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Inter-city bus terminal location criteria Cuylits, Edmond Reinier 1972

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INTER-CITY BUS TERMINAL LOCATION CRITERIA by EDMOND REINIER CUYLITS B.A., University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of GRADUATE STUDIES, SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept- this thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY, 1 9 7 2 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I farther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Edmond R. Cuylits, B.A. SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ( i ) ABSTRACT Since the i n i t i a l development of i n t e r - c i t y t r a n s p o r t , f i x e d stopping places s e r v i n g i n t e r - c i t y common c a r r i e r modes have become e s t a b l i s h e d . Such stopping places i n c l u d e l o c a t i o n s w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e s or terminals that f a c i l i t a t e the interchange process and l i n k the access or egress journey to the l i n e haul mode. T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n t e r - c i t y bus terminals have been s i t u a t e d i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of met r o p o l i t a n areas. However, the expansion of urban areas and the d i s p e r s i o n of urban a c t i v i t i e s i n t o these areas would suggest that the t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of the bus terminals i s no longer o p t i m a l . This t h e s i s poses t h i s question i n the hypothesis which s t a t e s : The optimal l o c a t i o n f o r an i n t e r - c i t y bus t e r m i n a l . i n an urban metr o p o l i t a n area i s one at or near that m e t r o p o l i t a n area's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . I n order to develop a d e f i n i t i o n f o r o p t i m a l l o c a t i o n an examination i s f i r s t made of inter-model competition and f a c t o r s that a f f e c t demand. Time and cost are i n d i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e to be of prime importance and t h e i r m i n i m i z a t i o n encourages t r a v e l . As access and egress journeys form s i g n i f i c a n t elements of the i n t e r - c i t y journey, the time and cost of these journey segments receive most.of the a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed. Measurements of these f a c t o r s i s discussed at l e n g t h . As the i n t e r - c i t y t e r m i n a l i s the interchange point which l i n k s the access or egress journey to the l i n e haul mode, ( i i ) a v a r i a t i o n i n the t e r m i n a l s ' l o c a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t these journey segments. The optimal l o c a t i o n i s defined i n terms of minimizing the access/egress journey times and cost i n order to s t i m u l a t e demand. However, demand o r i e n t e d l o c a t i o n s may have high land a c q u i s i t i o n and operating costs that would negate the b e n e f i t of such l o c a t i o n s and f o r t h i s reason t h i s aspect must be considered i n the l o c a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to the consequences of such l o c a t i o n on the present and f u t u r e urban environment. These three c r i t e r i a - demand, cost and urban impacts must be included i n the e v a l u a t i o n of t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n . I t i s concluded that a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n near the hub of the urban t r a n s i t system i s most d e s i r a b l e f o r main bus t e r m i n a l s . In the f u t u r e , the importance of the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i l l d e c l i n e and a l o c a t i o n on the t r a n s i t system w i l l become the most d e s i r a b l e . However, w i t h the d i s p e r s i o n of urban p a t t e r n s , i t may be necessary, to add .suburban terminals which can best be l o c a t e d near major a r t e r i a l s and -at points where suburban town centers should be encouraged. ( i i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE; INTRODUCTION Page 1 The Stopping Place in Inter-City Travel 1 1 . 2 Inter-City Travel - A Definition 3 1 . 3 Terminal Location and Impact. 6 l . H - The Balance in Inter-City Transportation: A. Perspective. 7 1 . 5 The Hypothesis 1 7 1 . 6 The Study Approach 1 8 CHAPTER TWO; THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS 23 2 . 1 Introduction 2 3 2 . 2 Early Bus Terminals 23 2 . 3 Location Optimization - The Gravity Principle 2 8 2,h Passenger Characteristics 3 6 2 . 5 Passenger Origins and Destinations 3 9 2 . 6 Future Distribution of Trip Origins and Destinations ht 2 . 7 Line Haul Times k-2 . 8 Supply of Transport Services - An Economic Consideration *+6 2 . 9 Community Planning Considerations ^-9 2 . 1 0 The Ottawa Terminal Relocation - An Example. 5 1 2 . 1 1 Inter-city Terminal Location, A Summary 53 CHAPTER THREE; BUS TERMINAL LOCATION 5 8 3 . 1 Introduction 5 8 3 . 2 The Terminal in the Inter-city Bus System 5 8 3 . 3 Bus Terminal Use and Location 5 9 3.H- Access and Egress Journeys - Modal Choice 5 9 3 . 5 Implications of Future Demand on Terminal Location 6 3 3 . 6 The Line Haul Journey and the Bus Terminal6"+ 3 . 7 Inter-city Bus Costs 6 5 3 . 8 Community Planning and Bus Terminals 6 6 3 . 9 Summary 6 7 CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND- CONCLUSION 7 0 ( i v ) L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e 1 . 1 A n n u a l I n t e r - c i t y P a s s e n g e r M i l e s L o g g e d i n C a n a d a T a b l e 1,2 R e l a t i v e R o l e o f Common C a r r i e r M o d es. T a b l e 2 . 1 C o m p a r i s o n o f B u s i n e s s T r i p s B e t w e e n New Y o r k C i t y and W a s h i n g t o n D.C. T a b l e 2.2 U s a g e o f I n t e r - C i t y Modes B e t w e e n P h i l a d e l p h i a and W a s h i n g t o n b y Income C r o u p s i n C o m p a r i s o n w i t h S.A.R.C. D a t a . T a b l e 2 .3 T r a v e l P u r p o s e - % f o r C i t y P a i r T a b l e 2,h L o c a l T r a v e l Modes f o r I n t e r - C i t y T r a v e l l e r s i n t h e N o r t h e a s t C o r r i d o r T a b l e 2 , 5 A v e r a g e L o c a l T r a v e l T i m e s 16 16 33 38 38 hi kl (v) LIST OF DIAGRAMS Figure 1.1 The Inter-city Journey Pa Figure 2.1 . Cumilitive Distribution of Passenger Income on Inter-city Modes (vi) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank a l l those who assisted me in the preparation of this thesis. In particular I wish to indicate my appreciation to Mr. P. Roer and Mr. Wm. Rees for their advice concerning the organization, of this paper. I would also wish to thank my employer,• my parents, and my wife, for their patience and cooperation while this study was being prepared. Finally I wish to thank my-typist, Mrs. Andrea Howell, for her willingness to work at a l l hours to complete the f i n a l document. E. R. Cuylits CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION. 1.1 The S t o p p i n g P l a c e i n I n t e r - c i t y T r a v e l . W i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r - c i t y p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , f i x e d s t o p p i n g p l a c e s became e s t a b l i s h e d , w h ere p a s s e n g e r s c o u l d g a t h e r and b o a r d t h e i n t e r - c i t y v e h i c l e . E a r l y s t o p p i n g ' p l a c e s f o r s u c h i n t e r - c i t y modes as t h e s t a g e c o a c h r e q u i r e d no p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e s , as p a s s e n g e r ' p i c k up a l o n g t h e r o a d w a y was p o s s i b l e . I n u r b a n i z e d a r e a s t h e s e p o i n t s w e r e w e l l a d v e r t i s e d and o f t e n l o c a t e d a t c a f e s , t a v e r n s , o r a t t h e " ; c a r r i e r ' s o f f i c e s . The r a i l w a y , w i t h i t s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d e l a b o r a t e s t o p p i n g p l a c e s and f r e q u e n t l y s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e s - t e r m i n a l s o r s t a t i o n s - were b u i l t t o p e r m i t a c c e s s t o 1 t h e t r a n s p o r t v e h i c l e s . S i m i l a r l y , a i r p o r t s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . T h u s , t h e s i n g l e s t o p p i n g p l a c e became a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e h o u s i n g t h e many and v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h t r a n s p o r t t e c h n o l o g y . F o r i n t e r - c i t y g r o u n d t r a n s p o r t , t h e s t o p p i n g p o i n t s I n t h e l a r g e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a t a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n and many s t i l l h a v e t h e s e c e n t r a l t t e r m i n a l s f o r r a i l and bus modes. . T h e s e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s f o r r a i l t e r m i n a l s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e g r o w t h o f c i t i e s a r o u n d and a way f r o m t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . T h e s e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d 2 optimal as urban p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , which provided the main mode of t r a n s p o r t i n c i t i e s , f r e q u e n t l y converged on the c i t y center. However, i n c r e a s i n g automobile ownership has diminished the Si dependency on l o c a l p u b l i c modes and has permitted greater i n d i v i d u a l choice i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n away from the t r a n s i t r outes. The r e s u l t a n t d i s p e r s a l of urbanized areas i n t o the countrys i d e , while i n t e r - c i t y bus and r a i l terminals have tended to remain i n the c i t y c e n t e r s , r a i s e s the question whether or not t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n i s s t i l l o p t i m al. This paper focuses i t s a t t e n t i o n on t h i s issue and' w i l l make s p e c i f i c reference to the te r m i n a l s e r v i n g the i n t e r - c i t y bus system. The question r a i s e d w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t h i s chapter. I t i s intended that the a n a l y s i s made w i l l suggest c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r - c i t y bus te r m i n a l l o c a t i o n which can be of as s i s t a n c e to bus operators, planners, and of b e n e f i t to t r a v e l l e r s . For the planner, these c r i t e r i a can be of as s i s t a n c e i n planning f o r new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l s , urban development, and the l o c a t i o n of new highways. For example, Toronto, Canada, i s contemplating a major downtown redevelopment p r o j e c t c a l l e d "Metro Center" which would inc l u d e a comprehensive transpor-t a t i o n t e r m i n a l at i t s core. The p r o j e c t would i n c l u d e i n t e r -c i t y and commuter r a i l , l o c a l and i n t e r - c i t y bus, subway, and a i r l i n e limousine t e r m i n a l s . 1 The c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d can a i d i n the assessment of t h i s p r o j e c t . 3 1.2. I n t e r - c i t y T r a v e l - A D e f i n i t i o n . I n i t s p r i m i t i v e stages, i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l can be more a c c u r a t e l y defined as inter-community t r a v e l that takes place between communities separated by s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d or r u r a l areas. This d e f i n i t i o n , however, i s not a p p l i c a b l e i n modern North America where many regions have become e x t e n s i v e l y urbanized and i n d i v i d u a l communities have p h y s i c a l l y , (but not n e c e s s a r i l y p o l i t i c a l l y ) merged to form l a r g e urban conglomer-a t i o n s . A more accurate d e f i n i t i o n of modern i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l i s one which r e f e r s to i n t e r - m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a v e l only and does not i n c l u d e t r a v e l between various communities w i t h i n the me t r o p o l i t a n area. This would exclude commuter t r a f f i c which has i t s o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n the same met r o p o l i t a n area. Once having e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l as the movement between m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, the i n t e r - c i t y journey i t s e l f can be analyzed as one having three basic segments? the access journey from the point of o r i g i n to the main i n t e r - c i t y mode; the l i n e haul journey on the i n t e r - c i t y mode; and the egress journey from t h i s mode to the ult i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y , the f i r s t and l a s t segments of the journey occur w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. The points where these various journey segments>;meethand where t r a n s f e r i s made, can be considered the interchange or t r a n s f e r p o i n t . F i g u r e one s c h e m a t i c a l l y portrays the t y p i c a l i n t e r - c i t y journey. FIGURE ONE: THE INTER-CITY JOURNEY. 1 | o r i g i n ^ i n t e r -Y change point i ! 1 i n t e r -^ change Y point • d e s t i n -™ ation ORIGIN URBAN AREA DESTINATION URBAN AREA ACCESS LINE HAUL EGRESS DIRECTION OF TRAVEL 5 The l o c a t i o n of the interchange point and the l e n g t h of the access or egress journey can vary w i d e l y , depending on the type of mode used and the l o c a t i o n of the ultimate o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . When the automobile i s the l i n e haul mode, the access or egress p o r t i o n of the journey i s f r e q u e n t l y very short as an automobile can u s u a l l y be "parked" close to the o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y , the access or egress journey i s made by the most personal mode a v a i l a b l e , one's own f e e t . The point where the car i s parked—can t e c h n i c a l l y be considered as the interchange p o i n t . With common c a r r i e r s , however, the interchange point i s o f t e n at a p a r t i c u l a r set l o c a t i o n and the access or egress journey w i l l vary i n l e n g t h , depending on the l o c a t i o n of the ultim a t e o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . These journey segments can, th e r e f o r e , be of considerable distance and may i n v o l v e the use of l o c a l t r a n s p o r t modes other than walking. I f r e q u i r e d , these journey segments could be. separated i n t o subsections w i t h secondary- interchange p o i n t s . The l o c a t i o n of the interchange point f o r some i n t e r -c i t y modes can be v a r i a b l e (e.g. roadside stopping places f o r buses) w i t h i n the urban s e t t i n g . A l s o , s e v e r a l points may e x i s t w i t h i n the one urbanized area s e r v i n g the same mode (e.g. a mode having both c e n t r a l and suburban s t a t i o n s ) . 1 U s u a l l y at l e a s t one of the points has a s p e c i a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e or t e r m i n a l capable of handling l a r g e volumes of passengers and f a c i l i t a t e interchange. 6 1.3. Terminal L o c a t i o n and Impact. As was i n d i c a t e d above, the point of interchange f o r common c a r r i e r s i s u s u a l l y at a set l o c a t i o n and t h i s l o c a t i o n can have an impact on the i n t e r - c i t y journey segments. For example, i f o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s remain constant and the interchange point i s r e l o c a t e d , l i n e haul and access/egress journey segments may be lenghthened or shortened, causing t r a v e l times and/or costs to a l t e r . Using the concepts of comparative time and cost performance of each mode, these s h i f t s can r e s u l t i n the realignment of the use of each mode. This concept w i l l be discussed more f u l l y i n chapter two, but i t can be sta t e d at t h i s point that i f o v e r a l l costs and t r a v e l times f o r t r a v e l l e r s are reduced by the change i n p a r t i c u l a r mode's t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n , increased patronage on that mode can be expected. Many of the studies of the Boston to Washington t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r (the Northeast C o r r i d o r ) have a p p l i e d themselves to t h i s concept and w i l l , be r e f e r r e d to i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. A s i m i l a r e f f e c t could be a n t i c i p a t e d i f urban patterns ( i n c l u d i n g the l o c a t i o n of o r i g i n s / d e s t i n a t i o n s ) s h i f t xtfhile the t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n remains constant. For example, the spread of c i t i e s hkas; lengthened the average distance to the c i t y center and have f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n the access and egress portions of the i n t e r - c i t y journey v i a common c a r r i e r ; ? Thus i t could be argued that there i s a point where the access and egress portions become so la r g e i n terms of time and c o s t , that t r a v e l l e r s w i l l s h i f t t h e i r choice to a mode whose performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have become more d e s i r a b l e . 