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Development of P.K. Page's imagery : the Subjective eye: the eye of the conjuror Valleau, Allen Keith 1973

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF P.K. PAGE'S IMAGERY: THE SUBJECTIVE EYE—THE EYE OF THE CONJUROR by ALLEN KEITH VALLEAU B. Comm., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1973. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J u l y 14, 1973. i ABSTRACT In an attempt to develop a better perspective on P.K. Page's work, the thesis concentrates on the development of her imagery. The imagery i l l u s t r a t e s the direction of Page's development and a close study of i t s nature w i l l uncover the central concerns of Page's writing. The f i r s t chapter of the thesis examines the f i e l d of c r i t i c a l analysis already undertaken on Page showing i t s good points and i t s weak points. The following three chapters trace the chronological development of Page's work. The second chapter covers up to the writing of The Sun And  The Moon in 1944. Even her early work i l l u s t r a t e s that as her images became complex, her concern with perspective grew. Her more complex work such as, "The Stenographers", "Panorama", amd The Sun And The Moon in particular i l l u s t r a t e t h i s concern. The t h i r d chapter analyzes the poetry of her f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n As Ten As Twenty and looks at the period between 1944 and 1954. In this period Page's images become more complex and her work becomes overtly involved with perspective? and v i s i o n . Images revolving around trains, photographs, snow and whiteness become recurring and a continuity develops between her subjects. Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y "Round Trip", "The Bands And The Beautiful Children", "Adolescence", "Them Ducks", "Stories Of Snow", 'liSubjective Eye", and "Photos Of A Salt Mine" i l l u s t r a t e how Page's concern with imagery and perspective i i was melding together. The fourth chapter deals with her second c o l l e c t i o n The Metal And The Flower and her t h i r d c o l l e c t i o n Cry Ararat I. It also looks b r i e f l y at Page's s h i f t to painting in the S i x t i e s and examines some of her more recent poetry. In this period Page undergoes her most s i g n i f i c a n t changes. Images recur from e a r l i e r periods, but now the images e l i c i t a more complex viewsof the world. Page's poetry r e f l e c t s her awareness of the bounds of v i s i o n . She realizes that one must become a conjuror in order to see different perspectives. Her poetry, painting, and a r t i c l e s r e f l e c t t h i s s h i f t . a s "Reflection In A Train Window", "Arras", ".Cry Ararat!", "A Backwards Journey", "Questions And Images", and "Traveller, Conjuror, Journeyman" i l l u s t r a t e . The study demonstrates that as Page's imagery developed, there was a p a r a l l e l development in her concern with perspective and v i s i o n . Her imagery and her vision merge as perspective and vision become her primary concern. Her recent poetry indicates that any further development w i l l be in the same vein as she attempts to discover more about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ship between image, perspective and v i s i o n . i i i CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER ONE CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES 1 CHAPTER TWO PERSPECTIVES AND BEGINNING 16 CHAPTER THREE THE DEVELOPING SENSE OF PERSPECTIVE 46 CHAPTER FOUR JOURNEYS IN THE SPECTRUM 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 124 APPENDIX 1 A CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF POETRY AND 136 PROSE FICTION BY FIRST PUBLISHING DATE. APPENDIX 2 A TITLE LIST OF POETRY AND PROSE FICTION 140 WITH CROSS REFERENCE TO APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 3 J ABBREVIATIONS USED 144 APPENDIX 4 A LIST OF ANTHOLOGIES IN WHICH PAGE'S WRITING APPEARS 145 Special thanks go to my advisor Professor William New for his help in the preparation of this thesis and to Lew Fung Yeu for her calligraphy. C H A P T E R ONE C R I T I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O f t e n c r i t i c a l v i e w s o f a w r i t e r ' s w o r k a r e d e t e r m i n e d v e r y e a r l y i n t h e w r i t e r ' s c a r e e r a n d a r e n o t r e v i s e d e x t e n -s i v e l y a s t h e w r i t e r d e v e l o p s . T h i s i s t h e c a s e w i t h P i K . P a g e . A m a j o r r e v a l u a t i o n o f P a g e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y . O f c o u r s e t h e o l d c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s m u s t b e s t u d i e d , b u t a f r e s h a p p r o a c h t o h e r w o r k f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d m u s t b e u n d e r t a k e n . P a g e ' s w r i t i n g m u s t b e e x a m i n e d i n r e l a t i o n " . : t o i t s o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , i t s i m a g e r y . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e i m a g e r y , i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h i s f o r e -m o s t i n t h e i m a g e r y w i l l l e a d t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f P a g e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t . A c l o s e s t u d y o f s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g t a k e n i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how h e r a w a r e n e s s o f i m a g e , v i s i o n a n d p e r s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f h e r w o r k . P a g e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t w a s g r a d u a l , a l t h o u g h e v e n i n h e r e a r l y w r i t i n g h e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h v i e w p o i n t a n d p e r s p e c t i v e c a n b e d i s c e r n e d . I n t h e p a s t , h o w e v e r , c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s h a s f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f P a g e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e . I t w o u l d b e h a r d t o p i c k o u t o n e p o p u l a r a p p r o a c h i n t h e c r i t i c a l w o r k a l r e a d y w r i t t e n o n P a g e . L i k e h e r 2 poetry, the c r i t i c i s m encompasses a number of p e r s p e c t i v e s . In f a c t , the c r i t i c s have tended to.mime Rage's a b i l i t y to. see p e r i p h e r a l viewpoints. Yet, they were unable to see the many f a c e t s of Page's work. It i s i r o n i c that i t i s j u s t t h i s kind of single-minded, s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e on things that Page h e r s e l f i s t r y i n g to avoid. The most important underlying f a c t o r i n Page's dev-elopment i s her undying, constant awareness of the many poss-i b i l i t i e s which l i e before the i n d i v i d u a l . She sees the many d i r e c t i o n s i n - the spectrum of thought that an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of views on a subject w i l l c r e a t e . T h i s i s not to say that the c r i t i c s have been t o t a l l y b l i n d to the underlying meaning of Page's work, f o r there are most c e r t a i n l y some good i n s i g h t s i n t o the matrix of her v i s i o n . None of these i n s i g h t s , however, i s f u l l y dev-eloped. There has not been an attempt to f o l l o w through any of these i n s i g h t s to see how, where and why they apply to Page's work and development as a t o t a l i t y . E a r l y c r i t i c i s m w r i t t e n on Page looked at her work i n a wide assortment of ways. Reviewers such as Alan Crawley commented on v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of Page's work i n c l u d i n g her 1 imagery, her i n t e r e s t i n "the strange aspects of l i f e " and her progress "to an i n d i v i d u a l and completely contemp-2 orary thought and form of expression" while s t i l l noting "a strong, almost overbalancing, s o c i a l consciousness." J In c o n t r a s t , other reviewers were i n c l i n e d to take a more 3 singular view of Page's writing. E.K. Brown, for example, wrote in reviewing Unit Of Five that both Page and Souster were " r e l a t i v e l y simple poets with a strong sense that the present s o c i a l order i s unendurable."^ A similar example of the lack of breadth and depth with which some of the reviewers regarded Page i s found in a review of As Ten As Twenty by J.B. Martin. Martin simply wrote that he often 5 found himself "at a loss to find the point of a poem." Statements l i k e t h i s could be attributed to a c r i t i c a l reaction against the changing style of modern poetry in the 1940*s, but whatever their underlying cause, they portray very well the c r i t i c a l atmosphere in which Page's poetry was received. While on one hand i t was received and analyzed with c l a r i t y , on the other hand i t was misread and misunderstood. Although Page's poetry had developed considerably in both style and content by the time she published her second volume of poetry The Metal And The Flower in 1954, she was c r i t i c i z e d by more than one c r i t i c for not making any progress at a l l . Louis Dudek, for instance, c r i t i c i z e d her for printing a book which he thought was "a painful imitation of her e a r l i e r mannerisms, without any sign of breaking new ground." Whether or not t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s based on fact, i s something that Dudek did not set out to prove. He was w i l l i n g to dismiss Page's work in the manner in which he attempted to dismiss a l l of the Preview group of poets in 4 the attacks on their poetry that he wrote f i f t e e n years e a r l i e r in F i r s t Statement. Comments l i k e "she was r e a l l y a poet of the English T r a d i t i o n a l i s t group" 7 show Dudek's unwilling-ness to reassess his c r i t i c a l evaluations or to attempt to deal with Page as an individual apart from the group that she was involved with ten years e a r l i e r . At the same end of the c r i t i c a l f i e l d of judgement, V.B. Rhodenizer in 1954 summed up Page's poetry by stating that g "her imagery i s sometimes daring beyond the point of c l a r i t y . " This i s unjust as a capsule statement tacked onto b i b l i o -graphic data on Page in a poetry anthology. It does not give the reader any insight into her work. Rhodenizer's and Dudek's negative opinions are not unique. Desmond Pacey stated that Page's poetic talent was "a talent that'.[had] worked i t s e l f out,"^ and that some of the work in her second c o l l e c t i o n The Metal And The Flower was 10 "ingenuity rather than . . . genuine s k i l l . " He saw her 11 second volume as "a r e l a t i v e l y s p i r i t l e s s imitation" of previous work. This he f e l t was confirmed by her "subsequent 12 desertion of poetry for painting." Although Pacey did note that there was a quality to Page's poetry in which a stcange blending of the organic and the 13 inorganic produced "a peculiar but often very apt e f f e c t , " he never synthesized t h i s with the rest of his ideas on Page's work. Nor did he try to integrate these remarks with what he thought was the dominant theme of Page's best poetry: 5 "the quest f o r beauty, f o r innocence or f o r l o v e . " Pacey •was too w i l l i n g to pronounce the end of Page's career and too w i l l i n g to f i n d a simple tag to l a b e l Page's achievement with. A h e l t e r - s k e l t e r approach i s o f t e n found i n the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Page's work. Rather than being i n t e r e s t e d i n an i n t e g r a t i v e or an in-depth study of her poetry, i t has been more common that the c r i t i c s s i n g l e out i n d i v i d u a l cause-e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and use them as the crux of t h e i r argu-ments. A good example of t h i s approach i s demonstrated by R.E. Rashley i n h i s book Poetry In Canada: The F i r s t Three Steps. Like most c r i t i c s , Rashley noted that Page's f i r s t volume As Ten As Twenty/ was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s o c i a l content. Of more consequence,, however, was Rashley's o b s e r v a t i o n that Page's "imagery . . . has a l i q u i d , h a l l u c i n a t o r y e f f e c t : i t s h i f t s and melts and never stands s t i l l . " ^^ Rashley thought that these images were f r e q u e n t l y connected to i l l n e s s and h o r r o r . He d i d not attempt to see the wider i m p l i c a t i o n s of what he saw as an " h a l l u c i n a t o r y e f f e c t . " He was content to t a l k about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l content, a l i e n -a t i o n i n modern s o c i e t y , and i l l n e s s and horror i n Page's poetry. T h i s kind of c r i t i c i s m on Page was common. Often i f the c r i t i c had taken a more extensive view of what he had observed, he would have discovered the vast area which Page's images r e a l l y encompassed. Rashley covered Page's second anthology The Metal And 6 The Flower with some quick judgements. He noted that "about a t h i r d of the poems show a movement away from the 16 s o c i a l theme toward an individual reading of experience." He suggested that "perhaps th i s poetry deals too l i t t l e with ideas, or with individuals or with events, too much 17 with the senses." Although Page does move through the senses in much of her poetry, the senses are the keys to her vi s i o n ; the keys to the ideas and the insights in 1 8 "the area behind the eyes li" Rashley was not the f i r s t to think that horror was a central theme in Page's poetry. It was f i r s t mentioned by A.R. Bevan in a review of The Metal And The Flower. Bevan noted Page's concern with the unknown, and correlated i t with "nightmares and distorted r e f l e c t i o n s " of a "Freudian 19 subconscious." Fred Cogswell in a review a r t i c l e of the same year took Bevan's view a l i t t l e further and saw ni h i l i s m as the basis of Page's work. He saw that "her range of subjects and experiences i s sadly limited, and . . . her 2 0 wisdom i s the wisdom of despair." Ideas l i k e t h i s cannot encompass such poems as "Bright Fish Once Swimming Where We Lie . . .", "Boy With A Sea Dream", or "Christmas Eve--Market Square". They are f u l l of hope and far from narrow in outlook. Even i f Page's vis i o n in The Metal And The Flower more often shows the negative side of l i f e , t h i s should not be a reason for ignoring the other perspectives in her poetry. Her vision 7 i s both h o r r i b l e and b e a u t i f u l , good and e v i l ; her poetry i s both simple and l a b y r i n t h i n e i n nature. M i l t o n Wilson's a n a l y s i s of Page e x e m p l i f i e s the problems which a r i s e with narrow c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . In summarizing h i s c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n on Page, Wilson quoted Page's poem •i • "The Age Of Ice". He noted that Page's weakness i s centred around the problem tha t : "Between/ The W i l l and the Wish 21 i s g l a s s . " He thought that Page's development would f l o u r i s h with "the i n c r e a s i n g transparency of t h i s g l a s s . " I r o n i c a l l y , however, he missed the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n of her poem. It i s not j u s t about her i n a b i l i t y to w r i t e what she d e s i r e s to w r i t e , i t a l s o deals with the more general problem of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a i l u r e to reach out f a r enough to f i n d the essence which l i e s unperceived i n the perceived. The poem c a l l s f o r a v i s i o n a r y mind which dares to reach outward through the g l a s s take winter i n . . . palm. And f e e l t h i s age of i c e melt i n t o s p r i n g with the quick sound about of water running. ^3 Not a l l : the c r i t i c s have been as s h o r t - s i g h t e d as Wilson though. For instance, E a r l e Birney has made some acute remarks about Page's poetry. In a review of As Ten As Twenty Birney noted Page's "x-ray t r i c k of p e n e t r a t i n g beyond s u r f a c e s , e i t h e r of substance or of manner, i n t o the matrix of her ;; . 24 . . . theme." and he observed that " i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that 'eyes' are a recurrent source of metaphor to the point 8 of an o b s e s s i o n . " These a r e key i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e a r e a i n w h i c h Page's t a l e n t found i t s prime c o n c e r n . I t i s e n c o u r -a g i n g t h a t B i r n e y s h o u l d see so c l e a r l y t h e key a s p e c t s w h i c h u n d e r l i e Page's p o e t r y a t a time when most o t h e r s were o n l y w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e t h e s o c i a l i m p o r t o f her p o e t r y . In an a r t i c l e p r i n t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r B i r n e y ' s r e v i e w a p p e a r e d , John S u t h e r l a n d a t t a c k e d t h e c r i t i c s ' n a r r o w v i e w o f Page's p o e t r y . He f e l t t h a t t h e y were o v e r - z e a l o u s i n t h e i r r u s h t o see Page as a s o c i a l c r i t i c . He o b s e r v e d t h a t " t h e c r i t i c s who have r e g a r d e d her as a poet o f i d e a s . . . have been too 26 much i m p r e s s e d by s u r f a c e a p p e a r a n c e . " R a t h e r than s e e i n g Page as u s i n g i d e a s t o d e v e l o p l o g i c o r r h e t o r i c , S u t h e r l a n d saw her as u s i n g i d e a s m a i n l y t o h e l p her " t o l o c a t e her p o e t r y 2 7 i n s p a c e and t i m e . " By f a r the most i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t S u t h e r l a n d made on Page was h i s statement on t h e way i n wh i c h she u s e s m u l t i - e d g e d p e r s p e c t i v e s on words and images. He saw her as h a v i n g "a c o n j u r e r ' s t r i c k w i t h l a n g u a g e " which " c o n t i n u a l l y s t a r t l e s us by making one t h i n g assume t h e i d e n t i t y o f 28 a n o t h e r . " I t i s e x a c t l y t h i s " c o n j u r e r ' s t r i c k " and her se n s e o f " p e n e t r a t i n g beyond s u r f a c e s " w h i c h her p o e t r y w r i t t e n i n t h e 1960's and t h e e a r l y 1970's and her p a i n t i n g s o f the same e r a have most o f t e n used as t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g theme. S u t h e r l a n d , however, d i d not f e e l c o m p l e t e l y c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l u e o f Page's c o n j u r i n g . He n o t e d t h a t t h i s t r i c k o f p e r s p e c t i v e s was r a t h e r "a k i n d o f game—a game t h a t a c h i l d m ight p i p y i n a n u r s e r y , i m a g i n i n g each t h i n g she s e e s t o 9 to be something else and inventing a l i f e history for i t . " Sutherland perceived that Page's a b i l i t y to notice different perspectives often became a tangent "which the theme [did] not suggest." The perspectives, he thought, led Page into 30 "cul-de-sac images" and "self-contained stanzas." Sutherland f e l t that Page's imagination was naive. He f e l t that i t s independence from conscious ideas caused the lack of tension 31 found in some of her poetry. He considered that t h i s imagery created poetry which was "a compilation) rather than a compos-. . 32 l t i o n . " Sutherland was of the opinion that Page's better poetry had a tension in i t s imagery where there was "never 33 any truce between the opposing attitudes." These may be harsh c r i t i c i s m s , but nonetheless i t may have been just t h i s type of c r i t i c i s m that helped Page to find the weakness in her poetry. In retrospect, Page does think that Sutherland's c r i t i c i s m s were quite v a l i d , although she feels that they 34 were hard for her to accept at the time. A.J.M. Smith's view of Page's work i s also very interesting and an overview of the better c r i t i c i s m written oft Page would not be complete without a reference to i t . Smith was c r i t i c i z e d quite heavily by the Montreal group of poets during the early Forties for not being aware of contemporary Canadian poetry, but he did develop;, some interesting ideas about Page's work. In an a r t i c l e written in 1947, he noted that "the constant s h i f t i n g between the outer world of surfaces and the inner world of reverie gives 10 a sense of f l u i d i t y and impermanence" to P.K. Page's poetry. 36 He saw that "metamorphoses occur here," even though he f e l l short of perceiving what the extent of the metamorphoses was. Similarly, his attempt to demark the opposite poles of an "outer world of surfaces" in contrast to an "inner 37 world of reverie," was not completely thought out. Smith had already defined "the inner l i f e of reverie" as the opposite 38 of "the outer world of objective experience/" Thus, a contradiction developed because Smith did not distinguish between "the outer world of objective experience" and "the outer world of surfaces." It seems that Smith was not quite sure of the extent of Page's metamorphoses, of of the extent r "i 39 to which "her most char a c t e r i s t i c work LwasJ subjective." John Sutherland's c r i t i c i s m of Smith aptly summed up the weakness of Smith's c r i t i c i s m : The statement [objective experience] seems to be true as far as i t goes (I say "seems" because a phrase l i k e "objective experience" might mean anything or nothing). 40 In a recent a r t i c l e in Canadian Literature Smith commented on the problem that he has with Page's writing: There i s no doubt that she i s a d i f f i c u l t p o e t — a t least I have found her so—and the d i f f i c u l t y i s not i n t e l l e c t u a l . Her moons are not reason , !s, so that what the reader who i s to get the maximum enjoyment needs— or the c r i t i c who i s to get the maximum comprehension—is a s e n s i b i l i t y and an i n t u i t i o n that have been nourished and educated by the poems themselves as he reads and re-reads them. 41 It i s t h i s l i n e of thought that led Smith to realize that Page's poetry i s no longer a multifold view of the world, b u t " a p o e t r y o f v i s i o n " t h a t " c a s t s a s p e l l w h i c h h a s m a d e 4 2 i t p o s s i b l e t o v a l u e i t n o t a s v i s i o n b u t a s r e v e l a t i o n . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , S m i t h f a i l e d t o d r a w o u t t h e m e a n i n g o f P a g e ' s v i s i o n a n d r e v e l a t i o n . I n s t e a d o f e x a m i n i n g t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e v i s i o n t h a t h e s a w d e v e l o p i n g i n t o r e v e l a t i o n , h e s p e n t m o s t o f h i s t i m e p o i n t i n g o u t i n s t a n c e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t t h e m e s w h i c h h e e s p i e d ; p l e a s u r e a n d t e r r o r , a n d i n n o c e n c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e h e o n l y v a g u e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h h i s c o n -c e p t i o n o f P a g e ' s v i s i o n . T h i s i s h i s m a i n w e a k n e s s . I f h e h a d c o n n e c t e d t h e m , h e w o u l d h a v e h a d a n a r g u m e n t t h a t h a d t o t a l u n i t y . I f P a g e ' s p o e t r y i s n o t h e l d p r o p e r l y i n p e r s p e c t i v e , i t s b e a u t y a n d m e a n i n g a r e l o s t . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , t h e 4 3 c r i t i c s h o u l d a s k t h e " a g o n i z i n g q u e s t i o n s " w h i c h S m i t h f e l t w e r e l a c e d w i t h t e r r o r : Who am I o r w h o am I b e c o m e t h a t w a k i n g h e r e ^ I am o b s e r v e r , o t h e r G e m i n i . I t i s i n t h e n a r r o w n e s s o f t h e c r i t i c ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t " t h e s t i l l n e s s p o i n t s a b o n e a t [ h i m ] . " ^ G e n e r a l l y , t h e m o r e r e c e n t v i e w s o f P a g e ' s p o e t r y h a v e b e e n m o r e a w a r e o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t o f P a g e ' s w o r k , e v e n t h o u g h t h i s a w a r e n e s s i s o n l y n o t i c e a b l e b y a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f i n c i s i v e r e m a r k s a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b y t h e t o n e o f t h e o v e r a l l c o m m e n t s o f t h e c r i t i c s . R e v i e w s o f P a g e ' s t h i r d v o l u m e o f p o e t r y C r y A r a r a t ! : P o e m s New A n d S e l e c t e d s e e m t o e x e m p l i f y t h i s p a t t e r n , ' F o r e x a m p l e , 12 Hugh MacCcillum i n reviewing Cry A r a r a t ! made two simple but worthwhile remarks. He observed that "the nature of per-c e p t i o n i s perhaps the o v e r r i d i n g concern of P. K. Page's poetry" and he noted that Page "writes repeatedly of dreams 46 and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . " Similarly',. Ralph Gustafson i n reviewing Cry A r a r a t ! made the i n t e r e s t i n g observation that 47 Page's poetry i s "communicative of what cannot be s t a t e d . " Comments such as these show that the c r i t i c s are beginning to see beyond the su r f a c e s and i n t o the v i s i o n a r y core of the poetry. The f i e l d of c r i t i c a l v i s i o n has to widen c o n s i d e r a b l y s t i l l i n respect to the f i e l d of p o e t i c v i s i o n i n which i t i s o p e r a t i n g . It i s not enough to see Page's poetry as communicative of a something beyond the l o g i c p a t t e r n s that we normally use. Nor i s i t enough to see that the nature of perception i s a concern, and that dreams and transformations are common t o p i c s . It i s w i t h i n a s y n t h e s i s of a l l these observations that the meaning of the complex t o t a l i t y of P. K, Page's work l i e s . It i s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n that the many point s of perception are r e l a t e d to the dream and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and that these i n turn are r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y to be "communicative of what cannot be s t a t e d " that the keys to Page's work l i e . 13 CHAPTER ONE FOOTNOTES: 1. A l a n Crawley, Review of As Ten As Twenty, Contemporary Verse, No. 19 (October 1946), p. 18. 2. I b i d . , p. 17. 3 . • I b i d . , p. 18. 4. E.K. Brown, Review of U n i t Of F i v e i n " L e t t e r s i n Canada," U n i v e r s i t y Of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , 14 (1944), 264. 5. J . M a r t i n , Review of As Ten As Twenty, The D a l h o u s i e  Review, 26 (January 1947), 503. 6. L o u i s Dudek, " P a t t e r n s Of Recent Canadian P o e t r y , " C u l t u r e , 19, No. 4 (December 1958), 409. 7. I b i d . , p. 409. 8. V.B. Rhod e n i z e r , Canadian P o e t r y I_n E n g l i s h , 3rd ed. (Toronto, Ryerson,~1954), p. 421. 9. Desmond Pacey, C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g In Canada (Toronto: Ryerson, 1961 ) , p. 1 61 . 10. I b i d . , p. 161 . 11 . Desmond Pacey, Essays In Canadian C r i t i c i s m 1 938-1968 (Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 6 9 7 , P- 161. 12. I b i d . , p. 200. 13. Pacey, C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g In Canada, p. 161. 14. I b i d . , p. 159. 15. R.E. R a s h l e y , P o e t r y In Canada: The F i r s t Three  Steps (Toronto: Ryerson, 1958j^ pT 139. 16. I b i d . , p. 140. 17. I b i d . , p. 140. 18. P.K. Page, " S t o r i e s Of Snow," As Ten As,Twenty (Toronto: Ryerson, 1946), p. 9. 19. A.R. Bevan, Review of The Meta1 And The Flo w e r , The D c i h o u s i s Review, 35, No. 1 ( S p r i n g 1955), 96. 1 4 20. F r e d C o g s w e l l , R e v i e w o f The M e t a l And The F l o w e r , The F i d d l e h e a d , No. 26 (November 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 30. 2 1 . P.K. Page, "The Age Of I c e , " Here And Now, No. 4 ( J u n e 1 9 4 9 ) , p.,67. 22. M i l t o n W i l s o n , " O t h e r C a n a d i a n s And A f t e r , " i n Masks Of P o e t r y , e d . A.J.M. S m i t h ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d And S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 129. 23. Page, "The Age Of I c e , " p > 67. 24. E a r l e B i r n e y , R e v i e w o f As Ten As Twenty, C a n a d i a n P o e t r y M a g a z i n e , 10, No. 2 (December 1946JT 4 3 . " 25. I b i d . , p. 43. 26. J o h n S u t h e r l a n d , "The P o e t r y Of P.K. Page," N o t h e r n R e v i e w , 1, No. 4 (December 1 9 4 6 — J a n u a r y 1 9 4 7 ) , 1 3 . 27. I b i d . , p. 13. 28. I b i d . , p. 1 3 . 29. I b i d . , p. 18. 30. I b i d . , pp. 18-19. 31 . I b i d . , p. 18. 32. I b i d . , p. 20. 33. I b i d . , p. 20. 