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An investigation of the construction "verb + preposition + infinitive" in Spanish Ingre, Maurice David 1972

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION "VERB+PREPOSITION+INFINITIVE" IN SPANISH  by MAURICE DAVID INGRE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 3  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of HISPANIC AND ITALIAN STUDIES  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1 9 7 2  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available f o r reference  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  g a i n s h a l l not be  permission.  Department o f  H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  the Head of my  thesis  Columbia  Studies  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT The tion,  i n t e n t o f the t h e s i s , as explained  Introduc-  i s t o examine t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d u s e o f t h e v e r b + p r e -  position+infinitive tion  i n the  serves  tion.  That  t o present  in Castilian.  The  Introduc-  the problem and t o suggest an e x p l a n a -  i s , the postulation  meaning w i t h i n many  construction  o f an i n i t i a l  the c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  prepositional  which has s i n c e  been l o s t i n  cases. C h a p t e r One d e a l s w i t h  construction,  several accepted  quent  t e r m s employed  i n the  and i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l e a m b i g u i t y o f each  term, and t h e c o m p l e x i t y  tionship  the three  inherent  within  i t s use.  I t examines  d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e terms and o f t h e i r  t o one a n o t h e r , a n d s e e k s t o r e s o l v e  several  relaconse-  problems. C h a p t e r Two c o n s i s t s o f a s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  the  construction  from L a t i n t o O l d Spanish.  deal b r i e f l y with various sequent  Latin constructions  i n f l u e n c e , and t r i e s  i n the Spanish  construction  I t attempts t o and t h e i r  t o show how many o f them under  sub-  resulted  consideration.  C h a p t e r T h r e e e x a m i n e s a number o f e x a m p l e s o f t h i s construction pretation  i n Old Spanish.  of these quotations  preposition+infinitive strate Old  I t presents  a possible  i n the context  construction,  how a n d why t h e y o c c u r r e d ,  inter-  o f the verb+  a n d a t t e m p t s t o demon-  comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g  and modern u s a g e . Chapter Four  Modern S p a n i s h ,  i s an examination o f the s i t u a t i o n of  i n t e r m s o f t h e same c o n s t r u c t i o n .  a t a number o f v e r b s i n t h e l a n g u a g e , mology b r i e f l y ,  and p o i n t s  out various  I t looks  indicates their  ety-  comparisons and c o n -  11  t r a s t s w i t h modern F r e n c h . f o l l o w s , with the i n t e n t thesis.  A discussion  o f c o r r o b o r a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l hypo-  The C o n c l u s i o n ^ , c o n s i s t s  mation gained  of these forms  i n the course  o f a summation o f t h e i n f o r -  of the study.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  abbreviations  page  iii  "  1  "  9  Chapter I , Footnotes  "  25  Chapter I I  "  23  "  50  Chapter I I I  "  52  Chapter I I I , F o o t n o t e s . . .  "  77  C h a p t e r IV  "  79  "  110  I n t r o d u c t i o n . . Ii. Chapter I  ..  Chapter I I , Footnotes..... —  ....  Chapter IV, Footnotes Conclusion Bibliography  .....  :.  11  "  111 114  LIST OF TABLES Table I  Verbs Requiring  the P r e p o s i t i o n "a"  Table I I  Verbs R e q u i r i n g  the P r e p o s i t i o n d e "  Table I I I Verbs R e q u i r i n g  n  Other P r e p o s i t i o n s  page 82 "  86  "  90  Table IV  V e r b s R e q u i r i n g Wo P r e p o s i t i o n  "  95  Table V  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Verb L i s t s  "  97  ABBREVIATIONS  The both these  following abbreviations w i l l  text  and  be  used  throughout  f o o t n o t e s t o d e s i g n a t e the works  l a t t e r may  be  found  sub  verba  indicated;  i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  Academia  : R e a l Academia E s p a n o l a , lengua espafiola.  Gramatica  Allen  : A l l e n and  Fisionomia  : C r i a d o de V a l , F i s i o n o m i a d e l espanol  Gramatica  : T o r o y Gomez, M i g u e l de, G r a m a t i c a de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a segun l a Academia EspaHola  Hescott  : H e s c o t t , R., E l D e s a r r o l l o de l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s en e l e s p a H o l m e d i e v a l  Linguistica  : P o t t i e r , Bernard, logia hispanica  Lopez  : L o p e z , M a r i a L u i s a , P r o b l e m a s y metodos e l a n a l i s i s de. p r e p o s i c i o n e s  Sintactica  : Martin Alonso, espanol  G r e e n o u g h * s New  :  Latin  Linguistica  de l a  Grammar  idioma  moderna y  Evolucion sintactica  del  filoen  INTRODUCTION  The  i n t e n t of t h i s  v e l o p m e n t and types of  use  of  infinitive  paper w i l l  constructions not  usage o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s ,  be but  to  part  A p e r s o n s p e a k i n g h i s own  that  language.  tions,  He  or turns  that  i t "sounds r i g h t " .  l a n g u a g e , however, mercurial  short  period  sounds r i g h t " w i t h i n a Those u t t e r a n c e s slang,  are  selves  i n t o any  ditions  of the  of the  modifying After  the  recollection  immediate  likewise,  "feeling"  often  "what  yet'these  criterion  utterances  thus the  of the  and  are  to  themthan  often  changing  the con-  most l u m i n o u s i n d i c a -  speakers of the  " f e e l i n g " f o r t h e i r mother course,  vernacular  change.  in introducing  grammatical  most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  single  within-a  " f e e l i n g " of  most u n s u c c e s f u l  l a n g u a g e , and  of  construc-  s p e e c h community a l s o t e n d s t o  And  some t i m e ,  grammar  certain open  be  each i d e o l e c t m a i n t a i n s  more g e n e r a l  manner i n w h i c h t h e  their  the  itself;  more d e f i n i t i v e  "what s o u n d s r i g h t " . most c o l o u r f u l ,  of the  w h i c h p e r t a i n more t o t h e  u s u a l l y the  light  grammatical  a r a t h e r ambiguous and  p e c u l i a r to the  of  "sounds r i g h t " w i t h i n a  Generally,  of time,  documented  language tends to  through the  r a t h e r by  the  basic  speech.  c e r t a i n forms,  What  is itself  criterion.  c r i t e r i a which are  tors  but  The  them i n t h e  intricacies  of phrase, not  o f some g o v e r n i n g r u l e ,  of  native  - of the  utilizes  consider  termed a k i n d  previously " f e l t "  unaware - c o n s c i o u s l y  trace  de-  certain  in Castilian..  merely to  o f what m i g h t more r e a d i l y be of a  t o examine t h e  certain prepositions within  p u r p o s e , however, w i l l  vestige  be  language  are  tongue.  many u t t e r a n c e s  which  had  .2  o r i g i n a l l y appeared  i n a language  through  attempts  c r e a t e n o v e l images, t o make e x p r e s s i o n s more or  to a v o i d the  nyms, a r e f u l l y language's tete  from  resulted  colourful,  c o n f u s i o n o f w o r d s w h i c h have become homoa c c e p t e d w i t h i n the f o r m a l framework o f  lexicon  or syntax.  TESTA, f o r example.  S u c h was  the  Similarly,  case w i t h  semantic  i n t h e g e n e r a l Romance L a n g u a g e s ' a d o p t i o n  CABALLUS w i t h t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g o f h o r s e ; a n type  o f phenomenon r e s u l t e d  which caused  mouth r a t h e r t h a n  a person  t o be  And  own  language,  his  l e a r n e d and  w h i c h he influence  i n any  analogous  encounter  one  of  - viex^s h i s own emotional  language,  the way  "feels"-  inferences with  r e l e v a n t t o t h e way..in  change i n h i s m o t h e r t o n g u e ?  What i s t h e be  upon t h e m e t a m o r p h o s i s c o n s t a n t l y i n  language?  Such t h i n g s as h y p e r c o r r e c t i o n a r e  connotation applied corrections  influence,  to such to the  condemned p r o n u n c i a t i o n s s u c h " a s Similarly,  of  "correct",  stemming f r o m  the  effect  f o r example t h e  e r r o r s as bacalado, commonly h e a r d habla*o,  but  canta'o,  hum-  Bilbado, officially  etc.  o f r e g u l a r i z a t i o n , w h i c h has  had  strong  on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f many S p a n i s h v e r b s , h a s  not  been  forceful and  of  To what e x t e n d i s t h e  c o n f u s e s h i s own  often manifestations of t h i s  effect  extension  o f a g r o u p ' s s u p p o s e d memories o f what i s t o  considered  erous  h e r e vie  conditioned reflexes,  effects a  French  e . t c , w i t h the meaning  considered.  - a n a t i v e speaker  his  play  cheek.  the  i n the t r a n s f e r e n c e o f meaning  BUCCA t o g i v e b o c a ,  prime.questions  to  enough t o i n c l u d e f o r m s s u c h a s * r o m p i d o ,  * v o l v i d o , w h i c h have n o t  fallen  *decido,  subject to regular patterns.  3 One  fact  should permanently  be b o r n e  pite  i t s seemingly obvious nature:  tive  and  ficial de  proscriptive  creations  facto  grammars a l i k e  - the Real.Academia  palse,  for.example  - do  they too are originated  t o t a l l y unconcerned both substrata patterns of  Gallic ary  lished  and  E s p a n o l a o r the Academie F r a n -  e x p e d i t e o r impede change in effect  by a m u l t i t u d e o f s p e a k e r s  superstrata,  The  such as  fact  The  tradition,  of C a s t i l i a n  various Iberian  the d i v e r s e  i s an  the  juncture, from the  tion  other  of both  liter-  over a p r e v i o u s l y  estab-  example  o f how  Such i s a l s o  derivations;  interference  "odd  the man  one  dialect  case w i t h  the  o u t " amongst  though  be  justified  h e r e , t o o , one  o f , s u c h phenomena a s a n a l o g y ,  p o p u l a r etymology,  etc.  ( F o r example,  " c o m b i n a t i o n " o f ASTRUM and  influence  builders  the  dialects.  many o t h e r s r e t a i n i n g by  of  speech  that F r a n c i e n superceded  - the l i n g u i s t i c  case of l e x i c a l  tices  almost  the t r u e  P u r e l y e t y m o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s may the  with  influences  P r o v e n p a l , by f o r c e  becomes a p r e s t i g e , tongue'. rise  and  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ascendency literary  in a  dealing a posteriori  with "correctness".  criteria.  dialects,  and  arti-  authoritative  of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e , i n a sense,  speech  prescrip-  a r e the r a t h e r  Although supposedly  bodies  a language  descriptive,  des-  o f p e o p l e a t t e m p t i n g t o comment upon a  situation.  language,  i n mind,  o f c e r r a r f r o m VERUCULUM.)  of caiques i n t o a language,  article; With  the  no-  faulty  estrella  STELLAM; a l g o d o n  the A r a b i c d e f i n i t e  in  and  cerrojo introduc-  etymological explanation  c a n become i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n u o u s , interpretation. French  phraseology,  m o l o g y may a  the  when one  s h o u l d be  s o l u t i o n must be Similarly,  t o be  some s o r t  that  their  of the  does one  Why  is it.correct  cuento  con v e r l e  phonetic like  language,  but seen  on a mass pursued.  dealt with  between c e r t a i n v e r b s  in Castilian.  here and  F o r example,  t o s a y empiezan a l e e r but leer?  instead  What a c c o u n t s  why  Two; r a t h e r o b v i o u s  s o n i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o an a n s w e r a p p e a r that  the usage  grammatical  is entirely  can m e r e l y attempt  not  What  i n sueno c o n t i g o , types of  immediately.  d e p e n d e n t upon l o n g  c o n v e n t i o n s and  en  f o r the  of cuento a v e r l e ?  choice of p r e p o s i t i o n  r a t h e r t h a n sueno de t i ?  one  their  o f u t t e r a n c e t o be  infinitives  the reason f o r the  blished  That i s  means t a k e n .  o f " s u b j e c t i v e " s o l u t i o n must be  e m p i e z a n l e e r o r e m p i e z a n de  state  a  within  say voy a h a c e r l o r a t h e r than voy h a c e r l o or voy  hacerlo?  locution  solved.  analogous  i n d i v i d u a l s approach  the type  ety-  a t hand i s one w h i c h seems t o r e -  p r e p o s i t i o n used  dependent  sought  i f morphological, a  i f syntactic,  syn-  explanation of  phonetic points,  developed;  i f the problem  Basically,  Or  The  i s , a'*"..subjective, t y p e o f c r i t e r i o n ,  scale,  is  diachronically,  than h e l p .  concerns  found;  s i d e more i n t h e way that  exclusive  to explain  phenomenon, o f c o u r s e , s h o u l d be  i f the matter  explanation  attempts  e s p e c i a l l y viewed  c o n f i n e s of the type of problem  to say,  is  And  be more h i n d r a n c e  particular  a s an  ( F o r example, t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h i d a l g o , a n d  plut.au ciel.)  t a x and  at least  t h e r e f o r e t o be  reaOne  can  estaobserved.  t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n "why?" w i t h  5 the panaceic (but f a c t u a l l y right  t h a t way".  invalid)  Both supposed  p l a c e b o s , a n d p r o p o s e no' r e a l but the k i n d  of a posteriori  t i o n e d , which  i n effect  unfortunately, tion,  that  Neither,  begs  "because  answers  i t sounds  are, of course,  information.  The f o r m e r i s  p r o n o u n c e m e n t a l r e a d y menthe question.  tends, t o answer a s l i g h t l y  And t h e l a t t e r , different  o f "what i s u s e d ? " r a t h e r t h a n t h a t  ques-  o f "why?".  then, i s s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c o r d i n g t o the problem  presented. Another tack often taken i s t o describe stances would  l e a d i n g up t o t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e  e n t a i l a more o r l e s s  situations, without vation.  of. work a l s o  tant  sense.  o f past  prescription,  o f impetus  or moti-  s t u d i e s have b e e n made o f t h e  tends t o s k i r t  The " d e v e l o p m e n t "  the issue  i n question  And i t t e n d s t o n e g l e c t ,  plane.  But t h i s  i n a most isstill  as w e l l ,  That i s t o say, t h e language  as an e n t i t y unto  itself.  fact,  f o r moulding  And  This  imporalong  o f "what h a s h a p p e n e d " r a t h e r t h a n "why. h a s i t  happened". tive"  listing  o f Spanish p r e p o s i t i o n s from L a t i n .  type  lines  comprehensive  or, d e l i b e r a t i o n  Several excellent  development  the  of a f f a i r s .  l e a d i n g up t o modern g r a m m a t i c a l  investigations  the circum-  responsible  the "subjec-  d i d not develop  The p e o p l e s p e a k i n g i t w e r e , i n i tinto  t h o s e p e o p l e , a s we have m e n t i o n e d ,  i t s present state. d i d not generally  govern themselves by grammatical concepts, but by p e r s o n a l choice.  How e l s e  the d i f f e r i n g  c a n one g i v e  state  of a f f a i r s  comprehensive  explanation of  t o be f o u n d i n t h e d i f f e r e n t  6 Romance l a n g u a g e s ,  taking  types  such as  of c r i t e r i a ,  though  these, too, r e l a t e  whims).  Why,  prefers  valence  amis?  And  commencer de f a i r e  does p l a y an  taken as.the  still  important  prime  to follow a  source  certain  b e r o f f a c t o r s must be integral  T h e r e f o r e , we bilities  Perhaps  part  le faire?  i n contrast  Why  does  to French  example m i g h t  role.  But  be  the  an  Latin  was  a  a solution  considered.  seldom  certain  accounts to  be  rightly  basic  question  preposition  utilized  t o the problem, The  usage  i n question  to e s t a b l i s h this this  the  Latin.  proba-  source, but b e a r i n g type of  of t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l :  an a n a l y s i s  a num-  d e r i v e d c h i e f l y from  I b e r i a n Romance w i l l  a l s o attempt  The  ambi-  verb?  o f a language  examination  What  .j'ai  quelque-  i t cannot  o f change.  should t r y i n i t i a l l y  V u l g a r L a t i n and c a n  de  o f d i r e c t ..development f r o m  i n mind t h a t  We  individual's  Analogy w i t h i n a language,  In o r d e r t o attempt  i s an  of the  quelquechose.  remains' u n a n s w e r e d : why  chosen  idea  amigos,  a vivid  f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s ?  be  t o the  superstrata ( a l -  i n modern F r e n c h between commencer a. f a i r e  and  sure,  s u b s t r a t a and  .j'ai promis  S p a n i s h s a y sone' con m i s songe* a mes  of course, a l l other  f o r example, does S p a n i s h s a y p r o m e t i h a c e r l o ,  while French  chose  into account,  prove  of the verb  construction.  period more  including fruitful.  - that  i s to  say,  w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s m e a n i n g - w h i c h seems t o have d i s p l a y e d affinity itive.  for a  certain  Within this  as a n a l o g y  p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e a dependent  frameworky.we must  c o n s i d e r such  an  infinfactors  - b o t h amongst v e r b s and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a d j e c -  7 t i v e s and tioned.  s u b s t a n t i v e s a s w e l l - and  S u c c e s s i v e grammarians a l s o a r e  influence,  as  i s the  T h e r e must be literary  an  style,  regulating effect  involvement  not  the h i s t o r y o f the  it  following.  Not  of  Academia.  exigencies of  the  spontaneity of  been c o n t i n u o u s  and  What a r e  i s p o s s i b l e to view the  position?  the  men-  the  throughout  language.  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t the  sources  o f the R e a l  only with  but w i t h  s p o k e n word, whose i n f l u e n c e has  One  sure  just  whose d e v e l o p m e n t u n e r r i n g l y e f f e c t s m o d i f i -  c a t i o n s w i t h i n a language,  must be  concept,, a s  o n l y the  crucial considerations  t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h  definition  explicit  and  (and  f u n c t i o n of a  occasionally  pre-  implicit)  roles  i t . h a s b e e n a s s i g n e d b y grammars, b u t t h e manner i n  which  i t can be  t h e use  o f the  languages,  c o n c e i v e d and  interpreted  p r e p o s i t i o n s p r e a d and  of connotations  as h a v i n g been a t t a c h e d t o these i l y admitted  t h a t the  f o r the f a t e  it  must be  en  l a ciudad,  one  For  Romance  o f t h i s word t h a n  are  the  preposition f u l f i l l s  i t does i n se d i v i r t i o  the  t o any  o f t e n more  i t s denotation.  a  as se  completely  r a t h e r a s a mere g r a m m a t i c a l  tool,  without  any  resAnd  divoLrtio  en v e r l a c i u d a d .  i n the l a t t e r  word,  different  p r e p o s i t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s some k i n d o f  conceptual function, while  Latin  i t i s read-  attributes  function,  As  hypothesized  remembered t h a t i n . an u t t e r a n c e s u c h  f u n c t i o n than  pendent  can be  particles?  connotations  whatever i t s p u r e l y grammatical  the former,  grew i n t h e  owing i n l a r g e p a r t t o the breakdown o f the  d e c l e n s i o n s , what k i n d s  ponsible  by a s p e a k e r .  In inde-  i t serves  obvious,  funda-  m e n t a l p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e meaning o f t h e p h r a s e . do we a c c o u n t and  both f o r the a c t u a l  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  verb  retention  tion  i n another  preposition,  choice of the p r e p o s i t i o n  en a f t e r t h e  en i n t h i s  situation,  were t h e y a p p r o a c h i n g  That  o r no p r e p o s i t i o n a t a l l - how  t h e meaning?  D i d they perhaps tend t o  ing  because o f a  real  b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n h e r e n t i n i t s use?  i s t o s a y , were t h e s e  speakers  "initially"  context - or another p r e p o s i -  t h i n k of the p r e p o s i t i o n as being important prepositional function  then,  of a  d i v e r t i r s e ? . When I b e r i a n Romance s p e a k e r s  decided to u t i l i z e  How,  c o n s t r u c t i o n s formed a t f i r s t  v i e w i n g t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a s a word w i t h a v i t a l  by mean-  o f i t s own, a s r e l e v a n t a n d a s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e y i n g t h e  sense  o f the sentence  By a t t e m p t i n g  as that  to confront t h i s  o f a n y o t h e r word w i t h i n i t ? type  o f p r o b l e m , we  can per-  h a p s d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n "why d i d i t h a p p e n ? " , r a t h e r t h a n "What h a p p e n e d ? " .  CHAPTER I  The  initial.step  i n the attempted  the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e should perforce It  is entirely  be a n  construction  and  He  may  as  "A v e r b  i s a part  "A  or group  cursory  w i t h o u t any  seeming  "prep-  difficulty.  of speech which expresses a c t i o n  o f words' n o t and,  The  i s a v e r b a l noun".  of customary  presents an•unfortunate explanation  o f one  y e t . a n o t h e r , and  so  "Most o f u s " , o f words r a t h e r 'cucumber*  says Louis  promiscuously  difficulty: part  we  An  cognate  i s interpreted  i s couched  i n terms  (not.words  " t o s s about  and  of  a  or *parakeet*,  i t will  have had  number  on t h e o r d e r o f but  *rights') without  * peace*, ever have  a n y a t a l l ; and, i f  to t u r n to our f a v o r i t e d i c t i o n a r y tell  us what we  have b e e n m e a n i n g a l l  i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s l a r g e l y true  i n s o f a r as  i s accustomed t o i n t e r p r e t the meaning o f " v e r b " ,  osition",  of  defin-  what r e f e r e n t s o r d e f i n i n g q u a l i t i e s we  are l i k e l y  i n t h e hope t h a t  the  of speech  Salomon,  *justice*,  i n mind, o r e v e n w h e t h e r we challenged,  B.  or 'glass*  * freedom*,  r e a l l y examining  Even a  on.  or 'tennis*  *democracy*,  the  d e f i n i t i o n s of the p a r t s  t e r m s o f a n o t h e r , whose d e f i n i t i o n  along."1  such  or  c o n t a i n i n g a verb to the r e s t of  "An. i n f i n i t i v e  examination  ition.  one  t h e words " v e r b " ,  p r e p o s i t i o n i s a p a r t o f s p e e c h w h i c h l i n k s a word  sentence";  in  speaker  be aware o f d e f i n i t i o n s common t o grammar b o o k s ,  state";  speech  concepts.  probable that a f a i r l y w e l l educated  "infinitive",  of  i n Spanish  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t e r m s and  of Spanish or E n g l i s h would u t i l i z e osition",  clarification  "infinitive".  Though t h e t e r m s a r e  "prep-  discussed  10 w i t h f r e q u e n c y and  apparent f a c i l i t y ,  and  their  employed n e c e s s a r i l y i n a l l e v e r y d a y s p e e c h , plexity yet,  of t h e i r  i t must be  majority  of the  identity s t i l l admitted, - t h i s  or p r e j u d i c i a l ,  members o f  that  Despite very  an  important  full  com-  seems h i g h l y e l u s i v e .  And  ignorance  on  s p e e c h community p r o d u c e s ho  beneficial  on  the  lives  the  the  gencies be  part  ostensible negative consideration.  of the  individual  appearance,  Unaware o f a n y  this  one's  by.some k i n d  of s u b j e c t i v e  t h a n by. t h e  supposed  "correctness"  employed  educational  system.  I f o f one  speaking the of the  unable  diver-  to  same l a n g u a g e , . o n l y  one  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r  thousand are terminology,  convictions  on  r e m a i n i n g n i n e h u n d r e d and  ninety-nine  thousand  whelming m a j o r i t y  of the  speak t h e i r - l a n g u a g e grammatical r u l e s . deed, t h e  Their  speech w i l l  of  grammars people  truly but  cog-  these  others, - the  community - w i l l  communicate by  the • over-  continue  i t , unconcerned  gradually  aware t h e y a r e  p r o s c r i p t i p n , the  with  change; i n -  of grammatical  more r a p i d t h e  to  changes  pre-  are  be.  I n a s e n s e , we analogy to  and  less consciously  s c r i p t i o n and to  speech  the  will  aesthetic  million  impose t h e i r  likely  language,  i n t h e . s p e e c h o f t h e "community; one's i d e o l e c t  considerations  are  is a  categorical  r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y unaware o f g r o w i n g  i n an  the  community.  much more i n f l u e n c e d  nizant  of  tangible effects,  d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h have b e e n somehow imposed on one.naturally  referents  part  can  of the  use  this hypothetical  linguistic  s i t u a t i o n as  h i s t o r y of the  Romance  an  orb  il of western Europe. communication  Until  on a l a r g e  all  times,  s c a l e was unknown between  p h i c a l l y ' or'- p o l i t i c a l l y tively  comparatively recent  separated- a r e a s .  inter-  geogra-  Also u n t i l a  rela-  s h o r t time ago, t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a c e o f  a r e a s was i l l i t e r a t e .  T h e y spoke  a s t h e y chose, and t h e y :  were u n c o n s t r a i n e d b y a n y knowledge o f " c o r r e c t c a n be s u r m i s e d t h a t t o t h e a v e r a g e u n e d u c a t e d m e d i e v a l Romance l a n g u a g e ,  grammar";.  It  speaker of a  L a t i n was a l m o s t a s i n c o m p r e h e n s i -  b l e a s a n o t h e r Romance l a n g u a g e  might  have been.  And s o , a s  we d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h o i c e o f p r e p o s i t i o n i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s we plained  s o l e l y through d i r e c t  the s i g n i f i c a n c e and  s h a l l be i n v e s t i g a t i n g  of the f o l l o w i n g  t h e way t h e y t h o u g h t ,  ded r i g h t " , strongly  uncurbed  influenced  symbol  t h e growth  a t any g i v e n time  do w i t h i t a t t h a t t i m e . " 2  the  c o n s t a n t changes Applying this  infinitive  to formalized  "what  spoke soun-  grammar, o f the verb+  "The s t a n d a r d m e a n i n g o f a i s what t h e u s e r s o f  This w i l l  be t r u e  pronouncements,  concept d i r e c t l y  the,symbol  regardless of  a n d i s m a n i f e s t e d by'  o b s e r v a b l e i n a language  c o n s t r u c t i o n , we  s h a l l see  The way p e o p l e  and development  locution.  a p o s t e r i o r i grammatical  idea.  t o L a t i n , we  t h e way t h e y a p p r o a c h e d  by adherence  preposition+infinitive verbal  reference  c a n n o t be e x -  such as Spanish.  to the verb+preposition+  can conclude t h a t ,  i n fact, i t  does  not r e a l l y matter  de",  p r o v i d e d one i s a b l e t o communicate t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n -  cept w i t h s u f f i c i e n t community.  i f one h a s a r r i v e d a t t h e f o r m  clarity,  The i n i t i a l  "empezar  t o the m a j o r i t y of the speech  c h o i c e o f a word i n a g i v e n e n v i r o n -  1.2 merit b y t h e s p e a k e r s o f a l a n g u a g e  i s unimportant  i n most  c a s e s , a s l o n g a s t h e symbol , i s a c c e p t e d b y a l l , o r a t l e a s t b y a "quorum" f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . One grows, space  can thus p o s t u l a t e the f o l l o w i n g : as a  i texists  over a g i v e n time space.  - l e t us take t h e a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e  years - each.generation w i l l on t o i t s p r o g e n y . slight  changes  noticeable pen,  i n the language,  of five  o f the speech  What w o u l d  community?3  hap-  t o make-a I f they  i n m a k i n g t h e change f a i r l y unanimous, a n d  could  i n some way r e t a i n  their  elders as well,  r e l a t i v e l y good c o m m u n i c a t i o n  t h e change c o u l d e a s i l y become  This type o f m o d i f i c a t i o n u s u a l l y  s p o n t a n e o u s l y and - i n a sense  - unconsciously.  p l e s a r e t h e i n s t a n c e s o f new s l a n g w h i c h  "rip  hundred  but d i f f e r e n c e s a r e o f course  t h e n , i f one g e n e r a t i o n d e c i d e d u n a n i m o u s l y  i n the language.  spring  with "normal"  occurs  Good examinto  common  i n a n y l a n g u a g e , .such a s "hang-up" a n d "up t i g h t " a n d o f f " i n English.  Once t h e y a r e f a i r l y  common a n d w i d e -  spread,  t h e y become i n t e l l i g i b l e , t o most o f t h e s p e e c h  munity;  a f t e r remaining i n t h e language  come t o be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t in English,  one c o u l d  com-  f o r some t i m e a n d  a f t e r h a v i n g g a i n e d more u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e , t h e y  nally  time  each g e n e r a t i o n e f f e c t  on a n i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l a s w e l l .  were s u c c e s s f u l  usage  Within that  l e a r n the language and pass i t  Not. o n l y does  change i n t h e l a n g u a g e  language  usually  of the "formal" l e x i c o n .  p o i n t t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f terms  Again, origi-  coined as neologisms by such authors as Shakespeare,  words w h i c h  now f o r m p a r t  of "standard English".  13 An a n a l o g o u s attempting preposition in  Spanish.  type, o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  t o e x p l a i n t h e emergence, o f some o f t h e i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e As  the L a t i n  p r e p o s i t i o n s developed  case system  rapidly.  As  t h e w o r d s t h e y were c r e a t i n g , a n d inventing, fully,  to express  themselves  o r more p r e c i s e l y .  word o v e r a n o t h e r may ation.  The  broke  people  o r may  speakers might  have e s t a b l i s h e d  or e x i s t i n g ambiguity; longer  because  d i f f e r e n c e s not  of a desire  t h e y might  i n common use a n d : d e c i d e d  one explan-  t o a v o i d what now  sound  they r e -  syntax;  previously  they  necessary seemed:an a  term:no  "to r e p l a c e i t w i t h one  f o r " a e s t h e t i c " reasons alone,  v i n g us w i t h an u n e x p l a i n e d modern enigma o f are thus f o r c e d  used  colour-  by the  have m i s t a k e n l y i n t e r p r e t e d  c u r r i n g more f r e q u e n t l y ,  We  more  have t h o u g h t certain  to c o n s i d e r the problem  of  t h e y were  a rational  have b e e n a t t r a c t e d  a  they  f o r choosing  n o t have had  membered h a v i n g b e e n t a u g h t t o use  construction  spoke,  more c l e a r l y ,  Their reasons  choices of  down, t h e u s e  the l o c u t i o n s  of a g r o u p i n g o f words, o r t h e y might  might  i s valuable i n  oclea-  phraseology.  not  o n l y from  narrow e t y m o l o g i c a l p o i n t  o f v i e w , .but f r o m a much  encompassing semantic.and  human i m p l i c a t i o n s a s  a  wider.one,  well.  "Nos vemos o b l i g a d o s " , s a y s P o t t i e r , " p a r a o b r a r de buena f e , a r e c u r r i r a l a s u s t a n c i a semantica. Y no h a y p o r qu6 a v e r g o n z a r s e . Los e s t u d i o s r e c i e n t e s e x c l u s i v a m e n t e f o r m a l e s han d e m o s t r a d o con s u f r a c a s o que l a l e n g u a e s a l g o muy d i s t i n t o de un s i m p l e mecanismode c o m b i n a ciones. E l mecanismo e x i s t e , e i n c l u s o es f u n d a mental. Y, desde l u e g o , t i e n e s u r a z o n de s e r : l a n e c e s i d a d p o r p a r t e d e l hombre de a p r o v e c h a r a l m&xirno ( m e d i a n t e l a s d i f e r e n c i a c i o n e s d e l d i s c u r s o ) un r e d u c i d o numero de c u a d r o s s i m p l e s de  14 p e n s a m i e n t o ( l a s r e p r e s e n t a c i o n e s de l a l e n g u a ) que l e p e r m i t a n de e s t a ,manera, y con un mfnimo de e s f u e r z o , e x p r e s a r l a m u l t i p l i c i d a d de s u s a c t i v i d a d e s mentales. Q u i e r a s e o no, l a l i n g - ' u i s t i c a es una c i e n c i a humana."^-  In  order  to  i n d i c a t e the' c o n f u s i o n  concepts normally quivocal, three  l e t us  considered  attempt  articulate,  examine some p o s t u l a t e d  p a r t i c l e s with  preposition,  simple,  w h i c h may  w h i c h we  are  and  the  infinitive.  to point  out  discrepancies,, contradictions,  and,  hopefully,  development of the i n modern  so  doing,  verb,  and  ficulties,  une-  d e f i n i t i o n s of  concerned, the While  underlie  some c o n c l u s i o n s  we  the shall  dif-  concerning  verb+preposition+infinitive  the.  the  construction  Spanish.  Lenz says the  following:  " . . . p a r a l l e g a r a una d e f i n i c i d n d e l v e r b o debemos d i s t i n g u i r dos c a s o s : 1) E l v e r b o e n c i e r r a • en s i l a e x p r e s i o n c l a r a d e l surjeto p r o n o m i n a l , como en l a t i n y c a s t e l l a n o ; e n t o n c e s e l VERBO. es una p a l a b r a que p o r s i s o l a e x p r e s a t o d o un j u i c i q i n d e p e n d i e n t e ( s u j e t o y p r e d i c a d o ) y f o r m a una o r a ci6n. 2) Se e x i g e , como.eh f r a n c o s , i n g l e s y a l e m£n, l a expresi6*n separacia d e l s u j e t o ; e n t o n c e s e l VERBO es una p a l a b r a que a n a d i d a a un s u j e t o , exp r e s a con e l un j u i c i o c b m p l e t o e i n d e p e n d i e n t e y i  forma una o r a c i 6 n . " 5 .  His attempt-to;resolve sion  difficulty  of s e v e r a l languages f a l l s  example, L e n z t h i n k s insufficient; t i o n s and intent ever,  the  .,  even t h i s  c o n s e q u e n t l y he  exceptions.  on a v o i d i n g what can we  any  One  i n c u r r e d by  prey to other rather  complex  make o f h i s use  of the  restricis  properly  or ambiguity. term  For  definition  m i g h t t h u s s u p p o s e he confusion  inclu-  problems.  proceeds to d i s c u s s  possible  the  How-  "palabra"? .  15 Only c e r t a i n tenses o f the verb other languages to  interpret  i n which  i n Spanish - not t o mention  - a r e composed o f a s i n g l e w o r d .  O r are. we  " p a l a b r a " a s m e a n i n g "word o r g r o u p  o f words",  c a s e do we n o t e n c o u n t e r t h e p r o b l e m  of attempting  t o d e t e r m i n e what e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s t h e v e r b ( g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s w e l l a s m e a n i n g f u l l y ) i n a f o r m s u c h a s "Nunca s e me h a podido d e c i r l o " ?  What, t h e n , i s t h e e x a c t s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  "verb"? M i g u e l de T o r o y Gomez a t t e m p t s a much s i m p l e r d e f i n i tion.  "YERBO", he s a y s , " e s una p a r t e de l a o r a c i o n que  designa  esencia,  siempre  c o n e x p r e s i 6 n de t i e m p o  because  o f i t s v e r y vagueness  tion  o f Lenz.  " a g r i o " - which  dicates  indicates  - which  pasion, o estado,  y de p e r s o n a . " ^  and i m p r e c i s i o n ,  B u t how does  indicates  "existencia",  "locamente"  and  accion,  i s n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e same s o r t  against that as  existencia,  this  levelled such  "eterno" - which i n indicates  "accion",  " p a s i o n " , o r "cansado"  - which  "VERBO", i f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t i m e  p e r s o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y one o f t h e d e f i n i n g  istics  defini-  i t d i s t i n g u i s h words  " c a r r e r a " - which  "estado", from  Perhaps  of c r i t i c i s m  "esencia",  indicates  casi  character-  of a verb.  What a b o u t  the i n f i n i t i v e ?  "Modo i n f i n i t i v o " ,  says  Toro  y Gomez " e s e l que a n u n c i a e n a b s t r a c t o l a i d e a d e l v e r b o s i n e x p r e s a r numero n i p e r s o n a . " 7 "infinitivo" three  A c c o r d i n g t o Lenz,  i s a "substantivd verbal",  "verboides d e l castellano".  d e f i n e s a s " a q u e l l a s formas  though, t h e  a n d i s one o f t h e  The t e r m  " v e r f e i d e s " he  v e r b a l e s que no e n c i e r r a n en s i  16 la  e x p r e s i o n . d e l a p e r s o n a d e l s u j e t o y que,  a un  nominativo  sujeto-, no  f o r m a n con  61  s i se  una  agregan  proposicion  s e p a r a b l e , -aunque c o n t e n g a n t o d o s l o s e l e m e n t o s de  un  completo."3  mention  of the  The  most i m p o r t a n t  term " s u b s t a n t i v o  aspect  verbal".  shows a n a t t e m p t . t o r e l a t e  this  here  The  i s the  following  juicio  quotation  i d e a to t h a t of the  prepo-  sition. 9 "De l o s t e r m i n o s r e l a c i o n a d o s p o r l a p r e p o s i c i o n , e l p r i m e r o puede' s e r un s u b s t a n t i v o , un a d j e t i v o o un v e r b o , y t a m b i e n un pronombre o un a d v e r b i o . y ' h a s t a una i n t e r j e . c c i o n ; p e r o e l s e g u n d o ha de s e r s i e m p r e un nombre s u b s t a n t i v o o p a l a b r a o l o c u c i o n de s i g n i f i c a c i o n e q u i v a l e n t e . Equival e n t e s en s i g n i f i c a c i o n a l s u b s t a n t i v o sabemos que s o n : e l pronombre, e l i n f i n i t i v o , que es l a f o r m a s u b s t a n t i v a d a d e l v e r b o , una o r a c i o n s u b s t a n t i v a y • l o s a d v e r b i o s de l u g a r y de t i e m p o , que no s o n mas que l o s pronombres d e m o s t r a t i v o s de l o s nombres que denotan dichas i d e a s . " The  import  the  infinitive  i s always t h a t of a s u b s t a n t i v e .  the  infinitive  i s i n e v i t a b l y t o be  should  o f t h i s a r g u m e n t seems t o be  i t not  cases?  But  g o v e r n no  behave  h e r e we  One  leccion". ditional  see  one  preposition before  p r e p o s i t i o n before der".  i n the  says  considered  same way of the  t h a t the  as  the  a  substantive,  latter  c a s t d o u b t on  the  basic  grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n which maintains  pendently?  i s o n l y a v e r b a l noun, and  does n o t  which  require  f o r example  "Aprendo a h a c e r e l t r a b a j o " , b u t not  in a l l  anomalies of verbs  infinitive,  of  However, i f  a noun, b u t w h i c h do  a dependent  Does t h i s  infinitive  identity  a  "apren-  "Aprendo l a idea  of  that  the  behave  tra-  inde-  17 "PREPOSICION", says Toro y Gomez, "es una p a r t e i n d e c l i n a b l e de l a o r a c i o n que s i r v e para d e n o t a r e l regimen o dependencia que t i e n e n e n t r e s i dos p a l a b r a s o c l a u s u l a s .-*n  (  T h i s i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e d e f i n i t i o n a f f o r d e d us by Lenz, who once a g a i n , i n h i s a t t e m p t t o be t h o r o u g h and comprehensive, i n c l u d e s t o o much m a t e r i a l and t h u s o t h e r problems.  creates  He o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n :  "La PREPOSICION es una p a l a b r a i n v a r i a b l e que s i r v e para t r a n s f o r m e r un s u b s t a n t i v o en a t r i b u t o o complement© de o t r o elemento de l a misma p r o p o s i c i d n . S i e l t e r m i n o no es v e r d a dero s u b s t a n t i v o , a l menos f u n c i o n a como t a l . . . De l a s formas v e r b a l e s , e l i n f i n i t i v o , que es s u b s t a n t i v o v e r b a l , con f a c i l i d a d e x t r a o r d i n a r i a admite en c a s t e l l a n o c u a l q u i e r p r e p o s i cion..."11 The d i f f i c u l t y ,  i t i s a p p a r e n t , i s t h e same e n c o u n t e r e d above  i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of the i n f i n i t i v e . two  But  p o i n t s do appear from t h e above: f i r s t , t h a t t h e prepo-  s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s some s o r t o f r e l a t i o n between two e l e m e n t s , and  t h a t i t s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i s a l s o o f importance. These concepts have e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e course o f cen-  t u r i e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n , modern c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t s o f speech, i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e p o s i t i o n , can be t r a c e d back t o t h e Greeks.12  A very b r i e f h i s t o r y of p r e p o s i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n  can be o b t a i n e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s . "Las p r e p o s i c i o n e s f u e r o n c o n s i d e r a d a s como p a l a b r a s de e n l a c e , j u n t o con l a s c o n j u n c i o n e s , por l o s e s t o i c o s , que s e n a l a r o n t a m b i l n s u c a r a c t e r de prepuestas...Fue D i o n i s i o de T r a c i a q u i e n s e p a r d l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s d e l grupo que formaban con l a s c o n j u n c i o n e s , y d e f i n i o l a p r e p o s i c i d n como l a p a r t e  18  '  •  de l a o r a c i 6 n que se c o l o e a d e l a n t e de l a s o t r a s p a r t e s en combinaciones s i n t a c t i c a s y en f o r m a c i d n de p a l a b r a s . . . E n l a s e s c u e l a s de Europa, durante toda l a a n t i g u e d a d y l a Edad Media, l a g r a m a t i c a c o n c i b i o , pues, l a p r e p o s i c i d n desde e l punto de v i s t a de l a l o g i c a , como...un t e r m i n o de u n i o n , que se oponia a l a s p a l a b r a s c o n c r e t a s como l o s norabres o l o s pronombres...Sint&ctieamente, se d e f i n i o l a p r e p o s i c i d n como un t e r m i n o *colocado d e l a n t e * . . . A l l l e g a r a l Renacimiento, l a d e f i n i e i o n de, l a Gramcitica Cast e l l a n a de N e b r i j a . . . n o r e p r e s e n t a nada nuevo: •Una de l a s d i e z p a r t e s de l a o r a c i o n , l a c u a l se pone d e l a n t e de l a s o t r a s p o r a i u n tamiento o por composicidn*. Y senala b i e n que l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s s i r v e n para demostrar l a s i g n i f i c a c i o n de l o s casos...Mas o r i g i n a l es l a d e f i n i c i d n . . . d e V i l l a n d n : *La l e n g u a c a s t e l l a n a t i e n e p a l a b r a s que e l l a t i n l l a m a p r e p o s i c i o n e s porque se proponen a l nombre o a l v e r b o en l a c l a u s u l a para m a n i f e s t a r mas e l a f f e c t o humano d e l que l a p r o n u n c i a * . . . S c a l i g e r o e s t u d i a ampliamente l a s p r e p o s i ciones y rechaza todas l a s d e f i n i c i o n e s t r a d i c i o n a l e s . Las p r e p o s i c i o n e s s i r v e n para i n d i c a r e l l u g a r , e l movimiento y e l r e p o s e . . Despues de m u l t i p l e s t e n t a t i v a s de d e f i n i e i o n , l l e g a m o s a l a c d l e b r e Gramatica de P o r t - R o y a l , plenamente s a t i s f a c t o r i a : 'Es e l exponente de una r e l a c i d n c o n s i d e r a d a de una maner-a a b s t r a c t a y g e n e r a l , e i n d e p e n d i e n t e de t.odo t e r m i n o a n t e c e d e n t e y consecuente*. D e f i n i e i o n completamente a l d i a , y que esta* en l a base de l a t e o r i a de V i g g o B r ^ n d a l , que d e f i n e l a s prepos i c i o n e s como p a l a b r a s cuya f u n c i o n es e x p r e s a r una r e l a c i d n , pero una r e l a c i d n pura s i n c o n s i d e r a c i o n e s d i r e c t a s a l o s objetos- o a l a s situaciones."13 T h i s l a s t d e f i n i t i o n , and t h a t o f P o r t - R o y a l , i n s i s t on the f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n i t s own i n d e pendent i d e n t i t y .  That i s t o s a y , i t would appear t o t a k e a t  l e a s t a p a r t o f i t s meaning from what precedes and what f o l lows i t .  Born d i r e c t l y from t h i s i d e a i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f  whether t h e p r e p o s i t i o n demonstrates a meaning of. i t s own, or i s i t merely a connector?14  A b i t c o n t e n t i o u s seems t h e  R e a l Academia*s  definition:  "Esta p a r t i c u l a , llamada  impropiamente p a r t e de l a o r a c i o n , no t i e n e v a l o r de por s i en e l h a b l a ; es un element© de r e l a c i d n , cuya s i g n i f i c a c i d n depende no s o l o de e l l a , s i n o d e l v a l o r de l o s v o c a b l o s por e l l a r e l a c i o n a d o s . " 1 5 One such r e l a t i o n s h i p would o c c u r i n a sentence such as "Me abstengo de fumar  demasiado",  i n w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y t h e p r e p o s i t i o n "no t i e n e v a l o r de p o r s i en e l h a b l a " , s i n c e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f " a b s t e n e r " t o "fumar" i s t h a t o f t h e s i m p l e i d e a "No fumo demasiado", " P r e f i e r o no fumar demasiado".  or  However, s i n c e the concept  of a b s t e n t i o n can be f i g u r a t i v e l y c o n s t r u e d as one o f w i t h d r a w a l , the p r e p o s i t i o n "de" may have been chosen t o b e t t e r v i s u a l i z e t h i s idea.  A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n can be found i n  an a n a l o g y w i t h s e n t e n c e s such as "Abstengo d e l v i n o cuahto puedo", i n w h i c h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n has l i k e l y been d e r i v e d from the  use o f a p r e v i o u s g e n i t i v e .  Note a l s o t h i s comment o f  Salomon, w h i c h , though here r e l a t i n g t o a d v e r b s , c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i c a b l e t o p r e p o s i t i o n s : "...(W)e have some compound v e r b s ( i n E n g l i s h ) i n w h i c h "words" a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h t h e i r a p p a r e n t o p p o s i t e s : when you e n t e r d a t a on a r o u t i n e form o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , you a r e f i l l i n g i t i n ( o r o u t ) ; v/hen you reduce the speed o f y o u r c a r , you a r e s l o w i n g up ( o r down), and so f o r t h . I f t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f out f o r i n , down f o r up_, produces no change i n t h e meaning o f the whole e x p r e s s i o n , t h i s a t l e a s t r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n as t o whether t h e s e words ( i n such e x p r e s s i o n s ) have what we s h o u l d c a l l meaning. "16 A s i m i l a r t y p e o f phenomenon can be s a i d t o be observed i n Spanish.  A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n t " g r a m m a t i c a l i t y " o f t h e ex-  p r e s s i o n would s u f f e r , would i t have caused  unintelligibility  .20  f o r t h e f u t u r e i f " c o n t i n u a r de h a c e r l o " had developed i n p l a c e o f " c o n t i n u a r a h a c e r l o " , " f i j a r s e de a l g o " , and t h e like?  Or i f "empezar a h a c e r l o " had remained a s "empezar  de h a c e r l o " , a s i t had been i n O l d S p a n i s h ?  I t i s interes-  t i n g t o o b s e r v e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h a t i n terms o f g e n e r a l semantic meaning, de i s t h e d i r e c t o p p o s i t e o f a , and p e r haps i n some way, one c o u l d c o n c e i v e  o f t h e absence o f a  p r e p o s i t i o n as being s e m a n t i c a l l y contrary t o the incidence of any p r e p o s i t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g - w i t h no f a c e t i o u s i n t e n t whatever - t h a t " n o t h i n g " may be a s i m p o r t a n t  o r a s unnece-  s s a r y a s "something" when d e a l i n g w i t h s e m a n t i c s .  Similarly,  one  can sense a n a l o g i e s between "empezar a h a c e r / p o d e r h a c e r "  and  " b e g i n tp_ do i t / c a n do i t " . What c o u l d we c a l l t h e  "meaning f u n c t i o n " o f t h e E n g l i s h p r e p o s i t i o n a l i n f i n i t i v e marker, i f n o t t h e same a s t h a t o f t h e S p a n i s h p r e p o s i t i o n , t h i s same "empty form", even w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g  t o equate  t h e normal concept of. " i n f i n i t i v e marker" i n S p a n i s h w i t h that of English? A c o n t r a s t i n g b u t d e f i n i t i v e view i s t a k e n b y P o t t i e r , who s a y s : "Hasta se ha podido. d e c i r que hay p r e p o s i c i o n e s . que  l l e g a n a no t e n e r s i g n i f i c a c i d n (a p r o p d s i t o d e l *de  f  f r a n c o s ) , l o que no se puede j u s t i f i c a r : s i e x i s t e un morfema en una l e n g u a , desempena un pa p e l  esta este condicionado en l a * e s t r u c t u r a  f  y por l o tanto  de l a l e n g u a . "17 i f ,  t h e n , a p r e p o s i t i o n must have a . d e f i n i t e meaning, must convey some k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n independent o f t h a t g r a n t e d by the words w h i c h s u r r o u n d i t , what form may t h i s "meaning"  ;21  t a k e when viewed i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e construction?  Does "meaning" i n t h i s  sense  m e r e l y i n d i c a t e some k i n d o f " g r a m m a t i c a l c o n v e n t i o n " a s the  p l e o n a s t i c ne has become i n c e r t a i n comparison  t u r e s i n French?  struc-  Or i s "meaning" r e q u i r e d t o have some  type o f s e m a n t i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n a s w e l l ?  The f o r m e r b y i t -  s e l f would be unworkable, s i n c e i t o b s c u r e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between sense and form.  Thus one can p o s t u l a t e , a s p r e v i o u s  l y mentioned, t h a t t h e r e once e x i s t e d a p r i o r "meaning" (now lost) attached t o the preposition.  I n t h i s way can one ex-  p l a i n the occurrence o f the v a r i o u s p r e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i r v a r i o u s environments: a t t h e time o f f i r s t u t i l i z i n g  this  p a r t i c l e , t h e s p e a k e r s " f e l t " a need f o r i t i n o r d e r t o communicate t h e i r i d e a s .  Such a t h e o r y would, i n f a c t , t i e  t o g e t h e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e R e a l Academia and t h e p r o nouncement o f P o t t i e r : t h e word was n e c e s s a r y and e x i s t e d t o f i l l a s e m a n t i c need; i t s importance was g r a d u a l l y , l o s t t o the  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s p e a k e r s , b u t has remained a s a  g r a m m a t i c a l v e s t i g e , w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e phrase would n o t "sound r i g h t " t o t h e n a t i v e , even i f i t s meaning d i d n o t change.  x  I t has become u n i m p o r t a n t b u t a t t h e same time  n e c e s s a r y , b o t h m e a n i n g f u l and " p a l a b r a v a c i a ? . 1  I n terms o f how we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u n c t i o n o f the  preposition, i t i s of interest to consider s t i l l  another  remark o f Lopez, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e grammarian Vendryes:  22  "Por s u p a r t e , Vendryes ha rechazado l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s  de  l a s p a r t e s de l a o r a c i o n porque son s i m p l e s morfemas; e l p a p e l que  desempefian puede r e p r e s e n t a r s e  por un p r o c e d i m i e n t o m o r f o l d g i c o  muy  en o t r a s l e n g u a s  distinto.  Asi, e l  e s p a n o l d i c e * e l l i b r o de. Pedro*, donde e l l a t i n , Petri*."19  I s h i s p o i n t , however, v a l i d ?  L a t i n , p r e p o s i t i o n s had  Even i n C l a s s i c a l  t h e i r u s e s , q u i t e d i s t i n c t and  nomous f r o m the semantic m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the system.  And  *liber  auto-  morphological  s u r e l y , the f a c t t h a t S p a n i s h has a l l b u t done  away w i t h t h e case system cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a good r e a s o n f o r e x c l u d i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s from g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . I n f a c t , k e e p i n g i n mind, what N e b r i j a had s a i d w i t h r e gard t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f p r e p o s i t i o n s 2 0 piece of information presented  }  j.et us examine a  by the R e a l A c a d e m i a ! : 2  Es t a n i n t i m a l a c o n e x i d n e n t r e l a p r e p o s i c i d n y e l nombre que j u n t o con e l l a s i r v e de complemento a o t r o v o c a b l o , que e l e n t e n d i m l e h t o l a c o n c i b e como f o r mando un s o l o concepto m e n t a l con d i c h o nombre, y a l e x p r e s a r l o . l o haee como s i l a s dos p a l a b r a s , es d e c i r , l a p r e p o s i c i d n y e l nombre, f u e s e n una s o l a ; y a s i , decimos *de c a s a , a c a s a , por c a s a * , s i n d a r v a l o r p r o s d d i e o a l a s p a r t i c u l a s *de, a, p o r * , y pronunc i a n d o l a s como. s i se e s c r i b i e s e *decasa, a c a s a , p o r casa*. Por e s t a r a z d n son p r o c l i t i c a s t o d a s l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s , y en e s t e s e n t i d o b i e n podemos d e c i r que e l c a s t e l l a n o t i e n e una * d e c l i n a c i d n p r e p o s i c i o n a l * en compensaeion de l a - p e r d i d a d e c l i n a c i d n l a t i n a que l a s l e n g u a s romances han s u b s t i t u i d o por l a s p p r e p o s i c i o n e s y e l nombre, a s i como en l a t i n l a s d e s i n e n c i a s no f u e r o n en s u .origen o t r a cosa que p a r t i - • c u l a s que i b a n d e t r a s de l o s mismos nombres." I n the c o n t e x t o f the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s concept would not r e a l l y be f u n c t i o n a l , q u i t e a p a r t from the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a t t e m p t i n g prehensively .for substantives.  t o d e s c r i b e such a system comThe  c h o i c e o f the p r e p o s i t i o n  •23 i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n we a r e concerned w i t h , t h e n , depends n o t on t h e i n f i n i t i v e f o l l o w i n g , b u t on t h e p r e c e d i n g v e r b , and, a t t i m e s , upon t h e c o n t e x t u a l meaning, when more t h a n one p r e p o s i t i o n may f o l l o w a c e r t a i n v e r b . i s here c l e a r l y n o t a p r o c l i t i c  The p r e p o s i t i o n , t h e n ,  of the i n f i n i t i v e .  An i n t e r e s t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l system c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d , however, analogous though o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t s u g g e s t e d by t h e Academia.  I n such a system - s p e a k i n g p a r t i -  c u l a r l y of the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n - the p r e p o s i t i o n c o u l d become, i n f a c t , a v e r b a l e n c l i t i c ,  com-  p l e t i n g a k i n d o f d e c l e n s i o n a l system o f t h e v e r b , o r , i n o t h e r words, e s t a b l i s h i n g y e t a n o t h e r c l a s s w i t h i n t h e conj u g a t i o n a l system now e x i s t i n g .  Thus, t h e v e r b would be con-  j u g a t e d t h r o u g h t e n s e and v o i c e ; i t s forms f o r mood would i n c l u d e i n d i c a t i v e , s u b j u n c t i v e , i n f i n i t i v e , and one f i n a l form, c a l l e d , perhaps, t h e " e n c l i t i c  mood".  