7 Should a p a r t i c u l a r c a r r i e r wish to r e t a i n t h i s patronage, i t may be necessary to r e l o c a t e the t e r m i n a l or to provide a d d i t i o n a l terminals where interchange can take place. Terminals have p a r t i c u l a r impacts on urban s t r u c t u r e that are u s u a l l y not included i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n network. This impact can be on l o c a l ..transportation p a t t e r n s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of land v a l u e s , and. land uses w i t h i n the c i t y . Gaekenheimer discussed an extreme example of such a set of impacts by c o n s i d e r i n g a s i n g l e interchange point t o serve a l l common c a r r i e r i n t e r - c i t y modes. .Should•such a s i n g l e t e r m i n a l be e s t a b l i s h e d , Gaekenheimer argued, i t would n e c e s s i t a t e the r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of access systems w i t h i n the c i t y " i n such a. manner as to make land p r i c e s , d e n s i t y of occupancy, and the need f o r r a d i a l access most d i f f i c u l t problems which might w e l l be i n s o l v a b l e at the urban level"!'^.-. One of h i s conclusions i s that the impacts of t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n (or l o c a t i o n s ) on the urban s t r u c t u r e should not be neglected. To conclude, the suggested approach to the e v a l u a t i o n of t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n i s the e v a l u a t i o n of impact on the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system balance r e s u l t i n g from s h i f t s i n access and egress journeys and the impact on the urban environment i n which the t e r m i n a l i s l o c a t e d . l.h. The Balance i n I n t e r - C i t y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : A P e r s p e c t i v e . The balance among the various i n t e r - c i t y t r a n s p o r t modes has v a r i e d w i t h the development of new technology and the 8 a b i l i t y of the North American public to afford, personal transport modes. In order to indicate the nature of the present balance and the role of terminal location in this balance of brief description of recent trends in inter-city travel w i l l indicate the changing use patterns. After the early stage coaches yielded to the faster and more comfortable train, the railways were the dominant mode for travel for many decades in the late 19th and early 2.0th centuries. However, i t can be suggested that since the turn of the century, the railways have failed to make the improvements needed to permit them to continue i t s dominant position in inter-city travel. For medium and long haul distance travel, railway speeds have not improved significantly since 1920 and i t is claimed that l i t t l e effort has; been made to improve the comfort and convenience of this mode to passengers^ The major decline of railway passenger" service is clearly evident in the passenger statistics (which w i l l be discussed below) and the considerable cutbacks in scheduled train service. The U.S. railroads listed *+21 passenger trains in their 1969 schedule, a drop of over 19,000 trains since 1929.? As a last resort, the United States government introduced a network of subsidized passenger services, called AMTRACK, which freed the railways from part of the claimed losses incurred by unprofitable passenger operations. The AMTRACK network has a basic inter-city grid of sixteen routes. According to U.S. Transportation Secretary, John Volpe, the system w i l l require only half the current number of trains while reducing service by only 15%.^ The f u t u r e of i n t e r - c i t y r a i l w a y passenger operations using e x i s t i n g technology does not appear b r i g h t . The high c a p i t a l investments required and the cost squeeze e f f e c t of r i s i n g labour demands and i n c r e a s i n g inter-modal competition suggest that the r a i l w a y w i l l only continue to operate extensive passenger networks under s u b s i d i z e d programs such as the AMTRACK system. This i s evidenced by the number of p e t i t i o n s f i l e d f o r abandonment and the speed w i t h which the r a i l w a y s accepted AMTRACK.'7. Research and demonstration p r o j e c t s p r e s e n t l y underway i n the Northeast C o r r i d o r are suggesting a f u t u r e f o r i n t e r - c i t y r a i l t r a n s p o r t which i s l i m i t e d to medium distance t r a v e l (200 to 600 m i l e s j i v , The M e t r o l i n e r , introduced, under such a demonstration program, operates on the Washington to New York run and d i d cost the Penn-Central Railway $^5 m i l l i o n and the U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n $11 m i l l i o n to develop!? A s i m i l a r demonstration program i s the T u r b o - t r a i n operation between Boston and New York. I t should be noted that these new s e r v i c e s required not only new r o l l i n g stock but a l s o extensive improvements to the r i g h t s of way.?®-'<;>•» Some new technologies suggested f o r high speed ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are r e l a t e d to e x i s t i n g r a i l techniques but i n v o l v e h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d r i g h t of way technology. Such systems would operate at speeds i n excess of 160 miles per hour and could u t i l i z e such motive power as the l i n e a r i n d u c t i o n motor. Another suggested type of v e h i c l e has been 10 1 1 the tracked hover t r a i n or a i r cushioned v e h i c l e , Costs f o r these new systems are expected to be co n s i d e r a b l y higher than f o r conventional techniques and w i l l be feasable i n high d e n s i t y t r a v e l c o r r i d o r s only. H i s t o r i c a l l y , "the f i r s t major challenge to the r a i l r o a d passenger t r a i n " occurred, i n the 1920's when the -in t e r u r b a n - an outgrowth of the urban s t r e e t r a i l w a y - reached i t s peak«!-v7 At i t s greatest extent, i n t h i s peak p e r i o d , the 1 i n t e r u r b a n provided f a s t and frequent s e r v i c e to many communities along a network of 15,000 route miles i n the U'.S.. alone. I n Canada, extensive networks e x i s t e d around some of the major urban areas i n c l u d i n g Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver, I n 1926, the i n t e r u r b a n accounted f o r 11.7$ of the t o t a l i n t e r -c i t y passenger miles completed by 'common c a r r i e r s i n the United States\ : over 72$ was handled by the r a i l r o a d s ; while the remainder was completed by a new mode of t r a n s p o r t , the motor busier. As the bus was able to share the r i g h t of way w i t h the automobile, the development of i n t e r - c i t y highways permitted the expansion of bus route s . I t was during the 1920's that many of the governments began to fund highway c o n s t r u c t i o n to accommodate the i n c r e a s i n g number of p r i v a t e l y owned automobilesi^vi. Such companies as Grey Coach Lines of Toronto reported that i t took f u l l advantage of the new highways to provide new s e r v i c e s - ^ ? In the e a r l y years the bus was considered an e x c i t i n g n o v e l t y and i t f r e q u e n t l y a t t r a c t e d much r i d e r s h i p f o r t h i s 11 r e a s o n . - ^ H o w e v e r , t h e v a l u e o f t h e bus w i t h i t s f l e x i b i l i t y was q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d and t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t o r s s u c h as t h e T o r o n t o T r a n s i t C o m m i s s i o n saw t h e bus as t h e " l o g i c a l a n s w e r t o t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r a i l s e r v i c e s . " - ' - ? One o f t h e f i r s t r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d bus s e r v i c e s i n C a n a d a was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e T.T.C. on S e p t e m b e r 20th, 1921. A l t h o u g h l e s s c o m f o r t a b l e , t h a n t h e i n t e r u r b a n s , t h e i n t e r - c i t y bus p r o v i d e d s t r o n g c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i t s . l o w f a r e s . " D u r i n g t h e 1920's, i n t e r - c i t y bus f a r e s a v e r a g e d 2.25 c e n t s p e r m i l e , ' w i t h a-'..low o f 1.8 c e n t s , w h i l e t h e i n t e r u r b a n c h a r g e d b e t w e e n 2,h and 3.0 c e n t s p e r m i l e . The f i x e d i n v e s t m e n t i n t r a c k and e l e c t r i c a l f i x t u r e s p l u s a s s o c i a t e d m a i n t e n a n c e gave t h e i n t e r u r b a n a n a v e r a g e m a r g i n a l c o s t s t r u c t u r e h i g h e r t h a n b u s e s a t t h e l o w p a s s e n g e r d e n s i t i e s t h e y c a r r i e d . " 1 " F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e T.T.C. e s t a b l i s h e d G r e y C o a c h L i n e s i n 1927. The bus s y s t e m r e p l a c e d many o f t h e i n t e r u r b a n r o u t e s and i n i t i a t e d l o n g d i s t a n c e r u n s as w e l l . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e m a i n i n t e r - c i t y r o u t e t o N i a g a r a F a l l s c a r r i e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 280,000 p a s s e n g e r s . ^ 9 B y 1929, G r e y C o a c h s e r v i c e s had t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f . t h e e x p a n d i n g h i g h w a y n e t w o r k and a l a r g e f l e e t o f m o t o r b u s e s had b e e n p u r c h a s e d . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i n and a r o u n d T o r o n t o was t y p i c a l o f 12 the changes in inter-city surface transport throughout North America. Bus lines expanded their routes, improved the quality of their fleeiH, and attracted passengers from the interurban. Perhaps the greatest single improvement in bus service occured when the Greyhound Corporation designed i t s "Scenicruiser" almost thirty years ago. This vehicle had a smoother and. more comfortable ride than any of i t s predecessors, and cruising speed of sixty-eight miles per hour.^O Recently Greyhound introduced its new M.C.6 and M.C.7 "Super-cruisers" which have improved air conditioning, seating and twice as much luggage and parcel space.^ The latter reflects the rapid growth of the package express business. The long run future of inter-city bus transport appears to be moderately optimistic. Although inter-city bus patronage has levelled at the moment, the operators are confident the bus w i l l remain a significant element in the inter-city transport system; This' optimism is based on such factors as the low fixed capital investment required where buses operate on ready-made:rights of way. The bus system has 90 the lowest break even point of a l l the common c a r r i e r s . ^ Such operators as Mr. D. P. Anton of Grey Coach Lines feel that! "No other passenger carrying mode is more flexible in i t s a b i l i t y to meet public demand, than is the inter-city passenger bus industry. "^3 Buses are able to pick up and discharge passengers at the centers of population, and at most points along a route travelled. In effect, the inter-city bus resembles the stage coach, mentioned 13 i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n i t s f l e x i b l e r o u t i n g , low f i x e d c o s t s , and i t s a b i l i t y to c a r r y both passengers and express f r e i g h t . To i l l u s t r a t e the f l e x i b i l i t y and economy of the c a r r i e r , "one may note the promptness w i t h which bus s e r v i c e takes up the s l a c k i n areas where ra i l w a y s f i n d i t necessary to discontinue passenger t r a i n s e r v i c e * ' ^ : Bus operators are p r e s e n t l y promoting t r a v e l on t h e i r v e h i c l e s over intermediate d i s t a n c e s . This appears to be the t r i p distance where buses can compete e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h other forms of t r a n s p o r t . Greyhound r e c e n t l y announced plans to a c t i v e l y promote i t s non-stop s e r v i c e on runs of 200 to 300 m i l e s . The company claims i t can provide t r a v e l times comparable to r a i l i n v e h i c l e s that are as comfortable as the standard r a i l w a y coach. Furthermore, i t f e e l s the s e r v i c e can be of f e r e d at much lower f a r e s than i s p o s s i b l e with any other common c a r r i e r s 1 * ^ '•j The t h i r d major i n t e r - c i t y common c a r r i e r i s the a i r mode. This mode has been c i t e d as one of'the major.causes of the d e c l i n e of i n t e r - c i t y r a i l t r a n s p o r t . In Canada, e a r l y a i r passenger s e r v i c e s were operated by many small firms s c a t t e r e d throughout the country. The i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of these s e r v i c e s i s that they d i d not grow r a p i d l y i n the h e a v i l y populated areas. Rather they i n i t i a l l y served areas not yet penetrated by roads and r a i l w a y s - . ^ The establishment of Trans Canada A i r l i n e s by the Canadian Government i n 1937 provided the beginning of long d i s t a n c e i n t e r - c i t y s e r v i c e i n Canada. However, the company did not develop i n t o a major c a r r i e r of passengers, m a i l , and f r e i g h t u n t i l the second world wari 1?? The growth of T.C.A. during the war p a r a l l e l l e d the development of a i r s e r v i c e s i n many western c o u n t r i e s . Since the second world war, passenger t r a f f i c on a i r l i n e s has grown sharply and congestion problems i n some of the more h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d areas have developed. The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h i s mode has been p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a s t s e r v i c e over long distances and at r e l a t i v e l y low f a r e s . The l a t t e r i s p o s s i b l e by the "very l a r g e number of seat miles that the high speed v e h i c l e i s able to f l y per day." ° The speed of a i r t r a n s p o r t ensures i t s r o l e i n i n t e r -c i t y t r a v e l over longer d i s t a n c e s . However, f o r intermediate and s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s , the t r a d i t i o n a l f i x e d wing a i r c r a f t w i l l experience i n c r e a s i n g competition from advanced ground tr a n s p o r t technology as a i r congestion and ground access problems become more acute. Research i n t o new types of v e h i c l e s such as short or v e r t i c a l t a k e - o f f a i r c r a f t may r e s u l t i n an expansion of a i r t r a v e l f o r shorter distances i f economic and t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s can be surmounted. The use of super-sonic a i r c r a f t f o r the longer i n t e r - c i t y distances s t i l l appears to be remote as many environmental and economic problems s t i l l have to be solved. By f a r the most ubiquitous mode i s the p r i v a t e automobile. The growth of t h i s mode has been sp e c t a c u l a r and .well documented elsewhere. The Systems A n a l y s i s Research Corporation (S.A.R.C.) suggests that the automobile i s i n such 15 great demand because i t s relative costs have not increased . as rapidly as the cost of l i v i n g . "The cost of owning and driving a car have not, in the aggregate, gone up as fast as the general cost of l i v i n g nor have they mounted as fast as real family income... Auto costs have increased at a.lower rate than other modes since 19^8...It is not surprising that car usage continues to gain." 2 9 The S.A.R.C. report indicates that as f a c i l i t i e s are further improved with new inter-city highways, these costs w i l l further decline. This would make the automobile available to an increasing proportion of the public. Over shorter distances the automobile is frequently the fastest mode as the vehicle is usually available when needed'and l i t t l e time is lost in gaining access to i t . This view is confirmed by studies such as those completed by National Analysts Inc. concerning travel in the Northeast Corridor, and by Boorer and Davey concerning demand for V/STOL aircraft .3°?31 However, in areas where inter-city freeways are well established, travel distances by automobile can be substantial. Beimbofin suggests that time limitations coupled' with trip costs are c r i t i c a l determinants of automobile use. The study maintains that common carriers can only be expected to be competitive whens "The combination of good terminal locations and low inter-city times and costs have an advantage over the direct route, schedule free automobile. "32 The growing use of the automobile can best be indicated 16 by the s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e concerning i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l i n Canada. I n the period between 19*+9 and 1968, the number of i n t e r - c i t y passenger miles logged i n t h i s country has increased by 56 b i l l i o n passenger miles - g i v i n g an annual increase of 2.9 b i l l i o n m i l e s . Of t h i s t o t a l growth, the automobile has accounted f o r 86$, the remainder being a t t r i b u t a b l e .to the. • common c a r r i e r - a i r , bus, and r a i l . The growth i s shown i n table Ivl;:- below. TABLE 1.1 ANNUAL INTER-CITY PASSENGER MILES LOGGED IN CANADA ( I n - B i l l i o n s of M i l e s ) 19^9 1968 AUTOMOBILES 21.^2 70.10 COMMON CARRIERS 6.97 11.12 - A i r .39 ^.20 -Bus 3.39 ^.^1 - R a i l 3.19 2.51 TOTAL 28.39 81.22 Sources! Dr. H. L. Purdy, U.B.C. Dominion' Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada) I f the mileage completed on common c a r r i e r s can be considered s e p a r a t e l y , then the specta c u l a r growth of the a i r sector can be r e a d i l y observed. Table T^B below gives the comparative f i g u r e s f o r the same period as above. TABLE 1.2 RELATIVE ROLE OF COMMON CARRIER MODES. (% of T o t a l Common C a r r i e r I n t e r - c i t y Passenger M i l e s . ) 19^9 1968 AIR 5.6 37.7 BUS ^8.7 39.7 RAIL >+5.7 22.6 Source: Dr. H. L. Purdy, U.B.C. 17 The two tables show that the railways have not only suffered a .^relative decline but also an absolute one. The other ground mode, the inter-city bus, experienced a relative decline but increased i t s total passenger mileage logged annually by 1 . 