i s the most-frequently used. This i n i t s e l f provides a h i s t o r i -c a l c o n t r a s t w i t h the statement of Beardsley t h a t the prepo-s i t i o n "de" was the most f r e q u e n t l y used i n Old Spanish. The t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y used p r e p o s i t i o n i s "en i f (although more verbs r e q u i r e no p r e p o s i t i o n than do take "en").which most ofte n s i g n i f i e s s t a t i c place or p o s i t i o n , a concept f i g u r a -t i v e l y e x p l i c a b l e i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e construc-t i o n , as seen before. An i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s mentioned by Criado de V a l . He s t a t e s : "En e l espafiol es c a r a c t e r i s t i c a l a p r e c i s a o p o s i c i o n entre e l v a l o r * d i r e c t i v o * (hacia algo) de *a* y e l * l o c a t i v o * o * e s t a t i c o * de 'en*. N i en i t a l i a n o , en e l que todavia. concurren *a* e 1 i n * para expresar una s i t u a c i d n de reposo, n i en e l f r a n c e s , en donde l a a p a r i c i d n de l a p r e p o s i c i o n *dans* ha acabado de confundir l o s v a l o r e s , y muy desgastados, de *a* y de *en*, hay una tan c l a r a d i f e r -e n c i a . Esta d i f e r e n c i a entre e l v a l o r de l a s dos preposiciones no s o l o se ha mantenido hasta e l espanol a c t u a l , s i h o que algunos usos antiguos no b i e n d i f e r e n c i a d o s han s i d o m o d i f i -cados. Cervantes t o d a v i a podia d e c i r : TAquel grande amigo de Arsenio e l r i c o , que v i v i a A San Juan*, por t r a t a r s e de un hecho l o c a l e i n t e r n e . En Hispanoamerica se conservan todavia r a s t r o s de este uso: *Entro A l a casa. Metio A l a c a r c e l , etc.*"3 This s u r e l y r e i n f o r c e s the b a s i c . i d e a t h a t the use of p r e p o s i t i o n s i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e construc-t i o n was i n a c e r t a i n f a s h i o n i d e n t i c a l to the use of prepo- . 100 s i t i o n s i n other functions.. The semantic f o r c e of the pre-p o s i t i o n was i n i t i a l l y j u s t as s t r o n g i n the former case as i n a l l the l a t t e r . Gradually, however, the meaning - or r a t h e r , the conscious awareness of the meaning - was l o s t as i t became l e s s and l e s s v i t a l , to the sense of the phrase. Why might i t l o s e t h i s importance? The changeover from one type of meaning-indicator t o another i s not a t a l l unusual i n the development of languages. J u s t as the sense i n d i c a t o r s of L a t i n ' s s y n t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e were replaced by the more ana-l y t i c system of the Romance languages, so the d i s t i n c t i o n s l o s t through the l e s s e n i n g of the true p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e group was assigned to other grammatical f u n c t i o n s , where necessary; f o r example, the choice of verb, the tense of the i n f i n i t i v e , the change to a subordinate clause s t r u c t u r e , and so on. However, as can be seen i n comparisons of o l d and new usage, t h i s l o s s d i d not always r e s u l t i n confusion or ambiguity. In p a r t i c u l a r , con-s i d e r Hescott*s conclusion regarding the use of "en" i n Old Spanish, as mentioned i n the previous chapter. A f u r t h e r quotation from Criado de V a l corroborates t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . He says: En e l franees moderno, l a confusion entre *a* y 'en' para expresar d i r e c c i d h o reposo es evidente, usandose a menudo ambas preposiciones i n d i f e r e n t e m e n t e : * E N Pologne, EN A l g e r i e , A U Tonkin, EN Bosnie, e t c . ; EN ete, AQ printemps, A U p a r a d i s , EN enfer, e t c . * . En todos estos ejem-plos-, l a s preposiciones 'a* y 'en' t i e n e n un s i g n i f i c a d o muy vago, y su uso esta determinado por e l s u s t a n t i v o a que se 101 r e f i e r e n . " ^ The co n c l u s i o n i s l i k e w i s e i d e n t i c a l : the l o s s of the p r e p o s i t i o n a l m e a n i n g . o r i g i n a l l y f e l t i n the l o c u t i o n has not brought about a l a c k of communicative e x a c t i t u d e . I t i s immaterial which p r e p o s i t i o n has come to be used i n what environment; what i s important and s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t a l l speakers of French have i n f a c t adopted the same convention. Thus one