The  postclitic  p r e p o s i t i o n s ' a , 'de', e t c . , would be a t t a c h e d t o t h e v e r b 1  t o form t h i s mood ( s i m i l a r i n c o n c e p t , one might s a y , t o . t h e Portuguese p e r s o n a l i n f i n i t i v e ) , whenever t h e v e r b d i r e c t l y preceded a n i n f i n i t i v e .  A " z e r o f o r m " would be r e c o g n i z e d t o  d e a l w i t h t h o s e v e r b s w h i c h govern a dependent without, p r e p o s i t i o n .  infinitive  But i t would t h e n be n e c e s s a r y t o c l a s s -  i f y v e r b s w h i c h can govern a v a r i e t y o f p r e p o s i t i o n s , t h o s e w h i c h r e q u i r e a p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e b u t n o t a s u b s t a n t i v e , and t h o s e w h i c h t a k e a ' p r e p o s i t i o n e x c e p t b e f o r e a pronoun o b j e c t ( f o r example,  contestar).  Such a system o f  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , would be even more u n w i e l d l y and  -24  problematic ployed  t h a n the r a t h e r cumbersome one  to describe Spanish.  presently  em-,  However, i t s h y p o t h e t i c a l  v a l i d i t y s h o u l d be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e f u t e .  And  con-  s i d e r i n g i t s h o u l d p o i n t out t h a t , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , common terms such as " p r e p o s i t i o n " , can e a s i l y prove t o be ambiguous, d i f f i c u l t , and e x t r e m e l y complex, t h e i r everyday s t r u c t u r e s .  when examined i n many o f  FOOTNOTES, CHAPTER I 1) Salamon, L o u i s B., Semantics & Common Sense, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , N.Y.,  1966, p.  49  2) I b i d , p. 23 3) T h i s t y p e o f experiment was a t t e m p t e d by M u s s o l i n i , a l though i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t no " g e n e r a t i o n d e c i d e d unanimously" t o abandon " L e i " i n a l l d i s c o u r s e . The r e a s o n s f o r the f a i l u r e o f t h i s experiment a r e l i k e l y e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d , and would i n v o l v e f a c t o r s such as the n a t u r a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f the people t o change t h e i r speech h a b i t s o f g e n e r a t i o n s , the d i f f i c u l t y o f t h o r o u g h communication and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l , changeovers, and - p r o b a b l y most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l - t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s change was f o r c i b l y imposed, r a t h e r t h a n f r e e l y chosen. P o t t i e r , B e r n a r d ; L i n g u i s t i c a moderna y f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , v e r s i o n e s p a n o l a de M a r t m B l a n c o A l v a r e z , E d i t o r i a l Gredos, S.A., M a d r i d 1968, p. 143 Lenz, R u d o l f o , La O r a c i o n y sus p a r t e s , E s t u d i o s de g r a m a t i c a g e n e r a l y c a s t e l l a n a , M a d r i d , 1935, p. 392 G r a m a t i c a , p.  57  7  I b i d , p. .59  8  Lenz, p. 396..'.  9  Academia, p.  G r a m a t i c a , p. 189  11  Lenz, p. 509/520  12  Lopez, p. 13  3  14  I b i d , p.  '  207  10  1  •- V ]  .  15/16  " . . . E l g r a m a t i c o sueco Nat Beckman...pone p r e p o s i c i o n e s y c o n j u n c i o n e s j u n t a s b a j o l a i n d i c a c i d h comun de *conect o r e s * ( * B i n d e o r d ) , y d e c l a r a que l a p r i n c i p a l t a r e a de l a p r e p o s i c i d n es e s t a r * c o n e c t a d a a un s u s t a n t i v o , con e l p r o p o s i t o de f o r m a r un a t r i b u t o , y que l a p r i n c i p a l t a r e a de l a s c o n j u n c i o n e s es de u n i r f r a s e s . " L6pez, p. 19 t  T  15) Academia, p. 16) Salomon, p.  206 8/9  17) L i n g i i l s t i c a , p. 145P o t t i e r i s c r i t i c i z i n g the i d e a o f t h e "empty word", the  26 p a r t i c l e w h i c h i s used g r a m m a t i c a l l y , b u t whose e x i s t e n c e cannot a p p a r e n t l y be j u s t i f i e d by semantic means, and w h i c h i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be e n t i r e l y s u p e r f l u o u s . He e l a b o r a t e s h i s argument a s f o l l o w s : " E l h i s t o r i a d o r de l a l e n g u a , acostumbrado t r a d i c i o n a l m e n t e a b u s c a r e l d e t a l l e , e l ejemplo m a r g i n a l , se s i e n t e p r o c l i v e a pensar que un morfema como ' a ' o 'de*, que parece que s i g n i f i c a n l o que uno q u i e r a , acaban, en c o n s e c u e n c i a por no s i g n i f i c a r nada p r e c i s o . Y de a h i l a d e s a s t r o s a denominacidn de " p a l a b r a v a c i a " , v e r d a d e r o monstruo l i n g u i s t i c o . P o r e l hecho de e x i s t i r c i e n v a r i e d a d e s de azul<i d i r i a m o s , a c a s o , que e l a z u l es un " c o l o r v a c i o " ? De ninguna manera, pues quedan numerosos componentes comunes e n t r e l o s d i s t i n t o s a z u l e s como para d i s t i n g u i r l o d e l a m a r i l l o . De l a misma forma, s i 'de' f u e s e una p a l a b r a v a c i a , no s e n t i r i a m o s l a n e c e s i d a d , l a c o n v e n i e n c i a de s u uso en " t a s s e de t h e " , opuesto a " t a s s e a t h e " , e t c e t e r a . E s t o d e b e r i a a p a r e c e r e v i d e n t e . Hemos de l u char con e l d i c c i o n a r i o , que nos da l a mas f a l s a i d e a que pudieramos t e n e r de l a semdntica de l a l e n g u a . Para cada p r e p o s i c i d n da v e i n t e , c i n c u e n t a o c i e n " a c e p c i o n e s " de l a s e u a l e s , p o r c i e r t o , no tenemos n i c o n c i e n c i a n i c o n o c i m i e n t o . N u e s t r o s i s t e m a p r e p o s i c i o n a l es n o t a b l e mente s i m p l e , v a r i a n d o muy poco d e l n i n o a l a n c i a n o . Lo que se e n r i q u e c e es l a p o s i b i l i d a d de u t i l i z a r e l s i s t e m a para h a c e r l e p r o d u c i r mils numerosos e f e c t o s de e x p r e s i d n . Las c o n d i c i o n e s minimas de l a ' l e n g u a p e r m i t e n en e l ' d i s c u r s o ' m u l t i t u d e s d e ' r e a l i z a c i o n e s . " I b i d , p. 138 1  18) Compare t h e sentences "Salgo para v e r a m i t i o " and "He de v e r a mi . t i o " . The f o r m e r u t i l i z e s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n " p a r a " w h i c h r e t a i n s i t s o r i g i n a l semantic f u n c t i o n : i t i s r e ' s t r i c t i v e l y n e c e s s a r y t o t h e sense o f t h e word group, a l t h o u g h , a d m i t t e d l y , o n l y t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . I n the l a t t e r the p r e p o s i t i o n ' " d e " possesses t h i s chara c t e r i s t i c t o such a s l i g h t degree, i f a t a l l , a s t o make i t n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e . . However, i n a sentence such a s " S a l g s i n v e r a mi t i p " , the s i t u a t i o n i s t o t a l l y d i s t i n c t . Here, t h e p r e p o s i t i o n , " s i n " i s o f v i t a l importance t o t h e meaning o f t h e s e n t e n c e ; w i t h o u t i t , a c o m p l e t e l y oppos i t e i d e a would l i k e l y be c o n s t r u e d . Here, t h e n , t h e p r e p o s i t i o n has r e t a i n e d f u l l y t h e o r i g i n a l s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n once a t t r i b u t e d , t o t h e o t h e r s , b u t s i n c e l o s t . 19) Lopez, p. 66 20)  Lopez, p. 16. N e b r i j a s a y s : "Los acident.es d e l a p r e p o s i c i d n s o n t r e s : f i g u r a , orden i - c a s o . . . L o s casos con que se a i u n t a n l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s son dos, g e n i t i v o i a c u s a t i v o . . . S i r v e n . . . l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s para demostrar l a d i v e r s i d a d d e l a s i g n i f i c a c i d h d e l o s c a s o s , como de para demostrar c u i a es a l g u n a cosa que es e l segundo caso, a  27 para demostrar a q u i e n aprovechamos o empecemos que es e l t e r c e r o c a s e , a esso mesmo para demostrar e l c u a r t o caso e n l o s nombres p r o p r i o s i aun a l g u n a s v e z e s e n l o s comunes. A i a l g u n a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s que nunca se h a l l a n s i n o en composici(5n, i son e s t a s con des r e , como c o n c o r d a r , d e s a c o r d a r , r e c o r d a r . " N e b r i j a , A n t o n i o de; Gramdtica G a s t e l l a n a , E d i c i o n de l a J u n t a d e l Gentena r i o , M a d r i d , 1946,. p. 83/84. See a l s o C h a p t e r I V , pages 79-81 and 101-103. 21) Academia, p. 206  CHAPTER- I I The f a c t t h a t S p a n i s h d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h e o t h e r Romance languages  p r e s e n t s t h e complex problem  d e t e r m i n i n g why i t s h o u l d h a v e . d e r i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y French, I t a l i a n , Portuguese,  o r Rumanian.  of . from  As w e l l , one  must c o n s i d e r t h e development o f t h e d i f f e r e n t Romance d i a l e c t s w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f each language.  Here, t o o , o f  c o u r s e , one i s f a c e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g what d i s t i n g u i s h e s a language from a d i a l e c t .  U n t i l comparatively  r e c e n t l y , f o r example, C a t a l a n was c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t a d i a l e c t o f P r o v e n c a l - i t s e l f o f t e n h a v i n g been u n d e r s t o o d a s a d i a l e c t o f F r e n c h - and t h e n o f S p a n i s h . Spanish?  And what i s meant by  Does one i n c l u d e w i t h i n t h e language, madrileTio,  a s t u r i a n o , gallego-portugu£s, v a l e n c i a n o , a n d a l u z , e t c . , o r does one have t o make f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n s ?  I f s o , t h e n where  and how does one e s t a b l i s h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t e r m i n o l o g y ? These, however, a r e n o t t h e problems t o be c o n f r o n t e d i n t h i s paper.  When r e f e r e n c e i s made t o S p a n i s h , i t i s t o be under-  s t o o d t h a t what i s meant, i s t h e so c a l l e d " s t a n d a r d S p a n i s h " . What must be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , however, i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h c e r t a i n t r a i t s o f S p a n i s h reached  t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e , and,  i n d i r e c t l y , t h e c o n t r a s t s o f t e n e v i d e n t between S p a n i s h and, f o r example, F r e n c h . The f a c t o r s w h i c h governed t h e development o f a speech p e c u l i a r l y Spanish i n the confines o f the I b e r i a n peninsula were m a n i f o l d .  To b e g i n w i t h , t h e substratum' languages  of the  a r e a were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e L a t i n super-imposed  upon them.  The e f f e c t o f t h e Roman conquest i n  29 the a r e a now indigenous  S p a i n was  immensely heavy.  Not o n l y d i d the  speeches s e c e d e " t o the i m p l a n t a t i o n of a f o r e i g n  language - and t h i s phenomenon o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a comparat i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f time - but the e n t i r e c u l t u r a l  fabric  o f the l a n d was  cri-  r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d so as t o conform t o  t e r i a o f the expanding Roman empire.  The n a t i v e p e o p l e s  rapidly relinquished t h e i r various i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s - with n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n . o f the Basques, who t i c a l l y autonomous and  the  have remained l i n g u i s -  c u l t u r a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e t o t h i s day  -  and g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d a f a i r degree o f homogeneity as a Roman p r o v i n c e .  "En e l tiempo de AUGUSTO", M a r t i n A l o n s o i n -  forms u s , l " c u a l q u i e r c i v i s romanus de n u e s t r a s It^lica  c i u d a d e s de  ( V i c u s i t a l i c e n s i s ) o M<_rida (Augusta E m e r i t a ) p o d i a  v i a j a r por l a s c a l z a d a s romanas y h a c e r s e e n t e n d e r en l a s G a l i a s ( F r a n c i a ) , l a Dacia  (Rumania), l a R e t i a ( p a r t e de S u i z a ,  I t a l i a y A u s t r i a ) h a s t a l a s o r i l l a s d e l Danubio y d e l R i n .  La  c o o r d i n a c i d n de l a f r a s e y e l s a l u d o e r a n i d e n t i c o s : S a l v e (Dios t e g u a r d e ) . t r u e , however.  Vale  (Se f u e r t e ) . "  Phraseology,  T h i s f a c t i s no  longer  g r e e t i n g s , f a r e w e l l s , as w e l l as  l e x i c o n , d i f f e r g r e a t l y , not o n l y between the v a r i o u s a r e a s named, but even w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of each. I n the I b e r i a n p e n i n s u l a , the Romance speech w h i c h event u a l l y developed from the a d m i x t u r e of V u l g a r L a t i n and  the  languages o f the p r o v i n c e , a t l e n g t h became r e c o g n i z a b l e , began t o a c q u i r e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f i t s own. as manducare was  F o r example, where-  g e n e r a l l y used i n the G a l l i c p r o v i n c e s  the I t a l i c p e n i n s u l a  and  and  ( g i v i n g F r e n c h manger and I t a l i a n mang-  30 i a r e ) , the form comedere predominated i n I b e r i a , comer.  producing  Words d e r i v i n g from I b e r i a n r o o t s w h i c h remained  2  common produced a v o c a b u l a r y unknown t o the o t h e r a r e a s , f o r example i z q u i e r d o , b a r r o , z o r r o , and so f o r t h .  The  Visigothic  i n v a s i o n s and - s e t t l e m e n t s produced o t h e r changes upon the speech o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . Then, from the b e g i n n i n g o f the e i g h t h t o the end o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , S p a i n - o r a t l e a s t l a r g e p a r t s o f i t - was  under Arab d o m i n a t i o n .  Once  more, the a t t r i b u t e s o f the language changed r e p e a t e d l y . F i n a l l y , d u r i n g the Golden Age,  the work o f a number o f s u c -  c e s s i v e grammarians, c u l m i n a t i n g i n a sense i n the  establish-  ment and r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e R e a l Academia E s p a n o l a  in  1713>  p r o v i d e d f o r an a c c e p t e d r e g u l a r i z a t i o n o f S p a n i s h , i n form almost  i d e n t i c a l to t h a t of the present  One  day.  o f the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n the development o f  S p a n i s h t o be c o n s i d e r e d here i s the f o l l o w i n g . case system was  b r e a k i n g down.  The  Latin  The d i s t i n c t i o n between the  v a r i o u s cases o f a d e c l e n s i o n became u n r e c o g n i z a b l e i n speech; words f r o m one d e c l e n s i o n s h i f t e d t o a n o t h e r ,  "adapting" t h e i r  form a c c o r d i n g l y ; 3 L a t i n f o u r t h and f i f t h d e c l e n s i o n words were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the o t h e r t h r e e d e c l e n s i o n s .  New  means  o f communicating i d e a s became r e q u i s i t e ; o l d d i f f e r e n c e s were l o s t and t h u s produced c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n ; what was a language now  once  c o n s i d e r e d one o f the most p r e c i s e , a r t i c u l a t e  and l o g i c a l , was  f a s t becoming something t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t -  a k o i n e o f f a i r l y n o n d e s c r i p t c h a r a c t e r , a t l e a s t i n the o f any comparison w i t h i t s p a r e n t tongue.  But one  cannot  light  31 s u r m i s e t h a t t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h i s language, somewhere between what i s c a l l e d V u l g a r L a t i n and what i s r e f e r r e d t o as Romance, were a t any time u n a b l e t o converse a r t i c u l a t e l y . D e s p i t e t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h was  i n p r o g r e s s , and the i n -  c r e a s i n g d i v e r g e n c e o f t h e speech o f one community from t h a t o f a n o t h e r , making i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n more and more d i f f i c u l t , the people themselves c o n t i n u e d t o use t h e i r language w i t h t h e f l u e n c y o f any n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f any tongue.  I t must be r e -  membered t h a t t h e y themselves were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the changes w h i c h w e r e . o c c u r r i n g ; t h e y themselves were m o d i f y i n g t h e i r speech h a b i t s and m o l d i n g t h e i r means o f communication.  What  "sounded r i g h t " t o them was a c c e p t a b l e , w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r f e r ence o r c r i t i c i s m o f " a u t h o r i t a t i v e " p r e s c r i p t i o n o r p r o s c r i p tion.  T h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s s e r v e d them as  needed t o communicate w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s , even though  their  l i v e s and t h e i r s o c i e t y c o u l d l i k e l y s u p p o r t a l e s s complex communication  p a r a p h e r n a l i a t h a n i s now a p p a r e n t l y n e c e s s a r y .  The l o s s ' o f the case system o c c u r r e d a l o n g w i t h a dependence on s y l l a b i c s t r e s s r a t h e r t h a n v o c a l i c l e n g t h d i s t i n c t i o n - a phenomenon w h i c h was, Vulgar Latin.  i n e f f e c t , a l r e a d y the r u l e i n  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e grew up a more and  more a n a l y t i c s i n t a c t i c system t o r e p l a c e t h e s y n t h e t i c w h i c h had l o s t i t s communicative a b i l i t i e s .  one  M a r t i n Alonso  s t a t e s : ^ "La f l e x i c o n n o m i n a l p r a c t i c a m e n t e d e s a p a r e c e , y para s u p l i r l a se i n t r o d u c e n , en e l l e n g u a j e p o p u l a r mas l i t e r a r i o , l a s preposiciones f l e x i v a s . se h i z o cada vez mas  restringido.  que en e l  E l uso de l o s casos  Aun en l o s mismos a u t o r e s  32 t a r d i o s , como en PETRONIO, se produce una v e r d a d e r a en l a s d e c l i n a c i o n e s . " f o r we  confusion  T h i s f a c t i s o f extreme i m p o r t a n c e ,  see here the i n t i m a t i o n s of a new  an i n c r e a s i n g dependence on p r e p o s i t i o n s .  syntax which The  acquired  p r e p o s i t i o n , or  r a t h e r , p r e p o s i t i o n a l l o c u t i o n s , c o u l d no l o n g e r be a m a t t e r o f s t y l e o r emphasis, as f o r example, between "exeunt Roma", and  "exeunt de Roma", but r a t h e r the o n l y a v a i l a b l e means o f  i n d i c a t i n g b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f k i n d s p r e v i o u s l y shown w i t h i n the d e c l e n s i o n a l system. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e development o f t h e s i t i o n and  o f i t s usage was  b e i n g undergone. modified; was  The  but one  phonetic  prepo-  o f the numerous changes  system i t s e l f was  the morphology o f v e r b s as w e l l as o f  becoming substantives  b e i n g r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d ; the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e was  becoming  r e c o g n i z a b l y d i s t i n c t from a d e m o n s t r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e .  The  importance o f the p r e p o s i t i o n a l development must not be  under-  estimated,  f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s can be seen as one  the l i n k s between t h a t w h i c h would be c o n s i d e r e d mar"  of  p a r t o f "gram-  by t h e B l o o m f i e l d i a n s c h o o l , and t h a t w h i c h w o u l d be  c l a s s e d as s e m a n t i c s , w h i c h t h e y l a r g e l y i g n o r e d s i n c e t h e y d i d not seem a b l e t o d e f i n e i t i n the same k i n d of terms g o v e r n i n g the langue and As people began t o use  absolute  parole d i s t i n c t i o n s of Saussure.  p r e p o s i t i o n s t o convey b a s i c mean-  i n g s , t h e y must i n e v i t a b l y have come t o " u n d e r s t a n d " them i n a d i f f e r e n t way  from b e f o r e .  T h e i r " f e e l i n g " f o r the  prepo-  s i t i o n s grew out of the semantic c o n t e n t o f t h e i r e n t i r e speech p a t t e r n s .  And  t h i s would seem a m a t t e r o f  greater  33 s i g n i f i c a n c e than the mere " j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r words i n the s e n t e n c e " : t h e r e was  o f two  no o t h e r k i n d o f  other juncture  p o s s i b l e ; and y e t t h e number o f p r e p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e and u t i l i z e d has always been s m a l l e r than the number o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between o t h e r words.  The  result  was  t h a t each p r e p o s i t i o n i n common usage a c q u i r e d more t h a n one  type of meaning, depending upon the c o n t e x t  d i v i d u a l word r e l a t i o n s h i p , and, w h i c h i t formed a p a r t .  And  o f the i n -  o f t e n , o f the l o c u t i o n o f  upon the u t i l i z a t i o n o f prepo-.  s i t i o n s i n dependent i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , one must a s sume t h a t somehow the v e r y people who p a r t i c l e s independently, in this function.  had been u s i n g  the  imputed s i m i l a r meanings t o them  That i s t o say, the p r e p o s i t i o n w h i c h  came t o be used a f t e r a c e r t a i n v e r b t o i n t r o d u c e an n i t i v e would i n some way  infi-  be thought o f as n e c e s s a r y , whether  f o r the purpose o f e x p r e s s i v e n e s s ,  emphasis, o r v a r i e t y .  would somehow seem u n l i k e l y t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n s g r a d u a l l y q u i r e d such a f u n c t i o n f o r no r e a s o n whatever, and  the  It ac-  like-  l i h o o d o f semantic causes r a t h e r t h a n " g r a m m a t i c a l " ones appears g r e a t e r , s i n c e s c a r c e l y any h i s t o r i c a l  explanation  f o r the l a t t e r can be found i n terms of L a t i n o r i g i n .  There-  f o r e , -we must suppose t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n o f the  preposition  was  t o speak the  the " i n v e n t i o n " o f the people who  changing Romance o f the t i m e s , and need, however i l l u s o r y t o us  now.  continued  f u l f i l l e d a communicative  34 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o b e a r i n mind t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e f u n c t i o n s imposed upon p r e p o s i t i o n s , caused by t h e i n c r e a s i n g need t o r e p l a c e  " r e l a t i o n s h i p markers" l o s t through the  d e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e d e c l e n s i o n a l system o f L a t i n , were, f o r the most p a r t , w i t h o u t l i n g u i s t i c p r e c e d e n t i n t h e l i n g u a f r a n c a o f Romance, t h e a c t u a l words chosen were a l l e i t h e r d i r e c t d e r i v a t i v e s o f L a t i n p r e p o s i t i o n s , o r compounds formed from them.  T h i s i s t o s a y t h a t no t r u l y  forms were c o n s t r u c t e d ;  original  no t o t a l l y new a d d i t i o n s were made  t o t h e l e x i c o n a s a means o f a l l e v i a t i n g a d i f f i c u l t y n o t previously evident.  The d e r i v a t i o n o f common modern S p a n i s h  p r e p o s i t i o n s . i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and d i r e c t .  Those w h i c h  a r e most o f t e n connected w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f verb+prepos i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e a r e as f o l l o w s : LATIN  to  SPANISH  AD  a  CUM DE IN  con de en  pora < p o r + a  para  PER  por  SINE  sin  SUPER  sobre  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t L a t i n A, AB, ABS d i d n o t succeed i n maintaining  a place  e a s i l y explained..  i n t h e language.  The r e a s o n s a r e f a i r l y  W i t h t h e l o s s o f t h e case system, t h e de-  velopment o f t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n t o " a " , a s would be r e g u l a r , would l e a d t o i n e v i t a b l e homonymic c o n f u s i o n w i t h " a " from  35 AD,  a s i t u a t i o n i n t o l e r a b l e under the l i g h t of t h e i r con-  t r a r y meanings.5 We  have seen, t h e n , t h a t the perhaps most cogent r e a s o n  f o r the r a p i d development o f the p r e p o s i t i o n was  to  fulfill  the f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by the case system o f Latin.  What t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n s were t h e s e , and by what were  they i n f a c t A) THE  replaced?  GENITIVE  6  1) I n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n , one  o f the f u n c t i o n s o f  g e n i t i v e case i n v o l v e d a k i n d o f a p p o s i t i o n a l  the  explanation  o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the noun, but not i n d i c a t i n g normal possession. e.g.  " V i r summae v i r t u t i s " (Un hombre de g r a n v a l o r ) 2) I t may  i n d i c a t e a " t r u e g e n i t i v e " ; t h a t i s , a pos-  s e s s i v e g e n i t i v e , commonly shown i n E n g l i s h by the. use o f possessive e.g.  the  inflection.  " A l e x a n d r i c a n i s g r a n d i s e s t . " ( E l p e r r o de  Alejandro  es grande) 3) I t i s used t o show the complement o f c e r t a i n i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , such as those o f remembering. e.g.  "Memini semper n o m i n i s v e s t r i . " (Me acuerdo siempre de  vuestro  nombre.)  4) I t i n d i c a t e s the noun w h i c h i s the complement o f copula e.g.  verbs.  "Non  e s t h o m i n i s f o r t i s l u g e r e d o l o r i b u s . " (No es  hombres f u e r t e s l l o r a r en l a s d e s g r a c i a s . )  de •  36 5) I t i n d i c a t e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a c c u s a t i o n o r fault.  ...  "; •'>=  e.g. "Arguo t e p a t r i a e l e s a e . " (Te acuso de o f e n s a a l a patria.) 6) I t i s used t o show esteem o r g i v e an e s t i m a t i o n . e.g. " Q u a n t i t i b i hoc e s t ? " $En cuento e s t i m a s e s t o ? ) 7) I t r e p l a c e s a f i n a l d a t i v e i n c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s . e.g. " D o c t o r h o n o r i s c a u s a " ( D o c t o r h o n o r a r i o - . ' p a r a honra*)  Both t h e f i r s t and second examples have been r e p l a c e d by "de" p l u s a n o b j e c t i n S p a n i s h .  A l t h o u g h t h e meaning o f  each c o n s t r u c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t , t h e a c t u a l form o f b o t h i n v o l v e d t h e g e n i t i v e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y underwent velopment. ing  common: de-  T h i s s h o u l d n o t , o f c o u r s e , be t a k e n a s s u g g e s t -  t h a t from a l l s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n L a t i n were d e r i v e d  s i m i l a r constructions i n Spanish.  F o r example, t h e A c c u s a -  t i v e i n "Vado a d Romam" produces t h e analogous "voy a Roma", whereas t h a t o f t h e e p i t h e t "me miserum!" i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the  a p p a r e n t g e n i t i v e o f "pobre de m i " .  