0 2 b i l l i o n miles. In summary, the statistics show that there has been a definite shift in the usage of modes available for inter-city transport. It appears that the performance characteristics of the automobile in terms of time and cost and the airplane have attracted the largest increases. It is the comparative performances of a l l modes and their technological improvements that w i l l greatly affect the future balance of t r a f f i c among various modes, including the private automobile and the inter-city bus. 1.5 The Hypothesis Despite the dominance of the automobile and the airplane, the statistics indicate the inter-city bus is an important transporter of inter-city passengers, and as i t has been described as one of the more flexible modes, a study of bus terminal location can provide a useful example for a l l inter-city transport. Relocation can occur with comparative ease and the fact that a significant sector of the travelling public w i l l be affected, makes the bus terminal an interesting element of the terminal system for study. 18 I t can be shown that the t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of the bus t e r m i n a l i s i n or near the c e n t r a l point of an urban area. This l o c a t i o n p e r s i s t s i n most North American c i t i e s but a recent s h i f t i n Montreal of a major bus t e r m i n a l away from the c i t y center would suggest that t h i s l o c a t i o n could no longer be optimal. The r e l o c a t i o n i n t h i s instance was l a r g e l y a p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n by the operator and a case i s made f o r a non-CBD l o c a t i o n . To t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n , a hypothesis can be formulated to s t a t e that t h i s l o c a t i o n i s s t i l l o p t i m a l . Stated b r i e f l y ! The optimal l o c a t i o n f o r an i n t e r - c i t y bus t e r m i n a l i n an urban m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s one at or near that m e t r o p o l i t a n area's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . The meaning of optimal w i l l be developed i n chapter two. 1 . 6 The Study Approach This chapter has e s t a b l i s h e d the nature and context of the problem to be explored. I t has defined the r o l e of the i n t e r - c i t y passenger t e r m i n a l i n terms of i t s e f f e c t s on the i n t e r - c i t y journey and the balance among the various modes se r v i n g the same l i n k a g e s . The data presented concerning the growth of i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l and the development of various modes places the i n t e r - c i t y bus (the mode to be studied) i n i t s context of the t o t a l system. The concept of 'balance' among the various modes and the competition f o r passengers has .suggested the importance of time and cost i n the a b i l i t y of a mode to a t t r a c t a p o r t i o n of the t o t a l t r a v e l market and can be 1 9 used to analyze the e f f e c t s of -various t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n s . This chapter has i n d i c a t e d that e x t e r n a l i t i e s of urban impacts should be considered and that an e v a l u a t i o n of t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n should a l s o be made i n terms of urban planning p o l i c i e s . For purposes of e v a l u a t i o n , the example of the bus t e r m i n a l i s used. In the second chapter, an a n a l y s i s of some of the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject w i l l be made. The l i t e r a t u r e regarding e a r l y terminals suggests the c r i t e r i a considered for. t h e i r l o c a t i o n which can provide the basis f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l exam-i n a t i o n . This examination i s based on more recent research. This chapter w i l l conclude w i t h a summary of urban impacts on l o c a t i o n and the l o c a t i o n impacts of the environment of e a r l i e r t e r m i n a l s . The i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n chapter two w i l l be developed i n t o a n a l y s i s c r i t e r i a and a t e s t of the hypothesis . w i l l be made on data e x i s t i n g f o r some eastern Canadian c i t i e s . A c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be presented i n the l a s t chapter, chapter f o u r . 20 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I 1. S. M. A n d r e w s , " M e t r o C e n t r e " , U r b a n R e n e w a l a n d Low Income H o u s i n g , V o l u m e 5*2, 1969, p.2, 2. L. K. S i l l c o x , " R a i l w a y ' s R o l e i n S p e e d , S e r v i c e , a n d S a f e t y " , H i g h S p e e d G r o u n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . I I , No. 1, J a n u a r y , 1968', p. 2 0 6 . ' "~ 3. R. A. G a e k e n h e i m e r , " H i g h S p e e d T r a n s i t i n U r b a n A r e a s " , High. S p e e d G r o u n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . I , No. 1, J a n u a r y , 1967,. P»30. " h. " R a i l p a x P a s s e n g e r T r a i n s W i l l be i n S e r v i c e i n S i x M o n t h s " , R a i l w a y A g e , O c t . 26, 1970, p.lh. 5. "U. S. P l a n s S i x t e e n R o u t e G r i d " , V a n c o u v e r S u n , D e c . 1, 1970, p.63. 6. L o c . c i t . 7. A C a n a d i a n e x a m p l e i s t h e p e t i t i o n t o t h e C a n a d i a n T r a n s p o r t C o m m i s s i o n i n 1970 f o r t h e abandonment o f p a s s e n g e r s e r v i c e s on G.P.R. r o u t e s . 8. G. D. F r i e d l a n d e r , " R a i l w a y v s . H i g h w a y " , I . E . E . E . S p e c t r u m , S e p t e m b e r , 1967, p.69. 9. L o c . c i t . 10. A C a n a d i a n p r o j e c t was t h e s h o r t - l i v e d " T u r b o - t r a i n " • e x p e r i m e n t b e t w e e n T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l . 11. P. J . D e t m o l d , T. E . P a r k i n s o n , G. A. C l a r k , A s p e c t s o f  I n t e r c i t y P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t , P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o C a n a d i a n Good: Roads A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , 1970. 12. G. W. H i l t o n and J . F . Due, The E l e c t r i c I n t e r u r b a n .'.Railways i n A m e r i c a , S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , . i960, p.^1. 13. D. N. Dewees, "The D e c l i n e o f A m e r i c a n S t r e e t R a i l w a y s " , T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2h, No. p.569. 2 1 1*+. Wabco, A Study of E v o l u t i o n a r y Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , V o l . I I , Clearinghouse, PB178-268. ' . ' . 1 5 . Toronto T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission, T r a n s i t i o n Toronto, Toronto, 1969, p.19. 1 6 . Toronto T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission, Wheels of Progress, Toronto, 1944, p. 70. 17. T.T.C., Wheels of Progress, p.3 6 . 1 8 . D. H. Dewees, op. c i t . , p. 568. 1 9 . T.T.C. T r a n s i t i n Toronto, p . l 8 . 20. B. W. F i r t h , E v o l u t i o n a r y Development of the P u b l i c  Transport System, S o c i e t y of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 696124, January, 1 9 6 9 . 21. Greyhound I n c . , Greyhound Annual Report, 1 9 6 9 . 2 2 . D. S c r a f t o n and S. van Steinburgh, The I n t e r - C i t y Motor  Coach Industry i n Canada, M i n i s t r y of Transport, Canada, A p r i l 1 9 7 0 , p.114. 2 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 1 3 . 24. I b i d . , p. 114. 2 5 . " F i g h t i n g a Doggy Image", Time Magazine, No. 2 , 1 9 7 0 , p. 5 9 . 2 6 . A. E. W. S a l t , I m p e r i a l A i r Routes, London, John Murray, 1 9 3 0 , p. 1 9 3 . 2 7 . C. A. Ashley, The F i r s t Twenty-Five Years: A Study of  Trans-Canada A i r l i n e s , Toronto, MacMillan, 1 9 6 3 . 2 8 . M. M i l l e r , "High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Research and Development," High Speed. Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  J o u r n a l , V o l . I , No. 1 , January, 1 9 6 7 , p. 16. 2 9 . Systems A n a l y s i s Research Corporation (S.A.R.C.), Demand  f o r I n t e r C i t y Passenger T r a v e l i n the Washington -Boston C o r r i d o r , Clearinghouse, PB 166-884, p. I I I - 4 . 3 0 . N a t i o n a l Analysts Incorporated, The Needs and Desires of  T r a v e l l e r s i n the Northeast C o r r i d o r , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa., 1 9 7 0 . 22 3 1 . N . W. Boorer and B. J. Davey, '•'Characteristics and Problems Associated -with V/STOL Operations", Aircraft Engineering (London), Vol. ^ 1 , No. 3, March 1 9 6 9 , p. 1 9 . 32. E. A. Beimborn, "Terminal Access and the Choice of Intercity-Modes", Transportation Engineering Journal, August, 1 9 6 9 p. 23 CHAPTER TWO; THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS. 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . This chapter reviews some of the informat i o n a v a i l a b l e concerning t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of e a r l i e r bus terminals and the reasons f o r t h e i r l o c a t i o n . This i s followed by a look at the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the balance of demand i n i n t e r - c i t y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the impact of the urban environment i n which i t o r i g i n a t e s or terminates. The chapter concludes w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n of the e a r l i e r terminals using the c r i t e r i a developed out of t h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e . 2.2 E a r l y Bus Terminals. As was p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , e a r l y bus terminals were f r e q u e n t l y found i n or near c i t y c enters. I t i s suggested below that t h i s l o c a t i o n r e s u l t e d from a r e c o g n i t i o n by most t e r m i n a l developers of the importance of passenger o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . I f the bus was to be.competitive to the i n t e r -urban r a i l w a y i t was f e l t the access/egress segments of the journey was required to be minimal. 2h As m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , t h e e a r l y bus s y s t e m s were s i m i l a r t o t h e i n t e r u r b a n s i n t h a t t h e y b a s i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d r u r a l a r e a s t o some c e n t r a l c i t y . I t was shown a t t h e 1917 N i n t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e on C i t y P l a n n i n g h e l d a t K a n s a s C i t y t h a t most o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s u s i n g t h e s e modes had d e s t i n -a t i o n s i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s w h i c h were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e a r l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . A s p e a k e r a t t h a t c o n f e r e n c e d i s c u s s e d a d e s t i n a t i o n s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d on i n t e r u r b a n l i n e s e n t e r i n g K a n s a s C i t y . T h i s e a r l y s u r v e y a s k e d t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s : "Where do p a s s e n g e r s want t o g o ? " and "Why'are t h e y t r a v e l l i n g ? " and r e v e a l e d t h a t o v e r 80% o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s had d e s t i n a t i o n s c l o s e t o t h e r e t a i l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t o f K a n s a s C i t y . 1 The q u e s t i o n s a s k e d i n t h i s s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h e c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t r i p p u r p o s e and t h e c h o i c e o f d e s t i n a t i o n . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d i n a comment made b y . F . L . Mogen o f G r e y h o u n d L i n e s o f Canada.' He s t a t e s : " B e f o r e t h e d a y s o f s o many p r i v a t e c a r s , p e o p l e f r o m r u r a l a r e a s came t o t o wn t o s h o p , see t h e i r d o c t o r s , e t c . , and a l l t h e m a i n s h o p p i n g a r e a s were i n t h e c o r e o f t h e c i t y . " 2 T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c o r e w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d by s u c h u r b a n g e o g r a p h e r s as C h a r l e s C o l b y , p e r m i t t e d most o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t o be w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f e a c h o t h e r . 3 F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l s e r v i n g i n t e r - c i t y bus t r a v e l l e r s p e r m i t t e d most o f t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n s t o be r e a c h e d on f o o t . Where d e s t i n a t i o n s were n o t i n t h e c i t y c e n t e r , t h e l o c a l t r a n s i t n e t w o r k , w h i c h f o c u s s e d on t h e c i t y c o r e , p r o v i d e d r e a d y a c c e s s t o most p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . E v e n t h o u g h c e n t r a l bus t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n s l e n g t h e n e d l i n e h a u l t r a v e l t i m e s 25 as buses had to negotiate c i t y s t r e e t s i n t o the core, i t i s estimated that t o t a l t r a v e l times were minimal, as lengthy access journeys could be avoided by passengers having c e n t r a l d e s t i n a t i o n s . Thus, "bus depots were considered n e c e s s a r i l y l o c a t e d i n the heart of the downtown area f o r the convenience of those coming i n from r u r a l areas." 1* Once having accepted the need f o r a downtown l o c a t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e concerns i t s e l f w i t h the microscale o f • l o c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to land economics, congestion, and t e r m i n a l operating revenues. The concern f o r congestion has been suggested as the i n i t i a l reason f o r the establishment of bus terminals and o r i g i n a t e s from e a r l y l o a d i n g p r a c t i c e . The e a r l i e s t terminals were, i n e f f e c t , s t r e e t l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s at designated drug s t o r e s , h o t e l s , c a f e s , or c a r r i e r o f f i c e s where passengers could gather before l o a d i n g / y Parked buses at these points added to the congestion and c i t y ordinances were devised i n many c i t i e s to p r o h i b i t t h i s p r a c t i c e i n downtown areas. As the bus operators recognized a need f o r a downtown t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n , o f f s t r e e t f a c i l i t i e s q u i c k l y developed. For example, the bus t e r m i n a l at K n o x v i l l e Tennessee, constructed during the 1 9 2 0 's i s claimed to be a d i r e c t consequence of such an ordinance.^" The importance a t t r i b u t e d to congestion caused by parked buses i s r e f l e c t e d i n a submission to Boston C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1 9 2 5 which requested a permit-to operate buses i n and out of that c i t y . The v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the Boston and Maine R a i l r o a d t o l d the c o u n c i l : 26 " I f we engage i n the bus business to and from Boston, we s h a l l not ask f o r the p r i v i l e g e of occupying c i t y s t r e e t s , adding to the already serious congestion. Instead, we s h a l l plan to provide an adequate t e r m i n a l o f f the s t r e e t . " ' ' Parked buses on p u b l i c s t r e e t s was a c o n d i t i o n that could not be t o l e r a t e d . ^ The p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c i t y planning conference approached the problem of congestion from a general urban q u a l i t y viewpoint and suggested: "The way to determine where an i n t e r - u r b a n s t a t i o n should be l o c a t e d should be based on i t s e f f e c t on the congestion of t r a f f i c w i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f , and i f i t s l o c a t i o n at a c e r t a i n place would cause congestion i n our s t r e e t s , then we do not want i t at that p a r t i c u l a r place."9 In t h i s case, congestion i s a f a c t o r i n determining l o c a t i o n . The r o l e of land economics was of great concern to te r m i n a l developers and operators. As the core was u s u a l l y compact, any l o c a t i o n f o r . a t e r m i n a l that was w i t h i n walking distance of a l a r g e p o r t i o n of that core was considered s a t i s -f a c t o r y to the m a j o r i t y of passengers. As "main s t r e e t " l o c a t i o n s were expensive, a near main s t r e e t l o c a t i o n having the j u s t mentioned requirements was o f t e n considered d e s i r a b l e . "A s i t e convenient t o , but not on, a main s t r e e t has d e f i n i t e advantages. F i r s t costs and taxes can be reduced. There should be no decrease i n business; l o c a t i o n s ' j u s t around the corner' should make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e to c i t y p a t r o n s . " ! 0 Examples of such 'just around the corner' l o c a t i o n s can s t i l l be found i n most smaller communities (e.g. Hope and Vernon. B.C.), and i n many l a r g e r c i t i e s . F or example, the bus t e r m i n a l constructed i n 1931 i n Toronto, at Bay and Dundas s t r e e t s , 27 was c l o s e to the main s t r e e t (Yonge St.) but not on i t . H A more recent example i s Chicago's Greyhound t e r m i n a l b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1950's at the edge of the loop. The r e n t a b i l i t y of t e r m i n a l space was an a d d i t i o n a l economic f a c t o r i n t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n . This i s e s p e c i a l l y true f o r smaller terminals where bus t i c k e t revenues and bus r e l a t e d income could not support the t e r m i n a l and a d d i t i o n a l r e n t a l space had to be provided. Most t e r m i n a l designs predating the second world war provide evidence of t h i s f a c t and i n c l u d e r e s t a u r a n t s / c o f f e e bars, shoe shines, book s t a l l s , e t c . A post war example i s the Greyhound t e r m i n a l i n Chicago which has l o a d i n g areas below s t r e e t l e v e l , "thus c l e a r i n g the way f o r maximum e x p l o i t a t i o n of the valuable areas at s t r e e t l e v e l . " ! 