can assume a f a i r l y a r b i t r a r y development of the phenomenon, i n the sense t h a t once the break-down of d i f f e r -e n t i a b l e meaning occurred the path the f u t u r e development of the s t r u c t u r e would take was u n p r e d i c t a b l e , A good exam-ple of t h i s can be gathered from one f i n a l e x t r a c t from Griado de V a l , where he s t a t e s : " A S I como l a p r e p o s i c i d n ? a ? es c a r a c t e r i s t i c a d e l espanol, l a p r e p o s i c i d n * de ? ha a l c a n -zado en.el franees moderno un e x t r a o r d i n a r i o d e s a r r o l l o , y puede considerarse como representante p e c u l i a r de su sistema p r e p o s i t i v e En r e a l i d a d , esta gran e v o l u c i o n de l a prepo-s i c i d n *de* en franees ha ampliado de t a l forma su funeidn, que en l a a c t u a l i d a d apenas t i e n e un s i g n i f i c a d o d e f i n i d o , convertida en un puro instrumento gramatical."5 And t h i s , of course, f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e s the same idea of o r i g i n a l meaning construed i n the mind of the. speaker, then l o s t g r a d u a l l y , but without the disappearance of the grammatical form, which only now seems to be without apparent semantic value. Assuming t h i s to be the case, however, presents us w i t h another problem. With respect t o the l i s t of verb forms we have examined, two types of p r e p o s i t i o n s can be seen. Those which are used as p r e f i x e s and those which are used indepen-102 dently. I t i s to be remembered, though, that the origin of both types is identical: a direct derivation from L a t i n . 6 We must notice apparent disparities between the idea of the preposition used as a prefix in contrast with that of the p r e p o s i t i o n used to introduce an i n f i n i t i v e . For example, we see comproroMterse, whose etymology contains the prefix con; and yet i t often takes the preposition a. Likew i s e , the verbs contribuir and convidar. A verb such as dedicarse contains the prefix deriving from the preposition de, and yet requires a before an i n f i n i t i v e , whereas the concept of de is directly contrary to that of a. The opposite phenomenon is to be ob-served with verbs such as acabar, acordarse, and avergonzarse, whose etymons contain the preposition a, and yet the verbs govern the preposition de. The emphatic distinction between a and en pointed out above seems confused in consideration of verbs such as empezar, containing the prefix en, but taking ,i the preposition a. S i m i l a r l y , complacerse and consentir en-fold the prefix con but also take en; and the verb condescen-der shows the combination of the prefixes con, dg_ and EX, and yet s t i l l requires the preposition en. analogous discrepan-cies are to be found in countless verbs. How is this to be explained? In a sense, the l i k e l y answer has already been given. Whereas in the original formation of the verb by the speakers, employing the prepositional prefix, the meaning was f e l t , by the time the verb reached the stage where i t was used with a preposition to introduce an i n f i n i t i v e , this for-mer meaning was no longer ostensible. Hence, >. no real 103 discrepancy e x i s t e d . We can observe t h a t a k i n d of precedent f o r t h i s phenomenon e x i s t e d i n L a t i n . A l l e n presents us w i t h these clauses.7 a) "Caesar Germanos flumen t r a i c i t . b) idem i u s iurandum a d i g i t . A f r a n i u m . c) quos Pompeius omnia sua p r a e s i d i a c i r c u m d u x i t . " Then, he gives a note w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : ^ "The double c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d i s p o s s i b l e o n l y when the f o r c e of the p r e p o s i t i o n and the f o r c e of the verb are each, d i s t i n c t l y f e l t i n the compound, the verb governing the d i r e c t , and the p r e p o s i t i o n the secondary o b j e c t . But of t e n the two parts of the compound become c l o s e -l y u n i t e d t o form a t r a n s i t i v e verb of simple meaning. In t h i s case the compound verb i s t r a n s i t i v e s o l e l y by v i r t u e of i t s p r e p o s i t i o n a l part and can have but one a c c u s a t i v e , - the same which was fo r m e r l y the secondary o b j e c t , but which now becomes the . d i r e c t . So t r a i c i o comes to mean e i t h e r (1) to p i e r c e (anybody) (by h u r l -ing) or (2) to cross (a r i v e r e t c . ) : -"'gladio hominem t r a i e c i t ' 1 (Here i a c i o has l o s t a l l t r a n s i t i v e f o r c e , and serves simply to give the f o r c e of a verb to the meaning of t r a n s , and to t e l l the manner of the act.) rtRhodanum t r a i e c i t * ( H e r e i a c i o has become simply a verb of motion, and t r a i c i o i s h a r d l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from transeo.) In these examples hominem and Rhodanum, which would be secondary objects i f t r a i e c i t were used i n i t s primary s i g n i f i c a t i o n , have become the d i r e c t o b j e c t s . . . " Another point worthy of mention, s i n c e i t r e l a t e s d i r e c -t l y t o meaning - i n p a r t i c u l a r to the "deep s t r u c t u r e " mean-in g of the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s - i s t h a t c e r t a i n verbs govern c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s depending upon the co n t e x t u a l meaning. For example, contestar takes the p r e p o s i t i o n a before a s u b s t a n t i v e , f o r example, "siempre contesto a tus preguntas", or "no voy a con t e s t a r a l o que me d i j i s t e " ; how-ever, when the d i r e c t object i s a pronoun, no p r e p o s i t i o n i s 104' to be used, f o r example, "no voy a c o n t e s t a r l o " . S i m i l a r l y , a verb such as impedir can g e n e r a l l y form the verb+prepo-s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n only when an i n d i r e c t object i s s p e c i f i e d , f o r example "Nadie te impide h a c e r l o " . A verb such as c u b r i r would l i k e l y prove impossible to place i n t h i s type of s t r u c t u r e . Other verbs, such as abundar de are d i f f i c u l t to use i n a c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a d e p e n d e n t . I n f i n i t i v e , r a t h e r than f o l -lowed by a s u b s t a n t i v e . I t i s most probable t h a t some ex-amples of such a c o n s t r u c t i o n could be .formed, but even though they might be v a l i d , we run the r i s k of s e l e c t i n g a sentence analogous to one of Chomsky's i n v e n t i v e examples. He s t i p u -l a t e d t h a t "grammaticality" i s i n no way subverted by "The man (that) the g i r l ( t h a t ) I used t o go w i t h marriedj j u s t got d r a f t e d " ^ ; however, although the sentence i s understandable to any n a t i v e speaker, the p r o b a b i l i t y of any such speaker's a c t u a l l y u t t e r i n g such a l o c u t i o n seems most s l i g h t indeed. Such i s the case w i t h abundar de, but i t should s t i l l be borne i n mind that w i t h t h i s verb, the use of the p r e p o s i t i o n before an i n f i n i t i v e would almost c e r t a i n l y be a s c r i b e d to the r e s u l t of a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , by i n f l u e n c e of analogy w i t h nouns, and thus remains r e l e v a n t to our d i s c u s s i o n . An i d e n t i c a l hypothesis would be v a l i d to e x p l a i n a verb such as cansarse de. From a sentence l i k e "Me canso d e l t r a b a j o ? , a simple step i s r e q u i r e d to produce the analogous "Me canso de t r a b a j a r " . A S to a l o c u t i o n l i k e cansarse en, which i n v o l v e s a 105 change i n meaning ,< we can apply what we have al r e a d y seen concerning the use of t h e . p r e p o s i t i o n en before an i n f i n i t i v e i n Old Spanish, to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t word choice. And t h i s i n i t s e l f adds emphasis to the s t a t e d idea t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n i n a l l cases o r i g i n a l l y possessed a " f e l t " meaning independent of i t s environment. Another example* of t h i s . f a c t can be seen i n the use of a verb such as deber. A d i f f e r e n c e of meaning i s to be found between the sentences " E l t r e n debia l l e g a r a l a s tres"', and " E l t r e n debia de l l e g a r a l a s t r e s " . The f a c t t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n de u s u a l l y has the meaning of "away from" might serve to e x p l a i n the discrepancy i n the sense t h a t i n the l a t t e r example, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a c t i o n or concept i n v o l v e d i n "debia" i s somewhat more removed from t h a t ex-pressed i n " l l e g a r " , thus reducing the o b l i g a t i o n or even the p r o b a b i l i t y of the a r r i v a l of the train,. With regard to the c o n t r a