However, t h e d i s -  t i n c t i o n between numbers 1) and 2) can a l s o be o b s e r v e d i n common modern E n g l i s h usage, w h e r e i n t h e f i r s t n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n " o f " , t h e second n o r m a l l y demonstrating  t h e a p o s t r o p h e o f p o s s e s s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i s neces-  s a r i l y a semantic one, s i n c e i n t h e f o r m e r example, one c o u l d not s u b s t i t u t e the l a t t e r * s c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t r a d i c a l l y  37 a l t e r i n g t h e meaning, and v i c e v e r s a . The  t h i r d case p r o v i d e s a p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i v e e x p l a n a -  t i o n o f c e r t a i n verb c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n Spanish.  The a n a l o g y  from "me acuerdo de mi promesa" t o "me acuerdo de h a b e r l o prometido" i s f a i r l y obvious.  Both i n v o l v e t h e same k i n d  of d e s c r i p t i o n , o r f u r t h e r explanation o f the verb, that i s t o say,  i t s complement.  S i n c e a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n was  the r e s u l t o f t h e f o r m e r , the. l a t t e r i d e a a l s o c o u l d most e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by s p e a k e r s i n t h e same way, l e a d i n g t o t h e i d e n t i c a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l usage. The  i d e a c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e f o u r t h example, c o u p l e d  w i t h a f u r t h e r use o f t h e g e n i t i v e w i t h a d j e c t i v e s , such a s "insons  culpae",  h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f modern  S p a n i s h c o n s t r u c t i o n s s u c h a s "Es f a c i l de h a c e r " , "bueno de",  " l i b r e de", and "breve de".  However, a l o c u t i o n s u c h  as " l e n t o a " , o r "primero a " and i t s v a r i a n t " p r i m e r o en", a r e n o t so e a s i l y e x p l i c a b l e , e x c e p t by r e f e r e n c e  to a dif-  f e r e n t L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h a t o f t h e D a t i v e used w i t h  cer-  t a i n a d j e c t i v e s , f o r example " n a t u r a e aptum", " c a s t r i s i d o neus l o c u s " , and t h e sentence "sedes h u i c n o s t r o non importuna s e r m o n i " .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e l o c u t i o n " n i h i l  dif-  f i c i l e a m a n t i p u t o " does n o t p r o v i d e us w i t h a r e a d y d e r i vatory  construction.  Number 5) can f a i r l y e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e same way a s number 3)«  The p r o g r e s s i o n  from "me d i s c u l p o de l a  f a l t a " t o "me d i s c u l p o de f a l t a r " i s a s i m p l e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n semantic t e r m s .  one, and q u i t e  33 M a r t i n A l o n s o a l s o i n f o r m s us? t h a t i n the V u l g a r of the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a , the g e n i t i v e was  often replaced  o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r by the use Ablative,  Latin  of "de"  by  plus  the  e.g.  " C l e r i c i DE i p s a e c c l e s i a " ( C l e r i g o s de l a misma i g l e s i a ) " P o s s e s o r DE p r o p r i a t e r r a " (Poseedor de su As w e l l , the g e n i t i v e c o n t i n u e d t i o n s , as i t o f t e n was e.g.  tierra)  t o be used i n p a r t i t i v e  construc-  in Classical Latin.  " A l i q u i d habet DE v e r e c u n d i a d i s c i p u l i " (Tiene a l g o  de  l a verguenza d e l d i s c i p u l o . ) He adds t h a t the G e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n began t o l o s e a b l e ground towards the b e g i n n i n g  consider-  o f the t h i r d c e n t u r y  A.D.•  However, i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t the G e n i t i v e has  survived i n  modern S p a n i s h i n c e r t a i n words.  "possessive"  Examples o f the  G e n i t i v e can be seen i n words l i k e "martes" and  "jueves",  coming from " d i e s mart i s " and. " d i e s . j o v i s " , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  d e s c r i p t i v e G e n i t i v e shows i t s presence i n " a g r i c u l t u r a " from " a g r i c u l t u r a " , a Genitive-Nominative From the f o r e g o i n g ,  compound from L a t i n .  i t can be seen t h a t a t l e a s t i n some  measure, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n a number o f the verb+prepos i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s - o f modern S p a n i s h by a  devel-  opment from the l o s s o f the G e n i t i v e case d i s t i n c t i o n and  the  s u b s t i t u t i o n of p r e p o s i t i o n s . ' A l s o o f i m p o r t a n c e , though, a r e some o f the usages o f the D a t i v e  i n L a t i n , and t h e i r consequent  development i n t o Spanish.$ B) THE  DATIVE  1) As the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t o f a v e r b . e.g.  " S i b i regnum p a r a b a t . " (Preparaba para s i e l mando.)  39 2) As the complement o f c e r t a i n i n t r a n s i t i v e e.g.  verbs.  " P r a e t o r e x e r c i t u i p r a e e r a t magno." ( E l p r e t o r e s t a b a a l f r e n t e de un g r a n e j e r c i t o . ) 3) As the complement of c e r t a i n nouns o r a d j e c t i v e s . 9  e.g.  " H o s t i s e s t quoque i n i m i c u s s i n g u l i s n o b i s . " ( E l enemigo de l a p a t r i a es tambien enemigo de cada uno de  nosotros.)  4) To e x p r e s s the agent o f a p r e d i c a t e i n the p a s s i v e . e.g.  "Signum tradendum e s t v i c t i s m i l i t i b u s . " (La bandera ha de s e r entregada por l o s s o l d a d o s  vencidos.)  5) As a complement i n d i c a t i n g s p a c i a l and t e m p o r a l  re-  lationship. e.g.  "Exeuntibus del  campamento, hay una t o r r e muy a l t a . )  6) The e.g.  ex c a s t r i s t u r r i s a l t i s s i m a e s t . " ( A l s a l i r  "possessive  Dative"  "Sunt n o b i s m i t i a poma." (Tenemos d u l e e s manzanas.)  A l o n s o mentions as -we  nip t h a t the D a t i v e remained i n f a i r l y  common usage i n the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n did  the G e n i t i v e .  However, he p o i n t s out t h a t even around the  time o f P l a u t u s , i t became f r e q u e n t t o r e p l a c e i t by the A c c u s a t i v e preceded by the p r e p o s i t i o n "ad". e.g.  "Ad me magna n u h t i a v i t .  '(Me a n u n c i d grandes cosas.)  " S i pecunia AD i d templum data e r i t . . . "  ( S i f u e r e dado  d i n e r o para e s t e templo...) "Ait  AD me."  (Me d i j o . )  As i s the case w i t h the G e n i t i v e , however, c e r t a i n v e s t i g e s o f the d a t i v e case remain i n modern S p a n i s h , f o r example the i n -  40 i  d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns " l e " and "me"  from " i l l i "  and  "mini"  r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the r e l a t i v e "cuyo" from "cuites . 11  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be u s e f u l i n b e g i n n i n g  to  a c c o u n t f o r some v e r b s i n modern S p a n i s h w h i c h govern the p r e p o s i t i o n " a " b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e .  F o r example, number 1)  can be a p p l i e d by a n a l o g y t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n s " p r e p a r a r s e "acostumbrarse a", " a t r e v e r s e a", e t c .  a",  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n : o f the D a t i v e b e i n g r e p l a c e d  by  AD p l u s the A c c u s a t i v e , t h u s " g i v i n g d i r e c t e t y m o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g as w e l l .  P r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t , however, i s the  lowing assumption.  One  cannot ignore' the a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t o t h e s p e a k e r s o f L a t i n , the D a t i v e an u n d e r s t o o d and  " f e l t " meaning.  t h a t the l a t t e r d i d not i n some way  gra-  I t i s inconceivable  perpetuate  the s e m a n t i c  i n the minds o f the people, who  i n f a c t changing t h e i r own to  carried  T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n was  d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by t h a t of A D / A c c u s a t i v e .  f o r c e of i t s predecessor  were  language, but o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d i n g  r e t a i n f u l l communicative a b i l i t i e s w i t h each o t h e r  and  hence not w i s h i n g t o o b l i t e r a t e meanings and d i s t i n c t i o n s p o r t a n t t o them.  im-  Thus, t h e y would tend t o " f e e l " the prepo-  s i t i o n l i n k i n g the two v e r b s o f a sentence such as "Cum i s ad bibere"-'-!.  fol-  I f t h e y had not c o n s i d e r e d  it a  vener-  necessary  p a r t o f the l o c u t i o n , t h e y would s u r e l y have abandoned i t ; o r i n o t h e r words, t h e y would not have o r i g i n a t e d i t i n the  first,  p l a c e i f i t were of no importance t o the meaning of the sentence f o r them, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h how uage.  I t i s e v i d e n t now,  they " f e l t " t h e i r lang-  however, t h a t t h i s s t r o n g and  direct  41 p r e p o s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n e v e n t u a l l y became l o s t o r o b s c u r e d , but the o c c u r r e n c e o f the p r e p o s i t i o n i t s e l f i n such l o c u t i o n s i s e v i d e n c e and v e s t i g e o f the o l d e r "meaning group" o f w h i c h i t t h e n formed such a n e c e s s a r y part..  42 I f we were t o assume t h a t t h e t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t we .are concerned w i t h d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from L a t i n , i t s h o u l d be e a s i l y demonstrable t h a t a v a s t number o f one t o one  cor-  respondences between C l a s s i c a l L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s and t h o s e of modern S p a n i s h e x i s t , on w h i c h t o v e r i f y t h i s  hypothesis.  However, as we s h a l l see, t h i s does n o t seem t o be the c a s e . L a t i n tended t o use a s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n preceded by UT i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e , NE i n the n e g a t i v e , t o handle most clausal locutions.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t o f the major Romance  languages, the o n l y one w h i c h has r e t a i n e d t h i s type o f s t r u c t u r e i s Rumanian, w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s n o n - r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s whether a change o f s u b j e c t from the p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e e x i s t s o r n o t - w i t h the p a r t i c l e s a p l u s a s u b j u n c t i v e .  I t i s most  l i k e l y t h a t t h i s phenomenon d e r i v e s i n l a r g e p a r t from t h e t a r d y i n f l u e n c e o f l i n g u i s t i c changes w i t h i n the c e n t r a l Empire upon t h i s r a t h e r remote r e g i o n .  L y i n g on the p e r i p h e r y o f the  Roman sphere o f power, t h o s e changes e f f e c t e d by s p e a k e r s o f the language towards the a x i s - Rome - would r e q u i r e l o n g p e r i o d s o f time t o be t r a n s m i t t e d and a c c e p t e d by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of D a c i a .  However, A u r e l i a n ' s r e c a l l o f t h e Roman L e g i o n s  from t h i s o u t l y i n g p r o v i n c e , around 270 A.D.,  resulted i ni t s  complete i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f t h e Empire.  Linguistic  changes occurring l a t e r s i m p l y n e v e r r e a c h e d D a c i a , w h i c h t h e n continued  an independent development, but r e t a i n i n g some " a r -  chaic" features. A n o t h e r anomaly a p p e a r s , however.  F o r a l o n g t i m e , the  v a r i o u s a r e a s now w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f modern day  Spain,  43 F r a n c e , and I t a l y , were i n o n l y s c a n t y communication w i t h one another.  I n t e r c h a n g e o f language became s l i g h t , and t h e v a r -  i o u s a r e a s grew i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n l a r g e measure.  And y e t i t  i s an o b s e r v a b l e f a c t t h a t a l l t h r e e a r e a s - a t l e a s t i n terms o f t h e " s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each - have d e v e l oped analogous c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  The i d e a o f c e r t a i n v e r b s r e -  q u i r i n g c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n s .before a n i n f i n i t i v e i s as•common t o t h e I t a l i a n o r t o t h e Frenchman a s i t i s t o t h e S p a n i a r d . From a common o r i g i n i n L a t i n , w h i c h had no such tendency - o r a t l e a s t shows o n l y s c a t t e r e d examples o f v e r b s f o l l o w e d by AD b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e - t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f Romance tongues have a c c e p t e d t h i s a s an i n t e g r a l n e c e s s i t y o f speech.  That  the b a s i s o f a common approach e x i s t e d , cannot, t h e n , be i g nored, since the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i n f l u e n c e s - s u b s t r a t a , supers t r a t a , l i t e r a t u r e , t h e c o u r t , etc.. - w h i c h e x e r t e d themselves d i f f e r e n t l y upon t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s c o u l d not have p e r m i t t e d t h i s k i n d o f homogeneity t o be b o r n o f i t self.  I t seems probable' that; t h e impetus was r e c e i v e d from t h e  same breakdown o f t h e L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l system and r e s u l t a n t growth and importance o f p r e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h has a l r e a d y been mentioned.  T h i s phenomenon was most d e f i n i t e l y a u n i v e r s a l  one amongst a l l Romance s p e a k e r s , and i t s e f f e c t s were, a g a i n , among t h e most f o r c e f u l o f t h o s e w h i c h e f f e c t e d t h e appearance o f Romance and i t s subsequent  development.^  2  L e t us now examine some o f t h e L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e comparison and c o n t r a s t w i t h t h o s e o f modern S p a n i s h ,  44 and a t t e m p t t o d i s c e r n what c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from them. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , L a t i n , a s mentioned, used c l a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n dependent i n f i n i t i v e s . c e r t a i n l o c u t i o n s c o u l d govern t h e i n f i n i t i v e ,  However, principally  substantive clauses or t h e i r variants.13 1) V e r b s w h i c h have t h e meaning o f admonish, a s k , b a r g a i n , command, d e c r e e , d e t e r m i n e , p e r m i t , persuade, r e s o l v e , u r g e , and w i s h may use.an i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n p l a c e o f a dependent c l a u s e , b u t do so most f r e q u e n t l y i n p o e t r y .  Such  v e r b s i n c l u d e caveo, cogo, concedo, c o n s t i t u o , euro, d e c e r n o , edico, f l a t i g o ,  h o r t o r , impero, i n s t o , mando, moneo, persuadeo,  p e t o , postulo,. p r i n c i p i o , p r o n u n t i o , quaero, r o g o , s c i s c o , t i m e o , v i d e o , v o l o , e t c . , Observe t h e f o l l o w i n g two examples of each c o n s t r u c t i o n : •  .  i ) h o r t a t u r eos ne animo d e f i c i a n t ( l e s urge que no se 'desanimen) i i ) h i s u t i c o n q u i r e r e n t i m p e r a v i t ( l e s mando que buscaran) i i i ) ne quaere d o c e r i (no busques que t e l o digan) i v ) temptat p r a e v e r t e r e ( i n t e n t a v o l v e r s e ) I n t h e f i r s t example, S p a n i s h sees no d i f f i c u l t y i n f o l l o w i n g the  structure of Latin.  I n t h e second, however, " l e s mando  b u s c a r " would be o f e q u a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . the  The t h i r d case shows  use o f t h e p a s s i v e i n f i n i t i v e o f L a t i n , a form l o n g l o s t  t o Romance; c o n s e q u e n t l y , S p a n i s h must use a s u b j u n c t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a s i s g e n e r a l l y common when a s u b j e c t change i s i n volved.  The f o u r t h example shows no such change, and demon-  45 s t r a t e s i d e n t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , w i t h the exception t h a t utilizes a reflexive  Spanish  verb.  2) Some v e r b s i n L a t i n , f o r example iubeo and v e t o ,  nor-  m a l l y t a k e an i n f i n i t i v e , w i t h i t s s u b j e c t i n t h e a c c u s a t i v e case.14  F o r example:  i ) Labienum iugum m o n t i s a s c e n d e r e i u b e t ( l e manda a Labieno s u b i r a l a cumbre. i i ) ab opere l e g a t e s d i s c e d e r e v e t u e r a t ( l e h a b i a prohir; bido a l teniente dejar e l trabajo) i i i ) vetuere los  (bona) r e d d i ( p r o h i b i e r o n que se d e v o l v i e r a n  bienes)  A s u b j u n c t i v e c l a u s e would perhaps be more common i n modern Spanish  i n t h e f i r s t example: " l e manda a L a b i e n o que suba...".  I n number i i ) a s i n number i ) , a s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n would be e q u a l l y v a l i d i n S p a n i s h : que d e j a r a . . . " .  " l e habia prohibido a l teniente  And a s i n ' t h e p r e v i o u s s e t o f examples, number  i i i ) c a n n o t be t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y because o f i t s use o f t h e passive r e d d i . 3) E i t h e r t h e i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r t h e s u b j u n c t i v e i s permissible with verbs of wishing. S p a n i s h , when no  As o f t e n o c c u r s i n  s u b j e c t change o c c u r s , an i n f i n i t i v e i s  commoner; when t h e s u b j e c t o f one c l a u s e d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the o t h e r , a s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d . i ) augur f l i e r i v o l u i ( q u e r f a hacerme augur) ii)  c u p i o v i g i l i a m meam t i b i t r a d e r e (deseo e n t r e g a r t e mi vigilia)  iii)  i u d i c e m me e s s e , non doctorem v o l o (no q u i e r o s e r p r o -  46 f e s o r , sine- j u e z ) i v ) me C a e s a r i s m i l i t e m d i c i v o l u i ( q u i e r o que me  llamen  s o l d a d o de Cesar) v) c u p i o me esse clementem / G e n e r a l l y : c u p i o clemens  esse/  ( q u i e r o s e r clemente) vi)  omnes homines, q u i sese s t u d e n t animalibus  praestare c e t e r i s  (todo hombre que q u i e r a s u p e r a r  l o s demas  seres) v i i ) v o l o t e s c i r e ( q u i e r o que sepas) v i i i ) v i m volumus e x s t i n g u i (queremos que se suprima l a violencia) ix)  t e t u a f r u i v i r t u t e cupimus (deseamos que r e c i b a s l a recompensa de t u v i r t u d )  x) v u p i o u t i m p e t r e t xi)  :  (espero que e l l o c o n s i g a )  numquam optabo u t a u d i a t i s (nunca e s p e r a r e  que  oigas...)  The f i r s t s i x s e n t e n c e s i n v o l v e no change o f s u b j e c t i n t h e L a t i n ; t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e do change. the L a t i n p a s s i v e i n f i n i t i v e reflexive.  N o t i c e i n number i ) t h a t  c o n s t r u c t i o n i s r e p l a c e d by a  The use o f t h e r e f l e x i v e i n S p a n i s h ,  i t might be  n o t e d , i s one o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e language. I n number i v ) , however, t h i s p e r i p h r a s i s i s n o t f e a s i b l e , and S p a n i s h must r e s o r t t o a s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e a change o f s u b j e c t does o c c u r between " q u i e r o " and The same t h i n g i s t r u e o f sentence number v i i ) .  "llamen".  And here i t  s h o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t whereas L a t i n can u t i l i z e an  infinitive  c o n s t r u c t i o n , d e s p i t e t h e s u b j e c t change, S p a n i s h i s unable t o do s o .  This i s observable  i n a l l the remaining  examples above.  47  4 ) Verbs w h i c h convey the i d e a o f p e r m i s s i o n can govern c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e  or a s u b j u n c t i v e .  i ) p e r m i s i t u t f a c e r e t ( l e p e r m i t i o hacer) ii)  concedo t i b i u t ea p r a e t e r e a s  (concedo que  pases por  a l t o a q u e l l o s asuntos) iii)  t a b e r n a c u l a s t a t u i passus non e s t (no p e r m i t i o  que  acamparan) .iv)  vinum i m p o r t a r i non s i n u n t (no d e j a n que  se  importe  vino) Number i ) , of c o u r s e , que  l o h i c i e r a " ; number i i ) as " t e permito  i i i ) as "no "no  c o u l d a l s o be expressed  l e s p e r m i t i o acampar".  as  "permitio  pasar...";  number  To express number i v ) as  l e s d e j a n i m p o r t a r v i n o " , however, would d e t r a c t from the  impersonal  i d e a i n h e r e n t i n the  Latin.  5) S i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s are p o s s i b l e w i t h v e r b s w h i c h express  determination, decree,  r e s o l v e , and the  i ) c o n s t i t u e r a n t u t L. B e s t i a q u e r e r e t u r . minado que  L u c i o B e s t i a se  like. (habian  deter-  quejara)  i i ) p r o e l i o s u p e r s e d e r e s t a t u i t (se d e c i d i o a  rehusar  batalla) i i i ) de b o n i s r e g i s quae r e d d i c e n s u e r a n t (de l o s b i e n e s del  r e y , l o s c u a l e s se h a b i a d e c l a r a d o que  se d e v o l -  vieran) O n l y i n the second example can S p a n i s h a v o i d a s u b j e c t change and  consequent s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  A g a i n one  sees i n  number i i i ) the v a l u e of the p a s s i v e i n f i n i t i v e , w h i c h p r e c l u d e s the i n v o l v e d and awkward dependent c l a u s e i n S p a n i s h .  L8 . Subjunctive iv)  c l a u s e s a r e seen c o m p a r a t i v e l y  d e c e r n i t u t i consules los  consules  i n the f o l l o w i n g :  d i l e c t u m habeant (ordena  que  hagan l e v a ) .  v) e d i c t o ne q u i s i n i u s s u pugnaret (habiendo d i c t a d o  que  ninguno l u c h a r a s i n drdenes) 6) V e r b s w h i c h e x p r e s s c a u t i o n o r e f f o r t g e n e r a l l y employ c  the s u b j u n c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n * w i t h UT, a dependent  but CONOR u s u a l l y t a k e s  infinitive.  i ) cura u t quam primum i n t e l l e g a m (hazme s a b e r cuanto antes)  .  i i ) dant operam u t habeant (se e s f u e r z a n iii)  tener)  conatus e s t Caesar r e f i c e r e p o n t i s (Cesar t r a t d  de  r e c o n s t r u i r e l puente) Note t h a t a l l these examples u t i l i z e the dependent i n Spanish,  infinitive  and t h a t number i i i ) e v i d e n c e s the v e r b + p r e p o s i -  t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e structure i n question.  Thus we  have seen t h a t a g r a m m a t i c a l c o n v e n t i o n  need not produce a s i m i l a r one  i n Spanish.  in Latin  Hence, the  idea  of d e r i v i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s e t y m o l o g i c a l l y i n the same way  as  i t i s most o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o do w i t h l e x i c o n , i s f r e q u e n t l y not a v a l i d p r o c e d u r e . the most i m p o r t a n t  Once a g a i n , i t must be m a i n t a i n e d  f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d  i n the  that  explanation  of a phenomenon i s the v e r y f a c t t h a t the s p e a k e r s o f a l a n g uage e f f e c t changes w h i c h t h e y d e s i r e t o make.  Their  reasoning  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y l o g i c a l , but more o f t e n dependent upon "what sounds r i g h t " t o them.  As l o n g as t h e y a r e a b l e  to  49 convey i d e a s , d i s t i n g u i s h nuances, and e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s t o o t h e r members o f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c community, t h e i r language c o n t i n u e s t o be " c o r r e c t " and " a c c e p t a b l e " t o them; and t h e i r f e e l i n g f o r t h e i r n a t i v e speech i s n o t t o be h i n d e r e d o r e x p e d i t e d by what may have gone b e f o r e .  FOOTNOTES, CHAPTER I I 1)  S i n t a c t i c a , p.  11  2)  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however, t h a t C a t a l a n uses men.jar from manducaffe, i l l u s t r a t i n g one o f t h e many f e a t u r e s i t s h a r e s i n common w i t h Gallo-Romance.  3)  Cuando desaparece e l l a t i n v u l g a r f u n d i d o en l a s l e n g u a s de l a Romania, s a l v o en l o s pronombres p e r s o n a l e s , quedaban en D a c i a t r e s c a s o s , y en e l r e s t o d e l I m p e r i o , dos: un n o m i n a t i v o y un a c u s a t i v o . La forma d e l p l u r a l es o t r a de l a s c a r a c t e r i s t i c a s . La ' s ' f i n a l l a t i n a se c d n s e r v a en l a Romania o c c i d e n t a l . En l a o r i e n t a l se e l u d i e r o n l a *s* y l a 'm' f i n a l e s y l a 'u' y & l a o sonaron l o mismo. No h a b i a medio de d i s t i n g u i r .•portam* de * p o r t a s * . S i n t & c t i c a , p.17, Note. ?  r  4)  I b i d , p.  17  5)  More w i l l be s a i d about t h i s f e a t u r e on page 101-2 , in terms o f p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x e s and independent p r e p o s i t i o n s .  6) Adapted i n p a r t from S i n t a c t i c a , p. 17, 7)  e t . seq.  I b i d , p. 18  8) Adapted i n p a r t from l o c . c i t . 9) C f . see p . 37 ; the e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h example of The G e n i t i v e . •' 10)  S i n t a c t i c a , p. 18  11)  Loc. c i t .  12)  L e t i t n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t F r e n c h r e t a i n e d a two-case system f o r a g r e a t l e n g t h o f t i m e ; t h a t Rumanian s t i l l e v i d e n c e s the N o m i n a t i v e - A c c u s a t i v e case as d i s t i n c t from the G e n i t i v e - D a t i v e , and has s e p a r a t e V o c a t i v e forms f o r some words, i n the modern language; even modern E n g l i s h , whose s p e a k e r s o f t e n t h i n k o f t h e i r language as a l m o s t comp l e t e l y a n a l y t i c , has v e s t i g e s o f a case system: he/him, she/her, who/whom, e t c . However, the v e r y f a c t t h a t word o r d e r has assumed such s e m a n t i c importance i n t h e modern Romance languages i s e v i d e n c e o f the monumental e f f e c t caused by the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l system.  13)  Adapted from A l l e n , pps. 363  14)  Observe t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e of L a t i n has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h grammar; one s a y s , f o r example, " I o r d e r e d him t o buy the book", i n w h i c h "him", a c c u s a t i v e c a s e , i s the s u b j e c t o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e "buy", w h i c h i s i n t u r n the d i r e c t  .  ,  e t seq.  51  object of the verb "ordered". Note a l s o t h a t i n F r e n c h , one s a y s , f o r example, "Je l * a i f a i t p a r l e r " , i n c o n t r a s t t o "Je l u i a i f a i t d i r e l a p h r a s e " . But due t o t h e l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n between d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns i n S p a n i s h , no such c o n t r a s t can be found between " l e .nice h a b l a r " and " l e h i e e d e c i r l a f r a s e " .  CHAPTER I I I W i t h t h e appearance o f an i d e n t i f i a b l e Romance s t a n d a r d w i t h i n the I b e r i a n Peninsula,  t h e use o f p r e p o s i t i o n s t o i n t r o -  duce i n f i n i t i v e s a f t e r v e r b s became, a s we have seen, a r e c o g n i z a b l e phenomenon.  