2 A l o c a t i o n on a major through s t r e e t or as close to the center as economically p o s s i b l e would r e s u l t i n higher r e n t a l income from t h i s space i n t e r m i n a l s . I n summary, e a r l y bus t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n was u s u a l l y determined by i n d i v i d u a l operators who recognized the importance of passenger d e s t i n a t i o n s . As most of these d e s t i n a t i o n s were i n the c i t y core, c e n t r a l or near c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n f o r terminals were common. The near c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n was p r e f e r r e d as high land cost and congestion problems could, be overcome without a p p r e c i a b l y lengthening the access/egress journey times, while p e r m i t t i n g reductions i n l i n e haul t r a v e l times. 28 2.3 L o c a t i o n O p t i m i z a t i o n - The G r a v i t y P r i n c i p l e . The inference from the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e that bus t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n s should be as near as p o s s i b l e to passenger o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s , i s one which i s s t r o n g l y supported by more recent l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . Many of these stud i e s use the measure of time and cost to e s t a b l i s h e v a l u a t i o n of t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n and suggest that the optimal l o c a t i o n f o r a t e r m i n a l i s one where the aggregate times and costs are minimal f o r a l l journeys to and from the t e r m i n a l . B a s i c a l l y t h i s approach i s based on the use of the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e which suggests that the number of t r i p s between two points w i l l vary d i r e c t l y w i t h the t o t a l population of those two points and i n v e r s e l y w i t h the distance between those two p o i n t s , e i t h e r with reference to a p a r t i c u l a r mode or to a l l modes. Thus, i f the c r i t e r i a are to promote t r a v e l between two p o i n t s , e i t h e r w i t h reference to a p a r t i c u l a r mode or to a l l modes, and i f populations are constant, the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e suggests that the re d u c t i o n of distance between the two points w i l l accomplish t h i s d esired e f f e c t of promoting t r a v e l . As was i n d i c a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter, time and costsare good measures of the distance as s h i f t s i n demands can be l a r g e l y r e l a t e d to s h i f t s of these factors.13 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of data a v a i l a b l e made by such study groups as M.I.T., S.A.R.C., and Gonsad Research Corporation tend to confirm t h i s view.1^> 15» 1^ The importance of the access and egress journeys on 29 the demand f a c t o r can be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when they form a major segment of the t o t a l t r a v e l time, as i s the case i n the Northeast C o r r i d o r i n the United States (Boston-Washington). Therefore, i f demand f o r i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l v i a common c a r r i e r s i s to be encouraged, these access or egress journeys need to be minimized. One method of m i n i m i z a t i o n i s the l o c a t i o n of a t e r m i n a l according to the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e which s t a t e s that the l o c a t i o n should be at the g r a v i t a t i o n a l centre - the point where the measures used f o r distances are minimal - of a l l the o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . Although t h i s statement suggests the e v a l u a t i o n of l o c a t i o n to be a r e l a t i v e l y simple process, i t i s the determination of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n -a t i o n s that have created the stumbling block f o r adequate determination of the g r a v i t a t i o n a l center. In t r y i n g to estimate the l o c a t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s , an a n a l y s i s by Cramer suggests that the number of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s at a l o c a t i o n i s approximately p r o p o r t i o n a l to the number of people l i v i n g at that p o i n t . 1 ^ This method of r e l a t i n g o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s to p o p u l a t i o n s , associated w i t h a measure of the access costs f o r each i n d i v i d u a l l o c a t i o n to any other l o c a t i o n , w i l l i d e n t i f y the most a c c e s s i b l e point i n the community s t u d i e d . The model used to i d e n t i f y t h i s p o i n t , however, does not recognize the f a c t that the per c a p i t a t r i p generation can vary and that i n urbanized areas t h i s generation w i l l vary from point to p o i n t . F u r t h e r , t h i s approach does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n those points having low population d e n s i t i e s but high t r i p generation rates such as the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . 30 S.A.R.C. suggests the l o c a t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a l o c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f a c t o r which i s a "measure of the appeal of s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s as d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s , estimated from employment i n i n d u s t r i e s supplying t r a v e l l e r accommodations and services"."^-' Other f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to t r i p generation were found to be per c a p i t a income and t o t a l employment l e v e l s . With reference to income, the study found a c o r r e l a t i o n between the s o c i o -economic f a c t o r s of f a m i l y income and the frequency of travel.19 r'• The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s of o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n s was r e f l e c t e d i n the te r m i n a l l o c a t i o n study of the B u f f a l o area made by Scot t and McC$p.lough w i t h the use of a modified g r a v i t y model. The study revealed that a i r t r a v e l l e r s not r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y had d i f f e r i n g d e s t i n a t i o n s from r e s i d e n t s . The GBD has a l o c a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r non-resident t r a v e l l e r s that does not appear f o r r e s i d e n t s . This p a t t e r n became evident once the d e s t i n a t i o n matrix had been s p l i t according to re s i d e n t and nonresident passengers F u r t h e r , w i t h respect to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s i n urban areas, the t r i p purpose of t r a v e l l e r s using a p a r t i c u l a r mode can be of i n f l u e n c e . I t i s suggested that passengers having non-business purposes w i l l have a wider d i s t r i b u t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s than those on business t r i p s . Business t r a v e l l e r s tend to have o r i g i n s or d e s t i n a t i o n s centered i n areas of high employment or t r a v e l l e r accommodation and s e r v i c e s ( l o c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ) . Those on non-business 31 t r a v e l , reported i n one survey, that the major purpose of t h e i r t r i p was to see f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . " As modern North American c i t i e s have sc a t t e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas, non-business , d e s t i n a t i o n s can be expected to be more sc a t t e r e d than those f o r business t r i p s . Measuring the distances to the various o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s i n terms of time and cost from the t e r m i n a l can be quite complex, as, f o r example, i t has been found that t r i p purpose and income l e v e l s of passengers w i l l a f f e c t the e v a l u a t i o n of those f a c t o r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most of the work i n t h i s f i e l d i s based on urban t r a n s p o r t and commuter flows but the f i n d i n g s can be a p p l i e d to i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l as w e l l . Beesley, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the value of time spent t r a v e l l i n g , shows that workers who are earning about the average wage value time spent t r a v e l l i n g i n the journey to work at about one t h i r d of t h e i r wages (31 - 3 7 $ ) . 2 ^ S i m i l a r l y , QUarmby found that commuters tend to value t r a v e l time at 20 - 25$ of t h e i r income and that the p r o p o r t i o n i s roughly constant over a wide range of incomes. 2$ Despite the discrepancy i n percentages, i t i s shown that the value of time does r i s e w i t h income. Therefore the w i l l i n g n e s s to pay f o r the time saving a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f f e r s , w i l l be dependent upon the passengers* e v a l u a t i o n of time. This i n d i c a t e s the s e n s i t i v i t y of model competition to the type of t r a v e l l e r and the performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each i n t e r - c i t y mode. The " M e t r o l i n e r " experiment between Washington D.C. and New York was based on t h i s concept of the w i l l i n g n e s s of 32 passengers to pay f o r time saved. I t was assumed f o r high income t r a v e l l e r s having o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t the increase i n f a r e would be o f f s e t by the time savings. For t h i s experiment i t was noted the volume1 of business t r a f f i c having c e n t r a l o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to warrant experimentation w i t h new modes that could serve c i t y c e n t e r s . As c e n t r a l r a i l terminals e x i s t e d i n each c i t y , f a s t r a i l s e r v i c e was considered to be ' a v i a b l e t r a v e l a l t e r n a t i v e to a i r , as the long and expensive access t r i p s to and from a i r p o r t s could be e l i m i n a t e d . In New York alone, the average access time from lower Manhattan to the a i r terminals was estimated by S.A.R.C. to be f i f t y -two minutes and cost an average of $2.75. In comparison, the access t r i p to the Penn-Central Terminal was estimated to be 18 minutes w i t h an average cost of 79 cents. A comparison of the t r a v e l times before and a f t e r the ' M e t r o l i n e r ' i s given i n ta b l e 2.1 below. This t a b l e i s to be used only as a rough measure, of comparison as S.A.R.C. access times are used; and l i n e haul times are from current schedules. As the ta b l e i n d i c a t e s , a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i s very advantageous to those t r a v e l l e r s having o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l c i t y . I t i s of i n t e r e s t to .note; that the i n t e r - c i t y bus which has c e n t r a l .terminals in' both of these c i t i e s has s i m i l a r low access and egress times f o r t h i s t r a f f i c and that i t s low fa r e s could make i t a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the " M e t r o l i n e r " as w e l l . Recent research has suggested that t r a v e l times could be f u r t h e r reduced by the use of V/STOL a i r c r a f t w i t h close i n terminals .2L*"J2^ TABLE 2.1 COMPARISON OF BUSINESS TRIPS BETWEEN NEW YORK CITY AND WASHINGTON, D.C. (to and from downtown). MODE AIR (a i r b u s ) BUS (express) RAIL (Gonven- (Metro-t i o n a l ) l i n e r ) A. Time: i n minutes Average l o c a l access and egress time, (a) 74 33 32 32(d) Average t e r m i n a l time (b) 31 26 31 3Kd) Line haul time (c) 60 240 240 180 TOTAL TRAVEL TIME 185 or 3h.5m 299 or 4h.59m 303 or 5h.3m 243 or 4h.3m B. Costs: i n d o l l a r s Average l o c a l f a r e s (e) 4.55 .84 1.4l 1.41(g) Line haul f a r e s ( f ) 24.00 10.65 13.00 17.00 TOTAL FARES 28.55 11.49 l4.4l 18.4l Notes: (a) Derived from S.A.R.C. data and combines access and egress times f o r both c i t i e s . (b) Derived from S.A.R.C. '(c) From current t i m e - t a b l e s . (d) M e t r o l i n e r out of v e h i c l e times are taken from the r e g u l a r r a i l access times. I t may be that the M e t r o l i n e r passenger needs l e s s t e r m i n a l time i n that he has l e s s luggage and has a pre-paid t i c k e t . (e) Derived from S.A.R.C. data. ( f ) Derived from current t i m e - t a b l e s . (g) Derived from S.A.R.C. data and may be s l i g h t l y higher f o r M e t r o l i n e r passengers. A short l i v e d experiment s i m i l a r i n purpose to the " M e t r o l i n e r " was introduced i n Canada by the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways between Toronto and Montreal. The C.N.R. a n t i c i p a t e d that the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the "T u r b o - t r a i n " on t h i s route would 3>+ reduce r a i l l i n e haul times between the two c i t i e s from f i v e to three and one h a l f hours. This would have made the t o t a l t r a v e l times by r a i l competitive to t o t a l t r a v e l times by. a i r * Due to t e c h n i c a l problems t h i s experiment was- abandonned. To the non-business t r a v e l l e r , the development of such f a s t e r modes i s of l e s s importance than the increased t r a v e l c o s t . F o r t h i s reason, i t has been suggested that the medium and lower income passengers w i l l not choose a f a s t e r but more expensive mode as r e a d i l y as w i l l high income t r a v e l l e r s . For s i m i l a r reasons the l o c a t i o n of a t e r m i n a l i n terms of . the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e i s not as c r i t i c a l f o r the non-business t r a v e l l e r . Cramer, i n h i s study, considered the e f f e c t of m u l t i p l e terminals on aggregate access times. He proposed a hypothesis i n which i t would be p o s s i b l e to " l o c a t e V. s t a t i o n s i n such a way that we r e a l i z e the minimum average t r a v e l time from a l l points ( i n the urban area) to the nearest s t a t i o n . " 2 ' 7 M u l t i p l e t e r m i n a l s , p r o p e r l y spaced would, he argued, reduce t o t a l - access times but would increase t o t a l t r a v e l . t i m e s f o r those passengers already on the v e h i c l e . As Vuchic argues i n his a r t i c l e on s t a t i o n spacing f o r t r a n s i t , the more passengers already on the v e h i c l e , the l e s s d e s i r a b l e i t becomes to have an e x t r a stop. The increase of aggregate i n - v e h i c l e time can be greater than the gain i n access time f o r those boarding the v e h i c l e . "1. For the maximum number of passengers using the system, the i n t e r s t a t i o n spacing of s t a t i o n s should be i n c r e a s i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n of (passenger) accumulation (on board the v e h i c l e ) at a decreasing r a t e . . . 35 2. Redaction of the number of s t a t i o n s below optimal increases access times, but a l s o _ increases the average t r a i n t r a v e l speed..."2° F o r i n t e r - c i t y t r a n s p o r t , the number of suburban terminals should therefore be l i m i t e d i n order to minimize t o t a l t r a v e l time. Nevertheless, suburban s t a t i o n s can have a profound impact on the mode choice of passengers i f t o t a l access time reductions are great. I t i s estimated that a new suburban bus te r m i n a l p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e from a suburb of Washington, S i l v e r Springs Md., to P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa., w i l l draw up to 20% of the t o t a l Washington-Philadelphia passenger t r a f f i c w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t s from automobile and r a i l w a y modes.29 For s i m i l a r reasons, the CNR e s t a b l i s h e d a suburban t e r m i n a l at Guildwood east of Toronto. In the CNR case, the p o s s i b l e gains i n passenger t r a f f i c bet\\?een Toronto and Montreal i s considered by the r a i l w a y worth the cost of the f i v e minute delay at the s t a t i o n . In terms of t o t a l t r a v e l time l o s s e s f o r those passengers on board the v e h i c l e versus the gain f o r those boarding at Guildwood, a net l o s s i s l i k e l y . However, the l o s s w i l l most l i k e l y not induce a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t to an a l t e r n a t e mode since the i n t e r - c i t y bus l o s s i s l e s s than the t r a v e l time of the next l e s s r a p i d mode. A l s o , i n terms of t o t a l t r a v e l time the f i v e minutes (out of f i v e hours) i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . N evertheless, without f u r t h e r data, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the a d d i t i o n of t h i s t e r m i n a l i n terms of reductions i n aggregate t r a v e l times. 36 In summary, the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e can be a p p l i e d to the l o c a t i o n of terminals when the c r i t e r i u m i s the r e d u c t i o n of access and egress t r a v e l times and c o s t s . As the access and egress journey i s f r e q u e n t l y a: s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the t o t a l i n t e r - c i t y t r i p , the m i n i m i z a t i o n of t h e i r time and cost can enhance the demand f o r a s p e c i f i c mode and s h i f t the demand balance among the various modes. Thus i f the o b j e c t i v e i s to increase the demand f o r a p a r t i c u l a r mode, a t e r m i n a l should be l o c a t e d i n terms of t h i s g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e . 