s t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a f f o r d e d us by the French e q u i v a l e n t s of the verbs i n the l i s t , we have f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n of the idea t h a t many developments are a r b i t r a r y , o c c u r r i n g a t the xtfhim of the speakers, as they u n f o l d new ways of communicating w i t h one another. Consider-i n g the common o r i g i n of the two languages, one might expect a g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e con-s t r u c t i o n between the two languages. Th i s , however, does not seem to be the case. I t must indeed be noted t h a t even Por-tuguese, much c l o s e r t o Spanish l i n g u i s t i c a l l y than i s French, has developed s t r u c t u r e s not now v i s i b l e i n i t s I b e r i a n s i s t e r 106 language. The personal i n f i n i t i v e of Portuguese provides an example. But perhaps more a k i n to the matter a t hand i s a l o c u t i o n formed i n Portuguese w i t h the impersonal i n f i n i t i v e , " f r e n t e a l espanol", s t a t e s Criado de V a l , "es tambien carac-t e r i s t i c o e l uso portugues de i n f i n i t i v o impersonal unido a l a p r e p o s i c i d n 'a' con v a l o r de gerundio: 'Estava A DORMIR (Estaba DURMIENDO. Esta A ACABAR (Esta ACABANDO)»".10 The many divergencies between Spanish and French usage, then, might be somewhat s u r p r i s i n g were one to consider t h a t the verb-i-preposition-i-infinitive c o n s t r u c t i o n had a d i r e c t and coherent d e r i v a t i o n from L a t i n , without t h i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r of "speakers' choice", A l a r g e number of analogous fea t u r e s do, of course, e x i s t . For example, the means of forming the compound tenses (avoiding, f o r the moment, the f a c t t h a t French conjugates c e r t a i n verbs w i t h e t r e , r a t h e r than w i t h a v o i r ) , and i t i s ' w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t Portuguese has r e t a i n e d a s y n t h e t i c p l u p e r f e c t , as w e l l as the i n f i x i n g of pronouns i n the f u t u r e and c o n d i t i o n a l tenses, and t h a t the eastern Romance of Rumanian has a l s o maintained s y n t h e t i c tenses and other means of forming compounds, A S w e l l , the e v o l u t i o n of the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e , and the object pronouns, appears f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n the two languages, as do such morphosyntactic f e a t u r e s as the agreement of a d j e c t i v e s w i t h nouns and verbs w i t h s u b j e c t s . Admittedly, c e r t a i n of the Spanish forms c i t e d do not have cognates as t h e i r French t r a n s l a t i o n s , thus are not subject t o proper comparison and consequently do not appear 107 on the l i s t . Examples would be verbs such as ag a r r a r s e , which would be rendered -by s a i s i r , avezarse by s'habituer, echarse by se mettre, examinarse by the phrase passer un  examen, presumir by pretendre, d i v e r t i r s e by s'amuser, ba s t a r by s u f f i r , and so on. However, there are i n f a c t a very l a r g e number of verbs which do have cognates i n French which r e t a i n the same meaning as the Spanish. Once more a dichotomy appears. Some of these verbs have been evolved i n French, a d m i t t i n g the same p r e p o s i t i o n be-fo r e an i n f i n i t i v e as occurs i n Spanish. Examples are d e s t i n a r , a n d d e s t i n e r , ensenar and enseigner, o b l i g a r and o b l i g e r , depender and dependre, dudar and douter, t r i u n f a r and t r i o m -pher, desear and d e s i r e r , p r e f e r i r and p r e f e r e r , sostener and s o u t e n i r , saber and s a v o i r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t i c e t h a t of the Spanish verbs governing the p r e p o s i t i o n en, o n l y two cognate verbs which may take dans are found, these being per-severar - perseverer and penetrar - pen£trer. Many cognate p a i r s , however, do not d i s p l a y the same choice of p r e p o s i t i o n . For example, we f i n d e s f o r z a r s e a but sVefforcer de, lanzarse a but se l a n c e r sur, t e n t a r a but t e n t e r de; compadecerse de but complitir avec, f i a r s e de but se f i e r a, and t h a t a l l adjec-t i v a l forms - which, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , are most l i k e l y d e r i v a t i o n s of a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n