We may now a t t e m p t t o d i s c e r n what i n -  f l u e n c e s were a t work t o m a i n t a i n and d e v e l o p i t .  R. H e s c o t t  t e l l s us r a t h e r c a t e g o r i c a l l y - s e e m i n g l y t o o much so i n v i e w of the complexity of the.problem - t h a t t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n d e s a r r o l l d en e l l a t i n t a r d i o como c o n t i n u a c i o n vulgares  de p r e p o s i c i o n  n  se  de l o s g i r o s  con g e r u n d i o r i g i e n d o un complemento. "-*-  He a l s o p r o v i d e s us w i t h examples o f i n f i n i t i v e s governed by the p r e p o s i t i o n s a d , de_, p e r , p r o , and t h e compound p e r a d , as e v i d e n c e d i n Roman S p a i n .  2  And he makes a p o i n t o f t e l l i n g us  the meaning e x p r e s s e d by each p r e p o s i t i o n : ad shows t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e ; de seems t o l a c k meaning f o r him, and i s n o t e w o r t h y o n l y by i t s s c a r c i t y ; p r o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e remained u n r e a l i z e d and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Spanish3 - h o p e f u l l y , he does n o t w i s h h i s a p p a r e n t c o r o l l a r y t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t u n r e a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i o n i s a S p a n i s h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; t h e same prepos i t i o n can a l s o i n d i c a t e f i n a l i t y o r d e s t i n a t i o n , he s a y s , as can p e r , and t h e compound, p e r ad. A)  i ) "uendimus ad t i b i Ienneco p r e s b i t e r t e r r a n o s t r a p r o p i a que abes ad d e b e d i r e cum S a r r o z i n o " ,  173, ii)  2,  965,  (Cardefia,  162)  " s i a l i q u i s homo ad d i s r e p e n d u n v e n e r i t . . . t u n c a b i a t i s  ad prendere de nos i p s a e r e d i t a t e " , (San V i c e n t e , 32,  11,  53 1037,  B)  162)  i ) "de rompere i l l d s m o n t e s . . . t a l e p o e t i o n e abeat r e g u l a de S a n c t i J u k i a n i " , ii) 49,  C)  (Cardena, 363, 40, O 6 4 , 1 6 9 )  "non habuerunt f u e r o de h o r a i c i d i o p e c t a r e " , (San M i l l a n , 3 8 , 996-1020,  1 6 9 ) ''  i ) " e t de i p s o p r e c i o non r e m a n s i t debitum p r o d a r e " , (Cardena, 6 0 , 8 0 / 9 1 2 , 1 7 0 ) ii)  " s c a l d a qiiarn u e l p r o s c a l i d a r e " ,  1028,  iii)  (San V i c e n t e , 3 0 , 3 4 ,  170)  "Ego Radanius q u i s a i o n f u i t . p e r mandatus i u d i c i s p r o  ipsa u i l l a absoluere", (Santa M a r i a , 2 , 6 6 , 0 2 7 , 1 7 1 ) i v ) " s i venit...homo  u i l l a n o pro pignos saccare per f o r c i a " ,  (San M i l l a n , 4 9 , 15, 9 5 5 , 1 7 1 ) D)  i ) " e t i l l o s montes p e r l i g n a t a g g a r e a u t p a s c e r e " , (Cardena, ii)  363,  38,  9 6 4 , ' 1 7 1 )  " f u i ad casa de F r e d l n a n d o cum F r i o l a e t rogauimos  i l i u m p e r cartam t r a s l a t a r e de u t n i a . . . e t t r a n s l a t a u i t . . . ipsam c a r t a n " , (Santo T o r i b i o , E)  6 6 , 6, 9 6 2 , 1 7 1 )  i ) "non donem v o b i s i l i a aqua p e r ad u e s t r a n e c e s s a r i a a d i m p l i r e " , (Cardena, 5 4 , 1 5 , 9 5 6 , 1 7 2 )  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t i t i l l u s t r a t e s the v a c i l l a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the developing, language, and shows t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f n e o l o g i s m s , such as p r o , and t h e usages i m m e d i a t e l y a s c r i b e d t o them.  However, once  a g a i n , i t does n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e a s o n f o r i n i t i a l c h o i c e , u n l e s s , perhaps, i n d i r e c t l y .  I t must be remembered t h a t " a "  54 d e r i v e s from a p r e p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g d i r e c t i o n towards somet h i n g , an i d e a e a s i l y a s s o c i a b l e w i t h t h a t o f n e c e s s i t y , i n the sense o f p r o g r e s s i o n towards t h e c o m p l e t i o n Hescott  o f an a c t i o n .  p r e s e n t s us w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e use o f  p r e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n f i n i t i v e s i n Old Spanish,  g i v i n g again the  meaning o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n .  L e t us  examine h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i n o r d e r t o d e c i d e whether some k i n d of s e m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n can be a s c e r t a i n e d ; t h a t i s , l e t us see whether a "why" can be f o u n d , c o r r e s p o n d i n g  t o h i s "what".^-  I . The p r o p o s i t i o n " a " The i n f i n i t i v e w i t h " a " denotes d i r e c t i o n towards, and t h u s t h e purpose o f an a c t i o n . 1) I t can i n t r o d u c e t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t o f a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b such a s a y u d a r , comecar, empecar, p e n s a r o r conpecar: ' "e ruego a San Peydro que me ayude a r o g a r " ( C i d , 363) "Conpiepan a r e c i b i r l o que e l f i d mando", ( I b i d , 25§5) :  2) W i t h v e r b s o f m o t i o n , i t i n d i c a t e s t h e g o a l o r o b j e c t o f t h e a c t i o n : "Do s o p i e r o n que e r a v e n i e n r o n l o a v u s c a r " , ( F e r n . G l e z . , 1 1 9 ) ; "Abaxaron l a s l a n c a s y f u e r o n a f e r y r " ( I b i d , 308); "e t o r n o s a s o n r r i s s a r " , . ( C i d , 1266) 3) " a l " w i t h i n f i n i t i v e i n d i c a t e s s i m u l t a n e i t y , o r a c t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e v e r b : " a l e x i r de S a l o n mucho ovo buenas a v e s " , ( C i d . 859)5 " a l c a r g a r l a s a r e a s - v e r i e d e s gozo t a n t o " , ( I b i d , 170) 4) W i t h haber ( a v e r ) , i t i n d i c a t e s n e c e s s i t y o r f u t u r i t y : "ca a mouer ha mio p i d " , ( C i d . I69) ; c a s t i g a r - l o s he como a b r a n a f a r " , ( I b i d , 229); " o u i e r o n t e a l a u d a r e " , ( I b i d , 335) t 5  5) Used w i t h s e r , i t s i g n i f i e s t h e p a s s i v e e q u i v a l e n t o f . haber a o r haber de: " f i r m e m i e n t r e s o n e s t o s a e s c a r mentar", ( C i d , 1121);."tales g a n a n c i a s t r a e n que son a a g u a r d a r " , ( I b i d , 1823). The  f i r s t two cases p r e s e n t no a p p a r e n t problem.  The f a c t  t h a t a has been chosen t o i n t r o d u c e a d i r e c t o b j e c t was l i k e l y the r e s u l t o f m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e use o f AD p l u s ACCUSA-  55 TOTE, w h i c h developed, as b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o b j e c t identifier.  Note the use o f the modern S p a n i s h " p e r s o n a l a".  S i m i l a r l y , AD i n d i c a t e d movement and d i r e c t i o n towards a p l a c e o r person o r o b j e c t ; the a n a l o g y i s o b v i o u s , s i n c e the a c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the i n f i n i t i v e i s r e a d i l y c o n c e i v e d o f as b e i n g an object.5  The  case o f number 3) can perhaps be e x p l a i n e d i n  the l i g h t o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h such. L a t i n i d i o m s as "ad tempus", "ad l a t e r a " , "ad hunc modum", and "ad diem", where the rence o f p o s i t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o a concurrence Number 4) might  :  concur-  of time.  be viewed as.a d i r e c t development from  the  p r e v i o u s L a t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f HABERE AD, w h i c h , though n o t g e n e r a l l y employed w i t h i n f i n i t i v e , was  not unknown, and  from  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f some v e r b s , a l s o i n c l u d i n g HABERE, t a k i n g AD p l u s the gerund o r g e r u n d i v e , f o r example " c o r p o r a i n s u e t a ad onera portanda".6  However, we must c o n s i d e r t h i s w h i l e  b e a r i n g i n mind the modern usage o f "haber de" c o e x i s t i n g w i t h "hay  (< haber) que",  t h e - l a t t e r p r o b a b l y owing i t s d e r i v a t i o n  t o "que" h a v i n g been i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u b s t a n t i v e on the  one  hand, and as a s u b o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n on t h e o t h e r , as b o t h f u n c t i o n s a r e a l s o commonplace i n modern S p a n i s h .  I n the  case, number 5 ) , one can a g a i n see two f o r c e s a t work.  last  Analogy  w i t h "haber a" must s u r e l y have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c h o i c e o f " a " t o be used w i t h " s e r " , . s i n c e , as H e s c o t t mentions,  the  i d e n t i t y o f t h e l a t t e r can be c o n s t r u e d as a p a s s i v e r e n d e r i n g o f the f o r m e r .  As w e l l , " a " b e i n g " f e l t " and thought o f i n  terms o f "an approach  t o w a r d s " something,  t h e i d e a o f the i n -  f i n i t i v e ' s a c t i o n comprehended as the d e s t i n a t i o n would a l s o  56 be e a s i l y c o n s t r u e d i n the mind o f t h e s p e a k e r s , who  were  responsible f o r t h i s choice of l o c u t i o n . I I . The p r e p o s i t i o n " a n t e s " .  T h i s p r e p o s i t i o n e x p r e s s e s the  n o t i o n o f p r i o r i t y : "E y r e a. l a c o r t - en a n t e s de  iantar",  ( C i d , 3045). T h i s example p r o v i d e s us w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t .  Where-  as the use o f " a " w i t h the i n f i n i t i v e can, as we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o v e r i f y , be c o n c e i v e d as t h e r e s i d u e o f a m e a n i n g f u l segment o f a c o n s t r u c t i o n , now  l i t t l e more t h a n a g r a m m a t i c a l  c o n t r i v a n c e , a p r e p o s i t i o n such,as a n t e s de, f a l l s i n t o - a n o t h e r category altogether.  The compound o f Mantes" found i n t h e  q u o t a t i o n above (from w h i c h the p r e s e n t day p r e p o s i t i o n " d e l a n t e de" i s d e r i v e d ) , need prove no impediment: here i s meaning, n o t appearance.  the crux  The d e r i v a t i o n o f " a n t e s "  from ANTE c o n t i n u e s t h e concept o f p r i o r i t y ; w i t h i n t h e cons t r u c t i o n o f v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o r i + i n f i n i t i v e , t h i s concept has remained i n t a c t t o the p r e s e n t day.  This i s indeed d i f f e r e n t  from the case o f b o t h " a " and "de" i n t h i s f u n c t i o n , whose o r i g i n a l p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning-load has been removed a l m o s t totally. I I I . The p r e p o s i t i o n "de".  I n t h e M i d d l e Ages, s a y s H e s c o t t ,  t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n was g r e a t l y p r e f e r r e d o v e r " a " b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e , and he quotes B e a r d s l e y as s a y i n g t h a t "De mas  e l i n f i n i t i v o es l a mas  p o p u l a r de t o d a s " . 7  i m p o r t a n t f a c t a p p e a r s , though, when we c o n s i d e r the  An  57 statement o f Lenz, t h a t "...en c a s t e l l a n o , e l uso d e l i n f i n i t i v e con de r e t r o c e d e , pues en vez de "'me  cumple  de f a z e r , olvidabaseme de e s c r i b i r * , e t c . , hoy se p r e f i e r e e l i n f i n i t i v o s i n p r e p o s i c i d n . T h u s we t h a t a r a d i c a l change seems t o have o c c u r r e d .  observe This, i n  t u r n , can be compared t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r e p o s i t i o n " d i " i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y employed i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n modern I t a l i a n , and t h a t "de". seems t o be g a i n i n g some ascendency i n modern F r e n c h . 1) I t may be used w i t h i n f i n i t i v e as t h e s u b j e c t o f " s e r " , w i t h a s u b s t a n t i v e , a d j e c t i v e , o r adverb: "de d a r e q u i t a r e l es e l f a c e d o r " , ( F e r n . G l e z . , 4 4 1 ) ; "Venida es l a hora de p r e n d e r l a s o l d a d a " , ( M i l de N t r a . S r a . , 1 3 6 ) . S i m i l a r l y , i t may i n t r o d u c e an i n f i n i t i v e w h i c h i s t h e p r e d i c a t e o f t h e c o p u l a : "pensemos de y r n u e s t r a v i a , e s t o sea de v a g a r " , ( G i d , 3&); "La obra d e l p a l a c i o non es de o l v i d a r " , ( L i b . de A l e x . , 1956). 2) I t may govern an i n f i n i t i v e used as a d i r e c t o b j e c t o f v e r b s such as comencar, empecar, c e s a r , prometer: "moros e moras - compeparon de l l o r a r " ,  ( G i d , 8 5 6 ) ; " j u n t o s con sus  mesnadas - compepos l a s de l e g r a r " , ( I b i d ,  1083).  3) S i m i l a r t o t h i s , H e s c o t t s a y s , i s t h e use o f "de" p l u s i n f i n i t i v e t o e x p r e s s a n o n - a b s o l u t e i d e a , used w i t h v e r b s such as t h o s e mentioned  i n 2 ) , and w i t h . o t h e r s l i k e p e n s a r , asmar,  dudar, f i n c a r , d e x a r , e t c .  " B e a r d s l e y l a l l a m a *de r e l a t i v a * ,  58 he t e l l s u s , and "Menendez P i d a l d i c e que t i e n e e l s e n t i d o i n c e p t i v o de d i s p o n e r s e a u ocuparse en"9: " S u e l t a n l a s r i e n das e p i e n s s a n de a g u i j a r " , ( C i d , 16) ; "e l o s mediados g a l l o s p i e n s a n de c a v a l g a r " , ( I b i d , 3 2 5 ) . 4) I t can be used w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e  t o express  cause,  means, and s e p a r a t i o n : " p o r amor de a c a b a r l o non se p o d i a d a r v a g a r " , ( F e r n . G l e z . 3 8 5 ) ; "Nos f a r t a n de c a t a r l e quantos ha en l a c o r t " , ( C i d , 3406); " e l abbat don Sancho t o r n a n de c a s tigar",  (Cid, 384).  5) The c o n s t r u c t i o n can m o d i f y a s u b s t a n t i v e : "En l o s d i a s de v a g a r " , ( C i d , 2963). 6) I t i s used w i t h aver.(modern " t e n e r " ) p l u s a  substan-  t i v e , i n d i c a t i n g d e s i r e , f e a r , e t c . : " v i n i e s s e a mio p i d que a s a b o r de c a v a l g a r " , ( C i d , 1190). 7) The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f de_ p l u s i n f i n i t i v e may a l s o m o d i f y an a d j e c t i v e : "Sabet que e s t a es una de l a s cosas d e l mundo rnas grave de poner so una r e g l a g e n e r a l " , ( L i b . E n f e n i d o , .125) . 8) Haber de-plus- the i n f i n i t i v e ' e x p r e s s e s  t h e same n e c e s -  s i t y o r f u t u r i t y as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h a b e r a: "en l a f e de don C r i s t o que avyan de creexj", ( F e r n . G l e z . , 1 4 ) ; "Para siempre jamas non l o s ha de p e r d e r " ,  ( L i b . de Buen Amor, 1 5 1 ) .  I n g e n e r a l , we can i n t e r p r e t t h e usage o f de w i t h t h e i n f i n i t i v e a s b e i n g t h e r e s u l t o f two c o n c e p t s ,  that of the  g e n i t i v e , and t h a t o f t e m p o r a l o r s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n , t h e l a t t e r  60 b e i n g , i n g e n e r a l , t h e c o n t r a r y o f a , w h i c h showed t e m p o r a l or s p a t i a l approach.  However, t h e element o f n e c e s s i t y o r  f u t u r i t y , a l s o shown by t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n would more r e a d i l y be e n v i s a g e d a s a d e r i v a t i o n from t h e L a t i n gerund o r g e r u n dive.  F o r example, i n number 1 ) , we can see a g e n i t i v e i d e a  i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , a g e r u n d i v e concept i n t h e second.  Now,  the i d e a o f n e c e s s i t y can a l s o be thought o f i n terms o f " p o s s e s s i o n " : when something i s n e c e s s a r y , i t b e l o n g s t o t h e absolute order of destiny or p r a c t i c a l i t y .  When something i s  c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i d e a o f f u t u r i t y , i t must l i k e w i s e form p a r t o f what i s t o come.  One might e a s i l y t h i n k o f s p e a k e r s " f e e l -  i n g " t h a t t h i s " b e l o n g i n g " r e q u i r e d some k i n d o f i d e n t i f i e r , and, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e c o n s t a n t i n f l u e n c e o f a n a l o g y , u n d e r t a k e u n c o n s c i o u s l y t o f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e by t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r g e n i t i v e marker, t h e p r e p o s i t i o n "de". When one t h i n k s o f something, t h e g e n i t i v e i d e a i s a g a i n clear.  However, what o f c o n c e p t s such a s d o u b t i n g , l e a v i n g ,  and p r o m i s i n g ?  When one doubts t h e e x i s t e n c e o f something,  one i s r e t r a c t i n g t h a t t h i n g from t h e r e a l m o f f a c t ; when one l e a v e s something, o r ceases t o do something, one i s removing o n e s e l f from t h a t concept and e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i g u r a t i v e  dis-  tance between o n e s e l f and t h a t i d e a ; when one promises t o do something, one i s f a i r l y e a s i l y a b l e t o v i s u a l i z e t h i s a c t a s a v o l u n t a r y s u r r e n d e r o f one's freedom o f c h o i c e t o do o t h e r w i s e , t h a t i s , one w i t h d r a w s o n e s e l f . f r o m t h e a r b i t r a r y . A l l these may t h e r e f o r e be e x p r e s s e d b y t h e concept o f de, s i g n i f y i n g "away from".  61 The  cause and means o f number 4)  genitive idea.  are again c l e a r l y a  The s e p a r a t i o n concept o f t h e same number i s ,  n a t u r a l l y enough, an example o f f i g u r a t i v e r e t r a c t i o n .  Both,  t h e r e f o r e , use de w i t h o u t p r e s e n t i n g a problem o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c h o i c e o f p r e p o s i t i o n .  The case o f number 5),  obviously,  i s t h a t o f a n o t h e r k i n d o f g e n i t i v e , t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  with  t h a t p r e p o s i t i o n w h i c h e x p r e s s e s t h i s concept.  The same i s  t r u e o f number 6).  can once more  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f number 7)  be couched i n terms o f c o n t i n u i n g a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Whereas i n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n , o n l y c e r t a i n a d j e c t i v e s r e g u l a r l y governed t h e g e n i t i v e c a s e , l a t e r usage p e r m i t t e d  the g e n i t i v e  w i t h a g r e a t number o f them, t h u s p r o v i d i n g t h e framework o f meaning and u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h l e d t o  verb+de+infinitive.1°  IV• The p r e p o s i t i o n "en". H e s c o t t t e l l s us t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n verb+en+infinitive  c a r r i e s t h e same meaning a s would  the c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t t h e p r e p o s i t i o n .  B u t , he says  t h a t i t answers t h e q u e s t i o n s where? and how? w i t h v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s , errados",  "que siempre t e t r a b a i s en s a l v a r l o s  ( M i l . de N t r a . S r a . , 289);  "Ovyeron g r a n  en p a s a r a q u e l vado", ( F e r n . G l e z . , 356);  rrebato  "Senores, punad  en f a s e r buerias o b r a s " , (La Danza.de l a M u e r t e , 41);  "en  v i s i t a r enfermos non e r a enbargado", (Santo Domingo, 116) . 1  I f t h e meaning o f t h e phrase were e x a c t l y t h e same w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e p r e p o s i t i o n , and i f a t t h e time t h a t t h i s cons t r u c t i o n - t h a t u s i n g en - became a c c e p t e d , no d i f f e r e n c e were t o be imputed by t h e s p e a k e r s , does i t r e a l l y seem l i k e l y  62 t h a t t h e y would have e v o l v e d place?  the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the  first  I s i t not more l i k e l y t h a t the o r i g i n a l i d e a o f the  p r e p o s i t i o n IN - b o t h t h a t o f IN p l u s a c c u s a t i v e and  IN  plus  a b l a t i v e - was  s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d i n the minds o f the s p e a k e r s ?  The f i g u r a t i v e  i d e a o f p l a c e w i t h i n o r movement i n t o , as w e l l  as the o c c a s i o n a l l i t e r a l one locution,  contained  i s e a s i l y recognizable.  t i o n s - how  and where - ,1s r e a d i l y  The  i n the meaning o f the a n s w e r i n g o f b o t h ques-  conceived  i n terms o f  A n d thus i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o assume a g a i n  "place".  t h a t the " f e e l i n g " t h a t the s p e a k e r s had f o r t h e i r language, especially  s i n c e t h i s language was  s t a t e o f f l u x , was  still  in a  considerable  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development o f t h i s con-  struction. V. The  p r e p o s i t i o n " p a r a " , o r "pora", and  the p r e p o s i t i o n "por".  Both p r e p o s i t i o n s , when used w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e , the i d e a o f purpose. usar",  express  "Pero, s i l a s q u e r i a para con  ( L i b . de Buen Amor, 48); "Vos  f u e r a d e s pora  e yo pora m o r i r maest", ( C a n t a r de R o n c e s v a l l e s , rando l a s t i e r r a s para sembrar pan", 223)5 "Los  que  "ar-  (La Danza de l a Muerte,  "Cruzaronse romeros por i r en  ( M i l . De N t r a . S r a . , 102);  bivir,  89);  son por v e n i r p l a z r a l i s de o i l l a " ,  N t r a . S r a . , 215);  ellas  ( M i l . de  ultramar",  " e s t a s se adoban por i r con e l  Canpeador", ( C i d , ,1997) . Once a g a i n , the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a meaning and a concept appears r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development o f t h i s Both PER  and PRO,  construction.  w h i c h are the etymon o f b o t h por and  para,  63 i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r l i t e r a l o r f i g u r a t i v e purpose, even when e x p r e s s e d by t h e i d e a o f " t h r o u g h " .  Since the l a t t e r L a t i n  p r e p o s i t i o n - w h i c h c a r r i e d much emphasis o f purpose f i g u r a t i v e d i r e c t i o n - was  and  the more i m p o r t a n t i n the d e r i v a -  t i o n o f the' S p a n i s h p r e p o s i t i o n s , the r e s u l t a n t  conceptuali-  z a t i o n o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s even more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . V I . The p r e p o s i t i o n " s i n " .  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the l a c k o f r e a l i -  z a t i o n o f the a c t i o n o f the i n f i n i t i v e w h i c h i t precedes: "Non ay syn noche d i a , n i n s e g a r syn sembrar, n i n ' r e y r s i n llor|.r"/Sem. Tob.,  156).  No d i s c r e p a n c y o c c u r s h e r e , e i t h e r .  The i d e a c a r r i e d t h r o u g h  from t h a t o f SINE remains c o n s t a n t .  The e x p r e s s i o n i s c l e a r ,  and the meaning i s conveyed; *the c o n s t r u c t i o n ' s  origin is  s u r e l y e a s i l y envisaged. A f i n a l note t o be t a k e n i s t h a t i n a l l t h e s e cases shown, the i n f i n i t i v e , has o b v i o u s l y been thought o f as a and has behaved a c c o r d i n g l y . and n a t u r a l t o be o f w o r t h . ter  I,  substantive,  T h i s might w e l l seem t o o o b v i o u s However, as we have seen i n Chap-  t h i s i s not the case.  An i n f i n i t i v e  does not a l -  ways f u n c t i o n i n a f a s h i o n i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f a  substantive.  64 The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t h u s f a r might seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y two c r i t e r i a need be c o n s i d e r e d t o determine t h e reasons f o r t h e development o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  verb+prepo-  s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e : t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e and i t s meaning, and t h e i d e n t i t y and meaning o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n , i n terms, o f c o u r s e , o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between t h e s e two.  T h i s , however, would be t o l e a v e o u t t h e t h i r d  control-  l i n g v a r i a b l e , the i n i t i a l verb o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o which o n l y i n d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s chapter.  L e t us now f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h i s element, and  t r y b e t t e r t o r e a l i z e i t s importance. F o l l o w i n g i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e uses o f v e r b s w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s and i n f i n i t i v e s i n O l d S p a n i s h , from t h e p o i n t of view o f s e e i n g w h i c h v e r b s governed w h i c h p r e p o s i t i o n s . H Some two hundred  examples have been found i n f o u r main s o u r c e s ,  and t h e y c o v e r , i n g e n e r a l , t h e p e r i o d o f time from t h e t e n t h through t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .  The f i r s t • i s t h e s e c t i o n  d e s i g n a t e d Documentos C a s t e l l a n o s , a s found i n Menendez './ P i d a l ' s C r e s t o m a t f a d e l e s p a n o l m e d i e v a l , Tomo I.12  The i d e n -  t i f i c a t i o n o f these q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be t h e number 1,  indicating  1  t h i s s e c t i o n , folloxved by t h e number c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e subs e c t i o n , a s l i s t e d w i t h i n t h e Grestomatxa, number.  The s u b - s e c t i o n s comprise t h e f o l l o w i n g documents:13  1) A n o 921  2)  f o l l o w e d by t h e l i n e  Afio  - Cardena  (Burgos)  937 - Cardena .  3) A n o 939 - V a l p u e s t a , p a r t . j u d . de V i l l a r c a y o  4)  Afio  967 - C a s t i l l a d e l Norte  (Burgos)  65 5)  Afio  971 - Ibeas de J u a r r o s (Burgos)  6) Ano 978 - C o v a r r u b i a s (Burgos) 7) Ano 993 - C a s t i l i a d e l Norte 8) Afio 1011 - V a l p u e s t a , p a r t . j u d . de V i l l a r c a y o 9) H a c i a e l ano 1030 - C l u n i a o Coruna d e l Conde 10) Afio 1039 - V a l p u e s t a j p a r t . j u d . de V i l l a r c a y o  (Burgos) (Burgos) (Burgos)  11) Afio 10ZJ.4 - San M i l l a n de l a C o g o l l a , p a r t , de N a j e r a , (Logrono) 12) Afio 1047 - Santona 13) Afio IO63 - Ona  (Santander)  (N. de  Burgos)  A l l t h e s e , t h e n , a r e C a s t i ' . l i a n documents, and a r e t h u s most r e l e v a n t t o our s t u d y .  The second s o u r c e i s the e d i t i o n o f  the C i d , a l s o found i n t h e same Crestomatfa- ^• 1  This w i l l  be  i d e n t i f i e d by the i n i t i a l number 2, f o l l o w e d by the l i n e number. The t h i r d s o u r c e i s t h e Generaciones y Semblanzas, e d i t i o n o f R.B.  the  critical  Tate- -^, w i t h q u o t a t i o n s t a k e n from t h e s e c t i o n s 1  c o m p r i s i n g pages 1 t h r o u g h 13.  These w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d by  the r e f e r e n c e Tate, f o l l o w e d by the page and l i n e number.  