2,k Passenger C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S t a t i s t i c s f o r i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l r e v e a l that each common c a r r i e r mode has a t t r a c t e d s p e c i f i c types of passengers i n terms of income l e v e l s and t r i p purpose. A s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s suggested which appears to r e f l e c t each.mode's performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and passenger e v a l u a t i o n of time and c o s t . Data,generated f o r the Northeast C o r r i d o r and the Canadian C o r r i d o r (Windsor to Quebec C i t y ) have shown such s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n terms of passenger income l e v e l s and t r i p purpose. For example, i n Toronto-Montreal t r a v e l , l i n e haul times f o r bus and r a i l d i f f e r by one hour- r a i l f i v e hours and bus s i x hours. Both modes, at the time of the survey, had c e n t r a l terminals i n both c i t i e s . The l i n e haul journey by a i r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r i n terms 'of time than the two ground modes. T o t a l t r a v e l time by a i r from downtown to down-town ( i n c l u d i n g t e r m i n a l times) i s about three hours. I t was found that the median income of r a i l users was i n the $9,000 36a FIGURE 2.1 CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PASSENGER INCOME ON INTER-CITY MODES (TORONTO RESIDENTS). 37 to $11,000 range, while income of bus passengers was i n the $7,000 to $9,000 grouping. Only 13.5$ of bus passengers had an income exceeding $15,000 while f o r r a i l t h i s amount was 19.6$. A i r passengers had a median income of over $13,000 i n 1969. A i r fares are approximately three times that of the two ground modes. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of incomes of users of these three modes are shown i n f i g u r e 2.1.30 The graph i n f i g u r e 2.1 i s r e v e a l i n g i n that the two ground modes, r a i l and bus, have comparable c l i e n t e l l e types i n terms of income d i s t r i b u t i o n . S i m i l a r t r a v e l times and comparable f a r e s ( r a i l $11.90; bus $12.15) help account f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r i t y . S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Northeast C o r r i d o r tend to agree w i t h the Canadian data. I n summary, the Philadelphia-Washington data amassed by Beimborn revealed that "the low income t r a v e l l e r p r e f e r s the bus (69.1$), f o l l o w e d by the automobile (24.1$);..the high income t r a v e l l e r p refers the automobile (44$), followed by a i r (34.8$) and r a i l (l8.5$)."31 The study i n d i c a t e d that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n usage a r i s e s from the value placed on time by the d i f f e r e n t groups. Bus t r a v e l times i n the example used were much longer than r a i l . C e n t r a l t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n s e x i s t e d f o r both bus and r a i l . These income data are reproduced i n ta b l e 2.2. 38 TABLE 2.2 USAGE OF INTER-CITY MODES BETWEEN PHILADELPHIA AND WASHINGTON BY INCOME GROUPS IN COMPARISON . WITH SARC DATA  MODE LOW * INCOME MEDIUM INCOME HIGH INCOME TOTAL SARC TOTAL AUTOMOBILE AIR RAIL BUS 2 4 . i 0.0 6.7 69.1 57.7 0.0 23.5 18.8 44.0 34.8 18.5 2.6 50.2 6.9 20.1 22.8 59.0 5.1 21.3 14.6 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 *L0W INCOME - Under $3,000/yr. MEDIUM INCOME - $3,000 - $10,000/yr. HIGH INCOME - $0ver $10,000/yr. - Source: Beimborn The Canadian Transport Commission study on I n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l i n d i c a t e s that an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of bus t r a v e l l e r s have lower incomes and are t r a v e l l i n g f o r pleasure r a t h e r than f o r business. The greatest p r o p o r t i o n of a i r t r a v e l l e r s are on business t r i p s . 3 2 ( i t should be noted that the data were based on t r a v e l i n peak summer months and are therefore weighted towards pleasure t r a v e l ) . An example of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of business versus pleasure t r a v e l i s shown i n table 2.3 which summarizes some of the GTC data. Table 2.3 TRAVEL PURPOSE - % FOR CITY PAIR. MONTREAL--TORONTO MONTREAL - OTTAWA MODE BUSINESS PLEASURE BUSINESS PLEASURE AIR 81.85 18.15 79.13 20.87 RAIL 26.61 73.39 35.33 64.67 BUS 21.13 78.87 • 23.8O 76.20 | Source: CTC In terms of the g r a v i t y model, part of the observed p a t t e r n of business versus pleasure and income l e v e l s can be explained by the longer t r a v e l times by bus (as compared 39 to a i r ) and the a s s o c i a t e d lower f a r e s . As r a i l and bus times and f a r e s are somewhat comparable, r a i l t r ansports passengers having s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as bus passengers. In the U.S. lower f a r e s g e n e r a l l y p r e v a i l f o r bus s e r v i c e and some d i f f e r e n c e s appear to e x i s t i n the passenger composition between r a i l and bus. Using these observations as a reference point,t-the improved times a v a i l a b l e on the " M e t r o l i n e r " i n the U.S. experiment should r e s u l t i n higher passenger income l e v e l s and increased business t r i p patronage than r e g u l a r r a i l s e r v i c e . 2.5 Passenger O r i g i n s and D e s t i n a t i o n s . The " M e t r o l i n e r " and "Turbo-train experiments were j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t that the c i t y center i s s t i l l a major generator of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s of business t r i p s and r a i l terminals are l o c a t e d i n those ce n t e r s . This i s despite the s u b s t a n t i a l s p a t i a l growth of a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. Los Angeles, which i s one of the prime examples of dispersed p a t t e r n s , s t i l l generates 20$ of a l l i t s a i r passenger o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l city.3 3 Nevertheless, the c e n t r a l area of any p a r t i c u l a r c i t y may generate a higher p r o p o r t i o n of a i r p o r t t r i p s (than any other comparable area i n the c i t y ) . Results from numerous studi e s i n d i c a t e that o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s outside of the c e n t r a l area are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y dispersed throughout the urban me t r o p o l i t a n area.3^ Data generated by Lansing concerning Northeast C o r r i d o r c i t i e s i n d i c a t e d that 40$ of a l l a i r t r a v e l l e r s do have ko d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n the c e n t r a l areas and an a d d i t i o n a l 31% are s c a t t e r e d up to 15 miles from the core. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n e x i s t s f o r bus and r a i l passengers. The data given are i n l i n e a r form i n terms of distance from the te r m i n a l and do i n d i c a t e the extent of s c a t t e r w i t h i n t h i s f i f t e e n mile radius . 3 5 The S.A.R.C. study approached the problem i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n using t r a v e l times as the distance measure from the c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l . As a base f o r f u r t h e r computation, auto t r a v e l times were^calculated f o r the t r i p between the home and the t e r m i n a l ; and t a x i t r a v e l times were used between downtown business areas and the t e r m i n a l . For home based t r i p s , access t r a v e l times by auto to r a i l , bus and a i r terminals were almost equal f o r most of the Northeast C o r r i d o r c i t i e s . This r e f l e c t s the l o c a t i o n of the te r m i n a l i n the urban center and suggests that home based o r i g i n s are lo c a t e d between the downtown r a i l and bus terminals and the urban f r i n g e a i r terminals. 3 6 These base times, however, r e q u i r e adjustment as not a l l passengers t r a v e l by car or t a x i . In f a c t the study noted a remarkable v a r i a t i o n i n access mode choice f o r the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r - c i t y modes. The v a r y i n g speeds and w a i t i n g times f o r the access modes required an adjustment of the base data that i n d i c a t e d higher average home based access times to r a i l and bus terminals than to a i r t e r m i n a l s . For downtown based t r i p s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was reversed. The data presented by S.A.R.C. provides a u s e f u l i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s summarized i n tabl e s 2 . 4 and 2 . 5 f o l l o w i n g . 41 TABLE 2.4 LOCAL TRAVEL MODES FOR INTER-CITY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. ($). LOCAL MODE HOME ORIGIN DOWNTOWN ORIGIN AIR RAIL BUS AIR RAIL BUS AUTO/DRIVER/PASS 39 40 45 5 TAXI 39 37 12 P 50 25 LIMOUSINE 22 0 0 40 - -LOCAL TRANSIT — 23 43 — 35 45 WALK — — 15 30 TOTAL 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ Source: S.A.R.C. TABLE 2.5 AVERAGE LOCAL TRAVEL TIMES (IN MINUTES) SMSA HOME ORIGIN AIR RAIL BUS DOWNTOWN ORIGIN AIR RAIL BUS NEW YORK 51 60 70 PHILADELPHIA 55 65 76 BALTIMORE 39 45 53 WASHINGTON D.C. 4 l 48 56 52 27 32 22 18 14 14 14 18 15 15 15 Source: S.A.R.C. With respect to bus s t a t i o n s , a summary of access t r i p s to bus terminals i n Washington, New York and B u f f a l o show the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of t r i p s v i a l o c a l t r a n s i t y modes. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s included i n the Canadian C o r r i d o r study appears to be co n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s U.S. p a t t e r n . In Toronto and Montreal the highest d e n s i t y of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s occured i n the c i t y c e n t e r s . However, the Montreal d i s t r i b u t i o n of a i r t r a v e l l e r s does have a sub-peak of res i d e n t passengers to the west of the c i t y center which suggests a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage of a i r passengers l i v e i n the western part of the me t r o p o l i t a n area. 37 The highest d e n s i t y of bus and r a i l passengers l i e s w i t h i n the 42 c e n t r a l c i t y area. With regard to l o c a l mode choice, the C.T.C. study noted a v a r i a t i o n of l o c a l mode choice w i t h the change i n distance from the t e r m i n a l of the o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the journeys to downtown terminals are by f o o t , t a x i , and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t w i t h f o o t being p r e f e r r e d f o r the s h o r t e r journey ( l e s s than two m i l e s ) . The greatest p r o p o r t i o n of a i r p o r t access t r i p s i n Toronto' and Montreal was completed by automobile. Un f o r t u n a t e l y the data a v a i l a b l e do not show the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i p s i n terms of t r i p purpose to i n d i c a t e whether or not there i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each type of t r i p . This i s important as the various modes do r e v e a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as shown e a r l i e r . The C.T.C. data do support the view that t r i p o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s are not homogeneous and are not, as Cramer suggested, p r o p o r t i o n a l to the number of people l i v i n g at that p o i n t . In summary, the .various s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that the c e n t r a l areas of most North American c i t i e s are s t i l l the most concentrated generators of i n t e r - c i t y t r a f f i c . However, once outside these areas, there i s a wide s c a t t e r of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . This d i s p e r s a l p a t t e r n i s dependent upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of population and t h e i r socio-economic character-i s t i c s as w e l l as upon the distance from various t e r m i n a l s . I t i s apparent that high income areas.". :will produce more t r i p s and those t r i p s are u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d towards the f a s t e s t modes. F i n a l l y , f o r c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l s , where l o c a l p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e , there i s a heavy use of those modes f o r access journey of l e s s than ten m i l e s . ^3 2.6 Future D i s t r i b u t i o n of T r i p O r i g i n s and D e s t i n a t i o n s , Despite the massive d i s p e r s a l of a c t i v i t y from the c e n t r a l core i n North American c i t i e s , some commercial concen-t r a t i o n has p e r s i s t e d i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . But as E. N. H a l l asks: "Our present c i t i e s do encompass massive i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v i n g insurance, banking, f i n a n c e , commerce, entertainment and education. While these c o n s t i t u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l percen-tage of a l l t r a v e l d e s t i n a t i o n s today,^can we expect t h i s s t r u c t u r e t o -persist?"3o H a l l answers t h i s question i n the negat i v e , c i t i n g as reasons -improved communications, i n c r e a s i n g a f f l u e n c e , increased value placed on labour time, and s p i r a l i n g r e a l estate c o s t s . This would imply a f u r t h e r d i s p e r s i o n of the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n patterns r e s u l t i n g i n a lower p r o p o r t i o n of a l l o r i g i n s and de s t i n a t i o n s i n the G.B.D. Of concern should be the d i s p e r s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n t o the o u t s k i r t s of c i t i e s away from the l o c a l t r a n s i t systems. T r a n s i t provides the access mode f o r many r a i l and bus t r a v e l l e r s . In terms of commuting (which appears to be the prime f u n c t i o n of urban t r a n s i t systems^, Herbert Gans suggests that the great concern f o r reducing commuting time i s f a r more a concern of the p r o f e s s i o n a l group than f o r the ma j o r i t y f o r whom they p l a n , as p h y s i c a l access to the c e n t r a l c i t y i s not important to the urban home seeker. "His d e c i s i o n i s more ofte n dominated by the d e s i r e f o r more land at reasonable cost."39 These d i s p e r s i n g patterns would suggest that s i n g l e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r - c i t y p u b l i c modes w i l l r e q u i r e longer access journeys, thus decrease the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of kk that mode i n favour of the automobile. Should the r e s u l t a n t increased automobile use be considered undesirable (e.g. to avoid the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l freeways), i n t e r - c i t y common c a r r i e r s w i l l have to adjust to remain competitive. Most of the suggested changes, i n c l u d i n g those p r e v i o u s l y discussed, require t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n of l i n e haul modes to provide f a s t e r l i n e haul s e r v i c e s to compensate f o r increased access journey times. Suggestions to reduce the access times include the r e l o c a t i o n and/or the a d d i t i o n of i n t e r - c i t y t e r m i n a l s ; and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l o c a l t r a n s i t modes such as " d i a l - a - b u s " . Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g s t o n e and Co. suggest the best a l t e r n a t i v e would be improved road systems: "Given the d i f f u s e d nature of t r i p o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s and the bias against the use. of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n most urban areas., i t appears l o g i c a l to argue, at l e a s t i n the short run, f o r the p r o v i s i o n of improved- highway f a c i l i t i e s l e a d i n g to the te r m i n a l area..."^" 0 2.7 Line Haul Times In a d d i t i o n to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of complete new tec h n o l o g i e s , improvements can be made to e x i s t i n g modes to improve l i n e haul times. An extreme example of t h i s i s the extensive improvement to the t r a c k , catenary, and r o l l i n g stock that permitted the " M e t r o l i n e r " e x p e r i m e n t A s was i n d i c a t e d i n chapter one, improved highways have permitted reductions i n t r a v e l times f o r p r i v a t e automobiles as w e l l as f o r i n t e r -c i t y buses. Improved buses with t u r b i n e engines and b e t t e r 45 road t r a v e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s may r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l savings Lp i n t r a v e l time. For the bus system, perhaps the greatest r e d u c t i o n i n l i n e haul times can be made i n the urbanized areas where the t e r m i n a l i s l o c a t e d . As was the case w i t h e a r l y t e r m i n a l s , the c e n t r a l c i t y area i s the point of highest congestion and f r e q u e n t l y i t i s these congested s t r e e t s that a bus must t r a v e l to get to i t s c e n t r a l or near c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . Improvements to t e r m i n a l access or the r e l o c a t i o n of terminals could permit bypassing of these congested s t r e e t s . A c l a s s i c example of such an improvement i s the Port of New York A u t h o r i t y ' s Mid Manhattan Bus Terminal which was l o c a t e d i n such a manner as to permit d i r e c t access to the L i n c o l n Tunnel v i a s p e c i a l ramps.