34. P.K. Page, i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , May 24, 1972. 35. A,J.M. S m i t h , "New C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , " The C a n a d i a n  Forum, 26 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 7 ) , 250. 36. I b i d . , p. 250. 37. I b i d . , p. 250. 38. I b i d . , p. 250. 39. J o h n S u t h e r l a n d , " L e t t e r To The E d i t o r , " The C a n a d i a n  Forum, 27 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 7 ) , 17. 40. I b i d . , p. 17. 4 1 . A.J.M. S m i t h , "The P o e t r y Of P.K. Page," C a n a d i a n  L i t e r a t u r e , No. 50 (Autumn 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 17. I b i d . , p. 19. I b i d . , p. 26. P.K. Page, " A r r a s , " The M e t a l And The F l o w e r ( T o r o n t o M c C l e l l a n d And S t e w a r t , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 63. I b i d . , p. 63. Hugh M a c C a l l u m , " L e t t e r s I n Ca n a d a , " U n i v e r s i t y Of T o r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y , 37 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 368. R a l p h G u s t a f s o n , R e v i e w o f Cr_y_ A r a r a t ! : Poems New  And S e l e c t e d , Queens Q u a r t e r l y , 75 (T968)7 374. 16 CHAPTER TWO PERSPECTIVES AND BEGINNINGS The things which i n f l u e n c e any a r t i s t are m u l t i f o l d . To say that a w r i t e r develops a s t y l e , a pattern of images and a set of values,on h i s own i s a gross g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . He i s a product of h i s c u l t u r a l environment. Even i f he i s not o v e r t l y aware of i t s e f f e c t on him, common patterns of subject matter, common l o c a l concerns and a common sch o o l i n g develop the i n d i v i d u a l 1 - s understanding of h i s c u l t u r e . P.K. Page's ideas have s i m i l a r i t i e s with other writers'. Her concern with images which centre around dreams and v i s i o n s , f o r instance, i s only a part of what seems to be a cont i n u i n g phenomenon i n Canadian poetry. As Sandra Djwa p o i n t s out i n her a r t i c l e "Canadian Poetry And The Computer": "Dream", "sleep", " v i s i o n " ; a n d i t s v a r i a n t s occur 217 times i n Roberts, 368 times i n Lampman and 221 times i n D. C. S c o t t . In each case i t has the highest frequency of any thematic ^ word oc c u r i n g . . . This i s not to say that Page's v i s i o n or dream i s the same as R o b e r t s L a m p m a n 1 s or S c o t t ' s , but only to note a s i m i l a r concern with v i s i o n a r y subject matter i n e a r l i e r poets. It would be misleading to say that Page's poetry i s simply the c o n t i n u a t i o n of Roberts' v i s i o n a r y romantic poetry any more than i t would be to say that S c o t t ' s v i s i o n i s the 17 same as Roberts'. Each poet's v i s i o n has i t s own c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and i t s own a p p l i c a t i o n s which make i t unique. Page's v i s i o n , with i t s i n t e n s e concern f o r p e r s p e c t i v e , i s much d i f f e r e n t from the Confederation group of poets'. I t has much more i n common with the v i s i o n of her contemporary, Margaret Avison. Avison's e a r l y poetry, as e x e m p l i f i e d by "The B u t t e r f l y " and "Neverness, Or The One Ship Beached On One Far D i s t a n t S h o r e " c o n t a i n s 3images that are s i m i l a r to images i n Page's poetry. Avison's awareness of p e r s p e c t i v e i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n the "Neverness . . ."-"Micro/Macro" image of d i s c o v e r y , and the b u t t e r f l y / m o t h image of "The B u t t e r -f l y " . More i n t e r e s t i n g though, i s her probing question at the end of "The B u t t e r f l y " : can't we stab t h a t one angle i n t o the curve of space that sweeps so u n r e l e n t i n g , f a r above, towards the subhuman swamp of under-dark? 2 Here Avison moves from the q u e s t i o n of p e r s p e c t i v e , i n t o a more complex probing question i n v o l v i n g man's understanding of the u n i t y of both p r i m i t i v e o r i g i n s and the d i s t a n t c o m p l e x i t i e s of the u n i v e r s e . A s i m i l a r concept of transcendence' l u r k s j u s t below the s u r f a c e of many of the p e r s p e c t i v e s of Page's e a r l y work. In " R e f l e c t i o n " , one of the f i r s t poems Page publish e d , the image of a woman and a t r e e i n a stream i l l u s t r a t e the nuances of Page's i n s i g h t . The t r e e looks as though i t i s ''.'pre-1 3 t e n d i n g i t [ i s ] a woman" and the woman bending and l o o k i n g i n t o the water c o n v e r s e l y appears d i s t o r t e d i n t o an image of a t r e e . The two r e f l e c t e d images as a r e s u l t b lend i n w i t h one another. The inanimate becomes animated and the animated becomes i n a n i m a t e . The poet sees one image, "a t r e e and a woman bending, merged i n the water". The u n i t y and c o n f u s i o n of i d e n t i t y are not s i m p l y a v i s u a l , r e f l e c t e d , r e f r a c t e d image f o r Page, i t i s a l s o momentary i n s i g h t i n t o the common bond which a l l images and a l l t h i n g s possess beyond the n a t u r a l o r d e r i n which they are d e f i n e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . The p o i n t , though more opaquely s t a t e d than A v i s o n ' s , i s concerned w i t h b r e a k i n g beyond the o r d e r we know and s t a b b i n g " t h a t one 4 angle i n t o the curve of space" i n an attempt t o see and understand new p e r s p e c t i v e s . Whether or not the one poet l e a r n e d from the o t h e r i s beyond the scope of the t o p i c i n hand. Even though the two poets d i d s t a r t to p u b l i s h p o e t r y at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same time, and Page was the more voluminous of the two, i t would not be j u s t to say t h a t Page n o t i c e a b l y i n f l u e n c e d A v i s o n or v i c e v e r s a w i t h o u t e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The v a l u e of such an a s s e r t i o n i s l i m i t e d anyway, and o n l y l e a d s to weak comparisons and poor g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Of the e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s on Page's p o e t r y , i t i s P a t r i c k Anderson and P r e v i e w which r e q u i r e the most a t t e n t i o n . B e f o r e 5 Page met P a t r i c k Anderson at a p a r t y i n Mo n t r e a l ,however, she had a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d t h i r t e e n poems i n v a r i o u s p e r i o d -icals.-"- Two of them i n p a r t i c u l a r , " R e f l e c t i o n " and "For ,s_ For a f u l l l i s t i n g of f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s , see Appendix 1 , pp. 136-139. 19 G.E.R.", show that Page's concern with perspective and the visionary mind was already developing before her i n i t i a t i o n into Preview. In "For G.E.R." Page was already trying to cope with the imaginative powers of memory. The consideration of a departed or dead person as an actual form becomes "as quicksilver clutched or the empty colour of wind." The image of the imagined person, although i l l u s i v e , i s somehow s t i l l there. It becomes . . . sunlight only, or loveliness defined in a young rain over a sun-baked broken land or a visionary mind. 6 For Page, experience i s not equivalent to physical r e a l i t y . What i s not seen in ac t u a l i t y by the eye, can be seen by the inner eye of ?ja visionary mind." Man i s a combination of the outer physical senses and the inner imaginative senses. Page equates "the remembered voice, the remembered skin, the hand" with "sunlight," loveliness defined," or "a visionary mind." Anything that i s a positive but transient experience i s l i k e the momentary b r i l l i a n c e of sunlight, or the feeling of loveliness. A t h i r d poem "Festival Without Prayer" also e l i c i t s a response to past events. The image of departing guests takes on a dual meaning not only with the guests moving out of sight as they leave, but also as the event fades in the mind of the beholder and the guests appear to be 20 bang d e p a r t e d ; d r a g [ g i n g ] t h e i r c l o a k s down c o r r i d o r s o f t h e rnind. ^ Even a t t h i s e a r l y d a t e Page's c o n c e r n w i t h p e r c e p t i o n , memory and i m a g i n a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f her p o e t i c r e s p o n s e . I t i s out o f images such as t h e s e t h a t Page's c o n c e r n w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e v i s i o n a r y r a d i a t e s i n t o the prime c o n c e r n o f her l a t e r work. Th r o u g h o u t t h e i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s which Page g e n e r a t e d as a r e s u l t o f her c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P a t r i c k A n d e r s o n and P r e v i e w , her s e n s e o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s p e c t i v e c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p . The i m p o r t a n c e o f P r e v i e w and A n d e r s o n s h o u l d not be u n d e r s t a t e d . P r e v i e w and i t s c o m p e t i t o r , F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , p r o v e d t o be v e h i c l e s o f development and communication f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s . Formed as a r e s u l t o f a number of f a c t o r s d e v e l o p e d by the Second W o r l d War, t h e two l i t t l e m a g a z i n e s i n t h e i r combined 57 i s s u e s gave v o i c e t o 57 d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s . They p r o v e d t o be somewhat t y p i c a l of l i t t l e mag-a z i n e s . T h e i r f o r t h r i g h t s o c i a l awareness and c r i t i c a l s t a n c e on e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y s t a n d a r d s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e i r e d i t o r i a l s t a t e m e n t s : F i r s t , we have l i v e d l o n g enough i n M o n t r e a l t o r e a l i z e the f r u s t r a t i n g and i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t s of i s o l a t i o n . A l l a n t i - f a s c i s t s , we f e e l t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a war between d e m o c r a t i c c u l t u r e and the p a r a l y s i n g f o r c e s o f d i c t a t o r s h i p o n l y i n t e n s i f i e s t h e w r i t e r ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o work. Now, more t h a n e v e r , c r e a t i v e and e x p e r i m e n t a l w r i t i n g must be kept a l i v e and t h e r e must be no r e t r e a t from t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l f r o n t i e r . . S e c o n d l y , t h e p o e t s amongst us l o o k f o r e w o r d , p e r h a p s o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , t o a p o s s i b l e f u s i o n between the l y r i c and d i d a c t i c e l e m e n t s i n modern v e r s e , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v i v i d , a r r e s t i n g imagery and t h e c a p a c i t y t o " s i n g " w i t h s o c i a l c o n t e n t 21 and c r i t i c i s m . ° Someone w i l l say that we w i l l be t a l k i n g i n a vacuum,'to ou r s e l v e s alone, and be making gestures that have references to nothing. It does not seem to us an unreasonable c r i t -i c i s m . At the present stage of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , a gesture would appear important. A d i s p l a y of a c t i v i t y may symbolize a f u t u r e , and p l a n t a suggestion i n someone's mind. 9 The two magazines generated much of the enthusiasm f o r Canadian l i t e r a t u r e during the F o r t i e s . Preview did two things that enhanced Page's develop-ment. It exposed her to other w r i t e r s ' ideas and work, and i t created an atmosphere somewhat akin to a workshop where c r i t i c i s m o f w o r k i n progress would be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Preview s t a t e d that the poems published i n i t s pages were examples of the w r i t e r s ' work i n progress and d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y represent the w r i t e r s ' f i n i s h e d product: This i s no magazine. It presents f i v e Montreal w r i t e r s who r e c e n t l y formed themselves i n t o a group f o r the purpose of mutual d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m and who hope, through these s e l e c t -ions, to t r y t h e i r work before a somewhat l a r g e r p u b l i c . 1 u In her work i n Preview, Page o f t e n expressed her s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l views. This stance was somewhat awkward i n some of her poetry, 11 as Sutherland notes, but i t served her w e l l as a foreground on which she could experiment and develop her imagery, s t y l e , and even her t h i n k i n g . Although about s e v e n t y - f i v e percent of her work i n Preview had i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t s o c i a l connotations, much of that same work used images which were 2 2 r e l a t e d t o h e r i d e a s on p e r s p e c t i v e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n . I n o v e r t s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s poems l i k e " B a n k S t r i k e " a n d " O f f i c e s " , P a g e r e f l e c t s u p o n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e w o r k e r . T h i s i s a r e c u r r i n g t h e m e i n P a g e ' s e a r l y p o e t r y , b u t i t i s b r o u g h t a l i v e b y h e r u s e o f i m a g e r y . T h e o f f i c e w o r k e r s ' a n x i e t y a n d c o n c e r n w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e i s c a u g h t c l e v e r l y b y a n i m a g e w h i c h j u x t a p o s e s t h e i r " s c r u p u l o u s 1 2 . . . c a r e o v e r c a l e n d a r s " w i t h t h e u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e i r " o u t w a r d l e a n i n g e y e s . " T h i s i n t u r n i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e i m a g e o f t h e b o s s e s who l o o k on f r o m a p o s i t i o n o f p r e s t i g e " b e h i n d g l a s s e s l i k e j e w e l s " a n d t h r e a t e n t h e w o r k e r s w i t h t h e p o l i c e - l i k e p r e s e n c e o f a sq.uad c a r , " f l a s h i n g t h e i r l i g h t a n d c o m i n g s u d d e n l y n e a r . " H e r b e s t s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s p o e t r y i s e n h a n c e d b y h e r i m a g e r y . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f a poem l i k e " B a n k S t r i k e " w h i c h m a k e s l i t t l e u s e o f t h e i m a g i n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e o r i m a g e , w i t h a m o r e s u c c e s s f u l poern l i k e "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " , w h i c h s t i l l i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l i l l s b u t w h i c h i s h i g h l y c h a r g e d w i t h i m a g e r y . T h e t w o poems w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n P r e v i e w w i t h i n f o u r m o n t h s o f e a c h o t h e r , 'but - t h e l a s t i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " , a s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s o v e r t h e y e a r s t h a t i t h a s b e e n a n t h o l o g i z e d , f a r o u t w e i g h s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f " B a n k S t r i k e " . " B a n k S t r i k e " w a s o n l y r e p r i n t e d i n R o n a l d H a m b l e t o n ' s 1 9 4 4 c o l l e c t i o n U n i t O f  F i v e i n w h i c h "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " d i d n o t a p p e a r , a n d i n K l i n c k a n d M a t t e r s ' C a n a d i a n A n t h o l o g y i n w h i c h "The •23 Stenographers" d i d appear. The great p o p u l a r i t y of the one poem i n c o n t r a s t with the other demonstrates the f a c t that although the two poems deal with s i m i l a r s o c i a l complaints, the imagery of "The Stenographers" enables i t to transcend the p e r i o d i n which i t was w r i t t e n and become more u n i v e r s a l i n i t s appeal. "Bank S t r i k e " deals with a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l ailment and attempts to use i t s imagery to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r concern. Instead of r a d i a t i n g out onto a more general aura, as Page's images most often do, her images i n "Bank S t r i k e " only attempt to portray a.problem. > Her imagery f a l l s short of presenting a p i c t u r e of naive exuberance pushing i t s e l f towards s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n when she notes that . . . from the c e l l a r of c e r t a i n t y they came up the long e s c a l a t o r to defeat. 1 3 Instead of being a f o r c e f u l yet b e l i e v a b l e image, the image breaks up with i t s s t i l t e d use of a l l i t e r a t i o n and imagery. In c o n t r a s t , "The Stenographers" i n t e g r a t e s i t s imagery with the flow of thoughts and dreams which are i n t e r m i n g l e d with the a c t i o n s of the stenographers as they move through t h e i r day. The images not only portray the a c t i v i t y which i s o c c u r ing, but a l s o the mood which p r e v a i l s . Page plays upon the m i l i t a r y awareness prevalent i n the e a r l y F o r t i e s to set the tempo of the poem i n motion. Besides d e p i c t i n g the f r a n t i c pace which a country at war sets, she a l s o i l l u s -t r a t e s how t h i s m i l i t a r y tempo i s f o i s t e d onto the c i v i l i a n 24 s i d e of l i f e , r e g i m e n t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e w i t h a p r i v a t e war; of s u r v i v a l : A f t e r the b r i e f bivouac of Sunday, thei r , . e y e s , i n the f o r c e d march of Monday to S a t -urday h o i s t the w h i t e f l a g , f l u t t e r i n the snow storm of paper. 14 Anger, c o n f u s i o n , s u r r e n d e r , dream and work are blended t o g e t h e r i n the image of the w h i t e s h e e t s of o f f i c e paper opening and u n i t i n g both a breadth and a depth f o r Page to e x p l o r e w i t h i n the bounds of the p a t t e r n v/hich she has e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t s t a n z a . The second s t a n z a makes use of t h i s m u l t i - t i e r e d image as i t moves through from the l e v e l of s u r r e n d e r , to work and to the l e v e l '.of dream, by e x t e n d i n g the image and moving from one l e v e l t o another s i m p l y " i n the pause between the f i r s t d r a f t and the carbon." Not o n l y i s the image a s p a t i a l and a temporal measuring s t i c k , i t a l s o echoes the g h o s t l y q u a l i t i e s of the daydreams, f o r the daydreams f o l l o w r e a l i t y i n the same manner t h a t carbon f o l l o w s f i r s t copy. In a s i m i l a r manner the w h i t e n e s s of the paper weaves i t s e l f i n t o a. r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n The c o l o u r w h i t e s h i f t s from i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h paper and becomes a symbol of s u r r e n d e r and the key to dreams of i c e and snow. Dream and r e a l i t y become r e p r e s e n t e d by the c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r s of b l a c k and w h i t e . The poem f l o w s from the b l a c k foreground of typed a n d " w r i t t e n p r o d u c t i o n , i n t o the w h i t e background of dreams and non-25 a c t i v i t y , o n l y to be brought back again to the f l o w of b l a c k p r o g r e s s : . . . when i t s runners are f r o z e n rope snaps and the v o i c e then i s p u l l i n g no burden but runs l i k e a dog on the w i n t e r of paper. Page's use of w h i t e - b l a c k imagery i s not s i m p l e , f o r w h i t e does not f o l l o w one c o n s t a n t p a t t e r n . I t not o n l y r e p r e s e n t s dream, i t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s c o n f u s i o n . Her images pres e n t a double-edged p a t t e r n . On one hand they are benign and harmless, w h i l e on the o t h e r they r e p r e s e n t an u g l y m a l i g n i t y which t h r e a t e n s the t r a n q u i l secure w o r l d of dream. P a r e l l e l to her p a t t e r n of b l a c k and w h i t e , Page deve l o p s an image p a t t e r n c e n t r e d around water images. The w h i t e of the paper blends i n w i t h the w h i t e of the daydream i c e -c a r t i c e . T h i s i n t u r n c o n j u r e s up p e a c e f u l memories of the sea . . . wheref'ildats at h i g h t i d e were sea marrows growing on the s c a t t e r - g r e e n v i n e or s p o o l s of grey t o f f e e , or wasp's n e s t s on water. Yet the image i s not t o t a l l y p e a c e f u l , as the s t r a w s of the?ir noon hour d r i n k s " l i k e i c i c l e s b r e a k i n g t h e i r tongues are i n v a d e r s . " The imagery i s t h r e a t e n i n g . The dream of s a l t w a t e r i n the t h i r d s t a n z a changes to the sad " s a l t water of weeping" i n the seventh s t a n z a . The o n l y way t h a t the s t e n o g r a p h e r s can cope w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s by " f i g h t i n g to drown" the harshness which surrounds them i n the magic r e v e r s a l which s l e e p and dream c r e a t e . A metamorphosis 26 occurs i n the snow-ice c o n f i g u r a t i o n of dream. I t i s t h i s i m a g i n a t i v e use of imagery combined c a r e f u l l y w i t h the s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m i m p l i c i t i n her view of the s t e n -ographers t h a t makes Page's poem the s u c c e s s t h a t i t i s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s u b j e c t i s broached i n " O f f i c e s " , "Shipbuilding O f f i c e " , and the s h o r t prose p i e c e "The R e s i g n a t i o n " , none of these attempts has the same i m a g i s t i c v i t a l i t y . A l l draw on s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s which Page had , and some show s i g n s of the o f f i c e t h a t Page h e r s e l f worked i n as a f i l i n g c l e r k . The o v e r b e a r i n g boss, the weeping i n the f i l i n g v a u l t and the cramped smoky washroom are a l l echoes of the o f f i c e i n which she worked, j u s t as her s h o r t s t o r y "The R e s i g n a t i o n " i s an adapted r e c o u n t i n g of an i n c i d e n t i n her 1 5 o f f i c e , but i t i s o n l y when Page's i m a g i n a t i o n touches and t r a n s f o r m s her e x p e r i e n c e i n t o v i s i o n t h a t her s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s u c c e s s f u l l y becomes more than the polemic p o e t r y of p r o t e s t . I t was not j u s t the p olemics of p r o t e s t p o e t r y t h a t Page was i n t r o d u c e d to i n her a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P r e v i e w . B e s i d e s being i n v o l v e d w i t h P r e v i e w ' s s o c i a l c oncerns, Page was a l s o exposed to d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of w r i t i n g and was i n p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e d by P a t r i c k Anderson's pronounced s t y l e . Anderson's heavy use of a l l i t e r a t i o n and assonance, h i s some-what s t r i k i n g use of unusual c o n n e c t i o n s between words t o b u i l d up images, and h i s s t r o n g p e r s o n a l v i e w p o i n t a l l i n one way or another a f f e c t e d Page's w r i t i n g . The use of a l l i t -27 e r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , a b s e n t f o r t h e main p a r t i n P a g e ' s p o e t r y b e f o r e she j o i n e d P r e v i e w , becomes q u i t e a d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n some o f h e r P r e v i e w p o e t r y . L i k e A n d e r s o n , she s t a r t e d t o use c o n s e c u t i v e word a l l i t e r a t i o n and a s s o n a n c e t o b u i l d s t r a n g e p i l e d i m a g e r y . P h r a s e s i n A n d e r s o n ' s p o e t r y l i k e : " f e l l f e a t h e r s i n a w e i g h t , / w a s plump and plumage, c o l o u r e d beyond c a r i n g " a r e e c h o e d by s i m i l a r s ound p a t -t e r n s i n t h e p o e t r y t h a t Page w r o t e about t h e same t i m e : In q u i c k panorama, w i t h p a r a s o l , p a r r o t and panda; s a y i n g p e r h a p s o r b e c a u s e , e a t i n g p i n k end o f match t h e y d i s s o l v e upon c h a i r s , w r i t e r u i n i n p e a r l s and f a m i s h i n p a i r s . ^^ A l t h o u g h t h i s by i t s e l f d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o d u c e good p o e t r y , i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p i l e d i m a g e r y w h i c h she d i d put t o good use i n some o f h e r b e t t e r e a r l y p o e t r y as e x e m p l i f i e d by "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " . I n poems l i k e "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " P a ge s u c c e s s f u l l y b l e n d s h e r use o f a l l i t e r a t i o n and a s s o n a n c e w i t h t h e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n o f h e r i m a g e r y . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g o r n a t e p o e t i c d e v i c e s w h i c h t h e poem i s b u i l t a r o u n d , t h e a s s o n a n c e and a l l i t e r a t i o n become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e poem. The r e p e a t e d a l l i t e r a t i o n o f s_ and w h e l p s t o t i e t o g e t h e r t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e w a t e r - s n o w , s u m m e r - w i n t e r , w a k i n g - s l e e p i n g i m a g e r y . The key/ images t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a r e composed o f words w h i c h b e g i n w i t h one l e t t e r o r t h e 28 or the other. Page's conscious awareness of sound helps her to create compact, powerful images and flow from one image to another. This pattern i s developed in the opening four lines of the poem and continues with variations throughout the poem in a manner not unlike theme and variation in music. A closer look at these f i r s t four l i n e s shows the way in which the sound unites the components of the images and develops an onward flow between the different images in the poem: After the brief bivouac of Sunday, their eyes, in the forced march of Monday to Saturday, hoist the white f l a g , f l u t t e r in the snow storm of paper, haul i t down and crack in the mid sun of tempe The f and £ sounds of "after" and "b r i e f " are played off agianst "bivouac" with the a l l i t e r a t i o n of the b's and the assonance of the long and short i / s i s echoed in the second l i n e with the " a i r " sound of "t h e i r " and the long _i of "eyes Similarly, "the brief bivouac of Sunday" i s balanced off against "the forced march of Monday to Saturddy." The short o and. r sounds of "forced" are followed by the short a and £ sounds of "march" counterbalancing the £ sounds in the f i r s t l i n e . This helps develop a further unity and contrast between the two army images and helps build an equipoise between the opposites of "Sunday" , and "Monday 2 9 to Saturday". The t h i r d l i n e ' s a l l i t e r a t i o n and i t s imagery develop . out of the a l l i t e r a t e d image "forced march" i n the second l i n e . Now the f_ sound i s picked up as a motif and used to j o i n and b u i l d two notions of a new image: " h o i s t the white f l a g , f l u t t e r i n the snow storm of paper". A f l a g of surrender i s h o i s t e d and a f l u t t e r of confusion i s brought on by the p i l e of work that surrounds the steno^ graphers who are trapped " i n the forced march". The two a l l i t e r a t e d images f o l l o w each other as a f l a g f l u t t e r i n g i n the snow storm i s played o f f against stenographers that f l u t t e r i n the snow storm of paper. T h i s ambiguity i s made p o s s i b l e by the a l l i t e r a t i o n of f ' s which tend to j o i n the two images so that the a c t i o n s of the f i r s t image are imposed on the second image. The f o u r t h l i n e . counters the t h i r d l i n e i n the same manner that the second counters It c o n t r a s t s with the t h i r d l i n e and yet i s united to i t by the way i n which i t s words play o f f of the t h i r d l i n e . "Haul" takes the place of " h o i s t " , "crack" i s the harsh sound opposite of " f l u t t e r " , and "temper" has a resonance which echoes the "er" ending of "paper". The p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r i n g of the a d v e r b i a l phrases i n the two l i n e s r e i n f o r c e s t h i s sound pattern a l s o . T h i s ' e l a b o r a t e use of sound c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i s q u i t e dominant i n Page's e a r l y poetry, da t i n g from her connection with Preview. I t s e f f e c t on her i m a g i s t i c technique of con-necting and r e l a t i n g o b j e c t s which are not normally r e l a t e d 30 can be seen in her poetry to one extent or another up u n t i l her second poetry anthology The Metal And The Flower. After The Metal And The Flower, her use of t h i s technique as a conscious device to connect images and bind them to one another drops as other developments take place. The influences that one poet has on another are by no means always obvious. Although Page was influenced by Anderson, she s t i l l developed ideas of her own, and images and insights that were d i s t i n c t l y different from the main-stream of the poetry that was developing around her in Preview and in F i r s t Statement. Even her treatment of t o p i c a l subject matter such as "The Stenographers" has a highly imaginative current running through i t which i s not evident in other poets' representations of similar situations. For example, Preview Number Eleven, which explores the different c i v i l i a n viewpoints on the wat; e f f o r t and the so c i a l consciousness which accompanies thi s period, shows evidence of a more direct, more didactic approach to the subject matter that underlies the conscious-1 9 ness of the group of writers in general. The dominance of Page's underlying imaginative, subjective touch in her early poetry i s reflected in poems by Patrick Anderson and F l o r i s Clark McLaren that are dedicated to Page. Both Anderson and McLaren dedicated poems to Page which are concerned with imagination, subjectivity and per-spective. Anderson's poem, "Children (For P.K.P.)" concerns 31 i t s e l f w i t h t h e i m a g i n a t i v e , s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f c h i l d r e n where T h e s e t o whom e v e r y t h i n g happens b u t h i s t o r y C o n t i n u a l l y 'wash w i t h c o l d w a t e r o f t h e i r e y e s t h e w o r l d , s e l e c t i n g i t s p e b b l e s And g l a s s , w h i c h l i e u n d e r them b e s t . I t e c h o e s a poem e n t i t l e d " C h i l d r e n " by Page w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n P r e v i e w two i s s u e s e a r l i e r and "The Band And The B e a u t i f u l C h i l d r e n " w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n P r e v i e w s i x months b e f o r e t h a t . The poem, u n l i k e t h e b u l k o f A n d e r s o n ' s e a r l y p o e t r y , d o e s no t c o n t a i n an o v e r t s o c i a l message. I t seems t o r e f l e c t A n d e r s o n ' s t h o u g h t s on P a g e ' s i d e a s o f c h i l d h o o d , i n n o c e n c e , v i s i o n and dream. F l o r i s C l a r k M c L a r e n ' s poem "Poem ( F o r P. K. P . ) " i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e way i t r e f l e c t s P a g e ' s i d e a s . M c L a r e n r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s P a g e ' s i d e a s t h a t a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e poem and n o t h e r own. The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e poem s t a n d s o u t as b e i n g q u i t e a d e p a r t u r e f r o m M c L a r e n ' s u s u a l r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s w h i c h have shown h e r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n w i t h n a t u r e 21 and t h e o u t d o o r s . She n o t e s t h a t when she w r o t e t h e poem she had been t a l k i n g w i t h Page and t h a t when she f i n -i s h e d w r i t i n g t h e poem she r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was n o t h e r i d e a s w h i c h t h e poem e s p o u s e d , b u t P a g e ' s . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n 22 t h a t she d e d i c a t e d t h e poem t o Pag e . The poem, b e c a u s e o f t h i s , i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . I t r e f l e c t s t h e i d e a s w h i c h M c L a r e n was most t a k e n by i n h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Page, 32 and i n t h i s way echoes what Page was most i n t e r e s t e d i n t a l k i n g about at that time. The poem c o n s t i t u t e s the f i r s t r e a l i n s i g h t i n t o Page's concern with p e r s p e c t i v e and presents images which almost foreshadow some of Page's l a t e r images: D i s t o r t e d f i g u r e s gesture on the screen Grotesquely lengthened, two-dimensional; The p r e t t y country scene i s out of focus From seats too near the fr o n t against the wa l l The sound-track breaks with a g r i n d i n g whirr, the f i g u r e s 23 Mouth s i l e n t l y at each other. The scene reaches beyond the innocent v i s i o n of the fantasy of f i l m i n t o a harsh mis-shapen r e a l i t y which suspends b e l i e f It echoes thoughts which appear i n "The Stenographers" and with i t s d i s t o r t e d images i t foreshadows future Page poems l i k e ?'Photos Of A S a l t Mine". As Page notes i n an e a r l i e r Preview poem, the deceptive f o r c e s of innocence . . .attend us i n dreams and i n droves l i k e a f i l i g r e e shade 24 f a l l [ e n ] down between us and our time. To counter t h i s she f e e l s that i t i s necessary to know a l l ^ n e . things that surround us and to know a l l the i n f l u -ences that a f f e c t us. Know the spectrum. . . the c o l o u r s of a i r and of death; bruise'"the. pt?ess ;-with our s i g h t ; are s t r i p p e d with the sound of the world and are steep with d e s i r e ; are not fancy f o r f o o l s , haemophiliac men, or p h y s i c i a n s i n love but m u l t i p l e one become man are moon f o r t h e i r t i d e . 33 It i s t h i s attitude which replaces Page's overt s o c i a l consciousness in her early short stories in Preview, and F i r s t Statement and develops into the main theme of her novel The Sun And The Moon. Although the novel i s not one of Page's best works, and although i t i s something that she 25 wishes she had not written, i t s t i l l i s interesting *for i t s imagery and i t s handling of the themes of animation and inanimation, and dream and r e a l i t y . It i s through these themes that Page i s able to explore "the spectrum," and to look at objects and people from many points of view. Indeed, th i s aspect of the novel i s i t s redemptive quality and Page s t i l l feels that the struggle between the animate and the inanimate forces of the world makes a worthy topic. The novel encompasses more than the struggle between the animate and the inanimate, however. It also covers such things as the Dionysidc and the Apollonian vision, and the complexities of subjectivity and o b j e c t i v i t y . Although on the surface i t looks as though K r i s t i n , the moon c h i l d , i s the inanimate character of the novel, in a c t u a l i t y the converse i s true. K r i s t i n ' s inanimate appearance i s only a key to a region beyond surfaces. Like a meditator she transcends: She had only to s i t s t i l l long enough to know the s t a t i c r e a l i t y of inanimate t h i n g s — t h e s t i l l , sweet ecstasy of change in kind. 2 7 K r i s t i n i s not f u l l y an Apollonian c h i l d , she i s a marriage of the q u a l i t i e s of Dionysiac and Apollonian, "not c h i l d 34 n o r y e t woman." She i s b o t h t h e A p o l l o n i a n c h i l d , and t h e D i o n y s i a n woman. Even t h o u g h she deeams t h a t " C a r l r i 29 B r i d g e s L i s j a name t o c o n j u r e w i t h , " and a l i n k w h i c h 3 0 makes h e r " p a r t o f t h e w o r l d , " she i s a l s o aware o f t h e r e a l i t i e s w h i c h s u r r o u n d t h i s u n i t y . W h i l e C a r l i s aware o f v i s i o n , K r i s t i n i s aware o f t h e d u a l q u a l i t y o f v i s i o n : F o r a moment t h e i r m i n d s u n i t e d ; t h e y saw t h e foam and t h e wave, t h e cow p a r s l e y and t h e w i n d , t h e sun and t h e s h a d e , . . . t h e y saw t h e t r e e s c h a n g e , t h e l e a v e s f a l l l i k e g o l d w a f e r s t h i c k a b o u t them, t h e snow g a t h e r i n t h e g r e y s k y and d r i v e t o e a r t h , b r i g h t as f i r e f l i e s ; t h e y saw w i t h one m i n d , t h e i r l i v e s r e v o l v e l i k e a m e r r y - g o - r o u n d , t h e d a r k h o r s e , t h e w h i t e h o r s e . . . . They saw--but C a r l t h o u g h t , I have s e e n a v i s i o n — a n d saw n o t h i n g more. And K r i s t i n t h o u g h t - - I have s e e n a l i e — a n d t h e s h u t t e r f e l l . 31 The v i s i o n i s b o t h d a r k and u n k n o w a b l e and l i g h t and f a n c i f u l , a l t h o u g h l i g h t c an a l s o be " f e a r , b r i g h t as a swor d b l a d e 32 . . i n t h e s u n " w h i c h c a u s e s a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e v i s i o n : The sun and a s m a l l w i n d b r o k e t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e l a k e t o g l i n t i n g sword b l a d e s . On t h e f a r s i d e , where t h e t r e e s m a r c h e d , u n c h e c k e d , r i g h t down t o t h e w a t e r ' s edge, t h e r e t h e l a k e was a s h i f t i n g p a t t e r n , o f s c a r l e t , v e r m i l l i o n and b u r n t o r a n g e . J 3 L i g h t can make t h i n g s " b r i g h t w i t h . u n r e a l i t y " as much as d a r k n e s s can c a u s e a f a i r y t a l e s c e n e i n w h i c h images 3 5 o f H a n s e l and G r e t e l c l i n g t o e a c h o t h e r l i k e two p o e p l e i n a f o g l o s t f r o m t h e w o r l d and t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f d a y : I s i t r e a l ? she t h o u g h t . I n t h e m i s t , l i k e t h i s , i t seems l i k e a dream. B u t i t must 35 be r e a l , i t has to be. She reached out f o r C a r l , touched h i s shoulder, a f r a i d to f i n d h i s f l e s h u n r e s i s t a n t , but i t was ^i.rrn. " I t i s r e a l l y t r u e " , she s a i d . ^ The darkness, l i k e the l i g h t , holds both beauty and t e r r o r . It i s a combination of the two which makes up the t o t a l context. The world revolves repeatedly from day to night, as the pattern of knowledge moves between r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n . K r i s t i n ' s world i s f u l l of spinning, moving images which r e f l e c t the l i g h t - d a r k p a t t e r n and yet break the c o n t i n u i t y of the images w i t h i n the p a t t e r n . A r e f l e c t i o n from a mi r r o r becomes an abst r a c t : R e f l e c t i o n s from the l i v i n g - r o o m passed i n the m i r r o r before her. Her eyes clung to i t s su r f a c e , watching the ' l i g h t and shade, the k a l e i d o s c o p i c p a t t e r n that broke w i t h i n i t s frame. ^7 Shape i s broken i n t o i t s basic elements and a new sense of r e a l i t y i s obtained at the expense of con c e p t u a l i z e d forms, but t h i s too i s only a p a r t i a l r e a l i t y and a p a r t i a l i l l u s i o n . One view i s not per c e p t i v e to another view. Each, by appearing to be a t o t a l i t y , c a u s e s r e a l i t y to become enhanced with i l l u s i o n s . C o n f l i c t s a r i s e as two opposing p e r s p e c t i v e s meet: Yes, hurry, hurry; sink thought i n t o the w h i r l p o o l of speed, sink l i k e a rock away from r e a l i t y , disappear i n the eddying l i g h t and darkness of motion, Allow the wings of your imagination to be br u i s e d and broken by the a c t u a l i t y of things to be done. Forget, f o r g e t ! 36 A l t h o u g h r e a l i t y seems t o be d e n i e d by. " t h e e d d y i n g l i g h t and d a r k n e s s o f m o t i o n , " i m a g i n a t i o n i s denied' a l s o "by t h e a c t u a l i t y o f t h i n g s t o be done." The two f o r c e s work a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r and b l e n d i n t o a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h c o n t a i n s b o t h r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n ; a p l a c e where r e a l and i m a g i n a r y images b o t h e x i s t and do n o t e x i s t . T h i s i s a key i n s i g h t i n t o t h e m a t r i x o f P a g e ' s v i s i o n , f o r i t i s a c o n c e p t t h a t o c c u r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n P a g e ' s work i n a m u l t i t u d e o f i m a g e s , and i t r e f l e c t s some of h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s and h e r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d u a l i t y o f v i s i o n . From h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s , f o r e x a m p l e , Page p a r t i c u l a r l y remembers'"'two i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s n a t u r e w h i c h happened on a t r a i n . The f i r s t o c c u r r e d i n M o n t r e a l when she l o o k e d o u t o f a t r a i n window and r e m a r k e d t o a f r i e n d t h a t t h e r e were c h i c k e n s on t h e r o o f o f a n e a r b y b u i l d i n g . The f r i e n d i n c o n t r a s t saw n o t c h i c k e n s , b u t a i r v e n t s . I n t h e s e c o n d i n c i d e n t Page s a y s she saw men f i s h i n g f r o m a r a t h e r h i g h p l a c e b e s i d e a r i v e r , t h i s she was i n f o r m e d v/as n o t men, b u t p i l i n g s . These two o c c u r e n c e s she f i n d s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t -i n g b e c a u s e t h e y show p e o p l e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o see t h e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f v i s i o n . Page f o u n d h e r f r i e n d ' s d e n i a l and • • . • 39 a c c o m p a n y i n g o u t r a g e d s e n s i b i l i t y r a t h e r d i s t r e s s i n g . I t i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t h i n g s p r e s e n t i n one t h i n g w h i c h h a u n t s much o f P a g e ' s i m a g e r y . The i m a g e r y i t s e l f i s r e c u r r e n t t o o , as a g l a n c e a t Jh_e  Sun And The Moon shows. Images w h i c h o c c u r e l s e w h e r e a p p e a r 37 i n t h e n o v e l . "The p i n men o f m a d n e s s " o f "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e p a n i c a n d f e a r t h a t C a r l s h o w s i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e s t r a n g e p o w e r t h a t K r i s t i n h o l d s : "he f e l t h i s m i n d b r e a k i n t o h u n d r e d s o f b l a c k p i n men." ' S i m i l a r l y , 41 t h e " f a d i n g a n d f o r m i n g " e f f e c t o f t h e f o g o n C a r l a n d K r i s t i n a t t h e b e a c h r e f l e c t s h e r poem " P a n o r a m a " a n d b e c o m e s a k e y i m a g e i n t h e poem " A d o l e s c e n c e " w h i c h f i r s t a p p e a r e d a y e a r a f t e r T h e S u n A n d T h e Moon i n 1 9 4 5 . I n " A d o l e s c e n c e " t h e i m a g e s o f t w o y o u t h s " f o r m a n d f a d e " b e f o r e t h e e y e s 4 2 o f t h e o n l o o k e r s . ' T h e n o v e l e v e n f o r e s h a d o w s a n i m a g e t h a t d o e s ~ n o t b e c o m e m a n i f e s t i n a poem u n t i l t e n y e a r s l a t e r . T h e i m a g e " t h o u g h t d i s s o l v e d i n m o t i o n a n d swam l i k e 43 a f i s h i n t h e t h e c u r r e n t o f a s t r e a m " r e a p p e a r s i n a s o m e w h a t e v o l v e d f o r m i n a much l a t e r poem " B r i g h t F i s h O n c e S w i m m i n g W h e r e We L i e . . ." w h e r e i t i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o a much m o r e c o m p l e x i m a g e w h i c h n o t o n l y c o u n t e r b a l a n c e s f l u i d i t y o f m o t i o n , t h o u g h t a n d d r e a m , b u t a l s o p o i n t s t o t h e c o m p l i c a t e d m i r r o r i m a g e p r e s e n t i n t h e r e f l e c t e d , r e f r a c t e d w a t e r , w h e r e t h e f l o w o f t i m e a n d . itS;iCOUR.t©P'p.a£t s u g g e s t s t h a t e x i s t e n c e i s n o t o n a t i m e c o n t i n u u m , b u t i s s u s p e n d e d l i k e t w o l o v e r s l o c k e d i n a l o v e w h i c h i s b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d s p i r i t u a l a n d w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s t i m e : R i n s e d now i n p a r a b l e s o f w a v e s , by h a l f s l e e p l a p p e d a n d l o c k e d a n d w i r n p l e d i n t h i s s h i f t i n g s p a c e , y o u r f a c e r o c k s i n my w a t e r s e l f a w a s h a s when f i s h s l a n t e d i n t h e e n c l a v e o f t h i s b r i n y c a b i n . ^ 3 3 Page uses r e f l e c t e d , r e f r a c t e d imagery i n The Sun And  The Moon to draw t o g e t h e r the themes of knowledge and o b s c u r i t y . Fog, m i r r o r s , water, and p a i n t i n g s are i n t e r f a c e d w i t h the c o m p l e x i t y of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and human knowledge. K r i s t i n and C a r l are both known and unknown to each o t h e r . They are not s i m p l y a l i e n a t e d from each o t h e r . There i s both a forming and a f a d i n g to t h e i r v i s i o n of each o t h e r . They e x p e r i e n c e i n s i g h t s , yet they r e a l i z e t h a t these i n s i g h t s are o n l y p a r t i c l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g . Momentary e p i p h a n i e s of oneness where " f o r a moment t h e i r minds u n i t e d , " '^are coupled w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the oneness which i s o b t a i n e d i s o n l y p a r t i a l i n t h a t Nothing i s secure . . . . Everywhere t h e r e i s change. The hand s t r e t c h e d out to g i v e i s r e f u s e d ; the hand s t r e t c h e d out to r e c e i v e f i n d s ashes i n i t s palm. 46 I t i s not s i m p l y a case of c o u n t e r p o i s i n g a knowledge of momentary grace a g a i n s t harsh r e a l i t y of change,though, f o r both grace and harsh r e a l i t y work i n and out of the dilemma of s u b j e c t i v i t y : Now he c o u l d no l o n g e r see her o b j e c t i v e l y ; when he looked he seemed to be s e e i n g o n l y a p a r t of h i m s e l f . 4 7 The i n d i v i d u a l even views people he i s i n v o l v e d w i t h o n l y from h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e . I t p r e s e n t s an " A r r a s - " — l i k e h o r r o r i n which the v i s i o n i s c r e a t e d by the viewer and i s a t r a p where 3 9 . . . n o t h i n g m o v e s . The s p i n n i n g w o r l d i s s t r u c k upon i t s p o l e s , t h e s t i l l n e s s p o i n t s a bone a t me. I f e a r t h e f u t u r e on t h i s a r r a s . ^8 The v i e w e r c a n o n l y s a y "I c o n f e s s : / I t was my e y e . " The p e r s p e c t i v e i s f i x e d , e v e n t h o u g h e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d i t i s a " s p i n n i n g w o r l d . " The s u b t l e t y o f c h a n g e i s p l a y e d o f f a g a i n s t t h e s t a s i s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . I r o n -i c a l l y e n o u g h i t i s t h e i n a n i m a t e K r i s t i n a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l who by h e r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y w i t h d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , h a s b e e n a b l e t o s e e t h e f u l l r e s u l t o f h e r a c t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a n i m a t i o n and s t a s i s . She has become a n i m a t e d i n h e r k n o w l e d g e , a l t h o u g h i n a n i m a t e i n h e r a c t i o n s . L i k e a p e r s o n m e d i t a t i n g , s h e i s i n t e n t on f i n d i n g a u n i v e r s a l c o n s t a n c y w h i c h i s t h e k e y t o b o t h t h e o u t e r and t h e i n n e r w o r l d . She i s b e n t on k n o w i n g how t o a b i d e by t h i s power l i k e t h e T a o i s t L a o T s u : K e e p y o u r mou th s h u t , G u a r d t h e s e n s e ' s , A n d L i f e i s e v e r f u l l . Open y o u r m o u t h , A l w a y s be b u s y , And l i f e i s b e y o n d h o p e . S e e i n g t h e s m a l l i s i n s i g h t ; Y i e l d i n g t o f o r c e i s s t r e n g t h . U s i n g t h e o u t e r l i g h t , r e t ' u r r a ' t o i n s i g h t , A n d i n t h i s way be s a v e d f r o m h a r m . T h i s i s l e a r n i n g c o n s t a n c y . 4 0 AO 41 Although there i s action and change in the epilogue, there i s also a constancy which overrides the ephemeral motions of the individuals and aligns i t s e l f with the slow wheeling which neither begins nor ends, but only draws through i t s cycles. The epilogue i t s e l f begins and ends with the same pattern: The sun and a small wind broke the surface of the lake to g l i n t i n g sword blades. On the far side,^where the trees marched, unchecked, right down to the water's edge, there the lake was a s h i f t i n g pattern of scarlet, vermilion and burnt orange. 50 The whirling microcosm r e f l e c t s and refracts a visi o n beyond ;:51 i t s e l f of a macrocosm not seen but f e l t , . a vision of a world of surfaces where a rock r e f l e c t s the universe, and where the moon r e f l e c t s l i t e r a l l y and symbolically both stasis and change. The f i n a l scene i s not an end in i t s e l f , and i t suggests that stasis i s not an end in i t s e l f . It i s the microcosm from which a growth in knowledge i s possible. With the unfolding of thi s scene, there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the world w i l l unfold and i t s meaning w i l l transcend i t s actuality, although i t does not happen here. Generally Page's . re a l i z a t i o n of the import of these ideas was not f u l l y developed in The Sun And The Moon and i t was only through a refinement of her ideas on perspective, that she could consciously move beyond the multi-edged giant of perspective into a f u l l e r understanding of the vision 42 which lay beyond i t . "The area behind the eyes" was: e yet to be known for what i t was. 43 CHAPTER TWO FOOTNOTES: 1. Sandra Djwa, "Canadian P o e t r y And'The Computer," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46 (Autumn 1970), p. 45. 2. Margaret A v i s o n , "The B u t t e r f l y , " The Book Of Canadian P o e t r y , ed. A.J.M. Smith (Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago P r e s s , 1943), p. 429. 3. P.K. Page, " R e f l e c t i o n , " Canadian P o e t r y , No. 4 (June 1939), p. 23. 4. A v i s o n , "The B u t t e r f l y , " p. 429. 5. Page, i n i n t e r v i e w . 6. P.K. Page, "For G.E.R.," Canadian P o e t r y , No, 5 (December 1941), pp. 35-36. 7. P.K. Page, " F e s t i v a l Without P r a y e r s , " The Canadian  Forum, 22 ( A p r i l 1942), 5. 8. Preview, "Statement," Preyiev/, No. 1 (March 1942),p. 1, 9. F i r s t Statement, " E d i t o r i a l , " F i r s t Statement, No. 1 (September 19_42) T~~P- 1 • 10. Preview, "Statement," p. 1. 11. John S u t h e r l a n d , "P.K. Page And Pre v i e w , " F i r s t Statement, No. 6 (November 1942), p. 8. 12. P.K. Page, " O f f i c e s , " P r eview, No. 16 (October 1943), p. 8. 13. P.K. Page, "Bank S t r i k e , " Proview, No. 9 (November 1942) , p. 8. 14. P.K. Page, "The Ste n o g r a p h e r s , " As Ten As Twenty, p. 12. 15. Page, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 16. P. Anderson, "Wild Duck," P r e v i e w , No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 1943) , p. 1. 17. P.K. Page, "Panorama," Preview, No. 14 ( J u l y 1943), p. 5. 4 4 18. Page, "The Steno g r a p h e r s , " p . '"l 2 . 19. P r_ey_i e w, No. 11 (February 1943). 20. P. Anderson, " C h i l d r e n (For P.K.P.)," P r e v i e w , No. 23 (1945), P . D . 21. F l o r i s C l a r k McLaren, i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , May 23, 1972. 22. I b i d . 23. F l o r i s C l a r k McLaren, "Poem (For P.K.P.)," Contemporary  Verse, No. 12 (January 1945), p. 4. 24. Page, "Panorama," pp. 5-6. 25. Page, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 26. Page, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 27. P.K. Page, pseud. J u d i t h Cape, The Sun And The Moon (Toronto: M a c M i l l a n , 1944), p. 10. 28. I b i d . , p. 1 84. 29. I b i d . , P- 11 . 30. I b i d . , p. 19. 31 . I b i d . , p. 1 31 . 32. I b i d . , p. 1 69. 33 . I b i d . , P - 179 and p. 200. 34. I b i d . , p . 49. 35. I b i d . » p . 23 and p. 168. 36. I b i d . , p. 38. 37. I b i d . , PP . 18-19. 38. I b i d . . P - 1 53. 39. Page, . i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 40. Page, The Sun And The Moon 41 . I b i d . , P- 38. 45 42. P.K. Page, "Adolescence," As Ten As Twenty, p. 39. 43. Page, The Sun And The Moon, p. 140. 44. P.K. Page, " B r i g h t F i s h Once Swimming Where We L i e • • •»" T n e Metal And The Flower, p. 62. 45. Page, The Sun And The Moon, p. 131 . 46. I b i d . , p. 169. 47. I b i d . , p. 197. 43. Page, " A r r a s , " pp. 63-64. 49. Lao Tsu, "52," Tap Te Chi n g , t r a n s . Gra-Fu Feng and Jane E n g l i s h (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1972). 50. Page, The Sun And The Moon, p. 179 and p. 200. 51. P.K. Page, " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , Journeyman," Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e . No. 46 (Autumn 1970), p. 35. 52. Page, " S t o r i e s Of Snow," p. 9. 46 CHAPTER THREE THE DEVELOPING SENSE OF PERSPECTIVE A f t e r The Sun And The Moon, Page's w r i t i n g became more i n v o l v e d w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e and the c o m p l e x i t y of v i s i o n which accompanied i t . A l t h o u g h her work was not c o m p l e t e l y concerned w i t h her i d e a s oh p e r s p e c t i v e , her b e t t e r w r i t i n g r e f l e c t e d her growing concern w i t h i t . Even nor s o c i a l l y conscious view of people began to wrap i t s e l f up c l o s e l y w i t h her thoughts on the m u l t i - e d g e d q u a l i t y of v i e w p o i n t . Images which she had used p r e v i o u s l y became a r c h e t y p e s and w i t h t h e i r r e c u r r e n c e they brought a b i n d i n g c o n t i n u i t y which a c t e d as a framework of r e f e r e n c e f o r her ever-growing i n t e r r e l a t e d l i s t of s u b j e c t s . As such, a poem l i k e "Landlady" f i t s i n t o a complete scheme of t h i n g s . The images o f c t h e poem b i n d i t i n w i t h a s e r i e s of works w i t h s i m i l a r images<which are connected w i t h t r a i n s and photographs. The steady changing f l o w of images which i s • viewed from a t r a i n ' s window are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the s t i l t e d , s i n g l e framed g l i m p s e s which the l a n d l a d y g e t s of her boarders as she views them w i t h "her camera 1 eye.'' A l t h o u g h the image of a r a p i d l y changing landscape as seen from a t r a i n i s new i n "Landlady" i t i s the b e g i n n i n g of a s e r i e s of images r e l a t e d to t r a i n s which i n c l u d e "Mag-47 n e t i c N o r t h " , " R o u n d T r i p " , a n d " R e f l e c t i o n I n A T r a i n W i n d o w " . T h e s e i m a g e s r e f l e c t P a g e ' s e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f v i s i o n f r o m a t r a i n window.'" The i m a g e - o f a c a m e r a i n c o n t r a s t , i s n o t a t a l l new t o P a g e ' s w o r k . I t i s a r e c u r r e n t i m a g e . I t h a s a p p e a r e d i n e a r l i e r poems s u c h a s "Summer R e s o r t " , " S n a p s h o t " , " B e d -s i t t i n g Room", a n d " P h o t o g r a p h " , a n d i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r o b l e m s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s t a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f a p h o t o -g r a p h . A s P a g e h a s a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e v i e w t h a t i s a f f o r d e d by a p h o t o g r a p h o r a s i n g l e i n s i g h t c a n o n l y make t h e i m a g e v i e w e d . . . d i m e d e a d , a s i l v e r t h i n g p a s s e d a s a t o k e n f r o m n h a n d t o h a n d . ^ I t c a t c h e s a n d d i s t o r t s t h e i m a g e " i n a y a w n o f m o v e m e n t " s o t h a t i t i s w a r p e d : s t a r r i n g w i t h a f l a t s t a r e a t a w o r l d o f a i r o r c a u g h t l i k e a b e n t p i n o n h e r b e d r o o m c h a i r . T h e t r a i n i m a g e r y w h i c h i s g l i m p s e d i n " L a n d l a d y " c o m e s i n t o i t s own i n " M a g n e t i c N o r t h " a n d " R o u n d T r i p " w h i c h w e r e b o t h p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n a y e a r o f " L a n d l a d y " . " M a g n e t i c N o r t h " , t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e t w o p o e m s , s t i l l r e f l e c t s P a g e ' s p h o t o i m a g e s , f o r h e r e t h e t r a v e l l e r S e e C h a p t e r Two, p. 3 6 . 