The  f o u r t h s o u r c e i s the P r o l o g o , and T i t o l I t h r o u g h IV o f L i b r o r  _ °f E l Fuero v i e .jo de C a s t i l l a . -  6  Those q u o t a t i o n s t a k e n  from t h i s source w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by the word Fuero,  fol-  lowed by the page number. I t i s recognized t h a t three d i f f e r e n t e d i t o r s are respons i b l e f o r the t e x t s chosen, and t h a t t h e many v a r i a n t s encount e r e d w i t h i n the m a n u s c r i p t s upon w h i c h t h e y based t h e i r e d i t i o n s , are often c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  However, f o r t h e purposes o f  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , no i m p o r t a n t problem s h o u l d a r i s e t h e r e f r o m .  66 I n most c a s e s , the use o f p r e p o s i t i o n s i s f a i r l y u n i f o r m , and the o c c a s i o n a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s w h i c h might a r i s e s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e the s t a t e o f f l u x w i t h i n the language during those c e n t u r i e s .  Furthermore, f o r our purposes, i t  i s i m p e r a t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h a base, and t h i s must be a r e c o g n i z e d e d i t i o n o f o l d t e x t s , s i n c e p a l e o g r a p h y i s n o t i n quest i o n here.  That i s t o say,, the "word" o f the e d i t o r has had  t o be a c c e p t e d v e r b a t i m , and h i s e f f o r t s a r b i t r a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d authoritative. The number o f t e x t s chosen, and the q u o t a t i o n s d i s c e r n e d from them^ i s n o t i n any way  i n t e n d e d t o be thorough o r com-  p r e h e n s i v e , but r a t h e r i l l u s t r a t i v e . number o f examples  Such a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l  could never purport t o c a t e g o r i c a l c o n c l u -  s i o n s ; however, v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t i o n s o f the l i n g u i s t i c  state  o f a f f a i r s o f the t i m e s can be g l e a n e d from such a s e l e c t i o n , , i n t h e same s o r t o f way as a random s a m p l i n g o f a community can p o i n t out o p i n i o n t r e n d s .  And-the e x i s t e n c e o f t r e n d s  towards t h e use o f v e r b + p r e p p s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e  constructions  i s r e a l l y the g i s t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . One f i n a l p o i n t : the graphy " f " has c o n s i s t e n t l y been t r a n s c r i b e d here as " s " ; the graphy Z n  " has been w r i t t e n "e";  the v e r b s a r e l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y - t h o s e w h i c h have e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e modern forms a r e shown under t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n , f o r example " a v e r " w i l l appear under "haber", " f a z e r " under " h a c e r " , e t c . , whereas v e r b s such as "compecar" a r e l i s t e d independently.  acogerse a c o i e n s e a andar de d i a e de noch (2,2690) adelinar a d e l i n a n a p o s a r 'pora f o l g a r e s s a noch (2,2857) apartarse  - ,  se a p a r t a v a a v e r sus .fechos ( T a t e , 6, 8) a t e n d e r (modern meaning -" e s p e r a r ) non deve a t e n d e r a pagar, n i n a d e j a r penos a l t e r c e r d i a ( F u e r o , 10) ayudar f a s t a 4uel*ayuden a ganar s e n o r (Fuero 13) e Ruego a s a n Peydro que me ayude a Rogar (2,363) bastar b a s t a r a d e z i r t a n t o que... ( T a t e , 11, 7) menos seso e e s f u e r c o l e s b a s t a para r e g i r ( T a t e , 5> 26) cansar canssados son de f e r i r e l l o s amos a dos (2,2745) comenzar comenzd a r e i n a r ( T a t e , 5.11) compepar l a sena t i e n e en mano, conpecd de e s p o l o n a r (2,705) E s s o r a l e s conpiepan a d a r ( l o s ) ; y f a n t e s de C a r r i o n  (2,2735)  c u r a r (modern meaning - c u i d a r ) non euro de l o e s c r i v i r (Tate,11,19) dar s i e l Rey da a l g u n d c a s t i e l l o a t e n e r a a l g u n o (Fuero,6) deber non l a s deve d a r a ningund hombre (Fuero,4) c6mmo l o deuedes f a r (2,315)  68 en un espejo se deven m i r a r (Tate,10,11) non debent i b i pascere (1,11,11) debent r e f e r i r e (1,11,7) Non l a s deuieraos tomar p o r v a r r a g a n a s , s i non f ( o ) s s e m o s •Rogados (2,2759/60) debent u e n i r e ad u i l l a m e a c c i p e r e f i d i a t o r e m (1,11,5) J  ;  de.jar non se dexen governar..a o t r o s ( T a t e , 5,29) a l o s i u d i o s t e dexeste prender (2,347) entremeterse algunos que se entreraeten de e s c r i v i r e n o t a r l a s a n t i g u e d a d e s i (Tate,1,10) se entreraetan de t u r b a r (Tate,10,13) enviar devenle  i m b i a r a d e c i r . . .que ;.. (Fuero,17) ;  e l r e y enbio a l a s o c o r r e r a s u c o n d e s t a b l e imbianvos p e d i r merced  (Tate,7,10)  (Fuero,l6)  escribir Por l o s c o n p l a z e r e l i s o n j a r o p o r temor de l o s e n o j a r , e s c r i v e n mas... (Tate,2,20) esperar non deve a t e n d e r a p a g a r . . . n i n e s p e r a r de q u i t a r l o s ( F u e r o , l l ) estar devel'estar a amistat  (Fuero,25)  grave s e r i a grave de c r e r ( T a t e , 6 , l 8 ) cosas muy grandes e graves de c r e r ( T a t e , 1,13). haber quando muere e l v a s a l l o . . . a a d a r a suo Senor... ( F u e r o , l l ) a l a d a r t r e i n t a d i a s (Fuero,14) se a v i e r a d e s l i n d a r (Fuero,23) e c o n s e i a r o n l e en toda l a C o r t e , que l o a v i a a f a c e r (Fuero,8) a s s i l o an todos ha f a r (2,322) o u i e r o n ( t ) e a l a u d a r e (2.335) en e l monumento ( o v i s t e a) R e s u p i t ( a r ) (2,358) E quando o v i e r e l R i c o orae a s a l i r (Fuero,14) e a a t o m a r l a a m i s t a t (Fuero,25) T  69 ...e  de l o que ha de a v e r  e l Sefior d e l v a s a l l o p o r N u n c i o (Fuero,11) e s t o s c a v a l l o s , que e l a v i a de a v e r ( F u e r o , 1 2 ) mucho aueraos de a n d a r (2,321) l a v i l l a f u e t a n t o a q u e x a d a que s e ovo de a p l a z a r ( T a t e , 7 , 2 1 ) v o l u n t a d i^ue e l a v i a de c o n t i n u a r ( T a t e , 1 2 , 1 9 ) q u e l * a n de f a c e r d e r e c h o ( F u e r o , 2 6 ) que non a y a de f a c e r e l Rey pecho ( F u e r o , 5 ) e a l o de m o s t r a r a F i j o s d a l g o ( F u e r o , 2 4 ) c a d a uno a v i a de r e g i r ( T a t e , 1 1 , 2 2 ) como a de v e n i r e l de l a B e h e t r i a ( F u e r o , 1 0 ) l a s manos s e ouo de u n t a r (2,354) e e l S e n o r non l e a que demandar  (Fuero,11)  hacer l a poca conversacidm f a z e a l . p r x c i p e s e r temido (Tate.6,1) ^uando o y n o s p a r t i m o s , en v i d a n o s f a z i u n t a r (2,365) f a g o v o s s a v e r que... ( F u e r o , 2 1 ) ir deben i r c o n e l a g u a r d a r l e ( F u e r o , 1 3 ) e y r e a l a c o r t e n a n t e s de y a n t a r (2,3051) E l C i d a dona Ximena 'yuala a b r a c a r (2,368) ...a D i o s s e ( f o ) acomendar (2,411) dona Ximena a l p i d l a manol v a b e s a r (2,369) E l Rey don A l f o n s s o :• a T o l l e d o v a e n t r a r (2,3053) y u a n l o s f e r i r de f u e r t e s c o r a p o n e s (2,718) Vo m e t e r l a u u e s t r a s e n a e n aque11a mayor a z (2,707) s o b r e Nauas de P a l o s e l Duero u a p a s s a r (2,401) l a manol b a n b e s a r (2,298) a l a F i g u e r u e l a myo p i d i u a p o s a r (2,402) A l a s i e r r a de H i e d e s e l l o s y u a n p o s a r (2,415) hyua R e p e b i r a don E l u i r a e a dona S o l (2,2817) a l a l m o f a l l a s e u a n t o r n a r (2,694) l a c a l p a d a de g u i n e a y u a l a t r a s p a s s a r (2,400) M i n a y a ua u e e r s u e s p r i m a s do s o n (2,2858). mandar Con a q u e s t o s p i e n t o que a d o b a r mandd (2,3101) mandan f i n c a r l a t i e n d a y f a n t e s de C a r r i 6 n (2,2701) mando j u n t a r t o d a s s u s g e h t e s ( T a t e , 8 , 1 9 ) que e l mando m a t a r ( F u e r o , 2 3 ) e r e x G a r s i a mandauit peggare, e serna a p r e c i a r e e peggare  (1,11,23) m a n d a r o n l e y r a d e l a n t e (2,276,6) a s o s c a u a l l e r o s mand6los t o d o s i u n t a r (2,312) Mandaron c a r g a r l a s a z e m i l a s c o n a u e r e s (2,2705) mandedes e n s e l l a r (2,317) M a n d 6 f a z e r c a n d e l a s y p o n e r en e l a l t a r (2,3055) 1  70 Mando e l Rey a myo Cid' (a) a g u a r d a r (2,308) necesario n e c e s a r i o es de s e r muy r i c o (Tate,6,14) osar Non uos o s a r i e m o s a b r i r n i n coger p o r nada (2,44) conbidar...mas ninguno non osaua (2,21) ca n o l osan d e z i r nada (2,30) non l e o s a r i e n uender a l menos d i n a r a d a (2,64) pensar A l i i " p i e n s s a n de a g u i i a r (2,10) d e z i l d e s que prendan R a s t r o . y p i e n s s e n de andar (2,389) pense* de e s c r i v i r (Tate,^,5) pensemos de y r n u e s t r a v x a , e s t o sea de v a g a r (2,380) p i e n s s a n de a n d a r (2,391) O t r o d i a manana p i e n s s a de c a u a l g a r (2,394) Myo p i d eon l o s sos v a s s a l l o s pensso de c a u a l g a r (2,376) penssemos de c a u a l g a r (2,320) O t r o d i a manana p i e n s s a n de c a u a l g a r (2,413) a l o s mediados g a l l o s p i e n s s a n de e n s e l l a r (2,324) Penssad, sefior, de e n t r a r en. l a pibdad (2,3046) placer a mas l e s p l a z e r e l a t a r cosas e s t r a f i a s (Tate,1,11) poder Ca en yermo o en poblado podernos han a l c a n p a r (2,390) nos l a s pueden camear ca e l p i d b i e n l a s connospe (2,3183) l a u t i l i d a d e provecho que d e l l o se l e s p o d i a s e g u i r (Tate,2,8) se puede l l a m a r t r u f a (Tate,1,17) N o l pueden c a t a r de yerguenpa y f a n t e s de C a r r i o n (2,3126) q u i l o s p o d r i e c o n t a r (2,699) t a n t o son de t r a s p u e s t a s que nada d e z i r non pouden (2,2784) A q u e l Pero Vermudoz non l o pudo e n d u r a r (2,704) non p o d r i e e s c a p a r (2,310) d a n l e grandes c o l p e s , mas n o l pueden f a l s s a r (2,713) Hya non pueden f a b l a r (2,2747) a l g u n b i e n uos pueda f a r (2,302) Buen casamiento p e r d i e s t e s , m e i o r podredes ganar (2.2867) No l o podemos n e g a r , ca dos espadas nos d i o (2,3172) e l o s p o d r i e p e r d e r (Fuero,6) en s u t i e r r a l p u d i e s tomar (2,309) iiun veamos e l d i a que vos podamos vengar (2,2868) que a v i a poder de esaminar (Tate,1,20)  71 querer s i a l g u n d R i c o ; ome.. .se q'uier e s p e d i r d e l e de non s e r suo v a s a l l o (Fuero,12) e t non q u e s i e r u n t y n f a n t j o n e s d e S p e l i a suo mandato f a c e r e . (1,9,10) non l o q u i s i e r o n f a z e r (Tate,7,27) nunca e l l o q u i s o f a z e r (Tate,9,31) d'aquesta g u i s a q u i e r o y r a l a c o r t (2,3078) Nos q u i s o l e u a n t a r e l Grespo de Grandn (2,3112) comigo non q u i s i e r o n a u e r nada y p e r d i e r o n mi amor (2,3157) ya q u e r i e n c a u a l g a r (2,367) s i a l g u n d R i c o ome...se q u i e r e s p e d i r d e l e de non s e r suo ^ v a s a l l o (Fuero,12) d£rgelas queremos d e l l a n t estando uos (2,3174) e q u i e r e n c r e b a r a l b o r e s (2,235) d a r uos q u i e r o u u e s t r a p a r t (2,314) d e p o r t a r se q u i e r e n con e l l a s a todo s u s a b o r (2,2711) l a noch q u e r i i e n t r a r (2,311) essa noch myo p i d T a i o non q u i s s o p a s s a r (2,3044) ante Roydo de atamores l a t i e r r a q u e r i d q u e b r a r (2,696) por t a l l o f a z e e s t o que Recabdar q u i e r e todo l o so (2,3098) todo ome, que se q u i s i e r s a l v a r (Fuero,9) no g e l o q u i s o tomar, mas mucho g e l o g r a d i d (2,2850) non l e s q u e r i e n t o r n a r p a l a b r a (2,21) retraerse se r e t r a e r i a n de f a z e r obras  (Tate,3,25)  saber toda n u e s t r a Rencura sabremos c o n t a r n o s (2.2862b) l o s c a s t e l l a n o s s u p i e r o n v e n e e r (Tate,12,9) salir R e c e b i r l o s s a l e (2,297) ser s i o t r o omo  f u e r a d e s a f i a r (Fuero,19)  a q u e l l a s que f u e s e n de enmendar (Fuero,2) e n t r e todas l a s v i r t u d e s l a s que mas f u e r o n e n . e l de l o a r f u e r o n . . . (Tate,9,19) Y i e n i e n d o a l a p r i m e r a , que es guardar f i d e l i d a d suficiente  '  e r a s u f i c i e n t e a r e g i r e governar  (Tate,5,25)  (Tate,11,1)  72 *temare p r o f e r r e t e m a u e r i (1,3,4) tener non son tenudos de i m b i a r l e mas ninguna cosa (Fuero,17) t o r n a r (modern meaning v o l v e r ) e t o r n a r o n s e a armar (2,695) E e l a l a s nirias t o r n o l a s a c a t a r t o r n o s a s o n r i s a r (2,298)  (2,371)  .  A l abbat don Sancho t o r n a n de c a s t i g a r  (2,383)  traba.jar t r a b a j a n l o s m a n i f i c o s r e y e s e p r x n c i p e s en f a z e r g u e r r a s . . . (Tate,3,9) usar maguer que e l Rey non use a p o s a r en e l l a (Fuero,8) usaban a n s i de d a r e l suo c a v a l l o (Fuero,12) venir non q u i s o v e n i r , a f a c e r l e derecho (Fuero,22) s i a l g u n d L a b r a d o r de F i j o d a l g o v e n i e r sb e l Rey a morar . . (Fuero,5) t r e s Reyes de A r a b i a t e v i n i e r o n a d o r a r e (2.336) e s t a t e r c e r a a Toledo l a v i n f e r oy (2,3131) v e n i d a c a s e e r comigo, Campeador (2,3114b) V i n o myo C i d y a z e r a S p i n a z de Can (2,393) ver v e r i e d e s armarse moros, a p r i e s s a e n t r a r en az (2,697) v^uando l o v i e r o n e n t r a r a l que en buen o r a n a p i d (2,3107) S i v i e r e d e s y e n t e s v e n i r p o r connusco y r , abbat (2,3$$) , V x o l o s v e n i r e o d i d una Razdn (2,2772) f a s t a que v i e s s e v e n i r sus primas amas a dos (2,2770) V e r i e d e s t a n t a s l a n c a s premer e a l p a r , t a n t a adagara f o r a d a r e p a s s a r , t a n t a l o r i g a f a l s s a r e desmanchar, t a n t o s pendones b l a n c o s s a l i r vermejos en s a n g r e , t a n t o s buenos c a u a l l o s s i n sos duenos a n d a r (2,276-80) ^volere legamenta i n e r v a r e v o l v e r i t  (1,1,4)  v o l u n t a d (as i n d i c a t i o n o f * v o l e r e )  73 a v i a grande v o l u n t a d de h o r d e n a r s u f a z i e n d a  (Tate,6,3)  Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the above s e t o f examples a r e the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s .  The  v e r b compepar i s shown b o t h w i t h  the p r e p o s i t i o n a' and the p r e p o s i t i o n de, whereas i t s cognate comenzar o n l y w i t h a, and the modern v e r b empezar i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a as w e l l .  One  might a l s o mention t h a t the F r e n c h  cognate, commencer. n o r m a l l y t a k e s the p r e p o s i t i o n a, an a m b i v a l e n c e s i m i l a r t o t h a t w i t n e s s e d i s now  w i t h i n Old S p a n i s h  o c c u r r i n g i n F r e n c h , w i t h the c o n s t r u c t commencer de  becoming f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d . one  although  When one b e g i n s t o do something,  i s f i g u r a t i v e l y a p p r o a c h i n g i t - a concept e x p r e s s e d  the p r e p o s i t i o n a r a t h e r t h a n de, and was the mind o f the s p e a k e r s .  The  by  l i k e l y foremost i n  o c c u r r e n c e o f the de  construc-  t i o n i s most p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f a n a l o g y and the commonness o f t h a t l o c u t i o n , as mentioned e a r l i e r ; i t i s w o r t h y o f note t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r a c c e p t a b l e  in  Spanish.  A s i m i l a r i d e a would be s u r m i s e d t o e x p l a i n the °f e n v i a r a, of w h i c h two  examples a r e q u o t e d .  The  incidence construc-  t i o n of e n v i a r plus i n f i n i t i v e  without  p r e p o s i t i o n would  tend  t o i n d i c a t e two t h i n g s : i t was  f e l t t h a t the i d e a o f d i r e c t i o n  was  t o o remote t o e f f e c t r e t e n t i o n o f the a, and t h a t meaning  did  not change, nor was  c o n f u s i o n caused, as i s p r e s e n t l y the  case i n the n o - p r e p o s i t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the modern language. I l l u s t r a t i o n s are shown f o r a l l t h r e e c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h the v e r b haber: use o f a, use o f de, and use o f que.  An  ex-  p l a n a t i o n f o r these l o c u t i o n s has a l r e a d y been s u g g e s t e d above.  74 But n o t e t h a t w i t h t h e v e r b i r , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t the p r e p o s i t i o n a i s much more' commonly e n c o u n t e r e d t h a n t h a t of t h e modern language. , I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e old  c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h a t o f modern F r e n c h , w h i c h l i k e w i s e  s a y s a l l e r f a i r e quelque chose, w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e tion.  to a preposi-  However, t h e c o n t r a s t i n g case o f mandar shows g r e a t e r  a f f i n i t y w i t h modern S p a n i s h .  Once more, t h e i d e a o f d i r e c t i o n  l o s e s ground a s a c o n s c i o u s c o n c e p t , and f i n a l l y w h i l e w i t h i r , t h i s i d e a remained c o n s t a n t c l u d i n g the l o s s of the p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n  disappears,  and p o w e r f u l ,  pre-  the.construction.  The usage o f pensar de c a r r i e s t h e i d e a o f t h e g e n i t i v e . However, t h e modern d i s t i n c t i o n between pensar de and pensar en would seem a r e s u l t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t u a l  distinction.  When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e commission o f an a c t - t h a t i s , b e i n g about t o c a r r y i t o u t , r a t h e r t h a n r u m i n a t i n g  upon i t - t h e  i d e a o f p r o c e d i n g towards i t and e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t a c t w i t h i t i s a f a c i l e one.  Thus, en, d e r i v i n g from IN p l u s  accusative,  was a l o g i c a l semantic c h o i c e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s concept f r o m t h a t o f i n d i c a t i n g what t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e " p e n s a r " a c t u a l l y are. I n t h e case o f poder, t h e l a s t example i s i n c l u d e d m e r e l y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t when t h e i n f i n i t i v e i s used s u b s t a n t i v e l y , i t r e q u i r e s a g e n i t i v e concept t o f o l l o w , a g a i n f o r t h e purposes of q u a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n , whereas when t h e i n f i n i t i v e i s used v e r b a l l y , a s i n t h e o t h e r examples, no p r e p o s i t i o n a l f o r c e was ever f e l t . The f i r s t and l a s t examples o f t h e use o f q u e r e r a r e t h e  75 same q u o t a t i o n ; b u t t h e r e p e t i t i o n i s t o emphasize t h a t i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e p r e p o s i t i o n d_e i n t r o d u c e s t h e second i n f i n i t i v e , s e r , whereas t h e second i n s t a n c e i s i n a c c o r d w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r examples, showing no p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t h e i n f i n i t i v e espedir.  The use o f t h e de i n t h e one case was l i k e l y  caused by an e r r o r o f a t t r a c t i o n from t h e " d e l " * s p r e c e d i n g , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a use j u s t i f i a b l e  by meaning.  The examples o f s e r p l u s a, s e r p l u s de., and s e r p l u s the i n f i n i t i v e a l o n e , a r e most l i k e l y analogous t o t h e t h r e e usages o f haber, e x c e p t i n g t h e l a s t case, i n w h i c h p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning i s f e l t when t h e i n f i n i t i v e guardar  i s used a s  the s u b j e c t i v e complementjof t h e c o p u l a . S i n c e when one does something a g a i n , one " r e t u r n s t o do i t " , a s i s t h e l i t e r a l meaning o f t o r n a r ( o r modern v o l v e r ) , the use o f a b e f o r e t h e i n f i n i t i v e i s most r e a s o n a b l e and i t i s a l m o s t  indeed,  c e r t a i n t h a t t h e p r e p o s i t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y  employed t o convey a t h e n v e r y n e c e s s a r y meaning, and has been k e p t t o t h i s day.  The c o n t r a s t i n g t o r n a r de most proba-  b l y o c c u r r e d through a n a l o g y t o t h e common usage o f t h i s p r e p o s i t i o n a t the time,  i i n analogous e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be s u r -  mised f o r t h e c o n f l i c t i n g usage o f u s a r , s i n c e when one i s accustomed t o something, one i n c r e a s e s one*s p r o x i m i t y t o i t , figuratively  speaking.  The use o f v e r p l u s an i n f i n i t i v e i s , i n one sense, t h e same t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a s those g o i n g b e f o r e .  However, i t  must be a d m i t t e d t h a t i n some way, t h e " d e e p - s t r u c t u r e " meaning i s of a d i f f e r e n t category;  The i n f i n i t i v e f o l l o w i n g v e r  76 must n e c e s s a r i l y be the d i r e c t o b j e c t o f the v e r b , and mustshow i t s own s u b j e c t .  An i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n w i l l o c c u r f o r  t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s w h i c h e x p r e s s the r e c e i p t o f a s e n s o r y a c t i o n , f o r example, o f r , o r s e n t i r .  AS  mentioned i n i t i a l l y , t h e f o r e g o i n g does n o t p r e t e n d  to be a comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f o l d usage, n o r does i t p u r p o r t t o e x p l a i n t h o r o u g h l y the r e a s o n s f o r t h e growth o f t h i s usage.  R a t h e r , i t i s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e as an  illustra-  t i o n o f b o t h , and an i n d i c a t i o n o f how t h e t o p i c can be approached, n o t from a s t r i c t l y d i a c h r o n i c , o b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t , but from one i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s sense and 7  ing  feel-  f o r h i s own language would have appeared t o p l a y a major  r o l e , and i n w h i c h i d e a s - the p r e p o s i t i o n a l concept i n p a r t i c u l a r - a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r word and s t r u c t u r e c h o i c e , and i f and when t h i s i d e a i s no l o n g e r f e l t , the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o change as w e l l .  CHAPTER I I I - FOOTNOTES 1) H e s c o t t , p. 37 2) I b i d , pps. 37/38. The r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e m a n u s c r i p t s a r e h i s , and a r e i d e n t i f i e d on pps. 3$/39 °f H e s c o t t . 3) " P o r medio de e s t e g i r o se expresa l a f a l t a de c u m p l i m i e n t o de a c c i d n d e l i n f i n i t i v o . Ya eso es c a r a c t e r i s t i c o d e l p r o p i o e s p a r t o l . " H e s c o t t , p. 37.. 4) The m a t e r i a l i s adapted from H e s c o t t , pp. 77 e t seq.; t h e uses o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s and t h e q u o t a t i o n s c i t e d are. h i s , and a r e i d e n t i f i e d on h i s p. 85. 5) "Se uso mucho e l a c u s a t i v o como complemento de v e r b o s t r a n s i t i v o s : Unctionem hanc u t e b i s . Y P e t r o n i o e s c r i b e : P e r suadeam t e (por t i b i ) • . . ( E ) l d a t i v o se c o n s e r v d ma's tiempo que e l g e n i t i v o . S i n embargo, ya desde PLAUTO se t i e n d e a • s u s t i t u i r l o p o r e l a c u s a t i v o con ad: AD me magna n u n t i a v i t . . . D e t r a s de l o s v e r b o s de movimiento se ponia~ad o i n con a c u s a t i v o : Eamus IN forum." S i n t a c t i c a , pps. 18/11?. 6) A l l e n ,  p. 291  7) A S c i t e d by H e s c o t t , p. 79,  (23).  8) Lenz, R., La O r a c i d n y sus p a r t e s , Centro h i s t d r i c o s , M a d r i d , 1935., p. 403.  de E s t u d i o s  Compare a s w e l l t h e r e l a t i v e n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y o f " a " t o "de", a s seen i n C h a p t e r I Y , page 96. 9) H e s c o t t , p. 80. 10) "The p o e t s and l a t e r w r i t e r s use t h e g e n i t i v e w i t h a l m o s t any a d j e c t i v e t o denote t h a t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h t h e quality exists (Genitive of s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) : -""Callidus r e i m i l i t a r i s " , "pauper aquae", "notus a n i m i p a t e r n i " , " f e s s i rerum", " i n t e g e r v i t a e s c e l e r i s q u e purus". The G e n i t i v e o f S p e c i f i c a t i o n i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a d j e c t i v e r e q u i r i n g an o b j e c t o f r e f e r e n c e , (those) d e n o t i n g d e s i r e , knowledge, memory, f u l n e s s , power, s h a r i n g , g u i l t , and t h e i r o p p o s i t e s . . . " A l l e n , pps. 216/17. 11)  A number o f v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e s have a l s o been i n c l u d e d , since the construction- v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e i s analogous t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n verb+prepositidn+inf i n i t i v e , w i t h w h i c h we a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned. A v e r y t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s i s s u e can be found i n B e a r d s l e y , W.A., I n f i n i t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n s i n O l d S p a n i s h , A M S P r e s s I n c . , New-York, .1966. Dr. B e a r d s l e y has made a comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o b o t h t h e documented usages o f v e r b p l u s p r e p o s i t i o n p l u s i n f i n i t i v e , and t h e r e l a t i v e  78 frequency of these occurrences. I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d out, however, t h a t a l t h o u g h h i s s t i p u l a t e d i n t e n t i s t o " s e r v e n o t o n l y as a s y s t e m a t i c r e c o r d o f t h e f a c t s i n t h e case, but a l s o and e s p e c i a l l y as an a i d i n the comprehension of modern phenomena i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r o r i g i n and h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s " ( p . x i ) , and a l t h o u g h i t would seem t h a t he has d e f i n i t e l y r e a l i z e d h i s aim, he a l s o i s concerned w i t h t h e "what" r a t h e r t h a n t h e "why". He does n o t r e a l l y attempt t o a s c e r t a i n the semantic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r other p o s s i b l e reasons i n t h e minds o f t h e p e o p l e , w h i c h would have l e d t o t h e k i n d o f l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n p r o d u c i n g t h e various l o c u t i o n s evidenced. 12) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum. 13) Men. P i d a l , pps. 12 e t s e q . 14) I b i d , pps. 32-50. 15) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum. 16) See B i b l i o g r a p h y , sub verbum.  CHAPTER. IV H a v i n g l o o k e d b r i e f l y a t v a r i o u s usages o f v e r b s w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n p l u s i n f i n i t i v e i n t h e o l d e r f o r m o f t h e language, l e t us now c o n s i d e r t h e s i t u a t i o n o f modern S p a n i s h , and attempt t o a n a l y s e o u r f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e c o n t r a s t . The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h e form o f a paradigm, upon w h i c h some d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  follow.  The t a b l e a t t e m p t s t o i l l u s t r a t e a v a r i e t y o f p o i n t s , 1 a r r a n g e d i n f o u r major s e c t i o n s , each c o n t a i n i n g f o u r  columns.  