^3 The l o c a t i o n of t h i s t e r m i n a l was based on the p u b l i c p o l i c y that a s i n g l e , t e r m i n a l should replace various terminals•» sc a t t e r e d throughout mid-Manhattan and that t h i s t e r m i n a l be placed west of the congested Times Square area. The new t e r m i n a l with i t s s p e c i a l ramps, was opened i n December 1950 and s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e haul t r a v e l time savings were achieved (up to 30 minutes f o r some o p e r a t o r s ) . S i m i l a r s p e c i a l ramps e x i s t at the East Bay Terminal i n San F r a n c i s c o , and at the t e r m i n a l near the George Washington Bridge i n Upper 45 Manhattan. y This need f o r easy access i n and out of c i t i e s i s w e l l recognized by bus operators and has become one of t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r l o c a t i n g t e r m i n a l s . Greyhound's Chicago t e r m i n a l , mentioned at the s t a r t of t h i s chapter, has d i r e c t access to 46 4 6 Wacker Drive, thus bypassing the congestion of the- Loop. The general manager of Voyageur Inc. which operates a major bus network in eastern Canada, states that a terminal location must bes "Close to super highways so that quick exit from the congested downtown area can be made. This is important because i t permits a faster running time, thereby permitting us to be competitive with other modes of transportation." 4"' The importance of reducing line haul travel times is indicated by Voyageur in i t s comparison of line haul travel times between Montreal and Quebec City. This run is two hours and -forty minutes by bus and two hours and fifty-nine minutes by r a i l . F i nally, as previously indicated, line haul times w i l l be adversely affected by additional stations in the metropolitan areas. Bus operators have introduced such terminals in Toronto, Montreal, and several other large urban areas. Suburban terminals,.however, are costly as only those services entering or leaving the urban area from a particular direction can effectively use the f a c i l i t y . In terms of time, an upper limit to the number of such suburban terminals should be determined by a formula derived from the Vuchic model regarding time losses for those on board the vehicle. 2.8 Supply of Transport Services - An Economic Consideration. To this point, the discussion has centered on factors relating to the demand and to the distribution of that demand for inter-city transport services. The emphasis has been on time and d i r e c t costs to the passenger. However, the costs of po s s i b l e improvements to be j u s t i f i e d by a n t i c i p a t e d increased revenues - d i r e c t l y or I n d i r e c t l y - from increases i n patronage. Although i t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s study to develop a c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s a few comments r a i s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e need to be noted. ?,? When terminals are separate operations from the tr a n s p o r t s e r v i c e , revenues from t i c k e t s a l es and other a c t i v i t i e s such as concession r e n t a l s must be s u f f i c i e n t to cover expenses. However, as many terminals are considered to be part.of the tra n s p o r t s e r v i c e (as i n the view of the w r i t e r they should be considered) t h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n l i e s i n the a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t a d d i t i o n a l passengers to the s e r v i c e and to improve the t o t a l net revenue of the system. Costs i n c u r r e d by the c a r r i e r to improve s e r v i c e s are u s u a l l y passed on to the users of the s e r v i c e , and i f improvements do not a t t r a c t new patronage s u f f i c i e n t to cover c o s t s , higher f a r e s may r e s u l t , thus discouraging the use of the mode. With reference to the incidence of c o s t s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n needs to-be given to the matter of p u b l i c s u b s i d i e s which form part of a n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y promoting the use of p a r t i c u l a r modes and discouraging the use of others by cross s u b s i d i z a t i o n . The move i n the U.S.A. to use F e d e r a l Highway Funds to s u b s i d i z e r a p i d t r a n s i t can be c i t e d as an example. In such cases, improvements to a p a r t i c u l a r mode need to be considered i n terms of reduced per passenger costs f o r the t o t a l i n t e r - c i t y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system ( i n c l u d i n g a l l modes). 48 One approach from the cost side of the demand equation has been made by McDonnell A i r c r a f t i n e v a l u a t i n g 48 V/STOL t e r m i n a l s . u In determining optimal t e r m i n a l c a p a c i t y and l o c a t i o n , the study r e l a t e d access costs and t e r m i n a l costs per passenger to a f u n c t i o n of departure volume. The optimum l o c a t i o n i s the point where access costs per passenger (an i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n ) plus t e r m i n a l r e l a t e d costs per passenger (a decreasing f u n c t i o n ) i s minimal. A t e r m i n a l cost that played a-dominant r o l e i n the recent r e l o c a t i o n of a Montreal bus t e r m i n a l was land c o s t . In 1 9 7 0 , Voyageur ( 1 9 6 9 ) Inc. closed i t s Dorchester s t r e e t t e r m i n a l and developed an e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y at B e r r i - de Montigny i n t o i t s major f a c i l i t y . The Dorchester s t r e e t t e r m i n a l was 3 / 1 0 of a mile west of the heart of Montreal -atisPlace V i l l e Marie - while the new te r m i n a l i s 1-g- miles east of t h i s p o i n t . The s h i f t i n l o c a t i o n was made despite the operator's o p i n i o n that a downtown t e r m i n a l i s most d e s i r a b l e . The company admits that the d e c i s i o n was p r i m a r i l y based on land economics and i n d i c a t e s the land value at Dorchester s t r e e t was $ 6 0 . 0 0 per square foot i n comparison to $ 2 5 . 0 0 per square fo o t at the more remote t e r m i n a l . I n t h i s case, the savings i n land costs (and the p o s s i b l e increased revenue from a l t e r n a t e land use) o f f s e t any a n t i c i p a t e d l o s s e s of passenger volume due to the l e s s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . The company d i d f e e l , however, that the new l o c a t i o n x^ as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e as ready access i s a v a i l a b l e to Montreal's m e t r o . ^ 4 9 Although this treatment of economic aspects is cursory, the comments demonstrate that the cost' of terminal construction can affect location decisions and may result in locations which do not minimize a l l travel times. In effect, the decision-making process for operators may involve economic factors not related to the transportation system as such when transportation forms only a part of the total enterprise. 2.9 Community Planning Considerations. As Scott and McCullough pointed out in their study of Buffalo, once an optimal terminal location has been found with respect to minimal travel times, certain modifications in location choice may be necessary for urban planning reasons, such as t r a f f i c planning, urban land use, the impact of location on local t r a f f i c patterns, noise and other forms of pollution, and the compatibility of the activity with adjoining land uses. With reference to t r a f f i c patterns, congestion levels in mid-Manhattan resulted in the city government policy to remove the bus terminals from the Times Square area. In this, case the volume of buses on public streets created additional and undesirable congestion levels which could have been avoided by relocation of terminals. Gaekenheimer1s discussion p?es'eo|ed%in^theM*ia^r^u-Q&©ry chapter considered the problem of congestion caused by the concentration of a l l access and. egress journeys. He suggested a single terminal to serve a l l inter-city modes is undesirable. This statement does 50 i n d i c a t e that the Metro center p r o j e c t i n Toronto may need r e - e v a l u a t i o n as congestion problems could occur on the access systems. Environmental questions have f r e q u e n t l y been r a i s e d concerning the noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n created, by i n t e r - c i t y v e h i c l e s . For example, there i s much concern over the l o c a t i o n of V/STOL terminals i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s as the noise problems associated w i t h t h i s v e h i c l e have not yet been overcome. This environmental f a c t o r of noise could prevent the l o c a t i o n of these terminals at the most d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n i n terms of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . Using the example of the Toronto subway, i t was suggested by Heenan that the l o c a t i o n of terminals can have profound impact on urban development p a t t e r n s . For example, the i n t e n s i t y of new development and the volume of r e t a i l s a l e s near terminals i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the passenger t r a f f i c to and from the c l o s e s t subway'station.5° i n e f f e c t , a t e r m i n a l can spur urban renewal. I t i s hoped that the Toronto Metro center scheme w i l l s t i m u l a t e redevelopment In the lower downtown area i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . According to the developers: "The h e a l t h of the c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y I t s downtown core depends h e a v i l y on the e f f i c i e n c y of i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of road, r a i l and pedestrian f a c i l i t i e s i n t o l o g i c a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s at once a foundation and a motive fo r c e of the ' p r o j e c t s ' master plan. " 5 1 The terminals are considered to be an e s s e n t i a l - feature f o r the success of the p r o j e c t . 51 Therefore, the long range plans and development concepts f o r an urban area can be strengthened by the l o c a t i o n of terminals c o n s i s t e n t w i t h such plans. On the other hand, the existence of long range urban development plans can a s s i s t the planning of f u t u r e i n t e r - c i t y t r a f f i c by p e r m i t t i n g operators to s e l e c t appropriate t e r m i n a l s i t e s which i n t e r f a c e w i t h l o c a l modes - e.g. wit h subways. Knowledge of plans f o r fut u r e highways can a s s i s t bus operators g r e a t l y i n s e l e c t i n g the l o c a t i o n of s i t e s that w i l l reduce l i n e haul times i n the f u t u r e . 2.10 The Ottawa Terminal R e l o c a t i o n - An Example. A recent s h i f t i n t r a f f i c demand from r a i l to bus f o r t r a v e l between Ottawa and Montreal demonstrates the importance of a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n near the t r a n s i t system. On t h i s route there i s both r e g u l a r bus and r a i l s e r v i c e w i t h the same t r a v e l times of 2% to 2% hours. Both modes charged i n 1969 approximately the same f a r e , $4.00, f o r the 120 mile journey. As was observed i n the C.T.C. data, both modes c a r r y passengers of s i m i l a r income l e v e l s . P r i o r to 1967? both c a r r i e r s had downtown terminals i n Montreal and Ottawa. In Ottawa, the terminals were s i t u a t e d close to the F e d e r a l Parliament B u i l d i n g s and the accompanying con c e n t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l o f f i c e s . This area i s a l s o the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . Both terminals were near a l l major t r a n s i t routes and downtown a r t e r i a l s . 52 In 1967, the C.N.R.-C.P.R. r a i l t e r m i n a l was moved 1.5 miles to the south-east of the downtown area. The new s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d along Ottawa's major east-west freeway, the Queensway which has d i r e c t access to the f a c i l i t y . The l o c a t i o n , however, does not lend i t s e l f to the l o c a l t r a n s i t network c o n f i g u r a t i o n and the Ottawa T r a n s i t Commission does not serve the s t a t i o n . An experimental s e r v i c e was operated, i n 1967 hut was soon abandonned. The r e l o c a t i o n of the ter m i n a l was part, of the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t of the Rideau Canal and removal of the s t a t i o n from the. bank of the waterway permitted the r e l o c a t i o n of yards as w e l l . S h o r t l y a f t e r the r e l o c a t i o n of the t e r m i n a l , the i n t e r - c i t y bus operator experienced a s u b s t a n t i a l increase I n patronage. Although a c t u a l s t a t i s t i c s are .not a v a i l a b l e , the operator claims the growth was s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater than was expected from the "Expo 67" t r a f f i c generation and higher l e v e l s of patronage have continued since that time.5 2 j n response to that growth, the bus operator has doubled the frequency on the Montreal-Ottawa route to hour l y s e r v i c e . Meanwhile the ra i l w a y s have s u f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l t r a f f i c l o s s e s . The bus operator a t t r i b u t e s t h i s s h i f t i n r i d e r s h i p to the r e l o c a t i o n of the r a i l t e r m i n a l . The s h i f t away from, r a i l can be p a r t i a l l y explained by the decrease of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c e n t r a l business area and the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. The Ottawa CBD Is be l i e v e d to be the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n of a l a r g e number of business as w e l l a s r e c r e a t i o n a l t r i p s 53 and the new r a i l terminal is no longer within walking distance. Taxi is the only public transport available to the r a i l station. The terminal is convenient only to those who complete their access or egress journey by automobile. The increase of time and cost of access to the railway station, has altered the balance of demand in favour of the inter-city bus as the downtown bus terminal, location offers lower overall travel time than does the railway, from it s single suburban terminal. Ottawa is therefore an example of the importance of central terminal location. It demonstrates the impact of access mode avail a b i l i t y . Further, this example demonstrates the impact of urban planning decisions which did not enhance the demand for inter-city transportation systems. 2111 Inter-city Terminal Location, a Summary. Much of the literature referred to in this chapter is based on the total systems approach which describes the balance of demand among the various inter-city modes and the effect on that balance i f certain factors affecting'that demand are varied. Factors relating to time and cost have been found to be prime determinants of this balance and variation of these factors explains a great deal of the observed shifts in inter-city travel. Further, i t was shown that a variation in terminal location can affect these factors and for this reason the optimization of terminal location w i l l enhance the 'demand for transport as optimization w i l l result in the minimization of aggregate time and costs of access journeys. 5k T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n o f • o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s o f t h e modes w i t h g r e a t c a r e . A l t h o u g h t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n of a c c e s s o r e g r e s s j o u r n e y s i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n f o r a t e r m i n a l s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r mode must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i t s e f f e c t s on t h e u r b a n a r e a i n w h i c h i t i s s i t u a t e d , and t h e l o c a t i o n must be e c o n o m i c a l l y ' f e a s a b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h a t mode. 55 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 2 1. Proceedings of the N i n t h N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y  Planning/New York, 1917, P.257 2. F. L. Mogen, L e t t e r to the W r i t e r , February."!,, 1971 3. C. Colby " C e n t r i f u g a l and C e n t r i p i t a l Forces i n Urban Geography", Readings i n Urban Geography, ed. H. M. Mayer, C. F. Kohn, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1959, p . 287. 4. F. L. Mogen, op. c i t . 5. J . S. Worley, "Buses, Trucks, and A r c h i t e c t u r e " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Record, V o l . 90, Oct., 1941, p. 82. 6. G. J . MacMurray, "S o l v i n g the Bus Terminal Problem", The  American C i t y Magazine, December 1925, p. 651. 7. MacMurray, op. c i t . , p. 650. 8. I b i d . 9. Proceedings of N i n t h N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g , p. 257. 10. H. S. Pack, "Bus Terminal Design and C o n s t r u c t i o n , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, V o l . 90, October 1941, p . 83. 11. Toronto T r a n s i t Commission, Wheels of Progress. Toronto, 1944, p. 85. . 12. "Greyhounds' New Chicago Terminal", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record. V o l . 115, A p r i l 1954, p. 16%. 13. Systems A n a l y s i s Research Corporation (S.A.R.C), Demand  f o r I n t e r - c i t y Passenger T r a v e l i n the Washington Boston  C o r r i d o r , Clearinghouse, PB 166 884 p. 1-7. 14 . B. E. Cramer, Optimum A l l o c a t i o n of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Terminals  i n Urban Areas, M.I.T. Department of C i v i l E n gineering, Clearinghouse, PB 173-684. 