48 . . .dodged the w a i t i n g cameraS'-which with a s i n g l e c l i c k ^ could hold him f a s t to the spot beside the t r a c k . T h e t r a v e l l e r i s n o t s t a t i c , he i s w h i s k e d a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m i n w h i c h b o t h he a n d t h e l a n d s c a p e c h a n g e : he w a s f o r c e d t o c h a n g e h i s c o n t o u r s a n d h i s o u t l o o k a n d he r a n g e . He d o e s n o t c h a n g e , he i s f o r c e d t o c h a n g e b y h i s s u r -r o u n d i n g s . He b e c o m e s p a r t o f t h e m o v i n g , e v e r c h a n g i n g c o l l a g e w h i c h i n t e r t w i n e s h i s f i g u r e w i t h t h e f l o w o f f i g u r e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t i n t r u d e i t s e l f upon h i s r e f l e c t e d i m a g e s a n d a c t s ' a s a p h y s i c a l i n t e r f a c e w i t h h i s i m a g e : R i d i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o r e s t i t w a s d a r k a g a i n a n d t h e g r e a t c o n i f e r o u s b r a n c h e s b r u s h e d h i s f a c e . T h e i n t e n t o f t h i s i m a g e r y b e c o m e s c l e a r e r i n h e r poem " R o u n d T r i p " w h e r e t h e o t h e r q u a l i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e i s o v e r t l y s t a t e d : " T r a i n s d o n ' t t a k e y o u a n y w h e r e , n o r c a r s — t h e y ' r e j u s t a n o t h e r s t a n d s t i l l t h i n g o n w h e e l s s c r e a m i n g a t f u l l - s p e e d s t o p t h r o u g h t h e m o v i n g l a n d s c a p e a n d r e t u r n i n g y o u t o y o u r s e l f — i t ' s a b o o m e r a n g b u s i n e s s A w i t h a r e v o l v i n g s e t o f o l d t i m e m o v i e s . " T h e m i x e d p a t t e r n i s n o t s i m p l y a n o u t w a r d p r o j e c t i o n o f d r e a m s , f o r n o t o n l y i s i t a p r o j e c t i o n o f s e l f u p o n a p a s s i n g 49 l a n d s c a p e , i t i s a l s o a c o n f u s i o n of r e a l i t y and dream, where the c o n s t a n t momentum of the t r a i n becomes normal and the c o n s t a n t s h i f t of landscape i s confused w i t h the p a t t e r n of dreams which are i n t e r s p e r s e d w&.th waking hours as a r e s u l t of the ragged p a t t e r n of s l e e p brought on by a mono-tonous j o u r n e y J He dozes f i t f u l l y and dreams he wakes, waves, t h i n k s he's dreaming, t r i e s t o break h i s dreams, f e e l s f e v e r i s h , attempts to take h i s p u l s e . S i m i l a r l y , the c o n s t a n t motion causes a mental c o n f u s i o n about what i s d i s t a n t and what i s c l o s e by. L i k e a person f l y i n g through the n i g h t and waking up to o: d i s t a n t l a n d , not r e a l l y sure whether or not i t i s a r e a l i t y , Page's t r a v -e l l e r f i n d s t h a t on r a i s i n g the b l i n d the w o r l d i s m i s t f o r e v e r and f o c u s has to s h i f t and s h i f t f o r f a r and near are now i d e n t i c a l - -c o l o u r l e s s , s h a p e l e s s — e c h o i n g ghosts of snow. Oh where i s what he dreamed, f o r e v e r where the landscape f o r h i s p a t t e r n ? The d e s i r e d and legendary c o u n t r y he had planned? R e a l i t y and e x p e c t a t i o n meet, but the s t r a n g e sense of c l o s e -ness overpowers the sense of newness. " F o r e v e r , everywhere, f o r him i s the same." At the end of the poem a s t r a n g e b l e n d i n g of past and pre s e n t o c c u r s . The t r a i n l i k e a f i l m going forwards and backwards, unwinds and rewinds t i m e , and moves the t r a v e l l e r 50 back i n t o the scene which he l e f t . The scene i s not e x a c t l y the samo, however. Now a g h o s t - l i k e shroud of fog c o v e r s e v e r y t h i n g . A l t h o u g h the t r a v e l l e r walks i n t o a scene from h i s p a s t , a r e c u r r i n g v i s i o n of events w i l l always surround him no matter where he i s . H i s memories of t h a t fime^-and t h a t scene are f i x e d f o r him the way he l e f t them: And though he cannot see because of m i s t he knows i t ' , s t r u e - - t h a t e v e r y t h i n g ' s the same. An i r o n y surrounds change. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a f l u x i n v i s i o n p a r a l l e l e d by a f l u x i n e x t e r i o r s t i m u l u s , and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n t "flow of dream and f a n t a s y , t h e r e i s s t i l l a constancy to tho events w i t h i n t h i s f l u x and f l o w . Things may be f a r o f f i n a c t u a l i t y even though they seem c l o s e i n memory. In t h i s way o b j e c t s are c o n s t a n t l y changing at the same time t h a t they are s t a t i c f a c t o r s of e x p e r i e n c e . A f i e l d of unchangeable data on e x p e r i e n c e i s surrounded w i t h a f i e l d of v a r i a b l e s what are "immediate as music, s l i c k as s i l k . " The eye of the beholder doos not j u s t e x p e r i e n c e one t h i n g at a time, or ono s u c c e s s i o n of thoughts, images, and i d e a s , but r a t h e r i s s t r u c k by a m u l t i t u d e of i n p u t where . . . everywhere he l o o k e d was b r i g h t . . .diamonds had r e p l a c e d h i s eyes. The viewer i s caught w i t h many f a c e t s of e x p e r i e n c e i n a very complex p a t t e r n . I t i s o n l y h i s p a t t e r n of s e l e c t i v i t y which 51 determines the v a r i a b l e s that w i l l become constant f a c t o r s f o r him. At random he can make h i s mind draw . . . i t s f i l m y s h u t t e r i n v i s i b l y across the dot of s i g h t t u r n i n g the country i n t o the negative, no country of f a i n t or f i t . The t r a v e l l e r can only view the changing scene from h i s l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e . He cannot know the p r i v a t e h i s t o r y of each place any.mere.than anyone can know the p r i v a t e h i s t o r y of h i s home and the events that make h i s home landscape come a l i v e f o r him. The unknown escapes the t r a v e l l e r and something is hidden i n the scenery s t i l l — the hero hovers " j.ust. behind :the c u r t a i n a r t i c u l a t i n g the p e r f e c t unheard words and the changing country i s only a view that swings the s i l e n t globes of the eyes but nothing more. The countryside, however, s t i l l conforms to known patterns and s t i l l r e f l e c t s a l o g i c a l order. It i s only with dreams and sleep that t h i s pattern i s broken. It i s only i n dreams that the t r a v e l l e r . . . explores the place where everything i s f o r e i g n . Here, new patterns can be b u i l t . Experience i s not l i m i t e d to a set of constant l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Anything i s p o s s i b l e : In such sweet r a i n h i s ears and armpits grew flowers and humming b i r d s were part of h i m — J .hanging jewels upon-lapel and hat. 52 At night the oranges and lemons cut small amber caves from darkness where he sat and the mercurial found their seas at any spot he bathed when storms came up, f i s h glanced the thickened a i r . The limitations of experience are only those which are dictated by the ordered s e l e c t i v i t y of the mind. It i s easier to v.iew a problem as only having one possible outcome than as having many. To operate in a progressive pattern i t i s simpler to take on one perspective, rather than view the whole spectrum of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Objects can be related to known patterns much more eas i l y than they can be related to guessed at complexities. This attitude predominates in a considerable amount of Page's work at t h i s time. She r e f l e c t s again and again upon images.of change, showing that the set pattern, the set norm, i s only one particular view of a long continuum and, l i k e a photograph, i t i s only i l l u s o r y and misleading. "The Bands And The Beautiful Children", for example, i s not solely based on a contrast between innocence and experience. The poem's theme has both unity and m u l t i p l i c i t y . Although the t i t l e talks of "The Bands," in the body of the poem Page makes the point, to the degree of developing an irregular structure, of talking about "band." The single mystical whole "band" has an identity of i t s own, an .identity in which there are no individual parts to the onlooking children, but only components which in themselves mean nothing, though their unity presents a mystical whole which has a transforming e f f e c t . As such, 53 the e n t i t y "band" . . . makes a t u n n e l of the open s t r e e t . . . band becomes High; b r a s s e s ascending on the s t r i n g s of sun b u i l d t h e i r own a u d i t o r i u m of l i g h t , windows from c o r n e t s and a dome of drums. I t i s c l e a r l y not innocence as much as i m a g i n a t i o n which Page i s concerned w i t h here,' the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which w i l l c a r r y the o n l o o k e r s beyond the v i s u a l l y obvious c o n f i g u r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s to view the m a g i c a l e n t i t y "band." The o l d are.-not gust trapped by t h e i r l a c k of m o b i l i t y , but by "the q u i c k y e l l o w of i m a g i n a t i o n . " Without i m a g i n a t i o n , the e n t i t y "band" breaks down i n t o i t s component p a r t s . "Band" i s both a s i n g u l a r e n t i t y and a conglomerate whole made up of i n d i v i d u a l s . The music which i t p l a y s i s both a complex u n i t y , and a complex m u l t i p l i c i t y of t o n a l v a r i a t i o n s and i n t e g r a t i o n s developed from the s i m u l t a n e o u s p r o g r e s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c i a n s . The m u s i c a l r e s u l t i s not a grouping of sounds, but r a t h e r "the t r e m b l i n g b u i l d i n g of sound." T h i s u n i t y , however, d e p i c t s o n l y a p a r t i a l t r u t h . The f u l l beauty and i m a g i n a t i o n which are drawn from the music tha t . " b a n d " p l a y s can o n l y be a p p r e c i a t e d w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the image "band" i s a complex w i t h both s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The innocent v i s i o n of the c h i l d r e n which d e n i e s the m u l t i p l e image of the i n d i v -i d u a l s i s j u s t as bad as the u n i m a g i n a t i v e image which the 54 o l d e r people have t h a t d e n i e s the m a g i c a l s i n g u l a r i d e n t i t y of the band. The c h i l d r e n are l e d on by a P i e d P i p e r , and t h e i r d i s i l l u s i o n and l o s t sense of p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n e v i t a b l e w i t h o u t any c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g p e r s p e c t i v e : And the c h i l d r e n , l o s t , l o s t , i n an open space, remember the c e r t a i n t y of the anchored home and c r y on the unknown edge of t h e i r own c i t y t h e i r l i p s s t i f f from an imaginary trumpet. Not o n l y does "band" produce music, i t a l s o produces an i n d i v i d u a l cacophony of g r i p e s and c o m p l a i n t s which i s the end r e s u l t of the lon g arduous march and the a n t i t h e s i s of the u n i f i e d p r o d u c t i o n developed d u r i n g the parade: . . . band breaks, and s c a t t e r s , crumbles about them and i s made of men t i r e d and grumbling on the s t r a g g l i n g g r a s s . The u n i t y and beauty are gone. The f i e l d t h a t the band crumbles on i s a p i c t u r e of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . There can be no m i s t a k i n g "the s t r a g g l i n g g r a s s " f o r any v i s i o n of an e l y s i a n f i e l d or p a r a d i s e . As Page p o i n t s out, u n i t y and s i m p l i c i t y are b u i l t on a complex which cannot be i g n o r e d . To miss the c o m p l e x i t y w i t h which the e n t i t y i s formed i s to miss the f u l l impact and the f u l l beauty of i t s u n i t y , as much as to deny the m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s of t h i s u n i t y and o n l y p e r c e i v e the m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s upon which i t i s b u i l t i s t o deny t'be:f e i l l n e s s : of i t s beauty. Page r e t u r n e d t o a s i m i l a r image i n her poem "Adolescence", 5 5 but here the m u t a b i l i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e and the i m a g i n a t i v e v i s i o n i s d i r e c t l y t i e d up w i t h youth as the t i t l e s u g g e s t s . The poem i s not about two d i s t i n c t views of a s u b j e c t , as "The Bands And The B e a u t i f u l C h i l d r e n " i s , i t catches' the f l u i d i t y of the ever changing sense of r e a l i t y t h a t not o n l y surrounds, but a l s o i s youth. Innocence and r e a l i t y are mixed i n t o a complex which r e f l e c t s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s w o r l d . J u s t as "white was mixed w i t h a l l t h e i r c o l o u r s , " ^ p u r i t y and unfragmented v i s i o n are mixed w i t h t h e i r s e m i - a d u l t view of the w o r l d . The image foreshadows Pago's use of w h i t e i n " S t o r i e s Of Snow". The t o t a l l y r e f l e c t e d s p e c t r u m 1 o f l i g h t as r e p r e s e n t e d by the c o l o u r w h i t e suggests innocence:.-and c r e a t e s an aura of h a z i n e s s t h a t p r o j e c t s something which i s n e i t h e r r e a l nor u n r e a l , but i s l i k e dreams where " t h i n g s are and a r e n ' t . " S i m i l a r l y , the d r e a m - l i k e q u a l i t y of w h i t e r a d i a t e s i n t o o t h e r images and becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t of them. "A s i l k e n r a i n f a l l s " upon the a d o l e s c e n t s and they are surrounded by "the f l o w e r i n g t r e e s " of s p r i n g . A shimmering w h i t e f a n t a s y seems to r a d i a t e o f f ' the image of the g i r l as she comes to the boy "down the w a t e r f a l l s t a i r s . " The images are not c o n s t a n t . E v e r y t h i n g i s caught i n a f l u x and f l o w . The g i r l i s caught i n "an eddy" which t u r n s "her round and round/ l a z i l y and s l o w l y so her w i l l / . . . [ i s ] nowhere." There i s a m y s t e r i o u s aura which c e n t r e s around the a d o l e s c e n t s . A m a g i c a l u n i t y seems to h o l d t h e i r w o r l d t o g e t h e r . Mech-56 c i n i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s are not n e c e s s a r y . Though " s t r e e t lamps sang l i k e sopranos i n t h e i r heads," t h e r e i s no need f o r diagrams which e x p l a i n how the lamps cause the b u z z i n g n o i s e . The lamp s i n g s " w i t h a v i o l e n c e they never understood" because they had no need to understand. As such, t h e r e are no d e r o g a t o r y undertones i m p l i c i t i n the f a c t t h a t " a l l t h e i r movements when they were t o g e t h e r / had no c o n c l u s i o n s . " Adolescence i s very changeable. The adolescents-' 1, p e r s p e c t i v e i s o n l y l o c k e d when the two are t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r s t r a n g e f a n t a s y w o r l d . When t h e i r w o r l d i s broken, when the two p a r t , the p e r s p e c t i v e changes and then the q u e s t i o n s b e g i n : Only l e a n i n g i n t o the q u e s t i o n had they motion; a f t e r they p a r t e d were savage and s w i f t as g u l l s . A s k i n g and a s k i n g the h o s t i l e emptiness. Once p a r t e d , the a d o l e s c e n t s share the problem of j u s t i f y i n g to themselves the w o r l d t h a t surrounds them. They are no l o n g e r a b l e t o r e l y an t h e i r very s e l e c t i v e w o r l d , They have to t r y and develop o r d e r out of "the h o s t i l e emptiness'-;" Yet even t h i s " a s k i n g and a s k i n g " i s o n l y a f l u i d s t a t e i n which the a d o l e s c e n t s are caught as they t r y to c r e a t e o r d e r f o r themselves. They are not d e f i n e d by t h e i r q u e s t i o n s , o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y shaped l i k e u n k i l n e d c l a y . They may take one stance one day, o n l y to q u e s t i o n and r e j e c t i t the next. They are c o n s t a n t l y changing t h e i r i d e a s -. and t h e i r p r o j e c t e d images. I t i s i n t h i s way t h a t a d u l t s , w i t h t h e i r f i x e d p e r s p e c t i v e on t h i n g s , may be f o o l e d i n t o 57 b e l i e v i n g t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s are one t h i n g or another, o n l y to be s u r p r i s e d "to see them form and fade b e f o r e t h e i r eyes." L i k e M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s " C a p t i v e s " , they are s t i l l o n l y h a l f shaped.- They s t i l l b l e nd i n t o the rock. T h e i r form i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y d e f i n e d , as are t h e i r i d o a s . An u n d e f i n a b l e mass of rock surrounds t h e i r shape, which i s o n l y "as sharp as p a r t l y s c u l p t u r e d s t o n e . " The c r e a t i o n i s not f i x e d , the mass i s not d e f i n i t e and the form i s not t o t a l l y d e f i n a d . The viev/er o n l y views a working model which may bo changed r a d i c a l l y b e f o r e i t i s completed. P o s s i b l y t h i s i s the i r o n y of the human p o r t r a i t which Page i s aiming a t , f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i s always chancing and even though he may not be as v o l a t i l e as an a d o l e s c e n t , a s i n g l e view of an i n d i v i d u a l may o n l y r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l i n s i g h t i n t o a v a s t continuum which i s always changing. I f we see an i n d i v i d u a l i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from those i n which we n o r m a l l y see him we may change our e s t i m a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l , and our f e e l i n g s about him may t r u l y "form and fade" b e f o r e our eyes. The theme of "Adolescence" i s one t h a t Page r e t u r n s to again and a g a i n . In "Morning Noon And N i g h t " , a poem w r i t t e n a year l a t e r , she f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to the one she set i n 1 . "Adolescence" . I m a g i n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s and c h i l d r e n ' s views of the w o r l d f a s c i n a t e Page. Most c e r t a i n l y c h i l d r e n do not r e p r e s e n t innocence as a c o n t r a s t to a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e f o r Page. More complex than t h a t , c h i l d r e n o f f e r i m a g i n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s which a d u l t s too r e a d i l y d i s m i s s as f a n t a s y . 58 In t h e s e i m a g i n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s , these somewhat b i z a r r e w o r l d s which c h i l d r e n c r e a t e to e x p l a i n t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , Page sees an i n c r e d i b l e n a t u r a l awareness and a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the many t h i n g s which a d u l t s so o f t e n take f o r g r a n t e d and do not d e l v e i n t o . The s t r a n g e paths of f a n t a s y are o f t e n more rewarding than the mundane ones governed by s c i e n t i f i c lav; and f o r m u l a t i o n . I t i s t h i s type of encounter, where an a d u l t mind meets a c h i l d ' s v i s i o n of the w o r l d , t h a t Page r e c o u n t s i n her s h o r t s t o r y "Them Ducks". Hero, the s i m p l e act of f e e d i n g ducks i n a park i s r a d i c a l l y changed when the a d u l t w o r l d c o l l i d e s w i t h the f a n c i f u l w o r l d of a young boy. H i s view of the ducks mimes a d u l t a s s u r e d n e s s , yet h i s f a n c i f u l d e t a i l f a s c i n a t e s the a d u l t l i s t e n e r : " I been around here s i x y e a r s . I watch them ducks day and n i g h t I watch them. Every-one's a g a i n s t them ducks," them brown ones are w i l d , them o t h e r ones w i t h the l i t t l e s h o r t blue beaks i s Japanese ducks and t h a t one t h e r e , " he s a i d , p o i n t i n g to an e v i d e n t l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s , "That one t h e r e ' s a baby Japanese duck. " She was f a s c i n a t e d by the boy's assurance and what seemed to her an i n t e n s e i n d i f f e r e n c e , a l l h i s c a r e f u l l y c a r e l e s s g e s t u r e s , the even a u t h o r i t a t i v e tone of h i s v o i c e . 7 A c h i l d ' s s t o r y does not have to be based on the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . R e a l i t y i s not the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r , o n l y e f f e c t i s i m p o r t a n t , and i t i s c e r t a i n l y not dependent on the accuracy of the s t o r y : 59 "That t h e r e duck got b i t by a dog. I t e l l you, everyone's a g a i n s t them ducks, even clogs. And people come here w i t h s l i n g s h o t s , t o o , to shoot them. I got f i f t y d o l l a r s o f f of a man one n i g h t . Caught him s h o o t i n g and took him to the p o l i c e . The p o l i c e gave me f i f t y c e n t s . F i f t y c e n t s f o r everybody I f i n d . You see t h a t t h e r e duck? He got h i t w i t h a s l i n g s h o t . " "But you s a i d a dog b i t him." "Maybe he d i d . D'you expect me to be a b l e to t e l l them a l l a p a r t ? Some are s h o t ; some are b i t . " ^ The a d u l t demand f o r s e q u e n t i a l l o g i c can o n l y be met w i t h 9 " d i s t a n t contempt," f o r i t imposes i t s e l f on the c h i l d ' s i m a g i n a t i v e w o r l d and d e s t r o y s i t . Almost i n r e t a l i a t i o n , the boy t a k e s the s t o r y to f u r t h e r f a n c i f u l h e i g h t s : "And t h e r e ' s l o t s of t i n y , t i n y , l i t t l e sword-f i s h i n them w a t e r s , " he s a i d . " T i n y . " He made g e s t u r e s w i t h the bun and h i s f r e e hand. "And they've got l i t t l e t i n y swords on them and they go s t r a i g h t f o r them ducks and s t i c k t h e i r swords i n . Spear them," he s a i d , " r i g h t t h rough." 1 0 The o n l y t h i n g t h a t the boy i s w i l l i n g to impose on him-s e l f i s the l i m i t , of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . When the woman t r i e s to see i f she can f i n d f a u l t w i t h h i s premise t h a t the ducks are smart, the boy extends h i s i m a g i n a t i o n f u r t h e r and j u s t -i f i e s the ducks' a c t i o n s : " S t u p i d ! " He was w o n d e r f u l l y s c o r n f u l . " S t u p i d ! D'you know what would happen i f them dogs t r i e d a n y t h i n g ? Them ducks would peck t h e i r eyes r i g h t out. And i f they was up i n a t r e e they'd f l y r i g h t down and b i t e t h e i r backs. Dogs know. Them ducks a r e n ' t s t u p i d . " 11 60 It i s no wonder that Page ends the story with the woman thinking Somewhere, at the back of her head, was an idea she wanted to work out, but however much she dug at i t , attempted to free i t , a l l she could think about was the boy. 1 2 The bounds of the imagination are only determined by the i n d i v i d u a l . To see beyond the normally accepted bounds of l o g i c , to try to understand the imagination, i s only to begin to unlock the many doors of perception. We feel safer when they are shut, yet opening them creates new vistas which at f i r s t only appear as questions "somewhere at the back of . . . LtheJ head." Understanding the vistas takes time, and an imaginative a r t i s t l i k e Page demonstrates how slowly an understanding of these new vistas comes to the i n d i v i d u a l . Of a l l the poems that Page wrote in the 1940's, "Stories Of Snow" most c l e a r l y outlines the complexities of th i s problem. Here Page's complex perception points beyond the problem presented by the perceptions themselves back to the perceiver. Page does not just develop a multitude of images from a single image, she also attempts to understand the source from which these images spring. These discoveries, though nebulously and i n t u i t i v e l y manifested, point to-.;the imaginative exploratory operations of the mind, the basis from which a l l imagination and understanding radiate. The poem i s suggestive and visionary. It refers to the boarder-l i n e area of perception in which things are and are not, the 61 area i n which t h i n g s unknown begin to u n v e i l t h e i r m y s t e r i o u s n a t u r e . P o s s i b l y the most i n t e r e s t i n g remark made on t h i s poem i s the one t h a t Page made i n her f i r s t Canadian L i t e r a t u r e a r t i c l e : My subconscious e v i d e n t l y knew something about the t y r a n n y of s u b j e c t i v i t y y e ars ago when i t d e s i r e d to go "through to the area behind the eyes/ where s i l e n t , u n r e f r a c t i v e w h i t e n e s s l i e s " . I d i d n ' t understand the image then but i t a r r i v e d complete. ^ 4 The poem i s by no means j u s t a s i m p l e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s problem. L i k e a l l of Page's b e t t o r p o e t r y , i t f i n d s i t s depth and breadth i n i t s complex image p a t t e r n . The poem c e n t r e s i t s e l f on cn image p a t t e r n t h a t i s not new to Page. Images of snow and w h i t e n e s s appear i n many of her more complex poems. "The Stenographers" and "Adolescence" develop p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r to " S t o r i e s Of Snow". " S t o r i e s Of Snow", however, i s d i f f e r e n t from both "The Stenographers" and "Adolescence" i n t h a t snow or w h i t e n e s s i s not o n l y a core image, but a l s o the main s u b j e c t . " S t o r i e s Of Snow" i s , as the t i t l e n o t e s , a poem about the m y s t e r i o u s s t o r i e s which surround snow. Snow takes on a m y s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and i s i n t r i c a t e l y interwoven w i t h the w o r l d of dream. As Page notes i n her opening s t a n z a : Those i n the v e g e t a b l e r a i n r e t a i n an area behind t h e i r s p r o u t i n g eyes h e l d s o f t and rounded w i t h the dream of snow p r e c i o u s and r e m i n i s c e n t . . . . 1 5 62 Page i s not content to l e t her image r e s t even i n her opening s t a n z a and she develops the image and begins at once t o g r a d u a l l y widen her c i r c l e of i m a g i s t i c i d e a s . "The dream of snow" suggests a snow storm as i t moves i n t o a second image: . . . the dream of snow p r e c i o u s and r e m i n i s c e n t as those g l o b e s — s o u v e n i r of some never nether l a n d — which h o l d t h e i r snow storms c i r c u l a r , complete, hig h i n a t a l l and teakwood c a b i n e t . The s w i r l of the storm i s caught and ensnared i n a c o n t a i n e r , but even the c o n t a i n e r becomes a complex. I t i s as Page's punning s u g g e s t s , a never never l a n d of c h i l d h o o d f a n t a s y and d e l i g h t , a w o r l d of innocence and dreams, though i t i s a l s o a foreshadowing of the f a n c i f u l N e t h e r l a n d which w i t h i t s s t o r i e s " h o l d [ s ] t h e i r snow storms c i r c u l a r , complete." ^^ The pun i s not t h a t s i m p l e . In a c t u a l i t y , Page puns upon never never l a n d when she says "never nether land 1. 