L a t i n - l i k e bueno  de, f a c i l de, imposible de. - r e q u i r e the p r e p o s i t i o n a i n French, p o s s i b l y due t o a previous d a t i v e idea; we f i n d amen-azar con but menacer .de, sonar con but songer a; c o n v e r t i r en but c o n v e r t i r a, obstinarsei en but s ' o b s t i n e r a, t a r d a r en but 108 t a r d e r a, en but • / i n f l u e r ';.sur-^.,We f i n d s e r v i r para but s e r v i r de and v e l a r por but v e i l l e r sur, and pasarse s i n but se passer de. W i t h i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h Spanish verbs r e q u i r i n g no p r e p o s i t i o n , we f i n d d e v i a t i o n s such as f i n g i r but f e i n d r e de, .jurar but .jurer de, b l v i d a r but oub-l i e r de, p e r m i t i r but permettre de, prometer but promettre de,• proponer but proposer de, provectar but pro.jeter de. A f u r -t h e r examination of the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the l i s t w i l l provide many other instances of both s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r -ences. What conclusions can be drawn from t h i s information? P r i m a r i l y , we have acquired f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of our assumption. ; The choice of p r e p o s i t i o n i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Spanish seems to be the r e s u l t - of a number of f a c t o r s . However, t h a t f a c t o r which has o f t e n been thought of as being by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t and f o r c e f u l i n the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s construc-t i o n , namely, some type of d i r e c t d e r i v a t i o n from the parent language, no longer seems q u i t e so comprehensive an explana-t i o n . What does now~ seem of g r e a t e r importance i n the d e v e l -opment of t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the f a c t o r - more semantic than o b j e c t i v e l y l i n g u i s t i c - of the language's m o d i f i c a t i o n to s u i t the preferences of the speakers, i n an o f t e n apparently a r b i t r a r y f a s h i o n . The e f f e c t s of previous c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n L a t i n are not t o be denied; nor are the i n f l u e n c e s of analogy. Rather, a l l these t r a i t s combined to produce one of the more p e c u l i a r f a c e t s of the Spanish language (and, i t might be 109 added, of the other Romance tongues), i t s p r e p o s i t i o n a l system, of which the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e construc-t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t . C H A P T E R I ? - F O O T N O T E S 1) The a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t s of modern Spanish verbs has i n part been adapted from M.M.. Ramsey's Textbook of Modern  Spanish, w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l s o being given to informa-t i o n found i n the D i c c i o n a r i o de dudas of Manuel Mesa Seco, and t o Construcciones s i n t a ' c t i c a s by E m i l i o Nanez. The e t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n provided has been adapted l a r g e l y from the D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o g i c o of J . Corominas. (See b i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbs f o r these works.) 2) Good treatments of t h i s matter are a v a i l a b l e i n both Seco's D i c c i o n a r i o de dudas and i n Construcciones s i n -t a c t i c a s of N a ^ z . 3) Fisconomia, p. 162. Note, however, th a t Spanish s t i l l shows p o s i t i o n - a l b e i t f i g u r a t i v e l y , i n s t r u c t u r e s such as "a l a s cinco de l a t a r d e " , "a l o s d i e z minutos", f , a l d i a s i g u i e n t e " , e t c . 4) Loc c i t . 5) I b i d , p. 163 6) "Tradicionalmente se llamaban preposiciones propias a l a s separables o que c o n s t i t u i a n palabra independiente, e impropias a l a s i n s e p a r a b l e s ; como a estas l a s llamamos hoy p r e f i j o s , no parece l o g i c o s e g u i r hablando de p r o p i a s , s i n o simplemente de p r e p o s i c i o n e s . Son l a s s i g u i e n t e s : »a, ante, bajo, cabe (hoy nunca usada), con, contra, de, desde, en, entre, h a c i a , hasta, para, por, segun, s i n , so (muy poco usada), sobre, y t r a s * " . Esquer Torres, Didac-t i c a , de l a lengua espanola, p. 258. 