15. Systems A n a l y s i s Research C o r p o r a t i o n , op. c i t . I60 Consad Research C o r p o r a t i o n , T r a n s i t Usage F o r e c a s t i n g  Techniques. P i t t s b u r g h . Pa., 1968. 17. B . E. Cramer, op. c i t . , p. 4 . 18. S.A.R.C, op. c i t . , p. 1-6. 56 1 9 . S.A.R.C, op. c i t . , p. 1-10. 2 0 . R. S. Sco t t and D. M. McCullough, Optimizing Common • C a r r i e r Terminal L o c a t i o n s , N. Y. State,'Dept. of P u b l i c Works, Clearinghouse, P.B. 184-409, p. 3^. 21 . Canadian Transport Commission, Research Branch, I n t e r c i t y  Passenger Transport Study, Ottawa, September, 1970.p.37 2 2 . M. Beesley, The Value of Time Spent i n T r a v e l l i n g : Some  lev; Evidence, H. M. S. 0., London. 2 3 . D. Quarmby, "Travel Mode f o r the Journey to Work", Jou r n a l of Transport Economics and P o l i c y , Sept. 1967. 24. S t a t l e r and B l a y , "Role of Rotary Wing i n Future Short Haul T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , "High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  J o u r n a l , V o l . I I (1968), No. 2, p. 369. 25 . " A v i a t i o n - Subway i n the Sky". Time Magazine, V o l . 97 5 No. 5 . 26. S.A.R.C, op. c i t . , p. .1-10. 27. B. E. Cramer, op. c i t . , p. 10 . 28. Vuchic, "Rapid T r a n s i t I n t e r s t a t i o n Spacing f o r Maximum Number of Passengers", T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Science, V o l . 3? No. 3 . • : 2 9 . E. A. Beinsborn, "Terminal Access and the Choice of I n t e r c i t y Modes", T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Engineering J o u r n a l , Proceedings of the A.S.C.E., August, 1969, p. 1+71+. 3 0 . Canadian Transport Commission, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Data; Data A b s t r a c t No. One. Ottawa, 1970. 3 1 . E. A.Beimborn, op. c i t . , p. 469 . 3 2 . C.T.C, I n t e r c i t y Passenger Transport Study, p. 37 . 3 3 . McDonnell A i r c r a f t C o r p o r a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l and Economic E v a l u a t i o n of A i r c r a f t f o r I n t e r - C i t y Short Haul Trans-p o r t a t i o n . ,• V o l . I l l , S t . L o u i s , Ms., 1966, Clearinghouse AD641-508, p. I I I - 1 1 2 . 34. S. G. L a d i e r e , F. E. Jarema, "Impact of Proje c t e d A i r T r a v e l Demand on A i r p o r t Access", Highway Research Record, No. 274, 1969, p. 21. 35* Lansing, c i t e d i n McDonnell A i r c r a f t C o r p o r a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. I I I - l l l . 3 6 . S.A.R.C, op. c i t . , p. V-19. 3 7 . C T . C , op.; c i t . . p. 22 . 57 38. E. N. H a l l , " C e n t r a l Elements of a N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System", High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . 2, No. 1, p. 88. ; 39« E. N. H a l l , c i t e d i n R. A. Gaekenheimer, "High Speed T r a n s i t i n Urban Areas" High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . 1, No. 1, Jan., 1967, p. 3 0 . 40. Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g s t o n e , and Co., Terminal I n t e r f a c e  System, U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Clearinghouse PB1HH209, p. 3.211. hi. G. D. F r i e d l a n d e r , "Railway vs. Highway - the Zoom of Things to Come", I.E.E.E. Spectrum, September 1967, p. 66. h2. B. W. F i r t h , E v o l u t i o n a r y Development of the. P u b l i c Transport System, S o c i e t y of Automobile Engineers, Paper No. 696124, Jan. 1969, p. 7. 4 3 . A. J . Tobin, "The Mid-Manhattan Bus Terminal of New Yorks Port A u t h o r i t y " , T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , Volume 6, p. 69. 44. W. Owen, The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem, Anchor Books, 1966, p. 63. : ' ~ : 45 . E. J . L e s s i e u , "Bus Terminal Planning and Design", Proceedings of the I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers',  T h i r t y - F i f t h Annual Meeting, 1965, P. 147.' 46. "Greyhounds^ New Chicago Terminal",- A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, V o l . 115, A p r i l 1954, p. I 6 7 . 4 7 . R. T i t t l e y , L e t t e r to W r i t e r , January 12, 1971. 48. McDonnell A i r c r a f t C o r p o r a t i o n , op. c i t . . 49. R. T i t t l e y , op. c i t . 50. W. G. Heenan, "The Influence of Rapid T r a n s i t on Real E s t a t e Values i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto," I n s t i t u t e f o r Rapid T r a n s i t . 51. S. M. Andrews, "Metro Center" Urban Renewal and Low  Income Housing, V o l . 5:2, 1969, p. 2. 52. G. G i l l , C o l o n i a l Coach Lines L t d . , Ottawa, Interview w i t h w r i t e r i n August, 1969. 58 CHAPTER THREE; BUS TERMINAL LOCATION 3.1 Introduction. This chapter w i l l apply the factors determining optimum location discussed in chapters one and two to one of the common carrier modes - the inter-city bus. This vehicle, because of i t s technology theoretically can perform i t s function without formalised stopping places or terminals. It can be as flexible as the automobile in route choice and does not require the specialised structures common to r a i l and air modes in order to pick up and drop off passengers. The f l e x i b i l i t y of this mode, and the fact that relocation of the stopping places as a rule does not necessitate costly relocation of rights of way or runways, make the bus particularly suitable for study of terminal locations. ' N • ' 3.2 The Terminal in the Inter-City Bus System. The bus stopping place with a heavy passenger density usually has a terminal structure that is capable of handling batch flows between the various access/egress modes and the line haul vehicles. The terminal usually provides 59 passenger holding ( w a i t i n g ) areas and processing (e.g. t i c k e t i n g ) f a c i l i t i e s which permit r e d u c t i o n of bus l o a d i n g time. F r e q u e n t l y the t e r m i n a l a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a d i s p a t c h i n g point and a bus express f r e i g h t l o a d i n g s t a t i o n . ( C a r r i e r s s t i l l consider f r e i g h t l o a d i n g a minor f a c t o r i n t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n . ) Despite the f a c t that terminals are s p e c i a l i s e d s t r u c t u r e s they do not d i f f e r from the simple road side stop i n the bas i c f u n c t i o n of f a c i l i t a t i n g interchange and access to the l i n e haul mode. For t h i s reason the d i s c u s s i o n of te r m i n a l l o c a t i o n must i n c l u d e these road side stops. 3.3 Bus Terminal Use and L o c a t i o n . Before d i s c u s s i n g the t e r m i n a l i n terms of i t s r e l a t i o n to o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s , i t should be noted that s e r v i c e s w i t h m u l t i p l e terminals i n urban me t r o p o l i t a n areas f i n d an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of passengers board at the c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l s . . Greyhound of Canada estimates the use of the c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l to be as high as 9 5 $ of a l l passengers using the s e r v i c e s . ^ This heavy use of c e n t r a l terminals would suggest that they have p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s which make t h e i r l o c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e to bus passengers despite the f a c t that at l e a s t 50% of. the o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s are outside the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . Some of the p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s are discussed below. 3.4. Access and Egress Journeys - Modal Choice. The s t a t i s t i c s p r e v i o u s l y presented i n d i c a t e that the m a j o r i t y of access t r i p s to c e n t r a l i n t e r - c i t y bus terminals are by l o c a l t r a n s i t " a n d by foot. ' This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true 6o f o r access t r i p s o r i g i n a t i n g i n the c e n t r a l c i t y . T r a n s i t usage i s highest i n c i t i e s where r a p i d t r a n s i t systems are w e l l developed and i t s routes pass near the t e r m i n a l s . For example, i n New York C i t y 5 6 $ of access t r i p s use t r a n s i t . Even i n c i t i e s w i t h bus t r a n s i t - only, the pr o p o r t i o n .of t r a n s i t usage i s high as i n the case i n Washington D.C. ( 4 5 $ ) and B u f f a l o ( 3 4 $ ) . The studie s on i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l demand r e v e a l some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s heavy t r a n s i t usage to downtown r a i l and bus t e r m i n a l s . Most l o c a l t r a n s i t networks have r a d i a l s extending f a r i n t o the suburbs converging towards the c e n t r a l area. At most c e n t r a l or near c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l s , access from the t r a n s i t mode i s e a s i l y achieved w i t h minimal time l o s s . Given t h i s t r a n s i t p a t t e r n and the f a c t that t r a n s i t w i l l be used f o r distances up to 10 miles from the te r m i n a l i n c i t i e s such as Toronto (as determined by the C.T.C), the t r a n s i t system-i s a s r e ' a d l l y ^ a v a l l a b l e access mode from many parts of the urban area. At suburban bus t e r m i n a l s , access by t r a n s i t i s u s u a l l y more d i f f i c u l t as the t r a n s i t network i s l e s s dense and frequencies are lower. The absence, or near absence of t r a n s i t , l o g i c a l l y precludes the use of this,@mode f o r access or egress journeys. For example, at a i r p o r t s where good p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s ofte n nonexistent, t a x i s and limousines are important c a r r i e r s (the most notable exception to t h i s p a t t e r n i s Cleveland w i t h i t s r a p i d t r a n s i t s e r v i c e to the a i r p o r t ) . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s i t , however, does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n f e r that t h i s mode w i l l be used as f r e q u e n t l y as i t i s not the f a s t e s t nor the most convenient mode and 61 therefore may not be used by many people. Many l o c a l t r a n s i t s t u d i e s show that t r a n s i t use i s mainly r e s t r i c t e d to r i d e r s who f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to dispose of t h e i r v e h i c l e at t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , who cannot d r i v e , who w i l l not d r i v e on congested downtown s t r e e t s , who do not have a v e h i c l e a v a i l a b l e , and/or who cannot a f f o r d t a x i s . The study of t r a n s i t habits i n P i t t s b u r g h i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point.3 Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g -stone and Co. suggest that the problem of parkin g , l o a d i n g and unloading, and the general congestion e x i s t i n g on downtown s t r e e t s r e s t r i c t the use of the automobile. ( A i r p o r t s on the other hand, u s u a l l y provide passenger parking areas and "drop o f f " l o c a t i o n s , which encourage automobile use and r e s u l t i n higher auto access percentages;. As was p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i n t e r - c i t y bus passengers tend to be from lower income groups ( t h i s s t a t i s t i c p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t s the l a r g e number of bus r i d e r s under 25 years of age). Fewer automobiles are a v a i l a b l e to t h i s group and these people must therefore r e l y on t r a n s i t to gain access to the bus terminal., As t r a n s i t makes the c e n t r a l area most a c c e s s i b l e to t h i s group, heavy use of c e n t r a l i n t e r - c i t y bus terminals is' made. General observations made from the data discussed tends to confirm t h i s p o i n t . For t r a n s i t - o r i e n t e d access t r i p s , the t e r m i n a l should be l o c a t e d on a major t r a n s i t r o ute, near the hub of the system,' as t h i s point minimizes access times and costs f o r a l l o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s . The hub of the t r a n s i t system, although f r e q u e n t l y i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i s not always i n the C.B.D., as i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the subway systems i n Toronto and Montreal. However, as the c e n t r a l area, generates a. high d e n s i t y of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r business t r i p s , a t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n outside the G.B.D. at the hub of the subway system, may not be the optimal l o c a t i o n f o r G.B.D. orient e d t r i p s . The G.T.G. survey suggests that congestion, as w e l l as t r a n s f e r and w a i t i n g times f o r t r a n s i t make walking the f a s t e s t access mode f o r distances up to l e s s than two miles. 5 Therefore, f o r concentrated G.B.D.'s, w i t h c e n t r a l , or near c e n t r a l t e r m i n a l s , one can expect a. lar g e p r o p o r t i o n of the C.B.D. based access journeys to' be on f o o t . This i s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n ' i n Montreal and B u f f a l o . However, i n New York where the C.B.D. i s quite extensive and walking u n a t t r a c t i v e , t h i s mode accounts f o r - o n l y 4 . 5 $ of a l l access journeys.^ In g e n e r a l , Northeast C o r r i d o r c i t i e s have f a i r l y concentrated C.B.D.'s and consequently over 3 0 $ of a l l downtown orie n t e d access journeys are made on .foot.7 F o r t h i s type of passenger t r a f f i c any c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n would be s a t i s f a c t o r y as long as i t would be w i t h i n walking distance of the o r i g i n s and d e s t i n -a t i o n s . 3 . 5 . I m p l i c a t i o n s of Future Demand on Terminal L o c a t i o n . Over the long run, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s w i l l be dependent upon f u t u r e urban land use patterns of urbanized areas. The land use pa t t e r n w i l l determine the d i s t r i b u t i o n of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s and the associated t r a n s p o r t a t i o n developments w i l l a f f e c t , modal choice. For example, i f urban planning p o l i c i e s encourage the' dispersal of the central business d i s t r i c t by providing suitable land elsewhere or by allowing the transit systems that feed that centre to deteriorate, the concentration of C.B.D. origins and destinations w i l l decline, and poor transit w i l l increase the total travel times to central terminals. A note needs to be made regarding the increasing use of the automobile. As the S.A.R.C. report indicates, the relative costs of automobile ownership and operation have declined since the second world war. The report suggests this trend w i l l continue and w i l l result in increased car o ownership. This can result in a. greater use of this mode for line haul trips when line haul times between bus and auto are comparable. In order to attract some of this automobile t r a f f i c , and as more access journeys w i l l be made by car, bus systems w i l l have to provide terminals which are readily accessible by car and can store these' vehicles until the passengers return. In this way, argued Beiraborn, the inter-city bus can maintain i t s position in terms of lower total travel times and cos.ts.9 Beimborn suggested that suburban terminals with parking f a c i l i t i e s could divert passengers away from other modes including the automobile. In particular, he suggests, these terminals would attract higher income travellers since a large proportion of the population dispersion occurs in the higher and middle income strata. He concludes that with automobile access, suburban terminals with line haul frequencies comparable to those of the central terminal could become more popular than terminals located in the central city. 6.4 The implication of dispersed urban development is that existing central terminals w i l l become less accessible in terms of total access times and w i l l probably contribute relatively fewer passengers to the inter-city bus system. If traditional public transit prevails (thus excluding personal public modes), a central terminal w i l l continue to provide minimal access times and costs for transit riders but more and more 'choice' riders w i l l turn to alternate terminals or stopping places. 3.6 The Line Haul Journey and the Bus Terminals. The importance of minimal.line haul travel time was underscored by the fact that the inter-city bus, which, is basically an extension of the automobile, has comparable speeds and travel times to the private mode. For this reason, terminal locations should be such, that, the line haul i s minimized where possible to remain competitive. This was essentially Beimborn's argument favouring suburban terminals where the line haul travel time' into and out of the central city can be overcome. The proposed bus terminal in the Toronto's 'Metro Center' is of interest to bus operators because i t w i l l have direct access to the Gardiner Expressway (a major east-west freeway), thus bypassing the congestion in downtown Toronto. The new Montreal terminal at Berri-de-Montigny was considered by the operator to be suitable as access to inter-city high-ways can readily be achieved. There i s , however, a problem related to suburban terminals. As was pointed out'.by Voyageur Inc. in connection with possible terminals in the western part•of the Island of Montreal: "It is becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t to service suburban areas with express services because of the location of controlled access highways" 10 • . If communities West .of Montreal are to be serviced, line haul times between the center of Montreal and Ottawa would be increased by 10 to 15' minutes as a slower route has to be used. Thus, using Vuchic's concept previously discussed, the effectiveness of suburban locations to attract patronage i f the total travel times for those already on board the vehicle are significantly increased. A possible solution to such a problem would be to provide separate services from suburban points. However, existing patronage levels would make such a service highly unprofitable. 