1" I t i s easy to connect nether and l a n d t o g e t h e r and corn© up w i t h N e t h e r l a n d , the s e t t i n g f o r p a r t of the poem, but s e p a r a t e d , a second pun comes to l i g h t . "Nether l a n d " p l a y s upon the word N e t h e r l a n d i n the same way t h a t "never nether l a n d " p l a y s upon never never l a n d . "Nether l a n d " i n c l u d e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the word n e t h e r . Thus, a "nether l a n d " can be! a lower or low down l a n d , a p l a c e not n e c e s s a r i l y named f o r i t s e l e v a t i o n r e l a t i v e to sea l e v e l , but r e l a t i v e to a s c a l e t h a t i s more e a s i l y d i s c e r n e d i f nether i s connect 63 w i t h w o r l d . The "nether l a n d " t h a t Page t a l k s about c o u l d be connected to the underworld, a h e l l i s h p l a c e i n which tho dreams of snow and pure i m a g i n a t i o n are kept i n c o n t a i n e r s which h o l d t h e i r snow storms c i r c u l a r , complete, h i g h i n a t a l l and teakwood cabinet I t i s a p l a c e out of the reach of c h i l d r e n , a w o r l d where the i m a g i n a t i o n i s denied to c h i l d r e n and o n l y kept f o r c h i l d l i k e a d u l t f r i v o l i t i e s , which are f a r from i n n o c e n t . The complex grows as does the d u a l q u a l i t y of snow and w h i t e n e s s . Not o n l y does the c o l o u r o l i c i t i n n ocent dreams where . . . i n the e a r l y morning one w i l l waken to t h i n k the g l o w i n g l i n e n of h i s p i l l o w a n o r t h e r n d r i f t . . .. I t a l s o e l i c i t s the c o l d t e r r o r of h u n t e r s t h a t . . . go f o r t h to the f r o z e n l a k e s i n s e a r c h of s w a n s — the snow l i g h t f a l l i n g w h i t e alon g t h e i r guns, t h e i r b r e a t h i n plumes. Both c r e a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n are p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and the elements of c r e a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n a r e , o f t e n - a s not, c o n f u s i n g l y i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h each o t h e r . The h u n t e r s may " f e e l / a i r i n t h e i r mouths as t e r r i b l e as e t h e r , " but a i r "as t e r r i b l e as e t h e r " i s not a s i m p l e l i t e r a l image, f o r i t a l s o c o n j u r e s up f e e l i n g s of t e r r o r , c o l d n e s s and drugged s l e e p . S i m i l a r l y , the imcge of woodsmen "who, 64 l o s t i n t h e w h i t e c i r c l e , f a l l a t l a s t / a n d d r e a m t h e i r w a y t o d e a t h " c o n j o i n s a n i m a g e o f s t a r k , h a r s h r e a l i t y w i t h b l i s s f u l i n n o c e n c e . A t e r r i f y i n g i r o n y i s l a t e n t i n P a g e ' s i m a g e o f a " w a r m m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f s n o w . " D e a t h e v o l v e s f r o m t h e i n n o c e n t v i s i o n . T h e w h i t e s n o w i s t h e p o i n t o f c o n f u s i o n , w h i c h i s n e i t h e r h o t n o r c o l d a n d w h i c h w i t h i t s d r e a m l i k e c o n f u s i o n o n l y l e a d s t o a m e t a m o r p h o s i s i n w h i c h t h e s n o w i t s e l f d o e s n o t c h a n g e , b u t t h e p e r s o n e n s n a r e d i n i t d o e s . T h e i n n o c e n t , b l i s s f u l d r e a m s o f a p e r s o n f r e e z i n g t o d e a t h a n d t h e s o f t w a r m t h o f f e a t h e r s o n a d e a d s w a n b o t h p o i n t t o w a r d a f i n a l i n n o c e n c e w h i c h c a n n o t e v e r r e a l l y b e r e c o n c i l e d w i t h r e a l i t y . T h e s w a n a n d t h e w o o d s m a n b o t h d i e . T h e e l u s i v e q u a l i t y o f s n o w a n d w h i t e n e s s s t i l l p e r v a d e s a l l o f t h e a n s w e r s t h a t c a n b e b r o u g h t u p b y t h e s e g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e m a n y h u e s o f t h e r a i n b o w a n d c r e a t e s a d e f i n e d r e a l i t y . T h e r e i s a s e c o n d p e r v a d i n g i r o n y i n t r i n s i c i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s n o t s n o w o r w h i t e n s s t h a t b l o c k s t h e r o u t e t o t h e m y s t e r i o u s w o r l d o f d r e a m s a n d f a n t a s y , b u t c o l o u r s a n d d e f i n e d r e a l i t y . I t i s " r e d s a n d b l u e s w h i c h s e a l t h e r o u t e t o s n o w . " E v e n t h o u g h man h a s p r o d u c e d m a n y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n w h i c h h e c a n c a t e g o r i z e h i s k n o w l e d g e , t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e o n l y a ' s m a l l p a r t o f t h e t o t a l i t y w h i c h h e u n d e r s t a n d s a n d e v e n t h e y c a n s l i p b a c k e a s i l y i n t o t h e s t r a n g e u n d i v i d e d w o r l d o f w h i t e n e s s a n d w h o l e n e s s . E v e n c o n c e p t s a n d s h a p e s d i s s o l v e i n a p u r e f i e l d o f w h i t e n e s s . T h e a l l e n c o m p a s s i n g 65 w h i t e n e s s i s a k i n d o f p r i m a l a w a r e n e s s w h i c h T h o s e i n t h e v e g e t a b l e r a i n r e t a i n . . . b e h i n d t h e i r s p r o u t i n g e y e s h e l d s o f t a n d r o u n d e d w i t h t h e d r e a m o f s n o w . I t p e r v a d e s t h e b e i n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e " v e g e t a b l e r a i n " o f c o l o u r s i s i n r e a l i t y w h a t t h e " s p r o u t i n g e y e s " v i s u a l i z e . T h e p o e m p o i n t s b e y o n d p e r c e p t i o n a n d i n t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e s t o r e h o u s e w h e r e i m a g e s a n d c o n c e p t s a r e o n l y l o o s e l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e x t e r i o r w o r l d . I n c o n t r a s t t o " t h e a r e a b e h i n d t h e e y e s , " a r e t h e p e r c e p t u a l s t i m u l i w h i c h s p r o u t w i t h c o l o u r : I n c o u n t r i e s w h e r e t h e l e a v e s a r e l a r g e a s h a n d s , . . f l o w e r s p r o t r u d e t h e i r f l e s h y c h i n s a n d c a l l t h e i r c o l o u r s . S h a p e s a n d c o l o u r s a l m o s t d e m a n d t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d . I t o n l y f o l l o w s t h a t " g r e a t f l o w e r s b a r t h e r o a d s / w i t h r e d s a n d b l u e s w h i c h s e a l t h e r o u t e t o s n o w . " T h e w o r l d d e m a n d s c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n a n d e x t r a c t s i t f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s w o r l d o f d r e a m a n d f a n t a s y . E v e n t h e s t o r i e s b e c o m e a k e y t o t h e w o r l d o f f a n t a s y a n d t h e w o r l d o f s n o w y w h i t e n e s s : a s i f , i n t e l l i n g , r a c o n t e u r s u n l o c k t h e c o l o u r w i t h i t s c o m p l e m e n t a n d g o t h r o u g h t o t h e a r e a b e h i n d t h e e y e s w h e r e s i l e n t , u n r e f r a c t i v e w h i t e n e s s l i e s . T h e s t o r i e s a r e a l s o c o n s t r u c t s a n d i t i s o n l y c o n j e c t u r e a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e f o r m u l a t e d c o n s t r u c t s c a n b r e a k 66 the bonds and enable the reader to f i n d the freedom of h i s own imagination. The s t o r y i s only a st i m u l a n t . The i n d i v -i d u a l s t i l l has to r e l y on h i s own imagination to create the image which the s t o r y suggests. People " r e t a i n / an area behind t h e i r s p r o u t i n g eyes" i n which t h e i r imagination can generate fantasy. It i s a matter of f i n d i n g a key to open the door to t h i s a r e a i " S t o r i e s Of Snow" not only develops t h i s pattern of thought, i t a l s o completes i t with a patt e r n of dream images that flow i n t o one another. Page admits that she i s f a s c i n a t e d with dreams. She f e e l s that they are more s i g n i f i c a n t than 1 7 most people think they are. By moving from an image of c o l o u r f u l flowers to an image of white l i l i e s , Page s t a r t s her movement i n t o whiteness and dream: where flowers protrude t h e i r f l e s h y chins and c a l l t h e i r c o l o u r s an imaginary snow-storm sometimes f a l l s among the l i l i e s . The whitewashed flowers become f u r t h e r transformed and the image s u b t l y s h i f t s again from flowers to snowflakes , as the image of l i l i e s spins i n t o an image of a snowstorm., which i s reminiscent of the snowstorm of the l i t t l e globe f u l l of a r t i f i c i a l snow. The image does not s e t t l e long there e i t h e r . I t moves q u i c k l y from the image of snow f a l l i n g "among the l i l i e s " to an image of a snow d r i f t seen upon awakening from being "held s o f t and rounded with the dream 67 o f snow:" And i n t h e e a r l y m o rning one w i l l waken to t h i n k t h e g l o w i n g l i n e n of h i s p i l l o w a n o r t h e r n d r i f t . The image moves q u i c k l y a g a i n "from head t o head." The w h i t e l i n e n o f a p i l l o w s u g g e s t s f u r t h e r bed images and Page s h i f t s t o an image o f h u n t e r s a r i s i n g "from t h e i r f e a t h e r beds" who " p a r t t h e f l a k e s [ o f snow] and go/ f o r t h t o t h e f r o z e n l a k e s i n s e a r c h o f swans." Even the image of t h e h u n t e r s f a l l s i n t o t h e p a t t e r n . The snow f a l l s " w h i t e a l o n g t h e i r guns" and t h e i r b r e a t h e x p i r e s i n w h i t e plumes i n t h e c o l d . The image the n s h i f t s r a p i d l y from t h e h u n t e r s t o t h e i r i c e b o a t s w h i c h a l s o r e f l e c t t h e w h i t e imagery. W a i t i n g i n t h e wind, th e b o a t s l o o k " l i k e s l e e p i n g g u l l s " t h a t " w a i t t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e i r w i n g s . " These b o a t s a r e not o r d i n a r y b o a t s , f o r t h e y do not f l o a t on t o p o f t h e w a t e r . I n s t e a d , t h e y "skim" t h e w h i t e f r o z e n w a t e r and " l e a p t h e j e t s t r i p s o f the naked w a t e r . " They do not r e a l l y f l y , y e t t h e y do not r e a l l y f l o a t . The h u n t e r s a r e " f l y i n g , s a i l i n g h u n t e r s , " t h e y a r e not one t h i n g o r the o t h e r . Speed and c o n f u s i o n i n t e r m i n g l e as t h e h u n t e r s move a c r o s s " e l e c t r i c ice'" end are. c aught by a i r as c o l d and "as t e r r i b l e as e t h e r . " As Page n o t e s "even d r i n k s / i n t h a t l a n d s c a p e d a r e t o be no c o l o u r . " The i n t o x i c a n t l i q u o r , a n o t h e r b e c l o u d i n g i n f l u e n c e , a p p e a r s t o be d i s g u i s e d , "masked and w a t e r c l e a r . " I t 68 appears " s i l v e r against the hunters' moving hi p s " l i k e q u i c k s i l v e r , a l i q u o r i n the broad sense of the word which i n c olour mimes s i l v e r ' s c o l o u r . S h i f t i n g from s e a g u l l - l i k e boats and q u i c k s i l v e r - l i q u o r , Page moves to the image "those dreamers t e l l " of "the swans in death." In c o n t r a s t to the boat that skims and .rises above the water, the shot swan ceases to f l y and f a l l s back to earth "a plummet,/ p i e r c e d by the f r e e z i n g b u l l e t . " Again there i s a confusion of hot and c o l d . The b u l l e t i s f i g u r a t i v e l y c o l d , as i t k i l l s and numbs, even though i n a c t u a l i t y i t has no connection with the c o l d . The image s h i f t s s l i g h t l y again and i n s t e a d of focusing on the swan, i t s focus moves to "three f e a t h e r s , loosened by the shot" that "descend l i k e snow upon i t . " The f e a t h e r s are s i m i l a r to the f l a k e s of f a l l i n g snow. The swan blends in with the snow i t has f a l l e n i n t o . I t i s covered with white f e a t h e r s which look "deep as a d r i f t " of snow. The image r a d i a t e s beyond the p a r a l l e l with the snow as the image of f a l l i n g f e a t h e r s u n i t e s i t with the e a r l i e r images of the dreamers l y i n g i n bed on feather p i l l o w s and the hunters a r i s i n g "from t h e i r feather beds." The metarnorphic warmth of the snow-like f e a t h e r s s i m i l a r l y r e f l e c t s the warmth of the feather beds of the dreamers. Thus, the image of the l o s t woodsmen not only i l l u s t r a t e s the confusion between warmth and c o l d , i t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the confusion between drearn-and r e a l i t y . In e f f e c t , the woodsmen are, immersed in a 69 "metamorphosis of snow" which r e f l e c t s another of the many possible dream worlds f i l l e d with whiteness and confused senses. They are also dreamers, but their bed instedd~ 6 f being made of feathers, i s made of snow, i t s antithesis. They too are caught in a c i r c l e which holds them in a con-tained world " c i r c u l a r , complete." Like the three feathers they make a s p i r a l descent to where they w i l l " f a l l at l a s t / and dream their way to death." The confusion of the senses i s completed with death. The imaginative world has in a sense swallowed up the real world and, in i t s greediness, swallowed i t s e l f up too. Yet Page leaves us with an interesting thought which undermines these negative aspects of the imaginative world of snow and whiteness: . . .stories of this kind are often told in countries where great flowers bar the roads with reds and blues which seal the route to snow—. The question i s , are these stories the distorted product of the jealous world of r e a l i t y , that area which "bars the roads" to snow "with reds and blues?" Can the raconteurs trapped in the world of r e a l i t i e s ever f u l l y "go/through to the area behind the eyes/where s i l e n t unrefractive whiteness l i e s ? " Page's statement i s tentative. It i s only "as i f , in t e l l i n g " that "raconteurs unlock/the colour." For Page, pure imaginative process demands more of the individual than that. The stories are an attempt, but they do not f u l l y 70 encompass the imaginative world that they contemplate. Insight and understanding of the imaginative processes that operate beyond our ken of understanding are i l l u s i v e . The area "where s i l e n t , unrefractive whiteness l i e s " i s an area which demands much more contemplation or meditation than simple stories can ever offer. To comprehend or even glimpse a world of t o t a l unity or whiteness in a segmented world i s far from an easy task. The simple elements of vis i o n often point the way to confusion. The problem of s e l e c t i v i t y counters the imagin-ation and the expansion of knowledge of the world and s e l f at every turn. As Page notes in her appropriately named poem "Subjective Eye": When the sleeping eye awakes— tiger turned turstle withdrawn within i t s s h e l l . Instead of uniting imaginative focus and perspective, the eye ignores dream and imagination in an e f f o r t to create order: . . . i t sheds the personal attack dreams made upon i t , smudging with they symbols i t s outward focus. In doing so, i t even ignores part of the beauty of the "real world" which i t s e l e c t i v e l y looks at with " i t s outward focus" while carrying in i t s t i l l barbs and barbituates as yet unpearled. This focus, with i t s simple laws of s e l e c t i v i t y ignores r e a l i t y and 71 . . . a l l the f a t a i r and the greenish morning with a p e r f e c t parliament of leaves i s not. In i t s attempt to. create a s e l e c t i v e order, a l l that the eye has done i s create chaos. V i s i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d and meaning i s diminished. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s that were there are destroyed. Instead of an outward grasp, a l l that i s l e f t i s inward b l i n d n e s s . By i g n o r i n g one world, the v i s i o n of the other world i s skewed completely. The imaginative world holds the keys to the r e a l world, j u s t as tho r e a l world holds the keys to the imaginative one. Seperate one from the other And eye, poor, potentate, i t s kingdom shrunk from r o l l i n g round of earth to round of p u p i l i s smoked as though a c a t a r a c t had formed not over i t , but over the green world. In the shape of a prayer Page r e i t e r a t e s her plea f o r t h i s cause i n another of her poems of t h i s p e r i o d : F o r g i v e us, who have not Been whole, or r i c h as f r u i t ; Who, through the eyes' lock enter A point beyond the centre To f i n d our balance shot; Who have, i f we confessed, Observed, but never guessed What l i e s behind the f a c t : The q u i e t i n c i p i e n t act That a l t e r s a l l the r e s t . 1 9 As Page says, i t i s necessary to "take another look." It i s necessary to see the give and take of the modes by v/hich 72 we a r e e d u c a t e d : T h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n g h o s t I s s u d d e n l y o u r h o s t And once we're w i n e d and d i n e d , Wants t o be p a i d i n k i n d And f a s t becomes o u r g u e s t . J u s t as t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p o s i n g i n n o c e n c e and f a n t a s y w i t h , r e a l i t y , t h e r e i s a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f interposing r e a l i t y w i t h f a n t a s y ; I t i s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e mask o f i n n o c e n c e w h i c h Page a t t a c k s i n " P h o t o s Of A S a l t M i n e " . I n t h e poem, t h e o n l o o k e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s skewed and he i s l e f t w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p o s i n g a r e a l i t y on a f a n t a s y . From a d i s t a n c e t h e s a l t mine l o o k s l i k e a s p a r k l i n g w o n d e r l a n d : How i n n o c e n t t h e i r l i v e s l o o k how l i k e a c h i l d ' s droam o f c a v e s and w i n t e r , b o t h c o m b i n e d t h e s t e e p d e s c e n t t o w h i t e n e s s and t h e s l o p e w i t h i t s s t r i a t e d w a l l s t h e i r f o l d s a l l l e a n i n g a s i f p o i n t i n g t o t h e g r e a t e r w h i t e n e s s s t i l l , t h e g r e a t w h i t e bank. w i t h i t s d e c i s i v e f r o n t , t h a t seam upon a s l o p e , s a l t ' s l o v e l y i c e . 2 ^ The i n n o c e n t v i s i o n i s d e c e p t i v e . I m p l i c i t i n i t s b e a u t y i s a s i n i s t e r f o r c e w h i c h h i d e s u n d e r i t s i n n o c e n t g u i s e . R e m i n i s c e n t o f some o f t h e u g l i n e s s w h i c h i s c o v e r e d by t h e s o f t c u r t a i n o f w h i t e i n " S t o r i e s Of Snow", t h e i n n o c e n c e o f " P h o t o s Of A S a l t M i n e " i s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by d i f f e r e n t 73 p e r s p e c t i v e s . On one hand, the rock faces of s a l t look l i k e . . . an al a d d i n ' s cave: rubies and opals g l i t t e r from i t s w a l l s . Yet on tho other hand, when "hoses douse the b r i l l i a n c e of these jewels," the beauty disappears and i s replaced by an u g l i n e s s which gives o f f a h e l l i s h l u s t e r . As the hoses melt f i r e to b r i n e . S a l t ' s b i t t e r water t r i c k l e s t h i n and forms slow fathoms down a lake w i t h i n a cave lacquered with j e t — white's opposite. There grey on black the boating miners f l o a t to mend the stays and s t r u t s of that o l d slope and deeply underground t h e i r words resound, are m u l t i p l i e d by echo, swell and grow and make a climate of a miner's v o i c e . The s i n g l e momentary glimpses that the camera exposes become e a s i l y d i s t o r t e d . The view i s dependent upon the p e r s p e c t i v e . The cave can look " l i k e c h i l d r e n ' s wishes." Innocence can act "as a f i l t e r " s e l e c t i n g "only beauty from the mine." Yet t h i s v i s i o n can be seen as i r o n i c when i t i s compared with another p e r s p e c t i v e which shows a completely d i f f e r e n t view of the complex: . . , In a p i t f i g u r e s the s i z e of pins are s t r a n g e l y l i t and might bo dancing but you know they're not. Like Dante's v i s i o n of the nether h e l l men s t r u g g l e with the b r i g h t c o l d f i r e s of s a l t locked i n the black i n f e r n o of the rock: the f i l t e r here, not innocence but g u i l t . Tho problems of .vision are many. V i s i o n and fantasy 74 must i r o n i c a l l y enough s p r i n g form the l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s of r e a l i t y . A person who e n v i s i o n s only good things and ignores bad t h i n g s i s a f a l s e v i s i o n a r y . It may be nice to hide ugly r e a l i t i e s behind fantasy, but at that p o i n t , r e v e l a t i o n becomes d e l u s i o n and not v i s i o n . It i s a f t e r a l l j u s t as important to understand what the v i s i o n i s as to see the v i s i o n . Without understanding, man can never broaden h i s knowledge, and without broadening h i s knowledge, he can never broaden h i s v i s i o n . 75 CHAPTER THREE FOOTNOTES: 1 „: P.K. Pago , " L a n d l a d y , " As Ten As Twenty, p. '35. 2. P.K. P a g o , " S n a p s h o t , " U n i t Of F i v e , e d . R. Hcjmbleton ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 42. 3. P.K. P a g e , " M a g n e t i c N o r t h , " As Tejn As Twenty, p. 22. 4. P.K. P a g e , "Round T r i p , " As Ten As Twenty, p. 4. 5. P.K. P a g e , "The Bands And The B e a u t i f u l C h i l d r e n , " As Ten As Twenty, p. 1 1 . 6. P a g e , " A d o l e s c e n c e , " p. 39. 7. P.K. P a g e , "Them D u c k s , " P r e v i e w , No. 23 ( 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 2. S. I b i d . , p. 2. 9 . I b i d . , p. 2. 10. I b i d . , p. 2. 1 1 . I b i d . , p. 3. 1 2. I b i d . , p. 3. 1 3 . I b i d . , p. 3. 14. P.K. P a g e , " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 41 (Summor 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 2 1 . 1 5 . Page>, " S t o r i e s Of Snow," pp. 8-9. 16. The b a s i c pun between n e v e r n e v e r l a n d and n e v e r N e t h e r l a n d i s p o i n t e d o u t by A.J.M. S m i t h i n "The P o e t r y Of P.K. P a g e , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 50 (Autumn 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 21 . 17. P a g e , i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 18. P.K. P a g e , " S u b j e c t i v e E y e , " The M e t a l And The F l o w e r , p. 55. 19. P.K. P a g e , "Poem ( F o r g i v e Us Who Have N o t ) , " C a n a d i a n Forum, 27 ( J u n e 1 9 4 7 ) , 65. 20. P.K. P a g e , " P h o t o s Of A S a l t M i n e , " The M e t a l And The F l o w e r , pp. 1 2 - 1 3 . 76 CHAPTER FOUR JOURNEYS IN THE SPECTRUM The bounds o f P a g e ' s v i s i o n c h a n g e d q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e F i f t i e s and S i x t i e s as she moved f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c o . However, t h e c h a n g e s were g r a d u a l . S h i f t s i n p e r s p e c t i v e can e v e n be d i s c e r n e d i n t h o new poems i n h e r 1954 p u b l i c a t i o n The M e t a l And The F l o w e r . The M e t a l And The Flower-' as a w h o l e was n o t a d r r a m a t i c d e p a r t u r e f r o m P a g e ' s o t h e r w r i t i n g e ven t h o u g h i t won t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l ' s M e d a l f o r p o e t r y and was c a l l e d t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g book o f t h e y e a r by N o r t h r o p F r y e , ' Some o f t h e poems i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n a p p e a r e d as e a r l y a s 1946, t h e y e a r t h a t As Ten As Twenty was p u b l i s h e d . The f o u r t e e n now poems i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n f i t w e l l i n t o t h e g e n e r a l scheme o f P a g o ' s p o e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . " R e f l e c t i o n In A T r a i n Window" f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n o f P a g e ' s e a r l i e r t r a i n poems, "Round T r i p " and " M a g n e t i c N o r t h " . The p a t t e r n e l i c i t e d h o l d s f a m i l i a r i m a g e r y : " t h e r e i s a woman f l o a t i n g i n a window--/ t r a n s p a r e n t — . " U n l i k e P a g e ' s e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s , " R e f l e c t i o n I n A T r a i n Window" e m p l o y s a v e r y t e r s e s t y l e , I n s t e a d - o f a m b l i n g t h r o u g h h e r s u b j e c t , as she does i n "Round T r i p " , Page c o n c e n t r a t e s on a s m a l l , compact v i g n e t t e - l i k e i mage. The l a n d s c a p e merges w i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r , and t h e e v e r c h a n g i n g p a s s a g e o f l a n d s c a p e i s p o i g n a n t l y c o n n e c t e d t o h e r : 77 C h r i s t m a s w r e a t h s i n p a s s i n g h o u s e s s h i n e now i n eye and now i n h a i r , i n h e a r t . How l i k e a s a i n t w i t h v i s i o n s , t h e s t i g m a t a m a r k i n g h e r l i k e a m a r t y r . Not o n l y has Page c a p t u r e d t h e i n t r i c a c y o f t h i s image i n t h e s e f o u r l i n e s , s he has a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a s e c o n d l e v e l o f m e a n i n g i n t o t h e image. The v i s i o n s a r e n o t i n n o c e n t . They c o n j u r e up a h a r s h r e a l i t y . The woman i s l o c k e d i n s e l f - i m p o s e d i s o l a t i o n where . . . between h e r and h e r s e l f t h e s h a r p f r o s t c r y s t a l s p r i c k t h e pane w i t h t h o r n s . Her mind i s c o n f u s e d and she a p p e a r s t o be d i s t u r b e d as "she d r i f t s / t h r o u g h tenement t r a n s o m s , i n d e p e n d e n t s t a r s . " The f o c u s o f h e r eye i s n o t t h e f o c u s o f h e r m i n d . Her i n n e r w o r l d and h e r o u t e r w o r l d a r e s e p e r a t e d as i f t h e r e were a b a r r i e r between thorn w h i c h was much more i m p o s i n g t h a n t h e f r o s t c r y s t a l b a r r i e r t h a t s e p a r a t e s h e r f r o m h e r r e f l e c t i o n . Y e t , t h e shadowy imago o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n c l o s e l y m i r r o r s h e r own s t a t e o f m i n d . She i s . . . w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c e , e c t o p l a s m i c , s t i l l , i s h a l o e d w i t h t h e r e a d i n g lamps o f s t r a n g e r s w h i l e b r a s s and b r i c k p a s s t h r o u g h h e r . The b l u r o f t h e f r o s t i s f u r t h e r compounded by a n o t h e r b l u r as " t e a r s w e l l / i n h e r u n s e e i n g e y e s . " The v i s i o n i s q u i t e complex.' I t i s n o t j u s t v i s i o n a r y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t t r a n s c e n d s t h e a c t u a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . 78 The r e f l e c t i o n i s also visionary in that i t describes the woman's state of mind. Images pass through her flo a t i n g figure just as images pass through her confused mind. The r e f l e c t i o n i s both l i t e r a l and figurative.. The woman i s caught in a mosaic. The image r e f l e c t s both her inner and her outer world. The reflected image which suggests the martyr i s the meeting place of the inner and the outer world . Her inner feelings become projected onto her image. She becomes a projected cinema of the mind in which a l l i s told and a l l i s known. Her righteous feelings, countered with her feelings of being wronged, are visualized in the image of her haloed head which appears to be stoned "with brass and brick." The objects shatter her reflected image as they pass through i t . The f i n a l image of the woman i s a truncated r e f l e c t i o n that fl o a t s above the window s i l l : . . . she s t i r s to some soft soundless grieving and tears well in her unseeing eyes and from the s i l l her trembling bosom f a l l s , rises and f a l l s . The two levels of the imagery are very e f f e c t i v e . The image/metaphor carries the burden of the meaning of Page's poem. Without the image, the complexity of the situation would not be half as clear, or half as interesting, The figure, isolated and sel f indulgent, would be only a simple emotional insight. With the complexity of the imagery, the subtle nuances which surround t h i s emotion become animated, 7 9 and the seemingly simple s i t u a t i o n becomes a myriad complex of f o r c e s which moves i n a g i a n t p a t t e r n . Just as Page developed a t i g h t l y k n i t u n i t y i n " R e f l e c t i o n In A T r a i n Window" by reworking an e a r l i e r theme, she a l s o developed complex "white" imagery i n her poems "T-Bar", "Mystics Like Miners" and "Images Of Angels". Although a l l three poems m i r r o r e a r l i e r poems such as "The Stenographers" and " S t o r i e s Of Snow", each adds another p e r s p e c t i v e to the t o t a l complex which the image encompasses. "T-Bar" uses the image i n the same way that " S t o r i e s Of Snow" used i t . L ike " S t o r i e s Of Snow", "T-Bar" i s concerned with a dream complex and i t s i n t e r f a c e s with r e a l i t y , but u n l i k e " S t o r i e s Of Snow", "T-Bar" i s centred on the movement between a dream v i s i o n and a v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . The key i s not the v i s i o n i t s e l f , but the harsh, r e a l i z a t i o n that the v i s i o n i s only a v i s i o n . Indeed, the innocent v i s i o n i s not wholly condoned, f o r i t makes i t s c a p t i v e s "twin auto-2 matons '-i" The poem i s a comment upon the nature of innocence. Innocence that i s fused with an understanding of r e a l i t y i s acceptable, but innocence that has not come to terms with the numerous p e r s p e c t i v e s which l i e outside of i t s r e s t r i c t i v e bounds i s d e l u s i v e and w i l l only be the cause of a rude awakening. T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s the d i f f e r e n c e between the naive and the v i s i o n a r y f o r Page, f o r the true v i s i o n a r y must not only be able to ,see the v i s i o n , he must a l s o be able to understand i t and act upon i t . 