7) A l l e n , p. 245 8) Idem, Note 3-9) A S quoted i n Labov, W i l l i a m ; The Study of Language i n i t s S o c i a l Context, Studium Generale 23, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1970, p. 40. 10) F i s i o n o m i a , p. 85 I l l CONCLUSIONS Various f a c t o r s have now been examined. F i r s t , i t has been seen t h a t common terms such as "verb", " p r e p o s i t i o n " , and " i n f i n i t i v e " are, i n f a c t , much more complicated than a t f i r s t apparent. They are f r e q u e n t l y used i n ambiguous con-t e x t s , and lend themselves.to f u r t h e r and gre a t e r m i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . The c o n s t r u c t i o n v e r b - f p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e i s common to a l l the major western Romance languages. However, the sources of t h i s l o c u t i o n are not as r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e as those of, f o r example, the two forms of the C a s t i l i a n imperfect s u b j u n c t i v e , or even Catalan p e r i p h r a s t i c p r e t e r i t e . I t s o r i g i n s appear to be more i n the realm of semantics and i d e o l e c t s than i n the f i e l d of etymology and d i r e c t d e r i v a -t i o n from L a t i n . In the same way as new words and expressions are con-s t a n t l y e n t e r i n g any language used by a speech community, the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n grew up i n Western Europe as a r e s u l t of language change. The L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l system decayed, and i t s disappearance n e c e s s i t a t e d the imple-mentation of another system of meaning-indicators, and i n -cluded the development of a number of p r e p o s i t i o n s . These p r e p o s i t i o n s r e t a i n e d , on one hand, the f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by word endings - i n d i c a t i n g , f o r example, approach, withdrawal, agent, possession, e t c . , and by the L a t i n prepo-s i t i o n a l system, and on the., other hand r e s u l t e d i n new con-s t r u c t i o n s being formed by analogy, e s p e c i a l l y of a conceptual order. 112 an examination of some f e a t u r e s of Old Spanish has afforded a k i n d of h i s t o r i c a l e x p lanation f o r the a t times p u z z l i n g choice of p r e p o s i t i o n s (or the l a c k of a p r e p o s i t i o n ) i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The o r i g i n a l choice of these p a r t i c l e s seems l i k e l y to have been caused by the speakers 1 attempt to e s t a b l i s h meaning d i f f e r e n c e s which they f e l t necessary. Their reasoning was i n f l u e n c e d by many f a c t o r s , not the l e a s t among them being analogy, both between two forms and between ideas. For example, the use of a g e n i -t i v e a f t e r a verb i n L a t i n had o f t e n produced the use of "de" w i t h the substantive i n I b e r i a n Romance; from t h i s , i t was a short step t o using."de" a f t e r the same verb, but before an i n f i n i t i v e . In terms of ideas, the speakers l i k e l y viewed c e r t a i n verbs as e x p r e s s i n g ' d i r e c t i o n a l a c t i o n , whether l i t e r -a l or f i g u r a t i v e , and were thus persuaded t o u t i l i z e the ap-p r o p r i a t e p r e p o s i t i o n t o convey t h i s i d e a . The f i n a l r e s u l t has been the physiognomy of modern Spa-n i s h . Looking at the contemporary language, we are able t o compare i t s development'"with t h a t of i t s s i s t e r tongue, French, and thereby see i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s . Although the two l a n -guages have the same ancestor, they have acquired t h e i r own separate l i n g u i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The verb+preposition+in-f i n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s as common to one as to the other, but oft e n manifests i t s e l f i n - d i f f e r e n t . w a y s . Verbs r e q u i r i n g "de" i n Spanish may govern "a" i n French; verbs governing both "a" and "para" i n Spanish cannot normally i n d i c a t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e simply by p r e p o s i t i o n a l choice, i n French, and so 113 on. However, numerous correspondences do appear, as would seem l o g i c a l , s i n c e , as mentioned, both Spanish and French have been derived from the same b a s i c r o o t . F i n a l l y , i t can o n l y be added th a t the subject remains f u l l y open to f u r t h e r