The s e c t i o n s show r e s p e c t i v e l y , v e r b s w h i c h n o r m a l l y t a k e t h e p r e p o s i t i o n " a " , t h o s e w h i c h r e q u i r e "de", t h o s e f o l l o w e d by some o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n - "con", "en", " p a r a " , " s i n " , o r "sobr.e", o r by "que" - and those w h i c h govern an i n f i n i t i v e  directly,  w i t h o u t t h e use o f a p r e p o s i t i o n . The l e f t - h a n d column shows t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x i n herent w i t h i n the verb.  This information w i l l serve t o point  out some c o n t r a s t s w h i c h "occur when a p r e f i x d e r i v i n g from one c a t e g o r y o f p r e p o s i t i o n , forms p a r t o f a v e r b w h i c h uses a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e ; i t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s a n o t h e r use o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s w h i c h has s u r v i v e d i n a d i f f e r e n t environment from t h a t o f t h e independent preposition.  F o r t h e purpose o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h i s c o n t r a s t , t h e  p r e f i x e s w i l l n o r m a l l y be shown i n t h e f o r m o f t h e S p a n i s h p r e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e y have become, and w i l l appear i n l o w e r case; e x c e p t i o n s a r e t h o s e w h i c h have no d i s t i n c t  derivative  i n t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l l e x i c o n o f t h e modern language, f o r example, OB, and AD> a t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m AB; t h e s e w i l l be w r i t t e n i n upper case.  80 The  second column g i v e s an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g  of  v e r b s r e q u i r i n g the p r e p o s i t i o n s p e c i f i e d a t the head of each s e c t i o n , l i s i n the p r e v i o u s  c h a p t e r , a few v e r b a l a d j e c -  t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d , i n o r d e r t o note analogous c o n s t r u c t i o n s of i n t e r e s t .  T h i s l i s t p r e t e n d s o n l y t o be exemplary: i t i s  not t o be viewed as a complete o r t h o r o u g h c o m p i l a t i o n o f Spanish  A great  grammar r e l a t i n g t o v e r b s and p r e p o s i t i o n s . 2  many more i n s t a n c e s might have been i n c l u d e d , but the number chosen s u f f i c e s f o r the purpose. t o the v e r b l i s t :  One  f i n a l point with  p r e p o s i t i o n s enclosed w i t h i n  regard  parentheses,  f o l l o w i n g the v e r b , i n d i c a t e a l t e r n a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , t o be found under the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n j an  (x) a l l u d i n g t o the  s e c t i o n o f v e r b s r e q u i r i n g no p r e p o s i t i o n . The  t h i r d column c o n s i s t s of e t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning  the v e r b s .  i n d i c a t i n g the  LATIN  Etymons shown are f o r the purpose o f to Spanish  composition  o f the words,  u s u a l l y with p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x p l u s r o o t word.  No a t t e m p t has=been made t o i l l u s t r a t e a l l  s t e p s i n the d e r i v a t i o n o f the S p a n i s h words, f o r which.one .v s h o u l d r e f e r t o Corominas, D i c c i o n a r i o , as i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . V e r b s whose p r e f i x c o n s i s t s o f a form o f the p r e p o s i t i o n DE t e n d t o m a i n t a i n the meaning o f the p r e p o s i t i o n i n the f i x , t h a t .is, e i t h e r i n i t s s t a t i c or k i n e t i c aspect r a t i o n or pseudo-genitive, However,- the c o m b i n a t i o n  pre-  of sepa-  f o r example d e c i d i r , depender.  .of DE and EX i n some way,  t o form a  p r e f i x , conveys the i d e a o f n e g a t i o n o r r e f u t a t i o n , f o r example d e s p r e n d e r s e , d i s c u l p a r s e .  The  p r e f i x IN- s i g n i f i e s  the  81 negation and  or r e f u t a t i o n o f the root  i s written  form  i n upper  case  t o which i t i s attached,  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the  IN > e n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s p o s i t i o n . The  fourth  whenever t h i s demonstrate Following analysis  column c o n t a i n s  word i s c o g n a t e  t h e many  the four  the French equivalents  ito t h e S p a n i s h - i n o r d e r  interesting contrasts  sections  o f the l i s t  which  will  be. a  o f t h e forms  cited.  these  as w e l l , ' examples o f v e r b a l  to  occur. statistical  Note:{In taking  prepositions  discussed tions  tables  are occasionally  lustrate  S i m i l a r l y , as  i n C h a p t e r I T , page 104-, some o f t h e v e r b a l  shown a r e f o l l o w e d  finitive.  cited.  adjectives  Both these  by a s u b s t a n t i v e  constructions  the development  rather  locu-  than an i n -  have been i n c l u d e d  to i l -  o f analogous usage i n the language.  82  TABLEI - VERBS- REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION "a" a AD AD XAD  AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD  abalanzarse abandonarse acoeder acercarsa acertar (cos) aconodarse acostumbrarse adelantarse adorar (en) aficionarse (de) agarrarse (de) agaardarse ajustarse alcanzar alentar (para) allanarse animarse antic iparse aplicarse aprender apresurarse arriesgar arrojarse asistir aspirar atinar atreverse autorizar (para) avenirse • aventurarse avezarse ayudar bastar (para) caer ceder  afcbalanzar c VjL. *BILANCIA Fr. < Frankish bandon (+a=AD) ACCEDERE < AD+CEDERE AD+G_)RCA AD+CERTIS+Basque influence AD+COHMODUS AD+CONSUETUDINE AD+DE+IK+AKTE ... AD+ORARE  AD+AFFICERE  a'abandonner £ acceder a s'accomoder de s'accoutuner a s'avancer vers adorer  AD+GARFA:, A 1  AD+Y/ARDON  AD+*JTJXTARE AD+*IHCALCARE *ALENITARE < AHHELARE AD+PLANUS AN IMA ANTICIPARE AD+PLICARE AD+PREHENDERE :  AD+PRSSSTJRA  AD+RESECARE AD+RUSSEUS ASSISTERE < AD+SISTERE ASPIRARE < AD+SPIRARE • DESTHAREtio(n"a^"orbv"aea ")pparent contradicAD+TRIBUERE SIBI *AUCTORICARE <. AUCTOR AD+VENIRE > ADVENTUS AD*VEHTURA AD+VITIUM ADJUTARE < AD+JDVARE •EASTARE CADERE CEDERE '  antic iper s'appliquer a. apprendre a, s'empresser de risquer de assister a aapirer a. autoriser. a. s'aventurer a aider a ceder a  COM COM CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON CON DE DE DE,EX,AD DE DE en en en EX EX EX EX  33 : cogerse COLLIGERE < CUM+LIGERE corneasar *COMINITHRE c con+INITIARE comparar (con) COMPARARE < CUM+PARARE comprometerse con+PROMITTERE! condenar con+DAMNARE confiar (en) •CONFIDAEE <: con+FIDERE conformarse (con) CONFORMARE < con+FORMA consagrarse CONSACRARE < SACRtT con3pirar con+SPIRARE contestar (x) CONTESTARI < TESTIGO continuar CONTINUARE contribuir CONTRUIBUERE convidar (para) •COHVITARE < IHVITARE+CONVIVI0H correr (de,con) CURRERE dar (con,en) DARE decidir(le) (porx ,: ) DECIDERE < DE+CAEDERE estar decidido c.f. decidir dedicarse DEDICARE < DE+DICARE < DICERE desafiar DE+EX+AD+FIDARE • destinar (para) DESTINARE deterninarle DETERHINARE < DE+TERMINU estar determinado(en) c.f„ determinar disponerse DEPONERE / des+poner echarse JACTARE eapezar. en+PIEZA ensenar HSIGNARE entrar (en) INTRARE er-viar INVIARE.<..iN+yiA. ••„•„ equivaler AEQ.UBS + VALERE esforzarse (para, EX +. FORTIA esperar (x)por)' S PER ARE '' exceder (de) EX + CEDERE excitar EXCI-TARE < EX +. CITARE exponerse EX -;- .PONERE forzar FORTIA ganar Gothic' *GANAH • estar hecho c.f. -hacer  connencer a, de comparer a condamner a confier a se conformer a se consacrer a. conspirer contimier a, de contribuer a) inviter a. courir donner sur decider de (-se etre decide a se dedier a defier de destiner a etre determine i H  II  -  i  commencer a., de enseigner a entrer dans envoyer. equi^aibix a.  s'efforcer de exciter a s'exposer a forcer a.  $4  IN. IN IN IN IN IN IN  humillarse impeler impulsar inoitar . inclinarse indueir inspirar invitar (para) ir jugar lanzarse limitarse llegar aandarle (x) meterse mirar necesario (para) negarse (x) obligar ofrecerse oler oponerse parar (de,en) parecerse (x) pasar (desin) persuadirse ponerse prepararse (para) prestarse presto (para) primero (en) principiar proceder propasarse propio (de,para) pronto (para) provocar f  PER PRAE PRAE : PRAE  PRO PRO  HUKILIARE /, HtJMILIS IMPELLERE <. IN +' PELLERE II-1PULSARE <; IN + PELIERE 111 . + . CITARE • KCLINARE <. IN + CLIN ARE IN + DUCERE IN + SPIRARE IN + VITARE IRE JOCARI LANCEARE < LANCEA LIMITARE i. LIMITE PLICARE r MANDARE MITTERE HIRARI NECESSARITJS < NE CESSE NEGARE OB + LIGARE '; OPFERRE < OB + FERRE' OtERE OPPONERE OB + PONE RE PARARE •PARESCERE PARERE *PASSARE< PASSU PERSUADERE < PER + SUADERE PONERE PREPARARE 4. PRAE + PARARE PRAESTAREX PRAE + STARE c.f. prestar PRIHARTU PRINCIPIU PRO + CEDERE PRO +'PASSARE PROPRIUS PROHPTUS < PROHERE < PRO +EMERE PROVOCARE £ PRO + VOCARE < VOCE  s'humilier a inciter a etre enclin a inspirer a inviter a aller jouer a, de se lancer sur se limiter a se mettre a. necessaire a obliger a. offrir de s'opposer a passer a persuader & se preparer a. se preter a. pret a premier a proceder a. propre a provoquer a  35  RE RE RE RE RE RE RE  tras  quedarse (en,por,para) Q.UTETARE " rebajarse RE + BASSUS reducirse RE + DUCERE referirse RE + PERRE ': . rehusarse (x) REFIfflDERE renunciar (x) RENUNTIARE resigna'rse • RESIGHARE; resistirse (s) RESISTERE resolverse,(x) RESOLVE RE responder (de) RESPOHDERE romper RUMPERE saber (x) SAFE RE •: salir SA LIRE semejar •SIMILIARE < SIMILIS sentarse (para) • *ADSENTARE < SEDERE someterse SUBHITTERE subir (x) SUBIRE tender TENDERE tenter TEKPTARE tirar Germanic TERAN tornar TORNARE traducir (en) ' TRADUCERE < TRANS + DUCERE trepar onomatopoeic ultimo (en) ULTIMUS venir (en) VENIRE volar VOLARE volver VOLVERE votar (por) VOTU  s'abaisser a se reduire a se refe'rer a. refuser de renoncer a se re signer a rlsister "a se resoudre a repondre a.  sembler a s'asseoir afin se soumettre a tendre a tenter de traduire en venir voler voter pour  86  TABLE II - VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION "de" AB AB AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD AD  abominar (x) ABOHINARE abstenerse ABSTIHERE < AB + TENERE abusar AEUSUS < AB + USU acabar (con,por) AD + cabo < CAPUT acompanado acompanar < AD + COMPANIA acordarse AD + CORDATU adornar (con) AD + ORNARE advertir ADVERTERE aficionarse (a) c.f, aficionarse a afligirse AFFLIGERE agarrarse (a) c.f. agarrarse a agraviarse ' *AGGRAVIARE < GRAVE alegrarse *ALECRIS < ALECER alimentarse (con) ALIHENTU < ALERE . apiadarse AD + PIU , aprovecharse AD + PROFECTU arrepentirse . AD + REPAENIT2RE asirse ASA asonbrarse a +--sombra < UMBRA asustarse a + susto <; onomatopoeia avaro AVARU avergon2arse a + verguenaa < VERECUNDIA avisar French aviser bueno (para) BONU burlarse uncertain origin cansarse (en) CAHPSARE cesar CESSARE CEDERE compadecersD con + padecer < padir < PATI concluir (por) CONCLUDERE < CON + CLAUDERE congratularse ' . CONGRATULARI < CON + GRADU constar CONSTARE < CON + STARE contento CONTENTU correrse (a,con) c.f. correr a cubrir (con) COOPERIRE < CON + OPERIRE  s'abstenir de abuser de accorapagne de orner de avertir de s'affliger de  1  AD AD AD . AD AD AD  con con con con con  s'alimenter de s'apitoyer sur profiter de se repentir de se saisir de avare de aviser de bon a cesser de compatir avec congratiller de content de couvrir de  67  de de de,EX de,EX de,EX de,EX de,EX de,EX de,EX de,EX en en en en en EX EX  cuidarse culpar deber (x) dejar(se) depender desconfiar descontento descuidarse (en) deshacerse (por) despedirae desprenderse dificil disculparse (por) disfrutar (x) dotado dudar (en) enamorarse encargarse enfadarse enojarse (con) entender equivocarse escandalizarse espantarse examinerse exceder (a) excusarse extraSarse (x) extrano facil falto felicitari(se) fiarse (en) . gloriarse gozar (con,en) guardarse gustar  COGITARE CULPARE CULPA -inculper de DEBERE devoir de + lexar 4. LAXARE DEPENDERE < DE + PENDERE dependre de des + COHFIDERE , se mefier de • des + contento / c.f. contento mecontent de des + cuidar / c.f. cuidar des + hacer / c.f. hacer de de + espedir < EXPETERE < EX + PETERE des + prender < PREHENDERE DIFICILIS difficile a dis + culpar / c.f. culpar de dis + frutar < FRUTO < FRUI DOTE doue' de DUBITARE douter de en + amor < A M O R s'enamourer de en + cargar < CARRICARE se charger de Gallego-Portugue's enfadar-se <en+FATU se facher de INODIARE IN TENDERE < IN •!• TENDERE AEQ.UUS + VOCARE SCAKDALU •EXPAVENTARE < EX 4 PAVERE EXAKINARE. < passer un examen en cf. exceder a acusar (+.esconder)< ACCUSARE s'excuser de SXTRAKEUS' etrange de FACILIS . facile a *FALLITUS< FALLERE, FELICITARE . (se) feliciter de *FIDARS< FIDERE se fier a , GLORIA ' • se glorifier de • . " GAUD ID Germanic W A R D A N ae garder de GUSTUS ?  • ii  ;  88  IN IN ' IN IN  PRAE PRAE,OB PRAE  RE RE  haber (que) ' HABERE hacer (por,x) FACERE hartarse FARTU henchir IMPLERE huir (x) FUGERE imposible IMPOSSIBILE incomodarse (por) IN + C O M M U D U indignarse (con) IN + DIGNARE < DIGNU inquietarse (en,por) IN + OTIETU jactarse . HACTARE libre LIBERU llenar (con) PLENU ' lleno PLENU maravillarse HIRABILIA mudar(se) MtTTARE necesitar (x) NECESSARIU ofenderse OFFENDERE olvidarse (x) •OBLITARE < OBLITU parar (a,en) cf. parar a • pasar (a,sin) cf. pasar a pensar (en,x) PENSARE <.PENDERE pesar PENSARE < PENDERE prec6dido preceder < PRAE + CEDERE preciarse .• PRETIARE.< PRETIU prendarse pendra < penpra < PIGNORA preocuparse (por) PRAEOCCtFPARE < PRAE + OB +CAPERE prescindir . FRAESCINDERE < PRAE + SCINDERE presumir (x) PRAESUMERE < PRAE + SUMERE propit (a,para) cf. propio a quejarse •&UASSTARE < QUASSARE recatarse • re * CAPTARE < CAPERE. recelarse (x) re + CELARE reirse RIDERE responder (a) RESPONDERE responsable RESPONDERE  remplir de s'enfuir de impossible a eHre indigne de s'inquieter de libre de . remplir de piein de s'emerveiller de necessiter s'offendre de oublier de surpasser penser de precede'' de se preoccuper de propre a  rire de repondre de fesponsable de  $9  seguido (por) servir (para,x) sorprenderse sospechar (en) teher niedo tratar triunfar us'ar valerse (x) vengarse. ver  SEaui  SERVIRE French surprendre < PREHENDERE SUSPECTARE, 4. SUSPICARI TEEERE + HETUS TRACTARE' TRIUHPHU •USARE < UTI VALE RE VTNDICARE VIDERE  suivi de servir de se surprendre soupponner tpiompher,de user de se venger de  90  TABLE III - VERBS REQUIRING OTHER PREPOSITIONS COH AD AD AD  con con con con con con de.EX  ds en en en entre IN PRAE,OB  acabar (de,por) acertar (a) adornar (de) alimentarse amenazar (x) bastar (a,para) casarse conparar (a) conformarse (a) congraciarse contar contentarse (de) correr (a,de) cubrir (de) cumplir (x) dar (en,a) descontento (de) divertir.se (en) encararse (x) encarinarse enojarse (de) entretenerse (en) goar(se) (de,en) indignarse (de) llenar (de) preocuparse (de,por) rozarse soSar  topar tropezar  cf. acabar de cf. acertar a cf . adornar de orner de cf. alimentarse de." Salimenter de MINACIA <.. MINA nenacer de cf. bastar a CASA cf. comparar a comparer a cf . confarmarse a se conformer a CONGRATIARE < CON + GRADU COMPUTAEE < CON + PURARE compter sur cf. contento de,. se contenter de cf. correr a cf. cubrir de couvrir de COMPLERE cf. dar a' cf. contento de mecontent de DITCRTERE < DE + VERTERE en * cara < ^f(^iC of uncertain origin en + carino< CARERE cf. enojarse de entre + tener < TENERE cf. goaar d e  cf. indignarse de s'indigner de cf. llenar de renplir de cf. preocuparse de se preoccuper de *RUPTIARE < RUMPERE SOMNUS + SOMNIUM songer a top ^ onomatopoeia entrepepar < *INTERPEDIARE < INTERPEDIRE  91  AD.  con con,de,EX con con con con de.EX de de en entre EX  adorar ADORARE < AD + ORARE adorer afanarse (por) , *AFFMHARE aferrarae Catalan aferrar < L FERRU apoyarse (sobre) " ., Italian appoggiare <L PODIU s'appuyer sur cansarse (de) cf. cansarse de COMPLACERE; < CON.+ PLACERE complacerse se complaire a. condescender CONDESCENDERE £ CON + DE + EX + SCAND cE oR nE descendre confiar (a) cf. confiar a se f ier "a consentir -CONSENTIRE < CON + SENTIRE consentir a consistir con + SISTEREj consister de convenir CONVENIRE < CON + VENIRE convenir de convertir CONVERTERE < CON -r VERTERE convertir a dar (a,con) cf. dar a descuidar(se) (de) cf. descuidarse de estar determinado (a) cf. determinar a etre determine divertirse (con) cf. divertirse con dudar (de,x) cf. dudar de empeSarse en + penos < PIC-NU entrar (a) cf. entrar a entrer dans entretenerse (con) cf. entretenerse con esaerarse EX + MERU estribar estribo < Germanic; uncertain fiar (de) cf. fiarse de se fier a fijarse FIXU frisar (TELA) FRISIA friser gozar(se) (con,de) cf. gozar de incurrir INCURREP.E< IN + CURRERE encourir influir INF WERE < IN + FLUE RE influer sur insistir EISISTERE CJS + SISTERE insister pour ffcnteresarse (por) INTERESSE £ INTER + ESSE s'interesser a lento LENTU lent k molestarse HOIESTARE < MOLES obstinarse OBSTINATU ' s'obstiner a, ocuparse OCCUPARE < OB + CAPERE s'occuper de parar (a,de) cf. parar a :  en en en entre «  OB  9i  PER PER  RE RE RE RE.TRAS  PENETRARE penetrar pensar•(de,x) of. pensar de perseverar PERSSVERARE <.PER + SEVERU persistir PERSISTERE < PER + SISTERE plaoerse PLACERE primero (a) cf. primero a quedar (a,por,-se para)cf. quedarse a reclinarse (sobre) RECLINARE ^ RE + CLIHARE recostar (sobre) COSTA recrearse RECREARE < RE + CREARE reparar REPARARE < RE + PARARE retrasarse RE + tras < > TRANS sospechaf (de) cf. sospechar de tardar TARDARE tardo TARDU trabajar (para,por) •TRIPALIARE < TRIPALIU traducir (a) cf. traducir a ultimo (a) cf. ultimo a vacilar VACILLARE venir (a) cf. venir a  pdnfitrer dans penser a perse'verer dans persister a se plaire a premier \ s'incliner au/ies  s'attarder a soupconner de tarder a tard a travailler a traduire en vaciller entre  PARA  EX en s>sM  PRAE  alentar (a). cf. alentar a autorizar (a) cf.autorizar a bastar (a) • cf.bastar a bueno (de) of.bueno de convidar (a) cf. convidar a destinar (a) ' cf. destinar a esforzarse (a,por) .• cf. esforzarse a estar. (por) ' STARE invitar (a) cf. invitar a luchar- (por), ' LUCTARI necesario (a) cf. necesario a NUMERARE presto (a) cf! presto a . propio (a,de) cf.propio a  autoriser a , bon "a inviter a d e 3 t i n e r  a.  s'efforcer de 3tre pret a. inviter a. lutter pour necessaire a nommer a pret a. propre a  93  pronto (a) pugnar (por) quedarse (a,en,por) sentarse (a) servir (de,x)  cf. pronto a PUGNARE cf. quedarse a cf. sentarse a cf. servir de  acabar (de,con) afanarse (en) apurarse conoluir (de) deoidirse (a,x) deshacerse (de) desvivirse diseulparse (de) ' esforzarse (a,para) estar (para) hacer (de,x) impacientarse incomodarse (de) inquietarse (con,de) interesarse (en) luchar (para) mirar morirse optar preguntar (x)  cf'. acabar de . cf. afanarse en a + PDRU cf. concluir de cf. decidirse a cf. deshacerse de des + vivir <^ VIVERE cf. diseulparse de cf» esforzarse a cf. estar para cf. hacer de in + PATIENTE cf. incomodarse de cf, inquietarse de cf. interesarse en cf. luchar para MIRARI HORIRE OPTARE •PRAECUNCTARE < PERCONTARI cf, prgbtnipgEsa de cf. pugnar para cf. quedarse a RABIA RESTARE < RE. + STARE cf. seguido de TERMINARE ' cf. trabajar en VIGILARE VOTU  prompt a s'asseoir :a servir de  POR AD AD con de de.EX de,EX de,EX EX IN IN IN  PRAE,OB  RE  prgocBparse«,Ide)  pugnar (para) quedar (a,en,para) rabiar restar seguido (de) terminar trabajar (en,para) velar votar (a)  se decider a  s'efforcer de Stre en faveur de etre impatient de sincommoder pour s'.inquieter pour s'interesser^a lutter pour 1  mourir de opter pour se preoccuper de  suivi de travailler pour veiller sur voter pour  94  arc  haber (de)  of. haber de  pasarse (a,de)  cf. pasar a  se passer de  apoyarse (en)  cf, apoyarse en  s'appuyer sur  SIN  SOBRE  95.  TABLE IV- VERBS REGUTRIHG HO PREPOSITION  AD AD con con de de de t?.e,EX EX en EX  aconsejar acordar (de) amenazar (con) anhelar ansiar aparentar aprobar celebrar conseguir contestar (a) cuaplir (con) deber (de) decidir (a,por) dejar (de) determinar (a) dignarse disfrutar (de) dudar (de,en) eligir encarar (con) esperar- (a) esquivar evitar excusar (de) extrarTar (de) falter fingir gustar (de) hacerle (de,por) huir (de) impedirle intentar jurar lograr  CONSILIU cf. acordarse de cf, amenazar con AMHELARE ANXIA APPARENTE -<AD + PARENTE APPROBARE < AD • + PROBARE CELEBRARE CONSEBUI < CON + SEQ.UI cf. contestar a cf. cumplir con cf. deber de cf. decidir a cf. dejar de cf. determinar a DIGNARE< DIGNU cf. disfrutar de cf. dudar de ELIGERE < EX + LEGERE cf. encararso con cf. esperar a Germanic origin EVITARE < EX + VITARE cf. excusar de cf. extranarse de •FALLITA < FALIERE FINGERE cf. gustar de cf. hacer de cf. huir de IMPEDIRE INTENTARE JURARE LUCRARI < LUCRU  conseiller de accorder menacer de  approuver cele'brer accomplir devoir decider de laisser de §tre determine' de daigner douter de elire esperer esquiver eviter de j.'excuser de fe indre faire fuir empeNsher de tenter de jurer de  96  PER PRAE PRAE PRAE PRAE PRAE PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO RE RE RE RE RE RE  raandar (a) cf. mandar a commander de nerecer . Hispanic Latin MERESOERE ^ HERERE meriter de necesitar (de) cf. necesitar de necessiter negar (-se a) cf. negarse a nier de olvidar (de) cf, olvidar de oublier de brdenar ORBINARE ordoimer de osar AUSARE^ AUDERE oser pareoer (-se a) cf. parecerse a paraitre pedir PETERE pensarC:{de,en) cf. pensar de penser permitir PERMITTERE < PER + HITTERS pernettre de preferir • ' PRAEPERRE•< PRAE + FERRE pref isrer preguntar (por) cf. preguntar por presidir PRAESIDERE < PRAE + SEDERE presider presunir (de) cf. presumir de presumer de pretender PRAETEHDERE ^ PRAE + TENDERE pretendre preterir PRAETERIRE < PRAE + IRE procurar PROCURARE PRO + CURARE procurer prohibir PROHIBERE < PRO + HAVERE prohiber de proraeter PROHITTERE< PRO + HITTERE promettre de proponer(se) PROPONERE < PRO + PONERE proposer de proyectar PROJECTARE < PROJICERE < PRO + JACERE projeter de querer O.UAERERE recelar (-se de) ~ cf. recelarse de reoordar RECORDARI rehuir REFUGERE <, RE + FUGERE rehusar (-se a) cf. rehusarse a refuser de renunciar (a) cf, renunciar a renoncer a resistir (a) cf, resistir a resister a resolver (a) cf. resolver a resoudre "a. saber (a) cf. saber a savoir sentir SENTIRE servirse ,(de,para) cf. servirse de soler SOLERE sostener SUSTINERE soutenir subir (a) cf. subir a  97  tenor tocar .•* valer (-se de)r vedar' .  TENS RE onomatopoeia cf. valerse de. VETARE .-  toucher valoir  TABLE V - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OP VERB LISTS NUMBER OF 'ITEMS  FORM Total number of listings:Total number of different forms:Number of forms which may govern more than one preposition:Forms governing the  folloT7ing  APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE  467  100.0  353  76.0  114  24.0  137  39.0  117  33.0  prepositions:  "a" "deJi  "con" "en" "para"  31  55  16.0  19  5.0  30  8.0  1  0.3  1  0.3  •1  0.3  "sobre" Verbs requiring no preposition:-  9.0  75  21.0  44  12.0  Prefixes:"a" ^ "AD" "AB"  2  0.6  98  "con" "de" "de.EX" "en" "entre" "M" "OB"  24  6.6  7  2.0  11  3.1  14  4.0  2  0.6  12  3.1  2  0.6  "TRAS"  2  0.6  "VSR"  4  1.4  10  2.?  7  2.0  "PRAE" "PRO" "RE"  w  3.9  99 To b e g i n w i t h , i t w i l l - b e noted f r o m the pages showing numerical  a n a l y s i s o f the. v e r b s t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n " a " i s  the m o s t - f r e q u e n t l y  used.  This i n i t s e l f provides  c a l c o n t r a s t w i t h the statement o f B e a r d s l e y s i t i o n "de" was  a histori-  t h a t t h e prepo-  the most f r e q u e n t l y used i n Old S p a n i s h .  t h i r d most f r e q u e n t l y used p r e p o s i t i o n i s "en  The  (although  if  more  v e r b s r e q u i r e no p r e p o s i t i o n t h a n do t a k e "en").which most o f t e n s i g n i f i e s s t a t i c p l a c e o r p o s i t i o n , a concept f i g u r a t i v e l y e x p l i c a b l e i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e  construc-  t i o n , as seen b e f o r e . An i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s mentioned by C r i a d o de V a l .  He  s t a t e s : "En  e l e s p a f i o l es  caracteristica  l a p r e c i s a oposicion entre e l v a l o r * d i r e c t i v o * (hacia algo) de  *a* y e l * l o c a t i v o * o * e s t a t i c o * de 'en*.  en e l que  todavia. c o n c u r r e n *a* e  1  N i en  italiano,  i n * para e x p r e s a r  una  s i t u a c i d n de r e p o s o , n i en e l f r a n c e s , en donde l a a p a r i c i d n de l a p r e p o s i c i o n *dans* ha acabado de c o n f u n d i r l o s v a l o r e s , y muy  d e s g a s t a d o s , de *a* y de *en*, hay una  encia.  tan c l a r a d i f e r -  E s t a d i f e r e n c i a e n t r e e l v a l o r de l a s dos  preposiciones  no s o l o se ha mantenido h a s t a e l e s p a n o l a c t u a l , s i h o a l g u n o s usos a n t i g u o s  no b i e n d i f e r e n c i a d o s han  que  sido modifi-  cados.  C e r v a n t e s t o d a v i a p o d i a d e c i r : TAquel grande amigo de  Arsenio  e l r i c o , que  v i v i a A San Juan*, por t r a t a r s e de  hecho l o c a l e i n t e r n e . r a s t r o s de e s t e uso: etc.*"3  En H i s p a n o a m e r i c a se c o n s e r v a n t o d a v i a  *Entro A l a c a s a .  Metio A l a c a r c e l ,  T h i s s u r e l y r e i n f o r c e s the b a s i c . i d e a t h a t t h e  of p r e p o s i t i o n s i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e t i o n was  un  i n a c e r t a i n f a s h i o n i d e n t i c a l t o the use  use  construco f prepo- .  100 s i t i o n s i n o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . . The p o s i t i o n was  semantic  f o r c e o f the  i n i t i a l l y j u s t as s t r o n g i n the f o r m e r case as  i n a l l the l a t t e r .  G r a d u a l l y , however, the meaning - o r  r a t h e r , the c o n s c i o u s awareness o f the meaning - was i t became l e s s and l e s s v i t a l , t o the sense o f the Why  pre-  might i t l o s e t h i s importance?  The  type o f m e a n i n g - i n d i c a t o r t o a n o t h e r i n the development o f languages.  l o s t as  phrase.  changeover f r o m  one  i s not a t a l l u n u s u a l  J u s t as the sense i n d i c a t o r s  o f L a t i n ' s s y n t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e were r e p l a c e d by the more anal y t i c system o f the Romance languages,  so the  distinctions  l o s t t h r o u g h the l e s s e n i n g o f the t r u e p r e p o s i t i o n a l meaning i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e group was grammatical  f u n c t i o n s , where n e c e s s a r y ;  assigned to other  f o r example, the  c h o i c e o f v e r b , the t e n s e o f the i n f i n i t i v e , the change t o a s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s t r u c t u r e , and so on. seen i n comparisons o f o l d and new  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  con-  c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f "en" i n O l d  S p a n i s h , as mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s  chapter.  A f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n from C r i a d o de V a l c o r r o b o r a t e s proposition.  be  usage, t h i s l o s s d i d not  always r e s u l t i n confusion or ambiguity. s i d e r Hescott*s  However, as can  this  He s a y s : En e l f r a n e e s moderno, l a c o n f u s i o n  e n t r e *a* y 'en' para e x p r e s a r d i r e c c i d h o reposo es usandose a menudo ambas p r e p o s i c i o n e s  evidente,  indiferentemente:*EN  Pologne, EN A l g e r i e , A U T o n k i n , EN B o s n i e , e t c . ; EN e t e , A Q printemps,  A U p a r a d i s , EN e n f e r , e t c . * .  En t o d o s e s t o s ejem-  plos-, l a s p r e p o s i c i o n e s 'a* y 'en' t i e n e n un s i g n i f i c a d o vago, y s u uso e s t a determinado por e l s u s t a n t i v o a que  muy se  101 refieren."