80 On the T-Bar the skiers are locked into a s o l i t a r y perspective. They seem c a p t i v e . . . now and innocent, wards of e t e r n i t y , each p a i r alone. Like Eden's Adam and Eve, they seem i n n o c e n t l y married by t h e i r innocence. T h e i r v i s i o n of experience i s locked i n a c o n t i n u i n g r e p e t i t i o u s c y c l e of arches and a continuum of whiteness: They mount the easy v e r t i c a l ascent, pass through s u c c e s s i v e arches, b r i d e and groom, as through s u c c e s s i v e waves, are newly wed p a r t i c i p a n t s i n some r e c u r r i n g dream. I r o n i c a l l y , \- the f u s i o n i s only a temporary one, and l i k e a sexual union, i t only holds the couple i n a b r i e f union i n time, space and v i s i o n u n t i l the summit breaks and they awaken images from the s t r i c t u r e of the tow. Although there i s harmony i n the simple dream-like world of the two s k i e r s on the T-Bar, t h i s world cannot deny the problems which abound outside the p r o t e c t i v e sheath which i t s s t r u c t u r e develops. Like Page's adolescents, the two must a l s o answer to the world from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as i n d i v i d u a l s , as w e l l as from t h e i r b l i s s f u l u n i t y . A r e b i r t h of v i s i o n must occur, a new c l a r i t y must ensue, a new freedom must be understood: 81 Jerked from her chrysalis the sleeping bride suffers too sudden freedom l i k e a pain. The dreaming bridegroom severed from her side singles her out, the old wound aches again, Uncertain, l o s t , upon a wintry height these two not separate yet no longer one. Even though they are no longer united, the two are not com-pletely separated, because their common vision, once shared, w i l l always bind them to one another. Even though the vision that they shared had a limited scope, and made them captive innocents, i t s value cannot be denied. The sharing of precious strange insights into l i f e , even ideal romantic insights, i s the substance which makes l i f e worthwhile for the visionary. If "we are such s t u f f / as dreams are made 3 on;1" then the consummation or sharing of one of these dreams i s indeed one of the most valuable things that we can obtain in l i f e . The innocent vision has q u a l i t i e s which separate i t from the normal measurement and motion of things. When the i d y l l i c v ision i s broken and the unity i s severed: . . . clocks begin to peck and sing. The slow extended minute l i k e a rubber band snaps back into nothing. The skiers go quickly a r t i c u l a t e , while far behind etching the sky-line, obdurate and slow the spastic T-Bars pivot and descend. 4 Gone i s the smooth flow and the sense of timelessness in which the two are "wards of eternity." Gone i s the sense that . . . they move forever. Clocks are broken. In zones of silence they grow t a l l and slow. 82 Although the two have acquired a new grace, i t i s not the grace of moments which are suspended in time, but rather a grace which i s "quickly a r t i c u l a t e " and i s molded into a contrasting r e a l i t y f i l l e d with events and quick action where time's slow pace "snaps back" and moves quickly onward. Even the T-Bar's rhythm changes. It no longer'glides slowly up the slope carrying i t s suspended cargo; instead i t i s transformed into being "obdurate and slow." The upward motion i s countered as "the spastic T-Bars pivot and descend." Although there was a unison between the T-Bar and i t s somnam-bu l i s t occupants, now the two take on en t i r e l y different shapes and modes of expression. The T—Bar seems lost and uncommun-ica t i v e as i t becomes slow and graceless. Its beauty i s gone, i t has not made the transformation and as a result i t has become somewhat archaic. It does not f i t smoothly into the new flow of things. The skiers may well be "twin automatons" on their ascent as they are enclosed within the s t r i c t u r e of the T-Bar, but their adaptability enables them to change. The T-Bar, However, becomes a metaphor for narrow-minded expression as i t moves Relentless black on white . . . through metal arches up the mountain side. It has a dual nature. Like the s a l t mine in "Photos Of A Salt Mine", i t has s i n i s t e r attributes which underlie i t s 83 surface innocence. Although i t seems to support innocence, in r e a l i t y i t supports the tyranny of innocence. The skiers as "twin automatons" are in essence "supported by i t s handle" and shelved with neat balance "dne on each side." There i s an i r o n i c ring to the fact: that the skiers are enclosed by this machine: captive the skiers now and innocent, wards of eternity, each pair alone. The poem i s not concerned with alienation, but with vision, a much more complex problem. Vision becomes more complicated when groups of people approach i t . It requires s o l i t a r y as well as shared insight to move beyond the r e s t r i c t i n g planes of narrow perspectives. The shared insight i s only the beginning, the quest for vision must go beyond th i s and search out a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s before vi s i o n can be f u l l y understood. If the insights are only p a r t i a l l y understood, they can cause havoc. This dual property of vision i s c l e a r l y the theme of "Images Of Angels". Page i s very quick to say *of course 5 there are angels' with a wry smile on her face, but what exactly angels are for Page i s another question. The playful poem "Images Of Angels" explores part of t h i s mystery, but i t i s important to remember that angels are not simply mytho-l o g i c a l or religious figures for Page. They are part of an i n t r i c a t e visionary pattern. To believe in angels i s to 84 believe in visionary p o s s i b i l i t i e s , to believe that there i s a large complex of experience, and to believe that we have only become acquainted with a fraction of that experience. The visionary mind i s the mind that i s able to understand that there are different p o s s i b i l i t i e s of truth present in every vi s i o n of r e a l i t y . Beyond what we know, tfiere l i e s much which we have yet to discover. A change in perspective, a change in how we look at things, may open our eyes to new ideas and cause us to know a different level of truth. Conversely, to ignore an insight, a perspective which we come upon, i s to deny a different l e v e l of knowledge. The f i r s t approach opens the doors of p o s s i b i l i t y , the second denies that the doors are re a l . Angels are an overt symbol for visionary experience. Yet, Page notes that people are afraid of imaginative things. Narrow conceptions of r e a l i t y deny the individual the possib-i l i t y of new perspectives. The poem starts off with an imaginative pattern which sets the tone for the rest of the poem: Imagine them as they were f i r s t conceived: part musical instrument and part daisy in a white manshape, Imagine a crowd on the Elys ian. grass playing ring-around-a-rosy, mute except for their singing, their golden smiles gold s i c k l e moons in the white sky of their faces, sex,"^neither male nor female, ^ name and race, in each case, simply angel. Page explores the interplay between this description of angels 85 and different reactions to angels. She poses the question ttaken that there are angels, how are they accepted? 1 she notes that they are "never to loved or petted, never to be friended." Even innocence cannot accept the angels for what they are. Children . . .imagine them more simply, see them more coloured and a deal more cosy, yet somehow mixed with the father, f e a r f u l and f u l l y realized when vanishing bed fl o a t s in the darkness, when the s h i f t i n g point of focus, that d r i f t i n g star, has settled in the head. Awe, fear and b l i s s make an interesting complex, but sot one which i s acceptable to the conscious world. It i s only in dreams when "the s h i f t i n g point of focus. . ./ has settled in the head" that children can feel comfortable with angels. The double edged perspective of beauty and terror i s .unac-ceptable to children in any tangible form. They are hemmed in by the adult world of facts which denies any p o s s i b i l i t y of deviation. Facts determine1 a hard and fast view of the world. Even imaginative perception i s i r o n i c a l l y viewed in an o b j e c t i f i e d manner. The c h i l d i s b u l l i e d by this narrow perspective: But, say, the angelic word and thus innocent with his almost unicorn would l e t i t go for even a c h i l d would know that angels should be f l y i n g in the sky, and, feeling implicated in a l i e his flesh would grow 86 cold and snow would cover the warm and sunny avenue. If adults say the angels act only in a certain way, then any deviation from t h i s seems to be a l i e . The child i s trapped by the adult habit of obje c t i f y i n g . Creative imaginative ideas become stagnant. The child's a b i l i t y to imagine, create and attempt new things i s countered by the adult presence which t r i e s to n u l l i f y innocent insight. The i n -nocent whiteness of angels dissolves into the cruel deadly white of snow and again Page points out the dual quality of perception. White can be connected with good positive thoughts or i t can be connected with harsh negative thoughts. The "warm and sunny avenue" which the c h i l d and his white companion walked can easily become the purged s t e r i l e white-ness of winter snow. Either i s possible. Imaginative per-ception can be a warm f e r t i l e f i e l d which i s an integral part of l i f e , or i t can be ignored and l i f e can become the desolate wasteland of denial, o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , and close-ended v i s i o n . Although the poem begins and ends with children's views of angels, the centre of the poem deals with adult perspectives. Page's notary " g u i l t i l y shut[s] i t up" in a safe, and her anthropologist finds himself unable to explain an angel's properties r a t i o n a l l y : But how, despite his detailed observations could he face his learned society and explain? 87 "Gentlemen i t i s thought that they are born with harps and haloes as the unicorn with i t s horn. Study discloses them white and gold as daisies." Page sees only three possible cases in which angels could be accepted for what they are: Perhaps only a dog could accept them wholly, be happy to follow at t h e i r heels and bark and romp with them in the green f i e l d s . Or take the nudes of Lawrence and impose asexuality upon them; those could meet with ease these gilded albinoes. Or a c h i l d , not knowing they were angels could wander along an avenue hand in hand with his new milk-white playmates. Complete b l i s s , a lack of o b j e c t i v i t y , or ignorance seem i r o n i c a l l y to be the only p o s s i b i l i t i e s in which these creatures can be accepted. This i s certainly a pessimistic view of man's regard for subjectivity and imagination. However, Page i s far from being t o t a l l y negative. Even though "Images Of Angels" points to the negative side of man's a b i l i t y to accept imaginative perceptions, Page i s s t i l l b a s i c a l l y very optimistic. Page sees that i t i s the individual who attempts to see beyond the framework which acts as an a r t i f i c i a l barrier to the imagination: I am a Traveller. I have a destination but no maps. Others perhaps have reached that destination already, s t i l l others are on their way. But lone hafflerhad to go from here b e f o r e — raone w i l l again. One's route i s one's own. One journey unique. What I w i l l find at the end I can barely guess. 88 What l i e s on the way i s unknown. This be l i e f reaches beyond f a i t h in the a r t i s t and a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . It i s central to poems l i k e "Mystics Like Miners", where the metaphoric miner-mystic illumines the concept of vis i o n : Descending the familiar shaft mystics l i k e miners throw their lamps f u l l on the darkness d a i l y . Probe symbol for s o l i d , s o l i d for i t s simplest symbol. 8 It i s a s o l i t a r y journey, for everyone has a unique perspective to follow. It i s , i n effect, an inward exploration as well as an outward exploration: Each holds the shaft within him; i t i s l i g h t and easy for ascension yet, r i s i n g , he finds flowers too bright (What saint of painted gold and red, al i v e , could r e a l l y wear those colours?) and sky so high, so baby blue a blue-eyed boy alone could bear i t . The mystic attempts to look at himself from a new perspective, but t h i s kind of exploration demands self-knowledge as a prerequisite. To view the s e l f from a new perspective, the sel f must f i r s t be known from the old, familiar perspective. This i s why the knowledge that the mystic obtains i s unknowable in part to others. The perspective i s his own, his knowledge i s an extension of himself. What i s known or discovered by him can in effect only be p a r t i a l l y passed on to others. They, in turn, have to come to the i r own 89 understanding of the knowledge. They f i r s t have to perceive his ideas as they are communicated, and then they have to interpret them for themselves. What i s said and what i s understood can often be two different things: Voices disown their gentle mouth, Come loud and c r y s t a l l i n e as coal but cold to shake an alien ear. In writing about the relationship between her poetry and her audience she backs up t h i s idea when she says: I t r u l y think I do not write or draw for you or you or you ; . . whatever you may argue to the contrary. Attention excludes you. You do not e x i s t . I am conscious only of being "hot" or "cold" in relation to some unseen centre. 9 Here again Page's ideas are developed within the frame-work of black and white imagery. Although the mystics are surrounded by "primitive darkness" which ";hol'dsv the i r E l o i o s , " their long extended wrists and hands are heavy with whiteness as a bone: the wish E l Greco's charcoal drew the shape to f i t a candled ghost. 10 The quest for the pure "white" insight continues. The mystic attempts to move into the l i g h t . He attempts to : illumine the unknown, even though he may not f u l l y be able to comprehend the collage of ideas and insights which he uncovers: 90 yet, r i s i n g , he finds flowers too bright (What saint of painted gold and red, alive could r e a l l y wear those colours?) and sky so high, so baby blue a blue-eyed boy alone could bear i t . Even so, the mystics throw their l i g h t on darkness and attempt even the smallest insight. They "probe/ symbol for s o l i d , s o l i d for/ i t s simplest symbol." In t h i s sense Page can j u s t l y say that "they explore/ in wisdom never innocence." Discovery i s by no means easy. It takes imaginative insight to understand they.multif o l i a t e symbols which confront us. The essence i s by no means simply plucked from the surface of the image. The image conjures up ideas; the ideas, in turn, point toward the meaning. The route to these areas "behind the eyes 1'is devious. Even the primary image i t s e l f can break down and cause confusion. Page i l l u s t r a t e s the complexity of this problem in her poem "Bright Fish Once Swimming Where We Lie . . Here, the images are no longer simple concrete objects which act as symbols. With the flux and flow of t h e i r outline, they become a complex maze of objects and images. A bed i s not simply a bed; i t i s a conglomerate image whence quicksilvered the f l u i d sheets moved in a maze of mirrors. ^ Time i s in a state of flux and the images pour forth into a timeless now in which parameters past and present intermingle. Images r e f l e c t and refract in succession and cause a stacked 91 image effe c t . The bed sheets become "quicksilvered","fluid" sheets of water, and the cabin becomes inhabited by ghosts of f i s h which "swam in the curve your arm i s making." The images break on "a maze of mirrors," r e f l e c t in mercury, are half seen in "pewter shadows," and are "rinsed now in parables of, waves/ by half sleep . . . in t h i s s h i f t i n g space." The image pattern i s a mental collage. The r e f l e c t i v e - r e f r a c t i v e process of the images p a r a l l e l s the r e f l e c t i v e - r e f r a c t i v e process of the mind. Images melt into one another and thoughts melt into one another. The complex interrelationship between perspective, idea and image i s blended into a composite whole. Even the meanings of the words and their audible and visual characteristics are caught up in the complex pattern. The potentially r e f l e c t i v e "parabolas" of the second stanza, become the verbal deviation "parable" in the t h i r d stanza. The r e f l e c t i o n suddenly becomes the allegory. The union between the ideas i s the f e r t i l e brine in which these images and perspectives grow. The visionary connection of the parts i s an elaborate consummation. A sense of unity of a l l time and substance becomes knit with the union of the images of the "briny cabin." Even the "we" of the poem becomes entwined in the consummate union. Mind and body intermingle as your face rocks in my water s e l f awash as when f i s h slanted in the enclave of this briny cabin. The hardest part for the visionary i s understanding 9 2 how the many parts relate to one another. The consummate whole can overwhelm the viewer even i f he realizes that a l l of the parts are interrelated and that the whole i s more than the sum of the parts. At any point along the way the visionary can meet with a barrier that blocks his view of the t o t a l i t y . One individual perspective may overwhelm him, or one of the parts may not appear to be part of the whole. The mirrored perspectives may d i s t o r t the multifold views, rather than aiding the viewer to capture the essence of the entirety. F l u i d i t y can be just ais much a problem as an aid to a solution. The visionary may be "rinsed now in parables of waves," but he may also be blocked "by half sleep lapped and locked/ and crumpled in this s h i f t i n g space." The p o s s i b i l i t y i s there, but whether. :©r/;hot:a .consummation i s effected i s questionable. The complex relationship between object and viewer i s further examined in the last poem in the c o l l e c t i o n "Arras". "Arras" i s important for numerous reasons. It was one of the f i r s t poems published that was written while Page was abroad and i t r e f l e c t s some subtle s h i f t s in vocabulary particular to Page's new environment. The s h i f t in the subject matter i s more important, however. "Arras" has the inward r e f l e c t i v e concentration that "Mystics Like Miners" talks about. The image, rather than being multiple l i k e most i f not a l l of Page's better early poetry, tends to focus on one s o l i t a r y object, the 9 3 arras. The complex vision i s d i r e c t l y b u i l t up from the relationship between the viewer and the object viewed. The perspective of the viewer moves inward as the viewer reacts to<tthe object. The imaginative perspectives which radiate out of the object are the visionary essence of the poem, but the imaginative perspectives are d i r e c t l y connected to the images of the arras i t s e l f . As Page delves into the complex which this one pattern creates, question carter question arises. Even with the opening l i n e the introspection begins. The puzzling opening lin e sets the tension for the rest of 1 2 the poem. When Page says "consider a new h a b i t - c l a s s i c a l , " she i s setting up a paradox. How can a "new habit" be c l a s s i c a l ? It suggests something more than i t seems to suggest at f i r s t glance. Realizing that Page has always been looking for the multiple perspectives which radiate out of the perceived object, how does Page's concept of m u l t i p l i c i t y relate to the c l a s s i c a l conceptions of order, balance and restraint? Searching for order, balance and restraint while at the same time being aware of subjectivity i s a dire problem. Possibly coming to an understanding of how the two q u a l i t i e s are related i s to affect the true sense of the visionary. Dev-eloping an integrated view out of divergent views, seeing the overview, or the interrelationship of a l l of the d i f -ferent q u a l i t i e s i s the complex task-which the visionary faces in searching out his v i s i o n . It i s not a simple task. 94 Harmony can be found: "How s t i l l upon the lawn our sandalled feet." But, i t i s only temporal and i t i s soon destroyed by unseen q u a l i t i e s which disturb the balance that seems to have been created: But a peacock r a t t l i n g i t s rattan t a i l and screaming has found ai point of entry. The question that follows takes on several nuances: Through whose eye did i t insinuate in furled disguise _„to shakes i t s jewels and s i l k upon that grass? Not only does the question challenge the right of the peacock to be there, disrupting the order and harmony, i t also chal-lenges the right of the perceiver to take note of t h i s new perceptual d e t a i l . If new d e t a i l s are always being discovered, how can there ever be s t a b i l i t y ? The order on the arras i t s e l f does not change: The peaches hang l i k e lanterns. No one joins those figures on the arras. It i s only the order that the viewer perceives on the arras which changes. The viewer has to understand how he i s related to what he perceives. If "no one joins/those figures on the arras," then the viewer has to ask himself what relationship he has 95 to a vision that he can never becomeaan integral part of: Who am I or who am I become that walking here I am observer, other, Gemini, starred for a green garden of cinema? The irony of the situation unfolds further with the punning question "I ask, what did they deal me in thi s pack?" The question radiates in three directions. It questions the nature of the situation, i t asks what kind of e v i l game i s being played with r e a l i t y , and i t examines the playing card l i k e figures that are present on the arras. Even so, the l i t e r a l l e v e l s t i l l r e f l e c t s the other two lev e l s : The cards, a l l sui t s , are royal when I look. My fingers slipping on a monarch's face twitch and go slack. I want a hand to clutch, a heart to crack. The world of the arras with i t s enclosing effect on vision becomes a t e r r i f y i n g l y real dream-like world which threatens the viewer: No one i s moving now, the s t i l l n e s s i s i n f i n i t e . If I should make a break. . . take to my springly heels. . .? But nothing moves. The spinning world i s stuck upon i t s poles, the s t i l l n e s s points a bone at me. I fear the future on this arras. The problem of classicism, the problem of order, balance and restraint i s also summed up by thi s passage. A defined world seems to leave no room for exploration. The s t i l l n e s s 96 holds everything in i t s place. The arras has a s t i f l i n g e f f e c t . It i s no wonder that Page says "I fear/the future on this arras." Page escapes th i s dilemma however. Although the arras i s a potential trap , she manages to move beyond i t s s t e r i l i t y . The answers to her questions begin to unfold as she begins to see the arras in i t s proper perspective. The visionary succeeds in breaking beyond the conventionalized framev/ork. The import of a new imaginative perspective comes to l i g h t when she says: I confess: ? It was my eye. She realizes that what i s perceived i s determined by the viewer. This insight enables the scene to unfold i t s e l f properly: Voluptuous i t came. Its head the ferrule and i t s lovely t a i l folded so sweetly; i t was strangely slim to f i t the retina. And then i t shook and was a p e a c o c k — l i v i n g patina, eye-bright—maculate! Out of the s t a t i c scene flo a t s the image of a peacock that unfurls i t s feathers to create a surreal fan of floating eyes. It i s puzzling, for the image with%>its motion contrasts with the stasis of the rest of the scene. The image suggests two things. It suggests motion disrupting stasis , while at the same time i t also suggests the eye discovering an unseen peacock with unfurled feathers. The unfurling i s the d i s -97 covering or imaginative perception in either case, and not simply a l i t e r a l unfurling of feathers, for Page asks: Through whose eye did i t insinuate in furled disguise to shake i t s jewels and s i l k upon that grass? The peacock "insinuates" through someone's perception, their eyes, "in furled disguise." This does not necessarily mean that the peacock i s l i t e r a l l y , "in furled disguise." It i s only furled because i t i s not seen. When i t i s f i r s t seen i t seems . . .strangely slim to f i t the retina. But then, " i t shook/and was a p e a c o c k — l i v i n g patina." The realized image takes on i t s f u l l glorious proportions. The eyes of the peacock feathers describe the process. Nothing i s seen when the feathers are folded, but when they' unfold, myriad eyes r e f l e c t the p o s s i b i l i t y of endless insights or visions. I r o n i c a l l y , the visionary's perceptions are his own. What he sees may be entir e l y different from what someone else sees. The vision i s just as much a part of the voyage into s e l f as i t i s a part of the voyage out into the environment. The vision may only affect one viewer. It i s t h i s problem which causes the auguished cry "does no one care?" Even though an insight i s made, i t s t o t a l meaning i s often obscured. It i s only with constant e f f o r t that more 98 breakthroughs can be obtained and that a complete overview can be reached: I thought their hands might hold me i f I spoke. I dreamed the bite of fingers in my flesh, t h e i r poke smashed by an image, but they stand as i f within a treacle, motionless, folding slow eyes on nothing. While they stare another l i n e has t r o l l e d the en c i r c l i n g a i r , another bird assumes i t s furled disguise. The a r t i s t cannot be s a t i s f i e d with t h e i l i t t l e insights; he must str i v e for the larger visions. He must attempt many different means and move beyond narrow perspectives i f he i s to come to an understanding of anything of consequence. As Page notes, her painting i s just one of the many "alternate 1 3 roads to silence." Moreover, she realizes that drawing and writing were not only ends in themselves, as I had previously thought, but possibly the means toaan end which I could barely imagine—a method perhaps, of tracing the 'small* design. And the very emergence of these ideas began to clear a way, remove tf^e furniture and provide a new space. "A new space" means a s h i f t in perspective, but th i s new perspective i s larger in scope and i s aimed at more than "the small design." By attacking with more than one set of tools more vistas are opened. Like the arras, r e a l i t y fluctuates: But when something one has thought opaque appears translucent, transparent even, one questions whether i t might not ultimately become ent i r e l y i n v i s i b l e . 99 Solid walls dissolved disconcertingly into scrims. For the moment I was uncertain where to lean. 15 During the F i f t i e s and the S i x t i e s the changes in Page's environment seemed to induce a change in her attitude towards her work. Being divorced from the Canadian scene, she was not tempted to publish as much. However, her creative work did go on. It i s important not to misinterpret t h i s stage in Page's development. Page adamantly admits: I did write in A u s t r a l i a . I wrote very l i t t l e in B r a z i l and not at a l l in Mexico. It seems from here as i f the whole business of language had something to do with i t . 