3 . 7 Inter-City Bus Costs. The provision of bus terminals can involve substantial capital expenditure or almost none at a l l . For example, the New York terminals can be compared to the wayside stop with a single "Bus Stop" sign to designate i t s location. The bus system has the advantage over other common carriers In that extensive expenditures on rights of way are usually not required until t r a f f i c densities justify such expenditure. Capital costs of a terminal are limited to the site and structure, and the related servicing areas. These can'vary according to t r a f f i c densities as well. 6.6 The p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l t e r m i n a l s t r u c t u r e s need only be considered when e x i s t i n g or a n t i c i p a t e d patronage re q u i r e s s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r t i c k e t i n g and baggage i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to avoid- l i n e haul delays f o r equipment and s t a f f ( d r i v e r s ) . S u b s t a n t i a l expenditures, however, may be required to provide d i r e c t access to t r a n s i t , automobile/taxi drop o f f p o i n t s , and automobile storage areas. In c e n t r a l areas such f a c i l i t i e s could i n c u r s u b s t a n t i a l land and maintenance c o s t s . Although i n t e r - c i t y bus systems require r e l a t i v e l y low c a p i t a l expenditures, operating costs are high as the r a t i o of passengers to operating personnel i s low. Labour costs are of prime concern t o operators and f u t u r e labour contracts w i l l most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n higher f a r e s , thus making the bus l e s s a t t r a c t i v e to t r a v e l l e r s . Although bus f a r e s are s t i l l the lowest of the three common c a r r i e r modes, the i n t e r - c i t y bus does have the dubious d i s t i n c t i o n of having the highest increase i n user costs i n constant d o l l a r terms T r a v e l time and v e h i c l e s i z e are therefore extremely important i n h o l d i n g down f a r e i n c r e a s e s . 3.8 Community Planning and Bus Terminals. With the advent of&greater c o n t r o l s on land use such as zoning bylaws, i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c input has occurred i n determining the l o c a t i o n of bus t e r m i n a l s . For example, the development and l o c a t i o n of the Mid-Manhattan bus t e r m i n a l was the r e s u l t of a p u b l i c p o l i c y to reduce congestion i n the Times Square area. P u b l i c planning agencies may encourage the l o c a t i o n of f u t u r e suburban terminals near e x i s t i n g or proposed freeways, or near f u t u r e r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e s . This type of p u b l i c involvement has occurred i n Dade County, F l o r i d a (Miami) w i t h the o b j e c t i v e to enhance urban s t r u c t u r e . 3.,9 , Summary Despite the wide s c a t t e r of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s of i n t e r - c i t y b u s . t r i p s , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t r i p s o r i g i n a t e from c e n t r a l area t e r m i n a l s . This i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the high use of p u b l i c t r a n s i t as the access or egress mode, and the focus of t r a n s i t systems on the c e n t r a l area. As the i n t e r - c i t y bus w i l l most l i k e l y continue to be the mode choice of middle and lower income t r a v e l l e r s having non-business t r a v e l purposes, t r a n s i t w i l l remain an important determinant of l o c a t i o n i n the f u t u r e . Future urban patterns suggest f u r t h e r d i s p e r s a l of o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s which w i l l encourage the use of the p r i v a t e automobile and reduce the r o l e of l o c a l t r a n s i t . In order to a t t r a c t "choice" r i d e r s to the i n t e r - c i t y bus, suburban terminals w i t h good automobile access and storage f a c i l i t i e s may be r e q u i r e d . The number of such suburban terminals w i l l have to be l i m i t e d because of delays to those on board the bus. The l o c a t i o n of terminals w i l l have to be such that l i n e haul delays caused by congestion on l o c a l s t r e e t s w i l l be minimized, ^ h i s i s important i n order to maintain a 68 competitive position to other inter-city transport modes. Reduction of line haul times is particular important to minimize rising labour costs. The inter-city does have the fortunate position that capital costs are low and can rise with small increments according to passenger volumes. As urban transport problems become more complex i t can be expected and i t is desirable that greater public input w i l l occur with bus terminal location decision making. 69 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I I 1. F. L. Mogeii, L e t t e r to the W r i t e r , February 16, 1971. 2. Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g s t o n e , and Co., A n a l y s i s of the  Locations and Functions of the Terminal I n t e r f a c e System, U.S. Dept. of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n , Clearinghouse PB 188-209. 3. P i t t s b u r g h Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, V o l . 1, U.S. Depart-ment of Commerce, 1961, 4. Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g s t o n e , and Co., qp. c i t . , p, 3»2.1. 5. Canadian Transport Commission, I n t e r c i t y Passenger Transport  Study, Ottawa, September 197°, p. 22. 6. Peat, Marwick, L i v i n g s t o n e and Co^ ,. Loc. cit... 7. Systems A n a l y s i s Research C o r p o r a t i o n , Demand f o r I n t e r - c i t y Passenger T r a v e l i n the Washington Boston C o r r i d o r , Clearinghouse, P.B. 166-884, p. V-21. 8. S.A.R.C, op. c i t . , p. I I I - l . 9. E. A. Beimborn, "Terminal Access and the Choice of I n t e r c i t y Modes", T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Engineering J o u r n a l , Proceedings of the ATS.C.E., August, 19^ 9. 10. R. T i t t l e y , L e t t e r . t o the W r i t e r , January 12, 1971. 11. S.A.R.C op. c i t . , p. 111-10. 12. M e t r o p o l i t a n Dade County ( F l o r i d a ) Planning Department Terminal F a c i l i t i e s Master P l a n , Dec. 1968, Clearinghouse P.B. 184-729 p. i x . CHAPTER FOUR; DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The analysis of the factors affecting terminal location suggests that the hypothesis presented in chapter one is valid for urban patterns observed in eastern Canada and United States c i t i e s . The Ottawa; example indicated the effects of terminal relocation on the balance of demand among inter-city travel modes and confirms this hypothesis. The optimal location for an inter-city bus terminal is in or near the central business .district of a metropolitan area, near the hub of the urban transit network and with ready access to major highways. The analysis further suggests that the optimization of terminal location in future land use patterns w i l l require multi-terminal systems to stimulate demand for travel via such common carriers as the inter-city bus. This would reduce the need for additional inter-city highways and freeways catering to the automobile. As many of the access or egress journeys of this additional common carrier t r a f f i c w i l l be by automobile, optimal location would be near major t r a f f i c arteries that give direct access to large areas of the metro-politan area. Such locations can be predetermined so that compatibility of land uses can be established and site costs for the terminal minimized. As shown by the Toronto examples,the terminal can stimulate r e t a i l activity and perhaps bus terminals should, be co-ordinated with the development of local town centers. To conclude, the various studies discussed and the available data suggest three basic c r i t e r i a for the location of inter-city bus terminals in urban metropolitan areas which have determined this optimal location in urban metropolitan areas. These ares 1. Maximization of demand for inter-city bus service This maximization can be achieved by minimizing access and egress times and cost as these costs frequently form a substantial proportion of the total travel time and cost. This study shows that a central location on or near the hub of the transit system satisfies this criterion. ,2. Minimization of costs per passenger carried. This minimization can be achieved by determining a location in such a way that capital costs and line haul costs per passenger carried are minimized. Such locations should be away from the area of highest land values and should have ready access to inter-city highways. 3. Compliance with urban development .policies. This criterion requires the coordination of public and private location decision making so that the location is consistent with planning policies. In this way the terminal can assist in the realization of these policies which are designed to improve the urban environment. The third criterion is often neglected in the independent decision making processes of bus service operators. Public input into this process is required as was demonstrated by the congestion problems caused by buses on Manhattan's busy streets.; Public input into the decision making processes w i l l most l i k e l y increase as more complex urban and inter-city transportation problems require more comprehensive solutions. By using these c r i t e r i a for bus terminal location determination, i t is possible to determine the optimal location for inter-city bus terminals. 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY T Printed Books American Institute of Planners. . Proceedings of the Ninth  National Conference on City Planning, Kansas City, 1917. New York, 1917. •Ashley, C.A. The F i r s t Twenty-Five Years: A Study of Trans  Canada AirlinesT Toronto, MacMillan', 1963. B. C. Electric Railway Co. Ltd. Twenty-Nine Years of Public  Service. Vancouver, 1925. Greyhound Incorporated. Greyhound Annual Report. Chigago 1969. Hilton, G.W. Due, J.F. The Electric Interurban Railways in  America. 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The Needs and Desires of  Travellers in the Northeast Corridor. Philadelphia, Pa., 1970. U.S. Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse, P.B. 191-027. Parkinson, T.E. Trends in Public Transport Systems. Swansea, University College, December, 1968. Peat, Marwick, Livingstone and Co., Access Characteristics  Estimation System - Final Report. U.S. Department of Transport, 1969. U.S. Department of Commerce Clearinghouse PB 190-444/5. Peat, Marwick, Livingstone, .and Co., Analysis of the Location  and Functions of the Terminal Interface System. U.S. Department of Transportation, 1969. U.S." Department of Commerce, Clear-inghouse PB 188-209. P.A.T.S., Pittsburgh Area Transportation Study, Vol. 1. Pittsburgh, 1961.U.S. Department.of Commerce, Clearinghouse. Port of New York Authority. A Report on Airport Requirements  and Sites in the Metropolitan New Jersey - New York Region. New York, P.O.N.Y.A., May, 1961.. " \ Scott, R.S., McCullough. Optimizing Common Carrier Terminal  Locations. • N. Y. State, Department of Public Works. U.S. Department of 'Commerce, Clearinghouse PB184-409. Scrafton D., van Steenburgh, S.• The Inter-City Motor Coach  Industry in Canada. Ottawa, Ministry of Transport, April 1970. Systems Analysis Research Corporation (S.A.R.C). Demand for  Inter-city Passenger Travel in the Washington-Boston Corridor. U.S. Department of Transport. U.S. Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse -PB 166-884. 76 Westinghouse Airbrake Co. (Wabco.). A Study of Evolutionary  Urban Transportation ? i Volume II. U.S. Department of Trans-portation. U. S. Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse PB 178-268. IV Journals and Individual Papers Andrews, S.M. "Metro Center" Urban Renewal and Low Income  Housing. Vol. 5 No. 2 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 2-7. Avery, W.H. "An Integrated Urban-Interurban Transportation Concept." Traffic Quarterly, April 1969. p.285. Beesley, M. The Value of Time Spent in Travelling; Some New Evidence. London, H.M.S.O., 1968. Beimborn, A.E.: "Terminal Access and the Choice of Intercity Modes" Transportation Engineering Journal of the A.S.C.E., Vo. 95, No. TE3•, Proc. Paper 6731, Aug. 1969, PP 463-481. Boorer, N.W. and Davey, B.J. "The Characteristics and Problems Associated with V/STOL Operations." Aircraft Engineering Vol. 6 No. 5, March 1 9 6 9 , pp. 47-58. Bruce, J. Balek, A.J. "On the Need for a Definition of Demand for Transportation." ^High Speed. Ground Transportation. Journal, Vo. II, No. 3, p. 576. de Bruijn, H.M. "Modellen voor een wijit Rond een Station." Stedebouw •en Volkshuisvesting. The Hague, May 1969. (reprint) Detmold, P.J., Parkinson, T.E. Clark, G.A. Aspects of Intercity  Passenger Transport. Canadian Good Roads Association, 1970. Dewees, D. "The Decline of American Street Railways". Traffic. -Quarterly. Vol. 24 No. 2. p.563. Dodson, E.N. "Cost Effectiveness in Urban Transportation." Ekistics, Vol. 29, No. 170 (Jan. 1970) pp. 32-38. F i r t h , B.W. Evolutionary Development of the Public Transport  System. Society of Automobile Engineers, Paper No. 596124, Jan. 1969. Friedlander, G.D. "Railway vs. Highway." "The Zoom of Things to Come". I.E.E.E. Spectrum, September, 1967. p. 69. Gaekenheimer, R.A. "High Speed Transit in Urban Areas". High ' Speed Ground Transportation Journal, Vol. II No. 1 (Jan. 1967) pp. 22-32. Hall, E.N. "Central Elements of a National Transportation System" High Speed Ground Transportation Journal, Vol. II, No. 1, pp 88-96. ! 77 Hansen, V/. G. "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use" Journal of  the American institute of Planners. Vol. 25, No. 3 (May, 1959) P . 73. Heenan, W.G. "The Influence of Rapid Transit on Real Estate  Values in Metropolitan Toronto. Institute for Rapid Transit. Herbert, L. Community Consequences of Rapid Transit, University of Br i t i s h Columbia, Masters Thesis, 1969. Hoel, L.A. "Evaluating Alternative Strategies for Central City Distribution" Highway Research Record No. 293., 1969. Janelle, D. G. "Spatial Reorganization: A Model Concept." Ekistics, Vol..29, No. 170 (Jan. 1970) pp 39-46. Ladiere, S. G., Jarema, F. E. "Impact of Projected Air Travel Demand on Airport Access." Highway Research Record, No. 27*+, I 9 6 9 , p. 21. Lessieu, E. J. "Bus Terminal Planning and Design." Proceedings  of the. Institute of Traffic Engineers, Thirty-Fifth'Annual  Meeting, 1965, p. 147. ' Lovin, P.J., Lumsden, A. "The Los Angeles La Brea Station." Journal of the Franklin Institute. Vo. 286, No. 5, 1968, p.500. MacMurray, G. J. "Solving the Bus Terminal Problem." The  American City Magazine, December, 1925, pp. 650-652. Marshall, E.E. "The Role of Aircraft in Future Transport Systems." Aircraft Engineering (London) Vol. 41, No. 5 (May 1969) pp 21-28 Mauro, J. L. "A Transportation Inquisition . "Metropolitan Magazine. Vol. 6k, No. k (July - Aug., 1968) pp 25-27 . Miller, D. R.,Dela Barre, W.A. "Urban Passenger Terminal •Interfaces" 1966 National Transportation Symposium. 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The P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Developing-an E f f e c t i v e  N a t i o n a l Transport System i n the 1970's. Rand Corporation Paper No. P. 4277, March 1970. ' S i l e n c e , S. M. "A Preliminary'Look at Ground Access to A i r p o r t s " E k i s t i c s , V o l . 29, No. 170 (Jan. 1 9 7 0 ) , pp 68-74. S i l l c o x , L. K. "Railways Role i n Speed S e r v i c e , and Saf e t y . " High. Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . I I : No. 1 (January, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp 205-213. S t a t l e r , W. H. : B l a y , R. A. "Role of the Rotary Wing i n Future Short Haul T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " High Speed Ground  Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . I I , No. 2 (1968) pp 369-380 Tobin, A. J . "The Mid-Manhattan Bus Terminal of New York's Port A u t h o r i t y . " T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 6, pp 68-75. U. S. Government Panel on High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . "Research and Development f o r High. Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " High Speed Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . 1, No. 2 (May 1967) pp 202-240. ' "~" Vuchic, V. R. "Rapid T r a n s i t I n t e r s t a t i o n Spacings f o r Maximum Number of Passengers." T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Science, V o l . 3, (August, 1969) pp 214-232. Wohl, M. "An Uncommon View of the Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem." T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Engineering J o u r n a l of the A.S.C.E., V o l . 95, TE1 (Feb. 1969) pp 143-156. Worley, J . S. "Buses, Trucks, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Record, V o l . 90, October 1941, pp 8 I - 8 3 . "Comments on Terminals - Terminal Planning f o r Future Highways." Jo u r n a l of the Highway D i v i s i o n of the A.S.C.E., V o l . 92, No. H.W. 2 (Oct. I 9 6 6 ) pp 64-74. iGreyhound.'s New Chicago Terminal." A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, V o l . 115, A p r i l 1954-, PP 167-170. 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