^  The c o n c l u s i o n i s l i k e w i s e i d e n t i c a l : t h e l o s s  of the p r e p o s i t i o n a l m e a n i n g . o r i g i n a l l y f e l t i n t h e l o c u t i o n has n o t brought about a l a c k o f communicative e x a c t i t u d e .  It  i s i m m a t e r i a l w h i c h p r e p o s i t i o n has come t o be used i n what environment; what i s i m p o r t a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t a l l s p e a k e r s o f F r e n c h have i n f a c t adopted the same c o n v e n t i o n . Thus one can assume a f a i r l y a r b i t r a r y development  o f the  phenomenon, i n the sense t h a t once the break-down o f d i f f e r e n t i a b l e meaning o c c u r r e d t h e p a t h t h e f u t u r e of ple  development  the s t r u c t u r e would t a k e was u n p r e d i c t a b l e ,  A good exam-  o f t h i s can be g a t h e r e d from one f i n a l e x t r a c t from  G r i a d o de V a l , where he s t a t e s : " A S I como l a p r e p o s i c i d n es c a r a c t e r i s t i c a d e l e s p a n o l , l a p r e p o s i c i d n * de  ?  ?  a  ?  ha a l c a n -  zado e n . e l f r a n e e s moderno un e x t r a o r d i n a r i o d e s a r r o l l o , y puede c o n s i d e r a r s e como r e p r e s e n t a n t e p e c u l i a r de s u s i s t e m a prepositive  En r e a l i d a d , e s t a g r a n e v o l u c i o n de l a prepo-  s i c i d n *de* en f r a n e e s ha ampliado de t a l forma s u f u n e i d n , que en l a a c t u a l i d a d apenas t i e n e un s i g n i f i c a d o  definido,  c o n v e r t i d a en un puro i n s t r u m e n t o g r a m a t i c a l . " 5 And t h i s , o f c o u r s e , f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e s the same i d e a o f o r i g i n a l meaning c o n s t r u e d i n the mind o f the. s p e a k e r , t h e n l o s t g r a d u a l l y , but w i t h o u t t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f the g r a m m a t i c a l form, w h i c h o n l y now seems t o be w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t s e m a n t i c v a l u e . Assuming t h i s t o be the c a s e , however, p r e s e n t s us w i t h a n o t h e r problem.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o the l i s t o f v e r b forms we  have examined, two t y p e s o f p r e p o s i t i o n s can be seen.  Those  w h i c h a r e used as p r e f i x e s and t h o s e w h i c h a r e used i n d e p e n -  102 dently.  I t i s to be remembered, though, that the o r i g i n of  both types i s i d e n t i c a l : a d i r e c t derivation from  Latin.  6  We must notice apparent d i s p a r i t i e s between the idea of the preposition used as a prefix i n contrast with that of the p r e p o s i t i o n used to i n t r o d u c e an i n f i n i t i v e . see comproroMterse,  F o r example, we  whose etymology contains the p r e f i x con;  and yet i t often takes the preposition a. c o n t r i b u i r and convidar.  L i k e w i s e , the verbs  A verb such as dedicarse contains  the p r e f i x deriving from the preposition de, and yet requires a before an i n f i n i t i v e , whereas the concept of de i s d i r e c t l y contrary to that of a. The opposite phenomenon i s to be observed with verbs such as acabar, acordarse, and avergonzarse, whose etymons contain the preposition a, and yet the verbs govern the preposition de.  The emphatic d i s t i n c t i o n between  a and en pointed out above seems confused i n consideration of verbs such as empezar, containing the p r e f i x en, but taking ,i the preposition a.  S i m i l a r l y , complacerse and consentir en-  f o l d the prefix con but also take en; and the verb  condescen-  der shows the combination of the prefixes con, dg_ and EX, and yet  s t i l l requires the preposition en.  analogous discrepan-  cies are to be found i n countless verbs. explained? given.  How i s t h i s to be  I n a sense, the l i k e l y answer has already been  Whereas i n the o r i g i n a l formation of the verb by the  speakers, employing the prepositional prefix, the meaning was f e l t , by the time the verb reached the stage where i t was used with a preposition to introduce an i n f i n i t i v e , t h i s f o r mer meaning was no longer ostensible.  Hence, >.  no r e a l  103 discrepancy  existed.  We can observe t h a t a k i n d o f p r e c e d e n t  f o r t h i s phenomenon e x i s t e d i n L a t i n . these  A l l e n presents  us w i t h  clauses.7 a) "Caesar Germanos f l u m e n t r a i c i t . b) idem i u s iurandum  adigit.Afranium.  c) quos Pompeius omnia sua p r a e s i d i a  circumduxit."  Then, he g i v e s a note w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : ^ "The double c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d i s p o s s i b l e o n l y when t h e f o r c e o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n and t h e f o r c e o f t h e v e r b a r e each, d i s t i n c t l y f e l t i n t h e compound, t h e v e r b g o v e r n i n g t h e d i r e c t , and t h e p r e p o s i t i o n t h e s e c o n d a r y object. But o f t e n t h e two p a r t s o f t h e compound become c l o s e l y u n i t e d t o form a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b o f s i m p l e meaning. I n t h i s case t h e compound verb i s t r a n s i t i v e s o l e l y by v i r t u e o f i t s p r e p o s i t i o n a l p a r t and can have b u t one a c c u s a t i v e , - the same w h i c h was f o r m e r l y t h e s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t , b u t w h i c h now becomes the . d i r e c t . So t r a i c i o comes t o mean e i t h e r (1) t o p i e r c e (anybody) (by h u r l i n g ) o r (2) t o c r o s s (a r i v e r e t c . ) : "'gladio hominem t r a i e c i t ' (Here i a c i o has l o s t a l l t r a n s i t i v e f o r c e , and s e r v e s s i m p l y t o g i v e t h e f o r c e o f a v e r b t o t h e meaning o f t r a n s , and t o t e l l t h e manner o f t h e a c t . ) Rhodanum t r a i e c i t * ( H e r e i a c i o has become s i m p l y a v e r b o f m o t i o n , and t r a i c i o i s h a r d l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t r a n s e o . ) I n t h e s e examples hominem and Rhodanum, w h i c h would be s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t s i f t r a i e c i t were used i n i t s p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a t i o n , have become t h e d i r e c t objects..." 1  rt  Another p o i n t w o r t h y o f mention, s i n c e i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o meaning - i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e "deep s t r u c t u r e " meaning of the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s - i s that c e r t a i n verbs govern c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s depending upon t h e c o n t e x t u a l meaning.  F o r example, c o n t e s t a r t a k e s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a  b e f o r e a s u b s t a n t i v e , f o r example,  "siempre c o n t e s t o a t u s  p r e g u n t a s " , o r "no voy a c o n t e s t a r a l o que me d i j i s t e " ; howe v e r , when the d i r e c t o b j e c t i s a pronoun, no p r e p o s i t i o n i s  104' t o be u s e d , f o r example,  "no voy a c o n t e s t a r l o " .  a v e r b such as i m p e d i r can g e n e r a l l y form the  Similarly,  verb+prepo-  s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o n l y when an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t i s s p e c i f i e d , f o r example "Nadie t e impide h a c e r l o " . such as c u b r i r would l i k e l y prove i m p o s s i b l e  A verb  to place i n t h i s  type o f s t r u c t u r e . Other v e r b s , such as abundar de a r e d i f f i c u l t t o use i n a c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a d e p e n d e n t . I n f i n i t i v e , r a t h e r than f o l lowed by a s u b s t a n t i v e .  I t i s most p r o b a b l e t h a t some ex-  amples o f such a c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be .formed, but even though t h e y might be v a l i d , we r u n the r i s k o f s e l e c t i n g a sentence analogous t o one o f Chomsky's i n v e n t i v e examples. lated that "grammaticality" man  He  i s i n no way s u b v e r t e d by  stipu"The  ( t h a t ) t h e g i r l ( t h a t ) I used t o go w i t h marriedj j u s t got  d r a f t e d " ^ ; however, a l t h o u g h the sentence i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o any n a t i v e s p e a k e r , the p r o b a b i l i t y o f any such s p e a k e r ' s a c t u a l l y u t t e r i n g such a l o c u t i o n seems most s l i g h t i n d e e d . Such i s the case w i t h abundar de, but i t s h o u l d s t i l l  be  borne i n mind t h a t w i t h t h i s v e r b , t h e use o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n b e f o r e an i n f i n i t i v e would a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y be a s c r i b e d t o the r e s u l t o f a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , by i n f l u e n c e o f a n a l o g y w i t h nouns, and t h u s remains r e l e v a n t t o our d i s c u s s i o n .  An  i d e n t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s would be v a l i d t o e x p l a i n a v e r b such as c a n s a r s e de.  From a sentence l i k e "Me  canso d e l t r a b a j o ? , a  s i m p l e s t e p i s r e q u i r e d t o produce the analogous "Me  canso de  trabajar". A S t o a l o c u t i o n l i k e c a n s a r s e en, w h i c h i n v o l v e s a  105 change i n meaning ,< we can a p p l y what we have a l r e a d y c o n c e r n i n g the use o f t h e . p r e p o s i t i o n en b e f o r e an  seen  infinitive  i n Old S p a n i s h , t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t word c h o i c e .  And  t h i s i n i t s e l f adds emphasis t o the s t a t e d i d e a t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n i n a l l cases o r i g i n a l l y p o s s e s s e d a  "felt"  meaning independent o f i t s environment. Another example* o f t h i s . f a c t can be seen i n the use o f a v e r b such as deber.  A d i f f e r e n c e o f meaning i s t o be found  between t h e s e n t e n c e s " E l t r e n d e b i a l l e g a r a l a s tres"', and " E l t r e n d e b i a de l l e g a r a l a s t r e s " .  The f a c t t h a t t h e  p r e p o s i t i o n de u s u a l l y has the meaning o f "away f r o m " might s e r v e t o e x p l a i n the d i s c r e p a n c y i n the sense t h a t i n the l a t t e r example, the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a c t i o n o r concept i n v o l v e d i n " d e b i a " i s somewhat more removed from t h a t exp r e s s e d i n " l l e g a r " , t h u s r e d u c i n g the o b l i g a t i o n o r even the p r o b a b i l i t y o f the a r r i v a l o f the t r a i n , . W i t h r e g a r d t o the c o n t r a s t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a f f o r d e d  us  by the F r e n c h e q u i v a l e n t s o f the v e r b s i n the l i s t , we have f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f t h e i d e a t h a t many developments  are  a r b i t r a r y , o c c u r r i n g a t t h e xtfhim o f the s p e a k e r s , as t h e y u n f o l d new ways o f communicating w i t h one a n o t h e r .  Consider-  i n g the common o r i g i n o f the two l a n g u a g e s , one might e x p e c t a g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e s t r u c t i o n between the two languages. seem t o be the case.  con-  T h i s , however, does n o t  I t must i n d e e d be n o t e d t h a t even P o r -  tuguese, much c l o s e r t o S p a n i s h l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h a n i s F r e n c h , has developed s t r u c t u r e s n o t now v i s i b l e i n i t s I b e r i a n  sister  106 language. example.  The  personal  i n f i n i t i v e o f Portuguese p r o v i d e s  an  But perhaps more a k i n t o the m a t t e r a t hand i s a  l o c u t i o n formed i n Portuguese w i t h the i m p e r s o n a l i n f i n i t i v e , "frente a l espanol",  s t a t e s C r i a d o de V a l , "es tambien  carac-  t e r i s t i c o e l uso portugues de i n f i n i t i v o i m p e r s o n a l u n i d o a l a p r e p o s i c i d n 'a' con v a l o r de g e r u n d i o : ' E s t a v a A DORMIR (Estaba  DURMIENDO.  E s t a A ACABAR ( E s t a ACABANDO)»".  The many d i v e r g e n c i e s  10  between S p a n i s h and F r e n c h usage,  t h e n , might be somewhat s u r p r i s i n g were one  to consider  that  the v e r b - i - p r e p o s i t i o n - i - i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n had a d i r e c t and coherent d e r i v a t i o n f r o m L a t i n , w i t h o u t t h i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r of "speakers' choice", f e a t u r e s do,  A l a r g e number of a n a l o g o u s  of c o u r s e , e x i s t .  For example, the means o f  f o r m i n g t h e compound t e n s e s ( a v o i d i n g , f o r the moment, the f a c t t h a t French conjugates c e r t a i n verbs w i t h e t r e , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a v o i r ) , and  i t i s ' w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t Portuguese  has  r e t a i n e d a s y n t h e t i c p l u p e r f e c t , as w e l l as the i n f i x i n g pronouns i n the f u t u r e and  c o n d i t i o n a l t e n s e s , and  that  of the  e a s t e r n Romance of Rumanian has a l s o m a i n t a i n e d s y n t h e t i c t e n s e s and  o t h e r means o f f o r m i n g compounds,  e v o l u t i o n o f the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e , and appears f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n the two  A S w e l l , the  the o b j e c t pronouns,  l a n g u a g e s , as do  such  m o r p h o s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s as the agreement o f a d j e c t i v e s w i t h nouns and v e r b s w i t h Admittedly,  subjects.  c e r t a i n o f the S p a n i s h forms c i t e d do  have cognates as t h e i r F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n s , t h u s a r e s u b j e c t t o p r o p e r comparison and  not  not  c o n s e q u e n t l y do not appear  107 on t h e l i s t .  Examples would be v e r b s such a s a g a r r a r s e ,  w h i c h would be r e n d e r e d -by s a i s i r , a v e z a r s e by s ' h a b i t u e r , echarse by se m e t t r e , examinarse by t h e phrase p a s s e r un examen, p r e s u m i r by p r e t e n d r e , d i v e r t i r s e by s'amuser, b a s t a r by s u f f i r , and so on.  However, t h e r e a r e i n f a c t a v e r y  l a r g e number o f v e r b s w h i c h do have cognates i n F r e n c h w h i c h r e t a i n t h e same meaning as t h e S p a n i s h . Once more a dichotomy appears.  Some o f these v e r b s have  been e v o l v e d i n F r e n c h , a d m i t t i n g t h e same p r e p o s i t i o n bef o r e an i n f i n i t i v e as o c c u r s i n S p a n i s h . a n  d  Examples a r e d e s t i n a r ,  d e s t i n e r , ensenar and e n s e i g n e r , o b l i g a r and o b l i g e r ,  depender and dependre, dudar and d o u t e r , t r i u n f a r and t r i o m pher, d e s e a r and d e s i r e r , p r e f e r i r and p r e f e r e r , s o s t e n e r and s o u t e n i r , s a b e r and s a v o i r .  I t i s interesting to notice that  of t h e S p a n i s h v e r b s g o v e r n i n g t h e p r e p o s i t i o n en, o n l y two cognate v e r b s w h i c h may t a k e dans a r e found, t h e s e b e i n g p e r s e v e r a r - p e r s e v e r e r and p e n e t r a r - pen£trer.  Many cognate  p a i r s , however, do n o t d i s p l a y t h e same c h o i c e o f p r e p o s i t i o n . F o r example, we f i n d e s f o r z a r s e a b u t sVefforcer de, l a n z a r s e a b u t se l a n c e r s u r , t e n t a r a b u t t e n t e r de; compadecerse de but c o m p l i t i r avec, f i a r s e de but se f i e r a, and t h a t a l l a d j e c t i v a l forms - w h i c h , a s mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y , a r e most l i k e l y  d e r i v a t i o n s o f a g e n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n L a t i n - l i k e bueno de, f a c i l de, i m p o s i b l e de. - r e q u i r e t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a i n F r e n c h , p o s s i b l y due t o a p r e v i o u s d a t i v e i d e a ; we f i n d amena z a r con b u t menacer .de, sonar con b u t songer a; c o n v e r t i r en but c o n v e r t i r a, o b s t i n a r s e i en but s ' o b s t i n e r a, t a r d a r en b u t  108 t a r d e r a,  en but • / i n f l u e r ';.sur-^., e f i n d s e r v i r para W  but s e r v i r de and v e l a r por but v e i l l e r s u r , and but se p a s s e r de.  W i t h i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h  v e r b s r e q u i r i n g no p r e p o s i t i o n , we f i n g i r but f e i n d r e de, l i e r de,  pasarse s i n  f i n d d e v i a t i o n s such as  .jurar but .jurer de,  p e r m i t i r but p e r m e t t r e de,  proponer but p r o p o s e r de,  provectar  Spanish  b l v i d a r but  prometer but p r o m e t t r e  de,•  A fur-  but pro.jeter de.  t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f the l i s t p r o v i d e many o t h e r i n s t a n c e s  oub-  will  of b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and  differ-  ences. What c o n c l u s i o n s P r i m a r i l y , we  can be drawn from t h i s  have a c q u i r e d  f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of  v a l i d i t y of our a s s u m p t i o n . ; The verb+preposition+infinitive  choice  o f p r e p o s i t i o n i n the  However, t h a t f a c t o r  o f t e n been t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g by f a r the most  s i g n i f i c a n t and  f o r c e f u l i n the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s  construc-  t i o n , namely, some t y p e o f d i r e c t d e r i v a t i o n from the language, no l o n g e r seems q u i t e so comprehensive an tion.  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n S p a n i s h seems t o  be the r e s u l t - o f a number of f a c t o r s . w h i c h has  information?  parent  explana-  What does now~ seem of g r e a t e r importance i n the  devel-  opment of t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the f a c t o r - more semantic t h a n o b j e c t i v e l y l i n g u i s t i c - o f the language's m o d i f i c a t i o n t o s u i t the p r e f e r e n c e s of the s p e a k e r s , i n an o f t e n arbitrary fashion.  The  apparently  e f f e c t s of p r e v i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n s  in  L a t i n a r e not t o be d e n i e d ; nor a r e the i n f l u e n c e s o f a n a l o g y . R a t h e r , a l l t h e s e t r a i t s combined t o produce one p e c u l i a r f a c e t s of the S p a n i s h language (and,  o f the more  i t might be  109 added, o f the o t h e r Romance t o n g u e s ) , i t s p r e p o s i t i o n a l system, o f w h i c h the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t .  construc-  CHAPTER  I?  -  FOOTNOTES  1) The a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t s o f modern S p a n i s h v e r b s has i n p a r t been adapted from M.M.. Ramsey's Textbook o f Modern Spanish, w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l s o being given to informat i o n found i n the D i c c i o n a r i o de dudas o f Manuel Mesa Seco, and t o C o n s t r u c c i o n e s s i n t a ' c t i c a s by E m i l i o Nanez. The e t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d has been adapted l a r g e l y from the D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o g i c o o f J . Corominas. (See b i b l i o g r a p h y , sub v e r b s f o r t h e s e works.) 2) Good t r e a t m e n t s o f t h i s m a t t e r a r e a v a i l a b l e i n b o t h Seco's D i c c i o n a r i o de dudas and i n C o n s t r u c c i o n e s s i n t a c t i c a s of N a ^ z . 3) F i s c o n o m i a , p. 162. Note, however, t h a t S p a n i s h s t i l l shows p o s i t i o n - a l b e i t f i g u r a t i v e l y , i n s t r u c t u r e s such as "a l a s c i n c o de l a t a r d e " , "a l o s d i e z m i n u t o s " , a l dia siguiente", e t c . f ,  4) Loc c i t . 5) I b i d , p.  163  6) " T r a d i c i o n a l m e n t e se l l a m a b a n p r e p o s i c i o n e s p r o p i a s a l a s s e p a r a b l e s o que c o n s t i t u i a n p a l a b r a i n d e p e n d i e n t e , e i m p r o p i a s a l a s i n s e p a r a b l e s ; como a e s t a s l a s llamamos hoy p r e f i j o s , no parece l o g i c o s e g u i r hablando de p r o p i a s , s i n o simplemente de p r e p o s i c i o n e s . Son l a s s i g u i e n t e s : »a, a n t e , b a j o , cabe (hoy nunca u s a d a ) , con, c o n t r a , de, desde, en, e n t r e , h a c i a , h a s t a , p a r a , p o r , segun, s i n , so (muy poco u s a d a ) , s o b r e , y t r a s * " . E s q u e r T o r r e s , D i d a c t i c a , de l a l e n g u a e s p a n o l a , p. 258. 7) A l l e n , p.  245  8) Idem, Note 39) A S quoted i n Labov, W i l l i a m ; The Study o f Language i n i t s S o c i a l C o n t e x t , Studium Generale 23, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1970, p. 40. 10) F i s i o n o m i a , p. 85  Ill CONCLUSIONS V a r i o u s f a c t o r s have now been examined.  First,  i t has  been seen t h a t common terms such a s " v e r b " , " p r e p o s i t i o n " , and " i n f i n i t i v e " a r e , i n f a c t , much more c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n a t f i r s t apparent.  They a r e f r e q u e n t l y used i n ambiguous con-  t e x t s , and l e n d t h e m s e l v e s . t o f u r t h e r and g r e a t e r m i s i n t e r pretation.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n v e r b - f p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e i s  common t o a l l t h e major w e s t e r n Romance l a n g u a g e s . the  However,  sources o f t h i s l o c u t i o n a r e not as r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e  as those o f , f o r example, t h e two forms o f t h e C a s t i l i a n i m p e r f e c t s u b j u n c t i v e , o r even C a t a l a n p e r i p h r a s t i c  preterite.  I t s o r i g i n s appear t o be more i n t h e r e a l m o f s e m a n t i c s and i d e o l e c t s t h a n i n t h e f i e l d o f etymology and d i r e c t d e r i v a t i o n from L a t i n . I n t h e same way a s new words and e x p r e s s i o n s a r e cons t a n t l y e n t e r i n g any language used by a speech community, t h e v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n grew up i n Western Europe a s a r e s u l t o f language change.  The L a t i n d e c l e n s i o n a l  system decayed, and i t s d i s a p p e a r a n c e n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a n o t h e r system o f m e a n i n g - i n d i c a t o r s , and i n c l u d e d t h e development  o f a number o f p r e p o s i t i o n s .  These  p r e p o s i t i o n s r e t a i n e d , on one hand, t h e f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d o u t by word endings - i n d i c a t i n g , f o r example,  approach,  w i t h d r a w a l , a g e n t , p o s s e s s i o n , e t c . , and b y t h e L a t i n prepos i t i o n a l system, and on the., o t h e r hand r e s u l t e d i n new cons t r u c t i o n s b e i n g formed by a n a l o g y , e s p e c i a l l y o f a c o n c e p t u a l order.  112 an e x a m i n a t i o n o f some f e a t u r e s o f O l d S p a n i s h has a f f o r d e d a k i n d o f h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the a t t i m e s p u z z l i n g c h o i c e o f p r e p o s i t i o n s ( o r the l a c k o f a p r e p o s i t i o n ) i n the v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The  original  c h o i c e o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s seems l i k e l y t o have been caused the s p e a k e r s  1  by  attempt t o e s t a b l i s h meaning d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h  they f e l t necessary.  T h e i r r e a s o n i n g was  i n f l u e n c e d by many  f a c t o r s , not t h e l e a s t among them b e i n g a n a l o g y , b o t h between two forms and between i d e a s .  F o r example, the use of a g e n i -  t i v e a f t e r a v e r b i n L a t i n had o f t e n produced the use o f  "de"  w i t h the s u b s t a n t i v e i n I b e r i a n Romance; from t h i s , i t was  a  s h o r t s t e p t o u s i n g . " d e " a f t e r the same v e r b , but b e f o r e an infinitive.  I n terms o f i d e a s , the s p e a k e r s l i k e l y  viewed  c e r t a i n v e r b s as e x p r e s s i n g ' d i r e c t i o n a l a c t i o n , whether  liter-  a l o r f i g u r a t i v e , and were t h u s persuaded t o u t i l i z e the app r o p r i a t e p r e p o s i t i o n t o convey t h i s i d e a . The f i n a l r e s u l t has been the physiognomy o f modern Spanish.  L o o k i n g a t the contemporary  compare i t s development'"with  language, we a r e a b l e t o  t h a t of i t s s i s t e r tongue,  and t h e r e b y see i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s .  French,  A l t h o u g h the two  lan-  guages have the same a n c e s t o r , t h e y have a c q u i r e d t h e i r separate l i n g u i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  own  The v e r b + p r e p o s i t i o n + i n -  f i n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s as common t o one as t o the o t h e r , but often manifests i t s e l f in-different.ways. "de" i n S p a n i s h may  Verbs  requiring  govern " a " i n F r e n c h ; v e r b s g o v e r n i n g  b o t h " a " and " p a r a " i n S p a n i s h cannot n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t e  this  d i f f e r e n c e s i m p l y by p r e p o s i t i o n a l c h o i c e , i n F r e n c h , and  so  113 on.  However, numerous correspondences do appear, as w o u l d  seem l o g i c a l , s i n c e , as mentioned, b o t h S p a n i s h and have been d e r i v e d from the same b a s i c  French  root.  F i n a l l y , i t can o n l y be added t h a t the s u b j e c t f u l l y open t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and  investigation.  c l u s i v e p r o o f has y e t been found t o c o r r o b o r a t e  remains No  the  contheory  t h a t the s p e a k e r s of Old S p a n i s h f e l t a s t r o n g " p r e p o s i t i o n a l " meaning when t h e y began t o use the  verb+preposition+infini-  t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n , an i d e n t i f i a b l e meaning w h i c h has passed i n t o o b s c u r i t y i n many c a s e s .  It is s t i l l  since  evident,  however, i n the use o f the p r e p o s i t i o n s "para',', "por", " s i n " , the d e l e t i o n o f w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y the p h r a s e ,  at the moment, i n any  and  u p s e t s the sense o f  case, no  contradictory  t h e o r y seems t o have p o s t u l a t e d w i t h any g r e a t e r  cogency.  H o p e f u l l y , more l e n g t h y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the problem w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e v e a l the  facts.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n and Greenough: New.Latin Grammar e d i t e d by J.B. Greenough, A . A . Howard, G.L. K i t t r e d g e , Benjamin L. B'Ooge. Ginn and Company, N.Y., 1 9 3 1 . Alonso, Amado:Particidn de l a s l e n g u a s romances de o c c i d e n t e ; E s t u d i o s l i n g u i s t u o s . Temas e s p a n o l e s . M a d r i d , E d i c i o n Gredos, 1 9 5 1 > PP« 1 9 e t s e q . Bach, Emmon: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars, H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , I n c . , N.Y., 1 9 6 4 . B a d i a M a r g a r i t , A n t o n i o M.: Los complimentos p r o n o m i n a l : a d v e r b i a l e s d e r i v a d o s de I B I e INDE en l a P e n i n s u l a I b e r i c a , R e v i s t a de F i l o l o g i a Esp. 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