16 She backs up this l a t t e r statement with a penetrating insight into her predicament in B r a z i l and Mexico: My f i r s t foreigh language-^to l i v e i n , that i s — a n d the personality changes that accompany i t . One i s a toy at f i r s t , a d o l l . Then a c h i l d . Gradually, as vocabulary increases, an adult again. But a different adult. Who am I, then, that language can so change me? What i s personality, identity? And the deeper change, the profounder understanding—partial, at l e a s t — o f what man i s , devoid of words. Shocks, insights, astounding and sudden dematerializations, points of view s h i f t i n g and vanishing. Attitudes recognized for what they are: attitudes. The Word behind the word . . . but when there i s no word. . .? "When there [was] no word" Page shifted to drawing and painting. It i s essential to know that Page feels that "in a l l essential particulars, writing and painting are interchangeable. They are alternate roads to silence." 18 100 Page does not l i k e the idea of segregating the arts into d e f i n i t e categories and ranks. She was perturbed by the reaction to her a r t i s t i c s h i f t : I remember a friend wrote saying that everyone was so upset that I was drawing instead of writing. She added: " i s i t so beneathing to be an a r t i s t ? " 19 The situation that Page was in required a d a p t i b i l i t y . Why Page shifted from one art form to another i s not easily answered as Page notes: "Why did you stop writing?" "I didn't. It stopped." Nonsense, you're the master." "Am I?" "Who would not, after a l l , be a poet, a good poet, i f one could choose? If one could choose. Most of one's l i f e has the i l l u s i o n of choice. And when that i s removed, when c l e a r l y one cannot choose . . . Blank page after blank page, the thing I had feared most of a l l had happened at l a s t . This time I never would write again. But by some combination of factors—co-incidence, s e r e n d i p i t y — t h e pen that had written was now, most surprisingly, drawing. ("Why did you start drawing?" "I didn't. It started." But why start something you know nothing about and chuck up a l l the techniques and s k i l l s . . .?") Why, indeed, why?" 20 This s h i f t i l l u s t r a t e s another aspect of Page's concern with image and perspective: What was that tiny f r e t , that wordless dizzying vibration, the whole molecular dance? . . . What was that golden shimmer, the bright pink shine on the anturias, the d e l i c a t e l y and exactly drawn design of the macaw's feathers? Why did I suddenly see with the eye of an ant? Or a f l y ? 21 101 Rather than just writing about the images that struck her, she was now faced with the challenge of trying to draw them and trying to extract their essence: But I drew as i f my l i f e depended on i t — e a c h t i l e of each house, each leaf of each tree, each blade of grass, each mote of s u n l i g h t — a l l things bright and beautiful. If I drew them a l l . . .? And I did. Compelled, propelled by the point of my pen. And in drawing them a l l I seemed to make them mine, or make peace with them, or they with me. And then, having drawn everything—each drop of water and grain of sand—the pen began dreaming. It began a l i f e of i t s own. 22 Her relationship with her art work i s similar to her relationship with her poetry. The drawn image, l i k e the poetic image, i s a combination of perception and imagination. Page realizes that images are not simple, they have complex meanings as well as i n t r i c a t e shapes. The image i s a blend of the photographic eye and the visionary I. Thus, she says about her poetry in B r a z i l : [ i t ] was more than ever now in the perceiving. My only access to i t was through the dream and the drawing. 23 The dream and the drawing are the complex within which Page's painting works, just as the dream and the image are the complex within which her poetry operates. The elements of Page's poetry and painting are actually extensions of the metaphoric imagery of her poetry: 102 I don't suppose before I began that drawing i s the perfect medium for metaphor. But i t i s . For my kind of poet, my kind of drawing seems inevitable. It's the same pen. 24 Her painting and drawing are visual presentations of poetic imagery. The i n t r i c a t e imagery of her poetry i s similar to her complex drawing in which hundreds of interesting, fine d e t a i l s add up to a composite whole. Examples of t h i s period in her work appeared in The  Tamarack Review in 1960, and although the reproductions are far from perfect they give an indication of the i n t r i -cacy of Page's e a r l i e r work. Similarly, the prints in 25 her "book of retrospective poetry" Cry Ararat! also r e f l e c t t h i s quality. The prints "Labyrinth" and "And You, What Do You Seek?" r e f l e c t Page's careful consideration of d e t a i l in two ;totally different ways. The image in both cases has a mysterious quality about i t . Each image contains fine designs which are worlds in themselves. The t o t a l image i s made up of a conglomeration. One realm works out of another. Her paintings s t r i v e for Another r e a l m — i n t e r r e l a t e d — t h e high doh of a scale in which we are the low. 26 The fact that Page has drawn and painted with more than one technique demonstrates that she i s quite actively exploring the painted image just as she i s exploring her world via the 103 poetic image. She has done work in pen and ink, crayon, crayon and ink, o i l s , egg tempera, etching, ink eradicator, and collage effects with typewriter, punch paper and glass. Her more recent painting has become much more formalized and simple. The images are no longer as irregular or complex as they used to be. A similar type of concentrated si m p l i c i t y can be seen in some of her recent poetry also. In 1967 when Page f i n a l l y did bring out a new volume of poetry, i t only contained sixteen new poems, half of which were o r i g i n a l l y written in Australia between 1953 and 1956. Even the t i t l e poem "Cry Ararat!", the most complex new poem in the c o l l e c t i o n , was written in 1952, although i t 27 was revised in 1966 and 1967. For these reasons Cry  Ararat i i s not exemplary of Page's work c i r c a 1967. "Cry Ararat!" i s the best newsipoem in the c o l l e c t i o n . It i s set off in the f i n a l section of the c o l l e c t i o n by i t s e l f and i s preceeded by a print which complements i t e n t i t l e d "And You, What Do You Seek?" A close examination of the poem shows why Page decided to distinguish t h i s particular poem. It sums up her ideas on perspective and the visionary. It i s the pensive cry of the visionary who i s caught between the r e a l i t y of consciousness and the r e a l i t y of v i s i o n . Forcing the two worlds together only causes chaos in which neither world i s complete. The vision f a i l s when the concrete q u a l i t i e s of the world are thrust upon i t , just as the concrete world f a i l s when the vision intrudes i t s e l f 104 upon concrete r e a l i t y . A marriage of the two can only come about by mutual accord. Page realizes these problems when she says: Do not reach to touch i t nor labour to hear. Return to your hand the sense of the hand; return to your ear the sense of the ear. Remember the statue, that space in the a i r which with nothing to hold what the minute i s giving i s through each point when i t s marble touches a i r . Then w i l l each leaf and flower each bird and animal become as perfect as the thing i t s name evoked when busy as a c h i l d the world stopped at the Word and Flowers more real than flowers grew v i v i d and immense; and Birds more beautiful and Leaves more i n t r i c a t e flew, blew and quilted a l l the quick landscape. 28 Nevertheless, a harmony does radiate out of the poem: So f l i e s and blows the dream embracing l i k e a sea a l l that in i t swim when dreaming, you desire and ask for nothing more than s t i l l n e s s to receive the I-am animal, the We-are leaf and flower, the distant mountain near. The problems of vision are not simple, as Page's binocular metaphor points out. Not only i s the visionary 1 0 5 plagued with the concrete, he i s also plagued with the whimsical quality of v i s i o n . So often the searched for object or idea can be close to being discovered and s t i l l be elusive: Swiftly the fingers seek accurate focus (the bird has vanished so often before the sharp lens could deliver i t ) . Yet, the vision can be glimpsed, and the object can appear as i f i t were "the faraway, here." "The faraway, here," however, w i l l always lack some d e t a i l s . The image of leaves in the binoculars i s incomplete for the leaves are . . . moving, turning in a far wind no ear can hear. As page observes, the t o t a l vision requires not just the attention of the t o t a l eye, but the attention of the t o t a l I: The bird in the thicket with his whistle the cr y s t a l l i z a r d in the grass the star and s h e l l tassel/and b e l l of wild flowers blowing where we pass, th i s flora-fauna flotsdm pick and touch, requires the focus of the t o t a l I. Concentration on a s p e c i f i c image or idea i s very d i f f i c u l t . Often "the unreality of bright day" and i t s 106 multitude of images breaks the viewer's concentration "and then the focus [is3 l o s t , the mountain gone." Rising above these problems i s not easy, for even "the dream of f l y i n g " i s countered by a c e i l i n g that "looms/ heavy as a tomb." Substance and meaning are elusive as Page notes: I am a two-dimensional being. I l i v e in a sheet of paper. My home has length and breadth and very l i t t l e thickness. The tines of a fork pushed v e r t i c a l l y through the paper appear as four thin s i l v e r e l l i p s e s . I may, in a moment of insight, realize that i t i s more than coincidence that four i d e n t i c a l but independent s i l v e r rings have entered my world. In a further breakthrough I may glimpse their unity, even sense the entire fork--large, glimmering, extraordinary. Just beyond my sight. Mystifying; marvellous. 29 It i s a struggle "to f i t the 'made' to the 'sensed'" and to lead to the . . . threshold of something, some place; b e l l i e d by a membrane at times translucent, never yet transparent, through which I long to be absorbed. 30 Thus, the poet-artist becomes the conjurer. He s t r i v e s to understand the interrelationships of the known and the half known, although he realizes that strange quirks of perception enable a l i t t l e thing of no consequence to block a large thing: 107 A single leaf can block a mountainside; a l l Ararat be conjured by a leaf. To be the true conjurer-seer the poet must understand not only how the forest i s composed of trees, but also how trees and even parts of the trees make up the forest. This i s the real key to the Ararat symbol. For ultimately Ararat i s the symbol of regeneration, hope and the promise of a new world. Above a l l else the visionary must have f a i t h in the world not seen, but sensed. Thus, the dove becomes the perfect archetype for Page: The dove believed in her sweet wings and in the r i s i n g peak with such a washed and easy innocence that she found rest on land for the sole of her foot and , s i l v e r , c i r c l e d back, a green twig in her beak. Innocence, whiteness, and hope unite in the image of the dove. The innocence of the dove i s not simply c h i l d l i k e innocence, however, i t i s open-minded innocence which i s not confined by a d i s t i n c t pattern of knowledge. As such, a l l visionaries have an aura of innocence around them in that they are not ensnared by f i n i t e d e f i n i t i o n s of r e a l i t y . The visionary-seer i s always trying to look beyond the known horizon and discover the clue to the unknown, unseen world. In a recent poem, "A Backwards Journey", Page finds expression for discovery which transcends the normal spect-rum of experience. It i s not simply a discovery of an object 108 or a perspective, but rather the exploration of an insight into a perspective. The backwards journey i s not only a journey back in time to childhood, i t i s also a journey which surmounts vi s i o n , dimension and knowledge. It trans-cends the known and goes beyond the normal perspectives of thought and v i s i o n : When I was a ch i l d of say, seven, I s t i l l had serious attention to give to everyday objects. The Dutch Cleanser which was the kind my mother bought in those days came in a round container of yellow cardboard around which ran the very busy Dutch Cleanser woman her face hidden behind her bonnet holding a yellow Dutch Cleanser can on which a smaller Dutch Cleanser woman was holding a smaller Dutch Cleanser can on which a minute Dutch Cleanser woman held an imagined Dutch Cleanser can . . As Page notes: "This was not a game." Concentration on the image develops a transcendence of the normal s p a t i a l bounds of perception and knowledge. Not only does the image go on in an in f i n i t e s i m a l round getting smaller and smaller, the idea behind the image also goes on in an in f i n i t e s i m a l round which breaks the normal bounds of the perceived experience: . . . The woman led irne backwards through the eye of the mind u n t i l she was the smallest point my thought could hold to. And at that moment I think I knew that i f no one called and nothing broke the delicate jet of my attention, that tiny image could smash the 'atom' of space and time. Again Page returns to the image of "the eye of the mind." 109 The image i s the core of the {poem. In her e a r l i e r poems imagination was the place from which the image radiated, but here the image i s the place from which the imagination radiates. The imagination actively works on the image and causes a transcendence of image and meaning. Page becomes the true visionary. She succeeds in developing a concentrated focus from which form develops new dimensions and subtlety,. The Dutch Cleanser woman i s no longer simply the Dutch Cleanser woman, she becomes aoeasmic entity which represents the continuum of the universal scheme of things. The image s l i p s from a f i n i t e scale to an i n f i n i t e scale, and human perception and comprehension become simply a demarcated area along that scale. The poem "Another Space", which Page published at the same time as "A Backwards Journey", develops these ideas even further. "Another Space" i s quite a complex poem. The poem was inspired by a dream which Page f e l t meant something more 32 than i t s confused events at f i r s t indicated. The deeam took on strange nuances of r e a l i t y : Yet ' i f I dream why in the name of heaven are fixed parts within me set in motion l i k e a poem? 3 3 The strange ' r e a l i t y ' experienced within certain dreams could be related to the individual's psyche, but for Page some dreams can suggest things beyond our normal knowledge and perception: 110 I see them there in three dimemsions yet their height implies another space their clothes surprising chiaroscuro postulates a different spectrum. What kaleidoscope does a i r construct that a l l their movements make a compass move surging and altering? I speculate on some dimension I can barely guess. The vision spins out bright, complex images reminiscent of her early painting and poetry: Nearer I see them dark-skinned. They are dark. And beautiful. Great human sunflowers spinning in a ring cosmicsuas any bumble-top the vast procession of the planets in their dance. A nearer s t i l l I see them—'a C h a g a l l * — each f i d d l i n g on an instrument—its strings and i t s bow—feathered— an arrow almost. Arrow i s . As the dream/vision takes shape, the complex sensory pattern of the dream melds i t s e l f into the dreamer's mind with epiphany-like force: For now the headman—one step forward—shoots (or does he bow or does he l i f t a kite up and over the bright pale dunes of air?) to s t r i k e the absolute centre of my s k u l l my absolute centre somehow with such s k i l l such staggering lightness that the blow i s love. The image c o l l i d e s with the dreamer's mind, and an insight occurs. Barriers to the physical and mental borders of 1 1 1 experience f a l l dov/n: And something in me melts. It i s as i f a glass p a r t i t i o n m e l t s — or something I had always thought was g l a s s — some pane that halved my heart i s proved, in i t s melting, ice. The image r e c a l l s a l l of Page's e a r l i e r snow and ice imagery and i t s dual q u a l i t i e s . As in "Stories Of Snow", the whiteness of snow and ice can be deceptive. It can cause the visionary to be trapped in a false world where he w i l l only "dream [his] way to death." 34 Thus, the melting i l l u s i o n can clear the way to other perspectives. As Page observes: But when something one has thought opaque appears translucent, transparent even, one questions whether i t might not ultimately become ent i r e l y i n v i s i b l e . Solid walls dissolved disconcertingly into scrims. For the moment I was uncertain where to lean. 35 Just as in "A Backwards Journey", the transformation seems to change the entire structure around which the poet's vision of r e a l i t y i s locked: and to-fro all'.the atoms pass in bright osmosis hitherto in stasis locked where now a new direction opens l i k e an eye. The transformation i s an unlocking process. Reality becomes a blend of interrelated views and impressions, rather than 112 a ranking of s t a t i c ideas and designs. The new awareness i s unfurled and, l i k e the peacock's fan, i t contains many eyes. Designs per se are not negative to Page, they are only negative when they claim that their boundaries are the boundaries of p o s s i b i l i t y . For instance, she finds Mexican designs far from oppressive: Coming as I do from a random or whim-oriented culture, t h i s recurrence and i n t e r r e l a t i n g of symbols into an ordered and s i g n i f i c a n t pattern—prevalent too in the folk arts of pottery and weaving r>was .curiously illuminating. One did not feel r e s t r i c t e d by the enclosed form of the 'design'; rather, one was liberated into something l i f e - g i v i n g and larger. I could now begin to understand how the " l i t t l e world i s created according to the prototype of the great world." ^7 Designs such as these may go on ad infinitum and not be r e s t r i c t i n g at a l l ; they are not an end in themselves and they may suggest a complete new scale larger or smaller than themselves. Rather than t h i s , Page i s concerned with f i l t e r s which block our a b i l i t y to see beyond what we know. ^ 8 Often we are so sure that we have discovered the pattern of things, that we are unwilling to expand our ideas one step further to see i f we have rceallyifeund the borders of the pattern. Page i s just beginning to understand the pattern and the interconnections between objects within the pattern as her comments on the connections between poetry and painting i l l u s t r a t e : 1 1 3 CONNECTIONS AND CORRESPONDENCES between writing and painting . . . The idea diminishes to a dimensionless point in my absolute centre. If I can hold i t steady long enough, the feeling which i s associated with that point grows and f i l l s a large area as perfume permeates a .roomv' It i s from here that I w r i t e — h e l d within that luminous c i r c l e , that locus which i s at the same time a focussing glass, the surface of a drum. As long as the tension (at/tention?) i s sustained the work continues . . . more or less acute. ^9 Page realizes that there are connections between many things, and that i t i s only a matter of time before a breakthrough i s made: Remembering, re-membering, re-capturing, r e - c a l l i n g , r e - c o l l e c t i n g . . . words which lead to the very threshold of some thing, some place; veiled by a membrane at times tr translucent, never yet transparent, through which I long to be absorbed. ^0 She realizes that i t i s the imaginative mind that i s w i l l i n g to conjure up connections that w i l l be able to effect these breakthroughs, for i t i s Magic, that Great Divide, where everything reverses Where a l l laws change. To Page: A good writer or painter understands these laws' and practices conjuration. One begins to realize the f u l l import of Page's comment 114 that " w r i t i n g and p a i n t i n g are interchangeable. They are 43 a l t e r n a t e roads to s i l e n c e . " Taking i n t o account Page's idea of the a r t i s t / w r i t e r as conjurer and remembering (re-membering?) Page's remarks about how: things are i n t e r r e l a t e d , one can see that Page's attempt to f i n d t o t a l u n i t y and v i s i o n can only be p a r a l l e l e d by a s i m i l a r f e e l i n g about a t o t a l u n i f i c a t i o n of the a r t s . And, indeed, she says: One longs f o r an a r t that would s a t i s f y a l l the s e n s e s — n o t as i n opera or b a l l e t where the separate a r t s c o n g r e g a t e — b u t a complex i n t e r m i n g l i n g — a consum-mate More-Than. T h i s i s j u s t perhaps j u s t another way of saying one longs f o r the senses to merge i n one supra-sense. ^4 Not only i s Page s t r i v i n g f o r a v i s i o n a r y breakthrough i n p e r c e p t i o n , she i s a l s o s t r i v i n g f o r a v i s i o n a r y break-through i n a r t i s t i c technique. T h i s c o i n c i d e s with her comment that her p a i n t i n g and her w r i t i n g are done with 45 "the same pen." In f a c t , poems l i k e "Yellow" or "Dream" attempt to u n i f y w r i t i n g and drawing , and "Dream" attempts to d e f i n e elememtal u n i t y : 115 Here again Page i s working towards a visionary transcendence in which the connections between a l l things become known. 116 As Page develops this feeling of unity, the images in her poetry become more s p e c i f i c and concentrated, and the images in her painting become more formalized. Her unti t l e d print in Canadian Literature exemplifies Page's s h i f t towards a formalized s t y l e : 1 1 7 Similarly, this formalization i s in evidence in other recent 48 works such as "Votive Tablet", "Nought" and "Ocreanum". The design becomes the point of contemplation for the bigger and the smaller worlds of experience. Page elaborates on these ide:as in her a r t i c l e on Pat Martin Bates, which she admits r e f l e c t s many of her own ideas on painting: 4 ^ I am reminded of the hypothesis of two contemporary mathematicians, that you can s l i c e an ordinary sphere such as an orange and then reassemble the s l i c e s to form spheres smaller than atoms, larger than suns. Looking at her c i r c l e s I am persuaded of such a p o s s i b i l i t y . By some conjuring the same circumference increases and grows small. 50 This formalization and the concentrated contemplation which radiates out of i t find verbal form in her poem "The Dome of Heaven". A geometric formality pervades the pioem. The dominant image i s the sphere or c i r c l e . The sphere or c i r c l e has been alluded to in other poems l i k e "A Backwards Journey" and "Another Space", but there i t was only the shape suggested by the images. Here, the shape i s the image, and i t s s i m p l i c i t y lends i t s e l f to a further concentration of the vision—image complex. The circleLunites the concept of the universe, "The Dome of Heaven", with the cycles of nature, the spin of the earth in i t s or b i t , the c y c l i c a l motion of the moon around the earth, the motion of the tides 118 and even the c y c l i c a l rhythm of a i r and blood in the body: Near. Close. Here. I n t r i n s i c to my flesh my pulse, my breath. What i s th i s rush of a i r this l u l l , these tides whose slow mercurial advances pu l l a l l waters in their mesh? A l l the systems seem to be copies of a giant prototype, which connects everything: A l l waters--globe enclosing rope of brine, unravelled blue (eyes, veins, bracelets and chains swirl in thi s watery swell). The whole pattern . seems to operate on the same ebb and flow c y c l i c a l system. Thus, the seen, known images are the keys to the system as a whole. And, for each individual, the centre of a l l of the systems, cosmic and microscopic, i s the mind, the place of or i g i n of the individual's world view, the place to and from which images, perspectives and ideas radiate. The "Dome Of Heaven" i s the ultimate complex whole which c i r c l e s the individual "enclosing six directions in [the]. . .eye." But, s t i l l the ultimate i s i l l u s i v e . Just as i t i s the consummate t o t a l i t y , i t i s also the smallest p o s s i b i l i t y : Huge. Small. The Dome of Heaven i s a speck a dot, the merest sphere fading, i n v i s i b l e . 1 1 9 The a r t i s t , conjurer, seer i s always l e f t with the p o s s i b i l i t y closely accompanied by the question: Somewhere the senses centre. Is i t here? To be in f u l l possession of the vision would be impossible, for each time a breakthrough i s made, i t only leaves the a r t i s t with the same interminable question: 'what l i e s beyond th i s ? ' Realizing the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , r e a l i z i n g the problems and r e a l -i z i n g the scheme i s the eternal path of the visionary and i t only ends when the vision i t s e l f i s lost sight of. Page's writing and painting are more than anything else, the record of one person's struggle to obtain v i s i o n : One's route i s one's own. One's journey unique. What I w i l l find at the end I can barely guess. What ^ l i e s on the way i s unknown. The path that she has l e f t behind her, her painting and writing, i s f i l l e d with images of many of the keys and clues that she has found along the way. They are, in a sense, microcosmic clues to the tota l of P. K. Page. But the images are s t i l l ultimately her's, and no matter how much one studies them, they w i l l s t i l l only r e f l e c t a fraction of their t o t a l meaning: 1 2 0 I t r u l y think I do not write or draw for you or you or you. . . whatever you imay argue to the contrary. Attention excludes you. You do not exi s t . I am conscious only of being "hot" or "cold" in relation to some unseen centre. Page's output i s small, but i t i s noteworthy. One thing i s certain, she i s s t i l l s t r i v i n g for further clues in the unending search to uncover more images, and more clues and connections to the mystery that surrounds her. She s t i l l y feels that she has much to learn: Leave me l i f t me out of this undreamed amorphous mound where who knows who l i e s sleeping my me I hidden unbidden s t i l l undead unborn utte r l y unimaged even 54 leaven me. The freshness of this attitude i s promising, for i t i s the ethos of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . 121 CHAPTER FOUR FOOTNOTES: 1. P.K. P a g e , " R e f l e c t i o n I n A T r a i n Window," The M e t a l  And The F l o w e r , p. 4 1 . 2. P.K. Page, " T - B a r , " The M e t a l And The F l o w e r , pp. 2 2 - 2 3 . 3. W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , The Tempest, I V . i . 1 5 6 - 1 5 7 , S h a k e s p e a r e : The C o m p l e t e W o r k s , e d . G.B. H a r r i s o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e And W o r l d , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 1495. 4. Page, "T-Bar'f" p. 22. 5. Page, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 6. P.K. Page', "Images Of A n g e l s , " The M e t a l And The  F l o w e r , p. 36. 7. Page, " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 36. 8. P.K. Page, " M y s t i c s L i k e M i n e r s , " The M e t a l And  The F l o w e r , p. 3 5 . 9. Page, " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 36. 10. Page, " M y s t i c s L i k e M i n e r s , " p. 3 5 . 1 1 . P.K. P a g e , " B r i g h t F i s h Once Swimming Where We L i e . . .T" The M e t a l And The F l o w e r , p. 62. 12. Page, "Arras-;" 1 pp. 63-64. 13. P a g e , " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 40. 14. P a g e , " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," p. 20. 1 5 . I b i d . , p. 20. 16. P.K. P a g e , i n a l e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r , December 9, 1 9 7 2 . 17. Page, " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," pp. 17-18. 18. Page, " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 40. 19 . P a g e , i n a l e t t e r , December 9, 1 9 7 2 . 20. P a g e , " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," p. 18. 21 . I b i d . , p. 1 8 . 22. I b i d . , p. 18. 122 23. I b i d . , p. 20. 24. P.K. P a g e , " F o u r D r a w i n g s , " The Tamarack R e v i e w , No. 15 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 48A. 25. P a g e , " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," p. 2 1 . 26. I b i d . , p. 2 1 . 27. Pagec; i n a l e t t e r , December 9, 1972. 28. P.K. P a g e , " C r y A r a r a t ! , " C r y A r a r a t I : Poems New And  S e l e c t e d , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d And S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 7 ) , PP-1 0 4 - 1 0 5 . 