research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . No con-c l u s i v e proof has yet been found to corroborate the theory t h a t the speakers of Old Spanish f e l t a s t r o n g " p r e p o s i t i o n a l " meaning when they began to use the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i -t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , an i d e n t i f i a b l e meaning which has s i n c e passed i n t o o b s c u r i t y i n many cases. I t i s s t i l l evident, however, i n the use of the p r e p o s i t i o n s "para',', "por", and " s i n " , the d e l e t i o n of which completely upsets the sense of the phrase, at the moment, i n any case, no c o n t r a d i c t o r y theory seems to have po s t u l a t e d w i t h any g r e a t e r cogency. Ho p e f u l l y , more lengthy i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the problem w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e v e a l the f a c t s . BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n and Greenough: New.Latin Grammar e d i t e d by J.B. Green-ough, A . A . Howard, G.L. K i t t r e d g e , Benjamin L. B'Ooge. Ginn and Company, N.Y., 1 9 3 1 . Alonso, Amado:Particidn de l a s lenguas romances de occidente; Estudios l i n g u i s t u o s . Temas espanoles. Madrid, E d i c i o n Gredos, 1 9 5 1 > PP« 1 9 et seq. Bach, Emmon: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Transformational Grammars, H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, Inc., N.Y., 1 9 6 4 . Badia M a r g a r i t , Antonio M.: Los complimentos pronominal: -a d v e r b i a l e s derivados de I B I e INDE en l a Peninsula I b e r i c a , R e v i s t a de F i l o l o g i a Esp. V o l . 3 5 , 1 9 5 1 ( 6 7 - 7 4 ) Bahner, Werner: La l i n g u i s t i c a espaliola d e l s i g l d de oro, E d i t o r i a l C i e n c i a Nueva, Madrid, 1 9 6 6 . B a r - H i l l e l , Yehoshua: Language and Information; Selected Essays on T h e i r Theory and Application, The Jerusalem Academic Press, L t d . , Jerusalem, 1 9 6 4 . Beardsley, W i l f r e d A . : I n f i n i t i v e Constructions i n Old Spanish, A M S Press Inc., New York, 1 9 6 6 . B o u r c i e z , E. C. K l i n c k s i e c k : Elements de l a l i n g u i s t i q u e  romane, P a r i s , 1 9 1 0 . Chomsky, Noam: S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s ; M o u t o n C o . , The Hague, 1 9 6 5 . , . . X Corominas, J . : D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e timologico de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a , Berna, 1 9 5 4 , E d i t o r i a l Francke. Correas, Gonzalo: Arte de l a lengua espanola c a s t e l l a n a , s e l e c c i o n e s G r a f i c a s , Madrid, 1 9 5 4 . Criado de V a l , M.: Fisionomia d e l idioma espanol, A g u i l a r S . A . de E d i c i o n e s , Madrid, , ^ 1 9 5 4 . Diez, F r i e d r i c h : I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Grammar of the Romance  Languages; Translated by C.B. Cayley; W i l l i a m s and Nor-gate, London, I863. Elcock, U.D.: The Romance Languages.,! Faber & Faber, London, I 9 6 0 . E n t w i s t l e , W.J.: The Spanish Language, Faber & Faber L t d . , London, 1 9 6 5 . Ernout, A l f r e d : D i c t i o n n a i r e dtymologique de l a langue l a t i n e , Centre n a t i o n a l de l a recherche s c i e n t i f i q u e ; P a r i s , 1 9 5 9 . 115 Garcia de Diego, V i c e n t e : D i c c i o n a r i o e t i m o l o g i c o ; E d i t o r i a l S.M.E.T.A., Madrid, 1954-Gramatica de l a lengua v u l g a r de Espana, Lovaina 1559, E d i c i o n f a c s i m i l a r y estudio de R a f a e l de B a l b i n y Antonio Roddan; C l a s i c o s Hispanicos; Madrid, 1966. G r i e r a , A . : Motes sur l ' h i s t o i r e des langues romanes; Revue de L i n g u i s t i q u e Romane, V o l . 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T i l a n d e r , Gunnar: Los Fueros de l a novenera; Almquist & Wik-s e l l s B o k t r y c k e r i Ab Uppsala, 1951. Toro Gomez, Miguel de^_ Gramatica de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a segun l a academia espanola; Casa E d i t o r i a l Garnier Hermanos; P a r i s , 1929.' Torres, Ramon Esquer: Dida^ctica de l a lengua espanola, E d i c i o n e s A l c a l a , Madrid, 196^T 117 Vidos, B.E.: Manuale d i l i n g t i i s t i c a romanza, F i r e n z e , 1959, L.S. O l s c h k i . Zucker, George Kenneth: L i n g u i s t i c Theory of the S i g l o de Pro; an E v a l u a t i o n ; Ph.D., Iowa, 1964. 

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