29. P a g e , " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 36. 30. I b i d . , p. 3 5 . 3 1 . P.K. P a g e , "A B a c k w a r d s J o u r n e y , " P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e Of V e r s e , 114 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 302. 32. P a g e , i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 3 3 . P.K. Page, " A n o t h e r S p a c e , " P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e Of  V e r s e , 114 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 299-300. 34. Page, " S t o r i e s Of Snow," pp. 8-9. 35. Page, " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," p. 20. 36. Page, " A n o t h e r S p a c e , " p. 300. 37. P a g e , " Q u e s t i o n s And Images," p. 2 1 . 38. I b i d . , p. 2 1 . 39. P a g e , " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 3 5 . 40. I b i d . , p. 3 5 . 41 . I b i d . , p. 3 6 . 42. I b i d . , p. 3 6 . 43. I b i d . , p. 40. 44. I b i d . , p. 3 8 . 45. Page, " F o u r D r a w i n g s , " p. 48A. 46. Pt i K * P a g e , "Dream," C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46 (Autumn 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 37. 123 47. P.K. P a g e , U n t i t l e d P r i n t , C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46 (Autumn 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 4 1 . 48. P.K. P a g e , i n a P a i n t i n g E x i b i t i o n a t t h e M i d o G a l l e r y , V a n c o u v e r , May 7 t h t o 2 7 t h , 1972. 49. Page, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 50. P.K. P a g e , " D a r k i n b a d The B r i g h t d a y l e r : T r a n s m u t a t i o n S y m b o l i s m I n The Work Of P a t M a r t i n B a t e s , " A r t s / C a n a d a , 28,No. 154-155 ( A p r i l - M a y , 1971 ),.35.', 5 1 . P.K. P a g e , "The Dome Of Heaven," C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46 (Autumn 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 4 2 . 52. P a g e , " T r a v e l l e r , C o n j u r o r , J o u r n e y m a n , " p. 36. 53. I b i d . , p. 36. 54. P.K. P a g e , " W a i t i n g To Be Dreamed," The C a n a d i a n  Forum, 50 ( A p r i l - M a y 1 9 7 0 ) , 72. 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY The f o l l o w i n g i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i t y i t h a s been d i v i d e d i n t o numerous s e c t i o n s . P r i m a r y S o u r c e s A. P.K. Page Book s Pa g e , P.K. As Ten A s Twenty. T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1946. . 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The C a n a d i a n Bookman, 17 ( J u n e 1 9 3 5 ) , 7 3 . "The C l o c k Of Y o u r P u l s e . " C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , No. 7 ( A u g u s t 1943) , pp. 1 2 - 1 3 . 126 " C o r r e c t i v e L e n s e s . " T u a t a r a , No. 1 ( F a l l 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 25. __. "The Crow." C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e , No. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1941 ) , p. 1 4 . . " C u l l e n R e v i s i t e d . " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 50 j A u t u m n 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 33-34. __. " D e s i g n , ^ C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , No. 4 ( J u l y 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 2 3 . __. " D e s i r i n g O n l y . " P r e v i e w , No. 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 4. " D o l l ' s House-New M o d e l . " F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , No. 5 (November 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 2. . "The Dome Of Heaven." C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46, TAutumn 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 4 2 . __. " D r a u g h t Man." The C a r i a d i a n Forum, 24 (December 1 9 4 4 ) , 204. . "Dream." C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 46 (Autumn 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 3 7. "The Dreamer." P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e Of V e r s e , 64 ( A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 ) , 2 4 2 - 2 4 3 . *"* "E c c o Homo." C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e , No. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 5-6. __. " E t c h i n g . " The Tamarack R e v i e w , No. 15 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 48D. __. " F a l l T h o u g h t s . " The C a n a d i a n Forum. 23 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 ) , 1 5 5 . _. " F e a r . " F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , No. 6 (November 1 9 4 2 ) , pp. 4-6. . " F e s t i v a l W i t h o u t P r a y e r s . " The C a n a d i a n Forum, 22 T A p r i l 1 9 4 2 ) , 5. . " F l y : On Webs." P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e Of V e r s e , 114 TAugust 1 9 6 9 ) , 3 0 1 . " F o r G.E.R." C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , No. 5 ( A u g u s t 194-1), pp. 35- 3 6 . __. "The G r e e n B i r d . " P r e v i e w , No. 7 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 2 ) , pp. 7-9. " H i s Dream." C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e . No. 31 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 5. . "The I n a r t i c u l a t e . " The C a n a d i a n Forum, 23 ( S e p t e m b e r T 9 4 3 ) , 139.3 127 . "Incubus." Contemporary Verse, No. 39 (1952), pp. 13-14. . "Journey."Preview, No. 13 (May 1943), pp. 5-6. . "Jungle." The Tamarack Review, No. 15 (Spring 1960), p. 48B. . "Knitter's Prayer." Poetry: A Magazine Of Verse, 114 [August 1969), 301 . . "Leather Jacket." The Canadian Forum, 50 (March 1970), 73. . "Leisure Class." Preview, No. 12 (March 1943), pp. 6-7. . "Leviathan In A Pool." Canadian Literature, No. 50 TAutumn 1971), pp. 28-32. "The Lord's Plan." Preview, No. 6 (August 1942), pp. 1-3. i m m. "Migration." Contemporary Verse, No. 35, (Summer 1951), p. 9. . "Miracles." Preview, No. 20 (May 1944), pp. 9-11. . "Morning." White Pelican, 1, No. 2 (Spring 1971), p. 39. . "The Moth." Dreams And Daydreams . ed. C. Richards. London: James Nisbet And Company, 1935, p. 21. "The Neighbour." Preview, No. 4 (June 1942), pp. 1-2. "Noon Hour." The Canadian Forum, 23 September 1943), 139. "Offices." Preview, No. 16 (October 1943), p.8. . "Old Man." The Canadian Forum. 25 (December 1945), 216. . "Opportunist." Preview, No. 17 (December 1943), p. 6. . "Outcasts." Contemporary Verse, No. 16 (January 1946), pp. 6-7. . "Painter." Canadian Poetry, No. 11 (December 1947), p.27. . "Panorama." Preview, No. 14 (July 1943), pp. 5-6. . "Parachutist." Canadian Poetry, No. 11 (July 1948), p. 24. . "The Parade." Canadian Poetry, No. 4 (July 1939), p. 22. . "The Photograph." Contemporary Verse, No. 35 (Summer 1951), pp. 13-14. 128 __. " P o e m ( " F o r g i v e u s w h o h a v e n o t b e e n w h o l e " ) . " T h e  C a n a d i a n F o r u m , 27 ( J u n e 1947), 65. . " P o e m ( " S h e w a s d i m e - d e a d " ) . " F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , N o . 1 J S e p t e m b e r 1942), p . 7. " P o r t r a i t . " H e r e A n d N o w , N o . 2 ( M a y 1948), p . 60. " P r e d i c a t i o n W i t h o u t C r y s t a l . " F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , N o . 6 ( N o v e m b e r 1942), p p . 6-7. __. " P r e p a r a t i o n . " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , N o . 50 ( A u t u m n 1 971 ) , p p . ?32-33 . . " P r e s e n t a t i o n . " T h e C a n a d i a n F o r u m , 27 ( J u n e 1947), 65. . " P r o c e s s i o n . " C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e O f B . C . e d . J . M . Y a t e s . V a n c o u v e r : S o n o N i s P r e s s , 1970, p . 222. _ . " Q u a r r e l . " P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e O f V e r s e , 64 ( A u g u s t 1944), 243-244. """ " T h e R a t H u n t . " P r e v i e w , N o . 15 ( A u g u s t 1943), p p . 1-3. _ . " R e f l e c t i o n . " C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , N o . 4 ( J u n e 1939), p . 23. _ . " R e m e m b e r T h e W o o d . " C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , N o . 6 ( A p r i l 1942), p . 16. __. " T h e R e s i g n a t i o n . " P r e v i e w , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 1943), p p . 3-6. _ . " R o m a n t i c . " C a n a d i a n P o e t r y , N o . 11 J u l y 1948), p p . 24-25. __. " R o o m A n d B o a r d . " F i r s t S t a t e m e n t , N o . 3 ( O c t o b e r 1942), p p . 4-6. _ . " S c h i z o p h r e n i c . " C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e , No. 10 ( A p r i l 1944), p . 11. _ . " S e l f P o r t r a i t . " W h i t e P e l i c a n , 2, N o . 2 ( S p r i n g 1972), p . 36. . " T h e S e n t i m e n t a l S u r g e o n . " U n i t O f F i v e , e d . R . H a m b l e t o n . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1944, pv>,:50. _ . " S h i p b u i l d i n g O f f i c e . " P r e v i e w . N o . 15 ( A u g u s t 1943), p . 4. " S k y l i n e . " W h i t e P e l i c a n , 1, N o . 2 ( S p r i n g 1971), p . 39. 129 . "The Sleeper." F i r s t Statement No. 7 (December 1942), p. 6. . "Small World." Contemporary Poetry Of B.C. ed. J.M. Yates. Vancouver: Sono Nis Press, 1970, p. 220. "Snowshoes." Forty Women Poets Of Canada. ed. D. Livesay Montreal: Ingluvin, 1971, pp. 113-114. . "Squatters: 1946." Contemporary Verse, No. 19 (October 1946), p. 6. . "Stone F r u i t . " The Tamarack Review, No. 15 (Spring 1960), p. 48C. . "Summer Resort." Preview, No. 16 (October 1943), p. 9. . "Them Ducks." Preview, No. 23 (1945), pp. 1-3. . "This Church My Dromedari." The Tamarack Review, No. 15 (Spring 1960), p. 48A. . "This Is Another Spring." F i r s t Statement, No. 2 ^September 1942), p.c4. . "Three Gold Fish." Contemporary Poetry Of B.C. ed. J.M. Yates. Vancouver: Sono Nis Press, 1970, p. 219. . "Third Ear." Canadian Literature, No. 50 (Autumn 1971), p. 29. . "Traveller's Palm." Tuatara, No. 1 ( F a l l 1969), p. 24. _. "Under Cover Of Night." Preview, No. 17 (December 1943), pp. 5-6. "The Understatement." Saturday Night, 55 (June 22 1940), p. 2. _. Untitled Print. Canadian Literature, No. 46 (Autumn 1970), p. 39. _. Untitled Print. Canadian Literature, No. 46 (Autumn 1970), p. 40. . "Vegetable Island." Outposts, No. 10 (Summer 1948), pp. 8-9. __. "The Verandah." Contemporary Verse, No. 31 (1950), p. 45. . "Waiting To Be Dreamed." The Canadian Forum, z50 TMarch 1970), 72. 130 . " W eekend—West C o a s t . " N o r t h e r n R e v i e w , 1, No. 2 T F e b r u a r y - M a r c h 1 9 4 6 ) , 28-»-32. • __. "The Wind." C o n t e m p o r a r y P o e t r y Of B.C. e d . J.M. Y a t e s . V a n c o u v e r : Sono N i s P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 , p. 2 2 1 . "The Woman." Here And Now, No. 2 ( F e b r u a r y - M a r c h 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 36-38. " Y e l l o w . " A l p h a b e t . No. 18-19 ( J u n e 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 0 . fc&frfrftits. I n t e r v i e w s , L e t t e r s And R e a d i n g s . P a g e , P . K . E x h i b i t ,Of P a i n t i n g A t T h e M i d o G a l l e r y , V a n c o u v e r . May 7-27, 1 9 7 2 . . I n t e r v i e w W i t h The W r i t e r . May 24, 1 9 7 2 . . L e t t e r To The W r i t e r . May 24, 1 9 7 2 . . L e t t e r To The W r i t e r . December 9, 1 9 7 2 . . 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Wilson, Milton. "Other Canadians And After." Masks Of Poetry. ed. A.J.M. Smith. Toronto: McClelland And Stewart, 1962, pp. 123-138. Woodcock, George. "The New Books." Queen's Quarterly, 62 (1955), 113. Letters And Interviews Crawley, Alan. Interview With The Writer. May 25, 1972. McLaren, F l o r i s Clark. Interview With The Writer. May 23, 1972. . Letter To The Writer, May 17, 1972. 136 APPENDIX 1 A CHRONOLOGICAL L I S T I N G OF POETRY AND PROSE F I C T I O N BY FI R S T PUBLISHING DATE. 1. 1935 "The Moth" (Dreams And Daydreams) 2. J u n e "The C h i n e s e Rug" (Can Bookm) 3. 1939 J u n e " D e s i g n " — i 4. "The P a r a d e " r - (Can P o e t r y ) 5. " R e f l e c t i o n " _ J 6. 1940 J u n e "The U n d e r s t a t e m e n t " ( S a t N) 7. Aug. " F o r G.E.R." (Can P o e t r y ) 8. 1941 Aug. " C a n d l e l i g h t " (Can P o e t r y ) 9. S e p t . " E c c o Homo"*! 10. "The Crow" J-(Contemp V e r s e ) 1 1 . Dec. " B l a c k o u t " (Contemp V e r s e ) 1 2 . 1942 A p r . " F e s t i v a l W i t h o u t P r a y e r s " (Can Forum) 1 3 . "Remenber The Wood" (Contemp V e r s e ) 14. " D e s i r i n g O n l y . . .'T-(Pre) 1 5 . "No F l o w e r s " J 1 6 . May " B e d - s S i t t i n g Room" ( P r e ) 17. J u l y "The M o l e " ( P o e t r y ) 1 8 . "Some T h e r e A r e F e a r l e s s 1 * ] - ( P r e ) 1 9 . "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " | 20. J u n e "The N e i g h b o u r " [ss] ( P r e ) 2 1 . Aug. "The L o r d ' s P P l a n " [ S S J ( P r e ) 22. S e p t . " T h e G r e e n B i r d " [ss] ( P r e ) 23. "Poem("She was d i m e - d e a d " ) " ( F S ) 24. " L a n d s c a p e Of L o v e " ( F S ) 25. " T h i s I s A n o t h e r S p r i n g " ( F S ) 26. O c t . "Room And B o a r d " [ss] (FS) 27. " G e n e r a t i o n " ( P r e ) 28. Nov. " D o l l ' s H o u s e — N e w M o d e l " ( F S ) 29. " F e a r " [ p r o s e ] ~ l 30 . " P r e d i c a t i o n W i t h o u t C r y s t a l "J- (FS) 3 1 . "Bank S t r i k e : Quebec-1942" ( P r e ) 32. Dec. "The S l e e p e r " (FS) 3 3 . The T r a v e l l e r " (Contemp V e r s e ) 34. 1943 J a n . "The R e s i g n a t i o n " [ss] ( P r e ) 35 . Mar. " I s o l a t i o n i s t " (Can P o e t r y ) 36. " L e i s u r e C l a s s " [ss] ( P r e ) 37. May "Waking "~\(Pre) 38. " J o u r n e y j 39. J u l y " F a i l u r e A t Tea" ( P o e t r y ) 40. "Panorama" ~ I 4 1 . "The C h i e f M o u r n e r " ! - ( P r e ) 137 42. Aug. 43. 44. 45. 46. Sept. 47. 48. Oct. 49. 50. 51 . 52. Dec. 53. 54. 55. 1944 56. Feb. 57/ Mar. 58. Apr. 59. 60. May 61 . 62. Aug. 63. 64. 65. 66. Sept. 67. Nov. 68. 69. Dec. 70. 71 . 1945 72. 73. Apr. * 74. June 75. Aug. 76. 77. 78. Dec. 79. 1946 Jan. 80. 81 . Feb. 82. Sept. 83. Oct. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. Oct. 89. Dec. 90. 91 . 92. 93. "Divers" "Shipbuilding Office J-(Pre) "The Clock Of Your Pulse" (Can Poetry) [ s s . (Pre) -(Can Forum) "The Rat Hunt" "The Inarticulate"" "Noon Hour" " F a l l Thoughts" (Can Forum) "Love Poem" ~j "Offices" "(Pre) "Summer Resort" "Under Cover Of Night [ s s l ( P r e ) "Opportunist" "Photograph" J The Sun And The Moon [novel] "Poem ("Let us by paradox")" (Pre) "The Bands And The Beautiful Children" '(Pre) "Schizophrenic"T(Contemp Verse) "Average" J "Miracles" [SS] (Pre) "Landlady" (Can Forum) "The Sick" "^Poetry) "The Dreamer" "Quarrel" "Element" _ "Children" (Pre) "Foreigner" "The Sentimental Surgeon"j-(Unit Of Five) "Draught Man"-]— (Can Forum) "Journey Home'J "Them Ducks" [ssjKPre) "Adolescence" J "Round Trip" >. (Contemp Verse) "Spring" (Can Forum) "The Condemned" "Contagion" ~ (Poetry) "Stories Of SnowJ "Old Man" (Can Forum) "If It Were You"> (Contemp Verse) "Outcasts" _J "Weekend—West Coast" [SS] (NR) "Only Child" (ATAT) "Morning, Noon And Night" "TContemp Verse) "Sailor" "Virgin" "Piece For A Formal Garden" "Squatters: 1946" "Subjective Eye" (NR) "Young G i r l s " ~}(Poetry) "Election Day" "Freak" "Blowing Boy" "Sisters" 138 94. 1947 Su. 95. June 96. 97. 98. 99. Dec. 90. 91 . 92. 93. 94. 1948 May 95. Su. 96. July 97. 98. 1949 June 99. 1950 Spr. 100. 101 . 102. 103. 104.1951 105. Su. 106. 107. Wint 108.1952 F a l l 109. 110. 111 .1)954 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121 . 122. 123. 124. 125.1956 Nov. 126. 127. 1967 128. 129. 130. 131 . 132. 133. 134. 135. "(Can P o e t r y ) " P u p p e t s " (Contemp V e r s e ) "Man W i t h One S m a l l Hand" (Can Forum) " M i n e r a l " " P r e s e n t a t i o n " "Poem ( " F o r g i v e us who. . ." )j)_ "The Woman 1 1]-[SS] ( H e r e And Now) " S l e e p e r " J " P a i n t e r " " A l i c e " " C h r i s t m a s E v e : M a r k e t S q u a r e ^ " P o r t r a i t " ( H e re And Now) " V e g e t a b l e I s l a n d " (O) " P a r a c h u t i s t 1 T - ( C a n P o e t r y ) " R o m a n t i c " _| "The Age Of I c e " ( H e r e And Now) " H i s Dream" "The Map" " P r o b a t i o n e r " {-(Contemp V e r s e ) "Summer" "The V e r a n d a h ^ " M i g r a t i o n " (Contemp V e r s e ) "The P h o t o g r a p h " " P h o t o g r a p h s Of A S a l t MinejJ-(Contemp V e r s e ) , "Poem ('.'Look, l o o k . " . . " ) " (Contemp V e r s e ) " E l e g y " "The E v e n t " " I n c u b u s " _ "Green L i t t l e C o r n " " T - B a r " "The P e r m a n e n t T o u r i s t s " "The F i g u r e s " " P a r a n o i d " " M y s t i c s L i k e M i n e r s " "Images Of A n g e l s " " R e f l e c t i o n I n A T r a i n Window" " I n t r a c t a b l e B etween Them Grows" " P o r t r a i t Of M a r i n a " "Boy W i t h A Sea Dream" " B r i g h t F i s h Once Swimmirag Where We L i e . " A r r a s " " N i g h t m a r e " " A f t e r R a i n " " G i o v a n n i And The I n d i a n s ] " ( P o e t r y ) "Cook's M o u n t a i n " " C r y A r a r a t ! " " T h i s F r i e z e Of B i r d s " "On E d u c a t i n g The N a t i v e s " " B l o w i n g " "Love Poem ("Remembering y o u . " L i t t l e G i r l s " "Poem I n War Time" "Now T h i s C o l d Man" (Contemp V e r s e ) nj|  )" - (CA!) 139 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141 . 142. 143. 144. 145.1969 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151 .1970 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 1 57. 158. 159.1971 160. 161 . 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167.1972 J u n e J u l y Aug. F a l l Mar. A u t . S p r . A u t . J u n e S p r . "The A p p l e " "To A P o r t r a i t : I n A G a l l e r y " |- (©A!) "Rage" "Dark Kingdom" "The G l a s s A i r " ( P A ^ " B a r k D r a w i n g " " B r a z i l i a n F a z e n d a " — ( T a r n R) "The K n i t t e r s " "The Snowman" " A n o t h e r S p a c e " " K n i t t e r ' s P r a y e r | - ( P o e t r y ) " F l y : Oh Webs" "A B a c k w a r d s J o u r n e y " " T r a v e l l e r ' s P a l m " ~| " C o r r e c t i v e L e n s e s " _ f ( T u a t a r a ) " T h r e e G o l d F i s h " - ( C o n t e m p o r a r y P o e t r y Of B.C.) '-"Small W o r l d " ~~ "The Wind" " P r o c e s s i o n " , " W a i t i n g To Be Dreamed""!- (Can Forum) " L e a t h e r J a c k e t " I "Dream" — I "The Dome Of H e a v e n J ~ ( C a n L ) •Snowshoes" ( F o r t y Women P o e t s Of Canada) (WP) " A i r p o r t A r r i v a l " " M o r n i n g " " S k y l i n e " " L e v i a t h a n I n A P o o l " " P r e p a r a t i o n " " C u l l e n R e v i s i t e d " " Y e l l o w " ( A l p h a b e t ) " S e l f P o r t r a i t " (WP) -(Can L) 140 APPENDIX 2 A TITLE LIST OF POETRY AND PROSE FICTION , WITH CROSS REFERENCE  TO APPENDIX 1.(INCLUDING; ' A£L TITLES USED FOR POEMS). 1. "Adolescence" (72) 2. "After Rain" (125) 3. "The Age Of Ice" (98) 4. "Airport A r r i v a l " (160) 5. "Alice" (92) 6. "Another Space" (145) 7. "The Apple" (107) 8. "Arras" (123) 9. "As Ten As Twenty" (49) 10. "Average" (59) 11 . "A Backwards Journey" (148) 12. "The Bands And The Beautiful Children" £57) 13. "Band Strike" (31) 14. "Band Strike: Quebec-1942" (31) 15. "Bark Drawing" (141) 16. "Bedsitting Room" (16) 17. "Blackout" (11) 18. "Blowing" (131) 19. "Blowing Boy" (92) 20. "Boy With A Sea Dream" 121) 21 . "Brazilian Fazenda"(142) 22. "Bright Fish Once Swimming Where We Lie. . 23. "Candlelight" (8) 24. "The Chief Mourner" (41) 25. "Children" (66) 26. " The Chinese Rug" (2) 27. "Christmas Eve: Market Square" (93) 28. "The Clock Of Your Pulse" (44) 29. "The Condemned" (75) 30. "Contagion" (76) 31 . "Cook's Mountain" 127) 32. "Corrective Lenses" (150) 33. "The Crow" (10) 34. "Cry Ararat! " (128) 35. "Cullen" (33) 36. "Cullen Revisited"(165) 37. "Dark Kingdom" (139) 38. "Design"(3) 39. "Desiring Only"(l4) 40. " Divers" (42) 42. "Doll's House—New Model" (28) 43. "The Dome Of Heaven" (158) 44. "Draught Man" (69) 45. "Dream" (157) 141 46. "The Dreamer" (63) 47. "Ecco Homo" (9) 48. " E l e c t i o n Day" (90) 49. "Elegy" (108) 50. "Element" (65) 51 . "The Event" (109) 52. " F a i l u r e At Tea" (39) 53. " F a l l Thoughts (48) 54. "Fear" (29) 55. " F e s t i v a l Without Prayers" (12) 56. "The F i g u r e s " (114) 57. " F l y : On Webs" (147) 58. "For G.E.R." (?) 59. "Foreigner" (67) 60. "Freak" (91) 61 . "Generation" (27) 62. "Giovanni And The Indians" (126) 63. "The Glass A i r (140) 64. "The Green B i r d " (22) 65. "Green L i t t l e Corn" (111) 66. "His Dream" (99) 67. " I f I t Were You" (79) 68. "Images Of Angels" (117) 69. "In A Ship Recently Raised From The Sea" (122) 70. "The I n a r t i c u l a t e " (46) 71 . "Incubus" (110) 72. " I n t r a c t a b l e Between Them Grows" ( 119) 73. " I s o l a t i o n i s t " (35) 74. "Journey" (38) 75. "Journey Home" (70) 76. "The K n i t t e r s " (143) 77. " K n i t t e r ' s Prayer" (146) 78. "Landlady" (61) 79. "The Landlady" (61) 80. "Landscape Of Love" (24) 81 . "Leather Jacket" (156) 82. " L e i s u r e C l a s s " (36) 83. "Leviathan In A Pool"- (163) 84. " L i t t l e G i r l s " (133) 85. "The Lord's Prayer" (21) 86. "Love Poem ("For we can l i v e now , l o v e " ) " (49) 87. "Love Poem ("Remembering you*; . . " ) " (132) 88. "Magnetic North" (70) 89. "Man With One Small Hand" (95) 90. "The Map" (100) 91 . "The Metal And The Flower" (119) 92. "M i g r a t i o n " (104) 93. "Mi n e r a l " (96) 94. " M i r a c l e s " (60) 95. "The Mole" (17) 96. "Morning" (161) 97. "Morning, Noon And Night" (83) 98. "The Moth" (1) 142 99. "Mystics Like Miners" (116) 100. "The Neighbour" (20) 101. "Nightmare" (124) 102. "No Flowers" (15) 103. "Noon Hour" (47) 104. "Now T h i s Cold-Man" (135) 105. " O f f i c e s " (50) 106. "Old Man" (78) 107. "On Educating The Natives" (130) 108. "Only C h i l d " (82) 109. "Opportunist" (53) 110. "Outcasts" (80) 111. " P a i n t e r " (91) 112. "Panorama" (40) 113. " P a r a c h u t i s t " (96) 114. "The Parade" (4) 115. "Paranoid" (115) 116. "The Perminent T o u r i s t s (113) 117. "Personal Landscape" (24) 118. "Photograph" (54) 119. "The Photograph" (105) 120. "Photos Of A S a l t Mine"(l06) 121. "Photographs Of A S a l t Mine" (106) 122. "Piece For A Formal Garden" (86) 123. "Poem ("Forgive us who have not been whole")" (98) 124. "Poem ("Let us by paradox")" (56) 125. "Poem ("Look, look. . . " ) " (107) 126. "Poem ("She was dime-dead")" (23) 127. "Poem In War Time" (134) 128. " P o r t r a i t " (94) 129. " P o r t r a i t Of Marina" (120) 130. " P r e d i c a t i o n Without C r y s t a l " (30) 131. " P r e p a r a t i o n " (164) 132. " P r e s e n t a t i o n " (97) 133. "Probationer" (101) 134. "Procession" (154) 135. "Puppets" (94) 136. "Quarrel" (64) 137. "Rage" (138) 138. "The Rat Hunt" (45) 139. " R e f l e c t i o n " (5) 140. " R e f l e c t i o n i In A T r a i n Window" (118) 141. "Remember The Wood" (13) 142. "The Re s i g n a t i o n " (34) 143. "Romantic" (97) 144. "Room And Board" (26) 145. "Round T r i p " (73) 146. " S a i l o r " (84) 147. "Schizophrenic" (58) 148. " S e l f P o r t r a i t " (167) 149. "The Sentimental Surgeon" (68) 150. " S h i p b u i l d i n g O f f i c e " (43) 151. "The S i c k " (62) 152. " S i s t e r s " (93) 143 153. " S k y l i n e " (162) 154. " S l e e p e r " (90) 155. "The S l e e p e r " (32) 156. " S m a l l W o r l d " (152) 157. "Snapshot'' (23) 158. "The Snowman" (144) 159. "Snowshoes" (159) 160. "Some T h e r e A r e F e a r l e s s " (18) 161. " S p r i n g " (74) 162. " S q u a t t e r s : 1946" (87) 163. "The S t e n o g r a p h e r s " (19) 164. " S t o r i e s Of Snow" (77) 165. " S u b j e c t i v e E y e " (88) 166. "Summer" (102) 167. "Summer R e s o r t " (51) 168. "The Sun And The Moon-(55) 169. "The T a l l S u n s " (TTTT 170. " T - B a r " (112) 171. "Them D u c k s " (71) 172. " T h i s F r i e z e Of B i r d s " (129) 173. " T h i s I s A n o t h e r S p r i n g " (25) 174. " T h r e e G o l d F i s h " (151) 175. "To A P o r t r a i t G a l l e r y " (137) 176. "The T r a v e l l e r " (33) 177. " T r a v e l l e r ' s P a l m " (149) 178. "Under C o v e r Of N i g h t " (52) 179. "The U n d e r s t a t e m e n t " (6) 180. " V a c a t i o n i s t s (51) 181. " V e g e t a b l e I s l a n d " (95) 182. "The V e r a n d a h " (103) 183. " V i r g i n " (85) 184. " W a i t i n g To Be Dreamed" (155) 185. "Waking" (37) 186. "Weekend—West C o a s t " (81) 187. "The Wind" (153) 188. "The Woman" (99) 189. " Y e l l o w " (166) 190. "Young G i r l s " (89) 144 A P P E N D I X 3 A B B R E V I A T I O N S U S E D A T A T A s T e n A s T w e n t y C A ! C r y A r a r a t ! C a n B o o k m C a n a d i a n B o o k m a n C a n F o r u m C a n a d i a n F o r u m C a n L C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e C a n P o e t r y C a n a d i a n P o e t r y C o n t e m p V e r s e C o n t e m p o r a r y V e r s e F S F i r s t S t a t e m e n t NR N o r t h e r n R e v i e w O O u t p o s t s P A P o e t r y A u s t r a l i a P o e t r y P o e t r y : A M a g a z i n e O f V e r s e P r e P r e v i e w S a t N S a t u r d a y N i g h t Tarn R T a m a r a c k R e v i e w T M A T F T h e M e t a l A n d T h e F l o w e r WP W h i t e P e l i c a n 145 APPENDIX 4 A L I S T OF ANTHOLOGIES IN WHICH PAGE"S WRITING APPEARS. A n t h o l o g y Of C a n a d i a n P o e t r y . e d . R. G u s t a f s o n . Hammonsworth: P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1942. The B l a s t e d P i n e . e d . F.R. S c o t t and A,J.M. S m i t h . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 5 7 . The Book Of C a n a d i a n P o e t r y . e d . A.J.M. S m i t h . C h i c a g o : U n i v . Of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 . A Book Of C a n a d i a n S t o r i e s . e d . D. P a c e y . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1 9 4 7 . C a n a d i a n A n t h o l o g y . e d . C.F. K l i n c k and R.E. W a t t e r s . T o r o n t o : Gage and Co., 1 9 5 5 . C a n a d i a n Poems 18 5 0 - 1 9 5 2. e d . L. Dudek and I . L a y t o n . T o r o n t o : C o n t a c t P r e s s , 1952. C a n a d i a n P o e t r y I n E n g l i s h . e d . Carmen, P i e r c e and R h o d e n i z e r . 3 r d e d . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1 9 5 4 . C a n a d i a n S h o r t S t o r i e s . e d . R. Weaver. L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 . C o n t e m p o r a r y P o e t r y Of B.C. e d . J.M. Y a t e s . V a n c o u v e r : Sono N i s P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 . Dreams And Daydreams, e d . C. R i c h a r d s . L o n d o n : N i s b e t and Co., 1 9 3 5 . F o r t y Women P o e t s Of C a n a d a . e d . D. L i v e s a y . M o n t r e a l : I n g l u v i n , 1 971 . How Do JE Love Thee. e d . J.R. Colombo. Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1 9 7 0 . I Am A S e n s a t i o n . e d . G. G o l d b e r g and G. W r i g h t . T o r o n t o : " " M c C l e l l a n d And S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 1 . A L i t t l e T r e a s u r y Of Modern P o e t r y . e d . O. W i l l i a m s . 3 r d e d . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r s ' S o n s , 1 9 7 0 . Love Where The N i g h t s A r e L o n g . e d . I . L a y t o n . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 2 . Made I n C a n a d a , e d . D. L o c k h e a d and R. S o u s t e r . O t t a w a : O b e r o n , 19 7 0 . ' 146 Modern Canadian Verse In English And French. ed. A.J.M. Smith. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1967. Other Canadians: An Anthology Of The New Poetry In Canada 1940-1946. ed. J . Sutherland. Montreal: F i r s t Statement Press, 1947. The Oxford Book Of Canadian Verse, ed. A.J.M. Smith. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1960. The Penguin Book Of Canadian Verse. ed. R. Gustafson. Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1958. Poetry Of Mid Century 1940-1960. ed. M. Wilson. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1964. Poetry Of Our Time. ed. L. Dudek. Toronto: MacMillan, 1966. To Everything There Is A Season; R. Beny In Canada, ed. M. Wilson. London: Thames and Hudson, 1967. Tr i b a l Drums, ed. A.O. Hughes. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1970. Twentieth Century Canadian Poetry, ed. E. Birney. Toronto: Ryerson, 1953. Unit Of Five. ed. R. Hambleton. Toronto: Ryerson, 1944. Voices And Vision. ed. J . Hodgens and W. New. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1972. The Wind Has Wings: Poems From Canada. ed. M. Downie and B. Robertson. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1968. 

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